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Full text of "The Genesee farmer"

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THE 



GENESEE FARMER 



AND 



Gardener's Journal. 



A WEEKLY PAPER, DEVOTED TO 



n&titultuvt f flfoiHrnltmt # Mmal ^roiioni „ 



If- GOODSELL, EDITOR 



VOLUME I. 



ROCHESTER. 

PUBLISHED BY LUTHER TUCKER & CO. 



1831. 



wfdov ot xaa 



INDEX TO VOLUME I. 



EDITORIAL. 

Agricultural Reading 9 Asparagus 101 
Apples 69 92 100 321 401 April 140 
Age of Trees 28 118 Agri. Papers 116 
Agri. Experience 29 Apple Sauce 321 
Aphis or Plant Louse 149 Atmosphere 91 
Agri. Society Jef. Co. 153 
Amer. Wines 266 274 297 
Alb. Hort. Soc. 282 Amer. Institute 330 
Amer. Productions 385. 
Bruff's Elevating Machine 363 



JInsects 187 227 233 Indian Cakes 156 

.' Insects on Trees 124 156 Irrigation 209 

| Incisions in Fruit Trees 265 

| Indian Corn 157 273 Impr. Plough 289 

S Improvement Hudson River 335 

I Improving Fruit Trees 274, 

JJeff. Co. Ag. Soc. 153 Jeff. 



Ag 
Keeping Fruit 289 



Co. 179 209. 
Kraken 323 
£ Keeping Farmers' Accounts 329. 

* Life Preserver 410 Locusts 187 209 330 

* Lampas of Horses 69 Lucerne 110 330 
Bees and Bee Hives 10 178 * Large Fruit 322 337 Long Wool 329 

Beer 156-Butter 157 Broom Corn 12 | Lib. Ent. Knowledge 337 Libraries 330 

Brocoli 76 Bass Matting 84 Budding 250 \ Laying down Plants 361. 
Breeding Animals 117 Bulbous Roots 249 * Melitot 140 Mandrake 322 Manures 86 
Barometer 30 Bonnets 157. 5 Manufactures 179 370 377 385 394 

Calves 94 361 Cider 2 289 313 ? Melons 201 250 Metheghn 241 

Cheese 68 76 84 194 Chesnuts 68 J Meteor. Obs. at Silver Lake 242 

Canal Tolls 6 163 330 363 Cranberries 10 § Maple Sugar 60 69 69 185 



* Vulgar Errors 10 45 193 273 

? Vegetable Physiology 2 22 37 70 

l Vegetable Life 369 377. 

J Work for March 92 April 116 May 13S 

<| June 170 Aug. 249 257 Oct 322 Nov St5 

I Watermelons 250 Wants 23 Woad 61 

% White Oak Timber 265 Wheat 21 281 

i Walnuts 68 Weather 1830, 6 Winter 70 

I Weather 46 70 156 227 337 362 

I White Beet 69 White Washing 125 

1 Wet Feet 353 Woodpeckers 281. 

S Yellows in Peach Trees 44 

l Yellow Bugs 170. 

1 Zinc 297. 



Currants 12 Changing Seeds 36 
Coffee 20 171 Cattle 36 60 134 
Carrots 44 Crops 242 Caps 410 
Corn Plough 410 Corn Crops 410 
Cow Cabbage 241 Canada Thistle 203 



Mulberry 118 S62 Mustard 101 
Meteorology 21 Madder 12 
Mon. Hort. Soc. 9 124 194 313 

keting Wheat 281 Mushroom 282 
\ Meterological Table, Aug. 275 Sept 314 



JM 



Cucumbers 15G 137 212 281 Cherries 202 j Oct 354 Nov 333 

Curculio 169 185 £49 Caterpillars 137 \ Nutritive Matter 20 Nurseries 36 

Currant Wine 193 Chimney Swallows 195 J Niag. Agri, Soc. 257 Nothing new 361. 

Covent Garden Market S62 Cellars377 ?Okra«11293 Ornament. Hort. 241 

Cincinnati Market 362 Cider Casks 289 e Opinions and Truths 91». 

Cap of Liberty 336 Comets 410 JPafasitic Plant 209 Pears 227 233 321 

Chinese Mulberry 362 Cucum. Seeds 281. J Peaches and Peach Trees 250 289 

Diseases of the Horse 329 Dandelions 140 \ Paring and burning Soils 257 

D. Thomas' Letter 321 Door Yards 156 SPickles27S Purslane 140 Patatoes 148 

Domestic Exports 369 Dom. Economy 218 ? Primrose 85 Pomology 52 92 J00 

Dom. Hort. Soc. 13 195 274 306 'Puddings 86 Ploughing 100 

Eggs 125 Egg Plant 233 Eclipse 54 'Percus. Powder 410 Pumpkins 125 157 

Evaporation 76 Effects of Whiskey 363 \ Peach Borer 109 149 273 Patents 338 

Education of Farmers 393 Eels 353 | Pruning 5 116 Pomolog. Manual 337 

Effects of Winter at Alb. &, at Rochester 161 ' Prosperous Times 337. 

Feeding Hogs 281 Fall Ploughing 370 \ Quebec Cattle Show S33. 

Fires S21 Fences 361 Flowers 179 185 Revenue of G. Britain 370 



Filberts 76 Fig Tree 85 234 Fish 29 53 
Floral Calendar 94 163 171 179 195 211 

218 227 234 265 266 
Flax 28 44 125 225 260 
Fruit and Fruit Trees 22 7" 193 201 265 

274 289 321 385 
"Flour 6 363 394 Foddering Cattle 36 
Grafting Grapes 125 Guinea Grass 37 
Grub or Peach Borer 109 149 273 
Gooseberries 101 109 -Geology 52 60 77 
Grafting 37 68 85 103 125 156 

Grafting Wax 37 Genesee Country 1 394 $ Sea Kale 61 134 Shade Tfafes 93 
Grapes and Grape Vines 2 12 20 29 37 45 ' ' 



Roses 20 193 
$ Real Estate Sale 315 Itain 217 
t Rochester Manufac's 410 Rabbits 233 
I Rail Road Statistics 315 Reflections 22 
SRens.Hoit. Soc. 93 Rosebug 134 
J Rochester Veg. Market 257 Rye 273. 
| Swamp Mud 202 Silk Culture 250 
fSalt Petre 162 Slips 29 Soap 162 
l Sunflower 20 Summer Fallows IS 
| Strawberries 173 233 262 314 Scions 5 
£ Sheep 28 53 124 193 305 411 
? Snow 46 62 Seed Coin 46 



93 125 202 233 289 297 321 345 353 
377 885 409 Gardens 169 170 
Grouting or Puddling 140 Gold 362 
Greenhouse Plants 305. 
Hogs 281 Hops 289 Hedging 386 



'Sweet Potatoes 109 Stocmsll8 314 
\ Shape of Trees 1 16 Sap in Plants 337 
\ Strawberry Apple 321 Siberian Crab 321 
' September Pear 321 Season, Sept. 289 
% Sugar from Beets 314 
% Smoky Chimneys 369 



Horticulture 377 242 250 282 306 313 149? Tanners' Convention 362 Timber 53 
Hampton Court Vine 202 Hessian Fly 202 \ Transplanting 9 Transfer Varnish 322 



Hay and Haymaking 210 227 227 
Harvesting Grain 217 House Plants 227 
Honey 241 Homminy 273 Hats 410 
Horses 69 133 157 109 177 179 185 217 

329 401 Horn Distemper 134 
Hints to Farmers 5 61 77 306 353 361 
Hotbeds 86 102 Hazlenuts 76. 
Introduction 1 Innoculating 217 



J Tariff Convention S46 353 

| The Farmer 354 362 

4 Terminology 5 11 30 38 53 61 

I Threshing Machines 132 Tulips 163 

* Tea 171 370 Toads 218 Turnips 21 



.> Tomatoes 233 266. 

* Temperature of April 14o May 171 



| COMMUNICATIONS. 

§ Apricots 308 A " Young Farmer" S3 
| Amer. Silk and Wine 42 
<|Ag. Almanac 90 Ag. Schools 114. 
; Benefits of Ag. Papers 383 Botany 150 
I Breeding Animals 309 Budding 228 
S Bees and Beehives 41 Bass Matting 97 
t Barley 105 126 244 Beer S32. 
t Cure for Salt Rheum 58 Carrots 67 
| Cider Apples 85 Cider 89 308 
5 Calves 89 93 Cock Turkey 82 
| Currant Wine 188 Caper Tree 9T 
'Curculio 196 293 Caterpillars 196 301 
? Cow Cabbage 244 Cherries 252 300 
?Coffee49 73 106 Cheap Paint 11 
I Chinese Mulberry 412 Coxe's View 308 
jCatalpa412 Currants 325 
i Cherries on Plum Stocks 332. 
£ Diseased Plants 204 "Dioecia"17 
Planting 100 'Diseased Fruit Trees 220 

£ Duration of Vegetable Life 372 

5 Dr. Spafford's Address 332 

I Dr. Spafford's Reply to E. Y. 374. 

I Eel 324 S56 Experiments 244 

' Effects of Winter at Grealfield 189 

5 Effects of Winter at Albany 161 

; Effects of Frost 73 " Economist" 41 . 

5 Fuel and Stoves 035 

* Flowers S89 Fish 324 Frosts 356 
I Fruit and Fruit Trees 808 Fire Blight 5 
i Fruit from D. Thomas 321 340 Flax 74 
| Fall Ploughing 373 397 
5 Fattening Hogs 105. 

I Grape Culture 801 Gooseberries 245 325 
| Grapes and Grape Vines S40 340 412 
"? Grafting the Vine 57 66 Green Crops 313 
$ Green House Plants 58 
\ Girdled Fruit Trees 41 Garden Insects 10."' 
\ Grub or Peach Borer 129 172 
$ Genesee Country 65 356 374. 
■JHort. Exhibition 212 Horse Beans 89 
^Hort. Conversations 244 Hotbed 17 34 
| Hints to Florists 286 Hawley's Address 4 

* Haymaking 237 Hemp 105 Hones 42 
I Hedging 373 Heaves 97 
g Hogs 42 Hams 97. 

i Irrigation 286 Indigestion 301 Insects 173 
j* Intemperance 381 Isabella Grape 412. 
| Judge Buel's Letter 33. 
\ Linnea?n Botanic Garden 308 
5 Lime Plant 42 Leghorn Bonnets 25 



i 



Lightning Rods 220 Locusts 187 212. 



u. 



States Debt 351 



'Mildew on Grapes 245 Mandrake 316 
Vegetable Oyster 14llM. Floy's list of Shrubs 57 82 113 121 



116 



INDEX 



Milk Sickness 310 Man Root SG 1 
Military Trainings 349 356 364 373 

381 381 389 405 Meteors 66 
Means of inducing fertility in Fruit trees 404 \ Culture of Fruit Trees 395. 



| Calcareous Manures 342 Corn Crops 395 
J Chapin's Address 357 364 Cider 399 
« Cobbett's First Love 384 Clover Mill 399 



Meadow Mice 34. 

Nurseryman 82 121 2l3 Nectarine S08 

N. E. Storms 41 49. 

Oyster Ponds 74 Okra 260. 

Peaches 292 Parasitic Plant 285 

Primrose 121 Planting 380 Pruning 17 

Potatoe Onions 51 Preserving Butter 11 

Plants in bloom 11 mo. 20. 389 

Plugging Trees 389 Poison Ivy 373 

Pigeons 284 324 S96 Potatoes 348 396 

Petrifactions 228 252 277 Peas 97 

Pear on Apple Stocks 106 

Prickly Comfrey 90. 

" Q" s Criticisms 213 236 237 252 276 

285 293 325 Quince Trees 380. 
Robbing Gardens 34 Rabbits 137 204 
Rhubarb 81. 

Sea Kale 81 Slips 57 Snow Storm 89 
Silk Culture 49 66 Shade Trees 343 364 
Sheep 26 58 Spring 97 Seed Corn 213 
Southern Rail Road 316 Snails 277 
Sweet Potatoe 41 50 137 309 364 380 
Slate Manufacture 285 Squashes 381 
Snowball and High Cranberry 57 
Spontaneous Vegetation 3 25 34 



g Cobb's Manual 406. 

«; Domes. Hort. Soc. 357 Ditching 267 

I Diversity of Temperature 27 

| Deception in Flowers 286 

| Durability of Timber 296 

j Dr. Cutbush's Address 347 

i First and Last Census 48 

| Ergot in Spear Grass 75 

„ Effects of Agri Societies 382. 

| Fire Department 360 Flowers 166 

* Farm School for the Poor 415 






Fattening Hogs 355 Flour Mill 355 



£ National Prosperity 400. 

£ Onions 106 Okra 211 Oats 227 

| Orange Farm 83 131 190 

| Orchard Grass 298. Orcadian Sketches 36P 

f Penn. Hort. Exhibition 197 Pigs 298 272 

£ Plugging Trees 56 Pears 83 93 107 27 

| Potatoe Cheese 54 299 Pork 382 

g Potatoes 51 56 83 158 182 

* Premium Agri. Essays 99 

SPeas 75 91 290 

,>Pork and Whiskey 376 

I Prince's Hort. 74 Prince's Nursery 366 

5 Peaches and Peach Trees 126 150 215 262 

| 271 Penn. Canal Expend. 402 

| Packing Butter 310 350. 

I Quinoa 394. 



V s „ . Z„ *"° ""tune Lirape 

Sugar from Potatoes 380. Sachrometer 49 $ Grape Butter 331 Graftine 134 



The Eclipse 53 Talavera Wheat 89 
Tea Plant 106 Temperature 129 
Transplanting 17 Tomatoes 293 
Threshing Machines 285. 
Use of Salt in Ag. and Manufactures 50 
U. States and England 332. 
Vegetable Life 81 113 228 245 
Vitality of Plants 11 



i r aliening nogs 355 Mour Mill 355 I Quinoa 39 

t Farmer's Work Feb. 54 Mar. 88 May 138 | Radishes 190 Robbing Gardens 18 88 

| June 181 189 197 July and August 247 J Roller 181 189 Rouge Plant 147 

| Sept. 295 Der. 403 » Recipes 23 80 171 256 263 359 

| Fruit and Fruit Trees 160 175 181 245 268 t Reus. Hort. Soc. 46 93 168 203 267 

> 274 275 278 290 302 395 S Rural Cemetery, Boston 205 214 

* Flax 225 237 245 253 260 ? Report on Farms. Bristol, Ms 350 

' b oddering Cattle 27 Female Industry 294 '* Royal Printing Office, Paris 328 

I Flour 47 48 70 87 248 355 Figs 290 334 < Rep. of View. Com. Jeff. Co. Ae. Soc 3^6 

> t rench Agri. 307 Farms 59 239 243 \ Rail Road Celebration 312. 

} Geology 7 26 38 Grass Grounds 382 f Silk Culture 46 80 83 91 107 114 122 126 

5 Gov. Throop's Proc. 343 Grain 95 ? 167 182 198 231 243 275 278 279 294 310 

§ Grapes and GrapeVines 67 91 152 155 172$ 318 331 339 347 363 371 374 387 406 

% Sedgwick's Address 51 Stock Farm 131 
\ Spayed Cows 147 Shallow Sowing 219 
I Sheep 122 145 175 181 271 Swine 334 
\ Spesutia Farm 218 Swiss Chard 203 
| Strawberries 262 268 277 286 
| Shakers 254 Spurred Rye 235 
| Sweet Potatoes 220 302 334 



% 174 180 203 Grafting Grapes 125 



% Greville's China Rose 51 
| Gooseberries 175 215 245 339 
% Green Dressing 115 123 
i Grain on Light Soils 407. 
Hay and Haymaking 195 221 230 



I Hemp 225 237 245 253 260 319 Hops 48 \ Sugar from Beets 160 Stout's Address 13 
Horses 64 133 141 146 1S9 176 184 185 I Salt for Milk Cows 15 Saving Seed. 33. 
251 258 302 359 383 Hogs 163 \ Sunflower Oil 16 379 



S 



m 7.i w 1 » „r , , |„ al * ao d0B d3B 383 Hogs 163 \ Sunflower Oil 16 379 

„ ,, J~ % , ^ ire Worm s43 Wabash 413 j Hints to Farmers 411 House Keeping 415 X Staves and Heading 352 
Wild Black Cherry 237 260 \ Horticulture 328 Ham, 17,1 P b \ Star* AcriSnr A 11 A 



Wild Black Cherry 237 260 
Webster's Dictionary 405 
" X " 42. 



I Horticulture 328 Hams 174 

^ Hudson and Ohio Rail Road 344. 

I Imprisonment for Debt 343 

g Improved Lands 205 Improved Stock "3 

,.Indian Corn 130 139 152 175 181 231 



323 

8 298. 



SELECTIONS, 

Alb. Co. Ag. Report, 1830 43 do. 1831 402 I , ta J ian Agri ; '" Ice Houses 399 
Agricultural Education 167 216 1 Influence of Chmate on Plants 316 

Agri. Board 98 Apricots 223 I , ro " Ma ™ftclures 399 Insects IS 

Agri. Hofwyl 317 Amer. Navy 352 W^»' Le " er l41 

Agri. Conven. 411 413 Amer. Rivers 376 J l^:,^!"- Soc ' 3 ° 6 ' 
Alb. Co. Hort. Soc. 150 163 295 298 203 i„ y . S Address 390 39T 

215 242 Amer. Silk 318 Apples 152 I £-? P r, & farmer's Accounts23l 
Amer. Wine 403 Alabama Wine 408 \ , ''" Dned Corn 402 - 

Asparagus 174 Agave Americana 219. t d" 16 , J 81 Lightning Rods 220 

Bees and Beehives 56 126 139 152 155 174? , Ka y de Chaumom's Address 153 164 

234 £82 Bloating in Cattle 46 Botts 59 \ T^ 6 P ™ duce 371 39/ Lamhs 230 
Buffalo Berry Tree 139 251 Barley 160 ^iberia Colonists 287 Locusts 209 
Butter 166 310 350 Budding 269 1 l' Ve l e " c r es 355 382. 

Barnard's Letters 96 102 104 112 1»0 1«8 t™ g Wurtzel 106 Milk Cows 158 5 

136 144 199 Broom Corn Whiskey 392 J mE-T" 1? lS ?J 39 174 222 22ii 2 « 
Blidn in Pear Trees 359 *S1 . oy i, l,st of Trees and Shrubs 26 3£ 

Market Garden at Paris 269 



158 207 



State Agri. Soc. 411 413 
5 System in Farming 411 
$ Sayings for Farmers 411 
*, Strange Affection 407 
§ Stockfeeding in Ohio 400. 
| Tulips 166 Turnips 190 Tomatoes 269 
|Topdressing Grass Grounds 198 
< Transplanting Trees 206 
|T:rnip Butterfly 222 
? Taliacotian Operation 400 
$ Temperance 375 391. 
5 Use of Snow 19 Underdraing 286 338 
I Unfermented Manures 19. 
5 Village Gardens 58. 

i Wheat 27 56 78 141 174 182 192 211 235 
t 243 283 338 Wild Rice 130 
% Wool 24 70 130 255 Weril 270 
J Zinc Ware 190. 

I POETRY. 

e 1 



Birds and Insects 411. 
Chloride of Lime 19 167 



6~35 42 r 6 104176 25 6 271 328 344 352 376 408 41c. 



Cellars 272 



>M 



r. Coke, Eng. Farmer 251 



Census N.York 7 Arkansas 15 Mississippi \ » oral doughboy 254 Melons 152 189 

15 Cities and Towns 16 U. States 152 416 \ », ,ms , for Ma "'ed Ladies 243 
Currant Wine 220 Cream Cheese 203 \ m". Inducin ? fertility hi Fruit trees 404 : 
Cattle 145 147 158 166 196 | ^{ount Auburn Cemetery 318 383 

Cucumbers 189 Canal Tolls 312 $ "J ontreal Cattle Show 339 J 

Calves 90 Carpet Weaving 78 % v' lk S 'ckness 340. 

(Jure for Consumption 118 Castor Oil 290 $ x T ec,arlne . s I . 1 5 * 21 5 Na ""- a ' History 6 7 
Criminal Suits against Animals 18 t ^ 0,es °" Mlch| gan 158 " 

Chii 



MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS. 



27 

47 
70 

87 



30 

48 
71 

88 



31 
54 
72 
91 



32 
55 
75 
95 




7 15 19 23 24 

35 38 39 40 46 

56 59 62 63 64 

78 79 80 83 86 

99 110 111 119 126 127 134 135 136 
139 142 143 144 151 152 158 159 167 
175 176 182 183 184 191 195 200 207 
208 215 216 224 231 232 240 243 247 
248 255 256 263 264 268 271 272 275 
279 280 295 296 302 303 304 312 315 
320 328 334 335 336 338 344 368 39? 
415. 






VOLUME I. 




KOCHESTER, JANUARY 1, 1831. 



NUMBRR I. 



THE GENESEE FARMER 

AND GARDENER'S JOURNAL. 



Devoted to Agriculture, Horticulture, Domestic Econo- 
my, &e. Af 



The first number of a paper under the above 
title, was published at Rochester, on Saturday. 
Jan. 1, 1831 — conducted by a gentleman long 
experienced in the science of Agriculture, Hor- 
ticulture, and other gsetul arts, assisted by man) 
of the best practical firmers in this section of 
the country, and particularly by some of the 
Jlfambers of the Western and Sloaroe County 
Horticultural Societies. 

No part of the world is more richly blessed 
with soil and climate, for a great and flourish 
ing Agricultural and Horticultural interest, 
than the western part of the state of New York 
— that part called Old Genesee. Thi6 section 
of country is supposed by competent judges to 
be as favorable to the growth of the Vine and 
'fulborry as the middle of France ; and as wine 
and silk are becoming matters of national in- 
terest and legislation, a portion of ihe columns 
of the Farmer will be devoted to these sub- 
jects. 

This section of country has become densely 
populated with an industrious and thriving 
lass of Citizens, who have made themselves 
rich by their own labors and who have now ac 
quired ihe time and means of becomiug The- 
oretically and Practically learned in the arts for 
cultivating Scientifically the soil they have gn 
lately reclaimed from the wilderness & prepar- 
ed for the highest stale of Agriculture. While 
must otherbrar.ches of science have been pro- 
gressing, aided by the unwearied eiertionsof 
men of learning and invention ; and while 
practical improvements have flowed like a 
stream from the press, Agriculture and Horti- 
culture (twin-sisters) have been comparatively 
speak.ng, neglected and forgotten ; and those 
who have been pursuing the primitive mode: 
of tillage for subsistencehave been left to strug 
gle onward, (maided in their progress byjthosc 
means which have been given to other bran 
cbes of science, and which have proved the 
cause of their rapid advancement. 

These are among the reasons that have indu 
••.edthe subscribers to embark in the cnterprize, 
and to direct ii part of their tirr e and attemion 
to the diffusion 'of Agricultural and Horticul- 
lural information which will occupy a lar«e por- 
tion of their paper. 

They further expect through the aid of the 
Franklin Institute of this place to be able oc- 
casionally to present such essays as shall he 
Thought useful in meehanical Philosophy. 

The undertaking is one which must neces- 
sarily require much labor and expense in its 
prosecution, and without the aid of a liberal 
patronage cannot long be sustained ; yet aware 
of all these difficulties to be encountered, the 
subscribers flatter themselves that, if they suc- 
ceed in rendering their paper worthy of sup 
port, itp merits will be duly appreciated by an 
enlightened community, and their labors re- 
warded in proportion to the profitable informa- 
tion distributed to their Patrons. 

In addition to the above there will be pub 
iVied monthly aMetesrologica! Table, givin-> 



the temperature and slate of the Atmosphere, 
course of the winds, &c It will also contain 
> Horticultural and Pomological register; giv- 
ing the time of leafing and blossoming o plants, 
and the time of ripening of the various kinds 
of fruit, lor the benefit of those who reside in 
different latitudes, as well as to compare dif- 
ferent seasons in the same latitude. 

ST A Price Current and Bank Note Table, 
carefully corrected each week, will be given. 

The paper will be printed every Saturday, 
in quarto form, ob fine paper and fair type, ma- 
king 416 pages a year, besides a Title Page and 
Index, at $"2,50 per annum, payable in six 
months, or $2,00, if paid at the time of sub 
scribing. 

TUCKER & STEA'ENS. 

Rochester, Jan. 1, 1631. 



Editors who will give the above two or three inser- 
tions, will confer a favor which will be reciprocated the 
first opportunity. 



HTJMBER ONE. 

We are aware that this season of the year is 
rather an unfavorable time to commence a work 
like this, when every subjeotof whiohwc shall 
treat is frozen in " thick ribbed ice," — the 
field, the garden, and the forest, shorn of their 
glorias, dressed in the habiliments of death, 
have gone to their night of repose ; and man, 
with his fine bounding animal spirits, which 
expand and exhilarate the frame at the return 
of spring and the re-appearance of all things 
that are fair — he whose " eye in a fine frenzy 
rolling, doth glance fiom heaven to earth, from 
earth to heaven" — now frigid and torpid, driv 
en like the " silvery sap" of vegetables to their 
hidden recesses — we say. that this period. when 
all things aro a " chaos of hard clay," mav he 
rather an unfavorable one to commence our 
work ,of which this number is a specimen ; but 
as this little plant is the only one of the class. 
;>rdor, genus, or species, of the kind, in this 
Slate, except a monthly publication in ISew 
York city, we intend to nurse it with peculiar 
care, and fondly hope that this bud which we 
now set will increase and multiply, blossom 
and bear fruit to the satisfaction of all concern- 
ed. With this number we strike off, and shall 
continue at that ratio 1000 copies, trustin" 
that when the genial sun of public approbation 
and liberality shall kindle it into life, the bene- 
fits on the score of mutuality may be in favor of 
our patrons. We shall not be disappointed 
nor discouragi d if a part of our edition should 
lie dormant for a while, until the season of hy 
bernation, both of the animal and vegetable 
systems, shall pass away. 

In the mean, time, maugre as the season is 
with subjects, we hope to be able, not only to 
assure but to instruct a great portion of our rea- 
ders by uch suggestions on general topics, and 
such philosophical speculations as our experi 
ence and research has endowed ns with, to 
gether with the kind favors we anticipate from 
a large and able promised correspondence, and 
selective facts, regarding the physiology of the 
vegetable kingdom, from staple authors and 
periodical works as we shall regard worth the 
attention of our readers. With this peroration, 
I we make our congee to our patrons. * 



GENESEE COUNTRY. 

We were forcibly struck with the wonder 
ful and magic change that the region once cal 
led the "Genesee Country," has undergone 
in the brief space of thirty years— brief space 
because many of our readers can look back te 
that length of time as yesterday, and see in the 
mirror of memory events shadowed forth with 
more palpable boldness and reality than even 
the events of yesterday. We say we were 
forcibly effected by the wonderful change of 
thirty years on looking over a little work pub- 
lished by the Messrs. T. A- J. Sword in 1799 
ontitled, " A Series of Letters from a Gentle- 
man to his Friend, describing the Genese« 
Country." He says, " in 1790, all that part oi 
the Stale, lying west of the above mentioned 
line to lake Ontario, including the Genesee 
Country, was ereoted into a county by the name 
of Ontario ; it is bounded on the north by lake 
Ontario, on the west by Niagara river, and lake 
Erie; on the south by Pennsylvania, and on the 
east by the counties of Tioga and Onondaga.'' 
" In 1796, a printing office was established in 
the town of Eatb, entitled the Bath Gazette— 
another paper is also printed in the Genesee, en- 
titled the Ontario Gazette, The same year a 
sloop of forty tons was built and launched on 
the Genesee lake." 

Quere? Where was the •■ Ontario Gazette" 
printed, and where is the " Genesee lake?" 

That portion ofcountry once called ihe ''Ge- 
nesee Country," although its exact boundaries 
were rather vague and uncertain, probably now 
contains some two hundred towns with more 
than 800,000 inhabitants, with cities and villa- 
ges at every four corners, and newspapers as 
thick as blackberries. The Genesee Country, 
at that time a wilderness of forest, now teems 
with an active, industrious and wholesome po- 
pulation. The forests have fallen uefore the 
axe, and the bread stuffs, and all the luxuries of 
life arise behind the plough share, and the 
young lion of the west, from a purblind whelp, 
now shews his gnashing fangs and bristles his 
waving mane, in proud confidence to ihe mam- 
moth of the east. Possessing one of the most 
luxurious soils of the globe, with a climate that 
for mildness will compare with New Jersey and 
Pennsylvania, and situated on the great inland 
seas of America, the production of their soil 
can lay under contribution Quebec and Mon- 
treal, New York, Boston, and the cities of the 
east— New Orleans— even (under the modern 
discoveries which defy time and space) Colum- 
bia rivar, and Kamschatka. These are not 
chateaus d' Espagne, and Time, that old hoary 
headed truth-teller,will endorse it a '"true bill." 
Feeling, as we do, the importance and wo.th 
of the Genesee Countiy, we trust our reader? 

will not ihink the title of our paper "The 

Genesee Farmer"— too local or trivial to pat- 
ronize it even beyond the counties of "Tioaa. 
and Onondaga;" and although they may ask 
what good can come out ofGallilee, like tbem 
of old let them wait, and hear what he hath to 
say for himself. » 



BtFTwo weeks will elapse before tho pub- 
lication of No. 2, after which this paper wilfc 
be published every Satnrday. 



2 



THE GENESEE FARMER 



Jan. 1, 1831. 



THE VINE. 

There is "°t a section of country in the 
United States better adapted to the growth 
of the vine than that bordering onthesoui" 
side lfLak? Ontario, taking intoconsideratiun 
climate and soil; and so far as experiments 
have been made, most of the European varie- 
ties, which have been introduced into this sec 
lion, have endured our winters without any pro 
tection, as well, apparently, as they do in th> 
middle of Fiance. There is, upon the south 
side of tho Lake, a glade of land, stretching al- 
most the whole length of it, from east to west 
and varying in width from three to eight miles 
of aligln sandy soil, deep and dry, and dis'in 
"uished bvthe name of Oak, Lands, or (Jali O- 
ptninns. These lands are extremely well cal- 
culated for vineyards, as it is acknowledged 
that few lands are too dry for vines. Another 
important advantage this country has over the 
territory for the first hundred miles south is 
the influence the lake has upon the atmosphere. 
In the spring vegetation is not so forward as i; 
is farther south, the difference being often 
ten days in the first fifty miles. This retarding 
of vegetation on the shores of the lake, secure- 
fruit from late frosts in the spring. Again, in 
the fall, as the early frosts are generally accom 
pained with moderate northerly winds which 
moving across tho waters, become charged 
■with exhalations from the Lake, which, being 
warmer than t'ue atmosphere, is condensed an/ 
i9 driven several miles inland, preventing the 
frost as far as it extends ; owing t» this circum- 
stance vegetation continues fresh a? late as it 
does as far south as New Jersey or Pennsy! 
vania. The influence of the lake is quite con- 
siderable during mid-summer by preventing the 
scorching heat which injures grapes in south- 
ern latitudes ; and it is well known that tem 
perate climates are best for the vine. It has 
been said that in this latitude in the United 
States, the seasons were not long enough for 
the perfection of grapes. This is not the case 
as I have eaten grapes this season which were 
the second crop, and were ripe before frost 
had checked the vegetation of the Vines. — 
Theygrew in the garden of G. H. Holden, E.-q. 
on the shore of the lake, at the mouth of Gen- 
esee river ; and it I were to judge from the 
growth, the Vineswere as much accommodated 
as to soil and climate as any Vines I ever saw. 
They had been planted out but one season 
before the past, during which thev made shoots 
from Ifteen to twenty feet in length, and as 
thick as a man's thumb, which were remarka- 
bly short jointed. In this neighborhood, I 
have examined Isabella grape Vines which 
have grown twenty feet the past season, and 
ripened the wood perfectly. 

These facts go far to prove that the county of 
Monroe is a good location for Vineyard*, and 
we hope soon to =ee our farmers as much en- 
gaged in making wine as they arc at present in 
making cider. It maybe asked, if this section 
is so natural to Grapes, why do we not find the 
native fox grape growing upon those lands 1 — 
Because nature had not providoior completed 
any method by which the seeds of the fox 
grape should be scattered over tho face of this 
country. The fox grape is not often eaten by 
birds, and if so it is at a season when birds are 
emigrating to the south, and the seeds would 
be carried in an opposite direction, as there 



are none found growing wild north of the 
lakes. But these observations will not apply 
to the ch-ken or frost grape, which, from its 
• ize & time of ripening, is readily destroyed by 
birds. These grapes often remain hanging u- 
pon ihe Vines until spring, and >t may be 
readily imagined that they would thus be trans- 
pi rted to every part of the United States. 
which we find is the case, and particularly the 
district spoken of, and if any easy method 
could be found out of grafting the fox or Eu- 
ropean upon the wild frost grape stocks then 
an- already vines enoush growing in this vt 
cinity to furnish the country with wine. We 
i herefore invite our readers or any oher per- 
son who mny possess practical information u- 
pon tins subject to communicate the same thro' 
:his paper for the benefit of the public. 
CIDER. 

Perhaps there is not in the whole round of 
farming any one operation more neglected than 
Cider making. Cider, when well manufactur- 
ed, is a cheap and wholesome beverage, and 
one of the readiest substitu;cs for wine which 
our country can afford; but when it is made in 
•i slovenlv negligent manner anil allowed to 
run imo the acetous fermentation, it has a very 
deleterious effect upon the constituiion. 

A little aiti ntion to facts will inure a fine 
arttclo in this section of the country, which is 
one of the finest in the world for produ- 
cing the apple in perfection Many attempts 
have been made to increase the strength of Ci- 
der, such as boiling the must, freezing, adding 
spirits, &c. all of which have a direct tenden- 
cy !o destroy the fine vinous flavor accompany- 
ing the well made article. Much is said is to 
particular kinds of apples, withoul which good 
Cider cannot be made. Now th is is all a mis- 
take — not but that some apples coniain more 
malic or tartaric acid and sacharine matter than 
others, and will of course make a stronger li- 
quor ; some also possess peculiar flavor which 
is desirable — but any of our apples, produ- 
ced by common orchards, are c tpable of ma- 
king what is called first rate Cider, and of suf- 
ficient strength for the temperate use of any 
man. First let the apples be gathered free 
from leaves, but more particularly from rotten 
or decayed ones, as both these will communi 
cate a bad taste to the cider, which cannot be 
got rid of after it is made — apples should not 
be allowed to lie too long in a heap as they 
sometimes contract a bad flavor, and it is not 
as important that apples should be perfectly 
ripo, as has generally been supposed, as green 
apples make good Cidor. After the juice has 
been pressed out and carried to the cellar or 
placo where it is to be fermented, the better 
way is to put it into vats or tubs. It should re- 
main in this situation until the fermentation 
has brought all the pumice to the top in a thick 
scum; it should then he drawn off. through a 
hole near the bottom, into barrels, passing it 
through a number of thicknesses of flannel pla 
ced in the tunnel, or what is -till better, thro' 
alternate layers of sand and flannel, which will 
more completely retain all the feculent matter, 
which is the thing desired iu this operation. — 
Let the casks, into which the Cider is to be 
drawn,be made perfectly clean before they are 
filled, after which they may be left with the 
bungs out for a short time, during which the 
operator should frequently taste the liquor to 



watch the progress ofthr fermentation, (which 
will be very slow;) when it has advanced far 
enough, and the Cider has acquired sufficient 
body, there should be added about two quarts 
of skim milk to each barrel, and well incorpo- 
rated with the Cider, either by drawing off a 
part of it and returning it, or by means of a 
stick introduced at the bung. Let the cask 
low be bunged perfectly tight, and set in a cool 
place for two months, after which it may again 
be racked, when it is wished to be kept thro' 
the summei or may be drawn from the cask 
for use. When Cider has been allowed to fer- 
ment in barrels it should be racked off" as soon 
as the white bubbles begin to appear on the 
surface, strained, fined and bunged as above, 
which will always insure a fine and pleasant 
beverage. 



VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY— NO. 1. 

In commencing this paper, the editors are desirous 
to begin with the first rudiments of those branches 
of science to which it is to be principally devoted, in 
order to render it a complete text-book for the prac- 
tical Farmer and Horticulturist. In doing which, 
they are not to suppose that each reader has become 
perfectly acquainted with every branch of science of 
the present day, and therefore they ask the indulgent < 
of those who have become more perfectly acquainted 
in those branches, to introduce some of the Leading 
principles of systematic Botany. When we consider 
that Agriculture and Horticulture are so immediatel) 
connected with this study, and that much of the sne 
cess in either must depend upon the knowledge the 
pperator has of this science, we are convinced of th< 
necessity of becoming at least familiar with the more 
common laws which govern the Vegetable kingdom. 
It does not follow that each farmer or gardener, in 
order to avail himself of the improvements of the 
present day, should become a profound Botanist ; — 
but a very little attention to the subject will convince 
him that the most of the modern improvements arc 
far from having been accidental, and in order to a- 
vail themselves of similar improvements it is neces 
sary that they should become familiar with (hose 
functions of Vegetables which may be denominated 
Vegetable Physiology. 

It has been found necessary in every branch ofsci 
ence, in order to express the multitude of objects in- 
cluded, to make use of certain technical terms, cho, 
sen for the sake of brevity and perspicuity; these 
phrases are often perplexing to those who do not fee] 
a particular interest In that branch in which the; are 
used, and the editors will studiously avoid all 
such as do not appear necessary for the benefit of tin 
readers. 

Philosophers have divided all matter into tuoclas- 
jses — organized and unorganized bodies. Annua! 
and plants belong to the former, and minerals in the 
latter. This arrangement is again divided into sei 
sibleand insensible. Sensibility is confined t<> an 
mals; but Irritability, Contractibility, and Elasticity, 
bclnng in all organized bodies. 

Oneofthc most useful, interesting, and amusing 
parts of the study of Vegetable Physiology, is th, 
fructification and reproduction ofplants. 

That plants are endowed with sexual organs, and 
are capable of reproducing their kind according to 

given l:e\s, isa t.iet so generally admitted as 1 < 

no argument in its favour, and from a knowledge of 
those laws the justly celebrated T. A. Knight, now 
President of the Horticultural Societj of London. 
has been enabled to make those improvements which 
laitl the foundation of his exalted reputation. — 

This reprodction, or continuation plants 

is the seed containing in embrio ihe rudiments of the 
riew plants, and although the last produce of main 
plants, (this, together with the blossom, will first 
come under consideration. 



Vol. 1.— No 1. 



AND GARDENER'S JOURNAL. 



Every perfect Flower is composed of seven ele- 
mentary organs, including the seed vessels and seed, 
and the receptacle, stem, or base on which the other 
parts rest, and by which they are connected with 
the plant. There are a number of other appendages 
attached to some flowers whieh seem as if designed 
by nature to facilitate, though not essential to, the 
reproduction of plants ; as the nectary or part con- 
taining honey, which seems designed, in the econo- 
my of nature, to allure bees and other insects which 
pass over the stamens and pistils of the plants and 
greatly assist the fecundation of the latter. 

The seven elementary organs of a Flower arc as 
follow, viz : 

1. Calyx.— The outer covering of the flower before 
it is expanded : its colour is generally green. The 
poppy affords a familiar example. 
■2. Curol— The coloured leaves of the flower which 

arc included in the Calyx. 
3. Stamens.— The mealy knobs supported on the 
ends of small fillaments ; they contain the pollen 
of the plant. These are considered the male or- 
gans and on their number and situation is founded 
the artificial classification of Linnseus. 
I. PutS. — The central organ of the flower, projec- 
ting from the pericarp orseed-vesscl. This is con- 
sidered the female part of the flower ; and without 
this no flower will produce seed. 

5. Pericarp. — The vessel which contains the seed 
whether a pood, as in the bean and cabbage, or a 
pulpy substance, as th" apple, currant, or mellon 

6. Seed.— Containing the rudiments of the young 
plant. 

7. Receptacle. — The stem or base on which the 
other six parts rest, and connecting them with the 
plant. 

The Seed is divided into four essential parts, viz : 
1st. Corclc— The embryo of the new plant, which 

exhibits the plume or top, and the rostil or root of 

the new plant. 
2d. Cotladojis.— The thick fleshy lobes of the seed, 

which, rising above the ground, when the seeds 

germinate, become the seed leaves. 
3d. Tegument. — The skin or bark of seeds which 

separate from the lobes when the seeds germinate. 
1th. Hilum. — The external scar to whieh the 

membrane is attached, by whieh the young seed 

is suspended in the receptacle, and through which 

nutriment is conveyed to the young seed in 'ts 

immature state. 



SPONTANEOUS VEGETATION. 

" And God said, let the earth bring forth grass., the 
herb yielding seed, and the fruit-tree yiebting fruit, 
after his kind, whose seed is in itself upon the earth ; — 
and it was so." — Gen. 1, 11. 

Messrs. Editors. — I perceive, by the papers, 
that you are about to publish a weekly work, devo- 
ted to the arts of farming and gardening and other 
branches connected therewith. Now, as 1 have a 
little taste that way, beyond the mere "ditching and 
hedging," appertaining to 'those pursuits, and am 
heartily tired with the point-no-point politics of the 
day; I am determined" to give up entirely that un 
profitable contest, which is very justly said to be " the 
strife of the many for the good of the few." 

I am truly glad to find the country is about to be 
served with a paper, which, if it is as well conducted 
as you promise and the talent of the country wai rants* 
will be a most important desideratum, and the vehicle 
of doing much good. 

The following remarks and speculations are sent 
to you for the purpose r{ helping you to start, as all 
new machines move rather hard at first ; and to so- 
licit the opinions and suggestions of your readers and 
correspondents. 

I ask, what is the cause of the apparent self-pro. 
duction of many weeds and plants, and the probabil- 
ities whether they are spontaneously produced, or 
whether they are the produce of a former parent, 
"yielding seed after its kind." 



It is a well known fact that, on clearing up a new 
country, thousands of weeds, herbs, and grasses, 
pring up almost simultaneously, as though they were 
all sown atone time and by some invisible hand. 

There are several kinds of vegetables that only 
seem to acquire life by fire, and the more intense the 
greater theproduct. I have known the bird cherry 
to come up as thick as I have ever seon flax growing 
in the field, the seeds of which must have lain dor- 
mant for numbers of years, until a great fire laid 
waste the forest and revivified them into life. I 
once saw a piece of intervale which had laid in n 
natural pasture for more than twenty years, ploughed, 
immediately planted to corn on the turf ; on which 
:prung up all those common kinds of noxious weeds 
that commonly infest the oldest cornfields. I once 
knew a field, which, 19 years before, had borne tur- 
nips, and subsequently had lain as pasture and mead- 
ow, on being ploughed up, came up with turnips al- 
most thick enough for a crop. I once came into the 
possession of a lot of land on which was a wood- 
vard, which had been used as such for about thirty 
years. About 4 square rods of which was fenced 
into the garden, from whence was t aken about 60 
loads of chip manure. After coming to the surface 
earth, it appeared so good and in so fine order that 
I planted it with onions, but in a few days there arose 
such innumerable hosts of every thing but onions, 
that it seemed like Hamlet's " unweeded Garden, 
things rank and gross possessed it merely." 

Again. Marl, which is dug and transported consid- 
erable distances as a manure, is taken'put of pits 10 
to 20 feet in depth pieces of which have been taken 
immediately from the pit, covered with glass, kept 
wet and exposed to light, and in a short time white 
clover has sprung up, grown and matured itself. It 
is a well known fact that seeds sown too deep in the 
earth rot and will not grow; and farmers and gard- 
ners are often disappointed, during a wet spring, par- 
ticularly, on having to plant a second time :— In fact, 
we know of no instance of any of our field or garden 
eeds lying in the ground over the year and then 
coming up. 

Now the question I demand is, Whence come all 
of these cases of Vegetation ? Were they produced 
naturally from the earth without seed ? Do we live 
in a day of [miracles, when material "form, shape, 
and comeliness," spring from nothing? Will a hun" 
dred grains of sand, congregated together under any 
circumstance, produce a pig-weed large enough for 
the birds of heaven to rest upon ? Or, are they all 
produced from seed, after its own kind, which have 
'ain buried for 10, 30, or nan hundreds of years, be- 
yond the reach of light or heat ? and if so, why have 
they not shared, by decomposition, the fate of all other 
vegetable matter ? A. B 



peach or contagion in tbo animal Bjii'.em— 
which is analogous to appoplexy, or perhaps 
gangrene. 

Some writers alledge that seedling trees, and 
new seedling grafts on sebdling stock, are not 
effected. Others that confinement in close 
planted orchards, and want of circulation of air 
is the cause. Others that those trees which 
blight have a long tap root that runs deep into 
the earth and brings up water as sap which is 
not charged with carbonic acid and the salts 
of the surface, and kills the tree, as taking too 
much cold water does into the animal stomach , 
or introducing it into an artery of a living sub- 
ject; and another person, well skilled in these 
matters, says that he has lost all of his trees 
(20 or 30) in the crotches of which he has not 
hung old scythes, sickles, chains and other 
heavy iron articles. Now, who shall decide 
when doctors disagree ? The conjectures are 
as various as the minds employed in investiga- 
ting the subject. 

The vulgar term, fire blight is in reality not 
badly chosen — for the appearance is the very 
same 36 1 have observed in trees that have stood 
so near a fire as to have their leaves scorch»d 
and the vitality of the small branches destroy- 
ed. Such a tree, in the course of three 
or four days, puts on exactly the same appear- 
ance and smell as the blight. 

Now comes my hypothesis. Is not the 
eause, the primum mobile of this destructive 
diseaoe some defect, in the leaves, which arc 
the lungs of the plant, and which elaborates 
the sap and without which neither the venous 
ncr arterial system can proceed — the rising sap 
accumulates, stagnates, firmentalion commen- 
ce*, heat is generated, acetous acid is formed, 
which would produce exactly the state of things 
wo find in the blighted tree. 

The leaves may become unhealthv by excre- 
ting some morbid or acrid substance, or by ho- 
ney dew. which as yet is not satisfactorily ex- 
plained, or by some small insects destroying 
the secreting or excreting vessels of the leaf or 
puncturing the pettiole and desiroying the tubes 
that carry and return the sap, at a period when 
the tree is too far exhausted by bearing and 
the lateness of the season to push out the new 
bud. H Y. 

West Bloomtield, 26th 12th mo. 1830. 



FIRE BLIGHT. , 

Messrs. Emtors— I see by the papers, and 
learn from persons from various quarters, that 
blight, or fire blight, as it is called, is producing 
great ravages on apple, quince, and particularly 
on pear trees, of the grafted and best kinds, 
which threatens total annihilation to some of 
the finest varieties hitherto known ; and as the 
same disease is obtaining in this country, many 
instances of which I observed the past setson, 
I beg leave to add my mite to the stock of con- 
jecture, which seems to be the only advance- 
ment that the best physiologists of the coun- 
try have as yet been ablo to oft'er as to its cause 
— in fact it seems to be shrouded in the most 
impenetrable veil of mystery, and as yet has 
eluded the closest and most critical analysis 
of our best Horticulturists. 

It has been imputed to a redundancy ofsip, 
a surfeit, to the too great heat of the sun, to in- 
sects and to disease received by impregnation 
of the blossom, analogous to the yellows in the 



Sy Those gentlemen to whom we have ta- 
ken the liberty to forward this number, and its 
extra, if they shall think favorably of the under- 
taking, and of the merits of the work, will ob- 
lige us by forwarding iheir names and those of 
am friend to whom such a paper as this would 
be desirable. As it is of its kind unique in this 
state, and intended lor genera! circulation, we 
expect to look abroad for a great part of our 
patronage 

O 3 The proprietors have undertaken the 
publication wi'h the determination of makiug it 
permanent : they therefore suggest to those 
gentlemen who would wish to see the Farmer 
become a durable and useful paper, the propri- 
ety of not only interesting themselves in its 
circulation but also of contributing to its col 
iimns. 

ACCTIONS- 

The duties paid by auctioneers in Philadel 
phia duriog the last quarter amount to $32, 
944.90. 



THE GENESEE FARMER 



Jan. 1,1831. 



H0RTICULTUR4I. 

SOCIETY OF MONROE: COOXTT. 

The following Address was prepared by a 
Committee appointed for the purpose, and 
submitted by Jesse Hawley, Esq. to the meet- 
ing at which was organized the Horticultural 
Society of the County of Monroe : 

Hobticdltobe, means the cultivation of a 
garden — in tho general icciptation it is exten- 
ded to include fruit and forost trees, also laud 
scape and flower, as well as culinary garden- 
ing- 

According to the Mosaic history, gardening 
Was the first occupation of man, taught by the 
Creator himself, to Adam: — "And tho Lord 
God planted a garden eastward in Eden, and 
there he put the man whom he had formed:" 
•'And God said, Behold I have given you cv 
ery herb bearing seed, which is upon the face 
of all the earth, and every tree in the which is 
the fruit of a tree yielding seed ; to you it shall 
be for meat :" — " And the Lord God took the 
man and put him in the garden to dress and 
keep it:" — and commanded him to " Be fruit- 
ful and multiply and replenish the earth, and 
subdue it." 

Hero then, we find the history of Horticul- 
ture commenceswith that of the creation ; un 
der the immediate superintendence of the Al- 
mighty Parent, on the day when he created 
Man with the Heavens and the Earth. 

How ancient the date! how natural the pur- 
suit, when we consider it as a part of the grand 
design of God in the creation of all things j 
for, in his enumeration of the generations of 
the heaven3 and the earth, and before the crea- 
tion of man, he said, " there was not a man to 
till the ground." 

How sublime tho idea, — when we further 
consider the moral design of the whole crea- 
tion, that man, by the toils of his labor in the 
peaceful and quiet pursuits of the tillage of the 
earth, should bo made to increase the means of 
the sustenance of his species; and by his con 
nubial affections, to multiply and replenish the 
human family, for tho purpose of increasing the 
number of souls for the Almighty Father to 
bless and save through the munificence of hi- 
Grace, as the only positivo act of duty which 
man could render to his God; all other acts of 
duty being necessarily relative, as rendered to 
his fellow man 1 

But Adam by his transgression, soon fell. 
and lost his garden with his innocence, and his 
primeval happiness ; and was turned out to till 
the crude ground " cursed for his sake, infested 
with thorns and thistles, and made to eat of it 
in sorrow all the days of his life." 

Tho posterity of Adam, for many ages and 
centuries afterwards, -was contented to subsist 
upon the wild and uncultivated productions of 
nature, in the field and in the forest. In this 
rude state, man was a pursuer of the chase — a 
hunter; in which condition it took many acres 
— a township of land, to subsist an individual 
A small increase in their numbers soon served 
to over-stock a portion of the country, then 
when the stronger began to cortend with the 
•weaker for the better choice, and from whence 
wars, conquests and desolation ensued among 
the vagrant tribes and hordes of men. Thi 
strife for his subsistence, made man ferocious 
an lus disposition tottrard his fellow-man; and 



thus we have been led to call him lavage while 
in the hunter state. 

The Indians of our forests, who still retain 
these primitive habits, well illustrate to us the 
miserable condition of human society in the 
early ages, for the pancity of their numbers; 
for their precarious and scanty means of sub- 
sistence ; for the coarseness of tho fare and fla- 
vor ot their food; and for the impotency of 
their skill, ingenuity, and productive labors to 
provide themselves with the comforts of life . I 
:n ail the vanetieo of food, raiment and shelter 
Irom tho weather. 
For many ages, man did surely eat his bread in sorrow ' 

With all the energies and resources of the 
human mind, man but slowly emerged and pro 
gressed from the hunter's, to the shepherd'.- 
Iife. Tho propagation of the flocks and herds 
of animals for the food of man, greatly increas- 
ed the means of subsistence and reduced the 
requisite acres for his supply, from thousands 
to hundreds. This increased supply of fcod 
Boftened the disposition and improved the mor- 
al character of man and fitted him for more so- 
cial habits — yet as be still increased in num 
bers there were strifes for right and choice a- 
mong them. Abraham, Lot, and Jacob, had 
iheii conflicts and difficulties respecting their 
possessions. 

It was even still slower that man made his 
advances from the shepherd, to the agricultur- 
ist, or farmer's life. 

The tillage of land, duly proportioned with! 
the propagation of flocks and herds, so mnch 



the past ; — until the human family shall increase- 
in the myriads of their numbers, corering the 
face of the earth " as the stars of the heavens: 
and as the sands which id upon the sea-shore." 

In taking a retrospect through the vista of 
time, the progressive improvement in nature 
is obvious — animals, by being domeslicateili 
by feeding, and by cross-breeding, have been 
made to advance from a wild buffalo of the wil- 
derness, to the many varieties in the herdt 
of our farm yards — vegetables, by redeeming 
ullage, by natural seedlings, selected and 
extended by inocculation, ingrafting and in- 
arching, have been made to advance from the 
oriental crab Apple up to the hnndred varie- 
ties of our orchards ; the delicious and melting 
Peach originated from the bitter Almond, and 
from which it is scarcely distinguished while 
it is in the green state. The rich and juicy 
Plumb from the wild stock of the hedges, 
which produce the uneatable haws. The. 
Egyptian corn, was formerly but little better 
than our illet seed. The Potatoe, in its o- 
riginal state, and which is still found in the val- 
ley of the Mississippi, was a small uneatable 
production, not larger than a walnut, by culti- 
vation has become a v?luable esculent, and 
with some nations, almost a staple article of 
human food. 

The first coffee tree planted in the island of 
Jamaica, was in 1728; the berries produced 
from this tree were sold at sixpence each, si/ 
rapid was the extention of its culture that in 21' 
years the exportation of coffee amounted tc 



farther increased the supplies of his food, as toij 60,0011 pounds ; and in SO years to nearly thirty 
reduce the requisite acres of land for his main- ij million pounds. The cotton of the southern 
tenance from hundreds to units— giving avast I states in the space of 40 years, has grown from 



deal more room for the progressive increase of 
his numbers; location and stability to his res- 
idence, with social and moral dispositions ; in- 
troduced the idea of each man holding tho right 
of his home and property in severalty; and 
producing a powerful excitement to individual 
industry and enterprize to acquire it — hence 
originated the purchase of farms for a fixed 
home and residence — this led to the re-intro- 
duction of Gardens, Orchards, &c. 

The Agricultural state of society called for 
stable governments, to guarantee and secure 
individuals in the quiet enjoyment of the pro- 
duct of their labor. 

When thus secured in tho fruits of his labor, 
man sought to extend the means of his imme- 
diate necessities ; from a daily and precarious, 
to a yearly and adequate supply ; and thence 
onward to provide a patrimony for his succeed- 
ing generations. 

All nature, both animate and inanimate, has 
been most wisely and providentially endued 
with the capacity of progressive improvement; 
constituting a principle of self-regeneration. — 
And ibis principle of progressive improvement 
seems to have been given to all organized bo- 
dies of creation, for the purpose of giving em- 
ployment to the rational and moral energies of 
tho human mind in multiplying the means of 
sustenance, as mankind shall progress in de- 
veloping the urts and scienees and render them 
applicable to the enlargement of the comforts 
of human life : — each keeping pace with the 
other throngh the successive generations of 
time to an infinite scries of variety and exten 
sion, unconceived by the present, as tho pres- 
ent march of htrman 'im*elJcct wits flntiiiqwn to 



units to millions of dollars. 

It is not within the limits of our design to 
trace the history of Horticulture from Eden 
through the ages of time to the present; tc 
describe the groves of the ancients, or the 
hanging gardens of Rabylon, but merely to pre- 
sent a few faots accompanied with some gen 
eral observations to serve as inducements for 
us to form a Soeiety in our county for the pur- 
pose of combining the exertion of spirited indi- 
viduals into an united operation in the collec- 
tion and diffusion of practical knowledge on 
the subject, that shall contribute something to- 
ward an improvement of the vegetable and 
fruit market in the village of Rochester. 

We have been invited to the undertaking br 
the consideration that all nations have been 
characterized by their attention to Horticul- 
ture, in proportion to their advancement in civ- 
ilization. 

Holland formerly took the lead of the Euro- 
pean nations in the science of Horticulture 
and extended the luxuries of her flower gardens 
to that excess that she has become proverbial 
Ibr her whimsical Tulip mania in which Tulip 
roots were sold from $1,000 te $10,000 each, 

England, from being an almost barren island 
not having in its natural productions more thai; 
half a dozen species of vegetables suitable for 
human aliment, has, by her industry, enterprize- 
and science, borrowed, acclimated and natur- 
alized almost all the productions of northern 
latitudes, until she is rendered a garden al- 
most from one extremely of the kingdom it the 
other — and she now sustains a population ef 
13 millions — equal to that of the U. S.— avera- 
ging SO? to a square- mire—that of fhe' V. 9.' 



Vol. I —No. 1. 



AND GARDENER'S JOURNAL. 



Only 10 — and only 3 seres of land to each in- 
habitant. 

France.deprivedof her West India colonies, 
has undertaken to extract sugar from beets. — 
But the grape vine is her boast, and of which 
she is more proud than of her Bourbons. Her 
Wines diffuse nourishment, health and tempe- 
rance among her population. It is worth a 
passing remark to say VY ine countries enjoy 
more temperance, than those countries that 
substitute alcohol for wine. 

It is a singular ard pecaliar fact, that these 
various and impoitaut improvements in the e- 
conomy of nations, havo been achieved more 
by the efforts of enterpnzing and patriotic in- 
dividuals and at their private expense, than by 
all the public authorities and revenues of the 
got erntnents under which they have lived. 

England has been highly gified with a nu- 
merous list of those worthy individuals, among 
whom some of the most prominent are Arthur 
Young, John Bakewell, Humphrey Davy, John 
Sinclair, and Thomas Andrew Knight, who is 
now the President of the London Horticultural 
Society; whose profound science invegotable 
physiology, and whose singular improvements 
in cross-breeding the several varieties among 
the same species of fruit and vegetables (as the 
former characters had done with animals) will 
consecrate his fame to posterity, equal with the 
warrior Wellington. 

In America we have a number of men of tal- 
ents who are engaged in diffusing Horticultural 
science, blessing their country with their la- 
bors, and who will in turn obtain the gratitude 
of an enlightened people. 

The moat pro-eminent of those isJUaj. J. Ad- 
'ura of the District of Columbia, a veieran of 



PRUNING. 

This is the season of the year when farmers 
often take it upon them to prune their orchards. 
This is a bad practice and should be discontin- 
ued. It is desirable, when a limb of a tree is 
cut off, to have the new growth cover the 
wound as soon as possible. When trees are 
pruned in winter, by the action of the san and 
air upon the parts cut, the wood, to a small 
distance, becomes dried, with the balk firmly 
attached to it, and all circulation of sap per- 
leclly suspended. It requires some years, more 
or less, according to the size of the limb, be- 
fore the young wood can break through the old 
bark in order to cover the wound. Never prune 
until the sap begins to circulate freely in the 
BpriBg, or until the tree is in leaf. At this 
time the bark is loose from the wood, and the 
elaborated juice of the tree will be seen pro- 
jecting from between tho bark and wood, for- 
ming a lip which is covered with a thin bark 
which continues to extend and soon covers the 
wound. 

As to nurseries, when you approach them be 
careful to keep your knife in your pocket. — 
There has been nine nurseries spoiled by over 
pruning to where one ever suffered for the 
want of it, I know it is easier work to prune 
a small tree than to dig about it. Whoofyou; 
would ever think of fattening your horse by 
brushing without feeding him, or that he could 
digest his food without his stomach; but it 
would be equally natural to trim and brush him 
after he was in flesh before taking him to mar- 
ket. So with trees. Many of the elements 
nf nutrition are taken ap by the roots; but the 
leaves are as essential to the elaboration of 
those elements as the stomach of a horse is to 
the digestion of bis food— without these either 



t0 years; who alter many years of effort and i, 

. , , , - , . y would perish: but when trees have attained a 

experiment, has achieved the science and sini- ' 

phtied tlie art of making American Wine from 

native grapes with such masterly tact as fully 



equals the best of our imported wines, even 
that of the celebrated Tokay ; and in a man- 
ner that will supercede our further importation 
of foreign grape vines, and eventually of wines. 
In 20 years bo will become tho reputed, and 

esteemed Father of American wines. 

Next to him in order is the Messrs. Prince, 
Jesse Buel, D.Thomas, Floy, Parmenlicr, Lou 
bat, and others. The last named are residents 
of our State. 

As new and as novel as the suggestion of an 
Horticultural Society is to us ; as inexperienced 
and untaught as we are in its science ; as in- 
competent as we feel ourselves to imitate mid 
equal the example of these worthies of their 
age and country, — yet we are favored with a 
prospect of at least a partial success in our un- 
dertaking, by the goodness of our climate, suil 
and location. Our soil is mostly a warm, light, 
pliable and fertile loam, the chosen kiud for 
gardens and fruit orchards. Tho marine at- 
mosphere of Lake Ontario renders our climate 
nearly as temperate as that of Now York aud 
Long Iiland ; and our village market promises 
a rensonable remuneration for a part of otlf la- 
bors ; to be divided between profit and enjoy- 
ment. 
_ Gentlemen, shall we attejnpt the Un.de.rta- 

In bthalf of the Corrrmiuee. 

. J. IlA\VL-nY. 

RocheSTe^ 2Qfh Scjpt, 1^ * 



ufficient size for sale, it is well to give such 
pruning as may give a desirable shape to the 
tops, and this should be done one year before 
transplanting. 



HINTS TO FARMERS, 

Nevee feed potatoes to stock without boil- 
in" or steaming, as this increases their nutri- 
tive qualities. 

Grind your corn with the cobs — it is better 
feed ami pays Well for the trouble. 

One bushel of flax-seed, ground with eight 
bushels ofoats, isbetterfor horsesthan sixteen 
bnshels of oats alone, and will effectually de- 
stroy the bolts. 

Never burn nil dry wood inyourfire place — 
nor iu o a firo pluce when you can get a stove. 

Cut your trees for rails in winter, as they are 
more durable. 

Nover dew ret your flax or homp, unless you 
wish to render it worthless. 

Never select your seed corn from the ciibi 
but from the stalk. 

Never feed out your best potatoes and plant 
the refuse — nor sell your best sheep and keep 
the poorest. 

A fat ox is worth more than a poor horse, 



TERMINOLOGY. 

As we wikh to cultivate a taste for the pur 
suits of Agriculture and Horticulture with all 
classes, and a great part of our readers will ho 
farmers, plain, honest and unlettered, we hope 
the initiated will not think it lost time if we : 
in each number, give a short vocabulary of 
terms, all of which must be cnore or less used 
in the course of our pursuits in these arts: 

Seedling — a natural stock, growing fronj,lbe 
seed. 

Stock — that part of the tree opoa whiob tne 
cion or bud is set. 

Cion — a limb or twig of the tree intended to 
be graftod on the stock. 

Bud or Gem— the germ of tlie new leaf or 
flower. 

Layer — that part of a tree or vine which is 
bent down and covered with earth till it takes 
root. 

Slip — a limb or twig cut with one or move 
buds, and stuck into the ground to take root. 

Suckers or Sprouts — young shoots that spring 
up spontaneously from the roots of trees. 

Runners — a slender vine thrown off which a> 
gain takes root like the strawberry. 

Bulbs — those plants in which are enclosed 
the perfect plant, as the onion, garlic andtir.- 
lip. 

Tubers — those with roots like the potatoe,. 
artichoke, &c. 



wagon harness. 

Keep plenty of cows and bees as the surest 
way of having milk and honey. Confine your 
cows with gofri (JnStes, but let your bees go at 
forge-. 



though he does not eat as much — and a yoke 

and chain can be bought for less money than a| l0 ,| )e ; r p i ace f destination, may be put in the 



CIONS. 

I am frequently inquired of, as to the proper 
season for cutting Cions for Gralting, to which 
inquiries my reply is, " at any time when 
you find a kind of fruit you wish to cultivate." 
There is no season of the year at which cions 
may not be taken and transported two or three 
hundred miles, if done with care, and he iu 
condition for Grafting or Inoculating. 

As winter is the season when farmers do 
most of their travelling, visiting their friends, 
&c, it oilers greater opportunities for them to 
collect Cions of choice fruits than any othei 
season of the year. But then opportunities 
are often neglected, under the impression that 
cions should be cat in February, and even at 
that period many think that stone fruit cannot 
bo grafted. To correct these errors a few di- 
rections may be acceptable. 

Wcon yeu find a variety of fruityou wish to 
cultivate, procure some Cions of the kind — it 
in summer, select strait, healthy shoots of the 
present year'a growth, of such length as shall 
suit your convenience for carrying ; let them 
he done np in a wet linnen cloth and carried in 
such a manner as not to be bruised. Budding 
may bodone any time during the summer when 
the bark will part from lite stock freely, whira'i 
it will generally do from June until the last o 4 - 
August. It is not essential that the bark 
should part from llie wood of the cion as the 
bud may be inserted with the wood attached 
to it — after the season ofbudding is past, cions 
cut in autumn should be cut with a few inchet 
of the preceding years wood, and when carried 



garden sticking the lower end or old wood u 
few inches in the ground. If put in the cellar 
they are very apt to be destroyed by rats or 
mice — cions may be kept in this way (or graft- 
ing until June. Apples, feats". plumliSj chei 



« 



THE GENESEE FARMER 



Jan. 1, 183 1. 



rie*, arid quinces may lie grafted wilh much 
certainty. Peaches, apricots, and nectarines 
are more difficult but will succeed if carefully 
done; also most kinds of forest trees: but there 
are very few trees or shrubs of any kind 
that may not he budded. 

Currants, gooseberries, and grapes are gen- 
erally cultivated by cuttings winch may be ta- 
ken from September until June. In procuring 
cions, persons should be very careful in ascer 
taining the names and qualities of the fruit and 
equally careful in labelling and recording the 
same. that they may cultivate from them or dis- 
tribute them to their friends in turn without 
the possibility of mistake. 



THE WEATHER, 
The past season has been marked at this 
place with many striking peculiarities. The 
spring opened with a very pleasant, growing, 
and forward April — a backward, rainy; and cold 
May, the frosts of which month only departed 
on its last day, that on the 31st being the most 
severe. The ripening of fruits, and the whole 
summer crop, was retarded about 10 days later 
than usual. The full has also been an uncom- 
mon one ; and in the immediate vicinity of the 
lake and ilie Genesee river, there was not frost 
onough to lull moderately tender vegetable- tilljj rity 



the Glh of December — the chrysanthemum o 
artemisia, blossomed in the ope > air, faded and 
perfected its seed. Mr. Silas Cornell, nursery 
man, in this neighborhood, showed us three 
full blown monthly ruses, plucked in his garden 
on the 12th of December. In shirt, the mild- 



NATIIBAL HISTORY. 

There appeared in tho 9th number of the 
Family Library Borne facts on this subjoct, 
which prove it a much more interesting matter 
than people have generally supposed The in 
sect creation by nioBt persons, but particularly 
by the superficial observers of nature, has been 
passed over as an item too small to be deserving 
of noticee, among the numereus works o" the 
Great Architect of all things. But the phi 
losopher whose delight is the continued in> 
crease of knowledge, and approximation to 
wards the great fountain of wisdom, find? in 
this part of the economy of nature, as clear, 
certain, anddemonstrative proof.not only of the 
existence of a Great First Cause, but also of 
his wisdom, power, benevolence and good, as 
ho does in the examination of nature in a high- 
er range, or of the formation of men — so " fear- 
fully and wonderfully made " Man has a 
deeper interest in this minute part of creation 
than he generally supposos : much of his weal 
or woe is in some way or manner, dependent 
upon the operations of the insect world. 

'• An accurate knowledge of the properties 
of insects is of grpat importance to man, mere- 
ly with relation to his own comfort-and secu- 
The injuries which they indict upon us 



are extensive and complicated ; and the rem- 
j ed'es which we attempt, by the destruction of 
those creatures, both insects, birds and quad- 
rupeds, who keep then ravages m check, are 
generally aggravations of the evil, because 
they are directed by an ignorance of tho econ- 
omy of nature. The little knowledge which 
ness of the fall is unprecedented even in tlii-ll we have of the modes by which insects may 
region. This day the thermometer stands sit 'i be impeded in their destruction of much thai 



tin 

the 
eful 



luable to us. lias probably proceeded from 

jur contempt of their individual insignificance. 

The security of properly has ceased to be 



42, with a very dense fog — rain full diirm 

last ii'glitto the Jdepth if 1.3-10 imhes- 

river and canal clear of ice; with a boj 

prospect ofa plentiful supply of that great sta- endangered by quadrupeds of prey, and yet 

, ... ' j »<■ ,u- i i our gardens are ravaged by apuides aud cat- 

pie of this country — mvrl. Alter this week we! b , . , ~ 

r , ., , , ■ i • i. ii leipillars. It is somewhat startling to aUirm 

shall rciruarv give a meteorological table, to- , . .. ,-.- c »i i 

= ' 6 ° ' ii that the condition of the human race is sen 

gotherwith regular notices of all the apparent ouslj in j, lred by these petty annoyances ; but 
phenomenaof the atmospheric influences; and | lt j s p re f ec tly true that the art and industry ol 
at the opening of the spring, a register of the 
flr.t appearance of vegetation and blossoms of 
all the plants within our observation. 



A 0.1IEST1ON. 



nan have not yet been able to overcome the 

collective force, the individual persevereance, 

and the complicated machinery of destruction 

which insect- employ. A small ant, accord- 

ding to a most careful and philosophical ohser 
ii- ' ™ . ' j 



A gentleman bought from a nursery man four 
trees and desired his gardener to plant them) urHgre8S f civilization. in many pari 



out in such a form that they should be cquidis 
lant, each and every individual relatively with j 
he other, or in such manner that a rope fasten. 
ed to any one would reach the other three. — j 
Now in what form would they set to comply 
with his order. X. 



of 111 



A KOOD BUSINBSS. 

We learn that between the I tth of August 
and the 14th of December, 1830, Me srs. E. S. 
Beech, (V Co. have floured at their mill in this 
village 164,000 bushels of wheat, making be 
'.ween 37 and 33,000 barrels of flour. Large 
as is this amount, it is only a small item in the 
general average of ihe flouring business done 
;n this place during that time. 

Canal Tolls — 'I ho collector's office in this 
village closed yesterday, having received dur- 
ing the Beason tolls to the amount of $150,188 
S3. Last year the amount of tolls was $!>8, 
518,17, making an increase this year of S."> t . 
[110,06. The amount of flour entered at this 
>f!ico during the season is $337,484 Barrels. 



equinoctial /.one. These animals devour paper 
and parchment ; they destroy every hook and 
manuscript. Many provinces of Spanish 
America cannot in consequence, show a writ- 
ten document of one hundred years' exis- 
tence. ' What development,' he adds, 'can 
the civilization of a people assume, if there 
be nothing to connect the present with (he 
past — if the depositories of human knowledge 
must constantly be renewed — if (lie 'noun 
ments of genius and «vislo:n cannot he trans 
mitted to posterity ?' Again, there are bee 
lies which deposit their larvx in tires, in 
such formidable numbers, that whole forests 
perish, beyond the power of remedy. The 
pines of the Hartz have thus been destroyed 
to an enormous extent ; aud in North Amer- 
ica, at one place in North Carolina, at least 
ninty tress in every hundred, upon a tract ol 
two thousand acres, wire swept away by a 
-mall, black, winged bug, And yet accor- 
ding to Willson, the historian of American 
bird-, the people in the l.'nited States were 
in the habit of destroying the red headed 
I woodpecker, Ibe great enemy of th< se inserts 



becauat be uccasiooly spoilt an apple. The * 
same delightful writer, and true naturalist, 
speaking of the labours of the ivory billed 
woodpecker, says, ' would it be believed that 
that the larvx of an insect, or fly, not larger 
than a graio of rice, should silently and in one 
season destroy some thousand acres of pine 
trees, many of them from two to three 
feet in diameter, and a bundered and fifty feet 
high ? In some places the whole woodf , as 
far as you can see around you, are dead, 
stripped of their bark, there wintiy looking 
arms and bare trunks bleaching in the sun. 
and tumbling in ruins before every blast.— 
The subteraneous larva of a species of beetle 
(Z'irbus Gthl/us,) has often caused * complete 
failure of seed corn, as in thedistrict of Halle, 
in 1812. The corn weevil, which extracts 
(he flour from the grain, leaving the husks 
behind, will destroy the eontents of the largest 
storehouse iu a very short period. The wire- 
worm, and the turnip-fly are dreaded by every 
farmer. The ravages of the locust are too 
well known not to be at once recollected, as 
an example of the formidable collective pow- 
er of the insect race. The white ants of torp- 
lcal countries sweep away whole villages, with 
as much certainty as a fire or an inundation ; 
and even ships have been destroyed by lliese 
indefatigable republics. Our own docks and 
embankments have been threatened by such 
minute ravagers. 

'• The enormus injuries which insects cause 
to man inn thus be held as one reason for 
ceasing to consider thesiudy of them as an in- 
significant pursuit ; for a knowledge of their 
structure, their food, their enemies, and theii 
general habits, may lead as it often has led. 
to the means of guarding against their inju- 
ries. At ibe same time we der've from them 
both direct and indirect benefits. The hon- 
ey of the bee, the dye of the cochineal, and 
the web of the silk worm the advantage of 
which are obvious, may well be balanced a- 
gainst the destructive propensities of insects 
which are offensive to man. But a philosoph- 
ical siudy of natural history will teach us, that 
the direct benefits which insects confer upon 
us are even less important than their general 
uses in maintaining the economy ol the world 
The mischiefs which icsult lo us from the ra- 
pid increase and ibe activity of msecls, are 
merely results of the very principle I v which 
they confer upon us numberless indirect ad- 
vantages. Forc-ts aie swept away by minute 
flies; but the same agencies relieve us from 
(hat extreme abundance of vegilable matter, 
which weu.d render the earth uninhabitable 
were this excess not periodically dcslroytd- 
In hot countries, the great business of remov- 
ing corrupt animal matter, which the vulture 
and the hyaena imperfectly perform, is effect- 
ed with certainty and speed by the myriads of 
insects that spring from the eggs deposited in 
every'carcass, by some fly necking therein tin 
means of life for her progeny. Destruction 
aud production, the great law of Nature, 
are carried on very greatly thtough the in- 
strumental]'}' of insects; and the same prin- 
ciple regulates even the increase of pralicular 
species of insects themselves. When aphides 
are so abundant that we know not how lo es- 
cape their ravages, flocks of lady birds instant- 
ly cover our fields and gardens to deslroi 
them. Such considerations as these are 
thrown out to show that the subject of insects 
has a great importance — and what portion of 
the works of Nature has not ? The habits of 
all God's creatures, whether they are noxious 
or harmless or beneficial, are irort y objects 
of our study. II they affect ourselves, in our 
!iealih or uur possessions, whether for good 



Vol. I— TVo. 1. 



AND GARDENER'S .JOURNAL. 



or for evil, and an addition; i impulse is ualu- 
rally giuen to our desire to attain a knowl- 
edge of their properties. Such studies form 
oDeof the most interesting occupations which 
can engage a rational anJ inquisitive mind ; 
and, perhaps none of the employments of hu- 
man life are more dignified than the iovesli 
"ation and survey of the workings and the 
way of Nature in Ibe minutest of her produc- 
tions " 

GEOLOGY. 

' Governor Crafts, in his late message to the 
Legislature of Vermont, recommended the 
subject of Geology and Mineralogy to public 
attention as a souice of uidustry and wealth. 
Sonv'of the papers in that state have warmly 
approved of tins suggestion of their Governor 
and proposed that a Lyceum in er.ch town 
collect its own specimens, and furnish a de- 
posit for each county Lyceum, by which 
means all the specimens could be named and 
described at the semi annual meetings. 

A late covention of ( lie friends of educa- 
tion and general improvement in Utica, rec- 
ommended that the second number of the 
Scientific Tracts, which treats upon Geology, 
be read in each town in the state, at meetings 
for appointing delegates to attend an adjouru- 
ed meeting of the Convention in January, — 
The exhibition and explanation of a few Geo- 
logical specimens at the various county con- 
ventions of teachers have induced and ena- 
bled very manv of those who witnessed them, 
to introduce the subject into their schools, by 
which means several thousand children are 
now familiar with the common rocks and min- 
erals which come under their observation. 

The experiments already made upon this 
subject, are proof that if Lyceums gpuerally 
should make Geology a speciGc object of at- 
tention for a few months, the whole country 
would be thoroughly explored, our resources 
of industry and wealth opened to individuals 
and the bublic. — Boston Traveller. 

Gigantic Flower. — The most im- 
portant discovery throughout our journey 
was made at Sumatra ; i: was a gigantic 
flower, of which I can hardly attempt to 
give you any thing like a just description. 
It measured across from the petals rather 
more than a yard, the neetarum was nine 
inches wide, and as deep, and estimated 
to contain a gallon and a half of water ; 
and the weight of the whole flower wa 
fifteen pounds! — The Sumatran name of 
this extraordinary production is Petimtin 
Sikin'oili, or Devil's Siri (beetle) box — 
It is a native of the forest. This gigan- 
tic flower is parasite.on the lower stems 
and roots of the Cisus Augusttfolia of 
Box, and of a deep dusky red. The 
flower when fully expanded is in point ol 
size, the wonder of ihe vegetable king- 
dom ; the breadth across from the top of 
the one petal to the other is three feet. 
The cup may be estimated capable of 
containing twelve pints ; its inside is of 
an intense purple, and more or less dense' 
ly yellow, with soft flexible spines of the 
same color. The Iruit. never bursts, hut 
the whole plant gradually rots away, and 
the seeds mix with th<- putrid mass. — 
[Memoirs of Sir J. Roffles. 

District Attorney. — General Vincent Math- 
ews was appointed District A-ttorney of this 
county. 



CENSUS OF NEW YORK. 

The followr g relurns we give as furnished 
for the Commercial Advertiser, and with a 
few exceptions are official. Those marker' 
with asterisks are not official, but the esti- 
mate is so nearly correct as not to vary more 
lhaa a hundred from the actual amount In 
ten years our population has increased 41 
per cent, being now nearly two millions, and 
entitling us at the present ratio to 48 Repre- 
sentatives. 

A new ratio of representation is cootem 
plated, and probably will be adjusted this win- 
ter by the present ■ ongress. The one pre 
posed is 50,000 which would entitle us to 38 
representatives, leaving a large fraction. — 
If fixed at 48,000 we should be entitled to 40 
representatives, and the county of Monioe to 
one, leaving a fraction of 1,810. and at 50- 
000 it would fall short of the ratio only 190 ; 
and being one of the largest fractions would 
probably be considered a District entitled to 
a representative. 

1825 

43821 

18,164 

13893 
8643 

42743 

2n039 

34215 

14486 

37970 

2H271 

29565 

46G93 

24316 

16993 
7978 

40905 

26229 
1196 

33040 

41659 

14679 

11669 

23S6D 

35646 

391U8 

39706 
166086 

14069 

57847 

48435 

37422 

41732 

14460 

17S75 

47698 

11860 

20331 

44065 
0932 
8016 

302115 

12876 

2592G 

20169 

250U4 

27595 

23695 

10373 

19951 

32908 

32015 

10906 

39280 

2G761 

33131 

17455 

Total 1,016,458 1,934,496 

Population of JVew York at various periods 

1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 

340,120 586,060 959,049 1,372,S12 1.934,496 

Gaining in 10 years 561,684, or over 40 pr. ct 

*A small part of this population included by 

estimate. 



Counties. 
Albany 
Allegany 
Broome 
Cattaraugus 
Cayuga 
Chautauque 
Chenango 
Clinton 
Columbia 
Cortland 
Delaware 
Dutcness 
Erie 
Essex 
Franklin 
Genesee 
Greene 
Hamilton 
Herkimer 
Jefferson 
Rings 
Lewis 
Livingston 
Madison 
Monroe 
Montgomery 
New York 
Niagara 
Oneida 
Onondaga 
Ontario 
Orange 
Orleans 
Oswego 
Otsego 
Putnam 
Queens 
Rensselaer 
Richmond 
Rockland 
Saratoga 
Schenectady 
Schoharie 
Seneca 
Steuben 
St. Lawrence 
Suffolk 
Sullivan 
Tioga 
Tompkins 
Ulster 
Warren 
Washington 
Wayne 
Westchester 
Yates 



1830. 
53532 
26276 
17593 
16724 
47947 
34668 
37417 
19344 
39952 
23988 
33025 
50926 
35712 
192S 7 
11312 
52154 
29525 
1325 
35869 
48495 
2U539 
15239 
27729 
39u37 
49810 
46447 
'213-170 
18482 
♦69847 
5S974 
40372 
4.3372 

iss;!? 

27110 
51372 

12701 
22276 
49453 

7084 
9388 

-4f.i2a 

12334 
279.51 
21031 
33977 
36351 
26780 
12372 
27768 
36541 
36551 
11795 
'43280 
33553 
30456 
19019 



Gain. 

111711 
8612 
3700 
8081 
5204 

14029 
3202 
4858 
1982 
3717 
3460 
4228 

11396 
3294 
3334 

11249 
3296 
129 
2829 
6845 
580H 
3570 
3809 
3391 

■10702 

6741 

*47384 

4413 

*12000 

10539 
2950 
3040 
4383 
9230 
3474 
835 
1945 
53S8 
1252 
1372 

'3827 

loss, 542 

2025 

862 

8973 

8756 

30S5 

1999 

7817 

3033 

4536 

889 

4000 

0791 

3325 

1564 

318,038 



Di-MtSTIC MANUFACTURES 

The Palladium states that the mannfacturc 
of Palm Le.if Hals has becomo In Massachu- 
setts, a business of considerable importance, 
and gives employment to many persons A 
friend calculates that a million of those will 
be made for the next season. Formerly they 
wore imported from Cuba, and sold, we bo- 
lieve, for about $2 each Now the raw mate- 
rial is imported, and the hats made here, which 
sell for 3 or $4 per dozen Formerly we had 
the trifling business of selling a few — now we 
have the whole business of making and selling 

The same paper says — We are glad to hear 
chat Massachusetts Site Leather is in high es- 
timation The Philadelphia Leather is in high 
repute ; but we understand that many now 
give the preference to that manufactured bv 
Mr. Tufts, of Charlestown. 

NATURAL HISTORY. 

At a recent meeting of the New- York Lit- 
erary and Philosophical Society, Dr. S L- 
Mitchill made the following communications. 

Two specimens of the Ovoviviparous Shark 
from the Atlantic ocean, off Cape Hatieras. 
This animal, though a fish, is viviparous — 
that is, it brings forth its young alive. But 
what is very peculiar, to its little fish, is ap- 
pended an egg, and yet this egg ha'S no con- 
nexion with the dam or mother fish. The 
brood of foetuses have a separated existence 
in the uterus ; and each draws it9 supply of 

nourishment, before birth, from the egg 

Tins peculiar organization is one of the great 
curiosities of the animal race ; and richly de- 
serves the particular attention of anatomist 
and physiologists, Mr. Bloodgood, who fur- 
nished the articles, look them alive from the 
body of the parent. 

A specimen of the elegant calcareous 
Breccia, from the quarry near Summenille, 
m New Jersey. It is entirely composed or 
'traginpn'.- ihat are firmly aggregated, and 
which receive a splendid p. dish. The con- 
slitutent pieces are of various colors, and ex- 
pose a beautiful -url'ace. It is slated, that 
this marble fnrmaiion is of considerable ex- 
tent. The present preperation was received 
i.om Mr. William Frazee, at whose manuf.ic- 
loiv, in Amity street, large blocks may be 
seen. Jt is much more elegant than the Ma- 
ryland production, of which Ihe pillars ol the 
Capitol at Washington are made. 

A sample of the famous antidote against the 
bite ol venomous serpents, from Guatimala. 
in Central America, as forwarded by Mi. 
Consul Perrine. He said he had put a living 
plant under the protection of Andrew Smith. 
our well known horticulturist and seeds- 
man. 

HORTICULTURE. 

Thomas Cody gardener of Commodore 
Channcey, at the Navy Yard, in B-ooklyn ; has 
raised a Savoy cabbage, weighing nine pounds 
and a half, without the stalk and under leaves. 
It i-i considered large for thai peculiar kind, 
and was produced from foreign seed by Mr 
Cody. ' 

Lyceum. — A Lyceum has been established je 
Cambridge, Washington co , for the promo- 
tion of literature and the arts and sciences.— 
At their next meeting a lecture is to be de- 
livered on Popular Education This is the 
first institution of the kind in that conntry. 



NEW POEMS. 

White, Gallaher fy White, publishers, N. Y 
have in the press and will soon publish a vol- 
ume of poems by Mrs. Emma Willard, of the 
Troy Female Seminary. They are published 
at the request of numerous pupils nowscatlei 
ed through every part of the United States- 



« 



THE GENESEE FARMER. 



Jan. 1, 1831. 



HYMN TO THE STARS. 

We cut the following lines from a newspaper 
several years since : we know not who is the 
author of them, but whoever he was, he has 
written a hymn which, for sublimity of thought 
and expression, we do not remember ever to 
liave seen surpassed. — St. Louis Times. 
Ave ! there, ye shine, and there have shone, 

la one eternal ' hour of prime ;' 
Each rolling, burningly, alone, 

Through boundless space and countless time; 
Ay ! there, ye shine, the golden dews 

That pave tho realms by seraphs trod ; 
There, through yon echoing vault, diffuse 

The song of choral worlds to God. 

Ye vis'bln spirits ! bright as erst 

Young Eden's birthnight saw ye shine 
On all her flowers and fountains first, 

Ye sparkle from the hand divine : 
Yea ! bright as then ye smiled to catch 

The music of a sphere so fair, 
To hold your high, immortal watch, 

And gird your God's pavillion there. 

Gold frets to dust ; yet there ye are ; 

Time rots the diamond ; there ye roll 
In primal light, as if each star 

Enshrined an everlasting soul. 
And do they not ? since yon bright throngs 

One alUenlightening Spirit own, 
Praised there by pure sidereal tongues, 

Eternal glorious, blest, and lone. 

Could man but see what yo have seen, 

Unfold awhile the shrouded past, 
From all that is, to what has been : 

The glance how rich, the range how vast ! 
The birth of time ! the rise, the fall 

Of empires ; myriads, ages flown ; 
Thrones, cities, tongues, arts, worships ; all 

The things whose echoes are not gone. 

Ye saw red Zoroaster send 

His soul into your mystic reign ; 
Ye saw the adoring Sabian bond, 

The living hills his mighty fane : 
Beneath his blue and beaming sky, 

He worshipped at your lo'ty shrine, 
And deemed he saw, with gifted eye, 

The Godhead, in bis works divine. 

Aud there ye shine, as if to mock 

The children of an earthly sire : 
The storm, the bolt, the earthquake's shock, 

The red volcano's cat'ract fire, 
Drought, famine, plague, and blood, and (Time, 

All nature's ills, and life's vrorA woes, 
Are nought to you : ye smile the same. 

And scorn alike their dawn and close. 

Ay '. there ye roll, emblems sublime 

Of him whose spirit o'er us moves 
Beyond the clouds of grief and crime, 

Still shining on tho world he loves. 
Nor is one scene to mortals giv'n, 

That more divides the soul and sod, 
Than yon proud heraldry of heav'n, 

Yon burning blnz mry of God. 

SYMBOLS. 

In youth the heart is like tl e bird — 

The humming bird in eastern bowers— 

That ever, (take the traveller's word,) 
Feeds flying, on the dews of flowers. 

irtmanhood. 'lis the eagle bold, 

Borne upward to the cloud, the sky — 

That soorns the rock and mountain bold, 
Except to build on, or to die. 

The sparkler of the woods is caug/it, 
The eagle's bosom pierced ere Ion" — 

What symbol s!i;ill for age be aoygut I 
What bird its emblem lie in sun;; ? 

The mocking-bird it? likeness be, 
That hath no music of its own — 

TJiat sings with imitative glee : 
The bird of memory alone. 



CONSOLATION. 

The philosopher Citophilus was endeavoring 
ono day to console a lady overwhelmed with 
sudden and unutterable affliction — Madam, said 
he, the fate of the dueen of England, daughter 
of tho great Henry, was still more unfortunate 
than yours. She was driven from her king- 
doms, was on the point of perishing by ship- 
wreck and was doomed to behold her royal 
and affectionate husband lay down his life upon 
the scaffold — I am sorry '.or her, replied the la- 
dy, and continued to deplore her own misfor- 
tunes. But madam, said the- philosopher, re- 
member Mary Stuart, who was dethroned and 
imprisoned by her rebellious subjects, and be- 
headed by her cousin the Queen Elizabeth, to 
whom she had flown for succour and assist- 
ance. She was very cruel, said the lady, and 
relapsed immediately into her own melancholy. 
You have heard of the beautiful Joan of Naplos, 
who was captured and strangled by the inhu- 
man monster Charles de Duras, whom she had 
educated as her own son. I remember her, 
said the afflicted lady. I must relate to you 
the history of a sovereign of my own time, said 
Citophilus, who was dethroned one evening 
after supper and passed tho remainder of his 
life in a desert Isle. I know the whole story, 
replied the lady. 

Well then, let me inform you of what hap- 
pened to another great Princess to whom 1 had 
the honor to teach philosophy. She had a lov- 
er without the knowledge of hor father, who 
having one day surprised him in her company 
gave him aviolentblow in the face. The lover 
seized a pair of tongs and broke tho head of his 
good father-in-law, who was cured with diffi- 
culty and carries the mark of it to the present 
hour. The princess affrighted, jumped from a 
window and broke her log sa that, although 
previously possessed of the finest figure in the 
world, she has now became a cripple aud can- 
nm walk without limpiug —Her lover was con- 
demned to death for the vioienoe offered to his 
King — You may imagine the slate of the priu- 
cess when her lover was conducted to the 
scaffold — I saw her lover often while in prison 
and she never spoke to me but of her sorrows. 

Why then will you not allow me to think of] 
nine? replied tho lady. 'Tis because, said| 
the Philosopher, it is not proper to think ol: 
them; and since so many great ladies have! 
been unfortnnate, it ill becomes von to despair | 
Think of Hecuba. Think of Niobe— Ah! 
said the lady, if I had lived in their times it 
those of the beautiful princesses you mention, 
and if to console them yon had recounted my 
misfortunes to them— do you think they would 
have listened, K> you? 

The next day our philosopher lost his only 
sou. and was frantic with grief. The lady pre- 
pared a list of all the great men who bad lost 
their children, and sent it to him wiib her af 
fectionate regards. He ra.id it, allowed it to 
be accurate and uue, but was not the less af- 
flicted for the loss of his son. Three months 
afterwards they met again and were astonish- 
ed mfind each other sereno and choerful. — 
They erected a statue to Time, with this in- 
scription : 

" TO HIM THAT CONSOLES." 



ROCHESTER PRICES CVRRENT. 

Jan. 1,1831. 



Ashes por 2340 lbs 


Fox, cross 


1000200 


Pot S91<i93 50 


Mink 


12o31 


Pearl 1 00a 102 58 


Raccoon 


18o31 


Apples per bushel 25a44 


Martio 


25o62 


Uo dried 75 


Fisher 


37a50 


Pristles.corab'd per lb 20a31 


Wild Cat 


18o2T> 


Beeswax do 18o20 


Gray Fox 


18o2T) 


Butler do )0al2 


rirassSeed per 


bush 62 


Beef— Mess per bbl $8o9 


Hops per lb 


12al5 


Do prime do 5a7 


Honey do 


09 


Do fresb per lb 02a03 Lard do 


06007 


Barley per bushel 38n44IMutlon do 


02a Hi 


Beans <lo 50a62 


i lai.- per busb 


22 



Candles, mould per lb 9 els 



Old Pewter, Brass and 



Col. John A. Dix of Cooperstown, has been 
appointed by th*» governor, adjutant genera! of 
Hie state, in place of K. F. Ruck, deceased 



Manufactures of Green County. Tl>e 

Catskill Recorder of the 16th inst. says, on 
Vlonday last, the sloop Catskill sailed from the 

'wharf of Messrs. Donnelly, Cookes k Co., 
having on board 10,00(1 sides of leather, worth 
more than £5^000, all manufactured io thai 
county. This they say is but a small item of 
the immense amount uf the products of the 
Oak and Hemlocks of (heir mountains. On 
the same day other sloops sailed from there. 
freighted with the same article ; and from ten 
to twenty loads of leather have been received 
daily, for many da)s past, iu that village, aach 

.load averaging in value, from five to six nun- 

Idrcd doll3is. So much for cultivating our 

, ?wn resources. 



Do dipped do 

Do sperm do 28 " 

Com per bushel 44o50 

Cheese per lb U4a05 Do prime 

Clover Seed per bush $4 Cm Do fresh per lb 
Flour per bbl 4 25 QailU per 100 

Flu per lb 07a08]Rye per bash 

Flax Seed per bush 78<zK7iRag9p«r lb 
Feathers per lb 31a37|Salt per bbl 

Furs— Otter 100o400jTallow per lb 

Fox, red 50a75[ Wheat per bush 



Copper per lb 14 

Peaches, dry'd booh lOOflCOO 

Pork, oiess per bbl $lSal3 

8a9 

OSaO-1 

S5a3D 

50 

03 .20-* 

$175 

06a0T 

7S 



BANK NOTE TABLE. 

Corrected Weekly for the Rochester Daily Advertiser* 

BY C W. DUflDAS. 



NEW YORK. 

All banks in this slate, par 
except the following 
BrokcnBanks. Washing- 
ton & Wa<ren, Barker's t.x 
change, Franklin Bank.Mid- 
dle Dist , Columbia, Greene 
County, Marble Manuf. Co., 
Plattsburgb, and Niagara. 
MASSACHUSETTS. 
Al banks in this state, par. 
except the following 
Broken Bank* Farmers' 
b'uk of Belcb'-rtown, Sutton, 
Berksbi e, Essex and Brigh- 
ton baHks. 

VERMONT. 
AM banks m ibis -tale. par. 

EtHODC-lSLAND 

All banks in tbis state, par, 

except the following 

Broken Banks Farmers' 

Exchange, and Farmers' & 

Mechanics' bank*. 

CONNECTICUT. 
All bunks iu tbis state, par. 
except tho fellowing 
Broken Banks. Eagle, 



lamaqnoddv banks. 

NEW-JERSBY. 
Statob'nk, & Trenton Bank 

iug Company, par 

\ll ether banks, 2 per cent. 

except the following- 

Broken Banfa. Salem & 
Phil. ManufCo., Monmouth,. 
Hoboken and Grazing Co., 
V.Jersey Manof & Baokjnp 
Co. at Hoboken, State Bank 
jt Trenton, Protection aud 
Lombard, and Jersfcv City. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

Philadelphia Banks, par. 

\11 other banks, %per cent, 

except the following 1 " 

Broken Banks. Farmer.* 
& Mechanics' at N. So. .Cen- 
tre, iluctington, Meadville, 
Marietta, Joniata, Greencaa- 
tle, Bedford, Beaver, Wash- 
ington, UniontoUii, Agricul- 
tural, Sil. Lake, Westmore- 
land at Greenburgh, New- 
Hope Bridge Co new emle- 
»lou,aud Browoville bonks. 
OHIO. 



Eagle pay'oie al Union bank All banks, 4 to 6 per cent. 
New-Vork, Derby, and Der-| MICHIGAN. 



by payable at Fultou bank 
New- York. 

.NEW HAMPSHIRE 

All bauks in this slate, par. 

MAINE. 



All banks, iper tent, 

except the following 
Broken Banks. Monroe, 
and Detroit. 

CANADA. 



All bank> in this state, par. lAll banks, 3 to 3 per ctr.i 
except the following except the 

Broken Banks. Casiiue,) Upper Cans, at Kingston 
vYiscauet, Hallowetl &. Au- and Unchartered banks. 
guita, Kennebec, and Pas-| 

U The above table trhen speaking of foreign Bills, re 
fers to those of $ii, and over, as none of a less denomin- 
ation are receivable. 



IMPORTANT LAW DECISION 

A case has lately been decided at the eourt 
of King's Bench for the district of Montreal, 
which ie of some importance to common car- 
riers of goods, in (he British colonies. A 
quantity of merchandise, brought from Que- 
bec, was landed in Montreal without the con 
signees knowledge, and lost. The proprietor 
broaght an action against the steamboat com- 
pany for the value ot the goods, as there had 
been no delivery to him or to his agent He 
obtaiued judgement for the amount with costs 
The chiefjustice decared that selamboat pro- 
prietors were liable, not only for the safe pas 
sage, but also for the safe delivery, of proper- 
ty delivered to them, although a clause to the 
contrary might be contained in the bill of lan- 
ding. Too same principles are also applica- 
ble to stage propretors, notwithstanding any 
notification to Ins contrary in handbills or 
waybills.— V. V , E Post. 

AMERICAN SILK. 

A gentleman from Mansfield- Con. informs 
.js that i; is computed that at least four tooe 
of raw silk have been raised in ''onnecticut 
ihisseason ; and that the Silk raised in Mans- 
field and the adjoining towns this year lias a- 
mounted to g.!4.000\ — all of which bas founfl 
a ready sale.— W, E. Farmer. 



TOM ^I^2Sf^! 



VOLUME I. 



ROCHESTER, JANUARY 15, 1831. 



NUMBER 2. 



THE GENESEE FARMER 

AND GARDENER'S JOURNAL. 

Devoted to Agriculture, Horticulture, Domestic Econo- 
my, &c, &c. 

Published on Saturdays, at $2 50 per annum, 
payable in six months, or at $2 00, it' paid at the 
time of subscribing, by Tucker & Stevens, 
ut the office of the Rochester Daily Advertiser. 

33" The proprietors have undertaken the 
publication with the determination of making 
it permanent : they would therefore suggest 
to all those wbo would wish to see the Farmer 
become a durable and useful paper, the propri 
cty of not only interesting themselves in its 
circulation, but also of contributing to its col- 
umns. 

33" Those gentlemen to whom we have ta- 
ken the liberty to forward this number, if 
they shall think favorably of the undertaking, 
and of the merits of the work, will oblige us 
by forwarding us their names, and those of a- 
ny friends to whom ^uch a paper as this would 
be desirable. As it is of its kind unique in this 
stale, and intended for general circulation, we 
expect to look abroad for a great part of our 
patronage. 



HORTICULTURAL, SOCIETY OF MOW 

ROE COUNTY. 

This Society, which was formed after the 
delivery of the Address contained in our first 
number, held its first annual meeting at the Ar- 
cade in this village on the 8th October, 1830 
in the Atheiueum rooms, which were politely 
tendered to the Socie.y by the Managers of that 
Institution, when the following officers were 
elected for the ensuing year ; 

James K. Guernsey, President, 

Elisha B. Strong, ) 

Silas Cornel, > Vice Presidents. 

Henry Fellows, ) 

L. B. Langworthv, ) , , ■ „ , 

N.GoodseU JcorspondtngSecys. 

O. E. Gibbs, Treasurer, 
H. Stevens, Recording Sec'y. 
At a subsequent meeting of the executive 
Committee, the following persons were appoin 
ted a committee for receiving and examining 
such specimens of fruits, flowers, or vegeta 
hies, as might be presented in their season, and 
report the same at the next annaal meeting of 
the Society: J. L. D. Mathies, Ebenezer 
Watts, and H. N. Langworthy. 

The committee appointed to examine fruits, 
&c. will meet on Wednesday of each week at 
their room in the Arcade. Persons presenting 
specimens will please to leave them with J. L. 
I). Mathies, chairman of the committee, togeth- 
er with their names, plac.es of residence, and 
name of the fruit, whether it is a seedling or 
graft, and whether they can supply cions if cal- 
led for. 

