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Full text of "The genera of fungi"

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THE 



GENERA OF FUNGI 



FREDERIC EDWARD CLEMENTS, Ph. D. 

Professor of Botany and Head of the Department of Botany 
in the University of Minnesota 



LIBRARY 
NEW YORK 
BOTANICAL 

UAROBN. 



MINNEAPOLIS 

The H. W. Wilson Company 
1909 






Copyright 1909 
Frederic E. Clements 



LIBRARY 
NEW YORK 
BOTANICAL 

(iARDEN. 

PREFACE. 

The present book is an outgrowth of a translation of the keys in the origi- 
nal eight volumes of Saccardo's "Sylloge Fungorum." This translation was 
mimeographed and bound for the use of classes in mycology. It immediately 
proved so convenient and usable that the preparation of a complete guide to 
the fungi was begun the same year. Many things have occurred during the past 
two years to delay the completion of the guide until this time. In its present 
form, the book is based upon Saccardo's great work, though in certain groups 
other authors have been followed, and in some cases, the discomycetes and 
lichens, the treatment amounts almost to a revision. The arrangement of the 
orders and families is different in a large measure, and in the distribution of 
the lichens is original. No attempt has been made to revise the genera, except 
where the treatment had lagged behind current practice, as is particularly true 
of the lichens. In some cases, genera have been included in others, but this is 
done only for the sake of the beginner, when the descriptions reveal no differences, 
and is by no means intended as a revision. 

Questions of nomenclature have necessarily been left largely to one side, 
but no hesitation has been felt in making certain corrections. These have dealt 
mostly with mistaken or neglected transliteration, and with faulty composition. 
A considerable number of sesquipedalian words have been shortened, and the 
greater number of hybrid names have been corrected. These corrections have 
been made in such a way as to retain as much of the original name as possible. 
Corrections are indicated by the sign f with the original form in parenthesis 
below. New genera are designated by an asterisk, and are listed with their 
types on a later page. 

The genera described in volumes 9-18 of the "Sylloge" have been included 
in the proper family keys. Genera placed under "incertae sedis" are excluded 
as a rule, since it is impossible to locate them definitely. A few genera occur 
more than once when they show the characters of two families, or when super- 
ficial and developmental features indicate different positions. An endeavor has 
been made to make the keys as consistent as possible, and as simple as is profit- 
able. The mycologist must have a fair equipment of technical terms, as well 
as a Latin vocabulary, and the sooner these are acquired the better. In many 
cases, definiteness will seem to be lost by the use of such terms as "typically," 
"usually," etc., but the beginner must quickly learn that the line between families 
is rarely clear-cut, but often on the contrary most devious. The tyro must con- 
stantly be warned that some species belong as naturally in one family as in an- 
other, and must consequently be sought in more than one place. The color of a 
spore, the position of a perithecium, or the texture of a cup does not always 

NOV 1 3 1909 



conform with a definite term, and the beginner must be governed accordingly. 

While the writer is particularly indebted to Saccardo's "Sylloge Fungorum,*' 
he is also indebted to Thaxter's "Monograph of the Laboulbeniaceae," and his 
"Preliminary Diagnoses of New Species of Laboulbeniaceae," II-VI, for the 
material for the ke}- to this group. The treatment of the Pezizales is largely 
that of Rehm's "Discomyceten," modified by the inclusion of the lichens. From 
F.ngler and Prantl's "Pflanzenfamilien," material has been drawn in the mono- 
graphs of the bacteria by Migula, of phycomycetes and other groups by Schroter 
and Lindau, and especially of the lichens by Zahlbruckner. The writer is also 
under heavy obligation to Dr. Edith Clements, for the preparation of the Glos- 
sary, and for much other work of preparation and of publication. His thanks 
are also due to Professor Raymond J. Pool for assistance in the original mimeo- 
graph copies. 

Frederic Edward Clements. 

The University of Minnesota, 
June I, 1909. 



CONTENTS. 



7 



Preface -_..__. 

Key to Orders and Families - 

Key to Genera ...... 

Key to Spore Sections - 165 

Guide to the Volumes of Saccardo's "Sylloge Fungorum" 167 

Index to families in Saccardo's "Sylloge Fungorum" and 

Rehm's "Discomyceten" .... l y l 

List of New Genera and Types - - - 173 

Glossary of Latin and English Terms - - - 177 

Index to Genera, Subfamilies, Families and Orders - 207 



Key to Orders and Families 



I. Filaments one-celled, rarely septate, typically aqua- 

tic or endobiotic ; propagation by fission or by 
conidia, the latter usually in sporangia ; sex-cells 
typically present, uniting to form resting-spores 

II. Filaments septate, typically saprophytic or epibi- 

otic ; conidia borne on conidiophores ; sex-cells 
usually absent 
i. Spores in a hymenium composed of asci or club- 
shaped basidia 
a. Spores in asci 

1). Spores on more or less club-shaped basidia 
2. Conidia on conidiophores of various form, not in 
asci or on true basidia 

Phycomycetes 

I. True mycelium lacking or rudimentary 

1. Threads simple, globose to filamentous, often 

motile ; propagating by fission or by conidia also 

a. Cells single or in colonies, never forming plas- 

modium-like masses 
( i ) Cells filamentous, not spirally twisted 
(a) Filaments motile, sheathless 
( b ) Filaments non-motile, sheathed 
(2) Cells cylindric to globose, spirally twisted 
when filamentous 

(a) Cells more or less spirally twisted 

(b) Cells not spirally twisted or curved 
x. Cells oblong to cylindric 

y. Cells globose or cuboid 

b. Cells secreting a gelatinous matrix and form- 

ing pseudoplasmodia, passing into cysts or 
spore-masses which are often stalked 

2. Threads absent or slightly developed ; propagation 

by sporangia which produce zoogonids ; sex- 
cells rare 

II. Mycelium present, typically well-developed and 

branched ; propagation by zoogonids or by non- 
motile conidia borne in sporangia or on conidio- 
phores ; sex-cells usually present 
1. Aerial fungi propagating by conidia 
a. Conidia typically in globose to cylindric sporan- 
gia ; mostly saprophytes ; zygosporous 



Phycomycetes 



Ascomycetes 
Basidiomycetes 

Fungi Imperfecti 



2 
5 



Bacteriales 7 

Beggiatoaceae 7 

Chlamydobacteriaceae 7 



Spirillaceae 


7 


Bacteriaceae 


8 


Coccaceae 


8 



Myxobactrales 



Chytridiaceae 



Mucoraceae 



12 



GEXERA OF FUXGI 



b. Cornelia single or in chains on conidiophores 
(i) Typically parasitic on insects; zygosporous 
(2) Typically parasitic on leaves and stems ; 
oosporous 
2. Typically aquatic fungi propagating by zoogonids 

a. Mycelium mostly well-developed 

(1) Antheridial tube touching or penetrating 

oogone 

(2) Antherids producing antherozoids 

b. Mycelium more or less scanty, developing wholly 

or chiefly into sporangia and sex-organs 

Ascomycetes 

I. Asci completely or partly enclosed in a pericarp 
1. Asci in a perithecium 

a. Perithecia one to many on a receptacle ; sex- 

organs present ; typically on insects 

b. Perithecia not on a receptacle ; sex organs very 

rare ; rarely on insects 

(1) Mycelium or subicle typically present; osti- 

ole and paraphyses usually absent 
Subicle white ; perithecia usually with ap- 
pendages ; asci one to few, more or less 
ovoid 
Subicle dark or black ; appendages mostly 
lacking ; asci usually numerous, more or 
less cylindric 
Perithecia more or less globose 
Perithecia clavate to cylindric, often 
branched 

(2) Subicle usually absent ; ostiole and paraphy- 
ses typically present 

Perithecia fleshy or waxy, bright colored 
Perithecia hard, membranous to carbon- 

ous, typically brown to black 
Perithecia distinct, not reduced to cavities 
or locules 
(x) Perithecia normally globose, single, 
clustered or in a stroma 
Mycelium not forming a thallus with 

algae 
Mycelium forming a thallus 
Perithecia flattened, dimidiate and 

radiate 
Perithecia with a broad and com- 
pressed or a funnelform ostiole 
Ostiole broad and compressed, cleft ; 

perithecia mostly carbonous 
Ostiole elongate, then expanded and 



(a) 



(b) 



x. 



(a) 
(b) 



m. 

n. 

(y) 

(z) 

m. 



Entomophthoraceae 
Peronosporaceae 



Saprolegniaceae 
Monoblepharidaceae 

Ancylistaceae 



Laboulbeniales 



Sphaeriales 



Erysibaceae 

Perisporiaceae 
Capnodiaceae 

Hypocreaceae 



Sphaeriaceae 
Verrucariaceae 

Microthyriaceae 



Lophiostomataceae 



14 

17 



15 

18 

16 



18 



21 



21 



22 



25 



42 



5i 



53 



KEY TO ORDERS AND FAMILIES 



funnel form ; perithecia mostly 
coriaceous 
y. Perithecia reduced to locules in a stroma 
(x) Thallus absent 
m. Stromata mostly carbonous or mem- 
branous, not attached by a stipe- 
like point 
n. Stromata subcarnose, attached by a 
stipe-like point 
(y) Thallus present 
Asci in a hysterothecium, i. e., a perithecium with 
a cleft-like ostiole, typically oblong to linear, 
rarely vertical 
. Hysterothecium imperfect, dimidiate-scutate, but 

the ostiole a cleft 
i. Hysterothecium more or less elongate and 
rimose, or rounded and stellately cleft 
(i) Hysterothecium elongate, rimose, rarely 
vertical 

(a) Thallus absent 

(b) Thallus present 

(2) Hysterothecium round to linear, ostiole more 
or less stellate or lobed ; thallus present 
or absent 
Asci in an apothecium 

. Apothecia closed at first, then open, disk-shaped 
'to cup-shaped, rarely elongate 
(1) Thallus lacking 

(a) Apothecia sunken, then erumpent, usually 

opening by lobes, rarely by a cleft 
x. Apothecia opening by stellate or irregular 
lobes or by a cleft 
(x) Apothecia dark, brown or black 
m. Apothecia mostly carbonous or leath- 
ery ; hypothecium thin 
n. Apothecia mostly membranous or 
horny ; hypothecium thick 
(y) Apothecia white or bright colored, 
typically waxy 
y. Apothecia usually opening circularly, 
mostly leathery or horny, brown or 
black 

(b) Apothecia typically superficial and open- 

ing circularly, usually waxy or fleshy 
but often carbonous, gelatinous or leath- 
ery 

x. Asci disappearing early ; spores and pa- 
raphyses forming a mazaedium 

y. Asci persistent ; mazaedium lacking 



Coryneliaceae 



54 



Dothideaceae 


48 


Coccoideaceae 


50 


Mycoporaceae 


50 


Hysteriales 


54 


Hemihysteriaceae 


54 



Hysteriaceae 
Graphidaceae 



Arthoniae 
Pezizales 



Dermateaceae 



55 
58 



58 
61 



Phacidiaceae 


61 


Tryblidiaceae 


65 


Stictidaceae 


62 



65 



Caliciaceae 



70 



GENERA OF FUXGI 



(x) Apothecia not branched-stipitate at 
the tips of branches 
m. Apothecia gelatinous 
n. Apothecia not gelatinous 

(m) Apothecia usually dark or black, 
carbonous to leathery, rarely 
waxy 
(n) Apothecia usually bright colored, 
waxy to fleshy 
r. Apothecia typically waxy, on plant 
parts 
(r) Exciple brownish, parenchy- 
matic all over or at the 
base ; mostly sessile 
(s) Exciple concolorous, prosen- 
chymatic; mostly stalked 
s. Apothecia typically fleshy, usually 
terrestrial, often fimicole 
( r) Apothecia usually terrestrial, 
medium to large ; asci most- 
ly cylindric, not exserted 
(s) Apothecia usually fimicole ; 
asci broad, exserted from 
disk at maturity 
(y) Apothecia branched-stipitate at the 
tips of branches 
(2) Thallus present 

(a) Asci disappearing early; disk with a 

mazaedium 

(b) Asci persistent : mazaedium absent 

x. Thallus cottony, cobwebby or spongy ; al- 
gae yellow-green 
y. Thallus more or less distinctly gelati- 

ous; algae blue-green 
z. Thallus firm, layered, neither gelatinous 
nor cottony 
(x) Thallus of two sorts: one horizontal, 
the other erect, i. e.. a podetium 
(y) Thallus of one sort only, horizontal 
or erect 

Spores typically 2-celled, with a 
thickened cross-wall, usually tra- 
versed by a narrow canal 
Spores without thickened cross-wall 
and intersecting canal 
(m) Apothecia sunken, or grown 
together with the thallus on 
the whole underside 
(n) Apothecia typically superficial 
when mature, not attached 
broadly 



m. 



n. 



Bulgariaceae 



Patellariaceae 



Mollisiaceae 
Helotiaceae 



Cladoniaceae 



Physciaceae 



Peltophoraceae 



66 



68 



84 

86 



Pezizaceae 


88 


Ascobolaceae 


92 


Cordieritaceae 


92 


Caliciaceae 


70 


Chrysotrichaceae 


72 


Collemataceae 


72 



78 



83 



75 



KEY TO ORDERS AND FAMILIES 



r. Apothecia with proper exciple 
s. Apothecia typically with thalline 
exciple 
b. Apothecia open from the first, stalked, saddle- 
shaped, pileate to club-shaped, terrestrial as 
a rule 
4. Asci in a closed globoid body or ascoma, con- 
taining cavities or veins 

a. Ascomata epigean 

(1) Ascomata fleshy with locules at the mar- 

gin, forming swellings on branches of 
living trees 

(2) Ascomata minute, waxy to subcarbonous, 

crowded with locules containing a single 
ascus each 

(3) Ascomata fragile, asci evanescent, then 

powdery within ; epizoic 

b. Ascomata hypogean 

(1) Ascomata woody, crustose or carbonous, 

powdery within 

(2) Ascomata fleshy or waxy, not powdery but 

veined or lacunose within 
II. Asci exposed, apothecium lacking 

1. Spores free in the ascus 

a. Asci parallel and crowded, usually deforming 

living plant parts 

b. Asci solitary or grouped irregularly, saprophytic 

or when parasitic scarcely deforming the 
host 

c. Asci abnormal, rare; mycelium poorly de- 

veloped, propagating by budding 

2. Spore wall united with ascus wall, or asci disap- 

pearing at maturity 

a. Spores and ascus united ; aecidia and uredinia 

often present 

b. Asci disappearing early, leaving -a firm or 

powdery spore-mass 

Basidiomycetes 

I. Hymenium variously modified, exposed at maturity 

1. Basidia septate crosswise or lengthwise, or fur- 

cate ; usually gelatinous 

2. Basidia not septate; pileus fleshy, waxy, leathery 

or woody 

a. Hymenium more or less uniform 

(1) Pileus funnel-form, dimidiate or resupinate 

(2) Pileus club-shaped, coralloid or filiform 

b. Hymenium modified into teeth, pores or gills 

(1) Hymenium of teeth or granules 

(2) Hymenium of pores or tubes 



Lecideaceae 


76 


Parmeliaceae 


78 


Helvellaceae 


90 


Tuberales 


94 



Cyttariaceae 



94 



Phymatosphaeriaceae 95 
Onygenaceae 96 



Elaphomycetaceae 


96 


Tuberaceae 


96 


Gymnascales 


93 


Exascaceae 


93 


Gymnascaceae 


93 


Saccharomycetaceae 


94 


Uredinales 


98 


Uredinaceae 


98 


Ustilaginaceae 


IOI 


Agaricales 


102 


Tremellaceae 


103 



Thelephoraceae 


io5 


Clavariaceae 


105 


Hydnaceae 


107 


Polyporaceae 


108 



GENERA OF FUXGI 



(3) Hymenium of gills or gill-like veins 
II. Definite hymenium lacking; spore-mass gelatinous 
or powdery, typically enclosed in a peridium, 
or elevated at maturity 

1. Gleba more or less gelatinous, enclosed at first 

in a volva, then raised on the receptacle 

2. Gleba firm or powdery, not gelatinous, enclosed 

in a peridium 

a. Peridium epigean 

(1) Gleba typically powdery or cellular, en- 

closed in a more or less globose peridium 
which opens irregularly or by a definite 
mouth 

(2) Gleba in seed-like sporiangioles which are 

borne in a more or less cup-shaped peri- 
dium 

b. Peridium hypogean, closed 



Agaricaceae 


no 


Lycoperdales 


"5 


Phallaceae 


115 



Lycoperdaceae 116 



Nidulariaceae 120 

Hymenogastraceae 119 



Fungi Imperfecti 



I. Conidia present 

1. Conidia in globoid 



cup-shaped or hysterioid 
pyenidia 

a. Pyenidia fleshy or waxy, bright colored 

b. Pyenidia typically membranous to carbonous, 

dark, brown or black 

(1) Pyenidia more or less globose, rarely cylin- 

dric 

(2) Pyenidia dimidiate, shield-shaped 

(3) Pyenidia disciform, cup-shaped or hyster- 

ioid 
2. Conidia not in pyenidia 

a. Hyphae short or obsolete, borne on a matrix 

or stratum 

b. Hyphae not on a matrix, typically well-devel- 

oped, but sometimes short or even lacking 

(1) Hyphae in more or less loose cottony 

masses 

(a) Hyphae and conidia clear or bright col- 

ored 

(b) Hyphae and conidia both typically dark 

or one or the other always dark 

(2) Hyphae compactly united to form a globose 

to cylindric body which is often stalked 

(a) Hyphal body cylindric to capitate, stalked, 

i. e., a synnema 

(b) Hyphal body more or less globose, sessile, 

i. e., a sporodochium 
II. Conidia lacking 



Phomatales 
Zythiaceae 



Moniliaceae 
Dematiaceae 



121 
128 



Phomataceae 


121 


Leptostromataceae 


130 


Excipulaceae 


133 


Melanconiales 


135 


Moniliales 


138 



138 

146 



Stilbaceae 


154 


Tuberculariaceae 


158 


Sterile Mycelia 


164 



Key to the Genera 



Class i. SCHIZOMYCETES 

Typically one-celled fungi, dividing by fission in I, 2 or 3 planes, sometimes 
forming true filaments, but then motile or sheathed, and without true branches ; 
resting cells often developed; sexual reproduction lacking. 

Order 1. BACTERIALES 

Globose, rod-like or filamentous, single or in colonies, sometimes grouped 
into a loose mass (zoogloea), but never forming pseudoplasmodia or sporangium-like 
masses. 

Family 1. BEGGIATOACEAE 

MlGULA 40 

Filaments simple, free, motile, continuous or septate, sheathless, usually filled 
with shining or yellowish sulphur granules. 
A single genus Beggiatoa 8: 935 

Family 2. CHLAMYDOBACTERIACEAE 

Migula 35 

Filaments simple or false-branched, typically attached, non-motile, septate, with 
a more or less conspicuous sheath ; propagation by ciliate, creeping or non-motile 
conidia. 

I. Cells without sulphur granules 

1. Filaments simple 

a. Fission always in one plane Nocardia 8: 927 

b. Fission in 3 planes during conidia formation 

(1) Filaments marine, sheath very thin 

Phragmidiothrix 8: 935 

(2) Filaments fresh-water, sheath distinct 

Crenothrix 8: 925 

2. Filaments false-branched Cladothrix 8: 927 

II. Cells with sulphur granules Thiothrix 8: 934 

Family 3. SPIRILLACEAE 

Migula 30 

One-celled, more or less spirally twisted, rod-like or short-filamentous, usually 
motile by means of one to many flagella. 
I. Cells stiff or rigid 



8 BACTERIACEAE— MYXOBACTERIACEAE 

i. Flagclla lacking Spirosoma M. 31 
2. Flagclla present 

a. Flagellum 1, rarely 2-3, polar Microspira M. 31 

b. Flagella clustered, polar Spirillum 8: 1006 

II. Cells flexible Spirochaete 8: 1006 

Family 4. BACTERIACEAE 

MlGULA -'O 
One-celled, cells oblong to cylindric, straight or at least never spirally curved, 
flagella often present. 

I. Flagella lacking Bacterium 8: 1020 

II. Flagella present 

i. Flagella peripheral Bacillus 8: 943 

2. Flagella polar Pseudomonas M. 29 

Family 5. COCCACEAE 

MlGULA 15 

One-celled, cells globose, usually flattened when grouped in rows or masses, 
flagella usually absent. 

I. Flagella lacking 

1. Fission in one plane, cells in rows Streptococcus 8: 1054 

2. Fission in two planes, cells in plates 

Micrococcus 8: 1076 

3. Fission in three planes, cells in bundles 

Sarcina 8: 1044 

II. Flagella present 

1. Fission in two planes Planococcus M. 19 

2. Fission in three planes Planosarcina M. 20 

Order 2. MYXOBACTRALES 
Cells rod-like, motile, fission in one plane ; cells secreting a gelatinous base and 
forming pseudoplasmodia, then passing into cysts, or spore-masses which are often 
stalked (cystophore). 

Family 6. MYXOBACTERIACEAE 

1 1 : 460, T. 389 
Characters of the order. 

I. Cells always rod-like, distinct cysts present 

1. Cysts free, usually on a cystophore Chondromyces 14:842 

2. Cysts one or more in a gelatinous matrix Myxobacter 14:844 

(Polyangium 7:47) 

II. Cells finally forming rows of globose spores, no definite cysts 

Myxococcus 14: 843 

Class 2. CHLOROPHYCEAE 

Typically one-celled or filamentous plants, for the most part chlorophyllous but 



CHYTRIDIACEAE 9 

each order containing at least one fungous family ; propagation by fission and zoogo- 
nids ; sexual reproduction present in most. 

Order 3. PROTOCOCCALES 

Typically one-celled algae, usually dividing by fission and producing zoogonids ; 
sexual reproduction often lacking; one fungous family. 

Family 7. CHYTRIDIACEAE 

/ : 286, SCHROETER 65 

Mycelium lacking or in the form of delicate protoplasmic threads, rarely of 
hyphae, one-celled ; sporangiophore lacking or but slightly developed ; sporangia 
producing zoogonids, thin-walled and ripening quickly, or thick-walled and resting 
for a time (resting sporangia); sexual reproduction present in a few forms, the 
sex organs scarcely distinguishable. 

Key to the Subfamilies 

I. Resting sporangium asexual, rarely formed by the union of two zoogonids 

1. Mycelium completely lacking 

a. Sporangia separate, one formed from each fruit-mass 

Olpidiae 

b. Sporangia in sori, formed by division of fruit-mass 

Synchytriae 

2. Mycelium present 

a. Mycelium of delicate transient strands 

( 1 ) Mycelium limited to one terminal sporangium 

Rhizidiae 
(2) Mycelium extended, sporangia intercalary and terminal 

Cladochytriae 

b. Mycelium consisting of permanent hyphae 

Hyphochytriae 

II. Sexual resting spores formed by union of two sporangia and passing of con- 

tents of one into the other Oochytriae 

III. Sexual spores formed by conjugation Zygochytriae 

Subfamily Olpidiae 

SCHROETER 6j 

Mycelium lacking; fruit-mass endobiotic, globose, elliptic, rarely subclavate. 
undivided, finally forming a simple zoosporangium or resting sporangium, in wlvch 
zoospores are formed after a period of rest. 

I. Fruit-body amoeboid before maturity Reessia 7:304, S. 67 

II. Fruit-body without movement 

1. Sporangia free in the host-cell 

a. Membrane delicate, dissolving to free zoospores 

Sphaerita 7:314, S. 67 

b. Membrane firm, with a definite opening 
(1) Sporangia globose or elliptic 

(a) Sporangia with 1, rarely 2, openings 



io CHYTRIDIACEAE 

x. Zoospores i-ciliate; resting sporangium smooth 

Olpidium 7: 310, S. 67 
y. Zoospores 2-ciliate ; resting sporangium spiny or warted 

Olpidiopsis 7: 299, S. 69 
(b) Zoosporangia with many openings 

Pleotrachelus 7: 315, S. 69 
(2) Sporangia elongate or clavate Ectrogella 7: 315, S. 70 

2. Wall of sporangium fused with wall of host-cell 

Pleolpidium S. 70 

Subfamily Synchytriae 
Schroeter 71 

Mycelium lacking; fruit-body endobiotic, when mature dividing simultaneously 
to form zoosporangia grouped in rows or in a sorus ; resting sporangia arising di- 
rectly from the fruit-body or by the division of it. 

I. Zoosporangia arising through direct division- of entire plasm of fruit-body, not 

surrounded by a common membrane 

1. Sporangia filling host-cell completely, wall fused with that of host-cell 

Rozella 7:300, S. 71 

2. Sporangia free, aggregated Woronina 7:301, S. 71 

II. Zoosporangia arising through division of the full-grown fruit-body, surrounded 

by the common membrane of the mother cell 

1. Sporangia formed directly from the full-grown fruit-body 

Synchytrium 7: 288, S. 72 

2. Sporangia formed from the division of a thin-walled mother-cell which escapes 

from the fruit body Pycnochytrium S. 73 

Subfamily Rhizidiae 
Schroeter 75 

Fruit-body endophytic, epiphytic, or living free between the nutrient media, at 
base with a slender (in epiphytic forms sometimes scarcely perceptible) often 
branched mycelium, distinct for each fruit-body and imbedded in the matrix ; zoo- 
sporangia globose or oblong, simple, often with a sterile swollen cell at base ; zoo- 
spores globose, i-ciliate; resting sporangia formed asexually, usually like the zoo- 
sporangia. 

I. Zoosporangia breaking out with an irregular or tube-like mouth, like the rest- 
ing sporangia, which arise at the same place ; mycelium delicate 

1. Sporangia without basal cell, arising directly from mycelium 

a. Sporangia endophytic Entophlyctis 14:443, S. 75 

b. Sporangia epiphytic or free 

(1) Sporangia epiphytic, seated thickly on host-cell 

Rhizophidium 7: 298, S. 76 

(2) Sporangia free, mycelium only penetrating nutrient medium 

(a) Zoospores escaping singly Rhizophlyctis 14: 445, S. 77 

(b) Zoospores escaping as a ball Nowakowskia 7: 313, S. 77 

2. Sporangia with stalk-like or swollen basal cell 
a. Sporangia with a stalk-like cell 

(1) Epiphytic; stalk separated by wall from sporangium 



CHYTRIDIACEAE 1 1 

(a) Sporangium straight, rounded above 

Pcdochytrium S. 77 

(b) Sporangium curved, pointed above 

Harpochytrium 11: 249, S. 77 
(2) Saprophytic; stalk not separated from sporangium 

Obelidium 7: 299, S. 77 
b. Sporangia with swollen basal cell 

(1) Sporangium and basal cell endophytic 

Diplophlyctis S. 78 

(2) Sporangium epiphytic or free 

(a) Sporangium epiphytic 

x. Zoospores escaping singly Phlyctochytrium S. '78 

y. Zoospores escaping in a ball Rhizidiomyces 7: 316, S. 79 

(b) Sporangia saprophytic, free Rhizidium 7: 296, S. 79 

II. Zoosporangia opening by a lid, epiphytic; resting sporangia endophytic, mycelium 
tubular or saccate Chytridium 7: 304, S. 80 

Subfamily Cladochytriae 

SCHROETER 8o 

Mycelium diffuse, repeatedly branched, saprophytic, intercellular or intracellular, 
forming many sporangia, delicate, disappearing by the maturity of the spores ; spo- 
rangia intercalary or terminal, zoospores i-ciliate ; resting sporangia produced asexu- 
ally. 

I. Resting sporangia alone present Physoderma 7: 317, S. 81 

II. Zoosporangia alone present 

1. Endophytic, intracellular Cladochytrium 7: 295, S. 81 

2. Free, in algal slime 

a. Sporangia opening by a hole Amoebochytrium 7: 315, S. 82 

b. Sporangia opening by a lid Nowakowskiella 17: 514, S. 82 

Subfamily Harpochytriae 

SCHROETER 83 

Mycelium strongly developed, cylindric, persistent; sporangia alone known, 
formed asexually. 

I. Mycelium and sporangia in the host-cell Catenaria 9: 360, S. 83 

II. Sporangia in part at least free 

1. Parasitic 

a. Mycelium endophytic Harpochytrium 11: 249, S. 84 

b. Mycelium endozoic Polyrrhina 7: 314, S. 84 

2. Saprophytic Tetrachytrium 7: 295, S. 84 

Subfamily Oochytriae 

SCHROETER 84 

Mycelium lacking or variously developed ; resting sporangium formed by the 
union of two young fruit-bodies, in which the plasm of one passes into the other 
which develops as an oogone; zoosporangia present, spherical to elongate. 

I. Mycelium entirely lacking Diplophysa 7: 302, S. 85 

II. Mycelium present 



12 



MUCORACEAE 



i. Mycelium producing a single fruit-body Polyphagus 7: 302, S. 85 
2. Mycelium producing several fruit-bodies Urophlyctis 7: 303, S. 86 

Subfamily Zygochytriae 

SCHROETER 87 

Mycelium one-celled, upright, branched, producing zoospores and zygospores; 
zoosporangia single on ends of the branches, opening by a lid. zoospores one-ciliate ; 
zygospores produced by the fusion of the end-cells of conjugating tubes, growing 
into a filament upon germination; intermediate between Chytridiaceae and Mu- 
coraceae. 
A single genus Zygochytrium 7: 294, S. 87 



Order 4. SPIROGYRALES 

Typically one-celled or simple filamentous algae, without zoospores ; sexual repro- 
duction by the conjugation of similar gametes; two fungous families. 



Family 8. MUCORACEAE 

SCHROETER 119, /:l82, 9:335. H:239, 14:432, 16:383. 17:494 

Saprophytes, rarely parasites, with a well-developed branching mycelium in which 
cross-walls are absent; propagation by spores (conidia) arising within sporangia, the 
latter apparently reduced to chains of conidia in one family ; reproduction by the 
union of the end-cells or gametes of conjugating tubes. 

Key to the Subfamilies 

I. Sporangia always present, conidia sometimes present 

1. Columella present; zygospore naked or with a few appendages 

a. Wall of the sporangium homogeneous, not cuticularized, diffluent 

Mucorae 

b. Wall cuticularized and persistent above, thin and diffluent below 

Pilobolae 

2. Columella absent ; zygospore enveloped in a dense covering 

Mortierellae 

II. Sporangia rarely present, conidia always present 

1. Conidia solitary; zygospore arising directly from the gametes 

a. Sporangia present Choanophorae 

b. Sporangia lacking Chaetocladiae 

2. Conidia in chains ; zygospore arising from outgrowths of gametes 

Syncephalidae 

Subfamily Mucorae 
7: 184. S. 123 

Mycelium similar throughout or consisting of aerial and nutritive parts ; sporan- 
gia alike or of two sorts, primary and accessory, the former with columella, the lat- 
ter mostly without one ; zygospore naked or with separate appendages arising from 
the suspensors. 



MUCORACEAE 13 

I. Sporangia similar 

1. Sporangiophore simple or branched, but not repeatedly dichotomous 

a. Suspensors without appendages at maturity 

(1) Aerial mycelium lacking 

(a) Sporangia single, terminal Mucor 7:190, S. 124 

(b) Sporangia clustered, lateral 

x. Sporangia globose Circinella 7: 215, S. 125 

y. Sporangia long pear-shaped Pirella 7: 216, S. 125 

(2) Aerial mycelium present 

(a) Aerial mycelium stoloniferous 

Rhizopus 7: 212, S. 125 

(b) Aerial mycelium with many short thorn-like branches 

Spinellus 7: 205, S. 125 

b. Suspensors with thorny appendages at maturity 

(1) Appendages spreading Phycomyces 7:204, S. 126 

(2) Appendages loosely enclosing the zygospore 

Absidia 7: 214, S. 126 

2. Sporangiophore repeatedly dichotomous 

Sporodinia 7: 206, S. 127 

II. Sporangia of two sorts, primary and secondary 

1. Primary sporangia with, secondary without columella 

Thamnidium 7:211, S. 127 

2. Both kinds of sporangia with columella 

Dicranophora 11: 240, S. 128 

Subfamily Pilobolae 

7 : 184, S. 123 

Mycelium similar throughout ; sporangia alike, with columella, sporangial wall 
cuticularized and persistent above; zygospores naked. 

I. Sporangiophore equal, sporangium not thrown off 

Pilaira 7: 188, S. 129 

II. Sporangiophore swollen above, sporangium thrown off 

Pilobolus 7:184, S. 129 

Subfamily Mortierellae 
7 : 184, S. 130 
Sporangia similar, terminal, without columella ; conidia single, spherical on short 
lateral branches of the aerial mycelium ; zygospore enclosed in a dense mass of hyphae 
arising from the suspensors. 

I. Sporangiophores erect, branches attenuate toward tip 

Mortierella 7: 220, S. 130 

II. Sporangiophores creeping, branches equal 

Herpocladiella 7: 225, S. 130 

Subfamily Choanophorae 

9: 339, S. 131 
Mycelium parasitic on plant parts ; sporangia and conidia both present ; conidio- 



I4 ENTOMOPHTHORACEAE 

phores simple or branched, bearing one-celled conidia ; sporangiophores simple, spo- 
rangia with a small columella. 
A single genus Choanophora 9: 339, S. 131 

Subfamily Chaetocladiae 
7: 220, S. 131 

Mycelium parasitic on species of Mucor ; propagation by conidia, sporangia lack- 
ing, conidia arising on short side branches ; zygospore arising directly from the fused 
gametes. 
A single genus Chaetocladium 7: 220, S. 131 

Subfamily Syncephalidae 

7: 225, S. 132 

Conidia in chains on short basidia borne on the end of the sporophores ; zygo- 
spores arising as an outgrowth from the tips of the suspensors after conjugation. 

I. Sporophores not swollen at tip Piptocephalis 7: 225, S. 132 

II. Sporophores swollen into a head at tip 

1. Sporophore simple Syncephalis 7: 227, S. 132 

2. Sporophore branched Syncephalastrum 7: 232, S. 134 

Family 9. ENTOMOPHTHORACEAE 

Schroeter 134, 7: 280, 9: 349, 14: 43;, 16: 388, 17 : 510 

Mycelium usually well-developed, tubular or filamentous, mostly parasitic or en- 
dozoic, rarely saprophytic, at first one-celled, then septate ; propagation by one-celled 
conidia terminal on one-celled clavate conidiophores ; zygospores globose. 

I. Mycelium endozoic (in insects) 

1. Conidia always present 

a. Conidiophore simple, zygospores unknown, azygospores present 

(1) Cystidia and holdfasts lacking; azygospores lateral 

Empusa 7: 281, S. 138 

(2) Cystidia and holdfasts present; azygospores terminal 

Lamia S. 139 

b. Conidiophore repeatedly branched, zygospores and azygospores present 

Entomophthora 7: 282, S. 139 

2. Azygospores alone present Tarichium 7: 284, S. 140 

II. Mycelium endophytic or saprophytic 

1. Mycelium little developed, intracellular 

Completoria 7: 286, S. 140 

2. Mycelium well-developed, not intracellular 

a. Parasitic on fungi Conidiobolus 7: 285, S. 141 

b. Saprophytic Basidiobolus 7: 285, S. 141 

Order 5. VAUCHERIALES 

Unicellular, multinucleate, saccate or filamentous algae and fungi ; propagation 
by zoospores or conidia ; sexual reproduction in the three fungous families by un- 
like gametes, produced in antherids and oogones. 



SAPROLEGNIACEAE 15 

Family 10. SAPROLEGNIACEAE 

SCHROETER 93, 7:264, 9:345, II : 244, 14:450, 16:395, I/:5I9 

Mycelium strongly developed, broadly filamentous, more or less branched ; prop- 
agation by zoosporangia, producing ciliate, rarely non-motile, zoospores ; sexual re- 
production by antherids and oogones, their contents fusing by means of a connecting 
tube. 

Key to the Subfamilies 

I. Vegetative mycelium broad, tubular, aquatic ; zoosporangia cylindric, of the same 

width as the mycelium 

1. Filaments uniform, not constricted Saprolegniae 

2. Filaments constricted regularly Leptomitae 

II. Vegetative mycelium thin, mostly saprophytic on plant tissues; zoosporangia sev- 

eral times broader than the filaments Pythiae 

Subfamily Saprolegniae 

SCHROETER 96 

Nutritive mycelium sunken in the substratum, finely branched, water mycelium 
tubular, repeatedly branched, cylindric ; zoosporangia narrowly cylindric ; oogones 
mostly terminal, globose, i- to many-spored, antheridia clavate, the tube penetrating 
the oogone. 

I. Zoospores escaping before germination 

1. Zoosporangia cylindric-clavate, zoospores several- rowed 

a. Zoospores escaping together through a terminal pore 

(1) Zoospores scattering upon escape 

(a) Zoosporangia ovate Pythiopsis S. 97 

(b) Zoosporangia cylindric Saprolegnia 7: 268, S. 97 

(2) Zoospores remaining massed about the pore 

Achlya 7: 274, S. 99 

b. Zoospores not escaping through a common opening 

(1) Each zoospore escaping singly through its own lateral pore 

Dictyuchus 7:273, S. 99 

(2) Zoospores freed by the falling apart of the whole sporangium 

Thraustotheca S. 100 

2. Zoosporangia linear, zoospores i-rowed 

a. Zoospores scattering upon escape Leptolegnia S. 100 

b. Zoospores remaining in a ball at the pore 

Aphanomyces 7:276, S. 100 

II. Zoospores germinating in the sporangium 

Aplanes S. 101 

Subfamily Leptomitae 

SCHROETER 101 

Filaments thin, branched, divided by regular constrictions ; zoosporangia cylindric. 
pear-shaped or elliptic ; oogones i-spored. 

I. Branches similar to the main stem 



16 ANCYLISTACEAE 

i. Zoospores escaping singly from the pore 

Leptomitus 7: 265, S. ior 
2. Zoospores remaining in a hollow ball about the pore before swimming 

Apodachlya S. 102 
II. Branches different from the main stem 

1. Branches whorkd Naegeliella S. 163 

2. Branches repeatedly umbellate-ramose Araeospora 14:454 

3. Branches springing from the swollen tip of the main stem 

Rhipidium 7: 268, S. 103 

Subfamily Pythiae 
Schroeter 104 

Vegetative mycelium very narrow, uniform, much-branched ; sporangiophores not 
distinct from mycelium ; ^oosporangium filamentous, cylindric, ellipsoid or globose, 
contents escaping in a globose vesicle in which the zoospores arise, zoospores 2-cili 
oogones globose, terminal, rarely intercalary, i-spored. 

I. Zoosporangia filamentous Nematosporangium S. 104 

II. Zoosporangia globose or lemon-shaped Pythium 7:270, S. 104 

Family 11. ANCYLISTACEAE 
Schroeter 89, 7 : 278, 9 : 348, 14 : 450, 16 : 395, 17 : 516 

Mycelium mostly poorly developed and scarcely distinct from the fruit-body, the 
latter tubular, when mature divided into vegetative cells, sporangia or oogones and 
antherids ; entire contents of antherid passing into oogone, oospore lying free; spo- 
rangia always producing zoospores. 

Key to the Subfamilies 

I. Filament or fruit-body producing wholly sporangia or sex cells, mycelium entirely 

lacking Lagenidiae 

II. Filament producing vegetative cells also, the latter germinating to form threads 

Ancylistae 

Subfamily Lagenidiae 
Fruit-body filamentous, tubular, simple or branched, dividing into cells which 
develop into sporangia or sex cells; antherids on the same or on different fruit bodies; 
sporangia and oospores always giving rise to zoospores. 

I. In fresh-water algae, rarely in animals 

1. Filament simple 

a. Zoospores escaping singly from the sporangium 

Achlyogeton 7:277, S. 89 

b. Sporangial plasm poured out into a vesicle in which the zoospores are formed 

Myzocytium 7: 279, S. 90 

2. Filament with short side-branches Lagenidium 7: 278, S. 90 

II. In the root-hairs of plants Rhizomyxa 7: 278, S. 91 

Subfamily Ancylistae 
Fruit-body tubular, mycelium-like, unbranched or with few short side-branches, 
when mature dividing into a number of chain-like cells, which develop into vegetative 



PERONOSPORACEAE 17 

cells, sporangia or sex cells; sporangia producing zoospores; vegetative cells pro- 
ducing a long tube, which penetrates new host-cells ; oospores globose or elliptic. 

I. Sporangia lacking, vegetative and sex cells alone formed 

Ancylistes 7: 280, S. 92 

II. Sporangia also present Resticularia 9: 348, S. 92 

Family 12. PERONOSPORACEAE 

Schroeter i io, 7: 233, 9: 340, u : 242, 14: 457, 16: 396, 17: 5*9 
Mycelium abundant, filamentous, much branched, one-celled, endophytic ; propaga- 
tion by conidia borne on the ends of conidiophores, conidia producing zoospores or 
a germinating tube ; sexual reproduction by means of endophytic antherids and 
oogones, borne on the ends of lateral branches; oospores single, globose, producing 
zoospores or a germinating tube. 

Key to the Subfamilies 

I. Conidia in chains, conidiophores club-shaped 

Albuginae 

II. Conidia single, conidiophores branched Peronosporae 

Subfamily Albuginae 
Mycelium intercellular, haustoria globose ; conidiophores densely grouped into a 
conidial layer beneath the epidermis ; conidia globose, ellipsoid or subcylindric, in 
chains on the ends of the conidiophores, usually producing zoospores, rarely a germinat- 
ing tube ; oospores globose, producing zoospores. 
A single genus Albugo 7: 233, S. no 

Subfamily Peronosporae 

Mycelium intercellular, rarely intracellular, haustoria of various form; conidio- 
phores thread-like, above the epidermis, branched, without cross-walls ; conidia single 
on the tips of the branchlets, producing zoospores or a germinating tube; oospores 
globose, with a well-developed outer wall, germinating by means of a tube. 

I. Conidiophores slender, with long and slender branches 

1. Conidiophore growing after the formation of the first conidia, producing new 

joints Phytophthora 7: 237, S. 113 

2. Conidiophore not growing and making new extensions 

a. Conidia papillate at the tip 

(1) Conidia on stalks arising from irregular disks 

Bremia 7: 243, S. 116 

(2) Conidia on stalks arising directly from the unchanged ends of the conidi- 

ophores Plasmopara 7: 239 

b. Conidia not papillate at the tip Peronospora 7: 244, S. 117 

II. Conidiophores stout, swollen at the tip, or with short thick branches 

1. Conidiophore simple up to the enlarged tip, which bears the conidia on slender 

stalks Basidiophora S. 114 

2. Conidiophore with short thick branches bearing the conidia on flask-like stalks 

Sclerospora 7: 238, S. 114 



18 MONOBLEPHARIDACEAE— LABOULBENIACEAE 

Order 6. CONFERVALES 

Typically multicellular filamentous algae, propagating by zoospores, and repro- 
ducing by the union of isogametes, or by heterogametes borne in antherids and oogones ; 
one fungous family. 

Family 13. MONOBLEPHARIDACEAE 
Schroeter ioo, 7: 277, 14 : 452, 16 : 394 

Mycelium filamentous, one-celled or septate, producing zoospores and sex cells; 
zoospores i-ciliate arising in terminal sporangia; antherids cylindric producing ciliate 
antherozoids; oogones globose, terminal, opening by a pore, i-spored. 

I. Zoospores i-ciliate 

1. Mycelial threads equal throughout Monoblepharis 7: 277, S. 107 

2. Mycelial threads constricted, necklace-like 

Gonapodya 14:452, S. 107 

II. Zoospores two or more ciliate 

1. Zoospores 2-ciliate Diblepharis 16:395 

2. Zoospores many-ciliate Myrioblepharis 14: 455 

Class 4. ASCOMYCETES 

Fungi usually destitute of a conspicuous mycelium, reproducing by means of a 
spore-fruit containing asci (perithecium or apothecium), the spore-fruit occasionally 
reduced to a group of naked asci. 

Order 7. LABOULBENIALES 

Thaxter 197, Lindau 491 

Family 14. LABOULBENIACEAE 

8: 909, 9: 1 130. 11: 446, 14: 7^5. 16: 674, 17: 915 
Receptacle consisting of two to many cells in a row, or parenchyma-like, regu- 
larly producing from the cells one or more appendages bearing antherids as a rule ; 
antherozoids normally endogenous, borne within flask-like, simple or compound an- 
therids, rarely produced like conidia, i. e., naked or exogenous ; perithecia one to many, 
stalked or sessile, terminal or lateral on the receptacle, resulting from fertilization 
by means of a trichogyne; asci seriate, mostly 4-spored. spores usually 2-celled. 
I. Antherozoids endogenous, i. e., in closed antherids 
1. Antheridial cells forming a. compound anther id 

a. Dioecious 

(1) Perithecia and appendages in pairs to the right and left 

Dimorphomyces T. 264, L. 497 

(2) Perithecia and appendages in a row 

Dimeromyces T. 267, L. 497 

b. Monoecious 

(1) Antherids arising on an appendage 
(a) Antherids lateral 
x. On a subbasal cell of the appendage 

Cantharomyces T. 271, L. 497 



LABOULBENIACEAE 19 

y. On short opposite branchlets of the appendage 

Stichomyces T. 4: 37 
(b) Antherids terminal 
x. Antherid with a short spine at the tip 

Haplomyces T. 269, L. 497 
y. Antherid without a spine but with a neck-like canal cell 
(x) Ascogenic cells at least 36 Polyascomyces T. 2: 414 
(y) Ascogenic cells few 
m. Stalk of antherid a single cell 

(m) Antheridial cells obliquely in vertical rows 
r. Subbasal cell of receptacle with a sterile appendage 

Eumonoecomyces T. 4: 21 
s. Subbasal cell of receptacle without sterile appendage 

Eucantharomyces T. 273, L. 497 
(n) Antherid parenchyma-like, many-celled 
r. Antheridial cells with three marginal cells 

Euhaplomyces T. 4: 25 
s. Antherial cells without marginal cells 

Camptomyces T. 274, L. 498 
(o) Antherid of several superposed cells bearing single simple an- 
therids directly 
r. Simple antherids two Acallomyces T. 5: 23 

s. Simple antherids several 

Acompsomyces T. 4: 37 
n. Stalk of two cells placed side by side 

Monoecomyces T. 2: 412, 4: 23 
(2) Antherids arising on the receptacle 

(a) Perithecia free 

x. Receptacle of a single row of several to many superposed cells 

Enarthromyces T. 276, L. 498 
y. Receptacle of one or two superposed cells followed by two or three 
oblique or transverse rows 
(x) Receptacle with one basal cell 

m. Basal cell followed by two tiers of cells 

Limnaeomyces T. 2: 428 
n. Basal cell followed by three symmetrical series 

Dichomyces T. 282, L. 499 
(y) Receptacle with two superposed basal cells 

Peyritschiella T. 278, L. 499 

(b) Perithecia grown together with distal portion of receptacle 
x. Base of receptacle of two superposed cells 

Chitonomyces T. 285, L. 499 
y. Base of three superposed cells Hydraeomyces T. 293, L. 500 

2. Antheridial cells distinct, discharging Independently 

a. Dioecious 

(1) Perithecium borne by the basal or subbasal cell of receptacle 
(a) Perithecium on the single basal cell, spores continuous 

Amorphomyces T. 295, L. 501 



20 LABOULBENIACEAE 

(b) Perithecium lateral on the subbasal cell, spores obliquely i-septate 

Dioecomyces T. 4: 33 
(2) Two-celled normal receptacle producing secondary receptacles on which 
the perithecia are borne Herpomyces T. 5: 11 

b. Monoecious 

(1) Antherids in definite series on the appendages 

(a) Arising directly from cells of the appendages 
x. Appendage one 

(x) Antherids in 4 vertical series 

Helminthophana T. 297, L. 501 
(y) Antherids in a single vertical series 

Stigmatomyces T. 298, L. 501 
y. Appendages numerous, antherids in 3 vertical series 

Idiomyces T. 302, L. 501 

(b) Borne on branches of the appendages 
x. Appendage one 

(x) Appendage with sterile terminal branchlets, antherids in short series 

near its base Rhadinomyces T. 305, L. 501 

(y) Appendage with fertile terminal branchlets bearing antherids laterally 

Eucorethromyces T. 2:433 
y. Appendages forming a tuft, antherids on lateral branchlets 

Corethromyces T. 303, L. 501 

(2) Antherids not in definite series on the appendages 

(a) Receptacle 2-celled 

x. Basal cell with rhizoids 

(x) A single receptacle from each rhizoid base 

Rhizomyces T. 307, L. 502 
(y) Several receptacles from a common rhizoid base 

Moschomyces T. 368, L. 504 
y. Basal cell not from a rhizoid 
(x) Appendage single 
m. Receptacle of 2 superposed cells 

(m) Basal cell spheric, penetrating by a long filament 

Ceraiomyces T. 3: 410 
(n) Basal cell elongate Sphaleromyces T. 365, L. 504 

n. Receptacle of a series of superposed cells 

Ectinomyces T. 5: 26 
(y) Appendages several to many 
m. Appendages and perithecium in a whorl 

Compsomyces T. 366, L. 504 
n. Appendages in a row Clematomyces T. 2: 439 

(b) Receptacle more than 2-celled 

x. Receptacle of seriate, regularly superposed cells 
(x) Plant bilaterally symmetrical 

Diplomyces T. 357, L. 503 
(y) Plant asymmetrical 
m. Receptacle of two contiguous and united rows 

(m) A single basal cell Rhachomyces T. 358, L. 504 



ERYSIBACEAE 21 

(n) Basal and subbasal cell present 

Distichomyces T. 6:308 
n. Receptacle of a single row Chaetomyces T. 364, L. 504 
y. Receptacle more or less parenchyma-like, at most only part of the 
cells superposed in series 
(x) Appendages all on one side Laboulbenia T. 308, L. 502 
(y) Appendages on two sides Rickia 16: 689 
(z) Appendages completely surrounding the perithecium 

Teratomyces T. 354 L. 502 
II. Antherozoids exogenous, i. e., produced terminally or laterally on the appendages 
as naked cells 

1. Receptacle large, very many-celled, parenchyma-like 

a. Perithecium with six wall cells in each row 

(1) Base of trichogyne persistent as a one-celled appendage 

Caenomyces T. 4: 44 

(2) Base of trichogyne not persistent as an appendage 

Zodiomyces T. 371, L. 504 

b. Perithecium with 9-10 wall cells in each row 

Euzodiomyces T. 2: 449 

2. Receptacle of a series of superposed cells 

a. Appendage single Ceratomyces T. 372, L. 505 

b. Appendages several Coreomyces T. 5: 56 

The genus Misgomyces T. 2 : 443 has not been included in the key owing to the 
fact that its antherids are unknown ; it is very closely related, apparently, to Laboul- 
benia. 

Order 8. SPHAERIALES 

Mycelium sometimes superficial and abundant, often forming a thallus with algae, 
but usually scanty and imbedded in the matrix, the threads branched and septate ; prop- 
agation by means of conidia borne on branches of the mycelium, or by means of 
pycnidia ; reproduction resulting in a globose, flask-shaped or flattened perithecium, 
with a round mouth or ostiole except in the simpler forms, in which appendages are 
also often found ; asci usually 8-spored and with paraphyses ; spores hyaline, yellow- 
ish or brown, one to many-celled. 

Family 15. ERYSIBACEAE 

1 : 1. 9: 364, 11 : 253, 14: 404, 17: 526 
Mycelium white, cobwebby, superficial, penetrating the epiderm by means of 
haustoria ; propagation by chains of conidia cut off from upright simple branches; 
perithecium without mouth, membranous, regularly with simple or modified appen- 
dages, often imbedded in the mycelium ; ascus one to several, globose to ovoid, 2-8- 
spored, without paraphyses; spores usually i-celled, hyaline. 

Hyalosporae 

Spores i-celled, hyaline 

I. Perithecium with one ascus 

1. Appendages simple Sphaerotheca 1: 3 

2. Appendages dichotomously branched Podosphaera 1 : 2 



22 ERYSIBACEAE— PERISPORIACEAE 

II. Perithccium with several asci 
i. Appendages present 
a. Appendages simple, thread-like Erysibe i: 15 

1). Appendages branched or otherwise modified 

(1) Appendages dichotomously branched 

Microsphaera 1:10 

(2) Appendages modified but not branched 

(a) Appendages stiff and bristle-like 

x. Appendages numerous, not swollen at base 

Pleochaete 1 : 9 
y. Appendages few, swollen at base 

Phyllactinia 1 : 5 

(b) Appendages coiled at tip Uncinula 1:6 

2. Appendages absent ; perithecium surrounded by the mycelium 

Erysibella 1 : 23 

Dictyosporae 
Spores usually hyaline, muriform 
A single genus Saccardia 1:24 

Family 16. PERISPORIACEAE 

1:24. 9:371. 11 :2S3, 14:462, 16:398, 17:524 
Mycelium superficial, dark, filamentous, sometimes lacking, rarely forming a firm 
stroma ; conidia or pyenidia rarely present ; perithecium without a mouth, or open- 
ing irregularly, usually globose, membranous or coriaceous, rarely carbonous, appen- 
dages usually lacking; asci mostly numerous, clustered, more or less cylindric, mostly 
8-spored, paraphyses regularly lacking ; spores various. 

Kyalosporae 

Spores i-celled, hyaline or yellowish 

I. Perithecia bright-colored, yellow or reddish, rarely white 

1. Asci 8-spored 

a. Perithecia with setae, or hairs 

(1) With long rigid setae Chaetothece 11:254 

(2) With many hairs, immersed in a dense subicle 

Cryptothecium 14:465 

b. Perithecia glabrous 

(1) Spores with an unequal samariform appendage 

Samarospora 11:254 

(2) Spores not appendaged 

(a) Spores verrucose Anixiopsis 14: 464 

(b) Spores smooth 

x. Conidiophores branched Allescheria 14: 464 

y. Conidiophores simple, swollen at tip 

Eurotium 1 : 25 

(Kickxella 9: 372) 

2. Asci many-spored Pisom.yxa 1: 29 

II. Perithecia dark or black, spores hyaline 
1. Asci 2-8-spored 



PERISPORIACEAE 23 

a. Ascus single Cystotheca 16: 407 

b. Asci several or many 

(1) Perithecia numerous in setose stroma-like 

cups Lasiobotrys 1 : 29 

(2) Perithecia not in cups 

(a) Perithecia globose Meliolopsis 1: 68 

(b) Perithecia applanate Asterula 1 : 47 
2. Asci many-spored 

a. Asci many Apiosporium 1: 30 

b. Ascus single Monascus 9:373 
III. Perithecia brown, then black, spores yellow 

Anixia 1 :34 

Phaeosporae 

Spores i-celled, dark 

I. Asci capitate on tips of branched hyphae Cephalothece 1: 36 

II. Asci sessile or on simple stalks 

1. Perithecia with appendages 

a. Spores globose, conglobate 

(1) Appendages closely spiral, convolute 

Pleurascus 16: 1123 

(2) Appendages flexuose-tortuose Arachnomyces 17: 532 

b. Spores .ellipsoid 

(1) Appendages several times branched Ascotricha 1: 37 

(2) Appendages circinate at apex Magnusia 1: 38 

2. Perithecia without appendages 

a. Perithecia hairy or setose Chaetomidum 1:39 

b. Perithecia glabrous 

(1) Perithecia innate upon a radiate subicle 

Asteronia 1 : 47 

(2) Perithecia not on a radiate subicle 

(a) Spores at first conglobate Laaseomyces 16:405 

(b) Spores free from the first 

x. Growing on lichen thalli Orbicula 1:38 

y. Growing on roots Thielavia 1 : 39 

Hyalodidymae 

Spores 2-celled, (i-septate), hyaline 

I. Asci 8-spored 

1. Cells of spore separating easily Neorehmia 17:536 

2. Cells of spore not separating 

a. Perithecia on a radiate subicle Asterella 1 : 42 

b. Perithecia on a uniform subicle Dimerosporium 1 : 51 

II. Asci many-spored Pampolysporium 16:411 

Pbaeodidymae 

Spores i-septate, dark when mature, rarely yellowish 

I. Perithecia on a subicle 

1. Subicle radiate : perithecia lenticular Asterina 1 : 39 

2. Subicle uniform, dematium-like ; perithecia globose 



24 PERISPORIACEAE 

a. Perithecia without basal setae 

(i) Asci several or many Dimerium 1:51, 17: 537 

(2) Ascus one. rarely two Balladyna 16:411 

b. Perithecia with basal setae Kusanobotrys 17:881 
II. Perithecia not seated on a subicle 

1. Perithecia gelatinous when wet, honey-yellow 

Englerula 17: 529 

2. Perithecia membranous or carbonous, usually dark 

a. Spores apiculate-appendaged, very large 

Zopfia 1 : 54 

b. Spores not appendaged, small or medium 

(1) Spores smooth 

(a) Spores elongate-oblong, very large 

Richonia 9: 379 

(b) Spores subtrapeziform, small Argynna 14: 470 

(c) Spores ellipitic, medium Parodiella 1: 717, 9: 409 

(2) Spores spiny or roughened 

(a) Perithecium irregularly dehiscent ; asci not long-stalked 

Marchaliella 11: 257 

(b) Perithecia regularly areolate-dehiscent ; asci long-stalked 

Testudina 9: 378 

Hyalophragmiae 
Spores with 2 or more cross walls, hyaline 

I. Perithecia on a radiate subicle Asteridium 1: 49 

II. Perithecia on a uniform subicle 

1. Subicle effuse, dematium-like ; perithecium closed 

Zukalia 9: 431 

2. Subicle fibrous, subcrustose ; perithecium perforate 

Perisporiopsis 17:544 

Phaeophragmiae 

Spores 2-several-septate, dark 

I. Perithecia on a radiate subicle Meliola 1: 60 

(Limacinia 14:474) 

II. Subicle uniform or absent 

1. Spores separating at the joints 

a. Paraphyses lacking Perisporium 1 : 55 

b. Paraphyses present Schenckiella 11:268 

2. Spores not separating Perisporina 17: 545 

Hyalodictyae 
Spores muriform, hyaline 
I Perithecia on a subicle, closed Zukaliopsis 17: 554 

Phaeodictyae 

Spores muriform, dark 
I. Perithecia globose 

1. Spores with an appendage at each end Ceratocarpia 14: 474 

2. Spores without appendages 



CAPXODIACEAE— SPHAERIACEAE 



25 



a. Subicle radiate 

b. Subicle lacking 

II. Perithecia applanate 



Pleomeliola 1: 70, 17: 554 
Cleistothece 11: 270 

Cookella 1: 71 



Scolecosporae 

Spores filiform, septate or continuous, hyaline or subhyaline 

I. Perithecium opening by a small pore Saccardomyces 17: 530 

II. Perithecium without a pore 

1. Subicle radiate, paraphyses present Ophiomeliola 16: 416 

2. Subicle uniform, paraphyses absent Hyaloderma 9: 437 

Family 17. CAPNODIACEAE 

1 : 73, 9 : 438, 1 1 : 270, 14 : 476, U ■ 555 
Perithecia vertically elongate, clavate or cylindric, obtuse or acute, simple or 
branched, usually laciniate-dehiscent at the apex, on a thick black mycelium, which 
is rarely absent. 

I. Subicle crustose 

1. Spores i-celled, globose Capnodiella 1 : 74 

2. Spores 3-4-septate, dark Capnodaria 1:74 

3. Spores muriform, dark Capnodium 1:73, 80 

II. Subicle very thick, spongy Scorias 1 : 83 

III. Subicle sparse or lacking 

1. Spores 1 -celled, hyaline Capnodiopsis 17: 555 

2. Spores 2-celled, hyaline ; perithecium gelatinous 

Seuratia 17: 558 



Family 18. SPHAERIACEAE 
1:88, 2:1, 9:4, 11:271, 14:478, 16:417, 17:560 

Mycelium scanty and immersed, or often producing a stroma, rarely a subicle; 
perithecia typically globoid, often drawn out into a beak, membranous, coriaceous, 
or carbonous, brown or black, dehiscing by a round pore or ostiole, single, cespitose 
or composite in a stroma ; in the latter case each perithecium is distinct, not merely 
a locule in the stroma ; asci usually numerous, elongate, usually paraphysate ; spores 
various. „ 

Allantosporae 

Spores i-celled, obtuse, curved-oblong, hyaline or olivascent 

I. Perithecia sparse or cespitose 
1. Ostiole central, very short 
a. Asci 8-spored 

(1) Perithecia covered 

(a) Perithecia minute, glabrous Massalongiella 1 : 89 

(b) Perithecia largish, strigose-pilose Enchnoa 1:89 

(2) Perithecia subsuperficial 

(a) Perithecia globose, never collapsing 

Bizzozera A: 24, 9:445 



26 SPHAERIACEAE 

(b) Perithecia collapsing, becoming cup-shaped 
x. Perithecia gregarious Coelosphaeria i: 91 

y. Perithecia cespitose Nitschkea 11: 272 

b. Asci many-spored Fracchiaea 1: 93 

2. Ostiole central, papillate Neoarcangelia 16: 419 

3. Ostiole lateral, conic Pleurostoma 1: 95 

II. Perithecia composite, typically in a stroma 

1. True stroma lacking; perithecia heaped together between bark and wood 

a. Asci 8-spored; ostiole short or long Calosphaeria 1:95 (16:419, 421) 

b. Asci many-spored; ostiole very short Coronophora 1: 103 

2. True stroma present ; perithecia immersed in bark or wood 
a. Stroma formed by the changed matrix 

(1) Stroma valsous, i. e., perithecia in a circle 

(a) Asci 4-8-spored 

x. Perithecia usually 4, never more than 6, in each stroma 

Quaternaria 1 : 106 
y. Perithecia man)-, 8-30, in most stromata at least 

(x) Perithecia circinate or monostichous, ostiole entire; asci subsessile. 

Valsa 1 : 108 
(y) Perithecia monostichous or polystichous, ostiole not entire ; asci 
stipitate Eutypella 1: 145, 17: 569 

(b) Asci many-spored Valsella 1: 158 

(2) Stroma eutypeous, i. e., broadly and indefinitely effuse 

(a) Asci 8-spored 

x. Stroma conspicuous, cortical or woody 

Eutypa 1:162, 17:569 
y. Stroma more or less obsolete 

(x) Stroma woody; ostiole largish; spores subfuscous 

Endoxyla 1: 181 
(y) Stroma cortical ; ostiole small ; spores subhyaline 

Cryptosphaeria 1:182 

(b) Asci many-spored 

x. Stroma manifest, cortical or woody 

Cryptovalsa 1: 187 
y. Stroma obsolete, cortical Cryptosphaerella 1 : 186 

b. Stroma different from the substance of the matrix 

(1) Asci 8-spored; stroma effuse or disciform 

Diatrype 1:191, 9:480 

(2) Asci many-spored; stroma verruciform 

Diatrypella 1 : 200 

Hyalosporae 

1:407, A 58, 9:577. 11:289, 14:515. 16:45-'. 17:573 

Spores i-cellcd, hyaline or nearly hyaline, ovoid, oblong or fusoid, rarely 
irregular or stellate, not allantoid. 

