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Full text of "The genera and species of British butterflies : described and arranged according to the system now adopted in the British Museum"

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When I first became a collector of Butterflies, the i)iirsuit was miicli less common thai; now ; 
and few works ujiou tlie subject, in a popular form, existed; so that as my cabinet increased I 
began to find the want of some instructive manual, in wliieh the distinctive characters of the 
different kinds of British Butterflies were not only described but also exliibited, by means of 
coloiu'ed representations of all the species, each of its natural size, and accompanied by their 
respective lan'te. Finding that no such work then existed, I determined to produce one myself ; 
and, obtaining the aid of one of our most eminent entomologists, J. 0. Westwood, Escj., I pub- 
lished, with liis valualjle assistance, a volume which I entitled " British Butterflies and their 

The work was well received, and its sale has exliausted several editions. It undoubtedly 
did its part, however small, in extending the general taste for entomological studies ; but as the 
circle of students became "wider, it appeared to me that a work of less bulk, and of more popular 
character, might be serviceable. I therefore deemed this a fitting time for remodelling my 
subject, more especially as many changes have taken place in the mode of classifying our native 
Lepidoptera. With this view I have undertaken the present work, which, while it ■ndll be far 
less voluminous than the fomier one, in as far as the text is concerned, vn\\ yet contain a greater 
number of coloured representations of our British Butterflies, of which no single species, or even 
striking variety, \vi\l be omitted, and all the new species and varieties of recent discoveiy will 
be introduced. 

Without sacrificing anything, as I hope, of scientific accuracy, I have sought to render the 
present work, and its subject, more attractive by exhibiting the insects in picturesque groups, 
flitting among the foliage and flowers of their native haunts, or hovering over plants upon which 
the larvffi may be seen feeding. I imagined that l:iy thus presenting our indigenous Butterflies 
to the notice of the student under a natural aspect, instead of displajing them in the form of 
dried specimens, as stiffly pinned out in a cabmet, my volume might possess the advantage (as an 
introductory work) of attracting many towards the study of this branch of Natural History who 
might be repelled by a more dry and technical arrangement. I mean such as generally charac- 
terises entomological works which have any pretension to a regular and comprehensive character ; 
or such as embraces (as in the present instance) the complete treatment of any special section of 
the science. 


Not lia\'ing found space to give many representations of mere " varieties" in the preceding 
Plates of Britisli Butterflies, I liave introduced in the Additional Title Page three of the most 
remarkable that occur among our native species. The largo insect in the lower part of the 
page is a rich and very Ijeautiful variety of the common V. Urtic(c, which differs in several 
particulars from any variety I have previously met with (see page 27). It is in the possession 
of W. P. Eussell, Esq., of Monks Eleigh, Suffolk, and was obtained during the season of 
1859. From the deep cream-coloured bordering of the anterior wings, and the disposition of 
the dark brown-black to fill up nearly all the remainder of the forc-mngs, it appears probable 
that it may be a hybrid between V. Urticca and F. Antiapa. 

Above the variety of V. Urticcc are two of the remarkable varieties of C. Plilaas (the Small 
Meadow Copper), which occur in certain localities not unfrecpiently. In the lower of the two 
specimens, all the usually rich copper-coloiu- is replaced by a milky white ; wliile in the upper 
one it is the black that has disappeared, leaving white in its place. (See page 46). 


All the tribes of insects necessarily excite our wonder and admiration, either from the 
striliing metamorphoses which they undergo, or by their curious structure, or the intricacy of 
their form, or splendour of colour ; but none arrest the attention of the tyro so soon as the 
beautiful and distinct class, known as Buttertlies or Moths. The large size of the excpiisitely 
constructed wings of this tribe of insects — so great in proportion to their- generally slender 
bodies — and the exc^uisite traceries, often in the richest hues, with which those wings are deco- 
rated, render these insects at once conspicuous to the most inattentive observer. 

This may be said more truly of the Butterfly than the Moth fiimily, inasmuch as the brings 
of Butterflies are generally much larger and more splendidly coloured than those of Moths ; 
and also because Butterflies fly by day, disporting in the bright sun.shine where they cannot fail 
to attract observation, wliile the flight of Moths is generally nocturnal, and consequently remains 
unobserved except liy the experienced student. 

To piursue the detail of characteristics which distinguish Butterflies from Moths, I may 
call attention to the exquisite variety of colouring with which the under surfaces of their wings 
are decorated, often of totally different character to the markings of the upper side. In the 
class knowai as the Coppers, for instance, the upper surface of the wings is of a bright metallic 
scarlet, sometimes ^vithout spot or mark, while the under side is of a soft pearly gray," pro- 
fusely dotted over with eyelike circlets of white surrounding a black spot or pupU. In Moths, 
on the other hand, the under-side of the wings generally presents but a pale reflex of the 
markings of the upper surface, and in no case are they of remarkable beauty as with many 
kinds of Butterflies. 

Another distinction between these two closely related families of insects is the different 
markings of the "wings, which occur in the two sexes ; these are so distinct, and sometimes in 
both cases so beautiful, as to have led even the great Linna}us himself, in the comparative 
infancy of the science of Entomology, to mistake the male and female of the same kind for 
distinct species. As examples of this disparity I may cite the little blue Butterfly, known as 
the " Clifden Blue," in which the wings of the male are of a lovely azure, while those of the 
female are of deep bro'ivn. Then there is the common white Butterfly of our gardens, known 
as the " Garden White," which in the male sex has the beautiful creamy wliite of the wings 
perfectly immaculate, except at the dark tips, while in the mngs of the female there are two 
large and very conspicuous black spots near the centre. In Moths, on the contrary, scarcely any 
distinction exists, in the markings of the wings of the respective sexes, thougli other distinctions 
stiU more singular distinguish them in that section of the family, but which do not call for 
detail in this place. 


A somewliat rcmarkalile distinction between Butterflies and Moths is tliat exhibited 
respectively l)y these groups of insects when in repose ; the Butterfly sitting with its i\angs 
raised face to face over its Ijatk, while the Moth allows its wings to fall on each side towards 
the sul_)stancc on which it is resting, and in this position they remain with the upper sides in 
full view, which, from the internal edges, slope outwards with a1)nut the inclination of an ordinary 

Still another distinction, and one which has served as the basis of the scientific line of 
separation, is tlie form of tlie horns, orantenna^ which in the Butterflies are invarialily furnished 
with a small clubdike appendage at the extremity, while in iMoths the antenn;e are always more 
or less pointed at the end. 

In the preparatory and successive states of egg, cateriiillar, and chrysalis, common to lioth 
Moths and Butterflies, the distinction is only strikingly remarkable in one stage, that of the 
chrysalis. The general aspect of the egg and caterpillar being in many cases so similar, that 
unless from positive knowledge of tlie species, it would be difficult to decide at a glance, 
whether they were the eggs and caterpillars of Moths or Butterflies ; but in the chrysalis stage 
the angular forms and light colouring of the Chrysalides of Butterflies at once distinguish them 
from those of the Moths, the conical forms of which arc generally smooth, and almost invarial)ly 

A characteristic to be especially noted in these interesting insects, and perhaps the one 
most intimately connected with their pecuhar beauty, is common to both Moths and Butterflies, 
and distinguishes them from nearly all other insects. I allude to the beautiful featherdike 
scales with which their ^rings are in-\-ariably clothed on the upper surface, and most frequentl_y 
on the under surface also. This character, which the two families possess in common, has 
furnished the scientific title (to be described hereafter) of the ' oi'der' to which they are made to 
belong. It is indi'cd an amply sufllcicnt distinction, l.ieing a leading and prevailing characteristic, 
scarcely ever found in any other class of insects. There are, however, some remarkable excep- 
tions ; as for instance, the perfect insect of the Caddis-worm, a creature very closely resembling 
a moth, which has the wings closely cliithed with a precisely similar kind of scales ; and some 
other examples might be cited, though not in sufScient number to invalidate these characteristic 
scales as an all-sufficient means of distinguishing the insect ' order' now under description. 

The wings of Butterflies and Moths may then, for all the purposes of scientific classification, 
be said to be, cirhiaiirhi, furnished ^^•ith a clothing of featherdike scales, to which they are in- 
debted for all their beautiful markings ; for if these coloured scales be carefully brushed away, the 
naked wings will present, only upon a much larger scale, the general appearance of those of a 
common houseflj", consisting, as they do, of an excessively thin and nearly perfectly transparent 
tissue, strengthened by a branching framework of nervures, or veins, as they are more 
commonly called, which maintains the almost film-like substance distended in an even plane, 
thus ensuring the form and also the strength necessary to the wings diu'ing their exertion in the 
action of flight. 

In order to understand the nature of the entire existence of a Butterfly, it will be necessary 
to consider its aspect under the successive forms or metamorphoses by means of which its 
progress to completeness is effV'cted. 

The egg, which is laid by the female Butterfly in some secure situation, in wdiicli the infont 
insect when hatched is sure to find abundance of food, is ordinarily of about the dimension — 
to use a trite comparison — of a pin's head, of average size ; and to the naked eye it presents a 
somewhat similar appearance, — but placed under a microscope, beneath the power of which so 
many of the mysteries of nature have been unfolded, it assumes a peculiar and distinctive form 
not found in any other class of eggs. The eggs of Butterflies and Moths are seldom or never 
of the usual oval tu- egg-form ; and instead of being smooth, like the eggs of birds, they are 


intricately decorated with delicate raised patterns and devices, sometimes extending over tlic 
entire surface. These patterns are of almost endless variety in different species. Those of the 
delicate httle moth Gcometm Cratagata are covered ■with regular geometric network, resemliling a 
shallow honeycomb. The eggs of one of the brown ]\Ieadow Buttertlies are nearly spherical, but 
flattened at the Ijase, and ornamented with rows of minute raised knobs disposed like the seg- 
mental marks in a peeled orange, only closer together. Those of another, of the " Meadow 
Bro^ra's," are enriched with longitudinal ribs, connected in the lower portion by deUcate hori- 
zontal marks, which at the top have the appearance of a small cap of scales. Those of the com- 
mon Garden AVhite Butterfly have fifteen small longitudinal ridges, converging to the centre of 
the smaller extremity, the spaces between being ornamentally subdivided crosswise by a series 
of regular grooves or channels. It may be noticed that there is no calcareous substance contained 
in the shells of the eggs of insects analogous to that which foirns the basis of the egg-shells of birds. 

The eggs of Butterflies and Moths vary considerably in number, but are always abundant — 
the Moth of the Silkworm laj-ing about 500, and the Goat-Moth above 1000. Tliose of Buttei-- 
flies vary in similar proportions. As an instance of the beautiful sjonmetry with which the eggs 
of insects of this class are placed by the parent, in row.s, close together, those of the common 
"White Butterfly may lie cited. Patches of them may often be observed upon cabbage leaves, 
when they look like small pieces of evenly woven lace, each opening being filled by a semi- 
transparent globule, resembling a little pearl. The eggs of other kinds are tlisposed in many 
different ways, some assuming the appearance of minute bracelets of beads, round the branches 
to which they are attached. 

The mode of exit of the young larva, or Caterpillar of the Moth or Butterfly, from the 
shell is very various in dift'erent kinds. In general the little creature gnaws its way out at tho 
part nearest the head, much as a chicken at the proper time pecks at the shell tiU it forces its 
^YO.J out. The gnawing process often costs the embryo Caterpillar many hours of labour, 
especially when the shell is thick, as in the eggs of some species, which being laid in the autumn, 
are destmed to resist the trials of a mnter, and not be hatched till the follo^nng spring. In 
some cases the shell is furnished -svith a kind of lid, which is lifted by a veiy complicated pulley 
apparatus diflicult to describe, but which the insect thoroughly understands — never making a 
mistake and pulling the wrong string. ]\Iany very singular peciiUarities might be enumerated 
concerning the mode of exit of the young Caterpillar, but I must proceed at once to describe 
the next stage of his career, after his escape from his little cjuaintly sculptured prison. 

The Caterpillar or larva of a Butterfly or Moth differs from the larva of most other kmds 
of insects, inasmuch as it almost always feeds on the leaves of plants,* and is frequently gaily 
clothed in a skin of velvety texture of the richest colours, or with a mantle of silken fur of many 
hues, which makes it in its larva state nearly as attractive in general appearance (to those who 
have no prejudice against the wormlike form) as the perfect Butterfly itself. The larvas of most 
other insects, on the contrary, are either naked and repulsive-looking grubs, feeding under- 
ground, or of still more unprepossessing forms, such as those, for instance, that pass their larva 
state in water. 

The caterpillars or larvse of Butterflies, to tho description of wliicli I must confine myself, 
should be described here in some detail. They are most commonly furnished mtli six positive 
legs, which represent those of the future Butterfly, and eight pro-legs, as they have been termed, 
appendages which merely serve to balance and secure the central and posterior portion of the 
body of the Caterpillar while feeding, and in holding on to the under side of leaves while the 
true legs are other\vise employed, perhaps in drawing the edge or some other portion of the leaf 
towards the mouth. These pro-legs entirely disappear after the Caterpillar stage, no trace of 
them remaining in the perfect insect. They are generally disposed as follows : — after the three 

* With the exception of a few root-feeders. 


segments next tlic head, which are eacli furnished with a pair uf true k'gs, there are two seg- 
ments without legs, the next four being each furnished with a pair of the above-named pro-legs ; 
then follow two segments without legs, succeeded by the last segment, to which is attached a 
final pair of pro-legs, freciuently somewhat different in character to the other four pairs. 

This distribution is, however, not universal among the Catei-pillars of Moths and Butterflies, 
though nearly so among the latter. The larviB of some Moths, those called the Loopers, for 
instance, have the pro-legs differently disposed, and, among Butterflies, the onisciform Cater- 
pillars of some kinds must be mentioned, which, while they have the gaily coloured skin and 
markings of Caterpillars, have nearly the form of the Woodlouse, to which the term onisciform 

The general appearance of Caterpillars is greatly varied by the nature of the skin, and the 
clothing or other appendages with which it is furnished. Some are nearly smooth and glossy, 
others have the skin of velvety texture, others are covered with small tul.iercles, sunnounted by 
a black or coloured point, sometimes naked, Ijut from which emerges freciuently a slender fila- 
ment, or a tuft, more or less spread, of shining hairs ; others are entirely covered with a tliick 
growth of richly coloured silky fur, or exhibit it arranged in a row of dense tufts, which appears 
as though cut off square at the top. But nearly all Caterpillars that are more or less clothed 
with hair are those of Moths, the Caterjjillars of Butterflies (I am only sjieaking of British 
species) being more generally smooth, except when furnished with curious spines, such as those 
which distinguish the larva of the Peacock Butterfly and some others, to be spoken of in their 
proper places. 

The head of the Caterpillar is the only firm or horny part, being necessarily so on account 
of furnishing the leverage for the powerful jaws or mandiljles, liy means of which the toughest 
foliage is cut through and masticated. The mouth, in the larva, or caterpillar state of insects, 
is very similar to that of the perfect insect, with the remarkable exception of the lai'vaj of Butter- 
flies and Moths. In the larva; of these the mouth is furnished, as before mentioned, vdih strong 
mandibles or jaws for the mastication of solid food, but in the perfect Butterfly nothing of the 
kind appears, the mandibles being replaced by the singular proboscis or trunk, the slender tube 
of which forms the only means by which the jierfect Butterfly takes the little food he recpiires, 
which consists only of the dehcate juices lying deep m the nectaries of flowers. Such is the 
contrast Ix-tween the voracity of the Caterpillar, and the delicate appetite it exhibits in its 
perfected form. 

The eyes of Caterpillars are generally very minute, often only perceptible by the use of a 
microscope, and they are not always situate in or near the head. In the Caterpillars of Butter- 
flies they are generally six in numljer. Their distrilnition is various, but they are most frequently 
arranged in a circle. They are nothing like the excpiisite facetted eyes of the perfect insect, but 
are merely sunple globules, and disappear with the .skin of the Caterpillar, like the pro-legs, 
leaving no trace in the perfect insect. 

Antennse or horns are slightly indicated in nearly all CaterpOlars, in a minute rudimental 
state, but are often only visible by the aid of a powerful microscope. 

The breathing apparatus of Caterpillars consists in a series of small apertures, termcil spi- 
racles, which are generally situated on each side of the body in a line just above the legs and 
pro-legs, and never occur in the head. These breathing apertures are generally surrounded by 
a distinctly marked iris of some bright colour, and are thus rendered tolerably conspicuous, 
though often very small. 

The means of defence of Caterpillars against then- several enemies is exceedingly various, but 
want of space prevents me from enumerating them here. I may, however, state that some have 
the power of spinning a web, by means of which they allow themselves to drop from a branch, 
and remain suspended in some less exposed place, till the danger is past. Some drop to the 


ground, while otliers— the Caterpillar of the Great Swallow-tail Butterfly for instance — is fur- 
nished with a fork-like appendage near the head, from which it can emit at j)le'isure a foetid 
odour, which has doubtless the virtue of proving very disagreeable to a certain class of enemies. 

The enemies of Caterpillars are not only many triljcs of birds, of which they form the chief 
summer food, but also a class of insects, the Ichneumon trilje, who deposit their eggs beneath the 
skin of the Caterpillar, by means of a sharp instrument or ovipositor with which they are 
furnished for that purpose. The eggs of the Ichneumon are hatched liy the heat of the Cater- 
pillar's body, and the young larvce of the Ichneumon feed upon the fatty substances wthin the 
devoted Caterpillar's body, taking care to avoid a vital part. When these parasitic larvte arrive at 
their full growth, they form their cocoons, and undergo their change to little Chrysalides within 
the body of their victim, which, under these circumstances, generally perishes about that period. 

The growth of the Caterpillars of Butterflies is very rapid, and they cast their skin several 
times before arriving at their full growth, which in some instances, as in that of the common 
Butterfly known as the Silver-washed Fritillary, is in fourteen days. 

CaterpUlars are of no sex, though, as in the case of the eggs of birds, a certain portion, no 
doubt, are so jire-organised as to become males in the perfect state, and others females. 

It was not till so recently as the end of the seventeenth century that the true nature of the 
progress from the larva to the perfect insect was known. At that period the invention of the 
microscope, combined with other causes, led to those scientific investigations which have been 
the means of unravelling the mystery of what seemed positive metamorphoses, but wliich now 
only apf)ear successive steps of regular development. Swammerdam, among the foremost of a 
phalanx of indefatigable investigators, discovered, beneath the sldn of the Caterpillar, all the 
embryo forms of the perfect insect, which become more and more palpable as the Caterpillar ap- 
proaches its full growth. In the course of these minute dissections he discovered even the future 
wings, spirally folded in a singular and beautiful manner, and also the long antenuaj and pro- 
boscis of the Butterfly, which were closely packed against the inner front of the head. The 
eventual legs, though so different in form, were also found, encased within the six pectoral legs 
of the Caterpillar. The skin of the Caterpillar is therefore little more than a second egg shell, 
and the Caterpillar, a creature become a walking egg, as it were, after having been within one 
that was motionless. 

The strictly external members of the Caterpillar may therefore be considered in the light 
of a kind of disguise, and Linnreus, taking this view of the subject, gave the name of larva, a 
Latin word meaning a mask, to this stage of the development of insect life. It is indeed a very 
happily selected and characteristic term, by means of which the stage of insect development, 
which follows that of the egg, is now universally expressed. 

The English term " Caterpillar " is not perhaps so ingenious and characteristic as the one 
invented as a scientific definition by Linnreus, but its origin is yet worth describing. In the 
earlier stages of the English language, cates, or caie, was a common term for provisions or deli- 
cacies of any kind, and was applied in that sense to garden herbs, or culinary vegetables : if to 
this we add the old Anglo-Norman vevh jiilla; Anglicised to pil!,* we obtain for the larva of the 
Butterfly the liighly descriptive title of cate-piller, euphonised Caterpillar, that is, plant pillager, 
or destroyer. , 

The chrysalis is not formed till the larva has attained its full growth. At this period the 
Caterpillar, instinctively aware of the coming change, ceases to feed, quits the scene of its devas- 
tations, and seeks some spot of safety in which it may undergo its transformation, and remain 
securely in its semi-dormant state till the proper time for the final change, when the perfected 
insect is to issue from the shell of the chrysalis in all the completeness of its winged and final 

* From wliiuli we have sliU — pillage, pilfer, &c. 


state. Some Caterpillars secure themselves to a Lrancli or wall l)y means of a slender web 
wliicli they loop across their bodies to prevent them from falling, as they sink into the dormant 
state "which immediately precedes their change to the chrysalis. Others suspend themselves by 
the tail to some convenient object by means of a knot of a similar kind of web. These are the 
most usual methods adopted by the Caterpillars of Butterflies, liut those of Moths often weave 
for themselves a perfect enclosure by means of their silken web, which is called a cocoon, while 
others burrow in the ground, and construct a pi'otective cocoon of earth, often so slight, however, 
that when the chrysalis is accidentally dug up by the gardener, the fragile cocoon falls to pieces, 
lea^dng the naked chrysalis exjiosed. 

After the larva of a Butterfly has suspended itself for change, the body gradually shortens 
and thickens, and in the course of a certain number of hours or days the soft skin of the Cater- 
pillar shri\-els, bursts, falls off, and discloses the horny case of the chrysalis, Avhich has Ijeen so 
ra25idly formed within. 

The chrysalides of Butterflies are, as before stated,- of much more angular form than those 
of Moths, having, nearly all of them, curious little sjjine-like 2)oints along their various ridges ; 
these, however, do not entu-ely conceal the form of the insect within the shell ; for in almost all 
cases the forms of the still small "wings may be observed in the space traced out by linear mark- 
ings on each side. Underneath, starting from the Iread, the form of the antenna; or horns maj^ 
be traced ; as may also the situation of the eyes. The articulations, or joints of the aljdonien, 
are plainly sho^vn, as they agree with the corresponding joints of the shell in which they are en- 
closed, and it is this portion of the chrysalis alone that is endowed Vfith any power of motion. 

The colour of the chrysalides of Butterflies varies from dull brown or green, to gray, and 
occasionally to more decided and brighter colours, often sprinkled more or less with Mack specks. 
Their most singular peculiarity, however, consists in metallic patches, resembling gold, wliieh 
some of them exhiliit. This effect, which led to some curious aberrations among the elder alch}'- 
mists concerning the transmutations of metals, is now well known to be produced in the following 
manner. Eeaumur satisfactorily explained that this golden appeai'ance is caused by the exist- 
ence of a layer of fluid between the transjiarent outer skin and the more solid part of the shell 
of the chrysalis, which is bright yellow, and which in certain lights produces the metallic eflect. 
This may be easily proved, by moving about a fresh chrysalis of the Tortoiseshell Nettle 
Butterfly, when it will be found that the seeming specks of gold change their places with the 
fluid ^v'hen the chrysalis is moved about in various directions. After a certain time this fluid 
dries, and the "gold" disappears. 

The term. Chrysalis, is derived fi'om this metalUc appearance, which some of them exhibit ; 
being formed of the Greek word kri/sallis (■KousaWic), golden, or liijsos (gold). The term Aurelia, 
likewise, by which this stage of insect development is also known, bears a similar import, from 
the Latin words aurnm (gold), or aiirca (golden). This last was a term in more common use 
than chrysalis among our early English collectors, who were thence termed Aurelians. 

The time that the Butterfly remains in the chrysalis state varies in diflerent species. But 
it may he stated that the chrysalides of the early broods of Caterpillars generally remain in the 
clirysalis state from fourteen to twenty days, A\'hile the late broods, even of the same kinds, 
generally continue in the chrysalis throughout the winter, and the perfected insect does not 
emerge till the following spring or summer. 

When the time is arrived for the insect to escape from the horny husk or shell, the time of 
the coming change may be recognised in the chrysalides of Butterflies by the gradual darkening 
of the shell and its increasing transparency, by means of which the rich colouring of the \rings 
within may often be jierceived, and the species of Butterfly about to emerge easily distinguished. 
The first symptom of the positive breaking out of prison is shown by the splitting up the back 
of the shell of the chiysalis, caused liy the muscular efforts of the insect within. The escape is 


then rapidly effected, but the wings are as soft as wet paper, and not hirger than the indications 
of their outline upon the shell. They attain their full size, however, very rapidly, often ^ritllin 
an hour, and sometimes in half that time, while in other cases a whole day is required. As the 
wings thus rapidly grow, or dilate, they harden at the same time, and, under the influence of a 
fine sunny day, the insect has only to raise and drop these splendid new additions to his organi- 
sation a few times, before he feels their strength sufficient for their destined purpose, and boldly 
takes to the new exercise of flight, in which he proves himself at once an adept without any 
previous practice. 

Having now traced the Butterfly from the egg to the perfect or imago state, it remains to 
state, in as few words as possible, the nature of the scientific terms Ijy which his stages of 
development have been distinguished, and by which the order to which he belongs is defined. 

The egg state, as we have seen, was succeeded by the Caterpillar stage, — that for which 
Linnasus invented the generic term larva, or masked state. This was again succeeded by the 
chrysalis, for which the same celebrated naturalist invented the almost equally felicitous term pvjja, 
being the Latin term for an infant, which, bound in its swaddling clothes, after the ancient fashion 
still prevalent on the Continent, suggested to Linnajus the idea of the larva bound in the chry- 
saline shell during the period which immediately preceded its change to the perfect state. This 
last he termed the imar/o state, or that of the true image, which had only been as it were, fore- 
shadowed in the previous stages of its existence. The aptness of these definitions is proved by 
their general adoption — no other terms than larva, pupa, and imago, being now employed in 
scientific works to designate the tkree principal stages of insect life. 

