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Full text of "The genera of fishes ... A contribution to the stability of scientific nomenclature"





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The Genera of Fishes 

From Linn^us to Cuvier, 1758-1833, Seventy-Five Years, 
WITH THE Accepted Type of each. 

• A Contribution to the Stability of Scientific Nomenclature. 


David Starr Jordan 


Barton Warren Evermann 



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The Genera of Fishes 

From Linn^us to Cuvier, 1758- 1833, Seventy-Five Years, 
WITH THE Accepted Type of each. 

A Contribution to the Stability of Scientific Nomenclature. 


David Starr Jordan 


Barton Warren Evermann 





Stanford University 




Introduction 7 

I. Linnseus, Systema, Ed. X, 1758 11 

II. Gunner, Berglachs, 1761 16 

III. Schsefer, Ratisbon, 1761 16 

IV. Osbeck, Reise, China, 1762 17 

V. Gronow, Zoophylaceum, 1763 17 

VI. Linnaeus, Museum, 1764 22 

VII. Houttuyn, Natural History, 1764 22 

VIII. Linnseus, Systema, Ed. XII, 1766 23 

IX. Miiller, Delineationes, 1767 24 

^ X. Geoffroy, /IQ Plantes, 1767 24 

XI, XII. \z\vaoni, Dictionnaire, II, 1768 24 

XIII. Gouan, Historia, 1770 28 

XIV. Koelreuter, Rarorum, 1770 28 

XV. Forster, Remora, lyyi 28 

XVI. Briinnich, Regalecus, 1771 28 

XVII. Catesby & Edwards, Carolina, 1771 28 

XVIII. Giildenstadt, Acerina, 177^ 32 

XIX. Forskal, Descriptiones, 177s 32 

XX. (Klein), Schauplatz, I-III, i77S-^77^ 34 

XXI. Scopoli, Introductio, 1777 41 

XXII. Forster, Icones, 1777 42 

XXIII. {K\€m), Schauplats,lW,W, 1777 42 

XXIV. Forster, Enchiridion, 1778 43 

XXV. (Klein), Schauplatz, VI-X, 1778-1781 43 

XXVI. Herrmann, Sternoptix, 1781 44 

XXVII. Houttuyn, Japan, 1782 44 

XXVIII. Bloch, Ichthyologia, 1786 44 

XXIX. Bloch, Fisch Arten, 1787 44 

XXX. Ahl, Murcena, 1787 45 

XXXI. Ascanius, Sildetusten, 1788 45 

XXXII. Bloch, Papageyiische, 1788 45 

XXXIII. Bloch, /cA^o/o^ia, III, 1788 45 



XXXIV. Browne, Jamaica, Ed. II, 1789 45 

XXXV. Linck, Neueste, 1790 49 

XXXVI. Bloch, Ichthyologia, IV, 1790 49 

XXXVII. White, New South Wales, 1790 50 

XXXVIII. Valmont, Dictionnaire, Ed. IV, 1791 50 

XXXIX. Shaw, Stylephorns, 1791 50 

XL. Walbaum, Artedi Piscium, 1792 50 

XLI. Bloch, Ichthyologia, VI, VII, 1792-93 50 

XLII. Rose, Synonymia, 1793 51 

XLIII. Latham, Saivfish, 1794 52 

XLIV. Vahl, Ccecula, 1794 52 

XLV. Bloch, Ichthyologia, VIII, IX, 1794-95 53 

XLVI. Fabricius, Campylodon, 1793 53 

XLVII. Volta, Blochius, 1796 54 

XLVIII. Lacepede, Polyodon, 1797 54 

XLIX. Cuvier, Tableau, 1798 54 

L. Geoffroy St. Hilaire, Polypterus, 1798 54 

LI. Retzius, Lampris, 1799 54 

LII. Shaw, Trachichthys, 1799 55 

LIII. Cuvier, Anatomic, 1800 55 

LIV. Lacepede, Poissons, I, II, 1798-1800 55 

LV. Bloch & Schneider, Systema, 1801 57 

LVI. Lacepede, Poissons, III, IV, V, 1802-03 60 

LVII. Sewastianoff, Acarauna, 1802 68 

LVIII. Commerson, in Lacepede, 1798-1803 69 

LIX. Plumier, in Lacepede, 1798-1803 71 

LX. Shaw, General Zoology, IV, V, 1803-04 73 

LXI. Herrmann, Notistium, 1804 74 

LXII. Giorna, Poissons, 1805 74 

LXIII. Quensel, Flunderslagte, 1806 74 

LXIV. Dumeril, Zoologie, 1806 75 

LXV. Dumeril, Torpedo, 1806 y^ 

LXVI. Humboldt, Eremophilus, 1806 76 

LXVII. Dumeril, Cyclostomes, 1808 76 

LXVIII. Tilesius, Krusensterns Reise, 1809 76 

LXIX. Geoffroy St. Hilaire, Poissons du Nil, 1809 76 

LXX. Pallas, Labra.v, 1810 yy 

LXXI. Risso, Nice, 1810 yy 

LXXII. Rafinesque, Caratteri, 1810 yy 

LXXIII. Rafinesque, Indice, 1810 81 










































Steller, in Tilesius, i8i i 83 

Pallas, Zoographia, 181 1 83 

Leach, Squalus, 1812 84 

Montagu, Xiphotheca, 1812 84 

Fischer, Zoognosia, 1813 84 

Fischer, Eleginus, 1813 85 

Leach, Hippocampus, 1814 85 

Mitchill, Fishes of New York, 1814 86 

Rafinesque, Leptopus, 1814 86 

Rafinesque, N^etnochirus, 181 5 86 

Rafinesque, Precis, 1814 87 

Rafinesque, Analyse, 1815 87 

Cuvier, Recherches, 1815 93 

Blainville, Prodrome, 1816 94 

Cuvier, Antennarius, 1817 96 

Cuvier, Hydrocyon, 181 7- 19 96 

























Le Sueur, Catostomus, 1817 

Cuvier, Rcgne Animal, Ed. I, 181 7 

Oken, I sis, 1817 

Cloquet, Dictionnaire, 181 7- 19 

Geoffroy St. Hilaire, Suite, 1818 

Le Sueur, New Species, 1818 

Ranzani, Epidesmus, 181 8 

Blainville, Dictionnaire, 1818 

Rafinesque, Opsanus, 181 8 

Rafinesque, Discoveries, 1818 

Rafinesque, Further Discoveries, 1818. . 

Rafinesque, Fluviatile Fishes, 1818 

Rafinesque, Further Account, 1818 

Rafinesque, Prodrome, 1818 

Rafinesque, Hemiplus, 1820 

Rafinesque, Ichthyologia Ohiensis, 1820. 

Tilesius, Australia, 1820 

Risso, Alepocephalus, 1820 

Goldfuss, Handbuch, 1820 

Le Sueur, Mollienesia, 1821 

Hamilton, Ganges, 1822 

Leach & De la Heche, Dapedium, 1822. , 
(A ). Schinz, Thierreich, 1822 , 

Van Hasselt, Java, 1823 



CXIII. Desmarest, Decade, 1823 116 

CXIV. Nardo, Sqiiatinoraja, i8.?4 116 

CXV. Mitchill, Saccopharynx, 1824 117 

CXVI. Valenciennes, Cernie, 1824 117 

CXVII. Otto, Propterygia, 1824 117 

CXVIII. Quoy & Gaimard, Voyage Freyciuet, 1824 117 

CXVIII (A). Harlan, Saurocephalus, 1824 118 

CXIX. Konig, I cones, 1825 118 

CXX. Bowdich, Fishes Madeira, 1825 119 

CXXI. Risso, Europe Meridionale, 1826 119 

CXXI (A). Germar, Geognosie, 1826 120 

CXXII. Geoffroy St. Hilaire, Mer Rouge, 1826 120 

CXXIII. Kaup, Rachycentron, 1826 121 

CXXIV. Nardo, Proctostegus, 1827 121 

CXXV. Nardo, Aphanius, 1827 121 

CXXVI. Harwood, Serpentiform Fish, 1827 121 

CXXVII. Cloquet, Sandat, 182^ 122 

CXXVIII. Riippell, Rothes Meer, 1828 122 

CXXIX. Fleming, British Animals, 1828 122 

CXXX. Stark, Natural Flistory, 1828 123 

CXXXI. Lesson, Ichthyophis, 182S 123 

CXXXII. Cuvier & Valenciennes, Poissons, II, 1828 123 

CXXXIII. Bory de St. Vincent, Sandat, 1828 124 

CXXXIII (A). Sedgwick & Murchison, Dipterus, 1828 125 

CXXXIV. Cuvier, Rcgne Animal, Ed. II, 1829 125 

CXXXV. Agassiz & Spix, Piscium Brasilianum, 1829 131 

CXXXVI. Cuvier & Valenciennes, Poissons, IV, 1829 133 

CXXXVII. Cocco, Argyropelecus, 1829 133 

CXXXVIII. Cocco, Nyctophus, 1829 133 

CXXXIX. Cocco, Schedophilus, 1829 133 

CXL. Serville, Faune Frangaise, 1829 134 

CXLI. Valenciennes, Osteolepis, 1829 134 

CXLII. Cuvier & Valenciennes, Poissons, V, VI, 1830 134 

CXLIII. Bennett, Sumatra, 1830 136 

CXLIV. Brown, Fischarten, 1830 136 

CXLV. Hays, Saurodon, 1830 136 

CXLVI. Cuvier & Valenciennes, Poissons, VII, VIII, 1831. . . 136 

CXLVII. Jardine, Acestra, 1831 137 

CXLVIII. Gray, Twelve Genera, 1831 138 

CXLIX. Gray, Hardwicke, India, 1831-33 138 



CL. Gray, Fish, China, 1831 139 

CLI. Gray, Micropus, 1831 139 

CLI (A). Lesson, La Coquille, 1830 140 

CLII. Minding, Lehrhuch, 1832 140 

CLIII. Nilsson, Prodromus, 1832 140 

CLIV. Agassiz, Fischreste, 1832 140 

CLV. Von Meyer, Palceologia, 1832 141 

CLVI. Bonaparte, Fauna Italica, 1832 141 

CLVI (A). Rafinesque, Trinectes, 1832 142 

CLVII. Cuvier & Valenciennes, Poissons, IX, 1833 142 

CLVIII. Lowe, Alepisaurus, 1833 143 

CLIX. Lowe, Leirus, 1833 143 

CLX. Cocco, Tylosurus, 1833 143 

CLXL Cocco, Mupus, 1833 143 

CLXIL Cocco, Ruvettus, 1833 144 

CLXIIL Nardo, Skeponopodus, 1833 144 

CLXIV. Agassiz, Poissons Fossiles, 1833 144 

Recapitulation 146 


The leading purpose of the Commission * of the International Con- 
gress of Zoology is to give stability to nomenclature. To that end num- 
erous cases of doubt have been resolved by the Commission. But the 
work done thus far has been largely piecemeal, and by this method it 
cannot be always made consistent with itself. Recently the Commission 
has undertaken to fix generic names on a larger scale, covering, for ex- 
ample, all those in use in a given group. In some small classes of ani- 
mals this has been possible. In larger ones, it demands a study of the 
literature more detailed than any one has yet attempted. 

Recently efiforts have been made to secure stability by fiat, using 
names more or less current, without serious regard to the law of priority. 
To accept this plan would merely accentuate the confusion already exist- 
ing and which has arisen through just such disregard of fundamental 

It seems to us that the attempts thus far have mostly begun at the 
wrong end. The need is not to confirm modern errors but to give nom- 
enclature a solid basis for the long future. Stability must rest on a thor- 
ough study of the foundations of biological nomenclature, after which 
the Commission's authority can be used to confirm the results of such 

There is no middle ground between using the oldest eligible names 
in any given group and using whatever names we please. With the latter 

*The International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature consists (May 
1917) of the following persons: 

Carl Apstein, Berlin; David Starr Jordan, Stanford Uni- 

F. A. Bather, London; versity; 

Joel A. Allen, New York J. H. Kolbe, Berlin ; 

Raphael Blanchard, Paris, (President) ; F. S. Monticelli, Naples; 

Ph. Dautzenberg, Paris; Dr. Roule, Paris; 

Ernst Hartert, Tring, England ; S. Simon, Paris ; 

Dr. Horvath, Budapest; Henry Skinner, Philadelphia; 

W. Evans Hoyle, Cardiff; Leonhard Stejneger, Washington; 

Dr. Handlirsch, Vienna; Charles Wardell Stiles, Washington, 

Karl Jordan, Tring; (Secretary). 



alternative, Systematic Zoology and Botany would come to a condition 
of hopeless despair. There can be no finality when the question of ac- 
ceptance or rejection of names is left as a matter of personal preference. 

Binomial nomenclature has its recognized beginning with the Tenth 
Edition of the Systema Naturce of Linnaeus, pubUshed in 1758 with the 
assumed date of January i. These names of Linneeus constitute the orig- 
inal framework of Zoological Taxonomy. In the nomenclature of this 
early period, there are two main elements of doubt: the first relates to 
the eligibiUty of authors who have for one reason or another not accepted 
the Linngean Code; next of authors whose works, published before the 
Linnsean Code, have been revised more or less and reprinted after the 
date of the Tenth Edition of the Systema Naturce. In all of these the 
species are designated by a descriptive phrase, as was the custom before 
Linnseus began the practice of "scientific bookkeeping" in Systematic 
Zoology. The writings of Gronow, Schaefer, and Valmont de Bomare 
come under the first of these heads; those of Klein (Gesellschaft 
Schauplatz), Browne, Catesby, and Osbeck, under the other. Commer- 
son and Plumier, whose manuscript names were pubUshed by an author 
who did not accept them, come under a third head. It is the judgment 
of the present writer, that the best interests of Ichthyology would have 
been served by adopting the rule followed by Jordan & Evermann 
{Fishes of North and Middle America, 1898). In this work all writers 
who use polynomial phrases for the designation of species are disregarded 
as factors in nomenclature, however regular their practice may be as to 
genera. It is not a question of justice to able naturalists who, like 
Gronow and Browne, failed to adopt the Linnaean Code, solely because 
they had never heard of it. It is the convenience of future naturalists 
which is now concerned. This would apparently be best served by the 
exclusion of all these. 

The arguments against such exclusion are mainly two : Brisson in 
1760, polynomial as to species, had a stronger grasp on the significance 
of genera than any other ornithologist of his time. He has been called 
"the Father of Ornithology." Most students of birds wish to retain 
Brisson's genera as foundation-stones in nomenclature. There are good 
reasons for accepting Brisson as an exception. Similar exceptions may 
be demanded in other groups. It is desirable, but not vitally necessary, 
that all accepted rules be general, without exception ; but as a member 
of the International Commission of Nomenclature, the present senior 
author has made no objection to the recognition of Brisson. The other 
argument is this : these writers have published generic names which 


appear in systematic lists, like that of Sherborne (Index Animalium). 
The Commission has already approved the names of Gronow and Com- 
merson. If the present Commission should decide to reject the whole 
series of "irregulars," some future Commission may reverse the decision, 
placing the element of priority above that of regularity. This possibility 
we cannot forestall, while if once accepted there would be no successful 
movement for their rejection. Previous decisions of the Commission, as 
to Gronow and Commerson, point in the direction of general acceptance. 

It is especially important to have the status of questioned authors 
determined as soon as may be, not only for the convenience of ichthyol- 
ogists but for workers in other fields which may be afifected by questions 
of preoccupation. 

More important than the question of acceptance or rejection of some 
or all of the questioned genera, is the securing of a final decision. This 
the Commission will be asked to make as soon as practicable. Pending 
this decision it is perhaps wise for systematic workers to refrain from 
acceptance of the names questioned. 

The other problem is the assignment of generic types to the genera 
of authors who had no conception of types. In doing this we have fol- 
lowed as closely as may be the rules adopted by the Congress of Zool- 
ogy, having especial regard to the "first reviser." In some cases we 
have been in doubt on account of conflicting usages or even rules. But 
in such cases the weight of authority of the Commission when exercised 
should serve to turn the scale. With the authors subsequent to Cuvier, 
1829, this matter rarely offers any embarrassment. The later authors 
mostly look upon a genus, not as a pigeon-hole with arbitrary boun- 
daries, but rather as a group of species, with certain definite structural 
marks clustered around some definite species, the type of the genus. 

The writer asks from his colleagues the fullest criticism both as 
to matters of fact and of opinion, before placing the contents of this 
paper formally before the International Commission. We would es- 
pecially request information concerning omissions. There are no doubt 
numerous generic names overlooked in dictionaries and in obscure 

We have arranged in chronological order the generic names of fishes 
published in the first seventy-five years of the history of ichthyological 
taxonomy. The determination of the validity of genera is treated only 
incidentally. Our main problem is the fixation of the type. 

Stanfoiid University^ California, June i, 1917. 

The Genera of Fishes from Linngeus to Cuvier 

1758 to 1833 

I. LINN^US, Systema Naturce, Ed. X, Vol. I, 1758. 

Karl Linne (Carolus Linn^us). 

The generic names of Linnaeus represent, with one change and two 
or three additions, the system of Ichthyology as developed in 1738 by 
his friend and fellow-student, Peter Artedi, a naturalist whose knowl- 
edge of fishes was far greater than that of Linnaeus. The types of 
most of the Linnaean genera have been accepted by common consent. 
As a rule we have not questioned the current application unless com- 
pelled to do so by the insistence of established rules. 

Petromyzon Linnaeus, 230, after Artedi ; type Petromyzon marinus L. 

Raja Linnaeus, 231, after Artedi; type Raja batis L. 

Spelled also Raia, by authors. 
Squalus Linnaeus, 231, after Artedi; type Squalus acanthi as L. 

Restriction to S. acanthias and relatives, Rafinesque, Indice d'lttiologia Ski- 
liana, 1810, 45, and by Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, 497. Gray, Cat. 
Chond., 1851, following Bonaparte, 1838, uses the name Squalus for the allies of 
Carcharhinus commersonianus. But this use of the name is no more a speci- 
fication of a type than is that of Rafinesque, and the more formal choice of type 
by Gill reinforces the former. Swainson, 1838, chooses Carcharodon carcharias L. 

Chimaera Linnaeus, 236; type Chimera monstrosa L. 

Lophius Linnaeus, 236, after Artedi ; type Lophius piscatorius L. 

Acipenser Linnaeus, 237, after Artedi ; type Acipenser sturio L. 

Muraena Linnaeus, 244, after Artedi ; type Mur^na Helena L, 

Unquestioned, except by Bleeker, who takes as type Mur^na anguilla L., 
the first species named by Artedi. 



Gymnotus Linnaeus, 246, after Artedi ; type Gymnotus carapo L. 

Unquestioned, except by certain authors who take as type Gymnotus elec- 
TRicus L. which appears first in the Twelfth Edition of the Systema Natures. 

Trichiurus Linnaeus, 246, after Lepturus Artedi; type Trichiurus 


Anarhichas Linnaeus, 247, after Artedi ; type Anarhichas lupus L. 

Monotypic. Usually and more correctly spelled Anarrhichas. 
Ammodytes Linnaeus, 247, after Artedi ; type Ammodytes tobianus L. 


Stromateus Linnaeus, 248, after Artedi ; type Stromateus fiatola L. 

Xiphias Linnaeus, 248, after Artedi; type Xiphias gladius L. 

Callionymus Linnaeus, 249, after Artedi ; type Callionymus lyra L. 

Uranoscopus Linnaeus, 250, after Artedi ; type Uranoscopus scaber L, 

Trachinus Linnaeus, 250, after Artedi; type Trachinus draco L. 

Gadus Linnaeus, 251, after Artedi; type Gadus morhua L. 

By common consent. 

Blennius Linnaeus, 256, after Artedi ; type Blennius ocellaris L. as 
restricted by Jordan & Gilbert, 1883. 

Ophidion Linnaeus, 259, after Artedi ; type Ophidion barbatum L. 


Cyclopterus Linnaeus, 260, after Artedi ; type Cyclopterus lumpus L. 

Echeneis Linnaeus, 260, after Artedi ; type Echeneis naucrates L. 
(misprinted neucrates). 
First restriction by Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, 239. In 1864, loc. 
cit. 60, Gill proposed to adopt as type Echeneis remora, this being the only species 
noted by Artedi, and in Linnaeus's earlier writings. But as Linnaeus referred both 
species to Echeneis, this change seems not warranted. 

Coryphaena Linnaeus, 261, after Artedi; type Coryph^na hippurus L. 

Gobius Linnaeus, 263, after Artedi; type Gobius niger L. 

By common consent. 
Cottus Linnaeus, 264, after Artedi ; type Cottus gobio L. 

First restriction by Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., IV, 1829, 142. 
"Ce genre avait pour type primitive, un petit acanthopterygien de nos rivieres, a 

LINN^US, 1758 13 

tete large," etc. Later restricted to Cottus scorpius L. (Myoxocephalus Steller 
=AcANTHOCOTTUS Girard), by Putnam, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool, I, No. I, 3, 1863. 

Scorpaena Linnaeus, 266, after Artedi ; type Scorp^na porcus L. 

Zeus Linnaeus, 267, after Artedi ; type Zeus faber L. 

Pleuronectes Linnaeus, 268, after Artedi ; type Pleuronectes platessa 
First restriction by Fleming, Philos. Zool., 1822. Some writers have taken 
Pleuronectes maximus L. as type, following a quasi-designation by Fleming in 

Chaetodon Linnaeus, 272, after Artedi ; type Ch^todon capistratus L, 
First restriction by Cuvier, Regne Animal, 1817, ;is, and by Jordan & Gilbert, 
Synopsis Fish xV. A., 1883. All authors, except Bleeker, have used the name for 
the same group. Artedi places first in his list under Ch^todon the species called 
Ch.«todon arcuatus, a Pomacanthus. Bleeker takes this species as type, re- 
placing PoMACANTHUS with Ch^todon, and Ch^todon by Tetragonoptrus. 

Sparus Linnjeus, 277, after Artedi ; type Sparus aurata L. 

First restriction by Fleming, Philos. Zool., 1822. This decision has been gen- 
erally, but not universally accepted. 

Labrus Linnaeus, 282, after Artedi; type Labrus bimaculatus L., the 
earliest type designated by Bonaparte (1839), under the name of 
L. VETULUS Bloch. 
By common consent restricted to Labrus viridis and closely allied forms. 

Sciaena Linnaeus, 288; type Sci^na umbra L. 

Complex species, to be considered as identical with Cheilodipterus aquila 
Lacepede. First exact restriction by Cuvier, 1815. Sci^na umbra, based on 
Artedi, is a mixture of two species, Sci^na aquila (Lac), and Corvina nigra 
(Bloch). It is the proper type of the genus Sci^na, but its component parts are 
not congeneric. The two species were confused until Cuvier (Mem. du Museum, 
1815, and later in the Regne Animal, Edition II, 1829, made clear the difference and 
definitely chose aquila as the type of Sciaena. Jordan & Evermann have adopted 
Corvina nigra, under the name of Sci^na umbra, as type of Sci^na. An argu- 
ment can be made for either arrangement, but convenience is best served and prob- 
ably justice also by accepting the nam,e umbra for the species called aquila and 
recognizing this as type of Sci^na. The two species concerned should then stand 
as Sci^na umbra L. and Corvina nigra (Bloch). Bleeker has chosen as type 
Sci^NA cirrosa, the species placed first by Artedi, the type of Umbrina Cuvier. 

Perca Linnaeus, 289, after Artedi ; type Perca fluviatilis L. 

By common consent. 
Gasterosteus Linnaeus, 295, after Artedi; type Gasterosteus acule- 

By common consent. 


Scomber Linnaeus, 297, after Artedi ; type Scomber scombrus L. 
By common consent. 

Mullus Linnaeus, 299; type Mullus barbatus L. 
By common consent. 

Trigla Linnaeus, 300, after Artedi; type Trigla lyra L. 

By common consent. 

Cobitis Linnaeus, 300, after Artedi; type Cobitis t^nia L. 
By common consent. 

Silurus Linnaeus, 304, after Artedi ; type Silurus glanis L. 
By common consent. 

Loricaria Linnaeus, 307, type Loricaria cataphracta L. 

Salmo Linnaeus, 308, after Artedi ; type Salmo salar L. 
By common consent. 

Trutta Linnaeus, as "Trutt^," 308; type Salmo trutta L. 
Type by tautonomy. 

Osmerus Linnaeus, as "Osmeri," 310, after Artedi; type Salmo eper- 

By common consent. 

Coregonus Linnaeus, as "Coregoni/" 310, after Artedi; type Salmo 

By common consent. 

Characinus Linnaeus, as "Characini," 311, after Gronow ; type Salmo 
gibbosus L. 
First restriction by Gill, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1895, 215. Replaces Charax 
Gronow, Epicyrtus Miiller & Troschel, Anacyrtus Giinther. Its use hinges on 
its eligibility, as Linnsus used only the plural form Characini as a section 
Salmo. If not accepted, Charax Gronow (1763), Scopoli (1777), would replace 
it, with the same type. The same slight doubt applies to Trutta, Osmerus and 
Coregonus, all used in the plural form only by Linnaeus. In our judgment all are 

Fistularia Linnaeus, 312; type Fistularia tabacaria L. 

Esox Linnaeus, 313; type Esox lucius L. 

This type was indicated, somewhat arbitrarily, in Opinion 58 of the Interna- 
tional Commission, accepting the view of Cuvier, and current usage both before 
and after Linnseus. Klein chose the name Lucius for the Pike, this name being 
adopted in the Gesellschaft Schauplatz. Rafinesque first separated the marine gar- 
fishes from the pike, calling the former Esox, the latter Lucius. But neither ever 
stated formally that Esox belone L. was the type of Esox. In view of the argu- 
ments available on either side, we may "let sleeping dogs lie," and follow common 
custom, strengthened by the authority of the Commission. 

LINN^US, 1758 15 

Argentina Linnseus, 315, after Gronow, (Museum Ichthyologicium, a 
pre-Linnaean work) ; type Argentina sphyr^na L. 


Atherina Linnaeus, 315, after Artedi ; type Atherina hepsetus L. 

Mugil Linnaeus, 316, after Artedi; type Mugil cephalus L. 

Exocoetus Linnaeus, 316; type Exoccetus volitans L. = E. evolans 
L. ( ^ Halocypselus Weinland). 

Polynemus Linnaeus, 317, after Gronow and Artedi; type Polynemus 

The first real restriction seems to be that of Giinther, Cat. Fishes, II, i860, 
319. No type is specified, but the non-congeneric species, P. quinquarius L., is 
removed to form the genus Pentanemus, a name originally employed by Artedi, 
but changed to Polynemus by Gronow. As this species, quinquarius, was 
the only one known to Artedi or to Gronow, Dr. Gill, with numerous writers, 
ourselves included, has regarded it as the type of Polynemus. But common usage 
with the formal selection of P. paradiseus L. as type by Jordan & Gilbert, 
Synopsis Fishes, 1883, should prevail. 

Clupea Linnaeus, 317, after Artedi; type Clupea harengus L. 

Cyprinus Linnaeus, 320, after Artedi; type Cyprinus carpio L. 

Mormyrus Linnaeus, 327; type Mormyrus cyprinoides L. 


Balistes Linnjeus, 327, after Artedi ; type Balistes vetula L. 

Ostracion Linnaeus, 330; type Ostracion cubicus L. 

As restricted by Swainson 1839, by Sleeker 1865, and in recent usage. 

Unquestioned, except by Kaup, who takes as type O. triqueter L., a species 
referred to Lactophrys Swainson. O. cubicus L. is type of Cibotion Kaup. 

Tetraodon Linnaeus, 332, after Artedi ; type Tetraodon testudineus L. 
This genus has been variously treated by authors, but justice and convenience 
are best served by the choice of T. testudineus as type. Bleeker, Atlas Ichth., 
1865, appears to be the first reviser. He observes : "C'est une de ces especes qui 
est devenue le type du genre Linneen ... en efifet le Tetraodon testudineus, qui 
est la premiere des especes de Tetraodon de la Dixieme Edition du Systema 
Naturcc." Several writers have since indicated as type T. lineatus L. a species of 

Diodon Linnaeus, 334, after Artedi ; type Diodon hystrix L. 

Unquestioned, except by Bleeker, who takes the first species named, Diodon 
atinga L. 


Centriscus Linnaeus, 336, after Gronow; type Centriscus scutatus L. 
Monotypic, a fact overlooked by various authors who choose Centriscus 
scoLOPAx L., 1766. 

Syngnathus Linnaeus, 336, after Artedi ; type Syngnathus acus L. 

By common usage. The earliest restriction as approved by the International 
Commission is that of Jordan, Opinion, 45, 103, 1912. 

Pegasus Linnaeus, 358, after Gronow ; type Pegasus volitans L. 

IL GUNNER, Nachricht von Berglachs, welche Coryph^noides rupes- 
TRis genannt werden kann: Throndhjemske Selskab, Schriften 
III, 1761. 

JoHAN Ernst Gunner. 

Coryphaenoides Gunner, 43, 50 ; type Coryph^noides rupestris Gun- 

in. SCH^FER, Piscium Bavarico Ratisbonensium, 1761. 

Jacob Christian Sch^fer. 

The descriptions in this paper are exact and very elaborate ("in 
universum describiendibus"). The nomenclature is eccentric — in part 
mononomial, and the names are perhaps not exactly used in the sense of 
genera. The perch is called Perca vulgaris and again Perca fluvia- 


Names perhaps not eligible as mononomial: 

Cernua Schaefer, 37 ; type Cernua seu perca fluviatilis minor Schae- 
f er = Perca cernua L. 
Equivalent, if accepted, to Gymnocephalus Bloch, Acerina Giildenstadt, 
Cernua Fleming. 

Schraitzer Schaefer, 38; type Schraitzer Ratisbonensium = Perca 
schr^tzer L. 
Equivalent to Leptoperca Gill. 

Asperulus Schaefer 59; type Zindel ratisbonensis Schaefer = Perca 
zingel L. 
Equivalent to Zingel Oken. 

Asper Schaefer 59; type Asper verus Schaefer, "Streber ratisbonensis" 
= Perca asper L. 
Equivalent to Aspro Cuvier, not of Commerson. 

OS BECK, 1762 17 

IV. OSBECK, Reise durch China, 1762. 

Per Osbeck. 

Osbeck, a pupil of Linnaeus, published in 1757 the record of his 
travels in China. This work is wholly binomial, but being earlier than 
1758, the Latin edition, "Iter Chinensis," iyS7^ cannot be used in nomen- 
clature. The German edition, Reise durch China, bears the date of 1762, 
and is here considered. A Swedish version dates from 1765, an English 
edition from 1771. The case is exactly parallel with that of Hassel- 
quist's "Iter Palestinum/' published in 1757, and reprinted in German 
in 1762. Hasselquist, like Osbeck, was a pupil of Linnaeus, and adopted 
the Linnaean Code. In Opinion 57, the Commission of Nomenclature re- 
jected Hasselquist's work and its translation. "The German translation 
by Gadebusch, published in 1762, does not give validity to the names 
published in the original edition in 1757." The present writers question 
the wisdom of this decision. 

The names of Osbeck are questioned as translations of work prior to 

Apocryptes Osbeck, 130, 1762; type Apocryptes chinensis Osbeck, 
GoBius PECTiNiROSTRis GmeUn. 
■ Apocrypytes is close to Boleophthalmus but distinct. xA.pocryptes Cuvier is 
a different genus. 

Albula Osbeck, 309, 1762; type Albula chinensis Osbeck. 

Same as Salanx Cuvier, not Albula Gronow 1763. If accepted, the genus 
commonly called Albula must receive a new name, Butyrinus Lacepede. 

V. GRONOW, Zoophylaceum; Zoophylacii Gronoviana . . . Animalia 
qua; in museo siio adservat, etc., 1763. 

LoRENZ Theodor Gronow (Laurentius Theodorus Gronovius). 

In this work of Gronow, printed in 1763, before its author had be- 
come acquainted with the Sy sterna Naturce, the genera of fishes are well 
defined, in a system which runs closely parallel with the system of Ar- 
tedi (1738), but the species, as with Artedi, have polynomial designa- 
tions only. In addition to the genera earlier named by Artedi and Lin- 
naeus, Gronow has a number of new names. Two of these, Amia and 
Hepatus, conflict with Linnsean genera of 1766. The completed manu- 


script work of Gronow, written in 1780, called Sy sterna Ichthyologicum, 
in which binomial names were attached to species, after the Linnaean 
fashion, became the property of the British Museum, by which institu- 
tion it was published in 1854. This work, as edited by John Edward 
Gray, does great credit to the scientific discrimination of Gronow ; but 
at that late date, exactly a hundred years after Gronow's first paper, 
"Museum Ichthyologicum/' nearly all of his new names became syno- 

Fortunately for the interests of nomenclature, most of Gronow's 
names were adopted in 1777 by Scopoli, Introd. Hist. Nat. Several 
other names have been used by subsequent authors, as Gmelin, Bloch 
and Cuvier; so that the adoption of the names of Gronow works less 
confusion in the system than might be expected. The suppression of 
Amia, Liparis, Zoarces, Conger, and Scarus, with the transposition of 
Amia, are the results most to be regretted. As the few new names of 
Gronow have lain unnoticed for a century and a half, it seems a pity to 
revive them. The present writer believes, as already stated, that it 
would be a wise rule to exclude from the system all post-Linnsean 
writers who failed to adopt the binary designation of species. As how- 
ever Brisson, 1760, "the Father of Ornithology," was a writer of this 
type, it may be possible to make an exception in his case, preserving his 
genera of Birds. But Ichthyology gains little to atone for the confusion 
resulting from the introduction at this late day of the names of Gronow, 
Klein and other polynomial writers not hitherto absorbed into the sys- 
tem. The generic names of Gronow have been, however, formally ac- 
cepted by the International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature 
(Opinion 20, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Contributions, No. 1938) : 
"Gronow, 1763, is binary, though not consistently binomial. Article 25 de- 
mands that an author be binary and Article 2 demands that generic 
names shall be uninomial. Under these articles, Gronow's names are to 
be accepted as complying with the conditions prescribed by the Code 
to render a name available under the Code." 

The eligibility of the generic names of Gronow is questioned as not. 
conforming to the Linncean code in the terminology of species. 

Callorhynchus Gronow, 31 ; type Chimera callorhynchus L. (Cal- 
LORHYNCHus PINNA DORSi etc. Gronow). 
Unquestioned : accepted by later writers. 

Cyclogaster Gronow, 55; type Cyclopterus liparis L. (Cyclogaster 

The name Liparis used for this genus by Artedi in 1738 was changed to Cy- 

GRONOW, 1763 19 

CLOGASTER by Gronow. Liparis was restored by Scopoli in 1777, and has been used 
by nearly all subsequent authors. 

Gonorhynchus Gronow, 56; type Cyprinus gonorhynchus Gmelin. 

Monotypic. The name was adopted by Schlegel, 1846, replacing Rhynch^us 
Richardson. Also by Scopoli, 1777. 

Uranoscopus Gronow, 57; type Cottus gobio L. 

Synonym of Cottus L. 
Cynasdus Gronow, 60; type Sparus aurata L. (Cyn^dus cauda lu- 
NULATA etc. Gronow). 

This genus is an assemblage of Sparoid fishes, essentially equivalent to Sparus 
of Linnaeus, and includes species of several modern genera. Jordan (Smithson. 
Publ. No. 1938 : Opinions on zoological nomenclature) has proposed to treat 
Cyn^dus as a synonym of Sparus, having Sparus aurata as type. 

Holocentrus Gronow, 65; type Holocentrus sogo Bloch (Holocen- 

This name, taken from Artedi, was revived by Scopoli, 1777, and by Bloch, 
1790, who changed the spelling to Holocentrum, the form used by Artedi. This 
neuter form has been used by most authors from Cuvier to Giinther. 

Coracinus Gronow, 66; type Dipterodon capensis Guv. & Val. (Cora- 
ciNus cauda-lunata Gronow). 
Not Dipterodon Lacepede. If accepted, replaces Dichistius Gill. 

Scarus Gronow, 67; type Labrus viridis L. (Scarus viridis Gronow), 
This genus of Gronow unfortunately contains no species of the group later 
called Scarus, the two other species enumerated being Cichlids from Surinam. 

Callyodon Gronow, 72; type Scarus croicensis Bloch (Calliodon cap- 
iTE SUBACUTO Gronow). 
Callyodon, if eligible, must replace Scarus Forskal, 1775, as the name of this 
large and wide-spread genus. The name Scarus of Gronow, applied to a species of 
Labrus, antedates its use for a parrot-fish. The genus called Calliodon by Cuvier 
(C. spiNiDENs), is distinct from Callyodon of Gronow (Calliodon of Bloch & 
Schneider), and must stand as Cryptotomus Cope. Revived by Scopoli, 1777. 

Enchelyopus Gronow, 77, after Klein; type Blennius viviparus L. 
(Enchelyopus corpore lituris etc. Gronow). 
This genus as proposed by Klein in 1744 contained a variety of fishes, eel- 
shaped but with ventral fins. As used by Gronow it is practically equivalent to 
ZoARCES Cuvier, and to this type it was restricted by Gill, 1863. Enchelyopus 
Bloch & Schneider (type Gadus cimbrius L., a species unknown to Gronow), 
should stand as Rhinonemus Gill. Enchelyopus Gronow must unfortunately 
supersede Zoarces Cuvier. 

Pholis Gronow, 78; type Blennius gunnellus L. (Pholis maculis 
ANNULATUS etc. Gronow). 
Revived by Scopoli, 1777. Replaces Mur^noides Lacepede and Gunnellus 
Cuvier, (not Pholis Cuv. & Val.). Monotypic. 


Amia Gronow, 80; type Apogon moluccensis Cuv. & Val. (Amia caput 

Equivalent to Apogon Lacepede, 1802. 
Eleotris Gronow, 83 ; type Gobius pisonis Gmelin = Eleotris gyrinus 
Cuvier & Valenciennes (Eleotris capite plageoplateo etc. 

Gronow ) . 
The name Eleotris was used for the same group by Bloch & Schneider in 
1801, and by all later authors. 

Clarias Gronow, 100; type Clarias orontis Giinther (Clarias Gronow). 

Accepted by Scopoli, 1777, and by other writers. Monotypic. 
Albula Gronow, 102; type Esox vulpes L. = Albula conorhynchus 
Bloch & Schneider. 

Revived by Bloch & Schneider, 1801. Antedated by Albula Osbeck. Equiva- 
lent to BuTYRiNUS Lacepede. Also used by Scopoli, 1777. 

Aspredo Gronow, 102, after Linnaeus, 1754; type Silurus aspredo L. 
(AsPREDO ciRRis ocTO Gronow). 

Anableps Gronow ; type Cobitis anableps L. 

Anostomus Gronow, 112; type Salmo anostomus L. (Anostomus 
Adopted by Miiller & Troschel, 1845. Equivalent to Schizodon Agassiz, 1829. 
Monotypic. Revived by Scopoli, 1777. 

Synodus Gronow, 112; type Salmo synodus L. 

This genus, equivalent to Saurus Cuvier, was revived by Scopoli, i777- 

Hepatus Gronow, 113; type Teuthis hepatus L. = Ch^t odon chir- 
URGUS Bloch, not Acanthurus hepatus Cuv. & Val. (Hepatus 

Hepatus Gronow is based on two species, on which two Linnaeus based his 
genus Teuthis. The latter is a substitute for the former, and the two were ac- 
cepted as identical by Scopoli. Of the two species mentioned by Gronow, hepatus 
L. and javus L., Gronow had, according to Dr. Giinther, a specimen of the first. 
This we may take as type of both Hepatus and Teuthis hepatus. This example 
belonged to the species called later Ch^todon chirurgus by Bloch. This species 
must be regarded as the type of the genus Hepatus. Cuvier & Valenciennes have 
used the name Hepatus L. for an East Indian species, Colocopus lambdurus Gill. 
They were mistaken in supposing that this species was the one examined by Gronow. 
The restriction here made is that of the first reviser, Jordan, Tanaka & Snyder, 
Cat. Fish Japan, 1913, 214. If accepted, Hepatus replaces Teuthis and Acan- 

Umbra (Kramer) Gronow, 114; type Cyprinodon krameri Walbaum. 
(Umbra krameri Gronow). 
Revived by Scopoli, 1777, and Miiller, 1842, as Umbra crameri Miiller. 

GRONOW, 1763 21 

Erythrinus Gronow, 114; type Salmo erythrinus Bloch & Schneider, 
1801 (= Erythrinus Gronow). 
The name was revived by Miiller & Troschel, 1846, and is in general use. 
Monotypic. Used also by Scopoli, 1777. 

Cataphractus Gronow, 115; type Pegasus draconis L. (Cataphractus 
coRPORE tetragone Gronow). 
This genus is a synonym of Pegasus L. 

Solenostomus Gronow, 119; type Fistularia tabacaria L. (Solen- 
Solenostomus is equivalent to Fistularia. The genus Solenostomus Lace- 
pede, 1803, typified by Fistularia paradoxa Pallas, must receive a new name, if 
the names of Gronow are accepted. 

Charax Gronow, 123; type Salmo gibbosus L. (Charax maxilla in- 
feriore etc. Gronow). 
This name is equivalent to Characini L.=Epicyrtus Miiller & Troschel, 1846, 
said to be preoccupied, and Anacyrtus Giinther, 1864, presented as a substitute for 
Epicyrtus, all with the same type. Charax Risso (C. puntazzo) belongs to the 
very different family Sparid.e. Revived by Scopoli, 1777. 

Mystus Gronow, 124; type Bagrus halepensis Guv. & Val. (Mystus 
cirris octo capite longioribus Gronow). 
The genus Mystus as defined by Gronow contains five species, not congeneric. 
The name is taken from Russell's History of Aleppo, who describes the species 
called Bagrus or Hypselobagrus halepensis as Mystus. Of the generic names 
included, that of Hypselobagrus Giinther, 1864, is the most recent. The species 
named "Mystus" by Russell may be taken as the type of "Mystus" which will, 
if accepted, supersede Hypselobagrus. Mystus Lacepede, 1805, (Mystus clupe- 
oiDES Lacepede) is a species of Coilia Gray, 1831, an Engraulid fish. Also Scopoli. 

Plecostomus Gronow, 127, after Artedi; type Loricaria plecostomus 
L. (Plecostomus dorso dipterygio Gronow). 
If accepted, replaces Hypostomus Lacepede ; it is now in general use. 

Callichthys Gronow, 127; type Silurus callichthys L. (Callichthys 
cirris Gronow). 
Unquestioned, being accepted by later writers. 

Mastacembelus Gronow, 132; type Ophidium simack Walbaum, 1792 

= Rhynchobdella haleppensis Bloch & Schneider, 1801 

(Mastacembelus maxillis subacutis Gronow). 

Revived by Cuvier & Valenciennes. The generic name Rhynchobdella Bloch 

& Schneider included both species assigned by Gronow to Mastacembelus. In 

dividing the group, Cuvier & Valenciennes assigned the former name to Ophidium 

aculeatum Bloch, Gronow's second species, leaving Mastacembelus for his first. 

Before Gronow, Klein, 1744, had used the name Mastacembelus for an entirely 

different group. In this he had been followed by Bleeker, who recognized, at first, 

generic names of earlier date than 1758. 


Channa Gronow, 135 ; type Channa orientalis Bloch & Schneider, 
1801 (Channa Gronow). 
This monotypic genus was accepted by Bloch & Schneider, 1801, and Scopoli. 
Gasteropelecus Gronow, 135; type Clupea sternicla L. (Gastero- 
PELECUS Gronow). 
Monotypic. The name was revived by Pallas in 1769. 
Leptocephalus Gronow, 135 ; type Leptocephalus morrisi Gmelin, the 
larva of Mur^na conger L. (Leptocephalus Gronow). 
This name, based on a larval conger, and revived by Scopoli in 1777, is held 
to replace Conger Houttuyn, 1764, and of Cuvier, 1817, given to the adult of the 
same species. As Leptocephalus has been in use more than a century as the col- 
lective name of the peculiar translucent expanded larvae of the Conger and other 
eels, it would be well to restrict its use to those forms, reserving the genus to 
which the type belongs, the earliest name given to the adult fish, Conger Houttuyn. 

Gymnogaster Gronow, 136; type Trichiurus lepturus L. (Gymno- 
gaster Gronow). 
Equivalent to Trichiurus L. Monotypic. 
Pteraclis Gronow, 136; type Coryph^na velifera Pallas, 1770 (Pter- 
ACLis PiNNATA Gronow) 1777. 
The name Pteraclis was used by Gronow, 1772. It is monotypic and unques- 

VI. LINN^US, Museum Adolphi-Frederici, II, 1764. 

Carolus Linn^us. 

Cepola Linnaeus, 63; type Cepola rubescens L. = C. t^nia L. (also 
in Syst. Nat., 1766.) 

VII. HOUTTUYN, Natuurlike Historie volgens den Heer Linnceus, 


Martin Houttuyn. 

This work we have not seen. Mr. Garman (in lit.) quotes: 

Conger Houttuyn, VII, 103 ; type Mur^na conger L. 

This name might well be retained for the Conger eel, leaving Leptocephalus 
to its time-honored special use as a designation for the larval forms of Conger and 
similar eels. 

Torpedo Houttuyn, VII, 453; type (not named) Raja torpedo L. 
Apparently this fixes the name Torpedo on the Electric Ray. 

LINN^US, 1766 23 

VIII. LINN^US, Systema Natures, Ed. XII, 1766. 

Carolus Linn^us. 

This edition contains four genera in addition to those given in the 
Tenth Edition. 

Cepola Linnaeus, 445 ; type C. t^nia L. = C. rubescens L. 

Amia Linnaeus, 500; type A. calva L. 

The generic name Amia appears in the Twelfth Edition of the Systema 
NaturcE, in 1766. It had been used earlier by Gronow, in 1763, for a percoid genus, 
later called Apogon by Lacepede. 

In the opinions already rendered by the Commission, it was decided that the 
generic names in Gronow's Zoophylaceum, published in 1763, between the tenth 
and twelfth editions of the Systema Naturce, should be adopted, although his names 
for species were polynomial. Gronow was an excellent ichthyologist, with broader 
knowledge than Linnaeus, and later adopted the Linnaean nomenclature. In view of 
the fact that his names are not in current usage, and that he had not then accepted 
binomial nomenclature, most recent authors have rejected them, unless revived by 
some binomial writer. The transfer of Amia from the ganoid to a percoid genus 
is, however, peculiarly undesirable, and it may be urged that general convenience 
justifies a special exception in this case. If Amia be used for Apogon, Amia L. is 
replaced by Amiatus Rafinesque, 1815. 

Teuthis, 507, after Browne ; type Ch^todon c^ruleus Bloch = Teu- 
THis HEPATUS L. in part. 
The name Teuthis was applied by Linnaeus in the twelfth edition of the Sys- 
tema Naturcp, to the two species which formed the genus Hepatus of Gronow, in 
1765. These were named Teuthis hepatus and Teuthis javus. The name 
Teuthis was borrowed from Browne, a non-binomial author. The two Linnaean 
species belong to different families. The species first named hepatus may be re- 
garded as the type of Hepatus, as already indicated. The name Teuthis should 
properly go with T. hepatus, as the name is borrowed from Browne, who applied 
it to a single species, confused with Teuthis hepatus by Gronow and Linnaeus, the 
Ch.etodon c^ruleus of Bloch. This species is a near relative of the type of 
Hepatus. This decision follows the arguments of Dr. Gill. It is reasonable, but 
not above question. Meanwhile several authors, notably Cantor and Giinther, use 
Teuthis for T. javus (Siganus Forskal), while others suppress it altogether. 
Still others misspell it, as Theutys, Theutis, etc. 

Elops Linnaeus, 508; type Elops saurus L. 


IX. MULLER, Delineationes Natures, II, 1767, 141 (fide Sherborne, 

Index Animalium). 

Philip Ludwig Statius Muller. 
Not seen by us. 

Acus Muller, 141 ; type probably Syngnathus acus L. 

Equivalent to Syngnathus L. 
Orbis Muller, 141 ; type probably Diodon hystrix L. 

Equivalent to Diodon L. 

We copy these references from Sherborne. In a memoir by Professor Miiller,, 
1774, vol. Ill, p. 341, Acus appears as a specific name under Syngnathus acus, 
and again, 1774, IV, 341, as a vernacular under Esox belone. Under Diodon 
HYSTRIX (III, 327) he quotes "Orbis maximus spinosus." Mr. Garman, who gives 
us these references, remarks : "I would say that neither of these is available as a 
generic name." Neither is used in Miiller's supplement to the Systema Natures,. 

X. GEOFFROY, Descriptions de 719 Plantes etc., 1767. 

fixiENNE Louis Geoffroy. 

This paper we have not seen. We copy from Sherborne. 

Ichthyocolla Geoffroy, 399; type presumably Acipenser huso L. 

The name, meaning fish-glue, was early applied to the fish producing it. Prior 
to Huso Brandt, as a name for a subgenus of sturgeons. 

Harengus Geoffroy, 405 ; type presumably Clupea harengus L., in 
which case it is a synonym of Clupea. 

Lucius Geoffroy, 407; type presumably Esox lucius L. 

Trutta Geoffroy, 719; type presumably Salmo trutta L. 

XL VALMONT DE BOMARE, Dictionnaire Raisonne Universe! 
d'Histoire Naturelle, 1764, 1768, 1774, 1791. 

Jean Christophe Valmont de Bomare. 

The eligibility of Valmont's names is questioned as binomial only by 
accident, and not accepted as genera by the author himself in 1791. 

Of this work we have examined four editions, the first bearing date 
of 1764; the "new edition," considerably enlarged, of 1768; the second 


edition, apparently mostly identical with the "new edition," 1775; and 
the fourth, still larger, in 1791. 

The dictionary received no consideration in ichthyological nomencla- 
ture until the appearance of the elaborate treatise on the sharks of the 
world, "Plagiostomia"' by Samuel Garman, (Memoirs of the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, vol. XXXVI, 1913). 

In this work Mr. Garman makes brief reference to Valmont de 
Bomare as a worthy author hitherto ignored in taxonomy. "The selec- 
tion of one authority because he favored binomials more than another, 
has led to much uncertainty among names and to many changes. It has 
led authors to belittle and to ignore excellent works which at their time 
of publication and much later ranked in accuracy and influence among 
the first of the scientific publications of this period." Mr. Stejneger in- 
forms me that a Danish edition of this Dictionary exists. 

An examination of four editions of the Dictionnaire of Valmont de 
Bomare shows it to be a compilation pure and simple, that he did not in- 
tend to give any new scientific names to animals or plants, but that, in a 
few cases, he copied binomial appellations from earlier authors which 
might be construed as revived in a scientific sense. 

It is therefore worth while to examine these cases in detail. 

First Edition, 1764. 

In the first edition, bearing date of 1764, there is no case of the use 
of anything resembling scientific nomenclature, although Valmont often 
gives a Latin equivalent to his French names. It is evident, however, 
that the work of Artedi, Klein, Gronow, and Linnseus in which genera 
and species are formally recognized, is unknown to him. 

Thus, accompanied by fair descriptions compiled from other authors, 
he gives the following: 

"AiOL, en Latin, Scarus, un des plus beaux," etc. (vol. I, p. 95). 

"Alose, Alosa, poisson de mer qui remonte" (vol. I, p. 105). 

"Anchois, en Latin, Apua, petit poisson," etc. (I, 13, 3). 

"Anguille, Anguilla, poisson allonge," etc. (vol. I, p. 133). 

"Congre, Conger, excellent poisson," etc. (vol. II, p. 58). 

"Daurade, Aurata vulgaris, Espece de poisson," etc. (vol. II, p. 

"fipiNOCHE, PiSCIS ACULEATUS (vol. II, p. 306). 

"Glaucus, bien des ichthyologues donnent ce nom a trois sortes de 
poissons, I au Derbio, 2 au Liche, 3 au veritable Glaucus/' etc. (vol. 
II, p. 512). 


"Hareng, Halec, Les harengs sont des poissons de passage," etc. 
(vol. II, p. 6io). 

"ToRPiLLE, Torpedo ou Tremble, Torpedo poisson/' etc. (p. 458). 

"Grappe marine, Uva marina." 

These are plainly not scientific names. While the writer evidently 
grasps more or less clearly the meaning of genus and species, he has no 
conception of binomial nomenclature, as distinct from Latin equivalents 
of the vernacular names in French. Thus no one would take "Piscis 
aculeatus" as a generic and specific name for the stickleback or Uva 
marina for the Alga (Sargassum) known as Sea-Grape. Further 
along (Edition II) occurs "Poisson petrifiee'' indicated as 'Tchthyo- 
lithus," which certainly is not the name of any genus. No scientific 
names, generic or specific, can be held to bear date from this first edi- 
tion, 1764, of the dictionary of Valmont de Bomare. 

"NouvELLE Edition," 1768, and "Edition II," 1775. 

The "Nouvelle edition," dated 1768, is the one examined by Mr. Gar- 
man. Except for the paging it seems substantially identical with the 
edition of 1775, formally called the "second." It has a few binomial 
terms, mostly among the sharks. The use of Latin equivalents for the 
French vernacular is still continued, but these assume more frequently a 
binomial form, especially in the rather elaborate index. The first edition 
(octavo) contains no index. 

In the editions of 1768 and 1775 the only new names to be consid- 
ered are Galeus, Mustelus, Vulpecula, and Catulus. 

On page 116 (Edition II) we read: 

"Cagnot bleu, galeus glaucus. Grand poisson cartilagineux de la 
famille des chiens de mer." Then follows a fair account of the Great 
Blue Shark (Squalus glaucus L. ; Prionace glauca of recent writers), 
taken from the description of the "Chien de mer bleu" of Rondelet (de 
Piscibus, 1558, p. 296). Rondelet begins "Galeus glaucus, en Langue- 
doc, Cagnot bleu, poisson cartilagineux," etc. He uses the name "Chien 
de mer," or Galeus in a general sense, including the "Aiguillat" (Acan- 
THiAs), the Emissole, ("Galeus l^vis"), the "Chien de Mer fitoile, 
Galeus asterias," the "Melandre, Galeus canis," and the "Chien de 
Mer bleu, Galeus glaucus." 

The other sharks are treated under diflFerent heads by Valmont. The 
entire arrangement appears in the index to the same volume, 

"Cagnot bleu, Galeus glaucus," does not appear in the Fourth 
Edition (1791). 


On page cxxxvii "Mustellus'' is defined : 

"Espece de Chien de mer, c'est le Galeus stellatus des auteurs." 

The name Squalus mustelus L. was mostly based on Artedi's refer- 
ences to the "fimissole" or unspotted dog-fish, the Galeus l^vis of 
Rondelet and Valmont. The specific name mustelus should remain 
with that species. On the "l.^vis" the name Mustelus of Linck in 
1790 was clearly based. The same species, the "fimissole Commune," is 
clearly the type of Mustelus Cuvier ( 1817). But if the name Mustelus 
Valmont be accepted, its type must be the dog-fish with round spots, 
Squalus stellatus of Risso, Mustelus asterias Valmont. 

On page ccxxii of the Index occurs the name "Renard Marin, 
Vulpecula marina." This is apparently borrowed from Willughby 
and it refers to Alopias vulpinus, the "Sea Fox" of modern authors. 
The name is not a "scientific" term, but merely a Latin rendering of the 

Catulus rests on Catulus vulgaris, which is Scylliorhinus can- 
icuLA L. But the name is not available in any case, being preoccupied 
by Catulus Kniphof, a genus of insects. 

In the fourth edition (1791) Valmont gives a Hst of the genera of 
fishes. All those of Linnaeus (1766) are enumerated, but no others and 
none of his own names are included in the list. Evidently he did not 
regard himself as having made additions to scientific nomenclature. 

The eligibility of Valmont' s names is questioned as binomial only by 
accident, and not accepted as genera by the author himself in i/pi. 

Galeus Valmont de Bomare, I, 371, 1768; type Squalus glaucus L. 
"Cagnot bleu, galeus glaucus," with description. 
If regarded as eligible Galeus will replace Prionace and Cynocephalus. 

Vulpecula Valmont de Bomare, III, 740, 1768; type Vulpecula mar- 
ina" Valmont = Squalus vulpinus Bonnaterre = Squalus vul- 
PES Gmelin. 

"Vulpecula marina; renard marin;" with description. 

If eligible, Vulpecula will replace Alopias Rafinesque, 1810. 

Catulus Valmont de Bomare, IV, 51, 1768; type Squalus caniculus 
L. (Catulus major vulgaris Ray). 
According to Sherborne, Index Animalium, it is preoccupied by Catulus Knip- 
hof, De. Pedic, p. 16, 1759, a genus of insects. Equivalent to Scylliorhinus 

Mustelus Valmont de Bomare, Ed. II, 746, 1768, and Ed. Ill, 1775, 
Ixxxi ; type Galeus asterias Valmont = Mustelus canis 
Mitchill, 1815 = Mustelus stellatus Risso, 1826. 
"Galeus asterias aut Mustelus stellaris. Chien de mer a taches rondes." 


XIII. GOUAN, Historia Piscium, 1770. 

Antoine Gouan. 

Trachipterus Gouan, 104 ; type Trachipterus gouani = Cepola 

Lepadogaster Gouan, 105; type Lepadogaster gouani Gouan. 

Lepidopus Gouan, 107; type Lepidopus gouani Gouan (Trichiurus 
CAUDATUS Euphrasen). 

XIV. KCELREUTER, Piscium Rarorum; Novi Comm. Act. Petropolit. 

VIII, 1770. 

Joseph Gottlieb Koelreuter. 

Mola Koelreuter, 337; type Mola aculeata Koelreuter. 
Antedates Mola Cuvier. 

XV. FORSTER, Catalogue of Animals of North America, 1771. 

John Reinhold Forster. 

Remora Forster, 20; type Echeneis remora L. 
Equivalent to Remora of Catesby and of Gill. 

XVI. BRUNNICH, Collectio Nova Scriptorum Societatis Scientiarum 

Hafnensis, 1771. 

M. T. Brunnich. 

Regalecus Brunnich, III, 418; type Regalecus remipes Brunnich 
(Ophidium glesne Ascanius). 
Also described in 1788. 

XVII. CATESBY and EDWARDS, Natural History of Carolina, 
Florida and the Bahama Islands, 1731-1750, by Mark Catesby; 
Edition Second, 1771, by George Edwards. 

CATESBY & EDWARDS, 1 77 1 29 

The large folio volume in which Mark Catesby published the record 
of his visit to the Bahamas and other parts of America has had an im- 
portant place in the history of American Ichthyology. Numerous edi- 
tions of this work with the same plates have been pubUshed in German, 
French and English. 

Two of these, the Edwards' Edition of 1771, and the edition quoted 
as "Catesby, Pise. Imag., Etc., in 1777," are subsequent to Linnaeus and 
may perhaps deserve consideration in nomenclature, although apparently 
not eligible in view of Opinion 57, which regards the post-Linncean trans- 
lation of Hasselquist as ineligible. These editions contain tables showing 
the Linnsean names of Catesby's species. Except as an evidence of "re- 
vision," these have no bearing on Catesby's "genera." If the generic 
names with polynomial specific names, of Gronow, Klein, and others are 
accepted, we can hardly refuse notice to the Latin nouns used by Catesby 
as republished by Edwards. These nouns have the force of genera, and 
being built about actual specimens they are mostly monotypic ; while 
those of Gronow and Klein are subdivisions of a system, each covering 
as a rule many species. The names of Catesby are listed as genera in 
Sherborne's Index Animalium by an author who is rather critical of Latin 
vernaculars. But Catesby v/rote before Artedi and Linnaeus had framed 
the idea of a genus. He was not therefore consciously engaged in 
the differentiation of generic groups. He was not, to borrow a phrase 
from Mr. Stejneger, "playing the game." For this reason it seems to 
us that his names should not be admitted to the system. It is, however, 
very important to have a decision once for all in this matter. 

The names in Edwards' Catesby are of doubtful eligibility as being 
Latin vernacular nouns rather than genera, and as a reprint virtually un- 
changed of a pre-Linncean work. 

Umbla Catesby, i ; type Esox barracuda Shaw (Sphyr^na picuda 
Bloch & Schneider). "Umbla minor, maxima maxillis longi- 
ORiBUS, the Barracuda" Catesby. 
Equivalent to Sphyr^na and prior to it, if accepted in the system. 

Mormyrus Catesby, 2; type Ul^ma lefroyi (Goode). "Mormyrus ex 
ciNEREO nigricans, the Bone-fish" Catesby. 
Identification somewhat uncertain. The name in any event is subsequent to 
Mormyrus L. 

Saurus Catesby, 2; type Salmo fcetens L. "Saurus ex cinereo ni- 
gricans, the Sea Sparrow Hav/k" Catesby. 
Identical with Synodus Gronow, 1763. 


Albula Catesby, 6; type Mugil curema Cuv. & Val. ("Albula baha- 
MENSis Catesby). 
A synonym of Mugil L., subsequent to Albula Gronow, 1763, and Albula 
Osbeck, 1761. 

Hirundo Catesby, 8; type Cypselurus sp., "Hirundo" Catesby. 

Not Hirundo L., 1758, a genus of Swallows. 

Turdus Catesby, 9; type Lutianus griseus (L.) "Turdus finnis 
branchialibus carens, the Mangrove Snapper" Catesby. 
Not Turdus, 1758, a genus of Thrushes. 

Alburnus Catesby, 12 ; type Cyprinus americanus L. = Menticirrus 
americanus. "Alburnus americanus, the CaroHna Whiting'' 
Catesby, type of Cyprinus americanus L., Syst. Nat., X, 321. 
If accepted, the genus Alburnus must replace Menticirrus Gill, and the genus 

of Cyprinid^ called Alburnus by Rafinesque and Agassiz must receive another 


Cugupuguacu Catesby, 14; refers to Epinephelus maculosus (Cuv. 
& Val.). ("Cugupuguacu brazil, the Hind" Catesby). 
Catesby's fish is not that called Cugupuguacu by Marcgrave. If this barbarous 
name be allowed it will replace Epinephelus. But it is evident that Cugupuguacu, 
Petimbuabo and Acarauna are not in any sense generic names, but attempts on 
the part of Catesby to identify his species with those called in Brazil by these 
vernacular names. In the case of Acarauna, Catesby is himself doubtful. Even 
in case names used in an actual generic sense, as Umbl.a., Aurata, Unicornis were 
allowed, Cugupuguacu and Acarauna should be rejected. 

Saltatrix Catesby, 14; type Gasterosteus saltatrix L., which is based 
on Catesby's figure, ("Saltatrix, the Skipjack"). 
If allowed, will replace Pomatomus Lacepede, 1802. 

Suillus Catesby, 15; type Lachnolaimus suillus Cuvier, "Suillus" 
Catesby, based on Catesby's figure. 
If allowed, Suillus will replace Lachnolaimus Cuvier. 

Aurata Catesby, 16; type Calamus calamus (Cuv. & Val.). "Aurata 
BAHAMENSis, the Porgy," Catesby. 
Not Aurata Fleming, 1828, which is Sparus L. If allowed, Aurata will re- 
place Calamus Swainson. 

Salpa Catesby, 17; type Sparus synagris L. (Lutianus synagris, 

based on "Salpa purpurascens variegata, the Lane Snapper," 


Prior to Salpa Forskal, 1775. If allowed, Salpa would replace Neom^nis or 

Lutianus and perhaps add further to the confusion among the Salpoid Tunicates, 

although it is claimed that an earlier name, Dagysa, must replace Salpa Forskal. 

CATESBY & EDWARDS, 1 77 1 31 

Novacula Catesby, i8; type Scarus c^ruleus Bloch. "Novacula cm- 
RULEA, the Blue-fish," Catesby. 
Name a synonym of Callyodon Gronow, but prior to Novacula Cuvier, which 
is a synonym of Xyrichthys Cuvier. 

Petimbuabo Catesby & Edwards, i8; refers to Fistularia tabacaria 
L. "Petimbuabo brazil, the Tobacco Pipe-fish," Catesby. 
A synonym of Fistularia L., but obviously not intended as a generic name. 
Unicornis Catesby, 19; type Osbeckia scripta (Osbeck). "Unicornis 
piscis bahamensis, the Bahama Unicorn-fish," Catesby. 
If accepted, would replace Osbeckia Jordan & Evermann. 
Bagre Catesby, 23; type Silurus catus L. (Ameiurus catus L.) 
"Bagre secund^ speciei Marcgravei affinis, the Cat-fish," 
If accepted, Bagre must replace Ameiurus. 

Harengus Catesby, 24; type Clupea sardina Poey. "Harengus 
MINOR bahamensis, the Pilchard," Catesby. 
Equivalent to Harengula Cuv. & Val., and, if allowed, would replace the latter. 

Anthea Catesby, 25 ; refers to Mesoprion analis Cuv. & Val. A spe- 
cies of Neom^nis, Girard. "Anthea quartus rondeleti, the 
Mutton-fish," Catesby. 
Not intended as a generic name, being wrongly identified with the fourth 

Anthia of Rondelet. 

Remora Catesby, 26; type Echeneis remora L. "Remora, the Suck- 
ing-fish," Catesby. 
Equivalent to Remora Forster, and of Gill. 

Solea Catesby, 2y ; type Pleuronectes lunatus L., based on Catesby's 
figure. "Solea lunata et punctata, the Sole," Catesby. 
Not Solea of Klein nor of subsequent writers. If allowed, Solea would replace 
Platophrys ; and Solea of Klein, Quensel, Rafinesque and Cuvier would require 
a new name. 

Orbis Catesby & Edwards, 28; type Tetraodon testudineus L. "Or- 
Bis L.EVIS variegatus, the Globe-fish," Catesby. 
A synonym of Tetraodon L. 
Psittacus Catesby, 29; type Labrus catesb^i Lacepcde. "Psittacus 
piscis viridis bahamensis, the Parrot-fish," Catesby. 
Not Psittacus L., 1758, a genus of parrots. 
Acus Catesby, 30 ; type Esox osseus L. ' "Acus maxima squamosa 
viridis, the Green Gar-fish," Catesby. 
Equivalent to Psalisostomus Klein and Lepisosteus Lacepede. 


Acarauna Catesby, 31 ; refers to Holacanthus cilaris L. "An aca- 


Angel-fish," Catesby. 
This name cannot be used to replace Holacanthus as it represents a very 
doubtful identification on the part of Catesby ; not at all a generic division. 

Vipera Catesby, 9, Appendix ; refers to Vipera marina Catesby 
(Chauliodus sloani Bloch & Schneider). 
As it is a fish, it cannot belong to the genus Vipera L. Vipera marina is 
apparently merely a vernacular name, sea-viper or viper-fish being intended. 

Cataphractus Catesby, 9, Appendix ; type Silurus cataphractus L. 
= Doras cataphractus of authors = Cataphractus ameri- 
canus Catesby. 
This name, being preoccupied, cannot replace Doras Lacepede. 

XVIII. GULDENSTADT, Acerina piscis ad PerccB genus pertinens: 
Nov. Comm. Acad. Petropol., 1774, XIX. 

Anton Johann von Guldenstadt. 
Not seen by us. 

Acerina Giildenstadt, 455; type Perca cernua L. (Acerina kabir 
Equivalent to Cernua Schsefer. 

XIX. Descriptiones Animalium quce in Itinere Orientali Ohservavit, 
by Petrus Forskal (edited after the death of the author 

by Carsten Niebuhr). 1775. 

Siganus Forskal, X ; type Scarus rivulatus Forskal. 

No definition. This genus has been of late years generally called Teuthis, but 
apparently this Linnsean name should remain with the group for which Browne 
first used it. 

Torpedo Forskal, 1775, 16; type Raja torpedo (not of Linnaeus) = 
Silurus electricus Gmelin, Malapterurus electricus Lacepede. 
Forskal describes the Electric Cat-fish of the Nile under the erroneous name 
of Raja torpedo L. He questions whether it might be allied to Mormyrus or 
whether it might find a place among the torpedoes of Rondelet, or might it be type 
of a new genus. "Aut potius novum constituere genus. Certe determinatur tor- 
pedinis character genericus : Piscis branchiostegus : apertura lineari, obliqua 
supra pinnae pectorales ; corpore nudo : pinnis ventralibus seu abdominalibus ; 
dentibus numerosissimis densis, subulatis." This statement leaves no question as 

FORSKAL, 1775 33 

to the species in mind, but Torpedo Houttuyn, 1764, if available, is of still earlier 

Salaria Forskal, X and 22; type (without specific name) = Blennius 


The genus is equivalent to Blennius L. Not Salarias Cuvier. 
Scarus Forskal, 25; type Scarus psittacus Forskal. 

The type no doubt intended was Labrus scarus L., of the Mediterranean "an- 
tiquo nomine oxdgog" ; but that species was not mentioned by Forskal, and another 
must be taken as the type. The name Scarus was earlier used by Gronow as a 
synonym of Labrus. Scarus of Forskal must give way to Callyodon of Gronow 
if the names of Gronow are to be adopted. This is unfortunate, as Callyodon has 
been used by most authors as the name of another genus in the same family. 

Abu-defduf Forskal, 59; type Ch^todon sordidus Forskal. 

Equivalent to the later Glyphisodon of Lacepede, 1803. The definition of this 
genus admits of no question. It occurs in the same paragraph with the equally 
accurate definition of Acanthurus. It may receive objection as a barbarous name. 
It was probably a "stop-gap" word for which Forskal intended to supply a Latin 
equivalent. This his editor after his death failed to do and we must apparently 
take it as it stands : "A generic name is a name without necessary meaning." 

Acanthurus Forskal, 59 ; type Ch^todon sohal Forskal ; to be replaced 
by Hepatus Gronow, if Gronow's names are adopted; otherwise 
by Teuthis L. 
Later restricted by authors to the first species named. Ch. unicornis. 

Besides these names, clearly eligible, Forskal lists a number of sub- 
ordinate groups or subgenera, under Perca, Scarus and Sci^na. Some 
of these are properly and fully defined, and would be accepted without 
question if in Latin. But all are in Arabic, and may perhaps be taken 
as vernacular words, as one might divide a genus into "Groupers,'*' 
"Snappers" and "Porgies." We may perhaps reject them on the same 
ground as that on which we reject "les spheroides." 

In addition to these more or less formal names are two sections, 
one under Scarus called "dentibus Abudjubbe," equivalent to Cheilinus 
Lac, and one "dentibus Harid," equivalent to Scarus. Louti and Daba 
are above reproach, except as to their Arabic origin. Abuhamrur is 
defined by reference to its type species. Naqua is based on a species 
referred with doubt to Sci^na. Ghanan, Schour and Tahhmel are 
names only, identifiable by the correspondence with the Arabic names of 
their type species. 

These names of Forskal doubtfully eligible, being vernacular and 
not meant as sub generic. 


Naqua Forskal, xvii ; type Sci^na gibba Forskal. 

With definition as "Piscis marinis rubri obscuris, an Scisna 48?" Equivalent 
to Genyoroge Cantor, 1850. 

Louti Forskal, 44; type Perca louti Forskal. 

With full definition. Equivalent ' to Variola Swainson, 1839, which apparently 
it should replace. 

Daba Forskal, 44; type Perca areolata Forskal. 

With full definition. Epinephelus Bloch, 1798, which apparently it should 

Abuhamrur Forskal, 44; type Sci^ena hamrur Forskal. 

With definition by reference to the type species. Priacanthus Cuvier, 1817. 
Hobar Forskal, 44; type Sci^na bohar Forskal. 

With short definition. Lutianus Bloch, 1790. 
Farer Forskal, 44; type Sci^na sammara Forskal. 

With definition. Holocentrus Gronow, 1763. 
Ghanan Forskal, 44; type Sci^na ghanam Forskal. 

Without definition. Scolopsis Cuvier, 1817. 

Djabub Forskal, 44; type Sci^na jarbua Forskal. 

With definition. 'Therapon Cuvier, 1817. 
Gaterin Forskal, 44 ; type Sci^na gaterina Forskal. 

With scanty definition. Plectorhinchus Lacepede, 1800. 
Schour Forskal, 44; type Sci^na nebulosa Forskal. 

Without definition. Lethrinus Cuvier, 1817. 
Tahhmel Forskal, 44; type Sci^na tahhmel Forskal. 

Without definition. Kyphosus Lacepede, 1800, subgenus Opisthistius Gill, 

XX . KLEIN, Neuer Schauplatz der Natur, nach den Richtigsten Beo- 
bachfungen und Versuchen, in lAlphabetischer Ordnung. 

Durch eine Gesellschaft der Gelehrten. Weidmann, Leipzig. 
(Quoted as "Gesellschaft Schauplatz.") 

No author named, the account of the fishes compiled from Historia 
Piscium Naturalis Klein, perhaps by Philip Ludwig Statins Miiller, pro- 
fessor at Erlangen. Vol. I, 1775; vol. II, 1776; vol. Ill, 1776; vol. 
IV, 1777; vol. V, 1777; vol. VI, 1778; vol. VII, 1779; vol. VIII, 1779; 
vol. X, 1781. 

Jakob Theodor Klein. 

KLEIN, 1775 35 

In a recent monograph of the sharks and rays (Plagiostomia: Mem. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard College, XXXVI, 1916) Mr. Samuel Gar- 
man calls attention to the availability in nomenclature of names of genera 
accepted from Klein, a pre-Linnaean writer, in a post-Linnsean dictionary 
called "Neuer Schauplatz," or for convenience "Gesellschaft Schau- 
platz." This publication began, according to Mr. Carman, as a transla- 
tion of Valmont de Bomare, but later it was extended and improved. 

We find no copy of this work in the libraries of Washington and 
New York. It is probable that the copy in Mr. Carman's possession, 
which its owner has kindly placed at our disposal, is the only one now in 
the United States. 

Mr. Carman remarks: "The Schauplatz referred to above is anony- 
mous, it is true, but it gives the authorities for its generic and specific 
names, and thus its citations amount to republication after 1758, by the 
original authors, previous as the first publication may have been." 

All the generic names used by Jacob Theodor Klein in his Historia 
Piscium Naturalis, 1740 to 1744, are here reproduced and accepted, thus 
bringing them for consideration into eligibility in scientific nomenclature. 
If accepted they therefore replace nearly all competing names except 
those of Artedi (1738) accepted by Linnaeus (1758), and those of Gronow 


Toward the middle of the eighteenth century the idea of genus among 
animals as a basis of classification became common property among nat- 
uralists. The name of the genus was recognized as consisting of a 
single word, but, until 1758, the species was indicated by a descriptive 
phrase attached to the name of the genus. By the device of binomial 
nomenclature, Linnaeus made the system coherent, allotting to genus and 
species each a single word, the first a noun, the second of the nature of 
an adjective or genitive. In zoology, scientific nomenclature therefore 
dates from January i, 1758, the time of the development of this system 
by Linnaeus in the Tenth Edition of his Sy sterna Natures. 

Prior to Linnaeus, on the basis of definite genera with polynomial 
species, three distinguished ichthyologists had separately developed, with- 
out knowledge of each other's work, a system of classification of fishes. 
These were Peter Artedi, "the Father of Ichthyology," in Upsala, in 
1738; Jacob Theodor Klein, in Jena, 1740 to 1744; and Lorenz Theodor 
Gronow, in Leyden, 1754 to 1780. Of these authors the work of Artedi 
was the most compact and accurate, that of Klein the most elaborate, and 
that of Gronow based on the most material. Artedi's work was the basis 
of Linnaeus's classification of the fishes. The principal part of the work 


of Gronow was published in 1763. His names have been accepted as 
eligible by the International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature. 

In this paper we give a list of these genera of Klein together with 
the Linnsean type, each as understood or as indicated by the present 
writer. In deciding on the type, the writer has been materially aided 
by the possession of a copy of Klein's Historia Piscium Naturalis, which 
was once the property of his commentator, Dr. Johann Julius Walbaum 
of Greifswald, and which contains profuse annotations in Walbaum's 
own handwriting. 

Dr. Walbaum himself published in 1792 (Petri \Artedi sued Genera 
Piscium, 589-587) a classified record of the genera of Klein, but without 
actually accepting these as part of the System. Later Walbaum printed 
an Index to all these early names of various authors, as Ichthyologia 
Enodata sive Index Reriim (Leipzig, 1793). In this Index the generic 
and other names used by previous writers are arranged in alphabetical 
order with indication of the Linnaean synonymy. This again does not, in 
the view of the Zoological Commission (Opinion 21), involve the accept- 
ance of any of these names. A reprint of Klein's Historice Piscium 
Naturalis was published, with notes by Walbaum, in 1802. 

In the Gesellschaft Schauplatz Klein's names are frankly adopted, 
and the chief serious objection to be raised is that the species are named 
polynomially. We here omit those names in the Schauplatz, as Acipen- 
SER, Cyprinus, Xiphias, etc., which had been used by Linnaeus and were 
already accepted in the System with the same significance. We are in- 
debted to Mr. Carman for the verification of the list and for the insertion 
of page references. 

Illustrations of the method of the elliptical and disorderly Schauplatz 
are the following. In vol. I, p. 918, 1777, we read: 

"Botte. Rhombus, ein Kleinisches Fischgeschlecht, welches Linne, 
Pleuronectes G. 163, Mliller Seitenschwimmer, Richter Butten nennt," 
etc. Description follov/s. 

In III, p. 512, we find: "Greete, Kleinische, eine Art platteise, But- 
ten, Richter: s(iehe) Botte, Rhombus, des Kleins und unsern Artikel 
Th. I, s. 918 ; desgleichen Plunder, Passer 4 des Kleins und unsern Artikel 
Th. Ill, s. 151" etc. 

"Passer 4" is the species called "Passer asper s(eu), squamosus 
Rondelet. This species is Pleuronectes limanda L. With (eight) 
other species named polynomially, it is set forth in the Schauplatz, after 
Klein. The quotations from Miiller probably refer to the Niirnberg 
Edition of the Sy sterna Naturce, published in German by Professor Philip 

KLEIN, 1775 37 

Ludwig Statius Miiller of Erlangen, in 1776. This edition in its Supple- 
ment contains a few new specific names but no new genera, so far as 

The reference to "Richter," refers apparently to a work published at 
Leipzig, in 1754, by J. G. O. Richter, entitled "Ichthyotheologie, oder 
Versuch die Menschen aus Betrachtung der Fische su Bewunderung des 
Schopfers su fiihren." This we have not seen, but quote the title from 
Bosgoed. The same work appears in Dutch, in 1768, as "Godleerende 

The names in the "Gesellschaft Schauplats" are all of doubtful eligi- 
bility, because not adopting the Linnccan Code as to species, and possibly 
because published in an anonymous dictionary. 

Conger Klein, I, 22, 1775 ; type Muilena conger L. "Conger pinna 
membranacea" Klein. 
A synonym of Conger Houttuyn. 

Enchelyopus Klein, I, 32, 1775 ; type Trichiurus lepturus L. "En- 


A synonym of Trichiurus L., not Enchelyopus Gronow. 
Brama Klein, I, 61, 932, 1775; type Cyprinus brama L. "Brama 
PRiMi RADIO pinn^ dorsalis simplici" Klein. 

Brama, if accepted, replaces Abramis Cuvier, and the marine genus now called 
Brama would take the name of Lepodus Rafinesque. 

Galeus Klein, I, 70, 1775; type Squalus galeus L. "Galeus rostri 


Equivalent to Galeorhinus Blainville, 1816 = Galeus Cuvier, 1817, not Galeus 
Valmont, 1768, nor of Rafinesque, 1810. 

Trutta Klein, I, 115, 1775; type Salmo trutta L. "Trutta tota 
argentea" Klein. 
A synonym of Trutta L. 

Leuciscus Klein, I, 172, 1775; type Cyprinus leuciscus L. "Leuciscus 
SUPRA linea lateralis" Klein. 
Leuciscus Klein would replace Leuciscus Cuvier, Rafinesque, Agassiz, for 
the same group. 

Pelamys Klein, I, 176, 1775 ; type Scomber scombrus L. "Pelamys 
CORPORE castigato" Klein, the "makarel" of Willughby. 
The genus, based on the tunnies and the mackerels, is exactly coterminous 
with Scomber L. If regarded as eligible, the genus of snakes, Pelamys Daudin, 
must receive a new name. 

*See "On the Fishes Described in Muller's Supplemental Volume to the Sys- 
tema Naturce of Linnseus," D. S. Jordan, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., i8go, p. 48. 


Harengus Klein, I, 209, 1775 ; type Clupea harengus L. "Harengus 
vulgaris" Klein. 
Synonym of Clupea L. 
Amphisilen Klein, I, 280, 1775; type Centriscus scutatus L. "Am- 
phisilen" Klein. 
Monotypic. A synonym of Centriscus L., and Amphisile Cuvier. 

Latargus Klein (misprint for Lathargus), I, 298, 1775; type Anar- 
hicas lupus L. "Latargus rostro retuso dentis horridis" 


Synonym of Anarhichas L. Monotypic. 

Leiobatus Klein, I, 316, 1775 ; type Raja oxyrhynchus L. "Leio- 
batus rostro omnium longissime producto" Klein. 
Synonym of Raja L. Includes all smooth rays. 
Synagris Klein, I, 442, 1775; type Sparus aurata L. "Synagris 
DORSO obscure viride" Klein. 
A synonym of Sparus L. Includes many sparoid fishes. 
Mystus Klein, I, 535, 1775; type "Mystus fluviatilis" Klein = Cyp- 
RiNus BARBUS L., not Mystus Gronow, 1763. 
Equivalent to Barbus Cuvier. 
Passer Klein, I, 816, 1775 ; type Pleuronectes flesus L. 'Tasser 

Not of Brisson, 1760, a genus of birds. A synonym of Flesus Moreau. 

Glaucus Klein, I, 829, 1775 ; type Scomber glaucus L. "Glaucus 

Glaucus, if allowable, replaces C^siomorus Lacepede, a genus distinct from 
Trachinotus Lacepede, 1803. Hypodis Rafinesque, 1810, is the same. 

Rhombus Klein, I, 918, 1775, VIII, 88, 1779; type Pleuronectes 
RHOMBUS L. "Rhombus omnium minimus palm^ longi- 
This name antedates Rhombus Da Costa, 1776, a genus of Snails. If eligible, 
it replaces Bothus Rafinesque, and is equivalent to Rhombus Cuvier, 1817. The 
other nominal species of Rhombus are synonyms of the Turbot, Psetta max- 
ima (L.). 

Rhombotides Klein, I, 922, 1775 ; type Ch^todon c^ruleus Bloch. 
"Rhombotides obscure ceruleus" Klein, after Catesby. 
Synonym of Acanthurus Forskal, and of Teuthis of Browne and Linnasus, 
Klein suggests as substitute names, if Rhombotides is not acceptable, Europus and 

KLEIN, 1775 39 

Sargus Klein, I, 966, 1775; type Sparus sargus L. "Sargus pinnis 
vENTRALiBus" Klein. 
Sargus, if allowed, replaces Diplodus Rafinesque, and Sargus Cuvier. The 
genus of Insects called Sargus would in this case require a new name. 

Dasybatus Klein, I, 991, 1775; type Raja pastinaca L. "Dasybatus 
CAUDA SQUAMEis ossEis" Klein. 
Dasybatus, if allowed, replaces Dasyatis Rafinesque and Trygon Adanson. 
Intended to include all the rough-skinned rays. 

Prochilus Klein, I, 1043, 1775; type, as here restricted, "Prochilus 


Equivalent to Pholis Cuv. & Val., a name used earlier for another genus by 
Gronow and Scopoli. In this sense Prochilus is a subgenus under Blennius. . . 

On plates in Bleeker's Atlas, Prochilus is used instead of Amphiprion, the 
species named first by Klein being Amphiprion ephippium (Bloch). We find, 
however, no formal restriction of Prochilus by Bleeker. 

Labrax Klein, II, 32, 1775, and VIII, 164, 1779; type Perca labrax L. 
"Labrax sive Lupus" Klein. 
Labrax, if allowed, replaces Dicentrarchus Gill = Labrax Cuvier, 1817. Not 
Labrax of Pallas, 1810, which is Hexagram mos. 

Percis Klein, II, 45, Ed. 2, 1776; type Perca cernua L., as restricted 
by Bleeker, Systema Percarum Revisum. "Percis pinnis sex 
anteriore parte dorsalis 14" Klein. 
Equivalent to Cernua Schaefer 1761, Gymnocephalus Bloch & Schneider 1801, 

to AcERiNA Cuvier 1817, and Cernua Fleming 1828; not Percis Scopoli 1777, nor 

of Cuvier. 

Narcacion Klein, II, 237, 1776; IV, 726, 1777; type Raja torpedo L. 
"Narcacion demta CAUDA siNuosA ciRCULARis" Klein. 
Narcacion, if accepted, replaces Torpedo Dumeril, not of Forskal. If rejected, 
Narcobatus Blainville is next in date. Monotypic. 

Maenas Klein, II, 360, 1776; type Sparus m^na L. "M^nas dilute 
viRiDis" Klein. 
M^nas would replace M^na Cuvier. 

Cicla Klein, II, 412, 1776; type Labrus viridis L. "Cicla viridis oper- 
culorum" Klein. 
Synonym of Labrus L. Comprises all the species of Labrus L., called Turdus 
or Merula by authors, these names also signifying "thrush." If accepted, Cichla 
Bloch & Schneider, 1801, would require a new name. 

Rhina Klein, II, 587, 1776; type Rhina souatina L. "Rhina sive 
squatina"' Klein. 
Rhina, if allowed, replaces Squatina Dumeril. 


Rhinobatus Klein, II, 593, 1776; type Raja rhinobatus L. "Rhino- 
BATUS SEU Squatino raja" Klein. 
Rhinobatus would replace Rhinobatus Bloch & Schneider, 1801, and 
Syrrhina Miiller & Henle, based on the same species. 

Solea Klein, III, 115, 1776; type Pleuronectes solea L. "Solea 
Solea Klein would replace Solea Rafinesque, Solea Quensel and Solea Cuvier. 

Pseudopterus Klein, III, 139, 1776; type Gasterosteus volitans L. 
"PsEUDOPTERus QUI Perca amboinensis" Klein. 
Replaces, if allowed, Pterois Cuvier. 
Tetragonoptrus Klein, III, 153, 1776; type Ch^todon capistratus L. 
"Tetragonoptrus l^vis ad caudam brunnea" Klein. 
Synonym of Ch^todon L. Bleaker uses this name in place of Ch^todon, as 
Artedi's "type" of Ch^todon — that is, the species first named — is a Pomacanthus. 
But Artedi included also true species of Ch^todon in his list, and the name was 
adopted by Linnsus from his own use of it, in the Amoenitates Acadenticicr. 

Batrachus Klein, III, 202, 1776; type Lophius piscatorius L. "Ba- 

Synonym of Lophius L., not Batrachus Bloch & Schneider, 1801. 

Mastaccembelus Klein, III, 271, 1776; type Esox belone L. "Mas- 

Not Mastacembelus Gronow, 1763 ; stands as Belone Cuvier. 

Platiglossus Klein, III, 300, 1776; type Halichceres marginatus 
Rijppell. "Platiglossus subrufus souamulis l^vibus" Klein. 
Accepted by Bleaker as Platyglossus. Klein's figure is crude, but recog- 

Lucius Klein, III, 506, 1776; type Esox lucius L. "Lucius . . . ros- 
TRO quasi anserino" Klein. 
Synonym of Esox L. = Lucius Rafinesque. 

Cestracion Klein, III, 523, 1776; type Squalus zyg^na L. "Cestra- 
ciON fronte acus" Klein. 
Cestracion, if accepted, replaces Sphyrna Rafinesque and Zycena Cuvier. 
Cestracion Cuvier is a different genus, Heterodontus Blainville, Centracion Gray. 

Trichidion Klein, III, 592, 1776; type Polynemus virginicus L. "Tri- 

A synonym of Polynemus L. as restricted by authors generally. Monotypic. 

Asperulus Klein, III, 686, 1776; X, 236, 1781 ; type Perca zingel L. 

Identical with Zingel Oken. Monotypic. 

scopoLi, 1777 41 

Corystion Klein, III, 762, 1776; type Trigla lapponica L. "Corys- 

A synonym of Trigla L. 

In volume III of the Gesellschaft Schatiplats, lyyG, pp. 61-73, is 
given a list of the genera of fishes. This includes so far as we note 
all those proposed by Klein and those of Linnaeus also, those of Klein 
appearing first. The names are not in alphabetical order, but follow the 
sequence of Klein's Historia Piscum Naturalis. This seems to imply a 
post-Linnsean acceptance of all of Klein's genera, even were their use in 
the text rejected. One new name appears : 

Pristis Klein, III, 61, 1776; type "Pristis, der Sageschnautz." 
Equivalent to Pristis Linck. 

XXI. SCOPOLI, Introductio ad Historiam Naturalem, Prague, 1777. 

JoHANN Anton Scopoli. 

x\ descriptive catalogue of the genera of animals and plants. The 
genera of fishes are mostly those of Linnaeus and Gronow. No types are 
named save in the two new, Percis and Pteridium. 

The following names given by Gronow are not accepted by Scopoli : 

Enchelyopus (regarded as a synonym of Blennius), Eleotris (= 
GoBius), Plecostomus (=Loricaria), Coracinus (=Sci^na), Cal- 


gaster (= Trichiurus), Cyclogaster (=Liparis), Hepatus, ( = 
Teuthis) ; Amia is used only in the Linnsean sense. 

Liparis (Artedi) Scopoli, 453; type (not named) Cyclopterus liparis 

Percis Scopoli, 454 ; type Cottus japonicus Pallas. 

Equivalent to Hippocephalus Swainson, 1839, not Percis Klein. 

Pteridium Scopoli, 454; type Coryph^na velifera Pallas (Pteraclis 

The following names of Gronow are introduced into Linnsean nomen- 
clature by Scopoli, without mention of type. These date from Scopoli, 
1777, if the Zoophylaceum of Gronow, 1763, be not accepted. 

42 the genera of fishes 

Erythrinus, 449 Mystus, 451 

Synodus, 449 Callichthys, 451 

Callyodon, 449 Aspredo, 453 


(misprinted Holocenthrus) Clarias, 455 

Gonorhynchus, 450 Cyn/edus, 455 

Albula, 450 Pholis, 456 

Umbra (Kramer), 450 Mastacembelus, 458 

Anableps, 450 Channa, 459 
Anostomus, 451 

XXII. FORSTER, Icones Inedifce; Bibliotheca Banksiae, 1777. 

John Reinhold Forster. 

Echidna Forster, 181; type Echidna variegata Forster = Mur^na 

echidna Gmelin. 

This generic name, according to Kaup, first appears in 1777, in the Iconas 
Ineditce. It must be retained for the genus of fishes, and is not available for the 
genus of mammals named Echidna bv Cuvier, = Tachyglossus. 

XXIII. KLEIN, Gesellschaft Schauplatz, vols. IV, V, 1777. 

Jakob Theodor Klein. 

Oncotion Klein, IV, 46, 1777 ; type Cyclopterus lumpus L. "Onco- 
tion colore nigricante" Klein. 
A synonym of Cyclopterus L. 

Cynocephalus Klein, IV, 161, 1777; type Squalus glaucus L. 
"Cynocephalus glaucus" Klein, as restricted by Gill. 
Cynocephalus Boddsert is of later date. Equivalent to Prionace Cantor. 

Callarias Klein, IV, 327, 1777; type Gadus morrhua L. "Callarias 
soRDiDE olivaceus" Klein. 
Synonym of Gadus L. 

Crayracion Klein, IV, 788, 1777; type Tetraodon spengleri Bloch. 


A synonym of Tetraodon L. 

The type of this genus was first fixed by Bleeker, Atlas Ichth., 1865, 65. 
Bleaker observes: "La premiere espece du genre complique que Klein en 1742 deja 
nomma Crayracion etant le Tetraodon spengleri des auteurs ou au moins une 
espece extremement voisine, je propose d' indiquer sous ce nom generique toutes 

FORSTER, 1778 43 

les especes a tentacule nasale non perforce. . . . Le nom de Crayracion est 
anterieur de plusicurs annees a celui de Tetraodon et devrait etre substitue a ce 
dernier si le type du genre n'etait pas reconnu a un genre distincte du Crayracion 
LiCvissiMUs de Klein." 

This lixes the type of Klein on the species figured by him, but Bleeker is in 
error in supposing Tetraodon spengleri to be a species with closed nostrils. The 
proper name for that group — (Arothron Miiller : Tetraodon of several authors) 
seems to be Ovoides Cuvier. 

Cataphractus Klein, IV, 828, 1777; type Cottus cataphractus L. 
"Cataphractus rostro resimo" Klein. 
Not Cataphractus Gronow. Stands as Agonus Lacepede. 
Capriscus Klein, V, 427, 1777; type Balistes capriscus Gmelin. 
"Capriscus tribus aculeis" Klein. 
Synonym of Balistes L. 
Cestreus Klein, V, 460, 1777; type Mugil cephalus L. "Cestreus 
A synonym of Mugil L. 

XXIV. FORSTER, Enchiridion, 1778. 
John Reinhold Forster. 

Harpurus Forster, 84; type Harpurus fasciatus Forster. 
Equivalent to Hepatus, Teuthis and Acanthurus. 

XXV. KLEIN, Gesellschaft Schauplats, vols. VI to X, 1778 to 1781. 

Jakob Theodor Klein. 
Solenostomus Klein, VI, 32, 1778; type Fistularia tabaccaria L. 

Synonym of Fistularia. If Solenostomus is accepted, a new^ generic name is 
required for Solenostsmus Lacepede. 

Sphyraena Klein, VI, 464, 1778; type Esox sphyr^na L. 

Would replace Sphyilena Rose, unless Umbla Catesby is available. 
Gobio Klein, VII, 178, 1779; type Gobius niger L. "Gobio branchi- 

If allowed, Gobio Klein becomes a synonym of Gobius L. and a new name 
would be required in place of Gobio Cuvier. 

Hippnrus Klein, VII, 788, 1779; type Coryphv^na hippurus L. "Hip- 
PURUS pinnis BRANCH l^libus" Klein. 
Synonym of CoRypH.«:NA L. 


Blennus Klein, VIII, 589, 1779; type Blennius ocellaris L. "Blen- 
Nus PiNNicEPS coLORis" Klein. 
Synonym of Blennius L. 
Psalisostomus Klein, X, 154, 1781 ; type Esox osseus L. "Psaliso- 
If allowed, replaces Lepisosteus Lacepede. 

XXVI. HERRMANN, Schreihen ueber eine neues Americanisches 
Fischgeschlecht, Sternoptix : Der Naturforscher, 2 Stuck, vol. 
XVI, 1781. 

JoHANN Herrmann. 

Sternoptix Herrmann, 8, 36 ; type Sternoptix diaphana Herrmann. 

XXVII. HOUTTUYN, Beskrivning van Eenige Japanske Visschen: 

Actse Harlemensis, XX, pt. 2, 1782. 

Martin Houttuyn. 

Centrogaster Houttuyn, 333 ; type Centrogaster fuscescens Houttuyn. 
A synonym of Siganus Forskal. 

XXVIII. BLOCH, Natiirgeschichte der Ausldndischen Fische. Nine 
parts, 1785 to 1795. Part 2, 1786. 

Mark Elieser Bloch. 

Kurtus Bloch, II, 122, 1786; type Kurtus indicus Bloch. 
Also written Kyrtus and Cyrtus. Monotypic. 

Macrourus Bloch, II, 150, 1786; type Coryph^na rupestris Fabricius, 
the "Ingmingoak" = Macrourus berglax Lacepede, which is not 
the same as Coryph^noides rupestris Gunner. 

XXIX. BLOCH, Ueber Zwey Merkwurdige Fisch-Arten: Abhandlungen 

Bohmischer Gesellschaft, I, 1787. 

Notacanthus Bloch, 278; type Notacanthus chemnitzi Bloch. 

This name was changed by Bloch in 1797 to Acanthonotus and the species to 
AcANTHONOTUs NASus. Monotypic. 

AHL, 1787 45 

XXX. AHL, De Murcena et Ophichtho, 1787. 

Jonas Nicholas Ahl. 

Ophichthus Ahl, 5 ; type Mur^na ophis L., as restricted. 

XXXI. ASCANIUS, Beretning urn Silde-Tusten : Dansk. Selsk. 1788. 


Regalecus Ascanius, III, 419; type Ophidium glesne Ascanius. 

Other dates have been quoted, for example "Icones," 1772, a series of plates of 
objects in nature. This may not be the oldest. 

XXXII. BLOCH, Charactere und Beschreibung des Geschlechts der 
Papageyfische, Callyodon : Abhandlungen Bohmischer Gesell- 
schaft, IV, 1788. 

Mark Elieser Bloch. 

Callyodon Bloch, 242; type (presumably) Scarus croicensis Bloch. 

Not seen by us. 

XXXIII. BLOCH, Naturgeschichte der Ausldndischen Fische, III, 1788. 

Gymnetrus Bloch, III, i ; type Gymnetrus hawkeni Bloch. 
A synonym of Regalecus. 

XXXIV. BROWNE, Civil and Natural History of Jamaica, Second 

Edition, 1789. 
Patrick Browne, M. D. 

Originally published in 1756, reprinted in 1789, with a table showing 
the Linnaean equivalents of species named, and perhaps other revisions. 
No changes have been noted in the systematic part. In the original edi- 
tion of 1756, as in later editions, the author refers to the works of Artedi 
and Gronow, with both of whom he was familiar. His recognition of 
genus as a technical term and not as a mere Latin noun is unmistakable. 
Browne adopts various genera of Artedi (later accepted by Linnasus), 
and to these he adds twelve new genera of his own. The species are 


indicated by polynomial terms, to which are added the EngUsh vernac- 
ular names current in Jamaica. 

The History of Jamaica is the ablest of all the works describing a 
local fish-fauna, prior to Linnaeus, in quality comparable to the work of 
Osbeck, Hasselquist, and even of Forskal. 

The revised republication of the work in 1789 may perhaps make the 
names of Browne eligible in nomenclature, if other authors rigidly cor- 
rect as to generic names but polynomial as to species are to be consid- 
ered. We have examined the original edition and the edition of 1789. 

The names of Browne are perhaps not eligible as not binomial and 
as occurring in a slightly revised reprint of a pre-Linncean tvork. 

Following the precedent of Opinion 57, rejecting Hasselquist {Iter 
Palestinum) , Browne's work would not be regarded as available. 

Solenostomus Browne, 441 ; type "Solenostomus corpore terete sub- 
ROTUNDO etc., the Trumpeter" = Fistularia tabaccaria L. 
This name, if eligible, antedates Solenostomus Klein and Solenostomus Lace- 
pede. Monotypic. 

Menidia Browne, 441 ; type "Menidia corpore pellucido, linea later- 
al! LATiORi argentea" = Atherina browni Gmelin, 1789. 
This name, if accepted, replaces Anchoviella Fowler, besides rendering Men- 
idia Bonaparte ineligible. Monotypic. 

Amia Browne, 442; type "Amia subargentea labris tEQualibus ossic- 
ULUS branch iostegus vigintiduobus, the Tarpon" = Megalops 
atlanticus Cuv. & Val. 
This name is equivalent to Tarpon Jordan & Evermann. It is however pre- 
occupied by Amia Gronow and by Amia L. Browne refers also to Amia, a sec- 
ond species, "the Ten-pounder," which is Elops saurus L., type of the genus 

Mormyra Browne, 445; type "Mormyra major c^rulea et aureo 

varia, the larger Painted Parrot-fish" = Scarus vetula Bloch 

& Schneider. 

The name Mormyra, too close to Mormyrus L., is subsequent to Callyodon 

of Gronow, and to Scarus Forskal. Three other species of Parrot-fish are placed 

by Browne in Mormyra. Synonym of Callyodon. 

Plagusia Browne, 445 ; type "Plagusia subcinerea cauda attenuata, 
the little Brown Sole with a pointed tail" = Pleuronectes 
plagusia Bloch & Schneider, 1801 = Symphurus plagusia Jor- 
dan & Evermann. 
The name Plagusia was adopted for this genus by Cuvier in 1829. It had 

however been earlier (1806) used by Latreille for a genus of Crustaceans. 

BROWNE, 1789 47 

Browne's name Plagusia, if available, has priority over Symphurus Rafinesqvie, 
1820, as well as over the numerous later names applied to this group, the best 
known of which are Aphoristia Kaup and Ammopleurops Giinther. As there is 
a still earlier species, Plagusia plagiusa L., in this genus, the present species may 
perhaps stand as Plagusia ornata Lacepede, "plagiusa" being only a variant 
spelling of the same word. 

Helops Browne, 445 ; type "Helops nigrescens varie nebulatim, the 
Hog--fish of Catesby" = Labrus rufus L. 
If Helops, with this type, is accepted, it will eliminate the much confused 
generic name Bodianus Bloch, based on the same type (Bodianus bodianus Bloch 
= Labrus rufus L.). Harpe Lacepede and Cossyphus Cuvier are later names for 
the same genus. The first species indicated by Browne under Helops is Lach- 
NOLAiMus MAxiMUS (Walbaum), the "Suillus or Great Hog-fish" of Catesby. 
This is "Helops rufescens iride partim rubra, partim albida, macula nigra 
POST piNNiM dorsalem, the Hog-fish" of Browne. In the interest of nomenclature, 
it would be better to suppress Bodianus rather than Lachnolaimus^ if Helops is 
found eligible. 

Cromis Browne, 449 ; type "Cromis subargenteo oblongus radiis 
anterioribus dorsalis ^gre pungentibus, the Drummer" = 
Labrus cromis L. = Pogonias chromis of authors. 
Browne cites four species of his genus Cromis, the "Silver Shad" (Gerres 
cinereus), the Red-mouth Grunt (Htemulon plumieri), the Stone Bass 
(Diapterus brasilianus), and the Drummer (Pogonias cromis). As the last 
named became Labrus cromis L., we may take it as the type of the genus 
Cromis of Browne, if the latter is eligible. Cromis would then, if accepted, re- 
place Pogonias Lacepede. Chromis Cuvier, 1815, a more correct spelling of the 
same word, would then give place to Heliases Cuvier. 

Macrocephalus Browne, 449; type "Macrocephalus argentea major 


ALis Bloch. 
Monotypic. Equivalent to Centropomus Lacepede. Preoccupied by Macro- 
cephalus Swederus, 1787, a genus of Insects. 

Pelmatia Browne, 449; type "Pelmatia major squamis vix perspicuus, 
the Mud-fish" = Gobiomorus dormitor Lacepede. 

The name Pelmatia, if accepted, replaces Gobiomorus, which in turn has re- 
placed the excellent name Philypnus of Cuvier. 

The first species named under Pelmatia by Browne is "Pelmatia minor 
squamis majusculus, the Bullhead." This is Dormitator maculatus (Bloch). 
Browne gives a long and correct account of Pelmatia, and notes that his "sec- 
ond sort," the mud-fish, is "most esteemed and grows frequently to the length of 
17 to 20 inches. It is the most delicate fish I have yet known, when in full per- 


Thynnus Browne, 451 ; type "Thynnus bontii corpore crassiori et 
BREvioRE etc., The Boneeto" = Scomber felamys L. 
This use of the name Thynnus is later than that of Fabricius, 1775, for a 
genus of Insects. It antedates Thynnus of Cuvier and it is equivalent to Thyn- 
nus of Liitken, a name later changed to Euthynnus by its author. Scomber 
PELAMYS L., the Oceanic Bonito, is the Bonito of Cuba and Jamaica, where the 
Northern Bonito, Sarda sarda, is unknown. Of the "Boneeto," Browne observes 
that it is "a dry coarse fish, not much esteemed, though a hearty wholesome food." 
Should stand as Euthynnus Liitken. Monotypic. 

Saurus Browne, 452 ; type "Saurus argenteus cute longitudinalis 
etc., the Leather Coat" = Scomber saurus Bloch & Schneider = 
Oligoplites saurus of authors. 
Not Saurus Cuv. & Val., which is Synodus Gronow. If Browne's names are 
accepted, Saurus must replace Oligoplites Gill, its type species standing as 
Saurus saurus (Bloch & Schneider). Two other species of Saurus are enum- 
erated by Browne, the "Red-tailed Jack" and the "White-fish." 

Teuthis Browne, 454; type "Teuthis fusca c^ruleo nitens, the Doc- 
tor (Turdus rhomboides Catesby)"^ Ch^todon c^ruleus 

The first application of the name Teuthis (xeuOig, a squid) to a fish is that 
of Browne in 1756. Linnaeus in 1766 accepted Browne's name Teuthis, and sub- 
stituted it for Gronow's name Hepatus, 1763. The republication of Teuthis in 1789 
would help to fix the generic name Teuthis with Browne's original species. 
Hepatus Gronow was primarily based on a specimen of the West Indian species 
called Ch^todon chirurgus by Bloch, with which Ch^todon c^ruleus Bloch, the 
type of Teuthis, is strictly congeneric. The other species concerned, Teuthis 
jAvus L., wrongly referred by Gronow to Hepatus, should stand as Siganus For- 
skal. Cuvier and Valenciennes, according to Giinther, were in error in referring 
Gronow's specimen, the type of Teuthis hepatus L., to an East Indian species, 
since called Colocopus lambdurus Gill. 

The four species entangled in the confusion superimposed upon Browne, should, 
as Gill has shown, stand as follows : 

Hepatus or Teuthis c^ruleus (Bloch & Schneider). 

Hepatus or Teuthis hepatus L. 

Colocopus lambdurus Gill. 

Siganus javus (L.). 