I. Perithecia single or separate 

1. Perithecia beaked or with a stellate ostiole 
a. Perithecia subcarbonous 



HYALOSPORAE 27 

(1) Spores normal, i. e., not modified 

(a) Perithecia superficial, glabrous or dark hairy 

Ceratostomella 1 : 408 

(b) Perithecia innate-erumpent, yellow-hairy 

Camptosphaeria 1: 413 

(2) Spores with a ring-like appendage Rostrella 17: 609 
b. Perithecia submembranous, usually phyllogenous 

(1) Ostiole black, not stellate Gnomoniella 1: 413 

(2) Ostiole white, stellate with black wartlike appendages 

Rinia 17: 591 
2. Perithecia not beaked 
a. Perithecia covered 

(1) Asci 1-2- or 4-8-spored 

(a) Paraphyses present Physalospora 1: 433 

(inch Stigmatula 1 : 543) 

(b) Paraphyses lacking 
x. Spores long-caudate 

(x) Spores caudate at one end only 

Urcspora 1: 448 
(y) Spores caudate at both ends Urosporella 14: 523 
y. Spores not caudate 
(x) Asci 1-2-spored 
m. Perithecia perforate fDiplosporis 11: 292 

(Geminispora) 
n. Perithecia closed, then splitting irregularly at apex 

Spolverinia 17: 577 
(y) Asci 4-8-spored 
m. Perithecia lenticular, perforate 

Laestadia 1 : 420 
n. Perithecia globose, papillate 

Phomatospora 1:432 

(2) Asci many-spored 

(a) Perithecia glabrous Ditopella 1 : 450 

(b) Perithecia strigose-pilose Polytrichia 1: 451 
b. Perithecia superficial 

(1) Perithecia smooth, i. e., glabrous 

(a) Spores stellate Inzengaea 9: 610 

(b) Spores not stellate 

x. Perithecia on a dark crustose sulfide 

Pilgeriella 16: 464 
y. Perithecia not on a sulfide 

(x) Perithecia surrounded by dark hyphae at base 

Guignardiella 16: 465 
(y) Perithecia without dark hyphae at base 

Wallrothiella 1: 455 
(inch Zignoina 2: 219) 

(2) Perithecia hairy 

(a) Asci 8-spored Trichosphaeria 1 : 452 

(b) Asci 16-spored Trichosphaerella 9: 604 



28 SPHAERIACEAE 

II. Perithecia upon or within a stroma or subicle 
i. Perithecia beaked Glomerella 16: 452, 17: 573 

2. Perithecia not beaked 

a. Perithecia immersed in a subicle Scortechinia A 68, 9: 604 

b. Perithecia in or upon a stroma 

(1) Stroma radiate, phyllogenous Trabutia 1 : 449 

(2) Stroma not radiate, usually caulicole 

(a) Xecks of perithecia wanting, stroma disk-like 

Botryosphaeria 1 : 456 
(inch Gibellia A 406, 9:608 and 
Coutinia 17: 589) 

(b) Xecks of perithecia present, stroma valsiform 

Cryptosporella 1 : 466 
(inch Diaporthopsis 9:610) 

Phaeosporae 

1: 214, 9: 481, 11: 278, 14: 489, 16: 427. 17: 593 
Spores i-celled, colored, usually yellowish or brown, ovoid, oblong or fusoid 
I. Perithecia separate, at least without a stroma 

1. Covered, often erumpent 

a. Asci i-spored Haplosporium A 40, 9: 495 

b. Asci 4-8-spored 

(1) Perithecia covered by the blackened adhering epiderm 

Anthostomella 1: 278 

(2) Perithecia erumpent with a stellate volva 

Astrocystis 1 : 293 

c. Asci many-spored 

(1) Spores smooth Miillerella A 40, 9: 495 

(2) Spores verrucose Mesnieria 16:440 

2. Superficial or subsuperficial 

a. Perithecia long-beaked 

(1) Spores lunulate; fimicole Micrascus A 37, q: 4S3 

(2) Spores globose to elliptic ; not fimicole 

Ceratostoma 1: 215 

b. Perithecia not beaked 

(1) Perithecia submembranous 

(a) Spores with a mucous sheath or tail ; usually fimicole 
x. Asci 4-8-spored 

(x) Spores with a hyaline tail or cauda 

Sordaria 1 : 230 
(y) Spores with a mucous sheath 
m. Perithecia sparse Hypocopra 1 : 240 

n. Perithecia densely aggregate, almost stroma-like 

Coprolepa 1 : 2d8 
y. Asci many-spored, spores usually caudate 

Philocopra 1: 249 

(b) Spores without mucous sheath or tail 

x. Perithecia with simple setae, asci persistent 

Helminthosphaeria 1 : 230 



PHAEOSPORAE 29 

y. Perithecia with branched, hooked or spiral setae ; asci diffluent 
(x) Spores subglobose to elliptic 

Chaetomium 1 : 220 
(y) Spores triangular Bommerella A 38, 9: 486 

(2) Perithecia typically carbonous Rosellinia 1 : 252 

(incl. Pleosporopsis 14:501 and 
Tympanopsis 1 1 : 283 

(3) Perithecia coriaceous, firm, ascending-elongate 

Bombardia 1 : 277 

II. Perithecia in a stroma 

1. Stroma immersed, somewhat woody; perithecia membranous 

Anthostoma 1 : 293 

2. Stroma superficial, carbonous or leathery ; perithecia carbonous 

a. Stroma terete, fruticose or filiform 

(1) Stroma fimicole fPedisordaria 14:494 

(Podosordaria) 

(2) Stroma not fimicole 

(a) Stroma with a single perithecium at apex 

Capnodiella 17: 621 

(b) Stroma containing many perithecia 
x. Perithecia immersed laterally 

(x) Stroma fruticose, clavate or filiform 

Xylaria 1 : 309 
(incl. Kretschmaria 9: 565) 
(y) Stroma disk-like or cupulate above 

Xylariodiscus 16:449 
y. Perithecia immersed vertically 

(x) Perithecia immersed annulately about the truncate apex 

Camillea 1 : 346 
(y) Perithecia crowded beneath an operculate disk 

Henningsinia 16:450 

b. Stroma effuse, globose or cupulate, adnate or substipitate 
(1) Conidia superficial on the young stroma 

(a) Stroma usually fimicole Poronia 1:348 

(b) Stroma not fimicole 

x. Stroma concentrically zonate Daldinia 1:393 

y. Stroma not concentrically zonate 

(x) Stroma repand-pulvinate, somewhat hollow 

Ustilina 1:351 
(y) Stroma solid 
m. Stroma subglobose, hemispheric or obpiriform 

(m) Stroma not modified with squarrose papery membranes 

Penzigia 9:567 
(n) Stroma modified by squarrose papery membranes 

Squamotubera 17:620 
n. Stroma effuse 

(m) Perithecia immersed, necks rather long 

Bolinia 1 : 352 



3 o SPHAERIACEAE 

(n) Perithecia innate-prominent, necks lacking 

Hypoxylum i: 352 
(2) Conidia arising beneath the upper layer of the disk-like or cupulate 
stroma 

(a) Perithecia flask-shaped Nummularia 1:395 

(b) Perithecia long-cylindric Solenoplea 17:619 

Hyalodidymae 

1 : 475. 9: 6ll, 11: 295, 14: 525, 16: 468, 17: 635 

Spores i-septate (2-celled), hyaline or subhyaline, ovoid, oblong or fusoid 

T. Perithecia separate 

1. Perithecia covered or nearly so 

a. Perithecia beaked, submembranous 

(1) Asci 8-spored Gnomonia 1:561 

(2) Asci many-spored Rehmiella 9: 676 

b. Perithecia not beaked 

(1) Asci 8-sporcd 

(a) Perithecia in a phyllogenous pseudostroma 

Hypospilina 2: 190 

(b) Perithecia not in a phyllogenous pseudostroma 
x. Paraphyses lacking Sphaerella 1: 476 

(inch Lizoniella 17:661) 
y. Paraphyses present 

( x ) Spores surrounded with mucus 

Massarinula 14: 536 
(y) Spores not surrounded with mucus 
m. Spores septate near the base 

Apiospora 1 : 539 

(inch Stigmatea 1:541) 
n. Spores septate near the middle 

(m) Perithecia smooth Didymella 1:545 

(inch Stigmatea 1:545) 
(n) Perithecia long-hairy Arcangelia 9: 696 

(2) Asci 16-24-spored 

(a) Asci 16-spored Mycosphaerella 9: 659 

(b) Asci 24-spored Hariotia 9: 672 

2. Perithecia superficial or nearly so 

a. Perithecia beaked 

(1) Spores expelled in a mucous mass Spumatoria 16: 1134 

(2) Spores not expelled in a mucous mass 

Lentomita 1: 584 

b. Perithecia not beaked 
(1) Perithecia smooth 

(a) Asci 8-spored 
x. Paraphyses lacking 

(x) Perithecia borne in lichen thalli 

Pharcidia 9: 676, 17: 635 
(inch Epicymatia 1: 570) 
( y ) Perithecia not in lichen thalli 

Bertia 1: 581 



HYALODIDYMAE— PHAEODIDYMAE 31 

y. Paraphyses present 

(x) Spores with a mucous layer produced into a spathulate ring 

Pteridiospora 14: 539 
(y) Spores without a mucous layer 
m. Spores ellipsoid to fusoid Melanopsamma 1: 575 
n. Spores botuliform Thaxteria 9: 687 

(b) Asci 16-spored Pseudolizonia 9: 682 

(2) Perithecia with hairs or bristles 

(a) Paraphyses lacking 

x. Perithecia lichenicole Echinothecium 16:484 

y. Perithecia typically on leaves, rarely on stems 

Venturia 1 : 586 

(b) Paraphyses present Eriosphaeria 1: 597 

II. Perithecia cespitose Othiella 1: 739, 17: 662 

III. Perithecia in, or rarely upon, a stroma 

1. Stroma scanty 

a. Perithecia smooth Gibbera 1: 599 

b. Perithecia setose Cacosphaeria 9: 699 

2. Stroma well-developed 

a. Stroma white or colored 

(1) Stroma white and soft Melchiora 14: 538 

(2) Stroma bright yellow Endothia 1: 601 

b. Stroma black, rarely yellowish 

(1) Perithecia botryose, erumpent, superficial 

Myrmaecium 1 : 600 

(2) Perithecia immersed 

(a) Spores septate near the base Aplacodina 16: 485 

(b) Spores septate near the middle 
x. Stroma valsa-like 

(x) Conidial stage Melanconium 

Melanconis 1: 602 

(y) Pycnidial stage Rabenhorstia 

Hercospora 1: 605 

(z) Pycnidial stage Phoma Diaporthe 1:606 

y. Stroma eutype-like or diatrype-like 

Euporthe 1: 631, 1: 662 

Phaeodidymae 

1: 701,9: 723, 11: 3I-- M: 55i. 16: 408, i-: 675 

Spores i-septate, dark, fuliginous to brown, ovoid, oblong or fusoid 

I. Perithecia separate 
1. Perithecia covered 

a. Paraphyses lacking Phaeosphaerella 9: 723 

(inch Lizonia 1: 574) 

b. Paraphyses present 
(1) Asci 8-spored 

(a) Spores surrounded by a hyaline sheath 

Massariella 1 : 716 



32 



SPHAERIACEAE 



(b) Spores without a sheath Didymosphaeria i: 701 

(2) Asci many-spored Tichothecium 17: 676, 9: 

. Perithecia superficial or immersed at the base 

a. Subicle present 

(1) Perithecia beaked 

(a) Paraphyses lacking 

(b) Paraphyses present 

(2) Perithecia not beaked 

(a) Perithecia glabrous 

(b) Perithecia setose 

b. Subicle lacking 
(1) Perithecia beaked 

(a) Asci paraphysate 

(b) Asci not paraphysate 



723 



Rhynchomeliola A. 127, 9: 751 
Gibellina A: 413, 9: 740, 11: 317 

Neopeckia A: 26, 9: 749 
jDimerosporis 17:686 
(Dimerosporiopsis) 



Rhynchostoma 1 : 730 
fDysrhynchis 17:689 
(Henningsomyces) 



II. 



(2) Perithecia not beaked 

(a) Perithecia glabrous 
x. Perithecia carbonous 
y. Perithecia membranous or submembranous 

(x) Asci 8-spored 
m. Perithecia globose, fimicole 

Delitschia 
n. Perithecia cupulate, not fimicole 

Gaillardiella 14: 559 
(y) Asci many-spored Delitschiella 17: 688 

(b) Perithecia setose Protoventuria A: 113, 9: 741 

Perithecia cespitose or forming a crust, not stromate 



Amphisphaeria 1: 718 



732 



1. Perithecia forming an effuse crust 

2. Perithecia in groups 

a. Perithecia foliicole 

b. Perithecia lichenicole 

c. Perithecia ramicole 

III. Perithecia in a stroma 

1. Spore with a mucous covering 

2. Spore without a mucous covering 
a. Stroma erect, subterete 



Parodiella 1: 717 

Pseudotthia 16:507 
Sorothelia A: 122, 9: 728 
Otthia 1: 735 

Massariovalsa 9: 755 



Xylobotryum 11:319, 14:20 
(Trachyxylaria 16: 510, Xyloceras 
17: 690) 
b. Stroma flat, round or cushion-like, immersed or emerging 

(1) Paraphyses lacking 

(a) Stroma bearing conidia of Melanconium 

Melanconiella 1 : 740 

(b) Stroma without conidia Camarops 1: 753 

(2) Paraphyses present 

(a) Stroma phyllogenous ; perithecia superficial 

Licopolia 16: 508 



HYALOPHRAGMIAE 33 

(b) Stroma not phyllogenous 
x. Perithecia valsoid Valsaria i: 741 

y. Perithecia eutypoid Endoxylina 11: 318 

Hyalophragmiae 
2: 152, 9: 824, 11: 332, 14: 581, 16: 528, 17: 692 

Spores 2-several-septate, hyaline, oblong to cylindric 

I. Perithecia separate 

1. Perithecia covered or erumpent 

a. Perithecia beaked 

(1) Perithecia xylogenous, carbonous 

Ceratosphaeria 2: 227 . 

(2) Perithecia phyllogenous, submembranous 

(a) Spores separating into halves Cryptoderis 2:229 

(b) Spores not separating into halves 

Gnomoniopsis 17:716 

b. Perithecia not beaked 

(1) Spores with a mucous covering Massarina 2: 153 

(2) Spores without a mucous covering 

(a) Perithecia submembranous, pseudostroma lacking 

x. Paraphyses lacking Sphaerulina 2: 186 

y. Paraphyses present 

(x) Spores muticate Metasphaeria 2:156 

(inch Charrinia 14:585) 
(y) Spores with a seta or cusp at either end 

Ceriosporella 2: 184, 14: 19 

(b) Perithecia membranous, in a leafy pseudostroma 

Hypospila 2: 189 

(c) Perithecia subcarbonous, pseudostroma lacking, spores 20-30-septate 

Saccardoella 2: 190 

2. Perithecia superficial or subsuperficial 

a. Perithecia glabrous 

(1) Perithecia stalked, covered with a bright powder 

Bombardiastrum 11:338 

(2) Perithecia not stalked, powdery covering lacking 

(a) Spores 2-septate Melomastia 2:213 

(b) Spores typically 3 or more-septate 

x. Perithecia carbonous, black Zignoella 2:214 

(inch Bertiella 17:708) 
y. Perithecia softish, greenish or reddish 

Winterina 14: 589 

b. Perithecia hairy or byssisede 
(1) Perithecia of one color 

(a) Spores chain-like, separating into globose joints 

Hormosperma 14: 591 

(b) Spores not separating into joints 
x. Perithecia carbonous, large 

(x) Spores cylindric, elongate Lasiosphaeria 2: 191 



34 SPHAERIACEAE 

(y) Spores fusoid, somewhat short 

Enchnosphaeria 2: 205 

y. Perithecia submembranous, small 

Acanthostigma 2: 207 
z. Perithecia fleshy-coriaceous, hairs fascicled on a central disk 

Actiniopsis 16: 543 
I 2 1 Perithecia of two colors, usually reddish at vertex 

Herpotrichia 2: 211 

II. Perithecia cespitose, erumpent, superficial, membranous 

Baumiella 17: 708 

III. Perithecia in a struma or on a subicle 

1. Perithecia on a subicle; asci many-spored, paraphyses lacking 

Sydowia 11 : 341 

2. Perithecia in a stroma 

a. Stroma lichenicole, white, lanose Dichosporium 16: 542 

b. Stroma not lichenicole, black 

(1) Stroma immersed Calospora 2: 231 

(2) Stroma superficial 

(a) Stroma lentiform, adnate to the pyenidium 

Melanops 2: 231 

(b) Stroma pulvinate or hemispheric 

Holstiella 14: 593 

Phaeophragmiae 
2: 1, 9: 759, 11: 319. 14: 561. 16: 510. 17: 718 
Spores 2-several-septate. olive, melleous or fuliginous, oblong to cylindric 

I. Perithecia separate 

1. Perithecia covered or erumpent 

a. Spores with a mucous covering Massaria 2:2 

b. Spores without a mucous covering 

( 1 ) Perithecia depressed beneath a black cortical clypeus 

Clypeosphaeria 2: 90 
(2) Perithecia without a stromatic clypeus 

(a) Spores muticate 

x. Paraphyses lacking Phaeospora 16: 519 

y. Paraphyses present 

(x) Cells of spore concolorous 
m. Perithecia glabrous 

(m) Perithecia rostrate Rhynchosphaeria 16:524 

(n) Perithecia not beaked 
r. Spores cylindric, connected in pairs in the ascus 

Leptosphaeropsis 9:770, 11:321 
s. Spores separate Leptosphaeria 2: 13 

(incl. Cladosphaeria 11:321, Chi- 
tonospora 9: 797) 
n. Perithecia setose or hairy Pocosphaeria n: 325 

(y) Cells of spore discolorous Heptameria 2: 88 

(incl. Passeriniella n: 326) 

(b) Spores caudate or cuspidate 

x. Spores caudate at base Rebentischia 2: 12 

y. Spores cuspidate at both ends Ceriospora 14: 19, 2: 184 



PHAEOPHRAGMIAE— HYALODICTYAE 35 

2. Perithccia superficial or subsuperficial 

a. Periihecia glabrous 

(1) Phytophilous 

(a) Spores finally separating into joints 

x. Joints i-celled Ohleriella 17: 736 

y. Joints 2-celled Ohleria 2: 96 

(b) Spores not separating into joints 
x. Perithecia smooth or nearly so 

(x) Spores biconic with a mucous covering 

Caryospora 2: 122 
(y) Spores medium, no mucous covering 
m. Ostiole narrow Melanomma 2:g8 

n. Ostiole widely open Trematosphaeria 2:115 

y. Perithecia verrucose Stuartella 2: 123 

(2) Fimicole Sporormia 2: 123 

b. Perithecia pilose or byssisede 

(1) Perithecia concolorous 

(a) Spores cylindric, elongate *Lasiosphaeris 2: 194 

(b) Spores fusoid, somewhat short Chaetosphaeria 2: 92 

(2) Perithecia discolorous at the vertex 

"• Herpothrix 2: 211 

II. Perithecia cespitose, erumpent Gibberidea 2: 132 

III. Perithecia in a stroma 

1. Stroma lichenicole fTrematosphaeris 17: 735 

(Trematosphaeriopsis) 

2. Stroma not lichenicole 

a. Asci i-spored Titania 9: 823 

b. Asci 4-8-spored 

(1) Stroma valsa-like, innate 

(a) Asci 4-spored Aglaospora 2: 133 

(b) Asci 6-8-spored 

x. Acervuli covered with a reddish or yellowish bran 

Thyridaria 2: 140 

y. Acervuli not covered with a bran 

Pseudovalsa 2: 135 

(2) Stroma eutype-like, i. e., woody, effuse 

(a) Paraphyses lacking Cryptosphaerina 16:521 

(b) Paraphyses present Kalmusia 2: 142 

(3) Stroma pulvinate, emerging Melogramma 2: 144 

Hyalodictyae 

2:238, n:349, 9:872, 14:611, i6:S54, i/:/43 

Spores transversally and longitudinally septate, usually muriform, 
hyaline, oblong to fusoid. 
I. Perithecia separate 

1. Perithecia covered or erumpent 
a. Asci 8-spored 

(1) Paraphyses lacking 



36 SPHAERIACEAE 

(a) Spores separate Pleosphaerulina n: 350 

(b) Spores in a common mucus Diplotheca 16: 555 
(2) Paraphyses present 

(a) Perithecia covered by a stromatic clypeus 

Peltosphaeria 9: 898 

(b) Peritbecia without a clypeus Catharinea 11: 350 
b. Asci 16-spored; peritbecia setose Capronia 2: 288 

2. Perithecia superficial 

a. Perithecia glabrous 

(1) Perithecia softish, greenish or reddish 

Winteria 14: 589 

(2) Perithecia hard, black 

(a) Perithecia beaked Rhamphoria 2: 307 

(b) Perithecia not beaked Tichosporella 11:351 

b. Perithecia setose or hairy 

( 1 ) Perithecia globose, setose and byssisede 

Boerlagella 14: 612 

(2) Perithecia turbinate, disk with fascicled hairs 

Ophiodictyum 16: 555 

II. Perithecia in a stroma 

1. Perithecia projecting, setose Berlesiella 9: 914 

2. Perithecia immersed 

a. Stroma effuse, eutypeous Thyridella 11 : 351 

b. Stroma circular, valsous Clethridium 11: 350, 2: 332 

Phaeodictyae 

2: 238, 9: 872, 11: 341, 14: 594, 16: 544, 17: 746. 

Spores muriform, yellow to brown, oblong to fusoid. 

I. Perithecia separate 

I. Perithecia covered or erumpent 

a. Spores with a mucous layer Pleomassaria 2 : 239 

b. Spores without a mucous layer 

(1) Perithecia without a phyllogenous pseudostroma 

(a) Asci 1-2-spored Julella 2: 289 

(b) Asci 8-spored 

x. Paraphyses lacking Leptosphaerulina 17: 746 

y. Paraphyses present 

(x) Perithecia covered by a black stromatic clypeus 

Phaeopeltosphaeria 11: 344 
(y) Perithecia not covered by a black stromatic clypeus 
m. Perithecia glabrous 
(m) Spores muticate 

r. Perithecia coriaceous Karstenula 2: 240 

s. Perithecia membranous 
(r) Spores rounded or terete 
h. Wall of perithecium single 

Pleospora 2: 241 



PHAEODICTYAE— SCOLECOSPORAE 37 

i. Wall of perithecium double 

Scleroplea 16: 548 
(s) Spores compressed, flattened 
h. Perithecia smooth Clathrospora 9: 894 

i. Perithecia hairy *Comoclathris 

(n) Spores appendaged at both ends 

Delacourea 2: 288 
n. Perithecia setose, especially about ostiole 

Pyrenophora 2: 277 
(2) Perithecia in a phyllogenous pseudostroma 

Isothea 2: 290 
2. Perithecia superficial 

a. Phytogenous 

(1) Perithecia soft, light colored Winteria 14:589 

(2) Perithecia carbonous, black 

(a) Perithecia corrugate-tuberculate 

Crotonocarpia 2: 306 

(b) Perithecia not corrugate 

x. Perithecia glabrous Tichospora 2: 290 

y. Perithecia hairy Pleosphaeria 2: 304 

b. Fimicole; each spore of 3 10-celled chains 

Pleophragmia 2: 307 

II. Perithecia cespitose Cucurbitaria 2: 307 

III. Perithecia in a stroma 

1. Spores with a mucous layer Montagnula 14: 603 

2. Spores without a mucous layer 

a. Stroma effuse, eutypeous Thyridium 2: 323 

b. Stroma valsous Fenestella 2: 325 

Scolecosporae 

2: 337, 9: 923, 11: 351, 14: 613, 16: 557, 17: 767 

Spores linear or filiform, continuous or septate, hyaline or yellowish. 

I. Perithecia separate 

1. Perithecia covered or erumpent 

a. Perithecia covered by a phyllogenous clypeus 

Linospora 2: 354 

b. Perithecia not covered by a clypeus 

(1) Perithecia beaked Ophiognomonia 17: 776 

(2) Perithecia not beaked 
(a) Perithecia glabrous 

x. Spores muticate 

(x) Spores in a hyaline sheath Ophiomassaria 11: 353 
(y) Spores not in a hyaline sheath 
m. Perithecia globose to conoid 

Ophiobolus 2: 337 
n. Perithecia cylindric, truncate 

Cylindrina A: 421, 9: 937 
y. Spores awned at each end 



3 g SPHAERIACEAE— VERRUCARIACEAE 

(x) Perithecia very large, disk-form, corticole 

Therrya 2: 358 
(y) Perithecia small, globose, on grasses and palms 

Dilophia 2: 357 
(b) Perithecia hairy Ophiochaete 11: 353 

2. Perithecia superficial or immersed at base 
a. Perithecia beaked Ophiochaete 11: 352 

1). Perithecia not beaked 

(1) Perithecia iimicole Bovilla 2: 360 

1 2 1 Perithecia not fmiicole 
( a ) Perithecia glabrous 
x. Peritlu-cia globose 

( x ) Perithecia immersed at base 

Acerbia 11:353, 14:619 
(y) Perithecia wholly superficial 

Leptosporella 14:619 
v. Perithecia elongate cylindric; ostiole sulcate 

Bactrosphaeria 14: 617 
(b) Perithecia hairy Acerbiella 17: 768 

II. Perithecia in a stroma 

1. Stroma superficial 

a. Perithecia in an effuse definite stroma Maurya 14: 620 

b. Perithecia densely heaped in a thin vanishing stroma 

Pseudomeliola 9: 938 

2. Stroma immersed or erumpent 

a. Stroma erumpent, yellow within Sillia 1: 361 

b. Stroma immersed, valsous 

(1) Necks of perithecia short, scarcely converging 

Vialaea 14: 619 

(2) Necks long, converging into a disk 

Cryptospora 2: 361 

Family 19. VERRUCARIACEAE 
Zahlbruckner 51 

Mycelium parasitic on bluegreen or yellow green algae, and forming a more 
or less distinct crustose, foliose or fruticose thallus, the latter usually superficial 
but sometimes below the surface; perithecia distinct, single or cespitose or united 
in a stroma, usually globose and ostiolate, membranous, coriaceous or carbonous; 
asci i-many-spored ; spores various. 

I. Perithecia separate, at least not in a stroma (Cfr. Lichinae, page 74.) 
1. Algae bluegreen, Nostoc, Scytonema, Sirosiphon, or Calothrix 

Subfamily Pyrenidiae 76 
a. Asci 4-8-spored 

Ci) Asci 4-spored ; spores 3-septate Pyrenidium 77 

(2) Asci 6-8-spored 

(a) Spores spheric, i-celled: algae Calothrix 

Calothricopsis 165 

(b) Spores fusiform, i-septate 



VERRUCARIACEAE 39 

x. Algae Sirosiphon or Scytonema 

Eolichen 76 
y. Algae Nostoc Pyrenocollema 169 

(c) Spores filiform, continuous Hassea 76 

b. Asci many-spored ; spores i-celled Placothelium 77 

2. Algae yellow green, Pleurococcus, Palmella, Chroolepus, etc. 
a. Thallus crustose or gelatinous 

(1) Thallus gelatinous, hyphae loose Epigloea 53 

(2) Thallus crustose, not gelatinous, hyphae compact 

(a) Algae Cystococcus, in sheathed colonies 

Subfamily Moriolae 52 
x. Thallus without pseudoparenchyma 

Moriola 52 
y. Thallus with pseudoparenchyma 
(x) Asci 8-spored 
m. Spores dark, i-septate *Dimerisma 52 

n. Spores dark, 4-8-septate *Phaeomeris 52 

o. Spores hyaline, 2-4-septate Spheconisca 52 
(y) Asci many-spored ; spores hyaline, i-celled 

*Pleophalis 52 

(b) Algae Pleurococcus or Palmella 

Subfamily Verrucariae 53 
x. Paraphyses lacking, or soon disappearing 
(x) Asci 1-8-spored 
m. Algae present within the perithecium ; spores murif orm 
(m) Spores hyaline *Phalostauris 57 

(n) Spores dark Staurothele 56 

n. Algae lacking in perithecium 
(m) Spores i-celled 

r. Spores globose to elliptic 

(r) Perithecia more or less superficial 
h. Spores hyaline Verrucaria 54 

i. Spores dark *Phaeosporis 55 

(s) Perithecia immersed 

*Lithoecis 55 
s. Spores vermiform, clavate at each end 

Saccopyrenia 54 
(n) Spores 2-4-celled, hyaline 

r. Spores 2-celled Thelidium 56 

s. Spores 4-celled *Phragmothele 56 

(o) Spores muriform Polyblastia 56 

(y) Asci many-spored Trimmatothele 56 

y. Paraphyses persistent 

(x) Algae present in the perithecium 

Thelenidia 57 
(y) Hymenial algae lacking 

m. Perithecia with normal ostiole 



4 o VERRUCARIACEAE 

(m) Spores i-celled 
r. Spores hyaline Thrombium 57 

s. Spores dark *Phaeothrombis 57 

(n) Spores septate 
r. Spores elliptic, 3-few-septate 

Geisleria 57 
s. Spores muriform 

(r) Spores hyaline Microglaena 57 

(s) Spores dark *Phaeoglaena 57 

t. Spores needle-shaped, many-celled 

Gongylia 57 
n. Ostiole margined by a broad disk 

(m) Spores transeptate Aspidopyrenium 58 

(n) Spores muriform Aspidothelium 58 

(c) Algae Chroolepus 
x. Perithecia upright, with vertical ostiole 

Subfamily Pyrenulae 62 
(x) Paraphyses free, simple 
m. Perithecia smooth 

(m) Spores i-celled, colorless 

Coccotrema 66 
(n) Spores septate 
r. Asci 4-8-spored 
(r) Asci persistent 
h. Spores transeptate 
(h ) Spores hyaline 
+. Spores 1 -septate 

( + ) Spore cells separating 

*Dichoporis 66 
( — ) Spore cells not separating 
*Diporina 66 
— . Spores 2-many-septate 

Porina 66 
(i) Spores dark 
+. Spores i-septate 

*Dipyrenis 68 
— . Spores several-septate 

Pyrenula 67 

(inch Blastodesmia 67) 
i. Spores muriform 

(h) Spores hyaline Clathroporina 67 
(i) Spores brown Anthracothecium 68 
(s) Asci evanescent; spores acicular, clear 

Belonia 67 

s. Asci many-spored ; spores septate, clear 
(r) Spores i-celled *Holothelis 67 

(s) Spores septate 

h. Spores 1 -septate *Dithelopsis 67 



VERRUCARIACEAE 41 

i. Spores 2-many-septate 

Thelopsis 67 
n. Perithecia with stiff fascicled hairs 

Stereochlamys 68 
(y) Paraphyses lacking, or branched and united 
m. Ostiole round or dot-like 
(m) Spores hyaline 

r. Spores i-septate *Pyrenyllium 64 

s. Spores 2-many-septate 
(r) Spores oval to oblong 

Arthropyrenia 64 
(incl. Pseudopyrenula 65) 
(s) Spores acicular to filiform 

Leptorhaphis 65 
t. Spores muriform Polyblastiopsis 65 

(n) Spores brown 
r. Spores 1 -septate Microthelia 62 

s. Spores 2-several-septate *Polythelis 64 
n. Ostiole radiate, torn or lobed 

Asteroporum 62 

y. Perithecia oblique or horizontal with oblique or lateral ostiole 

Subfamily Paratheliae 71 
(x) Spores transeptate 
m. Spores hyaline 

(m) Spores i-septate *Ditremis 71 

(n) Spores several-septate, oblong 

Pleurotrema 71 

(incl. Plagiotrema 72) 
(o) Spores filiform, many-celled 

*Trichotrema 71 
n. Spores brown Parathelium 72 

(y) Spores muriform 
m. Spores hyaline Campylothelium 73 

n. Spores brown Pleurothelium 72 

(d) Algae Phyllactidium or Cephaleurus 

Subfamily Strigulae 74 
x. Perithecia smooth 

(x) Paraphyses simple, free 
m. Spores transeptate 
(m) Spores i-septate *Phylloporis 75 

(n) Spores several-septate 

r. Thallus uniform Phylloporina 75 

s. Thallus orbicular, lobed at edge 

Strigula 76 
n. Spores muriform Phyllobathelium 75 

(y) Paraphyses branched and united 
m. Spores i-celled, dark Haplopyrenula 74 

n. Spores 2-4-celled, brown Microtheliopsis 75 



42 VERRUCARIACEAE— HYPOCREACEAE 

v. Perithecia with fascicled nearly horizontal hairs at apex 

Trichothelium 75 

b. Thallus foliose or scaly Subfamily Dermatocarpae 58 

(1) Algae Palmella 

(a) Hymenial algae lacking 

x. Paraphyses lacking, or fused into a mass 

(x) Paraphyses lacking; thallus without cortex 

Normandina 59 
(y) Paraphyses fused; thallus corticate 
m. Spores i-celled, colorless Dermatocarpum 60 

n. Spores septate 

(m) Spores colorless Placidiopsis 60 

(n) Spores brown Heterocarpum 60 

y. Paraphyses persistent 

( x ) Spores i-celled, brown Anapyrenium 59 

(y) Spores muriform, colorless Psoroglaena 59 

(b) Hymenial algae present Endocarpum 61 

(2) Algae Chroolepus; spores colorless, i-celled 

Lepolichen 69 

(3) Algae Prasiola Mastodia 241 

c. Thallus fruticose, branched, with Pleurococcus ; spores muriform, brown 

Pyrenothamnia 61 

II. Perithecia in a stroma (Cfr. Pertusariae, page 79.) 

1. Perithecia upright, with individual pores 

Subfamily Trypetheliae 69 

a. Spores colorless 

(1) Spores transeptate 

(a) Spores oval to fusiform Trypethelium 70 

(b) Spores filiform Tomasiella 69 

(2) Spores muriform Laurera 71 

b. Spores brown 

(T) Spores transeptate Melanotheca 70 

(2) Spores muriform Bottaria 71 

2. Perithecia oblique or horizontal, with a common canal or pore 

Subfamily Astrotheliae 72 

a. Spores transeptate 

(1) Spores colorless Astrothelium 73 

(inch Lithothelium 73) 

(2) Spores brown Pyrenastrum 73 

b. Spores muriform 

(1) Spores colorless Heufleria 74 

(2) Spores brown Parmenteria 74 

III. Perithecia sunken in stroma-like warts; horizontal thallus lacking; asci many- 

spored ; spores 1 -celled, clear Thelocarpum 150 

Family 20. HYPOCREACEAE 

2: 447, 9: 941, 11: 354. 14: 621, 16: 559. 17: 777. 

Mycelium scanty and immersed or producing a subicle or a stroma; perithecia 



HYPOCREACEAE 



43 



globoid, sometimes beaked, fleshy, waxy or waxy-membranous, bright colored, usually 
reddish, more rarely blue, yellow or whitish, never carbonous, opening by a rou.id 
pore or ostiole. single, cespitose or composite in a stroma, asci and spores as in 
Sphaeriaceae. 

Allantosporae 
ij: 778 

■Spores i-celled, obtuse, curved-oblong, hyaline or olivascent 
One genus Allantonectria 17: 778 

Hyalosporae 

2:447, 9:941. n:354, 14:621, 16:559, i/:7~8 
Spores i-celled, hyaline 

I. Perithecia separate 

1. Perithecia covered 

a. Asci 8-spored 

b. Asci many-spored 

2. Perithecia superficial or nearly so 

a. Perithecia beaked ; spores ciliate 

b. Perithecia not beaked 

(1) Spores smooth 

(2) Spores ciliate or spiny 

(a) Spores i-ciliate at each end 

(b) Spores spiny, hemispheric 

II. Perithecia cespitose 

1. Asci 8-spored 

2. Asci many-spored 

III. Perithecia in a subicle or stroma 
1. Perithecia in a subicle, i. e., a cobwebby or cottony stroma 



Hyponectria 2: 455 
Thelocarpum 9: 946 

Eleutheromyces 2: 455 

Nectriella 2: 448 

Heteronectria 14: 624 
Cleistosoma A: 195, 9: 943 

Lisiella 9: 945 
Chilonectria 2:453 



Peckiella 9: 944 
Byssonectria 2:456 



Balzania 16: 561 



a. Paraphyses lacking, fungicole 

b. Paraphyses numerous, not fungicole 
Perithecia in a definite stroma 

a. Stroma effuse, globose, verruciform or linear 
(1) Asci 8-spored 

(a) Perithecia circinate, valsiform 

(b) Perithecia not circinate, mostly irregular 

x. Spores globose Battarina 2:533 

y. Spores ovate to oblong 

(x) Stroma globose or verruciform 
Stroma globose, smooth, dark 

Pseudotrype 16:561 
Stroma verruciform, hairy, red 

Selinia 2: 457 
Stroma lirelliform, clear 
Stroma effuse, phyllogenous 



m. 



11. 



(y) 

(z) 



Monographus 2:457 



(2) Asci many-spored : phyllogenous 
b. Stroma elongate, erect 



Polystigma 2:458 
Moelleriella 14:626 



44 



HYPOCREACEAE 



(i) Asci 8-spored 

(a) Stroma capitate, spores smooth 

Sphaerostilbella 17: 778 

(b) Stroma clavaria-like; spores asperate 

Penicilliopsis 9:945 
(2) Asci 16-spored ; stroma clavate ; on insects 

Podostroma 11:355 

Phaeosporae 
2:459, 9:949, n:355, 14:626, 16:562, 17:781 
Spores i-celled, dark 

I. Perithecia separate 

1. Perithecia more or less covered 

2. Perithecia superficial 

a. Perithecia not beaked 

(1) Perithecia smooth 

(a) Spores globose, verruculose 

(b) Spores oval to elliptic, smooth 

(2) Perithecia hairy 

b. Perithecia beaked 

(1) Asci 8-spored 

(2) Asci many-spored 

II. Perithecia in a subicle or a stroma 

1. Perithecia immersed in a subicle 

a. Perithecia beaked 

b. Perithecia not beaked 

2. Perithecia in a stroma 

a. Spores spheric 

b. Spores ovoid 

(1) Stroma clavate, pendulous 

(2) Stroma more or less globose 

(a) Perithecia in one layer 

(b) Perithecia in several layers 



Baculospora 9:952 



Neocosmospora 16:562 
*Sphaerodes 2:460 
Erythrocarpum 9:950 

Melanospora 2:461 
Scopinella 9:953 



*Rhynchomelas 2:461 
Sphaeroderma 2:459 

Thuemenella 14:628 

Xylocrea 16:451 ^ 



Entonaema 16: 450 
fStromne 16: 452 
(Engleromyces) 



Hyalodidymae 

2:465, 9:953. n:356, 14:628, 16:565, 17:782 

Spores 2-celled, hyaline 

I. Perithecia separate or cespitose 

1. Perithecia immersed; in leaves 

2. Perithecia superficial 
a. Perithecia red, yellow or white 

(1) Asci of one kind, 8-spored 

(a) Perithecia beaked 

(b) Perithecia not beaked 
x. Spore cells separating 
y. Spore cells not separating 

(x) Perithecia smooth 



Charonectria 2:466 

Rhynchonectria 17:798 
Bresadolella 17:797 



HYPOCREACEAE 45 

m. Perithecia often on a tubercularoid base 

Nectria 2:479 
n. Perithecia on or with a stilboid base 

Sphaerostilbe 2:511 
(y) Perithecia hairy *Dasyphthora 2:505 

(2) Asci of two kinds, 8-spored and many-spored 

Aponectria 2: 516 

(3) Asci many-spored Metanectria 2:517 
b. Perithecia blue or violet 

(1) Asci 8-spored Lisea 2:517 

(2) Asci many-spored Cyanocephalum 11:360 

II. Perithecia in a subicle or stroma 

1. Perithecia in a subicle 

a. Perithecia globose-conic, fungicole Hypomyces 2:466 

b. Perithecia scutate-dimidiate, phyllogenous 

Puiggariella 2:478 

2. Perithecia in a stroma 

a. Perithecia adnate to a fruticose stroma 

Corallomyces 2:519 

b. Perithecia immersed in a clavate, globose, pulvinate or effuse stroma 

(1) Perithecia long-beaked Treleasia 14:640 

(2) Perithecia not long-beaked 

(a) Spore divided near base Lambro 16:589 

(b) Spore divided near middle 
x. Spore cells separating 

(x) Stroma vertically elongate Podocrea 17:799 
(y) Stroma globose to effuse 
m. Conidiophore (Stilbum) arising from stroma 

Stilbocrea 16:588 
n. Conidiophore lacking or not Stilbum 

Hypocrea 2: 520 
(incl. Cryphonectria 17:783, My- 
cocitrus 16: 589) 
y. Spore cells not separating Hypocreopsis 9:980 

(incl. Clintoniella 16:588) 

Phaeodidymae 

2:537, 9:981, 14:646, 16:591, 17:808. 

Spores 2-celled, dark 

I. Perithecia separate or cespitose 

1. Perithecia immersed 

a. Perithecia white, ostiole cylindric ; on black fungi 

Passerinula 2: 537 

b. Perithecia darkish, ostiole broad, bright ; in bark 

Spegazzinula 2:537 

2. Perithecia superficial 

a. Spore cells separating Neoskofitzia 9:981 

b. Spore cells not separating 



.i6 HYPOCREACEAE 

(i) Perithecia on or with a stilbum-like base 

Calostilbe 16: 591 
(2) Perithecia without stilbum-like base, often with Helminthosporium 

Letendraea 2: 538 

(inch Phaeonectria 11:359) 
II. Perithecia in a stroma Phaeocrecpsis 16:591 y 

Hyalophragmiae 

2 : 539. 9 : 9S2, n : 363. M : 647. 16 : 592, 17 : 808 

Spores 2-several-septate, hyaline 

I. Perithecia separate or cespitose 

1. Perithecia immersed, spores falcate Cesatiella 2:557 

2. Perithecia superficial 

a. Perithecia red, yellow or white 

(1) Perithecia on or with a stilbum base 

Stilbonectria 9:986 

(2) Perithecia without a stilbum base 

(a) Perithecia astomous Malmeomyces 16:592 

(b) Perithecia ostiolate 

x. Spores ciliate at each end Paranectria 2:552 

(inch Debaryella 17:809) 
y. Spores muticate Calonectria 2:543 

b. Perithecia blue, violet or greenish 

(1) Spores muticate Gibberella 2 : 552 

(2) Spores appendiculate each way Lecithium 11:364 

II. Perithecia in a subicle or in a stroma 

1. Perithecia in a subicle Berkelella 9:989 

2, Perithecia in a pulvinate or discoid stroma 

Broomella 2: 557 

Phaeophragmiae 
2: 539. 9:982, 11 :363. 16: 599 
Spores 2-several-septate, dark 
I. Perithecia in a large tuberiform stroma Peloronectria 16:599 

Hyalodictyae 

2:558.9:990, 11:364- 14:650, 16:599, 17:814 

Spores muriform, hyaline 

I. Perithecia separate or cespitose, superficial 

1. Perithecia red or yellow to whitish 

a. Perithecia with a stilbum base Megalonectria 2:560 

b. Perithec ; a without a stilbum base Pleonectria 2:559 

2. Perithecia blue or violet Pleogibberella 9:992 

II. Perithecia in a valsoid stroma Thyronectria 2:561 

Phaeodictyae 

2:558, 9:990, 11:364. 16:600. 17:815 

Spores muriform, dark 



HYPOCREACEAE 47 

I. Perithecia separate or cespitose 

1. Perithecia beaked, asci 8-spored Bivonella 9:989 

2. Perithecia not beaked, asci many-spored 

Feracia 17: 815 

II. Perithecia in a stroma 

1. Asci paraphysate 

a. Stroma conoid, snow-white Leucocrea 16:601 

b. Stroma tuberiform, rimose Shiraia 16:600 

2. Asci not paraphysate 

a. Stroma pulvinate, disk greenish Mattirolia 9:993 

b. Stroma subcrustose Uleomyces 11:364 

Scolecosporae 

2:562,9:993, 11:365, 14:651, 17:815, 16:601 

Hyaloscoleciae 

Spores needle-shaped or filiform, hyaline or nearly so 

I. Perithecia separate or cespitose 

1. Perithecia enclosed in a sack Oomyces 2:564 

2. Perithecia not in a sack 

a. Perithecia immersed or erumpent 

(1) Perithecia many-perforate above Coscinaria 9: 1003 

(2) Perithecia with a single ostiole Micronectria 9:996 

b. Perithecia superficial 

(1) Perithecia globose-conic, papillate, reddish 

Ophionectria 2:563 

(2) Perithecia vertically oblong, not papillate, white 

Tubeufia 14:652 

II. Perithecia in a subicle or in a stroma 

1. Perithecia in a subicle or byssoid stroma 

Torrubiella 9:994 

(Helminthascus 16:616) 

2. Perithecia in a stroma 

a. Stroma vertical 

(1) Stroma from a sclerotium or a blackened matrix 

Claviceps 2: 564 

(incl. Balansia 9:997, Balansiella 
17: 822) 

(2) Stroma without sclerotium ; on insects or fungi 

Cordyceps 2: 566 

b. Stroma effuse or pulvinate Dussiella 9:1004 

(1) Stroma on a white subicle 

(2) Stroma without a subicle 

(a) Stroma effuse, encircling culms 

Epichloe 2:578 

(b) Stroma pulvinate to globose 
x. Spore cells separating 

(x) Perithecia in a definite peripheral zone 

Mycomalus 16:604 



4 8 DOTHIDEACEAE 

(y) Perithecia not arranged in a zone 
m. Stroma hard and black Fleischera 17:819 

n. Stroma fleshy and soft 

(m) Stroma fertile over entire surface 

Hypocrella 2: 579 
(n) Stroma fertile above, sterile below 

Ascopolyporus 16:605 
y. Spore cells not separating Echinodothis 17:819 

Phaeoscoleciae 

Spores filiform, dark 

I. Stroma black, perithecia immersed : spores dilabent, brown 

Konradia 16:605 

Family ax. DOTHIDEACEAE 

Mycelium typically producing a stroma, in which the perithecia are more or 
less completely sunken and reduced to locules ; otherwise as in Sphaeriaceae. 

Hyalosporae 

2:588, A: 222, 9:1004, 11:368, 14:663; 16:616, 17:827 

Spores i-celled, hyaline or nearly hyaline, ovoid, oblong or fusoid, rarely globose 

I. Asci 8-spored 

1. Stroma globose, pulvinate or cup-shaped 

a. Stroma cupulate-discoid, attached at center 

Schweinitziella 9: 1005 

b. Stroma pulvinate or subclypeate 

(1) Stroma pulvinate 

(a) Stroma subcoriaceous Bagnisiella 2:589 

(b) Stroma corneous Kullhemia 2: 591 

(2) Stroma subclypeate, often oval to oblong 

Mazzantia 2: 591 

(inch Diachora 11:374) 

2. Stroma oblong, linear or effuse 

a. Stroma superficial, on flowers Hyalodothis 11:374 

b. Stroma erumpent or superficial 

(1) Stroma waxy or fleshy 

a. Stroma more or less waxy within, linear, black 

Scirrhiella 9: 1030 

b. Stroma fleshy, white Monographus 2:457 

(2) Stroma more or less carbonous, round to effuse 

(a) Asci usually shorter than 30 m Euryachora 2: 625 

(b) Asci usually longer than 50 M Phyllachora 2:594 

II. Asci 3-spored ; stroma subglobose, subcorneous 

Zimmermanniella 17:827 

Phaeosporae 
2:626, 9:1031, 11:374, 14:675, 16:625, 1 7 : 84 1 

Spores i-celled, colored, usually yellowish or brown, ovoid, oblong or fusoid 



DOTHIDEACEAE 49 

I. Stroma subhemispheric to effuse; asci 8-spored 

Auerswaldia 2:626 

Hyalodidymae 

2:627, 9:1034, ii:375, 14:676, 16:625, 17:844 
Spores i-septate (2-celled), hyaline or subhyaline, ovoid, oblong or fusoid 

I. Stroma pulvinate or disciform 

1. Stroma pulvinate, erumpent, usually ramicole 

a. Asci 4-8-spored Plowrightia 2:635 

b. Asci many-spored *Pleodothis 11:376 

2. Stroma disciform, superficial, foliicole Microcyclus 17:844 

II. Stroma oblong to linear or effuse 

1. Stroma linear Scirrhia 2: 634 

2. Stroma oblong to effuse, sometimes orbicular 

a. Cells of spore very unequal Munkiella 9: 1034 

b. Cells of spore equal 

(1) Locules immersed in stroma Dothidella 2:627 

(2) Locules completely exserted from stroma 

Rosenscheldia 9:1036 

Phaeodidymae 

2:639, 9:1043, n:377, 14:680, 16:628, 17:852 
Spores i-septate, dark, fuliginous to brown, ovoid, oblong or fusoid 

I. Stroma superficial, disciform Maurodothis 17:856 

II. Stroma erumpent, pulvinate to effuse 

1. Stroma usually effuse Phaeodothis 17:854 

2. Stroma pulvinate 

a. Stroma subcarbonous Russoella 9: 1044 

b. Stroma subcoriaceous Dothidea 2: 639 

(incl. Hypoxylopsis 17: 855) 

Hyalophragmiae 
2 : 646, 9 : 1045, 1 1 : 377, 14 : 682, 16 : 629, 17 : 856 

Spores 2-several-septate, hyaline, oblong to cylindric 

I. Perithecia or locules exserted from the stroma; spores sometimes colored 

Montagnella 2:646 

II. Perithecia immersed 

1. Stroma fleshy or waxy Dangardiella 14:683 

2. Stroma carbonous 

a. Perithecia disposed in radiate lines Telimena 16: 631 

b. Perithecia not radiate Darwiniella 9: 1048 

Phaeophragmiae 

2:646, 9:1045, n:377, 14:682, 16:629, 17:857 
Spores 2-several-septate, colored, yellowish to brown, oblong to cylindric 

I. Stroma elongate or linear Rhopographus 2:647 

II. Stroma subhemispheric Homostegia 2:649 



S o MYCOPORACEAE— COCCOIDEACEAE 

Hyalodictyae 

8:S 4 7 
Spores muriform, hyaline, ovate to oblong 

I. Stroma with a round black receptacle stuffed with locules 

Pyrenotheca 8:847 

II. Stroma disciform or hemispheric *Discostroma 11:379 

Phaeodictyae 
2:651, 9:1051, u:378, 14:684, 16:632, 17:858 
Spores muriform, dark, ovate to oblong 
I. Stroma disciform or hemispheric Curreya 2:651 

Scolecosporae 
2:652, 9:1051, 14:685, 16:632, 17:859 

Spores filiform, hyaline, continuous, guttate or septate 

I. Asci 8-spored 

1. Spores narrowly filiform, 1-2 m wide Ophiodothis 2:652 

2. Spores broadly filiform, 5-8 M wide Oxydothis 14:674 

II. Asci many-spored Myriogenospora 14: 685 

Family 22. MYCOPORACEAE 

Zahlbruckxer 77 

Mycelium parasitic on Palmella or Chroolepus, forming a uniform thallus 
without a cortex ; perithecia reduced to locules in a stroma as in Dothideaceae, to 
which family the genera might well be referred. 

I. Spores transeptate ; algae Chroolepus 

1. Spores i-septate 

a. Spores colorless :;: Chlorodothis 78 

b. Spores brown *Sciodothis 78 

2. Spores several-septate 

a. Spores colorless *Nothostroma 78 

b. Spores brown *Mycoporis 78 

3. Spores needle-shaped Mycoporellum 78 

II. Spores muriform ; algae Palmella Mycoporum 78 

Family 23. COCCOIDEACEAE 

17:860 (16:624) 

Stromata with immersed locules, affixed to the matrix by a central stipitiform 
point, subcarnose when fresh, subcorncous when dry; locules without distinct proper 
walls. 

Hyalosporae 
16: 624 

Spores i-celled, hyaline, ellipsoid 

I. Stroma superficial, disciform-pulvinate, subcarbonous 

Coccoidea 16: 624 

II. Stroma superficial, cupulate-discoid Schweinitziella 9: 1005 



MICROTHYRIACEAE 51 

Phaeosporae 

17:860 

Spores i-celled, dark, ovoid 
I. Stroma subcarnose, discoid Coccodiscus 17:860 

Hyalodidymae 

17:860 
Spores i-septate, hyaline, fusoid 

I. Stroma subcarnose or corneous, disciform-pulvinate 

Yoshinagaia 17:860 

Family 24. MICROTHYRIACEAE 

2:658, 9:1053, n:379. 14:686, 16:633, 17:861 
Perithecia separate, or rarely in a stroma, dimidiate, applanate, context usually 
beautifully radiate, subsuperficial, black, membranous or carbonous, perforate or 
astomous ; asci 4-8-spored, usually short. 

Subfamily Microthyriae 

Perithecia typically not seated on a subicle 

Hyalosporae 

2:659, 9:1053, n:379, 14:686, 16:633, 17:861 
Spores i-celled, hyaline, ovoid to oblong or fusiform 

I. Spores oblong, curved Piptostoma 9: 1054 

II. Spores elliptic to fusiform, straight 

1. Spores elliptic, short Myiocoprum 2:659 

2. Spores fusiform, long, sometimes i-septate 

Pemphidium 2:670 

Phaeosporae 

2:662, 9:1054, 16:634, 17:861 

Spores i-celled, dark, globose to oblong 

I. Spores globose ; perithecia on a hyaline subicle 

Blasdalea 16:634 

II. Spores oblong; subicle lacking Vizella 2:662 

Hyalodidymae 

2 : 662, 9 : 1055, 1 1 : 379, 14 : 687, 16 : 635, 17 : 862 

Spores i-septate, hyaline, oblong to fusoid 

I. Asci with paraphyses 

1. Perithecia with several ostioles Polystomella 9: 1063 

2. Perithecia astomous Clypeolum 2:667 

II. Asci without paraphyses 
1. Perithecia smooth 

a. Perithecia more or less mytiliform and confluent 

Brefeldiella 9: 1063 



S 2 MICROTHYRIACEAE 

b. Pcrithecia not mytiliform or confluent 

Microthyrium 2:662 
2. Perithecia setulose Chaetothyrium 9: 1061 

Phaeodidymae 
2:668, 9:1064, 11:381, 14:689, 16:639, 17:865 
Spores i-septate, dark, oblong to fusoid 
I. Perithecia superficial, carbonous, perforate 

Seynesia 2: 668 

Hyalophragmiae 
2:668, 9:1068, 11:381, 14:690, 16:642, 17:868 

Spores 2-several-septate, hyaline, fusoid to cylindric 

I. Perithecia separate 

1. Perithecia on a fibrous mycelium Trichopeltis 9: 1068 

2. Perithecia without a mycelium 

a. Perithecia smooth Micropeltis 2: 669 

b. Perithecia margined with rigid appendages 

Actiniopsis 17: 871 

II. Perithecia in a dinvdiate many-perforate stroma 

Gilletiella 14: 691 

Phaeophragmiae 

2:668,9:1068, 11:381, 14:690, 16:642, 17:872 

Spores 2-several-septate, dark, fusoid, to cylindric 

I. Perithecia membranous, subfibrous ; spores conglobate 

Phaeoscutella 17:872 

II. Perithecia carbonous or coriaceous Scutellum 2:668 

Hyalodictyae 
A : 253, 9 : 1071, 14 : 692, 16 : 645 

Spores muriform, hyaline, oblong to elliptic 

I. Perithecia membranous, ostiolate Saccardinula 9: 1071 

Phaeodictyae 
17 : 873 
Spores muriform, dark, oblong to elliptic 
I. Perithecia superficial, phyllogenous, subradiate 

fPhaeopeltis 17:873 
(Phaeosaccardinula) 

Scolecosporae 
9: 1072, 16:646, 17:873 
Spores acicular, hyaline or colored, continuous or septate 

I. Spores separating into cells Scolecopeltis 9: 1072 

II. Spores not separating Ophiopeltis 17:873 

Subfamily Asterinae 
14:692. 16:646, 17:875 
Perithecia typically seated upon an effuse radiate black subicle 



LOPHIOSTOMATACEAE 53 

Hyalosporae 
14 : 692, 16 : 646 

I. Spores hyaline, one-celled Asterula 1:47, 14:692 

Phaeosporae 

14:693 
I. Spores dark, one celled Asteronia 1:47, 14:693 

Hyalodidymae 
14:693, 16:646, 17:882 
I. Spores hyaline, i-septate Asterella 1:42, 14:698 

Phaeodidymae 
14:693, 16:646, 17:87s 
I. Spores dark, i-septate Asterina 1:39, 14:693 

(inch Trichothyrium 9: 1062) 

Hyalophragmiae 

14 : 699, 16 : 650, 17 : 884 
I. Spores hyaline, several-septate Asteridium 1:49, 14:699 

Phaeophragmiae 

14:699, 17:885 
I. Spores dark, several-septate Asteridiella 14:701 



Family 25. LOPHIOSTOMATACEAE 

2:672, 9:1074, 11:382, 14:702, 16:650, 17:886 

Perithecia simple, separate, at first covered, then subsuperficial or insculptate, car- 
bonous, rarely submembranous, black, with a very narrowly rimose, broad and 
compressed ostiole ; asci paraphysate, usually 8-spored; matrix often blackened giv- 
ing the appearance of a stroma. 

Hyalosporae 

(Not represented) 

Phaeosporae 

2:673, 17:886 
I. Spores i-celled, dark Lophiella 2: 673 

Hyalodidymae 

2 : 675, 9 : 1075, 1 1 : 383, 14 : 702, 17 : 886 
Spores i-septate, hyaline, oblong to fusoid 

I. Perithecia smooth Lophiosphaera 2:675 

II. Perithecia hairy, with wool at base Lophiotricha 9:1082 

Phaeodidymae 

2 : 673, 9 : 1074, 1 1 : 382, 14 : 702, 16 : 650, 17 : 887 
I. Spores i-septate, dark Schizostoma 2:673 



54 CORYNELIACEAE— HEMIHYSTERIACEAE 

Hyalophragmiae 
2:678,9:1076, 14:703, 16:651. 17:887 
1. Spores hyaline several-septate Lophiotrema 2:678 

Phaeophragmiae 

2:689, 9:1083, 11:383. 14:704. 16:651, 17:887 

Spores dark, several-septate 

I. Spores caudate Brigantiella 17: 889 

II. Spores not caudate Lophiostoma 2:689 

Hyalodictyae 
9: 1093 

I. Spores hyaline or nearly so, muriform Lophidiopsis 9: 1093 

Phaeodictyae 
2:710, 9:1091, 11:384, 14:706. 16 : 653. 17:889 

1. Spores dark, muriform Platystomum 17:889 

(Lophidium 2:710) 

Scolecosporae 
2:717, 9: 1094 
i. Spores filiform, hyaline or dilutely colored 

Lophionema 2:717 

Family 26. CORYNELIACEAE 
9: 1073, 11 : 385, 16:650 
Perithecia separate or in a stroma, coriaceous, black, lageniform, with an elon- 
gated ostiole, perforate at the apex and then broadly expanded and infundibuliform. 

Phaeosporae 

9 : 1073, 16: 650 

1 Spores dark, i-celled, spherical Corynelia 9: 1073 

Phaeophragmiae 
1 1 : 385 
J Spores dark, 3-several-septate Coryneliella 11:385 

Phaeodictyae 
9 : 1073 
1 Spores black, stellate, cells radiating Tripospora 9: 1073 

Order 9. HYSTERIALES 

Perithecia oblong to linear, rarely round, carbonous or membranous, rarely 
oriaceous, ostiole a cleft or slit: mycelium often forming a thallus with algae. 

Family 27. HEMIHYSTERIACEAE 
9:1094, 11:385. 14:707. 16:653. 17:892 
Perithecia simple or aggregated into a stroma, dimidiate-scutate, subicle lacking, 



HYSTERIACEAE 55 

or more or less developed, ostiole hysterium-like ; asci 8-spored, spores usually 2-celled, 
dark. 

Phaeosporae 

14:707 
I. Spores dark, 1 -celled ; subicle lacking Cyclostomella 14:707 

Phaeodidymae 

9:1094, 11:385, 14:708, 16:653, 17:892 
Spores dark, i-septate, elliptic to fusoid 

I. Perithecia on a subicle; stroma lacking Mcrenoella 9:1094 

II. Perithecia in a stroma 

1. Asci with paraphyses Parmularia 14:708 

(Schneepia 9: 1097) 

2. Asci without paraphyses Hysterostomella 9: 1098 

Hyalophragmiae 
17:892 
I. Spores hyaline, 3-several-septate Parmulariella 17:892 

Family 28. HYSTERIACEAE 

2 : 721, 9 : 1 100, 1 1 : 385, 14 : /io, 16 : 657, 17 : 893 
Perithecia simple or very rarely in a stroma, erumpent-superficial, horizontally, 
rarely vertically oblong or linear, membranous, coriaceous or carbonous, rarely 
carnosule at first, usually black, opening along the whole surface by a somewhat 
narrow cleft ; asci usually paraphysate, 4-8-spored, rarely many-spored. 

Hyalosporae 

2:723, 9: 1 100, 11 :38s, 14: 710, 16:657, 17:893 

Spores i-celled, hyaline, globose to fusoid 

I. Asci 4-spored ; spores covered with mucus 

Hypodermella 1 1 : 385 

II. Asci 8-spored 

1. Perithecia single or at least not coalescing 

Schizothyrium 2:723 
(Henriquesia 2:726) 

2. Perithecia coalescing in stellate groups of 4-6 

Delpinoella 16:658 

Phaeosporae 

2: 72/, 9: 1 100, 14: 710 

Spores i-celled, dark, globose to ovoid 

I. Asci 8-spored 

1. Perithecia separate; asci paraphysate Farlowiella 2:727, 9:1100 

2. Perithecia stromatic at base; asci aparaphysate 

Erikssonia 14: 710 

II. Asci 10-12-spored Lembosiella 9: 1101 



56 HYSTERIACEAE 

Hyalodidymae 

2:727, 9:1101, 11:386, 14:71'. 16:659, 17:895 

Spores i-septate, hyaline, ovoid to fusoid 

T. Perithecia membranous 

1. Perithecia separate, minute Aulographum 2:727 

2. Perithecia in a dimidiate stroma Cycloschizum 17:896 

IT. Perithecia carbonous 

1. Perithecia separate 

a. Perithecia simple or scarcely branched 

(1) Asci 8-spored Glonium2:73i 

(2) Asci many-spored *Pleoglonis 9: 1103 

b. Perithecia radiately branched, or stellate 

Actidium 2: 738 

2. Perithecia connected in orbicular sori Synglonium 14: 711 

III. Perithecia at first somewhat fleshy, reddish or yellow 

Angelinia 2: 739 

Phaeodidymae 

2:740, 9:1103, 11:387, 14:711, 16:659, 17:897 
Spores 1 -septate, dark, ovoid to oblong 

I. Perithecia on a fibrillose-radiate subicle Lembosia 2:741 

II. Perithecia without a subicle 

1. Perithecia coriaceous Tryblidium 2: 740 

2. Perithecia carbonous 

a. Perithecia linear ; cleft very narrow, straight 

Bulliardiella 17:902 

b. Perithecia scutellate ; cleft subcircular 

Dielsiella 17:902 

Hyalophragmiae 

2: 765, 9: 1112, 11 : 388, 14: 715, 16: 664, 17: 903 

Spores several-septate, hyaline, oblong to cylindric 

I. Perithecia saprogenous 

1. Perithecia carbonous, cleft narrow Gloniella 2:765 

2. Perithecia subcoriaceous, cleft wide Pseudographis 2:769 

II. Perithecia biogenous, gregarious in spots 

1. Perithecia corticole Dichaena 2:771 

2. Perithecia foliicole 

a. Perithecia merely gregarious Phragmographium 17:906 

b. Perithecia radiately disposed Aldona 16: 667 

Phaeophragmiae 

2 : 743, 9 : 1 108, 11: 387, 14 : Ji> 16 : 664, 17 : 907 

Spores several-septate, dark, oblong to cylindric 

I. Edges of cleft somewhat obtuse, then more or less distant 
1. Asci 4-8-spored 
a. Perithecia transversely densely and coarsely sulcate 

Rhytidhysterium 2:759 



HYSTERIACEAE 57 

b. Perithecia smooth 

(i) Perithecia covered by the epidermis 

Hypodermopsis 17:908 

(2) Perithecia erumpent or superficial 

(a) Perithecia carbonous Hysterium 2: 743 

(b) Perithecia coriaceous Tryblidiella 2: 757 
2. Asci many-spored, perithecia subcoriaceous 

Baggea 2: 760 

II. Edges of cleft very thin, closely connivent 

1. Asci 4-spored; perithecia subcarbonous, striate 

Ostreium 2: 765 

2. Asci 8-spored; perithecia somewhat membranous, fragile 

Mytilidium 2: 760 

Hyalodictyae 

2:772, 9:1116, 11:389, I4:/I7, 16:668, 17:909 
Spores muriform, hyaline, ovoid to oblong 

I. Perithecia separate 

1. Perithecia carbonous, erumpent; spores without mucus 

Gloniopsis 2: 772 

2. Perithecia membranous, innate; spores with mucus sheath 

Hysteropsis 9: 1118 

II. Perithecia in a lenticular, radiate stroma Mendogia 16:669 

Phaeodictyae 

2 : 776, 9:1119, 11 : 389, 14 : 717, 16 : 668, 17 : 912 
Spores muriform, dark, ovoid to oblong 

I. Perithecia carbonous or corneo-carbonous, firm 

Hysterographium 2:776 

II. Perithecia membranous, thin Graphyllium 16: 1145, 17: 913 

Scolecosporae 

2:784,9:1123, 11:389. 14:719, 16:669, 17:913 

Spores bacillar to filiform, hyaline or dark 

I. Spores 2-5 times shorter than the asci ; perithecia membranous 

Hypoderma 2: 784 

II. Spores filiform, nearly as long as the asci 

1. Perithecia horizontally elongate, rarely ampulliform 

a. Perithecia elongate 

(1) Perithecia membranous, applanate Lophodermium 2:791 

(2) Perithecia subcarbonous, conchiform 

Lophium 2: 799 

(3) Perithecia subcoriaceous, depressed 

(a) Perithecia subcorneous Sporomega 2:801 

(b) Perithecia subcarnose Colpoma 2:803 

b. Perithecia subspheroid or ampulliform 

(1) Perithecia depressed spheroid, cleft longitudinal 

Ostropa 2: 804 



58 GRAPHIDACEAE 

(2) Perithecia horizontally ampulliform, ostiole roundish 

Robergea 2: 806 
2. Perithecia vertically elongate, cylindric ; cleft obsolete 

a. Spores breaking apart into cells Microstelium 16:672 

b. Spores not breaking apart Acrospermum 2:807 

(Schizacrospermum 16:672) 

Family 29. GRAPHIDACEAE 

Zahlbruckner 87 

Mycelium parasitic on yellow green algae, forming a crustose, foliose or fruticose 
thallus, the latter often immersed, or thallus lacking, and parasitic on lichens or on 
bark ; perithecia single or cespitose or united in a stroma, typically oblong to elongate 
with a cleft-like opening, more rarely disk-shaped and with an irregular often stellate 
opening, more or less carbonous. 
I. Perithecia separate 

1. Thallus lacking, parasitic on lichens or on bark 

Subfamily Arthoniae 89, R. 414 

a. Parasitic on lichens 

1. Spores i-celled Phacopsis R. 419 

2. Spores 2-celled Conida R. 420 

3. Spores 4-6-celled Celidium R. 425 

b. On bark 

1. Spores 2-celled Lecideopsis R. 432 

2. Spores 2-several-septate Arthonia R. 435 

3. Spores muriform Arthothelium R. 438 

2. Thallus present, crustose, or uniform 

a. Perithecia without an exciple, i. e., not margined 

Subfamily Arthoniae 89 

(1) Algae Palmella or Protococcus ; spores colorless 

(a) Spores i-septate Allarthonia 91 

(b) Spores several-septate *Plearthonis 91 

(c) Spores muriform ' Allarthothelium 241 

(2) Algae Chroolepus 

(a) Spores transeptate 
x. Spores colorless 

(x) Spores i-septate *Diarthonis 91 

(y) Spores 2-several-septate Arthonia 89 

y. Spores brown Gymnographa 94 

(b) Spores muriform Arthothelium 91 

(3) Algae Phyllactidium 

(a) Spores i-septate *Merarthonis 91 

(b) Spores 2-several-septate Arthoniopsis 91 

b. Perithecia margined with a distinct proper exciple 

Subfamily Graphidae 92 
(1) Thallus without cortex 
(a) Algae Palmella 
x. Perithecia with a single hymenium 
( x ) Spores colorless 
m. Spores i-celled 



GRAPHIDACEAE 59 

(m) Hypothecium clear or brownish 

Xylographa 93 
(n) Hypothecium black, carbonous 

Lithographa 93 
n. Spores transeptate Aulaxina 94 

(y) Spores dark 
m. Spores transeptate Encephalographa 94 

n. Spores finally muriform Xyloschistes 94 

y. Perithecia with 2-4 parallel hymenia 

(x) Spores i-celled Ptychographa 94 

(y) Spores transeptate Diplogramma 94 

(b) Algae Chroolepus 

x. Asci many-spored ; spores filiform 

Spirographa 96 
y. Asci 1-8-spored 
(x) Spores clear 
m. Spores transeptate 

(m) Paraphyses simple and not united 
r. Ends of paraphyses little thickened, smooth 
(r) Spores i-septate *Digraphis 98 

(s) Spores 2-several-septate 

Graphis 96 
s. Ends clavate and warted or spiny 

*Psorographis 102 
(n) Paraphyses branched and united 

Opegrapha 94 ; 

n. Spores muriform 

(m) Paraphyses simple and not united 
r. Ends of paraphyses not thickened, smooth 

Graphina 99 
s. Ends of paraphyses clavate, warted or spiny 

f Acanthothecis 101 
(not Acanthothecium Speg.) 
(n) Paraphyses branched and united 

Helminthocarpum 102 
(inch Dictyographa 96) 

(y) Spores dark 

m. Spores i-septate Melaspilea 96 

n. Spores 2-several-septate Phaeographis 99 

o. Spores muriform Phaeographina 100 

(c) Algae Phyllactidium : spores transeptate 

x. Spores clear ; paraphyses branched and united 

Opegraphella 102 
y. Spores dark ; paraphyses simple and free 

Micrographa 102 
(2) Thallus with a cortex : algae Chroolepus 

Subfamily Dirinae 105 
(a) Spores elliptic to fusoid, 4-8-celled, clear 

Dirina 106 



6o GRAPHIDACEAE 

(b) Spores similar but brown Dirinastrum 106 

3. Thallus present, fruticose, erect Subfamily Roccellae 106 

a. Hyphae of cortex parallel with thallus surface 

(1) Perithecia elongate, furrowed; spores clear, 8-9-celled 

Ingaderia 107 

(2) Perithecia round 

(a) Hypothecium black; spores clear 

x. Exciple with algae Dendrographa 107 

y. Exciple without algae Roccellaria 107 

(b) Hypothecium clear; spores brown, spiny 

Darbishirella 108 

b. Hyphae perpendicular to surface 

(1) Perithecia elongate, furrowed 

(a) Perithecia immersed ; hypothecium clear 

Roccellographa 108 

(b) Perithecia superficial; hypothecium black 

Reinkella 108 

(2) Perithecia round 

(a) Spores clear; perithecia entire 
x. Hypothecium black 

(x) Thallus mostly crustose, slightly fruticose 

Roccellina 108 

(y) Thallus distinctly fruticose Roccella 109 
y. Hypothecium clear 

(x) Algae present below the hypothecium 

Pentagenella no 

(y) Xo algae below the hypothecium 

Combea 109 

(b) Spores brown or brownish; perithecia deeply lobed 
x. Medulla clear throughout Schizopelte no 
y. Inner medullary layer black Simonyella no 

II. Perithecia in a stroma, mostly immersed Subfamily Chiodectae 102 
1. Algae Chroolepus 
a. Paraphyses simple and free 

(1) Spores transeptate 

(a) Spores clear Glyphis 103 

(b) Spores brown Sarcographa 103 

(2) Spores muriform 

(a) Spores clear Enterodictyum 104 

(b) Spores brown Sarcographina 103 

1). Paraphyses branched and reticulatcly united 
(1) Spores transeptate 

(a) Spores colorless Chiodectum 104 

(b) Spores brown or dark 

x. Perithecia margined Sclerophytum 105 

y. Perithecia marginless Synarthonia 91 
( _' ) Spores muriform 

(a) Spores clear Minksia 241 



PHACIDIACEAE 61 

(b) Spores brown Enterostigma 105 

2. Algae Phyllactidium 

a. Spores 2-celled ; paraphyses simple and free 

Pycnographa 105 

b. Spores many-celled ; paraphyses branched and united 

Mazosia 105 

Order 10. PEZIZALES 

Mycelium various, but typically inconspicuous or invisible ; propagaton by co- 
nidia, but usually not in evidence ; reproductive body or apothecium at first closed 
and more or less globose, rarely elongate, then opening more or less completely into 
a cup, saucer or disk, waxy or fleshy, more rarely carbonous, leathery or gelatinous; 
asci typically 8-spored and paraphysate ; spores various. 