In dividing the vast numbers of the insect tribes into separate and homogeneous ' orders,' 
each distinguished by a title of appropriate character, the great family of Moths and Butterflies 
were formed by Linnaeus into an ' order' bearing the title of Lqndopkra, a term formed of the 
Greek words Iqiis, a scale, making Icpidos in the plural, and ]ikron, a wing, in allusion to the 
scales, with which the wings of this class of insects are invariably clothed. Aldrovandus, one of 
the old Italian naturalists, a contemporary of Shakespeare, adopted a similar mode of classification 
in reference to this order of insects, calling them Ala: furinosa\ that is, the farinaceous, or floui-y- 
winged order. This is, however, less strictly descrijitive than that of Linnanis. But then 
Aldrovandus wrote before the invention of the microscope, which enabled later naturalists to 
define more exactly the nature of the seeming powder which covers the mngs of Butterflies. 
A more recent naturalist, differing from Linnasus, regarded the proboscis, or trunk, as strictly 
peculiar to this order of insects, and thonco called them the Glossala, or tongued tribe, a term 
founded on the C4reek name of that organ. The Linna3an term has, however, prevailed ; and 
Butterflies and Moths are now finally only Imo^ATi in scientific classification by the term 

Having settled the principle upon which the order was to be established, and the name by 
which it was to be distinguished, Linnreus next attempted a series of subdivisions. Of these he 
made three principal ones. The first he termed rajiilio, from the ancient Latin name by which 
the Butterfly was popularly known. This division included all the Butterflies, or day-flyers. 
The second he fancifully termed Sphinx — a name which he adopted, because the Caterpillars, 
when in repose, assumed an attitude not unlike that in which the fabled SjAinx is generally 
represented. Tliis division included the first section of the great Moth family — being those 
which generally fly by twilight. To the third class, consisting of all the rest of the Moth tribe 
which generally fly by night, he gave the term ritakrna; a term which he may have adopted 
from the Greek word 'idXaiva, which means either a glow-worm, or any insect giving out light, 
and thus rendered conspicuous by night — the moth being only noticed in flight at that time : or 
he may have adopted another meaning of the word, which refers to such insects as fly towards 
a lighted candle. Latreille found the general division thus effected open to little objection ; but 


he discarded the fonciful terms by which they were distinguished, and adopted the more 
descriptive term Biimia, or day-flyers, for the first section ; Crqmsculark, or twiUght-flyers, for 
the second division ; and Nodurna, comprising the night-flyers, for the hast. Tlie more recent 
method, however, adopted by Dr. Boisduval, in whicli only two great sulidivisions are recognised 
instead of three, has been generally adopted in the scientific world. The groat order Lepidcu'iteni 
is, therefore, now di\dded, first into Uliojialocrni, or those having cluljljed Iwrns, or antennfe, 
from the Greek rojnduii {p6--aXov), a cluli, or knob ; and ccras (y.ioag), a horn; and secondly, into 
Ilctcroccra, consisting of such as have various kinds of antenna,', but never clubbed — the last term 
being composed of the Greek words clcros (in^oc), dissimilar, with the addition of ccms, a horn, as 

These scientific terms, FihojMlocera and lldcroccni, correspond very naturally and con- 
veniently with our popular terms. Butterflies and Moths, and serve to separate the great scale- 
winged family in a precisely similar manner. 

It is only with the first division, Ehojialoccra, or Butterflies, that we have to do in this 
volume : and of these, only with that small section which arc natives of the British Isles, among 
which, however, will Ije found some remarkably beautiful species, and much to interest the 
student in tracing their metamorphoses, their habits, their distribution, and their classification. 

With " Part Ten" of this work some account wiU be given of the best mode of capturing 
Butterflies ; also of rearing them from the egg or Caterpillar stages. It will also be shoAvn in a 
detailed account of some portions of the ijhysiology of insects, that the power of appreciating 
pain is almost entirely absent in their organisation ; and that, therefore. Entomological pursuits 
are entu-ely free from the charge of cruelty which has been so often and so ignorantly urged 
against them. 

PL. 1. 






No. 1.— Tlie Great Swallow-tailea Buttei-ay [Papilio 

No. 2.— The Under side of the Great Swallow-tailed 

No. 3.— Tlie Caterpillar of (lie Great Swallow-tailed 

No. 4. — The Clu'ysalis of the Great Swallow- tailed 


No. 5. — The Brimstone Butterfly (Gonepleryr 

No. 6.— The Female of the Briuistone Butterfly. ' 
No. 7. — The Uuder side of the Male Brimstone 

No. 8.— The Caterpillar of the Brimstone Butterfly. 
No. 9. — The Chrysalis of the Brimstone Butterfly. 

The di\Tision ii/(flj/)oioc(3rf(, as sliown in the Introduction, i.s that section of the order Lqiidoj)- 
tem containing all the groups distinguished by clubbed anteuure, that is, all kinds of ' Butter- 
flies j' wliich are thus distinguished from Moths. 

The first Famili/ of this division are termed the PapiUonida'. 

The first Sub-Family, according to the system I am follomng, is defined as PaplUonidi, con- 
taining only one British genus, Papillo, a genus which includes Ijut a single native species, 
though the exotic kinds are so numerous, and so various, both in form and colour. 

The insects comprised in the genus PaplUo are distinguished by antennre somewhat elongate, 
and terminated by a knob or club of moderate size. The palpi are very short, and have the 
third joint almost obsolete ; the eyes are large, and not clothed with hairs, as in some other 
genera. The abdomen is short, and the hind wings are long and narrow, and generally termi- 
nate at the angle next the body in a more or less elongated portion, ha\ing a tail-like ajjpearance. 
The anterior pair of legs are alike in both sexes, and are fitted for walking, as well as the two 
hinder parr, which is not the case in genera which I shall shortly have to describe. The Cater- 
pillars are smooth, and the Chrysalides are looped to the sul:)stancc on which they have under- 
gone their transformation with a thread of web : they are also attached by the tail, the head 
pointing upwards. 

PapiUo Machaon (the Great Swallow-tail, No. 1), is the largest, and perhaps on the whole 
the most strildngly handsome of all our native Butterflies, and is abundant in many localities. 
It is, however, rare in the metropolitan counties, though there are records of its occasional 
capture in Hampshire, Sussex, Kent, aud even Middlesex. It emerges from the chrysahs iu 
May, aud is seen till the end of August, but must lae sought in its owii favourite localities, the 
Fens of Huntingdon aud Cambridgesliire, or at Whittlesea Mere, which is another of its haunts. 
Norwich, Yaxley, aud Pulljorough in Sussex, are also named as places where it has Ijeen recently 
captured in some plenty. The Caterpillar (No. 3) is found iu June and September, there bemg 
two broods according to Continental entomologists. It feeds upon many plants common to 



marshy districts, preferring the Umhcllifera; esiDeeially the Marsh-milk Parsley and Wild Carrot. 
It is furnished with a fork-like appendage near the head, by means of which it is said 
that it is able to emit a fwtid odour which keeps off Ichneumons. The under side of the 
wings of this fine insect is much paler than the upper, and somewhat differently marked, as 
represented at No. 2. The chrysalis of the Great Swallow-tail (No. 3) is shown suspended to a 
branch of the Wild Carrot. P. Machaon is much more alnnulant on the Continent than in 

Pufdio Podalirks was formerly claimed as a British species, and it is to he regretted that 
the proofs have turned out insufficient, and that it cannot even be artificially naturahsed after 
several attempts, though very common on the neighbouring shores of the Continent, for it is as 
fine an insect as P. Machaon, with the marldngs of which its broad zebra-like stripe.5 form a fine 
contrast. This handsome species is exceedingly common in the Campagna, in the immediate 
neighbourhood of Kome, where I captured many fine specimens, and from whence I brought 
chrysalides which I reared in England, turning many of the perfected insects loose in suitable 
localities, in the hopes that the species might establish itself; but they all disappeared without 
any results. Both P. Machaon. and P. PoJalirius are, as I have said, common on the Continent, 
and they are among the species named by Linnreus, who in conferring specific and sometimes 
even generic denominations, seldom adopted descriptive or characteristic names in the way now 
generally adopted, but gave arbitrary appellations, after historical or mythological persons of the 
early ages of Greece or Eome. These two fine species received their names in this manner after 
the two sons of Esculapius — Podahrius and Machaon, and mil continue to bear them, in honour 
of their great name-father, so long as the present systems of science shall continue, though so 
completely at variance with the present system of nomenclature. 

The second Sub-Family of the PupUionida: is that of the PhocloceriJi, a name derived from 
Greek words meaning red-horned, in allusion to the pinkish or Ijro^TOish pink antennre by which 
the genera it contains are chstinguished : these are the following, Goneptenjx and Colias. 

The genus Gonrptcryj: is so named from the angular form of the anterior wings, from the 
Greek word gonta (yoivia), an angle, and ptcron (irTioh) a wing. The antenna; are short and 
rather robust, terminating in a club, towards which they gradually thicken. The front pair of 
legs are alike in both sexes, and are, as well as the posterior pairs, fitted for walking. The 
Caterpillars are attenuated at each end, and the Clirysalis always attached by the tail, as well as 
suspended by a loop round the middle. 

Goncplcrijx Bhamni (the Brimstone, No. 5), is generally the first of the Butterfly tribe to 
announce the coming summer, making his appearance, on fine days, as early as March or even 
February ; becoming, however, much more abundant in the more genial days of April. The 
female (No. G) is nearly white, and by the inexperienced is often taken for one of the common 
Garden Whites. The under side of this insect scarcely varies from the upper, but in the male 
it is somewhat paler, as shown at No. 7. A second brood appears in August. 

The Caterpillar (No. 8) feeds upon the leaves of the common Buckthorn, Phamuus Catluir- 
iicus, from which its specific name is derived, and also upon the Berry-bearing Alder, B. Fran- 
ffuhs, and some other allied trees. The ChrysaUs (No. 9) is green, with some small red dots, 
and suspended with a loop like others of the family.' 

This pretty insect is common in all parts of England, as far north as Newcastle, Init is 
rarely found in Scotland. A. beautiful variety occurs commonly on the Continent, once made 
a separate species as Goneptenjx Cleopatra, in which the anterior wings of the male are lieauti- 
fully suffused in the centre with a large patch of the richest orange colour, becoming fainter 
towards the edges. Some specimens occasionally captured in England are mentioned as ha\'ing 
slight indications of this peculiarity. In the neighbourhood of Eome, however, I captured 
numbers of the orange variety, which appeared to be quite as common there as those of the 
sulphur colour. 



"'^ tf>-"f&¥, \ '».\ >• '>S 


No. 1.— The Clouded Yellow Butterfly {Culias Ediisa). 
No. 2.— The Female of the Clouded Yellow Butter- 
No. 3.— The IJuder side of the Clouded YeUow 

No. 4.— A variety of the Clouded Yellow Butterfly. 
No. 5.— TheCatcrpQlarof the Clouded YeUow Butter- 

No. C— The Chrysalis of the Clouded Yellow Butter- 
No. 7.— The Pale Clouded Y'ellow Butterfly {CoUas 

No. 8.— The Female of the Palo Clouded Yellow 

No. 9.— The Caterpillar of the Pale Clouded YeUow 

The Gentis Colias. The insects coutained in tliis genus are more robust, both in the texture 
of the mngs and the dimensions of the body, than the preceding, from which they are also 
distinguished by the rounded ajjex of the anterior wings, the deep black Ijordering of whicli 
forms another distinctive feature. The antennte are short, rather thick, and swelling gradually 
into the final club or knob. The Caterpillar is naked, somewhat elongate, and tubercled. The 
Chrysalis is rather short, and at the head somewhat hooked in a beak-like form ; it is sus- 
pended by a girth of web, and attached at the tail by a knob of the same sirbstance. The name 
was conferred by Fabricius, who, in this instance, following the system of Linnajus, gave an 
arbitrary one, a surname of Aphrodite, the Greek Venus, who had a statue on the Attic promon- 
tory of Colias. 

• Colias Edusa (the Clouded Ye\\ow,li^o. 1), is one of our handsomest Butterflies, the fine 
contrast of its black and orange markings having probably suggested to Fabricius the idea of 
selecting one of the titles of the goddess of beauty as the name of the genus. It is very 
common in some seasons in this country, but in others comparatively rare. Its abundance once 
in three or four years has not been satisfactorily explained. The Caterpillar (No. 5), is found 
in the spring feeding on different plants of the trefoil family, and the perfect insect appears 
later in August, frequenting lucern and clover fields, and is sometimes seen as late as October, 
at which time the sunny side of railway bauk.s is said to be one of its favourite resorts. Bern- 
bridge, Isle of Wight, Blandford, Brighton, Plymouth, Teignmouth, Winchester, &c., are 
named as good localities for the capture of this handsome insect. 

The female (No. 2) is generally rather larger than the male ; is of a somewhat clearer 
orange, and is also distinguished liy liright yellow dashes in the lilack border. The under side 
of the male (No. 3) is almost exactly similar to that of the female, though so different on the 
iijiper side, both being remarkable for the spot of silver in the centre of the cu'clet in the himl 

No. 4 is a strildng variety of the female, of not uncommon occurrence, in which the whole 
of the orange and yellow tones are suffused with a pervading tone of bluish gray, wliicli gives 
rather a green tone to the hind wings. The chrysalis is represented in No. G. 

Colias Hijalc (the Pale Clouded Yellow, No. 7), is a very distinct species, and much more 
rare than C. Edusa. Its wings are of very chaste and delicate colouring, which may have 
suggested to Linnreus its specific designation of Hyale, one of the nymphs of Diana, for it 
figures under that name in his great division Pajnlio. The pervading colour of the male is a 


delicate lemon yellow. It does not differ in its markings from the female (Xo. 8), hut the 
ground colour of the latter i.s creamy white. On the under side, however, they are both alike, 
and though so much more delicately coloured than C. Ediisa on the upper surface, they are on 
the under side much more strongly tinted than that insect, thougli the tones are similar. 

The Caterpillar (No. 9) feeds on Medicago and other leguminous plants iu the spring, and 
the perfect insect appears in the autumn. Though a very common insect in the neighbouring 
countries of the Continent, it is comparatively rare in England, except in certain seasons ; in 
1842, for instance, it was abundant, and it has been taken in some numbers during the present 
season. The following are the places in which it has been captured most frecpiently : Brighton, 
Eamsgate, Bristol, Dorchester, Epping, Lewes, Leicester, Manchester, Peterborough, York, and 
,some places in L'eland. 

I am indel)ted to my friend, Mr. Ad.UI White, of the British Museum, for the follo^^^ng 
note : 

" The two Britisli species of Colias are very widely distributed. The C. Hyale has been 
taken in the Punjauli, and also on the slopes of the Himalaya, while both the species are found 
at Dhargeeling in N. India, and at Shanghai, iu Northern China. Indeed there seems to ha 
every reason to believe that both the species, like the ' Painted Lady Butterfly,' are all but 
cosmopolitan. The question, how some species are so generally distwbuted, and others so 
limited in their geographical range, is one of great interest. We may yet also be able to 
ascertain why some species are abundant every five or six years, like the species of Colias, 
and again become scarce. Tlie moisture or drjiiess of the atmosphere, and the consequence of 
such meteorological changes, must affect all insects more or less, but some more particularly 
than others. A long jieriod of frost Idlls many, and m'ifjht kill all, of the specimens of certain 
shell-fish in our seas, as has been well observed liy the late Huciii Miller, while others, closely 
allied, are quite unaffected. These others are found to extend far north, into regions subject to 
long periods of frost ; while the delicate species belong specifically to temperate, or more 
southernly regions. From somewhat similar reasons, Colias Edusa, and Hijalc, and the ' Camber- 
well Beauty' Butterfly {Vanessa Antiopa), may vary in their abundance. Other species of Colias 
are found very fiir nortli. The sobered gaiety of the CoUa.s Boothii, of Curtis, cheered Sir 
James Clarke Eoss and his comrades on the shores of Prince Regent's Inlet ; while Sir John 
Eichardson, Captain Collinson, and other Arctic voyagers, sent to the British Museum species 
of Colias, and other Butterflies, from localities where an Arctic printer rules for nearly three- 
quarters of the year. '\A1iere flowers bloom on the disappearance of the snow, there ^ees and 
Butterflies are found, and none are more cheerful or gay than the species of Colias." At St. 
IMartin's Falls, Albany Eivei', near Hudson's Bay, Mr. George Barnston found one species to 
be very common." 


No. 1.— The Blact-Teiiied Wliite Butterfly {.Iporia 

Ko. 2.— T!ie Female of Uio Black -Teineil White 

Butterfly, showhig the Under Bide. 
No. 3.— The Caterpillar of the Black-ycined White 

No. 4.— The Chrysalis of the Black-Tcined White 


No. 5.— The Great Cabbage-Wliite Butterfly— the 

Female, {P'leris Brassicai) . 
No. G.— The Male of the Great Cabbage-Wliite 

Butterfly, showing the Under side. 
No. 7. — Tiie Caterpillar of the Great Cabbage-White 

No. 8. — The Chrysalis of the Great Cabbage-Wliite 


The third Sub-Family of the rapiUonidm is that of the Picridl, containing the genera A])oria, 
Picris, E'uchloe, and Lcucophasia. 

The genu.s AiHiria contains but one British .species, resembling, in general a,si5ect, the Garden 
Whites of the genus Pkih, Ijut distinguished from them in a very marked degree, both by its 
habits and structure. In this genus the first distinguishing character appears to be the exces- 
sively thin layer of scales by which the vAnga are covered, which are nearly transparent. It is, 
doubtless, from this circumstance that Hiibner adopted for it the generic name Aporia — a Greek 
word, meaning destitute, in allusion to the nakedness of the ■wings. The second, is the robust 
structure of the vems or nciirations, which are very conspicuous by their black or bro-\TO colour ; 
and in some species, especially the British one, A. Crata'cji, a similar ner^itre to those which 
branch over and support the broad surface of the wing, also extends round the extreme edge, 
which is without the usual ciliaj or fringing. The legs are similar to those of the preceding sub- 
family, but the antenna} are longer, and the chd>, though graduated in a similar manner, is not 
so large. The larva is of long proportion, and partially clothed with shoi-t hairs. The chrysalis 
is rounded instead of angidated at the pari; enclosing the thorax, and is generally of a light yellow 
or green colour, marbled with black, and is suspended by a girth of web, and attached at the tail. 

Aporia Cratirgi (the Black-veined "White, No. 1). This conspicuous insect is one of those 
which may be called periodical, as it is extremely rare except at intervals of three or four years, 
or more, when it appears in great abundance. On the Continent it is generally plentiful, and its 
larvffi are very destructive. Linnaeus called this species the pest of gardens, and KoUar and De 
Geer have given a detailed account of it as one of the insects most injurious to the prospects of 
more than one class of cultivators. It has been occasionally seen on the vnag in such vast abimd- 
ance in the north of Europe as to produce the appearance of a widely prevailing snow-stoiin. 

The female (No. 2) is represented so as to show that the under side of the mngs is the same 
as the upper, and, at the same time, to exhibit the distinctive colour of the veins or neurations, 
which, in the female, are generally of a rich bro-^vn colour, while in the male they are of a bright 
shinuig black. 

The Caterpillar (No. 3) feeds on the \\niitethorn, Cmtwgns Oxyacantlia, and other kinds of 
Cratcegiis, from wliicli it receives its specific name ; it appears early in the spring, and the perfect 
insect in June. 

The Chrysalis is represented imder figure 4. 

The most recent places noted for the capture of tliis Butterfly are Corsham in Wiltshire, 


Lyndhurst, wlierc it was alsuudant, Peterl:)oroiigh, Heine Bay, some places in the Isle of Thanet, 
JMoreton in Devonshire. The New Forest is also mentioned as one of the places where it was 
formerly taken in abundance, as well as Chelsea, Muswell Hill, and other localities near London. 

The genus Piciis embraces all those white Butterflies of our gardens, popularly known as 
the " Garden Whites." The name Picris was conferred by Schrank, in substitution for that of 
Pontia, which it was desirable on several accounts to change. In selecting the new term, now 
generally accepted, the German naturalist may have been influenced by the consideration it was 
jirobably the oliscrvation of the metamorphoses of some of these abundant species (the types of 
the genus) that suggested to the poets of Greece the beautiful fable of Psyche, that is, the Soul, 
founded on the apparent death of the creeping Caterpillar in its chrysaline condition, and its 
seeming resurrection in a more perfect state. If so, the term Picri,% from the Greek Picridcs 
(otjj/osj), the Muses, seems a very appropriate one, of that fanciful kind adopted liy Linnajus ; 
but now very rarely, if ever, adopted in the formation of either generic or specific nomenclature. 
The genus Pieris is distinguished l)y larger and more slender antenna^ than the preceding ; the 
wings are rather pointed, and tipped with black ; and the females are distuiguislied by one or 
more black spots near the centre of the anterior wings, which are always absent in the males ; 
and all the wmgs are edged with a deeper and more regular fringe than any of the preceding- 
genera. The palpi have the terminal joint as long or longer than the second, and tlie legs are 
long and slender, and alike in Ijoth sexes ; the anterior pair being perfect. The Caterpillars are 
tuberculated, with short hairs springing from the tubercles. The chrysalis is remarkably angu- 
lated, especially aliove the thorax, where it is rounded in the preceding genus. It undergoes 
the change in various positions, but always looped, and attached l)y the tail. 

P'icris Brassicce (the Great Cabbage White, No. 5), is by far the largest of the genus, and is 
a very handsome insect, well worthy of more careful examination than it generally meets with ; 
for it is not merely black and ^vhite, as appears at a first glance, but chastely decorated with 
many beautiful gradations of colour. The ground tone of creamy white, for instance, deepens 
towards the front of the anterior wings, and the hind ones are entirely of a warmer hue, both 
being enriched liy a soft dusky shade at the base, formed of innumerable gray specks, while the 
black tip is softened oil' into the delicate ground colour in a similar manner. On the underside, 
as shown in the representation (No. 6), the tips are buff where they are black above, and the 
hind ivings are entirely buff, microscopically jwwdered with minute black specks, and ornamented 
with a slender line of orange down the anterior margin ; both mugs ha\ing the inider side of 
the fringe of a warmer buff than that of any other part. The antennre, also, are ornamented 
with a beautiful series of dots beneath, which are not visible on the upper side. The female 
(No. 5) exliibits conspicuously the lilack dots liy which the anterior wings of that sex are dis- 
tinguished, and is generally, as in many species of Butterflies, rather larger than the male. The 
male, though without the black spots on the upper surface, e.diibits them conspicuously on the 
underside of the anterior wings. 

The well-known Caterpillar (No. 7), of which two broods ajipear every season, appears to 
prefer the common garden Cabbage to all other food, though it is often found devouring many 
kinds of Cruciferous plants. The Chrysalis (Xo. 8) is represented attached, in the way which 
characterises this and other allied genera, to a stem of Cabliage, in flower, though it generally 
prefers the trunk of a tree, a wall, or old paling. 

This well-known species is common everywhere, not only in England, Imt in the whole of 
Europe, the north of Africa, Asiatic Siberia, and even in Nepaul and Japan, though the species 
found in the two last-named places are thought by some to present sufficient distinction in some 
features to cause them to be eventually classed as distinct species. 

PI 4 


I V 


No.l.— The Small Cabbage-Wbite Butterfly (Pieris 

No. 2.— The Female of the Small Cabbage-White 

No. 3. — The Under side of the Small Cabbage-Wbito 

No. 4. — The Caterpillar of the Small Cabbage-White 

No 5. — Tlie Chrysalis of the Small Cabbage- White 


No. 6. — The Green-Tcined White Butterfly {Picris 

Napi) . 
No. 7. — The Female of the Green-veined White 

No. 8. — Under side of the Green-veined White 

No. 9. —The Caterpillar of the Grecu-veined White 

No. 10.— The Chrysalis of the Green-veined Whito 


PiERis Eap.e (tlie small CalDbage-Wliite, Nos. 1 to 5) is frequently mistaken by those 
nnlearncd in the natural history of Butterflies for the young of the larger species, P. Bmssicas ; 
and at the first glance there appears a great similarity between them. On a closer examination, 
however, it will be observed that there are several distinguishing eharacteri.stics, altogether inde- 
pendent of size. In the first place, the males have generally a more or less distinct black spot 
in the centre of the fore ^\'ings, which is never found in the larger Idnd, while the two black 
spots of the female, (No. 2), are more conspicuous, and in that sex the "wings, on the upper 
surface, are often thickly powdered with gray, so as to give them a much more dusky appear- 
ance. The underside (shown at No. 3) exliibits the liind wmgs of a darker buff, and much 
more thickly powdered with brown than in the large kind. I have seen specimens with 
the buff of the underside of the hind wings very much darker than in the .specimen represented 
at No. 3, and others mth a strong shade of dusky green running up tlie veins or nervures ; 
the specimens of the last-named kind being, I believe, hybrids between P. liajHC and P. N'cq}!: 
The Caterpillar, (No. -1) appears l3oth in the spring and autumn, there lieing two broods 
annually. The chrysalis, (No. 5) is found attached to branches or some other support, in a 
similar manner to that of the larger species, and if produced in the autumn it remains in the 
pupa state throughout the winter, the perfect insect appearing early in the spring. The chrysa- 
lides resulting from the spring brood of Caterpillars only remain in that state from eight to 
sixteen days before the perfect insect is produced. 

The most marked distinction to be found between this and the larger species is, however, to 
be sought in the preparatory or Caterpillar stage, in which it is perfectly distinct, as will he 
seen on reference to the representation No. 4, Plate IV., as compared with No. 3, Plate III. 
The Caterpillar of P. Pu/ice feeds on several kinds of cruciferous plants, especially the common 
Eajje, from which its specific name is derived ; and also the wild Mignonette, and many exotic 
plants now naturalised in our gardens, especially the TrojKcolum majus, commonly known as the 

This species varies very remarkaljly in its markmgs, some of the males being entirely with- 
out the white spot in the centre of the fore wings, while others are found in which the whole of 
the upper surface of the wings are of a dusky gray ; and there are many intermediate varieties. 


The cliief of these have been formerly descriljed as distinct species by the names of Ponda Metra 
(distinguished by its smaller size), PapiUo aJha media immandata (the male of P. Puqm), Papilio 
(dlia media irinmcididu (the female of P. Pitjxe), and several others. 

Pieris Napi (the Green- veined Cabbage-White, Nos. 6 to 10) has also been confused both 
■with P. Bmssiece and the species last described, by those laiacc^uainted with entomology ; it is 
however very distinct from both. From P. Pnqne by the almost constant absence of the black 
spot in the centre of the fore wings of the male, and from both by the peculiar green markings 
of the under side of the hind wings, from which it takes its popular name, the Green-veined 
White. The male (No. C) is not only without the l»lack spot above alluded to, but also nearly 
without the dark marks at the tips of the fore wings, though they are sometimes much more 
conspicuous than in the specimen represented. The female (No. 7) has the spots, and the marks 
at the tips of the fore wngs similar to those of the female of P. Eapcv, but generally much 
paler. The Caterpillar is distinguished from that of the preceding species by the absence of 
the yellow line down the back. It feed.s upon Bmssica naims, from which it takes its name, 
and also upon several other cruciferous plants, especially the common cabbage ; in feedmg 
upon which, both this and the preceding species do not confine themselves to the external 
leaves of the plant, like the larvaj of P. Brassiecr, but eat into the heart ; they are conse- 
quently much more destructive, and are known in France as the rer du cirur. The Cater- 
pillars appear in spring and autumn, like those of P. Hapcc. Both the small species of Picris 
are further distinguished from the large one by the disposition of the eggs, which are laid 
singly, instead of in agglutinated patches. 

The varieties of P. Napi are numerous, among the most remarkable of which are those 
specimens which have the veins of the upper side of the wings rather strongly marked Avith 
dusky black, which were made a species by H. Stephens, under the name of P. SabeUica' ; and 
the P. Napcctp, made a separate species by Esper, which is of a larger size than the ordinary 
specimens of P. Nitpi. 


