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GENERAL WAUCHOPE 



Mai- WAUCHOPE, C.B., C.M.G., LL.D. 






GENERAL WAUCHOPE 



BY 



WILLIAM BAIRD, RS.A.Scot. 

AUTHOR OF 

* JOHN THOMSON OF DUDDINGSTON, PASTOR AND PAINTKR ' 

'ANNALS OF DUDDINGSTON AND PORTOBELLO ' 

'SIXTY YEARS OF CHURCH LIFE IN AYR ' 

ETC. 






A- 



EDINBURGH AND LONDON 

OLIPHANT ANDERSON AND FERRIER 

1900 



Edinburgh : T. and A. Constable, Printers to Her Majesty 



TO THE 

OFFICERS AND MEN OF THE HIGHLAND BRIGADE 

WHO BRAVELY FOUGHT AT MAGERSFONTEIN 

THIS MEMOIR OF THEIR LEADER 

IS INSCRIBED 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 
INTRODUCTION ....... 9 

CHAP. 

i. the wauchopes of niddrie marischal . . 13 

ii. childhood — early tendencies— the ' household 
troop ' — education — naval training — the 
( britannia' — the 'st. george ' — prince alfred 2$ 

iii. enters the army— the black watch — ashanti 

war— return home — banquet at portobello . 36 

iv. death of wauchope's father — ordered to malta — 
reminiscences — religious convictions— cyprus 
— appointment as civil commissioner of papho 
— reminiscences— sir robert biddulph — the 
sultan's claims ..... 52 

v. war in south africa— arabi pasha's rebellion in 

egypt— tel-el-kebir— marriage— life in cairo 68 

vi. the eastern soudan — battle of el-teb— attempt 
to relieve general gordon — ascent of the 
nile — the whale-boats — battle of kirbekan 
— return to cairo — malta — gibraltar . . 89 

vii. the midlothian campaign . . . io9 



viii GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

CHAP. PAGE 

VIII. THE 73RD REGIMENT AT MARYHILL BARRACKS— IN- 
CIDENTS OF HOME LIFE— MILITARY LIFE AT YORK 
—APPOINTMENT TO SOUDAN CAMPAIGN . . I3I 

IX. THE SOUDAN— BATTLES OF ATBARA AND OMDURMAN— 
ARRIVAL HOME — RECEPTION AT N I DDRIE— DEGREE 
OF LL.D.— PAROCHIAL DUTIES— PARLIAMENTARY 
CONTEST FOR SOUTH EDINBURGH . . . I46 

X. OUTBREAK OF HOSTILITIES IN SOUTH AFRICA — COM- 
MAND OF THE HIGHLAND BRIGADE— DEPARTURE 
FOR SOUTH AFRICA — THE SITUATION— BATTLE OF 
MAGERSFONTEIN— DEATH— FUNERAL— AFTER THB 
BATTLE . . . . . .172 

XI. CHARACTERISTICS . . . . . 198 

INDEX ........ 209 



INTRODUCTION 

On the nth day of December 1899, amid the rattle of 
rifles, the fierce booming of cannon, and the sharp bang 
of exploding shells^ a British force of Scottish Highlanders 
found themselves suddenly confronted in the darkness of 
an eaily African morning by an unseen enemy. All 
night they had been on the march, tramping the bare 
rocky veldt north of the Modder river, to attack, and if 
possible capture, the fortified and strongly entrenched 
position held by the Boer army of General Cronje among 
the rocks and cliffs of Magersfontein. This was full of 
difficulty and danger. But the relief of the beleaguered 
garrison of Kimberley was urgent, and if the work were to 
be done, it demanded the best the British army could 
achieve. Steadily and determinedly stepped out the men 
of the Highland Brigade, commanded by him they had long 
had reason to trust. As lieutenant, as captain, as colonel, 
they had followed him in many a well-fought battle, and 
now with Major-General Wauchope leading them in the 
darkness, no doubt or fear entered their breast. 

But suddenly there was a flash of light from the rocks 
above, followed immediately by a long belching flame of 
fire from a thousand rifles in front. They had unexpectedly 



io GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

stumbled on the enemy. There was no time for reorganisa- 
tion, and in the midst of an entanglement of trenches and 
barbed wire fencing, and exposed the while to a withering 
fire against which nothing human could stand, the High- 
land Brigade was mown down. Here it was, but well 
in front of his men, endeavouring to the last to cheer on 
his followers, one of the most gallant and daring of 
modern British generals fought and fell, a martyr for his 
Queen and country. 

General Wauchope's tragic end was no unfitting con- 
clusion to a life of devoted, arduous service. He died as 
he had lived, ever in the midst of strife, an earnest, brave, 
and self-denying man, thinking more of others than him- 
self; graced with the dignity that comes from inborn 
gentleness of spirit, and ever in his conduct exemplifying 
the faith he professed. No wonder that when such a man 
fell, there was a wail of lamentation, not merely around 
his own home in Edinburgh where he was best known and 
loved, but throughout the whole British Empire. 

The story of his life is one of incident and hairbreadth 
escapes, and it deserves to rank high in the military 
annals of our country ; for among those who have helped 
to raise Great Britain to the honourable position she holds 
among the nations of the world, as the vindicator of 
freedom, as the protector of the weak against the strong, 
as the pioneer of commerce, and the disseminator of 
Christianity, there are few who have laboured more 
zealously or fought more bravely than he whose career 
we shall in the following pages attempt to sketch. 



INTRODUCTION n 

In biography there is perhaps nothing more alluring 
than to trace out traits in remote kindred, and to watch 
them coming forth with new accompaniments in later 
generations, to work out, as it were, the full story of the 
race, and probably to mark a climax in some chosen 
individual. Though w r e have not space to follow this out 
in the present case, the distinguishing characteristics of 
General Wauchope's ancestors may easily be discerned 
throughout his career ; to them he doubtless owed that 
simple manliness which looked upon every man — whatever 
his station — as a brother; that unswerving courage in 
time of danger, that unflinching devotion to duty, that 
cheerfulness of disposition, which made him a general 
favourite ; all sobered by a sense of the unseen and eternal 
which entered into the very heart of his life. 

The author's efforts to gather the scattered material of 
so chequered a career have been met on all hands by so 
willing a response from those who could in any way claim 
the General's acquaintance, that his task has been a 
pleasant and a comparatively easy one. For interesting 
details and incidents coming under their personal observa- 
tion, his best thanks are due to Admiral Lord Charles 
W. D. Beresford, C.B.; General Sir Robert Biddulph, 
G.C.M.G., G.C.B., lately Governor of Gibraltar; Sir John 
C. M'Leod, G.C.B. ; Colonel R. K. Bayly, C.B.; Colonel 
Brickenden ; Colonel Gordon J. C. Money ; Major A. G. 
Duff; Captain Christie, and other of his brother officers 
who shared with him the dangers and toil of naval and 
military service, in various parts of the world. 



12 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

He cannot too gratefully acknowledge the kind assist- 
ance heartily given by the Rev. George Wisely, D.D., 
Malta; the Rev. John Mactaggart, Edinburgh; and the 
Rev. Alexander Stirling, York, army chaplains. Their 
contributions have been invaluable. 

So fully indeed has material been placed at the author's 
disposal, that the volume might have been easily extended 
beyond its present limits. But enough, it may be hoped, 
has been said in illustration of General Wauchope's career 
as a soldier, and his character as a man, to enable his 
fellow-countrymen to realise that in his lamented death 
the nation has lost one of its bravest and best. 



CHAPTER I 

THE WAUCHOPES OF NIDDRIE MARISCHAL 

Andrew Gilbert Wauchope came of a long line of 
ancestry, who have distinguished themselves as soldiers, 
as churchmen, or in the more commonplace capacity of 
country gentlemen. 

The family history can be traced back for several 
centuries at least, as occupying in the immediate vicinity 
of Edinburgh the estate of Niddrie Marischal; and through- 
out the various troubles in which Scottish history has been 
involved, the Lairds of Niddrie had their fair share, 
forfeitures and restorations being an experience not un- 
common in their career. 

Glancing over their genealogy, one might almost say 
with truth that the Wauchopes have ever been a fighting 
race, holding opinions strongly, and as strongly asserting 
them by word or deed when occasion arose. 

The very name of their estate has a smack of the 
military in it, if it is true, as Celtic scholars say, that 
'Niddrie' is derived from the Gaelic Niadh and Ri — 
signifying, in the British form of Celtic, the king's cham- 
pion. Then the addition to the word, as distinguishing it 
from several other Niddries in Scotland, of Marischal, 
Marishal, or Merschell appears to have been given to the 

18 



M 

estate from the met that the Wane hope? of Niddrie were 
in early times hereditary bailies to Keith Lords Marischai, 
and later, Marisc hal- Deputies in Midlothian, in the reign 
of James w. 

Whether it be true, as stated by Mackenzie in his Zmv 
cf Eminent Scotsmen, that the Waachopes had their first rive 
in the reign of Malcolm Caenmore, and that they came 
from France, we shall not stay to discuss ; but it is generally 
allowed that the name is a local patronymic, common in 
the sooth of Scotland, and that the Wanchopes of Niddrie 
Manschal belonged originally to Waocbopedale in Rox- 
b ing h shire, where they were for long vassals of the Earls 
of Douglas. 

The records of the earlier gen erati ons of the family 

hating been lost, one cannot with accuracy say who was 

its founder, or when he fired In James the Second's reign, 

.- stating m inroad mte England, and agam in Queen 

Mary's time, for espousing the cause of that unfortunate 

for a time into the hands of others, while the ten-charters 
that irmainrri were afterwards destroyed when the Engl ish 
under Ofcfer CioiswB eaast to Scotland But notwroV 
muadtng mess misfortunes, mese are documenti extant 
which go to dtOV mat a* far hnefc a- me time of Robert :::., 
who began to reign in 1390, there was one Gilbert Wauchope 
holding the lands ofXiddrie from that king, who is supposed 
to be the grandson of Thomas Wauchafe in ttu 
Edinburgh mentioned in the Bagman Rous of 1296, 

One scion of the family, bom about the year 1500, in the 
reign of James it. attained to considerable distinction as 
an ecclesiastic. This was Robert, the famous Archbishop 
of Armagh, a y o unge r son of Ar chib al d , the Laird of 
Niddrie. DefecoTein his vision almost to blindness, he was, 



THE WAUCHOPKS OV NIDDK I K 

lr.l;ui(|in;', lliis misloi time, pos ■;<•:;:.«•< I ol ;■:, ,il ii.ilin.il 

abilities, and \>y dili lined i«» high and varii d 

.1' ( omplisli profl( lent did i><' bei """■ In iii<- 

study of \\i<- Scripturef, the Fathers, and the < :oum its, iii.it 
he WM appointed DoctOl <>l Divinity in the University ol 

and in i <\ '/;, having attra< t< <! tin noti< c <>l Popt 
Paul in., Iir wa , called '<> Rome, and employed l>y him 

[ate f<> tii'- Emperoi <<i ( rermany and the I 

France, in both Ol which commissions he i. -aid In have 

>ited the highest qualification! as nn aml>a.v;adoi 

i time after he was promoted to he Archbishop Ol 

Armagh, in inland. There he lahoiired with Incredible 
pain', to eniiejiten the Ignoranl natives, travelling aboul 

his dio'ese, and oflm prea< liin^ to ih<-m lorn 01 ftV€ 

timet Archbishop Wauchope found icopefoi his 

talents at the < Jouru 11 o( 'I n-m 'i hr, iamour.< oum ii, 

by the Pope to I 0Uiitera< i th«- iidlii< n< < (> f 

Reformation initiated by Luthei In Germany, mel "> 
h 1 544, and ( ontinui d Its sittings till 1551 1 hi 
1 not '>u\y toot 1 pari In Its pro* ei dings, bul 
wrote a full account oi them, 1 laboui which, 

d tOO mn' 1. fd In. itTl n^tli, foi In di< d ;il I'.ur. on 

onse on 9th Nov< tnb< 1 155 1, 1 It 1 

held \>y hr, < onl<-mporar i»-. in hi;di admiration, 
i/ .' / /'. : ' :,u< h WU hll judgment in :,< < ulaj affairs, thai 

*he acquitted h - admin il In-; 

' sv 

BJ bin m I •.nnilar Miam, and 
alludu ,,1, hhiid, ■.;.'/•. 

c I \< a /ulrri from the l'op< to (iem 



16 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

Robert's elder brother, Gilbert Wauchope, was mean- 
while Laird of Niddrie, acquiring more property, extending 
his borders, and getting himself involved in the local feuds 
peculiar to the time of James v.; that king on one occasion, 
April 1535, having to grant a letter of protection in favour 
of him 'and his wife and bairns' against Sir Patrick Hep- 
burn of Wauchtonne and thirty-four others for ' umbeset- 
ting the highway for his slaughter.' In this quarrel, even 
the Pope was called upon to interfere in the interest of 
peace and safety. In 1539 Paul in. put forth a mandate 
to the Dean of the Church of Restalrig, stating that a 
beloved son, a noble man, Gilbert Wauchope, lord in 
temporals of the place of Niddriflmarschall, within the 
diocese of St. Andrews, had represented to the Pope that 
some sons of iniquity, whom he was altogether ignorant of, 
had wickedly brought many and heavy losses upon the 
said Gilbert Wauchope by concealing the boundaries and 
limits or marches of the piece of land or place called 
Quhitinche, feued to him by the Abbot and Convent of the 
Monastery of the Holy Cross (Holyrood). . . . Therefore 
the Pope intrusted to the discretion of the said Venerable 
Dean and Commissary to admonish publicly in churches, 
before the people, ... all holders, etc., and to discover 
and restore these to the said Gilbert Wauchope or to the 
Abbot of the Monastery, under a general sentence of 
excommunication against these persons, till suitable satis- 
faction was made. 

But the Reformation brought many changes, upsetting 
the laws, customs, and opinions held sacred for centuries. 
The sons no longer walked in the ways of their fathers, 
but began to think for themselves. And so we find that 
Gilbert, the son of the laird who had sought and obtained 
protection from the Pope, renounced the Pope and took 



SOME ANCESTORS 17 

an active part in promoting the Reformation. He was 
present at Knox's first sermon at St. Andrews in 1547. 
And at the conference of notables that afterwards was held, 
where Knox and his preaching were fully discussed, and 
Wauchope was asked what he thought of the Reformer, 
1 this answer gave the Laird of Nydre — " a man fervent and 
uprycht in religioun." ' This Gilbert Wauchope of Niddrie 
was a member of the famous Parliament, held at Edin- 
burgh in August 1560, by which the Reformation was 
established. 

Later on we have a George Wauchope, a celebrated 
Professor of Civil Law at Caen, in Normandy, who was a 
grandson of Gilbert, and who in 1595, when he was about 
twenty-five years of age, wrote A Treatise concerning the 
Ancie?it People of Rome. 

But the early Wauchopes were a wonderfully varied 
class of men, who could take their share of fighting when 
necessary j and towards the close of the sixteenth century 
their feuds, their ' slauchters,' and political partisanship 
well-nigh led to their extinction. The feuds with the neigh- 
bouring Hepburns and Edmonstons were the occasion of 
many unhappy conflicts, while their adhesion to the cause 
of Queen Mary for a time brought ruin on the family. 
Professor Aytoun, in his poem of ' Both well,' referring to 
Bothwell's attempt to intercept the Queen on her way 
from Stirling and carry her to Dunbar Castle, says : — 

' Hay, bid the trumpets sound the march, 
Go, Bolton, to the van ; 
Young Niddrie follows with the rear; 
Set forward every man.' 

The estate of Niddrie is quite close to Craigmillar 
Castle, where Mary frequently resided, and in all proba- 



18 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

bility the fascination of her character brought the 
Wauchopes into frequent contact with her, and led them 
to espouse her cause when many of the leaders of the 
Scottish nobility had declared against her. We find, 
therefore, that Robert Wauchope and his son Archibald 
are mentioned in the ' charge agains personis denuncit 
rebellis'in June 1587. This Archibald appears to have 
been a youth of wonderful pugnacity, and to have got him- 
self continually involved in trouble with the authorities for 
breaches of the peace, out of which he as often extricated 
himself, with no little cleverness. Once, in 1588, for an 
attempted 'slauchter' of 'umquhile James Giffert, and 
Johne Edmonston,' the adjoining laird, he was arrested, 
tried, and warded in the Tolbooth of Edinburgh ; but ' no 
pardoun being granted' by the king, 'and about a 
thousand persouns in the Tolbuith waiting upon the event, 
the candles were put furth about ellevin houres at night, 
and Nidrie and his complices escaped out at the windowes.' 
It is a curious reflection upon the Wauchopes of this time 
that their name should be associated with the wild Clan 
Gregor of Perthshire as disturbers of the peace. King 
James vi. was married in 1590 to the Princess Anne of 
Denmark. On the 1st May the king and queen landed 
at Leith, amid a great concourse of loyal subjects, 'and 
with volleys of cannon, and orations in their welcome.' 
James had been absent from Scotland more than six 
months, and it was remarked at the time, and came to be 
memorable afterwards, that these months were a time of 
universal peace and good order in Scotland. ' The only 
notable exceptions,' according to Spottiswood, ' had been 
a riot in Edinburgh by Wauchope of Niddry, and an out- 
break of the Clan Gregor in Balquhidder.' 

In connection with this, we find Wauchope charged 



ATTACK ON HOLYROODHOUSE 19 

by the Privy Council (7th January 1590), 'along with all 
other keepers of the places and fortalices of Rossyth and 
Nudry,' to deliver the same to the officer executing these 
letters, within six hours after charge, under penalty of 
treason; the said officer to fence the goods and rents 
belonging to Wauchope, which are ordered to remain under 
arrest at the instance of the King's Treasurer, 'aye and 
quhill he be tryit foule or clene of sic crymes quharof he is 
dilaitet.' 

Not to mention other scrapes of a similar kind, Archi- 
bald Wauchope was implicated in the attack on the palace 
of Holyroodhouse, 27th December 1591, and for this and 
other misdemeanours he was forfeited, along with the Earl 
of Bothvvell and others, and had to leave the country for a 
time. He afterwards came to an untimely end by falling 
from a window in Skinner's Close in Edinburgh, about 
the year 1596. 

It was apparently about this period that the old house 
or tower of Niddrie Marischal — 'so commodious that it 
could garrison a hundred men' — was destroyed by the 
enemies of the family. 

For some years the estate was in the hands of Sir James 
Sandilands of Slamannan, until 1608, when, through the 
good graces of James vi., it was restored to Francis, son 
of Archibald Wauchope, a restitution which was confirmed 
by Act of Parliament in 1609. Francis (usually styled Sir 
Francis Wauchope) appears to have done a good deal for 
the estate, but his son, Sir John Wauchope, may be 
regarded as the chief restorer of the house of Niddrie. He 
was frugal in his living, and he added several adjoining 
properties to the estate by purchase, and received the 
honour of knighthood from Charles 1. on his visit to 
Scotland in 1633. He was an intimate friend of the 



so GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

notorious Duke of Lauderdale in their younger days, living 
with him, and spoken of as ' his bed-fellow.' 

Sir John exercised great judgment in the management 
of his affairs; so much so, that in 1661 he acquired by 
purchase the border estate of Yetholm or Lochtour, in 
Roxburghshire, which has remained in the family ever 
since. He was present in London at the coronation of 
Charles 11.; in 1663 he was elected a member of the 
Scottish Parliament, and one of the Committee for the 
Plantation of Kirks; and in 1678 was a member of the 
Convention of Estates. 

Other lairds appear in succession as the years rolled on. 
There are Williams, Andrews, Gilberts, Roberts, following 
one another as the leaves succeed in the spring to those 
that have fallen in the autumn, but it is not our purpose to 
follow their story. One fought and fell at Killiecrankie 
with Viscount Dundee in 1689; another fought for the 
Stuarts at the Revolution, and afterwards rose to high com- 
mand in the French and Spanish services ; and though 
the Wauchopes took no active part in the Stuart risings 
of 1 7 15 and 1745, their sympathies were all for the exiled 
race. 

In Niddrie House there are to be seen full-length 
portraits of Charles 1. and his queen ; four small half- 
lengths of the Chevalier and his consort, and their two 
sons, Prince Charles Edward and the Cardinal York, as 
boys. These are understood to have been forwarded 
direct from the Chevalier himself to the Niddrie family as 
an acknowledgment of their loyalty, and the assistance — 
pecuniary and otherwise — which the royal line of Stuart 
had received at their hands. 

To come to more recent times, we find that Andrew 
Wauchope of Niddrie — the great-grandfather of the subject 



A 'MINDEN' HERO 21 

of our sketch, born about the year 1736 — was a captain in 
the First Regiment of Dragoon Guards, and fought at the 
battle of Minden in Westphalia, where in 1759 the French 
were defeated by an army of Anglo-Hanoverian troops. 
He lived to a good old age, for it was he who was alluded 
to by Sir Walter Scott in the ballad written on the occasion 
of the visit of George iv. to Scotland in 1822 : — 

Come, stately Niddrie, auld and true, 
Girt with the sword that Minden knew ; 
We have owre few sic lairds as you, 
Carle, now the King 's come. 

This Andrew Wauchope married, in 1786, Alicia, daughter 
of William Baird, Newbyth, and sister of the celebrated 
Sir David Baird, the hero of Seringapatam, who a few 
years afterwards — in 1805— commanded the expedition 
to the Cape of Good Hope which, after a decisive victory 
over the Dutch, received, on 6th January 1806, the 
surrender of the colony to Great Britain. There were 
nine children of this marriage, five boys and four girls. 
The eldest, Andrew, was killed in 1813 at the battle of the 
Pyrenees while in command of the 20th Regiment of Foot, 
and so the second son, William, succeeded to the property, 
old Andrew Wauchope having resigned it in his favour in 
181 7, retaining for himself the liferent. 

William Wauchope, who had the year before married 
Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Robert Baird of Newbyth, 
and niece of the then Marchioness of Breadalbane, was a 
lieutenant-colonel in the army. Curiously enough, William's 
younger brother, Admiral Robert Wauchope, was stationed 
at Cape Town at the beginning of the century, where he 
resided for many years with his wife. They knew the 
Dutch well, and were on the most friendly terms with both 
Dutch and English settlers in the colony. 



22 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

William Wauchope died in 1826, leaving a family of two, 
the eldest of whom, Andrew Wauchope, born in 1818, 
being then a minor, succeeded to the property. His sister, 
Hersey Susan Sydney, was married in 1842 to George 
Elliot, captain, Royal Navy, eldest son of the Hon. Admiral 
Elliot. Andrew Wauchope, the father of the subject of 
our memoir, was for a time in the army — an officer in the 
dragoons ; but, being of a delicate constitution, he retired 
after his marriage to reside at Niddrie, where he was long 
known and respected as a kind and indulgent landlord, 
ever ready to give a helping hand to his tenants or to 
religious and philanthropic objects. He did a great deal 
towards completing the extensive improvements begun by 
his father on the house and grounds of Niddrie. 

The newer part of the house, forming the north-east 
wing, was erected by William Wauchope about seventy-five 
years ago. It contains some handsome apartments, and 
it is interesting to note that the celebrated Hugh Miller, 
when a lad, was employed (in 1823) as a mason at the 
work, and is said to have carved a number of the orna- 
mental chimneys which form a distinctive feature of a 
most picturesque edifice. What the father began, the 
son ultimately completed. The park was extended, new 
approaches and avenues were formed, lodges erected, and 
gardens and vineries laid out — the whole place being 
transformed into one of the most beautiful country seats 
to be found in the county of Midlothian. These some- 
what extensive works, resumed by the father of the General 
about the year 1850, were steadily carried on year by year 
until his death, 22nd November 1874, for he took much 
pride in the work, and made it his life hobby. 

So far this brief genealogy of General Wauchope's family 
has been traced through the male line, but it would be 



SIR WILLIAM WALLACE 23 

incomplete and lacking in public interest, did we not also 
refer to his descent on the female side from the family of 
Sir William Wallace, the champion of Scottish freedom. 
This interesting connection is traced to James Wauchope, 
the grandfather of the ' Minden ' hero. In 17 10 he 
married Jane, daughter of Sir William Wallace, Bart, of 
Craigie, near Ayr, whose eldest son, Andrew, succeeded 
his cousin in 1726, and in his line the property has re- 
mained to the present time. 

Over the fireplace of the dining-room of Niddrie House 
there is a painting. on canvas inserted in panelling said to 
be a portrait of ' Wallace Wight.' It has been in posses- 
sion of the family for nearly two hundred years, being men- 
tioned in various inventories of the property from the year 
1707. An interesting notice of it appeared in James 
Paterson's Wallace and his Times, and the family tradition 
is that it is a genuine portrait of the hero, the words 
inscribed above the likeness, ' Gvl : Wallas : Scotvs : Host : 
ivm : Terror,' certainly giving colour to the supposition. 
We are more inclined to think, however, that the portrait 
represents one of the more immediate ancestors of the 
Jane Wallace who brought the connection into the family — 
probably Sir William Wallace of Craigie, who distinguished 
himself as a loyalist in the civil wars. It certainly came 
into the family through the marriage of James Wauchope 
in 1 7 10 with Jane, daughter of Sir William Wallace of 
Craigie, and if it does not represent the champion of 
Scottish independence, it is from the same source as a 
similar portrait preserved at Priory Lodge, Cheltenham, in 
the hands of a descendant of the Craigie-Wallace family. 

It was when he was serving with his regiment at Monaghan, 
in Ireland, that the father of General Wauchope first met his 
future wife, Frances Maria, daughter of Henry Lloyd of 



24 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

Lloydsburgh, County Tipperary. They were married on 
26th March 1840, and two sons and two daughters were 
the issue of the marriage. These were — 

1. William John Wauchope, born in September 1841. 

2. Harriet Elizabeth Frances, afterwards married to 

Lord Ventry of County Kerry, Ireland, by whom 
she has issue, six sons and four daughters, of whom 
her daughter, the Hon. Hersey Alice Eveleigh-De- 
Moleyne, is the present Countess of Hopetoun. 

3. Andrew Gilbert, the subject of our story, born at 

Niddrie on 5th July 1846. 

4. Hersey Mary Josephine, now residing in London. 

A typical Scotsman, loyal to the backbone to the land of 
his birth, Andrew Gilbert Wauchope had always a warm 
corner in his heart for Ireland, and was ever ready to 
acknowledge, and indeed to boast of, his Irish extraction. 
Combining as he did much of the canniness of the Scot 
with that steady-going determination of purpose and fear- 
lessness in danger peculiar to his countrymen, he displayed 
the Irish side of his character in that generous light- 
heartedness and impulsive good nature which often led him 
into self-denying deeds of kindness, and now and again 
into trouble. General Wauchope was, as we have seen, 
the heir to no mean family traditions. The record of the 
Wauchopes is one of patriotic energy through five or six 
hundred years of stirring Scottish history, many of them years 
of turmoil and strife ; and the warlike spirit of the fathers, 
as well as their more peaceful characteristics, may be found 
not infrequently imaged in this last scion of the race. 



CHAPTER II 

CHILDHOOD—EARLY TENDENCIES THE 'HOUSEHOLD TROOP 

— EDUCATION — NAVAL TRAINING — THE ' BRITANNIA '-- 
THE ' ST. GEORGE ' — PRINCE ALFRED. 

General Wauchope's boyhood was spent mostly at 
Niddrie, with occasional short visits in summer to the 
other property of the family at Yetholm, among the 
pastoral Cheviot hills. 

"A high-spirited, frolicsome boy, delighting in the open 
air and every kind of outdoor sport, 'Andy,' as he was 
familiarly called, found scope for his energies in the beauti- 
fully wooded park surrounding the house. Bird-nesting, 
rabbit-catching, and fishing in the burn which meanders 
through the estate, found him ,an ardent enthusiast, but 
often brought him into trouble with his father and mother. 
His bird-nesting feats, prosecuted with all the zest of a 
professional poacher, often resulted in the dislocation of 
his clothes, and shoes and stockings too often betrayed the 
fact that friendly visits to the burn were more frequent and 
prolonged than ought to be. Many a time Andy was thus 
in a sore plight. Drenched and torn, he would go to 
the kindly gardener's wife, to get the rents in his jacket 
sewed, his stockings changed, and his shoes dried, before 
venturing into the family presence. In his adventures 
over the property, the burn was never a barrier to his 



26 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

progress. It was the same with hedges, ditches, or stone 
walls. If he wanted to reach a certain point, he made a 
straight road to it over every obstacle. 

But the limits of the park did not always satisfy his 
roving desires. He soon made himself acquainted with 
the surroundings of his home. Craigmillar Castle was a 
favourite resort on the one side ; the beach at Portobello 
gave him a taste for the sea and aquatic exercise; while the 
neighbouring little village of Niddrie was not long in 
making his acquaintance. Here he was known to every 
one, for Andy made himself at home in every cottage ; and 
if the boys stood in some awe of him, and mothers blamed 
him for sending their sons home with their clothes torn, 
or their noses bleeding, still, for all that, he was always 
welcomed among them, sometimes with a ' jeelie ' (jelly) 
piece or a new-baked scone ! 

Many a frolic he and the boys of the village were engaged 
in, if all tales were told, and sometimes Andy got credit 
^or more than he deserved. Boys will be boys, but his 
boyhood early showed the spirit of the man, for to have a 
number of country boys together, and put them through 
military drill, was the height of his delight. He was a 
born leader, and he doubtless imbibed his love of soldier- 
ing from the frequent opportunities he had of seeing 
military manceuvres in the Queen's Park, or more likely 
on Portobello sands, where at that time there was a great 
deal of drilling, both of the regulars and of the yeomanry 
cavalry. That the military instinct revealed itself early may 
be gathered from the following : — One day the village 
dominie, worthy old Mr. Savage, looking out of the school 
door across the road, saw the youthful form of Andy— then 
about seven or eight years old — on the top of the high 
boundary wall of his father's park, which at that place is 



YOUTHFUL TENDENCIES 27 

nearly nine feet high. 'What are you doing up there?' 
shouted the dominie; 'get down at once, you young 
rascal, or you '11 get killed ! ' But Andy only waved his 
hand as he shouted back, ' It 's all right, Mr. Savage : I 'm 
only viewing the enemy,' and off he scampered along the 
top of the wall ! 

Andy's 'household troop' was not a large one, but it 
sufficed. With Tom and Jim, the gardener's sons, and their 
sisters, Jess and Bella, assisted by a few male and female 
recruits from among the children of the other workers, with 
his sisters, Harriet .and Hersey, and his cousin, Elizabeth 
Elliot, now Countess of Northesk — one of whom carried 
the banner, and another the drum — the youthful general 
managed to make a fair show. He drilled them well, and 
was naturally very proud of them. One day there happened 
to be company at the house. Andy, anxious to display his 
forces, marched them up to the front door, and there, 
seated on his little black pony 'Donald,' he put them 
through their facings, to the great entertainment of the 
visitors. He was not content with this, however. He 
must needs take the place by storm, and so, putting him- 
self at the head of his troop, he gave the word of command, 
' Forward, march ! ' and actually marched them into the 
hall, and through the dining-room to the terrace at the 
back of the house, bravely leading them on his pony ! 

The ice-house stood in the park not very far from the 
house. It was a vaulted chamber covered with turf, form- 
ing externally a mound which made a capital fort. Many 
a time was it the scene of mimic warfare, its defence or 
assault giving splendid scope for the youthful general's 
military genius, — brilliant attacks being as brilliantly de- 
feated without any great loss of life ! 

Sometimes 'Andy's' attacks took a wider range, and 



28 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

nocturnal escapades of a frolicking nature are said to have 
been not infrequent. It is told of him that having gathered 
a few of the village boys together, they made a raid one 
night upon the workshop of the village joiner, and took 
away a number of odd cart-wheels lying about in the yard. 
These they fastened to the doors of some of the cottages, 
where they were found next morning, much to the sur- 
prise of the inmates, who had some difficulty in getting 
egress from their houses ! Nobody, of course, could tell 
who was to blame ; but, as our informant remarked, ' They 
a' kent wha did it : it was just some o' Maister Andra's 
mischief.' 

One old woman in the village, whose temper was not 
very good, and who laboured under the conviction that 
her hen-house was from time to time robbed of its 
roosters, had made herself somewhat obnoxious, and it 
was determined to give her a real fright. So one evening, 
after all decent folks were supposed to be in bed, Andy 
and his company slipped quietly round to the hen-house, 
and presently there was a great commotion and cackling 
among the feathered occupants. The old lady in her bed 
heard it all, but was too frightened to come to the rescue. 
She was certain, however, that some of her favourite hens 
had been taken, and next day she went up to the laird at 
the big hou?e to complain, and to ask compensation. Andy 
was with his father when the old woman was laying off her 
story, but betrayed no signs of his complicity in the trans- 
action, wisely preferring to keep his own counsel in the 
matter. Of course the boys had taken none of her 
property. They only wanted to play a trick upon her. 

Andy was, however, not a boy who would perpetrate 
any wilful mischief, or do anything that would cause pain. 
He hated cruelty, and once when he was accused of having 



EARLY EDUCATION 29 

killed the cat of an old servant of the family, who lived as 
a pensioner in the village, he heard the accusation with 
the greatest indignation. Going at once to Mary's house he 
strongly asserted his innocence, telling her with all earnest- 
ness, ' I 'd rather shoot myself, as shoot your cat, Mary.' 

Very early in life he evinced a strong desire to share 
in the sport of the hunting-field. His father would not, 
however, hear of it, and refused to allow him to get a 
proper rig-out. But Master Andrew was not to be balked 
in his ambition, for one morning, getting into a pair of his 
father's top-boots, many sizes too large for him, and securing 
the biggest horse in the stables, he boldly set off for the 
hunt. The appearance of such a mite with boots that 
would scarcely keep on his feet, on the back of a big 
hunter, created great laughter among the county gentry 
at the meet. 

During these early years of Wauchope's life, so free from 
restraint, his education was being carried on at home under 
a tutor. At the age of eleven he was sent to a school at 
Worksop, in Nottinghamshire, but he did not remain there 
very long. He had a hankering for active life, and specially 
for the sea. It was accordingly resolved to prepare him 
for entering the navy as a midshipman, and he was sent 
to Foster's School, Stubbington House, Gosport. His 
experience here was also a short one, and was marked 
by an incident characteristic of his spirit of adventure 
and faithfulness to obligations; though in this case we 
must say the latter virtue was rather misapplied, and it 
might well be said ' his faith unfaithful kept him falsely 
true.' The boys at Foster's, evidently wanting to vary the 
monotony of school life — perhaps none of the brightest — 
thought it would be a good lark if one would run away 
from the school, and they resolved to draw lots who it 



3o GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

should be. The lot fell upon young Andy Wauchope, and, 
like the loyal lad he was, he resolutely stuck to the agree- 
ment and ran off from the school, but of course he was 
promptly brought back by his people, and no doubt 
received the just reward of his frolic ! 

He used to say long afterwards that he had only been 
at two schools when he was a boy. ' At one of them he 
was said to be the best boy in the school, but at the other 
he was the very worst ! ' 

With what would now be considered a very inadequate 
training, young Wauchope was on the ioth September 
1859 entered as a naval cadet on board Her Majesty's 
ship Britannia, there to pick up in the rough school of 
a sailor's life that knowledge of the world, and particularly 
of his naval duties, which books and schooling had denied 
him. At the same time, though deprived of the advan- 
tages of Eton or Harrow, or any of the Scottish Univer- 
sities, he had a much better gift than education — an 
immense natural shrewdness, and a persevering applica- 
tion, which afterwards made him a good French and 
German scholar. Among his shipmates on the Britannia 
he was a general favourite. He was only thirteen years 
of age, but appears to have been a plucky little fellow, 
full of life and fun, and quite capable of standing up 
for himself, or for a friend if need be; and in the 
thirteen months of his service in the ship he made several 
lifelong friendships. Admiral Lord Charles Beresford, 
writing to us of that period, mentions that he and 
Wauchope joined the navy about the same time. 'I 
remember,' he says, ' our chests were close together in the 
Britannia. We separated when we went to sea, but we 
never lost the friendship we formed in the Britannia. We 
met often in different parts of the world, and I always 



ENTERS THE NAVY 31 

found him the same sterling, honest, strong, and chivalrous 
friend, whose splendid characteristics had so impressed me 
as a boy. I have always regarded his friendship for me 
with sentiments of pride. He was very proud of being a 
Scotsman, and being an Irishman myself, we had many 
arguments — as boys will have — as to which nation 
possessed the most interesting personalities. We agreed 
cordially on every other point, but never once on this. 
The nation has lost one of its best in poor Andy 
Wauchope.' There are doubtless others of his Britannia 
shipmates surviving. who could give similar testimony. 

On the 5th October i860, Wauchope received his dis- 
charge from the Britannia, and was entered as a midship- 
man on board H.M.S. St. George, and he mentions himself 
with what pride and satisfaction he found himself on that 
autumn day walking down the main street of Portsmouth 
in his new uniform to join the St. George. * It was one of 
the happiest days of my life,' he says ; { a day in which I 
felt myself identified as an officer in Her Majesty's service, 
more particularly as on the way down to the harbour I was 
met and saluted by one of the marines.' 

The St. George was manned by eight hundred men, and 
in i860 was considered a well-equipped vessel, and as 
compared with the days of Nelson and Collingwood 
showed a great advance in naval strength and efficiency. 
At Trafalgar the biggest gun in the whole British fleet was 
only a fifty-six pounder, but the St. George had in addition 
to a number of that calibre several sixty-eight pounders, 
while her speed of ten knots an hour was considered 
highly satisfactory. Though these equipments would not 
bear comparison with present-day standards, the young 
midshipman was proud of his ship and proud of the 
service, and in after years could with no little exultation 



32 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

honestly say that, ' though armaments had changed, the 
hearts of oak remained as of yore ; while the old red rag, 
which had withstood the battle and the breeze for a 
thousand years, was still able to claim the allegiance of 
its people.' 

Wauchope's commanding officer on board the St. 
George was Captain the Hon. Francis Egerton — whose 
son, Commander Egerton, was killed at Ladysmith in 
November 1899 — and among his brother officers were 
H.R H. Prince Alfred, afterwards the Duke of Edinburgh, 
and latterly known as the Duke of Saxe-Coburg Gotha, 
and Admiral Sir Robert Harris, now Commander-in-Chief 
of the Cape of Good Hope station. 

The St. George was commissioned at Portsmouth, and 
was transferred to Devonport early in 1861. She was then 
one of the noblest and most imposing-looking ships of the 
service, having the year before been thoroughly overhauled 
and converted from a one hundred and twenty gun ship to 
one of ninety guns. As a three-decker sailing ship she 
was considered one of the finest fighting vessels afloat, 
and her conversion to a steamship of the line had been 
attended with the most successful results. She was selected 
by Prince Albert for his son, the youthful Prince Alfred, who 
joined her as a midshipman a few months after Wauchope 
— on the 16th January 1861 — as she lay in Plymouth 
Sound, under orders for a cruise to the British North 
American Stations and the West India Islands. 

The greater part of the year seems to have been spent in 
and about Halifax, the capital of Nova Scotia, which be- 
came a centre for cruises in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and 
the Canadian ports. We have it on the authority of several 
of those who were midshipmen with the Prince, that they 
were a jovial, happy company, all on the most friendly 






H.R.H. PRINCE ALFRED 33 

terms with one another. The Prince, who was very fond 
of 'Andy,' as he was always called, showed him particular 
friendship, and the affection which as boys and ship- 
mates they formed then continued more or less in later 
years. 

The Prince came back to England in the month of 
August to spend a short holiday with his parents at Bal- 
moral, but rejoined his ship, which was lying at Halifax, in 
October. His return was welcomed by his mates and by 
the citizens of that town ; and the Governor, the Earl of 
Mulgrave, entertained His Royal Highness and the officers 
of the St. George at a state dinner on the eve of their 
departure for a cruise to Bermuda. Among the sunny 
islands of the South the ship and her crew were everywhere 
received with the utmost enthusiasm, the black and white 
population alike vying with each other in their demonstra- 
tions of loyalty; but the sudden death of the Prince 
Consort at the end of December compelled the return 
home for a time of Prince Alfred, who left his ship at 
Halifax on receipt of the sad news, with every expression 
of sympathy from his brother officers. In the spring of 
1862 Wauchope's ship paid another visit to the West 
India Islands, taking up her station for some weeks 
with other six ships of the line at Bermuda, where the 
young ' middies ' were entertained to a continued round of 
amusements and excursions. 

A seafaring life, if often one of risks and toil, has its 
seasons of enforced idleness. Midshipmen's amusements 
and practical jokes are proverbial, and the quarter-deck of 
the St. George was not always free of them. Many pranks 
were played upon one another in idle hours by these 
sprightly young officers, leading sometimes to reprimands 
by their superiors; and young Andy Wauchope did not 

c 



34 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

always escape the suspicion that he was an active leader in 
such ploys. It has even been hinted that he had on one 
occasion the pluck — or, shall we say, audacity? — to have a 
stand-up fight with the Queen's son. We do not vouch 
for the story; but of this we are certain, that, if he had 
a just cause of quarrel, he was not the boy to let even the 
prestige of royalty stand between him and the punishment 
due to the aggressor, whoever he might be. 

Some years afterwards, in the winter of 1863-64, when 
Prince Alfred resided at Holyrood Palace, and was a 
student of Edinburgh University, he paid a friendly visit to 
his old shipmate at Niddrie, spending the day in pigeon- 
shooting. He and a number of his friends arrived in the 
forenoon on horseback, and the identity of the party not 
having been made known to the keeper of the Niddrie 
toll, through which they had to pass to reach the house, he 
peremptorily insisted upon payment. But being told that 
it was the Queen's son going to see the laird, his loyalty so 
much got the better of him that he would not take a 
copper. 

After luncheon the party adjourned to the park to have 
some shooting. Mr. Wauchope, 'Andy's' father, was with 
them, and was persuaded to try a shot, but unfortunately 
the piece went off in his hand before he could take aim, 
and one of the footmen in attendance was hit in the arm 
by the charge. Mr. Wauchope was so distressed over the 
accident that he vowed he would never again take a gun 
in his hand. 