At their meeting last week, they examined 
many kinds of apples, some very fine, among 
•which was the Nova Scotia or Roxbury Rus- 
set, Rhode Island Greening, aud a new variety 
of Russet without name, of fine size and fla- 
vor ; the New York Gloria Mundi of large size, 
and many other kinds richly worth cultivating; 
but as those who presented them did not leave 
Uleir descriptions as required, they will not 
be particularized. 

Gentlemen having choice kinds of fruit 
which they wish to distribute among their 
friends, are invited to present specimens as a- 
bove, when particular notice will ba given of 
the same, 



AGRICULTURAL, READING. 

As winter is the season when farmers have 
most leisure for reading, so it is a very important 
season to such as wish to make the most of their 
time; and as Mr. Fessenden has very justly ob- 
served, " the seeds of knowledge may be sown 
in winter, and the horticulturist may cultivate 
his mind when his soil is bound in frozen fet- 
ters." Therefore let the young farmer consid- 
er that the science of Agriculture is the most 
complicated, and, when taken in that extensive 
signification which we give it, including the 
management of farm, stock of different kinds, 
the making of butter, chaese, cider, &c. re- 
quires more study to become perfect in it, than 
any other profession whatsoever. He should 
consider that the present age is an age of im- 
provement, that the arts and sciences are pro- 
gressing, and he that would win the prize must 
run for it, otherwise he will have the mortifi- 
cation of seeing many, with smaller means but 
with more application, passing by, and soon 
leaving him at an irrecoverable distance behind 
them. The time has been when it was diffi- 
cult to obtain elementary works on Agriculture 
in all its different branches, at such pjrices as 
were within the power of every man; and ev- 
en when procured, most of them were mere 
pieces of plagiarism, taken from European au- 
thors, and no better calculated for our climate 
than our course of cropping would be for the 
West Indies. But those times are past. Ag 
riculture is assuming that place which was giv- 
en to it by our Creator on that day " when he 
created the Heavens and the Earth." We 
find men of talents and education not only be 
coming its patrons, but actual operators and 
experimentors, and sending forth the results of 
those experiments, like so many streams of 
pure and wholesome water, to mak e glad the 
face of ouf most highly favored count r y. 

Our bookstores already abound with practi- 
cal works on Agriculture, and Gazettes, Maga- 
zines, and Journals, aie increased to that ex- 
tent that he that will " may read." But the 
body politic, as well as the animal system, ts 
subject to disease — the dog has his mange and 
the horse his distemper ; and most nations have 
had the novel mania ; but as this, like the two 
former, rarely makes its appearance more than 
once with the same subject, we hope theyoung 
er class of agriculturists will hereafter bo ben 
efitted by a more healthy and profitable course 
of reading. We have already many men in the 
United States who are becoming justly cele 
brated for their writings on subjects connected 
with farming — men who already enjoy the con 
fidence of the public, and who are entitled to 
the gratitude of their countrymen for the con- 
cise and correct manner of detailing whatever 
they find by experiment worth communicating. 
As temperance, like a redeeming spirit, is now 
hovering about our land, we hope that many 
young agriculturists will devote a part of the 
amount formerly applied to the purchase of ar- 
dent spirit to the purchase of such works ap- 
pertaining to their vocations as will prove 
profitable to themselves and a blessing to our 
country. What more profitable and amusing 
intellectual repast than to spend a winter even- 
ing in loohing over Prinze's Treatise on the j 



Vine and Horticulture, Fessenden on Garden- 
ing, or Adlum on Wine making. So far as an- 
ticipation is concerned we seem transported to 
ihe feast of fruits and flowers and exhilarated 
in fancy as though we had been partaking of 
■' Wine which maketh glad the heart of man." 

TRANSPLANTING TREES. 

As this operation is often performed in open 
winters as well as during fall and spring months 
a few remarks may be acceptable. We shall not 
enter into any arguments in this article as to 
the particular time neeessary for this opera- 
tion, as at any season, if well done, is better 
than not done at all. There is a great conven. 
ience in being able to procure trees near by bo 
that they may be put in the ground the same 
day on which they are taken up ; this, when 
done in warm days, prevents the danger of the 
roots being frozen, which often happens when 
trues are kept out of ground many days during 
late fall and winter setting. If tke roots of 
tiees are frozen and thawed when they are out 
of ground in open air they are killed. As the 
fine roots are important to the growth of trees 
when transplanted, care should be taken not to 
expose tbem to the air when it is cold enough 
to freeze, as in that case they are instantly de- 
stroyed. If the ground into which you trans- 
plant your trees is hard or barren, the holes 
should be made large and filled up with good 
rich earth in preference to using any kind of 
manure. The roots should be laid in without 
being crowded, and covered with fine earth — 
when there is sufficient earth laid upon the 
roots to cover them, a pail of water should be 
poured in and the young tree stirred up and 
down by which the earth will be made into a 
wash, which will settle in among the small 
roots and prevent their molding, which is often 
the case when they are pressed together, by 
having the dirt thrown upon them, or when 
manure is put in the holes with the earth. — 
Many are so particular as to mark the trees so 
as to set the same side to a given point of com- 
pass as before they were taken up ; this is well 
enough, but i3 not important Pruning at the 
time of transplanting is bad, but may be done 
after the trees begin to vegetate In spring. It 
is well to set young trees a few inches deeper 
in the earth than they were before taken up, 
but to set too deep is injurious. Trees in open 
orchards in this section should bo set with the 
heaviest part of their tops to the southwest and 
be allowed to lean a little in that direction tfs 
we have the most of our winds from that quar- 
ter which are apt to bend them in an opposite 
direction. 

Answer to " Ji question," in JS'o. \,p. C. 
The Gardener must set them an trM four ex r 
tromities of a solid equiangular tetragon, to he 
formed by placing three of them on a level at. 
the extremities of an equiangular triangle, and 
the fourth, either on a bill or in a valley, so 
that its angles of inclination to the three oth- 
er trees shall be equ»l — the trees will then Be 
eqai-dstant. P. 



10 



THE GENESEE FARMER 



Jan. 15, lS3i. 



VULGAR ERRORS-NO. I. 

"Prick lite moon calf till be roar again.' — Shakspeare. 
The incongruities of the human mind are so 
manifold, and its discrepancies are so at vari- 
ance with sober reason, established fact, and 
eternal truths that the wild vagaries of one age 
are no sooner exploded by its own research and 
experience, than the next, seizing the mon- 
strosities of the last in preference to their weli 
established truths, hug them to their hearts, and 
defend them as creeds, with all the zeal of fa- 
natics. And it is a truth not to be denied, that 
we profit but very liitlu by the knowledge and 
experience of past times, and each succeeding 
age has to arrive at ihe former's perfection by 
the tedious process of experience and inven- 
tion, and even then if unfavorably situated as 
respects laws and governors, they not only re- 
main stationary, but frequently retrograde in 
moral, political, and philosophical science. 

Another of ihe palpable absurdities of our 
natures, is that eternal shy larking of our minds 
after something that we cannot comprehend, 
or hardly figure to our glowing imaginations, 
even when fancy runs wildin her most mettle- 
some career; and that religion, society, or av- 
ocation, that carries in its train the most "pomp 
and circums'ance," pageantry, idle and unmea- 
ning and imposing ceremonies, and dark and 
undefined anticipations, has and ever will num- 
ber the bulk of mankind as its votaries, — now 
as ever, 

" Pleased with a rattle, tickled witi a straw." 
The splendid trappings of the god of 
war, has laid many a " tall fellow" low, who 
Jiever would have thought of exposing himself 
to the " mooving accidents of flood and field" 
in Ins native "hodden gray." It is the great 
engine by which kings maintain their power, 
and priestcraft its influence. The gorgeous 
mosque and ihe magnific nt Pagoda, are mure 
powerful arguments, than the everlasting truths 
of reason. The morgana of the mind is not 
more deceptive ami illusive than lhat of the 
vision. 

We look in t' e clouds, in the moon and the 
stars for our motions and our fate, and many 
an act of necessity and duty are left undone, 
ltecause it is not right in the sign, or quarter of 
the moon. The stars arc in fault fo r our vices, 
and the clouds are fruitful sources of procras- 
tination. 

In these enlightened days, is it not the cli- 
max of absurdity, to suppose that the moon go- 
verns the vegetable world, or lias any influence 
on the animal. According to the prevailing pre 
judioes, different grains and vegetables must 
bo planled m different quarters of the moot 
the garden esculents, when the moon is incroa- 
iiimant! the grains when it is declining. Hogs 
are to be killed near the full, and castration per- 
formed near ihe wane. Sheep shorn in the 
crescent near the change, ground manured in 
the last quarter lhat weeds may not abound. — 
Trees planted and grafted just after the full, 
&c. Children arc to be weaned in one sign, 
and their hair cut in another; and in fact it 
would seem by the daily conduct of a majority 
of mankind, that business of the greatest import 
was put otT from day to day waiting for the si. 



and as the relics of the astrology of the ancients, 
the Salem witchcraft of a later period, and the 
grannyism of our own times, and only gains 
credence with any class of men, even of the 
must moderate capacities, by the ease and non- 
cnalence with which they receive these chime- 
ras, in preference to giving their mind the least 
trouole of investigation, or even a question. 

In our next number, we shall examine the 
propriety and probabilities, that the planets and 
constellations, exercise any, or what, influence 
on the matter of this globe ; and if to,what they 
are. * 



CRANBERRIES. 

A new field is opon for speculation, to those 
who have low lands, and it is hoped that some 
of our Monroe farmers will be wise enough to 
profit by it. The New England Farmer states 
that Capt. Henry Hall, of Barnstable, has been 
engaged for20 years in the cultivation of Cran- 
berries; lhat his grounds have averaged for the 
last ten years 70 bushels per acre, and t:tat 
some seasons, he has had 100 bushels. " Mr. 
F. A. Hayden of Lincoln, has gathered from! 
his farm, this season, 40U bushels of cranber- 
ries, which he sold in this city (Boston) for 
$600." Now, where is the propriety of far 
mers emigrating to the Michigan, or to the 
Rocky Mountains, when tbey can be compen- 
sated for their labor in this manner, in the im- 
mediate vicinity of our large cilies, where ihe 
comforts of life, and the blessings of civiliza 
tion are so easily obtained. Now let us look a 
httle further into this business — If we go to 
raising cranberries, where shall we find a mar- 
ket? This is a very natural question, but is 
easily answered; go.where Mr. Hayden went, 
if you are not suited with the New York mar- 
ket. 

Cranberries, unlike most other kinds of small 
fruits, are capable of being transported to Eu 
ripe, without suffering by the voyage, and we 
have seen American cranberries sellmg in Lon 
don at eight dollars per bushel, as fresh. as 
when first gathered from the marshes Now 
let us compare this kind of farming, with rais- 
ing wheat in the northern part of Ohio, and 
Michigan, where we believe the price the last 
season, has been about 40 cents per bushel, 
and the produce 25 bushels per acre. We will 
suppose that the cultivation of one acre of 
land in either crop to be the same, but this is 
for ihe sake of brevity, and is in favor of the 
wheat: wo will allow the wheat to he threshed 
for every tenth bushel, and that the cranberries 
cost twenty cents per bushel for harvesting. 
The produce of one acre of wheat, '25 bush 



gan ; now this is all well; t* ere are some peo- 
ple who seem to require care to make them 
happy, and thus by emigration, they can in- 
crease their cares twenty fold, on the same 
amount of business. 

TO FARMERS. 

As the forepart of winter has been mild, i'. 
should occur to you that bees eat more during 
mild than cold weather; they should he looked 
to — perhaps some of the late swarms want 
feeding; and a few pounds of honey, given 
them after they have consumed their stock, 
may save the swarm. Do not give it to them 
in such a manner that they will get into it — 
put it on dry comb or on pieces of soft bread. 
There is no stock pays better for the attention 
you bestow upon them than bees, and none 
suffer sooner by neglect, therefore look to them 
often. 



els at 48 cents is 

Cultivating same 
Threshing same 



Net profit 



$5 

1 

6 



*«0 



to come right, a contingency that seems never Thus it would appear that the net proffit of 
■to arrive. Now, kind reader, we are sceptics one acre of cranberries in N«w England, would 
enough to consider signs and times, as meta- be equal to twenty-one acres and a quarter of 
physical humkqg and astrological nonsejise;, |l wheat in the northern part of Ohio and Michi- 



Thc produce of one acre of cranberries 70 



bushels at $1,50 is 

Cultivating same 
Packing same 



Net profit 



$6 
14 

CO 



20 

$85 



INVENTION FOR REPUBLICS. 

A new kind of Bee Hive has lately been in 
vented, which promises to be of great utility 
to those engaged in raising bees. It consists 
of a number of cells, about the size of small 
beehives, or about from twelve to fifteen inch- 
es square, and from fifteen to eighteen inches 
deep, arranged like the pigeon holes in a wri- 
ting desk, or a number of bee-hives piled upon 
their sides. The number of these cells may 
be according to the taste of the builder : say 
four rows up and down, and ten long, making 
forty cells. These should be enclosed in a 
tight house, of sufficient dimensions to allow a 
oerson room to pass freely before and behind 
them, and they should be supported at such a 
distance from the floor as to be convenient for 
examination. In front of these there should 
be a number of small holes made through the 
side of the building, sufficient fur the bees to 
pass in and out. In the back end nf each cell 
there may be a slide, or door, for the purpose 
of taking out the honey. The building, if 
made of wood, should be carefully made, not 
allowing cracks or joints, through which mice 
cuuld enter, and a door in tlio rear for the kee- 
ner to go in and out at. Into these cells a 
number of swarms of bees are introduced, and 
it is said that they work as well as in hives of 
common construction — that they never leave 
the hcuse by swarms, as long as there is an 
empty cell for the young colony to emigrate 
to. There is no necessity for destroying the 
bees to gettbe honey. They are not troubled 
with the moth, where the house is tightly 
made, and where the door is well secured, they 
are not so liable to be r-rhbed by — man, 

O" It is a fact worth recurring to, that the 
ti pier, and those generally intemperate, arc 
not fond of fruits, particularly those of fine and 
delicate flavors, while temperate persons, fe- 
males aud children, possessing unvitiated pal- 
ates, have tastes and propensities directly the 
contrary ; and observe it when yon will, the 
debauched, the intemperate, and the boorish, 
care but little about the garden, the flower, or 
the fruit tree There is nothing in their coirr- 
posilion that is congenial with their natures. 
but to the intellectual, thinking, and unsophis- 
ticated lover of natnre, and its productions, 
the garden and the field is the paradise of earth; 
and its blooming, verdant, and fragrant inhab- 
itants, the Fairies and Uouris created to ad- 
minister to their necessities, pleasure and pro. 
fit. 



Vol. 1.— No- 2. 



AND GARDENER'S JOURNAL. 



11 



For thw Genesoo Farmtr. 
ON PRESERVING BUTTER. 

Addressed to Farm.ra and Citizen House-WiveE. 

Butter baa become an article of such prima- 
ry importance, and such a leading material in 
tbe daily consumption of mankind, that it 
seems to ma that if one quarter of the atten- 
tion had been paid to its improvement, that 
(here has to subjects of minor importance, our 
markets and tables would not so often be the 
subject of complaint. 

I shall not attempt to give a chomical anal- 
ysis of butter, or even directions for making 
it, as it is only a good article that can obtain 
buyers, or gain admittance to the tables of 
private families, who provide for themselves, 
but I would here observe that there is nut such 
a marked difference in particular districts or 
pastures, or in breeds of cows, or even skill in 
the manufacturing, except as to neatness and 
cleanliness, as most persons imagine. 

In buying your butter, the most sensible 
question you can ask, is "how many cows do 
you keep "," tne chance of a good article is 
generally in favor of the larger number ; any 
other inquiries are mere moonshine. Tasting, 
smelling, seeing, and feeling, are the only true 
criterions. Fresh, sweet, and clean, is all that 
is required: the grand secrot is preservation, 
and this is so simple thatno one who loves a 
good article should ever complain of having 
bad,rancid, or frewey butter. 

Butter is an oil, rather more appertaining 
to animal than vegetable origin, and when 
pure, does not contain the elements of sponta- 
neous fermentation, or decomposition, and if 
not exposed to the air, is as unchangeable as 
gold, or the diamond itself; and the first pound 
flat was made by the Scythians, who were 
the first discoverers, 600 years before the 
Christian Era, if properly prepared, and her-> 
mettcally sealed, would be as fine and palata- 
ble this day, as the best pound made in the 
" Genesee cojuntry" this year. 

Allow rao to give one fact within my own 
knowledge, to support this assertion. In the 
jammer of 1827, I had presented to me a 
piece of butter SI years old, and which to 
t.a^te and smell, was as fine and sweet as tbe 
day it was churned, and for aught I know, e- 
ven sweeter, for it was the very cream of but- 
ter. It had been prosorved under tbe follow- 
ing circumstances. A farmer's wijfe, during 
vary hot weather, had put a large roll on a 
yewter plate, and tied it over with a white 
napkin, and lowered it into a deep well to cool 
and fit it for the table. In withdrawing it 
the 3tjing broke, and it sunk to the bottom. — 
Twenty-one years after, the well was cleaned 
and during the opfejation, it got loosed from 
its imprisonment, rote and swam on the sur- 
face, to the no small annoyance and surprise 
of the man who was in the well. It was 
Carefully drawn up as the egg of some land or 
sea serpent, but the good wife soon laid the 
sjook, and explained the mystery. 

Now for the g.and secret of preservation 
for the promulgation of which, I only ask my 
readers to try it once, and they may forever 
After do as they please. 

After butter is made, or comes ioto your 
possession, K in warm weather, tbe first ope- 
ration, is to put it either into a cool cellar or 
?nto eu-M well or spring water., nil tt oreotnen 



of as hard a consistency as it can readily be 
worked with a ladle or paddle. In small por- 
tions work out all the milk or whey that it 
contains, which is best done in a wooden bowli 
held in a sloping direction. You may even 
work it with cold water, changing it till it 
comes off clear, except in which case, it will 
need an additional quantity of salt, and if you 
will do it with the following compound, you 
will decidedly find your account in it ; viz: — 
Two parts common salt, (not too fine) one 
part saltpetre, and one part sugar.by measure 
And above all, remember that the working 
must be thoroughly done, if you wish it to 
keep a long time, and that it can only be done 
when cooled down to a proper temperature ; 
for by this process you purify it of all self ac 
ting and putrefying particles, that are capable 
of spontaneous change and decomposition 
and it now only wants to be kept from contact 
with air, to render it perfectly unchangeable 
To do this, take any sweet wooden cask, tnb, 
or firkin, that has been used at least one year 
before, and lost its wood flavor, or what is de- 
cidedly belter, stone and earthern jars or pots, 
make the butter into rolls of that convenient 
size, that the half of one shall be fit for the ta- 
ble, and lay them carefully and snugly down, 
till tho vessel is full, or within a few inches, 
then make a brine of cold water, as strong as 
salt will make it, or to saturation, and cover 
fairly the whole of the butter. If properly 
packed, it will not swim, as you use from it, 
and if kept covered, it is as sweet and good at 
the end of ten years as when put down. 

It is important to be in rolls, to prevent its 
coming too much in contact with the wood, 
whereby it would receive air and be inconven- 
ient to come at when wanted. If it is desira- 
ble to pack it in bulk and solid, for market, 
the best way is to work it well as above, pack 
down firmly, and on tbe top put about a haif 
inch of fine salt, leave it about 8 or 10 days 
and you will find it has shrunk from the side 
about an eight or quarter of an inch, then head 
up, and through a hole in the head fill it with 
brine, H. Y. 



A CHEAP AND DURABLE PAINT, FOB GARDEN 
FENCES, OCT HOUSES, EVE TKOUGHS, &C. 

I propose, Messrs Editors, in a few days, to 
give you my ideas and speculations on the 
short duration of the modern paints used on 
houses and works exposed to the weather, 
and particularly of the prevailing colour, white, 
lead, and ttiose with which it is compounded, 
the undurability of wliieh, is a general com- 
plaint, aDd a great tax opon the, public, and 
needs redress. 

In the mean time I offer the following cheap 
substitute fur linseed oil painting, for all 
coar9e uut door works : 

Melt over a slow fire, in an iron pot or kettle, 
two lbs. of rosin, and one lb. of roll brimstone; 
when perfectly liquified, add slowly three gal- 
lons of train or fish oil, and wheu perfectly 
incorporated, add Spanish brown, Venetian red, 
yellow ochre, or any other dark calour, till of 
sufficient consistency to cover wood of a uni- 
form colour; nse it warm, with a brtjsh, and 
when dry, give it a second coat, and you will 
have a pabt that the weather is incapable of 
affecting. It takes linger to dry than common 
paints, but if rightly managed, usuajly be- 
dtimes Itljrd in five or six clays. O. B. 



VITALITY OF PLANTS. 

Borne of the ancient philosophers supposed 

the trocs, and the whole vegetable kingdom, 

to bo endowed with souls, vitality and intelli 

gence. The Druids held the misletoe sacred, 

and some of our savages have certain trees 

that they converse with, and pay their adora 

lions to, 

1 He sees, 
God in the rocks, and SpiritB in the trees.' 

And in fact the idea is not so barbarous, nor 
so preposterous, whon we look on the shrink- 
ing sensibility of the mimosa or sensitive 
plants, or the trembling and nodding of the 
anthers of the Barberry, on the slighest touch ol 
any foreign substance; the sensibility and voli- 
tion of several flowers of the fly-trap kind, 
which close upon any of the insect tribe, who 
invade their nectared cells, and hold them in 
durance, till they are smothered in sweets, be- 
fore they again expand their flowers — All this, 
with many other curious facts, connected with 
the sexual intercourse of those plants, whose 
reproductive organs are contained in different 
flowers, and even on different plants— these, 
with thousands of other wonderful properties 
of vegetable organic matter, to those who view 
them thinkingly and critically, certainly go to 
show that the vegetable economy and struc 
ture, is something more than the mere carpen- 
ter's frame work of inert snbstances ; — but arc 
endowed with feeling, sensibility, and voli- 
tion. The ascending and descending of the 
sap; nay, the very simple fact, that they all 
incline to grow perpendicularly, rather than 
haphazard, at the angles of chance, all show 
design and wisdom in their formation; and the 
exercise of these secret and inscrutable prin- 
ciples, which the mere natural reasoner may 
spin out into the attenuated cobweb's fino- 
ness of analysis arid sophistry without finding 
the course. Then where is the monstrosity 
of the ancient's belief, or the irrationality of a 
creed formed in those bye-gone ages, wlieji 
those daring and mighty spirits groped their 
way in the natural sciences, in more than t^- 
berian darkness? Why is it unphilosophioal 
to allow all organic matter, from the humble 
moss to god-like man, to possess its due pre 
portion of the spirit, soul, mind, or intelli. 
gence, that constitutes our pre-eminence ov»Er 
the brute? 

" Vast chain of beings! which from God begoji 
Nature's ethereal, human, angel, man, 
Beast, bird, fish, insect, what no eye can see'. 
Noglass can reach, from infinite to thee I" 
"FromNature's chain, whatever linkyou strike, 
Tenth, or ten thousandth, breaks the chain 



alike 



Y. 



TERMINOLOGY. 

Roots, trunk, limbs, stems, branches, twigs, 
pith, bark, leaves, flower, seed and fruit, com- 
pose a complete vegetable. 

Epidermis— the outer rough part of the ba,rk, 
without a circulation of sap, and is supposed 
to be the excremental part of the plant. 

Parenchyma — the part next the epideimVs, 
and is jjsually of a greenish color. 

Cortical layers — the soft and flexible part of 
in e bark next the wood. 

Qamb or granulated matter— the soft pulpy 
mass next within the cortical layers in the con. 
dition of forming new wood. 

Ligneous fibre — the woo8 or struct^e and 
frame WorB of the tree or vegetable. 



12 



THE GENESEE FARMER 



Jan. 15, 1831, 



GRAPE VINES. 

As public opinion is now in favor of wine- 
making, and that too from our native grapes, 1 
hope farmers who live in those parts of the 
country where they abound will turn their at* 
tention to the subject; and if they would spend 
a few days during the winter in gathering cut- 
tings from such vines within their knowledge 
as possess good qualities and distribute them 
among their friends they would confer a lasting 
benefit on their country. Many practical men 
are now satisfied that the native American 
grapes are the finest in the world for making 
ivine. The peculiar fragrance of the wine, 
when properly made, from the fox grape, can- 
not fail to give it superiority over most other 
wines now in use ; and it is ascertained that a 
wine may be made from the summer or chicken 
grape, equal in quality to the finest Claret or 
Burgundy. As vines are generally propaga. 
ted from cuttings, which should be taken from 
the old stock, during fall or winter, I hope 
those who feel interested in the temperance 
cause and advancement of our country, will 
think proper to devote a little time to so laud- 
able an object. 

A few directions for taking cuttings may be 
acceptable to the unpractised. Three points 
are to be kept in view. 1st. Select good bear- 
ers. 2d. Such fruits as have the most desirable 
flavor, either for the table or for wine; and 
here allow me to observe that those grapes 
that are the most desirable for the talle are not 
always so for wine. 3d. Se ect those vines 
which are best growers. There are three 
principal ways of propagating vines by cuttings. 
1st By a short piece of the preceding year's 
wood, containing but one eye or bud — this is 
buried with the bud up one or two inches be- 
neath the surface. 2d. By pieces of the last 
year's wood of one foot or more in length con- 
taining at least three joints, which are to be 
buried two thirds their length in the ground. 
3d. By two joints of the hist year's, with one 
of thejpreceding year's wood, making the form 
of the cutting like an inverted T. The second 
is the method generally practised in France. 
The cuttings, after being taken from theparen' 
stock should be kept in a damp place or buried 
in the ground till spring, then set in a rich soil, 
if you have a situation where the cuttings will 
be sheltered from the-noon day sun they will 
succeed much better than in a southern expo- 
sure. 

The torms for. and chicken grapes may not 
be familiar to all. The fox grape is the name 
applied to the large American grape growing 
io the New England, and most of the Middle 
States ; it ripens in September, varying in she 
and color from white to deep purple, posses- 
sing a peculiar fragrance which is not found 
with any other kind of grape. 

The chicken or summer grape, is an interme- 
diate kind between the fox and late frost grape, 
both as to size and time of ripening, of a dark 
purple color, quite sour, and moderately astrin- 
gent; and there is no doubt but this kind wil' 
he found an excellent w,ne grape, and will sup- 
ply the place of the tender grapes of Europe 
for making red wines, and might with propriety 
be called the American Burgundy grape. Both 
these kinds of grapes are capable of enduring 
the Severest winters of the northern parts of 
(he United States. 



CURRANTS. 

Among all the fruit of the garden, there is 
none more useful than the Currant. The bush- 
es will thrive in most soils ; they endure our 
most severe winters ; are constant bearers ; 
the fruit continues long in use, and they are 
not liable to be destroyed by insects. Who 
will neglect to cultivate so valuable a fruit ? 
There are four kinds of this fruit which should 
be found in every garden. The largo red and 
white Dutch, the Champaigne pale led, and 
the black English Currant. We find this Iruit 
in different shapes upon our table for three 
months or one quarter of the year, and always 
acceptable. As for wine. I know it will be 
said that they make a heavy kind of wine, which 
may be drank when we can get no other. Let 
the reader consider this is an age of improve- 
ment, and we know of a cask of currant wine in 
this county, made the last season, which will be 
pronounced equal in quality to any imported 
wine which can be purchased in this place ai 
two dollars per gallon. As there will be an 
account given hereafter of the manufacture of 
this wine, by the gentleman who made it, we 
shall only observe that the materials were all 
the produce of his farm, and such wine can 
well be made at half a dollar per gallon. We 
see attempts made to train the currant as a 
dwarf standard; this requires much time in 
cutting down the sprouts which are constantly 
springing from the root, but which may be a- 
voided by commencing right at first. As this 
ts a proper season for commencing the prepar- 
ations for forming currant plantations, a few di- 
rections to young gardeners maybe usefu.. 

The best method of propagating currants is 
by cuttings; these maj be taken from the fall- 
ing of the leaf in autumn until spring. Select 
the straightest & most thrifty shoots of the pre- 
ceding year's wood, which should be eighteen 
inches long or more, let them be cut at such 
distance from the old wood that the buds are 
found regular, and are large and distinct. When 
you have collected as many of these straight 
shoots as you wish, cut the lower end to a 
point, that it may more easily be stuck in the 
ground, then, with a sharp budding knife, cut 
out each bud much in the manner of cutting 
them from a cion for budding — proceed in this 
i manner as far as you wish the body of your 
bush to remain without limbs, as no sprouts 
will ever come out of that part deprived of buds* 
and the greatest care should be taken that not 
one bud, however small, should be left, as that 
would defeat all your calculations — alter this 
stick themjin the ground from four to six inches, 
keeping them perpendicular. The first summer 
they will take root and make small growths, af- 
ter which they may be set in the places where 
you wish them to remain. As they increase in 
size the topi should be pruned and shaped to 
ihe tasto of the operator. Currant bushes, 
managed in thi- way, will continue in bearing 
fifty years — ihe fruit will be larger and better 
flavored than from those hushes left to grow 
in the common manner; the borders will not 
ho infested with sprouts ; and dwarf standards 
are ornamental, and should be found in evory 
well regulated garden. 

Among the giants for the public service of 
1830, the French chamber of deputies have 
voted 5,100,000 francs (rather more than $1,- 
000,000) for the completion pf varTrjifs canal* 



BROOM CORN. 

From the unlimited use of this article it has 
become of great consequence, and for several 
years past the growing of it, as a field crop 
has been attended with a handsome profit ; and 
the manufacturing of it into brooms gives em- 
ployment to the farmer within doors at that 
season of the year when his timo is of least 
worth We do not know whether the increase 
in price the present season is owing to the fail- 
ure of the crop, or the increasing demand for 
brooms, when manufactured ; but from some 
cause the price, both of the unmanufactured 
and manufactured article, has increased from 
fifty to seventy-five per cent, within the last 
year. Brooms which were worth one year 
since one dollar and fifty cents per dozen, are 
worth this season two dollars and sixty-three 
cents, and the unmanufactured brush has been 
sold as high as ten cents per pound. Allow* 
ing the produce of an acre of good land to be 
one thousand pounds, this wuuldgive the far- 
mer one hundred dollars as the product, and 
the labor required would be but little more 
than that for cultivating an acre of Indian corn ; 
beside the broom corn would prodnce from 
twenty to twenty-five bushels of seed per acre, 
which 13 worth as much as oats to feed lo fowls. 
Great care should be given to the selection of 
seed by those who intend to plant, using only 
such as grow upon the best stalks, which pro- 
duced the longest brush. As it is of import- 
ance to farmers to raise those crops which wilj 
give them the greatest profit we would recom- 
mend to those who have land suitable, to in- 
quire into the prospects for this crop. 

MADDER. 

This is theRubia tinctoria of Linneus, and 
is thus described :— Calyx, four toothed ; Co- 
ral, four cleft and bellform ; stem, square and 
piickly ; leaves, whorled ; plant, perennial. — 
In growth and habits this plant bears a strong 
resemblance to one growing by the side of 
ditches and commonly known by the name of 
Clivers. It is propagated either by seeds or 
offsets ; the latter method is the one generally 
practised. This plant has been long cultiva- 
ted as a dyeing material. Madder thrives best 
in a deep rich soil, rather wet than otherwise 
it is cultivated in rows or drills, not unlike po- 
tatoes, or in bods of four or five feet wide, 
which are to be earthed over from the space 
between them. A person of our acquaintance, 
who has cultivated this plant for a number of 
years, prefers planting in rows and plowing 
and dressing it much in the manner of pota- 
toes. The roots are taken up after two years 
if from offsets, but not till the third year when 
raised from seed. This operation is performed 1 
in autumn, and the crown oT the roots are set 
in a new plantation. The roots are dried and 
ground, or sold without, as the market offers . 
the price varying from twenty to thirty cents 
per pound. The produce of an acre may be 
calculated at from fifteen hundred to two thou- 
sand pounds. It is with a variety of this plant 
that many of onr western Indians make their 
beautiful red colore. The root is sometime!: 
attacked by the grub, which prov.es very inju- 
rious to the crop. 



Vol. 1.— No- 2. 



AND GARDENER'S JOURNAL. 



13 



SUMMER FALLOWS. 
To summer fallow, sward land is a com- 
mon practice in this section of country, bat 
we are convinced from our own observation, 
that this is not the most economical method. 
After the crop of wheat, the stubble ground 
is often planted with corn ; now this is get- 
ting the cart before the horse Let your 
sward land be ploughed late in the fall or ear- 
ly in the spring, and made ready for corn. If 
the corn is well tended, the grass will all be 
killed, and the decomposing vegetable matter 
will furnish its greatest supply of food to the 
roots, at the time the ears are filling out ; and 
as a general rule, we get the finest yield of 
corn from turf ground, although we do not 
get as large a growth of stalks. This is as it 
should be, to get the most corn with the least 
oxpense of soil. The contrary is the case, 
wben we plant stubble land— we get larger 
stalks, but less corn, as the greatest quantity 
of vegetable nutrition, from the decaying turf, 
is furnished the roots in the fore part of sum- 
mer and there seems a lack af it at the time 
the ears are filling out. Itwill eo fbund by obser 
vation, that corn raised on sward land, where 
it is well tended, is laways 'more full at the 
points of the ears, than that raised upon stub- 
ble land. Again, when sward land is summer 
fallowed, unless the season is very favorable, 
the roots of grass are not entirely killed, and 
it will be found upon examination, that most 
of the sods which lie upon the surface in the 
spring after the wheat is sowed, have roots 
and runners of gi ass leading out from them 
in every direction, claiming the right of pri- 
mogeniture, over the wheat, and depriving it 
of a share of vegetable nuirition ; and it will 
be found by actual calculation, in many instan- 
ces, that tbese sods and roots extend over one 
quarter of the surface; and it is from this cir- 
cumstance, that many pieces of stubble land 
produce so much pasturage after the wheat is 
taken oft', where they have not been seeded 
with grass or clover ; which sometimes ren- 
ders the hoeing of the succeeding corn crop 
more difficult than when it succeeds the sward. 
When corn is made the first crop, the land is 
in a state of fallowing all summer ; that is, the 
hoeing in the fore part of llio season, and the 
shading from the corn, in the latter part, is as 
effectual in subduing the roots of the jrass, as 
summer fallowing would have been, continued 
Tor the same length of time. By making 
wheat the second crop, ar.d summer fallowing 
•he stalk ground, tho subduing process iscon- 
'inued twice as long as it would have been incase 
vou had made wheat the first. The breaking 
up of your stalk ground, does not require as 
much strength of team, (and team-work at this 
faintt season of the year, is important,) neither 
do the after ploughings, as when the crops are 
reversed. Your grounds become completely 
subdued, the grass roots nil dead, and such 
seeds as were in the ground, have had an op-> 
portunity ta vegetate, and are destroyed, and 
the whole surface prepared to give nutrition 
to the wheat alone. It often happens that 
mowing lands are of prime importance, and 
tbat a rotation of crops are resorted to as ren- 
ovators for such lands, and it is desirable to re- 
turn them to grass as soon as possible after the 
surface is made fine and smooth. This can 
fte done by stocking with the wheat ; but SI 



wheat was the first, then corn, it would require 
a third crop before it could be returned to 
grass. Now if the farmers will give this a 
fair trial, they will find that the saving of la- 
bor will be about one quarter, and the increase 
in the two crops will be in an inverse latio, or 
an average gain of twenty-five per cent, over 
the method commonly practiced for the two 
crops- 

DOMESTIC HORTICULTURAL SOCIE- 
TY OF THE WESTERN PART OP NEW YORK. 

This Society was formed at Geneva, 27th 
November, 1828. and was designed to include 
the counties of Onondaga, Cayuga, Tompkins, 
Seneca, Ontario, Yates, Wayne, Livingston, 
Monroe and Genesee. They held their autum- 
nal exhibition for 1829, at the village of Lyons, 
and for 1830, at Geneva. The officers, for the 
current year, are. 

John Greig, President 



James K. Guernsey, ~) 

William S. De Zeng, 

David Thomas, j Vice 

James Wadsworth, } Presidents. 

Wm. H. Adams, 

Alexander Duncan, J 

Joseph Fellows, Treasurer, 

Myron Holley, Corresponding Sec'y. 

Z. Barton Stout, Recording Sec'y. 
At their meeting at Geneva, Sept. 28, 1830, 
the following Address was delivered by Z. Bar- 
ton Stout, Esq., which we trust will be read 
with much pleasure by all the friends of Horti- 
culture. 
Gentlemen of the Society: 

The progress made, during the two years of 
the existence of the Domestic Horticultural 
Society of the Western Part of New York, has 
been gratifying and encouraging. 

The autumnal exhibition at Lyons, a yoar a- 
go, of fruits, flowers, and culinary vegetables, 
was as such might have competed success- 
fully, with the supplies of the best markets of 
our oldest cities. The recent summer exhibi- 
tion at Canandaigua, though the early season 
had been particularly unfavorable, afforded tin 
exulting proof «if the triumph c,f horticultural 
taste and skill. And the various and excellent 
collection of the " kindly fruits of the earth," 
brought together to-day shows, that zeal in 
the cause has not diminished, nor industry re- 
laxed. 

May wo not therefore conclude, that we are 
bid to " go on rind prosper;" that the laudable 
objects had in view in the formation of this So- 
ciety, are likely to be realized; and that wes- 
tern New York is becoming, by improvement, 
what it was evidently designed to be, by na- 
ture, nml what we have often heard it called, 
one of the garden spots of the nation. Our 
social ion has already been honored with the 
friendly correspondence or' a number of the 
most distinguished botanists and (horticulturists 
of the United States. Several of our membprs 
cultivate gardens, which, for the variety and 
excellence of their products, would be highly 
creditable to older countries. It will not be 
deemed indelicate, now that our respected 
President is absent with his family in Europe, 
to recall to your recollection, that while this 
eouutry was scarcely reclaimed from its wil- 
derness state, he was distinguished for his taste 
iH horticulture, as lie has ever been for the a- 
miable courtesies of social life. Altogether 
then, our Society has been commenced under 
favorable auspices, has already been rewarded 
with flattering encouragements, and has (ob- 
tained successes, that should stimulate the 
members to untiring future exertion. 

In the late able address before the Society, 
at Canandaigua, a common botanioal and ex- 
perimental garden, to belong to the Society, 
was spoken of; and on the whole, discourag- 
ingly — the orator deeming that individual expe- 



riments would belter secure the expected ben- 
efits. As, owing to the various professions 
and pursuits of the members, horticulture can 
have but the occasional attention of most of 
them, and will be deemed rather an ele»ant 
and useful recreation, than a business it strikes 
me, that all the advantages to be derived from 
experimental culture, will hardly be obtained 
by such scattered exertions. Much doubtless 
may be done by the practice and observations 
of the members, regularly communicated to 
the Society, at its stated meetings; but the 
fullest success would be most likely to attend 
the skillful industry of some competent mem- 
ber, who would make horticulture his princi- 
pal study and occupation. The chief reason, 
probably, why an experimental garden of the 
Sociejy would not prove all we could wish, is, 
that it would be a sort of common domain, un- 
watched by the vigilant eye of private interest. 
I will, with due reference, suggest to the mem 
bers a plan, which may afford them the facilities 
and advantages of a society garden, under the 
fostering security of individual vigilance : That 
they create the office of chief gardener to the 
Horticultural Society; that they select, to fill 
this office, some member of suitable botanical 
knowledge and skill, who will engage to make 
the cultivation of an extensive botanical and 
experimental garden, his chief business. The 
members of the Society always to have the pre- 
ference as purchasers of the various trees, 
piants, roots and flo'wers, he may have for sale. 
The Society to engage him its patronage; and 
the members to furnish him gratis with any 
rare seeds, plants, &c. that may come into 
their possession. Such an establishment, situ- 
ated at, or adjaceut to some one of the villages 
where our meetings are held, would place the 
means of improving and ornamenting our pri- 
vate gardens immediately within our reach, and 
could not fail to prove of great public utility. 

A garden of this kind has been successfully 
established near Albany. Several in the vicin- 
ity of New York are very flourishing. 

The neighborhood of Philadelphia mav boast 
of a number of beautiful gardens, equal to any 
in the United States. Landreth's and Bar- 
tram's are of the kind and for the purposes, I 
I have been recommending. 

The Woodlands and Lemon Hill are private 
establishments, on the most tasteful and munif- 
icent scale. The latter of these, once the 
country seat of the celebrated Robert Morris, 
now better known by the appellation of Pratt's 
;ardcn, contains a most extensive collection, 
indigenous and exotic, which is freely submit- 
ted, by the liberality of the proprietor, to the 
examination, the study and the enjoyment of all 
respectable visitors. And crowds avail them- 
selves of this liberality, enjoying its beauties, 
with intense delight, 

" Along the blushing borders, bright with dew, 
And iu the mingled wilderness of flowers." 

Bartram's, the above mentioned, is, perhaps, 
the very oldest botanic garden in the United 
Slates. 1: is situated on the right bank of the 
Schuylkill, a few miles below ihe city, and was 
begun more than a hundred years ago, by John 
IWtram the elder. He was early encouraged 
in his unlerprize by scientific gentlemen in 
England, membars of the Royal Sooiety, and 
others ; and Ins garden was the nursery, whence 
were distributed over the Old world, the pecu- 
liar vegetables of the New. Bartram, the son. 
known to the readers of the last generation by 
his travels in Florida and Georgia, continued 
through a long life, terminated but a few years 
ago, to cultivate and improve the garden. His 
eyes though dimmed with the lapse of more 
than four score years, brtghteoed, as he once 
pointed out to me, a stately elm, which, when 
a small sapling, and he a little boy, he had held 
for his falher to plant. It had attained the size 
of forest tree. lie was taking the last steps ol 
the downhill of life. This garden ha9 long 
been the improving icsort of the professors an(i 
students of botany, rhymistry, and materia 
mediea. Though not so highly and expensive- 



14 



THE GENESEE FARMER 



Jan. 15,1831. 



ly embellished as Pra:t's garden, having more 
of the wildness of nature, it is a charming re- 
sort ; an 1 the visitor of lasle will scarcely won- 
der, that ihe enthusiastic and amiable Wilson, 
the ornithologist, expressed the wish thu his 
remains might repose under the spreadins 
branches of Bartram's garden. As if 'he wild 
mudic of the birds, rioting amidst the foliage, 
which had so often lent a charm to his life, 
could also 

" Soothe the dull, cold ear of death. 

The London Horticultural Society have bo 
tanical gardens to the extent of thirty acres, 
maguificently covered with the productions of 
everyknown part of the world. They contain 
five thousand species and varieties of fruits a 
lone. The society send explorers to all parts, 
who are still constantly enriching the gardens, 
with nowly discovered plants. One of these 
has traversed our own country, quite to the Pa- 
cific- The London Gardener's Magazine for 
1828, pronounced this country " rich beyond all 
others in stores of botanical wealth." 

Botanical and horticultural soienco is adap- 
ted in some degree, to almost every condition 
of life. It has attractions and enjoyments for 
all ages, and both sexes. Ladies frequently 
excel in botanical attainments and skilful culti- 
vation. They have honored our exhibition to- 
day, with their grateful offerings, and have 
manifested by their piesence and attention, the 
interest they take in our success, Woman is 
indeed most attractively nngaged, when busied 
in the care and culture of plants and flowers — 
tjie apt emblems of virtue, of love, and of 
fjuth. 

If we may denominate Agriculture the prose 
so we may rank Horticulture as the poetry of 
rural life. On the former, we depend for the 
necessary and the substantial, '('be latter a- 
dorns, refines, and heightens the pleasures of 
existence. It invites us to take interest in the 
smiling offspring of the earth, dressed in Ran- 
diest and variegated hues, and offering us an 
atmosphere of riehest odors. It affords us a- 
rnuscment, refreshment and recreation. It ex- 
hibits nature to us in her garb of loveliness, 
and calls up to light and usefulness, her hidden 
treasures. The trackless swamp, the deep 
glen, the wild crag, the prairie and the forest, 
all yield their tribute to the botanist's claim. 

As the poetry oflanguage is a valued auxilia- 
ry in the service of religion, so what we have 
denominated the poetry uf rural life, is no mean 
minister ill teaching man his love, his duly, 
and his countless obligations to our Heavenly 
father. 

It has been well remarked, that the order, 
the beamy, the laws of motion of the vast uni 



few years, have been witnessed with eatisfac-l 
tion by all. All therefore will be gratified, if 
there be reasonable prospect, that ours may 
become a wine-producing country; for the 
people of almost every nation famous for this 
product, have been comparatively temperate. 
In the south and south-western parts of En- 
gland, vineyards appear to have flourished at 
an early perod, and down to tie time of the 
Reformation, were attached to all the princi- 
pal religious foundations in the kingdom. — 
Since the Reformation, the vineyards have 
generally disappeared — forthe reason perhaps, 
that the passiuns and prejudices of men rarely 
admit of their retaining the good, while they 
are engaged in extirpating the evil of obnoxious 
institutions. Tlie great commercial facilities 
of England have rendered the replanting of her 
vineyards almost unnecessary to her in modern 
limes: butgrapes for the table, in great varie- 
ty, excellence and abundance, continue to bo 
cultivated. We surely therefore, need not be 
discouraged, from making the experiments of 
establishing vineyards, in our climate. 

And among the other valuable and ornamen- 
tal products, that this Hoiticuluiral Society 
may be the means of introducing and diffusing 
through the country, we trust it may ere long 
be said, 

•• The vine too, here, her curling tendrils shoots; 
Hangs out her clusters, glowing to the south, 
And scarcely wishes for a warmer sky." 
We d'ire hope that some future voyager upon 
the Susqnebannah, the Hudson, or the Gene* 
see, may sing of the culture of their banks, as 
song the inimitable Childu Harold of 

" the wide and winding Rhine, 

Whose breast of waters broadly swells 
Between the banks, that bear the vine, 
And hills all rich with blossomed trees, 
And fields which promise corn and wine, 
And scattered cit.es crowning these, 
Whose far white walls around them shine, 
****** 
The river nobly foams and flows, 
The charm of this enchanted ground, 
And all its thousand turns discluse 
Some fresher beauty varying room!. 
The picturesque lakes of this region already 
show many spots where the advantages of na- 
ture and the embellishments of art, combine to 
produce scenes of surpassing beauty. Hereon 
the shore of the Seneca, the eye is regaled with 
terrace gardens, rich in fruits, flowers and ver- 
dure, springing beautifully op, from the very 
bosom of the waters. 

As the topics of the three able addresses, that 
verse, demonstrate the existence of Divine |i liave already been delivered before this Soeie- 
wisdom. The botanist, not less than the as- \ l y< are J et lr,!sl1 '" lne recollection of" all of us 



tronoruer, learns at every step, some furtf'er; 
proof of a protecting Providence. He discerns | 
hi the tree, the shrub, and the flower, marks of 
r.ifinite coptrivance and all-sustaining care. — i 
The seal of Omnipotence is stamped alike, on' 
'ho simplest plant of the field, as on the bright] 
"st orb of I he heavens. In Ilia glorious works, [ 
liowever magnificent or minute, tho philoso-j 
jjher and the religionist find constant cause for 
wonder aud adoration 1 — and in the broad vcl- 
|imc of creation, carry their studies, with over 
increasing delight, " up to nature's God" — and 
read on its ample pages, in ulestial characters,' 
a.revelation of boundless goodness, which "uoi 
ume can change, no copier can corrupt." 

The attention of horticulturists in the United 
rilatos is at this time generally, and very prop- 
erly, directed to inquiries in relation to the cul- 
ture of the viae. The opinion is gaining ground. 
that ortr soil and climate are well adapted to 
various kinds of wine-yielding grapes. The 
njfccefsful experiments of many, among whom 
I may particularize Col. Carr, of Rarlram's gar- 
den, and Maj. Adluin, of tin " 
l!.:urgetnwe, have proved that good aiid wliole-, 
-I'M.' .vim's may be made from sever."}! kinds of 
unr native, and long ricglectfidgrapes. 

Tlieylutary effects of the weight of public: 
hpiniun hi Hid if igurpavjftCe, wiflffB i 



— the two first by members not only well ac- 
quainted with the theory of their subject, but 
both eminently successful as practical horticul- 
turists; and the last by a young gentleman, to 
whom it has evidently been not les a pleasure 
than a duty to become u proficient in botanical 
science, and whoso recommendations to the 
Society were as judicious as they were happily 
conveyed — little is left me at this time to ob- 
trude upon your notice. 

Under these circumstances, though I yielded 
to tho invitation of the committee, I did so un- 
der the conviction that the custom of making 
an address, would be, at least on tho present 
occasion, " more honored in the breach, than 
in the observance." 

Since, however, I am before yon, 1 beg leave 
to call your attention to one other object, hith- 
erto neglected among us— tho culture of SU.K. 
It may he deemed worth; the best attention of 
the Society. And that bramli of ihe subject, 
tho cultivation of the food fur the silk worms, 
is strictly within its province. And the whole 
VineynrJ nearj subject bolongs to all who have the best inter- 
ests of our country at bean ; fur it is an axiom) 



In several parts of the United States, silk of 
very superior quality has been produced, on a 
small scale. The culture of it, however, has 
been retarded, from the want of persons skil- 
led in the roelim; and other processes of prep 
aration. This discouragement is now about to 
be removed. About a, year ago, the attentioi. 
of the public was called, through the National 
Gazette, to this subject, by a series of able es- 
says on American silk, by Mr. D'Hornerguc, 
then recently arrived in Pennsylvania from 
France. He was educated in an extensive 
French silk manufactory, and well acquainted 
with all the processes, from the raising of Ihe 
silk worm to the fabrication of the finest stufis. 
Mr. D'Homergue first gave us the pleasing in- 
telligence, that American silk is decidedly su- 
perior to that of France or of Italy; not only 
n the weight of the cocoons, but in the quality 
and ihe color, or to use his own expression, 
the .dazzling whiteness,'' and consequent 
fitness to receive the most delicate dyes He 
believes that a rich field of national wealth lies 
invitingly open to us; that raw silk maybe 
made a most important and profitable article of 
asportation, even should we not choose to go 
largely into the manufacture of it ourselves. 

Mr. D'Homerguo is now at the head of a silk 
establishment in Philadelphia, made either di- 
rectly by, or under the immediate patronage of 
the venerable P. S. Da Ponceau, President of 
the American Philosophical Society. Not on- 
ly are the preparative processes, before un- 
known iu our country, here in successful ac- 
tion, but silk dyeing is also performed, in n 
style equal to the French. 

I hope therefore, that this Society will deem 
the cultivation of the Italian white mulberry 
tree, with a view to the production of silk, ap 
object worthy its immediate attention. In oUY 
interior situation, silk would be a particularly 
desirable product, from its high value, the tri- 
fling expense atiending its transportation to 
market, and the delicate and interesting em- 
ployment it would afford to many of the fe- 
males of our country. Well established and 
extended in our country, the silk worm will, 
in the progress of taste and improvement, have 
made the circuit of the globe. It seems to bt> 
a native of China, where it has been reared 
from a moslreinoio period. It was introduced 
into Europe in tho year 555, by two monks;, 
who under the patronage of Justinian, brought 
great quantities of the worms from India to 
Constantinople. Venio supplied the west of 
Europe with silk for many centuries, from the 
manufactories of Greece, whence the art pas> 
sed to Sicily, Italy and Spain. It afterwards 
came into France, acid was introduced into En- 
gland about three hundred and fifty years ago. 
It affords ground for vheering exultation, thai 
the most sagacious mindi are now convinced, 
"that tlie United States are destined to be: 
come a rich silk growing and silk manufacturing 
country." And it much depends on societies 
like this, to accelerate this " consummation, 
devoutly to be wished." 

Rural pursuits have ever been the recreation 
and the solace of the wisosl and the bes*. o.f 
men. \ long catalogue of distinguished names., 
aucicnt and modern, who have delighted in, the 
improvement and culture of their fields and 
gardens, could be presented to you. But time 
is denied (is. 

He, who lived aud died "first in the hearts 
of his countrymen," sought, after having cqh- 
tributed largely to the happiness of his country 
and of mankind, quiet enjoyment amid ihe 
shades of Mount Vernon ; and these of us, who 
have made the pilgrimage to that consecrated 
spot, have seen the yet living ami fruit fill preof,s 
thut he. whose great employment had beeli 
ebtainnig freedom for an empire could also ap- 



preciate the pure pleasures of superintending 
his fields and his gardens. The late high It 
respected Judge Peters, of Belmont, on the 



in political economy, that the more we extend If Schuylkill, used to show in Iris garden a fine 
and diversity tho valuable productions of then well grown chesnut tree, which sprung from a 
soil, the more i ilu ibl d i v. e fender ljip.se ni-f nut. plant"'! bv Washington, (in the occasion 
realty esfabMiod. 



•*,- \Ts1f ' • flint dlSjirj3O.is.hed agriciflTij'- 



Vol. I.— No. 2. 



AND GARDENER'S JOURNAL. 



15 



rist. The Sago of Monticello, whose name 
will be the watch-word of liberty, wherever 
oppressed man shall dare to declare himself 
free, toolt much pleasure in the cultivation of 
his grounds, as often as the claims of his coun- 
try would permit his retirement to his classic 
retreat. And the venerated failier and draughts- 
man of our incomparable national coositution, 
is passing the evening of his useful and illustri- 
ous lif«. in the rural avocations of his own 
Montpelier. 

There is yet another bright exemplar of blen- 
ded horticultural taste and political greatness 
— the apostle of liberty of two worlds — the de- 
fender of man's dearest rights, during two gen- 
erations of men. His aged brows, entwined 
with unfading wreaths, placed there by bene- 
fitted and grateful millions, he is yet once more 
called from under his own " vine and fig-tree" 
at La Grange, to assist at the do wifall of a ty- 
rant, and the re establishment of the violated 
liberties of his country. American liberty he 
had aided to achieve, half a century ago ; and, 
most enviable life and oareer! — he is spared 
to see tvranny hide its diminished head in his 
native land, and the glories of civil and reli- 
gious freedom dawning in radiant promise upon 
his own beautiful France. 

Among the pleasures attendant on our horti- 
cultural usspciation, the semi-annual meetings 
may not be accounted the smallest. It is 
wholesome, occasionally to pass a day with 
our assembled friends from various sections, to 
partake of the bounties of nature, with cheer- 
ful hearts, grateful 'o" t lie Giverof every good 
and perfect gift," and happily forgetful for a 
time, of the cares of life, the differences of 
creeds, and the distentions of polities. For 
oven in our free ami highly favored land, we 
often witness storms of parly violence and con- 
tending factions. And, albeit, these political 
tornadoes may some times, "like their physi- 
cal prototypes, purify the air and the earth they 
desolate, they can never become the objects of 
sympathy and affection" to those who love 
•'peace on earth and good will among men." 

It is grateful then to the best feelings of pa- 
triotism, to mingle with our fellow citizens, in 
a mode, and under circumstances calculated to 
produce temporary oblivion — would it could be 
perpetual ! — to the acerbity of party rancor 
calculated to make us believe, for the time be 
ing, that the great mass are good American 
citizens, trust-worthy and friendly to equal 
rights ; and all having the same single aim at 
heart, the best interests of our common country, 
the perpetuity of our free institutions, the 
spread of tolerant and liberal principles — how- 
ever we may dissent from one another's mode 
of compassing the end. 

From th* New England Farmer. 
SALT OSEFDL FOR MILCH COWS. 

Collyns, in his " Ten Minutes' Advice on 
the Use and Abuse of Salt, as a Manure," says 
that a lump of salt, hung up for cows to lick 
occasionally, entirely removes the peculiar 
turnip taste from milk agd butter My cows 
have eaten turnips, spring and fall, for ten 
years ; yet in two or three instances only, do 
1 remember that this food imparted any bad 
flavor to the milk and butter. I never conjec- 
tured the reason, until the remark of Collyns 
met my view. My practice for years has been 
to have salt troughs under my cattle sheds 
daily accessible to my cows; and probably in 
the instances noticed, the salt troughs were 
from negligence empty. Salt is beneficial to 
cattle, as a condiment, as well as to men. — 
Why then is it not as important that the for- 
mer should have it with their daily food a, 
well as the latter? I have never known ani- 
mals do themselves injury by using it to ex- 
Cess. The consumption of salt is but very 
little inoreased by the practice I adopt, while 
the waste is diminished. The books tell us 
Chat the free use of salt among cattle, is a great 
preventive of disease, and powerful promote 
of thrift. Reason and e.Tperienee seem to jus 
tify the remark. 

Mbany. Dec. 23. J. BUEL. 



THE < i E N E s K E FARMER 

AND GARDENERS JOURNAL. 

Devoted to Agriculture, Horticulture, Domestic Econo- 
my, &c. &c. 

The first number of a paper under the above 
title, was published at Rochester, on Saturday. 
Jan. 1, 1831 — conducted by a gentleman long 
experienced in the science of Agriculture, Hor- 
ticulture. and other useful arts,assisted by manv 
of the best practical farmers in this section of 
the country, and particularly by some of the 
Members ef the Western and Monroe County 
Horticultural Societies. 

No part of the world is more richly blessed 
with soil and climate, for a great and flourish- 
ing Agricultural and Horticultural interest, 
than the western part of the state of New York 
— that part called Old Genesee . This section 
of country is supposed by competent judges to 
be as favorable to the growth of the Vine and 
Mulberry as the middle of France : and as wine 
and silk aro becoming matters of national in- 
terest and legislation, a portion of the column-) 
of the Farmer will be devoted to those sub- 
jects. 

This section of country has become densely 
populated with an industrious and thriving class 
of Citizens, who have made themselves rich 
by their own labors and who have now acqui 
red the time and means of becoming Theoreti- 
cally and Practically learned in the arts for cul- 
tivating Scientifically the soil they have so 
lately reclaimed from the wilderness and pre- 
pared for the highest slate of Agriculture. — 
While most other branches of science have 
been progressing, aided by the unwearied ex 
er'ious of men of learning and invention ; and 
while practical improvements have flowed like 
a stream from the press, Agriculture and Hor- 
ticulture (twin-sisters) have been comparative 
ly speaking, neglected and forgotten ; and those 
who have been pursuing the primitive modes of 
tillage for subsistence have been left to strug- 
gle onward, unaided in their progress by those 
means which have been given to other branch- 
es of science, and which have proved the cause 
of their rapid advancement. 

These are among the reasons that have indu- 
ced the subscribers to embark in the enterprize, 
and to direct a part of their time and attention 
to the diffusion of Agricultural and Horticultu- 
ral information which will occupy a large por- 
tion of their paper. 

They further expect through the aid of the 
Franklin Institute of this place to be able oc- 
casionally to present such essays as shall be 
thought useful in mechanical Philosophy. 

The undertaking is one which must necessa 
rily require much labor and expense in its pros- 
ecutioo.and without the aid of aliberal patron- 
age cannot long be sustained; yet aware of all 
these difficulties to be encountered, the subscri- 
bers flatter themseltes ihat, if they succeed in 
rendering their paper woithy of support, its 
merits will be duly appreciated by an enlight- 
ened community, and their labors rewarded in 
proportion to the profitable information distrib- 
uted to their Pairons. 

In addition to the above there will be pub- 
lished monthly a Meteorological Table, giving 
the temperature and state of the Atmosphere, 
course of the winds, &c. It will also contain 
a Horticultural and Pomological register ; giv- 
ing the time of leafing and blossoming of plants, 
ind the time of ripening of the various kinds 
of fruit, for the benefit of those who reside in 
different latitude :. as well as to compare differ- 
ent seasons in the same latitude. 

EP A Price Current and Bank Note Table, 
carefully corrected each week will be giveD. 

The paper will be printed every Saturday, in 
quarto form, on fine paper and fair type, mak- 
ing 416 pages a year, besides a Title Page and 
Index, at $2,50 per annum, payable in six 
months, or $2,00, if paid at the lime of subscri- 
bing. TUCKER & STEVENS. 

Rochester, Jan 1831. 

Editors who will give the above two or three insertions 
will confer a favor wln>h will be reciprocated ihe first 
opportunity. 



DOMESTIC WlNrt. 

A Mr.Linck, near Nashville, Tenn. has for a 
few years past, directed his attention to the 
cultivation of the grape, and with great suc- 
cess; and during the past year has manufactu- 
red several kinds of light wines, agreeable in 
taste, and much resembling the European Port 
and Cape wines. We are pleased to hoar of 
instances of enterprize of this kind. The 
fact has long been settled, that the grapo call 
be cultivated among us to advantage ; and as 
mankind are a sympathetic race of beings, the 
faster the really enterprising go into this mat- 
ter, the sooner its cultivation will become gen- 
eral. 

EX-PRESIDENT MONROE. 

A large meeting has been held in New York 
on behalf of Mr. Monroe's claims on the U. S. 
government. A good deal of interest and 
feeling was evinced at the meeting in favor of 
the aged applicant. A memorial to congress 
was adopted, and resolutions passed requesting 
the members of congress from that city to use 
(heir endeavors in effecting the passage of a law 
recognizing his claims. 

HUDSON AND MOHAWK HAIL ROAD. 

We learn from the Albany Argus that Ibis 
work is in a state of rapid progression. More 
tbao two thirds of the excavation and em- 
bankment is finished ; and the whole will be 
completed by the first of April. The stone 
blocks are nearly all delivered, and will be 
laid by first of April. The timber is all con, 
traded for, and together wilh Ihe iron rails 
will be delivered by the first of May. The 
Company will have a locomotive engine in 
operation by the 15th of July between Lydius 
slreet, Albany, and the brow of the hill Sche- 
neciady. 

LEAD. 

Tire following statement exhibits the im- 
mense falling off in the manufacture of Ibis 
article which is constantly taking place. The 
quantity made at the U. S. mines including 
ttie year ending 30th Sept. last is '8,332,05R 
pounds, while during the previous year it did 
not fall short of 14,341,310 pounds. 

ARKANSAS 

The population of this teiritory has increas- 
ed more than 100 percent, since 1820, it uow 
amounting to29,000- 

MISSISSIPPI. 

This state contaios36,517 males, and 31,- 
343 females— total '67,865. This would give 
that state but one representative in Congress 
for the next ten years. 

SMALL POX. 

This dreadful disease prevails in tbe islands 
of Dominica, Antigua and Guadaloup. It is 
lepiesenled as unusually fatal. 

UMBRELLA MAKING. 

There is an establishment in Philadelphia 
where rising of four hundred umbrellas and 
parasols are manufactured daily. 



METEOROLOGICAL TABLE, 

for the I--' week in Jan, 1831. 





Tber 


Barorael'r 


Wi 


nds 


a 


Si . 


a 
S 
3 


a 
> 


a 
o 
S 


9 

> 


1 


28 


30 


29,25 


29.55 


Ol 


» 


2 


•28 


3D 


211,65 


29,70 


n w 


nw 


3 


28 


38 


29,60 


29,50 


s e 


s 


4 


98 


42 


29,20 


29,25 


3 


s ?c 


fi 


33 25 


29,50 


29,58 » 


nto i 


6 


28i24|29,65 


20,65 »» 


» 


7 


30 


24 


29,73 


29,75 


w 


nw 



Weather 



Observalrs 



c 
■J 




Hi 


1 


1 




1 


1 


1 


1 




1 I 



I-JOin.raiu 

fair 

do 

3-lOinrain 

raiu 

fair 

do 



XTThc Barometrical and Thermometrieal observa- 
tions are registered at 10 o'clock A M.and- P. M., which 
by a long series of experiments mode for ihe purpost - 
sheiD that time to give the nearest mean average cftht 
r dative heat of a day than any otftcr timx- 



16 



THE GENESEE FARMER. 



Jan. 15, 1831. 



A NEW YEAR'S WISH. 
When winter shall sternly appear, 

And nature in gloor be array'd ; 
When the mariner shudders through fear, 

Lest his bark should by winds be betray'd ; 
Then, in safety, well sheltered from snow, 

May you all, putting sorrow aside, 
In domestic tranquility know 

All the joys of a social fireside. 

When Spring in young beauty shall smile, 

And charm following charm shall unfold, 
In rapture beholding the while, 

May your portion be pleasures untold. 
May each songster tliat chirps on the spray, 

May each floweret that blows in the field, 
For you be more cheerful and gay, 

For you its choice fragrances yield. 

When Summer shall sultry advance, 

And flocks from their sports shall retire ; 
May friendship your pleasures enhance, 

And sages your virtues admire. 
Mav the grape-vine firm arbors of ease, 

While the eglantine skirts them around : 
And then may the fresh balmy breeze 

Waft perfumes from each neighbouring 
ground. 

When Autnmn his treasures shall bring, 

When each fruit tree shall bend with its load; 
May your hearts ever gratefully sing, 

The Hand that such blessings bestowed. 
Thus sweetly shall time roll away, 

Not shall you once wish it in haste; 
And the Year that commences to day, 

Shall be happier far than the past. 

Then, when Winter and Springs shall decay, 

When Summers and Autumns are o'er, j 
And Phrebus, the Prince of the day, 

Shall wake the glad seasons no more ; 
To you, each forgetting his mirth, 

May beauty immortal be given, 
May you change the faint joys of this earth, 

For transports uncloying in heaven. 

SUNFLOWER OIL. 

We recur to this subject again, for tlft pur 
pose of answering the numerous enquiries of 
our correspondents, relative to the culture ol 
the Sunflower, the quantity and quality of the 
oil expressed, its uses and value. The culti- 
vation ol the sunflower differs in no respect 
from that of corn and the soil adapted to the' 
latter is proper for the former. The sunflow- 
er thrives in all our various climates. Uudei 
proper cultivation, and with a medium soil, it 
yields from 60 to ?0 bushels to the acre. — 
The mach nery ler crushing and expressing, j 
will cost about $300. One bushel of the seed i 
will yield three quarts of cold and one of hot 
pressed oil. 

The uses to which this oil is adapted are 
various. It is equal to olive oil for table use, 
and superior in many important respets to 
sperm, for lamps, while for paints and machine- 
ry, it i* well adapted to supersede the oils now 
used in them. For burning in lamps, the sun- 
flower possesses one advantage, which has 
been an object of deep solicitude ever since 
sperm oil came into use — it has no perceptible ' 
smell; hence sick persons and others, to whom 
the smell of sperm oil is so offensive, can use 
the sunflower oil with perfect freedom. Its 
advantages in this respect have been fully tes- 
ted in Philadelphia, where it is recommended 
by some eminent physicians, and in constant 
use by their patents. It has another important 
advantage over sperm oil — it affords about one 
third more light, that is, sunflower will last 
one third longer than sperm, both while burn- 
ing, affording the same quantity of light. As 
to a market for the seed and the price, at pre- 
sent there is none of either. At present, Mr. 
Barniu, the intelligent inventor of the new 
process of crushing '11111 expressing the seed, 
reccommends the producer to crush the seed, 
and express his own oil. There is no doubt 
but oil uiillt will soon bo established, at which 
.'lie seed may bo sold, for this oil is too impor- 



tant an addition to our resources to be lost. — 
Charles A. Barnitz, of York, Pa. will give any 
information that may be required — American 
Farmer. 

Under the new CENSUS, the cities and 
towns in the United States, containing a pop- 
ulation exceeding five thousand, will range in 
the following order: 

New York (estimated) 213,000 



City of Philadelphia 


80,477 




Incorp'd N. Liberties 


28,923 




Kensington 


13,320 




Spring Garden 


11,141 




Southwark 


20,723 




Moyamensing 


6,822- 


-161,412 


Baltimore 




80,519 


Boston and Charlestown 




70,164 


New Orleans 






Charleston 




30,289 


Cincinnati and Liberties 




26,513 


Albany 




24.216 


Washington 




18,823 


Providence 




16832 


Pittsburg 


12,540 




Allegheny <^ Bayardstown 4,825- 


- 17,365 


Ricbmond 




16,085 


Salem 




13,826 


Portland 




12,521 


Brooklyn 
Troy, N. Y. 




12,403 




11,406 


Newark, N. J. 




10,900 


Rochester 




10,885 


New Haven 




10,653 


Louisville 




10,126 


Norfolk 




9,80o 


Hartford 




9,617 


Georgetown 




8,441 


Ulica 




8,324 


Petersburg 




8,300 


Alexandria 




8,221 


Newport 




8,010 


Lancaster, Penu. 




7,684 


New Bedford, Ma*:-. 




7,547 


Sayannah 




7,173 


Springfield, Mass. 




0,896 


Middletown, Conn 




6,870 


Augusta, Geo. 




G;696 


Wilmington, Del. 




6,026 


L.owel), Mass. 




6,477 


Nowburyport 




0,375 


Buffalo, N. Y. 




0,353 


Lynn, Mass 




0,130 


Lexington, Ky. 




0,087 


Cambridge, Mass. 




6,071 


Taunton, Mass. 




5,898 


Reading 




5.021 


Nashyille 




5,500 


Wheeling 




."..'.'ll 


YoratowD, Va. 




5,2i 6 


Roxbury, Mass. 




5,100 


Marblehcad, Mass. 




5.13:: 



AGRICULTURE IN ENGLAND. A illelan 

chol)' proof of the distressed state of agricul- 
ture in Buckinghamshire, is furnished by the 
fact that the entire parish ot Wot Con Under- 
wood (with the exception of a small faim be- 
longing to another individual) conpnsiug a* 
bout 2300 acres of land, the properly of the 
Duke of Buckiuham, is advertised to be let, 
the tenants either havug left or given notice 
to quit. ^^__^ 

A disappointed author, indulging in a veui 
of abuse against a successful rival, exclaimed, 
" lie is without exception, the most superfi- 
cial, self-sufficient, ignorant, shallow creature 
that ever made any pretensions lo literature " 
11 Gently, my dear sir," interrupted a gentle 
tnao present, "you quite forgot yourself" 

A short time since a man was heard 
lamenting the death of his two sons — 
'two stout, hearty byees,'' said he, "and- 
die*] jist afore baying time— it eeneymost 
ondid me.'* 



BANK NOTE TABLE. 

Corrected Weekly for the Rochester Daily Advertiser, 
BY C W. DUNDAS. 



NEW-YORK 
All backs in this state, par, 
except the following 
BrokenBanks. Washing 
too & Wa>reo, Barker's I.x 
change, Franklin Bank, M iri- 
dic Dist-, Columbia, Greene 
County, Marble Manuf. Co. 
Plattsburgh, and Niagara. 
MASSACHUSETTS. 
Al banks in this state, par, 
except the following 
Broken Banks. Farmers' 
b'nk of Belchertown, Sutton 
Berkshire, Essex and Brigh- 
ton banks. 

VERMONT. 
All banks in this state, par 

UHOD1MSLAND 

All banks in this state, par, 

except the following 

Broken Banks farmers' 

Exchange, and Farmers' tfc 

Mechanics' banks. 

CONNECTICUT. 
All banks in this state, par, 
except the fellowing 
Broken Banks. Eagle, 
Eagle pay'ble at Union bank 
New-York, Derby, and Der- 
by payable at Fulton bank 
New-York. 

NEW-HAMPSHIRE. 

All banks in this state, par. 

MAINE 



samaqnoddy banks. 

NEW-JERSEY. 

State b'nh. & Trenton Bank 

ing Company, par 

All other banks, 2 per cent, 

except tbe following 

Broken Banks. Salem & 

Phil. Manuf. Co., Monmouth, 

Hoboken and Grazing Co., 

N.Jersey Manuf & Banking 

Co. at Hoboken, State Bank 

at Trenton, Protection and 

Lombard, and Jersey City. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 
Philadelphia Banks, par, 
AH other banks, 2per cent. 
except the following 
Broken Bunkz. Fanners-' 
^Mechanics' atN.Sa.,Cou 
tre, Huctingtpn, Meadville, 
Marietta, Juniata, Greeucas- 
tle, Bedford, Beaver, Wash 
mgton, Uniontown, Agricul- 
tural, Si). Lake, Westmore- 
land at Greenburgh, New- 
Hope Bridge Co new emis- 
sion, and 3rownville banks 

OHIO. 
All banks, 4 to 6 per cent 

MICHIGAN. 
All banks, 2 per cati 

except the following 
Broken Banks. Monroe, 
and Detroit. 

CANADA. 



All banks in this state, par.* 1 Ml banks, 2 to 3 per ccjit . 
except tbe following except the 

Broken Banks. Castine, 1 Upper (.'una. at Kiogston- 
Wtscasset, Uallowell & Au-|and Unchartered banks, 
gusta, Kennebec, and Pas-| 

IT The above table when speaking of foreign Bills, re - 
fers to those of $5, and over, as none of a less denomin- 
ation are receivable. 



ROCHESTER PRICES CURRENT. 
Jan. 15,1831. 



Ashes, per 2210 lbs 

Pot $9Io92 50 

Pearl 100al02 50 

Apples per bushel 25a44 

Ho dried 75 

Bristles, comb'd per lb 2\)a3l 
Beeswax do 18a20 

Butter do 

Beef— Mess per bbl 

Do prime do 

Po fresh per lb 
Barley per bushel 
Beans do 



Candles, mould per lb 9 ctB 



Mink I2a31 

Raccoon 18o31 

Martin 25aG2 

Fisher 37o50 

Wild Cat 16o25 

Gray Fox lSo25 

GrassSeed per bush 62 

Hops per lb tSalS 

$6aS Honey do Q9 

5a7|Lard do 06o07 

0£<tn3' Mutton do 02al)3 

38a44 Mustard Seed per bush $4 

5 'a6S '"ats per bush Si: 



Wo 12 



Old Pewter, Brass and 



Do dipped do S 

Do sperm do 23 " 

Corn per bushel 44a50 

Cheese per lb 04«05 Do prime 

Clover Seed per bush $■! 00! Do fresh per lb 
Flour per hbl -1 50a4 75JQuills per 100 

Flux per lb 07a08|Rye per hush 

Flax Seed p^ r busb 78a87[Raga per lb 
Feathers po* lb 3la37JSnlt per bbl 

Furs— Otter 100a (OOjTullow per lb 

Fox, red o75 Wheat per bush 

Fax, cross I00a200] 



Copper per lb 14" 

Peaches, dry'd bush 100«ii00 
Pork, mess per bbl |13al3 

03olH 

25*30 

50 



03a04 
§175 
OtiaO: 
B7o91 



Conjugal Affection. — Mr P., a 
rich West India planter, one tempestuous 
evening, after supper, his stock of water 
being exhausted, sent his wife a short 
distance from the house for a fresh sup- 
ply. The thunder and lightning bciug 
excessive during her absence, a friend 
said to him, "why did yon not send that 
girl (a slave) for the water, such a nigh! 
as this, instead of your wife?" " Oh, do! 5 ' 
replied be, "that would never do; that 
slave cost me forty pounds !" — [London 
Moo. Herald. 

A lady who was shopping, (as it is call- 
ed,) at a Store in this city, was endeavor- 
ing to purchase a dress at a price as she 
thought far above its value. The seller 
thought he could not reduce the price per 
yard— but if the lady would take a quan- 
tity sufficient for a pair of fashionable 
sleeves he would throw enough in for the 
skirt.— [E. Gaz. 



wmm mmi'mmm t^iiaia 



a 



VOLUME I. 



ROCHESTER, JANUARY 23, 1831. 



NUMBER 3. 



THE GENESEE FAUIIBR 

AND GARDENER'S JOURNAL. 

Devoted to Agriculture, Horticulture, DomeBtic Econo 

my, &c. &c. 

Published on Saturdays, at $2 50por annum, 
payable in six months, or at $2 00, il paid at the 
lime of subscribing, by Tucker & Stevens, 
at the office of the Rochester Daily Advertiser. 

U* The proprietors have undertaken the 
liublication with the determination of making 
it permanent : they would therefore suggest 
to all those who would wish to see the Farmer 
become a durable and useful paper, the propri- 
ety of not only interesting themselves in its 
circulation, but also of contributing to its col- 
umns. 

KF Those gentlemen to whom we have ta 
kon the liberty to forward this number, if 
they shall think favorably of the undertaking 
and of the merits of the work, will oblige ub 
by forwarding us their names, and those of a 
ny friends to whom nuch a paper as (his would 
he desirable. As it is of its kind uniaueia this 
stale, and intended for general circulation, we 
expect to look abroad for a great part of our 
patronage. 



ffi<Di«i« arascr si arE©ws. 



FOR THE GENESES FARMER. 

remarks on Pruning in No. 1. 



The remarks on Pruning in No. 1. of the 
t lencboeFarmer, appear to be correct, when that 
operation is managed in the usual manner; hut 
it has been my practice for several years past, 
to prune in autumn and in winter, applying a 
coat of boiled tar and brick dust, or ofcommon 
paint, immediately to the naked wood; and I 
have been led to believe that no time is more 
favorable. 

I was induced to try this experiment, part- 
ly in consequence of being often from horns 
at the usual season ; and partly from a desire 
to test the prevalent opinion that autumnal 
pruning was very injurious to fruit trees; for 1 
could not perceive why an artificial covering 
which protected the wood from the weather, 
would not be a good substitute for living bark. 
I began the work, therefore, as soon as the 
leaves were fallen ; and I never saw trees bear 
pruning better. A considerable part of my fruit 
garden was pruned two months ago. 

Permit me to add that it is a maxim in Surgt 
ry to save skin, and in pruning to save bark. 
The saw therefore ought to be used in prefer 
ence to the axe, so as to cut the larger branch- 
es square off. In some trees (as in the Fall 
P'rppen) the limbs are tnti«h less, 2 or 3 inches 
from the trunk ; and if taken off at that dis- 
tance, would be much sooner covered up by 
the new wood. It is injudicious, however, 
to leave the stumps too long, as well as to cut 
roo close to the trunk. D. T. 

Greatfuld, Cayuga ce. \st mo. 10, 1831. 



knowledge and wisdom of that mighty hand 
hich formed and fashioned all things 7 Is it 
not profitable to look through •' nature up to na- 
ture's God 1" Does not every blade of grass, 
every leaf, every blossom, the humble moss, 
that the unpractised eye passes by unheeding 
and without nctioe — yea, do not " the very 
stones preach of Ins whereabout? ' lioes no' 
all organic matter and beings speak to us, trum 
pei-tongued, that there is a God, and one 
whose power and wisdom in ihe construction 
of ihe humblest particle oi reproductive matter, 
leave the invention of man panting and toiling 
at an immeasurable distance behind 7 

In the words c f my caption, get understand- 
ing, not exclusively in the sense that the noisy, 
prosing fanatic of the conventicle will tell you 
the construction is — but diligently study nature 
and her works, and there learn that it is impos- 
sible for man to lathom many ofthe hidden and 
wonderful secrets which he can see but not 
comprehend ; and others which, with the phi- 
losophical mind and microscopic eye, he can 
comprehend but not imitate ; and while silent 
with admiration at the wondrous machine, is 
irresistibly drawn to admire, worship and a- 
dore the greatness and wisdom of Him who 
contrived and created it. 

To cultivate such a feeling and propensity, 
and to bring the subject familiarly before 6ome 
ofyourreadcrs, in a plain and unvarnished man- 
ner, I propose to send you. as leisure shall per- 
mit, short his'.oiies of such plants, vines and 
irees as have particularly fallen under my no- 
tice, together with observations on their dis- 
eases and cultivation, and occasionally accom- 
panied with remarks relative to vegetable phy- 
tology, not only to inculcate a taste fur the de- 
lightful and healthful avocations of floral and 
horticultural employment, but as a sort of im- 
perfect manual for those who have not the ex 
perience and reading, that fifty vernal springs 
and mellow autumns have given tome. 

D10ECIA. 



FOR THE GENESEE FARMER. 

" With all thy geltings get understanding." 
I was strongly impressed with an idea advan 
ced by a celebrated lecturer in this village not 
long since — " TeacUfacts, and let every one dram 
their own infer ences and conclusions ;" and it i: 
palpiple to my mind that if done on the plain, 
open and broad basis of eternal truth, and in i 
manner adapted to the capacities of all, the re- 
sult must be uniform and irresistible. Thh 
brings me to the point I would bo at. Al- 
though I hold it ont of our duties, together with 
a diligentstudy of the holy scriptures, to attend 
the studious and pious readings of ihe occult 
wi<dom, merey and omniscience of our benefi- 
cent Creator, as is weekly and daily expounded 
by a learned, eloquent and pious clergy; yet I 
would ask, are these the only sources irom 
which we can derive a just, exalted and over- 
powering sense of the wonderful invention, 

is 



FOR THE GENESEE FARMER. 

Messrs. Editors — Although nearly a stran- 
ger in this new world, allow me to introduce 
myself to yon, by ordering your paper, and to 
your readers by a few remarks, which, as I of- 
fer them gratuitously, and am not dogmatical 
enough to pass them by tale, but by weight, you 
will oblige me by inserting them. 

Jan. 1831. B. MAULY. 

TRANSPLANTING. 

Two very opposite opinions are taken and 
maintained, by nursery-men aDd gardeners, irs 
lo the proper time of transplanting trees, one 
recommending ihe autumn, and the other the 
spring, at, or before, the swelling of the bud. 
But us there probably is a best time, and as an 
old chum of mine used to say, " the best way it. 
as good as any," let us look at tne facts and 
circumstances of Ihe case, and try to draw a 
rationale in favor of one or the other system 

The sap, or tho water that forms the 6ap, is 
taken up by a set of fine tufted, hair-like roots 
or capillary vessels, which aru always at, or a- 
bout the extremeties of the main roots, and 
which are principally lest in taking up, both by 
cutting them off, as well as by the loose earth 
being shaken off from those roots which are 
taken up wilb the tree ; this happens alike to 
both theories Now when, or at what period, 
are these important agents, on which the fu- 
ture vcgetability depends, the most likely to be 
reproduced, for it appears by a set of accurate 
experiments made in England, that they are 
renewed with wonderful rapidity, in certain 
seasons; and it also appears by a set of experi- 
ments by Do Hamel, instituted for the purpose 
of determining whether the circulation stop- 
ped with the fall of the leaf, that it does not, 
but is continued in a sluggish and dull manner, 
from the period of deciduetion, or fait of Lhe 
leaf, till the putting out again in the spring, and 



that a continual elongation of the fibrous roots 
were plainly percepiible every two weeks that 
ihe plants subjected were examined, and even 
lhe same plants blossomed and perfected their 
seeds, only in winter. These observations 
weie made where tho thermometer ranges from 
10 deg. below, to 30 above freezing, during 
winter months, and would not apply to any of 
our weather that is below freezing point : now 
if there is a circulation going on after the fall 
of the leaf, and an increase cf the mouths tha' 
feed the system, then, I think, at, or immedi- 
tely before the fall of the leaf, is the best pe 
riod, as the full rains, winter snows, and spring 
thaws, certainly close the ground, and bring 
the fine particles of the soil in contact with 
the roots, in a better and more natural manner 
than any spring operation that they do or can 
undergo : and especially if the trees have 
to be transported any distance, and are re- 
ceived late. On the other hand, it is maintain- 
ed by those that recommend spring planting, 
that ihe leaves are the only manipulators and 
manufacturer-- of the sap thai forms new wood, 
or can create new roots, and that if there is a 
circulation, it is only in the anterial system, 
and is only consequent on expansion and con- 
traction by heat and cold; and therefore a tree 
taken frtslifrom its native soil, with all its en- 
ergies just commencing and bursting into life, 
with a genial sun, and refreshing showers, is 
the proper limn to transplant any tree To all 
this, I offer the following objections : That 
very warm forward springs bring out the buds 
prematuroly, and expose them to frosts, to 
which the autumn sot tree is not as liable, anil 
a tree may be set in tho fall, and have from 
two to three months without much freezing 
weather. The roots are firmer fixed, and more 
of fhem produced, and ihe danger ofthe bleed- 
ing of the roots, when cut or broken in the 
spring, is lessened. To which allow meto 
add my own experience, as well as lhat of a 
majority of the best gardeners I have found in 
the country. Peach, plumb, and aprioots may 
be an exception to my theory, as in fail plant- 
ing, the small limbs sometimes winter kill, and 
I have known thepeaclito do well when set 
out in the blossom. 

FOR THE GENESBE FARMER. 



INQUIRY. 

A few years since I collected a large quanti- 
ty of manure for a hot hed ; it was from a horse 
stable and had been kept under shelter, and 
had began to heat before I moved it. Think- 
ing that the first heat would have the effect to 
keep it cooler afterwards, I had my bed made 
about twenty feet along, eight feet wide, and 
four feet high. This was covered with soil and 
a frame and glass in the common way. As 
soon as the earth within the frame was 
warm, seeds were sown which soon came up, 
but within a few days the young plants droop- 
ed, and upon examining them, their roots fed 
perished. I had also put some potatoes into 
the edges of the bed in order to sprout them ; 
upon examination I found them as soft as ii' 
they had been boiled. I then made large holes 
through the manure with a stake to let off the 
heat — I stirred lbs ground in Ihe frame and a- 
gain sowed it with seeds and bat few of them, 

egetated. I sowed il a third time, and was 
surprized to find not one vegetated, although 
the bed was in good condition as to warmth — 
those that had seme up of the'second sowing 
most of them died. I-had the dirt taken from 
the frame, and new put in, and again sowed it : 
the seeds came up.and grew well. I had some 
ofthe saina seeds planted in the soil wfaicli bad 
been taken from the frame, not one of which 
vegetated. I repeated it a second and third 
time, not one grew. Now, Messrs. Editors, 
will you or any of your correspondents tell ran 
the reason why ttiis s,oil weuld not vegetate 

seeJV. A FARMtF.. 



18 



THE GENESEE FAKMElt 



Jan. 22, 1831. 



HORTICULTURE. 

The following communication, in the New 
England Farmer, from the President of the 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society, will be 
read with pleasure by the Horticulturist, the 
Moralist, and the Christian. On the one hand, 
lie exhibits the odiousness of vice : on the 
other, recommends a pleasing, profitable anti- 
dote. To such men we must look for the 
protection of our liberties, both moral and po 
lineal. 

From the New Kugland Farmer. 
Mb. Fesse.vden — Although commendable 
efforts have been made, in several parts of the 
I'ottntry, to introduce and multiply most of the 
choice varieties of fruits, and our cities aie 
now tolerably well supplied, from t he garden* 
and orchards in their immediate vicinities, still, 
there is a lamentable negligence, of this im- 
portant culture, throughout the union. With- 
out going beyond the bounds of our own Com- 
monwealth, how rare is it to find any fruit, 
other than the most indifferent wilding apples, 
save in a f«w gardens, or estates in some of 
the most flourishing villages. Strawberries, 
raspberries, cherries, apricots, plumb., peach- 
es, pears, and grafted apples are so little culti- 
vated, that a largo portion of the inhabitants 
never even taste them, during the successive 
seasons of their maturity; and every owner 
of an acre of land, could annually enjoy them 
all, with but trifling labour and "expense A 
few rods of ground, appropriated to a nursery, 
would afford stocks for all the kinds of fruit 
trees, which flourish in this climate. Scions 
or buds, of the best varieties, are easily ob- 
tained; and in a few years, each house, howev- 
hninble. may be embowered in the sbade of 
many of the most excellent mds of fruit trees, 
affording not only an abunoant supply to the 
family during summer and autumn, but during 
winter, and until strawberries and cherries an- 
nounce thi commencement if a new pomonal 
year. 

A few hours, in the morning and evening, 
could be devoted to a fruit garden, which, 
without interfering with the other duties of the 
farmer.or mechanic, wouid insure the comforts 
and pleasures of its products to the whole fa- 
mily. 

There is a too general impress on, that 
much skill and great labor are indispensable, 
to manage fruit trees successfully , but the 
same intelligence and attention, which insure 
a harvest of corn and gt/iin, are ihe only requi- 
sites. Those who have made t lie experiment 
will vouch for the iruih of tins assertion ; and 
there are but few farmers, who are willing to 
acknowledge, thai their neighbors are more 
able than themselves, or can use t'ue implements 
of their profession with better judgment, a- 
droitni ss, an I success : slill they must per- 
ceive, that there ire individuals, in their vicin- 
ity, of neither greater capacity nor means, who 
exhibit rigorous trees and beauliful fruit. — 
Why, then, with equid talent and resources, 
ire not such meritorious experiments imita- 
ted? 

There is one objection, which is very gener- 
ally urged for not establishing a fruit garden, — 
the depredations winch are committed upon 
them. To prevent this, it is only necessary to 
make them universal, and thus leaving none t<> 
intrude — for all being either in possession of 
the luxuries which they afford, or enabled ;o 
purchase them aj: a moderate price, the tempt 
ation to plunder is removed. Who, but the 
most abandoned, robs a corn or potatoe field? 
Equally s,, C ure would i « the fruit trees, if 
they were rendered as common. 

But is to this too common vice, are wc not all, 
in some degreo, accountable for its existence? 
Is it treated with sufficient serio»sness? Is 
not the pilfering of fruit thought much too 
lightly of in the community? And 
children induced to view it. as a very slight, 
ami even an exeusable offenee, — something to 



be laughed at, rather than to be denounced; 
and all this from the indifference with which 
parents are apt to regard such transgressions. 
In point of criminality, where is the difference 
between stealing fruit, or the fence which en- 
closes it, — an apple, or a plough. — cherries, 
or silver spoons, — melons, or anv other arti- 
cle belonging to the proprietor' If the law 
has not made it theft, it is an offence punisha- 
ble by a heavy fine. Morality is as much out- 
raged, by taking a peach, as the spade at the 
door; and to treat such acts in children, as 
unworthy of reproof, is a derelection of duty, 
winch neither virtue cr religion can tolerate: 
for the doingjwrpng in the slightest manner, is 
most often the commencement of a career of 
depravity, which brings disgrace and ruin up- 
on the deluded or heedless offender. 

A man's ground should bo considered as 
sacred as his house; and every article on his 
estate, as secure against robbery, as if it were 
[protected by locks and bars. The very fact 
that most of the property of the farmer is ex- 
posed, and without any other protection than 
the morals of the people, makes it still more 
imperious, that such an exalted sense of honor 
and hones:}' should be inculcated, as to give 
not only security to the products of rural in- 
dustry, but a confidence beyond the sanctity of 
the laws. Of what value are morals, which 
aro limiled by the statute hook, and consist in 
doing whatever does not subject the individu- 
al to the penalties of the criminal code? But 
placing this subject in tho most favorable light, 
for those who have been in the habit, of either 
deeming it of such little moment as not to me- 
rit grave consideration, or as a foible incident 
to youth, and not very objectionable at any 
agti, still they are bound to change their con- 
duct ; — this, politeness and common decency of 
manners require. If they believe there is no 
great harm in taking, there is much of rudeness 
in no! having the civility to first ask permission. 
If what is desired, is of small value, it will 
most commonly be cheerfully granted, and the 
donor is happy to have it in his power, to do an 
act of kindness, and the receiver if no! grate- 
ful, he at least has the satisfaction of reiiec 
ing, that he has acted like an honest man, and 
a christian, and tha' he has observed the coii'r 
tesies of life. Should, however, the owner 
refuse the boon, there is still consolation : ei- 
toer it was of greater value than had been pre- 
sumed, and thus an injury has been prevented; 
or he was not of a generous disposition ; and 
then comes the ejaculation, — thank God, tt ere 
are but few such men I let the odium be upon 
him ; our hands are unstained. 

On the continent of Europe, there are but 
few fences in the country ; the grounds are 
unprotected even on tfie highway, and all hough 
burdened by grape vines and trees loaded with 
delicious fruit, no one thinks of taking the 
smallest quantity, without the approbation of 
the proprietor. Lady Morgan observes, in 
her travels. ■■ that properly of this "descrip- 
tion is held sacred, in proponion as it lies ex- 
posed. Having alighted fromlour carriage, to 
spare the spring, in a rough road, that wound 
tbrough a wilderness of fruit trees, 1 asked a 
boy who was lying reading under one of these, 
whether I might take an apple: he replied 
coolly,' they are not mine.' But you sometimes 
help yourself, I dire say. He raised his head, 
and looking at me, with an expression of bu 
morous sarcasm, he replied, " You mean thai 
I steal; do you not, madam? No, madam, it 
is belter to asli for one, tlum to turn thuf for an 
apple.'' 

If horticultural socieies were established in 
each county, for no other purpose than to col- 
lect soeds, buds, scions and plants, for distri- 
bution, much could be effected in a few years 
towards covering our naked fields with fruit 
trees. A very small fund would be sufficient 
for this purpose, and when the members had 
obtained the best varieties, boiv rauidly would 
they be dissniiiiii ned nmong Ihe inhabitants of 
every town. Bosldi the benefits which 



would be derived from an abundance of ex- 
cellent fruit, regetable gardens would natu- 
rally claim more attention, and a taste for 
flowers, and ornamental trees and shrubs, 
would soon be induced, and at last universally 
prevail. 

With the picturesque topographical features 
which Massachusetts presents, nothing is wan- 
ting to render its scenery as interesting, and 
its villages as beautiful, as those of any other 
country. In England, scarcely a cottage ex- 
ists that is not surrounded by fruit trees, shrubs 
and flowers while the neat esculent compart- 
ment, — often containing less than a rood of 
land, supplies much of the food for the indus- 
trious inmates of the modest dwelling. In 
Holland and Germany, it is the general atten 
tion which all ranks in society bestow upon 
the grounds about their habitations, which 
gives such a pleasing aspect to those coun- 
tries. 

Whv then should not such examples he om- 
nia' ed in the Cniied States, where the indus- 
trious are so independent in their rights, and 
domes ic circumstances ; wbere there are infi- 
nitely greater means, within the command of 
the cultivators of thesril; where each is the 
lord of the domain in which he resides, and 
garners up his undivided harvest, free and ex*- 
empt from all exactions. 

Besides the pleasure, comfort, and econo- 
mical advantages, which arc derivable fron 
well managed fruit anil vegetable gardens, their 
sanative influence is of inestimable value — 
not only as respects the fortunate fam 
which directly participate in the various pro- 
ducts they afford, but the whole community. — 
That fruit is not merely healthy, but is even an 
antidote and cure for many diseases, there is 
not the, least doubt. We have the opinion of 
the ablest physicians, in support of this posi- 
tion ; but as very erroneous impressions are 
still prevalent on this subject.it is believed that 
the following extract will be read with interest: 
— at least by al! loves of fruit. 

Accept assurances of my groat respect. 

H. A. S. DEARBORN. 
Brioly Place, Dec 20, 1830. 

The extract alluded to, is necessarily omit- 
ted. 

CRIMINAL SUITs AGAI.NST ArtlMALS. 

By the following ari.cle copied from a 
French papei into the U. S. Gazette, it seems 
tbat animals, which people in modern times 
have generally deemed dumb and brute, were 
once 'ield amenable to Ihe laws which are 
designed to regulate t.'ie conduct of man in so- 
ciety, and are addressed to ralional and intel- 
ligent beings. If this narrative is true, let 
no man hereafter deny " the march of mind ;" 
and if such nonsense was ever pracfiscJ in 
grave Courts of Justice, believed by the /fnni- 
erf Judges an! sanctioned by the great mass 
of people, we no longer w.onder at Ihe sway 
which pncsfs and impostors, in times past, 
maintained over Ihe public tniod. To burn a 
sow for injuring a child, and a man because 
lie happened to believe a little more or a little 
less than Ihe prevailing creed of the limes, are 
•alike cieditahle to Ihe age, and prove (hat 
mankind in those days were both fools and 
villains. The article makes mention of several 
suits prosecuted against May hugs, snails, and 
rats, and concludes with tho following interes- 
ting and unique legal information: 

" I" 1266, a bjog" was burnt alive at Nonle- - . 
nayaiix Rosea, b) order of (be ofiiceis of jus- 
tice, for having devoured an infant. In 13f!6, 
asentenceof (be judge of Falaise condemned 



Vol. I. —No. 3. 



AND GARDENER'S JOURNAL. 



19 



a sow to have lier lore fool and head cut or!, 
on conviction of having caused serious injur) 
to a child. The execution look place in front 
of the city hail, and cost 10 sous G deniers — 
the animal having heen previously dressed ir. 
the habit of a man. In I3S9, a horse was 
.'ikrwise cocdemued to death for having killed 
his master. Not to go so far back — Gaspan! 
Bailey, an attorney at law in Chamberry,pub 
lished in 1668, a treatise, ex prnfesso upon 
ibis species of suits, in which he gave the for 
inula of subpoena, ofdefence, of judgment, &c 

" Among the manuscripts belonging to the 
royal family, there is oue containing the origi- 
nal of a judgment pronounced by the judged 
Jjavignv in Bourgogne, against a sow witij 
lier six pigs, which had committed homicide 
upon the person of a child 5 years old, named 
Jean Martin. The following are a few of the 
passages of this important sentence : 

"After haling considered the case and heoro 
the testimony, having consulted the customs 
and usages of Bouigogne, and considering 
ourselves in the presence of God, we condemn 
John Bailli's tow to be confiscated and deliv 
ered to the executioner, to be hung by the 
neck untill she 6hall be dead ; and with refer- 
ence to the pigs, as it has not been clearh 
proved that they had any participation in the 
crime, we deter sentence upon them, and con 
sent that they be restored to the said John 
Bailli, he giving security for their appearance, 
should theirguilt be made manifest hereafter." 
A reference to a report of the case shows that 
the little pigs were afterwards honorably ac 
quitted. 

" The Frenob Parliament showed itself not 
less wise in this respect, than the provincial 
courts. One of its sentences in 1604, con- 
demned an ass to be hung and burnt; and 
previously in 1466, it confirmed a sentence of 
the judge of Corbeil, sentencing a man and a 
hog, who were executed together. Examples 
of this kind might be greatly multiplied — oue 
especially of Sardaigne, might be considered 
still more outre. We must defer our case to 
our next rejjort.'' 



The atmosphere btiing heated by the sun in 
different climates, and in the same climates at 
different seasons, communicates to the surface 
of the earth, and to some distance below it, the 
degree of heat and cold which prevails in itself. 
Different vegetables are able to preserve life 
under different degrees of cold, but all of them 
perish when the cold which reaches them is 
extreme. Providence has therefore, in the 
coldest climates, provided a covering of snow 
for the roots of vegetable?, by which they are 
protected from the influence of the atmosphe 
lie cold. The snow keeps in the internal lieat 
of the earth which surrounds the roots of ve- 
getables und defends them from the cold of 
the atmosphere, — Eve. Ag. 



ON UNFERMENTF.D MANURES. 

In favor of the application of farm yard dung 
in » recent state, a great mass of facts may be 
found ill the writings of scientific agricultur- 
ists. 

A. Young, in an essay on manures, ad- 
duces a number of excellent authorities in sup- 
port of the plan. Many who doubted, have 
been lately convinced, and perhaps there is no 
subject of investigation, in which there is such 
a union of theoretical and practical evidence. 

Within the last seven years, Coke (the Nor- 
folk farmer) has entirely given up the system 
formerly adopted on his farm, of applying fer- 
mented dung; and his crops have been as good 



the Bolmer'n Washington plumb, and has yield- 
ed but hale short ..>f $'M per annum for the 
la»t three years. — .V. E. Fainter* 



CHLORIDE OF LIME. 