No. 1.— The Grcpu-clicqucrccl White Butterfly {Picris 

Ihiplidice) . 
No. 2. — The Female of llio Gi-een-cliciiuered White 

No. 3. — The Under side of tlie Green-chequered 

White Butterfly. 
No. 4. — The Caterpillar of the Grccu-chcquered 

White Butterfly. 
No. 5. — The Clirysalis of the Green-chequered 

White Butterfly. 
No. 6.— The Orauge-tip Butterfly {Euchloe Carda- 

No. 7.— The Female of the Orange-tip Butterfly. 

No. 8.— The Under side of the Orauge-tip Butterfly. 

No. 9.— The Caterpillar of the Orange-tip Butterfly. 

No. 10.— The Chrysalis of the Orange-tip Butterfly. 

No. 11.— The Wood White Butterfly [Leucophasia 
Sinapis) . 

No. 12.— The Female of the Wood White Butterfly. 

No. 13.— The Under side of the Wood White But- 

No. 11.— The Caterpillar of the Wood \Wiila But- 

No. 15.— The Chrysalis of the Wood White But- 

PiEKis Daplidice (tlie Green Chequered White) M'as, till recently, made a separate genus 
{Mancipium), though some British Entomologists have proposed making it form, with E. dirda- 
viincs, a section of the genus Pieris. The alliance with E. Cardamincs was opposed ; the green 
mottling of the underside of the hind wings common to both these insects being deemed too 
trivial an afKnity to form the basis of a generic relationship, especially when the jjeculiar form 
and general character of the chrysalis of E. Cardamincs was taken into consideration ; hwi Dapli- 
dice has since been united to the Picrides, leaving E. Cardamincs to form a separate genus. Upon 
examination, this arrangement will be found tolerably satisfactory, as P. Dajjlidica exliibits 
many of the typical characters of the Picrides, with which it is more strongly linked by the in- 
tei-mediate species P. Puquc, and more especially P. iVfyji, described in the last Plate. Mr. West- 
wood notices the angularity and slightly indented margin of the anterior wings of the males of 
P. Daplidice, wliile those of the females are more blunt at the angle, and rounded in the external 
outline, a peculiarity observable also in the male and female of P. Napi. The antennoe also of 
that species, in the sudden flattening of the club, strongly resemble those of P. Daplidice. The 
niale of P. Daplidice (Xo. 1) is distinguished from the female (Xo. 2), by the absence of the 
second black spot on the fore wings. The fine green chequering with which the underside of 
the hind wings is pencilled, and from which the popular designation of this beautiful insect is 
derived, is shown at No. 3. I have taken the Caterpillar (No. 4) described l_iy Boisduval rather 
than that described by Hiibner, as it agrees better mtli the accounts given of its appearance by 
continental collectors, which we must be content to rely upon till tliis insect lias been discovered 
in the larva state in England, of wliich at present there is no record. The Chrysalis (No. 5) 
accords pretty closely with those of the other species in the genus Pieris, though it is of some- 
what shorter, thicker, and rounder proportions. The Caterpillar is found on the Continent at 
two seasons, Spring and Autumn, at nearly the same periods as those of the Common ' Whites,' 
and the insect is very common in the south of Europe, though so rare with us. It is said to 
feed on the Wild Mignonette, and also on several cruciferous plants of the Caljbage tribe ; and 
is generally found in dry and sandy situations. With us it is one of the greatest of our Ento- 
mological rarities, for though its capture has occurred in several localities, only single specimens 
have been taken. I have more than once listened to the late Mr. F. Stephens' interesting ac- 
count of his capture of the famous specimen in his fine Collection, which took place in the 
month of August in the year 1818, in a meadow behind Dover Castle, where another specimen 
has smce been taken. White Wood, near Cambridge, is celebrated as one of the localities for 
its capture, and AVliittlesea Mere and Worcester have been since added, Avhere single specimens 


have also been obtained. Some lia\e imagiued that one of the okl names of this insect ' the 
Bath Wliite,' was given on acconnt of the first British specimen ha^dng Ijeen taken near that 
city, but Lewin clearly states that it was from a piece of needlework executed at Bath, copied 
from an insect, which was only said to ha\'e been taken in that neighliourhood ; it was most 
jn'oljaljly a continental specimen. 

The genus Eudihx is distmguished from ricr'ai by the more rounded form of the wings, and 
their less robust character ; also by the distribution of the nervures, and some minute distinc- 
tions in the palpi. It differs more strikingly in the preparatory stages, the Caterpillars being 
much more slender, and the Chrysalis of the distinct form termed boat-shaped ; being equally 
pointed at both ends, very hai'd and stiff, and entirely without the usual segmental joints. It 
is slung with the head downwards. The name is derived from the Greek words en. (eu) very, 
and dtloc (%Xoji) green, in allusion to the remarkable green mottling of the underside of the 
hind wings. There is only one British species. 

Euchhe Cardamlnci is one of our prettiest species ; the fore wings of the male (Xo. G) are 
beautifully marked with a broad patch of orange, extending from the tip to near the centre. 
The female (No. 7) is ■without these conspicuous marks of orange, but has the black spot in the 
centre of the anterior wings rather larger ; in other respects the markings are the same as those 
of the male ; the remarkable green mottlings of the underside of the hind wings (as shown at 
No. 8) being equally strong in both sexes. The Caterpillar (No. 9) feeds in preference upon 
the Cardaminc imjHilicns, or Turritis r/lahra, to which its singular Chrysalis is generally attached, 
as shown at No. 10. The perfect insect appears in May, but specimens are frequently seen as 
late as the end of July. 

This pretty insect is very apt to vary in its marldngs, female specimens ha\dng Iseen taken 
with an orange mark on the under side of the fore wings ; others with the black spot nearly, if 
not entirely absent ; while in others an additional black spot appears in the hind wings. 

The genus Lcucopliasia. The insects assigned to this genus bear such remarkable affinity to 
those included in EucMoe, that for the sake of not multipljang generic names they might have 
been conveniently classed with that genus. The rounded form of the anterior wings, and the 
form and colouring of the Caterpillars, as well as the boat-shaped Chrysalis, marks at once their- 
close relationship. Distincticius of a very well defined character nevertheless exist, such as the' 
remarkably short discoidal cell in the nervures of the wings in Lcucophasia , from which the 
branching nervures are consequently of unusual length, and rather peculiar in their distribution ; 
while the Chrysalis, though of similar form to that of E. Cardamines, is not so much bent in the 
middle, and has the segments enclosing tlie abdomen moveable. The proportions of the Cater- 
pillar are rather shorter and thicker than those of E. Cardamines, but the body of the perfect 
insect is more slender and long. 

Lcucophasia Sinapis (the Wood Wliite, No. 11) is a very local though not a rare insect. The 
female, (No. 12) is generally, though not always, without the Ijroad blackish mark at the ex- 
tremity of the fore wings. The colouring of the under side, which difl'ers slightly from the 
ujiper, is shown at No. 13. The Caterpillar (No. 14) feeds upon Tlcia cracca, and also upon 
several of the common species of Lotus found iu woods. The Chrysalis (No. 15) is suspended 
in a similar manner to that of E. Cardamines, and the perfect insect appears in ]\Iay. There is 
also a second brood which appears in August. This jiretty insect may be at once recognised by 
its slow and undulating flight, and from its preference of the shaded glades of woods rather than 
the open sunshine. It has been taken in plenty in the Kentish woods near Peml)ury, and in 
similar situations in the neighl;)ourhood of Teigumouth, iStowniarket, and Worcester. It is pro- 
bable, therefore, that it will be found in many other sheltered woody localities. It seems, how- 
ever, only to make its appearance in certain situations periodically, as its capture is once recorded 
by Mr. Stainton in great abundance at Lyndhurst, though not usually occurring there. 


No. 1.— The Marbled AVhile Biitfei-ny {.Iri/p Gala- 

No. 2.— The Underside of the Marbled White But- 

No. 3.— A Variety of the Marbled White Butterfly. 

No. 4.— Tlie Caterpillar of tlio Marbled White But- 

No. 5.— The Chrysalis of the Marbled White But- 

No. 6. — The Speckled Wood Butterfly {Lnsioimnala 

No. 7.— The Under side of the Speckled Wood But- 

No. 8.— The Caterpillar of the Speckled Wood But- 

No. 0.— The Chrysalis of the Speckled Wood But- 

No. 10.— The Wall Butterfly {Lasiommala Mer/tvra). 

No. 11.— The Female of the Wall Butterfly. 

No. 12.— The Under side of the Wall Butterfly. 

No. 13.— The Caterpillar of the Wall Butterfly. 

No. 11.— The Chrysalis of the Wall Butterfly. 

The .second Family of Biitterflie.s is that of the Nyinpludidiv, which is distinguislicd l)y 
having only four legs fitted for walking, the front pair being always, more or less, of merely ru- 
dimental character. The Caterpillars are considerably attenuated towards each extremity, and 
have either a fork at the tail or two liorudike appendages at the head. The Chrysalis is sus- 
pended by the tail only, having no belt of silk round the body. 

The first Sub-Family of the Nynvpludidce, as that of the Sali/ridi, contains the six genera, 
Anjc, Lasiommata, Il/j^parchia, Eiiodia, Erchia, and Ccaionympha. 

The genus Artjc is distinguished, like all those of this sub-fiimily, by the rudimental charac- 
ter of the front pair of legs, and also by the dentation, or rather scallop-like undulation of the 
hind \\-ings. The larvre have the body slightly thickened in the middle, and attenuated at each 
extremity, the tail being forked. The Chrysalis is without spines or tubercles, and is su.spended 
by the tail. 

Arge Gakdhea (the Marbled Wliite, No. 1) is very local, but abnndant enough m many 
favourable situations. The under side (No. 2) is paler than the upper, and rather differently 
marked. The female is generally somewhat larger than the male, and the ground colour of the 
wings is yellower. The variety (No. 3) is one of the most unusual ; there are other varieties of 
more common occurrence, among them, one in which the dark marks, instead of being black, 
are of a fine light brown. There is a fine specimen of this variety in the British Museum. In 
some varieties the marks of the underside are nearly absent. The Caterpillar feeds in prefer- 
ence on Timothy-grass, but is also found in other grasses growing in woody situations. It ap- 
pears in June and July, flying in damp open places in woods, in a wavering and lazy manner, 
upon which habit it is po.ssible that Esper founded his generic name, An/c, from Arr/os (Aeyof), 
indolent. It is taken plentifully near Blandford, Brighton, Kingsbury, &c., &c., and less abun- 
dantly in many other places, but has not yet occurred in any part of Scotland. 

The genus Lasiommata is distinguished from the preceding and other nearly related genera 
by the peculiar charactw- of the eyes, which are covered with short hairs, a character upon which 
Mr. Westwood founded the present generic name from lasnis (J.asio;), hairy, and omnia (o/j,,'/,a), 
an eye. The front pair of legs are much more conspicuous than in Arge, and are of e(pud 


length in botli sexes, though not fitted for walking. The Caterpillar is attenuated at each ex- 
tremity, with two sliort points at the tail. The pupa is short and tliick, and furnished with 
several angular projections, especially two, much more conspicuous than the others, near the 
head. It is suspended only by the tail. 

Lasiommafa yEgeria (the Speckled Wood, No. G) is one of the commonest of our brown 
Butterflies. It is subject to considerable variations in the intensity of its marks, Ijut no very 
strildng varieties occur. The under side (No. 7) is very pleasingly varied in the tones of colwir. 
The females are generally more brightly marked, and have the patches of light colour in the 
ujjper surface of the whigs more extended than the male, and they are generally somewhat 
larger than the other sex. The Caterpillar (No. 8) feeds on Tritkum repcns, and other common 
grasses, from the blades of which the Chrysalis (No. 9) may often be found suspended. The 
perfect insect appears in April, June, and August, there being three or more broods in the year. 
It is common everywhere, genei'ally frequenting shady lanes and hedgerows in preference to 
open meadows. 

Lasmnmata Mcgara (the Wall, No. 10) is the only other species of this genus. It is as 
coimiion as the preceding. The male (No. 10) is always much smaller and more strongly marked 
than the female (No. 11). The under side of this sjjecies is very beautifully decorated with 
dehcate rings, each of which enclose a series of smaller circlets, most perfectly and delicately 
pencilled, as shown at No. 12. The Caterpillar (No. 1-3) feeds upon various grasses, and is found 
in May and at the beginning of August, but must Ijo sought at nights with a light, like most of 
those belonging to this group. The jierfect insect appears in April and again in the Autumn. 
It frequents sliady lanes and hedgerows, like L. /Egcria. 



No. 1. — The Grayling Butterfly (Hipparohia Semele). 
No. 2.— The Female of the Grayling Butterfly. 
No. 3. — Tlic Under side of the Grayling Butterfly. 
No. 4.— The Caterpillar of tlie Grayling Buttei-fly. 
No. 5.— The Chrysalis of the Grayling Butterfly. 
No. G. — The Meadow Brown Butterfly {Hipparchia 

No. 7. — The Fenialeof the Meadow Brown Butterfly. 
No. 8. — The Under side of the Meadow Brown 

No. 9. — The Caterpillar of the Meadow Brown 


No. 10. — The Chrysalis of the Meadow Brown 

No. 11. — Tlie Gate Keeper Butterfly {Hipparchia 

No. 12.— Tlie Female of the Gate Keeper Butterfly. 

No. 13. — The Under side of the Gate Keeper Butter- 

No. 11. — The Caterpillar of the Gate Keeper Butter- 


No. 15.— The Chrysalis of the Gate Keeper Butter- 


The genus Hipparchia is distinguished from the preceding one by the smoothness of the 
eyes, whicli are entirely free from the clotliing of hair wliich distinguislies the Lasiommakv. It 
is also distinguished by the thickening of the nervures at the base of the fore wings. The 
hinder pair of -wings are denticulated at the fringed edge. The antennas are slender in all the 
species, but varying considerably in the size and obtuseness of the club. The front pair of legs 
are smaller than the others, and unfitted for walking, but distinctly visible in both sexes ; those 
of the males being more clothed with hair than those of the females ; the tarsal portion being 
simple in the males, but articitlate in the females. The larva; are attenuated at each extremity, 
the tail being slightly forked. One species undergoes the change to the chrysalis stage in the 
ground, forming a cocoon of particles of earth and silken wel). In the other kinds the Chrysa- 
lids are suspended by the tail to blades of grass, &c. There are three British species, Scmclc, 
Janira, and Tithonus. 

Hipparchia Semele (the Grayling, No. 1) is by far the largest of the genus, frequently 
measuring two inches and a-lialf across the expanded mngs. The markings of tliis handsome 
insect vary very considerably, both in size and intensity; the light markings in the male (No. 1) 
being sometimes so much darker than in ordinary specimens as to be scarcely distinguishable 
from the ground colour. In the female (No. 2) these marks, as well as the black circlets or 
ocelli, are always much larger and more conspicuous than in the males. The under side of the 
Grayling (No. 3) is very elegantly varied, both in the tone and in the character of the markings, 
the hind wings being of a soft gray tone, beautifully marbled with ilelicate streaky pencillings of 
a deeper colour. The Caterpillar (No. 4) appears early in the Spring, and feeds on several 
kinds of our common grasses, and according to M. Marloy's account, in the Annals of the Entomo- 
logical Society of France, retires into the earth to undergo its change, where it foi-ms an cai-then 
cocoon. In my Plate I have represented the Chrysalis (No. 5) suspended to a blade of grass, 
according to the habits of others of the species, as I have never seen a cluysalis of the species 
while still clothed with its cocoon. I have no doubt, however, that M. Marloy is correct in his 
statement. Those who wish to rear this species from the larva stage should (in localities where 
the insect abounds) seek the Caterpillars at night, with a lamp, as they are night feeders, con- 
cealing themselves in the daytime, either in the ground or about the roots of the grasses on 


which tliey feed. The perfect insect appears in Jnl}', and though rather local, i.s by no means 
rare. The neighbourhoods of Brighton, Bristol, Exeter, Plpnouth, and Teignmouth, are cited 
as localities where it may be taken abundantly ; and in many others it is very far from uncom- 
mon, even as far north as Eduiburgh. 

E'qjjMrchia Jan'ini (the Meadow Brown, No. 6) is perhaps the commonest of all our native 
Butterflies, not even excepting the ' Garden Whites.' The meadows, in May and June, are 
c]uite aUve with tliis abundant insect, and no variety of season appears to influence its time of 
appearance or its numbers. The male (No. 6) is entirely of one unbroken tone of rich dark 
brown on the upper surface, with the exception of a small and somewhat obscure circlet of black 
and orange, having a white speck in the centre, which speck is sometimes double. Singular 
varieties occur, however, in which the central portions of the ivings are nearly denuded of the 
feather-like scales, and are thereby rendered partially transparent. I have also seen a variety in 
which the whole upper surface of the wings was but very slightly clothed, and of a pale drab 
colour, instead of the usual rich brown. The female (No. 7) has the black circlet of the anterior 
wings surroundei.l ■with a fine orange patch, more or less mottled, ami a distinct and liroad 
border of a deeper colour round the hind wings. Deceived by this diflerence of marldngs, 
Linnteus mistook the sexes for distinct species (as in many other similar instances), calUng the 
male Papilio Junira, and the female Papilio Jurfina. In such cases, when the error is discovered, 
it is the specific name of the male that is preserved, so that, although Linn»us's great genus or 
class PupiUo has been subdivided into numerous fauoilies, sub-families, and genera, we have still 
his original name Janira, preserved in the denomination of this species, as H'qyparcMa Janira. 
The under side (No. 8) is nearly ahke in both sexes. The Caterpillar (No. 9) feeds on grasses, 
and suspends itself l;iy the tail to undergo the change to the chrysalis stage. The Chrysalis 
(No. 10) is double-pointed at the head. The perfect insect appears throughout the Summer, 
and is common everywhere. 

EijijxircJiia Tithonus (the Gate Keeper, No. 11) is nearly as common as the preceding. The 
male (No. 11) is much smaller than the female, but more richly coloured, some being much 
darker, and generally of a richer tone than the one represented, wliich is a medium specimen. 
The female (No. 12) scarcely varies at all in its colour or marldngs, but the dark border of the 
wings is sometunes rather paler and narrower than in the .specimen represented. On the imder 
side (No. 13) the sexes closely resemble each other, the males being sometimes rather darker. 
The Caterpillar (No. 14) is found feeding on grasses early in June, and when full fed it suspends 
itself by the tail to undergo its change. The Chrysalis (No. 15) is of short, thick form, the 
back being of a dark olive, but beneath, to the extent of the wing-cases, of a much paler colour. 
The perfect insect appears in July. It is very common, though becoming somewhat more rare 
in the northern counties, and not l;ieing found at all in Scotland. 


No. 1. — Tlie Einglet Butterfly (Enodia Hyperantlius), 

No. 2. — The Einglet Butterfly, showing the Under 

No. 3.— The Caterpillar of the Kinglet Butterfly. 

No! 4.— The Chrysalis of the Ringlet Butterfly. 

No. 5. — The Scarce Scotch Argus Butterfly, the 
Pemale {Erelia Ligea). 

No. 6.— The Male of tlie Scarce Scotch Argus Butter- 
fly, showing the Under side. 

No. 7. — The Caterpillar of the Scarce Scotch Argus 
8. — The Scotch Argus Butterfly, the Female 

(Ereiia Blandina). 
9.— The Male of the Scotch Argus Butterfly, 
showing the Under side. 
No. 10.— TheSmallRingletButterfly [Erelia Casniope). 
No. 11, — The Small Einglet Butterfly, showing the 
Under side. 



The genus Enodia of Hiibner contains a group of insects closely allied to those of tlie genus 
Hipparchia of Fabricius, from which the common Ringlet Butterfly has been recently removed to 
Enodia, on account of structural distinctions, which, though slight, appear to justify the new lo- 
cation of this insect. It is, however, by some English entomologists still retained in its old position. 

Enodia Iliiperanlhus (the Einglet, No. 1). This common Butterfly, though not c^uite so 
abundant as one or two other species of Nymphalidce, is yet found very plentifully in damp grassy 
places, and in shady lanes and the borders of woods, in all parts of the country. The under 
side, as represented at No. 2, is very beautifully marked with a series of ocelli, or small rings, 
from which it takes its popular name, the ' Ringlet.' There is but little difference, either in 
size, or in the markings, between the male and female of this .species ; the latter seems, however, 
to have, very frequently, three distinct ocelli on the upper side of the front wings, while in the 
males, only one, or sometimes two, are distinctly visible, and they are sometimes entirely absent. 
This insect is, indeed, subject to considerable variation in its markings, in both sexes. On the 
under side, for instance, the rings or cu'clets are so large in some specimens as to be joined 
together, occasionally having smaller additional ocelh attached to them, while in other instances 
the ocelli are so nearly obliterated as to be only represented by small white specks. The Cater- 
pillar (No. 3) feeds upon Millet Grass, or upon Poa Annua, the common annual Meadow Grass. 
It takes its food at night, concealing itself about the roots during the day. The Chrysalis (No. 
4), which is shorter, thicker, and smoother, than those belonging to the genus Ilipparcliia, is 
suspended by the tail. 

The genus Erchia is distinguished from Hipparckia by having only one of the nervures of 
the anterior wings tliickened at the base. The fore feet, in the male, are so small, as to be 
scarcely visible, while in the female they are comparatively long, and have the tarsal portion 
articulated. The hind wings are slightly denticulated. Dolman's generic term Erebia has been 
preferred to Mr. Westwood's Orcina, on the ground of its priority, and as being in accordance 
with the most accredited continental systems of classification. 

Erebia Ligea (the Scarce Scotch Argus, No. 5). This fine insect can scarcely be considered 
a native of Britain, though specimens were undoubtedly taken some years ago in the Isle of Arran 
by Sir Patrick Walker and Alexander Macleay, Esq. Accidental captures of that kind are not 
sufficient, however, to prove any insect to be a native. It may either bo a wanderer, brought 
over from the Continent on the wing during a westerly gale, or may have been imported in the 
egg, or pupa, state in foreign vessels, as is certainly the case with the two fine Sphinges, Deik- 


lildia Lirornim and Charoatmpa Celerio, as wrll as many otlier Irpidopterous insects, occasionally 
taken in the British Islands, and placed in our entomological caliinets as British. This species 
oi Erchid may he at once recognised l.iy the collector lucky enough to meet with it, hy the deep 
white fringe, interrupted hy Ijrown, at the juncture of the nervures ; the fringe in all the other 
reputed British species being lirown. The male (No. G) is smaller than the female, and has the 
circlets on the upper side of the anterior wings less distinct, and without the central specks of 
white. A single pair of Enhia Liijca arc the only specimens in the collection in the British 
Museum. It is said to he a Swedish insect, and if so, the specimens taken in Arran may pos- 
sibly have been wanderers from that countiy. The Caterpillar is figured at No. 7. 

Enhia BJand'ma (the Scotch Argus). The .specimen figured at No. 8 is a female, having the 
orange marks, and the circlets ^rith white centres more distinct than in the males, as shown in 
the representation of the male specimen at No. 9. The fringe is brom:, like the general upper 
surface of the wings, 1 lut rather paler in the female. In the figure No. 9 the colouring of the 
under side is shown, which varies in the sexes, and also to some extent in diflerent specimens ; 
but it is always without the distinct white mark which distinguishes the last-described species. 
The Caterpillar is described as light green, with bro^vn and white longitudinal stripes, but no 
trastworthy representation has yet been published. In Mr. E. F. Logan's forthcoming " Illus- 
trations of Scottish Lepidoptera," however, we shall probably be made acquainted with the 
details of the transformation of this and many other of the rarer species of British Lepidoptera 
occurring only in the North. In England it has been talcen in some iirofusion in the magnesian 
limestone districts near Newcastle, in the neighbourhood of Kendal, and at Colne, and also at 
"Wharfdale in Yorkshire, and a few other places. In Scotland it is found in the Isle of Arran 
and several other localities ; and occurs more especially, in some abundance, over a district of 
considerable extent in Dumfries-shire. Varieties occur in this species, both as to the distinctness 
and number of the ocelli. 

Erehia Cassiope (the Small Pdnglet, Nos. 10 and 11). This pretty species differs consider- 
ably from the two preceding, not only in size, but in the elongated proportion of the ^ralgs, and 
in the alisence of denticuhition ui the fringed edge of the hinder pair. It also differs in the 
markings of the under side, which are of a similar colour to those of the upper surface, and with- 
out any of the gray tones wdiich distinguish the two larger species. It has been taken at various 
places in the mountainous parts of "Westmon-land and Cumlierland ; the males appearing about 
the middle of June, the females not till somewhat later. It must always be sought at a con- 
siderable elevation on the mountain sides, and generally in damp and grassy recesses. In Scot- 
land it is found in many parts of the Southern counties, and as far North as Eannock in Perth- 
shire ; and probably, if well sought for, even to the most Northern extremities of the Highlands, 
in favourable situations. 

Only three species of this interesting genus are at present admitted into the English lists, 
but others doubtless exist, and will be discovered by enterprising explorers among the mountauis 
of Wales or Wicklow, or many of the Scottish ranges, as yet not half explored. On the Conti- 
nent, in precisely similar situations, eighteen or twenty species are found, and few of them are 
especially rare. I think I counted full that number in the collection of the late lamented ]\I. 
Pierret. In the various mountain districts between Grenoble and ]\Iont Cenis, Avliich I made 
the scene of a summer ramble a few summers ago, the dark rich brown of many species of this 
pretty family of Butterflies quite tinted the green slopes of that Alpine region with various 
tones of brown ; wdiich, however, disappeared ahnost instantly whenever a passing cloud obscured 
the sun, every insect settling among the grass, and becoming invisible till another gleam of sun- 
light Ijrought them out again. I collected many species and varieties, Init ha\-ing no entomolo- 
logical apparatus with me, my specimens became so much injured in travelling as not to Ijc 
worth preserving. 


No. 1. — Tlie Marsh Kinglet Butterfly {Ccenonymp/ia 

No. 2. — The Marsh Kinglet Butterfly, showing the 

Under side. 
No. 3.— The Small Heath Butterfly {Coenonpnplia 

No. 4.— The Small Heath Butterfly, showing the 

"Cndcr side. 

No. 5.— The Caterpillar of the Small Heath Butterfly. 
No. 6. — The White Admiral Butterfly {Limenilis 

No. 7. — The White Admiral Butterfly, showing the 

Under side. 
No. 8.— The Caterpillar of the White Admiral But- 

No. 9.— TheChrysalisof the White Admiral Butterfly. 

The genus Cccnonympha contains two of the smaller kinds of tlie well-defined snL-family 
grouped under tlie title of Satyridi. The hind wings are not denticulated at the fringed edge. 
The anterior wings have three of the nervures much enlarged or swollen near the base. The 
antennae are annulated with grey and brown. The larvfe are cjuite smooth, and shining. 