But it was not in the navy that young Wauchope was 
destined to distinguish himself. It has been said that the 
severity and even harshness of the naval discipline gave 
him a distaste of the service, and drove him from it. Pos- 
sibly some remarks he made on one occasion as to his 



IU. 



THE 'ST. GEORGE' 35 

having been unjustly punished for some petty offence may 
have given some colour to this supposition. We rather 
incline to accept the explanation of a brother officer, who 
asked him afterwards why he left the navy. His reply 
was, 'for no reason except that his father wished him, and 
that his father desired that he should have a naval training 
before he entered the army.' 

The experience gained at sea was certainly not lost, for 
his father's wisdom furnished him with a dual equipment 
which in after years was not infrequently of value. The 
injustice of the punishment he received when in the 
St. George, whatever it may have been, certainly impressed 
itself upon him to this extent, that later in life he made it 
a rule never to punish a soldier until thoroughly satisfied 
of his guilt, and he always was inclined to give a man the 
benefit of a doubt. 

The St. George returned home in the beginning of July 
1862 from her long cruise in American waters, and with 
her return young Wauchope closed his naval career. The 
official Admiralty record simply states that { on the 3rd of 
July 1862 Midshipman Wauchope was discharged from the 
service at his own request, in order that he might qualify 
for the army.' His whole naval experience, therefore, 
covered a period of scarcely three years, but it gave him a 
knowledge of men and things, and a knowledge of the 
world, better, perhaps, than any study of books could 
afrord. 



CHAPTER III 

ENTERS THE ARMY — THE BLACK WATCH — ASHANTI WAR — 
RETURN HOME — BANQUET AT PORTOBELLO. 

Young Wauchope had not long to wait for a commission. 
At that time positions in the army could only be got by 
purchase and strong influence, but he was fortunate in 
being enrolled as ensign, in November 1865, in the 42nd 
Highlanders, one of the most popular and distinguished 
of Scottish regiments, and familiarly known as the ' Black 
Watch.' He was only nineteen years of age at the time when 
he joined the regiment at Stirling Castle, and is described 
by one of his superiors as then • a merry, rollicking lad, 
full of life and fun.' 'Andy,' as he used to be called 
by the officers, and ' Red Mick ' more frequently by the 
men, was a general favourite; and, notwithstanding his 
natural lightness of heart, he had soundness of brain and 
judgment enough to know that promotion would only 
come to him by diligent study and close application to his 
profession. His commanding officer, Sir John M'Leod, 
appears, at all events, to have been struck with the young 
man's energy of character and indefatigable 'go,' for he 
describes him as at that time ' a particularly energetic 
young lad, who thought nothing of walking from Stirling 
to Niddrie to see his old father whenever he could get a 
few days' leave at a week-end.' This, he explains, was not 



THE BLACK WATCH 37 

at all from motives of economy, ' but merely to walk off 
superfluous energy.' Assiduous in the matter of drill, 
Wauchope soon became as proficient as his instructor, for 
he took a thorough pleasure in the exercise. The innate 
smartness and recklessness of the red-polled ensign at 
once endeared him to a grave old Crimean drill-sergeant, 
who forthwith charged himself with his training. Con- 
cerning this latest accession to the commissioned strength 
of the Black Watch, the man of stripes was wont to say — 
'That red-headed Wauchope chap will either gang tae the 
deil, or he '11 dee Commander-in-Chief ! ' 

Though the worthy sergeant's prediction has in neither 
case been verified, young Wauchope, though at first in- 
clined to consider his superiors a trifle slow, soon fell into 
the steady sober ways of the 42nd, then as now noted for 
the gentlemanly conduct of its officers, and the upright 
character of its rank and file. ' Step out, shentlemens ; 
step out. You're all shentlemens here; if you're not 
shentlemens in the Black Watch, you'll not be shentle- 
mens anywhere.' Such was the opinion of their old 
Highland sergeant as he put them through their drill. We 
have been told that at that time one might be a year 
among the officers and never hear an oath uttered, while 
smoking and drinking were scarcely known. Wauchope 
was thus fortunate in being, at a critical period of his life, 
associated with men who shunned what was vulgar, and 
whose influence over him was for good. In military 
matters he early manifested the inquiring mind. Points 
in drill or tactics, which he might not at first understand, 
set him thinking, and he would not rest till he got an 
explanation of their meaning and object. Captain Christie, 
then adjutant of the Black Watch, now governor of 
Edinburgh Prison, was early taken into the young ensign's 



38 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

confidence in difficulties of this kind. Having been 
through the hard fighting of the Crimean war and the 
Indian Mutiny, the captain was made frequently to ' fight 
his battles o'er again,' explaining the methods and tactics 
by which decisive results were attained in the various 
engagements. Never what may be called a great reader 
of books, Wauchope had two, however, placed in his hand 
by his adjutant when in Stirling Castle, which he studied 
assiduously. These two books — Macaulay's Essays and 
Burke's French Revolution — he read and re-read, borrowing 
them several times, and there is little doubt that the 
perusal of them made a deep and lasting impression upon 
his mind, going a long way towards the formation of that 
strong political sagacity, administrative ability in civil 
affairs, and military genius which were displayed on many 
occasions in his after-life. 

In 1867 Wauchope went to Hythe, where he passed in 
the Military School of Instruction first-class in musketry, 
and in June of that year was promoted to be lieutenant. 
So proficient was he found in the matter of drill that, in 
spite of his youth, he was appointed to the important 
position of adjutant to the regiment in 1870, though still 
retaining the rank of lieutenant, a position which he held 
with the utmost credit for the next three years. During 
this time he served successively with the 42nd in garrison 
duty at Edinburgh, Aldershot, and Devonport. 

Leaving Edinburgh in 1869 by the transport Orontes y 
from Granton to Portsmouth, the regiment reached 
Aldershot camp on the 12th November, and was stationed 
there for two and a half years. After taking a part in the 
Autumn Manoeuvres at Dartmoor in August 1873, they 
were stationed for a few months at the Clarence Barracks, 
Portsmouth. His duties during all these years were of the 



ASHANTI WAR 39 

most arduous and trying description, but his singularly 
lovable and attractive nature made him so many friends 
that difficulties disappeared before his cheerful counten- 
ance. Speaking of this period in his career, Colonel 
Bayly, afterwards his commanding officer, says — 'It was 
very early in his subaltern career that Wauchope was 
voted for the appointment of adjutant, and he made one 
of the best that had ever been appointed. His charm of 
disposition enabled him to gain the love of his men, whilst 
his tact and firmness enabled him to enforce the necessary 
discipline.' 

On the outbreak of the Ashanti war on the west coast 
of Africa in the autumn of 1873, young Lieutenant 
Wauchope found his first opportunity, in active foreign 
service, of showing the metal of which he was made. 

The king of Ashanti — Koffee Kalcallee — the head of a 
strong warlike kingdom on the north of the Gold Coast, 
had long asserted his authority over the neighbouring pro 
vinces of Akim, Assin, Gaman, and Denkira, down to the 
very coast where the Dutch and English had settlements. 
The transfer, in 1872, of the Dutch possessions adjoin- 
ing Cape Coast Castle to Great Britain for certain com- 
mercial privileges, gave King Koffee of Ashanti the 
opportunity for asserting what he considered his lawful 
authority over the Fantees or adjoining coast tribe. This, 
however, was only a covert excuse for striking a blow at 
British rule on the Gold Coast, and in January 1873 an 
army of 60,000 warriors — and the Ashantis, though cruel, 
are brave and warlike — was in full march upon Cape Coast 
Castle and Elmina. The British force on the spot under 
Colonel Harley was only a thousand men, mainly West 
India troops and Haussa police, with a few marines; and 
though the neighbouring friendly tribes, whose interest it 



4 o GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

was to remain under the British protectorate, raised a large 
contingent for their own defence, this was a force that 
could not be relied on. By the month of April the 
Ashantis had crossed the river Prah, the southern limit 
of their kingdom, and were within a few miles of Cape 
Coast Castle, and matters were looking serious. With the 
aid of a small reinforcement of marines, the enemy were 
fortunately kept at bay until the 2nd October, when a 
strong force arrived from England, which turned the tide 
against King Kofifee, and ultimately swept him and his 
warriors back upon his capital. This expedition, under 
Major-General Sir Garnet Wolseley, with his staff and a body 
of five hundred sailors and marines, not only held their own, 
but by the end of November, after much hard preliminary 
work, had forced the king to retreat to Kumasi. Wolseley, 
finding the expedition a more arduous one than was at 
first expected, had meantime asked for further reinforce- 
ments, and on the 4th December the Black Watch, accom- 
panied by a considerable number of volunteers from the 
79th, left Portsmouth, arriving on 4th January 1874 at their 
destination. Sir Garnet had now at his disposal a force 
consisting of the 23rd, 42nd, and 2nd Battalion Rifle 
Brigade, detachments of Royal Artillery, Royal Engineers, 
and Royal Marines, which, with native levies, formed a 
small but effective army wherewith to advance into the 
enemy's country. 

This was no light task, more especially when the 
dangerous nature of the climate is taken into account, and 
the necessity there was that the enterprise should be 
accomplished, if at all, before the rainy season, with all its 
concomitant malaria, set in. To pierce into the heart of 
a country like Ashanti, with its marshes and matted 
forests, its pathless jungles and fetid swamps, with a 



WAUCHOPE'S BLACK BOYS 41 

cunning foe ever dogging their steps, was the service im- 
posed on this brave little army of British. As Lord Derby 
remarked at the time, this was to be 'an engineers' and 
doctors' war.' Roads had to be made, bridges built, tele- 
graphs set up, and camps formed. But by the energy and 
skill of General Wolseley, ably supported by such men as 
Captain (now Sir) Redvers Buller, Colonel (afterwards Sir 
John) N'Neil, Lieut.-Colonel (afterwards Sir Evelyn) Wood, 
Colonel (now Sir John) M'Leod, and others who have 
since risen to distinction in the army, the enterprise was 
successfully and brilliantly accomplished within a month. 
The Ashantis were forced back upon their own territory in 
a number of engagements, until at last their capital was 
seized and burned to the ground. 

Lieutenant Wauchope's share in this expedition was 
highly creditable to his bravery and military skill. Accom- 
panying Sir Garnet Wolseley at an early stage of the 
struggle, as one of the staff, he resigned his adjutantship of 
the Black Watch, and was afterwards fortunate in obtain- 
ing special employment as a commander of one of the 
native regiments formed at Cape Coast Castle, namely, 
Russell's regiment of Haussas, the Winnebah Company. 
To form such crude material into a well-disciplined body 
of soldiers seemed at first a well-nigh hopeless undertak- 
ing. Their fear made cowards of them all. The very 
sight of a gun terrified them, and for long they held their 
arms in such superstitious dread, that they would hang 
them up in the trees and actually worship them. But 
Wauchope's admirable drilling qualifications stood him in 
good stead. He took, we are told, a great pride in the 
training of his ' black boys,' as he called them, and infused 
into them much of his own daring spirit. This appointment 
separated him for a time from his own regiment, but on 



42 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

the Black Watch arriving afterwards at the Gold Coast, he 
had frequent opportunities of fighting by their side. 

In the advanced guard, the 426. Regiment and Russell's 
Haussas, under Colonel M'Leod, having crossed the 
Adansi hills, reached Prah-su on the 30th January, and 
occupied a position about two miies from the Ashanti 
main position at Amoaful. Surmounting innumerable 
difficulties, and carrying all before them, the Highlanders 
by their dash and intrepidity were a splendid example to 
those led by Wauchope, who sometimes had difficulty in 
inspiring his men with courage enough to face their 
much-dreaded enemy. In scouting and clearing the 
ground his men were, however, invaluable, and if we con- 
sider the dense undergrowth that covered the country 
traversed, this was a work of great importance. By one 
traveller we are told ' the country hereabout (at Amoaful) 
is one dense mass of brush, penetrated by a few narrow 
lanes, where the ground, hollowed by rains, is so uneven 
and steep at the sides as to give scanty footing. A 
passenger between the two walls of foliage may wander for 
hours before he finds that he has mistaken the path. To 
cross the country from one narrow clearing to another, axes 
and knives must be used at every step. There is no look- 
ing over the hedge in this oppressive and bewildering 
maze.' It was in such a position as this that the battle of 
Amoaful was fought. The enemy's army was never seen 
in open order, but its numbers are reported by Ashantis 
to have been from fifteen to twenty thousand. After a 
stubborn day's fight in the entanglement of the forest, the 
Ashantis were finally defeated with great loss. 

On the 1 st February, the day following this important 
engagement, orders were issued for an attack upon 
Becquah, towards which Captain Buller and Lord Gifiord 



ADVANCE ON KUMASI 43 

scouted at daybreak. The attack was intrusted to Sir Archi- 
bald Alison, who had under his orders the Naval Brigade, 
one gun and one rocket detachment, Rait's Artillery, detach- 
ment of Royal Engineers, with labourers, 23rd Fusiliers, 
five companies of 42nd Highlanders, and Russell's regiment 
of Haussas, with scouts. This force was divided into an 
advanced guard and main body, and Wauchope was again 
honoured with the post of danger, his regiment of Haussas 
being in the advanced guard along with the Naval Brigade 
and Rait's Artillery, all under the command of Colonel 
M'Leod. After a toilsome march through the bush under 
a tropical sun, the town of Becquah was reached, and a 
sharp but decisive engagement took place, the main brunt 
of which fell upon Lord Gifford's scouts and the Haussas. 
Still pressing on, the intrepid little army, through many 
mazy trampings, arrived at Jarbinbah, every inch of the 
ground being disputed by the enemy. Here Wauchope 
was wounded in the chest by a slug fired down upon him 
from one of the tall trees in the swampy ground in front 
of an ambuscade; but, serious enough though it was, and 
causing much loss of blood, it did not prevent him sticking 
to his post and looking after his ' black boys.' After this 
battle King Koffee sent in a letter to Sir Garnet Wolseley, 
with vague promises of an indemnity, hoping to prevent 
the invading army approaching his capital; but his previous 
prevarications did not admit of his tardy proposals being 
for a moment entertained. The king, realising this, resolved 
to dispute the passage of the river Ordah. The stream was 
about fifty feet wide, and waist-deep, and the enemy, to the 
number of at least 10,000 men, were posted on the further 
side. Russell's regiment of Haussas was, on the afternoon 
of the 3rd February, at once passed to the other side of 
the stream as a covering party to the Engineers, who 



44 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

were ordered to throw over a bridge. They rapidly made 
entrenchments, and cleared the ground on the north side, 
so that the whole advanced guard might successfully cross. 
In this affair Lieutenant Wauchope acquitted himself with 
much coolness and bravery, notwithstanding his wounded 
state, Colonel M'Leod reporting the regiment as 'being in 
front the whole day, and having behaved with remarkable 
steadiness under trying circumstances, reserving their fire 
with remarkable self-control.' This shows a decided im- 
provement in the discipline of Wauchope's 'black boys' 
from a former despatch, where their firing was characterised 
as ' wild.' By daybreak on the morning of the 4th February 
the bridge over the Ordah was completed, amid drenching 
rain, which had continued all night, and the whole avail- 
able force was successfully passed over in spite of the 
vigorous resistance of the Ashantis, who, with drums 
beating and great shouting, were endeavouring to circle 
round the British. 'For the first half-mile from the river 
the path rose tolerably even/ says one report; 'then after a 
rapid descent it passed along a narrow ridge with a ravine 
on each side ; dipped again deeply, and then finally rose 
into the village. To the south-west of the village, extend- 
ing almost to the village itself, and for a considerable dis- 
tance along the road, the enemy had made a clearing of 
several acres, by cutting down a plantain-grove. Colonel 
M'Leod steadily advanced along the main road under 
of a gun, after a few rounds from which the Rifles 
made a corresponding advance ; then the gun was brought 
up again, and another advance made ; and in this manner 
the village was at last reached and carried.' The Ashantis 
fought well, and with a vigour and pertinacity which won 
the praise and admiration of the Highlanders. The soldiers 
were put to their mettle, and even the Haussas, as if 



KUMASI CAPTURED 45 

catching the fierce courage of the Scotsmen, laboured with 
vigour and energy not eclipsed by any in the field. The 
dislodgment of the enemy was not effected, however, with- 
out considerable loss, Lieutenant Eyre being killed, while 
Wauchope received a second severe wound, this time on 
the shoulder. 

The battle virtually decided the fate of Kumasi and 
King Koffee. On the news of the defeat of his army the 
king fled, no one knew whither, and the victorious General 
Wolseley, with his troops, entered the blood-stained capital 
in the evening. Attempts were made to negotiate with 
the king. He preferred to keep in hiding, and after two 
days' stay in his capital in order, if possible, to compel 
him to come to terms, it was at length resolved to destroy 
the place and at once retire to Cape Coast Castle. 
Kumasi was burned to the ground on the 6th February, 
and the British troops having accomplished their purpose 
retraced their steps, and notwithstanding the swollen state 
of the rivers — for the rainy season had just set in — their 
destination was reached in twelve days. No time was 
lost in getting the troops out of the influence of the deadly 
climate, and accordingly by the 4th March the whole 
expeditionary force was embarked for home. 

Wauchope's wounds, thanks to a good constitution, 
readily healed, and by the time of his arrival at Portsmouth 
he was fairly convalescent, though every effort made to 
extract the slug had been unsuccessful. He left his 
favourite Haussas — his 'black boys' — with every manifes- 
tation of regret, at Cape Coast Castle. Nor was the regret 
only on his side, for we learn from one of his brother 
officers that ' they looked up to him as a father, and would 
willingly have followed him through any danger, even to 
death itself.' 



46 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

For his conspicuous bravery in the various engagements 
in Ashanti, Sir Garnet Wolseley's despatches brought 
Wauchope under the favourable notice of the Govern- 
ment, and he was awarded the Ashanti medal and clasp. 
On the return of the troops, they were received with the 
utmost enthusiasm, commanders and men being feted and 
thanked, both at Cape Coast Castle and in England, for 
their brilliant services. The expedition entered Ports- 
mouth in March 1874, with loud demonstrations of wel- 
come, the Black Watch especially coming in for a large 
share of popular attention. 

Sir Garnet Wolseley had in London and elsewhere a 
repetition of the extraordinary reception he and his fol- 
lowers had experienced at Cape Coast Castle on their 
triumphal return from Kumasi. 

A civic banquet was given in April by the Lord Mayor 
of London in the Egyptian Hall, at which nearly three 
hundred guests sat down, including nearly all the officers 
of the expedition. Among those present were the Prince 
of Wales, Prince Arthur, the Duke of Cambridge, and the 
Duke of Teck, besides a number of members of the 
Cabinet. But although the bulk of the honours naturally 
fell to Sir Garnet Wolseley and the senior officers of the 
expedition, and Wauchope's name scarcely appears in 
these public demonstrations, his friends in Scotland had 
their eye upon the young lieutenant who had in a few 
short months carved out for himself a distinguished reputa- 
tion, and had added to the laurels of the house of Niddrie. 
The people of Portobello specially determined to show 
their appreciation of his gallant services by a public 
banquet, and though at first the natural modesty of the 
young soldier shrank from such a recognition of his 
services, after some persuasion he consented. The 






HOME AGAIN 47 

banquet took place on the 12th June in the Town Hall. 
There was a large gathering of the principal inhabitants. 
Provost Wood presided, and was supported by, among 
others, Sir James Gardiner Baird, Lord Ventry, and a 
number of county gentry. 

In proposing the toast of the evening, Provost Wood 
took occasion to say : — ' We are met to do honour to a 
soldier who volunteered to serve on the staff of General 
Wolseley in the recent war. At that time it was thought 
that British troops would not be required, but that the 
friendly natives, commanded and disciplined by British 
officers, would be able to cope with the savage Ashantis. 
Lieutenant Wauchope, on his arrival at the Gold Coast, 
was appointed one of the officers of the Haussas — a body 
of natives who proved themselves superior in courage and 
endurance to any of our African allies. Commanded and 
led by British officers — the chief being the gallant Lord 
Gifford — these troops did much valuable service. They 
formed the van of our advancing army, and were frequently 
engaged in the most severe and wild fighting. Our guest, 
in his ardour to see active service, had voluntarily separated 
himself from his own regiment. Yet he was destined to 
share with them the dangers and glory of the war. The 
War Office, finding that the Ashantis were more formid- 
able than was at first expected, and that our native allies 
were less to be relied upon, resolved to send out British 
troops. This meeting must feel proud, as an assemblage 
of Scotsmen, that the 42nd Royal Highlanders was one of 
the chosen regiments, and our guest must have felt gratified 
when he found he had an opportunity of fighting beside 
his own regiment at Amoaful; and at that place, while 
leading on his Haussas, our gallant guest was wounded. 
He did not, however, fall to the rear, but continued to 



48 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

push forward, and, along with the glorious 42nd, he 
entered the now famous city of Kumasi. I need 
scarcely recall the events of the campaign — how a very 
small British army, with little assistance from native allies, 
in the course of a few weeks beat and shattered the 
enormous Ashanti forces, and compelled the hitherto un- 
conquered Ashantis to sue for peace, and give freedom 
and security to the country round. It has always been 
the pride and the pleasure of the people of this country to 
do honour to those who have fought and bled for their 
country's cause, especially so when that cause is associated, 
as it was in this instance, with the spread of civilisation 
and the prevention and prohibition of slavery and cruelty. 
The newspaper reports showed us that the Lothians had 
gallant representatives at the Ashanti war, and the people 
of Portobello felt proud to see the old and honoured 
name of Wauchope prominently noticed. We also felt a 
desire to give expression to the sympathy and respect we 
entertain for the house of Niddrie by a public demonstra- 
tion in honour of a young scion of that house, who has 
proved that he has within him a dauntless spirit worthy of 
his ancient lineage. We desire this evening to congratulate 
our guest, that a kind Providence has guarded his life, 
and protected him through the imminent risks of a 
pestilential climate and the dangers of a wild war; and 
we hope yet to see Lieutenant Wauchope rise to that high 
position in the service which his talents and abilities so 
eminently qualify him to fill.' 

Lieutenant Wauchope's reply was characteristic of the 
man. He was not quite so much at his ease, or felt he was 
in his proper place, as if he had been at the head of his 
Haussas. ' He thanked the Provost for the too flattering 
words in which he had referred to his services. He had 



BANQUET AT PORTOBELLO 49 

not deserved such great honour at their hands. His 
services as rendered to the State were poor and insignifi- 
cant — very much so indeed. But he felt himself standing 
on firmer ground when he remembered that he was an 
officer in the 42nd Royal Highlanders. He recognised 
in the entertainment a desire to mark their appreciation 
of the conduct of the regiment to which he had the 
honour to belong. He had no hesitation in saying that 
the 42nd deserved well of its country, and he thought that 
it had added honour to its history. 

'They were all .well aware that the Ashantis had in- 
vaded our allies' country, and had perpetrated many 
horrible cruelties. Our representative on the coast sent 
remonstrances and threats, but these were all in vain 
until backed by picked battalions. Two hundred marines 
were first sent out. They landed at a most unhealthy 
season, and most of them died. Sir Garnet Wolseley then 
arrived on the scene, accompanied by British officers, and 
the result was that the Ashantis were driven back beyond 
the river Prah, and within fifteen miles of Kumasi. On 
the 4th February, King Koffee gave instructions to his 
bodyguard that any man who ran away would have his 
head cut off. But even King Koffee himself had to run 
before the British bullets. He did not think that the 
lives that were lost, or the money that was spent, were 
given in vain, because it would show those barbarous 
nations that the glory of old England was not to be 
trampled upon with impunity — that if people would 
invade our territory and commit murders and crime, the 
retribution would be terrible. The British lion took a long 
time to rise. He was a grand old animal in his way ; but 
when he did rise, the vengeance would be speedy. He 
believed that the King" of Ashaoti bitterly regretted the 

D 



50 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

day that he first invaded the British Protectorate.' He 
thanked the company for the high honour they had done 
him, and concluded with a few jocular remarks as to his 
connection with the town and district. He could assure 
them, he said, that if fortune should smile on him, and if 
on a future occasion he should return from some cam- 
paign as a successful soldier, he should be disappointed 
if he was not entertained by them in a similar manner. 
He was proud of the district — of the county which 
gave him birth. He had often said to himself that 
he would spend the latter days of his life in Portobello. 
It might be that yet he would take the position of 
a town councillor of the Burgh. He had no doubt he 
would make a most excellent civil magistrate, and be a 
terror to evil-doers ! In afterwards replying to the toast 
of the House of Niddrie, Lieutenant Wauchope referred 
to the long connection it had with the district, and 'ex- 
pressed the hope that as it had never brought dishonour 
upon its name, it would never do so in the future. So 
far as in him lay, he would always try to sustain its 
honour.' 

It is perhaps not wise to attach too much importance 
to after-dinner speeches, but there is a ring of sincerity 
of purpose in these last words, which in the light of after 
events gives them an importance they might not otherwise 
have. Wauchope lived up to his ideal standard of a 
chivalrous knight, and nobly upheld the honour of his 
name. What Chaucer five hundred years ago wrote of 
his imaginary knight, we to-day may say of our real 
one: 

'He nevere yitno vileinye ne sayde 
In al his lyf, unto no maner wight, 
He was a verray perfight gentil kniyht.' 



FATHER AND SON 51 

Wauchope's father was unfortunately unable to be present 
on so auspicious an occasion on account of the state of his 
health, but he was much gratified by this public recogni- 
tion of his son's services. The latter, still in indifferent 
health, with the slug-wounds in his chest giving him no 
little trouble, had, however, a long period of rest, and was 
much of the time at Niddrie. His attention to his father 
was very marked while at home — father and son being 
frequently seen arm in arm walking through the grounds. 



CHAPTER IV 

DEATH OF WAUCHOPE'S FATHER — ORDERED TO MALTA — 
REMINISCENCES — RELIGIOUS CONVICTIONS — CYPRUS — 
APPOINTMENT AS CIVIL COMMISSIONER OF PAPHO 
— REMINISCENCES — SIR ROBERT BIDDULPH — THE 
SULTAN'S CLAIMS. 

In November 1874 Wauchope had the misfortune to lose 
his father, for whom, especially since the death of his 
much-loved mother in the summer of 1858, he had the 
closest affection, never permitting any opportunity to pass 
without visiting the paternal roof. Though Mr. Andrew 
Wauchope of Niddrie was only fifty-six when he died, he 
had for some years been very much of an invalid, and was 
latterly unable to take any active part in public business. 
He spent much of his time in and about his house and 
grounds, taking a considerable interest in their improve- 
ment; but outside he was well known for his efforts to 
improve the position of those dependent upon him, and 
for his quiet but consistent Christian character. 

He attended for several years before his death the Free 
Church at Portobello, then under the ministry of the Rev. 
Robert Henderson Ireland. There was no more regular 
attender of the church than Mr. Wauchope, who was 
generally accompanied by one of his daughters, and by 
his son Andrew when he happened to be at home, and 

M 



ORDERED TO MALTA 53 

to the last the friendship between Mr. Wauchope and his 
minister was of the most cordial and kindly nature. We 
believe he often expressed his sense of the benefit he 
derived from sitting under Mr. Ireland's ministry. 

On Mr. Wauchope's death Lieutenant Wauchope's 
elder brother, William John Wauchope, then a Major in 
the Enniskilling Dragoons, succeeded to the estates, and 
in some measure this change altered his relationship to 
the old home. It could not now be the same to him as 
formerly, though he was on the most friendly terms with 
his brother, and -not unfrequently spent some of his time 
at Niddrie and Yetholm. 

There is little doubt that his father's death, coupled with 
his own precarious state of health, brought to his mind a 
deeper conviction of the seriousness of life, and led to his 
forming more pronounced views of religious truth. But 
Lieutenant Wauchope, having creditably won his spurs 
and fought and bled in his country's service, was not the 
man to rest upon his laurels. He was ready, notwithstand- 
ing former wounds, for further service when the occasion 
might arise. 

In November 1875 ne again joined his regiment at 
Malta, where it had been stationed for nearly a year. 
His arrival among his old comrades was the occasion 
of a cordial welcome at the Floriana barracks, and he 
at once threw himself with spirit into the whole work 
and drill of the regiment, taking a lively interest in the 
welfare of the men and also of their wives and children. 
A brother officer who was then also a subaltern, and had 
joined the regiment at Malta a few months later, says : 
'Wauchope was the "Father of the Subalterns" or senior 
Lieutenant, and right well he "fathered" newly joined 
youngsters, always ready to help them in any way — lending 



54 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

them ponies to ride and play polo on. I was always,' he 
continues, 'associated with him on the mess committee, 
and served under him, and what struck one most about 
him was the thoroughness with which he tackled whatever 
was on hand.' 

As regards the rank and file, he was- a very brother to 
many of them, as the following from one of the colour- 
sergeants will show : — ' Lieutenant Wauchope was always 
a favourite with the men, and in Malta he took a deep in- 
terest in them and did much for them, always manifesting 
a kindly sympathy towards any who were married without 
leave, or who happened to be involved in any trouble 
which entailed a deduction from their pay. On pay-day, 
while the sergeant was paying the men, Wauchope would 
often sit at the table looking on, and note any who got 
only a few coppers on account of stoppage for support of 
wife and family, or for other reasons. He would quietly 
tell them to wait a little till the company was all paid. 
Then he would speak to each separately, giving them a 
word of sympathy or admonition, along with a piece of 
money, expressing the hope as he dismissed them that 
they would try to do better in the future. This was so 
unusual as between officers and men that it had a wonder- 
ful effect upon them.' Even in their recreations and 
amusements he showed an interest, and encouraged them 
in every possible way. ' He kept a small yacht while at 
Malta, and he was in the habit of inviting the sergeants to 
an afternoon's enjoyment in cruising about the harbour for 
an hour or two.' 

With him, care for his men was his first thought; and 
in commanding the G company of the 42nd in Floriana 
barracks, another of his sergeants observes ' that even in 
the hot summer afternoons, when the men were lying 



LIFE IN MALTA 55 

down in their beds, he used regularly to sit on the barrack- 
room table lecturing them on minor tactics, often, I fear, 
more to his own satisfaction than to their edification ! ' 

Of this period of Wauchope's life we have a most in- 
teresting sketch from one who had ample opportunities of 
seeing his conduct, and forming a judgment upon the 
motives and disposition of heart and mind which governed 
his actions. Dr. Wisely, who has for many years been 
army chaplain at Malta to the Presbyterian soldiers 
stationed there, formed a close and intimate friendship 
with the young lieutenant on his arrival in the island. He 
saw much of him, and their acquaintance was renewed on 
several occasions when Wauchope happened afterwards to 
be there. His opinion is therefore of some value. ' It is,' 
says he, ' almost a quarter of a century since I became 
acquainted with the late General Wauchope. He was then 
about thirty years of age ; and although he had been in the 
Black Watch for twelve years or more, and had also for a 
considerable period been adjutant of the regiment, he was 
still only a subaltern, and it seemed quite uncertain when 
he would get his company. Promotion in the 42nd was 
at that time very slow, and I asked him whether he had 
ever thought of changing into some other regiment, where 
he might have a better chance. His answer was a very 
emphatic "No." He wished to remain in the old corps 
and take what came. 

1 Wauchope held some special appointment at home, and 
his regiment had been in Malta for several months before 
he joined them after the Ashanti war. He had been 
severely wounded in that war. A leaden slug, fired by one 
of the savages hidden among the branches of trees, entered 
his breast, and it was a marvel he was not killed on the 
spot. He told me he bled like an ox. His account of 



56 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

how the blood at last stopped was somewhat curious. His 
old colonel, Sir John M'Leod, came to see him after he 
was wounded, and on leaving he presented him with a 
copy of the Book of Psalms. Wauchope said that he 
began wondering whether "old Jack," as he familiarly 
called his commanding officer, whom he greatly venerated, 
was in the habit of carrying about copies of the Psalms in 
his pocket to give to officers when dangerously wounded, 
and it struck him in such a ludicrous light that, after the 
good colonel was out of sight, he burst into such a fit 
of laughing that he could not stop — and that, he said, 
stopped the bleeding! Sir John and Wauchope had a 
great respect for each other. Wauchope looked up to Sir 
John with admiration bordering on awe. The colonel 
regarded his lieutenant as a model officer. He told me 
that Wauchope's character commanded universal respect, 
and that his high moral tone and the thoroughness with 
which he discharged all his duties gave him an influence 
which was invaluable. 

' On his arrival in Malta he was appointed musketry 
Instructor at Pembroke Camp. The men's shooting did 
not come up to the standard which it was thought it ought 
to reach ; and one day Sir John said to me : " Wauchope 
is making himself perfectly ill with his anxiety about it. 
If he would only be anxious twenty-three hours out of the 
twenty-four I would not mind so much, but he is anxious 
all the twenty-four hours of the day ! " 

'At that time, however, Wauchope was anxious not 
only about his professional duties, but he was concerned 
about himself, for he knew that his life was a most pre- 
carious one, scarcely worth a day's purchase. The slug 
which pierced his chest had not been extracted. It kept 
moving about, and at any moment might cause death. 



THE DRAWN SWORD 57 

This he knew full well. He consulted the best surgeons 
in the island, but they were unable to do anything. It 
was not, I believe, till about a year afterwards that the 
slug was at last extracted by an Edinburgh surgeon. 

1 During this period of Wauchope's stay in Malta, when 
there was, as it were, this drawn sword hanging over his 
head, although he maintained a quiet exterior, he felt that 
there was but a step between him and death. I saw a 
great deal of him then. He had brought a letter of intro- 
duction to me from his law-agent in Edinburgh, my old 
friend the late Mr. Colin Mackenzie, W.S., and from the 
first he honoured me with his confidence. He spoke 
freely of the possibility, not to say the probability, that 
his time on earth might be short, but he showed no craven 
fear. He said he wished to know as much as he could 
about the world into which he might soon be going— that 
"undiscovered country from whose bourn no traveller 
returns." I have seldom met a man further removed from 
fanaticism, and at the same time so full of reverence. 
P'rom his earliest days he seems to have feared God. He 
had not, however, escaped from the doubts and difficulties 
raised by the sceptical spirit of the age. He shrank from 
taking a leap in the dark. He wanted to be sure that 
there was no mistake, and he took the best means of 
becoming sure. "If any man will do His will," Christ 
says, "he shall know of the doctrine, whether it be of 
God." This is what Wauchope did. He put the desire 
to do God's will into every duty which fell to him. He 
followed on to know the Lord, and he came to know the 
truth of the Gospel, not only as a truth of faith, but a 
truth of personal experience.' 

Lieutenant Wauchope was home on furlough more than 
once during the period of the 42nd regiment's stay in 



58 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

Malta, extending to nearly four years, and it was on one of 
these visits to Edinburgh he was operated upon success- 
fully, as mentioned by Dr. Wisely. 

Though still only a lieutenant, he was appointed to the 
command of E company in July 1878, while in Malta. 
With a wider range of duties and greater responsibilities, 
this appointment gave him much satisfaction, and he set 
himself to the task of making E company the company of 
the regiment, sparing neither time nor money to advance 
its efficiency, and at the same time to add to the comfort 
and pleasure of his men. To be one of Wauchope's com- 
pany was considered a high privilege. Two months after- 
wards — in September — he received his full commission as 
captain. In addition to the yacht in which he would give 
them occasional cruises, we are told by one of his men 
that ' the company had a good boating-crew, and at a cost 
of about ^20 he had the best boat built for them that 
Malta could produce. On one occasion, when they had 
some races, Captain Wauchope steered them in a match 
with the 1 01 st regiment, but not to victory. Wauchope's 
boat, named " The Black Watch," was beaten, but he was 
the first to declare that the race was lost owing entirely to 
his bad steering.' 

The occupation of the island of Cyprus by Great Britain 
in 1878 gave Wauchope a splendid opportunity for the 
exercise of his talents, not only as a military man, but in 
the capacity of a civil administrator and judge. The 
island was taken over from the Turks in July of that year. 
Their government of it for centuries had been a curse to 
the people and a curse on the land, and it had lapsed into 
one of the forgotten spots of God's earth. The advent of 
British rule proved the beginning of a new era for both its 
Greek and Turkish population. Endowed with a healthy 



OCCUPATION OF CYPRUS 59 

climate and a fertile soil, Cyprus — once so fruitful and 
prosperous — may yet rank as one of the most flourishing 
dependencies of the Crown. It is full of romance, for its 
lovely scenery and relics of the past well entitle it to be 
called 'an Enchanted Island.' With mediaeval traditions 
of its occupation by the Crusaders, and with its still older 
classical reminiscences of the heathen worship of Aphro- 
dite, supplanted by the early conversion of its people to 
Christianity through the visit of St. Paul, St. Mark, and 
Barnabas, not to speak of its repeated conquest by 
Phoenicians, Egyptians, Greeks, Venetians, and Turks, 
there is no more interesting island to be found in the 
Mediterranean. 

In July 1878 a regiment of Scottish Highlanders was 
sent to occupy this fair island of the Orient in name of the 
Queen. The Black Watch from Malta, in the transport 
Himalaya, landed at Larnaka, and were distributed at various 
points for garrison duty, under the direction of General 
Sir Garnet Wolseley, as High Commissioner. Wolseley, 
having divided the island into districts, deputed the civil 
administration of these to a number of the most skilled 
of the military officers of the regiment. To Lieutenant 
Wauchope, then thirty-two years of age, was given, with 
the title of captain, the charge of the town and district of 
Papho — the ancient Paphos, where the Apostles' journey 
through the island closed, and where Elymas the sorcerer 
was struck blind for a time. As assistant-commissioner 
Wauchope was well supported by Lieutenant A. G. Duff, 
a young officer of his company, who furnishes us with some 
particulars of their duties and difficulties there. The post 
was anything but a sinecure. He had the superintendence 
of the revenue under Sir Robert Biddulph, then Financial 
Commissioner of the island. In this important office he set 



6o GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

himself with all the earnestness of his nature to the correc- 
tion of abuses, the suppression of crime, and the establish- 
ment of law and order, out of which only can freedom 
and security be attained. We have it on the authority of 
Mr. F. H. Parker, the District Judge of Limasol, that 'not 
only was he a most efficient governor, but in those days, 
when Ottomin judges sat in the Daavi (District) Court, 
he presided as a just and capable judge. Though more 
than twenty years have elapsed since then, the inhabitants,' 
he says, 'irrespective of creed or nationality, still look 
back on his civil administration with admiration and deep 
respect. Even to this day his decisions in disputed land 
or water rights are relied on as res judicata, and he 
invariably decided these after minute and personal local 
inquiries.' During his two years' service on the island — 
from 17th June 1878 till July 1880— Wauchope acquitted 
himself with much judgment and discretion, and the 
honours thrust upon him were worthily achieved as they 
were gratefully given. But while Captain Wauchope's 
administration in Cyprus was marked with justice, it was 
sometimes of a kind that did not always give satisfaction. 
His punishment, for instance, of heinous crimes was con- 
sidered by the natives to be of such severity that a 
complaint was lodged with the Colonial Office against 
some sentences where he had ordered the delinquents to 
be flogged. On inquiry being made of him by the 
Colonial Office as to what he had to say in the matter, his 
reply was that ' flogging was the only thing for them, as 
they richly deserved more than the punishment they had 
got, and he thought it was better for them than hanging ' ! 
His duties did not end in military, or administrative, or 
judicial service, for sometimes he had even to act as 
chaplain in cases of emergency, as the following instance 



SERGEANT M'GAW'S FUNERAL 61 

will show. It was only a day or two after he and his 
regiment had landed, that one of his sergeants, named 
M'Gaw, took ill under the excessive heat and died. The 
regimental chaplain was not present, but Wauchope fol- 
lowed the funeral with his company, and at the grave, 
stepping forward as the body was about to be com- 
mitted to the dust, feelingly addressed his men in a few 
appropriate words of exhortation, and concluded, to the 
surprise and gratification of all, with an earnest extempore 
prayer. Tears, we are told by one who witnessed the 
occurrence, were in the eyes of many a stalwart soldier 
that day, and the incident made a deep impression at the 
time and was never forgotten by them. A sequel to 
Sergeant M'Gaw's funeral may here be mentioned as 
another instance of Wauchope's thoughtful care. Some 
time afterwards it was discovered that the Cypriote 
farmer on whose land the sergeant was buried, had removed 
the little wooden head-maik, and not unnaturally ploughed 
up the land and destroyed all trace of the grave. The 
Government was asked to take action, but declined to 
interfere. So Wauchope and some others went on a 
moonlight night, and after taking measurements from a 
certain tree, discovered the grave, dug up the remains, 
removed them to Kyrenia, and placed them in what is 
now known as the Black Watch cemetery. A pure white 
marble sarcophagus now covers Sergeant M'Gaw's grave. 