Family 30. PHACIDIACEAE 
Rehm 60 
Apothecia sunken, more or less erumpent, disk-like or elongate, single or grouped, 
leathery or carbonous, black, firm, opening by lobes or by a rift; hypothecium poorlv 
developed as a rule. 

Hyalosporae 

8:705. n:43i. 10:48, 14:813, 16:783, i8:i5S 
Spores hyaline, i-celled, globose to oblong 

I. Apothecia concrete above with the epiderm 

1. Apothecia and epiderm splitting radiately 

Phacidium 8: 709 

2. Apothecia and epiderm splitting circumscissilely 

Stegia 8: 733 

3. Apothecia and epiderm splitting irregularly 

Cryptomyces 8: 707 

II. Apothecia and epiderm little or not at all concrete 

Pseudophacidium R. 94 

Phaeosporae 

14: 814 

Spores dark, i-celled, oblong 

I. Apothecia superficial, membranous, laciniate 

Phaeophacidium 14:814 

Hyalodidymae 

Spores hyaline, i-septate, elliptic to oblong 

I. Apothecia scutellate or oblong, laciniate Schizothyrium R. 75 

(inch Rhagadolobium 14:816) 

Phaeodidymae 

Spores dark, i-septate, elliptic to oblong 
I. Apothecia in black foliicole spots Cocconia 8: 738 



62 STICTIDACEAE 

II. Apothecia stellatcly erumpent through epiderm 

Metadothella 18: 162 

III. Apothecia and epiderm concrete, laciniate 

Keithia 10: 49 

Phragmosporae 
8:740 

Spores typically hyaline, 2-several-septate, ovoid to oblong 

I. Apothecia and epiderm concrete, laciniate 

Sphaeropezia 8:740, R. 72 

II. Apothecia and epiderm not concrete, splitting irregularly 

Pseudographis R. 90 

Dictyosporae 
8 : 764, 16 : 790 

Spores muriform, typically hyaline, ovoid to oblong 

I. Apothecia round to oblong, splitting irregularly : aparaphysate 

Dothiora 8:764, R. 108 

Scolecosporae 

8:744, 10:51, 11:432, 14:817, 16:789, 18:163 

Spores bacillar to filiform, typically hyaline, continuous or septate 

I. Apothecia and epiderm concrete 

1. Apothecia in black foliicole stroma-like spots 

Rhytisma 8:752, R. 82 
(inch Duplicaria 8: 764) 

2. Apothecia not in stroma-like spots 

a. Apothecia and epiderm laciniate Coccomyces 8: 744, R. 76 

b. Apothecia and epiderm operculately circumscissile 

Moutoniella 18: 163 

II. Apothecia and epiderm not concrete 

1. Apothecia round, laciniate Coccophacidium R. 97 

2. Apothecia oblong to elongate, hysterioid 

Clithris 18: 165, R. 101 

Family 31. STICTIDACEAE 
Rehm 112 

Apothecia sunken, finally more or less erumpent, round or elongate, single or 
grouped, typically waxy, rarely membranous or leathery, white or bright-colored, at 
least never black, splitting the epiderm laciniately or irregularly, hypothecium little 
developed. 

Subfamily Eustictidae 
Rehm 113 

Apothecia waxy, not deeply sunken, finally opening widely, and exposing the 
hymenium. 



STICTIDACEAE 63 

Hyalosporae 

8:648, 10:44, 11:428, 14:806, 16:776, 18:146 

Spores hyaline, i-celled, globose to oblong 

I. Spores globose 

1. Asci 8-spored Lindauella 16:777 

2. Asci many-spored Flaminia 16:777 

II. Spores elliptic to oblong 

1. Paraphyses long-pointed, much longer than the asci 

Stegia 8:733, R. 155 

2. Paraphyses blunt, swollen or branched 

a. Paraphyses thread-shaped or forked 

(1) Apothecia round 

(a) Apothecia blackish ; ascus pore blue with iodin 

Trochila 8: 728, R. 127 

(b) Apothecia bright-colored 

x. Ascus pore blue with iodin 

(x) Paraphyses forked, enlarged and colored above 

Ocellaria 8:654, R. 133 
(y) Paraphyses little if at all enlarged or colored 

*Habrostictis R. 137 
y. Ascus pore not blue with iodin 

Naevia 8:658, R. 145 

(2) Apothecia oblong or elongate 

(a) Hymenium blue with iodin Xylographa 8:664, R. 153 

(b) Hymenium not blue with iodin Briardia 16:776, R. 151 

b. Paraphyses irregularly branched 

(1) Asci 8-spored Propolis 8:648, R. 141 

(2) Asci many-spored Propolina 8: 654 

Phaeosporae 
Spores i-ceiled, dark, oblong Stictophacidium R. 1215 

Didymosporae 

8 : 666, 10 : 45, 11: 428, 14 : 808, 16 : 778, 18 : 147 

Spores i-septate, typically hyaline or bright-colored, oblong 

I. Paraphyses lacking Coccopeziza 10:45 

II. Paraphyses present 

1. Spores blue or green Ploettnera 16: 778 

2. Spores hyaline 

a. Spores with 1-2 cilia at each end ; hysterioid 

Iridionia 16: 788 

b. Spores muticate 

(1) Paraphyses filiform or forked 
(a) Apothecia round 
x. Asci not blue with iodin *Naeviella R. 164 

y. Asci blue with iodin 

(x) Ascus pore alone blue with iodin 

Diplonaevia 8: 666, R. 161 
(y) Whole hymenium blue with iodin 

*Diplocryptis R. 158 



64 STICTIDACEAE 

(1)) Apothecia rounded, with flexuose clefts 

Lauterbachiella 16:788 
(2) Paraphyses irregularly branched 

(a) Apothecia round ; not blue with iodin 

Propolidium 8:667 

(b) Apothecia elongate; ascus pore blue with iodin 

*Xyloglyphis R. 170 

Phragmosporae 

8:669, 10:46, 11:429, 14:808, 16:778, 18:148 

Spores 2-several-septate, hyaline, rarely darkish, oblong to elongate 

I. Spores somewhat fuscous Eupropolis 8:676 

(inch Janseella 16: 780) 

II. Spores hyaline 

1. Paraphyses filiform or forked 

a. Asci not blue with iodin *Merostictis R. 164 

b. Asci blue with iodin 

(1) Ascus pore alone blue with iodin 



(2) Whole hymenium blue with iodin 
2. Paraphyses branched ; apothecia elongate 



Phragmonaevia 8:674, R. 160 
Cryptodiscus 8:669, R. 158 



Xylogramma 8:677, R. 169 

Dictyosporae 

8:704, 11:431, 14:812, 16:782, 18:151 

Spores muriform, typically hyaline, ovoid to oblong 

I. Asci i-spored Pleostictis 8: 703 

II. Asci 8-spored 

1. Apothecia oblong, hysterioid Melittiosporium 8:704, R. 172 

2. Apothecia round 

a. Apothecia urceolate Platysticta 8: 703 

b. Apothecia disk-like Delpontia 18: 151 

Scolecosporae 

8:681, 10:46, 11:429, 14:810, 16:781, 18:152 
Spores bacillar or filiform, typically hyaline 

I. Asci 8-spored 

1. Apothecia pilose Lasiostictis 8: 696 

2. Apothecia not pilose 

a. Spore cells separating Schizoxylum 8: 697, R. 181 

b. Spore cells not separating 

(1) Paraphyses filiform or nearly so; asci cylindric 

Stictis 8:681, R. 175 

(inch Karstenia 8: 702, Cerion 

18:154) 

(2) Paraphyses much branched; asci clavate 

Naemacyclus 8:701, R. 173 

11. Asci many-spored Carestiella 14:810 



TRYBLIDIACEAE— DERMATEACEAE 65 

Subfamily Ostropae 
Rehm 185 
Apothecia membranous or leathery, deeply sunken, the scarcely opened tip alone 
erumpent. 

I. Spores i-celled, elliptic ; asci clavate Laquearia R. 187 

II. Spores many-celled, filiform; asci cylindric 

I. Apothecia cask-shaped, partly erumpent Ostropa R. 188 
Apothecia with only the thick ostiole erumpent 

Robergea R. 189 



2. 



Family 32. TRYBLIDIACEAE 

Rehm 191 

Apothecia sunken, then erumpent, often lobed, brown or black, membranous or 
horny; hypothecium well-developed, thick. 

I. Apothecia scattered 

1. Spores i-septate 

a. Spores with a mucose covering *Tryblidis R. 194 

b. Spores without a mucose covering Heterosphaeria R. 198 

2. Spores 2-several-septate 

a. Spores with a mucose covering Tryblidiopsis R. 193 

b. Spores without a mucose covering Odontotrema R. 204 

3. Spores muriform Tryblidium R. 196 

4. Spores filiform *Odontura R. 207 

II. Apothecia cespitose or stromate; spores bacillar or filiform 

Scleroderris R. 208 

Family 33. DERMATEACEAE 

Rehm 241 

Apothecia sunken, then erumpent, cup-shaped to oblong, single or grouped, waxy, 
leathery or horny, mostly brownish or black ; hypothecium more or less developed. 

Hyalosporae 

8:547, 10:36, 11:422, 14:794, 16:762, 18:121 
Spores hyaline, i-celled, globose to oblong 

I. Apothecia large, usually stalked or radicate at base 

1. Apothecia ear-shaped, more or less vertical, leathery 

a. Spores ovoid to oblong Midotis 8:547 

b. Spores globose Midotiopsis 18: 121 

2. Apothecia urceolate or turbinate 

a. Apothecia stalked ; exciple and hypothecium prosenchymatic 

Urnula 8:548 

b. Apothecia stalked ; exciple and hypothecium parenchymatic 

Choriactis 18: 121 

c. Apothecia sessile, hairy; exciple parenchymatic, hypothecium prosenchymatic 

Scytopezis 18: 122 

II, Apothecia small, sessile or nearly so 



66 DERMATEACEAE— BULGARIACEAE 

1. Asci 8-spored 

a. Apothecia more or less corky Dermatea 8:550, R. 246 

b. Apothecia coriaceous to subcorneous Cenangium 8:556, R. 219 

(incl. Ameghiniella 8:584, Ephe- 
lina 8:585) 

2. Asci many-spored, or 8-spored and many-spored 

Tympanis 8:578, R. 264 

Phaeosporae 

16: 764, 18: 127 

Spores dark, i-celled, oblong 
I. Apothecia coriaceous, erumpent Phaeangium 16: 764 

Hyalodidymae 

8:587, 10:37, 11:424, 14:798, 18:127 

Spores hyaline,, i-septate, elliptic to oblong 

I. Apothecia patellate, coriaceous to corneous 

Cenangella 8: 587 

II. Apothecia elongate, cleft, subcorneous Angelinia 18: 129 

Phaeodidymae 
18: 128 
Spores dark, i-septate, elliptic to oblong 
I. Apothecia patellate, coriaceous Phaeangella 18: 128 

Hyalophragmiae 

8:594, 16:765, 18: 129 

Spores hyaline, 2-several-septate, elliptic to fusoid 

I. Apothecia waxy-membranous, pilose, urceolate 

Crumenula 8:600, R. 235 

Phaeophragmiae 

2 : 757, R. 233 

Spores dark, 2-several-septate, elliptic to fusoid 
I. Apothecia hysterioid, cleft, coriaceous Tryblidiella R. 233 

Scolecosporae 
8:601, 10:37, 11:425, 18:130 

Spores filiform, hyaline or subhyalinc 

I. Apothecia urceolate to cup-shaped, subcoriaceous 

Godronia 8: 601, R. 237 

II. Apothecia clavate, stipe corneous, disk submucose 

Crinula 8: 606 

Family 34. BULGARIACEAE 
Rehm 444 

Apothecia mostly superficial, cup-shaped to disk-shaped, usually smooth, gelati- 
nous-fleshy or gelatinous-waxy, horn-like when dry; hypothecium gelatinous, more 
or less developed. 



BULGARIACEAE 67 

Hyalosporae 

4:609, 10:38, 11:425, 14:801, 16:766, 18:131 

Spores hyaline, I -celled, globose to oblong 

I. Spores globose Pulparia 8: 612 

II. Spores elliptic to bacillar 

1. Apothecia in a lens-shaped gelatinous stroma 

Physmatomyces 16:770 

2. Apothecia not in a stroma 

a. Exciple lacking 

(1) Asci 8-spored 

(a) Apothecia microscopic, margined by changed paraphyses 

Gloeopeziza 10:41 

(b) Apothecia larger; paraphyses not modified 

Agyrium 8:634, R. 450 

(2) Asci 16-spored *Agyrina 8:636 

b. Exciple present 

(1) Lichenicole Ahlesia 8:633 

(2) Not lichenicole 

(a) Apothecia stipitate Ombrophila 8:613, R. 475 

(inch Stamnaria 8:620, R. 465) 

(b) Apothecia sessile 
x. Asci 8-spored 

(x) Apothecia smooth outside 
m. Apothecia with an even disk 

Orbilia 8:621, R. 453 

(inch Bulgariopsis 18: 135) 
n. Apothecia with a much folded disk 

Haematomyces 8:633 
(y) Apothecia veined or roughened outside 
m. Apothecia 1-2 cm. wide Gloeocalyx 18: 132 

n. Apothecia 2-9 cm. wide Sarcosoma 10:42, R. 497 

y. Asci many-spored *Myridium 8: 631 

Phaeosporae 

8:636, 10:41, 14:804, 16:770, 18:140 

Spores dark, i-celled, elliptic to fusoid 

I. Apothecia turbinate, substipitate, closed at first, large 

Bulgaria 8:636, R. 494 

II. Apothecia disciform, sessile, open at first, smaller 

Bulgariella 8:638 

Hyalodidymae 

8:639, 10:42, 11:427, 14:805, 16:771, 18:142 

Spores hyaline or subhyaline, i-septate, elliptic to fusoid 

I. Parasitic, urn-shaped ; paraphyses forming an epithecium 

Paryphedria 10:43, R. 484 

II. Saprophytic, disciform ; epithecium lacking 

Calloria 8: 639, R. 462 



68 BULGARIACEAE— PATELLARIACEAE 

Phaeodidymae 
10 : 42, 16: 771, 18 : 142 

Spores brown, i-septate, elliptic to fusoid 

1. Apothecia subturbinate, sessile Sorokinia 10:42 

Phragmosporae 
8:641, 10:43, 11:427, i6:773. 18:143 
Spores typically hyaline, 2-several-septate, fusoid 
I. Apothecia turbinate to disciform Coryne 8:641, R. 485 

Hyalodictyae 
18:145 
Spores hyaline, muriform, ovoid 
I. Apothecia cupulate to plane Dictyonia 18: 144 

Phaeodictyae 

8: 646, 10: 44, 18: 144 
Spores dark, muriform, ovoid to oblong 

I. Hymenium sinuate-gyrose, not margined Haematomyxa 8:646 

II. Hymenium smooth, acute-margined Sarcomyces 10:44 

Scolecosporae 

8:646, 14:805, 16:775, 18: 145 

Spores filiform, typically hyaline 

I. Apothecia without an exciple Agyriopsis 14:805 

I I. Exciple present 

1. Apothecia dark or black; spores medium 

Holwaya 8: 646 

2. Apothecia gray or bright-colored ; spores very long 

Ophiogloea 18: 145 

Family 35. PATELLARIACEAE 

RjEHM 2~- 

Apothecia mostly superficial, cupulate to disk-shaped, more rarely boat-shaped 
or oblong, usually dark or black, carbonous, leathery, corneous or waxy ; hypothecium 
typically well-developed. 

Hyalosporae 

8:769, 10:52, 11:433. 14:818, 16:791, 18:165 

Spores hyaline, 1- celled, globose to oblong 

I. Asci many-spored 

1. Spores globose Biatorella 8:469, R. 303 

2. Spores allantoid Biatorellina 18: 172 

II. Asci 8-spored 

1. Apothecia oblong to elongate, cleft Placographa R. 313 

2. Apothecia round 

a. Parasitic on lichen thalli 

(1) Exciple present Rhymbocarpus 14: 819 



PATELLARIACEAE 69 

(2) Exciple lacking Nesolechia 10:53, R-3 I 5 

b. Saprophytic 

(1) Paraphyses branched, forming an epithecium 

(a) Asci club-shaped 

x. Subicle absent Patinella 8:769, R. 310 

y. Subicle present, radiate Actinoscypha 8:774 

(b) Asci cylindric Starbaeckia 10:53 

(2) Paraphyses simple ; epithecium none 

Psilothecium 18: 168 

Phaeosporae 

io:55 
Spores dark, i-celled, globose to elliptic 
1. Apothecia patellate, margined, black Lagerheimia 10:55 

Hyalodidymae 

8:779- 10:56, n:434. 14:820, 16:792, 18:173 
Spores hyaline, i-septate, elliptic to fusoid 

I. Parasitic on lichen thalli Scutula R. 321 

II. Not lichenicole 

1. Apothecia smooth, saprophytic Patellea 8:783, R. 283 

2. Apothecia setose, parasitic on leaves Johansonia 8:785 

Phaeodidymae 

8:779. 10:56, n:434, 14:820, 16:792, 18:173 

Spores dark, i-septate, elliptic to fusoid 

I. Asci 8-spored 

1. Apothecia on a foliicole radiate subicle Woodiella 16: 794 

2. Apothecia not on a subicle 

a. Apothecia round 

(1) Apothecia superficial 

(a) Saprophytic Karschia 8: 779, R. 345 

(b) Parasitic on lichens *Epilichen 18:177, R. 350 

(2) Apothecia sunken, then erumpent 

(a) Parasitic on lichens Abrothallus 8:739, R. 358 

(b) Saprophytic Caldesia R. 289 

b. Apothecia elliptic to linear 

(1) Apothecia irregularly elliptic or oblong 

Melaspilea 10:58, R. 362 

(2) Apothecia boat-shaped to linear Hysteropatella R. 367 

II. Asci 16-spored Ravenelula 8:782 

III. Asci many-spored *Pleospilis 18: 179 

Hyalophragmiae 

8:786, 10:59, n:434. 14:821, 16:795, 18:179 
Spores hyaline, 2-several-septate, elliptic to fusoid 

I. Parasitic on lichens Mycobilimbia 10:60, R. 327 

II. Saprophytic 



7 o PATELLARIACEAE— CALICIACEAE 

1. Apothecia twisted when dry Durella 8:7go, R. 286 

2. Apothecia not contorted Patellaria R. 329 

(incl. Lecanidion 8: 795) 



Phaeophragmiae 

8:786, 10:59, n:434. 14:821, 16:795, 18:179 
Spores dark, 2-several-septate, elliptic to fusoid 

I. Asci 8-spored 

1. Margin of cup involute, densely costate-rugose 

Rhytidopeziza 10:65 

2. Margin not costate-rugose 

a. Apothecia erumpent Pseudotryblidium 10:65, R. 370 

b. Apothecia superficial 

(1) Parasitic typically on lichens 

(a) Apothecia round Leciographa 10:61, R. 372 

(b) Apothecia elliptic to elongate *Lecoglyphis R. 380 

(2) Saprophytic *Mycolecis, R. 372, 10:61 

II. Asci many-spored 

Dictyosporae 

8:802. n:435. 14:823, 18:185 
Spores hyaline or subhyaline, muriform, ovoid to oblong 

I. Apothecia laciniate, depressed-spheroid Blitrydium 8:802 

II. Apothecia not laciniate, patellate Tryblidaria 18: 186 

Scolecosporae 

8:807, 10:65, n:435. 14:823, 16:798 

Spores hyaline or subhyaline, bacillar to filiform 

I. Spores separating at the joints Bactrospora 10:67, R- 344 

II. Spores not separating 

1. Apothecia sessile 

a. Parasitic Mycobacidia 10:66, R. 337 

b. Saprophytic Pragmopara R. 339 

(incl. Scutularia 8:807) 

2. Apothecia stalked, turbinate 

a. Parasitic *Parathalle R. 343 

b. Saprophytic Lahmia 10: 65, R. 341 

Family 36. CALICIACEAE 
Rehm 388, Zahlbruckner 80 

Mycelium inconspicuous and saprophytic, or parasitic on algae, forming a powdery, 
crustose, foliose or f ruticose thallus ; apothecia sessile or stalked, cup- to top-shaped, 
opening more or less completely, asci disappearing very early and the disk then 
covered with a persistent mass of spores and paraphyses, i. e., mazaedium ; exciple 
prosenchymatic, horny, proper or thalline. 

I. Mycelium saprophytic, at least not forming a thallus 
1. Spores 1 -celled, globose or globoid 






CALICIACEAE „ 71 

a. Spores clear or merely yellowish 

(1) Algae present but not forming a thallus 

Farriolla 83 

(2) Algae lacking 

(a) Asci long and slender stalked, ovoid above 

Caliciopsis R. 388 

(b) Asci cylindric Roesleria 8:826, R. 396 

b. Spores dark 

(1) Apothecia black, nearly sessile Sphinctrina 83, R. 389 

(2) Apothecia bright-colored, with a slender stalk 

*Eucyphelis R. 392 
(Cyphelium Rehm) 
2. Spores typically 2-several-celled 

a. Spores 2-celled 

(1) Apothecia sessile Acolium R. 398 

(2) Apothecia with a slender stalk Mycocalicium R. 401 

b. Spores 3-several-celled Stenocybe 82 R. 413 
II. Mycelium forming a thallus with algae 

1. Thallus crustose 

a. Spores i-celled, globose or globoid 

(1) Asci 8-spored 

(a) Spores dark; disk more or less flat 

x. Apothecia stalked Chaenotheca 81 

y. Apothecia sessile *Holocyphis 84 

(b) Spores clear or yellowish; disk globose 

Coniocybe 82 

(2) Asci many-spored Tylophorella 85 

b. Spores 2-several-celled, transeptate or muriform 

(1) Spores transeptate 

(a) Spores 2-celled, dark or brown 
x. Apothecia stalked 

(x) Apothecia long-stalked Calicium 81 

(y) Apothecia with short thick stalk 

Pyrgidium 83 
y. Apothecia sessile 

(x) Algae Pleurococcus Cyphelium 83 

( y ) Algae Chroolepus 
m. Proper exciple alone present 

*Dipyrgis 84 
n. Thalline exciple also present 

*Ditylis 84 

(b) Spores 3-many-celled 

x. Proper exciple alone present Pyrgillus 84 

y. Thalline exciple also present Tylophorum 84 

(2) Spores muriform Pseudacolium 84 

2. Thallus foliose 

a. Thallus of horizontal scales with marginal apothecia 

Calycidium 85 



72 CIIRVSOTRICHACEAE— COLLEMATACEAE 

b. Horizontal scales sterile ; apothecia on cylindric podetia 

Tholurna 85 
3. Thallus fruticose 

a. Thallus hollow; apothecia on the under side 

Pleurocybe 85 

b. Thallus with solid medulla ; apothecia terminal 

O) Apothecia without thalline covering, goblet-like 

Acroscyphus 86 
(2) Apothecia enclosed in a globose thalline exciple, which finally opens 
irregularly at the top Sphaerophorus 86 

Family 37. CHRYSOTRICHACEAE 
Zahlbruckner 117, 127 
Apothecia disk-form, margined, asci persistent; mazaedium lacking, thallus 
uniform, cobwebby, cottony or spongy, loose, without layers, algae Palmella, Pleuro- 
coccus, Chroolepus or Cladophora. 

I. Thallus with Palmella or Pleurococcus 

1. Spores i-celled Crocynia 242 

2. Spores 2-4-celled Chrysothrix 117 

II. Thallus with Chroolepus; spores clear 

1. Spores i-celled *Holocoenis 128 

2. Spores 2-celled Coenogonium 127 

III. Thallus with Cladophora; apothecia lacking 

Racodium 128 

Family 38. COLLEMATACEAE 
Zahlbruckner 154, 158, 167, 168 

Apothecia disk-form or pitcher-form, with persistent asci: thallus more or less 
gelatinous when moist, mostly without layers, always with blue-green algae, scaly. 
foliose or fruticose, rarely crustose. 

I. Algae Gloeocapsa, Chroococcus or Xanthocapsa ; spores typically i-celled, colorless 

Subfamily Pyrenopsidae 158 

1. Algae Gloeocapsa 

a. Thallus crustose, scaly or dwarf fruticose 
(1) Spores i-celled 

(a) Asci 8-spored Pyrenopsis 159 

(b) Asci 32-spored *Pleopyrenis 160 
( _' ) Spores 2-celled Cryptothele 159 

b. Thallus foliose, of a single leaf ; spores clear, i-celled 

Phylliscidium 160 

c. Thallus fruticose, with rhizoids : spores clear, i-celled 

Synalissa 160 

2. Algae Chroococcus 

a. Thallus crustose ; apothecia more or less open 

Pyrenopsidium 160 

b. Thallus foliose, of one leaf, umbilicate; apothecia closed 

Phylliscum 161 



COLLEMATACEAE 73 

3. Algae Xanthocapsa 

a. Thallus crustose 

(1) Spores i-celled 

(a) Hymenium covered with a mass of algae and hyphae 

Gonohymenia 161 

(b) Hymenium without epithecial mass 

x. Thallus pseudoparenchymatic at margin 

Forssellia 161 
y. Thallus nowhere pseudoparenchymatic 

Psorotichia 161 

(2) Spores 2-celled ; apothecia closed Collemopsidium 161 

b. Thallus of one leaf, umbilicate, often lobed 

(1) Thallus pseudoparenchymatic Anema 162 

(2) Thallus not pseudoparenchymatic 

(a) Spores i-celled 

x. Hyphae loose, net-like at margin 

Thyrea 162 
y. Hyphae perpendicular to the margin 

Jenmania 162 

(b) Spores 2-celled Paulia 163 

c. Thallus fruticose, branched, upright 

(1) Thallus without layers 

(a) Asci 8-spored Peccania 163 

(b) Asci 12-many-spored *Pleoconis 164 

(2) Thallus layered, with a cortex Phloeopeccania 164 

II. Thallus with Nostoc; spores clear Subfamily Collematae 168 

1. Apothecia with proper exciple only, biatorin 

a. Spores i-celled 

(1) Spores globose to fusoid, straight 

(a) Thallus crustose, scarcely gelatinous 

Leprocollema 170 

(b) Thallus scaly or dwarf fruticose, gelatinous 

Leciophysma 170 

(2) Spores needle-shaped, twisted Koerberia 173 

b. Spores transeptate, 2-many-celled 

(1) Spores 2-celled; thallus without cortex 

Homothecium 171 

(2) Spores 4-8-celled ; thallus with cortex 

Arctomia 173 

2. Apothecia with thalline exciple, lecanorin 

a. Spores i-celled 

(1) Thallus scaly or dwarf fruticose; spores thin-walled 

(a) Thallus without cortex Physma 170 

(b) Thallus with pseudoparenchymatic cortex 

Lemmopsis 171 

(2) Thallus large-leaved ; spores thick-walled or mucose 

Dichodium 171 

b. Spores transeptate to muriform 
(1) Thallus without cortex 



74 COLLEMATACEAE 

(a) Spores 2-celled *Dicollema 172 

(b) Spores transeptate, many-celled Collema 171 

(c) Spores muriform Blennothallia 172 

(2) Thallus with a pseudoparenchymatic cortex on one or both sides or 
pseudoparenchymatic throughout 

(a) Spores transeptate, 3-many-celled 

Leptogiopsis 175 

(b) Spores muriform Leptogium 174 

III. Thallus with Scytonema or Stigonema ; spores colorless 

Subfamily Ephebae 154 

1. Thallus crustose to scaly 

a. Thallus uniform, not corticate 

(1) Spores i-celled Pterygiopsis 157 

(2) Spores 4-celled Petractis 124 

b. Thallus corticate above Porocyphus 157 

2. Thallus dwarf fruticose, much branched, dark 

a. Apothecia sunken in swellings of the thallus 

(1) Spores i-celled; paraphyses present 

Ephebeia 155 

(2) Spores 2-3-celled Ephebe 155 

b. Apothecia superficial 

(1) Thallus without pseudoparenchymatic cortex or central medulla 

(a) Paraphyses capitate, septate Spilonema 154 

(b) Paraphyses filiform, not septate 

Thermutis 154 

(2) Thallus with large-celled pseudoparenchymatic cortex and central medulla 

(a) Cortex of one row of cells; spores 2-celled 

Leptodendriscum 155 

(b) Cortex of several rows 

x. Spores i-celled Leptogidium 156 

y. Spores 2-celled Polychidium 156 

IV. Algae Rivularia ; spores clear Subfamily Lichinae 164 

1. Apothecia disk-form; thallus scaly to granular 

a. Apothecia with proper exciple ; algae horizontal 

Pterygium 165 

b. Apothecia with thalline exciple ; algae erect 

Steinera 166 

2. Apothecia almost perithecioid ; thallus dwarf fruticose 

a. Algae in the middle of the thallus and parallel with the long axis of the 

branches Lichinodium 166 

b. Algae absent from the middle but marginal beneath the cortex 

(1) Algae parallel with the long axis of the branches 

Lichina 167 

(2) Algae perpendicular to the long axis 

(a) Paraphyses present Lichinella 166 

(b) Paraphyses absent Homopsella 167 



PELTOPHORACEAE 75 

Family 39. PELTOPHORACEAE 

Zahlbruckner 122, i/6, 190 
Thallus firm, not at all gelatinous, crustose or foliose, more or less lobed and 
somewhat erect at the margin but never truly fruticose, typically attached to the 
substratum by rhizoids or by a navel, with a pseudoparenchymatic cortex on one or 
both sides or pseudoparenchymatic throughout ; apothecia typically sunken in the 
thallus or grown together with it on the whole under side, more or less margined 
by the thallus, but a proper exciple lacking. 

I. Thallus uniform to crustose; algae Protococcus, rarely Pleurococcus 

Subfamily Ectolechiae 122 

1. Spores transeptate, usually 2-3-celled 

a. Paraphyses not branched 

(1) Paraphyses free; no algae below the hypothecium 

Asterothyrium 123 

(2) Paraphyses united ; algae below the hypothecium 

Lecaniella 124 

b. Paraphyses branched and united 

(1) Spores 2-celled Actinoplaca 124 

(2) Spores many-celled Tapellaria 243 

2. Spores muriform 

a. Asci i-spored ; hypothecium without algae 

(1) Paraphyses unbranched, free Lopadiopsis 123 

(2) Paraphyses branched, united 

(a) Epithecium without algae Sporopodium 123 

(b) Epithecium with algae *Gonothecis 123 

b. Asci 8-spored ; hypothecium with algae below 

Arthotheliopsis 124 

II. Thallus foliose or foliose scaly, rarely subfruticose; algae typically bluegreen, 
rarely bright-green 

1. Apothecia not marginal ; thallus pseudoparenchymatic throughout 

Subfamily Heppiae 176 
One genus, parasitic on Scytonema Heppia 177 

2. Apothecia typically marginal or even with the thallus ; thallus layered 

Subfamily Peltophorae 190 
a. Thallus foliose, usually large-leaved 

(1) Apothecia on the upper side of the thallus 

(a) Apothecia marginal on lobes of thallus ; lower surface of thallus 

without cortex 
x. Algae Nostoc fPeltophora 194 

(Peltigera) 
y. Algae Palmella (Dactylococcus) *Chloropeltis 194 

(b) Apothecia superficial ; lower surface with cortex below the apothecia 
x. Algae Nostoc Solorina 192 

y. Algae Palmella Solorinina 192 

(2) Apothecia on the under side of elongate thallus lobes; thallus com- 

pletely corticate on both sides 
x. Algae Nostoc Nephromium 194 



76 LECIDEACEAE 

y. Algae Palmella Nephroma 193 

b. Thallus minute, small triangular scales radiating from the apothecium 

(1) Asci 8-spored; spores brownish, 4-6-celled 

Asteristium 191 

(2) Asci many-spored ; spores clear, 2-celled 

Solorinella 192 

Family 40. LECIDEACEAE 
Zahlbruckner 114, 129, 138, 144 
Thallus firm, not gelatinous, crustose, scaly or foliose, exceptionally dwarf 
fruticose, with rhizoids or a navel in the larger forms, with or without cortex; apo- 
thecia superficial or somewhat sunken at first, with a characteristic proper exciple, 
very rarely lacking, but without a thalline exciple. The absence of the latter dis- 
tinguishes this family from the Parmeliaceae. 
I. Thallus uniform or crustose 

1. Algae Chroolcpus or Phyllactidium Subfamily Lecanactidae 114 

a. Proper exciple lacking, or rudimentary and lateral 

(1) Spores transeptate; exciple mostly absent 

Schismatomma 115 

(2) Spores muriform; exciple thin, complete 

Melampydium 116 

b. Proper exciple well-developed, carbonous 

(1) Spores 2-celled Arthoniactis 115 

(2) Spores 4-many-celled Lecanactis 115 

(3) Spores needle-shaped *Scolecactis 115 

2. Algae Pleurococcus or Palmella Subfamily Lecideae 129 

a. Thallus uniform-crustose, loose, without cortex : spores clear, fusoid, 4-celled 

Pilocarpum 116 

b. Thallus typically crustose, firm 

(1) Asci 1-8-spored, rarely 16-32-spored 

(a) Spores i-celled 
x. Spores clear 

(x) Asci 1-2-spored; spores large, thick-walled 

Mycoblastus 133 
(y) Asci 8-spored 
m. Exciple black, carbonous Lecidea 130 

n. Exciple clear or colored, not carbonous 

Biatora 132 
(z) Asci 16-32-spored *Pleolecis 132 

v. Spores brown Orphniospora 133 

(b) Spores 2-celled 
x. Spores clear 

( x ) Paraphyses simple 
in. Spores thick-walled, large Megalcspora 134 
n. Spores thin-walled, small 

(m) Thallus with cortex *Diphloeis 136 

(n) Thallus without cortex 



LECIDEACEAE 77 

r. Exciple and hypothecium dark or black 

Catillaria 133 
s. Exciple and hypothecium clear or bright 

Biatorina 134 
(y) Paraphyses branched, in a slimy hymenium 

*Diphanis 138 
y. Spores brown ; paraphyses branched 

*Diphaeis 138 

(c) Spores 4-many-celled 

x. Spores elliptic to long-fusoid 

(x) Thallus not corticate, crustose-uniform 
m. Spores thin-walled Bacidia 135 

n. Spores thick-walled Bombyliospora 136 

(y) Thallus corticate, v/arty to scaly 

Toninia 136 
y. Spores needle-shaped or filiform 

fScolecosporis 136 
(Scoliciosporum) 

(d) Spores muriform 
x. Spores clear 

(x) Spores with mucus covering; paraphyses branched 

*Phalodictyum 138 
(y) Spores without mucus cover ; paraphyses simple 

Lopadium 137 
y. Spores brown, mucose Rhizocarpum 137 

(2) Asci many-spored 

(a) Exciple bright-colored, soft Biatorella 151 

(b) Exciple dark or black, hard Sporostatia 152 

II. Thallus scaly or f oliose ; algae Pleurococcus or Palmella 

Subfamily Phyllopsorae 138 

1. Thallus scaly, with rhizoids ; disk even 

a. Spores i-celled 

(1) Hypothecium pseudoparenchymatic 

Phyllopsora 138 

(2) Hypothecium not pseudoparenchymatic 

(a) Exciple clear or bright Psoromaria 183 

(b) Exciple dark or black Psora 132 

b. Spores transeptate Psorella 139 

2. Thallus mostly with one large leaf ; disk often furrowed 

Subfamily Gyrophorae 147 

a. Spores i-celled ; disk furrowed in most of the species 

Gyrophora 147 

b. Spores transeptate 

(1) Spores 2-many-celled, colorless *Merophora 148 

(2) Spores 2-celled, brown Dermatiscum 149 

c. Spores muriform, dark Umbilicaria 149 

III. Thallus dwarf fruticose, of low erect slightly branched podetia, horizontal 
thallus lacking ; spores clear, 2-celled Sphaerophoropsis 133 



78 CLADOXIACEAE— PARMELIACEAE 

Family 41. CLADONIACEAE 
Zahlbruckner 139 

Thallus of two kinds, one horizontal on the substratum, crustose, scaly to foli- 
ose, the other consisting of erect clubshaped, cupshaped or filiform, simple or branched 
podetia ; algae typically Pleurococcus ; apothecia terminal or lateral, mostly con- 
vex to globose, with proper exciple only, except in Chlorocaulum ; spores colorless. 

I. Apothecia with proper exciple 

1. Podetia short, simple, rarely forked; apothecia terminal 

a. Podetia equal, not broadened above 

(1) Podetia covering the surface 

(a) Hypothecium clear 

x. Spores i-celled Baeomyces 140 

y. Spores transeptate 

(x) Spores elliptic to rod-shaped 
m. Spores 2-celled *Dibaeis 140 

n. Spores 4-celled 

(m) Algae bluegreen *Cyanobaeis 141 

(n) Algae yellow-green Heteromyces 141 

(y) Spores filiform, many-celled 

Gomphyllus 141 

(b) Hypothecium dark; spores I-celled 

Pilcphorum 142 

(2) Podetia marginal on a foliose thallus 

Gymnoderma 142 

b. Podetia broadened above into lobes or tongues bearing the hymenium on 

one side 

(1) Xo algae below the hymenium; medulla uniform 

Glossodium 142 

(2) Algae below the hymenium ; medulla with thicker strands 

Thysanothecium 142 

2. Podetia funnelform, cupshaped or more or less branched, large 

a. Spores i-celled ; podetia hollow Cladonia 143 

b. Spores 4-many-celled Stereocaulum 146 

c. Spores muriform Argopsis 146 

II. Apothecia with thalline exciple *Chlorocaulum 146 

Family 42. PARMELIACEAE 
Zahlbruck.nkk 118, 124, 150, 195, 199, 207, 216 

Thallus of one kind, podetia lacking, firm, not gelatinous, crustose, scaly, foli- 
ose or fruticose, often with rhizoids, typically layered, algae typically yellow green, 
but bluegreen in two subfamilies ; apothecia characterized by a thalline exciple, which 
is rarely lacking, superficial, rarely immersed 

I. Thallus typically crustose, sometimes scaly or lobed at the margin 
1. Algae Pleurococcus or Palmella, rarely Protococcus 
a. Asci 1-32-spored, mostly 8-spored 

(1) Disk conspicuous, not perithecioid Subfamily Leanorae 199 
(a) Spores i-celled 



PARMELIACEAE 79 

x. Asci 1-8-spored 

(x) Paraphyses simple, free 
m. Spores straight, elliptic to oblong 

(m) Thallus bright yellow; pycnoconidia elliptic 

Candelariella 207 
(n) Thallus rarely bright yellow; conidia filiform 
r. Cortex not.pseudoparenchymatic 

Lecanora 201 
s. Cortex pseudoparenchymatic 

Psoroma 183 
n. Spores crescent to falcate 

Harpidium 199 
(y) Paraphyses branched and united 

Ochrolechia 203 
y. Asci 12-many-spored *Myriolecis 202 

(b) Spores 2-celled 

x. Paraphyses simple, free 

(x) Sterigmata exobasidial Lecania 204 

(y) Sterigmata endobasidial Icmadophila 204 

(inch Placolecania 205) 
y. Paraphyses branched, united Calenia 205 

(c) Spores 4-many-celled 
x. Apothecia superficial 

(x) Asci 1-8-spored 
m. Thallus with cortex Haematomma 205 

n. Thallus without cortex 

(m) Paraphyses forked; spores moniliform, 30-40-celled 

Conotrema 121 
(n) Paraphyses simple; spores not moniliform, 8-30-celled 

*Adermatis 204 
(y) Asci 16-32-spored *Dyslecanis 204 

y. Apothecia immersed ; thallus without cortex 
(x) Paraphyses simple, free Phlyctella 206 

(y) Paraphyses branched and united 

Phlyctidia 206 

(d) Spores muriform 

x. Spores clear, at least not dark 
(x) Apothecia superficial, broad 

Myxodictyum 206 
(y) Apothecia immersed, small Phlyctis 206 
y. Spores dark Diploschistes 122 

(2) Disk small, more or less closed and perithecioid ; apothecia mostly sunk- 
en in warts Subfamily Pertusariae 195 
(a) Spores i-celled 
x. Paraphyses simple, free Perforaria 195 
y. Paraphyses branched and united 

Pertusaria 195 



8o PARMELIACEAE 

(b) Spores 2-celled ; paraphyses branched and united 

Varicellaria 198 
I). Asci many-spored ; spores i-celled, more rarely 2-celled 

Subfamily Acarosporae 150 

(1) Apothecia superficial 

(a) Thallus bright yellow *Pleochroma 207 

(b) Thallus not bright yellow Maronea 152 

(2) Apothecia typically immersed, with mostly narrow disk 

Acarospora 152 
2. Algae Chroolepus or Phyllactidium ; apothecia with thalline exciple, at least 
when young Subfamily Gyalectae 124 

(inch Thelotremae 118) 

a. Thalline exciple present and persistent 

(1) Spores i-celled Jonaspis 125 

(2) Spores 2-celled *Ocellis 118 

(3) Spores 4-many-celled 

(a) Spores clear 

x. Apothecia sprouting repeatedly from the margin, forming erect forked 

chains of apothecia Polystroma 121 

y. Apothecia not in chains 
(x) Algae Chroolepus 
m. Exciple and hypothecium clear 

Ocellularia 118 
n. Exciple and hypothecium dark, hard 

Sagiolechia 126 
(y) Algae Phyllactidium Phyllophthalmaria 120 

(b) Spores brown Phaeotrema 119 

(4) Spores muriform 

(a) Spores clear 

x. Paraphyses simple, free Thelotrema 119 

y. Paraphyses branched and united 

*Phanotylium 121 

(b) Spores dark or brown 

x. Paraphyses simple, free Leptotrema 120 

y. Paraphyses branched and united 

(x) Apothecia sunken in groups in a stroma 

Tremotylium 120 
(y) Apothecia not in a stroma 

Gyrostomum 120 

b. Thalline exciple present at first, then more or less completely disappearing 

(1) Asci 1-8-spored 

(a) Spores 2-celled Microphiale 125 

(b) Spores 4-many-celled Bryophagus 126 

(c) Spores muriform Gyalecta 125 

(2) Asci 12-many-spored 

(a) Spores 2-celled Ramonia 125 

(b) Spores 6-many-celled Pachyphiale 126 

II. Thallus typically foliose or fruticose, sometimes small-leaved or scaly; thalline 
exciple sometimes lacking 



PARMELIACEAE 81 

i. Algae Pleurococcus, Protococcus, Palmella or Cystococcus 

a. Asci many-spored ; apothecia cespitose on a one-leaved thallus 

Glypholecia 153 

b. Asci 1-32-spored 

(1) Thallus foliose, horizontal or upright, rarely fruticose, typically dor- 

siventral 

(a) Thallus with cyphellae or pseudocyphellae or furnished with well- 

developed clubshaped cephalodia 
x. Lower side of thallus with cyphellae or pseudocyphellae 
(x) Apothecia with thalline exciple 
m. Spores 2-celled 

(m) Spores clear *Diphanosticta 189 

(n) Spores brown *Diphaeosticta 189 

n. Spores 4-many-celled 

(111) Spores clear *Phanosticta 189 

(n) Spores brown Sticta 188 

(y) Apothecia with proper exciple only 

*Dysticta 189 
y. Lower side of thallus without cyphellae or pseudocyphellae ; thallus 
typically with cephalodia 
(x) Algae Protococcus Lobaria 185 

(y) Algae Cystococcus, i. e., in mucose colonies 

*Cystolobis 188 

(b) Thallus typically without cyphellae, pseudocyphellae, and cephalodia 

Subfamily Parmeliae 207 
x. Asci 16-32-spored Candelaria 209 

y. Asci 2-8-spored 

(x) Cortex on both sides of thallus 
m. Apothecia superficial 

(m) Lower cortex more or less cellular, usually with rhizoids 

Parmelia 211 
(incl. Parmeliopsis 209) 
(n) Lower cortex without rhizoids, spongy, of net-like hyphae 

Anzia 213 
n. Apothecia marginal or terminal ; thallus often fruticose 
(m) Disks upright from the beginning 

Cetraria 214 
(n) Disks on the under side of thallus lobes, later upright by 
the twisting of the lobes 

Nephromopsis 216 
(y) Cortex on the upper side alone 
m. Apothecia superficial ; lower surface without cyphellae 

Physcidia 209 
n. Apothecial terminal ; cyphellae on lower side 

Heterodea 208 

(2) Thallus fruticose, erect or hanging, often long and hair-like ; radial, 

rarely dorsiventral in structure Subfamily Usneae 216 
(a) Spores i-celled or unknown 



82 PARMELIACEAE 

x. Medulla traversed by varying solid strands 

Letharia 218 
y. Medulla uniform without strands 

(x) Cortex formed of hyphae running lengthwise 
m. Spores clear ; asci 8-spored 

Bryopogon 219 
n. Spores brownish ; asci 4-spored 

Alectoria 219 
(y) Cortex of hyphae more or less perpendicular to the long axis, 
pseudoparenchymatic 
m. Medulla of hyphae running lengthwise 

(m) Medulla loose, not horny; apothecia unknown 

Thamnolia 225 
(n) Medulla firm, horny 
r. Thallus low, podetium-like ; apothecia unknown 

Siphula 225 
s. Thallus fruticose, elongate; apothecia known 

(r) Thallus dorsiventral, without fibrous branches; medulla 
and cortex not separable 

Everniopsis 218 
(s) Thallus radial, usually with fibrous branches; medulla 
and cortex readily separable 

Usnea 223 
n. Medulla of hyphae running in all directions 
(m) Thallus more or less hollow 
r. Thallus swollen, tubular 

Dactylina 218 
s. Thallus not swollen and tubular 
(r) Thallus fruticose, erect 

Dufourea 218 
(s) Thallus podetium-like; apothecia unknown 

Endocena 226 
(n) Thallus flattened, not hollow, dorsiventral 

Evernia 217 

(b) Spores 2-celled Ramalina 220 

(c) Spores muriform, brown, large; asci i-spored 

Oropogon 220 
2. Algae bluegreen, Scytonema or Nostoc 
a. Thallus large-leaved, with cyphellae, pseudocyphellae or cephalodia 
(1) Lower side of thallus with cyphellae or pseudocyphellae 

(a) Apothecia with thalline exciple 

x. Spores clear, bacillar to acicular, 2-8-celled 

*Podostictina 189 
y. Spores brown 

(x) Spores 2-celled Stictina 189 

(y) Spores 4-celled *Merostictina 189 

(b) Apothecia with proper exciple only 

*Dystictina 190 



PARMELIACEAE— PHYSCIACEAE 83 

(2) Cyphellae or pseudocyphellae absent ; cephalodia usually present 

(a) Apothecia with thalline exciple 

*Phycodiscis 188 

(b) Apothecia with proper exciple only 

Lobarina 188 
b. Thallus scaly to small-leafy, sometimes crustose, exceptionally large-leafy, 
without cyphellae, etc. Subfamily Pannariae 178 

(1) Lower surface of thallus scarcely or not at all veined; spores 1-2-celled 

(a) Upper cortex well-developed; distinct 

x. Upper cortex with hyphae perpendicular to it 
(x) Upper cortex hairy or pilose 

Erioderma 183 
(y) Upper cortex not hairy 
m. Apothecia with thalline exciple 
(m) Spores i-celled; algae Nostoc 

Pannaria 181 
(n) Spores 2-celled ; algae Scytonema 

Massalongia 183 
n. Apothecia with proper exciple only 

(m) Spores i-celled Parmeliella 181 

(n) Spores 2-many-celled Placynthium 181 
y. Upper cortex of horizontal hyphae 

Coccocarpia 184 

(b) Upper cortex indistinct; algae occupying nearly the whole width of 

the thallus Lepidocellema 180 

(2) Lower surface of thallus with distinct forked veins ; spores 4-celled 

Hydrothyria 184 

Family 43. PHYSCIACEAE 

Zahlbruckner 226-234 

Thallus crustose, foliose or f ruticose, as in Parmeliaceae ; apothecia mostly 
lecanorin, sometimes with proper exciple alone ; spores normally 2-celled, with more 
or less thickened cross-wall, often traversed by a line-like canal, or exceptionally 
i-many-celled or muriform 
I. Spores 2-celled 

1. Spores clear 

a. Thallus without cortex, uniform or crustose 

(1) Apothecia with thalline exciple Caloplaca 227 

(2) Apothecia with proper exciple only 

Blastenia 226 

b. Thallus with cortex, foliose or fruticose 

(1) Thallus foliose, horizontal or ascending, dorsiventral, with rhizoids, cor- 

tex pseudoparenchymatic on both sides 

Xanthoria 229 

(2) Thallus fruticose, erect, radial, cortex of conglutinate longitudinal hyphae 

Theloschistes 230 

2. Spores dark or brown 

a. Thallus without cortex, uniform or crustose 



84 PHYSCIACEAE— MOLLISIACEAE 

(i) Apothecia with thalline exciple 

(a) Asci 8-spored Rinodina 232 

(b) Asci 12-24-spored *Pleorinis 233 
(2) Apothecia with proper exciple only 

Buellia 231 
1). Thallus with cortex, foliose or fruticose 

( 1 ) Upper cortex of perpendicular hyphae, pseudoparenchymatic 

(a) Apothecia with thalline exciple 

x. Hypothecium clear Physcia 234 

y. Hypothecium black Dirinaria 235 

(b) Apothecia with proper exciple only 

Pyxine 234 
( 2 ) Upper cortex of hyphae parallel with the long axis, not pseudoparen- 
chymatic : apothecia with proper exciple 

Anaptychia 236 

II. Spores 3-4-celled 

1. Spores clear 

a. Thallus without cortex, uniform or crustose 

(1) Apothecia with thalline exciple *Meroplacis 228 

( 2 ) Apothecia with proper exciple only 

Xanthocarpia 227 

1>. Thallus with cortex, fruticose Niorma 230 

2. Spores brown 

a. Thallus without cortex, uniform or crustose 

(1) Apothecia with thalline exciple *Merorinis 233 

(2) Apothecia with proper exciple alone 

Diplotomma 232 

b. Thallus with cortex, foliose; exciple proper 

*Phragmopyxine 234 

III. Spores muriform, brown 

1. Thallus without cortex, uniform or crustose 

*Dictyorinis 233 

2. Thallus with cortex, foliose Hyperphyscia 236 

Family 44. MOLLISIACEAE 

Rehm 503 

Apothecia superficial or erumpent, cupulate to disk-shaped, mostly smooth, rare- 
ly with hairs, typically soft-waxy; distinguished from all other families by the 
typically brownish exciple, which is entirely parenchymatic, or at least about the 
base. 

Subfamily Eumollisiae 
Apothecia superficial from the beginning 

Hyalosporae 

Spores hyaline, i-celled, globose to elliptic 

I. Apothecia not on a subicle 

1. Spores globose Mollisiella 18:64 

2. Spores elliptic to fusoid Mollisia R. 511, 8:321 



MOLLISIACEAE 85 

II. Apothecia on a subicle Tapesia R. 573, 8:371 

Hyalodidymae 

Spores hyaline, i-septate, elliptic to oblong 

I. Apothecia not on a subicle Niptera R. 549, 8:480 

II. Apothecia on a subicle 

1. Spores with a mucose covering Stictoclypeolum 18:110 

2. Spores not mucose 

a. Spores constricted, large, 50 x 25 m Psorotheciopsis 16:746 

b. Spores not constricted, small, I2x 5 c 

Linhartia 16: 744 

Hyalophragmiae 

Spores hyaline, 2-several-septate, elliptic to fusoid 

I. Apothecia not on a subicle or thallus Belonidium R. 561, 8:496 

II. Apothecia on a subicle or thallus 

1. Spores ciliate at each end Ciliella 16:748 

2. Spores not ciliate 

a. Apothecia on a subicle of hyphal threads 

Trichobelonium R. 590, 16:747 

b. Apothecia on a parenchymatic thallus 

Pazschkea 14:788 

(incl. Psorotheciella 16:746) 

Hyalodictyae 

Spores hyaline, muriform, ovoid to oblong 

I. Subicle present; asci 1-4-spored ; spores mucose 

fMelittosporis 16:751 
(Melittosporiopsis) 
Scolecosporae 
Spores hyaline, filiform, usually septate 
I. Apothecia gregarious; subicle lacking Belonopsis R. 571, 16:752 

Subfamily Pyrenopezizae 

Apothecia at first covered, then erumpent and more or less superficial 

Hyalosporae 

Spores hyaline, i-celled, globose to oblong 

I. Apothecia bright-colored, on living leaves 

Pseudopeziza R. 596, 8:723 

II. Apothecia dark-brown without, not on living leaves 

1. Apothecia with bristles Pirottaea R. 636, 8:386 

2. Apothecia without bristles, but sometimes with projecting rows of cells 

a. Subicle lacking Pyrenopeziza R. 608, 8:354 

b. Subicle present *Spilopezis R. 620 

Phaeosporae 

Spore 1 ? dark or brownish, i-celled, elliptic to oblong 



86 HELOTIACEAE 

I. Apothecia leathery, bright-colored outside 

Velutaria R. 645, 8:488 

Hyalodidymae 

Spores hyaline, i-septate, elliptic to fusoid 

I. Apothecia scarcely erumpent, bright colored 

Fabraea R. 599, 8: 735 

II. Apothecia nearly superficial, dark-brown without 

*Dibelonis R. 638 

Hyalophragmiae 

Spores hyaline, 2-several-septate, oblong to fusoid 

I. Apothecia at last superficial, more or less roughened 

Beloniella R. 638 

Family 45. HELOTIACEAE 

Rehm 647 

Apothecia mostly superficial, rarely erumpent or arising from a sclerotium, typi- 
cally stalked, sometimes sessile, cupulate to disk-shaped, waxy ; distinguished by an 
exciple which is completely prosenchymatic. 

Subfamily Helotiae 
Apothecia not hairy 

Hyalosporae 
Spores hyaline, i-celled, globose to oblong 

I. Apothecia on a subicle Eriopeziza R. 693 

II. Apothecia not on a subicle 

1. Apothecia arising from a sclerotium, long-stalked 

Sclerotinia R. 803, 8:195 

2. Apothecia not arising from a sclerotium 

a. Apothecia green, arising from a green substratum 

Chlorosplenium R. 752, 8: 315 

b. Apothecia not on a green substratum 

(1) Apothecia margined by a row of triangular teeth 

(a) Apothecia stalked Cyathicula R. 740, 8:304 

(b) Apothecia sessile *Pezoloma 

(2) Apothecia without teeth 

(a) Asci many-spored Comesia 8:468 

(b) Asci typically 8-spored 

x. Apothecia sessile Pezizella R. 653, 8:275 

y. Apothecia stalked 

(x) Ascus pore blue with iodin Helotium R. 772, 8:210 

(inch Ciboria R. 754, 8:201) 
(y) Ascus pore not blue with iodin 

Phialea R. 708, 8: 251 

(incl. Helotium in part) 



HELOTIACEAE 87 

Hyalodidymae 

Spores hyaline, i-septate, elliptic to fusoid 

I. Apothecia typically sessile *Eubelonis R. 685 

II. Apothecia stalked 

1. Stalk ridged or folded Lanzia 8:479 

2. Stalk not ridged or folded Hymenoscypha R. 781 

Hyalophragmiae 

Spores hyaline, 2-several-septate, elliptic to fusoid 

I. Apothecia not toothed at margin 

1. Apothecia sessile Belonium R. 685, 8:492 

2. Apothecia stalked 

a. Subicle lacking 

(1) Spores muticate 

(a) Paraphyses colorless, epithecium lacking 

Belonioscypha R. 743 

(b) Paraphyses colored, forming an epithecium 

Rutstroemia R. 763 

(2) Spores i-ciliate at each end *Belospora R^U, 8:488 

b. Subicle present Masseea 18:99 

II. Apothecia with a row of triangular teeth at margin 

1. Apothecia sessile *Merodontis 18: 102 

2. Apothecia stalked Davincia 18: 101 

Scolecosporae 

Spores typically hyaline, filiform 

I. Apothecia sessile or merely narrowed below 

1. Apothecia smooth Gorgoniceps R. 690, 8:504 

2. Apothecia hairy Arachnopeziza R. 698 

II. Apothecia stalked Pocillum R. 747, 8:605 

Subfamily Dasyscyphae 

Rehm 824 

Apothecia hairy 

Hyalosporae 

Spores hyaline, i-celled, globose to fusoid 

I. Spores globose Lachnellula R. 862, 8: 390 

II. Spores elliptic to fusoid 

1. Paraphyses lance-shaped, pointed 

a. Apothecia sessile *Dyslachnum R. 868, 888 

b. Apothecia stalked Lachnum R. 870 

2. Paraphyses filiform, blunt 

a. Apothecia divided above into 3-6 lobes, black 

Arenaea 18: 75 

b. Apothecia entire, rarely black 



88 PEZIZACEAE 

(i) Apothecia hairy with distinct bristles 

(a) Hairs shining, clear, non-septate, nearly solid 

*Phalothrix R. 831 

(b) Hairs dull, usually septate, hollow 

x. Apothecia sessile *Dasypezis R. 829, 842 

y. Apothecia stalked Dasyscypha R. 832, 8:432 

(2) Apothecia villose with projecting hyphae 

Hyphoscypha 18:87 

Hyalodidymae 

Spores hyaline, i-septate, elliptic to fusoid 

I. Spores at first i-celled, but finally 2-celled 

Lachnella R. 853, 8:391 
(incl. Perrotia 18:90) 

Hyalophragmiae 
Spores hyaline, 2-several-septate, oblong to fusoid 

I. Paraphyses lance-shaped, pointed Erinella R. 910, 8:507 

II. Paraphyses bear^^ conidia at the tips Diplocarpa 18: no 

Family 46. PEZIZACEAE 
Rehm 913 

Apothecia typically terrestrial, erumpent or superficial, sessile or stalked, urn- 
shaped to disciform, smooth or hairy, fleshy or fleshy-waxy, rarely leathery; usually 
medium to large forms. 

Subfamily Pezizae 
Apothecia smooth, i. e., without hairs 

Hyalosporae 
Spores hyaline, 1 -celled, globose to fusoid 

J. Asci not blue with iodin 

1. Apothecia cleft on one side, ear-likt- Otidea R. 1023, 8:94 

2. Apothecia not ear-like 

a. Spores globose 

(1) Apothecia fleshy or fleshy- waxy 

(a) Substipitate, parasitic Pitya R. 925, 8: 209 

(b) Sessile, terrestrial Detonia R.927, 1269, 8:105 

(Barlaea 8:111, Otidella 8:99) 

(2) Apothecia cartilaginous tPeltophoromyces 16:720 

(Peltigeromyces) 

b. Spores elliptic to fusoid 
(1) Apothecia sessile 

(a) Spores with reticulately thickened wall 

Aleuria R. 968 

(b) Spores smooth or roughened 

x. Apothecia not on a subick- Humaria R. 934. 8:118 



PEZIZACEAE 89 

y. Apothecia on a subicle Pyronema R. 962, 8: 107 

(incl. Phycascus 16: 709) 

(2) Apothecia stalked 

(a J Stalk narrow, cylindric, mealy- rough, almost hairy 

Macropodia R. 984, 8: 158 
(b) Stalk mostly short and wide, not mealy- rough 
x. Stalk large and thick, deeply furrowed 

Phleboscyphus R. 981, 18: 13 
(Acetabula) 
y. Stalk even or slightly furrowed 
(x) Apothecia persistently cup-shaped 

Geopyxis R. 971, 8:63 
(y) Apothecia finally open and flat 

Discina R. 976, 8: 99 
II. Asci blue with iodin 

1. Apothecia cleft on one side, ear-like *Iotidea R. 1028 

2. Apothecia not ear-like 

a. Spores globose Plicariella R. 993 

b. Spores elliptic to fusoid 
( 1 ) Apothecia sessile 

(a) Apothecia with a milky juice Galactinia 8: 106 

(b) Apothecia without milky juice 
x. Apothecia not on a subicle 

(x) Apothecia leathery, black Urnula R. 999, 8:548 
(y) Apothecia fleshy, not black 
m. Apothecia on the surface of the ground 

Plicaria R. 1000 

(Pustularia in part) 
n. Apothecia large, sunken, lobed 

Peziza R. 1019, 8: 73 and 511 
(Pustularia in part) 
y. Apothecia on a subicle Melachroia R. 997 

(2) Apothecia with a long, slender stalk 

Tarzetta R. 1021 

Phaeosporae 
Spores dark, 1 -celled, globose to oblong 

I. Spores globose Phaeopezia 8: 471, R. 995 

II. Spores elliptic 

1. Apothecia sessile Aleurina 18: 88 

2. Apothecia stalked *Podaleuris 18:88 

Subfamily Scutelliniae 

Apothecia setose or hairy 

Hyalosporae 

Spores hyaline, 1 -celled, globose to fusoid 
I. Spores globose 



9 o PEZIZACEAE— HELVELLACEAE 

1. Spores smooth 

a. Cup dark or black, more or less strigose at base 

Pseudoplectania R. 1039, 8: 165 

b. Cup bright-colored, hairy or setose 

Sphaerospora R. 1037, 8: 188 

2. Spores warted or reticulate ; cups white-hairy 

Pyronemella R. 1038, 8: 194 

II. Spores elliptic to fusoid 

1. Spores rostrate at base Puttemansia 18:98 

2. Spores muticate 

a. Apothecia sunken in the ground, opening by lobes 

Sepultaria R. 1075, 8:166 

b. Apothecia superficial 

(1) Apothecia sessile 

(a) Apothecia dark-hairy or ciliate 
x. Apothecia uniformly dark-hairy 

Pelodiscus 16:1147, 18:35 
y. Apothecia also with long cilia at the margin 

(x) Paraphyses clavulate, blunt Scutellinia R. 1042, 8: 173 

(Lachnea) 
(y) Paraphyses equal, brown, pointed 

Desmazierella R. 1041, 8:386 

(b) Apothecia bright-hairy or ciliate 
x. Apothecia uniformly bright-hairy 

*Leucopezis 
y. Apothecia with marginal cilia also 

Neottiopezis 8: 190, R. 1068 

(2) Apothecia stalked 

(a) Apothecia dark or black 

x. Stalk long, slender, mealy Macropodia R. 984, 8:158 

y. Stalk short, thick with brown hairs and rhizoids 

Plectania 8: 163, R. 1070 

(b) Apothecia and hairs bright-colored 

Sarcoscypha R. 1070, 8: 153 

(inch Trichoscypha 8: 160, Pilo- 
cratera 18:31) 

Phaeosporae 
Spores hyaline, i-celled, globose to fusoid 

I. Apothecia with a cylindric verrucose stalk Phaeomacropus 16: 740 

II. Apothecia sessile *Trichaleuris 18:89 

Family 47. HELVELLACEAE 

Kiiim 1 1 34 

Apothecia typically terrestrial, and stalked, sometimes sessile, club-shaped, conical 
or saddle-shaped, rarely flat, mostly smooth, fleshy, cartilaginous or rarely gelatinous ; 
usually large forms. 



HELVELLACEAE 91 

Subfamily Rhizinae 

Apothecia sessile, flat, arched or irregularly globose. 

I. Spores globose Sphaerosoma R. 1140, 8: 56 

II. Spores elliptic or fusoid 

1. Spores elliptic, rounded at ends Psilopezia R. 1137, 8: 152 

(incl. Peltidium 18: n) 

2. Spores fusoid, pointed at the thickened ends 

Rhizina R. 1138, 8:57 

Subfamily Helvellae 

Apothecia stalked, cap- or saddle-shaped, or columnar 

I. Hymeriium ridged in both directions 

1. Ridged cap stalked Morchella R. 1200, 8:8 

2. Ridged cap sessile Underwocdia 10: 1 

II. Hymenium smooth, convolute or ridged longitudinally 

1. Hymenium saddle-like, more or less lobed 

Helvella R. 1179, 8: 17 

2. Hymenium globoid, convolute Gyromitra R. 1189, 8: 15 

3. Hymenium cap- or bell-shaped, smooth or ridged 

Verpa R. 1195, 8: 29 

Subfamily Geoglossae 

Apothecia stalked, clavate or capitate 

I. Hymenium distinct from stem, disciform or capitate 

1. Spores i-celled *Haplocybe R. 1168 

(incl. Moellerodiscus 18:8) 

2. Spores 2-4-celled 

a. Apothecia gelatinous Leotia R. 1164, 8:609 

b. Apothecia waxy or fleshy-waxy Cudoniella R. 1166, 8: 41 

3. Spores filiform or acicular 

a. Apothecia fleshy, cap-shaped with involute margin 

Cudonia R. 1169, 8: 527 
(Leotiella 16: 700) 

b. Apothecia waxy, button-shaped, solid Vibrissea R. 1170, 8:51 

II. Hymenium club-shaped, not distinct from stem or but slightly so 

1. Spores hyaline 

a. Spores i-celled 

(1) Spores globose Neolecta 8: 40 

(2) Spores elliptic Mitrula R. 1146, 8:32 

(Spragueola 14:742) 

b. Spores 2-4-celled, fusoid 

(1) Hymenium covering the whole club 

Microglossum R. 1151, 8: 39 

(2) Hymenium on one side only Hemiglossum 10: 2 

c. Spores more or less filiform Spathularia R. 1158, 8:48 

(incl. Mitruliopsis 18:10; 

2. Spores brown, clavate or cylindric, many-celled 

Geoglossum R. 1153, 8:42 



92 ASCOBOLACEAE— CORDIERITACEAE 

Family 48. ASCOBOLACEAE 
Rehm 1078 

Apothccia superficial, typically fimicole, scutellate lo disciform, fleshy or waxy 
or gelatinous; asci mostly broad and clavate, projecting above the hymenium at maturity. 

Subfamily Ascophanae 
Spores colorless 

I. Hymenium within an exciple 

1. Asci 4- or 8-spored 

a. Spores globose 

(1) Asci 4-spored Boudierella 14: 792 

(2) Asci S-spored Cubonia 8: 527 

b. Spores elliptic to fusoid; asci 8-spored 

(1) Apothecia smooth Ascophanus R. 1085, 8:528 

(2) Apothecia hairy or setose 

(a) Spores smooth Lasiobolus R. 1096, 8: 536 

(b) Spores spiny Aphanascus 10: 35 

2. Ai-ci 16-many-spored 

a. Asci many 

(1) Apothecia fimbriate with delicate hairs; asci 32-spored 

Streptotheca 10:34 

(2) Apothecia not hairy ; asci 16-many-spored 

Rhyparobius R. 1099 

b. Ascus one Thelebolus R. 1106 

II. Hymenium without an exciple : asci many-spored 

Zukalina R. 1108 

Subfamily Ascobolae 
Spores colored 

I. Spores globose Boudiera R. 1113, 8: 512 

II. Spores elliptic to fusoid 

1. Spores in a gelatinous mass in ascus Saccobolus R. 1115, 8:524 

2. Spores free in the ascus 

a. Apothecia smooth 

(1) Exciple present, normal Ascobolus R. 1120,8:514 

(2) Exciple lacking Ascodesmis 8: 824 

b. Apothecia hairy or ciliati Dasybolus 11:421 

Family 49. CORDIERITACEAE 
8: 810, 16: 803 

Apothecia suberose or corneo-carbonous, superficial, ramose-stipitate, arising at 
the tips of the branches, finally cup-like and open; asci terete-clavate, 6-8-spored ; 
spores 1- or 2-celled, mostly hyaline. 