Rhomboida Browne, 455 ; type "Rhomboida alepidota argentea pin- 
Nis OMNis BREViBus, the Silvcr-fish" ^ VoMER BROWNi Cuv. & 
Val., 1833. 
The generic name Rhomboida antedates that of Vomer Cuvier, and, if ac- 
cepted, the type species would stand as Rhomboida browni (Cuv. & Val.) = 
Platysomus spixi Swainson, a species distinct from the northern Vomer setipin- 
Nis (Mitchill). 

Under Rhomboida, Browne mentions also "Rhomboida major alepidota, the 
Larger Silver-fish, with long fins (Zeus Cauda bifurca Artedi)." This must be 

LINCK, 1790 49 

Selene vomer L. A third species is "Rhomboida squamosa ex argentea, the Portu- 
gise." This seems to be Pomacanchus arcuatus L., the "Portugais" of the 
French Antillan fishermen. 

XXXV. LINCK, Magasin Neuestes aus der Physik imd Naturgeschichte, 

Gotha, 1790. 

H. F. LiNCK. 

This work we have not seen ; we quote from Gill. 

Mustelus Linck, 31; type Squalus mustelus L. = Mustelus l^vis 
of authors. 
Equivalent to Pleuracromylon Gill, not quite the same as Mustelus Valmont. 

Pristis Linck, 31 ; type Squalus pristis L. 

Rhinobatos Linck, 32 ; type not specified : Raja rhinobatos L. 

Equivalent to Rhinobatus Klein. 
Callichthys Linck, 32 ; type not specified : Silurus callichthys L. 

Equivalent to Callichthys Gronow. 
Alosa Linck, 35 (scarcely defined) ; type not specified: Clupea alosa 
L. = Alosa Cuvier. 

Thymallus Linck, 35; type not specified: Salmo thymallus L. = 
Thymallus Cuvier. 

Mela Linck, 37; type Diodon mola L. 
Equivalent to Mola Koelreuter and Cuvier. 

Soarus Linck (misprint for Saurus), 37; type not specified and un- 

Barbatula Linck, 38 ; type Cobitis barbatula L. 
Replaces Oreias Sauvage ; Orthrias Jordan & Fowler. 

XXXVL BLOCH, Naturgeschichte der Ausldndischen Fische, IV, 1790. 

Mark Elieser Bloch. 

Bodianus Bloch, IV, 48 ; type Bodianus bodianus Bloch, by tautonomy. 
Replaces Harpe Lacepede. By first restriction, Cuvier and Gill, the type would 
be Bodianus guttatus Bloch, a species of Enneacentrus Gill. Tautonomy has 
precedence in this case. 

Lutianus Bloch, IV, 105 ; type Lutianus lutianus Bloch. 
Unquestioned. Also spelled Lutjanus. 


XXXVII. WHITE, Journal of a Voyage to New South Wales, 1790. 

J. White. 

Enoplosus White, plate 39; type Ch^todon armatus White. 

Lacepede quotes the name Enoplosus from White. We have not seen this 
paper, and the name may have been first printed by Lacepede. 

XXXVIII. VALMONT DE BOMARE, Dictionnaire etc.. Edition IV, 

vol. VIII, 1791. 

Jean Christophe Valmont de Bomare. 

Acus Valmont ; type Acus aristotelis Valmont = Syngnathus 
After Willughby. Same as Syngnathus L. 

XXXIX. SHAW, Description of Stylephorus chokdatus, a new fish : 
Transactions of the Linnaean Society of London, I, 1791- 

George Shaw. 

Stylephorus Shaw, I, 90; type Stylephorus chordatus Shaw. 

XL. WALBAUM, Artedi Piscium, 1792. 

JoHANN Julius Walbaum. 

Curimata Walbaum, 80; type Salmo marcgravii Walbaum, based on 
"Charax maxilla superiore longiore" Gronow, which is Salmo 


Curimata should replace Curimatus Cuvier for this genus. 

XLI. BLOCH, Naturgeschichte der Ansldndischen Fische, VI, VII, 

1792, 1793- 
Mark Elieser Bloch. 

Anthias Bloch, VI, 97, 1792; type Labrus anthias L. ^Anthias 
SACER Bloch. 
Unquestioned. Aylopon Rafinesque is a substitute name, Anthias being said 
to be preoccupied. We do not find it so. Anthia, a genus of Beetles, dates from 

ROSE, 1793 51 

Epinephelus Bloch, VII, n, 1793; type Epinephelus marginalia 
Bloch = Perca fasciata Forskal, by general consent. 
The genus Epinephelus was based on E. afer, E. marginalis, E. merra, and 
E. ruber. Marginalis and merra are congeneric, and belong to the great group 
called Epinephelus by Gill, Bleeker, and nearly all recent authors. Of these, 
marginalis is typical. The species named tirst, afer, has been on that account 
chosen as type by Fowler, 1907. This species was separated as the type of Alph- 
ESTES by Bloch & Schneider, 1801. Ruber was named as type by Jordan & Gilbert, 
1883. This species under another name (acutirostris Guv. & Val.) became the 
type of Parepinephelus Bleeker, 1875. Justice and convenience are best served by 
retaining the name Epinephelus for its chief components, as understood by nearly 
all authors. Otherwise the genus would stand as Cerna Bonaparte, 1837, unless, 
with Fowler, we recognize Epinephelus gigas (Perca gigas) L. as the type of 
Serranus Cuvier, 1817, a change we think unnecessary. If the subgenera of For- 
skal, with Arabic names, are recognized, Epinephelus must give place to Daba. 

Gymnocephalus Bloch, VII, 24, 1793; type Perca schr.^tzer L., equiv- 
alent to Cernua Schaefer, Acerina Cuvier, and Cernua Fleming. 

Johnius Bloch, VII, 132. 1793; type Johnius carutta Bloch, as re- 
stricted by Gill. 

Lonchiurus Bloch, VII, 143, 1793 ; type Lonciiiurus barbatus Bloch, 
1793=: Perca lanceolata Bloch, 1788. 
Monotypic. Corrected by later writers to Lonchurus. 

Cataphractus Bloch, VII, 80, 1793; type Silurus callichthys L. as 
here restricted. 
A synonym of Callichthys. 

XLII, ROSE, Petri Artedi Angermannia-Sueci Synonymia Nominum 
Piscium etc. Greifswald. Edition II, 1793. 

Anton Ferdinand Rose. 

This article, published as a supplement to Walbaum's Artedi Piscium, 
enumerates the generic names of Artedi and others, the species in their 
original polynomial form. In an Appendix are given a few new generic 
names, mostly taken from Aristotle. These genera are not described, 
nor are their species named, but the synonymy is fully given. Some of 
them had been already used by other authors. In our judgment, these 
names are eligible, and a few maintain priority of date. 

Phycis Rose, 11 1 ; type qpuxig Aristotle, Phycis tinca Bloch & S^^h'^eider, 
Gadus blennioides Briinnich. 
This is identical with Phycis Bloch & Schneider, 1801 ; the latter, but not the 
former, antedated by Phycis Fabricius, 1798, a genus of Insects. Phycis Rose re- 
places Emphycus Jordan & Evermann, 1898. 


Cicla Rose, 112; type "Cicla vix palmaris"' Rose, xix^r] Aristotle, a 
species of Labrus, perhaps L. viridis L. 
Cicla Klein is identical with that of Rose. Schneider, more correctly, wrote 
the word Cichla, but applied it to a different group. 

Sphyraena Rose, 112; type aqpiiQaiva Aristotle = Esox sphyr^na L. 
This antedates Sphyr^na Bloch & Schneider, 1801, for the same genus. 

Hepatus Rose, 113; type fjjtaxos Aristotle, which is probably Labrus 
HEPATUS L., the type of the genus Paracentropristis Bleeker. 
Hepatus Gronow is wholly different. 

Capriscus Rose, 114; type xajiQioxog Diphili, xduiQog Aristotle, which is 
probably Balistes capriscus L. 
A synonym of Balistes L. 

Taenia Rose, 114; type taivia Aristotle = Cepola t^nia L. 

The genus is equivalent to Cepola L., and is preoccupied in Worms by 
T^nia L. 

Pholis Rose, 116; type q)orig Aristotle = Blennius pholis L. 

Equivalent to Pholis Cuv. & Val., not of Scopoli, 1777. 
Citharus Rose, 116; type xiddpog Aristotle = Pleuronectus lingua- 
tula L. 

Equivalent to Citharus Bleeker, 1862, and Eucitharus Gill, 1888; not 
Citharus Reinhardt, 1838, which is Hippoglossoides. 

Liparis Rose, 117; type "Liparis nostras Johnson" = Cyclopterus 

Equivalent to Cyclogaster Gronow and Liparis Scopoli. 

Chelon Rose, 118; type %dKk(x)v or x^Xoyv Aristotle, Chelon of Gesner, 
which is probably Mugil chelo Cuv. & Val. 
Probably equivalent to Ch^nomugil Gill, but the European and American 
types need further comparison. 

XLIII. LATHAM, Essay on the various species of Sazv-Fish: Trans- 
actions of the Linnsean Society of London, 1794. 

John F. Latham. 

Pristis Latham, II, 276; type Squalus pristis L. 
Same as Pristis Linck. 

XLIV. VAHL, Beskrivelse af en nye Fiskeslhegt: Shrivt. Naturh. Selsk., 

Kjobenhavn, III, 1794. 

M. Vahl. 

Caecula Vahl, III, 2, 149 ; type C^cula pterygera Vahl. 

BLOCK, 1795 53 

XLV. BLOCH, Naturgeschichte dcr Ausldndischen Fische, VIII, 1794; 

IX, 1795- 

Mark Elieser Bloch. 

Platystacus Bloch, VIII, 52, 1794; type Platystacus cotylephorus 

Bloch, as usually restricted. 
Ophicephalus Bloch, VIII, 137, 1794; type Ophicephalus punctatus 
Unquestioned. Corrected by later writers to Ophiocephalus. 
Sphagebranchus Bloch, IX, 88, 1795 ; type Sphagebranchus rostratus 
Gymnothorax Bloch, IX, 83, 1795; type Gymnothorax mur^na Bloch 

A synonym of Mur-^na L. Giinther, Cat. Fish, VIII, p. 100, 1870, restricts 
the names to allies of Mur^na afra = Lycodontis McClelland, an arrangement 
apparently not defensible, as Gymnothorax was plainly a substitute name for 
Mur,ena, and must retain the same type, Mur^na Helena L. 

Synbranchus Bloch, IX, 86, 1795 ; type Symbranchus marmoratus 
Name corrected by later writers to Symbranchus. 

Platycephalus Bloch, IX, 96, 1795; type Platycephalus spathula 
Bloch = CoTTus iNSiDiATOR Forskal = Callionymus indicus L. 
Gastrobranchus Bloch, XII, 51, 1797; type Gastrobranchus c^cus 
Bloch ^Myxine glutinosa L. 
A synonym of Myxine L. 
Acanthonotus Bloch, XII, 113, 1797; type Acanthonotus nasus 

Bloch, 1797= NOTACANTHUS CHEMNITZI Bloch, I787. 
A needless substitute name for Notacanthus. 

XLVI. FABRICIUS, Beskrivelse over to sieldne Gronldndske Fiske: 
Skrivt. Naturhist. Selskab. Kjobenhavn, 1793, II. 

Otto Fabricius. 

Campylodon Fabricius, 12; type Campylodon (fabricii Reinhardt), 
A synonym of Notacanthus Bloch. Mononomial and monotypic. 


XLVII. VOLTA, Ichthyolithologia Veronensis, 1796. 

Serafino Volta. 

Blochius Volta, 53; type Blochius longirostris Volta (Family 
Blochiid^, fossil). 

XLVIII. LACEPEDE, sur le Polyodon feuille: Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom., 

Bernard Germain ^tienne de la Ville-sur-Illon Comte de 


The name of this author should be written Lacepede. Sherborne, Index Ani- 
maliutn, says : "A letter dated 1831 is signed 'b. g. e cte. de Lacepede.' This spell- 
ing and accentuation should be adhered to." 

Polyodon Lacepede, 49 ; type Polyodon folium Lacepede. 

XLIX. CUVIER, Tableau Elcmentaire, 1798. 

Georges Jean Leopold Nicolas Frederic Cuvier. 

Mola Cuvier, 323 ; type Diodon mola L. 

Equivalent to Mola Koelreuter. Prior to Orthagoriscus Bloch & Schneider, 
1801. Monotypic. 

Murasnophis Cuvier, 329 ; type Mur^na helena L. 
A synonym of Mur^ena L. 

L. GEOFFROY SAINT HILAIRE, Description d'nn nonveau Genre 
de Poisson: Bull. Soc. Sci. Philom., Ill, "An X de la Repub- 
lique," 1798. 

£tienne Geoffroy Saint Hilaire. 

Polypterus St. Hilaire, 97 ; type Polypterus bichir St. Hilaire. 

LI. RETZIUS, Lampris, En ny Fiskslagt Beskriven: Vet. Acad. Nya 

Handl., Stockholm, XX, 1799. 

A. J. Retzius. 

Lampris Retzius, 91 ; type Zeus guttatus Briinnich = Zeus regius 

SHAW, 1799 55 

LII. SHAW, Naturalist's Miscellany, 1799. 

George Shaw. 

Trachichthys Shaw, 378; type Trachichthys australis Shaw. 

LIII. CUVIER, Lecons d'Anatomie Comparee, 1800. 

Georges Cuvier. 
Ovoides Cuvier, i, tab. i; type Ovoides fasciatus Lacepede = Tetro- 

After "les Ovoides Lacepede," 1798. Replaces Arothron M tiller. 

LIV. LACEPEDE, Histoire Naturelle des Poissons, *vol. I, 1798; 

II, 1800. 

Bernard Germain £tienne de la Ville-sur-Illon, Comte de 
Lacepede (here called "Citoyen La Cepede"). 

The generic names in Volume I, 1798, and Volume II, 1800, to page 
160, are nearly all given in French vernacular and are therefore ineli- 
gible. Scientific forms for most of these were supplied by Dumeril, 
Zoologie Analytique, 1806, from which work the generic names in ques- 
tion must be dated. 

Aodon Lacepede, I, 297, 1798; type Squalus massasa Forskal, as re- 
stricted by Jordan & Evermann. 
A shark, perhaps imaginary, with no teeth and with long pectorals. The Latin 
name Aodon is used, as well as the French "les Addons." 

Ovoides (Lacepede), 521, "les Ovoides"; type "l'Ovoide fasce." 
A front view of Tetraodon stellatus L. Equivalent to Ovoides Cuvier. 

Spheroides (Lacepede) Dumeril (les Spheroides), II, 22, 1800; type 
LE Spheroide tubercule Lacepede. 
A front view of Tetraodon spengleri Bloch. A synonym of Tetraodon as 
here understood. 

* Of this work we have before us two reprints, neither with the original pag- 
ination. This, however, we are able to give, through the kindness of Mr. Henry 
W. Fowler of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, who has supplied 
us with a complete list of the genera and the pages on which they occur. 

In the original edition the author styles himself "Citoyen La Cepede." 


Macrorhynchus (Lacepede) Dumeril (les Macrorhynques) ; type le 
Macrorhinque argente Lacepede, Syngnathus argenteus 
Probably replaces Dicrotus Giinther. 

Caecilia Lacepede), II, 134, 1800 (les C^cilies) ; type Cecilia bran- 
DERiANA Lacepede ^= Mur^na c^ca L. 
Not CECILIA L., a genus of Amphibians. A synonym of Sphagebranchus 

Monopterus (Lacepede), Dumeril, II, 138, 1800 (les Monopteres) ; 
type Monopterus javanensis Lacepede. 

Notopterus Lacepede, II, 189, 1800; type Gymnotus kaperat Bonna- 
terre (Gymnotus notopterus Pallas). 

Ophisurus Lacepede, II, 195, 1800; type Mur^na serpens L. as re- 
stricted by Risso, 1826. 

Triurus Lacepede, II, 200, 1800; type Triurus bougainvillei Lace- 
pede, later called Pomatias by Bloch & Schneider. 
Unidentified. A deep-sea fish, apparently allied to Aulostomatomorpha 
Alcock, but without ventral fins. 

Apteronotus Lacepede, II, 208, 1800; type Apteronotus passan Lace- 
pede = Gymnotus albifrons L. 
Must replace Sternarchus Bloch & Schneider. 

Odontognathus Lacepede, 220, 1800; type Odontognathus muricatus 

Macrognathus Lacepede, II, 283, 1800; type Ophidium aculeatum L. 
Replaces Rhynchobdella Bloch & Schneider, with the same type. The name 
Macrognathus was used by Gronow in 1754 (but not in 1763) to designate the 
group called Belone Cuvier. 

Comephorus Lacepede, II, 312, 1800; type Callionymus baikalensis 

Rhombus Lacepede, II, 312, 1800; type Stromateus alepidotus L. 

Preoccupied, replaced by Peprilus Cuvier. 

Muraenoides Lacepede, II, 324, 1800; type Blennius mur^noides 
Sujef (Blennius gunnellus L.). 

Equivalent to Pholis Scopoli, 1777. 
Calliomorus Lacepede, II, 343, 1800; type Callionymus indicus L. 

Synonym of Platycephalus Bloch. 


Batrachoides Lacepede, II, 351, 1800; type Batrachoides tau La- 

Not Gadus tau L. 

Because the body is said to be covered with scales, "molles, petites, minces, 
rondes, brunes, bordees de blanc et arrosees par une mucosite tres abondantes," we 
cannot identify this genus with the naked Gadus tau L., which is identical with 
the type of Opsanus Rafinesque. 

Oligopodus Lacepede, II, 511, 1800; type Coryph^na velifera Pallas. 
Equivalent to Pteraclis Gronow. 

Hiatula Lacepede, II, 522, 1800; type Hiatula gardeniana Lacepede 
^ Labrus onitis L. = Labrus hiatula L. 
Not Hiatula Modeer, 1793, a genus of Mollusks. Gives way to Tautoga 

Tffinioides Lacepede, II, 532, 1800; type TyENioiDES hermannianus 

Gobioides Lacepede, II, 576, 1800; type Gobius broussoneti Lacepede, 
as restricted by Jordan & Evermann, 1898. 

Gobiomorus Lacepede, II, 583, 1800; type Gobiomorus dormitor 
Lacepede, as restricted by Jordan. 
Replaces Philypnus Bloch & Schneider, 1801. 

Gobiomoroides Lacepede, II, 592, 1800; type Gobiomoroides pison 
Lacepede = Gobius pisonis L., a species of Eleotris Gronow. 

Gobiesox Lacepede, II, 595, 1800; type Gobiesox cephalus Lacepede. 

LV. BLOCH & SCHNEIDER, Systema Ichthyologia, 1801. 

Mark Elieser Bloch. 
Edited and extended by Johann Gottlob Schneider. 

Batrachus Bloch & Schneider, 42; type Batrachus surinamensis 
Schneider, as restricted by Jordan & Evermann. 
The name has been usually applied to the congeners of Gadus tau L., not of 
Bloch, the group called Opsanus by Rafinesque. But no ally of the scaleless 
Gadus tau is placed in Batrachoides by Lacepede or in Batrachus by Schneider, 
only scaly species being known to either. 

Enchelyopus Bloch & Schneider, 50; type, as first restricted, Gadus 
cimbrius L. (Rhinonemus cimbrius Gill). 
Not Enchelyopus of Gronow, which is Zoarces Cuvier, nor of Klein, which 
is Trichiurus. 


Phycis Bloch & Schneider, 56; type Blennius phycis L. (Phycis tinca 
Bloch & Schneider). 
Equivalent to Phycis Rose, 1793; not Phycis Fabricius, 1798, a genus of 

Periophthalmus Bloch & Schneider, 63 ; type Periophthalmus papilio 

Bloch & Schneider. 
Eleotris Bloch & Schneider, 65; type Eleotris Gronow (Gobius pisonis 

The name is borrowed from Gronow, whose Eleotris is the Eleotris of 
Cuvier and subsequent authors. But Eleotris pisonis is indicated by Schneider 
as "a species of doubtful relations, perhaps a Periophthalmus." We let the 
current arrangement stand, though on shaky foundation, unless the names of 
Gronow are finally accepted. The genus Eleotris of Bloch & Schneider represents 
an utter confusion of species, many of them not gobies at all. 

Brama Bloch & Schneider, 98; type Sparus raji Bloch. 

Not Brama Klein, which is Abramis Cuvier. 
Monocentris Bloch & Schneider, 100; type Gasterosteus japonicus 

Sphyraena Bloch & Schneider, 109; type Esox sphyr^na L. 

Equivalent to Umbla Catesby. Subsequent to Sphyr.ena Rose. 
Trichogaster Bloch & Schneider, 164; type Trichogaster fasciatus 

Bloch & Schneider. 
Centronotus Bloch & Schneider, 165; type Centronotus fasciatus 

A synonym of Pholis Scopoli. 
Percis Bloch & Schneider, 179; type Percis maculata Schneider. 

Not Percis Klein nor of Scopoli. Replaced by Parapercis Bleeker. Mono- 

Trichonotus Bloch & Schneider, 179; type Trichonotus setiger Bloch 
& Schneider. 
Monoceros Bloch & Schneider, 180; type Monoceros biaculeatus 
Bloch & Schneider (Ch^todon unicornis Forskal). 
Name preoccupied in Mollusks. Equivalent to Naso Lacepede. 
Grammistes Bloch & Schneider, 182; type Perca sexlineata Thun- 

A jumble of striped fishes, restricted by Cuvier to the Grammistes of Seba, 
G. sexlineatus. 

Synanceja Bloch & Schneider, 194; type Scorp^na horrida L. 
By common consent. Commonly written Synanceia. 


Amphiprion Bloch & Schneider, 200; type Lutjanus ephippium Bloch. 

Amphacanthus Bloch & Schneider, 206; type Ch^todon guttatus 
Equivalent to Teuthis L. as restricted = Siganus Forskal. 

Alphestes Bloch & Schneider, 236; type Alphestf-S afer Bloch & 

Cephalopholis Bloch & Schneider, 311; type Cephalopholis argus 
Bloch & Schneider. 
Monotypic. Replaces Enneacentrus Gill. 
Calliodon Bloch & Schneider, 312; type Calliodon lineatus Bloch & 
Schneider (Scarus croicensis Bloch). 
Equivalent to Callyodon Gronow^. 

Cichla Bloch & Schneider, 336; type Cichla ocellaris Bloch & 
Schneider as restricted by Heckel, 1840. 
Name to be changed if Cicla Klein is eligible. 

Rhina Bloch & Schneider, 353 ; type Rhina ancylostomus Bloch & 
Not of Klein ; equivalent to Rhamphobatis Gill. 

Rhinobatus Bloch & Schneider, 353 ; type Raja rhinobatus Forskal. 
Equivalent to Rhinobatos Linck. 

Anableps Bloch & Schneider, 389 ; type Anableps tetrophthalmus 
Bloch & Schneider (Cobitis anableps L.). 
Equivalent to Anableps Gronow and of Scopoli. 

Synodus Bloch & Schneider, 396; type Esox synodus L. 
Replaces Saurus Cuvier. 

Chauliodus Bloch & Schneider, 430; type Chauliodus sloani Schneider. 

Albula Bloch & Schneider, 433 ; type Albula conorhynchus Schneider 
(Esox vuLPES L.). Albula Gronow. 
Not Albula Osbeck. To stand as Butyrinus Lacepede, if Osbeck's names are 

Poecilia Bloch & Schneider, 453 ; type Pcecilia vivipara Bloch & 
By common consent. 

Polyodon (Lacepede) Bloch & Schneider, 457; type "le Polydon 
feuille" Lacepede, i798 = Squalus spathula Walbaum. 

Rhynchobdella Bloch & Schneider, 479 ; type Rhynchobdella orient- 
ALis Bloch & Schneider = Ophidium aculeatum Bloch. 
As restricted by Cuvier. A synonym of Macrognathus Lacepede, 1800. 

Sternarchus Bloch & Schneider, 497; type Gymnotus albifrons L. 
A synonym of Apteronotus Lacepede, 1800. 


Orthagoriscus Bloch & Schneider, (misprinted Orthragoriscus), 510; 
type DiODON mola (Bloch). 
Equivalent to Mola Kcelreuter. 
Bogmarus Bloch & Schneider, 518; type Bogmarus islandicus Bloch 
& Schneider (Gymnogaster arcticus Briinnich). 
A synonym of Trachipterus Gouan. Monotypic. 
Gymnonotus Bloch & Schneider, 521 ; type Gymnotus carapo L. (cor- 
rected spelling for Gymnotus). 
Ovum Bloch & Schneider, 530; type Ovum commersoni Bloch & 
Schneider = "l'Ovoide fasce, Lacepede, 1798. 
Monotypic. Equivalent to Ovoides Cuvier. Ovum Martin, 1764, is recorded by 
Sherborne as a "vernacular name only." 

Typhlobranchus Bloch & Schneider, 537; type Typhlobranchus spur- 
lus Bloch & Schneider. 
Monotypic, not identified. A river eel of Tropical America, without gill- 
openings. Doubtless a synonym of Symbranchus. 

Gnathobolus Bloch & Schneider, 556; type Odontognathus mucro- 
NATUS Lacepede. 
• Equivalent to Odontognathus. 

Pomatias Bloch & Schneider, 559; type Triurus bougainvillei Lace- 

Equivalent to Triurus. 
Fluta Bloch & Schneider, 565 ; type Monopterus javanensis Lacepede. 

Equivalent to Monopterus. Like the two preceding, a needless substitute name. 

LVL LACEPEDE, Histoire Naturelle des Poissons, vol. Ill, 1802; 

IV and V, 1803. 

Bernard Germain Lacepede. 

Scomberoides Lacepede, III, 50, 1802; type Scomberoides commerson- 
ianus Lacepede (Scomber lysan Forskal). 

Caranx Lacepede, III, 57, 1802; type Scomber carangus Bloch = 
Caranx hippos L., as restricted by Bleeker, the first reviser. 
The generic name Caranx was taken by Lacepede from the manuscripts of 
Commerson, who first applied the name to Scomber speciosus Forskal. In revising 
the genus, Bleeker referred speciosus to a new genus, Gnathanodon. This view 
Dr. Gill accepted at first, but later selected speciosus as the type of Caranx, 
leaving some older name as Tricropterus Rafinesque or Carangus Griffith for the 
bulk of the species of this extensive group. Later, by the process of elimination, 
Caranx ruber was selected by Jordan as type of Caranx. On the whole it seems 

LACEPEDE, 1803 61 

most just, as it is certainly most convenient, to recognize the right of Bleeker as 
"first reviser." Caranx carangus is congeneric with C. ruber. 

Trachinotus Lacepede, III, 78, 1802; type Scomber falcatus Forskal. 

Caranxomorus Lacepede, III, 82, 1802 ; type Scomber pelagicus L. 
Synonym of Coryph^na L. 

Caesio Lacepede, III, 85, 1802; type C^sio c^ruleoaureus Lacepede. 

Caesiomorus Lacepede, III, 92, 1802; type C^siomorus bailloni Lace- 
Genus probably valid ; equivalent to Glaucus Klein. 

Coris Lacepede, III, 96, 1802; type Coris aygula Lacepede. 

Gomphosus Lacepede, III, 100, 1802; type Gomphosus c^ruleus 

Naso Lacepede, III, 105, 1802; type Ch^todon fronticornis L. 

Adopted from Commerson ms. Commerson writes Naseus, but the form 
Naso occurs first. Identical with Monoceros Bloch & Schneider, the latter pre- 

Kyphosus Lacepede, III, 114, 1802; type Kyphosus bigibbus Lacepede. 

Osphronemus Lacepede, III, 116, 1802; type Osphronemus gouramy 
Written Osphromenus by Giinther. 

Trichopodus Lacepede, III, 125, 1802 ; type Trichopodus mentum 
Lacepede (Osphronemus gouramy Lacepede). 

Monodactylus Lacepede, III, 131, 1802; type Monodactylus falci- 
form is Lacepede. 
Called PsETTUS by Commerson in ms. as quoted by Lacepede. Monotypic. 

Plectorhinchus Lacepede, III, 134, 1802; type Plectorhinchus 
CH^TODONOiDES Lacepede. 
Monotypic. Replaces Diagram ma Cuvier. 

Pogonias Lacepede, III, 137; type Pogonias fasciatus Lacepede = 
Labrus cromis Lacepede. 

Bostrychus Lacepede, III, 144, 1802 ; type Bostrychus sinensis Lace- 
Not BosTRicHus Geoffroy 1762, a genus of Insects. Replaced by Bostrich- 

THYS Dumeril, 1806, by PsiLUS Fischer, 1813, and by Ictiopogon Rafinesque, 1815. 

Bostrychoides Lacepede, III, 144, 1802; type Bostrychoides oculatus 

Hemipteronotus Lacepede, III, 214, 1802; type Hemipteronotus quin- 
quemaculatus Lacepede (Coryph^na pentadactyla Gmelin). 


Coryphaenoides Lacepede, III, 219, 1802; type Coryph^noides hout- 
TUYNi Lacepede (Coryph^na japonica Houttuyn). 
Not CoRYPH^NOiDES Gunncr. Replaced by Branchiostegus Rafinesque, 1815, 
which is earlier than Latilus Cuvier & Val., 1830. 

Aspidophorus Lacepede, III, 221, 1802; type Aspidophorus armatus 

Lacepede (Cottus cataphractus Lacepede). 
Equivalent to Agonus Bloch & Schneider. 
Aspidophoroides Lacepede, III, 227, 1802; type Aspidophoroides 

tranquebar Lacepede (Agonus monopterygius Bloch & 

Scomberomorus Lacepede, III, 292, 1802; type Scomberomorus 

PLUMiERi Lacepede (Scomber regalis Bloch). 

Centropodus Lacepede, III, 303, 1802; type Scomber rhombeus For- 

A synonym of Monodactylus Lacepede. 

Centronotus Lacepede, III, 309, 1802; type Centronotus conductor 
Lacepede ( Gasterosteus ductor Lacepede). 
Not Centronotus Bloch & Schneider, 1801 (Pholis Scopoli). Replaced by 
Naucrates Rafinesque. 

Lepisacanthus Lacepede, III, 320, 1802; type Lepisacanthus japon- 
icus Lacepede (Gasterosteus japonicus L.). 
Equivalent to Monocentris Bloch & Schneider, 1801. Monotypic. 
Cephalacanthus Lacepede, III, 323, 1802; type Gasterosteus spina- 

rella L. 
The young of some species of Dactylopterus. Monotypic. 

Dactylopterus Lacepede, III, 325, 1802; type Dactylopterus pirapeda 
Lacepede (Trigla volitans L.). 
Equivalent to Cephalacanthus Lacepede. 
Prionotus Lacepede, III, 336, 1802; type Prionotus evolans Lacepede. 

Peristedion Lacepede, III, 368, 1802; type Peristedion malarmat 
Lacepede (Trigla cataphracta L.). 
Istiophorus Lacepede, III, 374, 1802; type Scomber gladius Brous- 
Monotypic. Spelled Histiophorus by Cuvier. 

Apogon Lacepede, III, 411, 1802; type Apogon ruber Lacepede (Mul- 
LUS imberbis L.). 
Monotypic. Equivalent to Amia Gronow. 

LACEPEDE, 1803 63 

Macropodus Lacepede, III, 416, 1802 ; type Macropodus viridiauratus 
Cheilinus Lacepede, III, 529, 1802; 'type Cheilinus trilobatus Lace- 

Cheilodipterus Lacepede, III, 539, 1802; type Cheilodipterus 
lineatus Lacepede^ Cheilodipterus octovittatus Cuv. & 
Val., as restricted by Cuv. & Val. 

Hologymnosus Lacepede, III, 556, 1802; type Hologymnosus fas- 
ciATUs Lacepede (Coris annulatus Lacepede, 1802). 
Equivalent to Coris. 

Ostorhinchus Lacepede, IV, 23, 1803; type Ostorhinchus fleurieu 

Monotypic ; subgenus of Apogon. 

Dipterodon Lacepede, IV, 165, 1803 ; type Dipterodon hexacanthus 
A species of Apocon, as restricted by Jordan & Evermann, Fishes North Mid. 
Anier., 1106. Not Dipterodon Cuvier. 

Centropomus Lacepede, IV, 248, 1803 ; type Sci.«na undecimalis 
Bloch, by common consent, as restricted by Cuvier. 
Originally a peculiarly confused jumble of species. 

Taenianotus Lacepede, IV, 303, 1803; type T^nionotus triacanthus 
Lacepede, restricted by Cuv. & Val., Hist. Poiss., IV, 371. 

Micropterus Lacepede, IV, 324, 1803; type Micropterus dolomieu 

Harpe Lacepede, IV, 426, 1803; type Harpe c^ruleoaureus Lacepede 
(Labrus rufus L.). 
A synonym of Bodianus Bloch and of Helops Browne. 

Pimelepterus Lacepede, IV, 429, 1803 ; type Pimelepterus bosci Lace- 
Monotypic. A synonym of Kyphosus Lacepede. 

Cheilio Lacepede, IV, 432, 1803; type Cheilio auratus Lacepede 
(Labrus inermis Forskal). 

Pomatomus Lacepede, IV, 435, 1803; type Pomatomus skib Lacepede 
(Perca saltatrix L.). 
Monotypic. The name afterwards improperly transferred by Cuvier to a 
genus of Apogonid^, Epigonus Rafinesque. 


Leiostomus Lacepede, IV, 438, 1803 ; type Leiostomus xanthurus 

Centrolophus Lacepede, IV, 441 ; type Perca nigra L, 

Leiognathus Lacepede, IV, 448; type Leiognathus argenteus Lace- 
pede (Scomber edentulus Bloch). 
Monotypic. Prior to Equula Cuvier. 

Acanthinion Lacepede, IV, 499, 1803 ; type Ch^todon rhomboides L. 

Equivalent to Trachinotus. 
Chaetodipterus Lacepede, IV, 503 ; type Ch^todipterus plumieri Lace- 
pede (Zeus faber Gmelin). 


Pomacentrus Lacepede, IV, 505, 1803; type Ch.^todon pavo Bloch, 
By general consent. 

Pomadasys Lacepede, IV, 515, 1803; type Sci^na argentea Forskal. 
Monotypic. Prior to Pristipoma Cuvier. 

Pomacanthus Lacepede, IV, 517, 1803; type Ch^todon arcuatus L., 

as restricted by Cuvier. 
Holacanthus Lacepede, IV, 525, 1803; type Ch^todon tricolor L., as 

restricted by Cuvier. 
Enoplosus (White) Lacepede, IV, 540, 1803; type Ch^todon armatus 


Glyphisodon Lacepede, IV, 542, 1803; type Glyphisodon moucharra 
Lacepede (Ch^todon saxatilis L.). 
Equivalent to Abudefduf Forskal. Usually written Glyphidodon. 

Aspisurus Lacepede, IV, 556, 1803; type Ch.etodon sohar Forskal. 
Monotypic. Equivalent to Acanthurus Forskal, Teuthis L. 

Acanthopodus Lacepede, IV, 558, 1803; type Acanthopodus argen- 
teus Lacepede (Monodactylus falciformis Lacepede). 
A synonym of Monodactylus. 

Selene Lacepede, IV, 560, 1803; type Selene argentea Lacepede 
(Zeus vomer Cuvier). 

Argyreiosus Lacepede, IV, 566, 1803 ; type Zeus vomer L. 
Monotypic. A synonym of Selene. 

Gallus Lacepede, IV, 583, 1803; type Callus virescens Lacepede 
(Zeus gallus L.). 
Monotypic. Not Gallus L., a genus of hens. Replaced by Alectis Rafin- 
esque and Gallichthys Cuvier, 

LACEPiDE, 1803 65 

Chrysotosus Lacepede, IV, 586, 1803; type Zeus luna Gmelin. 
A synonym of Lampris. Monotypic. 

Capros Lacepede, IV, 590, 1803; type Zeus aper L. 

Achirus Lacepede, IV, 658, 1803; type Pleuronectes achirus L. 

As fixed by Jordan & Gilbert, 1883. Achirus fasciatus Lacepede was 
wrongly supposed to be identical with Pleuronectes achirus L. 

Makaira Lacepede, IV, 688, 1803; type Makaira nigricans Lacepede. 
Monotypic. A synonym of Istiophorus. 

Cirrhitus Lacepede, V, 2, 1803; type Cirrhitus maculatus Lacepede. 

Monotypic. Written Cirrhites by Cuvier. 
Cheilodactylus Lacepede, V, 5, 1803; type Cheilodactylus fasciatus 


Misgurnus Lacepede, V, 16, 1803; type Cobitis fossilis L. 

Fundulus Lacepede, V, -i.y, 1803 ; type Fundulus mudfish Lacepede 
(Cobitis heteroclita Gmelin). 

Colubrina Lacepede, V, 40, 1803 ; type Colubrina chinensis Lacepede. 
An unidentified Chinese painting, probably fictitious. 

Butyrinus Lacepede, V, 45, 1803; type Butyrinus banana Lacepede 

Equivalent to Albula of Gronow and of Schneider, not Albula Osbeck. 
Should apparently replace Albula Gronow. 

Tripteronotus Lacepede, V, 47, 1803; type Tripteronotus hautin 
Lacepede (Salmo lavaretus L.). 
Mutilated example. Equivalent to Coregonus L. 
Ompok Lacepede, V, 49, 1803 ; type Ompok siluroides Lacepede. 

Replaces Callichrous Hamilton. 
Macropteronotus Lacepede, V, 84, 1803; type Macropteronotus 
CHARMUTH Laccpede (Silurus anguillaris L.). 
Identical with Clarias Gronow. 
Malapterurus Lacepede, V, 90, 1803; type Silurus electricus L. 

Monotypic. A synonym of Torpedo Forskal. 
Pimelodus Lacepede, V, 93, 1803; type Pimelodus maculatus Lace- 
As restricted by Cuvier, Gill and authors. 

Doras Lacepede, V, 116, 1803; type Silurus carinatus L. 

Pogonathus Lacepede, V, 120, 1803 ; type Pogonathus courbina Lace- 
Identical with Pogonias Lacepede, 1802. 


Plotosus Lacepede, V, 129, 1803; type Platystacus anguillaris Bloch 

Ageneiosus Lacepede, V, 132, 1803; type Ageneiosus armatus Lace- 

Macrorhamphosus Lacepede, V, 136, 1803 ; type Silurus cornutus L. 

Equivalent to Centriscus Cuvier, not of Linnaeus. 
Centranodon Lacepede, V, 138, 1803; type Centranodon japonicus 
Lacepede (Silurus imberbis Houttuyn) = Callionymus in- 
Monotypic and unidentifiable, perhaps based on rough notes of Platy- 


Hypostomus Lacepede, V, 144, 1803 ; type Hypostomus guacari Lace- 
pede (Loricaria plecostomus L.). 
Monotypic. Identical with Plecostomus Gronow. 

Corydoras Lacepede, V, 147, 1803; type Corydoras geoffroy Lace- 
pede (Cataphractus punctatus Bloch). 

Tachysurus Lacepede, V, 150, 1803; type Tachysurus sinensis Lace- 
A Chine.se picture of some species of Arius Cuvier, which name it replaces, if 


Osmerus Lacepede, V, 229, 1803; type Salmo eperlanus L. 
Equivalent to Osmeri L. 

Coregonus Lacepede, V, 239, 1803 ; type Salmo lavaretus L. 
Equivalent to Coregoni L. 

Characinus Lacepede, V, 269, 1803 ; type Salmo gibbosus L. 
Equivalent to Characini L. and to Charax Gronow, Scopoli. 

Serrasalmus Lacepede, V, 283, 1803; type Salmo rhombeus L. 
Monotypic. Written Serrasalmo by Cuvier. 

Megalops Lacepede, V, 289, 1803 ; type Megalops filamentosus Lace- 

Lepisosteus Lacepede, V, 331, 1803; type Lepisosteus gavialis Lace- 
pede (ESOX OSSEUS L.). 
Usually written Lepidosteus. 

Scomberesox Lacepede, V, 344, 1803 ; type Scomberesox cam peri Lace- 
pede (Esox SAURUS Walbaum). 

Aulostomus Lacepede, V, 356, 1803; type Aulostomus chinensis 
Lacepede (Fistularia chinensis L.). 
Monotypic. Usually written Aulostoma. 

LACEPEDE, 1803 67 

Solenostomus Lacepede, V, 360, 1803; type Fistularia pakadoxa 

Monotypic. Not Solenostomus Gronow nor of Klein. 

Hydrargira Lacepede, V, 378, 1803; type Hydrargira sw ampin a Lace- 
pede (FuNDULUs MAjALis Walbaum). 

Usually written Hydrargyra. Monotypic. Not separable from Fundulus. 
Stolephorus Lacepede, V, 381, 1803; type Atherina japonica Hout- 
tuyn (Spratelloides argyrot^nia Bleeker). 

Restriction of Jordan & Evermann, 1896. 

The first species named by Lacepede, Atherina japonica Houttuyn, was un- 
known to him, and very scantily and incorrectly described by its discoverer. Sev- 
eral authors — Bleeker, Jordan & Evermann — have assumed this species to be the 
type, and that it was congeneric with the second species named, from which La- 
cepede drew up his generic description and of which he gave a figure. 

Study of the fauna of Nagasaki shows that no species of the modern genus 
Stolephorus has been yet found there and that the Atherina japonica of Hout- 
tuyn is most likely a description from rough notes or from memory of Spratel- 
loides argyrot.«nia Bleeker. Atherina japonica was the first species to be for- 
mally named as type of Stolephorus. It would have been more convenient to 
assume the one species known to Lacepede to be his type, reverting to the system 
of Bleeker, who first acted on this supposition but who named no type formally. 
In that case Stolephorus would become the equivalent of Anchoviella Fowler, 
191 1. Menidia Browne, if available, would replace both. But it is necessary here 
as elsewhere to recognize the first formally stated type. If this is regarded as 
identifiable Stolephorus replaces Spratelloides. 

Mugiloides Lacepede, V, 393, 1803; type Mugiloides chilensis Lace- 
pede (Esox CHILENSIS Molina). 
Replaces Pinguipes Cuv. & Val. 
Chanos Lacepede, V, 395, 1803; type Changs arabicus Lacepede 

Mugilomorus Lacepede, V, 397, 1803; type Mugilomorus anna-caro- 
lina Lacepede (Elops saurus L.). 
Synonym of Elops L. 
Polydactylus Lacepede, V, 419, 1803 ; type Polydactylus plumieri 
Lacepede (Polynemus virginicus L.). 
As understood by us at present, a synonym of Polynemus L. 
Euro (Commerson) Lacepede, V, 421, 1803; type Buro brunneus 
Lacepede (Teuthis hexagonatus Bleeker). 
Monotj'pic. Same as Siganus. 
Mystus Lacepede, V, 466, 1803 ; type Mystus clupeoides Lacepede 
(Clupea mystus L.), a species of Coilia Gray. 
The name Mystus is preoccupied. 


Clupanodon Lacepede, V, 468, 1803 ; type Clupea thrissa L. 

As restricted by Rafinesque, 1815, through substitution for Clupanodon the 
more euphonious name of Thrissa. The name Clupanodon has been variously 
treated. It should properly replace Konosirus Jordan & Snyder, although La- 
cepede's account of "Clupanodon thrissa" is taken mainly from the West Indian 
"Caillieu-Tassart," Ophisthonema oglinum (Le Sueur), the Clupea thrissa of 
Broussonet, but not of Linnaeus. 

Mene Lacepede, V, 479, 1803 ; type Mene anna-carolina Lacepede 
(Zeus maculatus Bloch), Mene maculata of authors. 
Dorsuarius Lacepede, V, 482, 1803 ; type Dorsuarius nigrescens Lace- 
A species of Kyphosus Lacepede. Monotypic. 

Xyster Lacepede, V, 484, 1803; type Xyster fuscus Lacepede. 

Equivalent to Kyphosus. Monotypic. 
Cyprinodon Lacepede, V, 486, 1803 ; type Cyprinodon variegatus 

Murasnophis Lacepede, V, 627, 1803; type Mur^na Helena Lacepede. 

Equivalent to Mur^na L. 
Gymnomuraena Lacepede, V, 648, 1803; type Gymnomur^na doliata 

As first restricted by Kaup, 1856. Bleeker and Giinther have used G. marmo- 
RATA Lacepede as type, thus replacing Uropterygius Riippell. A synonym of 

Muraenoblenna Lacepede, V, 652, 1803; type Mur.enoblenna olivacea 
A synonym of Myxine L. Monotypic. 

Unibranchapertura Lacepede, V, 656, 1803; type Symbranchus mar- 
moratus Bloch. 
A synonym of Symbranchus. 

LVIL SEWASTIANOFF, Acarauna, Piscium Thoracices, 1796 (1802). 

Acarauna Sewastianoff, 357; type Acarauna longirostris Sewastian- 
off (Gomphosus c^ruleus Lacepede). 
Equivalent to Gomphosus Lacepede, and apparently of later date. Not seen 
by us. 

COMMERSON, 1803 69 

LVIII. COMMERSON, Lacepcde, Histoire Naturelle des Poissons, II, 

1798; III, 1800; IV, V, 1803. 

Philibert Commerson. 

Commerson was an active and accurate naturalist-explorer who col- 
lected mainly in the South Seas. His specimens were accompanied by 
manuscript names, polynomial in form. The author had a full grasp 
of the meaning of "genus," as he spoke sometimes of a "genus novissi- 
mum," Xyster, for example. Many of his generic names were adopted 
by Lacepede and have found their way into the system. The others are 
here enumerated. These have been formally accepted as eligible by the 
International Commission (Opinions 23 and 24 as to Antennarius and 
Aspro). We think that this decision might well be reconsidered as 
Commerson was not "binomial" and his names were not adopted by the 
author who first printed them as synonyms. 

The names of Commerson may be ineligible as not binomial as to 
species and not accepted by the author who published them. Accepted 
provisionally by the International Commission. 

Antennarius Commerson, I, 327, 1798, footnote; type Antennarius 


son (in foot-note) = Lophius commersonianus Lacepede. 
Equivalent to Chironectes Cuvier and Antennarius Cuvier. Regarded as 
eligible, in Opinion 24, International Commission. 

Alticus Commerson, II, 458, 1800, footnote under Blennius; type 

Alticus saltatorius pinna spuria in capite vertice, Blennius 

SALiENS Lacepede. 

Accepted by Jordan & Scale, Fishes Samoa, 421, 1806. Equivalent to Rupis- 

cartes Swainson. Cuv. & Val., XI, 337, 1836, adopted the name Salarias alticus 

for the Blennius saliens, "un petit Salarias qui nous parait etre celui-la meme 

pour lequel Commerson a etabli son genre, Alticus." 

Sciaenus Commerson, III, footnote under Caranxomorus ; type Sci^nus 
EX Fusco c^rulescens : Caranxomorus sacrestinus Lacepede, 
Labrus furcatus Lacepede. 
Identical with Aphareus Cuv. & Val., the name apparently a variant of Sci- 

jENA. Apparently ineligible. 

Naseus Commerson, III, 105, under Naso; type Naseus fronticornis 
Fuscus Commerson (Ch^todon fronticornis L.). 
Equivalent to Naso Lacepede, Naseus Cuv. & Val. 


Coryphus Commerson, III, 1802, footnote under Coryph^na ; type 

Same as Coryph^na. 

Elops Commerson, III, 100, 1802, footnote under Gomphosus ; type 
GoMPHosus TRICOLOR Lacepede. 
Equivalent to Acarauna Sewastianoff or to Gomphosus Lacepede. 

Psettus Commerson, III, 1802, footnote under Monodactylus ; type 


(Monodactylus falciformis Lacepede). 
Revived by Cuvier & Valenciennes. A synonym of Monodactylus Lacepede. 
Not Psettus Klein. 

Odax Commerson, III, 1802, footnote under Scarus; type Odax odon 
Commerson = Scarus chadri Lacepede = Scarus nicer Forskal. 
Monotypic. Equivalent to Callyodon Gronow. If the names of Commerson 
are accepted, Odax Cuvier requires a new name. 

Mylio Commerson, III, 131, 1802, footnote under Sparus ; type Mylto 
lineis longitudinalibus pluribus Commerson Ms. = Sparus 
MYLIO Lacepede =: Ch^todon bifasciatus Bloch. 
Equivalent to Sparus L. 

Aspro Commerson, IV, 273, 1803, footnote; type Aspro dorso diptery- 
Gio dentibus raris, et longis et exsertis etc. Commerson Ms. 
:^ Cheilodipterus macrodon Lacepede, as restricted by Jordan, 
Opinion 23, Zoolgical Nomenclature, 56, 1910. 
A synonym of Cheilodipterus as now^ restricted. Not Aspro Cuvier. 

Opisotomus Commerson, IV, 1803, footnote. 
We have been unable to find this name. 

Zanclus Commerson, V, 1803, footnote under Ch^todon (misprinted 
Zanchus) ; type Zanclus transverse fasciatus Commerson 
Ms. = Ch^todon cornutus Bloch. 
Monotypic. Revived by Cuvier & Valenciennes, VH, 102, 1831. 

Oculeus Commerson, V, 289, 1803, footnote under Megalops ; type 
OcuLEUs seu megalops postremo pinn^ etc. Commerson 
(Megalops cyprinoides Lacepede). 
Equivalent to Megalops. 

Aulus Commerson, V, 1803, footnote under Fistularia ; type Aulus 


Equivalent to Fistularia. 

PLUMIER, 1803 71 

Encrasicholus Commerson, V, 382, 1803, footnote under Clupea; type 
Encrasicholus mandibula inferiore breviore, t^nia laterali 
ARGENTEA Commerson (Clupea vittargentea Lacepede). 
Equivalent to Anchoviella Fowler (Menidia Browne). 

Pterichthus Commerson, V, 401, 1803, footnote under Exoccetus; type 

"Pterichthus pinnis pectoralibus radiorum sexdecim ven- 

tralibus intra corporis /equilibrium nequidem ad anum 

apice pertingentibus." 

As indicated by Lacepede, this species, the one placed first by Commerson, 

seems to be Exoccetus volitans L. A synonym of Exoccetus. 

Halex Commerson, V, 462, 1803, footnote under Clupea; type Halex 
coRPORE late catheteplateo ctc. Commerson, Clupea fasciata 
Lacepede, a species of Leiognathus Lacepede. 

LIX. PLUMIER, Lacepede, Histoire Naturelle des Poissons, II, 1798; 

III, 1800; IV, V, 1803. 

Charles Plumier. 

Le Pere Plumier, a missionary in Martinique, sent to Lacepede num- 
erous paintings of fishes with descriptions and manuscript names. The 
generic names used rest on exactly the same basis as those of Commer- 
son. As they were polynomial and as they were not accepted by the author 
who published them in synonymy, we think that they should not be con- 
sidered eligible in scientific nomenclature, a matter which awaits final 

The names probably not acceptable, as polynomial and as not adopted 
by the author who printed them. 

Orbis Plumier, II, 504, 1800, in footnote under Tetraodon ; type Orbis 
minimus Plumier = Tetraodon plumieri Lacepede = Tetraodon 
spengleri Bloch. 
A synonym of Tetraodon. 

Monoceros Plumier, II, 1800, in footnote under Balistes; type Mono- 
CERos Piscis CLUsii Plumier. 
Probably same as Monacanthus ciliatus L. Equivalent to Monocanthus 
Cuvier. Not Monoceros Zimmermann, 1780, a genus of Gasteropods ; not Mono- 
ceros Bloch & Schneider, 1801. 

Asellus Plumier, III, 1802, footnote under Gobiomorus ; type Asellus 
palustris Plumier (Platycephalus dormitator Bloch & 
Identical with Gobiomorus Lacepede, as restricted. Philypnus Cuvier. 


Pelamis Plumier, III, 1802, footnote under Scomberoides ; type Pel- 
Identical with Oligoplites Gill. Not Pelamys Klein. 

Trachurus Plumier, III, 1802, footnote under Caranxomorus ; type 
Trachurus maximus squamis minutissimis Plumier = Car- 
anxomorus plumierianus Lacepede = Scomber trachurus L. 
As here restricted, the same as Trachurus Rafinesque, 1810. 

Scorpius Plumier, III, 1802, footnote under Scorp^na ; type Scorpius 
NIGER coRNUTUs Plumier (ScoRP^ENA plumieri Lacepede). 
The name may be available for the subgenus of Scorp.ena, having the breast 
scaly (Parascorp^na Bleeker). In the European type of Scorp^na, Scor- 
p^na porcus L., the breast is scaleless. 

Sarda Plumier, III, 141, 1802, footnote under Sparus ; type Sarda 
CAUDA AUREA ET LUNATA Plumier (Sparus chrysurus Bloch). 
Equivalent to Ocyurus Gill. Not Sarda Cuvier, which requires a new name 
if the generic names of Plumier are accepted. Monotypic. 

Erythrinus (Eritrinus) Plumier, IV, 347; type Erythrinus poly- 

GRAAiMOS, Marignan apud caraibas Plumicr (Honocentrus 
SOGO Bloch). 

A synonym of Holocentrus ; name preoccupied. Elsewhere written Eritrinus. 

Chrysomelanus Plumier, IV, 160, 1803, footnote under Sparus; type 
Chrysomelanus piscis Plumier, Sparus chrysomelanus Lace- 
pede, Anthias striatus Bloch. 
A synonym of Epinephelus. 

Aper Plumier, IV, 1803, footnote under Sparus; type Aper seu turdus 
erythrinus, squamis amplis Plumier (Sparus abildgaardi 
A synonym of Callyodon Gronow. Name preoccupied. 

Guaperva Plumier, IV, footnote under Selene; type Guaperva marc- 
GRAvii, VULGO LA LUNE Plumicr (Selene argentea Lacepede). 
Identical with Selene. 

Sargus Plumier, IV, 166, footnote under Dipterodon ; type Sargus 
EX AURO viRGATUS Plumicr (Dipterodon plumieri Lacepede = 
Sparus synagris L. 
Same as Neom^enis Girard. Not Sargus Klein nor Cuvier. Not Sargus 

Fabricius, about 1798, a genus of flies. 

Pagrus Plumier, IV, 1803, footnote under Bodianus; type Pagrus 


Bodianus vivanet Lacepede = Lutianus griseus (L.). 
Not Pagrus Cuvier, 1817. Equivalent to Neom^nis Girard ; same as Salpa 

SHAW, 1803 73 

Chromis Plumier, III, 546, 1803, footnote under Cheilodipterus ; type 
Chromis seu tembra aureo-c^rulea litturis fusca variegata 
Plumier (Cheilodipterus cyanopterus Lacepede), the "grygry" 
or "grogro" of Martinique, Umbrina coroides Cuv. & Val. 
The name is older than Umbrina, but later than Cromis Browne. The spe- 
cific name Umbrina cyanoptera (Lacepede), based on Plumier's figure, must re- 
place COROIDES and broussoneti for this species. 

Cheloniger Plumier, IV, 542, 1803, footnote under Cheilodipterus; 
type Cheloniger ex auro et argenteg virgatus Plumier 
(Cheilodipterus chrysopterus Lac. (Perca nobilis L.). 
The name Cheloniger, if eligible, has priority over Conodon Cuvier. 

Cephalus Plumier, V, 1803; type Cephalus americanus vulgo atoulri 
Plumier (Mugil cephalus L.). 
A synonym of Mugil L. 
Trichis Plumier, V, 1803, footnote under Clupea alosa; type "Trichis 
bellonii la pucelle'' Plumier. 
Doubtful, but wrongly identified by Lacepede with Clupea alosa L. 
Acus Plumier, V, 1803, footnote under Sphyr^na; type Acus Ameri- 
cana, rostri longiori Plumier (Sphyr^na acus Lacepede). 
Same as Sphyr^na Rose, 1793. 

LX. SHAW, General Zoology, or Systematic Natural History, vol. IV, 

1803; vol. V, 1804. 

George Shaw. 

Anguilla Shaw, IV, 15, 1803 ; type Anguilla vulgaris Shaw (Mur^ena 
anguilla L.). 
The name Anguilla has been ascribed to Thunberg, but we find no notice of 
its use as a generic term prior to Shaw. 

Vandellius Shaw, IV, 199, 1803. 

Needless substitute for Lepidopus Gouan. 
Trichopus Shaw, IV, 392, 1803 ; type Trichopus pallasi Shaw (Labrus 
trichopterus Pallas). 

Equivalent to Osphronemus Lacepede. 

Cephalus Shaw, V, 432, 1804; type Diodon mola L. 

Equivalent to Mola Cuvier. Not Cephalus Plumier. 
Trachichthys Shaw, IV, 630, 1803; type Trachichthys australis 


Spatularia Shaw, V, 362, 1804; type Spatularia reticulata (Squalus 
SPATHULA Walbaum). 
Synonym of Polyodon Lacepede. 

LXI. HERRMANN, Ohservationes Zoologicce, 1804. 

JoHANN Herrmann. 

Notistium Herrmann, 305, 1804; type Notistium gladius Herrmann. 
Equivalent to Istiophorus Lacepede. 

LXII. GIORNA, Memoire Sur des Poissons d'Especes Noiivclles et de 
genres nouveanx: Memoires de I'Academie Imperiale de Torino, 
XVI, 1 803- 1 808. 

Michel Esprit Giorna. 

Lophotes Giorna, 19, 1805 ; type Lophotes cepedianus Giorna. 

Coelorhynchus Giorna, 18, 1805 ; type Ccelorhynchus la ville Giorna. 

Trachyrhynchus Giorna, 18, 1805; type (not named) Lepidoleprus 
trachyrincus Risso, 1810. 

An earlier paper of Giorna is quoted by Dean, Memoire sur cinq pois- 
sons dont deux sont d'espcces nouvelles . . . et les trois autres sont de 
nouveaux genres: Mem. Acad. Imp. Torino. The date of this paper is 
variously given. The three genera above noted were not named. Giorna 
would not give the nomenclature until he heard from Lacepede, to whom 
he had sent descriptions and drawings. The two species indicated were 
Raia giorna Lacepede and Balistes buniva Lacepede. 

LXIII. OUENSEL, Forsdk at Narmdre Bestdmma och naturligare Upp- 
stdlla Svensk Artenm af Flunderslagte: Kong. Vet. Akad. Nya 
Handlung, XXVII, 1806. 

C. Quensel. 

Solea Quensel, XXVII, 44, 203, 1806; type Pleuronectes solea L. 

DUMERIL, 1806 75 

LXIV. DUMERIL. Zoologie Analytique, 1806. 

Andre Marie Constant Dumeril. 

This work furnishes in the Index, pp. 342, 343, Latin equivalents for 
French vernacular names used by Lacepede, Hist. Nat. Poiss., I, II, 
1798, 1800. (Partly examined by us, some of the pages not verified). 

Squatina Dumeril, 102, 342; type (not named) Squatina angelus 
Dumeril (Squalus squatina L.). 

Equivalent to Rhina Klein. 
Torpedo Dumeril, 102, 343; type (not named) Raja torpedo L. 

Not Torpedo Forskal. Same as Narcacion Klein. Narcobatis Blainville. 

Ovoides (Lacepede) Dumeril, 108, 342; type l'Ovoide fasce. 
Based on a front view of Tetraodon stellatus L. 
Equivalent to Ovoides Cuvier and Ovum Bloch & Schneider. 

Apterichthys Dumeril, 112, 331 ; type Mur^na c^ca L. 

Substitute for Cecilia Lacepede, preoccupied. A synonym of Sphagebran- 
CHUS Bloch. 

Bostrichthys Dumeril, 120, 332; type Bostrychus sinensis Lacepede. 

Name a substitute for Bostrychus, preoccupied. 
Spheroides (Lacepede) Dumeril, 342; type "le Spheroide tubercule" 
Lacepede, 1798. 

A front view of Tetraodon spengleri Bloch. A synonym of Tetraodon, as 
restricted by Bleeker. 

Macrorhynchus (Lacepede) Dumeril, 342; type "Macrorhynque ar- 
gentee" Lacepede (Syngnathus argenteus Osbeck). 
A species near Dicrotus prometheoides Bleeker. Probably replaces Dicrotus 

LXV. DUMERIL, Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles, 1806. 

Andre Marie Constant Dumeril. 

Torpedo Dumeril, pi. 21 ; type Raja torpedo L. 

Not Torpedo Forskal, 1775; replaced by Narcacion Klein or by Narcobatis 


LXVI. HUMBOLDT, Ueber den Eremophiliis und den Astrohlepus, 
zwei neue Fisch-Gattungen: Observationes Zoologicse, and in 
Philos. Mag., XXIV, 1806. 

Alexander von Humboldt. 

Eremophilus Humboldt, 17, 329; type Eremophilus mutish Hum- 

Astroblepus Humboldt, 19, 331 ; type Astroblepus grixalvh Hum- 

LXVH. DUMERIL, Dissertation sur les Poissons Cyclostomes, 1808. 

Andre Marie Constant Dumeril. 

Ammocoetus Dumeril; type Petromyzon planeri L. 

The larva of Lampetra fluviatilis (L.) and of Petromyzon marinus L. 
Preferably retained, under the usual spelling, Ammoccetes, as a designation for 
larval lampreys. Otherwise replaces Lampetra Gray, 1854; type Petromyzon 


LXVHI. TILESIUS, Descriptions de quelques Poissons: Krusenstern's 
Reise um die Welt., Mem. Soc. Nat. Moscow, H, 1809. 


Not seen by us. 

Ericius Tilesius, 213, 1809; type Ericius (japonicus Houttuyn). 

A synonym of Monocentris Bloch & Schneider. 
Hexagrammos (Steller) Tilesius, Actse Academ. Petropol, H, 335, 
1809; type Hexagrammos stelleri Tilesius (Hexagrammos 
ASPER Tilesius). 
Often written Hexagram mus. 

LXIX. GEOFFROY SAINT HILAIRE, Poissons du Nil, de la Mer 
Rouge et de la Mediterranee: in Description de I'Egypte, publee 
par Napoleon le Grand, Histoire Naturelle, I, 1809- 1827. 

fixiENNE Franqois Geoffroy Saint Hilaire. 

In this huge folio a few species of fishes are described in great detail, 
with steel engravings. The work is in three parts, published in 1809, 

PALLAS, 181O 77 

1818, and 1825, respectively, the second and third parts being prepared 
by Isidore Geoffroy Saint Hilaire. 

Polypterus Geoffroy St. Hilaire, I, 1809; type Polypterus bichir St. 

LXX. PALLAS, Labraces novum piscium genus Oceani Orientalis : 

Mem. Acad. Sci. Petersb., 11, 1810. 

Peter Simon Pallas. 

Labrax Pallas, 11, 382, 1810; type Labrax lagocephalus Pallas. 
Not of Klein nor of Cuvier. A synonym of Hexagram mos Steller. 

LXXL RISSO, Ichthyologie de Nice, 1810. 

Anastase Risso. 

Cephalopterus Risso, 14; type Raja giorna Lacepede. 

Not Cephalopterus of Geoffroy St. Hilaire, 1809, a genus of birds. Equiva- 
lent to MoBULA Rafinesque. 

Lepidoleprus Risso, 197; type Lepidoleprus trachyrhynchus Risso. 

A synonym of Trachyrhynchus Giorna. 
Tetragonurus Risso, 347; type Tetragonurus cuvieri Risso. 

LXXn. RAFINESQUE, Caratteri di Alcuni Nuovi Generi e Nuove 
Specie di Animale e Piante della Sicilia, April i, 1810. 


(later written simply "Rafinesque"). 

Carcharias Rafinesque, 10 ; type Carcharias taurus Rafinesque, 

The intended type was Squalus carcharias L., but C. taurus is the only 
species actually mentioned. Monotypic. Replaces Odontaspis Agassiz. Not Car- 
charias Cuvier, 1817. 

Dalatias Rafinesque, 10 ; type Dalatias nocturnus Rafinesque. 

Gray in 1851 restricted Dalatias to D. sparophagus Rafinesque. Swainson, 
1838, formally restricted Dalatias to Dalatias nocturnus, which seems to be a 
species of Centrophorus Miiller & Henle, probably C. granulosus. 

Tetroras Rafinesque, 11; type Tetroras angiova Rafinesque. 

A second-hand and erroneous description, possibly referring to Cetorhinus 
maximus, but unrecognizable. Monotypic. 


Isurus Rafinesque, ii; type Isurus oxyrhynchus Rafinesque. 
Monotypic. Replaces Oxyrhina Agassiz. 

Cerictius Rafinesque, 12; type Cerictius macrourus Rafinesque. 
Apparently imaginary. 

Alopias Rafinesque, 12; type Alopias macrourus Rafinesque (Squalus 
vuLPiNus Bonnaterre). 


Heptranchias Rafinesque, 13; type Squalus cinereus Gmelin. 

Galeus Rafinesque, 13; type Galeus mustelus L. 

As restricted by Jordan & Evermann, 1896, after Leach, 1812. Later restricted 
to Pristiurus melastomus by Garman. Not Galeus Valmont, nor Galeus 

Rafinesque describes one new species of Galeus, G. melastomus, but refers 
in the text to Galeus catulus and Galeus mustelus. Unless Galeus Valmont 
holds, in place of Prionace, Galeus becomes a synonym of Mustelus Linck. 

Hexanchus Rafinesque, 14; type Squalus griseus L. 
Monotypic. Replaces Notidanus Cuvier. 

Etmopterus Rafinesque, 14; type Etmopterus aculeatus Rafinesque. 
Monotypic. Replaces Spinax Cuvier. 

Rhina Rafinesque, 14; type Squalus squ.\tina L. 

Monotypic. Identical with Rhina Klein, and Squatina Dumeril. 

Leiobatus Rafinesque, 16; type Leiobatus panduratus Rafinesque. 

Monotypic. A synonym of Rhinobatus Linck. Not Leiobatus Klein. 

Dipturus Rafinesque, 16; type Raja batis L. 
Monotypic. Identical with Raja L. 

Dasyatis Rafinesque, 16; type Dasyatis ujo Rafinesque (Raja pastin- 
ACA L.). 
Monotypic. Identical with Dasybatus Klein and Trygon Adanson. 

Orthragus Rafinesque, 17; type Tetraodon mola L. 
Monotypic. Equivalent to Mola Kcelreuter. 

Diplanchias Rafinesque, 17; type Diplanchias nasus Rafinesque. 

Monotypic. Equivalent to Mola. 
Typhle Rafinesque, 18; type Typhle hexagonus Rafinesque (Syngna- 

Misspelled Tiphle. Preoccupied by Typhle * Lacepede, 1800, a genus of mam- 
mals. Replaced by Typhlinus Rafinesque, 1815, and by Siphonostomus Kaup. 

* Under the head of Cecilia, Lacepede refers to its alleged blindness, a char- 
acter almost unknown among vertebrates. "Parmi lesquels on ne connoit encore 
qu'un mammifere, nomme Typhle, et le genre des cartilagineux nommes Gastro- 
branches qui aient paru completement aveugles." 


Siphostoma Rafinesque, 18; type Syngnathus pelagicus L. 

Monotypic. A synonym of Syngnathus L. as the latter is now restricted. 
Hippocampus Rafinesque, i8; type Syngnathus hippocampus L. 
(Hippocampus heptagonus Rafinesque). 

Oxyurus Rafinesque, 19; type Oxyurus vermiformis Lacepede. 

A larva, probably of Conger. 
Scarcina Rafinesque, 20; type Scarcina argyrea Rafinesque. 

A synonym of Lepidopus Gouan. 
Luvarus Rafinesque, 22; type Luvarus imperialis Rafinesque. 

Bothus Rafinesque, 23 ; type, as restricted, Bothus rumolo Rafinesque 
( Pleuronectes rhombus L.). 

Equivalent to Rhombus Klein, of earlier date. 

Corystion Rafinesque, 24; type Corystion mustazola Rafinesque. 

Some species of Trachinus L. Monotypic. 
Merluccius Rafinesque, 25; type Gadus merlucius L. (Merluccius 
SMiRiDUS Rafinesque). 


Phycis Rafinesque, 26; type Phycis punctatus Rafinesque. 

Not Phycis Fabricius, 1798, a genus of Butterflies. Equivalent to Phycis 
Rose, 1793, vi^hich is not preoccupied. 

Oxycephas Rafinesque, 31 ; type Oxycephas scabrus Rafinesque. 

A species of Trachyrhynchus Giorna, 1805. Monotypic. 
Lepimphis Rafinesque, 33; type Lepimphis hippuroides Rafinesque 
(Coryph^na hippurus L.). 
Identical with Coryph^na. 
Symphodus Rafinesque, 41 ; type Symphodus fulves'cens Rafinesque 
= Lutianus rostratus Bloch = Labrus scina Forskal. 
Replaces Coricus Cuvier. 
Trachurus Rafinesque, 41; type Scomber trachurus L. (Trachurus 
SAURUS Rafinesque). 
By general usage and by tautonomy. 
Tricropterus Rafinesque, 41 ; type by definition, Scomber carangus 
Bloch (Scomber hippos L.). 
Not separable from Caranx ; no species named. 

Hypodis Rafinesque, 41 ; type Scomber glaucus L, 

Equivalent to Glaucus Klein ; not separable from C^siomorus Lacepede. 

Centracanthus Rafinesque, 42 (misprinted Centracantus) ; type Cen- 

tracantus cirrus Rafinesque (Smaris insidiator Cuv. & Val.). 

Monotypic ; probably a specimen with the dorsal fin torn. This seems to be 

generically different from Spicaka Rafinesque, Smaris Cuvier. Afterwards spelled 



Hypacanthus Rafinesque, 43 (misprinted Hypacantus) ; type "Scomber 

But there is no such species of Linnaeus. Rafinesque elsewhere identifies it 
with Centronotus vadigo Lacepede, which is the type of Camptogramma Regan, 
1903. This name must be replaced by Hypacanthus. 

Naucrates Rafinesque, 43 ; type Naucrates fanfarus Rafinesque 
(Gasterosteus ductor L.). 
Replaces Centronotus Lacepede, preoccupied. 

Notognidion Rafinesque, 46; type Notognidion scirenga Rafinesque. 

Unidentified. Monotypic. 
Spicara Rafinesque, 51 ; type Spicara flexuosa Rafinesque (Sparus 

Equivalent to Smarts Cuvier and having priority. Monotypic. 

Aylopon Rafinesque, 52 ; type Labrus anthias L. 

A substitute for Anthias Bloch, said to be preoccupied. We do not find it so. 

Lopharis Rafinesque, 52 ; type Perca lophar Forskal. 

Identical with Pomatomus Lacepede. Monotypic. 
Lepterus Rafinesque, 52; type Lepterus fetula Rafinesque (Strom- 

Identical with Stromateus L. Monotypic. 
Gonenion Rafinesque, 53; type Gonenion serra Rafinesque (Perca 
lophar Forskal). 
Identical with Pomatomus Lacepede. Monotypic. 

Lepodus Rafinesque, 53 ; type Lepodus saragus Rafinesque ( Sparus 
rah Bloch). 
Monotypic. Equivalent to Brama Bloch & Schneider, not of Klein. Replaces 
Brama Cuvier, if Klein's names are eligible. 

Tetrapturus Rafinesque, 54; type Tetrapturus belone Rafinesque. 

Argyctius Rafinesque, 55 ; type Argyctius quadrimaculatus Rafin- 
Equivalent to Trachypterus Gouan. 
Tirus Rafinesque, 56; type Tirus marmoratus Rafinesque (Esox 


Equivalent to Synodus. 
Lucius Rafinesque, 59; type Esox lucius L. (Lucius vorax Rafinesque). 

The author attempts to limit the name Esox to Esox belone L., and its allies, 
an arrangement not accepted by the International Commission, (Opinion 58). 

Sudis Rafinesque, 60 ; type Sudis hyalina Rafinesque. 


Sayris Rafinesque, 60; type Sayris recurvirostra Rafinesque (Esox 
SAURUS Walbaum). 
A needless substitute for Scomberesox. 

Cogrus Rafinesque, 62 ; type Cogrus maculatus Rafinesque. 
CoGRUs is a tenable subgenus of Ophichthus. 

Piescephalus Rafinesque, 63 ; type Piescephalus adherens Rafinesque 
(Lepadogaster gouani Gouan). 
A synonym of Lepadogaster Gouan. 

Echelus Rafinesque, 63; type by first restriction (Bleeker, Atlas Ichth., 
Miircsn., p. 30) Echelus punctatus Rafinesque (Mur^na 
Identical with Myrus Kaup, 1856. Restricted later by Jordan & Evermann to 
species of Conger, but the earliest arrangement must hold. 

Nettastoma Rafinesque, 66; type Nettastoma melanura Rafinesque. 

Dalophis Rafinesque, 68; type Dalophis serpa Rafinesque (Sphage- 
branchus imberbis De la Roche, 1809). 
Equivalent to C^cula Vahl. 

LXXIII. RAFINESQUE, Indice d'lttiologia Siciliana, May, 1810. 


Onus Rafinesque, 12; type Onus riali Rafinesque (Gadus merluc- 
cius L.). 
A needless substitute for Merluccius. 
Merolepis Rafinesque, 25 ; type Sparus massiliensis Lacepede 
(Sparus zebra Briinnich). 
Probably a genus distinct from M^na Cuvier. 

Gaidropsarus Rafinesque, u, 51 ; type Gaidropsarus mustellaris Raf- 
inesque (Gadus mustela L.). 

Antedates Motella Cuvier. Monotypic. 
Strinsia Rafinesque, 12, 51 ; type Strinsia tinca Rafinesque. 


Symphurus Rafinesque, 13, 52; type Symphurus nigrescens Rafin- 
Antedates Aphoristia Kaup, but not Plagusia Browne. 

Solea Rafinesque, 14, 52; type Solea buglossa Rafinesque (Pleuro- 
nectes solea L.). 
Equivalent to Solea Quensel. 


Scophthalmus Rafinesque, 14, 53 ; type Pleuronectes rhombus L. 

As later restricted, identical with Bothus Rafinesque and Rhombus Klein. 
Scophthalmus is based on descriptions, Bothus on specimens of the same two 

Diplodus Rafinesque, 26, 54; type Sparus annularis L. 

Equivalent to Sargus Cuvier and prior, but not prior to Sargus Klein. 
Octonus Rafinesque, 29, 54; type Octonus olosteon Rafinesque 
(Trigla cataphracta L.). 
Monotypic. Equivalent to Peristedion Lacepede. 
Cephalepis Rafinesque, 31, 54; type Cephalepis octomaculatus Rafin- 
A synonym of Regalecus Ascanius. Monotypic. 

Myctophum Rafinesque, 35, 56; type Myctophum punctatum Rafin- 

Nerophis Rafinesque, 37, 57; type Syngnathus ophidion L. 

Carapus Rafinesque, };], 57; type Gymnotus acus L. 

Prior to Fierasfer Cuvier. Not Carapus Cuvier = Giton Kaup. 

Sturio Rafinesque, 41, 58; type Sturio vulgaris Rafinesque (Acipenser 

Capriscus Rafinesque, 41, 58; type Capriscus porcus Rafinesque 
(Balistes capriscus Gmelin, "the third division of Lacepede"). 
Equivalent to Balistes L. 
Chlopsis Rafinesque, 42, 58; type Chlopsis bicolor Rafinesque. 

Xypterus Rafinesque, 43, 59 ; type Xypterus imperati Rafinesque. 
Apparently a synonym of Regalecus Ascanius. Monotypic. 

Pterurus Rafinesque, 43, 59; type Pterurus flexuosus Rafinesque 
(Sphagebranchus imberbis De la Roche). 
Name preoccupied : a synonym of C^cula Vahl. 

Oxynotus Rafinesque, 45, 60; type Squalus centrina L. 
Prior to Centrina Cuvier, 1817. 

Sphyrna Rafinesque, 46, 60; type Squalus zyg^na L, 
Prior to Zyg^na Cuvier. 

Torpedo Rafinesque, 48, 60; type Torpedo ocellata Rafinesque (Raja 
torpedo L.). 
Not Torpedo Forskal. 

Mobula Rafinesque, 48, 61 ; type Mobula auriculata Rafinesque (Raja 
MOBULAR Lacepede). 
Same as Cephalopterus Risso, preoccupied. 

STELLER, 181I 83 

Cephaleutherus Rafinesque, 48, 61 ; type Cephaleutherus macui.atus 
Apparently a deformed Raja. Monotypic. 

Uroxis Rafinesque, 48, 61; type Uroxis ujus Rafinesque (Raja 
Monotypic. Equivalent to Dasyatis Rafinesque. 

Apterurus Rafinesque, 48, 62 ; type Apterurus fabroni Rafinesque. 
Equivalent to Mobula Rafinesque. 

Oxystomus Rafinesque, 49, 62 ; type Oxystomus hyalinus Rafinesque, 
larva of Ophisurus serpens (L.). 
A synonym of Ophisurus Lacepede. 

Helmictis Rafinesque, 49, 62; type Helmictis punctatus Rafinesque, 
Probably a species of C^cula. Monotj'pic. 

Epigonus Rafinesque, 64; type Epigonus macrophthalmus Rafinesque. 
Equivalent to Pomatomus Cuvier, not of Lacepede. Monotypic. 

Gonostoma Rafinesque, 64 ; type Gonostoma denudatum Rafinesque. 

Merlangus Rafinesque, 67 ; type Gadus merlucius L. 

A needless substitute for Onus and Merluccius. 

LXXIV. STELLER in Tilesius: Mem. Acad. Sci., Petersburg, 181 1. 

Georg Wilhelm Steller. 

Myoxocephalus Steller, in Tilesius, IV, 273 ; type Myoxocephalus 
stelleri Tilesius. 

LXXV. PALLAS, Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica, III, 181 1. 

Peter Simon Pallas. 

This important work was printed and partly distributed in 181 1, the 
bulk of the edition being withheld until 1831. 

Phalangistes Pallas, 113; type Cottus cataphractus L. 

As restricted by Jordan & Evermann. Also written Phalangista. Not Pha- 
LANGiSTA Cuvier, 1800, a genus of mammals. Equivalent to Agonus Lacepede. 

Elaeorhous Pallas, 122; type Callionymus baicalensis Pallas. 
A synonym of Comephorus Lacepede. 


Gasteracanthus Pallas, 228; type Gasteracanthus cataphractus 

Equivalent to Gasterosteus L. 

Coracinus Pallas, 256; type Coracinus chalcis Pallas (Sci^na nigra 
Equivalent to Corvina Cuvier, 1829. Not Coracinus Gronow, which is Dip- 
TERODON Cuvier. 

Lebius (Steller Ms.) Pallas, 279; type Labrax superciliosus Pallas, 
"Lebius, Chirus vel Labrax Steller, Mss. Obs. Ichthyol." 
These three names are indicated in Steller's unprinted manuscripts as words 
from which choice could be made. 

Chirus (Steller Ms.) Pallas, 279; type Labrax superciliosus Pallas. 

Like the preceding synonym of Labrax or Hexagrammos. 
Plagyodus (Steller Ms.) Pallas, 383; type Plagyodus Steller (Alep- 
isaurus ^sculapius Bean). 

Equivalent to Alepisaurus Lowe, 1833, the name used by Steller only in an 
oblique case, "Plagyodontem" and without specific name. 

LXXVL LEACH, Observations on the genus Squalus, 181 2. 

William E. Leach. 
Mustelus Leach, 62; type Squalus mustelus L. 

LXXVn. MONTAGU, Wernerian Museum, I, 181 2. 

George Montagu. 

Xipotheca Montagu, I, 82 ; type Xipotheca tetradens Montagu = 
Lepidopus caudatus (Euphrasen). 
A synonym of Lepidopus. 

LXXVIIL FISCHER, Zoognosia, Tabulis Synopticus Illustrata, Edition 

HI, vol. I, 1813. 

Gotthelf Fischer. 

A series of Analytical Keys, leading to genera only. 

Histrio Fischer, 70, 78; type (not named) Lophius histrio L., by 
Diagnosis erroneous, by misprint "corpus depressum" instead of "corpus com- 
pressum." Has precedence over Pterophryne Gill and Pterophrynoides Gill. 

FISCHER, 1813 85 

Ogcocephalus Fischer, 70, 78 ; type not named ; evidently by definition, 

Replaces Malthe Cuvier. 

Orbis (Lacepede) Fischer, 70; no type named. 

Said to be like Diodon but "ad minus 4 dentes in maxilla superiore." Evi- 
dently a misprint for "2 dentes." It is probably a synonym of Ovoides Cuvier, 
the presumable type being Tetraodon lineatus L., the "Orbis" of Salviani and 

Odontolepis Fischer, 71, 78; no type named. 

A flounder with "pinnae pectorales tenuissimae aut nullae, reliquis conjunctis." 
The type may be assumed as Symphurus nigrescens. A synonym of Sympiiurus 
Rafinesque, 1810. Perhaps species of Monochirus or Microchirus were included. 

Psilus Fischer, 74. 

A substitute for Bostrychus Lacepede, which is preoccupied. Equivalent to 
BosTRicHTHYS Dumeril. 

Psiloides Fischer, 74. 

A needless substitute for Bostrychoides Lacepede. 

Typhlotes Fischer, 75. 

A substitute for Cecilia Lacepede, preoccupied. A synonym of Sphagebran- 
CHUS Bloch. 

Mustellus Fischer, 78; type (not named) Squalus mustelus L. 
A synonym of Mustelus Linck, not of Valmont. 

LXXIX. FISCHER, Recherches Zoologiques: Memoires de la Societe 
Imperiale des Naturalistes de Moscou, IV, second edition, 1813. 

Eleginus Fischer, 252; type Gadus navaga Koelreuter. 

Replaces Tilesia Swainson, 1839 (preoccupied) and Pleurogadus Bean, 1885. 
Not Eleginus Cuv. & Val., 1830, which becomes Eleginops Gill. 

LXXX. LEACH, Zoological Miscellany, 1814. 

William E. Leach. 

Hippocampus Leach, 103; type Syngnathus hippocampus L. (Hippo- 
campus ANTiQuoRUM Leach). 
Same as Hippocampus Rafinesque, 1810. 


LXXXI. MITCHILL, Report in Part on the Fishes of New York, 1814. 

Samuel Latham Mitchill. 

Stomodon Mitchill, 7; type Stomodon bilinearis Mitchill. 

. Equivalent to Merluccius Rafinesque. 
Morone Mitchill, 18; type Morone pallida Mitchill (Perca Americana 
As restricted by Gill, i860. 
Tautoga Mitchill, 2'^; type Tautoga niger Mitchill (Labrus onitis L.). 

Roccus Mitchill, 25; type Roccus striatus Mitchill (Sci^na lineata 
As restricted by Gill. 

LXXXII. RAFINESQUE, Descrisione di tin Nuovo Genere di Pesce: 
Specchio delle Scienze, Palermo, 1814. 


Leptopus Rafinesque, I, 16; type Leptopus peregrinus Rafinesque. 

Monotypic. Name preoccupied and later changed to Podoleptus Rafinesque, 
1815. Apparently a synonym of Lophotes Giorna. 

LXXXIII. RAFINESQUE, Descrisione di tin Nuovo Genere di Pesce 
, _, Siciliano: Specchio delle Scienze, II, 1815. 

Nemochirus Rafinesque, II, 100, 105 ; type Nemochirus erythropterus 
■ Unrecognized. 

The following is Rafinesque's account of this fish : 

Nemochirus. Corpo lanceolato compressissimo ensiforme, fronte diagonale, 
bocca dentata, un' ala dorsale longitudinale senza raggi sciolti, ala caudale sciolta, 
nessun' ala anale, le due ale pettorali filiformi awicinate e situate sotto la gola al 
posto delle ventrali. 

Nemochirus erythropterus. Corpo argentato, ale rosse, coda lunulata, con 
tin raggio intermedio mucronato sciolto lunghissimo e filiforme, tre macchie fosche 
da ogni lato del dorso. 

Desfrizione. Lunghezza totale due palmi, muso ottuso, mascella inferiore piu 
cort'a 'con denti acuti, occhi piccoli neri, iride grande argentina con un cerchio 
rosso esteriore, opercolo doppio : corpo d'un bel colore argenteo, con tre macchie 
irregolari fosche di ogni lato del dorso, linea laterale dritta, ventre un poco reti- 

RAFINESQUE, 1814 87 

colato. Ale pettorali rosse Hneari-filiformi acute e con un solo raggio, ala dorsale 
rossa principiando sopra gli occhi e giungendo sino alia coda, della quale e pero 
staccata e con circa 200 raggi molli : coda rossa un poco trifida o quasi lunulata 
con pero il raggio intermedio semplice, sporgente lunghissimo, mentre i laterali 
sono ramosi con i rami opposti. 

We are indebted to Mr. H. M. Scudder for a copy of this rare and forgotten 
description. If this account is correct it is still unknown to science, though hav- 
ing much in common with Stylephorus cordatus Shaw. 

LXXXIV. RAFINESQUE, Precis des Decouvertes Somiologiques, 


Trisopterus Rafinesque, i6; type Gadus capelanus Lacepede (Gadus 
According to Risso the name is synonymous with Morua Risso, and must be 
older. Equivalent to Brachygadus Gill. 

Monochirus Rafinesque ; type Monochirus hispidus Raf. 

LXXXV. RAFINESQUE, Analyse de la Nature, ou Tableau de I'Uni- 
vers et des Corps Organises "La Nature est man Guide et Linneus 
mon maltre." Palermo, 1815. 

In this work the entire animal and plant kingdoms are classified, with 
definitions of the families and higher groups and lists of the known 
genera. Three hundred and seventy-seven genera of fishes are enumer- 
ated. Many of these are bare names, without explanation of any sort. 
Others represent changes of names of genera for reasons not expressed, 
but apparently because current names were too long, too short, or in- 
volved a termination (gides, omorus) expressing resemblance. The 
fishes are divided into two subclasses, Holobranchia with opercles and 
gill membranes complete, and Atelosia, lacking either opercles or gill 

The Holobranchia are divided into Deripia (Jugulares), Gastripia 
(Abdominales), Thoraxipia (Thoracices), Apodia (Apodes). 

The Ateleosia are divided into Eltropomia (Sturgeons: Sternoptyx, 
Pegasus) with one opercle and no gill membrane; Chismopnea, with 
gill-membranes and one opercle (Chimaera, Balistes, Conger, etc.) ; and 
Trem apnea, with neither opercles nor gill membranes (eels and sharks). 

This classification is singularly inept. 


Dactyleptus Rafinesque, 82. 

Substitute for Mur^noides Lacepede. 

Pholidus Rafinesque, 82. 

A synonym of Pholis Scopoli. Substitute for Enchelyopus Gronow. 

Pteraclidus Rafinesque, 82. 

Substitute for Oligopodus Lacepede. A synonym of Pteraclis Gronow. 

Pacamus, 82 ; nomen nudum. 

Ictius, 82, "sp. do." 

That is, based on species of the preceding, i. c, Pacamus. 

Dropsarus, 82. 

Evidently an emendation of Gaidropsarus Rafinesque. 

Trisopterus, 82. 
Brosme, 82. 

Batrichtius, 82. 

A substitute for Batrachoides Lacepede. 

Ceracantha, 82. 

Taunis, 82. 

Plagiusa, 83, "sp. do." 

That is, species of Pleuronectes; apparently based on Pleuronectes pla- 
giusa L., thus equivalent to Symphurus Rafinesque, 1810. 

Holacantha, 83. 

Substitute for Holacanthus Lacepede. 

Pomacantha, 83. 

Nasonus, 83. 

Substitute for Naso Lacepede. 

Alectis, 84. 

Substitute for Gallus Lacepede, which is preoccupied, leaving Alectis as 

Bostrictis, 84. 

Substitute for Bostrychus Lacepede: a synonym of Bostrichthys Dumeril, 

Pterops, 84, 90. 

Substitute for Bostrychoides Lacepede. 

Tasica, 84. 

Nemipus, 84. 

Cephalepis, 84. 

Gymnurus, 84. 

Substitute for TjEnioides Lacepede. 

RAFINESQUE, 1815 8@> 

Polipturus, 84. 

Substitute for Scomberomorus Lacepede. 

Orcynus, 84. 

Substitute for Scomberoides Lacepede. 

Baillonus, 85. 

Substitute for C^siomorus Lacepede. 

Lepicantha, 85. 

Apparently shortened from Lepisacanthus Lacepede. 

Gastrogonus, 85. 

Cephimmus, 85. 

Substitute for Gymnocephalus Bloch. 

Lepipterus, 85. 

Panotus, 85. 

Substitute for T^nionotus Lacepede. 

Aylopon, 85. 

Substitute for Anthias Bloch. 

Lopharis, 85. 

Cephacandia, 85. 

Substitute for Cephalacanthus Lacepede. 

"Gonurus Lac," 85. 

Unexplained ; no such name appears in Lacepede. 

Lepomus, 86. 

Pomagonus, 86. 

Mesopodus, 86. 

Acaramus, 86. 

Clodipterus, 86, also on 88. 

Substitute for Cheilodipterus Lacepede. 

Macrolepis, 86, "sp. do." 

That is, of Apogon Lacepede. 

Guebucus, 86. 

Micropodus, 86. 

Substitute for Cheilio Lacepede. 

Megaphalus, 86. 

Substitute for Gobiesox Lacepede. 

Pomacanthis, 86. 

Oxima, 86. 

Equetus, 86. 

Substitute for Eques Bloch. 


Branchiostegus, 86. 

Substitute for Coryph^noides Lacepede, not of Gunner. Replaces Latilus 
Cuv. & Val., 1830. 

"Eleotris Gr., Gobiomorus Lacepede," 86. 

Epiphthalmus, 86. 

Substitute for Gobiomoroides Lacepede. 

Lepimphis, 86. 

Plecopodus, 87. 

Substitute for Gobioides Lacepede. 

Piescephalus, 87. 

Lumpus, 87, "sp. do." 
That is, of Cyclopterus. 

Liparius, 87, "sp. do." 
That is, of Cyclopterus. 

Percis Scopoli, 87. 

Said to be same as Aspidophoroides Lacepide. 

Aygula, 87. 

Substitute for CoRis Lacepede. 

Octonus, 88. 

Gasterodon, 88. 

Xysterus, 88. 

For Xyster Lacepede. 

Meneus, 88. 

For Mene Lacepede. 

Buronus, 88. 

For Burg Lacepede. 

Thrissa, 88. 

Substitute for Clupanodon Lacepede. 

Megalops, 88. 

Prinodon, 88. 

Substitute for Cyprinodon Lacepede. 

Maturacus, 88. 

Edomus, 88. 

Gonipus, 88. 

Myxonum, 88. 

Substitute for Mugiloides Lacepede. 

Trichonotus, 88. 

Substitute for Mugilomorus Lacepede. 


Soranus, 88. 

Cordorinus, 89. 

Substitute for Corydoras Lacepede. 

Amiatus, 89. 

Substitute for Amia L. Amiatus becomes eligible if Amia Gronow be ac- 
cepted instead of Apogon. 

Sayris, 89. 

Substitute for Scombresox Lacepede. 

Ramphistoma, 89; "Raf. Belone Gronow." 

The word Belone was not used in a generic sense by Gronow, but first by 
Cuvier in 1817. Rafinesque apparently refers to synonymy of the species as quoted 
from Gronow by Lacepede.* This reference does not seem to justify the substitu- 
tion of Ramphistoma for Belone. 

Odumphus, 89. 

Onopionus, 89. 

Guaris, 90. 

Typhlinus, 90, "sp. do." 

That is, of Syngnathus, earlier called Typhle by Rafinesque, which name is 
used by Lacepede for a "blind" genus of mammals, but without mention of type. 

Phyllophorus, 90. 

Homolenus, 90. 

This and the two preceding are placed in the same family as Syngnathus. 

Goniodermus, 90, "sp. do." 


Cephalopsis, 90, "sp. do." 


Orbidus, 90. 

For "Spheroide" of Lacepede. 

Oonidus, 90. 

For "Ovoide" of Lacepede. 

Tangus, 91. 

Said to be the same as "Heptaca" Rafinesque. 

Piratia, 91. 
Opictus, 91. 

*In the synonymy of Esox belone Lacepede has this quotation : 

"Belone et raphis, id est acus. Petri Artedi Synonymia Piscium etc., auctore 
J. G. Schneider, etc. 

"Gronov. Mus. i, n. 39. Zooph., p. 117, n. 362." 

In a hasty reading, Rafinesque must have ascribed both sentences to Gronow, 
who apparently did not use the name Belone. 


Ictiopogon, 91. 

Substitute for Bostrychus Lacepede, which is preoccupied. 
Dameus, 91. 

Neleus, 91. 

Nemochirus, 91. 

Dipinotus, 91. 

Symphocles, 91. 

This and the preceding are placed near Trichiurus. 
Melanictis, 92. 

Epimonus, 92, "sp. do." 

That is, of Balistes, doubtless intended for Monacanthus. 

Lophidius, 92. 

Variant of Lophius. 

Chironectes, "R", 92, "sp. do." 

Of Lophius. 
Conomus, 92, "sp. do." 

Of Lophius. 

Branderius, 93. 

Substitute for Cecilia Lacepede, a synonym of Sphagebranchus Bloch. 
Anopsus, 93. 

Substitute for Mur^noblenna Lacepede. 

Gymnopsis, 93. 

Substitute for Gymnomur^na Lacepede. 

Helmictis, 93. 
Rincoxis, 93. 
Zebricium, 93. 
Pterurus, 93. 

Sphyrnias, 93. 

Variant of Sphyrna Rafinesque. 

Platopterus, 93. 

Substitute for Raja L. 

Epinotus, 93. 
Lymnea, 93. 

Podoleptus, 93. 

Substitute for Leptopus Rafinesque, 1814. A synonym of Lophotes Giorna. 

Megaderus, 93. 

Substitute for Echidna Forster. 

cuviER, 1 815 93 

Ictaetus, 93. 
Sephenia, 93. 

Megabatus, 93. 

Apturus, 93. 

Lampreda, 94, "sp. do." 
Of Petromyzon. 

Pricus, 94, "sp. do." 

Of Petromyzon. This and the preceding doubtless equivalent to Ammo- 
CCETES Dumeril and Lampetra Gray, the former based on the larval state of lam- 

LXXXVI. CUVIER, Observations et Recherches Critiques sur differens 
Poissons de la M edit err annee, et a leur Occasion sur des Poissons 
d'autres mers plus ou moins Lies avec Eux: Memoires du Museum 
d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, I, 1815. 

Georges Leopold Chretien Frederic Dagobert Cuvier. 

Glossodus Cuvier, I, 1815; type Argentina glossodonta Forskal. 

Same as Albula Gronow, Butyrinus Lacepede. 
Fierasfer Cuvier, I, 119, 312, 359, 1815; type Ophidion imberbe L. 

Same as Carapus Rafinesque. (Name in French only; dates from Oken, 1817.) 
Xyrichthys Cuvier, I, 317, 329, 355, 1815; type Xyrichthys cultratus 

Cuvier (Coryph.^na novacula L.). 
Epibulus Cuvier, I, iii ; type Sparus insidiator Pallas. 

Smaris Cuvier, I, iii ; type Sparus smaris L. 

Myletes Cuvier, I, 115; type Myletes rhomboidalis Cuv. 

Saurus Cuvier, I, 115; type Salmo saurus L. 

Chromis Cuvier, 393 ; type Sparus chromis L. 

Monotypic. Same as Heliases Cuvier, 1817. 
Crenilabrus Cuvier, 357; type Labrus lapina Forskal (Les Creni- 

Bonaparte, in 1839, named as type C. pavo, which is the same as C. lapina. 
Name in French only, dates from Oken, 1817. 

Corycus Cuvier, 359; type (not otherwise named) Lutianus rostratus 
Based on "les deux derniers Lutjans de M. Risso." Called Coricus by Cuvier 
in 181 7. A synonym of Symphodus Rafinesque. 

Tetragonopterus Cuvier, I, 114; type T. argenteus Cuvier. 


Les Serrans Cuvier. 

This is not a scientific name. Reference is made to Anthias sacer Bloch. 

Diacope Cuvier, 360; type Holocentrus bengalensis Bloch. 
Name preoccupied, replaced by Genyoroge Cantor, 1850. 

Diagramma Cuvier, 360; type Anthias diagram ma Bloch. 
A synonym of Plectorhinchus Lacepede. 

Scolopsis Cuvier, 361; type the Curite of Russell (Scolopsis curite 

Les Priacanthes Cuvier, 361 ; type Anthias macrophthalmus Bloch. 
First called Priacanthus by Cuvier in 1817. 

Les Pristipomes Cuvier, 361 ; type Lutianus hasta Bloch. 

Called Pristipomus by Oken in 1817. A synonym of Pomadasys Lacepede. 

Julis Cuvier, 362; type Labrus julis L. 
By tautonomy and by first restriction. 

Boops Cuvier, 453 ; type Sparus boops L. 

By tautonomy. Later called Box Cuvier. 

The genus Sparus L. is divided into Sargues, Sparus sargus L. ; Daurades, 
Sparus aurata L. ; and Pagres, Sparus pagrus L. No Latin names are indicated 
and no type assigned to Sparus L. "Les Cantheres" is a name assigned (p. 485) 
to Sparus cantharus L. 

Dentex Cuvier, 486; type Sparus dentex L. 
By tautonomy, 

Les Melettes, 457 ; type Clupea brunnichi Gmelin. 

This group is equivalent to Engraulis Cuvier, 1817. No Latin name is as- 

On page 14 of this volume the name Sci/ENA umbra L., originally based on 
two species (the "Maigre" and the "Corb," confounded by Linnaeus), is definitely 
restricted to the first of these, the Cheilodipterus aquila of Lacepede. This spe- 
cies then becomes the type of Sci^na, replacing Argyrosomus de la Pylaie and 
PsEUDOSCi^NA Bleeker. The "Corb" remains as Corvina nigra (Bloch). 

LXXXVII. BLAINVILLE, Prodrome d'Une Nouvelle Distribution Sys- 
tematique du Rcgne Animal: Bulletin de la Societe Philomatique, 

Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville. 

Descriptions of the genera indicated appeared also in the Fauna 
Frangaise, 1820- 1830. 

The pagination as here given is taken from Garman, Plagiostomia, 

Trygoncbatus Blainville, 112; type Raia pastinaca L. 
Equivalent to Dasyatis Rafinesque. 

BLAINVILLE, 1816 95 

Aetobatus Blainville, 112; type Raja narinari Euphrascn. 

As restricted by Miiller & Henle, 1838; not as restricted by Cantor, 1850. 
The latter arrangement would accord better with Blainville's obvious purpose of 
making Raja aquila his "Aetobatis vulgaris," the best known of these "raies 
aigles," his type. The first restriction, however, has the sanction of Agassiz, Giin- 
ther, and Gill. 

Dicerobatus Blainville, 116; type Raja mobular Lacepede. 

A synonym of Mobula Rafinesque. Monotypic. 
Leiobatus Blainville, 121, "Raies lisses"; type Leiobatus sloani Blain- 

A species of Urotrygon. Not Leiobatus Rafinesque, which is Rhinobatus ; 
nor Leiobatus Klein, a synonym of Raja. 

Narcobatus Blainville, 121 ; type Raja torpedo L. 

Scylliorhinus Blainville, 121, "Squales roussettes" ; type Squalus 
CANicuLA Lacepede. 
As restricted. Prior to Scyllium Cuvier. 

Cestrorhinus Blainville, 121 ; type Squalus zyg^na L, 
A synonym of Cestracion Klein and Sphyrna Rafinesque. 

Monopterhinus Blainville, 121, "squales a une seule pinnule dorsale" ; 

type Squalus griseus Gmelin. 
A synonym of Hexanchus Rafinesque. Monotypic. 

Acanthorhinus Blainville, 121, "squales epineux"; type Squalus acan- 
THiAS Lacepede. 
Equivalent to Squalus L. as restricted by Rafinesque and by Gill. 

Heterodontus Blainville, 121 ; type Squalus philippi Lacepede. 

The name seems sufficiently different from Heterodon, a genus of snakes of 
prior date, although from identical Greek roots. Otherwise would stand as Cen- 
tracion Gray. Monotypic. 

Cetorhinus Blainville, 121 ; type Squalus maximus Gunner. 

Galeorhinus Blainville, 121, "Squales demi-Requins" ; type Squalus 

As restricted by Gill, 1864; Squalus mustelus as restricted by Garman, 1913. 
The former arrangement must hold, replacing Eugaleus Gill. 

Carcharhinus Blainville, 121 ; type Squalus commersonianus Blain- 
As restricted by authors. 

Echinorhinus Blainville, 121, "Squales boucles" ; type Squalus spin- 
osus Gmelin. 


LXXXVIII. CUVIER, Sur le genre Chironectes Cuv. (Antennarius 
Commerson) : Mem. du Mus., Ill, 1817. 

Georges Cuvier. 

Chironectes Cuvier, 418; type Lophius commersonianus Lacepede. 

LXXXIX. CUVIER, Hydrocyon, Chalceus etc. : Memoires du Mu- 
seum, IV, 1817; V, 1819. 

Hydrocyon Cuvier, V, 353, 1819; type Hydrocyon forskali Cuvier 
("Les Hydrocyns," I, 115). 

Myletes Cuvier, IV, 449, 1817 ; type Myletes rhomboidalis Cuvier. 

Tetragonopterus (Artedi) Cuvier, IV, 455, 1817; type Tetragon- 


Chalceus Cuvier, IV, pi. XXI, 1817, V, 351 ; type Chalceus macrolep- 
IDOTUS Cuvier. 

XC. LE SUEUR, A new genus of Fishes proposed under the name of 
Catostomus: Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., I, 1817. 

Charles A. Le Sueur. 

Catostomus Le Sueur, 88; type Cyprinus catostomus Forster (Cato- 
stomus HUDSONius Le Sueur). 

XCI. CUVIER, Rcgne Animal, Ed. i, 1817. Le Regne Animal Dis- 
tribue d'Apres son Organisation. Tome II, 1817 (Reptiles, Fishes, 

Georges Cuvier. 

This epoch-making work marks the advent of the modern epoch in 
zoological taxonomy. The entire animal kingdom is considered, its fam- 
ilies and genera are all defined, and the entire system is placed on the 
sound basis of comparative anatomy. 

In a number of cases the genera in this work receive French names 
only. But to all these, Latin forms were immediately supplied in the 
same year, 181 7, by Ok en, in the I sis. 

cuviER, 1817 97 

Ammocoetes (Dumeril) Cuvier, 119; type Petromyzon branchialis L. 

The larval form of Petromyzon and Lampetra. 

Scyllium Cuvier, 124; type Squalus canicula L. 

As restricted. A synonym of Scylliorhinus Blainville, 1816. 

Carcharias Cuvier, 125 ; type Squalus carcharias. 

As shown in the figure of Belon, 60. "Cette figure de Belon est la seule 
bonne. La plupart des autres sont fausses." Equivalent to Carcharhinus Blain- 
ville. Not Carcharias Rafinesque, 1810. 

Lamna Cuvier, 126; type Squalus cornubicus Bloch & Schneider 
(Squalus nasus Bonnaterre). 

Zygaena Cuvier, 127; type Squalus zyg^na L. 
Equivalent to Cestracion Klein, Sphyrna Rafinesque. 

Galeus Cuvier, 127; type Squalus galeus L. 

Not Galeus Valmont, nor of Klein, nor of Rafinesque. Equivalent to Gale- 
ORHiNUS Blainville. Monotypic. 

Mustelus Cuvier, 128; type Squalus mustelus L. 

Equivalent to Mustelus Linck. 
Notidanus Cuvier, 128; type Squalus griseus L. 

Monotypic. Equivalent to Hexanchus Rafinesque, 1810. 

Selache Cuvier, 129; type Squalus maximus L. 

Equivalent to Cetorhinus Blainville, 1816. Monotj'pic. 
Cestracion Cuvier in Oken, 129, ("Les Cestracions" Cuvier) ; Oken,* 
Isis, 1 183; type Squalus philippi Bloch & Schneider. 

Equivalent to Heterodontus Blainville, 1816. Not Cestracion Klein. 
Spinax Cuvier, 129; type Squalus spinax L. 

Equivalent to Etmopterus Rafinesque, 1810. 
Centrina Cuvier, 130; type Squalus centrina L. 

Equivalent to Oxynotus Rafinesque, 1810. 

Scymnus Cuvier, 130; type Squalus americanus Gmelin. 

Monotypic. Preoccupied by Scymnus Kugelmann, 1814, a genus of Beetles; 
replaced by Scymnorhinus Bonaparte, 1846. 

Dalatias Rafinesque may be the same. 

*Oken, Isis, 1817. In Isis, 1817, immediately following the publication of the 
Regne Animal, Professor L. Oken recapitulated the genera of Cuvier, giving Latin 
forms to those left by the author with French names only. These occur on pages 
1181, 1182, and 1183 (misprinted in the text as 1781, 1782, and 1783^- Several of 
these were also Latinized by Cloquet, Dictionnaire d'Histoire Naturcllc, in 1817, 
but the date of Oken is earlier. Still others were Latinized by John Stark, Ele- 
ments of Natural History, Edinburgh, 1828, vol. L 

As the question of priority is not affected, we leave the names of Cuvier latin- 
ized by Oken in their proper sequence. 


Trygon Adanson in Cuvier, 136; type Raja pastinaca L. 

This name, quoted from Adanson's Manuscript Cours d'Histoire Naturelle, in 
1772, has been adopted by several authors. Trygon appears also as a new genus 
(equivalent to T^niura) of Geoffroy St. Hilaire in the Histoire d'Egypte, with 
the date of 1825. The name is certainly later than Dasybatus of Klein, with the 
same type, and also later than Dasyatis Rafinesque. 

Callorhynchus (Gronow) Cuvier, 140; type Chimera callorhynchus 

Monacanthus (Cuvier) Oken, 152, ("Les Monacanthes" Cuvier) ; type 

Balistes chinensis Bloch. 
Alutera (Cuvier) Oken, 153, ("Les Aluteres" Cuvier) ; type Balistes 


Triacanthus (Cuvier) Oken, 153, ("Les Triacanthes" Cuvier) ; type 
Balistes biaculeatus Bloch. 