After the long reign of Turkish misrule it will be easily 
understood that Commissioner Wauchope and his col- 
league Lieutenant Duff did not all at once find things easy. 
On the contrary, they found it very hard work. The 
rascality of the natives was as idyllic as innocence. 
Murder and theft were so common that they were scarcely 
considered culpable, and this in what has been called an 



62 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

'enchanted island,' full of every beauty to satisfy the eye, 
and every fruit to satisfy the taste. Even ten years after 
the occupation by the British, and notwithstanding all our 
efforts to restore order and justice, W. H. Mallock, de- 
scribing his visit to Cyprus in 1888, says that c he found 
there more crime in proportion to the population than in 
any other known country in the world.' In Nicosia the 
prisons were full of persons, male and female, confined 
for murder, theft, etc. ' In the country districts,' he says, 
'the cause Of murders has generally some connection with 
sheep-stealing or disputes about boundaries and water 
rights, or matters equally simple. In the towns the 
Turkish murders nearly always originate in some ordinary 
fit of sombre but sudden passion, and the Greek murders 
in some half-drunken brawl. Curiously enough, a number 
of these last take place at weddings. Wine has flowed ; 
quarrelling has arisen out of laughter ; knives have flashed, 
and in a second or two one knife has been red with blood. 
Yet amid so much crime there exists among this degraded 
people a whimsical simplicity almost justifying a smile.' 
One instance, as given by Mr. Mallock, will suffice to 
illustrate this. One of three men implicated in a murder 
fled to the hut of a shepherd, and begged to be kept there 
in hiding. The shepherd, who had only a slight acquaint- 
ance with the man, asked why he wished to be hidden. 
On this the murderer, more like a child than a man, 
explained everything in the most naive manner possible. 
The shepherd looked grave. He said that this was a 
serious matter, and that under the circumstances his 
protection would have to be paid for. The murderer 
replied that the booty had not yet been divided ; ' I have 
no money,' he said, ' but save me and I will steal a sheep 
for you 1 ' 



A CYPRIAN JUDGE 63 

It was among criminals such as these, and a population 
with the vaguest possible notions of morality, that Wauchope 
had to deal out justice. How did he accomplish his task? 
His friend and colleague, now Major Duff, tells us : ' His 
administration of justice was a marvel, and astonished 
both Turks and Greeks. He would frequently sit a whole 
day in the Konak or court-house, dispensing even-handed 
justice. All the evidence had to be taken through an 
interpreter, involving much delay, and frequently he sat 
in this way under high fever. I have sometimes taken 
his temperature to find it at 105 , but he bore all physical 
pain without a murmur, and no complaint ever passed his 
lips.' Papho was considered the most lawless district in 
the island; and the administration of justice, in both civil 
and criminal cases, in the hands of Captain Wauchope 
and Lieutenant Duff, with the aid of an interpreter, in- 
volved painstaking discretion of no ordinary kind. 'The 
Cadi — a Turkish judge — had a seat on the bench along 
with them, and his opinion was always taken, though not 
always followed. One incident comes to my memory 
relating to an execution. We had passed sentence upon 
a murderer, but were in a difficulty about the gallows, and 
did not know what to do for want of a suitable rope, 
but fortunately H.M.S. Raleigh unexpectedly put in an 
appearance in the bay, and the bluejackets readily came 
to our aid in rigging up a makeshift gallows. The cere- 
mony, however, was not marked with complete success, 
as, at the first effort, the rope broke; but death had 
supervened, so that it was of no consequence, as the 
operation did not require to be repeated. There must 
have been some flaw in the rope, as it had been previously 
tried with a very heavy man's weight. We never had any 
difficulty in the administration of justice. Wauchope's 



64 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

impartial and thoroughly sound sense of judgment as 
between man and man, always stood him well with clients 
and malefactors.' 

One case came before him which in this connection is 
worthy of being recorded. A Turk of infamous character, 
who had been guilty of horrible crimes, but had escaped 
punishment under the Turkish rule, was brought before 
Commissioner Wauchope on a charge of murder. The 
murder was clearly proved, but doubts were entertained 
whether the Commissioner would sentence a Mohammedan 
to be hanged. No such instance had ever been known in 
the island before. Wauchope did not flinch. He pro- 
nounced the sentence, and the murderer was publicly 
executed. The Commissioner took the precaution, how- 
ever, of having a company of his Royal Highlanders on 
the ground to see that there should be no disturbance or 
any attempt at rescue, and all passed off peacefully. 

Besides the judicial functions of the Commissioner of 
Papho, there were the fiscal duties of Government. Taxes 
had to be collected, and these, with the relative duties of 
finance and the management of the post office, were 
entirely under the personal control of Wauchope and his 
colleague. The latter service alone must have involved 
considerable labour. Besides this, they had at Papho one 
company of the 42nd, camped some little distance out of 
the town, but near enough to be readily available when 
required. So busy were they kept with these varied 
onerous duties, that Wauchope and his friend, frequently 
working at high pressure, had few opportunities for re- 
creation. But notwithstanding the pressing requirements 
or the moment, and the somewhat circumscribed social 
aspect of the place, they were on the best of terms 
with some of the leading native gentry : the Greek bishop 



COMMISSIONER AT PAPHO 65 

was particularly friendly, and they often dined with him 
at his palace. A worthy old fellow he appears to have 
been, who could enjoy a good dinner with a prime bottle 
of Cyprus wine. In recognition of his great kindness 
to them Major Duff mentions that they ' gave him in 
return such a banquet on St. Andrew's night as seemed to 
gladden his soul.' 

Of amusements, or anything in the way of English 
sports, there were few or none, even had time permitted. 
Still, they would not have been British if they had not 
introduced among the natives some sports from the old 
country. They accordingly started pony races for the 
zaptiehs or police of the district. 'Our chief difficulty,' 
says Major Duff, ' was to get the Turks and Greeks to run 
together in the same coach, and for this difficult task 
Wauchope was eminently qualified, as, in addition to all 
his many sterling attributes, must be added that of being a 
student of human nature, without which he never would 
have been the leader of men he unquestionably was.' 

So much did Captain Wauchope accomplish during his 
term of office at Papho, that Dr. Wisely informs us ' the 
inhabitants looked on him as an angel from heaven — and 
well they might, when they contrasted his righteous rule 
with the wretched rule of the Turkish officials who had 
tyrannised over them. Yet Wauchope was by no means 
an easy-going ruler. He investigated with the greatest 
patience every case that was brought before him, and 
spared himself no pains to get at the truth. This made 
such an impression upon the Turks, as well as upon the 
Greek-speaking community, that all classes alike respected 
him, and when the time came for the Commissioner to 
retire from office, there was a universal desire expressed 
that he might be retained.' 



66 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

We have been favoured with similar testimony from Sir 
Robert Biddulph, then High Commissioner of Cyprus and 
lately Governor of Gibraltar, who informs us that 'in 
carrying out his duties Captain Wauchope showed much 
administrative ability, as well as great tact and judgment 
in dealing with the inhabitants. This enabled him to steer 
a clear course through the political agitation which broke 
out in Cyprus early in 1879, an ^ which had many ad- 
herents in Papho. When Sir Garnet Wolseley left the 
island at short notice in May 1879 in order to command 
the troops in Natal and Zululand, his departure, coinciding 
with the attacks made in Parliament on the Cyprus 
administration, caused several of the civil commissioners 
to send in their resignations.' Colonel Biddulph, who 
had been sent from Cyprus to Constantinople in March 
1879 to negotiate with the Porte concerning the 'tribute,' 
was in June following instructed by the Home Govern- 
ment to return and assume the government of the island 
as High Commissioner. On his arrival he was met by 
Captain Wauchope, who had come with several of the 
other commissioners to wish him good-bye before leaving 
the island. Sir Robert at once realised the gravity of 
the situation. ' I told them,' says he, ' that I could 
not consent to their leaving all together at this crisis, 
and Wauchope willingly consented to remain for, at all 
events, some months longer. In September I went home 
for two months on private affairs, and Wauchope then 
went home with me, having resigned his appointment with 
my consent.' 

In the interval, certain questions as to personal claims 
by the Sultan to property in Cyprus were presented to the 
British Government, and it was decided to appoint a 
qualified British delegate to investigate these claims on 



THE SULTAN'S CLAIMS 67 

the spot. On the recommendation of Sir Robert Biddulph, 
Lord Salisbury appointed Captain Wauchope for this 
somewhat difficult duty, and he and Sir Robert returned 
to Cyprus together in November of the same year. In his 
official capacity Wauchope explored the whole of Cyprus, 
making full inquiries wherever he went as to the properties 
alleged to belong to the Sultan, and gathering much 
information as to the condition of the people in the rural 
districts, and the state of agriculture generally. 

'The investigation of the Sultan's claims,' says Sir 
Robert Biddulph, ' occupied several months, during which 
time Captain Wauchope again displayed great tact and 
judgment in this very delicate matter, and maintained at 
the same time very friendly relations with the Turkish 
officer who was sent by the Sultan to support his claims. 
This was the more remarkable, because every one of the 
Sultan's claims was rejected.' 

The Government recognised the thoroughness with 
which Captain Wauchope had accomplished his task, by 
conferring upon him, immediately on his return home in 
August 1880, the Order of St. Michael and St. George. 



CHAPTER V 

WAR IN SOUTH AFRICA — ARABI PASHA'S REBELLION IN 
EGYPT — TEL-EL-KEBIR — MARRIAGE — LIFE IN CAIRO. 

Shortly after Captain Wauchope's return home from 
Cyprus another opportunity for foreign service presented 
itself in South Africa, and he lost no time in offering him- 
self to the War Office. He was accepted for staff duty, 
and received a commission to go out at once. So limited 
was the time given him for preparation that he had not 
even an opportunity to go to Aldershot, where his baggage 
was lying, to make up his kit, but he telegraphed from 
London to the quartermaster of the regiment — Captain 
Forbes — to throw him in a small kit into a bullock-trunk 
and forward it to Southampton at once, as he was- off to 
South Africa next day. 

The country had drifted almost unconsciously into a 
trouble which has since cost so much in loss of life and 
treasure. The South African Republic, or the Transvaal, was 
founded some sixty or seventy years ago by Boer farmers 
from Cape Colony, who, being dissatisfied with British rule 
and its interference with them and their peculiar notions 
as to slavery, sought to establish an independent state for 
themselves where they might without hindrance carry out 
their ideas as they pleased. They, in fact, sought liberty 



THE TRANSVAAL 69 

to make the natives their slaves. Conflicts were, of course, 
the natural outcome of their attempts to acquire the land 
beyond the Vaal ; but notwithstanding this, the new settlers 
in 1840 were so far established in possession, and their 
numbers had so much increased, that they formed them- 
selves into a Republic for mutual protection. At that time 
the possibilities of the future importance of this part of 
South Africa, or indeed of our colonies there, were not 
sufficiently realised by either our Government or our people 
at home. Neither the Transvaal Republic nor the Boers 
seemed to be any concern of ours. It was left to a few 
Scotch missionaries such as Moffat, Livingstone, Stewart, 
and Mackenzie to make these known, and to endeavour 
to educate and civilise the degraded natives in the science 
of social life and in the truths of Christianity. In this 
effort they met from the first the virulent opposition of 
the Boer settlers, who neither wanted the natives to be 
educated nor to be Christianised. 

Acts of oppression naturally brought their own retribu- 
tion. The natives rose against their oppressors; feuds, 
murders, and thefts were acts of daily occurrence, until at 
last the infant Republic became so involved in native wars 
and internal troubles, that with a view to restore peace and 
order and to prevent anarchy and bankruptcy from spread- 
ing into Cape Colony, the British Government was con- 
strained to interfere. In this intervention many of the 
Boers cordially acquiesced, and welcomed the protection 
of our troops, the more so that the financial difficulties of 
their independent action were in a measure cleared away. 
On the other hand there was a strong party among them 
who, in spite of mismanagement and debt, thought they 
could carry on a free Republican Government. The 
security of the British colonies was, however, of para- 



70 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

mount importance, and it was deemed advisable in their 
interest as well as in the interest of the Transvaal Boers 
themselves that the Transvaal should have the benefit of 
British protection. Accordingly its annexation to the 
British Crown was in 1877 proclaimed by Sir Theophilus 
Shepstone, followed by the appointment of Sir W. Owen 
Lanyon as British Administrator. This necessary step 
by no means pleased the Boer faction who had attempted 
to rule, and they did not cease to agitate for the restora- 
tion of the old order of things, bad as these were. For 
a time English money and English enterprise worked 
wonders : markets were created for produce, and land rose 
in value. 

In December 1880, however, a majority of the Boers 
took up arms against the British authority. They in- 
vested towns held by Imperial troops, and surprised a 
detachment on the march. The situation was becoming 
critical. The Government, which at the time was deeply 
engrossed in other matters, did not sufficiently realise the 
gravity of the situation, for although troops were at once 
despatched to the assistance of those at the Cape, these 
were insufficient, and arrived too late to be of service. 
The Boers, ever on the alert, had seized the passes of the 
Drakensberg Mountains, and had strongly fortified them- 
selves at Laing's Nek. Here they were attacked by Sir 
G. P. Colley, but without success. He was defeated with 
considerable loss, and shortly afterwards, attempting to 
check the enemy at Majuba Hill with a small force of 
six hundred men, he was again defeated with loss and 
was himself killed in the action. 

Immediately on receipt of this news Mr. Gladstone's 
Government gave instructions for an armistice in order to 
see if satisfactory terms could not be arranged for the 






THE BOER TREATY OF 1881 71 

restoration of peace. After a month's negotiation a treaty 
was made giving the Transvaal self-government in internal 
matters, but reserving all rights connected with foreign 
affairs, Great Britain to be recognised as the Suzerain, 
including the right to move Imperial troops through the 
country in time of war. 

This restoration of independence to the Boers was viewed 
both at home and in Cape Colony not only with grave 
suspicion and distrust, but with high indignation ; and so 
strong was this feeling against the home Government that 
in a great popular demonstration at Cape Town the effigy 
of Mr. Gladstone, the Prime Minister, was publicly burned, 
and the British lion was caricatured, while many English 
residents in Pretoria and other towns left the country rather 
than remain under the oligarchical government of the 
Boers. So ended this part of the Transvaal drama. 

The action of the British Government was at the time 
attributed to various motives. By some it was considered 
the magnanimous action of a strong power, willing to help 
a weak but struggling state in its efforts at self-govern- 
ment; by others it has been described as a pusillanimous 
shrinking from a stern duty which it owed to its colonies 
around the Transvaal. President Brand declared the 
treaty to be ' in his opinion the noblest act England has 
ever done'; but the Boers themselves considered the 
peace as the result of their own efforts and of Britain's fear 
to prosecute the war. The after results have been most 
calamitous, and go to show the folly of not facing and 
overcoming the beginnings of a corrupt system. 

Captain Wauchope returned on the conclusion of peace 
in the summer of 1881, having been only a few months 
abroad, and without engaging in active service. He was 
chiefly employed on the line of communication as one of 



72 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

the staff. His return home was accompanied with any- 
thing but feelings of respect for the Government which had 
so ingloriously stopped short in their work — a feeling very 
generally shared by the officers and men. Some years 
afterwards, when alluding to this episode in his life at a 
meeting in Edinburgh, he said of it : — ' I was in the Trans- 
vaal during those terrible times in 1881 when we suffered 
the terrible disgrace from which all our after-troubles there 
arose. It was the vacillation and weakness and change of 
policy that caused all the trouble then.' 

But while in one part of Africa a temporary peace had 
been patched up, in another part of that great continent, 
and that the most ancient, events were in the beginning of 
1882 hastening to a rupture which was destined to open 
up a fresh field for the active military genius of young 
YVauchope. Egypt, the land of the Pharaohs, and in some 
respects the cradle of European culture, which had long 
been oppressed by Turkish tyranny, was showing signs of 
vitality, and was recognised as still a country capable of 
great resources, and having considerable commercial 
importance. The opening of the Suez Canal had much to 
do with this ; and Britain having a large stake in the Canal 
as a means of communication with her Eastern possessions, 
was naturally interested in the well-being of the country 
through which it passed. Nominally a viceroy of the 
Sultan of Turkey, the Khedive of Egypt ruled despotically, 
and did little for the people he ruled. Discontent was 
general ; and to screen themselves, those in authority 
endeavoured to create a feeling of antipathy against the 
Europeans residing and trading in Egypt. A party of 
military adventurers, headed by Arabi Pasha, and secretly 
abetted by the Sultan of Turkey, had seized the reins of 
government, and endeavoured, with the aid of the army, 



BOMBARDMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 73 

to drive all Europeans out of Egypt, and secure the control 
of foreign traffic through the Suez Canal to their own 
advantage. Arabi commenced the erection of forts at 
Alexandria, to command the harbour. This and other war- 
like preparations were made in defiance, it was said, of the 
authority of the Khedive, who was merely a puppet in 
Arabi's hands. 

On the nth June 1882 a large body of Arabs made a 
murderous attack on the European residents in Alex- 
andria, and so serious was the matter considered that a 
week or two after} the Ambassadors of the Great Powers 
met in conference at Constantinople to take the crisis 
under review. As no redress was forthcoming, Admiral 
Sir Beauchamp Seymour, commander of the British fleet 
in Egyptian waters, having ascertained that work on the 
new fortifications at Alexandria was being continued, not- 
withstanding promises made that all such operations would 
be suspended, sent to Arabi Pasha, who was nominally 
the Egyptian minister of war, an ultimatum that unless the 
work ceased immediately the fleet would open fire upon 
the forts. The reply was a denial that any such work was 
being carried on. Three days afterwards the Admiral dis- 
covered that his ultimatum was treated with contempt, 
and that guns bearing upon the harbour had been mounted 
since the date of his message. He at once prepared a 
proclamation calling upon the Egyptian authorities to 
surrender the fortifications within twelve hours, otherwise 
they would be demolished by the fleet. On the nth July 
the bombardment commenced, and nearly the whole of 
the fortifications were soon laid in ruins. Next day hos- 
tilities were resumed, but, on a flag of truce being hoisted, 
the Admiral ordered firing to cease. On the morning of 
the 13th it was found that, under cover of the flag of truce, 



74 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

the Egyptian troops, headed by Arabi Pasha, had evacuated 
Alexandria, leaving it to be pillaged and fired by a riotous 
mob of Arabs, who massacred a large number of Europeans. 
To protect life, and save the place from total destruction, 
Admiral Seymour landed a force of seamen and marines, 
who kept the city in order until the arrival of British troops 
a few days afterwards. 

In the course of the following fortnight a force of about 
16,000 occupied Alexandria, Ramleh, and the delta of the 
Nile, under the command of Sir Garnet Wolseley. Mean- 
time Arabi Pasha had occupied Cairo, which was strongly 
fortified, while he had formidable entrenched camps some 
miles south of Ramleh, and also at Port Said and Ismail.a 
on the Suez Canal, and at Kassassin and Tel-el-Kebir, on 
the sweet-water canal route between Ismailia and Cairo. 

Throughout the whole business the authority of the 
Khedive was not only ignored, but remonstrances from 
foreign powers were of no effect. Arabi was determined 
to make himself ruler of Egypt, and to assert his position 
by force of arms. His formal dismissal as Minister of War, 
on 22nd July, was the last weak attempt by the Khedive 
to maintain his sovereign authority. But Arabi paid no 
attention to it, and continued his warlike preparations. 
His position at Kafr-dawar was strategically a strong one, 
for he was entrenched there at a point where the isthmus, 
running inland between Lake Medieh and Lake Mareotis, 
is only about four miles broad. He thus commanded 
both the Mahmoudieh Canal and the railway to Cairo, 
which ran past his camp. Arabi's intention was to hold 
his own at this position till the annual rise of the Nile was 
at its fullest in August, when he counted upon being able 
to flood the country, and seriously impede hostile opera- 
tions against him. 



THE 42ND LEAVING EDINBURGH 75 

The rising had now assumed all the character of an 
organised rebellion, and was a standing menace to British 
commerce passing through the Suez Canal; and as the 
crisis came to be more clearly realised in this country, 
further relays of troops were despatched. In the subse- 
quent operations against Arabi the Black Watch took a 
prominent part. After its return from Cyprus and Gib- 
raltar in 1879, the regiment was brigaded for a time at 
Aldershot. It was then located partly at Maryhill barracks, 
near Glasgow, and at Edinburgh Castle, under the com- 
mand of Colonel R. K. Bayly. Captain Wauchope served 
at Maryhill from May 1881 till August 1882. 

On the outbreak of hostilities in Egypt the regiment, 
which was then about 800 strong, received orders to 
embark for the East. The Maryhill contingent, in which 
he commanded the E Company, left by train for Edin- 
burgh on the 4th August 1882, and arrived in the capital 
amidst much enthusiasm. After two days in Edinburgh 
Castle, the whole regiment was entrained for London on 
the 6th August, their send-off from the city being one of 
the most extraordinary ever witnessed. Wauchope him- 
self, ten years afterwards, at a meeting of the old members 
of the Black Watch in Glasgow, when he had become 
Lieutenant-Colonel of the regiment, said c he would 
never forget the scene.' ' He had of late/ he said, ' seen 
great excitement in the political world, he had seen political 
leaders received in Edinburgh (referring to Mr. Gladstone 
and the Midlothian election of 1892), and no doubt at 
times there had been a pretty brave show, but the people's 
heart never went out to these leaders as it went out to 
the 42nd when they were leaving Edinburgh Castle 
for active service in Egypt in 1882. It seemed to him as 
if every man and woman in Edinburgh was out to see 



76 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

them off. He would never forget that scene of enthusiasm 
and farewell, and he felt convinced that it affected the 
whole regiment, more than the eye could see or words 
could express. On the lips of many a brave man before 
that campaign was over, the last words had been " Scotland 
for ever," and he had no doubt their last thoughts were of 
their homes and native country.' 

Having embarked at Gravesend in the transport Nepaul, 
Wauchope, with his regiment, landed at Alexandria on the 
20th August, and proceeded to Ramleh, where they formed 
a part of the Highland Brigade under General Sir Archibald 
Alison. Here Wauchope very soon found his field of 
action in more than one engagement, and had one or two 
hairbreadth escapes. On one occasion a body of the rebels 
held a portion of the city, from which they were to be 
dislodged. Wauchope got the order to clear the streets. 
Coming to a house, from every window of which rifles were 
pointed, he halted his men, but only for a moment. Sword 
in hand, the captain rushed in, followed by his men. A 
rifle was pointed full at him, and but for the presence of 
mind of one of his followers, it would have ended his 
career. Dashing in front of his officer, the soldier threw 
up the rebel's rifle just as he fired, the bullet passing 
through Wauchope's helmet. 

The occupation of the Canal and the various ports upon 
its banks were important steps in Sir Garnet Wolseley's 
endeavour to secure Zagazig, some forty-five miles from 
Ismailia, the key to the railway system of Egypt. Arabi had 
also realised its importance, and in order to retain it at all 
hazards and to prevent the British advance in that direc- 
tion, had strongly fortified himself at Tel-el- Kebir, about 
fifteen miles eastward. 

On the 20th August, Port Said, Kantara, Ismailia, and 



TEL-EL-KEBIR 77 

the Suez Canal were taken possession of by the British. 
A few days after, a determined stand was made by the 
Egyptian army, about 10,000 strong, a few miles from 
Ismailia, but they were utterly defeated by Sir Garnet 
Wolseley, who was now reinforced by the Highland 
Brigade. 

This was followed up by a renewed attack on the British 
position at Kassassin Lock on the Ismailia Canal three 
days later, when the Egyptians were again repulsed with 
great loss. 

On the eveningof the 12th September, the British army at 
Kassassin Lock struck camp. It had been well reinforced, 
and counted 15,000 men in cavalry, infantry, and artillery, 
and was now in a position to attack Arabi in his stronghold 
at Tel-el-Kebir. On the verge of a broad, dreary desert, 
with lines of entrenchments and redoubts well mounted 
with guns, and held by a large force, no better position, it 
is said, could have been chosen for offering resistance to 
any army approaching the Delta, or the capital of Egypt, 
from the Suez Canal. 

After an all-night march, Sir Garnet Woiseley found 
himself within striking distance of the enemy's trenches 
before the first streaks of dawn appeared on the eastern sky. 
The Egyptians were taken by surprise, but the alarm once 
given, they sprang to their feet to face the attack; and 
immediately, along the whole front of their line of defence, 
was poured upon our troops a fierce artillery and rifle fire, 
which, however, was so ill directed that it did no great 
harm. With the utmost coolness, the British were formed 
for the assault. The Highland Brigade in the centre, with 
bayonets fixed, was supported by cavalry on both flanks 
With a loud cheer the Highlanders stormed the entrench- 
ments, driving everything before them. The struggle was 



78 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

short but decisive, not more than twenty minutes elapsing 
between the first onset on the trenches and the capture of 
the main or inner fortress. The odds were as two to one 
— 26,000 Egyptians to 13,000 British — but the zeal and 
soldierly qualities of our men, with the confidence they had 
in their leaders, proved the mettle of which our military are 
made. Where all did well, it seems invidious to distin- 
guish. But of this fine force — perhaps the finest ever seen 
in Egypt — it was generally admitted that to the Highland 
Brigade and the Royal Irish Rifles special honour was 
due. This important engagement, in which forty guns 
were captured, 2000 Egyptians fell, and 3000 were taken 
prisoners, opened the way to Cairo. 

Through all the campaign, Captain Wauchope, with the 
E Company of the 42nd, had bravely borne his share 
of the toil and dangers of the situation. At Tel-el-Kebir, 
he was among the first to enter the enemy's trenches sword 
in hand. The encounter was a fierce one while it lasted, 
and it was a marvel how he escaped injury in such a 
melee. But though the impetuosity of the charge bore 
down all before it, when the fight was over, it was found 
that no less than 200 of his men had fallen. 

Waucho'pe's first care was to see that the wounded were 
attended to, for his interest in his men was ever uppermost 
in his mind. He liked to treat them as brothers as well as 
subordinates, sharing with them the roughest work and the 
greatest dangers ; and now particularly, when many of them 
were bruised and bleeding, he had all a woman's sympathy, 
and did his best to alleviate their sufferings. He went 
carefully over the ground after the battle, searching out 
from among the dead such of his men who might be alive, 
relieving some with a draught of water from his bottle, and 
seeing that they were removed to shelter, where they could 



AFTER TEL-EL-KEBIR 79 

be surgically attended to ; in some cases, tenderly helping to 
carry them himself off the field. Such scenes always rilled 
him with sadness, as they did the heart of Wellington, who 
was wont to say : ' Take my word for it, if you had seen 
but one day of war, you would pray to Almighty God that 
you might never see such a thing again.' The horrors of 
war make most brave natures shudder. 

Immediately after the capture of Arabi's camp at Tel-el- 
Kebir, at the next halting-stage in the army's progress to 
Cairo, the 42nd was marched into the square of a cavalry 
barracks to wait for a train being made to enable them to 
follow the retreating enemy to Zagazig — an important rail- 
way junction on the way. They were in very rough 
quarters, but were glad to get any sort of shelter from 
the scorching sun. One of the staff-sergeants, wearied out 
and oppressed with heat, stumbled into a room which, 
unknown to him, happened to be occupied by Captain 
Wauchope and his subordinate officer, Lieutenant Duff. 
'As I attempted to withdraw — for I had entered not know- 
ing they were there' — said the sergeant, describing the 
occurrence, 'Captain Wauchope at once called out in a 
kindly voice, " Come in, Pinkney, come in and sit down, 
you have as much right to be here as we have." ' 

But though this was so, Pinkney, who was not one of his 
men, did not fare so well on another occasion when his 
presence stood in the way of the convenience of the men of 
his company, Captain Wauchope having then no hesitation 
in leaving him to shift for himself. We give the story in the 
sergeant's own words : — ' Shortly after this, we were marched 
down to the railway and literally packed into trucks. I 
being a staff-sergeant, and in a sense "nobody's child," 
crawled into one marked E. It was Wauchope's, and as 
all his men could not find room, I was ignominiously 



80 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

ordered out by the same gallant gentleman ! We were 
very good friends, but as I did not belong to his company, 
he could not allow me to interfere with their comfort ! ' 

Sergeant Pinkney also relates an incident of the same 
day illustrating Wauchope's thoughts on the inhumanity of 
war. ' We were all sitting together on the mud floor of the 
room where we were sheltering, discussing the events of 
the morning. "Andy," as we all loved to call our captain, 
had not, for a wonder, been wounded, but a Remington 
bullet through the scabbard of his sword had bent it nearly 
double, so that he could not return the weapon. Another 
bullet through his helmet had disarranged the pugaree 
and heckle, of which he was so proud. He drew my 
attention as armourer to the condition of his scabbard, 
and I took it into my hand and broke it across my 
knee, so that he could sheath his sword, though some 
eight inches of the blood-stained blade were exposed. 
While I was next adjusting his pugaree, he suddenly ex- 
claimed, " I say, Duff, what brutes we men are." We were 
silent for a minute, and then seeing our surprised look, as 
we stopped our work, he continued, " Do you know, I felt 
this morning just as if I was on the moors, and for a while 
I was quite as anxious to make a good bag ; man, Duff, we 
are terrible brutes, after all ! " ' 

The same day Wauchope's regiment proceeded to within 
a few miles of Zagazig, reaching that place in the morning 
of the 14th September. Here they seized the railway stock, 
and went on to Belbeis, an important junction on the edge 
of the desert. There they remained under the utmost dis- 
comfort, without tents and without equipage, until the 23rd 
September, when they moved forward to Ghezireh, near to 
Cairo, and were again quartered with the Highland Brigade, 
under Lieut.-General Sir E. Hamley. 



RETURN TO SCOTLAND 81 

The subsequent occupation of Cairo, the arrest and 
banishment of Arabi Pasha, and the restoration of the 
Khedive under British protection, are matters of history. 
The war was closed, but still much required to be done to 
restore order and peace, and so the expeditionary force 
became an army of occupation. 

Captain Wauchope, after a few weeks' encampment at 
Ghezireh, on the west bank of the Nile, was moved with 
his regiment into Kass-el-Nil barracks, where they were to 
be quartered for the winter. A time of peace succeeded a 
time of sharp fighting. But whether fighting or at peace, 
Wauchope gave himself no rest. His military duties 
might be heavy enough, but his self-imposed exertions 
in looking after the wounded and the sick were varied 
by efforts to find amusement and recreation for those 
who were well. 

For his services in this campaign, Captain Wauchope 
received the medal with clasp, and the Khedive's Star, as 
the public recognition of the British and Egyptian Govern- 
ments. 

His stay in Egypt was unexpectedly interrupted by the 
somewhat sudden death of his elder brother, Major 
William Wauchope of Niddrie, on the 28th November 
1882. Having got leave of absence, he at once returned 
home to Scotland to look after the settlement of family 
affairs and the future management of the estates. 

The death of his brother without issue made a con- 
siderable change in his position, and when he arrived at 
Niddrie early in December, he was welcomed as the new 
laird with every expression of goodwill. Though he had 
been little about the old place for years, the tenants 
and servants had warm recollections of ' Andy ' as a good, 
kind, genial soul, and they all hoped that he might now 

F 



8a GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

return to occupy the ancestral home, and settle down 
among ' his ain folk.' 

As a pledge that such a consummation might be looked 
for in the near future, and taking advantage of his casual 
visit home, he was married on the 9th of December to Miss 
Elythea Ruth Erskine, second daughter of Sir Thomas 
Erskine of Cambo, Fife, to whom he had for some time 
been engaged. 

The wedding had been arranged to be celebrated at 
Cambo in a quiet way, as our informant said, ' without 
any fuss ' ; but though this was so, Captain Wauchope 
found to some extent the adage verified, that ' the course 
of true love never did run smooth.' In arranging for his 
marriage in the stormy month of December, he did not at 
all events lay his account with the elements. These did 
their best to frustrate the happy event. 

Cambo is situated two or three miles distant from Fife 
Ness, the extreme eastern point of the county of Fife. It 
is now easily accessible by the railway skirting the northern 
shore of the Firth of Forth, connecting Thornton Junction 
and St. Andrews, by way of Anstruther and Crail. But at 
that time the railway was not completed further than 
Anstruther on the one side and St. Andrews on the other, 
and Cambo was about eight or nine miles from either 
place. Starting from Edinburgh on the morning of the 
day fixed for the wedding, Captain Wauchope should 
easily have arrived at Cambo in the forenoon, but a pro- 
tracted snowstorm of several days had completely blocked 
railways and roads. Thinking he would be more likely to 
get a conveyance to carry him to his destination if he went 
by St. Andrews, he took that instead of the route to 
Anstruther; but on arriving at that ancient city, he was 
chagrined to find that the roads were so completely 



MARRIAGE 83 

blocked with snow that no one would venture the journey 
for him. Taking his luggage to the Royal Hotel, he tried 
all his persuasive powers with Mr. Davidson, the genial host, 
to get a carriage, or even a dogcart, ready for him without 
delay. But the storm still raged, and he was told that 
the roads were quite impassable either for driving or 
riding, and he would require to remain where he was for 
the night. 'But,' said the would-be and now desperate 
Benedict, 'I must get to Cambo, as I am to be married 
to-night.' The hotelkeeper assured him that in the cir- 
cumstances it was impossible, but promised to do the best 
he could for him the next morning if the weather moderated. 
At length, convinced that nothing more could be done, the 
disappointed swain was obliged to bow to the inevitable, 
and eat his solitary dinner with what resignation he could 
command. It was a severe trial of patience, but there 
was nothing else for it, and so he remained overnight in 
the friendly shelter of the ' Royal,' in the hope that he 
might get release the following da)'. Sir Thomas Erskine, 
meanwhile, expecting the bridegroom to come by way of 
Anstruther, where the roads happened not to be so badly 
blocked, had sent a carriage with the young bride to meet 
him there. But no Wauchope appeared, and the young 
lady had to return home without tidings of her lover. 
The disappointment of all may be better imagined than 
described, and the wedding was of course postponed sine 
die. The following morning the storm had somewhat 
abated, but the snow-drift still lay deep on the roads, 
making them quite impassable for wheeled vehicles. 
Davidson, true to his word, however, gave him the best 
horse in his stable, repacked his luggage in carpet-bags 
slung across the back of another, and with a groom in 
attendance Wauchope courageously faced the elements to 



84 GENERAL WAUCIIOPE 

meet his bride. It was a toilsome business, and not 
without danger. At Browhill, some two miles from St. 
Andrews, the block was so deep that they were compelled 
to make a detour, or ' a flank movement,' as he afterwards 
described it, across the fields, but in doing so they came 
to grief. The horse which Wauchope rode stumbled and 
fell through the accumulated snow into a deep ditch, 
where it was well-nigh smothered, and the combined efforts 
of Wauchope and groom utterly failed to extricate the poor 
animal. At length assistance was procured, a number of 
farm servants from the neighbourhood giving willing help, 
and after a good deal of exertion it was at length got out, 
while the groom, wiping the perspiration from his brow, 
declared, 'This is terrible work, captain; it's worse than 
Egypt yet ! ' The remainder of the nine-mile journey was 
completed in safety. Love had triumphed. A warm 
welcome greeted the belated bridegroom at Cambo, and 
though ' one day after date,' the marriage cheque was duly 
honoured ! 

The hopes of his friends at home that he might now 
give up active service, and become a local county magnate, 
were not, however, to be realised. Captain Wauchope, 
accompanied by his young wife, returned to Egypt a few 
weeks after their marriage, to take up his military duties 
with the Black Watch; and there, in the quaint old Oriental 
city of Cairo, they spent together the first and, alas, the 
last year of their married life. 

Perhaps no other town under the sun has so many 
different characteristics as Cairo, and certainly few places 
afford such strong contrasts. It is at one and the same 
time an official capital, a city of immemorial antiquity, a 
garrison town, a health resort, an Oriental centre, and the 
Paris of the Dark Continent. Half the hidden charm of 



LIFE IN CAIRO 85 

Cairo and its surroundings, it has been said, consists of 
the strongly incongruous sights that meet an observant 
eye : the modern woman leaning on her bicycle, and stead- 
fastly looking at the unchanging eyes of the Sphinx, or a 
laughing party of officers and Americans in the shadow of 
the Great Pyramid, or among the tombs of the caliphs, 
its Oriental bazaar crowded with British soldiers and 
sailors : an old world and a new. Chief among the attrac- 
tions of Cairo is its climate, combining almost continuous 
sunshine, comparative warmth, and an air of pure and 
tonic qualities. ' 

Mrs. Wauchope resided during these months at the 
Grand Hotel, within comparatively easy distance of Kass- 
el-Nil barracks, where the captain's daily duties lay, and 
amid new surroundings found much to interest her, while 
she materially helped him in his work among the men of 
his regiment. 

Unfortunately, though the climate as a rule is excellent 
during the greater part of the year, sanitary arrangements 
and modes 0/ living were not then, whatever they may 
be now, such as to prevent the evils to which most 
Eastern cities are subject. Cholera, one of the scourges 
of the East, broke out in Cairo among the Copts in the 
summer of 1883, and, spreading among the better classes 
of society, even found its way among the British soldiers. 
Their removal from Cairo for a time was considered 
absolutely necessary; but before this could be effected, 
the Black Watch had suffered considerably from the 
epidemic. As soon as possible, however, cholera-camps 
were formed at Suez in July, where the greater part of the 
regiment remained till the beginning of September. 
During this time Captain Wauchope, with the rank of 
brigade-major, was left in charge of the Kass-el-Nil 



86 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

barracks with a small detachment ; and surrounded as they 
were with an epidemic which was then cutting down 
hundreds of poor natives, without adequate means of reliev- 
ing the distress, he was much moved by what he saw, and 
did his utmost to help. His first care was of course for 
the soldiers under his command. They did not altogether 
escape, and in a number of cases that occurred he was 
assiduous in his attention. Regardless of danger to him- 
self, he would go back and forward between the hospital 
and the barracks, giving all the comfort and material 
assistance that were required. 

But it was not merely in his co-operation with medical 
men and nurses that Wauchope's aid was given : he was 
a valued co-worker with the chaplain, assisting him in 
visiting and addressing meetings. The Rev. John Mac- 
taggart, who was then acting with the 42nd in Egypt, says, 
'He was always ready to aid me, and willingly responded 
to any reasonable request for money on behalf of the men, 
such as in helping to defray expenses incurred in holding 
social, temperance, or religious meetings.' 'I remember,' 
he continues, 'in the summer of 1883, the cholera, after 
raging for weeks among the native population, attacked 
the British troops. As a precautionary measure, these 
were dispersed and located at considerable distances from 
Cairo, the Black Watch being sent to the brackish lake 
near Suez. Captain Wauchope's sympathetic nature was 
deeply stirred by the many sad sights around him in Cairo, 
where he remained through it all with a small company of 
the regiment. Two of his men were stricken down, one 
immediately after the other, with the fell disease, and not 
being able myself to attend to them at once, he was full of 
anxiety about them, and could not rest till he got me to see 
them at the barracks, quite heedless of danger to himself.' 



A CAIRO MOB 87 

To many a poor fellow he was throughout all this trying 
time a friend indeed, counselling, helping, and encouraging 
wherever he had the opportunity. 

At the evening voluntary meetings in the barracks, too, 
he frequently took a part with the chaplain in the religious 
services. His consistent manly conduct and the quiet, 
unobtrusive profession of his faith at this time, not only 
endeared him to many, but gave him a wonderful influence 
for good which it is difficult fully to estimate. 

Every one has his own characteristic : Wauchope's was 
consideration for his men. 'Years ago,' says a friend, 
'I was in the street in Cairo with him, when there 
approached us a bareheaded Highlander, running for his 
life, and pursued by a crowd of Arabs armed with sticks. 
Captain Wauchope halted the fugitive, turned about, 
ordered him to fall in in front, and thus we marched 
to the barracks, the mob howling behind. The Captain 
handed the man over to the sergeant of the guard, and 
notified his intention of giving evidence in the orderly- 
room next morning. A few days later I was to meet the 
Captain at the club and take a drive with him. On 
arrival there, I found a note directing me to come to the 
hospital. The orderly led me to a ward, but I could see 
no Captain. I interviewed the orderly again, and he told 
me to go to the far end and I would find him. There, on 
the bed of his colour-sergeant, retailing the day's news, sat 
the officer commanding his company. On my approach, 
with a cheery adieu and a promise to come back again on 
the morrow, Wauchope rose and went for his drive.' 

Captain and Mrs. Wauchope left Cairo in November 
1883, where they had been witness to so much trouble, 
to come home to England, taking up their residence at 
Niddrie for six weeks, and afterwards going to Cambo on 



SS GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

a visit. Towards the end of January they proceeded to 
London, where Mrs. Wauchope gave birth to twins — 
both boys. The joy of this event was, however, speedily 
followed a few days after, on the 3rd February, by the 
death of Mrs. Wauchope. 

It was a terrible blow to the Captain, and though he 
bowed submissively to the will of God, he none the less 
felt his loss keenly, and for a time was inconsolable. 

The children were taken to Cambo, where, under the 
charge of Lady Erskine, they were tenderly nursed and 
cared for, while Wauchope himself sought in renewed 
activity to forget, if possible, the misery of his bereave- 
ment. 



CHAPTER VI 

THE EASTERN SOUDAN — BATTLE OF EL-TEB — ATTEMPT TO 
RELIEVE GENERAL GORDON — ASCENT OF THE NILE — 
THE WHALE-BOATS — BATTLE OF KIRBEKAN — RETURN 
TO CAIRO — MALTA — GIBRALTAR. 

Though peace had been restored to Egypt by our arms, 
and security of life and property was being established 
and upheld by the presence in the country of the army 
of occupation, new troubles were brewing in the upper 
waters of the Nile. General Gordon, as the representative 
of the Khedive in the far-away capital of the Soudan pro- 
vince of Upper Egypt, was endeavouring to maintain law 
and order in the midst of turbulent tribes of wild Arabs. 
Disaffection and rebellion against Egyptian authority broke 
out on all sides, and the first murmurings were heard of 
a new power emerging out of the African darkness, 
threatening to overwhelm and sweep before its fanatical 
sword every evidence of modern civilisation. The rise of 
the Mahdi as a religious and political force was one of the 
most extraordinary movements of modern times, and can 
only find a parallel in that of Mohammed himself, whose 
follower the Mahdi or Prophet of God professed to be. 
With a success at first truly marvellous, he managed so to 
impress his claims to sanctity upon the Arab tribes of the 
Soudan, that they flocked to his standard in thousands. 

89 



90 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

Cleverly seizing the occasion of discontent at excessive 
taxation and the destruction of the slave trade, which, 
under European influence, the Egyptian government had 
attempted, the Mahdi el Muntazer raised the cry of 
revolt, and openly proclaimed himself, by the grace of 
God and his Prophet, master of the country. His 
fanatical pretensions, carrying the weight of religious 
sanctity, bore down all opposition for a time. General 
Gordon was sent to stem the torrent, and reaching 
Khartoum on the 18th of February 1884, bravely held it 
against overwhelming numbers for eleven months. 