The annexed passage of a letter, writ 
ten by Dr. Sproston, of the Erie sloop 
of war, while serving in the West Indies, 
is printed among the documents accom- 
paning the latest annual report from the 
Navy Department : — 

"Since the date of my last, the use of 
the chloride of lime, as therein mention- 
ed, has been steadily persevered in on 
board of the ship and in conjunction with 
other judicial measures of the health po- 
lice, adopted since the commencement 
of the summer, has procured for us un- 
der Providence an exemption from epi- 
demic disease Tliat it lias done so, is n 
more strongly corrobora ive of its effica- 
cy than might se :in apparent, were I not 
to menlion, that, during the first six 
months of our service on the West In- 
dia station, many circumstances in rela- 
tion to the climate, the »hip, and the 
crew conspired with great force towards 



since as they ever were, and his manure goes 

nearly twice as far. A great objection against !l the production of general disease 

i, .L.I.. c I J :~ «u_. 1. _: lot 

! Such were in the early months, much 



THE USE OF SNOW TO THE VEGETABLE KING 
DOM. 

Were we to ju.lgs from appearances only 
we might imagine that so far from being use- 
ful to the earth, the cold humidity ofsuounvould 
be detrimental to vegetation. But the experi- 
ence of all ages asserts the contrary. Snow, 
particularly in those northern regions, where 
the ground is covered with it for several months 
fructifies the earth by guarding the corn, or o 
ther vegetables, from the intense cold of the 
air, and especially from the cold and piercing 
winds. It has been a vulgar opinion, very ge 
nerally received that snow fertilizes ihe laud 
■ in which it falls more lino rain, in consequence 
of the nitrous ^-alts which it is supposed to ac- 
quire in freezing. But it appears from ihe 
experiments of Magraff in the year 1731, that 
the chemical difference between rain and snow 
water is exceedingly small; that the lattor 
contains a somewhat less proportion of earth 
than the former, but neither of them contain 
either earth, or any kind of salt, in any quan- 
tity, which can be sensibly efficacious in pro- 
moting vegetation. The peculiar agency of 
snow, as a fertilizer, in preference to rain, may 
be ascribed to its furnishing a covering to the 
roots of vegetables, by which they are guard- 
ed from the influence of atmospheric cold, and 
the internal heat of the earth, is prevented 
from escaping. The internal parts of the 
earth are heated uniformly to the fifty-eighth 
degree of Fahrenheit's thermometer. This de 
gree of heat is greater than that in which the 
"watery juice of vegetables freeze, and it is 
propagated from the inward parts of the earth 
io the surfa-ee on which the vegetables grow. 



slightly fermented dung, is, that weeds sprin. 
up more luxuriantly where it is applied. If 
there are seeds carried out in the dung, they 
certainly will germinate ; but it is seldom that 
this can be the case to any extent, and if the 
land is not cleaned of weeds, any kind of ma ■ 
nure, fermented or unfermented, will occasion 
their rapid growth. In cases where farmyard 
dung cannot be immediately applied to crops, 
the destructive fermentation should bo preven- 
ted as much as possible. The surface should 
be defended as much as possible from 'he oxy- 
gen of the atmosphere ; a compact marl, or a 
tenaceousclay offers the best protection against 
the air.and before the dung is covered, it should 
be dried as much as possible. If the dung is 
(bund to heat strongly, it should be turned over 
and cooled by exposure to the air.— Agricultu- 
ral Encyclopedia. 



SIGNS OF A GOOD FARMER. 

His corn land is ploughed in the fall. He 
ieldom lets his work drive him. Has a cook 
ing stove, with plenty of pipe to it. The 
wood lots he possesses are fenced. His slec! 
is housed in summer, and his cart, plough, and 
wheelbarrow, winter and summer, when not 
in use : has as many yoke of good oxen as he 
has horses : does not feed his hogs with whole 
grain : lights may he seen in his house before 
break of day in winter; his hog-pen is board- 
ed inside and but : has plenty ol weeds and 
mud in his yard in the fall : all his manure is 
carried out from bis buildings and barn-yard 
twice each year, and chip dung once — his cat- 
tle are almost all tied up in the winter — he be- 
gins to find that manure put on land in a green 
state is the most profitable — raises three times 
as man" turnips and potatoes for his stock, as 
he doo for his f imily — has a good ladder rais- 
ed ajainst the roof of his house — has more 
lamps in his house than candlesticks — has a 
house on purpose to keep his ashes in, and an 
iron or tin vessel to take them up — has a large 
barn and small house — seldom has more pigs 
than cows — he fences before he ploughs, and 
manures before he sows — h? deals more forj 
cash than on credit. — Ncio England Farmer. 



ENCOURAGING TO CULTIVATORS OF FRUITS 

Mr. Samuel R. Johnson, of Charlestown,[ 
Mass. has recieved this year $51, 36 for the 
produce of a single plumb tree, in his garden, 
this season, besides giving away considerable 
of the fruit to Ms friends. The free produces 



rainy and boisterous weather ; afterwards 
of excessive and continued heat, to a de- 
gree unusual, even in the West Indies ; 
the crowded, and impetfeclly ventilated 
state of the hold < and birth deck : the la- 
borious and harassing dulies of the crew, 
their clothing illy regulated, with a small 
allowance ofwater,and a paucity of those 
comforts which are calculated to amelio- 
rate the nature and effects of sea diet. 
These and many other unfavorable cir- 
cumstances existing during thefirst cruize 
gave to the cases of fever, which occa- 
sionally did occur, about forty in the 
whole, a high grade of character, and pow. 
erfully predispost-d to the developement 
of general diaease. That epidemic ma- 
lignant fever was not produced, I unhesi- 
tatingly ascribe to the unremitted use of 
chloride, and such other measures of pre- 
caution as it was in the power of the me- 
dical officers to adopt. On board of the 
other vessels of this squadron, where the 
chloride of lime has been used still hap- 
pier results have boon obtained. I be- 
lieve that a case of any description has 
not occurred in any of them. On board 
the Peacock, howeverthe chloride oflime 
or chloride in any form, had not been u- 
sed. Tiie higher order and supposed 
general sweetness of ihis vessel, were 
deemed to render it unaecessary. The 
fact, therefore, stands in high relief, that 
there has not yet occurred in our navy 
an instance of malignant disease where 
the chloride of lime has been steadily 
used as a preventive. ,' 



We learn says the Buffalo Journal by a let- 
ter received in this town from Lexington, Ky. 
that John'J. Crittenden, Esq. Speaker of the 
house of assembly, was chosen W. S. Senator 
for that state on the 4lh inat. Mo nanieniars 
were given. 



20 



THE GENESEE FARMER 



Jan. 22, 1831. 



©lUffiExaa. 



Svw 



THE ROSE. 

DIRECTIONS FOR CULTIVATING IT. 

The rose may justly be tennod tho Queen 
uf Flowers ; and there are but few people who 
are not more or less pleased with iheir cultiva- 
tion. Tho first object to those cultivating, is, 
to procure choice varieties, as to beauty and 
fragrance of tl e Cower ; noxt to these qualifi- 
cations, handsome shaped tops, upon hardy 
t'ree-growinz stocks. Mo*t kinds of Ruses arc 
disposod tu grow low and branching, malting 
rather an unsightly hedgo, than otherwise ;. to 
correct this, and perpetuate the most desirable 
varieties, are tha objects of the Floricultur- 
ist. Roses are propagated by seeds from sin 
gle roses, by layers, offsets, or cuttings. The 
former method is to be preferred where hand- 
some, straight, clean stems arc warned. Va- 
rieties may be continued by budding or graft- 
in". As the sweet or gi cen brier, common in 
the New England states, is the hardiest of all 
the roses, so is it better calculated for stocks, 
than most other kinds. Those who would 
propagate them by seeds, should gather them 
in autumn, and bury them in some convenient 
place, whera they should be allowed to remain 
until the second spring, as they will not vege- 
tate tho first season after planting, but require! 
to lie in tho ground through two winters ; thej 
second spring they should betaken up, and| 
planted out in ridges, raised six or eight inches 
above tho level of the surrounding surfice. — 
When the seeds have vegetated, and the young 
plants have attained the height of three or four 
inches, begin to level down the ridges, by remo- 
ving the earth from the routs, at the same time 
cut tin" away the horizontal fibres, leaving only 
the tap or perpendioular root This operation 
should be repeated, as tuo plant increases in 
size, until the. ridge is reduced to a level wi'h 
the surrounding surface. By this operation, 
the body of the young plant is extended six or 
eight inches below tho colyledones or seed 
leaves; and, as there arc not any buds formed 
below them, that part of the body gained from 
the root, will be freb trom spro.ts. By tin-, 
method, young trees may be raised, which will 
not be troublesome by throwing out suckers 
or sprouts, and the body may bo kept free from 
side limbs, as easy as an apple tree. When the 
stock has been thus raised.it may be budded or 
.•rafted as other trees. Tho spines upon that 
■>art of the stock to be operated upon, should 
be removed some time previous to the opera- 
tion, and when the stocks are headed down, 
the ends should be covered with grafting wax, 
to prevent water from penetrating the pith. — 
As the green brier is a free grower, those 
stocks intended for training about windows 
should be budded or grafted high. Some peo- 
ple are fond of having dilferent kinds of roses' 
upon the same stalk, but they do not form as 
handsome heads as those which have but one 
kind. Roses, like other trees should bo pru 
.nedin the spring, and those who would have 
p' Mowers in perfection, should koep tho ton^if 
/ ihem.of, wood, and shorten tho luxuriant 
^rowims of the preceding year. Those who 
wish to cultivate new varieties should sow the 
seed from fine single ones, and if seeds can 
be procured from bushes where a number ofi 
different kinds grew in contact, tho chance for) 
variety will ha greater. 



GRAPE SOIL. 

We have received from our friend and cor- 
respondent. Horatio Gates Spafford, an ac- 
knowledgmentof the receipt of the first num- 
ber of the Genesee Farmer, together with his 
advice, as to the course which should be pur 
sued, in order to make the paper useful to the 
readers. 

From the well known reputation of this man 
his long acquaintance with the different parts of 
our country, his opinions are entitled to the 
greatest deference from the agricultural part 
of community. Mr. Spafford has, for a num- 
ber of years past, been much engaged in col- 
lecting information, and makin.: experiments, 
on the cultivation of the grape, both by seed- 
lings, and collecting the finest varieties of our 
native grapes, as well as making experiments 
with foreign ones. We think we cmriot do our 
readers a greater favor, than by giving his ob 
servations, taking it for granted, that it is as 
good authority as we can produce, and that far 
mers and others may trust to them without 
fear of being deceived. He says — 

"As to tho vine much of your attention 
should be directed to it. The country south 
of Lake Ontario, in this state, certainly has a 
climate more congeni d to the vine, than any 
country on the south of Lake Erie, even to 
the Ohio liver. I know thoso countries, and 
am confident of the facts as stated. Your 
soil, particularly on your poorest lands, the 
high dry ridges, and rocky lands, is grape soil 
and the sooner found out the better, in my o. 
pinion. There is no region of tho United 
StJte-, certainly none east of the Chesapeake. 



NUTRITIVE MATTER. 

Thb following is taken from Sir H. Davy's 

Table of Nutritive Matter afforded by different 
vegetables, and may be found useful to farmers', 
in making calculations as to the worth of dif- 
ferent crops, for feeding stock, &c. Indian 
corn, not being the produce of the Island of 
Great Britain, was not analized by him, bu'. 
we give the results fromother chemists : 
1000 parts of each gave the following: — 
Winter Wheat, 955. Rve, 792 

S,,nng Wheat, 910. Barlev meal, 920 
Indian Corn, SOO. Oal meal, 670 

Potatoes, 250. Turnips . 42 

Now if we make a Table from the above 
calculations, giving to each the produce of an 
acre (as near as may be) we shall see at once 
the relative value of each compared with tho 
other, as contributing to the support of anima'. 



life: 

lbs. 
Potatoes, 12,500 
Indian corn, 2,400 
W. Wheat, 1,200 
Rve, 900 

Barley, 1,200 

Oals, 9150 

Turnips, 7,500 



lbs. nutritive matter 
would give 3,125 
1920 
1,146 

7i2 

943 
" 552 

315 



or north of the Valley of the Tennessee or 
Cumberland rivers, where the vine will become 
a staple production, or succeed so well, as in 
your region. Much of this is duo to the great 
depth of lake Ontario, aa explained in many of 
my publications. At first, however, the cul- 
tivators of the vino, especially, if they com- 
mence with little experience, great fields, ton 
many vines at the outset, must expect more or 
Ies3 disappointment. The true way is, to be- 
gin with a few vines, and by learning from ex- 
perience, both as I o management and varie- 
ties, or kinds, expend to more, say from a gar- 
den with a few vines, tj a vineyard. Try to 
make it a general thing, 'hat every man who 
owns a farm, or garden, or both, shall have 
growing a few vines, somo of foreign origin, 
if thoy please, but by no means neglect to culti- 
vate some of the best natives " 

N. B. It appears to be the opinion of met 
men, experienced in the cultivation of the 
grape, in this country, that wo should relv on 
the nativo American grapes, for vzino making, 
as the vines are more hardy, better bearers. 
and tho flavor of tho wine it. found to bo supe- 
rior to thai produced by foreign grapes, grown 
in this olimatc. 



Thus it appears, that one acre of Potatoes 
is equal to about two a-.reB of Indian Corn 
throe of Wheat, four of Rye or Barley, six of 
Oats, or ten of Turnips. J-hould the above 
table be found incurred, we will lhank any ci 
our farming fiienils to forward a more accurate 
one, and wowiil give it a place in our column.-. 



SUN FLOWER. 

As wo have noticed this plant growing year 
after year in the fields in our country, without 
cultivation, we aro induced tobeheto that the 
soil and climate aro extremely well adapted to 
the growth of it as a field crop. We were 
particularly struck with the growth of it in a 
field, a little west of Penfield, on the inter 
vale; it continued to grow several years with 
out cultivation, and yet the plants were large 
and vigorous. It may bo said, that there are 
no mills for extracting tho oil : granted ; but 
onco commence the cultivation of the seed, and 
you may rest assured that some Yankee will 
furnish a mill, or purchase the seed of you 



COFFEE. 

We know this is a hum-drum subject, and 
directions for making it, aro found in Alma- 
nacs, Journals, and Newspapers, from the time 
of Wouier Von Ttsiller lo the present day, and 
yet a cup o 1- good coffee is rare to be net with 
in the country. Now we had rather rummage 
all the almanacs from Beers down to Giddings, 
than diink one cup uf tho sylabub stuff fre 
qucmly given us at pubhe houses in tho coun- 
try. The French are allowed to drink excel- 
lent coffee, and tho following we know to be 
the method practiced by many of them for ma- 
king it. Theil kitchens are provided with 
coffee pot or pitcher, into ivhhh the coffee i.- 
leached : a leach or vessel fitted to the too o.' 
t, so as to set into it an inch or two; the bot- 
tom of tho leach is perforated full of small 
holes : n canvass bag, tnado to fit the inside uf 
th leach, having a boon sewed in the top, to 
prevent it falling within tho vessel : a pipkin, 
or sauce-pan. of sufficient size to heat water, 
flavins selected and roasted codec, according 
to taste, they procoed to grind it moderately 
fine, and at evening wet with cold water as 
much as they wish to use in the morning ; this 
is put into the canvass bag, within the leach, 
and boiling water poured upon the coffee until 
sufficient quantity is passed through for use ; 
during this operation, the veseels are placed in 
a situation to be kept hot, but net boil, as that 
would injure ihe flavor of the coffee. After 
the first making, the coffee is taken from the 
bag, and kept for the next making, when it is 
put into tho sauce-pan, and to it one Half of 
the quantity "f water to be used; this is boil- 
ed, and the water decanted upon the new 
coffeo in the leach, when the other half of 
tho water is put upon the dregs, and again 
boiled and decanted as before ; after which. 
Itho old dregs are thrown away, having beer. 



Vol. 1.— No. 3. 



AND GARDENER'S JOURNAL. 



21 



deprived of all their strength. By this pro. 
cess, the fine flavor of the new coffee is not 
dissipated by boiling, and by tne after boiling 
all the extract is obtained. This is not only 
an economical method,but we will assure thoso 
who feel disposed to try it, the pleasure o' 
drinking coffee in great perfection. 



WHEAT. 

As wheat is the staple article of this sec. 
:ion of our country, we cannot take too much 
"pains in selecting those varieties which have 
the most good qualitios. It may be difficult to 
determine what kinds of wheal will succeed 
best, under all circumstances, in different parts 
of our country. In one part, the wheal may 
winter-kill ; in another, be destroyed by the 
Hessian fly ; in a third, be tut off by rust.— 
But we are highly favored in this region ; the 
two first ore misfortunes which rarely happen, 
and the third only in unfavorable seasons.— 
When those points are disposed of, ihe inqui- 
ry will be, which kind produces inost.and which 
sells best in market. With regard to the first, 
much difference of opinion prevails, but all a- 
gree that the wheat known in this market by 
the name of white flint, bears a higher price 
than any other kind, by about two conts per 
bushel. For several years past, there has 
jeen an universal uompiaintagainst this wheat, 
" that it was very difficult to thresh;" but ow- 
ing to the introduction of threshing machines, 
tint complaint has ceased, and the very quali- 
ty which was condemned before, has now be- 
come one of its recommendations, that is, it 
Joes not shell in harvesting. It is proper to 
observe, that wheat threshed by a machine, 
conies into market in better conJihon than 
that threshed either by horses or by the flail. — 
3y the former method, the white caps are got 
rid of, but by the two latter methods it is Very 
litlicult to separate all of ihctn, especially 
when the wheat happens to be a little shrunk. 
There is another advantage in using threshing 
machines. It'often happens that a crop of 
wheat, good in oilier respects, has a small 
quantity of smut in it: by threshing Buch wheal 
;n a machine when it is dry, the smut grains are 
broken in pieces and carried off by the wind 
from the machine. This U well worth the at- 
tention of farmers, as we have seen wheat 
sold the past season in our market for one 
third less than it would have been worth had 
t been free from tiie smut. We are not a- 
ware that any perfect antitode has been found 
jgainst this disease in. wneat ; every variety, 
and every country are mom or less subject to 
il ; and among the preventives, to prepare 
the ground icM, ami sow in scaso7i, may be 
counted the best. The following observation 
by Loudon, are well worth attention. " In 
making a choice from all the species and vari. 
sties which we have named, the thin skinned 
while wheats are prefered by alltbe best British 
farmers, whose soil and climate are suitable 
for this grain, and for sowing in autumn. In 
iate situations, and'less favorable soils and cli- 
mates, the red varieties are generally made 
choice of; and those are also generally prefer- 
red for sowing in the spring. Red wheats, how- 
ever, are considered at least fifteen per cent less 
valuable than the white varieties. Hence, the 
only recommendations we can give as to the 
choice of sub-varieties, is, to select the best 



from among chose in use by the best farmers, 
in tho given situation, or nearest well cultiva- 
ted districts." Tho manures best calculated 
for wheat, are allowed by all agricultural che" 
mists, to be animal matters and lime. The 
former has a direct influence in supplying that 
essential constituent to wheaten flour, gluten ; 
and the latter, azote and lime, both artually 
found in the straw of the wheat. \l all e- 
vents, it is certain, wheat will not thrive on any 
soil that does nut contain lime. In this. Sir H. 
Davy, Chaptal, Professor Thaer, Grisenth- 
waite, fully agree. 



METEOROLOGY. 

Meteorology, in its common acceptation, sig- 
nifies the doctrine, or history, of the appear- 
ance and causes of meteors. But in Physical 
Geography, its signification is far more extend- 
ed. It is here applied to the explanation of 
all atmospheric phenomena. In its wide ringe 
are comprehended, not only the theory of me- 
teorites, but also of the Aurora Borealis, and 
all the splendid phenomena of thunderstorms. 
It embraces, more especially, the physical con- 
stitution and laws of the all-pervading medium 
in which we subsist : filling all space, and ex- 
tending to the astonishing height of forty-five 
miles. Within this medium, there occurs 
most of the changes in the forms of matter, 
with which we are acquainted; and without 
its prevalence, all animated nature would soon, 
er or later lie in devastating ruins. All insects 
must breath it. and all vegetation imbibe it, or 
wither, droop, and die. Then what is it, in 
which are wrought most of the wonders of cre- 
ation, that are cognizable by our senses : and 
how does it enable life to subsist : matter to 
assume new forms, and divest itself of tho 
old: and how is it possible to explain all the 
phenomena of heat and cold, the density or 
rarity of the air, to measure its whole weight, 
or a portion of it, its height, moisture, and 
dryness ; the causes of rain, hail, snow, dews, | 
and fogs; the electrical phenomena, Aurora 
Bortalis, rain-bows, the azuro sky; light, its 
combinations and properties ; heat, and the 
oiusi s of combustion, solar aud culinary tiro, 
and the phenomena of burning glasses? be- 
sides a gr~at variety of others, the mere men- 
tion of which, together with the little that is 
known of the causes producing them, no doubt, 
often paralizes any efforts in the field of dis- 
covery, and deadens well directed and anima. 
ted ambition. The only rational answer to 
such inquiries, is, do all that can be done by 
you, and leave for future generations, your le- 
gacy, and the investigation of what, by you. 
was inexplicable. When you reach the veil, 
beyond which no man has ever penetrated, 
then, theorize, or even speculate ; and when 
your theories and speculations, which, per. 
haps may amount to no more than a unit in 
themselves, shall come to be compared with a 
thousand others, the tota 1 , or aggregate, shall 
abundantly corroborate your suspicions, aud 
thereby unfold new treasures to an astonished 
and admiring world. 

In this manner.and with very few exceptions, 
has science been indebted for all that adorns 
the page of history, and contribotes to the 
comfort and happiness of society. 

Wilh these preliminaries, it is easy to see 



the intention and usefulness of meteoric ob- 
servations, even the limited ones that our know- 
ledge, and means of obtain ing them.shall enable 
us to make. In academies of science,great at- 
tention has ever been paid to meteorology, and 
tho facilities for accurate and extended observ- 
ations, must far exceed any thing that at pres- 
ent we can hope for. Nevertheless, we feel 
assured, that such as we shall make, will claim 
and receive all the consideration merited. We 
moraover request, that, should they fall into 
the hands of any Meteorologist, they may be 
critically reviewed, and that inaccuracies', or 
omissions may be laid before the public in such 
shape as to present to us the proper correction. 
This we solicit the more ardently and cheer- 
fully, as we have no knowledge that any ob- 
servations have hitherto been made, in this 
whole district of country; and being the first, 
also, ever made by ourselves, we desire them 
to be correct ; and as it is proposed to extend 
them to a lengthy series, an abundance of time, 
and a fair opportunity, will thereby be afford- 
ed, for every necessary correction and addi- 
tion. 

It will readily be perceived, that these ob- 
servations will strengthen, confirm, or over- 
throw any preconceived opinions concerning 
the humidity or dryness, the rarity or density 
of our atmosphere, and the sudden alterations, 
and vicissitudes, or evenness of temperature, 
to which this climate and country are exposed; 
and from them, when compared with others, in 
this, or foreign countries, may be deduced the 
probable effect of these circumstances upon 
life, health, and longevity, as well as upon ve- 
getation in general. 

We commence with the indications of the 
Thermometer, Barometer, and Pluvimeter, or 
Rain Guage. Inserting, in cjnnection, tho 
condition of winds, and state of the weather, 
at the periods of observation ; leaving for the 
reader to make such inferences from the facts, 
as may suggest themselves to him: as, perhaps, 
at what temperature and pressure of the at- 
mosphere, and what the direction of the wind, 
when rain, hail, or snow is falling, &c. &c. 

We shall presently connect with these, ob- 
servations on the moisture and dryness of the 
air, to be measured with the Centigrade Hy- 
grometer of Sausome. We hope, also, as this 
instrument can only nurk the rc(a(irc moisture, 
to bo able to present the actvnl quantity of 
moisture in a given quantity of air, at the times 
of observation, and also the point of deposi- 
tion, at each period of rain or snow, as well 
as the relative force and progression of winds. 
Tiie inquiry, how fast does evaporation take 
place at tiie surface of the earth, and on the 
surface of tiie water, al given temperatures, 
and tables connected therewith, and formed 
upon such observations, would affird much in- 
formation, and gratify curiosity- 

At sunrise, yesterday morning, the 10th, tho 
thermometer stood at 5 dg. al'ove Zero, and in 
three hours rose to 20 or to 25 dg. above Ze- 
ro. Since that time the wind has performed a 
complete revolution, and at this time, Tuesday 
the 11th, 10 o'clock A. M. snow begins to fall, 
while the thermometer stands at43dg., or 11 
dg. above the freezing point. We would 
merely ask, is it not singular, that while heat- 
ed, or warm air, has a strong inclination up- 
ward, there should still be present in the upper 



22 



THE GENESEE FARMER 



Jan. 22. 1832. 



regions of air, a strata below the freezing 
point, and probably, from '.lie fineness of the 
snowy particles, many decrees below. Much 
cold, however, must be brought to the surface 
hy its continuance, which will hot only dimin- 
ish it here, by imparling it to the wanner stra- 
ta, but also by displacing the warmer air, which 
will consequently ascend tiil the restiration of 
an equilibrium. Jan. 11. 1831. 

VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGV.-NO 2. 

We hope our readers will understand our ob- 
ject, in continuing the numbers upon this sub- 
ject. At this time, there is a general excite- 
ment in regard to cross breeding of plants, or 
improving, by introducing new varieties, as 
well as continuing valuable varieties- by inocu- 
lating or grafting. In order to profit by 
this, the farmer and gardener should make 
themselves familiar with the different parls of 
the flower, and their several functions ; and 
we sincerely hope that those of our readers 
who are anxious to see the agriculture and 
horticulture of our own country l;eep pace 
with Europe, will resolve to make at least one 
experiment in the ensuing year, and the rule 
is now generally adopted, that whoever produ- 
ces a new variety, has the privilege of giving 
to it such name as he shall think proper. 

The calyx is present with all perfect 8owers, 
& serves as a covering to protect the more tender 
parts. It is of various shapes, and seems to 
act the same part with regard to the flower, as 
the leaves do for other parts of the plant ; air 
is inhaled and exhaled by it, and it elaborates 
the juices for the perfection of the flower, and 
contributes to the growth of the stem. 

The corolla lies within the calyx as a more deli- 
cate covering for the reproductive organs of the 
plant, and are capable of being aclod upon by 
certain stimuli, and of closing for the protec- 
tion of those organs which might be destroyed 
by moisture or otherwise They are general- 
ly of such shape as will reflect the rays of the 
6un to the greatest advantage upon the sta- 
mens and pistils. 

The Stamens seem very important in the e- 
conomyof vegetation, without the intervention 
of pollen from the stamers, no pistilate flow- 
er will produce seed, and the character of the 
new plant is affected by that of the pollen, by 
which the pistil is impregnated. A proper 
knowledge of this fact is of the greatest im- 
portance to the farmer and gardener, and will 
explain the manner in which many of his seeds 
and fiuits become mixed, and also point out a 
remedy for the same, and direct him in the 
process necessary for cross breeding of plants | 
for the purpose of procuring new and useful 
varieties. As the giealest improvements in 
agriculture and horticulture, which have been 
made for the last fifty years in the production 
of new varieties, have been dependant upon 
this knowledge, firmers cannot study the sub-! 
jeot too closely. 

The anther, or nob of the stamen, is a fila- 
ceous sack, filled with what appears to bo a 
fine dust ; this dust, when examined with a 
inioroscope. is found to be small particles of 
albuminous matter, inclosed in a membrane- 
ous covering which on being moistened, 
swells and explodes, emitting a thin glare fluid. 
When the anther has arrived at maturity, the 
filaceous sack bursts with such force that tht 



small particles of pollen are projected to con- 
siderable distance, and being light, they are 
driven still farther by winds. 

The pistil, or central organ of the flower, 
projecting from the pericarp or seed vessel — 
this is composed in most cases, of a bundle of 
tubes, corresponding to the number of seeds 
contained in the pericarp, each seed having a 
separate tube. Sometimes these tubes are not 
connected in a bundle, as in the Indian corn, 
where each silk is a tube connected with one 
kernel, and may be considered a separate pis 
til. Whether these lubes are separate, or in 
bundles, they are enlarged at the outer end, 
giving them the pestle form, from which they 
derive their name. 

The seeds, in their imperfect slate, consist 
of a tegument, or skin, filled with a thin glare 
fluid, which in its more concrete stale, forms 
the rudiments of the young plant. During 
the flowering of the plant, by the expansion 
and contraction of the tegument, or skin of the 
young seed, a small portion of the fluid con 
tained in it, is forced out through the tube or 
pistil, and again received into it by suction,- by 
this process, the mouth of the pistil is always 
kopt wet, when the flower is in perfection, as 
the particles of pollen are brought in contact 
with tho orifices of Ihe pistils, by becoming 
moistened, they burst, and the fluid contained 
in them, mixing with that upon the pistil, is in 
jected with it into the tegument of the young 
seed. And thus ihe plant becomes impregna- 
ted, and the character of the new plant is un- 
alterably fixed, as to variety, partaking of the 
nature of both the plants upon which the sta- 
men and pistil grew. 

"I 

REFLECTIONS. 

What more devotional, intellectual, tasteful, 
and healthy employment, than the study, ob- 
servation, and manipulations of the garden. 
Where is the broad and comprehensive book 
ot nature so plainly, pleasingly, and self evi- 
dently displayed, as ainonn the herbs, flowers, 
and trees; and particularly when they owe 
their fragrance nnd beauties, and even their 
existence, to the planting and nursing of our 
own hands. 

From the incipient expansion to perfect ma- 
turation and old age, they are monitorial em- 
blems, speaking in the still small voice as pro- 
fitably as irresistibly; they are the preachers 
whose teachings are never dull, whose doc 
trinesare always orthodox; their lessons, mor- 
als, and precepts, arc of plain application, and 
easy comprehension ; Ihey speak to all, and in 
tho same language ; calming the passions, and 
smiling approbation on the heart void of guile. 
I never look upon a young female who is en- 
gaged with, and has a tasie for flowers, and the 
beauties of field and grove, but that 1 forgive 
hor all the transgressions of her primeval heri- 
tage, transmitted from hor who first tilled that 
garden that flourished without weeds, when t he- 
world came fresh aud green from the hands of 
ils maker. Thotyrml, the revengeful, guil- 
ty, and depraved soul, seeks the heath, the 
cave, or barren mountain, where nature, rude, 
wild, and uncultivated assimilates to the rave- 
anous and carnivorous animal appetites and 
propensities rather than flee to the innooont 
gaiety, and pleasant soberness of the parterre 
and shrubbery. 



CULTIVATION OP FRUIT. 

There are a number of opinions prevalent re 
specting the cultivation of fruit, by budding oi 
grafting, which, to say the least of them, arc 
highly prejudicial to the science of horticul- 
ture, and to the interest of our country gener- 
ally. One of the most common, is, that small, 
sour, knotty, hard apples, such as are produ- 
ced in orchards which Hare not been cultivated 
by grafting or budding, make the best cider. — 
Another is, that the grafted freewill fail with 
the old stock, from which the c-ion was taken. 
And again, that grafted trees-only hear even 
other year. It is difficult to say whether those 
prejudice; originated in ignorance or supersti- 
tion : but it is high time they weio consigned 
to oblivion with the stories of ghosts and 
witchcraft. That the juice of all kinds of ap- 
ples is not alike rich in acid and sacharim 
matter, is apparent, by mere tasting, but mori 
accurately by ascertaining the specific gravity 
of tho juico. It does not follow that the lai 
gest apples make the best cider; but for.a gen- 
eral rule, the heaviest apples, according to then 
size, in ike the richest; other circumstances, 
such as colour and ripeness, being the same. — 
Neither is it certain that sweet apples contain 
most sarharine matter, although the taste 
would indicate it; in sour apples, there inaj 
be an equal quantity, but covered by the acid, 
which seems as necessary, in ordtr to j ro 
duce .a good vinous fermentation, as the su 
gar ; hence, we often find that cider, when 
made from sweet apples alone, is tasteless 
and incipid. 

Two things should be kept in view by those 
who would cultivate apples for cider — richness 
of juice, and color of fruit, preferring red o x 
yellpw. to green or white. As these quali- 
ties may be found in fruit that possess othet 
excfcllences, for kitchen and table use, we 
would not advise the cultivation of orchards 
expressly for cider. Very few apples can be 
produced yielding richer juice than the Eso- 
•pus Spitzenburg, and Swaar, both of which 
are of the first class of table fruits. As to the 
idoa, that all cions taken from a tree will fail 
at the same time with the parent stock, it i > 
equally as absurd as it would he to say that 
every child would die when its father did. — 
Wc know of some of the oldest varieties of 
apples cultivated in New England, cions of 
which have been brought into Western New- 
York and grafted, which are as thrifty, and 
produce as finely, as any seedling in the or- 
chards. Tnis is a transatlantic error, and is 
resorted to as a finesse, beoause they can- 
not now produce an apple corresponding with 
the old descriptions of ihe Golden pippin, and 
we doubt whether they ever could. 

England has, at this time, some justly cele- 
brated Horticulturists, men who aro enriching 
the world by ".heir improvements ; but in or 
chards they are as far behind us, as we are be- 
hind them in manufacturing. And we think thai 
the old county of Ontarie, in the state of New 
Vnrk, produces more fine apples than Eng- 
huid, Scotland, and Ireland together. 

As to the alternate boaring of tree*, this i- 
readily corrected by picking off" part of the 
fruit when small, which will allow the tree to 
forrt blossom bnds for the next v ear. 



Vol. 1.— No. 3. 



AND GARDENER'S JOURNAL. 



23 



THE STEAM ENGINE 

The name of ihe Steam Engine, to most 
persons, brings the idea of a machine of the 
most complex nature, and hence intelligible 
only to those who will devole much time to 
the study of it. 

Bui he that can understand a common 
pump ma) understand a steam engine, h is 
in fac; only a pump, in nliscli the .]oid is made 
to impel the piston, instead of being impelled 
by it, that is to say, the fluid jets as V.«i power 
instead of being the resistance. It may be de 
scribed simply as a >) long barrel or cylinder. 
with a closely fitted piston in it, v. hich is driv- 
en upanddown by steam admitted alternately 
from above and below from a suitable boiler ; 
while the end of the piston rod, at which the 
whole force may be considered to be concen- 
trated, is connected in any convenient way 
with the work that it is to be performed. 

The potver of the engine is of course pro- 
portioned to the i v/.i of i he piston, and the den 
sity of ihe steam; iliat is, if the area of the 
piston be equal to one hundred square inches, 
and the density of the steam equal to twenty 
pounds on the square inch, then the whole 
loice against the piston will be two thousand 
pounds — In some ol tii« nines of Europe 
there are cylinders and pistons on more than 
ninety inches in diameter, of which the pres- 
sure of steam equals the effort ol six hundred 
horses. The mechanical properties of steam 
are precisely like those of common air, hence 
any person, who is familiar with experiments 
in pneumatics, will readily see how the elastic 
force of the steam is capable of moviug the 
pislon, in the cylinder of a steam engine; and 
how by attaching a lever or oth.;r contrivao 
ces to the piston rod, motion may be communi- 
cated to pumps, mills, &c. 

Those who are not familiar with such ex- 
periments may iry lor themselves the follow- 
ing : Take a goose quill, and a slice of poUtoe, 
press on one end of the quill ou the potaioe. 
and cut out a pi. ce which will be lef. in the 
quili; this may be blown by the breath to a 
considerable distance, or it may be pushed 
backward and forward in the quill, in imitation 
of the piston of a steam engine. 

The steam after leaving the cylinder, is 
sometimes allowed to escape into Ihe open air ; 
tins is called the high pressure engine, on ac- 
count ol the force of steam required to act a- 
gainst the pressure ol the atmosphere. 

In other engines the steam escapes from the 
i Cylinder into a vessel, kept cool by being sur 
Vouoded wild cold water. Here the force of 
steam is instantly destioyed; so that a vacuum 
is kept up, on one side of the piston, while the 
whole force of the steam presses on the other 
side. This is called the low pressure, or con 
densing engine • 

It is not an easy task to describe the manner 
in which the steam is made to act alternately 
at top and bottom of the piston, wtthouta dia- 
gram, nor even with one. unless some parts 
are moveable. A leal model of a steam en- 
gine, besides being very expensive and many 
of the parts hid from sight, is not easily mana- 
ged by ihose whose business it is to teach In 
consideration ol the dilliculties, a model has 
been contrived, which is not very expensive, 
and easily managed. Bv this, a correct idea 
of the most essential pai'ls of ihe steam engine 
may be easily obtained. — Education Reporter. 



TORTABLE GAS. 

We were shown on Saturday a portable 
gasometer, of the capacity of 7.1 pints, in which 
were condensed 14 gallons of gas, a quantity 
which it is said might be increased to 30 or 
even 60 gallons. The proprietor, Mr. Joseph II alarm to tire citizens. 



Boston, No. 7, Wall street, is confident that 
with this contrivance he can furnish a better 
light than that which is alHirded by the usual 
method, and at the same price. — Jour of Com. 

VALUABLE RECIPE. 

When a crack is discoversd in a stove, thro' 
which the fiie or smoke penetrates, the aper- 
ture may be cempletely closed in a moment 
with a composition consisting of wood, ashes, 
and common salt, mndo into paste with a little 
water, plaistered over the crack. The good 
effect is equally certain, whether tho stove, 
&c. be cold or hot. 

IMPRLVED STOCK. 

Extract of a letler from a gentleman in Washington, 
Pa. to lire Editor of tlio N. England Farmer. 

"I own a fine bull by Denton, purchased 
some years ago from John Hare Powell, Esq. 
This animal has made a grerit change in our 
slock. His calves are large, well formed, and 
j promise to make valuable animals for the dai- 
ry. They discover a great disposition to fat. 
and with ordinary beep,his calves ot G months 
old, weigh from f> to 000 lbs. — yearlings, 7 to 
800 lbs. — and we have heifers of 3 years old, 
13 to 1300 lbs. live weight." 

Premiums. — At a meeting of the Trustees 
of the Middlesex Agricultural Society, held in 
Concord, Mass. on Wednesday, the 29th nit. 
the following premiums were awarded : 

To Nathan Brooks, of Acton, for 36 1-2 
bush, six quarts of Rye, from one acre and 5 
rods. $15,00 

To Richard Hall, of Littleton, 2144 lbs. of 
Hops, first quality, from 148 rods, $10,00. 

Newspapers in the Stale of ./Veto York. 
An extract from Mr. Williams's forthcoming 
State Register for 1831, gives thenumberof 
Newspiper-6 in this state at 234, of which about 
70 are favorable to the present Administration, 
and 80 against it; 46 of the latter number are 
And- Masonic. In Putnam and Rockland 
counties only, no papers are published. 

In the city of New York, tbere are 51 pa- 
pers of all kinds; daily 11, semUweekly 10, 
weekly 24, monlhlj 5, semi monthly 1. There 
are supposed to be 16 000 da:ly sheets pub- 
lished, 18,000 semi weekly.and 50.000 weekly. 
The whole number of papers printed in ihe 
city in a year, is supposed to be 9,536,000 — 
in the whole state, 14,536,000. Tbe paper 
consumed by the journals of the State, in a 
year, is estimated at above 33.000 reams, and 
the cost of it, $4 a ream, g 132.000 

To the editor of the jirgus. dated 

Washington Jan. 7. 

" Dear Sir- -The friends of Mr Monroe, I 
fear, may abandon all hope of obtaining the 
passage of his bill. Mr. Williams, of North 
Carolina, this day made a speech against it, in 
the course of which he entered fully into the 
merits and dements of the claim He did 
this, he said, to vindicate congress for voting 
against it. 

" The senate is still engaged as a high court 
of impeachment tor the trial of Peek. It is 
probable that, the testimony on the part of the 
respondent will be closed by Monday or tues- 
day' and the counsel will then sum up. 



METEOROLOGICAL, TABLE, 

far the week ending Jan. 14,1831. 



Thcr 



Baromet'r i 



24 30,00 

8 99,68 

23 1 99,55 

28 89,30 



90l 15 99,81 



99.75 >( 
29,58|m e 
99.45IW 
99,4(1 » 
2(1,90 n a> 
99,90 n w 



nds 




Weather 


a 

9 

> 


- 

i 


>* 

■p 

a 


.2) to.S 
2i£ i 












e 




1 






n 




1 






s 


I 








nw 




] 






n w 




1 






n 


1 








ne 


1 









Observant 



linchsnou 



1320, 5 3U.00 
14|l€l|7i3J),80ti>9,08!s 

XT The Barometrical and Thermometrical observa- 
tions are registered at 10 o'clock J M. and P. M.,tchick 
by a long series of experiments made for the purpose, 
show (hnt time to give the nearest mean average of the 
relative keat of a day than any other time- 

The coldest day at sunrise this week was (he lOlh— ."> 
degrees above Zero. 



ROCHESTER PRICES CURRENT. 
Jan 21, 1831. 

Ashes per 2240 lbs Mink 12a31 

Pot, $91a92 50 Raccoon lPa3I 

Pearl 100ol02 50 Martin 25a62 

Apples per bushel 25o44 Fisher 37a50 

Do dried 75 Wild Cat 16a23 

Bristles.coinb'd per In Wa'31 Gray Fox 18a25 

Beoswax do )8a20 'JrassSeed per bush 62 

0al2 Hops per lb 12o!5 

$Ni9 Honey do 

■'•a' Lard do 



50o62 



Butter do 

Beef— Mess per bbl 

Do prune do 

Do fresh per lb 
Barley per bushel 
Beans do 
Candles, mould per lb 9 cts 

Do dipped do 8 

Do sperm do 28 

Corn per buBhel 44«50 

Cheese per lb 04a05 

CloverSeedper bush $J 00 
Flour per bbl 4 50a4 75 

Flax per lb 07a08 

Flax Seed per bush 78o87 
Feathersper lb 31a37 

Furs— Otter I00a400 

Fox, red 50o75 



0Sfflfi3iMuttondo 



09 

0Ga07 
02fl03 



3e<«44iMustardSeed per bush $4 



Fox, cross 



Oats per bush 

Old Pewter, Brass and 

Copper per ib 14 

Peaches, dry'dbush 100^200 
Pork, mess per bbl $ 12a 13 



Do prime 


8a9 


Do fresh per lb 


03o04 


Quills per 100 


25o30 


Rye per busb 


50 


Rags per lb 


03o01 


Sail per bbl 


$1 75 


Tallow per Ib 


0(iii07 


Wheat per bush 


94a 100 



lOOa^OOiBuckwhest flour, cwt. $1 7f> 



BANK NOTE TABLE. 

Corrected Weekly for the Rochester Daily Advertiser. 
BV C W.. DUNDAS. 



COLONIZATION. 

The praiseworthy spirit on this subject 13 
extending its march. A meeting was to be 
held on Tuesday evening Jast at the middle 
Dutch church, N. Y. for the purpose of organ- 
izing a society in furtherance of (he object of 
Emancipation and African Colonization. Not 
only humanity demands our exertions towards 
the furtherance of this object ; but the future 
welfare of a portion of our union is closely 
coonected with its success. The colored po 
puiation of some of the Southern States is al 
ready becoming a matter of deep anxiety and 



NEW YORK. 

All banks in tin* state, par 
except the following 
BrokenBanhs. Washing- 
ton & Wairen, Barker's Ex 
change, Franklin Bank,Mid 
die iir-t , Columbia, Greene 
County, Marble Hanuf. Co., 
Plattsburgh, and Niagara. 
MASSACHUSETTS. 
Al banks id this state, par. 
except the following 
Broken Banks Fanners 
b'uk of Belchertown, Sutton. 
Berkshi>e, Essex and Brigh- 
ton banks. 

VERMONT. 
All banks in this state, par. 

RHODE-ISLAND 

All banks in this state, par, 

except the following 

Broken Banks Farmers' 

Exchange, and Tamers' & 

Mechanics' banks. 

CONNECTICUT. 
AH brinks in this state, pan 
except the fellowiug 
Broken Banks. Eagle, 
Eagle pay'ble atUnion bank 
New-York, Derby, aod Der- 
by payable at Fulton haul* 
New- York. 

NEW- HAMPSHIRE. 
All banks in this state, per. 

MAINE. 
All banks in (his state, par.\ 



amaquoddy banks. 

NEW-JERSEY. 
State b'nk.&TrentoP Bank- 
ing Company, par. 
Al! other banks, 2 per cent, 
except the following 
Broken Banks. Salein & 
Phil. iUanuf.Co-. Monmouth, 
Hoboken and Grazing Co., 
N. Jersey Mauuf. & Banking 
Co- at Hoboken, State Bank 
at Trenton, Protection and 
Lombard, and Jersey City. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

Philadelphia Banks, par- 

11 other banks, 2per cent, 

except the following 
Broken Banks. Farmers' 
^Mechanics' atN.Sa., Cen- 
tre, Huctington, Meadville, 
Marietta, Juniata, Greencas- 
tle, Bedford, Beaver, Wash- 
ington, Uniontown, Agricul- 
tural, Sil Lake, Westmore- 
land at Greenburgh, New- 
Hops Bridge Co new emis- 
sion} and Browrtvi He banks. 

OHIO. 
All banks, 4 to G per cent, 

MICHIGAN. 

All banks, 2 per cent, 

except the following 

Broken Banks. Monroe, 

and Detroit. 

CANADA. 
All banks, 2 to 3 per cent, 
except the 



except the following 
Broken Bunks. Castmej Upper Cana. at Kingston, 
VViscasset, Hallowell &. Au- and Unchartered banks. 
gusta, Kennebec, and Pas-| 

XT The above table re/ten speaking of foreign Bills, re 
fers to those of $5, and over, asnone of a less denomin- 
ation are receivable. 



f Errata. 

3d column, 1st page, 4th line from top, for 

the same" read that Some. 

1st column, 4th page, 7th and 8th lines from 
bottom, for " top of them of wood," read tops 
thin of wood. 



Hi 



THE GENESEE FARMER. 



Jan. 22, 1831. 



SE3LEeres©-NS. 



do. 



11,859 
3,842 
0,938 
1,663 

4,319 Kegs 
4,216 



RICHES OF THE WEST. 

To enable distant readers to judge more cor- 
rectly than they otherwise could of the impor 
tance of our Lake Commerce, and of the a- 
mount of western produce which seeks an out 
let and a market there, we have been at the 
pains to obtain from our several Forwarding 
Merchants, the quantities of the various de- 
scriptions of property, the products of the 
country, which they have respectively received 
from the west, by way of the Lake, during the 
season of navigation, which has just closed - 
In the item of wheat is included all which has 
gone directly or indirectly to the fine flouring 
Mill at Bla^k Rock— the only article, the whole 
of which was not landed at our wharves — 
From the transcripts politely furnished us, we 
have prepared a table of the leading articles 
(hey contain, whioh follows : 
£67,909 Bushels Wheat, 
36,929 Barrels Flour, 
Ashes, 
Whiskey, 
Pork, 
Beef, 
Butter, 
Lard, 
752 Casks Linseed Oil, 
774 Tuns Pig and Scrap Iron, 
742 Tuns Stoves and other Castings, 
998 Barrels and Tierces Fiax-Seed 
43'J do. do. Grass do. 

1 273 Barrels Lake Fish, 
646 do. Dried Fruit, 
343 Casks Beans, 
359,000 Pipe Staves, 

25 Hogsheads Tobacco, 
3,514 Packs Furs and Pollrios, 
187 Barrels Tallow, 
47 Tuns Pig Lead, 
1,607 Casks Cheese, 
29,185 Poundi Wool, 
149 1-2 TunsHemp, 
242 Bales Feathers, 
2 12 Tuns Hams, 
32 1-2 Tuns Hope, 
121 Barrels Cider, 
36 1-2 Tuns Beeswax, 
1,153 Hides and Skins, 

44 Barrels Beer, 
2,286 Bushels Com, 
4,206 Boxes Glass, 
205 Barrels Nuts, 
31 Tuns Glass and Stone-ware, 
5,764 lbs. Western Bar Iron. 
Exclusive of the above there are large quan- 
tities of Sawed Building Stone, Shingles, Curl- 
ed Maple and other Lumber, Paper Rags, (ma- 
ny tuns) with Axes, Cigars, Oats, Rye, and 
various other articles, in lesser quantities. 

These returns we are perfectly aware are ne- 
cessarily defective, as they embrace only what 
nroperty has been received at the Storehouses, 
whiie no account is or can be obtained of all 
'.hat has been received by the owner or con- 
signee, either upon the wharves or on board 
Canal Boats, without entering into ware-house 
accounts. The statement we give, however, is 
good as far as it goes ; and the importance 
and business of our town may be father illus- 
trated by the fact that tne greater part of this 
property was either owned or purebsed here, 
upon its arrival.-- -Buffalo Journal. 
BEA ISLAND COTTON. 

By a letter recently published in Philadel- 
phia, it appears tint Sea Island cotton was 
first iotroduceJ into the United States in the 
year 1789 by a Mr. Patrick Walsh. He sent 
to a Mr. Lovett, on Sapelo Island, some sacks 
of Pernambuco cotton seed. Of this he made 
no use until the next Spring, when wishing to 
use the sacks for some other purpose, ho emp 
tied out the seed upon the ground, without 
paying any atteolinn to it ; and the season be. 
itig moist he was surprised to find in the tall, a 
small quantity of verj froe 'cotton which had 



grown from these seed 'bus accidentally sown. 
A few years after be raised in one season 20 
tons of colton,from this small beginning. This 
is asserted to be the origen of the Long Staple 
cotton in the southern states, 
woot 

Sales of more than 100,000 pounds of fleece 
and pulled Wools have been made during the 
last ten days Prices of Fleeces are fully 
maintained, and the quantity of this descrip- 
tion of Wool in our market, is smaller than we 
have before known it for many months. Pull- 
ed Wools are more abundant, although there 
is no overstock of this article, sales of No. 1 
l/3mbs,have been made during the week at 56c 
3 months. There have been no additions to the 
former stock of Domestic Wool. The Logan 
from London, arrived yesterday, brought 21 
bags of Foreign Woo). Accounts from Lon- 
don, of Nov. 30, stale that the Wool Trade 
was not so active as it had been, and that some 
descriptions of the foreign article had declin- 
ed from Id to 3d per lb. 

The New York Daily Advertiser of Satur- 
day says — " Some long expected shipments 
from London have at length arrived to give] 
relief to our market; and some considerable! 
parcels are understood to be on their way to 
this and other ports. They consist of Eng- 
lish, Spanish, Saxony, New South Wales and 
Danish ; about 1600 bales are staled to be con- 
tained in the various shipments. This oppor- 
tune supply will serve to enliven the mar- 
ket, notwithstanding the advanced season. 
Some coarse samples which we have inspected, 
being considerably highor charged than any 
previous shipments that have come under our 
notice, may possibly disappoint the shippers in 
their expectations, although the market op- 
pears likely to sustain itself well in this de- 
scription. In tne ordinary business of the 
week lhere|has been no change." — Bost. Cour 

COUNTERFEIT COLD. 

A German, Dr Hermstad, has discovered 
a mixture of metals, which is not only of the 
color of real gold, but also possesses its hard- 
ness, all its ductility, and the same specific 
weight. The inventor, however, does not as- 
sert that It is as unchangeable as gold; andthere 
can be bo doubt that if he had met with that 
quality in it, he would not have failed to men 
lion it ; for in that case he would have found 
the secret which has been so long and so vain- 
ly sought by the alchymists. This material is 
thus composed :--Out of twenty-four parts 
equal in weight, there are sixteen of platina, 
seven of pure copper, and one of pure zinc ; 
this is to be covered with powdered charcoal, 
and placed in a crucible on a strong fire, until 
the fusion has reduced the three into one mnss ; 
which will be the said counterfeit gold — Jour- 
nal des Connaissances Usuolles. 

NOVEL SPORT. , 

Under this head we place the following ad- 
vertisement, as it appears in the Yorkville Pi 
oneer, of this State : 

A oitizen of Yorkville, banters Union, 
Chester and Lancaster distriots, S C. and 
Mecklenburg county, N, C, to run in a fox 
chase, a dog in his possession against any dog, 
that can be brought to this place, from any 
quarter, within the limits above presented ; 
for, from ten to fifty dollars, or the price of a 
public dinner or party, any time between tin* 
and the Sih of January next. For paiticulars 
inquire at the sign of the " Golden Ball," York- 
ville, S. C."— Charleston City Gaz. 

9UF.GERY. 

The operation of lithonticity, or breaking up 
the stone in the bladder was lately performed 
for the first time in this country by Dr. Dopey - 
re, a young French surgeon. This new meth- 
od, which >vas first practised in Europe by Ba 
ron Heurtoloup, supersedes the dangerous ope 
ration of cutting, and cures the disease without 
the loss of ulood and with little pain ox danger. 
— Atbany Advocate. 

CATT- KING'S EXPEDITION. 

The British ships, Mvtnturc' m and Bcrgl&, 



which have been employed, for the las: three 
years, in surveying the coast of South Ameri- 
ca, and particularly about Cape Horn, under 
the orders of captain King, have arrived in 
England. 

PrtSENT NAVAL FORCE OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Admirals of the Fleet. William Peere Wil 
'iams Freeman, Esq. ; Right Hon. James Loic 
Gambier, G. C. B. 

Admirals. Of the red, 19 ; of the white,19 ; 
of the blue, 20— total, 58. 

Vice Admirals. Of the red. 22 ; of the white 

22 ; of the blue, 22- -total, 66. 
Rear Admirals. Of the red, 23; of the white 

23 ; of the blue, 24— total, 70. 
Retired Rear Admirals, 35 ; retired Cap- 

iainB, 12 — total, 44 

Post Captains. On full pay, 568 ; on the 
half-pay of 14s. 6d. per diem, 100 ; on the hall 
pay of I2s. 6d. per diem, 151- total, 819. 

Commanders. On fnll pay, 757 ; on the 
half pay of 10s per diem, 151 — total, 819. 

Liieutenants superannuated with the rank 
of Commander, 100 
Poor Knights of Windsor. Lieutenants, C 
Lieutenants On full pay, 2046; on the halt 
pay of 7s. per diem, 300 ; on the half-pay c' 
6s! per diem, 1,010— total, 3,356. 
Masters Superannuated, 21. 
Ditto for Service. On full pay, 121 ; on the 
half-pay of 7s> per diem, 100 ; on the half-pav 
of Cs. per diem, 305— total. 526. 

Pursers. On full pa/, 337 ; on the half pay 
of 5s. per diem, 100 ; on the half-pay of 4s. 
per diem, 200 — total, 637. 

Medical Officers. Physicians, 12 ; Surgeons 
retired on full pay, 53 ; Surgesns for active 
service, 725 ; Assistant Surgeons, dilto. 357 
Dispensers of Hospilals, 12; Hospital Males. 
3—10101,1,162. 

Chaplains. Retired list, 46— total, 70. 

*The Royal Navy of Great Britain consists of CCO ship 1 
r>f war, ratingfrom 140 guns down to surveying veaei-t- 
carrying no more than two guns cash. Of this largp 
fleet, 188 sail are employed on foreign and home service 
Ibo for conveying mail9 end specie from the various 
parts of Soath America and the East Indies. The re- 
mainder arelyingin ordioaty at the naval depoteat Sheer 
uess,Port8mouib, Plymouth, &c- some are ased as con- 
vict ships, or lent to the East India Company. The ef 
fective force of mon iB 20,000 Sailors and 3000 Roya" 
Murines. 

The following lines are attributed to the 
late Sir John Malcolm, author of a history ol 
Persia, and the interesting " Sketches" of the 
same eountry. 

" O that I had the wings of a dore. that J 
might flee aicay and be at rest." 
So prayed the Psalmist to be free 

Fiom mortal bonds and earthly thrall; 
And such, or soon or late shall be 

Full oft tho heart breathed prayer of all 
And we, when life's last sands we rove, 

With faltering fool and aching breast, 
Shall sigh for wings that waft the dove, 

To flee away and be at rest. 
While hearts aro young and hopes are high 

A fairy dream doth life appear; 
Its sights are beauty to the eye, 

Its sounds are music to the ear; 
But soon it glides from youth to age; 

And of its joys no moro possessed. 
We, like the captive of the cage, 

Would flee away and be at rest. 
Is ours fair womnn's angel smile, 

All hright and beiuliful as day? 
So of hor cheek and eye the while, 

Time sleals the rose and dims the ray 
She wanders to the spirits' land, 

And we with spoechloss grief oppress'd» 
As o'er the faded form we stand, 

Would gladly share her place of test. 
Beyond the bills — beyond the sea — 

Oh! lor the pinions of a dove; 
Oh! for the morning's wings to floe 

Away, end be with them we love; 
When all i» fled that's bright and fair, 

And life is bet a wintry waste, 
This, tbis, at last rami besur prayer,, 

To flee away and be at rust. 



%mm mmwmmm &Ms&mmm. 



VOLUME I. 



ROCHESTER, JANUARY 29, 1831. 



MMBE6 4. 



THE GENESEE F A R M E R 

AND GARDENER'S JOURNAL. 
Devoted to Agriculture, Horticulture, Domestic Econo 
my, &c. &c 
Published on Saturdays, at $2 50 per annum, 
payable in six months, or at $2 00, if paid at the 
time of subscribing, by Tuckfr & Stevens, 
at the office of the Rochester Daily Advertiser. 
ET The proprietors have undertaken the 
publication with the determination of making 
it permanent : they would therefore suggest 
to all those who would wish to see the Farmer 
become a durable and useful paper, the propri- 
ety of not only interesting themselves in its 
circulation, but also of contributing to its col- 
umns. 

U° Those gentlemen to whom we have ta- 
ken the liberty to forward this number, if 
they shall think favorably of the undertaking, 
and of the merits of the work, will oblige us 
by forwarding us their names, and thoso of a 
ny friends to whom «uch a paper as this would 
be desirable. As it is of its kind unique in this 
state, and intended for general circulation, we 
expect to look abroad for a great part of our 
patronage. 



COMMUNICATIONS. 



FOR THE GENESEE FARMER. 

SPONTANEOUS VEGETATION. 

Messrs. Editors — Your correspondent, A. 
B- in the first number of the Farmer, asks 
whether ihe plants which seem mysteriously 
to soring up in newly cleared lands, are spon- 
taneous productions, or whether they are the 
offspring of former plants. 

I believe it is now a universally received o- 
pinion, among physiologists, that neither plants 
nor animals are of spontaneous production, but 
thatjthey owe their being, in all cases.to parents 
of their kind. Toaccount then for the eem- 
ing phenomena detailed by A. B. it is nccessa- 
ry to show, that seeds may have been deposi- 
ted at a recent or remote period ; that their vi- 
tality may have remained long dormant with- 
out having become extinct ; and that the ef- 
fects of fire, or the operations of tillage, may 
be sufficient to vivify and call into action the 
living principle. 

Seeds may have been deposited by waters, 
beyond the reach of agents indispensable to 
germination ; or they may hare have been 
brought by winds, or scattered by the beasts 
of the forest, or the fowls of the air. Rice 
has been taken from the crops of pigeons, 
which must have been brought some hundreds 
of miles. Nor is the vitality of many seeds, 
particularly those covered with a hard shell, 
like those of most small fruits, impaired by this 
method of conveyance. On the contrary it is 
common in some oountries, to have haws and 
other hard seeds pass through the stomachs of 
turkeys, and even of cows, to facilitate the 
germinating process. " 

But how comes it that those seeds lay so 
long dormant, and neither grow nor rot? Be- 
cause seeds germinate only under certain con- 
ditions, which may never all have co-operated. 
Dntil the forest was felled, or until the fire, 
the plough, or the spade, had facilitated their 
joint and simultaneous operation. Those con 
ditions of germination are, the absence of 
light, and the presence of heat, moisture, and 
atmospheric air. Seeds have been known to 
KtaJn their vitality for a century, when kept 
dry, and often instances are narrated, of other 
seeds having lain, dormant and sound, forty 
years and more, in the earth, and yet to have 
grown when brought by the plough, w'ithin the 
influence of the sun and atmosphere : For 
heat, moisture and oxygen, are as indipensable 
to the process of decomposition as they are to 
the process of germination. J. BUEJ. 

Albany, Jan. LT, 1831. 



FOR THE GENESEE FARMER. 

U THE LADY'S RECREATION." 

I have lately been amused with an old book 
on gardening, called The Lady's Recreation, 
written by Charles Evelyn, Esq. and printed 
nearly 120 years ago. In many places, the or- 
thography differs from that now in use ; and 
here is also a quaintness of expression, which 
often reminds us that we have fallen on other 
times. 

I have suspected that the doctrine of the in- 
fluence of the moon on the growth of plants, 
on manures, <S:c. was introduced by artful per- 
sons to stimulate their laborers ; but it may bo 
a remnant of Astrology. Our author appears 
to have been embued with those notions, 
which/long after, were countenanced b\ some 
men of education, but which are now chiefly 
confined to the ignorant. I offer a few ex 
tracts on this subject; some other extracts for 
their singularity ; and some that maybe useful 
to the practical gardener. 

" About the latter end of February, graff ap- 
ples, pears, &c. in the clift, and so continue 
till the end of March, when the sap rises brisk 
ly ; the new moon is the best time."! 

"Gather herbs in the full of the moon ! dry 
them in the shade, shewing them to the sun a 
little only to keep them from being mustv.' 

I 



Sow winter horbs in the new of the moon. 

" Gather olitory seeds, clipping the horbs 
within one handful of the ground before the 
full of the moon"! 

[In spring] " cover tender flowers and ever- 
greens with mats or canvass from the farwel 
frosts and easterly winds." 

" Sick trees, such as oiauge trees, &c- im- 
paired by removing, and other accidents, are 
many times recovered by a milk-diet as Mr. 
[John] Evelyn calls it ; that is diluting with a 
portion of water discreetly administered ; 
sometimes also by plunging them in the hot- 
beds, or by letting the tree down into a pit 
of 4 or 5 feet in depth, covering the head & 
the rest of the tree."! 

" Continue to cleanse all parts of your gar- 
den, and let not your hough be idle when the 
weeds begin to peep." 

Auriculas or bears' -ears are the most beau 
tiful ornaments of the spring ; and for their 
size are the greatest rarities in Flora's cabinet. 
I am informed that the double striped ciimson 



and while, and the large double purple and ycl- 
(ow.have been sold from five to twenty pounds 
each plant. These flowers delight in a rich 
soil, well shaded, but by no means under trees." 

"The lilly is a flower esteem'd in the earliest 
times : about the time of our Saviour it was in 
great reputation, no flower being then more in 
request, in the choicest gardens, except the 
Rose ; and there is no flower of that transcen 
dent whiteness as the lilly." 

" The Peony is a common flower, but yields 
the fairest and most double blossom of any, 
and is very becoming in your flower pole or 
chimnies. It contains two sexes, male and 
female; the male is single, and the flow 
commonly of a purple red, and are but of one 
sort ; but the females are many, some single 
and great numbers double." 

" The larks-hed or larks-spur are very 

pretty flowers." 

" The sun-fiower grows very tall and there 
fore is most fit, for pots. "I 

The Crown Imperial — a most stately aud 
graceful plant, bearing a flower like unto the 
lilly; and the double sort, particularly the or- 
ange colour'd, and yellow, shew finely inter- 
mixed, in the middle of a flowerpot." 

"The sensible [sensitive] plant has its name 
from the impression the touching of it makes, 
lor you no sooner touch the leaf, but it instant- 
ly shrinks up together, and in a small space of 
lime afterwards dilates itself again. The Aum- 
bleplant ISilirngsn. pv.diui'] so aajled from pros-j 



trating itself on the ground so soon as touch- 
ed, tho' in a short time it elevates itself a- 
gain. And the Noli me tangere [Impatiens 
balsamina] which being touched, and the pods, 
when they are gross and not fully ripe, being 
taken between your fingers, will give a sudden 
snap, and fly in pieces, to the great surprize of 
the person molesting it. "I 

" If you have at any time occasion to re- 
move flowers to any distant place or country, 
rub them over with honey, and wrap them up 
in moss; it will effectually secure them being 
packed up in papers free from the wet." 

"The Syringa Pipe-tree or Lilack, boars a 
blossom not much unlike the Persian Jessa- 
mine. It flowers in April and May, and yields 
plenty of suckers ; but it is a nice plant, and 
requires the skill of a curious artist, for its 
management."! 

"The double blossom'd Pomegranute-trcc is 
esteemed the most excellent of all flowering 
trees ; it merits the best place in your garden, 
and requires a warm south wall for its propa- 
gation, being very tender whilst young, but af- 
terwards becomes very hardy. [He recom- 
mends to " enrich the seil with well-consu- 
med hog's-dung.] They flower in August and 
September; and the blossoms for fairness and 
beauty.exceed all other that are born by tri es." 

" The Mezenon is a plant of the most 

hardy nature, and is valued for sending forth 
its pleasant flowers in the severest season of 
the year. [Not till spring in this country.]— 
Tho' cold will not injure this shrub, yet it is 
very nice in :he choice of its ground ; the soil 
ought not to be neither light nor very moist ; 
and for weather, heat only is pernicious to it.') 
I lost a fine plant of this kind last summer by 
leaving it exposed to the sun. It is a native 
Britain; and like the daisy, and the Jatob's 
ladder, also from that cool climate, requires to 
he shaded. 

" Pcriploca is a wood-bind that tv»ists itself 
about a pole like unto the hop. It annually 
puts forth small blue blossoms." 

" There : s your Rosemary gilded with yel- 
low, and a sort of it variegated with white, 
very delightful to the eye, which are to be pre- 
served under warm walls." 

" Eugh [yew] trees being dipt, and redu- 
ced to regular forms(the most beautiful where- 
of, are the round and square pyrauaid) make 
the most ornamental trees you can have in 
your garden." 

Many of these whims for distorting Nature 
have happily passed away; yet we observe a 
remnant in the practice of exposing to the 
height of six or eight feet, the dead bark of or- 
namental trees. Let their rough trunks be 
clothed nearly to the ground with slender 
branches and green leaves, for on these the 
eye rests with most pleasure. D. T. 

FOR THE GENESEE FARMER. 

Mendon.Jan. 21, 1831. 
Messrs, Editors — I have seen one number 
of your paper, which you propose to devote to 
agriculture, horticulture, and domestic econo- 
my, &c. Now if you stick to your text, I 
shall become one if your subscribers. You 
must know, Messrs. Editors, that this matter 
of domestic economy is of some importance 
to me, and not only to me, but to our country. 
It appears that the Old Genesee country, after 
which you have named your paper, contains 
about 400,000 inhabitants, and I think it safe 
to say 200,000 of these are females, as people 
seem disposed to sort off about half and half. 
We may calculate that for some years past a» 
bout one quarter of the females have been 
wearing Leghorn bonnets, of an average price 
of eight dollars, the average duration of which? 
we will suppose to be eight years. Now this 
comes within my arithmetic, and amounts to 
jrtst §.'50,000 yearly. This sum has been sent 



26 



THE GENESEE FARMER 



Jan. 29, 1831. 



to a foreign country. By introducing domes- 
tic economy, last year, in the shape of Nai a- 
riaos, I think this sura has been saved within 
our country. Now if you will persuade the 
ladies to continue to wear domestic bonnets, I 
will comply with the terms of your prospec- 
tus, and send you $2 in advance. R. A. 



FOR THE GENESEE FARMER. 

Ontario, Jan. 25M, 1831. 
To 'lie Editors of the Genesee Farmer 

As I have been induced by the great demand 
for sheep, during the ninety days past, to part 
with my flock, with a view of changing the 
breed, I would make the following inquiries 
through your paper. 

What breed of sheep are the most profitable 
at this time for this section of country? 

Where can they be procured? 

If any of your readers or correspondents 
will do me the favor to answer the above ques- 
tions, they will confer a favour mi 

T. CONWAY. 



FOR THE GENESEE FARMER. 

The ideas of U. are more mathematical than 
his language. Instead of " tetragon" write 
tetrahedron, and we will admit the correctness 
of his solution. V. 



SELECTIONS. 



MICHAEL PLOY, 

V. P. N. Y. HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

This excellent Botanist and Horticulturist, 
is scarcely known to the farmers of Old Gene- 
see, although he certainly ranks among the 
first in the United States. We introduce him 
to our readers.as a nursery-man in whose judg- 
ment and correctness, in selecting valuable va- 
rieties of fruit, they may place the fullest con- 
fidence. 

From the New York Farmer. 

A DESCRIPTION OF TREES AND SHRUBS. PRODU- 
CING A SUCCESSION OF FLOWERS FROM SPRING 
TO AUTUMN. 

By Michael Floy, Vice Pres't of the N. Y. H. Society. 
Mr. Editor — A correspondent in your last 
number.page 150, under the signature of Phlox, 
requesting a selection of flowering plants and 
shrubs to ornament a cottage, and flowering 
from spring to autumn, observes that he has 
searched in vain for information in many gar- 
dening books. As this gentleman, with many 
others, may not know what things to plant out 
for ornamenting their places, I subjoin a list of 
trees and shrubs necessary for his purpose, all 
ef which may be obtained of the nursery-men 
here at reasonable rates — that is, good large 
flowering trees and shrubs, at from 50 cents to 
1 doll, eaoh, or it may be, by the hundred, at 
less prices. The mode of culture is very sim- 
ple, the ground should he well dug with some 
rotten manure, and if planted out at any time 
from October to December, or eirly in March 
to the middle of April, no danger may be ap- 
prehended of their success. They should be 
kept hoed and clean during the summer. 

The following trees for oustidc plantings for 
Lawns, Clumps, or Avenues, are all hardy and 
cheap, at the rates above stated. 

Alianthus glanduhsa, Chinese Heaven-tree, 
a very swift growing tree, remarkable for its 
long pinnated ieaves.and iB altogether a straight 
beautiful and majestic tree, very hardy, al- 
though not long known.it is getting to be a 
favourite, and will probably be universally 
planted. 

JEsculus, or Horse Chesnut. The common 
European Horse Chesnut, is a beautiful tree > 
particularly when in full bloom ; it is, howev- 
er, best calculated for open places, whore it 
shows itself to the best advantage ; there arc, 
however, some very handsome species, native 
of this country, the most remarkable and beau- 
tiful of which, is the Dwarf long spiked jEs- 
i ulus mttcrostacnija. The tree seldom exceeds 
ti feet in height, and may mure properly be 



termed a shrub; the spikes of flowers are com-' 
monly eighteen inches long, while, and very 
handsome. 

Acer, or Maple. The sugar maple is a very 
clean growing tree, the foilane light, and very 
handsome — from this tree, quantities of maple 
sugar is made in the country ; the scarlet flow- 
ering maple, is also very beautiful, and the flow- 
ers appear very early. 

Aeerpsuedo platahus, or Sycamore tree, is 
also a very handsome European tree, the leaves 
are larger every way than the sugar maple. 

Broussenettia, or Paper Mulberry, makes 
a good shade; is very hardy, and easily culti- 
vated. 

Balsam tree, Balsam Poplar, or Tacmahac,\& 
a remarkable fast growing tree, gives a fine 
shade, and yields a rich balsamic fragrance 
particularly after a shower of rain ; the bals am 
which proceeds from the buds, is of a liealin, 
nature for cuts or wounds. 

Catalpa syringtefolia tree, has very large 
leaves, and is well calculated for a shade, and 
the large bunches of flowers which it produ- 
ces, gives it a most splendid appearance 

Ccrasus.or double flowering cherry.of which 
there are two varieties; one is called tin 
French, and the other the English double flow- 
ering cherry ; the Eoglish comes into flower- 
ing nearly a month after the former kind— 
when in full bloom, makes a very splendid ap- 
pearance, not unlike large clusters of White 
Roses. They produce no fruit, but the tree is 
very handsome. 

Cuypressus disttcka, or Deciduous Cypress, 
and the C. thyoidrs, the former a native of the 
Southern states, the latter of the middle states, 
both, however, are quite hardv, and make a 
handsome appearance. 

Fagus, or Beach : a few of these in partic- 
ular situations, have a good effect. 

Frazinus, or Ash. One European and two 
or three American kinds mixed in, to diversify 
the scene and give effect, with trees of a dif- 
ferent habit and foliage, is very pleasing. 

Gleditschia triacanthos, — Honey locust, or 
three thorn Aeacia. It makes a handsome 
stately tree — the foliage is handsome, but the 
dreadful long tripple thorns with which the 
tree is armed, give it a forbidding aspect.— 
Trees of ibis kind are often used for hedges, 
and if planted thick, they soon make an impe- 
netrable fence, against man and beast, but 
must be kept cut down to 4 or 5 feet every 
season, or the hedge would soon be spoiled. — 
Some of them would take the lead, & entire 
ly destroy the rest. 

Ijirix, or Larch, is a beautiful tree of the Pi- 
ous kind, yet drops its leaves in winter — thev 
look beautiful in the spring and during the 
summer. 

Liriodrndron, Tulip tree, White wood, by 
some called Poplar, is a noble and majestic 
tree, the flowers which it produces in June are 
much of a magnolia appearance, to which ii 
seems nearly related. The leaves are very 
singular as if cut off at the end The tree is 
very symmetrical. 

Magnolia tripetala, or umbrella tree, is very 

majestic, the leaves very large, giving n fine 

shade, the flowers are also large and white. — 

t should be planted in clumps, or for the back 

ground of shrubbery. 

Magnolia acuminata, or Cucumber tree, has 
blue flowers, the tree is large, and has much 
the habit of the liriodrndron. 

Magnolia gltntca.a small sweet scented mag 
noha, is best calculated for the centre row of 
the shrubbery, or for clumps. This a native of 
our country, from Jersey, and Carolina, and is 
perhaps the prettiest shrub in the world, all 
things considered. It ought to be planted in 
every garden and shrubbery. It yields its fra- 
grant blossoms from May to September. 

Platanus occidentals, Button-ball, by some 
called Sycamore, is a large and majestic tree, 
calculated for avenuos or large lawns, or for 
ornamental plantations. It is, however, ton 
stiff and rigid, having a degree of formality 



nd spreads us branches too much for street 
planting. 

Iiobiniapseudo acacia, or Locust tree. The 
foliage is light, feathery, and of a fine green 
the racimes o>' flowers are white, and is one of 
our most beautiful as well as roost useful trees. 
Unfortunately it is in most places attacked by 
a borer or iviitn, which caU6es the branches to 
break off Where it is free from this enemy, 
it is a most desitanle ornamental tree. 

Umlas, or Elm, three kinds, the European 
E!rn, the American White Elm, and the Amer- 
ican Slipperj Elm, are all desirable to form a 
good landscape for lawns or avenues, &c. 

Tilia Jmericana the American Lindin, and 
the TiUa, Eurnpea, ore both beautiful trees, 
well calculated for streets or lawns — the trees' 
1 row handsome, and when m flower, the honey 
becB are much attracted to its sweet honey- 
like perfume 

Salyz BabijlonicaoT weeping willow, in pro- 
per situations, is a most beautiful tree, and 
from its peculiar mode of growth, very desira- 
ble. It makes a fine screen shade. 
[To be continued.] 



AGR1CCL 



From the Ploughboy, vol. I. 
GEOLOGY APPLIED TO PRACTICAL 
TCRE. NO. 1. 

The course of lectures, g>ven last winter at 
the Capitol, before members of the legislature 
and otbeis, on Geology and Chemistry, as ap- 
plicable to agriculture, have excited much in- 
quiry in various parts of ihe state. "What 
has geology to do with agriculture 7 " is the 
most common inquiry. Having attended that 
course of lectures, I can answer the enquiry 
as far as a concise history of the geological 
part of it will go. 

At the commencement of that part of the 
course, large specimens of all the rook strata, 
constituting the exterior part of the earth, as 
far as human research has hitherto penetrated, 
were laid on the table before us. They were 
arranged from left to right according to the 
order in which they are actually found in the 
earth; beginning with granite, (the lowest 
known stratum) and ending in the highest of 
the secondary formation. A great number of 
facts were adduced to demonstrate that such 
was the true order of the straia. 

A kind of geological alphabet was then pre- 
sented to us, consisting of specimens of all 
homogeneous minerals constituting the ruck 
straia. Their mode of aggregation was poin- 
ted out and illustrated by speiimens ; so that 
we were soon enabled to decide the character 
of any rock, and to locate it in the system by 
a mere hand specimen. 

By contemplating the regular series of rock 
straia, we were enabled to locate prece- 
ding and succeeding rocks, by inspecting an 
intermediate one. For example, when we 
examine the rock of argillaceous slate along 
the bed of the river in the vicinity of Albany, 
we infrr that the nexi rock to the east, or be- 
neath it, must be primitive limestone, and the 
next to the west, or above it. must be gray 
wacke. Tho same conclusions We were en- 
abled to form respecting all the strata in the 
series. 

We. were next taught by specimens and ex- 
periments, that till earthly soils consist of mi- 
nute fragments of dissolved or disintegrated 
rocks. This being, to us, a new fact, most of 
us were inclined to doubt. But we were soon 
compelled to resign our objections, alter in- 
specting numerous specimens of earthy soils 
under the magnifier. We men, to our sur- 
prise, perceived that the finest soil was made 
up of minute pieces of rocks ; and though 
finely pulverized, each particle was still a 
little rock. Let it be understood, that it is 
tho earthy part only to which I now allude. — 
The decomposed animal and vegetable matter 
mixed in soils, is here left out of view. 

If earthv soils are actually the debris of rock 
strata, the quality of soils must depend on the 
constituents of the rocks, out of which they 



Vol. 1.— No. 4. 



AND GARDENER'S JOURNAL. 



27 



were formed. Therefore, [lie basis rock of 
any district, which is now mouldering away, 
and the last superimposed rock which Das just 
passed away, must give ciiaracter to the pre- 
sent soil. By studying rock strata then, we 
are enabled to judge turrectly respecting the 
causes of the defects and excellencies in soils, 
so far as it depends on the earthy part. The 
agriculturist, who shall have thus obtained a 
clear Aiew of the substantial part of his soil, 
will be enabled to prescribe the true method 
for correcting its delects, and for perpetuating 
the excellencies of his soil. 

I might fill many sheets with facts, now well 
established, in proof of the great advantages 
which geology throws into the hands of the 
agriculturist. But I intended this outline as 
an introductory sketch, fur the advantage of 
those only who have not studied the general] 
zation of rocks, nor minutely inspected their 
debris. A. 



CARE OF IMPLEMENTS. 

Every careful farmer will lay it down as a 
lule, frequently to inspect all his implements; 
and when any part of them is observed in the 
least damaged, or in danger of giving why, he 
will take care immediately to have it repaired 
An implement, aho, that is not longer wanted 
during the season, should be carefully laid up ; 
but before it is put aside, it ought to be well 
cleaned, and rendered perfectly dry, oiled or 
painted, if made of iron, and kept so as to be 
ready for use, when wanted. No circum- 
stance marks mere the character of an atten- 
tive husbandman, than this one. Upon every 
farm, likewise, there ought to be one or more 
places, properly constructed for holding the 
larger implements; aud some secure place al- 
lotted for containing the smaller tools. Where 
machines are necesarily exposed in the field a 
great part of the season, they require to be 
newly painted, at least every second year. — 
The invention of any useful implement, by 
which the labors of agriculture can be brought 
to a higher degree of perfection, and the ex- 
pense of cultivation at the same time dimin- 
ished, must prove of the most essential ser- 
vice to the farmer. . All such inventions 
ought to be encouraged. — J. Sinclair. 



CURIOUS EXPERIMENTS ON THE RETARDATION 
AND MULTIPLICATION OF WHEAT. 

On the 8th of August 1824, a single plant of 
wheat was taken, which had been sown in 
the June preceding, and divided into 18 oar:s, 
and put into the ground, where it remained till 
the latter end of September, when they were 
again taken up and subdivided into 67 parts of 
roots, all of which were carefully transplant- 
ed, and allowed to remain till the end of Mai eh 
following, when ihey were a third time taken 
up and separated into 490 parts, and again re- 
placed in the earth, and allowed to perfect 
themselves and ripen, when the little harvest 
was reaped. The oi>e single grain of wheat, 
by this process, was found to have produced 
21.109 ears, containing 570,000 grains, meas- 
uring " pecks and 3 quarts. The multiplica- 
tion of wheat by off-sens and suckers at the 
dollar of the root, is well known, and fields 
that are apparently bare in the spring, frequent- 
ly increase by this mean to a very handsome 
crop, and the retarding of vegetation can he 
carried to almost any extent, by constant trans- 
planting. Flowering plants and shrubs, by this 
means, may have their periods materially chan- 
ged, particularly the herbaceous annuals. 

Hump. Eisaijs. 

THE FARMER'S CREED. 

BY SIR JOHN SINCLAIR. 

Let this be the farmer's creed, 
Of stock secure the choicest breed, 
Jn peace and plenty let them feed, 
Yoar land sow with the best of seed, 
Let it not dung nor dressing need, 
Inclose and drain it with all speed, 
And yon will soon be rich indeed. 



THE SEASON. 

Where is the industrious Farmer who can- 
not find employment enough to occupy his 
time, during these short, cold, winter days' — 
He should indeed now find leisure enough from 
the usual portton of lime devoted wholly to 
tabor in other seasons, to attend to those es- 
sential attainments — the improvement of his 
mind, and the education of hi.^ clildren. Then 
the length of winter will not be found injurious 
to the farming interest 

The Farn er's Chronicle remarks, in favour 
of family industry, that one piece of domes- 
tic manufacture, will go farther to establish 
the reputation of a daughter, tnan a whole 
winter's frolicking. 

The cultivator who is not in love with idle- 
ness, need not be nactive even at this season 
of the year : and by driving now, may escape 
being driven at some future period. Is the 
cutting, splitting and piling of wood completed? 
Have the implements of husbandry been over- 
hauled, repaired, and in order. Threshing, dres 
sing flax, ti many other essential duties, should 
he suggested to fill up every moment of other- 
wise leisure time. — L.I. Farmer. 



FODDERING OF CATTLE. 

When cattle have been accustomed to fod- 
der, they will not make shift with the same 
fiod that would have served them, if they had 
not been brought to the use of this. There- 
fore it is essential to keep them from it as long 
as can be done wiihont absolute damage to 
them ; and when it is first given them, to let 
them only feed partly on that. 

When tbo cattle find great scarcity abroad, 
if they be offered some of the most indifferent 
hay, they will feed gladly upon it; but if the 
farmer begins with the best, they will not rea- 
dily touch this afterwards. Let it be given a 
little at a time only, and that when they are 
sharply hungered. For if he give them a sur- 
feit of it they never will touch it afterwards, 
even when they are hungry. 

Cows will eat straw freely, and thrive very 
well upon it, unless they be accustomed to 
hay ; but in that case they will refuse the very 
best straw afterwards ; and the farmer must 
submit to feed them in this expensive manner, 
cr to starve them. He must not expect cows 
to eat after one anothei, or that one creature 
which chews the cud, will eat what another 
has left ; rut tire leavings are not wasted, for 
though these will not eat them, the other kinds 
will. A great deal of caution must be used in 
regard to the time of turning cattle out of the 
yard where they have been foddered, into 
grass; for if theie be not a sufficient growth 
for their support, ihey will decline very soon. 
It is a common error to turn them out too ear- 
ly. 

PECULIAR CULTIVATION OF POTATOES. 

A French soldier placed hall a dozen of po- 
tatoes at the bottom of a cask, upon a layer of 
sand and fresh earth, three or four inches thick 
when the stalks had risen a few inches, he 
bent ihem down, and covered them four or five 
inches deep wi'h the same mixture. He con- 
tinued this operation till the cask was full. Six 
or seven monihs after, upon emptying the ves- 
sel, (which stood in a court yard.) he found 
that the half dozen potatoes had produced an 
enormous quantity of new ones, from the por- 
tions of the motherstenis which had been suc- 
cessively laid down and covered. — Journal des 
Connais. Usiults, 1829. 



AMERICAN SILll. 

A case of raw silk, from the filature of D' 
Homergue, in Philadelphia, was put on board 
the packet ship De Rham, which sailed from 
New York for Havre, on the 15th insj. Simi- 
lar shipments are said to have been made to 
England and Mexico. 

From all that has been of the superior qual- 
ity of American raw silk, when compared 
with any ether, and al,o of Mr. D'H s know! 
edge of the best raode of producing it and pre- 
paring it for market, there can be no reasona 



bio doubt that these shipmoots are to be regar- 
ded as important epochs in the history of A- 
merican cultivation ;as leading the way to the 
dcvelopement of a new and incalculably valua 
ble source of private and publicweallh. 

DIVERSIT1T OF TEMPERATURE. 
The following theory of the cause of the 
difference of temperature which prevails upon 
the Eastern and "V'estern shores of the conli-, 
nen! of North Amerioa,is from an article byPro-. 
lessor Mitchell id the last number of Silliman's 
Review : 

The Rocky Mountains strelcb from the ta- 
ble land of Mexico into the immediate vicinity 
of the polar se3. Throughout their whole ex*. 
lent, they nowhere descend much below the 
region of perpetual congelation, and in many 
places they ascend far iuto it. 

The northern extremity of these mountain, 
lat. 70deg.,was seen by Captain Franklin, 
covered with snow in the beginning of Au- 
gust. The accounts obtained of intermediate 
points, are such as to create a belief that they 
are still more elevated. 

Over this lofty barrier, a cause 39 constant 
as the revolution of the sun, is urging the air 
from the west, and (if the views taken in this 
communication of the specific manner in which 
this cause operates are correct) urging espe- 
cially the upper strata of the atmosphere. But 
however this may be, it is at lea6t certain, that 
only the upper strata can pass. I may add 
that the lower strata do not pass, for if they 
did they would not melt the snow. Tbe air 
which has had a mild temperature, communi- 
cated to it on the bosom of the Pacific, is stop- 
ped and a deluge of air having a temperature 
never elevated much above 3'^ deg., and often 
depressed very far below it, is poured over up- 
on the region on the east side of the mountains, 
fiom ihe icy sea. quite down to Mexico. This 
air imbibes heat from the soil of the eastern 
part of the continent, and continuing its 
course, carries it off over the Atlantic. This 
country therefore communicating beat to the 
pievaiiing winds, and receiving none from 
thorn, has its temperature depressed. This 
cold deluge must exist and produce the effects 
ascribed to it, unless a law of nature, which 
wa have shown to obtain in other parts of the 
globe, is arrested in the case of North Ameri- 
ca. Its existence is also proved by observa- 
tion, made in the immediate neighborhood oi 
the mountains, where westerly wiods aie 
found to have a greater predominance thaD in 
(he regions farther east 

This then is a partieular, in which the eas- 
tern side of North America, differs widely 
from the western coast of both America and 
Europe, and the person who has witnessed the 
change of temperature, produced by our N. 
U'est winds, in a single night, or read of the 
effects of certain winds in other countries, — of 
the Sirocco, for instance, in Italy, — will not 
be disposed to deny that it is fully adequate to 
the production of the low medium temperature 
of North America. The vast ejeyated plateaus, 
and enormous ridges of Central Asia, stand in 
the same relation to China, that the Reeky 
Mountains do to the United States. It is sta- 
ted that the greatest cold experienced at Pe- 
kin, occurred during the prevalence of a wind 
from the north west. In Japan " in winter 
tiie north and north west winds are exceeding- 
ly sharp, and bring along with them an intense 
frost" Malle Brun. 



SAVING. 

It is related that a gentleman once called* 
upon Guy, the Miser, for a lesson of frugality — 
Guy, extinguishing the light, said "we can talk 
this matter over in the dark." 



28 



THE GENESEE FARMER 



Jan. 29, 1831. 



TBX1 GENESEE PARMER 



SATURDAY, JAN. 29, 1831. 



CARD. 

The editors of the Genesee Farmer feel un- 
der obligations to the public for the patronagi 
their paper has received thus far, and are hap 
py to find among the contributors to its col 
nuns, some of the most scientific men of our 
state, together with assurances from them that 
they approve of the undertaking and will con- 
tinue their contributions as time serves. We 
also invite all practical men, who feel an inter- 
est in this method of distributing useful infor- 
mation, to favor us with communications re- 
specting their several occupations, detailing in 
the plainest manner, any operations which 
they may think interesting to the public ; and 
any enquiry they wish to make relative to the 
arts and sciences, they are at liberty at all times 
to make through this paps r Any not : ce of 
improved breeds of stock, choice fruit or trees, 
or any new and valuable seeiis, or discoveries, 
will be inserted, for in this manner we hope to 
serve the public, who we trust will favor us 
with their patronage. 



THE AGE OP TREES. 

There is no hypothesis better established, 
than that the concentric rings, or grains in 
wood are annual, and that their numbers 
are sure indications of the age of trees. — 
The rings are sometimes not continuous, and 
run out before they reach around the tree, they 
are not always uniform in thickness, and fre- 
quently vary in different sides without any fix- 
ed rule, and again certain sides have a thicker 
grain, constantly &, uniformly, the whole length 
of the tree, which may be owing to some bend 
it took ingrowing, wheteby the sap was Inn 
derod from descending on one side, or to the 
situation of large and extensive roots, attached 
to that particular si do. By what rule the rings are 
formed in the tap rooted vegetables, like the 
beet, carrot, &c. or in the stems of the herbace 
ous annuals, seems as yet unexplained. We 
were led to these remarks by passing a few days 
since, a large white water oak, cut for a mill 
shaft; and on counting the grains, found from 
the pith to the bark, 503 distinct and well mar 
ked Cinccntrio rings, and it was yet to appear 
ance fresh and green, and had only attained the 
vigor &. man(tree;hood of its days. VVh;it migh- 
ty winds and storms, tornados and convulsions, 
what revolutions, what nations, anil Kings and 
governments, has it outlived : where are the 
red men that counciled under its shade, or the 
grim warriors that ambushed behind its body — 
gone, gone liko its own sire aud grand-sire, who 
might have been a " «aplin ot sturdy growth," 
when the vail of ihe temple was rent, or have 
been coeval with Rome, in her " high and pal- 
my state," the everlasting city, seated on her 
seven peerless hills, now condemned to be 
bound and fettered with bands from Baltic's 
farthest shore, and with unnumbered circum* 
girations, "cycle in Epyclcle, orb in orb," to 
obey man's behests, who before knew none but 
.heaven's command, tortured till the vegetable 
fibre cracks, and has neither life nor strength, 
and like all things, " yea, the gorgeous temple, 
and the cloud-capt towers, dissolve like the 
baseless fabric of a vision, and leavo not a 
wreck behind." * i 



FLAX. 

There is no article which is the produce of 
our farms, over which foreign interest and ig- 
norance have held such undisputed sway, as in 
the cultivation and preparation of FLAX. — 
During the years of 1821-2-3, there seemed 
a disposition on the part of our government to 
encourage the growth and manufacture of this 
article ; since that time, we hear very little a 
bout it, and at this time a domestic manufactu- 
red linen shirt is as rare as a white colt, and 
the distaff and wheel will soon be reckoned by 
our young ladies as instruments belonging only 
to the age of chivalry. 

There are several opinions with regard to 
flax, prevailing among us, which arc incor- 
rect. 

First — That the climate and soil of the Uni- 
ted States are not calculated to produco a good 
growth of flax. 

Second — That flax which has been allowed 
to stand until the seed was ripe, is not capable 
of being manufactured into fine cloth. 

Third — That flax is not capable of being spun 
by machinery. 

Fourth — That spreading flax upon the ground 
and dew-rotting it, is the cheapest and best 
method. 

Now we shall attempt, from our own obser 
vations, and the authority of others, to show 
these opinions incorrect. 

As regards the quantityof flax produced pr acre 
m Ireland, Marshall, in his report to the Linen 
and Hempen Board, in 1817, gives the averagej 
quantity at 500 lbs. In receiving this estimate, I 
and comparing it with the produce of our owni 
soil, we must make allowance for the differ- 
ence in acres, between the Irish and Ameri 
can : also, that their flax is water-rotted, by 
which it will give about twenty-five per cent 
more than when dew-rotted, for which see re- 
port from the Secretary of the Navy, transmit- 
ted to the Senate of the United States, Janua- 
ry 5th, 1825, and republished 1830. In addi. 
tion to this difference, flax does not waste as 
much in cleaning, by the Irish process, as by 
ours, as they merely free it from the woody 
part of the stalk, leaving it to be made fine by 
what they term dressing, which is the same as 
we call hatcheling. Now by looking into the 
records of our agricultural societies, we find 
that the produco of flax offerod for premi- 
ums, was considerably above Mr. Marshall's 
estimate for Ireland. In the Ploughhoy, vol. 
2d, page 188, we find that the first premium 
was given on 773 lbs. pir acre, and at page 
179, a premium awarded on 619 lbs. per acre. 
Now, il wo add to these crops fifty per cent 
for the difference in measure and in rotting and 
cleaning, we have the produce of 1040 lbs. 
per acre. Our own opinions are, that we have 
seen fiuer flax grown in America.lhan we eviri 
saw in Ireland ; but do not think our land and 
climate are gonerally is good as theirs. 

The seccond erroneous opinion is, that flax, 
that is allowed to ripen seed, is not fit fur fine 
elk-th. This point the LineH and Hempen 
Board of Ireland havo put at rest. 

Having been convinced of the superiority of 
the Lutcli flax over the Irish, in 1822 they sent 
Peter Besnard, Esq. Inspector General for 
Leinsler, Munsterand Connaught, into the Ne. 
therlands, in order to ascertain the reasons for 



the superiority of the Dutch flax. In his re- 
port be says — 

" Why so general an opinion as has prevail- 
ed in Ireland, for u series of years, that flax 
which gives seed is not adapted for her fine 
linens, should have taken place, I canot con- 
jecture." Again, speaking of an establishment 
at Antwerp, he says, "I called at the manu- 
factory and purchased a small quantity of the 
yarn, lor the inspection of the Honoura- 
ble Board, and which is sold at the rate of 
£47,780 13s 4d. per ton. The yarn whioh I 
purchased, is not of the finest kind, but I have 
every reason to suppose, from the enquiries I 
made, that it was spun from flax that had given 
seed." We have had some yarn from Valencien- 
nes, which was much finer than that alluded to a- 
bove, which was made from flax which ripen- 
ed seed. 

As to the generally received opinion.that flax 
cannot be spun by machinery, it is ridiculous. 
The machinery is not as complicated, nor as 
costly, as for spinning cotton. But dew-rotted 
flax is not worth manufacturing, when that 
which is water-rotted can be procured. As 
the season approaches, we propose to give the 
Dutch method of managing their flax, from the 
time of pulling until it is prepared for the fi- 
nest of lace ; and I would here observe, that a 
female might work one year od one or two lbs. 
of flax to advantage. 



SHEEP. 

This is an important season for farmers who 
would have fine wool from their sheep. Du- 
ring extreme cold weather, when the groom! 
is covered deep with snow, sheep frequently 
suffer much in health by being fed entirely with 
dry food : they become costive and feverish. 
This never fails to cot the wool more or less, 
or as it is commonly called, they become hide- 
bound. This materially injures the quality 
and quantity of the wool. To prevent this, 
sheep should be fed with green food, where 
that is to be had, where not, boiled grains have 
a very good effect, and even turnips, potatoes, 
or carrots, an- much better for them, after be- 
ing boiled, and a little meal or bran, and salt 
being added. 

Do not neglect them ; remember that Janu- 
ary and February are the most trying months 
lor sheep. It is a mistaken notion that sheep 
do not want water in cold weather ; let them 
be kept where they can git it ; if they do not 
want il they will not drink it, as they are tem- 
perate animals. 

■WASTED IN THIS VILLAGE 

TOR THE YEAK 1^31. 

More industry and less idleness. 
More economy and less extravagance 
More honest men than rogues. 
More monoy than creilit. 
More shirts than ruffles. 
More morality than giog-shops. 
More mechanics than dandies. 
More stoekng-yaiii than street-yarn. 
More stability than excitability. 
More duration than ignorance. 
More laborers than loungers. 
More justice and less law. 

And " last no' least" the Printers wajil 
More subscribers, and tho Editors want 
More correspondents to.the Genesee Farmer 



Vol. 1.— No. 4. 



AND GARDENER'S JOURNAL. 



29 



PROFIT BY EXPERIENCE. 

It is a great misfortune that mankind do not 
profit more by the experienee of those who 
have gone before them. This observation 
willaDply 'o agriculture as well as politicks. — 
But in both, we see men doing those things 
which a slight examination of the acts of past 
ages, would satisfy them were not profitable ; 
and leaving undone many things which would 
result in the happiness of mankind, as well as 
for the interest of individuals. We are very 
apt to think that the ages which have preceded 
us, were ignorant, compared with the present ; 
therefore we do net think it worth our time to 
examine, with a view to profit by the past. — 
But let us remember that one of the wisest of 
mankind has said, that " there is no new thing 
under the sun." " Is there any thing where- 
of it may be said, see, this is new? It hath 
been already of old time, which was before 
us." This was a declaration, made nearly 
three thousand years since, by a man who 
wrote as much, perhaps, upon natural history, 
botany, and those thing immediately connect- 
ed with agriculture, as any* man has done sirtce. 
He was also a practical man, for he says, " I 
made me great works ; I builded mu houses : 
I planted vineyards ; 1 made me gardens and 
orchards, and I planted trees in them of all 
kind of fruits; 1 made mo pools of water to 
water therewith the wood that bringeth forth 
trees; 1 got me servants and maidens, and 
had servants born in my house; also I had 
great possessions of great and small cuttle, 
above all that were in Jerusalem before me; 
I gathered me also silver and gold and the pe- 
culiar treasure of kings, and of the provinces; 
I got the men-singers and women-singers, and 
the delights of the sons of men, as musi. 
cul' instruments, and that of all sorts." — 
Of him it is said in Kings, "and he spake of 
the trees, from the cedar that is in Lebanon, 
even to the hysop that spritigeth out of the 
wail: he spake also of beasts, and of fowl 
and of creeping things, and of fishes/' Now 
when we consider that such knowledge ha^. 
preceded us thiee thousand years, we must 
either allow that the march of improvement 
has been slow, or that we have profiled very 
little by the experience of past ages. The only 
excuse that can be offered for us is, the de- 
struction that has been mado of the records of 
past experiments. This, to-be-sure, may be 
offered for the first two thousand years ; but 
what apology can be offered for the slow pro- 
gress of agriculture for the last thousand joars. 
1 know of but ono that can be used, and that 
is. our agricalturists do not read enough concer. 
ning their profession, and we are glad to wit- 
ness at this time, something that looks as if 
our stale legislators were taking into conside* 
ration the subject of tho education of the ag- 
ricultural class of community, as well as for 
other professions. When we compare tho im- 
portance of agriculture with professions, and 
the reading attending both, we must acknowl- 
edge that they are in an inverse ratio to their 
rational importance. 

It has been remarked, that agriculture was 
confined to an humble class of citizens, who 
were compelled to follow it for support. Du- 
ring the dark ages, when learning was confi- 
ned to the priests, such an observation might 



have been correct ; but at this time it is differ- 
ent : we now find that men of the first ac- 
quirements are willing to pursue those inno- 
cent employments which were first taught by 
the Creator, "on that day when he created 
the heavens and tho earth." 

Loudon says, •' the recent discoveries in 
chemistry and physiology, have led to the most 
important improvements in the culture of 
plants, and the breeding and rearing of ani- 
mals ; agriculture is in Consequence no longer 
an art of labor, but of scieme ; hence the ad- 
vantage of scientific knowledge to agricultu- 
rists, and the susceptibility of the art of pro- 
gressive advancement." " Agriculture," Mar- 
shall observes, " is a subject which viewed in 
all its branches, and to their fullest extent, is 
not only the most important and the most dif- 
ficult in rural economies, but in the circle of 
human arts and sciences." 



SLIPS. 