I. Spores i-celled, hyaline ; stipe much branched above, homy-carbonous 

Cordierites 8: 810 



EXASCACEAE— GYMNASCACEAE 93 

II. Spores 2-celled ; stipe fascicled-ramose, suberose 

Acroscyphus 8:811 

Order 11. GYMNASCALES 

Apothecia imperfect, more or less effuse or obsolete , maculif orm, byssoid or 
dot-like, exciple absent; asci mostly free, often single, i-many-spored, rarely with 
paraphyses. 

Family 50. EXASCACEAE 

8:811, 10:67, 11:435, 14:823, 16:803, 18:196 

Asci parallel and crowded, sessile or enlarged at base ; parasitic in living plants 
and deforming the part attacked as a rule. 

I. Asci few-spored, usually 8-spored 

1. Spores i-celled, more or less globose Exascus 8:816 

2. Spores 2-3-septate, oblong Elsinoe 16:804 

II. Asci many-spored 

1. Asci more or less globose Taphridium 18:203 

2. Asci terete-clavate Taphrina 8:812 

Family 51, GYMNASCACEAE 

8:820, 10:70, 11:437, 14:824, 16:805, 18:194 

(inch Ascoidaceae, Ascocortiaceae, Endomycetaceae, Protomycetaceae) 

Asci more or less solitary or grouped in masses of mycelium ; for the most 
part saprophytic. 

I. Saprogenous 

1. Asci 1-2-spored Bargellinia 8:823 

2. Asci 3-8-spored 

a. Spores globose or nearly so 

(1) Spores brown or violet Amaurascus 11:438 

(2) Spores hyaline or golden 

(a) Asci 3-5-spored Conidiascus 16:807 

(b) Asci 8-spored 

x. Asci surrounded by serrate spiral hyphae 

Ctenomyces 8:824 
y. Asci without serrate spiral hyphae 
(x) Asci solitary 
m. Asci acrogenous Eremascus 8:822 

n. Asci intercalary Oleina 8:822 

(y) Asci grouped or congested in masses 

Gymnascus 8:823 

(incl. Arachniotus 11:438) 

b. Spores elliptic, hyaline ; asci vertical, clavate 

Ascocorticium 10:71 

3. Asci many-spored 
a.- Spores globose 

(1) Asci elongate, split at base Dipodascus 11:439 

(2) Asci terete-clavate, simple at base Ascoidea 10: 71 



94 



SACCHAROMYCETACEAE— CYTTARIACEAE 



b. Spores elliptic fAscodes 16:807 

(Oscarbrefeldia) 

II. Biogenous 

1. Asci 4-8-spored 

a. Asci 4-spored, solitary; on fungi Endomyces 8:821 

b. Asci 8-spored 

(1) Spores i-celled 

(a) Hyphae of palmiform haustoria; on fungi 

Podocapsa 8: 820 

(,b) Hyphae filamentous; on animals 

Eidamella 16:805 

(2) Spores muriform ; on leaves Nostocotheca 16:806 

2. Asci many-spored 

a. Mycelium present Eremothecium 8: 821 

b. Mycelium none 

(1) Haustoria present; on fungi *Podocapsium 8:820 

(2) Haustoria absent; mostly on flowering plants 

Protomyces 7:319 



Family 52. SACCHAROMYCETACEAE 
8:916, n:457, 14:828, 16:818, 18:198 

True hyphae lacking, unicellular, propagating by buds; asci spurious?, globose 
to elliptic, mostly 1-4-spored; growing typically in sugary or starchy liquids or ma- 
terials. 

I. Cells increasing by fission 

II. Cells increasing by budding 

1. Spores pileiform or limoniform, costate 

2. Spores globose to irregular 

a. Vegetative cells conjugating 

b. Vegetative cells normal 



Schizosaccharomyces 18: 201 
Willia 18: 198 

Zygosaccharomyces 18: 198 
Saccharomyces 18: 198 



Order 12. TUBERALES 

Ascoma or apothecium typically more or less globose, and indehiscent, with 
one to many hollows, locules or veins, fleshy, waxy, leathery or even subcarbonous , 
saprophytic or parasitic, usually subterranean ; asci present, i-many-spored. 



Family 53. CYTTARIACEAE 
8:4, 16 : 695, 18: 1 

Ascomata globose or obovate, firm fleshy, subcorneous when dry. stuffed or 
hollow, loculiferous at the periphery, producing tubercular swellings on the branches 
of living trees ; locules globose, large, dehiscing by lobes, filled with asci and para- 
physes ; asci cylindric 8-spored ; spores hyaline. 

I. Ascoma globose or obovate; all locules bearing asci 

Cyttaria 8:4 



PHYMATOSPHAERIACEAE 95 

II. Ascoma turbinate, fenestrate below; asci on a definite disk 

Rickiella 18: 1 

Family 54. PHYMATOSPHAERIACEAE 
(incl. MYRIANGIACEAE) 

8 : 843, 1 1 : 440, 16 : 799, 18 : 191 

Ascomata verruciform, small, waxy, membranous or subcarbonous, superficial, 
densely loculiferous within ; locules with a single ascus, indehiscent ; asci globose 
or short clavate, 8-spored. 

Hyalosporae 

Spores hyaline, i-celled, ovoid to elliptic 

T. Ascomata globose-depressed, membranous Phillipsiella 8: 844 

Phaeosporae 

Spores dark, i-celled, elliptic to fusoid 
I. Spores angulose, verrucose ; fimicole Guillermondia 18:191 

Hyalodidymae 

Spores hyaline, i-septate, elliptic to fusoid 

I. Ascomata dark, globose-depressed Microphyma 8:844 

II. Ascomata bright-colored, applanate Leptophyma 8:844 

Hyalophragmiae 

Spores hyaline, 2-several-septate, oblong to fusoid 

I. Ascomata elongate, rugose Eurytheca 8:846 

II. Ascomata punctiform to obconic 

1. Ascomata punctiform or applanate 

a. Ascomata punctiform; asci clavate Harknessiella 8:845 

b. Ascomata applanate-disciform; asci ovoid to globose 

Myriangium 16:800 

(incl. Myriangella 18: 192) 

2. Ascomata hemispheric or obconic ; asci globose 

Molleriella 8:845 

Phaeophragmiae 

Spores dark, 2-several-septate, oblong to fusoid 

I. Ascomata blood-red, membranous-waxy Kusanoa 16:800 

Hyalodictyae 

Spores hyaline, muriform 

I. Ascomata bright-colored 

1. Ascomata on a radiate subicle Phymatosphaeria 8:847 

2. Ascomata not on a subicle Ascomycetella 8:846 

II. Ascomata dark or black Trichophyma 18: 194 



o6 OXYGEXACEAE— TUBERACEAE 

Phaeodictyae 
Spores dark, muriform 
I. Ascomata applanate-tuberculiform, black Cookella 8:846 

Family 55. ONYGENACEAE 
8:861, 10:80, 11:440, 16:807 

Ascomata subglobose, sessile or stipitate, membranous, fragile, epizoic : gleba 
waxy, then pulverulent ; asci 8-spored, globose, evanescent ; spores continuous, sub- 
hyaline. 

A single genus Onygena 8:861 

Family 56. ELAPHOMYCETACEAE 
(inch CENOCOCCACEAE) 

8: 863, 10: 80, 11 : 441 
Ascomata hypogaean, woody, crustose or carbonous, more or less globose, inde- 
hiscent, finally producing a powdery spore mass or gleba; asci 1-8-spored, some- 
times spurious. 

I. Gleba interwoven with silky threads; asci normal 

Elaphomyces 8:863 

II. Gleba without capillitium; asci spurious, cell-shaped 

Cenococcum 8:871 

Family 57. TUBERACEAE 
(inch ENDOGONACEAE, EOTERFEZIACEAE) 

8:872, 10:80, 11:442, 14:826, 16:808, 18:205 

Ascomata hypogaean, rarely epigaean or parasitic, fleshy or waxy hardened, more 
or less globose, indehiscent : gleba never becoming a powdery mass, typically veined 
or lacunose, rarely continuous ; asci 1-8-spored, rarely spurious. 

Hyalosporae 

Spores hyaline, 1 -celled, globose to elliptic 

I. Gleba without veins, but with one or more cavities 

1. Asci linear or elongate 

a. Spores verrucose or roughened 

(1) Spores globose Pseudogenea 16: 808 

(2) Spores ovoid to elliptic Genea 8:873 

b. Spores smooth 

(1) Gleba with a single large cavity Hydnocystis 8:876 

(2) Gleba convolute lacunose 

(a) Densely lanate ; canals not produced to surface 

Geopora 8: 877 

(b) Xot lanate ; canals produced to surface 

Pseudohydnotria 16:808 

2. Asci globose to oblong 

a. Spores roughened or alveolate, globose 



TUBERACEAE 97 

( i ) Asci 2-4-spored ; spores with recurved spines 

Terfeziopsis 16:816 

(2) Asci 8-spored 

x. Hollows or canals not reaching the surface 
(x) Gleba with irregular stellate hollows 

Myrmecocystis 16:809 
(y) Microscopic ; gleba central, lax 

Lilliputia 16:816 
y. Hollows or canals reaching the surface 

Hydnobolites 8:879 

b. Spores smooth 

(1) Gleba of numerous locules ; epigaean, parasitic on fungi 

Eoterfezia 18: 205 

(2) Hypogaean 

(a) Ascoma brown villous Phaeangium 11:442 

(b) Ascoma not villous Balsamia 8: 877 
fl. Gleba with veins, solid or also lacunose 

1. Veins of two colors; spores globose, smooth 

Stephensia 8: 880 

2. Veins all of one color 

a. Spores globose, roughened 

(1) Gleba with distinct veins; asci mostly 2-3-spored 

Delastria 8: 904 

(2) Gleba marbled with brown spots; asci 3-4-spored 

Piersonia 16: 812 

b. Spores ellipsoid, smooth 

( 1 ) Spores apiculate at each end, limoniform 

Leucangium 8:899 

(2) Spores not apiculate 

(a) Asci 8-spored, broadly stipitate Tirmania 11:444 

(b) Asci 6-8-spored. not stipitate Picoa 8:899 

Phaeosporae 

Spores dark, i-celled 

I. Gleba without veins; typically with hollows or canals 

1. Spores globose, roughened 

a. Asci linear or cylindric 

(1) Gleba with one or more hollows Gyrocratera 16:815 

(incl. Cryptica 10:82) 

(2) Gleba homogeneous, lax Ruhlandiella 17: 241 

b. Asci broad, oblong Hydnotrya 8:879 

2. Spores ovoid, smooth Genabea 8:878 
tl. Gleba with veins 

1. Veins of two colors 

a. Some veins white Pachyphloeus 8:881 

b. Xo veins white Tuber 8:882 

2. Veins of one color 



98 UREDIXACEAE 

a. Asci elongate; gleba not divided into masses 

Choeromyces 8:900 

b. Asci ovate to globose; gleba divided into masses 

Terfezia 8:902 

Order 13. UREDINALES 
Apothecia reduced to a mass of persistent or evanescent asci, waxy, leathery, 
gelatinous or powdery ; parasites. 

Family 58. UREDINACEAE 

7 : 528, 9 : 291, 1 1 : 1 74, 14 : 269. 16 : 257. 17 : 244 

Parasitic; apothecia reduced to a mass of asci with fixed spore cells., i. e., 
teleutospores with 1 or more cells ; conidia normally present . produced in cluster 
cups (aecidia, aecia), sori (uredinia), or spermagonia (pyenia) ; the asci and co- 
nidia may occur on the same host or upon different hosts, or one or the other alone 
may occur ; teleutospores producing a promycelium and sporidioles upon germination. 

Amerosporae 

Teleutospores i-celled, colored, rarely hyaline, or absent 
I. Teleutospores present 

1. Teleutospores hyaline 

a. Teleutospores catenate Monosporidium 9:297 

b. Teleutospores single Zaghouania 17:268 

2. Teleutospores colored 

a. Spore mass or sorus horizontal 

(1) Teleutospores catenate 

(a) Spores in a pseudoperidium Dietelia 14:291 

(b) Spores not in a pseudoperidium Clastopsora 17:263 

(2) Teleutospores not catenate 

(a) Uredospores not in a pseudoperidium 
x. Spores half smooth, half roughened 

Hemileia 7: 585 
y. Spore cells alike smooth or rough 

(x) Teleutospores on a stalk Uromyces 7:531 

(y) Teleutospores not stalked 
m. Teleutospores connate in a lenliform layer 

fUromycodes 14:29c 
(Schroeteriaster) 
n. Teleutospores not connate Chaconia 14: 290 

(b) Uredospores in a pseudoperidium 

x. Teleutospore sorus determinate, black or dark-brown 

Melampsora 7:586 

(inch Phacopsora 14: 289) 
y. Teleutospore sorus indeterminate, pale or reddish 

Melampsorella 7:596 

(inch Hyalopsora 17:268) 
ti. Spore mass or sorus with a cylindric columella, more or le>s vertical, glo- 
bose to cylindric 



UREDINACEAE 09 

(i) Teleutospores mucose ; uredospores lacking 

Masseella 14: 292 
(2) Teleutospores not mucose; uredospores present 

(a) Uredospores in a pseudoperidium 

Cronartium 7:597 

(b) Uredospores not in a pseudoperidium 

Skierka 16: 271 

II. Teleutospores absent; pycnia, aecia or uredinia only 

1. Spores in a pseudoperidium or cup 

a. Spores in pycnia Aecidiolum 7:773 

b. Spores in aecia 

(1) Aecia cup-shaped, usually dentate or crenate at margin 

Aecidium 7: 774 

(2) Aecia cylindric, margin fimbriate 

Roestelia 7: 833 

(3) Aecia irregular, more or less globose 

(a) Spores catenate; on conifers Peridermium 7: 835 

(b) Spores free; not on conifers Pericladium 7: 838 

2. Spores not in a pseudoperidium ; uredinia 

a. Spores single Uredo 7:838 

b. Spores catenate Caeoma 7:863 

Didymosporae 

Teleutospores 2-celled, colored or hyaline 

I. Teleutospores absent; aecia alone present 

Aecidiella 14: 389 

II. Teleutospores present 

1. Sori horizontal 

a. Teleutospores catenate, in a pseudoperidium 

fDidymosira 11:205 
(Pucciniosira) 

b. Teleutospores single 

(1) Teleutospores not in a pseudoperidium 

(a) Teleutospores subpenicillate at each end 

Dasyspora 9: 313 

(b) Teleutospores not penicillate 

x. Pedicel of spore with a hyaline gelatinous sheath 

fColeoma 9: 313 
(Coleopuccinia) 
y. Pedicel without gelatinous sheath 

(x) Teleutospores longitudinally i-septate 

Diorchidium 7:736 
(y) Teleutospores transversely i-septate 
m. Teleutospores with a hyaline integument 

Uropyxis 7: 735 
n. Teleutospores without hyaline integument 



ioo UREDIXACEAE 

(m) Spore cells with germination pores 

Puccinia 7: 600 

(inc. Trichopsora, Chrysopsora 
11:206, Gymnoconia 14:360) 
(n) Spore cells without germination pores 

Leptinia 14: 358 
(2) Teleutospores in a pseudoperidinm 

Schizospora 14:361 

2. Sori vertical 

a. Teleutospores confluent into a gelatinous stratum 

Gymnosporangium 7:737 

b. Teleutospores closely joined in a columella 

(1) Spores catenate Gambleola 16: 314 

(2) Spores not catenate Didymopsora 16:315 

Phragmosporae 

Teleutospores 2-several-septate 

I. Teleutospores not in a pseudoperidium 

1. Teleutospores transversely septate 

a. Teleutospores catenate tPhragmostele 16: 321 

b. Teleutospores not catenate (Pucciniostele) 

(1) Uredospores not catenate 

(a) Teleutospores cylindric ; cells separating with difficulty 

Phragmidium 7: 742 

(inch Phragmopyxis 14:361, Ro- 
strupia, Barclayella 9:316) 

(b) Teleutospores moniliform ; cells separating easily 

Xenodochus 7:750 

(2) Uredospores catenate, at least at first 

(a) Wall of teleutospore thick; promycelium simple with a single sporidi- 

ole at apex Coleosporium 7:751 

(inch Stichopsora 16:318) 

(b) Wall of teleutospore thin; promycelium 3-septate, with a sporidiole at 

each cell Chrysomyxa 7:759 

2. Teleutospores longitudinally or obliquely septate 

a. Teleutospores developed within the host cells 

(1) Uredospores in a pseudoperidium; homoecieus 

Thecopsora 7:764 

(2) Uredospores lacking : heteroecious 

Calyptospora 7:766 

b. Teleutospores developed outside the host cells 

Pucciniastrum 7:762 

1!. Teleutospores in a pseudoperidium 

1. Teleutospores catenate, verrucose Endophyllum 7:767 

2. Teleutospores not catenate, echinulate Milesia 7:768 

(inch Uredinopsis 17: 269) 



USTILAGINACEAE 101 

Dictyosporae 

Teleutospores septate in two directions, or muriform 

I. Teleutospores more or less radiately 3-septate 

Triphragmium 7 : 768 
(incl. Hapalophragmium 16: 1121) 

II. Teleutospores radiately 4-many-septate or muriform 

Ravenelia 7: 770 

(incl. Sphaerophragmium 11 : 209, 
Alveolaria 11:212, Hemileiop- 
sis 16:269, Anthomyces 16:325, 
Pleoravenelia and Neoravene- 
lia, 17:407) 

Family 59. USTILAGINACEAE 

7:449, 9:282, 11:230, 14:410, 16:367, 17:47-? 

Mycelium growing widely through parts of living plants, chiefly flowers and 
fruits, finally disappearing, leaving the mass of spores ; spores producing upon 
germination a promycelium upon which sporidioles are borne. 

Amerosporae 

Spores i-celled 

I. Sori without a fungal involucre 

1. Sporidioles typically pleurogenous on the promycelium 

a. Spores arising from a compact subgelatinous stroma 

Cintractia 7: 480 

b. Spores not arising from a compact subgelatinous stroma 

Ustilago 7:451 

(incl. Anthracoidea 14:420) 

2. Sporidioles many, acrogenous, crowning the promycelium 

a. Sori powdery at maturity 

(1) Sporidioles many, in a capitulum Neovossia 16:375 
(2) Sporidioles not in a capitulum Tilletia 7: 481 

b. Sori not powdery at maturity 

(1) Spores catenate, then separating Sirentyloma 14:425 

(2) Spores not catenate 

(a) Spores rostrate Rhamphospora 9:287 

(b) Spores not rostrate 
x. In stems and leaves 

(x) Sori pustulate, pale or rust-brown 

Entyloma 7: 487 

(y) Sori explanate, widely expanded, black 

Melanotaenium 7:496 
y. In roots 

(x) Spores conglobate in spheroid cysts 

Oedomyces 11:234 

(y) Spores not conglobate Entorrhiza 7:497 



102 USTILAGINACEAE 

z. In ovaries fUstilaginula 7:498 

(Ustilagopsis) 

II. Sori with a fungal involucre 

1. Spores in a powdery mass Sphacelotheca 7:499 

2. Spores in a hard black crust Melanopsichium 17:484 

Didymosporae 

Spores united by twos or 2-celled 

J. Spore-bearing hyphae tubular, enclosed in a stroma 

Mycosyrinx 17:484 
II. Spore-bearing hyphae not in a stroma 

1. Spores joined laterally by a narrow isthmus; sporidioles pleurogenous 

Schizonella 7: 500 

2. Spores joined horizontally and broadly; sporidioles acrogenous 

Schroeteria 7: 500 

Dictyosporae 

Spores closely joined in masses, the latter appearing to be many-celled spores 

I. Spores or cells of each mass alike 

1. Sporidioles pieurogenous or acrogenous; usually not foliicole 

a. Promycelium simple Tolyposporium 7: 501 

b. Promycelium branched Tolyposporella 14:427 

2. Sporidioles acrogenous, typically foliicole 

a. Sporidioles numerous 

(1) Spore masses covered by a layer of sterile cells 

Doassansia 7: 502 
(inch Cornuella, Burrillia 1 1 : 236) 

(2) Spore masses without a sterile layer 

Tuburcinia 7: 507 

b. Sporidioles solitary ; sori reddish, usually f ructicole 

Thecophora 7:507 

3. Sporidioles unknown ; sori mostly very black 

Sorosporium 7:511 

(inch Poecilosporium 16:380) 

II. Spores or cells of two kinds in each mass, central few large, peripheral many, 

small 

1. Sori of many sacks containing spore masses 

Polysaccopsis 16:381 

2. Sori without sacks Urocystis 7:515 

Class 5. BASIDIOMYCETES 

Spores produced on basidia, not inclosed in asci. 

Order 14. AGARICALES (HYMENOMYCETES) 
Basidia exposed on an even or modified hymenium, the latter usually in the 
form of gills, pores or teeth. 



TREMELLACEAE 103 

Family 60. TREMELLACEAE 

6:760, 9:257, 11:142, 14:244. 16:215, 17:203 
Pileus typically gelatinous and homogeneous, horny when dry, reviving when 
wet, sometimes waxy or leathery but then with divided basidia ; hymenium typically 
amphigenous or superior, smooth or somewhat convolute ; basidia globose to terete, 
transversely or longitudinally divided, or in one subfamily merely terete-clavate 
and furcate, 1-4-sterigmate ; spores globose to reniform and oblong, continuous 
or septate, producing sporidioles on germination ; conidia often present with the 
spores. Some gelatinous forms included in the following families on account of 
the character of the hymenium seem to belong properly in this family. 

Subfamily Auriculariae 

Basidia transversely septate, elongate or fusoid 

I. Pileus, or at least the hymenium, gelatinous 
1. Entire pileus gelatinous 

a. Pileus verruciform or effuse 

(1) Basidia mixed with paraphyses Mylittopsis 14:246 

(2) Basidia without paraphyses 

(a) Spores not producing sporidioles on germination 

Platygloea 6: 771 

(b) Spores producing sporidioles Helicogloea 11:145 

b. Pileus disciform, cupulate or columnar 

(1) Pileus erect, filiform, columnar Eucronartium 17:211 

(2) Pileus not columnar, disciform or cupulate 

(a) Basidia without sterigmata Auriculariella 6: 437 

(b) Basidia with sterigmata 

x. Basidia 2-sterigmate ; pileus applanate 

Phlebophora 16:215 
y. Basidia 3-4-sterigmate ; pileus pezizoid 

fCollopezis 16:216 
(Tjibodasia) 
2. Pileus coriaceous or membranous, hymenium gelatinous 

a. Pileus coriaceous ; hymenium reticulate-costate 

Auricularia 6: 762 

b. Pileus membranous ; hymenium smooth or plicate 

Hirneola 6: 764 
[I. Pileus waxy, crust-like or byssoid 

1. Pileus waxy or crust-like 

a. Pileus very minute, disciform, on a pedicel 

Pilacrella 14: 246 

b. Pileus membranous, incrusting Jola 14:24c 

2. Pileus byssoid 

a. Basidia without a sac near the base Stypinella 14:244 

b. Basidia with a sack near the base Saccoblastia 14:244 

Subfamily Tremellae 
Basidia longitudinally 4-divided. or cruciate, globose or ovoid 
I. Spores alone present, i. e., homosporous 



104 TREMELLACEAE 

1. Pileus waxy or byssoid 

a. Pileus waxy, scarcely gelatinous 

(i) Pileus effuse Protomerulius 11:142 

(2) Pileus cupulate or concave Hirneolina 17:208 

b. Pileus byssoid Stypella 14: 246 

2. Pileus gelatinous 

a. Pileus covered with sterile setae, effuse 

Heterochaete 14: 247 

b. Pileus without sterile setae 

( 1 ) Pileus erect, clavate, columnar or spatulate 

(a) Pileus clavate, simple or branched 

Clavariopsis 16:219 
(inch Hyaloria 14: 252) 

(b) Pileus spatulate, large, simple Gyrocephalus 6: 795 
(2) Pileus effuse, globose, cupulate or pulvinate 

(a) Spores i-celled 

x. Pileus cupulate, radicate Femsjonia 6: 779 

y. Pileus pulvinate or effuse 

( y ) Basidia in chains ; hymenium not cerebriform 

Sirobasidium 14:248 
( y ) Basidia not in chains ; hymenium cerebriform 

Tremella 6: 780 

(inc. Naematelia 6: 792) 

(b) Spores 2-4-celled, at least upon germination, reniform 

x. Spores 2-4-celled, sporidioles allantoid ; pileus truncate-cupulate or 

effuse Exidia 6: 772 

y. Spores 2-celled, sporidioles straight ; pileus pulvinate, gyrose 

Ulocolla 6: 777 
II. Spores and conidia present, i. e., heterosporous 

1. Pileus ascending and dendroid f Collodendrum 17:208 

(Tremellodendron) 

2. Pileus effuse to pulvinate 

a. Spores on the disk, conidia on the exciple 

Craterocolla 6: 778 

b. Conidia and spores usually succeeding each other on the same area 

(1) Pileus cerebriform, pulvinate or effuse 

Tremella 6: 780 

(2) Pileus not cerebriform. crust-like 

1.1) Spores reniform, conidia ovoid Sebacina 6:540 
(b) Spores ovoid, conidia hamate Exidiopsis 14:248 

Subfamily Dacryomycetae 

Basidia terete-clavate, furcate above 

I. Pileus effuse, pulvinate or globose, typically sessile 
1. Spores septate, at least upon germination 

a. Pileus gyrose : spores not horseshoe-shaped 

Dacryorr.yces 6: 796 

b. Pileus tuberculiform : spores horseshoe-shaped 

Delortia 6: 795 



CLAVARIACEAE I05 

2. Spores not septate 

a. Spores hyaline; pileus more or less effuse, waxy 

Arrhytidia 6: 804 

(incl. Ceracea 6:805) 

b. Spores colored; pileus subglobose Seismosarca 9: 260 

II. Pileus cupulate, clavate or foliose, typically stalked 

1. Pileus irregularly cup-shaped, usually stipitate 

a. Pileus gelatinous or cartilaginous, cupulate 

Guepinia 6: 805 

b. Pileus leathery, hymenium gelatinous, cupulate-disciform 

Ditiola 6:813 

2. Pileus erect, foliose-lobed -fTremellastrum 17: 193 

(Tremellopsis) 

3. Pileus capitate to lanceolate, stipitate 

a. Pileus capitate, head inflated, corrugate; stipe hollow 

(1) Homosporous Collyria 6:811 

(2) Heterosporous Dacryopsis 11:149 

b. Pileus clavate, club plicate Dacryomitra 6:811 

c. Pileus lanceolate, hanging Myxomycidium 16:220 

Family 61. CLAVARIACEAE 

6:690, 9:247. 11:134, 14:235. 16:203, 18:193 

Hymenium not discrete from the hymenophore, amphigenous ; pileus more or 
less clavate or coralloid, subcarnose or leathery, simple or branched. 

I. Pileus with many crowded, leaf-like branches 

Sparassis 6: 690 

II. Branches not leaf-like 

1. Pileus fleshy 

a. Branches fibrous-splitting Acurtis 6:691 

b. Branches not splitting Clavaria 6:692 

(incl. Phaeoclavulina 14:238) 

2. Pileus leathery, rarely subgelatinous 

a. Pileus somewhat gelatinous 

(1) Pileus capitate; cap hollow, inflated 

Baumanniella 14:244 

(2) Pileus clavate or coralloid Calocera 6:732 

b. Pileus leathery 

(1) Pileus tomentose Lachnocladium 6:738 

(2) Pileus not tomentose 

(a) Pileus terete or compressed, dry, cartilaginous 

Pterula 6: 740 

(incl. Phaeopterula 17:201) 

(b) Pileus simple, filiform or capitate 

Hirsutella 11: 140 
x. Pileus capitate, inflated Physalacria 6:759 

v. Pileus more or less filiform 



106 THELEPHORACEAE 

(x) Pileus clavulate with filiform stipe 

Typhula 6: 743 
(y) Pileus linear or subclavate ; stipe short or none 

Pistillaria 6: 752 

Family 62. THELEPHORACEAE 
6: 513, 9: 218, 11:115, 14 : -'12, 16: 181, 18: 160 

Hymenium inferior or amphigenous, leathery, waxy or membranous, smooth, 
i. e., without spines, pores, etc., sometimes somewhat ridged, or cracked ; spores 
various. 
I. Xot parasitic on algae 

1. Pileus more or less gelatinous 

a. Pileus effuse 

(i) Spores hyaline Cerocorticium 16:196 

(2) Spores olivaceous Aldridgea 11:129 

b. Pileus convex to discoid Discocyphella 16:202 

2. Pileus not gelatinous 

a. Hymenium somewhat ridged or roughened 

(1) Hymenium subcarnose, infundibuliform, costate 

Craterellus 6: 514 

(2) Hymenium leathery 

(a) Hymenium woody, with radiating ridges, warty-roughened 

Cladoderris 6: 547 

(b) Hymenium similar, but with fan-like ridges 

Beccariella 6:550 

b. Hymenium smooth, or absent 
(1) Hymenium present, smooth 

(a) Hymenium without cystidia 
x. Pileus urn-shaped, stipitate Hypolyssus 6: 521 

y. Pileus typically crateritorm to dimidiate 
( x ) Pileus with distinct intermediate stratum 

Stereum 6: 551 
(y) Pileus homogeneous or nearly so 
m. Pileus vertical, beautifully convolute, mitriform 

Skepperia 6: 603 
n. Pileus not convolute 

(mi Basidia not transeptate Thelephora 6: 521 

(inch Friesula 6:685) 
(n) Basidia transeptate Septobasidium 11: 118 

z. Pileus resupirate, effuse, rarely cupulate 
( x ) Pileus not cupulate 
m. Hymenium waxy 

(mi Spores large, citriform Michenera 6: 652 
(n) Spores medium, not citriform 

Corticium 6: 603 

(inch Kneiffia 6:510) 
n. Hymenium fleshy, spores minute, colored 



THELEPHORACEAE— HYDNACEAE 107 

(m) Spores smooth Coniophora 6: 647 

(n) Spores angular or aculeate 

Prillieuxia 14: 225 
(y) Pileus cupulate or cylindric 
m. Pileus cupulate Cyphella 6: 667 

n. Pileus terete to cylindric Solenia 6: 424 

(b) Hymenium with cystidia 
x. Cystidia simple 

(x) Cystidia hyaline Peniophora 6:640 

(inch Coniophorella 17:183) 
(y) Cystidia colored Hymenochaete 6:588 

(inch Lloydiella 16: 11 16) 
y. Cystidia septate Bonia 11:123 

(2) Hymenium absent, or more or less cobwebby 

(a) Biogenous 

x. Hymenium endophytic Endobasidium 17: 190 
y. Hymenium erumpent 

(x) Basidia circinate Helicobasidium 6:666 
(y) Basidia not circinate 

m. Spores globose; on galls Urobasidum 11:131 

n. Spores cylindric; on roots *Chrysobasidium 11:131 

(Aureobasidium) 

o. Spores oblong; on leaves Exobasidium 6:664 

(b) Saprogenous 

x. Spores septate, fuscous Heterobasidium 9: 237 

y. Spores 1 -celled, hyaline 

(x) Brown stellate hyphae present 

Asterostroma 9:236 
(y) Brown stellate hyphae absent 
m. Basidia 4-spored Hypochnus 6: 653 

n. Basidia 2-spored Matruchotia 11:118 

(Cfr. Tulasnellaceae 14:234) 

II. Parasitic on algae 

1. Algae Chroococcus Cora 6:685 

2. Algae Scytonema Rhipidonema 6:687 

(Zahlbruckner 237) 

Family 63. HYDNACEAE 

6:429, 9:208, 11:106, 14:201, 16:174, 18:147 

Pileus cap-shaped to resupinate, fleshy, gelatinous, woody or leathery ; hymenium 
consisting of spines, teeth, or granules, rarely somewhat pore-like; spores various. 

I. Pileus more or less gelatinous 

1. Gelatinous, stalked or dimidiate ; with teeth 

Tremellodon 6:479 

2. Waxy-gelatinous, resupinate, with granules 

Grandiniella 14: 208 

II. Pileus fleshy, woody or leathery 

1. Hymenium of more or less subulate teeth or spines 



:o8 



HYDXACEAE— POLYPORACEAF. 



a. Pileus present 

(i) Perennial; woody 

(2) Xot perennial 

(a) Pileus clavaria-like 

(b) Pilous not clavaria-like 

x. Teeth free; mostly carnose 
( x I Pileus typically stalked 

(y) Pileus horizontal 



fHydnophysa 16: 177 
(Hydnofomes) 

Hericium 6: 478 



Hydnum 6: 430 

(incl. Echinodontium 16: 176) 
Sistotrema 6: 480 



y. Teeth connected at base ; coriaceous 



Irpex 6: 482 

Asterodon 11 : 111 
Hydnochaete 14:211 

Caldesiella 6: 477 
Mucronella 6: 512 



(x) Cystidia lacking 
(y) Cystidia present 
m. Cystidia subulate 
n. Cystidia stellate 
b. Pileus lacking 

(1) Teeth on a membranous subicle 

(2) Teeth without a subicle 
Hymenium of granules, warts or folds 

a. Hymenium of granules or warts 

(1) Hymenium with penicillate-multilid warts 

Odontia 6: 506 

(2) Hymenium with simple granules or warts 

(a) Hymenium porose-reticulate, granular 

Grammothele 6:505 

(b) Hymenium with difform, obtuse cylindric warts 

Radulum 6:493 

(incl. Phaeoradulum 16: 179) 

(c) Hymenium with globose hollowed granules 

Grandinia 6: 500 
b. Hymenium with folds or laminae 



(1) Hymenium with fold-like crests 

(a) Crests with edge entire 

(b) Crests with edge incised 

(2) Hymenium with anastomosing radiate laminae 

Thwaitesiella 11: 112 



Phlebia 6: 497 
Lopharia 6: 500 



Family 64. POLYPORACEAE 

6:1, 9:150. 11:70. 14:164. 16:138, 17:95 

Pileus cap-shaped, shelf-like, or resupinate, very rarely volvate or annulate, 
fleshy, leathery or woody, rarely gelatinous; hymenium consisting of pores, very rarely 
somewhat lamellar: spores typically i-celled, hyaline or colored. 
J. Pileus fleshy, putrescent, or gelatinous 
1. Pileus fleshy 
a. Stipe volvate or annulate 

(1) Stipe volvate fBoletium 14:164 

(Volvoboletus) 



POLYPORACEAE 109 

(2) Stipe annulate Boletopsis 14: 164 

b. Stipe not volvate or annulate 

(1) Stipe central, tubes usually not discrete from each other 

(a) Spores cylindric, minute f Bactroboletus 16: 142 

(Filoboletus) 

(b) Spores globose to fusoid 

x. Pileus and stipe beautifully squarrose-scaly 

Strobilomyces 6: 49 

y. Pileus and stipe not squarrose-scaly 

(x) Layer of tubes separating readily from the hymenophore 

Boletus 6: 2 

(incl. Suillus, Tylopilus 16: 142) 
(y) Layer of tubes not separating readily from the hymenophore 
m. Tubes not discrete from each other 

(m) Tubes radiate; hymenophore mucronate 

Boletinus 6: 51 
(n) Tubes sinuose or gyrose ; hymenophore smooth 

Gyrodon 6: 51 
n. Tubes discrete from each other 

Fistulinella 17: 101 

(2) Stipe lateral: tubes discrete from each other 

Fistulina 6: 54 
2. Pileus gelatinous 

a. Stalked ; spores brown 

(1) Pileus single Rodwaya 16:172 

(2) Pileus many, superimposed on the stipe 

Mycodendrum 9:206 

b. Mostly sessile; spores hyaline Laschia 6:404 
II. Pileus leathery, corky or woody, rarely tough-fleshy 

1. Tubes gelatinous Gloeoporus 6: 403 

2. Tubes not gelatinous 

a. Hymenium covered by a volva-like membrane 

Cryptoporus 17:125 

b. Hymenium not volvate 

(1) Tubes in several layers; perennial, woody 

Fomes 6: 150 

(2) Tubes not stratified in layers 
(a) Tubes typically pore-like 

x. Tube layer distinct but not separable from the hymenophore ; tough- 
fleshy to leathery 
(x) Pileus thick, tough-fleshy, stalked or sessile 

Polyporus 6: 55 

(incl. Laccocephalum 11:87) 
(y) Pileus thin, coriaceous or membranous 
m. Pileus stipitate to dimidiate 
(m) Tubes not spiny inside Polystictis 6:208 
(n) Tubes spiny inside Mucronoporus 9: 188 

n. Pileus resupinate Poria 6:292 



j I0 POLYPORACEAE— AGARICACEAE 

y. Tube layer not distinct from hymenophore ; tubes often unequally 
sunken 
(x) Pileus suberose ; typically sessile to resupinate 
in. Tubes subrotund Trametes 6: 334 

(incl. Sclerodepsis 9: 194) 
n. Tubes not round, or of two forms 

(m) Tubes of two forms, one normal, the other loculiform, en- 
closed Myriadoporus 6:384 
(n) Tubes alike, superficial 
r. Tubes hexagonal Hexagonia 6: 356 
s. Tubes sinuose-labyrinthine, elongate 

Daedalea 6: 370 
(y) Pileus leathery, membranous or waxy ; sessile 
m. Tubes immersed in discrete warts ; resupinate 

Porothelium 6:421 
n. Tubes not immersed in warts 

(m) Tubes with a papilla in the center 

Theloporus 6: 421 
(n) Tubes reticulate-gyrose, not papillate 

Merulius 6: 411 

(incl. Poroptyche 9: 206) 
(b) Tubes lamella-like (see Daedalea also) 
x. Tubes of many little laminae Bresadolia 6:388 

y. Tubes lamellose, in radiating series 

Favolus 6: 390 
z. Tubes really concentric lamellae Cyclomyces 6: 389 

Family 65. AGARICACEAE 

Pileus typically cap-shaped and stalked, rarely sessile and the hymenium above, 
fleshy to corky ; pileus sometimes enclosed in a cap veil which persists at the base 
of the stipe as a volva ; hymenium consisting of radiating lamellae or gills, often 
protected by a gill veil which remains on the stipe as a ring ; gills covered with 
basidia, bearing typically 4 sterigmata and spores; spores typically i-celled. hyaline 
or colored. 

Leucosporae 

5:8, 9:1, 11 : 1, 14:63, 16:1, 18:1 
Spores colorless, or very dilutely colored even in spore prints, globose to fusoid, 

smooth or rough 

I. Edge of the gills entire, not canaliculate or split 
1. Fleshy, putrescent, not reviving when wet 
a. Edge of the gills acute, not fold-like 

(1) Trama of the pileus not vesiculose ; spores typically smooth 
(a) Gills more or less fleshy, readily separable into two layers 
x. Stipe central or nearly so 

(x) Hymenophore discrete from the fleshy stipe 
m. Stipe volvate 



AGARICACEAE m 

(m) Stipe annulate Amanita 5:8 

(n) Stipe not annulate Amanitopsis 5: 20 

n. Stipe not volvate 

(m) Stipe annulate Lepiota 5:27 

(n) Stipe not annulate Schulzeria 5:72 

(y) Hymenophore homogeneous and confluent with the fleshy or fibrous- 
elastic stipe 
m. Stipe annulate, without a volva 

Armillaria 5 : 73 
n. Stipe not annulate or volvate 

(m) Gills adnate or sinuate, not decurrent 

Tricholoma 5: 87 
(n) Gills typically decurrent 

Clitocybe 5: 141 

(z) Hymenophore confluent with the cartilaginous stipe but hetero- 
geneous from it 
m. Gills not decurrent 

(m) Cap very thin, diaphanous 

Hiatula 5:305 
(n) CaD not diaphanous 
r. Margin of the young cap turned in 

Collybia 5: 200 
s. Margin of the young cap straight 

Mycena 5: 251 

(inch Eomycenella 17:21) 
n. Gills decurrent ; cap umbilicate 

Omphalia s: 308 
y. Stipe excentric or none Fleurotus 5:339 

(b) Gills waxy rather than fleshy, splitting with difficulty 

Hygrophorus 5:387 

(2) Trama of cap more or less vesiculose ; spores globose, spiny 

(a) Gills with milky, white or bright-colored sap 

Lactarius 5: 423 

(inch Lactariopsis 17:3°) 

(b) Gills wi.th clear sap, if any Russula 5:453 

b. Edge of gills obtuse or fold-like 

(1) Gills decurrent, dichotomous, somewhat waxy 

Cantharellus 5:482 

( j ) Gills not decurrent 

(a) Gills somewhat broad, obtuse Nyctalis 5=499 

(b) Gills thin or obsolete 
x. Gills thin 

(x) Gills vein-like, fleshy Arrhenia 5: 498 

(inch Campanella 14: ico, Rim- 
bachia 11: 32) 

. (y) Gills of two sorts, gelatinous 

Stylobates 5: 502 



ii2 AGARICACEAE 

y. Gills obsolete Cymatella 16: 49 

2. Fleshy-leathery, leathery, corky or woody, persistent, reviving when wet 

a. Fleshy-leathery or gelatinous-leathery 
(i) Gills distinct 

(a) Stipe discrete from the hymenophore 

x. Cap fleshy and tough or thin and leathery 

Marasmius 5: 503 

(incl. Marasmiopsis 14: 101) 
y. Cap gelatinous-leathery Heliomyces 5: 569 

(b) Stipe and hymenophore continuous 
X. Edge of gills acute 

(x) Edge serrate Lentinus 5:571 

(incl. Lentodium 14: 121, Lento- 
diopsis 17:47) 
(y) Edge entire Panus 5:614 

y. Edge of gills obtuse, gills dichotomous 

Xerotus 5: 630 
(2) Gills fold-like, edges canaliculate or crisp 

Trogia 5:635 

b. Corky 

(1) Gills distinct 

(a) Gills tomentose Tilotus 5:652 

(b) Gills smooth Lenzites 5:637 

(2) Gills line-like, parallel, fiexuous Hymenogramme 5:652 

II. Edge of gill split or appendiculate 

1. Fleshy 

a. Stipe central; edge of gills split Oudemansiella 5: 653 

b. Stipe lateral: edge with appendag 3 Pterophyllus 5: 654 

2. Membranous or coriaceous 

a. Membranous ; stipe central : gills split into flexuous fragments 

Rhacophyllus 5: 654 

b. Coriaceous ; stipe none or lateral ; edge split and revolute 

Schizophyllum 5:654 

Rhodosporae 
5 : 656. q : 82, 1 1 : 43, 14 : 124. 16 : 69, 18 : 52' 

Spores rosy, salmon-colored or rosy-rust-colored in spore prints, paler 

under the miscoscope 

I. Stipe central 

1. Hymenophore discrete from the stipe 

a. Stipe volvate at base 

(1) Stipe annulate also Metraria 9:82 

(2) Stipe not annulate Volvaria 5:656 

b. Stipe not volvate 

( 1) Stipe annulate Annularia 5:663 

(2) Stipe not annulate 

(a) Fleshy: gills free Pluteus 5:665 



AGARICACEAE 113 

(b) Tough; gills adnexed Schinzinia 11:44 

2. Hymenophore homogeneous and confluent with the stipe 

a. Gills decurrent 

(1) Stipe fleshy-fibrous Clitopilus 5: 698 

(2) Stipe cartilaginous Eccilia 5:729 

b. Gills adnexed, sinuate or free 

(1) Stipe fleshy-fibrous; gills sinuate Entoloma 5:679 

(2) Stipe cartilaginous; gills not sinuate 

(a) Cap convex; margin at first inflexed 

Leptonia 5: 706 

(b) Cap campanulate ; margin straight from the first 

Nolanea 5: 716 

3. Hymenophore continuous with the cartilaginous stipe, but different from it; 

volvate Volvariella 16: 70 

II. Stipe excentric or none; lignicole Claudopus 5:733 

Ochrosporae 

5 : 735. 9 : 90, 1 1 : 48, 14 : '3L 16 : 83, 18 : 62 
Spores ochraceous or more or less rust-colored 

I. Gills not separating readily or naturally from hymenophore 
I. Gill veil not cobwebby 

a. Stipe central 

(1) Stipe volvate or annulate 

(a) Stipe volvate Locellina 5: 761 

(b) Stipe annulate Pholidota 5: 736 

(incl. Pholiotella 9: 90") 

(2) Stipe not volvate or annulate 

(a) Gills not deliquescing 
x. Stipe fleshy 

(x) Gills adnate or decurrent Flammula 5: 809 

(y) Gills mostly sinuate 
m. Cap fibrillose, silky or scaly 

Inocybe 5: 762 
n. Cap smooth, more or less viscid 

Hebeloma 5: 791 
y. Stipe cartilaginous 

(x) Gills decurrent Tubaria 5:872 

(y) Gills not decurrent 
m. Margin of cap inflexed at first 

Naucoria 5: 828 
n. Margin of cap straight 

(m) Stipe discrete from hymenophore; gills free 

Pluteolus 5: 859 
(n) Stipe homogeneous with hymenophore 

Galera 5 : 860 

(b) Gills deliquescing Bolbitius 5: 1073 

b. Stipe excentric or none; lignicole Crepidotus 5:876 



ii 4 AGARICACEAE 

2: Gill veil cobwebby, hanging curtain-like from the margin, often disappearing 
completely with age Cortinarius 5: 889 

II. Gills separating readily from tbe hymenophore ; margin of cap persistently 
involute Paxillus 5: 983 

Melanosporae 

5:991, 9:136, 11:69, 14:149. 16:112, 18:82 

Spores purple, dark-purple to black 

I. Spores purple or dark-purple 

1. Hymenophore discrete from stipe 

a. Stipe volvate at base 

(1) Stipe annulate Chitoniella 14:149 

(2) Stipe not annulate fChitonis 5:992 

(Chitonia, Clarkeinda) 

b. Stipe not volvate 

(1) Stipe annulate Agaricus 5: 993 

(2) Stipe not annulate: gills free Pilosace 5:1010 

2. Hymenophore continuous with stipe 

a. Stipe annulate Stropharia 5:1012 

b. Stipe not annulate ; margin sometimes cortinate 

(1) Margin of cap cortinate; rarely subannulate 

Hypholoma 5: 1027 

(2) Margin not cortinate 

(a) Gills decurrent Deconica 5:1058 

(b) Gills not decurrent 

x. Margin of cap indexed at first Psilocybe 5: 1043 
y. Margin of cap straight Psathyra 5: 1060 

II. Spores dark or black, not purple 

1. Gills deliquescing Coprinus 5: 1078 

2. Gills not deliquescing 

a. Gills united above to the hymenophore 
(1) Cap fleshy, fleshy-waxy or membranous 

(a) Gills waxy; spores globose, spiny 

Phaeohygrocybe 17:81 

(b) Gills not waxy 

x. Margin of cap with a viscid cobwebby cortina 

Phaeolimacium 16: no 
y. Margin of cap not viscid-cortinate 
(x) Spores globose to elliptic 
m. Stipe annulate ; variegated gills exceeding the margin 

Anellaria 5: 1125 
n. Stipe not annulate 

(m) Cap fleshy, not striate; variegated gills exceeding the margin 

Panaeolus 5: 1118 
(n) Cap membranous, striate; uniform gills not exceeding the 
margin Psathyrella 5: 1126 



PHALLACEAE n5 

(y) Spores elongate, fusoid ; gills decurrent 

Gomphidius 5: 1137 
(2) Cap leathery-horny; spores minute, globose 

Anthracophyllum 5: 11 39 
b. Gills free above, not united to the hymenophore ; stipe dilated into a lamellar 
disk above Montagnites 5: 1140 



Order 15. LYCOPERDALES (GASTEROMYCETES) 

Typically terrestrial, sometimes lignicole or hypogaeous, fleshy, leathery or mem- 
branous; spores borne on basidia, in a receptacle or a peridium, continuous, hyaline 
or colored. 

Family 66. PHALLACEAE 

7:2,9:262, 11:153. 14:254, 16:224, 17:212 

Receptacle arising from a volva, bearing outside or inside the sporiferous pulp 
or gleba, stalk-like, pileiform, or sessile and more or less clathrate 

I. Gleba covering the outside of receptacle; receptacle stalk-like, pileate or appendaged 

1. Receptacle pileate; gleba on outer surface of pileus 

a. Stalk with an appendage below the pileus 

(1) Appendage net-like; volva smooth Dictyophora 7:3 

(2) Appendage collar-like; volva aculeate 

Echinophallus 16:226 

b. Stalk without an appendage 

(1) Upper part of volva remaining with pileus, and enclosing the gleba 

Cryptophallus 14: 254 

(2) Upper part of volva not enclosing gleba at maturity 

Ithyphallus 7: 8 

(inch Alboffiella 16:227) 

2. Receptacle without hanging pileus; gleba borne directly on the apex of the 

stalk-like receptacle 

a. Receptacle without appendages 

(1) Receptacle floccose Floccimutinus 14: 255 

(2) Receptacle not floccose Mutinus 7:12 

(inch Aporophallus Itajahya 
11.: 153, Jansia 16: 226) 

b. Receptacle or gleba with coralloid processes 

Kalchbrennera 7: 14 

II. Gleba on the inside of the hollow receptacle, which is clathrate or lobed 

1. Receptacle hollow and clathrate, or formed of a few vertical branches joined 
at the apex 
a. Receptacle stalked 

(1) Gleba dimorphous, apex with sterile radiate laminae, lower part with 

convolute subclathrate lobes Dictyobole 17: 213 

(2) Gleba not dimorphous 

(a) Receptacle hollow-clathrate, stalked 



u6 LYCOPERDACEAE 

x. Openings polygonal Simblum 7: 16 

y. Openings vertically elongate Colus7:2i 

(b) Receptacle of thin anastomosing branches, stipitiform at base 

Clathrella 16: 228 
b. Receptacle sessile 

(1) Hollow-clathrate, or of a few united vertical branches 

Clathrus 7: 18 

(2) Radiately loculate witbin Protubera 11 : 155 
2. Receptacle divided above into free laciniae or lobes 

a. Receptacle expanded above into a horizontal border which is laciniate at 

the margin Aseroe7:25 

b. Receptacle divided directly into lobes 

(1) Lobes distinct from stalk in structure and color 

(a) Lobes without winged appendages 

Lysurus 7: 22 

(b) Lobes with membranous winged appendages 

Blumenavia 11:154 

(2) Lobes like the stalk in structure and color 
(a) Receptacle spheric, lobes contiguous 

Phallogaster 11: 155 
(hi Receptacle elongate or cupulate : lobes more or less spreading 
x. Lobes sporiferous Anthurus7:23 

y. Lobes not sporiferous Calathiscus 7:24 

Family 67. LYCOPERDACEAE 

7:48, 9:266, 11:157, 14^57, 16:230. 17: 217 

Epigaeous, rarely hypogaeous or lignicole, peridium usually globose to pyriform, 
sessile or stipitate, membrano-coriaceous, furnished with a mouth or opening ir- 
regularly, enclosing a more or less powdery, often floccose, gleba ; spores globose 
to ellipsoid, hyaline or colored, smooth or rough. 

1. Peridium more or less completely traversed by a continuation of the stipe, i. e., 
a columella; gleba lamellate or with membranous septa or more or less uniform 

Subfamily Podaxae 

1. Gleba lamellate; capillitium none; peridium turbinate 

Gyrophragmium 7:51 

2. Gleba not lamellate, more or less divided by anastomosing septa, or uniform 

a. Gleba with septa 

(1) Capillitium none: stipe central, not volvate, short 

(a) Peridium with broad false radiate lamellae beneath 

Elasmomyces 14:258 

(b) Peridium without lamellae beneath 

Secotium 7: 51 

(2) Capillitium present, filamentous; stipe volvate 

Polyplocium 7: 55 

b. Gleba without septa or locules ; capillitium copious 

(1) Peridium subscssile : columella free, not touching the apex of the peridium 
(a) Epigaeous 



LYCOPERDACEAE 117 

x. Columella cup-shaped; exopericlium areolate 

Cycloderma 7: 56 
y. Columella obturbinate ; exoperidium splitting into lobes 

Geasteropsis 17:229 
(b) Hypogaeous ; spores subfusoid Mesophellia 7: 56 
(2) Peridium stipitate ; columella touching the apex of the peridium 

(a) Peridium splitting longitudinally, or laterally lacerate 
x. Peridium opening lengthwise by valves 

Chaenoderma 9: 268 
y. Peridium laterally lacerate Cauloglossum 7:57 

(b) Peridium opening horizontally or circularly 
x. Peridium opening around the stipe 

Podaxon 7: 58 

y. Peridium opening circularly around the middle 

f Sphaerocybis 7: 60 
(Sphaericeps) 

II. Peridium typically without a columella, with exo- and endoperidium ; gleba 
floccose, rarely septate Subfamily Geasterae 

1. Peridium stalked 

a. Inner peridium alone persistent 

(1) Peridium fixed to stipe, with distinct mouth 

Tylostoma 7:60 

(2) Peridium easily separable from stipe; mouth none 

Queletia 7: 65 

b. Both peridial layers persistent 

(1) Exoperidium forming a volva about the stipe 

(a) Endoperidium convex ; spores on upper surface 

Battarea 7: 65 

(b) Endoperidium hemispheric; spores within 

f Podoloma 17: 223 
(Battareopsis) 

(2) Exoperidium not volvate ; inner peridium with a mouth 

(a) Endoperidium with plicate-sulcate mouth; capillitium copious 

Husseya 7:67 

(b) Endoperidium suspended free in cavity of exoperidium, mouth with 

bright-colored scales Mitromyces 7: 68 

2. Exoperidium sessile, typically stellate-laciniate, containing 1 or more endoperidia 
a. Endoperidium one 

(1) Spores borne on the inside 

(a) Exoperidium closed Diploderma 7: 92 

(b) Exoperidium opening stellately or circularly 
x. Exoperidium stellate 

(x) Endoperidium dehiscent, usually by a mouth ; capillitium present 

Geaster 7: 70 

(y) Endoperidium indehiscent ; capillitium none 

Stella 9: 272 



n8 LYCOPERDACEAE 

y. Exoperidium cup-shaped, mouth minute, ciliate 

Diplocystis 7: 92 
(2) Spores home on the outside of endoperidium ; stellate 

Trichaster 7: 93 

b. Endoperidia several 

(1) Mycelium crust-like; capillitium not hollow 

Broomeia 7: 93 

(2) Mycelium not crust-like : capillitium hollow 

Coelomyces 7: 94 

III. Peridium without a columella; exoperidium lacking or consisting of a papery 

or spiny cortex ; gleba floccose Subfamily Lycoperdae 

1. Peridium with a distinct, stalk-like sterile base: exoperidium spiny or warty 

Lycoperdon 7: 106 

2. Peridium without sterile base ; gleba fertile throughout 

a. Peridium sessile or nearly so 

(1) Capillitium a dense elastic mass discrete from the peridium 

(a) Peridium persistent Lanopila7:g5 

(b) Peridium falling away Eriosphaera 7: 96 
( _' 1 Capillitium not dense elastic and discrete 

(a) Peridium persistent 

x. Mouth at apex, or lacking Eovista 7:96 

y. Mouth at base when in the ground 

Catastoma 11 : 165 

(b) Peridium entirely falling away Lycoperdopsis 16:243 

b. Peridium stipitate : exoperidium dehiscing above along undulating folds 

Calvatia 7: 105 

IV. Peridium without columella; gleba with cell-like spaces, often containing 

sporangioles, or powdery Subfamily Sclerodermatae 

1. Gleba without sporangioles, finally powdery 

a. Peridium none ; gleba naked, subcylindric 

Gymnoglossum 11:158 

b. Peridium present, enclosing the gleba 
(1) Peridium sessile or nearly so 

(a) Peridium not dehiscent 

x. Gleba reticulate-veined, hard Corditubera 14:265 

y. Gleba not reticulate-veined, somewhat floccose 

(x) Spores globose Hippoperdon 7: 133 

(y) Spores fusiform Castoreum 7: 142 

(b) Peridium dehiscent stellately or irregularly 

Scleroderma 7: 134 



(2) Peridium stalked 
(a) Peridium not dehiscent, clavate fCorynogaster 14: 266 



(b) Peridium dehiscent 



(inch Caloderma 16:243) 

!orynogaster 1 
(Clavogaster) 



LYCOPERDACEAE— HYMENOGASTRACEAE 119 

x. Peridium clavate, splitting above and entirely disappearing 

Favillea 7: 146 
y. Peridium globoid, not entirely disappearing 

(x) Stipe hollow; peridium dehiscing irregularly, or rimose 

Phellorina 7: 145 
(y) Stipe not hollow 
m. Peridium many-lobed ; stipe fibrous-woody 

Xylopodium 7:143 
n. Peridium reticulately dehiscent ; stipe solid 

Areolaria 7: 144 
2. Gleba containing numerous sporangioles 

a. Sporangioles fleshy or gelatinous 

(1) Peridium stipitate ; stipe with persistent cupulate volva 

Dictyocephalus 17:238 

(2) Peridium not volvate, sessile or with stipe-like base 

(a) Parasitic in glumes; peridium not dehiscent 

Testicularia 7:150 

(b) Terrestrial or parasitic on roots 

x. Peridium with sterile stipe-like base, mucose-cellular within 

Polysaccum 7: 146 

y. Peridium sessile, fleshy-cellular within 

Polygaster 7: 146 

b. Sporangioles membranous, not fleshy or gelatinous 

(1) Peridium corky; sporangioles round 

Arachnium 7: 150 

(2) Peridium membranous ; sporangioles cylindric, gyrose 

Scoleciocarpus 7:151 

(3) Peridium hard; sporangioles large, flexuous 

Paurocotylis 7: 152 

Family 68. HYMENOGASTRACEAE 

7:154, 9:280, 11:168, 14:267, 16:245, 17:239 

Typically subterranean, very rarely epigaeous, mycelium often persistent; peridi- 
um not opening at maturity, wall occasionally lacking, more or less globose; gleba 
fleshy or gelatinous, putrescent, more or less cellular or loculate, capillitium none. 

I. Peridium wall present, distinct 

1. Peridium easily separating from the gleba 

a. Peridium volvate 

(1) Peridium silky, reticulate-sulcate ; volva gelatinous 

Clathrogaster 16:250 

(2) Peridium waxy-gelatinous, not sulcate 

Torrendia 17:241 

b. Peridium not volvate 

(1) Peridium vertical, elongate-cylindric ; basidia 2-spored 

Protoglossum 11:158 

(2) Peridium more or less globose 



120 HWMEXOGASTRACEAE— NIDULARIACEAE 

(a) Endosporiuin and cxosporium separated by a -hyaline mucus 

Leucogaster 9: 281 

(b) Endosporium and exosporium contiguous 
x. Spores elliptic to lanceolate, smooth 

Hysterangium 7: 155 
y. Spores globose, rough or spiny 

(x) Peridium lanate; basidia usually 7-spored 

Sclerogaster 11:169 
(y) Peridium not lanate; basidia 3-4-spored 
m. Gleba with a sterile base, radicate 

Octaviania 7: 158 
n. Gleba without a sterile base, not radicate 

Martellia 16: 252 
2. Peridium separating from the gleba with difficulty or not at all 

a. Peridium covered with thread-like masses of mycelium 

(1) Spores hyaline Rhizopogon 7: 161 

(2) Spores colored Melanogaster 7: 164 

b. Peridium without thread-like masses of mycelium 

(1) Spores spiny 

(a) Gleba percurrent by a columella 

Arcangeliella 16:255 

(b) Gleba without a columella Hydnangium 7: 175 

(2) Spores not spiny, smooth, verrucose, rugose, etc. 

(a) Gleba with branching columella and sterile base 

Dendrogaster 17:240 

(b) Gleba without columella or sterile base 

Hymenogaster 7: 168 

(inch Chamonixia, Leucophleps 
16: 251) 

II. Peridium wall lacking 

1. Hypogaeous 

a. Spores elliptic, striate-sulcate Gautiera 7: 177 

b. Spores globose, spiny or warty Gymnomyces 16:249 

2. Epigaeous; spores globose, warty Macowanites 7:179 

Family 69. NIDULARIACEAE 
7 : _>S. 9: 265, 1 1 : 156. 14 : 256. 16 : _'-"). 17: -'14 
Epigaeous. fimicole or lignicole. funnel-shaped to cup-shaped, leathery, con- 
taining one to many k-ntiform or globoid sporangioles, the latter attached by a cord 
to the wall of the peridium ; spores elliptic, smooth. 

I. Peridium single 

1. Peridium with several to many sporangioles 

a. Peridium torn at the apex in opening Nidularia 7:28 

b. Peridium opening by a deciduous membrane 
(1) Sporangioles attached to wall by a cord 

(a) Spores mixed with filaments; peridium of three united layers 

Cyathus 7: 32 



PHOMATACEAE 121 

(b) Spores not mixed with filaments; peridium of a single cottony layer 

Crucibulum 7: 43 
(2) Sporangioles densely crowded in a glutinous substance 

Nidula 17: 215 
2. Peridium with a single gelatinous sporangiole 

Dacryobolus 7:45 

II. Peridium double, outer stellate, inner with a single viscous sporangiole 

Sphaerobolus 7: 46 

FUNGI IMPERFECTI 

Secondary or propagative stages of other fungi, largely Ascomycetes, charac- 
terized by the presence of conidia borne in perithecia-like or disk-like structures, on 
a stroma, or on a mycelial mass. Many of these forms have been connected by means 
of experiment with the corresponding perfect stage, but the vast majority of them 
are found alone in nature. 

Order 16. PHOMATALES (Sphaeropsideae Sacc. 3:1) 

Conidia borne on simple or branched threads, so-called basidia, in pycnidia ; 
pycnidia globose, conic, elongate, dimidiate, disk-shaped or cup-shaped, membranous, 
carbonous, coriaceous or somewhat fleshy, usually black, sometimes bright-colored. 

Family 70. PHOMATACEAE (Sphaerioidaceae 3:1) 

Pycnidia globose, conic or lens-like, membranous, carbonous or subcoriaceous, 
black, immersed or superficial, separate or in a stroma ; conidia from 1 to many- 
celled, hyaline or dark. 