The British authorities who were responsible for 
Gordon's appointment, but who were unfortunately not 
equally alive to the danger of his position, resolved at 
length upon an expedition for his relief, to proceed by 
the Red Sea to the port of Suakim to operate in the 
Eastern Soudan, between the sea and the River Nile, where 
a number of Egyptian garrisons were being threatened 
by the rebellious tribes under Osman Digna. British 
troops in and about Cairo, Alexandria, and other stations 
were at once despatched under the command of Sir 
Gerald Graham to quell the disturbance. Wauchope, 
who had received the appointment from Lord Wolseley 
of Assistant-Adjutant and Quartermaster-General to the 
expedition, left England on short notice, and, accompanied 
by Sir Redvers Buller, arrived in the Red Sea towards 
the end of February, in time to take his share in active 
operations against the enemy, who were strongly fortified 
and in possession of Tokar. 

The expeditionary force was landed at Trinkitat, a port 
on the Red Sea, some miles south of Suakim, and Tokar 
being inland, a long and fatiguing march had to be 
undertaken to reach it. When half-way they encountered 



BATTLE OF EL-TEB 91 

the Arabs in a strongly entrenched position in the desert 
at the wells of El-Teb, and here, on the 29th February, a 
fierce conflict took place, the Arabs fighting with great 
determination. The Black Watch and the York and 
Lancashire Regiment took a prominent part in the battle, 
and suffered severely. To the former fell the main attack 
on the right and centre of the enemy's position, where 
their chief strength lay, protected as it was by skilfully 
constructed rifle-pits, defended by resolute men, ready to 
die rather than yield. 

Captain Waucliope escaped with his life as by a miracle. 
Being on horseback, charging the enemy's guns, he was a 
prominent figure in the fight, and was unfortunately struck 
down by a musket-shot, which entered the lower part of 
his body. He was only saved from instant death by the 
friendly intervention of his binoculars, which were hanging 
by his side, the bullet striking the glass and smashing it to 
pieces. He was carried off the field, and at once attended 
to. But the wound was of such a serious nature that little 
hope was entertained of his recovery. The battle over, and 
the Arabs completely routed, the British force proceeded on 
their way to Tokar without further opposition, and relieved 
the small garrison there. Wauchope and the other wounded 
men were taken back to Trinkitat and put on board ship 
for Suez. 

When sufficiently recovered to be able to be removed 
from the hospital, he rejoined the Black Watch at Cairo 
in the month of April. The binoculars which, it may be 
said, saved his life at El-Teb have been carefully preserved, 
and may now be seen in their shattered condition among 
other relics and war trophies in Niddrie House. 

For his gallant conduct at the battle of El-Teb, 
Wauchope received a favourable mention in General 



92 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

Graham's despatches, which procured for him the medal 
and two clasps, and what was perhaps of more importance, 
the rank of Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel. 

He suffered long and severely from the wound he had 
received, but he was much benefited in health by a visit 
which he made to his old friend Sir Robert Biddulph 
at Mount Troodos in Cyprus during the summer of that 
year. 

In the autumn came further rumours from the Soudan of 
the rising power of the Mahdi, and the danger with which 
General Gordon was threatened of being overwhelmed in 
the capture of Khartoum. It was now resolved that 
active and immediate steps should be taken in order if 
possible to relieve him, notwithstanding that the distance 
was great, and the road perilous, and to a great extent 
unknown. The Black Watch was called upon once more 
to undertake this difficult task, and officers and men 
responded to the call with enthusiastic delight. The 
regiment at Cairo numbered about 700, and at an in- 
spection there by General Sir Garnet Wolseley on 16th 
September, he complimented Colonel Bayly and the 
officers and men under him on the highly efficient state 
in which they then were, and the pride with which the 
people of England had followed them in the gallant 
upholding of 'the honour of their splendid and historic 
regiment.' 'I do not think,' he continued, ' there will be 
much fighting in the coming campaign, but there will be 
very hard work, and I shall want you to show that you 
can work hard as well as fight. If there is any fighting to 
be done, I know that I have only to call on the Black 
Watch, and you will behave as you have always done.' 

The sequel proved this to be a true forecast. The expedi- 
tion was beset with difficulties from first to last, and the 



RELIEF OF KHARTOUM 93 

labour involved was enormous — the pity of it being, that 
after all, the result was not commensurate with the cost, 
and was altogether disappointing. With Cairo as their 
starting-point and Khartoum as their goal, the intervening 
space of over fifteen hundred miles, with its sandy plains, 
its waste howling wilderness, held by hostile tribes of Arabs, 
had to be covered by our troops. This was a work of no 
ordinary kind, and involved not only skill in planning, but 
persevering toil in execution, which tried to the utmost the 
stuff our soldiers are made of. The Black Watch, led by such 
men as Colonels - Green, Bayly, Kidston, Coveny, Eden, 
and Wauchope were a host in themselves, and abundantly 
justified the confidence reposed in them by the com- 
mander-in-chief. The expedition started on 5th October 
by rail to Assouan, where they hoped immediately to 
begin the ascent of the Nile by steamers and barges. 
Unfortunately, one or two cases of smallpox here broke 
out among the men of the 42nd, and the regiment was 
compelled to go into quarantine for four weeks. They 
pitched their camp within a palm-grove close to Assouan 
on the banks of the Nile, and the tedium of enforced idle- 
ness was relieved by preparation for the arduous task 
before them. Colonel Wauchope energetically exerted 
himself during these weeks, and in the off hours of drill 
encouraged the men not only in out-door sports of all 
kinds, but was active in getting up theatrical and other 
entertainments for their amusement. In this way the 
time passed pleasantly until the regiment was released 
from quarantine on 12th November, when the real for- 
ward movement for the relief of General Gordon com- 
menced, so far as the Black Watch was concerned. 
Embarking at Philae, famed for its ancient island temple, 
in steamers and barges, the voyage of two hundred and 



94 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

fifty miles was safely accomplished to Wady Haifa, after 
which, avoiding the second cataract of the Nile, the journey 
to Sarras was made overland. Here there was consider- 
able detention waiting the arrival of a large flotilla of 800 
whale boats — which had been commissioned from England 
by Lord Wolseley for transporting the troops up the river. 
Regiment after regiment were here embarked to fight the 
cataracts, the rapids, and the shallows of the mysterious 
river whose source had for ages been hidden in the dark 
recesses of the African Continent. Surely no stranger 
or more gigantic armed force ever floated on its waters 
either before or since the days of Egypt's ancient great- 
ness! 

As it was, the British soldier — ■ capable of going any- 
where and doing anything ' — had for the nonce to convert 
himself into a boatman; and that he had much to learn 
in this capacity may be gathered from one of the jokes 
familiar to the expeditionary force, to the effect that 
one day a man at the helm, on receiving the order ' put 
your helm down,' immediately proceeded to place the 
tiller in the bottom of the boat, and innocently awaited 
further orders! The boats provided were about thirty 
feet long, seven feet beam, and with a draught of two and 
a half feet. As the boats were destined each to be self- 
supporting, they had, when finally loaded, supplies of 
ammunition, ordnance, and commissariat stores for 
fourteen men for one hundred days. But it was not 
unusual for the boats to be carrying practically one 
hundred and twenty days' rations and other stores, and 
reserve ammunition for fourteen men, with a crew of 
eight men in each boat. Great caution and skill were 
necessary in an expedition so full of novelty and danger, 
and if accidents did happen, it is no matter of surprise, 



THE NILE EXPEDITION 95 

considering that it was through an almost entirely un- 
known country and among hostile tribes their course 
lay. With a falling river, too, tha dangers and difficulties 
were increased, for boats were frequently striking sunken 
rocks, and springing leaks, which necessitated their being 
hauled up on the river bank, unloaded of their tons of 
stores, and then repaired by the soldiers themselves, for 
there was no one else to do it. In some places there was 
barely room for a loaded camel to pass between the per- 
pendicular rocks ; in others, where the path was wider, the 
rocks had been prepared for defence by loop-holed stone 
sconces. There was no order or regularity in the forma- 
tion of the rocks. ' They seemed,' said one eye-witness, 
' to have been upheaved in a mass, in some great volcanic 
convulsion, and to have fallen one upon another in every 
direction.' 

Throughout this remarkable voyage Colonel Wauchope's 
early naval experience stood him in good stead. Having 
the command of the E company of the Black Watch he 
had charge of sixteen boats, with ten men in each. He 
divided the company into two parts so that each section 
might have free scope, and collisions be avoided; and, 
thanks to his ever watchful eye and naval skill, the 
soldiers in the boats speedily became expert sailors. 
From the Rev. Mr. Mactaggart, who accompanied the 
expedition at the special desire of Colonel Wauchope, 
and was in his company, we give the following narrative. 
'According to Lord Wolseley's orders, each boat was to 
have been provided with one or two Canadian steersmen, 
but in some way it was found impossible to get this, and 
after two days' delay we succeeded in getting away with 
one Canadian in every second boat — eight men instead of 
thirty-two ; much therefore depended on Wauchope him- 



96 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

self. Before starting on several occasions, I remember 
he had all of us assembled on the river-side, and gave 
out minute instructions theoretically and practically how 
to enter the boat, how to sit on the bench, how to handle 
the oar, and how to splice a rope. His instructions were 
always much needed and most excellent. Then as to 
loading and unloading, he would demonstrate how this 
could most easily be done, and with least danger. He 
was careful to emphasise his caution as to managing the 
boats in the strong eddies and currents of the stream, and 
above all to avoid racing or endeavouring to get ahead of 
each other. With a vein of humour in his voice, and yet 
meant as a serious joke, he would say — " Mind you, my 
men, no Derby racing ! " On one occasion, in pulling the 
boats over a strong current, two boats' crews were neces- 
sary to get one at a time over it, but through some hitch 
one of these with its contents would have been irretriev- 
ably lost but for his opportune energy and pluck. The 
men, exhausted with the heavy strain upon them, slackened 
the rope, and in a moment the boat had turned and was 
being carried back. Wauchope at once seized the rope, 
and held on to it tenaciously, though drawn in among the 
rocks at the edge of the rapid, and had his hands very 
much lacerated for his pains.' 

Many incidents — some amusing and some serious 
enough — occurred in these daily battles with the river; 
but Wauchope was ever in the thick of it if a difficulty 
occurred ; and while as commander he was prompt in 
giving his orders, he was never above giving his men a 
helping hand when needed. ' It was during our toilsome 
ascent of the third and fourth cataracts,' says another 
comrade of the expedition, 'a staff officer was detailed 
in charge of different districts up the banks, whose duty 



FIGHTING THE CATARACTS 97 

it was to guide and instruct the boats in their passage up 
the rapids, or, as the men put it, "to worry and irritate the 
troops." On one occasion Colonel Wauchope's boat was 
in trouble, and the staff officer was shouting any amount 
of advice gratis from the bank. Thinking apparently that 
enough notice was not being taken of his instructions, he 
called out, " You No. 2 boat there, do you know who I am? 
I am Colonel Primrose of the Guards." This immediately 
drew the following answer from a wild-looking, red-headed, 
and half-naked worker in the boat, " And do you know who 
/am, sir? I am Colonel Wauchope of the Black Watch, 
so honours are easy ! " ' Though otherwise kind to a 
fault, in the matter of discipline he was firm as a rock 
in adhering strictly to orders. Indeed at this juncture he 
was invaluable to the regiment, for he acted at the same 
time both as president of the canteen and mess ; and as 
one of his brother officers informs us, 'it was only through 
his continual forethought that we were able to obtain sup- 
plies for our daily wants.' ' A favourite dinner on the 
Nile,' says one of his men, ' which was looked upon as a 
great luxury, was one pound of bacon per man, in place of 
the usual tinned meat, as by dint of self-denial a bit of it 
might be saved for breakfast next morning. This was 
served out by the captain, and great was the consternation 
one day in the drum-major's boat when the cook fell over- 
board with the boat's rations in his hand. The man was 
secured, but the bacon went to the crocodiles. The 
matter being reported to Colonel Wauchope, it was hoped 
the rations might be replaced. But not having seen the 
accident, he was obdurate. The ration had been issued 
and could not be replaced, so the unfortunate boat's crew 
worked hard all that day on biscuit and tea only. Even- 
ing came, and tea was being made when word was passed 

G 



98 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

along the bank that the drum-major was wanted by Colonel 
Wauchope. Hope sprang up that he had relented at the 
eleventh hour ; but no such luck. To his honour be it 
said, however, he divided his own pound of bacon with 
the drum-major that night, and it was his all, for officers 
and men fared alike at that time.' Still they knew their 
commander, and no grumble was heard. Though he 
might be strict, they all felt he had their interest at heart. 

The rough work of fighting the cataracts was telling 
sorely upon uniforms and shoes, some of the men being 
actually in rags. They had proceeded as far as Ambu-Kui, 
and the necessity for having new boots was so pressing, 
Wauchope set out two or three miles inland to where 
there was a bazaar and bought for his men all the boots 
and shoes he could get. The old dervish from whom he 
purchased them assured him with all seriousness of their 
excellence, saying, ' Well now, oh ye faithful, if you buy 
them you can go straight to Paradise' — a recommendation 
of his goods which the colonel enjoyed immensely. 

Struggling on from day to day in their toilsome up-river 
journey, one hope animated every breast, that the gallant 
general holding his own with defection and treachery among 
his native troops in Khartoum, and a fanatical horde of 
Arabs under the Mahdi outside its walls, would be able to 
hold out until the arrival of the British force on its way to 
relieve him. General Gordon was in a most critical position. 
The enemy being numerous, and ever increasing, hemmed 
him in on all sides, while famine was pressing him even 
more seriously within. It was a long road, and bravely 
Lord Wolseley encouraged his troops to renewed exertions. 
In the first week of January 1885 the leading companies 
of the 42nd Highlanders arrived at Korti, and on the 
13th January the headquarters rowed into Hamdab with 



BATTLE OF KIRBEKAN 99 

fifty-four boats. By the 20th the whole regiment was 
once more together at Hamdab, and with the South 
Staffordshire, the 2nd Battalion of the Duke of Corn- 
wall's Light Infantry, the 1st Battalion of the Gordon 
Highlanders, one squadron of the 19th Hussars, an 
Egyptian Camel Corps, and a section of the Engineers and 
Bluejackets, formed the Nile River Column, under Major- 
General Earle. Making a further advance, the difficult 
Edermih Cataract was surmounted on the 25th January, 
and the Kab-el-Abd Cataract two days after. But it was 
only by the daring skill of the Canadian voyageurs and 
the constant toil of the whole force that the boats were 
got successfully over, for now the currents of the river 
were getting more difficult to face. At the fourth or Birti 
Cataract they began to feel the enemy in stronger force, 
and at Kirbekan, some seven miles further on, the ground 
overlooking the Nile was found to be fortified with every 
determination to resist the passage of the boats. The 
troops were accordingly formed for battle, and the British 
line under General Earle advanced upon the entrench- 
ments. Finding it impossible, however, to dislodge the 
Arabs by musketry fire alone, orders were given for the 
Black Watch to carry the position by the bayonet. The 
regiment responded gallantly to the order. The pipers 
struck up, and with a cheer the Black Watch rushed 
forward with a steadiness and valour that were irresistible, 
and which called forth the enthusiastic admiration of the 
general. From the loop-holed walls of the enemy the 
rifle puffs shot out continuously, but, undaunted by danger, 
the 42nd scaled the rocks, and at the point of the bayonet 
drove them from their shelter. 

Colonel Bayly of the 42nd, who commanded the left- 
half battalion, has favoured us with the following account 



ioo GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

of Wauchope's intrepid daring in this action. ■ Kirbekan,' 
he says, ' was one of the last fights at which I was present 
with him. He was in command of a company of my half 
battalion in the attack on the Arabs' position, a high, 
precipitous rocky range rising from the river's bank. We 
were fully engaged, when Wauchope, asking my leave, 
descended the precipitous bank of the river, then in full 
flood. Returning in a few minutes, he said he could take 
the company over the rocks, and with perhaps a little 
wading he could turn the flank of the kopje held by the 
enemy. This he did, and rolled the enemy up to their 
final stand, a roughly built stone shanty, where General 
Earle (who was in command) and Colonel Coveny met 
their deaths. And here Wauchope himself was badly 
wounded.' Meanwhile the cavalry had captured the 
enemy's camp, and the Staffordshire regiment had 
gallantly stormed the last remaining ridge. The battle 
of Kirbekan was won on the nth February. 

Wauchope was assisted down from among the high 
rocks by his friends Captain Stewart and Mr. Mactaggart, 
the chaplain, and had his wound attended to by Dr. Harvey 
and Dr. Flood. They found his shoulder very much 
shattered, and were of opinion that his arm would have to 
be amputated. He himself was apparently not conscious 
that he was dangerously wounded, and endeavoured to 
treat the matter lightly. Having persuaded the doctors to 
delay the operation till next day, we are told he seemed 
after a little to be more concerned about the condition of 
his brother officer, Lord Alexander Kennedy, who had 
also been severely wounded in the action, than about 
himself. After further consultation, to the great relief of 
Wauchope, it was determined to give him a chance of 
saving his arm. The wound was carefully and success- 



DEATH OF GORDON 101 

fully dressed. This disablement, however, reduced him 
from the position of an active leader in the expedition to 
that of a mere spectator. He was quite laid aside for a 
time, and compelled to remain in one of the boats floating 
on the Nile — no pleasant experience for one of his active 
temperament. 

Still keeping Khartoum, with its noble defender, in 
view, the expedition, though yet more than 450 miles 
from their destination, pushed on with vigour. Passing 
Hebbath, the scene of poor Colonel Stewart's murder by 
the chief of the Monassir tribe a few months before, 
thence to El Kab, where the current is very swift, the 
215 boats of the force arrived at Huella, not far from 
Abu Ahmed, with its beautiful green sward on the banks 
of the river. 

This was destined to be the furthest point to which the 
river expedition was to penetrate. Relief had arrived too 
late, for here the British force learned that the end had come 
in Khartoum, and that all their labour had been in vain. 
The city had been treacherously taken by the Mahdi, and 
General Gordon had been killed on the 25th January, or 
nearly a month before. 

As the object of the expedition was said to be merely 
for the relief of Gordon with his Egyptian garrison, and 
the British Government had determined to abandon the 
Soudan entirely, there was nothing left for Lord Wolseley 
to do on the receipt of this sad intelligence but to retrace 
his steps. On the 13th February, Sir Redvers Buller, with 
the Desert Column, which had reached Gubat, evacuated 
that place ; and, as the reason for the occupation of Berber 
by the River Column had practically ceased, orders were 
received commanding a halt. Ten days afterwards the 
flotilla commenced the return journey down the swift and 



io2 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

broken waters of the Nile. It was an unfortunate end of 
an undecided policy which delayed the relief of the noble 
Gordon until it was too late. Had the Government taken 
up the matter earnestly some months earlier than they did, 
Lord Wolseley's expedition would not only have saved 
Gordon a tragic death and relieved Khartoum, but would 
then have crushed the power of the Madhi for ever. Thus 
would have been accomplished in 1885 a piece of work 
which, simply by being then neglected, had again to be 
taken up thirteen years afterwards, but which was brought 
then to a successful issue by the entire overthrow on 2nd 
September 1898 of the Mahdi's successor by General Sir 
Herbert Kitchener at Omdurman. 

Wauchope all through this expedition had proved him- 
self an invaluable pioneer in the rough and arduous work 
they had to encounter, and the many difficulties to be 
overcome. He was highly popular with all ranks from the 
Commander-in-Chief to the youngest drummer, for he 
looked upon every one as simply his fellow-workers, and 
was ever readj^to help any in trouble. ' Gifted,' as one 
of his brother officers has said of him, ' with a singularly 
attractive and lovable disposition, he made friends of 
every one he met. With the simplest of tastes himself, 
and (after the deaths of his father and brother) with ample 
means at his disposal, he used to help more particularly 
those married with or without leave in the regiment, and 
these cases I only heard of by accident. He never spoke 
of them himself.' 

Nor was his interest in his men limited to merely secular 
matters. He was deeply impressed with the conviction 
that, carrying as the soldier did his life in his hand, there 
was no class of men who ought more to be prepared for 
death. And facing death, as he so often did himself, he 



A STAUNCH PRESBYTERIAN T03 

felt that the consolations of religion should be within the 
soldier's reach when needed. He was a staunch Presby- 
terian, loyal to his national religion, and ever ready to give 
the chaplain of his regiment his support and help. When 
the Nile Expedition had reached Korti it was resolved that 
none but fighting men should go further, and some of the 
chaplains were accordingly left behind as an unnecessary 
impediment. Just before starting, an officer of the staff 
came to the chaplain of the Black Watch, who happened 
at the time to be standing beside Colonel Wauchope, with 
the order that he was not to proceed further. The 
chaplain replied that there was nothing for him to do at 
Korti, if he were separated from the regiment ; he urged 
that he had been sent from Cairo with the Gordons and 
the Black Watch, and that he would go with them where 
duty called. Wauchope at once said, ' Stick to that and 
I will back you up.' The chaplain without any further 
demur was allowed to proceed, and he was the only 
chaplain who got beyond the base to be in time to do 
duty in action. In this connection an instance of his 
strict military discrimination may be mentioned. A man 
of his company came and complained to him that he had 
been told off by the sergeant-major to remain at the base. 
A certain number of men of each corps had been so 
ordered, and naturally the best soldiers were not left 
behind. Wauchope replied to this man, 'You are a 
soldier who is often drunk, often late for parade, often 
absent, and we can't depend upon you. We prefer to 
take men we can trust.' The man, very much crestfallen, 
and evidently disappointed, said, ' Sir, if you will take me 
to the front, I promise you I '11 never be brought before an 
officer again.' Wauchope said, 'Very well, I'll take you 
at your word, but if you don't keep it, I '11 never do any- 



io 4 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

thing more for you.' The man behaved perfectly well 
during the campaign, and loyally kept his word. ' It may 
be hoped,' says the friend from whom we have the story, 
'that Wauchope's considerate action was the means of 
pulling up a man who was on the downward course, and 
the making of a good soldier out of a bad one.' 

One may be sure that the disappointment of not reach- 
ing Khartoum, and the sudden cessation of their active 
efforts, had a depressing effect upon the whole force. 
Lord Wolseley, in his message to the Nile Column order- 
ing it to return, sought to soften the disappointment in 
some measure by judicious praise. ' Please,' said he, 
'express to the troops Lord Wolseley's high appreciation 
of their gallant conduct in action, and of the military spirit 
they have displayed in overcoming the great difficulties 
presented by the river. Having punished the Monassir 
people for Colonel Stewart's murder, it is not intended to 
undertake any further military operations until after the 
approaching hot season.' 

When once more the expedition headed down-stream, 
difficult as they had found it to ascend, the return move- 
ment was even more risky and dangerous. The eighty-five 
Canadian steersmen were now found to be invaluable, or, 
as one has remarked, c were worth their weight in gold.' 
Boat after boat with their loads of troops came down at 
lightning speed in order of two fathoms' length between 
each boat. It required a quick eye and steady steering 
to avoid collision or being thrown on the rocks, for half 
a second was as good as a wreck when shooting madly 
between the sunken rocks of the cataracts. A few boats 
came to grief, but only one belonging to the Black Watch. 
And so Wauchope and the other wounded were steered 
down the great river — perhaps the most wonderful stream 



THE SOUDAN ABANDONED 105 

in this world of ours — to Meraivi. Rochefoucauld has said 
that strong minds suffer without complaining, while weak 
ones complain without suffering. Wauchope's exemplary 
patience under such trying and painful circumstances, we 
have been told, was extraordinary. He was ever cheerful, 
and not a murmur escaped his lips. At Meraivi the regiment 
erected huts and an hospital, and remained for two months, 
but were always on the alert night and day against 
threatened attacks by unfriendly Arabs. The Government 
ultimately abandoned the idea of the reconquest of the 
Soudan at that time. It was left to its fate in the hands 
of the victorious Mahdi, all the troops being recalled. 
Leaving the boats at Akasheh on 8th June, the Black 
Watch took train for Wady Haifa, thence to Assouan, 
then by steamers and diabehas to Assiout, and thereafter 
by train to Cairo, which was safely reached on the morning 
of the 27 th June, Lord Wolseley telegraphing to London, 
1 The Black Watch has arrived in splendid condition, and 
looking the picture of military efficiency.' 

Colonel Wauchope's services in the Nile Expedition of 
1884-85 were acknowledged by two clasps to his Egyptian 
medal, inscribed Nile and Kirbekan. 

It is a significant commentary upon the modesty of the 
man, that while the records of the regiment at this time, 
from which we have gathered these particulars of its move- 
ments in the Nile Expedition, were compiled by Colonel 
Wauchope himself, Colonel Bayly, who was then its com- 
manding officer, has pointed out to us ' that just for that 
reason we will find his name less mentioned than it ought 
to be.' 

The Black Watch returned to Cairo, where they remained 
for over a year, during which time Wauchope had quite 
recovered from his wounds and was able to resume duty. 



106 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

On the 30th April 1886 the regiment left Cairo, sailing 
from Alexandria in the steamship Poonah under orders 
for Malta, and reaching that interesting island on the 
5th May. During the three years that followed, when the 
42nd were quartered there, and afterwards at Gibraltar, 
Colonel Wauchope was several times home on leave of 
absence, but not for any lengthened period. During 
these years, the 42nd had the round of the various barracks 
with which that important military station is studded — 
Ricasoli, St. Elmo, Floriana, Gozo, and Pembroke Camp. 
The last, which is about two miles west of the harbour 
and fortifications of Valletta, was occupied for a time 
when the troops were engaged in firing practice, and one 
gentleman who was then in Malta, acting as assistant to 
Dr. Wisely, the resident chaplain, mentions that he always 
found the Colonel exceedingly kind, occasionally asking 
him to join the officers' mess, and showing him much 
attention. From frequent intercourse with him, he formed 
the impression that ' he was one of the most modest and 
unassuming of men ; and, he might add, one of the most 
sensible.' 

But Wauchope's influence and personality were not 
limited to his military duties, or to the British soldiers 
merely. He had a great deal to do with the Maltese, 
especially in connection with the formation of a Malta 
Militia. We are told by Dr. Wisely that he ' entered into 
the organisation of a body of native militia with his 
usual thoroughness ; and,' he says, ' by none was he more 
respected than by the native inhabitants of the island. 
The Maltese loved him. When the news came of his death, 
some of them I know wept for sorrow.' 

At the sale of the whale-boats of the Nile Expedition, 
Wauchope purchased two or three of them, and had them 



MALTA AND GIBRALTAR 107 

sent to Malta, where they were largely used, and to good 
effect, by his men for recreation purposes. With a good 
deal of the sailor in him, he encouraged races and aquatic 
sports in and about Valletta, he himself taking an active 
personal interest in them, and being a good deal out with 
the boats. 

His old shipmate of the St. George, Prince Alfred, who 
had now been created Duke of Edinburgh, and was then 
serving as captain of one of the warships in the Mediter- 
ranean, and afterwards as commander-in-chief of the Malta 
station, came a good deal in contact with Wauchope at 
this time. There was a frequent interchange of visits 
between them. 'The Duke,' says Colonel Bayly, 'had 
always the greatest regard for Wauchope, calling him, as 
of old, by his Christian name of Andy, and showing the 
utmost friendship.' In this way the otherwise tedious 
routine of garrison duty was considerably lightened. 

In June 1889, Wauchope was honoured by having 
conferred upon him by Her Majesty the distinction of 
Companion of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath, in 
recognition of his splendid services in Egypt. 

On the 8th August, the battalion of the Black Watch 
left Malta for Gibraltar in H.M.S. Himalaya, and dis- 
embarked at the Rock on the 13th, taking up their 
quarters in the south barracks. The regiment had a pro- 
longed stay of nearly three years at Gibraltar, but during 
that period Captain Wauchope, in addition to his being 
home several times on furlough, had frequent opportunities 
of making visits in Spain and on the coast of Algiers and 
Morocco. His actual term of foreign service only extended 
to February 1891, when he returned to Scotland to take 
the command of the 2nd Battalion at Maryhill Barracks, 
Glasgow. 



108 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

During his residence at Gibraltar in 1890, he twice over 
occupied for a time a rather unusual position, being called 
upon to take command of the garrison. While actually in 
charge of only a company, he also commanded the battalion 
owing to the temporary absence of Colonel Gordon on 
leave. The major-general having been called away at the 
same time, Wauchope, by virtue of his army seniority, took 
over the command of the infantry brigade of four regiments 
as well. None were quicker than himself to see the 
possibilities of this peculiar situation. As he put it, with 
a humorous smile — 'Now, suppose a man of my company 
has a complaint to make, and I decide against him, as I 
probably should : his remedy is to appeal to the officer 
commanding his regiment, and he gets Andrew Wauchope 
again to judge the case. His next appeal would be to the 
general, and again he comes before Andrew Wauchope; 
but being only human myself, I fear he would find the 
decision confirmed, and he would go away with the 
reflection, that it was "Andrew Wauchope all along the 
line ! " ' 

It is needless to say this problematical contingency never 
arose, and so he was saved from acting in any such triple 
capacity. 



CHAPTER VII 

THE MIDLOTHIAN CAMPAIGN 

'A Scot of the Scots,' General Wauchope was a man of 
many parts. Great in arms, he was equally great in the 
arts of peace ; and in the political world, strangely enough, 
he carved out for himself a reputation quite unique. 
Though his countrymen were naturally proud of his distin- 
guished services as a soldier, they knew him also, it has 
been well said, as the man who by pertinacious pluck and 
sweet conciliation brought down Mr. Gladstone's majority 
in the county of Midlothian. Liberal politicians both in 
England and Scotland will not have forgotten the horrified 
astonishment with which they read the figures of the poll 
in that county at the General Election of 1892. 

Mr. Gladstone had been returned for the metropolitan 
county of Scotland in 1880, after his great campaign, by a 
small majority against the present Duke of Buccleuch, at 
that time Earl of Dalkeith. That was under the old and 
restricted franchise. In 1885, when the miners and farm 
hands had largely through his influence obtained votes, 
he defeated Sir Charles Dalrymple — a man respected by all 
who knew him, and by many who did not — by two to one, 
and something over. Nobody thought any more about 
Midlothian. It was regarded as Mr. Gladstone's strong- 

100 



no GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

hold, and the Liberals went to sleep in the comfortable 
assurance that the seat was theirs so long as he lived. Nor 
were their slumbers disturbed by the unopposed election 
of July 1886, when throughout the country the Liberal 
party suffered a serious defeat consequent upon Mr. 
Gladstone's attempt, as Prime Minister, to pass what was 
popularly known as the Home Rule Bill for Ireland. Mr. 
Gladstone retained his seat, but was obliged to resign his 
position as First Lord of the Treasury ; and the Home Rule 
Bill in course of the next six years, under the administration 
of Lord Salisbury, became practically a thing of the past. 
During that time remarkable changes were effected in the 
constituency. In Edinburgh the Conservative party had 
rallied. Its leaders did not lack courage, even under the 
most hopeless circumstances, and they resolved to bring 
forward one whose determination and courage had been well 
tried, though in an entirely different field. At a meeting of 
the Midlothian Liberal Unionist Association in Edinburgh 
on the 1 8th November 1889, the proposal of the com- 
mittee to adopt Colonel Wauchope of Niddrie as their 
representative was unanimously carried. 

It was admitted on all hands that his acceptance of such 
a proposal involved the undertaking of a very hard task ; 
one speaker at the meeting even going so far as to say that 
'while he did not amticipate they were to win the county, 
he was sure that if Colonel Wauchope led this forlorn hope, 
it would not be an inglorious defeat.' 

Notwithstanding the rather doubtful prospects of success 
which his supporters gave, Wauchope's reply was char- 
acteristic of the man. He accepted the honour and the 
responsibility all the more readily, it would appear, that it 
was accompanied by difficulties. After thanking the meet- 
irg for asking him to come forward at the next election, 



OPPOSES MR. GLADSTONE in 

he said he should be more than human if he did not 
feel deeply gratified. If he had been an orator, or if he 
had been a man engaged in public affairs, he would not 
have been surprised. But though he was an utterly untried 
man, he would do his best to try and serve, he should not 
say their interests, but the interests of the cause which 
they had all at heart. He was sure they would rally round 
the old flag — the flag of the Union. It spoke well for the 
future of Unionism throughout the land ; and their native 
county of Midlothian had in this respect shown a good 
example to the rest of the country. They must never lose 
sight of the fact that this battle that was going on now was 
not a battle only in Midlothian, but it was a battle 'all 
along the line,' from Land's End to John o' Groats. They 
were only a mere part of that fight; and if it were a 
'forlorn hope' here, it was of the greatest advantage to 
the great cause that they made a good ' forlorn hope ' of 
it ! He felt the responsibility very much to play the 
part of leader to them when they might so easily have got 
a better one. ' However,' he said, 'the choice is with you. 
I did not seek it, but shall do my best to come to the end 
of the business in a proper way.' Here it will be seen 
there was both boldness and modesty, confidence in 
the cause he was to champion, and self-reliance, without 
overrating his ability for the hazard. His opposition 
to Irish Home Rule and the possible disintegration of the 
Empire made him fearless, even to the extent of daring 
to oppose in person the great commander-in-chief of the 
Home Rule army. 

At this time he was home from Gibraltar for a short 
furlough, and with evidently no expectation of taking 
any prominent part in politics ; and so, his term of leave of 
absence having nearly expired, he was unable to follow up 



ii2 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

his nomination by any active movement. He accordingly 
returned to Gibraltar on 4th December. In January 
following he got, however, a further leave of absence from 
29th January till 31st May, during which time he took 
full advantage of the opportunity. Though there was 
no near prospect of an election, he at once set about his 
canvass with all the characteristic energy of his nature, 
devoting all his spare time to addressing meetings of the 
electors in the various villages and parishes of the county. 
This preliminary canter over, he rejoined his regiment 
at Gibraltar in June 1890, leaving politics all behind him, 
and entering with fresh zest into his military duties. 

The Liberal press of the country, as a rule, treated Colonel 
Wauchope's candidature with the utmost indifference, if 
not with contempt, regarding it as a foregone conclusion 
that it would end in nothing. Indeed, his splendid 
audacity provoked the Radical party to mirth, and even 
in Unionist circles there was much shaking of heads. On 
all hands, by political friends and foes alike, every con- 
sideration and deference was shown, and he was listened 
to generally in respectful silence, rarely with open oppo- 
sition ; but his claims were not considered serious enough 
to work out to a conclusion that would at all affect Mr. 
Gladstone's position as the sitting member. Was Mr. 
Gladstone not the first statesman of the day, and the most 
brilliant Chancellor of the Exchequer of the century? — a 
man who, it has been wittily said, 'could apply all the 
resources of a burnished rhetoric to the illustration of 
figures; who could make pippins and cheese interesting, 
and tea serious ; who could sweep the widest horizon of the 
financial future and yet stop to bestow the minutest atten- 
tion on the microcosm of penny stamps and post horses.' 
To oppose such a man seemed madness. The feeling was, 



CANVASS OF THE ELECTORS 113 

however, more of pity that a good man should waste his 
energies on a hopeless effort, than any fear of danger to 
the Liberal cause. The following, as the expression of a 
Liberal editor, may be taken as a fair specimen of the 
general feeling at the time : — 'The answer to the question 
of the Scotsman, " Where is the candidate for Midlothian ? " 
has at last been answered. Colonel Wauchope is a good 
and a brave man, and one almost regrets that he should 
have been prevailed upon to lead a forlorn hope. Almost 
all that was said of Sir Charles Dalrymple when he con- 
tested the county,' may be said of the Laird of Niddrie. 
His heart is in the right place. He is justly held in much 
esteem as a landlord and county gentleman, as well as for 
his gallant services to his country. Sir Charles is, how- 
ever, more of and perhaps a better politician, and where 
he failed, Colonel Wauchope can have little chance of 
success.' 

These pessimistic effusions had no more effect upon 
Wauchope than water on a duck's back. He had given 
his word, the die was cast, and deliberately and systemati- 
cally he carried out his resolution. Beginning at his own 
village of New Craighall — chiefly inhabited by the miners 
belonging to the coal-pits on his estate — he commenced his 
campaign in the schoolroom on 10th February 1890, his 
friend and neighbour Sir Charles Dalrymple acting as chair- 
man. In the course of his speech, Sir Charles referred 
to the difficult task Colonel Wauchope had undertaken, but 
was of opinion that his experience in the army had taught 
him not to shrink from a task because it was difficult. 
Indeed, he thought that to Colonel Wauchope a task of 
difficulty was more attractive than an easy one. He was 
above all things plain-spoken and thorough, and if he 
made statements on public questions, they might be sure 

H 



H4 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

that he would not have to answer them or explain them 
away at a subsequent period. 

It is not necessary we should follow his footsteps 
throughout the county on this first round of addresses 
to the electors, or of his second round the following year, 
when he again returned from Gibraltar, and finally in 1892 
when the general election took place. His personal can- 
vass too of nearly fifteen thousand electors was a remarkable 
experience, and was conducted by him with much tact. 

It is needless to say these repeated appearances proved an 
excellent training for him in the art of public speaking. He 
addressed the electors on all subjects of public importance 
from Home Rule as the all-absorbing question of the day, 
to questions of Imperial and local interest. It must be 
admitted his early speeches bore the unmistakable signs 
of the amateur in platform oratory, and when too hard 
pressed by a pertinacious heckler he had sometimes to 
admit he was nonplussed, but that he would give the 
embarrassing question his full attention, and express his 
opinion on it when he had formed it. This want of 
experience told heavily against him, and frequently he had 
difficulty in getting a hearing, or in being able clearly to 
express his views on some of the topics dealt with. But 
a breakdown did not put him very much out ; he always 
managed to please his audience before he was done, with 
some happy remark given with the utmost good-nature. 
His utterances, sometimes diffuse and incoherent at first, 
very soon grew in confidence as well as in clearness, and 
before the election was over there were few public speakers 
better able to command the attention of a large audience 
than Andrew Gilbert Wauchope of Niddrie. 

As he progressed in fluency of utterance he grew in 
popularity. The householders of the middle class cer- 



ELECTIONEERING DIFFICULTIES 115 

tainly showed no sympathy for his claims, and almost 
closed their doors in his face. They were Gladstonian 
to a man. But, notwithstanding this, the Colonel gradually 
acquired a hold upon the industrial and agricultural work- 
men. He had, as they said, ' a way with him.' He talked to 
them in every village about politics and about their own 
lives. He never indulged in personal abuse of Mr. Glad- 
stone — on the contrary, when he did refer to him it was 
always with the utmost respect, as one or two of his speeches 
before us testify. As a rule, the working classes are not 
slow to recognise 'a gentleman, and they soon found the 
Colonel was one to the back-bone ; one who had a human 
heart and could do a kind deed. At a meeting in the 
early part of the campaign, a mining village had crowded 
its men into a hall to hear the man who dared to oppose 
Mr. Gladstone. The meeting was very noisy, and ill- 
disposed to listen — so much so that a speech was impos- 
sible. When things were becoming serious, a smart- 
looking working man, apparently in the thirties, stepped 
on to the platform amidst the hubbub, much to the 
Colonel's surprise. Nobody knew what was coming, and 
the singularity of the proceeding secured silence, in which 
the unexpected orator spoke to the following effect : — ' I 
dinna ken very much about politics, but I was wounded at 
Tel-el-Kebir, and a man came up to me as I lay on the 
ground, and after giving me a drink from his water-bottle 
carried me back to a place of safety. That man is on the 
platform to-night, and that 's the man I 'm gaen to vote 
for.' The effect was electrical ; the Colonel was not only 
listened to, he was cheered to the echo, and the incident 
made a deep impression on many present. 

Frequently, of course, he had to stand a good deal of 
interruption and good-natured chaff, but he was generally 



n6 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

ready with a happy retort. ' Does your mother know 
you're out?' was shouted to him from the back part of a 
hall one night in the middle of his speech by a roisterous 
opponent. ' Oh yes,' quietly replied the Colonel parentheti- 
cally, ' but she will very soon know that I am in ! ' 

Another questioner, evidently thinking he had a ;, 
put it to the candidate : ■ If war breaks out, will you be 
able to represent the county?' to which he returned the 
laconic and crushing reply : ' My man, if war breaks out, 
I '11 be there ' — an answer which at once evoked a ringing 
cheer and turned the meeting largely in his favour. Of 
course he did not convert all the miners to his way of 
thinking, but he managed to retain their esteem all the 
same. 'I like ye, Colonel, but I canna vote for ye,' said 
a conscientious miner to him one day, and doubtless the 
Colonel appreciated his humble political opponent all the 
more for his genuine frankness. Few who were present at 
his first political meeting in New Craighall schoolroom 
will readily forget the difficulty he had in getting through 
with the subject of land values. After wandering over 
half the Continent for practical illustrations, he at length 
lost the thread of his discourse, and got into a hopeless 
maze. For a minute or two he stood speechless, while his 
face became quite florid, as he fiercely pounded his left 
hand with his fist in his own characteristic fashion. A 
happy inspiration came at last. Turning his back upon 
the audience, he suddenly seized one of the newspaper 
reporters sitting near, and commanded him to stand up. 
1 What have you got down there ? Read it ! ' With some 
difficulty the reporter obeyed. ' That 's not what I want 
to say at all. Put it out. We can't have that go into the 
papers ; put it down this way,' and then he proceeded to 
tell him what he meant to say. 



TRAMPING THE CONSTITUENCIES 117 

'I was miserably beaten,' he remarked next day to a 
friend; 'but I've determined to master politics, and I'll 
do it.' How he did it every one knows. With a volume 
of Gladstone's speeches in his pocket, he tramped the 
constituencies, and on the eve of the election, at a meeting 
of seventeen hundred persons in the Corn Exchange of 
Dalkeith, which was even honoured by the presence of 
cabinet ministers, the speech of the evening was admitted 
to be that made by Colonel Wauchope. 