Hippocampus Cuvier, 157; type Syngnathus hippocampus L. 

Equivalent to Hippocampus Rafinesque. 

Characinus Cuvier, 164; no type named. 
Equivalent to Characini L., Charax Gronow. 

Curimatus (Cuvier) Oken, 165, ("Les Curimates" Cuvier) ; type Salmo 
edentulus Bloch (Salmo cyprinoides L.). 
Name latinized as Curimatus Oken, 1182, as Curimata by Cloquet. Equiva- 
lent to Curimata Walbaum, 1792. 

Anostomus (Gronow) Cuvier, 165; type Salmo anostomus L. 
Called Leporinus by Cuvier & Valenciennes. 

Piabucus (Cuvier) Oken, 166, (**Les Piabuques" Cuvier) ; type Salmo 
argentinus Bloch. 
Latinized as Piabucus by Oken, as Piabuca by Miiller & Troschel. 

Citharinus Cuvier, 168; type "le Serrasalme citharine" Geoffroy. 
Cytharinus Oken, 1182, ("Les Citharines" Cuvier, 1815, L 115). 

Saurus Cuvier, 169; type Salmo saurus L. 

Scopelus Cuvier, 169; type Gasteropelecus humboldti Risso. 
Equivalent to Myctophum Rafinesque, 1810. 

Aulopus Cuvier, 170; type Salmo filamentosus Bloch. 
Engraulis Cuvier, 174; type Clupea encrasicholus L. 

Thrissa Cuvier, 176; type Clupea setirostris Broussonet. 

Equivalent to Mystus Lacepede, preoccupied. Not Thrissa Rafinesque. 
Later spelled Thryssa by Cuvier. 

This genus or subgenus may receive a new name, Thrissocles Jordan & Ever- 
mann, type Clupea setirostris Broussonet. It is distinguished from Menidia 
Browne or Anchoviella Fowler, by the greatly prolonged maxillary. 

cuviER, 1 817 99 

Pristigaster Cuvier, 176; type not named. 
Later fixed as Pristigaster cayanus Cuvier. 

Chirocentrus Cuvier, 178; type Esox chirocentrus L. (Clupea dorab 

Sudis Cuvier, 180; type (not named) Sudis gigas Cuvier. 

Equivalent to Arapaima Mijller and Troschel, 1846 (Vastres Valenciennes, 

Not Sudis Rafinesque, 1810. 

Galaxias Cuvier, 183; type Esox truttaceus Cuvier. 

Microstoma Cuvier, 184; type Gasteropelecus microstomus Risso. 


Stomias Cuvier, 184; type Esox boa Risso. 

Salanx Cuvier, 185 ; type (not named) Salanx reevesi Cuv. & Val. 
(Albula chinensis Osbeck). 
Monotypic. Synonym of Albula Osbeck, if the latter name is regarded as 

Belone Cuvier, 185; type Esox belone L. 

Hemi-Ramphus Cuvier, 186; type Esox brasiliensis L. 

Barbus Cuvier, 192; type Cyprinus barbus L. 

Gobio Cuvier, 193 ; type Cyprinus gobio L. 

Not Gobio of Klein, which is identical with Gobius L. If Klein's names are 
accepted, Gobio Cuvier, based on the common gudgeon of Europe, Cyprinus go- 
bio L., must receive a new name. 

Tinea Cuvier, 193 ; type Cyprinus tinca L. 

Cirrhinus (Cuvier) Oken, 193, ("Les Cirrhines" Cuvier) ; type Cypri- 
nus cirrhosus Bloch. 
The name is spelled Cirrhina by Valenciennes. 

Abramis Cuvier, 194; type Cyprinus brama L. 
Equivalent to Brama Klein, not of Cuvier. 

Labeo Cuvier, 194; type Cyprinus niloticus (Forskal) Geoffrey. 
Not Labeo Bowdich, 1825. 

Leuciscus (Klein) Cuvier, 194; type Cyprinus leuciscus (L.) Bloch. 
Identical with Leuciscus Klein. 

Labia (Cuvier) Oken, 199, ("Les Lebias" Cuvier), Oken, Isis, 1183; 
type Cyprinodon variegatus Lacepede. 
Monotypic. Identical with Cyprinodon Lacepede, 1803. Written Lebias by 


Schilbe (Cuvier) Oken, 202, ("Les Schilbe" Cuvier), Oken, Isis, 1182; 

type SiLURUS mystus Hasselquist. 
Synodontis Cuvier, 203 ; type Pimelodus synodontis Geoffroy. 

Bagre (Cuvier) Oken, 204, (''Les Bagres" Cuvier), Oken, Isis, 1182; 
type SiLURUS bagre L. 
By tautonomy. Latinized as Bagrus by Valenciennes. This generic name 
must replace Felichthys Swainson and Ailurichthys Baird, for the Gaff-top- 
sail Cat-fish Felichthys marinus (L), of American waters, unless the earlier 
name Bagre of Catesby, applied to another genus, be deemed eligible. The name 
Bagrus, transferred by Cuvier & Valenciennes to another part of the same group 
of "Bagres," may be replaced by PoRCUS Geofifroy, 1817, as Bagrus is only a vari- 
ant spelling of Bagre. 

Morrhua (Cuvier) Oken, ("Les Morues"), 212, 1182; type Gadus 

Same as Gadus L. 
Merlangus (Cuvier) Oken, ("Les Merlans"), 213, 1182; type Gadus 

Not Merlangus Rafinesque, 1810. 
Lota (Cuvier), ("Les Lottes") Oken, 215, 1182; type Gadus lota 

By tautonomy. 

Mustela (Cuvier), ("Les Musteles") Oken, 215, 1182; type Gadus 

Preoccupied in Mammals : replaced by Motella Cuvier, 1829. Synonym of 
Gaidropsarus Raf. 

Brosme (Cuvier), ("Les Brosmes") Oken, 216, 1182; type Gadus 
BROSME Gmelin. 
Called Brosmius by Cuvier, 1829. 

Raniceps (Cuvier) Oken, 217, ("Les Raniceps" Cuvier), Oken, 1182; 
type Gadus raninus Miiller. 

Platessa Cuvier, 220; type Pleuronectes platessa L. 

Equivalent to Pleuronectes as restricted by Fleming. 
Hippoglossus Cuvier, 221 ; type Pleuronectes hippoglossus L. 

Rhombus Cuvier, 222 ; type Pleuronectes rhombus Cuvier. 

Equivalent to Rhombus Klein, not of Lacepede. Name used in MoUusks, 
Rhombus Da Costa, 1776. Same as Bothus Rafinesque. 

Solea Cuvier, 223 ; type Pleuronectes solea L. 
Equivalent to Solea Quensel and Solea Rafinesque. 
Monochirus (Cuvier) Oken, 223, ("Les Monochires" Cuvier), Mono- 
chirus Oken, 1182; type Pleuronectes microchirus De la 
Monotypic. Equivalent to Rafinesque. 

CUVIER, 1 817 101 

Plagusia (Browne) Cuvier, 224; type Pleuronectes plagusia L. 

Equivalent to Plagusia Browne, not of Latreille, 1806, a genus of Crusta- 

Lumpus (Cuvier) Oken, 226, ("Les Lumps" Cuvier) Oken, 1182; type 
Cyclopterus lumpus L. 
Equivalent to Cyclopterus L. 

Conger (Cuvier) Oken, 231, ("Les Congres" Cuvier), Oken, 1182; type 

Equivalent to Conger Houttuyn. 

Alabes (Cuvier) Oken, 235, ("Les Alabes" Cuvier), Oken, 1182; type 
(not named) Cheilobranchus dorsalis Richardson. 
Said to be identical with Cheilobranchus Richardson, 1848, which it re- 

Carapus Cuvier, ^t^j ; type Gymnotus macrourus Bloch. 

Not Carapus Rafinesque, 1810. The name is written Carapo by Oken. Re- 
placed by GiTON Kaup. 

Fierasfer (Cuvier) Oken, 239, ("Les Fierasfers" Cuvier) Oken, 1182; 
type Ophidium imberbe L. 
Equivalent to Carapus Rafinesque, 1810. Monotypic. 

Lophotes (Giorna) Cuvier, 243, ("Les Lophotes" Cuvier), the name 
written Lophotus by Oken, 1182; type "le Lophote Lacepede" 
Giorna (Lophotes cepedianus). 

Clinus Cuvier, 251 ; type Blennius superciliosus L. 

Pholis (Artedi) Cuvier, 251; type Blennius pholis Bloch. 

Not Pholis Gronow. 
Salarias Cuvier, 251 ; type Salarias quadripennis Cuvier. 

Opistognathus (Cuvier) Oken, 252, ("Les Opisthognathes" Cuvier), 
Oken, 1 182; type Opisthognathus sonnerati Cuvier. 
Sillago Cuvier, 258; type Sillago acuta Cuvier. 

Julis Cuvier, 261 ; type Labrus julis L. 

This name has been unfortunately transferred by later writers to a great 
group of the tropical seas, Thalassoma Swainson. 

Crenilabrus Cuvier, 262, ("Les Crenilabres" Cuvier), Oken, 1182; type 
Labrus lapina Forskal. 

Valenciennes makes the type Labrus pavo Risso ; but that species is not men- 
tioned by Cuvier, although identical with L. lapina. 

Bonaparte, in 1839, named as type C. pavo, which is the same as C. lapina. 
In 1839, just previous, Swainson observes : "M. Cuvier having expressly stated 


that the type of his genus Crenilabrus is the Lutjanus verses of Bloch, I have 
so retained it, placing all the others under the subgenus Cyn^dus." 

L. VERREs is identical with the type of Bodianus Bloch. We find no such state- 
ment in Cuvier's writings, and L. verres is ninth of his original species. Cyn^dus 
Swainson, as restricted by Bonaparte, is identical with Ctenolabrus Cuv. & Val. 

In the Fauna Italica, 156, 1839, Bonaparte assigned types to certain genera of 
Labroid fishes. Labrus guttatus Bloch was indicated as type of Hemiulis 
Swainson ; Labrus vetulus Bloch is considered as type of Labrus L. This name, 
VETULUS, was not used by Linnaeus, but it is a synonym of Labrus bimaculatus L. 
and Labrus mixtus L. Labrus bimaculatus may thus be regarded as the type of 
Labrus. Labrus rupestris Bloch is indicated as type of Cyn^dus Swainson. 
This becomes a synonym of Ctenolabrus Cuv. & Val., of a little earlier date in 
1839. Labrus pavo of authors, not of Linnaeus, is recognized by Bonaparte as type 
of Crenilabrus. This species is not named by Cuvier, but it is identical with 
Labrus lapina Forskal, a species included by Cuvier. In Swain's excellent review 
of Swainson (1882) the type of each genus is indicated. The type of Hemiulis 
(auratus) assigned by Swain is a species of Cheilio Lacepede. The type of 
CvNi^DUS is C. TiNCA = C. DODERLEiNi Jordan, not Labrus tinca L., a species of 
Crenilabrus. Bonaparte's selection of types has, however, priority over Swain's. 
Bonaparte and Swainson recognize Labrus julis L. as type of Julis. The same 
type, as Labrus pavo Hasselquist, is assigned to Chlorichthys Swainson by Bona- 
parte. Swain makes the latter a synonym of Thalassoma Swainson. Bonaparte, 
1846, selected L. julis L. as type of Ichthycallus Swainson, reducing both 
Chlorichthys and Ichthycallus to the synonymy of Julis. 

Coricus Cuvier, 263; type Lutianus virescens Risso (L. rostratus 
Equivalent to Symphodus Rafinesque. 

Epibulus Cuvier, 264; type Sparus insidiator Pallas. 

Novacula Cuvier, 265 ; type Coryph^na novacula L. 

By tautonomy. Afterwards restricted by Cuvier & Valenciennes to Cory- 
PHiENA fentadactyla Laccpcdc, the genus Hemipteronotus Lacepede. 

A synonym of Xyrichthys Cuvier, 1815. 
Chromis (Cuvier) Oken, 266, ("Les Chromis" Cuvier), Oken, 1182; 
type Sparus chromis Lacepede. 

Not Cromis Browne, 1770, nor Chromis Cuvier, 1815. Called Heliases by 
Cuvier & Valenciennes. 

Plesiops (Cuvier) Oken, 266; type not named. 

Afterwards described as Plesiops nigricans Riippell. Equivalent to Phakop- 
teryx Riippell, 1828. 

Smaris Cuvier, 269 ; type Sparus smaris L. 

A synonym of Spicara Rafinesque. 
Boops Cuvier, 270; type Sparus boops L. 

Later called Box Cuv. & Val. 
Sargus Cuvier, 272 ; type Sparus sargus L. 

Equivalent to Sargus Klein and Diplodus Rafinesque. 

cuviER, 1817 103 

Aurata (Cuvicr) Oken, 272, ("Les Daurades" Cuvier), Oken, 1183; 
type Sparus aurata L. 
Equivalent to Sparus L., as restricted by Fleming. Later called Chryso- 
PHRYS by Cuvier. 

Pagrus Cuvier, 272 ; type Sparus argenteus Bloch & Schneider 
(Sparus pagrus L.). 
Not P.-VGRUS Plumier. 
Dentex Cuvier, 273 ; type Sparus dentex L. 

Diacope Cuvier, 275 ; type Diacope seb^ Cuvier. 

Name preoccupied in butterflies (Diacope Hiibner, 1816) ; replaced by Gen- 
YOROGE Cantor, 1850. Equivalent to Naqua Forskal, 1775, a name doubtfully 

Serranus Cuvier, 276, ("Perche de mer ou serran") ; type Perca 
CABRiLLA L. ("le Serran proprement dit"). 
Serranus cabrilla is usually assumed as the type of the genus Serranus, 
and therefore of the family Serranid^. But no species of the genus as thus re- 
stricted is mentioned by Cuvier by scientific name. Cuvier, however, remarks : 
""La Mediterranee en produit beaucoup dont les plus communs s'y confondent 
sous les noms vulgaires de Perche de mer, de Serran, etc." This refers to Ser- 
ranus cabrilla and Serranus scriba. The first of these may be retained as type, 
following general custom, although its scientific name is not mentioned. Other- 
wise Holocentrus gigas Bloch & Schneider, which is explicitly mentioned, must 
be taken, in which case Serranus disappears, as a synonym of Epinephelus 
Bloch, and the name Serranellus Jordan & Eigenmann, a sub-generic term for 
Serranus scriba, would stand for the genus, as in Fowler's arrangement (Proc. 
Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1907, 266). 

Plectropomus (Cuvier) Oken, 277, ("Les Plectropomes" Cuvier), 
Plectropomus Oken, 1182, Plectropoma of Cuv. & Val. ; type 
as restricted Bodianus maculatus Bloch. 

Cantharus Cuvier, 278; type Sparus cantharus L. ("Les Canthares," 

Name preoccupied; replaced by Spondyliosoma Cantor, 1850. 

Pristipomus (Cuvier) Oken, 279, ("Les Pristipomes" Cuvier), Oken, 
1182, (Pristipoma of Cuvier & Valenciennes); type Lutjanus 
hasta Bloch. 
Equivalent to Pomadasys Lacepede. 

Scolopsis Cuvier, 280; type "le Kurite, Russell" (Scolopsides kurita 

Cuv. & Val.). 
Called Scolopsides by Cuvier. 

Diagramma (Cuvier) Oken, 280, ("Les Diagrammes" Cuvier), Oken, 
1183; type Anthias diagramma Bloch. 
Equivalent to Plectorhynchus Lacepede. 


Priacanthus (Cuvier) Oken, 281, ("Les Priacanthes" Cuvier), Oken, 
1 183; type Anthias macrophthalmus Bloch. 
Equivalent to Abuhamrur Forskal, a name doubtfully eligible. 

Polyprion (Cuvier) Oken, 282, ("Les Polyprions" Cuvier), Oken, 1183; 
type Amphiprion americanus Bloch & Schneider. 

Acerina Cuvier, 283; type Perca acerina Cuvier (Perca cernua L.). 
Called Cernua by Schaefer and by Fleming, Acerina by Giildenstadt, Percis 
by Klein, and Gymnocephalus by Bloch. 

Stellifer (Cuvier) Oken, 283, ("Les Stelliferes" Cuvier), Stellifer 
Oken, 1 182; type Bodianus stellifer Bloch. 
Pterois (Cuvier) Oken, 286, ("Les Pterois" Cuvier), Oken, 1183; type 

Equivalent to Pseudopterus Klein, which may not be eligible. 

Paralepis Cuvier, 289; type Coregonus paralepis Risso Ms., Para- 
LEPis coregonoides Risso. 

Prochilus Cuvier, 294; type Sclena macrolepidota Bloch. 

Name preoccupied in mammals by Prochilus Illiger, 1811. Replaced by Dor- 

Sander (Cuvier) Oken, 294, ("Les Sandres" Cuvier), Sander Oken, 
1 1 82; type Perca lucioperca L. 

Terapon Cuvier, 295 ; type Holocentrus servus Bloch. 

Error for Therapon. Equivalent to Djabub Eorskal, which is doubtfully 

Zingel (Cuvier) Oken, 296, ("Les Cingles" Cuvier), Zingel Oken, 

1 182; type Perca zingel L., Asperulus Schasfer. 
Umbrina Cuvier, 297 ; type Sci^na cirrhosa L. 

Otolithes (Cuvier) Oken, 299, ("Les Otolithes" Cuvier), Otolithes 
Oken, 1 182; called Otolithus by Cuvier & Valenciennes; type 
Johnius ruber Bloch & Schneider. 

Anclyodon (Cuvier) Oken, 299, ("Les Ancylodons" Cuvier), Oken, 
1 182; type Lonchurus ancylodon Bloch & Schneider. 
Monotypic. Preoccupied ; replaced by Macrodon Schinz ; Sagenichthys Berg, 

Antennarius (Commerson) Cuvier, 310, "Les Chironectes (Anten- 
narius Commerson)" Cuvier; type Lophius commersonianus 
Lacepede, Antennarius antenna tricorne Commerson, in 
Afterwards called Chironectes by Cuvier, the name preoccupied. 

cuviER, 1817 105 

Malthe Cuvier, 311 ; type Lophius vespertilio L. 

Equivalent to Ogcocephalus Fischer, 1813. 

Thynnus Cuvier, 313; type Scomber thynnus L. 

Not Thynnus Browne. The name Thynnus Cuvier is preoccupied, and has 
been replaced by Thunnus South and later by Albacora Jordan. 

Orcynus Cuvier, 314; type Scomber germon Lacepede (Scomber 
ALALONGA Gmelin). 
Name preoccupied by Orcynus Rafinesque, 1810, and replaced by Germo 

Citula Cuvier, 315; type ("I'espece est nouvelle") Sci^na armata 

Seriola Cuvier, 315; type Caranx dumerili Risso. 

Nomeus Cuvier, 315; type Gobius gronovii Gmelin. 

Vomer Cuvier, 316; type Vomer browni Cuvier. 

Equivalent to Rhomboida Browne, 1789, which is probably not eligible. 

Spinachia Cuvier, 320; type Gasterosteus spinachia L. 

Lichia Cuvier, 321 ; type Scomber amia L. 

Blepharis Cuvier, 322; type Zeus ciliaris Bloch. 

Monotypic ; name preoccupied, replaced by Blepharichthys Gill. A syno- 
nym of Alectis Rafinesque. 

Equula Cuvier, 323 ; type Centrogaster equula Gmelin. 
A synonym of Leiognathus Lacepede. 

Atropus (Cuvier) Oken, 324, ("Les Atropus" Cuvier), Oken, 1182; 
type Brama atropus Bloch & Schneider. 
Monotypic. Not separable from Citula. 
Oligopodes (Risso) Cuvier, 328, ("Les Leptopodes Cuvier, Oligopodes 
Risso") ; type "I'OHgopode noir, Risso." 
Described by Risso, 1826, as Oligopus nicer, apparently a species of Pterac- 
Lis. Cuvier distinguishes Pteraclis as "Les Oligopodes" and Olicopodes as "Les 

Chelmon Cuvier, 334 ; type Ch^^todon rostratus Bloch. 

Platax Cuvier, 334; type Ch^todon teira Bloch. 

Heniochus Cuvier, 335 ; type Ch^todon macrolepidotus Bloch. 

Ephippus Cuvier, 335 ; type Ch^todon orbis Bloch, as restricted by 

Cuv. & Val., 1831. 
Toxotes Cuvier, 338; type Labrus jaculator Bloch & Schneider. 


Anabas Cuvier, 339; type Perca scandens Daldorf. 

Fiatola Cuvier, 342; type Stromateus fiatola L. 
Equivalent to Stromateus L. 

Seserinus (Cuvier) Oken, 342, ("Les Seserinus" Cuvier) ; type "Ses- 
erinus Rondelet" (Seserinus rondeleti Cuvier). 
This is apparently a young Stromateus, microchirus (Bonelli). 
Premnas Cuvier, 345 ; type Ch^todon biaculeatus Bloch. 

Temnodon Cuvier, 346; type Cheilodipterus heptacanthus Lace- 
Monotypic. Equivalent to Pomatomus Lacepede. The name Pomatomus 
was arbitrarily transferred to a different genus (Epigonus Raf.) by Cuvier. 

Amphisile (Klein) Cuvier, 350; type Centriscus scutatus L. 
Equivalent to Centriscus L. and Amphisilen Klein. 

XCII. OKEN, Isis, 1817. 
L. Oken. 

On pages 1182-83 (misprinted 1782-83), Professor Oken gives Latin 
equivalents to all the French names in the first edition of the Regne 
Animal of Cuvier, as indicated above. 

XCIII. CLOQUET, Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles de Levrault 

(Articles on Fishes), 1816 to 1830. 


(Latinizes several of Cuvier's names, as previously done by Oken.) 

Zingel Cloquet, 1817; ''les cingles" Cuvier, called Zingel by Oken; 
type Perca zingel L. 

Eptatretus (Dumeril) Cloquet, XV, 134, 1819; type Gastrobranchus 
DOM bey Lacepede. 
Replaces Heptatrema Dumeril and Bdellostoma Miiller. 

ST. HILAIRE, 1818 107 

XCIV. GEOFFROY ST. HILAIRE, Suite de I'Histoire des Poissons 

du Nil, Plates dated 181 7, 181 8. 

Isidore Geoffroy St. Hilaire. 

Porcus Geoffroy St. Hilaire, 303, 1818; type Silurus bajad Forskil. 

Equivalent to Bagrus Cuv. & Val. but not to "les Bagres" Cuvier, 1817, Ba- 
GRE Oken. Porcus should probably replace Bagrus, which is a latinization of 
Bagre, the vernacular Spanish name for the larger cat-fishes. 

Heterobranchus Geoffroy St. Hilaire, 305, 1818; type Heterobranchus 
BiDORSALis Geoffroy St. Hilaire. 

XCV. LE SUEUR, Description of Several New Species of North 
American Fishes: Jour. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1818. 

Charles A. Le Sueur. 

Somniosus Le Sueur, 222; type Somniosus brevipinna Le Sueur, 
Squalus microcephalus Bloch & Schneider. 

Platirostra Le Sueur, 223 ; type Platirostra edentula Le Sueur. 

Same as Polyodon. 

Hiodon Le Sueur, 366; type Higdon tergisus Le Sueur, 
Often spelled Hygdon. 

XCVI. RANZANI, Descrizione di un Pesce, un Nuovo Genere del 
Tcenioidei: Opusculo Sci. Bologna, II, 1818. 

Camillo Ranzani. 

Epidesmus Ranzani, 133; type Epidesmus maculatus Ranzani. 
Synonym of Regalecus. 

XCVII. BLAINVILLE, Poissons Fossiles: Nouveau Dictionnaire, 

XXVII, 1818. 

Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville. 

Not seen by us. 

Anenchelum Blainville; type Anenchelum glarisianum Blainville 
(fossil: Lepidopid^). 


Chirurgus Blainville; type (perhaps Ch^todon chirurgus Bloch). 
Not seen by us : probably a synonym of Hepatus and Teuthis. 

Palaeoniscum Blainville, 320; type Pal^oniscum frieslebenense 
Blainville (fossil). 
Written Pal^oniscus by Agassiz. 

Palaeothrissum Blainville, 320; type Pal^othrissum macrocephalum 
Blainville (fossil). 
Synonym of Pal^oniscum. 

Palaeorhynchum Blainville, XXVII, 314, 1818; type Pal.^orhynchum 

GLARisiANUM Blainvillc. 
Palaeobalistum Blainville, 338; type Diodon orbicularis Volta (fossil). 

XCVIII. RAFINESQUE, Description of two new Genera of North 
American Fishes, Opsanus and Notropis : American Monthly 
Magazine and Critical Review, January 1818. 


Opsanus Rafinesque, 203; type Opsanus cerapalus Raf. (Gadus 

TAU L.). 
This genus has been usually and wrongly called Batrachus. 

Notropis Rafinesque, 204; type Notropis atherinoides Raf. (Al- 
BURNUS rubellus Agassiz). 

XCIX. RAFINESQUE, Discoveries in Natural History: American 

Monthly Magazine, September 181 8. 

Glossodon Rafinesque, 354 ; type Glossodon harengoides Raf. (Hiodon 
TERGisus Le Sueur). 
A synonym of Hiodon, regarded by Rafinesque as too "similar to Diodon in 

C. RAFINESQUE, Further Discoveries in Natural History : Amer, 

Monthly Magazine, October 1818. 

Pogostoma Rafinesque, 445 ; type Pogostoma leucops Rafinesque. 
A myth drawn by Audubon. 

Dinectus Rafinesque, 445 ; type Dinectus truncatus Raf. 
A mythical sturgeon, drawn by Audubon. 

RAFINESQUE. 1818 109 

Litholepis Rafinesque, 445 ; type Litholepis adamantinus Raf . 

The "Devil-jack Diamond Fish," drawn by Audubon, a mythical gar-pike of 
which the scales will "turn a rifle ball." 

This remarkable paper is based on paintings of fishes "seen down 
the river" by Audubon. Rafinesque was, in 1818, a guest at Audubon's 
house at Hendersonville, Kentucky. One night, bats entered the win- 
dow. Rafinesque was convinced that they were of a new species, and 
used Audubon's costly violin to beat them down. Audubon in return 
showed him paintings of remarkable fishes. Rough copies of these are 
found in Rafinesque's note-books, preserved in the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion. Their introduction into Science was a practical joke on the part 
of the great ornithologist. 

Rafinesque also mentions as new genera, by name only, without ex- 
planation : Cheilobus, Miniculus, Oplictis, Leptosoma and Glanis. 
These can have no place in the system. 

CI. RAFINESQUE, Description of Three New Genera of Fluviotile 
Fish, PoMOxis, Sarchirus and Exoglossum : Jour. Ac. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., November 1818. 

Pomoxis Rafinesque, 417; type Pomoxis annularis Raf. 

Sarchirus Rafinesque, 419; type Sarchirus vittatus Raf. 
Young of Lepisosteus osseus. 

Exoglossum Rafinesque, 421 ; type Exoglossum annulatum Raf, 
(Cyprinus maxillingua Le Sueur). 

Maxillingua Rafinesque, 421 ; type Cyprinus maxillingua Le Sueur. 
Same as Exoglossum. 

Hypentelium Rafinesque, 421 ; type Exoglossum macropterum Raf. 
(Catostomus nigricans Le Sueur). 
Replaces Hylomyzon Agassiz. 

CII. RAFINESQUE, Further account of Discoveries etc. : Amer. 

Monthly Magazine, November 181 8. 

Noturus Rafinesque, 41 ; type Noturus flavus Raf. 


CIII. RAFINESQUE, Prodrome de Jo Nouveaux Genres et d'Animaux 
Decouverts dans I'interieur des £tats Unis d'Amerique durant 
r Annie 1818: Journal de Physique, de Chymie et d'Histoire Nat- 
urelle, Paris, June 1819. 

Aplodinotus Rafinesque, 419; type Aplodinotus grunniens Raf. 
Spelling corrected by Gill to Haploidonotus. 

Etheostoma Rafinesque, 419; type Etheostoma blennioides Raf. 

As determined by Agassiz. Later fixed on Etheostoma flabellaris Ra- 
finesque by Jordan & Evermann. Replaces Diplesion Rafinesque and Hyostoma 

Leucops Rafinesque, 419; type Pogostoma leucops Raf. 
A myth of Audubon. 

Aplocentrus Rafinesque, 420; type Aplocentrus calliops Raf. 
Mythical ; after Audubon. 

Calliurus Rafinesque, 420; type Calliurus punctulatus Raf. 
A synonym of Micropterus Lacepede. 

Lepomis Rafinesque, 420; type, as stated by the author, Labrus aur- 

Pomotis Rafinesque, 420 ; type also stated to be Labrus auritus L. 

Apomotis Rafinesque, 420; type Lepomis cyanellus Raf. 

Notemigonus Rafinesque, 421 ; type Notemigonus auratus Raf. 
(Cyprinus crysoleucas Mitchill). 

Amphiodon Rafinesque, 421; Amphiodon alveoides Raf. (Misprint 
for Alosoides.) 
Replaces Elattonistius Gill & Jordan. 

Amblodon Rafinesque, 421 ; type Amblodon bubalus Raf. 

The "Buffalo-fish," to which the large blunt pharyngeal teeth of Aplodinotus 
were wrongly ascribed. A complex; the name Amblodon later restricted by Ra- 
finesque to Aplodinotus grunniens, while the Buffalo-fish became type of Ictio- 
Bus Rafinesque. 

Cycleptus Rafinesque, 421; type Cycleptus nigrescens (Catostomus 

Pilodictis Rafinesque, 422 ; type Pilodictis limosus Raf. 
A myth. 

CIV. RAFINESQUE, Annals of Nature, I, 1820. 

Hemiplus Rafinesque, 6; type Hemiplus lacustris Raf. (Cyprinus 
Same as Notemigonus Rafinesque, 1819. 


CV. RAFINESQUE, Ichthyologia Ohiensis, 1820. 

It was the fortune of Professor Rafinesque to be one of the first to 
explore two of the richest fish faunas of the world, that of Sicily and 
that of the Ohio River. His various papers show his pecuUar traits, in- 
tense activity, keen philosophical insight, and hopeless slovenliness in 

Stizostedion Rafinesque, 2^; type Perca salmonea Raf. (Perca vitrea 

Lepibema Rafinesque, 23 ; type Perca chrysops Raf. 

Pomacampsis Rafinesque, 23 ; type Perca nigropunctata Raf. 
Mythical, being one of Audubon's practical jokes. 

Ichthelis Rafinesque, 27 ; type Labrus auritus L. 

A needless substitute for Lepomis, which is transferred (p. 30) to species of 
MiCROPTERUS Lacepede. 

Telipomis Rafinesque, 2y ; type Lepomis cyanellus Raf. 
A needless substitute for Apomotis. 

Aplites Rafinesque, 30; type Lepomis pallida Raf. 

A species of Micropterus. 
Nemocampsis Rafinesque, 30; type Lepomis flexuolaris Raf. 

A species of Micropterus. 
Dioplites Rafinesque, 32 ; type Lepomis notata Raf. 

Also a synonym of Micropterus. 

Ambloplites Rafinesque, 33; type Lepomis ichtheloides Raf. (Bodi- 

ANus rupestris Raf., 1817). 

Aplesion Rafinesque, 36; type Etheostoma calliura Raf. 
The young of Micropterus. 

Diplesion Rafinesque, 37; type Etheostoma blennioides Raf. 

A synonym of Etheostoma Raf. See opinion 14, Comm. Zool. Nomenc. 
Pomolobus Rafinesque, 38; type Pomolobus chrysochloris Raf. 

Dorosoma Rafinesque, 39; type Dorosoma heterura Raf. (Megalops 
cepediana Le Sueur). 

Clodalus Rafinesque, 43 ; type Hiodon clodalus Le Sueur. 

Same as Hiodon. 
Minnilus Rafinesque, 45 ; type Minnilus dinemus Raf. 

This is apparently the same as Noteopis Raf., 1818. 


Dobula Rafinesque, 45; type not named (Cyprinus dobula L.), 

Equivalent to Leuciscus Cuvier. 
Phoxinus Rafinesque, 45; type not named (Cyprinus phoxinus L.). 

Alburnus Rafinesque, 45; type not named (Cyprinus alburnus L.). 

Luxilus Rafinesque, 47; type Luxilus chrysocephalus Raf. (Cyprinus 

CORNUTUS Mitchill). 
Chrosomus Rafinesque, 47; type Chrosomus erythrogaster Raf. 

Semotilus Rafinesque, 49; type Semotilus dorsalis Raf. (Cyprinus 

atromaculatus Mitchill). 
Rutilus Rafinesque, 50 ; type Leuciscus rutilus L. 

Plargyrus Rafinesque, 50; type Rutilus plargyrus Raf. (Cyprinus 

CORNUTUS Mitchill). 
Pimephales Rafinesque, 52; type Pimephales promelas Raf. 

Moxostoma Rafinesque, 54 ; type Catostomus anisurus Raf. 

Ictiobus Rafinesque, 55 ; type Catostomus bubalus Raf. 

Spelled IcHTHYOBUS by Agassiz. 

The name Amblodon was based, in part, on the same species, and may be held 
as tenable for this genus. 

Laptops Rafinesque, 64; type Pimelodus viscosus Raf. (Silurus oli- 

varis Raf.). 
Opladelus Rafinesque, 64; type Pimelodus nebulosus Raf. (Silurus 

Written Hopladelus by Gill. A synonym of Leptops. 
Ameiurus Rafinesque, 65; type Pimelodus cupreus Raf. (Pimelodus 

natalis Le Sueur). 
Ilictis Rafinesque, 66; type Pimelodus limosus Raf. (Silurus olivaris 

A synonym of Leptops. 

Picore" '^ Rafinesque, 70; type Esox vittatus Raf. 

A drawing in Rafinesque's note-book shows this to be a mythical species of 

Cylindrosteus Rafinesque, '/2; type Lepisosteus platostomus Raf. 

Atractosteus Rafinesque, 75 ; type Lepisosteus ferox Raf. 

Sturio Rafinesque, 79; type Acipenser maculosus Le Sueur. 

Carpiodes Rafinesque, 56; type Catostomus cyprinus Le Sueur. 
As fixed by Jordan & Gilbert, 1883. 

TILESIUS, 1820 113 

Teretulus Rafinesque, 57; type Catostomus aureolus Le Sueur. 
As fixed by Jordan, 1877. 

Decactylus Rafinesque, 60; type Catostomus bostoniensis Le Sueur 
(Cyprinus teres Mitchill) as restricted by Jordan. 
Catostomus teres is probably the tenable name, as the earlier name com- 
MERSONi Lacepede is very doubtful. 

Ictalurus Rafinesque, 61 ; type Silurus punctatus Raf. 

Elliops Rafinesque, 62 ; type Pimelodus maculatus Raf. 
A synonym of Ictalurus. 

Eurystomus Rafinesque, 65 ; type Catostomus megastomus Raf. 
An Audubonian myth. 

Sterletus Rafinesque, 80; type Acipenser serotinus Raf. (Acipenser 
rubicundus Le Sueur). 

Dinectus Rafinesque, 80 ; type Dinectus truncatus Raf. 

Another of Audubon's mythical paintings, representing, as suggested by Rafin 
esque, "only a sturgeon incorrectly drawn." 

Pegedictis Rafinesque, 85 ; type Pegedictis ictalops Raf. 

Apparently a confusion of notes on Catonotus flabellaris and Cottus rich 
ARDSONi. The species is therefore unidentifiable. Best regarded as a synonym oi 


Proceros Rafinesque, 87; type Proceros maculatus Raf. 
A myth, not of Audubon but of "Mr. M. of St. Genevieve." 

CVL TILESILIS, De Piscium Australium Novo Genere: Memoires 
Academie Sciences, Petersburg, 1820. 


Balistapus Tilesius, 310; type (Balistes aculeatus L.). 

CVIL RISSO, Alepocephalus, nouveau Genre de Poissons: Memoires 
de I'Academie Royale de Turin, XXV, 1820. 

Anastase Risso. 

Alepocephalus Risso, 262 ; type Alepocephalus rostratus Risso. 


CVIII. GOLDFUSS, Handbuch Zoologie, II, 1820.* 

Georg August Goldfuss. 

Batrachops Goldfuss; type Lophius commersonianus Lacepede. 
Substitute for Chironectes, preoccupied. Equivalent to Antennarius. 

CIX. LE SUEUR, Description of a new Genus and Several New 
Species of Fresh-Water Fish Indigenous to the United States: 
Jour. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., II, 1821. 

Charles A. Le Sueur. 

Mollinesia Le Sueur, 2 ; type Mollinesia latipinna Le Sueur. 

ex. HAMILTON, An Account of the Fishes found in the River Ganges 
and its Branches: Edinburgh, 1822.! 

Francis Hamilton [formerly Buchanan]. 
(Often quoted as Francis Hamilton-Buchanan.) 

Callichrous Hamilton, 149; type Silurus bimaculatus Bloch. 
Synonym of Ompok Lacepede. 

Cynoglossus Hamilton, 365 ; type Cynoglossus lingua Hamilton. 

Bola Hamilton, 368; type Bola coitor Hamilton. 
As restricted by Jordan. 

Coius Hamilton, 369; type Coius cobojus Hamilton (Perca scandens 

As here restricted by us. 

The first species named, Coius vacti Hamilton, is Lates colonorum. The 
genus Coius is grossly unnatural and is best served by relegation to synonymy. 

Hamilton observes : "The Cobojus by the natives is considered as the prototype 
of their genus 'Coi' from which the name Coius is derived." 

Equivalent to Anabas Cuvier. 

Chanda Hamilton, 370; type Chanda ruconius Hamilton. 

The first unquestioned species named. It is a species of Leiognathus Lace- 
pede. The others named belong to Ambassis Cuvier. 

* "Acanthiotus Goldfuss" quoted by Agassiz (Nomenclator) is merely a mis- 
print for ACANTHONOTUS. 

t We are indebted to Mr. John Smallwood for the record of the genera of 

LEACH & DE LA BECHE, 1 822 115 

Sisor Hamilton, 379 ; type SisoR rabdophorus Hamilton. 

Corica Hamilton, 383 ; type Corica coborna Hamilton. 

Monotypic. Apparently an ally of Clupeoides Bleeker. Not CoRicus Cuvier. 
Chela Hamilton, 383 ; type Cyprinus cachius Hamilton. 

The first species named; as restricted by Bleeker, 1862. Giinther later re- 
stricts it to C. GORA Hamilton. Replaces Cachia Giinther. 

Barilius Hamilton, 384 ; type by tautonomy Cyprinus barila Hamilton. 

The first species named. 
Bangana Hamilton, 385 ; type Cyprinus dero Hamilton. 

The first species named: probably replaces Tylognathus Heckel and Lobo- 
CHEiLus van Hasselt. 

Puntius Hamilton, 388; type Cyprinus puntio Hamilton. 

By tautonomy. Restricted to Cyprinus sophore Hamilton by Bleeker. 

Danio Hamilton, 390; type Cyprinus dangila Hamilton, 

The first species named ; as restricted by Bleeker. 
Morulius Hamilton, 391 ; type Cyprinus morala Hamilton. 

The first species named ; restriction by Bleeker. 
Cabdio Hamilton, 392 ; type Cyprinus jaya Hamilton. 

The first species named. 
Garra Hamilton, 393 ; type Cyprinus lamta Hamilton. 

The first species named; as restricted by Bleeker. Replaces Discognathus 

CXI (A). LEACH & DE LA BECHE, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, (2) 

William E. Leach. 

Dapedium Leach & De La Beche, 45 ; type Dapedium politum Leach 

Written Dapedius by Agassiz. 

CXI (B). SCHINZ, Das Thierrekh, II, 1822. 


Macrodon Schinz, 482 ; type Lonchurus ancylodon Bloch & Schneider. 
Replaces Ancylodon Cuvier, 1817, preoccupied by Ancylodon Illigcr, 181 1, a 
genus of mammals. Macrodon is prior to Sagenichthys Berg, 1895, also a sub- 
stitute for Ancylodon. Not Macrodon Muller & Troschel, which is replaced by 
HoPLiAS Gill, 1903- 


CXII. VAN HASSELT, (Poissons de Java) : AUgemeine Konst. en 

Letterbok, II, 1823. 

Jan Coenrad van Hasselt. 

Homaloptera Van Hasselt, 130; type Homaloptera fasciata Van 

Crossocheilus Van Hasselt, 132; type Crossocheilus oblongus Van 

Hampala Van Hasselt, 132; type Hampala macrolepidota Van Has- 

Lobocheilus Van Hasselt, 133; type Lobocheilus falcifer Van Has- 
A synonym of Bangana. 

Nemacheilus Van Hasselt, 133 ; type Cobitis fasciatus Valenciennes. 

Acanthopsis Van Hasselt, 133 ; type Acanthopsis dialyzona Van Has- 

Acanthophthalmus Van Hasselt, 133 ; type Acanthophthalmus fas- 
ciatus Van Hasselt. 

Homaloptera Van Hasselt, 133; type Homaloptera fasciata Van Has- 

Oxygaster Van Hasselt, 133; type Oxygaster anomalurus Van Has- 

CXIII. DESMAREST, Premiere Decade Ichthyologique, 1823. 

Anselme Gaetan Desmarest. 

Diabasis Desmarest, 34; type Diabasis parra Desmarest. 

Not Diabasis Hoffmansegg, a genus of beetles, 1819. Replaced by H^mulon 

CXIV. NARDO, Osservasione Aggiunte all' Adriatica Ittiologia, 1824. 

Gian Domenico Nardo. 

Squatinoraja Nardo; type Squatinoraja colonna (Rhinobatus 
COLUMNS Miiller & Henle). 
A synonym of Rhinobatus. 

MITCHILL, 1824 117 

CXV. MITCHILL, Description of an Extraordinary Fish : Ann. Lye. 

Nat. Hist. N. Y., I, 1824. 

Samuel Latham Mitchill. 

Saccopharynx Mitchill, 82 ; type Saccopiiarynx flagellum Mitchill. 

CXVL VALENCIENNES, Description du Cernie: Mem. du Museum, 

Paris, XI, 1824. 

AcHiLLE Valenciennes. 

Polyprion Valenciennes, 265 ; type Polyprion cernium Valenciennes. 

CXVII. OTTO, Propterygia hyposticta, Nova Acta Acad., 1824. 

B. C. Otto. 

Propterygia Otto, in; type Propterygia hyposticta Otto. 

A deformed Raja, with the pectoral fins free from the head, similar to Ceph- 
ALEUTHERUS Rafinesquc. 

CXVIII. QUOY & GAIMARD, Voyage Autour du Monde . . . 
Execute sur les Corvettes I'Uranie et la Physicienne. Under 
Captain Louis de Freycinet, 1824. 

Jean Rene Constantine Quoy ; Joseph Paul Gaimard. 

This important work, which closely preceded the second edition of 
the Rcgne Animal, adopted a few unpublished names from Cuvier's 

Anampses (Cuvier) Quoy & Gaimard, 276; type Anampses cuvier Q. 
& G. 


Gerres (Cuvier) Quoy & Gaimard, 293; type Gerres vaigiensis Q. & 
G., which is Sci^ena argyrea Forskal. 


In this paper the genus Gerres is mentioned for the first time. But two 
species are named, G. vaigiensis and G. gula. The former belongs to the modern 
genus XysTv^ma Jordan & Evermann, the latter to Eucinostomus Baird. When 
Gerres was later defined by Cuvier in the Regnc Animal, Sci^na argyrea, which 
is identical with G. vaigiensis, is included, and G. gula is not mentioned. It would 
appear that G. vaigiensis must be taken as type, thus replacing Xyst^ma. 

Jordan & Evermann have taken an American species, Gerres lineatus (Hum- 
boldt) as type. This species is named by Cuvier, but not by Quoy & Gaimard. It 
cannot therefore serve as the type of Gerres. The genus called Gerres by Jordan 
& Evermann must apparently stand as Diapterus Ranzani. If Gerres is regarded 
as preoccupied by Gerris Fabricius, a genus of insects of earlier date, the sub- 
stitute name of Catoch^num Cantor, 1850, should be used. 

Percophis Quoy & Gaimard, 351 ; type Percophis brasilianus Q. & G. 

Priodon (Cuvier) Quoy & Gaimard, 377; type Priodon annulatus Q. 

A species of Naso Lacepede. 

CXVIII (A). HARLAN, Saurocephalus: Journ. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 

Ill (fossil fish), 1824. 

Richard Harlan. 

Saurocephalus Harlan, 339; type Saurocephalus lanciformis Harlan. 

CXIX. KONIG, Icones Fossiles Sectione, 1825. 


."Bucklandium Konig, 4 ; type Bucklandium diluvii Konig. 

Ampheristus Konig, pi. XV, fig. 190; type Ampheristus toliacus 


CXX. BOWDICH, Fishes of Madeira, 1825. 

T. Edward Bowdich. 

Labeo Bowdich, 122; type Labeo sparoides Bowdich. 
A sparoid fish; not Labeo Cuvier, 1817. 

BOWDICH, 1825 119 

Anomalodon Bowdich, 237 ; type Anomalodon incisus Bowdich. 

Apparently a synonym of Pomadasys Lacepede. 
Diastodon Bowdich, 238; type Diastodon speciosus Bowdich (Labrus 
SCROFA Cuv. & Val.). 

This genus appears valid. It is near Lepidaplois Gill, but with much smaller 

Seleima Bowdich, 238; type Seleima aurata Bowdich. 

A synonym of Kyphosus Lacepede (K. incisor). 
Amorphocephalus Bowdich, 238 ; type Amorphocephalus granulatus 

A synonym of Xyrichthys Cuvier. 

CXXI. RISSO, Histoire Naturelle des Principales Productions de 
I'Europe Meridionale, vol. Ill, Paris, 1826. 

Anastase Risso. 

Lamia Risso, 123 ; type Squalus cornubicus L. 
Monotypic. A synonym of Lamna Cuvier, 1817. 

Acanthias Risso, 131 ; type Squalus acanthias L. 
Equivalent to Squalus L. as restricted. 

Scyphius Risso, 185 ; type Scyphius fasciatus Risso. 
A synonym of Nerophis Rafinesque, 1810. 

Ones Risso, 214; type Gadus mustela Bloch. 
A synonym of Gaidropsarus Rafinesque. 

Lotta Risso, 217; type Gadus elongatus Otto. 

A variant of Lota Cuvier, 1817 ("Les Lottes") ; apparently not eligible as a 
substitute for Molva Fleming. 

Mora Risso, 224; type Mora mediterranea Risso. 

Morua Risso, 225 ; type Gadus capelan Lacepede. 

According to Risso, a synonym of Trisopterus Rafinesque, 1814; prior to 
Brachygadus Gill (Gadus minutus L.). Monotypic. 

Tripterygion Risso, 241 ; type Tripterygion nasus Risso. 

Diana Risso, 267; type Diana semilunata Risso. 


Aphia Risso, 287 ; type Aphia meridionalis Risso. 
Apparently a young Atherina. Monotypic. 

Fiatola Risso, 289; type Fiatola fasciata Risso. 
Monotypic. Apparently a young Stromateus. 


Ausonia Risso, 341 ; type Ausonia cuvieri Risso. 
A synonym of Luvarus Rafinesque. 

Aurata Risso, 355 ; type Aurata semilunata Risso. 
A synonym of Sparus L. as restricted by Fleming. 

Macrostoma Risso, 447 ; type Macrostoma angustidens Risso. 

Not Macrostomus Wied, a genus of insects; replaced by Notoscopelus 

Alpismaris Risso, 458; type Alpismaris risso Risso. 
The young of Synodus. 

Paralepis Risso, 472; type Paralepis coregonoides Risso (Coregonus 

MACR^NULA RisSO, 1810). 

CXXI (A). GERMAR, Keferstein's Deutschland's Geognosie Darge- 

stellt, 1826. 

E. F. Germar. 

Ichthyolithus Germar, IV, 96; type Ichthyolithus esociformis 
Perhaps identical with Leptolepis. Ichthyolithus, a term for fossil fishes 
used by early authors, is perhaps not intended as a scientific name. 

CXXII. GEOFFROY ST. HILAIRE, Histoire Naturelle des Poissons 
de la Mer Rouge et de la Mediterranee, 1826. 

Isidore Geoffroy St. Hilaire. 

Trygon Geoffroy St. Hilaire ; type Trygon grabatus Geoffroy St. 
This species is not noticed by recent writers. It is apparently a species of 
TvENiuRA Miiller & Henle, 1842, allied to T^niura lymma (Forskal). This is 
generically distinct from the type of Trygon (Adanson) Cuvier, 1817. St. Hilaire 
makes no reference to Adanson, from whose manuscripts Cuvier took the name. 
It is plain that the date of the article which contains the name Trygon is subse- 
quent to 1825, as a footnote relates to a paper read in October 1825, and printed 
in November. Hence we assume the date of the present paper as 1826. In any 
event Trygon St. Hilaire is preceded by Trygon Cuvier, and both are later than 
Dasyatis Rafinesque and Dasybatis Klein. 

KAUP, 1826 121 

CXXIII. KAUP, Beitrdge zur Amphihiologie und Ichihyologie: Isis, 

XIX, 1826. 

JoHANN Jacob Kaup. 
Not seen by us. 

Rachycentron Kaup, 89; type Rachycentron typus. 

Name amended in 1827 (Isis, p. 624) to Rachycentrum. Replaces Elacate 

Narke Kaup (Ueber Narke, 65) ; type Raja capensis Gmelin. 
Replaces Astrape Gray. 

CXXIV. NARDO, De Proctostego Novum Piscium: in Diario Chem. 

et Hist. Nat. Ticino, vol. I, 1827. 


Proctostegus Nardo, I, 18, 42; type Proctostegus proctostegus Nardo. 
A synonym of Diana Risso. 

CXXV. NARDO, Prodromus Observationem et Disquisitionem, Adri- 
atic ce Ichthyologice: Giorn, Fisica de Pavia, I, 1827. 

Aphanius Nardo, 17, 23; type Aphanius nanus Nardo (Cyprinodon 
calaritanus Guv. & Val.). 
A valid genus replacing Lebias of authors (not of Cuvier) and Micromugil 
Gulia, 1861. Local name "Nani vel noni." 

Acentrolophus Nardo, 11; type Acentrolophus maculatus Nardo 
(Perca nigra Gmelin). 

Substitute for Centrolophus Lacepede, regarded as inapplicable. 
Leptosoma Nardo, 15, 22; type Leptosoma atrum Nardo. 

Name preoccupied in Crustacea, Leach, 1819. "Stogio bastardo" ; synonym 
probably of MoNocHiRUS. 

Pastinacae Nardo, 11 ; type Raja pastinaca L. 
Lasvirajae Nardo, 11 ; type Raja miraletus L. 

CXXVI. HARWOOD, On a Newly Discovered Genus of Serpentiform 

Fishes: Philos. Trans., 1827. 

J. Harwood. 

Ophiognathus Harwood, 49; type Ophiognathus ampullaceus Har- 
A synonym of Saccopharynx Mitchill. 


CXXVII. CLOQUET, Nouveau Dictionnaire d'Histoire Naturelle: 

Nouvelle Edition, XXX, 1827. 


Sandat Cloquet, XXX, 126, 129; type Perca lucioperca L. 

Based on "Les Sandres" Cuvier. A synonym of Sander (Cuvier) Oken. 

CXXVIII. RUPPELL, Atlas su der Reise in Nordlichen Afrika: 

Fische des Rothen Meeres, 1828. 

Eduard Ruppell. 

Pharopteryx Ruppell, 15; type Pharopteryx nigricans Ruppell. 

A synonym of Plesiops Cuvier as later shown by Ruppell. 
Lutodeira (Van Hasselt) Ruppell, 17; type Lutodeira indica (Mugil 

A synonym of Changs. Monotypic. 

Scoliostomus Riippell, 17; same type. 
A synonym of Changs. 

Haliophis Ruppell, 49 ; type Mur^na guttata Forskal. 

Pastinachus Ruppell, 82 ; type Raja sephen Forskal. 

Same as Hypolophus Miiller & Henle. Not Pastinaca Nardo. 

Asterropteryx Riippell, 138; type Asterropteryx semipunctatus Riip- 

CXXIX. FLEMING, History of British Animals, 1828. 

John Fleming. 

Selanonius Fleming, 169; type Selanonius walkeri Fleming: 
Squalus nasus (Bonnaterre). 
A synonym of Lamna Cuvier. 

Encrasicholus Fleming, 183 ; type Clupea encrasicholus L. 
Synonym of Engraulis Cuvier, 1817. Monotypic. 

Gobitis Fleming, 189; type Cobitis t^nia L. 
A perversion of Cobitis. 

Morhua Fleming, 190; type Gadus morrhua L. 
A synonym of Gadus L. 

Molva Fleming, 197;. type Gadus molva L. 

STARK, 1828 123 

Cernua Fleming-, 212; type Perca cernua L. 

Same as Cernua Schsefer or Acerina Giildenstadt. 
Cataphractus Fleming, 216; type Cottus cataphractus L. 

A synonym of Agonus Bloch & Schneider. 
Spinachia Fleming, 219; type Gasterosteus spinachia L. 

CXXX. STARK, Elements of Natural History, Edinburgh, 2 vols., 


John Stark. 

Latinization of several of Cuvier's names, some of them differing 
from the form chosen by Oken. These are the following: 

Brosmus Stark, i, 425 ; type Gadus brosme Miiller. 

Same as Brosme Oken, 1817. 
Sandrus Stark, i, 452; type Perca lucioperca L. 

Same as Sander Oken. 
Stelliferus Stark, i, 459; type Bodianus stellifer Bloch. 

Same as Stellifer Oken. 
Cingla Stark, i, 465; type Perca zingel L. 

Same as Zingel Oken. 
Daurada Stark, i, 465; type Sparus aurata L. 

A synonym of Sparus L. 

CXXXI. LESSON, Description du Nouveau Genre Ichthyophis: Mem. 

Soc. Nat. Hist. Paris, IV, 397, 1828. 

R. P. Lesson. 

Ichthyophis Lesson, 397; type Ichthyophis pantherinus Lesson. 
Name preoccupied ; replaced by Uropterygius Riippell. 

CXXXII. CUVIER & VALENCIENNES, Histoire Naturelle des 

Poissons, vol. II, 1828. 

Georges Cuvier and Achille Valenciennes. 

The first two volumes (the first one being anatomical and descrip- 
tive) of this great work preceded the second edition of the Regne Ani- 
mal. The third and fourth volumes, also dated 1829, appeared in the last 
half of the year. The second edition of the Regne Animal, Vol. II, con- 


taining the fishes, appeared in the first half of the year 1829, according 
to Mr. Fowler. 

Labrax Cuvier & Valenciennes, II, 55; type Perca labrax L. (Larbax 
LUPUS C. & v.). 
This is Labrax of Klein, but not of Pallas, 181 1. 

Lates Cuvier & Valenciennes, 88 ; type Perca nilotica L. 

Lucioperca Cuvier & Valenciennes, II, no; type Perca lucioperca L. 

A synonym of Sander Oken. 

Huro Cuvier & Valenciennes, 125; type Huro nigricans (Labrus sal- 
MoiDES Lacepede). 
The genus is identical with Grystes. Both are synonyms of Micropterus 

Etelis Cuvier & Valenciennes, II, 127; type Etelis carbunculus Cuv. 
& Val. 

Diploprion (Kuhl & Van Hasselt) Cuvier & Valenciennes, 137; type 
DiPLOPRiON BiFASciATUM Kuhl & Van Hasselt. 


Pomatomus (Risso) Cuvier & Valenciennes, II, 171 ; type Pomatomus 

Not Pomatomus Lacepede. Stands as Epigonus Rafinesque. 

Ambassis (Commerson) Cuvier & Valenciennes, II, 175; type Centro- 
POMUS AMBASSIS Lacepcdc (Ambassis commersoni Cuv. & Val.), 
Sci^NA SAFGHA Forskal. 

Aspro Cuvier & Valenciennes, II, 188; type Perca asper L. 

Equivalent to Asper Schsefer and Asperulus Klein. Not Aspro Commerson. 
Perca asper is probably generically distinct from Zingel (Cuvier) Oken. The 
genus may stand as Asper Schaefer or Asperulus Klein, both names of question- 
able eligibility. 

Mesoprion Cuvier {Rcgne Animal, 143), Cuv. & Val., II, 441; type 
Lutianus lutianus Bloch. 
Name a substitute for Lutjanus, regarded as barbarous. 

CXXXIII. BORY DE SAINT VINCENT, Dictionnaire Classique 
d'Histoire Naturelle, XIII, 201, 1828. 

Jean Baptiste George Marie Bory de St. Vincent. 

Sandat Bory de St. Vincent, XIII, 204, 1828; type Perca lucioperca L. 
A synonym of Sander Oken. 


CXXXIII (A). SEDGWICK & MURCHISON, Fossil Fishes: Trans. 

Geol. Soc. (2), III, 1828. 

Adam Sedgwick and Roderic Impey Murchison. 

Dipterus Sedgwick & Murchison, 143 ; type Dipterus valenciennesi 
Sedgwick & Murchison. 

CXXXIV. CUVIER, Le Rcgne Animal, distribue d'Apres son Organi- 
sation: Edition II, Vol. II (Fishes etc.), 1829. 

Georges Cuvier. 

A work of great importance, constituting with the first edition in 
1817 the foundation of modern Ichthyology. The classification of fishes 
by Cuvier was for the first time solidly based on the true basis of Com- 
parative Anatomy. 

According to Henry Weed Fowler {Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1907, 
264) the first, second, fourth and fifth fascicles of the second volume 
(Fishes etc.) of the Second Edition of the Rcgne Animal appeared in 
January, February and March 1829. The third was delayed until about 
July. The third and fourth volumes of the Histoire Naturellc des Pois- 
sons appeared later in the same year, 1829. These facts do not afifect 
nomenclature, so far as we observe. We are indebted to Mr. Fowler for 
the pagination of the Rcgne Animal, our two copies being reprints. 

Acerina Cuvier, 144 (Cuv. & Val., Ill, 3) ; type Perca cernua L. 

Identical with Cernua Schasfer , Acerina Giildenstadt, Percis Klein, and 
Gymnocephalus Bloch. The eligibility of these earlier names awaits decision. 

Rypticus Cuvier, II, 144 (Cuv. & Val., HI, 60) ; type Anthias sapo- 
NACEus Bloch. 
More correctly written Rhypticus. 

Pentaceros Cuvier, 145 (Cuv. & Val., Ill, 30) ; type Pentaceros 

This name has been regarded as preoccupied by Pentaceros Schulte, 1760, a 
star-fish.* It has been replaced by Quinquarius Jordan. This change may not 
be necessary. According to Prof. Walter K. Fisher Pentaceros of Schulte is not 
properly a generic name but a quasi-vernacular. 

Pentaceros Schroter, 1782, a name for the same animal is doubtfully tenable. 

*Dr. Fisher {Smithson. Misc. Coll., no. 1799, 1908) explains that Schulte 
("Versteinerte Seesteme") following the pre-Linnsean work of Linck {Dc Stel- 


Centropristes Cuvier, 145 (Cuv. & Val, III, 56) ; type Centropristes 
NIGRICANS Cuv. & Val. (Labrus striatus L.). 
Later written Centropristis. 

Gristes Cuvier (Cuv. & Val., Ill, 54) ; type Labrus salmoides Lace- 
A synonym of Micropterus Lacepede. Later written Grystes. 

Chironemus Cuvier (C. & V., 78), 146; type Chironemus georgianus 
Cuv. & Val. 

Pomotis Cuvier, 147 (C. & V., Ill, 99) ; type "Pomotis vulgaris'' 
(Perca gibbosa L.). 
No reference is made to Rafinesque's genus Pomotis, proposed in 1819, with 
"Labrus auritus L." as type. The description of Cuv. & Val. refers to the spe- 
cies called Perca gibbosa by Linnaeus (Eupomotis gibbosus of Gill & Jordan). To 
this same species Rafinesque later transferred his generic name Pomotis. Stands 
as Eupomotis Gill & Jordan. 

Centrarchus Cuvier 147 (C. & V., Ill, 84) ; type Cychla ^enea Le 
A synonym of Ambloplites Rafinesque, 1820. Labrus irideus Lacepede, usu- 
ally accepted as the type of Centrarchus, is noted by Cuvier as an uncertain 
species which the author had not seen. The genus typified by irideus Lacepede 
( = MACROPTERUS Lacepede) must stand as Eucentrarchus Gill, and its family 
as MiCROPTERiD^, as Fowler has already indicated. 

Dules Cuvier, 147 (C. & V., Ill, iii) ; type Dules auriga Cuvier. 

Fowler (1907) regards Dules as preoccupied by Dulus Vieillot, 1816, a genus 
of birds. He gives a new name, Eudulus, to Dules auriga. 

Datnia Cuvier, 147 (C. & V., Ill, 138) ; type Coius datnia Hamilton 
(Datnia argentea Cuv. & Val.). 

Palates Cuvier, 148 (C. & V., Ill, 145) ; type Pelates quadrilineatus 
Cuv. & Val. 

lis Marinis, 1793) divides the star-fishes into three "genera" ("Geschlechte"), to 
which he gives group names, the five-rayed forms being under the "genus" "quin- 
quifidas." Under these are several kinds or species ("Arten"), one of them, "Der 
fiinfhornichte, Pentaceros, hat funf tiefe ausgeschweifte Seiten und lange kol- 
bichte oder zugespitzte Strahlen. Die hierher gehorigen Arten sind entweder 
platt, Plan^, oder ab hockericht und bauchericht, Gibb^." 

Obviously this is not scientific nomenclature. 

"Schroter in 1782 (Musci Gottwaldiani Testaceorum, Stellarum marinum etc., 
Niirnberg, 58) used Pentaceros, but he is not a consistent binomialist, and his 
'generic' names are not tenable." 

It is evident that Pentaceros has no standing in nomenclature prior to its use 
by Cuvier & Valenciennes, unless given it by Schroter in 1782, a matter which 
awaits decision. 

cuviER, 1829 127 

Helotes Cuvier, 148 (C. & V., Ill, 149) ; type Therapon sexlineatus 
Quoy & Gaimard. 

Trichodon (Steller) Cuvier, about 150 (C. & V., Ill, 153); type 
Trachinus trichodon Steller (Trichodon stelleri Cuv. & 


Myripristis Cuvier (about 150), (C. & V., Ill, 160) ; type Myripristis 

jacobus Cuv. & Val. 
Beryx Cuvier (about 150), (C. & V., Ill, 222) ; type Beryx decadacty- 

Lus Cuv. & Val. 
Pinguipes Cuvier, 153 (C. & V., Ill, 2']'j) ; type Pinguipes brasilianus 

Cuv. & Val. 
Monotypic. A synonym of Mugiloides Lacepede. 

Upeneus Cuvier (about 160}, (C. & V., Ill, 446) ; type Mullus bifas- 
ciATUs Lacepede. 
As first restricted by Bleeker. Later Bleeker transferred the name Upeneus 
to the first species named by Cuvier & Valenciennes, Mullus vittatus Forskal, 
already the type of his own genus Upeneoides. Mullus bifasciatus became then 
Parupeneus. This reversal seems to us unjustified. The name has been spelled 
Hypeneus. Upeneus should stand. 

Hemitripterus Cuvier, 164; type Cottus tripterygius Bloch & 

Hemilepidotus Cuvier, 165 ; type Cottus hemilepidotus Tilesius. 


Sebastes Cuvier, 166; type Perca norvegica Miiller. 

Blepsias Cuvier, 167 ; type Blennius villosus Pallas. 


Apistes Cuvier, 167; type Apistes alatus Cuvier. 

Agriopus Cuvier ("Les Agriopes"), 168; type Blennius torvus Wal- 

Pelor Cuvier, 168; type Scorp^na didactyla Pallas (Pelor obscurum 

Monotypic. Name preoccupied for a genus of beetles, 1813. Replaced by 
Inimicus Jordan & Starks (type Pelor japonicum Cuv. & Val.). P. filamento- 
suM Cuv. & Val. cannot be taken as the type of Pelor, as Cuvier names bill one 
species, the others being then undescribed. This species, with two of the pectoral 
rays tipped with filaments, may belong to a different genus. 

Oreosoma Cuvier (about 170) ; type (not named) Oreosoma atlan- 
TicuM Cuvier. 


Corvina Cuvier, 173 ; type Sci^na nigra Gmelin ; part of Sci^na 

The species Sci^na umbra L., the type of the genus Sci^na, was two-fold, 
a complex about evenly divided of the species called ScIv5;na nigra Gmelin and 
Cheilodipterus aquila Lacepede. The synonymy was disentangled by Cuvier 
{Mem. du Museum, 1815) and the name Sci^na umbra retained in place of S. 
aquila. In accepting this decision we restore the generic name Corvina, for the 
"Corb," which becomes Corvina nigra, while Sci.^na replaces Argyrosomus de 
la Pylaie and Pseudosci^na Bleeker for the "Maigre," which remains Sci^na 
umbra L., the type of Sci^na L. 

Haemulon Cuvier, 175; type H^mulon elegans Cuvier (Sparus 
sciuRus Siiaw). 

Lobotes Cuvier, 177; type Holocentrus surinamensis Bloch. 

Scolopsides Cuvier, 178; type Scolopsides kurita Cuvier. 
Called ScoLOPSis in Edition I. 

Dascyllus Cuvier, 179; type Ch.etodon aruanus L. 

Heliases Cuvier; type (not indicated) Heliastes insolatus Cuv. & 
Identical with Chromis Cuvier, 1815, not Cromis Browne, 1789, nor Chromis 

Chrysophris Cuvier, 181 ; type Sparus aurata L. 
A synonym of Sparus L. 

Pagellus Cuvier (about 182) ; type Sparus erythrinus L. 

Pentapus Cuvier ("Les Pentapodes") (about 182) ; type Sparus vit- 
TATUS Bloch. 

Lethrinus Cuvier (about 182) ; type Sparus chcerohynchus Bloch & 

Oblada Cuvier, 185 ; type Sparus melanurus L. 

Maena Cuvier ; type Sparus m.ena L. 

Taurichthys Cuvier, 192; type Taurichthys varius Cuvier. 
A subgenus of Heniochus Cuvier. 

Psettus (Commerson) Cuvier (about 193) ; type Ch^etodox rhombeus 
Bloch & Schneider. 
Synonym of Monodactylus Lacepede. 

Dipterodon Cuvier (about 195) ; type Dipterodon capensis Cuvier. 
Not Dipterodon Lacepede, 1803. Monotypic. Replaced by Dichistius Gill. 

Pempheris Cuvier, 195 : type Kurtus argenteus Bloch & Schneider 
(Pempheris touea Cuvier). 

cuviER, 1829 129 

Auxis Cuvier, 199; type Scomber rochei Risso (Scomber thazard 

Sarda Cuvier, 199; type Scomber sarda Bloch. 

Later (1831) called Pelamys by Cuvier & Valenciennes. Monotypic. Not 
Sarda Plumier. 

Cybium Cuvier, 199; type Scomber commersoni Lacepede. 
A synonym of Scomberomorus Lacepede, 1803. 

Thyrsites Cuvier (about 200) ; type Scomber atun Euphrasen. 

Gempylus Cuvier, 200 ; type Gempylus serpens Cuvier. 

This is identical with Lemnisoma of Lesson, but the date of Lemnisoma is 

Elacate Cuvier, II, 203, as "les Elacates," the Latin name dating from 
C. & v., 1831 ; type Elacate motta C. & V. 
Synonym of Rachycentron Kaup. 

Olistus Cuvier, II, 209; type (not named) Olistus malabaricus Cuv. 
& Val 

Scyris Cuvier, II, 209; type "le gal d'Alexandrie," Scyris indica 
Cuv. & Val. 
Not separable from Alectis Raf. 

Blepharis Cuvier (about 210) ; type Zeus cill^ris Bloch. 

Name preoccupied, replaced by Blepharichthys Gill. A synonym of Alectis. 

Peprilus Cuvier, 213; type Peprilus crenulatus. 

Probably the young of Peprilus alepidotus Cuvier. Monotypic. Same as 
Rhombus Lacepede, not of Klein. 

Astrodermus (Bonelli) Cuvier (about 215) ; type Astrodermus gut- 
tatus BonelU Ms. (Diana semilunata Risso). 

Axinurus Cuvier, 225 ; type Axinurus thynnoides Cuvier. 


Priodon Cuvier, 225 ; type Priodon annularis Cuvier. 
Polyacanthus (Kuhl) Cuvier, 227; type Triciiopodus colisa Hamilton. 

Helostoma (Kuhl) Cuvier, 228; type Helostoma temmincki Cuvier. 

Spirobranchus Cuvier, 229; type Spirobranchus capensis Cuvier. 

Myxodes Cuvier, 238; type (not named) Myxodes viridis Cuv. & Val. 

Cirrhibarbus Cuvier ("les Cirrhibarbes") 238; type (not named) 

Zoarces Cuvier (about 240) ; type Blennius viviparus L. 
Equivalent to Enchelyopus Gronow, 1763. 


Platyptera (Kuhl & van Hasselt) Cuvier, 248; type Platyptera 

Name preoccupied, replaced by Rhyacichthys Boulenger. 

Chirus (Steller) Cuvier, about 250; type Labrax lagocephalus Pallas. 

Substitute for Labrax Klein. 

Antennarius (Commerson) Cuvier (about 251); type Lophius com- 
mersonianus Lacepede. 
Accepted as a substitute for Chironectes Cuvier, 1817, preoccupied. 

Maltha Cuvier, 252; type Lophius vespertilio L. 

Synonym of Ogcocephalus Fischer. Monotypic. 
Lachnolaimus Cuvier, 257; type Lachnolaimus suillus Cuvier. 

SuiLLUS of Catesby. Monotypic. 

Anampses Cuvier, 259; type Anampses cuvieri Quoy & Gaimard. 

Clepticus Cuvier, 261 ; type Clepticus genizara Cuvier. 

Malacanthus Cuvier, 264; type Coryph^na plumieri Bloch. 

Calliodon Cuvier ("les Calliodon"), (about 265) ; type Scarus 
Not identical with Callyodon Gronow nor of Bloch & Schneider. Replaced 
by Cryptotomus Cope, 1871. 

Odax Cuvier (about 265) ; type Scarus pullus Forster. 
Monotypic. Not Odax Commerson. 

Mallotus Cuvier, II, 305; type Salmo grcenlandicus Bloch (Clupea 
viLLOSA Gmelin). 

Thymallus Cuvier, 306; type Salmo thymallus L. 

Regarded by some as preoccupied by Thymalus Latreille, 1802, a genus of 
beetles ; replaced by Choregon Minding, 1832. But the scantily noted Thymal- 
lus of Linck, 1791, has priority over Thymalus, if acceptable. The root-words 
of Thymallus and Thymalus are not identical, Thymallus being a Latin name 
of the Grayling. 

Coregonus Cuvier ; type Salmo oxyrhynchus L. 

Alosa Cuvier, 319; type Clupea alosa L. 

Same as Alosa Linck. 
Chatoessus Cuvier, 320; type Megalops cepedianus Le Sueur. 

As restricted by Cuv. & Val. Equivalent to Dorosoma Rafinesque. 
Thryssa Cuvier; type Clupea setirostris Broussonet (Thrissa Cuv. 
&Val., 1817). 

Not Thrissa Rafinesque, 1815. To be replaced by Thrissocles Jordan, a new 
generic name. 

AGASSIZ, 1829 131 

Motella Cuvier, 334; type Gadus mustela L. 

Substitute for Mustela Cuvier, 1817, preoccupied in mammals. Identical with 
Gaidropsarus Rafinesque, 1810. 

Monochir Cuvier, 336; type Pleuronectes microchirus De la Roche. 

Substitute for Monochirus, preoccupied. Not sufficiently different. 
Osteoglossum (Vandelli) Cuvier (about 390) ; type Osteoglossum 

vANDELLi Cuvier. 
Gymnarchus Cuvier (about 390) ; type Gymnarchus niloticus Cuvier. 
Triodon Cuvier (about 390) ; type Triodon bursarius Reinwardt. 

Anacanthus (Ehrenberg) Cuvier (about 390) ; type (not named) Raja 
uarnak Forskal. 
Monotypic. Replaces Himantura Miiller, 1837. 

Heterotis Ehrenberg ; type Sudis niloticus Cuv. & Val. 

Quoted from the Regne Animal by Giinther, but we do not find it there. Ap- 
parently it appears first in Cuv. & Val, XIX, 465, 1846. 

CXXXV. AGASSIZ (and Spix), Selecta Genera et Species Piscium 
quos in Itinere per Brasiliam, 18 ij, 1820, Collejit Dr. J. B. de 
Spix, 18 2p. 

Louis Agassiz and Jean Baptiste Spix. 

The date of this work is apparently a little later than that of the 
Second Edition of the Regne Animal. 

Acanthicus Spix, 2 ; type Acanthicus hystrix Spix. 

Rhinelepis Spix, 2 ; type Rhinelepis aspera Spix. 

Cetopsis Agassiz, 8; type Cetopsis c^cutiens Agassiz. 

Hypophthalmus Spix, 9; type Hypophthalmus edentulus Spix. 

Phractocephalus Agassiz, 10 ; type Phractocephalus bicolor Agassiz. 

Platystoma Agassiz, 10; type Silurus lima Bloch & Schneider. 
Name preoccupied by a genus of flies, Meigen, 1803. 

Glanis Agassiz, 10; type not named. 

Name given in dative case only "In Glanide Agass." Substitute for Bagre 
Cuvier, rejected because of barbarous origin. Afterwards (1856) Glanis was 
revived as the generic name for the Greek cat-fish, Glanis aristotelis Agassiz, 
which is perhaps a Parasilurus. 


Ceratorhynchus Agassiz, lo; type Silurus militaris Bloch & 
Not L. Name given in genitive only as "Ceratorhynchi." Genus close to 
Ageneiosus Lacepede but with the two short barbels replaced by erectile bony 

Centrochir Agassiz, 14; type Doras crocodili Humboldt. Based on a 
species of Doras "non modo pinna pectorali uniradiata sed etiam 
appendice quadriradiata primse caudalis maxime." 

Sorubim Spix, 24; type Silurus lima Bloch & Schneider. 

Replaces Platystoma. 
Xiphorhynchus Agassiz, 18; type Salmo falcatus Bloch. 

Salminus Agassiz, 18; type Hydrocyon brevidens Cuvier. 

Osteoglossum (VandelH) Agassiz, 46; type Osteoglossum vandelli 

Cuv. & Val. 
Ischnosoma Spix, 47; type Ischnosoma bicirrhosum Spix. 

A deformed Osteoglossum. 
Glossodus (Cuvier) Agassiz, 48; type Glossodus forskali Agassiz 
Same as Albula Gronow. 
Anodus Spix, 57 ; type Anodus elongatus Spix. 

Prochilodus Agassiz, 57 ; type Prochilodus argenteus Spix. 

Leporinus Spix, 58; type Leporinus novemfasciatus Spix. 

Schizodon Agassiz, 58; type Schizodon fasciatus Agassiz. 

Same as Anostomus Gronow. 
Rhaphiodon Agassiz, 59; type Rhaphiodon vulpinus Agassiz. 

Cynodon Spix, 59, 76; type Cynodon gibbus Spix. 

As restricted by Eigenmann. Not Cynodonta Schuhmacher, 1817, a genus of 

Name changed to Rhaphiodon because earlier used in botany. 

Xiphostoma Spix, 60, 78; type Xipkostoma cuvieri Spix. 

Micropteryx Agassiz, 102; type (not named) Seriola dumerili Cuvier. 
Substitute for Seriola, preoccupied in botany. A synonym of Seriola Cuvier. 
Corniger Agassiz, 119; type Corniger spinosus Agassiz. 

Pachyurus Agassiz, 125; type Pachyurus squamipinnis Agassiz. 


CXXXVI. CUVIER & VALENCIENNES, Histoire Naturelle des 

Poissons, IV, 1829. 

Georges Cuvier and Achille Valenciennes. 

Hoplichthys Cuv. & Val., IV, XIX, 1829; type Hoplichtiiys langs- 
DORFii Cuv. & Val. 
Called Hoplichthys in table of contents, Oplichthys in the text. 

Oplichthys Cuv. & Val., IV, 264, 1829; type Oplichthys langsdorfii 
Cuv. & Val. 
A variant in spelling. 

Bembras Cuv. & Val, IV, 282 ; type Bembras japonicus Cuv. & Val. 

Minous Cuv. & Val, IV, 420, 1829; type Minous woora Cuv. & Val. 

Name changed to Corythobatus by Cantor, 1850, on account of Minois Hiib- 
ner, 1816, a genus of butterflies. 

Hoplostethus Cuv. & Val., IV, 469; type Hoplostethus mediterran- 
Eus Cuv. & Val. 

CXXXVII. COCCO, Su Alcuni Nuovi Pesce del Mar di Messina: 
Archivio della R. Academia Peloritano, 1829. 

Anastasio Cocco. 

Argyropelecus Cocco, 146; type Argyropelecus hemigymnus Cocco. 

CXXXVIII. cocco, Su Alcuni Nuovi Pesci del Mar di Messina: 
Giorni Sci. Lett. Sicilia, XXVI, no. yy, 1829. 

Nyctophus Cocco, 44; type Nyctopkus rafinesquei Cocco. 
Substitute for Myctophum. 

CXXXIX. COCCO, Sullo Schedophilus Medusophagus: Giorn, Cabin 
de Messina, I, 30 to 32; also quoted as Innom. Messina Ann., Ill, 
1829, p. 57. 

Schedophilus Cocco, 30, 57; type Schedophilus medusophagus Cocco. 
We have seen none of these papers of Cocco. 


CXL. SERVILLE, Faune Frangaise, 1820 to 1830. 

"Livraison 24 par M. Serville" contains the fishes. This bears no 
date, but it was probably issued about 1829. It is not quoted by Cuvier, 
nor does it quote Cuvier. The date is not important, as no question of 
priority is concerned. This work is commonly ascribed to Blainville, who 
with Vieillot, Desmarest, Serville and others edited the series. In any 
event, the work is based on Blainville's Prodrome. All of Blainville's 
generic names ending in batus are here changed to batis. 


Dasybatis Serville, 12, 1829 ("raies epineuses") ; type Raja batis L. 

Same as Raja. 
Narcobatis (Blainville) Serville, 45 ("raies torpilles") ; type Raia 
torpedo L. 

Same as Narcacion Klein, Torpedo Dumeril, not of Forskal. Called Narco- 
BATUS by Blainville, 1816. 

Pristibatis Serville, 49 ("raies scies") ; type Squalus pristis L. 
(Pristibatis antiquorum Blainville). 

CXLI. VALENCIENNES, Poissons Fossiles: Trans. Geol. Soc, III, 


Achille Valenciennes. 

Osteolepis Valenciennes, 144; type Osteolepis macrolepidotus Valen- 

CXLII. CUVIER & VALENCIENNES, Histoire Naturelle des Pois- 
sons, Vols. V (January) and VI (July) 1830. 

Georges Cuvier and Achille Valenciennes. 

Larimus Cuvier & Valenciennes, V, 146; type Larimus breviceps Cuv. 
& Val. 

Nebris Cuvier & Valenciennes, V, 149; type Nebris microps Cuv. & 
Not Nebria Latreille, 1802, a genus of beetles. Monotypic. 


Lepipterus Cuvier & Valenciennes, V, 151 ; type Lepipterus francisci 
Cuv. & Val. 

Boridia Cuvier & Valenciennes, V, 154; type Boridia grossidens Cuv. 
& Val. 


Conodon Cuvier & Valenciennes, V, 156; type Conodon antillanus 
Cuv. & Val. (Perca nobilis L.). 
Monotypic. Same as Cheloniger Plumier. 

Eleginus Cuvier & Valenciennes, 158; type Eleginus maclovinus Cuv. 
& Val. 
Monotypic. Not Eleginus Fischer, 1813. Replaced by Eleginops Gill. 

Micropogon Cuvier & Valenciennes, V, 213; type Micropogon lineatus 
Cuv. & Val. (Perca undulata L.). 
The original types of lineatus were from New York. 

Latilus Cuvier & Valenciennes, V, 368; type Latilus argentatus 
Cuv. & Val. (Coryph^na japonica Houttuyn). 
A synonym of Branchiostegus Rafinesque, 1815. 

Macquaria Cuvier & Valenciennes, V, 377 ; type Macquaria austra- 
lasica Cuv. & Val. 

Etroplus Cuvier & Valenciennes, V, 486; type Etroplus meleagris 
Cuv. & Val. (Ch^todon suratensis Bloch). 
As restricted by Bleeker. 

Box Cuvier & Valenciennes, VI, 346; type Sparus boops L. (Box vul- 
garis Cuv, & Val.). 
A synonym of Boops Cuvier. 

Scatharus Cuvier & Valenciennes, VI, 375 ; type Scatharus gr^cus 
Cuv. & Val. 

Crenidens Cuvier & Valenciennes, VI, 377; type Crenidens forskalii 
Cuv. & Val. 

Aphareus Cuvier & Valenciennes, VI, 485 ; type Labrus furcatus 


Aprion Cuvier & Valenciennes, VI, 544 ; type Aprion virescens Cuv. & 


Apsilus Cuvier & Valenciennes, VI, 548; type Apsilus fuscus Cuv. & 


CXLIII. BENNETT, Catalogue of the Fishes of Sumatra: in Life and 
Public Services of Sir Stamford Raffles, 1830. 

Edward Turner Bennett. 

Monotaxis Bennett, 688; type Monotaxis indica Bennett (SciyENa 
GRANDOCULis Forskil). 
Replaces Sph^rodon Riippell. 

CXLIV. BRONN, Ueber Zwei Fossile Fischarten: Neues Jahrbuch 

Mineralogie, 1830. 

Heinrich Georg Bronn. 

Tetragonolepis Bronn, 30; type Tetragonolepis semicinctus Bronn. 

CXLV. HAYS, Saurodon: Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc, III, 1830. 

I. Hays. 
Saurodon Hays, 475; type Saurodon leanus Hays (fossil). 

CXLVI. CUVIER & VALENCIENNES, Histoire Naturelle des Pois- 
sons, VII (January) and VIII (October), 1831. 

Georges Cuvier and Achille Valenciennes. 

Chelmon Cuvier & Valenciennes, VII, 86 ; type Ch^todon rostratus L. 

Zanclus (Commerson) Cuv. & \'al., VII, 92, 1831 ; type Ch^todon 

cornutus L. 
Drepane Cuvier & Valenciennes, VII, 132; type Ch^todon puncta- 

tus L. 
Scatophagus Cuvier & Valenciennes, VII, 136; type Ch^todon argus L. 
Psettus (Commerson) Cuvier & Valenciennes, VII, 240; type Psettus 



Pempheris Cuvier & Valenciennes, VII, 296; type Pempheris oualen- 
sis Cuv. & Val. 

JARDINE, 1 83 1 137 

Toxotes Cuvier & Valenciennes, VII, 310; type Sci^na jaculatrix 

Colisa Cuvier & Valenciennes, VII, 359; type Colisa vulgaris Cuv. & 
Val. (Trichopodus colisa Hamilton). 
Same as Trichogaster Bloch & Schneider as restricted by Cuv. & Val. 

Spirobranchus Cuvier & Valenciennes, VII, 392; type Spirobranchus 
capensis Cuv. & Val. 

Bryttus Cuvier & Valenciennes, VII, 454, 461 ; type Bryttus punctatus 
Cuv. & Val. 
Same as Apomotis Rafinesque. 

Nandus Cuvier & Valenciennes, VII, 481 ; type Nandus marmoratus 
Cuv. & Val. (Coius NANDUS Hamilton). 

Rhynchichthys Cuvier & Valenciennes, VII, 504; type Rhynchichthys 
PELAMiDis Cuv. & Val. 
The young of Holocentrus. 

Lichia Cuvier & Valenciennes, VIII, 340, 1831 ; type Scomber amia L. 

Chorinemus Cuvier & Valenciennes, VIII, 367 ; type Scomberoides 
A synonym of Scomberoides Lacepede. 

Aplodactylus Cuvier & Valenciennes, VIII, 476; type Aplodactylus 
PUNCTATUS Cuv. & Val. 

Usually written Haplodactylus. 
Aphritis Cuvier & Valenciennes, VIII, 483 ; type Aphritis urvilli Cuv 
& Val. 

Bovichtus Cuvier & Valenciennes, VIII, 487; type Callionymus dia- 
CANTHus Carmichael. 

CXLVII. JARDINE, Acestra, 1831. 

Sir William Jardine. 

Acestra Jardine; type Syngnathus ^quoreus Rafinesque. 

A synonym of Nerophis Rafinesque. We take this incomplete reference from 
Bonaparte, Catalogo Metodico, 1846, 91. 


CXLVIII. GRAY, Description of Twelve New Genera of Fish found 
by General Hardwicke in India: Zool. Misc., 1831, 7-10. 

John Edward Gray. 

Centracion Gray, 5 ; type Centracion zebra Gray. 

Equivalent to Heterodontus Blainville, regarded as preoccupied by Heterodon 
Latreille, a genus of serpents. 

Temera Gray, 7, 152; type Temera hardwickei Gray. 
Monotypic. Also in 111. Ind. Zool. 

Botia Gray, 8 ; type Botia almorh^ Gray. 

Nandina Gray, 8; type Cyprinus nandina Hamilton. 

Chaca Gray, 8; type Platystacus chaca Hamilton. 

Coilia Gray, 9; type Coilia Hamilton: Gray. 

Raconda Gray, 9 ; type Raconda russelliana Gray. 

Moringua Gray, 9 ; type Moringua lateralis Gray. 
Also in 111. Ind. Zool, 95. 

CXLIX. GRAY, Illustrations of Indian Zoology, chiefly selected from 

the collection of General Hardwicke. 

Two volumes of excellent plates, but without text; the plates not 
paged, but with manuscript numbers. Vol. I, 1830-1832, Vol. H, 1833- 
1834. The exact dates are uncertain. The first five of the following 
occur in CXLVHI ; also, pp. 8, 9. 

Ailia Gray, 85, 1831 ; type Ailia bengalensis Gray. 

Acanthonotus Gray, 85, 1831 ; type Acanthonotus cuvieri Gray 
(Ailia bengalensis Gray). 
Name preoccupied. Same as Ailia. Based on injured specimen. 

Anacanthus Gray, 85, 1831 ; type Anacanthus barbatus Gray. 

Name preoccupied by Anacanthus Ehrenberg, 1829. Replaced by Psiloceph- 
ALUS Swainson. 

Diplopterus Gray, 87, 1831 ; type Diplqpterus pulcher Gray. 

Not identified ; said to have two anal fins. Name preoccupied in birds, Boie. 

Rataboura Gray, 95, 1831 ; type Mur^na rataboura Hamilton (Rata- 
boura hardwickei Gray). 
Same as Moringua Gray, but with line priority. 

GRAY, 1833 139 

Bedula Gray, 88, 1833; type Bedula nebulosa Gray. 
A synonym of Nandus Cuv. & Val., 1831. 

Pterapon Gray, II, 88, 1833 ; type Pterapon trivittatus Gray (Sci^na 
jarbua Forskal). 
A synonym of Therapon Cuvier. 

Amora Gray, II, 90, 1833, corrected in manuscript to Anaora; type 
Amora tentaculata Gray. 
Not identified. A platycephalus-like fish with tentacles over eye and spinules 
on sides. Perhaps a species of Thysanophrys Ogilby. 

Apterygia Gray, II, 92, 1833 ; type Apterygia ramcarate Gray. 
Same as Raconda Gray. 

Tor Gray, II, 96, 1833; type Cyprinus tor Hamilton (Tor hamiltoni 
Replaces Labeobarbus Bleeker. 

Bengala Gray, 96, 1833 ; type Cyprinus elanga Hamilton. 
Replaces Megarasbora Giinther, 1868. 

Amanses Gray, II, 98, 1833; type Amanses hystrix Gray (Monacan- 
THUS scoPAS Cuvier). 

Acarana Gray, II, 98, 1833; type Ostracion auritus Shaw. 
Also in Annals Nat. Hist., i, no, 1838. 

Girella Gray, II, 98, 1833; type Girella punctata Gray. 

CL. GRAY, Description of three nezv species of fish including two un- 
descrihed genera discovered by John Reeves in China: Zoological 
Miscellany, 1831. 

Leucosoma Gray, 4; type Leucosoma reevesi Gray (Albula chinen- 
sis Osbeck). 
Monotypic. A synonym of Salanx Cuvier and of Albula Osbeck. 

Samaris Gray. 4; type Samaris cristatus Gray. 

CLI. GRAY, Description of a new genus of Percoid fish, discovered by 
Samuel Stutchbury in the Pacific Seas: Zoological Miscellany, 

Micropus Gray, 20; type Micropus maculatus Gray. 

Name preoccupied by Micropus Wolf, 1810, a genus of birds. Replaced by 
Caracanthus Kroyer, 1844 (C. typicus). 


CLI (A). LESSON, Voyage Antour du Monde sur la corvette La 
Coquille, under Captain L. I. Duperrey, 1830. 

R. P. Lesson. 

Lemnisoma Lesson, 160; type Lemnisoma thyrsitoides Lesson. 

A synonym of Gempylus Cuvier. 

CLIL MINDING, Lehrhiich, Naturgeschichte der Fische, 1832. 

Julius Minding. 
Not seen by us. 

Pompilus Minding, 108; type Gasterosteus ductor L. 

Same as Naucrates. 

Choregon Minding, 119; type Salmo thymallus L. 

Substitute for Thymallus Cuvier, regarded as preoccupied by Thymalus 
Latreille, 1802, a genus of beetles. But the two names seen to be from different 
roots. Thymallus Linck, with a word or two of definition, is older than Thy- 
malus Latreille. 

CLIII. NILSSON, Prodromns IcJithyologice Scandinavicce, 1832. 


Salvelini Nilsson, 7; type Salmo salvelinus L. (Salmo alpinus L.). 

As group name. The normal form Salvelinus used by Richardson, Fauna 
B or call Americana, III, 169, 1836. 

CLIV. AGASSIZ, Fossile Fischreste: Neues Jahrbuch Mineralogie, 

Louis (Jean Rodolphe) Agassiz. 

Ptycholepis Agassiz, 142 ; type Ptycholepis bollensis Agassiz. 

Uraeus Agassiz, 142 ; type Ur.eus furcatus Agassiz. 

Name preoccupied by Wagler, 1830. Replaced by Caturus Agassiz, 1834. 
Sauropsis Agassiz, 142 ; type Sauropsis latus Agassiz. 
Pholidophorus Agassiz, 145; type Pholidophorus macrocephalus 


Semionotus Agassiz, 144 ; type Semionotus bergeri Agassiz. 

VON MEYER, 1832 141 

Lepidotes Agassiz, 145; type Lepidotes gigas Agassiz (Cyprinus 
ELVENSis Blainville). 
Later written Lepidotus. 

Leptolepis Agassiz, 146; type Leptolepis bronni Agassiz. 

Acanthoessus Agassiz, 149; type Acanthoessus bronni Agassiz. 
Later called Acanthodes. 

CLV. VON MEYER, Palceologica, 1832. 

H. VON Meyer. 

Lepidosaurus von Meyer, 208 ; type Lepidotus unguiculatus Agassiz. 
A synonym of Lepidotes. 

CLVI. BONAPARTE, Iconografia della Fauna Italica: III, 1832-1841. 

Carlo Luciano Principe Bonaparte 
(otherwise Charles Lucien Bonaparte, Prince of Canino). 

An elaborate and finely illustrated work, issued in fascicles, these 
being numbered but not paged. The number of the fascicle is noted 
below, with the approximate date of each. 

Cerna Bonaparte, 18, 1832; type Perca gigas Briinnich (Labrus 

A synonym of Epinephelus Bloch as now restricted. 

Microchirus Bonaparte, 28, 1832; type Pleuronectes microchirus De 
la Roche. 

MoNOCHiRUS Cuvier, not of Rafinesque. 

Monochirus Bonaparte,* 28, 1832; type Solea monochir Bonaparte. 
Same as Monochirus Rafinesque. 

Squalius Bonaparte, 96, 1834; type Leuciscus squalus Bonaparte 
(Cyprinus cephalus L.). 
Same as Leuciscus. 

Telestes Bonaparte, 103, 1834; type Telestes muticellus Bonaparte. 

Ichthyococcus Bonaparte, 138, 1834; type Ichthyococcus ovatus 
Name later altered to Coccia by Giinther because of its objectionable form. 

* For sake of completeness we add the remaining new genera of the later 
fascicles of the Fauna Italica. 


Lampanyctus Bonaparte, 139, 1834; type Lampanyctus bonapartei 

Chlorophthalmus Bonaparte, 144, 1834; type Chlorophthalmus 
AGASsizi Bonaparte. 

Scardinius Bonaparte, 146, 1834; type Leuciscus scardafa Bonaparte. 

Membras Bonaparte, 1836; type (an "exotic species" not named except 
by reference to Valenciennes) ; Atherina martinica Cuv. & Val. 
Replaces Kirtlandia Jordan & Evermann. 

Menidia Bonaparte, 1836; type (an "exotic species" not directly named) 
Atherina menidia L. 

Hepsetia Bonaparte, 1836; type Atherina boyeri L. 
Not separable from Atherina L. 

Ichthyocoris Bonaparte, 1836; type Blennius varus Risso. 
A synonym of Blennius L. 

CLVI (A). RAFINESQUE, Atlantic Journal and Friend of Knowl- 
edge, I, 1832. 

Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. 

Trinectes Rafinesque; type Trinectes scabra Rafinesque (Pleuro- 

A subgenus under Achirus. 

CLVII. CUVIER & VALENCIENNES, Histoire Naturelle des Pois- 

sons, IX, 1833. 

Georges Cuvier and Achille Valenciennes. 

Hynnis Cuvier & Valenciennes, IX, 95 ; type Hynnis goreensis Cuv. 

& Val. 
Nauclerus Cuvier & Valenciennes, IX, 247 ; type Nauclerus compres- 

sus Cuv. & Val. 
Young of Naucrates. 

Porthmeus Cuvier & Valenciennes, IX, 255; type Forth meus argent- 

eus Cuv. & Val. 
Psenes Cuvier & Valenciennes, IX, 259; type Psenes cyanophrys Cuv. 

& Val. 

LOWE, 1833 143 

Lampugus Cuvier & Valenciennes, IX, 317; type Scomber pelagicus L. 

Same as Coryph^na L. 
Aphredoderus (Le Sueur) Cuv. & Val., IX, 445; type Aphredoderus 
GiBBOSus Le Sueur (Scolopsis sayanus Gilliams). 


CLVIII. LOWE, Description of a New Genus of Acanthopterygian 
Fishes: Proc. Zool, See. London, 1833. 

Richard Thomas Lowe. 

Alepisaurus Lowe, 104 ; type Alepisaurus ferox Lowe. 
Monotypic. Equivalent to Plagyodus Steller, 181 1. 

CLIX. LOWE, Characters of a New Genus and of Several New Species 
of Fishes from Madeira: Proc. Zool. Soc. London, I, 1833. (Also 
repeated in other papers.) 

Leirus Lowe, 142 ; type Leirus bennetti Lowe = Centrophorus 
ovALis Cuv. & Val., 1833 = Mupus imperialis Cocco, 1833. 
Same as Mupus Cocco of the same date. Leirus may be given precedence. 

CLX. cocco, Lettere al Signor Risso su alcuni Pesci Novelli: Giorn. 
Sci. Lett. Sicilia, XLII, no. 124, 1833. 

Anastasio Cocco. 

Tylosurus Cocco; type Tylosurus cantraini Cocco (Esox imperialis 

CLXI. COCCO, Su Alcuni Pesci dei Mare di Messina: Giorn. Sci. 

Lett. Sicilia, XLII, 1833. 

Mupus Cocco, 20; type Mupus imperialis Cocco (Centrolophus 
OVALIS Cuv. & Val.). 
Same as Leirus Lowe of the same date. 


CLXII. COCCO, Osservationes Peloritani, XIII, April 1833. 
Ruvettus Cocco, 1833, 18; type Ruvettus pretiosus Cocco. 

CLXIII. NARDO, De Skeponopodo novo piscium genere et de Guebucu 
Margravii; Species illi cognata: Mem. Assem. Nat. Vienna, Isis, 
1833, fasc. 416. 


Skeponopodus Nardo, 416; type Skeponopodus typus Nardo (Xiphias 
IMPERATOR Bloch & Schneider). 
A synonym of Tetrapturus. 

CLXIV. AGASSIZ, Poissons Fossiles, 1833. 

Louis Agassiz. 

Catopterus Agassiz, II, 3 ; type Catopterus analis Agassiz. 
A synonym of Dipterus. 

Amblypterus Agassiz, II, 3, 28; type Amblypterus latus Agassiz. 

Notagogus Agassiz, 10; type Notagogus pentlandi Agassiz. 

Microps Agassiz, II, 10; type Microps furcatus Agassiz. 

Perhaps not distinct from Pholidophorus ; name preoccupied in beetles, 
Meigen, 1823. 

Pachycormus Agassiz, II, 11; type Elops macropterus Blainville. 

Thrissops Agassiz, II, 12; type Thrissops formosus Agassiz. 

Megalurus Agassiz, II, 13; type Megalurus lepidotus Agassiz. 

Aspidorhynchus Agassiz, II, 14; type Esox acutirostris Blainville. 

Saurostomus Agassiz, II, 14; type Saurostomus esocinus Agassiz. 

Near to Pachycormus; perhaps not distinguishable. 
Gyrodus Agassiz, II, 16; type Gyrodus macrophthalmus Agassiz 


Microdon Agassiz, II, 16; type Microdon elegans Agassiz. 
Name preoccupied by Meigen, 1803, a genus of Diptera. 

Pycnodus Agassiz, II, 16; type Zeus platessus Blainville (Coryph^na 
APODA Volta). 

AGASSIZ, 1833 145 

Cyclopoma Agassiz, IV, 17, 1833 ; type Cyclopoma gigas Agassiz. 

Calamostoma Agassiz, II, 18; type Syngnathus breviculus Blainville. 


Acanthodes Agassiz, II, 19; type Acanthoessus bronni Agassiz. 

A needless substitute for Acanthoessus. 

Smerdis Agassiz, IV, 32, 1833 ; type Perca minuta Blainville. 


Suggested Changes in Generic Nomenclature of Fishes. 

A. Changes resting in Priority. 

The following changes from current Nomenclature, apparently jus- 
tified by the law of priority and the accepted rules, result from the present 

Acanthoessus Agassiz: in place of Acanthodes Agassiz (fossil). 

Alabes Cuvier: Cheilobranchus Richardson. 

Alosa Linck : Alosa Cuvier. 

Anacanthus Ehrenberg: Himantura Miiller. 

Anchoviella Fowler: Stolephorus Bleeker (not Lacepede). 

Apteronotus Lacepede: Sternarchus Bloch & Schneider. 

Bagre Cuvier: Felichthys Swainson, Ailurichthys Baird. 

Barbatula Linck : Oreias Sauvage, Orthrias Jordan & Fowler. 

Bengala Gray (1833) : Megarasbora Giinther, 1868. 

Bodianus Bloch : Harpe Lacepede. 

Branchiostegus Rafinesque : Latilus Cuv. & Val. 

Caranx Lacepede : Carangus Griffith. 

Catonotus Agassiz : Ethestoma Jordan, not Raf . 

Cephalopholis Bloch & Schneider: Bodianus Cuv. & Val. (not Bloch). 

Enneacentrus Gill. 
Chelon Rose : Ch.enomugil Gill. 
Citharus Rose : Eucitharus Gill. 
Clupanodon Lacepede: Konosirus Jordan & Snyder. 
Conger Houttuyn : Conger Cuvier. 
Corvina Cuvier: Sci^na Jordan & Evermann (not of Cuvier), Cora- 

ciNus Pallas. 
Curimata Walbaum : Curimatus Cuvier. 
Diapterus Ranzani: Gerres Jordan & Evermann (not of Quoy & 

Echeneis L. : Leptecheneis Gill. 
Echelus Rafinesque : Myrus Cuvier. 
Etheostoma Rafinesque: Diplesion Raf. 


Eucentrarchus Gill: Centrarchus Jordan & Evermann (not of Cuv. 
& Val.). 

Gaidropsarus Rafinesque : Motella Cuvier, 

Gerres Cuvier ; Xyst^ma Jordan & Evermann. 

Gnathanodon Bleeker: (Caranx speciosus). 

Hemiulis Swainson (as restricted by Bonaparte, 1839) : Halichceres 
Riippell, Chcerojulis Gill. 

Histrio Fischer: Pteryphryne Gill, Pterophrynoides Gill. 

Hoplias Gill: Macrodon Muller & Troschel. 

Hypacanthus Rafinesque: Camptogramma Regan. 

Inimicus Jordan & Starks : Pelor Cuv. & Val. 

Leucichthys Dybowski : Argyrosomus Agassiz. 

Lycodontis McClelland: Gymnothorax Giinther (not of Bloch). 

Macrodon Schinz : Ancylodon Cuvier, Sagenichthys Berg. 

Macrognathus Lacepede: Rhynchobdella Bloch & Schneider. 

Macrorhynchus Lacepede : Dicrotus Giinther, 

Membras Bonaparte: Kirtlandia Jordan & Evermann. 

Merolepis Rafinesque: (Smaris zebra). 

Micrometrus Gibbons : Abeona Girard. 

Mola Koelreuter : Mola Cuvier, 

Mugiloides Lacepede: Pinguipes Cuvier. 

Narke Kaup : Astrape Gray. 

Naso Lacepede : Monoceros Bloch & Schneider. 

Ompok Lacepede: Callichrous Hamilton. 

Ovoides Cuvier : Ovoides Lacepede. 

Pastinachus Riippell: Hypolophus Muller & Henle. 

Pentanemus Giinther: Polynemus Gill (not of L. as restricted). 

Peprilus Cuvier : Rhombus Lacepede. 

Phycis Rose : Phycis Bloch & Schneider. 

Plagyodus Steller: Alepisaurus Low^e. 

Poecilichthys Agassiz: Etheostoma Jordan & Evermann (not of Raf- 
inesque as restricted). 

Polynemus L. : Polydactylus Lacepede. 

Porous St. Hilaire : Bagrus Cuv. & Val. 

Quinquarius Jordan : Pentaceros Cuvier. 

Remora Forster: Remora Gill. 

Sardina Antipa (S. pilchardus). 

Sardinella Val., Amblygaster Bleeker, Sardinia Poey, 

Sciaena L. : Argyrosomus De la Pylaie, Pseudosci^na Bleeker. 

Scylliorhinus Blainville: Catulus Smith. 


Sphyraena Rose : Sphyilena Bloch & Schneider. 

Spicara Rafinesque: S maris Cuv. 

Stolephorus Lacepede : Spratelloides Bleeker. 

Syngnathus L. : Siphostoma Raf . 

Thrissocles Jordan * : Thryssa Cuvier. 

Thymallus Linck: Thymallus Cuvier. 

Tor Gray (1833) : Labeobarbus Bleeker. 

Torpedo Houttuyn : Torpedo Dumeril. 

Trisopterus Rafinesque : Morua Risso, Brachygadus Gill. 

Typhlinus Rafinesque : Typhle Rafinesque, Siphonostomus Kaup. 

Xystramia t Jordan: Glossamia Goode & Bean (not of Gill). 

Zoramia I Jordan: Mionorus Jordan & Seale (not of Kreflft). 

B. Changes resulting from the operations of Opinions 20, 57. 

Taking the precedent of Opinion 20, which admits as eligible the 
generic names of Gronow, and that of 37, admitting those of Brisson, 
the following changes seem necessary, the status of Klein being almost 
identical with that of Gronow. 

Amia Gronow : instead of Apogon Lacepede. 

Amiatus Rafinesque : Amia L. 

Brama Klein: Abramis Cuvier. 

Callyodon Gronow : Scarus Forskal. 

Cestracion Klein: Sphyrna Rafinesque. 

Coracinus Gronow : Dipterodon Cuvier. 

Cyclogaster Gronow : Liparis Scopoli. 

Dasybatus Klein: Dasyatis Rafinesque. 

Enchelyopus Gronow : Zoarces Cuvier. 

Glaucus Klein : Hypodis Rafinesque, C^siomorus Lacepede. 

Hepatus Gronow: Teuthis L., Acanthurus Forskal. 

Labrax Klein : Dicentrarchus Gill. 

Lepodus Rafinesque : Brama Bloch & Schneider. 

Leuciscus Klein : Leuciscus Cuvier. 

Masnas Klein : M^na Cuvier. 

Mystus Gronow: Hypselobagrus Giinther. 

Narcacion Klein: Narcobatus Blainville. 

* Type Clupea setirostris Broussonet. 

t Type Glossamia pandionis Goode & Bean: See Copea, 1917, p. 46. 

i Type Apogon gr^ffei Giinther : See Copea, 1917, p. 46. 


Pristis Klein: Pristis Linck. 

Prochilus Klein: Pholis Cuv. & Val. (preoccupied). 

Pseudopterus Klein : Pterois Cuvier. 

Rhina Klein : Squatina Dumeril. 

Rhinobatus Klein: Rhinobatus Linck. 

Rhombus Klein: Both us Rafinesque. 

Sargus Klein : Diplodus Rafinesque, Sargus Cuvier. 

(new name) Cichla Bloch & Schneider. 

(new name) Solenostomus Lacepede. 