Hyalosporae 

3:1, 10: 100, 11 : 472, 14: 844, 16: 825, 18: 220 

Conidia i-celled, hyaline, globose, ovoid or oblong, often curved 

I. Pycnidia separate 
1. Pycnidia smooth 

a. Pycnidia borne in discolored areas, i. e., maculicole 

Phyllosticta 3:3 

b. Pycnidia not maculicole 

(1) Conidia single, not in chains 

(a) Conidia muticate, not ciliate or trigonous 
x. Subicle none 

(x) Pycnidia muticate or papillate, not rostrate or cylindric 
m. Pycnidia erumpent or immersed 
(m) Basidia i-spored, mostly short 
r. Pycnidia papillate 
(r) Growing on lichens 

Lichenosticta 16:851 
(s) Not lichenicole 
h. Basidia hamate Phomopsis 18:264 



122 PHOMATACEAE 

i. Basidia not hamate 

(h) Conidia less than 15 m 

Phoma 3: 65 
(i) Conidia 15 m or more long 

Macrophoma 10: 189 
s. Pycnidia astomous or irregularly dehiscent 
(r) Pycnidia subcarnose, sclerotioid 
h. Conidia obtuse at both ends 

Plenodomus 3: 184 
i. Conidia acute at both ends 

Sclerotiopsis 3: 184 
(s) Pycnidia carbonous, circumscissile 

Piptostomum 3: 183 

(n) Basidia several-spored, branched 

Dendrophoma 3: 178 
n. Pycnidia superficial 

(m) Pycnidia dense in asteroma-like spots 

Asteromella 3: 182 
(n) Pycnidia not in such spots 
r. Pycnidia globose or nearly so 
(r) Basidia short, straight 

Aposphaeria 3: 169 
(s) Basidia beautifully circinate 

Pyrenotrichum 3: 184 
(t) Basidia none Mycogala 3: 185 

s. Pycnidia turbinate, carnose 

Crocicreas 3: 183 
(y) Pycnidia rostrate or cylindric 
m. Pycnidia globose, rostrate 

Sphaeronaema 3: 185 
n. Pycnidia cylindric Glutinium 11:500 

y. Subicle present 

(x) Subicle white, cobwebby Cicinnobolus 3:216 

(inch Byssocystis 11:502) 
(y) Subicle dark 
m. Subicle usually radiate Asteroma 3:201 

11. Subicle not radiate Chaetophoma 3: 199 

(b) Conidia ciliate, forked or angled 
x. Conidia ciliate at apex 

(x) Apex i-ciliate Strasseria 18: 284 

(y) Apex several-ciliate Neottiospora 3: 216 

y. Conidia forked or angled 

(x) Conidia Y-like; subicle present 

Ypsilonia 3: 215 
(y) Conidia trigonous Trigonosporium 16:892 

(2) Conidia in chains 



HYALOSPORAE 

(a) Chains of spores simple or nearly so 

Sirococcus 3: 217 

(b) Chains of spores connected, often net-like 

Peckia 3: 217 
2. Pycnidia with hairs or bristles 

a. Bristles stellate; conidia ovoid Staurochaeta 3:218 

b. Bristles simple 

(1) Basidia usually simple, conidia fusoid 

Vermicularia 3: 221 

(2) Basidia usually branched, conidia oblong 

Pyrenochaeta 3:219 

II. Pycnidia in a stroma 

I. Stroma globose, conic or valsa-like 

a. Conidia in chains *Sirodothis 

b. Conidia single 

(1) Stroma globose, conic or pulvinate 

(a) Stroma more or less globose or pulvinate 

x. Stroma unilocular Dothiopsis 10:228 

y. Stroma several- or many-locular 
(x) Pycnidia distinct 
m. Pycnidia aggregate in a basal stroma 

Dothiorella 3: 235 
n. Pycnidia more deeply immersed 
(m) Necks not joined in one ostiole 

Lamyella 11: 510 
(n) Necks joined in a single ostiole 

Torsellia 11: 510 
Cy) Pycnidia merely locules in the stroma 
m. Locules several, not numerous 

Rabenhorstia 3: 243 
n. Locules very numerous Fuckelia 3 : 244 

(b) Stroma conic-truncate, conidia bacillar 

Ceuthospora 3:277 

(2) Stroma valsa-like 

(a) Conidia fusoid or bacillar Fusicoccum 3:247 

(b) Conidia allantoid Cytospora 3:252 

(c) Conidia globose or ovoid Cytosporella 3:251 
2. Stroma applanate, effuse or linear 

a. Stroma linear, conidia connate in fours 

Gamosporella 10:238 

b. Stroma applanate or effuse 

(1) Growing on leaves and stems Placosphaeria 3:244 

(2) Growing on fungi Anthracoderma 10:238 

Of Uncertain Position. 
Manginia 18:266. a Phoma with micro- and macropycnidia 



124 PHOMATACEAE 

Phaeosporae 
3:291, 10:251, 11:511. 14:919, 16:005, 18:302 
Conidia r-celled, dark, globose, ovoid or oblong 

I. Pycnidia separate 

1. Pycnidia witbout mycelium or subicle 

a. Pycnidia smooth, not hairy 

(1) Conidia in chains, globose Sirothecium 10:270 

(2) Conidia not in chains 

(a) Pycnidia sessile, spheroid 

x. Pycnidia beaked Naemosphaera 10: 259 

y. Pycnidia not beaked 

(x) Pycnidia with a distinct orbicular locule 

Hypocenia 3: 320 
(y) Pycnidia without such a locule 
m. Conidia on long basidia 

(m) Pycnidia thin, white-lacerate at top 

Harknessia 3: 320 
(n) Pycnidia subcarbonous, not lacerate 

Sphaeropsis 3: 291 
n. Basidia very short or obsolete 

Coniothyrium 3:305 

(b) Pycnidia stipitate, clavate Levieuxia 3: 321 

b. Pycnidia hairy or setose Chaetomella 3:321 

2. Pycnidia with distinct mycelium or subicle 

a. Pycnidia astomous, in a dark subicle Capnodiastrum 10:272 

b. Pycnidia perforate, with basal hyphae Cicinnobella 18:302 

II. Pycnidia cespitose or in a stroma 

1. Pycnidia in dense erumpent clusters Haplosporella 3:323 

2. Pycnidia in a definite stroma 

a. Stroma applanate or effuse, foliicole Biscomycetopsis 11:517 

b. Stroma dot-like, discoid or hemispheric 

(1) Stroma dot-like, immersed Melanconiopsis 16:915 

(2) Stroma discoid to hemispheric 

(a) Stroma discoid; spores large Nothopatella 11:517 

(b) Stroma pulvinate : spores minute, catenulate 

Cytoplea 3:325 

(c) Stroma hemispheric : pycnidia circulate 

fCircinastrum 3: 325 
(Weinmannodora) 

Hyalodidymae 
3:384. 10:295. 11:522, 14:042. 16:925. r8:33S 

Conidia hyaline, i-septate, ovoid, ellipsoid or oblong 

I. Pycnidia separate 
1. Pycnidia not beaked 
a. Pycnidia in discolored areas, maculicole 



PHAEODIDYMAE 125 

(1) Pycnidia immersed, then erumpent, perforate 

(a) Conidia muticate Ascochyta 3: 384 

(b) Conidia with setae at the apex Robillardia 3:407 

(2) Pycnidia superficial, astomous Pucciniospora 10: 317 
b. Pycnidia not maculicole 

(1) Pycnidia hairy Didymochaete 14: 953 

(Vermiculariella 16:940) 

(2) Pycnidia smooth 

(a) Conidia with an appendage at each end 

x. Conidia with 1 or more bristles Darluca 3:410 

y. Conidia with cap-like appendages Tiarospora 10: 311 

(b) Conidia muticate 
x. Basidia i-spored 

(x) Pycnidia on a cobwebby subicle, phyllogenous 

Actinonema 3:408 
(y) Pycnidia without subicle, ramicole 

Diplodina 3: 411 
y. Basidia several-many-spored Cystotricha 3: 413 

2. Pycnidia beaked Rhynchophoma 3:414 

1 1. Pycnidia in a stroma 

1. Stroma effuse 

a. Stroma consisting of two distinct layers 

Thoracella 16:941 

b. Stroma of a single layer Placosphaerella 14:948 

2. Stroma verruciform 

a. Stroma superficial Pazschkella 16:528 

b. Stroma erumpent Cytodiplospora 11:942 

Phaeodidymae 
2:329, 10:275, 11:518, 14:927, 16:915, 18:319 

Spores dark, i-septate, ovoid to oblong 

I. Pycnidia separate 

1. Pycnidia beaked 

a. Pycnidia hairy Rhynchodiplodia 18: 329 

b. Pycnidia smooth Pellioniella 18: 329 

2. Pycnidia not beaked 

a. Pycnidia hairy Chaetodiplodia 3: 374 

b. Pycnidia smooth 

(1) Conidia with a mucous layer, very large 

Macrodiplodia 3:374 

(2) Conidia without a mucous layer 
(a) Pycnidia erumpent 

x. Conidia i-ciliate at apex *Chaetoconis 10:337 

(Kellermannia in part) 
y. Conidia muticate 

(x) Conidia less than 15 fi long 

Microdiplodia 18:323 



I26 PHOMATACEAE 

(y) Conidia 15/* or more long Diplodia 3:329 
(b) Pycnidia superficial, lignicole Diplodiella 3: 375 

II. Pycnidia cespitose or in a stroma 

1. Pycnidia cespitose Botryodiplodia 3: 377 

2. Pycnidia in a stroma 

a. Pycnidia and subicle enclosed' in a hemispheric stroma 

Lasiodiplodia 14:939 

b. Pycnidia without subicle. in a globose stroma 

Diplodiopsis 18: 335 

Hyalophragmiae 

3:418, 10:330, n:533. 14:962. 16:947, 18:358 

Conidia hyaline, 2-several-septate, oblong to fusoid 

I. Pycnidia more or less globose 

1. Subicle none 

a. Conidia appendaged at apex 

(!) Seta 1 Kellermannia 10:337 

(2) Setae 3 Bartalinia 16:951 

b. Conidia muticate Stagonospora 3: 445 

2. Subicle present, dark, phyllogenous Asteromidium 10: 338 

II. Pycnidia elongate to cylindric Mastomyces 3:456 

Phaeophragmiae 

3:418. 10:317, 11:528, 14:953. 16:943, 18:362 

Conidia hyaline, 2-several-septate, oblong to fusoid 

I. Pycnidia separate 

1. Conidia free from each other 

a. Conidia muticate 

(1) Pycnidia papillate or subastomous 

(a) Pycnidia with flattened base Macrobatis 11:532 

(b) Pycnidia globose, without flattened base 
x. Pycnidia on a stellate subicle, superficial 

Couturea 3:442 
y. Pycnidia without a subicle, erumpent 

(x) Pycnidia hairy Wojnowicia 14:960 

(y) Pycnidia smooth Hendersonia 3: 418 

(2) Pycnidia opening widely, with an operculum 

(a) Pycnidia superficial, dark, hairy Angiopoma 3:442 

(b) Pycnidia immersed, pale, smooth 

Lichenopsis 3:442 

b. Conidia appendaged 

(1) Conidia i-ciliate at each end Cryptostictis 3:443 

(2) Conidia i-ciliate at base by the basidium 

fUroconis 18: 368 
(Urohendersonia) 

(3) Conidia with a round or cup-like appendage at each end 

Santiella 16: 947 



HYALODICTYAE— SCOLECOSPORAE 127 

2. Conidia united in groups 

a. Conidia united into a fascicle Eriosporina 11:532 

b. Conidia stellately united Prosthemium 3: 444 
II. Pycnidia locules in a stroma Hendersonula 3:445 

Hyalodictyae 

i6:955 

Conidia hyaline, muriform, ovoid or oblong 

I. Pycnidia erumpent, papillate fHyalothyris 16:955 

(Hyalothyridium) 
Phaeodictyae 

3 : 459, 10 : 338, 1 1 : 536, 14 : 964, 16 : 951, 18 : 369 
Conidia dark, muriform, oblong to ovoid, rarely radiate or cruciate 

I. Pycnidia separate 

1. Conidia not reticulately roughened 

a. Pycnidia corticole, erumpent Camarosporium 3:459 

b. Pycnidia xylogenous, subsuperfkial Cytosporium 3:470 

2. Conidia reticulately roughened Endobotrya 3:470 

II. Pycnidia locules in a stroma Dichomera 3:471 

Scolecosporae 

3:474, 10:349, 11:538, 14:967. 16:956, 18:376 

Conidia hyaline or dilutely colored, elongate-fusoid, bacillar or filiform, 

continuous or septate. 

I. Pycnidia separate 

I. Pycnidia membranous or carbonous 

a. Pycnidia superficial 

(1) Pycnidia hairy 

(a) Conidia single on the basidia Trichocollonema 18:404 

(b) Conidia ternate on the basidia Gamospora 10:402 

(2) Pycnidia smooth 

(a) Pycnidia beaked Cornularia 3:598 

(b) Pycnidia not beaked 

x. Conidia usually expelled in a ball 

Collonema 10:397 
y. Conidia not expelled in a ball Septorella 14:981 

b. Pycnidia immersed or erumpent 

(1) Pycnidia hairy, maculicole Trichoseptoria 11 : 548 

(2) Pycnidia smooth 

(a) Pycnidia beaked Sphaerographium 3: 596 

(b) Pycnidia not beaked 

x. Pycnidia maculicole, phyllogenous 

Septoria 3: 474 

y. Pycnidia not maculicole 

(x) Pycnidia complete at top, usually papillate 

Rhabdospora 3:578 



128 



ZYTHIACEAE 



(y) Pycnidia more or less incomplete at top 
m. Pycnidia gaping, showing a gelatinous spore mass 

Gelatinosporium 3:596 
n. Pycnidia not exposing a gelatinous mass 



(m) Pycnidia foliicole 
(n) Pycnidia rami-caulicole 
2. Pycnidia suberose, incomplete, often pale 

a. Pycnidia cespitose 

b. Pycnidia merely gregarious 

II. Pycnidia in a stroma 

1. Conidia 4-6 fasciculate on a basidium 

2. Conidia separate 

a. Conidia setose-penicillate 

b. Conidia muticate 

(1) Stroma superficial, setose 

(2) Stroma erumpent or immersed 

(a) Pycnidia distinct in the stroma 

(b) Pycnidia locules in the stroma 



Phleospora 3: 577 
Phlyctaena 3: 593 

Micropera 3: 604 
Micula 3: 604 

Eriospora 3: 600 

Dilophospora 3: 600 

fMerodothidis 18:405 
(Septodothideopsis) 

Cytosporina 3:601 
Septosporiella 10:403 



Family 71. ZYTHIACEAE 
(Nectrioidaceae Sacc. 3:613) 

Pycnidia, and stromata when present, fleshy or waxy, light-colored, white, yellow, 
red or orange, globose, more rarely cup-shaped or hysterioid ; conidia various, mostly 
hyaline. 

Subfamily Zythiae 
Pycnidia more or less globose 

Hyalosporae 

3:613, 10:404, n:55^. 14:988, 16:983, 18:407 

I. Pycnidia separate 
1. Pycnidia smooth 
a. Pycnidia beakless 

(1) Conidia in chains 

(2) Conidia not catenulate 

(a) Pycnidia on creeping hyphae 

(b) Pycnidia without mycelium 
x. Conidia spiny or ciliate 

(x) Conidia spiny 

(y) Conidia with several cilia at apex 

Ciliospora 18:410 
y. Conidia smooth 

(x) Pycnidia single-walled 
m. Pycnidia more or less papillate 

Zythia 3: 614 



Sirozythia 18:410 
Eurotiopsis 10:406 

Roumegueriella 3:616 



ZYTHIACEAE 

n. Pycnidia with crateriform ostiole 

Libertiella 3: 616 
o. Pycnidia cup-shaped Lemalis 3:672 

(y) Pycnidia with outer circumscissile wall 

Dichlaena 3: 620 
b. Pycnidia beaked Sphaeronaemella 3:617 

2. Pycnidia hairy or spiny 

a. Pycnidia densely beset with conoid i-celled setae 

Muricularia 3: 218 

b. Pycnidia with slender bristles or hairs 

(1) Hairs fasciculate Collocystis 3:616 

(2) Hairs separate 

(a) Hairs everywhere but at the apex 

Chaetozythia 10:406 

(b) Hairs only around the wide ostiole 

Pseudozythia 18:409 

II. Pycnidia cespitose or in a stroma 

1. Pycnidia cespitose, beaked; conidia in chains 

Treleasiella 14:989 

2. Pycnidia in a stroma 

a. Stroma more or less pulvinate ; conidia f usoid 

Aschersonia 3:619 

b. Stroma f ruticose branched ; conidia bacillar 

Hypocreodendrum 14:992 

Phaeosporae 

10:409, 18:416 
Conidia dark, 1 -celled, globose to oblong 

T. Pycnidia separate, beaked; basidia obsolete Ampullaria 18:416 
II. Pycnidia in a stroma Martinella 10:409 

Hyalodidymae 

3:621, 10:409, n:553. 16:986, 18:416 
Conidia hyaline or nearly so, i-septate, ovoid to oblong 

I. Basidia simple or nearly so Pseudodiplodia 3:621 

II. Basidia dendroid branched Diplozythia 18:417 

Hyalophragmiae 

3:621, 10:410, 18:417 
Conidia hyaline, several-septate, elliptic to fusoid 

I. Conidia oblong-fusoid Stagonopsis 3:621 

II. Conidia 4-radiate, with septate radii Chiastospora 3:621 

Scolecosporae 

3:622, 10:410, 18:418 

Conidia hyaline, bacillar or filiform, continuous or septate 
J. Pycnidia separate 



129 



i 3 o ZYTHIACEAE— LEPTOSTROMATACEAE 

i. Pycnidia beakless, almost discoid Trichocrea 10:410 

2. Pycnidia beaked; conidia i-ciliate Mycorhynchus 18:418 

II. Pycnidia in a stroma; conidia hamate Polystigmina 3:622 

Subfamily Patellinae 
Pycnidia cupulate or hysterioid 

Hyalosporae 

3:622, 10:411, u:553, 18:419 

Conidia hyaline, i-celled, globose to oblong 

I. Pycnidia separate 

1. Pycnidia cup-shaped 

a. Pycnidia smooth 

(1) Pycnidia carnose ; basidia simple, cylindric 

Patellina 3: 622 

(2) Pycnidia submembranous ; basidia branched 

Ollula 10: 411 

b. Pycnidia hairy 

(1) Conidia in chains *Sirocyphis 

(2) Conidia not in chains Cyphina 3:623 

2. Pycnidia flattened, oblong, cleft Hysteromyxa 3:622 

II. Pycnidia in a stroma 

1. Stroma suberose. white Munkia 10:408 

2. Stroma corneous, black fPycnostroma 18:415 

(Aschersoniopsis) 

Hyalophragmiae 

n:553 

Conidia hyaline, several-septate, oblong 

I. Pycnidia immersed, waxy Pseudostictis 11:553 

Scolecosporae 

10: 411 

Conidia hyaline, filiform, continuous 
I. Pycnidia waxy, cup-shaped, on a white subicle 

Trichosperma 10:411 

Family 72. LEPTOSTROMATACEAE 
Pycnidia membranous or carbonous, black, more or less distinctly dimidiate, 
scutiform, astomous, ostiolate or cleft, erumpent or superficial. 

Hyalosporae 

3:625, 10:412. n:553. 14:092, 16:986, 18:410 

Conidia hyaline, i-cellcd, globose to oblong 

I. Pycnidia separate 

1. Pycnidia astomous or variously perforate, but not cleft 
a. Basidia lacking 



LEPTOSTROMATACEAE 131 

(1) Pycnidia on a subicle 

(a) Subicle of fumaginous hyphae Eriothyrium 10:418 

(b) Subicle of broad fibers fTrichopeltium 10:418 

(Trichopeltulum) 

(2) Pycnidia without subicle 

(a) Conidia muticate 

x. Pycnidia stellately divided or cleft 

Actinothecium 3:638 
y. Pycnidia depressed-clypeate, not stellate 

Leptothyrium 3: 626 
(Sacidium 3: 649) 

(b) Conidia setulose at each end Tracyella 18:424 
b. Basidia present, cylindric Piggotia 3:636 

2. Pycnidia more or less clearly cleft lengthwise 

a. Pycnidia elongate or lanceolate Leptostroma 3:639 

b. Pycnidia subcircular Labrella 3: 647 

II. Pycnidia in a stroma 

1. Stroma phyllogenous Melasmia 3: 637 

2. Stroma growing on animal hairs Trichophila 10:423 

Phaeosporae 

3:653, 10:423, 14:996, 18:4-29 

Conidia dark, i-celled, globose to oblong 

I. Pycnidia separate 

1. Pycnidia on a dark subicle, radiately dehiscent 

Asterostomella 10:423 

2. Pycnidia not on a subicle 

a. Conidia conglobate, verrucose Discomycopsella 18:429 

b. Conidia not conglobate, smooth Pirostoma 3:653 

II. Pycnidia in a stroma 

1. Stroma membranous 

a. Pycnidia distinct, exserted Peltostroma 18:430 

b. Pycnidia merely locules, immersed Lasmenia 10:425 

2. Stroma carbonous ; locules many, immersed 

Poropeltis 18:430 

Hyalodidymae 

10:426, 11 : 557, 18:431 

Conidia hyaline, i-septate, oblong to fusoid 

I. Pycnidia separate 

1. Pycnidia astomous or variously perforate, not cleft 

a. Conidia muticate Leptothyrella 10:426 

b. Conidia cuspidate at apex, falcate Kabatia 18:433 

2. Pycnidia cleft lengthwise, elongate Fioriella 18: 432 

II. Pycnidia in a stroma, rimose Pseudomelasmia 18: 434 



LEPTOSTROMATACEAE 

Phaeodidymae 

10:426, 18:431 

Conidia dark, i-septate, oblong to fusoid 

I Pycnidia separate 

a Pycnidia ostiolate Diplopeltis 10: 426 

b. Pycnidia longitudinally cleft Holcomyces 18: 431 

II. Pycnidia in a stroma, ostiolate Seynesiopsis 18:431 

Hyalophragmiae 

3 : 653, 10 : 426, 1 1 : 557. M : 996, 16 : 992, 18 : 434 
Conidia hyaline, 2-several-septate, oblong to fusoid 

I. Pycnidia astomous or ostiolate, not cleft 

1. Conidia muticate; pycnidia with creeping hyphae 

Asterothyrium 18:434 

2. Conidia ciliate 

a. Conidia fusoid, 1 -ciliate at each end Discosia 3: 653 

b. Conidia cruciate, each arm i-ciliate Entomosporium 3:657 

II. Pycnidia rimose dehiscent Cystothyrium 10:427 

Phaeophragmiae 

14:997, 18:435 

Conidia dark, i-several-septate, oblong to fusoid 

I. Pycnidia separate, rimose-gaping ; conidia 1 -ciliate each way 

Labridium 14:997 

II. Pycnidia in a stroma; conidia muticate, finally black 

Phragmopeltis 18:435 

Scolecosporae 

3:658, 10:428. n:557, 14:997. 16:992, 18:436 
Conidia normally hyaline, bacillar or filiform, continuous or septate 

I. Pycnidia astomous or opening variously 

1. Pycnidia with a round ostiole ; conidia catenate 

Crandallia 14: 998 

2. Pycnidia astomous or irregularly dehiscent 

a. Pycnidia with radiate-fimbriate margin Actinothyrium 3:658 

b. Pycnidia not radiate-fimbriate 

(1) Pycnidia of two kinds, small simple and large loculate 

Brunchorstia 10:431 

(2) Pycnidia of one kind 

(a) Conidia muticate 

x. Pycnidia corrugate, not hairy; conidia not separating 

Melophia 3: 658 

y. Pycnidia hairy; conidia separating into joints 

Chaetopeltis 14:998 

(b) Conidia ciliate-penicillate at apex 

Giulia 18: 435 



EXCIPULACEAE 133 

II. Pycnidia elongate, longitudinally cleft 

1. Basidia simple, bacillar Leptostromella 3:659 

2. Basidia umbellately branched *Petasodes 14:998 

Family 73. EXCIPULACEAE 

Pycnidia membranous or carbonous, black, cup-shaped, patellate or hysterioid, at 
first more or less spheric, but at length widely open, erumpent or superficial, glabrous 
or hairy. 

Hyalosporae 

3:665, 10:432, 11:558, 14:999, 16:993, 18:436 
Conidia hyaline, i-celled, globose to oblong 

I. Pycnidia pilose or setose 

1. Conidia muticate; pycnidia cupulate Amerosporium 3:680 

2. Conidia ciliate ; pycnidia cupulate 

a. Conidia several-ciliate at apex Polynema 3: 687 

b. Conidia i-ciliate at each end Dinemasporium 3:683 

II. Pycnidia smooth or nearly so 

1. Pycnidia more or less cup-shaped, or disciform 

a. Pycnidia composed of conglutinate dark hyphae 

Godroniella 3: 665 

b. Pycnidia with cellular context 

(1) Pycnidia cup-like when mature, sometimes obconoid 

(a) Basidia simple 

x. Pycnidia cup-shaped Excipula 3: 665 

y. Pycnidia terete-conic Catinula 3: 673 

(b) Basidia branched Heteropatella 3:670 

(2) Pycnidia subglobose-collabent, disciform or verruciform 

(a) Pycnidia subglobose, irregularly dehiscent and collabent 

Dothichiza 3: 671 

(b) Pycnidia disciform, often imperfect and covered by epiderm 

Discula 3: 674 

(c) Pycnidia verruciform; conidia mucose-involute 

Agyriellopsis 18:438 

2. Pycnidia hysterioid or valvately gaping 

a. Pycnidia widely hysterioid Psilospora 3:679 

b. Pycnidia valvately gaping 

(1) Basidia typically branched Sporonema 3:677 

(2) Basidia simple or none Pleococcum 3: 679 

Phaeosporae 

10:439, 18:441 
Conidia dark, i-celled, globose to oblong 

I. Pycnidia patellate, smooth Phaeodiscula 10: 439 

II. Pycnidia cupulate, setulose at margin fConiothyris 10:439 

(Coniothyriella) 



134 EXC1PULACEAE 

Hyalodidymae 
3:687, 10:440, [1:560, 14:1002, 16:993, 18:442 

Conidia hyaline, 1 -septate, oblong to fusoid 

I. Pycnidia discoid or patellate 

1. Pycnidia discoid, veiled; basidia simple Discella 3:687 

2. Pycnidia patellate, subsuperficial : basidia branched 

Pseudopatella 3: 688 

II. Pycnidia hysterioid or irregularly gaping 

1. Pycnidia hysterioid, elongate Scaphidium 18:443 

2. Pycnidia globose, then irregularly gaping; conidia catenate 

Siropatella 18: 443 

Hyalophragmiae 

3:688, 10:441, 11:560, 14:1002, 18:443 

Conidia hyaline, 2-several-septate, oblong to fusoid 

I. Pycnidia cupulate or subcupulate 

1. Pycnidia smooth; conidia sometimes i-ciliate 

Excipulina 3: 688 

2. Pycnidia setulose 

a. Conidia fusoid, inner cells somewhat colored 

Excipularia 3:689 

b. Conidia X-shaped, entirely hyaline Acanthothecium 10: 442 

II. Pycnidia discoid and inequal, margin lacerate 

Pilidium 3: 689 

Phaeophragmiae 

10:443. 18:444 
Conidia dark, 2-several-septate, oblong to fusoid 

I. Pycnidia hysterioid; conidia not catenate Dichaenopsis 18:444 

II. Pycnidia laciniately dehiscent; conidia catenate 

Taeniophora 10:443 

Scolecosporae 

3 : 690, 10 : 443. 14 : 1002, 16 : 993, 18 : 445 

Conidia typically hyaline, bacillar or filiform, continuous or septate 

I. Pycnidia separate 

1. Conidia separating at the joints Schizothyrella 3:690 

(inch Pseudocenangium 10:445) 

2. Conidia not separating 

a. Pycnidia discoid, margin lacerate; conidia filiform 

Protostegia 3: 690 

b. Pycnidia mostly cupulate, not lacerate ; conidia hamate 

Oncospora 3:691 

II. Pycnidia in a stroma, pezizoid Ephelis 3:691 



MELANCONIACEAE 135 

Order 17. MELANCONIALES 

Family 74. MELANCONIACEAE 

Pycnidia lacking, or reduced to a stratum merely; strata typically bearing basidia 
of various sorts upon which conidia arise, forming masses or acervuli, which are 
immersed or erumpent, black, gray or light-colored, waxy, corneous or even sub- 
membranous. 

Hyalosporae 

3 : 698, 10 : 446, 11 : 562, 14 : 1004, 16 : 995, 18 : 447 

Conidia hyaline, i-celled, globose to oblong, rarely dilutely colored 

I. Conidia muticate 

1. Masses, or acervuli, not setose 

a. Conidia not catenate 

(1) Masses bright-colored, subtremelloid 

Hainesia 3: 698 

(2) Masses gray to black, rarely bright-colored, waxy or horny 

(a) Masses gray, rarely bright-colored, waxy 

x. Growing on leaves or fruits for the most part 

Gloeosporium 3: 699 

y. Growing usually on twigs of trees or shrubs 

Myxosporium 3:722 

(b) Masses black, discoid, horny Melanostroma 3:728 

b. Conidia in chains 

(1) Masses oblong, hysterioid, dark, hard 

Hypodermium 3: 728 

(2) Masses discoid, pulvinate or conoid 

(a) Masses bright-colored, softish Myxosporella 3:729 

(b) Masses dark to black 

x. Basidia repeatedly branched 

(x) Masses discoid; basidia dichotomous 

Blennoria 3: 730 
(y) Masses depressed-pulvinate ; basidia verticillate 

Agyriella 3: 731 
(z) Masses perithecioid ; basidia irregularly branched 

*Hormyllium 3:733 
y. Basidia simple 

(x) Masses perithecioid, black *Thecostroma 3:752 

(y) Masses scutellate, olive or ashen 

Myxormia 3: 734 
(z) Masses truncate, black below, pale above 

Bloxamia 3: 734 

2. Masses setose at margin ; basidia short, fasciculate 

Colletotrichum 3:735 

II. Conidia aristate with a branched awn at apex 

Pestalozziella 3: 737 



136 MELANCONIACEAE 

Phaeosporae 
3:749, 10:471, 11:571, 14:1018, 16: 1008, 18:469 

Coniclia dark, i-cclled, globose to oblong or fusoid 

I. Conidia solitary on the basidia 

1. Conidia globose or oblong Melanconium 3:749 

2. Conidia fusoid, often arcuate 

a. Basidia not swollen at base Cryptomela 3:760 

b. Basidia swollen at base Basiascum 10:474 

II. Conidia in chains 

1. Conidial chains separate Trullula 3:731 

2. Conidial chains in a mucose head Thyrsidium 3:761 

Hyalodidymae 

3:766, 10:475, I 1 : 57-- 14:1020, 16:1009, 18:472 

Conidia hyaline or nearly so, 1 -septate, ovoid to fusoid 

I. Conidia muticate 

1. Saprogenous, on stems and fruits Septomyxa 3:766 

2. Biogenous, typically on leaves Marsonia 3 : 767 

II. Conidia 3-4-ciliate at each end Gloeosporiella 11:575 

Phaeodidymae 

3:763, 10:475, 11:572, 14:1029, 16:1009 

Conidia dark, i-septate, ovoid to fusoid 

I. Conidia solitary 

1. Conidia muticate Didymosporium 3:763 

2. Conidia 1-3-ciliate at apex Neobarclaya 14:46, 10:475 

II. Conidia catenate, connected by hyaline isthmi 

Bullaria 3: 766 

Hyalophragmiae 
3:801, 10: 480, 11 : 575, 14: 1022, 16: 1012, 18: 474 

Conidia hyaline, 2-several-septate, oblong to fusoid or clavate 

I. Conidia separate 

1. Conidia muticate 

a. Conidia oblong or fusoid, masses usually pale 

Septogloeum 3:801 

b. Conidia long-clavate ; masses dark Rhopalidium 3:801 

2. Conidia i-several-ciliate, usually at the apex 

Pestalozzina 11:580 

II. Conidia united at base into a radiate or stellate group 

Prosthemiella 3:803 

(incl. Psammina 10:498) 

Phaeophragmiae 

3:771, 10:480, 11:575. 14:1022, 16:1012, 18:475 

Conidia dark, at least in part, 2-several-septate, oblong to cylindric 



MELANCONIACEAE r 37 

I. Conidia muticate 

1. Conidia separate, not in chains 
a. Conidia oblong or elongate 

(i) Conidia curved-attenuate, i. e., hyaline-rostrate 

(a) Conidia dark, except the hyaline beak 

Scolecosporium 3:782 

(b) Conidia with 2 inner cells opaque, others clear 

Toxosporium 14: 1030 

(2) Conidia oblong, not rostrate 

(a) Conidia cirrhose protruded and atro-inquinant 

Stilbospora 3: 771 

(b) Conidia not protruded and atro-inquinant 

Coryneum 3: 774 

b Conidia stellate-lobed, lobes several-septate 

Asterosporium 3:782 

2 Conidia in chains 

a Conidia connected by filiform isthmi Siridium 3:782 
b Conidia chains without isthmi Siridiella 11: 580 

(inch Septotrullula 18:487) 

II. Conidia ciliate 

1 Conidia ciliate at apex alone 

a. Conidia i-ciliate Monochaetia 18: 485 

b. Conidia several-ciliate Pestalozzia 3:784 

2. Conidia 1 -ciliate at each end Hyaloceras 3: 783 

(inch Amphichaeta 18:486) 

Phaeodictyae 

3:803, 10:508, 11:565. 14:1035. 16:1022, 18:488 
Conidia dark, muriform, ovoid or oblong 

I. Conidia muticate 

1. Conidia not catenate Steganosporium 3: 803 

2. Conidia catenate by cylindric isthmi Phragmotrichum 3: 806 

II. Conidia pluriciliate at apex; end cells subhyaline 

Morinia 10: 508 

Scolecosporae 

3:737, 10:498, 11:582, 14:1031, 16:1018, 18:488 
Conidia cylindric, filiform or suballantoid, hyaline, mostly continuous 

I. Conidia allantoid Naemospora 3:746 

II. Conidia bacillar to filiform 

1. Conidia fasciculate at the apex of the basidia 

Trichodytes 14: 1031 

2. Conidia solitary 

a. Masses white or pale, foliicole; conidia filiform 

Cylindrosporium 3:737, 18:491 

b. Masses gray or dark, usually ramicole; conidia falcate 

Cryptosporium 3:740 



I3 8 MOXILIACEAE 

c. Masses bright-colored, saprophytic; conidia falcate 

Libertella 3: 744 

Staurosporae 

18 : 493 

Conidia star-shaped, hyaline 

I. Masses phyllogenous, bright-colored ; conidia 4-radiate 

Asteroconium 18:493 



Order 18. MONILIALES (Hyphomyceteae Sacc. 4:1) 
Hyphae more or less developed, cobwebby or more or less compacted, but rarely 
arising from a definite stratum or stroma, never enclosed in a pyenidium, typically 
superficial. 

Family 75. MONILIACEAE (Mucedineae 4:2) 
Hyphae hyaline or bright-colored, more or less fragile, lax, not cohering in fas- 
cicles; conidia concolorous, i. e., hyaline or bright-colored. 

Hyalosporae 

4:2, 10:510, 11:586, 14:1037, 16:1023, 18:495 
Conidia hyaline, or bright-colored, i-celled, globose, ovoid to short-cylindric 

Micronemeae 
Hyphae very short or obsolete, or little different from the conidia 

I. Conidia not in chains 

1. Conidia solitary, at least not capitate 

a. Saprogenous 

(1) Hyphae none 

(a) Conidia separate Chromosporium 4:6 

(b) Conidia joined in twos or threes, not catenate 

Selenotila 11: 587 

(2) Hyphae very short, branched, septate 

Coccospora 4: 9 

b. Entomogenous Massospora 4: 10 

(incl. Sorosporella 10: 512) 

c. Phytogenous 

(1) In fungi 

(a) Conidia ovoid, "smooth Myceliophthora 11 : 587 

(b) Conidia globose, verrucose Coccosporella 11:586 

(2) In leaves 

(a) Hyphae paliform, stipate, very short 

Microstroma 4: 9 

(b) Hyphae vermiform-tortuose ; biophilous 

Ophiocladium 11:587 

2. Conidia capitate; hyphae lacking; biophilous 

Glomerularia 4: 10 



HYALOSPORAE 139 

fl. Conidia in chains 
1. Saprophilous 

a. Conidial chains arising in the hyphae 

(1) Conidial branches simple, arcuate Malbranchea 4:11 

(2) Conidial branches dichotomous, not arcuate 

Glycophila 4:11 

b. Chains arising at the apex of the hyphae 

(1) Conidia globose, elliptic or fusiform 

(a) Hyphae short, simple or nearly so 

x. Conidia globose or suboblong Oospora 4:11 

y. Conidia fusoid, acute each way Fuiidium 4:25 

(b) Hyphae longer, distinctly branched 

Monilia 4: 31 

(inch Halobyssus 11:588) 

(2) Conidia bacillar or cuboid 

(a) Hyphae nearly obsolete; conidia bacillar 

Cylindrium 4:36 

(b) Hyphae distinctly present 

x. Conidia bacillar Polyscytalum 4: 38 

y. Conidia cuboid Geotrichum 4:39 

2. Biophilous 

a. Growing within leaf tissue Oidiopsis 18:507 

b. Growing on leaves or other parts 

(1) Conidia ellipsoid, without isthmi Oidium 4:40 

(2) Conidia globose, connected by isthmi 

Paepalopsis 4: 47 

Macronemeae 

Hyphae elongate and distinct from the conidia 

I. Conidia in heads Cephalosporiae 

1. Conidia not catenulate 
a. Conidia globose or oblong 

(1) Conidia sessile on the head or nearly so 
(a) Fertile hyphae inflated at apex 
x. Apical vesicle globose-inflated 

(x) Conidia sessile, not mucus-covered 
m. Vesicle verrucose or muriculate 

(m) Fertile hyphae simple Oedocephalum 4:47 

(n) Fertile hyphae sigmoid, much branched 

Sigmoideomyces 10:523 
n. Vesicle hexagonally areolate 

Rhopalomyces 4:50 
(y) Conidia on stalks, mucus-covered 

Gliocephalus 16: 1031 
y. Vesicle clavate or lobed 

(x) Vesicle disk-shaped, stellate-lobed 

Coronella 4: 51 



i 4 o MONILIACEAE 

(y) Vesicle clavate or subpalmate 

Buseella 18: 509 

(b) Fertile hyphae not inflated at apex 
x. Conidial head covered with mucus 

(x) Fertile hyphae simple Hyalopus4:5i 

(y) Fertile hyphae with verticillate branches at tip 

Gliobotrys 18: 510 

y. Head without mucus 

(x) Fertile hyphae with one head 
m. Conidia not separating Papulospora 4: 58 

n. Conidia separating 

(m) Head elongate Doratomyces 4: 53 

(n) Head globose or slightly clavate 
r. Sterile hyphae scanty Haplotrichum 4: 53 

s. Sterile hyphae long, decumbent 

Cephalosporium 4:56 
(y) Fertile hyphae with 2-several heads 
m. Conidia upright on verticillate basidia 

Coemansiella 4:55 
n. Conidia in more definite heads 

(m) Fertile hyphae simple, with 3-several heads of conidia on spines 

Botryosporium 4:54 
(n) Fertile hyphae several times 2-3-fid 

Trichoderma 4: 59 
(2) Conidia borne on little stalks or sterigmata 

(a) Fertile hyphae simple Corethropsis 4: 62 

(b) Fertile hyphae verticillate branched 

Spicularia 4: 63 
b. Conidia short cylindric 

(1) Conidia without mucus Cylindrocephalum 4: 63 

(2) Conidia covered with mucus Acontium 18: 512 
2. Conidia catenulate Aspergillae 

a. Fertile hyphae inflated at apex 

(1) Fertile hyphae simple or nearly so 

(a) Sterigmata of apical vesicle none or simple 

x. Conidia terminal on sterigmata Aspergillus 4: 64 
y. Conidia lateral and terminal on sterigmata 

Dimargaris 4: 76 

(b) Sterigmata verticillate branched Sterigmatocystis 4: 71 

(inch Alliospora 18:516) 

(2) Fertile hyphae dichotomous, branches curved 

Dispira 4: 77 

b. Fertile hyphae little or not at all inflated 

(1) Fertile hyphae verticillately branched at tip 

(a) Tips equally verticillate; conidia doliiform 

Amblyosporium 4:77 

(b) Tips unequally verticillate : conidia globoid 



HYALOSPORAE 141 

x. Conidia without mucus Penicillium 4: 78 

(incl. Citromyces 11:593) 
y. Conidia enclosed in mucus Gliocladium 4:84 

(2) Fertile hyphae not verticillate at tip 

Briarea 4: 85 

II. Conidia borne irregularly on simple or branched but not inflated or verticillate 
hyphae Botrytidae 

1. Conidia smooth or scarcely roughened 
a. Saprogenous 

(1) Conidia typically pleurogenous 

(a) Fertile hyphae 2-several-furcate Haplaria4:85 

(b) Fertile hyphae simple or nearly so 

x. Conidia globose or ellipsoid Acladium 4:87 

y. Conidia short cylindric Cylindrotrichum 4: 88 

(2) Conidia acrogenous or pleurogenous 

(a) Some intermediate joints of the hyphae swollen and denticulate conidia- 

bearing Physospora 4:88 

(b) Intermediate joints equal 

x. Conidia-bearing hyphae of two sorts, the upright alone denticulate 

Blastomyces 10:529 
y. Conidia-bearing hyphae of one sort 
(x) Fertile hyphae simple or nearly so 
m. Hyphae not denticulate ; conidia solitary 
(m) Hyphae forming a crust-like stratum 

Hyphoderma 4:89 
(n) Hyphae loose, cobwebby Acremonium 4:89 

(incl. Thermomyces 18:524) 
n. Hvphae denticulate; conidia usually grouped 

(m) Hyphae everywhere denticulate, bearing conidia only at tip 

Xenopus 18: 524 
(n) Hyphae denticulate or proliferous at tip alone 
r. Apex denticulate, many-spored 

Rhinotrichum 4:91 
s. Apex inflated-ampulliform, i-spored 

Olpitrichum 11:594 
(y) Fertile hyphae branched 
m. Conidia globose to ovoid 

(m) Both sterile and fertile hyphae procumbent 
r. Sterile hyphae intracellular 

Hartigiella 16: 1031 
s. Sterile hyphae superficial 

(r) Fertile hyphae vaguely branched 
h. Conidia acro-pleurogenous 

Sporotrichum 4:96 

(incl. Leiosepium 16: 1036) 
i. Conidia on a one-sided sympodium 

Monopodium 10: 544 



I4-' MOXILIACEAE 

(s) Fertile hyphae dichotomous ; conidia acrogenous on spine- 
like branches Langloisula 10:535 
(n) Fertile hyphae erect or ascending 
r. Conidia solitary acrogenous 

( r ) Fertile hyphae spiny-branched at apex 

Plectothrix 18: 525 
(s) Fertile hyphae not spiny-branched 

Monosporium 4: 113 

(inch Allescheriella 14: 1075) 
s. Conidia loosely grouped about the apex 
(r) Conidia not involved in mucus 
h. Conidia on inflated muriculate apices 

Phymatotrichum 16: 1033 
i. Apices not muriculate or inflated 

Botrytis 4: 116 
(s) Conidia involved in mucus 

Tolypomyria 4: 137 
n. Conidia fusoid to cylindric 

(m) Fertile hyphae mostly procumbent 

Sporotrichella 10:534 
(n) Fertile hyphae erect or ascending 
r. Conidia fusoid on the upper side of curved branches 

Martensella 4: 138 
s. Conidia acrogenous 

(r) Conidia-bearing branches terete 

Cylindrophora 4: 138 
(s) Conidia-bearing branches ellipsoid 

Cylindrodendrum 4: 139 
b. Biogenous 

(1) Conidia smooth, solitary, more rarely subcatenate 

Ovularia 4: 139 

(inch Ovulariopsis 16:1036) 

(2) Conidia densely spiny 

Ramulaspera 18:532 

2. Conidia muricate or tuberculose-stellate 

a. Conidia globose 

(1) Conidia merely muricate 

(a) Hyphae loose, cobwebby Sepedonium 4: 146 

(b) Hyphae woven into a subgelatinous pellicle 

Pellicularia 4: 149 

(2) Conidia setose at apex as well as muricate 

Chaetoconidium 10:544 

b. Conidia tuberculose-stellate 

Asterophora 4: 148 

III. Conidia acrogenous on verticillate branches 

Verticilliae 
1. Conidia solitary or loosely grouped, not in chains 



HYALOSPORAE— HYALODIDYMAE 143 

a. Conidia-bearing branches very short, ampulliform 

Pachybasium 4: 149 

b. Conidia-bearing branches terete or longer 
(1) Conidia globose to ovoid 

(a) Tips of branches clavate, in twos rectangularly 

Verticilliopsis 11: 600 

(b) Tips of branches normal 

x. Conidia conglutinate into a stratum 

Corymbomyces 18:533 
y. Conidia not conglutinate 

(x) Conidia separating readily from the tips 

Verticillium 4: 150 
(y) Conidia separating with difficulty from the tips 

Cladobotryum 4: 160 
(2) Conidia cylindric or elongate 

(a) Conidia-bearing branches or sporophores i-spored 

x. Sporophores straight Acrocylindrium 4: 161 

y. Sporophores uncinate Uncigera 4: 162 

(b) Sporophores several-spored 

x. Sporophore inflated verrucose at apex 

Calcarisporium 4: 162 

y. Sporophore incurved, with seriate conidia below 

Coemansia 4: 162 
2. Conidia capitate or densely spicate, not in chains 

a. Conidia sessile 

(1) Conidia capitate, involved in mucus 

(a) Fertile hyphae smooth Acrostalagmus 4: 163 

(inch Harziella 16: 1037) 

(b) Fertile hyphae asperate Gloeosphaera 18:535 

(2) Conidia densely spirally spicate at apices 

Clonostachys 4: 165 

b. Conidia on small stalks Sceptromyces 4: 166 
3. Conidia in chains Spicaria 4: 166 

(inch Nomuraea 18:533) 
IV. Joints of the hyphae inflated here and there and bearing pleurogenous conidia 

Gonatobotrytae 

1. Joints smooth 

a. Conidia catenulate Gonatorrhodum 4: 169 

b. Conidia solitary Nematogonium 4: 170 

2. Joints muricate or punctate 

a. Conidia solitary Gonatobotrys 4: 168 

b. Conidia catenulate, forming a spheric head 

Gonatorrhodiella 10:548 

Hyalodidymae 

4 : 176, 10 : 548, 1 1 : 600, 14 : 1057, 16 : 1038, 18 : 539 
Conidia hyaline or bright-colored, i-septate, ovoid oblong or 

short fusoid 



144 MONILIACEAE 

I. Conidia not in chains 
i. Saprophilus 
a. Conidia smooth 

(i) Fertile hyphae simple or nearly so 

(a) Hyphae in Haled at apex or joints 

x. Hyphae denticulate inflated at apex; conidia fusoid 

Diplorhinotrichum 18:540 
y. Hyphae inflated at hoth apex and joints 

Arthrobotrys 4: 181 

(b) Hyphae not inflated 

x. Conidia spirally pleurogenous Haplariopsis 18:539 
y. Conidia solitary acrogenous or capitate 

(x) Conidia capitate at apex Cephalothecium 4: 180 

(y) Conidia solitary at apex 
m. Fertile hyphae long Trichothecium 4:178 

n. Fertile hyphae very short Didymopsis 4: 182 

(2) Fertile hyphae branched 

(a) Fertile hyphae irregularly branched 

Diplosporium 4: 178 

(b) Fertile hyphae verticillate or dichotomous 

x. Fertile hyphae verticillate Diplocladium 4: 176 

y. Fertile hyphae dichotomous ; sterigmata subternate 

Cylindrocladium 11:600 
b. Conidia echinulate ; conidial cells unequal 

Mycogone 4: 183 
2. Biophilous 

a. Conidia obliquely beaked Rhynchosporium 18:540 

b. Conidia not beaked 

(1) Hyphae mostly simple, not spirally twisted 

Didymaria 4: 184 

(2) Hyphae simple, spirally twisted Bostrichonema 4: 185 

II. Conidia catenulate 

1. Fertile hyphae simple, short Hormiactis 4: 186 

2. Fertile hyphae verticillately branched Didymocladium 4: 186 

Hyalophragmiae 
4:188, 10:551, 11:601, 14:1050, 16:1041, 18:544 

Conidia hyaline or bright-colored, 2-several-septate, oblong, fusoid or elongate 

Micronemeae 
Fertile hyphae very short and little different from the conidia 

I. Conidia in chains, cylindric or oblong Septocylindrium 4:223 

II. Conidia not in chains 

1. Sporophore 3-celled, upper cell much inflated 

Milowia 4: 222 

2. Sporophore not inflated, sometimes obsolete 



HYALOPHRAGMIAE— HYALODICTYAE 145 

a. Conidia ciliate at apex and upper septum 

Mastigosporium 4: 220 

b. Conidia not ciliate 

(1) Hyphae lacking; conidia not aggregate 

Fusoma 4: 220 

(2) Hyphae distinct; conidia aggregate 

(a) Conidia in mucose glomerules Rotaea 4:222 

(b) Conidia in fascicles, not mucose Paraspora 4:222 

Macronemeae 

Fertile hyphae manifest and distinct from the conidia 

I. Saprophilous 

1. Conidia solitary or at least not capitate 

a. Fertile hyphae simple 

(1) Sterile hyphae lacking Dactylella 4: 193 

(2) Sterile hyphae abundant Monacrosporium 4: 193 

b. Fertile hyphae branched 

(1) Hyphae verticillately branched Dactylium 4:188 

(2) Hyphae irregularly branched Blastotrichum 4: 191 

2. Conidia capitate 

a. Fertile hyphae vesiculose at tip ; fimicole 

Cephaliophora 18:544 

b. Fertile hyphae not swollen 

(1) Hyphae simple; sterile lacking Dactylaria 4:194 

(2) Hyphae verticillate ; sterile hyphae present 

Mucrosporium 4: 190 

II. Biophilous 

1. Conidia mucose-conglobate, allantoid, often continuous 

Allantospora 14: 1043 

2. Conidia not mucose-conglobate 

a. Conidia ciliate at apex *Trichoconis 18:545 

b. Conidia not ciliate 

(1) Conidia ovate-cylindric or elongate, often catenate 

Ramularia 4: 196 

(2) Conidia obclavate-piriform Piricularia 4: 217 

(3) Conidia long vermiform Cercosporella 4:218 

Hyalodictyae 

11:608, 18:561 
Conidia hyaline, or bright-colored, muriform, ovoid to globose or cubic 

I. Hyphae much branched; conidia elliptic or globose, cells uniform 

Stemphyliopsis 18:561 

II. Hyphae little branched ; conidia six-lobed and sarciniform, central cell larger, 

colored, lobes hyaline Synthetospora 11:608 

Staurosporae 

4:230, 10:567, 11:608, 14:1067, 16:1049, 18:559 
Conidia hyaline or bright-colored, stellate, radiate or forked, septate or continuous 



146 



DEMATIACEAE 



I. Hyphae lacking; conidia trident-shaped Tridentaria 4: 231 

II. Hyphae present 

1. Conidia globose to cylindric, permanently attached to 2-3 divergent sterigmata 

Tetracladium 14:1067 

2. Conidia themselves stellate or radiate 

a. Conidia bilobate- forked ; lobes parallel, contiguous 

Pedilospora 18:559 

b. Conidia narrowly digitate Prismaria 4:230 

c. Conidia 3-4-radiate 

(1) Conidia ciliate at the apex Titaea 4:231 

(2) Conidia muticate 

(a) Conidia 3-radiate Trinacrium 4: 231 

(b) Conidia 4-radiate 

x. Fertile hyphae very short, simple 

Tetracium 18: 560 
y. Fertile hyphae branched Lemonniera 14: 1067 

Helicosporae 

4:233, 10: 568, 11 :6o8 

Conidia hyaline or bright-colored, spirally curved, cylindric 

I. Hyphae very short; conidia spiral Helicomyces 4: 233 

II. Hyphae various; conidia spirally twisted into a conic or ovate tube 

Helicoum n : 609 

Family 76. DEMATIACEAE 

Hyphae dark or black, cobwebby, loose, usually rigid, not cohering in definite 
fascicles ; conidia typically dark and concolorous, but sometimes the hyphae are 
dark and conidia clear, or the conidia dark and the hyphae clear. This family is 
parallel with the Moniliaceae and certain intermediate forms must be sought in 
both places. 

Amerosporae 

2:235, 10:569, 11:610, 14:1068, 16:1059, 18:563 

Conidia dark, or sometimes hyaline but the hyphae then dark, 1 -celled, globose to 

oblong. 

Micronemeae 

Hyphae very short or scarcely different from the conidia. 

I. Conidia not in chains 

1. Conidia globose to elliptic 

a. Sterile hyphae nearly obsolete Coniosporium 4:238 

b. Sterile hyphae elongate Cordelia 10:586 

2. Conidia elongate, usually fusoid Fusella 4:246 

II. Conidia in chains 

1. Conidia of two sorts, larger catenate, smaller glomerate 

Heterobotrys 4:267 

2. Conidia all alike 



AMEROSPORAE x 47 

a. Hyphae dark 

(i) Chains breaking up readily 

(a) Conidia globose or ovoid Torula 4: 247 

(b) Conidia clavate Gongromeriza 4:263 
(2) Chains breaking up with difficulty 

(a) Chains curved Gyroceras 4: 266 

(b) Chains straight or nearly so Hormiscium 4: 263 

b. Hyphae hyaline Torulina 18: 566 

III. Conidia in heads or racemes; conidia usually piriform 

Echinobotryum 4:268 

Macronemeae 

Hyphae manifest and distinct from the conidia 

I. Conidia dark, rarely subhyaline 
I. Conidia not in chains 
a. Conidia capitate 

(1) Fertile hyphae simple, but often with short apical branches 

(a) Hyphae with apical branches or basidia 

x. Biophilous Periconiella 4: 275 

y. Saprophilous 

(x) Apex with heterogeneous basidia 
m. Apex swollen; basidia 3-4 Haplobasidium 10:578 
n. Apex not swollen ; basidia many 

Stachybotrys 4: 269 
(y) Apex short-branched, rarely simple 
m. Apex short-branched or simple 

(m) Apex not swollen Periconia 4: 270 

(n) Apex swollen Stachybotryella 18:570 

n. Apex capitate-branched; branches 2-3-furcate and spine-bearing 

Cephalotrichum 4:275 

(b) Hyphae without apical branches or basidia 

x. Conidia globose Trichobotrys 18:571 

y. Conidia boat-shaped curved ; hyphae dark-ringed 

Camptoum 4: 276 
z. Conidia fusoid, sometimes subhyaline 

Acrotheca 4: 276 
(2) Fertile hyphae branched below the apex 

(a) Hyphae forked below apex ; conidia oblong 

Synsporium 4:278 

(b) Hyphae repeatedly dichotomous ; conidia globose or elliptic 

Dicyma 18:570 
b. Conidia verticillate-pleurogenous 

(1) Hyphae dark nodose-inflated; conidia ovoid 

Gonatobotryum 4: 278 

(2) Hyphae hyaline, dark-ringed 

(a) Conidia globose-angulose Goniosporium 4:280 

(b) Conidia fusoid Arthrinium 4: 279 



148 DEMATIACEAE 

c. Conidia inserted irregularly 

(i) Hyphae loose, typically saprogenous 

(a) Hyphae vesiculose-inflated here and there 
x. Conidia-bearing vesicles pleurogenous 

Oedemium 4: 297 
y. Conidia-bearing vesicles acrogenous 

Cystophora 4:298 

(b) Hyphae not vesiculose-inflated 
x. Fertile hyphae erect 

(x) Branches circinate at apex; conidia mesogenous, muricate 

Acrospira 4:282, 14:1056 
(y) Branches spirally twisted; conidia exogenous 

Streptothrix 4: 282 
(z) Hyphae simple or with straight branches 

Virgaria 4: 280 
y. All hyphae more or less creeping 
(x) Branches curved or lash-like 

Campsotrichum 4:295 
(y) Branches not curved 
m. Conidia spiny, rarely smooth 

Zygodesmus 4:283 
n. Conidia smooth 

(m) Conidia sessile Trichosporium 4: 288 

(n) Conidia on stalks or basidia 
r. Conidia on tooth-like sterigmata 

Rhinocladium 4: 295 

s. Conidia on jar-like basidia 

Basisporium 18:533 
(2) Hyphae forming a crust, biogenous 

Glenospora 4: 298 
d. Conidia solitary, acrogenous 
(1) Fertile hyphae simple 

(a) Sterile hyphae lacking 

x. Fertile hyphae short and fascicled at base 

Hadrotrichum 4: 301 
y. Fertile hyphae longer, separate Monotospora 4:299 

(b) Sterile hyphae present 

x. Conidia with a loose hyaline membrane 

fPhaeoconis 18:571 
(Nigrospora) 
y. Conidia without a membrane 

(x) Conidia with a large shining gutta 

Sporoglena 14: 1074 
(y) Conidia without a shining gutta 

Acremoniella 4:302 
(inch Cordelia 10:586) 



AMEROSPORAE 149 

(2) Hyphae branched ; conidium at first enclosed in a vesicle from which 
it escapes at the apex Conioscypha 18: 572 

2. Conidia in chains 

a. Sterile hyphae all creeping or obsolete 

(1) Conidia of two kinds; larger catenulate fuscous, smaller internal catenu- 

late cylindric hyaline Thielaviopsis 11: 612 

(2) Conidia all alike 

(a) Conidia produced in the hyphae Sporendonema 10:515 

(b) Conidia produced on the hyphae 

x. Fertile hyphae spirally twisted, forming a head of conidia 

Helicocephalum 10:512 
y. Fertile hyphae not twisted 

(x) Fertile hyphae simple, not branched at tip 
m. Chains of conidia lateral Dematium 4: 308 

n. Chains terminal 

(m) Conidia without isthmi Catenularia 4:303 
(n) Conidia connected by cylindric isthmi 

Prophytroma 4:309 
(y) Fertile hyphae branched 
m. Hyphae dendroid Hormodendrum 4: 310 

n. Hyphae capitate branched at tip 

Haplographium 4: 304 

b. Some sterile hyphae erect and mixed with the fertile 

Hormiactella 4:311 

II. Conidia hyaline or subhyaline 

1. Conidia acrogenous on short heteromorphic basidia at the lower part or at the 
base of erect hyphae 

a. Conidia capitate glomerate 

(1) Sterile hyphae simple and circinate at apex 

Bolacotricha 4:316 

(2) Sterile hyphae much branched below 

Myxotrichum 4:317 

b. Conidia not capitate 
(1) Conidia solitary 

(a) Erumpent ; conidia fusoid, usually setose 

Ellisiella 4: 315 

(b) Superficial 

x. Sterile hyphae simple 

(x) Conidia globose Botryotrichum 4: 313 

(y) Conidia bacillar 
m. Sterile hyphae tortuous Sarcopodium 4:312 

n. Sterile hyphae circinate at apex 

Helicotrichum 4:313 
y. Sterile hyphae branched 

(x) Hyphae irregularly branched; basidia verticillate 

Costantinella 16: 1054 
(y) Hyphae repeatedly dichotomous 



1 5 o DEMATIACEAE 

m. Branches continuous; basidia terete, basal 

Circinotrichum 4:314 
n. Branches septate; basidia ampulliform, above base 

Ceratocladium 4:315 
(2) Conidia loosely catenate ; conidia basilar, ovoid 

Stirochaete 4: 316 
2. Conidia on hyphae of the same kind 

a. Conidia solitary, neither catenate or capitate 

(1) Hyphae erect, simple 

(a) Hyphae with a single lateral basidium near base 

Zygosporium 4:328 

(b) Hyphae with pleurogenous conidia 

Chloridium 4: 320 

(2) Hyphae branched 

(a) Hyphae erect, smooth 

x. Hyphae verticillate branched Verticicladium 4: 327 

y. Hyphae more or less irregularly branched 

(x) Conidia ovoid Mesobotrys 4:324 

(y) Conidia cylindric Chaetopsis 4:324 

(z) Conidia falcate, sometimes ciliate 

Menispora 4:325 

(b) Hyphae somewhat decumbent, more or less spiny 
x. Hyphae nodose-spiny here and there 

Gonytrichum 4:329 
y. Hyphae spiny but not swollen Cladorrhinum 4:330 

b. Conidia capitate 

(1) Hyphae simple, with basidia only at the tip 

(a) Conidia globose 

x Basidia verticillate Fuckelina 4: 330 

y. Basidia irregular Pimina 16:1054 

(b) Conidia ovoid, mucose Scopularia 4:330 

(2) Hyphae more or less verticillate branched 

Stachylidium 4:331 

c. Conidia catenate, arising within the hyphae 

(1) Conidia in simple chains Chalara 4:333 

(2) Conidia conglutinate into a long curl 

Cirromyces 18:627 

Didymosporae 

4 : 341. 10 : 595. 1 1 : 616, 14 : 1077, 16 : 1056. 18 : 575 
Conidia i-celled, dark, more rarely hyaline, ovoid to oblong 

Micronemeae 
Hyphae very short or scarcely different from the conidia. 
I. Conidia not in chains 

1. Hyphae lacking Dicoccum 4: 342 

2. Hyphae present, circinate Cycloconium 4:343 
H. Conidia in chains Bispora 4:343 



PHRAGMOSPORAE 151 

Macronemeae 
Hyphae distinctly different from the conidia 

I. Conidia smooth, muticate 

1. Conidia not capitate 

a. Conidia more or less catenulate at first 

(1) Hyphae and conidia biform, the latter i-celled dark or continuous hyaline 

Epochnium 4:375 

(2) Hyphae and conidia uniform 

(a) Hyphae here and there inflated Cladotrichum 4:370 

(b) Hyphae not inflated 

x. Hyphae erect; conidia long-catenate 

Diplococcium 4:374 

y. Hyphae somewhat decumbent; conidia short-catenate or finally solitary 

Cladosporium 4:350 

b. Conidia not catenate 

(1) Hyphae beautifully flexuose-torulose 

Polythrincium 4: 350 

(2) Hyphae not torulose or flexuose 

(a) Hyphae inflated at tip, branched 

Pseudobeltrania 18:578 

(b) Hyphae not inflated, usually short and little branched 
x. Conidia merely acrogenous Fusicladium 4:345 

(inch Passalora 4:344) 
y. Conidia acro-pleurogenous Scolecotrichum 4:347 

2. Conidia capitate Cordana 4:376 

II. Conidia muriculate or ciliate 

1. Conidia muriculate Trichocladium 4: 376 

2. Conidia ciliate at apex ; fertile and sterile hyphae intermixed 

Beltrania 4: 377 

Phragmosporae 

4:380, 10:606, 11:621, 14:1082, 16:1060, 18:581 

Conidia .?-several-septate, dark, rarely hyaline, ovoid to cylindric or vermicular 

Micronemeae 
Fertile hyphae very short or little different from the conidia 

I. Conidia not in chains 

1. Conidia muticate 

a. Conidia united at base, fasciculate, cylindric 

Cryptocoryneum 4*395 

b. Conidia separate 

(1) Conidia ovoid to cylindric 

(a) Saprogenous Clasterosporium 4: 382 

(b) Phyllogenous Stigmina 4: 394 

(2) Conidia fusoid-falcate Fusariella 4:395 

2. Conidia cuspidate or setose 



DEMATIACEAE 

a Hyphae dichotomous and broadened at apex 

Urosporium 4:397 

h Hvnhae not dichotomous or broadened 

•^ Ceratophorum 4:395 

II Conidia in chains 

I Conidia not connected by isthmi Septonema 4=397 

2. Conidia connected by isthmi Polydesmus 4: 401 

Macronemeae 
Fertile hyphae distinctly different from the conidia 
I. Conidia solitary or nearly so, acrogenous for the most part 

1. Conidia muticate 

a. Conidia echinulate Heterosporium 4:480 

b. Conidia smooth 

(1) Biophilous 

(a) Hyphae creeping, radiate Ophiotrichum 10:617 

(b) Hyphae ascending or erect 

x. Conidia ovoid to oblong Napicladium 4: 481 

(inch Cercosporidium 18:594) 
y. Conidia filiform or vermicular Cercospora 4:431 

(2) Saprophilous 

(a) Hyphae rigid ; conidia ovoid to elongate 

x. Conidia ovoid Brachysporium 4:423 

y. Conidia elongate Helminthosporium 4: 402 

(b) Hyphae flexuous, pannose Drepanospora 4: 430 

2. Conidia 1-3-ciliate at apex Camposporium 4:482 

II. Conidia verticillate or capitate 

1. Hyphae dark 

a. Conidia acrogenous, forming a head 

(1) Hyphae simple Acrothecium 4: 483 

(2) Hyphae branched at the apex Atractina 18:584 

b. Conidia pleurogenous, somewhat verticillate 

(1) Hyphae rostrate and naked at apex 

Rhynchomyces 18:584 

(2) Hyphae not rostrate at apex Spondylocladium 4:482 

2. Hyphae hyaline or bright-colored, apex denticulate 

Neomichelia 18:593 

III. Conidia catenate as a rule 

1. Conidia arising from the interior of the hyphae 

Sporoschisma 4:486 

2. Conidia arising from the apex, sometimes solitary 

Dendryphium 4: 487 

Dictyosporae 

4:406, 10:665. 11:632, 14:1000. 16:1075. 18:612 

Conidia dark, rarely hyaline, muriform, globose to oblong 



DICTYOSPORAE 153 

Micronemeae 

Hyphae very short or scarcely different from the conidia 

I. Conidia not in chains 
I. Conidia muticate 

a. Conidia irregularly muriform or sarciniform 

(1) Conidia with a conic point at each side 

Oncopodium 18: 616 

(2) Conidia muticate 

(a) Conidia globose to oblong 

x. Conidia ovoid to oblong, loose Sporodesmium 4:497 
y. Conidia globose to ovoid, aggregated 

Stigmella 4: 507 

(b) Conidia sarciniform, often coalescent 

Coniothecium 4: 508 

b. Conidia as if composed of parallel chains of cells 

(1) Chains of conidia never separating 

Dictyosporium 4:513 

(2) Chains of conidia separating Spira 4:514 

2. Conidia corniculate at apex Tetraploa 4:516 

II. Conidia in chains, often asperate or with isthmi 

Sirodesmium 4:516 

Macronemeae 

Hyphae distinctly different from the conidia 

I. Conidia of the same form 

1. Conidia not in chains or capitate 

a. Conidia bearing little conidia on their surface 

Xenosporium 18:612 

b. Conidia normal 

(1) Hyphae alike 

(a) Conidia cruciate-divided, verrucose 

fTetracoccosporis 18:617 
(Tetracoccosporium) 

(b) Conidia muriform, typically smooth 

x. Hyphae decumbent Stemphylium 4: 519 

y. Hyphae erect or ascending 

(x) Conidia globose, pleurogenous 
m. Conidia around the apex of the hyphae 

Coccosporium 4: 542 
n. Conidia conglobate around the base 

Trichaegum 4:542 
(y) Conidia ovoid to oblong, mostly acrogenous 

Macrosporium 4:523 

(incl. Mystrosporium 4:539) 

(2) Hyphae of two kinds, longer sterile, shorter fertile 

Septosporium 4:543 

2. Conidia capitate Dactylosporium 4:545 



154 STILBACEAE 

3. Conidia catenate 

a. Hyphae velvety, erect, subsimple ; conidia caudate 

Alternaria 4: 545 

b. Hyphae crustose, various; conidia 2-celled; conidia-like ganglia sarciniform 

Fumago 4:547 
II. Conidia of two forms, dark sarciniform and subhyaline falcate 

Sarcinella 4: 548 

Staurosporae 

4: 55_'. 11 1639, 14: 1 1 07, 16: 1 181. 18:625 

Conidia forked or stellate, usually dark, septate or continuous 

I. Conidia of two forms, small fusoid hyaline, large lobate many-celled, brown 

Desmidiospora 10:568 

II. Conidia alike 

1. Fertile hyphae present; conidia 3-4-radiate 

Triposporium 4:554 

2. Fertile hyphae lacking 

a. Conidia on a cellular stroma, 2-4-digitate 

Chiromyces 4: 554 

b. Cellmar stroma lacking 

(1) Conidia 3-several-radiate ; xylogenous 

Ceratosporium 4: 552 

(2) Conidia 2-radiate; phyllogenous Hirudinaria 4:553 

Scolecosporae 
Conidia long-filiform or vermicular 
One genus Cercospora 4: 431, 14: 1099 

Helicosporae 
4:557, 10:680, 11:638, 14:1107, 16:1081, 18:624 

Conidia cylindric, spiral or convolute, typically septate, dark or hyaline 

I. Hyphae obsolete Helicopsis 10: 680 

II. Hyphae present 

1. Conidia septate transversely Helicosporium 4: 557 

2. Conidia muriform Helicoma 11:638 

Family 77. STILBACEAE 

Sterile hyphae creeping, scanty; fertile hyphae collected into stalk-like or stroma- 
like fascicles bearing conidia at the top, more rarely along the side, pale, bright- 
colored or dark. 

Hyalostilbae 
Hyphae and conidia pale or bright-colored, not dark or black 

Amerosporae 
4:561, 10:681, 11:640, 14:1107, 16:1082, 18:630 

Conidia globose, elliptic or oblong, 1 -celled, hyaline or pale, or bright-colored 
I. Conidial part distinctly capitate or at least terminal 



HYALOSTILBAE 155 

1. Conidia not in chains 

a. Head of conidia not gaping or splitting above 

(1) Head not spiny 

(a) Conidiophores of head normal 
x. Conidia covered with mucus 

(x) Synnema monocephalous 
m. Conidiophores dendroid-verticillate 
(m) Without distinct sterigmata 

Dendrostilbella 18:635 
(n) With obpiriform sterigmata 

Pirobasidium 18:638 
n. Conidiophores not dendroid-verticillate 

Stilbum 4: 564 
(y) Synnema polycephalous 
m. Capitula on extremely short branches 

Polycephalum 4:575 
n. Capitula on spreading subulate branches 

Tilachlidium 4:576 
o. Capitula on erect branches Corallodendrum 4: 576 
y. Conidia without mucus 
(x) Synnema monocephalous 
m. Conidiophores spirally twisted 

Martindalia 4: 578 
n. Conidiophores more or less straight 
(m) Conidia rhombic or biconic 

Rhombostilbella 18:636 
(n) Conidia globose to fusoid 

Ciliciopodium 4: 577 

(incl. Clavularia 10:686) 
(y) Synnema polycephalous 
m. Terrestrial, large, 1-2 cm. ; conidia ovoid 

Macrostilbum 16: 1083 
n. Small, not terrestrial ; conidia elongate-ovate 

Chondromyces 4:576 

(b) Conidiophores conidium-like, septate ; monocephalous 

Atractiella 4: 578 

(2) Head spiny with radiating spicules 

(a) Spicules conic, granulate Actiniceps 4: 579 

(b) Spicules with many curved branches at middle 

Heterocephalum 18:642 

b. Head of conidia persistent below, splitting above 

Pilacre 4: 579 

2. Conid'a in chains 

a. Synnema with conidia above ; conidia without mucus 

(1) Synnema not pubescent Coremium 4: 581 

(incl. Pritzeliella 18:644) 

(2) Synnema pubescent Lasioderma 4: 584 

b. Synnema with conidia below ; conidia with mucus 

Microspatha 10:687 



156 STILBACEAE 

II. Conidial part cylindric or long-clavate 
i. Conidia more or less equally scattered 

a. Biophilous; sterigmata denticulate branched 

Cladosterigma 11:640 

b. Saprophilous ; sterigmata none or simple 

Isaria 4: 584 
2. Conidia in lateral heads or racemes 

a. Conidia in racemes; synnema lobate Peribotryum 4:595 

b. Conidia in heads 

(1) Conidiophores with lateral nodes, usually escaping through the stomata 

Helostroma 18:630 

(2) Conidiophores without nodes, usually entomophilous 

Gibellula 11: 643 

Didymosporae 
18 : 645 

Conidia 2-celled, hyaline, globose to oblong 

I. Synnema cylindric, fimbriate at apex ; conidia oblong 

Didymobotryopsis 18:645 

II. Synnema capitate; conidia fusoid Didymostilbe 18: 645 

Phragmosporae 

4:598, 10:691, 14:1109, 18:646 

Conidia 2-several-septate, hyaline, oblong to bacillar 

I. Conidia solitary 

1. Conidia bacillar, aristate above, separating at joints 

Stilbomyces 14: 1109 

2. Conidia not aristate or separating 

a. Conidia oblong Arthrosporium 4: 598 

b. Conidia elongate-falcate Atractium 4:599 

II. Conidia catenate, cylindric Symphyosira 4: 600 

Helicosporae 

18:658 

Conidia filiform, spirally twisted 

I. Synnema erect, setose Helicostilbe 18: 657 

Phaeostilbae 
Hyphae and conidia or one or the other dark 

Amerosporae 

4:603, 10:692, 11:643, 14:1109, 16:1086, 18:648 

Conidia 1 -celled, dark, globose to elongate 

I. Conidia not in chains 

1. Synnema setose Saccardaea 11:643 

2. Synnema naked 

a. Conidia asperate, on minute basidia Basidiella 10:698 



PHAEOSTILBAE 157 

b. Conidia smooth 

(i) Synnema carnose, racemose-branched 

Stilbothamnium 14: 11 10 
(2) Synnema fibrous or corneous, not racemose 

(a) Basidia lageniform Ceratocladium 18:649 

(b) Basidia lacking, at least not lageniform 
x. Synnema stalked, fibrous 

(x) Conidia dark, globose to elliptic 

Sporocybe 4: 604 
(y) Conidia hyaline 
m. Conidia ovoid to oblong Graphium 4: 609 

n. Conidia elongate or falcate Harpographium 4:619 
y. Synnema sessile, corneous Glutinium 4: 620 

II. Conidia in chains 

1. Synnema setose Trichurus 14: 1112 

2. Synnema not setose 

a. Stalk scopulate branched above Stemmaria 10:696 

b. Stalk simple or nearly so 
(1) Capitule loose 

(a) Base of synnema subequal ; usually on stems 

Stysanus 4: 620 

(b) Base of synnema perithecioid ; usually on leaves 

Graphiothecium 4:624 
(.2) Capitule compact 

(a) Conidia globose 

x. Conidia echinulate Harpocephalum 14: 1111 
y. Conidia smooth 

(x) Conidia pleurogenous Heydenia 4:625 

(y) Conidia acrogenous Briosia 10: 698 

(b) Conidia ovoid to oblong Antromycopsis 14: 1113 

Didymosporae 

4:626, 10:699, 18:654 

Conidia i-septate, dark or hyaline, oblong to cylindric 

I. Conidia muticate Didymobotryum 4: 626 

II. Conidia i-ciliate at apex Hoehneliella 18:654 

Phragmosporae 

4:627, 10:699, 11:644, 14:1113- 16:1089, 18:655 
Conidia 2-several-septate, dark or hyaline, oblong to cylindric 
I. Conidia capitate 

1. Synnema simple 

a. Synnema black; conidia densely capitate 

Arthrobotryum 4:628 

b. Synnema fuscous or pale ; conidia loosely capitate 

Isariopsis 4: 630 

2. Synnema dendroid branched Xylocladium 16: 1089 



1 58 TUBERCULARIACEAE 

II. Conidia not capitate 
i. Conidia catenulate Dendrographium n: 644 

2. Conidia not catenulate 

a. Stalk fibrous 

(1) Synnema simple or branched: conidia acro-plcurogenous 

Podosporium 4: 627 

(2) Synnema branched; conidia acrogenous 

Negeriella 14: 1114 

b. Stalk parenchyma-like 

(1) Conidia pleurogenous, on a disk Riccoa 18:656 

(2) Conidia acrogenous Podosporella 11:644 

Dictyosporae 

4:632 

Conidia muriform, dark or hyaline, oblong 
I. Synnema stalked, capitate Sclerographium 4:632 

Staurosporae 
I. Conidia of 4-5-radiate cells, hyaline Riessia 4: 627 

Family 78. TUBERCULARIACEAE 
Hyphae compacted into a globose, discoid or verruciform body or sporodochium ; 
sporodochia typically sessile, waxy or subgelatinous ; white, bright-colored or dark 
to black. 