Ccenonymjiha Dams (the Marsh Einglet, Nos. 1 and 2). This pretty Heath Butterfly, only 
found in the North, is very variable in its markings, especially in different localities. This cir- 
cumstance led our earlier collectors (at a time when few specimens were found in collections for 
comparison) to imagine that several distinct British species closely allied to Bartis existed ; and 
some of the varieties received the specific names, Typlwn, Polychma, Iphis, &c., two dark varieties 
being named respectively Hero and Ascanivs ; all of which are, I think, satisfactorily proved to 
have been merely varieties of C. Davus. The details of the transformations of this pretty .species 
are at present but imperfectly known. It has been taken plentifully in the marshes between 
Stockport and Ashton, and at Trafiford, Whitemoss, in the neighbourhood of Manchester, and 
also on some of the marshy moors of Yorkshire ; Thorn Moor and Hatfield Chase, for instance. 
Tlie Pentland Hills and other places in Scotland, are recorded as localities where it has been 
captured more recently. 

Ccenonywioha PamphUus (the Small Heath, Nos. 3 and 4). This is one of the commonest of 
our native Butterflies, while its near relative, C. Davus, as we have just seen, must be ranked 
among the rarest. The Caterpillar (No. 5) feeds on several common meadow grasses, but in 
preference upon the Poa annua or the crested Dog's-taiVgrass, Cynosurus Cristatus. It is common 
everywhere, in favourable situations. 

The second sub-family of the Nymplialiclce, distinguished as the Nymphalidi, contains two 
British genera, Limenitis and Apaiura, each represented by a single species, ranking in both 
cases among the most remarkable of our native Lcpkhptera, especially Apatura Iris, which may 
perhaps be considered the crowning jewel of a British collection. 

The genus Limenitis, in the perfect state, appears very closely related to Apatura, but is 
distinguished from it by the following characteristics. It is generally of less robust formation, 
and the fore wings are rounded at the external edge instead of being partially concave as in 
Apatura : the hind wings also are more rounded : the more gradual formation of the clulj of the 
antennae is another good generic distinction. In the larva state the distinction is much more 
marked ; the Caterpillar having several pairs of fleshy spines on the back, each clothed with fine 


iH-istles, a feature which is entirely absent in the larva state of Jpatura Iris. The pupa is 
beaked, and suspended by the tail. 

Limenitis Sihilla (the White Admiral, No. G). This is one of our handsomest nati\-e Butter- 
flies. ■\\lion on the wing, its fine sailing motion displays the striking contrast of its black and 
white markings to great advantage, forming a tempting prize to the eager Lepidopterist. Ha- 
worth relates that an old London collector, long after he was able to pursue an active Butterfly, 
would go to the woods where this species then abounded, for the sole purpose of '• feasting his 
eyes with its fascinating evolutions." I first saw this beautiful insect in Italy, in a vineyard near 
Eome, and was almost as much delighted as Haworth's enthusiast ; but the capture of several 
specimens in a few hours, for it was very plentiful, soon decreased the intensity of the attraction. 
The under side (No. 7) resembles, in its delicate gray, wliite, brown, and orange marldngs, the 
under side of Jpalura Iris, which it almost rivals in beauty. The Caterpillar (No. 8) feeds on 
honeysuckle. The Chrysahs (No. 9) is curiously formed, and has the metallic markings which 
distinguish the pupaj of the next sub-fan:ily, that of the J'ancssiili. The perfect insect appears 
in July, and is now a rare species, though once tolerably aliundant in many of the Southern 
Counties. The woods near Winchester were formerly a celebrated locality for this fine Butterfly. 
The places cited for its most recent capture are Epping, Bere Regis, Colchester, and Black Park. 
At Lyndhurst it occurred in abundance a few seasons ago, but it is not usually taken there. It 
has also appeared at intervals near Worcester, Tenterden, and in other districts. 


No. 1.— The Purple Emperor Butterfly {Jpatura 

Iris), the Male. 
No. 2.— The Female of the Purple Emperor Butterfly. 
No. 3. — The Under side of the Purple Emperor 


Nos. 4 &. 5. — Caterpillars of the Pui-ple Emperor 

No. 6. — The Clirysalia of the Purple Emperor 


The genus Apatimi is distinguished by tlie thickness of the antennae, or by their gradual 
thickening towards the chib or knob at the tij), and by their being nearly straight, instead of 
shghtly curved as in all the alhed genera. The wugs and body are robust. The hind-wings 
being slightly scalloped, elongated rather than rounded at the angle next the body, and having 
at the posterior angle an ocellated spot. It is, however, more distinct from neighbouring genera 
in the preparatory stages than in the perfect state. The Caterpillar is very peculiar, having 
somewhat the form of a slug, the likeness to which is much heightened by the two erect spines 
at the head, which resemble the retractile ' horns' of the snail family. The Chrysalis is sus- 
pended by the tail, and is much like the Caterpillar in general form, but is, of course, much 
shorter and thicker ; and it is forked at the head like some of the pupa; in the genus HrpparcMa. 
There is but one British species, the lieautiful Purple Emperor. 

Jpatura Iris (the Purple Emperor, No. 1) is perhaps, on the whole, the most splendid of 
our native Butterflies. The beautiful purple gloss exhibited by the male insect, in certain lights, 
especially when flying do^vnwards, being almost equal in brilliancy to that of some of the 
magnificent Butterflies of South America. When not seen in the proper light, this fine purple 
flush disappears, and the dark portion of the wings assumes a rich brown, like that of the 
female (No. 2), which is entirely devoid of the iridescent lustre which distinguishes the male. 
On the under side of the wings both sexes are nearly ahke, and fully as attractive, though after 
a very distinct fasliion, as on the upper surface. In the beautiful shades of white, gray, broivn 
and orange, the under-side of Jj^atura Iris resembles that of Limcnitis Sihilla, from wliich it is, 
however, distinguished by the purple-centered circlet at the posterior angle of the hind-wings, 
and more especially by the large purple and orange ocellus in the fore-wings, the outline of 
which is distinguisliable on the upper side. 

The Caterpillar (Nos. 4 and 5) is of a soft apple-green, delicately varied with diagonal 
streaks of yellow, the head Ix'ing tinted vnXh pale lilac. It is to be sought in the month of 
May, when, in favourable situations, the fortunate Collector may find it feeding on the broad- 
leaved sallow. This Caterpillar was first discovered by Mr. Drury, the well known English 
Naturalist, in the following manner, as described by his brother naturalist, Moses Harris. 
" That ingenious Aurelian," as Mr. Drury is termed by his friend, while searching for Cater- 
pillars, near Brentwood, in Essex, on the 2Gth of May, 1758, beat from off" the Sallow some 
larvffi, which were entirely new to him, and which he presented to Mr. Moses Harris, as the 
person most likely to rear them successfully. In his curious Ijook, Harris describes very minutely 
all their stages of development under his care, concluding by informing us, that on the 22nd 
of June, 1758, to his unspeakable pleasure, one of his Chrysalides produced the Purple Emperor ; 


and lie proceeds to express his unbounded gratitude to that " ingenious gentleman," Mr. Dniry, 
who had thus enabled him to discover " the Caterpillar of one of the finest flies in the universe, 
which had hitherto escaped the search of the most skilful and industrious Aurelians." 

The Chrysalis (No. G) is suspended by the tail, and in colour difl'ers but little from that of 
the Caterpillar. 

The capture of the perfect insect, which appears towards the end of June, or in July, is 
difficult, on account of its elevated flight, which it delights to take in the neighbourhood of lofty 
oaks, over the tops of which it skims with a power and rapidity, that seem at first to place it 
quite out of the reach of the Lepidopterist, even when armed ^rith his very best appliances, 
such as a small light net at the extremity of a long, pliable rod, &c. Nevertheless, the male, a 
much bolder flier than the female, has been taken on the wing, in this manner. A more 
successful method, however, is to seek this entomological prize while at rest ; when he is often 
to be found on the lower part of the trunks of large trees. A successful Collector informed me 
some years ago, that during an entomological ramble in the New Forest, he once sought shelter 
from an approacliing storm under the branches of a spreading oak, and while there, two mag- 
nificent specimens of the Purple Emperor boldly came to share his shelter, and alighted on the 
trunk close to him. It is needless to add, that they both found their way into his collecting 
box. Gloomy weather, with occasional showers, should therefore be selected for the pursuit of 
the Purple Emperor, watching carefully the trunks of the trees, in favourable situations, when- 
ever the sun becomes suddenly overcast. 

The name of the genus, Apatura, which was given to it by Fabricius in 1807,* and which 
should more properly have been Aixduria, is generally said to have been taken from one of the 
names of Aphrodite or Venus, in reference to the beauty of the insect. But I have a fancy 
that Fabricius had in view rather one of the names of Athena, indicating deceitfulness, in refer- 
ence to the deceptive eff'ect of the purple gloss, which enthely disappears in certain lights. 
* Pi-CTious to wliich date oiu- species stiU remained the Papilio Iris, of Linnteus. 



Ko. 1.— The Painted Lady Butter9.v {Cynlhia Carditi). 
No. 2. — The Painted Lady Butterfly, showing the 

under surface. 
No. 3. — The Caterpillar of the Painted Lady Butter- 


No. 4. — The Chrysalis of the PaintedLady Butterfly. 

No. 5. — The Red Admiral Butterfly {Vanessa Ata- 

No. 6. — The Under siu'face of the Ked Admiral 

No. 7.— The Caterpillar of the Eed Admiral Butterfly. 
No. 8.— The Chrysahs of the Red Admu'al Butterfly. 

The third Siib-Faiiiily of the N ijmpliaUihc is that of the J'unessiJi, containing three 
tolerably di.stiuct genera, all of ^rhich are included by some authors in the genus Fancssa. The 
present sub-divisions, urto Cynthia, Vanessa, and Graijta, are founded upon pretty distinct char- 
acters. Cijnthia has the club of the antennie shorter and the thickening more abrupt than in 
any other of the group ; and has, in the fringed margin of the anterior wings only a slight and 
graduated projection near the front angle. In the genus Vanessa this projection becomes more 
marked, and decidedly abrupt. In the genus Grajila the fore-wings have two such projections, 
both much more marked than in J'anessa. 

The genus Ci/nihia is distinguished, as above stated, by the aljruptness of the clubs uf the 
antennre, and by the comparative evenness of the outline of the fringed margin of the anterior 
wiirgs. It is farther distingitished by the character of the palpi, which are somewhat deflexed 
and beak-like. In the Caterpillar and Chrysalis it closely reseml)les the true Vanessm ; or, were 
it desirable to keep it separate from the Vanessce, on account of its affinities with its exotic 
congeners in the genus Cijntliia, then, one would almost feel disposed to place V. Alalanta also 
in the genus Ci/nthia, as it only differs from it anatomically in the slightly greater angulation of 
the projection of the fore-wings, and in the somewhat more gradual formation of the clubs of 
the antennte, wlxich appear rather specitic than generic differences. V. Atalaata is, moreover, 
as clearly separated from the Vanessce as C. Cardui is, Ijy the entire absence of the taU-like pro- 
jection of the hind-wdngs, which distinguishes all the typical Vanessce. In order to exhiliit the 
affinity of this species with Cardui, I have placed the representation of each on the same Plate, 
instead of groujiing V. Atalanta vnili others of the genus Vanessa, to which it is made to belong. 

Cynthia Cardui (the Painted Lady, No. 1). This species is remarkable for the irregularity 
of its appearance ; being seen in some seasons in tolerable abundance, esjiecially in the metropo- 
litan counties, while at other times, for many consecutive years, scarcely a single specimen is to 
be found by the most persevering collectors. On the Continent its apjjearance seems to be 
equally capricious. In the Annales des Sciences Nalurelles for 1828, as quoted by Mr. Westwood, 
an account is given of an extraordinary swarm which was noticed in the i^receding May (the 
usual time of the appearance of this insect being August), the extent of which was so prodigious 
that it occupied several hoiu's in passing over the place where it was observed. Similar swarms 
of the Common White Butterfly (Pieris Brassicce), and also of some other species, have been 
observed at different periods. I recollect the chfls between Margate and Broadstairs being 
completely covered with a swarm of the last-named species, some few years ago. I observed 
them first in the morning, no trace of them having existed the night before, and the following 



day they were again dispersed. The markings of C'ljnth'm Card ui are so like tliose of V. Atalanta, 
that an inexperienced collector might mistake it for a faded specimen of that species ; they are, 
however, very distinct when closely examined, the reddish-orange marks on the right fore-wing 
ha^ing been compared to a map of England and Ireland, which, in some strongly marked speci- 
mens, they slightly resemble. The Caterpillar (No. 3) feeds on various plants of the Thistle 
tribe, and is represented upon a plant of C'nicus lanccolalus (the Spear Plum Thistle). Like the 
Caterpillar of V. Atalanta, it is solitary in its habits, and also draws up the leaves upon which 
it is feeding in a similar manner, with web-Uke threads. It is also found at the same season' 
July. The Chrysalis (No. 4) is suspended by the tail, and has the gold-like spots which distin- 
guish all the Sub-Family Vanessidi. The generic name, Ci/nthia, appears to have been taken, 
after the arbitrary fashion adopted l.iy Linna?us, from that of a pagan divinity, being one of those 
of the goddess Artemis, derived from the name of Mount Cynthus, in the Island of Delos, 
where she is said to have been boru ; the name Cynthius being sometimes given to her brother 
Apollo, for the same cause. The specific name, C'ardid, refers to a species of Carduus, or 
Thistle, upon which the Caterpillar frec[ueutly feeds. 

The genus Vanessa. The insects in this genus are rather remarkably distmguished by the 
hairy clothing of their eyes. They have the outline of the fringed laorder of the anterior wings 
rendered more or less irregular in form liy one or more angular projections, and the hind-^vings, 
except in the case of J^. Atalanta, have a short tail-like projection, somewhat analogous to that 
we have seen distinguishing the Papilionida:, though much less conspicuous, and which we shall 
find again in a more slender form in the genus Thcda. The anterior pair- of legs are rudimental 
and unfitted for walking, as in the genus Cynthia. The Caterpillar is furnished with spines. 
The Chrysalides, which are very angular, exhibit the appearance of gold and silver spots, 
caused by a fluid which is seen through the transparent external membrane, imparting a metallic 
gloss to the yellow shell or skin over which it circulates. The name of this genus appears to 
have been adopted by Fabricius from Phanes, one of the appellations of Eros or Cupid, and 
would, therefore, be more correctly written Phancssa instead of Vanessa. It was possibly given 
in allusion to the lieauty of most of the species ; those which are found in the British Islands 
not ceding the palm to any of their exotic congeners. 

Vanessa Atalanta (the Red Admu-al, No. 5). This insect, which might be more conveniently 
classed as Cynthia Atalanta till the two groups have been thoroughly revised, is one of the 
handsomest, and at the same time, one of the commonest of our native Butterflies. The under 
side of the liind wings (No. 6) is very richly marbled with deep brown, and exhibits some slight 
traces of the rudimental ocelli which distinguish the scarlet border on the upper surface. In 
Cynthia Cardui, however, these marks become more distinct on the under side than the upper, 
as may be observed on reference to the representation of that insect, sho'wing the under side, at 
No. 2. This may be made the ground of separating Atalanta and Cardui, other^vise appearing 
in all respects so closely allied. It is said that the females of V. Atalanta have a small white 
speck on the red bar near the back of the anterior wings. The Caterpillar of the Ked Adnriral 
(No. 7) feeds on the common Stinging Nettle ; and the perfect Butterfly appears in August. 
This fine species occurs throughout Europe, in the North of Africa, and in other distant 
localities, being a very ■widely dispersed species. 



I , !'. ■ 


No. 1. — The Peacock Butterfly {Vanessa lo). 

No. 2. — The Peacock Butterfly, showing tlie under 

No. 3.— The CaterpUlar of the Peacock Butterfly. 
No. 4. — The ChrysaUs of the Peacock Butterfly. 

No. 5. — The Camberwell Beauty Butterfly {Vanessa 

No. G. — The Caraherwell Beauty Butterfly, showing 

the under surface of the wings. 
No. 7. — Tlie Caterpillar of llie Camberwell Beauty 


Vaness.A. Io (the Peacock Butterfly, No. 1) Ls the most beautiful of the species grouped 
together in the genus Vanessa, of which some authors consider it the type. ; but from most of 
which, as it appears to me, it will very prolialily be separated at no very distant period, when 
this and the allied genera shall be revised, with reference to all the exotic species. Thi.s beau- 
tiful Butterfly is extremely common, but its appearance does not extend farther North than 
the Frith of Forth, being but very sparingly seen even in the South of Scotland. On the under 
side, the wings (No. 2) exhibit in then- dark and sober hues a singular contrast to the glowing 
colours of the upper surface, the magnificent ocelli of which, with their softly shaded irides, are 
so remarkable. The Caterpillar (No. 3) is gregarious, and groujis of them may often be seen 
in July, forming a large black mass on a bed of nettles, %'isible at a considerable distance. It 
has been observed, that in all those sjiecies the eggs of which are laid in patches, gummed 
together, the Caterpillars, when hatched, are gregarious and continue together even when full 
grown. The transformations of this species formed the subject of one of those courses of minute 
and persevering observation which have made the name of E^aumur so celebrated among 
naturalists ; the singular manner in which the Chrysalis attaches itself to the knot of web 
established by the Caterpillar before the skin of the Caterpillar is cast oif, as described by that 
author, being one of the most curious exliibitions of instinct in the whole range of natural 
history. The perfect insect appears towards the middle or end of July, and as it settles upon a 
flower or on the gravel of a garden path, forms a most beautiful object. It frecjuently survives 
the mnter, hybernating in some well-secluded shelter, where it remains in a dormant state tUl 
the following April, in the first sunny days of which it reappears, making our gardens gay before 
the season of flowers has scarcely commenced : the .specimens which thus survive the mnter are 
said to be almost invariably females. 

Vanessa Aniiopa (the Camberwell Beauty, No. 5). This is the largest of the British species 
of Vanessa, and the rarest ; many seasons passing without the capture of a single specimen, 
though most Lepidopterists (now a pretty numerous class) are always on the look out for the 
capture of the coveted prize. I never saw it on the mng but once, on the 1 2th of September, 
m the year 18-55, when, walldng from Watford to St. Alban's, I was attracted Ijy the flight of 
a large Butterfly wliich, the first time it passed me, I could not make out ; but remaining quietly 
in the same place, it passed me again in a few minutes, ha\'ing evidently a regular circuit of 
flight wliich occupied about that time, if not delayed by some unusual attraction. Tliis time it 
settled in the middle of the road, at some distance from me, but I succeeded in approaching it 
closely enough to distinguish perfectly a remarkably fine and very large specimen of V. Antiojya. 


It rose as I approached, and having no net with me, I made a .sweep at it ^rith my hat, but 
unsuccessfully. I \\-aited for its return, which occurred again in about the same time, notwith- 
standing the alarm it must have received, but I was again unsuccessful, and, my companion 
becoming impatient, wc pursued our journey, mthout renewing the attempt, which I have often 

The Caterpillar, which is considerably larger than that of /'. lo, is beautifully marked with 
red, at the base of the spines, as shown at No. 7. It feeds on the "Willow, and is to he looked 
for in July. The perfect insect appears in August, the females often surviving the winter, and 
depositing their eggs in the folloinng spring ; in which case they reappear as early as April. 

This fine insect has been found as far North as Ayrshire, but is a rarity in any locahty 
except at intervals of eight or ten years, when it appear.s in some abundance. About eighty 
years ago it was so plentiful, after a long absence, that it received the name, among collectors, 
of the " Grand Surprise ;" and its appearance at Camberwell, one season many years ago, caused 
it to be known as the " Camberwell Beauty," — a name it still retains. The Enghsh spiecimens 
are said to differ from those of the Continent, in having the borders of the wings nearly white, 
instead of cream colour. But this observation may have been made on .sj^ecimens long preserved 
in Collections, and proljaljly faded to some extent, as the specimen which 1 saw alive, as 
described above, had the borders in cpiestion of a remarkably rich and deej) cream colour. 

This fine insect is the Papilio Antiopa of Linnjeus, who appears to have adopted the specific 
name from that of a mythical personage, as in many other instances. The descriptive or other- 
wise characteristic denominations of more modern systems of classification appear to great 
advantage when compared with the arbitrary nomenclature of the infancy of the science, as 
exhibited in this and other instances. 

?i. 1?. 


No. 1. — The Great Tortoise-shell Butterfly {Vanessa 

Potychloros) . 
No. 2. — The Great Tortoise-shell Butterfly, showing 

the under side. 
No. 3. — An unusually small specimen of the Great 

Tortoise-shell Butterfly. 

No. 4. — The Caterpillar of the Great Tortoise-shell 

No. 5.— The Chrysalis of the Great Tortoise-shell 


Vanessa polychloros (the Great Tortoise-shell Butterfly, No. 1). Tliis fine insect has 
all the characters well defined that distinguish the genus Vanessa ; such as the sharp and con- 
spicuous palpi, and the projecting angles of the ^ralgs. The Great Tortoise-shell is sometimes 
very abundant, more jDarticularly round London ; but in other seasons scarcely a sjiecimen is to 
be found, especially towards the North. This fine insect is described as appearing in July, and 
those specimens wliicli are occasionally seen in the early spring are generally considered to con- 
sist of such only as have survived the winter in a semidormant state, like those of the allied 
sjiecies, V. urtkce and V. lo. This has been considered the more probable, as the spring speci- 
mens often present a worn and faded appearance. That some do survive the winter in the way 
supposed is certain, as that degree of longevity is a characteristic of the entire genus, and has 
not been observed as a conspicuous peculiarity in any other genus of British Butterflies. Last 
spring, however, I had an opportunity of observing the appearance of a number of beautifully 
perfect specimens of V. pohjchloros, evidently just issued from the Chrysalis, proving that a late 
brood occurs in favourable seasons, which remain in the Chrysalis tiU the following spring, 
emerging from the pupa case on the first sunny days in March or April. On the 29th of March, 
1858, I noticed a remarkably fine specimen of V. poJijchloros expanding its wings in the morning 
sun on the gravel j^ath in front of my study window. It was evidently c[uite fresh from the 
ChrysaUs, its ^vings not having accj[uired that firmness of texture which a little more exjiosuro to 
the sun soon imparted to them. I observed, too, that the colour was jialer and more beautifid 
than in autumnal specimens ; in fact of a slightly diflerent tone, being decidedly more approach- 
ing to a pure orange ; which is in fact rather a rich orange buff than the usual ta^vny bro^vn ; 
and the difierence appears to be permanent, for many specimens appeared, and I afterwards re- 
marked that those which had been some days on the wing still preserved that Ughter and more 
dehcate tone of colour. The dark spots, too, are of a deep ruddy bro-mi, rather than dusky 
black like those that have eclosed in the autumn. Indeed, at a hasty glance these sprmg 
specimens might be taken for a new species, or at all events, a very distinct variety. Some 
Chrysalides which I collected in the previous autumn, when they were very abundant, eclosed 
in my butterfly vivarium about the same time that I observed the sj^ecimens in the garden ; and 
among those wliicli came out in confinement many were remarkably small as well as pale. One 
of these is represented at Figure 3. 

The underside of V. polycldofos (No. 2) foims a fine contrast in tone of colour and in its 
very different kind of markings to those of the upper surface. The fine waved streaking of 
dark brown and black, on the gray, ochreous, or darker brown ground is very striking ; and the 


effect is heightened by a few light specks, especially the one ou the middle of the dark part of 
the hind wing. 

The Caterpillar (No. 4) is very handsome, and vnth its curiously branched spines exhiljits 
the characters of a true Vanessa. It feeds exclusively on Elm, and is scarcely ever found where 
those tree.s do not abound. In the Plate this Caterpillar has been inadvertently represented 
upon the nettle. 

The Chrysalis (No. 5) resembles those of the other Vanessa' in its angularities, and the 
bright metallic spots with which it is decorated. 

Several accidental varieties of this fine insect are occasionally met with, in which two or 
more of the dark sj)ots are lilended into one. These are sought with great avidity by the 
curious, and I have seen some very singular examples in different cabinets. Any collector 
rearing a great number from the Caterpillar state, would be likely to meet with varieties of 
that kind in some of the specimens. 

Eeaumur, in his interesting Memoires, has given some very curious illustrations of the trans- 
formations of this insect, which is more common in France than ivith us. In England it is said 
to be found chiefly in the southern half of the island ; but Mr. Duncan — as quoted by Mi'. 
Westwood — says it has been taken as far north as Dunkeld. Mr. Stainton gives Huddersfield 
and York among the more northerly districts in which it has been recently captured. 


No. 1. — The Silver • washed Fritillary (Argynnis 

No. 2. — The Female of the Silver-washed FrltiUary. 
No. 3. — The Under side of the Silver-washed Pritil- I lary. 


No. 4.— The Caterpillar of the Silver-washed Fritil- 

la 17. 
No. 5.— The Chrysalis of the Silver-washed Fritil- 

The fourth, sub-family of the Painlionidce is that of the Argynnidi, contauung two genera, 
Argynnis and MiUtcsa. 

The genus Argynnis. The insects assigned to tliis genus are distinguished by the short, 
compact, and rather spoon-like fonn of the club of the antennas. The wngs are ample, of a rich 
tawny colour, and marked with dark lines and spots, the lines upon the veins or nervures being 
often considerably thickened in the males. The fore -(vings have the margin either rounded or 
slightly concave ; and the liind wings on the under side are marked with metallic patches or 
streaks, having the appearance of silver. The front pair of legs are rudimental, and are very 
hairy, and without joint, in the males ; wliOe they are jointed, but nearly free from hairs, in the 
females. The eyes are large and naked, instead of being clothed ivith hairs, as in some of the 
Vanessidi. The Caterpillars are spiny ; and nearly all the species feed on clifTerent kinds of the 
Violet, in woods. The Chrysalis is suspended by the taU, like those of the Vanessidi. 

Argynnis iiaphia (the Silver- washed Fritillary, No. 1). This fine and very remarkable in- 
sect, which is the largest of British Fritillaries, is by no means generally common ; but in 
favourable localities, it often appears in some abundance. During a walking tour in Cornwall 
in the year 1857, I was delighted mtli a sight of it in some plenty in several localities. 

The male insect (No. 1) is of a much brighter colour than the female ; and the four principal 
nervures nearest to the posterior edge of the fore wings are raised and thickened in a singular 
manner, as expressed in the re^jresentation. 

The female (No. 2) is, as above stated, of a much less brilliant colour ; and there is no 
thickening of the nervures of the anterior -wuign : the dark spots are, however, larger and 
more regularly formed, and the clubs at the extremities of the antennae are often larger than in 
the male. 

The imder side (No. 3) exliibits the beautiful 'streakiugs of silvery lines across the liind 
wings, by which this species is distinguished. 

The Caterpillar (No. 4) is very ricldy marked -n-ith yellow and bro^vn stripes ; and the 
spines nearest the head often project forward like horns, as sho-\vn in the representation. It 
feeds in preference on the common scentless Violet, Viola canina ; and the perfect insect aj)pears 
in July. 