C. Changes resulting from the operations of Opinion 24, which legalizes 

the names of Commerson in Lacepede. Those of Plumier in Lace- 
pede are precisely similar. 

Alticus Commerson : in place of Rupiscartes Swainson. 
Cheloniger Plumier : Conodon Cuvier. 

Chromis Plumier: Umbrina Cuvier. Unless Cromis Browne is ac- 
Encrasicholus Commerson : Anchoviella Fowler. 
Pagrus Plumier : Neom^nis Girard. 
Sarda Plumier: Ocyurus Gill, 
(new name) Pagrus Cuvier. 
(new name) Sarda Cuvier. 
(new name) Odax Cuvier. 

D. Hypothetical changes in Nomenclature according to the law of prior- 

ity hut doubtfully eligible, being revised reprints or translations of 
pre-Linncean authors; apparently to he rejected under Opinion _57.. 

Albula Osbeck : Salanx Cuvier. 

Apocryptes Osbeck: A valid genus, near Boleophth/vlmus Bloch & 

Butyrinus Lacepede : Albula Gronow. 
Cromis Browne : Pogonias Lacepede. 
Heliases Cuvier: Chromis Cuvier. 
Helops Browne : Bodianus Bloch. 

Menidia Browne : Anchoviella Fowler, Encrasicholus Commerson. 
Pelmatia Brow^ne: Gobiomorus Lacepede, Philypnus Cuvier. 
Plagusia Browne : Symphurus Rafinesque. 
Rhomboida Browne : Vomer Cuvier. 
Saurus Browne : Oligoplites Gill. 


E. Changes as under D but the alleged generic names, perhaps to be re- 

garded as Latin vernaculars. 

Acus Catesby: Psalisostomus Klein, Lepisosteus Lacepede. 

Alburnus Catesby: Menticirrus Gill. 

Bagre Catesby: Ameiurus Rafinesque. 

Harengus Catesby: Harengula Cuv. & Val. 

Salpa Catesby : Neom^nis Girard. 

Saltatrix Catesby: Pomatomus Lacepede. 

Solea Catesby: Platophrys Swainson. 

Suillus Catesby: Lachnolaimus Cuvier. 

Unicornis Catesby: Osbeckia Jordan & Evermann. 

(new name) Alburnus Rafinesque. 

(new name) Solea Quensel. 

F. Changes in accord with the law of priority, but questionable on ac- 

count of irregidarities not yet passed upon by the Commission of 

Abuhamrur Forskal: Priacanthus Cuvier. 

Asper Schsefer: Aspro Cuvier. 

Asperulus Schsefer: Zingel Oken. 

Cernua Schsefer: Acerina Giildenstadt, Gymnocephalus Bloch. 

Daba Forskal: Epinephelus Bloch. 

Djabub Forskal : Therapon Cuvier. 

Galeus Valmont : Prionace Cantor. 

Gaterin Forskal : Plectorhynchus Lacepede. 

Ghanan Forskal: Scolopsis Cuvier. 

Hobar Forskal : Lutianus Bloch. 

Louti Forskal : Variola Swainson. 

Mustelus Valmont : Cynias Gill. 

Pleuracromylon Gill : Mustelus Leach. 

Quinquarius Jordan : Pentaceros Cuvier, 

Ramphistoma Rafinesque : Belone Cuvier. 

Schour Forskal: Lethrinus Cuvier. 

Schraitzer Schaefer: Leptoperca Gill. 

Tahmel Forskal : Kyphosus Lacepede. 

Vulpecula Valmont: Alopias Rafinesque. 

G. Changes due to virtual preoccupation of names now in use. 

If we follow the current practice of regarding generic names in words 
otherwise similar and from identical roots, the same word if differing 


only in gender, in the presence or absence of the initial h in words of 
Greek origin, or by the use of i or o as a connective, the following 
changes are necessary in the current nomenclature, as given by Jordan & 
Evermann, Fishes N. M. America, 1898. 

Cenisophius Bonaparte : in place of Leucos Heckel, on account of the 

earlier Leucus. 
Centridermichthys Richardson: Trachidermus Heckel; Trachy- 


Cheilonemus * Baird : Leucosomus Heckel ; Leucosoma. 

Cremnobates Giinther: Auchenipterus Giinther; Auchenopterus. 

Cynicoglossus Bonaparte : Microstomus Gottsche ; Microstoma. 

Eudulus Fowler: Dules Cuvier; Dulus. 

Evermannellus Fowler: Odontostomus Cocco ; Odontostoma. 

Haloporphyrus Giinther : Lepidion Swainson ; Lepidia. 

Hemiulis Swainson (as restricted by Bonaparte, 1839) ; Halichceres 

Riippell ; Halichcerus. 
Hypolophus Miiller: Pastinachus Riippell; Pastinaca, 
Nebrodes Garman : Nebrius Riippell ; Nebria. 
Notoscopelus Giinther : Macrostoma Risso ; Macrostomus. 
Pisciregia Abbott: Gastropterus Cope; Gastropteron. 
Podateles Boulenger : Ateleopus Schlegel ; Atelopus. 
Quassilabia Jordan & Brayton : Lagochila J. & B. ; Lagocheilus. 
Scaphirhynchops Gill: Scaphirhynchus Heckel; Scaphorhynchus. 
Scytaliscus Jordan & Gilbert : Scytalinus J. & G. ; Scytalina. 
Stenesthes f Jordan : new name for Stenotomus Gill ; Stenotoma. 
Thrissocles Jordan : new name for Thryssa Cuvier ; Thrissa. 
Xiphister Jordan & Gilbert: Xiphidion Girard ; Xiphidium. 

H. Questionable cases, similar to G. 

Catochaenum Cantor : Gerres Cuvier, on account of the prior Gerris. 

Centracion Gray : Heterodontus Blainville ; Heterodon. 

Choregon Minding: Thymallus Cuvier; Thymalus. 

Corythobatus Cantor: Minous Cuv. & Val. ; Minois. 

(new name) Chloea Jordan & Snyder; Chloeia. 

(new name) Gramma Poey; Grammia. 

(new name) Nebris Cuvier; Nebria; Nebrius. 

*Type Cyprinus corporalis Mitchill, Cyprinus bullaris Rafinesque. 
t Type Sparus chrysops L. 


In the following list, the names of genera apparently valid are left unmarked; 
d indicates doubt of one form or another; s indicates synonyms, apparently never 
to be revived or added to the system. 

Abramis, d, 99 
Abuhamrur, d, 34 
Abu-defduf, d, 33 
Acanthias, s, 119 
Acanthicus, 131 
Acanthinion, s, 64 
Acanthodes, s, 145 
Acanthurus, s, 33 
Acanthoessus, 141 
Acanthonotus Bloch, s, 53 
Acanthonotus Gray, s, 

Acanthopodus, s, 64 
Acanthopsis, 116 
Acanthophthalmus, 116 
Acanthorhinus, s, 95 
Acaramus, s, 89 
Acarana, 139 
Acarauna Catesby, s, 32 
Acarauna Sewas., s, 68 
Acentrolophus, s, 121 
Acerina Giild., d, 32 
Acerina Cuvier, s, 104, 

Acestra, s, 137 
Achirus, 65 
Acipenser, 11 
Acus, s, 24, 31, 50, 73 
Aetobatus, 95 
Ageneiosus, 66 
Agriopus, 127 
Ailia, 138 
Alabes, loi 
Albula Osbeck, d, 17 
Albula Gronow, d, 20, 30, 

42, 59 
Alburnus Catesby, d, 30 

Alburnus Raf., 112 
Alectis, 88 
Alepisaurus, d, 143 
Alepocephalus, 113 
Alopias, d, 78 
Alosa, 49, 130 
Alphestes, 59 
Alpismaris, s, 120 
Alticus, d, 69 
Alutera, 98 
Amanses, 139 
Ambassis, 124 
Amblodon, d, no 
Ambloplites, iii 
Amblypterus, 144 
Ameiurus, 112 
Amia Gronow, d, 20 
Amia L., d, 23 
Amia Browne, s, 46 
Amiatus, d, 91 
Ammocoetes, s, 97 
Ammoccetus, 76 
Ammodytes, 12 
Amora, s, 139 
Amorphocephalus, s, 119 
Amphacanthus, s, 59 
Amphiodon, no 
Amphiprion, 59 
Amphisile, s, 106 
Amphisilen, s, 38 
Ampheristus, 118 
Anabas, 106 
Anableps, 20, 42, 59 
Anacanthus Ehr., 131 
Anacanthus Gray, s, 138 
Anampses, 117, 130 
Anarhichas, 12 

Ancylodon, s, 104 
Anenchelum, 107 
Anguilla, 73 
Anodus, 132 
Anomalodon, s, 119 
Anopsus, s, 92 
Anostomus, 20, 42, 93 
Antennarius, 69, 104, 130 
Anthea, s, 31 
Anthias, 50 
Aodon, s, 55 
Aper, s, 72 
Aphanius, 121 
Aphareus, 135 
Aphia, s, 119 
Aphredoderus, 143 
Aphritis, 137 
Aplites, s, III 
Apistes, 127 
Aplesion, s, in 
Aplocentrus, s, no 
Aplodactylus, 137 
Aplodinotus, d, no 
Apocryptes, d, 17 
Apogon, d, 62 
Apomotis, no 
Aprion, 135 
Apsilus, 135 
Apterichthys, s, 75 
Apteronotus, 56 
Apterurus, s, 83 
Apterygia, s, 139 
Apturus, s, 93 
Argentina, 15 
Argyctius, s, 80 
Argyreiosus, s, 64 
Argyropelecus, 133 




Asellus, s, 71 
Asper, d, 16 

Asperulus Schaefer, d, 16 
Asperulus Klein, s, 40 
Aspidophoroides, 62 
Aspidophorus, s, 62 
Aspidorhynchus, 144 
Aspisurus, Sj 64 
Aspredo, 20, 42 
Aspro Comm., s, 70 
Aspro Cuvier, s, 124 
Asterropteryx, 122 
Astroblepus, 76 
Astrodermus, 129 
Atherina, 15 
Atractosteus, 112 
Atropus, s, 105 
Aulopus, 98 
Aulostomus, 66 
Aulus, s, 70 
Aurata, s, 30, 103, 120 
Ausonia, 120 
Auxis, 129 
Axinurus, s, 129 
Aygula, s, 90 
Aylopon, s, 80, 89 
Bagre Catesby, s, 31 
Bagre, 100 
Bagrus, d, 100 
Baillonus, s, 89 
Balistapus, 113 
Balistes, 15 
Bangana, 115 
Barbatula, 49 
Barbus, 99 
Barilius, 115 
Batrachoides, 57 
Batrachops, s, 114 
Batrachus, s, 40, 57 
Batrichtius, s, 88 
Bedula, s, 130 
Belone, d, 99 
Bembras, 133 
Bengala, 139 
Beryx, 127 
Blennius, 12 
Blennus, s, 44 
Blepharis, s, 105, 129 
Blepsias, 127 
Blochius, 54 

Bodianus, d, 49 
Bogmarus, s, 60 
Bola, 114 
Boops, 94, 102 
Boridia, 135 
Bostrichthys, 75 
Bostrictis, s, 88 
Bostrychoides, 61 
Bostrychus, s, 61 
Bothus, d, 79 
Botia, 138 
Bovichtus, 137 
Box, 135 

Brama Klein, d, ^y 
Brama Cuvier, d, 58 
Branchiostegus, 90 
Branderius, s, 92 
Brosme, 88, 100 
Brosmus, s, 123 
Bryttus, ^, 137 
Bucklandium, 118 
Buro, s, 67 
Buronus, s, 90 
Butyrinus, d, 65 
Cabdio, 115 
Csecilia, s, 56 
Cascula, 52 
Csesio, 61 
Csesiomorus, d, 61 
Calamostoma, 145 
Callarias, s, 42 
Callichrous, s, 114 
Callichthys, 21, 42, 49 
Calliodon, 59, 130 
Calliomorus, s, 56 
Callionymus, 12 
Calliurus, s, no 
Callorhynchus, 18, 98 
Callyodon, 19, 42, 45 
Campylodon, s, 53 
Cantharus, s, 103 
Capriscus, s, 43, 52, 82 
Capros, 65 
Caranx, 60 
Caranxomorus, s, 61 
Carapus Raf., 82 
Carapus Cuvier, s, loi 
Carcharhinus, 95 
Carcharias Raf., 77 
Carcharias Cuvier, s, 97 

Carpiodes, 112 
Cataphractus, s, 21, 32, 

43, 51, ^23 

Catopterus, s, 144 
Catostomus, 96 
Catulus, s, 2.7 
Centracanthus, 79 
Centracion, d, 138 
Centranodon, s, 66 
Centrarchus, s, 126 
Centrina, s, 97 
Centriscus, 16 
Centrochir, s, 132 
Centrogaster, s, 44 
Centrolophus, 64 
Centronotus Schn., s, 58 
Centronotus Lac, s, 62 
Centropodus, s, 62 
Centropomus, 63 
Centropristes, 126 
Cephacandia, s, 89 
Cephalacanthus, d, 62 
Cephalepis, s, 82, 88 
Cephaleutherus, s, 83 
Cephalopholis, 59 
Cephalopsis, s, 91 
Cephalopterus, s, 77 
Cephalus, s, 7^ 
Cephimmus, s, 89 
Cepola, 22, 2^ 
Ceracantha, s, 88 
Ceratorhynchus, 132 
Cerictius, s, 78 
Cerna, d, 141 
Cernua, d, 16, 123 
Cestracion Klein, d, 40 
Cestracion Cuvier, s, 97 
Cestreus, s, 43 
Cestrorhinus, .y^ 95 
Cetopsis, 131 
Cetorhinus, 95 
Chaca, 138 
Chsetodipterus, 64 
Chsetodon, 13 
Chalceus, 96 
Chanda, 114 
Channa, 22, 42 
Chanos, 67 
Characinus, s, 14, 66, 98 



Charax, 21, 42 
Chatoessus, s, 130 
Chauliodus, 59 
Cheilinus, 63 
Cheilio, 63 
CheilodactyIu3, 65 
Cheilodipterus, 63 
Chela, IIS 
Chelmon, 105, 136 
Chelon, 52 
Cheloniger, d, 73 
Chimaera, 11 
Chirocentrus, 99 
Chironectes, s, 92, 96 
Chironemus, 126 
Chirurgus, s, 108 
Chirus, s, 84, 130 
Chlopsis, 82 
Chlorophthalmus, 142 
Choregon, s, 140 
Chorinemus, s, 137 
Chromis Plumier, s, 7^ 
Chromis Cuvier, d, 93, 

Chrosomus, 112 
Chrysomelanus, s, 72 
Chrysophris, s, 128 
Chrysotosus, s, 65 
Cichla, d, 59 
Cicla, d, 39, 52 
Cingla, s, 123 
Cirrhibarbus, 129 
Cirrhinus, 99 
Cirrhitus, 65 
Citharinus, 98 
Citharus, 52 
Citula, 105 
Clarias, 20, 42 
Clepticus, 130 
CHnus, loi 
Clodalus, s, III 
Clodipterus, s, 89 
Clupanodon, 68 
Clupea, 15 
Ccbitis, 14 
Ccelorhynchus, 74 
Cogrus, 81 
Coilia, 138 
Coius, s, 114 

Colisa, s, 137 
Colubrina, d, 65 
Comephorus, 56 
Conger, d, 22, 37, loi 
Conodon, d, 135 
Conomus, s, 92 
Coracinus Gronow, d, 19 
Coracinus Pallas, d, 84 
Cordorinus, s, 91 
Coregonus, 14, 66, 130 
Corica, s, 115 
Coricus, J, 102 
Coris, 61 
Corniger, 132 
Corvina, d, 128 
Corycus, s, 93 
Corydoras, 66 
Coryphsena, 12 
Corypha^noides Gunner, 

Coryphsenoides Lac, s, 

Coryphus, s, 70 
Corystion, s, 41, 79 
Cottus, 12 
Crayracion, s, 42 
Crenidens, 135 
Crenilabrus, 93, lOI 
Cromis, d, 47 
Crossocheilus, Ii6 
Cugupuguacu, s, 30 
Curimata, 50 
Curimatus, s, 98 
Cybium, s, 129 
Cycleptus, no 
Cyclogaster, d, 18 
Cyclopoma, 145 
Cyclopterus, 12 
Cylindrosteus, 112 
Cyncedus, s, 19, 42 
Cynocephalus, d, 42 
Cynodon, s, 132 
Cynoglossus, 114 
Cyprinodon, 68 
Cyprinus, 15 
Daba, d, 34 
Dactyleptus, s, 88 
Dactylopterus, d, 62 
Dalatias, d, 77 

Dalophis, s, 81 
Dameus, s, 92 
Danio, 115 
Dapedium, 115 
Dascyllus, 128 
Dasyatis, d, 78 
Dasybatis, s, 134 
Dasybatus, d, 39 
Datnia, 126 
Daurada, s, 123 
Decactylus, 113 
Dentex, 94, 103 
Diabasis, Sj 116 
Diacope, s, 94, 103 
Diagramma, s, 94, 103 
Diana, 119 
Diastodon, 119 
Dicerobatus, s, 95 
Dinectus, s, 108, 113 
Diodon, 15 
Dioplites, s, in 
Dipinotus, s, 92 
Diplanchias, s, 78 
Diplesion, ^,111 
Diplodus, d, 82 
Diploprion, 124 
Diplopterus, 138 
Dipterodon Lac, s, 63 
Dipterodon Cuvier, s, 128 
Dipterus, 125 
Dipturus, s, 78 
Djabub, d, 34 
Dobula, 112 
Doras, 65 
Dorosoma, in 
Dorsuarius, s, 68 
Drepane, 136 
Dropsarus, s, 88 
Dules, d, 126 
Echelus, 81 
Echeneis, 12 
Echidna, 42 
Echinorhinus, 95 
Edomus, Sj, 90 
Elseorhoiis, s, 83 
Elacate, s, 129 
Eleginus Fischer, 85 
Eleginus Cuvier, s, 135 
Eleotris, 20, 58, 90 



Elliops, s, 113 
Elops Comm., s, 70 
Elops L., 23 
Enchelyopus Gronow, d, 

Enchelyopus Klein, s, 37 
Enchelyopus Schn., s, 57 
Encrasicholus Comm., d., 

Encrasicholus Fleming, 

s, 122 
Engraulis, 98 
Enoplosus, 50, 64 
Ephippus, 105 
Epibulus, 93, 102 
Epidesmus, s, 107 
Epigonus, 83 
Epinephelus, d, 51 
Epimonus, s, 92 
Epinotus, s, 92 
Eptatretus, 106 
Epiphthalmus, s, 90 
Equetus, s, 89 
Equula, s, 105 
Eremophilus, 76 
Ericius, s, 76 
Eritrinus, s, 72 
Erythrinus Gronow, 21, 

Erythrinus Plumier, s, 72 
Esox, 14 
Etheostoma, no 
Etelis, 124 
Etmopterus, 78 
Etroplus, 135 
Eurystomus, s, 113 
Exocoetus, 15 
Exoglossum, 109 
Farer, d, 34 
Fiatola, s, 106, 119 
Fierasfer, d, 93, lOI 
Fistularia, 14 
Fluta, s, 60 
Fundulus, 65 
Gadus, 12 
Gaidropsarus, 81 
Galaxias, 99 
Galeorhinus, 95 
Galeus Valmont, d, 27 

Galeus Klein, d, 37 
Galeus Raf., s, 78 
Galeus Cuvier, s, 97 
Gallus, s, 64 
Garra, 115 

Gasteracanthus, s, 84 
Gasterodon, s, 90 
Gasteropelecus, 22 
Gasterosteus, 13 
Gastrobranchus, s, 53 
Gastrogonus, s, 89 
Gaterin, d, 34 
Gempylus, 129 
Gerres, 117 
Ghanan, d, 34 
Girella, 139 
Glanis, s, 131 
Glaucus, d, 38 
Glossodon, s, 108 
Glossodus, s, 93, 132 
Glyphisodon, d, 64 
Gobiesox, 57 
Gobio Klein, s, 43 
Gobio Cuvier, d, 99 
Gobioides, 57 
Gobiomoroides, s, 57 
Gobiomorus, 57 
Gobitis, s, 122 
Gobius, 12 
Gomphosus, 61 
Gonenion, j, 80 
Goniodermus, s, 91 
Gonipus, s, 90 
Gonorhynchus, 19, 42 
Gonostoma, 83 
Gonurus, s, 89 
Gnathobolus, s, 60 
Grammistes, 58 
Gristes, s, 126 
Guaperva, 5, 72 
Guaris, s, 91 
Guebucus, s, 89 
Gymnarchus, 131 
Gymnetrus, 45 
Gymnocephalus, j, 51 
Gymnogaster, .$■, 22 
Gymnomuraena, s, 68 
Gymnonotus, s, 60 
Gymnopsis, j, 92 

Gymnothorax, s, 53 
Gymnotus, 12 
Gymnurus, J, 88 
Gyrodus, 144 
Haemulon, 128 
Halex, s, 71 
Haliophis, 122 
Kampala, 116 
Harengus, s, 24, 31, 38 
llarpe, s, 63 
Ilarpurus, s, 43 
Heliases, d, 128 
Helmictis, s, 83, 92 
Helops, s, 47 
Helostoma, 129 
Helotes, 127 
Hemilepidotus, 127 
Hemiplus, s, no 
Ilemipteronotus, 61 
Hemiramphus, 99 
Ilemitripterus, 127 
Heniochus, 105 
Hepatus, d, 20, 52 
Ilepsetia, s, 142 
Heptranchias, 78 
Heterobranchus, 107 
Heterodontus, d, 95 
Heterotis, 131 
Hexagrammos, 76 
Hexanchus, 78 
Hiatula, s, 57 
Hiodon, 107 
Hippocampus, 79, 85, 98 
Hippoglossus, 100 
Hippurus, s, 43 
Hirundo, s, 30 
Histrio, 84 
Hobar, d, 34 
Holacantha, s, 88 
Holacanthus, 64 
Holocentrus, 19, 42 
Hologymnosus, s, 63 
Homaloptera, 116 
Homolenus, s, 91 
Hoplostethus, 133 
Hoplichthys, 133 
Huro, s, 124 
Hynnis, 142 
Hypacanthus, 80 



Hydrargira, s, 67 
Hydrocyon, 96 
Hypentelium, 109 
Hypostomus, 66 
Hypodis, s, 79 
Hypophthalmus, 131 
Ichthelis, ^,111 
Ichthyococcus, 141 
Ichthyocolla, s, 24 
Ichthyocoris, s, 142 
Ichthyolithus, s, 120 
Ichthyophis, s, 123 
Ictaetus, s, 93 
Ictalurus, 113 
Ictiobus, d, 112 
Ictiopogon. s, 92 
Ictius, s, 88 
Ilictis, s, 112 
Ischnosoma, s, 132 
Tstiophorus, 62 
Isurus, 78 
Johnius, 51 
Julis, 94, lOi 
Kurtus, 44 
Kyphosus, 61 
Labeo Cuvier, 99 
I^abeo Bowd., s, 118 
Labrax Klein, d, 39 
Labrax Pallas, i, 77, 124 
Labrus, 13 
Lachnolaimus, 130 
Lasviraja, s, 121 
Lamia, s, 119 
Lamna, 97 
Lampanyctus, 142 
Lampreda, s, 93 
Lampris, 54 
Lampugus, s. 143 
Larimus, 134 
Latargus, s, 38 
Lates, 124 
Latilus, s, 135 
Lebia, s, 99 
Lebius, s, &4 
Leiobatus Klein, s, 38 
Leiobatus Raf., s, 78 
Leiobatus Blain. s^ 95 
Leiognathus, 64 
Leiostomus, 64 

Leirus, 143 
Lemnisoma, s, 140 
Lepadogaster, 28 
Lepibema, 11 1 
Lepicantha, s, 89 
Lepidoleprus, s, 77 
Lepidopus, 28 
Lepidosaurus, s, 141 
Lepidotes, 141 
Lepimphis, s, 79, 90 
Lepipterus Raf., s, 89 
Lepipterus Cuv., 135 
Lepisacanthus, s, 62 
Lepisosteus, d, 66 
Lepodus, d, 80 
Lepomis, no 
Lepomus, s, 89 
Leporinus, 132 
Lepterus, s, 80 
Leptosoma, s, 121 
Leptocephalus, 22 
Leptolepis, 141 
Leptops, 112 
Leptopus, s, 86 
Lethrinus, d, 128 
Leuciscus, 37, 99 
Leucops, s, no 
Leucosomus, s, 139 
Lichia, 105, 137 
Liparis, d, 41, 52 
Liparius, s, 90 
Litholepis, s, 109 
Lobocheilus, s, 116 
Lobotes, 128 
Lonchiurus, 51 
Lopharis, s, 80, 89 
Lophidius, s, 92 
Lophius, II 
Lophotes, 74, loi 
Loricaria, 14 
Lota, TOO 
Lotta, s, 119 
Louti, d, 34 
Lucioperca, s, 124 
Lucius, d, 24, 40, 80 
Lumpus, s, 90, 101 
Lutianus, d, 49 
Lutodeira, s, 122 
Luvarus, 79 

Luxilus, 112 
Lymnea, s, 92 
Macquaria, 135 
Macrocephalus, s, 47 
Macrodon, 115 
Macrognathus, 56 
Macrolepis, s, 89 
Macropodus, 63 
Macropteronotus, s, 65 
Macrorhamphosus, 66 
Macrorhynchus, 56, 75 
Macrostoma, s, 120 
Macrourus, 44 
Maena, d, 128 
Msenas, d, 39 
Makaira, s, 65 
Malacanthus, 130 
Malapterurus, 65 
Mallotus, 130 
Malthe, s, 105, 130 
Mastaccembelus, s, 40 
Mastacembelus, s, 21, 42 
Maturacus, s, 90 
Maxillingua, s, 109 
Megabatus, s, 93 
Megaderus, s, 92 
Megalops, 66, 90 
Megalurus, 144 
Megaphalus, s, 89 
Melanictis, s, 92 
Meletta, s, 94 
Membras, 142 
Mene, 68 
Meneus, s, 90 
Menidia Browne, d, 46 
Menidia Bon., d, 142 
Merlangus, .y, 83, 100 
Merluccius, 79 
Merolepis, 81 
Mesopodus, s, 89 
Mesoprion, s, 124 
Microchirus, 141 
Microdon, s, 144 
Micropodus, s, 89 
Micropogon, 135 
Microps, s, 144 
Micropterus, 63 
Micropteryx, s, 132 
Micropus, s, 139 



Microstoma, 99 
Minnilus, J, III 
Minous, 133 
Misgurnus, 65 
Mobula, 82 
Mola, 28, 49, 54 
Mollinesia, 114 
Molva, 122 
Monacanthus, 98 
Monocentris, 58 
Monoceros, s, 58, 71 
Monochir, s, 131 
Monochirus Raf., 87 
Monochirus Cuvier, s, 100 
Monochirus Bon., s, 141 
Monodactylus, 61 
Monopterhinus, s, 95 
Monopterus, 56 
Monotaxis, 136 
Mora, 119 
Morhua, s, 122 
Moringua, d, 138 
Mormyra, s, 46 
Mormyrus, 15, 29 
Morone, 86 
Morrhua, s, 100 
Morua, s, 119 
Morulius, s, 115 
Motella, s, 131 
Moxostoma, 112 
Mugil, 15 
Mugiloides, 67 
Mugilomorus, s, 67 
Mullus, 14 
Mupus, s, 143 
Murasna, 11 
Mursenoblenna, s, 68 
Muraenoides, s, 56 
Mursenophis, s, 54, 68 
Mustela, s, 100 
Mustellus, s, 85 
Mustelus Valmont, d, 27 
Mustelus Linck, d, 49 
Mustelus Raf., .?, 84 
Mustelus Cuvier, s, 97 
Myctophum, 82 
Myletes, 93, 96 
Mylio, s, 70 

Myoxocephalus, 83 
Myripristis, 127 
Mystus Gronow, 21 
Mystus Klein, s, 38 
Mystus Scopoli, 42 
Mystus Lac, s, 67 
Myxodes, 129 
Myxonum, s, 90 
Nandina, 138 
Nandus, 137 
Naqua, d, 34 
Narcacion, d, 39 
Narcobatis, s, 134 
Narcobatus, d, 95 
Narke, 121 
Naseus, s, 69 
Naso, 61 
Nasonus, s, 88 
Nauclerus, s, 142 
Naucrates, 80 
Nebris, 134 
Neleus, s, 92 
Nemacheilus, 116 
Nemipus, s, 88 
Nemocampsis, s, iii 
Nemochirus, 86, 92 
Nerophis, 82 
Nettastoma, 81 
Nomeus, 105 
Notacanthus, 44 
Notagogus, 144 
Notemigonus, no 
Notidanus, s, 97 
Notistium, s, 74 
Notognidion, s, 80 
Notopterus, 56 
Notropis, 108 
Noturus, 109 
Novacula, s, 31, 102 
Nyctophus, s, 133 
Oblada, 128 
Octonus, s, 82, 90 
Oculeus, s, 70 
Odax Plumier, s, 70 
Odax Cuvier, d, 130 
Odontognathus, 56 
Odontolepis, Sj 85 
Odumphus, Sj 91 

Ogcocephalus, 85 
Oligopodes, s, 105 
Oligopodus, s, 57 
Olistus, 129 
Ompok, 65 
Oncotion, s, 42 
Onopionus, s, 91 
Onos, s, 119 
Onus, s, 81 
Oonidus, s, 91 
Ophicephalus, 53 
Ophichthus, 45 
Ophidion, 12 
Ophiognathus, s, 121 
Ophisurus, 56 
Opictus, s, 91 
Opisotomus, .y, 70 
Opisthognathus, 101 
Opladelus, s, 112 
Oplichthys, s, 133 
Opsanus, 108 
Orbidus, s, 91 
Orbis, s, 24, 31, 71, 85 
Orcynus, s, 89, 105 
Oreosoma, 127 
Orthagoriscus, s, 60 
Orthragus, s, 78 
Osmerus, 14, 66 
Osphronemus, 61 
Osteoglossum 131, 132 
Osteolepis, 134 
Ostorhinchus, 63 
Ostracion, 15 
Otolithes, 104 
Ovoides, 55, 75 
Ovum, s, 60 
Oxima, s, 86 
Oxycephas, s, 79 
Oxygaster, 116 
Oxynotus, s, 82 
Oxystomus, s, 83 
Oxyurus, s, 79 
Pacamus, s, 88 
Pachycormus, 144 
Pachyurus, 132 
Pagellus, 128 
Pagrus Plumier, d, 72 
Pagrus Cuvier, d, 103 



Palaeobalistum, io8 
Palseoniscum, 103 
Palaeorhynchum, 108 
Palaeothrissum, s, 108 
Panotus, s, 89 
Paralepis, 104, 120 
Passer, s, 38 
Pastinaca, s, 121 
Pastinachus, d, 122 
Pegasus, 16 
Pegedictis, d, 113 
Pelamis, s, 72 
Pelamys, s, 37 
Pelates, 126 
Pelmatia, d, 47 
Pelor, s, 127 
Pempheris, 128, 136 
Pentaceros, d, 125 
Pentapus, 128 
Peprilus, 129 
Perca, 13 

Percis Klein, s, 39 
Percis Scopoli, d, 41 
Percis Schn., s, 58 
Percis Raf., s, 90 
Percophis, 118 
Periophthalmus, 58 
Peristedion, 62 
Petimbuabo, s, 31 
Petromyzon, il 
Phalangistes, s, 83 
Pharopteryx, s, 122 
Pholidophorus, 140 
Pholidus, s, 88 
Pholis Gronow, 19 
Pholis Scopoli, 42 
Pholis Rose, s, 52 
Pholis Cuvier, s, loi 
Phoxinus, 112 
Phractocephalus, 131 
Phycis Rose, 51 
Phycis Schn., s, 58 
Phycis Raf., s, 79 
Phyllophorus, s, 91 
Piabucus, s, 98 
Picorellus, s, 112 
Piescephalus, s, 81, 90 
Pilodictis, s, no 
Pimelepterus, s, 63 

Pimelodus, 65 
Pimephales, 112 
Pinguipes, s, 127 
Piratia, s, 91 
Plaguisa, ,f, 88 
Plagusia Browne, d, 46 
Plagusia Cuvier, s, loi 
Plagyodus, 84 
Plargyrus, s, 112 
Platax, 105 
Platessa, s, 100 
Platiglossus, 40 
Platirostra, s, 107 
Platopterus, s, 92 
Platycephalus, 53 
Platyptera, s, 130 
Platystacus, 53 
Platystoma, s, 131 
Plecopodus, .y, 90 
Plecostomus, 21 
Plectorhinchus, </, 61 
Plectropomus, 103 
Plesiops, 102 
Pleuronectes, 13 
Plotosus, 66 
Podoleptus, s, 92 
Poecilia, 59 
Pogonathus, s, 65 
Pogonias, 61 
Pogostoma, ,y, 108 
Polipturus, s, 89 
Polyacanthus, 129 
Polydactylus, s, 67 
Polynemus, 15 
Polyodon, 54, 59 
Polyprion, 104, 117 
Polypterus, 54, 77 
Pomacampsis, ,y, in 
Pomacantha, s, 88 
Pomacanthis, s, 89 
Pomacanthus, 64 
Pomacentrus, 64 
Pomadasys, 64 
Pomagonus, s, 89 
Pomatias, s, 60 
Pomatomus Lac, 6^ 
Pomatomus Cuvier, s, 

Pomolobus, III 

Pomotis Raf., s, no 
Po'motis Cuv., s, 126 
Pomoxis, 109 
Pompilus, s, 140 
Porcus, 107 
Porthmeus, 142 
Premnas, 106 
Priacanthus, d, 94, 104 
Pricus, s, 93 
Prinodon, s, 90 
Priodon, s, 118, 129 
Prionotus, 62 
Pristibatis, s, 134 
Pristigaster, 99 
Pristipomus, s, 94, 103 
Pristis, 41, 49, 52 
Proceros, s, 113 
Prochilodus, 132 
Prochilus Klein, d, 39 
Prochilus Cuvier, s, 104 
Proctostegus, s, 121 
Propterygia, s, 117 
Psalisostomus, d, 44 
Psenes, 142 
Psettus, s, 70, 128, 136 
Pseudopterus, d, 40 
Psiloides, s, 85 
Psilus, s, 85 
Psittacus, s, 31 
Pteraclidus, .y, 88 
Pteraclis, 22 
Pterapon, s, 139 
Pterichthus, s, 71 
Pteridium, s, 41 
Pterois, d, 104 
Pterops, s, 88 
Pterurus, .y, 82, 92 
Ptycholepis, 140 
Puntius, 115 
Pycnodus, 144 
Rachycentron, 121 
Raconda, 138 
Raja, n 

Ramphistoma, d, 91 
Raniceps, 100 
Rataboura, d, 138 
Regalecus, 28, 45 
Remora, 28, 31 
Rhaphiodon, 132 



Rhina Klein, d, 39 
Rhina Schn., d, 59 
Rhina Raf., s, 78 
Rhinelepis, 131 
Rhinobatos, s, 49 
Rhinobatus, 40, 59 
Rhomboida, d, 48 
Rhombotides, s, 38 
Rhombus Klein, d, 38 
Rhombus Lac, s, 56 
Rhombus Raf., d, 100 
Rhynchichthys, s, 137 
Rhynchobdella, s, 59 
Rincoxis, s, 92 
Roccus, 86 
Rutilus, 112 
Ruvettus, 144 
Rypticus, 125 
Saccopharynx, 117 
Salanx, d, 99 
Salaria. s, 3;} 
Salarias, loi 
Saltatrix, s, 30 
Salminus, 132 
Salmo, 14 
Salpa, s, 30 
Salvelinus, 140 
Samaris, 139 
Sandat, s, 122, 124 
Sander, 104 
Sandrus, s, 123 
Sarchirus, s, 109 
Sarda Plumier, d, 72 
Sarda Cuvier, d, 129 
Sargus Klein, d, 39 
Sargus Plumier, d, 72 
Sargus Cuvier, s, 102 
Saurocephalus, 118 
Saurodon, 136 
Sauropsis, 140 
Saurostomus, 144 
Saurus Catesby, d, 29 
Saurus Browne, d, 48 
Saurus Cuvier, s, 98 
Sayris, s, 81, 91 
Scarcina, s, 79 
Scardinius, 142 
Scarus Gronow, s, 19 
Scarus Forsk., d, 32 

Scatharus, 135 
Scatophagus, 136 
Schedcphilus, 133 
Schilbe, 100 
Schizodon, s, 132 
Schour, d, 34 
Schraitzer, d, 16 
Sciasna, 13, 93 
Scisenus, s, 69 
Scoliostomus, s, 122 
Scolopsides, s, 128 
Scolopsis, d, 94, 103 
Scomber, 14 
Scomberesox, 66 
Scomberoides, 60 
Scomberomorus, 62 
Scopelus, s, 98 
Scophthalmus, s, 82 
Scorpgena, 13 
Scorpius, 72 
Scylliorhinus, 95 
Scyllium, s, 97 
Scymnus, s, 97 
Scyphius, s, 119 
Scyris, s, 129 
Sebastes, 127 
Selache, s, 97 
Selanonius, s, 122 
Seleima, s, 119 
Selene, 64 
Semionotus, 140 
Semotilus, 112 
Sephenia, s, 93 
Seriola, 105 
Serranus, 94, 103 
Serrasalmus, 66 
Seserinus, s. 106 
Siganus, 32 
Sillago, loi 
Silurus, 14 
Siphostoma, s, 79 
Sisor, 115 

Skeponopodus, s, 144 
Smaris, s, 93, 102 
Smerdis, 145 
Soarus, s, 49 
Solea Klein, d, 31 
Solea Quensel, d, 40, 74, 
81, 100 

Solenostomus Gronow, 

s, 21 
Solenostomus Klein, s, 

Solenostomus Browne, 

s, 46 
Solenostomus Lac, d, 67 
Somniosus, 107 
Soranus, s, 91 
Sorubim, 132 
Sparus, 13 
Spatularia, s, 74 
Sphagebranchus, 53 
Spheroides, s, 55, 75 
Sphyrasna, 43, 52, 58 
Sphyrna, 82 
Spicara, 80 
Spinachia, 105, 123 
Spinax, s, 97 
Spirobranchus, 129, 137 
Squalius, s, 141 
Squalus, 11 
Squatina, d, 75 
Squatinoraja, s, 116 
Stellifer, 104 
Stelliferus, s, 123 
Sterletus, s, 113 
Sternarchus, s, 59 
Sternoptix, 44 
Stizostedion, ill 
Stolephorus, 67 
Stomias, 99 
Stomodon, s, 86 
Stromateus, 12 
Strinsia, 81 
Sturio, s, 82, 112 
Stylephorus, 50 
Sudis Raf., 80 
Sudis Cuv., s, 99 
Suillus, s, 30 
Symphocles, s, 92 
Symphodus, 79 
Symphurus, 81 
Synagris, s, 38 
Synanceja, 58 
Synbranchus, 53 
Syngnathus, 16 
Synodontis, 100 
Synodus, 20, 42, 59 



Syphyrnias, s, 92 
Taenia, s, 52 
Taenianotus, 63 
Taenioides, 57 
Tachysurus, d, 66 
Tahhmel, d, 34 
Tangus, s, 91 
Tasica, s, 88 
Taunis, s, 88 
Taurichthys, 128 
Tautoga, 86 
Telestes, 141 
Telipomis, s, iii 
Temera, 138 
Temnodon, s, 106 
Terapon, 104 
Teretulus, s, 113 
Tetragonolepis, 136 
-Tetragonopterus, 93, 96 
Tetragonoptrus, s, 40 
Tetragonurus, 77 
Tetraodon, 15 
Tetrapturus, 80 
Tetroras, s, 77 
Teuthis, d, 23, 48 
Therapon, 104 
Thrissa, s, 90, 98 
Thrissocles, 130 
Thrissops, 144 
Thryssa, s, 130 
Thymallus, 49, 130 
Thynnus, s, 48, 105 
Thyrsites, 129 

Tinea, 99 
Tirus, s, 80 
Tor, 139 

Torpedo Houttuyn, 22 
Torpedo Forsk., 32 
Torpedo Raf., s, 75, 82 
Toxotes, 105, 137 
Trachichthys, 55, 73 
Trachinotus, 61 
Trachinvis, 12 
Trachipterus, 28 
Trachurus, 72, 79 
Trachyrhynchus, 74 
Triacanthus, 98 
Trichidion, s, 40 
Trichis, s, 73 
Trichiurus, 12 
Trichiodon, 127 
Trichogaster, 58 
Trichonotus, 58, 90 
Trichopodus, s, 61 
Trichopus, s, 7$ 
Tricropterus, s, 79 
Trigla, 14 
Trinectes, 142 
Triodon, 131 
Tripteronotus, s, 65 
Tripterygion, 119 
Trisopterus, 87, 88 
Triurus, 56 
Trutta, 14, 24, 37 
Trygon, s, 98, 120 
Trygonobatus, s, 94 
Turdus, s, 30 

Tylosurus, 143 
Typhle, s, 78 
Typhlinus, 91 
Typhlobranchus, s, 60 
Typhlotes, s, 85 
Umbla, s, 29 
Umbra, 20, 42 
Umbrina, 104 
Unibranchapertura, s, 68 
Unicornis, s, 31 
Upeneus, 127 
Urasus, s, 140 
Uranoscopus L., 12 
Uranoscopus Gron., s, 19 
Uroxis, s, 83 
Vandellius, s, 73 
Vipera, s, 32 
Vomer, d, 105 
Vulpecula, dj 27 
Xiphias, 12 
Xiphorhynchus, 132 
Xiphostoma, 132 
Xipotheca, s, 84 
Xypterus, s, 82 
Xyrichthys, 93 
Xyster, s, 68 
Xysterus, s, 90 
Zanclus, 70, 136 
Zebricium, s, 92 
Zeus, 13 

Zingel, d, 104, 106 
Zoarces, d, 129 
Zygasna, s, 97 


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Introductory Note 163 

Additions, Etc., to Part 1 167 

7. Houttuyn, Historic, 1764 167 

9. Muller, Delineationes, 1767 167 

10. Geoffrey, 719 Plantes, 1767 168 

17A. Gronow, Pteraclis, 1772 168 

17B. Giildenstadt, Sterleta, \772 168 

20. Klein, Schauplatz, I, 1775 168 

31 A. Klein, Schauplatz, VIII, 1779.... 168 

3 IB. Brunnich, Vaagmaer, 1788 168 

45. Bloch, Ausldndische, IX, 1795.... 168 

47. Volta, Ichthyolithologia, 1796.... 169 

55. Bloch & Schneider, 5'y.y^^ma, 1801 169 

56. Lacepede, Poissons, IV, V, 1803 169 
56A. Lacepede, Nouvelle Hollande, 

1804 169 

56B. Bory, Afrique, 1804 170 

67. Dumeril, Cyclostomes, 1808 170 

72. Rafinesque, Caratteri, 1810 170 

75 A. Perry, Arcana. 1811 170 

75B. Humboldt, & Valenciennes, Voy- 
age, 1811 170 

85. Rafinesque, Analyse, 1815 170 

91. Cuvier, Regne Animal, I, 1817.... 171 

92. Oken, Isis, 1817 171 

97. Blainville, Fossilcs, 1818 171 

108. Goldfuss, Handbuch, 1820 171 

110. Hamilton, Ganges, 1822 172 

112. Van Hasselt, Java, 1823 172 

119. Konig, Icones, 1825....: 172 

119A. Le Sueur, New Salmo, 1825.... 172 
119B. Adanson, Histoire Naturelle, 

1825 172 

121. Risso, Meridionale, 1826 173 

121. A.. Riley, Squaloraia, 1826 173 

128. Riippell, Rothes Meer, 1828 173 

128A. Thienemann, Lehrhuch, 1828.. 173 
132. Cuvier & Valenciennes, Pois- 
sons, II, 1828 173 

134. Agassiz, Brazil, 1829 173 

135. Cuvier, Regne Animal, II, 1829.. 173 

136. Cuvier & Valenciennes, Pois- 

sons. Ill, 1829 173 


136A. Smith, South Africa, 1829 174 

136B. Bancroft, Sea Devil, 1829 174 

142. Cuvier & Valenciennes, Pois- 
sons, 1830 174 

143 Bennett, Sumatra, 1830 174 

143A. Bennett, Mauritius, 1830 174 

146A. Cuvier & Valenciennes, Pois- 
sons, VII, VIII, 1831 175 

146B. Bonaparte Saggio, 1831 175 

147A. Eichwald, Rossicc, 1831 176 

150A. Gray, Miscellany, 1831 176 

151B. Miinster, Petrefakten, 1832 176 

151 C. Couch, British Fauna, 1832 176 

151D. Nardo, Pesci nuovi, 1832 176 

151E. Krynicki, Schilus, 1832 176 

152. Minding, Lehrbuch, 1832 176 

153 Nilsson, Scandinavice, 1832 176 

153A. Reinhardt, Gronland, 1832 176 

164. Agassiz, Fossilcs. II, IV, 1833.... 177 

165. Brandt & Ratzeburg, Medezi- 

nische, 1833 177 

166. Cocco, Peloritani, 1833 178 

167. Cocco, Lettere, 1833 178 

168. Cocco, Messina, 1833 178 

169. Cuvier & Valenciennes, Pois- 

sons, IX, 1833 178 

170. Gray, Illustrations, 1833 178 

171. 172. Lowe, New Genus, 1833 179 

173. Lowe, Madeira, 1833 179 

174. Nardo, Skeponopodus, 1833 179 

175. Reinhardt, Skandinavisk, 1833.... 179 

176. Agassiz, Fossile Fische, 1834 179 

177. Agassiz, Bohmen, 1834 180 

178. Agassiz, Poissons Fossiles, V, 

1834 180 

179. Costa, Cenni, 1834 180 

180. Griffith, Cuvier, 1834 180 

181. Henle, Narcine, 1834 180 

182. Munster, Rabenstein, 1834 180 

183. Quoy & Gaimard, Astrolabe, 

1834 180 

184. Agassiz, Karpfen, 1834 180 




185. Agassiz, Poissons Fossiles, 1835. 181 223. 

186. Agassiz, Glarner-S chief er, 1835 181 224. 

187. Cuvier & Valenciennes, Pots- 225. 

sons, X, 1835 181 226. 

188. Gottsche, Pleuronectes, 1835 181 227. 

189. Joannis, Nil, 1835 182 228. 

190. Meyen, Peru, 1835 182 

191. Muller, Myxinoiden, 1835 182 229. 

192. De la Pylaie, Recherches, 1835.. 182 

193. Riippell, Abyssinien, 1835 184 230. 

194. Schultze, Hexabranchus, 1835.... 184 231. 

195. Agassiz, Poissons Fossiles, III, 232. 

1836 184 

196. Agassiz & Hibbert, Burdiehouse, 233. 

1836 185 234. 

197. Cuvier & Valenciennes, Pois- 

sons, XI, 1836 185 235. 

198. Heckel, Scaphirhynchus, 1836.... 185 

199. Heckel & Fitzinger, Acipenser, 236. 

1836 185 237. 

200 Lienard, Maurice, 1836 185 

201. Miinter, Capitosaurus, 1836 185 238. 

202. Richardson, Arctic, 1836 185 239. 

203. Richardson, B or eali- Americana, 240. 

III. 1836 186 

204. Riippell, Nil, 1836 186 241. 

205. Yarrell, British Fishes, 1836 186 242. 

206. Agassiz, Poissons Fossiles, III, 243. 

V, 1837 186 244. 

207. Bonaparte, Fauna Italica, III, 245. 

1837 186 246. 

208. Cantraine, Messina, 1837 188 247. 

209. Cuvier & Valenciennes, Pois- 248. 

sons, XII, 1837 188 249. 

210. Egerton, Fossil Fishes, 1837 189 

211. Fitzinger, Natterer, 1837 189 250. 

212. Fries, Pterycombus, 1837 189 251. 

213. Geinitz, Muschelkalk, 1837 189 

214. Heckel, Beitrdge, 1837 189 252. 

215. Kutorga, Dorpat, 1837 189 253. 

216. Miiller & Henle, HaiHsche, 1837. 189 254. 

217. Muller & Henle, Cartilaginous 

Fishes, 1837 189 255. 

218. Redfield, Connecticut, 1837 190 256. 

219. Reinhardt, Bythites, 1837 190 257. 

220. Smith, Squalus, 1837 190 258. 

221. Thompson, Echiodon, 1837 190 259- 

222. Agassiz, Poissons Fossiles, III, 262. 

IV, 1838 190 263. 

Buckland, Bagshot Sands, 1838.. 191 

Cocco, Messina, 1838 191 

Gray, Aracana, 1838 192 

Heckel, Caschmir, 1838 192 

Lowe, Maderensiuni, 1838 192 

Miiller & Henle, Plagiostomen, 

1838 192 

Miiller & Henle, Leptocharias 

1838 193 

Nordmann, Hexacanthus, 1838.. 193 

Reinhardt, Gronland, 1838 193 

Swainson, Natural History, I, 

1838 193 

Agassiz, Steinkerne, 1839 194 

Agassiz, Old Red Sandstone, 

1839 194 

Agassiz, Poissons Fossiles, II, 

IV (part), 1839 194 

Bonaparte, Systema, 1839 194 

Cuvier & Valenciennes, Pois- 
sons, XIII, XIV, 1839 194 

Lay & Bennett, Beechey, 1839.... 195 

Lowe, Madeira, 1839 195 

M'Clelland, Indian Cyprinidce, 

1839 ' 195 

M'Clelland. CyprinidcB, 1839 195 

Mitchell, Australia, 1839 196 

Miiller, Cyclostomen, 1839 196 

Miinster, Kupferschiefer, 1839.... 196 

Nardo, Mola, 1839 196 

Owen, Lepidosiren, 1839 196 

Owen, Fossil Fishes, 1839 196 

Ranzani, Mola, 1839 196 

Richardson, Van Diemen's Land, 

1839 197 

Storer, Massachusetts, 1839 197 

Swainson, Natural History, II, 

1839 197 

Bennett, Whaling Voyage, 1840.. 206 
Bonaparte, Fauna Italica, 1840.. 206 
Cuvier & Valenciennes, Pois- 
sons, XV, 1840 206 

Eichwald, Fossil Fishes, 1840 206 

Heckel, Natterer, 1840 207 

Lowe, Madeira, 1840 207 

Miinster, Kupferschiefer, 1840.... 207 

■261. Miinster, Bayreuth, 1840 207 

Nordmann, Pontica, 1840 207 

Owen, Odontography, 1840 207 



264. Ranzani, Piscium, 1840 207 

265. Richardson, Australia, 1840 208 

266. Thompson, India, 1840 208 

267. Agassiz, Ceard, 1841 208 

268. Bonaparte, Fauna Italica, 1841.... 208 

269. Eichwald, Caspio-Caucasica, 1841 208 

270. Fleming, New Skate, 1841 208 

271. Heckel, Aulopyge, 1841 209 

272. Hogg, Protomelus, 1841 209 

273. Lowe, Madeira, 1841 209 

274. W\\\<tr,OldRedSandstone,\^\.. 209 

275. Munster, Asterodon, 1841 209 

276. Nardo, Brachyochirus, 1841 209 

277. Owen, Fossil Teeth, 1841 209 

278. Sykes, Dukhiin, 1841 210 

279. Agassiz, Diplacanthus, 1842 210 

280. Cuvier & Valenciennes, Pois- 

sons, XVI, 1842 210 

281. Dekay, New York, 1842 210 

282. Gray, New Zealand, 1842 210 

283. Haldeman, Susquehannah, 1842.. 211 

284. Heckel, Syrien, 1842 211 

285. Jenyns, Beagle, 1842 211 

286. M'Clelbnd, Cestreus, 1842 212 

287. M'Clelland, Fishes, 1842 212 

288. Mijnster, Bayern, 1842 212 

289. Miinster, JEthalion, 1842 212 

290. Owen, Raphiosaurus, 1842 212 

291. Richardson, King George's 

Sound, 1842 212 

292. Schomburgk, Fishes of Guiana, 

1842 212 

293. Temminck & Schlegel, Fauna 

Japonica, 1842 213 

294. Valenciennes, Bonita, 1842 213 

295. Agassiz, Poissons Fossiles, Til 

1843 213 

296. Egerton, Chimoeroids, 1843 214 

297. Hall, New York, 1843 214 

298. Heckel, Syrien, 1843 214 

299. llQcktl, Russegge}^sReisen,\%Ai 215 

300. Lowe, Madeira, 1843 215 

301. Lowe, Madeira, 1843 215 

302. Muller, Knochennsche, 1843 215 

303. Miiller, Familien, 1843 215 

304. Miinster, Petrefaktenkunde, 1843 216 

305. Portlock, Londonderry, 1843 216 

306. Richardson, Machcerium, 1843.... 216 

307, 308. Temminck & Schlegel, 

Fauna Japonica, 1843 216 

309. Agassiz, Poissons Fossiles, I, H, 

III, IV, V, 1844 216 

310. Cocco, Messina, 1844 219 

311. Cuvier & Valenciennes, Pois- 

sons, XVII, 1844 219 

312. Egerton, Mount Lebanon, 1844.. 220 

313. Eichwald, Pawlowsk, 1844 220 

314. Koninck, Belgique, 1844 220 

315. M'Clelland, China, 1844 220 

316. M'Clelland, Bengal, 1844 220 

317. Meyer & Plieninger, IVurttem- 

berg, 1844 221 

318. Miiller & Troschel, Characini, 

1844 221 

319. Nardo, Caninoa, 1844 221 

320. Peters, Rhinocryptis, 1844 222 

320A. Reuss, Bohmen, 1844 222 

321. Richardson, Hapalogenys, 1844.. 222 

322. Richardson, Channichthys, 1844. 222 

323. Richardson, Patcecus, 1844 222 

324. Richardson, Sulphur, 1844 222 

325. Richardson, Erebus and Terror, 

1844 222 

326. Temminck & Schlegel, Fauna 

Japonica, 1844 223 

327. Valenciennes, Canaries, 1844 223 

328. Agassiz, Fossiles, Londres, 1845.. 223 

329. Agassiz, Vieux Gres Rouge, 1845. 225 

330. Bleeker, Batavia, 1845 225 

331. Bonaparte, Catalogo, 1845 225 

ii2. Brodie, Fossil Insects, 1845 226 

m. Costa, Fossil Fishes, 1845 226 

334. Kroyer, Icelus, 1845 226 

335. Kroyer, Carelophus, 1845 226 

336. Kroyer, Caracanthus, 1845 227 

337. Kr5yer, Ccratias, 1845 227 

338. M'Clelland, Boutan, 1845 227 

339. Miiller & Troschel, Characinen, 

1845 227 

340. Owen, Odontography, 1845 227 

341. Richardson, Gasteroschisma, 

1845 227 

342. Richardson, China, 1845 227 

343. South, Encyclopedia, 1845 227 

344. Temminck & Schlegel, Fauna 

Japonica, 1845 227 




345. Agassiz, Nomenclator, 1846 228 

346. Agassiz, M anus crip turn, 1846 228 

347. Bibron, Chilomycterus, 1846 228 

348. Brisout de Barneville, Gobie- 

soces, 1846 228 

349. Brisout de Barneville, Trachelo- 

chismus, 1846 228 

350. Costa, Napoli, 1846 228 

351. Cuvier & Valenciennes, Pois- 

sons, XVni, 1846 228 

352. Eichwald, Russia, 1846 229 

353. Keyserling, Petchora, 1846 229 

354. Kroyer, Danmark, 1846 229 

355. Lowe, Lophiidce, 1846 229 

356. Meyer, Jena, 1846 229 

357. MuUer, Arapaima, 1846 229 

358. Miinster, Ueberreste, 1846 229 

359. Norwood & Owen, Indiana, 1846. 229 
3S9A. Richardson, Australia, 1846 230 

360. Peters, Labyrinthftschen, 1846.... 230 

361. Temminck & Schlegel, Fauna 

Japonica, 1846 230 

362. Tschudi, Fauna Peruana, 1846.... 230 

363. Valenciennes, Eremophilus, 1846. 230 

364. Bleeker, Siluroideorum, 1847 230 

365. Bleeker, Pharyngognathorum, 

1847 230 

366. Brisout de Barneville, Centro- 

pristis, 1847 230 

367. Brisout de Barneville, Anguilli- 

formes, 1847 231 

368. Cuvier & Valenciennes, Pois- 

sons, XX, 1847 231 

369. Egerton, Chimceroids, 1847 231 

370. Giebel, Glarus, 1847 231 

371. Giebel, Vorwelt, 1847 231 

372. Guichenot, Pomanotis, 1847 232 

373. Kner, Cephalaspis, 1847 232 

374. Meyer, Paleontographica, 1847.. 232 

375. Meyer, Muschelkalk, 1847 232 

376. Plieninger, Degcrloch, 1847 232 

377. Wood, Leiodon, 1847 232 

378. Agassiz, Lake Superior, 1848 232 

379. Beyrich, Rothliegenden, 1848 233 

380. Bleeker, Sumbawa, 1848 232 

381. Cuvier & Valenciennes, Pois- 

sons, XXI, 1848 233 

382. Dana, Australia, 1848 233 

383. Ewald, Menaspis, 1848 233 


384. Giebel, Vorwelt, 1848 .^. 233 

385. Gistel, Thierreich, 1848 233 

386. Guichenot, Megaprotodon, 1848 .. 238 

387. Guichenot, Chile, 1848 238 

388. Meckel, Xiphophorus, 1848 238 

389. Jerdon, India, 1848 239 

390. M'Coy, Carboniferous, 1848 239 

391. M'Coy, Ichihyolites, 1848 239 

392. Miiller, Fossile, 1848 239 

393. Muller, & Troschel, British- 

Guiana, 1848 239 

394. Richardson, Samarang, 1848 239 

395. Ayres, Malacosteus, 1849 240 

396. Bleeker, Celebes, 1849 240 

397. Bleeker, Lahroiden, 1849 240 

398. Bleeker, Percoiden, 1849 240 

399. Bleeker, Blennioiden, 1849 240 

400. Bleeker, Madura, 1849 241 

401. Bleeker, Bali, 1849 241 

402. Cantor, Malayan Fishes, 1849 .... 241 

403. Cuvier & Valenciennes, Pois- 

sons, XXII, 1849 242 

404. Germar, Wittenberg, 1849 242 

405. 406. Giebel, Vorwelt, 1849 242 

407. Heckel, Chirocentrites, 1849 242 

408. Heckel, Syrien, 1849 242 

409. Hoeven, Dierkunde, 1849 243 

410. Jordan, Triodus, 1849 243 

411. M'Coy, Carboniferous, 1849 243 

412. Meyer, Muschelkalk, 1849 243 

413. Muller & Troschel, Hor^F Zoo/o- 

giccF, 1849 243 

413A. Newman, Devil Fish, 1849 244 

414. Reid, Vaagmccr, 1849 244 

415. Reinhardt, Sydamerika, 1849 244 

416. Sismonda, Piemonte, 1849 244 

417. Smith, South Africa, 1849 244 

418. Thiolliere, Jura, 1849 244 

419. Williamson, Scales and Teeth, 

1849 244 

420. Agassiz, Lake Superior, 1850 245 

421. Bleeker, Mmwiden, 1850 245 

422. Bleeker, Betta, 1850 245 

423. Costa, Ittioliti, 1850 245 

424. Dixon, Sussex, 1850 245 

425. Egerton, Ganoidei, 1850 246 

426. Fischer, Platacanthus, 1850 246 

427. Fischer, Ommatolampes, 1850.... 246 

428. Gibbes, Mososaurus, 1850 246 




429. Guichenot. Algerie, II, 1850 246 

430. Heckel, Oesterreich, 1850 246 

431. Jerdon, Pristolepis, 1850 246 

432. Lankester, Old Red Sandstone, 

1850 246 

433. Lowe, Madeira, 1850 246 

434. Pictet, Mont Liban, 1850 247 

435. Richardson, Australia, 1850 247 

436. Temminck & Schlegel, Fauna 

Japonica, 1850 247 

437. Thiolliere, Jura, 1850 247 

438. Bleeker, Banka, 1581 247 

439. Bleeker, Borneo, II, 1851 247 

440. Bleeker, Makreelagtige, 1851 248 

441. Bleeker, Borneo, III, 1851 248 

442. Bleeker, Cheilinoides, 1851 248 

443. Bleeker, Borneo, IV, 1851 248 

444. Bleeker, Celebes, II, 1851 248 

445. Bleeker, Banda, 1851 248 

446. Gaimard, Skandinavie, 1851 249 

447. Girard, Cottus, 1851 249 

448. Girard, Cottopis, 1851 249 

449. Gray, Australia, 1851 249 

450. Liitken, Ophisurus, 1851 249 

451. Meyer, Jena, 1851 249 

452. 453. Meyer, Nephrotus, 1851 249 

454. M'Coy, Steganodictyum, 1851.... 249 

455. Thompson, Percopsis, 1851 249 

456. Wagner, Lithographische, 1851- 250 

457. Bleeker, Makreelachtige, 1852.... 250 

458. Bleeker, Plagiostomen, 1852 250 

459. Bleeker, Sumatra, 1852 250 

460. Bleeker, Celebes, III, 1852 250 

461. Dumeril, Torpediens, 1852 250 

462. Egerton, Elasmodus, 1852 250 

463. Fischer, Russie, 1852 250 

464. Gervais, Palceontologie, 1852 251 

465. Lowe, Madeira, 1852 251 

466. Quenstedt, Petrefakten, 1852 251 

467. Roemer, Texas, 1852 251 

468. Riippell, Skelette, 1852 251 

469. Agassiz, Researches, 1853 251 

470. Agassiz, California, 1853 252 

471. Baird & Girard, Mexican Bound- 

ary, 1853 252 

472. Baird & Girard, Zuiii, 1853 252 

473. Bleeker, Batavia, 1853 252 

474. Bleeker, Ternate, II, 1853 252 

475. Bleeker, Borneo, VII, 1853 252 


476. Bleeker, Murceno'iden, 1853 252 

477. Bleeker, Japan, 1853 253 

478. Bleeker, Bengalen, 1853 253 

479. Costa, Italy, 1853 253 

480. Gervais, Algerie, 1853 253 

481. Kaup, Lophobranchier, 1853 253 

482. Kolliker, Helmichthyiden, 1853.. 254 

483. Owen, Fossil Fishes, 1853 254 

484. Pomel, Loire, 1853 254 

485. Romanovskii, Fisch-Zdhne, 1853. 254 

486. Agassiz, Tennessee River, 1854.. 254 

487. Agassiz, Holconoti, 1854 255 

488. Ayres, California, 1854 255 

489. Ayres, Four Fishes, 1854 255 

490. Baird & Girard, Texas, 1854 255 

491. Baird & Girard, Cochlognathus, 

1854 255 

492. Bleeker, Batavia, 1854 255 

493. Bleeker, Flores, 1854 256 

494. Bleeker, Amboina, 1854 256 

494A. Bleeker, Celebes, 1854 256 

495. Brandt, Belonopsis, 1854 256 

496. Costa, Napoli, 1854 256 

497. Egerton, Fossil Fishes, 1854 256 

498. Egerton, Dipteronotus, 1854 256 

499. Eichwald. Lethcea Rossica, 1854.. 256 

500. Gibbons, San Francisco, 1854.... 256 

501. Gxhhon?,, Viviparous Fishes, \%SA 257 

502. Girard, Cottoids, 1854 257 

502A. Girard, New Fishes, 1854 257 

503. Girard, San Francisco, 1854. 257 

504. Girard, Chili, 1854 258 

505. Girard, Viviparous Fishes, 1854. 258 

506. Gronow, Fishes, 1854 258 

507. Heckel, Chiavon, 1854 259 

508. Heckel, Fische Zigno, 1854 259 

509. Hyrtl, Heterotis, 1854 259 

510. Kner, Panserwelse, 1854 260 

511. Kner, Hypostomiden, 1854 260 

512. Marcusen, Mormyren, 1854 260 

513. Owen, Fossil Remains, 1854 260 

514. Poey, Epinnula, 1854 260 

515. Poey, Guajacones, 1854 260 

516. Rapp, Bodensee, 1854 261 

517. Richardson, Herald, 1854 261 

518. Thiolliere, Jura, 1854 261 

519. Troschel, Siebengebirge, 1854.... 261 

520. Agassiz, Pacific Slope, 1855 261 

521. Ayres, California, 1855 262 




522. Basilewski, China Borealis, 1855.. 262 

523. Bianconi, Mosambica, 1855 262 

524. Bibron, Gymnodontes, 1855 262 

525. Bleeker, Van Diemensland, 1855.. 263 

526. Bleeker, Kokos, III, 1855 263 

527. Bleeker, Batoe, 1855 263 

528. Bleeker, Diiizend-eilanden, 1855.. 263 

529. Bleeker, Amboina, VI, 1855 264 

530. Bleeker, Sumatra, 1855 264 

531. Bleeker, Geognostica, 1855 264 

532. Castelnau, Amerique du Stid, 

1855 264 

533. Costa, Cceus, 1855 264 

534. Egerton, Organic Remains, 1855.. 264 

535. Filippi, Gadopsis, 1855 265 

536. Holbrook, South Carolina, 1855.. 265 

537. Kaup, Enchelynassa, 1855 265 

538. Kaup, Sclerodermen, 1855 265 

539. Kner, Beitrdge, 1855 265 

540. M'Coy, PalcEOsoic Fossils, 1855.. 265 

541. Meyer, Physichthys, 1855 266 

542. Nilsson, Skandinavisk, 1855 266 

543. Peters, Mossambique, 1855 266 

544. Roemer, Palceoteuthis, 1856 266 

545. Storer, Massachusetts, 1855 266 

546. Valenciennes, Venus, 1855 266 

547. Agassiz, Glanis, 1856 267 

548. Asmuss, Hautskelet, 1856 267 

549. Bleeker, Amboina, 1856 267 

550. Bleeker, Menado, 1856 267 

551. Bleeker, Boeroe, 1856 267 

552. Bleeker, Nias, 1856 267 

553. Bleeker, Bali, 1856 268 

554. Costa, Fossile, 1856 268 

555. Dumeril, Ichthyologie, 1856 268 

556. 557. Girard, Western Coast, 1856.. 269 

558. Girard, Cyprinoids, 1856 269 

559. Holmes, Devilfish, 1856 270 

560. Heckel, Oesterreich, 1856 270 

561. Heckel, Pycnodonten, 1856 270 

562. Kaup, Aale, 1856 270 

563. Kaup, Apodal Fish, 1856. 271 

564. Kaup, Ophidine, 1856 272 

565. Kaup, Lophobranchiates, 1856.... 272 

566. Leidy, Extinct Vertebrates, 1856.. 272 

567. Leidy, Sioux Country, 1856 272 

568. Leidy, Extinct Fishes, 1856 272 


569. Leidy, Ichthyodorulites, 1856 273 

570. Leidy, Extinct Fishes, 1856 273 

571. 'N^^htYvy, Fossils of Ohio, \2>S6.. 273 

572. Pander, Silurian, 1856 273 

573. Richardson, Ichthyology, 1856.... 274 

574. Thompson, Ireland, 1856 274 

575. Baird, Long Island, 1857 274 

576. Bellotti, Lombardia, 1857 274 

577. Bleeker, Amboina, 1857 274 

578. Bleeker, Japan, 1857 274 

579. Bleeker, Sangi, 1857 274 

580. Costa, Libano, 1857 275 

581. Egerton, Ludlow, 1857 275 

581A. Emmons, Geology, 1857 275 

582. Gervais, Labrodon, 1857 275 

583. Girard, Western Coast, 1857 275 

584. Hollard, Gymnodontes, 1857 275 

585. Newberry, Devonian, 1857 275 

586. Newberry, Eurylepis, 1857 276 

587. Peters, Hemichromis, 1857 276 

588. Philippi, Fische, 1857 276 

589. Richardson, Siphonognathus, 

1857 276 

590. Riitimeyer, Encheisiphius, 1857.. 276 

591. Troschel, Saarbriicke, 1857 276 

592. Wagner, Solenhofen, 1857 276 

593. Agassiz, Skate, 1858 277 

594. Agassiz, Nicaragua, 1858 277 

595. Ayres, California, 1858 277 

596. Bleeker, Sumatra, VI, 1858 277 

597. Bleeker, Japan, IV, 1858 277 

598. Bleeker, Celebes, X, 1858 277 

599. Bleeker, Coram, 1858 278 

600. Bleeker, Bilitou, IV, 1858 278 

601. Bleeker, Borneo, XII, 1858 278 

602. Bleeker, Siluri, Prodromus, 1858.. 278 

603. Bleeker, Cobitinen, 1858 279 

604. Bleeker, Japara, 1858 279 

605. Blyth, Amblyceps, 1858 279 

606. Bronn, Raibl, 1858 279 

607-612. Costa. Uralcptus, 1858 279 

613. Dumeril, Afrique, 1858 280 

614. Egerton, Chondrosteus, 1858.... 280 

615. Egerton. Cosmolepis, 1858 280 

616. Gill, Gobinarum, 1858 280 

617. Gill, Gobioidarum, 1858 280 

618. Gill, Tricenophorichthys, 1858.... 280 




619. Gill, Pimelodince, 1858 280 

620. Gill. Trinidad, 1858 281 

621. Heckel & Kner, Oesterreich, 1858 281 

622. Kade, Devonische, 1858 181 

623. Kaup, Gadid(r, 1858 281 

624. Kaup, Nemophis, 1858 281 

625. Kaup, Solcince, 1858 282 

626. Kaup, Plagnsina, 1858 282 

627. Kaup, Joue cuirassee, 1858 282 

628. Kner, Beitriige, II, 1858 282 

629. Leidy, Carboniferous, 1858 283 


630. Leidy, Hadrodus, 1858 283 

631. Von der Marck, Fossils, 1858 283 

632. Pander, Ctenodipterinen, 1858.... 283 

633. Philippi, Chile, 1858 283 

633A. Quenstedt, Jura, 1858 283 

634. Reinhardt, Stegophilus, 1859 284 

635. Rouault, Quest de France, 1858.. 284 

636. Thiolliere, Bugey, 1858 284 

637. Weinland, Flying-fish, 1858 284 

Omissions 284 

Abbreviations of author names, where used, following words in small capitals 
are as follows : 

Ag. Agassiz 

B. & C. Bocage & Capello 

Baird & Grd. Baird & Girard. 

Barn. Barneville 

Beyr. Beyrich 

BI. & Schn. Bloch & Schneider. 

Blainv. Blainville 

Blkr. Bleeker 

Bon. Bonaparte 

Cuv. Cuvier 

Guv. & Val. Cuvier & Valenciennes. 

Dum. Dumeril 

Egert. Egerton 

Ehrenb. Ehrenberg 

Eichw. Eichwald 

G. & B. Goode & Bean. 

Grd. Girard 

Gthr. Giinther 

Guich. Guichenot 

Ham. Hamilton 

j. & G. Jordan & Gilbert 

J. & E. Jordan & Evermann 

K. & S. Kner & Steindachner 

Kolr. Kolreuter 

L. Linnaeus 

Lac. Lacepede 

Lank. Lankester 

M. & H. MiiUer & Henle 

M. & T. Miiller & Troschel 

McCl. M'Clelland 

Q. &. G. Quoy & Gaimard 

Raf. Rafinesque 

Ranz. Ranzani 

Reinh. Reinhardt 

Rich. Richardson 

Steind. Steindachner 

Sw. Swainson 

T. & S. Temminck & Schlegel 

Val. Valenciennes 

Woodw. Woodward 


This present memoir is a continuation of a paper entitled, The 
Genera of Fishes, from Linnceus to Cuvier, 1758-1833, seventy-five years, 
with the accepted type of each, a contribution to the stability of scientific 
nomenclature, published by the present writer in 1917. 

It is likewise a contribution to the stability of scientific nomencla- 
ture. It covers what may be termed the mediaeval period of systematic 
ichthyology, the time in which nomenclature is fairly established, but in 
which, for want of a general zoological record, many papers have been 
overlooked or forgotten. 

This period is especially marked by the studies of Professor Agassiz 
on the fossil fishes, by the exhaustive record of the fishes of the East 
Indies by Dr. Bleeker, and by the unification of ichthyological knowledge 
by Valenciennes and by Dr. Gunther. Giinther's Catalogue of the Fishes 
■ of the British Museum, 1859-1870, must always remain the solid founda- 
tion on which systematic zoology is built. This period is also marked by 
the studies in comparative zoology by Dr. Johannes Miiller and by the 
opening to science of the rich fresh-water fauna of North and South 
America. In this period wrote also the keenest of taxonomic critics, Dr. 
Gill, whose conceptions of genera and of families are likely in a large 
degree to constitute the last word in regard to the status of groups of 
this grade. Other notable writers whose work has been of a high order 
are Richardson, Schlegel, Lowe, Egerton, Reinhardt, Poey, Heckel, 
Kner, Pictet, Holbrook, Baird, Troschel, Owen, McClelland, Riippell, 
Henle, Storer, DeKay, Ayres, Cooper, Girard and Cope. Of the many 
writers in the period preceding the year 1870, Steindachner only, one of 
the most industrious and accurate, is still living. When the writer vis- 
ited him in Vienna in 1913 he was still, at the age of 79, hard at work, 
and one important paper of his bearing date of 1915 has found its way 
through the vicissitudes of censorship to my library. 

In accordance with the philosophy of evolution, the writers at the 
end of this period have inverted the fish series, the simplest and most 
ancient types being placed first in taxonomic records, rather than the 
perch and its relatives, so long regarded as typifying the perfect or com- 
pleted fish. 


Compilations of this sort constitute an exercise in modesty. They 
can never be made absolutely complete nor free from errors. In the 
present case, the author cannot be certain that the genotype he indi- 
cates is actually the one chosen by the first reviser. The compilation 
itself deals with the work of great minds, but also with a degree of igno- 
rance, carelessness and perversity by which names were multiplied with 
no corresponding increase of ideas. Synonymy in general is the index 
of lack of actual knowledge, or else, of the failure to deal justly with 
the work of others, "a burden and a disgrace to science". No system of 
naming can be beyond the knowledge on which it rests. Ignorance of 
fact produces confusion in nomenclature. 

The science of ichthyology, to which the present series of papers 
offers a kind of key, is the work of many scholars, each in his own field, 
each contributing a series of facts, a series of tests of the work of others, 
or else some improvement in the method of arrangement. As in other 
branches of science, this work has been done by sincere, devoted men, 
impelled by a love for this kind of labor, and having in view, as "the only 
reward they asked, a grateful remembrance of their work". And as 
future generations may be lenient towards our own shortcomings, we 
should be generous towards those of our predecessors. 

In so far as the present paper assumes to decide questions of nomen- 
clature, it follows strictly the rules agreed on by the International Com- 
mission. Of these, the one of most vital importance is concerned with 
the rigid enforcement of the law of priority. 

The writer expresses his special obligation to Mr. Barton A. Bean of 
the United States National Museum, and to Henry Weed Fowler of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia for services in examining 
rare or forgotten books, and to Mr. Masamitsu Oshima, for valuable aid 
in compilation. He is also under special obligations to Mr. R. A. Nelgner 
of the Stanford University Press for his care in ensuring accuracy in 
this difficult piece of work. In arranging the genera of fossil fishes, 
he has depended almost entirely on the Catalogue of the Fossil Fishes 
in the British Museum, by Arthur Smith Woodward. The cataloguing 
of the scattered and multifarious genera of Dr. Bleeker has been made 
possible by the Index of the Ichthyological Papers of P. Bleeker, by 
Dr. Max Weber and Dr. L. F. de Beaufort. In matters of citation of titles 
Dean's Bibliography of Fishes has been absolutely indispensable. The 
writer hopes to complete this work by a final paper covering the period 
from 1859 to 1920. The need of such compilation grows progressively 
less, as the Zoological Record of London, beginning with 1864, contains 
references to nearly all the generic names of subsequent date, although 
having occasional surprising omissions. 


The writer asks for additions and corrections, that the work may 
be as helpful as possible to students of fishes. 

It will be noted that the genera have been arranged as far as may 
be in chronological order, publications of the same year being arranged in 
alphabetical order in accord with the names of authors. 

The term orthotype is applied to the type of a genus as indicated or 
distinctly implied by the original author. A logotype is one selected by 
the "first reviser". A haplotype is the sole species named under a genus, 
therefore of necessity an orthotype as well. A tautotype is a name of a 
genus identical with the specific name of one of its components. 

Stanford University, California, 
November 11, 1918: Issued July, 1919. 



1. LINN^US (1758). Systema Natures. Ed. X, Vol. 1. 

Carl LiNNE (Carolus Linn.eus). (1707-1778.) 

Trigla Linnasus, 300; logotype T. gurnardus L., as restricted by Kaup, 1873, Ap- 
parently this should replace the later restriction to T. lyra L. of Jordan & 
Gilbert, 1883, this species being type of Lyrichthys Kaup. 

Mormyrus Linnaeus, 327; logotype M. caschive Hasselquist, as restricted by Gill. 
(Not M. CYPRINOIDES L., as stated in part 1, page 15; this species is the type 
of AIarcusenius Gill. ) 

Tetraodon Linnaeus, 332; logotype T. lineatus L. I am compelled to revise my 
judgment, as given in part I of the Genera of Fishes, page 15, in which I 
present the reasons for regarding T. testudineus L. as the type of Tetraodon. 
This judgment is based on Bleeker's restriction of the genus in 1865. I find 
that an earlier restriction was made by Bonaparte in the Fauna Italica, about 
1841, "Tetraodon lineatus Bloch" being taken as type following a suggestion 
of Swainson. Bloch's account includes the synonymy and description of T. 
lineatus L., although the figure he offers may have been based on an exam- 
ple of T. stellatus. 

In this view of the case, the type of Tetraodon should be T. lineatus, 
a fresh-water species of the Nile, with which the numerous marine species 
called Ovoides (Arothron) may not be congeneric. According to Dr. Gill, 
the type of Tetraodon is distinguished from the Pacific species known as 
Ovoides by the form of the frontal bones, a matter which needs further 

In this view the name Spheroides should stand, as used by Jordan and 
Evermann, for the allies of T. testudineus L. 


7. HOL^TTUYN (1764). A'aturlike historic volgens den Hcer Linnceus. 

Martin Houttuyn. 
Conger Houttyn, VII, 103, and Torpedo Houttuyn, VII, 453, as quoted in Genera 
of Fishes, page 22, are not presented by Houttuyn as generic names, and the 
reference to them should be canceled. 

In a personal letter dated August 23, 1918, Mr. C. Davies Sherborn says: 
"Torpedo is the trivial Linnaean name of the species Raja torpedo and Con- 
ger is the trivial Linnaean part of the species name Mur^na conger. Neither 
name is used scientifically nor is there any intention on Houttuyn's part 
to do more than quote the Linnaean term for the fish he describes as 'Kramp- 
fisch' and 'Conger'." 

The record of this work of Houttuyn should therefore be erased as hav 
ing no relation to scientific nomenclature. 


9. MtJLLER (1767). Dclincationes Natiirce. II, 141. 
Philip Ludwig Statius Muller (1725-1776). 
Mr. Sherborn informs me that the generic names Acus, page 141, and 


Orbis, page 141 ; "are perfectly valid," that is, properly presented as generic 
names. Acus is a synonym of Syngnathus L., Orbis of Diodon L. 

10. GEOFFROY (1767). Descriptions de 719 plantes, etc. 

fixiENNE Louis Geoffroy (1725-1810). 
IchthyocoUa Geofifroy, 399 ; haplotype Acipenser huso L. This replaces Huso 
Brandt, and Sterletus Raf. Mr. Sherborn informs me that the generic 
names used by Geoffroy are "perfectly valid" for purposes of nomenclature. 
These are : 

IcHTHYOcoLLA, 399, (Huso Brandt). 
Harengus, 405, (Clupea L.). 
Lucius, 467, (Esox L.). 
Trutta, 719, (Trutta L.). 


17A. GRONOW (1772). (Pteraclis.) Actae Helveticae. VIL 
LoRENz Theodor Gronow (Laurentius Theodorus Gronovius). (1730-1777). 
Pteraclis Gronow, 44; orthotype P. pinnata Gronow — Coryph^na velifera Pal- 
las. As here used, unquestionably binomial. 

17B. GtJLDENSTADT (1772). (Sterlcta.) Nov. Comm. Sci. Petropol, XVL 

Anton Johann Guldenstadt. 
Sterleta Giildenstadt, 533 ; tj'pe Acipenser ruthenus L. under polynomial desig- 
nation. If eligible, will replace Sterletus Brandt and Sterledus Bon. 


20. KLEIN (1775). Neuer Schauplats, etc. / 

Jakob Theodor Klein (1685-1759). 
Prochilus Klein, I, 1043; Amphiprion ephippium Bloch, as restricted by Bleeker, 
1877 (P. ovAT^ FiGVRM MACULA FUSCA MAGNA Klein). This name, if deemed 
eligible from the date of the Schauplats would replace Amphiprion B1. & Schn., 
instead of Pholis Cuv. & Val. (Lipophrys Gill), as suggested in part I 
of this work. 


31 A. KLEIN (1779). Neuer Schauplatz, etc. 
Jacob Theodor Klein. 
Platystacus Klein, VIII, 52, 1779; type (P. cotylephorus Bloch); a synonym of 
AsPREDO (Gronow) Scopoli. 


31B. BRtJNNICH (1788). Om den islandskc iisk Vaagmaeren (Gytnnogaster 

arcticus). Kong. Dansk. Selsk. Skr., Ill, 408-413. 

Morten Thrane Brunnich (1737-1827) 

Gymnogaster Briinnich, III, 408 ; orthotype G. arcticus Brunnich. A synonym of 

Trachipterus Gouan. Not Trichiurus L. 


45. BLOCH (1795). Naturgeschichte dcr ausldndischen Fische. IX. 
Mark Elieser Bloch (1729-1799). 
Gymnothorax Bloch IX, 83, 1795; type as first restricted (Bleeker, 1864) G. reticu- 
laris Bloch. Although originally virtually a substitute name for Mur^na 
L., the first fixation of types separates the two. Gymnothorax thus replaces 
Lycodontis McCl. 



47. VOLTA (1796). Ichthyolithologia Veronese. 
Giovanni Serafino Volta. 
Monopteros Volta, CXCL; orthotype M. gigas Volta (fossil). Replaces Pla- 
TiNX Ag. MoNOPTERUS Lac, 1798, is thus preoccupied and must give way 
to Fluta BI. & Schn. (1801). 


55. BLOCK & SCHNEIDER (1801). Systema Ichthyologice. 
Mark Elieser Block; Johann Gottlob Schneider (1750-1822). 
Periophthalmus Bloch & Schneider, 6Z ; logotype, as first restricted (by Gill, 1863) 
GoBius SCHLOSSERI Pallas. The name therefore replaces PERIOPHTHALMODO^ 
Blkr., while the common species known as Periophthalmus barbarus or 
P. koelreuteri is the type of Euchoristopus Gill (1863). 
Synanceja Bloch & Schneider. 194; logotype S. verrucosa B1. & Schn., as first 
restricted by Miiller, 1843. This limitation to species without vomerine teeth 
holds as against Bleeker's restriction to the first species named, S. horrida. 
Synanceja thus replaces Spurco Commerson, Synanceichthys Blkr. and 
Emmydrichthys Jordan & Rutter. S. horrida is type of Synancidium 
Miiller. I am not convinced by Bleeker's statement that Synancidium is not 
a valid genus. 
Fluta Bloch & Schneider, 565; orthotype Monopterus javanensis Lac. Name a 
substitute for Monopterus Lac. (1798). The latter is preoccupied by Mo- 
nopteros Volta (1796). The type species should stand as Fluta alba 


56. LACfiPfiDE (1803). Histoire naturelle des poissons. IV, V. 

Bernard Germain Lacepede (1756-1825). 

Enoplosus Lacecepede, IV, 540; orthotype Ch.^todon armatus Shaw. This genus 

dates from 1803. The name Enoplosus was not used by White in 1790. 
Stolephorus Lacepede, V, 381; logotype S. commersonianus Lac. In view of the 
fact that the descriptions of Stolephorus of Lacepede, Bleeker and Jordan 
were drawn from this species, the second-named by Lacepede, it may well be 
regarded as the type of Stolephorus. S. japonicus, the first-named species 
and the one first formally indicated as type, was very scantily described, and 
was unknown to authors until very recently. In this view Stolephorus will 
replace or include Anchoviella Fowler (1911). This reverses the decision 
in part I, page 67. 


56A. LACfiPEDE (1804). Memoires stir plusieiirs animaux de la Nouvelle 

Hollande, etc. Ann. Mus. Nat. Hist., IV, 1804. 

Bernard Germain Lacepede. 

Prionurus Lacepede, IV, 211 ; orthotype P. microlepidotus Lac. 

Platypodus Lacepede, IV, 211; orthotype P. furca Lac. 

This genus, overlooked by subsequent writers, seems to belong to the 
Osphronemid^, an ally of Macropodus. It is said to have large fan-like 
ventrals of at least eight rays, the dorsal extending from the nape to the 
base of the caudal, which is narrow, forked, its lobes half as long as rest 
of body; pectorals small; anal very low. This may be, as suggested by 
Dr. Gunther for Macropodus, a domesticated form of Polyacanthus. Both 
names, if correctly written (Macropus; Platypus), are preoccupied. 


56B. BORY DE SAINT VINCENT (1804). Voyage dans les quatre principales 

I'iles des Mers d'Afriquc. 1801 et 1802. 
Jean Baptiste Bory de St. Vincent (1780-1846). 
Acinacea Bory de St. Vincent. I, 93; orthotype A. notha Bory ( "Tacinacee ■ 
batarde"). An ally of Thyrsites Cuv., overlooked by authors. It diflfers 
from Thyrsites (atun), if correctly described and figured, in the presence 
of twenty-nine spines in the dorsal fin, instead of twenty. The type specimen 
was from the open sea, off Africa. If identical with Thyrsites, Acinacea 
has priority. The Latin form as well as the French is given by the author. 


67. DUMfiRIL (1808). Dissertation sur Ics foissous Cyclostomcs. 
Andre Marie Constant Dumeril (1774-1860). 
Ammocoetus Dumeril ; orthotype Petromyzon branchialis L. (larval form of 
Petrimyzon marinus or of Lamptera planeri, or both). Best treated as a 
synonym of Petromyzon. 


72. RAFINESQUE (1810). Carattcri di alcuni nuovi generi c nuove specie di 

animale e piantc dcUa Sicillia. 
Constantine Samuel Rafinesque (1783-1840). 
Typhle Rafinesque, 18; orthotype Syngnathus typhle L. We are unable to find 
any further notice of the blind genus of mammals "Typhle", as noted by 
Lacepede. Typhle should therefore apparently stand, and not be replaced 
by Typhlinus Raf. (1814). 


75A. PERRY (1811). Arcana or Museum of .Witural History. 

George Perry. 
Congiopus Perry; orthotype C. percatus Perry — Blennius torvus Walbaum. 
Replaces Agriopus Cuv.. 1829. 

75B. HUMBOLDT & VALENCIENNES (1811). Rccherchcs sur les poissons 
fluviatilcs; Humboldt & Bonpland; vovagc atix regions cquinoxiales dh 
nouz'cau continent. II (later edition; the original in 1806). 
Friedrich Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859) ; Achille 

Valenciennes (1794-1865). 

Thrycomycterus Humboldt & Valenciennes ; orthotype T. nigricans Humboldt & 
Val ; a synonym of Eremophilus Humboldt, according to Eigcnmann. Nam<r 
spelled Trichomycterus by Valenciennes in 1846, and the genus made to 
include Pygidium Meyer. 


85. RAFINESQUE (1815). Analyse de la nature, etc. 
Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. 
Raphistoma Rafinesque, 89; no type named and no diagnosis, except an erroneous 
reference to Lacepede. Intended to represent Esox belone L. Spelled 
Ramphistoma by Swainson. who adopts the name. Is apparently not eligible 
in place of Belone Cuv., 1817, though an argument might be made for its 
acceptance, as we know the type intended and there are a few words of inac- 
curate diagnosis. 


Eleuthurus Rafinesque ; no diagnosis and no type given. Omitted by inadventure 
in Genera of Fishes, part I. According to Bleeker, Rafinesque's names 
(undefined and without type), Dameus, Eleuthurus, Rincoxis and Zebri- 
sciUM, were intended for eels). In the account of Rafinesque's Analyse, 
given in Genera of Fishes, part I, arc a few misprints arising from misread- 
ing a manuscript list. Read : 

ICTIAS, p. 82. 

Batrictius, 82. , 

Cephimnus, 85. 

Edonius, 88. 

Platistus, 89 (for Platystacus). 

Raphistoma, 89. ^ 

Odamphus, 89. 

gonodermus, 91. 

DisPiNOTUs, 92. 

91. CUVIER (1817). Le Regne Animal, etc. Tome II. 
Georges Cuvier (1769-1832). 
Hydrocynus Cuvier, II, 167; logotype H. forskali Cuvier ; several species named, 
the genus restricted by Cuvier {Mem. Mus., 1819) to H. forskali, and the 
name spelled Hvdrocvon. Also in Cuv. & Vol., XXII, 509, 1849. The name was 
afterwards restricted to H. lucius Cuv., a species of Xiphostoma, Ag., but 
the first adjustment must stand. The name is Hydrocynus and the genus 
contains no American species. 
Bodianus Cuvier, Regne Animal, II, 276; logotype Bodianus guttatus Bloch ; (not 
BoDiANUs of Bloch) which by tautonomy goes with Bodianus bodianus 
Bloch, and replaces Harpe Lac. Gill restricts Bodianus (Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phil., 1862, 237) to B. guttatus Bloch, a species of Cephalopholis B1. & 
Schn. By the rule of tautonomy, under present rules BoDi.wus must stand 
for Harpe rufa. 

92. OKEN (1817). I sis. 
Lorenz Oken (1777-1851). 
In Isis, 1817, Oken furnishes Latin equivalents to the French generic 
names used by Cuvier. 
Lumpus Oken 1782, orthotype Cyclopterus lumpus L. = Lumpus anglorum of 
authors. Equivalent for "les Lumps" of Cuvier, a synonym of Cyclopterus L. 
Omitted by accident in part I. 


97. BLAINVILLE (1818). (Poissons fossilcs.) Nouveau Dictionnaire d'Histoire 

Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville (1777-1850). 
Anormurus Blainville, XXVII, 374; orthotype A. macrolepidotus Blainv. (fossil). 
Perhaps the same as Notogoneus Cope, 1885. 


108. GOLDFUSS (1820). Handbuch der Zoologie. II. 
George August Goldfuss (1782-1848). 
Rhomboides Goldfuss ; orthotype Pleuronectes rhombus L. Substitute for 
Rhombus Cuv.; a synonym of Bothus Raf. 


Batrachopus Goldfuss (not Batrachops). Orthotype Lophius commersonianus 
Lac. A synonym of Antennarius. 

110. HAMILTON (1822). An Account of the Fishes Found in the River Ganges 

and Its Branches. 
Francis Hamilton (formerly Buchanan) (1762-1829). 
The reprint of Hamilton's Fishes of the Ganges has the pagination changed 
from that given in the text of the Genera of Fishes, page 114. Thus, in the 
reprint, Chanda appears on page 109, not 370. 
Callichrous Hamilton, 149; logotype Silurus pabda Ham. (as restricted by Bleeker, 

1862). A synonym of Ompok Lac. 
Coius Hamilton, 369 (95) ; logotype Coius polota Ham., as restricted by Fowler. 
1905. This designation of type prior to that of Jordan, 1917. Replaces 
Datnioides Blkr., 1853. 
Chanda Hamilton, 370; logotype Chanda nama Ham. (fig. Z7) (Hamiltonia 
OVATA Sw.). The type of the substitute name Hamiltonia Sw. (1839) as 
indicated by Swainson and by Swain (1882) carries the complex genus 
Chanda with it. This antedates Fowler's choice (1902) of Chanda lala as 
type. C. nama is type of Bogoda Blkr. Chanda should therefore replace 


Corica Hamilton, 253 or 383 ; orthotype Cyprinus soborna Ham. The name 
SOEORNA (misspelled in the Genera of Fishes, page 115) is given as guborni 
by Gray. 


112. VAN HASSELT ( 1823) . Poissons de Java. Allgemeine Konst en Letterbok, U. 

Jan Ccenrad Van Hasselt {d. 1821). 

Dermogenys Van Hasselt, 131 ; orthotype D. pusillus Van Hasselt (omitted in 
part I). Spelled Dermatogenys by Peters. 

Diplocheilus Van Hasselt, 329 ; orthotype D. erythopterus Van Hasselt. 

Gonostoma Van Hasselt, 329; orthotype G. javanicum Van Hasselt. Name pre- 
occupied; replaced by Anodontostoma Blkr. 


119. K5NIG (1825). Icones fossilium sectiles. 

Clemens Konig. 

Teratichthys Konig, 4; orthotype T. antiquitatis Konig (fossil). An unknown 

ally of Caranx. 

119A. LE SUEUR (1825). Description of a New Fish of the Genus Salmo 
(S. microps). Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
Charles Alexandre Le Sueur (1778-1846). 

Harpodon Le Sueur, V, 50; orthotype Salmo microps Le Sueur = Osmerus 
nehereus Ham. 

119B. ADANSON (1825). Cours d'histoire naturelle. 
Michael Adanson (1727-1806). 
Trygon Adanson, H, 170; orthotype Raja pastinaca L. A synonym of Dasyatis 
Raf. (According to Auguste Dumeril, Adanson's paper, written in 1772, was 
printed by Payer in 1825). 



121. RISSO (1826). Histoire naturelle des principales productions de I'Europe 

Antoine Risso (1770-1845). 
Charax Risso, III, 353 ; orthotype C. acutirostris Risso = Sparus puntazzo L. 
Preoccupied ; replaced by Puntazzo Blkr. 

121 A. RILEY (1826). On a Fossil in the British Museum (Squaloraia dolichog- 
nathos) and Discovered in the Lias at Lyme Regis. Proc. Geol. Soc. I (also 
in Trans. Geol. Soc, 1833). 

Henry Riley. 

Squaloraia Riley, I, 484; orthotype S. dolichognathos Riley (fossil). 

128. RUPPELL (1828). Atlas zu der Raise im ndrdlichen Africa; Fische des 

Rothen Meeres. 
Eduard Ruppell (1794-1884). 
Petroscirtes Ruppell, 110; orthotype P. mitratus Riippell. Omitted by accident 
from part I ; sometimes spelled Petroskirtes. 

128A. THIENEMANN (1828). Lehrbuch der Zoologie. 
Friedrich August Thienemann (1793-1858). 
Sphyrichthys Thienemann, III, 408; orthotype Squalus zYCiENA L. A needless 
substitute for Sphyrna Raf. 

132. CUVIER & VALENCIENNES (1828). Histoire naturelle des poissons. II. 
Georges Cuvier; Achille Valenciennes. 

Pomatomus Cuvier & Valenciennes, II, 171 ; type P. telescopium Risso (Epigonus 
macrophthalmus Raf.). Not Pomatomus of Lacepede ; a synonym of Epi- 
gonus Raf., 1820, as is also Telescops Blkr. 


134. AGASSIZ (and SPIX) (1829). Selecta genera et species piscium quos in 
itinere per Brasiliam (1817-1820) . . . collejit . . . Dr. J. B. de Spix. . . . 

Louis Agassiz (1807-1873); Jean Baptiste de Spix (1807-1873). 
Xiphorh3mchus Agassiz, 18; orthotype Salmo falcatus Bloch. Name preoccu 
pied; replaced by Xiphorhamphus M. & T., 1845; also preoccupied, again 
replaced by Acestrorhynchus Eigenmann, 1910. 

Pirarara Spix, 23; orthotype Phractocephalus bicolor Ag. A synonym of 

Phractocephalus Ag. 
Erjrthrinus (Gronow) Agassiz, 41 ; haplotype E. salvus Ag., the only species 

named, the genus credited to Gronow. Same as Erythrinus Gronow. 

135. CUVIER (1829). Le regne animal distribue d'apres son organisation. 

Edition, II, Vol. I. 
Georges Cuvier, 

Polyacanthus (Kuhl) Cuvier, 227; logotype Ch^todon chinensis Bloch, as 
restricted by Cuv. & Val. (not Trichopodus colisa as stated in part I, 
Genera of Fishes). 

Rhinoptera (Kuhl) Cuvier, 401 ; orthotype Myliobatis marginatus GeoflFroy 
St. Hilaire. 

136. CUVIER& VALENCIENNES (1829). Histoire naturelle des poissons. III. 

Georges Cuvier; Achille Valenciennes. 


Ostichthys (Langsdorrf) Cuvier & Valenciennes, III, 160; orthotype IVhTiiPRiSTis 
jAPONicus Cuv. & Val. No generic definition ; reestablished by Jordan and 
Evermann, 1896. 

Apistus Cuvier & Valenciennes, IV, 391 ; logotj^pe Apistus alatus Cuv. & Val. 
called "Ics Apjstes" by Cuvier. Regarded as preoccupied by Apista Hiibner, a 
genus of insects, and by Aspistes Meigen, a genus of flies. If rejected, it may 
be replaced by Pterichthvs Sw., 1839, unless that is regarded as invalid, 
from the non-binomial Pterichthus of Commerson (1803), which is 
ExocCTiTUS. Hypodvtes Gistel (1848) is also a substritute name, but the indi- 
cated type (longispinis) is a Paracentropogon of Bleeker, also not mentioned 
by Cuvier. Prosopodasys Cantor, 1849, is also given as a substitute name for 
Apistus and must retain the same type. If Apistus is preoccupied, I think 
that Pterichthvs should replace it. . . . Apistes trachinoides Cuv. & 
Val. used by Giinther as type of Prosopodasys is not eligible for that purpose, 
the species not being one of those mentioned by Cuvier. 

Spurco (Commerson) Cuvier & Valenciennes, IV, 448, 1829; (reference in passing) 
haplotype Scorp.?!NA brachio Cuv. = Synanceja verrucosa B1. & Schn., 
same as Synanceichthys Blkr. ; a synonym of Synanceja as restricted by 

136A. SMITH (1829). Contributions to the Natural History of South Africa. 

Zoological Journal. 
Andrew Smith (1797-1872). 
Rhineodon Alexander Smith, IV, 443; orthotype R. typus Smith. (Rhincodon by 
misprint.) Also spelled Rhinodon. 

136B. BANCROFT (1829). On the Fish Knoivn in Jamaica as the Sea Devil 

(Cephalopterus manta). Zool. Journal, IV. 

E. N. Bancroft. 

Manta Bancroft, IV, 444; orthotype Cephalopterus manTa Bancroft — Raia bib- 

ostris Walbaum, 1792. 


142. CUVIER & VALENCIENNES (1830). Histoirc naturelle des poissons. V. 

Georges Cuvier; Achille Valenciennes. 
Lycogenis (Kuhl & Van Hasselt) Cuvier & Valenciennes, V, 346; orthotype Holo- 

centrus ciliatus Lac. A section under Scolopsis Cuv. 
Priopis (Kuhl & Van Hasselt) Cuvier & Valenciennes, VI, 503; haplotype Priopis 

argyrozona Kuhl & Van Hasselt. 

143. BENNETT (1830). Catalogue of the Fishes of Sumatra. Life and Public 

Services of Sir Stamford Raffles. 
Edward Turner Bennett (1797-1836). 
Leiopsis Bennett, 688; orthotype Sparus aurolineatus Lac. A synonym of Pen- 
TAPUS Cuv. & Val. (Omitted in part I.) 

143A. BENNETT (1830). Obervations on a Collection of Fishes from the Mauri- 
tius with Characters of New Genera and Species. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 
1831, part I. 

Edward Turner Bennett. 

Psettodes Bennett, I, 147 ; orthotype P. belcheri Bennett. 

Agonostomus Bennett, I, 166; logotype A. telfari Bennett. Replaces Nestis Cuv. 
& Val. 


Apolectus Bennett, I, 169; orthotype A. im munis Bennett. A synonym of Scomber- 
OMORUs Lac. 


146A. CIA'IER & VALENCIENNES (1831). Histoire naturcUc dcs poissons. 
VII (January. 1831), VIII. October. 1831. 
Georges Cuvier; Achille Valenciennes. 
Drepane Cuvier & Valenciennes. VII, 129; orthotype Ch^todon punctatus L. ; 
name preoccupied by Drepana or Drepane Schranck, Lepidoptera. 1802; 
replaced by Enixe Gistel, 1848, and by Harpochirus Cantor, 1849. 
Spinax (^Commerson) Cuvier & Valenciennes. VIII. 333; orthotype S. edax Com- 
merson MS. = Ca-STERosteus canadus L., note in passing. Name pre- 
occupied; a synonym of Rachycentron Kaup (Elacate Cuv.). 

146B. BONAPARTE (1831). Saggio di una distribnzione mctodica dcgli animali 
vertebrati. Prospetto del Systema d'lttiologia Generale ; also in Giornale 
Arcadico, 167-190. 1832. 
Charles Lucien Jules Laurent Bonaparte, Prince de Caning (1803-1857). 

(Carlo Luciano Bonaparte). 

Merou ("Cuvier") Bonaparte, 101; type presumably Serranus gigas; not defined. 
Same as Epinephelus Bloch. 

Dulichthys Bonaparte, 101 ; haplotype Dules auriga Cuv. Name a substitute for 
Dules Cuv., regarded as preoccupied by DuLUS, a genus of birds. If needed, 
Dulichthys replaces Eudulus Fowler. 

Pogonathus (Lacepede) Bonaparte, 104. This name is revived as a substitute for 
Pogonias Lac. 1803, "long since used in ornithology". But Pogonias Illiger 
dates from 1811, while Pogonia and Pogonias, as a genus of birds, are still 
later in date. 

Micropogonias Bonaparte, 104; type Perca undulata L. Subtitute for MiCRO- 
POGON, which is said to be, but apparently is not, preoccupied. 

Sarpa Bonaparte 105 ; a bare word of reference. The intended type is obviously 
Sparus salpa L. Sarpa may stand as a section under Boops, the body being 
deeper and more compressed than in B. boops. 

Palamita Bonaparte, 107; (type Scomber sarda Bloch). Name a substitute for 
Pelamys Cuv. & Val., 1801, preoccupied in reptiles. But Sarda Cuv., 1829, 
is older and stands unless the non-binomial Sarda Plumier, 1802 (= Ocyurus 
Gill) is deemed eligible, in which case Palamita would hold. 

Priodontichthys Bonaparte, 109; haplotype Priodon annularis Cuv. & Val., the 
young of Naso annulatus Q. & G. Substitute for Priodon Cuv., preoccupied. 
A synonym of Naso Lac. 

Scopas Bonaparte, 109; type presumably Acanthurus scopas Cuv. & Val., being 
placed next to Acanthurus, but neither diagnosis nor type is given. Pre- 
sumably the same as Zebrasoma Sw., but not eligible. 

Ctenodon Bonaparte, 109. No description nor type mentioned ; presumably in- 
tended for Acanthurus ctenodon Cuv. & Val., preoccupied ; replaced by 
Ctenoch/etus Gill, 1884. 

Elops (Commerson) Bonaparte, 112; (type Gomphosus tricolor Lac). Suggested 
as a substitute for Gomphosus Lac. (Not Elops L., 1758.) 

Erythrichthys Bonaparte. 116; type (Salmo erythrinus B1. & Schn.). A needless 
substitute for Erythrinus (Gronow) Scopoli. It renders Erythrichthys T. 
& S. preoccupied, to be replaced by Erythrocles Jordan, 1919. 


147A. EICHWALD (1831). Zoologia specialis potisinne R. Rossice et Polonies 

Wilna, 1831. 
Carl Eduard von Eichwald (1795-1876). 
Nematosoma Eichwald, III, 60; orthotype N. ophidium Eichw. (not Syngnathus 
OPHiDioN L.) = ScYPHius TERES Nordmann, 1840. Name regarded as pre- 
occupied by Nemosoma, a genus of beetles. A synonnym of Nerophis Raf. 
Benthophilus Eichwald, III, 77; orthotype Gobius macrocephalus Pallas. 

150A. GRAY (1831). The Zoological Miscellany. I. 
John Edward Gray (1800-1873). 
Centracion Gray, I, 5 ; orthotype C. zebra Gray, Same as Cestracion Guv., 1817, 
not of Klein. Replaces Heterodontus, if that name is regarded as preoccupied 
by the genus of snakes, Heterodon, 1802. 


151B. MUNSTER (1832). Beitrdge zur Kimde der Petrefakten. I. 

Georg (Graf zu) Munster (1776-1844). 

Janassa Munster, I, 67; logotype J. angulata Munster (fossil) = Trilobites 

bituminosus Schlotheim. 

151C. COUCH (1832). Fishes New to the British Fauna. Mag. Nat. Hist., V. 

Jonathan Couch (1788-1870). 
Ciliata Couch, V, 15; orthotype C. glauca Couch, a larva of Gadus mustela (L.). 
Name may be retained for the five-bearded Rocklings. 

151D. NARDO (1832). Annotacioni di quattro pcsci nuovi, etc. 
Giovanni Domenico Nardo (1802-1877). 
(Not seen by us; the title uncertain. The genus Gouania is quoted from 
Gouania Nardo ; orthotype G. prototypus Nardo = Lepadogaster willdenowi 
(Risso). Antedates Rupisuga Sw. 

151E. KRYNICKI (1832). Schilus pallasii dcscriptus et icone illustratus. Nouv. 