All this involved, of course, active exertion, as well as 
concentration of thought and study, and the very servants 
in the house could see he was absorbed in thought as he 
never had been before. Even his walks about the grounds 
were less frequent than before, for the things that used 
formerly to interest him were passed unheeded by, as with 
face to the ground he appeared to be thinking out some 
problem or composing a speech. In his room piles of 
papers littered the floor, and the preparations for speeches 
must have been enormous for one not accustomed to this 
kind of work. One night he had sat up late preparing a 
speech, making cuttings and pasting them together to be 
ready for reference. In order that they might be pro- 
perly dried, he left them on the fender overnight, and 
when the girl came in in the morning to put on the fire, 
thinking it was a lot of wastepaper she used it for that 
purpose. Of course the Colonel made inquiries about his 
papers, and for some time there was great consternation 
among the servants when it was known what had happened, 
and the admission had to be made that they had been 
destroyed. It was very different with him, however. He 
laughed the matter over, and told the poor girl never to 
mind, as it was more than likely it would end in smoke 
at any rate ! 



n8 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

By the end of March 1891 Colonel Wauchope had a 
second time visited the whole of the constituency, or, as 
a Radical paper put it, 'had been overhauling the pre- 
serves of the Grand Old Man,' but admitting frankly, at the 
same time, that ■ he seemed everywhere to be received with 
marked attention and respect.' 

One of the largest of these meetings, held in Dalkeith 
on 31st January, gave him an opportunity of twitting the 
Liberals upon their alliance with Mr. Parnell, and upon 
the exposure made to the country by his having a bag of 
lime thrown in his facej ' not by an alien Saxon, but by a 
Paddy belonging to the soil, in the county of Kilkenny, in 
the very midst of dear old Ireland.' The great issue, he 
said, now before the country has been wonderfully cleared 
up, and he strongly believed that if the people of this 
country could have the truth put before them, there would 
be no more talk of Home Rule — referring, of course, to 
the scandal connected with the Irish leader's temporary 
retirement from political life by recent exposures in the 
Divorce Court. 

These peregrinations through the county brought Colonel 
Wauchope in contact with all classes of people. The very 
reporters, whose duty it was to follow him and report his 
speeches, he made friends of, and by all who had dealings 
with him he was regarded as the most genial and generous- 
minded of political candidates. As one of them said, 'he 
was affability itself, and gave the impression of regarding 
the reporters as his personal friends.' One of these gentle- 
men has given us the following graphic account of an 
electioneering visit to one of the outlying parishes in the 
county : — 

Once in the course of one of his Midlothian tours we had 
something in the nature of adventure. He was to address an 



AN EVENTFUL NIGHT 119 

evening meeting at Heriot, and arrangements were duly made 
for the stopping of an outgoing express which left the Waverley 
Station about six o'clock, as well as for the stopping of the 
Pullman express in order to bring him back to Edinburgh. 
The arrangement was so beautifully fine that it failed disas- 
trously. To begin with, the departure of the outgoing train 
was delayed for over twenty minutes awaiting a Glasgow con- 
nection, and, to make matters worse, the fact that the village 
of Heriot is about two miles distant from the railway station 
had been totally disregarded — if, indeed, it was known. The 
result was that the candidate, his agent, and the writer alighted 
at Heriot Station just about the time that the meeting was 
announced to begin. There was nothing for it but walking. 
In a drenching rain the three of us set out for the meeting- 
place. When we had accomplished a considerable part of the 
journey we were overtaken by a light country van. The driver 
on having our plight explained to him, readily gave us a ' lift,' 
and in this way we reached Heriot about the time we ought to 
have been leaving it in order to catch the train that was being 
stopped for the express purpose of picking us up. The audience, 
it was evident, was not quite in the best of humour at having 
been kept waiting so long ; but the explanation of the Colonel, 
and his candid, honest attitude won the hearts of his audience, 
and he had an excellent reception. A passage in his speech 
on that occasion is worth recalling in the light of the event 
over which all Scotland to-day mourns. ' People state,' he 
said, ' that I am a warlike candidate ; but, gentlemen, I have 
twice or thrice been shot in the body already, and I declare to 
you I have no great desire to be shot again.' At the close of 
the meeting we set out on the return trudge to Heriot, painfully 
aware of the fact that the last train had gone, and not knowing 
in the least how or where we were going to pass the night. 
In the course of our march, I remember, the Colonel turned to 
me and said seriously, ' I hope you don't get into any bother 
over this ?' I assured him that he need have no anxiety on that 
score. ' Because,' he added, ' I '11 sign any certificate you 
like.' The remark was quite like him. It reflected at once 
the soldier and the considerate gentleman. Well when we 



120 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

got to the railway station, we found that the train that was to 
have picked us up, had passed quite an hour previously. The 
stationmaster, I remember, took in the situation sympathetically 
at a glance. If he was not a sturdy Unionist he must have 
been one of the General's numerous admirers. 'There is 
nothing for it,' said he, ■ but to walk up the line to Falahill, 
where we may have a chance of getting a pilot engine to run 
you down at least to Dalkeith.' Accordingly the stationmaster 
lit a lamp, and the four of us started to walk up the line in the 
dark, wet night. When we reached Falahill we learned with 
intense relief that a spare engine was at that very moment 
pushing up a goods train from Eskbank. The train arrived at 
the signal-box in the course of a very few minutes, and in the 
course of a few minutes more the Colonel, his agent, and my- 
self had mounted the spare engine. The engine-driver was a 
brick. He drove us down the hill like the wind — tender first, 
by the way. We alighted from the engine at the point where 
the Dalkeith section debouches from the main line, and after 
the chilling effect of our rough ride, at once started off at a 
smart pace to walk to Dalkeith Station. We reached Dalkeith 
exactly at ten minutes to ten o'clock. There were thus ten 
minutes left to us in which to obtain a much-needed refresh- 
ment, and we needed little persuasion to visit an adjoining inn 
for the purpose. We caught the last train from Dalkeith, and 
were in the Waverley Station about half-past ten o'clock. 
Many a time afterwards was that eventful evening recalled by 
all three. 

In the spring of this same year (189 1), when political 
parties in Midlothian were busy preparing for the possi- 
bility of a general election occurring in the following year, 
a portion of Colonel Wauchope's regiment was ordered 
home from Gibraltar, and he was posted to the Second 
Battalion to be stationed at Belfast. This transference 
made him now second in command, with the rank of 
Senior Major of the Black Watch. He did not therefore 
require to go back to Gibraltar again, but served the 



THIRD TOUR OF MIDLOTHIAN 121 

greater part of this and the following year, first in Belfast 
and afterwards in Limerick. 

In January 1892 Colonel Wauchope began his third 
tour of Midlothian, carrying it on with energy for the next 
three months. Still the dogged determination to do well 
and thoroughly what he had undertaken is patent in all 
the steps of his progress. The ' forlorn hope ' was now 
looking more hopeful, and his opponents were beginning 
to take alarm. At one meeting it had been insinuated 
that Mr. Gladstone being an old man of eighty-two, he 
was only working with a view to ultimately taking the 
great statesman's place. He repudiated the idea with all 
the eloquence he could command. ' It had been said that 
he was waiting to step into dead men's shoes. That, he 
thought, was striking a bit below the belt. He certainly 
could look any man in Midlothian straight in the face — 
ay, into his very eye — and say that he was waiting to 
fill no dead man's shoes. He was telling the truth, and 
nothing but the truth, when he said he hoped Mr. 
Gladstone might live for many years. He knew that a 
greater statesman than Mr. Gladstone perhaps never lived 
in this country ; but, despite that, he was sorry to say he 
could not agree with his policy. Indeed, the more he 
admired Mr. Gladstone's genius, and the more wonderful 
he considered all that he had done, the more deeply and 
the more profoundly did he regret the course he had 
pursued in regard to the Irish Home Rule question. 
There was no doubt that the greatest men had made the 
greatest mistakes.' Home Rule he characterised in another 
speech as ' Federalism that would completely change the 
character of the Government of the United Kingdom,' and 
'he could not help feeling it was a measure which would 
never be sanctioned by the people of this country.' 



122 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

As a counteractive to the Colonel's prolonged canvass, a 
great Liberal demonstration took place in Edinburgh on 
29th March, when, in addition to the great statesman 
himself, Lord Carrington, Governor of New South Wales, 
appeared. 

Parliament was dissolved three months after, on 25th 
June, and immediately the electoral battle was waged 
with greater intensity. Mr. Gladstone came down to 
Edinburgh on the 30th June to begin a tour of the county, 
and the eyes of the whole country were turned upon 
Midlothian and the fate of the great leader of the Liberal 
party. Charmed with the flow of eloquence, crowded 
audiences hung upon his lips, and, no doubt, led away 
with the popular enthusiasm with which he was on all 
hands greeted, Mr. Gladstone's supporters overlooked the 
influence that had silently but surely been working against 
his return, and were incredulous as to the possibility of 
defeat, while a too confident committee were thought to 
have relaxed their efforts. One Radical writer had no 
hesitation in saying, that 'as to the result of the election, 
no one seems to have any doubt. It is fully admitted 
that Colonel Wauchope is in many respects an admirable 
candidate, but to compare him with Mr. Gladstone is 
looked upon by the latter gentleman's followers as almost 
ludicrous !' 

The result was nevertheless looked forward to with the 
utmost interest. Speculation ran high; and while the 
odds were certainly in favour of Mr. Gladstone, an element 
of uncertainty was daily growing as the polling-day drew 
near, which only whetted public curiosity the more. 

It was even said that the Colonel himself, in view of his 
rapidly increasing popularity, was beginning to be appre- 
hensive that he was actually to be elected — a result he 



; 



GETTING INTO A I 

neither expected nor greatly wished. * I am getting into 
a funk,' he remarked — whether seriously or not we cannot 
tell — when his agents told him he was likely to win the 
seat from Mr. Gladstone. ■ You know, I don't want to go 
into Parliament ; I want to be Commander of the Black 
h. 1 He had stood forward when asked as the 
champion of his party. He had opposed what he con- 
sidered the errors of the Liberals. He would hare none 
of Mr. Gladstone's Home Rule policy. He was opposed 
to the Disestablishment of the Church of Scotland. He 
was against the enforcement of an eight hours limit of 
labour as an infringement of individual liberty, while 
he held that the foreign policy of the country under 
Liberal Governments had not always commanded public 
confidence. For three years he had earnestly and well 
enunciated the principles for which he contended, but as 
to turning Mr. Gladstone out of his seat at last, we can 
well believe that he shrank from the bare possibility of it 
as the day of the poll approached. 

The Midlothian election took place on the 12th July. 
Out of a constituency of 13,134, no less than 11,000 
tendered their votes — or 84 per cent of the total It 
must be borne in mind that a large number of the returns 
throughout the country had already been made, and these 
in many cases showed in favour of the Liberal cause. 
Indeed, Lord Salisbury's majority in the House of 
Commons had disappeared, and each day brought addi- 
tions to the Liberal majority. The party was naturally 
elated, and so far as Midlothian was concerned it was 
confidently predicted that Mr. Gladstone's majority would 
not be less than 2500. The result of the poll was made 
known next day at the Edinburgh County Buildings before 
an immense concourse of people. It was one of the biggest 



i2 4 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

surprises Mr. Gladstone's supporters encountered during 
the General Election, so far certainly as Scotland was con- 
cerned. The counting of the votes was completed about 
a quarter to one o'clock, and an unofficial intimation of 
the result soon found its way outside. It put Mr. 
Gladstone's majority at 673. There was a crowd of 
some thousands in number on the street in front of the 
court-house, and the announcement that Mr. Gladstone's 
majority had been reduced below 700 gave rise to a scene 
of extraordinary excitement. The crowd surged up to the 
door to hear the figures, and as the cry ' Gladstone in by 
700' was passed from one to another, a roar of astonish- 
ment, we are told, went up from a thousand throats. 
The noise brought hundreds of more excited politicians 
flocking to the scene. Town Council committee men and 
young men from the adjoining Parliament House of every 
shade of politics hurried up to join the excited throng. 
Blank dismay took hold of every Gladstonian countenance. 
Some of them could not restrain themselves, and the most 
convenient object on which to vent their indignation was 
apparently the Church of Scotland, which came in for no 
little share of abuse as the cause of it all. 

When it is recalled that in 1885 Mr. Gladstone had 
been elected by a majority of 4631, and that in the follow- 
ing year his return was not opposed, the figures of 1892 
very well justified Colonel Wauchope's daring. These 
were, for Mr. Gladstone 5845, and for the Colonel 5150 — 
a majority for the former of 690. In other words, Mr. 
Gladstone had lost 2000 votes, and Colonel AVauchope 
had polled nearly 2000 more than had been recorded for 
Sir Charles Dalrymple in 1885. Neither of the candidates 
happened to be at the County Buildings when the declara- 
tion of the poll was made, so that after the first surprise 



RESULT OF THE POLL 125 

was over the crowd dispersed. It had been the intention 
to have at once sent a telegram to Mr. Gladstone, who was 
residing with Lord Rosebery at Dalmeny, but it is said that 
so great was the perplexity among his supporters, that the 
telegram though made out was not despatched till later on, 
for, like the crowd outside, the people in the corridors 
refused for a time to credit the figures. Colonel Wauchope 
had a most enthusiastic reception accorded to him at his 
committee rooms in Princes Street, and on being called 
upon for a speech, said he would not make a speech, 
because he felt* it to be true that it was the committee of 
Midlothian that had won this victory. It was, he repeated, 
the committee ; it was the men who had stood by their 
guns at the committee rooms, the men who had assiduously 
and earnestly worked for the cause — a duty he feared not 
always of the most agreeable kind. But they had done their 
work well, and it was to them that they owed this great 
victory — because it was a victory — that would resound 
throughout the length and breadth of the land. ' It is true, 
I have been the standard-bearer in this fight, and I hope I 
have borne the standard not without discredit to myself. 
But it is very little that a standard-bearer can do if he is 
not supported by an army on the right and an army on the 
left of him, and I am here to acknowledge that I have 
been supported, and well supported, by a noble army both 
on my right and on my left. We have fought a good fight, 
and a straight fight, and we have proved that the heart of 
Midlothian beats sound enough.' 

The result of this Midlothian election was admitted on 
all hands, and by none more so than the Liberals them- 
selves, as 'a grievous surprise,' 'an eye-opener,' 'a severe 
lesson.' It was realised now that after all Colonel 
Wauchope's candidature had not been quite the 'forlorn 



i26 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

hope ' they had at first predicted it to be. As one of the 
party papers afterwards remarked, ' They had been taught 
the lesson that it does not do to depend too much upon 
the individuality of any one, however eminent, to carry 
a seat. . . . The advanced party was caught napping.' 
. . . 'It is,' they said, 'most astonishing to find how well 
Colonel Wauchope is respected in the constituency now, 
and how much he has improved in his treatment of 
political questions.? The outspoken and transparent 
honesty of his character has made him troops of friends in 
all quarters, and the attention with which he was received 
both by friends and opponents at the various polling- 
booths must have been gratifying to the gallant Colonel 
himself in no ordinary degree, as well as encouraging alike 
to him and his supporters to try conclusions again.' 

Seldom has a defeat been reckoned so much of a 
victory. Those of the 'forlorn hope' were amazed, for 
what at first appeared so hopeless had come within the 
region of possibility. Wauchope's name was on every 
lip and at the point of every pen. The Midlothian elec- 
tion startled the political world, and sobered the joy of 
Liberals; for even the return of a majority of members to 
Parliament, sufficient with the aid of the Irish Nationalists 
to turn out the Conservative Government of Lord Salisbury 
and to place Mr. Gladstone in office, was, in the estimation 
of many of that great statesman's admirers, scarcely com- 
pensation enough for such a downcome. 

Immediately after the election, on the 18th July, 
Colonel Wauchope was entertained to a house dinner by 
the Scottish Conservative Club, at which Sir Charles 
Dalrymple presided. The Unionists of Midlothian also 
recognised Colonel Wauchope's efforts and the sacrifices 
he had made in the contest by a grand banquet given 



CORN EXCHANGE BANQUET 127 

in his honour in the Corn Exchange, one of the largest 
halls in Edinburgh, on the 20th August. Beautifully 
decorated for the occasion, and filled as it was by over 
a thousand of the leading men of the party, and a large 
number of ladies in the galleries, the banquet was a 
spectacle of remarkable brilliancy and beauty. 

The meeting was presided over by the Duke of 
Buccleuch, who, in proposing their guest's health, con- 
gratulated the company upon the occasion which had 
brought so many of them together as representatives of 
every parish in' the county, after a fight in which the 
interest of the whole country had been centred — a fight 
which was looked upon a short time ago as a forlorn 
hope — a fight with one of the most powerful men in the 
kingdom — one who came down here, you may say, as the 
idol of the people. 'It is unusual,' said his Grace, 'to 
celebrate a defeat ; I will not call it that. I cannot call it 
a victory, but I will call it a very great success. It has 
been a success that has astonished ourselves, but it has 
done more than that — it has created consternation among 
our opponents. A few more, or, I would say, one more 
success of this kind, will not only be a victory, but a very 
great one. For a majority of 4631 to have been reduced 
on this last occasion to 690 is no small thing to have been 
accomplished. It has been accomplished by two causes, 
or, I might say, three perhaps. One was a first-class 
candidate; the second was hard-working constituents; 
the third — a very important one — was a good cause.' His 
Grace then referred to the Colonel's family as holding an 
honoured place in the history of Midlothian for nearly six 
hundred years, and to his own good qualities as a soldier 
who had fought hard for his country's honour, and faith- 
fully served his Queen. 



128 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

Colonel Wauchope's reply was at once modest, vigorous, 
and humorous, but our space will not permit us to give it in 
its entirety. In his most light-hearted bantering manner he 
referred to the consternation of their Liberal opponents on 
hearing that Mr. Gladstone had only been returned by a 
majority of 690. 'They said it must be a blunder; there 
must be something wrong; a "one" dropped out from 
before the " six "; it was absurd ; the figure will be at least 
1690.' 'Ah, but they looked, and they better looked, but 
there was no number " one " before the " six." The fact 
was this, my friends, that Mr. Gladstone's majority was 
down 4000, and so the news had to travel to Dalmeny, 
where, I fancy, it was not received with great cordiality !' 
After complimenting the committee for the manner in 
which they had all exerted themselves, and a graceful 
acknowledgment to the ladies who had also assisted, he 
concluded by thanking his supporters for the great kind- 
ness he had experienced, and the great honour they had 
done him, and sat down amid a perfect storm of applause, 
the large audience once more rising to their feet, cheering 
to the echo. 

One of the other speakers — Mr. Mai tin, manager of the 
works at New Craighall — mentioned that the miners of 
Niddrie, who had supported the Colonel with loyal 
devotion, were going to work on till they had returned 
him as member for Midlothian. And as an evidence of 
their admiration, on the 17th December they also in their 
own humble way honoured him with a banquet. It was 
given in the schoolroom of the village, and about a hundred 
and fifty warm sympathisers were present, presided over 
by Mr. Martin. It was in every way a demonstration 
creditable to the gratitude of the men for many acts of 
kindness shown to them in the past, and a manifestation of 



WAUCHOPE AND GLADSTONE 129 

their personal esteem, which the Colonel was not slow to 
recognise and appreciate. 

A noteworthy feature of this contest between Colonel 
Wauchope and Mr. Gladstone was the entire absence 
of personal animosity. Both candidates treated each 
other, as they were entitled to do, with the utmost 
respect. This is not always so in the heat of political 
warfare. But Wauchope had the good sense to avoid any 
reference to his opponent, and for long Mr. Gladstone did 
not condescend to reply to any strictures upon his policy. 
When Wauchope had decided to offer himself as a candi- 
date for Midlothian, he went to Sir Robert Biddulph, the 
Governor of Gibraltar, and told him he would have to 
canvass regularly until the next general election. Sir 
Robert's advice was wise : — ' I told him,' said he, ' that he 
should never make any personal attack on Gladstone, nor 
ever mention his name in his public speeches. I said, 
" Gladstone is so strong a man, and so powerful a speaker, 
that he can tear you to pieces. You should not, therefore, 
give him the least opening for attacking you, but just act 
as if no such man existed." Some time after/ continues 
Sir Robert, ' he reminded me of that advice, and said he 
had scrupulously acted upon it, so much so that Mr. 
Gladstone had never attacked him, and had even spoken 
of him as a worthy and estimable man ! ' 

Notwithstanding his military duties, of which he was far 
from being forgetful, amid all the political excitement of 
1892, Colonel Wauchope, encouraged by the enthusiasm 
of his friends, and still determined to uphold what he con- 
sidered Constitutional principles, though, at the same 
time, conscious of his own deficiencies, continued his 
candidature for some time in' view of the possibility of 
another election soon. Writing from Limerick Barracks 

1 



130 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

on 28th July 1892 to a friend in Dalkeith who had sent 
him some complimentary verses on the recent election, 
he says : — ' Many thanks for your kind letter. It is such 
that repay me for any little trouble I may have taken in 
the good old cause. No one feels more than I do how 
unfit I am in many ways for the position of candidate. 
For instance, during next month we are to be at field 
manoeuvres, and I am tied by the leg during that time. 
But Midlothian deals very tenderly with all my wants — very 
much, I take it, that I am one of themselves.' Before long 
it became apparent, however, that it would be a needless 
waste of energy to continue the struggle ; and, besides 
this, other duties supervened, and Colonel Wauchope saw 
fit to withdraw altogether from politics for a season. 






CHAPTER VIII 

THE 7 3RD REGIMENT AT MARYHILL BARRACKS — INCIDENTS 
OF HOME -LIFE MILITARY LIFE AT YORK APPOINT- 
MENT TO SOUDAN CAMPAIGN. 

In the autumn of 1892 Colonel Wauchope's residence in 
Limerick came to a close on his appointment to the 
command of the 73rd Perthshire Regiment, or the 2nd 
Battalion of the Black Watch, then stationed at Maryhill 
Barracks, Glasgow. This well-earned promotion to a 
position he had long aspired to occupy enabled him to 
be more frequently at Niddrie than formerly. During 
the twenty-seven years he had been connected with the 
Black Watch, he had risen slowly but steadily from 
the rank of subaltern through the various intermediate 
stages to the first position, by dint of persevering effort 
and close application to his military duties. He was by 
no means a dilettante officer. He loved his profession, 
and he made it his life work, while the enthusiasm with 
which he was inspired he imparted to those around him. 
We find this exemplified in a speech made at a large gather- 
ing of the old members of the 42nd held in the Trades 
Hall, Glasgow, on the 17th September, where he presided. 
Many of those present had been with him through the 
Ashanti and Soudan campaigns, as well as in Cyprus, 
Malta, and Gibraltar, and in referring to former times he 

131 



i 3 2 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

recalled their relationship with no little satisfaction. He 
felt, he said, as if he was back at Aldershot under his dear 
old colonel, now Sir John M'Leod, and once more an 
ensign, and the adjutant of the 42nd. But let them not 
forget their comrades of the 73rd regiment. Almost since 
the beginning of the century, the 73rd had been part and 
parcel of the 42nd, having been indeed the second 
battalion of the regiment. That alliance had been a 
happy one. Personally he had now served the second 
battalion for eighteen months, and it had been to him a 
period of great pleasure in his duties. That which bound 
them together and gave them so much in common was the 
glorious traditions of the 42nd. Their hearts warmed to 
each other and the old regiment as they thought of 
Waterloo and Quatre Bras. But it was not only traditions 
they had. He saw men before him who had fought in a 
European theatre of war, and who had taken part in the 
great battle of the Alma, of which they were now cele- 
brating the anniversary. He had spent twenty-seven years 
in the old regiment, and the longer he was in it the better 
he loved it. In concluding an eloquent address, he said : 
'The 42nd stood high in the esteem of the Scottish people, 
for there was no regiment that Scotland loved more than 
the "Auld Forty-twa," and well they might. By sea and 
by land, at home and abroad, the 42nd had fought and 
always deserved well of its country. Our old regiment 
has become renowned chiefly, I believe, because of the 
strict and stern yet good discipline exercised by such 
commanders as Sir Daniel Cameron, Sir John M'Leod, 
and others. These men had always stood up for discip- 
line, and it was discipline that brought the soldier com- 
fort, whilst it was the reverse that brought disorder and 
crime, and everything that was disagreeable.' 



'RIGHT-ABOUT WHEELI' 133 

The Colonel was not, however, always so successful as a 
speaker An amusing incident is told of him when in com- 
mand at Maryhill Barracks which shows that an eloquent 
man may not always have command of his tongue. One 
morning on parade he purposed giving the men an address, 
and from the demeanour of their colonel the men antici- 
pated something eloquent. The genial Andrew, however, 
had only got the length of 'Men of the gallant 42nd/ 
when his tongue seemed to cleave to the roof of his mouth. 
Thrice did he make the attempt, and thrice did he fail to 
make progress," until, exasperated with himself, he suddenly 
exclaimed, to the astonishment of the regiment — { Men of 
the gallant 42nd, right-about wheel ! ' 

But while the Colonel was strong in politics and diligent 
in the discharge of barrack duties, he did not forget his 
old ancestral home at Niddrie. It was never his lot to 
make anything like a permanent residence at Niddrie 
House, but so long as he was stationed either at Maryhill 
or afterwards in Edinburgh Castle he embraced every 
opportunity of making short visits home ; and when home 
he never failed to interest himself in the welfare of all in 
the neighbourhood. In the spring of 1893, being then in 
command in Edinburgh Castle, he had more frequent 
opportunities of being among ' his ain folk,' and taking a 
more active interest in their welfare than was formerly 
possible. It is with almost a smile we read of his 
being at home at that time, and attending a meeting 
mostly composed of miners and labourers in the Niddrie 
School, to present prizes to the members of the local 
Bowling Club, in whose success he took a lively interest. 
A social meeting held after this ceremony was heartily 
enjoyed by all present, the Colonel entering freely into 
the spirit of the occasion, making himself the gayest of 



134 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

the gay and ' everybody's body,' among men, women, and 
children. As one has well said, 'he had a magnetism 
about him which not only made him the friend of all, but 
made all his friends.' 

It will be long before the people of Niddrie and New 
Craighall villages forget his kindness to them. One and 
all while he lived regarded him with pride, affection, and 
gratitude. Nor is this to be wondered at, for he held 
their loyalty and friendship by simple and unaffected acts 
of kindness and helpfulness, never making them feel that 
his friendship was an act of condescension, but rather the 
outcome of a warm heart and a generous nature. Their 
acknowledgment of his services when occasion arose was 
always spontaneous and sincere. 

This was strikingly exemplified on the occasion of 
Colonel Wauchope's marriage in 1893 to Miss Jean Muir, 
the daughter of the venerable Principal of Edinburgh 
University. On the Saturday previous, the villagers and 
others turned out in full force, and by their gifts as well 
as by their presence showed how gratified they were with 
the lady of his choice, and how their good wishes went 
out towards them both. Two bands headed the proces- 
sion to the mansion-house, and when the lawn was reached 
the Colonel was presented in name of them all with a 
silver punch-bowl, on a polished cannel-coal stand taken 
from the Niddrie coal-pits. The presents from the 
school children, the tenants on the estate, and other 
incidents of the day testified unmistakably in the same 
way to the cordial relations subsisting between the laird 
and his neighbours and dependants. 

1 A better man never lived ' was the terse estimate of one 
of the villagers when speaking of him lately, and the echo 
of it will long keep his memory green. 



CHARLIE EGAN 135 

One touching incident illustrating his goodness of heart 
is told by the Rev. George Dodds, the Free Church 
Minister of Liberton, as occurring about this time. When 
in command at Maryhill Barracks the Colonel one day 
inspecting the hospital had his attention directed to a boy 
• — one of two brothers in the band of the Black Watch — 
who was dying of consumption, and it touched the soldier's 
heart. Finding out that the boy was an orphan, he had him 
removed to a room in his own house, the Colonel himself 
accompanying the lad from Glasgow to Niddrie, where 
every possible attention was paid to him. Dr. A. Balfour 
of Portobello was asked to look after the case, and it was 
the Colonel's wish that a nurse should attend him. The 
lad, however, got so attached to the housekeeper at 
Niddrie — one of the kindest and most faithful of servants 
— that he would have no other attention than hers. 
During all the illness of the brave little chap, no one 
knows but the kindly nurse, the doctor, and the minister, 
the Colonel's tenderness and anxiety and unstinted 
generosity towards his little friend. When at length after 
some weeks he died, it was a sight not to be forgotten, 
how at the close of the funeral service he stood weeping 
at the head of the coffin which was laid on trestles in the 
hall. It was a stormy wintry day at the end of April, the 
snow lying thick on the ground ; but, following the bier, 
he walked uncovered through the snow with all the rever- 
ence of a bereaved man to the grave in the little private 
burying-ground in the Niddrie policies, where the young 
soldier, whose closing weeks of life he had soothed so 
tenderly, was laid to rest by his comrades from Edinburgh 
Castle. 

Poor little Charlie Egan, with only his fifteen summers 
over his head, truly found in his commanding officer one 



136 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

who was touched with the truest Christian sympathy, and 
acted well towards him the part of the Good Samaritan. 
Such conduct is a noble example. It is the secret of lasting 
popularity. It is more, — it is the secret of true happiness. 
In 1894 occurred a protracted strike among the colliers 
throughout the country. The Niddrie coal-works were 
affected by it, and for seventeen weeks the men were out 
of employment, and their families suffering the severest hard- 
ship. On this question he expressed himself at a later date 
most forcibly in these words : — 'I do not know anything 
to a patriotic mind more terrible for the country, and bad for 
it, than anything in the shape of strikes — those industrial 
wars which the country has witnessed and which had been 
an evil thing in every way. I know it will be said that 
I am a man of war, and that I love war, and all that 
sort of thing. Never was there a greater fable. Though 
I have never had to stand on a great European field of 
battle, I ha "e seen too much of war in all its horrible 
aspects not to hate it in every sense of the word. In the 
same way with those industrial wars, there is nothing 
more deplorable and nothing which has tended more to 
unhappy homes, and all the consequences thereof.' But 
the Niddrie miners were in sore straits, and a deputation 
of them went to the Colonel to lay their case before him, and 
they did not appeal in vain. He told them very plainly 
he had no sympathy whatever with the strike ; ' but man, 
Tarn,' addressing the leader of the deputation, ' I would 
rather do anything than see the women and weans starving,' 
and there and then he promised to give one pound a week 
to keep the soup-kitchen going, so that they might at least 
have one good meal a day. Not only so, but as long as 
the strike lasted, vegetables in abundance were supplied 
from the Niddrie House gardens. 



THE COUNTRY GENTLEMAN 137 

In New Craighall there is a large reading-room and 
bagatelle-room. Many years ago the building was erected 
by the Wauchope family for a school, and was used as 
such up till 1896, when it was superseded by the large 
school erected by the Board at Niddrie Mill. Niddrie 
bowling-green, gifted to the villagers lately by Sir Charles 
Dalrymple, has been a great boon to the men ; and 
Colonel Wauchope contributed largely to the expense 
connected with its formation. A .bleaching-green in the 
centre of the village — part of it fenced off for football; 
the local football club ; the local brass band — these were 
all objects of his liberality. Was a site for a church or a 
chapel wanted, it was given ungrudgingly, and his grounds 
were thrown open for Sunday-school excursions and picnics 
during the summer months. In cases of accident to any 
of the miners, he had an ambulance waggon ready at the 
collieries, and in many other ways he indicated his interest 
in the villagers. 

Similar instances of generosity among the people of 
Town and Kirk Yetholm — where the other family estate 
is situated — made him, we are told, the 'admired of all 
admirers.' There he bestowed large monetary help in pro- 
viding better water supply and sanitary requirements for 
these villages. In Yetholm district he was an open-handed 
benefactor, and will probably be longer remembered as such 
than for his warlike achievements. And all this kindness was 
done without ostentation. It was the outcome of a noble 
and generous disposition. ' No man is truly great who is 
not gentle,' it has been wisely remarked, for a gentleman 
must be kind and considerate for others ; and though the 
work of a soldier is to fight, and if need be to kill, he is all 
the stronger in his hour of struggle against the enemy that 
he carries within him a gentle heart. 



138 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

Colonel Wauchope's heart was in the right place, and 
his influence was consequently far-reaching. It is told of 
him that one day he had as a companion in a country 
walk an ex-brother officer, not very popular among the 
private soldiers. As they sauntered along, they for- 
gathered with a big boisterous bully who had been 
drummed out of his regiment, taking with him a rankling 
ill-will against this officer. He gave vent to his wrath 
against the Colonel's companion, and threatened that he 
would ' do ' for him, showing at the same time every dis- 
position to carry his threat into effect; but Wauchope 
promptly stepped between the two, when the rowdy some- 
what changed his manner, saying, ' Captain, I would not 
lift a hand against so gallant an officer as you ; it is lucky 

for Mr. that you are with him,' whereupon the Colonel 

lectured him upon the impropriety of his conduct, and 
with sundry other good advices parted from him by leaving 
a silver coin in his hand. This was too much for the 
man, and he burst into tears. 

Nor was he above doing a kindly action, even though 
asked in not the most polite fashion. Once he happened 
to be visiting his friend Sir Charles Dalrymple, at New- 
hailes, dressed in plain rustic costume. He had scarcely 
entered the grounds, and closed the gate behind him, 
when he heard a shrill voice calling out, ■ Hae, man ! 
come and open the gate, will ye?' Looking round, 
Colonel Wauchope descried two fish-women with their 
creels on their backs, vainly endeavouring to effect an 
entrance. On the request being repeated, he at once 
turned back, politely opened the gate, and walked on ! 
They had taken him for one of the workmen, and were 
rather disconcerted when they afterwards discovered who 
had been acting the part of porter for them. 



THE MINERS' STRIKE 139 

Such acts of courtesy came natural to Colonel Wauchope ; 
they were not put on for occasion. Whether in open- 
handed generosity and hospitality, or in the mere opening 
of a gate, he exemplified Emerson's idea of what a gentle- 
man should be. As that writer expresses it, 'When I view 
the fine gentleman with regard to his manners, methinks 
I see him modest without bashfulness ; frank and affable 
without impertinence; obliging and complaisant without 
servility; cheerful and in good humour without noise. 
These amiable qualities are not easily obtained, neither 
are there many men that have a faculty to excel this way. 
A finished gentleman is perhaps the most uncommon of 
all the characters in life.' 

Colonel Wauchope stood well by the miners through 
their long enforced idleness, with all . its concomitant 
troubles, and when the time of distress was at last over 
and the pits had resumed work, the men determined to 
show their appreciation of his conduct by a public recog- 
nition of their esteem. On the 3rd May 1895, a large 
gathering took place in the New Craighall schoolroom, 
presided over by the manager of the works, when an 
illuminated address expressive of their gratitude, affection, 
and admiration, was presented to him in a silver-mounted 
casket. That he valued such an expression of affection 
from 'his own people,' as he liked to call them, goes 
without saying. In acknowledging the gift he said : 'This 
address will stand foremost among our household gods. 
On the face of it is a view of the old house of Niddrie, 
where for centuries my forefathers have lived before me. I 
will say that in distant lands and in moments of danger, 
my thoughts have always been of my old home and the 
people of Niddrie and this neighbourhood. And as to my 
poor services, I feel proud when they are brought to the 



14© GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

notice of my own people in my own country. And you may 
depend, that when the hour of danger is, if there is one 
thing that supports me in that hour, it is the knowledge 
that those at home are thinking about me, and should I 
fall, that their thoughts would be kindly towards me when I 
am no more.' Referring to a passage in the address that 
spoke of his relationship as owner of the soil to his 
dependants being ever of a kindly nature, he said: 'I 
would be no man at all if I were not pleased to hear that.' 
Then as for the unfortunate strike some months ago : ' I 
knew there were difficulties, and I stepped forward in a 
small way to try and help my countrymen and women. As 
for strikes, I don't like them. They are not good for our 
pockets, they are not good for our tempers, and they are 
unfortunate in every respect. It is an ill wind that blows 
nobody good, however, and that strike has done this good 
for me — it has given me this presentation, which shall for 
ever be valued. The strike will also have done good 
to the community, inasmuch as it has shown that when 
difficulties are around us, and trials and tribulations come, 
we can stand shoulder to shoulder.' After a graceful 
allusion to Mrs. Wauchope as one desirous of doing her 
duty, and who in the address had been called his { Gentle 
Consort/ the Colonel concluded amid great applause by 
thanking them all for the great kindness which had 
prompted such a meeting. 

It does one good in these times, when capital and 
labour are too often in antagonism, to find such cordiality 
of affection and identity of interest. 

After three years' residence in Edinburgh Castle, the 
2nd Battalion of the Royal Highlanders (Black Watch) 
received orders in the autumn of 1896 to take up their 
quarters in the city of York, and accordingly on 26th 



DEPARTURE FROM EDINBURGH 141 

September they left Edinburgh, where they had so long 
enjoyed the esteem of the citizens for their excellence of 
conduct. Colonel Wauchope and his gallant Highlanders 
paraded at seven in the morning at the Castle Esplanade, 
and although one hundred and seventy of the regiment 
were at the time at Ballater as a guard of honour 
to Her Majesty, the muster was five hundred and fifty 
strong. It spoke volumes for their discipline and good 
conduct, that Colonel Wauchope was able to say as 
the regiment was addressed before their departure, that 
'there was not a single absentee from parade, nor yet 
a prisoner.' 

The Black Watch were garrisoned in York for the 
following eighteen months, and both officers and men 
gained for themselves in that ancient cathedral city much 
popular favour. Effective discipline and systematic drill 
were never relaxed, and what they might lose in ease or 
pleasure was compensated by admirable efficiency. 

In the Sussex military manoeuvres of August and 
September 1897, Colonel Wauchope with a brigade of 
the Black Watch went from York to take a part in the 
proceedings. Joining the force of General Burnett, which 
had fallen back from Waltham, and had bivouacked over- 
night near Arundel, Wauchope's timely reinforcement 
enabled him to retrace his steps westwards. Passing 
through the ducal Arundel Park, he struck across Hough- 
ton Forest, deploying his battalions as the area of con- 
flict neared, and encountered the opposing force under 
General Gosset, when some smart skirmishing (continued 
for several days) took place at Burton Down, Dignor 
Hill, and Bury Hill. The attempt to drive Burnett and 
Wauchope back over the river Arun, though gallantly 
attempted, was ultimately declared by the umpires to have 



142 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

failed. Wauchope and his brigade were reported as 
having done splendidly. 

In such exercises Wauchope was an adept. In military 
science he made it a point to be thoroughly conversant 
not only with the details of drill, but in general strategy, to 
be able to grip a given situation with comprehensive tact. 
A born soldier, he instinctively realised what was the 
right thing to do and the right time to attempt it. Nor 
was he the man to ask his men to do anything that he 
would not himself do, or take a part in. When in Edin- 
burgh Castle it was his habit, in order to keep the 
regiment up to the fighting standard of physical endur- 
ance, to march them out a nine or ten miles round of 
country, and that in all sorts of weather; sunshine or rain 
apparently made no difference. Frequently have we seen 
him swinging along at the head of his men, sometimes on 
horseback, but more often on foot, over roads inches deep 
with mud. Like most favourite officers, he had his pet 
name. As we have already said, the name by which he 
was familiarly known in the Black Watch was ' Red 
Mick.' One day the regiment had been ordered out for 
a march, and in passing a group of the men the Colonel 
happened to overhear one of them say, ' Red Mick will be 
going to ride to-day.' The regiment was in due time 
drawn up on parade, and addressed by their commander 
as to the order of march ; then looking the man who had 
made the remark straight in the face, he finished up by 
saying, ' but to-day Red Mick will walk ! ' 

While the regiment was in York, Wauchope took a deep 
interest in the benevolent institutions of the city, and 
specially in the Scotch community. He was the President 
of the St. Andrew's Society, which, through his active 
interest in its affairs, greatly increased in numbers and 






MILITARY LIFE AT YORK 143 

influence. c He always,' says one who knew him there, 
* let it be known that he was a Scotsman, and was proud 
of his country. The stirring speeches that he made before 
the St. Andrew's Society are still remembered with delight ; 
and as an evidence of the regard in which his memory is 
still held there, that Society is about to erect a tablet in 
the Presbyterian church to the memory of the officers and 
men of the Black Watch who have since fallen in battle.' 

It was noticed also that the same chivalrous feeling of 
relationship existed between him and his men as existed 
formerly between' a Highland chief and his clan. His 
interest in them and their families was ever showing itself 
in kindly visits to the married quarters of the barracks, 
in order to look after the welfare of the women and 
children, so as to increase their comfort. Fetes and social 
meetings were not unfrequent, and at Christmas time it 
was his custom to have a well-laden Christmas tree, on 
which were suitable presents for the children, while the 
mothers had welcome little gifts of money distributed to 
them. All this, says the Rev. Alexander Stirling, minister 
of the Presbyterian church, York, was at his own private 
expense, and must have cost him not less than ,£50 on 
each occasion. In spite of the attractive splendours of a 
grand cathedral, Colonel Wauchope preferred to worship 
according to his accustomed manner in the simpler form 
of the Presbyterian church. There, too, by his arrange- 
ment, the regiment worshipped in force, and he always 
insisted upon a full complement of officers accompanying 
the men. Not only so, but, as Mr. Stirling informs us, 
Mrs. Wauchope and the officers of the Black Watch were 
in many ways helpful to him and his congregation, taking 
a part in much of their church work, and showing their 
loyalty to their Presbyterian principles in many ways. 



144 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

In July 1898, Colonel Wauchope was selected by Lord 
Wolseley to command a brigade in the expedition then 
being organised under General (now Lord) Kitchener for 
the reconquest of the Soudan. The 42nd regiment was 
not ordered out for this service, and so the time had 
come when, after thirty-three years of close connection 
with them both in peace and in war, that connection 
must for a time be broken. One of his brother officers, 
writing afterwards of that period and the grief that was 
in every heart over the prospect of losing him, says : 
1 The send-off he received at York when he left will never 
be effaced from the memory of those who took part 
in it. I have never seen Scotch soldiers exhibit any 
such emotion, or give way so thoroughly to their feelings. 
They knew whom they were losing; they realised their 
loss, and gave vent accordingly.' 