The Chrysahs (No. 5) is of a light grayish bro^vn, sometimes ynih. indistinct yellow spots 
along the back ; and the tubercles exliibit the metallic effect of gold described in the Vanessidi. 

Hermaphrodite specimens of this insect occur, in which the indi\'iduals have the wings of 
the male on one side and those of the female on the other. There are also some curious 


varieties, especially of tlie female, in which the ground colour of the wiiigs is nearly gray, or 
rather a brownish kind of slate colour, varied liy a few marks nearly white. These specimens 
were thought to be the females of a distinct species, till a specimen was captured, in which the 
wings on one side were of the usual cohjur, wliile those on the other side were of the l>rownisli 
slate colour above described. 

The insect has become more rare than former!}'. It is, however, still pretty generally dis- 
tributed in the woods in the South. It has also Ijeen recently captured at Huddersfield, and in 
some plenty in the neighbourhoods of Scarborough and York. I saw this beautiful species for 
the first time on the Continent in the Forest of Fontainebleau, where, happening to be just in 
the season, I found it very abundant. The specimens then captured were precisely identical with 
specimens afterwards taken iu England. 


■ .^ r 


, <ii^^' ' 


. t:-' \ 


No. 1. — The Small Tortoise-Bliell Butterfly {Vanessa 

No. 2.— The IJjiderside of the Small Tortoise-shell 


No. 4. — The Chrysalis of the Small Tortoise-shell 

No. 5. — The Comma Butterfly ( Grapta C-album). 
No. 6. — The Untlcr side of the Comma Butterfly. 

No. 3.— The Caterpillar of the Small Tortoise-shell ; No. 7.— Tiie Caterpillar of the Comma Butterfly. 
Butterfly. 1 No. 8.— The ChrysaUs of the Comma Butterfly. 

Vanessa URTIC/E (the Small Tortoise-shell, No. 1). This Ijrightly-marked species is some- 
times distinguished as the Nettle Tortoise-shell, in allusion to the plant which furnishes the food 
of the Caterpillar, and in contradistinction to V. pohjchloros, which in a similar manner is often 
termed the Elm Tortoise-shell. It is much more common than V. polychhros ; indeed it may be 
said to be common every^vhere. Its sparkling colours, red, white, and yellow, with tesselations 
of blue, make a charming appearance in our gardens as early as the first sunny days of 
February, and sometimes even earher. Linnteus has called these beautiful insects on their first 
appearance at this early season, " deceptive heralds of the .spring ;" for on the recurrence of 
cold weather they again take to their retreats where they have passed the winter in a semidor- 
mant state ; and are seen no more till the next burst of fine weather. In the south of Europe, 
however, they remain on the wing throughout the mild winter of that more genial chmate. 
This insect is distributed in every part of the British Isles, even to the extreme north of Scot- 
land, where it is popularly known as the Devil's, or Witches' Butterfly. The underside, shown 
at No. 2, slightly resembles the underside of V. pohjchloros ; but the fore ^vings have a large 
space of a pale ochreous tone, by which they may be easily distinguished. Tliis pretty insect 
varies considerably in its markings ; specimens occurring sometimes in which the two upper 
patches of black at the front edge of the fore wings are joined wliile the two small round spots 
behind them are entirely absent. In this curious variety the dark portion of the hind wings 
extend nearly to the edge, the hght red band and the dark border with the blue scallops being 
absorbed in it. There are also extremely small varieties, which are often more Ijrightly coloured 
than the larger specimens. The Caterpillar, No. 3, feeds on the common nettle, and appears in 
the beginning of June, and again in August ; the perfect insect appears in July and September ; 
some of the last brood survive the -winter, as stated .above. The CluysaUs is represented at 
No. 4. 

The genus Gi'apta. This genus contains only a single British species, separated from Va- 
nessa principally on account of the deep indentation of the margins of the mngs, and some 
slight anatomical distinctions in the Caterpillar. The ChrysaUs exhibits deep indentations in 
its fonn, which accord in character with those of the perfect insect, and serve to distinguish it 
from those of the Vanessce, wliich in other respects it resembles, and is suspended by the tail in 
a similar manner. 

Gra])ta C-album (the Comma, No. 5). This pretty species is becoming much more scarce 
than formerly. Our elder Entomologists describe it as abundant near London, and many of 


our li\-ing collectors, as Mr. Stainton informs us, recoUect taking it frequently, though it is now 
very rarely seen. The form of the wongs, which is remarkable in this species, varies much in 
different sijecimens. In some the large concavity near the front of the fringed margin of the 
fore mngs is so deep as to form more than half a circle, while in others it is much less con- 
.spicuous. The specimen represented in the annexed Plate is a medium one. The under side 
(No. C) presents (as in the closely allied genus Vanessa) an extraordinary contrast to the upper. 
It is beautifully marked and variegated with tlifterent shades of gray, olive, and black ; ex- 
liibiting near the centre a pecuhar white mark, as of a capital C traced with a delicate pencil in 
white paint, from which this pretty species takes its name. On the opposite wing this mark is 
necessarily curved in the opposite direction, which causes it to resemble the figure of a comma, 
from which the popular name the Comma Butterfly, or the White Comma, has arisen. 

The Caterpillar (No. 7) presents one rather remarkable peculiarity, wliicli distinguishes it 
from the Caterpillars of all the British species of Vanessa. This peculiai-ity consists in the colour- 
ing of the liack, which is of a bright orange colour on the five segments next the head, and 
white on all the rest. The spines which issue from every segment except the one next the head, 
are of the same character as those of the larvoe of V. lo, V. wiic(r. The head, wliicli is raised 
at the sides into two remarkable tubercles, is bristly, as are the spines. This pretty Caterpillar, 
which is not gregarious, feeds on various trees and herbaceous plants, among which the Currant 
appears to be preferred : but it is found on Elm, Honeysuckle, and "Willow, and also on the 
Hop, the Nettle, &c. 

The Chrysalis (No. 8) varies in colour from flesh-colour to brown, and it is ornamented 
when first formed by gold spots, like those of the Vanesscc, which disappear as the skin becomes 
dry. Tills insect, accordmg to Harris, remains in the Chrysalis state about fourteen days, and 
he states also that there are two broods each season, the latter brood being of a paler colour 
than the earlier one, a pieculiarity which accords with my own observations on the late broods 
of V. polyMoros. This insect hybernates like V. wrtlcce, specimens being seen occasionally on 
the very first fine days of early spring. Formerly it was said to be taken in all parts of Eng- 
land, and north of the Tweed, as far as FLfeshire ; but according to the latest entomological 
records, it is no longer found either near London, or in Scotland. 

^fk% >f^ %„, ^ 


No. 1.— The Dark areen FritiUaiy Butterfly {Argijn- 
nis Jgfaia). 

No. 2.— The Dark Green Fritillary Butterfly (tlio 

No. 3.— The Dark Green Fritillary Butterfly (show- 
ing the under side). 

No. 4. — The Caterpillar of the Dark Green Fritillary 

No. 5. — The Chrysalis of the Dark Green Fritillary 


Aegyknis Aglaia (the Dark Greeu Fritillary) receives its poi^ular name from the rich 
green tones which vary the colouring of the hmd vnngs, on the under side. In this green tinting 
of the under surface of the hind wings it resembles Argyimis Papliia (the Silver-washed Fritil- 
lary), but the silvery markings are of a very difiercnt character. Instead of Iseing washy streaks 
they form distinct and .sharply defined patches, sjTnmetrically disposed between the veins or 
nervures. These silvery markings, as they are generally described, have, in fact, more of the 
pearl-like than a metallic gloss, and might be very closely imitated in a drawing by the substance 
prepared from the scales of a peculiar fish, which is used in the manufacture of imitative pearl 
beads. The red-brown of the upper surface of the wings is much brighter in the males than the 
females, as in the last described genus. The males have also the veins at the back of the fore 
wings thickened as in A. Paphia, but much more slightly ; and the under sm-face of the hind 
wings also exhibits a feature not found in the female insect ; tliis consists of a row of eye-Uke 
spots between the two outer rows of pearly patches. The representation, No. 3, showing the 
under side, was dra'mi from a male specimen, as wiU be observed by the presence of the series 
of sjjots alluded to. 

The female, .showing the upper surface of the -svings, is represented at No. 2, in which the 
cooler tone of the colouring is very conspicuous. 

The Caterpillar (No. 4) appears at the end of May and June, and is generally found feeding 
on the Dog Violet {Viola canina). 

The perfect insect quits the Chrysalis in July and August. It is common every^vliere, 
especially on heaths and in woods. Among places cited for its recent capture in great abund- 
ance, Leicester and Brighton are especially recorded. 

There are several very distinct varieties of this handsome insect ; in the one foimerly 
kno-\vn as Artjijnnh CarloUa, some of the black markings on the upper surface of the wings are 
joined so as to produce a much more strongly marked ajjpearance, and several of the pearly .spots 
beneath are connected in a similar manner. Varieties of tliis description have occurred, in which 
the joining of the dark markings of the upper surface is so general that the wings present the 
appearance of being almost entirely of a deep brown colour, though in the hhider pair the marks 
are generally much more separate and distinct. This variety has occurred near Ipswich and 
Binningham. A very pale buff variety is also occasionally found, which generally has the spots 


and other markings of a somewliat darker tone of the same colour. Tliis is a very elegant 
variety, and much sought by collectors. It is extremely rare. 

In the pearl-marked species of the Fritillary Butterflies, the collector should always display 
some of his specimens \vith the under side uppermost, as being, in fact, more beautiful than the 
upper surface. If space, and the land of cabinet permitted, it would be as well also to place at 
least one specimen sitting at rest, with the wings raised, in order to show one of the most usual 
natural positions of the insect. A careful drawing of the Caterpillar and Chrysalis might also 
accompany the specimens of the perfect insect, wliich would lend additional interest and com- 
pleteness to the collection. 



No. 1. — Tlie High-brown Pi-itillavy Butterfly {Argyn- 
7iis Adippc). 

No. 2.— The High-brown Fritillarj Butterfly (show- 
ing the under side). 

No. 3. — Tlie Caterpillar of the High-brown Fritillary 

No. 4. — The Queen of Spain Fritillary Butterfly 
{Argynnis Lathonia). 

No. 5.— The Queen of Spain Fritillary Butterfly 
(showing the under side). 

No. 6. — The Caterpillar of the Queen of Spain 
Fritillary Butterfly. 

No. V. — The Chrysalis of the Queen of Spain Fritil- 
lary Butterfly. 

Argy NNIS Adippe (the High-brown Fritillary) strongly resembles, at the first glance, the 
last described species, A. Aghia, but a closer examination enables the observer to detect the 
more angular character of the black markings. The colour also is different, being of a more 
orange tawny tone, which is the same in both sexes ; the female being, however, rather paler 
and larger in size, while the male is distinguished by tliickening of the three posterior veins of 
the front ■nings. On the under side (No. 2), it may be distinguished at once from Aglaia by 
the absence of the rich green from the hind wings, which are only varied with tones of buff 
and bromi, and nearly alike in both sexes. 

The Caterpillar (No. 3) is, when young, red underneath, but in its later stages assumes an 
olive green colour. It feeds on the Heartsease and Violet, on the foUage of wliich it should bo 
sought in May and early in June. 

The ChrysaHs is reddish brown with silver specks, and the perfect insect appears in June 
and July, in woods, and also on heaths. It is much less common than A. Aglaia, but has been 
taken recently in some abundance at Lyndhurst, at York, and in other northern districts, 
though it was formerly considered to be almost exclusively confined to the southern counties, 
where, in fact, it is still found more generally distrilnited than in the north. There are varieties, 
as in the preceding species, in which the black markings run into each other, gi\ing the ■wings 
a darker appearance. 

Argymiis Lathonia (the Queen of Spain Fritillary, No. 4) is by far the rarest of our krge 
British Fritillaries, and is in some respects the handsomest, though far inferior in size to the 
three species previously described. 

The males may be distmguished by the dilation of the posterior nervures of the front ynngs, ; 
in other respects the colouring and marldngs are aUke, or very nearly so, in both sexes. 

The under side (shown at No. 5) has the pearly patches more s5Tamctrically distributed 
than m any of the other species, and of a more brilliant character, both as to their gloss and 
theu' more metallic appearance. In some Continental specimens which I have seen, these mai'k- 
ings are enlarged so as to cover the whole of the surface of the liind \vings, which thus assume 
the aspect of a burnished plate of silver, marked at intervals with dark streaks formed by the 

The Caterpillar feeds on the Borage, and also on Heartsease and Violet. There are said to 
be two broods, one most probably appearing in April or early in May, the other in July. 


The Cluysalis is dark brown, ivith one large metallic mark of a silvery colour, and several 
smaller specks of the same tone. The perfect insect appears early La Jime and again in August, 
but is very rare in England, though so common on the Continent as to possess no value in the 
eyes of ordinary collectors. I recollect taking several specimens in a few mumtes while walking 
up one of the steep portions of the road over the Mount Cenis by the side of the Diligence. 
According to Mr. Staiuton, the places in England most recently cited as localities in which it 
has been captured, axe Exeter, Colchester, Shoreham, Harlston, Lavenham, Eastbourne, Dover, 
Bristol, and Peterborough. 

This beautiful insect should be sought ha May or the begmuing of June, and again in 
August. Its favourite haunts are at the borders of woods, on sunny banks, where if seen it may 
be easily captured, as it is so fond of basking m the sun when settled, that the collector may 
approach within a secure distance for the use of the net, without alarming it. Very few speci- 
mens of the Caterpillar have Ijeen taken in England, but perhaps they may ha sought for with 
success if the proper season and proper situations be selected. 

PI, IS, 


No. 1.— The Small Pearl-bordered Fritillai-y Butterfly 

(Argynnis Selene). 
No. 3.— The Under side of the Small Pearl-bordered 

Fritillary Butterfly. 
No. 3.— The Caterpillar of the Small Pearl-bonlcred 

Fritillary Butterfly. 
No. 4.— The Chrysalis of the Small Pearl-bordered 

Fritillary Butterfly. 

No. 5.— The Pearl-bordered Fritillary Butterfly 
{Argi/nnis Ettphrosyne). 

No. G. — The Under side of the Pearl-bordered 
Fritillary Butterfly. 

No. 7.— Tlie Caterpillar of the Pearl -bordered Fritil- 
lary Butterfly. 

The two S23ecies of Arcjynnis rei^resenteJ in this Plate form a, very distinct section in the 
genus, being both considerably smaller than any of the other species. They were formerly 
placed in the genus ileliicea, as according in size and general apijearance ^ritli the .species still 
retained in that genus ; but their metallic marldngs (entirely absent in the species still regarded 
as belonging to Melitcca) and other characteristic distinctions, have caused their being located in 
their present position. 

Argynnis Selene (the Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary, No. 1). This species is common, 
though rather local. It is said by some entomologists to be double-brooded, being occasionally 
captured both in May and July, wliile Mr. Newman states that it appears fifteen days later than 
A. Eiiphrosyne, and continues till the end of Jitly, after which it never re-appears. Mr. Dale 
however, describes it as double-brooded, and states that the two Ijroods differ, the second bein^- 
always slightly different in colour to the first. 

The hind wings are generally marked as sho^vn at No. 2, but varieties occur in which the 
under side of the front wings is entirely pale buff, mth the black marks very slight ;ind delicate 
and the hind wugs of a greenish tone, mth slender rays of the metallic character running 
down between the veins, beyond which are a few metallic spots. 

The Caterpillar (No. 3) shoidd be sought at the end of April or in May, when, in favouralile 
situations, it will be found feeding upon the Viola canina, the common Dog Violet. 

The perfect insect quits the Chrysalis (No. 4) at the end of May or early in June, but 
there may be, as stated, another and a later brood. It is most common in woods and thickets, 
especially in the South of England. It has been taken near Teignmouth in great numbers. It 
is also found in some of the more northern counties, and has been captured lately at Lyndhurst 
in some abundance. 

Several varieties are occasionally found, and the species described in English cabinets as 
Melitcea Dia, is probably one of the varieties of this pretty msect. Mr. Stephens has described 
a singular variety in which the ground colour of the upper surface of the wings is nearly white. 

Argynnis Euphrosyne (the Pearl-bordered Fritillary, No. 5) is generally larger than the 
last desciibed species, and of lighter colour. The distribution of the metallic markings on the 
under side of the hind wings (No. G) is also different, though of similar character, bein" 
generally less distinct. These markings of the under side vary, however, very considerably. 

The Caterpillar (No. 7) feeds on various kinds of Violet and Heartsease, and there are two 
broods in the season, the first being found in April and the second in July. 


The i^erfect insect of the first brood generally leaves the Chrysalis in May, and the second 
in August. It is a very common species, being found in all parts of the country, even far 
towards the North of Scotland. Eppiiig, Plymouth, Tenterden, and other places are mentioned 
as localities in which it has been recently taken in abundance. 

There are varieties in which the dark marks on the upper side of the wings are nearly 
united, giving the whole surface a rich deep mottled brown appearance. 

Considerable additional interest might be gained in forming a collection of the British 
Fritillaries, by the study, at the same time, of some of their foreign relatives, many of the 
exotic species being extremely lieautiful. The study of foreign genera, at the same time mth 
the British, also gives the student a better general idea of classification and clearer notions upon 
the scientific location of our native species ; the foreign kinds frecjuently forming links which 
exhibit, in an instructive manner, the methods upon which the classification of Lepidopterous 
insects has been pursued. 



No. 1.— The Glanville Fritillavy Buttci-fly {Melilaa 

No. 2. — The ITnclcr side of the Glauville Fritillury 

No. 3.— The Caterpillar of the Glanvillo Fritillary 

No. 4.— The Chrysalis of the GlauTille Fritillary 


No. 5.— Tlic Ileuth Fritillary Butterfly (Melitwa 

No. 6.— The ITuder side of the Heath Fritillary But- 

No. 7.— The CaterpiUar of the Heath Fritillary But- 

No. 8.— The Chi-ysalis of the Heath Fritillary But- 

The genus Melikca. Tko insect.s contaiuecl in this genus, according to the system I am 
following, were long since separated from tlie genus Arrjynnis by Continental entomologists, on 
account of the absence of the jjearly or silvery patches from the under surface of the -wings. 
It is but recently, however, that this arrangement has been followed in English collections, 
though such an arrangement, with other modifications in the classification of the Fritillaries, 
was suggested by Mr. Westwood in my former work, published in 1841. Of the three species 
now assigned to the genus, the following are the chief characteristics. Tlie antennre are of mo- 
derate length, and have the club of a rather elongated form. The palpi are rather long, point- 
ing upwards, and diverging at the points. The wings are tawny, with transverse black bands, 
and black streaks down the nervures. The continuous black bands may be cited as a cha- 
racter which distinguishes the species of small fritillaries still retained in the genus Melita'a 
from those transferred to Aryynnis : the last having the bands broken up into detached marks 
or rounded spots. The insects now assigned to the genus Mcllkea are distinguished moreover 
by the absence of the silvery marks as before stated, and by a greater degree of correspondence 
between the marldngs of the upper and nether surfaces. The front pair of legs are spurious, 
or unsuited to walking, in both sexes ; those of the female haNang, however, jointed tarsi, while 
those of the male are without joint in this portion, and much more covered with hair. The 
larvaj have fleshy tubercles, furnished mth spines. They feed on herbaceous plants, especially 
the common Plantain, or the Devil's-bit Scabious ; and are, it is said, always hatched in the 
autumn, li\'ing through the whiter in clusters, protected by a web, and attaining their full 
growth ui early spring. The Chrysahs is suspended by the tail. 

Melitcea Cinxia (the Glanville Fritillary, No. 1) is the rarest of the three species, 
and is extremely local. Where it does occur, however, it is generally found rather abundantly, 
especially m some locaUties in the Isle of Wight. The Eev. J. F. Dawson, in a communication 
to the " Zoologist," has given a veiy interesting account of the habits of this pretty insect as 
he has observed them at Sandown, where, as it ■(vould appear from his account, they only fre- 
quent wild portions of the cUifs, in which cultivation does not threaten their haunt.s with un- 
suitable innovations. The eggs are generally deposited on the leaves of the narrow-leaved 
Plantain in low and protected situations, where the young brood when hatched pass the winter 
beneath the protection of a family a^vning of silky webbing. In the sj)ring, when the growing 
caterpillars disperse, they invariably seek the higher ground, as more sunny and better suited 
to the development of the Clu-ysalis ; which is generally found suspended to the lower portions 


of stunted Plantains, or to the under side of an angular stone, where they are generally found 
in jsairs. Last season it is stated that but few appeared in that locahty, the writer informing us 
that they have insect foes which destroy many of the larvre ; and that even in the perfect state 
one of the hunting spiders, a large round-bodied species, preys upon this butterfly, lying in wait 
till the victim alights upon some low plant, and then darting upon it mth unerring aim. I be- 
lieve that human enemies, in the shape of indefatigable collectors, have also had a share in de- 
creasing the sujiply ; for since the study of Entomology has become a fashionable pursuit, pro- 
fessional collectors have sprung up, who drive a pleasant and profitable trade — hurrying off to 
any newly discovered locality favourable to some rare species, and not leaving the spot while a 
single specimen is to be secured. The i^erfect butterfly appears in ]May, in favourable seasons ; 
but in cold springs the Caterpillars are still feeding at that time, and it is not seen till the 
middle of June. It is found also at Sandrock, and near Eyde in the Isle of Wight, and at 
several places in Hampshire and Devonshire ; also at Dover and Birch-Wood in Kent, and at 
Leamington in Warwickshire ; and even as far north as Yorkshire, where it has been taken in 
more than one locality. 

McUtcm Athalia (the Heath Fritillary, No. 5). This insect is rare near London, but in 
other districts it is sometimes abundant ; anil always much more so than the preceding species. 
It may l.)e distinguished from M. Cinxia by the rather deeper ground colour of the upper surface 
of the wings, and by the broader but rather more irregular character of the transverse bands. 
On the under side (No. G) it diff'ers also Isy the much stronger colouring of the markings, by 
the narrower propoition of the exterior brown band of the hind wings, and l.iy the absence oi 
black and Ijrowai spots. The Caterpillar, (No. 7) feeds upon the Plantains, and also upon the 
common Heath, as represented in the plate. There are many interesting varieties of this insect, 
especially the very pretty one supposed to ha the M. Pi/ivitia of Hiibner. This variety has the 
upper surface of the front wings almost without markings, except a dark border, while the hind 
wings are entu'ely black, with a few tawny dots. On the under side, the light parts are nearly 
white, with bro-svn markings ; the lower half of both pairs of wings being also nearly black, 
with veins and a few marks of obscure tawny. The Papillo (csselata of Petiver, is also con- 
sidered to be a variety of this species. In this variety the upper surface of the wings is pale, 
and marked with extreme regularity ; the marks having a much more even and tesselated ap- 
pearance than in the typical species. The fore wings are more fulvous underneath, and the hind 
wings entirely straw colour, with black 'v-eins, having at the base tlu-ee large yellow spots bor- 
dered with black ; also a broad band of deeper straw colour, bordered wth black, running 
across the centre of both mugs, &c. This elegant variety appears to have been pretty constant 
in Petiver's time, and was found each season in some plenty, in Caen Wood, at Hampstead, 
whence it was formerly called the Hampstead Beauty. 

Several places in the metropolitan counties, and also in Devonshire and Bedfordshire, are 
mentioned as localities in which Melitcea Athalia has been recently taken, especially on heaths, 
and in open places in woods. It has also been taken at Tenterden in considerable numbers. 

PI 20^ 



No. 1.— The Greasy FritiUary Butterfly, {Meliftea 

No. 2.— Tlie Under side of the Greasy Fritillary 

No. 3.— The Caterpillar of llie Greasy Fritillary 

No. 4. — The Chrysalis of the Greasy Fritillaiy But. 


No. 5.— The Duke of Bm-gundy Fritillary Butterfly. 
No. 6. — The Under side of the Dulie of Burgundy 

Fritillary Butterfly. 
No. 7. — Tiie Caterpillar of the Dute of Biu'guudy 

Fritillaiy Butterfly. 
No. 8. — The Chrysalis of the Duke of Burgundy 

Fritillary Butterfly. 

Melit.ea Artemis (the Greasy Fritillary, No. 1) i.s perhaps the of the genus, 
but is nevertheless very local. It is a very distinct .species, two irregular bands of palish buff 
between the bands of black rendering it distinguishable at a glance from either CinxJa or AthuUa. 
The under side (Xo. 2) is very similar to that of Athalia, but may be at once recognised by the 
paler character of all the markings, and the presence of a regular series of black spots circled 
.with buff (m the broad band near the edge of the hind wings), which are absent in Athalia. 

The Caterpillar (No. 3) feeds on the Devil's-bit Scabious, and on both the Plantains. Ac- 
cording to the graphic account of our good old English Aurelian, Moses Harris, the Caterpillar 
when full grown, draws together two or more blades of grass, fastening them at the top mth a 
web, and suspending itself in the centre beneath ; but as I have never seen the Caterpillar or 
Chrysalis when suspended in this manner, I have merely represented it as attached Ijy the tail 
in the usual way. 

The Chrysalis (No. 4) is of a pale flesh-colour, prettily ornamented with dark and regularly 
disposed spots. The Caterpillars, like those of M. Ctnxia, are hatched in the autumn, and pass 
the winter in a similar manner. They become full gro"wn in April, and the perfect butterfly 
appears in the following May or June. It is generally found in marshy places and has hence 
been termed by some entomologists the Marsh Fritillary. Specimens of M. Artemis vary con- 
siderably in the intensity of their markings, some of the varieties having been mistaken for 
M. Cinxla. Near Brighton, and also near Bristol, this species has l^een recently taken in great 
abundance ; and Carlisle, Charnwood Forest, and Weston-super-Mare are also cited by Mr. 
Stainton as localities in which it is often captured, as well as York, Winchester, and Worcester. 
Mcliicm Diet, a closely allied species, was formerly found in our English catalogues as a 'native 
species, on the strength of specimens taken at Sutton Park, near Bmningham, and at Alderly in 
Chesliire, but it is now omitted. It is the Argijnnis Dia of Hiibner and Ochsenheimer. 

The third family of Butterflies is that termed the Erydnidce, represented in British Collec- 
tions by a solitary European species, Ncmcohius Lucina. In this family the males have only four 
perfect feet, like those of the Argijnnidi, but the females have all six feet perfect. The Cater- 
pillars are onisciform, like those of the Lyccenida;, to wliich family, therefore, this genus, in its 
present position, forms an appropriate link. 

The genus Nemeohius has the antenna3 slender and the clulj short ; the wings are tawny ; 
the fore wings with the costa and liind margins straight, and the apex hardly rounded. The 


male, as above stated, having only four legs fitted for walking, and tlie female six. The Cater- 
pillar is onisciform, or woodlouse-shaped. The Chrysalis is attached l)y the tail, and also se- 
cured by a loop round the middle. 