Mem. Soc. Nat. Moscou, II. 
J. Krynicki. 
Schilus Krynicki, II, 441 ; orthotype S. pallasi Krynicki = Perca volgensis Pallas. 
Replaces Mimoperca Gill & Jordan, 1877. 

152. MINDING (1832). Lehrbuch: Naturgeschichte der Fische. 

Julius Minding. 
Hydronus Minding, 83 ; orthotype Gadus merlucius L. A synonym of Merluc- 
cius Raf. 

153. NILSSON (1832). Prodromus ichthyologies ScandinavicB. 

SvEN Nilsson (1787-1883). 

Salvelini Nilsson, 7 ; orthotype Salmo salvelinus L. — S. alpinus L. Group 

name, in the plural only; written as Salvelinus by Richardson (1836). 
Carassius Nilsson, IV, 290; orthotype Cyprinus carassius L. 

153A. REINHARDT (1832). Bidrag til vor kundskah om Gronlands fiske. 

Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Afh. Kjobenhavn, V. 
Johannes Reinhardt (1776-1845). 
Triglops Reinhardt, V, 52; orthotype T. pingeli Reinhardt. 




164. AGASSIZ (1833). Recherchcs sur les poissons fossiles. II; IV (first part; 
second part of Vol. II issued in 1844; part of Vol IV in 1833). 

Louis Agassiz. 
Catopterus Agassiz, II, 3; orthotype C. ovalis Ag. (fossil). A synonym of DiP- 


Amblypterus Agassiz, II, 3, 28; orthotype A. latus Ag. (fossil). 

Gyrolepis Agassiz, II, 6, 172; logotype G. alberti Ag. (fossil). 

Tetragonolepis Agassiz, II, 6, 181; logotype T. confluens Ag. (fossil). Name 
preoccupied ; a synonym of Dapedium Leach. 

Microps Agassiz, II, 10; orthotype M. furcatus Ag. (fossil). Name preoccupied; 
replaced by Periurgus Gistel, 1848. 

Pygopterus Agassiz, II, 10; orthotype P. humboldti Ag. (fossil). 

Notagogus Agassiz, II, 10; orthotype N. pentlandi Ag. (fossil). 

Acrolepis Agassiz, II, 11; orthotype A. sedgwicki Ag. (fossil). 

Pachycormus Agassiz, II, 11; orthotype Elops macropterus Blamv. (fossil). 

Thrissops Agassiz, II, 12; orthotype T. formosus Ag. (fossil). 

Megalurus Agassiz, II, 13; orthotype M. lepidotus Ag. (fossil). Name preoccu- 
pied in birds (Horsfield, 1821), replaced by Synergus Gistel (1848), also pre- 
occupied ; suggested as substitute for both Urocles Jordan, 1919. 

Aspidorhynchus Agassiz, II, 14; orthotype Esox acutirostris Blainv. (fossil). 

Saurostomus Agassiz, II, 14; orthotype S. esocinus Ag. (fossil). 

Sphoerodus Agassiz, II, 15; logotype S. gigas Ag. (fossil). A synonym of Lepi- 
DOTES Ag. ; not Sph^erodon Riippell. 

Pycnodus Agassiz, II, 16; orthotype Zeus platessus Blainv. (fossil). 

Gyrodus Agassiz, II, 16; orthotype G. macrophthalmus Ag. (fossil). 

Microdon Agassiz, II, 16; orthotype M. elegans Ag. (fossil). Name preoccupied in 
flies (Meigen, 1803), replaced by Proscinetes Gistel, 1848, and. later, by 
Polypsephis Hay (1899). 

Calamostoma Agassiz, II, 18; orthotype Syngnathus breviculus Blainv. (fossil). 

Acanthodes Agassiz, II, 19; orthotype Acanthoessus bronni Ag. (fossil). A sub- 
stitute, apparently unnecessary, for Acanthoessus Ag. (1832). 

Cyclopoma Agassiz, IV, 17; orthotype C. gigas Ag. (fossil). 

Smerdis Agassiz, IV, 32; logotype Perca minuta Blainv. (fossil). Name preoccu- 
pied in insects; replaced by Dapalis Gistel (1848). 

Gasteronemus Agassiz, V, 17; logotype G. rhombeus Ag. (fossil). An extinct 
homologue of Mene. 

165. BRANDT &RATZEBURG (1833). Medisinische Zoologie. II. 
JOHANN Friedrich Brandt (1802-1879) ; J. T. C. Ratzeburg (1801-1871). 
Huso Brandt & Ratzeburg, II, 3; orthotype Acipenser huso L. A synonym of 
Ichthyocolla Geoffrey, 1767, and of Sterletus Raf., 1820. 


Helops Brandt & Ratzeburg II. 3 ; orthotype Acipenser stellatus Pallas, 1768, = 
A. HELOPS Pallas, 1811. 

Sterletus Brandt & Ratzeburg, II, 3, 349; orthotype Acipenser ruthenus L. Name 
spelled also Sterleta Aliiller) and Sterledus (Bon.). Name preoccupied; 
replaced by Sterleta Giildenstadt, if binomial. Sterletus Raf. (1820) 
is based on an American species, Acipenser serotinus Raf., which is 
the same as Acipenser rubicundus Le Sueur, still earlier called Acipenser 
fulvescens by Rafinesque. This species belongs to the group or genus called 
IcHTHYOCOLLA by Geoffroy in 1767, and Huso by Brandt & Ratzeburg in 1833. 

166. COCCO (1833). Osscrz'ationes Pelontani. 
Anastasio Cocco (1799-1854). 
Ruvettus Cocco, XIII, 18 (April, 1833) ; orthotype R. pretiosus Cocco. 

167. COCCO (1833). Lcttcre aJ Signor Risso su alcnni pcsci vovelli. Giorn. Sci. 

Lett. Sicilia, XLII. 
Anastasio Cocco. 
Tylosurus Cocco, XLII, No. 124; orthotype T. cantraini Cocco = Esox impe- 
rialis Raf. = Sphyr^na acus Lac. 

168. COCCO (1833). Su alcitni pcsci de Marc di Mcssijia. Giorn. Sci. Lett. 

Sicilia, XLII. 
Anastasio Cocco. 
Mupus Cocco, 20; orthotype M. imperialis Cocco. The name Leirus Lowe, also 
of 1833, is preoccupied in beetles (1823) and must give place to Mupus. 

169. CUVIER & VALENCIENNES (1833). Histoirc naturcUc des poissons. IX. 

Georges Cuvier; Achille Valenciennes. 
Trachurus Cuvier & Valenciennes, IX, 6; haplotype Scomber trachurus L. Same 

as Trachurus Raf., 1810. 
Hynnis Cuvier & Valenciennes, IX, 95; orthotype H. goreensis Cuv. & Val. 
Lactarius Cuvier & Valenciennes, IX, 237; haplotype Scomber lactarius Bloch = 

Lact.\rius delicatulus Cuv. & Val. 
Nauclerus Cuvier & Valenciennes. IX, 247; orthotype N. compressus Cuv. & Val. 

Young of Naucrates Raf. 
Porthmeus Cuvier & Valenciennes. IX, 255; orthotype P. argenteus Cuv. & Val. 
Psenes Cuvier & Valenciennes IX, 259 ; orthotype P. cyanophrys Cuv. & Val. 
Gallichthys Cuvier & Valenciennes, IX, 264; orthotype Gallichthys major Cuv. & 

Val. Substitute for Gallus, preoccupied in birds ; a synonym of Alectis Raf. 
Lampugus Cuvier & Valenciennes, IX, 317; orthotype Scomber pelagicus L. A 

synonym of Coryph^na L. 
Aphredoderus (Le Sueur) Cuvier & Valenciennes, IX, 445; orthotj'pe A. gibbosus 

Le Sueur = Scolopsis sayanus Gilliams. Also spelled Aphrodedirus and 

Aphododerus by authors. 

170. GRAY (1833). The Illustrations of Indian Zoology, Chiefly Selected from the 

Collection of General Hardwicke. 
John Edward Gray. 
This paper contains plates only, no diagnosis of the new genera being 
Balitora Graj', II, pi. 5; haplotype B. brucei Gray. A synonym of Homaloptera 
Van Hasselt. 

LOWE, 1833 179 

Bedula Gray, II, 88; logotype B. nebulosa Gray. A synonym of Nandus Cuv. & 

Val, 1831. 
Pterapon Gray, II, 88; haplotype P. trivittatus Gray — Sci^na jarbua Forskal. 

A synonym of Therapon Cuv. 
Anaora Gray, II, 90; haplotype A. tentaculata Gray. (Name misprinted Amor.\, 

but corrected in manuscript on the plate.) Species not identified; resem- 
bles Thysanophrys Ogilby. 
Apterygia Gray, II, 92; haplotype A. ramcarate Gray. A synonym of Raconda 

Tor Gray, II, 96; haplotype Cyprinus tor Ham. = Tor hamiltoni Gray. Replaces 

Labeobarbus Riippell. 
Bengala Gray, II 96; haplotype Cyprinus elanga Ham. Replaces Megarasbora Gthr. 
Amanses Gray, II, 98 ; haplotype A. hystrix Gray = Monacanthus scopas Cuv. 
Acarana Gray, II, 98; haplotype Ostracion auritus Shaw. Also in Ann Nat. 

Hist., I, 110, 1838. 
Girella Gray, II, 98; haplotype G. pi;nctata Gray. 

171, 172. LOWE (1833). Character of a Xczv Genus and of Several Xeiv Species of 

Proc. Zool. Soc. London, I. 
Richard Thomas Lowe (1802-1874). 
Alepisaurus Lowe, 104 ; orthotype A. ferox Lowe. A synonym of Plagyodus Stel- 
ler, 1811, if the latter be deemed tenable, being given in the dative case only 
( "Plygyodontem") Often written Alepidosaukus by authors. 

173. LOWE (1833). Character of a Nezv Genus and of Several Nezv Species of 

Fishes from Madeira. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, I. 
Richard Thomas Lowe 
Leirus Lowe, 142; orthotype L. bennetti Lowe = Centrolophus ovalis Cuv. & 
Val. = Mupus imperialis Cocco, the three names of the same date. Leirus 
is preoccupied in beetles (Meigen. 1823) and gives place to Mupus Cocco. 

174. NARDO (1833). De Skeponopodo novo pisciuni genere et de Guebucu Mar- 

gravii: species illi cogniti: Isis. Mem. Assemb. Nat. Vienna. 
GiAN Domenico Nardo. 
Skeponopodus Nardo, fasc. 416; orthotype S. typus Nardo = Xiphias imperator 
Bl. & Schn. A synonym of Tetrapturus Raf. 

175. REINHARDT (1833). Bemdrkningen til den Skandinaviskc ichthyologie. 

Johannes Reinhardt. 
Silus Reinhardt, 11; orthotype Salmo silus Ascanius. Apparently a synonym of 
Argentina L. 

176. AGASSIZ (1834). Abgerissene Bemcrkungen iiber fossile Fische. Neues 

Jahrb. Mineralogie. 
Louis Agassiz. 
Ophiopsis Agassiz, 385; orthotype O. procerus Ag. (fossil). 
Saurichthys Agassiz, 386; orthotype S. apicalts Ag. (fossil). 
Propterus Agassiz, 386; orthotype P. microstomus Ag. (fossil). 
Caturus Agassiz, 387; orthotype Ur.eus nuchali.s Ag. (fossil). Substitute for 

Ur^us Ag., preoccupied. 
Macrosemius Agassiz, 387; orthotype M. rostratus Ag. (fossil). 


Belonostomus Agassiz, 388; orthotype B. tenuirostris Ag. (fossil). 
Dercetis Agassiz, 389; orthotype D. scutatus Ag. (fossil). 

177. AGASSIZ (1834). V erhandlungen der Gesellschaft des vaterldndischen 

Museums. Bohmen. 
Louis Agassiz. 
Halec Agassiz, 67; orthotype H. sternbergi Ag. (fossil). 

178. AGASSIZ (1834). Recherches sur les poissons fossiles. V (part), 1834. 

Louis Agassiz. 
Acanthonemus Agassiz, V, 27; orthotype A. filamentosus Ag. (fossil). 

179. COSTA (1834). Cenni soologici, ossia descrifsione sommaria delle specie 
mwvi di animali disco perti in diverse contrade del regno, neW anno 1834. 

Oronzio Gabriele Costa (1787-1867). 
Branchiostoma Costa, 49; orthotype Limax lanceolatus Pallas; replaces Am- 

PHioxus (Gray) Yarrell. 
Nemotherus (Risso) Costa, fig. 9; orthotype N. erythropterus Risso. A synonym 

of Trachypterus (not verified). 

180. GRIFFITH (1834). The Class Pisces, Arranged by the Baron Cuvier, with 
Supplementary Additions by Edward Griffith and Charles Hamilton Smith. 

Carangus Griffith, 335 ; taiitotype Scomber carangus Bloch = Scomber hippos L. 
A synonym of C.^ranx Lac. as restricted ; same as Carangus Grd. 

181. HENLE (1834). Sur Ic Narcine, nouveau genre de rales electriques, etc. Ann. 

Sci. Nat., II. (Also in German as Ueber Narcine.) 
Friedrich Gustav Jacob Henle (1807-1855). 
Narcine Henle, 31 ; orthotype Torpedo brasiliensis Olfers. 

182. MUNSTER (1834). Knochenhohle bet Rabenstein, etc. Neues Jahrb. Miner. 

Georg Munster. 
Undina Miinster, 539; orthotype U. penicillata Munster (fossil). 

183. QUOY & GAIMARD (1834). Voyage de decouvertes de "I' Astrolabe," etc. 

(1826-29), sons le commandcment de M. J. Dnmont d'Urville. 
Jean Rene Constantin Quoy (1707-1778) ; Paul Gaimard (1790-1858). 
Aspidontus (Cuvier) Quoy & Gaimard, 719; orthotype A. t^eniatus Cuv. & Val. 
An ally of Petroscirtes Riippell, distingui.shed by the lack of elevation of the 
anterior dorsal spines. 


184. AGASSIZ (1835). Ueber die Familic der Karpfen. Mem. Soc. Nat. 

Neufchatel, I. 
Louis Agassiz. 
Acanthopsis Agassiz, I, 36; orthotype Cobitis T^nia L. Name preoccupied. A syn- 
onym of Cobitis L. 
Phoxinus Agassiz, Zl ; orthotype Leuciscus phoxinus L. Same as Phoxinus Raf. 

Rhodeus Agassiz, I, 2i7 ; orthotype Cyprinus amarus Bloch. 
Chondrostoma Agassiz, I, 38; orthotype Cyprinus nasus L. 
Aspius Agassiz, I, 38; tautotype Cyprinus aspius L. 
Pelecus Agassiz, I, 39; orthotype Cyprinus cultratus L. 

AGASSiz. 1835 181 

185. AGASSIZ (1835). Recherches sur Ics puissons fossiles. II. 

Louis Agassiz. 

Plectrolepis (Agassiz) II, 44; orthotype P. rugosus Ag. (fossil). Name only; 
validated by Egerton, 1850. A synonym of Eurynotus Ag. = Notacmon 
Gistel, 1848. 

Megalodon Agassiz, II, 55; logotype M. lewesiensis Ag. (fossil). Name preoccu- 
pied; a synonym of Pachyrhizodus. 

Enchodus Agassiz, II, 55 (feuilleton) ; orthotype Esox lewesiensis Mantell (fossil). 

Macropoma Agassiz, II, 55 (euilleton) ; orthotype M. ma^telli Ag. (fossil). 

Diplopterus Agassiz, II, 113; orthotype D. macrocephalus Ag. (fossil). Name 
preoccupied; replaced by Diplopterax McCoy (1885). 

Pleiopterus Agassiz, II, 113; orthotype Osteolepis macrolepidotus Val. (fossil). 
A synonym of Astrolepis. 

Cheiracanthus Agassiz, II, 125; orthotype C. murchisoni Ag. (fossil). 

Cheirolepis Agassiz, II, 128; orthotype C. trailli Ag. (fossil). 

Cephalaspis Agassiz, II, 135; orthotype C. lyelli Ag. (fossil). 

Eurynotus Agassiz, II, 153; logotype E. crenatus Ag. (fossil). Name preoccupied; 
replaced by Notacmon Gistel (1848). 

Platysomus Agassiz, II, 6, 161; logotype Stromateus gibbosus Blainv. (fossil). 
Name held to be preoccuped by Platysoma Leach, 1817; replaced by Scrotes 
Gistel (1848) ; Uropteryx (Ag.) Woodw. (1907) may be also regarded as 
a substitute. 

186. AGASSIZ (1835). Ueber das der Glarner-S chief er-Formation nach ihren 

Fischresten. Neues Jahrb. Mineral. 
Louis Agassiz. 

Carangopsis Agassiz, 293; orthotype C. latior Ag. (fossil). Names only; validated 
in 1844. 

Urosphen Agassiz, 293; orthotype U. fistularis Ag. (fossil). Names only; vali- 
dated in 1844. 

Araphistium Agassiz, 294; orthotype A. paradoxum Ag. (fossil). Names only; 
validated in 1844. 

Xiphopterus Agassiz, 295; orthotype Esox falcatus Volta (fossil). 

Pristigenys Agassiz, 299; orthotype P. macrophthalmus Ag. (fossil). Name only; 
described in 1839 (Poiss. fossiles, IV, 139). 

Coelogaster Agassiz, 304; orthotype C. analis Ag. (fossil) (name only), and hence 
dating only from later usage. 

Platinx Agassiz, 304; orthotype P. elongatus Ag. (fossil). A synonym of MoNor- 
teros Volta (1794). 

Enchelyopus Agassiz, 307; orthotype E. tigrinus Ag. (fossil); name only; vali- 
dated by Agassiz in 1844. Preoccupied; replaced by Paranguilla Blkr. 

187. CUVIER & VALENCIENNES (1835). Histoire naturelle des poissons. X. 

(The series continued after the death of Cuvier, in 1832, until 1848, by 

AcHiLLE Valenciennes.) 
Keris Cuvier & Valenciennes, 304, 1835; orthotype Keris anguinosus Cuv. & Val. 
Often written Ceris : the young of Naso Lac. 

188. GOTTSCHE (1835). Die seeldndischen Plcuronectes-Arten. Wiegmann's 

Archiv. der Naturgeschichte, II. 
C.\RL MOKITZ GOTTSCHE (1808-1892). 


Limanda Gottsche, 100; orthotype Pleuronectes limanda L. 

Microstomus Gottsche, 150; orthotype M. latidens GottsChe. Regarded as pre- 
occupied by Microstoma Risso, 1826 ; replaced by Cynicoglossus Bon. 

Glyptocephalus Gottsche, 156; orthotype Pleuronectes saxicola Faber = P. cyno- 

Hippoglossoides Gottsche, 168; orthotype H. limanda Gottsche = Pleuronectes 

limandoides Bloch. 
Zeugopterus Gottsche, 178; orthotype Pleuronectes hirtus Abildgard. 

189. JOANNIS (1835)'. Observations sur les poissons du Nil et descriptions de 
plusicurs especes nouvelles, etc. Mag. Zool., 1835. 
L. de Joannis. 
Mochokus Joannis, pi. 8; orthotype M. niloticus Joannis. 

190. MEYEN (1835). Rcisc in Peru. I. 
J. Meyen. 
Pygidium Meyen, I, 475; orthotype P. fuscum Meyen. 

191. MtJLLER (1835). Vergleichende Anatomie der Myxinoiden, dcr Cyclostomen 
mit durchhohrtcn Gaumen. (Reprinted in Arch. Natnrg., Berlin, for 1846, 247.) 

Johannes Muller (1801-1858). 

Sturio Muller, 77. (Sturgeons without opercle.) Type presumably Acipenser 
sturio L. a synonym of Acipenser Ag. 

Scaphirhynchus (Heckel) Muller, 77; footnote only; defined as lacking the quad- 
rate bone ; logotype Acipenser platorhynchus Raf. 

Bdellostoma Muller, 79 (248, reprint); orthotype B. hexatrema Muller; a sub- 
stitute for Heptatrema Dum. as not correct in fact. Both are synonyms of 
Eptatretus Cloquet, 1818. 

192. DE LA PYLAIE (1835). Rccherches en France, sur les poissons de I' ocean, 
pendant les annees 1832 et 1833. Congres Scientifique de France tenue a 
Poitiers, 1834. 


This singularly useless paper has been totally overlooked by all natural 
ists except Dr. Gill, who has noted Pylaie's use of the name Argyrosomus 
(1835), at a date prior to that of Agassiz (1850). Besides the "new genera" 
enumerated below, the following new species are indicated by De la Pylaie : 

Spinax vitulinus p. 527 ("tete qui rappelle un muffle de veau"). 

ScYLLiUM atlanticum (527) ("trop dififerente," etc.). 

Scymnus aquitanensis (527) (la Senille ou Chenille de I'lle Dieu). 

Squalraja cervicata (527) ("pour le distinguer de I'ordinaire, que est acephale"). 

Squalraia acephala (527) ( = Squatina squatina). 

Torpedo elliptica (527) ("d'apres la structure de ses deux pectorales"). 

Rajabatis macrophalla (528) (Differing in length of clasper). 

Raj ABATIS MicROPHALLA (528). "Neuf autres especes completent ce genre; ce sont 

les R. triptera, polyacantha, variegata, tigrina, monolifera, florigera, 

melumpseca, mosaica, undulata. 
Hippocampus atrichus (529) ("espece de I'Ocean"). 
Hippocampus jubatus (529) ("des filamens qui composent, le long de son cou, une 

espece de criniere peu fournie") . 
Aptocyclus ostraciodes (529). "Coffret." "Nouvelle espece encore tres bien carac- 


pvLAiE, 1835 183 

Anguilla vulgaris, "mes varietes macrocephala, ornithorhincha, platyura, 

egalement nouvelles pour la science" (529). 
MuR^NA hippocrepis (529) "commune dans certain reservoirs des Salines, a I'lle de 

Ammodytes pictavus (S29a) "qui s'en distingue par I'absence de dents, par le 

nombre des rayons et par la couleur de quelques parties de son corps". 
MoRRHUA VULGARIS CALLARiNA (530), a variety "rare a ile Dieu," etc. 
Gadus zonatus (530), a "variety" of "Gadus barbatus". 
MusTELA RUBENS (530), "La Coche Rouge". 
MuSTELA quinquecirrha (530), "a cinq barbillons". 
Blennius g.^ttorugine bitentacul.\rts (530). 
Blennius pictavus (530), "nouvelles especes". 
Blennius pieti (530). 
Pterozygus bievrii (530). 

GoBius nigricanas (531), "habite les roches de la cote". 
Thynnus atlanticus (531a), the albacore. 
Thynnus oceanicus (531a), the tunny. 

Trigla megalophthalma (531a), "d'apres la grosseur remarkable des yeux". 
Crenilabrus phenodontus (532), "a grand dent". 
Crenilabrus marmoratus (532). 
Crenilabrus oxycephalus (532), "n'a pas de tache noir sur la queue; son museau 

est plus pointee". 
S.\rgus pulchellus (532), "Ruscain, d'apres sa chair rouge". 
ExocALLUS insignis (532a), nevi^ name for Boops Boops (L). 
Perca OLONNENsis (532a) ("nouvelle espece"). 
Perca inermis (532a). Name only. 
Argyrosomus procerus (532a), "Baie de Bourgneuf". 
Clupea elongata (532a) "une variete N. du Clupea alosa, le corps beaucoup plus 

allonge que dans I'alose ordinaire". 
Apterogasterus rostellatus (532a), "Jacquine" "D'apres la forme de son museau". 
Leucisus pictava (533). "Chevenau" "le corps est moins large" (que dans le 

Leuciscus chub de Pennant). 
Leuciscus obtusus (533) "able ou petit verdon sans taches". 
GoBio phoxinoides (533), "Goujon veronette". 
CoBiTis parisiensis (534), "Loche Franche". 
CoBiTis pictava (534), "repandu dans nos rivieres". 
Solea cuneata (534), "Sole setan" : "espece mediocre, mais parfaitement carac- 

Rhombus gallinula (534) ,"poulette de mer". 

Squalraia De la Pylaie, 526; orthotype Squalraia acephala Pylaie = Raja squa- 

TiNA L. A synonym of Squatina; not Squaloraiaia Riley (1826). 
Rajabatis De la Pylaie, 528; logotype Raja mosaica Lac. (most of the other 

species named being left undescribed). A synonym of Raja, possibly not 

intended as a generic name. 
Aptocylus De la Pylaie, 529; orthotype "Cyclogasterus ventricosus" Pallas (error 

for "Cyclopterus"). Replaces Cyclopterichthys Steind. (1861). 
Pterozygus De la Pylaie, 530; orthotype P. bievrii De la Pylaie. "Une loche qui 

presente le singulier caractere d'avoir ses nageoires pectorales et thoracins 

reunies par paires." Probably a monstrous form of Cobitis L. 
Exocallus De la Pylaie, 532 (a) ; orthotype E. insignis Pylaie (Sparus boops L.). 

Name a substitute for Boops, of which it is a needless synonym. 


Apterogasterus De la Pylaie, 532a ; orthotype A. rostellatus Pylaie, "la Jac- 

quine". (Not identified.) 
Argfyrosomus De la Pylaie, 534; orthotype A. procerus De la Pylaie. A synonym 

of ScLiENA L. as restricted by Cuvier ; same as Pseudosci^na Blkr. 

193. RUPPELL (1835). Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehorig. 

2 vols. 
Eduard Ruppell. 

Enneapterygius Ruppell, 2; orthotype E. pusillus Ruppell. 

Gazza Riippell, 4; orthotype G. equul^formis Riippell. 

Pseudochromis Ruppell, 8; logotype P. olivaceus Ruppell. 

Halichceres Riippell, 14; logotype H. bimaculatus Riippell (as restricted by Jor- 
dan & Snyder). Regarded as preoccupied by Halichoerus, a genus of 
seals; replaced by Hemiulis Sw. (1839) and by Chcerojulis Gill (1864). 

Lutodeira (Kuhl) Riippell, 18; orthotype Mugil chanos Forskal. A synonym of 
Chanos Lac. 

Xenodon Riippell, 53 ; orthotype Balistes nicer Lac. Preoccupied in reptiles ; 
replaced by Zenodon Sw. (1839), by Odonus Gistel (1848), by Erythrodon 
Riippell (1852) and by Pyrodon Kaup (1853). The validity of the oldest of 
these substitute names, Zenodon, may be questioned. See record of Swainson 

Nebrius Riippell, 62 ; orthotype Nebrius concolor Riippell. Name regarded as pre- 
occupied by Nebria Latreille and Nebris Guv. ; replaced by Nebrodes Gar- 
man. But the root is different : vePqioi of Aristotle, referring to some shark. 

Urbpterygius Riippell, 83 ; orthotype N. concolor Riippell. This would be a synonym 
of Gymnomur^na Lac, as restricted by Bleeker, 1864, but not as limited 
by Kaup, 1856. 

Sphaerodon Ruppell, 113; orthotype Sci^na grandoculis Forskal. A synonym of 
MoNOTAxis Bennett. 

Pristotis Riippell, 128; orthotj'pe P. cyanostigma Riippell. A synonym of Poma- 
centrus Lac. 

194. SCHULTZE (1835). Versaminlung von Naturforschers in Bonn. 

Carl August Sigmund Schultze (1795-1877). 

Hexabranchus Schultze ; orthotype presumably Bdellostoma hexatrema Miiller. 

If so, a synonym of Eptatretus Cloquet. According to Agassiz, a genus 

of lampreys, presumably one with six gills ; no further details available. 


195. AGASSIZ (1836). Recherches sur les poissons fossiles. III. 

Louis Agassiz. 

Zygobatis Agassiz, III, 79; orthotype Z. jussieui Ag. A synonym of Rhinoptera 

Odontaspis Agassiz, III, 87; orthotype O. ferox Ag. A synonym of Carcharias 
Raf. as now limited. 

Spinacorhinus Agassiz, III, 94; orthotype S. polyspondylus Ag. (fossil). A syn- 
onym of Squaloraia Riley. 

Goniodus Agassiz, III, 183; orthotype Squalus spinosus Gmelin — Squalus bru 
cus Bonnaterre. A synonym of Echinorhinus Blainv. 

AmblyTirus Agassiz, III, 220; orthotype A. macrostomus Ag. (fossil). A syno- 
nym of Dapedium Leach. 

AGASSIZ .V HIBliEKT. 1836 185 

196. AGASSIZ & HIBBERT (1836). On the Fresh-water Limestones of Btirdie- 

house, etc. Trans. Roj'. Soc. Edinburg. 
Louis Agassiz; Samuel Hibbert (1782-1848). 
Megalichthys Agassiz, VIII, 202; orthotype M. hibberti Ag. (fossil). 

197. CUVIER & VALENCIENNES (1836). Histoire naturelle des poissons. XI. 

AcHiLLE Valenciennes. 
Omobranchus (Ehrenberg) Cuvier & Valenciennes, XI, 87; orthotype Blenne- 

CHis FASciOLATUs Cuv. & Val. A synonym of Aspidontus Cuv. 
Cestraeus Cuvier & Valenciennes, XI 157; type Cestr^us plicatilis Cuv. & Val. 

Near Agonostomus Bennett, 1830. Not Cestreus Klein, nor of McClelland, 

nor Gronow. 
Dajaus Cuvier & Valenciennes, XI, 164; haplotype Mugil monticola Bancroft; 

near Agonostomus Bennett, 1800. 
Nestis Cuvier & Valenciennes, XI, 167 ; logotype Nestis cyprinoides Cuv. & Val. = 

Agnostomus telfairi Bennett, 1830. A synonym of Agonostomus Bennett. 
Blennechis Cuvier & Valenciennes, XI, 279; logotype B. filamentosus Cuv. & Val. 

A synonym of Petroscirtes Ruppell. 
Chasmodes Cuvier & Valenciennes, XI, 295 ; logotype Blennius bosquianus Lac. 
Cristiceps Cuvier & Valenciennes, XI, 402 ; haplotj-pe C. australis Cuv. & Val. 
Gunnellus Cuvier & Valenciennes, XI, 419 ; tautotype Blennius gunnellus L. .A 

synonym of Pholis (Gronow) Scopoli (1777), and of Mur^noides Lac. 

(1803). Often spelled Gunellus. 

198. HECKEL (1836). Scaphirhynchus, eine Fischgattung aus dev Ordnung der 

Chondropterygier mit freien Kiemen. Ann. Wien. Mus., I. 
JoHANN Jakob Heckel (1790-1857). 
Scaphirhynchus Heckel, I, 71 ; orthotype S. rafinesquei = Acipenser platoryn- 
CHUS Raf. Regarded preoccupied by Scaphorhynchus Maximilian, 1831, a 
genus of birds; replaced by Scaphirhynchops Gill (see Miiller 1835). 

199. HECKEL & FITZINGER (1836). Monographische Darstellung der Gai- 

tung Acipenser. Ann. Wien. Mus., I. 
JoHANN Jakob Heckel; Leopold J. Fitzinger (1802-1884). 
Antaceus Heckel & Fitzinger, 293 ; orthotype Acipenser schypa Eichw. 
Lioniscus Heckel & Fitzinger, 370; orthotype Acipenser glaber Fitzinger. 

200. LIfiNARD (1836). Sur quelqites poissons de Vile Maurice. L'Institut. IV. 

£lize Lienard. 
Platysoma Lienard. Name preoccupied; said to be near Dules (Kuhlia). (Very 
doubtful ; here quoted from Scudder. I fail to find the name in question else- 

201. MtJNSTER (1836). Capitosaurus in Keupersandstein; Gyrodus multidens in 
Jurakalk; achte Belonostomtis-Art ; Lebias mid Cyprinus in Braunkohle ini 
Fichtelgebirgc, etc Neues Jahrb. Mineral. 

Georg Munster. 
Aellopos Miinster, 581; orthotype A. elongatus Miinster (fossil). An extinct 
ally of Rhinobatus. 

202. RICHARDSON (1836). Back's Narrative of an Arctic Land Expedition. 

John Richardson (1787-1865) 
Stenodus Richardson (appendix), 521; orthotype Salmo mackenziei Rich. 
Replaces Luciotrutta Gthr. (1866). 


203. RICHARDSON (1836). Fauna Borcali- Americana. III. 

John Richardson. 
Temnistia Richardson, III, 59; orthotype Blepsias ventricosus Eschscholtz. A 

synonym of Hemilepidotus Cuv. 
Salvelinus (Nilsson) Richardson, III, 169; tautotype Salmo salvelinus L. First 
use in thq singular of Nilsson's group name "Salvelini". Replaces Baione 
Dekay (1842) and Umbla Rapp (1854). 

204. RUPPELL (1836). Neuer Nachtrag zu Beschreibungen und Ahbildnngen 

neuer Fische, im Nil entdeckt. Museum Senckenberg, II. 

Wilhelm Peter Eduard Simon Ruppell. 

Labeobarbus Ruppell, II, 14 ; haplotype Labeobarbus nedgia Ruppell. Probably not 

distinct from Tor Gray, 1833. 
Varicorhinus Ruppell, II, 14; orthotype V. beso Ruppell = Labeo varicorhinus 
Cuv. & Val. Varicorhinus Ruppell is said by Berg to include Capoeta, 
ScAPHioDON, Dillonia, Gymnostomus, Onychostoma, Pterocapoijta and 
AcAPOETA. Some of these have doubtless standing as subgenera. 

205. YARRELL (1836). A History of British Fishes, etc. 2 vols. 
William Yarrell (1784-1856). 
Amphioxus (Gray) Yarrell. 468; orthotype Limax lanceolatus Pallas. A syno 
nym of Branchiostoma Costa. 


206. AGASSIZ (1837). Recherches sur les poissons fossiles. Ill (part). V (part). 

Louis Agassiz. 
Onchus Agassiz. Ill, 6; orthotype O. murchisoni Ag. (fossil). 
Ctenacanthus Agassiz, III, 10; logotype C. major Ag. (fossil). 
Oracanthus Agassiz, III, 13; orthotype O. mulleri Ag. (fossil). 
Gyracanthus Agassiz, III, 17; orthotype G. formosus Ag. (fossil). 
Tristychius Agassiz, III, 21; orthotype T. arcuatus Ag. (fossil). 
Ptychacanthus Agassiz, III, 22; orthotype P. subl^vis Ag. (fossil). A synonym 

of Tristychius Ag. 
Sphenacanthus Agassiz, III, 23; orthotype S. serrulatus Ag. (fossil). 
Nemacanthus Agassiz, III, 25; logotype N. monilifer Ag. (fossil). 
Leptacanthus Agassiz, III, 27; logotype L. semistriatus Ag. (fossil). Fossil 

spines of a Chim.eroid, perhaps synonymous with Ganodus. 
Asteracanthus Agassiz, III, 31; orthotype A. ornatissimus Ag. (fossil). 
Pristeacanthus Agassiz, III, 35; orthotype P. securis Ag. (fossil). 
Myriacanthus Agassiz, III, 2>7 ; logotype M. paradoxus Ag. (fossil). 
Hybodus Agassiz III, 41; orthotype H. plicatilis Ag. (fossil). 
Leiacanthus Agassiz, III, 55; orthotype L. falcatus Ag. (fossil). 
Pleuracanthus Agassiz, III, 66; orthotype P. l^evissimus Ag. (fossil). Xame 

preoccupied ; probably replaced by Orthacanthus Ag. ; perhaps the spine of 

the forms known from the teeth, as Diplodus, Dicranodus, Dittodus, etc. 
Hypsodon Agassiz. V, 100; logotype Megalodon levvesiensis Mantell (fossil). 

Specimens not all of one genus, some belonging to Portheus Cope (1872). 

207. BONAPARTE (1834-1841). IconograHa della fauna italica, per le quattro 

classi degli aniniali vertebrati. Tome, III. Pesce. 
Carlo Luciano Bonaparte (Principe de Canino e de Alusignano). 

BONAPARTE, 1837 187 

This sumptuous and finely illustrated work was issued in separate fasci- 
cles from 1832 to 1842. The fishes seem to begin with fascicle VI in 1837. 
The last are in fascicle 160, probably issued in 1841. There is no paging, and 
exact dates, except for a few fascicles, are inaccessible • to me. I there- 
fore divide the work into three parts, 1837, 1840 and 1841. Fascicles 156 to 
160 are subsequent to Swainson's Natural History, 1839, from which they 
quote. So far as I know, no question of nomenclature hinges on these uncer- 
tain dates. Troschel (Arcliiv. A'aturg.) gives the date 1884 for fascicles 
"Lieferungen" VI to XI, 1837 for XVI to XX, 1838 for XXVI to XXIII. 
1839 for XXIV to XXVI, and 1840 for XXVII ; but these "deliveries" seem 
not to correspond to the fascicles.' 

Orectolobus Bonaparte, fasc. 7; orthotype Squalus barbatus Gmelin (date prob- 
ably 1837). Replaces Crossorhinus M. & H. 

Cerna Bonaparte fasc. 10*; orthotype Perca gigas Briinnich = Labrus guaza L. 
(1837). A synonym of Epinephelus Bloch, as now resticted. 

Cynicoglossus Bonaparte, fasc. 19; orthotype Pleuronectes cynoglossus Nilsson 
(not of L.) = Pleuronectes kitt Walbaum. Equivalent to Microstomus 
Gottsche, which it replaces if Microstomus is regarded as preoccupied by 
Microstoma Cuv. (1817). 

Batis Bonaparte, fasc 21*; orthotype Raja radula De la Roche (called Dasybatus 
in fasc. 68). A synonym of Raja L. 

Laeviraja Bonaparte, fasc. 21*; orthotype Raja oxyrhynchus L. 

Microchirus Bonaparte, fasc. 26*; orthotype Pleuronectes microchirus De la 
Roche. Same as Monochirus and Monochir Cuv., not of Rafinesque; 
replaces Buglossus Gthr. 

Monochirus Bonaparte, fasc, 26* : orthotype Solea monochir Bon. Same as 
Monochirus Raf. 

Pampus Bonaparte, 48; orthotype (not named) but plainly Stromateus candidus 
Cuv. & Val. Replaces Stromateiodes Blkr., 1851. 

"Diamo il nome di Pampus al secundo sottogenere in cui accogliamo 
quelle specie che non hanno pinne ventrali e portano innanzo ai raggi dorsale 
e dell* anale parecchie spine terminale superiormente da una lamina tagliente." 
(Bonaparte.) These peculiar trenchant spines are found in all the species 
called Stromateoides, though buried in the flesh in the adult. 

Dasybatus Bonaparte, fasc. 68; orthotype Raja radula De la Roche. Called Batis 
on fascicle 21 ; also written Dasybatis. A synonym of Raja L. ; not Dasy- 
atis Raf. (1837). 

Membras Bonaparte, fasc. 91 ; orthotype an "exotic species", evidently Atherina 
martinica Cuv. & Val. 

Menidia Bonaparte, fasc. 91 ; orthotype an "exotic species," evidently Atherina 


Hepsetia Bonaparte, fasc. 91 ; orthotype Atherina boyeri Risso. 

Cyprinopsis (Fitzinger) Bonaparte, fasc. 92; orthotype Cyfrinus carassius L. 

(1838). A synonym of Carassius Nilsson. 
Squalius Bonaparte, fasc. 96; logotype Squalius tyberinus Bon. = Leuciscus 

squalus Bon. A synonym of Leuciscus Cuv. 
Scardinius Bonaparte, fasc. 96; orthotype Leuciscus scardafa Bon. 
Telestes Bonaparte, fasc. 103; orthotype Telestes muticellus Bon. (1839j. 
Plagiusa Bonaparte, fasc. 120; orthotype (by implication) Pleuronectes plagiusa L. 

A substitute for Plagusisa Cuv. ; preoccupied ("non Plagusia, nome di 

crustaceo"). A synonym of Symphurus Raf. (1810). 


208. CANTRAINE (1837). Memoire sur un poisson nouveau (Acanthoderma 

temmincki) trouve dans le canal de Messme. Journ. de Bruxelles. 

Francois Joseph Cantraine (1801-1863). 

Acanthoderma Cantraine, X, 1-19; orthotype A. temmincki Cantraine. A synonym 


209. CUVIER & VALENCIENNES (1837). Histoire naturelle des poissons. XII. 

AcHiLLE Valenciennes. 
Oplopomus (Ehrenberg) Cuvier & Valenciennes, XII, 66 (reference in synonymy) ; 

orthotype O. pulcher Ehrenb. = Gobius oplopomus Cuv. & Val. Replaces 

Centrogobius Blkr., 1874. 
Cryptocentrus (Ehrenberg) Cuvier & Valenciennes, XII, 111; orthotype C. 

MELEAGRis Ehrenb. = Gobius cryptocentrus Cuv. & Val. Replaces Para- 

GOBius Blkr. Ehrenberg's manuscript, Zoologia: Pisces, quoted by Cuvier and 

Valenciennes, seems never to have been published. 
Amblyopus Cuvier & Valenciennes, XII, 139 ; logotype T^noides herrmannianus 

Lac. A synonym of T.^nioides Lac. 1803 

Apocryptes (Osbeck) Cuvier & Valenciennes, XII, 143; orthotype Gobius pectini- 
ROSTis Gmelin = Apocryptes chinensis Osbeck, 1757, and in later transla- 
tions (after 1758). Apocryptes Cuv. & Val. is plainly a revival of Osbeck's 
genus, and the name ought not legitimately to be transferred to another group 
as has been done by Giinther and Bleeker. Bleeker makes Gobius bato Ham. 
the type of Apocryptes Cuv. & Val., as this is the first species named by these 
authors under Apocryptes. But it would seem that Osbeck's haplotype (A. 
chinensis) must be accepted in the revival of his genus, in which case 
Apocryptes (Osbeck) Cuv. & Val. replaces Boleophphalmus Cuv. & Val. 
(p. 198). As against the views here expressed, it may be urged that the pre- 
Linnaean name Apocryptes Osbeck has no standing and Apocryptes Cuv. & 
Val. is really based on Gobius bato, a species actually in hand, as the descrip- 
tion shows. Apocryptes chinensis (pectinirostris) was included by error, 
it being a member in fact of the genus Boleophthalmus Cuv. & Val., as 
later writers have recognized. It may be urged further that the first desig- 
nation of type of Apocryptes is that of Bleeker, who places it on Apocryptes 

A further point is that accepting Apocryptes in the Osbeckian sense leaves 
the genus of Cuvier and Valenciennes without a name, unless we accept 
Gobileptes Sw. But the scales in Gobileptes are described as large, while 
those of Apocryptes bato are "exceedingly small". Swainson obviously drew 
his Gobileptes from the description of Gobius acutipinnis Cuv. & Val., later 
abandoning the genus, which he does not again notice. Among the numerous 
genera of sharp-tailed gobies, I have not found the proper place for (Gobi- 
leptes acutipinnis. This generic name, Gobilepres Sw., with no species 
mentioned, is interpreted by Bleeker as referring to Gobius bato and hence 
is regarded by him as a synonym of Apocryptes. 

Boleophthalmus Cuvier & Valenciennes, XII, 198; orthotype Gobius bodd.^rti Pal- 
las. Perhaps a synonym of Apocryptes (Osbeck) Cuv. & Val., which see 

Philypnus Cuvier & Valenciennes, XII, 235 ; haplotype Gobiomorus dormitor Lac. 
Same as Gobiomorus Lac, as first restricted by Jordan. Gill has later lim- 
ited the name to Valenciennea Blkr. 

EGERTON, 1837 189 

Hemerocoetes Cuvier & Valenciennes. XII, 311; haplotype Callionymus acan- 

Platyptera (Kuhl & Van Hasselt) Cuvier & Valencenniences, XII, 320; orthotype 

P. ASPRO Van Hasselt. Name preoccupied, replaced by Rhyacichthys 

Boulenger, 1901. 
Halieutaea Cuvier & Valenciennes, XII, 455 ; haplotype Halieut^a stellata Cuv. 

& Val. 

210. EGERTON (1837). (Catalogue of Fossil Fishes.) 
Philip de Malpas Grey Egerton (1806-1881). 
Isurus (Agassiz) Egerton; orthotype I. MACROxmus Ag. (fossil). Name only; 
validated by Agassiz, 1844. Name preoccupied ; replaced by Saurichthy.s 
Woodw., 1901. 

211. FITZINGER (1837). V orldiiHger Bericht iibcr eine hochst interessante Ent' 

deckung Dr. Natterers in Brasil. Oken's Isis. 
Leopold Jcseph Franz Fitzinger. 
Lepidosiren Fitzinger, 379 ; orthotype L. paradoxa Fitzinger. 

212. FRIES (1837). Pterycombus, ett nytt fiskslagte fran Ishafvet. Handl. 

K. Vetensk. Akad. Stockholm. 
Bengt Fredrik Fries (1799-1839). 
Pterycombus Fries, 14 ; orthotype P. brama Fries. 

213. GEINITZ (1837). Thilritigischen Muschelkalk. 
Hans Bruno Geinitz (1814-1900). 
Acrodus (Agassiz) Geinitz, 21; orthotype A. gaillardoti Ag. (fossil). (Also in 
Poissons fossiles. III, 139, 1838.) 

214. HECKEL (1837). Ichthyologischc Bcitrdge. Ann. Wiener Mus., II. 

JOHANN Jakob Heckel. 
Scorpaenopsis Heckel, II, 158; orthotype ScoRPyENA nesogallica Cuv. & Val. 
Trachydermus Heckel. 11, 159; orthotype T. efasciatus Heckel. Name three times 
preoccupied as Trachyderma; replaced by Centridermichthys Rich. 

215. KUTORGA (1837). Beitrag zur Geognosie und Palcontologic Dorpats und 
seiner ndchsten Umgebungen. St. Petersbourg, IV, for. 1835. Zweiter Bei- 
trag, 1837. 

Stepan Semenovich Kutorga (1812-1861). 
Ichthyosauroides Kutorga, II, 35; orthotype Trionyx spinosus Kutorga (fossil). 
Name rejected as inappropriate, the genus being supposed to be reptilian ; 
an inadequate reason for change of name to Heterostius Asmuss, 1856. 

216. MtJLLER & HENLE (1837). Gattungen der Hai£schc und RocJien nach 
ihrer Arbeit, "Ueber die Naturgeschichte der KnorpelHsche" . Ber. Akad. 
Wiss. Berlin. 

Johannes Muller; Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle. 
Taeniura Muller & Henle, 117; logotype Trygon ornata Gray = Raja lvmma 

217. MULLER & HENLE (1837j. On the Generic Characters of Cartilaginous 

Fishes, with Descriptions of New Genera. Mag. Nat. Hist., II. 
Johannes Muller ; Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle. 


Hemitrygon Miiller & Henle, 90; orthotype Trygon bennetti M. & H. 

Ginglymostoma Miiller & Henle, 113; orthot3'pe Squalus cirratus Gmelin. 

Scoliodon Miiller & Henle, 114; orthotype Carcharias laticauuus M. & H. 

Gymnura Miiller & Henle, 117; orthotype Raja asperrima B1. & Schn. Name 
preoccupied; replaced by Urogymnus M. & H. 

Himantura Miiller & Henle, 400; orthotj'pe Raja uarnak Forskal. 

Urogymnus Miiller & Henle, 434; logotype Raja asperrima B1. & Schn. Re- 
places Anacanthus Ehrenb. and Gymnura M. & H., both preoccupied. 

218. REDFIELD (1837). Fossil Fishes of Connecticut and Massachusetts with a 

Notice of an Undetermined Genus. Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y. 
John Howard Redfield (1825-1895). 
Catopterus Redfield, IV, 39; orthotype C. gracilis Redfield (fossil). Preoccupied 
by Catopterus Ag. (1833) ; replaced by Redfieldius Hay (1899). 

219. REINHARDT (1837). Bythites, novum genus piscium. Danske Vid. Selsk. 

Afh., VI. 
Johannes Christopher Hagemann Reinhardt. 
Bythites Reinhardt, VT, 77 ; orthotype B. fuscus Reinh. 

220. SMITH (1837). On the Necessity for a Revision of the Groups Included in 

the Linneean Genus Squalus. Proc. Zool. Soc. London. 
Andrew Smith. 

Poroderma Smith, 85; logotA-pe Squalus afrjcanus Gmelin. 

Catulus Smith, 85; orthotype Scyllium capense Smith. Name preoccupied in 
insects, partly equivalent to Scylliorhinus Blainv., 1816. 

Hemiscyllium Smith, 86; logotype Squalus ocellatus Bonneterre. 

Carcharodon Smith, 86; orthotype Carcharodon capensis Smith = Squalus car- 
charias L. 

Leptocarias Smith; ///. 5". Afr. Zool.; orthotype Truenodon smithi Gray; quoted 
by Agassiz, Norn. Zool., 1846; hence prior to Leptocarcharias Gthr., 1870. 
Replaces Leptocarcharias. 

221. THOMPSON (1837). Notes Relating to the Natural History of Ireland, 
with a Description of a New Genus of Fishes (Echiodon). Proc. Zool. Soc. 
London, V. 

William Thompson. 
Echiodon Thompson, 55; orthotype E. drummondi Thompson. A synonym of 
Carapus Raf. (Fierasfer Cuv.). 


222. AGASSIZ (1838). Rechcrchcs sur les poissons fossilcs. Ill, IV (parts). 

Louis Agassiz. 

Ptychopleurus Agassiz, III, 67; orthotype Ptychacanthus faugasi Ag. A fossd 
ally of Myliobatis. 

Oxyrhina Agassiz, HI, 86; logotype O. mantelli Ag. (fossil). Name preoccu- 
pied, the genus not separable from the living genus IsuRUs Raf. (1810). 

Orodus Agassiz, HI, 96; logotype O. cinctus Ag. (fossil.) 

Ctenoptychius Agassiz, III, 99; orthotype C. apicalis Ag. (fossil). 

Helodus Agassiz, III, 104; orthotype H. simplex Ag. (fossil). 

Chomatodus Agassiz, III, 107; logotype C. cinctus Ag. (fossil). An ally of 
Cochhodus, of undetermined value. 

BUCKLAND. 1838 10] 

Cochlicdus Agassiz, 111, 113; orthotype C. contortus Ag. (fossil). 

Strophodus Agassiz, III, 116; logotype S. reticulatus Ag. (fossil). A synonym 


Ceratodus Agassiz, III, 129; orthotype C. latissimus Ag. (fossil). Considered by 
Gistel as preoccupied by the earlier Ceratodon ; Scropha Gistel (1848) has 
been proposed as a substitute. 

Ctenodus Agassiz, III, 137; orthotype C. cristatus Ag. (fossil). Considered as 
preoccupied by the earlier Ctenodon. Rhadamista Gistel (1848) has been 
proposed as a substitute. 

Acrodus Agassiz, III, 139; orthotype A. gaillardoti Ag. (fossil). Name first pub- 
lished by Geinitz, 1837; regarded as preoccupied by Acrodon Zimm. (1832), 
a genus of beetles; Adiapneustes Gistel (1848) being suggested as substi- 
tute. But Thectodus Meyer & Plieninger (1844) is earlier than Adiap- 

Hoplopteryx Agassiz, IV, 4; logotype H. antiquus Ag. (fossil). 

Sphenocephalus Agassiz, IV, 4; orthotype S. fissicaudus Ag. (fossil). 

Acanus Agassiz, IV, 4; logotype A. ovalis Ag. (fossil). (Printed first without ex- 
planation in Neues Jahrb., 1834, 305). 

Acrogaster Agassiz, IV, 5; orthotype A. parvus Ag. (fossil). 

Podocys Agassiz, IV, 5, 135; orthotype P. minutus Ag. (fossil). 

Sparnodus Agassiz, IV, 10; orthotype Sparus macrophthalmus Volta (fossil). 
(Printed first without definition, Neucs Jahrb., 1835, 300.) 

Callipteryx Agassiz, IV, 12; logotype C. speciosus Ag. (fossil). (Also printed as 
name only in Neues Jahrb., 1835, 293.) 

Semiophorus Agassiz, IV, 14; orthotype Kurtus velifer Volta (fossil). 

Pygaeus Agassiz, IV, 16, 256; logotype P. coleanus Ag. (fossil). 

Macrostoma Agassiz, IV, 15, 260; orthotype M. altum Ag. (fossil). (Name twice 

223. BUCKLAND (1838). On the Discovery of Fossil Fishes in the Bagshot 
Sands at Goldzvorth Hill, Four Miles North of Guildford. Proc. Geol. See. 
London, II. 

William Buckland (1784-1856). 

Edaphodon Buckland, II, 687; logotype Chimera mantelli Buckland (fossil). 
According to Dr. L. Hussakof, the following genera based on Chimaeroid teeth 
are all synonyms of Edaphodon, namely, Ischyodus, Eumylodus, Passalo- 
DON, Psittacodon, Dipristis, Diphrissa and Bryactinus. 

Passalodon Buckland, II, 687; orthotype ChimyEra agassizi Buckland (fossil). 
A synonym of Edaphodon. 

Ameibodon Buckland. This name is quoted by Agassiz from the Proc. Zool. Soc. 
London, 1839. I do not find it there. 

224, COCCO (1838). Su di alcuni salmonidi del mare di Messina; lettera al Ch. 

D. Carlo Luciano Bonaparte. Nuovi Ann. Sci. Nat.. II. 
Anastasio Cocco. 
Gymnocephalus Cocco. 26; orthotype G. messinensis Cocco. Name preoccupied; 

a synonym of Centrolophus Lac. 
Maurolicus Cocco, 32; orthotype M. amethystinopunctatus Cocco. 
Odcntostomus Cocco, 32; orthotype O. kyalinus Cocco. Regarded as preoccu- 
pied by Odontostomus (1887), a genus of mollusks ; replaced by Ever- 
mannella Fowler. 


225. GRAY (1838). (Aracana.) Ann. Hist., I. 
John Ed Ward Gray. 
Aracana Gray, I, 110; logotype A. ornata Gray. (Printed without description in 

226. HECKEL (1838). Fische aus Caschmir gcsammelt und herausgegebcn von 

Carl Freihcrrn von Hugel, etc. Wien. 
JoHANN Jakob Heckel. 
Schizothorax Heckel, 11; logotype S. plagiostomus Heckel as fixed by Bleeker, 
1863 ; limited by Giinther in 1868 to S. curvifrons, etc. Same as Oreinus 
McCl., which it replaces if valid 

227. LOWE (1838). Piscium Maderensium species quccdam nova: vel minus rite 

cognitce breviter descriptcv, etc. Trans. Cambridge Phil. Soc, VI. 
Richard Thomas Lowe. 
Polymixia Lowe, VI, 198; orthotype P. nobilis Lowe. 

228. MtJLLER & HENLE (1838). Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen. 

Berlin (1838 to 1841). 
Johannes Muller; Frederick Gustav Jakob Henle. 

Chiloscyllium Muller & Henle, 17; logotype Scyllium plagiosum Bennett. 

Crossorhinus Mialler & Henle, 2J ; orthotype Squalus barbatus Gmelin, A synonym 
of Orectolobus Bon. 

Stegostoma Miiller & Henle 24; orthotype Squalus fasciatus Bloch. 

Aprion Muller & Henle, 32; orthotype Carcharias isodon M. & H. Name pre- 
occupied in fishes; replaced by Aprionodon Gill, 1861. 

Hypoprion Miiller & Henle, 34; orthotype Carcharias macloti M. & H. 

Prionodon Miiller & Henle, 36 ; logotype Squalus glaucus L. Preoccupied ; re- 
placed by Prionace Cantor, 1849. 

Triakis Muller & Henle, II, 36; orthotype T. scyllium. Spelled Triacis by authors. 

Triaenodon Miiller & Henle, 55 ; orthotype Carcharias obesus M. & H. 

Galeocerdo Miiller & Henle, 59; crthotypt G. tigrinus M. & H. 

Loxodon Miiller & Henle, 61 ; orthotype L. macrorhinus M. & H. 

Thalassorhinus Miiller & Henle, 62; orthotype T. vulpecula M. & H. 

Carcharodon (Smith) Miiller & Henle, 70; orthotype C. rondeleti M. & H. = 
Squalus carcharias L. 

Alopecias Miiller & Henle, 74; orthotype Squalus vulpes Gmelin = S. vulpinus 
Bonnaterre. A revised spelling of Alopias Raf. 

Triglochis Miiller & Henle, II, 88; orthotype Squalus ferox Risso. A synonym 
of Odontaspis Ag. and of Carcharias Raf. 

Centrophorus Miiller & Henle, 89; logotype C. granulatus M. & H. Perhaps a 
synonym of Dalatias Raf. 

Laemargus Miiller & Henle, 93; orthotype Squalus borealis Scoresby. A syno- 
nym of SoMNiosus Le Sueur. 

Pristiophorus Miiller & Henle, 98; orthotype Pristis cirratus Latham. 

Rhynchobatis Miiller & Henle, 111; orthotype Rhinobatus l^vis B1. & Schn. 

Syrrhina Miiller & Henle, 113; logotype S. columns M. & H. as restricted by Jor- 
dan & Evermann. 1896, the earliest definite restriction I have found. Gar- 
man, 1912, indicates Syrrhina brevirostris M. & H. as type. This is a species 
referred to Zapteryx J. & G. As here understood, Syrrhina is a synonym 
of Rhinobatus. 

Trygonorhina Miiller & Henle, 124; orthotype T. fasciata M. & H. 

MU1>LEK & HENLE, 1838 193 

Platyrhina Miiller & Henle, 125; logotype Raja sinensis Lac. Name regarded as 

preoccupied by Platyrhinus; replaced by Analithis Gistel (1848) and later 

by DiscoBATUS Garman (1881). 
Astrape Miiller & Henle, 130; logotype Raja capensis Gmelin. A synonym of 

Narke Kaup, 1826. 
Uraptera Miiller & Henle, 155 ; logotype U. agassizi M. & H. 
Sympterygia Miiller & Henle, 155 ; orthotype S. bonapartii M. & H. 
Pteroplatea Miiller & Henle, 168; orthotype Raja altavela L. 
Hypolophus Miiller & Henle, 170; orthotype Raja sephen Forskal. A synonym 

of Pastinachus Riippell, if this name is accepted (not Pastinaca Nardo). 
Taeniura Miiller Henle, 171; logotype Raja lymma Forskal. 
Urolophus Miiller & Henle, 173 ; logotype Raja cruciata Lac. 
Trygonoptera Miiller & Henle, 174; orthotype T. testacea M. & H. 
Aetoplatea Miiller & Henle, 175 ; orthotype A. tentaculata M. & H. 
Ceratoptera Miiller & Henle, 186; orthotype Cephaloptera vampyrus Mitchill. A 

s"ynonyni of Manta Bancroft 
Centroscyllium Miiller & Henle, 191 ; orthotype Spinax fabricii Reinh. 

229. MULLER & HENLE (1838). (Plagiostomen.) Charlesworth's Magazine of 

Natural History, 1838. 
Johannes Muller; Friedrich Henle. 
Leptocharias Miiller & Henle, II, Z6; orthotype Tri^nodon smithi Gray. Same as 
Leptocarias Smith, 1837. 

230. NORDMANN (1838). Bericht an die kaiserliche Akademie der Wissen- 
schaften, Uber eine iietie Fischgattung (Hexacanthus) aits der Familie der 
Gobioiden. Bull. Acad. Sci. St. Petersb., III. 

Alexander von Nordmann. 
flexacanthus Nordmann ; orthotype Gobius macrocephalus Pallas. Name re- 
garded as preoccupied by Hexacantha ; replaced by Benthophilus Eichw. 

231. REINHARDT (1838). Ichthyologiske bidrag til den Gronlandske fauna, 

etc. Danske Vid. Selsk. Afh. Kjobenhavn, VII. 
Johannes Christopher Hagemann Reinhardt. 
Himantolophus Reinhardt, 74; orthotype H. grcenlandicus Reinh. 
Citharus Reinhardt, 116; orthotype Pleuronectes platessoides Fabricius, not of 

Rose, 1793, nor of Bleeker, 1862. A synonym of Hippoglossoides Gottsche. 
Gymnelis Reinhardt, VII, 130; orthotype Ophidium viride Fabricius. 
Lycodes Reinhardt, VII, 153; logotype L. vahli Reinh. 

232. SWAINSON (1838). The Natural History of Fishes, Amphibians and Rep- 

tiles, or Monocardian Animals. I. 
William Swainson (1789-1855). 

Pedalion (Guilding) Swainson, I, 199; II, 195, 329; orthotype (Tetrodon mola L.). 
A synonym of Mola Kolr. 

Ariosoma Swainson, I, 220; II, 195; (no type named) ; logotype, as restricted by 
Bleeker and by Swain, Ophisoma acuta Sw. = Mur^ena balearica De la 
Roche ; replaced by Ophisoma Sw., on II, 334 ; a name preoccupied ; replace; 
Congermur^na Kaup and Congrellus Ogilby. Several other generic names 
defined by Swainson in Vol. II (1839) are casually mentioned with a few 
words of comparison. Tins Breviceps (238, 343, 345), Cypsilurus (I, 299). 
But when no question of priority arises, these need not be mentioned further. 


Breviceps Swainson, I, 328; II, 189; orthotype B. filamentosus Sw. = Arius 
BAHiENsis Castelnau. Name preoccupied ; replaced by Felichthys Sw. II, 

305. A synonym of Bagre (Cuv.) Oken, as restricted to its tautotype. 


233. AGASSIZ (1839). Kiinstliclie Stcinkerne von Konchylien und Fischc. 

Neues Jahrb. Mineral. 
Louis Agassiz. 
Eugnathus Agassiz, 118; logotype E. minor Ag. (fossil) ; regarded as preoccupied 
by EuGNATHA ; replaced by Furo Gistel (1848). 

234. AGASSIZ (1839). Fishes of the Old Red Sandstone. In Murchison's 

Silurian System. 

Louis Agassiz. 

Holoptychus Agassiz, 68; orthotype H. nobilissimus Ag. (fossil). Usually written 


Sclerodus Agassiz, 606; orthotype S. pustuliferus Ag. 

Thelodus Agassiz, 606; orthotype T. parvidens Ag. (fossil). 

Plectrodus Agassiz, 606, 704; logotype P. mirabilis Ag. (fossil). A synonym of 

Sclerodus Ag. 
Sphagodus Agassiz (not quoted by Woodward). Name of an Ichthydorulite or 

fossil fin-spine. 

235. AGASSIZ (1839). Recherches sur Ics poissons fossilcs. II, IV (part). 

Louis Agassiz. 
Sphaerodus Agassiz, 11, 215; logotype S. conicus Ag. (fossil). Not SpH^iiRODON 

Pristigenys Agassiz, IV, 136 orthotype P. macrophthalmus Ag. (fossil). (Printed 

as name only in Neues Jahrb., 1835. 299.) 
Ptychodus Agassiz, III, 150; orthotype P. mammilaris Ag. (fossil). 
Odonteus Agassiz, IV, 178; orthotype O. sparoides Ag. (fossil). 
Pterygocephalus Agassiz, IV, 190; orthotype P. paradoxus Ag. (fossil). (Also as 

name only, Neues Jahrb., 1835, 295.) 

236. BONAPARTE (1839). Systema Ichthyologicum. Mem. Sci. Nat. Neuf 

chatel, II, 1839. 
Charles Lucien Bonaparte. 
Pristidurus Bonaparte, II, 11; orthotype Galeus melastomus Raf. Commonly 
written Pristiurus, but the form here given is apparently earlier. 

237. CUVIER & VALENCIENNES (1839). Histoire naturelle des poissons. 

xin, XIV. 

Achille Valenciennes. 
Cossyphus Cuvier & Valenciennes, XIII, 102; logotype Bodianus bodianus Bloch. 

Identical with Bodianus Bloch, as restricted, and Harpe Lac. The name 

Cossyphus is also preoccupied. 
Acantholabrus Cuvier & Valenciennes, XIII, 242; logotype Lutjanus palloni 

Ctenolabrus Cuvier & Valenciennes, XIII, 223 ; logotype Labrus rupestris L 
Bagrus Cuvier & Valenciennes, XIV, 388; logotype Silurus bajad Forskal, not 

Bagre (Cuv.) Oken, which is Felichthys Sw. Bagrus is regarded as 

LAY & BENNETT, 1839 195 

preoccupied by Bagre, both being forms of "Les Bagres" Cuv. If so, it is 
replaced by Porcus Geoffrey St. Hilaire, 1818. 

238. LAY & BENNETT (1839). Fishes. (In the Zoology of Captain Beechey's 


G. T. Lay; Edward Turner Bennett. 

Peropus Lay & Bennett, 59; orthotype Blepsias bilobus Cuv. & Val. Name pre- 
occupied; replaced by Histiocottus Gill, 1888. 

239. LOWE (1839). A Supplement to a Synopsis of the Fishes of Madeira. 

Proc. Zool. Soc. London, VII. 
Richard Thomas Lowe. 

Callanthias Lowe, 76; orthotype C. paradis^us = Bodianus peloritanus Cocco. 

Aphanopus Lowe, 79; orthotype A. carbo Lowe. 

Pompilus Lowe, 81 ; orthotype Coryph^na pompilus L. = Pompilus rondeleti 
Lowe. A synonym of Centrolophus Lac. 

Alysia Lowe, 87 ; orthotype A. loricata Lowe = Scopelus coccoi Cocco. Name 
preoccupied ; replaced by Rhinsocopelus Liitken. 

Acanthidium Lowe, 91 ; logotype A. pusillum Lowe, as restricted by Jordan anc 
Evermann, 1896. Garman, 1913, chooses the second species named by Lowe, 
A. calceus, a species of Deani.\, as the type. As first restricted, Acanthi- 
dium is a synonym of Etmopterus Raf. 

240. McClelland (1839). Indian Cyprinidcc. Asiatic Researches, XIX. 

John McClelland (1805-1875). 

Oreinus McClelland, 273 ; logotype O. guttatus McCl. Regarded by Gistel as pre- 
occupied by Oreina, the name Englottogaster substituted for it. Probably 
a synonym of Schizothorax Heckel. 

Systomus McClelland, 284; logotype S. immaculatus McCl. 

Perilampus McClelland, 288; logotype Cyprinus devario Ham. A synonym of 

Opsarius McClelland, 295; logotype O. maculatus McCl. Apparently a synonym 
of Barilius Ham. 

Psilorhynchus McClelland, 300; logotype Cyprinus sucatid Ham. A synonym of 
Homaloptera Van Hasselt. 

Aplocheilus McClelland, 301 ; logotype A. chrysostigmus McCl. = Esox panchax 
Ham. Name corrected to Haplochilus Giinther. 

Schistura McClelland, 306; logotype Cobitis rupecula McCl. A synonym of Bar- 
batula Linck. 

Gonorhynchus McClelland, 373; logotype G. brevis McCl. Not Gonorhynchus oi 
Gronow and Scopoli (1777). A synonym of Crossocheilus Van Hasselt. 

Hymenphysa McClelland, 443; logotype Cobitis dario Ham. Corrected to 
Hymenophysa by Giinther; a synonym of Botia Gray. 

241. McClelland (1839). observations on Six New Species of Cyprinidce 
with an Outline of a New Classification of the Family. Journ. Asiatic Soc. 
Benal, VIII, 941-947. 

John McClelland. 

Platycara McClelland, VIII, 947; orthotype P. nasuta McCl. A synonym of 
Garra Ham., and Discogn.^thus Heckel. 

196 Till-: GENKKA (M- I'lSliliS, I'AKT II 

242. MITCHELL (1839). Three Expeditions into the Interior of Eastern Australia. 

Ed. IL 
James Mitchell. 
Tandanus Mitchell, 1, 95: orthotypc Plotosus tandanus Mitchell; replaces Copido- 
GLANis Gthr., 1864. 

243. MULLER (1839). Vergleichende Anatomie der Myxinoiden, der Cyclostomen 

mil durchbohrten Gaumen. IV. Ucbcr das Gcfiis System. .\bh. Akad. 
Wiss. Berlin, 1839. 

Johannes Muller. 

Heteropneustes Muller, 243; orthotype Silurus fossilis Bloch. Said to be the 
same as Silurus singio Hain., 243 (also in IViegm. Arch., 1839, 115). Re- 
places Saccobranchus Cuv. & Val., 1848. 

Amphipnous Miillcr, 244; orthotype Unibranchapertura cuchia Ham. 

Physogaster Miillcr, 252; orthotype Tetraodon lunaris B1. & Schn. Name pre- 
occupied; replaced by Gastrophysus Muller. A synonym of Lagocephalus 

Arothron Miillcr, 252; orthotype A. testudinarius Muller = Tetraodon reticu- 
laris Bl. & Schn. A synonym of Ovoides Dum. 

Cheilichthys Muller, 252; orthotype Tetraodon testudineus L. A synonym of 
Spheroides Dum. 

Chelonodon Miiller, 252; orthotype Tetrodon patoca Ham. 

244. MUNSTER (1839). Ueber einige merkwUrdige Fische aus dem Kupfcr- 

schiefer und dem Muschclkalk. Beitrage zur Petrefactenkunde. 


Ascalabos Miinstcr, I, 112; orthotype A. voitiii Mitnster (fossil). A synonym of 

245. NARDO (1839). Consideracioni sulla fajniglia dei pesci Mola, c sui caratteri 

che li distinguono. Ann. Sci. Lombardo-Vcncto, X. 

Giovanni Domenico Nardo. 

Pallasia Nardo, V, 10, 112; orthotype P. pallasi Nardo. A larval form of Mol.\ 

Ranzania Nardo, V, 10, 105 ; orthotypc Tictraodon truncatus Rctzius. 

246. OWl'^N (1839). On a Nezv Species of the (Senus Lepidosiren of Fitzinger and 

Nattcrer, L, Annectens. Proc. Linn. Soc. London. 1839, 1, 27-32. 
Richard Owen (1810-1890). 
Protopterus Owen, 27 ; orthotype Lepidosiren .\nnectens Owen. 

247. OWEN (1839). ( I'ossil Fishes.) Report British Association for 1838 (1839). 

Richard Owen. 
Dictyodus Owen, 142; orthotypc D. dkstkitci'ok Owen (fossil) (1854). 

248. RANZANI (1839). Dispositio familice M alarum in genera et in species. 

Novi Comment. Acad. Sci. Inst. Bonon.. [II. 

Camillo Ranzani. 

Ozodura Ranzani, 81 ; orthotypc O. orstni Rnnzani =^ Mola mola (L). A synonym 

of Mola Kiilr. 
Tympanomium Ranzani, 81 ; orthotype T. planci Ranzani. A .synonym of Mola. 
Trematopsis Ranzani, 81 ; orthotype T. willughheii Ranzani. A synonym of Mola. 

RiciiAKDsoy. 1839 197 

249. RICHARDSON (1839). Description of Fishes Collected of Port Arthur in 

Van Diemen's Land. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, VII. 
John Richardson. 

Latris Richardson, 98; orthotype L. hecateia Rich. 

Nemadactylus Richardson, 98; orthotype N. concinnus Rich. Spelled Nemato- 
UAcTYLUS by Gill. 

250. STORER (1839). A Report on the Fishes of Massachusetts. Boston Journ. 

Nat. Hist., II. 
David Humphreys Storer (1804-1891). 
Cryptacanthodes Storer, 28 ; orthotype C. maculatus Storer. 

251. SWAINSON (1839). The Xalnral History of Fishes, Amphibians and 

Reptiles or Monocardian Animals. II. 
William Swainson. 

In a review of Swainson's Genera of Fishes. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1882, page 272, Dr. Joseph Swain has made identifications of all of the series 
Swainson's genera, indicating a logotype for each. This designation of type 
must stand in every case, except when a prior indication has been made, as 
was done in a few cases by Bonaparte and by Bleeker. Swainson's work is 
perhaps the last and certainly the most unwelcome of an unfortunate series to 
which belong Scopoli's Introductio, Fischer's Zoognosia, Rafinesque's 
Analyse de la Nature, works which treat of the whole scope of Ichthyology, 
adding new genera here and there, but without special investigation of the 
animals concerned, leaving their generic names imperfectly defined as a bur- 
den to the real students who must give to these names their final meaning. 
Of the 153 new names introduced by Swainson, about 30 must be retained on 
the score of priority of date, but there is not a dozen of the whole number 
based on any clear understanding of the relations of the species indicated. 
In Chapter I of Vol. 2, on pages 167 to 197, Swainson gives an analytical key 
to the genera he recognizes. In this part no species are mentioned and in 
several cases the genera bear other names when they appear later in the reg- 
ular text in Chapter II of Vol. 2 (197-339). 

Erosa Swainson, II, 61; tautotype Synanceja erosa LangsdorfY; type not indicated 
but understood from context, and from the generic name chosen. The genus 
is valid and was revived by Jordan & Starks (1904). 

Trichosomus Swainson, II, 61, 265; logotype Apistus trachinoides Cuv. & Val. 
Accidentally spelled also Trichophasia on page 61. Regarded as preoccupied 
by Trichosoma, a genus of worms, and by Trichosomus, a genus of bettles ; 
replaced by Vespicula Jordan & Rich. Prosopodasvs Cantor, originally a 
substitute name for Apistus, is transferred by Giinther to A. trachinoides, an 
arrangement apparently not allowable, as Cuvier does not mention that species 
among "les Apistes". Trichophasia, an error, not a new name, seems also 

Trichophasia Swainson, II, 61 ; (used evidently by error of proof-reader for Tri- 
chosomus) which form appears before ahd after on page 61 and formally on 
page 279. 

Clinitrachus Swainson, II, 75; II, 276; orthotype (on p. 75) Blennius variabilis 
Raf., a species not mentioned on page 276. hence B. superciliosus L., a 
species of Clinus, was indicated as type by Swain. A synonym of Cristi- 
CEPs Cuv. & Val. (1836). 


Blennitrachus Swainson, II, 78; II, 274; orthotype Pholis quadrifasciatus 
Wood. A synonym of Chas modes Cuv. 

Cichlaurus Swainson, II, 173; haplotype (230) Labrus punctatus Bloch. Later 
called CiCHLASOMA, which name it should replace. 

Dendrochirus Swainson, II, 180; logotype Pterois zebra Cuv. & Val. 

Pteropterus Swainson, II, 180; logotype (p. 264) Pterois radiatus Cuv. & Val. 
A synonym of Pterois Cuv. 

Psilosomus Swainson, II, 183; logotype T.*:nioides herrmannianus Lac. A syn- 
onym of T^nioides Lac. 

Gobileptes Swainson, II, 183; no type named; orthotype intended (as is evident 
from Swainson's description) Gobius acutipinnis Cuv. & Val. "like Gobius, 
but the caudal lanceolate and the scales large". Bleeker (1876) has, how- 
ever, fixed the type, none having been named before, on Gobius bato Ham. 
This raises a question in nomenclature already noted under Apocryptes 

Salmostoma Swainson, II, 184; logotype Cyprinus bacaila Ham. on page 284, 
where the genus is called Salmophasia. Replaces Securicula Gthr., 1868. 

Scrophicephalus Swainson, II, 187; no type named, Mormyrus caschive Hassel- 
quist intended ("dorsal fin single, very long; snout produced"). A synonym 
of Mormyrus L., as restricted by Gill (1862). 

Ariosoma Swainson, II, 194; logotype as restricted by Bleeker, 1864, Ophisoma 
acuta Sw. = Mur-ena balearica De la Roche. Replaces Congermur^na 
Kaup (1856) and Congrellus Ogilby 1898. 

Leiodon Swainson, II, 194; logotype Leiosomus marmoratus Sw. = Tetraodon 
cutcutia Ham., as defined by Bleeker (1865). Swain restricts the name 
Leiosomus as later substituted bj^ Swainson for Leiodon, to Leiosomus 
l^vissimus Sw., which is Tetraodon spengleri Bloch, a species of 
Spheroides. Leiodon Sw. has precedence over Leiodon Owen, 1841, and 
replaces Monotreta Bibron. 

Canthigaster Swainson, II, 194; logotype Tetraodon rostratus Bloch. Called 
Psilonotus later in the text; replaces Anosmius Peters. 

Cromileptes Swainson, II, 201 ; logotype Serranus altivelis Cuv. & Val. Restricted 
by Bleeker (1875) to S. altivelis, thus replacing Serranichthys Blkr. 
Later restricted by Swain to Epinephelus gigas. 

Cynichthys Swainson, II, 201 ; haplot}'pe Perca flavopurpurea Bennett = HoLO- 
centrus flavoc^ruleus Lac. A synonym of Epinephelus (not Plectorhyn- 
CHUS as stated by Swain). 

Variola Swainson, II, 202; haplotype V. longipinna Sw. = Perca louti Forskal. 

Uriphaeton Swainson, II, 202; orthotype Serranus phaeton Cuv. & Val. = U. 
microleptes Sw. This genus is based on a made-up fish, a Cephalopholis, 
with the tail of a Fistularia attached. A synonym of Cephalopholis B1. & 

Elastoma Swainson, II, 202; type Etelis oculatus (Cuv. & Val.). A synonym of 
Etelis Cuv. 

Rabdophorus Swainson, II, 211; haplotype Ch^todon ephippium Bloch. A sub- 
division of Ch.^todon. 

Genicanthus Swainson, II, 212; logotype Holacanthus lamarcki (Cuv.) A 
synonym of Holacanthus Lac. 

Microcanthus Swainson, II, 215; haplotype Ch.etodon strigatus Cuv.. a wilful 
misprint for Micracanthus. 

swAiNsoN, 1839 199 

Chrysiptera Swainson, II, 216; logotype Glyphidodon azureus Q. & G. A sub- 
genus under Abudefduf. 

Microgaster Swainson, II, 216; haplotypc Etroplus coruchi Guv. & Val. = Ch.e- 
TODON MACULATUS Bloch. Equivalent to Paretroplus Blkr. A synonym of 
Etroplus Cuv. & Val. as restricted. 

Chaetolabrus Swainson, II, 216 ; logotype Gh^todon suratensis Bloch. A synonym 
of Etroplus Cuv. 

Chrysoblephus Swainson, II, 221 ; haplotype Sparus gibbiceps Guv. A section 
under Sparus L. * 

Argyrops Swainson, II, 221 ; haplotype Sparus spinifer Forskal. A section under 
Sp.^rus L. 

Calamus Swainson, II, 221 ; haplotype Pagellus calamus Guv. & Val. = Galamus 


Lithognathus Swainson, II, 222; haplotype Sparus capensis Guv. 

Nemipterus Swainson, II, 223 ; haplotype Dentex filamentosus Guv. Replaces 
Synagris Gthr., 1859. 

Thalassoma Swainson, II, 224; haplotype Labrus purpureus Riippell. Stands in 
place of JuLis Gthr., not o{ Guvier. 

Urichthys Swainson, II, 224 ; logotype Labrus lunulatus Riippell. A synonym of 
Gheilinus Lac. 

Crassilabrus Swainson, II, 225; haplotype Gheilinus undulatus Riippell. A sec- 
tion under Gheilinus Lac. 

Leptoscarus Swainson, II, 226; haplotype Scarus vaigiensis Q. & G. = Scarus 
spinidens Guv. = Galliodon vaigiensis Guv. & Val. Replaces Galotomus 
Gilbert, and Galliodon Guv. ; not Gallyodon of Gronow nor Galliodon of 
Bl. & Schn. 

Hemistoma Swainson, II, 226; haplotype Scarus pepo Bennett = Hemistoma 
reticulata Sw. A synonym of Gallyodon Gronow or Scarus Forskal. 

Erychthys Swainson, II, 226; logotype Labrus croicensis Bloch. A synonym of 
Gallyodon Gronow or Scarus Forskal. 

Petronason Swainson, II, 226; logotype Goryph^na psittacus L. as restricted by 
Bleeker and by Swain. A synonym of Gallydodon or Scarus. 

Pachynathus Swainson, II, 226 (misprint for Pachygnathus) ; haplotype P. tri- 
angularis Sw., based on Rahtee yellakah Russell = Balistes capistratus 
Shaw. Name preoccupied as Pachygnathus; replaced by §ufflamen 
Jordan, 1917. The International Commission of Nomenclature has decided 
that Pachynathus is to be regarded as a misprint, hence identical with 

Chlorurus Swainson, II, 227; haplotype Scarus gibbus Ruppell. A synonym of 
Gallyodon or Scarus. 

Amphiscarus Swainson, II, 227; Scarus fuscus Griffith. A synonym of Siganus 

Sparisoma Swainson, II, 227; haplotype Scarus abildgaardi Bloch. Equivalent to 
Scarus Gthr., which it replaces; not Scarus of Forskal, which should 
stand as Gallyodon Gronow, if Gronovp's names are allowed. 

Hemiulis Swainson, II, 228; logotype Labrus guttatus Bloch, as restricted by 
Bonaparte (Fauna Italica, 1841). Swain (1882) chose Gheilio auratus 
Q. & G. as type regarding Hemiulis as a synonym of Gheilio. If Hali- 
chceres Riippell is regarded as preoccupied by Halichcerus, Hemiulis must 
replace it instead of Ghcerojulis Gill. 


Cynaedus Swainson, II, 229; logotype Labrus rupestris Bloch, as restricted by 
Bonaparte, Labrus tinca, as restricted by Swain. Swainson offers this name 
as a substitute for Crenilabrus Cuv.. of which he wrongly assigns Luti- 
ANUS verres, a BoDiANUs, as type. Cyn.edus Sw. (not of Gronow or Scopoli) 
is a synonym of Ctenolabrus Cuv. & Val. 

Astronotus Swainson, II, 229 ; haplotype Lobotes ocellatus Spix. Replaces Acara 
Heckel and Hvgrogonus Gthr., 1862. 

Thalliurus Swainson, II, 230; haplotype Labrus blochi "= Labrus fuligi nosus 
Lac. Replaces Hemigymnus Gthr., 1864. 

Labristoma Swainson, II, 230; logotype Pseudochromis olivaceus Riippell. A 
needless substitute for Pseudochromis Riippell, 1835. 

Cichlasoma Swainson, II, 230; haplotype Labrus punctatus Bloch. Called Cich- 
laurus on page 173; equivalent to Heros Heckel (1840) as restricted; appar- 
ently Cichlaurus should stand. 

Ichthycallus Swainson, II, 232; logotype Labrus julis L., as restricted by Bona- 
parte (1839). Swain has chosen (1882) Labrus semipunctatus as type, a 
species of CoRis Lac. Jordan later took the first species named, dimidiatus, 
as type, a species of Iridio. Ichthycallus is a synonym of Julis Cuv. & Val. 
"Chlorichthys and Ichthycallus, confused jumble of species, may well be 
disposed of as synonyms of Thalassoma and Coris, respectively, although 
several other genera are represented in each." (Swain.) 

Eupemis Swainson, II, 232; haplotype Labrus fusiformis Riippell. A synonym of 
Cheilio Lac. 

Chlorichthys Swainson, II, 232; logotype Labrus bifasciatus Bloch, as restricted 
by Swain. Bonaparte selects as type Labrus pavo Hasselquist, a species not 
mentioned by Swainson. A synonym of Thalassoma Sw. 

Zanclurus Swainson, II, 239; type Histiophorus indicus Cuv. & Val. A synonym 
of Istiophorus Lac. 

Zyphothyca Swainson, II, 239; type Gempylus coluber Cuv. & Val.; for Xipho- 
theca Montague. A synonym of Gempylus Cuv. 

Leiurus Swainson, II, 242; logotype Gasterosteus aculeatus L. A synonym of 
Gasterosteus L. 

Polycanthus Swainson, II, 242; type Gasterosteus spinachia L. A synonym of 
Spinachia Fleming, 1825. Polycanthus is also preoccupied. 

Chirostoma Swainson, II, 242 ; haplotype Atherina humboldtiana Cuv. & Val. 

Meladerma Swainson, II, 243; haplotype M. nigerrima Sw. = Elacate pondi- 
cerriana Cuv. & Val. A synonym of Rachycentron Kaup (1826), and of 
Elacate Cuv. (1831). 

Platylepes Swainson, II, 247 ; haplotype Scomber lactarius B1. & Schn. A syn- 
onym of Lactarius Cuv. & Val. 

Argyrlepes Swainson, II, 247 ; haplotype Argyrlepes indica Sw., based on Mitta 
p^vrah of Russell, pi. 156. a species of Leiognathus. A synonym of 
Leiognathus Lac. 

Alepes Swainson, II, 248 ; haplotype Alepes melanoptera Sw., based on Wori 
parah Russell, pi. 155, apparently the same as Caranx nigripinnis Day, 
a species of Hemicaranx ; apparently replaces Hemicaranx Blkr. 

Zonichthys Swainson, II, 248; tj-pe Scomber fasciatus Bloch. A section or sub- 
genus under Seriola. 

Hamiltonia Swainson, II, 250; logotype H. ovata Sw. = Chanda nama Ham. 
(fig. 27) as fixed by Swain (1882). Hamiltonia is given as a substitute for 

swAiNsoN, 1839 201 

Chanda Ham., and the fixation of type for the substitute decides that of the 
original name. Chanda nama is the orthotype of Bogoda Blkr., a genus well 
detined, Ambassis bogoda being the type species. Swainson's second species, 
Chanda lala Ham., which he spells lata, belongs to Blecker's genus 
PsEUDAMBASSis. This was chosen as type of Chanda by Fowler, and still 
later C. ruconius by Jordan, but Swain's choice of type must hold. 
Hamiltonia and Bogoda are therefore both synonyms of Chanda Ham. 

Platysomus Swainson, II, 250; logotype Vomer browni Cuv. & Val. A synonym 
of Vomer; name preoccupied. 

Ctenodon Swainson, H, 255 ; logotype Ctenodon ruppelli Sw. = Ch.etodon sohal 
Forskal, not Ctenodon Bon. nor of Ehrenberg. A synonym of Hepatus 
Gronow, Teuthis L. and Acanthurus Forskal. 

Callicanthus Swainson, H, 256 ; haplotype Aspisurus elegans Riippell = Harpurus 
lituratus Forster. A section or genus near Naso. 

Zebrasoma Swainson, H, 256; haplotype Acanthurus velifer Bloch. 

Xiphichthys Swainson, II. 259; haplotype Gymnetrus russelli Shaw. A synonym 
of Reg.\lecus Briinnich. (Also, II, 46.) 

Xiphasia Swainson, IT, 259; type "Ziphasia setifer" Sw. Replaces Nemophis 
Kaup (1858) and Xiphogadus Gthr. (1862). 

Nemotherus (Rafinesque) Swainson (II, 260); orthotype N. erythropterus Raf. 
Quoted from Rafinesque's Spccchio delle Science, I, 101, 1815. This is evi- 
dently a slip for Nemochirus Raf. Nemotherus (Risso) Costa is a syno- 
nym of Trachypterus. Nemochirus seems to be an ally of Stylephorus, as 
yet unrecognized. 

Ornichthys Swainson, II, 262; logotype Trigla punctata Bloch. .\ synonym of 
Prionotus Lac. 

Pteroleptus Swainson. II, 264; haplotype Pteroleptus longicauda Sw., (Kodipungx 
Russell). A synonym of Pterois Cuv. 

Macrochyrus Swainson, II, 264; haplotype Scorp^na miles Bennett. A synonym 
of Pterois Cuv. 

Brachyrus Swainson, II, 264; logotype Pterois zebra Cuv. & Val. A synonym of 
Dendrochirus Sw., not Brachyochirus Nardo. Name spelled Brachirus 
when first used, page 71. 

Pteropterus Swainson, II, 264; haplotype Pterois radiatus Cuv. & Val. 

Platypterus Swainson, II, 265 ; logotype T^nionotus latovittatus Lac. Name 
preoccupied; replaced by Tetraroge Gthr., 1860. 

Pterichthys Swainson, II, 265 ; logotype Scorp.IiNa c.\rinata B1. & Schn. A syn- 
onym of Apistus Cuv., to be used if that name is regarded as preoccupied 
by Apistes, etc.; not Pterichthus Commerson (1803), nor Pterichthys Ag. 

Gymnapistes Swainson, II, 265 ; logotype Apistus marmoratus Cuv. & Val. Re- 
places Pentaroge Gthr. 

Synanchia ("Cuvier") Swainson, 268; a variant of Synanceja: (S. erosa). 

Bufichthys Swainson, II, 268; logotype Scorp.ena horrida L. which is also type 
of Synancidium Miiller, 1844. Where Bufichthys is first mentioned on 
page 180 it has the definition still earlier assigned to Erosa and here given 
to "Synanchia". Gill therefore regards it as a synonym of Erosa Sw., 
rather than as equivalent of Synancidium Miiller. 

Trachicephalus Swainson, II, 268; haplotype Synanceia elongata Cuv. & Val. 
Preoccupied by Trachycephalus, 1838, a genus of reptiles. Replaced by 
Polycaulus Gthr. 


Ichthyscopus Swainson, II, 269; logotype Uranoscopus inermis Cuv. & Val. Re- 
places Anema Gthr. 

Enophrys Swainson, II, 271 ; haplotype Cottus claviger Cuv. & Val. 

Gymnocanthus Swainson, II, 271 ; haplotype Cottus ventralis Cuv. & Val. Re- 
places Phobetor Kroyer, 1844, and Elaphocottus Sauvage. This name 
should read Gymnacanthus. There seems to be no classical warrant for 
Swainson's persistent use of "Canthus" (xdvqpog, a donkey) to mean spine 

Canthirhynchus Swainson, II, 272; haplotype Cottus monopterygius Bloch. A 

synonym of Aspidophoroides Lac. (1802). 
Hippocephalus Swainson, II, 272; logotype Agonus superciliosus Pallas, as 

restricted by Gill, 1861. A synonym of Percis Scopoli (1777), not PERas 

of Klein, nor of Cuvier. 
Chirolophis Swainson, II, 275 ; haplotype Blennius yaerelli Cuv. & Val. — Blen- 

Nius ascanii Walbaum. Replaces Blenniops Nilsson (1855) and Carelophus 

LOPHUS Kroyer. 
Erpichthys Swainson, II, 275; logotype Salarias quadripinnis Riippell. A syno- 
nym of Salarias Cuv. 
Rupiscartes Swainson, II, 275; haplotype S.\larias alticus Cuv. & Val. = Blen- 
nius TRiDACTYLUS Bl. & Schn. Equivalent to Alticus Commerson, but the 

latter may not be eligible 
Cirripectes Swainson, II, 275 ; haplotype Salarias variolosus Cuv. & Val. A syn- 
onym of Alticus or Rupiscartes. 
Blennophis Swainson, II, 276; logotype Clinus anguillaris Cuv. & Val., not 

Blennophis Val. (1844), which is Ophioblennius Gill. 
Labrisomus Swainson, II, 277; logotype Clinus pectinifer Cuv. & Val. Often 

written Labrosomus ; replaces Lepisoma Dekay, 1842. 
Ophisomus Swainson, II, 277; haplotj'pe Blennius gunnellus L. Substitute for 

Gunnellus Cuv. & Val. A synonym of Pholis Scopoli (1777) and Mur^- 

NOiDES Lac. (1803). 
Ognichodes Swainson, II, 278; type Gobioides broussonneti Lac, a needless 

substitute for Gobioides Lac. Same as Amblyopus Cuv. & Val. 
Scartelaos Swainson, II, 279; logotype Gobius viridis Ham. Replaces Boleops 

Gill, 1863. 
Ruppellia (misprinted Rupellia) Swainson, II. 281; orthotype Gobius echino- 

CEPHALUs Ruppell. Preoccupied, replaced by Paragobiodon Blkr. (1879). 
Amphichthys Swainson, II, 282; haplotype Batrachus rubigenes Sw., from 

Pernambuco. This fish is said to have but one dorsal fin and no teeth on the 

palate. It is undoubtedly based on Batrachus cryptocentrus Cuv. & Val. It 

therefore replaces Marcgravia Jordan (1886) as also the substitute name, 

Marcgravichthys Ribeiro. 
Salmophasia Swainson, II, 284 ; logotype Cyprinus bacalla Ham. (S. oblonga Sw.). 

Called Salmostoma on page 184. A synonym of Salmostoma, which replaces 

Securicula Gthr. 1868). 
Chedrus Swainson, II, 285; haplotype Chedrus grayi Sw. = Cyprinus chedra 

Ham. A synonym of Barilius Ham. 
Esomus Swainson, II, 285; haplotype Esomus vittatus Sw. = Cyprinus daltrica 

Ham. Replaces Nuria Cuv. & Val. (1842). 
Clupisudis Swainson, II, 286; haplotype Sudis nilotica Ehrenb. Replaces Hete- 

rotis Ehrenb. (1843). 

swAiNsoN, 1839 203 

Laurida Swainson, II, 287 ; logotype Salmo fcetens L. A synonym of Synodus 
Bl. & Schn. 

Triurus Swainson, II, 288; haplotype Triurus microcephalus Sw. = Osmerus 
NEHEREUS Ham. A synonym of Harpodon Le Sueur. Preoccupied by Triurus 
Lac. (1800). 

Mormyrhynchus Swainson, II, 291 ; haplotype M. gronovii Sw. — Anostomus 
Gronow. Same as Anostomus (Gronow), Scopoli (1777) = Schizodon 
Ag., 1829). 

Trichosoma Swainson, II, 292; haplotype Trichosoma Hamilton: Sw. ; preoccupied 
by Trichosomus Sw., 265; and by Trichosoma Rudolphi (1819), a genus of 
worms. Equivalent to Thrissa Cuv. (1817), not of Rafinesque (1815) ; 
replaced by Thrissocles Jordan (1917). 

Setipinna Swainson, II, 292; logotype Clupea phasa Ham. (Setipinna megalura 
Sw.). Replaces Telara Gthr. (1868). 

Platygaster Swainson, II, 294; logotype Clupea africana Bloch. Preoccupied in 
bees, 1809. A synonym of Ilisha Gray, 1846. 

Cypselurus Swainson, II, 296 (misprinted Cypsilurus) ; logotype Exoccetus 
nuttalli Le Sueur = Exoccetus furcatus Mitchill. Based on a young 
example, with barbel at the chin. In view of Swainson's general carelessness 
and of the irregularity of his proof-reading, the form Cypsilurus has been 
officially deemed a misprint by the International Communion of Nomenclature. 
Same as Ptenichthys Miiller, 1843. 

Ramphistoma (Rafinesque) Swainson, 296 orthotype R. vulgaris Sw., same as 
Belone Cuv. 

Leptodes Swainson, II, 298 ; logotype Chauliodus sloani Bl. & Schn. A synonym 
of Chauliodus Bl. & Schn., (1801). 

Tilesia Swainson, II, 300 ; orthotype Gadus gracilis Tilesius ; synonym of Eleginus 

Cephus Swainson, II, 300; haplotype Gadus macrocephalus Tilesius. A synonym 
of Gadus L. 

Lepidion Swainson, II, 300 ; haplStype Gadus lepidion Risso = Lepidion rubescens 
Sw., regarded as preoccupied by Lepidea (1817), a genus of worms; replaced 
by Haloporphyrus Gthr. (1862). 

Psetta (Aristotle) Swainson, II 302; haplotype Pleuronectes maximus L. Suf- 
ficiently distinct from Psettus Cuv. 

Platophrys Swaison, II, 302 ; haplotype Pleuronectes ocellatus Spix & Ag. 
Replaces Rhomboidichthys Blkr. (1856). 

Brachirus Swainson, II, 303; logotype Pleuronectes orientalis Bl. & Schn. 
Preoccupied by Brachirus and Brachyrus Sw. ; replaced by Euryglossa 
Kaup (1858). 

Plagusia (Browne) Swainson, 302; orthotype P. bilineata Bloch; name pre- 
occupied, same as Paraplagusia Blkr. 

Sturisoma Swainson, II, 304; haplotype Loricaria rostrata Spix. 

Hoplisoma Swainson, II, 304; haplotype Cataphractus punctatus Bloch = Cory- 
dor as geoffroyi Lac. A synonym of Corydoras Lac, 1803. 

Silonia Swainson, II, 305; logotype Pimelodus silondia Ham. = Silonia lurida 
Sw. Replaces Silundia Cuv. & Val. (1830). 

Felichthys Swainson, II, 305; logotype, as restricted by Swainson and Bleeker, 
F. filamentosus Sw. — Arius bahiensis Castelnau. Name a substitute 
for Breviceps Sw., preoccupied; a synonym of Bagre (Cuv.) Oken (1817), 
as restricted through tautonymy. 


Cyclopium Swainson, II, 305; haplotype Pimelodus cyclopum Humboldt — Cv- 
CLOPiuM HUMBOLDTi Sw. Replaces Stygogenes Gthr. (1864). 

Clupisoma Swainson, II, 306; haplotype Silurus garua Ham., Clupisoma ar- 
GENTATA Sw. Replaces Schilbeichthys Blkr., 1858. 

Pachypterus Swainson, II, 306; logotype Silurus atherinoides Bloch. Preoccu- 
pied in Coleoptera (1833) ; replaced by Pseudeutropius Blkr. (1863). 

Pusichthys Swainson, II, 307; haplotype Schilbe uranoscopus Riippell. A syno- 
nym of Schilbe Cuv. (1817). 

Cotylephorus Swainson, II, 308; haplotype Platystacus cotylephorus Bloch = 
C. BLocHi Sw. A synonym of Platystacus Bloch, and of Aspredo (Gronow) 

Pteronotus Swainson, II, 309; haplotype Heterobranchus sextentaculatus Ag. 
Preoccupied in mollusks ; gives way to Rhamdia Blkr. (1858). 

Diacantha Swainson, II, 310; logotype Diacantha zebra Sw. = Cobitis geto 
Ham. (pi. 11). A synonym of Botia Gray, 1831. 

Canthophrys Swainson, II, 310; logotype Canthophrys albescens Sw., based on 
Cobitis No. 3, Hamilton. Said by Swain to be a species of Botia Gray (1831). 

Acoura Swainson, II, 310; logotype Cobitis savona Ham. (Acoura obscura Sw.). 
A synonym of Nemacheilus Van Hasselt ; spelled Acourus on an earlier 

Somileptes Swainson II, 311; logotype S. bispinosa Sw. = Cobitis gongota Ham. 
A synonym of Cobitis L., 1758. 

Platysqualus Swainson, II, 311; logotype Squalus tiburo Sw. (not of L.), 
based on a figure by Russell, representing Sphyrna tudes Cuv. A syno- 
nym of Sphyrna Raf. 

Pterocephala Swainson, II, 321 ; haplotype Raja giorna Lac. A synonym of 
Morula Raf. 

Tetrosomus Swainson, II, 323; haplotype Ostracion turritus Forskal. A section 
of Ostracion L. 

Rhinesomus Swainson, II, 324; logotype Ostracion triqueter Bloch. A synonym 
of Lactophrys Sw. 

Lactophrys Swainson. II, 324; logotype Ostracion trigonum L. 

Platycanthus Swainson, II, 324; haplotype Ostracion auritus Shaw. A synonym 
of Aracana Gray. 

Rhinecanthus Swainson, II, 325 ; logotype Balistes ornatissimus Lesson = Bal- 
isTES ACULEATUS L. A synonym of Balistapus Tilesius. 

Zenodon (Riippell) Swainson, II, 194, 325; orthotype Balistes Niger Lac. This' 
name Zenodon. being ascribed to Riippell, is probably a careless misprint of 
Xenodon Riippell. Preoccupied in reptiles by Xenodon Boie, 1827. The name 
is spelled Zenodon on page 194 also. Zenodon is, however, accepted by 
Fowler (1904). If adopted, it replaces Odonus Gistel (1848), Erythrodon 
Riippell (1852) and Pyrodon Kaup (1855) — all substitutes offered for 

Chalisoma Swainson, II, 325; logotype Balistes pulcherrimus Lesson =^ Balistes 
vetula L. a synonym of Balistes L. 

Canthidermis Swainson, II, 325 : logotype Balistes angulosus Q. & G. 

Melichthys Swainson, II. 325; logotype Balistes ringens Osbeck (not of L.). 
Name changed to Melanichthys by Gthr. (1870). 

Capriscus (Willughby) Swainson, II, 326; logotype Balistes erythropteron 
Lesson ; a synonym of Balistapus Tilesius. 

swAiNsoN. 1839 205 

Leiurus Swainson, II, 326; logotype Leiurus macrophthalmus S\v., based on 

Lama yellakah Russell, pi. 22 = Balistes stellaris B1. & Schn. Name 

preoccupied by Leiurus Sw. (p. 242) ; replaced by Abalistes Jordan & 

Scale (1911). 
Chaetodermis Swainson, II, 111 ; logotype Monocanthus spinosissmus Q. & G. 
Psilocephalus Swainson, II, 327; haplotype Balistes barbatus Gray. Substitute 

for Anacanthus Gray (1831), which is preoccupied by Ehrenberg, 1829. 
Cantherines Swainson, II, 327; haplotype Monacanthus nasutus Q. & G. 

Replaces Liomonacanthus Blkr. (1866). 
Cirrhisomus Swainson, II, 328; haplotype Tetraodon spengleri Bloch. Same as 

Cheilichthys Miiller, a synonym of Spheroides Dum. 
Leisomus Swainson, II, 328 ; logotype L. marmoratus Sw. = Tetr.vodon cutcutia 

Ham., as restricted by Blekeer, 1865. The genus is called Leiodon on page 

194, without mention of type. Leisomus is preoccupied. Leiodon replaces 

MoNOTRETA Bibron. Swain restricts Leisomus and therefore Leiodon, to the 

first species named, L. l^vissimus Sw., a species of Spheroides (Tetraodon 

spengleri Bloch). 
Lagocephalus Swainson, II, 328; logotype Tetraodon stellatus Donovan. Re- 
places Gastrophysus Miiller. 
Trichoderma Swainson, II, 328; logotype Balistes scapus Lac. A synonym of 

A. manses Gray (1833). 
Psilonotus Swainson. II, 328 ; logotype Tetraodon rostratus Bloch. Called Can- 

Thigaster on page 194, and therefore a synonym of the latter. 
Molacanthus Swainson, II, 329; logotype Molacanthus pallasi Sw. = Diodon 

mola Pallas. Young of Mola Kolr. = Mola Guv. 
Astrocanthus Swainson, II, 331 ; haplotype Lophius stell.\tus Vahl. A synonym 

of Halieut^a Cuv. & Val., 1837. 
Phyllopteryx Swainson, II, 332; haplotype Syngnathus foliatus Shaw. 
Acus (Willughby) Swainson, II. a7>\ logotype Syngnathus .eouoreus "Yarrell". 

A synonym of Nerophis Raf. 
Solegnathus Swainson, II, ZTii ; haplotype Syngnathus hardwicki Gray. Spelled 

Solenognathus by Giinther. 
Ophisoma Swainson, II, 334; logotype O. acuta Sw., as restricted by Bleeker 

(1864). Swain, in 1882, chose O. obtusa Sw. as type. The latter species is a 

Conger, the former belongs to Congermur.«na Kaup, as restricted. The 

name is preoccupied by Ophisomus Sw., page 277. It is called Ariosoma on 

page 194. Ariosoma thus replaces Congermur^na Kaup, and also Con- 

grellus Ogilby, all based on the same type, earlier described as Mur^na 

balearica De la Roche. 
Pterurus Swainson, II, 334, logotype Pterurus maculatus Sw. = Mur^na 

raitoborua Ham. A synonym of Raitaboura Gray (1831) or Moringua 

Gray (1831). 
Leptognathus Swainson, I, 221, and II, 334; haplotype "Leptognathus oxyrhyn- 

chus Sw. = MuR^NA serpens L. A synonym of Ophisurus Lac, as 

restricted by Risso. 
Pachyurus Swainson. II, 335; haplotype Moringua linearis Gray; preoccupied by 

Pachvubus Ag. (1829). A synonym of Pseudomoringua Blkr. (1864). 
Ophichthys Swainson, II, 336; haplotype Unibranchapertura cuchia Ham. 

Name preoccupied by Ophichthus Ahl. (1789). A synonym of Amphip- 

Nous Miiller (1839). 


Rupisuga Swainsoiij II, 339; haplotype R. nicensis Sw. — Lepodogaster balbis 
Risso. A synonym of Gouania Nardo (1833). 

252. BENNETT (1840). Narrative of a Whaling Voyage Around the Globe. 

F. D. Bennett. 
Elagatis F. D. Bennett, II, 283; orthotype Seriola bipinnulata Q .& G. 

253. BONAPARTE (1840). Iconografia della fauna italica. Fascicles 68 to 138, 
part 27. According to Troschel, fascicle 91 dates from 1837, 92 to 96 from 
1838, 103 from 1839, and fascicle 138 dates from 1840. 

Carlo Luciano Bonaparte. 
Stomocatus Bonaparte, 129*; logotype (not named) Cyprinus catostomus Forster. 

A synonym of Catostomus Le Sueur; species with the dorsal hn short, 

"especie . . . che han breve la pinna dorsale". 
Ichthyocoris Bonaparte, fasc. 134; orthotype Blennius varus Risso. A synonym 

of Blennius L. 
Ichthyococcus Bonaparte, fasc. 138; orthotype I. ovatus Bon. Name later altered 

by Giinther to Coccia on account of its crude form (1840). 
Lampanyctus Bonaparte, fasc. 138; orthotype L. bonapartei Bon. 
Chlorophthalmus Bonaparte, fasc. 138 ; orthotype C. agassizi Bon. 

254. CUVIER & VALENCIENNES (1840) Histoire naturelle des poissons. XV. 

AcHiLLE Valenciennes. 

Galeichthys Cuvier & Valenciennes, XV, 28 ; logotype Galeichthys feliceps Cuv. & 
Val., as restricted by Bleeker. 

Pangasius Cuvier & Valenciennes, XV, 45; tautotype Pimelodus pangasius Ham. 

Silundia Cuvier & Valenciennes, XV, 49; tautotype Pimelodus silondia Ham. 
A synonym of Silonia Sw . 