Ladies who are fond of green bouse plants, 
and have it in their power to procure slips of 
various kinds, will find a great benefit, and a 
most certain preventive of failure, particu 
larly either in a warm room in winter, or a 
warm sun in summer, by covering their slips 
with bell glasses, or where they cannot be pro- 
cured, with tuir.Mers, or any kind of glasses 
that will admit light, observing to admit air, 
at least one hour each day, and not keep the 
slips too wet, as it has a tendency to rot them 
before i hey strike root, or have leaves to carry 
on evaporation, By this process, hardly any 
single instance of a plant has been known to 
fail. In setting slips, it is important to clip near- 
ly all the leaves, else there is too great a call 
for sap ere it has rooted. An ounce of salt- 
petre, or a spoonful of chloride of lime, in a 
gallon of water, is a great quickener of vege 
tation.artd at once shews its beneficial effects. 



TO CONVEY LIVE FISH. 

As there are many natural, as well as artifi 
cial ponds that are destitute of the most valua- 
ble kinds of fish, and from the rapidity with 
which lish are increased, it froquen tlv becomes 
an, object to transport them alive, for tho pur 
pose of stocking such waters. Winter is the 
most favorable season for this purpose. Al- 
though fish are fond of cold water, yet when 
the temperature is reduced to 32 degrees, 
they become almost torpid —thoir motions are 
very slow, and they do not require the same 
quantity of water for a given time, that they 
do in warm weather. Now, as long as snow or 
ice wh"ii mixed with water, will remain un- 
thawed, it indicates tho temperature of thirty 
two degrees. Therefore, let a cask of suffi- 
cient size be provided, and fiilled with snow or 
ice, and water, into which put the fish, intend- 
ed to bo transported, as soon as caught. It is 
not necessary that the water should be entirely 
filled with ice or snow, (the latter is prefera- 
ble) only to keep a sufficient quantity in the 
cask to insure the temperature ; neithershould 
the water be allowed to freeze solid, which 
may bejpre vented bv the introduction of a pail 
fill of water occasionally from a well. In this 
manner, fish maybe taken a distance of thirty, 
or fifty, or one hundred miles by land, with 
less troublo than any other method and with 
perfect safety. 



THE VINE. 

The following letter was received by one of 
'lie editors of the Genesee Farmer, in 1825, 
from our friend Horatio Gates Spafford, and al- 
though not intended for publication at that 
time, we think will be read with pleasure bv 
those who feel interested in the propagation of 
the grape. This letter, when compared with 
one of recent date, from the same gentleman, 
published in our last, will afford conclusive ev- 
idence of his conviction, that the cultiva- 
tion of tho grape is of great importance ; and 
we sincerely hope he may yet live to realize 
all that his zeal in the cattso ever led him to an- 
ticipate, and that he may " sit under his own 
vine and fig tree, and there be none to make 
bim afraid." 

I am glad to perceive by thy letter of the 22d 
mst. that thou art still intent on the culture of 
tho grape. Of the sucoess, ultimately, of this 
culture in this country, I cannot doubt, because, 
.wherever wild grapes grow, spontaneously, 
without any care from man, ripen, and in many 
instances produce heavy loads of fruit, the best 
being selected,pruned, worked with care, tied on 
stakes, or trained on arbors or fences, the qual- 
ity would as surely be improved, and the crop 
iioreased, in this as in any other culture. By 
grafting, which is done more readily on the 
vine than on any other vegetable, and by vari- 
ous other means, new varieties would be pro- 
duced, even from our native stocks, indige- 
nous, always to be preferred ; and we have the 
m^ans of selecting from all countries, where 
the vine has been cultivated for thousands of 
years, and may soon have a few hundred root- 
ed plants, from cuttings and layers, the product 
from any on>! favorite vine. All this requires 
care and labor, but just such as every man of 
intelligence,' some science, and a love of Na 
tuie and fcer works, would most naturally de- 
light in. I am very fond of this kind of a- 
musement, and mv garden is beginning to show 
that it is success fully bestowed, I havo 8 
kinds, select, besides many seedlings, kinds 
not yet known, all growing very prosperously, 
and though but tho second year, producing 
soi., i fruit, a charming foliage, and cheering 
hope with future prospects. 

I rejoice to see the increasing attention to 
the s?rape culture, not only in this state but 
throughout the Union, wherever our Eugle is 
known. Disappointment must be expected, 
however; — for like all other business, expe- 
rience must first be acquired, and, perhips, 
in many instances, at a dear rate. In nothing 
will this be more likely to come than in large 
expectations from foreign grapes, some in a 
soil unsuitable, too new, unworked, from a cli- 
mate too hot, too cold, too dry, too wet. too 
much neglected, for the old varieties of the 
vines, brought from old vine regions, will re- 
quire much nursing, nice care, constant 'itt.;n- 
tior and old ground, where the soil is perfect- 
ly unmixed. If we would, in every region, 
plant the best varieties of native grapes', from 
the woods around us, there would be much 
less danger of disappointment. 

The nursery men. dealers in tho vine, havo 
such a habit of giving new names to their 
vines, calling some natives by a foreign name, 
or a foreigner by a good name, or popular one, 
of the moment, that I apprehend no small dif. 
ficully from this source. All this, again, might 
be prevented, if we would select for ourselves. 
1 have a fox grape, thus selected from the 
woods, that yields fruit in abundance, equal in 
strength of juice, and flavor, to the best dark 
colored grapo grown in this state, excepting, 
perhaps, one kind of the Burgundy, and the 
Purple Frontinac. It is larger than the Pur- 
ple Hamburgh, round, the size of an ounce 
leaden ball. But why mention this? There 
are thousands of such, on our hills, and many 
others, some of which may be even better than 



30 



THE GENESEE EARMER. 



Jan. 29 1831. 



•his. I am selecting, from the vuods, and sbali 
bye-and-bye be read.v to show the result. 

The river hills of the Hudson, from N. York 
to Sandy Hill, will bye-and-bye have vineyards, 
where now we find the wild vine, & the time 
is coming when those hills, now thought of no 
value, for agricultural purposes, will yield more 
clear profit to cultivators, than all the alluvial 
land of their valley. To produce all this, I 
well know, must be a work of time. Our peo- 
ple, however, taught by profitable experiment, 
learn very rapidly, and act, greedy of gains, 
prompt, ever readv. This characteristic leads 
to excess of enterprize. sometimes ludicrous 
enough, but then: can be little danger of raising 
more grapes than can be sold, or made into 
wine. That we can make as good wine, as is 
made in any part of the world, and from our 
native grapes, cultivated properly, no one can 
doubt, unless an obstinate dunce, or some 
thick skulled animal whose interest perverts 
his reason. I have some bottled wine of my 
own making, two years old. that is good 
nough for any body, and so say the wine bib- 
bers, who by-tho-by are not the best judges of 
pure wine, sacli as this is. I should like to 
send thee a bottle. 



BAROMETER 

Is derived from two Greek words, which 
signify weight or gravity, and measure — to 
measure or weigh the air, more commonly ter- 
med a weather glass. It owes its origin to 
experiments institated for the purpose of ex- 
plaining a very mysterious phenomenon, viz : 
That with a common pump, water could not 
be raised higher than thirty feet. Much novel 
speculation was thrown aronnd this curious 
fact, and all as explanatory of the canse, but 
nothing satisfartory ; when suddenly, and as 
if by inspiration, Torricelli, a distiple of Ga- 
lileo, communicate d the discovery in lG45,that 
the air in which we moved with perfect free- 
dom, and which was supposed to add levity to 
every thing that contained it, was in fact an 
immense body of ponderous matter, and that 
notwithstanding the ease and elasticity that 
acoompanied all our motions, and the freedom 
with which it was inhaled, we were constantly 
supporting on the surface of our bodies, the 
enormous pressure of neatly eleven tons. 

This was pronounced gross heresy by many, 
while some stood aghast in wonder. Finally, 
all were convinced, for demonstration was ea- 
sy ; and many years afterwards, the experi- 
ments which proved this to be true, were the 
admiration and wonder of the world. Princes 
and Potentates were astonished at an experi- 
ment which they saw performed by Guericke 
of Magdeburgh, who took two hemispheres, 
> hat exactly fitted eacli other, and having ck- 
hausted them of air, so firmly were they connec- 
ted by the pressure of the air which surroun- 
ded them, and which, to all present, seemed 
nothing, and le6s than nothing, that a force of 
twelve horses was scarcely sullicient to sepa 
rate them. Much curiosity was excited by 
the development of ;his truth; philosophers 
and chemists vied with each other in the fur- 
ther examination of the properties of the in- 
visible medium. It was soon suggested to the 
celebrated Paschal, that by ascending, the air 
would bo found lighter, and its pressure not 
50 great. He therefore caused a barometer to 
tie carried to the top of a high mountain, where 
its extreme levity was so sensibly indicated, as 
greatly t> astonish even himself. As they de 
sconded, the mercury rose in the tube, and 
Than at the bottom stood as bofore. 



. The principle upon which barometers are 
formed is very simple, and may be illustrated 
by filling a tumbler with water, and covering 
it with a saucer, then suddenly inverting it, 
when it will be found that the water remains 
stationary in the tumbler The pressure of 
air from above, is supported by the glass, and 
exerts no effect upon the column of water 
within, while it is prevented from escaping by 
tbe pressure upon the small quantity in the 
saucer. 

It in place of the tumbler, we substitute a 
tube three feet in length, and for the water 
employ quicksilver, we have a common baro- 
meter. The mercury is employed for the ob- 
vious reason, that its great specific gravity re- 
quires a column of but thirty inches to coun 
terpoise the air ; whereas, if water were used, 
as many feet would be necessary to produce 
the same result At the top of the column is 
affixed a scale, four inches in length, which for 
greater accuracy, is subdivided into tenths and 
hundredths. 

At the level of the sea, the top of the mer- 
curial column is at 30, by which is meant, 
that from the surface in the saucer or basin, 
to the top of the mercury in the tube, is thir- 
ty inches. As we ascend from this level, the 
mercury sinks in the tube, and on arriving al 
tho top of the highest mountains, it falls to 
twenty-seven inches. Hence the altitude of 
any place above tbe level of the sea, is easily 
calculated by this instrument, making some 
deductions for changes of temperature, which 
however affect it but slightly 
It is found that immediately preceding violent 
w nds and hurricanes, the mercury sinks very 
suddenly; sometimes even to the lowest de- 
gree on the scale, and when the Btorm is with 
us, and raging with its greatest fury, the mer- 
cury rises. All have observed the awful and 
prophetic stillness that betokens a mighty and 
not far distant commotion of tho elements, and 
all have read of tbe dead calms that prevail at 
sea, and on land, that are soon fo:lowed by an 
overcasting of the sky, and which are too of- 
i ten the precursors of desolating earthquakes. 
These are tho occasions when the greatest de- 
pressions are observed. 

Theheaviest air, and consequently the great- 
est elevation of mercury in the barometer is 
observed between tropics and in warm dry 
weather. It is here proper to remark that a 
very popular error exists among all classes ofi 
men, as to the weight of the air. It is this, that 
when smoke from chimnies is observed to do-i 
scend to the earth, as ^also during the preva 
lence of dense fogs, the air is said to be very 
heavy; whereas, exactly the reverse Is true. 
Generally, smoke and fogs are specifically 
lighter than air, at the oarth's surf ace, and 
consequently as soon as generated, they 
ascend rapidly to the height of some thousand 
feel, till coming in contact with a rarer medi- 
um, they float promisoously, or are subject to 
prevailing winds ; whereas, on extremely 
light, atmosphere allows them, unoporaled up- 
on, to remain quietly below. ' 



ROCHESTER PRICES CURRENT. 

Jan. 28. 1831. 
Wheat — Our market has been well suppli- 
ed with ihis article, during the week past, and 
prices paid, such as to an-wer the expectations 
of the farmers. On 'Tuesday, there was 
brought in on sleighs, and sold, about fifteen 
thousand bushels ; price— from one dollar oix. 
to one doll, twelve and a half cents. 



Ashes per 2240 lbs 

Pot $91<z92 50 

Pearl 100O102 50 

Apples per bushel 25u44 

Do dried 75 

Bristles.comb'd per lb 20a31 
Beeswax do 18a20 

Butter do IOol2 

Beef— Mess per bbl $8a9 

Do prime do 5a7 

Do fresh per lb 02 c o3, Mutton do 
Barley per bushel 3s c 44 j >lustard Seed per bosh 
Beans do 50o62|Oatfi per bush 



Mink 

Raccoon 

Martin 

Fisher 

Wild Cat 

Graj Fox 
I ra>> Seed per bush 
Hops per lb 
Honey do 
Lard do 



12a31 
18a31 
25o6i 
37<j50 
1 BOS! 
18a2r> 

(J--' 
12al5 

09 
06a07 
02o«! 

$4 

-: 



Candles, mould per lb 9 cts UUI Pewter, Brass and 
Do dipped do 8 " I Copper per lb 14 

Do sperm do 28 " Teaches.dry'd bush lOOa-200 

Corn per bushel 44rt50jl'ork, mess per bbl $l2ol3 

Cheese per lb 04a05l Do prime 8a9 

Clover Seed per bush $4 50 Do fresh per lb 03nU4 
Flour per bbl 5 50 Quills per 100 25o3D 

Flax per lb 07a08 Rye per bush 50 

Flaxseed per bush 78ao7'Rags per lb 03a01 

Feathers per lb 3la37,Salt per bbl $1 75 

Furs— Otter 100a400 Tallow per lb 06o07 

Fox, red .11)075' Wheat per bush 103al09 



Fox, cross 



100o200|Fuckwheat flour, cwt. $1 7." 



TERMINOLOGY. 

The weekly insertion of our little dictionary 
of terms which are in general and common use 
with those versed in the sciences of Agricul- 
ture and Horticulture, we hope will need nc 
exctrsc, as it is intended for the use of the tyre 
rather than the adept; and intended to render in- 
telligible all of tho subjects treated of in the 
course of our labors. 

Ferennial— growing from year to year, like 
tho tree or shrub, the maple, rose bush, <Vc. 

Annual— perfecting itself and its 6eeds in 
one year, as corn, salads, cucumber. 

Biennial — perfecting itself in two year;, 
as the thistle, carrot, cabbage. 

Deciduous — those trees that shed their leaves 
in autumn — in contradistinction to evergreens 

Herbaceous — Distinguished from wood, the 
herb. 

Esculent — eatables, vegetables, & roots. 

Succulent — Juicy, abounding in juice, a pul 
py leaf. 

Scguminous — bearing pods, beans, peas, iy<c. 

Farinaceous — producing flour and starcl 
wheat, rye. 

fusiform — Spindle shaped, tapering, as beet. 
carrot. 

Parasitr .—growing out of another plan! 
moss, misletoe. 



To Correspondents — C. D. in answer to 
A. B. on spontaneous vegetation, from its 
length, omitted till next week. 

" A Young Farmer," and several others, are 
recoived and, shall have prompt attention. 



From iho Western Reserve Chronicle. 

We had the pleasure, a few days since, o' 
receiving a fine ripe orange, from the garden 
of J. P. K inland, accompanied with the to! 
lowing note ; 

Mkssrs. Editors — Accompanying ibis | e (. 
ter is a mature ami full grown Orange, the pro 
duel ion ofa tree tlm' sprung from a sped, pian 
led in March, 18iJ8. The seedling was budded 
from a fruitful stock, in the following August 
and in about ihree weeks was headed down 
near to the inoculate. This put forth a growth 
of font inches, the same season, and during the 
summer of 182Si" attained the height!) of two 
feel, it- luxuriant branches tm ruing a spreading 
top. In March, 1830, (too years from ihe lime 
the seed was planted, iV nineteen luvntlts front 
the insertion of. the inoculate, it showed more 
man one hundred and fifty blossom-buds. Dtj. 
ring the month of May, it was literally a clus 
ter of splendid fragrunt (lowers. Of the nt; 



Vol. I.— No. 4. 



AND GARDENER'S JOURNAL. 



31 



merous young orang es that lormpri upon it, on 
ly seven wero permitted to remain, each of 
which is now equal in size and maturity to tin 
one I have forwarded to you. 

Yours, with respect, J. P. K. 

Poland Jan. U, 1831. 



" THE WAGES" OF LITEEATURE. 

Our distinguished fellow countryman Wash 
incton Irving has sold the copyrights of bis 
life of Columbus, history of Grenada, a> d (he 
abridgement of the life of Columbus for thirty 
eight thousand dollars These have all been 
published wilhin the last eighteen months.— 
This we should think a very good remunera- 
tion, so far as money is concerned, for the ef 
forts of genius Mr. Cooper's last novels are 
said to have produced him $18,000. He re- 
ceives one dollar per copy for the sales in this 
country. 

From the Daily Albany Argus. 
The annual meeting of the New York State 
Temperance Society, was held in the Assem- 
bly Chamber on the lStli inst- agreeable to 
public Dotice. The President, hon. Reuben 
H. Walworth, took tiie chair, and alter call- 
ing the meeting to order, the Rev. B. T 
Welch, of ihe city of Albany, addressed the 
Throue of Grace. 

The President delivered bis annual address ; 
accompanied wiiha report of the proceedings 
of the Oneida Temperance Society. Th 
President also read a letter from the Speaker 
of the House of Assembly, stating that indis- 
position bad prevented him from participating 
in the proceedings of the meeting. 

The meeting was addressed by O. G Otis, 

esq of the Assembly, the hon. Mr. Benton o' 

the Senate, and B. F. Butler, esq. of this city. 

The following resolution, offered by B. F. 

Buller, esq. was adopted by the Society : 

Resolved, That the history of the Socieh, 
and the facts in its possession, justify the beliel 
that voluntary associations for the promotion 
of temperance, founded on the principle of en- 
tire abstinence from ihe use of ardent sp.rits. 
are among the most effectual means of promo, 
ting the prosperity and honor of our country, 
aod the good of the human race ; and that we 
therefore earnestly appeal to every patriot and 
philanthropist, who has not already united 
himself with such an association, to do so with 
out delay. 

On motion of S- M. Hopkins, esq. Resolved, 
That the present officers of the Society be e 
lected for another year. 

Mr! Friend Humphrey resigned bis office as 
a member of the executive committee. 

Whereupon it was resolved that Mr. Joshua 
A. Burke, be added to tbat committee. 

On motion ofE. C. Delavan.esq. Resolved 
That this meeting adjourn to meet in this 
place on the third Tuesday of January next. 

Thos. Komp8hall,andG. G. Andrews, esqs. 
delegates from the Monroe County Temper- 
ance Society, were present at the meeting. 
Wm. C. MILLER, Rec. Sec'y. 

MURDER. 

We learn from the Pennsylvania Democrat, 
published at Uniontown, that a man named Cal- 
vin Wood, stabbed two persons at Bridgeport, 
in that eounty, on the night of Sunday week, 
one of whom, William Booh, died on Friday 
evening. Wood who was drunk, had been 
guilty of disorderly conduct en board a steam 
boat then about la-iding at Bridgeport, for 
which Capt. Kimber threw him upon deck and 
threatened to put him overboard. Wood was 
about leaving the boat, when a person whose 
name we have not beard, while in the act of 
handing his cap was stabbed by him in the ab- 
domen. Booh, who, as well as the other per- 
son wounded, belonged to the boat's crew, 
followed Wood and overtook him on the plank 
extending from the boat to the shore. A sctifv 



fie ensued in which Booh received the stab in 
ihe abdomen of which he died It was not 
until afterwards, it was discovered that a sim- 
ilar wound had been inflicted on the other per 
son referred to, and that Capt. Kimber's watch 
chain (a ribbon) had been cut offby an attempt 
;o slab him in the same manner. Wood has 
been committed for trial. 

DUTIES ON CUSTOMS. 

The duties on Imports collected at the port 
of New York, for the last 6ve years were as 
follows, namely : 

In 1825, total amount, $15,742,100 41 
18-26 11 625,b64 22 

1827 13,217.695 89 

1828 13,745.147 21 

1829 13,052,676 46 

1830 (estimated) 13,000.000 00 
Being an average annual revenue collected 

at the port of New York alone (from 1825 to 
1829 inclusive) of $13,458,696 41, or more 
lhan one half of the duties collected in the 
whole Union in each of the respective years, 
The duties on Customs collected iu the whole 
Union, were — 

In 1825, total amount, $20,098,713 45 

1826 23,341 331 77 

1827 19.712.283 29 

1828 (say) 21,500,000 00 

1829 22,681,965, 91 

1830 (estimated) 21,756.707 37 
Comment on this is unnecessary ; the state- 
ment will speak for itself, of the great business 
in foreign trade, transacted in this city. 

ONE DAY LATER PROM EUROPE. 

Halifax papers received at Boston have 
furnished English dates to the 11 th December. 
These accounts confirm the last opinion thai 
ihere would not be a general war among the 
European powers. This is ascribed to the re- 
cent change of Ministry in England, and their 
prompt declaration of their determination to 
traintain the principle of non-intervention. — 
The incendiary outrages throughout the coun 
try had nearly ceased. The active and effi- 
cient measures adopted by the authorities had 
been very beneficial, and would in all proba- 
bility restore quiet and good order. 

T'ie cause of Parliamentary reform was ra 
pidly gaining strength, and must inevitably be 
carried by an irresistible force. Meetings 
have been held in several of the large towns 
at which petitions for reform were carried with 
acclamations, 

Accounts from Copenhagen state that an 
expedition had succeeded in reaching the 
eastern coast of Greenland, where a Norwe 
gian colony had settled eight centuries ago, 
and to whom all access had been barred by 
ice. They still maintain the Christian reli- 
gion, add speak the Norwegian language of 
the tenth century. 

A majority of nearly all classes of the citi> 
zens of Brussels, Antwerp, Ghent, aod Liege, 
are said to he in favor of the accession ot Ihe 
Prince of Orange or one of his sons. 

It is rumored that a wide breach exists be- 
tween his Majesty's government and the East 
India Company. 

It is reported that the Austrian and Spanish 
Ministers residing at the Court of the Nether- 
lands have been recalled. 

poor man's loan company. 
A» application ha9 been made to the Legis- 
lature for the establishment of an association 
under this name and for the following objects : 
1st The principal object is to relieve the 
uants of Ihe poor and necessitous, upon mode- 
rate terms, viz. by lending them money in 
small sums, at seven instead of 25 per cent., 
which they now pay. 

2d. To carry this object into effect without 
actual loss, which is provided for by a small 
charge of one shilling for the certificate, and 
the privilege of issuing notes. 



3d. To make the stock profitable, so as to 

induce inonied men to make investments, in 

order to raise the necessary capital, which 

will be accomplished by the basking privilege. 

"long dip. 

An accident lately happened to a com- 
mercial gentleman, who, in the course 
of his business, had occasion to enter a 
soap and candle manufactory in Change 
Alley, London, which, as it has been un- 
attended with seiious consequences may 
be repeated for amusement. The gen- 
tleman alluded to was descending some 
steps adjoining (he melting Tat, when 
his foot slipped and he was precipitated 
into the agreeable liquid. A workman 
who was standing by, seized him as he 
rose: but from the unctious nature of his 
covering he was again consigned to the 
vat. A second pull extricated the suf- 
ferer, in the shape of a tremendous can- 
dle, the whole outward man being enca- 
-ed with tallow. — [London pa. 



METEOROLOGICAL TABLE, 

for the week ending Jan. 22, 1831. 



Tber 


Baromet'r 


Winds 




Weaiti 


er 




a 
o 


a 


e 


a 
to 


L. 1 *> 


>. 


a -3 


= k 


g 


o 


E 


i 


a 


« 




J= S 


20 20 29,52 


29.55 


n In 




1 






20 20 


29,55 29,30 


n id \w 




1 






26 .24 


29,10 29,11 


to [n.to 




1 






29130 


^9,00 29, 2 


to \w 




1 






20 ! 10 


29,3039,50n 'n 




1 






6 11 


29,44 29, 2|« '» 




1 






20ll4 


29, 5 


29,10 


10 


n 




1 




1 



Observa'iis 



1 i n'li snow 

l-2inch do 

2 1-2 do do 
4 do do 
1 1-2 do do 
1-2 do do 

U°77te Barometrical and Titer momctricul observa~ 
tions are registered at 10 o'clock A. M. and P. AT, which 
by a long series of experiments made for tke purpose , 
show that time to give tke nearest mean average of the 
relative heat of a day than any other time- 
On the oioming of the 21st tbo Tbcmouieter stood 2 
degrees below Zero, wbich was lUe coldest day at Sun - 
rise tbis season. 

This month has been one of continued cold, almost 
without intermission, and though we have often colder 
4J ays, yet the steadiness of the Tost ia almost without 
parallel. 



BANK NOTE TABLE, 

Corrected Weekly for the Rochester Daily Advertiser. 

BY C. W DUNDAS. 



NEW YORK 

All banks in this stale, par, 
except the following 
Broken Banks. Washing 
ton «fc Wairen, Barker's Ex 
change, Franklin Bank, Mid 
die Dist., Columbia, Greene 
County, Marble Manuf. Co 
Pittsburgh, and Niagara. 
MASSACHUSETTS. 
Al banks in this state, par, 
except the following 
Broken Bantu- Farmers' 
b'nkef Belchertown, Sutton, 
Berkshire, Essex and Brigh- 
ton banks. 

VERMONT. 
All banks in this state, par 

RHODE-ISLAND 

All banks in this state, par 

except the following 

Broken Banks- Farmers' 

Exchange, and Farmers' & 

Mechanics' banks. 

CONNECTICUT. 
All banks in this state, par 
except the fallowing 
Broken Banks. Eagle, 
Eagle pay'ble at Union bank 
New-York, Derby, and Der- 
by payable at Fulton bank 
New-York. 

NEW-HAMPSHIRE 
All banks in this state, par 

MAINE. 

All banks in this state, par. 

except the following 

Broken Banks. Castine 

Wiscasset, llallowell & Air 



samaqnoddv banks. 

NEW-JERSEY. 

Slate b'nk, & Trenton Bank- 
ing Company, par , 
All other banks, 2 per cent, 
except the following 
Broken Banks. SaJem & 
Phil. Manuf. Co., Monmouth, 
Hoboken find Grazing Co., 
N.Jersey Manuf & Banking 
Co. al Hoboken, State Bank 
al Treutou, Protection and 
Lombard, ami Jersey City. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 
Philadelphia Banks, par. 
All other banks, 2per cent, 
exoept the following 
Broken Bank?. Farmers' 
AMochanicB' aiN.Sa.,Ceu- 
tre, Huntington, Meadville, 
Marietta, Juniata, Greeticas- 
tle, Bedford. Beaver, Wash- 
ington, Unioutown, A gricul- 
tural.Sil. Lake, Westmore- 
land at Greenburgh, New- 
Hops Bridge Co new emis- 
sion, and Brownvile banks. 

OHIO. 
All banks, 4 to 6 per cent, 

MICHIGAN. 

All banks, "2 per ccni, 

except the following 

Broken Banks. Menrocj 

and Detroit. 

CANADA. 
All banks, 2 to 3 per cent, 
except the 
Upper Cana. al Kingston, 
and Unchartered banks. 



gu?ta, Kennebec, and Pas- 1 

X7 The above table whenspeahing of foreign Bills, re- 
fers to those of $5, and over, as none of a less denomin 
■ation are receivable. 



:»i 



THE GENESEE FARMER. 



Jan. 29, 1831. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



WINE. 

The celebrated Hoffman considered wine a 
universal medicine. He recciraended it for 
weakness of the stomach, obstructed liver, 
flatulence, stone and gravel, depression, and 
all the infirmities of age. An old French 
writer describes the Germans as a melancholy 
people, which disposition he attributes to the 
want of this beverage. Fermoelius says that 
" wine is to the human body what manure is 
to trees — it forces the fruit but injures the 
trees" and therefore it i9 argued that as a gar 
dener only applies manure when it is wanted, 
so wine should only be used when needed. 

IMPROVEMENT IN THE QUALITY AND QUAN- 
TITY OF WOOL. 

M. Montbret has presented a memoir to the 
Paris Academy of Sciences, on this subject. 
He states, that the nourishing fluids are na- 
turally distributed between the flesh, (he fat. 
and the wool of the sheep. He recommends 
irequent shearings « ben the animal is young, 
whereby these fluids are determined in greate 
abundance towards the skin. This increases 
the quantity and improves the quality of the 
wool. 

BLUE OOLOR. 

Ths following is given as a method of ex 
tracting a blue color from the straw of buck 
wheat. The straw should be gathered before 
i lie grain is quite dry, and placed on the ground 
in the sun, until it becomes sufficiently dry to 
be taken from the husks with facility. The 
wheat having been removed, the straw is piled 
up, moistened and left to ferment till it is in a 
slate of decomposition, when it will become of 
a blue color; this indicates the period when it 
should be gathered and formed into cakes, 
which are to be dried in the sun or in a stove. 
On these cakes being boiled in water tbe wa 
ter assumes a strong bine color, which will 
not change either in water or in Sulphuric- 
acid. It may, however, be turned into red 
with alkali, into a light black with bruised 
gall nnts, and into a beautiful green by evapo- 
ration. Stuffs dyed blue with this solution, 
which is to be used the same way as vegeta- 
ble matters of a similar species employed in 
dying, become of a beautiful and durable 
color. 

INFLUENCE OF TEMPERANCE SOCIETIES. 

It is known from the official returns, that 
the domestic distilled spirits in the cily of New 
York, amounted in 1828, to 111,604 casks; 
in 1829, to 79,913 ; being 31,591 casks less 
in 1899 than in 1828 ; say near 40 per cent 
more in 1828 than in 1829. 

From official returns, the inspection of for- 
eign spirits in the city of New York in 1828, 
amounted to 2,925,705 gallons; in 1829, to 
1,695,868, being a falling off of 1,229,937 
gallons — the importations of 1828 exceeding 
those of 1829 of rising 75 per cent. 

It is calculated from Ibe returns, that in 
1829 the diminution of foreign spirits, passing 
through tbe city of New York, for domestic 
consumption, amounted^to 1,471,718 gallons, 
costing at the wholesale price as many dollars 
Of domestic spirits, thy diminution has been 
about two millions of gallons, worth at first 
cost at least $500,000 — the whole, making a 
saving to the community of about two millions 
of dollars at the wholesale prices ; but a( the 
retal price, as generally dealt out, who can es- 
timate the saving ? When we look at this re 
turn, and at the lessened use of this wretched 
stall', may we not be permitted to ascribe to 
this change of habii9 in our state, the uunx- 
ampled prosperity which prevails throughout 
every branch of industry ? — Albany Argus. 



MAMMOTH CHRVSTAL. 

In Moretown, on Onion rivei, among tbe 
Green Mountains, has been found a chrystal 
of smoky quartz, weighing HOIbs.. most of it 
of first water. This chrystal is a six-sided 
prism, very regularly formed, having one end 
terminated by a six-sided pyramid, surface ge- 
nerally smooth, and angles well defined, and 
being so transparent, that large letters may, 
in some directions, be read through it. The 
sides of the prism are parallelograms, trans- 
versely etriated, varying in length from 8 to 
10 inches, and in breadth from 54 to 7- The 
circumference of tbe prism, at the end next to 
the termination, is 2 feet 1 1 inches, at the oth- 
er end, 3 feet. When this chrystal stands e- 
reel, it is 20 inches high. It is now in the 
cabinet of Rev. T. A. Merrill of Middlebury. 
VI- Chron. 

MACKEREL FISHERY. 

The Hingbam Gazette gizes a statement of 
the Mackerel fishery carried on from that 
port, during tbe last ten years. In 1821 only 
27 tessels were engaged in the business, and 
only 10,875, bbls. were packed. Since thai 
time there baa been a gradual increase of ve6- 
sels engaged and business done up to the last 
year, in which 64 vessels were employed, and 
44,8784, bbls. packed. Tbe increase of busi 
from 29 to 30 amounts to 10,147| bbls. Up 
wards of 8000 hogsheads of salt were con- 
sumed in the business. 

COLONIZATION. 

A society has been formed in the city of New 
York, auxiliary to the American Colonization 
Society, and the following gentlemen selected 
as its officers : 

William A. Duer, President. 
Vice Presidents. 

Walter Bowne, Abraham Van Ness, Ogden 
Edwards, John T. Irving, William Colga, Na- 
than Bangs. 

Ira B. Underbill, Recording Secretary. 

John W. Mulligan, Corresponding Sec'y. 

Moses Allen, Treasurer. 

The following resolution passed : 

Resolved, That whereas the expense of col 
onizing in Africa the annual increase of the 
whole colored population of the United States 
will not exceed one million of dollars, or about 
ten cents each, if divided among the citizens 
of New York to imitate the example of oth 
er communities which have contributed in that 
proportion to the funds of the American Col 
onization Society, 

CENSUS OF NEWHAMPSHIRE. 

The census of this state amounts to 267,533 
making an increase during the last ten yoars 
of 25372. The number of white males |131, 
800, white females 137,511 ; free colored per- 
sons 023 Foreigners not naturalized 400. 

MILITARY FORCE OF THE STATE. 

The following account of the number of mi- 
litia tn this state is taken from the annual re- 
port made by M. H. Webster, the acting Ad- 
jutant General. 

Horse Altillery 1,816 

Cavalry 3,814 

Artillery 12,803 

Infantry (including Light Infantry 

and Riflemen) 
Companies of Altillery, $-c. attach- 
ed to Infantry for inspeetion 



1G6.614 

1,763 

138,610 



Total 

SILLIMAN's JOURNAI* 

The January number of this Journal, com- 
pleting the nineteenth volume, has been pub- 
lished, and issued tu its patrons. It contains 
thirteen articles on various subjects relating 
to Natural Philosophy, Natural History, Me- 
chanical Philosophy, &c. &c., all of winch, it 
is said, ably sustaiu the well-earned and ex- 
tensive reputation of tbis invaluable work 



INTERESTING TO THE LADIES 

The Journal ol "Healtu strongly recommends 
simple soap and water, as the best wash for 
preserving the complexion, instead of the 
thousand varieties of cosmetic lotions, which 
are so much used. There are five beautifiers 
jof the skin, viz: — personal cleanliness, regu- 
lar exercise, temperance, pure air, and cbeer- 
j ful temper. Let all pouting beauties ponder 
ion tbis. The Journal puts its veto on tbe use 
Jof distilled liquor, Cologne water. Sic. and in- 
sists that, to use them for a wash, is to destroy 
tbe suppleuess, transparency and smoothness 
of the skin, and to covet it with unseemly 
blotches. 

TEIAL OF JUDGE PECK. 

The testimony in this case was closed on the 
11th inst. and the counsel for the respondent 
announced that they would commence their 
augment on the next day Thus it seems 
this matter which has consumed nearly a 
month and a half of a short session, is now in 
in way to be closed When we consider that 
there is a great ma«s of business to be done at 
tbis session, we can but regret that, so much 
time should have been occupied with this trial. 
We sincerely hope that but few of the U. S. 
Judges will ever put themselves in the way 
of an impeachment if like this tbe trial must 
ocenpy more than one third of a session of 
congress. 

AUCTIONS. 

Collins and Hannay and other booksellers of* 
New York give notice that Ihey will apply to 
tbe legislature, for an alteration in the auction 
law, so as to confine sales of personal property 
by auction to day-light. 

A GOOD THING. 

It is stated in an English paper thnt Mr 
Donaldson, formerly connected with the Ed- 
inburgh Advertiser, has at hit decease left a 
property amounting to £220,000, ($996, 800' 
Ibe whole of which he directed (o be employed 
in founding and endowing a hospital for orphan 
and destitute children. A noble act, worthy 
i benefactor of tbe human race. Such instan- 
ces of benevolence are rare, and should give 
to the generous donors a high rank in tbe re- 
cords of the great and good. 



AN UNNATURAL AND INHUMAN SON. 

We heard a stattment made from a pulpit 
: in this city, a short time since, which made 
our blood run cold, and tbe bare recollection 
of which makes us shudder. What monsters 
(men can make of themselves! It was stated 
.by Ibe speaker, and in a manner 19 leave no 
doubt of bis sincerity, that he had recently 
been called to minister lo the necessities of an 
!aged female who lay in an entry or passage to 
a garret, tbe light to which was only admitted 
by removiug two shingles in the roof. Hei 
neighbor a female, who was a little more fa- 
vored than herself by having a room in the 
garret, w»s tbe only friend to whom sbe could 
^call for assistance, and she was merely able to 
crawl occasionally to her side to hand her a 
cup of cold water, which a high fever made an 
invaluable blessing. Yet tins poor, helpless 
ind aged woman, is the widow of a merch?nt 
who once traded on a capital of near half a 
^nillion of dollars, and whose son is at this 
lime an eminent and flourishing merchant, roll- 
ing in^plendid affluence in a neighboring city. 
vVe regret that the name of the unfeeling 
wretch was nol mentioned ; such monsters 
should be Leld up to the abhorrence and exe- 
cration of mankind. — Phil. Sat. Bulletin. 

COUNTER FKITSRS. 

The bills of the Greenwich bank, which ha^ 
just commenced discounting, have already 
been counterfeited. At this rale counterfeit 
bills will soon be pot m circulation before lire 
genuine anesx 



VOLUME I. 



ROCHESTER, FEBRUARY 6, 1831. 



KCMBEi 5. 



THE GENESEE FARMER 

AND GARDENER'S JOURNAL. 
Devoted to Agriculture, Horticulture, Domestic Econo 
my, &c. &c 
Published on Saturday", at $2 50 per annum, 
payable in six months, or at $3 00, il paid at lite 
lime of subscribing, by Tucker & Stevens, 
at the office of the Rochester Daily Advertiser. 



ORIGIN AX.. 



HORTICULTURE. 

The following letter Irnm Jkssk Buel. Esq. 
of Albany, to the President of the Monroe 
Horticultural Society, was received in answer 
to one, announcing his election as honorary 
mamber of that Society ; with a copy of whiob 
we have been politely furnished for publica- 
tion. 

To the President of the Monroe Horticultural Society : 
Sir — In return for the flattering compliment 
conferred upon me by the Monroe Horticultur- 
al Socieiy,I beg leave to offer to the considera- 
tion of its members a few remarks upon some 
of the modern improvements in horticulture, 
in the hope, that although the amateur may 
find in them nothing new or valuable, yet thai 
I hey may afford some interest to the noviciate 
in the delightful business which you have asso- 
ciated to promote. 

The production of new and valuable varie- 
lies of fruit, by artificial means, may be class 
ed among the great horticultural improvement 
of the day. The analogy between anim ils 
and vegetables, in perpetuating their species, 
by sexual organs, has been long known. De 
fects and disea»es.as well as habit, are often iie- 
reditary in both, and the opinion seems to have 
become pretty general, thai the variety in the 
vegetable, and the breed in the animal, if kept 
long distinct and unmixed, will gradually de- 
teriorate and finally run out. Mr. Jefferson was 
of opinion, that the royal blood of Europe had 
degenerated into imbecility, by exclusive in 
termarriage among its members. Mr. Knighi, 
the enlightened president of the Horticultural 
Society of London, and other eminent porno 
logists, embraced the opinion, that vegetable* 
have the same tendency io degenerate, with- 
out the admixture, in the process of fecunda- 
tion, of different species and vaiieties. The 
disappearance of old varieties of the apple, anil 
the diseased state, and increasing barrenness 
of other varieties, yet under cultivation, seem- 
ed to confirm ibis opinion, while the potatoe 
and other productions of the farm and garden 
offer to our observation a farther proof of its 
correctness. So strongly did Mr. Knight be 
come fixed in this opinion, by a series of expe- 
riments, conducted for years, with great care 
that he seriously advises orchardings, never to 
plant an inoculated or grafted apple tree, un 
less the parent tree is. known to exist in a 
healthy state. 

During the last five and thirty years, many 
distinguished horticulturists of Europe have 
devoted particular attention to this branch o: 
physiology; and they have been successful, 
not only in making up for the extinct varieties, 
but in greatly multiplying the number and vari- 
eties of our line table fruits. Two metho dc 
have been pursued, aDd both successfully - - 
The one by crossins (to use a breeder's term) 
two distinct and approved varieties. The o 
the.r may be called the Bakewell plan, of 
breeding exclusively 'ram Ihe best individual*. 
T. A. Knight took ihe lead in the first; and 
Br. Van Mons, of the university of Louvain 
was the pioneer in the latter. 

Mr. Knight began liis experiments near the 
close of the last eentury, upon the garden pe 
He found to his great delight, that the progeny 
partook of the character of the two parents. 
& that it was more vigorous & prolifio,on being 



planted, than either of them. He next extended 
his experiments to the strawberry &lhe apple, 
and subsequently to the cherry, peach, and o- 
ther fruits. Knight'" peas are well known & 
sought for by our gardeners, as being abund 
ant bearers, and excellent for the table. The 
downton strawberry, which ha«. grown in my 
garden to the size of four inches and three 
qunrlers in circumference, is Ihe cross of two 
American varieties. His Black Eagle, Elton, 
and Waterloo cherries, are already in high es- 
timation. His Downton pippin equals one of 
us parents, the. old golden pippin, which was 
long the pride and boast of an Englishman's 
table; his red and yellow Ingestrie fall but lit- 
tle below it in the scale of choice dessert fruit; 
while his Foxley, Siberian Harvey, yellow Si 
berian. Grange and Downton, escced in the 
specific gravity of their must, or fresh express 
ed juice (the best test of a good cidei apple) 
the celebrated Slire. These fruits are all 
growing in my grounds, and exhibit a healthi- 
ness and vigor, unusual in old varieties. 

The process of Mr. Knight consists in de- 
stroying the male organs (stamens)of so many 
flowers as h» designs for experiment, before 
the blossoms open; — in fecundating or inipreg 
Dating the female organs, (pistils) when the 
flowers are fully expanded, with the pollen of 
the variety selected for the cross;— and 
carefully excluding insects, which might intro- 
duce the pollen of other varieties to the denu 
ded pistils, and thus defeat the object of the 
experiment. 

In making his experiments with the apple, 
Mr. Knight, in several instances, availed him 
self of the character of the Siberian crab for 
hardiness, and as a great and annual bearer, 
arid chose it as a subject for experiment. — 
The trees which originated in this cross 
bear a strong resemblance to their northern pa- 
rent. 

Dr. Van Mons and his Flemish cotemporaries, 
commenced their experiments simultaneously 

ritb 



•.f our tables, I subjoin, for the benefit of a- 
mateurs, the names of a few. which ure descri- 
bed and figured io colors, in the Pomological 
Magazine. 

flames In eating 

Beurre Diel NovtoJitn 

Do d'\rernbargh Jan to March 

Do Ranee Dec to May 

Do de Capiaumont October 
Duchess d'Angouleme November 



Character 
First rank for table 
Best cultivated 
Best late 
Delicious 
Finest of autunm 
Equal to best 
Very good 
An excellent peav 
Great favorile 
Fine quality 
Highly esteemed 
Superior 



with Mr. Knight. They preferred to begin 
ihe seeds of wildings as being mosi hardy 
and most exempt from hereditary disease. I 
had been the practice, in selecting from seed- 
lings of two or three years growth, with a 
view of obtaining new varieties, such as had 
few or no spines, large leaves and thick shoots. 
But Dr. Van Mons found such plants, particu- 
larly pear seedlings, to produce generally sum- 
mer fruits of a small size and little flavor. He 
therefore chose thorny plants in which the 
spines were long, and furnished with buds to 
their summit, and of whieh the general aspect 
of the plant recalled to mind some good known 
varieiy. When these plants bore fruit, he sow- 
ed their seeds, and again the seeds so produced, 
te ihe fourth, fifth and sixth generation, — al- 
ways selecting from his seedlings, as in the 
first generation, those which promised best to 
realize his hopes. The peach and apricot 
sown in this manner, did not produce excel- 
lent fruil till the third generation, the apple not 
till the fourth generation, and the pear not 
till the fifth or sixth generation. A good kind 
being obtained, it was increased by suckers 
pieces .of the root or layers, any of which 
modes M. Van Mons considered preferable to 
grafting. He remarks, thai the best varieties 
threw up the fewest suckers. In the course/ 
of these experiments Dr. Van Mons raised 
80,000 seedlings of the pear alone. In 1823, 
hs published 3 catalogue of new fruits com- 
prising about 400 varieties of ihe pear; most 
^? them of excellent quality, and affording a suc- 
cession for the table during the circle of the year. 
.\iany of these choice varieties were received 
by me in 1825 and 1827. from the Horticultu- 
ral Society of London, and the fruit of some 
of them has been already exhibited at our hor- 
ticultural shows. A" these new pears are des- 
igned to contribute materially to the delieaoies 



F.aston Beurre Apl lo June 

Gilogit Mar to May 

Napoleon Oct ff Nov 

Passe Colmor Dec to Jan 

f rincess of Orange October 
Maria Louisa Oct and Nov 

Bounude Malines Dec and Jan 

Persuaded that the Flemish pears will be an 
important acquisition to our table fruit, I have 
applied through various channels, for all the 
good varieties which I have not already under 
cultivation. Among other means, I have made 
a request to Dr. Van Mons, through a friend at 
Paris, and have received assurances that my 
wishes shall be fulfilled. 

The establishment of Horticultural Socie- 
ties has contributed wonderfully to dissemi- 
nate pomological information, and to facilitalc 
intercourse and interchanges among horticul- 
tural men. I have many fruit trees growing, 
which were grafted in France, in Germany, &. 
in England, with varieties which originated not 
only in those countries, but in Italy, Denmark, 
Russia, and even Asia. And I observed, in a 
nursery catalogue, lately received from the' Isl- 
and of Jersey, the names of Sievens' Gene- 
see pear, and the Jonathan apple, two fruits 
which I first named three years ago, and cut- 
tings of which I sent to Europe the year fol- 
lowing. Cuttings of the pear were taken from 
the original seedling tree, in Livingston, and 
kindly presented to me by Mr. Edwards, of 
Springfield. The fruit was subsequently for- 
warded to me by Mr. Ruggles. It is a beauti- 
ful and excellent autumn fruit. The apple 
was sent to me (cuttings and fruii) by Jona- 
than Hasbrouck, Esq, of Kingston. It is an 
Ulster seedling, resembling in its high aromat- 
ic flavor and color, the Esopus Spitzenburgh, 
but with less aciaitv than that old favorite. 

While on this subject, I am desirous of ealj- 
ng the attention of the fruil loving community 
to the meritorious exertions of some of our 
own citizens to increase the luxuries of our ta- 
bles. 

Mr. Howland, an intelligent farmer of Still 
water, cultivates most of the choice fruits of 
our country, and has originated several new 
varieties. He showed me, three years ago, 
growing on seedling trees, six or seven excel- 
lent varieties of the plum, all from the pits ct 
a green gage, but all differing from this parent, 
& other known varieties : the blossoms having 
been fecundated by the aid of insects and 
winds, with the pollen of the fine surrounding 
varieties. Mr. Haruian. also, ol Schenectady, 
has been successful in raising several fine new 
varieties of the plum, worthy of propagation. 
With sentiments of respect, I am, Sir, 

Your ob't serv't, J. BUEL. 

Albany. Dec. %, 1630. 



FOR THE GINESES FARMER. 

Messrs. Editors — The establishing of a 
weeblv paper in the western section of ouo 
thriving state,devoted to Agriculture and Horti 
ticulture, is a circumstance, I ihink, that can- 
not fail to meet with a cordial support from tire 
friends of these pursuits. Already have oirv 
western farmers, in many branches of the bu- 
siness of agriculture, fur outstripped those ot 
the older settlements of the east. The ra- 
pidity with which the march of improvement 
has spread through this section, has excited the 
wonder and admiration of those, who, only 
thirty years since, knew it as a wilderness. — 
Wealth and competently abounds among us, 
and every section bas its peculiarities, thai 



34 



THE GENESEE FARMER 



Feb. 5. 1831 



render the plans and operations of each differ- 
ent, while the events, may be similar. That 
there is mnch room for improvement, and that 
the subjects are of the greatest importance to 
our country, I think none will dispute. Formy- 
solf, being an inexperienced farmer, I look upon 
it as the opening of a channel, through which 
much good is to flow. To the old and experien- 
ced, it will be a source through which they may 
present to the public, such facts as their long 
practico and experience may have taught them. 
Many of them having been early settlers of 
the country, and having had all the difficulties 
to encounter, that usually occur in new settle- 
ments, must have acquired'a practical knowl- 
edge of the soil, climate, and other circum- 
stances, upon which those pursuits iopend, 
that would be of vast importance to the pies- 
ant operators, and to rising generations. The 
learnad Theorists will no doubt present through 
its columns, many new and important plans 
for its further improvement. The Naturalist 
will have a source thro' which he may expose 
Ins discoveries to that class ofcitizens to whom 
they are always of the most importance. The 
practical farmers may exchange ideas, and pre 
sent results, upon their various plans and ope- 
rations one with another. The young will 
grow up undor such a state of things, with 
their minds alive to the advancement of the 
pursuit, and will fit them for filling the sphere 
in which they are to act, with honor to them- 
selves and country. I shall close this epistle 
by wishing success to the undertaking, and en- 
closing the amount of one year's subscription: 

A lOOSC FARMER. 



lady, who discoveredsome boys in a plum tree, 
the sons of a wealthy neighbor. She confined 
thorn, sent for their father, and delivered them 
up to him, for once, with a positive assurance, 
that if ever caught again, or if she soon heard 
of their repeating the offence, anv where, she 
would prosecute them at her own expense. 

Agricoea 



FOR THE GENESEE FARMER. 

Messrs. Editors — I have just returned from 
treading down the snow round my smaller fruit 
trees, to prevent the meadow mice from gnaw- 
ing the bark. This operation is generally a 
preventive, and is most effectually performed 
when the snow is a little softened j but it is of- 
ten unsafe to wait for a warmer air. 

In digging round the trees in my fruit garden, 
more than a year ago, the earth was turned by 
the spade inioard towards the trees, and in con 
sentience, it was raised six or eight inches 
higher than the common surface of the ground. 
No injury to the trees has resulted from these 
little mounds ; and [ now observe that the 
snow on them is so thin as to preclude the ne 
cessity of treading it down, except in drifts 
near the fences. D- T. 

1 Mo. 24, 1831. 



TOR THE GENESEE FARMER. 

Trom the showing, as the lawyers say, of A 
Farmer, in your number 3, I suspect that his 
hot-bed, made of horso dung that had been 
kept under shelter, was too dry, and that this 
was the case with the dirt, or soil, which had 
been removed from it, besides being surchar- 
ged with gasses evolved by a dry heat. Prob- 
ably a copious wetting, by a good rain, would 
have cured the evil in both cases. S. 



ROBBING OF GARDENS & ORCHARDS. 

FOR THE GENKSF.i FARMER. 

The remarks of Mr. Dearborn, on this sub- 
ject, in your last number, cer airly demand 
very serious attention. The laws ought, in 
the first place, to niako every taking away, 
without leave, a misdemeanor, if not techni- 
cally a theft ; and in the next place, we all 
ought to bo more severely rigidj in punishing, 
for every little theft, for such tney are, though 
it be only a handful of fruit. 1 once caught a 
parcel of boys stealing fruit from my garden 
who told me plainly, that taking a tittle fruit 
was not stealing; but I soon convinced them 
to contrary, by confining them till their father 
came, who happened to be a lawyer and n 
Judge It is said that our revised laws have 
introduced some desirable reform, in relation 
to oetty thefts, making them misdemeanors. — 
If such be the fact, let us all help to make ihe 
law operative, of which there is certainly needi 
enough. Instead of searing young offenders, 
depredating upon our fruit, expose and punish 
every one, and they will soon find out that ho- 
nesty is the best policy. It is altogether wrong 
to let these little pilferers go unpunished, till 
they become confirmed thieves, and large es 
nough to go, as men, to the state prison! Spare 
no one, should be our maxim, of whatever age 
or condition. I should call him a had neighbor, 
who would spare my son in such n case An vx 
cedent example was set by an opulent widow 



SPONTANEOUS VEGETATION. 

FOR THE GENESEE FARUEJt. 

Messrs. Editors — Your correspondent A. 
B. gives many curious cases of the vegetation 
of seeds under circumstances, which to many 
persons seem utterly at variance with facts 
within evory person's knowledge, and proceeds 
to ask several very pertinent questions, predi- 
c ited on the facts which he relates, all of 
which 1 am ready to admit ; for I have noticed 
the most of them for a good many years, and 
to my mind there is nothing in them inconsist- 
ent with the soand principles of reason or 
philosophy; and at once to answer his ques- 
tions, and reconcile the seeming discrepancies 
between the facts as they appear, and our ex- 
perience on the same points, it will be necessa- 
ry to go back and to assert some probabilities, 
and assume some grounds by hypothesis, which 
existed antecedent to our race, or its history. 

At the original creation, when the earth was 
void, and darkness was on the face of it, when 
the waters were parted from the land, and con- 
cretion and chrystafzation of the earthy and 
metalic matter held in solution by the water, 
according to one theory; or according to ano- 
ther, when the globe from a melted globule of 
matter, first wheeled into its course, and took 
its station according to the laws of gravity and 
motion, and its surface began to cool, and 
the vapours to condense on its surface, then 
indeed was darkness on the face of the deep, 
and then in either case, the probabilities are 
irresistible that there was not one particle of 
sand, earth, or vegetable mould on its whole 
surface, and we find wherever it has been pe- 
netrated, that its whole frame work and nu- 
cleus is solid rock, and the probability is. that 
the loose earthy panicles do not occupy on 
the whole surface an average depth ot two 
feet, all of which are the result f attrition by 
tho commotion of water seekr g its level — 
earthquakes ; and by decomposition by the ac- 
tion of air, heat and cold, and the tremendious 
turmoils and convulsions that the globe has 
been subject to by the eruption of imprisoned 
gasses, and heated vapour, consmitly emitted 
from the great furnaces in the center, winch 
ev6n now bum with undiminished strenth in 
the two hundred volcanos known now to ex- 
ist, and by which the whole of the elevated 
and mountainous ranges, were pushed from 
their original level, as evidently appears by 
the confusion and dip of their stratification, — 
the sudden sinking of the great cavities which 
are now seas, — the breaking of ihe barriers 
that confined immense reservoirs of water in 
elevated regions, all rushing to the lowest lev- 
el, — the constant changes of the water cour- 
ses, all combined, are abundantly sufficient to 
account for the mechanical formation of the 
soil. 

We also have the Mosaic account of one 
great flood, since the formation of man, and 
the learned and indefatigable geologists of the 
present day, show by a series of facts and 
observations, which are not and cannot be dis- 
puted, that there has been three periods of 
great and general deluges. The petrifactions 



and organic fossil remains of the peculiar kinds 
imbedded in the formations of the first, do not 
appear in the second, having been all destroy- 
ed ; they were not then in existence, and form 
a series of vegetable and animal races, which 
havo not existed since; the same holds good 
with the second flood or deluge, but the re- 
mains of the third contain only the different 
species that now are found existing on the sur- 
face of the earth, all of which in the subsiding 
of their waters, constitute an immense power 
and an active agent to facilitate the operation. 
By all of these facts and reasonings I wish to 
show that in all probability soil is the result of 
attrition and decomposition, and is an accumu- 
lative creation, constantly going on, though in 
a much slower manner since the great agents 
have left off business, if I may so expiess my- 
self, and retired to their great beds and repo- 
sitories ; and as a further proof, I assert that 
it is not a very difficult operation to take a 
quantity of earthy soil, and in a very short 
time separate it, and assign each individual 
particle to its parent rock, as easily as a fores- 
ter would a basket of chips to its parent tree. 
The different classes of rocks are placed in 
perfectly regular and mechanical structure, the 
laws of which are perfectly familiar with 
those who study that science", one kind alter- 
nating with, and resting on its fellow, and so 
on with but little variation ad infinitum. 

Now if it is admitted as probable that soil is 
artificial, and the concomitant, and the result 
of the final settling and adjustment of this 
great globe, according io the governing laws 
assigned to it by its Creator, and that they have 
had many and different periods of action, then 
it can easily be comprehended how seeds mav 
have been deposited to any and all depths to 
which Boil reaches. Now recurs the question 
how they resist for such long periods the de- 
compose ion and destruction to which all oth- 
ers are liable, which when planted too deep 
are rotted and lost. To which I answer, that 
heat, light, air and moisture, are imueiiously 
necessary to cause germination, and when 
seed- arc lost by planting, it is because they 
are not below the heat necessary to cause 
them to sprout, but not being able to get light 

and air soon enoi.gh. are exhausted and rot. 

But place a seed below thai point where the 
heat necessary to germination reaches, and 
beyond the reach of light and air, and it is in- 
humed in perpetual silence, sleep and torpor; 
even the amphibious animals, as frogs, toads, 
and lizzards are very frequent); found in per- 
fect life, at great depths in the earth, and in sol- 
id rocks. Trees and shrubs are found at equal 
depths with their branches fresh, and in a peol- 
ui'£ state: and the depths at which seeds with 
sironi: glazed, or coriaceous coverings, would 
lie and not he decomposed, might not be so 
great when shaded by dense forests, or cover- 
ed with a strong sward, or old decayed chip 
manure, as in one case which A. B. cites, and 
in cafe of the f re weeds it may, like the stone 
seeds which require frost, require a great heat 
to Imrst their covering, so that moisture may 
have access, ,, r tiny may require tire to create 
an alkali from the ashes of burnt vegetables, 
to dissolve their covering, so that the different 
agents may do their office. Willi manv persons 
who are at a loss to acccunt for the spontane- 
ous iiDpearance of vegetables on new land, 
Birds are supposed to be the agents who dis- 
tribute the seods ; hut this, except in very i'ew 
cases, I conceive to be an error, as tbcv eat 
the seeds for subsistence, and which furnish 
the aliment for them, and are undoubtedly di, 
seated, except those which are eaten for 
the pulp, like the cherry, currant. &c. — and 
the oft repeated idea that particular grounds 
are natural to particular seeds, or that certain 
plants grow without a seed, merely because 
the land is favorable to it, is too preposterous 
to need refutation. An well might a man or 
an elephant grow out of the earth like a mush- 
room ; and why do not, if nature is capable of 
pontancous production, and without any nat- 



Vol. 1.— No. 5. 



AND GARDENER'S JOURNAL. 



35 



■Jral cause, some, heretofore unknown and 
strange vegetables, constantly grow up and 
flourish, which is not the case. 

By my hypothesis, the rationale is plain, ea- 
sy and consistent with known laws, causes 
and effects, and I hope your readers will not 
consider it as/ar fetched or irrational. 

Cttnandaigua. Jan. 15. C. * D. 



SELECTION 



From the New-York Former. 
A Description of Trees and Shrubs, pro- 
ducing A SUCCESSION OF FLOWERS FROM 
SPRING TO AUTUMN. 

By Michael Floy, V. President of the N. Y, H. Society. 
[Continued from Page 26.] 
I shall now select a list ot" hardy flowering 
shrubs, calculated for shrubberies, clumps, and 
ornamental planting. The collection will fur- 
nish a flowering succession from the early 
spring, unitil late id the fall. They are all to 
be obtained at the nurseries here, and at pri- 
ces as stated above. 

Amorpha fruticosa —Indigo shrub, with 
handsome bunches of purple flowers in great 
quantities. Amygdalus nana, Dwarf double 
flowering Almond, a very beautiful dwarf shrub, 
about throe feet high. Aralia spmosa, or An- 
gelica tree, about 10 feet high, flowers in very 
far^s bunches, and continues a long season — 
Cyiisus Laburnum, or Golden chain, a most el- 
egant shrub, with long racemes or bunches of 
yellow flowers, in the greatest profusion — 
there are two kinds.the English, and the Scotch 
Laburnum. The Scotch is the largest, form- 
ing a pretty large shrub; the English kind is 
"reener, more compact, and by some thought 
to be the handsomest-they ought to be in every 
garden. Colycanthus ftoridus, Alspice, or sweet 
scented shrub, a native ofthe Southern states; 
the flowers are of a very dark chocolate color, 
and the fragrance very much resembles ripe 
strawberries, easily kept where once introdu- 
ced the shrub generally grows about five feet 

hieh in gardens. Ceunulhns amcricanus, Red 
root, or Jersey Tea tree, worth having a plant 
or two in the collection, as it flowers in profu- 
sion. Ccriissiliquastrum,or Judas tree; the flow- 
er* appear very early, before the leaves come 
oat, and make' a fine appearance — as it grows 
rather tall, it is calculated for the back row of 
the shrubbery. Colutea arborescens, or Blad- 
der Senna, having bunches of yellow flowers 
which are succeeded by seeds in a kind ofblad 
der, calculated for the back or centre row of 
shrubberies. 

Crataegus oxyacantha, the Hawthorn. It 
makes a pretty appearance planted out singly 
in the back or center row, the flowers are very 
fragrant, it is sometimes called the Pride of 
Hay ; the double white, double scarlet, and single 
scarlet Hawthorn, are extremely beautiful, and 
ought to be in every plantation. Hawthorn 
hedges are much used in England, where they 
look very handsome when kept clipped, but 
they do not answer so well in this country, (he 
heat of our summers causing the leaves to 
fall off early, often in July ; on that account 
they aro not much used — we have several 
things which are better calculated for that pur- 
pose. 

Cydonia japonica, or Pyrus japonica, a very 
beautiful scarlet flowering shrub from Japan, 
has not been in cultivation here for many years. 
It is found to be very hardy, resisting our 
most severe frosts; it is evergreen, flowers 
very early, and continues a long time. A se- 
cond flosvering takes pla«e in the latter part of 
the summer It is every way a desirable 
shrub. Daphne Mazerium, one of our most 
early floweriug shrubs, often flowering in Feb- 
ruary, and very sweet scented. It is rather 
tender in seme situations, but will stand our 
ordinary winters very well in a sheltered situ- 
ation. 

Dircfi palaslris, or Leather wood, a pretty 
little shrub, growing very regular in shape, and 
has the appearance of a large tree in miniature; ! 
it is a native of our northern states, the How- ' 



ers appear very early, aro yellow and come oul 
before the leaves. 

Gymnocladus canadensis, or Kentucky Cof- 
fee Tree. The berries have a resemblance to 
coffee, and are said to be used for this purpose ; 
however it is a beautiful tree, with handsome 
feathered leaves, and makes a fine contrast 
with' others. It should bo planted in the back 
or centre ofthe plantation, and is very hardy. 

Halcsia diptcra and Halcsui tctraptera, two 
winged and four winged Silver bell, or snow 
drop tree. They aro both natives of the South- 
ern States, but perfectly hardy here : our most 
severe winters do not hurt them. The former 
kind flowers a month later than the latter 
kind, which flowers early in. May. They are 
both elegant shrubs. 

Hibiscus syriacus, fl. plena. The double 
flowering althea frutex, of which there are sev- 
eral varieties, the double white, double red, 
and white and striped are the most showy ; 
they commence their flowering late in July, 
and continue till fall, coming in at a very accep- 
table time. The single kinds, of which there 
are many varieties, are scarce worth cultiva- 
ting, the double ones being raised quite as 
well, and are equally hardy. These are indis- 
pensable in every plantation. 

Hypericum frutescens. Shrubby Hypericum : 
there are several species of this small beauti- 
ful shrnb, all natives of the Southern States, 
but perfectly hardv here. They ail flower in 
the greatest profusion, and continue for a long 
season. Thoy should be planted in the front 
row. 

Kerria japorica, or Corchorus japonica — -yel- 
low Japan Globe flower; although a native of 
Japan, like many other Japan flowers, it is per- 
fectly hardy here. It flowers in the greatest 
profusion at all times, except in the very dead 
of winter, and will grow in almost any soil or 
situation. 

Kalreutcria panieulata, — Japan bladder tree, 
or Koelreterius. This is another hardy shrub 
from Japan. It has long racemes of flowers, 
succeeded by bladder like fruit, and is worthy 
of cultivation in every good collection. 

Ligustrum vulgare, virens. Large European 
Privet, a very handsome evergreen shrub, 
flowering in great profusion, and succeeded 
by bunches of black round berries. It bears 
clipping well, and is therefore well calculated 
for hedges, or to enclose ornamental planta- 
tions. It grows quick, and is well adapted to 
our climate, and when planted in a hedge row 



and kept clipped, it makes a beautiful hedge, 
and ought to be in more general use. 

Philaddphus coronaris, or common syringo, 
is very ornamental, producing its sweet scen- 
ted flowers early, and in abundance , and also 
sweet scented Philaddphus inodorus, and P. 
grandiflonis, Garland syringo, both natives of 
the southern states, hut quite hardy here. The 
flowers are large, and they keep their flower- 
ing for several months in wreaths or garlands — 
it is well calculated for the centre row, and al- 
so to hidejunsightly objects. It has a beauti- 
ful effect when mixed with monthly honey 
suckle, &c. 

Persica or Amygdalus persica, Ji. rosea pltno 
—The double flowering Peach is very beauti 
ful in shrubberies. It sometimes bears fruit 
but it is cultivated entirely for its beautiful 
blossoms. A few tjiees also of the Chinese 
double flowering spple, Pyrus spectabilis, has 
also a beautiful effect for the same purpose. 

Rhus totinus, Venetian sumach, Aaron's 
beard, sometimes called fringe tree, is a fine 
shrub, calculated for the centre of the clump 
or shrubbery. Its large branches of fringe re- 
maining all summer, give it a curious ana stri- 
king effect. 

H'Uii.s Slissouriensis, or Missouri currant ; 
there are two species of this very ornamental 
shrub, from Missouri, introduced by Lewis anil 
Cla ke ; they are quite hardy, and flower in 
great profusion. 

Robinia gtutinnsa, and Robinji hispida, the 
former a pretty large shrub, with large bunches 
of flowers in great abundance, the other a 



smaller shrub— they are both of them worthy 
of a place in all large collections. 

Sorbus aucupana, Mountain ash, or Roan 
tree — This is a very beautiful shrub, ofthe lar- 
ger size, ihe leaves are ornamental, the flowers 
and fruit which are produced in large bunches, 
are beautiful ; the fruit remains till late in the 
autumn — it is a native of Europe. The Scotch 
moutaineers attribute to it, virtnes to prevent 
witchcraft. 

Sorbus canadensis. This is a native of our 
northern frontiers and mountains; it does not 
grow as large as the former, the berries are 
smaller and red, the former larger and of an or- 
ange color, but otherwise much resemble it. 

Spanium scoparium and Genista, two or 
three species of Broom, with bunches of yej-. 
low flowers,in very great profusion; the Genista 
or Spanish broom has white flowers, is also 
very pretty, but not quite so hardy as the for- 
mer. 

Symphoria racemosa, or snow berry, some- 
times called snow apple, a pretty little shrub ; 
the bunches of wax-like white berries, which 
it produces during the whole summer, gives it 
a beautiful appearance. 

Syringa vulgaris or common Lilac, is welf 
known to all, and needs no comment. The 
white variety not quite so common — they are 
only fit for outside plantings, as they sucker 
very freely, and soon make themselves com- 
mon. 

Syringa persica, or Persian lilac, is a delicate 
low shrub, the flowers very abundant, and the 
leaves small and delicate. There are two va- 
rieties of the Persian lilac ; the white flower- 
ing, and the blue or purple flowering. 

The Chinese cut loaved lilac is very curious , 
the leaves are finely cut like paisley ; the 
flowers growing in longer racemes than the 
former. 

Siberian, or large Persian lilac. The bunch- 
es of flowers are very large, and continue in 
season a long time after the common lilac. 

Rosa, or Roses. A pretty numerous variety 
of them ; some reckon five or six hundred 
kinds. They are accounted the most beauti- 
ful of Flora's productions. Perhaps a very 
handsome collection might be made of about 
50 of the best sorts, which, by taking said 
quantity, 1 suppose might be obtained at 
about 50 cents each under name ; and gener- 
ally a fine collection nn-named at half that a- 
mount. No good garden or shrubbery can be 
without them. 

Tamarix gallica or French tamarix, and 
the Tamarix Germanica, German tamarix, are 
two pretty shrubs, the leaves and branches are 
small and slender, producing quantities of 
beautiful flowers, and form a very striking 
contrast to the other parts of the shrubbery. 
[To bo continued.] 



THE SHAMROCK. 

It would seem from an account given by tbe 
late Rev. John Brand, in his Popular AnHqiii- 
tles, that tins plaDt, used as the national cog- 
nizance of Ireland, is Trefoil, and of the spe- 
cies used in husbandry commonly called clo- 
ver. It is said that when St. Patrick landed 
near Wicklow, to convert the Irish, in the 
year 433, tbe Pagan inhabitants were ready 
to stone him; he requested to be heard, and 
endeavored to explain Sod to them as the 
Trinity in Unity, but they could not under- 
stand him, until plucking a trefoil from the 
ground, be said, " Is it not as possible for the 
Father, Son and Holy Ghost, as for these 
leaves, to grow upon a single stalk." It h 
said this illustration produced immediate con- 
viction in his hearers. 



TO REMOVE IGE. 

To remove ice from door steps, &c. throw 
upon it a small quantity of salt, and the ice 
«ril! direutly crack aad become kiose, and may 
be easily removed with a suovek 



:J6 



THE GENESEE FARMER 



THIl OL;N£SEii FARKillR. 



SATURDAY, FEB. 5, 1831. 



NURSERIES 

Every man who plants a Nursery of fruit or 
ornamental trees, and tends it well, perform- 
an act that should entitle him to the thanks of 
the community. A plenty of good fruil has 
always been considered a great blessing in ev- 
ery country. Bu: few climates are so favora- 
ble as to produce valuable fruits without culti- 
vation, and planting a nursery is the first step 
towards it. We have no doubt but many young 
men aro deterred from planting nurseries, be 
cause they think they cannot sell the trees 
•when reared. We have travelled over con- 
siderable part of the United States, bu-. do not 
recollect to have seen a nursery ofyoung fruit 
trees spoiled by overgrowth, or left standing 
too long.when they had been well roared. more 
particularly if they had been budded or graf- 
ted. Now if all the trees that are raised, are set 
into orchards or gardens, then the more nurse 
ries the more fruit. There neid be no fear of) 
overstocking the market, even where orchards 
are plenty. The means for transportation an 
different from what they were fifty years ago, 
and a gentleman now thinks no more of send- 
ing two or three hundred miles for fruit trees, 
thunJie would have done twenty years since 
of sending ten miles for a pound of tea or to 
bacco. The inquiry is, " where can we pro 
cure the best variety, and largest trees ?" A 
gain, others may think that in order to insure a 
bale of their trees, it is necessary that they 
should be cultivated with the most approved 
varieties, and they have never iiad an opportu- 
nity of becoming acquainted with them. In 
this respect, the alteration has been as great 
within these few years, as it has been in trans- 
portation ; you have now only to send to the 
book store, and get Prince's Pomological Man- 
ual, or some other author on honiculture, and 
you have all necessary direction--. The time has 
arrived when scientific information is distribu- 
ted through every part of our country, at a 
cheaper rate than in any other. We have 
some of the most learned men of the age, en- 
gaged in conducting magazines, and journals 
and even tracts, all at such prices, as aro with- 
in the reach of every farmer ; and there is now 
no excuse for their remaining ignorant of their 
profession, when they have a wish to be other- 
wise. Now let us entreat such young farmer.-, 
as are stationary, to commence the cultivation 
of fruit and forest trees, for be assured it will 
be a source of intellectual, as well as pecunia- 
ry profit. When you have your young seed- 
ling liees growing, and are wishing to procure 
any particular variety of fruit, which is not 
growing in your neightorhood, or within your 
knowledge, you have only n> sen d your inqui- 
ry to any one of the agricultural papers whose 
columns are open for such inquiries, and you • 

have the information sought for; or if you[ ™ j ," " woultl "Ppear, that the first pound 
Jiave young trees to sell, a communication 
through the same channel, is sure to bring you 



mer, for these operations, previous to the sea- 
son for performing them. 

FODDERING CATTLE, 
At this inclement season much of the time 
and attention of. the farmer, is given to feed- 
ing and nursing his stock. This is an impor- 
tant business, and upon it depends much of the 
urofit or loss of the year. We think if far- 
mers would give more moist food to their stocl; 
during the winter, they would find it much to 
their advantage. 

One reason why hay will not keep an an- 
imal as well for the same length of time, as the 
grass would from which the hay was made, is 
the lack of moisture, little else having escaped 
during drying. If horses or cattle are fed with 
nay, and at the same time have water by them, 
they will drink often. When cattle are confi- 
ned in siables, they can be kept with less food 
than when more exposed to the inclemency of 
the weather; and when ihe hay or straw with 
which they are fed, is cut and soaked, they re- 
quire still lose, than when it is fed to them dry. 
We know it is not common to cut hay, but it 
undoubtedly pays as well for the trouble as 
straw: the difference is, cattie and horses 
will eat hay much better without cutting than 
they will straw ; but both are more convenient 
for after management when cut. As thresh, 
mg machines are now becoming quite com- 
mon, we would recommend to attach a cutting 
box to each, to be carried by horse power, 
which may be done with very little expense. 
With such an apparatus, stock might be fed in 
many cases cheaper on chopped straw & meal 
than they could with hay. But in whatever 
way stock are fed they should not be allowed 
to lose flesh. We know the common practice 
is different in most parts of the United States. 
We look to England for instruction derived 
from experience, in many things appertaining 
to agriculture, but we cannot find a precedent 
with them for this practice; and surely they are 
allowed to be the most systematic and econom- 
ical graziers in the world. They hold it to be 
bad economy to allow stock to lose flesh after 
they have once gained it, and there is not that 
crow inviting appearance with their herds that 
is to be seen with us, during the months of A- 
pril and May. It is true local circumstances 
are always to be taken into consideration with 
regard to farming, and therefore what would 
be profitable in one place, might not be in an- 
other. 

We believe it is cheaper in this section, 
when cattle aro in flesh, to keep them so, than 
to allow them to become very lean and re-flesh 
them again. Allowing that it roquires a given 
quantity of food to produce a pound of flesh 
upon an animul when full fed, and that half 
that quantity might be fed to him in a spare 
manner, and during a time that would occa- 
sion the loss of one pound, to replace which, 
the first givon quantity would be again requi. 



Feb. 5. 1831 



a purchaser. As to grafting or budding, there 
is not that mystery, that many of the quacks 
which go about the country, would make you 
believe- -no, they are as easy as cutting a whip- 
stalk, or a bean-pole, and you may depend up-! 
'n finding all necessary directions in the Far 



>f flesh cost only two fifths as much as the 
last pound, allowing other things e«,ual. This 
would make a material difference in the price 
of an animal, whether we sold him for two 
dollars per cwt. or for five 1 If farmers would 
spend a few of thoir winter evenings in solving 
the following problem, it might bo useful to 
them. Pbob : How can a Horse, an Ox, or a 
Cow, be kept cheapest through the winter? 



ON CHANGING SEEDS. 

We do no know of a nice common error, 
than the practice of changing seeds, when far 
mers do not wish to change variety.or of chang- 
ing animals, when the breed is the same, believ- 
ing that the transferring of seeds or stock.often 
from one farm to another, U of importance to 
the growth of individuals of the animal or ve- 
getable kingdom. When we hear farmers say 
" I have had my corn, or my potatoes so long 
that they are run out," oi that " their flocks 
have been so long upon their farms, that they 
are much degenerated," then we think they 
are proclaiming their own disgrace, and are 
virtually saying that they are not fit to superin- 
tend their own flocln; that they neglect them 
so that they ruin them; that they are too lazy 
to gather their seed corn as they ought, and 
wish others to do it for them. To such mer. 
we think the proverb of Solomon will apply r 
"Yet a little sleep, a little slumber, a little 
folding of the hands to sleep, so shall thy pov- 
erty come as one that travaileth, and thy wan 
as an armed man." The fact, has been lon» es- 
tablished, that by a course of breeding renom- 
inated '■ in and in ;" that is, by breeding from 
the best animals, and rejecting the poorest, a 
flock may be greatly unproved, and in this 
manner, some of the finest breeds of England 
have been produced,— the same rule will ap- 
ply to corn. Now if by careful attention to 
the rules ef breeding fiom the best stock, a 
progressive improvement is made, and this 
improvement is denominated breeding " in and 
in," then when farmers sell off their best stock 
and breed from the poorest, the course with 
the same propriety, may be called breeding out 
and out. 

Yet so it is, the Butcher wishes to purchase 
some fat sheep, (and the best sheep are the 
most disposed to fatten) and the farmer al- 
lows him to go and select from his flock such 
as he chooses, leaving the refuse for him to 
breed from, upon the out and out system. His 
fields of corn ripen, and are gathered, the best 
sold, and from the poorest selects his seed, 
some of which fails, hut it is ail said to be ow- 
ing to having been oil the farm so long. His 
potatoes are dug and put in the cellar, the lar. 
gest are picked up by tl\e boys to feed to the 
pigs; the women look for the largest and best 
kinds to boil, and by planting time none remain 
but the refuse of the crop: ihese aro planted, 
and because they do not produce a fine crop, 
as to kind and quantity, it is suid they are run 
out, and the term is very proper, since thev 
were raised upon the true out and out system 
If the farmers will select such of their sheep 
[at shearing time, as they find do not produce 
good wool, aro getting old, or havo other bad 
points about them, and put them by themselves 
for sale, and reserve those of good points only 
to breed from, they will soon find the advan 
tage of the " in and in" system. So with the 
potatoes, let tho choicest bo selected for seed 
keeping the several kinds separate : let these 
be planted in good soil and well tended, and 
we venture to say that the second crop will 
convince the man thai his potaioes are not run 

out. 

Great fail of snow— During the night of tin 
3lst, we had a fall of snow to flic depth of II 
inches, and an addition on the 1st of two inch- 
es more, making in the fields about 20 inche.s. 



Vol. 1.— No. 5. 



AND GARDENER'S JOURNAL. 



37 



GRAPES. 

As the preference of American over foreign 
"rapes, is now completely settled as to vine 
yards, we would make the following sugges- 
tions, to be attended to daring the winter, or 
early in the upring : 

As it is reasonable to conclude that those 
grapes which wo find growing in a wild state, 
through the country, are well adapted to the 
climate, we would recommend to those per- 
sons who feel an interest in the cultivation, to 
look out such vines as are in their neighbour 
hood, which are good bearers, (and this in- 
formation can generally be obtained from the 
boys, who are better acquainted with them 
than men) and prune them; also cut away such 
bushes as shade them, giving them an oppor- 
tunity to show their qualities ihe present year; 
this will make a saving of two years over mo- 
ving the vines to the garden. The prospect is, 
that the grape known through the northern 
states as the summer grape, or the Vitis inter- 
media of the botanists, being an intermediate 
grape between the large fox, and the small 
frost grape, will prove one of our most valua- 
ble varieties for wine, and as every attempt to 
select by fair experiment the best vines of the 
■woods, is doing our country groat service, we 
hope it will no" be negleeted, and that each 
Horticulturist will come to the conclusion, 
that he will put at least a couple of vines in 
training the present year ; it will not be atten- 
ded with any cost, and may be a souroe of 
much pro6tto those who succeed in finding a 
good variety. 



he place : or, cut a tongue in both, & let them 
reciprocally enter into each branch, in which 
case, neither of the branches are cut oft' till 
they are united, or jou may only scarify them 
by taking oft" the bark and a little wood, till 
they nicely fit, and in various other ways, of 
which some French authors enumerate more 
than thirty, many of which will suggest them- 
selves to any ingenious operator. As soon as 
the joinings are completed, quickly and firm- 
ly tie them with bass matting, woolen yarn, 
or cotton candle wick, and cover the space 
with clay or any kind of adhesive wax. as graf- 
ting composition, or Burgundy pitch, to exclude 
the air. If the plant is in rapid growth, loos- 
en the tyings in about a fortnight, or otherwise 
n four weeks, and again tie them, and not fi- 
nally remove them under about two months. — 
In some of the most difficult and expensive 
foreign varieties, a longer time sometimes is 
necessary, which is easily known by examina- 
tion. Persons who would wish to perfect 
themselves, and get the knack of doing it, may 
in summer try it on the limbs of any tree or 
shrub. After the joinings have taken, detach 
them, by cutting asunder and trimming off 
smoothly, and waxing the end. 



frorn the coast of Guinea, as food for some 
birds, which were presented to Ellis, Chief 
Justice of the Island." From certificates for- 
warded by Dr. Brown, to the Agricultural So- 
ciety of Philadelphia, it appears that eight hor- 
ses were kept during the growing season upon 
the grass cut from one quarter of an acre.— 
This is an annual grass, of coarse but rapid 
growth, and requires cutting often. As wo 
are not aware that thU grass has been cultiva- 
led in the northern Btates.we would thank any 
gentleman, who is acquainted with the culti- 
vation of it, to forward an account of the man- 
ner of cultivating it, and whether it is calcula- 
ted for a northern climate, and what particular 
advantages there would be derived from the 
introduction of it into our northern states, as 
a substitute for the common grasses. 



INARCHING OR GRAFTING BY AP- 
PROACH. 

Ladies who are fond of Green house plant6, 
will find a very convenient method of propaga- 
ting and multiplying them, by the process of 
in-arching, which may be performed at anv 
time of the year when the plant is making new 
leaves, and what is its greatest recommenda- 
tion, it is easily executed, and without the 
possibility of failure, and is the common me- 
thod by which certain kinds, as the Camelia 
Japouica, Orange, Lemon, &c. are propaga- 
ted. The peach is readily grafted in this man- 
ner, which is extremely uncertain by any other 
method. Plants which have bad shaped and 
unsightly tops, or branches, may be in-arched 
ou themselves, and made to interlace and sup- 
port each other. Treesand shrubs, with open 
spaces, and ill shaped chasms may have some 
of the upper or lower limbs brought in, and 
mad* to fill up the naked spots. It is necessa- 
ry to observe, that two of congenial tempers 
and constitutions, or rather if the same botan- 
ical species, should be used, as in other graft 
ing, the same tree or plant will always in-arch 
on itself. 

It is necessary, if the plants are in pots, to 
bring them so nigh together, as that the branch- 
es will touch, or if a potted plant is to be uni- 
ted to a tree it n 'let be raised to the desired, 
situation, by means of a post, or platform ; at 
ter the branches are brought together, carefull; 
mark where they touch, then cut oft' the om 
on which you intend to graft, in the shape of 
wedge, with a sharp knife, and cut a corrts 
ponding slit or tongue into the other about two 
thirds of the thickness of the branch, and cu 
away the substance until the wedge fits into 



GRAFTING WAX. 

The following manner of compounding wax 
for grafting, or covering wounds on trees, we 
have found the best of the many recommend- 
ed by the books : 

Take of rosin one part, of tallow two parts, 
and of bees-wax three parts, melt them, and 
when they are perfectly incorporated, set by 
for use. When it is intended for grafting, 
budding, or in-arching the most convenient 
way of using it, is to saturate some broad tape, 
or pieces of thin iinen, or cotton cloth, cut in- 
to slips; these may be rolled up like rolls of 
webbing, and dipt in the melted wax, where 
they will absorb a sufficient quantity to render 
them impervious to air and moisture; the cloth 
serves as strings, as well as to secure the 
wound from air. When wax is wanted en- 
tirely for covering wounds after trimming, or 
where trees have received injury, there should 
be a greater proportion of rosin, or the bees- 
wax may be omitted altogether ; and the best 
manner of applying it is when warm, with a 
brush. Some have made use of tar, in which 
brick duet, lime, or chalk have been mixed in 
such quantity as to prevent its running off when 
applied. The only object of using this upon 
wound*, is to exclude airland moisture, there" 
by preventing decay. 



GUINEA GRASS. 

In the first vol. of the Ploughboy, page 154, 
we find a very flattering account of the suc- 
cess of the cultivation of this grass near Natch- 
ez. It is also figured in the Enc. Agr. page 
195. In speaking of the productions of the 
Island of Jamaica, the author says, " the Guin- 
ea Grass (Panicum polygonum) is next in im- 
portance to the sugar cane, as the grazing and 
breeding farms, are chiefly supported by it. — 
Hence arises the plenty of homed cattle, both 
Cjr the butcher, and planter, which is such that 
IV w markets in Europe furnish beef of bet- 
ter quality, and at a cheaper rate, than that 
of Jamaica. Mutton, also, is cheap and good 
The seeds of the Guinea grass, were brought 



VEGETABLE: PHYSIOLOGY— NO 3. 

Having traced the functions of vegetables 
through the different parts of the flower, to the 
formation of the seed, or the rudiments of the 
young plant, we will attempt to give some 
of the leading principles of germination, by 
which is to be understood that part of vegeta- 
ble economy by which the embryo is elicited 
from its albuminous deposit, and assumes the 
appearance of a young plant. This appears 
to be the connecting link between the old and 
new plants, or rather germination may be con- 
sidered the first principle of the new one, af- 
ter being disconnected from the parent stock. 
The seed when separated from the old stock, 
and carefully dried, possesses a principle of 
vitality which maybe dormant under certain 
circumstances for ages, and then be called in- 
to life Three things seem necessary to the 
healthy germination of seeds ; that they should 
be excluded from the light, and furnished with 
suitable propenions of heat and moisture. — 
When seeds are placed in favorable situations 
as to the above requisites, the farinaceous 
part of the seed absorbs moisture, and the 
radical, or root of the young plant is elonga- 
ted, and perforates the tegument, or skin of 
the seed, shorily after which, the seed swells 
■V bursts the tegument, & the plumule or top of 
the young plant makes its appearance from be- 
tween the cotyledons, (as in the bean) which 
afterwards become green ind perform tho func- 
tions of common leaves; they also decrease in 
size, showing that a part of the concrete al- 
buminous matter they contain, is carried off 
for the support of the young plant before roots 
and regular leaves have attained sufficient 
strength to provide for themselves. 

The phenomena of the invariable disposi 
tion of the roots to descend, and the plumule 
to ascend, has never been satisfactorily ex- 
plained. Perhaps it is a safe conclusion that 
plants receive in water, charged with various 
solutions at the roots, all of which are heavier 
than atmospheric air, and as the roots are e- 
[ongated by constant injection, and ejection, 
of this moisture, which in its motion carries 
some of the albuminous matter, or elaborated 
juice, to the orifice of the tubes of the root, 
where it is deposited, and that previous to its 
complete organization, it takes the perpendic- 
ular direction from its specific gravity. That, 
on ihe other hand the leaves receive in hydro- 
gen, which is lighter than atmospheric air, and 
of course as this food would by the same rule, 



38 



THE GENESEE PARMER 



Feb. 5, 183i, 



extend the plumule upwards, as the food 
01 the root9 does them downwards ; but un 
til further investigations, these conjectures are 
not to be taken as facts. 

It is well ascertained that water charged 
with different substancos constitutes a groat 
proportion of the food of plants, taken in by 
the roots, and that this is conveyed through the 
sap-wood to the leaves, where it undergoes a 
process termed elaboration, after which it re- 
turns by a different set of vessels, forming the 
inner surface of the bark. 

The nature of the sap in its descent by the 
bark, seems entirely changed, and most of it 
is secreted, or becomes fixed, forming the 
young layer of wood. By what power the 
sap is raised from the ground to the tops of 
trees, has never yet been agreed upon by phi- 
losophers; neither can the process of elabor- 
ation, which seems to be confined principally 
to the leaves, be clearly comprehended ; but 
there is an acknowledged similarity between 
the circulation of bio id in animals, and the 
circulation of sap in vegetables; and when 
physicians, by the aid of science, can clearly 
explain the first, perhaps phytologists will be 
able to explain the latter. 



TBRlIINOLOeV. 

Albumen — The farinaceous, or fleshy part of 
seeds. This appears like a thin glare fluid in 
imperfect seeds, but becomes hard as they ri- 
pen. 

Awn — \ stiff slender process, proceeding 
from the chaff, beard-like, as in wheat. 

Axil— A term corresponding with arm-pit. 
Barb — Armed with teeth pointing backward. 

Blooming — The time when the flowers are 
perfect. 

Bract — The leaf near the flower. 

Caducous — The part of a plant which falls 
off. 

Cell — In botany means the place where the 
seed are lodged. 

Cleft — Split down. It is applied to one 
kind of grafting. 

Convolute— Rolled into a cylinder. 

Corcle — The embryo of the new plant. 

Cordate — Heart-form. 

Corymb — Flowers umbel-like. 

Cruciform — Flowers with four leaves or pe- 
tals forming a cross. 

Cyme — Flowers growing in umbels, yet 
with stalks diverging from the eentre one as 
in the common elder. 



To Correspondents — Since the space al- 
lotted to communications was filled, w« have 
received several, which will be published in 
our next. Among the number, are the follow- 
ing _0. W— H G. S. of Lansingburgh— D. 
T. of Cayuga— S. Clark— Economist— W. 0. 1 
— A Subscriber — &c. 



A BRUTE. 

A late Boston paper gives an account of a 
young man who bad been arrested and exam- 
ined before (lie police court on a charge of 
beating and assaulting bis wife. The physi- 
cian who was called in attendance upon the 
woman, testified that she would not, in all 
probability, survive, It appears that the hus- 
band beat her thus brutally became she refu- 
sed to attend a sleigh riitc with liiui. 



From the Ploughboy, vol. 1. 
GEOLOGY APPLIED T» PRACTICAL AGRICUL- 
TURE. KO. 2. 

In a preceding number of the Plough Boy, I 
attempted to give a brief view of 'he applica- 
tion of Geology to Agriculture. I confined 
myself chiefly to the formation of the carihy 
part of soils from the disintegration or pulveri 
zalion of rocks. I will now point your read 
ers to the causes of this crumbling down of 
rocks, and give a few examples to prove thai 
this operation of nature goes on with consider- 
able rapidity in some districts. 

The principal disintegrating agents are wa- 
ter and change ot temperature. In all rocks 
we find natural cleavasres. Rains and melting 
snows fill these cleavages with water ; which 
on freezing, extends its volume, & thereby sub 
divides the mass of rock into small portions. 
More surface being thereafter presented to the 
same action of the same agents, these small 
portions are still further subdivided, until a fine 
arable soil is formed. 

There is a great difference in rocks in their a 
daptation to the action of these agents. AJrock 
of granular quartz, for example, has but very 
imperfect natural cleavages. Consequently 
but little water can gain admittance. Besides, 
the hardness of the rock will long resist the 
expansive force of the freezing water. Where- 
as the common argillaceous slate contains an 
immense number of fissures or cleavages, and 
the texture is soft and yielding. Consequent- 
ly soil-* are formed with great rapidity in ^laty 
districts. As facts are preferable to anything, 
however plausible, I will refer vour readers tt 
a few examples. Such examples must neces- 
sarily be local ; your reoders will therefore 
excuse me for referring them to a looality where 
I am perfectly familiar with the facts. 

That part of the town of Chatham, in Co- 
lumbia county, called the parish of New-Con- 
cord, has argillaceous slate for its basis rock. — 
In this parish there are many fields traversed 
by ridges of slate rock, which were not cover- 
ed with sufficient soil for cultivation, a few 
years ago, but are now ploughed and cultivated 
like other parts of the fields. That those, 
who are curious to witness tlie most conclusive 
evidence of the rapid formation of soils from 
the disintegration of rocks, may not be subject 
to the labour of much inquiry orreseareh, I 
will point them to a distinct locality. On the 
farm, now owned by Judge Patterson, and for- 
merly by Capt. Abel Eaton, on the Union turn- 
pike road, about fifteen miles from the city of 
Hudson, is the locality to which I allude. The 
highest ridge in a field on the east side of the 
road, being about one hundred and twenty rods 
northeasterly from the dwelling-house, was 
one entire bare slate rook, about thirty years 
ago. This fact I well remember: but I will 
refer the reader to Mr. Hozea Birge, who still 
resides near the plaoe for a confirmation of the 
fact. Now most of this same ridge is good 
arable land. That the present coat of soil 
could not have washed down from the hills a- 
bove, is evident from the position of the ridge. 
For the ground botwees the ridge and the bill 
above, is much the lowest. Consequently the 
earthy soil eovenng this ridge of rock must 
have been wholly formed by the disintegration 
of the rock within thirty years. 

May we not safely infer, that the earthy part 
of soils is perpetually undergoing changes id 
respect to quality and depth, in some districts 
of country T For example, the rock overlay- 
ing the slate in the before mentioned parish, 
was graywacke. This is evident, not only 
from a consideration of the geological series of| 
rocks, but from the fact, that some of the high- 
est hills are still capped with graywacke. As! 
graywacke is chiefly composed of grains of 
quartz, cemented together by a little alumine, 
soils formed of this rock must be too saudy &.', 
loose. May we not therefore presume, that! 
many hundred years ago, the soil of that pa- 1 
rish was more loose and sandy than at present,! 
and consequeutly less productive « But since 
the graywacke !"»cl« has chiefly passed away, 



and perhaps mostly gone down the Hudson to 
form the islands and shoals at its mouth ; and 
since the slate roek has become eyposed to the 
disintegrating agents, and commenced the ope- 
ration of adding its substance to the graywacke 
soil, the earthy soil of this district is greatly 
improved. 

In the eastern parts of Columbia county the 
slate rock has passed away and left the granu- 
lar limestone, which is the next structure be- 
neath it, bare. Naar what is called Canaan 
corner, is a manifest locality. Consequently, 
the disintegrating agents have commenced 
their attack upon it, and will greatly improve 
the neighbouring soil, by the addition of car- 
bonate of lime. In the western part of 
the same county, the upper, or secondary stra- 
tum of limestone still remains above the gray- 
wacke. Consequently thr. soil is daily impro- 
ved in that district by the mouldering down of 
that rock. A. 

NEWS OE> THE WEEK. 

U. S. SENATOR. 

On Tuesday last the two bouses of the le- 
gislature proceeded according to previous re- 
lolution to the nomination of a U. S. Senator 
in the place of the Hon. Nathan Sanford. 

Tbe vote in the Assembly stood as follows, 
for Wm. L. Marcy 86, for Samuel Works of 
Monroe 27, and in tbe Senate for Wm. L. 
Marcy 20, and for S. Works 5. The Senate 
and Assembly then convened in tbe Assembly 
oharnber.and their nominations agreeing Wm. 
L. Marcy was declared by tbe President o: 
tbe Senate, duly elected. 

TREASURER. 

Abraham Keyser was dnly appointed Trea- 
surer. 

JUDSE OF THE SUPREHE COURT. 

Samuel Nelson, Judge of the 6lh Circuit, 
was Dominated by the Governor and oonfirm- 
ed by the Senate, a Judge of tbe Supreme 
Court of this State on Tuesday last, in the 
place of Judge Marcy, resigned. 

SPECIAL CIRCUIT. 

The present legislature have passed a Ian 
directing a Special Circuit Court and Coui t of 
Oyer and Terminer and jail delivery to be h«lc 
in the county of Niagra, commencing on the 
3d Monday of February inst and to be con- 
tiDOed by adjournment to such times as said 
courts may direct ; and the Circuit Couit of 
Oyer and terminer may be held and continued 
by farther adjournment, as often as the said 
court shall see fit. 

The Circuit Judge of that Circuit is empow- 
ered to direct such additional number of petit 
jurors to be drawn as he may tbink proper. 

Tbe Courts are to be held by one of the jus- 
tices of the Supreme Court, who is to be al- 
lowed the sum of $5 per day for all tbe time 
he shall be engaged in going to and returning, 
and holding such Courts together with his ex- 
penses, payable out of the treasury of the state 

No grand jury is to be summoned to attend 
tbe Courts authorized by tbis act. 

All persons bound by recognizance or other- 
wise to appear at any Circuit Court or Oyer 
and terminer for the county of Niagra shall bo 
bound to appear at the Coaits authorized by 
this act, and the law authorizing these courts 
takes effect immediately on the passage thereof 
FOREIGN NEWS. 

It is now more than 30 days since tbeie lis* 
been a foreign arrival at New York. The 
last Liverpool dates were to 9lb of Dec. 
Tbe Journal of Commerce of the 29th Jan., 
observes that on the 29th cf January, 1830- 
the ship I Iuimibal arrived from London, bring- 
ing papers tp {be 1st January. Tbe public 



Vol. I.— No. 5. 



AND GARDENER'S JOURNAL,. 



39 



anxiety to gain intelligence from Europe is 
again becoming intense. That quarter ol 
the globe at the last dates presented an inter 
esting scene of action, and tbe times seemed 
rife « ith corning events of no ordinary lm 
portance, and the lapse of time since the last 
arrivals has not failed to increase tbe interest 
Arrivals are daily expected, and it cannoi 
be long ere we shall be greeted with intelli 
gence that in all probability will afford a pretty 
certain indication of the political features ol 
Europe for the coming year. The last date* 
were the harbingers of peace — the next mat 
be the messengers of wide spread and devas 
tating war. 

NEW YORK MARKETS. 

The holders of flour and grain are looking 
with anxiety for English advices and the mar. 
frets in consequence continue stationary and 
quiet, and will probably remain so until for- 
eign arrivals. 

The money market is abundant, and loans 
have recently been made at five per cent, on 
mortgage securities. 

seaman's bank op savincs. • 

By the report of the board of Trustees of 
this Institution in New York, it appears thai 
it went into operation on the 11th May, 1829 
and that since that time up to the 31st Decem- 
ber, 1830. there had been deposited the a- 
mount ot g62,719 45 The depositors an 
all persons engaged in seafaring pursuits, an.; 
the strongest hopes are entertained that when 
it shall become generally known that there is 
such a place of deposit, the habit of saving 
will prevail to considerable extent among 
thai class of people peculiarly distinguished 
for their prodigality while "in port." Th< 
amount of interest received is $1,702 38. 

nARVARD PHI BETA KAPPA. 

The following appointments have beeti 
made for the next anniversary performance o! 
this Society : James T. Austin Esq Orator, 
Rev. John Pierpoint, Poet; and the Rev. 
Tueodoie Edson, Chaplain. 

RHINOCEROS 

The Rhinoceros which was imported from 
Bengal last Spring, has been sold at audio.. 
in Philadelphia fo,- $4,100. 

FIRE. 

The Woollen Manufacturing establishment 
of Joshua Clapp, South Leicester, Mass. ha- 
been destroyed by fire Loss $10,000. 

WILD MAN OP THE WOODS. 

Tbe following article from the Lexington 
(Ky.)Gazette, shows that the Kentuckians an 
up to telling big lies as well as whipping wild 
cats, &c. Last summer a story went Un- 
round of all the newspapers of thRt state, of k 
snake so large that it devoured Oxen, Hor- 
ses and other domestic animals, and to add to 
the terrific qualifications of his snake ship 
his roarings had been beared the distance oi 
several miles. That story was exceeding^ 
foolish, this is still more so. While tbe Ken 
tuckians stick to their steam boats, wild cats 
big waggons, and other kindred wonders, (he\ 
are very much at home, and their association; 
very proper ; but such stories as this of the 
modern Poliphemus, and snakes exceeding the 
Boa Constrictors of Asia and Africa, are too 
exaggerated to be interesting : 

Mr. Trotter. — Five or six days since, my 
business called me to Danville, and thence t» 
Harrodsburgh. Whilst descending the cliff 
on the north side of the Kentucky river. I 
very unexpectedly encountered a being who?e 
strangeness of visage inspired me with the 



most horrible sensations. When I first saw 
bim, be was lying upou the ground, his tail 
tied to the limb of a tree, about twenty yards 
distant, I would judge it to be thirty yardB in 
length and about the size of a bed cord. The 
tramping of my horse's feet startled him, and 
lie bounded to the tree, climing up his tail, 
•.-Inch, as before stated, was tied to a limb. — 
Recovering somewhat from my confusion, I 
advanced nearer tbe tree.where I immediately 
surveyed his whole appearance. Mis head 
• a9 of the usual dimensions, and his hair was 
long and flowing, reaching nearly to his waist 
His eye (he had but one, in tbe centre of his 
r nrebead) was almost white, and near the size 
ofasilver dollar. His body wascovered witb 
/air and feathers, and bis feet resembled those 
of tbe bear. He skipped with the greatest 
facility from limb to limb, and muttered some 
unintelligible words in a harsh tone. Whilst 
he was intent on gazing at me, I rode round 
tbe tree about four times, his head turning 
each time with me. When I stopped, his 
head was still for a moment, when it wheeled 
with the velocity of a top until it resumed its 
former position. Seeing him about to descend 
by means of his tail, I put spurs to my horse 
nid reached tbe ferry, greatly terrified and 
nearly out of breath. 