At the same time, the circumstances, if touching, were 
not without a dash of the ludicrous ; but they show how 
warmly attached the Black Watch were to one who from 
the rank of subaltern had risen steadily to be their colonel, 
and was now to leave them for the command of a brigade. 
Many a man among them wished he had the chance to 
accompany him. 

The regiment was at the time camped out for summer 
quarters at Strensall camp, about five miles from York. 
On the evening of a hot July day, when Colonel 
Wauchope was to leave for the Soudan, there was an open 
mess among the officers, and the health and prosperity of 
their departing colonel was enthusiastically drunk. It 
was arranged that he was to go south by the midnight 
train at York, and as the evening hours sped on, the 
regiment as usual retired to their tents to rest for the night, 
after tuck of drum. They did not, however, retire to 



SEND-OFF FROM YORK 145 

sleep, for no sooner were the wheels of the Colonel's 
carriage heard than there was a general move. It was a 
little after twelve o'clock, and the men were stripped and 
in bed. But in an instant every tent was astir, and like 
a swarm of bees the whole regiment broke loose. Every 
tent belched forth its quota of excited men, and without 
taking time to dress they had surrounded the carriage, 
cheering, and enthusiastically shaking hands with their 
departing chief. Many of them, with only their night- 
shirts on, ran after the carriage a considerable distance, 
still cheering as" they went along ! It was such a send-off 
as few officers ever experienced. 



CHAPTER IX 

THE SOUDAN — BATTLES OF ATRARA AND OMDURMAN — 
ARRIVAL HOME — RECEPTION AT NIDDRIE — DEGREE 
OF LL.D. — PAROCHIAL DUTIES — PARLIAMENTARY CON- 
TEST FOR SOUTH EDINBURGH. 

Once more Wauchope found himself on the way to the 
front for active service, this time back to the scene of 
his former exploits in the Soudan. Matters there, ever 
since the withdrawal of the British and Egyptian troops 
in 1885, when the then all-conquering Mahdi took Khar- 
toum and slew the gallant General Gordon, had gone on 
from bad to worse. Over-running the whole valley of the 
Nile, the Egyptian boundary-line had been much circum- 
scribed, and was now fixed as far north as Wady Haifa, 
the prophet holding almost undisputed sway over the 
whole Soudan, except that part of it contiguous to the 
Red Sea in the neighbourhood of Suakim. On the death 
of the Mahdi in 1885, his tomb at Omdurman became a 
sanctuary, round which the faithful gathered themselves. 
Under the sway of his successor, Khalifa Abdullahi of the 
Baggara tribe, cruelty and oppression ground down with 
iron hand every neighbouring tribe. Military despotism 
stamped out commerce, and trade and agriculture; the 
people were ruined, and slaughter and devastation ruled 
where formerly there had been prosperity and peace. 

146 



RECONQUEST OF THE SOUDAN 147 

Even Egypt was not safe from the inroads of the Dervish 
host, attempts being made several times to invade its 
borders j but Tokar was their utmost limit. In T892, Colonel 
Horatio Herbert Kitchener recaptured that town, but no 
further attempt was made to regain lost ground till 1896, 
when that officer, now Major-General and Sirdar, or Com- 
mander of the Egyptian army, received orders to advance 
up the Nile for the reconquest of the Soudan. The days 
of Egypt's weakness were past, for during the interval 
between this and Tel-el-Kebir, when the then wretched 
Egyptian army was smashed to pieces, English officers had 
been actively licking into shape a new native force. Drill 
and discipline, combined with growing confidence in their 
officers, had in those years built up an army able and 
willing to dare anything. The Sirdar was ready to fight 
the Khalifa, but he realised that in an invasion of the 
Soudan the real enemy to be faced was the Soudan itself 
— 'its barrenness which refuses food, and its vastness which 
paralyses transport.' 

These were the problems to be overcome by the general 
who would conquer the Soudan and plant his flag on the 
walls of Khartoum. 

Science and engineering skill came to the rescue, and 
with these under the guidance of a marvellous military 
genius that took in every situation, and turned it to his 
advantage, the enterprise was ultimately crowned with 
success. Hitherto military movements in the Soudan had 
been either by camels and weary foot trudging, or by boats 
on the Nile. Kitchener determined upon Wolseley's idea 
of crossing the desert between Wady Haifa and Abu- 
Hammed, but not by camels. He resolved to do it by 
rail, and to build the railway as they marched. It was a 
bold stroke. This is how it was done. Starting from 



148 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

Wady Haifa, a surveying party set out for ten miles or so, 
making a rough survey of the lie of the ground, marking 
as they went the proposed course ; about five miles behind 
the surveying parties came working parties 1200 strong, 
levelling and embanking where necessary. Two miles 
behind these came 550 platelayers, and half a mile after 
them a gang of 400 men to lift, straighten, and ballast the 
line. One mile behind these again came 400 men to put on 
the finishing touches, and the line was complete, but ever 
progressing to its ultimate terminus, carrying forward its 
own materials of rails and sleepers, as well as supplies 
for troops on the march. The credit of this great work 
was largely due to the young lieutenants of the Royal 
Engineers under the direction of Lieutenant Girouard, a 
Canadian officer. 

It was steady, plodding work; slow, perhaps, as a 
fighting campaign, but every mile of advance the army 
made sure of its position, and was kept within touch of 
Cairo. The campaign of 1897 found the greater part of 
the Sirdar's force as far as Ed-Damer, seven miles beyond 
the junction of the Nile and the Atbara river. 

Here a strong camp was formed and preparations were 
made for encountering the enemy who were massing some 
distance up the Nile at Matemneh, under Mahmoud, the 
son of the Khalifa, and old Osman Digna. These joined 
forces at Shendi, about half-way between Berber and 
Khartoum, their strength being about eighteen thousand 
men. 

General Kitchener, leading and directing every move- 
ment, returned from Cairo in December 1897, having 
arranged with the British Government for the sending out 
of a small British force to assist the Egyptian troops 
already in the field. 



ON THE ATBARA 149 

These were at once granted, and the reserve British 
force at Cairo, consisting of the 1st Warwicks, 1st Lincolns, 
and 1st Cameron Highlanders, left for the front, their 
places being taken by several regiments sent out from 
England. 

With such generals as Hunter and Hector Macdonald 
the Sirdar had worked his way up the Nile valley, over- 
coming all difficulties, with his Egyptian force of some 
ten thousand men and forty-six guns. The arrival of the 
British Division in two brigades under General Gatacre in 
March and April added largely to the strength of the force. 
The command of the First Division of the British Brigade 
was given to Colonel Wauchope, now promoted to the 
rank of Brigadier-General. How different his journey up 
the Nile on this occasion from his experience fourteen 
years before with the weary whale-boats ! Now, thanks to 
the energy of the Sirdar, he could travel to Berber in a 
saloon carriage. Speaking of this afterwards, he said he 
was never so struck in his life as when he saw that railway 
across the desert, which did so much for the expedition. 

And now for the enemy. Mahmoud was discovered 
securely, as he thought, entrenched some seventeen miles 
up the river from Abador, or about forty from Atbara 
camp; and it was not fitting, notwithstanding the difficulties 
of transport by camels for twelve thousand men, that 
so large a British force should sit down within so short a 
distance of an enemy and not attempt to drive him out of 
his position. The forward order was given, and on 8th 
April, after a long night-march, the troops found themselves 
facing Mahmoud's zareba at Nakheila, on the Atbara. 

The story of the attack has been given with all the 
graphic skill of an eye-witness, by G. W. Steevens in his 
book, With Kitchener to Khartoum. When the sun rose 



150 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

behind the Sirdar's men, it revealed a stockade made up 
of timber, and a ten-foot hedge of camel-thorn, with 
entrenchments behind — a formidable enough obstacle to 
face. Without delay arrangements were made for the 
attack. The enemy's base rested on the river, and the 
Sirdar, determined that he should not escape, formed his 
force in a semi-circle round him. At 6.20 the first gun 
announced the advent of battle, and for an hour and 
twenty minutes Mahmoud's zareba was pounded with shot, 
shell, and rocket, after which the Egyptian and British 
troops advanced to the attack all along the line. Maxwell's, 
Macdonald's, and Hunter's Egyptians deployed on the 
right. Gatacre's British Division, with General Wauchope 
in command of the 1st Brigade, had the Cameron 
Highlanders in the place of honour, formed in line along 
their whole front; then, in columns of their eight com- 
panies, the Lincolns on the right, the Seaforths in the 
centre, and the Warwicks — two companies short — on the 
left. The orders to these were, not to advance till it was 
certain the Dervish cavalry, hovering to the left of the 
zareba, would not charge in flank. Behind all was 
Lewis's brigade ready for any emergency that might occur. 
Stirring addresses having been made by the leading 
officers, the Sirdar called upon the men to 'remember 
Gordon,' and all being ready, 'the word came, and the 
men sprang up. The squares shifted into fighting forma- 
tions ; at one impulse, in one superb sweep, nearly twelve 
thousand men moved forward towards the enemy. All 
England and all Egypt, and the flower of the black lands 
beyond, Birmingham and the West Highlands, the half- 
regenerated children of the earth's earliest civilisation, 
and grinning savages from the uttermost swamps of 
Equatoria, muscle and machinery, lord and larrikin, 



ATTACK ON THE ZAREBA 151 

Balliol and the Board School, the Sirdar's brain and 
the camel's back — all welded into one, the awful war 
machine went forward into action.' 

The Camerons no sooner got the word to advance than, 
with a wild rush, the pipers meanwhile playing ' The March 
of the Cameron Men,' they made for the zareba some three 
hundred yards ahead. Forward and forward, midst a rain 
of bullets, they reached the hedge of camel-thorn. In a 
few moments it was torn to pieces and scattered like brush- 
wood, Gatacre and Wauchope being among the first to lay 
hands on the obstruction, and the Highlanders were inside 
the stockade and in the trenches, where now sprang out of 
the earth dusty, black, half-naked shapes, running and 
turning to shoot, but running away. ' It was a wild con- 
fusion of Highlanders, purple tartan, and black green too, 
for now the Seaforths had brought their perfect columns 
through the teeth of the fire, and were charging in at the 
gap.' The enemy scarcely waited to fight, so impetuous 
was the rush upon them, and they fled in the utmost con- 
fusion for the river, where they were cut down by the 
pursuing cavalry, and General Lewis's half brigade of 
Egyptians. 

In the attack on the right, the Egyptian troops, led by 
British officers under Generals Hunter, Maxwell, and 
Macdonald, behaved with great gallantry, carrying all 
before them. The ground was easier on their side than 
that covered by Gatacre's and Wauchope's men, and they 
entered the zareba a few minutes before the Highlanders, 
not a man flinching from the encounter. The battle of 
the Atbara — thanks to British discipline and drill — de- 
finitely placed the blacks and the once contemned 
Egyptians in the ranks of the very best troops in the 
world. In forty minutes the Dervish host had been driven 



152 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

out of their lair, thousands of them had been killed, and 
four thousand, including their leader Mahmoud, were 
prisoners in the Sirdar's hands. The way was now so 
far open to Khartoum, but the opportunity was not yet. 

Reserves and supplies were needed, and a strong base 
had still to be secured before the final advance on the 
Khalifa's capital could be attempted. The whole force, 
British and Egyptian, accordingly retraced their steps 
down the Atbara river to El Hudi, where they struck 
across the desert to the various camps they had formerly 
occupied at Kenur, Darmali, Assilem, Berber, and Fort 
Atbara, at the junction of the rivers. 

Wauchope's ist Brigade of British, viz. the Camerons, 
the Lincolns, Seaforths, and Maxim battery resumed their 
quarters at Darmali, where they remained throughout the 
summer. By the month of August, however, casualties 
in action, and deaths and invalidings from sickness, 
had brought down the strength of the brigade, though 
officers and men upon the whole stood the climate well. 
'The sick-list had never touched six per cent. There 
were not fifty graves in the cemetery; and most of the 
faces at the mess table were familiar.' The Lincolns, 
who had come up over noo strong, still had 980; the 
other three battalions were each about 750 strong, and 
the Warwicks were expecting a further draft of men. 
The total strength of Wauchope's brigade would thus come 
to nearly 3500 men. 

The forward movement began on 3rd August, regiment 
after regiment first concentrating at Atbara fort, then 
being shipped by steamer up the Nile to Shabluka, where 
they were to reform and make the remainder of the 
journey in six marches on the west bank to Omdurman. 
Even with several steamers at the Sirdar's disposal it 



ADVANCE ON KHARTOUM 153 

was a tedious business, and occupied nearly a month. 
Wauchope's brigade passed up in the steamers on the 
14th August, a four days' voyage, and on the 23rd, when 
paraded with the 2nd Brigade, they were reported as ' in 
splendid condition.' 

On the 25th August, the 1st Brigade marched out of 
Wad Hamed, and the scene is described by one who saw 
it as a most imposing spectacle. The four battalions of 
which it was composed moved off with their baggage at 
the bugle-call, taking the road in four parallel columns. 
' Many of the men were bearded, and all were tanned with 
the sun, acclimatised by a summer in the country, hardened 
by perpetual labours, and confident from the recollection 
of victory — a magnificent force, which any man might be 
proud to accompany into the field.' General Wauchope's 
men were worthy of their commander, and it was, we may 
be sure, with no little elation that he stepped out with 
them that day on the way to their final triumph. 

Keeping his forces well in hand, the Sirdar had the 
whole army encamped at Wadi Abid on the evening of 
the 29th, the British Division marching in by moonlight. 
They were now within twenty-eight miles of Omdur- 
raan, and the two following days' marches brought them 
within touch of the enemy and in sight of the Mahdi's 
tomb. 

The 2nd of September saw the last stand for Mahdism 
and its complete overthrow. 

Resting their base upon the river, where they were 
supported by five gun-boats, the British formed their 
camp within a few miles of Omdurman, the Sirdar taking 
the precaution to entrench in case of surprise. Early in 
the morning the Khalifa brought out his whole force, 
computed to be about fifty thousand men, making a dead 



i54 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

onset upon the British position. If overpowering numbers 
could have achieved victory he had it in his grasp. 

But British coolness and pluck won the day. The 
Dervish host on horseback swept the plain with a rush 
that no infantry could have withstood. 'They came 
very fast, and they came very straight ; and then presently 
they came no further. With a crash the bullets leaped 
out of the British rifles,' Egyptians, Englishmen, and 
Highlanders pouring out death as fast as they could load 
and press trigger; while shrapnel whistled and Maxims 
growled savagely. 

We need not describe the details of the fighting. The 
Khalifa's attack was speedily turned into a rout, though 
many a brave stand was made by the Dervish host. 
Attacked on two sides, the British force gradually spread 
itself out like an opening fan, under admirable handling 
by their generals. At a critical point in the engagement, 
when Generals Hunter and Macdonald in the front were 
being threatened by an outflanking movement of the 
enemy's cavalry, Hunter sent for Wauchope's ist Brigade 
to fill the gap between Macdonald on the right and Lewis 
on the left. The request went to General Gatacre first 
instead of the Sirdar; but with the soldier's instinct he im- 
mediately set the Brigade in motion. Wauchope, cool as a 
statue, took in the situation at once, and moved his men 
forward as if on parade, while the Lincolns and the 
Warwicks under his command — said to be the best shoot- 
ing regiments in the British army — did great execution, 
and effectually kept the enemy at bay. They saved the 
position, for, as one correspondent has said, ' It was the 
very crux and crisis of the fight. If Macdonald went, 
Lewis on his left, and Collinson and the supporting camel- 
corps and the newly returned cavalry, all on his right or 



BATTLE OF OMDURMAN 155 

rear must all go too.' Exposed to a withering fire, the 
enemy were unable to withstand the steady discipline of 
our men. Defeated on all sides, the Khalifa turned and 
fled. Then was the time for our cavalry. With a dash 
the 2 1 st Lancers made for the retreating foe, pursuing and 
slaughtering up to the walls of Omdurman. The bravery 
of the Dervishes was unquestionable. They literally threw 
themselves upon the British lines, only to be overwhelmed 
in a common ruin. Over 1 1,000 of the enemy were killed, 
16,000 wounded, and 4000 were taken prisoners, and this 
by an army numbering not more than 22,000 men. On 
the Anglo-Egyptian side the losses were comparatively 
light, killed and wounded not amounting to above 500. 

General Wauchope was fortunate on this occasion in 
coming out of the engagement without a scratch. In some 
respects the battle of Omdurman has been described as 'a 
less brilliant affair than the Atbara. On the other hand 
it was more complex, more like a modern battle. The 
Atbara took more fighting, Omdurman more generalship. 
Success in each was complete and crushing.' Mahdism 
was no more. It died well. ' It had earned its death by 
its iniquities, it had condoned its iniquities by its death.' 
Gordon was avenged. And not only so, it was the dawn 
of a new era for the long down-trodden Soudan, so that it 
might in future be a country fit to live in. 

We have already referred to General Wauchope's attach- 
ment to Scottish Presbyterianism, and told how loyally and 
consistently he adhered to the Church of his fathers. From 
the days when he was an ensign, it was known among his 
brother officers as a casus belli to speak slightingly to him 
of his Church. He would stand up for Presbyterianism, 
and would suffer for it if necessary, when its claims were 
in danger of being thrust into the background. A difficulty 



156 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

of this kind arose after the taking of Omdurman, and it is 
interesting to note how he acted. Orders had been given 
to all the chaphins, Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, and 
Anglican, for a combined Gordon Memorial Service at 
Khartoum. The Anglican chaplain in Wauchope's division 
intimated, however, that he would take no part in it if 
{' ! Presbyterian chaplain were to share in the function. 
The General used what persuasion he could to move 
the chaplain to a broader view of things, declaring that 
he would not displace the Presbyterian, whom he con- 
sidered one of the best of men. He was, he said, a 
Presbyterian himself, along with most of his regiment. 
At last, when persuasion failed, and the Anglican still 
held his point, the General said, ' then there is nothing 
for me but to report you to my General of Division.' 
When General Gatacre heard the story he reported the 
affair to the Sirdar, who called the three chaplains — 
Presbyterian, Anglican, and Roman Catholic — and said 
laconically, something like this: 'You are each under 
orders, and the man who disobeys must fall to the rear.' 
This settled the question ; all of them took a part. The 
Memorial Service and the formal entry into Omdurman 
and Khartoum, taken part in by all the troops, were most 
impressive spectacles. These over, arrangements were at 
once made for the withdrawal of the greater part of the 
army. 

The troops returned immediately down the Nile, the 
British regiments being shipped for England, where they 
arrived in the early part of October. A hearty welcome 
greeted their arrival, all classes of society vying with one 
another in heaping honours upon them. 

General Wauchope hurried home so soon as he was 
relieved of his official duties, and after a short visit to 



I 



WELCOME HOME 157 

Yetholm, where he was received with great enthusiasm, 
he and Mrs. Wauchope set out for Niddrie on Monday, 
10th October, by train from Kelso. 

It was only on the Saturday previous that the villagers 
of New Craighall heard that the General was to return, 
but short as was the time for preparation, the determination 
to give him a hearty welcome was so enthusiastically pro- 
ceeded with that when he did reach it, the rather quiet 
and dreary exterior of the village presented quite a festive 
appearance. Triumphal arches, flags, and streamers 
floated in the breeze, and wreaths of flowers and ever- 
greens were everywhere visible. It was the home-coming 
of a victor, beloved by his neighbours, and well known 
beyond the limits of his demesne. 

At the Newhailes station, which was also gaily adorned, 
the General and Mrs. Wauchope were received on alighting 
from the train by quite a crowd of friends, among others 
being Sir Charles Dalrymple and the Misses Dalrymple, 
Mrs. Arbuthnot and Miss Muir, Councillor and Mrs. 
Cranston, Edinburgh, Rev. A. Prentice, Rev. R. Burnett, 
Liberton, Mrs. General Hoggan, and Ex-Provost Young, 
Loanhead, with the whole village, men, women, and 
children at their back. 

It was a good-humoured, enthusiastic crowd, and at a 
convenient part of the road the horses were unyoked from 
his carriage and their places supplied by hundreds of 
willing miners, who dragged the carriage up to the gate 
of Niddrie Marischal, where it was given over to the 
tenantry. 

The procession was a long one, and was headed by the 
school children, preceded by the local pipe band. Then 
came the Niddrie brass band, playing c See the Conquering 
Hero comes,' and after them appeared the members of 



158 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

the 'A. G. Wauchope' Lodge of Shepherds, bearing aloft 
their banner with his portrait on it. The incidents of the 
march were many. Some were amusing, some were 
pathetic, but all told of the loyalty and enthusiasm of the 
people among whom the General had his home. Bunting 
was displayed on all hands. Women and children cheered 
vociferously. At the square of the village the first halt 
was made, and an address of welcome in name of the 
villagers was presented by Mr. Robert Wilson, one of 
their number, in which expression was made of their pride 
in the distinguished place the General had held in the 
Soudan war, of their joy at his safe return from a battle- 
field where the mention of his services by the Sirdar in 
his despatches for the special consideration of the Queen 
had caused them the utmost gratification. 

General Wauchope, who was apparently unprepared for 
such a manifestation of public feeling, made the following 
reply : — c I can assure you that the splendid reception 
you have accorded me is one which I shall never forget. 
I know very well that much of it is owing to the fact 
that we have been neighbours now for many a long year, 
and there is nothing that gave me greater pride and 
satisfaction than being told two or three years ago that 
the people of New Craighall looked upon me as being one 
of themselves. In addition to that, there is another feeling 
that has prompted you in this reception, and it is that in 
me you recognised one — a humble one, perhaps, but still 
one — of those who tried to serve his country under, per- 
haps, difficult circumstances ; and something is also due 
to the fact that we have been completely successful in 
planting our standards on the ruined palaces of Khartoum. 
At Yetholm I said, and I am going to say it again, that fact 
alone would be a great gain to civilisation and to the world. 



LORD KITCHENER, THE SIRDAR 159 

If the Dervish power had been continued for any length 
of time, hundreds and, perhaps, hundreds of thousands of 
people who in the future will have a chance of living in 
comfort and peace, would never have been able to live at 
all. It was a power based on murder, rapine, and cruelty, 
and it was our bounden duty to put an end to that power, 
because Great Britain was responsible for the condition 
of things that existed in that part of the world. Scotland 
was well represented at the battle of Khartoum by two of 
our Highland regiments. (Here a voice shouted out, "Scot- 
land Yet ! ") Yes,*Scotland yet, and Scotland for ever, will 
be the cry ; and I can speak for those two battalions that 
they in no way went behind from what other regiments had 
done in other fields of our great empire ; and you may be 
sure of this, that our Scottish regiments will always be able 
to show that high and distinguished valour and discipline 
for which they have so long been noted. ... It would 
almost seem by the splendid reception you have given me 
here, and which I have had in another part of Scotland, 
that you thought I had played a very great part in the 
campaign. I feel bound, as an honest man, to disabuse 
you of such a misapprehension. The campaign was carried 
out by a very great man, the Sirdar, Lord Kitchener, who 
is a man of great ability, and who in the future un- 
doubtedly will shine as one of our great soldiers. The 
campaign was a marvel of organisation. It was marvellous 
how that railway was made across the desert. Great credit 
was due to the Sirdar, but I should like also to bring 
before you another name — that of the general of our 
division — General Gatacre, whose constant care and great 
power of leading men aided the successful issue of events. 
There is still another man I should like to mention. He 
is a Scotsman, General Macdonald, who led one of the 



160 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

Egyptian brigades. He got his chance, and he was able 
to take it, and certainly by his tactics, by his coolness, by 
his perception at the proper moment, he had a great deal 
to do with the success of the day; and it was a great 
satisfaction to myself to be able with the brigade under 
my command to go and support him on a somewhat critical 
occasion.' 

He concluded his address by a humorous reference which 
pleased an audience of miners : to the effect that in the 
near future he hoped the line to Khartoum would be 
supplied with coal from the Niddrie pits ! As the caval- 
cade proceeded, presentations of bouquets of flowers, 
wreaths of laurel, and other kindly greetings marked the 
General's way. At the entrance-hall of Niddrie Marischal, 
Mr. Thomas Skirving of Niddrie Mains, on behalf of 
himself and the tenantry, presented an address of welcome. 
This was feelingly replied to by the General in a few 
well-chosen words, concluding as follows: — 'No Roman 
emperor coming from a victorious campaign could have 
been half so well received as I to-day have been, and as 
long as I live I can never forget it. If there is one thing 
that makes a man nerve himself to accomplish a difficult 
task, it is the thought that he is thought well of by the 
people in the midst of whom he lives. I cannot tell you 
all I feel — I should be more than human if I could.' 

It may here be mentioned that General Wauchope 
brought home with him one of the Khalifa's banners 
which had been given to him by General Macdonald as a 
memento of his timely assistance at the battle of Omdur- 
man. It is of white damur cotton, with a line of Arabic 
in blue across its face inscribed, ' Mohammed Ahmed el 
Mahdi Kalifat er Rasul.' On a gold band on the staff is 
the inscription, 'September 1898. They were brave 



AT WINDSOR CASTLE 161 

foemen, these Dervishes.' This and other trophies now 
find a resting-place in Niddrie Marischal. 

A time of busy activity in metropolitan and county 
affairs followed General Wauchope's return home, and 
his high place as a public man was now universally re- 
cognised. His services were largely in request specially 
in connection with public and social functions of various 
kinds, — opening of bazaars of ladies' work, inspecting boys' 
brigades, presiding at lectures and concerts, school board 
work, county council work, and his duties as an elder of 
the Church of Scotland — these all engrossed much of his 
attention and a large share of his time during the winter 
and spring following his return from the Soudan. 

Honours also were heaped upon him on all sides, but 
without in any way marring his simplicity of character, or 
causing him to be any the less the plain, free and easy 
approachable man he ever was, even to the meanest 
hodman. To high and low alike he was ever courteous 
and considerate, and he most willingly lectured, or presided 
at lectures, concerts, or meetings of friendly societies, 
wherever he thought he could be useful. For his dis- 
tinguished services in the Soudan campaign Wauchope 
was now promoted from Brigadier to the rank of Major- 
General, and towards the end of November 1898 he re- 
ceived the Queen's commands to attend at Windsor Castle, 
and had the privilege on that occasion of dining with Her 
Majesty along with his brother officer Sir William Gatacre 
— not the first time he had been similarly honoured. 

Of course every other engagement must give way to a 
summons of this kind ; and Major-General Wauchope's 
presence at a meeting in Dalkeith on the evening of the 
same day had to be dispensed with, though much to the dis- 
appointment of those who had come to hear him speak, 

L 



i6 2 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

At bazaars he was always happy in his remarks, and 
whether the object were the building of a new church, or 
a manse, or getting up funds for a drill hall, he commended 
it with earnestness and wit, and at the same time did not 
stint his own contribution to the cause. On one of these 
occasions he was appropriately introduced to the company 
by Dr. Gray of Liberton 'as a sincere Christian, a true- 
hearted gentleman, a brave soldier, and a modest man.' 

In the work of the Boys' Brigade and Volunteer 
gatherings he was delighted to give his support, and was 
frequently asked to take a part in their meetings both at 
New Craighall and Portobello. 

It was so characteristic of the outspoken candour of his 
nature, that his inspections were not matters of formal 
display, or the mere occasion of fulsome praise. Drill to 
him was business ; and he was quick to detect faults, and 
if needful correct them. Once at an open-air inspection 
of the Portobello Company of the Boys' Brigade, after 
a thorough examination of the lads, he addressed them 
upon the various points of drill, and emphasised certain 
weaknesses noticed by him ; for, as he expressed it, 'he 
did not come there to tell them they were the best 
creatures on earth, for he did not believe they were. 
Taking all things into consideration, he thought they did 
very well, but they might do better.' The spectators were 
somewhat amused at the critical attitude of the General, 
but it was none the less appreciated, for on this subject 
an ounce of criticism from him was worth a ton of praise 
from any other person. 

The same qualities of thoroughness and close application 
characterised General Wauchope's conduct in the School 
Board and Parish Council of Liberton, of both of which 
he was for some time a member. He was specially 



LIBERTON SCHOOL BOARD 163 

interested in the education of the young, and spent much 
time making himself acquainted with the intricacies of the 
code and details of school management, and on a recent 
occasion it is recalled how at the annual visit of the 
Government Inspector, he followed close upon the 
Inspector's heels during his visit, in order that he might 
fully comprehend the whole system of public school educa- 
tion, and make himself familiar with its requirements. 

On one occasion, in the absence of the chairman, Major 
Gordon Gilmour, he was called upon to preside at a meeting 
of the School Board, but having ridden over from Niddrie 
House to Liberton Church — in the vestry of which the 
meeting was held — in riding costume, with top boots, 
spurs, riding-breeches, etc., he was reluctant to pose as 
chairman. Yielding to pressure, he, however, at length 
consented, jocularly appealing to the reporters not to 
take off his coat, or mention his costume in their report ! 

In the routine of parochial work the General took his full 
share, and never shirked discussions on even the smallest 
details of poor relief. 

While he did not care to bulk largely in the public eye, 
and was specially desirous that his private benefactions 
should be known as little as possible, yet it was well 
understood that he was an unobtrusive But most liberal 
benefactor to the district. Dr. Andrew Balfour of Porto- 
bello gives the following instance. ■ I remember well,' he 
says, 'that ere he went out to Egypt as captain in the 
Black Watch, during the Arabi Pasha rebellion, he said 
to me, "Now, Balfour, I will trust to you to let me know 
of anything going on at Niddrie in which I can lend a 
helping hand." It so happened at that time we started 
reading and recreation rooms for the miners, so I wrote to 
him, as he desired, with the result that he at once sent 



164 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

me a kind letter and an order for ^25 to help the 
scheme.' 

His private benefactions were as a rule administered 
with praiseworthy discrimination, as the following incident 
will show. Two little boys had been caught pilfering coal 
and were lodged in jail. On the circumstance being 
reported to the General, he visited the little fellows in 
prison, and learning the circumstances of their family, and 
that their mother was a poor, struggling, hard-working 
widow, he at once sent her half a ton of coals, and the 
boys were liberated. 

On the 14th April 1899, General Wauchope had con- 
ferred on him the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws by 
the University of Edinburgh. The spring graduation 
ceremonial in which arts, science, and law degrees are 
conferred, is generally of an interesting character, but on 
this occasion it was more than usually imposing. This 
was owing in some measure to its being performed in the 
recently opened M'Ewan Hall, an adjunct of the Univer- 
sity, and the handsomest hall in the city; but more 
especially from the fact that like honorary degrees were to 
be conferred at the same time on Lord Wolseley, the 
Marquis of Dufferin, and other distinguished men. 

It was a magnificent spectacle, and the large audience 
which crowded the spacious hall at an early hour in the 
forenoon cordially greeted the General as he ascended the 
rostrum to receive the degree from his father-in-law, Sir 
William Muir, who as vice-chancellor presided on the 
occasion. 

In formally presenting him to the Senatus, Professor 
Sir Ludovic Grant took occasion to say : ' It is a fortunate 
coincidence that a graduation ceremonial which is honoured 
with the presence of the Commander-in-Chief, should also 



UNIVERSITY HONOURS 165 

include among its distinguished guests one who is so 
noble an embodiment of all that is best and bravest in 
the British Army, as is to be found in General Wauchope. 
Here in Scotland his name is a household word, synony- 
mous with high courage and devotion to duty. It were 
superfluous to recall the occasions on which their gallant 
commander has led the Black Watch to victory, or to 
rehearse the long tale of all his exploits and all but mortal 
wounds. But it is not in his capacity as a soldier only 
that he does with his might that which his right hand 
finds to do. There is not a miner in the village of Niddrie 
who will not testify to the watchful guardianship which 
he exercises over his people. He has thrown himself 
with characteristic zest into public affairs, and we all 
know that the battle of the warrior is not the only form 
of contest in which he has shown himself a dauntless 
foeman. The University rejoices to inscribe the name of 
so gallant and public-spirited a soldier on her roll of 
honorary graduates in law.' 

That General Wauchope had not only won his spurs 
but his doctor's hood in fair fight goes without saying. 
His military services could not refuse him the former; 
and it says much for the discrimination of the great 
Scottish University that it should have discerned in one 
whose scholastic education was of the smallest, and who 
certainly had not the benefit of a university training, a 
fitting subject for so great an honour as it conferred. But 
the Senatus recognised this fact, that his life all through 
had been an educational training, equal at least to all the 
learning of the schools. A life of hard experience well 
utilised has often achieved great results, as in Wauchope's 
case it did. 

But honours of this kind did not turn his head, or cause 



166 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

him to forget the commoner duties of life, or lessen his 
interest in others. He could and did sympathise with 
distress and trouble, and even the brute creation were not 
forgotten by him, as the following instance will show. 
Lord Wolseley arrived in Edinburgh the day preceding 
the graduation ceremony, and was the guest of General 
Wauchope at Niddrie. One evening the two officers were 
taking a walk together round the grounds. As they passed 
the cottage door of one of his tenants, the man's daughter 
was noticed to be leading a horse which was labouring 
under a severe attack of inflammation. Wauchope at once 
stopped and inquired of the girl what was the matter, and 
on being informed, the two commanders were soon as much 
engrossed in the discussion of the poor animal's malady, 
and the best remedy for it, as if it had been a question of 
important military strategy. 

One other event in civil life gave General Wauchope 
in the summer of this year considerable notoriety. On 
the sudden death in June of Mr. Robert Cox, the member 
for South Edinburgh, he was, at the urgent request of the 
Unionist party, induced once more to enter the lists as 
a candidate for parliamentary honours against Mr. Arthur 
Dewar, advocate, who represented the Liberal party. 

The contest was a short one, but while it lasted it was 
sharp, for both the candidates and their supporters threw 
themselves into it with vigour and earnestness. 

As in his famous campaign against Mr. Gladstone, the 
chief feature of the General's policy was the integrity of 
the Empire, as opposed to the cry of Home Rule for 
Ireland, and although other subjects formed a part of his 
programme, still that was for him the root question of 
all others at the time. 

At a largely attended meeting of his supporters, held 



SOUTH EDINBURGH ELECTION 



167 



on the 9th June, Mr. John Harrison, the chairman, in 
formally nominating him for the vacancy, spoke of the 
name of Wauchope 'as one which stirred the blood 
of every one who had any pride in his country. He 
was known wherever the English language was spoken. 
Wherever the British went he was known as a gallant 
soldier, who had done his duty to his country in many 
climes and in many circumstances, as a soldier of the 
Crown. He was known in a narrower sphere all over 
Scotland as an honourable politician, who fought some 
years ago a good fight in Midlothian. He fought an 
uphill fight — what some considered an impossible fight — 
and in losing it he scored a tremendous success. But he 
was also known as a good neighbour, whose ancestors 
had resided at Niddrie for centuries back.' 

General Wauchope's speeches at this and various other 
meetings, held almost daily for the following two weeks, 
were of a most stirring nature, but were always characterised 
by courtesy towards opponents, and the utmost frankness 
in stating his opinions. He scorned to ' hedge ' a question 
to secure votes, and when challenged with being a Tory, 
and therefore ineligible for a Liberal constituency, he boldly 
took up the challenge. 'Mr. Dewar had said he was a Tory. 
(A voice, " Quite right.") Quite right. Yes. Mr. Dewar 
was quite right. He never said he was wrong. He often 
wondered why there should be any disgrace in being called 
a Tory. Who had done most for the working classes in days 
gone by? Who passed the Factory Acts? Did Mr. Gladstone 
or Mr. Bright pass the Factory Acts? No; it was the 
Tory party — that party which had been so much abused.' 
At another time, referring to free speech, he said : ' He 
knew there were many in the hall opposed to him in 
politics. There was no use putting the blinkers on that 



168 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

fact; but he did not see why, though thus opposed, 
they should not meet together as free citizens of a free 
city, and have it out thoroughly. He never liked to use 
the word opponent. He always said " political " opponent, 
because he found that some of the best friends he had 
were politically opposed to him. He was pleased to think 
that in this country more and more both sides were 
coming together to discuss political affairs in a quiet and 
proper manner. It was not always so. When he was 
young, things were much hotter then. There was more 
powder in the air.' 

In reference to our foreign policy, the General spoke 
in the highest terms of Lord Salisbury's dealing with the 
Soudan question, as compared with that of Mr. Gladstone's 
Government, when divisions in the Liberal party had led 
to so much loss of life and money without corresponding 
results. And in regard to the Transvaal question, then 
beginning once more to attract public attention, he in- 
sisted strongly that his great anxiety was that peace should 
be preserved. There was no man, he said, who was a 
greater lover of peace than he was, but he deprecated the 
vacillation and weakness and change of policy of 1881 
that caused all the trouble then, and from which all the 
present trouble had arisen. What he wanted to see now 
was a strong and firm line taken, and he believed matters 
there would be put right. It could not be to the advan- 
tage of the Transvaal that British subjects should be treated 
as they were being treated now. What he wanted was that 
their people should be treated as human beings, and have 
the same voice in the government of the country as was 
given them in any other civilised country.' He admitted 
that the Jameson Raid was a most unwise and wicked 
proceeding, and had done a great deal to damage their 



A GALLANT OPPONENT 169 

relationship with the Transvaal, the Orange Free State, and 
the Dutch portion of South Africa ; ' but although that was 
true, it did not remove the fact that the position of their 
countrymen in the Transvaal had not been improved. The 
great mass of them had nothing to do with the Jameson 
Raid. They were British subjects, who went out there 
under the cegis of the British Crown, and surely it was 
their bounden duty as a nation to see that their rights 
were respected.' 

The poll was taken on 19th June, with the result that 
Mr. Dewar, the Liberal candidate, was returned with a 
majority of 831 over 4989 votes given for General 
Wauchope. The General in a manly speech at the close 
assured his supporters 'they had no cause to be dis- 
couraged, for they had only to gird up their loins, and 
victory would one day rest with them. He felt no bitter- 
ness whatever in regard to this fight. He was honoured 
by their call, and they had told him he had not dis- 
honoured them. They had fought a square fight on both 
sides, and if he was right in his estimate of the citizens 
of South Edinburgh, they would very soon put matters 
right. It was only the difference of 400 men going from 
the one side to the other, and he would, so far as in 
him lay, do his very utmost at any time to stand by and 
aid them.' 

It is due to Mr. Dewar to say that he looked upon the 
General as ' a foeman worthy of his steel.' In returning 
thanks to his supporters, he frankly acknowledged that 
'we have won a victory against the strongest and most 
gallant opponent that could have been put in the field, 
and I rejoice to say that the contest has been carried on 
with the utmost courtesy and good feeling on both sides.' 
These words, spoken, as it were, in the very heat of the 



170 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

controversy, were more than confirmed some six months 
after, when the sad news of the General's death on the 
battlefield reached Edinburgh. 

The annual meeting of the South Edinburgh Liberals — 
which was intended to be of a social as well as business 
character — was held on the evening of the 13th December, 
the very day on which the news came; but instead of going 
on with the programme of proceedings, it was resolved out 
of respect for the General's memory only to go through with 
the ordinary formal business and then adjourn, Mr. Dewar 
remarking, * that having regard to the sad intelligence just 
received, it would be utterly out of place that anything in 
the nature of a social evening should be held. . . . 
When he stood before them in that hall a few months 
ago, he had told them he counted it an honour to be 
opposed by a soldier so distinguished, and a man so 
eminent and thoroughly respected as General Wauchope. 
As the election proceeded, their regard for him increased 
day by day, and now that he was dead he felt as if they 
were in the very presence of death j . . . and every one 
would agree that the proper and respectful course to take 
was to give their last tribute to a man who was a gallant 
opponent of theirs, and who became their friend ; and they 
should place upon his grave a wreath of respect and 
regard.' The chairman, in seconding the proposal, said 
1 he had frequently come in contact with General Wauchope 
at the election, and it was remarkable that during the 
whole contest, however keen it was, their opponent never 
uttered one single word he had cause to regret. No 
election/ he added, 'was ever fought with more good 
feeling than the contest between Mr. Dewar and General 
Wauchope.' And as showing the entire accord of the 
large meeting with what had been said, the audience in 



POLITICAL FOES, FAST FRIENDS 171 

silence, and upstanding, signified their sympathy with the 
resolution, and quietly dispersed. 

General Wauchope's political contests were thus char- 
acteristic of the man. There was the set purpose, the 
indomitable will; no shrinking from declaring what he 
thought was the truth, but an ever dauntless standing up 
for the right at any hazard, all combined with a modest 
diffidence of his own personal merits, and the utmost 
respect and courtesy for his opponents' opinions. It has 
been said, ' he makes no friend who never made a foe '; but 
the General had a happy way of turning his political foes 
into fast friends. 



CHAPTER X 

OUTBREAK OF HOSTILITIES IN SOUTH AFRICA — COMMAND 
OF THE HIGHLAND BRIGADE — DEPARTURE FOR SOUTH 
AFRICA — THE SITUATION — BATTLE OF MAGERSFONTEIN 
— DEATH — FUNERAL — AFTER THE BATTLE. 

Another and a more stirring field of action was in store 
for General Wauchope. In several of his election speeches 
reference, as we have shown, was made to the question 
then beginning to agitate the public mind, as to our 
relationship with the Transvaal Republic. It was not 
thought, however, that the difficulty was of such a nature as 
could not easily be overcome by diplomatic arrangement. 
True, the correspondence between Mr. Chamberlain, the 
Colonial Secretary, and the Transvaal Government had 
been protracted, and had practically failed in securing any 
concession in favour of foreign residents in the Transvaal ; 
but few realised how near we were to the verge of a war 
which has proved one of the greatest and most calamitous 
of the century. 