Mucedinae 

Hyphae and conidia white or bright-colored 

Amerosporae 
4:635, 10:700, 11:645. I4 :II1 5. 16:1090, 18:658 
Conidia hyaline or bright-colored, i-celled, globose to fusoid 
I. Sporodochia smooth or nearly so 
1. Conidiophores normal 
a. Conidia muticate 

(1) Conidia not covered with mucus 
(a) Conidia not acrogenous capitate 
x. Sporodochium girt by a heterogeneous cup 

Patellina 4: 677 
y. Sporodochium without a heterogeneous cup 
(x) Cunidia not catenate or scarcely so 
m. Conidia escaping from interior of hyphae 

(m) Conidiophores branched Endoconidium 10: 708 
(n) Conidiophores simple Trichotheca 10: 714 

n. Conidia arising on outside of hyphae 
(m) Conidiophores lacking 
r. Conidia large, pellucid 

(r) Conidia globose Sphaerosporium 4: 664 

(s) Conidia oval Diaphanium 4:672 

s. Conidia small, not pellucid 

Pactilia 4: 672 



MUCEDINAE 159 

(n) Conidiophores present 
r. Conidia pleurogenous or acro-pleurogenous 
(r) Conidia globose Beniowskia 16: 1091 

(s) Conidia ovoid to oblong 

Tubercularia 4: 638 
(t) Conidia fusoid to cylindric 

Fusicolla 4: 664 
s. Conidia acrogenous 

(r) Conidiophores verrucose 

Dacrymycella 4:671 
(s) Conidiophores not verrucose 
h. Uredinicole Tuberculina 4: 653 

i. Not uredinicole . > i 

(h) Sporodochia globose 
+. Conidia globose ; conidiophores short 

Aegerita 4: 661 
— . Conidia ovoid ; conidiophores branched 

Granularia 4: 649 
(i) Sporodochia pulvinate 
+. Conidia acicular ' » 

Kmetia 16: 1158 
— . Conidia terete-oblong 

Bactridiopsis 18:662 
(j) Sporodochia disk-shaped, or cupulate 
+. Sporodochia disk-shaped 

Hymenula 4: 667 
(Hymenella 16: 1105) 
— . Sporodochia cupulate 

Hyphostereum 11: 649 
(k) Sporodochia verruciform or effuse 
+. Conidiophores simple 

( + ) Conidiophores radiate, united at base 
Clinoconidium 16: 1093 
( — ) Conidiophores not united or radiate 
Sphacelia 4: 666 
— . Conidiophores dendroid branched 

Dendrodochium 4:650 
(y) Conidia in chains 
m. Conidia covered with mucus 

Collodochium 18:661 
n. Conidia without mucus 
(m) Conidia globose 
r. Conidia hyaline Sphaerocolla 11:648 

s. Conidia blue Sporoderma 4:676 

(n) Conidia elliptic to oblong 
r. Sporodochium disk-shaped, orange-red 

Necator 16: 1094 
s. Sporodochium subglobose, whitish 

Patouillardia 4:677 



160 TUBERCULARIACEAE 

(o) Conidia cylindric 
r. Sporodochium dilated above, stalked 

Bizzozeriella 10:716 
s. Sporodochia globose to verruciform 
(r) Sporodocbia gelatinous, sessile 

Cylindrocolla 4: 673 
(s) Sporodochia not gelatinous, short-stalked 

Sphaeridium 4: 675 
(b) Conidia acrogenous capitate; sporodochia turbinate 

Cephalodochium 4:678 
(2) Conidia covered with mucus 

(a) Sporodochium globose, hardened 

Thecospora 4: 679 

(b) Sporodochia verruciform or discoid, gelatinous or waxy 
-x. Sporodochia verruciform or subeffuse 

Illosporium 4:656 

(incl. Myxonema 10: 714) 
y. Sporodochia discoid Epidochiopsis 11:648 

b. Conidia ciliate 

(1) Conidia i-ciliate at base only Stigmatella 4:679 

(2) Conidia ciliate at both ends 

(a) Conidia i-ciliate at each end Thozetia 4: 679 

(b) Conidia 7-8-ciliate at each end Chaetospermum 10: 706 
2. Conidiophores with internal conidia-bearing areoles 

Scoriomyces 4:680 

II. Sporodochia setulose, ciliate or uniformly woolly 

1. Sporodochia woolly or setulose 

a. Sporodochia setulose ; conidia catenate 

Periola 4: 681 

b. Sporodochia woolly or velvet}'; conidia capitate 

(i) Conidia globose Dacryodochium 14: 1122 

(2) Conidia oblong Lachnodochium 14: 1122 

2. Sporodochia ciliate at the margin 

a. Sporophores none; conidia coacervate Volutellaria 4:682 

b. Sporophores distinct 

(1) Conidia in chains Volutina 18:667 

(2) Conidia not in chains 

(a) Coniilii iph< >rcs 6-ciliate above, united below 

Guelichia 10: 720 

(b) Conidiophores not ciliate or united 

Volutella 4:682 

Didymosporac 
4:690. 10:721, 18:668 

Conidia i-septate, hyaline or bright-colored 

I. Conidia in chains 

1. Sporodochia setulose Endodesmia 4: 691 

2. Sporodochia smooth Gymnodochium 18:668 



MUCEDINAE 161 

II. Conidia not in chains 
i. Sporodochia setulose Leptotrichum 4: 690 

2. Sporodochia smooth 

a. Conidia verrucose Cosmariospora 4: 690 

b. Conidia smooth Patouillardiella 10: 721 

Phragmosporae 

4:691, 10:721, 11:649, 14:1123, 16:1097, 18:669 

Conidia 2-several-septate, hyaline or bright-colored, fusoid 

to falcate (in Fusarium sometimes short and simple). 

I. Conidia somewhat catenate, cylindric Discocolla 11:653 

II. Conidia rarely catenate 

1. Conidia cruciately 4-celled ; sporodochium gelatinous 

Sarcinodochium 18:677 

2. Conidia not cruciate 

a. Conidiophores short, simple 

(1) Conidia very large, terete-oblong Bactridium 4: 691 

(2) Conidia doliiform Pithomyces 4: 693 

b. Conidiophores more or less branched 

(1) Conidiophores dichotomous ; conidia key-like 

Heliscus 4: 693 

(2) Conidiophores usually verticillately branched ; conidia usually falcate, 

sometimes oblong 

(a) Sporodochium gelatinous Pionnotes 4: 725 

(b) Sporodochium waxy or byssoid Fusarium 4: 694 

(incl. Microcera 4: 727) 

Dictyosporae 

18 : 676 
Conidia muriform, hyaline, subglobose 
I. Sporodochia globose Sporocystis 18:676 

Staurosporae 

4: 728, 16: 1 104, 18: 677 
Conidia forked or cruciate, hyaline or bright-colored 

I. Conidiophores simple ; conidia horseshoe-like 

Lituaria 4: 728 

II. Conidiophores branched 

1. Conidia with short irregular branches or lobes 

Aegeritopsis 18:677 

2. Conidia forked or cruciate 

a. Conidia 2-forked, septate Dicranidium 4:728 

b. Conidia 3-forked or subcruciate, continuous 

Triglyphium 4:728 

Helicosporae 

4:729, 10:732, 11:653, 18:678 
Conidia spirally convolute 



tfc TUBERCULARIACEAE 

I. Conidiophores lacking Everhartia 4: 729 

II. Conidiophores present 

1. Conidia continuous Troposporium 4: 729 

2. Conidia septate Hobsonia 11: 653 

Dematiae 
Hyphae olive, to brown or black; conidia concolorous, rarely hyaline 

Amerosporae 
4:736, 10:732, 11:654, 14:11-29, 16:1104, 18:678 

Conidia i-celled, globose to elongate, sometimes unequal 

I. Conidia not in chains 

1. Sporodochia not setose 

a. Conidiophores lacking 

(1) Lichenicole Spilomium 18:678 

(2) Not lichenicole 

(a) Sporodochia gelatinous; conidia globose, vesiculose 

Myriophysa 4: 742 

(b) Sporodochia not gelatinous 

x. Sporodochia hemispheric, with a stratum of conidia 

Spermodermia 4: 742 
y. Sporodochia disk-like, applanate Sclerodiscus 10:735 

b. Conidiophores present 

(1) Sporodochia thick, tremelloid Epidochium 4: 747 

(2) Sporodochia not tremelloid 

(a) Conidiophores with a slender apical appendage; conidia globose 

Bonplandiella 10: 732 

(b) Conidiophores not appendaged 
x. Conidia globose 

(x) Sporodochia cellular, uniform 

Epicoccum 4: 736 
(y) Sporodochia of three hyphal layers 

Triplicaria 10:734 
y. Conidia ovoid to bacillar 

(x) Conidiophores bacillar; sporodochia subdiscoid 

Hymenopsis 4: 744 
(y) Conidiophores branched 
m. Xo brown radiate hyphae at base 

Strumella 4:742 
n. Brown radiate hyphae at base 

Astrodochilum 14: 11 17 

2. Sporodochia ciliate or with exserted hypae 

a. Sporodochia with loose exserted conidiophores, verruciform 

Trichostroma 4: 752 

b. Sporodochia margined with hairs or setae 

(1) Setae dark Chaetostroma 4: 749 

(2) Setae or hairs white Myrothecium 4: 750 



DEMATIAE 

II. Conidia in chains 

1. Conidiophores lacking Exosporina 18:684 

2. Conidiophores present 

a. Sporodochium tremelloid *Hormodochis 4: 749 

b. Sporodochium not tremelloid 

(1) Sporodochium ciliate *Chaetodochis 4: 750 

(2) Sporodochium not ciliate 

(a) Sporodochia globose Sphaeromyces 4: 753 

(b) Sporodochia stellate Actinomma 4: 753 

Didymosporae 

4:754, 10:737, 16:1105, 18:684 

Conidia i-septate, typically dark, elliptic to fusoid 

I. Sporodochia lichenicole, globose Sclerococcum 4:754 

II. Sporodochia not lichenicole 

1. Sporodochia foliicole 

a. Sporodochia annuliform asteroid Hyphaster 18:685 

b. Sporodochia subglobose Pucciniopsis 10: 737 

2. Sporodochia lignicole Epiclinium 4: 754 

Phragmosporae 

4:755, 10:738, 11:656, 14:1131, 16:1106, 18:685 
Conidia 2-several-septate, usually colored, oblong to cylindric 

I. Conidia in chains; sporodochium discoid Trimmatostroma 4: 757 

II. Conidia not in chains 

1. Conidia i-ciliate at each end Ciliofusarium 11 : 656 

2. Conidia muticate 

a. Sporodochium hairy Excipularia 18: 688, 3: 689 

b. Sporodochium smooth 

(1) Conidia laterally proliferate and joined in bundles 

Amallospora 14: 1131 

(2) Conidia not proliferate and united 

(a) Sporodochia convex-pulvinate Exosporium 4: 755 

(b) Sporodochia vertically cylindric or clavate 

Listeromyces 18:685 

Dictyosporae 

4:758, 10:739, 11:656, 14:1131- 16:1107, 18:689 
Conidia muriform, usually dark 

I. Conidia in chains Bonordeniella 18:689 

II. Conidia not in chains 

1. Sporodochia setulose Chaetostromella 11: 656 

2. Sporodochia smooth Spegazzinia 4: 758 

Scolecosporae 

18 : 689 
Conidia filiform, hyaline 
I. Sporodochia globose, setulose Schizotrichum 18: 688 



i6 4 STERILE MYCELTA 

Staurosporae 

4:753 
Conidia angulose-stellate, hyaline 

I. Sporodochia scutellate, pilose Stephanoma 4:753 

Helicosporae 

1 1 : 654 
Conidia spirally twisted, smoky 

I. Sporodochia pulvinate Troposporella 11:654 

Sterile Mycelia 

14: 113S, 16: 1 108, 18: 690 

Conidia permanently absent so far as known 

I. Parasitic on algae Lepraria, Pulveraria, etc. Z. 239 

II. Xot parasitic on algae 

1. Tubercle-like 

a. Tubercles connected with fibrils Rhizoctonia 14:1175 

(Coccobotrys 16: 1108) 
b. Tubercles without fibrils 

(1) Cortex discrete Acinula 14: 11 74 

(2) Cortex not discrete Sclerotium 14: 1139 

2. Maculiform ; black stromata in leaves and stems 

Ectostroma 14: 1177 

3. Root-like 

a. Filaments rigid, broad, terete or depressed, dark, white within 

Rhizomorpha 14: 1180 

b. Filaments rigid, capilliform, dark, closely adhering 

Capillar ia 14: 11 84 

4. Clavariform ; filaments terete, vertical, simple or branched 

Anthina 14: 1184 

5. Cobwebby or byssoid 

a. Cespitose interwoven, primary hyphae joined in bundles 

Ozonium 14: 1187 

b. Cespitose interwoven, hyphae not fasciculate, black 

Rhacodium 14:1189 

c. Cobwebby, soft, fleeting, white or pale Hypha 14: 1192 

d. Adpressed, creeping, dendritic, white to brownish, not forming a continuous 

membrane Himantia 14: 1194 

6. Membrane-like; densely interwoven, forming a continuous suberose or coriace- 

ous membrane Xylostroma 14: 1197 

7. Deformed, discolored corky cells of plants 

Phloeoconis 14: 1197 



Key to Spore Sections 



Amerosporae: spores one-celled, not stellate or spiral 

Allantosporae: spores sausage-shaped, mostly clear 

Hyalosporae: spores hyaline or clear, globose to oblong 

Phaeosporae: spores dark, yellow, brown or black, globose to oblong 

Leucosporae : spores clear, rarely faintly colored 

Rhodosporae : spores rose-colored 

Ochrosporae : spores yellow to yellow-brown 

Melanosporae : spores dark purple to black 
Didymosporae: spores i-septate or 2-celled 

Hyalodidymae: spores hyaline, 2-celled 

Phaeodidymae: spores dark, 2-celled 
Phragmosporae : spores few-many-transeptate, 3-many-celled 

Hyalophragmiae: spores hyaline, 3-many-celled 

Phaeophragmiae: spores dark, 3-many-celled 
Dictyosporae: spores septate crosswise and lengthwise, i. e., muriform 

Hyalodictyae: spores hyaline, muriform 

Phaeodictyae: spores dark, muriform 
Scolecosporae: spores needle-shaped to filiform, continuous or septate 

Hyaloscoleciae: spores hyaline, filiform 

Phaeoscoleciae: spores dark, filiform 
Staurosporae : spores stellate or radiate, hyaline or dark, continuous or septate 
Helicosporae: spores spirally twisted, hyaline or dark, continuous or septate 



Guide to the Volumes of Saccardo's "Sylloge Fungorum" 

Volume I. 

Bibiiotheca Mycologica IX-XIX 

Pyrenomycetes: Perisporiaceae, Sphaeriaceae-Phaeodidymae 1-754 

Volume II. 

Pyrenomycetes : Sphaeriaceae-Phaeophragmiae, Hysteriaceae 1-809 

Addenda to Volume I (815) I-LV 

Addenda to Volume II LVI-LXIX 

Index to genera in Volumes I and II 1-10 

Index to species in Volumes I and II n~77 

Volume III. 

Sphaeropsideae 1-695 

Melanconieae 696-807 

Index to genera in Volume III 813-816 

Index to species in Volume III 817-860 

Volume IV. 

Hyphomycetes : Mucedineae-Tubercularieae 1-758 

Index to genera in Volume IV 763-768 

Index to species in Volume IV 769-807 

Additions to Volumes I-IV. 

Pyrenomycetes 1-273 

Sphaeropsideae 285-360 

Melanconieae 361-371 

H yphomycetes 372-392 

Appendix 39 393"445 

Index to genera in this volume 453-457 

Index to species in this volume 459-484 

Volume V. 

Agaricineae 1-1 144 

Index to genera in Volume V 1 145 

Volume VI. 

Hymenomycetes: Polyporaceae-Tremellaceae 1-815 

Index to genera in Volumes V and VI 817-824 

Index to species in Volumes V and VI 825-928 

Volume VII. 

Part 1: — 

Gasteromycetes 1-180 

Phycomycetes 180-322 

Myxomycetes 323-468 



168 GEXERA OF FUNGI 

Additions to Gasteromycetes 469-492 

Index to genera in Volume VI, part 1 I-IV 

Index to species in Volume VII, part 1 V-XXX 

Part 2: — 

Ustilagineae 449-52., 

(Jredineae 528-869 

Index to genera in Volume VII, part 2 XXXI-XXXIII 

index to species in Volume VII, part 2 XXXV-LIX 

Volume VIII. 

Conspectus Systematicus Generalis XIII-XVI 

Discomycetes 3-842 

Phymatosphaeriaceae 843-847 

Onygenaceae 861-862 

Tuberoidcae 86,3-908 

l.aboulbcniaceae 909-915 

Saccharomycetes 916-022 

Schizomycetes 923-1087 

Index to genera in Volume VIII 1089-1095 

Index to species in Volume VI 1 1 1097-1 143 

Volume IX. 

liymenomycetes 1-261 

Gasteromycetes 262-281 

Hypodermieae 282-334 

Phycomycetes 335-303 

Pyrenomycctes 364-1129 

Laboulbeniaceae 1130-1 134 

Index to genera in Volume IX 1135-1 14 ' 

Volume X. 

De nominibus generum VII-IX 

Bibliotheca Mycologica X I-XXX 

Discomycetes 1-79 

Onygenaceae 80 

Tuberoideae So-83 

Myxomycetes 83-99 

Schizomycetes 100 

Sphaeropsideae 100-446 

Melanconieae 446-509 

Hyphomycetes 510-739 

Fossil Fungi 745-808 

Index Universalis to Volumes T-X 841-869 

Index to species in Volumes IX and X 871-964 

Volume XI. 

I [ymenom3 r cetes 1-151 

Gasteromycetes 152-173 

Uypodermieae 174-238 

Phycomycetes 239-251 

Pyrenomycctes 252-390 



GUIDE TO THE SYLLOGE 169 

Discomycetes 39 I_ 439 

Phymatosphaeriaceae 440 

Onygenaceae 44° 

Tuberoideae 44 I_ 445 

Laboulbeniaceae 446-456 

Saccharomycetes 457 _ 459 

Myxobacteria 460-461 

Myxomycetes 462-471 

Sphaeropsideae 472-561 

Melanconieae 562-585 

Hyphomycetes 586-656 

Fossil Fungi 657-659 

Index to species in Volume XI 677-718 

Index Universalis to Volumes I-XI 

Volume XII. 

Index Universalis to genera, species and varieties in Volumes I-XI. 

Abbreviations 

Fungi in living and dead parts of plants 1-858 

Fungi in living and dead parts of man and animals 859-872 

Fungi on dung and artificial substrata (textiles, etc.) 873-902 

Fungi on earth, stones, walls, turf and charcoal 903-1039 

Fossil Fungi 1042-1053 

Volume XIII. 

Abbreviations. 
Host Index to the close of 1897 (Volumes I-XI). 

Volume XIV. 

Table of orders and families 3-4 

Table of spore sections and the genera included in them 5-62 

Hymenomycetes 63-253 

Gasteromycetes 254-268 

Uredinaceae 269-409 

Ustilaginaceae 410-430 

Hyphostomaceae 431 

Phycomycetes 432-461 

Fyrenomycetes 462-724 

Laboulbeniaceae 7-5-737 

Discomycetes 738-825 

Tuberoideae 826-828 

Saccharomycetes 828 

Protomycetes 829-830 

Myxomycetes 831-841 

Myxobacteria 842-844 

Sphaeropsidaceae 844-1003 

Melanconiaceae 1004-1036 

Hyphomycetes 1037-1 132 

Appendix containing some omitted and new species 1 133-1 137 

Sterile Mycelia 1138-1198 



i/O GENERA OE FUXGI 

Index to species in Volume XIV 1219-1272 

Index universalis to Volumes I-XIV 1277-1316 

Volume XV. 
Synonyms of genera, species and varieties in Volumes I-XIV. 

Volume XVI. 

1 1 ymenomycetes 1-223 

Gasteromycetes 224-256 

Uredinaceae 257-366 

Ustilaginaceae 367-382 

Phycomycetes 383-397 

1 yrcnomycetes 398-673 

Laboulbeniaceae 674-694 

1 'i-comycetes 695-817 

Saccharomycetes 818 

Myxomycetes 819-S24 

Deuteromycetes 825-1107 

Sterile Mycelia 1 108-1 109 

Appendix: new fungi 1110-1158 

Index to species in Volume XVI 1 179-1233 

Index universalis to Volumes I-XVI 1239-1291 

Volume XVII. 

Bibliotheca Mycologica IX-CVII 

H ymenomycetes 1-211 

Gasteromycetes 212-243 

Uredinaceae 244-471 

Ustilaginaceae 472-493 

Phycomycetes 494-523 

Pyrenomycetcs 524-914 

Laboulbeniaceae 915-924 

Index to species in Volume XVII 941-986 

Index to genera in Volume XVII 987-991 

Volume XVIII. 

Mycological diagnosis and nomenclature III-VII 

Discomycetes 1-207 

Myxomycetes 208-217 

Myxobacteria 217-219 

Deuteromycetes 219-690 

Sterile Mycelia 690-691 

Index to species in Volume XVIII /07"74° 

Index universalis to Volumes I-XVIII 743-838 



Index to Families in Saccardo's "Sylloge Fungorum 
and Rehm's "Discomyceten" 

Acrospermaceae K: 53 

Agaricaceae 5: 3, 9: 3, 11 : 1, 14: 63, 16: 1, 16: 11 10, 17: 1 

Ancylistaceae 16: 395 

Arthoniaceae 10: 74, 16: 798, 18: 186, R. 414 

Ascobolaceae 8: 512, 10: 31, 11: 420, 14: 792, 16: 758, 1149, 18: 116, R. 107S 

Ascocorticiaceae 18: 198 

Ascoidaceae 16: 806 

Bulgariaceae 8: 607, 10: 38, 11 : 425, 14: 801, 16: 766, 1150, 18: 131, R. 444 

Caliciaceae 8: 825, 10: 72, 11: 439, 14: 825, 18: 189, R. 388 

Cenangiaceae R. 213 

Cenococcaceae 8. 871 

Chytridiaceae 7: 286,9:357, 11: 246, 14: 437, 16: 389, 1122, 17: 511 

Clavariaceae 6: 670, 9: 247, 11: 134, 14: 235, 16: 1116, 17: 193 

Coccoideaceae 17: 860 

Cordieritaceae 8. 810, 16: 803 

Coryneliaceae 9: 1073, 11 : 385, 16: 650 

Cyttariaceae 8: 4, 16: 695, 18: 1 

Dematiaceae 4: 235,9:378, 10: 569, 11: 610, 14: 1068, 16: 1050, 1157, 18: 

563 

Dermateaceae 8: 545, 10: 36, 11: 422, 14: 794, 16: 762, 1149, 18: 121, R. 241 

Dothideaccae 2: 588, A. 222, 9: 1004. 11: 368, 14: 663, 16: 616, 1144, 17 ■ 827 

Elaphomycetaceae ....8: 863, 10: 80, n: 441 

Endogonaceae 8: 905 

Endomycetaceae t8: 202 

Entomophthoraceae .. 7: 280, 9: 349, 14: 437, 16: 388, 1123, 17: 510 

Eoterfeziaceae 18:205 

Euphacidaceae R. 60 

Euphacidiaceae R. 913 

Eustictaceae R. 113 

Excipulaceae 3: 664, A. 358, 10: 432, 11: 558, 14: 999, 16: 993- 18: 436 

Exoascaceae 14: 823, 16: 803, 18: 196 

Geoglossaceae R. 114 2 

Gymnoascaceae 8: 811, 10:67, 11: 435, 14: 824, 16: 805, 1152 

Helotiaceae R. 647 

Helvellaceae 8: 7, 10: 1, 11: 391, 14: 738, 16: 695, 1146, 18: 2. R. 1134 

Hemihysteriaceae ....A. 260, 9: 1094, 11: 385, 14: 707, 16: 653, 17: 892 
Heterosphaeriaceae ...R. 198 

Hydnaceae 6: 429, 9: 208, 11: 106, 14: 201, 16: 174, 1116, 17: 147 

Hymenogastraceae ....7: 154, 9: 280, 11: 168, 14: 267, 16: 245, 17: 239 

Hypocreaceae 2: 447, A. 194, 9: 941, 11 : 354. W- 621, 16: 559, 1140, 17: 777 

Hypodermaceae 10: 748. R. 28 



172 



GENERA OE EUXGI 



Hysteriaceae 2: 



Laboulbeniaceae S 

Leptostromaceae 3 

Lophiostomaceae _• 

Ljcoperdaceae 7 

Melanconiaccae 3 

Microthyriaceae 2 

Mullisiaceae R. 

Monascaceae 14 

Monoblepharidaceae ..16 

Mucedinaceae \ . 

Mucoraceae 7: 

Myriangiaceae 16 

Myxobactcriaceae .... n 

Xectrioidaceae 3: 

Nidulariaceae 7: 

Onygcnaccae 8: 

Ostropaceae R. 

Patellariaceae 8: 

Perisporiaceae 1 : 

Peronosporaceac 7: 

Pezizaceae 8: 

Phacidiaceae 8- 

Phallaceae 7: 

Ph)-matosphaeriaceae.. 8: 

Polyporaceae 6: 

Protomycetaceae 7: 

Pseudophacidiaceae . . . R. 

Rhizinaceae R. 

Saccharomycetaceae ..8: 

Saprolegniaceae 7: 

Schizomycetaceae ....8: 
Sphaeriaceae 1 : 

Sphaerioidaceae ...... .3; 

Sphaeropsidaceae ro 

Stictidaceae . . 8: 

Stilbaccae 4: 

Thelephoraceae 6: 

Tremcllaceac 6: 

Tryblidiaceae R. 

Tuberaceae 8: 

Tuberculariaceae 4: 

Tulasncllaceae 14 

Uredinaccae 7: 

Ustilaginaceae 7: 



721, A. 263, 9: 1 1 00, 11: 385, M: 710, 16: 657, 1145; 17: 
893, R- 3 

909. 9: I 130, II: 446, 14: J2S, l6: 674, 17: 915 

625, A. 356, 10: 412, 11: 553. 14: 992, 16: 986, 18: 419 
672, A. 254, 9: 1074, 11: 382, 14: 702, 16: 650, 1 144, 17: 886 
48, 9: 266, 11: 157, 14: 257, 16: 230, 1117, 17: 217 
< 96, A. 361, 10: 446, 11: 562, 14: 1004, 16: 995, 1 155, 18:447 
658, A. 246, 9: 1053. 11: 379. 14: 686, 16: 633. 1 141, 17: 861 

503 
: 825 
. 394 
2. A. 372. to: 510. 11: 586, 14: 1037. 16: 1022, 1156, 18: 495 

[82, 9: 335. 11: 239, 14: 43-'. 16: 383. i/: 494 
: 799, 1 151, 18: 191 
: 467. 14: 842, 18: 217 

613, A. 354, 10: 404. 11: 552, 14: 988, 16: 983, 18: 407 
28, 9: 265. 11: 156, 14: -'56. 16: 229, 17: 214 
861, 10: 80. 11: 440, 16: 807 

185 

70S. 10: 52, n: 433, 14: 818, t6: 791. 1 1 5 1 . 18: 165. R. 277 

1. A. 1, 9: 364, n: 252. 14: 462, 16: 398. 1 123, 17: 524 

235- 9- 340, 11: 242. 14: 457. 16: 396, 17: 519 

53, 10: 3. n: 393- 14: 744. 16: 701. 1 146. 18: 11, R. 913 

705, 10: 48. 11: 431, 14: 813, 16: 783. 115". t8: 155, R. 60 

1, 9: 262. 11: 152, 14: 254. 16: 224. 1118, 17: 212 

843, 11: 440, 14: 826 

1, 9: 150. 11: 79, 14: 164. 16: 138. 1 1 15. 17: 95 

319. 9: 363. 11: 251, 14: 829, 16: 816, 1 1 53. 18: 202 

87. 

ii34 

916, 11: 457. 14: S28, 16: 818, 1153, iS: 198 
264, 9: 345. Ii: 244, 14: 45o. 16: 395. 1123. 17: 5i8 
923, 10: 100 
88, 2: 1. A. 22, 9: 442. 11: 271, 14: 4/8, 16: 417, 1128, 17: 

561 
1. A. 2S5. 10: 100, 11: 472, 14: 844, 16: 825. 1154. 18: 219 
: 785, 16: 1 1 54 

647, 10: 44. 11: 428. 14: 806, 16: 776. 1 150, 18: 146. R. 112 
563. A. 386, 10: 681, 11: 640. 14: 1 107. 16: 1082, 1 157, 18: 

630 
513," 9: 218, 11: 115. 14: 212. 16: 181. 1 1 16. 17: 160 
760, 9: 257, 11: 142, 14: 244. 16: 215. 1 1 17. 17: 203 
191 

872, 10: 80, 11: 442. 14: 826. 16: 808. 1 146, 18: 205 
635. A. 389, 10: 700, 11: 645. 14: 1115. 16: 1090, 1 158, 18. 

658 
: 234 

528, 9: 291, 11: 174. 14: 269. 16: 2^7, 1 1 18, 17: 244 
441). 9: 282, 11: 230, 14: 410. 16: 367, 1122. 17: 472 



List of New Genera and Types 



Genus 
Lasiosphaeris 
Herpothrix 
Comoclathris 

Dimerisma 

Phaeomeris 

Pleophalis 

Phalostauris 

Phaeosporis 

Lithoecis 

Phragmothele 

Phaeothrombis 

Phaeoglaena 

Dichoporis 

Diporina 

Dipyrenis 

Holothelis 

Dithelopsis 

Pyrenyllium 

Polythelis 

Ditremis 

Trichotrema 

Phylloporis 

Sphaerodes 

Rhynchomelas 

Dasyphthora 

Pleodothis 
Discostroma 

Chlorodothis 
Sciodothis 
Nothostroma 
Mycoporis 



Pleoglonis 



Sphaeriaceae 

Character 
Lasiosphaeria phaeophragmia 
Herpotrichia phaeophragmia 
Clathrospora pilosa 

Verrucariaceae 

Spheconisca phaeodidyma 
Spheconisca phaeophragmia 
Spheconisca polyspora 
Staurothele hyalospora 
Verrucaria phaeospora 
Verrucaria immersa 
Thelidium hyalophragmium 
Thrombium phaeosporum 
Microglaena phaeodictya 
Porina schizospora hyalodid. 
Porina hyalodidyma 
Pyrenula phaeodidyma 
Thelopsis hyalospora 
Thelopsis hyalodidyma 
Arthropyrenia hyalodidyma 
Microthelia phaeophragmia 
Pleurotrema hyalodidymum 
Pleurotrema scolecosporum 
Phylloporina hyalodidyma 

Hypocreaceae 

Sphaeroderma esubiculatum 
Melanospora stromatica 
Nectria pilosa 

Dothideaceae 

Plowrightia polyspora 
Curreya hyalodictya 

Mycoporaceae 

Mycoporellum hyalodidymum 
Mycoporellum phaeodidymum 
Mycoporellum hyalophragmium 
Mycoporellum phaeophragmi- 
um 

Hysteriaceae 

Glonium polysporum 



Type Page 

L. hispida (Tode) 35 

H. calospora (Winter) 35 

Comoclathris lanata Clements 37 



D. tenebrosum (Norm.) 
Ph. confusa (Norm.) 
P. nova (Norm.) 
Ph. diffractella (Tuck.) 
Ph. melasperma (Nyl.) 
L. tristis (Kremp.) 
Ph. papularis (Fr.) 
Ph. melaspermiza (Stnr.) 

D. schizospora (Wain.) 

D. subsimplicans (Nyl.) 

D. trachysperma (Mull. Arg.) 

H. flaveola (Arn.) 

D. subporinella (Nyl.) 

P. analeptum (Ach.) 

P. sexlocularis (Miill. Arg.) 

D. inspersa (Miill. Arg.) 

T. trichosporum (Miill. Arg.) 

Ph. phyllogena (Miill. Arg.) 

S. episphaerium (Ph. & PI.) 
Rh. arenaria (Mont.) 
D. lasioderma (Ell.) 

P. polyspora (Bref.) 
D. rehmii (Schnabl) 

Ch. lahmii (Miill. Arg.) 
S. leucoplaca (Miill. Arg.) 
N. roseolum (Mull. Arg.) 
M. perexigua (Miill. Arg.) 



P. strobiligena (Desm.) 



39 
39 
39 
39 
39 
39 
39 
40 
40 
40 
40 
40 
40 
40 
41 
41 
41 
41 
41 

44 
44 
45 

49 
50 

SO 
50 
50 
SO 



56 



'74 



GEXERA OF FUXGI 



Plearthonis 

Diarthonis 

Merarthonis 

Digraphis 

Psorographis 

Habrostictis 

Naeviella 

Diplocryptis 

Xyloglyplus 

Mcrostictis 



Tryblidis 

Odontura 



Agj'rina 
Myridium 

Epilichen 

Pleospilis 

Lecoglyphis 

Mycolecis 

Parathalle 



Eucyphelis 
Holocyphis 
Dipyrgis 
Ditylis 

Holocoenis 



Pleopyrenis 

Pleoconis 

Dicollema 



Gonothecis 

Chloropeltis 

Scolccactis 

Pleolecis 

Diphloeis 

Diphanis 

Diphaeis 

Phalodictyum 

Merophora 



Graphidaceae 
Allarthonia hyalophragmia 
Arthonia hyalodidyma 
Arthoniopsis hyalodidyma 
Graphis hyalodidyma 
Acanthothecis hyalophragmia 

Stictidaceae 
Naevia iodata 
Naevia didymospora 
Diplonaevia iodata 
Xylogramma didymosporum 
I'hragmonaevia non-iodata 

Tryblidiaceae 
Tryblidiopsis didymospora 
Odontotrcma scolecosporum 

Bulgariaceae 

Agyrium polysporum 
Orbilia polyspora 

Patellariaceae 

Karschia lichenicola 
Melaspilea polyspora 
Leciographa hysterioidea 
Lcciographa saprophytica 
Lahmia parasitica 

Caliciaceae 

Sphinctrina laeta stipitata 
Cyphelium sphaerosporum 
Pyrgillus didymosporus 
Tylophorum didymosporum 

Chrysotrichaceae 
Coenogonium amerosporum 

Collemataceae 

Pyrenopsis polyspora 
Peccania polyspora 
Collema didymosporum 

Peltophoraceae 
Sporopodium phycepitheciale 
Pcltophora palmellicola 
Lecanactis scolecospora 
Lecidca polyspora 
Toninia didymospora 
Rhizocarpum hyalodidymum 
Rhizocarpum phaeodidymum 
Rhizocarpum hyalodictyum 
Gyrophora merospora 



P. cacsia (Fw.) 

1). lurida (Ach.) 

M. lcptosperma (Mull. Arg.) 

D. turbulcnta (Xyl.) 

Ps. clavuligcr (Wain.) 

11. pallida (Fckl.l 
X. paradoxa (Rehm) 

D. foveolaris (Rehm) 
X. striola (Fr.) 
M. emergens (Karst.) 

T. pinastri (Pers.) 

O. rhaphidospora (Rehm) 

A. sexdecimspora (Fckl.) 

M. myriosporum (Ph. & Hark.) 

E. scabrosus (Ach.) 
P. vermifera (Leight.) 
L. centrifuga (Mass.) 
M. lecideina (Rehm) 
P. fuistingii (Korb.) 

E. acicularis I Smith ) 

H. bolanderi (Tuck.) 

D. moderata (Xyl.) 

H. leprieurii (Mont.) 

P. picina (Xyl.) 

P. kansana (Tuck.) 

D. pyenocarpum (Xyl.) 

G. phyllocharis (Mont.) 75 

Ch. aphthosa (L.) 75 

S. myriadea (Fee) 76 

P. geophana (Xyl.) 76 

D. Candida (Web.) 76 

D. polycarpa (Hepp) 77 

D. badiatra (Flk.) 77 

Ph. obscuratum (Ach.) 77 

M. haplocarpa (Xyl.) 77 



58 
58 
58 
59 
59 

63 
63 
63 
64 
64 

65 
65 

67 
67 

69 
69 
70 
70 
70 

7' 
7i 
7i 
71 



73 
74 



LIST OF NEW GENERA AND TYPES 



i/5 



Dibaeis 

Cyanobaeis 
Chlorocaulum 



Myriolecis 

Adermatis 

Dyslecanis 

Pleochroma 

Ocellis 

Phanotylium 

Diphanosticta 

Diphaeosticta 

Phanosticta 

Dysticta 

Cystolobis 

Podostictina 

Merostictina 

Dystictina 

Phycodiscis 



Pleorinis 

Meroplacis 

Merorinis 

Phragmopyxine 

Dictyorinis 



Spilopezis 
Dibelonis 



Pezoloma 

Eubelonis 

Belospora 

Merodontis 

Dyslachnum 

Phalothrix 

Dasypezis 



Iotidea 
Podaleuris 
Leucopezis 
Trichaleuris 



Haplocybe 



Cladoniaceae 

Baeomyces didymosporus 
Baeomyces cyanophyceus 
Stereocaulum lecanorinum 

Parmeliaceae 

Lecanora polyspora 
Lecania phragmospora 
Lecania polyspora 
Candelariella polyspora 
Ocellularia didymospora 
Tremotylium hyalodictyum 
Sticta lecanorina hyalodid. 
Sticta lecanorina phaeodid. 
Sticta lecan. hyalophragmia 
Sticta lecideina 
Lobaria cysticoccola 
Stictina hyalophr. stipitata 
Stictina phaeophragmia 
Stictina lecideina 
Lobarina lecanorina 

Physciaceae 

Rinodina polyspora 
Caloplaca phragmospora 
Rinodina phragmospora 
Pyxine phragmospora 
Rinodina dictyospora 

Mollisiaceae 
Pyrenopeziza subiculata 
Beloniella hyalodidyma 

Helotiaceae 

Cyathicula sessilis 
Belonium hyalodidymum 
Belonioscypha chaetospora 
Davincia sessilis 
Lachnum sessile 
Dasyscypha phalotrichia 
Dasyscypha sessilis- 

Pezizaceae 

Otidea iodata 
Aleurina stipitata 
Neottiopezis eciliata 
Aleurina setosa 

Helvellaceae 

Cudoniella hyalospora 



D. rosea (Pers.) 78 

C. paeminosa (Kremp.) 78 

Ch. salazinum (Bory) 7S 



M. sambuci (Pers.) 79 

A. nylanderiana (Mass.) 79 

D. syringea (Ach.) 79 

P. vitellina (Ehrh.) 80 

80 

P. australiense (Mull. Arg.) 80 

D. cellulifera (H. & T.) 81 

D. physciospora (Nyl.) 81 

Ph. freycinetii (Del.) 81 

D. sinuosa (Pers.) 81 

C. leucocarpa (Mull. Arg.) 81 
P. endochrysoides (Mull. Arg.) 82 
M. mougeotiana (Del.) 82 

D. tomentosa (Sw.) 82 
Ph. retigera (Bory) 83 



P. polyspora (Th. Fr.) 84 

M. brebissonii (Fee) 84 

M. conradi (Korb.) 84 

Ph. eschweileri (Tuck.) 84 

D. diplinthia (Nyl.) 84 



S. radians (Rob.) 85 

D. dehnii (Rabh.) 86 

P. griseum Clements 86 

E. drosodes (Rehm) 87 
B. ciliatospora (Fckl.) 87 
M. tenella (Penz. & Sacc.) 87 
D. mollissimum (Lasch) 87 
Ph. hyalotricha (Rehm) 88 
D. albolutea (Pers.) 88 



I. pleurota (Phill.) 89 

P. reperta (Boud.) 89 

L. excipulata Clements 90 

T. crinita (Bull.) 90 



H. aquatica (Lib.) 91 



'76 



GENERA OF FUXGI 



Podocapsium 



Sirodothis 
Chaetoconis 



Sirocyphis 
Petasodes 

Hormyllium 
Thecostroma 

Trichoconis 



Hormodochis 
Chaetodochis 



Gymnascaceae 
Podocapsa polyspora P. diffusum (Van Tieg.) 94 

Phomataceae 
Dothiorella catenata S. popu!i Clements 123 

Kellermannia phaeodidyma Ch. polygoni (E. & E.) 125 

Zythiaceae 
Cyphina catenata S. nivea Clements 130 

Leptostromataceae 
Leptostromella basidiis urn- 
bellatis P. umbellatine (Vesterg.) [33 

Melanconiaceae 
Trullula hyalospora basidiis H. populi (Preuss) 135 

ramosis 
Trullula hyalospora Th. nitidulum (Sacc.) 135 

Moniliaceae 
Ramularia trichospora T. caudata (Ap. & Str.) 145 

Tuberculariaceae 
Epidochium catenatum H. melanochlora (Desm.) 163 

Chaetostroma catenatum Ch. caricis (Fckl.) 163 



Glossary of Latin and English Terms 



a, without (in comp.) 

ab, from 

abbreviatus, shortened 
abeuns, deviating 
abhorreo, abhor, differ from 
abiegnus, fir 

abietinus, fir 
abnormis, abnormal 
abortivus, abortive 
abortus, aborted 
abrupte, abruptly 
abundans, abundant 
abunde, abundantly 

ac, and 

acaudatus, without a tail 

accedo, to approach 

accessory, additional 

accipio, to accept 

acerinus, maple 

acervulatus, heaped, massed 

acervulus, i, m., a little heap 

acervus, i, m, a heap 

achromaticus, without color 

achrous, colorless 

acicularis, acicular, needle-shaped 

acidulus, slightly acid 

acies, ei, f., edge 

acotyledon, nis, m., cryptogam 

acquiro, to acquire 

acrogenus, acrogenous, borne at tip 

acropleurogenus, borne at the tip and 

on the sides 
acris, sharp 

aculeatus, spiny, pointed 
aculeolatus, spiny, pointed 
acuminatus, long-pointed 
acus, us, f., needle 
acutatus, acute 
acutiusculus, somewhat acute 
acutus, acute 

ad, to 

adesse, to be present 



adhibitus, used, applied 

adhuc, as yet, hitherto 

adinterim, meanwhile 

admiro, to look, wonder at 

admodum, at least, fully, very 

adnatus, adnate, touching broadly 

adparenter, apparently 

adproximatus, drawn near 

adscendens, ascending 

adsociatus, clustered 

adspectus, us, m., sight, appearance 

adultus, fully grown 

adustus, burned, blackened 

aecidiiformis, aecidium-shaped 

aecium, a cluster cup 

aegre, poorly, with difficulty 

aemulans, rivalling 

aemulus, similar 

aeneus, brazen, coppery 

aequalis, equal 

aequans, equalling 

aequidistans, equally distant 

aerius, aerial 

aerobius, growing in the air 

aerophilus, aerial 

aeruginosus, copper-colored 

aeternus, eternal 

affectus, affected 

affixus, attached 

afflatus, swollen 

agamicus, asexual 

agamus, asexual 

ager, ri, m., field 

agglomeratus, heaped together 

aggregatus, grouped together 

albicans, whitening 

albidus, white 

albofarctus, white-stuffed 

albolutescens, whitish yellow 

albus, white 

alcoholicus, alcoholic 

alienus, foreign, strange 

aliquantisper, for a while 



1,-8 



GEXERA OF FUXGI 



ahquantulus, somewhat, a little 

alius, another, other 

alius, — alius, some— others 

allantoic!, sausage-shaped, short and 
curved 

allantoideus, a, um, allantoid, sausage- 
shaped 

alliaceus, a, um, of an onion 

alpis, mountain 

alte, deeply 

ahernus, a, um, alternate 

altitudo, {., height 

altus, a, um, high 

alutaceus, grayish yellow 

alveolatus, a, um, with hollows 

amaricans, making bitter, irritating 

ambiens, surrounding 

ambitus, m., periphery 

amentum, n., catkin 

amerosporus, a, um, with one-celled 
spores 

amethysteus, a, um, amethyst-colored 

amissus, a, um, lost, dismissed 

ammoniacalis, e, like ammonia 

amnis, is, m., a brook 

amoebiformis, e, amoeba-form 

amoeboid, amoeba-like 

amoeboideus, a, um, amoeba-like 

amoene, beautifully 

amoenus, a, um, beautiful, pleasant 

amoveo, to withdraw 

amphibius, a, um, amphibial 

amphigenus, a, um, borne on both 
sides 

amplectens, clasping 

amplecto, to wind or clasp 

amplus, a, um, broad, ample 

ampulliformis, ampulliform, cushion- 
like 

amycelicus, without mycelium 

amygdalinus, almond-like, pink 

analogus, similar 

anastomosans, anastomosing, running 
together 

anceps, cipitis, two-headed, double 
androgynus, with male and female 

angularis, angular 

angulosus, angulose, angular 
angustatus, narrowed 
angustus, narrow 



animalcula, ae, f., little animal 

annularis, ring-like 

annulatim, in a ring 

annulatus, annulate, with a ring, ringed 

annuliform, ring-like 

annulus, i, m., a ring 

annuosus, aged, old 

anormaliter, abnormally 

anserinus, of or pertaining to geese 

ante, before 

antecedens, preceding 

antheridiiformis, antheridium-like 

antheridium, ii, m., antherid 

antherozoidium, ii, n., antherozoid 

antice, in front 

aparaphysatus, without paraphyses 

apertus, open 

aperio, to open, uncover 

apex, icis, m., tip 

apiculatus, apiculate, with a point 

apiculiformis, like a little point 

apophysatus, with a supporting cell 

apothecium, ii. n., cup or disk con- 
taining asci 

appendicula, ae, f., little appendage 

appendiculatus, appendiculate, appen- 
daged 

appendix, icis, f., appendage 

applanatus, applanate, flattened 

approximatus, close, near 

apricus, wild 

apud, at 

apus, odis, without a stalk 

aquaeductus, us, m., aqueduct 

aquaticus, aquatic 

aquosus, watery 

arachnoideus, cobwebby 

araneosus, cobwebby 

arbor, is, f., tree 

arbusculiformis, shrub-like 

arete, closely 

arcticus, arctic 

arcuatim, bow-like, curved 

arcuatus, arcuate, bow-like 

area, ae, f., space 

areola, ae, f., little space 

areolatus, areolate, marked by areas 
or spaces 

arescens, drying 

aresco, to become dry 



GLOSSARY 



i/9 



argenteus, silvery 
argentinus, silvery 
argillaceus, clay-color 
aridus, dry 
arista, ae, f., awn 
aristatus, aristate, awned 
arrectus, upright, stiff 
arrhizus, without roots 
articulatus, jointed 
articulus, i, m., joint 
asciger, ascus-bearing 
ascogenic, producing asci 
ascoma, atis, n., spore-fruit, ascus- 
bearing body 
ascophorus, ascus-bearing 
ascus, i, m., sac 
asiaticus, Asiatic 
asper, rough 

asperatus, asperate, roughened 
aspergo, to scatter, sprinkle 
asperulus, slightly roughened 
asser, eris, m., branch, beam, post 
assurgens, ascending 
asterigmaticus, without stalks 
asterineus, star-like, radiate 
asteroid, star-like, radiate 
asteroma-like, with radiate subicle 
astomus, mouthless 
astromatoideus, without a stroma 

asymmetricus, irregular 

ater, dark, black 

atomatus, with small particles 
atomisticus, tiny 

atque, also 

atrans, blackening 

atratus, dark 

atro-fuscus, dark 

atro-inquinans, blackening 

atro-nitidus, black and shining 

atropiceus, black as pitch 

atropurpureus, dark purple 

attenuatus, tapering 

attingens, touching 

attolens, raising 

atypicus, abnormal 

auctio, onis, f., growth 

auctor, is, coram., author 

auctus, enlarged 

audeo, to dare 

augmentum, i, n., increase, growth 



aurantiaceus, orange, golden 
aurantinus, orange 
auratus, golden 
aureus, golden 
auriformis, ear-shaped 
australis, southern 
aut, or 

autem, moreover 
authenticus, authentic 
autumnus, autumn 
avulsus, torn off, separated 
axicola, growing on the axis 
axiformis, axis-like 
axilaris, axillary 
azonus, without zones 
azygospore, a zygospore formed with- 
out conjugation 



B 



bacca, ae, f., berry 

baccatus, berry-like 

bacillaris, bacillar, rod-shaped 

bacteriformis, bacterium-like 

bactrosporus, with rod-shaped spores 

baculum, i, n., rod 

badius, brown 

basidiosporus, with spores borne on 
stalks 

basidium, ii, n., rod, basidium 

basilaris, basal 

basis, is, f., base 

bene, plainly, well 

benevole, kindly 

betulicola, growing on birch 

betulinus, birchen 

bi-, two, twice 

bibulus, absorbing 

biclavuligerus, bearing two club- 
shaped branches 

biconic, conic at each end 

biconvexus, biconvex 

bicornus, with two horns, two- 
branched 

bicorticus, with two barks 

bidentatus, two-toothed 

bifidus, split into two parts 

biformis, or -us, of two forms 

bifrons, on both sides of the leaf 

bifurcatus, two-forked 



i So 



GENERA OF FUNGI 



biguttulatus, with two globules or 
vacuoles 

bilabellulatus, two-lipped 

bilabiatus, two-lipped 

bilobus, two-lobed 

bdocularis, two-celled 

binatim, by twos 

binucleolatus, with two oil-drops 

binus, two-fold 

biogenus, biogenous, growing on or- 
ganisms 

biophilus, biophilous, growing on or- 
ganisms 

bipunctatus, with two vacuoles 

bis, twice 

biscoctiformis, biscuit-shaped 

biserialis, in two rows 

biseriatus, in two rows 

bisporus, two-spored 

bitunicatus, with two walls 

biuncinatus, two-hooked 

bombardus, cannon-like 

borealis, northern 

botryosus, botryose, clustered like 
grapes 

botuliformis, botuliform, sausage- 
shaped 

brachiatus, with arms 

bractea, ae, f.. bract 

brevicollis, short-necked 

brevis, short 

breviter, shortly 

breviusculus, somewhat short 

brunneolus, brownish 

brunneus, brown 

bulla, ae, f., bubble 

bullula, ae, f., a little swelling 

byssinus, cottony 

byssisedus, byssisede, seated < n cot- 
ton 

byssoideus, byssoid, cottony 

byssus, i, f., cotton 



caerulescens, turning blue 
caesius, bluish-grey 
caespes, itis, m., tuft 
caespitosus, cespitose, in tufts 
caesus, fallen 
calamus, i, m., stem 



calcareus, of lime, calcareous 

calcariferus, bearing lime 

calcifer, bearing lime 

calidarium, ii, n., hot-house 

callosus, roughened 

calvescens, becoming bare 

calvitium, ii, n., bald spot 

calvus, bare, bald, not pubescent 

calx, calcis, f., lime 

calyciformis, cup-shaped 

calycicola, living on the calyx 

calycularis, cup-shaped 

calyptra, ae, f., cap 

calyx, ycis, m., calyx, cup 

campanulatus, bell-shaped 

campaniformis, bell-shaped 

campylotropus, curved 

canaliculars, canaliculate, channeled 

candicans, growing white 

cannabinus, of hemp 

canus, hoary 

capillaris, hair-like 

capillatura, ae, f., mass of hair 

capilliform, hair-like 

capillitium, ii, n., mass of threads 

capillus, i, m., hair 

capitatus, capitate, in heads 

capitulatus, borne in little heads 

capitulum, i, n., a little head 

capreolus, i, m., goat 

caprinus, of or pertaining to goats 

capsula, ae, f., capsule 

caput, itis, n., head 

carbo, onis, m., carbon, charcoal 

carbonaceus, like coal 

carbonicola, on burned-over ground 

or on charcoal 
carbonous, like coal or carbon 
carens, lacking 
caries, ei, f., decay 
carinatus, keeled 
cariosus, decaying 
carneus, flesh-colored 
carnosus, carnose, fleshy 
caro, carnis, f., flesh 
carpogenus, living on fruit 
carpogonium, ii, n., carpogone 
cartilagineus, cartilaginous, tough but 

pliable 
caryopsis, idis, f., grain 



GLOSSARY 



181 



castaneus, chestnut brown 

catenate, in chains 

catenifer, chain-bearing 

catenigerus, bearing chains 

catenula, ae, f., chain 

catenulatus, catenulate, in chains 

catenuliformis, chain-like 

catenulus, m., -a, f., a small chain 

caterva, ae, f., heap, crowd 

catervatim, in heaps, in groups 

cauda, ae, f., tail 

caudatus, caudate, tailed 

caudex, icis, m., stalk 

caudicula, ae, f., a little stalk 

caulicola, growing on stems 

caulis, is, m., stem 

caulogenus, on stems 

caverna, ae, f., a cavern, hollow 

cavernosus, with hollows 

cavernula, ae, f., a little cavity 

cavitas, atis, f., cavity 

cavitatus, hollow 

cavus, i, m., hollow 

celans, hiding 

cella, ae, f., a cell 

celluliformis, cell-shaped 

cellulosus, cellular 

censeo, to think, estimate 

centrifugus, centrifugal 

centrum, i, n., the centre 

cephalodium ii, n., a globose to club- 
shaped projection on a lichen 
thallus 

ceraceus, waxy 

cerebriformis, brain-like 

cereus, waxy 

cerno, to perceive, separate 

cernuus, nodding, inclined 

cerumen, inis, n., wax 

cervinus, tawny 

cespitose, clustered, crowded 

ceterum, remaining 

chalybeus, of steel 

character, eris, m., character, style 
charta, ae, f., paper 

chartaceus, papery 

chlamydosporicus, with chlamydo- 

spores 
chlorinus, greenish 

chlorophyllous, green, with chloro- 
phyll 



chorda, ae, f., twine, a cord 

cibaria, ae, f., food 

cicatrix, icis, f., a scar 

ciliatulus, slightly ciliate 

ciliatus, ciliate, with long hairs on the 
margin 

ciliolatus, ciliolate, with cilia 

cincinnatus, curled 

cinctus, surrounded 

cinerascens, becoming ashen 

cinereus, ashen 

cingens, surrounding 

cingulatus, surrounded 

cingulus, i, m., a little belt 

cinnabarinus, orange red 

cinnamomeus, cinnamon-colored 

circa, near 

circinatus, circinate, coiled 

circino, to circle 

circiter, about 

circuitus, us, m., a circuit 

circulus, i, m., a circle 

circumambiens, encircling 

circumdatus, surrounded 

circumscissile, splitting circularly 

circumscriptus, circumscribed 

circumtextus, surrounded 

circumvallatus, surrounded 

cirrhatus, curled 

cirrhosus, curly 

citatus, cited 

cito, to name, mention 

cito, soon, rather 

citriformis, citriform, lemon-shaped 

citrinus, lemon yellow 

cladodium, ii, n., a leaf, branch 

cladogenus, borne on branches 

clathratus, clathrate, latticed 

clausus, closed 

clava, ae, f., a club 

clavaria-like, club-shaped, or coral- 
like 

clavatus, club-shaped 

claviformis, club-shaped 

clavis, is, f., a key 

clavula, ae, f., a little club 

clavulatus, club-shaped 

clypeatus, shield-like 

clypeus, i, m., a shield 



182 



GEXERA OF 1-UXGI 



coacervatus, coacervate, heaped to- 
gether 

coadunatio, onis, f., a summing up 

coadunatus, united, collected 

coalescens, coalesced, running to- 
gether 

coalitus, joined, running together 

coarctatus, crowded 

coccineus, bright red 

coccus, i, m., round cell, berry 

cochleariformis, spoon-shaped 

cochleatus, ear-like 

coctus, cooked 

coenobium, ii, n., a colony 

coerulescens, turning blue 

coffeatus, coffee-like 

coffeicolor, coffee-colored 

coffeiformis, coffee-shaped 

cognatus, related 

cogo, to act, collect 

cohabitans, living together 

cchaerens, cohering 

collabasco, to fall in 

collabens, collapsing, crumbling up 

collabent, collapsing, falling in 

collapsus, collapsed 

collariatus, collared, attached to a 
collar 

collectivus, collected 

colliculosus, with tiny elevations 

collum, i, n., a neck 

colonia, ae, f., a colony 

color, is, m., color 

coloratio, onis, f., coloration, color 

coloratus, colored 

coloreus, colored 

columella, ae, f., a small pillar, colu- 
m ella 

columnaris, columnar 

comatus, shaggy 

comestibilis, eatable 

commissura, ae, f., commissure, path, 
cleft 

commixtus. commingled 

communico, to share, communicate 

communis, common 

comosus, hairy 

compactus, dense 

compaginatus, united 

complectens, comprising, clasping 



complecto(r), to clasp 

complexus, complex 

compositus, composed, compound 

compressus, compressed 

concatenatus, in chains 

concavus, concave 

concentricus, concentric 

conceptaculum, i, n., conceptacle 

conchiformis, conchiform, shell- 
shaped 

concolor, concolorous, of like color 

concrescens, growing together 

concretus, united 

condensus, condensed 

conditio, onis, f., condition 

confero, to collect 

confertus, crowded 

confirmatio, onis, f., confirmation 

conflatus, swollen 

confluens, running together 

cenfluo, to merge 

conformis, all alike, similar 

confundo, to mingle, confuse 

congestus, crowded 

conglobatus, conglobate, heaped to- 
gether 

conglomeratus, heaped 

conglutinatus, conglutinate, glued to- 
gether 

congregatus, aggregated 

congruo, to agree 

conicus, conical 

conidium, ii, n., an asexual spore 

conidial, producing or pertaining to 
conidia 

conidicus, conidial 

conidiferus, conidia-bearing 

conidiophorum, i, n., a hypha bearing 
conidia, a condiophore 

conjugatio, onis, f., conjugation 

connatus, connate, joined 

connexus, connected 

connivens, connivent. approaching 

conoideus, conoid, cone-shaped 

consortium, ii, n., company 

conspergens, sprinkled 

conspersus, scattered 

conspicuus, conspicuous 

conspurcatus, polluted 

constipatio, onis, f., a crowding 



GLOSSARY 



183 



constituens, constituting 

consuetude-, inis, f., a habit 

consumptus, destroyed 

contemno, to condemn, disparage 

ccntextum, i, n., texture, context 

contiguus, close 

continens, containing 

continuus, continuous, one-celled 

contortus, twisted 

contra, against 

contractus, narrowed 

contusus, bruised 

conus, i, m., a cone 

convergens, coming together 

convolutus, convolute, coiled 

convolutio, onis, f., a fold 

copiosus, abundant 

coprophilus, growing on dung 

copulans, copulating 

coralloid, coral-like 

coralloideus, coralloid, like much- 
branched coral 

coriaceus, leathery 

corneus, corneous, horn-like 

corniculatus, corniculate, horned 

corniformis, horn-shaped 

ccrnutus, horned 

coronatus, crowned 

corpusculum, i, n., a little body 

corrugatus, corrugate, ridged 

corruptus, corrupted, spoiled 

cortex, icis, m., the bark 

corticalis, cortical, of bark 

corticatus, corticate, with a bark or 
epiderm 

corticola, corticole, growing on bark 

cortina, ae, f., veil 

cortinate, with a curtain-like veil 

corvinus, pertaining to the raven, 
black 

costa, ae, f., ridge 

ccstatus, costate, ridged 

crassities, ei, f., thickness 

crassitudo, inis, f., thickness, width 

crassiusculus, somewhat broad 

crassus, broad 

c^ateriformis, crateriform, crater- 
shaped 

creber, crowded 

cremicolor, cream-colored 



cribrosus, sieve-like 
crinitus, hairy, crested 

crispulus, somewhat crisp 
crispus, crisp 
crista, ae, f., crest 

cristatus, crested 

crocatus, yellow 

croceus, yellow 

cruciatim, cruciately, cross-like 

cruentatus, bloody 

crusta, ae, f., crust 

crustaceous, crust-like 

crustiformis, crust-shaped 

crustose, forming a crust, more or 
less interrupted 

crustula, ae, f., a little crust 

cubile, is, n., a bed 

cuboideus, cuboid, cubical 

cucullatus, hooded 

cucumeriformis, cucumber-shapea. 

culmicola, growing on grass-stems 

culmus, i, m., culm, a stalk, stem 

cultellus, i, m., a small knife 

culter, tri, m., a knife 

cultriformis, knife-like 

cultus, cultivated 

cum, with 

cumulatus, heaped up 

cuneatus, wedge-shaped 

cuneiformis, wedge-shaped 

cuniculus, i, m., a rabbit 

cupreus, coppery 

cuprinus, coppery 

cupula, ae, f., a little cup 

cupularis, cupulatus, cupuliformis, 
cup-shaped 

curtus, short 

curvatus, curved 

cusp, a point 

cuspidatus, cuspidate, with a tooth 

cuticula, ae, f., cuticle 

cuticularized, with firm cover or cuti- 
cle 

cutis, is, f., the skin 

cyaneus, blue 

cyathiformis, cup-like 

cyclus, i, m., a cycle 

cylindraceus, cylindricus, cylindrical 

cymbiformis, boat-shaped 

cyphella, ae, f., an opening or hollow 



[84 



GEXERA OF FUNGI 



in a thallus, more or less cup- 
shaped 

cystidium, ii, n., cyst 

cystophore, the stalk which bears a 
cell or cyst 

D 

daedaleus, labyrinthine 

dealbatus, whitened 

debilis, weak 

deciduus, falling 

decies, ten times 

decorticatus, without bark 

decumbens, prostrate 

decurrens, decurrent, running down 
the stem 

defectus, lacking 

deficiens, lacking 

deficio, to lack 

definitus, definite 

deflexus, deflexed 

deformus, deformed 

degenero, to degenerate 

dehiscens, dehiscent, splitting 

dein, then, at length 

dejectus, fallen 

dejiciens, throwing down 

delicatulus, delicate 

delineatus, figured 

dehquescens, deliquescing, liquefying 

delitescens, hiding 

delitesco, to conceal, lurk 

deltoideus, delta-like, triangular 

dematium-like, black and cobwebby 

dematius, black and cottony 

demonstro, to show 

demum, at length 

dendritice, dendritically, tree-like 

dendriticus, tree-like 

dendroideus, dendroid, tree-like 

denigratus, blackened 

denique, at length 

densus, close, dense 

dentatus, toothed 

denticulatus, denticulate, with little 
teeth 

denudans, denuding 

denudatus, denuded 

deorsum, downward 

dependens, hanging 

deplanatus, flattened 



depressus, depressed 

derumpens, breaking 

descendens, descending 

desciscens, leaving, deserting 

describo, to describe 

descriptus, described 

desicco, to dry up 

desinens, ending, closing 

desum, to fail, be absent 

destitutus, lacking 

destruens, destroying 

detergibilis, removable, breakable 

deustus, burnt 

diametralis, of the diameter 

diametrum, i, n., diameter 

diaphanus, diaphanous, transparent 

diatrype-like, with a stroma different 

from the tissue of the matrix 
dichotomus, dichotomous, two-forked 
diclinus, with separate sexes 
dictyospcrus, spores having cross and 

longitudinal walls 
didymosporus, with two-celled spores 
didymus. two-fold or two-celled 
differo, to differ 
difneilis, difficult 
diffluens, diffluent, dissolving 
diffractus, broken 
diformis, of two forms 
digestus, broken up 
digitiformis, finger-shaped 
digitaliformis, digitate, finger-like 
digitatus, digitate, having fingers 
dignosco, to differ 
dignotus, to distinguish 
dilabens, breaking apart 
dilatatus, spread out 
dilute, dilutely 
dilutus, dilute 

dimidiatus, dimidiate, two-lobed. halved 
dimidius. half 
dimorphus, of two forms 
dioecious, sex organs on separate 

plants 
directio, onis, f., direction 
directus, straight 
dirumpens, breaking apart 
disciformis, disc-shaped 
discolorus, discolorous, discolored 