Tbe above statement is sent you at the re- 
quest of my neighbors, who will certify to my 
i<ood character, having resided amongst them 
or nineteen years. 

PATRICK C FLOURNOY 

Jessamine co. Ky. Jan. 3, 1831. 

LORD BYRON. 

Tbe following interesting remarks on this 
Prince of Poets are from a review of Moore's 
Life of Byron, in the N- Y. American. 

Misfortune stamped bim foi her own at his 
iirth ; and with no equivocal sign. A ter- 
■nigant and a libertine were his cradle watch 
ers. He had no "monitors of his young years " 
Mis youth was Ida led in its spring; and (true 
rideed like many who have built themselves 
nonuments in the bosoms of men) be who 
ould move all hearts with sympathy, was un- 
able to touch tbe one of bis choice with love, 
lie lived, 

" as lives a withered bough, 

Bloasoraless, leafless and alone." 

He died, — be. the man upon whom the eyes 
I tbe world were fixed with admiration, if 
ot with favor, died in a cheerless barrack 
.Him, without a friend or a relative to minister 
> him : his last moments disturbed by the 
laniors of a mutiupus soldiery, and his eyes 
,-losed by a menial. Nay more, bis very re- 
mains cannot escape contumely His ashes 
are excluded from a public cemetry by his 
• ountrymen ; and there are those found in tbe 
land which he delighted to honor, who would 
brand his name witb infamy ! If such are the 
penalties of frailty and indiscretion, what ig 
nominy is reserved for actual crime? 

HORRIBLE REPORT. 

A St. Thomas paper of Dec. 28th, says — 
' v e have to notice a horrible report which 
iias been going about town for tbe last two 
ays. but to which there seems no clue can be 
und. It is said that a vessel has been fallen 
m with near St. Domingo, with a great num- 
ber of murdered persons on board. It is sup-* 
posed that this vessel is the one which was 
braring the equestrian corps of Mr. Handy 
(who was here last year) to St Domingo. It 
n said that the company had made a great deal 
of money in their tour through the Islands, 
which circumstance lends an air of probability 
to the report, as this alone might have induced 
the piracy. — N. Y. Eve. Journal. 



ROCHESTER PRICES CURRENT. 

Feo. 5, 1831. 

O" The quantity, quality, and prices of 
wheat have been well sustained the week past. 

The quantity of ashes has not been great; 
but the prices fair, and buyers seem anxious. 

The quantity of snow has been such as to 
give u« fine sleighing, and the bustle of busi- 
ness in our village, has given the strongest 
proofs of the prosperity of this section ot the 
country. 



Ashes per 2240 lbs 

Pot $91a92 50 

Pearl 100<il02 50 

Apples per busbel 25a44 

Do dried 75 

Bristles, corab'd per lb 20a31 

Beeswax do 18a20 

Butter do 10al2 

Beef — Mess per bbl 

Do prime do 5u7 

Do fresh per lb 02a03 

Barley per bushel 3&r44 

Beans do 50a62 

Candles, mould per lb 9 ct6 

Do dipped do 8 

Do sperm do 26 

Corn per bushel 44ei50 

Cheese per lb 04a05 

Clover Seed per bush $4 50 

Flour per bbl 5 50 

Flax per lb 07a08 

Flax Seed per bush >ai-7 

Feathers per lb 31o37 

Furs— Otter 100a400 



Mink 12/231 

Raccoon 18a31 

Martin -Jaif. 

Fisher 37n50 

Wild Cat If a2f, 

Gray Fox 18o25 

Grass Seed per bush 62 

Hops per lb J2al0 

Honey do 09 

Lard do 06u07 

Mutton do 02a0;i 

Mustard Seed per bush [S4 

Oats per bush 25 

Old Pewter, Brass and 

Copper per lb 14 

Peaches, dry'd bush 100a200 
Pork, mess per bbl $!2al3 



Fox, red 
Fox, cross 



Do prime 

Do fresh per lb 
Quills per 100 
Rye per bush 
Rags per lb 
Salt per bbl 
Tallow per lb 



50n75l Wheat per bush 



03o04 
25o3fl 
50 
03a04 
SI 75 
06a07 
106«113 



100o20«|Buckwheat flour, cwt. $1 75 



METEOROLOGICAL, TABLE, 
for the week ending Jan. 29, 1831 . 



Ther 



S 



Baromet'r I Winds 



12 12 29,35 29,42 km <m 

20 12129,35 29,30|k> Into 

18:15 29,20 29,15io to 

29,16 29,20 'to I to 

29,25 29,50«d In 

20,65 29,60 U Ira 

29.52 29,46ln m< 



22 20 

30 : 22 
30,25 

26:18 





Weather 


S|£ 






a 


u 




J= S 


1 


1 
1 




1 
1 




1 




1 


1 








1 









Observa'ns 



l-2in.snow 



1 in'li snow 



!ET77ie Barometrical and Thermometrical observa- 
tions are registered at 10 o'clock A M. and P. M , which 
by a long series of experiments made for the purpose* 
show ihai time to give the nearest mean average of the 
relative heat of a day than any other time 



BANK NOTE TABLE. 

Corrected Weekly for the Rochester Daily Advertiser. 



by c. w 
NEW YORK. 

All banks in tbis state, par. 
except the following 
BrokenBanks. JTashing- 
ton & WaTen, Barker's Ex 
change, Franklin Bank, Mid- 
dle Dist., Columbia, Greene 
County, Marble Manuf Co., 
Plattsburgh, and Niagara. 
MASSACHUSETTS. 
Al banks in this state, par, 
except (he following 
Broken Bank» Farmers' 
b*nk of Belchertown, Sutton, 
Berks hi e, Essex and Brigh- 
ton banks. 

VERMONT. 
All banks in this state, par. 

RHODE-ISLAND 

All bonks in this state, per, 

exoept tbe following 

BrokenBanks Farmers' 

Exchauge, and Farmers' & 

Mechanics' banks. 

CONNECTICUT. 
All banks in tbis state, par, 
except the fellowing 
Broken Banks. Eagle, 
Eagle pay'ble at Union bank 
New-York, Derby, and Der- 
by payable at Fulton bank 
New-York. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 
All bank* in this state, par 

MAINE. 

All bank* in tbis stote, par. 

except (be following 

Broken Banks- Castine, 

Wiscasnet, Hallowell & Au 



DDNDAS. 
samaqnoddy banks. 
NEW JERSEY. 

State b'nfc, & Trenton Bank- 
ing Company, par . 
Ah other banks, 2 per cent, 
except the following 
Broken Banks. Salem & 
Phil. Mantif Co. Monmouth, 
Hoboken and Grazing Co., 
N. Jersey Manuf & Banking 
Co. at Hoboken, State Bank 
at Trenton, Protection and 
Lombard, and Jersey City. 

PENNSYLVANIA 
Philadelphia Ranks, paj'- 
All other banks, Sper cent, 
except the following 
Broken Bank?. Farmers' 
& Mechanics' at ft. Sa., Cen- 
tre, Huntington, Meadville, 
Marietta, Juniata, Greencas- 
tle, Bedford. Beaver, Wash- 
ington. Uniontown, Agricul- 
tural, Sil Lake, Westmore- 
land at Greenburgh, New- 
Hops Bridge Co new emis- 
sion, and Brownvile banks. 

OHIO. 
All banks, 4 to 6 per cent, 

MICHIGAN. 

All banks, "J per cent, 

except the following 

Broken Banks. Monroe,, 

and Detroit. 

CANADA. 
All banks, 2 to 3 per cent 
except the 
Upper Cana. at Kingston, 
and Unchartered banks. 



gusta, Kennebec, and Pas- 
te? Tftea&ooe table when speaking of foreign Bills, re- 
fers to those of $5, and over, as none of a less denomin- 
ation arc receivable. 



40 



THE GENESEE FAR31ER. 



Feb. 5, 1831. 



HXSCEX*XiANE0U8. 



From the New York American. 

THE ORPHAN GIRL. 

I have no mother ! — for she died 

Wh»n I was very young ; 
But her memory, still, around my heart, 

Like morning mists has hung. 
They tell me of an angel form, 

That watched me while 1 slept, 
And of a soft and gentle hand 

That wiped the tears I wept; — 
And that same hand that held my own, 

When I began to wain. 
And the joy that sparkled in her eyes 

When first I tried to talk— 
For they say the mother's heart is pleased 

Whon infant charms expand — 
I wonder if she thinks of me, 
In that bright, happy land ; 

For I know she is in heaven, now — 

That holy place of rest— 
For she was always good to mc, 

And the good alone are blest. 
I remember, too, when I was ill, 

She kise'd my burning brow, 
And the tear that fell upon my cheek — 

I think I feel it now 

And I have still some little books 
She learn'd me how to spell ; 

And the chiding, or the kiss she gave, 
I still remember well. 

And then she used to kneel with me, 

And teach me how to pray, 
And raise my little hands to heaven, 

And tell me what to say. 
Oh, mother ! mother! in my heart 

Thy image still shall be, 
And I will hope in heaven at last 

That I may meet with thee. 
January 26. T. K 



S. 



From the Albany Daily Advertiser 
The unhappy husband looked out of the win 
<low and his eye wandered through the deep 
shadows of night. All was still, even in the 
populous street in which was his own wretch- 
ed abode. As he drank in the universal air, it 
see nod to revive him. He called his wife 
from the wietched pallet where she was re- 
clining, and she came to him with tottering 
steps. He clasped' her band, dr>-w her to the 
open window, and they looked cut together on 
the night. After a pause of bitter agony, he 
addressed her. 

Four years have past away 

While we have lingered here, 
When has a single day 

Eseap'd without a tear ? 

Look out, love, on the night ! 

Its freshness let us share : 
Better to wait the light, 

Than seek our couch of care. 
Haw strange has been our lot ! 

When shall we find our repose ? 
All, all were soon forgot ; 

But the remembrance of thy woes ' 
By the lamp's painful glare 

In vain Iv'e toil'd for bread, 
I'd grapple with despair 

To raise thy drooping head ! 
Would that another fate, 

A happier had been thine, 
Tho humblest peasant's state, 

Were paradise to mine ! 

But do thy lips reprove ? 

O augcl, as thou art, 
The rain diops of thy love 

Fall on a broken heart. 



WINTER ! WINTER '. ! 

" Old Winter is here again — alack ! 
How icy and cold is he! 
He cares not a pin for a shivering back — 
He's a saucy old chap to white and to black, 
And whistles his chills with a wonderful knack, 
For he comes from a cold countiee !" 
And old winter is indeed here again ! Moth- 
er Earth has assumed her robe of spo'loss 
white, and her sons and daughters are up and 
active, partaking of or preparing for the "joys 
of the sleigh ." We love to hear the merry 
jingle of the bells as they pass our window, 
and mark the flush of joy, the living glow of 
animation, which lights up the countenances 
of those who are thus smoothly and fleetly gli- 
ding along the high road of enjoyment. 

Winter is indeed a season for enjoyment, and 
comes laden with many blessings. Who a 
mongst us has not felt that it is a period when 
the heart throbs with unwonted pleasure, and 
the bosom expands with the kindliest emotions 
— that notwithstanding the glory of the sum- 
mer has departed — though the rich verdure 
has left the fields, and the gay flowers bloom 
no longer in the valley and by the hill side — 
though the murmur oi the stream is hushed 
and the tuneful warblings of the birds are si- 
lent — in short, though tne sceptre of the Frost 
King has been stretched abroad, chilling every 
object over which it has been extended — who 
has not realized that the season is attended by 
a thousand joys, a thousand peculiar gratifica- 
tions which come upon the heart quietly and 
stealthily, and beguile it into happiness ! 
" He recks not of tho world without, 
Who feols be bears a world within." 
To the Farmer, Winter is emphatically the 
season of happiness Possessing within the 
limits of his plantation all that is essential for 
his comfort and convenience, when the labors 
of the day are over, he can seat himself by the 
cheerful fire which blazes orj his hearth, and 
whilst his wife and daughters ply the needle or 
tho wheel, ho can calmly listen to the rough 
blasts of wintry wind, as it fitfully rushes by 
his dwelling. As sources of enjoyment, Ins 
books are not neglected— The stores of intel- 
lectual knowledge are unlocked, and the fue 
of gonius and tno wisdom of experience are 
called up ; aDd whilst the jocund laugh and 
harmless jest goes round, emotions of grati- 
tude to the Givei uf all good fills every heart, 
and every tongue is eloquent with joy. 

But there are those to whom winter comes 
arrayt-.o in terrors — those who grasped by tho 
cold hand of penury, 

" shrink from the bitter blast, 

Si ill hover o'er their pigmy lire, 
And fear it will not last." 
To them Winter comes not a messenger of 
joy, for the "cruise of oil" has failed — the 
last crust has been eaten— and the last fag 
got now sheds forth a feeble ray of warmth to 
cheer and animate '.heir frames. Childhood 
and innocence — age and decrepitude- -the bew 
ed down frame of manhood, and woman's fra- 
gile form, alike are suffering beneath the rever- 
ses of fortune and the pressure of want — and 
oh ? how littlo of the overflowing abundance 
of those areund them, would it require, 1o rob 
the season uf its terrors, and cause tbe hearts 
of the widow and the orphan to rejoice and be 
glad " with exceeding great joy" 

" The poor have yc ahcaya with you," said 
the Saviour of men, and his followers cannot 
better bring their conduct into an aceordanoe 
with that of their Divine Mastor, than by fel- 
' lowing the bright examples oi feeding tho hun- 
gry and clothing the naked, which lie tins h-ft 
behind him in bis word. Liko '" bread cast u- 
f>on the waters," these holy alms^will return. 
after many days. And they who can thus 
contemplate tho appearance of meritorious 
actions and can feel tho consciousness, that 
iliwr hands relieve the distress of the poor, 
and soothe the sufferings of the unfortunate, 



ward to that period when they shall be called 
to their reward, and 

" One unbounded Spring encircles all." 



HUMAN COMBUSTION. 

We extract the following singular case 
of spontaneous combustion from the Ar- 
chives Gende Medecine : — A gentleman 
of a robust healthy constitution, and 
temperate habits. 24 years of age, ex- 
linguished with bis hands tbe burning 
clothes of his brother, who had acciden- 
tally set fire to them with sulphur, and 
was immediately afterwards attacked with 
acute pains in both hands, A woman 
who came to his succor observed that 
boih bands were surrounded by a blue 
flame. This at first was supposed to be 
occasioned by the sulphur adhering to 
them, and an attempt waa made to extin- 
guish the flame with cold water, but with- 
out effect. The gentleman ran down 
stairs to a cutler's shop, »nd plunged his 
hands into a quantity of mud : from this 
he derived very little relief. Alter suf- 
fering in this manner much torture for 
half an hour, he ran to the house of Dr. 
R. de Bras, by whom the case is related. 
On the way, both himself and the ,vo- 
man who accompanied iiim, observed 
distinctly the blue flame surrounding the 
bauds. The physician met him at the 
door, and observed the hands to be red, 
swelled, and exhaling a kind of smoke ot 
vapor. He directed his patient to plunge 
his hands into a well, and to keep them 
there until he experienced relief; on his 
doing so the pain abated and ibe flame 
ceased ; but he had not gone more than 
150 paces homeward, when it re-appeai- 
ed. On leaching his dwelling he imme- 
diately immersed his hands in a bucket 
of water, which as it got rapidly heated 
he had repeatedly ienertod. As often as 
he took them out of the water, he remar- 
ked a soit of unctuous matter flow along 
his fingers, and the blue flame re-appear- 
ed. Tbe latter was not however, visible 
except in a situation where the light of 
candle was shaded. A gentleman who 
remained in the room wiiti him, saw the 
blue flame several times in the course of 
the night ; towards day bieak only sparks 
were visible. During the following day 
the pain wa* severe, and large vesifica* 
lions, filled with a reddish serum, bad 
lormed on the fingers, indeed the cuti- 
cle was entirely removed, and the cutis 
greyish and corroded The vesications 
being opened, cerate was applied to the 
denuded surfaces, and th<- whole covered 
with poultices. The inflammation which 
followed tva-< moderate, the suppuration 
nealthy, and in six weeks the ulcers cau- 
sed by tlje burning were healed ; but the 
-cicatrices wvre distinct, and several of 
the nails dropped off 



ALABAMA. 

Tho free population of this Btate°amounts to are laying up for themselves sources of enjoy 
199,221— The slave population ampunts to 112,1 ment which will cast beams of sonshine over] sent year uioro than one hundred thousand 
025. ''their darkest hpors, and gild their passage on- hogs. 



MABV SWINE. 

A late Cincinnati paper calculates that there 
will be slaughtoreo in that city during tbe pre- 



*j*mm mm&mmmM &m&wm&. 



VOLUME I. 



ROCHESTER, FEBRUARY 12, 1831. 



NUMBER 6. 



ORIGIN AL. 



FOB THE GENESEE FIBBER. 
THE BEE. 
Messrs- Editors— I liavo obssrved that re 
Centry much has been published in various 
Horticultural Journals, on the habits of the ho- 
ney bee A knowledge of their history, econ- 
omy, and mode of working, is extremely in- 
teresting, and the subject derives additional 
interest from the following fact, which came 
to me from an authentic source, a short lime 
since, and having never seen it in print, I send 
the statement for publication in your interest 
ing Genesee Farmer, which by the by, should 
be in the hands of every practical farmer in 
the Genesee country, who from the hints and 
experience of others, would save more than 
ten times the cost of the paper, in the coarse 
of the year— but to the subject : 

A few years since, a farmer removed from 
this county, to one of the northern counties 
of the state of Ohio ; his remove was in the 
winter, and he took with his other moveables 
a hive of bees, and at the end of his journey 
he located in an old log house, and for the 
want of a better place he put his swarm of 
bees into the garret, wheie they remained till 

soring. 

Anion" the many cares of a remove into the 
wilderness, he forgot his bees, and neglected 
to place them out of doors, as is the custom ; 
but with the return of spring, and the open- 
ing of the wild flowers of the wilderness, they 
did not forget their duty, but " gathered ho- 
ney every dav from every opening flower," 
until the hive "was full to overflowing. They 
found abundant passage between the logs of 
the house. When the hive was full, instead 
of swarming and going off, they merely remo- 
ved a few fe'et from the old hive, attached them* 
selves to a log in the same room, and went to 
work; others attached themselves to the outside 
of the hive,and continued their operations in o- 
pen view, in thismannerforseveralyears When 
the family wanted honey, they went into the 
room, and broke off what comb they required, 
without molestation. Having abundant room 
in the' garret, they never left it in swarms. It 
fs probable that the room was nearly dark, bu' 
of this lam not informed. From this circum- 
stance, the inhabitants when they build their 
houses, finish off a small tight room, in the gar 
ret, or other convenient part of the house, ex- 
clusively for the bees, with timbers or braces to 
which they can attach the comb, having a light 
door to the room, to exclude mice, &c, and 1 
understand they are not molested by the bee- 
moth or miller I could much enlarge Dpon 
this subject, bat time does not permit, and it is 
quite sufficient for a practical mas to improve 
the hint. I am, repectfully, yours, O. W. 



FOR THE GENESEE FARMER. 

The north-easterly storms which sweep 
throughout the maritime parts of the United 
Slates, and which perhaps bring the most un 
comfortable weather of the whole year, are 
unknown in some of the inland districts ef 
our ci.ootry ; arid though on the east side of 
the Cayuga lake, sometimes a gentle breeze 
ocenrs in unsettled weather from that point, of- 
ten veering in a few hours 50 or 60 degrees on 
either side, yet I have no recollection of ha- 
ving ever obserred at this place, what in com- 
mon language is called "a north-easier." 

That north-easterly storms occur, however, 
on the south shore of Lake Ontario, I have 
several times witnessed ; and it might be ex- 
pected that such currents would ruth along 
•valleys lying irj a south-westerly direction. — 
Jnrlned, a valued friend who resides at Lyons, 
on tho Clyde river, has spoken of their occur- 
Tenco at that piaefc. 



On a former occasion, I remarked that the 
course of the same general wind over exten 
sive plains, and along the valleys of large wa 
ters, was ofien very different, it being in the 
latter case deflected by the parallel ranges of 
the hills. I also referred to a paragraph 
Cook's last Voyage, in which was noticed a 
difference of 90 degrees in the direction of 
the gale at the same time, and only at the dis- 
tance of a few miles ; and which on account 
of its pointed testimony, and that the occur 
rence was not unexpected by those experien 
ced mariners, I subjoin in a note. At this 
place, we probably owe the course of our S. 
S. E. winds, (which so frequently occur) and 
also our N. N. W. winds to the position of the 
Cayuga lake. 

Since tho days of Franklin, it has been 
generally known that the great body of the 
clouds in north-easterly storms move from the 
soutli-wost; and that the chilling wind that 
carrieB the scud is only a counter current. The 
superior and principal clouds that rain or snow- 
over this land, appear also to come from the 
south west; but the counter currents are 
much more variable than on the south east 
side of the Allegany range of mountains, — 
With U9, the North, and even the north-north 
west are not considered fair weather winds, 
although with these sometimes the sky is 
clear ; but our deepest snows have come from 
the nortlvind on two successive days, we have 
had continued rains from the N. N. W. Some 
circumstances bave induced me to believe that 
north-easterly storms rushing up the St. Law- 
rence, have become deflected at those times, 
and with diminished velocity have taken near- 
ly the direction of our parallel lakes. 

Now the objeotof this communication is to 
invite the attention of such readers of the 
Genesee Farmer, as stndy meteorology, to this 
subject, so that we may learn what winds pre- 
vail on the Seneca Lake, the Clyde river, and 
its branches, in the valley of tho Genesee, at 
Lockport, at Batavia, at Lewiston or Niagara 
Falls, and at Buffalo, white a north-easter is 
chafing the shore of Ontario. D. T- 

Great field. 1 Mo. 24, 1831. 
Note — " Before we had got up one anchor [in Auatt- 
ka Bay] so violent a gale sprung up from ihe northeast 
that we thought proper to mooragain, [XT] supposing 
from tho position of the entrance of the bay, that the 
current of wind woold in at] probability set up the chan- 
nel. [jz$] The pinnace was dispatched to examine the 
passage, and returned with intelligence, that the wind 
blew violently from the south-e&t, with a great swell 
setting into the bay." 



may be thus set any time of the day, and will 
require no watering. Keep them clear of 
weeds. If more plants are wanted, replace 
the potato, which will soon throw out a new 
set of plants. 

The white are the earliest, and the be9t for 
our climate ; then tho yellow, and the red. A 
light, dry sandy soil, is considered best for 
them, but they grow well in alight mould, or 
loam, if dry and warm. I have no doubt they 
will become a profitable crop, even for feeding 
stock, in your country. Mine were planted, 
last year, in the bed, early in April ; in the 
hills, by the middle of May; and ripened in 
August, and to middle of September. The 
largest were 8 to 12 inches in length, C to 8 
in circumference, and very little, if any, infe- 
rior, in richness, to the best from the southern 
states. H. G. S. 

Jan. 29, 1831—75. 



FOR THE GENESEE FARMER. 

The S2ceet Potato, or Carolina Potato, as 
often called, may, and will, become an article 
of profit, in the region of the Genesee Farm- 
er. It is cultivated with very little more trou- 
ble than the common potato, in my garden, 
and gives nearly as good a yield. Perhaps you 
do cultivate it already — if you do not, try it. 
I plant a few, say a dozen well grown pota- 
toes, early in April, and from them get plants 
enough for 50 to 1G0 hills, enough for my fam- 
ly. Dig a hole iu the soil of the garden two 
feet deep, and three or four feet square, or 
round. Fill this with fresh horse dung, from 
out of doors, well wetted, and cover it three 
inches with soil. 

When warmed, by heat or fermentation, 
plant the potatoes two inches under the sur- 
face, which I leave open to the weather. The 
growth will then be stimolated by the internal 
heat, and vegetated by the external, so as to 
give you plants for transplanting, by the lime 
the season is sufficiently advanced. I make 
the hills, before transplanting, 12 to 18 inches 
high, 3 or 4 feet apart each Way. When the 
plants have 3 or 4 or 6 leaves, nip off the root 
adhering to the potato, with the tliumb c and 
finjjer nail, having thousands of fibrous roots, 
and set these, 1, 2, or 3 in each hill. They 



FOR THE GEHEBEE FARMER. 

Messrs. Editors — I wish to communicate 
to the public, through your paper, the result of 
an Horticultural experiment, which I trust 
may be new to some of your readers. In tbe 
spring of 1829, I found in my fruit garden, that 
the mice had girdled two of my young plum 
trees, taking off a ring of bark near the ground, 
about four or five inches wide. A gentleman 
of my acquaintance, observed to me, that the 
trees might be saved by splicing in pieces of 
bark, so as to connect the roots with the tops, 
<& gave me directions fordoing it. Being unwil- 
ling to lose my trees I proceeded by taking some 
pieces of limbs of the same tree, corresponding 
in length to the.width from which tho bark'had 
been removed, and having split them, I fitted 
them to the bodies, (which were about an inch 
and a half in diameter) by flattening them, 
and cutting square in at the ends, so as to make 
good joints where the bark was sound, — tied 
them fast with strings, and hillod the dirt over 
them. The result was, the pieces united at 
both ends, and the trees have continued to 
grow, as though no accident had befallen them, 
and now hid fair to produce fruit the next sea- 
son. I have since tried the experiment upon 
an apple tree with equal suocess. As similar 
accidents happen to trees, from mice, rabbits, 
calves and sheep, I can recommend the pro- 
cess of splicing, as by it, trees so injured, mav 
be saved. S. CLARK. 

' Greece, Feb'y 1, 1831. 



FOR THE GENESEE FARMER. 
To the Editors of the GeneseeFarmer : 

Having received the first four numbers of 
your paper, I am persuaded it will be a profit- 
able source of information to Farmers, Hur- 
ttculturists, and Economists; and I hope wijl 
prove a source of profit to yeurselves. If far 
mers generally would take an interest in it, 
& communicate through it such information as 
tbey possess, as regards the best methods of 
performing the common operations ol farm- 
j, or Horticulture, &c. its usefulness would 
be greatly increased. By this manner ofcor- 
respondence, each farmer would have the 
benefit of the experience of tbe whole, and 
the cost of your paper would bear no couipar 
ison with tbe benefits arising fom this kind 
of reading. Permit me to make some inqui 
ries through your paper, hoping that those who 
have the information sought, will give it thro' 
the same channel ; which might benefit others 
as well as myself. 

I have seen, the hist season, a tolerable 
crop of wheat growing upon land that a few 
years since, appeared quite barren, which, 1 
was informed, was sowed after ploughing in a 
crop of olover. I have also been infor- 
med that this method has been practiced-, 
both for wheat and other crops, upon light 
land, by filming the sward Und,er, and sowing 



42 



THE GENESEE FARMER 



Feb. 12, 1831 



or planting without cross-ploughing or break 
ing up the sod. I would be much obliged if 
any of the friends uf agricultural improvement, 
who have given it a fair trial, would be kind 
enough to give the result of their experiment*, 
through the medium of your paper, accompa- 
nied with such directions as will enable those 
unacquainted with the method, to put it in 
practice in the most approved manner. 

Economist. 



Mr. F. could introduce this in a work so well 
and judiciously selected, and written, is mat- 
ter of special wonder. I can only account for 
it by supposing the said vegetable not indige- 
nous with our yankee brethren at the east ; 
nd although it is correctly described, yet with 
us a flower pot would figure as well if filled 
with coke weed, or skunk's cabbage. W. O. 



FOB THE GENESEE FARMER. 
HOGS. 

Messrs. Editors — There has been much 
said for a few years about the real grass breed 
of hags. Now I am not much of a Hogologist, 
and do no' know where this breed originated. 
I do not remember to have heard of the im- 
portation of any of them, and yet, all at once, 
many of my neighbors had them, and I have 
never been able lo learn where they procured 
them from ; but so it was, they had the real 
grass breed, l'hey say they are much more 
valuable than other hogs, and some of them 
have sold a number of them for breeders, at a 
high price. Oie instance came under my notice: 
A friend of mine wishing to chango his breed, 
purchased a pair of full bloods — they were small 
boned, and very fat, and the man of whom he 
purchased assured him they were inclined to 
bo fat and quiet, two very desirable properties 
in swine, or at least one of them is, and the 
other follows of course. After my friend had 
kept his new breed of hogs one year, he could 
not discover anv difference between his new 
and old breed, and they did not fatten on grass 
as he expected. This lie communicated to the 
man of whom he purchased, carrying the idea 
that he had been overreached in the bargain; all 
this the man ht-ard with r uch composure, an 
then *aid, " when- 1 sob! you the grass breed of 
bogs. I did not sell you my corn crib with 
them;" thu satisfied my friend that the repu- 
ted grass breed were in fact nothing more than 
the old corn breed under a new name. 



FOR THE GENESEE FARMER. 

Mr. Fessenden. in his American Gardener, 
gives ihe following description of the Lime 
Plant, which, like all things terrestrial, looks 
well upon paper, but fades in ihe reality, 

•'Lime Plant. — This p\ant(Pod<tphyllumpetta 
lam) is a singular production of nature. The 
stem foliage, flower, and fruit, are formed in 
the earth; and, after the plant has come up, 
there is nothing more than the extension ol 
parts. The stems, a' the height offrom eigh 
to twelve inches, branch out in two arms; at 
the extremity of each is a large palmated leaf 
In the fork proceeds the fruit stem. The first 
that i. seen in the spring is a delicate membra- 
neous cap. which is soon burst open by the flow- 
er-bud, which is large, white, and round Tb 
shoulders and arms lying close to the stem or 
trunk, -ooii appear, and, as the plant rises, the 
fruit stem elongates, and the arms elevate 
themselves. The fruit is about the size of a 
large lime, green while growing, and yellow 
when ripe ; has the flavor of a pine-apple ; 
and, as to eating, is but little inferior to thai 
fruit. The plant requires a moist soil, in a 
shady situation — may be propagated by seed, 
bu' best by dividing ihe roots, which are cree- 
ping and jointed. The root is medicinal." 

A number of person in these parts, who are 
find of curious plants, immediately on read- 
ing it. made up their minds to procure it, but 
on searching all of the New York and Albany 
lists, could noi find it named at all, and there- 
fore concluded it was a new thing from " far 
thorest Ind." — and of course a wonderful cu- 
riosity, and were determined to send to Bos- 
ton to procure it, until some one looking for 
its botanical name in Eaton's Botanical Manu- 
al, found it to be no more nor less than that 
pestiferous weed the Mandrake, of which I 
f<now more acres nver the whole state, of New 
York, than I do of the Canada thistle. How 



FOR THE GENESEE FARMER. 

We have lived through a long night of for- 
eign delusion, and have willingly submitted to 
the dictations of those whose interests were 
diametrically opposed to our national prospe- 
rity. But thanks to the march of intellect, 
we at length behold the day break of reason, 
before which the spirits of foreign interests 
are crowding to their European confines. The 
idea, that the western world was but the re 
fuse of the east, and although peopled from 
that country, its inhabitants were so degener- 
ated, that they were not capable of doing 
things most common with the inhabitants oi 
Europe, is no longer received as orthodox. — 
Americans begin to think and act for them- 
solves. It was said a few years 6inco, that we 
must ever be dependent upon England for our 
calicoes ! Where is now the delusion ? Then, 
ihat silk could only be produced in the favor- 
ed climates of Europe ! A few experiments 
have been made, and their own artists have 
pronounced the American productions superior 
to their own ! And now some lingering, how- 
ling spirit says that wine was never meant for 
the uncultivated Americans. Ere anoiherage 
shall pass, we humbly trust that silk and mine 
wilt be ranked among the first productions of 
our country, each claiming superiority over the 
most favored productions of Europe. Z. 

FOR THE GENESEE FARMER. 

Messrs. Editors — As the fahsion if shaving 
the beard is likely soon to become extinct, I 
am anxious to communicate through your pa- 
per, to those who have not entirely given over 
r .he use of the razor, an improvement in keep- 
ing that instrument in order, in hopes that I 
may be ranked among the inventors of the 
day ; for ysu mutt know that I am in favor of 
cutting off the beard, instead of pulling it out, 
or what is worse, of pulling some and cutting 
some, which hapens when the razor has be- 
come very dull. Most of us know that honing 
a razor is rather a long job, as very tew of ut 
resort to it, as long as we can possibly avoid 
it by using the strop. I have been in the ha< 
bit of setting mv razor with a Scotch hone 



mind with admiration." Where in the great 
and chequered drama of life is there a spot 
more fit for meditation than the garden and 
the field. Where a more suitable place for 
contemplation. There can we "see God in 
'he stones and sermons in the trees," — there 
can we see that his immortal hand has been 
engaged. and there can we worship and pay re- 
verence duvoutly. Again, the healthful exercise 
the garden and the field require, tend to free us 
from the many "ills nature's heir to," to invig- 
orate the system, to stimulate the body, and to 
cheer the mind. Who is there that does not 
envy the apparent happiness of the '-honest 
farmer," as he wends his way to his cot. from 
his daily toil, unmolested by the " busy hum" 
or the city or village, and'who, as the oyster 
that contains the pearl, seeks the deepest wa- 
ter — aliko seeks retirement and contentment, 
frugality and prudence in all his worldly affairs. 
Bni Messrs. Editors, 1 am encroaching on the 
limits of your paper, and will concl ude by say- 
ing that I am glad to see the course you arc 
pursuing with your publication, and the manv 
scientific men you have enrolled, as contribu- 
tors to your columns ,The profit as well as pleas- 
ure I shall derive from your paper this winter. 
1 hope may enable me to attend to the mani- 
pulations a garden of mine may require in the 
summer' You have taken up the right sub- 
ject — one not hackne\eil by "stale, flat, and 
unprofitable" discussions. 1 wish you "God 
speed." Nil Desptrundum. X. 



SELECTIONS 



which I believe are in general use, and it is 
known that they are so fine that il lakes a long 
time to set a razor that has been used long. — 
When performing this operation a few days 
since, I rubbed upon the face of my hone a lit 
lie rotten stone, which had the effect to make 
the hone equal to the best Turkey Isle-stone ; 
the task was completed in a lew minutes. The 
ige was line and smooth. I therefore recom- 
mend it to all who wish to keep up the civili- 
zed practice of shaving the beard. 

Yours, &.c. Anti-Mustachio. 



FOR THE GENESEE FARMER. 
I hold tilt* world but us [he world, 
A stage whore every maomusi play his part — Slinks. 

And ho it is, Messrs. Editors; — wu all have 
our parts to play; with this mundane sphere 
for our stage, — the various parturitions and o 
bits; our exits and our entrances, — and lha 
manifold evolutions, and ups and downs we Hre 
subjoel to, while wo "live, move, &- have our be- 
ing," present alternately a diversified and Ctr- 
cean cliange of soenery We as the dramatis 
personac, are required to sustain apart, alike 
The innocent employ- 



useful and honorable 

rnent of " ploughing and tilling the land," wa* 
first taughl to man in his primitive state by 
him who made the "heavens and the earth." 
and to whom also was then given a pre-emi- 
nence over all things, Let us embrace it as onn 
that fills every tongue with wonder, and evory' 



From the Nt.. -Voik Farmer. 
A Description of Tiees and Shrubs, pro- 
ducing a succession of Flowers from 
spr<ng to autumn. 
By Michael Floy, V President of the N. Y. H. Society 
[Concluded from Page 35.] 
Viburnum opvlus, or Guelder rose, other- 
wise called Snow-ball, is a very showy shrub, 
with lame balls of snow white flowers in the 
greatest profusion ; and is indispensably ne- 
cessary to every shrubbery. 

Vitex annus caslus, or Chaste tree, a pretty 
and singular shrub, flowering the most part of 
the summer. 

In enumerating the above list, I have omit- 
ted all such kinds of shrubs as were dear mid 
scarce. There are soup, more kinds of an in- 
ferior nature not mentioned : the above list arc 
all to be obtained at tnc prices mentioned, and 
the cultivation of them is in the power of any 
person, though but little acquainted with gar- 
dening. I shall now subjoin a li.,t of a few 
Vine* and Creepers, either to train on fences or 
trellisses, or to run up the trees. These 
have an effect beautiful and natural. 

Uinnonia radieans, or Trumpet creeper,with 
bunches of large red trumpet flowers, large and 
showy. 

Bignonia grandifiora, mnch like the former 
in habit and appearance, but the flowers arc 
much larger— It is said to bea native ofChina, 
and the former a native of this country. They 
are both perfectly hardy, and will climb up 
brick work or wooden fences, without any as- 
sistance. 

Clematis, or Virgin's bower. There are se- 
veral species, some of them tender, or not suf- 
ficiently hardy for our severe winters, without 
proteotton. The Clematis virginica, Viorna, 
I iti.-lla, and Vkalba, are perfectly hardy. — 
Glycine sinensis, or Wistaria sinensis, is a hand- 
I me China creeper, of recent ntroduction 
from China, and is not yet common in our nur- 
series It is a beautiful vine, running to a great 
height, and loaded with long racemes ofpurplc 
flowers, and is highly spoken of in the Gar- 
dener's Magazine. 

Glycine frutcseens, or Wistaria fru'.cseens.— 
This beautiful brother of the Chinoso kind, is 
a native of our Southern States, grows much 
in 'he same way as the other, anil perhaps not 
inferior. Although tins line creeper bad been 
long known in England, wu have not heard 



Vol. 1.— No. 6. 



AND GARDENER'S JOURNAL. 



43 



much about it by English writers ; the conclu* 
sion seems to be that it does net flower well 
in England. In faot, none of our Southern 
plants do well in England, while those from 
China do very well — here, however, it is quite 
the reverse. I have the Chinese Wistaria from 
15 to 20 fiet long, and the American Wistaria 
about the same height. The Chinese does not 
look so vigourous and green as his American 
brother. The Amerioan Wistaria should be 
planted in every garden with other creepers, 
or run up the trees in shrubberies, according 
to its natural disposition. 

Lonicera, comprehending all the fine sweet 
scented honeysuckles; of the Italian kinds, 
the monthly honeysuckle is decidedly superi- 
or, continuing to flower all through the sum- 
mer, until late in the fall, and very fragrant. — 
Some of the other European kinds may be 
occasionally introduced in large shrubberies — 
two or three American kinds deserve particu- 
lar notice. 

Lonicera sempervirens, or Coral trumpet 
monthly honeysuckle, is extremely beautiful, 
flowering during the whole of the summer, 
with its thousands of scarlet bunches. It is, 
however, destitute of scent. Lonicera fraseri, 
also an American : the flowers are like the o- 
ther kind in almost every other particular, ex- 
cept colour, this being a bright yellow. 

Lonicera pubescens, or Caprifolium pubescens, 
a large and beautiful honeysulckle from the 
Northwest coast; the flowers are larger and 
ot a bright copper color, inclining to orange, 
they are all perfectly hardy. 

Lonicera flexuosa, Chinese honeysuckle, of 
late introduction, it is perfectly hardy, with- 
standing our most severe frosts without the 
least injury : it is a very sweet scented honey 
suckle, grows rapid, and to an immense height 
It flowers in pairs and threes all up the bran- 
ches, covering the whole plant completely 
with flowers. It blossoms spring and fall, and 
is a very valuable acquisition to our gardens 
and shrubberies. 

Lonictra jnponica. or Japan honeysuckle — 
This bears flower* in great profusion, which 
are white, afterwards becoming of a light yel- 
low. This is not so hardy as the former, and 
requires a little protection in winter. 

I shall only add to the above the running 
kinds of roses, although there are many other 
things which might be mentioned. 

Rosa muttiflora, from China is pretty well 
known, producing thousands nf small double 
red roses in bunches. It requires a sheltered 
situation from some of our keen North wes- 
ters. R. mul/ifiora alba, from the same coun- 
try, is of lale importation, but as it increases 
readily, may be obtained at about the samo 
price as the former; the bunches of flowers 
are white. Rosa Oiemllii, a running rose also 
from China, the flowers o£ various colors. Ro- 
sa rubifolia. Raspberry leaved rose, from our 
northern frontiers, and extend ; ng over the wes- 
tern country ; although asingle flowering rose, 
it produces larne bunches offlowers, which are 
different colored, on "the same bunch, exactly 
like the former China kind, and is another in- 
stance of the similarity of plants, natives of 
China and our country. 

Rosa canina.fl. plena. English double Dog 
rose, is a very pretty little double rose, and 
will run to a great height. Rosa Banksii, La- 
dy Banks' double white China running rose. 
It runs up, and spreads much — it may be easily 
known from others of the running roses, by its 
being entirely destitute of prickles. Rosa noi- 
sette, and Chunpney's, are said to have been 
raised from China seeds in Carolina — they are 
not strictly running roses, but as they grow up 
tall, are fine ornaments for the shrubbery.fiow- 
ering during rile whole of the summer and fall 
in large clusters. The Madeira rose, or doublt 
while Cluster Musk— It also flowers all through 
the summer and fall months, and is therefore 
well adapted for the shrubbery. Rosa Chero- 
bnsts, called the non-descript, or Georgia rose 
— the flowers are very large and white, the 



centre yellow. This is a running rose grow- 
ing very high around trees, &c. 

Rosa rubiginosa, or sweet brier, is too well 
known to need description. 

I did not intend to have extended my re- 
marks so far, but as your correspondent ob- 
serves that he does not know whereto select 
from, I was led into greater lengths from a de- 
sire to comply with his wishes. 

Vou might as well direct him to pick needles 
from a hay stack, as to send him to Loudon's 
Encyclopedia of Plants. It might by some be 
thought a superfluous labour to describe com- 
mon shrubs, but if any description at all were 
given, we might as well commence with com- 
mon kinds, as they may not be common with 
every body ; but the shrubs and trees descri- 
bed, are altogether a pretty good collection to 
begin with, and they all n ay be obtained(good 
flowering plants) at moderate prices. In the 
list of trees, I have omitted all the oaks, hick- 
ories, and walnuts. Our ever-green trees, 
firs, spruces, and pines, ought now and then 
to show themselves in every collection, where 
there Is room. The Balm of Gilead Fir is ex- 
tremely beautiful, but they will not thrive well 
unless raised two or three years in a nursery. 
When brought from the mountains, and plant- 
ed out atonce, they seldom succeed. 
I am, Sir, respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 

Michael Floy. 

New York, August l2t/t, 1830. 

P. S. At another opportunity, (if it would 
be acceptable,) I may give you a list of hardy 
perennial plants, and a further description of 
shrubs. 

AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

Extract from the Albany County Agricultural Report 
for 1830. By J. B. originally published in the New Fork 
Farmer, for December last. 

Wheat— The quality of this crop has impro- 
ved within a few years from the attention paid 
in selecting soil and preventing smut. Th< 
method of steeping the seed in btine, and in 
teimixing lime with it before sowing has be 
come more general, and is found to be a cer 
tain prevention acainst smutty grain. 

Barley has been a good crop, particularly 
where sown early, upon dry or well condition- 
ed land. This is an important staple of our 
coun'ry ; and at the present price, 75 cents, 
ot» of the most profitable of our tillaee crops. 
fit product upon good dryloams maybe consid- 
ered double thai of wheat, & lessexhau'tin" to 
the soil. It is recommended to roll this grain 
.vhen 2 or 3inches high. 1 have found the prac 
tice beneficial. It buries the collar of the 
plant and causes thereby an increase of seed 
stems. 

Indian Corn. — Corn as well as barley is a 
good crop en grounds adapted to its growth; 
but on soils that are exhausted by cropping, 
that are stiff and cold, or habitually wet, it is 
seldom that the product of either compensates 
for the labour bestowed upon their culture. I 
find from twelve years' practice that the cheap- 
est and best mode of harvesting corn is to cut 
it up at the root as soon as it is fit to gather, 
and immediately to tie it in stooks. It may 
bo husked and cribbed in two or three weeks 

ofter cutting, or suffered to remain longer. 

Two men will cut, with a proper instrument 
and stook two acres in a day. I think Uiat it 
economises labor, increases and improves the 
fodder, and leaves the ground free in time for 
a wheat crop, and does not impair the qualitv 
of the grain. I usually cut my corn the first 
week in September, but have sometimes done 
it in August. There is an economy in prepa- 
ring this food for swine, which I will take the 
liberty of recommending. This economy con- 
sists in grinding and boiling it, the same as for 
family use. Admit that one tenth goes ft r 
toll, the boilng costs nothing, for it can be done 
evenings ovet the kitchen fire ; and 1 venture 
to say, that two bushels, thus prepared, will 
make more pork than three bushels fed in the 
ordinary way. Who has not observed that an 



animal, whether hog. ox, or horse, fed high 
with dry corn or other grain, voids a portion 
if it in a half digested, and often in a sound 
ndecomposed state. Common sense teach 
s that grain thus fed is half wasted. The 
cob, it has been satisfactorily ascertained, con^ 
tains considerable nutriment. If ground with 
the corn therefore, and scalded for noat cattle, 
it both increases and im»rove9 the food. Hogs 
do not eat it. 

To gentlemen cutting lucerne for hay, and it 
s oflon desirable to do this with the third cut- 
:ing, I would particularly recommend, that 
after the grass has laid a few hours in the 
swarth, to make it into corks, not exceeding a 
yard in diameter, & as high as convenient, pla- 
cing it on m layers wiih the fork, and point- 
ing at the top. Two days will cure it suf 
ficient for mowing, and every leaf will be sa- 
ved ; whereas by spreading, the leaves will 
crumble and be lost ere the stalk is dry. This 
is the practice I also adopt with my clover, 
merely opening it two or three heurs to the 
sun before it is drawn from the field. By the by. 
let me repoat my advice to my brother farmers, 
who have light rich soils, to try an acre of lu- 
cerne. If they have small farms, one acre of 
this grass is worth twelve acres of pasture. If 
they have large farms, it will prove extremely 
serviceable to the dairy, when the pastures are 
short, and is always convenient for working 
cattle. I compote an acre to be worth to me 
fifty dollars annually. It will keep six cattle, 
and keep them well, from the 15th or 20th of 
May. I jowed nn acre on the 7th of May. I 
cut it twice for soiling, and then feed off" a fine 
after-math. As pasture grasses, the orchard 
and tall meadow oat grasses hold a pre-emi- 
nent rank. They grow at all seasons where 
the ground is free from frost. — they grow lux- 
uriantly, and they yield an abundance of ten- 
der nutritious food. 

Frail was seriously injured by the late frosts 
of spring. The plum, however, escaped un- 
hurt ; and as the cold weather of May destroy- 
ed or kept back the curculio, we had a very a- 
bundant yield of this fruit. The peach and 
pear gave but a very light crop. Grapes were 
generally cut off, except in the city. In some 
neighborhoods the apple was wholly destroyed 
in the blossoms, in others there has been a 
tolerable crop. Many pear trees suffered from 
what is termed, I think erroneously, a blight. 
The disease has assumed a new form this year. 
Its attacks were heretofore confined to the 
branches. It has now seized the trunks. I 
have taken up several, of four and five inches 
in diameter; the limbs and foliage of some 
were apparently sound and healhty, but 
tho bark of whose trunks were perfectly dead, 
from 6 to 24 inches, at different heights from 
the ground. Among all the speculations upon 
the cause of this disease, I have met with no- 
thing satisfactory. Kirby and Spence in their 
' Introduction to Entomology,' vol. 1. p. 212, 
13, speak of a small beetle, which at different 
times has devastatt d the fir forests of Germa- 
ny, (Bartrichius Typogtaphus. F) which feeds 
upon the soft inner bark only, but which at- 
tacks this important part in such vast numbers, 
80,000 sometimes being found in a single tree, 
that it is infinitely more noxious than any of 
those which bore into the wood. I introduce 
this passage to induce new vigilance in our 
orchadists and gardeners to discover the cause 
of this disease in one of our most valuablo 
fruits, 

Oats anil Buckwheat. — I have already ex- 
tended my remarks too far to say much of 
these. Indued I could say little to interest a 
good farmer: for lie seldom raises either oats 
or buckwheat. Anil any thing I might offer 
to show their unprofitableness to the cnltiva- 
tor, would, I fear, be lost on a bad one. 

Mr. Nichols, proprietor of one of the paper 
mills at Newton, near Boston, was suddenly 
killed on the afternoon of Wednesday, by be- 
coming entangled in the machinery, and hav- 
ing his bead literally bruised to pieces. 



44 



THE GENESEE PARMER 



Feb. 12, 1831. 



THE OHNSE3B rARWEH. 



SATURDAY, FEB. 12, 1831. 

YELLOWS II* PEACH TREES. 

We must acknowledge with regard to this 
disease, we have been rather sceptical. The 
idea of trees being subject to disease, and more 
especially a contagious one, carried with it 
such a connection with sensibility, that we 
have been inclined to consider it as the vision 
of some Horticulturist, who in theorising, had 
given us another proof, that theorists are near- 
ly allied to madmen. But from actual obser- 
vation, we are now not only compelled to be- 
lieve it, but entertain fears of its becoming 
one of the greatest evils that has ever befallen 
our fruit gardens. For three years past, we 
have been watching the progress of this dis- 
ease, without knowing what it was. The case 
has been as follows : 

Five or six years since, a gentleman of our 
acquaintance, sent to one of the southern nur- 
series for an assortment^of fruit, among which 
were two peaches. The original .trees be- 
ing small, two larger trees were inoculated 
from them, one of each kind. The imported 
trees were never thrifty, and one of them died; 
the oiher, though still alive, has made but little 
growth ; the leaves are small and yellow, and 
the limbs remarkably small, and has produced 
but little fruit. The two trees inoculated from 
them appear stinted in growth, do not perfect 
their fruit, or very little of it ; some of it ap- 
pears ripe, when the size of a 9mall rifle ball, 
and that which attains the largest size ripens 
two weeks earlier than our common early pea- 
ches, which were known in the country at the 
time of the planting of the large trees. In 
short, the inoculated trees have become as- 
similated to the imported one that is now liv- 
ing, in respect to growth and general appear- 
ance. 

Near these trees was a small nursery of three 
or four years old. On one of these young 
trees a peach was discovered, which ripened 
very early, the tree was marked to be resrrv. 
ed, as being valuable for its early variety. The 
other trees of the nursery were taken up, and 
the early tree allowed to remain, and its ap- 
pearance since clearly shows that the early ri- 
pening of the fruit, was in consequence of the 
tree being diseased. The leaves have been 
small and yellow, and the whole indicates 
speedy death. 

From the above described trees, more Ulan 
fifty young ones have been inoculated, all of 
vvhieh exhibit undoubted signs of this disease 
In most instances, thestoeks below vyhero th< 
bads are inserted, throw out small clusters of 
sprouts of n feather-like appearance, of a pale 
yellow colour ; these extend to the length of 
three or four inches —the leaves wither and 
die. The buds that have been inserted make 
a small sickly growth; in some instances, the 
small trees have died after the inoculation had 
mads one year's growth, and others after two 
years, but in no instance have I known one 
make a healthy growth, although other trees 
near them, inoculated at the same time with 
other kind9, have done well. Mr. Prince, in 
speaking of this disease, says that it is spread 
by the farina, when the trees are in blossom; 
wo do not pretend to say this is not tho cas», 



but of this we are certain, that it is spread by 
inoculation, with a deadly certainty. Mr. 
Prince further observes, " as soon as a tree is 
discovered to possess the characteristics of 
the disease, which is generally known by the 
leaves putting on a sickly appearance — but of 
which the premature ripening of the fruit is a 
decisive proof, it should be marked so as to be 
removed in the ensuing autumn, which must 
be done without fail, for if left again to b!oom j 
it would impart disease to many others in its 
vicinity. Care is also necessary in its remo- 
val, to take out all the roots of the diseased 
tree, especially if another is to be planted in 
the same place, so that the roots of the tree to 
be planted, may not come in contact with any 
of those of the one which was diseased." 

As we do not doubt the prevalence of this 
disease, we would recommend to all who prize 
their fruit gardens, to examine them closely, 
and on the first proof of it to root up and burn 
any trees that may he affected by it, no matter 
how choice or costly. Also those who have 
been procuring trees from the ea9t, if any of 
them have given Mr. Prince's characteristics of 
the yellows, we would recommend taking 
them up before they blossom again, as the on- 
ly hopes of eradicating it, is by destroying the 
subject. It may yet be a long time before the 
cause or cure for this disease is discovered, du- 
ring which time our trees may all be destroy- 
ed, if we allow affected ones to remain. In 
removing, we would recommend to take par- 
ticular notice of every thing about them that 
may serve to throw any light upon the subject, 
as the appearance of the roots, bark, sap, and 
heart-wood, etc. — whether there can be any 
marks of insects, or any thing else which 
might have injured the health of the tree, as 
it is by such examinations that we are to learn 
the history ot the malady. 

Let all such discoveries be committed to 
writing, and be communicated to the public 
through some of the Horticultural Journals, 
that such Physiologists as are disposed to give 
time to the examination of the subject, for the 
benefit of their country, may receive all the 
aid the importance of the subject demands. 



For manufacturing, water-rotted flax only is 
used in Ireland, as dew-rotted is not consid- 
ered worth working. 

Tftte — If the Irish Manufacturers can afford to pay 
eighteen ceuts for a pound of flax to manufacture to 
send to Aaierica, what profit could the Yankees make in 
the same business when they could buy the flux for hull 
the money. 



SPINNING FLAX B¥ MACHINERY. 

It is not generally understood that flax is 
spun by machinery, although most of the Irish 
linen sold in our markets is manufactured in 
that way. On the 12th of July 1823, I visited 
tho Linen Manufacturing establishment of Mr. 
Crossthwait, (banker of Dublin) at Lucan, a- 
bout seven miles from the city. At this estab- 
lishment was manufactured five tons of flax per 
week, carrying it thro' the spinning, weaviBg, 
and bleaching processes. The machinery was 



quite as simple as that for spinning cotton, and -jng ik g ax 



CARROTS. 

It Appears not lo be generally understood in 
this part of the country, that carrots are among 
the best and most nutritious food for cattle and 
horses. One bushel of carrots will yield more 
nourishment than two bushels of oats, or po- 
tatoes, and it is a remarkable fact, that horses 
will) frequently leave oats to feed on carrots, 
after they have acquired a relish for them. — 
Generally, cattle as well as horses are very 
fond of them, and thrive astonishingly well, 
when fed upon them. They not only give 
them a fine flesh, but a rich brilliant gloss. 

•If our farmers would turn their attention to 
the raising of this vegetable extensively, they 
would find an immense saving in grain, as weli 
as a visible change in the thrift of their ani- 
mals. As amatterof economy and. profit, il is of 
vast importance. The quantity of carrots which 
may be raised from one ace of good land, i? 
almost incredible Where the land is rich and 
mellow, an acre will yield from 1,000 to 2,000 
bushels. The process is simple, and the la 
bour comparatively light. 

Select a rich piece of ground, tolerably dry, 
and as free from weeds as possible ; plough it 
deep, make it mellow, and harrow it smooth. 
Then sow your ground with the u'ual quanti- 
ty of flax seed, and harrow it in ; after this, 
sow about a quart of carrot seed to the acre, 
and bush it lightly. Both seeds will come up 
together, but the flax springing up with consid- 
erable rapidity, will so shade the carrots that 
they will not gain much size till the flax is 
pulled. The shade of the flax will also pre- 
vent tho weeds from growing, so as to inter- 
fere with the carrots After the flax is pulled' 
which will be in July, the carrots will be«in to 
enlarge rapidly, especially if the weeds have 
been kept in check by the shade, for the pul- 
ling of the flax will so loosen the earth around 
them, and so expose them to the rays of the 
sun, as to give them new vigor and strength. 
At that time, also, the weeds will not grow ra 
tpidly, if at all. 

Thus may be raised two valuable crops with- 
out impoverishing the land, more than by u 
crop of corn or oats. 

It is not probable that the first attempt would 
yield so largely as 1 have suggested above, but 
if yon take the proper preoautions, and are 
tolerably successful, you will realize from one 
acre about 1,000 bushels of carrots, worth C 
hillings per bushel, $375 00 c. 



less expensive. Tho spindles turned about 
three thousand times per minute, and one girl 
tended about eighty of them, which spun from fl 
one hundred to one hundred and twenty runs 
per day. I also examined about two hundred 
toils of flax, a part of which was Russian, and 
the remainder Irish. The Riga Flax, Mr. 
Crossthwait informed mo, cost from fifty to 
sixty pounds storhng per ton. Tho Tandarage 
flax cost eighty pounds per ton, which is near- 
ly eighteen cents per pound. The same sea- 
son flax was worth only about ten cents per 
pound, in most parts of the United States. — 



6 busu. flax-seed, 



10 c. per lb. 
7 shil. per bush. 



30 00 
525 



total $4IC35 

To what use can an acre of land be applied; 
by which it will produce half the amount.— 
This may seem a large estimate, but It is nev- 
ertheless true ; and if you wish to test the 
matter, try it next season. 

Horses will work on carrots, nearly or quite 
as well as ou oats, and keep in much better 
order. The Transportation Lines, along the 
Canal, would find great economy in using tbom 
as a substitute for oats. 



Vol . 1.— IVo. 

—M l [ 



AND GARDENER'S JOURNAL. 



45 



VULGAR EREORS..NO. 3. 

ClodpoU -Prylbee, man, in what part of the moon 
dostihou plant ? 

Hobaon— Nay, goodman Delver, in no part, I even 
plants on this old beldame cand That same moon is 
too fickle and inconstant for me, and I care not whether 
sbe quarters or fulls, were it not she saves me come fartb 
Togs cost of rush-light. Old Play. 

Tbe moon is a mas.-" of matter, containing 
about 1-70 the quantity of the earth, revolving 
around it with a never ending variation of its 
orbit, at the moan distance of 240,000 miles, 
and if its motions were destroyed, by which 
it is kept in its place, it wouid descend to the 
earth in about five days. It is now generally 
admitted, that she has an atino6phcro, which 
must be strictly gaseous, and without vapour, 
from the uninterrapted serenity of its whole 
disk, and from the fact that it lias no water on 
its surface, and is probably an extinct world, 
without any organic beings or substances in- 
habiting it, for which it is illy calculated, from 
its great number of volcanos both active and 
quiet. 

We will briefly sum up the reasons why we 
think that the influence of the moon on the 
animal or vegetable system is nothing, or so 
jmall and inertly exerted, as to be unapprecia- 
ble or cognizable by our senses. In the firsl 
place, the moon moves from west to east, a- 
round the earth, once in 27 days, but by the 
daily motion of the earth, apparently performs 
a revolution from east to west in about twen- 
ty-five hours, and although she appears larger 
at one time than another, yet it is only because 
(ho son happens to shine on a larger portion of 
its surface ; and the same quantity of matter 
the same globe is still there, and exerting the 
same influence, if any is exerted, at one time 
as another; now as the light which is reflect- 
ed to us from its surface, is not presumed to 
effect our globe, it does not matter whether 
there i more or less, whether she is at the full 
or the quarter— it cannot affect us. But if any 
influence is exerted, it must be by the laws of 
attraction, and that only ; that power acts on 
all matter, from the invisible atom, to the great 
globe itself and diminishes inversely, as the 
squares of their dstances. Now we would ask 
how this globe of matter, whose action must 
be constant and uniform, and which passes o- 
ver us about the same time every day, at such 
an immense distance. and so small in bulk when 
compared to this globe, should exercise an in- 
fluence on tbe ascent or descent of the sup in 
tbe vegetable, or upon the blood or juices of 
the animal system, both of which tre propel 
led by causes complete and independent of 
themselves, and which act and would cuntiuuo 
to do so, with the same vigor, if there was no 
such planet in existence. 

It seems to bo admitted that the moon has 
something to do with the tides, but how, is as 
yet not satisfactorily explained, and allowing 
:hat is the principal agent in the flux and reflux 
of the waters of the ocean, yet with all this 
power over the fluid part of tbe globe, it does 
not perceptibly effect the waters of the rivers, 
qr our great western lal.es; therefore that the 
power of attraction, of a mass of matter, at 240- ( 
000 milos distance, that cannot sufficiently effect 
the waters of a great iolandsea.to render it per-f 
ceptible, and yet should exert such an influ 
ence on the animal and vegetable economy, as 
to render it important whether we should plan 



form any other operation with our domestic 
animals, at particular periods, with relation to 
the moon's age or phases, looks to us as the 
most preposterous and ill-founded prejudice 
that ever prevailed uiuong sensible men in an 
enlightened age. 

Its effects on our bodies, are not appreciable 
to', our senses, in the most painful disease, or 
the most unsound part, whether situated in the 
mucus membrane, in the cellular substance, or 
even in the most delicate organs. A sufferer 
by disease of any kind, will not be able to say 
by his feelings, whether the moon changes, or 
hether she is abovo or below the horison ; 
therefore, it is fair to conclude that its effects 
on the animal system are not very palpable 

The effeet of its attraction on any particular 
portion of the surfaco, cannot Be of long con- 
tinuance, as the moon every day passes below 
the horison, when it can hardly be pretended 
that she could exert an influence of any sort, 
through the whole mass of this globe, and e- 
ven if it were possible, it would be exactly 
contrary to its direction and effect. 

As we said before, it cannot be of any con- 
sequence whether the sun happens to shine on 
I the whole, or one half, or one quarter of the 
I moon, for we presume it will not be pretend, 
ed that the reflected light has any thing to do 
with this wonderful agency, for although the 
light of the moon is said to effect certain 
kinds of sore eyes, and to cause cucumbers to 
grow, to whom it seems to feel a great partial- 
ity, (and justly, as there is a kind family cold- 
ness and nature in common with both,) yei 
we believe the strongest believers in " signs 
and times," do not refer it to this cause. 

It seems even doubtful, whether the weath- 
er is at all controlled by the powers of the 
moon, and altnough elaborate and complete 
tables are laid down for foretelling the weath 
er, and every child is familar with the Indian's 
powder horn prediction, yot after long and re- 
peated observations, we find them to fail as 
often as to succeed. 

A German philosopher, of high repute, af- 
ter having spent a long life in astronomical & 
meteorological observations, gave it as his o- 
pinion, that the moon had no manner of influ- 
ence upon the weather, or up m the health or 
growth of man, beast, or vegetable; and that 
the believers and propagators of this heathen- 
ish astrology, were moon-struck fanatics and 
lunatics in very deed. 



Madeira ; and I have frequently laid out from 
30 to 50 dolls, in a year, since. In about eight 
or nine years after I first planted the vines, I 
had most of the foreign vines grubbed up, find 
ing there teas no dependence on them. I never 
made but one quarter cask of wine from the 
foreign grapes, and two or throe five gallon 
kegs, in different years, and that was mad 
from Miller's Burgundy, before they were 
quite ripe, as they began to crack and burst, 
and I was obliged to take that chance, or lose 
them- 1 began to keep an account of my sell- 
ing wine, in the year 1824, of which the fol- 
lowing is a statement : 

1824 I sold wine and cuttings to the amount, 
of $909,55 

1825 - . . 947,41 

1826 - - - 928,30 

1827 . - . 1070,68 

1828 - - - 1162,07" 
The above produce was from about two and 

an half acres of land, and having seen the qual- 
ity we must say it is altogether inferior to 
most of the land in this section of country. — 
We consider the above the best[comment that 
can be made upon the subject of vineyards, 
wine-making, and the kind of grapes to be 
preferred. Coming as it does, from a man of 
the highest respectability, one who is not en- 
gaged in any speculations, to prejudice his 
judgment, we consider it entitled to the most 
profound respect. And now lot us ask tho 
farmers of Monroe county, what course of 
cropping has produced an equal profit from any 
of their finest lands, in an equal number of 
years. 



at 



there not being more than sixty or sev- 
or sow, or harvest our crops, or kill, or per-' enty of tho SchuiMlcIc Muscadell. and Bland' 



VINES. 

The following is an extract from a letter 
from our much esteemed friend, Major John 
Adlum, of Georgetown, D. C. whom we 
consider as one of the most experienced wine 
makers in the United States. "I planted my 
first vines in the year 1797, and in 1799 I made 
tho firs: wine, which Mr. Jefferson pronoun- 
ced equal to the Burgundy of Chambertin. — 
(See his letter, published in my memoir, page 
149.) I have oontinued making wine every 
year since, for when I had not cultivated grapes 
I made it of the wild grapes from the woods. 
The abovo wine was made when I resided 
near Havre de Grace, Maryland. In my first 
essay, in 1797, I paid upwards of ISO dol 
iars, for outtings, and mostly foreign grapes 



TO OUR READERS. 

We have some misgivings on the subjcot of 
our ability to amuse and instruct our readers 
and patrons, during this season of general ster- 
ility of all the subjects and interests which 
our prescribed routine embraoes. To interest 
and draw the mind to definite and abstract 
points, amoog the multifarious subjects that a- 
gitate, and engage an inquiring and seeking- 
people, as the generality of our whole popu- 
lation may bo called, it seems necessary to 
"hold the mirror up to nature" at the inci- 
dent angles to tho subjects, which should be 
present and in proper season. Long and stale 
saws out of proper time, are like a tale twice 
told. To talk of watermelons in January, or 
riddle cakes in deg days, would be as prepos- 
terous and unappropriate, as the sending a car- 
go of curling-tongs to Africa, or Lehigh coal to 
Lackawana;' and although we have a most 
cheering and abundant prospect of able aDd 
intelligent correspondents, yet we ask the 
kind forbearance of our readers, on our own 
part, till the genial season of bud and leaf an<J 
flower arrives ; as we propose to omit all spe- 
al details of the habits, diseases and cultiva- 
tion of the specific kinds of the vegetable 
kingdom, until the periodic time of their revi- 
vification, and "breathing time" arrives, when 
we propose to give our attention to every 
article of general cultivation, within the scope 
and compass of our ability, as they shall res- 
pectively come into season ; and we think 
that course most likely to strike tho attention 
of general readers, and forward the great ant! 
important objects, on the success of which 
we have staked our interest, feelings and sym- 
pathies. In the mean time, we shall endeavor m 



46 



THE GENESEE PARMER 



Feb. 12, 1881, 



continue such general discussions as our obli- 
ging correspondents shall favor us with, and our| 
own poor abilities be able to produce, togeth- 
er with such selections as a large exchange of 
kindred works shall afford us. 



SEED CORN. 

I have been in the habit a number of years, 
(says a writer in an eastern paper) of «electing 
the best car of two that grmcs on a stalk of corn, 
and have found it annually to improve to a very 
considerable increase. After pursuing the ex- 
periment for three years, and establishing the 
fact in my own mind, that by this method there 
was a constant and accumulative increase and 
improvement, I communicated the circum 
stance to my noighbor — be was quite incredu- 
lous, and I invited him to a thorough experi- 
ment. We took each our field of equal qual- 
ity of soil, and richness, lying side by side, — 
planted them on the same day, and tilled them 
alike as we could; the result was, that his, 
from ordinary soed, produced nearly 40 bush- 
els ; while mine, from the selocted and impro- 
ved soed, gave me about sixty bushels per acre. 



Heartt, G. B. Warren, John Holme, mem- 
bers. 

A committee was appointed to prepare 
the Constitution and By-law? for publication, 
with a compendious statement of the objects 
of the Society, and the modes in which it will 
operate, to be prefixed. This publication will 
be in a pamphlet form, and fitted to receive 
the subcription of members, and will be circu- 
lated for that purpose. The next meeting will 
be on tho 19th inst, to which day, at 3 o'clock, 
P. M. at the Rensselaer House, the society 
adjourned. 



From the Vermout Inquirer. 

BLOATING IN CATTLE. 

A gentleman recently from France commn 
nicates to us the following cure for this com 
monly fatal disorder. 

The Volatile Spirit of Ammonia is found to 
produce instantaneous relief. Its action is 
chymioal. decomposing gass generated in the 
stomach by fermentation. 

M. Thenard, the celebrated French Profes- 
sor of Chymistry, speaking of scientific inves- 
tigations, and of the innumerable instances 
where they have been found subservient to the 
general interests of society, among many others, 
adduced this as an example, and related the 
following anecdote, in illustration of its effects 



The Weather — January has been one of 
the most constant and uniform cold months 
that this region has witnessed since its settle- 
ment; the average daily temperature is 21^^ 
by two observations registered at TO o'- 
clock, morning and evening, and only on four 
days has the thermometer rose above the free- 
zing point at 10 o'clock. A. AI. While the 
most intense cold has been felt in other parts 
of the stale, our lowest temperature in this 
village during this month, at sunrise, was on- 
ly 2 below Zero, — a discrepancy in the tem- 
peratures of places in the same latitude, not 
easily explained. Good sleighing commenced 
on tho 19th, and has continued uninterrupted 
to this date. 

The amount of snow which fell during Ja- 
nuary was 13 T ' n inches, and to this date 3! T ' 5 
inches — and a fair prospect. 

Feb. 10, 1831. 



rope next seabou. As to the filature and 
twitting of the Bilk, it is as well executed as 
any I have seen id this country, and convin- 
ced me that with proper instruction and ma- 
chinery we shall be able to manufacture silk 
not only equal but superior to any in the world. 

Promenade, Sec. in the Caledonian Horticural 
Society's Experimental Garden, at herleitk 
Juhj 10. 

The garden is about ten English acres in 
exteot.and commands from every part a superb 
view of the city. It is divided into compart- 
ments suited to the different kinds of plants 
raised in it; the chief of these apartment? 
being the aboretum, the orchard, the nursery, 
the hot bouses and stoves, and the kitchen 
garden. The aboretum is formed of the nu- 
merous species and varieties of trees & shrubs, 
and extends round nearly three sides of the 
garden, besides intersecting it in the form of 
two raised belts. The orchard contains up- 
wards of 600 sorts of apples, collected with 
great care, and at considerable expense and 
many new seedling varieties. The pears a- 
mount to 350 sorts, the plums to 100 sorts, the 
cherries, to CO sorts, and the filberts to about 
10 sorts. Of the gooseberries there are 350 



A short lime previous, while on a visitto his varieties; and the distinct kinds of straw ber- 



From Ihe Troy Sentinel, of Feb.7- 

HorTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The organization of" The Kensselner Coun- 
ty Horticultural Society" was completed on 
Friday last, at the Rensselaer House. 

The following is a complete liet of the ap- 
pointments. 

President, John D. Dickinson; 1st Vice 
President, Abraham C. Lansing ; 2d Vice Pre- 
sident. Herman Knickerbacker ; 3d Vice Pre- 
sident, Richard P. Hart: 4th Vice President, 
John Carpenter: 5th Vice President, R. I. 
Knowlson; Treasurer. John T. Al'Coun; Re- 
cording Secretary, Albeit P. Heartt; Corres- 
ponding Sorretary, O. L. Holley. 

Board op Council, for 1831. 

Horatio G. Stafford, Chairman ; Alexander 
Walsh, Amos Briggs, Amos Eaton, Moses 
Hale. Horatio Hicoek, Elias Parmele. Genrge 
B. Warren, John Holme, Jacob Monit, Hen- 
ry Bulkley, Elijah F. Willey, Members. 

Lecturer, on Botany, Vegetable Physiology, 
and tloritcuttural Chemistry, Amos Eaton. 
Standing Committees. 

On fruit trr.es, vines and fruits — Alexander 
Walsh, Chairman; Amos Briggs. Elijah F. 
Willey, Elias Parmele, 11. G. Spaflbrd, mem- 
bers. 

On Kitchen Gardens and thr. cultivation oj 
culinary vcgetahUs — Stephen Warren, Chair- 
man ; Henry Bulkley, Horatio llicock, Jacob 
Merritt, members. 

On Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, Flowers, and 
Green Houses— Moses Hale, Chairman; A. 1' 



native village in some remote part of France 
a drove of thirty or forty cattle broke into a 1 
fieid of rank clover, and all of them became! 
affected with bloating, and whsn discovered,] 
some of them were so far gone as to fall down' 
upon their fore legs. Ho called immediately! 
for Spirits of Ammonia, but none could be! 
found in the place, and they were obliged tol 
send four miles to a neighboring village Fie-! 
fore it could be procured. He commenced bv! 
giving it to those most severely affected, and 
so on to the others, and all were saved excep- 
ting two. If there had been no delay in get- 
ting the remedy, probably none would have 
been lost. 

The dose for a cow or ox is a table spoon- 
ful, diluted in water or any convenient liquid. 
If not effectual, repeat the dose. 

From the Harrisburgli Statesman 

AMERICAN SILK AND RED MULBERRY. 

We have examined a sample of sewing 
silk, manufactured by Mrs. Oliver, lady of, 
the present representative in the stale legis! 
laturefrom Mercer county, and we believe itj 
to be quite equal to any we have ever seen. — ; 
The thread is fine, slrong and remarkably | 

even. It is truly a pleasant thing to koow(| the se a SorJi interspersed with conlections, and 
that the citizens of this commonwealth are 



ries are about 100. The nursery is filled with 
fruit and forest trees and shrubs, in vaiious 
stages of growth, intended chiefly for distri- 
bution among its members. The hot house 
establishment is not yet complete, but the col. 
lection of pine apples amounts to about 20 
sorts, and that of grape vines to about 100 
sorts. Tbecnlinarum, or kitchen garden de- 
partment, is richly stocked with rare culinary 
plants and herbs. The whole garden is un- 
der the management ofMr. Barnet,and never 
did we see a place of the kind in better or- 
der. Not a weed was to be seen, and, still 
more marvellous to be told, not a bush appear- 
ed deranged, not a bed furrowed by the de- 
luges which had poured down daily from the 
weeping skies. The turf walks were shaved 
so closely, that they soemed to the eye, and 
felt to the foet 1'ke a carpet of velvet. 

In the centre of the garden a large tent 
was erected, supported on pillars gaily festoon- 
ed with evergreens and flowers. Under tins 
awning two tables were placed, capable of ac- 
commodating about 500 people. The tables 
were profusely covered with all the fruits of 



turning their attention to such an useful and 
profitable domestic manufacture as that of I 
silk. The matrons who take a lead in such: 
laudable work, set an example for which they 
deserve the highest praise 

From the following extract which we have 
been permitted to take of a letter received 
by a gentleman from this place, we perceive 
that the wor i s were fed on the red mulberry, 
and that the manufacture is pronounced ex 
cellent by Air Du Ponceau, who is one of the 
btst judges. 

Extract of a letter, from Mr. Du Ponceau > 
of Philadelphia, to a member of the Pennsyl 
vania legislature. 

Dear Sir— I have reoeived Ihe sam 
sewing silk that you had Ihe goodness to send; 
me manufactured by a lady of the family ol! 
Mr. Oliver, of Mercer county. It confiimsl 
me in the opinion that I have for several: 
months entertained, that worms fed on the led 
American Alulberry will produce as fine silk, 
as those fed on Ihe while. I see no difference 
in Jhe appearance of the silks — As to the 
|iAiti!y and quality, that will, God helping.be 
submitted to fair experiments here and in Eu- 



beside each cover a nosegay was invitingly 
deposited. At each end of the tent was an 
elevated platform, supporting a variety or 
magnificent exotic ph.nts, the exhibition of 
which was one of the pimcipal features of the 
entertainment. The collection was as nu- 
merous as many of the specimens were splen-* 
did. — Edinburgh Observer. 

THE FRAGRANCE OF FLOWERS. 

As the atmosphere cooveys this quali- 
ty to a considerable distance, it must be 
a fugitive body suflieienty material, tho' 
invisible, to be incorporated with com- 
mon oir m a gaseoi.s or other highly re- 

„, .I fined state. It seems to be yielded most 

P' e of, . ... , -• , „ 

' snnH ; intensely Irom the centre ef the flower: 

heoce it has been supposed to be a kind 

of vapor from the houev or nectar; but 

!t is alio coulaiued in tha other parts, as 

detached c.'yces, Stamina, petals, style 

and pericarp, as well as the seeds, which 

rarry with them ihe .irsoma, more or 

less intense. The state of the air has 

considerable influence in regard to the 



Vol. I. —No. 6. 



AND GARDENER'S JOURNAL. 



47 



iDiensiiy of floral scent. In a fine, still, 
dewy morning, the air is as it were sur- 
charged with it ; but as soon as the sun's 
heai increases, evaporation takes place, 
or should sweeping winds prevail, the 
scent is dispersed tar and wide. A cu- 
rious circumstance, lately noticed, shows 
that the fragrance of flowers is capable 
of being exalted by qualities placed, or 
which happen to be, in the near neigh 
borhood. Onions growing near roses 
improve their scent. This seems to be 
a proof that there is an intrn-susception 
of the extraneous quality ; and moreov- 
er, confirms the old idea, that strong or 
pungent application to the roots exalt the 
color as well as the scent, it has been 
nuticed, of the common ever-flowering 
Chinese rose, that when first introduced 
about 1793, it was, as the little dark-red 
one still is, almost scentless ; though now 
wuh many of its varieiies, highly Ira 
giant. — [Florists' Directory. 



NEWS OP THE WEEK. 



FLOUK INSPECTIONS. 

F By the official returns, says the Journal of 
Commerce, it appears that the following quan- 
tities of flour and meal have been inspected in 
New York. 

Wheat flour, rye flour, lad. meal, 

brl9 lil' brls brls hhds brls 

In 1830 of all grades 805,852 23,037 15.167 10.316 9,663 

In 1829 do 67H.279 16,634 24,522 8,578 19,446 

In 1328 do 578,863 19,266 18,316 9,517 23,475 

Large quantities are sold for consumption 
within the State, which are not inspected. 

The extreme prices reached during each 
month of 1830 and 1829 for fair qualities were 
as follows :— 





18! 


0. 


1829- 


January 


$5,00 


$4.75 


$8,12 


$8,25 


February 


4,75 


4,62 


8,25 


8,50 


.March 


4.62 


6.50 


8,26 


7,62 


April 


4,75 


6,12 


7,25 


6,50 


May 


4,75 


4.88 


6,50 


7,00 


June 


4 75 


6,12 


6,75 


6.50 


July 


4S8 


5,00 


6.25 


5.00 


August 


4,88 


b,12 


5,00 


5,38 


September 


5,38 


5,00 


5,60 


6,25 


October 


5,00 


5,25 


5,88 


5,25 


November 


6,25 


5.06 


5,25 


6,50 


December 


5,06 


5.25 


5.38 


5,00 


Extremes of 


yr.4,50 


5,25 


5,00 


8,50 



The busuies of inspecting, during the ad 
ministration of the present incumbent, has 
been conducted with despatch, and as we be- 
lls ve, to the satisfaction of the merchants. 

Our market, in the extent of its flour trade, 
is now in advance of every other ia the Union 
Baltimore has heretofore taken the lead. — 
The inspections there, in 1830, of wheat-flour, 
amounted to 587,875 brls. and 19,855 half brls 

From the number of barrels of Flour in 
spected in this city the past year, the lees of 
the inspector must have amounted to upwards 
of $13,000, at U cents for each barrel. The 
above sum is independent of the Sets, charged 
for weighing each brl. light or underrated. — 
The office of Flour inspector is one of the 
beat in the gift of the State JV. F. Adv. 

For EIGN, 

The ship Herald arrived at New York, on 
Saturday, from Liverpool, whence she salied 
on the mh Dec The ship took the place of 
the Canada, belonging to the Old Line of 
Liverpool Packets, which was lost in going 
into Liverpool. T e papers art no later than 
those brooght bv the Sovereign. 

The sales of Cotton for the week, ending 



on the evening of the 16th, amounted to 7000 
balei at a reduction of about }d 

Return of the Killed and Wounded during 
the Great Week. — The Municipal Committee 
of Pars has nearly terminated its detailed ex- 
amination of the facts of the revolution , the 
latest return is 1,162 killad among the people 
alone, and more than 3,000 wounded. 

A FACT FOR THE CURIOUS. 

By the late census of New Hampshire it 
appears that one in every fifty of the colored 
population are deaf and dumb, while among the 
whites the proportion is only one to every one 
thousand nine hundred and seventy seven — 
The difference i» very great, and the circum 
stance one that may puzzle physiologists long 
before tbey can solve it. 

BUENOS ATRES. 

Advices from this country to as late a date 
as 9lb November, report affairs as still unset- 
tled, and the provinces still at war. 

Our Southern neighbors must have very 
just and elevated ideas of liberty, national pros, 
perity and glory, and fine conceptions of good 
order and happiness in the body politic. All 
they bave gained by their emancipation from 
Spain seems to be the privilege of cutting each 
other's throat on their " own hook.'" 

THE DEAD ALIVE 

It now appesrs beyond a doubt that Mr. 
Edward Greene the stage driver who was 
reported frozen to death some where near 
Providence, is not only not dead, but ac- 
tually alive, and engaged in transporting 
the mail as usual, diffusing the very papers 
letters and packages which are on their differ- 
ent routes to announce the dreadful intelli, 
gence of his own decease by fro;t. Much 
more comfortable however we take it, he will 
conceive his present avocation, than a moose 
beneath a snow drift, so profound that no stage 
born could ever more •• arouse him from his 
snowy bed." 

EXPENSE OF MARRYING. 

It seems that the subject of marriage or ra 
ther of certain old and foolish customs prepar- 
atory to marriage which now do and have for 
a long time existed in Massachusetts, have 
become the subject of Legislative investiga 
lion. The matter of posting for three weeks 
or so, is the tiling that appears most obnux 
ious to the young folks, and which some of the 
'•grave and reverend segniors" are disposed 
to erase from the statute books. One legisla- 
tor averred that many young people who bad 
contracted a fondness for each other sufficient- 
ly strong to have led to the most intimate & re- 
sponsible connexioLS, have wholly forborn, 
and put off forever the consummation of their 
happiness solely from delicacy on the matter of 
posting. How this is we know not, but we do 
know, that of all the idle, foolish, useless and 
tyramcal laws ever adopted and suffered bv 
man, that of posting "intents of marriage" 
stands first and foremost, and partakes so 
deeply of the spirit of the dark ages as to be a 
disgrace to any people (bat will tolerate it 
at any time. 

The National Intelligencer of Thursday 
Bays — "It is understood that the Senate 
have ratified the Conveniion with the 
Ottomam Porte, with the exception of 
the reputed secret article, granting to the 

Turkish Government certain privileges 
as to the building ships of war." 



ROCHESTER PRICES CURRENT. 

FeD. 11,1831. 
Owing to the inclemency of the weather 
during the week, the quantity of wheat in 
our market has not been as great as during 
tbe week past, but the prices have been well 
sustained, and tbe prospects for the Canadian 
and foreign markets are such tbat our millers 
are anxious to purchase. 



Antic* per 2240 lbs 

Pot $91a92 50 

Pearl I00ol02 50 

Apples per bushel 25a44 

Do dried 75 

BrislleB,comb'd per lb 20a31 

Beeswax do 18o20 

Butler do 10al2 

Beef— Mess per bbl $Sa9 

Do prime do 5a7 

Do fresh per lb 03a03 

Barley per bushel 38<z44 

Beans do 50a62 

Candles, mould per lb 9 cts 

Do dipped do 8 

Do sperm do 28 

Corn per bushel 44d50 

Cheese per lb O4a05 

Clover Seed per bush $4 50 

Flour per bbl 5 50 

Flax per lb 

Flax Seed per bush 78a87 

Feathersper lb 3U37 

Furs— Otter 100u400 

Fox. red 50a75 



Mink 

Raccoon 

Martin 

Fisher 

Wild Cat 

Gray Fox 
Grass Seed per bush 
Hops per lb 
Honey do 
Lard do 
Mutton do 

Mustard Seed per bush 
Oats per bush 



12a31 
18o31 
25o62 
37a50 
16o25 
16(125 

02 
12nl3 

09 
06o07 
02a03 

$4 

2C 



Fox, cross 



Oid Pewtev, Brass and 

Copper per lb 14 

Peaches, dry'd bush 100o200 

Pork, mess per bbl $12al3 

Do prime 8a9 

Do fresh per lb 03aC4 

Quills per 100 25«30 

07<r08 Rye per bush 50 

Rags per lb 03o04 

Salt per bbl $1 75 

Tallow per lb 06«07 

Wheat perbush 103(1109 



100a200|Buckwheat flour, cwt. $1 "5 



METEOROLOGICAL TABLE, 
for the week ending Feb. 5, 1831 . 



Ther! Baromet'r 



29.47 M 
28,95|io 



20 29,55 
36 ; 30 1 29,40 
30|30|a0,n,-29,46|Ji « 

37 28 29,67|29,70U 

32|31 29,30 28,82J se 

22,13 28,95:29,05s to 

8l 2|20.3029,44U 



nds 


Weather 


a 

S3 

> 


a 
a 
a 


■p 


>> 

c 
a 














10 


1 








se 




1 






n 




1 






w 




1 






s 




1 




1 


to 


1 






1 


w 


1 









Observa'ns 



12 in -snow 
6 in. snow 



XT The Barometrical and Thermometries observa- 
tions are registered at 10 o'clock A M.and P. M., which 
by a long series of experiments made for the purpose, 
show that time to give a nearer mean average of the 
relative heat of a day than any other time. 



BANK NOTE TABLE. 

Corrected Weekly for the Rochester Daily Advertiser . 

BY C W DUNDAS. 



NEW YORK. 

All banks in i\tu state, par. 
except the following 
BrokenBanks. (Fashing 
ton & Waireu, Barker's Ex 
chaoge, Franklin Bank, Mid- 
dle Diet., Columbia, Greene 
County, Marble Manuf. Co., 
PlattsburgU, and Niagara. 
MASSACHUSETTS. 
Al banks in this state, par. 
except the following 
Broken Bankf* Farmers 
b'nkof Belchertown, Sutton 
Rerksbiie, Essex and Brigh- 
ton banks. 

VERMONT. 
AH banks in this state, par 

KHODF-ISLAND 

AH banks in this state, par, 

except the following 

Broken Banks Farmers 1 

Exchange, and Farmers' & 

Mechanics' banks. 

CONNECTICUT. 
All banks in this state, par 
except the fellowing 
Broken Banks. Eagle, 
Eagle pay'ble at Union bank 
Rew-Vork, Derby, and Der- 
by payable at Fulton bank 
New-York. 

NEW- HAMPSHIRE. 
All banks in this state, par 

MAINE. 

All banks in this state, par 

except the following 

Broken Banks. Castine 

Wiscaspct, Hailowell & Au 



samaqnoddv banks. 

NEW* JERSEY. 

Stateb'nk, & Trenton Bank- 
ing Company, par * 
A i other banks, 2 per cent, 
except the following 
Broken Banks. Salem & 
Phil. ManafCo.. Monmouth., 
Hoboken and, Grazing Co., 
N. Jersey Manuf & Banking 
Co. at Hoboken, State Bank 
at Trenton, Protection and 
Lombard, and Jersey City. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 
Philadelphia Banks, par. 
All other banks, %per cent, 
except the following 
Broken Banks. Farmers' 
&Mechanics' at N. Sa., Cen- 
tre, Huntington, Meadville, 
Marietta, Juniaie, Greences- 
lie, Bedford, Beaver, Wash- 
ngton, Uniontown, Agricul- 
tural, Sil Lake, Westmore- 
land at Greenburgh, New- 
Hope Bridge Co new emis- 
sion, and Brownvile batiks. 

OHIO. 
AUbanks, 4 to G per cent, 

MICHIGAN. 

All hanks, % per cent, 

except the following 

Broken Banks. Monroe^, 

and Detroit. 

CANADA. 
All banks, S to 3 per cent, 
except the 
Upper Cana. at Kingston, 
and Unchartered banks. 



usta, Kennebec, and Pas-| 
XT' The above table when speaking of foreign Bills, re 
fers to those of $5, and over, as none of a lessdenamin- 
atioji are receivable. 



48 



THE GENESEE FARMER. 



anacszxANsous. 



From the jYete York Standard. 

THE FIRST AND THE LAST CENSUS OF NEW YORE 

Mr Mumford — In comparing the present 
.-ensus of this state, with several of the pre- 
ceding ones ; one cannot avoid being struck 
with the rapidjand almost unparalleled inci ease 
of the population of New York I was the 
more impressed with this fact, from observing 
while engaged in preparing some statistical ta- 
bles, that theirs* census of this state was ta- 
ken precisely one hundred years ago ; and as 
the circumstance may not be generally known 
to your readers, I take the liberty of enclosing 
the results for your valuable paper, availing 
myself of the opportunity for adding a few re- 
marks, en passant. 

In 1603, Hudson discovered the river which 
bears his name, and sailed up it as far as where 
Albany now stands. This was twelve years 
befcre the landing of the Puritan pilgrims at 
Plymouth. Hudson sold his right of discove- 
ry privately to the Dutch, who in 1614 erected 
a fort at Albany, and in 1615 founded Manbal 
tan, now the city of New York. The English 
Government refused to sanction Hudson's 
transfer, and the territory was taken possess- 
ion of for the Duke of York in 1664, from whom 
it received its name. From that time until 
1691, the Duke appointed the governors, &made 
rules and orders which had the force of laws. 
In 1691, the first legislative assembly washeld. 
It was sent 'rom the nine counties given below, 
into which the whole state was then divided. 
The precise amount of population at that pe- 
riod cannot be ascertained, as the first regu- 
lar census was taken in 1731,when these nine 
counties with tne adaition of Orange, 
which had been erected in the intermediate! 
Lime, comprising the whole state, contained! 
50,395 inhabitants. The County of Albany, 
{or a long time after its erection in 1691 con- 
tained all that part of the state lying north of I 
Dutchess, and west of Ulster, and as will be 
seen by the tabla, one hundred years since 
contained only 8,573 inhabitants. The second 
legislative assembly was convened in 1708 — 
I have embodied in this table, the names of the 
counties at the time of the first census, the 
time of their erection, the number of members 
sent by each to the first assembly in 1091, the 
population at the first census in 1631, and the 
same in 1810,and 1830. It is possible an error 
may have occurred in the distribution of the 
members, so far as regards^the apportionment 
among the several counties, as historians of 
that period do not agree on that point ; in oth 
er respects tho table il is believed is correct. 









o) "5 






° 3 




"S.S 


— a — 


o 


Q 


"i 'a 


e * 


,a a» 


CS «J ra 


00- 


00 


E 3 


5 S 


5 a 
3 tl 


1 o = 


d 


b 


ZU 


zs 


5 ft- o 


Q 


a 


Albany 


1691 


2 


8,573 


34,661 


53,432 


Dutchess 


169i 


T 


1,727 


51,412 


50.926 


Kings 


1691 


2 


2,150 


8,303 


20,539 


New York 


1C91 


3 


8,628 


96,373 214.470 


Queens 


1691 


2 


7975 


19,336 


22,276 


•Richmond 


1691 


2 


1,817 


5.347 


7,084 


Suffolk 


1691 


2 


7,675 


21,112 


26,780 


Ulster 


1691 


1 


3.728 


26576 


36,551 


Westchester 1691 


o 


6,033 


30,272 


36,450 



Orange 1698 



17 



1,693 34,347 45,372 



50,395 

As the present population is estimated at 1, 
939,490, it appears that the incroase in 100 
^ears bus been 1,889,101. At tho lima of ta- 
king the above census, Albany contained what 
.is now divided into 42 counties, and contains 
•! ,390,879 inhabitants ; an increaso in the same 
period of 1,382,306. 

No more counties were ereclod until 1784, 
when Clinton, Washington and Montgomery, 
were formed from Albany county. Wasbing- 



Feb. 12, 1831. 



ton then included Warren ; and Clinton, what 
is now Essex and Franklin Montgomery in- 
cluded all that part of the state lying west of 
Ulster, Albany, Washington and Clinton coun- 
ties. Columbia was erected from Albany coun 
ty in 1786. In 1789, the county of Ontario 
was erected from Montgomery ; and included 
all the state of New York, west of what was 
oalled the preemption line, which beginning on 
the south 1 ne of this state about 24 miles west 
of Tioga Point, ran north until it touched the 
west side of Seneca lake, along which it con 
tinued to the northern extremity, and thence 
to Lake Ontario, a few miles east of Sodus 
bay. Inconsequence of a claim from Massa 
chusetts, arising under the original charter ol 
that colony; inl787 the territorywest of the pre- 
emption line was ceded by New York to that 
state, as well as ten townships of six miles 
square, between the Susquehannah river, the 
Tioughnioga, and Military tract. The torri 
tory between the preemption line, and what 
was termed ihe transit line, which ran nearly 
on the meridian of the Genesee river, was 
early conveyed by Massachusetts to the Pult- 
ney family, or company ; and the territory west 
of the transit line was in the same manner sold 
to the Holland Company. Ontario at the time 
of its creation, inoluded what is now, Ontario, 
Genesee, Monroe, Livingston, Steuben, Alle- 
gany, Cattaraugus, Chatuaque, Erie, Niagara, 
Orleans, Wayne, and Yates counties, wita a 
population of 407,423. The year after the 
erection of the county of Ontario, in 1790, 
Gen. Amos Hall, as the U. S Deputy Mar- 
shal, took the census of the territory, and a 
few years since he obligingly permitted the 
editor of one of the western papers to prepare 
the following interesting abstract from the ori- 
ginal documents. It contains the number of 
lamilies and total of population in each settle- 
ment. It is a curious document as furnishing 
such a striking contrast to the present census 
of the same territory. 

In No. Range. famil's. people. 



2 


1" 


(now Painted Post) 


10 


59 


7 


1 


Milo 


11 


65 


8 


1 


Benton 


3 


25 


9 


1 


Seneca 


10 


60 


10 


1 


Do (Geneva 


8 


85 


11 


1 


Phelps 


2 


11 


8 


2 


Middlesex 


7 


33 


10 


2 


N". Gotham 


6 


14 


11 


2 


E Farmington. 


2 


4 


11 


3 


W. Do, 


12 


55 


10 


3 


Canandaigua 


13 


106 


12 


3 


W. Palmyra 


4 


14 


3 


4 


S. Bristol 


4 


20 


9 


4 


N Do. 


3 


13 


10 


4 


E. Bloomfield 


ID 


05 


10 


5 


W. Do. 


7 


26 


11 


4 


Victor 


4 


20 


9 


5 


Richmond 


I 


2 


11 


5 


Mendon 


2 


in 


12 


5 


Piltsford 


8 


2ft 


13 


5 


Brighton 


4 


20 


10 





Lima 


4 


23 


11 


6 


Hush 


9 


56 


12 





Henrietta 


1 


8 


7 


7 


Sparta 


1 


5 


!> 


7 


Genesee 


8 


34 


1 

o 


2 ) 

2$ 


Erwin 


11 


50 


3 
4 


2 


Cannisteo 


10 


50 


5 


Wayne 


1 


9 


10 


7 


Avon 


10 


66 




Calf 


donia 


10 


44 




Leicester. 


4 


17 



its maximum. The Western district of New- 
Fork has furnished its full proportion of emi- 
grants to Indiana and Michigan ; yet that has 
not perceptibly retarded its increase in num- 
bers and wealth ; and it may fairly be presum- 
ed that the next census will show the ratio of 
increase has been amply sustained. W. G. 

HOPS IN ALBANY. 

John C. Donnelly, inspector of hops in Al- 
bany, has, during the last year, inspected 600 
bales, 140,388 lbs. Fees, deducting expenses, 
$80,39. Of this 116,430 lbs first sort, 18,62! 
second do., 2,544 third do., 2,793 refuse ; 372 
bales were from Madison co. ; 144 from Onei- 
da ; the rest from Otsego, Chautauque, Cat- 
taraugus, Tompkins, Chenango, and Herki 
mer. The hop market opened the last season 
at one shilling a pound, and maintained tbat 
price till neor the close of the season, when 
they gradually advanced to 16 cents.— Daily 
Advertiser. 



B0TANT. 

| The study of this beautiful science is par- 
ticularly adapted to young females, to whom 
we would recommend it, as a lasting source of 
pleasure and amusement. It will be found 
much less difficult than may at first be appre- 
hended, and the enjoyment experienced in il* 
progress will be such that difficulties, much 
greater than those whieh really present them- 
selves, would be no barrier to the attainment 
of the science. The nomenclature, which ap- 
pears at first view so repulsive, soon loses 
its terrors, and becomes familiar, and the plea- 
sure whioh resultsfrom tha application of prin- 
ciples, the exercise which the science require? 
& the perpetual contemplation of the variega- 
ted and splendid colorings of nature, operates 
as a species ef attraction so irresistible that 
the student can neither resist nor control it 
No object can be more delightful than to be- 
hold a lovely woman indulging a passion for 
tbat which is in itself so beautiful and inoo 
cent, or than to see her 

" Looking through nature, up to nature's God." 
What higher source of gratification can 
there be than to stroll amidst the groves, or 
wander over mountain heights, and enjoy the 
magnificent scenery of nature, and inhale tho 
breeze teeming with fragrance and redolent of 
sweets, while you are in pursuit of a richer 
banqaet, a more delightful spectacle, the fair 
and exquisite gifts of Flora — 
" Each beauteous flower, 
" Iris of all hues, Koses and Jessamine."-— Milton 

And such an endless, variety, too, of forms 
hues, and shades, almutt as infinite as the 
everlasting changes of the kaleidoscope, and 
yet all harmonizing and blending in one splen- 
did picture of beauty 

FLOUR IN ALBANY. 

Jaeper S. Keeler, inspector of flour 
in Albany has during 1830, inspected. 
42,136 bbls superfine flour 
5C3 fine 

1,027 half bbls flour 



205 



1081 

Gene- 

4,000. 



Only 8 families, and 55 souls, where 
va now presents a popnlation of nearly 
Only 4 families, and 2fl souls, whereRochester 
now points its dozen spires, and coauts il» 
thirteen or fourteen thousand inhabitants. — 
Ami only 1081 souls where now aro4fl7.4Sl. 

Few oountrios can present a parallel to this 
increase, and it scema no! yet to have rcirchetl 



43,726 
Fees, at 2 rts. a 
penses, $200 67.— 



bhl. S874 
[Dai. Adv. 



52: 



REDUCTION. 

Tbe salary of the Lord Lientonani of 
Ireland has been reduced from 30,00(11. 
per yenr to 20,0001. 



.. i i i i . i i j i j i i i . i 

TUB <; E N E S E E FARRIER 

ANII BARBKNKR's JOURNAL. 
Devoted to Agriculture Hortienllure, Domestic J-'rm,.,' 
my, &c. &c. 
Published on Saturdays, at Si2 50 per annum, 
payable in six months, or at $2 00, if paid at tlie 
time of subscribing, by Lbther Tucker, at 
tho officii of the Ruiclicstcr Daily Advertiser. 



tern® mmstmrnm w&mmm. 



VOLUME I. 



KOCUESTKB, FEBRUARY 19, 1831. 



NUMBER 7. 



communicant, onp. 



FOR THE GENESEE FARMER. 

NORTH-EAST STOBJIS, 
Some days ago I wrote a shori article on 
north-east storms; and expressed my belief 
that our northerly winds were deflections from 
lhe main current which sets up the St. Law- 
rence. I had determined to keep memoranda 
of such weather in this place, as should appear 
to be connected with the north-east storms of 
our sea coast, or of lake Ontario ; and 1 now 
give the following: 

1 mo. 14. Evening clear. 