It will be in the recollection of our readers that when in 
1 88 1 the Boers invaded Natal and gained the victories of 
Laing's Nek and Majuba Hill, Sir Evelyn Wood had ranged 
his forces for an extended attack upon them and was 
ready for action ; and notwithstanding that Sir Frederick, 
now Lord Roberts, had reached South Africa with 10,000 



SOUTH AFRICA 173 

additional men, the Government of Mr. Gladstone aban- 
doned their position and hurriedly patched up a peace 
with Mr. Kruger. All accounts agree that the treaty or 
'surrender' after Majuba was regarded by both whites 
and blacks all over South Africa as an absolute capitula- 
tion. It had at all events a most disastrous effect upon 
British influence there. From that date arose in the Boer 
mind that most fatal ingredient of racial animosity, con- 
tempt. As Kruger afterwards said, ' he had once reckoned 
with the British army,' and he felt he could safely do so 
again. The one idea apparently fixed in his mind and 
growing every day was to get rid of his subordination to 
the Queen, with a view, as the Transvaal grew in military 
efficiency, to subvert her power in South Africa altogether, 
and set up a Dutch Republic. 

Owing partly to the poverty of the country until the 
great influx of British and foreign colonists, generally 
called 'Uitlanders,' and the development of the gold and 
diamond mines after 1884-5, the politics of the Transvaal 
created little or no attention in England till about 1895, 
when Boer raids into Bechuanaland and elsewhere obliged 
the British authorities on the spot to protect our Colonial 
interests against their further advances. But then came 
the Jameson Raid at the very end of that year, which, 
though universally condemned both by the British 
Government and people as an infraction of international 
law, was yet the outcome of deep-rooted discontent in 
the Transvaal by the English and other settlers there. 
The 'Raid' was the turning-point in recent Transvaal 
history. In the first place, it attracted the attention of 
the whole civilised world, and placed the Transvaal, the 
Uitlanders, and the relationship of Great Britain both to 
the one and to the other in the full glare of day. From 



174 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

the date of the raid the difficulties of the position were 
more and more accentuated, and the designs of President 
Kruger for entire independence were hastened to a 
consummation. By the Boer government the course of 
justice was perverted, and the Chief-Justice was made 
subordinate to the will of the Executive. Owing to in- 
security to life and property, mine owners could scarcely 
get a supply of labourers. Kruger and his Hollanders 
ran the country for their own benefit. They taxed and 
plundered the Uitlanders, while neglecting such matters as 
roads, bridges, railways, sanitary and educational schemes, 
but took care to arm the Boers while they fattened on 
monopolies, and kept the Uitlanders from any share in the 
government. In short, the Transvaal was a Republic in 
nothing but the name. It was really a corrupt oligarchy, in 
which a privileged minority made laws to suit themselves, 
and put the whole burden of taxation on the shoulders of 
a majority who were deprived of the franchise. 

With a largely increased revenue, President Kruger 
found he could now indulge his hostility to this country 
and his long-cherished hopes of independence by providing 
for a possible struggle. As Lord Selborne said, 'the money 
was used to turn the whole of the Boer population into 
soldiers ; it was used to stock the whole country with 
millions of cartridges, to buy battery after battery of guns, 
to buy rifles enough to arm every Boer four or five times 
over, to build things previously unknown in South Africa, 
namely, great fortresses in the middle of the country, at 
Pretoria and at Johannesburg — such fortresses as were 
not to be seen in England except to guard the public 
dockyards, and such as could only be seen on the frontier 
between France and Germany.' The course of the war 
has abundantly shown that these enormous preparations 



UITLANDER GRIEVANCES 175 

hid been made in view of other than mere native aggres- 
sion j that, in fact, nothing less than the entire subversion 
of British authority over our South African Colonies was 
to be aimed at. 

So intolerable had the oligarchy at Pretoria made the 
position of the Uitlanders, that these at length petitioned 
the Queen for some redress of their grievances. This 
document, signed by 40,000 persons, 21,000 of whom were 
British subjects in the Transvaal, was handed to the British 
Agent in Pretoria for transmission to the High Commis- 
sioner, and was forwarded by Mr. Conyngham Greene in 
the ordinary official course to the Government. 

The petition showed that for many years discontent had 
existed among the Uitlanders, who are mostly British 
subjects. The Uitlanders possessed most of the wealth 
and intelligence in the country, and they had no voice 
in its government. In spite of the promises of the 
Transvaal Government and the petitions addressed to 
the President, there had been no practical reforms. The 
discontent culminated in the insurrection of 1895. The 
people then placed themselves in the hands of the High 
Commissioner, and President Kruger promised reforms. 
Since then their position had been worse. Legislation 
had been unfriendly. The petition cited as examples the 
Aliens' Immigration Act, withdrawn at the instance of the 
British Government ; the Press Law, giving the President 
arbitrary powers ; the Aliens' Expulsion Law, permitting 
the expulsion of British subjects at the will of the 
President without appeal to the High Court, while 
burghers cannot be expelled, this being contrary to the 
Convention. The municipality granted to Johannesburg 
was worthless. It was entirely subject to the Government. 
Half of the councillors are necessarily burgherSj though the 



176 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

burghers and Uitlanders number iooo and 23,000 respec- 
tively. The Government rejected the report of the 
Industrial Commission, which was composed of its own 
officials. The High Court had been reduced to a condi- 
tion of subservience, the revenues of the country had been 
diverted for the purpose of building forts at Pretoria and 
Johannesburg in order to terrorise British subjects ; the 
police were exclusively burghers, ignorant and prejudiced, 
and were a danger to the community ; jurors were neces- 
sarily burghers, and justice was impossible in cases where 
a racial issue might be involved. 

The petition went on to state that indignation was finally 
aroused by the murder of Edgar and the favouritism dis- 
played by the Public Prosecutor. A petition to the Queen, 
presented by 4000 British subjects, was rejected in conse- 
quence of informalities. For taking a leading part in 
getting up the petition, Messrs. Dodd and Webb were 
arrested under the Public Meetings Act, and were only 
released on giving bail of ^1000, five times the amount 
required for the murderer of Edgar. A meeting within a 
closed place, permitted by law and sanctioned expressly by 
the Government, was called by the South African League 
on January 14. This was broken up by an armed and 
organised band of burghers and police in plain clothes led 
by Government officials. The police refused to interfere. 
The behaviour of the British subjects was orderly. They 
did not retaliate, preferring to lay their grievances before 
Her Majesty. No arrests were made either of the officials 
responsible or of the rioters. 

The condition of the British subjects, the petition con- 
cluded, was intolerable. They were prevented by the 
direct action of the Government from ventilating their 
grievances ; ' wherefore the petitioners pray Her Majesty 



1 



PETITION OF THE UITLANDERS 177 

to extend her protection to them, to cause an inquiry to be 
held into their grievances, to secure the reform of abuses, 
and to obtain substantial guarantees from the Transvaal 
Government and a recognition of the petitioners' rights.' 
This important petition was accompanied by affidavits 
substantiating the various allegations made in it. 

To have refused a petition like this under the circum- 
stances which had arisen, would have been tantamount to 
resigning the position of paramount power. Negotiations 
and conferences ensued, in the vain hope of adjusting 
racial differences, under Boer domination. They came to 
nothing, and only proved that the Pretoria Government 
were merely waiting their time to strike a blow which they 
hoped would for ever terminate British authority in South 
Africa. The opportunity, they thought, had at length 
come, and on Monday the 9th October an ultimatum of 
the most insolent nature was presented to the British 
Government, demanding not only the immediate with- 
drawal of our troops on the borders of the Republic, but 
that all reinforcements which had arrived since 1st June 
should be removed from South Africa. Not only so, but 
that any of Her Majesty's troops now on the high seas 
should not be landed in any part of our colonies ! To 
these requirements an immediate answer in the affirmative 
was demanded ' not later than 5 o'clock on Wednesday ' ! 
No more ridiculous message has been received by the 
British Government for over one hundred years. Her 
Majesty's Government declined to discuss the conditions of 
the ultimatum, but expressed regret that the Transvaal 
Government should contemplate so extreme and so serious 
a step as war. The invasion of Natal by the Boers followed 
at once, and the Orange Free State, though in no way in- 
volved in the matter in dispute, gratuitously sided with the 

M 



178 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

Pretoria Government, and an invasion of Cape Colony 
was made later on chiefly by the Free Staters. With great 
boldness and, it must be said, with much military skill, 
the Boer forces seized the passes, attacked the small 
garrisons on the frontiers, and after several successes and 
defeats they finally settled down to besiege Ladysmith in 
Natal, and Kimberley and Mafeking in Cape Colony — 
sieges which will be long memorable in the history of 
British South Africa. 

The war had only proceeded for about a week when 
General Wauchope received a commission to command 
the Third or Highland Brigade, forming part of the western 
column under General Lord Methuen for the relief of 
Kimberley and Mafeking. This position was undoubtedly 
the highest honour he had achieved, and its acquisition 
afforded him the utmost satisfaction. He was residing at 
Niddrie at the time, and as soon as it became known that 
he was ordered to the front, there was a general desire 
among the miners and villagers that he should have a 
suitable 'send-off,' and some arrangements had actually 
been made for the occasion. But time was short, and 
besides, the General, always a modest man, shrank from 
publicity where he would be the central figure, and he 
would not consent to it. 

This, however, did not prevent him saying farewell to 
his old friends. Amid all the bustle of preparation he 
found time to call at the cottages of not a few in the 
grounds and in the village, to shake hands with their 
inmates before he left ; not, it is said, without forebodings 
that it was for the last time. To a friend in Edinburgh 
who, in saying 'good-bye,' expressed the hope that he 
would soon be back again with fresh laurels, he replied 
with a shake of the head, ' I don't half like the job we 






EMBARKATION FOR THE CAPE 179 

have got ; we have a very hard nut to crack with these 
Boers.' On Sunday, the 8th October, the General and 
Mrs. Wauchope attended as usual the service in New 
Craighall Parish Church. It forms a part of the parish 
of Liberton, and the church was erected chiefly for the 
large mining portion of the population at the east end of 
the parish, in which the General took so much interest. He 
liked the simple, natural, artless form of the Presbyterian 
service, and as his minister has since remarked, ■ We know 
how reverently and heartily he worshipped, and the pleasure 
he had in hearing and in joining in the singing of the 
old psalms and paraphrases, without any accompaniment.' 
It was his last quiet Sabbath in Scotland. With a view to 
avoid fuss he slipped away that evening by rail for London, 
without some of his nearest friends knowing he was off, 
to see to the embarkation of his brigade. 

The Highland Brigade was made up of the Seaforth 
Highlanders, the Second Battalion Royal Highlanders (or 
Black Watch), and the Gordon Highlanders — three crack 
Scotch regiments, which any man might have been proud 
to command. The two first embarked for South Africa 
at Tilbury Fort on the 21st and 22nd October in the 
transports Mongolian and Orient respectively, the total 
equipment in the latter being about 1200 officers and 
men, including staff* of a cavalry brigade, medical corps, 
etc. These were followed a fortnight later by the Gordons 
under Colonel Downman from Edinburgh, among the 
citizens of which city officers and men had earned an 
honoured name. 

General Wauchope joined the transport Aurania at 
Southampton on 23rd October, and some of his letters 
written on the eve of embarkation are touching illustra- 
tions of kindly interest in others, and specially in those 



180 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

dependent on him. To his old friend and colonel in the 
first Soudan Expedition, Colonel Bayly, he writes : — 

'My dear old Colonel, — Many thanks for your kind 
and affectionate letter. I wish you were going out in 
charge of the brigade. I shall sadly miss your wise 
counsels. Well, I will do my best ; and this I know, 
whether I succeed or fail, you will stick up for me. — Yours 
ever, A. G. Wauchope.' 

To Mr. Martin, the manager of the Niddrie Collieries, 
he wrote as follows : — 

'Southampton, 2yd October 1899. 
' I am just about to embark. Please go and see Mrs. 
Wauchope when she gets back. She will act for me at all 
times in my spirit. I hope you understand about the 
send-off. I hate fuss. Give my love to all my numerous 
friends in the works. I hope "Klondyke" [one of the 
new workings] will prosper and flourish. I hope the war 
will soon be over. Symons is a terrible loss. He was one 
of our best. [General Symons fell at the battle of Glencoe 
in Natal, 20th October.] The British officer and soldier is 
showing to the world that they are not behind their fathers 
in the days of the Peninsula and Waterloo. I hope all 
may continue so to do, and then make it up with the Boers, 
who really must be reasonable. We have no grudge against 
them, beyond that we cannot allow a Dutchman to be 
worth three Scotsmen. — Ever yours, 

A. G. Wauchope.* 

To his head gardener, Mr. Alexander, also dated from 
Southampton on 23rd October, he writes: — 'Dear Alex- 
ander, we are just off. . . . Please convey to all our men 
and women my thanks for their faithful service to me, and 



ENTHUSIASTIC RECEPTION 181 

that I will hope to see them soon again. — Yours very 
truly, A. G. Wauchope.' 

That amid all the bustle of preparing to embark he 
should still have time for loving thoughts of Niddrie and 
'the old folks at home,' and should at the last moment 
take the trouble to write such kindly words, speaks 
eloquently of the affection in his breast for all that he had 
left behind in Scotland. 

The Aurania took out with her the ist Battalion of 
Highland Light Infantry, and Wauchope was accompanied 
by Captain Rennie of the Black Watch, as his aide-de-camp. 
The Black Watch in another vessel reached Table Bay two 
or three days after the General's arrival, and were at once 
entrained for De-Aar by half-battalions, so that until he 
joined them a week or two afterwards, the General had 
had no opportunity of coming in touch with his old regi- 
ment since his appointment to the division. Major Duff, 
who was with the Black Watch at De-Aar, speaks of their 
meeting as a remarkable one. 'I went up,' he says, 'in 
command of the leading half-battalion, and when the men 
first saw the General, their reception of him was a most 
truly enthusiastic one. They cheered him over and over 
again, and it reminded one of their send-off to him at 
York, as they had not seen him since then.' 

While the British Government were thus hurrying 
forward troops to the seat of war with all despatch, weeks 
of course elapsed before they could be in a position 
to meet the invaders. 

The Boers in strong force, and evidently well prepared, 
had actively assumed the aggressive, and in consequence 
of the unexpected declaration of war by Presidents Kruger 
and Steyn, the northern part of Cape Colony bordering 



z82 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

upon the Orange Free State was for a time practically 
defenceless. Taking advantage of this fact, the Boers 
had advanced boldly across the frontier, attacking many 
of our towns and villages, and formally annexing them to 
the Free State. The arrival of British troops at the Cape 
in November to some extent arrested this invasion, and 
as troops were poured into the Colony in, quick succession, 
Generals French, Gatacre, and Methuen found themselves 
ultimately in a position to assume the offensive, their 
communications and supplies being kept up by the three 
lines of railway from Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, and 
East London respectively. The Highland Brigade, origin- 
ally destined for Natal, was stopped at Cape Town and 
at once sent on to reinforce Lord Methuen in command 
of the western division. With his advanced base at 
De-Aar, at the junction of the Port Elizabeth and Cape 
Town railways, and striking north with what troops he had, 
Methuen engaged and defeated a party of Boers near 
Belmont on the ioth November. Nine days after, lie 
had concentrated his troops on the Orange River, driving 
the enemy before him, and on the 23rd November he 
attacked and completely routed the enemy in the decisive 
battle of Belmont. 

After several skirmishes the battle of Modder River was 
fought, in which the British encountered a Boer force of 
11,000 men. It lasted the whole of Tuesday the 2Sth 
November, and was keenly contested; but in spite of the 
bravery and superior position of the enemy, they were com- 
pelled to withdraw, and Methuen formed his advanced camp 
on the north side of the river. After the Modder River fight 
he rested his force until the ioth December, waiting for 
the battalions of Wauchope's Highland Brigade, for the 
great naval gun, and the howitzer battery, and for the 



THE DIAMOND CITY 183 

sorely needed cavalry. The valiant Ninth Brigade, com- 
posed of Yorkshire Light Infantry, 5th Northumberlands, 
Loyal North Lancashires, Northamptonshires, 9th Lancers, 
and Mounted Infantry, which had done such gallant work 
in the previous battles, was now to be scattered, and in 
some measure supplanted by the Argylls, Seaforths, 
Gordons, Black Watch, and Highland Light Infantry of 
the fresher brigade. 

Having secured his position on the Modder River, Lord 
Methuen found the way to Kimberley still barred by the 
Boer army under General Cronje. The enemy were 
strongly intrenched among the rocks and precipices of 
the hilly region, some four miles from the river, between 
the railway on the west and the highroad to Kimberley on 
the east, and commanded the position with their artillery. 

Lord Methuen resolved upon making a frontal attack in 
full force on this stronghold, so as to drive the Boers out and 
clear the road to the Diamond City, now suffering acutely 
the miseries of a siege. 

Before making the attack, he resolved to shell the Boer 
position with all his artillery and the great naval gun which 
had been dragged up to a ridge overlooking the kopje 
occupied by the enemy, at ranges varying between six 
thousand and eight thousand yards. The bombardment 
while it lasted was a severe one. An eye-witness of 
the scene says : ' The shells tore through the air with 
precisely the noise of an express train rushing at highest 
speed, and when they burst they seemed to envelop an 
acre of ground in heavy brown smoke, which lifted and 
floated over the kopje as if it were a mass of pulverised 
earth. The noise of each discharge was like the bark of 
a monster bulldog, and the bursting of each shell sounded 
like the cough of a giant.' It is believed that the lyddite 



184 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

shells fell among the Boers several times during the after- 
noon, but it is doubtful if the damage done was sufficient to 
cause them to shift their position. The naval gun remained 
on the ridge all night, and defined the extreme left of the 
next day's battle-ground. This ground extended from the 
railway where the gun stood, across the veldt to the river 
aid along its northern bank for two miles, or about four 
miles from the railway to near the Kimberley road. It 
wis covered — ridges and level veldt alike — with bushes, 
or shapely little trees from four to seven feet high, of 
round, full form, and pretty dense foliage. In such a 
veldt as this the Boers had two miles of trenches in front 
of their strongly fortified heights, well packed with rifle- 
men. And not only so ; but to make the approach more 
difficult, lines of barbed-wire fencing were run across the 
veldt parallel with the trenches. 

To attack such a strong position required the very 
best troops of the British army, if the assault were to be 
a success, and Wauchope's Highland Brigade was selected 
for the work. Lord Methuen conceived it to be his duty 
to take it at all hazards, seeing that his orders were to 
relieve Kimberley, and the longer he remained inactive 
on the Modder River, the probability was the enemy 
would become stronger in front. As soon therefore as 
the last of his reinforcements arrived from De-Aar, he 
resolved to attack the Mngersfontein kopje. For this 
purpose, as we have said, the heights were bombarded 
from 4.50 p.m. to 6.40 p.m. on the 10th December, in the 
expectation that — judging from the moral effect produced 
by his guns in the three previous actions, and the anticipated 
effect of lyddite, to be used for the first time — there would 
not only be great destruction of life in the trenches, but 
a considerable demoralising effect on the enemy's nerves. 






ON THE EVE OF BATTLE 185 

Whether this was so is doubtful. A longer bombardment, 
as the result proved, would in all probability have led 
to a more successful issue of the enterprise, and with less 
loss to our arms. 

General Wauchope having received his orders, all were 
in readiness for the attack, which it was resolved should 
be made in the darkness of the early morning. 

Fireside romancers have pictured Wauchope on the 
evening before the battle as full of despondency and pre- 
possessed with a sense of imminent disaster. Needless to 
say, these are purely imaginary fancies. He was not the 
man either to shirk danger or dread a deadly engagement. 

What afterwards happened is best described in the words 
of Lord Methuen's despatch. 'The night march,' he 
says, ' was ordered for 12.30 a.m., the bearings and distance 
having been ascertained at great personal risk by Major 
Benson, Royal Artillery, my Deputy Assistant Adjutant- 
General. The distance is two and a half miles, and 
daybreak was due at 3.25 a.m. About half an hour after 
the Highland Brigade marched off it came on to pour, 
a heavy thunderstorm accompanying the rain. The 
downpour lasted until daybreak. The brigade was led 
with perfect accuracy to the point of assault by Major 
Benson. The advance was slow, even for a night march. 
Major Benson, with a compass in each hand, having fre- 
quently to halt on account of the lightning and rifles 
affecting the compasses. I may remark that two rifles 
went off by accident before the march commenced, and 
it is pretty clear that flashes from a lantern gave the enemy 
timely notice of the march. 

* Before moving off, Major-General Wauchope explained 
all he intended to do, and the particular part each battalion 
of his brigade was to play in the scheme. The brigade 



186 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

was to march in mass of quarter columns, the four 
battalions keeping touch and, if necessary, ropes were to 
be used for the left guides ; these ropes were taken, but 
I believe used by only two battalions. What happened 
was as follows : — Not finding any signs of the enemy on 
the right flank just before daybreak, which took place at 
4 A.M., as the brigade was approaching the foot of the 
kopje, Major-General Wauchope gave the order for the 
Black Watch to extend, but to direct its advance on the 
spur in front, the Seaforth Highlanders to prolong to 
the left, the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders to prolong 
to the right, the Highland Light Infantry in reserve. Five 
minutes earlier (the kopje looming in the distance) Major 
Benson had asked Major-General Wauchope if he did not 
consider it to be time to deploy. Lieut-Colonel Hughes- 
Hallett states that the extension could have taken place 
two hundred yards sooner, but the leading battalion got 
thrown into confusion in the dark by a very thick bit of 
bush about twenty or thirty yards long. The Seaforth 
Highlanders went round this bush to the right, and had 
just got into its original position behind the Black Watch 
when the order to extend was given by Major-General 
Wauchope to the Black Watch. The Seaforth Highlanders 
and two companies of the Argyll and Sutherland High- 
landers were also moving out, and were in the act of 
extending, when suddenly a heavy fire was poured in by 
the enemy, most of the bullets going over the men. 

1 Lieut.-Colonel Hughes-Hallett at once ordered the 
Seaforths to fix bayonets and charge the position. The 
officers commanding the other battalions acted in a 
similar manner. At this moment some one gave the 
word " Retire." Part of the Black Watch then rushed back 
through the ranks of the Seaforths. Lieut.-Colonel Hallett 



MAGERSFONTEIN 187 

ordered his men to halt and lie down, and not to retire. 
It was now becoming quite light, and some of the Black 
Watch were a little in front, to the left of the Seaforths. 
The artillery, advancing to the support of the attack, had 
opened fire from the time it was light enough to see. No 
orders having been received by the Seaforths, the com- 
manding officer advanced the leading units to try and 
reach the trenches, which were about four hundred yards 
off; but the officers and half the men fell before a very 
heavy fire, which opened as soon as the men moved. 
About ten minutes later the Seaforths tried another rush, 
with the same result. Colonel Hughes-Hallett then con- 
sidered it best to remain where he was till orders came. 

'Meanwhile the 9th Lancers, the 12th Lancers, G 
Battery Royal Horse Artillery, and Mounted Infantry 
were working on the right flank. At twelve midnight on 
the 10th the 12th Lancers and Guards marched from 
camp, the former to join the Cavalry Brigade, the latter 
to protect the rear and right of the Highland Brigade. 
Considering the night, it does Major-General Sir Henry 
Colville immense credit that he carried out his orders to 
the letter, as did Major-General Babington. A heavy 
fire was maintained the whole morning. The Guards 
Brigade held a front of about one and three quarter 
miles. The Yorkshire Light Infantry protected my right 
flank with five companies, three companies being left at 
a drift. Captain Jones, Royal Engineers, and Lieutenant 
Grubb were with the Balloon Section, and gave me 
valuable information during the day. I learnt from this 
source, at about twelve noon, that the enemy were re- 
ceiving large reinforcements from Abutsdam and from 
Spytfontein. The enemy held their own on this part 
of the field, for the under-feature was strongly entrenched, 



188 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

concealed by small bushes, and on slight undulations. 
At twelve noon I ordered the battalion of Gordons, which 
was with the Supply Column, to support the Highland 
Brigade. The trenches, even after the bombardment by 
lyddite and shrapnel since daybreak, were too strongly 
held to be cleared. The Gordons advanced in separate 
half-battalions, and though the attnck could not be carried 
home, the battalion did splendid work throughout the 
day. 

'At i p.m. the Se;iforth Highlanders found themselves 
exposed to a heavy crossfire, the enemy trying to get 
round to the right. The commanding officer brought his 
left forward. An order to "Retire" was given, and it 
was at this time that the greater part of the casualties 
occurred. The retirement continued for five hundred 
yards, and the Highlanders remained there till dusk. 
Lieut.-Colonel Downman, commanding the Gordons, gave 
the order to retire, because he found his position unten- 
able, so soon as the Seaforth Highlanders made the turning 
movement to the right. This was an unfortunate retire- 
ment, for Lieut.-Colonel Hughes -Hallett had received 
instructions from me to remain in position until dusk, 
and the enemy were at this time quitting the trenches by 
tens and twenties. I have made use of Lieut.-Colonel 
Hughes-Hallett's report (the acting Brigadier) for the 
description of the part the Highland Brigade took in 
this action. 

'Major-General Wauchope told me, when I asked him 
the question, on the evening of the ioth, that he quite 
understood his orders, and made no further remark. He 
died at the head of the brigade, in which his name will 
always remain honoured and respected. His high military 
reputation and attainments disarm all criticism. Every 



; 



AN ILL-FATED ENTERPRISE 189 

soldier in my division deplores the loss of a fine soldier 
and a true comrade. The attack failed; the inclement 
weather was against success ; the men in the Highland 
Brigade were ready enough to rally, but the paucity of 
officers and non-commissioned officers rendered this no 
easy matter. I attach no blame to this splendid brigade. 
From noon until dark I held my own opposite to the 
enemy's intrenchments. G Battery Royal Horse Artillery 
fired hard till dark, expending nearly two hundred rounds 
per gun. Nothing could exceed the conduct of the troops 
from the time of the failure of the attack at daybreak. 
There was not the slightest confusion, though the fight 
was carried on under as hard conditions as one can 
imagine, for the men had been on the move from mid- 
night, and were suffering terribly from thirst. At 7.15 p.m. 
fighting ceased, the Highland Brigade formed up under 
cover, the Guards Brigade held my front, the Yorkshire 
Light Infantry secured my right flank, the cavalry and guns 
were drawn in behind the cavalry.' 

Many descriptions have been published of the ill-fated 
enterprise, differing in some respects from the despatch 
of the commander ; and much controversy has been raised 
as to an alleged difference of opinion between Generals 
Methuen and Wauchope regarding the method of the 
attack on the Boer position, and as to who was responsible 
for its disastrous failure. Into that controversy it is not 
our purpose to enter, seeing so much of it is founded on 
mere conjecture, coloured by the imagination or the pre- 
judice of some of the writers. Whether blunder, or 
miscalculation, or mere misadventure, no voice has been 
ever raised to cast the shadow of blame on the officer 
who gallantly led his brigade through that long dark 
night into what proved an impossible position, a position 



190 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

which the best troops in the world could not have hoped 
to take. Every precaution was made that forethought 
could suggest. Untoward circumstances, and not want 
of courage, ruined all. 

That the fall of the General largely contributed to the 
loss of the battle, seems all too plain. He fell after being 
twice hit with rifle bullets through his helmet, and even 
while lying on the ground, when struck in the body, he 
appears, from the evidence of some of his men who 
passed him as they still pressed on to his orders, to be 
able to raise himself on his hands and knees, and taking 
a long farewell of his comrades, he cried, 'Good-bye, men; 
fight for yourselves. It is man to man now.' Other words 
are said to have been uttered, and were freely circulated 
afterwards about the camp, and found their way into 
letters written to friends at home ; but in the din and con- 
fusion of such a moment it is difficult to see how these — 
many of them contradictory — can be accepted as his 
utterances. One witness describes the scene as 'an awful 
sight. The bullets,' he says, ' were like a shower of hail, 
and the shells were bursting all around us. God knows 
how I got clear, for I was in the thick of it. I felt the 
heat of a shell on my face. I never was so near being 
killed in my life. There were bullets hitting all around 
me, and whistling over my head. I have been in a few 
battles, but nothing like this. . . . We would have beat 
them had our General not been killed. He was shot in 
three places.' 

That General Wauchope fought and fell as a man and 
as a soldier, carrying out his orders loyally to the end, has 
never been called in question. He died where he would 
have wished to die, at the head of his gallant Highlanders, 
with his face to the foe. 



FALL OF THE GENERAL 191 

All that fateful day the battle was carried on. Our 
wounded and dead lay as they fell, under a blazing sun, 
close to the Boer lines. Over their heads the shots of 
friends and foes passed, without ceasing. ' Many a gallant 
deed was done by comrades helping comrades ; men who 
were shot through the body lay without water, enduring 
all the agony of thirst caused by their wounds and the 
blistering heat. To them crawled Scots with shattered 
limbs, sharing the last drop of water in their bottles, and 
taking farewell messages to many a cottage home in far-off 
Scotland.' But still the battle raged. Wounded and dead 
must wait alike the ultimate fate of the day. Lying on 
the veldt the British still held their ground, firing when 
they could, but drawing a hotter fire upon themselves from 
the trenches. For fourteen hours they thus lay — from 
three o'clock in the morning till six at night. It was cruel 
work, with all the odds against the attackers, fighting 
against a foe they could neither see nor reach. Once the 
Guards made a brilliant dash at the trenches, and like 
a torrent their resistless valour bore down all before them, 
and for a brief few moments they got within striking dis- 
tance of the enemy ; and well did they avenge the slaughter 
of the Scots. With bayonets fixed and a ringing cheer 
the Guardsmen, we are told by a graphic writer, ' tossed 
the Boers out of their trenches as men in English harvest- 
fields toss the hay.' Then they retired under the deadly 
fire from the heights above, falling thick as hail upon 
them. 

Not till the evening did the conflict cease. Then there 
was an armistice, and our ambulance bearers went out to 
bring in their fallen comrades. The Rev. J. Robertson, 
chaplain of the brigade, mentions in a letter : ' I was with 
Wauchope when he fell. I think he wished me to keep 



u)2 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

near him, but I got knocked down, and in the dark and 
wild confusion I was borne away, and did not see him in 
life again, though I spared no effort to find him, in the 
hope that he might be only wounded.' This statement 
is confirmed by the Anglican chaplain with Lord Methuen, 
who, after describing the battle of Magersfontein, thus 
refers to the Highland Brigade : ■ Being chiefly Highlanders, 
they were in Robertson's charge. He, good-hearted fellow, 
was risking his life in the trenches and under fire to find 
General Wauchope's body. Why he was not killed in 
his fearless efforts I cannot tell.' The General's body 
was found next morning from twenty to thirty yards off 
the Boer trenches, ' riddled with bullets,' and was carried 
reverently back into camp, amidi-t the unmistakable grief 
of every soldier. 

The exigencies of war brook no delay, and so the 
funeral was arranged for the day following. Three 
hundred yards to the rear of the township of Modder 
River, just as the sun was sinking in a blaze of African 
splendour, on the evening of Tuesday the 13th December, 
a long shallow grave lay exposed in the breast of the veldt. 
To the westward the broad river fringed with trees ran 
unconsciously along; to the eastward the heights still 
held by the enemy scowled menacingly ; north and south 
stretched the long swelling plain. A few paces to the 
north of the grave, fifty dead Highlanders lay, dressed as 
they had fallen. They had followed their chief to the 
field, and they were to follow him to the grave. It was 
an impressive sight, and as one who saw it has said : ' The 
plaids dear to every Highland clan were represented 
there, and, as I looked, out of the distance came the 
sound of the pipes. It was the General coming to join 
his men. There, right under the eyes of the enemy, 



tl 



'LOCHABER NO MORE' 193 



moved with slow and solemn tread all that remained of 
the Highland Brigade. In front of them walked the 
chaplain, with bared head, dressed in his robes of office; 
then came the pipers with their pipes, sixteen in all, wailing 
out "Lochaber no More"; and behind them, with arms 
reversed, moved the Highlanders, in all the regalia of 
their regiments ; and in the midst, the dead General, borne 
by four of his comrades.' Many a cheek was wet with 
tears, and many a heart throbbed with emotion as the last 
kind offices were performed. Right up to the grave they 
marched, then broke away into companies until the General 
was laid in the shallow grave, with a Scottish square of 
armed men around him. The simple Presbyterian service 
of the Scottish Church was led by Mr. Robertson, the 
chaplain, amid profound silence. No shots were fired. 
Only the silent farewell salute of his sorrowing men as they 
marched campwards in the gathering darkness, and the 
black pall of an African night was drawn sadly over the 
scene. 

There, among his men, Wauchope's body might have 
been left to rest on the open veldt, and the spot would 
doubtless ever afterwards have been consecrated in the 
heart of every patriot Briton, lonely and wild though 
it be. But the kindly sympathy of a brother Scot found 
for him a last resting-place about fourteen miles farther 
south in Cape Colony, at Matjesfontein. On receipt of 
the news of Wauchope's death, the Honourable J. D. 
Logan, a member of the Cape Legislative Council, who 
owns an extensive estate there, on which there is a small 
enclosed private burying-ground, promptly asked per- 
mission to bring the body for reinterment there. Permis- 
sion having been granted by General Lord Methuen, Mr. 
Logan proceeded to Modder River, and returned with the 

N 



i 9 4 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

body in a zinc-lined coffin on the 18th December. The 
remains of the gallant General were buried next morning 
with full military honours, in presence of a considerable 
number of people. Those present included Captain 
Rennie, A.-D.-C. to the General, Mr. Logan and his 
family, Major Stuart, and Colonel Schrembrucker. The 
escort consisted of eleven officers and 195 non-commis- 
sioned officers and men of various detachments, including 
some of the Highland Brigade, and a fife band with 
pipers. The coffin was borne on a gun-carriage, which 
was covered with many beautiful wreaths, one bearing the 
inscription, 'With the Logans' deepest sympathy. In 
memory of one of Scotland's brave ones.' And on 
another was inscribed, ' A token of admiration and respect 
for one of Scotland's heroes, from his fellow-countrymen 
at Matjesfontein.' The favourite charger of the General 
followed the coffin, and the service, conducted by the 
Revs. Messrs. Robertson and Price, army chaplains, was 
of a deeply impressive character. Thus passed from 
sight, at the age of fifty-four, the man whose career it 
has been our privilege to sketch. 

Few episodes in the Transvaal war — and there have 
been many striking ones — have made such an impression 
on the public at large, or on those immediately con- 
cerned, as the fall of the leader of the Highland Brigade 
on that disastrous 10th of December 1899. 

The one man best qualified to speak of its effects upon 
the soldiers at the front, has in touching letters referred to 
the sadness that overspread the camp, and the deep 
religious feelings which were awakened. The Rev. J. 
Robertson says: 'Of the seven who formed our original 
mess — General Wauchope's brigade staff — only Colonel 
Ewart and myself remain. He is an old campaigning 




AFTER THE BATTLE 195 

friend, so also is General Macdonald, who has now joined 
us. I am glad I knew the Brigadier before. It makes all 
the difference, messing and living together. I am not to 
refer to General Wauchope. Mere acquaintances mourn 
his loss, how much more one who was honoured with his 
friendship and confidence ? As for the Highland Brigade 
— there is but one heart, and it 's sore, sore. A strange 
fatality befell all my best-known friends. Whenever I let 
myself think of them, there's a painful tug at my heart's 
strings. God knows what lies before. To give some 
idea of how hearfs have been touched, on the last Sunday 
of the year I had communion. I thought it better to take 
it then than on the first Sunday, when the year would be 
a week old and the good start perhaps lost. I did not 
make intimation the Sunday before, as I did not think 
I would be able to get communion wine in time. I just 
stated at the ordinary parade service that I purposed 
having it after the benediction was pronounced. I in- 
vited any and every one to come forward, even though 
they had not partaken it before, saying that in the circum- 
stances I took it upon me to dispense with the usual 
preparatory forms of procedure. To my great surprise, but 
to my heart's joy, knowing how backward young men are — 
Highlanders especially — in coming to the Lord's Table, 
over 250 stepped out, and many more would have come 
had it not been for the fact that they had to go at once 
on picket duty. In fact, they had strained a point to 
attend parade service, coming all ready to go on outpost, 
heavily accoutred. With a full heart, I thanked God and 
took courage.' In another letter the chaplain says : ' We 
were a sad, a very sad brigade, for though we tried to 
hide it, we took our losses to heart sorely; for "men 
of steel are men who feel." But out of evil came good. 



196 GENERAL WAUCIIOPE 

The depth of latent religious feeling that was evoked in 
officers and men was a revelation to me, and were it not 
that confessions, and acknowledgments, and vows are 
too sacred for repetition, I could tell a tale that would 
gladden your hearts — not that I put too much stn 
what 's said or done at such an impressionable, solemnising 
time, but after-proof of sincerity has not been wanting.' 

The receipt of the news of the General's death in 
England, Scotland, and Ireland, and indeed throughout 
the world, was accompanied with every expression of grief. 
It was felt that the empire had lost one of its noblest and 
best, that a hero had gone down to his rest ere his full life's 
work was done. Alike from soldier and civilian, from political 
opponent and political friend, came the common lament ; 
while the fluent pens of journalists were in some cases 
constrained to acknowledge that it was all but impossible 
to write with calmness of the sad event. 

Her Majesty the Queen felt the loss she and the 
country had sustained, and, with her usual womanly con- 
sideration, sent a message through her Lord Chamberlain, 
the Earl of Hopetoun, desiring him to express her deep 
sympathy with Mrs. Wauchope of Niddrie, and with Lady 
Ventry, the General's sister. In this message, it is under- 
stood the Queen paid a warm tribute to the General's 
fearless qualities as a soldier, and to his magnificent 
services to the nation ; while she sympathetically referred 
to the fact, that in every campaign in which he had taken 
a part previously, with the exception of the Soudan war of 
1898, he had had the misfortune to be wounded. 

Seldom has so general and so spontaneous an expres- 
sion of public feeling been given in this country. In 
Scotland especially was this so, as might naturally be 
expected. In Edinburgh, where both the Black Watch 



SYMPATHY OF THE QUEEN 



T 97 



and the Gordon Highlanders had recently been stationed, 
the death of Colonel Downman of the Gordons, and many 
others with him in the same engagement, gave a sharper 
edge to the calamity. 



CHAPTER XI 

CHARACTERISTICS 

That General Wauchope was a skilled officer goes without 
saying. He had made military tactics his life study. And 
he had the personal influence that enabled men to follow 
his leadership without hesitation. Several of his brother 
officers who had been with him for years, and had fought 
beside him in many a battle, have favoured us with their 
opinion of his skill as a commander ; and, as to his respon- 
sibility for the blunder or misadventure of Magersfontein, 
one of them says : ' As a commanding officer, he was 
beloved by all ranks ; respected as a born leader of men, 
for he had but to hold up his little finger and the 
whole regiment would have followed him to — anywhere ! 
He brought the battalion to a wonderful pitch of ex- 
cellency, both in professional and social success, and 
invariably received the highest praise from every general 
officer who ever inspected them.' And from another we 
have the remarkable testimony: 'Wauchope diligently 
studied his profession, to which he was devoted, and was 
noted in his regiment for his coolness and judgment. I 
say this with special reference to the circumstances pre- 
ceding his lamentable death, and the loss of a large 
part of the Highland Brigade recently in South Africa. 
Eminently a cool and cautious leader, Wauchope would 
have never led his brigade in close formation into the very 



A DEVOTED SOLDIER 



199 



jaws of destruction without scouting or other means of 
discovering the near proximity of the enemy, unless he 
had had direct stringent orders to do so.' From still 
another distinguished officer comes the following : ' General 
Wauchope's name as a soldier was known to all ranks in 
the army, and I am certain that time will prove that he 
was not responsible for the decimation of the brigade he 
loved so well. He was far too good a tactician for that 
blunder.' 

It will be seen as our narrative has proceeded, that 
while the career* of Andrew Gilbert Wauchope of Niddrie 
is in the main that of an earnest, devoted soldier of the 
Crown, full of chequered incident and varied experience, 
there is at the same time a many-sidedness of character 
developed in his life. A soldier first, he was as much at 
home, it has been said, in the commonplace business 
of the local School Board and Parish Council, or in the 
transactions of the General Assembly of the Church of 
Scotland. Essentially a modest man, he never made an 
affectation of superiority, and indeed he was much inclined 
to underrate his own ability in almost every work in which 
he was engaged. As a politician he knew his own 
mind, and he had become one of the clearest and most 
humorous exponents of the policy which he advocated. 
Great in arms, he was equally great in the arts of peace; 
and while professionally attached to his duties as a soldier, 
he had a horror of war, and an unbounded appreciation 
of the blessings of peace. 

Those who knew him best, who had lived with him 
in barracks or camp, who shared with him the dangers of 
war, bear witness to his many kind deeds, and his sym- 
pathetic interest in others, of his kind-hearted generosity, 
his homeliness, and general simplicity of heart. He was 



200 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

indeed a typical Scotsman, possessing all the best charac- 
teristics of a Scotsman, with no fear in his heart but the 
fear of God, or, as one has described him — ' A man among 
men, and a man of God.' 

To the people on his estate he was more than anything 
else a father, in his interest and care; the active patron 
of everything that was worthy, the participator in all that 
was helpful to their life; the benefactor whose liberal 
hand supplied many a need, and brightened and blessed 
many a home. When the news of his death came from 
South Africa, all ranks and classes united in lamenting 
the fall of a brave and a good man, of one who would 
be much missed, of one who could ill be spared. ' From 
the Queen on the throne to some of her humblest 
subjects, through all ranks of statesmen and politicians 
of all shades of opinion, from soldiers and from sailors of 
all grades, and most affectionately from the rank and file 
of his own historic regiment, from newspapers throughout 
the length and breadth of the land, from neighbours and 
friends— and who were not his friends who knew him? — 
even from opponents ; in short, from all classes, the highest 
and the humblest, came tributes of respect and eulogy, 
and expressions of sorrow over what seemed, at first 
thought, his untimely end.' 