Arius Cuvier & Valenciennes, XV, 53; tautotype Pimelodus arius Ham. As so 
understood, a synonym of Tachysurus Lac, if the latter is correctly identi- 
fied. Bleeker takes the first species named, Arius stricticassis Cuv. & Val, 
as type, thus replacing Notarius Gill. 

Trachelyopterus Cuvier & Valenciennes, XV, 220; orthotype T. coriaceus Cuv. & 

Arges Cuvier & Valenciennes, XV, 2>2)Z ; logotype Arges sabalo Cuv. & Val. 

Brontes Cuvier & Valenciennes, XV, 341 ; haplotype Brontes prenadilla Cuv. & 
Val. Name two or three times preoccupied ; replaced by Strephon Gistel 

Saccobranchus Cuvier & Valenciennes, XV, 399 haplotype Silurus singio Ham. == 
Heteropneustes Miiller, 1839. 

Chaca Cuvier & Valenciennes, XV, 444 ; haplotype Platystacus chaca Ham. 

255. EICHWALD (1840). (Fossil Fishes.) Bull. Acad. Sci. St. Petersburg. 

Carl Eduard von Eichwald. 

Astrolepis Eichwald, VIII, 79; orthotype A. ornatus Eichw. (fossil). Later spelled 

AsTEROLEPis by Eichwald and by most writers. 
Bothriolepis Eichwald, VII, 79; orthotype B. prisca Eichw. (fossil). 

HECKEi.. 1840 207 

256. MECKEL (1840). Johann batterer's ncuc FlussHsche Brasilien's nach den 
Beohachtungcn unci Mittheilnngen des Entdeckers beschrieben. Abth. 1, Die 
Labroiden. Ann. Wien. Mus., II. 

Johann Jakob Heckel. 
Uaru Heckel, II, 330; orthotjpe U. amphacanthoides Heckel. 
Symphysodon Heckel, II, 2)2i2; orthotype S discus Heckel. 
Pterophyllum Heckel, II, 334; orthotype Platax scalaris Cuv. & Val. 
Acara Heckel, II, 338; logotype A. crassispinis Heckel, as restricted by Gill 

(1858). A synonym of Astronotus Sw. (Hygrogonus Gthr.). 
Heros Heckel, II, 362; logotype H. severus Heckel, as restricted by J. & G., 1883. 

A synonym of Cichlaurus or Cichlasoma Sw. 
Geophagus Heckel, II, 383; logotype G. megasema Heckel. 
Chaetobranchus Heckel, II, 401 ; logotype C. flavescens Heckel. 
Crenicichla Heckel, II, 416; logotype C. vittata Heckel. 
Batrachops Heckel, II, 432; logotype B. reticulatus Heckel. 
Monocirrhus Heckel II, 439; orthotype M. polyacanthus Heckel. 

257. LOWE (1840). Certain New Species of Madeiran Fishes. Proc. Zool. Soc. 

London, 36-39. 
Richard Thomas Lowe. 
Cheilopogon Lowe, VII, 38; orthotype Cypselurus pulchellus Lowe. A manu- 
script name, withdrawn because of the earlier name Cypselurus Sw. Applied 
to young flying fish with barbels ; equivalent also to Ptenichthys Miiller. 

258. MONSTER (1840). Ueber einige Placoiden im Kupferschiefer zu Richsels- 

dorf ; Beitrdge sur P etrefactenkunde . 


Dictea Miinster, HI, 124; otrhotype D. striata Miinster (fossil). A synonym of 
Janassa Miinster. 

259-261. MONSTER (1840). (Braun, Petrefakten von Bayreuth.) 


Saurorhynchus (Miinster) Braun, 72 (not defined) ; orthotype Saurichthys tenui- 
ROSTRis (Miinster) (fossil). Name apparently eligible, as being applied to a 
species already described. 

262. NORDMANN (1840). Observations sur la fauna pontique; im Demidoff, 

voyage dans la Russie meridionale et la Crimee. III. 
Alexander von Nordmann. 
Percarina Nordmann, 357 ; orthotype P. demidoffi Nordmann. 

263. OWEN (1840). Odontography; or a Treatise on the Comparative Anatomy 

of the Teeth. 
Richard Owen. 
Petalodus Owen, 61; orthotype P. Hastings: Owen (fossil). 

Rhizodus Owen, 75; orthotype Megalichthys hibberti Ag. (fossil). A synonym 
of Megalichthys Ag. 

264. RANZANI (1840). De novis speciebus piscium; dissertationes quottior. 

Novi Comment. Acad. Sci. Inst. Bonon., IV. 
Camillo Ranzani. 
Syacium Ranzani, 20; orthotype S. micrurum Ranzani. Replaces Hemirhombus 
Blkr. (1862). 


Diapterus Ranzani, IV. 340; orthotype D. auratus Ranzani. Replaces Gerres 
J. & E. ; not of Cuvier as properly restricted. 

265. RICHARDSON (1840). On Some New Species of Fishes from Australia. 

Proc. Zool. Soc. London, VIII. 
John Richardson. 
Oplegnathus Richardson, 27 ; orthotype O. convaii Rich. Name later corrected by 
Richardson to Hoplegnathus conwayi; altered by Giinther to Hoplognathus, 
in which form it is preoccupied. If necessary, may be replaced by Scarodon 
T. & S. 

266. THOMPSON (1840). On a New Genus of Fishes from India (Bregmaceros 

wacclellandi Cantor, MS.). Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., IV. 
William Thompon. 
Bregmaceros (Cantor) Thompson, IV, 184; orthotype B. macclellandi (Cantor) 


267. AGASSIZ ( 1841 ) . On the Fossil Fishes Found by Mr. Gardner in the Province 

of Ceard, in the North of Brazil. Edinb. New Philos. Journ., XXX. 

Louis Agassiz. 
Cladocyclus Agassiz, XXX, 83; orthotype C. gardneri Ag. (fossil). 
Rhacolepis Agassiz, XXX, 83; logotype R. buccalis Ag. (fossil). (Misprinted 

Calamopleurus Agassiz, XXX, 84; orthotype C. cylindricus Ag. (fossil). This 
genus belongs to the Elopid^, near to Elops, Rhacolepis and Notelops. See 
Jordan & Branner, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., 1793-1908 ("Cretaceous Fishes of 
Ceara, Brazil"). 

268. BONAPARTE (1841). Iconografia della fauna italica. 3d part (fascicles 

156-160 dating probably 1841). 
Carlo Luciano Bonai*arte. 
Pristiurus Bonaparte (1841) ; orthotype Galeus melastomus Raf. (Written 
Pristiurus in Saggio, p. 121, 1831, and in Fauna Italica. Called Pristidurus 
in Mem Soc. Sci. Neufchdtel, II, p. 11, 1839), Pristiurus is the form in 
general use, but Pristidurus may have priority of definition. 
Syrraxis (Jourdan) Bonaparte, fasc. 160; orthotype Narcine (Syrraxis)indica 
Henle. Manuscript name based on specimens in the Museum of Lyons "ben 
ordinato di celebri Prof. Jourdan," identified by Bonaparte as Narcine indica 
Henle. A synonym of Narcine Henle. 

Agassiz quotes also a genus "Poweria Bonaparte". This is certainly 
an error. Troschel writes. "Gon. powerle" for Gonostoma. This was doubt- 
less mistaken for "Gen." 

269. EICHWALD (1841). Fauna Caspio-Caucasica non nullis observationibus novis 

illnstrata. St. Petersburg. 
Carl Eduard von Eichwald. 
Sypterus Eichvi'ald ; orthotype (Perca loph.\r Forskal). A synonym of Pomato- 
Mus Lac. (not verified). 

270. FLEMING (1841). Description of a New Species of Skate (Hieroptera ahrc- 
donensis) New to the British Fauna. Edinb. New Phil. Journ., XXXI, 1841. 

John Fleming (1785-1857). 

HFXKKL. 1841 20') 

Hieroptera Fleming, XXXI, 236; orthotype H. abredonensis Fleming (a monstrous 
form of Raja clavata iide Gill). A synonym of Raja L. 

271. MECKEL (1841). Ueber eine neiie Gattung (Aulopyge hugeli) von Siiss- 
wasserfische in Europa; aiis einen Schreiben an den Akademiker Dr. Brandt. 
Bull. Sci. Acad. St. Petersb., VIII. 

JoHANN Jakob Heckel. 

Aulopyge (Brandt) Heckel, I, 1021; orthotype A. hugeli Heckel (also in Russeg- 
i^cr's Reiscn, p. 1021). 

272. HOGG (1841). (Protomeius and Amphibichthys.) Am. Mag. Xat. Hist., VII. 

John Hogg. 

Protomeius Hogg, VII, 359 ; orthotype Lepidosiren annectens Owen. A syno- 
nym of Protopterus Owen. 
Amphibichthys Hogg, 362; orthotype Lepidosiren paradoxa Fitzinger. A synonym 
. of Lepidosiren Fitzinger. 

273. LOWE (1841). Synopsis of the Fishes of Madeira, etc. Trans. Zool. Soc. 

London, II. 

Richard Thomas Lowe. 
Aplurus Lowe, II, 180; orthotype A. simplex Lowe. A synonym of Ruvettus 

Prometheus Lowe, II. 181 ; orthotype Gempylus prometheus Cuv. & Val. Name 

preoccupied; replaced by Promethichthys Gill (1893). 

274. MILLER (1841). The Old Red Sandstone; or Nezv Walks in an Old Field. 


Hugh Miller (1802-1856). 

Pterichthys (Agassiz) Miller, XXII; orthotype P. milleri Ag. (fossil). Name 
preoccupied — Swainson (1839) ; replaced by Pterichthyodes Blkr. (1839 and 
by Millerichthys S. A. Miller, 1892. 

275. MtJNSTER (1841). (Asterodon.) Beitrage zur Petrefaktenkunde, IV. 


Asterodon Miinster, IV, 140; orthotype A. bronni Miinster (fossil). Probably 
identical with Colobodus Ag. and of earlier date. 

276. NARDO (1841). Proposizione per la formazioni di tin nuovo generi di pesci, 
intitolato Brachyochirus. Ann. Sci. Reale Lombardo-Veneto, Padova. 
Giovanni Domenico Nardo. 
Brachyochirus Nardo I; orthotype Gobius aphya Risso = Gobius minutus L. 
A section of Gobius; same as Pomatoschistus Gill (1862). Perhaps to be 
regarded as preoccupied by Brachyrus and Brachirus of Swainson (1839) of 
similar etymology. 

277 OWEN (1841). On the Structure of Fossil Teeth from the Central of Corn^ 
stone Division of the Old Red Sandstone, Indicative of a Nezv Genus of Fishes, 
or Fish-like Batrachia, etc. Micr. Journ., I. 

Richard Owen. 

Dendrodus Owen, I, 4; logotype D. biporcatus Owen (fossil). 

Sphyraenodus (Agassiz) Owen, 129; orthotype S. priscus Ag. (fossil). Names 
only ; validated by Agassiz in 1844. 


278. SYKES (1840). The Fishes of Dukhun. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., IV. 

William Henry Sykes. 
Rohtee Sykes, H, 364; orthotype R. vigorsi Sykes. Replaces Osteobrama Heckel. 

279. AGASSIZ (1942). (Diplacanthus.) In DwTs Geology of Moray. 

Louis Agassiz. 

Diplacanthus (Agassiz) Duff, 71 ; orthotype D. crassissimus Duff = D. striatus 
Ag. (fossil) ; more fully defined in Poissons fossiles Vieux Grcs Rouge. 
Name misspelled Diplocanthus by Duff. 

280. CUVIER& VALENCIENNES (1842). Histoire natitrelle des poissons. XVI. 

AcHiLLE Valenciennes. 
Dangila Cuvier & Valenciennes, XVI, 229; logotype Dangila cuvieri Val. 
Nuria Cuvier & Valenciennes, XVI, 238; logotype Nuria thermoicos Cuv. & Val. 

A synonym of Esomus Sw. 
Rohita Cuvier & Valenciennes, XVI, 242; tautotype Cyprinus rohita Ham., Rohita 

RUCHANANi Val. Apparently identical with Labeo Cuv. 
Capoeta Cuvier & Valenciennes, XVI, 278; tautotype Capoeta fundulus Val. = 

Cyprinus capoeta Giildenstadt (logotype C. amphibia Cuv. & Val.) as 

restricted by Bleeker. 

281. DEKAY (1842). Zoology of New York; or. The New York Fauna. Com- 
prising Detailed Descriptions of All the Animals Hitherto Observed Within 
the State Borders, etc. Natural History of New York State Geological Survey, 

James Ellsworth Dekay (1792-1851). 
Lepisoma Dekay, 11 ; orthotype L. cirrhosum Dekay = Clinus pectinifer Cuv. & 

Val. Regarded as preoccupied in beetles by Lepisomus Kirby. A synonym 

of Labrosomus Sw. 
Pileoma Dekay, 16 ; haplotype Pileoma semifasciata Dekay = Etheostoma caprodes 

Raf. A synonym of Percina Haldeman, of earlier date in the same year. 
Boleosoma Dekay, 20; haplotype B. tessellatum Dekay = Etheostoma olmstedi 

Uranidea Dekay, 61 ; haplotype Uranidea quiescens Dekay. 
Apeltes Dekay, 68; orthotype Gasterosteus quadracus Mitchill. 
Argyrea Dekay, 141 ; haplotype Atherina notata Mitchill. Name preoccupied ; a 

synonym of Menidia Bon. 
Amblyopsis Dekay, 187; haplotype Amblyopsis spel.eus Dekay. 
Stilbe Dekay, 204; haplotype Cyprinus crysoleucas Mitchill. A synonym of No- 

Baione Dekay, 244 ; haplotype B. fontinalis Dekay (the young of Salmo fontinalis 

Mitchill). A synonym of Salvelinus Rich., 1836. 
Acanthosoma Dekay, 350; orthotype A. carinatum Dekay. Same as Molacanthus 

Sw., a larval form of Mola Cuv. 
Pastinaca (Belon) Dekay, ZJZ ; orthotype Raja pastinaca L. Name used for the 

same genus by several authors. A synonym of Dasyatis Raf. 

282. GRAY (1842). Description of Two Fresh-water Fish from Netv Zealand. 

(In Dieffenbach, Ernst: Travels in New Zealand. II.) 
John Edward Gray. 

iiAi.nKM.w. 1842 211 

Ptycholepis Graj-, II, 218; orthotypc Much, salmoneus Forster. A synonym of 
Changs Lac. 

283. IIALDEMAN (1842). Description of Tzvo Nezv Species of the Genus Pcrca, 

from the Stisquehannah River. Journ. Acad. Nat. Hist. 
Samuel Stehman Haldeman (1712-1890). 
Percina Haldeman, VIII, 330; logotype Perca nebulosa Haldeman = Etheostoma 
CAPRODES Raf. Same as Pileoma Dekay and a little earlier in date. 

284. HECKEL (1842). Ichthyologie (von SyrienJ. In Russegger (Joseph von) : 

Reisen in Europa, Asien und Africa, etc. Part I. 

JoHANN Jakob Heckel. 

Gibelion Heckel, I, 1014; orthotype Cyprinus catla Ham. Replaces Catla Cuv. & 

Cyprinion Heckel, I, 1015 ; logotype C. macrostomus Heckel. 
Dillonia Heckel, I, 1020; orthotype Chondrostoma dilloni Cuv. & Val. 
Scaphiodon Heckel, I, 1020; logotype S. tinca Heckel. 
Gymnostomus Heckel, I, 1030; logotype G. ariza Heckel, as restricted by Bleeker 

(1860) ; logotype CAPoiixA syriaca Cuv. & Val., as limited by Giinther (1868). 

Apparently replaces Tylognathus Gthr., but not of Heckel. 
Chondrochilus Heckel, I, 1031 ; orthotype C. nasicus. A synonym of Chon- 
drostoma Ag. 
Chondrorhynchus Heckel, I, 1031 ; logotype Ch. soetta Heckel. A synonym of 

Chondrostoma Ag. 
Ballerus Heckel, I, 1032; tautotype Cyprinus ballerus L. 

Acanthobrama Heckel, I, 1033 ; logotype A. marmid Heckel, as restricted by Bleeker. 
Osteobrama Heckel, I, 1033 ; logotype Cyprinus cotio Ham. A synonym of Rohtee 

Sykes (1841). 
Pachystomus Heckel, I, 1038; orthotype P. schacra Heckel. Name preoccupied. 

Same as Shacra Blkr. 
Argyreus Heckel, I. 1040; haplotype Cyprinus atronasus Mitchill. Name pre- 
occupied. Equivalent to Rhinichthys Ag., 1850. 
Leucosomus Heckel, I. 1042; haplotype L. chrysoleucus Heckel, not of Mitchill = 

Cyprinus corporalis Mitchill. Considered as preoccupied by Leucosoma 

Gray; replaced by Cheilonemus Baird (1855). 
Glossodon Heckel, I, 1003; haplotype Cyprinus smithi Rich.; identical with the 

type of Glossodon Raf. (1818). A synonym of Hiodon Le Sueur (1818). 
Luciobarbus Heckel, I, 1054; orthotype L. esocinus Heckel. 
Pseudophoxinus Heckel, I, 1063 ; orthotype Phoxinellus zeregi Heckel. 
Discognathus Heckel, I, 1071 ; logotype D. variabilis Heckel, as restricted by 

Bleeker, 1863. A synonym of Garra Ham., as restricted by Bleeker. 
Tylognathus Heckel, I, 1073; logotype T. diplostomus Heckel. as restricted by 

Bleeker, 1863, not Tylognathus, as restricted by Giinther, 1868. 

285. JENYNS (1842). The Zoology of the Voyage of H.MS. "Beagle", Dining 

the Years 1832-1836; edited by Charles Darzvin: Fishes. London. 
Leonard Jenyns (1800-1893) (afterwards Leonard Jenyns Blomefield). 
Arripis Jenyns, 14; orthotype Centropristes georgianus Cuv. & Val. 
Prionodes Jenyns, 46; orthotype P. fasciatus Jenyns. 

Stegastes Jenyns, 63; orthotype S. imbricatus Jenyns = Ch.etodon luridus 
Broussonet. This is probably identical with Microspathodon Gthr., 1862, and 
of earlier date. 


Acanthoclinus Jenyns, 92 ; orthotype A. fuscus Jenyns. 

Mesites Jenyns, 118 ; orthotype M. attenuatus Jenyns. A synonym of Galaxias Cuv. 

Aplochiton Jenyns, 130 ; orthotype A. zebra Jenyns. Spelled Haplochiton by 

Iluocoetes Jenyns, 166; orthotype I. fimbriatus Jenyns. 
Phucocoetes Jenyns, 168 ; orthotype P. latitans Jenyns. 

286. McClelland (1842). Remarks on a Nezv Genus of Thoracic Percoid 

Fishes, Ccstrcus. Journ. Nat. Hist. Calcutta, IV. 
John McClelland. 
Cestreus McClelland, II, 150, 151 ; orthotype C. minimus McCl. = Atherina 
DANius Ham. An ally of Eleotris, near Hypseleotris, Carassops, etc., 
small species with the habit of Gambusia. D. V-9:A. 12. vertebrae 26, outer 
teeth minute, hooked (not "forked," as stated by Day). 

287. McClelland (1842). On the Fresh-water Fishes Collected by William 
Griffin in His Travels, from 1835 to 1842. Journ. Nat. Hist. Calcutta, II, 

John McClelland. 
Racoma McClelland, II, 576; logotype R. labiata McCI., according to Bleeker. 
Glyptosternon McCllelland, II, 584 ; logotype G. reticulatus McCl. Spelled Glyp- 

tosternum by Gunther. 
Olyra McClelland, II, 588; logotype O. longicaudata McCl. 

288. MtJNSTER (1842). Beschreibungen ciniger neucr Fische aus den lithographi- 

schen Schicfern von Bayern. Beitrage zur Petrefaktenkunde. 

Georg Munster. 
Dorypterus (Germar) Munster, V. 35; orthotype D. hoffmanni Germar (fossil). 
Globulodus Miinster, V, 47; orthotype T. elegans Miinster (fossil). 
Thaumas Miinster, V. 62; orthotype T. alifer Munster (fossil). A fossil homo 

logue of Squatina Dum. 
Capitodus Miinster, V, 68; orthotpe C. subtruncatus Miinster (fossil). 
Soricidens Miinster, V. 68; orthotype S. haueri Miinster (fossil). 

289. MUNSTER (1842) Neucs Jahrb. fur Mineralogie, etc. 

Georg Munster. 
.ffithalion Miinster, 41; logotype A. inflatus Munster (fossil). 
Libys Munster, 45; orthotype L. polyjterus Miinster (fossil). 

290. OWEN (1842). (Raphiosaurus.) Trans. Geol. Soc, London. 

Richard Owen. 
Raphiosaurus Owen, VI, 413; orthotype R. subulidens Owen (fossil). 

291. RICHARDSON (1842). Catalogue of Fish Found at King George's Sound. 

(In Eyre, E. J.: Journals of Expeditions of Discovery into Central Aus- 
tralia. I.) 

John Richardson. 
Centrogenys Richardson, IX, 120; orthotype Scorp.^na vaigiensis Blkr. 

292. SCHOMBURGK (1842). The Natural History of the Fishes of (British) 

Guiana. Edinburgh. 
Robert Hermann Schomburgk. 
Ellipesurus Schomburgk, II, 184; orthotype E. spinicauda Schomburgk (misprinted 


293. TEMMINCK & SCHLEGEL (1842). Fauna Japonka, she descriptio ani- 
»ialium quce in itinere per Japoniam suscepto annis 1823-30 collegit, notii 
observationibus ct adiimbrationibus illustravit P. F. de Sicbold. Conjunctis 
studiis C. J. Temminck et H. Schlcgel pro vertcbratis, atqtie IV. de Haan pro 
invertebratis elaborata. (Part IR, Pisces.) Edited by Carl Theodor Ernst 
von Siebold, the text of fishes mostly by Hermann Schlegel. 

CcENRAAD Jacob Temminck (1770-1858) ; Hermann Schlegel (1804-1884). 

Temminck and Schlegel gave no specific names when but one species oc- 
curred in the genus. The names of type species have been given by subse- 
quent w^riters. 

Perca-Labrax Temminck & Schlegel, 2 ; orthotype Labrax japonicus Cuv. & Val. 
Name rejected by Bleeker and by Boulenger because no new genus was intended, 
Labrax being merely entered as a subgenus of Perca. Replaced by Lateola- 
BRAX Blkr. But an argument can be made for the retention of Percalabrax. 

Aulacocephalus Temminck & Schlegel, 15; orthotype A. temmincki Blkr. 

Anoplus Temminck & Schlegel, 17 ; orthotype Anopolus banjos Rich. Name pre- 
occupied ; replaced by Banjos Blkr. (1879). 

294. VALENCIENNES (1842). Determination des poissons: Voyage autour du 

monde . . . sur . . . la "Bonite," etc. Zoologie, I, Paris. 
AcHiLLE Valenciennes. 
Oxuderces Valenciennes, 181 ; orthotype O. dentatus Val. 

295. AGASSIZ (1843). Recherches sur les poissons fossiles. Ill, in part. 

Louis Agassiz. 

Orthacanthus Agassiz, III, pi. 45; orthotype O. cylindricus Ag. (fossil). Regarded 
by Woodward as a synonym of Pleuracanthus Ag., which preoccupied name 
it may replace. 

Pleurodus Agassiz, III, 174; orthotype P. rankinei Ag. (fossil). No definition 
until accepted by Hancock and Althey, 1872. Regarded as preoccupied by 
Pleurodon (1840), replaced by Pleuroplax Woodw., 1889. 

Cladacanthus Agassiz, III, 176; orthotype C. paradoxus Ag. (fossil); name only, 
defined first by Davis. Trans. Roy. Dublin Soc., I, 1883, 365. A synonym of 

Cricacanthus Agassiz, III, 176; orthotype C. jonisi Ag. Name only, hence having 
no place in the system. 

Gyropristis Agassiz, III, 177; orthotype G. obliquus Ag. Name only, hence with- 
out place in the system. 

Cladodus Agassiz, III, 196; logotype C. mirabilis Ag. (fossil). 

Sphenonchus Agassiz, III, 201; logotype S. elongatus Ag. (fossil). A synonym, as 
restricted, of Acrodus Ag. 

Diplodus Agassiz, III, 204; logotype D. gibbosus Ag. (fossil). Regarded by Wood- 
ward as a synonym of Pleuracanthus Ag. Both names are preoccupied. 
Diplodus has been replaced by Didvmodus Cope (1883), which is also 
preoccupied (as Didymodon Blake, 1863, a mammal) and again replaced by 
Dicranodus Garman (1885). Orthacanthus Ag. may replace Pleuracan- 
thus, and some of the names given by Owen, as Dittodus, have priority 
over Dicranodus. It is not yet certain that the teeth called Diplodus and 
the spines called Orthacanthus belong to the same fish. 


Otodus Agassiz, 111, 206; logotype O. obliquus Ag., not O. appendiculatus Ag. 
(fossil). Apparently not separable from the living genus, Lamna Cuv. (1817). 

Corax Agassiz, III, 244; logotype Galeus pristodontus Morton (fossil) 

Hemipristis Agassiz, III. 237; orthotype H. serra Ag. (fossil). A genus repre- 
sented by a living homologue, Dirrhizodon elongatus Klunzinger in the 
Red Sea. 

Meristodon Agassiz, III, 286; orthot3'pe Oxyrhina paradoxa Ag. (fossil). Prob- 
ably a synonym of Hybodus. 

Sphenodus Agassiz, III, 298; orthotype Lamna longidens Ag. (fossil). Name 
regarded as preoccupied as Sphenodon Gray (1831) ; replaced by Orthacodus 
Woodw. (1889). 

Carcharopsis Agassiz, III, 313; orthotype C. prototypus Ag. (fossil). Name only; 
same as Pristicladodus dentatus McCoy. A synonym of Dicrenodus 
Romanovi'sky( 1853), which name Woodward adopts, as being first defined 
and with a described type. 

Zygobatis Agassiz, III, 328; logotype Rhinoptera studeri Ag. (fossil). Appar- 
ently a synonym of Rhinoptera Kuhl. 

Ganodus Agassiz, III, 339; orthotype Chimera oweni Ag. (fossil). 

Psittacodon Agassiz, III, 340; logotype Ischvodus psittacinus Egert. (fossil). 
A synony of Ganodus. 

Actinobatis Agassiz, III, 372; orthotype Raja ornata Ag. (fossil). Regarded 
as a synonym of Raja L. If so, the living species. Raja orn.\ta Garman, 
must receive a new name. 

Scylliodus Agassiz, III, 377; orthotype S. antiouus Ag. (fossil). An ally of 
Thyellina and Scylliorhinus. 

Arthropterus Agassiz, 111, 379; orthotype A. rileyi Ag. (fossil). A bit of some 
unrecognized ray. 

Asterodermus Agassiz, III, 381; orthotype A. platypterus (fossil). Name pre- 
occupied by Astrodermus Bonelli, 1829. 

Thyellina Agassiz, III, 378; orthotype T. angusta Ag. (fossil). A fossil ally of 
Scylliorhinus Blainv. 

Narcopterus Agassiz, III, 382; orthotj'pe N. bolcanus Ag. (fossil). Name only, 
hence not part of the system. An ally of Torpedo Duni. 

Cyclarthrus Agassiz, III, 382; orthotype C. macroptenes Ag. (fossil). A fin of 
some ray, imperfectly known. 

Euryarthra Agassiz, 111, 382; orthotype E. munsteri Ag. (fossil). An ally of 
Rhinobatus Linck and a synonym of .^llopos Miinster. 

296. EGERTON (1843). On Some New Species of Fossil Chimceroid Fishes, 

with Remarks on Their Affinities Proc. Geol. Soc, IV. 

Philip de Malpas Grey Egerton. 

Ischyodus Egerton, IV, 155; orthotype Chimera colei (Buckland) Ag. (fossil). 

Elasmodus Egerton, IV, 156; orthotype E. hunteri Egert. (fossil). 

297. HALL (1843). Natural History of New York. (Palaeontology.) 

James Hall. 
Sauripteris Hall, IV, 282; orthotype S. taylori Hall (fossil). Usually written 

298. HECKEL (1843). Ahbildungcn und Besclireibungen der Fische Syriens, 
nebst einer neuen Classification und Characteristik sdmnitlicher Gattiingen der 
Cyprinen. Stuttgart. 

JoHANN Jakob Heckel. 

II ECKEL, 1843 215 

Leucos (Bonaparte) Heckel, 48; logotipe L. rubellus Bon. Name regarded as 

preoccupied as Leucus Kaup, a genus of birds ; replaced by Cenisophius Bon. 
Phoxinellus Heckel. 50; orthotype P. alepidotus Heckel. as restricted by Bleeker, 

who later separated P. zeregi as Pseudophoxinus, 1859. Same as Para- 

PHOXiNus Blkr.. 1863. 
Mela Heckel, appendix, 257; orthotype Cyprinus mola Ham. Preoccupied in fishes; 

replaced by Amblypharyngodon Blkr. 

299. HECKEL (1843). Ichthyologie (von Syrien). In Russegger (Joseph von) : 
Reisen in Europa, Asien und Africa, mit besonderer Riicksicht auf natur- 
wissenschaftlichen Verhdltnisse der betreffendcn Lander, unternommen in den 
J ah r en 1835 bis 1841. Part 2, 1843. 

JoHANN Jakob Heckel. 

Cyrene tieckel, H, 284 ; logotype C. ocellata Heckel. A synonym of Dangilia 

Cuv. & Val. (1842). 
Schizopyge Heckel, II, 285 ; logotype Schizothorax curvifrons Heckel, as restricted 

by Bleeker, 1863. 
Aspidoparia Heckel, II, 288; orthotype A. sardina Heckel. 

300. LOWE (1843). Notice of Fishes Newly Observed or Discovered in Madeira 

During the Years 1840, 1841 and 1842. Proc. Zool. Soc. London. 
Richard Thomas Lowe. 

Taractes Lowe, 82 ; orthotype T. asper Lowe. 

Antigonia Lowe, 85 ; orthotype A. capros Low e. 

Hesperanthias Lowe, 14; orthotype Serranys oculatu.s Cuv. & Val. A synonym 

of Etelis Cuv. & Val. 
Cubiceps Lowe, 82 : orthotype Psenes gracilis Lowe. A synonym of Psenes 

Cuv. & Val. 
Echiostoma Lowe, 87; orthotype E. barbatum Lowe. 
Metopias Lowe, 90; orthotype M. typhlops Lowe. Preoccupied; replaced by 

MELAMPHAiis Gthr., 1864. 
Gadella Lowe, 91 ; orthotype G. gracilis Lowe = Gadus maraldi Risso. Replaces 

Uraleptus Costa (1858). 
Diaphasia Lowe, 92; orthotype Gymnotus acus Briinnich. A synonym of Carapus 

Raf. ; a substitute for the "barbarous" name, Fierasfer. 

301. LOWE (1843). A History of the Fishes of Madeira, etc. 
Richard Thomas Lowe. 

Pleurothyris Lowe, 64; orthotype Sternoptyx olfersi Cuv. Misprinted Pleu- 
rothysis by Giinther. A synonym of Argyropelecus Cocco. 

302. MiJLLER (1843). Beitrdge zur Kenntniss der natiirlichcn Familien der 

KnochenHsche. Sitzb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin. 
Johannes Muller. 
Encheliophis Muller, 153 ; orthotype E. vermicularis Muller. 

303. MtJLLER (1843). Beitrdge zur Kenntniss der natUrlichen Familien der 

Fische. Wiegmann's Arch. Naturgesch. 
Johannes Muller. 
Cotylis Muller & Troschel, 297. haplotype Lepadogaster nudus B1. & Schn. = 
Gobiesox gyrinus J. & E., not Cyclopterus nudus L., which is not identified. 
Later restricted by Giinther, 1861, Cotylis fimbr.^ta M. & T., a species 


described later and not at first included by Miiller. {HorcE Ichthyologice, 

III, 297. For Cotylis Giinther, not Miiller, the name Cotylichthys Jordan, 

1919, has been substituted. A synonym of Gobiesox Lac. 
Sicyases Miiller & Troschel, 298; orthotype S. s.\nguineus M. & T. 
Synancidium Miiller, 302 ; orthotype Scorp.ena horrida L., "Synanceia mit Vomer- 

zahnen" . A synonym of Synanceja B1. & Schn., as restricted. 
Ptenichthys Miiller, 312; logotype (Exoccetus furcatus Mitchell; "Exoccetus mit 

Barbfaden"). A synonym of Cypselurus S\v., 1839. 
Hemiodus Miiller, 316; orthotype H. crenidens Miiller. 
Macrodon Miiller, 163 ; orthotype M. trahira Miiller = Synodus malabaricus B1. & 

Schn. Name preoccupied by Macrodon Schinz, 1822 ; replaced by Hoplias Gill. 
Euanemus Miiller, 318; orthotype E. columbetes Miiller = Hypophthalmus 

nuchalis Spix. A synonym of Auchenipterus Cuv. & Val., as restricted 

by Bleeker and by Eigenmann. 
Calophysus Miiller, 318; orthotype Pimelodus macropterus Lichtenstein. 
Mormyrops Miiller, 324; logotype Mormyrus anguilloides Geoffroy St. Hiraire. 
Gastrophysus Miiller. 330; orthotype Tetraodon lunaris L. Substitute for Phy- 

SOGASTER Miiller, preoccupied. A synonym of Lagocephalus Sw. 
Arapaima Miiller, 326; orthotype Sudis gigas Cuv. A sybstitute for Sums Cuv., 

preoccupied by Sudis Raf. (1810). 
Heterotis (Ehrenberg) Miiller, 326; orthotype Sudis niloticus Cuv. A synonym 

of Clupisudis Sw. 

304. MtJNSTER (1843). Beitrdge cur Petrefaktenkunde. VI. 

Georg Munster. 
Wodnika Munster. VI, 48; orthotype Acrodus althausi Miinster (fossil). 
Byzenos Miinster, VI, SO; orthotype B. latipinnatus Munster (fossil). A syno- 
nym of Janassa. 

305. PORTLOCK (1843). (Geological Survey of Londonderry.) 

Joseph Ellison Portlock. 
Tristychius Portlock, 464; orthotype T. minor Portlock (fossil). 

306. RICHARDSON (1843). Description of the Lurking Macherie (Machcerium 
subducens) from the Northern Coast of New Holland. Ann. Mag. Nat. 
Hist. VII. 

John Richardson. 

Machaerium Richardson, XII, 175; orthotype M. subducens Rich. Name pre- 
occupied ; replaced by Congrogadus Gthr., 1862. 

307,308. TEMMINCK & SCHLEGEL (1843). Fauna Japonica (part). 
Coenraad Jacob Temminck ; Hermann Schlegel. 
Acropoma Temminck & Schlegel, 41; orthotype Acropoma (japonicum Gthr.). 
Aploactis Temminck & Schlegel, 51 ; orthotype A. aspera Rich. 
Glaucosoma Temminck & Schlegel, 1843, 62; orthotype G. burgeri Rich. 
Caprodon Temminck & Schlegel, 64; orthotype Caprodon = Anthias schlegeli 

309. AGASSIZ (1844). Recherchcs sur les poissons fossiles. I, II, III, IV, V 

(parts completed). 
Louis Agassiz. 

AGASsiz, 1844 217 

Placosteus Agassiz, I, XXIII; ortliotype P. m.^andrinus Ag. (fossil); name only, 
replaced in 1845 by Psammosteus Ag. 

Chelonichthys Agassiz, I, XXXIII; logotype C. asmussi Ag. (fossil) ; name only. 
A synonym of Ichthyosauroidks Kutorga. 

Glyptosteus Agassiz, I, XXXIV; orthotype G. reticulatus Ag. (fossil); name 
only. A synonym of Bothriolepis. 

Psammolepis Agassiz, I, XXXIV; orthotype P. paradoxus Ag. (fossil); name 
only, replaced in 1845 by Psammosteus Ag. 

Scaphodus Agassiz, I, XLIII; orthotype Gyronchus oblongus Ag. (fossil). A 
synonym of Gyroncpius. 

Pododus Agassiz, II, 83; orthotype P. capillatus Ag. (fossil) ; name only. Iden- 
tified by Woodward, 1901, as a synonym of Mesolepis Young. 

Megalichthys Agassiz, II, 89, 154; orthotype M. hibberti Ag. (fossil). Not Mega- 
LiCHTHYS Ag. 1836. Should apparently stand as Centrodus McCoy. 

Conodus Agassiz, II, 105; orthotype C. ff.rox Ag. (fossil); name only; preoccu- 
pied as CoNODON Cuv. & Val.. 1830. A synonym of Caturus Ag. 

Thrissonotus Agassiz, II, 128; orthotype T. colei Ag. (fossil); name only. Same 
as Oxygnathus Egert. ; defined by Egerton, 1858. 

Microspondylos Agassiz, II, 139; orthotype M. escheri Ag. (no definition: shales 
of Glarus). 

Cricodus Agassiz, II, 156; orthotype Dendrodus incurvus Duff, (fossil). 

Amblysemus Agassiz, II, 165; orthotype A. gracilis Ag. (fossil). 

Macropoma Agassiz, II, 174; orthotype M. egertoni Ag. (fossil) ; name only. De- 
fined by Egerton, Mem. Geol. Surv., IX, No. 10, 1858, from which the name 
should date. A synonym of Eurycormus Wagner, 1863, and of earlier date. 

Uronemus Agassiz, II, 178; orthotype U. lobatus Ag. (fossil). 

Hoplopygus Agassiz, II, 178; orthotype H. binneyi Ag. (fossil). A synonym of 

Gyrosteus Agassiz, II, 179; orthotype G. mirabilis Ag. (fossil); name only; val- 
idated by Egerton, Phil. Trans., 1858, 883. 

Ctenolepis Agassiz, II, 180; orthotype C. cyclus Ag. (fossil). Undetermined 
scales ; defined by Woodward, 1895. 

Periodus Agassiz, II, 201 ; orthotype P. koenigi Ag. A synonym of Pycnodus Ag. 

Gyronchus Agassiz, II, 202; orthotype G. oblongus Ag. (fossil). 

Acrotemnus Agassiz, II, 203; orthotype A. faba Ag. (fossil). 

Colobodus Agassiz, II, 237; orthotype C. hogardi Ag. (fossil). Apparently a syn- 
onym of AsTERODON Miinster. 

Phyllodus Agassiz, II, 238; orthotype P. toliapicus Ag. (fossil). 

Acanthoderma Agassiz, II, 251; logotype A. spinosum Ag. (fossil). Name pre- 
ocupied. See Agoreion Gistel, 1847. 

Acanthopleurus Agassiz, II, 253; orthotype Pleuracanthus serratus Ag. (fos- 
sil). This name may be regarded as preoccupied by Acanthopleura, 1829. 

Rhinellus Agassiz, II, 260; orthotype R. furcatus Ag. (fossil), regarded as pre- 
occupied by Rhinella Fitzinger, 1826; replaced by Ichthyotringa Cope, 

Glyptocephalus Agassiz, II, 264; orthotype G. radiatus Ag. (fossil). Name pre- 
occupied, Gottsche, 1835. A synonym of Bucklandium Konig. 

Chondrosteus Agassiz, II, 280; orthotype C. acipenseroides Ag. (fossil); name 
only ; validated by Egerton, Phil. Trans., 1858, 871. 

Nothosomus Agassiz, II, 292; orthotype N. octostychius Ag. (fossil) ; name only; 
described by Egerton, Mem. Geol. Siirv., 1858, Dec. IX, No. 6. An ally of 


Coccolepis Agassiz, II, 300; orthotype C. bucklandi Ag. (fossil). 
Plectrolepis Agassiz, II, 306; orthotype P. rugosus Ag. (fossil); name only; de- 
fined by Egerton. 1850. A synonym of Notacmon Gistel, which replaces 

Oxyrhina Agassiz, III, 276; orthotype IsuRUS spallanzani Raf. Preoccupied; re- 
placed by Plectrostoma Gistel (1848). A synonym of Isurus Raf., 1810. 
CcElacanthus Agassiz, IV, 83; orthotype C. granulatus Ag. (fossil). 
Rhamphosus Agassiz, IV, 270; orthotype Centriscus aculeatus Blainv. (fossil). 
Urosphen Agassiz, IV, 284; orthotype U. fistularis Ag. (fossil). (Printed as 

name only in Neues Jahrb., 1835, 293.) 
Notasus Agassiz, V, 12; orthotype N. longicaudus Ag. (fossil). Name regarded 

as preoccupied, as Noteus Ehrenb., 1830; I'eplaced by Amiopsis Kner. A 

synonym of Cyclurus Ag. 
Cyclurus Agassiz, V, 12; orthotype V. valenxiennesi Ag. (fossil). Regarded as 

preoccupied by Cyclura Harlan, 1825. a reptile, replaceable by Amiopsis 

Kner. A fossil homologue of Amia L. (Amiatus Raf.). 
Sphenolepis Agassiz, V, 13; orthotype Cyprinus squamosseus Blainv. (fossil). 

Name preoccupied, same as Notogoneus Cope, 1885 ; perhaps a synonym of 

Anormurus Blainv., 1818. 
Autolepis Agassiz, V, 14; orthotype A. typus Ag. 
Enchelyopus Agassiz, V. 16; orthotype E. tigrinus Ag. (fossil). (As name only 

in Neues Jahrb., 1835, 307.) Name preoccupied; replaced by Paranguilla 

Blkr., 1864. 
Pamphractus Agassiz, V, 20; orthotype P. hvdrophilus Ag. (fossil). A sync 

nym of Bothrolepis. 
Coccosteus Agassiz, 22; orthotype C. decipiens Ag. (fossil). 

Polyphractus Agassiz, V, 29; orthotype P. platycephalus Ag. (fossil). A syno- 
nym of DiPTERUS Sedgwick & Murchison. 
Carangopsis Agassiz, V, 39; logotype C. latior Ag. (fossil). Published as name 

only, Neues Jahrb., 1835. 293. 
Amphistium Agassiz, V, 44; orthotype A. paradoxum Ag. (fossil). (Noted as 

name only, Neues Jahrb., 1835, 294.) 
Halecopsis Agassiz, V, 44; orthotype H. l^vis Ag. (fossil); names only; given 

definition by Woodward, 1901. 
Palimphyes Agassiz, V, 46; logotype P. longus Ag. (fossil). 
Archaeus Agassis, V, 49; orthotype A. glarisianus Ag. (fossil). 
Isurus Agassiz, V, 51; orthotype Isurus macrurus Egert. (fossil). (Printed as 

name only by Egerton, Cat Foss. Fish, 1837.) Name preoccupied; replaced 

by Isurichthys Woodward, 1901. 
Pleionemus Agassiz, V, 52; orthotype P. macrospondylus Ag. (fossil). Name 

only. A fragment of an ARCHiEUS. 
Ductor Agassiz. V, 53; orthotype D. leptosomus Ag .(fossil). Printed in 1834 as 

name onlj- in Verhandl. Mus. Bohmen, 66. 
Glyptopomus Agassiz, 57; orthotype G. minor Ag. (fossil). 
Placothorax Agassiz, 134; orthotype P. paradoxus Ag. (fossil). A synonym 

Platygnathus Agassiz, V, 61; orthotype P. jamesoni Ag. (fossil). A synonym of 


Glyptolepis Agassiz, V, 62; logotye G. leptopterus Ag. (fossil). 
Goniognathus Agassiz, V, 63; logotype G. maxill.^ris Ag. (fossil) ; name only. A 
synonym of Ampheristus Konig. 

rocco. 1844 219 

Phyllolepis Agassiz, V, 67; orthotye P. concentrica Ag. (fossil). 

Nemopteryx Agassiz, V, 75; orthotype Cyclurus crassus Egert. (fossil). 

Holosteus Agassiz, V, 85; orthotye H. esocinus Ag. (fossil). 

Hemirhynchus Agassiz, V, 87; orthotype Histiophorus deshayesi Ag. (fossil). 
Name preoccupied; perhaps the same as Homorhynchus Van Beneden, 1873. 

Istieus Agassiz, V, 91 ; logotype I. grandis Ag. (fossil). An extinct ally of Pteroth- 
Rissus Hilgendorf. 

Sphyrasnodus Agassiz, V, 98; orthotype Sphyr.^xodus priscus Ag. (fossil). Name 
printed by Owen, 1841. 

Coelorhynchus Agassiz, V, 92; orthotype C. rectus Ag. (fossil) ; name preoccupied. 

Hypsodon Agassiz, V, 101; orthotype H. toliapicus Ag., name only (fossil). Ap- 
parently a synonym of ally of Meg.vlops Lac. 

Osmeroides Agassiz, V, 103; orthotype O. monasteri Ag. (fossil). The name has 
been transferred by authors to Salmo lewesiensts Mantell, the type of 
HoLCOLEPis von der Marck. Osmeroides should replace Sardinioides von der 

Rhamphognathus Agassiz, V, 9, 104; orthotye R. paralepoides Ag. (fossil). 

Mesogaster Agassiz, V, 9, 105; orthotype M. sphyrvEnoides Ag. (fossil) 

Spinacanthus Agassiz, V, 107; orthotype S. blennioides Ag. (fossil). 

Acrognathus Agassiz, V, 108; orthotype A. boops Ag. (fossil). 

Rhynchorinus Agassiz, V, 139; orthotype R. branchialis Ag. (fossil); name 
onlj'; validated by Woodward, 1901. 

Coelocephalus Agassiz, V, 139; orthotype C. salmoneus Ag. (fossil); name only. 
Preoccupied before defined by Ccelocephalus Clark, 1860, and by Ccelo- 
cephalus Gilbert & Cramer, 1897; replaced by Eothynnus Woodw., 1901. 

Halecopsis Agassiz, V, 139; orthotype H. ljeis Ag. (fossil) = Osmeroides 
iNsiGNis Delvaux & Ortlieb (fossil); name only; validated by Woodward, 

Elopides Agassiz, V, 139; orthotype E. couloni Ag. (fossil); name only; vali- 
dated by Woodward, 1901. 

310. COCCO (1844). Intorno ad alcuni nuovi pesci del mare di Messina. Lettera 

del Prof. Anastasio Cocco al Signor Augusto Krohn. 

Anastasio Cocco. 

Krohnius Cocco, 1 ; orthotype K. filamentosus Cocco. Young of Ccelorhynchus 

Bibronia Cocco, 15; orthotype B. ligulata Cocco. Larva of Symphurus Raf. 
Peloria Cocco, 21 ; orthotype P. heckeli Cocco. A larva of Platophrys Sw. 
Coccolus (Bonaparte) Cocco, 21 ; orthotype C. annectens Cocco. A larva of Pla- 
tophrys Sw. 

311. CUVIER & VALENCIENNES (1844). Histoirc naturcUc des poissotu. 

AcHiLLE Valenciennes, 

Catla Cuvier & Valenciennes, XVII, 140; tautotype Cyprinus c.\tla Ham. A 
synonym of Gibelion Heckel. 

Sclerognathus Cuvier & Valenciennes, XVII, 472; logotype, restriction of Giinther, 
1868, Sclerognathus cyprinella Cuv. & Val.; the original diagnosis drawn 
up from Catostomus cy'prinus Le Sueur, a species of Carpiodes Raf. A 
synonym of Ictioeus Raf., as here accepted. This view is not taken by 
Fowler, who regards Carpiodes cyprinus as type of Sclerognathus and 
gives to I. cyprinella the new name of Megastomatobus. 


312. EGERTON (1845). Description of a Fossil Ray from Mount Lebanon 

(Cyclobatis oUgodactylus). Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, I. 
Philip de Malpas Grey Egerton. 
Cyclobatis Egerton, IV, 442; orthotype C. oligodactylus Egert. (fossil). 

313. EICHWALD (1844). Ueber die Fische des devonischen Systems in der 

Gegend von Pawlowsk. Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscow, XVII. 
Carl Edward von Eichwald. 
Sclerolepis Eichwald, XVII, 828; orthotype S. decorata Eichw. (fossil). A syn- 
onym of Glyptolepis. 
Microlepis Eichwald VXII, 830; logotype M. exilis Eichw. (fossil). A doubtful 

genus, the name preoccupied in reptiles. 
Chiastolepis Eichwald, XVIII, 831; orthotype C. clathrata Eichw. (fossil). 

[GOLDFUSS (1844). Sclerocephalus haeuseri Goldfuss. 1844, described as a 
ganoid fish, is a reptile.] 

314. KONINCK (1844). Description des animaux fossiles qui sc trouvent dans 

le terrain carbonifere de Belgique. 
Laurent (Guillaume) de Koninck (1809-1887). 
Campodus Koninck, 617; orthotype C. agassizianus Koninck (fossil). 

315. McClelland (1844). Description of a Collection of Fishes Made at Chasun 
and A^ingpo in China by G. R. Playfair. Journ. Nat. Hist. Calcutta, IV. 

John McClelland. 
Cossyphus McClelland, IV, 403 ; orthotype C. ater McCI. Preoccupied ; replaced 

by Phagorus McCl. 
Phagorus McClelland, IV, 403; orthotype Cossyphus ater McCl. = Macroptero- 

NOTUS jagur Ham. Replaces Cossyphus McCl., preoccupied. 
Chaetomus McClelland. IV, 405 ; orthotype C. playfairi McCl. 
Muraenesox McClelland, V, 408; logotype M. tricuspidata McCl. 

316. McClelland (1844). Apodal Fishes of Bengal. Journ. Nat. Hist. 

Calcutta, V. 

John McClelland. 

Lycodontis McClelland, V, 173; logotype L. literata McCl., as restricted by 

Jordan & Evermann, 1896. A synonym of GymnothoraX Bloch, as here 

Thaerodontis McClelland, V, 174; orthotype T. reticulata McCl. A synonym 

of Gymnothorax. 
Strophidon McClelland, V, 187; orthotype Lycodontis longicaudata McCl. A 

synonym of Gymnothorax, the name wrongly transferred by Bleeker and 

Giinther to the genus Pseudcchidna Blkr. 
Ophicardia McClelland, V, 191 ; orthotype O. phayriana McCl. A synonym of 

Fluta B1. & Schn. = Monopterus Lac. 
Pneumabranchus McClelland, V, 192 ; logotype P. striatus McCl. A synonym of 

Amphipnous Miiller. 
Ophisternon McClelland, V, 197 ; logotype O. bengalensis McCl. A synonym o 

Symbranchus Bloch. 
Ptyobranchus McClelland, V, 200 ; logotype P. arundinaceus McCl. A synonym 

of Raitoboura Gray = Moringua Gray. 
Ophithorax McClelland, V, 212; logotype "Ophisurus ophis Lac." (Mur^na 

maculosa Cuv.). The species called Mur.^na ophis by Linnaeus is the type of 


the genus Ophichthus of Ahl. Mur.ena ophxs Bloch is probably the same 
and M. ophis Lac. seems to be drawn from the same material. The figure 
of Lacepede is the sole basis of Cuvier's Mur^ena maculosa. All these 
accounts seem to refer to the fish called Ophichthus havannensis (B1. 
& Schn.). The maculosus of Kaup and Giinther is a different fish, a 
species of Myrichthys. McClelland places "Ophisurus ophis Lac." first 
among his species of Ophithorax. We therefore take it as his type, although 
his description is rather dubious. "Dorsal fin broad, anal narrow ; body and 
dorsal covered with large round spots. Pectoral fin very minute. Seas of 
Europe." The genus is defined : "Pectoral fins very small so as to be scarcely 
perceptible." It is possible that this description applies to the species called 
Ophichthys maculosus by Giinther (not by Cuvier). This is a species of 
Myrichthys, thus far without tenable name. Using Giinther's description 
of Ophichthys maculosus as the type, the species may be named Myrich- 
thys guntheri Jordan. It seems best to regard Ophithorax as a synonym 
of Ophichthys Ahl, rather than to substitute it on doubtful grounds for 
Myrichthys or for Chlevastes (colubrinus). 

317. MEYER & PLIENINGER (1844). Paldontologic von JViirttcmbcrg. 
Christian Erich von Meyer (1801-1894) ; Wilhelm Heinrich Theodor 

VON Plieninger (1795-1879). 
Thectodus Meyer & Plieninger, 116; logotype T. inflatus Mijller & Plieninger 
(fossil). A synonym of Acrodus. 

318. MtJLLER & TROSCHEL (1844). Synof^sis generum et specienim familicv 
Characinarum. Wiegmann's Archiv. Naturg. (Also in Horce Ichthyologicce, 
III, 1845.) 

Johannes Muller; Franz Hermann Troschel (1810-1882). 

Chilodus Miiller & Troschel, 85 ; haplotype Chilodus punctatus M. & T. Pre- 
occupied ; replaced by Microdus Kner, 1859; also preoccupied, and by C^no- 
TROPUS Gthr., 1864. 

Alestes Muller & Troschel, 88; orthotype Salmo niloticus Geoffroy St. Hilaire. 

Brycon Miiller & Troschel, 90; logotype Characinus microlepidotus Cuv. 

Exodon Muller & Troschel, 91 ; haplotype Exodon paradoxus M. & T. Said to be 
preoccupied ; replaced by Hystricodon Gthr. 1864 

Epicyrtus Muller & Troschel, 92 ; haplotype Salmo gibbosus Gronow. Preoccupied ; 
replaced by Anacyrtus Gthr., 1864. A synonym of Charax (Gronow) Scopoli. 

Xiphorhamphus Miiller & Troschel, 92; orthotype Salmo falcatus Bloch. Sub- 
stitute for Xiphorhynchus Ag., preoccupied. This name is also preoccupied 
and changed to Acestrorhynchus Eigenmann (1903). "Nomen Xiphorhyn- 
chus usurpatum in Ornithologias" (M. & T.). 

Hydrolycus Miiller & Troschel, 93 ; orthotype Hydrocyon scomberoides Cuv. 

Pygocentrus Miiller & Troschel, 94; logotype Serrasalmo piraya Cuv. 

Pygopristis Miiller & Troschell, 95 logotype Serrasalmo denticulatus Cuv. 

Catoprion Miiller & Troschel, 96; haplotype Serrasalmo mento Cuv. 

Myleus Miiller & Troschel, 98 ; orthotype Myleus setiger Muller. 

319. NARDO ( 1844) . Proposizione per la formasionc di iin nuovo genere di Selachi 
chiamato Caninoa o Caninotus, chc costitnrehbe una nuova sottofamiglia 
prossima at Notidani. Ann. Soc. Lombardo-Veneto, III. 

Giovanni Domenico Nardo. 

Caninoa Nardo, 8; orthotype Squalus barbarus (Chierigini MSS.) = C. chiere 

ghini Nardo. An anomalous shark, not since recognized, if existing. 


Caninotus Nardo. 8; orthotype Caninoa chiereghini Nardo. (Squalus bar- 
BARUS Chierigini MSS.) Name a provisional substitute for Caninoa. 

320. PETERS (1844). Ucber einein den Lcpidosirens annectens verwandtetu 
mit Lungcn itnd Kiemen sugleich versehencn Fisch ans den Sumpfen von 
Quellimanc (Rhinocryptis amphibia). Mon. Akad. Berlin. 

WiLHELM Carl Hartwig Peters (1815-1883). 
Rhinocryptis Peters, 414; orthotype R. amphibia Peters = Lepidosiren annectens 
Owen. A synonym of Protopterus Owen. 

320A. REUSS (1844). Gcognostische Skizzen aus Bohmen. 
August Emanuel von Reuss (1811-1873). 
Thaumaturus Reuss, II, 264; orthotype T. furcatus Reuss (fossil). An extinct 
form of trout. 

321. RICHARDSON (1844). Description of a Genus of Chinese Fish (Hapa- 

logenys). Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XIII. 
John Richardson. 
Hapalogenys Richardson, XIII, 463 ; logotype H. nitens Rich. = Pogonias nigri- 

322. RICHARDSON (1844). Description of a New Genus of Gobioid Fish 

(Channichthys). Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. XIII. 
John Richardson. 
Channichthys Richardson ; orthotype C. rhinoceratus Rich. Name afterward 
spelled Ch^nichthys, as dictated by a purist, an unwarranted change. 

323. RICHARDSON (1844). Generic Characters of an Undescribed Australian 

Fish (Pafcecus fronto). Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XIV. 
John Richardson. 
Pataecus Richardson, XIV, 280; orthotype P. fronto Rich. 

324. RICHARDSON (1844). Ichthyology. (In The Zoology of the Voyage of 
H.M.S. "Sulphur", Under the Command of Captain Sir Edivard Belcher, 
During the Years 1826-42. Edited by R. B. Hinds). 

John Richardson. 
Chaeturichthys Richardson, 54; orthotype C. stigmatias Rich. 
Centridermichthys Richardson, 74; orthotype C. ansatus Rich. = Trachidermus 

FAsciATUS Heckel. Replaces Trachidermus Heckel, regarded as preoccupied 

by Trachyderma. 
Calloptilum Richardson, 94; orthotype C. mirum Rich. A synonym of Bregma- 

cERos Cantor. 
Astronesthes Richardson, 97 ; orthotype A. nigra Richardson. 

325. RICHARDSON (1844). The Zoolo:iy of the Vovage of H.M.S. "Erebus 
and Terror", Under the Command of Captain Sir J. C. Ross . . . During 
1839-42. Edited by J. Richardson . . . and J. E. Gray. London. 

John Richardson. 
Notothenia Richardson, 5; logotype N. coriiceps Rich. 
Harpagifer Richardson, 11 ; orthotype Callionymus bispinis Forster. 
Chasnichthys Richardson, 12 ; orthotype C. rhinoceratus Rich. ; a substitute for 

Pagetodes Richardson, IS ; orthotype (not given a specific name, a cat having run 

away with the type specimen). 


Emmelichthys Richardson, 47 ; orthotype E. nitidus Rich. 

Cheilobranchus Richardson, 50; logotype C dorsalis Rich. A synonym of Alabes 

Prymnothonus Richardson, 51 ; orthot3'pe P. hookeri Rich. A larval form. 
Xystophorus Richardson, 52; very young of Naucrates. 
Aleuterius (Cuvier) Richardson, 66; after Alutera (Cuv.) Oken. One of many 

varied spellings of Aluter.\, derived from "les Aluteres", as Alutarius, 

Aluterus, etc. Alutera has priority. 
Oxybeles Richardson, 74; orthotype O. homei Rich. A synonym of Carapus 

Molarii (Molarius) Richardson, 79; logotype "Mur^na ophis" = Echidna nebu- 

losa (plural form only). A synonym of Echidna Forster. 
Channo-Muraena Richardson, 96 orthotype Ichthyophis vittatus Rich. 
Congrus Richardson, 107; orhtotype Mur.ena conger L. A variant spelling of 

Psammoperca Richardson, 115; orthotype Ps. datnioides Rich. = Labrax 

waigiensis Cuv. & Val. ; replaces Cnidon M. & T. (1849. 
Gadopsis Richardson, 122; orthotype G. marmoratus Rich. 

326. TEMMINCK & SCHLEGEL (1844). Fauna Japonica (part). 
Coenraad Jacob Temminck; Hermann Schlegel. 

Chaetopterus Temminck & Schlegel, 78; orthotype C. sieboldi Blkr. Name pre- 
occupied ; replaced by Pristipomoides Blkr. 

Melanichthys Temminck & Schlegel, 75 ; orthotype Crenidens melanichthys 
Rich. A synonym of Girella Gray. 

Ditrema Temminck & Schlegel, 77; orthotype D. temmincki Blkr. 

Hypsinotus Temminck & Schlegel, 84 ; orthotype H. rubescens Gthr. A synonym 
of Antigonia Lowe. 

Scarodon Temminck & Schlegel, 89 ; logotype S. fasciatus T. & S. A synonym 
of Oplegnathus Rich., 1840; available if the latter is regarded as pre- 

327. VALENCIENNES (1844). Ichthyologie des lies Canaries, ou Histoirc 

naturelle des poissons, rapportes par MM. Webb & Berthelot. In Webb, 

Histoire naturelle des iles Canaries. II, 1835-1850. 

Achille Valenciennes. 
Nemobrama Valenciennes, 40; orthotype N. webbi Val. = Polymixia nobilis 

Lowe. A synonym of Polymixia Lowe. 
Crius Valenciennes, 43; orthotype C. bertheloti Val. = Schedophilus medusopha- 

Gus. A synonym of Schedophilus Cocco. 
Asellus Valenciennes, 76 ; orthotype Asellus canariensis Val. A synonym of 

Mora Risso. 


328. AGASSIZ (1845). Rapport sur les poissons fossiles de I'argile de Londres. 

Rept. British Assoc. Adv. Sci. 

Louis Agassiz. 

Rhinocephalus Agassiz, 294; orthotype R. planiceps Ag. (fossil). Name only, 

noted by Woodward, 1901. 
Sciaenurus Agassiz, 295; orthotype S. bowerbanki Ag. (fossil) A synonym of 


Pomaphractus Agassiz, 307; orthotype P. egertoni Ag. (fossil); name only; 
identification by Woodward, 1901. A synonym of Brych/ETQs (Ag.) Woodw. 

Coelopoma Agassiz, 307; orthotpe C. colei Ag. (fossil); name only; preoccupied 
(Adams. 1867) and replaced by Eoccelopoma Woodw., 1901. 

Eurygnathus Agassiz, 307; orthotype E. cavifrons Ag. (fossil). Name only; 
validated by Woodward, 1901 ; preoccupied and replaced by Esocelops Woodw. 

Percostoma Agassiz, 307 ; orthotype P. angusta Ag. Name only ; noted by Wood- 
ward, Cat., 519, 1901. 

Cceloperca Agassiz, 307; orthotype Cceloperca l.\tifrons Ag. (fossil). Name 
only; noted by Woodward, Cat.^ IV, 519. 

Bothrosteus Agassiz, 307; orthotype B. minor Ag. (fossil). Name only, noted 
by Woodward, Cat., IV, 611, 1901. 

Calopomus Agassiz, 307; orthotype C. porosus Ag. (fossil), name only. 

Brachygnathus Agassiz, 307; orthotype B. tenuiceps Ag. (fossil). Name only, 
noted by Woodward Cat., 1901, 519 ;name preoccupied. 

Podocephalus Agassiz, 307 orthotype P. nitidus Ag. (fossil). Name only; noted 
by Woodward, Cat^ 519, 1901. 

Brychaetus Agassiz, 308; orthotype B. mulleri Ag. (undefined) (fossil); first 
defined by Woodward. 1901. 

Merlinus Agassiz, 308; orthotype M. cristatus Ag. (fossil), noted by Woodward, 

Scombrinus Agassiz, 308; orthotype S. nuchalis Ag. (fossil); name only; vali- 
dated by Woodward, 1901. 

Phalacrus Agassiz, 308; orthotpe P. cybioides Ag. (fossil); name only; referred 
by Woodward to synonymy of Eothynnus Woodw. 

Rhonchus Agassiz, 308; orthotype R. carangoides Ag. (fossil). Name only; 
explained by Woodward, Cat., IV, 458. A synonym of Eothynnus Woodw. 

Naupygus Agassiz, 308; orthotype N. bucklandi Ag. (fossil). Name only; noted 
by Woodward, Cat., 611 (1901). 

Acestrus Agassiz, 308; orthotype A. ornatus Ag. (fossil). Name only; validated 
by Woodward, 1901, perhaps to be regarded as preoccupied by Acestra 
Jardine, 1831. 

Laparus Agassiz, 308 ; orthotype L. alticeps Ag. ( fossil : name only ; discussed 
by Woodward, 1901). 

Labrophagus Agassiz, 308; orthotype L. esocinus Ag. (fossil). Name only; 
noticed by Woodward, Cat., IV, 611, 1901. 

Loxostomus Agassiz, 308; orthotype L. mancus Ag. (fossil). Name only; noted 
by Woodward, Cat., IV, 612, 1901. 

Pachycephlus Agassiz, 308; orthotype P. cristatus Ag. (fossil). Name only; 
noted by Woodward, Cat., IV, 612, 1901. 

Most of the foregoing names from Agassiz's list of the Egerton collec- 
tion have been identified from labeled specimens and several have justly come 
into use as dating, not from 1845, but from their first definition. Wood- 
ward gives the following additional generic names, of which nothing is 
known, and which, until defined, have no place in the system. 

Echenus (politus). 

Gadopsis (breviceps). 

Phasganus (declivis). 

Rhipidolepis (elegans). 

Synophrys (hopei). 

AGASsiz. 1845 225 

329. AGASSIZ (1845). Mo)iograpIuc dcs poissous fossilcs du I'ieux Grex Rouge, 
ou Systciiia Devonicn (Old Red Sandstone) dcs ties Britanniques et de 
Russie. Part 2. 

Louis Agassiz. 
Diplacanthus Agassiz, 34, 40 ; orthotype D. striatus Ag. 
Lamnodus Agassiz. 83; orthotype Dendrodus biporcatus Owen (fossil). A syno 

nym of Dendrodus. 
Psammosteus Agassiz, 103; logotype P. m^andrinus Ag. (fossil). 
Homacanthus, 113; orthotype H. arcuatus Ag. (fossil). 
Haplacanthus Agassiz, 114; orthotype H. marginalis Ag. (fossil). 
Odontacanthus Agassiz, 114; logotype O. crenatus Ag. (fossil). A synonym 


Narcodes Agassiz, 115; orthotype N. pustulifer Ag. (fossil). A supposed synonym 


Byssacanthus Agassiz, 116; orthotype B. crenulatus Ag. (fossil). 

Naulas Agassiz, 116; orthotype N. sulcatus Ag. (fossil). 

Climatius Agassiz, 119; orthotype C. reticulatus (Ag. fossil). 

Cosmacanthus Agassiz, 120; orthotype C. malcolmsoni Ag. (fossil). 

Parexus Agassiz, 120; orthotype P. incurvus Ag. (fossil). 

Hemothorax Agassiz, 134; orthotype H. flemingi Ag. (fossil). A synonym of 

Chelyophorus Agassiz, 135; orthotype C. verneuili Ag. (fossil). 
Actinolepis- Agassiz, 141; orthotype A. tuberculatus Ag. (fossil). A supposed 

synonym of Astrolepis. 
Stagonolepis Agassiz (not quoted by Woodward; referred to the Dipterini). 

330. BLEEKER (1845). Bijdragen tot gcnccskiinde topographic van Batavia. 

Gcncrisch ovcrsicht der fauna. II, 1845. Arch. Nederl. Indie. 
Pieter Bleeker (1819-1878). 
Pinjalo Bleeker, II, 251 (1845) ; orthotype Cesio pinjalo Blkr. = P. typus Blkr. 
Heterodon Bleeker, 323 ; orthotype H. zonatus Blkr. Name preoccupied in ser- 
pents ; replaced by Heterognathodon Blkr., 1848. 
Mesopristes Bleeker, 523 ; orthotype M. macracanthus Blkr. ; a synonym of 
Datnia Cuv. & Val. 

331. BONAPARTE (1845). Catalogo mctodico dei pesci Europci. Atti Sci. Ital. 

(Reprint as a separate volume, Naples, 1846.) 
Carlo L. Principe Bonaparte. 

Some of the names here used may have occurred in other papers of 1844 
and 1845. 

Glaucostegus Bonaparte, 14; orthotype G. cemiculus Bon. ("Rhina rhinobatus 
Shaw = Rh. cemiculus Geofifroy.") A synonym of Rhinobatus. 

Acanthias Bonaparte, 15; orthotype Squalus acanthias L. A. vulgaris Bon. 
same as Acanthias Risso. A synonym of Squalus L., as restricted. 

Lepidorhinus Bonaparte, 16; orthotpe Squalus squamosus Broussonnet. 

Scymnorhinus Bonaparte, 16; orthotype S. lichia. Replaces Scymnus Cuv., pre- 

Spinax Bonaparte, 16; tautotype Squalus spinax L. Same as Spinax Cuv. A 
synonym of Etmopterus Raf. 

Sterledus Bonaparte, 21 ; orthotype Acipenser ruthenus Bon. Same as Sterleta 


Cenisophius Bonaparte, 29; orthotype Leuciscus pauperum Bon. Replaces Leucos 

Heckel, preoccupied in birds, as Leucus. 
Gardonus Bonaparte, 29; orthotype Leuciscus decipiens Ag. A synonym of 

Pigus Bonaparte, 29; tautotype Cyprinus pigus Cloquet. Apparently a synonym 

of Cenisophius. . 
Cephalus Bonaparte, 30; orthotype Cyprinus ceph.\lus L. Name preoccupied; a 

synonym of Leuciscus Cuv. 
Microlepis Bonaparte, 30; no diagnosis; orthotype M. turskyi Bon. A synonym of 

Leuciscus Cuv. 
Hegerius Bonaparte, 31 ; orthotype Scardinius hegeri Bon., Hegerius typus Bon. 

An ally of Telestes; the name later spelled Heegerius. 
Scardinius Bonaparte, 31 ; logotype Leuciscus scardafa Bon. 
Pallachius (Nilsson) Bonaparte 45; orthotype Gadus pollachus L. = Gadus 

virens L. 
Coccolus Bonaparte, 47; orthotype C. annectens Bon., a substitute for Krohnius 

Cocca (K. flamentosus, which is the larva of the Macrurid, Ccelorhynchus, 

Cynoglossa Bonaparte, 48; orthotype Pleuronectes cynoglossus L. A syno- 
nym of Cynicoglossus Bon., not Cynglossus Ham. 
Plagusia Bonaparte, 51 ; orthotype Plagusia lactea Bon. A substitute for Plagusia 

Cuv., preoccupied. A synonym of Symphurus Raf. 
Scorpichthes Bonaparte, 62; logotype Cottus scorpius L., in plural fprm only. A 

synonym of Myoxocephalus Stellar. . 
Gastronemus (Cocco) Bonaparte, 68; orthotype Pharopteryx benoiti Riippell. 

Name preoccupied. A synonym of Mora Risso. 
Tinimogaster (Cocco) Bonaparte, 68; no definition; quoted by Bonaparte in con- 
nection with Gastronemus Cocco. A synonym of Mora Risso, apparently 

a substitute for Gastronemus, preoccupied. 
Selenia Bonaparte, 75; orthotype Caranx luna Geoffroy St. Hilaire == Scomber 

guara Bonnaterre. Apparently replaces Uraspis Blkr. 

332. BRODIE (1845). (Fossil Insects.) 
Peter Bellinger Brodie. 

Oxygonius (Agassiz) Brodie, 16; orthotype O. tenuis Ag. (fossil). Young fishes, 

Ceramurus (Egerton) Brodie, 17; orthotype C. macrocephalus F.gert. (fossil). 

333. COSTA (1845). (Fossil Fishes.) Atti Acad. Pontan. Napoli. 

Oronzio Gabriele Costa. 

Megastoma Costa, V, 287; orthotype ^L apenninum Costa (fossil). A synonym 
of Leptolepis. 

334. KROYER (1845). Icelus Hamatus. Naturhist. Tidsskr., L 
Henrik Nicolaj Kroyer (1799-1870). 
Icelus Kroyer, I, 253; orthotype L hamatus Kroyer. 

Phobetor Kroyer, I, 263; orthotype Cottus tricuspis Reinh. A synonym of Gym- 
nocanthus Sw. 

335. KROYER (1845). Carelophus stromii. Xaturhist. Tidsskr.. L 

Henrik Nicolaj Kroyer. 
Carelophus Kroyer, I ; orthotype C. strcemi Kroyer. A synonym of Chirolophis Sw. 

KROYEK, 1845 227 

336. KROYER (1845). Caracanthiis tylyJcus. Xaturliisl. TicLsskr., I. 

Henrik Nicol.^j Kroyer. 
Caracanthus Kroyer, I, 267 ; orthotype C. typicus Kroyer = Micropus m.aculatus 
Gray. Replaces Micropus Gray, preoccupied. 

337. KROYER (1845). Ceratis hollbolH. Naturhist. Tidsskr., L 

Henrik Nicolaj Kroyer. 
Ceratias Kroyer, I. 639 ; orthotype C. hollbolli Kroyer. 

338. McClelland (1845). Description of Four Species of Fishes from the 
Rivers at the Foot of the Boutan Mountains. Journ. Nat. Hist. Calcutta, V, 
1840, 272, 282. 

John McClelland. 

Ctenops McClelland, V, 281 ; orthotype C. nobilis McCl. A synonym of Osphro- 
menus Lac. 

339. MtJLLER & TROSCHEL (1845). Horce Ichthyologiccc. Beschreibung und 

Abbildung neuer Fische ; die Familie Characinen. I. Berlin. 
JoH.\NNES Muller : Franz Hermann Troschel. 

Distichodus Miiller & Troschel, I, 12; orthotype S.'^lmo niloticus Hasselquist = 

Characinus nefasch Lac. 
Agoniates Miiller & Troschel, I, 19; haplotype Agoniates halecinus M & T. 
Cnidon Miiller & Troschel. I, 21 ; orthotype Cnidon chinensis M. & T. 

340. OWEN (1845). Odontography. 
Richard Owen. 

Pisodus (Agassiz) Owen, 138; orthotype P. oweni Ag. (fossil). An ally of Al- 
bula Gronow. 

341. RICHARDSON (1845). Generic Clmracters of Gasteroschisma tnelampus, a 
Fish which Inhabits Port Nicholson, New Zealand. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist,, XV. 

John Richardson. 
Gasteroschisma Richardson, 346; orthotype G. melampus Rich. 

342. RICHARDSON (1845). Report on the Ichthyology of the Seas of China and 

Japan. Rept. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. 
John Richardson. 
Ilisha (Gray) Richardson, 306; haplotype Ilisha abnormis Gray = Alosa elongata 
Bennett. Replaces Pellona Cuv. & Val.. and Zunasia Jordan & Thompson. 

343. SOUTH (1845). Encyclopdia Mctropolitana. (Edition for 1845.) 

John Flint South. 
Thunnus South, V, 620; orthotype Scomber thynnus L. A substitute for Thyn- 
nus Cuv., preoccupied in butterfles. 

344. TEMMINCK & SCHLEGEL (1845). Fauna Japonica (issued in parts). 

Ccenra.'vd Jacob Temminck; Hermann Schlegel. 
Erythrichthys Temminck & Schlegel, 1845, 117; orthotype E. schlegeli Gthr. 

Name preoccupied ; replaced by Erythrocles Jordan, 1919. 
Scombrops Temminck & Schlegel, 118; orthotype S. cheilodipteroides Blkr. = 

Scomber boops Houttuyn. 
Dictyosoma Temminck & Schlegel, 139; orthotype D. burgeri Van der Hoeven. 
Cirrhilabrus Temminck & Schlegel, 167; orthotype C. temmincki Blkr. 


345. AGASSIZ (1846). Nomenclator Zoologicus. Pisces. 

Lx)Uis Agassiz. 
Hypeneus Agassiz, 190 ; logotype Mullus bifasciatus Lac. A corrected spelling of 


346. AGASSIZ (1846). Nonien matittscrit^tum in diversis museo usurpatuni. 

A'omina systematica gencrum piscium, tain viventium quam fossilium. 

Addenda to Nomenclator Zoologicus. Pisces. 

Louis Agassiz." 
The three names which follow occur in the Nomenclator Zoologicus as 

manuscript names used by Agassiz on labels in different museums. They 

have no place in the system. 
Glaphyrodus Agassiz, Addenda, 3; species not named (same as Oxyrhina). A 

synonym of IsURUS Raf. 
Holodus Agassiz, Addenda, 3 ; species not named. A synonym of Heptranchias 


Oroptychus Agassiz, Addenda, 4 species not named ("Cestraciontes"). 
Toxophorus, This name is given by Agassiz, page 63, with no indication as to its 

347. BIBRON (1846). Revue Zoologique. 
Gabriel Bibron (1806-1848). 
Chilomycterus Bibron, 40; logotype Diodon reticulatus L. 

348. BRISOUT DE BARNEVILLE (1846). Note sur le groupe des Gobiesoces. 

Rev. Zool. 

Charles N. F. Brisout de Barneville (1823-1893). 

Tomicodon Brisout de Barneville, 144; orthotype T. chilensis Barn. A synonym 

of Sicvases M. & T. 
Sicyogaster Brisout de Barneville, 144 ; orthotype Gobiesox marmoratus Jenyns. 

Name preoccupied ; replaced by Gill. 
Chorisochismus Brisout de Barneville, 209 ; orthotype C. nudus Barn. = Cyclop- 
TERUS dentex Pallas. 

349. BRISOUT DE BARNEVILLE (1846). Note sur le nouveau genre de la 

famille des Discoboles (Trachelochismus) . Rev. Zool. 
Charles N. F. Brisout de Barneville. 
Trachelochismus Brisout de Barneville, 214; orthotype Cyclopterus pinnulaTus 

350. COSTA (1846). Fauna del regno di Napoli, ossia enunterasione di tutti gli 
animali che abitano le diverse regioni di questo regno e le acque die le bag- 
nano, etc. Vol. III. 

Oronzio Gabriele Costa. 
Cynoponticus Costa, pi. 28; orthotype C. ferox Costa = Conger savanna Cuv. 

SSL CUVIER & VALENCIENNES (1846). Histoire naturelle des poissons. 

XVIII, 1835. 
Achille Valenciennes. 
Grundulus Cuvier & Valenciennes, XVIII, 216; haplotype Fundulus bogotensis 
Humboldt. Eigenmann identifies this with Characin, Ctenocharax bogo- 
tensis Regan, 1907. 
Orestias Cuvier & Valenciennes, XVIII, 221 ; logotype Orestias cuvieri Val. 

EICHWALD, 1846 229 

Vastres Cuvier & Valenciennes, XIX, 433 ; orthotype Vastres cuvieri Val. =^ 
SuDis GiGAS Cuv. Same as Sudis Cuv., preoccupied by Sudis Raf., 1810; 
replaced by Arapaima M. & T., 1846. 

Heterotis (Ehrenberg MS.) Cuvier & Valenciennes, XIX, 465; orthotype Heterotis 
EHRENBERGi Val. I do not find that Ehrenberg had published this name else- 
where. A synonym of Clupisudis Sw. 

Lebiasina Cuvier & Valenciennes, XIX, 531 ; haplotype Lebiasina bimaculata Val. 

Pyrrhulina Cuvier & Valenciennes, XIX, 534; haplotype P. filamentosa Val. 

352. EICHWALD (1846). Geognosy of Russia (in Russian). Reproduced in 

1860 in Lethcea Rossica. 
Carl Eduard von Eichwald. 
Aulacosteus Eichwald; logotype (in 1860) A. cochleariformis Eichw. Same as 
Ptyctodus Pander and, if eligible, of prior date. 

353. KEYSERLING (1846). Reise in das Petchoraland im Jahre 1843. 

Alexander von Keyserling. 
Dimeracanthus Keyserling, 292b; orthotype D. concentricus , Keyserling (fossil). 

354. KROYER (1846). (Danmarks Fiske.) 
Henrik Nikolaj Kroyer. 
Acantholepis Kroyer, III, 98; orthotype Argentina silus. A synonym of SiLUS 
Reinhardt and probably of Argentina L. 

355. LOWE (1846). On a New Genus of the Family Lophiidce (les Pectorales 
pediculees, Cuv.) Discovered in Madeira. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, XIV. 

Richard Thomas Lowe. 
Chaunax Lowe, III, 339; orthotype C. pictus Lowe. 

356. MEYER (1846). Geologie von Jena. Schmidt und Schleiden. 

Hermann von Meyer. 
Tholodus Meyer, I, 199; orthotype T. schmidti Meyer (fossil). Undetermined; 
perhaps an Asterodon, perhaps a reptile. 

357. MULLER (1846). (Arapaima.) Abhandl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin. 

Johannes Muller. 
Arapaima Miiller; haplotype Sudis gigas Cuv. Replaces Sudis Cuv., preoccupied, 
and Vastres Cuv. & Val. of the same year but of later date, as Valenciennes 
quotes Arapaima. 

358. MUNSTER (1846). Ueber die im Korallenkalk des Lindner Berges bet 
Hannover vorcommenden Ueberreste von Fischen, etc. Beitrage zur Petre- 

Georg Munster. 
Radamas Munster, VII, 11, 28; orthotype Asima jugleri Giebel (fossil). Same as 
AsiMA Giebel and of prior date. 

359. NORWOOD & OWEN (1846). Description of a New Fossil Fish from the 

PalcEOzoic Rocks of Indiana. Amer. Journ. Sci., I. 
Joseph Granville Norwood; David Dale Owen. 
Macropetalichthys Norwood & Owen, I, 371 ; orthotype M. rapheidolabis Nor- 
wood & Owen (fossil). 


359A. RICHARDSON (1846). Stokes: Discoveries in Australia. 

John Richardson. 
Assiculus Richardson, 492; orthotype A. punctatus Rich, A synonym of Pseudo- 
CHROMis Riippell. 

360. PETERS (1846). Ueber eine nene Gattung von Labyrinth fischen . . . aus 

Quellimane. Arch. Anat. 
VViLHELM Carl Hartwig Peters. 
Ctenopoma Peters, 481 ; orthotj^pe C. multispinis Peters. 

361. TEMMINCK & SCHLEGEL (1846). Fauna Jap onica {^zri). 

Coenraad Jacob Temminck; Hermann Schlegel. 
Plecoglossus Temminck & Schlegel, 229; orthotype P. altivelis T. & S. 
Ateleopus Temminck & Schlegel, 255 ; orthotype A. japonicus Blkr. Name pre 
occupied as Atelopus; replaced by Podateles Boulenger. 

362. TSCHUDI (1846). Untersuchungeti ilber die Fauna Peruana. 

JoHANN Jacob Tschudi (1818-1882). 
Cheilotrema Tschudi, 13 ; orthotype C. fasci.a.tum Tschudi. 
Chaetostoma (Heckel) Tschudi, 25; orthotype C. loborhynchus Heckel. Said to be 

thus originally written by Heckel; spelled ChvETOStomus by Kner (1854) 

and by subsequent writers. 
Discopyge Tschudi, 32; orthotype D. tschudii Tschudi. 

363. VALENCIENNES (1846). Nouvelles observations sur I'Eremophilus. 

Recueil d'Observ. Zool., II. 
AcHiLLE Valenciennes. 
Trichomycterus Valenciennes, 347; orthotype T. nigricans Humboldt, 1811. Same 
as Thrycomycterus. 


364. BLEEKER (1847). Siluroideorum bataviensium conspectus diagnosticus. 

Verb. Batav. Genootsch., XXI. 


Ketengus Bleeker, 9 ; orthotype K. tvpus Blkr. 

Osteogeneiosus Bleeker, XXI, 49; orthotype O. macrocephalus Bleeker 

Batrachocephalus Bleeker, XXI, 158, 375; orthotype B. micropogon Blkr. 

365. BLEEKER (1847). Pharyngognathorum Siluroideorumque species novcc 

Javanenses. Nat & Geneesk. Arch. Neder.-Indie, IV. 
Pieter Bleeker. 
ChcBrodon Bleeker, 10; orthotype Labrus macrodontus Lac. Replaces Chcerops 
Riippell, 1852; later written Choieodon. 

366. BRISOUT DE BARNEVILLE ( 1847) . Note sur le genre Centropristis Cuvier. 

Rev. Zool. 
Charles N. F. Brisout de Barneville. 
Homodon Brisout de Barneville, 133; logotype Centropristis georgianus Cuv. & 

Val. A synonym of Arripis Jenyns. 
Myriodon Brisout de Barneville, 133 ; orthotype Centropristis scorp^noides Cuv. 
& Val. = ScoRPv^NA waigiensis Q. & G. a synonym of Centrogenys. 


367. BRISOUT DE BARNEVILLE (]847). Noic sur un nouveau genre 

d'AnguilUfonnes. Rev. Zool. 
Charles N. F. Brisout de Barneville. 

Ichthyapus Brisout de Barneville. 219; orthotype I. acutirostris Barn. A syno- 
nym of Sphagebranchus Bloch. 

368. CUVIER & VALENCIENNES (1847). Histoirc naturelle des poissons. XX. 

x\cHiLLE Valenciennes. 
Sardinella Cuvier & Valenciennes, XX 261 ; logotype Sardinella aurita Val. 
Harengula Cuvier & Valenciennes, XX, 277; logotype Harengula latulus Val. 

(said to be from France, but apparently an American species, not the French 

"Blanquette", which is reputed to be the sprat (Spratella sprattus) iide 

Pellona Cuvier & Valenciennes, XX, 300 ; logotype Pellona orbignyana Val. = 

Pristigaster flavipinnis Val. A synonym of Ilisha Gray (1846). 
Rogenia Cuvier & Valenciennes, XX, 340; haplotype Rogenia alba Val. Young of 

Clupea L. ("Whitebait"). 
Clupeonia Cuvier & Valenciennes, XX, 345; logotype Clupeonia jussieui Val. 

Very near Harengula Cuv. & Val. 
Spratella Cuvier & Valenciennes, XX, 356; logotype Spratella pumila Val. Young 

of Clupea sprattus L. 
Kowala Cuvier & Valenciennes. XX, 362 ; logotype Kowala albella Cuv. & Val. 

Very close to Clupeonia, if not identical with it. 
Meletta Cuvier & Valenciennes, XX, 366; type Meletta vulgaris Val. (young of 

Spratella sprattus). A synonym of Spratella Cuv. & Val. 
Alausa Cuvier & Valenciennes, XX, 389; type Alausa vulgaris = Clupea alosa L. 

A variant spelling of Alosa Cuv. 
Dussumieria Cuvier & Valenciennes, XX, 467; haplotype Dussumieria acuta Val. 

369. EGERTON (1847). On the Nomenclature of the Fossil Chimceroid Fishes. 

Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, III. 
Philip de Malpas Grey Egerton. 

Dictyopyge Egerton, III, 276; orthotype Catopterus macrurus Egert. (fossil). 
Ischypterus Egerton, III, 277; orthotype F. latus Egert. (fossil). A synonym of 

370. GIEBEL (1847). Vier neue Fische aus dem dunkeln Kreide-Schicfcr von 

Glarus. Neues Jahrb. Mineral. 
Christoph Gottfried Andreas Giebel (1820-1881). 
Palymphyes Giebel, 666; logotype P. crassus Giebel. 
Pachygaster Giebel, 667; orthotype P. spinosus Giebel (fossil). 

371. GIEBEL (1847). Fauna der Vorwelt . . . monographisch dargestellt. 
Christoph Gottfried Andreas Giebel. 
Centrodus Giebel, 344; orthotype C. acutus Giebel (fossil). 
Chilodus Giebel, I, 352; orthotype (not named in Woodward). A tooth of dubious 

Oxytes Giebel, 364; orthotype O. obliqua Giebel (fossil). A fossil homologue of 
Carcharias Raf., Odontaspis Ag. 


372. GUICHENOT (1847) . Notice sur un nouveau genre de Percoides (Pomanotis). 

Rev. Zool., X. 
Alphonse Guichenot. 
Pomanotis Guichenot, 390; orthotype P. rubescens Guich. A genus not since 
recognized. The type P. rubescens was brought by Dussumier from Alipey,* 
a locality I do not find on the maps, but evidently in India or eastward. The 
genus is not related to Eucentrarchid/E, as its author suggests, but belongs 
probably to the Nandid^ (D. XIV, 14. A III, 9) near Pristolepis (Catopra). 

373. KNER (1847). Ueber die beiden Arten Cephalaspis lloydii und C, lewisii 
Agassiz, und einige diesen sundchst stehenden Schalenreste. Naturwiss. Abh., I. 

Rudolf Kner. 
Pteraspis Kner, I, 165; orthotype CEPHAbASPis lewisi Ag. (fossil). 

374. MEYER (1847). Palceontograpkica. 
Hermann von Meyer. 
Tylodus Meyer, I, 102; orthotype T. glaber Meyer (fossil). 

375. MEYER (1847). Vorldufige Uebersicht der in dem Muschelkalk Ober- 
Schlesiens vorkommenden Sanrier, Fischc, Crustaceen und Echinodermen, 
nach der Sammlung des Herrn Mentzel in Konigshiitte. Uebersicht Schles. 
Ges. Breslau. 

Hermann von Meyer. 
Omphalodus Meyer, 574; orthotype O. chorzowensis Meyer (fossil). A synonym 


376. PLIENINGER (1847). Microlestes antiquus und Sargodon tomicus in der 
Grenzenbreccie des Keupers von Degerloch. Jahresschr. Ver. Vaterl. Naturk. 


Sargodon Plieninger, III, 165; orthotype S. tomicus Plieninger (fossil). 

377. WOOD (1847). Description of a Species of Shark (Leiodon echinatum). 

Proc. Boston Nat. Hist. Soc, II. 
William Wood. 
Leiodon Wood, 174; orthotype L. echinatum Wood. Name preoccupied; a syn- 
onym of SoMNiosus Le Sueur. 


378. AGASSIZ (1848). Two New Fishes from Lake Superior, Percopsis and 

Rhinichthys. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., III. 

Louis Agassiz. 

Percopsis Agassiz, 80 ; haplotype Percopsis guttatus Ag. = Salmo omiscomaycus 

■Walbaum (1792). Also in Lake Superior, 1850, 284. 
Rhinichthys Agassiz, 80; haplotype Cyprinus atronasus Mitchill. Also in Lake 
Superior, 1850, 353. 

* Alipey is probably the same as Alleppi or Allapalli, a seaport of Travancore in southern 
India, 33 miles south of Cochin. 

BEYRICH, 1848 233 

379. BEYRICH (1848). Uebcr Xenacanthus decheni und Holacanthodes gra- 
cilis, zwei Fische aus der Formation des Rothliegenden in Nord-Deutschland. 
Archiv. f. Mineral., XXII. 

Heinrich Ernst Beyrich (1815-1896). 
Xenacanthus Beyrich, 24; orthotype Orthacanthus decheni Goldfuss (fossil). 

Regarded as a synonym of Orthacanthus Ag. (Pleuracanthus). 
Holacanthodes Beyrich, 24; orthotype H. gracilis Beyr. (fossil). A synonym of 

Acanthoessus and of Acanthodes. 

380. BLEEKER (1848). A Contribution to the Ichthyology of Sumbawa. Journ. 

Ind. Arch. IX, 1848. 
Pieter Bleeker. 
Heterognathodon Bleeker, I, 101 ; orthotype H. bifasciatus Blkr., a substitute 
for Heterodon, preoccupied. A synonym of Pentapus Cuv. & Val. 

381. CUVIER& VALENCIENNES (1848). Histoire naturelle des poissons. XXI. 

AcHiLLE Valenciennes. 
Fario Cuvier & Valenciennes, XXI, 277 ; tautotype Salmo fario L. = Salmo argen- 

TEUS Val. Same as Trutta L., a subgenus of Salmo. 
Salar Cuvier & Valenciennes, XXI. 314; type Salar ausonii Val., a form or ally 

of Salmo fario L. A synonym of Fario Val. and Trutta L. 

382. DANA (1848). Fossils of the Exploring Expedition Under the Command of 
Charles Wilkes, U. S. N.; a Fossil Fish from Australia, and a Belemnife 
from Tierra del Fuego. Amer. Journ. Sci., V. 

James Dwight Dana (1813-1895). 
Urosthenes Dana. V, 433; orthotype U. australis Dana (fossil). 

383. EWALD (1848). Ueber Menaspis, cine neue fossile Fischgattung. 

Ber. Akad Wiss. Berlin. 
August Ewald. 
Menaspis Ewald, 83; orthotype M. armata Ewald (fossil). 

384. GIEBEL (1848). Die Fische der Vorwelt in seiner Beriicksichtigung der 

lebenden Fische. 

Christoph Gottfried Andreas Giebel. 

Tharsis Giebel, 145; orthotype T. germari Giebel (fossil). A synonym of Lepto- 


Asima Giebel, 184; orthotype A. jugleri Giebel (fossil). A synonym of Radamas 

Elonichthys Giebel, 249; logotype E. germari Giebel (fossil). 

385. GISTEL (1848). Naturgeschichte des Thierreichs fUr hohere Schulen. 

Johannes Gistel. 

A remarkable dull and confused publication, not hitherto noticed by 
ichthyologists. Gistel speaks feelingly of his "hochst miihsamer Ver- 
gleichung, zeitraubenden Nachschlagens, in vielen hundert Werken, etc., aus 
meinen Manuscripten aufzufiihren". It is not often that so fatiguing a piece 
of work presents itself in such a crabbed form. Gistel insists that personal 
names of genera are allowable only in Botany and in the lowest classes of 
animals ("den niedrigsten Thierklassen"). 

The following may replace names actually preoccupied : 

Abron instead of Platystoma. 


Dapalis instead of Smerdis. 

Enixe instead of Drepane. 

Hypodytes instead of Paracentropogon. 

NoTACMON instead of Eurynotus. 

Odonus instead of Xenodon (Erythrodon). 

Periurgus instead of Microps. 

Proscinetes instead of Microdon. 

Secutor instead of Deveximentum. 

Strephon instead of Brontes. 

Strotes instead of Platysomus. 

The following are also admissible if a name differing in gender or slightly 
in form but from the same roots as an earlier name is to be rejected as 
preoccupied : 

Analithis instead of Platyrhina. 

Alazon instead of Pcecilia. 

Englottogaster instead of Oreinus. 

FuRO instead of Eugnathus. 

M^TiMiLLO instead of Mustelus. 

Prenes instead of Scatophagus. 

Rhadamista instead of Ctenodus. 

Scropha instead of Ceratodus. 

Pedites instead of Macropodus. 

Tlie twice preoccupied name of Undina Gistel, IX, is offered as a sub- 
stitute for Linkia Nardo, said to be a fish, Linkia typus Nardo, preoccupied 
by LiNCKiA Ag., a genus of Echinoderms, for which he offers the substitute 
name of Catantes. But both Linkias are starfishes and neither a fish. 
Another generic name, Phygas Gistel, X, is proposed in place of Polia 
(Delia Chiaje, Isis, 1832, 647, Sci.ena), said to be preoccupied in worms, 
by Polia Grube, which genus Gistel renames Cyryx. But I am informed by 
Mr. Bean that Polia sipunculus Delia Chiaje is itself a worm also, not a fish. 

Carcharias Gistel, VIII ; type Squalus acanthias L. ; substitute for Acanthias 

Risso, regarded as preoccupied by Acanthia. Carcharias was already twice 

preoccupied. A synonym of Squalus L., as restricted. 
Pelonectes Gistel, VIII; type (Acanthoessus bronni Ag.). Substitute for 

AcANTHODES Ag. (1833), wrongly said to be preoccupied in Crustacea (Ser- 

ville, 1835). A synonym of Acanthoessus Ag. (1832). 
Gremilla Gistel, VIII; type (Perca cernua L.). A substitute for Acerina Cuv. ; 

but Cernua Schafer and Acerina Giildenstadt, as well as Gymnocephalus 

Bloch & Schneider are still older than Gremilla. 
Adiapneustes Gistel, VIII; type (Acrodus gaillardoti Ag.). A substitute for 

AcRODUS Ag. (1838), wrongly regarded as preoccupied by Acrodon Zimmer- 

mann (1840). 
Histiodromus Gistel, VIII; type (Salmo anostomus L.). Name a substitute for 

Anastomus Gronow, Scopoli, Cuvier. All these writers have priority over 

Anastomus Illiger (1835), a genus of birds. The name lias often been 

written Anostomus. 
Nomalus Gistel, VIII; type Lonchurus ancylodon B1. & Schn. (A jaculidens 

Cuv. & Val.) Substitute for Ancylodon, preoccupied. A synonym of 

Macrodon Schinz (1822). 

GisTKL, 1848 235 

Hypodytes Gistel, VII 1; orthotype "Aspistes Q. & G.". which is Apistus longis- 
piNis Cuv. & Val. The name is a substitute for Apistes ("Aspistes") 
regarded as preoccupied. 

As the species of Quoy & Gainiard (1834) (longispinis) is the type of 
Paracentropogon Blkr., Hypodytes may supersede that name, rather than 
replace it by Prosopodasys Cantor (1849). Gistel offers Hypodytes as a 
substitute for "Aspistes Quoy, Astrolabe Fische," although Apistes occurs 
in the Regne Animal, 1829 (Index), and Apistus in Cuv. & Val, IV, also 
in 1829, in the latter part of the same year. As Hypodytes is expressly 
used to replace Aspistus (not Aspistes) of Quoy & Gaimard and as the 
chief species figured by those authors is A. longispinis, the type of the 
later genus Paracentropogon, Hypodytes may replace the latter, if Apistes 
or Apistus is deemed occupied. 

Scrofaria Giestel, VIII ; orthotype Ausonia cuvieri Risso. Name an unexplained 
substitute for Ausonia ; a synonym of Luvarus Raf. 

Gliscus Gistel, VIII; type (Blochius longirostris Volta) (fossil). A substitute 
for Blochius, a personal name. 

Strephon Gistel, VIII; orthotype (Brontes prenadilla (Cuv. & Val.). A sub- 
stitute for Brontes Cuv. & Val. several times preocupied. 

Thalassoklephtes Gistel, VIII; orthotype (Caninoa chiereghini Nardo). A 
substitute for Caninoa Nardo, as a genus unworthy of a prince : "1st denn 
der Prinz von Canino mit einem Hayen vergleichbar?" 

Scropha Gistel, VIII; type (Ceratodus latissimus Ag.) (fossil). A substitute 
for Ceratodus, regarded as preoccupied by Ceratodon Brisson. 

Capellaria Gistel, VIII; type (Lophius commersonianus Lac). Substitute for 
Chironectes Cuv., preoccupied. A synonym of Antennarius Cuv. 

Caeso Gistel, VIII; type (Sparus berda Forskal). A substitute for "Chrysophrys 
Riippell" (berda). A synonym of Sparus L. as understood by me. 

Cerdo Gistel, VIII; type (Gadus callarias L.) as here restricted. Cerdo is 
offered as a substitute for "Asellus Klein." But Klein does not accept 
Asellus as a generic name, but discusses its application to various cod-like 
fishes. He refers to "Cerdones" in a discussion of dried codfish. We may 
therefore regard Cerdo Gistel as a synonym of Gadus L. 

Echemythes Gistel, VIII; type (Zeus luna Gmelin). A substitute for Chryso- 
Tosus Lac. A synonym of Lampris. 

Ronchifex Gistel, VIII; type (Harpe rufa Lac), substitute for Cossyphus 
Cuv., preoccupied; Bodianus Bloch and Harpe Lac. are names 'still older 
for the same genus. 

Rhadamista Gistel, VIII; type (Ctenodtjs cristatus Ag. (fossil). A substitute 
for Ctenodus Ag. (1838) regarded as preoccupied by Ctenodon Wagner 

Pirene Gistel, IX; type (Ch^todon aruanus L.). Substitute for Dascylius; 
preoccupied as Dascillus ; Pirene is itself preoccupied and gives way to 
Tetradrachmum Cantor, 1849. 

Enixe Gistel, IX; type ChvETOdon punctatus L.). A substitute for Drepane 
Cuv., regarded as preoccupied by Drepane or Drepana Schranck. It has 
priority over Harpochirus Cantor (1849). 

Secutor Gistel, IX; orthotype Sparus insidiator (Bloch). A substitute for 
Equula Cuv., but with a different type. Has priority over Deveximentum 
Fowler, if this subgenus is distinct from Leiognathus Lac 


Furo Gistel, IX; tj-pe (Eugnathus orthostomus Ag. fossil). Substitute for 
EuGNATHUs Ag. regarded as preoccupied by Eugnatha, a genus of spiders. 

Notacmon Gistel, IX; type (Eurynotus crenatus Ag. fossil). Substitute for 
EuRYNOTUs Ag., preoccupied by a genus of beetles (Kirby, 1817). 

Podager Gistel, IX ; logotype Gerres waigiensis Q. & G. Name a substitute for 
Gerres, regarded as preoccupied by Gerris Fabricius, a genus of insects. 
But Podager is itself preoccupied in birds, and if a new name is needed, it 
must give place to Catoch^num Cantor (1849). But the root words, 
Gerris and Gerres, are different. 

Synergus Gistel, IX; orthotype (Megalurus lepidotus Ag. fossil). A substitute 
for Megalurus Ag. preoccupied in mammals, but Synergus is preoccupied 
also by Synergus Hartig, 1840, a genus of Hymenoptera, and Megalurus 
may be replaced by Urocles Jordan as already indicated. 

Ellops Gistel, IX, type (Acipenser helops Pallas). A substitute for Helops, 
eXXotJ* being the original Greek form. 

Apeches Gistel, IX ; logotype Johnius, carutta B1. & Schn. A substitute for 
Johnius, a name regarded as objectionable. In general Gistel offers a sub- 
stitute for all personal names everywhere except among plants and the lowest 

Neanis Gistel, IX; type (Labrus julis L.). Name a substitute for Julis Guv., 
regarded as preoccupied by Julus L., a genus of myriapods. But the two 
names are of entirely distinct origin. 

Exoles Gistel, IX; type (Squalus nasus Bonnaterre). A substitute for Lamia 
Bon., itself a synonym of Lamna Cuv. 

Apepton Gistel, IX ; orthotype Lepadogaster piger Nardo. A needless synonym 
of GouANiA Nardo, a personal name. 

Anepistomon Gistel, IX; type (Leptorynchus capensis Smith). A substitute for 
Leptorhynchus Smith, preoccupied. A synonym of Ophisurus, as restricted. 

Spanius Gistel, IX; type (Leptosoma atra Nardo). Name a substitute for Lepto- 
soMA, preoccupied ; probably a synonym of Monochirus Raf. "Soglio bastardo". 

Encrotes Gistel, IX ; type Cyprinodon variegatus Lac. A substitute for Lebia 
or Lebias Cuv. on account of the name Lebia Latreille, 1802, an earlier name 
wrongly attributed to Bonaparte. But Lebia Cuv. (later written Lebias) 
is a synonym of Cyprinodon Lac. 

Maina Gitsel, IX; type (Sparus chgerorhynchus B1. & Schn.). Name a substitute 
for Lethrinus Cuv. unreasonably regarded as preoccupied by Lethrus 
Fabricius, a genus of beetles. 

Massaria Gistel, IX; type Cyclopterus liparis L. A needless substitute for 
Liparis, used in Botany. 

Pedites Gistel, IX (Macropodus viridiauratus Lac). Name a substitute for 
Macropodus Lac. corrected by Giinther as Macropus, in that form preoccu- 
pied by Macropus Thunberg, a genus of beetles. Perhaps to be adopted as 
the roots are the same and Macropodus an incorrect form. 

Paschalestes Gistel, IX; type (Macquaria australasica Cuv. & Val. Substitute 
for Macquaria Cuv. & Val., rejected, as a personal name. 

Englottogaster Gistel, IX ; type Oreinus guttatus McCl. Substitute for Oreinus 
McCl., regarded as preoccupied in beetles as Oreina. But the generic value 
of Oreinus is doubtful. 

GiSTEL, 1848 237 

Proscinetes Gistel, X; type Microdon elegans Ag. (fossil). Substitute for 

MicRODON Ag., preoccupied; replaces Polypsephis Hay, 1899, which is also a 

substitute for Microdon. 
Periergus Gistel, X; type Microps furcatus Ag. (fossil). A substitute for 

MicROPS Ag., preoccupied in beetles. 
Arnion Gistel, X; type (Mugil cephalus L.). A substitute for Mugil L. for no 

assigned reason. 
Myrmillo Gistel, X; orthotype Mustelus vulgaris. A .substitute for Mustelus 

Guv., regarded as preoccupied by Mustela L. Same as Pleuracromylon Gill. 
Analithis Gistel, X; orthotype Platyrhina sinensis (B1. & Schn.). Substitute 

for Platyrhina M. & H., regarded as preoccupied by Platyrhinus, replaced 

by DiscoBATUs Garman (1881). 
Strotes Gistel, X; type (Stromateus gibbosus Blainv.). Name a substitute for 

Platysomus Ag. preoccupied by a genus of beetles. 
Abron Gistel, X ; orthotype Silurus lima Ag. A substitute for Platystoma Ag., 

1829, preoccupied in insects. 
Plectrostoma Gistel, X; type Oxyrhina mantelli Ag. (fossil). Substitute for 

OxYRHiNA Ag., preoccupied. A synonym of Isurus Raf. 
Euporista Gistel, X ; type Pleuronectes plagiusa L. A substitute for Plagusia 

Bon., preoccupied ; a synonym of Symphurus Raf. 
Deportator Gistel, X; type (Silurus anguillaris Forskal). Name a substitute for 

Plotosus Lac, needlessly regarded as preoccupied by Plotus L. 
Alazon Gistel, X; orthotype (Pcecilia vivipara). A substitute for Pcecilia 

Guv. & Val., regarded as preoccupied by Pcecilus Bon., a beetle. 
Apodometes Gistel, X; type (Psammodus rugosus Ag., fossil). A substitute for 

PsAMMODUS Ag. regarded as preoccupied by Psammodius, a genus of beetles, 

but the words are not from the same roots. 
Demiurga Gistel. X; type (Rhina ancylostoma B1. & Schn.). A substitute for 

Rhina Bon., etc., regarded as preoccupied by Rhina Olivier (1807), a 

genus of beetles. But this genus of rays was called Rhina in 1801, by 

Bloch & Schneider. The same name was used by non-Linnaean writers 

in place of Squatina. For this purpose it was first binomially used in 1810. 