15. Morning, sharp frust. The sun obscu 
red by thin cloud* from the S. W. which grad- 
ually thickened— a moderate wind from the 
north, — and before noon it began to snow a 
little. In the afternoon it snowed faster, and 
the wind was slightly increased. Not severe 
enough to deter pcoplf from their out-door busi- 
ness. 

16. Storm continued, being a gentle wind 
from the north, with snow. J believe noni 
staid at home that day on account of the weather. 

17. Wind from the N. W. It was only a 
light snow, not enough to muke good sleighing. 

I had waited some days, expecting accounts 
from New-York and Philadelphia, in regard to 
this storm, and 1 now find their news papers 
Seem with awful reports of its violence. With 
them it appears to have begun many hours ear 
iierthan with us; the great body of the clouds 
on the east side of the mountains, must there- 
fore have kept in advance of those which 
spread over our district, and although several 
accounts of its commencement are inconsist. 
ent and unsatisfactory, owing to careless ob- 
servers, yet thero is sufficient evidence that 
'he storm advanced from the South-lVest. seem- 
ingly against the wind. From those papers 
I subjoin some brief extracts : 

" The late terrible storm — On Friday evening 
of last week [the 14th] a snow storm com- 
menced which has had no parallel of lute years. 
The wind was very high the two following 
lavsftlie 1 5th and 16th] durins which the snow 
1'eli almost incessantly." — Phdad. Sat. Bulle- 
tin. 

" About 8 o'clock on Saturday evening, [rv- 
other account says at dusk] the snow com 
menced witii a strong northeast wintl.zoi con- 
tinued with iicreasing violence until Sunday 
Homing. In iho afternoon and evening, the 
snow fell with rertewed rapidity and ltss 
wind."— Phllad. U.S. Gaz. 

" The snow storm which began on Friday 
{the 14th] continued with uninterrupted vio- 
lence until last evening [ot the 16th] accom 
panied by a gale from the north-east. Th< 
depth of snow which has fallen in these two 
days is supposed to average about 15 inches " 
— JV. Y. paper. 

One account from Massachusetts, however, 
sjives 4 feet as an average depth ; one from 
Lancaster, in Pa. gives 3 feet ; and other ac- 
counts from other places, give 20 or 22 inchos. 
ft teas a great snow. 

It needed not to be shown to most of the 
inhabitants of this county, that we lie not 
within the range of the north-east storms ; but 
I wish to prove that our rains and snows from 
the north, were parts of those tempests, visi- 
ting this favored land, in a milder form ; and 
of this, the foregoing statement is one remark 
able proof. In the rain from the N. N. W. 
referred to in my former article, I had another 
proof, for it appeared by the Philadelphia pa- 
pers that there, at that time, there was also a 
lortheasterly storm. 

In my former article on this subject, through 
haste, the names of several places were omit- 
ted. Among these, the Canandaigua lake, and 
the valley from Hammond's port to Balh, from EF Several 
their direction, must have an influence on the! want of room. 



wind, and render observations made in those 
vicinities, particularly interesting. D. T. 

P. S. I am informed that on the 16th ult 
while to us Me storm came from the north, at 
Williamson, in Wayne co. it came from the 
west-north-west. By Your Meteorological Ta 
ble, however, it was north at Rochester. 

Greatfield, Cayuga co. 2d mo. 1,1831.' 



FOR THE GENF.SEE FARMEF,. 

COFFEE. 

In number 3 of the ''Genesee Farmer," yoii 
have an article on the making of coffee-dunk, 
and in reply to it I will tell you how " we 
work it," as the Prompter used to say. Al 
the top of the Coffee Pot, or a common Tea 
Pot, (which is large enough for any family,) fit 
a tin ring, or cylinder, inside, perforated with 
thread holes, on to which sew a small bag of 
cotton cloth, (new, stout, unbleached, is best,) 
it a size to hold double the quantity of ground 

offee required for a meal. When wanted, 
pour en boiling water, and the coffee soon runs 
through, a perfectly clear and pure beverage. 
We have practiced this mode for 20 years. — 
The strength is also extracted, and you get the 
essential oil of the coffee, with its delightful 
aroma, which is lost in being boiled. The 
grounds may be saved, but have no strength. 
Try it, however, to satisfy you, and you will 
find it so. 

The advantages of this mode, are, that the 
coffee is made in much less time ; is pure, and 
fine; better economy, because you get all its 
strength ; if companj come in, you have only 
to add the ground coffee, and hot water, and 
the drink is ready, in five minutes. You get 
by infusion the aroma and oil of the coffee, 
which are dissipated and lost by decoction, or 
boiling. In the latter case the drink is more 
nervous, and constipates the bowels ; in the o 
ther, free from the nervous effect, and quickens 
the action of the bowels. Such, at all e- 
vents, are tbe effects on my system. 

EF Roast your coffee, to a dark cinnamon 
colour, but never burn it; and grind it only 
as you want to use it. 

When last at Rochester, I had with mo a 
small oval tin tea pot. with its bag, which has 
travelled thousands of miles with me, in which 
to prepare my coffee. I carry a small tin can- 
ister of roasted coffee. Every body who 
drinks our coffee, says it is good. Try it, Mr 
Editor, or get your wife to, and judge fur 
yourself. This mode is easier than that poin 
led out by you. Tell us the result. S. 

Jan. 29, 1831. 



FOR THE GENESEE FARMER. 

NEW SACHROMETER. 

As it is very important for the farmers to 
know which kinds of their apples make the 
best cider, and when once known, to propa- 
gate those kinds only, and to " hew down and 
cast into the fire" those which are poor and 
good-for-nothing, it is necessary that some cri- 
terion should be known, whereby they can 
come at the knowledge necessary todeier- 
mine the fact. Now except a peculiar essen- 
tial oil which the skins of some apples possess 
more than others, the only good quality one 
can coniain, more than another, is sugar, or 
the sacharine principle. Now nature has for- 
med a measurer of this quality, ready formed 
to every one's hand. Take of as many sens 
as ynu please, place them on a board, in a mo- 
derate cold room, in freezing weather, and 
constantly observe the first that freeze ; those 
are watery, and contain none, or bnt very little 
spirit, and are consequently to be rejected. — 
Those that are the last te freeze are the best, 
both for ealiug and for cider. Pomus. * 



Communications omitted for 



FOR THE OENESLE FARMER. 

SMALL ANIMALS. 

Among the many amusements to which men 
resort for pastime, there is none more innocent 
or rational, than the rearing of animals. And 
when this pleasute can be made a source of 
profit and instruction, the interest becomes 
vastly increased. 

There are but few of us who cannot look 
back to the time of our childhood, when tho 
nursing of a robin or thrush, afforded us infi- 
nite delight ; and when the capture of a squir- 
rel or rabbit became an era in our history. — 
This propensity to doat on animals seems to 
be natural to all men, from the Hottentot add 
Laplander, to the nobles of civilized and en- 
lightened countries. And when this feeling is 
accompanied by an ardent desire for knowl- 
edge and research, it becomes the grand in- 
citement to all the investigations and develop- 
ments of natural science. 

Time would fail me to mention even the 
names of the vast varieties of animals which 
have been domesticated either for amusement 
or instruction, much less to enter into an anal- 
ysis of their iiabits. Nor is it my intention 
to trouble your readers with an essay on natu- 
ral history. But as I have found much amuse 
mem in the rearing of small animals, and have 
also devoted considerable time to the investi- 
non of their habits and the mode of managing 
them, I have thought that it would not be un- 
interesting to some ofyourjo«7iff readers.to oc- 
casionally devote a column of your paper to this 
ubject. I will therefore endeavor, as occa- 
ion may offer, to extract some account of the 
form, appearance, habits, and mode of man- 
agement of a variety of Insects, Birds, Quad- 
rupeds, and Fishes. Some ot yuur readers 
will doubtless be surprised to learn that of the 
common Pigeon alone, there are at least fifty 
varieties, and many of them of the most beau- 
tiful plumage and fanciful forms. 

In England the rearing of singing birds, rab- 
bits, pigeons, fowls, bees, silk-worms, &c. 
&c. has become a very curious science, and 
the source of vast profit. And there is no 
reason why they may not be made in this counj 
try a delightful and profitable appendage to 
the farmyard or dwelling house. The origin 
nnd transformation of insects, with all their 
wonderful changes, and close connection with 
the very existence of man, is alike interesting 
to the Agriculturist and to the man of science, 
and there is no subject which leads the mind 
to a more deep and reverential awe of the 
great Creator of ail things, or to a more tho- 
rough conviction of oar own impotency. 

I shall commence these extracts with ashort 
account of the 

SILK-WORM. 

The rearing of silk- worms is an agreeable 
and interesting pursuit for young persons ; it 
has now become so popular in this country that 
it is hardly necessary to recommend it even as 
a source of profit. 

There are several species of larvae or cater 
pillars, besides silkworms, whbh produce a 
sort of silk. The web of the spider is very 
similar to silk, and it is said that a few pair of 
stockings, and the substance upon which a pic- 
ture was painted have been made of the webs 
of a particular k ind of insect. But it is scarce- 
ly to bo hoped that the labors of the spider, 
or any of the different species of larva?, will 
ever be so valuable to mar: as that of the silk 
worm. 

The egg of the silk worm is nearly round, 
and in size rather less than a mustard seed 1 — 
When first laid, it is of a light yellow, but it 
soon changes to an asft colour. Abont the 
latter end of April, the eggs are strewed or 
placed on paper, where they were laid by the 
moth, which should be put where the wind 
cannot blow them away, but so the sun ma 



50 



THE GENESEE' FARMER 



FebT19, 1831 



shine uj)on them. A cliiimber window that 
fronts the south, is best lor this pnrpose. It 
is advisable to cover the papers with a bit of 
gauze ; and especial care should be taken that 
they arc secure from birds and cats. Having 
thus placed the egns in a proper situation, 
leave them until tney begin to natch, and as 
the young worms or larva: are warmed into ex- 
istence, remove them to the place you design 
to feed them, leaving the unhatched eggs un- 
disturbed. 

The larvae or caterpillar, when it is first 
hatched, is of a dark hue, but when full grown, 
its colour is a croamy white ; it has a small cir- 
cle on each side, at every joint — and two half 
circles on its back ; its fret are six in number, 
threo being placed on each side near its head ; 
it has also ten holders, eight in the middle of 
the body, and two at the tail. While it re- 
mains in tho caterpillar state, or rather from 
the time it is hatched, until it begins to spin, 
tbc silk worm has four sicknesses ; during each 
of these, which lasts about three days, the worm 
quits its food, grows thicker and shorter, and 
at length casts its skin. 

As soon as the worms begin to come out of 
their egijs. you must procure some young mul- 
berry leaves, and if they are not to be had iin- 
media'ely, lettuce leaves, which place in the 
receivers, and as the young worms are hatch- 
ed, place them to feed upon the leaves. At 
this early stage of their existence, the silk- 
worras are so small and tender that thev ought 



to be taken from tho hatching papers to the re- 
ceiver on the point of a feather, 
hair pencil 



Although lettuce-leaves maybe used for the 
first three >r four day;-, mulberry-leaves, the 
natural food for silk-worms, must be procured 
as soon as possible, and for the first week of 
their lives, they ought, in fact, to be led on no- 
thing else. The receivers or trays should be 
cleaned out every morning; and while little, 
the worms should be removed with care, by 
means of a hair or feather. When they are 
about one third grown, it is as well to put new 
leavei into the trays on the top of the stale 
ones, the worms will soon leave tho latter for 
the former, and then you may take the leaves 
and worms together out into clean trays. — 
When the worms are large, you can lift them 
from one tray to another in your finger , ta- 
king care not to squeeze them. Until they ar- 
rive at their first sickness, it will be quite suffi- 
cient to afford them leaves once a day ; thence, 
until their thirJ, they shuuld be fed twice a 
day, increasing the quantity of leaves at each 
time ot feeding, according to their growth; 
and from their third to their fourth sickness, 
they should be fed three times, and if it is ve- 
ry warm weather, four times a day; and after 
the fourth sickness is past, the worms should 
have as many leaves as they can eat. They 
will consume more food during the few days 
that succeed their last sickness, than in the 
whole of the previous part of their lives. In 
all cases, the leaves should be dry and fresh 
as possible. If they have been closely pack- 
ed, they should he dryed. 

If the Weather he not unseasonable, the 
■worms should have plenty of air, especially 
after they have got over their last sickness. 

They must be frequently cleansed too, as 
they make much dirt ; their trays should he 
more commodious, and also deeper than those 
usod for the worms when smaller ; otherwise 
they may crawl out and be destroyed. At the 
end of forty or furty-five days from the time 
of their being hatched, they begin to change 
to,a clear transparent pin'* or flesh cilour par- 
ticularly on their taiK: soon after, they grow 
restless, and refuse their food. When these 
symptoms are perceived, it is time fur you ij 
prepare'for their spinning. 

THE COCOON. 

As soon as the indications mentioned in the 
last paragraph are perceived, roll up small 
square pieces of paper, corner-wise, and pin 
'.tiem to a tape stretched across the wall of a 



oom. and with the pointed end downward. — 
When a worm has altogether quit its food, place 
it in one of these little work-shops, as they 
may with great propriety be called, for in these 
the worm spins its silk. It disposes of its 
web in such a manner as to leave a cavity 
within; this is called the cocoon; and here 
the worm again casts its skin, and changes its 
appearance altogether, becoming short, iluck, 
anil enclosed in a hardish, dark-brown, shining 
case. It is now called an aurelia, chrysalis, 
or nympha. It should be left undisturbed in 
its labours, until, by gently shaking the co- 
coon at the ear, the aurelia may be heard rat- 
tling within. It is then pruuer to wind off the 
silk. 

WINDING. 

Were the cocoon to be left for about twen- 
ty days after the caterpillar has become an au- 
relia, it would effect another change in its ap- 
pearance, and become a moth, and eat its way 
out of the cocoon. This, however, must noi 
be suffered, if the silk is to be preserved. The 
loose outward silk is to be removed, and the 
cocoon should then be placed in warm water, 
in order that its end may more readily be f jund, 
and also that the silk may be more easily 
wound off. A common card is often used for 
this purpose, but those who have large stocks, 
wind the silk off, joining second threads to- 
gether, by meaas of little reels. In those pla- 
ces where the silk is wound off for the purpose 
of commerce, a certaiu number iinly of the 
cocoons are preserved for the purpose of pro 
ducing ag!(s, and laid aside. The others are 
placed in boiling water, and the nympha thus 
killed. The silk varies from white to reddish 
yellow, but the lightest cocoons are the most 
esteemed. 

THE MOTII — LATINO. 

All the silk being wound off, the aurelia, or 
grub, must be placed in a l-ttle bran, juet under 
the surface ; in this situation it will effect its 
change as soon as if left in the cocoon. As 
soon as the moths have emerged from their 
shell, place them together, in paper trays,' sim 
ilar to those in which they were fed. (-'over 
the bottom of the trajs wilh clean white pa 
per, for the mollis to lay on. The male nyui 
iha are much smaller than the female, and are 
in general about one half their weight. Their 
existence in the moth state is but brief; the 
female lays her eggs soon after she assumes her 
wings, and dies a day or Iwo after; the male 
frequently drops off before the female has 
finished laying. The moths eat noihing ; they 
flutter about with their wings, but do not fly ; 
and are by ,10 means admirable for their exter- 
nal appearance, being ordinary in shape, and 
almost entirely of a pale yellow, or mealy co- 
lor. The eggs should be put away in a draw- 
er, or other secure dry place, upon the papers 
on which they are laid, for nse, in the follow- 
ing spring. 

When silk-worms are bred to a large ex- 
tent, the females are placed to lay on a coarse 
cloth, and when the eggs have acquired an ash 
colour, the cloth is immersed in fresh water, 
which dissolves the mucilage that makes the 
eggs adhere ; they am then collected, proper- 
ly dried, and carefully preserved for the fol- 
lowing year. Particular care should be taken 
that the trays for laying be not only out of 
reach of cats and birds, but that hey be not 
placed near, cobwebs, lest the moths should 
crawl out, and become a prey to the spider. 



doubt in my mind but that the Carolina Potato 
will succeed, and may yet become a staple cu- 
linary article for domestic use, and lor market, 
and even forexportation to the eastern counties 

I have tried several times to keep the sweet 
potato purchased 111 New York, over winter : 
but have not been able to sneced. Ill one case 
I took a common glass box, clean soarse sand 
well dried, and with an aliernate layer of sand 
and roots, filled it stratum super stratum, till it 
was full, closed it weli, and put it in an inner 
cellar which was of brick with a good plank 
floor, and which was warm and dry; in the 
spring my box was not half lull, and my potatoes 
all gone — vanished into " air, thin air," and 
nothing left but wet sand, and a very thin skin 
like dead leaves. 

I once asked a Virginia skipper who war 
selling the ariicle in INew York, how they 
managed to keep tlieio over the winter. Why 
said he, " I reckon it is tho easiest thing in nit- 
lur, you must first dig a big hole in a sanri 
bank, then tote your taturs in a cart and dump 
them in, cover 'em with pine skadou>s, and so 
heap up the sand on the top, and I Tcclion you 
will have no trouble." . 

1 am this winter trying tho experiment, but 
am told it will not succeed, hut why, I am una- 
ble to divine, if the doctrine broached bv 
some of your correspondents, be true, that 
seeds, tree*, and amphibious animals, will lie 
buried for centuries, if they are below the- 
reach of heat, light, and air, without loosing 
their vital energies. 

I remember of seeing in two or three instan- 
ces, sweet potatoes selling m the Rochester 
market, which were the growih of the neigli- 
boriiood ; ami I am told thai a Mr. Miller, wiio 
lives on the Ridge Hand has made quite a con- 
siderable and profitable ijusmess of it. If he 
or any of your readers should be able to eluci- 
date this uubjeutjby their own experience, they 
would perhaps perform ihat benefit to their 
fellow citizens, which is said to exceed all the- 
abstruse and Hypothetical speculations of mo- 
dem philosophy, viz — '• muke one blade of gran 
grow where none gicw before." DICECIA.* 



FOR THE QENKSEE FARM1.R. 

SWEET POTATOES. 
Messrs. Editors— Your correspondent, II. 

G. S.. in your last paper, has given very plain, 
easj , and intelligible directions for the cultiva- 
tion of the sweet potato Now if be would 
inform us how we arc lo preserve the tubers 
through the winter for seod, he would com- 
plete the object of his intentions, and render 
1 great benefit to this region of country, which 
from the ease and safely with which the peach. 
Grape, almond, &s. is propagated, leaves no 



FOR THE GENESEE FARMER. 

HT Can H. G. 8. or any of the readers of 
the Genesee Farmer, inform me where the 
slips of the sweet potato can be had in this 
section of country ? I have long been of the 
opinion that they might be cultivated here, 
but hitherto have no', been able to procure 
seed. O. W. 

FOR THE GENESEE FARMER. 

How beneficent has been the author of na- 
ture, in supplying the necessary wants of man, 
in great abundance. Water which is of the 
first necessity, is every whereto to be met 
.vith — Iron, which is the most valuable of any 
of the metals, is found in every clime — Sail 
so necessary to the comfort of man and beast, 
is disseminated throughout the globe. 

The following extract is taken from a work , 
written by Dr. Van Rensselaer, of New Y'ork, 
and published in 1^24, and now copied r ron> 
an English Journal. O. W. 

OS THE USK OF SALT IS AGRICULTURE AND 
MANUFACTURES. 

Sal ammoniac, or muriate of of ammonia, is 
made in abundance from common salt. The 
manufacture of this article was abandoned in 
England in consequence ofthe heavy duly of 301. 
pr ton being laid on salt. In consequence, how- 
ever, of bittern, from the salt works, being allow- 
ed in Scotland for the manufacture, the price has 
been redured nearly one half. In the maim- 
factures of glass, salt is largely employed: so- 
da, which is procured from common salt, is u- 
sed for plate glass ; potash for llint glass ; and 

CO u.ii salt, with kelp, for crown glass. I11 

England, the heary duty on salt, is almost a 
prohibition to its use for those purposes. — 
Oxvmuriate of lime, and other oxyiBtiriatia 
sails, employed in bleaching, are made from 
salt, and consume a large quantity of it in the 
111 in ufceture. Spirit of salt, or muriatic acid 



Vol. I.— No. 7. 



ANI> GARDENER'S JOURNAL. 



requires largo quantities of salt ; at least JOOU 
tons arc used fur this purpose, in England, ev 
ory year, notwithstanding the enormous duty. 
It is used in a variety of processes, in dyeing 
and calico printing Glauber's salt is made 
Irani what remains in tbo stills after the distil- 
ation of muriatic acid. This residuum was 
formerly thrown away, until a person employ- 
ed it in making Glauber's salts, when a duty 
of £30 per tun was laid on the article manu- 
factured, since, however, remitted. Epsoro 
salts are produced from salt, or the evapora- 
tion of salt water. The brine, which yields 
llil) tuns of salt, gives from 4 to 5 tons of this 
valuable article. Dr. Henry, the celebrated 
chemist of Manchester, has discovered a pro- 
cess of prep ring it from raragoesian limestone, 
and has reduced .the price of it one halt. It 
can be made still cheaper from sea water, for 
the employment of which, a iluty is laid.— 
Magnesia is made from sail brine, or sea wa- 
ter. The English duties are so high as to ren- 
der it probable, that both this and the preen- 
*ling article will in future be obtained by Hen- 
ry's process, in magnesian limestone. Crystaii- 
zed soda is alsi nude from common salt ; 
and if the latter, or sea-water could be obtain- 
ed free of duty, in England, it would super- 
cede the importation of American or Russian 
pot or pearl ashes, and 10,000 tons would bo 
used annually, several hundred in washing a- 
lone. Barylla, of an excellent quality, is made 
from salt. Iu the manufacture of hard soap, 
salt is a necessary ingredient. Corrosive sub 
limate is made from salt. Patent yellow is 
also prepared from common salt. In the fish 
eries, in salting provision for the sea service, 
and for exportation, salt is largely employed. 
Butchers, morocco dressers, and shinners, em- 
ploy it in large quantities. Farmers use great 
quantities in making butter and cheese, and for 
steeping wheat lo prevent smut, 
v Salt is likewise empluyed by iron founders, 
in mo'.alic cements, and in rendering bar iron 
very malleable. It is used by white-smiths 
and cutlers, in case-hardening, in tempering 
files, and some other edge-tools, mixed with 
other substances, for reducing meulic ores, 
assaying minerals, and tendering metals fusi- 
ble by the refiners of silver, and to prevent the 
oxidizement of some metals. It is used to 
moderate the flam ■ el' combustible bodies ; 
and is extensively employed by the philosoph- 
ical and manufacturing chemists, and by the 
druggists, for a variety of pharmaceutical pur- 
poses. Iu Horticulture, salt is much used, 
particularly in England, where its merits are 
better appreciated, than with us. It prevents 
"thi j depredations of insects on fruit trees, and 
when properly applied protects them from the 
honey-dew. Persons ambitious of having good 
cider orchards, should dig a small treuch a few 
yards from each tree, and place within it a few 
pounds of salt, which by the rains is gradually 
conveyed to tiie roots, and produces most de- 
sirable effects. 



FOB THE GENESEE FABMEIt. 

POTATO-ONIONS. 

These onions should be sot in rich ground, 
ploughed shallow, as early as the spiing sea- 
son ivill admit, in rows from ten to twelve in- 
ches apart, and large onions set about nine in 
dies apart, in the rows; each onion will pro- 
duce from three to six large onions, and a clus- 
ter of small ones, (from eight to tweivo in 
number) resembling the top-onion seed in ap- 
pearance, excepting their location being at the 
bottom of the stocks, instead of the top.— 
The small onions should be set in the same 
manner as top-onion sets, in every respect, 
and will produce about the same quantity ol 
onions. The stalk produces no seed ol any 
kind on the top, ihe increase being from the 
bottom, from which peculiarity it derives its 
name. I commonly set them in the ground 
about the 0th of April, and between the 10th 
and '20th of Jane plant cucumbers for pickling, 
between the rows, and before the vines spread. 



the onions will be fully ripe, and should be 
pulled, which will be from the 25lh of June to 
the 5th of July, which is about six weeks ear- 
lier than I can have top onions ri;,o. 
PtnfiM, Feb. 8th. 1831. Si tiARRER. 



S£Z.£OTION:-3. 



mb. Sedgwick's address. 

We have received from the amiable author, 
and have rend with great pleasure, an Address 
delivered before the Berkshire Agricultural 
Society, Oct. 7, 1830, by Theodore Sedgwick, 
President of the Society. It bears throughout 
,he impress of his mind, anu everv sentence 
exhibits a picture of the philanthropy of his 
heart. We have annexed a few disjointed pa 
ragraphs, in which every reader will perceive 
the outpourings of the enthusiasm and kind 
feeli'ig which hive characterized the man in 
every stage of his life. — BoH. Cour. 

"The history of trade and manufactures 
shows how arts are must valuable to mankind ; 
what kind of artizans are most likely to pros- 
per; and in a joung country the kind of new 
business to be set on foot is well worthy the 
attention of all those who are to enter into it, 
1: has been observed in France, that the com- 
mon laborers in gold, embroidery and lace are 
ab olu'ely covered with rags. Prudent me- 
chanics, in trades that are indispensable, flour- 
ish of course. In Paris, botchers and bakers 
are great owners of rea ] esfite. and the same 
is true, to a good exient, in New York and 
Boston. Peoile who deal in articles of mere 
fashion and luxury lead a life of miserable un- 
certainty and hazard every where. At one 
time a mere change in fashion, from shoe buck- 
les to shoe ribbons, became a severe blow to 
Birmingham. 

" In one way alone can the world advance, 
and that is by economy, by saving, by increas- 
ing its property. Let a man be ever so rich, 
there is no use in scattering money as foots 
scatter it. There can never be too much abun- 
dance in the world, never too many good 
things. A man may be a miser, and then lie is 
poor creature. But as to hoarding bis money 
in the usual seme, ho cannot do it. Provi- 
dence has provided against the folly of man in 
this respect, unless be be quite an idiot, and 
buries gold and silver. Even then, he can do 
but little harm, for gold and silver make up but 
a very small portion of the wealth of the world : 
which generally cannot be buried. For what 
is it ? Wo have seen that it is not gold and 
silver alone. What is it then? Notes and 
bonds? These are but the evidence of wealth: 
they are mortgages, given by those who have, 
in fact bought or borrowed ships, bouses, 
lands, catile, &c. It is plain, then, that if 
these things make up property they ean never 
be hoarded. While the rich man is indulgin_ 
in selfishness, these, his beneficent agents, are 
e\er at work, or applied to some use. So far, 
therefore from us being the interest of the 
public, or the poor, that me rich man should 
spend his money in any sort ef extravagance, 
it is equdly their interest that he should be a 
laborer willi Ins mind, or his hands — thereby 
increasing the general fund, and enlarging that 
capital, bv means of which alone the laboring 
portion of the community are, or can be em- 
ploved, or even exist. All unnecessary con 
sumption of property, by either rich or poor, is 
a dead loss to the whole. There is so much 
less lo pay for roads, schools, houses, taxes, 
food and drink. 

" It is observed by foreigners, that we are a 
profuse people. They are most familiar with 
our cities, and there observe our extravagance 
in equipage, dress, and at our tables. They 
are astonished by this profusion and do not 
understand ii. In Europe, people of the same 
relative fori unes, would be frightened at the 
thought of living as we live. And that we live 
like-- a wise people nobody can contend. — 
Take city and country togethor, was ever so 
much bankruptcy heard ol" to au.y couhtry : and 



for what? Elsewhere men fail because they 
have lost a house, or a ship, or been unfortu- 
nate in some other way. Here, four out of 
five "fail for their expenses." It maybe tho'l 
that a public speaker, in a plain, economical 
state of society, is pushed hard for a topic, 
when he thinks fit to warn his neighbors a- 
amst extravagance. Simple and economical 
as we have been allowed to be, it is certain 
that New England can r.ever prosper when out- 
people have ceased to possess this charade-. 
Besides, there is no use in mincing the matter. 
Things are out of proportion through the whole 
country, Our children begin with a degree of 
expense, with which we with large families 
end. Their dress, houses and furniture must 
be the same with ours: and this too in a coun- 
try, in which the partihihty of estates require 
a constant struggle to enable families to main- 
tain their ground. We ail strive in the most 
servile (and may I not say vulgar I) manner to 
be alike, and to appear one as well as another. 
The exterior, what is visible, indicates little or 
nothing as to the wealth of people. The mid- 
dle cla-ses follow hard upon the heels of the 
rich, and are as much held in slavery by tho 
fashion, as if there was 3 chain about their 
necks. The young men and women who are 
just entering life, the day laborers, and the 
poor, following of course so high an example, 
catch the contagion; and the litter, especially, 
become sensual, vain, and expensive, run into 
crime, and end in the State Prison. 

" Travellers say, that there is not a useless 
vegetable, or even weed, in all China. A dead 
nettle is converted into cloth — paper is made 
from the straw of rice — the cup ol the acorn 
dies black — the leaves of a certain description 
of ash answer, in part, the purposes of the 
mulberry, for the silk worm. In this way, the 
occupations of people are infinitely diversified. 
For instance, in every village as large as Pifts- 
field, and perhaps smaller there ought to be 
regular gardening, as an occupation. In this 
way, the Mechanic ge's better fruit and veget- 
ables, and for a less price. It is the natural ad- 
vantage of the division of labor. In living 6o 
much as our neighboring people do upon 
beef, pork, and potatoes, they consult neither 
healih nor economy. They do not seem to 
understand that animal food is by far the 
dearest." 

The Potato — The ■• Genesee Farmer,' 
says, " never feed potatoes to slock, without 
first boiling or steaming, as this increases their 
nutritive qualities, " This is true, as well of 
potatoes as of every other vegetable ; an im- 
portant caution, however, should be added, 
that the water m which potatoes are boiled, 
should be carefully drained off. and not mixed 
with the food of any animal, as it contains u 

ry deleterious matter, which is extracted 
from the potato by boiling. — Western Tiller, 



GREVIIXE S CHINA ROSE. 

Perhaps among all the astonishing produc- 
tions of the vegetable kingdom, there, is not 
one mure remarkable than a Rose recently in- 
troduced into Europe and this country from 
China, and thus described in Loudon's Gar- 
dener's Magazine, published nt London : — 
; ' Rosa Grevilln or Greville's China Rose — 
The shoot of this Rn>e grew eighteen feet in 
a few weeks, and is the most singular of the 
Rose tribe that ever come under my observa-. 
tion. It now covers about 100 feet square 
with more than 100 trusses of flowers — some 
of these have more than 50 buds in a cluster, 
and the whole will average about 30 in a truss ; 
so that the amount of flower buds is little less 
than 3000 But the must astonishing curiosity 
is the variety of colors produced on the buds a 
first opening — white, light blush, deeper blush, 
light red, darker red, scarlet and purple, all on 
the same clusters. This Rose grows io the 
manner of the Multiflora, but is easily known 
by the leaf, which is much larger and more ru- 
gore than the common Multiflora. "—Am. FV 



THE GENESEE FARMER 



Feb. 19 1831, 



THH GENBSBE FARMER 



SATURDAY. FEB. 13, 1831 



DIFFERENT BREEDS OF CATTLE. 

Much has been written respecting the differ- 
ent breeds of cattle, as to the nett profit attend 
ing the rearing of one kind more than another. 
This is a subject in which we can never arrive 
at any mathematical demonstration. We are 
therefore left to consult circumstances. The 
points of excellence which would be most de- 
sirable in one instance, might not be so in an- 
other. Thus a farmer who is wishing to raise 
oxen for working, will prefer those that are 
quick in their motions, are good walkers, car- 
ry their heads well up, and are of good size; 
and it is found that those oxen will draw most 
hat are heavy in the fore quarters, as when 
drawing, the body acts as a lever, the hind 
legs serving as a fulcrum, and being heavy for- 
ward, places the power nearer the end of the 
lever, where it acts with greater force. But 
the farmer who is raising cattle for beef, has 
different objects in view. His leading one is, 
how can he realize the most money for the 
least expense, all things consideied. Here the 
calculations become more complicated. First, 
local circumstances must be consulted — next, 
whether it is more profitable to turn off an an- 
imal at less age and weight, or to increase the 
age and weight by long keeping. As regards 
these points, nothing but local circumstances 
can decide ; but there is great differenoe in 
breeds, as to early maturity, or as the express- 
ion is, " for fattening young." Some breeds 
are much more disposed to take on fat when 
young than others, although they may be small- 
er in size ; this quality renders the flesh more 
valuable. Under some circumstances, it is an 
object to increase the size of the animal, but 
in all cases where fattening is the object, it is 
important to have the flesh well proportioned, 
or to lie most in that part which commands the 
greatest price. On this account, the butchers 
always seleot those animals which are heavy 
in the hind quarters. This is also the choice 
of dairymen, as it is generally the case that 
cows with small heads and neol;s,and light fore 
quarters, are the best for milk. All these 
points considered, we would introduce to no- 
nce, three different breeds of animals. 

First — For working oxen, we do not know 
of any that are equal to the Devonshire breed. 
They are of a deep red colour, rather inclining 
to dun color rouud the eyes and nose, horns of 
<i good length, and bending upward, strait on 
the back, with small tails, which are set hijjh, 
heads elevated, eyes quick, their flesh firm and 
fine, and are highly valued in the English mar- 
kets. Most of our deep red cattle in the state 
ol New York, take their characteristics from 
this breed. 

Second — For early maturity, the long horned 
Lancashire breed are preferred for the London 
markets. This breed is particularly distin- 
guished by tho length of their horns, which 
generally incline downwards. Their colour 
alwms more or less mixed with white. They 
have large necks and heavy fore quarters, which 
is their greatest failing, short legs, large hoofs, 
thick firm hides, hair short, close and fine, and 
the Smithfield butchers say they give greater 
weight according to size than any other cattle. 
Was it not for the length and. direction of their 



horns, thev would be well calculated for ihi 
yoke, but this will prevent the use of the full 
bloods for that purpose. The number of these 
cattle in the Smithfield market, is greater than 
any other. 

The sltort-korned, or as they are more gener- 
ally called in this country, the Hotdcrness, pre- 
sent more valuable points, all things consider- 
ed, than any other breed known. This is an 
improvement upon the Leceister breed, and 
such has been the success of different breed 
ers in perfecting them that they have become 
more celebrated than any other in Europe or 
America, The colour of this breed is almost 
universally dark red, or chesnut colour, and 
white, the colors being in patches, and distinct; 
any variation from this, in colour, would be 
looked upon as indicating impurity of blood. 
They have small head:, small strait necks, 
short horns, much curved, rather drooping than 
otherwise, of a semi-transparent color.extend- 
ing quite to the tips, and black tips are also con- 
sidered a proof of degeneracy, or a variation 
from the pure breed. They are light in the 
fore quarters, long on the back, broad on the 
loin, and hind quarters full and heavy, and of 
the finest proportion. Their skin is thin, the 
hair fine and short, and very glossy. Their 
legs are short, and their motions slow, indica- 
ting a quiet disposition — the eye is small and 
pleasant. Tho flesh is equal to any in point of 
fineness and flavour, and they are said from 
their quiet disposition, to fatten easy. They 
are undoubtedly the greatest milkers known, 
for which reason they are held in great esti- 
mation by dairymen about London ; and Mr. 
Rhodes, of Islington, who keeps about from 
six to eight hundred cows, informed us that 
they excel! all others in quantity, and said he 
had some cows that averaged twenty-four 
quarts of milk per day, through the year : he 
also stated that he had some that had been 
milked three yoars without having calves. 

We roost sincerely recommend to farmers 
and graziers, to turn their attention to this 
breed, for this section of country, in prefer- 
ence to all others ; and they have become so 
numerous in the neighborhoods of Philadel- 
phia and Boston, that they may be obtained 
at very fair prices. 



PRINCEJS POMOLOGICAL MA5JTJAL,. 

Wo are looking with great anxiety for the 
publication of this work, now in press, which 
is a treatise on all the stone and seed fruits, 
which are growing in this country. From the 
known ability, and great experience of the au- 
thor, in whose family Horticulture and Flori- 
culture has become almost an horeditary sci- 
ence, we anticipate a great addition to our 
knowledge of the qualities, babits, and capa- 
bilities of the different varieties, suited to the 

diversified climate of oar country, as well as 
settling and arranging the nomenclature, or 

{proper names of fruit, which in many parts 
have got iDto soch inexplicable confusion that 

j every grower b is a cognomeu of his own. 

The cause of this complaint obtains particu- 
larly in this region of country, where every- 
thing is new and of recent dute, aud experi- 
ence and comparison have not yet had a chance 
of exertion. With us, every apple that ij red 
U a SpiUenbersb, or a signijider. and every 
thing green a greening, and every thing yellow 



a pippin, and every early peach is a Rase-Ripe, 
a name which to us conveys any thing but 
what is intended. 

The taste, shape, flavor and colour of the 
fruit of all good varieties with which we are 
acquainted, are to strongly marked, and dis- 
tinctly characterized, as when once known, 
cannot easily be confounded with any others j 
it is therefore in consequence of the impor 
tance which we attach to this forth-coming 
work, as a text bock of acknowledged high 
authority, to settle at once all disputos, and 
as a reference for tho young or inexperien- 
ced, that we shall hail with great satisfaction 
its appearance. 

We hope that in all those cases where 
shape is the boldest, and most apparent crite- 
rion, that they will be accompanied with cuts 
after the manner of Coxe, and we have no 
doubt but that the demand for the work wil' 
warrant tho expense. 

GEOLOGY. 

THE VALLEV OF THE OENESIE. 

We have given in oor preceding numbers 
quotations from the Pioughboy, on this sub- 
ject : we will now take a geological view ot 
the valley of the Genesee from Lake Ontario, 
to the head waters of this river. First, wc 
shall make somo digressions by way of the 
ory, after which we shall confine ourselves 
to the productions of different formations as 
to soil; &c. We will commence with the 
first rock of the socondarv formation, the mUl- 
stone grit of some geologists, and the second 
grayxoackc of others. This rock is generally 
composed of •elecious particles; some speei 
mens are coarse and conglomerate, cemented 
together by carbonate of lime, others are more 
sandy. In most places it is hard and impervi 
ous to the water. 

This rock, in all probability, forms the bot 
torn of the most part of Lake Ontario. Next 
above this is the salifeTOUs,oi salt bearing rock; 
this forms the southern boundary of the Lake 
and is in sight much of the way from Oswego 
to the Niagara river. The color of this rock 
varies Irotn an ash color to a brick red, which 
latter prevails, interspersed with spots of a 
bluish gray, the colors not blending, but dis- 
tinct — these spots distinguish it in detached, 
pieces. It is rather soft and porous than oth 
erwise. It is in this rock that most of the 
mines of rook salt known, are found, and from it 
issue most of the salt springs ; and it is into this 
that miners bore to procure salt water. Geol- 
ogists & Chemists are not exactly agreed as to 
the cause of salt in this rock. One class con- 
tend that when this <trata was deposited from 
water, the water was very salt, a quantity of 
which was retained in the rock as in a sponge, 
which is not entirely drained out. On the o 
ther hand they contend that soda which is the 
base of salt, is a component part of the rock, 
and that muriatic acid is furnished by the su- 
perincumbent strata, and a3 it percolates thro 1 
this rock unites with the soda, forming the mu- 
riate of soda or oommon salt. 

So fir as we have examined the localities of 
salt mines or springs, they are situated at the 
lower end of long inclined planes, where the 
rock has a descent for a long distance, and 
I when this inclination is interrupted by a change 
n the descent, either by a discontinuation o;' 



Vol. 1.— No. 7. 



AND GARDENER'S JOURNAL. 



53 



the formation, oi by a sudden rise. When ihe 
formation is discontinued, or has been carried 
off by water, leaving an out-cropping of the 
rocks, salt springs frequency appear, but beds 
af rock salt are generally found where there is 
a sudden alteration of the descending strata, 
forming there'by a vast reservoir, for the drain- 
<ngs of the descending formation, into which the 
salt water collects, and graduates itself by the 
lighter particles passing off by capiliary at- 
traction, until the remainder becomes suffi- 
ciently strong for crystalization. Taking this 
theory as correct we have every reason to be- 
lieve that the great basin now occupied by 
Lake Ontario, was once filled with rock salt. 
The saliferous rock has a descent t6ward the 
lake for nearly one hundred miles, of from five 
fo seven feet per mile, with few exceptions. — 
On the north side of the lake, this regular de 
scent is interrupted by a vast continued chain 
of basaltic rock, running east and west, which 
appears to have been flung up by some subter 
raneous convulsion, forming a barrier, or vast 
basin in the saliferous rock by the sudden al 
teration or elevation of the northern part of 
the strata. If this theory is not correct, how 
are we to account for the disappearance of 
such a vast quantity of rock which lay below 
the outlet of the Lake ? 

It is through this saliferous rock that the 
Qene9ee river has cut its way up to the first 
falls, or a distance of about four miles. In 
many places the rock is in view, forming per- 
pendicular banks, or nearly so, of from forty 
to eighty feet. 

The soil, when formed from the decomposi- 
tion of this rock, is sandy, with a rusty iron 
color, loose, and rather barren. Much of the 
southern shore has this for the superincum- 
bent or upper rock, but it is genorally cover- 
ed to considerable depth with surf or beach 
sand, which was thrown mto bars before the 
reoeding of the waters. Of this description are 
the oak lands of this district. The water is- 
suing from those hills of sand is very pure and 
good, and although the width of this glade is 
not sufficient for forming any large streams, 
yet those formed by the springs from these 
hills are stocked with trout, which is a proof 
oC their purity. On the lop of the saliferous 
formation, is a layer of from four to ten feet 
in thickness, of a bluish gray colour, usually 
denominated the gray-band. Although this 
seems lo be a part of the saliferous formation, 
yet the components seem to be a little different, 
3s it contains a small quantity of allumme, 
Where this forms a soil by d^cnmposition, it is 
very hard and barren, but we do not recollect 
to have seen it to any great extent. This for- 
mation oan be examined at the lower falls at 
Carthage, the gray hand forming the floor of 
die river, over the red or saliferous rock ; for 
although the red rock is much harder out of 
water, the gray-band is tho hardest while it 
remains under water, as it soon falls to pieces 
when axposed to the air. 



CUTTING TIMBER. 

Febryary is Qndoubtcdly the best month in 
the year for cutting sucb timber as we wish to 
have durable. We would therefore recommend 
>t to farmers, to cut their timber for rails and 
other purposes, before the frost is out of it, or 
(he sap begins to circulate. The less sap tim- 



ber has in it when cut, the longer it will last 
other circumstances being equal. When trees 
are felled, it is undoubtedly bettor to let them 
remain until spring, at full length, that the 
bark may be the more easily peeled off, which 
is a verv important 'lung, when the timber is 
to be used for rails, which should be split as 
soon as the bark will come off, that they may 
have the benefit of seasoning during the sum- 
mer. If farmers will attend to this they will 
find their rails will be worth fifty per cent 
more than when cut after the sap begins to 
rise. 

FOR THE GENESEE FARMER. 

TO CATCH FISH. 

Messrs. Editors — I have an old receipt 
book, which says, " To cook u dolphin, catch 
him first, eye." Now, Sirs, in a late paper, 
you gave a very clever and convenient way of 
conveying live fish from one place to another 
even, I have no doubt, to great distances, and 
with perfect safety, in cold weather. But 
Sirs, you forgot lo tell us how we were to 
catch them. 1 have a small artificial fish-pond, 
to stock, which I have several times tried and 
failed, owing to the difficulty of keeping them 
alive after catching in warm weather, or du- 
ring the season they are usually caught; there- 
fore you will confer an obligation on me by the 
information, how I can procure Trout, Bass, 
Mullet, &c. at the season whan snow or ice 
can be obtained to keep them in a torpid state 
so that they can be removed. 

Fdi. 1, 1831. A Subscriber. 

In answer to A Subscriber, as to the best sea 
son and method of catohing fish, for stocking 
ponds, we reply : 

The month of March we consider the bent 
season for doing it in this latitude, — and the 
kinds of fish that are most generally taken for 
that purpose, are Trout, Bass.Perch, Pike and 
Pickerel. These kinds are readily taken with 
a hook, baited with tho large white grubs, 
which are found in old decaying logs, or with 
small fish, which may be found about large 
springs, at this season of the year. Having 
ascertained where any of the above named 
fish pass the winter, the fisherman should pro- 
vide himself with such a number of lines and 
hook!< as be shall think proper, and as we do 
not exactly agree with Doctor Franklin, in his 
definition of a fishing pole,* it may be omitted 
altogether. When the fisherman has arrived 
at the place where he intends catching, he 
should proceed to cut holes through the ice, 
towards which the fish will approach, allured 
by the light. His lines should be wound upon 
the thin ends of pieces of shingles, about 3 
inches wide, having holes cut through the cen- 
tre of them, about one.inch diameter, through 
which rods of sufficient length to reach across 
the holc9 cot through the ice should be put, 
and of sufficient strength to hold any fish that 
may take the hook. Having all things thus 
arranged, let the hooks be baited and let into 
the water, unwinding so much of the line as 
will allow the hook to sink to the required 
depth, then place tho rod across the hole, and 
allow the thick end of the shingle to rest upon 
the ice, with the other on which the line is 
wound, directly over the water. 

The advantage of this method is, that one 
man may atleud to a great number of hooks, 
for when a fish has taken the bait, and attempts 
to go off with it, a little force upon the line 



raises ihe thick end of the elm gle in the air, 
which may be seen at a distance, and the de- 
pression of the thin end allows the line to un- 
wind, so that no alarming resistance is offered 
to the fish. It should be remembered that fish 
biie at ihe bait more readily when the weather 
is becoming warmer, than when it is stationa- 
ry, or growing colder. There may be better 
methods than the above, for taking fish at this 
season, but they have not come within our ob- 
servation. We will mention one which we 
have seen practiced in taking'the salmon trout, 
on the north side of lake Ontario. A hole is 
cut through the ice, over which a close tent is 
made with blankets, within which the fisher- 
man seats himself with a lamp and spear. The 
hght of the lamp in the water allures the trout, 
which approach the hole and are speared by 
the fisherman. 



SHEEP. 

We cannot refrain from reminding our bro- 
ther farmers again, of the importance of giving 
close attention to their sheep at this season. — 
It often happens that a few ewes yean about 
this time ; most of the lambs die, because the 
dam has not milk enough to support them. If 
the farmer will take Ihe trouble to feed his 
sheep with moist food, instead of keeping 
them altogether on dry hay, he will find very 
little difficulty in raising early lambs, which 
will hring him a greater price than later ones. 
A few turnips, carrots, or boiled potatoes, 
with a little oat or corn meal, given daily, will 
be of great advantage to your flock, both in 
regard to the lambs and wool. 



* A po'e, With a ettirtg aj one end aod a Cool at tile o- 
tfier. 



TERMINOLOGY. 

Cicatrict — the mark or scar, from whence a 
leaf has fallen, or from the healing of any 
wound. 

Culm— the stems of grain, grass, Indian 
corn, &c. when dry. 

Drupe — the thick hard covering of a seed, 
nut, or stone, as-in the cherry, walnut, &e. 

Exotic — plants not found in a wild state, but 
which are introduced from abroad. 

Indigenous— plants growing naturally and o- 
riginally in a country. 

Peduncle — a stem bearing flowers and froit. 

Raceme — stems arranged along the side o> 
a general peduncle.as the grape, currant, &c. 

Glands — a roundish appendage situated on 
leaves, stems, &c, which serve for transpira- 
tion and secretion. 

Graviina — the family of grasses. 

Hybrid — a mule — a vegetable produced by a 
mixture of two different species. 

To the F.diiorBof the Genesee Farmer: 

As your paper is read by many of the scien- 
tific men of our country, I would be glad tp 
have you give the following publicity is hopes 
that it may lead to some experiments that may 
be useful. As X was travelling on a piece ot> 
new road, a few years since, I notieed a phe- 
nomeneu which was beyond my eompreheri- 
sion- The road that I travelled was over . 
tract of land which was that kind which we 
call clay soil. On this read there had been 
some repairs made, by filling up several boles 
with green hemlock boughs, oyer which some 
soil had been thrown. There was little travel 
on this road, and I noticed the water in one 



of thes*. holes was of a deep green culour 
which appeared to have been extracted from 
the leaves of ihe hemlock, and perfectly in 
solution. In another I discovered the c< lour 
ing matter upon the bottom, while the water 
was clear above. This precipitate I examin- 
ed carefully; it had much the appearance of in 
digo, and the quantity was such as to cover the 
surface of the ground beneath tho water 

Quere— Couid not indigo be prepared from 
the green leaves of hemlock 7 R. K. 

Ontario, Feb. 10. 1S31 



THE ECLIPSE. 

With a view to combat, and ;f possible cor- 
roct a vulgar error, founded solely upon pre- 
sumption, concerning the temperature of the 
weather during eclipses of the sun, we deter- 
mine I to ascertain the facts — whether any va- 
riatii n occurs — how great that variation be- the 
mean temperature of the day — and also during 
the obscuration--and to compare the mean tem- 
perature of tills day with the preceding and 
following days, that the community may judge 
for themselves. 

The Thermometer suspended on the north 
side of the house, exposed freely to the then 
prevailing north-west wind, which on the 12th 
blew in gusts of moderate force, and was oc- 
casionally accompanied with snow, gave the 
following indications. 
Temp.ofthe.lltb 



T HE GENESEE FARMER 

The temperature at the greatest obscuration 
was 22 deg. or m jre than two degrees higher 
than at one time of the eclipse. The varia- 
tions were too slight (but about four degrees) 
to be attributed to the interception of the sun's 
rays, for these were shut out by clouds (with 
a trilling e\ception) for the whole day. 

Before 2 o'clock, however, the sun was ob- 
scurely visible through tho flyinz clouds, for a 
f • w short intervals, when about one twelfth of 
his disk was still eclipsed. 

The appearance of our atmosphere at the 
greatest obscuration, resembled the coming on 
of :wilight. The azure hue, with all the soft- 
ness of evening continued about three quarters 
of an hour and disappeared. * * * 



=3= If I 
2l2S 



Temp of the 12th I ITernp. of Ihe !3tb 

•ia 3 i-*~Zr" l i~ 1-3 



;|- 5 



Feb. 19, 1S31. 

beans are given to sheep, during the win- 
ter, in small quantity, the I a r : . b > will be strong. 
and the trouble of nursing saved." — New Eng- 
land Farmer. 



■ - 1 2 £ S ' i 1 c I ~ £ S 
30 I 21 |25.5| M i 23 I 12 |I7,5U»!| 16 \ 3 19,5 

Thus it will be seen, that the temperature 
did diminish on the 12th, from a mean of 25,5 
to 17,5, which may be altributed to a chance 
in the direction of tho wind, from west ti 
north-west, which in this place is sure to in 
crease thecal, I. Moreover, on the 13th, the day 
after the eclipse, owing 1 1 a continuance of 
the north west wind, a depression, equal to 
that of the 12th occurred, viz — from a mean of 
17,5 to 9.5. or 8 dg. colder. During the month 
of January, a change of daily temperature or 
14 deg. occurred, and this was submitted to 
■without a declaration of hostilities ,ig unst the 
heavenly bodies ; also between the 3d and 4th 
of this present month, a depression of 14 deg. 
was experienced, and was hardly the subject 
of remark. 

Doubtless many far greater changes have 
been witnessed in our climate, that no one 
Thought attributablo to conjunctions of the 
planets. 

The following is a five minutes' register of 
;be temperature for two hours, during the oh 
fcuration of the 12th. 



Time. 
10 o'clock 111 
10 do 3« ra 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

,1,, 

do 

do 

do 



4r> in 

02 in 

•57 m 

2 111 

7 111 

12 ra 

17 

22 m 

27 

32 

37 m 

4! 

47 m 

52 m 

57 m 



1 m 



Temp'ture. 

3B desr in 
22 do Dm 
22 do 111 
22 do in 
22 do 11; 
02 do (I m 
22 do m 
22 do 5 in 
22 do 3 m 

22 do I 1" 

23 do 5 m 
23 do H m 
23 do 111 

21 do 9 111 

22 do m 
21 do 5 in 
21 do 2 m 
21 do fi m 
21 do 5 m 



Time. 



ITemp'tre, 



12 o'clock 13 in 22 deg n> 



do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 

BUD- 



I7n 



21 do 7 m 



■Jam 

t27m 

3 I in 

37 m 
4- iu 
47 in 
S3 in 
57„, 



21 ,. 9 is 

22 do m 
-1) do 2 m 
20 do 2 111 
20 do m 

19 do 8 o 

20 do 5 in 
10 do 5 in 
20 do 5 in 
20 do 5 m 

13 m|20 do 5 m 

30 01 1 22 do II in 

m 21 Co ni 

') iii'M do n ni 

22 Jo m 



10 o'cl'k evAo'gll2 do ni 



Beginning of the eclipse. I Greatest obscuration. 



FARMER S WORK FOR FEBRUARY. 

Take this leisure time to select and pur- 
chase such noat cattle, sheep, pigs, seed com. 
>eed wheat, potatoes for planting. &c, as will 
he likely to prove most valuable on your farru,' 
laving in mind the following maxim, viz — 
Choose those animals or vegetables to propa- 
gate from, that possess the qualities you wish 
might be possessed by their offspring in the 
greatest perfection. Our farmers are too apt 
to sell off their best stock to the butchers, and 
keep the poorest to breed from; and to gath- 
er 1 heir seeds from vegetables, which were re- 
served for thai purpose because they were too 
worthless forthe harvest. 

Dress out hemp and flux, and see that your 
spinning wheels come somewhat nearer to 
perpetual motion then some machines which 
have been invented for that purpose. For ev- 
ery centeaved in domestic manufactures, vou 
gain at lesst three cents. One cent you Jain 
by the greater durability of tho home-spun ar- 
ticle; one cent you save ofcashnoj paid for 
the purchase ; and one cent, or perhaps count- 
less cents, by bringing up your family to habit* 
of thrift and industry. 

Look well to your sheep. If you wish for 
fine healthy lambs, you will take good care of 
lite ewes. *' For a lew days or weeks before 
yeanmg time, they should be generously fed. 
Some juicy food which they are fond of should 
be given them, such as turnips, potatoes, »&o. 
ihat they may have more milk for their lambs : 
for it is the opinion of careful observers, that 
want of milk is tho cause of the dying of so 
many lambs, in the first stages of their exist- 
ence."* It has been recommended to »ive 
ewes about half a gill of Indian corn a dav, 
ach, till they have produced their young, in 
order to give them strength ; and while 6uck 
ling, good roots of some other juicy tood. — 
The Farmer's Manual says, " If you have sto- 
red more turnips than are sufficient for the use 
>f the table, give them to any slock that will 
eat them, except your shoep ; give to tliem po- 
tatoes, but not turnips at this season ; they 
will injuro ihe lambs. Weak lambs should be 
treated in all respects as if they had been 
drowned, and you would r. 'store ihem 10 
life. Apply gentle and tegular warmth ; give 
warm milk frequently In small quantities, (the 
milk of the sheep is best,) and if the ewe has 
sufficient for its support, you may generally 
raise them, bin if not ihey generally die. It 
is more work to nurse one such hmb for 24 
hours than to feed regularly 100 sheep for the 
same tune. If your rlock bo large, the weath- 
ers should be kept by themselves. They do 
not require so good koeping as ewes and young 
sheep." The Farmer's Guide says. •• ll'lamhs 
(ire weak, it is necossary to givo thorn, the 
first day or two, a email quantity of cow's 
milk, warm, three or four limes in the day ; if 
it is cold weather, the cup containing the milk 
should stand in another vessel that is partly fil- 
led with warm waler. Should the lamb be chill- 
ed, rub his legs with tow, and let awarm cloth be, 
put round it. But if corn, barloy, oats or white 



• Dean's New-England Farmer. 



POTATO CHEESE. 

In Thuringia and part of Saxony, a kind of 
potato cheese is made, which is very much 
sought after. The following is the recipe : — 
Select good white potatoes, boil them, and 
when cold, peel and reduce them to a pulp with 
a rasp or mortar ; to five pounds of this pulp, 
which must be very uniform and homogene- 
ous, add 1 pint of sour milk, and the requisite 
portion of salt; knead the whole well, cover 
,t, and lei jt remain three or four days, accord- 
ing to the season: then knead it afresh, and 
place the cheeses in small baskets, when 
they will part with their superfluous moisture ; 
dry them in the shade, and place them in lay- 
ers, in large pois or kegs, where they may re- 
main a fortnight. The older they are the fi- 
ner "hey become. — Sil. Jour. 



NEWS OF THE WEEK. 



JAMES MONROE. 

The bill for the adjustment and payment of 
the claims of James Monroe was taken np in 
ihe Senr.te, on the 8th inst. read a socond time, 
and reforred to a select committee, consisting 
of Mr. Hayne, Mr Frelinghuvsen, Mr. San- 
f.ud, Mr. Bell, and Mr. Iredelf 

INCREASED COLLECTIONS AT NEW VORK. 

The duties on imports lor the third quarter 
M this port, amount 10 §4,781.128 33. The 
whole amount shows an excess, compared with 
last year, of half a million of dollars. 

COM CREIGHTON. 

The evidence for and against Com. Creigh. 
j ton, closed on the 9lh inst. His defence was 
to have been read before tbe'eourt on Monday 
last. 

NEW ENGLAND AND NEW YORK. 

The population of Net, England entire 3- 
mounts to 1,949,882; lhat of JNew York to 
jjahout l,934,C0O. being a difference of onlv 
15,000, or oue (bird of the number required 
to entitle to a single represiotalire — yet New- 
Eogland has 51 members of Congress, and 
New York bnl 36 — JV. Y. Eve. Jour. 

NEW POST OFFICE 

A post office has been recently established 
in the west part of the town of Rush, in this 
county, called West Rush, Lmanuel C..se,Esu. 
P M. 

SALT DLTV. 

■ Tbe bill reported by the Commillee on 
Manufactures in Congress, to fix the duly on 
Salt 15 cents a bushel, was on Saturday !n> 
laid upon the table by a vote of 145 to 41. 

CINCINNATI 

An account is published of tbe immense 
building at Cincinnati during the last year, 
The wnole number of brick buildings erected 
was 287 — the iviiole number of wooden build- 
ingsltil — tolal 448 ; which estimate does not 
include stables, workshops, nor buildings re- 
moved 10 new locations. 

It is supposed the amount of specie now 
lying in the vaults of Ihe Atlantic Banks is 
nearly thirty millions oj dollars. The United 
Stales Bank and branches have about 1 1 
millions. 

The London Common Council have unani- 
mously resolved to erase the inscription 011 
London monument, which charges the great 
fire in London in the year ltJOO, to have boon 
maliciously caused by the Roman Catholics. -- 
The Rpoeohos made on the occasion reflect 
hack great honour upon the speakers. A Liv- 
erpool paper speaking of this says, the inscrip- 
tion is generally believed to be an historic*' 
falsehood. ^ 



Vol. 1.— No. 7. 



AND GARDENER'S JOURNAL. 



LONG ISLAND SOUND CLOSED 

On the 10th inst. the Sound wus frozen over 
from Throw's Neck to Long Island— tho ice 
beinj; solid and several feet thick. The ice is 
anid to be more firm than it his bnen for thu 
iast 30 years — it has not been entirely frozen 
over for seven years past. 

LOSS OF LIVES. 

The Louisiana Advertiser of the 1 Stli ult, 
says :— " The launch of the ship Pearl. arrived 
at this port on Sunday last, was lost in cross- 
ing the bar of Tampico, on board of which were 
tho mate, three seamen, and twenty^tu'o pas- 
sengers, all of whom perished." 

LIGHT POSTAGE. 

The following extrnct fpom a letter, lately 
recoived by the editors of the National Intelli- 
fjencer, from a subscriber in Santa' Fe, in Mex 
ICO, gives one a lively idea of the interest feit 
in news from home by those who are " far 
away." 

" The postage on twenty two of your papers, 
received this mail, amounted to fifteen dollars 
and a half.being $2 50 for each Amerioan here 
The speech of Mr. Drayton, at Charleston, was 
worth the money." 

NEW COINAGE. 

The U. S. Mint has, just issued a quantity of 
25 cent-pieces of a new coinage, which are 
said to be very handsome 

THE CENSUS. 

JV'cw Orleans. — The Census of New Orleans 
gives that city near 50,000 inhabitants Con- 
siderably more than half of the number are 
blacks. 

Maryland — Free white persons 291, 093, col- 
ored persons, slaves and free, 155,820, total 
440,913 

Baltimore. — Tho returns of the Census show 
the population of Baltimore to be 80,626, of 
which 4,123 are slaves, and 14,788 free colored 
people. 

PRINTER TO THE SENATE. 

Duff Green was re-elected printer to the 
Senate on Wednesday. On the first two bnl 
lotings, the numbers were, Green 22, Gale & 
Seaton 22, scattering 3. On the 3d bahot, the 
numbers stood— Green 23, Giiles & Seaion 22. 
scatering 2. On the 4,h ballot the vote stood 
—Green 24. Gales 4- Seaton 22— Blair 1. 

THE GRAND DUKE. 

A late London paper ubserves :— " Araotig 
the more personal causes always mixed p with 
public ones, which led to the mover, -nts in 
Toland, we may mention the crueltj of the 
Grand Duke to a poor woman who slo><d in the 
way of his troops last year, whom he beat with 
his own hands ! This brutailily, one of many, 
sunk deep in the minds of the people of War- 
saw. His rudeness, and the Emperor's cold- 
ness to the senate ttt the coronation, together 
with his insisting on crowning himself, dis- 
gusted the nobles — that is, the whole gentry." 

JEALOUSY. 

At the Justices' Court in Providence, R. 1. 
Amasa Cooke, Jr. was examined on a charge of 
attacking, Mr. William Moore, and, after stri 
king him across the forehead with a club, stab 
bing him several times with a sharp instru 
ment. Cooke, who it appeared, attacked Moore 
in a fit of jealousy, wss bound ever in the sum 
of $500 to take his trial before the Supreme 

Court. A NEW MOVE. 

The Baltimore and Ohio Hail Rond Compa- 
ny have reported favorably on a p'an for ex- 
tending the rail road into several streets of 
Baltimore, the rails to be elevate.' about two 
inches above the pavement. On>- track only, 
for the present, to be laid down in each street, 
which will leavo 15 fee' on each side for car- 
riages. 

A PRESIDENT DEAD 

The schooner Ned from Rio Salado brings in- 
formation that Gen- Lamar, Ex President of 
Peru, died at Cartoge, Central America, on 
the loth November. 

Mr. Grigg, of Philadelphia, announces for 
sale the second series of Mrs. Royall's Black 
S.rok 



W< find the following paragraph in the [New 
Vork Courier and Inquirer :— The Store and 
Lot, No. ',99 Pearl street — the Lot 18 feet six 
inches front and rear, by 80 feet in depth, was 
lately sold by Mr. John B Lawrence to Mr 
Amos Palmer, for the sum of $40,000, proba 
bly a larger sum, than any piece of ground fo 
the same dimensions ever sold for before, of 
business purposes 

RAISING THE WIND. 

A man in Portsmouth, Ohio, suffered a sound 
tooth to be pulled, which he sold to the dentist 
for 50 cents. With tho money he bought rum 
and made himself drunk. 

FIRE AT THE PEAPATCH. 

On Tuesday night, as statod in the Philadel 
phia Chronicle of Friday evening, all that was 
combustible of Fort Delaware, upon tho Pea 
patch, was consumed It would appear that 
happily no lives were lost 

Tho fire is said to have been causod by a 
stove pipe, passing through the roof of Lieut. 
Tuttle's quarters. It isadded that the quar- 
ters of the soldiers and officers, except, those 
of the commander and the engineers, with 
much clothing, provision, and furniture, have 
been destroyed , and that the work is now but 
the skeleton of a fortification. The public loss 
is estimated at $100,000. 

Some kegs of powder exploded, and the re- 
port was heard at Chester. 

The following is derived from an official re- 
port made to major general Seott : — 

On the evening of the 8th inst a fire broke 
out at Fort Delaware, from some unknown 
cause, and destroyed the wood work entirely 
of the Fort. Tho Quartermaster's stores, ord- 
nance stores, and provisions belonging to the 
troop6, were consumed. The command has 
been removed to Delaware city. " The inluilw 
itants of which (says a letter rocelved from an 
ufficer) displayed a generous and active hospi- 
tality in relieving us under our present dis> 
tressing situation." 

DEATH OE ElLIVAR. 

We are indebted to Captain Roff, o 
the schooner Charles, from Norfolk, for 
■ he Beacon of thai place, of the 8th inst. 
This paper contains the intelligence of 
the death of General Simon Bolivar, 
winch is copied from the Kingston, (Ja- 
maica) Ccurant of the 6lh of Januaiy. 
The proclamation of this event is pub- 
lished in the Courunt, and was issued hy 
Don Juan de Francisco de Martin, pre- 
lect of the department, and is addiessed 
to the citizens of Magdalena. It is da- 
ted "Carthageua, Dec. 21, 1830."— 
Bolivar died on the 17th of thai month, 
at one P. M. The Norfolk editor pro- 
mises the official acc't in his next paper. 

We learn also from Capt. Boff, that 
Commodore Sinclair died on the 7tn 
inst. and was buried on the 9th with the 
honors of war. — TCom. Adv. 

"Schwartz," says the Annals of Education, 
•' one of the most eminent writers on educa- 
'ion in Germany, observes, in his History of 
Education, that the state of New York has the 
greatest number at children in its schools, in 
proportion to the whole population, of any 
country he has found. " 

A man named Lovejoy, belonging to Flori- 
Jay, Mont. co. was frozen to death, last week, 
near Schenectady. 

A beggar woman pretending to be blind 
difid lately in London leaving the enormous 
snm of $450,000 ! 

Prices at Brandy wine Mills, Feb. 2: — 
Flour, gG 38 j Wheat, white, gl 23: do red, 
p 20; Cora-old, go 54; Oats, 26 a 27. 



ROC HESTER PRICKS -CURRENT. 

Feb 18, 1831. 



Ashes per 2540 lbs 
Pot .. $91o9S 50 

Pearl 100nl02 50 

Apples per bushel 25o44 
Do dried 75 

Bristles, comb'd per lb 20a3l 
Beeswax do 18a20 

Butter do loot 

Beef— Mess per bbl $Pa9 
Do prime do 5aT 

Do fresh per lb 02ao3 
Barley per bushel 3?«44 
Beans do 50a62 

Caudles, mould per lb 9 els 
Bo dipped do 8 4I 
Do sperm do 28 ll 

Co'ro per bushel 44o50 

Cheese per lb O4a05 

Clover Seed per bash $4 50 
flour per bbl 5 50 

Flax per lb 07a08 

Flax Seed per bush 7SaH7 
Fealherspei lb 3l«3 

Furs— Otter 100a400 

Fox, red 50a7 



Miuli 12n31 

Raccoon l£a31 

Martin 25a62 

Fisher 37a50' 

Wild Cat li-,,25 

GrnyFox lenSS 

Crass Seed per bush 62 

flops per lb ISalS 

Honey do 09 

I.ard do OCoO'i 

Mutton do 02a03 

Mustard Seed per bush $3 

Oats per bush £5 

Old Pewter. Brass and 

Copper per lb 14 

Peaches, drj'd bush tn0o200 
Pork, mess per bbl $1?gI3 



Fox, cross 



Do prime 

Do fresh per lb 
Quills |»er 100 
Rye per hush 
Rags per Ih 
Salt per bbl 
Tallow per lb 
Wheal per bush 



8aD 

O3<r04 

25a30 

50 

O3o04 
$1 -..' 
OOif'-. 
l03alC9 



100a20H;Ituclnvhoal flour. ewi SI ' 



METEOROLOGICAL TABLE, 

for the week ending Feb. 12, 1S31 . 



- 


Ther 

elg 


Barotnel'r 


Wi 


nds 




Wcatl 


er 


Q 


a 


a 


a 


•. 




>, 


js-5 




s 


O 




















al J 


s 





£ 





O 


u 


a 


2 S 


6 


10 2 


29,70 


29,74 


to 


IB 


1 






7 


13[10 29,70 29,60 


to 


to 


1 








8 


I81 10 29,55 29,53 


a 


to 


1 








9 


t;. 15 29,52 


29,50 


to Ito 




1 




1 


10 


25] 16129,50 


29,38 


to 'to 




1 




1 


11 


34,25,29,30 


29,48 


10 1 V 




1 






IS 


23! 12 


29,62 


29,78 


n to 


mo 




1 







Obsorvn'11- 



|]-2in-snovv 
XT The Barometrical and Thermomctrical observa- 
tions arc registered at 10 o'clock AM. mid P. M., which 
by a long series of experiments made for the purpose, 
show that time to give a nearer mean average of thi 
relative heat of a day than any other time- 



BANK NOTE TABLE. 

Corrected Weekly for the Rochester Daily Advertise}-, 
BY C. W LUNDAS. 



NEW YOU It. 

All banks in this state, par, 
except the following 
BrokenBanks. Washing- 
ton &. '.Varren, Barker's Ex 
change, Franklin Bank, Mid 
die Dist.. Columbia, Greene 
County, Marble Manuf. Co.. 
Flailsburgh, anil Niagara. 
MASSACHUSETTS. 
A! banks in this state, par, 
except the following 
Broken Banks- Farmers' 
b'uk of Bclchertowu, Sutton, 
Berkshire, Essex and Brigh- 
ton banks. 

VERMONT. 
All banks in this state, par. 

KHODE-ISLAND 

All banks in this state, par, 

except the following 

Broken Banks Farmers' 

Exchange, and Farmers' & 

Mechanics' banks. 

CONNECTICUT. 
All bunks in this stale, par, 
except the fallowing 
Broken Banks. Eagle, 
j Eagle pay'ble at Union bank 
New- Vork, l>erby,and I>er 
by payable at Fulton bank 
New-York. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE- 
All Irani- .- in this state, par 

MAINE. 
All bankn in this stain, par. 
except the following 
Broken Banks. Castine, 
Wiscasset, Hallow ell &. Au- 
gusta, Kennebec, and Pas- 



TJ The above table ichen speaking of foreign Bills, re 
fers to those of $o,and over, as none of a less denomin- 
ation are receivable 



samaqnoddv banks. 

NEW-JERSEY. 

State b'nk, & Trenton Bank- 
ing Company, par. 
Ai; other banks, 2 per cent, 
except the following 
Broken Banks. SlIcib & 
Phil. Munul .Co., Monmouth, 
Hoboken and Grazing Co., 
N.Jersey Manuf & Banking 
Co. at Hobokcu, State Bank 
i Trenton, Protection and 
Lombard, and Jt-rtev City. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 
Philadelphia Banks, par. 
\ II other banks, 2 per cent. 
except the following 
Broken BanJif. Farmers' 
•^Mechanics' oi >.Sa., Cen- 
tre, Huntington, Meadville, 
Marietta, Juniata, Greencat- 
tle, Bedford, Beaver, Wash- 
ington, UnioMoWn, Agricul- 
tural, Sil Lake, Westmore- 
land at Greenburgb, New- 
Hope Bridge Co new envi- 
sion, and Brown vile bonks. 

OHIO. 
A1J banks. '1 to 6 per cejii, 

MICHIGAN. 

Alt banks, 2 per cent, 

except the ful.owiog 

Broken Banks. Monroe, 

and Detroit. 

CANADA. 
All banks, 2 to 3 per cent, 
except the 
Upper Caua. at Kingston . 
and Unchartered banks. 



LAW REPORT. 

The Coshocton (Ohio) Spy, of a late date ; 
contains the following report of a law ease in 
progress before tho Common Pieas of that cc 

WAJ.LAC'K V6 CAMELF. 

Messrs. Wallace and Gamble, 
About corn have a scramble, 

One of many unfortunate job?, 
For when the Zanesville attorntj's. 
Shall be pttid for their journeys. 

The parties may pocket the cok^s. 



i»6 



THE GENESEE FARMER. 



Feb. 19, 1831 



JOX8CSXXANBOT73. 



BES« 

The Editor of the Windsor, Vt. Chronicle, 
after copy iDg Dr. Smith's article on bees froi.. 
a late New England Farmer, has added the 
following remarks : 

Dr. Smith doubts the existence of the quee>. 
bee. Now we nerei heard a bee promulga- 
ting laws or appointing subordinate officer." 
Stc. but we have seen what may perhaps be 
wcrtb telliog of 

There was an empty hive at the north end 
of the bee house, inteuded for the next swarrn 
From the hive next south, a swarm had issu- 
ed, and after flying about for a while, return 
ed. The reason assigned by the owner was 
that the queen was unable to fly. A day 01 
two after, the swarm came out again and sooi. 
began to return as before. It occurred to u>. 
that possibly her majesty, in att«mpting to 
fly, might have fallen to the ground. Step 
ping in front of the hive, we saw, six or eigh: 
feel from its mouth, some twenty bees, flying 
about a tufi of grass; and on drawing nearer 
we saw perched upon a blade of grass, a bee, 
about as long as a drone, but much moreslen 
der, — tbe back of a brighter black, and the 
legs redish, — evidently neither a drone nor a 
working bee. A stick being presented to this 
singular insect, she crept upon it, and was 
carried upon it to (he mouth of the empty 
hive before mentioned. A few beet had aligh 
ted at its mouth. These immediately followed 
her into the hive. Some of tbem soon return 
ed, and ran, evidently as fast as they were a 
ble, to the old hive, the stool and front oi 
which were covered with the returning swam. 
Having arrived among these, the messengers 
for such they appeared to be, would occasion 
ally stop, and shake themselves violently 
swinging or rather rocking themselves from 
right (o left and the contrary, as they are 
sometimes seen to do at and about the time of 
swarming. This motion was invariably lo! 
lowed by a general scampering of the sur 
rounding bees to the hive. Some of these 
messengers entered the old hive, where then 
operations were out of sight ; but tbcir en 
trance was soon followed by the pouring ou, 
of multitudes, who made their way with all 
possible speed to the new hive. In a leu 
moments the odd looking bee, picked up on 
the grass, was surrounded with a respectabi. 
swarm, all was quiet, ibe usual labors of bee' 
commenced, and in tne end, a good summer's 
work of honey -making was done. This, and 
haviug seen a number of bees of tbe same ap 
pearance, but never more than one in a hive 
is all we know by our own eyes, about a 
queen among bees. 

NEW VARIETY OF WHEAT. 

Doar Sir — I beg leave to send you herewith 
a Bample ol wheat, originally from Syria, af- 
terwards raised in Englan ', and now, as fir as 
lam informed, in our country Its quality ;- 
Said to be very fine, and its productiveness ve- 
ry great. I place the samples, regretting 
that they are not larger, in your hands, to be 
given awny to such of our farmers of Yorkcoun- 
ty as you think may feel a disposition to make 
a trial of them upon their farms. I have ven- 
tured to give it the namo of the ''liexley 
Wheat," having received the first samples- of 
it from Lord Bexley in England, who obtained 
it from Syria, as I understood. When at Wa- 
shington, 1 gave a small quantity to my friend 
Col. Maynadier, of Annapolis, Maryland, un- 
der whose cultivation in that neighborhood, it 
has, on a single trial, succeeded wonderfully. 

In the hope ihat it may pro»e useful among 
Us, I remain very respectfully, yours, o, c. 

iuchArd hush. 

T. 0. HrjMBLy, Esq. 



From the Saturday Evening Post. 
PLUGGING TREES. 

Tbis simple operation is avery efficient rem 
edy for destroying caterpillars, aphides and oth- 
er insects preying upon leaves and limbs of 
fruit trees, ornamental and shade, fine shrubs, 
&c. &c. 

It has often been desired to find such a re- 
medy. Rewards have been offered to destroy 
easily and speedily the insects of fruit trees. 
Our shade trees are covered every vear with 
disgusting and voracious caterpillars. Year af- 
ter year new troublesome means are proposed, 
which are inefficient while this very easy and 
cheap way to poison and destroy at once all 
the insects of any tree, is so little town that 
our farmers and gardeners appear to be unac- 
quainted with it. It was discovered in France, 
and I have verified it by actual experiment. — 
I now publish it again, and request editors 
friendly to agriculture to spread the knowledge 
of it every where. 

This simple operation consists in boring a 
i'ole into a tree with a giniblet, about one thud 
of the diameter of the tree in depth. Fill Hie 
hole with a small quantity of Flour of 'Sulphur, 
and plug the bole with a wooden peg. This 
sulphur is decomposed or carried into circula- 
tion by the sap, and is exhaled by the leaves 
in a gaseous stale, while it poisons and lulls 
all the caterpillars and insects preying upon 
them. Whether boring and plugging with 
sulpher the roots of the peach tree, and other 
trees whose roots are injured by insects, will 
answer as well, is unknown to me, not having 
tried it ; but it is worth while to try the expe- 
riment — the result may be favorable. 

C. S RaFIRESQUE, 

Professor of Botany, <$•<;. 

ON THE PRESERVATION OF POTATOES. 

Potatoes at the depth of one foot in the 
ground, produce shoots near the end of spring, 
at the depth of two feet they appear in the 
middle of summer; at three feet of depth, 
t hey are very short and never corne to the sur- 
face ; and between three and five feet, they 
cease to vegetate. In consequence of obser- 
ving these effects, several parcels of potatoes 
were buried in a garden at the depth of three 
feet and a half, and were not removed till after 
intervals of one and two years. They were 
then found without any appearance of germi- 
nation ard possessing their original firmness, 
freshness, goodness, and taste. — Sillimun's 
Journal. 

LIRIODENTRINE. 

The active principle of this beautiful veget- 
able production ot our country — the Lirioden 
drine Tulipifera, Tulip Tree or American Pop 
lar, — has been recently separated by Dr. J P 
Emmelt, Professor of Chemistry and Materia 
Wedica in the University of Virginia This 
active principle, to whicb he has given the name 
Liriodendrinc, although not a vegetablealcali, 
is soluble in acids, and possesses, no doubt, in 
an eminent aegree, the tonic arid febrifugp 
properties for which the bark of the tree has 
been celebrated Its solution in alcohol fur- 
nishes limpid crystals, and hns ,thc same intense 
bitterness as that which characterizes the Sul» 
phale of Quinine. Tho tulip tree contains it 
in considerable quantity, and the process fur 
obtaining it is extremely simple. 

As thxLiriodendnne is found to sublimate at 
a beat a little above that ofboiling water, it is 
obvieus that any extract mado from the bark 
of the tree, after the ordinary methods, must 
be comparatively inert. — Nat, Gaz. 

LARGE ORANGES 
The editor of the Poughkeepsio Journal 
■:i\s; Mrs. J. D. Robinson, of that village. 
■ias 6ont bun a couple of magnificent oranges, 
which have grown with many others, on a 
ireeof her own raising. The larger of the 
vro measured I3A inches in circumference, 
and weighed one pound. The other was but a 
(.Jiflc smaller. 



From the New York American. 

SLEIGHING SONG— by bans van poesg 
Merrily, merrily sound the bells 

As o'er the ground we roll, 
And the snow drift breaks in silver flakes 

Before our Cariole ; 
While, muffled in sables rich and warm, 

With mantle and beaver dight, 
We drive in the teeth ol the angry storm, 

Or skim in the cold moonlight, 
Merrily, merrily, &c. 

Merrily, merrily sound the bells 

Upon the wind without, 
When the wine is mulled, and the waffle culler 

And the joke is passed about : 
And rosy lips and dimplo cheeks 

The flash of wit inspire, 
While mirth in many a bright ey6 speaks, 

Around the crackling fire. 
Merrily, merrily, &c. 

IMPORTANT T I RESIDENT ALIENS. 

The Laws of this state require resideD' 
aliens, who have taken conveyance of rea 
estate, to make and file a deposition of their 
intention to become citizens, in the office ot 
(he Secretary of state ; and also to take the 
incipient measure which the laws of the U- 
States require to enabie them to obtain natur- 
alization before the 15th day of April, 13JI 
I vol. Rev'd. Slat. p. 120. Sess'n. Laws 1830 
chap. 171 p. 198. 

VALUABLE STOOL. 

Several years since, the British comman- 
der of Sierra Leone, visited the prince ot 
Asbantee for the purpose of concluding a trca 
ty of peace with hirr ; be found his sable ma- 
jesty seated on asloolof virgin gold, weighing 
ninety pounds avoirdupois. It is doubted 
whether any of his legitimate European breth- 
ren can vie with him in the costliness of then 
chairs of state. 

CATTLE. 

We learn from the Boston papers, that six 
thousand two hundred and eighty three head 
of beef cattle have been slaughtered at thr 
establishment of Mr. Winchester, at Lech- 
mere Point, Cambridge, in the short spacs o> 
13 weeks. 

ANECDOTE OF LAFAYETTE. 

During the trial of the ex-ministers, Gen 
Lafayette had repeatedly rode out and address 
ed groups of the people assembled in the neigh- 
boring streets. This venerable patriot assured 
them that justice would be done upon the pris- 
oners according to the laws of the land, bu! 
that vengeance should not be inflicted upon 
one of them by popular violence, until his life 
was first sacrificed in their defence. The pert- 
pie as on the previous day, generally cheered 
their ancient champion ; but some cried "Down 
yvith Lafayette." The old soldier remarked 
that liberty had never been secured by a tu- 
multuous interference with tho laws ; and at 
length, when irritated for a moment by some 
hisses, he exclaimed, " Who are you in that 
corner f 1 know the brave defenders of liber- 
ty, but your faces ore strange to me — on the 
29th of July 1 do not remember to have seon 
you at our barricades." 

MEDALLION OF CLINTON. 

We have seen a medallion likeness of De 
Wilt Clinton in plaster, done from a steel plate 
executed by 'JharlesC. V\ right of New York. 
It is very like tbe original, and calls to mind 
the features of that great man moro than any 
likeness we have seen since his death. Mi 
iV right is the executor of the medal made for 
the American Academy of Arts, which wi 
noticed some time ago, and which acquired 
for him so much credit. He is an artist oi 
of whom out country mav be proud. — .2nV 
Dai. Adv. 



*G*^^P ^VW^9 'H^^^^ ^^^^M^ ^^^^^^Sr ^MW^V ^•'^•^y <V^^pH^V ^^W^IW 



VOLUME I. 



ROCHESTER, FEBRUARY 26, 1831. 




NUMBER 8. 



COlHHItfNICA'J.IONS. 



FOIl THE GENESEE FARMER. 

The climate of the Genesee country, con- 
siderably diners from that of the sea coast in 
the same parallels of latitude. We have le9s 
sunshine in winter, owing to the condensed 
exhalations of our lakes ; and day and night 
have a more equal temperatnre. Our snows 
are more durable, — commonly swept off by 
warm southerly winds, —seldom melted by the 
.-am. In summer, not more subject to the 
drought ; but back from the two great lakes, the 
air is evidently drier than on the sea coast. 

Even as far south as Philadelphia, perhaps 
the mcrcjiry sinks as low in the thermometer; 
but their warm sunshine revives many a south- 
ern plant, which has barely endured their clear 
nights of intense frost. Long coniinued cold 
fs more fatal to some plants, than greater cold 
of short duration. In 1794, Fahrenheit's 
thermometer at London, was 20 deg. below 
Zero, yet many plants abide their winters, 
which are here considered tender. 

In regard to tender plants, however, we 
tiave something yet to learn. I have observed 
that some shrubs, planted in autumn, weaken- 
ed by lacerated roots and branches, have por- 
isiied in winter, when the same kinds are un- 
questionably hardy, alter their roots are estab- 
lished in the ground, the wood matured, and a 
scaly bark protects them from the frost. Such 
ought therefore to be shielded from the severi- 
!y of winter tili their vigor is fully restored. 

These remarks have detained me from some 
brief comments on M. Floy's list. 

He has omitted the black maple, (Acer ni 
grum) remarkable for its dense foliage. It is 
a native of the Genesee country, and may bo 
distinguished b_\ its dark greeu leaves, with 
rapped lobes, pubescent on their under side. 
I know of no finer shade tree. 

1 found Cuprcssus distieha rather tender, but 
have hopes of its recovery. 

Cuprcssus tbyoidas is an elegant evergreen. 
One of nearly three feet in diameter, stands io 
Bartraai s Botanic Garden, planted by the em- 
inent founder of that ancient establishment. I 
S"et out three small trees late in autumn, care- 
fully bent them to the ground when the cold 
-became severe, and they now repose under in- 
verted sods. I find it profitable to treat many 
newly transplanted shrubs, both deciduons 
and evergreen, in this manner. 

The biae-ash of the Western States (Fraxi- 
ims quadra ngul-ata) 1 believe has not been in- 



a foot long and half an inch diameter, set i 
common soil, I had a tree, in one season, five 
feet high. We have several, very flourishing 
and perfectly hardy. D. T. 



iroduced into any of the great nurseries. It 
rs a fine stately tree, splits treely, and deserves 
cultivation. Some of our citbens who visit 
fne Seiota country in autumn, might easily 
procure seeds. 

Three speoies of the Larch are known in 
this country — two natives and one exotic. Our 
farmers well know the redjarch (Pinusmicro- 
ear/iff.) by the name of Tamarack, (perhaps a cor- 
ruption, ot Tamarix, which it resembles in fo 
fiage.) It appears to grow equally well in 
deep swamps, and on the driest hills. It i 
tree of great beauty. 

Magnulia tripetala, and M. glauca. I have 
not been successful with these tine flowering 
trees, which, when young, require protection in 
'this climate. 

The white elm (Vtmvs Americana) consti- 
tutes a remarkable feature in the scenery of 
the Genesee Country. Its gigantic stature, 
and elegantly recurved branches, have long 
excited the admiration of foreigners. Tfiere 
T3 another large elm in our forests (Vimus ra- 
cemosa) which has lately been figured and de- 
scribed in Silliman's Journal. 

I have not been successful ia transplanting 
fhe weeping willow; in one case the bark was 
injured by the hot sun ; — but 1 have complete- 
ly succeeded wifh cuttitigs. From one about 



FOR THE GENESEE FARMER. 
GRAFTING THE VINE. 

Friend Tucker -Prince, in his new work, 
' Treatise on the Vine," in the article on the 
object ofingrafting, makes the following state- 
ment and assertions — "The vine differs from 
other trees in having no hher, or inner bark, 
nor cortical coverings, and it conseqnentlv 
may be ingrafted, without its being requisite to 
bring the two barks in contact, as the sap as 
cendsby the different capillary vessels, with 
out any distinction between liber, cortex, or 
wood, whilst the sap of other trees is exclu 
sivoly conducted between the wood and bark.' 
Now this to me is entirely new doctrine, and 
one which I am strongly inclined to controvert. 
In the first place, I assert that the vine has a 
parenchymatous, or outer, dead and excre- 
idi Dial bark, analagous to the Epidermis of 
the forest tree, which, in old subjects it casts 
off more or less every year; and within that 
bark certainly is another, which answers to 
the cortical coverings and layers of trees and 
shrubs; and next to the wood is a fine mem- 
brane or cambium during. the vegetating season, 
as I have frequently observed in attempting to 
bud the vine. 

All of these points are in my mind facts, and 
which every one familiar with the vino or veg 
etpble phylology, will at once recognise as 
such. 

Again the text asserts that " the sap ascends 
by the different capillary vessels, without any 
distinction between liber, oortex. or wood, 
whilst the sap of other trees is exclusively 
conducted between the wood and the. bark. 

On this last point, it is the first time that I 
have heard that the sap of trees is conducted 
between the wood and bark, for I supposed it 
was settled that the sap ascended through the 
alburnum, and descended between the wood and 
bark ; and that such is the case, not only with 
trees, but with the vine itself, I have only to 
cite his own theory of" Girdling or incissure," 
commonly called Ringing, (to the truth of 
which I can bear ample testimony. „having per- 
formed it in numerous instances with great ef 
feet) to prove the fallacy of his assertion, that 
the sap ascends through all of its organs, in- 
discriminately ; for by girdling, the whole sap 
is stopped in the parts above the incissure. snd 
which continue to enlarge, while the parts be- 
low remain entirely stationary, which incontro - 
vertibly shows that the sap does not ascend by 
ihe bark, and will not descend, if the vine is 
girdled ; therefore we are to presume that the 
whole operation is the same as in other sub- 
jects. 

There is a great discrepancy between the 
eatise, and the points above stated, which for 
the benefit of the science, I should like to see 
explained. 

I have, always been a sceptic on the subject 
of grafting the vine at all, having never been 
able to succeed in the operation, but friend 
Prince asserts its feasibility, and gives the mi 
nutue of manipulation with so much confidence 
and cites such practical authorities, that I am 
even constrained to believe it. 

Another point in reference to this subject, 
and I have done; where it is stated that it is 
not necessary for the bark in grafting to join 
in any point, and that a cutting in the form ol 
a peg, stuck into a hole bored in the end of a 
large stock, will succeed as well as in any o- 
ther method ; all of which is so at variance 
with my notions of the process of ingrafting, 
that nothing short of occular proof will ever 
remove my doubts. And here let me observe, 
that it is in all cases recommended (hat the 



operation should be performed bdow the sur- 
face and tccll earthed up. Now I would ask 
whether from the well known ease with which 
cuttings strike, as it is technically termed, they 
would not vegetate if well earthed vp, if it was 
inserted in a dead vine, or in a "cherry," or 
even in a potato? It most certainly would, 
as that operation could be no hindrance to its 
taking root, as an ordinary cutting, if well ear- 
thed up, seldom fails; and in my opinion, the 
process of grafting underground, needs exam- 
ination, to see whether the eion does not 
throw out its roots, above the point of eon- 
tact, and independently of the stock in which 
it is set. And yet after all, I will not under- 
take to say but that the vine may be in- 
grafted ; it is an easy process to try, and within 
the reach of proof in the right season, to anv 
person who has the least curiosity that way, 
and therefore I will only say nous vcrrons. 

If any of tby readers have any practical ex- 
perience on the subject, I shonld be very much 
gratified by their communication through tby 
interesting Journal. 

With the work generally I am well pleased ; 
it is for its volume a complete Encyclopedia 
of the vino : the descriptions are full and com- 
plete, both as to foreign and domestic varie- 
ties ; and the comparative advantages of cul- 
tivating the different sorts, are honestly and 
ably laid down ; together with extensive and 
elaborate directions as to soil, elimate and cul- 
tivation, and will prove that desideratum so 
long and imperiously wanted, to secure suc- 
cess in its cultivation ; an object which is not oj 
secondary importance to any, except the produce 
lion of silk, that our country possesses natural 
abilities for, that is not yet generally mlrodn^ 



ccd. 



II. Y. 



West Bloomfield, 12th 2d mo. 1831. 

FOI} THE GENESEE FARMER. 

The Snow-Ball, or Guelder Rose, and the 
High Cranberry, of our swamps, take, readily, 
by inoculation, each on the other. To me, a 
Snow-Ball Tree, covered with flowers ia 
spring, and loaded with the fruit of the High 
Cranberry, in autumn, and through the winter, 
is a novel spectacle, though not rare. Both 
the snow-ball and the cranberry, however, in 
the garden, are so apt to be loaded with in- 
sects.that I have had to cut down all ihe bush- 
es, with iheir leaves, for two summers in suc- 
cession. I had rather forego the pleasure off 
this new family alliance, than breed such hosts 
of enemies, especially in a garden. S. 



FOR THE GENESEE FARMER. 

The excellent advice respecting smps by *; 
[page 29] has suggested the inquiry whether 
the glasses ought not to he shaded from the hot 
sun ? and ought noi the clipping of the leaves to 
be confined to such as would be co\ ered by the 
the earth or mould ? The following extract re- 
lative to layers, from Loudon's Eaq/clupedia of 
Plants, exactly ace irds with my experience in 
the treatment of cuttings. 

" Most cultivators cut off many of the leave? 
ind shoots of layers, when they aro first taken 
off, thinking the roots will not have so mufh 
to nourish, which is the very reason they often 
lose a great part of their crop; layers of any 
kind of shrub whatever, when first taken uffi 
should not have a single leaf taken off till they 
have made fresh root: supposing their tops 
flag ever so much, as long as there is life, it 
II draw up-lhe sap, and help the plant to root 
afresh.'' 

Jn the early part of last summer, I cut a stalk 
of the golden-lotus chrysanthemum, planted it 
in a pot, leaving on all the leaves above the 
earth, and set it in the shade. It is a tall va- 
riety; and the top withered and drooped So 
mufti, that to keep it iinijghj, I Bad to fie ifr-to 



58 



THE GENESEE FARMER 



Feb.'26, 183i 



a slick in different places: yet after a few 
weeks it ro ted, and flowered in autumn. — 
On the contrary, I have never succeeded with 
one of those cuttings from which I removed 
the large leaves. 

FOR THE GENESEE FARMER. 

GREEN-HOUSE PLANTS. 

The unusually cold weather of the present 
season has proved seriously injurious to many 
areen louse plants, as few buildings, not par- 
ticularly prepared for the purpose, are proof 
a"ainst cold, so long continued ; and it is not 
unfrequently the case, that plants become fee- 
ble for want of experience in their managers, 
and consequently perish by a slight frost, which 
they would havq resisted, had their vital action 
been healthy. Light, Heat and Air, are indis 
pensahle to the healthy growth of plants; but 
as these cannot b« supplied in the cold season, 
with sufficient regularity, it is advisable, at 
this time that while we guard against frost, 
we also avoid that degree of heat that would 
eau-c tender plants to form n.'w shoots ; for 
they may be kept in a state perfectly healthy, 
for a considerable length nf time, without 
growing; and such is the constitution of most 
plants, tnat their growths are periodical, re- 
quiring intervals of rest. 

When the heat is such as to promote vege- 
tation, where a sufficient quantity of light and 
air cannot be furnished, planis will always 
send up slender and long jointed shoots, of a 
palo and sickly hue, tending to exhaust the 
root, to unfit the whole plant for the functions 
of a healthy vegetation, and to expose it to 
every casualty. To prevent these evils, ex- 
pose your plants to as much light and air as 
you can, without danger of frost, and avoid a 
redundancy of water. If the eartl) appears 
dry on the surface, some suppose water is im- 
mediately necessary, but this is not always 
the case. If on removing a little of the sur- 
face you find the earth moist, that is, sufficient 
for this season of the year, and when water is 
needed, supply it in small quantities, until tin 
winter is so far passed that you may reasona- 
bly expect to supply the necssnry light, heat, 
and air, when you may water alillle more free 
!y; always observing that aloes and all succu- 
lent plants require less water than others; 

When plants are slightly frozen, they may| 
generally be preserved with but little injury, 
by raising their temperature gradually, with 
cold water This may be done by setting the 
pot in a tub, and sprinkling it freely with a wa- 
tering pot ; or if the plant be small it may be 
entirely immersed until the leaves are soften 
ed. I succeeded last winter in saving some 
of the tenderest geraniums, although repeat- 
edly frozen ; and a hearing orange tree bed 
the surface of the earth in I lie pot, frozen hard 
for several days, yet some of the fruit, which 
was then about half grown, remained on; it 
has since ripnned, and proved good. S. C. 
Linden Hill, 2rt mo. 



He took much pains with his flock of sheep, 
so that previous to the merino speculation, he 
had become famous abroad for his particular 
breed of sheep, which was generalb' reported 
he brought from England with him, as he came 
from that country. Farmers would come Irom 
fifty loan hundred miles to purchase the Tone- 
clitfe breed of sheep, for which they would 
pay from live to fifteen dollars, and go home 
well satisfied. 

This gentleman, finding the rage r or his 
breed of sheep, was willing to keep their his- 
tory out of sight; not that he wished to de- 
ceive any one, by telling them what was noi 
true ; but perhaps he did not choose to tell 
more than was inquired for. to his own disad- 
vantage. This rage, for this particular breed 
of sheep, was quite considerable, and brought 
many an honest dollar to the family. A friend 
of mine happened to be conversing wilh him 
as to his breed of English sheep, he replied, 
'• that his sheep were no more English than 
his neighbour's, for they were sheep that he 
procured in that part of the country." Thi- 
rather surprised my friend, who had been led, 
from their size and shape, to consider them as a 
distinct breed : " but," continued ho, "lean 
tell you where the difference has originated ; 
when tiie butchers or drovers come to pur 
chase sheep of you, you allow thotn to select, 
but when they come to purchase of me, I se- 
lect for them." 

I hafc every reason to believe that this fine 
flock of aheep was brought to that desirable 
perfection by a course of breeding in and in. 
and tliat too in the course of twelve or fifteen 
years. What encouragement to young farm- 
ers, to begin early to improve their stock; and 
should this communication induce any one to 
commence a similar experiment, either with 
cattle, sheep or hogs, it will have answered 
the purpose for which it was intended, by 

Yours, &c. T. P. 



I was led to these reflections, by hearing a 
prediction that the cold will be so intense to- 
morrow, during the eclipse, that many people 
will perish. It is mortifying to him who feels 
any pride in his countrymen, to know that a 
fablo so ridiculous, should gain a moment's se- 
rious attention ; or that well-dressed people; 
in genteel companies should indirectly avow 
their belief, by asking, " Would it not be very 
strange, if it should so happen? Don't you 
think it would he very remarkable I" I think 
it would be very remarkable, if such folks be- 
lieve in the diurnal motion of the earth ; o: 
know why the sun stiajs off so far to the 
south in winter. Q. 

Feb. II. 

FOR THE CNNESEE FARMER. 

Messrs. Editurs — To your corresponded 
R. K.'s inquiry, whether from the appearance 
of a green dye in one ease, and a dark blue 
precipitate in another, whieh he supposes were 
produced from an extract from green hemlock 
boughs, immersed in water, in making new 
roads, there could not be indigo contained, as 
the appearance was analagous to that article, 
I would answer — lhat the hemlock is known 
to contain a large quantity of tannin, and con- 
siderable of the Gallic acid, or astringent prin- 
ciple, which if the water, as it frequently does 
in particular soils, contains any iron in solu- 
tion, the same appearance would be induced 
as ho describes ; and it is most likely attribu 
table to lhat cause, as from the familiarity ot 
that article with almost every one, if it con- 
tained as important a principle as the constitu- 
ents of indigo. I hink something of the kind 
would have been discovered before. Y.* 



SELECTION^. 



for the cenesee farmer. 
CURE FOR SALT RHEUM. 

A few weeks ago, a member of my family 
had salt rheum on the hands, of more than 9 
months continuance ; and latterly it formed a 
spot of an inch diameter, on the face. This 
disease is well known to subtract largely from 
personal comfort. 

A case was mentioned of a neighbor, whom 
suit rheum had nearly covered. She was told 
to take nitric acid, (aqua fortis) and vinegar in 
equal portions, and apply a drop or two at a 
lime, to the skin. She hesitated, and consul 
ted the family physician. He said it would 
kill her. However, she determined to try it — 
applied a little with a feather to one spot — 
bore the smart — and after an interval, applied 
it to another soot. She became entirely well, 
and well she has continued. 

This account encouraged our inmate also 
to make atrial. The nitric acid and vine 



FOR THE GENESEE FARMER. 

SHEEP. 