As it has been well said, 'the simple record of his 
campaigns and wounds, in the service of Queen and 
country, would alone be sufficient to confer greatness on 
any man. His was the truest greatness, because he was so 
utterly unconscious that it was great; and his extreme 
modesty, and almost diffidence, .obscured it from the 
merely superficial observer.' 

His was the kind of life that exerted a magnetic charm 
upon all with whom he had dealings. His plain exterior, 



HONOURED BY ALL 201 

his somewhat awkward gait and habiliments, more fre- 
quently marked by the absence of fashionable conven- 
tionality than by military smartness, were a deception to 
a stranger. c That the great Captain Wauchope ! ' said a 
man on the road one day, when he was pointed out to 
him as the hero of Tel-el-Kebir — l That Captain Wauchope, 
impossible! I thought that was a labourer!' Though 
carrying no outward symbol of what was in him, to his 
friends he was dear. But we do not always gather 
diamonds on the surface. "Tis the mind that makes the 
body rich.' He seemed best to those who knew him 
longest, for about his actions there was a sincerity that 
was all the better because it was spontaneous ; and behind 
that bronzed, ascetic face — said by some to resemble 
that of Cicero or Caesar — there was a soul with the 
courage of a hero and the tenderness of a woman. 

In a letter from Dr. Wisely of Malta, we have striking 
testimony in confirmation of this. ■ Wauchope,' he says, 
'in a remarkable manner fulfilled the New Testament 
injunction to "honour all men," and this, I believe, was 
the secret of his being honoured by all, for he was liked 
and trusted by all sorts and conditions of men. His 
brother officers found in him a friend, and so did the 
men in the ranks. If any man had a grievance he was 
sure of getting a fair hearing from him. But Wauchope 
was not easily taken in. I remember seeing him once 
standing in the street when I was speaking to a man of 
his regiment, who had seen better days. After the man 
had left me, he came up and said, " I was just waiting to 
warn you, lest you should be taken in by that man. He 
will tell you plausible stories to get money out of you, 
but don't listen to him. He is a humbug, and is not to be 
trusted." I found he was right. But when there was 



202 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

real distress, Wauchope was ever ready to do what he 
could to relieve it, and he did it in the most unostentatious 
way. In 1878, when he went with his regiment to Cyprus, 
a man in his company, whom I knew, died of heat apoplexy 
on landing. Wauchope immediately wrote to me and 
enclosed a cheque for £10, to be given to the man's 
widow to help her, as he said, to make a fresh start. 
I happened to mention this incident recently to a lady, 
whose husband at one time commanded the regiment, and 
she said "it was just like Wauchope," and that she knew of 
many similar cases where his help was as quietly given. 
On one occasion, when the regiment was in Egypt, he 
presented a cheque for ^200, to be expended, he informed 
me, for the benefit of the women of the regiment, on the 
one sole condition that his name should not be mentioned. 
He had his own way, however, of dispensing charity, and 
was not afraid to refuse to subscribe to objects merely 
because other people subscribed and thought he ought 
to do so too. He judged for himself. And he did so, 
not only regarding cases of charity, but in whatever he 
had to do with. Some years ago we happened to be 
speaking of his tenants in Scotland, and he told me that 
he made a point of occasionally seeing each one alone, 
without a factor or any one being present, and he would 
ask the tenant to speak frankly to him, and let him know 
of any grievance he had to complain of. He did not 
promise to agree with him, or to see things in the same 
light, but he promised to give the case a fair hearing, and 
to do his best to remedy the grievance, if he was convinced 
that there was one.' 

It is not difficult to discern that the secret spring 
of such a life is to be found not so much in early 
education, social influences, rank, ample means, or even 



A RELIGIOUS LIFE 



203 



natural kind-heartedness — though these doubtless had a 
certain influence in the formation of character — as in that 
fervent, devout spirit which characterised nearly all that 
he said or did — in short, from that 'fear of the Lord which 
is the beginning of wisdom.' Wauchope's life was indeed 
a deeply religious life. Not religious certainly in the con- 
ventional sense of the term, that looks to the repetition of 
favourite texts of Scripture and the recurrence of pious senti- 
ments j but in the deep-down utterances of a devout heart 
that sought the expression of his faith rather in deeds of 
kindness and thoughtful sympathy. His whole life, as we 
have seen, was saturated with affection for those in life's 
path who were bound to him by kindred ties, and for whom 
his quick eye saw his help was needed. Yet, let it be said, 
he shrank from no opportunity which presented itself 
of making a good confession before men, or of giving 
religious comfort, or engaging in religious services, where 
he might be able to do good. His daily duties, he once 
remarked to a company of Sabbath-school boys, were largely ■ 
influenced by his morning devotions. The early training 
of a Scottish home, with a pious father's example, laid the 
foundation of a religious life, which after-trouble and 
affliction more fully developed into ripe conviction, and 
matured Christian faith. He believed in prayer and in 
family worship, and it was doubtless this that so much 
imbued him with strength and courage for many a day of 
arduous work and patient pain. How else can we explain 
that trying period of his life when in Malta, with a 
drawn sword, as it were, hanging over his head, and 
only a step between him and death? There he sought 
to know of the doctrine whether it be of God, and with 
reverent fear put himself into his Saviour's hands, with the 
desire to do God's will in every duty that fell to him. ' He 



204 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

followed on to know the Lord,' says Dr. Wisely of Malta, 
' and he came to know the truth of the Gospel, not only as 
a truth of faith, but a truth of personal experience.' 

How else can we explain that impressive scene at the 
grave in Cyprus shortly afterwards, when in the absence 
of the chaplain he stepped forward, and in the midst of 
his hushed and weeping comrades, touchingly performed 
the last offices over the dead ? 

All through his life it was the same. Consistent and 
true, but without affectation, in his relationship to God 
and to man, he sought to have a conscience void of 
offence, and to do his duty as in view of the Eternal. 

Fearless of death, and accustomed to meet it on many 
occasions, he dreaded it the less that he fully realised the 
after-issues. It has been well said that the man who has 
no place for death in his philosophy has not learned to 
live. The lesson of life is death. For Wauchope, death 
had no terrors, because it had been overcome through 
faith in Him who has conquered death and the grave. 
The pathos of life was with him no forced sentiment, for he 
had often felt the pity for suffering and bereavement which 
underlies all true life. In his own family and person he 
had experienced the loss of loved ones, and known the 
grief and disappointments of a bereaved father. Such 
experiences broaden out sympathy and cause ' the primal 
duties shine aloft like stars.' In his own parish of 
Liherton he discharged the office of the eldership with 
much acceptance, visiting among the parishioners, and 
officiating at the communion in the parish church ; leading 
a quiet, useful, unobtrusive life, doing good where he 
had opportunity. On several occasions a representative 
elder in the highest court of the Scottish Church, he took 
an active part in the work of the General Assembly. 



AN ELDER OF THE CHURCH 205 

There indeed he was a prominent figure, as he would 
sometimes take his seat in his military uniform fresh from 
his duties as the officer commanding the Black Watch at 
the Castle. The Church of Scotland had no more true 
and loyal son, and in many ways he identified himself 
with her interests, and was always ready to testify to the 
value of the national recognition of religion. He was for 
some time vice-convener of the Church's Committee on 
Temperance, and had be been spared longer, his ripe 
judgment, his knowledge of men, and his own personal 
experience would. doubtless have been of much service in 
the advancement of this important cause. 

In 1895 he was chosen as one of the deputies by the 
Assembly to represent the Church of Scotland at the 
General Assembly of the Irish Presbyterian Church, which 
met in Belfast in June of that year. In introducing him 
to the Assembly, the Rev. Professor Todd Martin, the 
Moderator, paid a high tribute to his abilities as a soldier, 
and spoke of the courage and bravery with which he had 
faced the Right Honourable W. E. Gladstone, the greatest 
political general of the age. ' Colonel Wauchope,' he 
said, 'had won for himself the admiration and love of his 
most strenuous opponents. They honoured him, however, 
specially because he took his place from year to year as a 
ruling elder of the Presbyterian Church, and entered with 
great enthusiasm into the maintenance of their Presby- 
terian faith, to the advocacy of the simplicity of ritual, and 
to the furtherance of temperance and every other good 
cause that was for the salvation of the great body of the 
people.' Wauchope's address, which, according to the 
prints of the day, was ' long, eloquent, and deeply interest- 
ing,' feelingly referred at the outset to his Irish connec- 
tion through his mother ; and after pointing out the 



o6 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

dingers surrounding the Protestant population of Scotland 
and Ireland, and the necessity for more united sympathy 
for each other, he concluded as follows : — ■ I thank you, 
Moderator of this vast Assembly, for the kind manner in 
which you have been pleased to receive me as a member 
of the Church of Scotland. I am proud, and I cannot say 
how proud, to be a member of it. It is also a matter of 
great thankfulness to all of us, especially to us laymen, 
that now in the Church of Scotland we have elders — men 
of great transcendent ability — who love their Church, and 
work loyally as Christian men for the furtherance of that 
great Church.' 

He had a high ideal of the Church's duty, and so far at 
least as in him lay he sought to take his share of that 
duty. In the cause of temperance he had done much 
among his soldiers, and in the Assembly he was ever the 
eloquent advocate of its claims upon the attention of the 
Church. 

To one like him, more accustomed to the political plat- 
form and the style of address there required than to the 
ecclesiastical forms of the Church, it was natural he should 
sometimes forget the ceremonial style peculiar to the 
General Assembly. On one occasion he rose to second 
a motion, and inadvertently addressed the venerable 
Assembly not as ' Fathers and Brethren,' but as ' Gentle- 
men,' which immediately caused a titter to pass over the 
House. He at once became conscious of his mistake, 
and turning to the chair, said, ■ Moderator, I am no 
theologian, nor am I an ecclesiastic; I am a soldier; I 
second the motion.' The brevity and pointed nature of 
this short speech drew out an appreciative cheer, and the 
motion was carried nem. con. 

Though loving and serving his own Church faithfully 



A CHRISTIAN GENTLEMAN 207 

and well, General Wauchope was no sectarian. He had 
seen too much of the world not to take a wide view 
of the brotherhood of Christianity. As the different 
regiments of one army serving a common cause, he 
viewed the various sections of the Church of Christ — 
whether Roman Catholic or Protestant, whether Estab- 
lished Church or Nonconformist, whether Episcopal or 
Presbyterian — as all members one with another of the 
great army of which the Lord Jesus Christ is the one 
Captain and Head. He could, and often did, extend a 
helping hand to one and all as he had opportunity. 
' Wherever I am wanted, I shall be there, straight,' was 
his prompt and witty reply once to a 'heckler' at one 
of his political meetings, when asked how it was possible 
for him to serve both in Parliament and in the army. 
The same answer might have been given as to church 
and philanthropic demands made upon his sympathy. 
'Wherever he was wanted' to advance any good object, 
he was ready to be ' there, straight.' 

The spontaneous references made after his death from 
nearly every pulpit in Midlothian, and in various churches 
in England and Scotland — too numerous to quote — and 
the more formal deliverance of the General Assembly in 
May 1900, all bear testimony to the nation's grief over the 
loss of one who could ill be spared. These expressions 
may be found fittingly summarised in the words of one 
who knew the General well, and who was accustomed to 
experience his influence in his own parish of Liberton 
The Rev. George Dodds, of the Free Church there, in 
concluding a memorial service in his church, and taking 
as his text 2 Samuel i. 25 — ' How are the mighty fallen in 
the midst of the battle ! O Jonathan, slain in thine high 
places,' spoke as follows: — 'Nothing which has hitherto 



208 GENERAL WAUCHOPE 

occurred,' he said, 'and perhaps no casualty which can 
yet happen, could to any greater extent quicken our 
imagination to realise the horrors of war, and the desperate 
work these brave men face who fight our battles. The 
people of this parish will always remember the battle of 
Magersfontein as that which deprived them of one of 
whom they were more than proud. General Wauchope 
was a man whom everyone loved, and it was little wonder. 
Anything else was impossible. A man so real, with no 
vestige of the a< tor about him ; so free from narrowness 
both in church and political creed; so generous as a 
patron, so philanthropic as a gentleman among his people; 
so honourable as a public man, so brotherly as a neighbour 
— when shall we look upon his like again ? . . . Liberton 
parish knows what the army and the empire have lost, but 
our loss is one of those sacred things with which no out- 
sider can intermeddle. . . Much which I could tell 
of him makes me know with undying conviction that 
Andrew Gilbert Wauchope of Niddrie was one of the 
finest Christian gentlemen one could find in a lifetime.' 

' Soldier, rest ! thy warfare o'er, 

Sleep the sleep that knows no breaking ; 
Dream of battlefields no more, 

Days of danger, nights of waking. 
No rude sound shall reach thine ear ; 

Armour's clang, or war-steed champing ; 
Trump nor pibroch summon here, 

Mustering clan or squadron tramping.' 



INDEX 



Abu-Hammed, 147. 

Albert, Prince, 32. 

Aldershot, 38, 75. 

Alexandria, 73, 74, 90, 106. 

Alfred, Prince, Duke of Edinburgh. 32, 

33, 34. 107. 
Alison, Sir Archibald, 76. 
Arabi Pasha, 73, 79, 163. 
Ashanti, 39, 46, 49. 
Assouan, 93, 105. 
Atbara River, 148, 151, 155. 

Babington, Major-General, 187. 

Baird, Sir David, 21. 

- — Sir James Gardiner, 47. 

Robert, 21. 

of Newbyth, William, 21. 

Balfour, Dr. Andrew, 135, 163. 

Ballater, i4r. 

Balmoral, 33. 

Bayly, Colonel R. K., 11, 39, 75, 92, 99, 

105, 107, 180. 
Belfast, 120, 205. 
Benson, Major, 185, 186. 
Berber, 149, 152. 
Beresford, Lord Charles, n, 30. 
Bermuda, 33. 

Biddulph, Sir Robert, 59, 66, 92, 129. 
Black Watch, 36, 40, 75, 84, 86, 92, 99, 

105, 123, 131, 140, 144, 163, 179, 181, 

183, 196. 
Britannia, H.M.S., 30. 
Buccleuch, Duke of, 109, 127. 
Buller, Sir Redvers, 41, 42, 90, 101. 

Cairo, 74, 78, 80, 84, 86, 90, 105. 

Cambo, 82, 87, 88. 

Cameron Highlanders, 149, 150, 151, 152. 



Cameron, Sir Daniel, 132. 
Cape Colony, 21, 71, 178, 182, 193. 
Chamberlain, Right Hon. Joseph, 172. 
Charles Edward, 20. 

1., 19, 20. 

11., 20. 

Christie, Captain, 37. 

Church of Scotland, 124, 161, 199, 204, 

206. 
Colville, Sir Henry, 187. 
Convention of Estates, 20. 
Cox, Robert, M.P., 166. 
Craigmillar, 17, 26. 
Cyprus, 58, 67, 75, 92, 202. 

Dalrymple, Sir Charles, 109, 113, 124, 

126, 137, 138, 157. 
Devonport, 38. 

Dewar, Mr. Arthur, 166, 167, 169, 170. 
Dodds, Rev. George, 135, 207. 
Douglas, Earls of, 14. 
Downman, Colonel, 179, 188, 197. 
Duff, Major A. G., 11, 59, 63, 79, 18 1. 
Dufferin, Marquis of, 164. 
Dundee, Viscount, 20. 

Earle, Major-General, 99, 100. 

Ed-Damer, 148. 

Edinburgh, 38, 75, 133, 140, 142, 196. 

Duke of. See Alfred, Prince. 

University, 164. 

South, Election, 166, 170. 

Egan, Charlie, 135. 

Egerton, Hon. Francis, 32. 

Egypt, 72, 75, 76, 81, 84, 89, 94, 147. 

202. 
Elliot, Admiral, 22. 
Erskine, Sir Thomas, 82. 



2IO 



INDEX 



Foster's School, Gosport, 29. 

Gatacre, Major-General, 150, 154, 156, 

159, 161, i8j. 
Gibraltar, 11, 75, 107, lit, 114, 120. 
Giflford, Lord, 42. 
Gironard, Lieutenant, 14S. 
Gladstone, Right Hon. W. E., 70, 109- 

129, 166,168, 205. 
Gordon, General, 89, 93, 98, iox, 146. 
Gordon Highlanders, 179, 183, 188, 190. 
Gregor, Clan, 18. 
Grant, Professor Sir Ludovic, 164. 
Guards' Brigade, 187, 189, 191. 

Halifax, 32. 

Harley, Colonel, 39. 

Hamley, Sir E., 80. 

Highland Brigade, 9, 76, 185, 188, 193, 

194, 198. 
Holyroodhouse, i*>, 19, 34. 
Hopetoun, Earl of, 24, 196. 
Hughes-Hallett, Lieut.-Col., 186, 188. 
Hunter, General, 149, 150, 154. 
Hythe, 38. 

Ireland, Rev. Robert H., 52. 

James v., 16. 
vi., 18. 

Kass-el-Nil Barkacks, 81, 85. 

Keith Lords Marischal, 14. 

Khalifa Abdullahi, 146. 

Khartoum, 92, 98, iox, 146, 147, 152, 158. 

King KoiTee, 43. 

Kitchener, Lord, 102, 144, 147, 159. 

Kimberley, 178, 183, 184. 

Kirbekan, battle of, 99. 

Knox, John, 17. 

Kruger, President, 173, 174, 181. 

Kumasi, 45. 

Ladysmith, 178. 
Lauderdale, Duke of, 20. 
Liberton, 135, 162, 179. 
Limerick Barracks, 129, 131. 
Lloyd, Henry, 23. 
Lochtour, 20. 
Logan, Hon. J. D., 193. 



185, 189, 



campaign, 109, 113, 121, 



Macdonald, General, 149, 150, 154, 

159, 160, 195. 
M'Gaw, Sergeant, 61. 

M'Leod, Sir John C, n, 36, 42, 44, 56, 

M'Neil, Sir John, 41. 

Mactaggart, Rev. John, 12, 86, 95, xoo, 

103. 
Mafeking, 178. 
Magersfontein, 184, 192, 208. 
Matjesfontein, 193. 
Malcolm Caenmore, 14. 
Mahdi, 89, 92, 101, 105, 146, 153. 
Mahmoud, 149. 
Majuba Hill, 70, 172. 
Malta, 53, 106, 203. 
Martin, Professor Todd, 205. 

Robert, 128, 180. 

Maryhill, 75, 107, 131, 133. 
Methuen, Lord, 178, 182, 183, 

193, 198. 
Midlothian 

123, 126. 
Miller, Hugh, 22. 
Modder River, 182, 184, 192. 
Muir, Sir William, 134, 164. 

Natal, 177, 178, 180, 182. 

New Craighall, 113, 134, 137, x 39 , i 57 , 

162, 179. 

Niddrie Marischal, 13, 19, 81, 133, 157, 

160, 163, 167. 

Niddrie, 25, 34, 87, 134, 136, 157, x6o, 

163, 178. 

Nile Expeditions, 95, 97, 99, 103, 105, 
146, 152, 156. 

Omdurman, 146, 152, 153, i 55 , 160. 
Orange Free State, 177, 182. 
Osman Digna, 148. 

Paiiio, Cyprus, 59. 
Parker, F. H., 60. 
Pinkney, Sergeant, 79, 80. 
Pope Paul ill., 15, 16. 
Portobello, 26, 46, 162. 
Presbyterian Church, 103, 143, 155. 

' Red Mick,' 36, 142. 
Rennie, Captain, 181, 194. 
Restalrig, church of, 16. 



INDEX 



211 



Roberts, Sir F., or Lord, 172. 
Robertson, Rev. J., 191, 193. J 94> 
Rosebery, Lord, 125. 
Rossyth, 19. 

Salisbury, Lord, 67, no, 123, 

168. 
Sandilands, Sir James, 19. 
St. George, H.M.S., 31, 33. 35. i°7- 
St. Andrews, 82. 
Seaforth Highlanders, 152, 179, 

188. 
Selborne, Lord, 174. 
Seymour, Sir Beauchamp, 73, 74- 
Shepstone, Sir Theophilus, 70. 
Stirling Castle, 36. 
Stirling, Rev. Alexander, 12, T43. 
Soudan, the, 89, 92, 146. 
South Africa, 68, 173, 199- 
Spotiiswood, 18. 
Steyn, President, 181. 
Suakim, 146. 
Suez Canal, 72, 75, 76. 
Sussex Manoeuvres, 141. 
Sutherland Highlanders, 106. 
Symons, General, 180. 

Tel-el-Kebik, 74. 76, 78, iiSj H7 
Transvaal, 68, 168, 172, 177- 
Trent, Council of, 15. 
Trinkitat, 90. 



UlTLANDER GRIEVANCES, 173, 175. *77- 

Ventry, Lord and Lady, 24, 47, 196. 

Wady Halfa, 94, 105, 147, 148. 
Wallace, Sir William, 23. 
Ware, Sir James, 15. 
Wauchope, Andrew, 21, 22, 34. 

Sir Francis, 19. 

George, 17. 

Gilbert, 16, 17. 

James, 23. 

Robert, Archbishop, 14. 

Thomas, 14. 

William, 21, 22. 

Major William, 53, 81. 

Wellington, Duke of, 79. 
Windsor, 161. 

Wisely, Dr. George, 12, 55, 65, 106. 
Wood, Sir Evelyn, 41, 172. 
Wood, Provost, Portobel'o, 47. 
Worksop, school at, 29. 
Wolseley, Sir G., or Lord, 40, 46, 59, 
76, 90, 92, 98, 101, 104, 164, 166, 201. 

Yetholm, 20, 25, 137, 158. 
York, Cardinal, 20. 
York, city, 140, 141, 144. 

ZAGAZIG, 76, 79, 3o. 



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reads."— Expository Times. 

"We commend the volume for its thoroughness and directness, and he who 
reads it will not refuse it a place among his choice books." — Teacher's Aid. 

" The book is throughout interesting and impressive. Mr. Dwight Hillis 
manifests a fine appreciation of the ethical and spiritual significance of the 
books and lives he treats of, and writes with a chaste and nervous eloquence 
born of culture and conviction." — Daily Free Press. 

"Mr. Hillis has shown much taste and refined thought in his addresses." — 
Morning Leader. 

"This fresh, 'live,' timely, and suggestive book." — Great Thoughts. 

"The book is one of those that whet the reader's appetite for great books." 
— Birmingham Daily Post. 

"Wholesome and edifying." — Glasgow Herald. 

" While all the papers are good reading as essays in biography and morals, at 
least three deserve praise as excellent pieces of literary criticism and analysis. 
These are the studies of ' Romola,' ' Les Miserables,' and the ' Scarlet Letter.' " 
—Pilot. 

" In each chapter the subject is warmed by a glowing sympathy and lighted 
up by happy metaphor and illustration. We have nothing but praise for the 
book. The traditions of Plymouth Church are great. They will be sus- 
tained by Dr. Hillis."— Literary World. 



OLIPHANT, ANDERSON & FERRIER, 

30 ST. MARY STREET, EDINBURGH ; 

21 PATERNOSTER SQUARE, LONDON, E.C. 



>ost 8vo, Antique Paper, Cloth Extra, 
Price 2s. 6d. 



" Week- Day Religion!' 



By J. R. MILLER, D.D. 



"The tone is earnest and persuasive, the style bright 
and popular, and the book such that it cannot fail to 
influence for good. The ethics of home and business 
life, of friendship, of marriage, and the moral aspects 
of literature, art, and amusement, are treated in a 
highly attractive and practical fashion." — Dundee 
Advertiser. 

"Those who are seeking some real help in the effort 
to bring their religion into direct relation to their toil, 
temptation, and care, should inquire for this volume." — 
Scottish Congregationalist. 

" No one can read this wholesome and elevating book 
without spiritual profit." — Youth. 

"Sound and scriptural, bright, wholesome, and 
attractive. " — Presbyterian Witness. 

" A volume of short pithy papers, animated by a fine 
spirit of elevated, yet practical, Christian piety, and 
designed to show ' how doctrine should become life.'" 
— United Presbyterian Magazine. 

"Contains many eloquent, earnest words of inspir- 
ation and com Tort that will appeal to old and young 
alike. " — Daily Free Press. 

"An excellent book for young people." — Christian 
Guardian. 

"The book consists of no less than thirty-two short 
chapters, which are packed full of good advice, tenderly 
though pithily given, and any anxious young man who 
wants to make the best of life, and realise his mission 
in the world, will here find many helpful suggestions 
from one who has gone the way before him, and whose 
ripe experience qualifies him for showing younger 
brothers 'the more excellent way.'" — Young Men's 
Christian Magazine. 



OLIPHANT ANDERSON & FERRIER, 

30 ST. MARY STREET, EDINBURGH ; 

21 PATERNOSTER SQUARE, LONDON, E.C. 



Crown 8vo, cloth extra, gilt edges, price 2s. 6d. 



" Successward" 

A Young Man's Book to Young Men. 

By Edward W. Bok. 



"A capital guide-book to life, and full of shrewd 
common-sense. " — Scots Magazine. 

"Made up of a set of earnest practical discourses upon 
the conduct of life, which are all the more readable, and 
likely to prove all the more effective, because they are 
written without that didactic tone and moral or religious 
appeal so common in this class of book." — Scots/nan. 

"Short, practical, and pithy essays for young men." — 
Aberdeen Journal. 

"This is a fresh and vigorously written book, setting 
forth, in a very outspoken, yet winning manner, many 
important truths and much salutary advice as to how the 
young are to discriminate between what is real and what 
is unreal." — Brechin Advertiser. 

"Writing, as he says, from the very (hick of the fight, 
Mr. Bok gives much advice of an encouraging kind to 
young men just entering upon the battle of life." — Daily 
News. 

"The little volume should be read not only by every 
youth but by all who would possess an adequate concep- 
tion of the proportions and possibilities of life." — Dundee 
Advei tiser. 

"The book should be productive of great good among 
the class for whom it is intended." — Hawick Advertiser. 

"An eminently healthy, manly, and sensible series of 
chapters bearing upon the vital principles of right living, 
real happiness, and true succe.-s in life." — Kilmarnock 
Standard. 

"It is written in an animated st\le, is full of sound 
advice, and is most stimulating." — North British Daily 
Mail. 



OLIPHANT, ANDERSON & FERRIER, 

ST MARY STREET, EDINBURGH; 
21 PATERNOSTER SQUARE, LONDON, E.C. 



Large Crown 8vo, Cloth Extra, Price 3s. 6& 

" Sprays of Northern Pine!' 

By Fergus Mackenzie, 

Author of "Cruisie Sketches." 

"Asa literary artist — one whose pictures are traced with marvellcor 
fidelity, whose work is characterised by refreshing simplicity on 
style and an entire absence of any straining after effect— Fergus 
Mackenzie has no compeer in the whole range of modern delineator? 
of Scottish peasant life and character. . . . The opening sketch, 
entitled 'The Last Sheaf,' is one of the grandest idylls of the 
' hairst field' ever given to the world." — Kirriemuir Observer. 

" For tender pathos, quiet humour, skill in portraiture, and true 
to nature delineations of humble life, he has no living equal. The 
pure, unadulterated nature, too, of his Doric adds piquancy to the 
various sketches." — Brechin Advertiser. 

" The sketches bring out the poetry underlying the sordid pros:: 
of Scottish peasant life. They illustrate that life in all its serious- 
ness, its sombreness, its thrift, its unconscious pawky humour, if 
innate piety, with photographic fidelity, yet with the artistic touch 
of imagination and delicate tenderness." — Dundee Advertiser. 

" Mr. Fergus Mackenzie provides an exceedingly readable series 
of sketches of Scottish village life. Glenbruar, the scene of most oi 
the sketches, lies within sight of the Grampians. Of its inhabitants, 
Mr. Mackenzie, with sympathetic pen, narrates tales, sometimes sad 
and sometimes laughable, but all in their way thoroughly interesting. 
There is a refreshing individuality about the stories which charms 
the reader." — Scotsman. 

" It is not because of scene that the stories are so richly enjoyable,— 
indeed, there is no waste of landscape description in the book,— but 
their intrinsic truthfulness to fact and pathos ; there is wealth of 
humour, human sympathy, clear insight into character, and a power 
of story telling in this book." — Kilmarnock Herald. 

" In every tale or sketch there is freshness and variety ; there is 
rare skill in portraiture ; there is a fine sympathy and insight into 
human nature ; and every sentiment rings true. Furthermore— and 
this is very unusual in books of the kind — all the sketches are of 
high quality ; there is not one that would have been better omitted." 
— Weekly Scotsman. 

"•Sprays of Northern Pine' is one book in a crowd, but itr 
superlative merit cannot remain long hid. There is talent here above 
the average. Fergus Mackenzie can penetrate into the inner mean- 
ing of men and things ; he can produce characteristic and striking 
portraits, and with equal felicity paint the world in which they mov«>. 
Humour and pathos alternate like the shine and showers of an AprP 
day; the fountains of laughter and tears are never far apart."-- 
Perthshire Courier. 

" Fergus Mackenzie's style is distinctly his own, and there is a 
truthfulness and a sobriety of tone in all these sketches that bring* 
an air of reality into them." — Booksellers' Review. 

" The stories are short, realistic, and faithful sketches of Scottish 
rural life and character. The author's grip and sympathy indicai J 
that he has felt and realised the higher and more beautiful side of a 
life that is apt to be commonplace and meagre. His pathos is reallj 
touching, and his humour spontaneous and genuine. . . . These; 
fresh and wholesome stories glisten with many a gem of humats 
nature, and beat with the kindly pulse of charity and affection "— 
Leeds Mercury. 

EDINBURGH AND LONDON : 
OLIPHANT, ANDERSON & FERRIER, 

AND ALL BOOKSFLLF.RS. 



Crown 8vo, Cloth Extra, with Maps, and Twenty-two 
Illustrations, Price 3s. 6d. 



"A Life for Africa!' 

A Biography of the Rev. A. C. Good, Ph.D., Missionary in 
Equatorial Central Africa. 

By HELEN C. PARSONS, M.A. 

"The story of Dr. Good's noble, self-sacrificing labours is a stimulating narrative, 
full of interest. ' — Christian Age. 

" Miss Parsons has been judicious in her selection and arrangement of materials, 
and writes in a sympathetic style. Besides portraits and other illustrations, the volume 
contains two maps — one of them drawn by Dr. Good himself, and described here as ' the 
first accurate map of the Bulu district ever made.'" — Glasgow Herald. 

"The author has done her work well, and has produced a missionary biography 
worthy to rank among the classics in this field. The illustrations, of which there ai e 
many, are superb reproductions of photographs."— Methodist R ecorder. 

"One of the higher class of books on missions. Miss Parsons has performed her 
editorial task in good style, and the book is altogether one of the most attractive and 
instructive ever issued from the missionary press." — Christian Commonwealth. 

"This record of the self-denying labours of a young American Presbyterian 
missionary in Equatorial West Africa gives a vivid picture of dangers and difficulties 
cheerfully encountered and overcome, and of a life readily yielded up in the cause of 
religion and humanity." — Independent. 

"Apart from the interest attaching to the modestly told story of Dr. Good's work 
as a pioneer missionary among the ' wild Bulu ' people, the volume affords a suggestive 
commentary on the aggressive policy of the French in West Africa." — Scotsman. 

" A short comprehensible biography. Not a needless word has strayed into it. From 
beginning to end it can be read with pleasure, and it leaves a picture that will not fade 
away. There is some valuable scientific work, there is more, and far more valuable, 
spiritual impulse. But its most useful service just at present will be to furnish a 
description of the actual condition of the tribes that dwell along the banks of the 
Gtboon and Ogowe rivers, so that the most unsympathetic listener may see the 
necessity for sending them the story of the Cross." — Expository Times. 

"The life which Miss Parsons has written of him, gives a full and most interesting 
account of his labours, and will commend the noble work in which he sacrificed himself. 
In geography, zoology, and anthropology the volume also contains some valuable 
contributions." — North British Daily Mail. 

"Dr. Good's missionary labours in that deadly climate, from his arrival until his 
death in 1894, which took place in Bululand from malarial fever, are graphically and 
sympathetically detailed by Miss Parsons, who has performed her task well. The 
descriptions of the scenery along the banks of silent rivers, and through pathless forests 
and swamps infested by deally snakes and troublesome vermin, and poisonous with 
fever and malaria, taken partly from the intrepid missionary's diary, is interesting 
reading in these days, when the great continent in all its length and breadth is so much 
in the thoughts of all of us ; and the shrewd descriptions of the habits, superstitions, and 
characteristics of the natives is equally interesting while at the same time instructive in 
the highest degree. "—Daily Free Press. 

"An intensely interesting record of the Rev. A. C. Good's twelve years' work in 
Equatorial West Africa." — Methodist Times. 

"Of all the noble lives that have been laid down for Africa, this was one of the 
most strenuous and devoted. Nothing but an iron constitution could have stood for 
twelve years the incessant strain, worry, exposure, and hardship that Dr. Good 
endured. Dr. Good made a careful study of the native ideas of God, fables and jungle 
stories, proverbs, etc., and the results are most valuable." — London Missionary 
Chronicle. 

OLIPHANT, ANDERSON & FERRIER, 

ST. MARY STREET, EDINBURGH; 

21 PATERNOSTER SQUARE, LONDON, E.C. 



INDIA. 



Post 8vo, Cloth Extra, with Portrait and Seven Illustrations, 
Price 3s. 6d. 



11 In the Tiger Jungle." 

By Rev. JACOB CHAMBERLAIN, M.D., D.D. 

' ' A capital collection of stories and sketches of mission work among the 
Telugus of South India." — British Weekly. 

"Dr. Chamberlain . has given us here a fascinating volume, calculated to 
create and sustain a deep interest in missionary labours. It is worthy of a 
place in every Sunday school library." — Birmingham S.S. Record. 

"There is a romance about many of these stories which will appeal 
particularly to young people ; but the missionary aspect is never lost sight of, 
and the volume is well calculated to win many new friends, and perhaps 
volunteers, for the foreign field. The illustrations are good." — Record. 

" It is beautified by eight full-page illustrations, and an admirable photograph 
of the author. We heartily commend it as a bright and breezy volume, rich 
in stirring incident and thrilling narrative." — Sword and Trowel. 

" The author is possessed of a facile pen, and his pictures of life and work 
among the villages are interesting and at times vividly realistic. They bear 
testimony to the resource of the author amid difficult and dangerous circum- 
stances, and to the unfailing enthusiasm that has sustained him in his efforts 
for the Christianisation of the people of India." — Daily Free Press. 

"A bright and entertaining narrative, brimful of stirring incidents. We 
most cordially commend the volume as entertaining and highly instructive." — 
Stirling Observer, 

" 'In the Tiger Jungle' is worth reading by everyone interested in India, 
whether from a commercial or religious point of view." — Dundee Advertiser. 

" There are records of thrilling adventure and uphill work, while the large- 
heartedness and hopefulness of the book give it a special charm." — East and 
West. 



OLIPHANT, ANDERSON & FERRIER, 

ST. MARY STREET, EDINBURGH ; 

21 PATERNOSTER SQUARE, LONDON, E.C. 



FORMOSA. 

Popular Edition, La. Crown 8vo, Art Canvas, with Four Maps 
and Sixteen Illustrations, Price 5s. 



"From Far Formosa!' 

By GEORGE LESLIE MACKAY, D.D. 

"We have made a discovery. And lest anyone should snatch it, let us hasten to 
make k known. We have discovered a great explorer, a devoted missionary, and a 
charming writer, and these three are one. His name is George Leslie Mackay." — 
Expository Times. 

" Bids fair to equal in fame and interest that of his namesake in Uganda, or of 1'aton 
in the South Seas." — Scotsman. 

"Most opportune is the appearance of this handsome volume, rich with the spoils of 
the traveller, scientific observer, missionary, and hero."— Critic (New York). 

"One of the most interesting hooks on missions we have ever come across. . . 
A thoroughly interesting and valuable book." — Glasgow Herald. 

" If one were called upon to select from all missionary literature three of the most 
fascinating stories of modern missions, he could hardly choose any of more romantic and 
heroic interest than the career of John Williams in the South Seas, of Robert W. 
in France, and of George L. Mackay in Formosa, each of which covers about twenty-two 
years." — Missionary Review of the World. 

" His story is one of the most romantic." — Aberdeen Free Pi 

"A truly wonderful book. . . . There is nothing of the tourist critic's self-assertive, 
scrappy style ; indeed, one can only realise the marvellous modesty of such a beneficent, 
successful, and influential worker as Dr. Mackay, by taking it for granted that he lives 
and labours under a strong sense of vivid nearness to God."— Illustrated Missionary 
News. 

The accumulative experience of a keen observer like the author, a man who has 
nt nearly twenty-five years in Formosa, ought to count for something at home, and 
when he says that all of it points to the one great conclusion, the training of native 



spent nearly twenty-five years in Formosa, ought to count for something at home, and 

if it points to the one gr< 
missionaries for native work, home authorities should take the proposition seriously to 



heart."— North British Daily Mail. 

"Possesses much scientific and ethnologic interest. We have been so impressed 
with its value that we have put it in the hands of a competent writer as the subject for a 
special article." — Methodist Magazine (Toronto). 

" The chapters on the geography and history, the geology, trees, plants, and 
flowers, and animal life of the island, have a distinct scientific value. There are three 
good maps and a number of capital illustrations. This is a book that should be read and 
read again." — Baptist Magazine. 

" We do not suppose that any book has yet been published which throws more light 
upon the island than does this one." — Free Church of Scotland Monthly. 

" Dr. Mackay compels our esteem as a man of varied scientific attainments, and our 
admiration as a great pioneer missionary. Both as a standard work on North Formosa 
and for its intrinsic interest, this book should be in every missionary library." — United 
Presbyterian Missionary Record. 



OLIPHANT, ANDERSON & FERRIER, 

ST. MARY STREET, EDINBURGH ; 

21 PATERNOSTER SQUARE, LONDON, E.C. 



CHINA. 

Fifth Edition, Revised, Demy 8vo, Decorated Cloth Binding, 
Price 7s. 6d. 

Popular Edition, Sixth Thousand, Large Crown 8vo, Art 
Canvas, with Sixteen Full-Page Illustrations, Price 5s. 



1 i Chinese Characteristics. " 

By ARTHUR H. SMITH. 

"This author minutely describes the various characteristics of the Chinese, 
and humourously contrasts them with Western civilisation. His experience 
in the country, for twenty-two years, as an American missionary, has given him 
opportunity in many parts of the country, and among all classes of the people, 
to observe with a keen eye, and no little humour, many phases of Chinese 
life, manners, customs, notions of religious belief, habits of thought and modes 
of expression, and he has narrated them from a genial heart in an amusing 
and racy manner. This is a popular edition, revised, with excellent illus- 
trations, glossary of technical terms, and a copious index." — Asiatic Quarterly 
Review. 

"The best book on the Chinese people." — Examiner. 

"A completely trustworthy study." — Advance. 

' ' Mr. Arthur Smith's ' Chinese Characteristics ' is the book on its subject. 
It has taken its place (this is the fourth edition) as the authority. And it has 
the charm that authorities rarely have. It is easily written, or at least it is 
easily read. Its knowledge is surprising, both in itself and in its minuteness. 
It is excellently illustrated from many original photographs." — Expository 
Times. 

" There is all the difference between an intaglio in onyx and a pencil scrawl 
on paper to be discovered between Mr. Smith's book and the printed prattle 
of the average globe-trotter. Our author's work has been done, as it were, 
with a chisel and an emery-wheel. He goes deeply beneath the surface." 
— Critic. 

" It is scarcely enough to say about this book that it is both interesting and 
valuable. Those best informed call it without exception the best book on 
the Chinese that is before the public, and a pretty careful survey of it confirms 
that opinion." — Independent. 

u A very striking book. One of the best modern studies of that remarkable 
people." — Sydney Morning Herald. 

"An interesting, graphic, and racy volume." — Christian Endeavour. 



OLIPHANT, ANDERSON & FERRIER, 

ST. MARY STREET, EDINBURGH ; 

21 PATERNOSTER SQUARE, LONDON. E.C. 



Large Crown 8vo, cloth extra, price 5s. 



" For Days of Youth? 

A Bible Text and Talk for every 

day of the Year. 
By the Rev. C. A. Salmond, M.A. 

"In point of quality and interest it is remarkably well 
sustained." — Daily Free Press. 

"The Talks are, as they should be, simple, earnest, 
varied, instructive, interesting, and above all, sympathetic." 
— Educational News, 

"The book undoubtedly supplies a felt want, and the 
author has done the work well. Combined with careful and 
painstaking scholarship, there is a wealth of apt illustration 
and a skilful interweaving of present-day life incidents that 
is sure to meet with an appreciative and hearty response 
from the Christian public of all ages. No book of the kind 
that we know of, at all equals it." — The Bulwark. 

"The book is as varied in scope and character as it is 
possible to conceive, and throughout its pages there will be 
met with much that is helpful, refreshing, and stimulating. 
Although mainly intended for individual use, the portions 
would serve admirably for family use as well, and we offer it 
our heartiest commendation.'' — Stirling Observer. 

" It is a volume which young folks will appreciate, and 
one with which some older people may be glad to make 
acquaintance." — Scotsman. 

" The Talks are direct, stimulating, and suggestive, and 
the book, while specially prepared for the young, might be 
very suitably used at family worship, as either young or old 
may listen to the talks with pleasure and profit." — Dundee 
Advertiser. 

"Bright, interesting, and devotional."— Great Thoughts. 

''Instructive, stimulating, and cheery. We cannot re- 
member meeting with any work of the kind more interesting 
or more thoughtful." — Leeds Mercury. 

" Mr Salmond has produced a work for the young likely 
to take a permanent place. He writes with clearness and 
precision, and with a watchful regard for the needs of his 
youthful readers." — Pray and Trust. 

" Full of interesting matter." — The Arbroath Guide. 



OLIPHANT, ANDERSON & FERRIER, 

ST MARY STREET, EDINBURGH; 
21 PATERNOSTER SQUARE, LONDON, E.C. 



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