NcmcoUus Liicina (the Duke of Burgundy Fritillary, No. 5) is the Ilamearis Lucina of 
Hiibner, but Mr. Stephens's name JSfcmeoUus will be preferred, in consequence of the new and 
more appropriate location of the insect in its present position by that accomplished entomolo- 
gist. ]\Ir. Curtis has cpioted the following interesting description of the transformation of this 
j>retty little Butterfly from the elaborate and accurate work of Hiibner : — " The eggs are found 
solitary, or in pairs, on the under surface of the leaves of Primula rcris, and clutlor at the be- 
ginning of summer ; they are almost globular, smooth, shining, and pale yello;\'ish green. The 
Caterpillar feeds on these plants ; its head is roundish, heart-shaped, smooth, shining, and bright 
ferruginous, black only on the mouth and about the eyes : its body is almost oval, but long, de- 
pressed, and set with rows of l)ristly warts ; the other parts are set with feathery hairs ; on the 
back, at least from the fourth joint to the tail, there is a black dot on each joint, and on the 
sides similar but less distinct spots, the colour is pale olive orange ; its feet are rusty brown ; 
the spiraculiB black ; the claws and belly whitish. It moves very slowly, rolls itself up when 
disturbed, and remains in that state a long time. Soon after the middle of summer it becomes 
a pupa, not only fastening its body by the apex, but also by spinning a cord across its middle ; 
in this state it remains until the end of the following spring." Hiibner, who reared it from the 
egg, says also that the Caterpillar throws oflF five skins before it becomes a pupa, and its ap- 
pearance, at different ages, varies considerably. The larva from which he made his dra'^nng, 
and from which my representation (iSTo. 5) is taken, he found on a Pr'nnula in his own garden. 
This pretty insect is not uncommon in the south of England, but more rare in the north. At 
Halton in Bucldnghamshire it has recently appeared in great numbers ; and Brighton, Oxford, 
Plymouth, Winchester, and Dursley in Gloucestershire are cited as localities in which it is not 
unfrecpient ; while even at York and Lyndhurst, in the north, persevering collectors have suc- 
ceeded in taking it in some plenty. 

PL. 21. 

' v., 1/ 


No. 1.— The Brown Hair-sfi-eak Butterfly {Tkecla 

No. 2. — The Female of tho Brown Hair-streak But- 

No. 3. — The Under side of the Brown Hau'-streak 

No. 4. — The Caterpillar of the Brown Hair-streak 

No. 5. — The Clirysalis of the Brown Hair-streak 

No. 6.— The Dark Haii'-streak Butterfly {ThecJa 

No. 7.— The Female of the Dark Hau'-strcak But- 

No. 8. — The Ifpder side of the Dark Hair-streak 

No. 9. — The Caterpillar of tlio Dark Hair-stroak 

No. 10.— The Clu'ysaUs of the Dark Hair-streak 

No. 11.— The Black Hair-streak Butterfly [Thecla W. 


No. 12.— Tlie Female of the Black Hair-streak But- 

No. 13.— The ruder side of tho Black Halr-stroak 

No. 11.— The Caterpillar of the Black Hair-streak 

No. 15.— The Chrysalis of the Black Hau.--streak 

The fourth family of the Ehopalocera, or Diurnal Lepidoptera, is that of the Lycanidce, 
containing three genera and twenty-one species, being above a fourth of the total number of 
British Butterflies. In this family the perfect insects of both sexes have six perfect legs fitted 
for walking. The larvte are short and onisciform. The Chrysalis is fastened by the tail, and 
also secured by a thread round the middle. The insects are generally much smaller than in the 
preceding famihes. 

The genus Thccla. The insects comprised in this genus present very marked characteristics, 
and group very homogeneously together. The hind ■\vings have nearly always a narrow tail. 
The upper surface of the wings is generally of deep brown, with or without a patch or patches 
of orange ; the under side is often opaque gray, varied with delicate light streaks, from which 
they are called the hair-streaks, or with orange borders dotted ■with black. The CaterpiQars 
and Chrysahdes of all the species accord with the characters assigned to the famUy. 

Thccla Betidce (the Bro-\Fn Hair-Streak, Nos. 1 to 5) is the largest of the genus. The male 
(No. 1) is smaller than the female, and the unifonn deep brown of the upper surfice of the 
wmgs is only varied by a somewhat paler mark adjoining the short transverse lalack line in the 
centre of the anterior wings ; while the female (No. 2), which is much larger, is distinguished 
by a broad orange patch in the same position as the smaU pale mark in the male. The imder- 
.side (No. 3) is the same in both sexes. The Caterpillar (No. 4) feeds upon the fohage of the 
Birch and Blackthorn, &c., towards the end of June and beginning of July ; the j)eifect insect 
appearing in August. It frequents hedgerows, particularly in the southern counties. It is 
however a local, though far from a rare species. It has been recently taken at Blaudford, 
Epping, Brighton, Lyndhurst, Peterborough, Teignmouth, Worcester, and other places. 

Thccla Pruni (the Dark Hau'-Streak, Nos. 6 to 10) is smaller than the preceding, and the 
male is distinguished by an orange border on the huid wings. The female (No. 1) has an 
additional orange band near the edge of the front wings. The under side (No. 7) has the 
orange border with dots, above alluded to, and a narrow band or rather stkeak. of white. The 


Caterpillar (No. 9) feeds on the foliage of the Plum in May, and the perfect insect appears m 
July. The Chrysalis (No. 10) is marked with two patches of white, as shown in the illustration. 
This is, comparatively speaking, a new British species, not having been noticed, and Thccla 
IF. album, having been described as T. Prttni, before Mr. F. Stephens detected the error in 1827 ; 
previous to that time it had evidently been confused with the other species, from which however 
it is very distinct. At Monk's Wood, and at Overton AYood, Herts, it is sometimes taken in 
abundance, but in other localities it is extremely rare. 

Thccla TV. album (the Black Haii'-Streak, sometimes called the W. Hair-Streak, Nos. 11 to 
14). This pretty species has the upper surface of the wings eutu'ely of a deep full lirown, \vith 
the exception of a small pale sjjeck in the front wings of the male. On the underside (No. 13) 
the white streak forms a strong zigzag towards the posterior angle of the hind wings, from 
which the specific name is derived. The Caterpillar (No. 14) feeds on the Elm and Blackthorn 
towards the end of May or beginning of June, and the perfect insect appears in July. This 
insect, as above remarked, was confused with T. Pruni previous to the remarks of Mr. Stephens 
on this genus ; Villars and other entomologists having described the two species as identical. 
Previous to its discovery liy Mr. Stephens in great abundance, at Ripley, in 1826, where he 
captured two hundred specimens without mo\-ing from the spot where he first noticed them, 
the insect was considered rare. Its appearance there in such vast numbers in that season is one 
of the curious entomological facts not easily accounted for, and like the swarm of J'ancssa Antiopa 
at Camberwell, and the occasional swarms of Ficris Lnissiccc, it still -puzzles our entomologists. 
It has been recently taken at Brighton, Epping, Peterborough, York, and other places, but 


No. 1.— The Purple Hair-streak Butterfly {Thecla 
QuercHs) . 

No. 2.— The Female of the Purple Hau--3treak But- 

No. 3.— The XJuder side of the Purple Hau--streak 

No. 4. — The Caterpillar of the Purple Hair-Btreak 

No. 5. — The Chrysalis of the Purple Haii'-streak But- 

No. 6.— Tlio Greeu Hair-streak Butterfly {Thecla 

No. 7.— The Female of the Green Hair-streak But- 

No. 8. — The Uuder side of the Green Hair-streak 

No. P.— The Caterpillar of the Green Hair-streak 

No. 10.— The Chrysalis of the Green Hair-streak 

Thecla Quercus (the Purple Hair-streak). Tliis species is by far the handsomest of the 
British Thechis. It is also a very iiiteresting species, as exhibiting most strildngly a peculiarity 
that distinguishes this genus. This peculiarity consists in the characteristic markings of the 
females, which, contrary to those of most other genera, are more conspicuous and brighter than 
those of the male. In Thecla Bdidce (Plate xxi.), ^\•c have seen that the female is distinguished 
by a fine patch of orange on the anterior mngs, which is not found on those of the male. In 
Thecla Pruni the female has a border of orange on the fore wings, while those of the male are 
entirely bro-\vn. In the species now under description, the markings of the female are stiU more 
conspicuously different from those of the male — and of much greater comparative brightness, as 
they consist of large patches of the brightest metallic azure, while the wvaga, of the males are 
of unvarying dusky purple, verging towards brown. The bright metallic blue resembles that 
which forms the ground colour of the mngs of the male " Purple Emperor ;" the female of which 
species has the ground colour of the ^vings of dusky bro^ai — being, in fact, much less brilliant 
in its colouring than the male ; and this and other similar instances led our English entomolo- 
gists to conclude that the most dusky toned of the sexes in Thecla Quercfts was necessarily the 
female. This supposition has been now satisfactorily disproved, as the individuals with the 
mngs brightly blotched mth azure have been observed in the act of depositing then- eggs. There 
are also distinctions in the form of the anterior feet of the two sexes, analogous to those of some 
preceding families, wliich also serve to prove that the largest and most brightly coloured indi- 
viduals in tills genus are invariably the females. The character of the feet in the genus Thecla 
was first noticed by Dr. Hor.sfield, in his description of some of the magnificent Theclas of the 
island of Java. The male is represented at No. 1, the female at No. 2, and the under side at 
No. 3. The Caterpillar (No. 4) feeds upon the foliage of the Oak in May and June, and some- 
times Inirrows in the ground at the time of its change to the Chrysalis state, though it is most 
frequently found attached to a branch or the under side of a leaf, by a silken web. R(5aumur 
gives a most interesting and a detailed account of the manner in which the Caterpillars of this 
genus attach the wel) round the body, wliich secures them dvu'ing the Chrysahs state. The per- 
fect insect appears in July. 

It is pretty generally dispersed, and plentiful in the Southern counties, and is also found in 


several localities in the North ; but is very rare in Scotland. It has been recently taken in 
great abundance at Brighton, Epping, Exeter, Tenterden, and other places. 

Thccia Fiuhi (the Green Hair-streak). Thi.s is the least Thcda-like of any of the British 
species, being nearly mthout the elongation of a portion of the hind wings, which is one of the 
cliief characteristics of the genus. In other respects, however, especially in the Caterpillar and 
Chrysalis stages, it closely resembles its congeners. It is one of the earliest species, being often 
found in May. The male, the female, and a specunen showing the under side of the wings, are 
figured at Nos. 6, 7, and 8. 

The Caterpillar (No. 9) feeds on the common Bramble, and also on Papilionaceous, or Pea- 
flowered, plants. It may he found in May and June, and again ui August. The autumnal 
brood remains in the Chrysalis state during the winter, Butterflies appearing in the following 
May. The perfect insects resulting from the spring brood of Caterpillars, appear about the 
beginning of August. 

It is very generally distributed, and rather common — being found in some abundance in 
most of the English counties, and in the south of Scotland, but rarely further North. 

Mr. Stephens describes a variety in which the white dots on the under side are much more 
conspicuous ; and also one in which the anterior wings of the female have a pale whitish spot 
near the centre of the anterior wings. It has been recently taken at Teigmuouth in great 

The other species — T/iccIa Spin! and Thccia Ilicis — were formerly considered British liy some 
collectors, but they are both omitted in recent catalogues. 


^m^ . 

-s;^ ~*^^__ 



No. 1. — The Copper Butterfly [CJirysophaims Phlieas). 
No. 2. — The Copper Butterfly, showinp; the Under 

No. 3.— The Caterpillar of the Copper Butterfly. 
No. 4. — The Chrysalis of the Copper Butterdy. 
No. 5. — The Dark Under-winged Copper Butterfly 

(Chrymphanus Hippothoe). 
No. 6. — The Female of the Dark Under-winged Copper 

No. 7. — The Dark Under-winged Copper Butterfly, 

showhig the Under side. 

Ko. 8. — The Purple-edged Copper Butterfly {Chry- 
sophamis Chryseis). 

No. 9. — The Female of the Purple-edged Copper 

No. 10. — The Purple-edged Copper Butterfly, show- 
ing tlie Under side. 

No. 11. — The Caterpillar of the Scarce Copper But- 
terfly. (The Butterfly in Plate xxir.) 

No. 12. — The Chrysalis of the Scarce Copper Butter- 
fly. (The Butterfly in Plate xxiv.) 

The genus Chrysoplianus, which follows Thcda in the beautiful family of Lycccnidw, is so 
distinct from its predecessor iu many respects, that it would seem almost to mark the commence- 
ment of a new family. The Thcdas, so peculiar in regard to the superior brightness of the 
colouring of the females, and also in the tail-like appendage to the hind wings which is always 
present in good tyi^ical species, which seem to distinguish them as a separate family, miglit be 
denominated the Thcdida ; while the genus Clirysophanufi, along with Polijommafus, might be 
formed into a separate family by Swainson's title of the PolijommatidiB, as both genera exhibit 
the numerous eye-like ringed sjiots on the under surface of the ■n'iiigs, to which the descriptive 
generic name Pohjommatus is apphed. It is true that Swainson's Polijommatlda; included the 
Thedas, which might however be separated, reserving the family title only for the two genera to 
which its meaning applies. This, however, is a mere suggestion to the collector to incite liim to 
consider any system of classification with regard to its merits, and not receive it without exami- 
nation ; for I am bound m this volume to the system now adopted ia the British Museum, as 
announced in my introduction. The chief character of the genus Chrysoplianus may be described as 
follows : First, the rich gold-like colouring of the wings of the males, which has given rise to the 
name Cliryscrplmnus, compounded of two Greek words, x»uffJ; (gold), and ipa.hoi (to appear). The 
metalHc golden hue is, however, of a deep red tone, wliich has suggested to our native collectors 
the popular name of " Coppers." Secondly, the slight pointing of the hind wings, which in the 
first species, Phlccas, extends into a short tail, wliich makes that species fonti a convenient grad- 
ation from the genus Theda to the present genus. Tliirdly, the wings of the males are the most 
brilliantly coloured, those of the females being of more dusky tone, and always varied by black 
spots which {vfith. the exception of the very distinct species C. PMceas) never occur in those of 
the males. Fourthly, the Caterpillars, though more or less onisciform, are longer and not so 
much flattened as in the genera Theda and Polyommatus. There are several other minor ana- 
tomical characters connected -vvith the knobs of the antennte, the form of the palpi, and the veiumg 
of the wmgs, the detailed description of wliich would be out of place in a strictly popular work. 
Chrysophaims Phlmas (the Copper, No. 1). This pretty species is common in all parts of 
the country. There is no difference in the markings of the two sexes in this species, though 
they are so distmct in the others of the genus ; the hind wmgs have also short tails resembling 
those of the Thedas, as stated above. 


The Caterpillar (No. 3) is greeu, with a red striijo ou each side. It feeds upon the common 
Sorrel, Pmiiux acetosa ; and there are most prol^ably several broods, as the perfect insect appears 
in April, June, and August. 

The Chrysalis (No. 4) is found attached to the stem of the Sorrel. This pretty Butterfly 
is common every^vhere, especially on heaths and commons ; where, being a pugnacious insect, it 
is oliserved giving battle to intruders upon its domain, often engaging in combat with some of 
the largest of the Butterfly trilje. There are several strildng varieties of tliis pretty species. 
The one in which the copper border of the hind wmgs is wanting, is perhaps the commonest. 
In another variety, the copper colour on both the surfaces of the wings is replaced by milky 
white, leaving the dark spots. Another has the deep copper colour reduced to a pale orange, 
and the black spots and black portions of the hind -wings are white. These varieties are more 
or less rare, and, as I am informed by Mr. Bond (whoso well known collection of British Lepidap- 
tera is one of the finest iu the country), such varieties are in most instances confined to par- 
ticular districts, in each of which not more than one of the varieties is found. 

ChrijsojjJumus Eippolhm (the Dark Under-winged Copper, Nos. 5 to 7). This species is 
omitted in many Catalogues of native Lepidopkra, the ground for supposing it a Biitisli insect 
being considered doubtful. " The best-kno^vn ' British ' specimen," writes Mr. Westwood, 
" was obtained from an old collection made in Kent, wliich was laiown among collectors as 
the ' Kentish Caliiuet.' " Some have supposed the species identical vnXh. C. dispar ; but a com- 
parison vnth the figures wiU sufficiently prove their distinctness. The true Hippothoe of the 
Continent is mvariably much smaller than our C. disjxtr, and is of lighter colour in the centre of 
the mngs, shading to deep purplish on the edges ; while in C. dispar (iu the males) the intensity 
of colour is the same all over the upper surface of both pair of ^^'ings. 

C'/(r?/s'Oj)/((r«?/s r/iri/«7'6- (the Purple-edged Copper, Nos. 8 to 10). This species has also be- 
come of extreme rarity, though formerly taken near Ejiping, from whence Dr. Leach is said by 
Mr. Stej)hens to have received fresh specimens during several successive seasons. It was also 
taken at Ashdown Forest, Sussex. On the Continent both this and the last species are plentiful, 
in marshy j^laces in some districts, where they appear towards the close of summer. 

, 1 


Ifo. 1. — Tlie Scarce Copper Butterfly {Chrysophanus 

Ko. 2. — The Feinale of the Scarce Copper Butterfly. 
No. 3. — The Scarce Copper Butterfly, allowing the 

Under side. 
No. 4. — The Large Copper Butterfly [Chrysophanus 

dispar) . 

(The Caterpillar and Chrysalis of the Scarce Copper Butterfly are represented in Plate sxiii. at Nos. 11 and 12.) 

No. 5. — The Female of the Large Copper Butterfly. 
No. 6. — The Large Copper Butterfly, showing the 

Lender side. 
No. 7.— The Caterpillar of the Large Copper Butter- 


No. 8. —The Chrysalis of the Large Copper Butterfly. 

ChrysopI'UNTJS VIRGAURE.E (the Scarce Copper, Nos. 1 to 3). This species is the first 
of the true Chrysophani. The rich copper-coloured wings of the male (No. 1), are free from 
black spots, except close to the border of the hind wings ; those of the female (No. 2), bavin"- 
numerous large black spots. The Caterpillar (No. 11, Plate xxiii.) is oniscifcjrm, but not 
flattened ; and the Chrysalis (No. 12, Plate xxiii.) is secured to a leaf or stem Ijy a knob of web 
at the tail, and a girth at the middle. The under side (No. 3), is less distinctly marked than 
any of the old species by the ocellated spots which distinguish the genus. 

The Caterpillar feeds on the CToldeu-rod (Sulidugo Jlrgaumc). This species has not been 
recently taken, and is considered by some to be doubtfid as British, notmthstanding the 
existence of several .specimens iu old cabiuets. It is possible that it may have become extinct 
as we have seen C. cUsixir entirely disappear within the last few years. 

Chrysophanus dispar (the Large Copper, Nos. 4 to 8). This beautiful and conspicuous 
insect is, as far as we know at present, peculiar to England, no specimen having ever been as 
yet taken on the continent of Europe, or iu any other quarter of the world. M. Boisduval, 
however, thinks it a large local variety of the Continental C. Hippotlio'e. However thi.s-may be 
there has been so great a demand for this beautiful insect since the appearance of the figure of it 
in Donovan's work, that the species is supposed to be extirpated — recently captured specunens 
having been sold as high as £1 the pair. The male (No. 4) is rather smaller than the female 
but of much more brilliant colour. The female (No. 5) is marked -with large black spots, and 
the hind -^vings are nearly black, with a copper-coloured border. There is a female variety in 
wliich the border of black on the front wings is much narrower than in the specimen fio-ured 
and in which the copper-coloured border of the liind wings is much more dusky. The under 
side (No. G) has the ocellated spots much more strongly and clearly marked than any other 
species of the genus, and is the same in both sexes. 

The Caterpillar (No. 7), which feeds on the Great Water Dock (Btmex aqiiaticus), is pale 
green, thickly powdered with white specks, and appears in June. 

The Chrysahs (No. 8) is at first green, then pale ash coloured, and eventually (in some 
specimens) deep brown. 

The perfect insect appears in Jidy and August, and was formerly abundant in the Fenny 
districts of Huntmgdon and Cambridge shires ; and it has been taken at Benacre iu Suffolk, and 


Bardolpli Fen in Norfolk. So active has been the pursuit of this beautiful insect during the 
last twenty years, that, as above stated, it is now sought for in vain in the haunts but recently 
so brilhaut with its metallic hues towards the close of each summer. It is thought, however, 
by some entomologists that it may reappear in some favourable season, as insects occasionally 
do, in a manner which has not been satisfactorily accounted for. It is possible, by a provision 
of nature, that a certain reserve of eggs remains unhatched for long epochs, to guard against the 
extinction of species by unfavourable seasons ; but whether from this or other causes, it is 
certain that species do occasionally disappear for a time, to be found again at some subsecjueut 
period. It has been noticed by Lacordaire that in common species of Lepkhptcra, a certain 
portion of the eggs frecjuently remains unhatched the first season, which, so far from bemg 
barren, as generally supposed, produced Caterpillars in the following year — and therefore it is 
possible that in some cases the ^dtal principle may remain dormant for longer periods. 

Mr. Bond, who has frequently chased the 0. dispar on the wing in the Fens of Cambridge 
and Huntingdon, says, " It is cUfficult to capture, seldom aft'ording an opportunity for a second 
stroke of the net if the first have been unsuccessfid." This, however, is of httle consequence to 
young collectors, as matters stand ; for it seems they are not hkely again to have an opportunity 
of exerting their skill in the capture of this coveted prize of the British Lepidopterist. 

PI 35^ 


No. 1. — Tho Azure Blue Butterfly {Pohjommafus 

No. 2.— The Female of the Azure Blue Butterfly. 
No. 3. — The Azure Blue Butterfly, showing tho 

Under siJe. 
No. 4. — The Small Blue Butterfly {Poli/omma/us 

No. 5.— The Female of the Small Blue Butterfly. 

No. 6.— The Small Blue Butterfly, sho-n-ing the 

Under side. 
No. 7.— The Caterpillar of tho SnMiU Blue Butterfly. 
No. 8.— Tlie Chrysalis of the Small Blue Butterfly. 
No. 0. — The Mazarine Blue Butterfly [Poli/ommatus 

So. 10.— Tlie Female of the Mazarine Blue Butterfly. 
No. 11. — The Mazarine Blue Butterfly, showing the 

Under 8ide. 

The genus Pohpmmatus. This genus is principally distinguished from Chrijaophanus by the 
bright blue colour of the upper surface of the brings of the males. The females are generally 
bro-(«i, or at all events of a duller colour than the males, and in a few species both sexes have 
the upper surface of the wings bro'Nvn. The under sides of the -ndngs closely resemble those of 
the insects assigned to the genus C'hrijsq)hanus, presenting, however, certam diflerences to be 
described in speaking of the respective species. 

The Caterpillars are ouisciform, the head and feet very small, and scarcely observable with- 
out minute examination ; they are generally yellowish-green, variegated by markings of red, 
brown, or yellow. They feed generally on the foliage of Papilionaceous, and other low groA^dng 
plants ; that of P. Argiolus, however, feeds upon the Holly, preferring the flowers. The 
Chrysalis is generally naked and attached to a branch of the plant on wliich the Caterpillar has 
fed ; but in some cases the Caterpillars burrow in the earth to undergo their transformation. 
This genus has representatives not only in all parts of Europe, but in North and South Africa, 
the East Indies, and North America, while but very few of the species are laiown in South 

Pohjommatus Argiolus (the Azure Blue, No. 1). This is a very delicate and beautiful little 
Butterfly. The azure of the upper surface is of a soft and pleasmg tone of light \Aixo, and the 
under side a most delicate pale pearly gray, mtli the usual ocelli more shghtly, but yet distinctly 
marked. The female diff'ers in size, not as in the genus Clirijsopliamis from being larger than 
the male, but on the contrary smaller. In addition to the smaller size, the female may be at 
once distinguished by the more dusky colour, and liy the deep Ijlack border of the anterior 
wings, and the dotted border of the hinder pair. 

The Caterpillar is described by Ochsenheimer as being of yellowish-green, with a double 
line along the back. It feeds on the flowers of Holly, and also it is said on those of the Ivy. 
The later brood probably do, as the Holly is out of bloom when they appear ; some entomolo- 
gists, however, assert that there is only one In-ood of this pretty species, though specunens of 
the perfect insect are taken as early as April, and as late as August. 

The Chrysahs is bro'^vn, with a deep dorsal line. 

The Butterfly is very distinct in its habits, most of its congeners being generally found in 
gardens and plantations where Holly abounds. It is rather local ; but very -widely dispersed, and 
in some places plentiful, being found quite in tho North of England, but not in Scotland. 


Pohjommatus Ahus (the Small Blue, No. 4). This is the smallest of our native Butterflies. 
Though termed by collectors one of the " Blues," the upper surfaces of the wings of both 
sexes are brown ; those of the male, however, having a flush of blue near the base. The under 
side resembles that of the other Pulijommati. The Caterpillar of this species (No. 7) feeds upon 
the Alpine Milk Vetch {Astragalus Ckcr), the Chrysalis being attached to a stem of the same 
plant. The Butterfly appears in May, and again in July and August. It is most plentiful in 
chalk ami limestone districts, but is often found in some abundance in other locahties. 

Pohjomrnntus Acls (the MazarLue-Blue, No. 9). This handsome insect is conspicuously dif- 
ferent from the other species in its deej) full blue, which has a satin-Uke gloss that gives it great 
brilliancy. The upper surface of the wings of the female are dark brown, with only a light 
purple flush towards the base. 

The C'aterjjillar is unkno^vn. 

This is a rare species ; but it is in some seasons taken in some plenty in chalky districts. 
It appears in May and June, and again in August, being double brooded. Mr. Newman states 
that it was formerly plentiful in Herefordshire, and supposes it to be still plentiful there ; but 
Mr. Allis writes to Mr. Staintou that he knows of no capture witliin the last seven years. 




No. 1. — The large Blue Butterfly {Polyommal us 

Arion) . 
No. 2. — The Female of the Large Blue Butterflj. 
No. 3. — The Large Blue Butterflj, showiug the Under 

No. 4.— The Chalk-hill Blue Butterfly. 
No. 5.— The Female of the Chalk-hill Blue Butterfly. 

No. 6.— The Chalk -hill Blue Butterfly, showing the 
L'nder side. 