Otsego, Feb. 7, 1831. 
There has always been much said in all ag- 
ricultural publications, respecting the differ- 
ent breeds of cattle, sheep and hogs, insomuch 
that some are almost led to believe, 'hat unless 
they are fortunate enough to procure some of 
the favored breeds, they may as well give up 
raising stock, as to be troubled with it. Now 
Messrs Editors, 1 consider this all fudge. I 
have noticed that those farmers who pay most 
attention to feeding their stock, become cele- 
brated for their choice breeds. Suffer me, 
therefore, to givo you a history of an instance 
of this kind : 

During the early settlement of this county, 
a family by the name of Tonecliffcame to re- 
side in this county. The man had considera- 
ble taste, us to farming operations, was some- 
thing of an horticulturist, and introduced ma- 
ny valuable kinds of fruits among us — as the 
greengage plum, and several other varieties. 



gar was applied, with the end of the finger. 

In four or Jive weeks there was not a trace of salt 

rheum remaining, and nothing unfavorable toll to put walnut leaves enough, that the water may 



'Selected for the Uentsee Farmer, by D. T. 
From Lawrence's Gardening, printed in 1717. 

Because both grass and gravel walks are so 
much the ornament and beauty of a garden, 
and do afford so considerable a pleasure to a 
thoughtful, contemplative person, I cannot but 
here insert a speedy effectual method if destroy- 
ing worms, those filty annoyers and spoilers of 
the beauty of all walks. 

At any time iu autumn, fill a cistern, or any- 
large trough, wilh water, putting thereinto a 
large quantity ol walnui leaves, where lei 
them steep at least a fortnight or three weeks ; 
in which time the water will have received 
such a bitterness, lhat if you pour genilv a 
small quantity of it on such places as are most 
annoyed with worms: by thai lime the water 
can be supposed to re ich them, you will find 
the worms hurrying in great confusion out of 
their hulcs. so as to crawl in great plentv un- 
der your feet, upon the ground, when they may- 
be gathered up and thrown away. They may 
indeed bo taken by a candle and lantern in a 
summer's evening, after rain ; but this may be 
practiced at am tune in the day, with pleasure, 
and it will certainly destroy them, if it be but 
carefully practiced, and repeated ; only be sure 



health has been observed. 



FOR THE GENESEE FARMER. 

THE ECLIPSE. 

No achievement of science is so likely to 
appear supernatural to an illiterate savage as 
the fore-knowledge of Eclipses. It is ono of 
the last pretensions lhat would be allowed, 
without occular demonstration, or a knowledge 
of Astronomy; yet occular demonstration has 
been so often repeated, that neither man, wo- 
man, nor child stands in doubt when an eclipse 
is predicted. Ignorant of the principles, how- 
ever, by which those results arc obtained, the 
populace credit the astronumer for a knowl- 
edge of the weather, as well as of the stars. — 
And why not ? ought he not to bo belter ac- 
quainted with the movements of the clouds 
which are so near us, than with the motion of 
the planets 1 If he can foretell eclipses, why 
Can t he foretell the wuuther ' v 



be very bitter, otherwise it will do no good. 

VILLAGE GARDENS. 

Selected for the Genesee Farmer, by D. T. 

From Sir Jolnl Sinclair's Code of Agriculture. 
Round many villages nnd small towns, garden* 
of moderate size are numerous and productive. 
It i;. a fortunate circamstanci , ichen manvfactv 
rers and mechanics taken delight in them : since 
their health is promoted by the exercise in ihl 
open air, fop which an opportunity is thus af- 
forded ; while at the same time, any tendency 
to immorality is greatly checked by an agreea- 
ble anil useful means of occupation. The vil- 
lage gurden is frequently the retreat of the oc- 
cupier, in the summer evenings, after the la- 
hours of the day. where he agreeably employs 
himself, in watching over the progress of his 
crops, and the success of his exertions. 

In those manufacturing villages, or small 
towns, where cv number of inhabitants havi 



Vol. 1.— No.S. 



AND GARDENER'S JOURNAL. 



gardens, a tiste for keeping them in good or- 
der ^prevalent, and few instances of dissipation 
occur. In such gardens, not only aromatic 
herbs and medicinal plants, are cultivated, hut 
(lowers of various sorts are raised, as carna- 
tion s, pinks, aiiriculre, polyanthus &c. by_ the 
sale of which some money is obtained. The 
Florist Society at Paisley in Scotland, is a 
sufficient proof of the advantage to be derived 
from tdirectmz the attention of manufacturer* 
to such innocent pursuits, the rearing ofbeaur 
tifal flowers is found to improve their taste for 
manufacturing elegant patterns of fancy inus- 
'in; while the florists of Paisley huve long been 
remarked for the peaccfvlness of their disposi- 
tions, and the sob) icly of their manners. 

SMtLL FARMS — COLLECTING MANURES. 

The great principles of agriculture may be 
reduced to these two points : keep small farms 
and manage thim well. What constitutes a 
small farm, or in what consists good man- 
agement, arc subjects deeply. affecting the best 
Interests of saciety, and have engaged vol- 
umes of the most philanthropic writings. The 
pages of a worlt, limited in size, and devoted 
lo various purposes, can afford but a short re- 
view of a subject so comprehensively useful ; 
Vet, by entering directly into real matter, and 
avoiding the prolixity of books, much instruc- 
tion and benefit may be obtained at an expense 
of money and lime comparatively email. 

An anxiety to grow rich has done more inju- 
ry and produced more disappointment lo .far- 
mers, than lo any other class of fortune hun- 
ters; the merchant, who not only risks his en- 
tire capital, but also his utmost credit on a 
sin«le voyage, may suoceed even beyond his 
calculation, and may, at once, increase his for- 
tune and enlarge his credit : the mechanic, 
who risks all on a single project, may succeed 
to riches and its comforts ; but the farmer, 
who enlarges his fields beyond his actual means 
of cultivating them, never sueoeeds in Ins da- 
sign. 

Land badly tilled and badly fenced, produ- 
ces a small crop, which nut unfrequenlly be- 
comes a prey to the inroads of cattle, or suffers 
for want of hands to secure it in harvest; yet 
such must be the fate of large firms, that is, 
farms exceeding the disposable means of the 
proprietor. No general rule can be laid down 
lo determine the proper size of a farm, as it 
mustbe regulated by a whole view ol the far- 
mer's means, family, Ac; but in choosing, a 
farm, it would be a prudent maxim to prefer 
one even apparently too small, to one that 
might prove loo large ; and perhaps the gnne- 
alitv of farmers, who look merely to the sup- 
port of a family, migftt do .well to confine their 
industry, in the first instance, to fifty acres of 
land, exclusive of the necessary proportion of 
woodland. The result would prove so deci- 
sive'y the superior advantages of small farms, 
as more than probably to indace the farmer to 
continue his industry on a scale, which would 
Meld so much in poinl.of crops, save so much 
labor, render a frequent view of the entire 
farm, and the collecting of the produce to the 
'yarn so convenient. 

"But," 6iys the farmer, who has six or 
ei^ht children, "fifty acres will not suffice to 
support my family." It may be replied, and 
with more truth, " no, nor one hundred acres," 
because of the undeniable fact, that one hun- 
dred acres badly tilled, will produce less than 
fifty acres, well managed ; and that the labour 
necessary to the good tillage and management 
of the small farm, will not be sufficient even 
lur the slovenly mt.'iagement of the large one. 

It is unnecessary to describe, how a large 
\arm may be ruined, in thecaso oT a proprietor 
whose capital is small; every practical farmer 
can explain, and the most superficial view of 
hundreds of such farms, to be seen in all di- 
rections, will at onoe convince the doubtful. — 
It only remains to see how the farmer and his 
i'amily can be supported, on a farm of fifty a- 
ejes. 



The skilful farmer will keep his lands in a 
state of constant productiveness ; the most 
injudicious management, or the most apparent 
neglect, can alone cause land to remain for 
years, or even for a season, without conlnbu- 
tin" to the fanner's sustenance ; this state, 
however, seldom fails to attend large farms. — 
A rotation of crops, and a supply of manure, 
will secure this constant productiveness. Eve- 
ry farmer is a sufficient judge of the managing 
a rotation of crops, and, in some measure, acts 
on lhat principle ; but the mind and labor are 
so divided in the caro of large farms, that nei- 
ther can be brought to act with sufficient judg- 
ment or effect. A proper disposition of cattle, 
added to a judicious collecting of manure, will 
always produce the means of enriching and in- 
vigorating the soil, nor can there ever appear 
any want of a sufficient supply of manure for 
every purpose of the farm. 

The collecting cf compost, or manure, be- 
ing 'ndispensable to the farmer, it shall be here 
first attended to. Compost is to be consider- 
ed, both as to its quantity and its quality. — 
The quantity may be increased by mixing clay, 
or other unforniented matter with the manure; 
the entire mass will partake of the salts, and 
all ferment together. The quality, which 
seems of more importance than the quantity, 
may be improved by choosing a proper site 
for the manure heap. It should not be made 
in a hole, because the rain water will soon fill 
the hole and chill the manure ; which should, 
in order to fermentation, preserve a considera- 
ble heat : it should not be made on a hill, be- 
cause the water passing through it, will carry 
away its most valuable part; nor should it be 
entirely excluded from the air, which is essen- 
tially useful to it. With these general obser- 
vations in view, the farmer will easily contrive 
a proper plan for collecting a sufficiency of 
rich compost for all the uses of his farm, which 
thus plentifully supplied, will never degener- 
ate into a barren waste. The manure heap 
should be placed near the farm yard, so that 
the rotten straw, bedding of the cattle, &c. 
may be easily removed to it; a sewer or gut- 
ter should also be contrived to carry off tin: u- 
riuc from the cattle's stalls, to a reservoir near 
the manure ; and finally, it should be collected 
on a flat spot of ground, so hard as to be, if 
possible, impervious to the juices, which would 
otherwise sink into the earth and be totally 
lost.— N. Y. Farmer. 



lo imperfect mastication. These causes pro- 
duce indigestion, and ultimately worms. Mr. 
Hinds recommends, that, when it is certainly 
ascertained the horse is attacked by worms, the 
following bolus or hall be administered : Calo- 
mel, 1 12 drachms ; Annis seed, 5 drachms, 
mixed with treacle, into a paste, Tor two doses, 
to be given on two successive nights ; the 
first dose lobe preceded by water gruel, and 
the last one to be followed, the next day, by 
a purgative compound of, Barbadoes aloes, 4 
drachms, Gamboge, 1 1-2 drachms, prepared 
kali 2 drachms, ginger 1 drachm, oil of amber 
a ten-spoonful, syrup of buckthorn sufficient 
to form the whole into a ball for one dose. — 
Should the horse be weakly, the first mixture 
may bo divided into three doses, for as many 
successive days, to he followed on the fourth 
morning after by the purgative. The horse in 
the mean while should be fed with fresh grass. 
cracked corn, mashed potatoes, or other food 
easily digestible ; accompanied occasionally 
with salt. As the disease is produced by im 
paired digestive organs, it must be cured bv 
restoring to these organs their healthful tone, 
towards which, the medicines recommended, 
have a favorable tendency. 



B0TT9 IN HORSES. 

A writer in the American Farmer, states the 
following as a sure remedy for the botts in hor- 
sas, and says it was practiced by a veterinary 
sur"eon, who came to this country during the 
revolution, with Baron Steuben : 

First, drench the horse with a quart of new- 
milk, saturated with honey, molasses, or su 
gar, (to be preferred in the order in which 
they are named ;) leave him two hours, at rest; 
drench him again with a pint of strong brine, 
previously made, by dissolving in boiling wa- 
ter as much common salt as it will hold, and 
leave the horse undisturbed two hours more. 
Then administer half a pint of linseed oil, and 
the treatment is complete. 

The rationale of this course, according to 
the writer, is as follows : Botts destroy hor- 
ses by feeding upon and destroying the inte- 
guments of the stomach: but, preferring swee- 
tened milk lo flesh diet, they leave the sub- 
stance of the stomach, and glut on the milk, of 
which they partake so much, that they are 
greatly distended, exposing a thin skin to the 
action of the brine, when administered, which 
easily destroys them. Oil is afterwaids gi- 
ven, to heal the wounds in the stomach, made 
by the worms. 

John Hinds, in his Treatise on Farriery, (a 
work which should be in the hands of every 
man who has the charse of horses,) attributed 
the generation of worms to irregular feeding 
and to feeding upon indigestible substances, 
Imusty hay, grain, &c. and in some aged horses 



COLUMBUS. 

A correspondent of the Macon Telegraph. 

who writes from Havana, thus describes the 

tomb of Columbus ■ 

" My first pilgrimage has been made to the 
tomb of Columbus. I need not say it is the 
most splendid I have ever seen, for I have ne- 
ver seen any thing which can be placed in com - 
pariso.i witli it. It stands within the walls, 
and under one of the most splendid domes of 
the cathedral; its form is that of a temple 
surrounded with pillars, standing on a massive 
basement or pedestal, in front of which there 
is a small portal between four miniature col- 
umns, within which the box conlainiug his re- 
mains is said to be deposited — within the tem- 
ple is a statue about three feet in height. The 
materiel of the whole temple is of the most 
beautiful Italian marble, and is 6aid, by trav- 
ellers who have visited Italy, that they have 
never seen so beautiful a piece of sculpture 
there or elsewhere. It was made entirely in 
Italy, and brought ready to be set up here — 
The morning I attended mass, at the cathe- 
dral, the tomb of Columbus was surrounded 
with candlesticks, I should think near three feet 
in height, of massive gold, while every thing 
around corresponded in style and richness of 
ornament. The cathedral itseif far surpasses 
any thing I had ever seen or hardly imagined, 
in the beauty and style of its architecture — of 
its length, breadth, width or height, I will not 
undertake to form what I would call a correct 
opinion ; for the eye and mind of the visiter are 
so deeply impressed with the awe and solems 
nily of such a scene, as to be wholly unprepa- 
red to make estimates of measurement. Its 
high towering domes, its massive columns and 
arches, its beautiful statuary and paintings, all 
strike the eye with wonder, in which the mind 
re lust in thought. Add to this the impressive 
solemnity of the rites and ceremonies, which 
were constantly going on at the shrines and 
confessionals, which were so distant, that the 
priests were out of the reach of each other's 
voices, you will not be surprised lhat 1 was 
impressed with feelings beyond description." 

Natural history is no work for one lhat loves 
his chair or his bed. speculation may be 
pursued on a soft couch, but Nature must be 
observed in the open air Johnson. 



It is wonderful that old men should remem 
her more accuiately what happened fifty years 
agOjthan the affairs of the last week. The 
brains of old men are like hard wax, tena- 
cious of old impressions, and not very suscep 
lible of dcw. 



ttO 



THE GENESEE FARMER 



Feb. 26, 18Si, 



THE GENESEE FARMER. 

SATURDAY, FEB. 2G, 1831. 



DIFFERENT BREEDS OF CATTLE. 

I Continued from page 52.] 

In our last number, we noticed some of the 
most approved breeds of cattle — in this, we 
mention others that are still reared to conside- 
rable extent in England. 

The Herefordshire cattle— Theso somewhat 
resemble the Devonshire breed.being of a deep 
red color, with a white face. They have thin 
hides, and fine hair, are more moderate in 
iheir motions, than the Devons. They are 
well proportioned for beef or milkers, being 
heavy in the hind quarters, which have rather 
i bony appearance, tolerably strait on the back, 
neck rather descending, the head small and 
;lean, and carried rather low. They are thin 
and light in the fore quarter?, narrow in the 
chine, but a full sutloin, they fatten yotrng.and 
are considered by many of the English gra- 
ziers, as being next to the Holderness in exeel- 
lenee, and dairymen say their milk is very 
rich. 

The polled breed — These are raised more in 
Scotland than England, and some of them have 
been brought to this country. The color of 
this breed is mostly black. Tuey are strait 
and round in tbeir build ; the head is short, but 
carried well up; general features rather dull 
than otherwise ; strait on the back, broad 
on the loin, round in the hind quarters, and ra- 
ther light ; short legged, with a heavy bushy 
tail ; and the hair is longer than on most breeds. 
In size, they are below the Lancashire breed 
but are said to arrive at maturity young. They 
are not in high estimation for the dairy, and 
are only grown in those parts of the country 
where the breeding of fine cattle is neglected. 

Each of the above breeds, as described in 
this and the preceding number of our paper, 
have had their advocates; some preferring 
large, others small breeds of cattle ; but I 
believe the best breeders, both in the Uni- 
ted States and England, are now agreed tint 
the difference in size of breeders, is not so im- 
portant as the shape. Bakewell, who was 
one of the first breeders in England, gave a 
preference to the Lancashire breed, which he 
consienled were raised at less expense than 
any ethers. Others again maintain, that the 
Holderness, or short horned breed, excell eve- 
ry other for dairy and for beef; while the far- 
mer, who is wishing to raise oxen for the yoke, 
prefers the Devonshire. \ 

If farmers would be more careful in the se- 
lection of the slock from which they intend toj 
breed, even with the common cattle of the! 
country, fine stock might be raised, with care I 
fill feeding. And here let me observe. that the 
best breeders are now satisfied that as lunch 
rlepend* on the selection of the dam as the 
sire, both with cattle and horses, and large fe- 
males arc allowed to be best in both; the health, 
strength, and proportion, then, of these, be- 
iniii. equally as important as the siro, not on- 
ly in giving proportion, but in giving support 
after they have brought forth their young. — 
Therefore, almost as much advantage might be 
gained in breeding cattle, to select the best 
iwwi from our present breeds, as to impart 
fine bulls and ncglcet this selection. 



In short, the first point to be gained on this 
subject is, to get up an exciiement sufficient to 
make farmers seek for information ; or a spirit 
of inquiry, which, when once started, will al- 
ways beget ambition, or a wish to excel, which 
>vill be attended with a lasting benefit to our 

country. 

GEOLOGY. 

THE VALLEY OF THE GENESEE. 

[Continued from page 36.] 
Next above the gray-band is a mixed forma- 
tion, if we include all the variety between the! 
gray band and the Lias, in one. As modern 
geologists have adopted this course, and have 
included them all under the head of Feriferous 
sand rack, we will follow them, but describe! 
the different layers, and their effect upon the 
soil. Directly above the gray-band, there is a 
layer of magnesian slate, of a light green co- 
lour, having a peculiar soft soapy feel ; it read- 
ily disintegrates, or falls to pieces, on being 
exposed to the air. It forms a tenaceous soil 
from the quantity of clay which it contains, as 
the layer is thin ; we do not know of any large 
fields where this predominates. Above this 
lies layers of feriferous sand rock, which are 
very hard, containing many bivalve shells; in 
short, some of the stones seem almost entire- 
ly composed of them. Many specimens are 
agatized, and fine specimens of chalcedony 
are found among (hem. These stones are 
very hard and durable ; ahhoogh they do not 
decompose readily, yet the soil where they out 
crop is generally strong and light, and of a rus- 
ty iron colour. Alternating with these layers, 
and near the centre of this formation, is the 
layer of conglomerate argillaceous iron ere, 
varying in thickness from one to four feet. 
In some localities, this ore may be shovelled 
like coarse sand ; in others, the particles aro 
cemented together by a carbonate of lime, to 
i he hardness of ooramon lime stone. This lay< r 
of iron ore may be traced from the high lands, 
west of the hitle falls, on the Mohawk river, 
through the stale of New York, and into Up. 
per Canada, on the north of Lake Ontario. — 
The iron made from ii is coarse, hard and brit- 
tle, and of little %vorth, except for sleigh shoes, 
plough irons, &.c. Stoves and hollow ware 
made from it almost invariably crack by heating 
and cooling. In some places this ore is ground 
into Spanish brown. As the whole of the 
feriferous formation in this region, is not more 
than forty or fifty feet thich ; its character on 
the surface is limited. 

Next in progression we come lo the Lias, or 
calcifirous sluto. This is a more important 
formation in Agriculture, and the general thick- 
ness of it may be calculated at about one hun- 
dred feet. It is through this formation thai 
most of the celebrated falls, in the western 
part of the United Slates, descend, viz — the 
falls of Niagara, of the Genesee at Rochester, 
and the fills of St. Anthony, on the Mississip- 
pi. The component puts of this rock are dif 
ferent at different localities. It contains sul- 
phate and carbonate of lime, magnesia, iron, 
silsx, and a largo proportion of .'illumine, or 
clay. In this formation are found bedsofsul- 
phutc of lime or gypsum, and water lime or 
hydraulic cement. When it is decomposed, 
this rock makes a very excellent soil, both for 
wheat and grass j it is very retentive of mois 
tare, and is not rrs apt to suffer from drought, 



as limestone land. Manure lasts longer on 
this than on sandy land. In some places the 
soil from this rock has sufficient clay in it fq,r 
brick making. 

This is the superincumoent formation over 
a very considerable extent of country, on both 
sides of the Genesee river, north of the lime^ 
stone formation. From the nature of this rock 
it is capable of absorbing water and giving it 
off again by capillary attraction, to tho soil a- 
bove, and it is owing to .his quality that soils 
formed from and upon this rock, are capable ol 
enduring the drought for a longer time, than 
those upon impervious rocks, where the water 
passes down through the cracks which are too 
large for its return by capillary attraction, and 
such rocks being impervious to the water do 
not retain any water to soften the soil by evap- 
oration. There is no doubt but this rock ta- 
ken up at such places as are undergoing de- 
composition, and carried upon our thin light 
sandy soils, would prove an excellent manure j 
the effect would be similar to putting on clny. 
which is found to be a great strengthener ol 
such soils. 

The beds of gypsum found in this formation 
are of importance to this western country, as 
upon some soils it has a powerful influence 
in promoting vegetation, and it is likewise use- 
ful as a cement, as it is now found, that the 
celebrated cement with which the Romans laid 
iheir baths and aqueducts, was nothing more 
than ihe sulphate of lime, orgvpsum, bating 
its waler of crystahzation driven off by heat, 
in a manner very similar to our burning lime ; 
after which it was pounded fine, and on adding 
water it soon hardened, and was verv durable, 
as we have examined some of these works 
which have been done nearly fifteen hundred 
years, without being able to discover any signs 
of failure in the cement. 



MAPLE S GAR. 

This is the season to prepare for manufac- 
turing this article, which is one of the purest 
of sweets, and may be made into the fines: 
loaf sugar. For catching the sap, pails or 
buckets- are preferable to troughs, and may be- 
made almost as cheap ; and when we take into 
consideration the ease with which they arc 
handled, and their durability, compared with 
troughs, we think the latter should be rejec- 
ted. We have seen buckets made with one 
s'ave longer than tho others, through which 
was a hole for the purpose of hanging it upon 
a nail, driven into the tree below the spout, 
tlii-» is a very neat and convenient way, as 
when the buckets arc set down, they are some- 
times turinid over by the thawing of the snow. 

If those farmers who have maple trees plen 
tv, would provide themselves with two hun- 
dred buckets, they might manufacture all the" 
sugar that they would want for their family 
use, and some to spare ; for where the business 
is well attended to, there may he made about 
Mireo pounds for each bucket, and a good si- 
zed tree will afford s.-ip enough for about five 
pounds in a season. If proper vessels are u- 
sed, one cord of wood will evaporate sap for 
two hundred pounds of sugar. One man with 
a horso or yoko of oxen ' and sled, will tend 
two hundred buckets: cutting his wood, col- 
lecting the sap, iVc. The usual season for 
making sugar continues about one mantis, u>. 



Vol. 1.— No. 8. 



AND GARDENER'S JOURNAL. 



61 



though there are not more than from ten to fif- 
teen days in the reason, that are favorable for 
the running of the sap. During this time, a 
man armed as above, will make about six htm- 
Jrod pounds, worth nine cents per pound, or 
$54. 

The cost of two hundred buckets, made 
suitably for this purpose, would be aboot$20 — 
two kettles for boiling, about $15 — making an 
outfit of $35. 

Thus with the small expense of thirty-five 
dollars, in apparatus which will last 10 years, 
tor which we will allow ten per cent, which 
added to the simple interest, would make the 
annual interest of about six dollars, which ad- 
ded to twenty-four dollars, as the wages of the 
man and horse, would amount to $30. 

Thus for the amount of thirty dollars, a far- 
mer who has plenty of maple trees, may fur- 
nish himself with six hundred pounds of su- 
gar, equal to the best West India, provided 
the operation is well conducted. Thus it ap- 
pears that the cost of maple sugar would be 
but five cents per pound, which is mostly paid 
in labor, and can be done in most lamilies ea 
sier than to pay one half that sum in cash. — 
We hope those farmers who have not been in 
the habit of making their own sugar, will think 
the subject of sufficient magnitude to give it 
a fair trial, which would make a great saving 

to Old Genesee. 

TERMINOLOGY. 

Herb — a plant destitute of a woody stem. 

Herbarium— a book in which specimens of 
plants are kept. 

Imperfect — a flower which does not contain 
both stamens and pistils is imperfect. 

Irritability— the contractile motion of plants. 

Leafing season — that time when leaves make 
their appearance. 

Lurid — of a pale, dull, deathly color. 

Midrib— the middle rib of the leaf running 
irom the stem to the apex. 

Nectary — that part of a flower which con- 
tains honey. 

Palmate — spreading like the hand. 

Pcifect flower — huving both stamens and pis- 
tils. 

Phytology— treating of the principles of ve- 
getables. 

Plant — any substance growing from seed.. 

Pulpy — filled with a tenaceous kind of Pa- 
renchyma. 

Raceme — arranged like a bnnch of grapes. 

Radicle— Small roots. 

Runner — a side horizontal shoot, producing 
young plants- 

Serate — notched like a saw. 



QUESTIONS FOR FARMERS* 

-Have you got your wood cut and piled up 
uir next summer? — examined your bees? got 
your buckets ready for making sngai — and 
spouts for tapping the trees ? drawn your logs 
'.o the sawmill? racked off your cider — and 
bunged your casks tight? put your hams in 
the smoke house ? threshed out all your grain? 
assorted your potatoes in the cellar ? felled 
your trees for rails ? collected your cions for 
grafting in the spring ? repaired your carts, 
ploughs and harrows? seltled with all your 
, mechanics? dressed out your flax? taken a 
toad of wood to the poor ? — If you have done 
:jjl these things, you have done well. 



tVOAD. 

Rochester, Feb. 4, 1831. 
Messrs. Editors— In the New England 
Farmer of the 28th ult. 1 observed an inquiry 
from a committee of the Pennsylvania Horti- 
cultural Society, on the culture of madder, ba- 
rilla and woad.' In 1826, I received a letter 
from Mr. \Vm. Partridge, of New York, on the 
culture and properties of woad, which I send 
you for publication, in the Genesee Farmer. — 
Mr. Partridge is a practical man, and author of 
a valuable treatise on dying, and which I think 
also treats on the cultivation of madder. 

I am, respectfully, &c. O. W. 

As the Want of room forbids our copying the 
letter at full length, we mako the following ex- 
tracts : 

"Your iuquiries relative to the woad plant 
induces me to believe that yon have an inten- 
tion of raising it. A considerable quantity of 
that plant has been raised in different parts of 
America, both by individuals for personal use, 
and by cultivators for a market ; but those who 
have engaged in it have been ignorant of wliat 
ought to be performed to insure a good ariicle, 
and American woad is consequently in disre- 
pute. Our market has been supplied mostly 
from England. German and French ball-woad 
has been imported to some extent, but owin 
to its being in a different state from the Eng 
lish, few of our workmen can use it, and for 
want of sales the importation is stopped. Woad 
is valuable in proportion to the coloring matter 
it contains, and as a fermentative medium to 
bring the indigo used with it to a state of de- 
oxidizement. To perform the latter, any ve- 
getable equally succulent, worked up in the 
same way would answer as well as woad. Its 
principal value, therefore, consists in the 
quantity of blue coloring feculaa contained in 
the plant. 

"To obtain this disideratum, woad must bo 
raised on a rich soil, not a soil that has been 
enriched by manure, but a naturally strong, 
rich soil ; unless this can be obtained, it wouid 
be useless to make the attempt. Twenty a- 
cresof such land, divided into three parts, one 
third to be cropped every year would af- 
ford a pretty plentiful supply for the present 
market. Land will not bear more than two 
crops of woad in succession, notbecanse it is 
weakened by cropping, but because after the 
second crop the land becomes so filled with 
white grubs, as to destroy the plants raised on 
it. 

" Upon good land, two tons of woad can be 
raised on an acre — i. e. two tons when couch- 
ed, by which process the weight is increased 
about twenty per cent." 

The writer then proceeds to a description 
of the mode of rearing and preparing the plant 
for use, &c. 

This plant was brought into notice by the 
ingenuity of Bonaparte during his reign, in or- 
der to render the nation independent of others 
for dying materials, and was shortly after in- 
troduced into English manufactories; but Lou- 
don, a late English writer, of high repute, in 
speaking of it says, " At present it is to be 
considered moro as a matter of curioos histo- 
torical information, or of local adoption, (han 
of general utility ; beoause no mode of cul- 
tivating or preparing woad could bring it into 
competition, either in the European or Ameri- 
can rrrarfcetwilh inttigo. 



DUTCH SPINKA6.E. 

This is a hardy perennial plant, a native of 
Italy, and introduced into the gardens in Eng- 
land in 1573. It is a valuable plant, and should 
be found in every garden. We introduced 
this plant into several gardens, in this neigh- 
borhood, in 1825, and yet the plant is not gen. 
orally known. 

In growth and habit, it greatly resembles 
the common narrow leaved dock, which is so 
troublesome in rich meadows. The leaves, 
however, are much larger and more succulent. 
It is easily cultivated from seed sowed in the 
spring, in rows, or beds ; and if a row is sow 
ed by the south side of a fence, it will increase 
its precocity. Cover the plants in the fall with 
litter, or stable manure, which should be re- 
moved as soon as the frost is out of the ground 

in the spring, as the plants vegetate early. 

The leaves should be gathered and dressed 
like other spinnage dishes, over which it has 
the advantage of being more easily cultivated, 
and not inferior in flavor. 

If sowed in rows, the plants may be allowed 
to stand within four or six inches of each oth- 
er in the row ; and this is like most other spin- 
nage plants, in one respect — the more thrifty 
the plant the better the leaves. Its leaves 
will be fit for use early in May, and will scn- 
tinue good for one month. 

SEA«KAIjE-«C7hj»iJ£ Maritima, L. 
William H. Adams, Esq. Vice President of 
the Domestic Horticultural Society of the 
western part of New York, called at our office, 
on the 19th, and politely offered to send us a 
box of the Sea-kale; and also some Alpine 
strawberries, for the Monroe Horticultural So- 
ciety. These will be forwarded on the open- 
ing of the canal, as a present from the above 
named gentleman. Nolice of their arrival 
will be given, that they may be distributed to 
the members. 

As the cultivation of this plant is not gener- 
ally known in this section, we subjoin the fol- 
lowing : 

The Sea-Kalo is a hardy perennial, which 
has been cultivated in the gardens of Europe; 
for the last hundred years. It is found grow- 
ing, wild, on the sea coasts, in England, and 
some other parts of Europe. The inhabitants 
of those countries where it is a native, have 
been in the habii of gathering the young shoots 
of this plant for boiling, from time immemoik 
al ; and it is now ranked among the luxuries' of 
the garden. The young shoots are blanched 
by inverting a box, or some other convenient 
article, (which shall exclude the light,) over 
them, when they begin to vegetate, which is 
early in the spring ; by which means the young 
shoois become as crisp as asparagus, to which 
many prefer it, when dressed in the same man- 
ner. In its growth, when young, the leaves 
bear the greatest resemblance to cabbage, be, 
ing covered with a beautiful bloom. As the 
stalk increases in height, the leaves become 
smaller, and indented, the flowers are white and 
fragrant, the seeds are produced in pods,whicli 
are round, and of the size of a pea, contain- 
ing but one seed each. It is raised from seed, 
also propagated bv offsets from old roots, which 
row very readily ; and as those who have at- 
tsmpted to raise the young plants from seeds 
procurer! from Neiy York, have almost invati 



62 



THE GENESEE FARMER 



Feb. 26, 1831. 



ably failed 1 would recommend to propagate 
from roots, unless fresh seed can be procured 
as we are convinced the frequent failures have 
bean owing to the seed procured, being too old. 
This plant, as the name indicates, is found 
growing wild upon the sea coasts, in the beach 
sand. From that circumstance, it is inferred 
That a sandy soil is most congenial to its 
growth. The plants, whether by seeds or cut- 
tings, should be planted at least one foot apart 
in the beds, which should be made light and 
rich. One advantage in the culture of this 
plant, is, that it furnishes the table at that sea- 
son of the year when fresh vegetables are 
highly prized. The months of April and May 
would be the time for eating it in this climate 

Ten or fifteen plants of sea-kale, woll tend' 
ed, would furnish a family with a good sup- 
ply for the table, until other vegetables came 
in; after which time, it might be suffered to 
go up to seed. 

As the leaf and stock are rather tender, it is 
necessary to support the plants intended for 
seed, by a stake, or some other method ; for if 
the stalks are allowed to rest upon the ground, 
the seeds will be much injured. 

SNOW STORM. 

On the 22d, the wind blew in the morning 
Sightly from the west ; but veering tibout to tUe 
southeast by south, was stationary hut not high 
in that direction for a number of hours. To- 
wards evening, of a day which had been un- 
commonly mild and pleasant, the snow began 
to fall in large flakes, which it was prophecied 
would soon be succeeded by rain, but the tem- 
perature diminished slowly from a daily mean 
of 36° to below 30°, and the anow continned 
falling till the evening of 33 J, when it measured 
abwut 12 inches. This, together with what was 
before on the ground, measured in the woods 
rao r o than !) feet ; in the open field, from six lo 
ten inches less. This storm, together with 
that of the first and second of this month, vi 
sited lis from the southeast and cast, and it 
would be interesting to know at what distance 
from us it commenced, and how far south, if 
at all, it was rain, and also its entire extent. 



NEWS OF THE WEEK. 



(D* We again invite the attention of our rea- 
ders, and others, who have choice seeds, vaii- 
ties of fruit or breeds of stock, to make the 
same known to their brother fanners, through 
our columns, and those who have choice kinds 
of fruit trees, from which thoy are willing to 
distribute cions, may leave them at the office 
of the Genesee Farmer, for distribution, where 
they will be distributed gratis. 

U We have been much gratified at the no- 
lice which our brother Editors have taken of 
ihe Genesee Farmer, by making extracts from 
our columns ; and we will continue our exer- 
tions '0 make it useful to that class of commu- 
nity for which it was designed ; but assume of 
them have neglected to give us credit for such 
extracts, we hope in future they will not fur- 
get the civilities due from one editor to ano- 
ther. 

FEMALE AGRICULTURIST. 

A young lady at Marhlelie.id, lias in her pos- 
session, a bed quill of her own manufacture, 
the cotton of which she planted, hoed, reaped 
and ginned with her own hands, while residing 
in the territory of Arkansas, a few years since. 
IIow many female's in our country can boast as 
much ? 



From Ihc Rocheirter Daily Advertiser. 
DINNER TO LAFAYETTE. 

The Americans, residents in Paris, on the 
8th December last gave a dinner in honor of 
the groat Apostle of Liberty to two hemis- 
pheres, Lafayette. One of the most celebra- 
ted houses in the city was selected on the oc. 
casion, and the room ornamented in an elegant 
and tasteful style, and decorated with the ban- 
ners of the two nations in festoons. 

The occasion was distinguished by the at- 
tendance of many of the first citizens of Paris, 
Mr. Cooper, the American novelist presided. 
Mr. Rives, the American minister at Paris, 
and Mon. Serurier,the French minister to this 
government, were both present. In announcing 
the toasts which had been previously prepared 
the Chairman prefaced them with some few 
brief remarks, which served very much to in- 
crease the interest, and heighten the hilarity 
of the occasion. 
The first toast announced was : 
" Liberty and Order — the motto of freemen 
— without the last, the first has no existence ; 
without the first, the last no guarantee." 
And the second : 

" The King of the French, and the source 
from which he derives his power." 

This eentiment called up M. Serurier, who 
tendered his gratitude and acknowledgements 
in a brief but happy manner,and concluded by 
proposing, 

" The Prcsidont of the United States." 
The Chairman then rose amid a profound si- 
lence, 

" It is in calling your attonlion to the next 
toast," said Mr. Cooper, " that 1 most feel my 
insufficiency for the duty which has fallen to 
my share to-day. A glorious consummation 
has just been added to the acts of a long life, 
past in a constant struggle for the rights of the 
human race. We have met, gentlemen, to do 
honor to that ardent and chivalrous spirit, 
that rushed, uncalculating and devoted, to the 
rescue of the feeble and oppressed in the gloo- 
my period of 177G— to the youth who was 
found worthy to sit in the council of VVaBh 
ton — to the enlightened individual, who, at a 
later day , contended with ignorance and pre 
judice in his native land — to the prisoner of 
Olmutz — to the fearless patriot, who directed 
the attention of a victorious warrior, at ihe head 
of his conquering legions, lo the first and mos! 
solemn duties of a citizen— to the Senator who 
was foremost in withholding the sceptre from 
the grasp of u military diclator,and to the man 
on whom not only the eyes of France, but of the 
whole civilized world, wore turned, in ho; 
and confidence, a confidence that the result lias 
nobly justified, in the hour of his country's 
greatest trial. This brief cataloguo will recal 
to your minds the histories of tho two hemis* 
pheres, and the great events of more than two 
ages, in which your illustrious guest lias boon 
a conspicuous actor. Since the last, and, per 
haps, tl.c most important of all these glorious 
achievements, homage, of tho most unequivo- 
cal and flattering nature, has been the reword 
of his courage, his constancy, his disinterested 
ness, and his consistency. Admiration and 
respect have poured in upon lur» from every 
qutrter, and this banquet, probably, is not the 
twentieth, at which the public have chosen tc 
exhibit their commendation in this particular 
form. If wo have delayed the manifestation of our 
own feelings, it is nut that we have estimated 
his conduct loss, or that others have sympathi- 
zed in his triumphs more. Hut admiratiou and 
respect ate not the tcrnre I could choose lo 



use in describing tho feelings which have now 
brought us together. Admiration and respect 
are tributes which Lafayette has extorted even 
from his enemies. Gentlemen, we lore him." 
The speaker was here interrupted by a spon- 
taneous and tremendous peal of applause. — 
The whole company rose as if it had but one 
soul, and delivered nine such cheers as have 
rarely been heard within the walls of Paris — 
The venerable La Fayette was obviously and 
powerfully nffecled, his eyes suffusing with 
tears at so strong a mark of the affection of 
his hosts — " Yes, Gentlemen, and we have 
reason lo love aim." Mr. C. was again inter- 
rupted by a second burst of sympathy, scarce- 
ly lessstrong than the first. When silence was 
j again obtained, he proceeded — "Perhaps the 
history of the world does not 6upply a parallel 
to that feeling which binds the community of 
which we are members, to the illustrious mar, 
who sits at your table — a parallel to a friend- 
ship which has been transmitted, among ue, 
from generation to generation— to a friendship 
which has endured through good report, and 
evil leport : through days of darkness and days 
of sunshine : through peace and war — to a 
friendship which has equally resisted the de- 
pression of defeat, and the allurements of suc- 
cess — to a friendship, Gentlemen, in which 
one of the parties is an individual, and the 
other an entire nation ! Before such feelings, 
all political consideration:., except as thev 
may serve to strengthen our esteem, are mo- 
mentarily lost ; and I feel certain of meeting 
an answering sympathy in the bosom of every 
man who hears me, when I odd, that we arc 
not assembled to-day, raoro with the intent to 
do honor to him who has been so well termed 
the ' Patriarch of Liberty,' than to exhibit the 
reverence and affection of children towards a 
common father. (Another burst of applause.': 
— We will now fill to the brim — and drink— 

" To the health and happiness of our ven- 
orated guest and friend/' 

The good old man replied with a voice a*> 
most suppressed by the flow of genuine and 
generous emotions. He spoke of the vicissi- 
tudes of his long life, of the proud moment 
when in presence of the two buuses of the A- 
merican Congress he had been told from the 
representative chair, that in every instaoc e 
on this side of the Atlantic, he had proved him- 
self a genuine disciple of the American school, 
and a not unworthy son of Washmgton. He 
then proposed the following : 

" To the American people, the Cist borrj 
and most highly gifted sons of independence 
and freedom — may they forever enjoy the 
blessings of federal union and self-govern* 
ment." 

The Chairman next announced, 

•• The People and Institutions — The Presi 
dent and other Functionaries of the {Toiled 
Slates." 

This was followed by an eloquent address 
from Mr. Rives, which we are obliged to omit 
from waul of room. Mr. Hives then proposed 
the following toast, alike creditable to the 
representative abroad and the patriot aim", 
statesman at home. It breathes the perpetui. 
ly of our Union, free from nullijlcativn of 
clamors about disunion : 

" Our Federal Union — tho source of our 
rcs.iect and security abroad; the palladium 
j of our liberties aud happiness at home." 

Toasts were given by several other genlle 
men, among which was one by Mr. Lameth, 
a soldier of the Auiencau revolution, who lia'l 
been severely wounded at the battle of Yoik- 
town. 



Vol. I.— No. S. 



AND GARDENER'S JOURNAL. 



63 



Odillon Barrot, the republican loader, gave 
the Prosperity and happiness of the U. States. 

One of the toasts though simple, we think 
peculiarly appropriate, anJ piquant. It is 
the lol lowing: 

" The Paving Stone — Ultima ratio populi. 
Those who remember " Ihe three days of 
French glory" will need no explanation. 

Tlio two last toasts were, " Universal Ed- 
ucation," and " Home," after which the com- 
pany withdrew. 

New- York Markets.— The New-York 
Daily Advertiser of Saturday says : "No la- 
*.er dates than those noticed last week, viz : 
1th of Jan. have been received from Eng- 
land. The market for Flour and Cotton,du- 
ring the week, have rather declined. Ashes 
and Flax Seed have been in better request. 
The sales of Sugar, Coffee, and Molasses, 
have been more extensive. The weather 
has been more mild for several days, which 
has been more favorable forout-doorbusiness, 
and a change of wind has brought into port, 
a large fleet of "essels, which had been de- 
tained off the coast for several weeks." 

In a late London paper, we observe the 
following paragraph respecting the naviga- 
tion of the St. Lawrence : — 

"It is not generally known, that the mag- 
netic variation in the River St. Lawrence,is 
very erroneouslyjtated in our charts. This 
circumstance, added to the great inaccuracy 
of the charts themselves, and the severity of 
the climate, have been the cause of the nu- 
merous shipwrecks which have occurred 
there. That the variation is wrongly given 
may be easily accounted for, by having been 
handed down by the original observations of 
Major Holland, about 60 years ago, faithful- 
ly [preserved by his follower Des Barres ; 
and as rigorously maintained by modern 
chart makers. Unfortunately as Columbus 
first found out. magnetic variation, as its 
name implies, is of a fickle nature, and quiet- 
ly follows its own secretand mysterious laws. 
Since Major Holland's survey it has under- 
gone a change of about half a point, and at 
Q,uebec is now 18 1-2 deg. at Bic Island 17 
1-2 deg. at Cape Chat 21 deg. at the Bay 
of Seven Islands 23 1-2 deg. and at the west 
point of Anticosti 24 deg. westerly. The 
sudden and rapid change in it also between 
Quebec and Anticosti, in a distance of 350 
miles, is another source of mischief to our 
traders, who, heedless of its importance, are 
mostly unacquainted with itsextent. When 
overtaken by bad weather and they loose 
sight of the land, a wrong course is in conse- 
quence adopted, which proves fatal to their 
ships. There is no chart of the river St. 
Lawrence that can be of real service to its 
navigation, and. in consequence, the annual 
loss of property is great, and not unfrequent- 
ly that of lives also. To remedy this evil: 
which was gaining importance, Commander 
W. H. Bayfield, R. N. was dictated by his 
present Majesty, when Lord High Admiral, 
to make a careful survey of this river, which 
should answer all the purposes of navigation 
throughout its extensive reefs and channels. 
This survey has since then been proceeding, 
and a plan of the harbor of Quebec made by 
Commander Bayfield has been published.— 
His charts of the river are looked for with 
much anxiety by the Provincial Government 



of Quebec, who are only waiting lor their 
appearance to pass a law for regulating the 
examination of pilots for the river, touching 
their necessary qualification. The erection 
of three new light-houses in different parts of 
the river has been already offered, at the sug- 
gestion of Commander Bayfield, which wil 
materially contribue to the safety of its nav- 
igation." 

Skating. — On Tuesday a party of gen- 
tlemen started from Philadelphia for Bristol 
taking the "river road," or rather skating 
thither on theDeleware. The distance trav- 
elled must have been, as they compute, a- 
bout 25 miles, which they were one hour 
and forty -six minutes in performing ! After 
refreshing themselves they returned by the 
same independant and delightful mode of tra- 
velling. 

ICE BOAT. 

The Providence Journal describes an ice 
boat, invented by capt. Geo. L. Brown, which 
has been plying of iate in the harbor of that 
town, and been found very useful. " It is of 
very simple construction, its runners being 
three pieces of small joist, connected by cross- 
pieces and braces, on which are supported seats 
for a few passengers, and two canvass sails. 
It steers easily, and, before the wind, it will, 
with a good breeze, move at the rate of thirty 
miles an hour, or more ; and we are informed 
by a gentleman who took an excursion in it on 
Saturday afternoon, that, with s strong breeze 
at the northwest, they held a southwesterly 
courss, at the rate of a mile in three minutes. 
The ice was far from being smooth ; but had 
it been of that kind known among skaters as 
' black duck,' the speed must havo been doub- 
led." This boat rendered great assistance a 
few days ago, when a loaded sled crossing the 
ice, on the way to Pawtueket, broke in, and 
the cattlo were in danger of perishing. 

A fellow by the name of Brown, but a few 
days released from the penitentiary in New- 
Orleans, committed two murders during the 
last week in January, the more atrocious be- 
cause in one case wanton and unprovuked: and 
in the other, he was entirely the aggressor. — 
It .-eeins that in passing a sailor, who was 
quietly eating his dinner, Brown stole his hand- 
kerchief. The sailor, whose name was Buaden, 
pursued him— a scuffle ensued — and the sailor 
was stabbed to the heart. In the other case, 
there appears to have been not even the apolo- 
gy of a scuffle for the deed. 

POTATO-ONIONS. 

SOME of these onions have Leei\ left with the Pub- 
lisher of the Farmer, for sale, by Mr.Barker. (See Far- 
mer no 7. page 51, for directions for cultivating them.) 

GARDEN SEEDS. 

THE subscribers aro now roatly to receive the spring 
orders of their customers, having received by the Sove- 
reign, from Loudou, and by arrivals from France and 
Holland, a choice assortment of Garden, Field & Flow- 
er seeds — among which, are many fine sorts of early 
Cabbago ; early anil late Caulillower ; purple Cnpc Bro 
cole ; early scarlet Radish ; Mangel Wurzell : Sir John 
Sinclair's new Silver Beets, (a very luxuriant and valu- 
able vegetuble) ; Bishop s early Dwarf Prolific Peas, 
75 cents per quart, These peas need no recommenda- 
tion ; many who had them last season attest to their su- 
perior quality — they were introduced by a Scotch Gar- 
dener, named Bishop, 1627, in London, and so great 
was their reputation, that they sold for one guinea per 
pint; they arc remarkably early, very productive, and 
grow only twelve inches high — should be planted three 
inches apart, as they spread tike a fan ; they commence 
blooming when only three inches high 

Also, a few pounds superior white Mulberry Seod, 
growth 1830, price 50 cents per oz. or 6 dolls, per pound; 
t*erenuial Ryo Grass ; Orchard Grass ; fine early Pota- 
toes ■ English Windsor Beans ; Greeu Nonpareil Beans, 

&C. ^-c. ., 

Bird Seed of every sort : fresh Embdon Grotts ; Oat 
Meal ; Barley Meal; Kice Flour; Shaker's Parched 
Corn ; Medicioal Herbs ; Barks and Roots in great va- 
riety. 

Also, 40 bushels fine white Mustard Seed, received by 
the Columbia and Hudson, late London arrivals ; this 
Seed was selected expressly for Medicine— is quite free 
of dust and impurity 

Gentlemen supplied with Gardeners.by the day.moalh 
or year. G. THORBURN & SON. 

Feb. 29— G F 6 w 67 Liberty street, New Xork. 



ROCHESTER PRICES CURRENT. 

Feo. 25, 1831, 



Ashes per 2240 lbs 

Pot $91a92 50 

Pearl 100ol02 50 

Apples per bushel 25a44 

Do dried 75 

Rrislles.comb'd per lb 20a31 

Beeswax do 18a20 

Butter do 10al2 

Beef— Mess per bbl $faO 

Do prime do 5o7 

Do fresh per lb 02a03 

Barley per bushel 38<z44 

Beans rio 50a62 

Candles, mould per lb 9 cts 

Do dipped do 8 " 

Do sperm do 28 " 

Corn per bushel 44fl50 

Cheese per lb 04a05 

Clover Seed per bush $4 50 

Flour per bbl 5 50 

Flax per ib 07a08 

Flox Seed per bush 7eo87 

Feathers per lb 3ia37 

Furs— Otter 100a400 

Fox, red 50o75 



Mink 

Raccoon 

Martin 

Fisher 

Wild Cat 

Gray Fox 
Grass Seed per bush 
Hops per lb 
Honey do 
Lard do 
Mutton do 

Mustard Seed per busb 
Oats per bush 



12a3l 
leo31 
25a(ft 
37o50 
18a2fi 
18a25 

62 
12ol6 

09 
06u07 
02oU:i 

$3 

25 



Fox, cross 



Old Pewter, Brass and 

Copper per lb 14 

PeacheB.dry'dbush lOOoSOO 
Pork, mess per bbl $12al'l 
Do prime 8«9 

Do fresh per lb 03a04 
Quills per 100 25a30 

Rye per bush 50 

Rags per lb 03o04 

Salt per bbl $1 75 

Tallow per lb 06o07 

Wheat per bush 103nl09 



100a200lBuckwbeatflour,cwt. $1 ' 



METEOROLOGICAL TABLE, 

Jcrtke week ending Feb. 10, 1831. 





Ther 

sl = 

SI £ 


Baromet'r 


Winds 




-Vcalher 


>1 


a 



- a 


a 



a 



u 
a 


— 




m 


o 


Si J 


c 





S 


<u 





u 




S i 


















18 


16 3 


29,90 30,15 


71 ID 


w 


1 








n 


20|18 


30,20 30,02 


8 W 


e 


1 








15 


36|30 


29,90 129.58 


S 


s e 




1 


1 




16 
17 


45136 
28 16 


29,23|29,15 
29,36 29,52 


8 10 1 10 
w In IB 




1 

1 


1 


1 


18 


24 32 


29,57 29.20 


10 \s 10 




1 




1 


19 


34l23 


29 22 


29,40 


n 10 


n w 




1 







Observa'ns 



-lOia. r'n 
•2 in. rain 
now 1 if 



0*TAe Barometrical and Thermometrical observa- 
tions are registered at 10 o'clock AM. and P. M, which 
by a long scries of experiments made for the purpose, 
show that time to give a nearer mean average of the 
relative heat of a day than any other time. 



BANK NOTE TABLE. 

Corrected Weekly for the Rochester Baity Advertiser . 



BY 
NEW-YORK 

All banks in Liu- state, par, 
except the following 
BrokenBanks. JFasbing 
ton &. Warren, Barber's Ex 
change, Franklin Bank, Mid- 
dle Dist., Columbia, Greene 
County, Marble Manuf. Co.. 
Plattsburgh, and Niagara. 
MASSACHUSETTS. 
AI banks in this state, par 
except the following 
Broken Banks ■ Fanners 
b'nk of Belchertown, Sutton 
Berkshire, Essex and Brigh- 
ton banks. 

VERMONT. 
All banks in this stale, par. 

RHODE-ISLAND. 

All banks in this state, par, 

except the following 

BrokenBanks Farmers' 

Exchange, and Farmers' & 

Mecbanice' banks. 

CONNECTICUT. 
All banks in this state, par, 
except the fellowing 
Broken Banks, Eagle, 
Eagle pay'hle at Union bank 
New-York, Dorby, and Der- 
by payable at Fulton bank 
New-V'ork. 

NEW-HAMPSHIRE. 

All banks in this state, par. 

MAINE 



DUNDAS. 
samatjnoddy banks. 

NEW-JERSEY. 
Stateb'nfc, & Trenton Bank- 
ing Company, par - 
AH other banks, 2 per cent, 
except the following 
Broken Banks. Salein Sc 
Phil. Manuf Co.. Monmouth, 
Hoboken and Grazing Co., 
N. Jersey Manuf & Banking 
Co. at Hoboken, State Bank 
at Trenton, Protection aud 
Lombard, and Jersey City. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 
Philadelphia Banks, par. 
All other banks, 2per cent, 
except the following 
Broken Banks. Farmers' 
& Mechanics' aiN.Sa., Cen- 
tre, Huntington, Meadville. 
Marietta, Juniata, Greencas- 
tle, Bedford, Beaver, Wash- 
ington. Uniontown, Agricul- 
tural, Sit. Lake, Westmore- 
and at Greenburgh, New- 
Hope Bridge Co- new emis- 
sion, and Brownvile banks. 

OHIO. 
All banks, 4 to 6 per cent, 

MICHIGAN. 

All banks, Sper oent. 

except the following 

Broken Banks. Mouroe- 

and Detroit. 

CANADA. 



All banks in this state, pcr.JAU banks, 2 to 3 per cenl 
except the following except the 

Broken Banks. Castine.i Upper Cana. at Kingston. 
Wiscaseet, Hallowell & Au- and Unchartered banks, 
gusta, Kennebec, and Pas-1 

IT The above table when speaking of foreign Bills, re- 
fers to those of $5, and over, as none of a less denomin- 
ation are receivable. 



Pleasant is the joy of grief! it is like the 
shower of spring, when it sof'ens the branch 
of the oak, and the young leaf lifts its green 
head. — Ossian. 

It is notorious to philosophers, that joy and 
grief can hasten and delay time. Locks is of 
opinion, that a man in great misery may so 
far lose his measure, as to Ihiok a minute an 
hour; or in joy make an hour a minute. 



64 



THE GENESEE EAR3IE1S. 



Feb. 2G, 1831- 



MUSIC FROM SHORE. 

By Mrs. Hemans. 
A sound comes on the rising breeze, 

A sweet and lovely sound ! 
Piercing the tumult of the seas, 

That wildly dash around. 

Prom land, from sunny land it comes, 
From hills with murmuring trees, 

From paths by still and happy homes — 
That sweet sound on the breeze ! 

Why should its faint and passing sigh 
Thus bid my quick pulse leap ? 
-No part in earth's glad melody 
Is mine upon the deep. 

Yet blessing, blessing on the spot 
Whence those rich breathings flow ! 

Kind hearts, although they know me not, 
Like mine must beat and glow. 

And blessings, from the bark that roams 

O'er solitary seas, 
To those that far in happy homes 

Give sweet sounds to tho breeze ? 



miSCELLAKSOUE. 



THE HORSE. 

The Horse, which did not exist in the new 
continent before the arrival of Europeans is 
spread in Europe, and in Iceland, as far as be 
yond the polar circle. In Asia the horse is 
scarcely found beyond the G4lh parallel ; in 
America the rsce has spread to the country of 
Patagonia, thf; clim?te of which, under the 
50th degree of south latitude, answers to the 
climates of the northern hemisphere ly iug- un 
der the 60th parallel. 

It appears to us, thai there were in ths old 
continent at least three origin.nl races of hor- 
ses. The first, and Ihe best proportioned, was 
ojiginally spread between the 40th and 55ih 
paialluls, and probably came from Great Bu 
charia, from Persia, or even from Asia Minor. 

The Tartar steeds, and those of Poland and 
Hungary, seem to have preserved the original 
form of the breed. In countries that are mo- 
derately damp and cold, and where there is 
rich pasturage, this race has become larger & 
stronger. The forms which are best devel- 
oped have acquired that sjmmetry, and that 
noble warlike gait which mark the Danish, 
Norman, and English horses. These, how- 
ever, have been mixed with the Arabian race. 
The third variety of the first race is a degen- 
erate breed, produced by the deteriorating in- 
fluence of a climate excessively damp; we 
may even trace the different degrees af this 
rlegeneracy. The horses of the country ut 
Bremen have their feel worse madf than those 
of Holstein and Jutland. As we proced to 
2ast Friesland, their shape grows more aDd 
.more clumsy. 

The second race is small, and sometimes 
alinost dwarfish ; its characteristics are a com- 
pact square form, endowed with great strength 
and surprizing agility. It appears to derive 
its origin from the northern upland plains of 
Asia, from the steppes of Kirguises, although 
Palhs looks upon the wild horses of these 
countries as haviug come from the Studs. — 
This race,according to some accounts, appears 
to be spread io the north of India, in Chica, k 
in the islands of Japan. It is more certain that 
trie breed is common in Russia and in Scandi- 
navia. The Norwegians introduced it into 
Iceland and Scotland. It exists in the Danish 
Island of Zeeland. 

The third race of horses is possessed of the 
most showy properties, being extremly swift, 
supple, vigorous, and mettlesome. We mean 
(lie " Arab race," which undoubtedly has a 
common origin with that of Barbary, if it has 
no} given btrfti to it. The A«flalu5lan horsos 



are its lineal descendants. The English say I about a fortnight ago. He said he should leave 
that their racehorses are directly spruuff from ;iil,is, together with others of smaller size. 



crossing the Arab with the Barbary. Histoiy 
proves, that the Romans, the Saxons, the 
Danes, and the Normans, by introducing into 
Britain the various races of their respective 
countries, laid the foundation of the English 
breed. Private persons afterword, from time 
to time, imported Arabian and Barbary stall- 
ions. — Malte-brun. 



BANK STATISTICS. 

Tahle shelving the amount of capital in several 
of our principal cities, the amount of dizi 
dends, and the amount of notes discounted 
during the last year. 



Cities. 
New-Vork 
Brooklyn 
Albany 
Trov 
Hartford 
New-London 
Newport 
Providence 
Boston 
Portland 
Disr. Columbia 
Richmond 
Norfolk 
Charleston 
Savannah 
AugiLsta 
Baltimore 
Philadelphia 
New-Orleans 
Pew-Haven 
Portsmouth 
Salem 

Totals 



Capital. Div'nds Discounted 
18,130,000 1,037,700 103,769,952 



300,000 

1,576.600 

1.018,000 

3,859,000 

247.687 

595,000 

4,324,950 

13,900,000 

1850,000 

S,895,350 

2,517,500 

1,460,000 

4.975,000 

2,600,000 

1 400 000 

6 8S8 691 

10 792 000 

10 000 000 

840 000 

775 000 

1 450 000 



21,000 
301,248 

61,840 
159,540 

15,452 

19 400 
276,692 
703.500 

36,001) 
186.702 
151.025 

85,30(1 
371,000 
146 600 

60 000 
362 118 
693 075 
542 500 

27 200 

22 100 

60 500 



2,099 968 

9f792,801 

6,183.593 

15,952,964 

1,545.964 

1,939,964 

27,572,184 

70.349,968 

3,919,968 

18,670,184 

15,102,462 

9,240.816 

34.341,632 

14661 MP. 

5 999 960 
36 211 864 
69 307 472 
54 249 988 

2 720 016 
2 310 056 

6 049 992 



either in Troy or Albany, until the river opens. 
It is a most perfect six-sided chiystal,over 16 
inches long, and 14 in its greatest diagonal di- 
ameter." 

CHATTER OP CRIME lli NEW YORK. 

During the year 1830, as appoars from a care- 
ful examination of the records kept by the clerk 
ot the Oyer and Terminer and Court of Ses- 
sions, there were seven hundred and seventy- 
three parsons sentenced by those Courts to ims 
orisonmont, as follows : — to the State Prison 
137, Penitentiary 590, City Prison 37, and to 
the House of Refuge 9. 

Tho following enumeration of the character 
and grades of offence, of which they, with 
others who were discharged with fin3s, were 
severally committed, is derived officially from 
the same source. 



93 394 778 1 140 492 511 992 927 



TAXATION. 

The followng is said to be a oorrect view of 
the relative taxation of the principal European 



States :— 


V 


?r head. 




£. 


s. 


d. 


England, 


3 





5 


France, 


1 


G 


8 


The Netherlands. 


1 


o 


C 


Sweden, 


1 


1 


G 


Hesse Darmstadt, 





12 


o j.o 


Prussia. 





12 


1 


Hesse Cassfcv, 





12 





Saxony, 





11 


3 


Sardinia, 





11 


2 


Denmark, 





10 


4 


Baden, 





10 


19 


Brunswick/ 





10 





Spain, 





9 





Hanover, 





8 


9 


Tuscany, 





8 


S 


Naples, 


t) 


8 


8 


Bavaria, 





8 


7 1 2 


VVurtemburgh, 





3 


1 1 2 


Austria, 





G 


7 1-2 


Norway, 





G 


G 


Poland, 





4 


8 


Russia, 





4 


7 


[Ionian Slat»s, 





4 


4 


Ylecklin Schwerin, 





Q 


5 



f Petit Larceoy 
[Assault and BattcTy 
Graud Larceny 
Burglary, 1st degree 
Do. 2d degree 
Do. 3d degree 
I Bigamy 

Assault &.. Battery, • 
with intent to kill > 
Receiving stolen goods 
Manslaughter 



■1C3 Swindling 

M^Forgery, 2d degree 10 

«8' Do. 3d degree 1 

Perjury 5 
12iBrcaking Prison ' 
12'ftigiiWHy Bobbery 

1 luM,, t to poison 
JAltrmpt to commit orson ', 
^Pelit Larceny °d offence 4 

10 Keeping disorderlyliouse V 
2'Libel 



BERYL. 

The following paragraph is circulating in 
the papers: 

A Beryl. — There is at St. Pefersburgh, 
says the Mining Journal, published there, a 
beiyl, found three years ago near Murzinkaja, 
in tlie district of Catherineburg, .vhicQ is above 
11 pounds in weight, and valued at £27,000- 

This is a large and precious beryl, but small 
both in size aDd value, if value go with size, 
compared with the one named io the following 
statement, made to the Troy Sentinel by Pro- 
fessor Baton, of the Rensselaer School. After 
referring to the Russian heryl, he says : 

*' A poor laboring maD has got out a beryl 
from a rock in Ackworth, New Hampshire, 
which weighs between 50 and 100 pouuds. — 
This I nidge from its size , 1 have not seen it 
weighed. He callctl al the Rensselaer School 



THE GA1UERER. 

" A snapper op of unconsidered trifles."— Shakt. 

Cato,(be Censor, being scurnlouslv treated 
bv a fellow who led a liceutious and dissolute 
lite, a "contest," said he. " between thee and 
me is very unequal, for thou canst bear ill Ian 
guage wkh ease, and return it with pleasure, 
but as for my pait, 'tis nnusual for me to hear 
it, and disagreeable to speak it." 

Spectacles were first Rented by Spina, a 
monk of Pisa, in the year 5200. 

Men show particular folly on five diffcren 
occasions : When they establish their fortune 
on the ruin of others; when they expect to 
excite love by colduess, and by showing more 
marks of dislike thau affection ; when they 
wish to become learned in the midst of repose 
and pleasure ; when they seok fiiends without 
[making any advances of friendship; and when 
they are unwilling to succour their friends in 
distress. 

Spinning wheels were first invented a' 
Brunswick, in Germany, in 1630. 

To delicate minds, the unfortunate are al- 
ways objects cf respect ; as the ancients held 
sacred those places which had been blasted by 
lightning, so the feeling heart considers the 
afflicted as touched by the hand of God him- 
self. 

Like dogs in a wheel, birds in a cage, or 
squirrels in chain, ambitious men still climb 
and climb, with gieat labor and incessant anx- 
iety, but never reach the lop. 

The brain of a hasty man is like a sooly 
chimney; it is continually in danger of taking 
fire from the flames beneath. The brain of a 
well ordered and quiet citizen is like a chim- 
ney newly swept ; the sparks of passion pass 
through it, and escape without danger into the 
cooler regions of thought and reflection. 

Flowers of ihetoric in sermons and seriou- 
discourses, are like the blue and red flowers 
in corn — pleasing to those who come ooly for 
amusement, but prejudicial to him who would 
reap Ihe profit from it. 



I II K NBHGSEB FARMER 

AND GARDENER'S JOURNAL. 

Devoted to Agriculture, Horticulture, Domestic Econo- 
my, &c. &c. 
Pnblished on Salnrdays, at SJ2 50 per annum 
payable in six months, or at $2 00, if paid at tht 
time of subscribing, by Luther Tuuker, &' 
the office of fire RodicWar Daily AdveTt15r-r> 



^?Ia£21 ©21S2F! 



VOLUME I. 



ROCHESTER, MARCH 5, 1831. 



NUMBER 9. 



COMMUNICATIONS. 



FUR THE GENESEE FARMEft. 

THE GENESEE COUNTRY. 

Messrs. Editors — I read with much pleasure 
:he Essay on " The first and last Census of New 
York," copied from the New-York Standard, into 
your 6th niimbor — because of its exhibit of the vast 
acquisition of population of the territory known to 
its early settlers as the Genesee Country, (in compli- 
ment to which, you have named your useful paper,) 
'hen, Ontario County, containing 1031 souls; — and 
now, 407,421, comprised in 13 counties: — being an 
increase of nearly 400 to one, in the space of forty 
years. 

And with a view to show the progressive wealth 
of the Genesee Country, as well as its population, I 
annex a return of the assessed valuation of the real 
and personal property therein, for 1828 : 

Covntks. R:al Estate. Personal. Amount. 
Ontario, $5,696,240 625.087 6,321,327 

Steuben, 1,408,889 61572 1,470,461 

Yates, 1,540,203 75,418 1,615,621 

Wayne, 2,922,426 116.743 3.039.169 

Monroe, 5,191,643 524 823 5,716.466 

Livingston, 3.098,906 228 628 3,327,534 
Ueneaee, 3,956 793 32S 825 4,285,618 

Orleans, 1,442,686 43,384 1,486,070 

Niagara,* 1,430,000 

Ejrie,* 2,740,000 

Allegany,* 1.635,000 

Cattaraugus,* 1,130,487 

Chautauque, 1,754,333 43,897 1,798,247 



$27,012,136 2,048,377 35,996,000 

■ These counties are given by estimates. 

Making an amount of nearly thirty-sis millions of 
dollars ; and the valuation for 1830, may bo presu- 
med at 38 millions ; from which deduct about the 
east half of the eounty of Wayne, which lies on the 
Military Tract; leaving nearly thirty seven millions 
for the present value of the territory, which the state 
of Massachusetts, about forty-four years ago, sold to 
.Uessrs. Phelps & Gorham, for one million. 

But I sincerely regret to notice there were several 
errors in that Essay, both in the geography and his- 
tory of the country, and which is interesting tons, 
as its residents, to have corrected, in order to check 
: .he errors which might otherwise creep into its early 
history, in its descent to posterity, and render it par- 
.'ially fabulous. 

In that, the town of Rush, is put down for T. 
No. 11, in the 6th R. 
Henrietta, - - 12 - " 
Brighton, - - 13 - 5th 
when they are all in the 7th Range of Tow nships, 
and lying on the east bank of Genesee River 

Again — "the pre-emption line," "touching the 
west side of Seneca Lake," "and thence to Lake 
Ontario, a few miles east of Sodus Bay" — [See this 
corrected below.] 

But the most material error is contained in the fol- 
lowing eAtrr.;: ; 

" The territory between the pre-emption line, and 
what was termed the transit line, which ran nearly 
on the meridian of the Genesee river, was early con- 
veyed by Massachusetts to the Pulteney family, or 
company ; and the territory west of the transit line, 
was, in the same manner, sold to the Holland Com- 
pany." 

The writer must have been very ignorant of the 
facts relating to the early sales and settlement of the 
country, to have jumbled together so many errors, 
both in its geography and hittory, into so short a 
paragraph. The line he terms the transit, was ne- 
ver known by any other name than the meridional 
line, forming a part of the western boundary of the 
Phelps & Gorham purchase. 

All the transit lines of the country [being only 
two,] belong to the surveys of the Holland Compa- 
ny's Lands; the first of which forms their eastern 
boundary. It lies twelve miles west of,& runs about 
parallel with the meridian line, and crosses the Buf- 
falo road.ai Black Creek,in Stafford, six miles east 
of Batavia. The second transit line forms the west 
boundary of the first of the three mortgages which 
Robert Morris made to the Holland Companv, com- 
prehending one million of aeies ; it is the dividing 
Jme between the 6th and 7th Range of Townships, 
in their large traet, and passes through the village of 
fcockpqrt. 



But the most egregious error, and that which has 
induced me take this notice of it, for correction, is 
contained in the following expressions, viz — " The 
territory east," " was early conveyed by Massachu- 
setts to the Pulteney family, or company ; and the 
territory west of the transit line, was, in the same 
manner, sold to the Holland Company," — because 
it so utterly obliterates from memory, and the page 
of history, the enterprize, toils, hardships, merits and 
character of the pioneers & early settlers of this now 
beautiful section of the state of New York, and es- 
pecially the name of Oliver Phelps, who was the 
Father of the whole project. 

The following extract, taken from our Village Di- 
rectory, printed by Everard Peck, in 1827, will serve 
to correct the principal errors noted above : but that 
was written on the spur of the moment,entirely from 
memory, without the advantage of recurrence to doc- 
uments, for correction, and subject to inaccuracies 
It is too brief for the history of the early settlement 
of our country ; its only recommendation consists 
in its being the most full and accurate sketch of I he 
subject, yet in print. 

In 1796 or '7, Charles Williamson published, un- 
der the borrowed name of Robert G. Monroe,a small 
pamphlet on the Genesee Country. But that was 
mostly a topographical description of the territory, 
to invite emigrants to the settlement of it,rathcr than 
a history of its early settlement. It is but too proba- 
ble that it is now entirely out of print. 

It would seem that the present wealth and popu- 
lation of the Genesee Country could afford a remu 
neration for the history of its early settlement, with 
narrations of the adventures, fatigues, privations and 
hardships of the pioneers of a wilderness, and ma- 
king their settlements in it, then, so remote from ci- 
vilized society, and its accommodations for the com- 
forts and enjoyment of life, with, a biographical 
sketch of many of them, and particularly of its foun- 
der, Oliver Phelps. To leave the subject delayed 
but a few years longer, and many of the early events 
which would entertain and interest the present resi- 
dents and their posterity, will have passed from the 
memory of man. 

But who is there now remaining among the first 
settlers, to write it ? Messrs. James Wadstvorth, Au- 
gustus Porter, and Peter B. Porter, are the most pro- 
minent among them which occur to my mind ; and 
it seems to be required of them ; but should they 
decline the undertaking, it then appears as if it must 
devolve upon the present Oliver Phelps,ihe grandson, 
who enjoys the domicil of his ancestor, at Canan- 
daigtia ; and who has the largest portion of the doc- 
uments. 

THE EXTRACT. 

"The preemptive title, however, to this Territo- 
ry, was claimed by Massachusetts, under its coloni- 
al charter, which comprehended the whole region 
between its north and south boundaries, from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific ocean. The charter of the 
state of New York interfered with this claim, and 
after various unsuccessful attempts to adjust their 
differences, under the Congress of the old confedera- 
tion, they were happily terminated at last, by com- 
missioners mutually appointed by each state, who 
met at Hartford, in Connecticut, and on the 16th De- 
cember, 1786, agreed that Massachusetts cede to 
New York the sovereignty and jurisdiction of all 
the teritory, claimed by the former, within the limits 
of the latter ; and, that New York cede to Massa- 
chusetts the property of the soil ; or, in the words 
of the settlement, " the right of pre-emption of the 
soil from the native Indians" — " to all the lands now 
in the state, lying west of a line running due north, 
from the 82d mile stone, on the north boundary of 
Pennsylvania, to the British possessions in Canada, 
except a tract of one mile in width, along the Niaga- 
ra river." 

This line commences in the 42d degree of north 
latitude, 82 miles west of the northeast corner of 
Pennsylvania, and is called the Pre-emption Line. — 
It runs through the middle of the Seneca Lake at its 
noith end, abont one mile east of Geneva, and also 
through Sodus Bay. Dr. Spafford, in his Gazetteer 
of New York, says it proves to be the meridian of 
the city of Washington.t 

In 1787,Massachuselts sold the Whole of this tract, 
containing six million of acres, to Messrs. Oliver 



t It is also the west boundary line of the Kcw York 
Military Lands, which contain 23 Tew nships, each con 
tammy It-n square miles — that yroud and SfiUaitid mon- 
ument «/ the gratitude of Tieto York, to her Revolu- 
tionary Heroes. £iro gave D&0 acres of gXrod land to 
every soklier '• ■ I 



Phelps & Nathaniel Gorham, for one million of dol- 
lars ; or, three notes of £100,000 each, New-Eng- 
land currency, payable in consolidated securities, at 
par. 

In the following spring, Oliver Phelps, then living 
at Granville, Massachusetts, prepared himself with 
men and means, to explore the country thus ac quired, 
and with great resolution and intrepidity, took leave 
of his family and his neighbours, together with the 
Minister of the Parish, who had assembled on the 
occasion, and started on his expedition, leaving them 
all m tears, bidding him a final adieu, scarcely ho- 
ping for his return from a wilderness, in an Indian 
country, hardly yet pacified. 

He persevered, and penetrated the forest from 
the German Flats, to Canandaiguat a distance 01 188 
miles, by the present improved road — sent out run- 
ners, and collected the Sachems, Chiefs, and War- 
riors of the Six-Nations, and in July 1788, with the 
aid of the Rev. Samuel Kirtland, as State Commis- 
sioner and Indian Missionary, concluded a treaty of 
purchase of a tract containing 2 1-4 millions of acres ; 
bouuded east by the pre-emption line, and west by a 
meridional line, running from a point in the north line 
of Pennsylvania, 42 miles east of the 82d mile stone. 
to an dm tree, in the forks of the Genesee and Cana- 
saraga, thence down the Genesee, as it meanders, to 
a point two miles north of the Cauawagus village, 
[near Avon Bridge] thence due west, 12 miles, [1 1-2 
miles south of Le Roy village,] thence northwardly, 
parallel to the general course of the Genesee River. 
[N. 24 dg. E.] to Lake Ontario ; which course jfiwra 
the east line of the tract called the Trianglef&xid is 
about 24 miles long. 

The reason of this remarkable offset, of 12 miles 
to the westward, may not be unworthy of notice, a* 
illustrative of the change, or progress of landed 
property, with the growth of the country : the Indi- 
ans were disposed to confine Mr. Phelps to the Gene- 
see river, as his western boundary. lie proposed the 
erection of mills, at the falls of the river, now at 
Rochester, and asked of them that offset for a Mill 
yard ; to which they assented, making a squaro of 
12 miles by 24 for that purpose. 

After Ebenezer Allen erected his mill at the falls, 
[near the west end of the canal aqueduct] and the 
Indians came to see it, and the quantity of ground 
requisite for a mill-yurd, they nttercd their interjec- 
tion of surprise, quoah ! and added Kuushonchicos ! 
[signifying waterfall, in the Seneca language] and 
which, ever after, became the Indian name for Mr. 
Phelps. 

The kindness,however,and good faith with which 
Mr. Phelps, like the celebraled William Penn, al- 
ways conducted his intercourse with the Indians, 
secured to him their confidence and affection ; in to- 
ken of which, they adopted both him and his son, 
Oliver L. Phelps, as honorary members of their na- 
tional councils. 

The leading chiefs and warriors, concerned in 
these negociations, were Parmer's Brother,the Grand 
Sachem, and who for his political wisdom, might be 
called the George Clinton of the Six-Nations — and 
Red Jacket, the celebrated orator. 

After the treaty, Mr. Phelps surveyed the land in- 
to tracts, denominated Ranges, running north anil 
south, and subdivided the ranges into tracts of six 
miles square, denominated Townshim ; and designa- 
ted each, by numbers, beginning tojpumber both thf- 
ranges and townships, at the 82d£mjle stone, in the 
southeast corner of the tract, [now tree southeast cor- 
nerof Steuben county] numbering nsrthwardly to the 
lake, from 1 to 14, and the ranges \testwardly, from 
1 to 7 : thus Bath is designated as township No. 4-, 
in the 3d range ; Canandaiguaas township No. 10, in 
the 3d range ; Pittsford, as No. 12, in the 5th range ; 
and Brighton as No. 13 in the 7th range of town* 
ships, in Gorham and Phelps' purchase. 

As the Genesee river runs about 24 degs. east Qf 
north, below Avon, and Mr. Phelps continuing his 
7th range of townships to Lake Ontario, the 5th range 
was left to contain but twelve, and the 6th range 
but ten townships ; and in order to square the tract 
lynig west of Genesee river,he sat offtwo townships 
near the Lake, which he called the Short Range, 
now comprising the towns of Gates and Greece ; 
and the present towns of Caledonia, Whe atland, 
Chili, Riga,Ogden and Parma, being four townships, 
he called the first range of townships, Weslof Gen- 
esee River, in Gorham and Phelps' purchase. 

This entire tract formed the counties of Ontario and 
Steuben, for many years, until 1821, when Monrpe 



* Meaning a cltozcn plan, in tho Indian la^iguajev 






66 



THE GENESEE FARMER 



March 5, 183L 



and Livingston counties were eat off, except that part 
of it lying west of the Genesee river, which was an- 
nexed to the county of Genesee at its organization, 
in 1802, and the south part of the 7th range, sat off 
from Steuben to Allegany. 

In 1789, Oliver Phelps opened a Land Office at 
Canandaigua; this was the first Land Office in A- 
uieriea, for the sale of her forest lands to settlers. — 
And the system which he adopted for the survey of 
his lands by townships and ranges became a model 
for the survey of all the new lands in the United 
States ; and the manner of making his retail sales 
to settlers, by Articles has also been adopted by all 
the other land offices of individual proprietorships, 
that have followed in sucoession after him. 

The Article was a new device, of American ori- 
gin, unknown in the English system of land-con- 
veyancing ; granting the possession, but not the fee 
of the land ; facilitating the frequent changes nmong 
the settlers, enabling them to sell out their improve- 
ments and transfer their possessions by assignment ; 
and securing the reversion of the possession to the 
proprietor, where they abandoned the premises. His 
sales were allodial ; and the other land offices by 
following his example, have rendered the Genesee 
farmers, all fee-simple land holders, which has great- 
ly increased the value of the soil, and the enter- 
prise of the people. 

Oliver Phelps may be considered the Cecrops of 
the Genesee Country. Its inhabitants owe a mauso- 
leum to his memory, in gratitude for his having pio- 
neered for them, the wilderness of this Canaan of 
the west, and selling his land to them in fee simple, 
instead of entailing it by leases. 

Gorham and Phelps sold out about one third of 
their tract by townships and parts of townships, to 
companies and individuals, to settlers and specula- 
tors, who invited an emigration into the country 
that soon formed the new county of Ontario, (taken 
from Montgomery) which by the United States 
census of 1790, contained a population of 1075 — or 
1081. 

On the 18th of Nov. 1790, they sold nearly all the 
residue to Rober Morris, containing 1,264,000 acres, 
for eight pence, lawful money, an acre, who sold the 
same to Sir William Pulteney, of England, II for the 
sale of which, he opened a land office at Geneva, 
and also at Bath, under the agency of Charles Will- 
iamson. 

Gorham & Phelps not being able to pay the whole 
purchase money, compromised, and surrendered to 
Massachusetts that part of the land to which the In- 
dian title remained unextinguished, being about two- 
thirds of the western part of it ; in consideration of 
which, the state cancelled two of their notes. 

In 1796, Robert Morris purchased of Massachu- 
setts the tract surrendered by Gorham and Phelps — 
extinguished the Indian title — sold but several tracts 
ro different persons, of fifty, and one hundred thou- 
sand acres, in ali, twelve miles width, off the east 



FOR THE GENESEE 1'ABMER. 

SILK. 

Mr. Isaac Foster, of Ogden, called upon me 
the other day, for some eggs of the silk-worm, 
and iclated to me several facts on the subject 
of raising silk, the relation of which may in- 
terest some of your readers, and call up the 
slumbering attention of the farmers, to a sub- 
of much importance to them and the country 
at large. Mr. Foster came from a part of 
Connecticut, where silk is made, 10orl2yenrs 
ago, and purchased a farm in Ogden ; his first 
objeet was to plant out a nursery of white 
mulberry trees, from which he has an orchard 
now of 150 trees. He states that a full grown 
tree will furnish food sufficient to make one' 
pound of raw silk in a season ; and midere-, 
i'erence to a large mulberry tree standing in the 
steet near Mr. Avery's brick tavern, at the 
Landing, as capable of doing it ; this tree is 
from 15 to 18 inches diameter, near the ground, 
and from the best information I cat) ob 
lain, is about 20 years old, and has a very 
spreading top, not unlike a large apple tree. 

During the last war, Mr. F. went to a dis- 
tant town in Connecticut, where there were 
many mulberry trees, but where the inhabi- 
tants were not accustomed to tnuke silk. He 
obtained permission to cither the leaves, and 
with the aid of two females of his family, he 
made, in six weeks, silk enough to yield him 
I about $u00, after adding to it the labour of the 
females, five or six weeks longer, in reeling, 
and making it into sewing silk, silk twist, Ac. 
I should add, that during the last week offeed- 
ing the worms, he had the assistance of a few 
children and others, for in the last stages of 
their existence, they eat voraciously, and must 
be kept supplied with food, or all previous la 
bor is lost. He made his crop of silk before 
the hay and harvest of his own farm came on. 
Mr. F. s"aies that it is customary for youngj 
women to go out to those families who cannot j 
make their own silk, and make it on shares ; 
that in this manner, one .vill, in the course of] 
te! or twelve weeks, make about 15 pounds 
of silk, reel it from the lulls or cocoons, and 
return the one half of the raw silk, thus made, 
to the owner of the trees ; thus making, or 
earning as much for herself, frequently in a feu- 
weeks, as a young man will in a year, at com- 
mon labor. 

It is not often, however, that mulberry 

orchards can be had on shares, as dkery family 

prefers making and manufacturing their own 

side of the tract, and along the Genesee river; and ]| silk, when they have the power, as it is much 



the common white mulberry, and are perfectly 
hardy. 

If the foregoing remarks, hastily made, are 
worthy of notice, you are at liberty to insert 
them in the Farmer. I am, respectfully, vours, 
O. WILDER. 

P. 8. I might remark that the price of silk, 
during the war. was much higher in price than 
it is now ; but raw silk, that is, in the state in 
which it is reeled from the cocoons, is now 
worth, in France, from 5 to $5,50 per pound, 
and is now worth I he same in this country ; but 
its value is greatly enhanced by the additional 
labour of converting it into sewing silk, or 
twist, which every house-wife could soon do. I 
have been speaking of the domestic manofac- 
ture of the article, which is only preparatorv 
to its more extended culture and use, which 
would be a necessary consequence. 



FOR THE GENESEE FARMER. 

GRAFTING GRAPES. 

Port Lawrr.ncc, [Michigan] Feb. 7th, 1831 
Messrs. Editors— In the first number o1 
the Genesee Farmer, information is solicited in 
relation to the ingrafting of grape vines. As 
I havo succeeded in the process, I will give tnv 
views upon the subject. I conceive that the 
failures have been principally owing to the pe- 
riod when the ingrafting has been performed. 
If it is alter the sap begins to flow in the spring, 
there is almost a certainty of failure. I have 
attempted it several times after the circulation 
of the sap had commenced and failed. But I 
have subsequently succeeded in the following 
manner. In the first weather that was warm e- 
nough to thaw an inch of the ground in Match, 
I inserted the cions, four or five inches long, 
with one bud at the surface of the ground in 
the common mode of cleft grafting. Then 
drawing the earth about it to the top of the ci- 
on, and covering it with a bunch of straw a 
foot thick, least the ground might afterwards • 
freeze and draw it out. After all danger of 
frost was past 1 removed the straw. In this 
manner, if the process is well performed, there 
is as much certainty of success, as in ingrafting 
the apple, or any other tree. 

B. F. STICKNEY. 



mortgaged the residue, in three parcels, to William 
Willink and others, of Amsterdam, called the Hol- 
land Company ; under the foreclosure of which mort- 
gages, the Company acquired the full title to their 
large tract — surveyed it into ranges and townships, 
after the manner of Oliver Phelps, and in 1801 open- 
ed a land office at Batavia, under the agency of Jo- 
seph Ellicott, for the sale thereof." 

I will close this lengthy communication, (for the 
ihread of the subject would have been impaired by 
dividing it into two numbers,) by an attempt to cor- 
rect an error in your first number. 

The Newspaper " printed in Genesee, entitled the 
Ontario Gazette" was probably the one established 

by a Mr. Carey, which soon passed over to 

Gould and Post, and shortly after , to Gould & Bemis, 
and entitled the Ontario Repository. 

Carey and Post left the country in an early day — 
Gould died in 1808, and was an early victim to the 
consumption, in the country. The Repository was 
continued by James D. Bemis up to, and prob- 
ably beyond its thirtieth volume, who has lately 
retired from it with an ample competency. It is still 
continued by Morse and Willson. Its files must fur- 
nish many materials for the early history of the coun- 
try. 
( The Vessel was built by Charles Williamson, at 
Geneva, for the navigation of the Seneca Lake. 

There is no Genesee Lake in the country. 
JESSE HAWLEY. 

II Toliim individually, and noi to bin family or compa- 
any, for he was concerned with no company, and had 
!mt ODe heir. Chariot tc, who married Sir John Lowther 
Johnstone, whose hcttsnow inherit tho preoertv. 



more profitable, especially where there is a fa 
mily of children, to iiati'.er leaves, which is ihe 
chief labor. The reeling can always be done 
during leisure. 

A firmer could scarce y leavo a better lega- 
oy to his children, in toe shape of properly 
than to set out for each of them, 50 white mul- 
berry 'rees, on such parts of his farm as not to 
interfere with his ordinary farming operations, 
he would nave growing a better mine of wealth 
than the goldmines of the south. 

1 saved eggs of the silk worm last summer, 
and if they are well preserved through the 
winter, will cheerfully furnish a few to any 
person requesting them, free of expense, in 
he spring. I have a nursery of about 3090 
irees, of two summers growth from the seed, 
a portion of which will be fi/r sale, in' the 
spring, at ten or twehe dollars the 100 trees. 

I have one tree, a variety of the white mul- 
berry, that 1 prize very highly, the morusmul- 
tkaulis, which produces a leaf about twelve in- 
ches long by ten wide, the genuine Chinese 
mulberry tree. It is yet extremely rare in the 
United Stales, though I have seen a few ad- 
vcrtised for dale, in the uurscries near New 
York. About nine years ago, two trees were 
brought from the Phillippino Islands, into 
Fruuce.from which they have been extensively , - „ 

propagated, and from thonee have found their „ ff en been sc ,.„|,,r„ 
Way tu this country. 

They grow more readily from cuttings, than 



FOR THE GKNFSEE FARMER. 

METEORS. 

Returning to Rochester,sometiine in Augus. 
last, from Henrietta, when within about amile 
and a half of the village, upon the high grounds 
south, I heard an explosion in the air, like llu 
bursting of a skyrocket. Turning toward it, 
I discovered at a distance not to exceed 2U 
rods, and at a height of about one hundred and 
fifty feet, a large white ball, with a streaming 
tail, apparently about five yards in length, mo 
ving rapidly in a horizontal direction, towards 
the south-west. Its motion was attended with 
a distinctly whirring sound, somewhat resem- 
bling a very sudden gust of wind. 

Its career was very short, after the explosion, 
for the oozing of its substance, which formed 
the tail, rapidly wasted it away, and from the 
tune I first saw it, to the time of its extinction, 
it had passed apparently about one hundred 
yards. 

The b ili itself, which at first, at that distance 
appeared ubout the size of a man's head, was 
nearly white, while the color of the tail was a 
low s"hades darker than tho sky, which was 
perfeetly clear, The day w.-is fair, ami I anx- 
iously looked for some relics, but not a particle 
reached the ground, that I could discover. 

The first impression was, that it was the 
work of art, but alter it was wasted, all was 
still, and not a human form except myself was 
to be seen. 

I send you this, wilh the hope that you, or 
some of your meteorological readers will of- 
fer an explanation of what, to me, was an e\ 
phenomena. Have they 
and arc they noi 
what in the night arc callc ! " shooting st:irs.' 

PHILO.= -- 



Vol. I.— No. 9. 



AND GARDENER'S JOURNAL. 



67 



FOR THE GENESEE FARMBR. 

CARROTS. 

Messrs. Editors— In number 6 of your pa- 
per, I noticed an article on Carrots, in which 
that vegotable is strongly recommended as a 
cheap, wholesome, and invigorating food for 
horses, ^-c. Now, sirs, although I am neither 
an Agriculturist nor Horticulturist, and not 
much°of a Horse otngist, yet having, as I con- 
ceive, thoroughly tested the properties of car- 
rots, as an article of food for horses, I beg 
leave to communicate the result of that test 
through the medium of your interesting Jour- 
nal : 

In the summer of 1829, I became possessed 
of two horses, lhat were so lean and ungainly in 
their appearance, that they would have caused 
a " Rozinante" to blush for the degeneracy of 
his race. A neighbor of mine advised me to 
feed them on carrots : 1 did so — and their ra- 
pid regeneration equalled my most saneuine 
expectations. I continued this diet until they 
were in what is called good order, when ha- 
ving occasion to travel about four hundred 
miles, I resolved to ride one of the horses and 
have the other put to work. Before I got to 
my journey's end, however, I found that the 
horse on which I lode was losing flesh faster 
than he before had gained it, for which I was 
at a loss to assign any adequate reason ; I fi- 
nally concluded, however, that he was unwell. 
Having with much difficulty rode him home, I 
was surprised to find the horse which had been 
worked, poorer, if possible, than the *' bony 
steed" which I bestrode — the former having 
been fed entirely on carrots. I communicated 
the circumstance to a gentleman in the neigh-, 
horbood, who had been a drover for a number 
of years, thinking that he might probably ac- 
count for the phenomena. 

From him I learned, that whenever be be- 
came possessed of a poor horse, he immedi- 
ately dieted him on carrots, mixing with them 
a little oat or corn meal ; or else, after fatten- 
ing them on carrots alone, he always fed them 
on meal, fur two weeks, or more, before dri- 
ving or working tin m ; because, from the rapid- 
ity with which they acquire flesh, when fed on 
this esoulent, their flesh is not solid. This I 
subsequently found to be the case. 

As you truly observe, horses will fatten 
quicker on carrots than on any other diet, but 
1 would recomn;end that they should be chop- 
ped fine, and mixed with meal, as their fles!., 
when fattened in this manner, will be much 
more firm and durable. Monns. 

Rochester, Feb. 21, 1831. 



SELECTIONS. 



A Memoir on the Cultivation of the Vine iu A 

merica, and the best mode of making Wine. Se 

cowl edition. By John Apluw. 

We have perused this work, and we do not 
hesitate to pronounce it a valuable manual for 
those who are wishing to cultivate the Vine. 

For the benefit of our readers, we make the 
following extract from it : 

INSTRUCTIONS TO PLANTERS OF VINEYARDS 
FROM CUTTINGS. 

1st. In making choice of a situation, I would 
recommend it to be as near the top of a hill 
as possible, having a gentle slope ; any soil 
will answer, except a heavy clay ; and any 
exposure from north, south, east, or west, or 
point between those quarters: though from 
the great heat of our sun, and the length of the 
seasons, I am inclined to think a northern expo- 
sure the best for delicate, foreign grapet, — oar 
natives will ripen in any exposure. 

2nd. If the ground has not been prepared, 
by raising a crop of potatoes, or other ame 
liorating crop, and if the land is not natnrally 
rich, in the month of September, or early in 
tfctuber, give it a manuring and plough it deep, 
three, four, or five times, to ameliorate it. 

3>l. Mark out the rows, two at five feel a- 
nart-, and then leave a.n interval of qui? or fpn 



feet ; then again, two rows at five feet, and 
then an interval as above mentioned. By this 
mode of planting, they will have a free circu- 
lation of air, and (hey may be worked wilh 
the plough, taking care not to go too near the 
vines, where they must bo worked with the 
tpade and hoe. 

4th. Stretch in the course a line, and at 
every four feet dig a holo from eighteen in- 
ches to two feet deep, and if the surface 
ground is rich, or has been manured as above 
mentioned, it will answer to fill the holes wilh, 
when plantinjthe cuttings; otherwise, have a 
compost of well rotted dung mixed with virgin 
earth, or earth and ashes. Or make a trench, 
by running the plough a few times, and remove 
the earth, the surface or rich earth on one side 
of the ditch, and that which lies deeper, on 
the other, or opposite side. 

5th. Provide your cuttings, which shonld be 
of shoots that are strong, and well ripened, of 
last year's growth ; the bottom part shonld be 
(Hit off smooth near the joint, and the upper 
:srt should be cut about half an inch above 
iho upper bud or eye, sloping from the opposite 
side of the bud, so that if it should chance to 
bleed, the sap will not run on the bud. The 
cutiiags should be from 16 inches to two feet 
long, and have five or six eyes. 

Oth. Having vour trenches or holes dug, put 
into the bottom a few inches of any rubbish, 
stone, brickbats, oystershells, or any thing else 
that will let down the water, and on that put 
some earth, and plant one cutting in each, four 
feet distance, and fill the hole or trench with 
the surface earth or compost, bending the bot- 
tom of the cutting with your foot, and press 
the earth close lo the cutting, leaving but one 
eye above the surface of the ground : and if it 
should be in the autumn or winter when they 
are planted, cover the upper bud with a small 
hillock, which must be removed in the spring, 
as soon as the buds begin to swell ; and if 
from any cause the upper bud should perish, 
remove the earth to within half an inch of the 
next bud below, when there is but little dan 
ger of its not growing. When you plant 
your cuttings, set a stake to each — a common 
lath will answer for two years. If the wea- 
ther be dry, whan planted, ihey must be wa- 
tered. 

7th. Keep your vineyard clear of weeds, by 
working it occasionally; and snfler but one 
shoot to grow this season, by rubbing off all fl- 
itters wilh the finger and thumb; or if the 
shoots are weak let all grow. 

8lh. In the autumn, raise a little hill of eanh 
about the plant, sometime in the monlh of No- 
vember. And this finishes the first season. 

9th. Second year.— In the spring, say Feb 
runry, March, or April, according to the lati 
tude, after rubbing off tho lower bud, prune 
the vino to throe eyes, if of strong growth, 
and if weak, to two eyes, and after theysheot 
rub oil' the weakest, leaving two shoots on the 
strong shoot, and but one on the weak one. — 
Theie will be frequently two shoots Irom one 
bud; rub off tho lower one of the two as it is 
always the weakest, and keep the vineyard 
clear of weeds as last year, and tie the shoots 
lo a stake as they grow, and they must be sof 
fered to grow ai full length. This ends the se- 
cond setison. 

10th. Any time from November to April.ao- 
cording to the latitude, after rubbing off the 
lower eye, prune each shoot to three eyes or 
buds; and provide good stakes this year, from 
six to seven feet long, and from one inch and a 
half to two inches square, either of oak, cbes- 
nut, cedar or locust, and lie the two shoots one 
on enoh side of the stake, and suffer them to 
srow at full lengih, and rub off all the side 
shoots, and if there should any fruit appear, 
suffer but one cluster of grapes to each shoot 
to ripen, so that the shoots may gather strength 
to produce a fair crop the next year. But there 
may be some of ibe vines so strong on the 
third year, as to prodrrce a fair crop of grapes, 
and as I do not know how to describe it, it 
ifluV tre left Jo Che discretion of the Vt^rrefgn ; 



and more can be explained in a few minutes, 
and shewn in a vineyard, ihan c«n be satisfac- 
torily described on a sheet of paper. Tfti's ends 
the third season. 

11th. This soason coming in, the vines may 
be pruned in the same months, as mentioned 
in the preceding article. But as it is to be a 
fruit bearing year, the pruning must be differ- 
ent. First tie the bottom of the main stem of 
the vine fast to a stake, and culling your shoots 
that are lo bear fruit, so as lo leave from eight 
to sixteen buds, according to the strength of 
the 6hoot,then take one of the shoots and bend 
it in a circular manner, so that it will make near 
a semi-circle, and tie it fast to the south side 
of the stake, and take the other shoot and tie 
it in the same manner, on the opposite side 
of the stake from the first, and the shoots of 
tho two lower buds, one oneachshtot, mum 
not bo suffered to hear any fruit this season ; 
hut must be suffered to grow at full length, and 
tied one on each side of the stake and suffer- 
ed to grow at full lengih, to bear fruit the next 
year. 

12th. When the grapes are about the size 
of peas, cut off the end of the vine at least 
two joints boyond the last cluster of grapes, 
that they may grow to the greater perfection. 
\nd when they become ripe, and are gathered 
and the ground is kept clean of weeds, and 
worked over in autumn. This ends tiie fourth 
season. 

13th. When you ngain prune your vines cut, 
off those that have borne fruit down to 2 eyes, 
having rubbed offlhe lower one, to raise shoots 
to produce fruit the next year, and when tbey 
shoot if the vino is of very vigorous growth, 
another stake may be added, and the whole 
four shoots be suffered to grow at full length 
to hoar fruit tho next year, otherwise the wea- 
kest may bn rubbed off, and the two remain- 
ing trained as above described. 

By planting the rows two at five feet apart, 
and then leaving an interval of 10 feet, there 
will be about 1400 plants to an acre, and each 
plant according to the number of bearing 
shoots and eyes left, will have from 3D to 60 
clusters of grapes. 

By having the land very rich, we may calcu- 
late upon every vine root producing on an av- 
erage, forty clusters of grapes, which, at four 
ounces each, will make ten pounds to each 
plant; and fourteen hundred plants will pro- 
dace fourteen thousand pounds of grapes in 
the clusters on an acre, and each fifteen pounds 
of grapes will produce a gallon of wine, there 
will be at the rate of upwards of nine hundred 
gallons of wine produced from an acre; and 
on the worst years there will be at least four 
hundred gallons produced from each acre* 
when the vines are properly trained and culti- 
vated. 

14th. Some persons may, perhaps, prefer 
training their vines on trellises, and my advi&e 
is, in that case, to hare the rows at least ten 
feet apart, and the vines from five to six feet 
in the rows. The trellises may be made by 
putting stakes, as above mentioned, and tie 
poles to them horizontally, at eighteen inches 
from the ground, and two feet above the first 
pole; and parallel to it tie another pole, and 
at two feet above that, and parallel to the oth- 
ers, tie another, which will make the trellis five 
feet six inches high : and there may be from 
three to five shoots left to each root of the 
vine. 

Note — The vineyard will require to be wor 
ked in tho spring and autumn, with the plough 
or otherwise, also tn the summer, to keep it 
clear of weeds. 

JJ» A few copies of the above work for 
sale at the office of the Genesee Farmer— pvi.c'e 



THE EFFECTS OF IGSOHANCE. 

Of one hundred persons committed fo (Sler- 
kenwell prison, EnglaBd, for assauUg, not one 
could write well enough t'o net is watdsrrjan 
ov.^r the rc"st. 



08 



THE GENESEE FAR3IEK 



March 5, 1831 



THB GENESEE PARMER. 

SATURDAY, MARCH 5, 1831 

CHEESE. MAKING. 

Cheese is a well known article of food, which 
is prepared from the milk of the cow. When 
cheese is well made, it is a healthy article of 
food, and may be considered one of the neces- 
sury luxuries of our tables. On the contrary, 
when the manufacture of it i9 entrusted to un- 
skillful persons, to use the expression of Bloom- 
field, the moad's sweet nectar is converted in- 
to stone. Nothing can be more unhealthy, 
when taken into the stomach, than the hard in- 
digestible cheese, made by some of our dairy- 
women, not to mention the rank, disgusting 
composition of others. 