If Rhina is used for Squatina, Demiurga could replace it for this genus, 

instead of Rhamphobatis Gill (1861). 
Prenes Gistel, X; type (Ch^todon argus Bloch). Name a substitute for Sca- 

tophagus Cuv., regarded as preoccupied by Scatophaga. Has priority over 

Cacodoxus Cantor, 1849. 
Agoreion Gistel, X; type Acanthoderma spinosum Ag. (fossil). Name a sub- 
stitute for "Scleroderma Ag.", used in fungi, also as Sclerodermus in bees, 

but I find no Scleroderma in Agassiz. It was probably the preoccupied 

name, Acanthoderma Ag., which Gistel had in mind ; for this Agoreion 

may perhaps be substituted. 
Creotroctes Gistel, X ; type Scomber sarda L. Name an unexplained substitute 

for Sarda Cuv. It is a synonym of Palamita Bon., offered in 1832 as a 

substitute for Pelamys Cuv. & Val., 1831, which is the same as Sarda Cuv., 

Denius Gistel, X; type (Sparus sargus L.). Name a substitute for Sargus Cuv., 

preoccupied. A synonym of Diplodus Raf. 
Borborodes Gistel, X; type (Squalus lichia Cuv., Squalus lichia Bonnaterre). 

Substitute for Scymnus Cuv., preoccupied in beetles. A synonym of Scym- 

norhinus Bon., 1846. 


Dapalis Gistel, XI; type (Perca minuta Blainv.) (fossil). Name a substitute 
for Smerdis Ag., 1833, preoccupied by Smerdis Leach, a genus of beetles. 

Peroptera Gistel, XI; said to be a fish and substituted for Pertoptera Gistel 
"deleatur". I find no reference elsewhere to either name. 

Orthocolus Gistel XI ; type Salmo thymallus L. Substitute for Thymallus 
Cuv., regarded as preoccupied by Thymallus Latr., 1803, a genus of beetles. 
But the root word is different. In any event, Choregon Minding has priority 

Trompe Gistel, XI, 109; type (Sci^ena jaculatrix Pallas). Name an unexplained 
substitute for Toxotes Cuv. 

Aphobus Gistel, XI; type (Trachidermis fasciatus Heckel). Name a substi- 
tute for Trachidermis Heckel preoccupied as Trachyderma, etc., a synonym 
of Centridermichthys Rich., 1844. 

Chaetichthys Gistel, XI; type (Trachinus trichodon Steller). Name a substitute 
for Trichodon Cuv., deemed preoccupied by Trichoda and Trichodes, but 
the root meaning is different. 

Lithulcus Gistel, XI; type (Trichopodus mentum Lac). Substitute for Tricho- 
PODUS (Trichopus) (Lac.) Cuv. & Val. ; used also in botany. The oldest use 
of the name in Zoology is that of Lacepede, 1802 (III, 125), a genus of 
fishes already called (116) Osphronemus by the same author. 

Odonus Gistel, XI; type (Balistes nicer Lac). A substitute for Xenodon Riip- 
pell, preoccupied. Odonus is prior to Erythrodon Riippell, 1852, and to 
Pyrodon Kaup. If Zenodon Sw. (1839) is regarded as eligible, not as a 
mere misprint, it will be preferred to Odonus. 

Eudynama Gistel, XIII, 108; orthotype (Sparus aurata L.). A substitute for 
Chrysophrys Cuv. A synonym of Sparus L. as restricted. 

Eupnoea Gistel, 105; orthotype Plagiusa lactea Bon. (Symphurus nigrescens 
Raf.). A synonym of Symphurus Raf. 

Melantha Gistel, 109; orthotype Sci^na nigra Gmelin, "die Seekrahe". A need- 
less synonym of Corvina Cuv. 

Attilus Gistel, 109; orthotype Sci^na (cirrhosa L.), "der Schattenfisch". A 
needless synonym of Umbrina Cuv. 

386. GUICHENOT (1848). Notice sur I'etablissement d'un nouveau genre de 

Chetodons (Megaprotodon). Rev. Zool.. XI. 
Alphonse Guichenot. 
Megaprotodon Guichenot 12; orthotype ChvETODON bifascialis Cuv. & Val. 

387. GUICHENOT (1848). Feces de Chile. (In Claudio Gay: Historia fisica y 

politica de Chile.) 
Alphonse Guichenot. 
Boxaodon (Guichenot) Gay, II, 208; orthotj'pe B. cyanescens Guich. An ally 

of Emmelichthys Rich. 
Mendosoma (Guichenot) Gay, II, 212; logotype M. lineatum Guich. 
Seriolella (Guichenot) Gay, II, 238; orthotype S. porosa Guich. 
Merlus (Guichenot) Gay, II, 238; orthotype M. gayi Guich. Apparently a variant 
of Merluccius, of which it is a synonym. 

388. HECKEL (1848). Eine neue Gattimg von Pcecilien mit rochenartigem 

Anklammerungs-Organe (Xiphophorus). Sitzb. Akad. Wiss. Wein. 

Johann Jakob Heckel. 
Xiphophorus Heckel, I, 163 ; orthotype X. helleri Heckel. 

jERDON. 1848 239 

389. JERDON (1848). On the Fresh-water Fishes of Southern India. Madias Journ. 

Lit. Sci., XV. 
Thomas Claverhill Jerdon (1811-1873). 
Pristolepis Jerdon, XV, 141 ; orthotype P. marginatus Jerdon. Replaces Cato- 
PRA Blkr. 

390. M'COY (1848). On Some New Fossil Fish of the Carboniferous Period. 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., II. . 
Frederick M'Coy. 
Isodus M'Coy, 3; orthotype I. leptognathus M'Coy (fossil). 
Colonodus M'Coy. II, 5; orthotype C. longidens M'Coy (fossil). 
Osteoplax M'Coy, II, 6; orthotype O. erosa M'Coy (fossil). 

391 M'COY (1848). On Some New Ichihyolites front the Scotch Old Red 

Sandstone. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., II. 
Frederick M'Coy. 

Physonemus M'Coy, II, 117; orthotype P. arcuatus M'Coy (fossil). 

Erismacanthus M'Coy, II. 118; orthotype E. jonesi M'Coy (fossil). 

Asteroptychius (Agassiz) M'Coy, II, 118; orthotype A. ornatus (Ag.) M'Coy 
(fossil). Name only, in Poissons fossiles. III, 176, 1843; made valid by 
M'Coy, 1848. 

Platyacanthus M'Coy, II, 120; orthotype P. isosceles M'Coy (fossil). Name pre- 
occupied. A synonym of Oracanthus Ag. 

Polyrhizodus M'Coy, II, 125; orthotype P. magnus M'Coy (fossil). 

Glossodus M'Coy, II, 127; logotype G. lingua-bovis M'Coy (fossil). Not Glos 

Climaxodus M'Coy, II. 128; orthotype C. imbricatus M'Coy (fossil). A synonym 
of Janassa. 

Cheirodus M'Coy, II, 130; orthotype C. pes-ran.e M'Coy (fossil). 

Petrodus M'Coy, II, 132; logotype P. patelliformis M'Coy (fossil). 

Tripterus M'Coy, II, 306; orthotype T. pollexfeni M'Coy (fossil). A sj'nonym of 
OsTEOLEPis Val. Name preocucpied; replaced by Triplopterus M'Coy (1855). 

Gyrcptychius M'Coy, II, 307; orthotype G. angustus M'Coy (fossil). 

Conchodus M'Coy, II, 312; orthotype C. ostre^formis M'Coy (fossil). 

392. MtJLLER (1848). (Fossile Fische.) Reise in den dussersten Norden und 
Osten Siberiens wdhrend der Jahr 1843-44. Herausgegeben von A. Th. v. 
Middendorf, I. 

Johannes Muller. 
Lycoptera Miiller, I, 262; orthotype L. middendorfi Miiller (fossil). 

393. MULLER & TROSCHEL (1848). Reisen in British-Guiana in den Jahren 
1840-44. (Im Auftrag Sr. Majestat des Konigs von Preussen ausgefiihrt 
von Richard Schomburgk : I'ersuch einer Fauna und Flora von British- 
Guiava. (Fische.) III.) 

Johannes Muller; Franz Hermann Troschel. 
Achames Miiller & Troschel, III, 622; orthotype A. speciosa M. & T. 
Polycentrus Miiller & Troschel, III, 622; orthotype P. schomburgki M. & T. 

394. RICHARDSON (1848). Fishes: The Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. 
"Samarang" ; Under the Command of Captain Sir Edward Belcher, During the 
years 1842-1846. 


John Richardson. 
Choridactylus Richardson, 8; orthotype C. multibarbis Rich. Later spelled Cho- 


Sthenopus Richardson, 10; orthotype S. mollis Rich. Name preoccupied; replaced 

by Trichopleura Kaup. 
Podabrus Richardson, 11; logotype P. centropomus Rich. Preoccupied in beetles; 

replaced by Vellitor Jordan & Starks (1894). 
Nemichthys Richardson, 25 ; orthotype N. scolopaceus Rich. 
Aperioptus Richardson, 21 ;orthotype A. pictorius Rich. 


395. AYRES (1849). On a Very Curious Fish, for which the Name Malacosteus 

nigcr Is Proposed. Journ. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. 
William O. Ayres. 
Malacosteus Ayres, 53 ; orthotype M. nicer Ayres. 

396. BLEEKER (1849). A Contribution to the Knowledge of the Ichthyological 

Fauna of Celebes. Journ. Ind. Arch., III. 


Apogonoides Blacker, III, 70; orthotype A. macassariensis Blkr. This forgotten 
genus is based on a species without teeth on the plate ; with the preopercle 
entire, no opercular spines: D .VI-1, 9; caudal bilobed. Apogonoides seems 
to differ from the later Apogonichthys only in the presence of 6, not 7, 
dorsal spines and in the bilobed caudal. 

Amblygaster Bleeker, 70; orthotype A. clupeoides Blkr. A synonym of Sardinella 
Cuv. & Val. The true sardines (Sardinia Poey) are well distinguished from 
Sardinella externally by the strong concentric grooves on the opercles. 

Dipterygonotus Bleeker, 70; orthotype D. leucogrammicus Blkr. An ally or 
synonym of Emmelichthys Rich. 

Pogonognathus Bleeker, III, 73; orthotype P. barbatus Blkr. = Anacanthus 
BARBATUS Gray. A synonym of Psilocephalus Sw. 

397. BLEEKER (1849). Oversigt dcr te Batavia voorkomende Gladschubbige 
Labroiden, met dcschrivning van 11 nieuwe soorten. Verb. Bat. Gen. XXII, 
1849, 1-64. 

PiETER Bleeker. 
Scarus (Forskal) Bleeker XII, 3; orthotype Labrus cretensis L. (not Scarus 
Forskal). A synonym of Sparisoma Sw. 

398. BLEEKER (1849). Bijdrage tot de kennis der Perco'iden van den Malayo- 
Molukschen Archipcl, mit beschrijvning van 22 nieuwen soorten. Verb. Batav. 
Genootsch., XXII. 

PiETER Bleeker. 
MuUoides Bleeker, 12; orthotype Mullus flavolineatus Lac. 
Upeneoides Bleeker, 63 ; orthotype Mullus vittatus Forskal 

399. BLEEKER (1849). Bijdrage tot de kennis der Blennioiden en Gobiotden van 

den Soenda-Molukschen Archipel, met beschrijvning van 42 nieuwe soorten. 
Verb. Batav. Genootsch., XX. 

PiETER Bleeker. 

BLEEKER, 1849 241 

Philypnoides Bleeker, XXIIl, 19; orthotype P. surakartensis Blkr. (Young 
of Ophicephalus gachua Ham.) A synonym of Ophicephalus Bloch. 

400. BLEEKER (1849). Bijdrage tot de kennis der ichthyologische fauna van het 
eiland Madura, met beschrijz'ing van eenige nienwe species. Verb. Batav. 
Genootsch., XXII. 

PiETER Bleeker. 

Leptonurus Bleeker, XXII, 14; orthotype L. chrysostigma Blkr. A synonym 
of Coilia Gray. 

Hippichthys Bleeker, XXII, 15; orthotype H. heptagonus Blkr. (not Hippo- 
campus HEPTAGONUS Raf.). Probably the same as Corythroichthys Kaup 
and of earlier date. 

Anodontostoma Bleeker, XXI. 15; orthotype A. hasselti Blkr. = Chatoessus 
CHACUNDA Guv. & Val. ; replaces Gonostoma Van Hasselt, 1823, preoccupied. 

401. BLEEKER (1849). Bijdrage tot de kennis der ichthyologische fauna van het 
eiland Bali, met beschrijving van eenige nietiwe species. Verb. Batav. 
Genootsch., XXII. 

Pieter Bleeker. 
Stomianodon Bleeker, XXII, 10; orthotype S. chrysophekadion Blkr. A synonym 
of Astronesthes Rich. 

402. CANTOR (1849). Catalogue of Malayan Fishes. Journ. Roy. Asiat. Soc. 
Bengal, XVIII (1849). Reprinted as a separate volume, 1850. 

Theodore Edward Cantor. 

Genyoroge Cantor, 12; loogtype Diacope seb^. Name a substitute for Diacope 
Cuv. & Val., preoccupied. 

Prosopodasys Cantor, 44; orthotype Apistus alatus Cuv. A substitute for 
Apistus Cuv., regarded as preoccupied by Apista, hence must retain the 
same type. Pterichthys Sw., 1839, has priority over Prosopadasys. 

Corythobatus Cantor, 45 ; orthotype Apistus minous Cuv. & Val. = Minous 
MOORA Cuv. & Val. Substitute for Minous, regarded as preocupied by Minoes. 

Spondyliosoma Cantor, 50; orthotype Sparus canthaeus L. Substitute for Can- 
THARUs Cuv., preocupied. 

Catochaenum Cantor, 55 ; orthotype Gerres waigensis Cuv. & Val. Substitute for 
Gerres, unnecessarily regarded as preoccupied by Gerris, a genus of insects. 
Podager Gistel (1848), also a substitute for Gerres, is preoccupied. I think 
that Gerres should hold. 

Hatches Cantor, 100; orthotype Ch.etodon orbis Bloch. Substitute for Ephippus 
Cav., regarded as preoccupied by Ephippium. 

Diphreutes Cantor, 159; orthotype Ch^todon macrolepidotus L.. replacing Henio- 
CHUS Cuv. (1817), regarded as preoccupied by Henioche, 1816. 

Harpochirus Cantor, 162 ; orthotype Ch.etodon punctatus Gmelin. Same as 
Enixe Gistel, 1848, an earlier substitute for Drepane Cuv., regarded as pre- 
occupied by Drepana, Drepania, Drepanis and Drepanius. 

Cacodoxus Cantor, 163 ; orthotype Ch^todon argus Gmelin. Same as Prenes 
Gistel, 1848. Substitute for Scatophagus Cuv. & Val. regarded as pre- 
occupied by Scatophaga. 

Cannorhynchus Cantor, 211 ; orthotype Fistularia tabacaria L. A synonym of 

Synaptura Cantor, 222; logotype Pleuronectes cOiMMersonianus Lac, as restricted 
by Bleeker. 


Tetradrachmum Cantor, 240; logotype Ch.etodon aruanus L. Same as Pirene 
Gistel (1848). A substitute for Dascyllus Cuv., regarded as preoccupied 
by Dascillus and often spelled Dascillus. 

Prionace Cantor, 399; logotype Squalus glaucus L. Substitute for Prionodon 
M. & H., preoccupied. 

Rhachinotus Cantor, 422; orthotype Raja africana B1. & Schn. A substitute for 
Anacanthus Ehrenb., 1837, preoccupied. A synonym of Urogymnus M. )& H. 

Stoasodon Cantor, 434; orthotype Raja narinari Euphrasen. Substitute for 
Aetobatis as restricted by Miiller & Henle, the proper type of Aetobatis 
Blainv. being regarded by tautonomy as Raja aouila L. 

403. CUVIER& VALENCIENNES (1849). Histoire naturelle des poissons. XXII. 

AcHiLLE Valenciennes. 
Parodon Cuvier & Valenciennes, XXII, 50; haplotype Parodon suborbitale Val. 
Brycinus Cuvier & Valenciennes, XXII, 157; haplotype Brycinus macrolepidotus 

Piabucina Cuvier & Valenciennes. XXII, 161 ; haplotype Piabuciana erythrinoides 

Distichodus Cuvier & Valenciennes, XXI, 172; haplotype Salmo nefasch Lac. = 

Salmo niloticus Hasselquist. 
Tometes Cuvier & Valenciennes, XXII. 225 ; logotype Tometes trilobatus Val. 

A synonym of Myleus M. & T. 
Mylesinus Cuvier & Valenciennes, XXII, 234; haplotype Mylesinus schomburgki 

Chalcinus Cuvier & Valenciennes, XXII, 258; logotype Chalcinus br.\chypomus 

Cynopotamus Cuver & Valenciennes, XXII. 317 ; logotype Hydrocyon argenteu.s 

Saurida Cuvier & Valenciennes, XXII, 499; logotype Salmo tumbil Bloch. 
Farionella Cuvier & Valenciennes, XXII. 507; haplotype Farionella gayi Val. A 

synonym of Aplochiton Jenyns (1842). 

404. GERMAR (1849). Steinkohle Wittenbergs. 
Ernst Friedrich Germar (1786-1853). 
Styracodus Germar, 70; orthot3fpe Centrodus acutus Giebel (fossil). A synonym 
of Centrodus. 

405,406. GIEBEL (1849). Fauna der Vorvelt. 

Christian Gottfried Andreas Giebel. 

Asima Giebel, 184; orthotype Radamas jugleri Miinster. A synonym of Radamas. 

407. HECKEL (1849). Abhandlung iiber cine ncuc fossile Fischgattiing, Chiro- 

centrites. und die ersten Ueberrestc eines Sihiroiden aus der Vorwelt. Sitzb. 
Akad. Wiss. Wien, II. 

JoHANN Jakob Heckel. 
Chirocentrites Heckel, I, 18: logotype C. microdon Heckel (fossil). A synonym 
of Thrissops. 

408. HECKEL (1849). Ichthyohgie (von Syricn). In Russegger, Joseph von, 
Reisen in Europa, Asien und Africa, tnif besondcrcr RUcksicht auf die natur- 
wissenschaftlichen V erhiiltnisse der betreffenden Lander unternommen in den 
Jahren 1835 bis 1841, etc. II, part 3. (To this part Dean assigns the date 1843.) 

VAN DER HOl'A'KN. 184^^ 24.^ 

Isodus Heckel, II, 342; orthotype I. sulcatus Heckel (fossil). A synonym of 

Enchodus Ag. 
Pycnosterina Heckel. 11. 337: orthotype P. russeggeri Heckel (fossil). 

409. HOEVEN, VAN DER (1849). Handboek der dierkunde; tweede verbeterde 

uifgave; met bijvoegsels en aanmerkingen door Leuckart. .A.msterdam. 

Janus van der Hoeven (1802-1868). 

Pteronemus Van der Hoeven, H, 177; orthotype Cheilodactylus fasciatus Lac. 
A synonym of Cheilodactylus. 

Sphyra Van der Hoeven. II; type Squalus zyg^^na L. Emendation of Sphyrna 

410. JORD.'\N (1849). (Triodus.) Neues Jahrb. von Mineralogie. 

August Jordan. 
Triodus Jordan, 843 ; orthotype T. sessilis Jordan = Pleuracanthus decheni 
(fossil). A synonym of Orth acanthus (Pleuracanthus). 

411. M'COY (1849). On Some New Fossil Fish of the Carboniferous Period. 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. IJ. 
Frederick M'Coy. 
Centrodus M'Coy, II, 3; orthotype C. striatulus M'Coy (fossil). Same as Mega- 
lichthvs Ag., 1844, not of 1838. 

412. MEYER (1849). Fische. etc.. ans dem Miischelkalk Obcr-Schlesiens. 

Palaeontographica, I. 
Herrmann von Meyer. 
Palaeobates Meyer, I. 234; orthotype Psammodus angustissimus Ag. (fossil). 

413. MIJLLER & TROSCHEL (1849). Horce Zoologiccc. Beschreibung iind 

Abbildting nciier Fische. III. 

Johannes Muller; Franz Hermann Troschel. 

Sciades Muller & Troschel, III, 6; logotype Sciades pictus M. & T. 

Eutropius Muller & Troschel, III, 6; logotype Hypophthalmus niloticus Riippell. 

Citharinus Muller & Troschel. Ill, 8; tautotj'pe Serrasalmo citharinus Cuv. = 

Salmo unimaculatus Bloch. 
Hemiodus Miiller & Troschel. Ill, 9; logotype Anodus crenidens M. & T. = 

Salmo unimaculatus Bloch. 
Ariodes Miiller & Troschel, III, 9; logotype Ariodes arenarius M. & T. 
Erethistes Miiller & Troschel, III, 12; orthotype E. pusillus M. & T. 
Carapus (Cuvier) Muller & Troschel, III, 13; logotype, restricted by Eigenmann, 

to fasciatus Pallas = Gymnotus carapo L. (Carapus Cuv., but not of 

Rafinesque). A synonym of Gymnotus L. 
Sternopygus Miiller & Troschel, III, 13 ; orthotype Gymnotus macrurus B1. & Schn. 
Rhamphichthys Muller & Troschel, III, 15; orthotype Gymnotus rostratus L. 
Cnidon Miiller & Troschel, III, 21 : orthotype C. chinensis M. 'k T. = Labrax 

WAiGiENsis Cuv. & Val. A synonym of Psammoperca Rich. 
Cichlops Miiller & Troschel, III, 24; orthotype C. microphthalmus M. & T. Name 

preoccupied; replaced by Dampieria Castelnau, 1875, or by Labracinus 

Schlegel, 1875. 
Caprophonus Miiller & Troschel, III, 28; orthotype C. aurora M. & T. = Anti- 

gonia capros Lowe. A synonym of Antigonia Lowe. 


413A. NEWMAN (1849). (Devil Fish.) The Zoologist. 
Edward Newman. 
Brachioptilon Newman. 74: orthotype B. hamiltoni Newman. A synonym of 
Manta Bancroft. 

414. REID (1849). An Account of a Specimen of the Vaagmcrr . . . Thrown 
Ashore in the Firth of Forth. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., III. 

John Reid. 
Vogmarus Reid, III, 456; orthotype Bogmarus islandicus B1. & Schn. A sub- 
stitute for Bogmarus, both names synonyms of Trachipterus Gouan. 

415. REINHARDT (1849). Nye sydamerikanskc ferskvandsHske. Vidensk. 

Meddel-Naturh. Foren. Kjobenhavn. 
Johann Theodor Reinhardt (1816-1882). 
Hydropardus Reinhardt, 46; orthotype H. rapax Reinh. = Raphiodon vulpinus 
Ag. A synonym of Raphiodon. 

416. SISMONDA (1849). Descrizione dei pesci e dei crustacei fossili net Piemonte, 

Mem. Reale Accad. Sci. Torino, ser. X. 
Eugenio Sismonda. 
Trigonodon Sismonda, 25; orthotype T. oweni Sismonda (fossil). 

417. SMITH (1849). Illustrations from the Zoology of South Africa; Consisting 
Chiefly of Figures and Descriptions of Objects of Natural History Collected 
During an Expedition into the Interior of South Africa in 1834-36. 

Andrew Smith. 
Leptorhynchus Smith, pi. 6; orthotype L. capensis Smith. A synonym of Ophi- 

surus Lac, as restricted. 
Cheilobarbus Smith, pi. 10; logotype Barbus capensis Smith. 
Pseudobarbus Smith, pi. 11; orthotype Barbus burchelli Smith. 
Abrostomus Smith, pi. 12; logotype A. umbratus Smith. 
Tilapia Smith ; orthotype Chromis nilotica Cuv. & Val. Replaces Chromis Gthr., 

not of Cuvier. 
Atimostoma Smith, XXIV; orthotype A. capense Smith. A synonym of Psenes 

Cuv. & Val. 
Rhineodon Smith, pi. 26; orthotype R. typicus Smith. Misprinted Rhincodon ; 

often written Rhinodon. 
Xiphiurus Smith ; orthotype X. capensis Smith. Name preoccupied as Xiphiura, 

a synonym of Genypterus Philippi, 

418. THIOLLIfiRE (1849). Un nouvcau gisement de poissons fossiles dans le 

Jura du departemcnt de I'Ain. Ann. Soc. Agric. Lyons, I. 
Victor Joseph de l'Isle Thiolliere (1801-1859). 
Spathobatis Thiolliere, I, 63; orthotype S. bugesiacus Thiolliere (fosil). A syno- 
nym of Aellopos Miinster. 

419. WILLIAMSON (1849). On the Microscopic Structure of the Scales and 
Dermal Teeth of Some Ganoid and Placoid Fishes. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 

William Crawford Williamson. 
Pholidotus Williamson, 444; orthotype P. leachi Williamson (fossil). A synonym 
of Dapedium Leach. 

AGASsiz, 1850 245 


420. AGASSIZ (1850). Lake Superior: Its Physical Character, Vegetation, and 

Animals, Compared with Those of Other and Similar Regions, etc. 

Louis Agassiz. 
Pcecilosoma Agassiz, 299 ; haplotype Etheostoma variateum Kirtland. Preoccu- 
pied ; replaced by Pcecilichthys Ag., 1854. 
Argyrosomus Agassiz, 339; haplotype Salmo clupiformis Ag., not of Mitchill = 
Salmo harengus Rich. Name preoccupied (Pylaie, 1834) ; replaced by 
Thrissomimus Gill (1909). A subgenus under Leucichthys Dybowski. 
Hypsolepis (Baird) Agassiz, 368; orthotype Cyprinus cornutus Mitchill. Written 
Hypsilepis by Cope. 

421. BLEEKER (1850). Bijdrage tot de kennis der Mccnoiden van den Scenda- 

Molukschen Archipel. Verh. Batav. Genootsch., XXIII. 
Pieter Bleeker. 
Pentaprion Bleeker, I, 104; orthotype P. gerreoides Blkr. 

422. BLEEKER (1850). Bijdrage tot de kennis der visschen met doolhofvormige 
kieuwen van den Soenda-Molukschen Archipel. Verh. Batav. Genootsch, 
XXIII, 1850. 

Pieter Bleeker. 
Betta Bleeker, XXIII, 12 ; orthotype B. trifasciata Blkr. 

423. COSTA (1850). (Fossil Fishes: Ittioliti.) Atti Accad. Pontan, V. 

Oronzio Gabriele Costa. 

Sarginites Costa, V, 285; orthotype, S. pygm^us Costa (fossil). A synonym of 

Histiurus Costa, V, 288; orthotype H. elatus Costa. Preoccupied as Istiurus Cuv., 
1829, emended as Histiurus Ag. ; replaced by Knightia Jordan, 1907 ; type 
K. eoc^na Jordan. 

Rhynchoncodes Costa, V. 317; orthotype R. scacchi Costa (fossil). A synonym 
of Propterus Ag. 

Blenniomceus Costa, V, 319; orthotype B. longicauda Costa (fossil). A syno- 
nym of NOTAGOGUS Ag. 

Sauropsidium Costa, V, 322; orthotype S. l.evissimum Costa. 
Megalurites Costa, V, 370; orthotype Diodon scill^ Ag. (fossil). A synonym or 
fossil ally of Diodon. 

424. DIXON (1850). The Geology and Fossils of the Tertiary and Cretaceous 

Formations of Sussex. 
A. Francis Dixon. 
_ Platylaemus Dixon, 205; orthotype P. colei Dixon (fossil). 
Aulodus Dixon, 366; orthotype A. agassizi Dixon (fossil). A synonym of Ptycho- 

DUS Ag. 
Plethodus Dixon, 366; logotype P. expansus Dixon (fossil). (Not Plethodon 

Tschudi, a genus of lizards.) 
Pomognathus Dixon, 367; orthotype P. eurypterygius Dixon (fossil). A sync 

nym of Halec Ag. 
Prionolepis (Egerton) Dixon, 368; orthotype P. angustus Egert. (fossil). 
Homonotus Dixon, 372; orthotype B. elegans Dixon (fossil). 
Berycopsis Dixon, 372; orthotype B. elegans Dixon (fossil). 


Stenostoma Dixon, 373; orthotype S. pulchella Dixon (fossil). 
Pachyrhizodus (Agassiz) Dixon, 374; orthotype P. basalts Dixon (fossil). 
Tomognathus Dixon, 376; logotype P. mordax Dixon (fossil). 

425. EGERTON (1850). PaUchthyologic Notes. Supplemental to the Work of 
Prof. Agassiz on the Ganoidei heterocerci. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. Lond. 

Philip de Malpa Grey Egerton. 
Plectrolepis (Agassiz) Egerton, VI, 4; orthotype P. rugosus (Ag.) Egert. (fossil). 
A synonym of Eurynotus Ag. = Notacmon Gistel. 

426. FISCHER VON WALDHEIM (1850). Siir un poisson fossilc de la Grece 

(Platacanthus). Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou., XXIII. 
Gotthelf Fischer von Waldheim (1771-1853). 
Platacanthus Fischer von Waldheim. XXIII, 286; orthotype P. ubinoi Waldheim 
(fossil). An extinct ally of Dicentrarchus Gill = Labrax Cuv., not Pallas. 

427. FISCHER VON WALDHEIM (1850). Ommatolampcs et Trachclacanthus. 
genera pisciuni fossilium nova, in Uteris Eduardo ab Eichzvald datis, descripta. 

Gotthelf Fischer von Waldheim. 
Ommatolampes Fischer von Waldheim, 4; orthotype O. eichwaldi Fischer. 
Trachclacanthus Fischer von Waldheim, 9; orthotype T. stschurovskii Waldheim 

428. GIF>BES (1850). Mososaurus and Allied Genera. Smithsonian Contr. 

Knowledge, II. 
Robert Wilson Gibbes (1809-1866). 
Conosaurus Gibbes, 10; orthotype C. bowmani Gibbes. Name regarded as pre- 
occupied by Coniosaurus,- replaced by Conosaurops Leidy (1868). 

429. GUICHENOT (1850). Exploration scientifique de I'Algerie. Paris. 

Alphonse Guichenot. 
Gadiculus Guichenot, 101 ; orthotype G. argenteus Guich. 

430. HECKEL (1850). Beitrdge z'ur Kenntniss der fossilen Fische Oesterreichs. 

Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien, I. 
JoHANN Jakob Heckei,. 
Saurorhamphus Heckei I, 217; orthotype S. freyeri Heckei (fossil). 
Lepidopides Heckei, I, 239; Lepidopus leptospondylus Heckei (fossil). A syno- 
nym of Anenchelum Blainv. and probably of the living genus Lepidopus 

431. JERDON (1850). (Pristolepis.) Madras Journ. Lit. Sci., XVI. 
Thomas Claverhill Jerdon. 
Pristolepis Jerdon, XVI, 298; orthotype P. marginatus Jerdon. Jerdon {Ann. 
Mag. Nat. Hist., 1865, 298) claims priority of Pristolepis over Catopra Blkr. 
Catopra was first noted in 1851. 

432. LANKESTER (1850). (Fishes of the Old Red Sandstone.) 
Edwin Ray Lankester (1847- ). 
Zenaspis Lankester, 43; orthotype Cephalaspis salweyi Egert. (fossil). A syno 
nym of Cephalaspis. 

433. LOWE (1850). An Acconut of Fishes Discovered or Observed in Madeira 

Since the Year 1S42. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, XVIII. 

Richard Thomas Lowe. 

piCTET. 1850 247 

Phaenodon Lowe. 250; orthotypc P. ringens Lowe. A synonym of Astronesthes 

434. PICTET (1850). Description dc qiiclqiics poissons fossUcs dii Mont Liban. 

Mem. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Geneve, XII, 1849, published m 1850. 
Francois Jules Pictet (1809-1872). 
Petalopteryx Pictet, 20; orthotypc P. syriacus Pictet (fossil). 
Eurypholis Pictet, 28 logotype E. boissieri Pictet (fossil). A synonym of Sauror- 


Spaniodon Pictet, 33; logotype S. blondeli Pictet (fossil). 
Coccodus Pictet, 51; orthotye C. armatus Pictet (fossil). 

435. RICHARDSON (1850). Notices of Australian Fish. Proc. Zool. Soc. London. 

John Richardson. 
Sciaenoides (Solander MS.). Richardson, 62; haplotype S. abdominalis Solan- 
der = Sci.^na macroptera Forster ; in synonymy only ; a species of Dacty- 
Threpterius Richardson, 68; orthotypc T. maculosus Rich. 

Olisthops Richardson, 74; orthotypc O. cyanomelas Rich. (Also in Ann. Mag. 
Nat. Hist., VIII, 185, 290,) Name spelled Olistherops by Giinther. 

436. TEMMINCK & SCHLEGEL (1850). Fauna Japonica (last part). 
Coenraad Jacob Temminck; Hermann Schlegel. 
Pseudoblennius Temminck & Schlegel, 313; orthotypc P. percoides Gthr. 
Pseudoclinus Temminck & Schlegel, pi. LXXIX ; orthotypc Pseudoblennius per- 
coides Gthr. A slip of the pen for Pseudoblennius. 
Velifer Temminck & Schlegel, 312; orthotypc V. hypselopterus Blkr. 

437. THIOLLIfiRE (1850). Un nouveau gisement de poissons fossilcs dans le 

Jura dc departement dc I'Ain. Ann. Soc. Agric. Lyon, I. 

Victor Joseph de l'Isle Thiolliere. 

Disticholepis Thiolliere, III, 136; orthotypc M. fourneti Thiolliere. A synonym of 

Macrosemius Ag. 
Oligopleurus Thiolliere, III, 154; orthotypc O. esocinus Thiolliere (fossil). 


438. BLEEKER (1851). Visschen van Banka. Nat. Tijdschr. Neder. -Indie, 1851. 

Pieter Bleeker. 
Gnathanodon Bleeker, 160; orthotypc Scomber speciosus Forskal. Not Caranx of 
Lacepede, as first restricted (to C. carangus) by Bleeker. 

439. BLEEKER (1851). Nieuwe bijdrage tot dc kennts der ichthyologische fauna 
van Borneo, met hcschrijvning van cenige nieuwe soortcn van zoetzvater- 
visschen. Nat. Tijdschr. Neder. -Indie, II. 

Pieter Bleeker. 
Wallago Bleeker, 202 ; orthotypc Wallago dinema Blkr. 
Achiroides Bleeker, 262; logotype Plagusia melanorhynchus Blkr. 
Clupeoides Bleeker, 275 ; orthotypc C. borneensis Blkr. A synonym of Corica Gray. 
Luciocephalus Bleeker, 278 ; orthotypc Diplopterus pulcher Gray. Replaces Dip- 
lopterus Gray, preoccupied in birds. 


440. BLEEKER (1851). Over einige nicuwe geslachtcn en soorten van Makreel- 
agtige Visschen van den Indischen Archipel. Nat. Tijdschr. Neder.-Indie, 
I, 1851. 


Decapterus Bleeker, II, 358 ; orthotype Caranx kurra Cuv. & Val. 

Selar Bleeker, 359; logotype Caranx hasselti Blkr. (C. boops Cuv. & Val. indi- 
cated as type by Jordan & Evermann, 1898, was not named in Bleeker's first 
account (only S. hasselti, S. kuhli, S. macrurus, S. malam). 

Carangoides Bleeker, 366; orthotype Caranx pr^ustus Bennett, th,e only other 
species here mentioned being C. atropus, type of Atropus Cuv. Defined to 
include Citula, Atropus and Olistus as well as Carangoides proper, as 
restricted by Jordan & Evermann. 

Leioglossus Bleeker, 367 ; orothotype L. carangoides Blkr. 

Stromateoides Bleeker, I, 368; orthotype Stromateus cinereus Bloch ; a synonym 
of Pampus Bon. 

441. BLEEKER (1851). Derde bijdrage tot de kennis der ichthyologische fauna 

van Borneo, etc. Nat. Tijdschr. Neder.-Indie, II. 

Pieter Bleeker. 

Tetrabranchus Bleeker, II, 69; orthotype T. microphthalma Blkr. A synonym 

of Symbranchus Bloch. 
Catopra Bleeker, 172; orthotype C. fasciata Blkr. A synonym of Pristolepis 
Jerdon, 1850. 

442. BLEEKER (1851). Cheilinoides, een nieuw geslacht van gladschubhige La- 

broiden van Batavia. Nat. Tijdschr. Neder.-Indie, II 
Pieter Bleeker. 
Cheilinoides Bleeker, II, 71 ; orthotype C. cynanopleura Blkr. 

443. BLEEKER ( 1851). Vierde bijdrage tot den kennis der ichthyologische fauna 
van Borneo, met beschrijvning van eenige nieuwe soorten van soetwater- 
TMSschen. Nat. Tijdschr. Neder.-Indie, IT. 

Pieter Bleeker. 
Bagroides Bleeker, II, 204 ; orthotype B. melanopterus Blkr. 

444. BLEEKER (1851). Nieuwe bijdrage tot de kennis der ichthyologische fauna 

van Celebes. Nat. Tijdschr. Neder.-Indie, II, 1851. 

Pieter Bleeker. 

Megalaspis Bleeker, 11, 213; orthotype Scember cordyla L. (Caranx rottleri 

Selaroides Bleeker, II, 213 ; orthotype Caranx leptolepis Kuhl & Van Hasselt. Later 

called Leptaspis, the reason not stated. 
Spratelloides Bleeker, 214 ; orthotype Clupea argyrot^enia Blkr. 

445. BLEEKER (1851). Bijdrage tot de kennis der ichthyologische fauna van 

de Banda eilanden. Nat. Tijdschr. Neder.-Indie, II. 
Pieter Bleeker. 
Labroides Bleeker, II, 249; orthotype L. paradiseus Bleeker. 

Syngnathoides Bleeker, 259; orthotype S. blochi Blkr. Replaces Gasterotokeus 
Heckel (1856). 

GAIMARD, 1851 249 

446. GAIMARD (1851). Voyage dc la Commission Scientifique du Nord. Voy- 
age en Skandinavie, en Lapponie, a Spitsberg et aux Faroe, Paris, VII. 
Zoologie (1851). 

Joseph Paul Gaimard. 
Eperlanus Gaimard, VII ; orthotype Salmo eperlanus L. A synonym of Osmerus 
L. (Not seen.) 

447. GIRARD ( 1851 ) . On the Genus Cottus auct. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, III. 

Charles Frederic Girard (1822-1895). 
Acanthocottus Girard, III, 185 ; logotype Cottus grcenlandicus Cuv. & Val. 
A section under Myoxocephalus Steller. 

448. GIRARD (1851). Some Additional Observations on the Nomenclature and 
Classification of the Genus Cottus. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., Ill (for 1848), 

Charles Frederic Girard. 
Cottopsis Girard, HI, 303; orthotype Cottus asper Rich. A section of Cottus L. 

449. GRAY (1851). Description of a New Form of Lamprey from Australia with a 

Synopsis of the Family. Proc. Zool. Soc. London. 
John Edward Gray. 
Geotria Gray, 143; orthotype Geotria australis Gray. 
Velasia Gray, 143 ; orthotype V. chilensis Gray. 

Caragola Gray, 143 ; orthotype C. lapicida Gray. Same as Mordacia Gray. 
Mordacia Gray, 144 ; orthotype Petromyzon mordax Rich. A synonym of Cara- 
gola Gray. 
Lampetra Gray, 235 ; logotype Petromyzon fluviatilis L. 

450. LUTKEN (1851). Nogle bemaerkingcr am naeseborenes stiling hos de i gruppe 
med Ophisurus staaende slaegter af aalefamilien. Vidensk. Meddel. Natur- 
hist. Foren. Kjobenjavn. 

Christian Frederik Lutken (1827-1901). 
Myrophis Lutken, 1 ; orthotype M. punctatus Lutken. 
Chilorhinus Liitken, 1 ; orthotype C. suensoni Liitken. 

45L MEYER (1851). Fossile Fische aus dem Muschelkalk van Jena, Querfurt 

und Esperstadt. Palasontographica. 
Hermann von Meyer. 
Tholodus (Meyer) Schmid & Schleiden, I, 199; orthotype T. schmidi (fossil). 
Perhaps a tooth of a reptile. 

452,453. MEYER (1851). Palceontographica. I. 
Hermann von Meyer. 
Nephrotus Meyer, I, 243; orthotype Omphalodus chorzowensis Meyer (fossil). A 
synonym of Asterodon. 

454. M'COY (1851). (Steganodictyum.) Mag. Nat. Hist., VIII. 

Frederick M'Coy. 
Steganodictyum M'Coy, VIII. 481; orthotype S. cornubicum M'Coy (fossil). 
(Shields of a Pteraspid mistaken for part of a sponge.) 

455. THOMPSON (1851). On Percopsis pellucida. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., IIL 

Zadock Thompson (1796-1856). 
Salmoperca Thompson, HI, 164; haplotype Salmoperca pellucida Thompson = 

Percopsus guttatis Ag. = Salmo omiscomaycus Walbaum. A synonym of 

Percopsis Ag., 1848. 


456. WAGNER (1851). Beitrdge sur Kenntniss der in den lithographischen 
Schiefern abgelagerten urweltlichen Fische. Abh. Bayer. Akad. Wiss., VI. 
JoHANN Andreas Wagner (1797-1861). 
Mesodon Wagner, VI, 56; orthotype Gyrodus macropterus Ag. (fossil). Name 
preoccupied in mollnsks. Rafinesqiie, 1819; replaceable by Typodus Quenstedt. 
Strobilodus Wagner, VI, 75; orthotype S. giganteus- Wagner (fossil). A synonym 
of Caturus Ag. 


457. BLEEKER (1852). Bijdrage tot de kcnnis der Makreelachtige visschen 
van den S oenda-M olukschen Archipel. Verb. Batav. Genootsch., XXIV. 1852. 


Leptaspis Bleeker. XXIV, 71 : orthotype Caranx leptolepis Kuhl & Van Hasselt. 
Called earlier Selaroides, the reason for changing not known to me. 

458. BLEEKER ( 1852) . Bijdrage tot de kennis der Plagiostomen van den Indischen 

Archipel. Verb. Batav. Genootsch., XXIV. 
Pieter Bleeker. 
Hemigaleus Bleeker. XXIV, 45; orthotype H. microstoma Blkr. Preoccupied in 
mammals as Hemigalea. 

459. BLEEKER (1852). Diagnostische beschrijvning van nieuwe of weinig bekende 

visschsoorten van Sumatra. Nat Tijdschr. Neder. -Indie, III. 1852. 

Pieter Bleeker. 
Pristipomoides Bleeker, III, 574; orthotype P. typus Blkr. Replaces Ch^tofterus 
T. & S., preoccupied 

460. BLEEKER (1852). Derde bijdrage tot dc kcnnis der ichthyologische fauna 

lan Celebes. Nat. Tijdschr. Neder. -Indie. III. 
Pieter Bleeker. 
Carangichthys Bleeker. Ill, 760; orthotype C. typus Blkr. A synonym of Caranx 
Lac. (based on young specimens). 

461. DUMfiRIL (1852). Monographic dc la famillc dcs torpedinicns, ou poissons 

plagiostomes electriques. Rev. Mag. Zool., IV. 
Auguste Henri Andre Dumeril (1812-1870). 
Hypnos A. Dumeril, 279; orthotype H. subnigrum Dum. Name preoccupied; re- 
placed by Hypnarce Waite, 1902. 

462. EGERTON (1852). Fish: Elasmodns, etc. (In Figures and Descriptions of 

British Organic Remains.) Mem. Geo. Surv. United Kingdom. 
Philip de Malpas Grey Egerton. 
Lophistomus Egerton, Dec. VI, No. 10; orthotype L. dixoni Egert. (fossil). 

463. FISCHER VON WALDHEIM (1852). Sur quelques poissons fossiles de la 

Russie. Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, XXV. 

Gotthelf Fischer von Waluheim. 

Pycnacanthus Fischer von Waldheim, XXV, 174; orthotype (not named by 

Woodward) (fossil). (An unrecognized fragment.) 
Siphonodus Fischer von Waldheim, XXV, 175; orthotype S. panderi Waldheim 

GEKVAIS. 1852 251 

464. GERVAIS (1852). Zoologic et Paleontologie Frangaises. II. 
pRANgois Louis Paul Gervais. 
Sandroserrus Gervais, II, 8; orthotype Perca rebouli Gervais (fossil). 

465. LOWE (1852). An Account of Fishes Discovered or Observed in Madeira 
Since the Year 1H42. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. London, ser. X. 
Richard Thomas Lowe. 
Leptorhjmchus Lowre, X, 54; orthotype L. leuchtenbergi Lowe. Name preoccu- 
pied ; replaced by Belonopsis Brandt. A synonym of Nemichthys Rich. 

466. QUENSTEDT (1852). Handbnch der Petrefaktenkunde. 

Friedrich August von Quenstedt (1809-1889). 

Selachidea Quenstedt, 173; orthotype S. torolosi Quenstedt (fossil). Probably a 

.synonym of Hybodus. 
Serrolepis Quenstedt, 207; orthotype S. suevicus Dames, (fossil). 
Pleurolepis Quenstedt, 214; orthotype P. semicinctus Quenstedt (fossil). A syno- 
nym of Tetragonolepis Bronn. 

467. ROEMER (1852). Die Kreidebildungcn von Texas und ihre organischen 
Einschliissc. Mit einem die Beschrcibung von Versfeinerungen aus paliio- 
zoischen und tertiHren Schichten enthaltenden Anhange und mit 11 von Chohe- 
nach der Natur auf Stein geseichneten Tafeln. . Bonn. 

Carl Ferdinand von Roemer. 
Ancistrodon (Derby) Roemer, 30; orthotype later called A. texanus Dames (fossil). 
Teeth undetermined. Name preoccupied in snakes as Agkistrodon ; replaced 
by Ankistrodus Koninck, 1870, scarcely better, and by Grypodon Hay, 1899. 

468. RUPPELL (1852). Verzeichniss der in dent Museum der senckenbergischen 
naturforschenden Gesellschaft aufgesfellten Sammlungen. Vierte .\btheilung. 
Fische und deren Skelette. 

WiLHELM Peter Eduard Simon Ruppell. 
Microichthys Ruppell, 1 ; orthotype M. coccoi Riippell. 
Pharopteryx Riippell. 16; orthotype P. benoit Riippell. Not Ph.^ropterx of 

Riippell, 1828, which is a synonym of Plesiops Guv. A synonym of Mora 

ChcEfops Riippell, 20 ; orthotype C. meleagris Riippell. A synonym of Chcerodon 

Sarotherodon Riippell, 21 ; orthotype S. melanoTheron Riippell. 
Erythrodon Ruppell, 34; orthotype Balistes ntger Lac, Balistes erthrodon Gthr. 

Substitute for Xenodon Riippell, 1835, preoccupied, but the name Odonus 

Gistel (1848) has priority and Zenodon Sw. (1829) is still older, if available. 

469. AGASSIZ (1853). Recent Researches of Professor Agassiz. (Extract from 
letter to J. D. Dana dated Cambridge, June 9, 1853). Amer. Journ. Sci., XVI. 

Louis Agassiz. 
In this paper four new genera are briefly described. The species con- 
cerned were not named until later. 
Chologaster Agassiz, 135; (haplotype Chologaster cornutus Ag.). Short account 

of the genus, the species named later. 
Heterandria Agassiz. 135; (logotype H. Formosa Ag.). Stated to contain two 
species named later, H. Formosa and H. holbrookt, the latter being Gam- 


BUSiA PATRUELis Baird & Grd. After consultation with Professor Poey 

FORMOSA was chosen by Jordan as the type of Heterandria. This name 

replaces GiRARniNUS Poey. 
Zygonectes Agassiz, 135 ; logotype Poecilia olivacea Storer = Semotilus notatius 

Raf. Brief notice of genus; its species indicated in 1854 (Fish. Tennessee 

River) . 
Melanura Agassiz, 135; orthotype Exoglossum annulatum Raf. Note on the 

genus, the type indicated on page 217 of the same journal. A synonym of 

Umbra Gronow. 

470. AGASSIZ (1853). Extraordinary Fishes from California Constituting a New 

Family (Holconoti or Embiotocidce). Amer. Journ. Sci., XVI. 

Louis Agassiz. 
Embiotoca Agassiz, 386 ; orthotype E. jacksoni Ag. 

471. BAIRD & GIRARD (1853). Descriptions of New Species of Fishes Collected 
by Mr. John H. Clark on the U. S. and Mexican Boundary Survey, under 
Lt.-Col. Jas. D. Graham. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 

Spencer Fullerton Girard (1823-1887) ; Charles Girard. 

Ceratichthys Baird & Girard, 391 ; orthotype C. vigilax Baird & Girard (not of 

Baird & Girard, 1856). No description. Replaces Cliola Grd., 1856. 

472. BAIRD & GIRARD ( 1853). Descriptions of Nczu Fishes from the River Zuni. 

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
Spencer Fullerton Baird; Charles Girard. 
Gila Baird & Girard, VI, 368; logotype Gila robusta Grd. 

473. BLEEKER (1853). Diagnostische beschrivningen van nieiave of weinig 
bekende visschsoorten van Batavia. Tintal I-IV. Nat. Tijdschr. Neder.- 
Indie. IV, 1853. 

Pieter Bleeker. 
Murasnichthys Bleeker, 506; orthotype M. gymnopterus Blkr. 

474. BLEEKER (1853). Nieuwe bijdrage tot de kcnnis de ichthyologische fauna 
van Ternate en Halmaheira (Giolo). Nat. Tijdschr. Neder.-Indie, IV. 

Pieter Bleeker. 
Polypterichthys Bleeker, II, 608; orthotype P. valentini Blkr. A synonym of 


475. BLEEKER (1853). Zcvende bijdrage tot dc kennis der ichthyologische 
fauna van Borneo. Zoetwatervisschcn van Sambas, Pontianak en Pengaron. 
Nat. Tijdschr. Neder.-Indie, V. 

Pieter Bleeker. 
Datnioides Blkr., V, 440; orthotype Cius polota Ham. A synonym of Coius Ham., 
as restricted by Fowler, 1905, to Coius polota. This antedates the restric- 
tion by Jordan {Genera of Fishes, 1917, 114) to C. cobojus Ham. 

476. BLEEKER (1853). Bijdrage to de kennis der Murcenoiden en Symbranchoiden 

van den Indischen Archipel. Verb. Batav. Genootsch., XXV. 

Pieter Bleeker. 
Stethopterus Bleeker, XXV, 24, 36; orthotype Ophisurus vimineus Rich. A syno- 
nym of Leiuranus Blkr. and having line priority. 

BLEEKER, 1853 253 

Leiuranus Bleekcr, XXV, 36; orthotype L. lacepeoei Blkr. (Ophisurus semi- 
ciNCTUS Bennett.). Same as Stethopterus Blkr., the latter having line 
priority, the name Leiuranus preferred by the author. 

477. BLEEKER (1853). Nalezingen op de ichthyologie van Japan. Verh. Batav. 

Genootsch., XXV. 

PiETER Bleeker. 

Atherinichthys Bleeker, 40; orthotype Atherina humboldtiana Cuv. & Val. 

A synonym of Chirostoma Sw. 
Atherinoides Bleeker, 40; orthotype Atherina vomerina Cuv. & Val. = Atherina 

humboldtiana Cuv. & Val. A synonym of Chirostoma Sw. 
Etrumeus Bleeker, XXV, 48; orthotype Clupea micropus T. & S. 

478. BLEEKER (1853). Nalezingen op de ichthyologische fauna van Bengalen en 

Hindostan. Verh. Batav. Genootsch., XXV. 

PiETER Bleeker. 

Bogoda Bleeker, 89; Chanda bogoda Ham. = Chanda nama Ham. A synonym 

of Chanda as now restricted. 
Badis Bleeker, 106; orthotype Labrus badis Ham. = Badis buchanani Blkr. 
Bagarius Bleeker, 121 ; tautotype Pimeludus bagarius Ham. 

479. COSTA (1853). (Fossil Fishes of Italy.) Atti Soc. Pontan, VH. 

Oronzio Gabriele Costa. 
lonoscopus Costa, 2; orthotype L petraroi.e Costa (fossil). Name changed in 

1864 to QEnoscopus Costa for no obvious reasons. 
Calignathus Costa, VH, 17; orthotype Blenniomceus longicauda Costa (fossil). 

A synonym of Notagogus Ag 
Glossodus Costa, VH, 26; orthotype Pycnodus mantelli Ag. (fossil). Name 

preoccupied; to be replaced by Cosmodus Sauvage (1879). 

480. GERVAIS (1853). Rcmarques sur les poissons flitviatiles de I'Algerie, et 
description de deux genres nouveaux souls les nonts de Coptodon et Tellia. 
Ann. Nat. (Zool).), XIX. 

pRANgois Louis Paul Gervais. 

Coptodon Gervais, H, 15; orthotype C. zilli Gervais. Also in Bull. Soc. Agr. 
Herault, 1853, 80. 

Tellia Gervais, XIX, 15; orthotype Tellia apoda Gervais. 

481. KAUP (1853). Uebersicht der Lophohranchicr. Archiv. Naturg. 
Johann Jacob Kaup (1802-1873). 
All these genera, except Hemimarsupium, are repeated in Kaup's Cata- 
logue of the Lophobranchiate Fishes in the British Museum, 1856. 

Acentronura Kaup, 230 ; orthotype Hippocampus gracillimus T. & S. 

Gasterotokeus (Heckel) Kaup, 230; orthotype Syngnathus biaculeatus Bloch = 
Syngnathoides blochi Blkr. A synonym of Syngnathoides Blkr. 

Halicampus Kaup, 231 ; logotype H. grayi Kaup. 

Trachyrhamphus Kaup 231 ; orthotype T. serratus Kaup (not Syngnathus ser- 
RATUS T. & S.). 

Corythroichthys Kaup, 231 ; logotype C. albirostris Heckel. A synonym of 
Hippichthys Blkr. 

Ichthyocampus Kaup 231 ; logotype I. belcheri Kaup. 

Leptonotus Kaup, 232; orthotype Syngnathus blainvilleanus Eydoux & Ger- 


Leptoichthys Kaup, 232; orthotypc L. fistularis (Bibron). 

Stigmatophora Kaup, 233; logotype Syngnathus argus Rich. 

Doryrhamphus Kaup, 233; orthotype D. excisus Kaup. 

Choeroichthys Kaup, 233 ; orthotype C. valenciennesi Kaup. 

Doryichthys Kaup, 233; logotype D. bilineatus Heckel. 

Hemimarsupium Kaup, 234; orthotype Typhlus gondotii Bibron. For this name 

Kaup has substituted in 1856 the name Hemithylacus. Replaces Cgelono- 

Tus Peters, 1855. 
Microphis Kaup, 234; logotype Syngnathus deokhata Ham. 

482. KOLLIKER (1853). Weiterc Bemcrkungcn ilbcr die Hclmichthyiden. Verb. 

Phys. Med. Ges. Wiirzburg., IV. 

Rudolph Albert von Kolliker (1817-1905). 

Tilurus Kolliker, IV. 100; orthotype T. gegenbauri KoUiker. A larva of some 

form allied to Congpr. 
Hyoprorus Kolliker, IV, 101; orthotype H. messinensis Kolliker. A larva of 
Netastoma Raf. 

483. OWEN (1853). (Fossil Fishes.) Quarterly Journ. of Geology. 

Richard Owen. 
Parabatrachus Owen. IX, 67; orothotype P. colei Owen (fossil). Same as Centro- 
DUS M'Coy, a preoccupied name. 

484. POMEL (1853). Catalogue methodiqne dcs vertehrcs fossiles dc la Loire. 

A. PoMEL. 

Propalaeoniscus Pomel, 133; orthotype P. agassizi Pomel (fossil) (undescribed). 

Probably the same as Elonichthys. 
Cobitopsis Pomel, 134; orthotype C. exilis Pomel (fossil). 
Poecilops Pomel, 135; orthotype P. ereviceps Pomel (fossil). 

485. KOMANOVSKII 1833). lleber eine neue Gattung versteinerte Fisch-Zdhne. 

Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, XXVI. 
Ghennadi DANiLOVicii Romanovskii. 
Dicrenodus Romanovskii, XXVI, 407; orthotype D. okensis Romanovskii (fossil). 
Same as Carcharopsis Ag. 


486. AGASSIZ (1854). Notice of a Collection of Fishes from the Southern Bend 
of the Tennessee River in the State of Alabama. Am. Journ. Sci., XVII. 

Louis Agassiz. 

Pcecilichthys Agassiz, 304; orthotye Etheostoma v.^riatum Kirtland. Substitute 
for Pcecilosoma Ag., preoccupied. 

Catonotus Agassiz, 305 ; haplotype C. lineolatus Ag. This name has been regarded 
as a synonym of Etheostoma, but a decision of the International Committee 
makes Etheostoma identical with Hyostoma. 

Hadropterus Agassiz, 305 ; haplotype H. nigrofasciatus Ag. 

Hyostoma Agassiz. 305; haplotype H. newmani Ag. = Etheostoma blennioides 
Raf. 1818. A synonym of Etheostoma Raf. and of Diplesion Raf. (1820). 

Hybopsis Agassiz, 358; haplotype H. gr.a.cilis Ag., identified by me with Rutilus 
amblops Raf., a member of the group called Erinemus Jordan. If this iden- 
tification is correct, Agassiz must have overlooked the characteristic barbel. 
His description fairly fits another species of the same waters, without a l)ar- 

AGAssiz. 1854 255 

bel, Hybopsis stramineus Cope (Minnilus microstomus Raf)., a near ally 
of Alburnops blennius, type of Alburnops. Girard and Jordan identify 
Hybopsis with Erinemus; Cope with the Alburnops group. Girard's view 
seems on the basis of evidence available to be correct, and Hybopsis replaces 
Hypsolepis (Baird) Agassiz, 359; haplotype Cyprinus cornutus Mitchill. A sub- 
genus under Notropis. A synonym of Luxilus Raf., later written Hypsilepis. 

487. AGASSIZ (1854). Additional Notes on the Holconoti. Amer. Journ. Sci. 

XVHI (May, 1854). 
Louis Agassiz. 
Rhacochilus Agassiz, 367 ; orthotype R. toxotes Ag. 
Amphistichus Agassiz, 367 ; orthotype A. argenteus Ag. 
Holconotus Agassiz, XXVII, 367; orthotype H. rhodoterus Ag. 

488. AYRES (1854). (Description of Neiv Fishes from California.) Proc. Calif. 

Acad. Nat. Sci., I (1857). 
William O. Ayres. 
Clypeocottus Ayres, 12; orthotype C. robustus Ayres = Aspicottus bison Grd. 
A synonym of Aspicottus Grd. of the same date. 

489. AYRES (1854). (Description of Four Species of Fishes, Camarina nigricans, 
Poronotus simillimus Ayres, Johnius nobilis, and SeripJius politus.) Proc. 
Calif. Acad. Nat. Sci.. i (1857). 

William O. Avres. 
Seriphus Ayres. 80; orthotype Seriphus politus Ayres. 

Camarina Ayres, 81 ; orthotype Camarina nigricans Ayres. A synonym of 
Girella Gray. 

490. BAIRD & GIRARD (1854). Descriptions of New Species of Fish Collected 
in Texas, New Mexico and Sonora, by Mr. John H. Claris on the U. S. and 
Mexican Boundary Survey, and in Texas by Capt. Stewart Van Vliet, U.S.A. 
Proc. .A.cad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 

Spencer Fullerton Baird; Charles Girard. 
Herichthys Baird & Girard, 25; haplotype H. cyanoguttatus Baird & Girard. 

A synonym of Herds Heckel, itself a synonym of A.stronotus Sw. 
Ailurichthys Baird & Girard, 26; haplotype Silurus marinus Mitchill (name 

corrected to ^lurichthys by Gill). A synonym of Bagre (Cuvier) Oken, 

1817, and Felichthys Sw., 1839. 
Astyanax Baird & Girard, 26; haplotype A. argentatus Biard & Girard. 

491. BAIRD & GIRARD (1854). Notice of a Neiu Genus of Cyprinidce (Cochlog- 

nathus). Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
Spencer Fullerton Baird; Charles Girard. 
Cochlognathus Baird & Girard, 150; haplotype C. ornatus Baird & Girard. 

492. BLEEKER (1854). Species pisciuni bataviensiuni novcc vel minus cognitar. 

Nat. Tijdschr. Neder. -Indie, VI. 


Seriolichthys Bleeker, VI, 196; orthotype Seriola bipinnulata Q. & G. A syno- 
nym uf Elagatis Bennett. 


493. BLEEKER (1854). Bijdragc tot de kennis der ichthyologische fauna van 

het eiland Flores. Nat Tijdschr. Neder.-Indie, VI, 1854, 311-338. 


Apogonichthys Bleeker, 321 ; logotype A. perdix Blkr. 
Labrichthys Bleeker, 415; orthotype L. cyanot.enia Blkr. 

494. BLEEKER (1854). Vijfde bijdrage tot de kennis der ichthyologische fauna 

fan Amhoina. Nat. Tijdschr. Neder.-Indie, VI. 
PiETER Bleeker. 
Tropidichthys Bleeker, VI, 501 ; logotype T. margaritatus Blkr. A synonym of 
Canthigaster Sw. 

494A. BLEEKER (1854). Bijdrage tot de Kennis van de ichthyologische fauna 

van Celebes. Nat. Tidschr. Neder.-Indie, VII. 

PiETER Bleeker. 

Chonerhinos Bleeker, 259; orthotype Tetraodon modestus Blkr.; replaces Xenop- 

TERUS Bibron (1855). 

495. BRANDT (1854). (Belonopsis.) Mem. Acad. Sci. St. Petersbourg. 


Belonopsis Brandt, 174; orthotype Leptorhynchus leuchtenbergi Lowe. Substi- 
stitute for Leptorhynchus, preoccupied ; a synonym of Nemichthys Rich. 

496. COSTA (1854). Fauna del regno di Napoli, ossia enumerazione di tutti gli 
animali chc abitano Ic diverse regioni di qnesto regno e le acque che le 
bagnano; contcneute la descrizione di nuovi o poco estattamente conosciuti; 
con figure ricavata da original viventi e depinte al naturale di O. G. Costa 
(continuata da A. Costa). 

Oronzio Gabriele Costa. 

Helmichthys Costa, tavola 31 ; orthotype H. diaphanus Costa. A larva of Conger. 

497. EGERTON (1854). On Some New Genera and Species of Fossil Fishes. 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XIII. 
Philip de Malpas Grey ILgerton. 
iEchmodus Egerton, X, 367; logotype Tetragonolepis confluens Ag. (fossil). 
A substitute for Tetragonolepis Ag., not of Bronn. A synonym of Dapedium 
Histionotus Egerton, XIII, 434; orthotype H. angularis Egert. (fossil). 
Legnonotus Egerton, III, 435; orthotype L. cothamiensis Egert. (fossil). 

498. EGERTON (1854). Palceichthyologic Notes. ..Supplemental to the Works 
of Prof. Agassiz. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. On a fossil (Dipteronotus 
CYPHUs) from the upper beds of the new red sandstone at Bromsgrove, X. 

Philip de Malpas Grey Egerton. 
Dipteronotus Egerton, X, 369; orthotype D. cyphus Egert. 

499. EICHWALD (1854). Lethcea Rossica, ou Palentologie de la Russie decrite 

et figuree. 
Carl Eduard von Eichwald. 
Thyestes Eichwald, I, 108; orthotype T. verrucosus Eichw. (fossil). 

500. GIBBONS (1854). Description of New Species of Viviparous Marine and 
Fresh-water fishes, from the Bay of San Francisco and from the River and 
Lagoons of the Sacramento. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., VII. (These 

GIBBONS, 1854 257 

genera were printed in advance, in the local proceedings of the society, 

in the Daily Placer Times and Transcript, San Francisco, May and June, 

1854 (the genus Mytilophagus, excepted.) 

William P. Gibbons. 
Hysterocarpus Gibbons, May 18; orthotype H. traski Gibbons (later published in 

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.). 
Cymatogaster Gibbons, May 18; haplotype C. aggregatus Gibbons (not Cymato- 

GASTER of Gibbons, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1854, 123. or of Placer Times, 

June 21. which is a synonym of Holconotus Ag.) 
Hyperprosopon Gibbons, May 18; orthotype H. argenteus Gibbons. 
Micrometrus Gibbons, May 30; restricted by Alexander Agassiz, 1861, to logotype 

M. minimus Gibbons. Replaces Abeona Grd. 
Pachylabrus Gibbons, June 21 ; orthotype P. variegatus Gibbons. A synonym of 

Rhacochilus Ag. 

501. GIBBONS (1854). Description of New Species of I'iviparous Marine and 
Fresh-zvater Fishes, from the Bay of San Francisco, and from the River and 
Lagoons of the Sacramento. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1854, VII. 

William P. Gibbons. 
In this paper are repeated the descriptions in the Daily Placer Times 
and Transcript, with the addition of the genus Mytilophagus, and the 
transfer of the name Cymatogaster to the group called Holconotus by 
Mytilophagus Gibbons, 125 ; orthotype M. fasciatus Gibbons ( not in the Placer 
Times). A synonym of Amphistichus Ag. 

502. GIRARD (1854). On a Nezv Genus of American Cottoids. Proc. Boston Soc. 
Nat. Hist., IV (for 1851), 1854. 

Charles Frederic Girard. 
Triglopsis Girard, IV, 16; haplotype T. thompsoni Grd. Name changed on 
account of the earlier Triglops to Ptyonotus by Gthr., 1860; this change 
is not necessary. 

502A. GIRARD (1854). Description of New Fishes Collected by A. L. Heermann, 
Naturalist Attached to the Survey of the Pacific Railroad, Under Lieut. R. S. 
Williams, U. S. A. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., VII. 

Charles Frederic Girard. 

Aspicottus Girard, 130; orthotype A. bison Grd. 

Leptocottus Girard, 130; orthotype L. armatus Grd. 

Scorpaenichthys Girard, 131 ; orthotype Hemitripterus marmoratus Ayres. 

Ophiodon Girard, 133 ; orthotype O. elongatus Grd. 

Atherinopsis Girard, 134; orthotype A. californiensis Grd. 

Pogonichthys Girard, 136; logotype Pogonichthys in^equilobus Baird & Girard. 

Lavinia Girard, 137 ; haplotype L. exilicauda Baird & Girard. 

Platichthys Girard. 139 ; orthotype P. rugosus Grd. = Pleuronectes stellatus 

Pleuronichthys Girard, 139; orthotype P. ccenosus Grd. 

Parophrys Girard, 139; orthotype P. vetulus Grd. 

Psettichthys Girard, 140; orthotype P. melanostictus Grd. 

503. GIRARD (1854). Enumeration of the Species of Marine Fishes Collected at 
San Francisco, California, by Dr. C. B. R. Kennerly, Naturalist, Attached to 


the Survey of the PaciHc Railroad Route Under Lieut. A. IV. Whipple. 

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., VIII. 

Charles Frederic Girard. 
Porichthys Girard, 141 ; orthotype P. notatus Grd. 
Heterostichthus Girard, 143; orthotype H. rostratus Grd. 
Apodichthys Girard, 150; logotype A. flavidus Grd. 
Phanerodon Girard, 153; orthotype P. furcatus Grd. 

504. GIRARD (1854). Abstract of a Report to Lieut. James M. Gilliss, U. S. N ., 
Upon the Fishes Collected During the U. S. Naval Astronomical Expedition 
to Chili. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. (Complete report printed in 1855.) 

Gharles Frederic Girard. 
Percichthys Girard, 197; logotype Perca trucha Cuv. & Val. 
Percilia Girard, 197; orthotype P. gillissi Grd. 

Basilichthys Girard. 198; orthotype Atherina microlepidota Jenyns. 
Heterognathus Girard, 198; logotype Atherina humboldtiana, Cuv. & Val. A 

synonym of Chirostoma Sw. 
Nematogenys Girard. 198; orthotype Trichomycterus inermis Guich. 
Cheirodon Girard, VII, 199; orthotype Cheirodon pi.sciculus Grd. Name spelled 

Chirodon by Giinther. 

505. GIRARD (1854). Notice Upon the P'iviparous Fishes Inhabiting the Pacific 
Coast of North America, zvith an Emimeration of the Species Observed. 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., VII. 

Gharles Frederic Girard. 
Damalichthys Girard. 321 ; orthotype D. vacca Grd. = Embiotoca argyrosoma Grd. 
Abeona Girard, 322; orthotype A. trowbridgei Grd. A synonym of Micrometrus 

Gibbons, as restricted by A. Agassiz (1861). 
Ennichthys Girard, 322; logotype Holconotus megalops Grd. A synonym of 

Hyperprosopon Gibbons. 

506. GRONOW (1854). Catalogue of Fishes Collected and Described by Laurence 
Theodore Gronow, Now in the British Museum. Edited from the manuscript, 
by Albert Giinther (written about 1770, an admirable paper, had it seen the 
light 80 years earlier). 

LoRENZ Theodor Gronow. 

(Laurentius Theodorus Gronovius.) 

Pastinaca Gronow, 11; logotype P. \.mv\s Gronow, Raja pastinaca- Gronow. 

A synonym of Dasyatis Raf. 
Holacanthus Gronow, 23 ; orthotype H. leionothos Gronow. Name preocupied ; 

a synonym of Tetraodon L. as understood. 
Cestreus Gronow, 49; orthotype C. carolinensis Gronow. Name preoccupied by 

Cestreus McCl. ; equivalent to Cynoscion Gill. 
Boops Gronow, 58; orthotype B. asper Gronow = Priacanthus boops Cuv. A syno- 
nym of Priacanthus Cuv. 
Gonopterus Gronow, 77; orthotype G. mcerens Gronow. A synonym of Zanclus 

Adonis Gronow, 93 ; logotype A. pavoninus Gronow = Blennius ocellaris L. 

A synonym of Blennius L. 
Gonocephalus Gronow, 105 ; orthotype G. macrocephalus Gronow = Trigla 

volitans L. a synonym of Dactylopterus Lac. 

HECKEi.. 1854 259 

Sarda Gronow, 119; logotype Sarda immaculata Gronow = Scomber pelagicus L., 

not of Cuvier; a synonym of Coryph^na L. 
Thynnus Gronow, 121 ; logotype T. moluccensis Gronow ; name preoccupied ; 

a synonym of Scomberoides Lac. 
Trachurus Gronow, 124; logotype T. cordyla L. Name preoccupied; same as 

Megalaspis Blkr. 
Merlucius Gronow, 129 ; orthotype M. lanatus Gronow. Same as Merluccius Raf. 
Glanis Gronow, 135; orthotype G. imberbis Gronow = Mystus chihala Ham. 

A species of Notopterus. Name preoccupied. 
Macrogfnathus Gronow, 147 ; logotype Centriscus scolopax L. Name preoccupied ; 

a synonym of Macrorhamphosus Lac. 
Chromis Gronow, 149; orthotype C. epicurorum Gronow = Gasterosteus salta- 

TRix L. Name preoccupied ; a synonym of Pomatomus Lac. 
Cephalinus Gronow, 159; logotype Blennius torvus. A synonym of Congiopus 

Perry (Agriopus Guv.). 
Trichopterus Gronow, 162; orthotype T. indicus Gronow = Cheilodactylus 

fasciatus Lac. A synonym of Cheilodactylus Lac. 
Cordylus Gronow, 163 ; orthotype Scomber scombrus L. A synonym of Scomber L. 
Mystus Gronow, 165 ; type M. carolinensis Gray. Name preoccupied ; a synonym 

of Eagre Cuv. = Felichthys Sw. 
Lepturus Gronow, 165 ; orthotype Lepturus brevirostris Gronow = Coryph^noides 

rupestris Gunner. A synonym of Coryph^noides Gunner. 
Dascillus Gronow, 171 ; type not named ; a chipeid fish, part of the description lost ; 

not Dascyllus Cuv. 
Amia Gronow, 173 ; orthotype A. perc^formis Gronow = Apogon moluceensis 

Blkr. This is the first use of the name Amia by a binomial author (after 

Gronow's non-binomial use in 1763) in place of Apogon Lac. This was 

followed afterward by Bleeker, Gill and others. 
Stethochaetus Gronow, 174; orthotype S. biguttatus Gronow; a synonym of 

Setipinna Sw. (Telara Gthr.). 
Acronurus Gronow, 190 ; logotype Teuthis hepatus L. A synonypm of Hepatus 

or Teuthis. 

507. HECKEL (1854). Ueber fossile Fische aiis Chiavon und das geologische 
Alter dcr sie enihaltenden schichtcn. Sitzb. Akad. Wiss. Wien, IX, 1854, 

JoHANN Jacob Heckel 
Galeodes Heckel, XI, 324; orthotype Galeocerdo priscus Zigno (fossil). A fossil 
ally of Galeocerdo. 

508. HECKEL (1854). Bericht ueber die vom Herrn Cavaliere Achille de Zigno 
hier angeiangte Sammlimg fossiler Fische. Sitzb. Akad. Wiss. Wien, XI, 

JoHANN Jacob Heckel 
Solenorhynchus Heckel, XI, 126; orthotype S. elegans Heckel (fossil). 
Enneodon Heckel XI, 127; orthotype E. echinus Heckel (fossil). Name pre- 
occupied, replaced by Heptadiodon ; a fossil ally of Diodon. 
Vomeropsis Heckel, XI, 134; logotype Vomer longispinus Ag. (fossil). 

509. HYRTL (1854). Beitrag zur Anatomie von Heterotis ehrenbergii C. et V. 

Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien, VIII. 
Carl Joseph Hyrtl (1811-1894). 


Helicobranchus Hyrtl, VIII, 11; orthotype Sums niloticus Cuv. & Val. A sub- 
stitute for Heterotis Ehrenb. ; preoccupied, already replaced by Clupisudis 
Sw., 1839. 

510. KNER (1854). Die Panzerwelse des K. K. Hofnaturalien-Cabinetes zu Wien. 
I. Abtheilung, Loricarina. Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 1854. (An abstract 
in Sitzb. Akad. Wiss. Wien, X. 113.) 

Rudolph Kner, 
Hemiodon Kner, about 65 ; logotype H. depressus Kner. 

Acestra Kner, 93 ; orthotype A. acus Kner. Name preoccupied ; replaced by 
Farlowella Eigenmann (1890). 

511. KNER (1854). Die Hypostomiden. Zweite Hauptgruppe der Familie der 
Panserfische (Loricata vel Goniodontes). Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 1853. 
This paper appeared in 1854, an abstract in Sitzb. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 1853. 

Rudolph Kner. 
Ancistnis Kner VII, 272; logotype Hypostomus temmincki Val, as restricted by 
Bleaker, 1863; Eigenmann (1912) indicates as type A. cirrhosus Kner, a 
congeneric species. 

512. MARCUSEN (1854). VorlduUge Mittheilung ans einer Abhandlung iiber die 

Familie der Mormyren. Bull. Acad. Sci. St. Petersb., XII. 


Petrocephalus Marcusen, XII, 10; orthotype Mormyrus bane Val. 

513. OWEN (1854). Descriptive Catalogue of the Fossil Organic Remains of 
Reptilia and Pisces Contained in the Museum of the Royal College of 
Surgeons of England. London, XIX. 

Richard Owen. 
Eucynodus Owen, 160; orthotype E. hunteri Owen (fossil). 
Acropoma Owen, 164; orthotype A. alta Owen (fossil). Name preoccupied by 

Toxopoma Owen, 164 orthotype T. politum Owen (fossil). 
Cariniceps Owen, 165; orthotype C. compressus Owen (fossil); name only, 

referred by Woodward to synonym of Eothynnus. 
Platygenys Owen, 165; orthotype P. rugosus Owen (fossil). 
Pygacanthus Owen, 166; orthotype P. altus Owen (fossil). 
Planesox Owen, 169; orthotype P. vorax Owen (fossil). Name only, noted by 

Woodward, Cat., V, 519, 1901. Same as Percostoma Ag. 
Platops Owen, 170; orthotype P. subulidens Owen (fossil). Undefined; supposed 

to be a synonym of Brych^tus (Ag.) 
Sciaenurus Owen, 171; orthotype S. longior Owen (fossil). Name only; noted 

by Woodward, Cat., 519, 1901. 

514. POEY (1854). Nuevo genero de peces Escombridos, Epinnula magistralis 

Poey. Memorias de Cuba, I. 
Felipe Poey y Aloy (1799-1891). 
Epinnula Poey, I, 369 (April, 1854) ; orthotype E. magistralis Poey. 

515. POEY (1854). Los Guajacones, peces de agua dulce. Memorias de Cuba,, I. 

(June, 1854.) 
Felipe Poey y Aloy. 
Gambusia Poey, I, 382 ; orthotype G. punctata Poey. 

RAPP. 1854 261 

Girardinus Poey I, 383; orthotype G. metallicus Poey. A syonym of Heteran- 

DRiA Ag. as restricted by Poey. 
Limia Poey, I, 382; orthotype L. cubensis Poey. A synonym of Pcecilia Cuv. 

(Alazon Gistel). 

516. RAPP (1854). Die Fische des Bodensees untersucht und beschrieben. 
Jahresschr. Ver. Vaterl. Naturg. Wiirtemberg, X. 


Umbla Rapp, 32; orthotype Salmo umbla == Salvelinus alpinus L. A synonym 
of Salvelinus Rich. 

517. RICHARDSON (1854). Vertebrates, Including Fossil Mammals. (In Forbes, 
Edward (editor), The Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. "Herald," Under 
the Command of Captain Henry Kellett, R. N., During the Years 1845-1851. 

John Richardson. 
Prilonotus (Miiller) Richardson; orthotype P. caudacacinctus Rich. A synonym 

of Canthigaster Sw. or Psilonotus Sw^. 
Anchisomus (Kaup) Richardson, 156; logotype Tetraodon spengleri Bloch. A 

synonym of Spheroides L. as restricted. 

518. THIOLLIfiRE (1854). Description des poissons fossiles provenant des gise- 

ments coralliens du Jura dans le Bugey. Lyons. 
Victor Joseph de l'Isle Thiolliere. 
Holochondrus Thiolliere, 4; orthotype (not named) (name only) (fossil). 
Spathobatis Thiolliere, 7; orthotype S. bugesiacus Thiolliere (fossil). 
Belemnobatis Thiolliere, 8; orthotype B. sismond^e Thiolliere (fossil. 
Phorcynus Thiolliere, 9; orthotype P. catulina Thiolliere (fossil). An ally of 
Squatina Dum. 

519. TROSCHEL (1854). Ueber die fossilien Fische aus der Braunkohle des 

Siebengebirges. Verb. Naturh. Ver. Preuss. Rheinl. Westphal. 
Franz Hermann Troschel. 
Tarsichthys Troschel, XI, 11; orthotype Leuciscus tarsiger Troschel (fossil). 
A fossil analogue of Tinca Cuv. 


520. AGASSIZ (1855). Synopsis of the Ichthyological Fauna of the Pacific Slope 
of North America, Chiefly from the Collections Made by the Expedition 
Under the Command of Captain C. Wilkes, etc. Amer. Journ. Sci., XIX. 

Louis Agassiz. 

Bubalichthys Agassiz, 192 ; orthotype Carpiodes urus Ag. Regarded as a synonym 
of IcTiOBUs Raf. 

Ptychostomus Agassiz, 203 ; logotype Catostomus aureolus Le Sueur. A synonson 
of MoxosTOMA Raf. 

Hylomyzon Agassiz, 205 ; haplotype Catosomus nigricans Le Sueur. A synonym 
of Hypentelium Raf. 

Acrocheilus Agassiz, 211; orthotype Leuciscus alutaceus Rich. 

Campostoma Agassiz, 218 ; orthotype Rutilus anomalus Raf. 

Hyborhynchus Agassiz, 223 ; haplotype Minnilus notatus Raf. 

Hybognathus Agassiz, 223 ; haplotype H. nuchalis Ag. 


Ptychocheilus Agassiz, 227; logotype Ptychocheilus gracilis Ag. = Cyprinus 


Mylocheilus Agassiz, 229; haplotype Mylocheilus lateralis Ag. 

521. AYRES (1855). Description of New species of Calif ornia Fishes. Proc. Cal. 

Acad. Sci., I, 1855. 


Leptogunnellus Ayres, 26 ; orthotype L. gracilis Ayres. A synonym of Lumpenus. 

Anarrhichthys Ayres, I, 33 ; orthotype A. ocellatus Ayres. 

Mylopharodon Ayres, 23 ; orthotype M. robustus Ayres. 

Cebedichthys Ayres, I, 59; orthotype C. violaceus Ayres. 

Notorhynchus Ayres, I, 72 ; orthotype N. maculatus Ayres. 

Calycilepidotus Ayres, I, 76; orthotype C. spinosus Ayres. 

522. BASILEWSKI (1855). Ichtliyographia China: Borealis. Nouv. Mem. Soc. 

Nat. Moscou, X. 
Stephanus Basilewski. 

Nasus Basilewski, 234; orthotype Cyprinus nasus L. A synonym of Chon- 

Leptocephalus Basilewski, 234; logotype L. mongolicus Basilewski. Name pre- 
occupied in eels ; replaced by Chanodichthys Blkr. 

Cephalus Basilewski, 235 ; orthotype C. mantschuricus Basilewski. Name pre- 
occupied ; a synonym of Hypophthalmichthys Blkr. 

Culter Basilewski, 236; logotype C. alburnus Basilewski, as restricted by Bleeker 
and Giinther. Under the head of Culter Basilewski mentions especially 
(Cyprinus cultratus L.) the type of Pelecus Ag., although he does not 
exactly specify this as type. He then proceeds to describe certain Chinese 
species. For some of these the name Culter has been kept, although 
Basilewski plainly intended to make his type Cyprinus cultratus, in which 
case Culter would be a synonym of Pelecus. At present we follow the 
authority of Bleeker and Giinther. 

Eperlanus Basilewsky, 242; orthotype E. chinensis Basilewsky = Salanx hyalo- 
cranius Abbott. Name preoccupied ; a synonym of Salanx Cuv. 

Osteoglossum Basilewski, X, 244; logotype O. prionostoma Basilewski. Name 
preoccupied by Osteoglossum Vandelli. A synonym of Ch^etomus McCl. 

Apterigia Basilewski, 247 ; logotype A. saccogularis Basilewski. A synonym of 
Monopterus Lac. or Fluta B1. & Schn. 

523. BIANCONI (1855). Specimina soologica Mosanibicana quibus vcl nova: vel 

minus nota: animalium species illustrantur. Bononice. 
Giovanni Giuseppe Bianconi (1809-1878). 
Megalepis Bianconi, 270; orthotype M. alessandrai Bianconi (= Upenoides vit- 
TATUS, fide Giinther). A synonym of Upenoides Blkr. 

524. BIBRON (1855). Note sur un travail inedit de Bibron relatif aux poissons 
plectognathes gymnodontes (Diodons et Tetrodons). Rev. Mag. Zool., VIII. 

Gabriel Bibron. 
This is an important piece of work, but left incomplete at the death of 
its author, hence becoming in some degree a stumbling block in taxonomy. It 
was ably continued with the same material by HoUard in 1857. Edited by 
Auguste Henri Dumeril. 
Promecocophalus Bibron, 279 ; orthotype Tetraodon l^vigatus L. A synonym 
of Lagocephalus Sw. 

BLEEKER, 1854 263 

Dilobomycter Bibron, 279; orthotypc T. reticularis B1. & Sclin. A synonym of 


Amblyrhynchotus Bibron, 279; orthotype Tetraodon honckeni Bloch. (in French 
form only). Apparently distinct from Lagocephalus Sw. 

Stenometopus Bibron, 279; logotype Tetraodon testudineus L. A synonym of 
Spheroides Dum. 

Dichotomycter Bibron, 279; orthotype Tetraodon pluviatilis Ham. A synonym 
of Tetraodon L. Later called Brachycephalus by Hollard. 

Epipedorhynchus Bibron, 279; orthotype Tetraodon preycineti Bibron. No diag- 
nosis. A synonym of Ovoides Cuv. 

Geneion Bibron, 280; orthotype G. maculatus Bibron. Apparently a synonym of 
Lagrocephalus Sw. 

Catophorhynchus Bibron, 280; orthotype C. lampris Bibron. Probably a syno- 
nym of Lagocephalus Sw. 

Batrachops Bibron, 280; orthotype Tetraodon psittacus B1. & Schn. Name pre- 
occupied ; replaced by Colomesus Gill. 

Monotreta Bibron, 280; orthotype Tetrodon cutcutia Ham. (French form only), 
the Latin given by Hollard, 1857 ; also spelled Monotretus. A synonym of 
Leiodon Sw. 

Rhynchotus Bibron, 280 ; orthotype Tetraodon gronovii Cuv. A synonym of 
Canthigaster Sw. 

Ephippion Bibron, 280; orthotype E. maculatum Bibron = Tetrodon guttifer 
Bennett, 1830. Regarded as twice preoccupied as Ephippium, therefore 
replaced by Hemiconiatus Gthr., 1870. 

Aphanacantbus Bibron, 280 ; orthotype T. reticulatus Bibron. No diagnosis. 
Regarded by Bleeker as identical with Monotreta (= Leiodon). A syno- 
nym of Leiodon Sw. 

Xenopterus Bibron, 281 ; orthotype X. bellengeri Bibron = Tetraodon naritus 
Rich. A synonym of Chonerhinos Blkr. (1854). Chonerhinos has clear 
priority, as claimed by Bleeker. 

525. BLEEKER (1855). Over eenige visschen van Van Diemensland. Verb. Akad. 

Amsterdam, H, 1855, 1-30. 
Pieter Bleeker. 
Upeneichthys Bleeker, 7; orthotype Upeneus porosus Cuv. & Val. 
Brachionichthys Bleeker, H, 12; logotype B_. politus Blkr. 

Gnathanacanthus Bleeker, II, 21 ; orthotype G. goetzi Blkr. Replaces Holoxenus 

526. BLEEKER (1855). Derde bijdrage tot de kennis der ichthyologische fauna 

van de Kokos-eilanden. Neder. Tijdschr. Dierk., III. 
Pieter Bleeker. 
Amphiprionichthys Bleeker, III, 172; orthotype Micropus unipinna Gray. Re- 
places MiCROPUS Gray, preoccupied. 

527. BLEEKER (1855). Bijdrage tot de kennis der ichthyologische fauna van de 

Batoe-eilanden. Nat Tijdschr. Neder. -Indie, VIII. 
Pieter Bleeker. 
Dinematichthys Bleeker, 318; orthotype D. iluoccetoides Blkr. 

528. BLEEKER (1855). Visschen van de Duisend-eilanden. Nat. Tijdschr. 

Neder.-Indie, VIII, 1855, 344. 
Pieter Bleeker. 


Serranichthys Bleeker, 344; orthotype Serranus altivelis Cuv. & Val. A syno- 
nym of Cromileptes Sw. as restricted by Bleeker and by Swain. 

529. BLEEKER (1855). Zesde bijdrage tot de kennis der ichthyologische fauna 

van Amboina. Nat. Tijdschr. Neder-Indie, VIII. 
Pieter Bleeker. 
Uraspis Bleeker, VI, 418; orthotypt U. carangoides Blkr. Near Selenia Bon.; 
perhaps a synonym of the latter. 

530. BLEEKER (1855). Nalesingen op de vischfauna van Sumatra. Visschen 
van Lahat en Sibogha. Nat. Tijdschr. Neder.-Indie, IX, 1855, 257-280. 

Pieter Bleeker. 
Luciosoma Bleeker, IX, 258; orthotype Barbus Cuv. & Val. 
Schismatorhynchos Bleeker, IX, 258; orthotype Lobocheilus heterorhynchos 

Clupeichthys Bleeker, IX, 275; orthotype C. goniognathus Blkr. A synonym of 

CoRiCA Ham. 
Epalzeorhynchos Bleeker, IX, 279, 258 ; orthotype Barbus kalopterus Blkr. 

531. BRONN (1855). Lethcca Gcognostica, oder Abbildungen und Beschreigen 
der fur die Gebirgs-Forniation bezeichnendsten Versteinerungen. Stuttgart, 
Ed. I, 1834; Ed. Ill, 1855. 

Heinrich Georg Bronn (1800-1862). 
Archaeoteuthis (Roemer) Bronn, I, 520, ed. Ill; orthotype Pteraspis dunensis 

Huxley (fossil). A synonym of Pteraspis Kner. 
Heptadiodon Bronn, HI, 677; orthotype Enneodon echinus Heckel (fossil). 

Name substitute for Enneodon Heckel, preoccupied. 

532. CASTELNAU (1855). Expedition dans les parties centrales de I'Amerique 
du Sud, de Rio de Janeiro a Lima, et de Lima a Para; executee . . . pendant 
les annees 1834 a 1844. (Tome 3.) 

(Comte) pRANgois L. de Laporte de Castelnau (1812-1880). 
Plataxoides Castelnau, 21 ; orthotype P. dumerili Castelnau. A synonym of 

Pterophyllum Heckel. 
Genidens Castelnau, 33; tautotype Bagrus genidens Cuv. & Val. = Genidens 

cxrviERi Castelnau. 
Sternarchorhynchus Castelnau, 95; orthotype Sternarchus oxyrhynchus 

M. & T. = Sternarchorhynchus mulleri Castelnau; replaces Rhampho- 

sternarchus Gthr., 1870. 
Acanthodemus Castelnau; logotype Hypostomus aurantiacus Castelnau; name 

in French only (Acanthodemes), latinized by Marschall (Nomenclator 

Zoologicus, 1873). 

533. COSTA (1855). Su di iin nuovo genere di pesce fossile (Cacus). Atti Reale 

Accad. Sci. Napoli, II. 
Oronzio Gabriele Costa. 
Cacus Costa, II, 234. (Noted by Dean and Eastman, not by Woodward. Prob- 
ably a misprint for C^us Costa (C. leopoldi, 1864).) 

534. EGERTON (1855). Fish: ... (In Figures and Descriptions of British 

Organic Remains.) Mem. Geol. Surv. United Kingdom. 
Philip de Malpas Grey Egerton. 
Oxygnathus Egerton, VIII, No. 9; orthotype O. ornatus Egert. (fossil). 

FiLippi, 1855 265 

535. FILIPPI (1855). (Gadopsis.) Zeitschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien, VII. 

FiLippo DE FiLippi (1814-1867). 
Gadopsis Filippi, VII, 170; orthotype Oligopus ater Risso. Name preoccupied by 
G.^DOPSis Rich. (1844) It may be replaced by the new name, Verater Jor- 
dan, orthotype Oligopus ater Risso. 

536. HOLBROOK (1855). Ichthyology of South Carolina. (Edition of 1855 
nearly but not all destroyed by fire ; replaced in 1860 by a second edition. 
The generic names should date from 1855. 

John Edwards Holbrook (1796-1871). 
Diplectrum Holbrook, 32; orthotype D. fasicularis Holbrook = Perca Formosa L. 
Lagodon Holbrook, 59; orthotype Sparus rhomboides L. 
Bothrolaemus Holbrook, 80; orthotype Trachinotus pampanus Cuv. & Val. 

(Trachinotus carolinus). a synonym of Trachinotus. 
Homoprion Holbrook, 168 (second edition. 1860) ; orthotype H. lanceolatus 

Holbrook. A synonym of Stellifer (Cuvier) Oken. 

537. KAUP (1855). Enchclynassa, ncue Gattung aiis dcr Familie der Aale. Arch. 

Naturgesch. XXI. 
Johann Jacob Kaup. 
Enchclynassa Kaup, 213 ; orthotype E. bleekeri Kaup. Perhaps the same as Ench- 
LYCORE Kaup (1856). 

538. KAUP (1855). Uebersicht iiber die Species einiger Familien der Sclerodermen. 

Wiegmann's Arch. Naturg., XXI. 

Johann Jacob Kaup. 

Cibotion (Kaup), 215; orthotype Ostracion cubicus L. A synonym of Ostra- 

cioN as here restricted. 
Capropygia (Gray) Kaup, 220; orthotype C. unistriata Gray. 
Centaurus Kaup, 221 ; orthotype Ostracion boops Rich. A larva of Mola. 
Kentrocapros Kaup, 221 ; orthotype Ostracion aculeatus Houttuyn. 
Anoplocapros Kaup, 221 ; orthotype A. grayi Kaup. 
Dicotylichthys Kaup, 230; orthotype D. punctulatus Kaup. 
Cyanichthys Kaup, 231 ; orthotype C. ceruleus Kaup (not of Q. & G.) == Diodon 

tigrinus Cuv. A synonym of Chilomycterus Bibron. 
Cyclichthys Kaup, 231 ; logotype Diodon orbicularis Bloch. 
Pyrodon Kaup ; orthotype Balistes nicer LaC. Name a substitute for Xenodon, 

preoccupied. Later than Zenodon Sw., Odonus Gistel and Erythrodon 

Riippell, substitutes for Xenodon. 

539. KNER ( 1855) . Ichthyologische Beitrdge. Abh. Sitzb. Akad. Wiss. Wien, XVII. 

Rudolf Kner. 
Bunocephalus Kner, XVII, 95 ; type B. verrucosus Bloch. 
Oxydoras Kner, XVII, 115; orthotype Doras nicer Kner, not of Val. = Oxydoras 

kneri Blkr. 
Clarotes Kner, XVII, 313; orthotype Pimelodus laticeps Riippell. 
Pareiodon Kner, XVII, 611; orthotype P. microps Kner. Spelled Pariodon by 


540. M'COY (1855). Descriptions of the British Palceozoic Fossils in the Geo- 

logical Museum of the University of Cambridge. 
Frederick M'Coy. 
Diplopterax M'Coy, 586; orthotype (D. macrolepidotus Ag.) (fossil). Name a 
substitute for Diplopterus, preoccupied. 


Triplopterus M'Coy, 589; orthotype Tripterus pollexfeni M'Coy (fossil). A 
synonym of Osteolepis ; name a substitute for Tripterus, preoccupied. 

Poecilodus M'Coy, 638; logotype P. jonesi (Ag.) M'Coy (fossil) as restricted 
by Woodward. 

Pristicladodus M'Coy, 642; orthotype P. dentatus M'Coy (fossil). A synonym 
of DicRENODUS Romanovskii. 

541. MEYER (1855). Physichthys honingshausi aus dent Uebergangskalkc der 

Eifel. Palaeontographica, IV. 
Hermann Meyer. 
Physichthys Meyer, IV, 80; orthotype Asterolepis hceningshausi Ag. (fossil). 
A synonym of Macropetalichthys. 

542. NILSSON (1855). Skandinavisk fauna. Fjerde Delen : Fiskarna. Lund. 



Blenniops Nilsson, IV, 184 ; orthotype Blennius galerita Pennant, not of Linnaeus. 

A synonym of Chirolophis Sw. 
Ctenodon Nilsson, IV, 190; orthotype Clinus maculatus Fries. Name three 

times preoccupied; replaced by Leptoclinus Gill. 

543. PETERS (1855). Uebersicht der in Mossambique beobachteten Seefische. 

Monatsber. Akad. Wiss. Berlin. 

Wilhelm Carl Hartwig Peters. 

Ctenopoma Peters, XXI, 1, 247; orthotype C. multispinis Peters, not Ctenopoma 

of Heckel, 1856. 
Pteragogus Peters XXI 261; orthotype Cossyphus opercularis Peters. 
Anosmius Peters, XXI, 274; orthotype T. t^niatus Peters. A synonym of C^N- 

thigaster Sw. 
Coelonotus Peters XXI, 465; orthotype C. argulus Peters. 

544. ROEMER (1855). Palceoteuthis, eine Gattung nakter Cephalopoden in 

devonischen Schichten der Eifel. Palasontographica. IV. 
Carl Ferdinand von Roemer. 
Palasoteuthis Roemer, IV, 72; orthotype Pteraspis dunensis Huxley (fossil)) 
(wrongly supposed to be a cuttle-fish). A synonym of Pteraspis Kner. 

545. STORER (1855). A History of the Fishes of Massachusetts. Mem. Araer. 

Acad. Arts. Sci. Boston, V. 

David Humphreys Storer. 
Cheilonemus (Baird) Storer, 285; haplotype Leuciscus pulchellus Storer = 
Cyprinus corporalis Mitchill. Same as Leucosomus Heckel, regarded as 
preoccupied by Leucosoma. 

546. VALENCIENNES (1855). Ichthyologie de la Voyage de la Venus. 

AcHiLLE Valenciennes. 
Doydixodon Valenciennes; orthot3'pe D. freminvillei Val. 
Passer (Klein) Valenciennes, 344; haplotype P. marchionessarum Val. Name 

preoccupied in birds. A synonym of Platophrys Sw. 
Smecticus Valenciennes, 305; orthotype Smecticus bicolor Val. A synonym of 

AGASsiz, 1856 267 


547. AGASSIZ (1856). The Habits of the Giants of Aristotle. Proc. Amer. Acad. 

Sci. Arts. Sci. III. 
Louis Ag.^ssiz. 
Glanis Agassiz ; orthotype Glanis aristotelis Ag. ; not Glanis Ag., 1829, a sub- 
stitute for Bagre ; not Glanis Gronow, 1854. Same as Parasilurus BIkr. 

548. ASMUSS (1856). Das vollkommenste Hautskelet der bisher bekannten 
Thierreihe. An fossilien Fischen des altcn rothen Sandsteins aufgefiinden 
itnd aus ihren Resten erldutcrt. Abh. Erlangung der Magisterwurde, Dorpat. 

Hermann Asmuss. 

Heterosteus Asmuss, 7; orthotype Asterolepis asmussi Ag. A synonym of Ich- 
thyosauroides Kutorga. 

Homostius Asmuss. 8; orthotype H. formosissimus Asmuss (fossil). (Name cor- 
rected to HOMOSTEUS.) 

549. BLEEKER (1856). Beschrijvningcn van nietnve en weinig bekende visch- 
soortcn van Amboina, versameld op cene reis door den Molukschen Archipel, 
gedaan in het gevolg van den Gouverneur-Generaal Duyniaer van Twist in 
September en October^ 1855. Act. Soc. Sci. Indo-Nederl., I. 


Pteroidichthys Bleeker, I, Zi; orthotype P. amboinensis Blkr. 
Duymaeria Bleeker, I, 52; logotype Crenilabrus aurigaria Rich. 

550. BLEEKER (1856). Beschrijvningen van nicuwe en weinig bekende visch- 
soorten van Menado en Makassar grootendeels versameld op eene reis naar 
den Molukschen Archipel in het gevolg van den Gouverneur-Gencral Duymaer 
van Twist. Act. Soc. Sci. Indo-Nederl., I. 

Pieter Bleeker. 
Heterophthalmus Bleeker, 43 ; orthotype H. katopron Blkr. Name preoccupied 

in beetles, Blanchard, 1851 . A synonyrri of Anomalops Kner, 1858. 
Rhomboidichthys Bleeker, I, 67 ; orthotype R. myriaster Blkr. A synonym of 

Platophrys Sw. 
Leptocephalichthys Bleeker, I, 69; orthotype L. hypselosoma Blkr. A larval 

form allied to Conger. 

551. BLEEKER (1856). Bijdrage tot de kennis der ichthyologische fauna van 

het eiland Boeroe. Nat. Tijdschr. Neder. -Indie. XI. 
Pieter Bleeker. 

Scorpaenichthys Bleeker, XI, 385, 402 ; orthotype Scorp^na Gibbos. Name pre- 
occupied (Girard, 1854) ; a synonym of Scorp^nopsis Heckel. 

Pholidichthys Bleeker, 406; orthotype P. leucot^nia Blkr. 

Gobiodon (Kuhl & Van Hasselt) Bleeker, 407; logotype Gobius heterospilus 

Culius Bleeker, 411 ; orthotype Eleotris niger Blkr. = Cheilodipterus culius Ham. 
A synonym of Eleotris as restricted. 

Butis Bleeker, 42; orthotype Butis gymnopomus Blkr. (tautotype Cheilodipterus 
TERUs. butis Ham.). 

552. BLEEKER (1856). Bijdrage tot de kennis der ichthyologische fauna van Nias. 

Nat. Tijdschr. Neder.-Indie, XII. 
PiETER Bleeker. 


Solenognathus Bleeker, 218 ; orthotype Syngnathoides blochi Blkr. ; also written 
SoLEGNATHUS. A Synonym of Syngnathoides Blkr., equivalent to Gastero- 
TOKEUS Heckel. 

Xiphochilus Bleeker, 223 ; orthotype X. typus Blkr. 

553. BLEEKER (1856). Nieiiwe bijdrage tot de kennis der ichthyologische 

fauna van Bali. Nat. Tijdschr. Neder.-Indie, XIII. 
Pieter Bleeker. 
Belobranchus Bleeker, 300 ; orthotype Eleotris belobrancha Cuv. & Val. 

554. COSTA (1856). Ittiologia fossile Italiana. Edizione simile all' opera dell' 
Agassis siii pesci fossili alia quale e destinata a sopplimento. Disp. v. Napoli. 

Oronzio Gabriele Costa. 
Dichelospondylus Costa, 13; orthotype D. longirostris Costa (fossil). A synonym 

of Belonostomus Ag. 
Ophirachis Costa, 13; orthotype O. deperditus Costa (fossil). Probably a synonym 

of Belonostomus. 
Anomiophthalmus Costa, 30; orthotype A. vetustus Costa (fossil). Probably 
identical with Ccelodus and Cosmodus and of earlier date than the latter. 

555. DUMfiRIL (1856). Ichthyologie analytique on classification des poissons, 
suivant la methode naturelle, a I'aide de tableaux synoptiques. Mem. Acad. 
Sci. Paris, XXVII. 

Andre Marie Constant Dumeril. 

Heptatrema C. Dumeril; orthotype Petromyzon cirrhatus Forster. A synonym of 
Eptatretus Cloquet. 

Pastinaca Dumeril ; tautotype Raja pastinaca L. A synonym of Dasyatis Raf. 

Pterure Dumeril, 169; orthotype Syngnathus ^quoreus Gmelin (name in French 
only). A synonym of Nerophis Raf. 

Peromere Dumeril, 170; logotype Syngnathus rondelett De la Roche (name in 
French only). A synonym of Typhle or Typhlinus Raf. In this volume of 
Dumeril a list of genera of eels is given by Kaup in advance of its publication 
elsewhere. But in the same year, apparently before the appearance of 
Dumeril's work, Kaup published his Catalogue of Apodal Fishes, and several 
of the names given by him to Dumeril were dropped in this completed work. 

Auchenichthys (Kaup) Dumeril), 198; orthotype A. typus Kaup. Name only; 
an ally of Mur,«nichthys. 

Leiurus (Kaup) Dumeril. 198; orthotype Mur^na colubrina Boddaert. Name 
twice preoccupied in Swainson ; replaced by Chlevastes Jordan & Snyder. 

Scytallurus (Kaup) Dumeril, 199; orthotype Sphagebranchus imberbis De la 
Roche. A synonym of C^cula Vahl, 1794. 

Enchelycotte (Kaup) Dumeril, 200; orthotype Enchelycore eurhina Kaup. A 
manuscript name changed to Enchelycore when printed in 1854. 

Memarchus (Kaup) Dumeril, 201; orthotype Gymnotus albifrons L. No defini- 
tion; a synonym of Apteronotus Lac. = Sternarchus Cuv. 

Altona (Kaup) Dumeril, 201; orthotype Gymnotus rostratus L. (no definition), 
a synonym of Rhamphichthys M. & T. 

Unipertura (Kaup) Dumeril, 201; orthotype Unibranchapertura l.evis Lac. 
An abridgment of Unibranchapertura Lac. ; a synonym of Fluta B1. & Schn. 
if regarded as a new name. 

Giton (Kaup) Dumeril, 201; orthotype Gymnotus fasciatus Pallas. = Gym- 
notus carapo L. a synonym of Gymnotus L. No definition. 

GIRARD. 1856 269 

Apterichthe C. Dumeril, 205 ; orthotype Mur^ena cvEca L. ; name in French only ; 

given in Latin form, 1806. A synonym of Sphagebranchus Bloch. 
Macrops Dumeril, 279; orthotype Serranus aculeatus (oculatus) Cuv. & Val. 

(name three times preoccupied). A synonym of Etelis Cuv. & Val. 
Macrones Dumeril, 484; orthotype Bagrus lamarrii Cuv. & Val. Name pre- 
occupied in beetles (Newman, 1841) ; replaced by Aoria Jordan, type Bagrus 

lamarrii Cuv. & Val. 
Conostome (for Conostomus) Dumeril, 484; orthotype Pimelodus conirostris 

Cuv. & Val. Called Conorhynchus by Bleeker. 
Diplomyste (Le) Dumeril, 487; haplotype Arius papillosus Cuv. & Val. Latinized 

as DiPLOMYSTEs by Bleeker ; Diplomystax by Giinther. 
Hydrocion "ou mieux Hydrocynus Dumeril,'' restricted to "une seule espece 

du Nil" (Hydrocyon forskali Cuv.). A synonym of Hydrocynus Cuv., 


556,557. GIRARD (1856). Contributions to the Ichthyology of the Western Coast 

of North America from Specimens in the Smithsonian Institute . . . Proc. 

Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 

Charles Girard. 
Paralabrax Girard, 131 ; orthotype Labrax inebulifer Grd. 
Homalopomus Girard, 132; orthotype H. Trowbridge Grd. A synonym of Mer- 

Luccius Raf. 
Oligocottus Girard, 133 ; logotype O. maculatus Grd. 
Leiocottus Girard, 133 ; orthotype L. hirundo Grd. 
Artedius Girard, VIII, 134; logotype A. lateralis Grd. 
Oplopoma Girard, 135 ; orthotype O. pantheriTsta Grd. A synonym of Ophiodon 

Grd., 1854. 

558. GIRARD (1856). Researches Upon the Cyprinoid Fishes Inhabiting the 

Fresh Waters of the United States West of the Mississippi Valley, from 

Specimens in the Museum of the Smithsonia Institution. Proc. Acad. Nat. 

Sci. Phila., VIII. 