No. 7.— The Caterpillar of the CImlk-hill BlueEutter- 

No. 8.— The Chrysalis of the Chalk-hill Blue Butter- 


PoLYOJiJiATU.s Arion (the Large Blue, No. 1). This is by far the largest and most splendid 
of the " Blues," as the blue section of the Lijccenidce are popularly termed by our collectors. It 
was at one time considered extremely rare, and by some scarcely believed to l)e a true British 
species. But several locaUties were subsequently discovered, in which it was found each season 
in some plenty, and the further discoveries of more recent lepidopterist.s have removed all 
doubts as to its being a native species. The spots on the mugs of the male differ very consider- 
ably both in size and intensity of colour ; the figure (No. 1 ) being taken from a sj^ecimen of 
medium strength in the marking. The Female (No. 2) is generally rather larger than the male, 
and has the spots and dark borders broader, but less strong m colour ; and the blue ground is 
of a duller tone. The under side (No. 3) has the ocellated spots larger, more regularly disposed, 
and more sharply defined than any other of the genus. 

The Caterpillai' is unkno-s\ai. 

The perfect insect appears in July, and the localities in which this entomological prize is 
said to have been taken are the following : the Mouse's Pasture, near Bedford ; Dover Cliffs ; 
Marlborough Dowms ; the hills near Bath ; Broomham Common, Bedfordshire ; near Winchester ; 
and in one or two localities in North Wales. But the most celebrated locality, and one in which 
it has been recently taken in some plenty, is Barncwell Wold, near Oundle, Northamptonshire, 
in which place the Eev. W. Bree states in a communication to the "Zoologist" for 18.52, that 
for several seasons previous to that year entomologists had visited the place, and captured many 
specimens, ^nthout seemmg to diminish the annual supply. Since 1852, however, the continued 
pursuit aj)pears to have grievously dimuiished the numbers of this beautiful insect in this 
locality ; and we may therefore look forward to its becoming extinct in Burnewell Wold, as C. 
disbar has done in its once favourite feus of Cambridge and Huntingdon. In the year above 
named, however, the Eev. F. 0. Morris informs us that on the 19th and 20th of July he took 
no less than eleven specimens. 

Polyommatus Coryclon (the Chalk-liiU Blue, No. 4). This species is the next in size to P. 
Arion, and if it were not so much more common, would be considered nearly as beautiful. The 
silvery-blue of the male (No. 4), just Hushed with a tint of straw-colour, produces a peculiarly 
delicate effect, which is heightened by the dark border, becoming nearly black at the base of 
the fringe. The wings of the female (No. 5) are of rich bro-\ra, with a sliai'p touch of white 
near the centre of each ; and an ochreous border with black dots, both border and dots being 
much more conspicuous in the anterior wings than in the hinder pixir. 


The imder side (No. G) is not so symmetrically decorated witli the usual ocelli as P. Arion, 
but it is, nevertheless, very distinctly and beautifully marked. 

The Caterpillar (No. 7) is said to feed on several species of Vetch, and also on the wild 
Thpue (Thymus SerjjijUum). 

The perfect Butterfly appears in July, and is tolerably plentiful in the localities ■which it 
favours, principally in chalky districts. Some of the localities in which it has Ijeen found most 
regularly and abundantly are the following : — Dover, and many other jjlaces along the southern 
coast ; Ne^^1^ort in the Isle of "Wight ; Darenth Wood, Kent ; several places in Suflblk, and 
Oxfordshire ; and abundantly near Nci^auarket, Cambridgeshire. It is also found in the Prest- 
bury Hills, near Cheltenham, and in some locaUties in the neighbourhood of Winchester and 
near Great Bed^^yn, Wiltshii-e. It must formerly have been much more abundant than now, 
as it often outnumbers many species in the Butterfly pictures, or rather stars, and other similar 
devices formed by the Spitalfields weavers in years gone by, with the specimens which they 
then captured for no other purpose. I purchased a small collection of Butterflies in a rough 
home-made cabinet a few years ago, in which one entire tray Avas filled with specimens of P. 
Conjdon, among which were many rather striking varieties, but all in a bad condition. The 
male is sometimes so strongly suffused with brown, that it closely resembles the female, for 
which it might easily be mistaken liy an inexperienced collector. 


No. 1. — The Clifden Blue Butterfly {Po/i/oimna/its 

No. 2.— The Female of the Clifden Blue Butterfly. 
No. 3.— The Clifden Blue Butterfly, showing the 

TJudcr side. 
No. 4. — The Common Blue Butterfly {Polyommatus 


No. 6. — The Common Blue Butterfly, showing the 

Under side. 
No. 7. — An Hermaphrodite variety of the Common 

Blue Butterfly. 
No. 8. — The Caterpillar of tlie Common Blue Butter- 

No. 9. — The Chrysalis of the Common Blue Butter- 

No. 5.— The Female of the Common Blue Butterfly. 1 fly. 

POLYOMJIATUS Adonis (tlie Clifden Blue Butterfly, No. 1). Tliis insect, in so far as the 
colour is concerned, is the most beautiful of the " Blues." The azure of the upper surface of 
both pah- of wings is of the most delicate silvery blue, the eftect of which is at the same time 
heightened and refined hy the suo\\'y wliiteuess of the fringe. 

The female (iSTo. 2) has the upper surface of the wing.s of rich deep broivn, but lia\ang to- 
wards the base a flush of rich ^dolet blue, which is much brighter and more distinct in some 
specimens than in others. The upper surface of the wings of the female is also distinguished by 
borders of a lighter colour, containing a row of black .spots ; the borders of the hind wings 
being of a dusky orange colour, while those of the anterior wings are merely of a pale brown. 
It is rather difficult to distinguish the female of this species from that of P. Cori/don, but P. 
Corydon has a black spot on the upper sui-ftice of the hind wings which is aljsent in Adonis. 
The female has also, occasionally, white specks in the centre of the fore wings. 

The under side (No. 3) is very dehcately enriched with the usual ocelli, and is distinguished 
from that of P. Corydon l.iy the small and more deHcate character of both ground coloiu' and 

The Caterpillar, according to Freyer, is of the usual onisciform character ; of dark green 
colour, -(vith two rows of short yellow streaks on the back, and a yellow longitudinal stripe at 
each end. Ochsenheimer describes it as feeding on several species of pea-flowered plants. 

The perfect insect appears iu May and June, and is cliiefly found in chalky districts. 
Dartford, in Kent, was formerly a favourite locality with London collectors for tliis beautiful 
insect. It has been recently taken at Brighton in great abundance. 

Polyommatus Alexis (the Common Blue Butterfly, No. 4). This, though one of the most 
abimdant of our native Butterflies, common in almost every district of the country, is a remark- 
ably pretty insect ; and though inferior to P. Adonis or P. Arion, has yet beauties of its own 
which seldom fail to attract even the uninitiated observer. The Ijlue of the upper surface of the 
wings has a soft and rich lilac tinge, wliich is very pleasing ; and the texture is of a silky cha- 
racter, which shows oS" the colour to the greatest advantage. The one represented at No. 4 is 
rather a dark specimen, the colour varying considerably in difterent individuals. The female 
(No. 5) has the upper surface of the wings brown, mth ochreous borders spotted mth black, and 
with a sHght flush of blue towards the base. The imder side represented at No. 6 is of the 
usual character, and like that of all the other species nearly aUke in Ijoth sexes. 


The Caterpillar (No. 8) feeds most commonly on Lucerne, in April, and again in September, 
there loeing two broods in the year. It also feeds on Clover and Bird's-foot Trefoil. 

The Chrysalis (No. 9) is attached by a girth round the middle to a stem of the plant on 
which the Caterpillar has fed. There are many varieties of this pretty species, principally 
among the females. Some of these have the brown scales of the upper surface of the \vings so 
thicldy intermingled -with l)lue ones that the blue colour almost preponderates, and the females 
have almost the appearance of very dark coloured males. But the most singular variety is that 
known as the Hermaphrodite (No. 8), which has the Ijrown mngs of the female on one side, and 
the azure dyings of the male on the other. Other varieties were thought distinct species both liy 
Lewin and Haworth, and Jcrmpi, and distinguished as P. Hijacinthus, P. Tkcsfi/Us, and P. Lacon. 
Some of these varieties are so constant in some locaUties that one of our most accomplished ento- 
mologists (the late Mr. Stephens), even within the last few years was inclined to consider them 
distinct species. But recent observations of exotic Butterflies have sho^vii such extraordinary 
aberrations in the usual specific characters, that such distinctions as those alluded to must cease 
to be regarded as anything more than variations produced by some local influence, such as soil, 
climate, food, or some such other disturbing cause. Among the most remarkable aberrations in 
size and colouring of exotic Butterflies, evidently of the same species, those of the magnifi- 
cent Papilio Priamus may be cited. This gorgeous insect in its ordinary character, has the 
ground colour of the upper surface of tlie wings, of a full deep metallic green, while in a sjDeci- 
men just received at the British Museum the green is replaced hj a perfectly distinct tone of 
rich orange yellow. 

No. 7 is one of the more usual varieties of the female of P. Alexis, in which the wings are 
nearly as blue as those of the males, but have the clistincti\'e Ijorder which is found in l.n-o'nii 


No. 1.— The Silrer-studded Blue Butterfly [Polyom- 

malus jEgon) . 
No. 2.— The Female of the SUvei- - studded Bhic 

No. 3. — The Silver-studded Blue Butterfly, shoTviiig 

the Under side. 
No. 4.— The Caterpillar of the Silrer-studded Blue 


No. 5. — The Clirysalis of the Silrer-studded Blue 

No. 6. — The Brown Ai-gus Butterfly [Polyommatus 

No. 7.— The Female of the Browu Ai-gus Butterfly. 
No. 8. — The Brown Ai-gus Butterfly, showing tlio 

Under side. 

The insects represented in this Plate vnW comiilete tlie Ulustratiou of the genus Pohjomiimtus, 
which has occupied the three preceding ones. 

Pohjommatus yEgon (tlie Silver-studded Blue Butterfly, iSTos. 1 to 5). This pretty species is 
at once distinguished by the metallic spots which form part of the markings of the under side 
of the hind wings, and also by the dark blaclash border to the blue on the upper surface of the 
wings of the male. The female (No. 2) is rather larger than the male, and of a warm coppery 
bro'R'u, all four wings having a bordering of small orange marks of a somewhat triangular form. 
The under side of the ivings, which is very nearly aUke in both sexes, is shown at No. 3. The 
Caterpillar (No. 4) feeds upon Broom, Saintfom, and several sjjecies of TrifoUiun. The ChrysaUs 
(No. .5) is at first of a bright green colour, but as the shell hardens it becomes brown. The 
perfect insect is found on marshy commons or damp fields in July. It is very rarely found in 
the North of England, but in the Southern counties it is not uncommon, especially in certain 
localities which appear suitable to its habits, particularly in the vicinity of Sarum in Wilt-shire, 
in some places in Nottinghamshire, and Coleshill Heath, Worcestershire. It is found, though 
rather sparingly, in the metropolitan counties. 

There are several rather remarkable varieties of this pretty species. One is a brown variety 
of the male — the upper surface of both pairs of wings being of a pale tawny colour. Another 
variety, formerly considered a separate species under the name of P. Alcijjpe, has the wings very 
narrow, and the pale blue is bordered by a much darker and more distinct band at the edges. 
A third variety has the two rows of dots on the under sm-face running into each other, and 
fonning a series of dark stripes which give it a very distinct appearance. This species was 
named P. marUima, as having been found in the salt marshes near Holt, in Norfolk. There 
are several other varieties of this pretty species, but of a less remarkable land. 

Pohjommatus Agestis (the Brown Argus Butterfly, Nos. 6 to 8). Tliis very distinct species 
has all the characteristics of the " Blues " except the blue colour of the upper surface of the 
wings in the males, both sexes of P. Agestis being of the same dark brown hue as the females of 
most of the other species. The male (No. G) is of a darker and brighter brown than the female. 
The female (No. 7) is sometimes rather larger than the male, and has the borders of orange 


marks more conspicuous, tlie Ijlack spots within tliem being very strong in tlie hind wings. 
The under side of the wings, wliich is similar in both sexes, is sho'svn at No. 8. 

The Caterpillar is described as being green, with a row of angular dorsal marldngs of a 
paler tone, and a central line of brown. It is found both in April and June, the perfect insect 
appearing in June and August, this species being double-brooded. 

Some authors consider P. SuJmads and P. Aiiaxijr.rcs as mere local varieties of the species 
under description. But in the collection of the British Museum they are still kept separate and 
distinct, and -will therefore be described as distinct species in this ^-olume. 

^1 I /^'^'^ 



No. 1. — The Dark Ai'gus Butterfly {Pohjotnmatus Sal- 

7nacis) . 
No. 2.— The Female of the Dark Argus. 
No. 3. — The Dark Argus, sliowing the ITucler side. 

No. 4.— The Scotch Ai'gus Butterfly {Polyommalus 

No. 5. — Tlie Female of the Scotch Argus. 
No. 6. — The Scotch Argus, shovrmg the TJuder side. 

By many British Entomologists tlie two species figured in tlris Plate arc considered mere 
varieties of Pohjommatus Agcstis. It is, however, very difficult to draw a line which shall cor- 
rectly and satisfactorily separate certain slight deviations from a generic type, into distinct 
" species" on the one hand, and mere " varieties " on the other. In some cases the distinctions 
l^roduced merely hj climate and other local causes are allowed to constitute perfect and specific 
characteristics, while in others, equally striking differences are treated as mere variations. It 
would seem that where particular characteristics are constantly and regularly transmitted from 
the parent to the offspring, the peculiarities, not being variable, must be considered as marks of 
distinct species. On the other hand, when any such peculiarities of colour or structure are evi- 
dently accidental, and occurring in broods where the majority are of the usual kind, then, how- 
ever striking the differences may appear, they can only constitute " varieties." To meet tho 
first of these cases, the term " permanent variety" has Iseen invented, while the insects cleai-ly 
belonging to the second category are termed simply " varieties." But it may be fairly assumed 
that a " permanent variety " is precisely equivalent to a .species. 8uch " permanent varieties" 
might be tested as to their claim to be considered species by removing broods of them to the 
localities where the t3q5ical .sqiecies abound, and if their distinctive characteristics remain unim- 
paired, which they are very likely to do, although originally produced by local causes — then 
there could be no longer any doubt as to their claim to be considered distinct .species, for it is 
no doubt to local influences, acting tlirough a long series of ages, that many of the most striking 
" specific " characteristics have been produced. 

If such a line of argument be admissible, then, till further investigation tlrrows more light 
on the subject, Pohjommatus Salmacis, wliich is only found in our northern counties, must be 
considered as a distinct species, inasmuch as its cliief characteristics are permanent, and would 
probably remain so, at all events for a long series of generations, if a colony of it could be es- 
tablished in a more southern situation. The same may be said of P. Artaxerxes. It is, how- 
ever, Init fair to add, that gradations of these disputed species occur in intermediate localities, 
seeming to afford links between these two kinds, which would prove a very close relationship. 
Ml". Ne^vman in the " Entomological Magazine," states, for instance, that, as the Broun Argus 
of the metropolitan districts advances to the midland counties, an evident change takes place, 
and the band of ntst-coloured spots becomes less bright. At Manchester these spots have nearly 
left the upper wing ; at Castle Eden Dene they are scarcely to be traced, and a black spot in the 
centre of the upper wing becomes fringed with white, being in some specimens cpiite white ; 
the Butterfly then changes its name to Salmacis. As we proceed further northward, the black 
pupil leaves the " eyes " on the under side, until, at Edmlnirgh, it is c^uite gone, and then tho 
insect is called Artaoxrxes* 

* Mr. Gardner informs us that all three species have been taken at Caslle Eden Dene. 


It is probaljle that almost all otlier specific variations from a generic tj^je might he traced 
in a similar manner through successive gradations, and the only question would then be, as to 
whether the term " species," or " permanent variety," should be the one adopted. Being myself 
rather inchned to class all permanent and transmissible forms as those of distinct species, I shall 
describe P. Salmacis and P. Artaxcrxcs as distinct species, accordmg to the arrangement adopted 
in the British Museum. 

Pol i/ownia fits Salmacis (the Dark Argus, No. 1). This species is generally conspicuously 
darker than tlie Brown Argus (P. Aijcstis), and is further distinguished Ijy an obscure lilack spot 
near the centre of the fore wings. The Ijorder of dull orange markings of the fore wings are 
without the Ijlack spot in each which distinguishes a similar border in the fore mngs of Agestis ; 
but in the hind wings the orange border has also the black spots. The female (ISTo. 2) is only 
distinguishable by a white spot in the centre of the fore wings, and this mark is not a perma- 
nent distinction, as it sometimes occurs in the males, while the black spot appears equally trans- 
ferred to the whigs of the females. The under side (No. 3), though .shghtly differing from P. 
Agestis, as will be seen, presents no very striking distinction. 

The Cater2)illar stage of P. Salmacis is unknown, or it might tend greatly either to es- 
tablish or destroy its claim to be considered a distinct species. The perfect insect appears m 
July, and has only been found in the neighbourhood of Durham and Newcastle, seldom above 
half a mile from the sea. A single specimen has recently been taken near Brighton, which, 
though described as P. Agestis "\\'ith an unusual white spot on its fore wings, is most probably a 
specimen of P. Salmacis, wliich may yet be found at other points of the coast, if diligently 
sought for, as a marme species. 

Polijommatus Artaxcrxcs (the Scotch Argus, No. 4). It was formerly thought that this 
pretty insect was only to be taken at Edinburgh, and in the sole locality of Arthur's Seat. It 
has, however, been recently captured in many other places in the north of England, as well as 
Scotland. The white markings on the under side of the wing (No. 6), which are entirely 
without the usual black pupil, render it at a glance very distinct from all the other Poh/ommati, 
and the discovery of the larva by Mv. Logan, which is of a lilueish green, with a dark dorsal 
line and a pale lateral one, and in other respects differing from the larvro of all other species of 
the genus, appears to establish its claim to be considered a distmct species. The female (No. 5) 
may generally be distinguished from the male by the greater breadth of the border of orange 
patches on the hind wings. This pretty little Butterfly is double brooded, appearing in June, 
and again in August. There is some reason to fear that dealers, in their anxiety to procure as 
many specmiens as possible, for wliich they get a good price, will ultimately extinguish this 
species as they have done the beautiful C. Dispar, in the Fens of Huntingdon,* for they have 
to fm-nish foreign as well as British cabinets with the Scotch Ai-gus, ^vhich (though P. Agestis 
is plentiful,) is certainly unkno^vii on the Continent. 

Mr. Logan, the enthusiastic Scottish entomologist, exijresses himself very energetically on 
the probable extinction of the race of this elegant little insect, and in defence of his cause has 
even found out an objection to roadmaldng, certainly never dreamed of by speculative proprie- 
tors, namely, that the one in cpiestion is Ukely to destroy the best knoAvn locality for Polijomma- 
tus Artaxerxcs. He thus writes to Mr. Stainton, — " Government has agreed to construct a 
carriage-road between Edinljurgh and Duddington, much to my disgust, as it is to come along 
the line of the present footpath, and will destroy all the best locahties for ' Arlaxcrxes.' " If 
the Clovernment could be made aware of the serious injury it is about to mtlict, in causuig the 
destruction of the best kno^vn locality for the capture of Mr. Logan's favourite Butterfly, it 
might yet desist from its purpose. 

* Mr. W. P. Kussel has this season talteii a flue female specimeu of C. Disjiar, in St. Osjtli Woods, Esses. 




















No. 1. — Tlie Grizzle Butterfly [Pyrgus Jh'erjlus). 

No. 2.— The Female of the Grizzle. 

No. 3. — The Grizzle, showing the TJuder side. 

No. 4. — The Caterpillar of the Grizzle. 

No. 5. — The Caterpillar of the Grizzle preparing to 

undergo the change to the Chrysalis. 
No. G.-The Chrysahs of the Grizzle. 
No. 7. — The Dingy Skipper Butterfly [Nhoniadcs 

Tarjes) . 
No. 8.— The Female of the Dingy Skipper. 

No. 9. — Tlie Dingy Skipper, showing the Under 

No. 10.— The Caterpillar of the Dingy Skipper. 
No. 11.— The Clu-ysalis of the Dingy Skipi)er. 
No. 12.— The Chequered Skipper Butterfly (Cijdo- 

pedes Paniscus). 
No. 13. — The Female of the Chequered Skipper. 
No. 14. — The Chequered Skipper, sliowing the Under 

No. 15. — The Caterpillar of the Chequered Skipper. 

The Fifth Family of Bhopaloccra, or Butterflies, is that of the ni-sju'rida; containmg a 
small group of insects, which by the structure of the antenna', and other characteristics, form a 
natiu'al link between the last group of Butterflies and the first group of iloths. The Ileqicridic 
have the head remarkably broad, and the antennas inserted on each side, instead of being very 
near together as in other Butterflies. Some of the species also carry their -^vings horizontally 
when in repose, after the manner of Moths. The Caterpillars have the head large, as in the 
perfect insect, and they live in rolled leaves, in the manner of certain Moths ; and they also re- 
semble them in forming a sHght cocoon, which is rarely the habit of the larvai of true Butter- 
flies. There are four British genera, coutaming seven species. All these are of comparati\-ely 
small size, and have generally a jerking motion in their flight ; having thence received the name 
of " skippers," by which they are jDoj^ularly known to collectors. 

The genus Pyrgus. The antemife of this genus have the club gradually formed, but not 
hooked at the tip Uke some others. The wings are rounded, have deep chequered fringes, and 
are deflexed in repose. The Caterpillars are leaf rollers, and the Cluysalides are formed in a 
sUghtly webbed cocoon within the curled leaf that has served as the abode of the Caterpillar. 
There is but one British species. 

Pijrgus Alveolus (the Grizzle, Nos. 1 to 6). This is a common insect, especially in and near 
woods. The Caterpillar feeds most commonly on the vnld Easpberry [Buhus Idccus) in April, 
and again late in the summer, and is to be found within rolled leaves held together by a web. 
It also feeds on the Teazle {Dipsacus fulloiium). The perfect insect appears in woods and .shady 
lanes m May and August. It has recently occurred in great abundance at Brighton, Bristol, 
Eppmg, and other places. 

There are several rather curious varieties of this species, the most permanent of which is 
one in which the white marks towards the tips of the fore wings run into one great irrcgidar 
patch leaving only the veins dark, while in the hind wmgs the wliite marks are smaller and 
more obscm-e. This variety is said to be pretty constant in the forest near Bewdley, Worcester- 
sliire, and occurs occasionally in many other localities more m-egularly and more sparingly. 

The genus Nmniadcs. In this genus the antenn;e are rather longer and more slender than 


in the preceding , and have the cUil3 attenuating to a point at the tip. Tlie ^\'ings are horizon- 
tal or deflexed in repose, never being held erect, as is common with true Butterflies. We have 
but one British species. 

Nisoniades Tages (the Dingy Skipper, Nos. 7 to 11). Tliis insect is not near so common as 
the preceding, but is yet found in some j^lenty m various localities. It is double brooded. The 
Caterpillar, which feeds in preference upon the Birds-foot-TrefoU, and Field Erjaigo, appears in 
June and September ; the perfect insect in May and August. It is found most frec^uently on 
the slo2)es of liills, and in dry exposed places near woods. Bromsgrove, in Worcestershire, and 
Dovedale, in Derliyshire, are mentioned as places where it has been recently captured in sufli- 
cient plenty. The Eev. F. 0. Morris informs us, that it is found in great abundance in Ireland, 
at Ardrahan, near Galway. 

The genus C'i/doj)edcs. The antennso of this genus are short and stout, and the club thick 
but not hooked at the tip. The front wings are long in proportion to the hinder pau'. The 
sexes do not differ in colour. 

Ci/rlopcdcs Ponisciis (the Chequered Skipper. Nos. r2 to 15). This pretty species is very 
local, but occasionally abundant in its favourite localities. The Caterpillar (Xo. 15) feeds upon 
the Plantain {Plantago major), and appears in September. The Chrysalis remains dormant 
during the winter, the perfect insect appearing in the following June. It is said to he still 
found in profusion in its old locality, Monk's Wood, Hants, and in a wood near Oundle, 
Northamptonshire; and many other localities are recorded in which it may be taken in most 

ff^^:f^M*^ - 


No. 1. — The Lulvvorth Skipjier Butterfly [Pamphila 

No. 2.— The Female of the Lulworth Skipper. 
No. 3. — A dark variety of the Lulworth Skipper. 
No. 4.— The SmaU Skipper Butterfly {Pamphila 


No. 5. — The Female of the Small Skipper. 

No. G. — The Small Skipper, showing the Under 

No. 7.— The Caterpillar of the Small Skipper. 
No. 8.— The Chrysalis of the Small Skipper. 

The genus Famphila. The insects assigned to this genus arc distinguishaljle at once from 
the other Sldppers hj the conspicuous diagonal line of velvety black which marks the wings of 
the males ; also by the generally paler colours of the females, and the absence in that sex of the 
black mark above alluded to. The female of P. Linca has both pairs of wings paler than those 
of the male. The female of P. i^i/h-ifims has the mngs more chequered, as well as paler than 
those of the male, and the same may be said of the female of P. Adczon. There is much les.s 
distinction in the colours of the males and females of the other Skippers. In repose the front 
wings are often held erect, while the hinder paii' remains in a horizontal position. 

Pampliila Acheon (the Lulworth Sldpper, Nos. 1 to .3). This rare British insect cannot for 
a moment be mistaken for the common P. Linca by an experienced collector, though when I 
first took specimens of it at Shenstone, near Lichfield, many years ago, being a very young 
entomologist, I inadvertently placed the specimens in my collection as varieties of P. Lima, 
not being at that tune acquainted with the other species. The Caterpillar is unknown, but, as 
Mr. Staiuton states, the female has been seen to deposit its eggs on the Wood-reed {Calamagrostis 
cpigcjos). The p)crfect insect appears in July and August, and with the exception of the .sjjeci- 
mens taken by myself at Shenstone in 1835, (where I have uot heard of any subsequent speci- 
mens being captured,) none have been taken in England except at one particular sjiot on the 
coast of Dorsetshire, Lulworth Cove, where it was first discovered by ]Mr. Dale, in August, 
1832. As an entomological prize, it was no doubt pursued there pretty actively by the 
professional collectors, as I find Mr. Morris stating (in 1853) that it is no longer to be found at 
the precise part of the coast where it was first discovered, Init that it was stUl plentiful at the 
Burnmg Cliff. In 1849, Mr. Douglas found it in great plenty in the last-name<l locality, where 
he captured above a hundred specimens in a very .short tune, often sweeping five or six into lus 
net at once. He states at the same time that he was unable to trace the cause of the appearance 
of tills insect in such numbers at that particular spot, to the aljundant growth of any particular 
plant suitable for the food of the larvw. 

The ground colour of the wings of P. Adaon is much darker than in P. Linca, the bright 
orange Jjrown of the last-named only appearmg in lighter patches in the centre of the foro 
wings. The female is much lighter than the male, and the ^vings of a nearly ec[ual tone of 
orange brown all over, very closely resembling the coloirr of the female of P. Linca. No. 3 is 
a curious dark variety of the male, which, except in the general dark colour, approaches very 
nearly to dark varieties of P. Linca. 