GLOSSARY 



185 



discretus, discrete, separate 

discrimen, inis, n., difference 

disculus, i, m., little disc 

disfractus, broken 

disparens, disappearing 

dispergens, scattering 

dispositus, arranged 

disruptus, broken 

disseco, to cut up 

dissectus, cut up 

disseminatus, scattered 

dissentio, to disagree 

dissepimentum, i, n., partition, wall 

distal, distant, further 

distans, remote 

distichus, distichous, in two rows 

distinguo, to distinguish 

diu, long 

divaricatus, spreading 

divergens, diverging 

diversimodus, in different ways 

diversus, diverse, different 

divinans, conjecturing 

divisio, onis, f., a division 

divisus, divided 

doliiformis, doliiform, cask-shaped, 

jar-shaped 
dolium, ii, n., cask, jar 
donacinus, of a reed 
donatus, furnished 
dorsiventral, with two unlike sides 
dorsum, i, n., back 
dothideaceus, like Dothidea, i. e., lo- 

culate 
dubitantur, doubtfully 
dubius, doubtful 
duco, to lead 
ductus, led 
dulcis, sweet 
dumetum, i, n., a thicket 
duo, two 
duodecim, twelve 
duplo, twice 

duriusculus, somewhat hard 
durities, ei, f., hardness 
durus, hard 

E 

eburneus, ivory-white 
ecaudatus, without a tail 
eccentricus, eccentric, lateral 



echinatus, spiny 

echinulatus, echinulate, spiny 

edulis, edible 

efhguratus, shaped, formed 

eftoetus, worn out 

efformatus, formed 

efiusus, effuse, spread out 

egrediens, growing out 

elasticus, elastic 

elatus, tall 

elevatus, raised 

ellipticus, elliptical 

ellipsoideus, ellipsoid 

elongatus, lengthened 

emarginatus, without a margin 

emergens, emerging 

emergo, to emerge 

emersus, emerging 

emittens, emitting 

emortuus, dead 

enatus, arising from 

endobasidial, continuous with the bas- 
idium 

endobiotic, growing within living 
things 

endochroma, atis, n., colored contents 

endogenus, endogenous, born within 

endoperidium, ii, n., inner peridium 

endophytic, growing in plants 

endoplasma, atis, n., protoplasm 

endoxylus, within wood 

endozoic, growing in animals 

enim, for 

endoparasiticus, internally parasitic 

entomogenus, entomogenous, living 
in insects 

epelliculosus, without a covering or 
pellicle 

epidermis, idis, f., epiderm, the sur- 
face skin 

epigaeus, epigaean, on the ground 

epigenus, borne above 

epiphloeodus, on the bark 

cpiphragma, an upper wall or division 

epiphyllus, on the upper side of the 
leaf 

epiphytic, upon plants 

episporium, ii, n., outer wall of spore 

epithecium, a layer above the asci, usu- 
ally formed of the tips of the paraphy- 
ses 



i86 



GENERA OF FUNGI 



epizoic, growing on animals 

equinus, equine, belonging to horses 

eiectus, erect 

ergo, therefore 

erostratus, without a beak 

erostris, without a beak 

erraticus, erratic, wandering 

error, is, m., error 

eiuctatus, thrown up 

erumpens, bursting out 

erysiphoideus, like Erysiphe, cob- 
webby 

eseptate, without cross walls 

estriatus, without lines or markings 

etiam, also 

etsi, although 

eumorphus, well-formed 

eutype-like, eutypeous, eutypoid, with 
an effuse stroma similar to the tis- 
sue of the matrix 

evacuans, emptying 

evacuatus, emptied 

evado, to escape 

evaginatus, without a sheath 

evanescens, evanescent, disappearing 

evanidus, vanishing 

evidentius, more clearly 

evolutus, developed 

evolvatus, without a volva 

evolvens, developing 

exacte, exactly 

exalbescens, becoming white 

exalbidus, whitish 

exalbugo, to whiten 

exannulatus, without a ring 

exappendiculatus, not appendaged 

exaridus, dried out 

exasperans, roughened 

exasperatus, roughened 

exaspero, to roughen 

excavatio, onis, f., an excavation, hol- 
lowing out 

excavatus, hollowed out 

excedens, exceeding 

excentric, out of the centre, lateral 

exciple, the outer wall or covering of 
an apothecinm 

excipuliformis, cup-shaped 

excipulum, i, n., exciple, margin 

excrescens, growing out 



excutiens, shaking out 

exemplaris, model 

exemplarium, ii, n., specimen, sample 

exemplum, i, n., an example 

exesus, consumed, destroyed 

exhibens, exhibiting 

exigens, scanty 

exiguitas, atis, f., smallness, scantiness 

exiguus, little, small 

exilis, thin, slender 

eximie, exceedingly 

cxistimo, to estimate 

exitus, us, m., a departure, escape 

ercobasidial, separated by a wall from 

the basidium 
exogenus, arising on the outside 
exoperidium, ii, n., outer peridium 
exoriens, arising 
exosporium, ii, n., exospore, outer 

wall of the spore 
expallens, becoming pale 
explodens, exploding 
expulsus, expelled 
exquisite, beautifully 
exsertus, exserted, thrust out 
exsiccatio, onis, f., a drying out 
exsiccatus, dried out 
exsiliens, escaping 
exsuccus, without milk or juice 
extensio, onis, f., extension 
externus, external 
extimus, outermost, ultimate 
extra, without, outside 
extrico, to extricate 
extrorsum, toward the edge 
extus, outside 



F 



fabiformis, bean-shaped 

fabrica, ae, f., texture 
facies, ei, f., face, form 
facilis, easily 
fagineus, beechen 

falcatus. falcate, scythe-shaped, curved 
falciformis, beak-shaped, scythe- 
shaped 
familia, ae, f., family 
familiola, ae, f., a little family 
farctus, stuffed 



GLOSSARY 



187 



farina, ae, f., meal, flour 

farinaceus, mealy 

fascia, ae, f., fascicle 

fasciatus, grouped 

fasciculatus, fasciculate, fascicled, in 
bundles 

fastigiatus, bunched 

fatiscens, disappearing, breaking up 

favosus, hollow 

femineus, feminine 

fenestratus, with windows or open- 
ings 

fere, almost 

fermentatio, onis, f., fermentation 

fermentum, i, n., yeast 

ferruginascens, turning rust-colored 

ferrugineus, rust-colored 

ferrumequinum, i, n., a horse-shoe 

ferrum, i, n., iron 

rubra, ae, f., a fiber, filament 

fibrilla, ae, f., little fibril 

fibrillula, ae, f., a little fibril 

fibrosus, fibrous 

fictitius, fictitious 

filamentosus, filamentous, thread-like 

filia, ae, f., daughter 

filiformis, filiform, thread-shaped 

filiger, filament-bearing 

filum, i, n., thread 

fimbria, ae, f., fringe 

fimbrians, fringing 

fimbriatulus, slightly fringed 

fimbriatus, fimbriate, fringed 

fimicola, fimicole, dwelling on dung 

fimus, i, m., dung 

findo, to cleave, divide 

firmulus, somewhat firm 

fissilis, cleft, ruptured 

fissuratus, fissured, split 

fissus, split 

fistulosus, hollow 

flabelliformis, fan-shaped 

flaccidus, weak 

fiagella, ae, f., lash 

flagellatus, bearing long bristles or 
threads 

flagelliformis, lash-like 

flamens, flame-colored 

flavens, yellowing 

flavidus, yellowish 



flavus, yellow 

fiexuosus, flexuous, full of turns or 

windings 
flexus, bent 
flocciformis, tuft-like 
floccosus, floccose, cottony 
fioccus, i, m., tuft 
flcralis, floral 
fiumen, inis, n., river 
fluvius, ii, m., a river 
fluxilis, flowing 
foedatus, dark, soiled 
fcetidus, with a bad odor 
foliicola, foliicole, living on leaves 
foliose, like a leaf in form 
fclium, ii, n., leaf 
foramen, inis, n., a hole 
forma, ae, f., form 
formans, forming 
formo, to form 
formosus, beautiful 
fornix, icis, m., a vault 
forsan, perhaps 
forsitan, perhaps 
fortasse, perhaps 
forte, strongly 
fovens, nourishing 
fraccidus, soft, mellow 
fractus, broken 
fragilis, fragile 

fragmentum, i, n., a bit, fragment 
frequens, frequent 
friabilis, falling to pieces 
frigidarium, ii, n., a cold place, cold 

storage 
frondosus, leafy 
frcns, dis, f., a leaf 
fructicola, living on fruits 
fructiferus, fructifer, fruit-bearing 
fructificans, fruiting 
fructificatio, nis, f., fruiting 
fructus, us, m., fruit 
frustulatus, fragmentary 
frustum, i, n., a bit, piece 
fruticcsus, fruticose, shrub-like 
fruticulosus, fruticulose, shrub-like 
fucatus, colored 
fugans, fleeting 
fulciens, supporting 
fuligineus, fuliginous, sooty 



i88 



GENERA OF 1-UXGI 



fuligo, inis, f., soot 
fultus, supported 
fulvellus, somewhat tawny 
fulvescent, becoming tawny 
fumagineus, fumaginous, smoky, 
iumosus, smoky 



glaber, smooth 

giabrescens, becoming smooth 
glacies, ei, f., glacier, ice 
glans, glandis, f., a nut, 
glaucescens, turning bluish-green 
glaucus, sea-green 



fungicola, fungicole, growing on fungi gleba, ae, f., soil, mass 



fungillus, i, m., a little fungus 

fungus, i, m., a fungus 

funicularis, rope-like 

funiculus, i, m., a little rope 

funiformis, rope-like 

furcatus, furcate, forked 

furfur, uris, m., bran 

furfuraceus, bran-like 

furfurellus, covered with bran 

fuscatus, darkened 

fuscellus, somewhat dark 

fuscescens, darkening 

fuscidus, dark 

fuscidulus, dark 

fuscus, dark, or dark brown 

fusiformis, fusiform, spindle-shaped 



globosus, globose, rounded 
globuliger, bearing a ball 
globulus, i, m., a globule 
glomerula, ae, f., a little mass 
glomerulatim, in lieaps 
gluten, inis, n., glue 
glutinosus, glutinous 
gonidium, ii, n., an algal cell 
gossypinus, cottony 
gracilis, graceful, slender 
gradatim, gradually 
gradus, us, m., grade, step 
gramen, inis, n., grass 
gramineus, grassy 
graminicola, growing on grass 
grandis, large 



fusisporus, with spindle-shaped spores grandiusculus, somewhat large 



fusoideus, fusoid, spindle-shaped 



galeiformis, hood-shaped 

galeriformis, cap-shaped 

gamete, sex-cell 

gangliformis, forming knots 

gangligerus, bearing knots 

gelatina, ae, f., gelatine 

geminatus, paired, twinned 

gemmiparus, producing buds 

generans, generating 

genesis, is, f., origin 

geniculatus, bent 

genuflexus, bent 

genuinus, genuine 

genus, eris, n., genus 

gerens, bearing 

germinans, germinating 

germinatio, onis, f., germination 

gibbosus, swollen 

gigastylosporus, with very large sty- 

lospores 
gignens, producing 
gigno, to bear 
gilvus, brownish 



granulatus, granular 
granulosus, granular 
graphidoideus, long and cleft, like 

Graph is 
graveolens, of unpleasant odor 
gregarius, gregarious, in clusters 
gregatim, in clusters 
grex, gregis, m., a flock 
griseclus, grayish 
griseus, gray 
grossus, thick 
grumosus, heaped 
grumulus, i, m., a heap 
gumosus, gummy 
gutta, ae, f., a vacuole 
guttatus, with little drops 
guttula, ae, f., a drop or vacuole 
guttulosus, with drops 
gyalectoideus, Gyalecta-like 
gypseus, gypsum-like 
gyrosus, gyrOse, spiral 

H 

habeo, to have 
habitatio, onis, f., habitat 
habitus, us, m., habit 



GLOSSARY 



189 



hactenus, up to the present time 

haerens, adhering 

haereo, to hold to 

halos, o, f., a halo 

hamatus, hamate, hooked 

haud, not at all 

haustorium, ii, n., a sucker 

helicoideus, spiral-like 

heliotropicus, heliotropic 

helvolus, deep purple 

herba, ae, f., a plant 

herbicola, dwelling on herbs 

heterogamete, one of two unlike sex- 
cells 

heterogeneus, different 

heteroicus, on two hosts 

heteromorphus, heteromorphic, of 
different kinds 

hexagonus, hexagonal 

hexasporus, six-spored 

hians, gaping 

hiascens, gaping 

hibernans, resting 

hicillic, here and there 

hinc, hence 

hirtellus, somewhat shaggy 

hodiernus, of today 

homogeneus, homogeneous 

homoicus, on one host 

hcmomorphus, alike, of one form 

horizontalis, horizontal 

hornotinus, of this year 

hortus, i, m., a garden 

hospes, itis, m., a host 

hospitalis, of a host 

hue, hither, in this direction 

humectatus, wet 

humectus, moist 

humidulus, moist 

humilis, low, small 

humistratus, moist 

humus, i, f., the earth 

hyalinulus, somewhat clear 

hyalinus, hyaline, clear 

hyalosporus, with clear, one-celled 
spores 

hydrophilus, aquatic 

hygrometricus, absorbing moisture 

hygrophanus, translucent 

hymeniferus, membrane-bearing 



hymenium, ii, n., fruiting surface, con- 
sisting of asci, or of basidia. 
hymenophorum, i, n., that which bears 

the hymenium 
hypertrophiens, hypertrophying 
hypha, ae, f., a fungus hiament 
hyphasma, atis, n., the mycelium, 
hyphoideus, hypha-like 
hyphomycetus, mould-like, cobwebby 
hypocreaceus, Hypocrea-like, fleshy 

and bright-colored 
hypedermicus, under the epiderm 
hypogaeus, hypogaean, underground 
hypogenus, on the under side 
hypophloeodus, under the bark 
hypophyllus, on the under side of 

leaf 
hypostroma, atis, n., lower stroma 
hypothallus, i, m., hypothallus 
hypothecium, the area just below the 

layer of asci 
hysteriformis, Hysterium-like, long and 

cleft 
hysterinus, long and cleft as in Hys- 

terium 
hysterothecium, an oblong or linear 
perithecium opening by a cleft 



ibi, there, then 
icon, onis, f., an image, figure 
idem, the same 
ideoque, therefore 
idoneus, fit 

igitur, therefore, accordingly 
ignotus, unknown 
imbricatus, imbricate 
immaculatus, without spots 
immarginatus, without a margin 
immaturus, young 
immediate, directly 
immersus, sunken 
immutatus, unchanged 
impalpabilis, extremel} r fine -and min- 
ute 
impervius, impervious 
implens, filling 
implexus, infolded 
impolitus, not polished 
impositus, imposed 



190 



GENERA OF FUXGI 



imprimis, especially 

improbabile, improbably 

imus, lowest 

inaequilateralis, unequal-sided 

inaequaliter, unequally 

inaequipolaris, with unequal poles 

inanis, empty 

inarticulatus, without divisions 

incarceratus, hidden 

incarnatus, pink 

incertus, uncertain 

incisio, onis, f., incision, cutting 

incisus, cut 

inclinatus, bent 

inclusus, inclosed 

incoctus, not cooked 

incolens, dwelling in 

incoloratus, without color 

inconditus, confused, unformed 

incrassatulus, somewhat thickened 

incrassatus, broadened, thickened 

incresco, to grow in, increase 

incumbens, l} r ing upon 

incurviusculus, somewhat incurved 

incusus, forged, made 

indeterminatus, indefinite 

indico, to indicate 

indigito, to utter, announce 

indivisus, undivided 

indoles, is, f., nature, natural ability 

indumentum, i, n., a covering 

irduratus, hardened 

indurescens, growing hard 

indusium, ii, n., indusium 

indutus, covered 

ineptum, improper 

inermis, unarmed 

inferior, lower 

inferus, below, lower 

infestans, infesting 

inficiens, infecting 

infimus, lowest 

infixus, fastened in 

ir.flans, inflating 

inflatus, inflated 

infossus, sunken 

infra, lower, below 

infundibuliformis, infundibuliform. fun- 
nel-shaped 
infuscatus, darkened 



initio, at first 

initium, ii, n., the beginning 

innatus, innate 

innotesco, to become clear 

innumerus, innumerable 

inordinatus, without order 

inquinans, blackening 

inquinatus, dirty 

inquirendus, to be investigated 

insculptus, insculptate, hollowed 

insectum, i, n., insect 

insertio, onis, f., insertion 

insertus, inserted 

insidens, seated upon 

insitus, ingrafted 

inspersus, scattered 

inspissatus, thickened 

instar, like 

instructus, built up 

insuetus, unusual 

insula, ae, f., an island 

integer, whole 

intense, intensely 

intercalary, in the midst of, between 

interdum, sometimes 

interim, meanwhile 

intermedius, intermediate 

intermixtus, mixed with 

internervius, between the nerves 

internus, internal 

interspersus, interspersed, scattered 

interstitium, ii, n., a space 

intertextus, intertwined 

intus, within 

intracellaris, within the cell 

intrans, entering 

intricatus, intertwined 

intumescens, swelling 

intus, within 

invasus, invaded 

inversus, inverted 

investiens, covering 

invicem, in turn, mutually 

involucrum, i, n., involucre 

ipse, self 

irregularis, irregular 

irregulariter, irregularly 

irrepens, creeping in 

irroratus, bedewed 

isabellinus, isabel-colored 



GLOSSARY 



igr 



isogamete, one of two similar sex- 
cells 
isthmus, i, m., a connection 
itaque, therefore 
iteratus, repeatedly 

J 

jacio, to throw 
jamdudum, this long time 
jodicus, of iodine 
jodus, i, m., iodine 
junior, younger, young 
jus, juris, n., law, right 
juvenilis, young 
juxta, near 

L 

labiatus, lipped 

labium, ii, n., lip 

labrum, i, n., a lip 

labyrinthus, labyrinthian, tortuose 

laccatus, milky 

lacerans, tearing 

laceratus, lacerate, torn 

lacerus, torn 

lacinia, ae, f., a tear 

laciniatus, laciniate, torn, lobed 

lacrimiformis, tear-like 

lactens, milky 

lactescens, milky 

lactiginosus, filled with milk, milky 

lacuna, ae, f., a hole 

lacunosus, lacunose, with hollows 

lac, lactis, n., milk 

lacus, us, m., a lake 

laeticolor, bright-colored 

laetus, bright 

laevis, smooth 

lageniformis, flask-shaped 

lamella, ae, f., gill 

lamina, ae, f., scale, layer, blade 

laminaris, leaf-like 

lanatus, woolly 

lanceolatus, lance-shaped 

languens, withering 

lanosus, woolly 

lanuginosus, woolly 

laricinus, of larch 

larva, ae, f., larva 

lateritius, brick red 

latitudo, inis, f., width 



latiusculus, somewhat wide 

latus, eris, n., the side 

latus, broad, wide 

laxus, loose 

lectus, collected 

lego, to collect 

leiosporus, with smooth spores 

leniter, slightly, gently 

lenticularis, lenticular, lens-shaped 

lentiformis, lens-shaped 

lentus, tough, flexible 

leporinus, of a hare 

leptodermus, thin-walled 

leprosus, scab-like 

leucosporus, with white spores 

levis, light, smooth 

levitas, atis, f., smoothness 

liber, free 

liberatus, freed 

lichenicola, lichenicole, growing on 
lichens 

lichenoideus, lichen-like 

ligneus, woody 

lignatilis, of wood 

lignicola, lignicole, growing on wood 

lignum, i, n., wood 

lilacinus, lilac-colored 

limbatus, bordered 

limbum, i, n., limb, border 

limes, itis, m., limit 

limitatus, limited 

limoniformis, lemon-shaped 

linea, ae, f., line 

linearis, linear 

lineola, ae, f., little line 

linguiformis, tongue-shaped 

liquifaciens, liquifying 

liquo, to melt 

lirella, ae, f., furrow 

lirelliform, furrow-like 

lividus, livid, purple 

lobulatus, somewhat lobed 

locandus, to be located 

locatus, located 

locellatus, with chambers 

locellus, i, m., a little cell 

loco, to place, locate 

loculiferus, containing hollows 

lcculus, i, m., locule, place, cell, hol- 
low 



192 



GEXERA OF FUXGI 



locus, i, m., place 
longicollus, with long beaks 
lcngior, longer 
lcngitrorsum, longitudinally 
longitudinalis, lengthwise 
longus, long 
lcphus, i, m., a crest 
lubricus, slippery 
lucidus, clear, lucid 
ludibundus, playful 
lumen, inis, n., opening 
lunatus, crescent-shaped 
lunulate, crescent-shaped 
luridus, lurid 
luteus, yellow 
lutescens, yellowish 
lux, lucis, f., light 

M 

maceratus, softened 

macro-, large 

macrostylospora, ae, f., large stylo- 
spore 

macula, ae, f., a spot 

macularis, spotted 

maculicola, dwelling on spots 

maculiformis, spot-shaped 

madidus, moist, wet 

rragis, more 

magniguttatus, with one or two large 
globules 

magnitudo, inis, f., size 

rragnus, great, large 

majusculus, somewhat large 

male, poorly 

mamillaris, protuberant 

mamilliformis, shaped like a papilla 

manifestus, evident 

mappa, ae, f., a map 

marcescens, withering 

marginatus, margined 

margo, inis, m., and f., margin 

marmoratus, marble-like 

massa, ae, f., mass 

massula, ae, f., a little mass 

matricalis, belonging to the matrix 

matrix, icis, f., matrix, layer or tis- 
sue 

maturus, mature 



maturescens, ripening 

maxime, greatly 

mazaedium, i, n., a dough-like mass 

of spores and paraphyses 
medietas, atis, f., middle 
mediocris, average 
mediocriter, moderately 
medius, i, m., medium 
medulla, ae, f., the pith, medulla 
medullary, belonging to the pith or 

medulla 
medullatus, stuffed, pithy 
melanosporus, with black spores 
melioideus, meliola-like 
melius, better 
melleus, honey-colored 
mellinus, honey-colored 
membrana, ae, f., membrane 
membranaceus, membranaceous, mem- 
branous, thin or membrane-like 
memoria, ae, f., memory 
mens, mentis, f., mind 
merenchymaticus, with many cells 
merens, deserving 
meridionalis, southern 
mesogenus, mesogenous, borne in the 

middle 
mesopodes, with stem in the middle 
mesopus, with central stalk 
metageneticus, metagenetic 
metallicus, metallic 
metiens, measuring 
metulaeformis, pyramid-shaped 
metuliformis, pyramid-shaped 
micro-, small 
microconidiophorus, bearing small 

conidia 
microcystis, small-celled 
micronemeus, with short hyphae 
micropycnidium, ii, n., small pycnidi- 

um 
microscopium, ii, n., microscope 
microstylospora, ae, f., microstylo- 

spore 
migro, to move 
miniatus, bright red 
minimum, least 
minor, smaller 
minuties, ei, f., detail 
minutus, minute 



GLOSSARY 



193 



mitis, pleasant, mild 

mitratus, mitre-shaped 

mobilis, mobile, moving 

molecularis, molecule-like 

molliusculus, somewhat smooth 

mollis, smooth 

moneo, to caution, warn 

monile, is, n., a chain, necklace 

moniliformis, chain-like 

monoascus, with one ascus 

monocephalus, monocephalic, one- 
headed 

monocyclus, with one cycle 

monoicus, monoecious 

monoplastus, uniform, with one pro- 
toplast* 

monospermus, one-spored 

mcnosporus, one-spored 

moncstichus, monostichous, in one 
row 

mons, tis, m., a mountain 

monstrosus, monstrous 

montanus, mountainous 

mcntosus, mountainous 

morbosus, diseased 

moriens, dying 

mos, moris, m., manner 

motilis, motile, able to move 

movens, moving 

mox, at length 

mucedineus, white and cottony 

mucilago, inis, f., mucilage 

mucosus, mucose, slimy, mucous 

mucus, i, m., mucus 

mucro, onis, m., a point 

mucronatus, pointed 

mucronulatus, with a little point 

mucronulus, i, m., a little point 

multifidus, multifid, many-divided 

multiguttatus, with many oil-drops 

multilocularis, many-celled 

multiloculatus, with many cells 

multinucleate, with many nuclei 

multisporus, many-spored 

multizonatus, with many zones 

multoties, many times, often 

multus, much 

munitus, furnished 

muralis, muriform 

muriculatus, muriculate, spiny 



muriformis, muriform, with cross and 

longitudinal walls 
murinus, mouse-colored 
murus, i, m., wall 
muscosus, mossy 
mutans, changing 
mutatus, changed 
muticus, muticate, not pointed 
muto, to change 
mutue, mutually 
mutuus, mutual 
myceliaiis, mycelial 
mycelicus, mycelial 
mycelium, ii, n., mycelium 
mycogenus, dwelling on fungi 
mycologus, i, m., a student of fungi 
myochrous, mouse-colored 
myriosporus, with many spores 
mytiliform, shell-like 

N 

nascens, arising 
nascor, to be born 
natalis, native 

naufragium, ii, n., shipwreck 
navel, point of attachment 
navicularis, boat-shaped 
nebulosus, nebulous, cloudy, dark 
nee, not 

nectriaceus, Nectria-like 
nemorosus, woody, shady 
neque, and not 
nervicola, growing on veins 
nervi-sequus, nervi-sequens, follow- 
ing the veins 
nidulans, nesting 
nidulor, to nest 
niduo, to nest 
niger, black 

nigredo, inis, f., blackness 
nigresco, to grow black 
nigricans, blackening 
nigrifactus, blackened 
nigrificatus, made black 
nigrolimitatus, black-lined 
nigropilus, black-hairy 
nigropunctulatus, black-dotted 
nigrostrigosus, black-hairy 
nimium, too, too much 
nisi, unless 



194 



GENERA OF FUNGI 



nitens, shining 

niteo, to shine 

niveus, .-now-white 

nobilis, grand 

nodosus, with joints 

noduliferus, bearing knots 

nodulosus, with joints 

nodus, i, m., a joint, knot 

nomen, inis, n., a name 

non, not 

nondum, not yet 

nonne, not 

nonnihil, somewhat 

nonnisi, except 

nonnullus, some 

normalis, normal 

notatus, marked 

notus, known 

novus, new 

nubecula, ae, f., a little cloud 

nubilosus, cloudy 

nucleatus, nucleate 

nucleiferus, nucleus-bearing 

nucleolus, nucleole 

nucleus, i, m., center, nucleus 

nudiusculus, somewhat naked 

nudus, naked 

nullimodus, in no wise 

nullus, none 

numerosus, numerous 

numerus, i, m., a number 

numquam, never 

nunc, now 

nutiquam = ne-utiquam, by no means 

nuto, to incline 

nutrix, icis, f., host 

nux, nucis, f., a nut 

O 
ob, for, toward, on account of 
obclavatus, reversed club-shaped 
obconicus, rcversed-conical 
obducens, covering 
obduco, to cover 
oblique, obliquely 
obliterans, disappearing 
obliteratus, lost, destroyed 
oblongatus, oblong 
oblongus, oblong 

obpyriformis, obpiriform, reversed 
pear-shaped 



obrutus, covered 

obscurus, dark 

observandum, to be observed 

observatus, found 

obsessus, surrounded 

obsolesco, to become obsolete 

obsoletus, obsolete, lacking 

obtectus, covered 

obtegens, covering 

obturaculum, i, n., opening 

obtusangulus, with obtuse angles 

obtusatus, obtuse 

obtusus, obtuse 

obtutus, us, m., a looking at 

obvallatus, surrounded 

obvelo, to cover 

obvius, clear, open 

obvolvens, enveloping 

occellatus, with openings 

occulo nudo, with unaided eye 

occupans, occupying 

ochraceus, pale yellow, ochreous 

ochrosporus, with yellow or yellow- 
brown spores 

octavus, eighth 

octo, eight 

octonus, in eights 

octoseptatus, with eight cross-walls 

octosporus, eight-spored 

oleosus, oily, with oil drops 

oligosporus, few-spored 

ohm, formerly 

chvascens, olivascent, becoming olive 

ohvaceus, olive 

omissus, omitted 

omnino, everywhere, entirely 

oosporous, with resting spores formed 
by the union of unlike sex-cells, e.g., 
of egg and sperm 

opacus, opaque 

opalinus, clear 

operculatus, operculate, with a lid 

operculiformis, lid-shaped 

operculum, i, n., a cover, lid 

oppidum, i, n., a town 

oppletus, filled 

oppositus, placed 

orbicularis, orbicular, round 

orbiculatim, circularly 



GLOSSARY 



195 



orbis, is, m., a circle 

ordo, inis, m v order 

organicus, organic 

organum, i, n., an organ 

oriens, arising 

orientalis, eastern 

orificium, i, n., opening 

originalis, original 

origo, inis, f., origin 

orior, to arise 

ornatus, furnished 

orthotropus, straight 

ortus, arisen 

os, oris, n., mouth 

oscillans, oscillating 

osculum, i. n., mouth 

ostendo, to show 

ostiolatus, ostiolate, with a mouth 

ostiolum, i, n., ostiole, opening 

ovalis, oval 

ovaricola, growing in ovaries 

ovatus, egg-shaped 

ovinus, of or belonging to a sheep 

ovoideus, nearly egg-shaped 



pachydermaticus, thick-walled 

pachypleurus, thick-walled 

paene, nearly 

paenultimus, next to the last 

pagina, ae, f., page, side 

paliformis, paliform, stake-shaped, 
palisade-like 

pallescens, turning pale 

pallidus, pale 

palmatus, palmate, hand-like, palm- 
like 

palmicola, growing on palms 

palpebra, ae, f., eyelid 

paludosus, marshy 

palumbinus, dove-colored, grayish 

palus, udis, f., a marsh, swamp 

panicula, ae, f., a panicle 

paniculatus, paniculate, branched 

panis, is, m., bread 

pannosus, pannose, ragged 

pannum, i, n., a rag, cloth 

papillaris, papillate 

papillatus, with papilla, papillate 

papilliformis, like a papilla 



papillula, ae, f., a little papilla 
papillulatus, with a very small nipple 

or papilla 
papulosus, with many pustules 
papyraceus, papery 
paradoxus, strange, contrary 
parallelus, parallel 
parasiticus, parasitic 
parcus, few, scanty 
parenchymatous, parenchyma-like 
paries, etis, m., a wall 
paritas, atis, f., equality 
paroechia, ae, f., parish 
pars, partis, f., a part 
partitus, divided 
parum, too little 
parvulus, small 
parvus, small 
pascuum, i, n., pasture 
passim, everywhere 
patellaris, dish-like 
patelliformis, shaped like a dish 
patens, spreading 
patenter, openly 
patior, to support, endure 
patulus, spreading 
paucilocularis, few-celled 
paucus, few 
paulatim, gradually 
paulisper, for a little while 
paulo, a little 
pectinatus, comb-like 
peculiaris, peculiar 
pedatus, foot-like 
pedicellatus, with a pedicel 
pedicellus, i, m., pedicel 
pediculatus, pedicelled 
pedunculatus, stalked 
pedunculicola, growing on peduncles 
pellicle, skin, covering 
pellicula, ae, f., a little skin 
pelliculosus, with a covering 
pelluciditas, atis, f., clearness 
pellucidus, pellucid, clear 
peltatus, shield-shaped 
pendo, to hang 
pendulus, hanging 
penetrans, penetrating 
penicillate, brush-like 
penicilliformis, brush-like 



196 



GENERA OF FUNGI 



pcntagonus, pentagonal 
per, through 

peraffinis, closely related 
perbrevis, very short 
percursus, run through 
perdurans, resting 
perduro, to last 
perennans, perennial 
perennis, perennial 
perexiguus, very thin 
perexilis, very slender 
perfectus, complete, perfect 
perforans, perforating 
perforatus, perforated 
perfossus, hollowed out 
pericarpium, ii, n., pericarp, covering 
ptridermicus, belonging to the peri- 
derm 
peridermium, ii, n., periderm 
peridium, ii, n., pcridium 
periphericus, peripheral around the 



eutre 



peristomium, ii, n., mouth 
perithecialis, perithecial 
perithecigerus, perithecium-bearing 
perithecioid, perithecium-like 
peritheciophorus, bearing perithecia 
peronatus, rough, rough-booted 
perparum, very little 
perrumpens, breaking through 
persicinus, peach-colored 
persistans, persistent 
perspiciens, transparent 
perspicuus, clear 
persuasus, convinced 
pertenuis, very thin 
pertineo, to belong 
pertusus, protruded 
pes, pedis, m., foot 
petiolum, i, n., petiole 
petrifactus, made like rock, hardened 
pezizoideus, pezizoid, cup-fungus-like, 

cup-like 
phacidiodeus, like Phacidium, black 

and disk-like 
phaeophragmeus, with dark transep- 

tate spores 
phaeosporus, with dark, one-celled 

spores 
phaseoliformis, bean-shaped 



phomatoideus, Phoma-like 
phyllogenus, phyllogenous, borne on 

leaves 
phyllostictoideus. Phyllosticta-Iike 
phytogenus, growing on plants 
phytographus, i, m., a botanist 
phytophilus, phytophilous, growing on 

plants 
pictura, ae, f., a painting 
pictus, colored 
pileatus, cap-shaped 
pileus, i, m., a cap 
pilosellus, somewhat hairy 
pilosus, pilose, with hairs 
pilum, i, n., a hair 
pmeus, piny 
pingo, to paint 
pinna, ae, f., a leaflet 
pinnatus, pinnate 
piperatus, peppery, pungent 
piscis, is, m., a fish 
pisum, i, n., pea 
placenta, ae, f., placenta 
placentiformis, placenta-like 
plaga, ae, f., a spot 
plagula, ae, f., a little spot 
plaguliformis, spot-like 
planta, ae, f., a plant 
plantula, ae, f., a little plant 
planus, plane, fiat 
plasma, atis, n., plasm, mass 
Plasmodium, ii, n., protoplasm-like 

mass 
pleiosporus, many-spored 
plenus, full 

plerumque, for the most part 
pleuroacrogenus, borne at the tip and 

at the sides 
pleurogenus, pleurogenous, borne on 

the walls or sides 
plica, ae, f., a fold 
plicatus, plicate, folded 
pliciformis, fold-form 
plumbeus. lead-colored 
plures, many 

pluriarticulatus, many-celled 
pluriciliate, with many cilia 
plurifurcatus, many forked 
pluriguttulatus, many guttulate 
plurilocellatus, with many hollows 



GLOSSARY 



197 



pluriperforate, with several openings 

pluristratosus, many-layered 

poculiformis, cup-shaped 

podetium, i, n., a stalk-like or cup- 
like erect thallus 

polaris, polar 

politus, polished 

polleo, to be able, avail 

pollex, icis, m., thumb 

pcllicaris, thumb-like, an inch long 

polus, i, m., a pole 

poly-, many 

polyascus, with many asci 

pclyblastus, many-celled 

polyccphalus, polycephalous, with 
many heads 

polyedricus, polyhedral 

polygonus, with many angles 

polyrrhizus, with many roots 

polystichus, polystichous, m many 
rows 

pondus, eris, n., weight 

populus, i, f., poplar 

porosus, with pores 

porrigo, to stretch out 

porus, i, m., a pore 

positus, placed 

possum, to be able 

postea, hereafter 

postice, at the back 

postremus, last 

potius, rather 

praecedens, preceding 

praecipue, especially 

praeclarus, distinguished 

praecox, early, abundant 

praeditus, furnished 

praeferendum, preferred 

praelongus, very long 

praeprimis, especially 

praesens, present 

praesertim, particularly 

praestans, distinguishing, excelling 

praesumptus, assumed, presumed 

praetereaque, besides, moreover 

praeteritus, past 

pratum, i, n., a meadow 

primitivus, primitive 

primitus, at first 

primus, first 



prioritas, atis, f., priority 
prismaticus, prismatic 
privus, without, deprived 
pro, for 

probabilis, probable 
procerus, tall 
processus, projection 
procumbens, procumbent, prostrate 
prodeuns, projected 
productus, carried out, produced 
proficiscor, to begin, arise 
profunditas, atis, f., depth 
profundus, deep 
projectus, thrown off 
proles, is, f., a race, offspring 
proliferus, proliferous, produced, pro- 
liferate 
proliger, bearing offspring 
prolongatio, onis, f., prolongation; 

lengthening 
promycelium, i, n., promycelium 
prope, near 

proper exciple, an apothecial cover- 
ing or wall without algae 
propius, proper 
propinquus, adjacent 
propulsus, expelled 

proratione, comparatively 

prorsus, forwards, exactly 

prorumpo, to break through 

prosenchymaticus, prosenchymatic, 
consisting of long cells or fila- 
ments 

proteus, changing, variable 

protractus, extended 

protrudens, projecting 

provectus, prolonged, advanced 

proveniens, coming 

pruinulosus, somewhat powdery 

pruinosus, powdery, pruinose 

pseudo-, false 

pseudoparaphyses, false paraphyses 

pseudoparenchyma, false parenchyma, 
a tissue looking like parenchyma 
but formed of threads 

pseudoperidium, a covering 

pseudoplasmodium, ii, n., a false Plas- 
modium 

pseudopodium, ii, n., false foot, lobe 

pseudostiolum, i, n., false ostiole 



198 



GENERA OF FUNGI 



pteudostroma, atis, n., a false stroma 

pseudostromaticus, resembling a stro- 
ma 

pseudothallus, i, m., false thallus 

puberulus, somewhat hairy 

pubescens, hairy 

pubes, is, f., hair 

puccinoideus, puccinia-like 

pulchellus, beautiful 

pulcher, beautiful 

pulchre, beautifully 

pulpa, ae, f., pulp, mass 

pulveraceus, powdery 

pulverulentus, powdery 

pulvinatus, cushioned 

pulvinulus, i, m., a little cushion 

pulvis, eris, m., powder 

punctiformis, punctiform, dot-like 

punctulans, dotting 

punctulatus, punctate, dotted 

purpurascens, becoming purple 

purus, pure 

pusillus, tiny 

pusio, onis, m., a growth 

pustula, ae, f., a mass 

pustulate, pertaining to a swollen 
mass 

putamen, inis, n., a shell 

putredo, to decay 

putrescens, decaying 

putris, decaying 

pyenidicus, pyenidial 

pyramidatus, pyramidal 

pyenidium, i, n., pyenidium 

pyreniformis, pyreniform, shaped like 
a nut 

pyriformis, pear-shaped 

pyxidatus, like a box 



qvadricoccus, of four round cells 

quadripartitus, four-divided 

quadrisporus, four-spored 

quadrum, i, n., a square 

qualis, like 

quam, than 

quandoque, whenever, at some time 

quartus, fourth 

quasi, almost 

quater, four times 



quaternus, by fours 

quattuor, four 

quercinus, oaken 

quia, because 

quinqueseptatus, live septate 

quisque, each 

quisquilae, arum, f., dirt, trash 

quoad, as long as, as much as 

quod, that 

quoque, also 

R 

racemulus, i, m., a little raceme 

racemus, i, m., a bunch of grapes, ra- 
ceme 

rachis, is, f., axis 

radians, radiating 

radiatim, radiately 

radiatus, radiate 

radicalis, basal 

radicans, root-like, rooting 

radicatus, radicate, more or less root- 
ed 

radiciformis, root-shaped 

radicosus, having many roots 

radix, icis, f., a root 

ramicola, ramicole, living on twigs 

ramosus, much branched 

ramulus, i, m., a little branch 

ramus, i, m., a branch 

rarius, more rarely 

raro, rarely 

rasus, leveled 

reabsorptus, reabsorbed 

recedo, to recede, differ 

recensio, onis, f., a reviewing 

recludens, opening 

recognoscens, recognizing 

rectangularis, rectangular 

rectangulus, rectangular 

rectus, straight 

reddo, to return, restore 

rcfractus, turned back 

refringens, refringent 

regio, onis, f., region 

relatus, related 

relinquens, leaving 

relinquo, to leave 

reliquus, left, remaining 

remote, distantly 



GLOSSARY 



199 



remotiusculus, somewhat distant 

reniformis, reniform, kidney-shaped 

repandus, turned back 

repens, creeping 

reperio, to find 

repertorium, ii, n., an inventory, cat- 
alogue 

repertus, found 

repetite, repeatedly 

repetitus, repeated 

repletus, full 

repo, to crawl 

res, rei, f., a thing 

resolvens, breaking up 

rcsorptus, absorbed 

resupinatus, resupinate, horizontal, 
the hymenium turned up 

reticulatus, reticulate, net-like 

reticulum, i, n., a net 

retiformis, net-like 

retineo, to retain, keep 

retis, is, f., a net 

retrorsus, backward 

retusus, with a little sinus 

revelo, to reveal, uncover 

revivescens, reviving 

revoco, to recall 

revolutus, folded back 

rhabarbarinus, yellow 

rhizoid, root 

rhizoideus, root-like 

rhizomorphoideus, root-like 

rhizophilus, growing on roots 

rhodosporus, with rose-colored spores 

rhombius, rhombic 

rhomboideus, rhomboid 

rhytismoideus, Rhytisma-like 

ricciiformis, like Riccia, a liverwort 

rigens, stiff, rigid 

rigidulus, somewhat stiff 

rigidus, stiff 

rima, ae, f., cleft 

nmosus, rimose, cleft, cracked, 

ripa, ae, f., bank 

rite, rightly, fitly, well 

rivulosus, with channels 

rivus, i, m., brook 

robustus, robust 

roridus, like dew 

ros, roris, m., dew 



roseolus, somewhat rosy 

roseus, rose-colored 

rostellatus, somewhat beaked 

rcstratus, rostrate, beaked 

rostriformis, beak-like 

rostrum, i, n., beak 

rosulatus, rosette-like 

rotundatus, rounded 

rubeolus, somewhat reddish 

ruber, red 

rubellus, somewhat reddish 

rubescens, growing red 

rubiginosus, rust-colored 

rubricosus, reddish 

rufescens, becoming reddish 

rufus, reddish 

rugosiusculus, more or less wrinkled 

rugulosus, furrowed, roughened 

rumpens, breaking 

ruptus, broken 

rursus, backward 

rutilus. red 



saccatus, saccate, sac-like 

saccharinus, sugary 

Sr.ccharum, i, n., sugar 

sacciformis, sac-shaped 

sacculiformis, like a little sac 

sacculus, i, m., a little sac 

saepe, often 

salicinus, of willow 

salmonicolor, salmon colored 

salmonius, salmon-colored 

saltern, at least 

samara, ae, f., key fruit 

samariform, key-shaped 

sanguineus, bloody, blood-colored 

sapidus, filled with sap, savory 

sapor, oris, m., flavor 

saprogenus, saprogenous, growing on 
decayed matter 

saprophilus, growing on decaying 
matter 

saprophyticus, saprophytic 

sarciniformis, sarciniform, packet- 
like 

sarmentum, i, n., twig 

satis, sufficient 

saturatus, saturated 



200 



GEXERA OF FUNGI 



scaber, rough 

scabridus, rough 

scabriusculus, somewhat rough 

scalaris, of a ladder, or staircase 

scaliformis, ladder-like 

scariosus, thin, papery 

scheda, ae, f., sheet of paper 

scio, to know 

scissilis, splitting 

sclerotiformis, sclerotium-likc 

sclerotioideus, sclerotioid, sclerotium- 

like 
sclerotium, i, n., sclerotium, a hard 

black mass 
scolecosporus, with thread shaped 

spores 
scopulate, like a brush 
scrobiculatus, roughened, furrowed 
scrotiformis, bladder-like 
scruposus, rough 

scrutator, oris, m., an investigator 
scutatus, shield-shaped 
scutellatus, like a small shield 
scutiformis, shield-shaped 
secedens, separating 
secernibilis, separable 
sectio, onis, f., a section 
secundarius, secondary 
secundum, according to 
secus, otherwise 
sed, but 

sedulus, diligent, careful 
segmentiformis, segment-like 
sejunctus, separate 
semel, once 

semen, inis, n., a seed 
semi, half 

semiexertus, half extended 
semiimmersus, half immersed 
semiinfossus, (cf. infossus) 
semiinsculptus, (cf. insculptus) 
seminalis, seed-like 
seminicola, growing on seed- 
semipellucidus, half-pellucid 
semiteres, half columnar 
semiuncialis, a half inch 
semper, always 
senescens, growing old 
sensim, gradually 
sensus, us, m., opinion, sense 



separabilis, separable, separating 

separo, to separate 

sepimentum, i, n., partition 

sepono, to separate 

septatus, septate, divided into cells 

septentrionalis, northern 

septulum, i, n., a little septum 

sepulchrum, i, n., grave 

sequens, following 

sericellus, somewhat silky 

sericeus, silky 

• r * 

series, ei, r., a series 

serotinus, late 

serpens, creeping 

serpentinus, serpentine 

serratus, serrate 

serus, late 

sesqui, by a half 

sesquilinea. one inch and a-half 

sesquipedalian, very long 

sessilis, seated, without a stalk 

seta, ae, f., a bristle 

setaceus, bearing one or more bristles 

setiformis, bristle-shaped 

setiger, bristle-bearing 

setosus, setose, with bristles 

setula, ae, f., a little bristle 

setulose, with bristles or spines 

seu, or 

sexilocularis, with six cells or locules 

sexsporus, six-spored 

sexsulcatus, six-furrowed 

siccans, drying 

siccus, dry 

sigillatim, seal-like 

sigmoideus, sigmoid, s-like 

signarus, marked 

sileo, to be silent 

silva, ae, f., a forest 

similaris, like 

similis, similar 

simple, not branched; one-celled (of 

spores') 

simplex, icis, simple 

simul, at the same time 

simulate, apparently 

simulo, to imitate, copy, represent 

sine, without 

singularis, peculiar, not in chains 

singulus, each 



GLOSSARY 



201 



sinuatus, sinuate 

sinuosus, crooked 

sistens, comprising 

situs, placed 

socia, ae, f., society 

sociatus, grouped together 

scleo, to be accustomed 

solidiusculus, somewhat solid 

solitarius, solitary 

solitus, usual 

sollertus, distinguished 

solubilis, dissolving 

solutus, dissolved 

sordes, is, f., dirt 

sordidus, dirty 

sorus, i, m., spore mass 

spadiceus, brownish 

spatha, ae, f., a spathe 

spargo, to scatter 

sparsus, scattered, sparse 

spathulatus, spathulate 

spatium, i, n., space 

specialis, special 

species, ei, f., species 

spectans, looking 

specto, to look 

spermagonium, ii, n., a pycnidium-like 

body 
spermatiferus, spermatia-bearing 
spermatiformis, like a spermatium 
spermatioideus, spermatium-like 
spermatium, ii, n., a conidium-like 

body 
spero, to hope 
sphaericus, spherical 
sphaeroideus, nearly spherical 
sphaerula, ae, f., a sphere 
spica, ae, f., a point, ear 
spicatus, spike-like 
spiculosus, spiny 
spiculum, i, n., a little spine 
spiniformis, spiny 
spinuligerus, spine-bearing 
spinulosus, with little spines 
spira, ae, f., a spiral 
spiralis, spiral 
spiraliter, spirally 
spiritus, us, m., a spirit 
spissus, thick 
splendens, splendid 



spongilliformis, sponge-like 
spongiosus, spongy 
sponte, spontaneously 
sporangiferus, bearing sporangia 
sporangioliferus, bearing small spo- 
rangia 
sporangiclum, i, n., a little sporan- 
gium 
sporangiophore, the stalk of a spor- 
angium 
spore-print, the spore mass obtained 
by placing the cap of a mushroom 
fiat on a piece of white paper 
sporicus, sporal 

sporidiolum, i, n., a little spore 
sporidium', i, n., a spore 
sporiferus, spore-bearing 
sporodochium, a compact, conidial 

body, mass of sporophores 
sporomorphus, spore-shaped 
sporophora, ae, f., sporophore 
spurius, false 
squama, ae, f., a scale 
squamosus, scaly 
squarrose, with spreading scales or 

hairs 
statura, ae, f., stature. 
status, us, m., stage 
stellatus, stellate, star-like 
stelliformis, star-shaped 
stercoratus, manured 
stercus, oris, n., dung 
sterigma, atis, n., stalk 
stilbeus, stilbum-like, mallet like 
stilbiformis, stalk-like 
stilboid, with a stalked-head, Stilbum- 
like 
stipatus, crowded 

stipes, itis, m., a stalk 

stipitatus, stipitate, stalked 

stipitellus, i, m., a little stalk 

stipitiformis, stalk-like 

stoloniferous, producing runners 

stoloniformis, runner-like 

stramineus, straw-colored 

stratosus, in layers 

stratum, i, n., a layer 

strenuus, prompt, vigorous 

stria, ae, f., a line 



202 



GENERA OF FUNGI 



strigosus, strigose, long or coarsely 
hairy 

striiformis, line-like 

strobilus, i, m., a cone 

stroma, atis, n., a covering, layer 

stromaticus, stromatic 

stromatiferus, bearing a stroma 

structura, ae, f., a structure 

stupposus, tow-like 

stylospora, ae, f., a stylospore 

suadens, persuading 

suavis, pleasant 

sub, affix meaning somewhat, slightly 

subacutus, somewhat acute 

subaequans, nearly equal 

subalbus, nearly white 

subalutaceus, somewhat yellow 

subastomous, more or less mouthless 

subbulbosus, somewhat bulbous 

subcarbonaceus, slightly carbona- 
ceous 

subcarnulosus, slightly fleshy 

subclavatus, subclavate 

subclypeate, somewhat shield-shaped 

subcolumelliformis, somewhat like a 
columella 

subconoideus, slightly conical 

subcrustose, somewhat crust-like 

subcuboideus, somewhat cubical 

subcutaneus, under the epidermis 

subdeterminatus, limited 

subdiscoideus, somewhat disc-shaped 

subelevatus, somewhat raised 

suberosus, suberose, corky 

subfuscus, subfuscous, somewhat dark 

subglobosus, subglobose 

subiculum, i, n., subicle, a compact 
cottony mycelium 

subimmersus, slightly immersed 

subinde, presently, forthwith, now 
and then 

subito, suddenly 

subnullus, nearly lacking 

substantia, ae, f., substance 

subterraneus, subterranean 

subtilis, thin, slender 

subtilitas, atis, f., fineness, thinness 

subulatus, subulate, awl-shaped 

subuliformis, awl-shaped 

subvitro, under the lens 



succresco, to grow under 

suffultus, supported 

sulcatus, sulcate, furrowed 

sulcula, ae, f., a little furrow 

sulcus, i, m., a furrow 

sulphurellus, sulphurish 

sulphureus, sulphur-colored 

summa, ae, f., highest point, sum 

superans, exceeding 

superficialis, superficial 

superficies, ei, f., the surface 

superimpositus, superimposed 

superpositus, superposed 

superus, upper 

supremus, uppermost 

surculus, i, m., a shoot 

sursum, upward 

suspensor, supporting cell or group 

of cells 
sustinens, supporting 
sylva, ae, f., a forest (see silva) 
sympodice, sympodially 
synnema, atis, n., an erect fascicle of 

hyphae, as in Stilbaceae 



tabesco, to melt 

tactus, touched 

taeniola, ae, f., a little band 

talis, such 

tamen, however, yet 

tandem, at length 

tantillus, so little 

tapetum, i, n., nourishing layer 

tarde, slowly, late 

tartareus, powdery 

tectus, covered 

tegens, ci '\ering 

tegmen, inis, n., a cover 

teleutospora. ae, f., a teleutospore 

teleutosporiferus, bearing tcleuto- 

spores 
tenacellum, somewhat tenaceous 
tenellus, delicate 
tentacula, ae, f., a tentacle 
tentaculiformis, tentacle-shaped 
tenuatim, drawn out 
tenuis, slender 
ter, three times 
terete, cvlindrical 



GLOSSARY 



203 



teretiusculus, round, cylindric 

terminalis, terminal 

terminatus, terminated 

ternate, in threes 

ternus, three-fold 

terra, ae, f., soil, earth 

terrestris, terrestrial 

tertius, third 

testa, ae, f., a shell, coat 

testaceus, brick-colored 

tetradidymus, four-fold 

tetragonus, four-angled 

tetrasporus, four-spored 

thalamium, i, n., a room 

thallicola, growing on a thallus 

thalliformis, thallus-like 

thalline exciple, applied to an exciple 
containing algae 

thallus, a more or less definite mass 
of hyphae parasitic on algae 

thelephoroideus, thelephora-like 

tigrinus, like a tiger 

tinctus, tinged 

tingens, tinging 

tomentellus, hairy 

tomentosus, hairy 

tornatus, rounded-ofT 

toruloideus, chain-like 

torulosus, torulose, necklace-like 

tortuosus, flexuous 

tortus, twisted 

totaliter, totally 

totus, all 

trabs, is, f., a beam 

tractus, us, m., a tract 

trahendum, to be drawn 

trama, ae, f., a pathway 

transeptate, with all cross-walls trans- 
verse 

translucidus, clear 

trapezoideus, trapezium-like 

transiens, temporary 

transversalis, transversal 

tremelloideus, tremelloid, gelatinous 

tremellosus, jelly-like 

triangularis, triangular 

tribus, us, f., a tribe 

tricornutus, with three horns 

trifoveolatus, with three hollows 

trigonus, trigonous, three-angled 



trilobus, three-lobed 
trinacriformis, three-pronged 
tripartitus, three-divided 
tripedalis, three feet long 
tripollicaris, three inches 
triquetrus, three-cornered 
tnsporus, three-spored 
tnstichus, in three rows 
tropicus, tropical 
truncatus, cut-off 
truncicola, growing on trunks 
tiunculus, i, m., a little trunk, stem 
truncus, i, m., a trunk 
tuber, eris, n., tuber, a swelling 
tubercularinus, Tubercularia-like 
tubercularioid, Tubercularia-like, 

warted 
tubercularoideus, Tubercularia-like 
tuberculiformis, wart-like 
tuberculosus, roughened 
tuberiform, tuber-like 
tuberiformis, tuberiform, tuber-shaped 
tubulosus, tubular 
tubulus, i, m., a tube 
tumescens, swelling 
tumidulus, somewhat swollen 
tumifactus, swollen 
tunc, then 

tunica, ae, f., cloak, coating 
tunicatus, tunicate, covered 
turbinatus, turbinate, top-shaped 
turgescens, swollen 
turgidus, swollen 
turriformis, shaped like a tower 
turritus, turreted, tower-like 
typice, usually, characteristically 
typus, i, m., a type 

U 

uber, rich 

ubi, where 

ubiquemque, everywhere 

udus, wet 

uliginosus, rich, muddy 

ullus, any 

ultimus, last 

ultra, beyond or more 

-ulus, a, um, suffix, meaning- small 

umbellatus, umbellate, umbelled 

umbelliformis, like an umbel 



204 



GENERA OF FUXGI 



umbilicatus, umbilicate. with a navel, 
sunken in the center, somewhat 
funnel-form. 

umbilicus, i, m., navel 

umbonatus, umbonatc, with a boss 

umbra, ae, f., shade 

umbrinus, brown 

umbrosus, shady 

uncia, ae, f., an inch 

uncialis, an inch long 

uncinatus, hooked 

unde, whence 

undique, in all directions 

undulatus, wavy 

uniarticulatus, one-jointed 

unicus, single 

uniformis, of one form 

unilateralis, one-sided 

unilocular, with a single cavity or 
cell 

uniserialis, one-rowed 

uniseriatus, one-rowed 

unitus, joined 

unquam, ever 

urceolatus, pitcher-shaped 

uredinicola, growing on rusts 

uredospora, uredospore 

uredosporiferus, bearing uredospores 

urniformis, urn-shaped 

uromorphus, tail-like 

usque, up to 

usurpatus, usurped 

ut, as 

uterque, both 

ut-plurimum, for the most part 

utriculiformis, 1)1 adder-shaped 

utrimque, on both sides, in both di- 
rections 

uvidus, moist, wet 



V 



vaccinus, pertaining to a cow 

vacuus, empty 

vage, vaguely 

vagina, ae, f., a sheath 

vaginatus, sheathed 

vagus, vague 

valde, strongly 

validiusculus, more or less stout 



valseus, valsous, valsoid, Valsa-like, 
with the perithecia in a circle in 
the stroma 

valva, ae, f., a valve 

valvatim, valvate, with valves 

variabilis, variable 

varie, variously 

variegatus, of different colors 

VErius, different 

-ve, or 

vegetus, fresh, vegetating 

venementer, strongly 

vel, or 

velatus, veiled 

vellus, eris, n., fleece, wool 

velo, to cover 

velocitas, atis, f., swiftness 

velum, i, n., a veil 

veluti, as 

velutinus, velvety 

vena, ae, f., a vein 

venenatus, poisonous 

veniformis, vein-like 

ventricosus, swollen 

vere, truly 

vergo, to approach 

verisimiliter, apparently 

vermicularis, worm-like 

vermiformis, vermiform, worm-shaped 

vernalis, vernal, of or belonging to 
spring 

vero, truly 

verruciformis, wart-like 

verruculosus, verrucose, warted 

versatus, poured 

versicolor, of different colors 

versiformis, of different forms 

versus, towards 

vertens, turning 

vertex, icis, m., the tip 

verticalis, vertical 

verticillatim, in whorls 

verticillatus, vcrticillate, whorled 

vescus, small, weak 

vesicula, ae, f., vesicle, swollen cell 

vesiculosus, vesiculose, swollen, blad- 
dery 

vestiens, covering 

vestiguum, i, n., remnant, vestige 

vestio, to cover 



GLOSSARY 



205 



vestitus, furnished, covered 

vetustus, old 

vibrans, changing 

videor, to seem 

vigens, growing 

villosulus, somewhat woolly 

villus, i, m., a hairy covering 

vinarius, of wine 

vineus, of or belonging to wine 

vinum, i, n., wine 

violaceus, violet 

violascens, turning violet 

virens, becoming green 

virgatus, rod-shaped 

viridarium, i, n., greenhouse 

virgultum, i, n., bush, copse 

viridifuscus, greenish brown 

viridulus, greenish 

viscidulus, viscid, somewhat sticky 

visibilis, visible 

visus, seen 

vitellinus, yellow 

vitreus, glassy 

vivens, living 

vividus, vivid 

vivus, alive 

vix, hardly 



volva, ae, f., a cup-like sheath at the 

base of a stem 
volvaceus, with a volva 
vclvatus, with a volva 
vulgatus, common 
vulgo, commonly 
vulpinus, of a fox 



xylogenus, xylogenous, growing on 

wood 
xylophilus, growing on wood 



zona, ae, f., a zone 

zonula, ae, f., a little zone 

zoogenus, on animals 

zoogonid, a motile propagative cell 

zoospora, ae, f., zoospore 

zoosporangium, ii, n., zoosporangium 

zoosporiferus, producing zoospores 

zygosporiacus, pertaining to a zygo- 
spore 

zygosporous, with resting spores 
formed by the conjugation of simi- 
lar sex cells 

zymogenus, ferment-producing 



INDEX 



Abrothallus, 69 
Absidia, 13 
Acallomyces, 19 
Acanthostigma, 34 
Acanthothecis, 59 
Acanthothecium, 59, 134 
Acarospora, 80 
Acerbia, 38 
Acerbiella, 38 
Acetabula, 89 
Achlya, 15 
Achlyogeton, 16 
Acinula, 164 
Acladium, 141 
Acolium, 71 
Acompsomyces, 19 
Acontium, 140 
Acremoniella, 148 

Acremonium, 141 

Acrocylindrium, 143 

Acroscyphus, 72, 92 

Acrospermum, 58 

Acrospira, 148 

Acrostalagmus, 143 

Acrotheca, 147 

Acrothecium, 152 

Actidium, 56 

Actiniceps, 155 

Actiniopsis, 34, 52 

Actinomma, 163 

Actinonema, 125 

Actinoplaca, 75 

Actinoscypha, 69 

Actinothecium, 131 

Actinothyrium, 132 

Acurtis, 105 

Adermatis, 79 

Aecidiella, 99 

Aecidiolum, 99 

Aecidium, 99 

Aegerita, 159 

Aegeritopsis, 161 

Agaricaceae, no 



Agaricales, 102 

Agaricus, 114 

Aglaospora, 35 

Agyriella, 135 

Agyriellopsis, 133 

Agyrina, 67 

Agyriopsis, 67 

Agyrium, 67 

Ahlesia, 67 

Alboffiella, 115 

Albuginae, 17 

Albugo, 17 

Aldona, 56 

Aldridgea, 106 

Alectoria, 82 

Aleuria, 88 

Aleurina, 89 

Allantonectria, 43 
Allantospora, 145 
Allarthonia, 58 
Allarthothelium, 58 
Allescheria, 22 
Allescheriella, 142 
Alliospora, 140 
Alternaria, 154 
Alveolaria, 101 
Amallospora, 163 
Amanita, in 
Amanitopsis, in 
Amaurascus, 93 
Amblyosporium, 140 
Ameghiniella, 66 
Amerosporium, 133 
Amoebochytrium, 11 
Amorphomyces, 19 
Amphichaeta, 137 
Amphisphaeria, 32 
Ampullaria, 129 
Anaptychia, 84 
Anapyrenium, 42 
Ancylistaceae, 16 
Ancylistae, 16 
Ancylistes, 17 
Anellaria, 114 
Anema, 73 



Angelinia, 56, 66 
Angiopoma, 126 
Anixia, 23 
Anixiopsis, 22 
Annularia, 112 
Anthina, 164 
Anthomyces, 101 
Anthostoma, 29 
Anthostomella, 28 
Anthracoderma, 123 
Anthracoidea, 101 
Anthracophyllum, 115 
Anthracothecium, 40 
Anthurus, 116 
Antromycopsis, 157 
Anzia, 81 
Aphanascus, 92 
Aphanomyces, 15 
Apiospora, 30 

Apiosporium, 23 

Aplacodina, 31 

Aplanes, 15 

Apodachlya, 16 

Aponectria, 45 

Aporophallus, 115 

Aposphaeria, 122 

Arachniotus, 93 

Arachnium, 119 

Aiachnomyces, 23 

Arachnopeziza, 87 

Araeospora, 16 

Arcangelia, 30 

Arcangeliella, 120 

Arctomia, 73 

Arenaea, 87 

Areolaria, 119 

Argopsis, 78 

Argynna, 24 

Armillaria, 11 1 

Arrhenia, in 

Arrhytidia, 105 

Arthonia, 58 

Arthoniactis, 76 

Arthoniae, 58 

Arthoniopsis, 58 



208 



GEXERA OF FUNGI 



Arthotheliopsis, 75 
Arthothelium, 58 
Arthrinium, 147 
Arthrobotrys, 144 
Arthrobotryum, 157 
Aithropyrenia, 41 
Arthrosporium, 156 
Aschersonia, 129 
Aschersoniopsis, 130 
Ascobclaceae, 92 
Ascobolae, 92 
Ascobolus, 92 
Ascochyta, 125 
Ascocorticiaceae, 93 
Ascocorticium, 93 
Ascodes, 94 
Ascodesmis, 92 
Ascoidaceae, 93 
Ascoidea, 93 
Ascomycetella, 95 
Ascomycetes, 18 
Asccphanae, 92 
Ascophanus, 92 
Ascopolyporus, 48 
Ascotricha, 23 
Aseroe, 116 
Aspergillae, 140 
Aspergillus, 140 
Aspidopyrenium, 40 
Aspidcthelium, 40 
Asterella, 53 
Asteridiella, 53 
Asteridium, 24, 53 
Asterina, 23, 53 
Asterinae, 52 
Asteristium, 76 
Asteroconium, 138 
Asterodon, 108 
Asteroma, 122 
Asteromella, 122, 131 
Asteromidium, 126 
Asteronia, 153 
Asterophora, 142 
Asteroporum, 41 
Asterosporium, 137 
Asterostroma, 107 
Asterothyrium, 75, 132 
Asterula, 23, 53 
Astrccystis, 28 



Astrodochium, 162 
Astrotheliae, 42 
Astrothelium, 42 
Atractiella, 155 
Atractina, 152 
Atractium, 156 
Auerswaldia, 49 
Aulaxina, 59 
Aulographum, 56 
Aureobasidium, 107 
Auricularia, 103 
Auriculariae, 103 
Auriculariella, 103 

B 

Bacidia, 77 
Bacillus, 8 
Bacteriaceae, 8 
Bacteriales, 7 
Bacterium, 8 
Bactridiopsis, 159 
Bactridium, 161 
Bactroboletus, 109 
Bactrosphaeria, 38 
Bactrospora, 70 
Baculospora, 44 
Baeomyces, 78 
Baggea, 57 
Bagnisiella, 48 
Balansia, 47 
Balansiella, 47 
Balladyna, 24 
Balsamia, 97 
Balzania, 43 
Barclayella, 100 
Bargellinia, 93 
Barlaea, 88 
Bartalinia, 126 
Basiascum, 136 
Basidiella, 156 
Basidiobolus, 14 
Basidiomycetes, 102 
Basidiophora, 17 
Basisporium, 148 
Battarea, 117 
Battareopsis, 117 
Battarinia, 43 
Baumanniella, 105 



Baumiella, 34 
Beccariella, 106 
Beggiatoa, 7 
Beggiatoaceae, 7 
Belonia, 40 
Belonidium, 85 
Beloniella, 86 
Belonium, 87 
Belonopsis, 85 
Belonoscypha, 87 
Belospora, 87 
Beltrania, 151 
Beniowskia, 159 
Berkelella, 46 
Berlesiella, 36 
Bertia, 30 
Bertiella, 33 
Biatora, 76 
Biatorella, 68, 77 
Biatorellina, 68 
Biatorina, 77 
Bispora, 150 
Bivonella, 46 
Bizzozera, 25 
Bizzozeriella, 160 
Blasdalea, 51 
Blastema, 83 
Blastodesmia, 40 
Blastomyces, 141 
Blastctrichum, 145 
Blennoria, 135 
Blennothallia, 74 
Blitrydium, 70 
Bloxamia, 135 
Blumenavia, 116 
Bcerlagella, 36 
Bolacotricha, 149 
Bolbitius, 113 
Boletinus, 109 
Bcletium, 108 
Boletopsis, 109 
Boletus, 109 
Bolinia, 29 
Bombardia, 29 
Bombardiastrum, 33 
Bombyliospora, 77 
Bommerella, 29 
Bonia, 107 
Bonordeniella, 163 



INDEX 



209 



Bonplandiella, 162 
Bostrichonema, 144 
Botrytidae, 141 
Botryodiplodia, 126 
Botryosphaeria, 28 
Botryosporium, 140 
Botryotrichum, 149 
Botrytis, 142 
Bottaria, 42 
Boudiera, 92 
Boudierella, 92 
Bovilla, 38 
Bovista, 118 
Brachysporium, 152 
Brefeldiella, 51 
Bremia, 17 
Bresadolella, 44 
Bresadolia, no 
Briardia, 63 
Briarea, 141 
Brigantiella, 54 
Briosia, 157 
Broomeia, 118 
Broomella, 46 
Brunchorstia, 132 
Bryophagus, 80 
Bryopogon, 82 
Bueliia, 84 
Bulgaria, 67 
Bulgariaceae, 66 
Bulgariella, 67 
Bulgariopsis, 67 
Bullaria, 136 
Bulliardella, 56 
Burrillia, 102 
Buseella, 140 
Byssocystis, 122 
Byssonectria, 43 



Cacosphaeria, 31 
Caenomyces, 21 
Caeoma, 99 
Calathiscus, 116 
Calcarisporium, 143 
Caldesia, 69 
Caldesiella, 108 
Calenia, 79 
Caliciaceae, 70 



Caliciopsis, 71 
Calicium, 71 
Calloria, 67 
Calocera, 105 
Caloderma, 118 
Calonectria, 16 
Caloplaca, 83 
Calosphaeria, 26 
Calospora, 34 
Calostilbe, 46 
Calothricopsis, 38 
Calvatia, 118 
Calycidium, 71 
Calyptospora, 100 
Camarops, 32 
Camarosporium, 127 
Camillea, 29 
Campanella, in 
Camposporium, 152 
Campsotrichum, 148 
Camptomyces, 19 
Camptosphaeria, 27 
Camptoum, 147 
Campylothelium, 41 
Candelaria, 81 
Candelariella, 79 
Cantharellus, in 
Cantharomyces, 18 
Capillaria, 164 
Capnodaria, 25 
Capnodiaceae, 25 
Capnodiastrum, 124 
Capnodiella, 29 
Capnodiopsis, 25 
Capnodium, 25 
Capronia, 36 
Carestiella, 64 
Caryospora, 35 
Castoreum, 118 
Catastoma, 118 
Catenaria, 11 
Catenularia, 149 
Catharinea, 36 
Catillaria, 77 
Catinula, 133 
Cauloglossum, 117 
Celidium, 58 
Cenangella, 66 
Cenangium, 66 