Charles Girard. 
Minomus Girard, 173 ; haplotype Catostomus insignis Baird & Grd. A synonym 

of Catostomus Le Sueur, section Decactylus Raf., 1818. 
Acomus Girard, 173 ; logotype Catostomus forsterianus Rich. = Cyprinus 

CATOSTOMUS Le Sueur. A synonym of Catostomus Le Sueur. 
Dionda Girard, 176; logotype D. episcopa Grd. 
Algoma Girard, 180; logotype A. amara Grd. Not separable from Dionda, both 

scarcely distinct from Hybognathus ' 
Orthodon Girard, 182 ; orthotype Gila microlepidota Ayres. 
Algansea Girard, 182; orthotype Leuciscus ttncella Cuv & Val. 
Agosia Girard, 186; logotype A. chrysogaster Grd. 
Nocomis Girard, 190; logotype N. nebrascensis Grd. — Rutilus kentuckiensis 

Raf. = Leuciscus biguttatus Kirtland. 
Meda Girard, 192 ; haplotype Meda fulgida Grd. 
Cliola Girard, 192 ; logotype Ceratichthys vigilax Baird & Grd. A synonym of 

Ceratichthys Baird & Grd., as first used ; the name later taken for the 

genus Nocomis. 
Alburnellus Girard, 193 ; orthotype Alburnus dilectus Grd. A synonym of 

Notropis Raf. (1818). 


Codoma Girard, 194 ; logotype Codoma ornata Grd. 

Alburnops Girard, 194; logotype Alburnops blennius Grd. 

Cyprinella Girard, 196; logotype Leuciscus bubalinus Baird & Grd. Probably a 

valid genus allied to Notropis and Alburnops. 
Richardsonius Girard. 201 ; haplotype Abramis balteatus Baird & Grd. Probably 

distinct from Leuciscus Cuv. and from Tigoma Grd. 
Tiaroga Girard, 204; haplotype Tiaroga cobitis Grd. 
Moniana Girard, 199; logotype Leuciscus lutrensis Baird & Grd. Not separable 

from Cyprinella. 
Tigoma Girard, 205; logotype Gila pulchella Baird & Grd. Probably a genus 

distinct from Leuciscus Cuv. and from Richardsonius Grd. 
Cheonda Girard, 207 ; logotype Cheonda cooperi Grd. Probably not distinct from 

Siboma Girard. 209; haplotype Siboma crassicauda Baird & Grd. A section or 

genus close to Tigoma. 
Hudsonius Girard, 210; orthotype Clupea hudsonia Clinton. A section or sub- 

!.,^cnus of XoTROPis or Alburnops. 
Clinostomus Girard, 211 ; logotype Luxilus elongatus Kirtland (not Clinostomum, 

a genus of worms). A section or subgenus near Notropis. 
Ceratichthys (Baird MS.) Girard, 212; haplotype Semotilus biguttatus Kirt- 
land (not Cer.\tichthys Baird & Grd., 1854). A synonym of Nocomis Grd. 

559. HOLMES (1856). Contributions to the Natural History of the American 
Devilfish, ivith Descriptions of a New Genus from the Harbor of Charleston, 
South Carolina. Proc. Elliott Soc. Nat. Hist., I. 

Francis S. Holmes 
Diabolichthys Holmes, 39 ; orthotype D. elliotti Holmes. A synonym of Manta 

560. H ECKEL (1856). Neue Beitrdge sur Kenntniss der fossilen Fische ester- 

rcichs. Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien, XL 

JoHANN Jakob Heckel. 

Thrissopterus Heckel, XL 245; orthotype T. catulli Heckel (fossil). A synonym 

of Monopteros Volta (Platinx Ag.) 
Elopopsis Heckel, XL 251; logotype E. fenzlii Heckel (fossil). 
Carangodes Heckel, XL 262; orthotype C. cephalus Heckel (fossil). Perhaps 

to be regarded as preoccupied by Carangoides Blkr., 1851. 
Ctenopoma Heckel, XL 272; orthotype Pyg^us jemelka Heckel (fossil); pre- 
occupied by Ctenopoma Peters, 1855. 

561. HECKEL (1856). Ueber den Bau und die Eintheilung der Pycnodonten, 

etc. Sitzb. Akad. Wiss. Wien, VHI, 433-464, 1854 (1856). 
JoHANN Jakob Heckel. 
Stemmatodus Heckel, XL 202; orthotype Pycnodus rhombus Ag. (fossil). Pre- 
occupied; replaced by Stemmatias Hay, 1899. 
Coelodus Heckel, XL 202, 455; orthotype Ccelodus s.«iTURNus Heckel (fossil). 
If regarded as preoccupied by Ccelodon Lund, may be replaced by Cos modus 
Sauvage, 1879. 

562. KAUP (1856). Uebersicht der Aale. Arch. Naturg. 
Johann Jacob Kaup. 
In this paper ocurs the first diagnosis of the many genera of eels. 

KAUP, 1856 271 

published in the same year as the Catalogue of the Apodal Fish. The pagina- 
tion of the vohime last mentioned is given in parentheses in the following 

563. K,A.UP (1856). Catalogue of the Apodal Fish in the Collection of the British 

Museum. London. 
JoHANN Jacob Kaup. 
Congerodon Kaup, 37; orthotype C. indicus Kaup. (Not in Cat. Apodal Fishes.) 
Centrurophis Kaup, 42 (2) ; logotype C. spadiceus Kaup. A synonym of Ophich- 

THUS Ahl. 
Poecilocephalus Kaup, 43 (5) ; orthotype P. bonapartei Kaup. A synonym of 

Ophichthus Ahl. 
Microdonophis Kaup. 43 (6) orthotype AI. altipinnis Kaup. A synonym of 

Coecilophis Kaup, 44 (6) ; orthotype C. compar Kaup. A synonym of Ophichthus. 
Herpetoichthys Kaup, 44 (7) ; orthotype H. ornatissimus Kaup. A synonym of 

Brachysomophis Kaup. 45 (9) ; orthotype B. horridus Kaup. 
Elapsopsis Kaup, 45 (9) ; orthotype E. versicolor Kaup (misprinted Elapsopis). 

A synonym of Ophichthus. 
Mystriophis Kaup, 45 (10) ; orthotype Ophisurus rostellatus Rich. 
Muraenopsis (Le Sueur) Kaup, 46 (11) ; orthotype Mur^nophis ocellatus 

Le Sueur. This name was not used by Le Sueur, who wrote Mur^nophis 

after Lacepede. , 

Echiopsis Kaup, 46 (13) ; orthotype Ophisurus intertinctus Rich. A synonym of 

Mystriophis Kaup. 
Scytalophis Kaup, 46 (13) ; orthotype S. magnioculis Kaup. 

Leptorhinophis Kaup, 46 (14) ; orthotype Ophisurus gomesi Castelnau. A syno- 
nym of Scytalophis Kaup. 
Pisodonophis Kaup, 47 (17) ; logotype P. cancrivorus Kaup, as restricted by 

Bleeker. Later written Pisoodonophis by Kaup. and since spelled Pisodon- 

tophis by purists. 
Lamnostoma Kaup, 49 (24) ; logotype L. pictum Kaup. 
Anguisurus Kaup, 50 (24) ; orthotype A. punctulatus Kaup. A synonym of 

Ccecula Vahl. 
Callechelys Kaup, 51 (28) ; orthotype C. guichenoti Kaup. 
Cirrhimuraena Kaup, 52 (27) ; orthotype C. chinensis Kaup. 
Ophisurapus Kaup, 52 (29) ; ortthotype O. gracilis Kaup. Later written Ophi- 

suraphis a synonym of Sphagebranchus Bloch. 
Myrus Kaup, 53 (31) ; orthotype Murjena myrus L. = Myrus vulgaris Kaup. 

A synonym of Echelus Raf., as restricted by Bleeker. 
Enchelynassa Kaup, 59 (72) ; orthotype E. bleekeri Kaup. 
Eurymyctera Kaup, 59 (72) ; orthotype E. crudelis Kaup. A synonym of Gym- 

Siderea Kaup, 59 (70) ; orthotype S. pfeifferi Kaup. Later written Sidera. A 

synonym of Gymnothorax. as restricted by Bleeker. 
Enchelycore Kaup, 60 (72) ; orthotype Mur^na nigricans Bonnaterre. 
Thyrsoidea Kaup, 60 (74) ; tautotype MuRvENa thyrsoidea Rich., but first restricted 

to MuR^NA macrura Bleeker, by Bleeker. As understood by me, a synonym 

of Gymnothorax. As used by Bleeker, the same as Evenchelys J. & E. 
Limamurasna Kaup 65 (95) : orthotype L. guttata Kaup. A synonym of Mu- 

R.ENA L. as restricted by Ahl, 1789. 


Polyuranodon Kaup, 65 (96) ; orthotype Mur^na polyuranodon Blkr. A syno- 
nym of Gymnothorax. 

Poecilophis Kaup, 66 (98) ; orthotype Gymnothorax catenatus Bloch. A syno- 
nym of Echidna Forster. 

Aphthalmichthys Kaup, 68 (105); orthotype A. javanicus Kaup. 

Muraenoblenna (Lacepede) Kaup, 67; orthotype Ichthyophis tigrinus Lesson, 
not of Lacepede, whose type M. olivacea is a myxine. Kaup observes : "Ich 
kenne M. olivacea nicht." 

Congermuraena Kaup, 71 (108) ; logotype Mur^na balearica De la Roche, as 
restricted by Bleeker. A synonym of Ariosoma Sw., equivalent to Con- 
grellus Ogilby, 1898, who restricts Congermuraena to C. habenata, which 
probably belongs to Gnathophis Blkr. The name is spelled Congromu- 
R^NA by authors. 

Uroconger Kaup, 71 (110) ; orthotype U. lepturus Kaup. 

Esunculus Kaup, 143 ; orthotype E. costai Kaup. A larva, allied to Alepocepha- 
Lus. (Not in Uebersicht.) 

564. KAUP (1856). Einigesiibcr die Unterfamilie Ophidince. Arch. Naturg., XXIL 

Johann Jacob Kaup. 
Cepolophis Kaup, I, 96; orthotype Ophidium viride Fabricius. A synonym of 
Gymnelis Reinh. 

565. KAUP (1856). Catalogue of the Lophobranchiate Fish in the Collection of 

the British Museum. London. 
Johann Jacob Kaup. 
The various genera of Kaup, 1853, Hemimarsupium excepted, are in 
this paper with their redescribed species 
Hemithylacus Kaup, 61 ; orthotype Syngnathus leiaspis Kaup. An unexplained 
substitute for Hemimarsupium Kaup, 1853. Same as Ccelonotus Peters 

566. LEIDY (1856). Notice of Remains of Extinct Vertebrated Animals Discovered 

by Professor E. Emmons. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1856. 
Joseph Leidy (1825-1891). 
Ischyrhiza Leidy, VIII, 256; logotype I. mira Leidy (fossil). Supposed to be a 
synonym of Pachyrhizodus. 

567. LEIDY (1856). Notices of Extinct Vertebrata Discovered by Dr. F. V. 
Hayden, During the Expedition to the Sioux Country Under the Command 
of Lieut. G. K. Warren. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., VIII. 

Joseph Leidy. 
Mylognathus Leidy, 312; orthotype M. priscus Leidy (fossil). Probably a 
synonym of Edaphodon. 

568. LEIDY (1856). Indications of Five Species, with Tzvo New Genera, of 

Extinct Fishes. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., VII. 
Joseph Leidy. 
Edestus Leidy, VII, 414; orthotype E. vorax Leidy (fossil). 

Sicarius Leidy, VII, 414; orthotype S. extinctus Leidy (fossil). A synonym of 

LEiDY, 1856 273 

569. LEIDY (1856). Description of Tivo Ichthyodorulites (Stenacanthus nitidus 

and Cylindracanthns ornattis). Amer. Journ. Sci., XXI. 

Joseph Leidy. 
Stenacanthus Leidy, XXI, 8; orthotype S. nitidus Leidy (fossil) (also in Proc. 

Acad Nat. Sci. Phila., 1856, 11.). A synonym of Bothriolepis. 
Cylindracanthns Leidy, XXI, 8; orthotype C. ornatus Leidy. Regarded as a 
synonym of Ccelorhynchus Ag., which name is preoccupied. 

570. LEIDY (1856). Remarks on Certain Extinct Species of Fishes. Proc. Acad. 

Nat. Sci., VIII. 301. (Also in Trans. Philos. Soc. XI, 1857.) 

Joseph Leidy. 
Protosphyraena Leidy, 56, VIII, 302 (and XI, 95) ; orthotype P. ferox Leidy 

Cimolichthys Leidy, VIII, 302 (also XI, 95) ; orthotype C. leweiensis Leidy 

571. NEWBERRY (1856). Description of Several New Genera and Species of 
Fossil Fishes from the Carboniferous Strata of Ohio. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., VIII. 

John Strong Newberry (1822-1892). 
Mecolepis Newberry, VIII, 96; logotype M. granulatus Newberry (fossil). 

Name preoccupied, replaced by Eurylepis Newberry (1857). 
Compsacanthus Newberry, 100 ; orthotype Pleuracanthus l^vis Newberry 

(fossil). A synonym of Pleuracanthus. 

572. PANDER (1856). Monographic der fossilen Fische des silurischen Systems 

der russisch-baltischen Gouvernetnents. St. Petersburg. 
Christian Heinrich Pander. 
Rytidolepis Pander, 48; orthotype R. quenstedti Pander (fossil). Besides this 
nominal genus, the following additional generic names have been given in 
this paper by Pander. All are based on fragments of dermal armor, not 
identified and some of them, according to Eichwald (1860), likely to belong 
to Eurypterid crustaceans rather than to fishes. These are Coccopeltus, 
Cyphomalepis, Trachylepis and Phlebolepis. The following is the list of 
these nominal genera and their type species as given by Woodward : 
Rytidolepis (uenstedti), 48. 
Schedtosteus (mustelensis), 49. 
Coccopeltus (asmussi), 50. 
Cyphomalepis (egertoni), 51. 
Trachylepis ( Formosa), 52. 
Stigmolepis (oweni), 53. 
Dasylepis (keyserlingi), 54. 
Lopholepis (schmidti), 55. 
Dictyolepis (bronni), 56. 
Oniscolepis (magna, etc.), 58. 
Melittomalepis (elegans), 60. 
Phlebolepis (elegans), 60. 
Prionacanthus (dubia), 70. 
Stigmolepis Pander, 53; orthotype S. oweni Pander (fossil). 
Coelolepis Pander. 56; logotype C. l.evis Pander (fossil). 

Tolypelepis Pander, 61; orthotype T. undul.'\tus Pander (fossil) (fragment 
of a Pteraspid). 


Lophosteus Pander, 62; orthotype L. superbus Pander (fossil). 

Pachylepis Pander, 67; orthotype P. glaber Pander (fossil). A synonym of 

Thelodus Ag. 
Thelolepis Pander, 67; orthotype Thelodus parvidens Ag. (fossil). A synonym 

of Thelodus Ag. 
Nostolepis Pander, 68; orthotype N. striata Pander (fossil). 
Rabdacanthus Pander 69; orthotype R. truncatus Pander (fossil). 
Odontotodus Pander, 75; orthotype O. rootsikulliensis Pander (fossil). A 
Gomphcdus Pander 76; orthotype G. sandelensis Pander (fossil). 

synonym of Stigmolepis Pander. 

573. RICHARDSON ( 1856) . Ichthyology. ( In Encyclopedia Britannica, I, London.) 

John Richardson. 
Xanthichthys (Kaup) Richardson, XII, 313; orthotype Balistes curassavicus 

574. THOMPSON (1856). The Natural History of Ireland. London. 

William Thompson. 
Couchia Thompson, IV, 188; orthotype Couchia minor Thompson. A larval form 
of Ciliata. 

575. BAIRD (1857). Report on the Fishes Observed on the Coast of New Jersey 
and Long Island During the Summer of 1854. From the ninth annual report 
of the Smithsonian Institution for 1854. 

Spencer Fullerton Baird. 
Eucinostomus Baird, 345 ; orthotype E. argenteus Baird = Gerres gula Guv. & 

576. BELLOTTI (1857). Stoppani Studii Geol. e Paleontol. Lombardia. 

Cristoforo Bellotti. 
Urolepis Bellotti, 431; orthotype U. macroptera Bellotti (fossil). 
Heptanema Bellotti, 435; orthotype H. paradoxum Bellotti (fossil). 
Ichthyorhynchus Bellotti, 436; orthotype I. curioni Bellotti (fossil). A synonym of 

577. BLEEKER (1857). Achtste bijdrage tot de kennis der vischfaunavan Amhoina. 

Act. Soc. Sci. Indo-Nederl., II. 

Pieter Bleeker. 

Cirrhitichthys Bleeker, II, 39; orthotype Cirrhites graph idopterus Blkr. = Cirrh. 

APRiNUs Guv. & Val. 
Oxycirrhites Bleeker, II, 39; orthotype O. typus Blkr. 

578. BLEEKER (1857). Nieuwe nalezingen op de ichthyologie van Japan. Verb. 

Bat. Gen. 
Pieter Bleeker. 
Lateolabrax Bleeker, XXVI, 53 ; orthotype Labrax japonicus Guv & Val. Same as 
Perca-Labrax T. & S., but this word may not have been meant as a new name. 

579. BLEEKER (1857). Bijdrage tot de kennis der ichthyologische fauna van de 

Sangi-eilanden. Nat. Tijdschr. Neder.-Indie, XIII. 
Pieter Bleeker. 

COSTA, 1857 275 

Scorpaenodes Bleeker, 371 ; orthotype Scorp.^na polvlepis Blkr. Replaces Sebas- 

TOPSis Gill. 
Eleotriodes Bleeker, XIII, 372; orthotype E. sexguttata Blkr. E. heldsingeni 

Blkr., sometimes named as type, occurs in a later paper. 
Bogoda Bleeker, 468; orthotype Chanda nama Ham. A synonym of Chanda as 


580. COSTx\ (1857). Descrhione di alctini pcsci fossili del Libano. Mem. Reale 

Accad. Napoli, II, 97-112. 

Oronzio Gabriele Costa. 
Imogaster Costa, II, 102; orthotype I. auratus Costa (fossil). 
Omosoma Costa, II, 105; orthotype O. sachelalm^ Costa (fossil). 
Rhamphornimia Costa, II, 108; orthotype R. rhinelloides Costa (fossil). 

581. EGERTON (1857). Paleolithologic Notes on Some Fish Remains from the 

Neighborhood of Ludlow. Quart. Journ. Geol. Sci., XIII. 
Philip de Malpas Grey Egerton. 
Auchenaspis Egerton, XIII, 286; orthotype A. salteri Egert. (fossil). A synonym 
of Thyestes Eichw. 

581A. EMMONS (1857). American Geology, etc. Ed. I. 

Ebenezer Emmons (1799-1863). 

Rabdiolepis Emmons, VI, 45; orthotype R. speciosus Emmons (fossil) (fragment 

of a scale) (not Rhabdolepis Troschel). 
Microdus Emmons, VI, 48; orthotype M. ljevis Emmons (a shark tooth of uncer- 
tain relations). 

582. GERVAIS (1857). Sur tin poisson labroide fossile dans les sables marins de 
Montpellier (Labrodon pavimentatum). Mem. Acad. Sci. Montpellier, III. 

FRANgois Louis Paul Gervais. 
Labrodon Gervais, III, 515; orthotype L. pavimentatum Gervais (fossil). 

583. GIRARD (1857). Contributions to the Ichthyology of the Western Coast of 
the United States, from Specimens in the Museum of the Smithsonian 
Institution. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., VIII. 

Charles Girard. 
Chiropsis Girard, IX, 201 ; orthotype Chirus constellatus Grd. (male of H. 

decagrammus). a synonym of Hexagrammos Steller. 
Zaniolepis Girard, IX, 202; orthotype Z. latipinnis Grd. Misquoted as Zanio- 

dermis by Giinther (1860). 

584. HOLLARD (1857). Etudes sur les gymnodontes et en particulier sur leur 
osteologie et sur les indications qu'elle pent fournir pour leur classificaticm. 
Ann. Sci. Nat. (Zool.), VIII. 

Henri Louis Gabriel Marc Hollard (1801-1866). 
Apsicephalus Hollard, 275 ; orthotype Tetrodon fluviatilis Ham. No type named ; 

said to be equivalent to Dichotomycter Bibron, but including several other 

of Bibron's genera. Apparently a valid genus to be called Dichotomycter. 
Brachycephalus Hollard, VIII, 275 ; orthotype not named, the genus said to be 

equivalent to Tetraodon of Bibron. T. lineatus L. may be assumed as type. 

A synonym of Tetraodon L. 

585. NEWBERRY (1857). Fossil Fishes from the Devonian of Ohio. Proc. Nat. 

Inst. Washington, I. 
John Strong Newberry 


Agassichthys Newberry, 3; orthotype Placothorax agassizi Meyer (fossil). A 

synonym of Macropetalichthys Ag. 
Machaeracanthus Newberry, 6; orthotype M. peracutus Newberry (fossil). 
Onychodus Newberry, 7; orthotype O. sigmoides Newberry (fossil). 

586. NEWBERRY (1857). Letter Changing the Genus Mekolepis to Eurylepis, 

the Former Being Preoccupied. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., IX. 
John Strong Newberry. 
Eurylepis Newberry, 150; orthotype Mecolepis granulatus Newberry (fossil). 
Substitute for Mecolepis Newberry, preoccupied. 

587. PETERS (1857). Neue Ckromidengattung (Hemichromis). Monatsber. Akad. 

Wiss. Berlin. 
WiLHELM Carl Hartvvig Peters. 
Hemichromis Peters, 403 ; orthotype H. fasciatus Peters. 

588. PHILIPPI (1857). Ueber einige chilenische Vogel tmd Fische, etc. Arch. 

Rudolph Amandus Philippi (b. 1808). 

Genypterus Philippi, 268 ; orthotype G. nigricans Philippi. 

Thysanochilus Philippi, 268; orthotype T. valdivianus Philippi. A synonym of 
Velasia Gray, suppressed (but printed) by Troschel, editor of the Archiv. 
Not Thysanocheilus Kner, 1865. 

Rhynchobatis Philippi, 270; orthotype a ray from Juan Fernandez, not given a spe- 
cific name, only the dried head with long, flat snout preserved. Name preoccu- 
pied as Rhynchobatus. This animal is described as a ray with a long, thin, 
flat snout, rounded at the tip apparently like that of the shark, Mitsuku- 
RiNA. Its surface below, except at the smooth base, is covered by small stel- 
late prickles, curved backward at tip. Larger spinules cover the head with 
six still larger ones forming a curve around the eye. As this form, obvi- 
ously distinct, is without a name, it has been called Tarsistes philippi 

589. RICHARDSON (1857). On Siphonognathus, a New Genus of Fistularidce. 

Proc. Zool. Soc. London. 
John Richardson. 
Siphonognathus Richardson. 237 ; orthotype S. argyrophanes Rich. 

590. RUTIMEYER (1857). (Encheiziphius.) Verh. Ges. Basel, I. 

Carl Ludwig Rutimeyer. 
Encheiziphius Riitimeyer, I, 561; orthotype E. teretirostris Riitimeyer (fossil). 
A synonym or fossil homologue of Istiophorus. 

591. TROSCHEL (1857). Beobachtungen Uber die Fische in den Eisennieren des 
Saarbriicker Steinkohlgebirges. Verh. Naturh. Ver. Preuss. Rheinl. Westphal. 

Franz Hermann Troschel. 
Rhabdolepis Troschel, 15; logotype Pal^eoniscum macropterum Bronn (fossil). 
A synonym of Elonichthys Giebel. 

592. 'WAGNER (1857). Characteristik neucr Arten von KnorpelHscheti aus den 

lithographischen Schiefern der Umgegend von Solenhofen. Gelehrte Anz. 
Bayer. Akad. Wiss., XLIV. 

JoHANN Andreas Wagner. 
Palaeoscyllium Wagner, XLIV, 291; othotype P. formosum Wagner (fossil). 

AGASsiz, 1858 277 


593. AGASSIZ (1858). Remarks on a New Species of Skate from the Sandwich 

Islands. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 1858, VI. 
Louis Agassiz. 
Goniobatis Agassiz, VI, 385 ; orthotype Raja flagellum B1. & Schn. A synonym 
of AiiTOBATis Blainv., as restricted by Miiller & Henle. Same as Stoasodon 
Cantor, 1850. 

594. AGASSIZ (1858). Remarks on New Fishes from Nicaragua Collected by 

Julius Froebel. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., VI. 
Louis Agassiz. 

Parachromis Agassiz, VI, 401 ; orthotype P. gulosus Ag. (not identifiable, said 
to be a CiCHLiD (Chromid) resembling Dentex, but with the lateral line 
broken. Probably a synonym of Cichlaurus Sw. 

H5rpsophrys Agassiz, VI, 401 ; orthotype H. unimaculatus Ag. No description. 
A CiCHLiD said to resemble Chrysophrys (Sparus) with a large, black 
shoulder spot (as in Astronotus helleri Steind. and other species). Prob- 
ably a synonym of Astronotus Sw. 

Baiodon Agassiz, VI, 401 ; orthotype B. fasciatus Ag. A slender form, said to 
resemble Boops Cuv. Possibly the same as Theraps irregularis Gthr., but 
not identifiable. 

Amphilophus Agassiz, VI, 401 ; orthotype A. frcebeli Ag., apparently Heros labiatus 
Gthr. or H. lobocheilus Gthr. species in which the male has both lips 
greatly enlarged, "peculiar in not having the ordinary fleshy lips, but a 
large, triangular lobe projecting above and below jaw like the fleshy appen- 
dages of some bats" (Agassiz). It is possible that the species thus provided 
should stand as a distinct genus Amphilophus. 

595. AYRES (1858). On New Fishes of the Calif ornian Coast. Proc. Calif. 

Acad. Sci., 1858-1861 (1853), II. 
William O. Ayres. 
Anoplopoma Ayres, II, 27 ; orthotype A. merlangus Ayres. = Gadus fimbria Pallas. 
Stereolepis Ayres, II, 28; orthotype S. gigas Ayres. 

596. BLEEKER (1858). Zesde bijdrage (etc.) vischfauna van Sumatra (Visschen 

van Padang, etc.j. Act. Soc. Neder.-Indie, III. 
Pieter Bleeker. 
Helicophagus Bleeker, 45; orthotype H. typus Blkr. 

597. BLEEKER (1858). Vierde bijdrage tot de kennis der ichthyologische Fauna 

van Japan. Act. Soc. Sci. Indo-Neerl., III. 
Pieter Bleeker. 
Sirembo Bleeker, 22 ; orthotype Brotula imberbis T. & S. 
Congerodon (Kaup) Bleeker, 29; orthotype C. indicus Kaup MS. = Cogrus lep- 

turus Rich. Same as Uroconger and of the same original date, 1856. 
Triacanthodes Bleeker, 2)7 ; orthotype Tricanthus anomalus T. & S. 

598. BLEEKER (1858). Tiende bijdrage tot de kennis der vischfauna van Celebes. 

Act. Soc. Sci. Indo-Neerl., III. 
Pieter Bleeker. 
Gunnellichthys Bleeker, III, 9; orthotype G. pleurot^nia Blkr. 


599. BLEEKER (1858). Bijdrage tot de kermis dcr visclifauna van den Goram- 

Archipel. Nat Tijdschr. Neder.-Indie, XV. 
PiETER Bleeker. 
Pseudoplesiops Bleeker, XV, 217; orthotype P. typus Bleeker. 

600. BLEEKER (1858). Vierde bijdrage (etc.) van Bilitou. Nat. Tijdschr. 

Neder.-Indie, XV. 

PiETER Bleeker. 

Leiocassis Bleeker, 225 ; orthotype L. micropogon Blkr. Corrected by Giinther 


Silurichthys Bleeker, 225 ; orthotype S. phaiosoma Blkr. 

601. BLEEKER (1858). Tzvaalfde bijdrage tot de kennis der vischfauna van 

Borneo, visschen van Sinkawang. Act. Soc. Sci. Indo-Neerl., V. 

PiETER Bleeker. 
Sauridichthys Bleeker, 2; orthotype S. ophiodon Blkr. (1858). A synonym of 

Harpodon Le Sueur. 
Hexanematichthys Bleeker, V, 2; orthotype Bagrus sundaicus Blkr. 
Sciadeichthys Bleeker, 99; orthotype Sciades pictus M. & T. Not Sciadeichthys 
Blkr., 1863. 

602. BLEEKER (1858). De visschen van den Indischen Archipel, etc. L Siluri. 

Title also in Latin as Prodromiis. 
PiETER Bleeker. 
Most of these genera occur also in later papers, 1862, 1863 ; the type 
species often indicated later. 

Pseudodoras Bleeker, I, 53 ; orthotype Doras nicer Val. 

Hemidoras Bleeker, I, 53 ; orthotype Doras stenopeltis Kner. A synonym of 
Doras Lac. as restricted by Bleeker. 

Davalla Bleeker, 58; orthotype Hypophthalmus da valla Schomburgk. 

Pseudobagrus Bleeker, 60; orthotype Bagrus aurantiacus T. & S. 

Melanodactylus Bleeker 60; orthotype M. acutivelis Blkr. = Pimelodus nigrodi- 

Chrysichthys Bleeker, 60; orthotype Pimelodus auratus GeofFroy St. Hilaire. 

Octonematichthys Bleeker, 60; orthotype O. nigritus Blkr. 

Rita Bleeker, 60; orthotype Pimelodus rita Ham. (R. euchanani Blkr.). 

Selenaspis Bleeker, I, 62; haplotype Silurus herzbergi Bloch. 

Cephalocassis Bleeker, 62; orthotype Arius truncatus Cuv. & Val. 

Netuma Bleeker, 62; orthotype N. thalassina Blkr. = N. nasuta Blkr. • 

Guiritinga Bleeker, 62; orthotype G. commersoni Blkr. 

Ostogeneiosus Bleeker, 63 ; orthotype Arius militaris Blkr. 

Batrachocephalus Bleeker, 63 ; orthotype B. micropogon Blkr. 

Ketengus Bleeker, 190; orthotype K. typus Blkr. 

Conorhynchos Bleeker, 191 ; orthotype Pimelodus conirostris Cuv. & Val. 

Hemipimelodus Bleeker. 195 ; orthotype H. borneensis Blkr. 

Zungaro Bleeker, 196; orthotype Pimelodus zungaro Humboldt = Zungaro hum- 
boldti Blkr. 

Heptapterus Bleeker, 197 ; orthotype H. surinamensis Blkr. 

Rhamdia Bleeker, 197; orthotype Pimelodus quelen Q. & G. 

Pinirampus Bleeker, 198; orthotype P. typus Blkr. = Pimelodus pirinampu Spix. 

Auchenaspis Bleeker, 198; orthotype Pimelodus biscutatus Geoffroy. Name pre- 
occupied ; replaced by Auchenoglanis Gthr. 

BLEEKER, 1858 279 

Trachcorystes Bleeker. 200; orthotypc T. typus Blkr. 

Rama Rleeker. 201; orthotype Pimelodus rama Ham. = Rama buchanani Blkr. 

Acrochordonichthys Bleeker, 204 ; orthotype A. platycephalus Blkr. 

Gagata Bleeker, 204; orthotype G. typus Blkr. 

Schilbeichthys Bleeker, 253 ; orthotype Silurus garua Ham. A synonym of Clupi- 

Belodontichthys Bleeker, 253 ; orthotype B. macrochir Blkr. = Wallago dinema 

Pseudosilurus Bleeker, 253 ; orthotype P. bimaculatus Blkr. A synonym of 

Ompok Lac. 
Siluranodon Bleeker, 253; orthotype Silurus auritus Geoffroy. 
Kryptopterus Bleeker, 253; tautotype Silurus cryptopterus Blkr. Corrected to 

Cryptopterus by Giinther. 
Kryptopterichthys Bleeker, 253 ; orthotype Silurus palembrangensis Blkr. 
Micronema Bleeker, 253; orthotype M. typus Blkr. 
Phalacronotus Bleeker, 253; orthotype P. leptonema Blkr. 
Hemisilurus Bleeker, 255; orthotype H. heterorhynchus Blkr. 
Schilbeodes Bleeker, 258; orthotype Silurus gyrinus Mitchill. 
Aspredinichthys Bleeker. 328; orthotype Aspredo tibicen Temminck. 
Bunocephalichthys Bleeker, 329; orthotype Bunocephalus verrucosus Kner. 
Piratinga Bleeker, 355; orthotype Bagrus reticulatus Kner. 
Platynematichthys Bleeker, 357; orthotype Bagrus pUnctulatus Kner. 
Piramutana Bleeker, 355; orthotype Bargus piramuta Kner. 

603. BLEEKER (1858). Over de geslachten der Cobitinen. Nat. Tijdschr. Neder- 

Indie, XVI, 1858-1859, 302-304. 
PiETER Bleeker. 
Lepidocephalus Bleeker, 303; orthotype C. microchir Blkr. 

Cobiitichthys Bleeker, 304; orthotype C. enalios Bleeker. A synonym of Mis 

604. BLEEKER (1858). Vischsoorten gevangen bij Japara, versameld door S. A. 

Thurkow. Nat. Tijdschr. Neder.-Indie, XVI, 1858-1859, 406-409. 

Pieter Bleeker. 
Oxyurichthys Bleeker, 408; orthotype O. microlepis Blkr. or Gobius belosso Blkr. 

605. BLYTH (1858). (Amblyceps). Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, XXVII. 

Edward Blyth. 
Amblyceps Blyth, XXVIII, 281 ; haplotype A. c^cutiens Blyth. 

606. BRONN (1858). Beitrdge sur iriasischen Fauna und Flora der bituminoschen 

Schiefer von Raibl in Kdrnthcn. Neues Jahrb. Min. 

Heinrich Georg Bronn (1800-1862). 

Belonorhynchus Bronn, 12; orthotype B. striolatus Bronn (fossil). A synonym 

of Saurorhynchus. 
Pholidopleurus Bronn, 17; orthotype P. typus Bronn (fossil). 
Thoracopterus Bronn 21; orthotype T. niederristi Bronn (fossil). 

607,612. COSTA (1858). (Uraleptus.) Archiv. Naturg. (1858). 

Oronzio Gabriele Costa. 
Uraleptus Costa, 87 ; orthotype Gadus maraldi Risso. A synonym of Gadella 


613. DUMfiRIL (1858). Reptiles et poissons de I'Afrique occidentale, etc. 
Comtes Rendus Acad. Sci. Paris, 1858, LXI. 
AuGUSTE Henri Andre Dumeril. 
Chromichthys A. Dumeril, X, 257; orthotype C. elongatus Guich. 

614. EGERTON (1858). On Chondrosteus, an Extinct Form of the Sturionidce, 
Found in the Lias Formation at Lyme Regis. Phil. Trans. London, 1858. 

Philip de Malpas Grey Egerton. 
Chondrosteus (Agassiz) Egerton, 871; orthotype C. acipenseroides Ag. (fossil). 
Gyrosteus (Agassiz) Egerton, 883; orthotype G. mirabilis Ag. (fossil). 

615. EGERTON (1858). Fish: Cosmolepis, etc. (In Figures and Descriptions of 
British Organic Remains.) Mem. Geol. Surv. United Kingdom, 1858, 9 dec. 

Philip de Malpas Grey Egerton. 

Cosmolepis Egerton, Dec. IX, No. 1; orthotype C. egertoni Ag. (fossil). 

Endactis Egerton, Dec. IX, No. 4; orthotype E. agassizi Egert. (fossil). A syno- 
nym of Caturus. 

Centrolepis Egerton, Dec. IX, No. 5; orthotype C. asper Ag. (fossil). 

Nothosoma (Agassiz) Egerton, Dec. IX, No. 6; orthotype N. octostychius Ag. 

Pleuropholis Egerton, Dec. IX, No. 7; logootype Pholidophorus l^vissimus Ag. 

Macropoma (Agassiz) Egerton, Dec. IX, No. 10; orthotype M. egertoni Ag. 
(fossil). Replaces Eurycormus Wagner (1863). 

616. GILL (1858). Prodromus descriptionis subfamilicr Gobinarum squamis 
cycloideis piscium, a cl. W. Stimpsono in mare Pacifico acquisitorum. Ann. 
Lyceum Nat. Hist. N. Y., 1858-1862, VII, 12-16. 

Theodore Nicholas Gill (1837-1914). 

Chaenogobius Gill, 12; orthotype C. annularis Gill. 

Lepidogobius Gill, 14; orthotype Gobius gracilis Grd. = G. lepidus Grd. 

617. GILL (1858). Description of a New Genus of Pimelodince from Canada. 
Ann. Lyceum Nat. Hist. N. Y., 1853-1858, VI, 3. 

Theodore Nicholas Gill. 

Synechoglanis Gill, 39 ; orthotype Synechoglanis beadlei Gill — Ictalurus 
punctatus (Raf.). A synonym of Ictalurus Raf. 

618. GILL (1858). Prodromus descriptionis familice Gobioidarum generumnovorum. 
Ann. Lyceum Nat. Hist. N. Y., 1858-1862, VII, 16-19. 

Theodore Nicholas Gill. 
Tridentiger Gill, 16, Dec; orthotype Sicydium obscurum, T. & S. 
Triaenophorus Gill, 17; orthotype T. trigonocephalus Gill. Name preoccupied, 
replaced by Tri.enophorichthys Gill. 

619. GILL (1858). (Triccnophorichthys.) Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1859. 

Theodore Nicholas Gill. 
Triasnophorichthys Gill 195 ; orthotype Tri.«nophorus Trigonocephalus Gill. 
Substitute for Tri^nophorus Gill, preoccupied. 

GILL, 1858 281 

620. GILL (1858). Synopsis of the Fresh-zvater Fishes of the Western Portion of 

the Island of Trinidad, West Indies. Ann. Lyceum Nat. Hist. N. Y., 1853- 

1858. VI, 363-430. 

Theodore Nicholas Gill, v 
Ctenogobius Gill, 374 ; orlhotype C. fasciatus Gill. 
Pimelonotus Gill, VI, 387; orthotype P. vilsoni. A synonym of Rhamdia Blkr. 

of the same year. 
Batrachoglanis Gill, VI, 389; orthotype Pimelodus raninus Cuv. & Val. A syno 

nym of Pseudopimelodus Blkr. of about the same date. 
Hoplosternum Gill, VI, 395 ; orthotype Callichthys l^vigatus Val. 
Pterygoplichthys Gill, VI, 408; orthotype Hypostomus duodecimalis Cuv. & Val. 
Pc3ecilurichthys Gill, 414; logotype P. brevoorti Gill. 
Hemigrammus Gill, 416; haplotype H. unilineatus Gill. 
Stevardia Gill, 423 ; orthotype S. albipinnis Gill. 

Corynopoma Gill, 425 ; orthotype C. riisei Gill. A synonym of Stevardia Gill. 
Nematopoma Gill, 428 ; orthotype N. searlesi Gill. A synonym of Stevardia Gill. 

621. HECKEL & KNER (1858). Die SUsswasserfische der oesterreichischen 

Monarchie mit Riicksicht auf die angrdnsenden Lander. 

JoHANN Jakob Heckel ; Rudolph Kner. 

Carpio Heckel, 64; orthotype Cyprinus kollari Heckel. A supposed hybrid of 

Cyprinus and Carassius. 
Blicca Heckel, 120; orthotype Cyprinus blicca Gmelin. 
Leucaspius Heckel & Kner, 145 ; orthotype L. abruptus Heckel & Kner. 
Idus Heckel, 147 ; orthotype Cyprinus idus, L. 

622. KADE (1858). Ueber die devonischen Fischreste cines diluvial Blockes. 

Meseritz, 1858. 
G. Kade. 
Gyrolepis Kade, 17, 18; orthotype G. posnaniensis Kade (fossil). Name pre- 
occupied ; perhaps a Diplopterax. 
Archaeacanthus Kade, 19; orthotype A. quadrisulcatus Kade (fossil). A synonym 

of Onchus. 
Spirodus Kade, 20; orthotype S. regularis Kade (fossil). 

623. KAUP (1858). Uebersicht der Familie Gadidce. Arch. Naturg., 1858, XXIV, pt. 1. 

Johann Jacob Kaup. 

Xenocephalus Kaup, 83 ; orthotype X. armatus Kaup. 

Physiculus Kaup. 88; orthotype P. dalwigkii Kaup. 

Lotella Kaup, 88; orthotype Lota phycis T. & S. 

Molvella Kaup, 90; orthotype M. borealis Kaup = Gadus mustela L. A syno- 
nym of CiLiATA Couch. 

Brotella Kaup, 92 ; orthotype Brotula imberbis T. & S. A synonym of Sirembo Blkr. 

Hoplophycis Kaup, 93 ; orthotype Xiphiurus capensis Smith. A section under 
Genypterus Philippi. 

Brotulophis Kaup, 93 ; orthotype B. argentistriatus Kaup. 

624. KAUP (1858). On Neniophis, a New Genus of Riband-shaped Fishes. Proc. 

Zool. Soc. London, 1858, pt. 26. 
Johann Jacob Kaup. 
Nemophis Kaup 168; orthotype N. lessoni Kaup. 


625. KAUP (1858). Uebersicht der Soleince, etc. Arch. Naturg. 

JoHANN Jacob Kaup. 

Monochirus Kaup, 94; orthotype M. maculipinnis Kaup. Not of Rafinesque, 
1814 ; a synonym of /Achirus Lac. 

Grammichthys Kaup 94; orthotype Achirus lineatus L. A synonym of Achirus 

.ffisopia Kaup, 97; logotype Solea cornuta Cuv. (as restricted by Giinther, 1862). 

Euryglossa Kaup, 99; orthotype Pleuronectes orientalis B1. & Schn. 

Eurypleura Kaup, 100; logotype E. leucorhyncha Kaup. A needless sub- 
stitute for AcHiROiDES Blkr. 

Gymnachirus Kaup, 101 ; orthotype G. nudus Kaup. 

Aseraggodes Kaup, 103, logotype A. guttulatus Kaup. 

Heteromycteris Kaup, 103; orthotype H. capensis Kaup. 

Apionichthys Kaup, 104; orthotype A. dumerili Kaup. 

626. KAUP (1858). Uebersicht der Plagtisincc, der fiinften Subfamilie der Pleiiro- 

nectidce. Arch. Naturg., 1858, XXIV, pt. 1. 

Johann Jacob Kaup. 

Cantoria Kaup, 106; orthotype Plagusia cantori Bll<r. = Cantoria pinangensis 

Aphoristia Kaup, 106 ; orthotype Achirus ornatus Lac. A snyonym of Symphurus 

Arelia Kaup, 106; logotype Pleuronectes arel B1. & Schn. 
TruUa Kaup, 106; orthotype Plagusia trulla Cantor. 
Icania Kaup, 106; orthotype Achirus cynoglossus Buchanan. 

627. KAUP (1858). Einiges iiber die Acanthopterygiens a joue cuirassee Cuv. 

Arch. Naturg., 1858, XXIV, pt. 1. 
John Jacob Kaup 

Polemius Kaup, 333 ; orthotype Apistus alatus Cuv. & Val. Kaup transfers Apistus 
Cuv. to A. trachinoides, a species not mentioned by Cuvier, making Proso- 
podasys. Cantor's substitute name (1849), a synonym of Apistus. Polemius 
must be regarded as a synonym of Pterichthys Sw. if Apistus is rejected. 

Cocotropus Kaup, 333; orthotype Corythobatus echinatus Cantor. 

Feristethus Kaup, 336; orhotype (Trigla cataphracta L.). A change in spelling 
of Peristedion a name also revised to Peristethidium. 

Trichopleura Kaup, 338; orthotype Sthenopus mollis Rich. A synonym of 

Hoplocottus Kaup, 339; logotype Podabrus cottoides Rich, (first species named), 
a species of Pseudoblennius T. & S., 1850. Podabrus is preoccupied and 
Hoplocottus was made to contain both Podabrus and Trachidermis Heckel. 
A synonym of Pseudoblennius T. & S. 

628. KNER (1858). Ichthyologische Beitrdge. II. Abtheilung. Sitzb. Akad. 

Wiss. Wien, XXVI. 
Rudolph Kner. 
Asterophysus Kner, XXVI, 402 ; orthotype A. batrachus Kner. 
Centromochlus Kner, XXVI, 430 f orthotype C. megalops Kner. 

629. LEIDY (1858). Descriptions of Some Remains of Fishes from the Car- 
boniferous and Devonian Formations of the United States. Joum. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., III. 

Joseph Leidy. 

LEiDv, 1858 283 

Apedodus Leidy, III, 164; orthotype A. priscus Leidy (fossil). Probably a 
synonym of Dendrodus. 

630. LEIDY (1858) . Notices of Some Remains of Extinct Fishes (Hadrodus, etcj. 

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1857 (1858), 167-168. 
Joseph Leidy. 
Hadrodus Leidy, 167; orthotype H. priscus Leidy. 
Phasganodus Leidy, 167; orthotype P. dirus Leidy (fossil). A synonym of Cimo- 

LicHTHYs Leidy. 
Turseodus Leidy, 167; orthotype T. acutus Leidy (fossil). 

631. VON DER MARCK (1858). (Fossil Fishes.) Zeitschrift der Deutschen 

Geologie, X. 
W. VON DER Marck (d. 1900). 

Pelargorhynchus von der Marck, X, 242; logotype P. dercetiformis Marck (fossil). 
Sardinius von der Marck, X, 245; orthotype Osmerus cordieri Ag. (fossil). Not 

Sardinia Poey, 1860, nor Sardina Antipa, 1914, which is the same. 
Sardinioides von der Marck, X, 245; orthotype Osmeroides monasteri Ag. (fossil). 

A synonym of Osmeroides Ag. 
Echidnocephalus von der Marck, X, 247; orthotype E. troscheli Marck (fossil). 

An extinct analogue of Halosaurus. 
Ischyrocephalus von der Marck, X, 248; orthotype I. gracilis Marck (fossil). 

A synonym of Enchodus. 
Platycormus von der Marck, X, 351 ; orthotype Beryx germanus Ag. (fossil). 

632. PANDER (1858). Die Ctenodiptcrinen des devonischen Systems. St. Peters- 

burg, 1858, VIII, 65. 
Christian Heinrich Pander. 

Cheirodus Pander, 33; orthotype C. jerofejewi Pander (fossil). A synonym of 

Conchodus McCoy ; the name preoccupied. 
Ptyctodus Pander, 48; orthotype P. obliquus Pander (fossil). 

633. PHILIPPI (1858). Beschreibimg neuer JVirbelthiere aus Chile. Arch. Naturg. 

Rudolph Amandus Philippi. 

Chilopterus Philippi, 306 ; no specific name given. A larval lamprey ; probably of 
Caragola Gray. 

633A. QUENSTEDT (1858). Der Jura. Tubingen, 1856-1858, VI. 
Friederich August von Quenstedt. 

Desmacanthus Quenstedt, 34; orthotype D. cloacinus Quenstedt (fossil). A syno- 
nym of Nemacanthus. 

Lycodus Quenstedt, 240; orthotype Saurichthys gigas Quenstedt (fossil). 

Pachylepis Quenstedt, 241; orthotype (problematical cranial bones) (fossil). 

Chimaeracanthus Quenstedt, 347; orthotype. A. aalensis Quenstedt (fossil). A 
synonym of Ischyodus. 

Psilacanthus Quenstedt, 347; orthotype P. aalensis Quenstedt (fossil). 

Typodus Quensteflt, 781; logotype T. annulatus Quenstedt (fossil). Apparently 
a synonym of Mesodon, which, being preoccupied, it replaces. 

Kokkoderma Quenstedt, 810; orthotype K. suevicum Quenstedt (fossil). Later 
spelled Coccoderma. 


634. REINHARDT (1858). Stegophilus insidiosus, en ny mallefisk fra Brasilien 
og dens levemaade. Vidensk. Meddel. Naturh. Foren. Kjobenhavn, 1859, 79-97. 


Stegophilus Reinhardt, tab. 2; orthotype S. insidiosus Reinh. 

635. ROUAULT (1858.) Note sur Ics vertebres fossiles des terrains sedimentaired. 
de I'ouest de la France. Comtes Rendus Acad. Sci. Paris, 1858, XLVII, 99-103. 

Marie Rouault. 
Nummopalatus Rouault, XLVII, 101; orthotype N. edwardsius Rouault (fossil). 

A synonym of Labrodon Gervais. . 
Machaerius Rouault, XLVII, 102; orthotype M. archiaci Rouault (fossil). Name 

preoccupied ; a synonym of Mach^racanthus Newberry. 

636. THIOLLlfiRE (1858). Notice sur les poissons fossiles du Bugey, et sur 
application de la methode de Cuvier a leur classement. Bull. Soc. Geol. France, 
1858, 2 ser., XV, 782-794. 

Victor Joseph de l'Isle Thiolliere. 
Attakeopsis Thiolliere, XV, 784; orthotype A. desori Thiolliere (fossil). Name 

only ; validated in 1873. A synonym of Ionoscopus Costa. 
Callopterus Thiolliere, XV, 784; orthotype C. agassizi Thiolliere (fossil). Nama 

occupied as Calopterus in beetles (1838) ; may be replaced by Ainia Jordan, 

from the locality Ain in France. 

637. WEINLAND (1858). A New Division of the Five Species of Flying-fish 
Found Along the Coast of North America, Which Have Hitherto All Been 
Referred to the Genus Exocetus. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., VI, 385. 

David Friedrich Weinland. 
Halocypselus Weinland, VI, 385; orthotype "Exoccetus mesogaster" = Exocce- 
Tus volitans L. = E. EVOLANs L., the two being identical, as Dr. Lonnberg 
has shown by the examination of Linnasus' type of E. volitans. 


As these pages go through the press the following errors and omissions are noted : 

On page 173, Bennett's Fishes of Mauritius, No. 143 A, is in two parts, both in 
1831, not 1830. The first is the collection of Captain Belcher (November), the 
second that of Charles Telfair (December). 

Insert — 
Apolectus Bennett, I, 146 (November) ; orthotype A. immunis Bennett. Name 

preoccupied, replaced by Apodontis Bennett. 
Apodontis Bennett, I, 169 (December) ; orthotype Apolectus immunis Bennett, 
substitute for Apolectus Bennett, preoccupied by Apolectus Cuv. & Val. 
(October) 1830. 
Under Agonostomus read A. telfairi. 
On page 174, to 142A Cuvier & Valenciennes add — 
Apolectus Cuvier & Valenciennes, VIII, 438 ; orthotype A. stromateus Cuv. 
& Val. = Stromateus nicer Bloch. 
On page 219 the name Coccolus was given as substitute for Krohnius, a larval 
Macroid, as stated on page 226. 


In the following list, the names of genera likely to prove valid are left unmarked ; 
d indicates doubt of one form or another ; s indicates synonyms, apparently never 
to be revived or added to the system. 

Abeona, s, 258 
Abron, 237 
Abrostomus, 244 
Acanthias, s, 225 
Acanthidium, 195 
Acanthobrama, 211 
Acanthoclinus, 212 
Acanthocottus, s, 249 
Acanthodemus, d, 264 
Acanthoderma Cantraine, s, 

Acanthoderma Ag., s, 217 
Acanthodes, s, \77 
Acantholabrus, 194 
Acantholepis, s, 229 
Acanthonemus, 180 
Acanthopleurus, d, 217 
Acanthopsis, s, 180 
Acanthosoma, s, 210 
Acanus, 191 
Acara, s, 207 
Acarana, 179 
Acentronura, 253 
Acestra, s, 260 
Acestrus, d, 224 
Acharnes, 239 
Achiroides, 247 
Acinacea, d, 170 
Acomus, s, 269 
Acoura, s, 204 
Acrocheilus, 261 
Acrochordonichthys, 279 
Acrodus Geinitz, 189 
Acrodus Ag., 191 
Acrogaster, 191 
Acrognathus, 219 
Acrolepis, 177 
Acronurus, s, 259 
Acropoma Owen, s, 216 

Acropoma T. & S., 260 
Acrotemnus, 217 
Actinobatis, d, 214 
Actinolepis, d, 225 
Acus, s, 205 
Adiapneustes, s, 234 
Adonis, s, 258 
^chmodus. s, 256 
Aellopos. 185 
^sopia, 182 
.^thalion, 212 
Aetoplatea, 193 
Agassichthys, s, 276 
Agoniates, 227 
Agonostomus, 174 
Agoreion, d. 237 
Agosia, 269 
Ailurichthys, s, 255 
Alausa, s, 231 
Alazon, d, 2Z7 
Alburnellus, s, 269 
Alburnops, 270 
Alepes, 200 
Alepisaurus, d, 179 
Algansea, 269 
Alestss, 221 
Aleuterius, s, 22Z 
Algoma, s, 269 
Alopecias, s, 192 
Altona, s, 268 
Alysia, s, 195 
Amanses, 179 
Amblyceps, 279 
Amblygaster, s, 240 
Amblyopsis, 210 
Amblyopus, s, 188 
Amblypterus, 177 
Amblyrhynchotus, d, 263 
Amblysemus, 217 

Amblyurus, s, 184 
Ameibodon, d, 191 
Amia, d, 259 
Ammocoetus, d, 170 
Amphibichthys, s, 209 
Amphichthys, 202 
Amphilophus, 277 
Amphioxus, s, 186 
Amphipnous, 196 
Amphiprionichthys, 263 
Amphiscarus, s, 199 
Amphistichus, 255 
Amphistium, 181, 218 
Analithis, d, 237 
Anaora, d, 1/9 
Anarrhichthys, 262 
Anchisomus, s, 261 
Ancistrodon, s, 250 
Ancistrus, 260 
Anepistomon, s, 236 
Anguisurus, s, 271 
Anodontostoma, 241 
Anomiophthalmus, d, 268 
Anoplocapros, 265 
Anoplopoma, 277 
Anoplus, s, 213 
Anormurus, d, 171 
Anosmius, s, 266 
Antaceus, d, 185 
Antigonia, 215 
Apeches, s, 236 
Apedodus, d, 283 
Apeltes, 210 
Apepton, s, 236 
Aperioptus, 240 
Apanacanthus, s, 263 
Aphanopus, 195 
Aphobus, s, 238 
Aphoristia, s, 282 



Aphredoderus, 178 
Aplithalmichthys, 272 
Apionichthys, 282 
Apistus, d, 174 
Aploactis, 216 
Aplocheilus, 195 
Aplochiton, 212 
Apliirus, s, 209 
Apocryptes, d, 188 
Apodichthys, 258 
Apodometes, s, 237 
Apodontis. 284 
Apogonichthys, 256 
Apogonoides, 240 
Apolectus Bennett, s, 175 
Apolectus Cuv. & Val, 285 
Aprion, s, 192 
Apsicephalus, d, 275 
Apterichthe, s, 269 
Apterigia, s, 262 
Apterogasterus, d, 184 
Apterygia, s, 179 
Aptocylus, 183 
Aracana, 192 
Arapaima Miiller, 216, 229 
Archaeacanthus, s, 281 
Archasoteuthis, s, 264 
Archasus, 218 
Arelia, 282 
Arges, 206 
Argyrea, s, 210 
Argyreus, s, 211 
Argyrlepes, s, 200 
Argyrops, 199 
Argyrosomus De la Pylaie, 

s, 184 
Argyrosomus Ag., s, 245 
Ariodes, 243 
Ariosoma, 193, 198 
Arius, d, 206 
Arnion, s, 237 
Arothron, s, 196 
Arripis, 211 
Artedius, 269 
Arthropterus, d, 214 
Ascalabos, s, 196 
Asellus, s, 223 
Aseraggodes, 282 
Asima, s, 233, 242 
Aspicottus, 257 

Aspidontus, 180 
Aspidoparia, 215 
Aspidorhynchus, 177 
Aspius, 180 
Aspredinichthys. 279 
Assiculus, s, 230 
Asteracanthus, 186 
Asterodermus, s, 214 
Asterodon, 209 
Asteroptychius, 239 
Asterophysus, 282 
Astrape, s, 193 
Astrocanthus, s, 205 
Astrolepis, 206 
Astronesthes, 222 
Astronotus, 200 
Astyanax, 255 
Ateleopus, d, 230 
Atherinichthys, s, 253 
Atherinoides, s, 253 
Atherinopsis, 257 
Atimostoma, s, 244 
Attakeopsis. s, 284 
Attilus, s, 238 
Auchenaspis Egert., s, 275 
Auchenaspis Blkr., s, 278 
Auchenichthys, s. 268 
Aulacocephalus, 213 
Aulacosteus, 229 
Aulodus, s, 245 
Aulopyge, 209 
Autolepis, 218 
Badis, 253 
Bagarius, 253 
Bagroides, 248 
Bagrus, d, 194 
Baiodon, s, 277 
Baione. s, 210 
Balitora. s, 178 
Ballerus, 211 
Basilichthys. 258 
Batis, s, 187 

Batrachocephalus, 230, 278 
Batrachoglanis, d, 281 
Batrachops Heckel. 263 
Batrachops Bibron. s, 207 
Batrachopus, s, 172 
Bdellostoma, s, 182 
Bedula, s, 179 
Belemnobatis, 261 

Belobranchus, 268 
Belodontichthys, 279 
Belonopsis, s, 256 
Belonorhynchus, s, 279 
Belonostomus, 180 
Bengala, 179 
Benthophilus, 176 
Btrycopsis, 245 
Betta, 245 
Bibronia. s, 219 
Blennechis, s, 185 
BlenniomcEus. s, 245 
Blenniops, s, 266 
Blennitrachus, s, 198 
Blennophis, s, 202 
Blicca, 281 
Bodianus, 171 
Bogoda, s, 253, 275 
Boleophthalmus, d, 188 
Boleosoma, 210 
Boops, s, 258 
Borborodes, s, IZl 
Bothriolepis, 206 
Bothrolcemus, s, 265 
Bothrosteus, d, 224 
Boxaodon, d, 238 
Brachionichthys, 263 
Brachioptilon, s, 244 
Brachirus, s, 203 
Brachycephalus, d, 275 
Brachygnathus, s, 224 
Brachyochirus, d, 209 
Brachyrus, s, 201 
Brachysomophis, 271 
Branchiostoma, 180 
Bremaceros, 208 
Breviceps, s, 194 
Brontes, s, 206 
Brotella, 281 
Brotulophis, 281 
Brychastus, 224 
Brycinus, 242 
Brycon, 221 
Bubalichthys, d, 261 
Bufichthys, s, 201 
Bunocephalichthys, 279 
Bunocephalus, 265 
Butis, 267 
Byssacanthus, 225 
Bythites, 190 



Byzenos, s, 216 
Cacus, d, 264 
Cacodoxus. d, 241 
Caeso, s, 235 
Calamopleurus, 208 
Calainostoma, 177 
Calamus. 199 
Calignathus, s, 253 
Callanthias, 195 
Callechelys, 271 
Callicanthus, 201 
Callichrous, s, 172 
Callipteryx, 191 
Callopterus, s, 284 
Calloptilum, s, 222 
Calophysus, 216 
Calopomus, d, 224 
Calycilepidotus, 262 
Camarina, s, 255 
Campodus, 220 
Campostoma. 261 
Caninoa, d, 221 
Caninotus, s, 222 
Cannorhynchus, s, 241 
Cantherines, 205 
Canthidermis, 204 
Canthigaster, 198 
Canthirhynchus, s, 202 
Canthophrys, s, 204 
Cantoria, 282 
Capellaria, s, 235 
Capitodus, 212 
Capoeta, 210 
Capriscus, s, 204 
Caprodon, 216 
Caprophonus, s, 243 
Capropygia, 265 
Caracanthus, 227 
Caragola, s, 249 
Carangichthys, s, 250 
Carangodes, d, 270 
Carangoides. 248 
Carangopsis. 181. 218 
Carangus. d, 180 
Carapus, d, 243 
Carassius. 176 
Carcharias, s, 234 
Carcharodon Smith, 190 
Carcharodon M. & H., 192 
Carcharopsis, s, 214 

Carelophus, .y, 226 
Cariniceps, s, 260 
Carpio, s, 281 
Catla, s, 219 
Catochsenum, s, 241 
Catonotus. d, 254 
Catophorhynchus, s, 263 
Catopra. s, 248 
Catoprion, 221 
Catopterus Ag., 177 
Catopterus Redfield, s, 190 
Catulus. s, 190 
Caturus, 179 
Cebedichthys, 262 
Cenisophius, d, 226 
Centaurus, s, 265 
Centracion, d, 176 
Centridermichthys, 222 
Centrodus M'Coy, s, 243 
Centrodus Giebel. 231 
Centrolepis, 280 
Centrogenys, 212 
Centromochlus, 282 
Centrophorus, d, 192 
Centroscyllium, 193 
Centrurophis, s, 271 
Cephalaspis, 181 
Cephalinus, s, 259 
Cephalocassis, 278 
Cephalus Bon., s, 226 
Cephalus Basilewski, s, 262 
Cephus. s, 203 
Cepolophis, s, 272 
Ceramurus, 226 
Ceratias, 227 
C ratichthys Baird & 

Grd., 252 
Ceratichthys Girard, s, 270 
Ceratodus, d, 191 
Ceratoptera, s, 193 
Cerdo, s. 235 
Cerna;. d, 187 
Cestraeus, d, 185 
Cestreus McClelland. 212 
Cestreus Gronow, s, 258 
Chaca, 206 
Chsenichthys, i^, 222 
Chaenogobius, 280 
Chaetichthys, s, 238 
Chsetobranchus, 207 

Chaetodermis, 205 
Chaetolabrus, s, 199 
Chastomus, 220 
Chastopterus, s, 223 
Chaetostoma, 230 
Cha?turichthys, 222 
Chalcinus, 242 
Chalisoma. s, 204 
Chanda. 172 
Channichthys, 222 
Channo-Murasna. 223 
Charax, s, 173 
Chasmodes, 185 
Chaunax, 229 
Chedrus, s, 202 
Cheilichthys, s, 196 
Cheilinoides, 248 
Cheilobarbus, 244 
Cheilobranchus, s, 223 
Cheilonemus. d, 266 
Cheilopogon, s, 207 
Cheilotrema. s, 230 
Cheiracanthus, 181 
Cheirodon, 258 
Cheirodus M'Coy, 239 
Cheirodus Pander, s, 283 
Cheirolepis. 181 
Chelonichthys, s, 217 
Chelonodon, 196 
Chelyophorus, 225 
Cheonda, s, 270 
Chiastolepis, 220 
Chilodus M. & T., s, 221 
Chilodus Giebel, d, 231 
Chilomycterus, 228 
Chilopterus, d, 283 
Chilorhinus, 249 
Chiloscyllium, 192 
Chimaeracanthus, s, 283 
Chirocentrites, s, 242 
Chirolophis, 202 
Chiropsis, .y. 275 
Chirostoma, 200 
Chlorichthys. s, 200 
Chlorophthalmus. 206 
Chlorurus, s, 199 
Choerodon, 230 
Choeroichthys. 254 
Choerops, s, 251 
Chologaster, 251 



Chomatodus, 190 
Chondrochilus, s, 211 
Chondrorhynchus, s, 211 
Chondrosteus Egert., 280 
Chondrosteus Ag., 217 
Chbndrostoma, 180 
Choiierhinos, 256 
Choridactylus, 240 
Chorisochismus, 228 
Chromichthys, 280 
Chromis, s, 259 
Chrysichthys, 278 
Chrysiptera, d, 199 
Chrysoblephus, d, 199 
Cibotion, s, 265 
Cichlasoma, d, 200 
Cichlaurus, d, 198 
Cichlops. s, 143 
Ciliata, 176 
Cimolichthys, 273 
Citharinus, 243 
Cirrhilabrus, 227 
Cirrhimursena, 271 
Cirrhisomus, s, 205 
Cirrhitichthys, 274 
Cirripectes, s, 202 
Citharus, s, 193 
Cladacanthus, s, 213 
Cladocyclus, 208 
Cladodus, 213 
Clarotes, 265 
Climatius, 225 
Climaxodus, s, 239 
Clinitrachus, s, 197 
Clinostomus, d, 270 
Cliola, s, 269 
Clupeichthys, s, 264 
Clupeoides, s, 247 
Clupeonia, d, 231 
Clupisoma, 204 
Clupisudis, 202 
Clypeocottus, s, 255 
Cnidon, s, 227, 243 
Cobiitichthys, s, 279 
Cobitbpsis, 254 
Coccodus, 247 
Coccolepis, 218 
Coccolus Bon., s, 226, 284 
Coccolus Cocco, s, 219 
Coccosteus, 218 

Cochliodus, 191 
Cochlognathus, 255 
Cocotropus, 282 
Codoma, 270 
CcEcilophis, s, 271 
Ccelacanthus, 218 
Ccelocephalus, s, 219 
Coelodus, d, 270 
Coelolepis. 273 
Ccelogaster, 181 
Ccelonotus, 266 
Coeloperca, d, 224 
Coelopoma, s, 224 
Ccelorhynchus, 219 
Coius, 172 
Colobodus, s, 217 
Colonodus, 239 
Compsacanthus, s, 273 
Conchodus, 239 
Conger, s, 167 
Congermursena, s, 272 
Congerodon Kaup, 271 
Congerodon Blkr., 277 
Congiopus, 170 
Congrus, s, 223 
Conodus, s, 217 
Conorhynchos, 278 , 
Conosaurus, d, 246 
Conostome, d, 269 
Coptodon, 253 
CoraXj 214 
Cordylus, s, 259 
Corica, d, 172 
Corynopoma, s, 281 
Corythobatus, d, 241 
Corythroichthys, s, 253 
Cosmacanthus, 225 
Cosmolepis, 280 
Cossyphus Cuv. & Val., 

s, 194 
Cossyphus McClelland, 

s, 220 
Cottopsis, d, 249 
Cotylephorus, s, 204 
Cotylis, s, 215 
Couchia. s, 274 
Crassilabrus, d. 199 
Crenicichla, 207 
Creotroctes. s, 237 
Cricathanthus, s, 213 

Cricodus, 217 
Cristiceps, 185 
Crius, s, 223 
Cromileptes, 198 
Crossorhinus, s, 192 
Cryptacanthodes, 197 
Cryptocentrus, 188 
Ctenacanthus, 186 
Ctenodon Nilsson, s, 266 
Ctenodon Bon., s, 175 
Ctenodon Sw., s, 201 
Ctenodus, d, 191 
Ctenogobius, 281 
Ctenolabrus, 194 
Ctenolepis, d, 217 
Ctenopoma Peters, 230, 

Ctenopoma Heckel. s, 270 
Ctenops, s, 227 
Ctenoptychius, 190 
Cubiceps, s, 215 
Culius, s, 267 
Culter, d, 262 
Cyanichthys, s, 265 
Cyclarthrus, d, 214 
Cyclichthys, 265 
Cyclobatis, 220 
Cyclopium, 204 
Cyclopoma, 177 
Cyclurus, d, 218 
Cylindracanthus. d, 273 
Cymatogaster, 257 
Cynsedus, s, 200 
Cynichthys, s, 198 
Cynicoglossus, d, 187 
Cynoglossa, s, 226 
Cynoponticus, 228 
Cynopotamus, 242 
Cyprinella, 270 
Cyprinion, 211 
Cyprinopsis, s, 187 
Cypselurus, 203 
Cyrene, s, 215 
Dajaus, d, 185 
Damalichthys, 258 
Dangila, 210 
Dapalis, 238 
Dascillus, s, 259 
Dasybatus, s, 187 
Datnioides, s, 252 


Davalla, 278 
Decepterus, 248 
Demiurga. s, 237 
Dendrochirus, 198 
Dendrodus, 209 
Denius, s, 237 
Deportator, s, 237 
Dercetis, 180 
Dermogenys, ^72 
Desmacanthus, s, 283 
Diabolichthys, s, 270 
Diacantha, s, 204 
Diaphasia, s, 215 
Diapterus, 208 
Dichelospondylus, s, 268 
Dichotomycter, s, 263 
Dicotylichthys, 265 
Dicrenodus, 254 
Dictea, s, 207 
Dictyodus, 196 
Dictyopyge, 231 
Dictyosoma, 227 
Dilionia, 211 
Dilobomycter, s, 263 
Dimeracanthus, 229 
Dinematichthys, 263 
Dionda, 269 
Diphreutes, d, 241 
Diplacanthus Duff, 210 
l)-placanthus Ag., 225 
Diplectrum, 265 
Diplocheilus, 172 
Diplodus, s, 213 
Diplomyste, 269 
Diplopterax, 265 
Diplopterus, s, 181 
Dipteronotus, 256 
Dipterigonotus, s, 240 
Discognathus, s, 211 
Discopyge, 230 
Distichodus M. & T., 227 
Distichodus Cuv. & Val., 

Disticholepis, s, 247 
Ditrema, 223 
Doryrhamphus, 254 
Doryichthys, 254 
Doydixodon, 266 
Dorypterus, 212 
Drepane, d, 175 

Ductor, 218 
Dulichthys, d, 175 
Dussumieria, 231 
Duymaeria, 267 
Echemythes, /, 235 
Echenus, s, 224 
Echidnoccphalus, d, 283 
Echiodon, s, 190 
Echiopsis, s, 271 
Echiostoma, 215 
Edaphodon, 191 
Edestus, 272 
Elagatis, 206 
Elapsopsis, s, 271 
Elasmodus, 214 
Elastoma, s, 198 
Ellipesurus, 212 
Ellops, s, 236 
Eleuthurus, s, 171 
Elonichthys, 233 
Elopopsis, 270 
Elopides, 219 
Elops, s, 175 
Eleotriodes, 275 
Embiotoca, 252 
Emmelichthys, 223 
Encheiziphius, 276 
Encheliophis, 215 
Enchelycore, 271 
Enchelycotte, s, 268 
Enchelynassa, d, 265, 271 
Enchelyopus, s, 181, 218 
Enchodus, 181 
Encrotes, s, 236 
Endactis, s, 280 
Englottogaster, d, 236 
Enixe, d, 235 
Enneapterygius, 184 
Enneodon, s, 259 
Ennichthys, s, 258 
Enophrys, 202 
Enoplosus, 169 
Epalzeorhynchos, 264 
Eperlanus Gaimard, s, 

Eperlanus Basilewsky, s 

Ephippoin, d, 263 
Epicyrtus. s, 221 
Epinnula, 260 

Epipedorhynchus, s, 263 
Erethistes, 243 
Erismacanthus, 239 
Erosa, 197 
Erpichthys, s, 202 
Erythrichthys T. & S., s, 

Erythrichthys Bon., s, 175 
Erythrinus, 173 
Erythrodon, s, 251 
Erychthys, s, 199 
Esomus, 202 
Esunculus, d, 272 
Etrumeus, 253 
Euanemus, s, 216 
Eucinostomus, 274 
Eucynodus, 260 
Eudynama, s, 238 
Eugnathus, d, 194 
Eupemis, s, 200 
Euporista, s, 237 
Eupnosa, s, 238 
Euryarthra, s, 214 
Euryglossa, 282 
Eurygnathus, s, 224 
Eurylepsis, 276 
Eurymyctera. s, 271 
Eurynotus, s, 181 
Eurypholis, s, 247 
Eurypleura, s, 282 
Eutropius, 243 
Exocallus, s, 183 
Exodon. d, 221 
Exoles, s, 236 
Fario, s, 233 
Farionella, s, 242 
Felichthys. d, 203 
Fluta, s, 169 
Euro, d, 236 
Gadella, 215 
Gadiculus, 246 
Gadopsis Rich., 223 
Gadopsis Filippi, s, 265 
Gadopsis Ag., s, 224 
Gagata, 279 
Galeichthys, 206 
Galeocerdo, 192 
Galeodes, d, 259 
Gallichthys. s, 178 
Gambusia, 260 



Ganodus, 214 
Gardonus, s, 226 
Gasteronemus Ag., 177 
Gasteroschisma, 227 
Gasterotokeus, s, 253 
Gastronemus Bon., s, 226 
Gastrophysus, s, 216 
Gazza, 184 
Geneion, s, 263 
Genicanthus, s, 198 
Genidens, 264 
Genyoroge, 241 
Genypterus, 276 
Geophagus, 207 
Geotria, 249 
Gibelion. 211 
Gila, 252 

Ginglymostoma, 190 
Girardinus, s, 261 
Girella, 179 
Giton, s, 268 
Glanis Ag., s, 267 
Glanis Gronow, s, 259 
Glaphyrodus, s, 228 
Glaucosoma, 216 
Glaucostegus, s, 225 
Gliscus, s, 235 
Globulodus, 212 
Glossodon, s, 211 
Glossodus Costa, s, 253 
Glossodus M'Coy, 239 
Glyptocephalus Gottsche, 

Glyptocephalus Ag., s, 217 
Gliptolaemus, s, 284 
Glyptolepis, 218 
Glyptopomus, 218 
Glyptosternon, 212 
Glyptosteus, s, 217 
Gnathanacanthus, 263 
Gnathanodon, 247 
Gobileptes. d, 198 
Gobiodon, 267 
Gomphodus, s, 274 
Goniobatis, s, 277 
Goniodus, s, 184 
Goniognathus, s, 218 
Gonocephalus, s, 258 
Gonopterus, s, 258 
Gonorhynchus, s, 195 

Gonostoma, s, 172 
Gouania, 176 
Grammichthys, s, 282 
Gremilla, s, 234 
Grundulus, 228 
Guiritinga, 278 
Gunnellichthys. 277 
Gunnellus, s, 185 
Gymnachirus, 282 
Gymnapistes, 201 
Gymnelis, 193 
Gymnocanthus, 202 
Gymnocephalus, s, 191 
Gymnogaster, s, 168 
Gymnostomus, 211 
Gymnothorax, 168 
Gymnura, s, 190 
Gyracanthus, 186 
Gyrodus, 177 
Gyrolepis Kade, s, 281 
Gyrolepis Ag., 177 
Gyronchus, 217 
Gyropristis, s, 213 
Gyroptychius, 239 
Gyrosteus Ag., 217 
Gyrosteus Egert., 280 
Hadrodus, 283 
Hadropterus. 254 
Halec, 180 
Halecopsis, 218, 219 
Halicampus, 253 
Halichceres, d, 184 
Halieutsa, 189 
Halocypselus. s, 284 
Hamiltonia, s, 200 
Hapalogenys, 222 
Haplacanthus, 225 
Harengula, 231 
Harpagifer, 222 
Harpochirus, d, 241 
Harpodon, 172 
Hegerius, d, 226 
Helicobranchus, s, 260 
Helicophagus, 277 
Helmichthys, s, 256 
Helodus, 190 
Helops, 178 
Hemerocoetes, 189 
Hemichromis. 276 
Hemidoras, s, 278 

Hemigaleus, d, 250 
Hemigrammus, 281 
Hemiodus M. & T., 243 
Hemiodus Miiller, 216 
Hemiodon, 260 
Hemimarsupium, 254 
Hemipimelodus. 278 
Hemipristis, 214 
Hemirhynchus. s, 219 
Hemiscyllium, 190 
Hemisilurus, 279 
Hemistoma, s, 199 
Hemithylacus, s, 272 
Hemitrygon, 190 
Hemiulis, d, 199 
Hepsetia, 187 
Heptadiodon, 264 
Heptanema, 274 
Heptapterus, 278 
Heptatrema, s, 268 
Herichthys, s, 255 
Heros, s, 207 
Herpetoichthys, s, 271 
Hesperanthias, s, 215 
Heterandria, 251 
Heterodon, s, 225 
Heterognathodon, s, 233 
Heterognathus, s, 258 
Heteromycteris, 282 
Heterophthalmus, s, 267 
Heteropneustes, 196 
Heterosteus, s, 267 
Heterostichthus, 258 
Heterotis Miiller, s, 216 
Heterotis Guv. & Val., s, 

Hexabranchus, s, 184 
Hexacanthus, d, 193 
Hexanematichthys, 278 
Hieroptera, s, 209 
Himantolophus, 193 
Himantura, 190 
Hippichthys, 241 
Hippocephalus, d, 202 
Hippoglossoides, 182 
Histiodromus, s, 234 
Histionotus, 256 
Histiurus, s, 245 
Holacanthodes, s, 233 
Holacanthus, s, 258 



Holconotus, 255 
Holochondrus, s, 261 
Holodus, s, 228 
Holoptychus, 194 
Holosteus, 219 
Homacanthus, 225 
Homalopomus, s, 269 
Homodon, s, 230 
Homonotus, 245 
Homoprion, s, 265 
Homostius, 267 
Hemothorax, s, 225 
Hoplisoma, s, 203 
Hoplocottus. s, 282 
Hoplogygus, s, 217 
Hoplophycis, s, 281 
Hoplopteryx, 191 
Hoplosternum, 281 
Hudsonius, d, 270 
Huso, s, 177 
Hybodus, 186 
Hybognathus, 261 
Hybopsis, 254 
Hyborchyunchus, 261 
Hydrocion, s, 269 
Hydrocynus, 171 
Hydrolycus, 221 
Hydronus, s, 176 
Hydropardus, s, 244 
Hylomyzon, s, 261 
Hymenphysa, s, 195 
Hynnis, 178 
Hyoprorus, s, 254 
Hyostoma, s, 254 
Hypeneus, s, 228 
Hyperprosopon, 257 
Hypnos, s, 250 
Hypodytes, d, 235 
Hypolophus. s, 193 
Hypoprion, 192 
Hypsinotus, s, 223 
Hypsodon. d, 186, 219 
Hypsolepis, s, 245, 255 
Hypsophrys, s, 277 
Hysterocarpus. 257 
Icania, 282 
Icelus, 226 
Ichthyapus, s, 231 
Ichthycallus, s, 200 
Ichthyocampus, 253 

Ichthyococcus, 206 
Ichthyocolla, 168 
Ichthyocoris, s, 206 
Ichthyorhynchus, s, 274 
Ichthyosauroides, 189 
Ichthyscopus, 202 
Idus, 281 
Ilarches, d, 241 
Ilisha, 227 
Iluocoetes, 212 
Imogaster, 275 
lonoscopus, 253 
Ischyodus, 214 
Ischypterus, s, 231 
Ischyrhiza, s, 272 
Ischyrocephalus, s, 283 
Isodus M'Coy, 239 
Isodus Heckel, s, 243 
Istieus, 219 
Isurus Egert., s, 189 
Isurus Ag.. s, 218 
Janassa, 176 
Kentrocapros, 265 
Keris, 181 
Ketengus. 230. 278 
Kokkoderma, 283 
Kowala, 231 
Krohnius, 219 
Kryptopterichthys, 279 
Krytopterus, 279 
Labeobarbus, s, 186 
Labrichthys, 256 
Labrisomus, 202 
Labri stoma, s, 200 
Labrodon, 275 
Labroides, 248 
Labrophagus, d, 224 
Lactarius, 178 
Lactophrys, 204 
Lagocephalus, 205 
Lagodon, 265 
Lasmargus, s, 192 
Lasviraja, d, 187 
Lamnodus. s, 225 
Lamnostomo, 271 
Lampanyctus, 206 
Lampetra, 249 
Lampugus, s, 178 
Laparus, d, 224 
Lateolabrax, d, 274 

Latris, 197 
Laurida, s, 203 
Lavinia, 257 
Lebiasina, 229 
Legnonotus, 256 
Leiacanthus. 186 
Leiocassis, 278 
Leiocottus, 269 
Lefodon Wood, s, 232 
Leiodon Sw., 198 
Leioglossus, 248 
Leiopsis, 174 
Leirus, s, 179 
Leisomus, s, 205 
Leiuranus, d, 253 
Leiurus Dum., s, 268 
Leiurus Sw., s, 200, 205 
Lepidion, d, 203 
Lepidocephalus, 279 
Lepidogobius, 280 
Lepidopides. s, 246 
Lepidorhinus, 225 
Leipidosiren, 189 
Lepisoma, s, 210 
Leptacanthus, 186 
Leptaspis, s, 250 
Leptocarias, 190 
Leptocephalichthys. s, 267 
Leptocephalus, s, 262 
Leptocharias, s, 193 
Leptocottus, 257 
Leptodes, s, 203 
Leptognathus, s, 205 
Leptogunnellus, 262 
Leptoichthys, 254 
Leptonotus, 253 
Leptonurus. s, 241 
Leptorhinophis, s, 271 
Leptorhynchus Lowe, s, 

Leptorhynchus Smith, s, 

Leptoscarus, 199 
Lepturus, s, 259 
Leucaspius, 281 
Leucos, d, 215 
Leucosomus, d, 211 
Libys, 212 

Limamurasna, s, 271 
Limanda, 182 



Limia, s, 261 
Lioniscus, 185 
Lithognathus, 199 
Lithulcus, d, 238 
Lophistomus, d, 250 
Lophosteus, 274 
Lotella, 281 
Loxodon, 192 
Loxostomus, d, 224 
Luciobarbus, 211 
Luciocephalus, 247 
Luciosoma, 264 
Lumpus, s, 171 
Lutoderia, s, 184 
Lycodes, 193 
Lycodontis, d, 220 
Lycodus, 283 
Lycogenis, d, 174 
Lycoptera, 239 
Machseracanthus, 276 
Alachserium, s, 216 
Machserius, s, 284 
Macrochyrus, s, 201 
Macrodon, s, 216 
Macrognathus. s, 259 
Macrones, s, 269 
Macropetalichthys, 229 
Macropoma Ag., 181, 217 
Macropoma Egert., s, 280 
Macrops, s, 269 
Macrosemius, 179 
Macrostoma, s, 191 
Maina, s, 236 
Malacosteus. 240 
Manta, 174 
Massaria, s, 236 
Alaurolicus, 191 
Mecolepis, s, 273 
Meda, 269 
Megalaspis, 248 
Megalepis, s, 262 
Megalichthys, s, 185, 217 
Megalodon, 181 
Megalurites, d, 245 
Megalurus, s, \77 
Megaprotodon, 238 
Megastoma, s, 226 
Meladerma, s, 200 
Melanichthys, s, 223 
Melantha, ^. 238 

Melanodactylus, 278 
Melanura, s, 252 
Meletta, s, 231 
Melichthys. 204 
Memarchus, s, 268 
Membras, 187 
Menaspis, 233 
Mendosoma, 238 
Alenidia. 187 
Meristodon, d, 214 
Merlinus, d, 224 
Merlucius, s, 259 
Merlus, j. 238 
Merou, s, 175 
Mesites, s, 212 
Mesodon, s, 250 
Mesogaster, 219 
Mesopristes, s, 225 
Metopias, s, 215 
Microcanthus, 198 
Microchirus, 187 
Microdon, s, 177 
Microdonophis, s, 271 
Microdus. d, 275 
Microgaster, s, 199 
Microichthys, 251 
Microlepis Eichw., d, 220 
Microlepis Bon., s, 226 
Micrometrus, 257 
Alicronema, 279 
Microphis, 254 
Micropogonias, s, 175 
Microps, s, 177 
Microspondylos, d, 217 
Microstomus, d. 182 
Minomus, s, 269 
Mochokus, 182 
Mola, s, 215 
Molacanthus, s, 205 
Molarii, s, 223 
Molvella, s, 281 
Moniana, s, 270 
Monochirus Bon., s, 282 
Monochirus Kaup, s, 187 
Monocirrhus, 207 
Monotreta, s, 263 
Monopteros, 169 
Mordacia. s, 249 
Mormyrhynchus, s. 203 
Mormyrops, 216 

Mormyrus, 167 
Mulloides, 240 
Mupus, 178 
Mursenesox, 220 
Murjenichthys, 252 
Muraenoblenna, s, 272 
Mursenopsis, s, 271 
Mylesinus, 242 
Myleus, 221 
Mylocheilus, 262 
Mylognathus, d, 272 
Mylopharodon, 262 
Myriacanthus. 186 
Myriodon, s, 230 
Myrmillo, s, 237 
Myrophis, 249 
Myrus, s, 271 
Mystriophis, 271 
Mystus, s, 259 
Mytilophagus, s, 257 
Narcine, 180 
Narcodes, d, 225 
Narcopterus, d, 214 
Nasus, s, 262 
Nauclerus, s, 178 
Naulas, 225 
Naupygus, d, 224 
Neanis, s, 236 
Nebrius, d, 184 
Nemacanthus, 186 
Nemadactylus, 197 
Nematogenys, 258 
Nematopoma, s, 281 
Nematosoma, d, 176 
Nemichthys, 240 
Nemipterus, 199 
Nemobrama, s, 223 
Nemophis, 281 
Nemopteryx, 219 
Nemotherus Costa, s, 180 
Nemotherus Sw., s, 201 
Nephrotus, s, 249 
Nestis. s, 185 
Netuma, 278 
Nocomis, 269 
Nomalus, s, 234 
Nostolepis, 274 
Notacmon, 236 
Notaeus, 218 
Notagogus, 177 



Nothosoma, 280 
Nothosomus, 217 
Notorhynchus, 216 
Notothenia, 222 
Nummopalatus, s, 284 
Nuria, s, 210 
Octonematichthys, 278 
Odontacanthus, s, 225 
Odontaspis, d, 184 
Odonteus, s, 194 
Odontostomus, s, 191 
Odontotodus, 274 
Odonus, d, 238 
Ognichodes, s, 202 
Oligocottus, 269 
OHgopleurus, 247 
Olisthops, 247 
Olyra, 212 
Ommatolampes. 246 
Omobranchus, s, 185 
Omosoma, 275 
Omphalodus, s, 232 
Onchus, 186 
Onychodus, 276 
Ophicardia, s, 220 
Ophichthys, s, 205 
Ophiodon, 257 
Ophiopsis, 179 
Ophirachis, d, 268 
Ophisoma, s, 205 
Ophisomus, s, 202 
Ophisternon, s, 220 
Ophisurapus, s, 271 
Ophithorax, s, 220 
Oplegnathus, 208 
Oplopoma, s, 269 
Oplopomus, 188 
Opsarius, d, 195 
Oracanthus, 186 
Orectolobus, 187 
Oreinus, d, 195 
Orestias, 228 
Ornichthys, s, 201 
Orodus, 190 
Oroptychus, d, 228 
Orthacanthus, d, 213 
Orthocolus, s, 238 
Orthodon, 269 
Osmeroides, 219 
Osteobrama, s, 211 

Osteogeneiosus, 230 
Osteoglossum, s, 262 
Osteoplax, 239 
Ostichthys, 174 
Ostogeneiosus, 278 
Otodus, d, 214 
Oxuderces, 213 
Oxybeles, s, 223 
Oxycirrhites, 274 
Oxydoras, 265 
Oxygnathus, 264 
Oxygonius, d. 226 
Oxyi-hina, .s-, 190, 218 
Oxytes, 231 
Oxyurichthys, 279 
Ozodura, s, 196 
Pachycephalus, d, 224 
Pachycormus, 177 
Pachygaster, 231 
Pachylabrus, ^". 257 
Pachylepis Pander, s, 274 
Pachylepis Quenstedt, s, 

Pachynathus, s, 199 
Pachypterus, s, 204 
Pachyrhizodus, 246 
Pachystomus, s, 211 
Pachyurus, s, 205 
Pagetodes, 222 
Palgeobates, 243 
Palaeoscyllium, 276 
Palseoteuthis, s, 266 
Palamita, d, 175 
Pallasia, s, 196 
Palimphyes, 218 
Pamphractus, s, 218 
Pampus, 187 
Palymphyes, 231 
Pangasius, 206 
Parabatrachus, 254 
Parachromis, d, 277 
Paralabrax, 269 
Pareiodon, 265 
Parexus, 225 
Parodon, 242 
Parophrys, 257 
Paschalestes, s, 236 
Passolodon, s, 191 
Pastinaca Dekay. s, 210 
Pastinaca Gronow, s, 258 

Pastinaca Dumeril, s, 268 
Pataecus, 222 
Pedalion, s, 193 
Pedites. d, 236 
Pelargorhynchus, 283 
Pelecus, 180 
Pellona, s, 231 
Pelonectes, s, 234 
Peloria, s, 219 
Pentaprion, 245 
Perca-Labrax. d, 213 
Percarina, 207 
Percichthys. 258 
Percilia, 258 
Percina, 211 
Percopsis, 232 
Percostoma, d, 224 
Periergus, 237 
Perilampus, s, 195 
Periodus, 217 
Periophthalnuis, 169 
Peristhethus, s, 282 
Peromere, s, 268 
Peroptera. s, 238 
Peropus, s, 195 
Petalodus, 207 
Petalopteryx, 247 
Petrocephalus, 260 
Petrodus, 239 
Petronason, s, 199 
Petroscirtes, 173 
Phasnodon, s, 247 
Phasganodus, 283 
Phasganus, d, 224 
Phagorus, 220 
Phalacronotus, 279 
Phalacrus, s, 224 
Phanerodon, 258 
Phaneropleuron, 284 
Pharopteryx, s, 251 
Philypnoides, s, 241 
Philypnus, j. 188 
Phobetor, s, 226 
Pholidichthys, 267 
Pholidopleurus, 279 
Pholidotus, s, 244 
Phorcynus, s, 261 
Phoxinellus, 215 
Phoxinus, s, 180 
Phucocoetes, 212 


Phyllodus, 217 

Phyllolepis, 219 

Phyllopteryx, 205 

Physichthys, s, 266 

Physiculus, 281 

Physogaster, s, 196 

Physonemus, 239 

Piabucina, 242 

Pigus, s, 226 

Pileoma, s, 210 

Pimelonotus, s. 281 

Pinirampus, 278 

Pinjalo. 225 

Piramutana, 279 

Pirarara, s, 173 

Piratinga, 279 
Pirene, s, 235 

Pisodonophis, 271 

Pisodus, d, 227 

Placosteus, s, 217 
Placothorax, s, 218 
Plagiusa, s, 187 
Plagusia Sw., s, 203 
Plagusia Bon., s, 226 
Planesox, d, 260 
Platacanthus, d, 246 
Platichthys, 257 
Platinx. s, 181 
Platophrys, 203 
Platops, s, 260 
Plataxoides, s, 264 
Platyacanthus, s, 239 
Platycanthus, s, 204 
Platycara, s, 195 
Platycormus, 283 
Platygaster, s, 203 
Platygenys, 260 
Platygnathus, s, 218 
Platylsemus, 245 
Platylepes, s, 200 
Platynematichthys, 279 
Platypodus. 169 
Platyptera, s, 189 
Platypterus, s, 201 
Platyrhina, d, 193 
Platysonia, s, 185 
Platysomus Ag., d, 181 
Platysomus Sw., s, 201 
Platysqualus, s, 204 
Platystacus, s, 168 

Plecoglossus, 230 
Plectrodus, s, 194 
Plectrolepis Ag,, s, 181, 218 
Plectrolepis Egert., s, 246 
Plectrostoma, s, 237 
Pleionemus, d, 218 
Pleiopterus, j', 181 
Plethodus, d, 245 
Pleuracanthus, .y, 186 
Pleurodus. d, 213 
Pleurolepis, s, 251 
Pleuronichthys, 257 
Pleuropholis, 280 
Pleurothyris, s, 215 
Pneumabranchus, s, 220 
Podabrus, .y, 240 
Podager, s, 236 
Podocephalus, d, 224 
Podocys, 191 
Pododus, d, 217 
Pogonathus, s, 175 

Pogonichthys. 257 

Pogonognathus, s, 240 

Poecilichthys, 254 

Poecilocephalus, s, 271 

Pcecilodus, 266 

Poecilophis. s, 272 

Poecilops, 254 

Poecilosoma, s, 245 

Poecilurichthys, 281 

Polemius, s, 282 

Pollachius, 226 

Polyacanthus, 173 

Polycanthus, s, 200 

Polycentrus, 239 

Polymixia, 192 

Polj'phractus, .y, 218 

Polypterichthys, s, 252 

Polyrhizodus, 239 

Polyuranodon, s, 272 

Pomanotis, 232 

Pomaphractus, s, 224 

Pomatomus. s, 173 

Pomognathus, s, 245 

Pompilus. 195 

Porichthys, 258 

Poroderma, 190 

Porthmeus, s, 178 

Prenes, d, 237 

Prilonotus, s, 261 

Priodontichthys, s, 175 
Prionace, 242 
Prionodes, 211 
Prionodon, s, 192 
Prionolepis. 245 
Prionurus, 169 
Priopis, 174 
Pristeacanthus, 186 
Pristicladodus, s, 266 
Pristidurus, s, 194 
Pristigenys, 181, 194 
Pristophorus, 192 
Pristipomoides, 250 
Pristiurus, 208 
Pristolepis, 239. 246 
Pristotis, s, 184 
Prochilus, d, 168 
Promecocophalus, s, 262 
Prometheus, s, 209 
Propalasoniscus, d, 254 
Propterus, 179 
Proscinetes, 237 
Prosopodasys, d, 241 
Protomelus, s, 209 
Protopterus, 196 
Protosphyraena, 273 
Prymnothonus, d, 223 
Psammolepis, d, 217 
Psammoperca, 223 
Psammosteus, 225 
Psenes, 178 
Psetta. 203 
Psettichthys, 257 
Psettodes, 174 
Pseudobagrus, 278 
Pseudobarbus, 244 
Pseudoblennius, 274 
Pseiidochromis, 184 
Pseudoclinus, s, 247 
Pseudodoras, 278 
Pseudophoxinus, 211 
Pseudoplesiops, 278 
Pseudosilurus, s, 279 
Psilacanthus, 283 
Psilocephalus, 205 
Psilonotus, s, 205 
Psilorhynchus, s, 195 
Psilosomus. s, 198 
Psittacodon, s, 214 
Ptenichthys, s, 216 



Pteraclis, 168 
Pteragogus, 266 
Pterapon, s, 179 
Pteraspis, 232 
Pterichthys Miller, s. 209 
Pterichthys Sw., d, 201 
Pterocephala, s, 204 
Pteroidichthys, 267 
Pteroleptus, s, 201 
Pteronemus, s, 243 
Pteronotus, s, 204 
Pterophyllum, 207 
Pteroplatea, 193 
Pteropterus, s, 198, 201 
Pterozygus, d, 183 
Pterure, s, 268 
Pterurus, s, 205 
Pterycombus, 189 
Pterygocephalus, d, 194 
Pterygoplichthys, 281 
Ptychacanthus, s, 186 
Ptychocheilus, 262 
Ptychodus, 194 
Ptycholepis, 211 
Ptychopleurus, d, 190 
Ptychostomus, s, 261 
Ptyctodus, 283 
Ptyobranchus, s, 220 
Pusichthys, s, 204 
Pycnacanthus, d, 250 
Pycnodus, 177 
Pycnosterina, 243 
Pygacanthus, 260 
Pygaeus, 191 
Pygidium, 182 
Pygocentrus, 221 
Pygopterus, 177 
Pygopristis, 221 
Pyrodon, s, 265 
Pyrrhulina, 229 
Rabdacanthus, 274 
Rabdiolepis, d, 275 
Rabdophorus, d, 198 
Racoma, 212 
Radamas, 229 
Raj abatis, s, 183 
Rama, 279 
Ramphistoma, d, 203 
Ranzania, 196 
Raphiosaurus, 212 

Raphistoma, d, 170 
Rhabdolepis, 276 
Rhachinotus, 242 
Rhacochilus, 255 
Rhacolepis, 208 
Rhadamista, d, 235 
Rhamdia, 278 
Rhamphichthys, 243 
Rhamphognathus, 219 
Rhamphornimia, 275 
Rhamphosus, 218 
Rhinecanthus, s, 204 
Rhinellus, d, 217 
Rhineodon Smith, 174, 244 
Rhinesomus, s, 204 
Rhinichthys, 232 
Rhinocephalus, d, 223 
Rhinocryptis, s, 222 
Rhinoptera, 173 
Rhipidolepis, d, 224 
Rhizodus, s, 207 
Rhodeus, 180 
Rhomboides, s, 171 
Rhomboidichthys, s, 267 
Rhonchus, s, 224 
Rhynchobatis Philippi, s, 

Rhynchobatis M. & H., 192 
Rhynconcodes. s, 245 
Rhynchorinus, d, 219 
Rhynchotus, s, 263 
Richardsonius, 270 
Rita, 278 
Rogenia, s, 231 
Rohita, s, 210 
Rohtee, 210 
Ronchifex, s, 235 
Rupiscartes, d, 202 
Rupisuga, s, 206 
Ruppellia, s, 202 
Ruvettus, 178 
Rytidolepis, d, 273 
Saccobranchus, s, 206 
Salar, s, 233 
Salmoperca, s, 249 
Salmophasia, 202 
Salmostoma, Sj 198 
Salvelini, 176 
Salvelinus, 186 
Sandroserrus, 251 

Sarda, s, 259 
Sardinella, 231 
Sardiniodes, 283 
Sardinius, 283 
Sarginites, s, 245 
Sargodon, 232 
Sarotherodon, 251 
Sarpa, d, 175 
Saurichthys, 179 
Saurida, 242 
Sauridichthys, s, 278 
Sauripteris, 214 
Sauropsidium, 245 
Saurorhamphus, 246 
Saurorhynchus, 207 
Saurostomus, 177 
Scaphiodon, 211 
Scaphirhynchus Heckel, 

d, 185 
Scaphirhynchus Miiller, d, 

Scaphodus, 217 
Scardinius, 187, 226 
Scarodon, d, 223 
Scartelaos, 202 
Scarus, s, 240 
Schediosteus, 273 
Schilbeichthys, s, 279 
Schilbeodes, 279 
Schilus, 176 

Schismatorhynchos, 264 
Schistura, s, 195 
Schizopyge, 215 
Schizothorax, d, 192 
Sciadeichthys, 278 
Sciades, 243 
Scisenoides, s, 247 
Scisenurus Ag., s, 223 
Sciaenurus Owen, d, 260 
Sclerodus, 194 
Sclerognathus, s, 219 
Sclerolepis, s, 220 
Scoliodon, 190 
Scombrinus, 224 
Scombrops, 227 
Scopas, s, 175 
Scorpsenichthys Blkr., s, 267 
Scorpsenichthys Grd., 257 
Scorpaenodes, 275 
Scorpaenopsis, 189 



Scorpichthes, s, 226 
Scrofaria, s, 235 
Scropha, d, 235 
Scrophicephalus, s, 198 
Scylliodus, d, 214 
Scymnorhinus, 225 
Scytallurus, s, 268 
Scytalophis, 271 
Secutor, 235 
Selachidea, d, 251 
Selar, 248 
Selaroides, 248 
Selenaspis, 278 
Selenia, 226 
Semiophorus, 191 
Seriolella, 238 
Seriolichthys, s, 255 
Seriphus, 255 
Serranichthys, s, 264 
Serrolepis, 251 
Setipinna, 203 
Siboma, 270 
Sicarius, s, 272 
Sicyases, 216 
Sicyogaster, s, 228 
Siderea. s, 271 
Silonia, 203 
Silundia, s, 206 
Siluranodon, 279 
Silurichthys, 278 
Silus, s, 179 
Siphonodus, 250 
Siphonognathus, 276 
Sirembo, 277 
Skeponopodus, s, 179 
Smecticus, s, 266 
Smerdis, s, 177 
Solegnathus, 205 
Solenognathus, s, 268 
Solenorhynchus, 259 
Somileptes, s, 204 
Soricidens, 212 
Spaniodon, 247 
Spanius, s, 236 
Sparisoma, 199 
Sparnodus, 191 
Spathobatis. s, 244, 261 
Sphaerodon, s, 194 
Sphserodus. d, 184 
Sphagodus, d, 194 

Sphenacanthus, 186 
Sphecephalus, 191 
Sphenodus, d, 214 
Sphenolepis, d, 218 
Sphenonchus, s, 213 
Sphoerodus, s. 177 
Sphyra, s, 243 
Sphyraenodus, 209, 219 
Sphyrichthys, s, 173 
Spinacanthus, 219 
Spinacorhinus, s, 184 
Spinax Bon., s, 225 
Spinax Cuv. & Val., s, 175 
Spirodus, 281 
Spondyliosoma, 241 
Spratella, 231 
Spratelloides, 248 
Spurco, s, 174 
Squalius, s, 187 
Squaloraia, 173 
Squalraia, s, 183 
Stagonolepis, d, 225 
Steganodictyum, d, 249 
Stegastes, 211 
Stegophilus, 284 
Stegostoma. 192 
Stemmatodus, s, 270 
Stenacanthus, s, 273 
Stenodus, 185 
Stenometopus, s, 263 
Stenostoma, 246 
Stereolepis. 277 
Sterledus, s, 225 
Sterleta, d, 168 
Sterletus, d, 178 
Stemarchorhynchus, 264 
Sternopygus, 243 
StethochEetus, s, 259 
Stethopterus, d, 252 
Stevardia, 281 
Sthenopus, s, 240 
Stigmatophora, 254 
Stigmolepis. 273 
Stilbe. s, 210 
Stoasodon, s, 242 
Stolephorus, 169 
Stomianodon, s, 241 
Stomocatus, s, 206 
Strephon. s, 235 

Strobilodus, s, 250 
Stromateoides, s, 248 
Strophidon, s, 220 
Strophodus, s, 191 
Strotes, 237 
Sturio, s, 182 
Sturisoma, 203 
Styracodus, s, 242 
Syacium, 207 
Symphysodon, 207 
Sympterygia, 193 
Synanceja, 169 
Synanchia, s, 201 
Synancidium, s, 216 
Synaptura, 241 
Synechoglanis, s, 280 
Synergus, s, 236 
Syngnathoides, 248 
Synophrys, d, 224 
Sypterus, s, 208 
Syrraxis. s, 208 
Syrrhina, s, 192 
Systomus, 195 
Tjeniura, 189, 193 
Taractes, 215 
Tandanus, 196 
Tarsichthys, d, 261 
Telestes, 187 
Tellia, 253 
Temnistia, s, 186 
Teratichthys, d, 172 
Tetrabranchus, Sj 248 
Tetradrachmum, d, 242 
Tetragonolepis, s, 177 
Tetraodon, 167 
Tetrosomus, s, 204 
Thaerodontis, s, 220 
Thalassoklephtes, s, 235 
Thalassoma, 199 
Thalassorhinus, 192 
Thalliums, 200 
Tharsis, s, 233 
Thaumas, d, 212 
Thaumaturus, 222 
Thectodus. s, 221 
Thelodus Ag., 194 
Tholodus Meyer, d, 229 
Tholodus Schmid, 249 
Thelolepis, s, 274 
Thoracopterus, 279 



Threpterius, 247 
Thrissonotus, 217 
Thrissops, 177 
Thrissopterus, s, 270 
Thrycomycterus, s, 170 
Thunnus, 227 
Thyellina, d, 214 
Thyestes, 256 
Thynnus, s, 259 
Thyrsoidea, s, 271 
Thysanochilus, 276 
Tiaroga, 270 
Tigoma, 270 
Tilapia. 244 
Tilesia, s, 203 
Tilurus, s, 254 
Tinimogaster, s, 226 
Tolypelepis, d, 273 
Tometes, s, 242 
Tomicodon, s, 228 
Tomognathus, 246 
Tor. 179 

Toxophorus, d, 228 
Toxopoma, 260 
Trachelacanthus, 246 
Trachelochismus, 228 
Trachelyopterus, 206 
Trachicephalus, s, 201 
Trachoryster, 279 
Trachurus Cuv. & Val., s, 

Trachurus Gronow, s, 

Trachydermus, d, 189 
Trachyrhamphus, 253 
Trematopsis, 196 
Triacanthodes. 277 
Triagnodon, 192 
Triaenophorichthys, 280 
Trisnophorus. s, 280 
Triakis, 192 
Trichoderma, s, 205 
Trichomycterus, s, 230 

Trichophasia, s, 197 
Trichopleura, s, 282 
Trichopterus, s, 259 
Trichosoma, s, 203 
Trichosomus, s, 197 
Tridentiger, 280 
Trigla, 167 
Triglochis, 192 
Triglops, 176 
Triglopsis, 257 
Trigonodon, 244 
Triodus, s, 243 
Triplopterus, 266 
Tripterus, s, 239 
Tristychius Ag., 186 
Tristychius Portlock, s, 

Triurus, s, 203 
Trompe, s, 238 
Tropidichthys, s, 256 
Trulla. 282 
Trygon, s, 172 
Trygonoptera, 193 
Trygonorhina, 192 
Turseodus, 283 
Tylodus, 232 
Tylognathus, 211 
Tylosurus, 178 
Tympanomium, 196 
Typhle. s, 170 
Typodus, 283 
Uaru, 207 
Umbla, s, 261 
Unipertura, s, 268 
Undina, 180 
Upeneichthys. 263 
Upeneoides, 240 
Uraleptus, s, 279 
Uranidea, d, 210 
Uraptera, 193 
Uraspis, d, 264 
Urichthys, s, 199 

Uriphaeton. s, 198 
Uroconger, d, 272 
Urogymnus, 190 
Urolepis, 274 
Urolophus, 193 
Uronemus, 217 
Uropt-erygius, 184 
Urosphen, 181, 218 
Urosthenes, 233 
Varicorhinus, 186 
Variola, 198 
Vastres, s, 229 
Velasia, 249 
Velifer, 247 
Vogmarus, s, 244 
Vomeropsis, 259 
Wallago, 247 
Wodnika, 216 
Xenacanthus, s, 233 
Xanthichthys, 274 
Xenocephalus, 281 
Xenodon, s, 184 
Xenopterus, s, 263 
Xiphasia, 201 
Xiphichthys, s, 201 
Xiphiurus, s, 244 
Xiphochilus, 268 
Xiphophorus, 238 
Xiphopterus, 181 
Xiphorhamphus, s, 221 
Xiphorhynchus, s, 173 
Xystophorus, s, 223 
Zanclurus, s, 200 
Zaniolepis, 275 
Zebrasoma, 201 
Zenaspis, s, 246 
Zenodon, d, 204 
Zeugopterus, 182 
Zonichthys, d, 200 
Zungaro, 278 
Zygobatis, d, 184, 214 
Zygonectes, 252 
Zyphothyca, s, 200 


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