FampMla Lineci (the Small Skipper, Nos. 4 to 8). This common and pretty species is 
abundant everywhere at the season of its annual appearance. It often finds its way even into 
our large populous towns from the neighbouring woods and fields, enlivening the streets with 
its skipping flight, yet seldom attracting the attention of the boy Butterfly-hunter in the way 
that a stray specimen of one of the Garden Whites never fails to do. 

The Caterpillar (No. 7) is said to feed on Grasses ; and possibly also on the foliage of 
Thistles, as the perfect insects are generally found fluttering in great numbers over places \yhere 
those plants are abundant. It is found in July. 

The perfect insect appears in August, being rather later than the rare P. Adceon. Pljanouth, 
Brighton, and Worcester, are places where it has been recently observed in the greatest abun- 


No. 1. — The Large Skipper Butterfly {Pamphila 

No. 2. — The Female of the Large Skipper. 
No. 3. — The Large Skipper, showing the LTuder 


No. 4.— The Pearl Skipper ButterOy {Pamphila 

No. 5. — The Female of the Pearl Skipper. 
No. 6. — The Pearl Skipper, showing tlie Under side. 
No. 7.— The Caterpillar of the Pearl Skipper. 

Pamphila Sylvanus (tlic Large Skipper, Nos. 1 to 3). This .specie.?, which i.s the largest 
of the British Skippers, frequently exceeds in dimension the specimen for which my figure was 
drawn. I Iiave seen specimens measuruig fully an inch and a-half from tip to tip across the 
front jiair of wngs. 

The Caterpillar is described by Zeller as being of a duU green, speckled with black, with a 
dorsal line of darker colour, and having underneath, on the tenth or eleventh segments, wliite 
transverse spots. It feeds on the Meadow Soft-grass (Rolcits lanatus), and also on other Grasses, 
in May ; and probably appears again in the autumn, as the species is undoubtedly douljle 

The perfect insect appears in May and again in August, the early brood resulting from the 
autumnal hatch of Caterpillars, and the August Ijrood from the Caterpillars, which become full 
fed towards tlie end of May. 

It is very "widely distributed, and always more or less abundant, frequenting in jareference 
the borders of woods and shady lanes ; but being also found in open parts of the country. It 
is jierhajis more abundant in the southern than in the northern counties ; Brighton, Plymouth, 
Teignmouth, and other places being cited as localities in which it has appeared very abundantly. 

Pamphila Comma (the Pearl Skipper, or Silver-spotted Skipper, Nos. 4 to 7). This is a 
very local species, but plentiful in places where it occurs. It is distinguished from aU the other 
.species of this pretty genus by the pearly or silvery spots by which the under side of the -n-iugs 
(No. C) are conspicuously marked. It however accords perfectly in general character with its 
congeners, the male being distuiguished by the short black diagonal streak, and the female 
(No. 5) by the lighter tone of the ground colour of the mugs, their more speckled appearance, 
and the total absence of the black diagonal streak, wliich distinguishes the anterior wings of the 
other sex. 

The Caterpillar (No. 7) feeds on papilionaceous plants, such as Birds-foot-Trefoil, and others 
of that family. On the Continent it is known to feed on the CoroniUa raria. It first appears 
early in June, and is full fed about the middle of July. 

The perfect insect is found in August ; frequentuig in greatest alnindance chalky districts 
in open or elevated situations. The chalk downs in the neighbourhood of Lewes, Sussex, are 
recorded as a locality in which it has been recently very abundant. Towards the nortli it is 
less plentiful, yet far from scarce in many places, especially at Scarlwrough, where it is some- 
times tolerably plentiful. 

Having now completed the description and illustration of the whole of our Native Butter- 
flies, it remains only to address a few words to enthusiastic collectors, urging them by ddigent 


observation and research, to endeavour to fill up the lacnnre Avliich still exist in the liistory of 
the preparatory stages of some of the most conspicuous species. 

Considering that we can scarcely reckon more than sisty species, and that we have perhaps 
double that number of good field Entomologists at work every season, (that is about two or 
perhaps more to each butterfly,) it appears strange that any stage of development of any single 
species should still remain unknown to us. Yet such is the fact, for we are as yet totally 
unacquainted with the CaterpQlar stage of the beautiful and conspicuous insect, known as the 
" Small Copper," and several other species which are ccjually common and well known in their 
perfect state. It has been recently stated liy one of our most distuiguished Entomological writers, 
that we positively knoAv more of the traiiformations of the obscure and minute British Moths, 
than of those of our conspicuous and beautiful Butterflies. But this remark, though intended as 
an honest incentive to research, is rather a bold exaggeration ; for while we are ignorant of the 
larvffi .and pupa stages of our Butterflies only in a small number of instances, in the case of the 
small Moths, wo know notliing of the preparatory stages of much more than half their number. 

Mr. Logan, in Scotland, recently done much to investigate the transformations of some 
of the species which are in Scotland, and has published figures of the Caterpillars of several, 
which were not before known. I hope that his successful example may stimulate the exertions 
of some of our English Entomologists, and that Ijeftire many more seasons have passed, we shall 
be aljle to produce a really '' complete" history of our British Butterflies in all their stages. 

H. N. H. 








Machaon, I, 2 

Picris BrassiccE, 6 

Apatura Iris, 19, 20 


,, Daplidice, 9 

Aporia Cratxgi, 5 

Grapta C-album, 27, 2S 

„ Napi, 8 

Arge Gablliea, 1 1 

„ Rapx, 7 

Argynnis Adippe, 33 



imatus Acis, 50 

,, Aglaia, 21 

, Adonis, 53 

,, Euphrosync, 35, 36 

IIirrARClllA Janira, 14 
,, Semele, 13 

^gon, 55 

,, Lathonia, 33, 34 

, Agestis, 55, 56 

„ Paphia, 29 

,, Titlionus, 14 

, Alexis, 53, 54 

„ Selene, 35 


, Alsus, 50 
, Argiolus, 49 
, Arion, 51 
, Avtaxerxes, 58 


Lasiommata ^Egeria, II, 12 

,, Mega;ra, 12 

, Covydon, 51, 52 

CuRYSOPliANUS Chiyseis, 4C 
,, Dispar, 48 

Leucophasia Sinapi^, 10 
Limcnitis SibiUa, iS 


, Salmacis, 57, 58 
Alveolus, 59 

,, Hippotlioi*, 


Phtoas, 45, 



, , VirgaurecX", 



Colias Edusa, 3 

Melit.EA Artemis, 39 

„ Hyale, 3, 4 

,, Athalia, 38 

Cinxia, 37, 38 

Tiiecla Betulre, 41 

Cccnonympha Davus, 1 7 

,, Pnuii, 41 

,, Pamphilus, 17 

,, Quercus, 43 

Cyclopides Paniscus, 60 


,, Kulji, 43 

Cynthia Cardui, 21 

Nemeobius Lucina, 40 
Nisoniades Tages, Co 

,, W-albmii, 42 



Enodia Ilyperanthus, 15 


Vanessa, Antiopa, 23, 24 

Erebia Elandina, 16 

Pamphila Actceon, 61 

,, Atalanta, 22 

,, Cassiope, 1 6 

,, Comma, 63 

lo, 23 

„ Ligea, 15, 16 

,, Linca, 62 

,, Polychloros, 25 

Eucliloe Cardaraines, 10 

,, Sylvanus, 63 


UrliCcV, 27 



Argus's, 55 — 58 
Azure Blue, 49 

Black Hair-streak, 42 
Black-veined White, 5 
Blues, 49—55 
Brimstone, 2 
BrovTn Argus, 55, 56 
Brown Hair-streak, 41 

Camberwei.l Beauty, 23, 
Chequered Skipper, 60 
Clifden Blue, 53 
Clouded VelloH', 3 
Comma Butterfly, 27, 28 
Common Blue, 53, 54 
Chalk II ill Bhie, 51, 52 
Copper Butterfly, 45 
Coppers, 45— 48 


Dark Argus, 57, 58 
Dark Green Fritillary, 31 


Dark Ilair-streak, 41 

Dark Under-winged Copper, 46 

Dingy Skipper, 60 

Duke of Burgundy Fritillary, 40 


Fritillarys, 29 — 40 


Gate Keeper, 14 
Glanville Fritillary, 
Grayling Butterfly, 

Greasy Fritillary, 39 




Great Cabbage-While, 6 
Great Swallow-tailed, i 
Great Tortoise-shell, 25 
Green Chequered White, 9, 
Green Hair-streak, 44 
Green-veined White, f, S 
Grizzle Butterlly, 59 


Heath Fritillary, 3S 
High Brown Fritillary, 33 


Large Blue, 51 
Large Copper, 47 — 48 
Large Skipper, 63 
Liil worth Skipper, Ol 


Marbled White, 1 1 
Marsh Ringlet, 17 
Mazarine Blue, 50 
Meadow Brown, 14 

ORANGE-Tir, 10 

Painted Lady, 21 
Pale Clouded VeUow, 3 
Peacock, 23 

Pearl-Bordered Fritillaiy, 35, 36 
Pearl Skipper, 63 
Purple-edged Copper, 46 
Purple Emperor, 19, 20 
Purple Hair-streak, 43 

Queen of Spain Fritillary, 33, 34 

Red Admiral, 22 
Ringlet Butterfly, 15 
Rmglets, 15 — 17 

Scarce Copper, 47 

Scotch Argus, 15, 16 

Silver-studded Blue, 55 

Silver-washed Fritillary, 29, 30 

Skippers, 60 — 63 

Small Blue, 50 

Small Cabbage-WHiite, 7 

Small Heath, 17 

Small Pearl Bordered Fritillaiy, 35 

Small Ringlet, 16 

Small Scotch Argus, 58 

Small Skipper, C2 

Small Tortoise-shell, 27 

Speckled Wood, 12 

Tortoise-shells, 25—27 


Wall Butterfly, 12 
White Admiral, 18 
Whites, 5— II 
Wood White, 10 



Argynmidi (Sub-Family), 29 
Eiycinidcc (Family), 39 
Hesperidre (Family), 59 
Lycasnida; (Family), 41 

Nymphalido? (Family), 11 
Nymphalidi (Sub-Family), 17 
Papilionida: (Family), 1 
Papilionidi (Sub-Family), I 

Pieridi (Sub-Family), 5 
Rhodoccridi (Sub-Family), : 
Satyridi (Sub-Family), 1 1 
Vanessidi (Sub-Family), 21 





To capture Butterflies and Motlis in their perfect or winged state, it is necessary tliat the 
collector be provi<led with n, small gauze net, attached to a hoop of strong iron wire at the end 
of a light cane handle about three feet long. Nets of this kind are sold at Messrs. Gardner's, 
in Holborn, and Messrs. Shepherd's, in the Strand ; who manufacture articles of this kind of 
better quality than can possibly be the result of home fobrication. Boxes lined with cork for 
securing the insects when taken, as well as many other entomological conveniences, are to be 
purchased at those establishments, and also at many others of the same kind. 

The collector will soon find out the hour of the day at which the insects he is seeking 
generally appear on the wing ; and it is almost useless to seek them at any other. It is also in 
vain to attempt collecting insects on the wing in a cold easterly wind, especially such as fly 
early in the morning, or towards the hours of evening. Butterflies, with very few exceptions, 
mil be found more plentiful in the sunny hours preceding, and those immediately following the 
heat of the day : while for a short period, during the sun's greatest heat, they disappear for a 
short time. Some fly principally in half shade of woods and deep lanes, while others seek in 
preference the bright open sunlight. Others take their flight high above the tops of the lofti- 
est Oaks, as the Purple Emperor, and these must either be secured by means of a small light 
net at the end of a very long rod, or some little stratagem must be had recourse to in order to 
effect a capture. I recollect an experienced Lepidopterist telling me that he took his two finest 
specimens of the Purple Emperor in an Oak wood, rather late in the day, after a morning of 
fruitless attempts, by watching the trunks of the trees as a storm was coming on. He had 
heard that these insects, on the approach of a storm, descended from the region of their lofty 
flight to seek shelter on the trunks and beneath the lower branches of large trees ; and as the 
sky darkened, and the thunder began to rumlile in the distance, he found that his information 
had been correct, for ho perceived two magnificent specimens descend with a swoop, and settle 
upon an old gray trunk close to him, where he was so fortunate as to capture both. 

As an example of what an earnest collector may expect in an excursion of a few days, 
even without much experience, I append a letter received this season from a young collector, in 
which it mil be seen that, as far as Purple Emperors are concerned (from knowing a good 
locality to go to), he was by far more successful than my friend of the thunder-storm ; and liis 
other captures form a very tempting list. 

" I captured on Friday last, in St. Osyth Woods, Essex, a very fine specimen of J'ancssa 
Antiopa ; the borders of the wings are a rich cream-colour, the points of the upper wings are 
slightly marked with blue. I took it off a bramble. I also took at the same place a female 
specimen of the Large Copper {Chrysophamis Dhpar). In the neighbourhood of this place 
(Monk's Eleigh) and Savenham, I have found this summer a greater number of varieties 
than usual ; amongst others, Chrysqjhaniis Phla-as (female) ; C. Virycmrece ; Thccla IF-cdhim ; 
Mdihm Ginxia ; Air/ynni/s Adippe ; A. Lathoiiia ; A. Paphia ; Grnpla C-albmn ; Vanessa Urtkm ; 
Cynthia Cardui ; Apatura Iris (of which I also took thirty at St. Osyth) ; Limenitis Sihilla ; 
Arrje Galiithca ; Leucophasia Sinapis ; Papilio Machaon ; C()//«s ////a/c (two taken this morning) ; 
and Aporia Crahegi. The Vanessa To is extraordinarily numerous this year, as much so as 
Picris Brassicm." 

To take Moths on the wing, other devices must be had recourse to ; a few, it is true, fly by 
day in the bright sunshine like Butterflies, but by far the greater number take their flight at 
early dawn, in the dusk of the evening, or during the successive hours of the night, each 
species having a special, period of activity, from which it does not depart. 

The following are a few of the species which may be attracted, in succession, by a lighted 
candle. Phmsia Diclcra, popularly called the Swallow Prominent, may lie easily distinguished ; 
in its fitful flight when agitated by the candle, this insect continually dai-ts towards the ground, 


and is lost in tlie cLirkness, soon again to appear glancing swiftly past the light, and then down- 
ward into the shade, as before. Agrotis corticca, the Heart and Club Moth, is less fleet on the 
wing than the preceding, and instead of flying downwards towards the floor, invariably rises 
towards the ceiHng, attracted apparently by the niOd white light by which it is pervaded. Cos- 
mia PijraUna (the Lunar-spotted Pinion Moth), if it enter a room attracted 1)y the light, is very 
wild and ii-regular in its flight, dashing from the cantUe to the ceiling, and from the ceiling to 
the floor. Though this insect is by no means common, I have taken it more than once in a 
li'i-hted room, always, I believe, on a rainy evening, and towards the end of July. CUsiocampa 
Neustria, the Lackey Moth, is as abundant as the last described species is rare, and yet it is 
seldom seen in the perfect form, as it is a swift night-flyer. This moth, on entering a room, 
attracted by a light, has the same wild flight as the species last desciibed, and is rather diflicult 
to capture, even with the aid of a proper net. Later in the season may be taken Petada Cassi- 
nca, populai'ly kno-iyn as the Sprawler, which, like tlie last, is much more rare in the winged 
state than in the CaterpUlar stage of its existence. It is, however, often attracted by a light, 
when its flight becomes random, dashing heedlessly on all sides through the flame of tlie candle 
up to the ceiling, or down to the floor. This species seldom appears before November, and is 
often found as late as December. It is late in the hour of its flight, as well as in the season of 
its appearance, often retarding its visit to the expectant candle till one or two in the morning. 
Still later in the year appears the remarkaljly elegant December Moth, Fcceilocampa rojvdi, 
which is easily attracted by light, and, if any Ije in the neighliourhood, they will make their 
appearance between the hours of seven and ten on favourable evenings. 

Sitting in a weU-lighted room, with tlie window open to the dark garden, a watcher, active 
with the net, may capture in succession many species in a single night. But before the shades 
of evening have sunk into darkness, the collector should have perambulated, net in hand, the 
most shady walks of his garden, beating the shrubs with a stick held in his left hand ; when he 
is sure, at the right season, to meet with the male Ghost Moth, flitting wliite and bright before 
him, and then vanishing as suddenly, as the dark under-side of the wings meet the eye instead 
of the snow-white upper surface. Then there will be the Phantom Moth, like the miniature 
skeleton of some delicate insect, haunting the spot where it had once flitted in more substantial 
shape. This is the " White Plume," sometimes called the Skeleton Moth. These and many 
more rare and handsomer species will reward persevering pursuit on a favourable evening. 

A very successful method of capturing night-flj-ing Moths, is that of tempting them to 
settle in a certain spot by a bait of sugar. The sugar is reduced to a thick solution by the 
addition of water, and then brushed upon the trunks of trees, old palings, &:c., in favourable 
situations. The baited spot must bo visited once an hour or so, or the insect may have paid 
the visit, and again taken to flight. Some collectors place a light near the sugared trees as an 
additional attraction, and some add a large white sheet behind the sugared trees, upon which 
the light should be made to foil as lirightly as possilile. 

At da-\vn of day, on a fine mild summer morning, some of the rarer S/iJunfjiihr may be 
taken fluttering over their favourite flowers. I took a magnificent specimen of Sphiiu- Uonvol- 
mdi hovering over a bed of Petunias, this season. 

The preservation of insects thus taken is very simple, and the best methods are perfectly 
known to all experienced entomologists. But I am writing for those who are at present with- 
out sucli experience. The Butterfly or Moth, while still in the net (which should be allowed 
to lie close together, so as to prevent as much as possilile the movement of the insect), should 
be taken hold of by the thumb and finger underneath the chest, and suddenly pinched with 
some little force, which immediately destroys all sensation. It may then be dropped lightly 
from the not, so as not to injure the delicate scales of the wings. An entymological pin 
must then be passed through the thorax from the upper side, between the wings, in a perfectly 
upright po.sition, passing through to a sufficient extent to allow of the insect being firmly pinned 
to the bottom of the cork-lined box. The same process will be followed in all subsequent cap- 
tures, taking care not to place the specimens too close together in the box. 

Some collectors put each insect, if a particularly fine specimen, or very rare species, into a 

• Pius that do not corrode, and -which are sold by all vendors of collecting apparatus. 



separate box, touching the bottom of it with a single cbop of cliloroform, -n-hich has Ijeen found 
to prevent any return of sensation, or any fluttering of the mngs by whicli tlieir Ijcauty might 
l3e seriously injured. 

On arriving at home, the insects should be carefully .set out in the form thoy are intended 
to retain permanently, and this should necessarily be done before the insects finally stiffen, or it 
becomes difficult to manage them so well, though an exposure to the steam arising from a cup of 
hot water will generally restore a temporary limpness. The proci^ss of " setting out " must, of 
course, be done with neatness and care, so as not to injure the wings, or break theantennaj. A 
board covered with a coating of cork must be provided, in which there are grooves runnino- 
across of greater or lesser depth. Tlie insect may then be fixed by the pin into the gi'oove ac- 
cording to the thickness of the body. The body of a Butterfly being generally small, the groove 
need not be deep. The wings are then to be .spread out on the board on either side, level vnth 
the body and fully expanded. They are to be fixed in that position biy means of strips of thin 
and very smooth cardboard, pinned down over them sufticiently close to hold them in the posi- 
tion required, but not so close as to injure the delicate scales of the wings. In a few days the 
insect will have stiff"ened in the position in which it has been fixed as described, and \\'hich it 
will iiermanently retain. It should then be removed to the cabinet in which it is to be pre- 
served. In order to preserve the specimens in a cabinet from the attacks of minute parasitic 
insects, a small piece of camphor is generally fixed in the corner of each drawer. If what is 
called the grease should attack the insects in a cabinet, the Ijost mode of restoring the insects 
attacked to their original condition is the following. The grease generally appears in large- 
bodied Moths or Butterflies, gi\'ing the bodies the appearance of having been soaked in oil ; and 
this appearance soon spreads to the wings, utterly destroying the beauty of the .specimen.s. To 
restore an insect thus attacked, fix it on a piece of cork weighted with lead, or something heavy, 
and place it at the bottom of a saucer or any similar vessel. Then fill the saucer with benzone,* 
entirely covering the insect, which will not be injured by the wetting. After five minutes it 
may be taken out, and the benzone, being an absorber of grease, will carry off the oily matter 
in the course of its own evaporation, wliich is very rapid. The insect will then become as 
beautiful as when first " set out," and may be replaced in the cabinet. 

The collection of Caterpillars may be commenced as soon as the leaves begin to appear, and 
may l)e continued till the end of September or October, as there are many double-brooded 
species, the second hatch of Caterjiillars of wliich appears about the time last named, Chrysalides 
of which remain dormant through the winter. Detached trees may be well .shaken after a white 
talde-cloth has been spread beneath, and a number of Caterpillars, difficult to discover in any 
other way, may thus be secured. Hedgerows may he beaten over an inverted umbrella for the same 
purpose. A careful search among low-growing plants will, however, be necessary to secure 
other species, and a plant that exhibits symptoms of having been eaten by Caterpillars, .should 
sometimes be pulled up by the roots, and the root well examined, as the night-feeding Cater- 
pillars often take shelter beneath the surface of the soil during the day, and conceal themselves 
among the loose roots ; or they may sometimes be found hidden among the decayed leaves about 
the base of the main stalk of the plant. The Caterpillars of most of the Meadow b^o^vn Butter- 
flies and many Moths, are gi'ass- feeders, and yet meadow after meadow might be looked over in 
vain for a single larva, as in almost all cases they belong to the night-feeding class just alluded 
to. The truly magnificent Caterpillar of the Sword-grass Moth is, doubtless, a night-feeder, 
which accounts for its seeming rarity, few specimens having been seen by Entomologists. The 
Caterpillars that feed witliin the stems of plants, all belonging to the Moth family, are still more 
difficult to find, but their internal ravages may generally be traced by the paler or yellower 
gi'een of the branch or stem, the sap of which is being consumed by an intruder ; and on opening 
the branch he will be discovered at work ; but it is better to l,eave him till his full growth is 
attained, marking the stem in some way so as to recognise it easily. The Leaf-rollers, Leaf- 
miners, and Bark and Lichen-feeders, and those that feed in cases — concealed like those of the 
Caddis-worm in particles of decayed wood or dead leaves, will have to be looked for very care- 
* This remedy was first mentioucd ill a very charming little periodical, entitled " Recreative Science," whicli 
is alwnys fidl of useful information. 


fully. Wlicn a Caterpillar or a brood of a gregarious kind lias been discovered, it is better to 
leave them on the branch or plant of their o-(vn selection — covering it securely with a piece of 
gauze — than to attempt their removal. But if at a distance from home this would be unpractic- 
able, and in that case a " rearing cage" or box must be prepared. This is easily managed. A 
strong box, about two feet long by one broad, should be sunk to about half its depth in the 
ground in some sheltered part of a garden ; the lid is to be of wre-tissne such as meat-safes are 
made of, and aliove it is to be a sloping board or roof to shoot off the rain. The box is to be 
about half-filled with broken bits of tile and garden mould, partially covered over with moss. 
The food for each kind of Caterpillar placed in the box should, in order to keep it, be 
placed in a glass phial of water in the liox ; and in addition to this precaution the food should 
be changed every day. If, however, the food be changed every day, the bottles of water may 
be disf)ensed with in most cases, though they are always of advantage. In a box of this kind, 
so placed, the. Caterpillars have the advantage both of open air and shelter ; and they either 
liurrow in the ground at the bottom to undergo their change, or suspend themselves to some 
branch which should be fixed for that purpose ; or they attach themselves to the sides of the 
box. Care must be taken to watch the box carefully at the time when Moths or Butterflies are 
exjjected to emerge from their chrysalides, as they would otherwise, when prepared to take 
flight, beat themselves against the wire lid and injure their wings. I have described boxes of 
this kind at much greater length in the " Butterfly Vivarium."* 

The eggs of Butterflies and Moths may also be placed in this rearing cage, where they will 
liatcli themselves at the proper season, and if the proper food be provided for the young brood 
fif minute Caterpillars, they will thrive well. The eggs of Moths and Butterflies may be found 
by watching the under side of leaves, &o. ; when a mass of small and nearly spherical olijects, 
somewhat less than a pin's head, are observed attached together on a leaf, placed in straight or 
diagonal rows vnth geometrical regularity, it may in most cases be taken for granted that they 
are the eggs in cjuestion. They are sometimes found in rings, encircling branches of shrubs, 
like double or treble rows of beads. But the collector will soon have an eye to perceive and 
recognise his game under very varied aspects and circumstances. Besides this mode of collecting 
the eggs, there is another. Almost every female Moth or Butterfly that is captured, will deposit 
its eggs before dying ; indeed, it appears almost impossitile to extinguish life in the female in- 
sect till this main object of its existence — the deposition of its eggs — has been effected. Rare 
and beautiful Caterpillars may often be raised in numbers from the eggs of a captured ]\Ioth, 
which it is difBcult to procure in any other way, their natural haunts and lialiits lieing unknown. 

The great advantage of rearing Moths and hatching Caterpillars in this way is — first, that 
the specimens of the winged insect are necessarily much more perfect than those captured during 
tlieir flight ; secondly, that the Caterpillars of some kinds of Moths are very common, while the 
Moth itself is i-arely seen, and can only be procured liy rearing it from the larva ; thirdly, that 
some larva^ may be obtained in this way from the egg which are, as stated above, seldom other- 
wise seen. 

I succeeded in procuring some magnificent specimens of the Death's-head Moth from the 
Caterpillar in a rearing cage of this kind. But an amateur Entomologist wi'ites me that for this 
species liis own method, as follows, is better : — " Last year I took three Caterpillars of the 
Death's-head Hawk Moth ; one I kept in dry earth, one in a box buried in the garden, and one 
in a box in my study, which I regularly watered twice a week : the last succeeded admirably, 
it emerged in March ; the two others appeared in the beginning of May, and were almost worth- 
less." The eggs and chrysalides of many fine Continental species not found in England, may bo 
procured at Mr. Gardner's, No. .52, High Holborn — such as the Great Emperor Moth, the hand- 
some Butterfly Pu'piHo PvduUrivs, and others. I have found great amusement and interest in 
rearing some of the finer Continental Lepidoptera in this manner, and then letting them fly in 
my garden, where they have sported for several days, and then disappeared ; for it does not 
seem possible to naturalise any new species in this way. Confined to a greenhouse they might, 
however, exist through several generations, forming a great additional ornament, and giving 
Cjuite a new source of interest to an ordinary Conservatory. H. N. H. 

* Now published by Mr. Bobn, Henrietta Street, Corent G-artlcn.