Cenococcaceae, 96 
Cenococcum, 96 
Cephaliophora, 145 
Cephalodochium, 160 
Cephalosporiae, 139 
Cephalosporium, 140 
Cephalothece, 23 
Cephalothecium, 144 
Cephalotrichum, 147 
Ceracea, 105 
Ceraiomyces, 20 
Ceratocarpia, 24 
Ceratocladium, 150, 157 
Ceratomyces, 21 
Ceratophorum, 152 
Ceratosphaeria, 33 
Ceratosporium, 154 
Ceratostoma, 28 
Ceratostomella, 27 
Cercospora, 152, 154 
Cercosporella, 145 
Cercosporidium, 152 
Ceriospora, 34 
Ceriosporella, 33 
Cerocorticium, 106 
Cesatiella, 46 
Cetraria, 81 
Ceuthospora, 123 
Chaconia, 08 
Chaenoderma, 117 
Chaenotheca, 71 
Chaetocladiae, 14 
Chaetocladium, 14 
Chaetoconidium, 142 
Chaetoccnis, 125 
Chaetodiplodia, 125 
Chaetodochis, 163 
Chaetomella, 124 
Chaetomidum, 23 
Chaetomium, 29 
Chaetomyces, 21 
Chaetopeltis, 132 
Chaetophoma, 122 
Chaetopsis, 150 
Chaetospermum, 160 
Chaetosphaeria, 35 
Chaetostroma, 162 
Chaetostromella, 163 
Chaetothece. 22 



210 



GEXERA OF FUXGI 



Chaetothyrium, 52 
Chaetozythia, 129 
Chalara, 150 
Chamonixia, 120 
Charonectria, 44 
Charrinia, 33 
Chiastospora, 129 
Chilonectria, 43 
Chiodectae, 60 
Chiodectum, 60 
Chiromyces, 154 
Chitonia, 114 
Chitoniella, 114 
Chitonis, 114 
Chitonomyces, 19 
Chitonospora, 34 
Chlamydobacteriaceae, 7 
Chloridium, 150 
Chlorocaulum, 78 
Chlorodothis, 50 
Chloropeltis, 75 , 
Chlorophyceae, 8 
Chlorosplenium, 86 
Choanophora, 14 
Choanophorae, 13 
Choeromyces, g8 
Chondromyces, 8, 155 
Choriactis, 65 
Chromosporium, 138 
Chrysobasidium, 107 
Chrysomyxa, 100 
Chrysopsora, 100 
Chrysothrix, 72 
Chrysotrichaceae, 72 
Chytridiaceae, 9 
Chytridium, n 
Ciboria, 86 
Cicinnobella, 124 
Cicinnobolus, 122 
Ciliciopodium, 155 
Ciliella, 85 
Ciliofusarium, 163 
Ciliospora, 128 
Cintractia, 101 
Circinastrum, 124 
Circinella, 13 
Circinotrichum, 150 
Cirromyces, 150 
Citromyces, 141 



Cladosterigma, 156 
Cladobotryum, 143 
Cladochytiiae, 11 
Cladochytrium, 11 
Cladoderris, 106 
Cladonia, 78 
Cladoniaceae, 78 
Cladorrhinum, 150 
Cladosphaeria, 34 
Cladosporium, 151 
Cladothrix, 7 
Cladotrichum, 151 
Clarkeinda, 114 
Clasterosporium, 151 
Clastopsora, 98 
Clathrella, 116 
Clathrogaster, 119 
Clathroporina, 40 
Clathrospora, 37 
Clathrus, 116 
Claudopus, 113 
Clavaria, 105 
Clavariaceae, 105 
Clavariopsis, 104 
Claviceps, 47 
Clavogaster, 118 
Clavularia, 155 
Cleistosoma, 43 
Cleistothece, 25 
Clematomyces, 20 
Clethridium, 36 
Clinoconidium, 159 
Clintoniella, 45 
Clithris, 62 
Clitocybe, in 
Clitopilus, 113 
Clonostachys, 143 
Clypeolum, 51 
Clypeosphaeria, 34 
Coccaceae, 8 
Coccobotrys, 164 
Coccocarpia, 83 
Coccodiscus, 51 
Coccoidea, 50 
Coccoideaceae, 50 
Coccomyces, 62 
Cocconia, 61 
Coccopeziza, 63 
Coccophacidium, 62 



Coccospora, 138 
Coccosporella, 138 
Coccosporium, 153 
Coccotrema, 40 
Coelomyces, 118 
Coelosphaeria, 26 
Coemansia, 143 
Coemansiella, 140 
Coenogonium, 72 
Ccleoma, 99 
Coleopuccinia, 99 
Coleosporium, 100 
Collema, 74 
Collemataceae, 72 
Collematae, 73 
Collemopsidium, 73 
Colletotrichum, 135 
Collocystis, 129 
Collodendrum, 104 
Collodochium, 159 
Collonema, 127 
Collopezis, 103 
Collybia, in 
Collyria, 105 
Colpoma, 57 
Colus, 116 
Combea, 60 
Ccmesia, 86 a 
Comoclathris, 57 
Completoria, 14 
Compsomyces, 20 
Confervales, 18 
Conida, 58 
Conidiascus, 93 
Ccnidiobolus, 14 
Coniocybe, 71 
Coniophora, 107 
Coniophorella, 107 
Conioscypha, 149 
Coniosporium, 146 
Coniothecium, 153 
Coniothyriella, 133 
Coniotbyris, 133 
Coniothyrium, 124 
Conotrema, 79 
Cookella, 25, 96 
Coprinus, 114 
Coprolepa, 28 
Cora, 107 



INDEX 



211 



Corallodendrum, 155 
Corallomyces, 45 
Cordana, 151 
Cordelia, 146, 148 
Cordieritaceae, 92 
Cordierites, 92 
Corditubera, 118 
Cordyceps, 47 
Coremium, 155 
Coreomyces, 21 
Corethromyces, 20 
Corethropsis, 140 
Cornuella, 102 
Cornularia, 127 
Coronella, 139 
Coronophora, 26 
Corticium, 106 
Cortinarius, 114 
Corymbomyces, 143 
Ccryne, 68 
Corynelia, 54 
Conmeliaceae, 54 
Coryneliella, 54 
Coryneum, 137 
Ccrynogaster, 118 
Coscinaria, 47 
Cosmariospora, 161 
Costantinella, 149 
Coutinia, 28 
Couturea, 126 
Crandallia, 132 
Craterellus, 106 
Craterocolla, 104 
Crenothrix, 7 
Crepidotus, 113 
Crinula, 66 
Crocicreas, 122 
Crocynia, 72 
Cronartium, 99 
Crotonocarpia, 37 
Crucibulum, 121 
Crumenula, 66 
Cryphonectria, 45 
Cryptica, 97 
Cryptocoryneum, 151 
Cryptoderis, 33 
Cryptodiscus, 64 
Cryptomela, 136 
Cryptomyces, 61 



Cryptophallus, 115 
Cryptoporus, 109 
Cryptosphaerella, 26 
Cryptosphaeria, 26 
Cryptosphaerina, 35 
Cryptospora, 38 
Cryptosporella, 28 
Cryptosporium, 137 
Cryptostictis, 126 
Cryptothecium, 22 
Cryptothele, 72 
Cryptovalsa, 26 
Ctenomyces, 93 
Cubcnia, 92 
Cucurbitaria, 37 
Cudonia, 91 
Cudoniella, 91 
Curreya, 50 
Cyanobaeis, 78 
Cyanocephalum, 45 
Cyathicula, 86 
Cyathus, 120 
Cycloconium, 150 
Cycloderma, 117 
Cyclomyces, no 
Cycloschizum, 56 
Cyclostomella, 55 
Cylindrina, 37 
Cylindrium, 139 
Cylindrocephalum, 140 
Cylindrocladium, 144 
Cylindrocolla, 160 
Cylindrodendrum, 142 
Cylindrophora, 142 
Cylindrosporium, 137 
Cylindrotrichum, 141 
Cymatella, 112 
Cyphelium, 71 
Cyphella, 107 
Cyphina, 130 
Cystolobis, 81 
Cystophora, 148 
Cystotheca, 23 
Cystothyrium, 132 
Cystotricha, 125 
Cytodiplospora, 125 
Cytoplea, 124 
Cytospora. 123 
Cytosporella, 123 



Cytosporina, 128 
Cytosporium, 127 
Cyttaria, 94 
Cyttariaceae, 94 

D 

Dacrymycella, 159 
Dacryobolus, 121 
Dacryodochium, 160 
Dacryomitra, 105 
Dacryomyces, 104 
Dacryomycetae, 104 
Dacryopsis, 105 
Dactylaria, 145 
Dactylella, 145 
Dactylina, 82 
Dactylium, 145 
Dactylosporium, 153 
Daedalea, no 
Daldinia, 29 
Dangardiella, 49 
Darbishirella, 60 
Darluca, 125 
Darwiniella, 49 
Dasybolus, 92 
Dasypezis, 88 
Dasyphthora, 45 
Dasyscypha, 88 
Dasyscyphae, 87 
Dasyspora, 99 
Davincia, 87 
Debaryella, 46 
Deconica, 114 
Delacourea, 37 
Delastria, 97 
Delitschia, 32 
Delitschiella, 32 
Delortia, 104 
Delpinoella, 55 
Delpontia, 64 
Dematiaceae, 146 
Dematiae, 162 
Dematium, 149 
Dendrodochium, 159 
Dendrogaster, 120 
Dendrographa, 60 
Dendrographium, 158 
Dendrophoma, 122 
Dendrostilbella, 155 



212 



GEXERA OF FUXGI 



Dendryphium, 152 


Didymosira, 99 


Dipcrina, 40 


Dermatea, 66 


Didymosphaeria, 32 


Dipyrenis, 40 


Dermateaceae, 65 


Didymosporium, 136 


Dipyrgis, 71 


Dermatiscum, 77 


Didymostilbe, 156 


Dirina, 59 


Dermatocarpae, 42 


Dielsiella, 56 


Dirinae, 59 


Dermatocarpum, 42 


Dietelia, 98 


Dirinaria, 84 


Desmazierella, 90 


Digraphis, 59 


Dirinastrum, 60 


Desmidiospora, 154 


Dilophia, 38 


Discella, 134 


Detonia, 88 


Dilophospora, 128 


Discina, 89 


Diachora, 48 


Dimargaris, 140 


Discocolla, 161 


Diaphanium, 158 


Dimerisma, 39 


Discocyphella, 106 


Diaporthe, 31 


Dimerium, 24 


Discomycetopsis, 124 


Diaporthopsis, 28 


Dimeromyces, 18 


Discomycopsella, 131 


Diarthonis, 58 


Dimerosporiopsis, 32 


Discosia, 132 


Diatrype, 26 


Dimerosporis, 32 


Discostroma, 50 


Diatrypella, 26 


Dimerosporium, 23 


Discula, 133 


Diatrypeopsis, 26 


Dimorphomyces, 18 


Dispira, 140 


Dibaeis, 78 


Dinemasporium, 133 


Distichomyces, 21 


Dibelonis, 86 


Dioecomyces, 20 


Dithelopsis, 40 


Diblepharis, 18 


Diorchidium, 99 


Ditiola, 105 


Dichaena, 56 


Diphaeis, 77 


Ditopella, 27 


Dichaenopsis, 134 


Diphaeosticta, 81 


Ditremis, 41 


Dichlaena, 129 


Diphanis, 77 


Ditylis, 71 


Dichodium, 73 


Diphanosticta, 81 


Doassansia, 102 


Dichomera, 127 


Diphloeis, 76 


Doratcmyces, 140 


Dichomyces, 19 


Diplocarpa, 88 


Dothichiza, 133 


Dichoporis, 40 


Diplocladium, 144 


Dothidea, 49 


Dichosporium, 34 


Diplococcium, 151 


Dothideaceae, 48 


Dicoccum, 150 


Diplocryptis, 63 


Dothidella, 49 


Dicollema, 74 


Diplccystis, 118 


Dothiopsis, 123 


Dicranidium, 161 


Diploderma, 117 


Dothiora, 62 


Dicranophora, 13 


Diplodia, 126 


Dothiorella, 123 


Dictyobole, 115 


Diplodiella, 126 


Drepanospora, 152 


Dictyocephalus, 119 


Diplodina, 125 


Dufourea, 82 


Dictyographia, 59 


Diplodiopsis, 126 


Duplicaria, 62 


Dictyonia, 68 


Diplogramma, 59 


Durella, 70 


Dictyophora, 115 


Diplomyces, 20 


Dyslachnum, 87 


Dictyorinis, 84 


Diplonaevia, 63 


Dyslecanis, 79 


Dictyosporium, 153 


Diplopeltis, 132 


Dysrhynchis, 82 


Dictyuchus, 15 


Diplophlyctis, 11 


Dysticta, 81 


Dicyma, 147 


Diplophysa, 11 


Dystictina, 82 


Didymaria, 144 


Diplorhinotrichum, 144 




Didymella, 30 


Diploschistes, 79 


E 


Didymobotryopsis, 156 


Diplosporis, 27 


Eccilia, 113 


Didymobotryum, 157 


Diplosporium, 144 


Echinobotryum, 147 


Didymochaete, 125 


Diplotheca, 36 


Echinodontium, 108 


Didymocladium, 144 


Diplotomma, 84 


Echinodothis, 48 


Didymopsis, 144 


Diplozythia, 129 


Echinophallus, 115 


.Didymopsora, 100 


Dipodascus, 93 


Echinothecium, 31 



INDEX 



'13 



Ectinomyces, 20 
Ectolechiae, 75 
Ectostroma, 164 
Ectrogella, 10 
Eidamella, 94 
Elaphomyces, 96 
Elaphomycetaceae, 96 
Elasmomyces, 116 
Eleutheromyces, 43 
Ellisiella, 149 
Elsinoe, 93 
Empusa, 14 
Enarthromyces, 19 
Encephalography, 59 
Enchnoa, 25 
Enchnosphaeria, 34 
Endobasidium, 107 
Endobotrya, 127 
Endocarpum, 42 
Endocena, 82 
Endoconidium, 158 
Endodesmia, 160 
Endogonaceae, 96 
Endomyces, 94 
Endomycetaceae, 93 
Endophyllum, 100 
Endothia, 31 
Endoxyla, 26 
Endoxylina, 33 
Engleromyces, 44 
Englerula, 24 
Enterodictyum, 60 
Enterostigma, 61 
Entoloma, 113 
Entomophthora, 14 
Entomophthoraceae, 14 
Entomosporium, 132 
Entonaema, 44' 
Entophlyctis, 10 
Entorrhiza, 101 
Entyloma, 101 
Eolichen, 39 
Eomycenella, 111 
F.oterfezia, 97 
Eoterfeziaceae, 96 
Ephebae, 74 
Ephebe, 74 
Ephebeia, 74 
Ephelina, 66 



Ephelis, 134 
Epichloe, 47 
Epiclinium, 163 
Epicoccum, 162 
Epicymatia, 30 
Epidochiopsis, 160 
Epidochium, 162 
Epigloea, 39 
Epilichen, 69 
Epochnium, 151 
Eremascus, 93 
Eremothecium, 94 
Erikssonia, 55 
Erinella, 88 
Erioderma, 83 
Eriopeziza, 86 
Eriosphaera, 118 
Eriosphaeria, 31 
Eriospora, 128 
Eriosporina, 127 
Eriothyrium, 131 
Erysibaceae, 21 
Erysibe, 22 
Erysibella, 22 
Erythrocarpum, 44 
Eubelonis, 87 
Eucantharomyces, 19 
Eucorethromyces, 20 
Eucronartium, 103 
Eucyphelis, 71 
Euhaplomyces, 19 
Eumollisiae, 84 
Eumonoecomyces, 19 
Euporthe, 31 
Eupropolis, 64 
Eurotiopsis, 128 
Eurotium, 22 
Euryachora, 48 
Eurytheca, 95 
Eutypa, 26 
Eutypella, 26 
Eustictidae, 62 
Euzodiomyces, 21 
Everhartia, 162 
Evernia, 82 
Everniopsis, 82 
Exascaceae, 93 
Exascus, 93 
Excipula, 133 



Excipulaceae, 133 
Excipularia, 134, 163 
Excipulina, 134 
Exidia, 104 
Exidiopsis, 104 
Exobasidium, 107 
Exosporina, 163 
Exosporium, 163 



Fabraea, 86 
Farlowiella, 55 
Farriolla, 71 
Favillea, 119 
Favolus, no 
Femsjonia, 104 
Fenestella, 37 
Feracia, 47 
Filoboletus, 109 
Fioriella, 131 
Fistulina, 109 
Fistulinella, 109 
Flaminia, 63 
Flammula, 113 
Fleischera, 48 
Floccimutinus, 115 
Fomes, 109 
Forssellia, 73 
Fracchiaea, 26 
Friesula, 106 
Fuckelia, 123 
Fuckelina, 150 
Fumago, 154 
Fungi Imperfecti, 121 
Fusariella, 151 
Fusarium, 161 
Fusella, 146 
Fusicladium, 15-1 
Fusicoccum, 123 
Fusicolla, 159 
Fusidium, 139 
Fusoma, 145 



Gaillardiella, 32 
Galactinia, 89 
Galera, 113 
Gambleola, 100 
Gamospora, 127 



214 



GENERA OE FUNGI 



Gamosporella, 123 
Gasteromycetes, 115 
Gautiera, 120 
Geaster, 117 
Geasterae, 117 
Geasteropsis, 117 
Geisleria, 40 
Gelatinosporium, 128 
Geminispora, 27 
Genabea, 97 
Genea, 96 
Geoglossum, 91 
Geopora, 96 
Geopyxis, 89 
Geotrichum, 139 
Gibbera, 31 
Gibberella, 46 
Gibberidea, 35 
Gibellia, 28 
Gibellina, 32 
Gibellula, 156 
Gilletiella, 52 
Giulia, 132 
Glenospora, 148 
Gliobotrys, 140 
Gliocephalus, 139 
Gliocladium, 141 
Glceocalyx, 67 
Gloeopeziza, 67 
Gloeoporus, 109 
Gloeosphaera, 143 
Gloeosporiella, 136 
Gloeosporium, 135 
Glomerella, 28 
Glomerularia, 138 
Gloniella, 56 
Gloniopsis, 57 
Glonium, 56 
Glossodium, 78 
Glutinium, 122, 157 
Glycophila, 139 
Glyphis, 60 
Glypholecia, 81 
Gnomonia, 30 
Gnomoniella, 27 
Gnomoniopsis, 33 
Godronia, 66 
Godroniella, 133 
Gomphidius, 115 



Gomphyllus, 78 
Gonapodya, 18 
Gonatobotrys, 143 
Gonatobotrytae, 143 
Gonatobotryum, 147 
Gonatorrhodiella, 143 
Gonatorrhodum, 143 
Gongromeriza, 147 
Gongylia, 40 
Goniosporium, 147 
Gonohymenia, 73 
Gonothecis, 75 
Gonytrichum, 150 
Gorgoniceps, 87 
Grammothele, 108 
Grandinia, 108 
Grandiniella, 107 

Granularia, 159 

Graphidaceae, 58 

Graphidiae, 58 

Giaphina, 59 

Graphiothecium, 157 

Grapbis, 59 

Graphium, 157 

Graphyllium, 57 

Guelichia, 160 

Guepinia, 105 

Guignardiella, 27 

Guillermondia, 95 

Gyalecta, 80 

Gyalectae, 80 

Gymnascaceae, 93 

Gymnascales, 93 

Gymnascus, 93 

Gymnoconia, 100 

Gymnoderma, 78 

Gymnodocbium, 160 

Gymnoglossum, 118 

Gymnographa, 58 

Gymnomyces, 120 

Gymnosporangium, 100 

Gyrocephalus, 104 

Gyroceras, 147 

Gyrocratera, 97 

Gyrodon, 109 

Gyromitra, 91 
Gyropbora, 77 
Gyrophorae, 77 
Gyrostomum, 80 



H 

Habrostictis, 63 
Hadrotrichum, 148 
Haematomma, 79 
Haematomyces, 67 
Haematomyxa, 68 
Hainesia, 135 
Halobyssus, 131 
Hapalophragmium, 101 
Haplaria, 141 
Haplariopsis, 144 
Haplobasidium, 147 
Haplocybe, 91 
Haplographium, 149 
Kaplomyces, 19 
Haplopyrenula, 41 
Haplosporella, 124 
Haplosporium, 28 

Haplotrichum, 140 

Hariotia, 30 

Harknessia, 124 

Harknessiella, 95 

Harpidium, 79 

Harpocepbalum, 157 

Harpochytriae, 11 

Harpochytrium, 11 

Harpograpbium, 157 

Hartigiella, 141 

Karziella, 143 

Hassea, 39 

Elebeloma, 113 

Helicobasidium, 107 

Helicocephalum, 149 

Helicogloea, 103 

Kelicoma, 154 

Helicomyces, 146 

Flelicopsis, 154 

Helicosporium. 154 

Helicostilbe, 156 

Helicotrichum, 149 

Helicoum, 146 

Heliomyces, 112 

Heliscus, 161 

Helminthascus, 47 

Helmintbocarpum, 59 

Helminthophana, 20 

Helminthosphaeria, 2? 

Helminthosporium, 152 

Helostroma, 156 



INDEX 



215 



Helotiaceae, 86 
Helotiae, 86 
Helotium, 86 
Helvella, 91 
Helvellaceae, 90 
Helvellae, 91 
Hemiglossum, 91 
Hemihysteriaceae, 54 
Hemileia, 98 
Hemileiopsis, 101 
Kendersonia, 126 
Hendersonula, 127 
Henningsomyces, 32 
Henningsinia, 29 
Henriquesia, 55 
Heppia, 75 
Heppiae, 75 
Heptameria, 34 
Hercospora, 31 
Hericium, 108 
Herpocladiella, 13 
Herpomyces, 20 
Herpothrix, 35 
Herpotrichia, 34 
Heterobasidium, 107 
Heterobotrys, 146 
Heterocarpum, 42 
Heterocephalum, 155 
Heterochaete, 104 
Heterodea, 81 
Heteromyces, 78 
Heteronectria, 43 
Heteropatella, 133 
Heterosphaeria, 65 
Heterosporium, 152 
Heufleria, 42 
Hexagonia, no 
Heydenia, 157 
Kiatula, in 
Himantia, 164 
Hippoperdon, 118 
Hirneola, 103 
Hirneolina, 104 
Hirsutella, 105 
Hirudinaria, 154 
Hobsonia, 162 
Hoehneliella, 157 
Holcomyces, 132 
Holocoenis, 72 



Holocyphis, 71 
Holothelis, 40 
Holstiella, 34 
Holwaya, 68 
Homopsella, 74 
Homostegia, 49 
Homothecium, 73 
Hormiactella, 149 
Hormiactis, 144 
Hormiscium, 147 
Hormodendrum, 149 
Hormodochis, 163 
Hormosperma, 33 
Hormyllium, 135 
Humaria, 88 
Husseya, 117 
Hyaloceras, 137 
Hyaloderma, 25 
Hyalodothis, 48 
Hyalopsora, 98 
Hyalopus, 140 
Hyaloria, 104 
Hyalostilbae, 154 
Hyalothyridium, 127 
Hyalothyris, 127 
Hydnaceae, 107 
Hydnangium, 120 
Hydnobolites, 97 
Hydnochaete, 108 
Hydnocystis, 96 
Hydnofcmes, 108 
Hydnophysa, 108 
Hydnotrya, 97 
Hydnum, 108 
Hydraeomyces, 19 
Hydrothyria, 83 
Hygrophorus, in 
Hymenella, 159 
Hymenogaster, 120 
Hymenogastraceae, 119 
Hymenogramme, 112 
Hymenomycetes, 102 
Hymenopsis, 162 
Hymenoscypha, 87 
Hymenula, 159 
Hyperphyscia, 84 
Hypha, 164 
Hyphaster, 163 
Hyphoderma, 141 



Hypholoma, 114 
Hyphomyceteae, 138 
Hyphoscypha, 88 
Hyphostereum, 159 
Hypocenia, 124 
Hypochnus, 107 
Hypocopra, 28 
Hypocrea, 45 
Hypocreaceae, 42 
Hypocrella, 48 
Hypocreodendrum, 129 
Hypocreopsis, 45 
Hypoderma, 57 
Hypodermella, 55 
Hypodermium, 135 
Hypodermopsis, 57 
Hypolyssus, 106 
Hypomyces, 45 
Hyponectria, 43 
Hypospila, 33 
Hypospilina, 30 
Hypoxylopsis, 49 
Hypoxylum, 30 
Hysterangium, 120 
Hysteriaceae, 55 
Hysteriales, 54 
Hysterium, 57 
Hysterographium, 57 
Hysteromyxa, 130 
Hysteropatella, 69 
Hysteropsis, 57 
Hysterostomella, 55 



Icmadophila, 79 
Idiomyces, 20 
Illosporium, 160 
Ingaderia, 60 
Inocybe, 113 
Inzengaea, 27 
Iotidea, 89 
Iridionia, 63 
Irpex, 108 
Isaria, 156 
Isariopsis, 157 
Isothea, 37 
Itajahya, 115 
Ithyphallus, 115 



2l6 



GENERA OF FUNGI 



Janseella, 64 
Jansia, 115 
Jenmania, 73 
Johansonia, 69 
Jola, 103 
Jonaspis, 80 
Julella, 36 

K 

Kabatia, 131 
Kalchbrennera, 115 
Kalmusia, 35 
Karschia, 69 
Karstenia, 64 
Karstenula, 36 
Keithia, 62 

Kellermannia, 125, 126 
Kmetia, 159 
Kneiffia, 106 
Koerberia, 73 
Konradia, 48 
Kretschmaria, 29 
Kullhemia, 48 
Kusanoa, 95 
Kusanobotrys, 24 



Laaseomyces, 23 
Laboulbenia, 21 
Laboulbeniaceae, 18 
Laboulbeniales, 18 
Labrella, 131 
Labridium, 132 
Laccocephalum, 109 
Lachnea, 90 
Lachnella, 88 
Lachnellula, 87 
Lachnocladium, 105 
Lachnodochium, 160 
Lachnum, 87 
Lactariopsis, in 
Lactarius, in 
Laestadia, 27 
Lagenidiae, 16 
Lagenidium, 16 
Lagerheimia, 69 
Lahmia, 70 
Lambro, 45 



Lamia, 14 
Lamyella, 123 
Langloisula, 142 
Lanopila, 118 
Lanzia, 87 
Laquearia, 65 
Laschia, 109 
Lasiobolus, 92 
Lasiobotrys, 23 
Lasioderma, 155 
Lasiodiplodia, 126 
Lasiosphaeria, 33 
Lasiosphaeris, 35 
Lasiostictis, 64 
Lasmenia, 131 
Laurera, 42 
Lauterbachiella, 64 
Lecanactidae, 76 
Lecanactis, 76 
Lecania, 79 
Lecanidion, 70 
Lecaniella, 75 
Lecanora, 79 
Lecanorae, 78 
Lecidea, 76 
Lecideaceae, 76 
Lecideae, 76 
Lecideopsis, 58 
Leciographa, 70 
Lecithium, 46 
Lecoglyphis, 70 
Leciophysma, 73 
Leiosepium, 141 
Lemalis, 129 
Lembosia, 56 
Lembosiella, 55 
Lemmopsis, 73 
Lemonniera, 146 
Lentinus, 112 
Lentodiopsis, 112 
Lentodium, 112 
Lentomita, 30 
Lenzites, 112 
Leotia, 91 
Leotiella, 91 
Lepidocollema, 83 
Lepiota, in 
Lepolicben, 42 
Lepraria, 164 



Leprocollema, 73 
Leptinia, 100 
Leptodendriscum, 74 
Leptogidium, 74 
Leptogiopsis, 74 
Leptogium, 74 
Leptolegnia, 15 
Leptomitae, 15 
Leptomitus, ib 
Leptonia, 113 
Leptophyma, 95 
Leptorhaphis, 41 
Leptosphaeria, 34 
Leptosphaeropsis, 34 
Leptosphaerulina, 36 
Leptosporella, 38 
Leptostroma, 131 
Leptostromataceae, 130 
Leptostromella, 133 
Leptothyrella, 131 
Leptothyrium, 131 
Leptotrema, 80 
Leptotrichum, 161 
Letendraea, 46 
Letharia, 82 
Leucangium, 97 
Leucocrea, 47 
Leucogaster, 120 
Leucopezis, 90 
Leucophleps, 120 
Levieuxia, 124 
Libertella, 138 
Libertiella, 129 
Lichenopsis, 126 
Lichenosticta, 121 
Lichina, 74 
Lichinae, 74 
Lichinella, 74 
Lichinodium, 74 
Licopolia, 32 
Lilliputia, 97 
Limacinia, 24 
Limnaeomyces, 19 
Lindauella, 63 
Linhartia, 85 
Linospora, 37 
Lisea, 45 
Lisiella, 43 
Listeromyces, 163 



INDEX 



217 



Lithoecis, 39 
Lithographa, 59 
Lithothelium, 42 
Lituaria, 161 
Lizonia, 31 
Lizoniella, 30 
Lloydiella, 107 
Lobaria, 81 
Lobarina, 83 
Locellina, 113 
Lopadiopsis, 75 
Lopadium, 77 
Lopharia, 108 
Lophidiopsis, 54 
Lophidium, 54 
Lophiella, 53 
Lophionema, 54 
Lophiosphaera, 53 
Lophiostoma, 54 
Lophiostomataceae, 53 
Lophiotrema, 54 
Lophiotricha, 53 
Lophium, 57 
Lophodermium, 57 
Lycoperdaceae, 116 
Lycoperdae, 118 
Lycoperdales, 115 
Lycoperdon, 118 
Lycoperdopsis, 118 
Lysurus, 116 

M 

Macowanites, 120 
Macrobatis, 126 
Macrodiplodia, 125 
Macrophoma, 122 
Macropodia, 89, 90 
Macrosporium, 153 
Macrostilbum, 155 
Magnusia, 23 
Malbranchea, 139 
Malmeomyces, 46 
Manginia, 123 
Marasmiopsis, 112 
Marasmius, 112 
Marchaliella, 24 
Maronea. 80 
Marsonia, 136 
Martellia, 120 



Martensella, 142 
Martindalia, 155 
Martinella, 129 
Massalongia, 83 
Massalongiella, 25 
Massaria, 34 
Massariella, 31 
Massarina, 33 
Massarinula, 30 
Massariovalsa, 32 
Masseea, 87 
Masseella, 99 
Massospora, 138 
Mastigosporium, 145 
Mastodia, 42 
Mastomyces, 126 
Mattirolia, 47 
Matruchotia, 107 
Maurodothis, 49 
Maurya, 38 
Mazosia, 61 
Mazzantia, 48 
Megalonectria, 46 
Megalospora, 76 
Melachroia, 89 
Melampsora, 98 
Melampsorella, g8 
Melampydium, 76 
Melanconiaceae, 135 
Melanconiales, 135 
Melanconiella, 32 
Melanconiopsis, 124 
Melanconis, 31 
Melanconium, 136 
Melanogaster, 120 
Melanomma, 35 
Melanops, 34 
Melanopsamma, 31 
Melanopsichium, 102 
Melanospora, 44 
Melanostroma, 135 
Melanotaenium, 101 
Melanotheca, 42 
Melasmia, 131 
Melaspilea, 59, 69 
Melchiora, 31 
Meliola, 24 
Meliolopsis, 23 
Melittiosporium, 64 



Melittosporiopsis, 85 
Melittosporis, 85 
Melogramma, 35 
Melomastia, 33 
Melophia, 132 
Mendogia, 57 
Menispora, 150 
Merarthonis, 58 
Merodontis, 87 
Merodothidis, 128 
Merophora, 77 
Meroplacis, 84 
Merorinis, 84 
Merostictina, 82 
Merostictis, 64 
Merulius, no 
Mesnieria, 28 
Mesobotrys, 150 
Mesophellia, 117 
Metadothella, 62 
Metanectria, 45 
Metasphaeria, 33 
Metraria, 112 
Michenera, 106 
Micrascus, 28 
Microcera, 161 
Micrococcus, 8 
Microcyclus, 49 
Microdiplodia, 125 
Microglaena, 40 
Microglossum, 91 
Micrographa, 59 
Micronectria, 47 
Micropeltis, 52 
Micropera, 128 
Microphiale, 80 
Microphyma, 95 
Microspatha, 155 
Microsphaera, 22 
Microspira, 8 
Microstelium, 58 
Microstroma, 138 
Microthelia, 41 
Microtheliopsis, 41 
Microthyriaceae, 51 
Microthyriae, 51 
Microthyrium, 52 
Micula, 128 
Midotiopsis, 65 



218 



GENERA OF FUXGI 



Midotis, 65 
Milesia, 100 
Milowia, 144 
Minksia, 60 
Misgomyces, 21 
Mitromyces, 117 
Mitrula, 91 
Mitruliopsis, 91 
Moelleriella, 43 
Moellerodiscus, 91 
Molleriella, 95 
Mollisia, 84 
Mollisiaceae, 84 
Mollisiella, 84 
Monacrosporium, 145 
Monascus, 23 
Monilia, 139 
Moniliaceae, 138 
Moniliales, 138 
Monoblepharidaceae, 18 
Monoblepharis, 18 
Monochaetia, 137 
Monoecomyces, 19 
Monographus, 48 
Monopodium, 141 
Monosporidium, 98 
Monosporium, 142 
Monotospora, 148 
Montagnella, 49 
Montagnites, 115 
Montagnula, 37 
Morchella, 91 
Morenoella, 55 
Morinia, 137 
Moriola, 39 
Moriolae, 39 
Mortierella, 13 
Mortierellae, 13 
Moschomyces, 20 
Moutoniella, 62 
Mucedinae, 158 
Mucedineae, 138 
Mucor, 13 
Mucoraceae, 12 
Mucorac, 12 
Mucronclla, 108 
Mucronoporus, 109 
Mucrosporium, 145 



Mullerella, 28 
Munkia, 130 
Munkiella, 49 
Muricularia, 139 
Mutinus, 115 
Myceliophthora, 138 
Mycena, ill 
Mycobacidia, 70 
Mycobilimbia, 69 
Mycoblastus, 76 
Mycocalicium, 71 
Mycocitrus, 45 
Mycodendrum, 109 
Mycogala, 122 
Mycogone, 144 
Mycolecis, 70 
Mycomalus, 48 
Mycoporaceae, 50 
Mycoporellum, 50 
Mycoporis, 78 
Mycoporum, 50 
Mycorhynchus, 130 
Mycosphaerella, 30 
Mycosyrinx, 102 
Myiocoprum, 51 
Mylittopsis, 103 
Myriadoporus, no 
Myriangiaceae, 95 
Myriangella, 95 
Myriangium, 95 
Myridium, 67 
Myrioblepharis, 18 
Myriogenospora, 50 
Myriolecis, 7g 
Myriophysa, 162 
Myrmaecium, 31 
Myrmecocystis, 97 
Myrothecium, 162 
Mystrosporium, 153 
Mytilidium, 57 
Myxobacter, 8 
Myxobacteriaceae, 8 
Myxobactrales, 8 
Myxococcus, 8 
Myxodictyum, 79 
Myxomycidium, 105 
Myxonema, 160 
Myxormia, 135 



Myxosporella, 135 
Myxosporium, 135 
Myxotrichum, 149 
Myzocytium, 16 

N 

Naegeliella, 16 
Naemacyclus, 64 
Naematelia, 104 
Naemosphaera, 124 
Naemospora, 137 
Naevia, 63 
Naeviella, 63 
Napicladium, 152 
Naucoria, 113 
Necator, 159 
Nectria, 45 
Nectriella, 43 
Nectrioidaceae, 128 
Negeriella, 158 
Nematogonium, 143 
Nematosporangium, 16 
Neoarcangelia, 26 
Neobarclaya, 136 
Neocosmospora, 44 
Neomichelia, 152 
Neopeckia, 32 
Neoravenelia, 101 
Neorehmia, 23 
Neoskofitzia, 45 
Neottiopezis, 90 
Neottiospora, 122 
Neovossia, 101 
Nephroma, 76 
Nephromopsis, 81 
Nephromium, 75 
Nesolechia, 69 
Nidula, 121 
Nidularia, 120 
Nidulariaceae, 120 
Nigrospora, 148 
Niorma, 84 
Niptera, 85 
Nitschkea, 26 
Nocardia, 7 
Nolanea, 113 
Nomuraea, 143 
Normandina, 42 



INDEX 



219 



Nostocotheca, 94 
Nothopatella, 124 
Nothostroma, 50 
Nowakowskia, 10 
Nowakowskiella, 11 
Nummularia, 30 
Nyctalis, in 



Obelidium, 11 
Ocellaria, 63 
Ocellis, 80 
Ocellularia, 80 
Ochrolechia, 79 
Octaviania, 120 
Odontia, 108 
Odontotrema, 65 
Odontura, 65 
Oedemium, 148 
Oedocephalum, 139 
Oedomyces, 101 
Ohleria, 35 
Ohleriella, 35 
Oidiopsis, 139 
Oidium, 139 
Oleina, 93 
Ollula, 130 
Olpidiae, 9 
Olpidiopsis, 10 
Olpidium, 10 
Olpitrichum, 141 
Ombrophila, 67 
Omphalia, 111 
Oncopodium, 153 
Oncospora, 134 
Onygena, 96 
Onygenaceae, 96 
Oochytriae, 11 
Oomyces, 47 
Oospora, 139 
Opegrapha, 59 
Opegraphella, 59 
Ophiobolus, 37 
Ophioceras, 38 
Ophiochaete, 38 
Ophiocladium, 138 
Ophiodictyum, 36 
Ophiodothis, 50 



Ophiogloea, 68 
Ophiognomonia, 37 
Ophiomassaria, 37 
Ophiomeliola, 25 
Ophionectria, 47 
Ophiopeltis, 52 
Ophiotrichum, 152 
Orbicula, 23 
Orbilia, 67 
Oropogon, 82 
Orphniospora, 76 
Oscarbrefeldia, 94 
Ostreium, 57 
Ostropa, 57, 65 
Ostropae, 65 
Otidea, 88 
Otidella, 88 
Otthia, 32 
Otthiella, 31 
Oudemansiella, 112 
Ovularia, 142 
Ovulariopsis, 142 
Oxydothis, 50 
Ozonium, 164 



Pacbybasium, 143 
Pachyphiale, 80 
Pachyphloeus, 97 
Pactilia, 158 
Paepalopsis, 139 
Pampolysporium, 23 
Panaeolus, 114 
Pannaria, 83 
Pannariae, 83 
Panus, 112 
Papulospora, 140 
Paranectria, 46 
Paraspora, 145 
Parathalle, 70 
Paratheliae, 41 
Parathelium, 41 
Parmelia, 81 
Parmeliaceae, 78 
Parmeliae, 81 
Parmeliella, 83 
Parmeliopsis, 81 
Parmenteria, 42 



Parmularia, 55 
Parmulariella, 55 
Parodiella, 24, 32 
Paryphedria, 67 
Passalora, 151 
Passeriniella, 34 
Passerinula, 45 
Patellaria, 70 
Patellariaceae, 68 
Patellea, 69 
Patellina, 130, 158 
Patellinae, 130 
Patinella, 69 
Patouillardia, 159 
Patouillardiella, 161 
Paulia, 73 
Paurocotylis, 119 
Paxillus, 114 
Pazschkea, 85 
Pazschkella, 125 
Peccania, 73 
Peckia, 123 
Peckiella, 40 
Pedilospora, 146 
Pedisordaria, 29 
Pellicularia, 142 
Pellioniella, 125 
Pelodiscus, 90 
Peloronectria, 46 
Peltidium, 91 
Peltigera, 75 
Peltigeromyces, 88 
Peltophora, 75 
Peltophoraceae, 75 
Peltophorae, 75 
Peltophoromyces, 88 
Peltosphaeria, 36 
Peltostroma, 131 
Pemphidium, 51 
Penicilliopsis, 44 
Penicillium, 141 
Peniophora, 107 
Pentagenella, 60 
Penzigia, 29 
Perforaria, 79 
Peribotryum, 156 
Pericladium, 99 
Periconia, 147 



220 



GENERA OF FUNGI 



Periconiella, 147 
Peridermium, 99 
Periola, 160 
Perisporiaceae, 22 
Perisporina, 24 
Perisporiopsis, 24 
Perisporium, 24 
Peronospora, 17 
Peroneutypa, 26 
Peroneutypella, 26 
Peronosporaceae, 17 
Peronosporae, 17 
Perisporiopsis, 24 
Perrotia, 88 
Pertusaria, 79 
Pertusariae, 79 
Pestalozzia, 137 
Pestalozziella, 135 
Pestalozzina, 136 
Petasodes, 133 
Petractis, 74 
Peyritschiella, 19 
Peziza, 89 
Pezizaceae, 88 
Pezizae, 88 
Pezizales, 61 
Pezizella, 86 
Pezoloma, 86 
Phacidiaceae, 61 
Phacidium, 61 
Phacopsis, 58 
Phacopsora, 98 
Phaeangella, 66 
Phaeangium, 66, 97 
Phaeoclavulina, 105 
Phaeoconis, 148 
Phaeocreopsis, 46 
Phaeodiscula, 133 
Phaeodothis, 49 
Phaeoglaena, 40 
Phaeographina, 59 
Phaeographis, 59 
Phaeohygrocybe, 114 
Phaeolimacium, 114 
Phaeomacropus, 90 
Phaeomeris, 39 
Phaeonectria, 46 
Phaeopeltis, 52 



Phaeopeltosphaeria, 36 
Phaeopezia, 89 
Phaeophacidium, 61 
Phaeopterula, 105 
Phaeoradulum, 108 
Phaeosaccardinula, 52 
Phaeoscutella, 52 
Phaeosphaerella, 31 
Phaeospora, 34 
Phaeosporis, 39 
Phaeostilbae, 156 
Phaeothrombis, 40 
Phaeotrema, 80 
Phallaceae, 115 
Phallogaster, 116 
Phalodictyum, 77 
Phalomeris, 39 
Phalostauris, 39 
Phalothrix, 88 
Phanosticta, 81 
Phanotylium, 80 
Pharcidia, 30 
Phellorina, 119 
Phialea, 86 
Phillipsiella, 95 
Philocopra, 28 
Phlebia, 108 
Phlebophora, 103 
Phleboscyphus, 89 
Phleospora, 128 
Phloeoconis, 164 
Phloeopeccania, 73 
Phlyctella, 79 
Phlyctidia, 79 
Phlyctaena, 128 
Phlyctis, 79 
Phlyctochytrium, 11 
Pholidota, 113 
Pholiotella, 113 
Phoma, 122 
Phomataceae. 121 
Phomatales, 121 
Phomatospora, 27 
Phomopsis, 121 
Phragmidiothrix, 7 
Phragmidium, 100 
Phragmographium, 56 
Phragmonaevia, 64 



Phragmopeltis, 132 
Phragmopyxine, 84 
Phragmopyxis, 100 
Phragmosfele, 100 
Phragmothele, 39 
Phragmotrichum, 137 
Phycascus, 89 
Phycodiscis, 83 
Phycomyces, 13 
Phyllachora, 48 
Phyllactinia, 22 
Phylliscidium, 72 
Fhylliscum, 72 
Phyllobathelium, 41 
Phyllophthalmaria, 80 
Phylloporina, 41 
Phylloporis, 41 
Phyllopsora, 77 
Phyllopsorae, 77 
Phyllosticta, 121 
Phymatotrichum, 142 
Phymatosphaeria, 95 
Phymatosphaeriaceae, 95 
Physalacria, 105 
Physalospora, 27 
Physcia, 84 
Physciaceae, 83 
Physcidia, 81 
Physma, 73 
Physoderma, 11 
Physmatomyces, 67 
Physospora, 141 
Phytophthora, 17 
Picoa, 97 
Piersonia, 97 
Piggotia, 131 
Pilacre, 155 
Pilacrella, 103 
Pilaira, 13 
Pilgeriella, 27 
Pilidium, 134 
Pilobolae, 13 
Pilobolus, 13 
Pilocarpum, 76 
Pilocratera, 90 
Pilophorum, 78 
Pilosace, 114 
Pimina, 150 



INDEX 



221 



Pionnotes, 161 
Piptocephalis, 14 
Piptostoma, 51 
Piptostomum, 122 
Pirella, 13 
Piricularia, 145 
Pirobasidium, 155 
Pirostoma, 131 
Pirottaea, 85 
Pisomyxa, 22 
Pistillaria, 106 
Pithomyces, 161 
Pitya, 88 
Placidiopsis, 42 
Placographa, 68 
Placolecanis, 79 
Placosphaereila, 125 
Placosphaeria, 123 
Placothelium, 39 
Placynthium, 83 
Plagiotrema, 41 
Planococcus, 8 
Planosarcina, 8 
Plasmopara, 17 
Platyglcea, 103 
Platysticta, 64 
Platystomum, 54 
Plearthonis, 58 
Plectania, 90 
Plectothrix, 142 
Plenodomus, 122 
Pleochaete, 22 
Pleococcum, 133 
Pleoconis, 73 
Pleochroma, 80 
Pleodothis, 49 
Pleogibberella, 46 
Pleoglonis, 56 
Pleolecis, 76 
Pleolpidium, 10 
Pleomassaria, 36 
Pleomeliola, 25 
Pleonectria, 46 
Pleophragmia, 37 
Pleopyrenis, 72 
Pleoravenelia, 101 
Pleorinis, 84 
Pleosphaeria, 37 



Pleosphaeruiina, 36 
Pleospilis, 69 
Pleospora, 36 
Pleosporopsis, 29 
Pleostictis, 64 
Pleotrachelus, 10 
Pleurascus, 23 
Pleurocybe, 72 
Pleurotus, 111 
Pleurostoma, 26 
Pleurothelium, 41 
Pleurotrema, 41 
Plicaria, 89 
Plicariella, 89 
Ploettnera, 63 
Plcwrightia, 49 
Pluteclus, 113 
Pluteus, 112 
Pocillum, 87 
Pocosphaeria, 34 
Podaleuris, 89 
Podaxae, 116 
Podaxon, 117 
Podocapsa, 94 
Podocapsium, 94 
Podochytrium, 11 
Podocrea, 45 
Podoloma, 117 
Podosordaria, 29 
Podosphaera, 22 
Podosporella, 158 
Podosporium, 158 
Podostictina, 82 
Podostroma, 44 
Poecilosporium, 102 
Polyangium, 8 
Polyascomyces, 19 
Polyblastia, 39 
Polyblastiopsis, 41 
Polycephalum, 155 
Polychidium, 74 
Polydesmus, 152 
Polygaster, 119 
Polynema, 133 
Polyphagus, 12 
Polyplocium, 116 
Polyporaceae, 108 
Polyporus, 109 



Polyrrhina, 11 
Polysaccopsis, 102 
Polysaccum, 119 
Polyscytalum, 139 
Polystictis, 109 
Polystigma, 43 
Polystigmina, 130 
Polystomella, 51 
Polystroma, 80 
Polythelis, 41 
Polythrincium, 151 
Polytrichia, 27 
Poria, 109 
Porina, 40 
Porocyphus, 74 
Poronia, 29 
Poropeltis, 131 
Poroptyche, no 
Porothelium, no 
Pragmopara, 70 
Prillieuxia, 107 
Prismaria, 146 
Pritzeliella, 155 
Prophytroma, 149 
Propolidium, 64 
Propolina, 63 
Propolis, 63 
Prosthemiella, 136 
Prosthemium, 127 
Protococcales, 9 
Protoglossum, 119 
Protomerulius, 104 
Protomyces, 94 
Protomycetaceae, 93 
Protostegia, 134 
Protoventuria, 32 
Protubera, 116 
Psammina, 136 
Psathyra, 114 
Psathyrella, 114 
Pseudacolium, 71 
Pseudobeltrania, 151 
Pseudocenangium, 134 
Pseudodiplodia, 129 
Pseudogenea, 96 
Pseudographis, 56, 62 
Pseudohydnotria, 96 
Pseudolizonia, 31 



222 



GENERA OF FUNGI 



Pseudomelasmia, 131 
Pseudomeliola, 38 
Pseudomonas, 8 
Pseudopatella, 134 
Pseudopeziza, 85 
Pseudophacidium, 61 
Pseudoplectania, 90 
Pseudopyrenula, 41 
Pseudostictis, 130 
Pseudotryblidium, 70 
Pseudotrype, 43 
Pseudotthia, 32 
Pseudovalsa, 35 
Pseudozythia, 129 
Psilocybe, 114 
Psilopezia, 91 
Psilospora, 133 
Psilothecium, 69 
Psora, 77 
Psorella, 77 
Psoroglaena, 42 
Psorographis, 59 
Psoroma, 79 
Psoromaria, 77 
Psorotheciella, 85 
Psorotheciopsis, 85 
Psorotichia, 73 
Pteridiospora, 31 
Pterophyllus, 112 
Pterula, 105 
Pterygiopsis, 74 
Pterygium, 74 
Prychographa, 59 
Puccinia, 100 
Pucciniastrum. 100 
Pucciniopsis, 163 
Pucciniosira, 99 
Pucciniospora, 125 
Pucciniostele, 100 
Puiggariella, 45 
Pulparia, 67 
Pulveraria, 164 
Pustularia, 89 
Puttemansia, 90 
Pycnochytrium, 10 
Pycnographa, 61 
Pycnostroma, 130 
Pyrenastrum, 42 



Pyrenidiae, 38 
Pyrenidium, 38 
Pyrenochaeta, 123 
Pyrenocollema, 39 
Pyrenopeziza, 85 
Pyrenopezizae, 85 
Pyrenophora, 37 
Pyrenopsidae, 72 
Pyrenopsidium, 72 
Pyrenopsis, 72 
Pyrenothamnia, 42 
Pyrenotheca, 50 
Pyrenotrichum, 122 
Pyrenula, 40 
Pyrenulae, 40 
Pyrenyllium, 41 
Pyrgidium, 71 
Pyrgillus, 71 
Pyronema, 89 
Pyronemella, 90 
Pythiae, 16 
Pythiopsis, 15 
Pythium, 16 
Pyxine, 84 



Quaternaria, 26 
Queletia, 117 

R 

Rabenhorstia, 123 
Racodium, 72 
Radulum, 108 
Ramalina, 82 
Ramonia, 80 
Ramularia, 145 
Ramulaspera, 142 
Ravenelia, 101 
Ravenelula, 69 
Rebentischia, 34 
Reessia, 9 
Rehmiella, 30 
Reinkella, 60 
Resticularia, 17 
Rhabdospora, 127 
Rhachomyces, 20 
Rhacodium, 164 
Rhacophyllus, 112 



Rhadinomyces, 20 
Rhagadolobium, 61 
Rhamphoria, 36 
Rhamphospora, 101 
Rhinocladium, 148 
Rhinotrichum, 141 
Rhipidium, 16 
Rhipidonema, 107 
Rhizidiae, 10 
Rhizidiomyces, 11 
Rhizidium, n 
Rhizina, 91 
Rhizinae, 91 
Rhizocarpum, 77 
Rhizoctonia, 164 
Rhizomorpha, 164 
Rhizomyces, 20 
Rhizomyxa, 16 
Rhizophidium, 10 
Rhizophlyctis, 10 
Rhizopogon, 120 
Rhizopus, 13 
Rhombostilbella, 155 
Rhopalidium, 136 
Rhopalomyces, 139 
Rhopographus, 49 
Rhymbocarpus, 68 
Rhynchodiplodia, 125 
Rhynchomelas, 44 
Rhynchomeliola, 32 
Rhynchomyces, 152 
Rhynchonectria, 44 
Rhynchophoma, 125 
Rhynchcsphaeria, 34 
Rhynchosporium, 144 
Rhynchostoma, 32 
Rhyparobius, 92 
Rhytidhysterium, 56 
Rhytidopeziza, 70 
Rhytisma, 62 
Riccoa, 158 
Richonia, 24 
Rickia, 21 
Rickiella, 95 
Riessia, 158 
Rimbachia, in 
Rinia, 27 
Rinodina, 84 



INDEX 



223 



Robergea, 58, 65 
Robillardia, 125 
Roccella, 60 
Roccellae, 60 
Roccellaria, 60 
Roccellina, 60 
Roccellographa, 60 
Rodwaya, 109 
Roesleria, 71 
Roestelia, 99 
Rosellinia, 29 
Rosenscheldia, 49 
Rostrella, 27 
Rostrupia, 100 
Rotaea, 145 
Roumegueriella, 128 
Roussoella, 49 
Rozella, 10 
Ruhlandiella, 97 
Russula, in 
Rutstroemia, 87 



Saccardaea, 156 
Saccardia, 22 
Saccardinula, 52 
Saccardoella, 33 
Saccardomyces, 25 
Saccharomyces, 94 
Saccharomycetaceae, 94 
Saccoblastia, 103 
Saccobolus, 92 
Saccopyrenia, 39 
Sacidium, 131 
Sagiolechia, 80 
Samarospora, 22 
Santiella, 126 
Saprolegnia, 15 
Saprolegniaceae, 15 
Saprolegniae, 15 
Sarcina, 8 
Sarcinella, 154 
Sarcinodochium, 161 
Sarcographa, 60 
Sarcograpriina, 60 
Sarcomyces, 68 
Sarcopodium, 149 
Sarcoscypha, 90 



Sarcosoma, 67 
Scaphidium, 134 
Sceptromyces, 143 
Schenckiella, 24 
Schinzinia, 113 
Schismatomma, 76 
Schizacrospermum, 58 
Schizomycetes, 7 
Schizonella, 102 
Schizopelte, 60 
Schizophyllum, 112 
Schizosaccharomyces, 94 
Schizospora, 100 
Schizostoma, 53 
Schizothyrella, 134 
Schizothyrium, 55, bi 
Schizotrichum, 163 
Schizoxylum, 64 
Schneepia, 55 
Schroeteria, 102 
Schroeteriaster, 98 
Schulzeria, in 
Schweinitziella, 48, 50 
Sciodothis. 50 
Scirrhia, 49 
Scirrhiella, 48 
Sclerococcum, 163 
Sclerodepsis, no 
Scleroderma, 118 
Sclerodermatae, 118 
Scleroderris, 65 
Sclerodiscus, 162 
Sclerogaster, 120 
Sclerographium, 158 
Sclerophytum, 60 
Scleroplea, 37 
Sclerospora, 17 
Sclerotinia, 86 
Sclerotiopsis, 122 
Sclerotium, 164 
Scolecactis, 76 
Scoleciocarpus, 119 
Scolecopeltis, 52 
Scolecosporis, 77 
Scolecosporium, 137 
Scolecotrichum, 151 
Scoliciosporum, 77 
Scopinella, 44 



Scopularia, 150 
Scorias, 25 
Scoriomyces, 160 
Scortechinia, 28 
Scutellinia, 90 
Scutelliniae, 89 
Scutellum, 52 
Scutula, 69 
Scutularia, 70 
Scytopezis, 65 
Sebacina, 104 
Secotium, 116 
Seismosarca, 105 
Selenotila, 138 
Selinia, 43 
Sepedonium, 142 
Septobasidium, 106 
Septocylindrium, 144 
Septodothideopsis, 128 
Septogloeum, 136 
Septomyxa, 136 
Septonema, 152 
Septorella. 127 
Septoria, 127 
Septosporiella, 128 
Septosporium, 153 
Septotrullula, 137 
Sepultaria, 90 
Seuratia, 25 
Seynesia, 52 
Seynesiopsis, 132 
Shiraia, 47 
Sigmoideomyces, 139 
Sillia, 38 
Simblum, 116 
Simonyella, 60 
Siphula, 82 
Sirentyloma, 101 
Siridiella, 137 
Siridlum, 137 
Sirobasidium, 104 
Sirococcus, 123 
Sirocyphis, 130 
Sirodesmium, 153 
Sirodothis, 123 
Siropatella, 134 
Sirothecium, 124 
Sirozythia, 128 



224 



GENERA OF FUNGI 



Sistotrema, 108 
Skepperia, 106 
Skierka, 99 
Stigmella, 153 
Solenia, 107 
Solenoplea, 30 
Solorina, 75 
Solorinella, 76 
Solorinina, 75 
Sordaria, 28 
Sorokinia, 68 
Sorosporella, 138 
Sorosporium, 102 
Sorothelia, 32 
Sparassis, 105 
Spathularia, 91 
Spegazzinia, 163 
Spegazzinula, 45 
Spermodermia, 162 
Sphacelia, 159 
Sphacelotheca, 102 
Sphaerella, 30 
Sphaeriaceae, 25 
Sphaeriales, 21 
Sphaericeps, 117 
Sphaeridium, 160 
Sphaerita, 9 
Sphaerioidaceae, 121 
Sphaerobolus, 121 
Sphaerocolla, 159 
Sphaerocybis, 117 
Sphaeroderma, 44 
Sphaerodes, 44 
Sphaerographium, 127 
Sphaeromyces, 163 
Sphaeronaema, 122 
Sphaeronaemella, 129 
Sphaeropezia, 62 
Sphaerophoropsis, 77 
Sphaerophorus, 72 
Sphaerophragmium, 101 
Sphaeropsideae, 121 
Sphaeropsis, 124 
Sphaerosoma, 91 
Sphaerospora, 90 
Sphaerosporium, 158 
Sphaerostilbe, 45 
Sphaerostilbella, 44 



Sphaerotheca, 22 
Sphaerulina, 33 
Sphaleromyces, 20 
Spheconisca, 39 
Sphinctrina, 71 
Spicaria, 143 
Spicularia, 140 
Spilomium, 162 
Spilonema, 74 
Spilopezis, 85 
Spinellus, 13 
Spira, 153 
Spirillaceae, 7 
Spirillum, 8 
Spirochaete, 8 
Spirographa, 59 
Spirogyrales, 12 
Spirosoma, 8 
Spolverinia, 27 
Spondylocladium, 152 
Sporendonema, 149 
Sporochisma, 152 
Sporocybe, 157 
Sporocystis, 161 
Sporoderma, 159 
Sporodesmium, 153 
Sporodinia, 13 
Sporoglena, 148 
Sporomega, 57 
Sporonema, 133 
Sporopodium, 75 
Sporormia, 35 
Sporostatia, 77 
Sporotrichella, 142 
Sporotrichum, 141 
Spragueola, 91 
Spumatoria, 30 
Squamotubera, 29 
Stachybotryella, 147 
Stachybotrys, 147 
Stachylidium, 150 
Stagonopsis, 129 
Stagonospora, 126 
Stamnaria, 67 
Starbaeckia, 69 
Staurochaeta, 123 
Staurothele, 39 
Steganosporium, 137 



Stegia, 6i, 63 
Steinera, 74 
Stella, 117 
Stemmaria, 157 
Stemphyliopsis, 145 
Stemphylium, 153 
Stenocybe, 71 
Stephanoma, 164 
Stephensia, 97 
Stereochlamys, 41 
Stereocaulum, 78 
Stereum, 106 
Sterigmatocystis, 140 
Sterile mycelia, 164 
Stichomyces, 19 
Stichopsora, 100 
Sticta, 81 
Stictidaceae, 62 
Stictina, 82 
Stictis, 64 
Stictoclypeolum, 85 
Stictophacidium, 63 
Stigmatea, 30 
Stigmatella, 160 
Stigmatomyces, 20 
Stigmatula, 27 
Stigmella, 153 
Stigmina, 151 
Stilbaceae, 154 
Stilbocrea, 45 
Stilbomyces, 156 
Stilbonectria, 46 
Stilbospora, 137 
Stilbcthamnium, 157 
Stilbum, 155 
Stirochaete, 150 
Strasseria, 122 
Streptococcus, 8 
Streptotheca, 92 
Streptothrix, 148 
Strigula, 41 
Strigulae, 41 
Strobilomyces, iog 
Stromne, 44 
Stropharia, 114 
Strumella, 162 
Stuartella, 35 
Stylobates, 111 



INDEX 



225 



Stypella, 104 
Stypinella, 103 
Stysanus, 157 
Suillus, 109 
Sydowia, 34 
Symphyosira, 156 
Synalissa, 72 
Synarthonia, 60 
Syncephalastrum, 14 
Syncephalidae, 14 
Syncephalis, 14 
Synchytriae, 10 
Synchytrium, 10 
Synglonium, 56 
Synsporium, 147 
Synthetospora, 145 



Taeniophora, 134 
Tapellaria, 75 
Tapesia, 85 
Taphridium, 93 
Taphrina, 93 
Tarichium, 14 
Tarzetta, 89 
Telimena, 49 
Teratomyces, 21 
Terfezia, 98 
Terfeziopsis, 97 
Testicularia, 119 
Testudina, 24 
Tetrachytrium, 11 
Tetracium, 146 
Tetracladium, 146 
Tetracoccosporis, 153 
Tetracoccosporium, 153 
Tetraploa, 153 
Thamnidium, 13 
Thamnolia, 82 
Thaxteria, 31 
Thecophora, 102 
Thecopsora, 100 
Thecospora, 160 
Thecostroma, 135 
Thelebolus, 92 
Thelenidia, 39 
Thelephora, 106 



Thelephoraceae, 106 
Thelidium, 39 
Thelocarpum, 43 
Theloporus, no 
Thelopsis, 41 
Theloschistes, 83 
Thelotrema, 80 
Thelotremae, 80 
Thermomyces, 141 
Thermutis, 74 
Therrya, 38 
Thielavia, 23 
Thielaviopsis, 149 
Thiothrix, 7 
Tholurna, 72 
Thoracella, 125 
Thozetia, 160 
Thraustotheca, 15 
Thrombium, 40 
Thuemenella, 44 
Thwaitesiella, 108 
Thyrea, 73 
Thyridaria, 35 
Thyridella, 36 
Thyridium, 37 
Thyronectria, 46 
Thyrsidium, 136 
Thysanothecium, 78 
Tiarospora, 125 
Tichospora, 37 
Tichosporella, 36 
Tichothecium, 32 
Tilachlidium, 155 
Tilletia, 101 
Tilotus, 112 
Tirmania, 97 
Titaea, 146 
Titania, 35 
Tjibodasia, 103 
Tolypomyria, 142 
Tolyposporella, 102 
Tolyposporium, 102 
Tomasiella, 42 
Toninia, 77 
Torrendia, 119 
Torrubiella, 47 
Torsellia, 123 
Torula, 147 



Torulina, 147 

Toxosporium, 137 

Trabutia, 28 

Trachyxylaria, 32 

Tracyella, 131 

Trametes, no 

Treleasia, 45 

Treleasiella, 129 

Trematosphaeria, 35 

Trematosphaeriopsis, 35 

Trematosphaeris, 35 

Tremella, 104 

Tremellaceae, 103 

Tremellae, 103 

Tremellastrum, 105 

Tremellodendron, 104 

Tremellodon, 107 
Tremellopsis, 105 
Tremotylium, 80 
Trichaegum, 153 
Trichaleuris, 90 
Trichaster, 118 
Trichobelonium, 85 
Trichobotrys, 147 
Trichocladium, 151 
Trichocollonema, 127 
Trichoconis, 145 
Trichocrea, 130 
Trichoderma, 140 
Tricbodytes, 137 
Tricholoma, III 
Trichopeltis, 52 
Tricbopeltium, 131 
Trichopeltulum, 131 
Trichophila, 131 
Trichophyma, 95 
Trichopsora, 100 
Trichoscypha, 90 
Trichoseptoria, 127 
Trichosperma, 130 
Trichosphaerella, 27 
Trichosphaeria, 27 
Trichosporium, 148 
Trichostroma, 162 
Trichotheca, 158 
Trichothecium, 144 
Trichothelium, 42 
Trichothyrium, 53 



226 



INDEX 



Trichotrema, 41 
Trichurus, 157 
Tridentaria, 146 
Triglyphium, 161 
Trigonosporium, 122 
Trimmatostroma, 163 
Trimmatothele, 39 
Trinacrium, 146 
Triphragmium, 101 
Triplicaria, 162 
Tripospora, 54 
Triposporium, 154 
Trochila, 63 
Trogia, 112 
Troposporella, 164 
Troposporium, 162 
Trullula, 136 
Tryblidaria, 70 
Tryblidiaceae, 65 
Tryblidiella, 57, 66 
Tryblidiopsis, 65 
Tryblidis, 65 
Tryblidium, 56, 65 
Trypetheliae, 42 
Trypethelium, 42 
Tubaria, 113 
Tuber, 97 
Tuberaceae, 96 
Tuberales, 94 
Tubercularia, 159 
Tuberculariaceae, 158 
Tuberculina, 159 
Tubeufia, 47 
Tuburcinia, 102 
Tulasnellaceae, 107 
Tylophorella, 71 
Tylophorum, 71 
Tylopilus, 109 
Tylostoma, 117 
Tympanis, 66 
Tympanopsis, 29 
Typhula, 106 

U 

Uleomyces, 47 
Ulocolla, 104 
Umbilicaria, 77 
Uncigera, 143 



Uncinula, 22 
Underwoodia, 91 
Uredinaceae, 98 
Uredinales, 98 
Uredinopsis, 100 
Uredo, 99 
Urnula, 65, 89 
Urobasidium, 107 
Uroconis, 126 
Urocystis, 102 
Urohendersonia, 126 
Uromyces, 98 
Uromycodes, 98 
Urophlyctis, 12 
Uropyxis, 99 
Urospora, 27 
Urosporella, 27 
Urosporium, 152 
Usnea, 82 
Usneae, 81 
Ustilaginaceae, 101 
Ustilaginula, 102 
Ustilago, 101 
Ustilagopsis, 102 
Ustilina, 29 

V 

Valsa, 26 
Valsaria, 33 
Valsella, 26 
Varicellaria, 80 
Vaucheriales, 14 
Velutaria, 86 
Venturia, 31 
Vermicularia, 123 
Vermiculariella, 125 
Verpa, 91 
Verrucaria, 39 
Verrucariaceae, 38 
Verrucariae, 39 
Verticicladium, 150 
Verticilliae, 142 
Verticilliopsis, 143 
Verticillium, 143 
Vialaea, 38 
Vibrissea, 91 
Virgaria, 148 
Vizella, 51 



Volutella, 160 
Volutellaria, 160 
Volutina, 160 
Volvaria, 112 
Volvariella, 113 
Volvoboletus, 108 

W 

Wallrothiella, 27 
Weinmannodora, 124 
Willia, 94 
Winteria, 36, 37 
Winterina, 33 
Wojnowicia, 126 
Woodiella, 69 
Woronina, 10 



Xanthocarpia, 84 
Xanthoria, 83 
Xenodochus, 100 
Xenopus, 141 
Xenosporium, 153 
Xerotus, 112 
Xylaria, 29 
Xylariodiscus, 29 
Xylobotryum, 32 
Xyloceras, 32 
Xylocladium, 157 
Xylocrea, 44 
Xyloglyphis, 64 
Xylogramma, 64 
Xylographa, 59, 63 
Xylopodium, 119 
Xyloschistes, 59 
Xylostroma, 164 



Yosbinagaia, 51 
Ypsilonia, 122 



Zaghouania, 98 
Zignoella, 33 
Zignoina, 27 
Zimmermanniella, 48 
Zodiomyces, 21 



INDEX 227 

Zopfia, 24 Zygochytriae, 12 Zygosporium, 150 

Zukalia, 24 Zygochytrium, 12 Zythia, 128 

Zukalina, 92 Zygodesmus, 148 Zythiaceae, 128 

Zukaliopsis, 24 Zygosaccharomyces, 94 Zythiae, 128 



New York Botanical Garden Library 

QK603.2 .C55 gen 

Clements, Frederic E/The genera of fungi 




3 5185 00022 0549