We;know it is a generally received opinion, 
(hat such dariy-women as make poor cheese 
mnke more butter, or in other words, that they 
destroy the quality of their cheese, by skim- 
ming the milk. Now this may often be the 
case ; yet we know of some women who will 
make better cheese from skimmed milk, than 
others do from new; and the celebrated Par- 
mesan cheese of Europe, is made altogether 
from skimmed milk. 

We have longbeen of the opinion that there 
were no parts or operations, which were 
connected with agriculture, which were more 
neglected, in Old Genesee, than eider ^-cheese 
making. No one can offer a good reason why 
itshouldbe so; for we can boast of some dai 
ry-women, who manufacture the article in 
great perfection, whoso cheese in this market, 
readily commands from seven to eight cents 
per pound, while their neighbor's, who feed 
'.heir cows upon (he same lands, are compell- 
ed to part with the produce of their dairies, 
at from tour to five cents. Now we would 
ask, where is the necessity of this vast differ- 
ence in the price of cheese, produced by ad- 
joining dairies? To say that one dairy was 
larger than the other, would not be a satisfac- 
tory answer ; for we often find small cheese of 
very fine quality. And for a dairy-woman to 
say that she could not learn how fine cheese 
were made, would be either declaring herself 
incompetent to the task, or what is not true; 
for thanks to the Almighty Preserver of our 
liberties, we have not yet thought proper to 
borrow that transatlantic custom, of shrouding 
every usefnl discovery in impenetrable mystery. 
Where among our house-wives is there one, 
who being in possession of the art of making 
the best of cheese, would not be willing to 
communicate it to her neighbors, aye, and feel 
a pride and satisfaction in doing it. But we 
fear that there are more instances where peo- 
ple are .unwilling to inquire than to be inqui- 
red of. Now this may well be 6aid to be that 
kind of pride " which bringoth poverty," and 
" that maketh ashamed," for whoever saw a 
housewife offering a poor cheese in market, 
without being ashamed. 

But we are not prepared to lay all the blame 
upon females. The men are entitled to their 
share. They direct, or ought to do si}, the 
course of education for their daughters, and 
while ihey prefer the sublime accomplishments 
of icaltzing, singing, and painting, to the use- 
ful housewifery, no wonder if a few poor 
cheese are offered, now and then, in our mar- 



ket. We have followed the vices and foiling 
of some of the effeminate nations of Europe, 
long enough ; let us return to the simple, vir- 
tuous industrious habits of our forefathers, not 
neglecting to profit by the experience of othor 
nations ; but let us put away that Jackanapes 
oharacttr of aping the overgrown nobility of 
other tottering governments, whose very exal- 
tation will prove their overthrow. 

They are the last remains of governments 
which were established when personal prow- 
ess was accounted greatness ; the right of e- 
quality not having been acknowledged. We 
live under a different dispensation — the culti- 
vation of the mind now constitutes the man ; 
and equal rights are the foundation of our go- 
vernment. 

Under such circumstances, there is every en- 
couragement for improvement. We have such 
■i diversity of soil and climate, that whatever 
is found useful in practical agriculture, in any 
other country, may be transferred to our own ; 
added to which, we have a population, which, 
from the freedom of their early habits, and the 
reward offered to successful competition, are 
very apt to learn. 

The greatest obstacle to improvements a- 
mong us,, is the want of booke, especially 
those treating upon the more common opera- 
tions of life. As it cannot be expected un- 
der our form of government, that farmers can 
be in possession of large libraries, the cheap- 
est alternative, is to supply the place of books 
by papers devoted to that particular branch we 
are wishing to pursue. The farmer, the me- 
chanic,& even n.en in the self- denominated high- 
erpursuits of life, can all be accommodated, and 
at a cheap rate. As our paper is for the use of 
farmers, we propose, hereafter to take a general 
view of cheese making, in different countries ; 
and shall also recommend to ourdairy-women 
such improvements as we shall think the pre- 
sent state of the business calls for. 



GRAFTING WALNUTS AND CHESNUTS. 

The climate of the Valley of Genesee, is 
found to be very favorable to the growth of 
both walnut and chesnut trees, if we are to 
judge from the growth of thoso found grow- 
ing wild in this region, or from those varieties 
which have been introduced from abroad since 
the settlement of this country; and some of 
the natives of our forests will compare with 
those of the valleys of Ohio or Mississippi, in 
stateliness and size ; thereby giving proof of 
the congeniality of our climate and soil to their 
habits. 

Most people of observation, who have trav- 
elled through tho different 6tates, hava noticed 
the vast difference whieli exists in the quality 
of the common walnuts, in size and flavor. — 
Commencing with the eastern atbntic states, 
and travelling west, it will be found that the 
walnut increases in size, but diminishes in fla- 
vor ; the shell becomes thicker, and the ker- 
nels are not as plump. The walnuts which 
are gathered in the northern part of Ohio, and 
brought down the canal, to this market, arc 
nearly doublo the size of thoso brought from 
Connecticut, and yo) the latter command about 
double the price of the former. Those gath- 
ered upon the Mohawk (river are much finer 
than tho«c gathered in tho valley of the Gene- 
sec, although tho climato here is more mild 



than upon the Mohawk. Those gathered in 
the northern part of Ohio, are not so good as 
either, although the climate is allowed to soft- 
en as we progress west in the same latitude 
The difference in tke quality of walnuts, 
therefore, cannot be owing to any thing unfa 
vorable in the climate, but to the variety of the 
trees which produce tne fruit. The walnut 
takes readily by grafting or by budding, and 
any fine varieties growing in the eastern states, 
may be introduced and continued in this man- 
ner. 

As the walnut tree lives to a great age, and 
is not very subject to have the fruit destroyed 
by insects, we know of no reason why the 
cultivation of choice kinds of walnuts would 
not be profitable in this section of country. — 
We will suppose that one hundred walnut 
trees would be sufficient for an acre of ground: 
this number would not prevent the ground from 
being cropped, as in apple orchards. We wil! 
suppose that these trees.for the first fifty years, 
would average half a bushel each, or fifty bush 
els per acre. The average price for eastern 
walnuts, has been for the last five years, about 
one dollar and fifty cents per bushel. This 
would bring the produce of one acre at $75 
allowing the use of the land for gathering, 
paying taxes, fencing, &c. Land well calcu 
lated for walnut orchards, might be purchased 
for twenty-five dollars per acre ; the trees wc 
will allow to cost twenty-five dollars ; and the 
setting- out, staking, &c. twenty-five more, 
amounting to $75. 

Vet wo know of land that might be purcha 
sed for twelve dollars, which has more than thr 
requisite number or young walnut trees grow- 
ing upon each acre, which would only require 
to be grafted, or budded, and the orchard 
would be formed ; and in five years, the pro- 
duce would be quite considerable, as the ope- 
rator might select such sized tree9 as would 
suit his convenience. 

The cultivation of the chesnut, wc think 
would be equally as profitable as the walnut. 
Although the common chesnut of the northern 
states, is a valuable timber tree, yet we arc 
not aware that any attempts upon a large scale 
have been made in cultivating the tree for fruit, 
otherwise than with llie common kind. In 
Europe, they have a kind whioh they cftll the 
Spanish chesnut, the fruit of which is four 
times the size of our common chesnut of the 
country. Tho tree is equally as valuable as 
ours for timber, and is one of the loftiest trees 
of Europe. It attains to a great size, as the far 
famed tree upon mount Etna, is one of this 
kind, which is said by travellers, to be one 

hundred and four feet in circumference 

This kind takes well upon our common tree, 
as does also the Chinquepin of the Southern 
Slates, which is rather a shrub than a tree ; 
yet tho fruit of it is highly esteemed. 

The fruit of the large Spanish chesnut, or 
as it is sometimes called, the Italian, is in 
high repute in Trance, as stuffing for tur- 
kius. The fruit is first boiled, the shells ta- 
ken off, and the farinaceous part mashed will, 
cream, when it is certainly oho of the best 
compositions, for that purpose. Wc think 
that the introduction of this kind of chosnut. 
into our fields, would be a source of profit IG 
the farmer, and gratification to the Horticult" • 
ri at. 



Vol. 1.— No. 9. 



AND GARDENER'S JOURNAL. 



69 



KEEPINGS APPl/ES. 

The subject of keeping apples, and other 
kinds of fruit for winter use, as well as culina- 
ry vegetables, is a matter of considerable con 
sequence. With regard to the management 
of apples, there has been, and is still, one o- 
pinion entertained by nuny, which we con- 
sider very absurd ; that is, putting apples in a 
large heap, " to sweat," as it is commonly cal 
led. By this, many suppose that a greater 
quantity of moisture is dissipated from the 
apples, than I here would be if they were spread 
thin on'the floor ; but the contrary is the truth. 
We do not know the necessity of drying ap- 
ples before they are packed away ; but this 
we do know, that when large quantities of ap- 
ples are put in a heap, or binn, and suffered to 
remain for any length of time, unless the tem- 
perature is very low, the skin of the apples is 
affected, and the rotting very much facilitated, 
and the apples imbibe a disagreeable flavor, 
which can never be got rid of. 

We do not know of any fruit that we think 
would pay better for careful attention than ap- 
ples. They are commonly sold in this mar- 
ket, iu the fall, at from twenty-five to thirty 
one cents per bushel ; and in June, from 
seventy-five cents to two dollars par bushel, 
and even scarce at that. 

Many of those sold and used in the fall and 
early in the winter, are kinds which might be 
kept until June, with proper attention, and 
other kinds might be brought to market at that 
season. 

Now let us make a little calculation in this 
matter. A load of russets, of thirty bushels, 
are sold in the fall at thirty-one cents per bush- 
el, amounting to nine dollars and thirty cents ; 
now the same quantity of apples, brought to 
market in June, would fetch at least one doU 
\ar and fifty cents per bushel, which would a- 
inount to forty-five dollars ; or thirty-five dol- 
lars and seventy cents for keeping a load of 
apples through the winter. Now we will sup- 
pose that two bushels of the thirty rotted, 
which we think would be equal to the actual 
loss, when well taken care of; then we have 
thirty-two dollars and seventy cents for win- 
tering a load of apples, which only requirp 
the care of letting them alone — a monstrous 
task. 

Now to keep apples through the winter in 
the most approved method, the farmer should 
provide during the dry weather, in the fall, a 
quantity of pit or beach sand, which he should 
spread upon boards in the sun, until perfectly 
dry, when it may be put away for use. When 
his apples are in condition for gathering, let 
them be hand-picked, and carried to the cham- 
ber, or they may he taken at once to the cel- 
lar. A binn should be prepared with a light 
floor, a little above thp cellar bottom, in which 
let there be laid sufficient dry sand to cover it 
then set in a layer of apples, at such distances 
as not to let them come in contact with each 
other, and then a layer of dry sand ; and so 
on, alternately, until you have packed away 

all the apples which you intend to preserve. 

The cellaT-should be kept just warm enough 
to prevent freezing; as the colder the better, 
provided it does not freeze. 

Apples kept in this way are not apt to rou, 
•hey preserve their flavor better, .•than when 



kept by any other method ; and as long as mo- 
ney making is an object with the farmer, we 
should think this course would not be neglect- 
ed. 

The common culinary vegetables, used in a 
family, are enough better, when preserved by 
the same method, to give ample satisfaction 
for the cost, to overy person who has any 
choice between a superior and an indifferent ar- 
ticle upon his table. 



LAMPAS OF HORSES. 

As the season of the year is now approach- 
ing, when some people commenoe one of the 
most cruel and barbarous practices, ever retain- 
ed by any people, pretending to be civilized — 
viz. that of burning out the lampas from the 
mouths of young horses, we cannot refrain 
from making a few remarks upon that subject. 

We are sensible, that some of our most en- 
lightened readers, will say, that this article 
should appear under the head of Vulgar Er- 
rors ; but yet we have what we consider a rea- 
sonable excuse for not putting it there. Most 
of the articles •which have been placed under 
that head, in our paper, are rather innocent 
delusions, than partaking of the barbarous ; 
rather superstitious rites and ceremonies, ap- 
pertaining to property, than any retained usa- 
ges of the dark ages of barbarity. At what 
time or with what people this practice origina- 
ted, we will not pretend to say; but there is 
one nation, who should either discontinue the 
practice, or else say less of the general diffu 
sion of useful information ; tltat is America. 

The idea that the enlargement of that part 
of the roof of a horse's mouth, is a disease, 
has long been exploded by all veterinary sur- 
geons. All horses are subject to it, between 
the ages of three and five, more or less ; and 
in many cases, this soft spongy enlargement, 
descends to a level with the fore teeth, yet up- 
on examining it, there will not be found any 
marks of tenderness or inflammation indicating 
disease; and if left to the operations of na 
ture, will disappear, and the horse will have a 
sound and healthy mouth ; not to speak of the 
danger of bleeding the horse too freely, by o- 
pening the palatine artery ; the manner of per- 
forming the operation, is shocking to the feel- 
ings of humanity, as well as painful to the ani- 
mal. It is uncalled for, and must be consider- 
ed a piece of wanton cruelty. 

SUGAR KETTLE. 

There has lately been introduced from Ohio, 
and are for sale at some of our hard-ware 
stores, kettles expressly designed for boiling 
sugar, but will answer,^ the same time, any 
purpose the common cauldron is used for. 

They are aboui the same diameter as a caul- 
dron, with a flat bottom, and hold about half 
or two thirds as much. Its advantages con. 
sist in its power of evaporation, by exposing a 
greater surface of sap to the air, in proportion 
.to its contents, and requires mnch less fuel; 
and we are convinced of its utility, in any pro- 
cess where evaporation is concerned. 

From their peculiar shape, they can be se l 
with very little preparation for an arch ; three 
or four stones being all that is wanted in the 
woods where sugar is generally made. 

They are of different sizes, and are sold at 
from 5 to $10 each. 



WHITE BEET, OR SWISS CHARD. 

As there has been much said respecting this 
plant, ihe year past, we trust that a desenjv 
lion of it will be acceptable to many of our 
readers. **.*.-. 

The seeds of this plant have been dietribu- 
ted under several different names, as the great 
white beet, the Sinclair beet, the sileer stalked, 
and the Swiss chard. It is a biennial plant, the 
leaf-stalks of which are very large, and of a 
silvery whiteness, and are the most valuable 
part of the plant; the leaves are thick and suc- 
culent, and are also boiled as spinnage. The 
ools of this plant are of but little worth, not 
being larger than a man's thumb. It has been 
cultivated in gardens on the continent, since 
the sixteenth century. It is found growing 
wild on the sea coast of spain. It is equal- 
ly as hardy as other kinds of beets, and is sow- 
ed early. The stalks will be fit for U6e in Au- 
gust, and should be boiled and dressed as As- 
paragus. 

As there lias been considerable demand for 
the seed of this kind of beet, for one or two 
years past, it has been difficult to procure it 
free from admixture with the seed of other va- 
rieties ; it may be well, therefore, for those 
who intend raising, to plant thick, and allow 
the plants to remain until they are about four 
or five inches high, when they' may be thinned, 
as at this time the genuine ones may be distin- 
guished by the white stalks and veins of the 
leaves. Oihers should he rejected. 

Having raised this plant, we can recommend 
it to others as worth cultivating. 



fC The communication on the early settle- 
ment of the Genesee Country, came to us, 
signed " Old Genesee." We requested the 
writer to put his proper name to it, but lie oh. 
jected, because it was unfashionable. 

We are of the opinion, that it would contri- 
bute to the improvement of our Essays and 
communications, were the writers thereof, to 
get into the habit of signing them with their 
proper signatures ; and we fully concur with 
the writer of the following suggestion, in this 
respect ; and for this reason, we have taken 
the liberty to put Mr. Hawley's name to his 
communication, and give him the credit which 
is so justly due him. The following is from a 
correspondent in Michigan : 

" I would suggest the idea for consideration, 
in relation to the Genesee Farmer, — whether it 
would not be well, in such a paper, to have all 
the writers for it, annex their proper names to 
their contributions. Every article, in a work 
of that nature, rests entirely, or nearly so, up- 
on the authority of the writers. It is not to 
be expected that the editors can be vouchers 
for every article. Such an observation in the 
paper, followed by a few examples, would 
probably produce the effect." 

As the season is advancing, we would ask 
the farmers of Old Genesee, if they have all 
things in readiness for sugar making; remem- 
ber the earlier in the season the sugar is made, 
the whiter it will be. 
Trees should be tapt on the south side first 
after the season advances, on the east and 
west sides , and lastly, on the north. When 
the weather has become warm, rinse out your 
buckets with lime water, now and then ; thi? 



TO 



THE GENESEE PAR3IER 



March 5, 1831 



will prevent the sap from souring, and also be 
useful in cleansing the syrup, by neutralizing 
the galic acid contained in the sap. 

GENERAL I<AWS OF VEGETATION. 

M. M. Gay Lussac andThenard have dedu- 
ced three propositions which they have called 
Jaws, from their experiments on vegetable sub- 
stances. 

1st. That a vegetable substance is always 
acid, whenever the oxygen it contains is to the 
hydrogen in a greater proportion than in wa- 
ter. 

2d. That a vegetable substance is always re- 
sinous, or oily, or spiritous, whenever its oxy- 
gen is in a smaller proportion to the hydrogen, 
than exists in water. 

3d. That a vegetable substance is neither a- 

oid or resinous, but is either saccharine or muci- 
laginous, or analagous to woody fibre or starch, 
whenever the oxygen and hydrogen in it are in 
the same proportions as water. 



THE WINTER. 

The month of December was very uniform- 
iy cold, with little snow, and no sleighing, 
which rendered it unfavorable for business. — 
Travelling was for the most part very bad. 

January was also distinguished for the gen- 
eral severity of the cold, during the entire 
month. The mean temperature, for every 
flay was 21° above zero, and the extreme cold 
on one day, (21st) at sunrise, 2° below Zero. 
From the 19th of this month to the present date 
42 days inclusive, the sleighing has been unin- 
terruptedly good; the wastes have been re- 
newed by frequent light falls of snow, which 
with two exceptions, have not encumbered the 
travelling, even for a short period. 

On the 1st day of February, snow fell to the 
depth of 12 inches, and on the 3d to 6 inches, 
both from the east and south east. On the 22d 
and 23d, snow fell to the depth of 12 inches, 
also from the south-east and east. The snows 
have not been drift ed here as elsewhere, and 
we have heard of no interruption in the travel- 
ling generally. 

The mean daily temperature of Feb. was 
23 9-10° above Zero, and the extreme cold at 
sunrise on the 7th, was 4° below Zero. This 
at sunrise, was undoubtedly the coldest regis- 
ter in this plice* for the season. 

To-day persons from the country complain 
of poor sleighing for the first time since the 
19th January, on the account of there not be- 
ing sufficient depth of snow. 

For the transaction of business generally, 
tfiis has undoubtedly been one of our moat fa- 
vorablo winters, and the snowy mantle that 
during the coldest season has enwrapped the 
earth must have preserved from blight, all that 
in autumn was entrusted to her bosom, and 
with it, the fondest hopes of the agriculturist. 
«— -— * » # 

IT Several communications are in type, 
which have been necessarily omitted— they 
will appear in the next number. 



Who is the best Politician ? Not he who 
ridca the fence till he sees which side is the 
strongest, or who intrigues with the ignorant, 
the vicious and the profligate, to get himself 
into office. But ho who reads candidly, im- 
parts the information he has acquired hoiicSty, 
and isfaifnful in all situations. 



From the Philadelphia Price Current. 
Inspections of wheat and ryo flour, and corn 
meal, in the principal ports of the V ■ S for the 
year 1830, including the preceding nine years . 



Albany 
New York 
Philadelphia 
Baltimore 
Georget'n DC. 
Alexandria do. 
Frederics'g Va 
Falmouth Va. 
Richmond Va. 
Petersburg 
N.Orl'nsyear ) 
end'gSep30 j 

Total— 1330 
1829 
1828 
1827 
1826 
1825 
1824 
1823 
1822 



Wheat 
Flour. 



Barrels, 

42,215 

827,370 

473.876 

597,804 

139,713 

187,432 

79,336 

46,406 

251,024 

72,000 

133,700 



Rye 

Flour. 

Br'U. 

15,191 

21,712 

4,436 

12 



Corn Meal. 



2,851,876 
2,225,132 
2,245,257 
2,061,459 
2,031,558 
1,882,611 
1,714,410 
1,557,724 
1,599,973 



41,351 
77,945 
55,239 
34,487 
27,282 
57,419 
68,380 
76 620 
59,363 



Hhds. 

10,316 

7,498 
558 



1821 1 1,707,350143,976 



18,372 
17,891 
19,178 
16.869 
18,619 
14,781 
17,192 
14,705 
15,157 
17,449 



Brls. 

9,663 
19,949 
5,458 



35,070 
51,666 
8,958 
51,192 
36,979 
51,297 
7o,415 
36 863 
32,274 
40,693 



Quantities of flour and grain exported from 
the United States, from October 1 1821, to 
September 30, 1830 i 

Wheat Rye Corn 
Flour. Flour. Meal 



1830 
1829 
1828 
1827 
1826 
1825 
1824 
1828 
1822 
1821 



Barrels. 

1,225,881 
837,385 
860,809 
865,491 
857,820 
813,906 
996,792 
756,702 
827,865 

1,056,119 



Brls 
26,298 
34,191 
22 214 
13^45 
14,472 
29,545 
,31,879 
25,666 
19,971 
23,523 



Barrels 
145,301 
173,776 
174,639 
131,041 
158,625 
187,285 
162,723 
141,50] 
148,288 
131,669 



Wheat 



Bush 

45,289 

4,007 

8,906 

22,182 

45,166 

17,960 

20,373 

4,272 

4,418 

25,812! 



Corn. 



Bush 
444,107 
897.656 
704,902 
978,664 
505,381 
869,644 
779,297 
749,034 
509,098 
607,277 



HYDROPHOBIA. 

The following remedy has been used 
by Lord Hossmore, in his kennel, for 
some years, and by gentlemen and sports- 
men of his lordship's acquaintance, in 
the King's county in Ireland. One re- 
ference will be sufficient for the present. 
A hound, having all the appearances of 
madness, bit several hounds in the pack 
of a Mr. Freeman ; he was killed ; the 
medicine was immediately applied to all 
the rest, bit and not bit, save one, on 
which the experiment was not tried ; he 
died raving mad ; none of the rest show 
ed any appearance of infection. The 
sooner it can be applied the better. Af- 
ter the lapse of 12 or 24 hours, the reme- 
dy might succoed in a case or two, but 
would fail in others. No kennel should 
be without this roedicir.e. Any chymist 
can determine how long it will keep. — 
Six ounees filings of pewter, six ounces 
rue, four ounces garlic, four ounces of 
mitliridate or Venice treacle ; cut the rue 
and garlic small, mix them with three 
quarts of strong beer, or white wine, in 
a vessel that can be slopped close, put it 
into a pwt of water, with b*y tied about it 
lo prevent it from being brokeji against 
the sides oi" the pot when the water is 
bailing) let it sijnmtj over a slow fire 



three or four hours, thet, squeeze the li- 
quor from the herbs, and bottle it for use 
and seal the cork. How to apply it: — 
for a dog, one table spoonful the first day, 
'.wo the second, three the third, four the 
fourth, and five the fifth ; continue to 
give five for four mornings more: nine 
mornings in all. The same quantity to 
a man or woman, making allowances for 
robus; or less vigorous frames : to a child 
half the quantity. If a poultice can be 
applied to the wound, let it be of the 
squeezed herbs hot. 

CULTIVATION OF THE TEA PLAST AT THE 
CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 

The colonists at the Cape have beer, 
for some time speculating on the cultiva- 
tion of the tea plant. The South Afri- 
can Advertiser states, that IVr. Rhenius, 
one of the governors of the Cape, raised- 
tea sufficient for his own consumption. 
It states that the tea plant is hardy and 
vigorous, and will grow any where, from 
the Equator to the 45th degree of lati- 
tude, but the best tea is produced between 
25 and 32 degrees of latitude. It is sup- 
posed, if Chinese acquainted with the 
cultivation could be induced to come to 
the Cape, even for a time, that under their 
instruction it might be brought to perfec- 
tion; but the great difficulty appears to 
be, how to induce such Chinese to come 
among them ; for which they seem to 
build their hope on the effect of opening 
the trade between England and China, 
which they suppose will cause a much 
greater number of Chineso than hereto- 
fore to visit England and the colonies i'r. 
the line of voyage. 

WOOL. 

There has been a good demand for the 
various kind- ; Fleeces are very scarce 
and may be considered a shade higher. 
A sale of about 20,000 lbs. Saxony Woo* 
of various casts, imported in the ship 
Courier, from Londm, has recently been 
made at 91c. per lb ; 54 bags Wool from 
one of the Western States, were sold 
here at auction on the 17th, at the fol- 
lowing prices — unwashed full blood and 
high grade fleeces, 85c. 6 mos. ; pulled 
Lntnb'a, rather ordinary, 49c. 6 mos. : 
1100 lbs. superfine, pulled in this city, 
46c. cosh ; a few other inconsiderable 
lots, were sold at varieus prices. — [Bost. 
Cour. 

RAW SILK. 

The following fads from the work of K 
Randall, esq., in the library of cougreis, being 
a view of the silk trade, and the measures oi 
the British government relative thereto, will 
shew Iho immense value of this article of com- 
merce. 

During the term of seven years, from 1521 
to 1823, there were imported into Great Bri- 
tain. '24,157,516 pounds of raw silk, which, at 
$5 the pound, cost gl 20,787, 5S0- It also 
appears from the same work, that daring the 
like number of years, there was imported ot' 
llus article bojn lt£Ty afom;,, to flip value of 
$59,88l,«fc. 



Vol. 1.— No. 0. 



AND GARDENER'S JOURNAL. 



71 



NEWS OP THE WEEK. 



William H. Stanley, Esq. was, od Monday 
last, elected Cashier of the Livingston couniy 
Bank. 

The following is from the Long Island Pa- 
triot of Wednesday morning: — We have just 
been informed, that late yesterday afternoon, 
a man of genteel appearance, but limited 
means, went into a victualling house in New 
Vork, and obtained 6 cents worth of some 
(bingtoeat. After eating it, he told the land- 
lord that he had no money, and could not pay 
for it. The landlord was abusive, and when 
the stranger left the house, he was followed a 
short distance from the door, by the landlord, 
who struck him violently on the temple, and 
killed him instantly. 

Lorenzo Hoyt, Esq of Albany, has been 
appointed by the Governor of Pennsylvania, a 
commissioner to take acknowledgments within 
N"ew York Stale of all instruments in writing, 
under seal, to be used m the state of Pennsyl 
vania, and to take affidavits and examine wit- 
nesses under commissions issuing from any ol 
the courts of this state. 

We are informed, says the New York Daily 
Advertiser, on wbal we are assured is very 
<>-ooil authority, that Senor Don C. Ibarra has 
been appointed Minister Plenipotentiary to 
the United States, by the Mexioao Govern- 
ment, and that the Senate have approved the 
nomination, so that he was to sail by the first 
packet. 

Sylvester, at New York — who contends 
that he sells as large a share of prizes as Jo« 
Strickland — has received from St. Johnsville, 
through the post office, a five dollar U. S. 
Bank bill, without any envelope, which by 
this means, saved him half postage on a double 
letter. 

The city council of Savannah, on the 10th 
lit. passed a law imposing a tax of one hun- 
dred dnllars upon every free person of color 
coming to that city, after that date. 

The Boston Transcript says—" There is in 
press, in this city, Letters on the Authership 
of Junius, addressed to John Pickering, Esq. 
showing, by the most satisfactory evidence, 
that the author of that work could be no otl'.or 
lhan Earl Temple, hrother-in law of Lord 
Chatham, and elder brother of Jlfr. George 
Greenville, the author of the American Stamp 
Act. By Isaac Newhall, cf Salem." 

SUBPLUS REVENUE. 

Mr. Selden, the chairman of the Commit- 
tee of Ways and Jl/eane, in the House of As>> 
sembly, has recommonded the passage of a re- 
solution urging upon Congress the distribution 
of the Surplus Revenues, annually, among the 
different States according to their population ; 
and directing the Governor to transmit a copy 
of the resolution to the executives of the dif- 
ferent States, and to the President of the Uni- 
ted States. 

COUNTERFEITS. 

A large quantity of counterfeit bills, princi- 
pally $5 bills of the bank of Troy, was found, 
on Wednesday, in the store of Charles English, 
a grocer in Fullon-st. New York. English 
was held to bail. 

CONSCIENCE. 

* The Adjutant General of this Btate in the 
last Argus, acknowledges the receipt of fifty', 
one dollars, from some unknown person, en- 
closed in a note containing the following words: 
'■'■ Due for Military fines evaded by illegal ex- 
ruses." 

That portion ot Poland which has been in 
corporated with Russia, comprehends Lithua- 
nia, Samogitia, White Russia, Voltrynia, Po 
dolia, and the Polish Ukraine. It contains a 
surface of 7,fi00 square miles, (Polish measure) I 
and a population of 8,S0jO,QiaU souls. 



UNITED STATES AND ENGLAND. 

The Boundary Question — By the following 
paragraph it will be seen that the King of (he 
Netherlands has decided the boundary question 
referred to his arbitrament by the governments 
of the United States and England nothing has 
transpired by which we can even guess in 
weose favor tit' decision has been made. 

Hague, Jan, 10. — " Tbeir Excellencies 
Sir Charles Bagot, Ambassador Extraordinary 
and Minister Plenipotentiary of His Britannic 
Majesty, and Mr. Preble, Ambassador Ex 
traordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary from 
the United States of North America, have this 
morning received from the hands of his Ma 
jesly, the Act which declares the decision giv 
en by his Majesty, as umpire, in differences 
between Great Britain and the United States, 
respecting the determination of the frontiers 
of their respective territories " 

The net proceeds of the fireman's ball, given 
at the Bowery theatre, for the benefit of the 
fire department fund, were eight hundred and 
twenty-four dollars and fifteen cents. 

APPOINTMENTS. 

Cattaraugus. — Andrew Mead, judge of coun- 
ty courts in the place of James Parmele, whose 
term of office expiros on the 21st March 

Monroe.- Samuel L. Selden, first judge — 
Manley G. Woodbury, inspector of beef and 
pork, in the place of Daniel D. Hatch. Rufus 
Meech, inspector of pot and pearl ashes. Ozias 
S Church, inspector of lumber, in the place of 
Lester Beards'ey. 

Chautauque. — Thomas B. Campbell, judge 
of county courts. 

APPOINTMENTS BY THE PRESIDENT. 

Abraham Edwards, to be register of the 
land office for ihe district of lands subject lo 
sale at Monroe, in the territory of Michigan, 
from the third day of March 1831, when the 
commission of Robert Clarke will expire. 

James G. Reed, to be receiver of public 
moneys for the distiict of lands subject to sale 
at Joffersonville, in the state o! Indiana, vice 
Wiriiun H. Hurst, removed. 

John Coffee, of Alabama, to be surveyor of 
public lands in Alabama, to take effect after 
the expiration of his present commission. 

Gideon Eilz, to be surveyor of public lands 
south of Tennessee, vice Joseph Dunbar, re- 
signed. 

FOTATO-OBTIOIVS. 
SOME of these onton? have Leen left with the Pub- 
lisher of the Farmer, for sale, by Mr. Barker. (See Far- 
mer no 7, page 51, for directions for cultivating them.) 



GARDEN SEEDS. 

THE subscribers are now ready to receive the spring 
orders of their customers, having received by the Sove- 
reign, from London, and by urrivals from France and 
Holland, a choice assortment of Garden, Field & Flow- 
er seeds — among which, are many fine sorts of eorly 
Cabbage ; early and late Cauliflower ; purple Cape Cro 
cole ; early scarlet Radish ; Mangel Wurzell : Sir John 
Sinclair's uew Sliver fleets, (a very luxuriant and valu- 
able vegetables; Bishop's early Dltarf Prolific Peas, 
75 cents per quart. These peas need no recommoyda- 
tion *, many who had them last season attest to their su- 
perior quality— they were introduced by u Scotch Gar- 
deuer, named Rishop, 1827, in London, and so great 
was their reputation, that they scld for ode guinea per 
pint ; they ore remarkably early, very productive, and 
grow only twelve inches high — should be planted three 
inches apart, as they spread lihe a fan ; they commence 
blooming when only three in lies high. 

Also, a few pounds superior white Mulberry Seed, 
growth 1830,prire 51) cents per oz. or 6'dolls per pound; 
Perennial Rye Gross ; Orchard Grass ; line early Pota- 
toes ; English Windsor Bcaus ; Green Nonpareil Beans, 
&c. ifc. 

Bird Seed of every sort; fresh Embdon Grotts ; Oat 
Meal ; Barley Meal; Rice Flour ; Shaker's Parched 
Corn -, Medicinal Herbs ; BarUs and Roots in great va- 
riety. 

Also. 40 bushels fine white Mustard Seed, received by 
the Columbia and Hadsou, late London arrivals ; this 
Seed was selected expressly for Medicine — is quite free 
of dust and impurity 

Geutlemen supplied with Gardoners.by the dav.month 
or year. R. THORBURN & SONS. 

Be*. CO— G F G w GJ Liberty street, New York. 



ROCHESTER PRICES CURRENT. 

March 4, 1831. 



Ashes per 2240 lbs 

Pot $91a92 50 

Pearl 100al02 50 

Apples per bushel 31a50 

Do dried 75 

Bristles, coinb'd per lb 20a31 

Beeswax do 18a20 

Butter do K'i/12 

Beef— Mess per bbl $8a9 

Do prime do 5c7 

Do fresh per lb OSaOJ 

Barley per bushel 38n44 

Beans do 50a62 

Candles, mould per lb 9 cts 

Do dipped do 8 »' 

Do sperm do 28 " 

Corn per bushel 50&56 

Cheese per lb 04a05 

Clover Seed per bush $4 50 

Flour per bbl 5 50 

Flax per lb 07a08 

Flax Seed per bush 78a87 

Feathersper lb 31a37 

Furs— Otter 100a400 

Fox, red 50a75 



Mink 12(431 

Raccoon 18a31 

Martin 25a62 

Fisher 37a50 

Wildcat 1MT5 

Gray Fox ]So25 

Grass Seed per bush 62 

Hops per lb J2al5 

Honey do 09 

Lard do 08a07 

Mutton do 02fll)3 

Mustard Seed per bush ?3 

Oats per bush 25a31 

Old Pewter, Brass and 

Copper per lb 14 

Peaches, dry'd bush I00o2ti0 
Pork, mess per bbl $12aK: 



Fox, cross 



Do prin 
Do frcs 



me 

U per lb 
Quills per 100 
Rye per bush 
Rugs per lb 
Salt per bbl 
Tallow per lb 
Wheat per bush 



8a9 
03a04 
25e30 
50o5C 
03o04 
$1 75 
0f,o07 
109«I15 



100a200|Buckwheat flour, cwt. $1 



METEOROLOGICAL. TABLE, 

for the week ending Fcb.ZG, 1831. 



Ther Baromet'r I 



a o 
Ol Si 



26 



-I- 
22! 12 
22^31 
42,29 
30 24 
28 '12 
26 1 15 
28 !3! 



29,05 
!9,88 



29,93!» 
29,60* sw 
29,60'29.25|» 
29,10 29,35 e 
29,00 , 29,60U 
29,66!29,6B|k> 
29,80129,77 



\v. 


nds 


Wc 


ather 


a 



B 


a 
> 

n w 




>> 
u 

r 


>, 


- -=j 
3 S 


ir 
J 


s 

s e 

w 

w 

w 

w 


1 

1 
1 


i 
i 







Obsrcrva'ns 



4 in's snow 
3 in's sdqav 



Ts The Barotnttrical and Thermometrical observa- 
tions are registeredat 10 o'clock A. M. end P. M., which 
by along series of experiments made for the purpose, 
slioio that time to give a nearer mean average of the 
relative heat of a day than any other time. 



BANK NOTE TABLE. 

Corrected Weekly for the Rochester Daily Advertlsxx> 

NEW-YORK. 
AH banks in tbis state, par. 



except the following 
BrokcnBanks. Washing 
too &■ Warren, Barker's Ex 
change, Franklin Bank, Mid- 
dle Dlst., Columbia, Greene 
Couuty, Marble Manuf. Co., 
Plattsburgh, and Niagara. 
MASSACHUSETTS. 
Al banks in this state, par-, 
except the following 
Broken Banks. Farmers' 
b'uk of Belchertown, Sutton, 
lierksbie, Essex and Brigh- 
ton banks. 

VERMONT. 
All banks in this state, par. 

KHODE-ISLAND 

All banks in this state, par, 

except the following 

Broken Banks Farmers 

Exchange, and Farmers' & 

Mechanics' banks. 

CONNECTICUT. 
All banks jn this state, par, 
except the following 
Broken Banks. Eagle, 
Eagle pay'ble at Union bank 
New-Tiork, Derby, und Der- 
by payable at Fulton bank 
New-York. 

ISEW- HAMPSHIRE. 
All banks iu this state, par- 

MAINE. 

All banks in this state, par. 

except the following 

Broken Banks. Castine, 

Wiscusset, Hallowell & Au- 



samaqnoddy banks. 

NEW-JERSEY. 
State b'nk, &, Trenton Bank- 
ing Company, par. 
Ali other banks, 2 per cent, 
except the following 
Broken Banks. Salem & 
Phil. Manuf Co.. Monmouth, 
Hoboken and Grazing Co., 
N.Jersey Manuf & Banking 
Co. at Uoboken, Stale Bank 
at Trenton, Proteelion and 
Lombard, and Jersey City. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 
Philadelphia Banks, par. 
All other banks, % per cent, 
except the following 
Broken Bunks. Farmers' 
AMechunius' alN.Sa., Cen- 
tre, Huntington, Meadville, 
Marietta, Juniata, Greencas- 
tie, Bedford : Beaver, Wash- 
ington, Unioutown,Agricul- 
tural.Sil Lftke, Westmore- 
land at Greenburgh. New- 
Hope Bridge Co new cm if « 
sion.and Brownvile banks. 

OHIO. 
Ali banks, 4 to 6 per cent*, 

MICHIGAN. 

All banks, 2per cejit, 

except the following 

Broken Banks. Monroe, 

and Detroit. 

CANADA. 
All banks, 2 fa 3 per cent. 
except tba 
Upper Cana. at Kingston, 
and Unchartered banks. 



guita, Kennebec, and Pas 

ZF The above table when speaking of foreigaBills, re- 
fers to those of $5, and over, as none of a less denomin- 
ation are receivable. 



HOPE. 
Hope ! ah, 'tis but the silver spray, 

That dances on the wave ; 
The mountain mist that floats away; 
A rainbow smile — a meteor ray-- 

Its only home — the grave! 



On Tuesday last, the president submitted to 
congress, by message, what should be done with 
the four Arabian horses brought from Constan- 
tinople by Mr. Rhind. The subject wae refer- 
red to the committee on foreign relations. 



12 



THE GENESEE FARMER. 



March 5, 1831.- 



ieiSCEZ,tANEOUS. 



"KNOWLEDGE FOR THE PEOPLE. 
Or the plain Why and Because," 

Is the title of a book, which we learn from 
the Atbeneum has been recently published.and 
concerning which it thus speaks : — Chr. Reg. 

This is the first portion of an attempt to 
simplify science, or rather to trace effects, 
which we witness every hour, to scientific prin- 
ciples ; or. in common parlance, the plain 
Why and Because, and reduce it to plain and 
popular terms. 

The present part is devoted to Domestic 
Science, or the phenomena that occur in parlor, 
kitchen, chamber and hall. Each question be- 
gins Why — and the answer Because, and of 
these are" upwards of 400. We quote a few 
specimens : — 

Fires — Why does water thrown on a brisk and 
Naming fire apparently increase tho combus- 
tion ? 

Becau68 s the water is converted into steam, 
which, expanding and mixing with the flame, 
causes it to spread out into a much larger vol- 
ume than it otherwise would have occupied. 

Why does sunshine extinguish a fire ? 

Because the rays engage the oxygen, which 
had hitherto supported the fire. 

Why does a fire burn briskly and clearly in 
cold weather ? 

Because the air being more dense, affords 
more nourishment to the fire. 

Effects of Heat. — Why do we stick a pin in a 
rush light to extinguish it ? 

Because the pin conducts away so much hoat 
that the tallow will not melt or rise in the wick- 
Why does the heater of a tea urn soon change 
when placed near the water ? 

Because it parts with its heat to the water, 
until both are of the same temperature. 

Why is a harp or piano forte, which is well 
tuned in a morning drawing room, not perfect- 
ly in tune when a crowded evening party lias 
heated the room ? 

Because the expansion of the strings is grea- 
ter than of the wooden frame work; and in 
cold the reverse will happen. 

Why dues a gate in an iron railing ehut 
loosely and easily in a cold day, and stick in a 
warm one ? 

Because in tho latter there is a greater ex- 
pansion in the gate and railing than of the 
earth on which they ate placed 

Why are thin glass tumblers less liable to 
be broken by boiling water than thick ones? 

Because the heat pervades the thin vessels 
almost instantly and with impunity, whereas 
thicker ones do not allow a ready passage of 
heat. 

Why does straw or flannel prevent the freez- 
ing of water in pipes during winter ? 

Because it is a slow conducting screen or 
covering, and thus prevents heat passing out of 
the pipe. By the same means the heat is re- 
tained in steam pipes. 

Evaporation — Why is profuse perspiration 
so cooling to laboring men, ana all evaporation 
productive of cold .' 

Because of the necessity of a large quantity 
of caloric being combined with fluids to con- 
vert them into vapor or gas. 

Why do persons take cold by sitting in wet 
clothes ? 

Because they suddenly lose a large portion 
of hoat, which is carried off from the body by 
the evaporation of the water from the (dollies 

Boiling. — Why should tho bottom of a tea 
kettle be black, and the top polished ? 

Because the bottom has to absorb heat, which 
. ■ i aided by rough and blackened surfaces ; and 
in* top has to retain heat, which is ensured by 
polished ones. 

Why rs a crust so frequently seen on the in- 
sides of lea kettles and boilers? 

Because of the hard water boiled in them, 
which holds in solution carbonato of lime, but 
being long boiled, tho latter is no larrger suju- 
bie aud becomes ptpcipitat-ed. 



Why is water when boiled, mawkish and in- 
sipid ? 

Because the gases which it contained have 
been expelled by boiling. 

Why is hard water.by boiling, brought near- 
ly to the state of the soft ? 

Because it is freed from its gases, and its 
earthy salts and substances, by which its hard- 
ness was produced, are precipi>nted. 

Why is it wasteful to put fuel under a boil- 
ing pot, with the hope of making the water 
hotter ? 

Because the water can only boil, and it does 
so at 212 degrees of the thermometer. 



THE SAFETY FUND. 

In a recent report of the bank committee of 
the senate,the amount paid lo the Safety Fund, 
up to the present time, by the several banks 
contributing to it, is thus stated, from an ab- 
stract furnished by the Comptroller : — 

Jefferson county bank, $100 00 

Livingston coouty b,ink, 166 67 

Ontario bank, 2,500 00 

Hudson River bank, 116 44 

Bank of Monroe, 1,333 33 

Mechanics' and Farmers' bank, 2,138 18 

Bank of Auburn, 1,000 00 

Canal bank, Albany, 1,333 33 

Otsego county bank, 72 63 

BankofUlica, 2,500 00 

Bank of Ithaca, 791 67 

Ogdensburgh bank, 437 00 

Onondaga cuuuty bank, 187 50 

Catskiil bank, 636 66 

Bank of Newburgh, 616 67 

Mei chants' and Mechanics' bank, 1,312 50 

.New York slate bank, 1,682 94 

Bank of Albany, 1,200 00 

Bank of Genesee, 395 83 

Bank of Poughkeepsie, 70 82 

Wajue couuly baok, 350 63 

Lockport bank, 443 06 

Bank of Troy, 1,943 34 

Fanners' bank of Troy, 1,390 00 

Bank of Chenango. 600 00 

Saratoga county bank, 41 67 

Mohawk bank, 825 00 

Bank of Geneva, 2,000 00 

Central bank, Cherry -Valley, 497 75 



making a total of $26,983 67 

The aggregate capital of Ihe above twenty 
nine banks, now subject to the annual pay 
ment of one per cent, on their capital, is $6,- 
294,600. 

Inaidition to the above, there are eight of 
the old banks in the city of New York, whose 
chaitera have been renewef.and three that 
were chartered by the legislature of 1830, 
whioh have commenced their operations since 
the first of January last. The aggregate cap- 
ital of these eleven banks, is about ten millions 
of dollars, and their annual payments to the 
fund will consequently, amount tofifly thous- 
and dollars; there will be in the treasury, 
therefore, in the month of January next, ex- 
cept what may be drawn from it for expen- 
ses, rising one hundred thousand dollars, viz : 
the sum now paid in,ainouoting to $..'6,983,67, j 
together with the half of one per cent, on $16,- 1 
215,800, the capitals of the forty banks that i' 
now are, including those that shortly will be, 
subject to the fund law. The annual pay- 
ments on this amount of capital will be $31, I 
079, and will make the aggregate amount in 
the treasury, in January nexi,$108,062,67 I 

The population of Virginia is ascertained to 
be 1,207,783. In 1820, 1,065,362— increase, !- 
142,421, At a ralio of either 48, or 50,01)0, 
she will toso two members of Congress. 



Selected lor the Genesee Farmer. 
AN UNFORTUNATE. 

What an unfortunate situation am I placed 
in! Being one of those who mix in all kinds 
of society, from the highest to the lowest, and 
confessedly by all parties aD important, ne- 
cessary, and welcome visiter at all times and 
in all situations; yet am I eternally abused 
by all hands, who are constantly dissatisfied 
with me, either as a visiter or friend, while 
tbey admit that from my long and habitual 
intercourse, they cannot do without me. 

I have arrived at a " greeD old age," and 
on that account have a claim to be respected ; 
I am allowed to be venerable in my appear- 
ance, and sage from my experience, and that 
my temperature and passions are under full 
as good conlrol, as those of my complainants, 
and therefore think I ought not to be repro- 
bated, on the score of inconstancy ; yet so it 
i3, that although I seemingly take pains to ac- 
commodate my variable dispositions to the va 
triable dispositions of all mankind, yet the cir. 
cumstance produces no sympathetic conge- 
niality between us, and my inconstancy is 
rendered proverbial, while their own propen- 
sity to fickleness never recurs to their recol- 
lection. I have no complaint to make against 
the world on the subject uf indifference, ueg- 
lect, or disregard, for 1 must confess that every- 
body pays me due attention. 1 am eagerly en- 
quired about every night and every morninc, 
and am 60 much the topic of conversation and 
so regularly introduced sfter ,tbe customary 
greetings of ceremonial intercourse, that I 
may be said to be a kind of necessary assis- 
tant to conversation, for when people are bar- 
ren of ideas I am always at hand to supply the 
vacuity of their minds. The closest friends 
on passing each other at such speed as not to 
be able to ask about each others dearest con- 
cerns, will yet speak of the state of mine; mv 
situation absorbs all minds, and moves a!; 
tongues; the " brain sick lover," mute on all 
other subjects, can preach most fluently on 
my affairs, and the statesman and devotee are 
not so oveiwbelmed with their respective du- 
ties, as to be uodmindful of my state aud cir- 
cumstances, & yet I am scarcely named in any 
other light but as the source of complaint and, 
dissatisfaction, nor withont having some oppro- 
brious epithet attached to my name; sometimes 
I am too warm and free in my behaviour 
aud sometimes too cold If I smile unexpec- 
tedly I am suspected of harboring treacheroui 
designs, and men say to each other sarcasii- 
Ij, " we shall pay foi this," and if I continue 
my placid deportment aud am mild and swei ' 
tempered for any length of time, 1 am said 
to be breeding wars and commotions. Some 
wish me to weep when I am inclined to bff 
merry, and some tu be gay when I am inclined 
to be sad. Thick, heavy, dull, nasty, muddy, 
are epithets commonly applied to me. If I am 
still I am said to be vaporish. If loud, bois- 
terous and rude. 1 am accused of causing a! 1 
the mischances of business, and creating all 
the ills of life. Aches, pains, rheumatism, and 
shooting corns are attributed to my influence. 
In shot t, I am so wretched, so ceusured, so a- 
bused every day, that it would setm as if I 
was a stranger upon earth, and born but yes- 
terday, rather than an inhabitant of Paradise, 
and oue who was present at the creation, and 
was the friend and attendant on .Vdi-m and 
Eve aBd every OBe of their multitudinous 
race. But gentle reader I will not detain 
yen longer, as I see you looking at me thro 
ihe window and fixing your muscles to abuse 
me fpr detaining you flom more important be 
siness, tiIe weather. 



wmm mmtmsmm &&mmMsx> 



VOLUME I. 



ROCHESTER, MARCH 12, 1831. 



NUMBER 10. 



coiannrNzoATiONa 



FOR THE C.ENESEl FARMER. 

EVERGREENS. 

We cultivate plants with a view to their ra 
ity, as well as to their beauty. Through much 
Df the Genesee Country, evergreens are rare ; 
ind these, to the eye of Taste, are particular- 
ly pleasing in winter; more pleasing when 
Jistributed by the hand of man, round his 
dwelling.than when seen in the forest — not that 
cultivated plants are more beautiful, but fewer 
and rarer. 

Evergreens, in the colour of their leaves, 
vary exceedingly. Andromeda calyculata pre- 
serves through winter, a fino green, in the 
thick shelter of hemlock swamps; but it chan- 
ges to a rustv brown in the open marsb. The 
unsheltered leaves of the rid cedar, are also 
"reatly discoloured ; and the hemlock, in open 
situations, is a pale olive green. In unchan- 
ging verdure and brightness, I have seen no 
tree that excells the balsam fir. 

The "enus Pinus ra;ry be divided into three 
sections. 1- The pines, — several leaves in a 
sheath. 2. Theirs and spruces, — leaves sin- 
gle, somewhat distichally or cylindrically ar- 
ran"ed on the branches. 3. The larches, — 
leaves deeiduous. 

1. The white pine, (Pinus strobus) preserves 
its colour well through the winter, and the 
length and silkiness of its leaves, places it first 
on onr list. The Norway pine (improperly so 
called, for it is not anative of Europe) is alio a 
line tree ; and grows on the high lands, in the 
southern parts of our district. It is tbe Pinus 
inonticola of Muhlenberg. Pinus variabilis is 
said to be a beautiful tree, with leaves four 
or five inches long. Other species would add 
to the varied appearance of the shrubbery. 

2. I recur to the balsam fir (Pinus balsamea) 
It is surprising, that the late A. Paimcntier de- 
clared that "this is the only large evergreen 
which succeeds in this latitude." I cannot ac- 
count for the mistake. Floy remarks, that 
these trees, when taken from the mountain, 
seldom succeed, unless placed in a nursery. — 
This is true, when set out in »rass plats, and 
left to themselves. In droughts, grass lands 
become comparatively dry, while cultivated 
soils remain moist. I planted several from a 
swamp, in Hector, — rather -shallow," as mosi 
evergreens ought to be planted, and laid round 
plenty of old hay to keep the roots moist and 
cool, and to destroy the grass. With this treat- 
ment, nearly half the trees grew. 

The silver fir (Pinuspicea) of Europe, is ve- 
ry elegant; and even clumps of our hemlock 
{Pinus canadensis) should appear in extensive 
shrubberies. Those from open grounds will 
be the best ; having better roots — having bet- 
ter tops, that is, having dense foliage, which 
clothes them from the ground upward, and 
which Tio knife should touch. In this case, taste 
and success are inseparable. Hemlocks which 
have grown in thick woods, generally die when 
the other trees are cut away, having nothing 
to shield their trunks from the heat. 

The black spruce, (Pinus nigra) is found a 
few miles from Ithaca, and in some mountai- 
nous districts of Pennsylvania. Last season, 
I applied for it at three great nurseries, without 
success. Its dark green foliage makes a tine 
appearance in winter. 

Pinus abics, from Norway, of a bright green, 
well merits a place besi 'e our red spruce, with 
a denser foliage. The white spruce (Pinus al- 
ba) abounds in several swamps, of the Gene- 
see country. I took two small plants of this 
tree from a morass two or three miles N. E. 
of Geneva ; and wrapping bog moss round the 
roots, (which had never touched bottom) plan- 
red them in the garden. The moss supplied 

* I had this advice from my friend,!//. G. Spajjortl. 



them with moisture till their roots were a- 
dapled to a harder soil; and I observed no di 
minutton of vigor, notwithstanding the extra- 
ordinary change of situation. I prefer small 
soedlings to larger plants of stunted growth. 

3. These are not evergreens ; but the Euro- 
pean larch (Pinus larix) I find to be vigorous 
and hardy. 

The genus Thuya includes the white cedar 
of our swamps, (Thuya occidentalis) and the 
Chinese Arbor vita (Thuya orirntalis). The 
latter preserves a better green in winter; but 
our species appears tbe more vigorous. The 
white cedar, like the white spruce, and the 
red larch, in our district, grows naturally, in 
swamps ; but spreads on the dryest hills, when 
no longer imprisoned by other trees. It is ve- 
rv ornamental. 

Our red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) de- 
serves further notice. Though a native of the 
precipitoas banks of our lakes, I have seen 
one tree in a swamp of the outlet above Wa- 
terloo. This shows that it is also indifferent to 
soil. By the thick forest, this species was 
long confinod to the banks of the Cayuga, near 
this place : but it now spreads eastward, into 
the open woods, in consequence of the scat- 
tering of the seeds by birds. Some years ago.I 
strewed more than a peck of those seeds in a 
neglected field ; and many young troes have ari. 
sen from that sowing. The old trees afford food 
and shelter to the gluttonous cedar rurd.whicb 
in consequence, visit our fruit trees in greater 
numbers ; but this evil admits of a remedy. 

Of this genus, is the common juniper, (Ju- 
niperus communis) remarkable for its varied 
forms; — sometimes upright, like a post, — ai.d 
sometimes with horizontal branches near the 
ground, rising in the shape of an ill-built hay- 
stack The former figure is much aamired ; 
and to obtain it, sometimes a cord is wound 
spirally round the tree, which prevents the 
branches from spreading. I have found it dif- 
ficult to transplant this tree, successfully, in au- 
tumn ; but a branch which had been loaded 
with berries, and cut several feet from the 
ground, grew freely on being planted in a moist 
and mellow soil. 

The savin [Juniperus sabina,"] a native of both 
Europe and America, is a low shrub ; but it 
deserves a place with Juniperus, [prostata ?~\ 
which forms thickets at the Falls of Niagara, 
and other places. 

The shrubby horse-tail [Ephedra distachya.} 
from the south of Europe, is also an ever- 
green, though leafless; and its branches re- 
semble some species of Equisetum. It is per- 
fectly hardy, easily increased, singular.cunous, 
and ornamental. 

Two evergreens, beautiful in summer by 
their flowers, and in winter by their broad 
leaves, (Kalmia lutifolia, and Rhododendron 
maximum) have been found difficult to culti- 
vate in some parts of our district. This diffi- 
culty is ascribed to the soil. It is a curious 
fact, that wherever the detritus of this cal 
careous reiiion was deposited by the Deluge, 
the Laurels do not occur. It is true there is a 
locality of Kalmia, on the bill, north of Ithaca, 
near Fall Creek, among gravel, some roots of 
those planis penetrating the seams in the sili 
ceous rocks ; but 1 observed no deposits of 
calcareous matter. Those shrubs are too 
beautiful to be relinquished without many ef- 
forts. 

Several other evergreens may be noticed 
hereafter. D. T. 

2d mo. 12, 1831. 

FOR THE GENESEE FARMER. 

EFFECTS OF FROST. 

Messrs. Editors — A few years age, I lived 
in the neighborhood of a market town, and 
one of my neighbors was in the habit of mar- 
keting, more or less, early vegetables every 



summer; among which, hr was always able 
to bring in green corn earl er in the seasm 
than any one else living on the same k nd of 
land, and with the same seed 

After some years, it was discovered that bis 
secret was to plant his corn after the frost had 
ornmenced in the fall, and the ground become 
slightly frozen, or during some open thawing 
weather in the winter; and the reason wa6 
said to be, that corn planted at a time when 
it could become soaked and saturated with wa- 
ter, and then frozen with the earth, would ob- 
tain the property of withstanding the frosts of 
spring, and become a hardy vegetable. 

Not being a farmer, I have never tried it. 
and therefore cannot vouch for its authentici- 
ty. 

Are you or any of your readers acquainted 
with this fact, or know any case analagous to 
it? 

Would it have the same effect on any other 
kind of seeds, and how wouldfit opetaU with 
beans, cucumbers, &c. ? 

If true.it is probably a new feature in vege 
table pathology, and well worth trying the ex 
periment. N. G. W.* 

FOR THE GENESEE, FARMER. 

COFFEE. 

Mt. Tockeh, Sir — I agree with your corres- 
pondent S. on the subject of filtering coffee — 
it is decidedly more palatable, healthy and pro- 
fitable than any other process. The peculiar 
taste of leached coffee, which those used to 
drinking the stewed kind, are apt to call raw, 
grows out of an acquired and vitiated taste. 

S's remarks, as to roasting and grinding, are 
perfectly .catholic, ns well as his process rela- 
ting to its preparation. 

The philosophy of the why's are as " plain 
as road to parish church," and to my concep- 
tion the rationale is so palpable, that I admire 
that the old boiling, stewing, and distilling 
process should obtain at all. 

When I first began to keep house, my wife 
used a simple flannel or cotton bag, with two 
wood skewers put through the hemming, to 
keep it from sinking into an earthern pitcher, 
whioh was our coffee pot, and I had such coffee 
as an Arab Scheick might delight tu honor with 
his approbation; but now being blessed with 
John Roger's portion of the poor mairs bles- 
sing, we have resorted to the regular leach. 

The why, that it yields a greater abundance 
of extract, I thus explain— that pure water kin- 
charged with the essence of coffee, is a better 
solvent or menstruum than the same water 
which by boiling with the material has become 
saturated, and its solvent power destroyed ; in 
the one case, you pour on the water two or 
three times, which then passes pure and unco- 
lored, and the whole is dissolved. To render 
it plain, a fluid is said to be saturated when it 
cannot dissolve any more, as in the case of 
brine or sweetened liquors, which every one 
has observed, with salt or sugar laying undistur- 
bed for any length of time, its appetite and ea- 
pabilitvis palled and destroyed; and if diges- 
ted a thousand years at the same temperature, 
a would not take up another grain. It is self* 
evident, that the grounds of coffee after using, 
are still soaked and saturated with the liquid, 
as strong as any part of the ,; coffee drink" ti- 
led. 

To elucidate this assumption, allow me tc 
elate the following story : 

A person of my acquaintance, who kept a 
arge. public house, had got him a filtering cpf 
fee pot, being convinced that he should not 
only iniprove'that delightful beverage, but be 
a gainer on the score of econotr.y. A poor 
woman who lived in tUe neighborhood, who 
used frequently to assist in the kitchen, was in 
the habit of taking the grounds of his coffee 
nots, from which, by a second boiling-, she wrs 

\ 



i boil! 



74 



THE GENESEE FARMER 



March 12, 1831. 



enabled to nave a very good dish; but a few 
days after lie had commenced his new process, 
she said to the mistress, " What is the mat- 
ter with your coffee, lately — you have got a 
poor kind, I guess." '• Why 1" asked the 
lady. " Because." says she, "it has got no 
strength in it." " Oh," answered the mistress, 
" wo have got ,i patent coffee pot, which we 
are trying." 

" Well,"said the poor woman. '• it is a good 
for nothing Yankee cheat, and it ought not to 
be used, and it shouldn't if 1 could hinder it." 
The shoe pinched the poor woman's toes — 
she was curtailed of her mornings comfort. and 
it was denounced a deception, much to the 
proof of its usefulness, and was the real and 
true test of the fact. 

The wli'j that coffee is betterboth in flavor & 
effect is equally palpable and conclusive, and 
is thus explained ; — The peculiar flavor which 
coffee possesses over any other burned vege- 
table berry, grain or root, resides in its pecu 
liar aromatic essential oil. All essential and 
volatile oils are specifically lighter than water, 
and in heating rise first, in vapor, and pass off 
if not condensed ; this peculiarity constitutes 
the process of distillation. Now in the boil- 
ing process, the fine aroma which constitutes 
the value of this king of drinks is distilled off 
in vapor and lost, and the drinker of it is fed 
with what in another process constitutes the 
slops of the still hoyse, when compared tvilh 
the true article. 

As your correspondent observes, it is but a 
live minutes' business to make the best cup of 
eofteo that ever smoked in a Turkish Harem. 

If made in this way, you may, without dan 
ger to the stomach or bowels, make it so strong 
that it will bear up an iron wedge, to speak liy ■ 
perbolically ; only observe to dilute with plen- 
ty of cream and sugar, and drink the less quan- 
tity of a much superior article. Speaking of 
cream, note— coffee and strawberries cannot be 
good without it, and the fresher the better. — 
With a brief recipe I will closo this trespass : 

Roast brown — roast often — grind when wan- 
ted — filter ([nick and strong — reduce with cream, 
and please the taste with sugar. Y* 



bors have town it repeatedly, and the result .o 
far as I have been able to ascertain, has never 
been any more favorable to the flint, than the 
bove, when sown upon the same soil, and at 
the same time. It appears to be a hardy plant, 
and withstands the vicissitudes of the season as 
well is any variety, and is usally a very flatter 
ingcrop while on the ground ; the straw ischorl 
and stiff, which prevents its lodging as much 
as most of the other varieties; but it fails in 
yield from the bundle or sere, and is much 
harder to thrash by hand, than any other that 
I am acqu dnted with. The farmers in thia 
section have pretty generally ceased to culti- 
vate it. The varieties which are held tn the 
(lightest estimation among them, are the red 
bald, red and white bearded, and a bearded va- 
riety, called the crate wheat, which has been 
lately introduced among us, and is very high- 
ly recommended by those who have tried it.-- 
For my own part, I am not much acquainted 
with any of the bearded wheats, a9 I hive ae 
yet been able to raise as good crops of the red 
bald, as any of my neighbors have of the <>- 
thers. I give it the preference, from its being 
the pleasantest to work among. 

The above statement and remarks are drawn 
from but a short and limited experience in ag- 
ricultural pursuits, and are offered to the public 
with the hope, that some one more acquainted 
and better able to throw light upon the subject. 
may be induced to take it up. VV. 

Yates co. 5th March. 1831. 



OYSTER PONDS, 

IN WESTERN NEW YORK. 

Though the planting of oysters is not exact- 
ly either Agriculture or Horticulture, yet it is 
planting. Many years ago, I proposed to try 
the experiment of raising oyster.-, in small arti- 
ficial ponds of salt water, in the western part 
of this state. Will you allow me to repeat 
the suggestion ? The salines of the West af- 
ford water salt enough, and salt does not waste 
by evaporation, so that the cost would be but a 
mere trifle. Oyster seed— small oysters, such 
as they plant .n the bays of the sea shore, 
may be had in plenty, transported by the canal; 
and with such facilities, ought not the experi- 
ment to be tried 1 it appears to me that there 
can be no difficulty in " growing" your own 
oysters. When the ponds are once stocked, 
they will supply themselves .with seed. The 
Onondaga Lake, if all its inlets of fresh wa- 
ter were detached from it, would become a 
miniature of a salt water sea, and, by the help of 
a few barrel* of oyster seed, from the ocean, an, 
oyster bed, tn the course of a few years. Pos- 
sibly, however, its springs of fresh water, anil 
supplies by rain and snow would be more thai'. 
equal the loss by evaporation ; in which case, 
it would remain loo fresh for an Oyster Gar- 
den ! S. 



SELECTION .. 



TOR THE GENESEE FARMER. 
WHEAT. 

Having read an article in the third ntimbe 
of the Genesee Farmer, upon the cultivation of 
wheal, in which the variety known as the white 
flint is somewhat favorably noticed, I am in- 
duced to give the following brief statement of 
the result of my experience in the cultivation 
of ibis and the red bald wheat : 

In the fall of 182(3, I assisted in the sowing 
of about twenty acres of ground to wheat, in 
which there was little or no difference in soil, 
lime or preparation, and upon which was sown 
the three following varieties, viz — white flint, 
red bald, and beaverdam, or yellow bald. The 
latter produced but a hglu crop of wheat, al- 
though the growth ol straw was greater than 
either of the others ; the straw is very long, 
head short and light, and usually falls down 
before it fills; at least such has been the case 
in all the experiments that have come within 
my observation. 

With respect to the others, there was no 
perceptible difference in their growth or ap- 
pearance, except that the Hint had rather the 
advantage in situation, from being more expo- 
sod i.o the sun than the others, and consequent 
ly, was rather more even in its growth. It 
was a beautiful field of wheat, and I think as 
well headed as any that I have ever seen of 
the kind. The following was the average per 
.acre, while in the sheaf, and after thrashing 
I give the number of bundles to show the dif 
l'crence in the heading of the two kinds. a» 
the growth of straw was about the same : 

Kct) bsld gave 3G0 bundles, yielding 30 bush. 

White linn " 3oG " " 231-2 

Shewing a difference in favour of the Red 
if six and a half bushels per acre. 

I have tried it since, and many of my neigh- 



FOR THE GENESEE FARatER. 

IMPORTANT TO FARMERS. 

Messrs. Editors — As you look abroad for 
a part of your patronage, I take the liberty of 
advising the farmers, through your papor ; to 
water rot their flax, it being the easiest, cheap- 
est, and most profitable way of preparing it for 
dressing, either for market or home use. By 
water rotting the flax, tho farmer will gain, in 
saving of labor, yield of flax, and in the price 
of the same, twenty five per cent. 

The best time for water rolling flax, is du 
ring the summer Put the flax in small bun- 
dles, and steep it in still water about 48 or GO 
hours. The farmer must judge of its being 
sufficiently rotted, by watching it while in the 
water. As soon as the lint or coat separates 
from the stalk, it is then time to remove and 
spread it out to dry, which will require three or 
four days ; this depends, however, on the wea 
ther A week's attention to it, in this manner, 
is sufficient to have it ready for cleaning. 

Experiments have been fully made as to the 
strength and durability of cloth made from wa 
ter rotted flax, and likewise that made from 
field or dew rotted ; and tho advantage in fa- 
vor of the former, is about fifty per cent. Wa- 
ter rotted flax can be bleached immediately af- 
ter it is dressed, so as to become as v. hite and 
as soft as silk ; while with dew rotted flax, no- 
thing can be done. 

The following is the mariner of bleaching 
flax, and it is in the power of every fanner 
to try tho experiment: 

Coil it in ash lye of about half the strength: 
neoessary to make common soap, for two or 
three hours, then rinse it well in vinegar and 
water, or any other weak acid preparation, and 
lay it either in the sun or under cover, where 
there is a free circulation of air. 

I feel confident, that it our farmers woo id 
try the foregoing experiments they would be 
encouraged to cultivate this highly useful, and. 
hitherto much neglected plant. 

E. QUINBY. 

Note — Wo were pleased with the above 
communication on flax, which we presume is 
from a practical man, at least his views of the 
subjeot are mostly correct, and we would refer; 
him to the 28th page of the Fanner, also to 
the United States Journal there referred to, 
and if he would call .it the office, the Editor 
would be glad to Convcrso with him upon the 
subject. 



PRINCE'S UOKIK IL.TTJHE. 

Wc have been very much pleased with the. 
perusal of" A short treatise on Horticulture," 
by William Prince, boih as to matierand man- 
ner. As we are convinced that every work 
which contributes to the advancemet of Hor 
ticulture in tne United States, is more or less 
interesting to our redears, we shall occasional- 
ly make such extracts from it .is we think wil' 
be most likely to amuse by instructing. We 
are anxiously waiting for his forthcoming work 
on Pomology, which we trust will reduce the 
Babel-like confusion of names of fruit to or- 
der, "a consummation devoutly to be wished 
for" by all classes of society. 

SEASON FOR TRANSPLANTING. 

Sorinii is the season when we find the most 
in making our rural improvements 



spring 



pleasui 

and from this circumstance, probably, it has 
become the mos' general season for plant- 
in™ trees— but experience ha* proved the fall 
planting to be the most successful, especially 
in i hose parts of the United States which are 
subject to droughts, as the trees planted in au- 
tumn suffer little or none from a drought, when 
those set out in spring often perish in conse- 
quence of it. , 

Notwithstanding, with regard to those fruits 
that have been origi ally brought from warmer 
climates— such us'the peach, apricot, nectarine, 
and almond, which are natives ol' Persia, Ar- 
menia, &c— it is necessarj for us to consult 
the operations of climate also, and from a I on 
sideration of these attendant circsmstances, I 
have come to the following conclusion :— In 
localities sou:h of New York, the fall season is 
preferable for transplanling all frees— north of 
New York, the fall is preferable only for the 
apple, pear, plumb, cherry, quince, and all o- 
in,i trees of northern latitudes; whereas, the 
sprin" is to he preferred for the peai h, apricot, 
nectarine, and almond, which for the reasons 
above staled, might, during severe winters, suf- 
fer from the intensity of the frost. Still I do 
not mean to assert, that tries of these kinds 
are certain to be injured by the winter, as 
in ver^ many seasons they are not in the least 
affected, still they are exposed to vicissitudes 
which may or may not occur. Many gentle- 
ui ii, however, of excellenl judgment, make 
(loir plantations in the fall, winch only serves 
to prove, that e\cn in the most intelligent 
minds a diversity of opinion exists. 



Vol. 1— No. 10. 



AND 'GARDENER'S JOURNAL. 



TRKES, &C. ON THEIR ARRIVAL AT THE PLACE 
OF DESTINATION. 

As soon as the trees arrive at the place 
where they are to be planted, let a trench he 
dug in cultivated ground, the bundles unpack- 
ed, ano the loots well wet, and immediately 
covered with earth in the trench, observing to 
make the earth fine that is spread over tbem, 
so a-< not to leave vacancies for the admission 
of air to dry the roo's — it having been found 
by experience, that the thriftiness of trees, the 
first season after transplantation, depends 
much on the fine fibres of the roots being kept 
moist and not suffered to dry trom the time 
they are taken up until they are replanted — a 
precaution which is always attended to with 
respect to the trees sent from the Nurseries of 
the Proprietor, as tho roots are invariably kept 
moist from the time they are taken np until 
they are packed ready to be shipped. Their 
success, therefore, must depend pricipally on 
the subsequent management on their arrival at 
the place of destination ; for if, when the bun- 
dles are unpacked, the trees are carelessly 
left exposed to drying winds, the young fibres 
of the roots must perish, and the trees, if they 
live at all, cannot thrive the first season, as they 
can receive little nr no nourishment until those 
rfbresare replaced. 

MANNER OF PLANTING. 

Let the holes be dug somewhat larger than 
is sufficient to admit ihe roots in their natural 
position, and of sufficient depth to allow th< 
tree to be placed two or three inches rieepe 
than it was before transplanting — take caru to 
cut otf any wounded parts of Ihe rent, and to 
reduce the top full one tliird, by shortening 
the branches, or thinning them out. Let from 
two to four shovel. ful of well rotted stable 
manure, in proportion to ihe size of the tree, 
be incorporated with the earth, and the whole 
made fine previous to filling it in ; and during 
the operation of filling in the earth, let the 
tree be several times shaken, in order that the 
soil may be admitted among the finer roots ; 
and when completely filled in, lot the ground 
be well trodden down, and finish by making a 
hollow or basin round the tree to catch the 
rain and convey it to the roots, or to receive 
the watering which it will be necessary to give 
it, should the season prove drv. 

TO CAUSE THE TREES TO THRIVE. 

The ground wbeie they are planted must be 
kept cultivated — young trees will not thrive if 
the grass is permitted to form a sod around 
them ; and if it should be necessary to pl.int 
them in grass ground, care must be taken to 
keep the earth mellow and free from grass 
fur three or four feet distant around them ; 
and, every autumn, some w.ll rotted ma- 
nure should be dug in around eaeh tree, and 
every spring the bodies of the apple, pear, 
plum, and cher'y trees, and others that it is 
particularly desirable to promote the growth 
of, should be brushed over with common soft 
•oap. undiluted with water — this treatment will 
give a thriftiness to ihctrees surpassing the ex- 
pectation of any one who has not witnessed 
Us effect. Should the first season after trans- 
planting prove dry, reaular waterings will be 
necessury ; as from a neglect of proper atten- 
tion in this respect, many lose a large portion 
of their trees during a drought. 



From the New Bngland Farmer. 
Extracts from tin address delivered before the 

Middlesex society of Husbandman and Manu- 
facturers, at their animal festival, Oct. 7. 

Action, rather than speculation, anil to ex- 
hibit practical result's, rather than theoretical 
schemes, are the appropriate business of Far- 
mers, on an occasion like this. 

The importance of the subject, on which I 
ifavc had the hooor of being invited to address 
you, is too deeply felt, and too generally ac- 
knowledged, to require either arguments to 
enforce, or eloquence to emblazon its claims. 
ft need only he said, that the first sod (hat vras 



turned, was one of the first decided steps from 
a savage to a civilized life, and that in propor- 
tion to his advancement in agriculture and the 
arts of husbandry, man has, in all ages, recedftd 
from barbarism. Compare, for a moment, the 
miserable condition of '.he houseless, roaming 
savage of the forest, clad it: the skins of beasts, 
furious and ungnverned as himself, dopendina 
for his subsistence upon the uncertain fruits of 
the chase, or the spontaneous productions of 
ihe earth, with Ihe substantial, permanent 
comforts of tho industrious, intelligent, and 
virtuous farmer; — and will not the contrast 
reconcile the cultivator of the soil to a cheer- 
ful obedience to the divine command, to " eat 
his bread in the sweat of his brow?'' 

We find the opulent, the powerful and lear- 
ned of modem, as well as ancient days, devo- 
ting their wealth, their influence and their tal- 
ents, to the advancement of the interests of ag- 
riculture. 

Who, then, is so regardless of the utility, 
the honor or the pleasure, of cultivating the 
soil, as not to aspire to the honorable appella- 
tion of Farmer? Who does not wish to with- 
draw from the anxious cares and uncertain 
pleasures of merchandise, and the perplexing 
duties of public or professional life, to repose 
on the tranquil bosom of rural retirement, and 
taste the pleasures, as well as partake in the 
labors of rustic life ? 

Books, I am aware, are the most distrustful 
source of information, among many of my ag- 
ricultural brethren. This ought not so to be. 
While the professors and friends of all the o- 
ther arts and sciences, call to their aid the light 
and accumula'ed written wisdom of the past 
and present ages, "why should the art of culti- 
vating the earth, by far the most important of 
all the arts, be allowed no other guide than 
blind tradition ? 

To what are we attributing the recent rapid 
advances in agricultural knowledge 1 What 
has enabled the farmer to discover new sour- 
ces of wealth and pleasure ? What has 
staid the wasting mania fur emigration, and 
taught our young men, that from a New England 
soil, and a Now-Englttnd fireside, more sub- 
stantial comforts maybe derived, than can be 
found '■ beyond the mountains ?" What,I say. 
lias done all this, but books, and the scientific 
communications of literary men, who have de- 
voted their wealth and their talents to lighten 
the burdens and increase the stores of the far- 
mer ? 

Allow me, while on this subject, to advert 
to one source of information, which has been, 
in no small degree, instrumental in producing 
these favorable results. I mean the various 
periodical publications of the day. At the 
head of ihese stands the New England Far- 
mer. This has done much to arrest the with- 
ering power of ancient custom — has not only 
taught us the theory, but has enabled us to re- 
alize the pleasure of fruitful gardens, of smi- 
ling fields and luxuriant harvests. I am con- 
fident the sincerity of my motives will not be 
questioned, when I rec >minend the sound prac- 
tical lessons of its enlightened Editor, to the 
constant perusal, not only of farmers, but to 
every friend of rural economy. 

From the 3d vol. Plough Boy. 

ERGOT IN SPEARGRASS. 

For the following extract from a letter, we 
are indebted to Dan Bradley, Esq. of Marcel- 
lus, to whom we fender our thanks for the fa- 
vor. By this it will be seen, that our farmers 
ought to be extremely cautions as to the state 
of speargrass, when cut for fodder, as themost 
deleterious consequences to their stock will 
fellow, if it should be iefected by the ergot. 
Genoa, Agust 9, 1821. 

I have lived more than half a century, and 
never heard of the scant in grass, until 1 learn- 
ed it from the Plough Boy, and woeful expe- 
rience. Soon after my son returned from your 
house, I found all my neat stock, except two, 
disordered, and from what cause 1 knew not. 



The first 1 discovered, was my oxen beginning 
to be drowsy, with the loss of appetite, and 
soon followed with swelling in their limbs, and 
n great pain ; and in in a few days, all the rest 
of my stock, as I observed before, except two, 
were in the same condition. 1 now began to 
find out, or rather to search for, a cause, that 1 
might better apply a remedy. After observ- 
ing the symptoms, and studying into the nature, 
of the complaint, I remarked to my family and 
neighbors, that I should think my cattle were 
poisoned, if there were any poison in my hay ; 
hut knowing it to be clear of any poisonous 
plants, and that there was nothing but pure 
speargrass, or as some call it, June grass, I 
was at a loss still for the cause. 

After some time had elapsed, and manv ex- 
periments were tried to no purpose, Miles 
Bradley came to my house, and told me he had 
read in the Plough Boy, that there was a cer- 
tain smut in hay, that occasioned what is call- 
ed the hoof-ail; it being of a poisonous quali 
ty. We then went to the barns, and on exa- 
mination found my hay very full of it. I then 
removed as many of my cattle from the bam 
into the field, as I could, and fed them at a 
stack of another kind of hay ; the most of 
which soon began to recover. 

I am fully convinced, sir, of your remarks, 
when last at my house, that a systematic mode 
of farming is the best, and that land ought not 
to lie too long to grass. As this field from 
which I cut my diseased hay, was small, and 
produced well, it has been mowed for five and 
twenty years successively ; and it being an 
early kind, I always put it in the bottom of my 
mow. I came toil, just when our last great 
snow came on, and my cattle could get nothing, 
else. 

I have other reasons, however, to convince 
me that this was the cause of my calamity, 
which I have not time to mention. I shall 
leave you to make your own comments to the 
above. My loss of stock amounted to more 
than 100 dollars, besides the injury done to 
many that survived. I remain, with esteem, 
dear sir, yours, ALSONUAH T1LLOTSON. 

LIME NECESSARY FOR RAISING PEAS. 

It is observed that the common pea, wheth- 
er white or arey, cannot he reared to perfec- 
tion in anv field which has not been, either na- 
turally or artificially impregnated with some 
calcareous matter. And hence it is supposed 
to happen that peas are only cultivated univer- 
sally as a field crop, unless ,in those parts of the 
country where either lime, mar! or chalk a # 
bounds, or upon strong clays ; except indeed 
on the sea coast, where shell fish are often 
caught in abundance, and where ihe fields are 
manured with their shells in a state of mixture 
with dung. But it is remarkable, that a soil 
that could scarcely have brought one pea to 
perfection, although richly manured with dung, 
from their running too mucin to haulm, and af- 
ter blossoming, dying away without becoming 
ripe, if it has once had lime applied upon it, 
is capable, when properly prepared in other re- 
spects, of producing plentiful crops of peas 
ever afterwards. — Farmer's Companion. 



"PATENT PORTABLE SPIRIT GAS LIGHT." 

Tins is the name, given by Ihe invenlor, iu 
Albany, to a combination of spirils of turpen- 
tine and alcohol, to be used instead of oil for 
lamps. It is said fo be equal.and much cheaper 
than oil. Sun-light, the ©eueva Gazette 
remarks, is both cheaper and better than any 
artificial light whatever, and its more general 
use would not only save many dollars, and pre- 
serve many eyes, but it has the additional re- 
commendation of conducing to the health oi 
the whole system, particularly when used ear- 
ly in the morning .' 

Who is the best man ? Not he who makes 
the gretest show, or the most noise. But he 
who does the most good at the feast expense. 



76 



THE GENESEE FARMER 



March 12, 183 i 



THE GENESEE FARMER. 



SATUR/DAY, MARCH 12, 1831. 



CHEESE MAKING. 

The preparation of rennet is one of the first 
operations in cheese making, and the flavor of 
the cheese depends very much upon the man- 
ner in which it is prepared. For this purpose, 
the stomach or maw of some ruminating ani- 
mal, is made use of, and that of a young calf 
is preferred hy the best dairy women. Various 
opinions have prevailed at different times with 
regard to the use of renne'. The Jews made 
use of the juice of plants for coagulating milk 
for cheese making, as the use of rennet was 
strictly forbidden by the Mosaic law. The 
Dutch cheese of commerce is made by coagu- 
lating the milk with muriatic acid, which com 
bining with animal alkali, contained in the 
milk, forms muriate of ammonia, and it is ow- 
ing to the presence of this salt, that Dutch 
cheese has such a sharp pungent taste, like 
the sal. ammoniac of the shops. When the 
stomach of a young calf has been taken out, 
which is intended to be used as rennet, the 
contents should be emptied out, and the bag 
washed very clean, and laid down into a stone 
jar, or some other convenient vessel, and co- 
vered with a strong brine. 

It is the custom of some to save the coagu- 
lated mild or curd, contained in the stomach 
when the calf was killed ; hut it is found ex- 
tremely difficult to keep it sweet, and therefore 
it is now neglected at most dairies. When 
the mew has been about fourdavs in the brine, 
it should be taken out and drained, and put in- 
to a new brine, sufficient in quantity to cover 
the maw; in which, there should be put, at 
the rate of one lemon, and one oz. of cloves, 
to four maws. After the rennet is thus prepared, 
it should be kept closely covered, so as to ex- 
clude the air as much as possible ; a stone jug 
of sufficient size, i s well calculated for con- 
taining it during summer, which may be close- 
ly corked. 

Rennet which has been kept in this manner 
one year, is found to bo better than such as has 
been nowly prepared. 

In whatever way the rennet is prepared, it 
should be done before the season for cheese 
making commences, in sufficient quantity for 
the season. It should all be prepared in one 
vessel, that tho whole quantity may be assimi 
lated in strength as well as flavour. One 
very great defect in most of our small dairies 
is a want of uniformity in the quality of the 
cheese, and with large ones that we have nev- 
er adopted any partieular standard for quality. 
which should be known in market by a partic- 
ular name. 

In England, cheese making is reducod to a 
system, and the hind of cheese to be mado be- 
ing decided upon, the particular process for 
that kind is pursued ; and the cheese are pro- 
duced with as much uniformity, as our bakers 
mako their bread from the same flour, and 
thus cheese are known from one end of the 
kingdom to the other, by name ; and a person 
wishing to purchase of any given variety, can 
send for it with as little danger of being de- 
ceived, as there would be, if he sent to the ba- 
kers for a loaf of brown bread or a loaf ol 
white. 



Now this uniformity of quality, which should 
be known byname, in our market, is what is 
wanted to make our cheese compare with any in 
the world, as no country produces finer or rich- 
er pasturage for cows. The first great step 
towards this, is the careful preparation of the 
rennet, to have an article of the same strength 
and flavor through the whole season ; and this 
can only be done by having it all prepared to- 
gether, before the season commences. This 
is so important a part of the proee s, that it 
should never be trusted to unskillful hands. 

It is a very common practice for dairy wo- 
men to send to the butchers and purchase dried 
maws. This is risking the produce of tho dai- 
ry, as it is next to impossible to tell, after the 
maw has been dried, whether it was carefully 
done ; and if not no after process can restore 
it. And if the rennet is bad, the most skillful 
operator cannot produce good cheese with it. 
If you have not sufficient maws in preparation 
for the season, they shoe-Id be purchased of 
the butcher, when first taken out, and prepa- 
red under your own dire' tion. It has been 
practiced by some, to make use of the stom- 
ach of hogs, as a substitute for those of calves. 
But this should never be done, where those of 
calveB can be procured, as cheese made from 
them is very apt to have a strong, rank, disa- 
greeable flavor, unless there has been uncom- 
mon pains in preparing them. 

But let every dairy roan and woman remem- 
ber, that after the rennet is well prepared, and 
the milk is in readiness, that unless there is a 
uniformity of process, there will not be a uni- 
formity of product. In the first place, the 
greatest attention is necessary as to the quan- 
tity of rennet to a given quantity of milk. — 
This should always be determined by weight 
or measure — then the temperature at which 
the rennet is added. This should never be 
left to the vague manner of being determined 
by the hand, but by a thermometer. A titer, 
mometer is as essential in this process as in 
brewing or distilling; and we should pro- 
nounce that brewer or distiller mad who at- 
tempted to scald his grain without one. 



BROCOU. 

This plant belongs to the cabbage family, 
but has not been cultivated in the U. States as 
much as the common cabbage. It appears to 
be a mixture between the cauliflower and com- 
mon variety, and perfects itself with more 
certainty in this latitude than the cauliflower. 
Like the hitter it is cultivated for the congre- 
gation of flower-buds, which is the part used ; 
these appear in a conical shape, and are very 
tender. When used they are boiled and serv- 
ed up with drawn butter. The plants are to 
be sown and treated in the same manner as 
cabbage; and there is also early and late va- 
rieties, both of white and purple colour. The 
purple cape brocoli, or fall brocoli, is one of 
tho best varieties for our climate, as the head 
of the flower-buds is large and close, and 
although the color when growing is a palo pur 
pie, when boiled it is of a beautiful green. In 
flavour, brocoli much resembles the cabbage, 
but the part used is extremely lender and deli- 
cate. 

We would recommend to every farmer, to 
set out a few of tho plants with his cabbage. 



HAZLE NUTS AND FILBERTS. 

The common liable nut [corylus anuncana', 
belongs to the 20th class and 13th order of L. 

This class includeg those plants whose sta- 
mens and pistils grow upon the same plant, yet 
in separate flowers. The male or staminate 
flower makes its appearance in the fall, in the 
form of a catkin or anient and remains on the 
tree until the opening of the female or pistilatt 
flower in the spring, after which they drop. — 
The hazle nut gr >ws wild in many parts of our 
county. The corylus avallana, oi filbert, be- 
longs to the same class and order as the com- 
mon hazle nut, and of course can be cultivated 
by grafting upon the wild stocks of our coun- 
try. As the fruit of this last variety is univer- 
sally prized, we would recommend it to those 
who have the wild hazle nut upon their lands, 
to make the experiment the ensuing spring. — 
As the filbert is a larger growing shrub than the 
hazle nut, it may be necessary to graft at the 
ground, in order that the graft mny take root, 
as it would out grow the stalk. Perhaps by 
grafting in the tops, dwarf standards might be 
produced, which would be ornamental. By 
this method, the fruit would be produced much 
sooner than from seed. 

As both these varieties endure our winters 
perfectly, we can tee no reason why an or- 
chard of filberts would not be profitable. 



EVAPORATION,- CLOUDS, <fcC. 

Clouds are commonly supposed to originate 
at a great distance from the place where they 
are first observed: Perhaps by a majority they 
are thought to arise where no human eye is 
present to behold them. This opinion flows 
naturally from the fact, that large clouds are 
first saeu at a distance, aproacliing majestically 
towards us; and when in the stillness of r. 
beautiful summer afternoon, I see tho horizon 
suddenly obscured by a dense thunder cloud, 
gathering blackness as it arises, I often wish 
that its origin were veiled forever from human 
comprehension, that we might wonder and a- 
dore the more profoundly, the every-where 
present but unseen Author. 

But philosophy has penetrated the veil, and 
we are no longer at liberty to conjecture am! 
speculate on this interesting subject. From 
the minutest globules that are exhaled from the 
surface of land and water, commences a trait, 
of events that have their consummation in the 
most terrific thunder storms. 

Heat, and its variations, seems by far tho 
most active agent in the production of atmos 
pheric phenomena. Air, however, at any 
temperature, is capable of suspending a cer- 
tain quantity of moisture, and though not al 
ways visible, it still contains in its driest state, 
more or less water- 
Its oapaeity for moisture, though not increa- 
sed as its temperature, is greatly augmented; 
for in this last case, vegetation and the earth's 
surface would be deprived of rain,whcn it was 
most needed, viz — in the hottest summer wea- 
ther. 

There is a point of deposition at all temper- 
atures, depending on the quantity of moisture 
contained in the air. Winn therefore at the 
highest temperature, the air has attained its 
maximum of moisture, deposition commences 
in the form of dew or rain. 
The coldest air is consequently the dries' 



Vol. I.— No. 10. 



AND GARDENER'S JOURNAL. 



71 



and when the extreme cold is accompanied by 
high wind, evaporation is very rapid, or the at- 
traction of air for moisture is very great, inso- 
much, that ice, at a temperature far below the 
freezing point, is rapidly absorbed and wasted 
away. 

The agency of winds in evaporation is very 
.jreat ; hence, high winds are soon accompa 
nied with flying clouds, and not unfrequently 
with storms. But the quantity of water eva 
porated, depends so much upon the surface 
over which the wind passes, that rain or 
snow, as a consequence, is made to depend in 
this, and probably all countries, upon the di- 
rection from which it comes. 

Evaporation has ever been to me a singular 
and inexplicable phenomena; nor do I find a 
satisfactory solution of the problem in the wri- 
tings of the most distinguished philosophers. 
The specific gravity of water, contrasted with 
that of air, or even a knowledge of the physi- 
cal properties of them both, disconnected with 
each other, could never lead, or even suggest 
to the mind of any man, that water could be 
so mechanically divided, as to be suspended 
at any height, in the form of vapor or clouds, 
for any length of time ; much less that it could 
be buoyed at the height of many milos, where 
the air is greatly rarified, and there float pro- 
miscuously, as a feather upon water. 

Without accounting satisfactorily for this 
extremely useful operation, many have theori- 
zed, and offered interesting explications, che- 
rishing a belief that assiduity and further re 
seaiches would develope the truth or falsity of 
their reasonings. A notice of these will form 
part of the subject of a future article. 



A SUGGESTION. 

We beg leave to suggest to our readers the 
benefit which would result from the practice 
of commuting to writing, from time to time, 
such observations, connected with their busi- 
ness, as in their several opinions, might be 
worth being generally known, and occasional- 
ly sending transcripts from such memoran- 
dums, to the editors of the Genesee Farmer, as 
it would promote the objects for which the pa- 
per was established. 

It would be desirable if all, both far and near, 
but more especially, a number in each county 
adjoining, and at a distance, could be impress- 
ed with the great advantages that would result 
to all, by giving, in the shape of short commu- 
nications to the editors, such facts as have a 
bearing upon any of the subjects, open for in- 
vestigation, in our columns, and come within 
this purview. On the subject of the weather 
it would be interesting to know from whence 
proceed our long and heavy storms, both of 
snow and rain— the direction of high winds 
and tornadoes — their duration and effects, es- 
pecially in producing storms, and their agency 
.n changing temperature, &c. &c. 

To be more explicit, we would respectfully 
suggest the expediency of submitting these 
subjects in form of queries, to be answered as 
5 oon as circumstances will admit. 

On the state of the weather alone, as con- 
nected with the subject of meteorology. 

What is ttfe' general direction of winds, par- 
ticularly high winds ? 

What are its effects in producing changes of 
temperature, and also storms ? 



From whence do our storms, both of rain and 
snow, proceed ? 

Please to mention theday.and if possible the 
hour of theircommencement, and their dura- 
tion, and likewise the depth in inches, and 
the effect npbn the temperaturo. 

Minuteness in your description of storms 
and tornadoes is very necessary, for the pur- 
pose of accurate deductions. 

And as spring has commenced, on the sub- 
ject of vegetation, connected with the time, 
and state of weather. 

At what time did the first buds appear ? 

At what time did vegetation from the ground 
commence ? 

What was the state of the weather for a 
few day3 previous ? 

Did your wheat winter-kill — and how do 
you account for it 1 

When were the first blossoms discovered ? 

On what day were they first seen on fruit 
trees — and on what trees ? 

What is the succession of blossoming on all 
your trees ? 

On what night, from April forward, had you 
frost, and what its effects ? 

What was the temperature and direction of 
the wind ? 

When did you first plant seeds, and did they 
vegetate ? 

How late can oats be sown and come to ma- 
turity i. 

What the Say and soil on which you planted 
your corn ? 

Did you plant upon ridges or in furrows ? 

How soon after planting did it come up ? 

How did you guard against the corn worm ? 

How do you prevent bugs from destroying 



zation of knowledge, by imparting their own 
mite individually, and receiving in return the 
whole fund ihus collected. And furthermore, 
we shall thereby be enabled to institute a com- 
parison with other places in the same range of 
country, as well those at a distance ; and tables 
deduced from such observations, for eachcoun- 
ty in the state, would be invariable, and sub- 
jects of great curiosity to all inquiring minds. 



cucumber vines ? 

On what day did the first swallows and mar 
tins appear and disappear? 

When do you sow or plant peas ? 

How soon after planting had you cucum- 
bers ? 

Did your flax do well 1 

On what day did you commence wheat har- 
vest? 

At what time was your corn suitablo for boi- 
lin_ 

When did you plant potatoes—how prepare 
the ground — and when fit to boil ? 

On what day can you pronounce your corn 
secure from frost ? 

How do you select your seed corn ? 

How do you prepare your flax for getting 
out ? 

Such are but a few among a thousand inqui- 
ries, the answers to which would diffuse much 
useful information. Other facts, that suggust 
themselves to any. should receive attention ; 
and we can discover no legitimate reason why 
farmers and others, in circumstances suitable 
for making observations of such general and 
important consequence to the agricuftural in- 
terest of the country in which they live,should 
withhold so small and reasonable a contribu. 
tion to the friends of useful knowledge, from 
the inexperienced and uninformed. Moreover, 
they can easily discover a two-fold benefit to 
themselves ; first, a habit of correct observa- 
tion, which reduces all our labor to a system, 
and thereby ensuring certain results, whether 
in increase of riches, or of successful experi 



GEOLOGY. 

[Continued from page CO.] 
The Geod if erous Lime-rock. This is the next 
formation above the Lias, and is about 30 feet 
thick, where it crosses the valley of the Gene, 
see. This is a dark coloured limesrock, con- 
taining considerable quartoze sand, and as the 
name indicates, full of geodes or holes. These 
holes are frequently lined with crystals of dog- 
tooth spar, sulphate of strontyan, barytes, and 
lime, also some small crystals of zinc blende, 
fluor spar, and sulphate of lead. This rock 
when broken or struck with a hammer, gives 
off a very disagreeable bitumious smell. This 
rock forms the bed of the Genesee river for se- 
veral miles above the ialls at Rochester, and is 
the superincumbent formation over considers, 
ble extent of country, forming by its decom- 
position a light strong soil ; but in many pla. 
ces there is not sufficient depth to prevent 
crops being injured by drought. When burnt, 
this rock forms excellent lime for plastering, 
the quartz sand contained in it being of ser- 
vice, as the mortar becomes more hard, than 
when made from lime which does not contain 
it. The lower layers of this rock are very 
good for building, being more compact than 
the upper ones. 

The Cornitiferous Lime-rock, or lime-rock 
containing horn stone is the next in ascent. — 
There is very little difference in the appear, 
ance of this from the former rock to a superfi- 
cial observer. The colour is not as dark as 
the former, and the layers of horn-stone, which 

are contained in it, serve to distinguish it. 

Like the geodiferous, it makes good lime for 
buildings when burnt, & being generally in thin 
layers, it is very useful for making stone wall. 
By some Geologists these two rocks are con- 
sidered as belonging to the same formation, and 
we confess we cannot see any very great ob- 
jection to adding to these the third, or carbon- 
ferous formation which overlays them. One 
strong argument in favor of this, is the bitu- 
minous smell, which is similar in them all. A- 
gain, by this family connection the heaviest 
part of the formation, the sandy lime stone 
would be at the bottom and the lighter one, tho 
bituminous shale would be at the top, which 
would be in the natural order, in which they 
would subside, allowing they all belong to the 
same formation. 

The cornitiferous lime-rock forms the bed of 
the Genesee river, from near Henrietta to 
Mount Morris. This rock is generally the 
floor of the coal formations. The next in pro- 
gression is 

The Carboniferous rock, or bituminous shale. 
This formation is arranged by Professor Eaton 
under the head of cornitiferous lime-rock, but 
e will describe it separately. It overl-.ys 
the last mentioned rock, and forms the perpen- 
dicular banks at Mount Morris. It is of a dark 



ments in agriculture ' .and secondly, the equali- brown color approaching to black, breaks wifh 



78 



THE GENESEE FARMER 



March 12, 1831 



a fracture like chalk, ha3 a strong bitumious 
smell, when thrown upon the fire crackles and 
flies to piece9, and will burn with a bright glare 
for some time. 

When the stone is dry, by wetting it with 
the mouth, :t gives off a strong alluminous 
3mell; when decomposed, it makes a dark 
olayey soil, which is very good for grass and 
wheat, ard is very retentive of moistnre. It 
is owing to the decomposition of this rock 
that the soil upon the Genesee flats has such a 
dark colour. It is in this formation that all the 
bituminous coal of the south-west is found. — 
The out cropping of this rock may be seen at 
Le Roy, also a little south of Geneseo, on the 
road to Dansville. 

lietween Mount Morris and Nundathis rock 
passes under a silicious formation, and is not 
seen again in a southern direction, north of 
Mc Kean county, in Pennsylvania, where it is 
found to contain beds of bituminous coal; it 
also contains beds of coal on the south side of 
lake Erie. The average thickness of this for- 
mation is about 100 feet. 

The next formation above the bituminous 
lias been denominated Pyritiferous Shale, or 
Graywacke. It is about five hundred feet 
thick, varying in color from a pale blue to an 
ash color, and in hardness, from a soft allumi- 
nous shale to rock sufficiently hard for grind- 
atones, some of which formed from this rock, 
have proved to be of excellent quality. From 
the great thickness of this rock, it is the su- 
perincumbent formation over a large tract of 
country, on both sides of tho Genesee river. 
From the nature and proportion of the compo- 
nent parts, which are sand, clay, and lime, 
when decomposed, it forms one of the finest 
wheat soils in the state, and the clay is in suf- 
ficient quantity to make an excellent grazing 
soil, which is not readily affected by the drought 

The wheat brought to this market the pasi 
winter, from those lands, has been superior in 
quality to any other. We would not be un- 
derstood, however, to say that all the lands 
south of Mount Morris, to the Pennsylvania 
line are universally good ; on the contrary, 
there are some wet cold lands, but there is a 
fair proportion of good. 

Above this, and capping the dividing ridge 
between this state and Pennsylvania, is a rock 
formation, which we are notsensiblc has been 
named by geologists. It is a coarse sand rock, 
of a light gray, or flint white, in some locali- 
ties ; in others, it is a conglomerate rock, made 
up of rolled qnart. pebbles, of a snowy white- 
ness, varying in size from a pea to a hen's egg. 
Uoulders, or largo masses of this rock may be 
seen scattered over the country, forty miles 
nonh of the ridge, and it is one of tho purest 
silici his rocks to be found in our country, and 
of course valuable for glass making. 



CHOICE FRUIT. 

It has been gratifying to every friend of Hor- 
ticultnre, for the year past, to notice the zeal 
which has been manifested by our farmers and 
gardeners for introducing into our country eve- 
ry kind of choice fruit, suited to our climate ; 
and to such lengths has this noble emulation 
been carried, that we can now boast of having 
most of the choice and valuable varieties, not 
only of America, but of Europe ; and this has 
been so managed, that the expense has been 
trifling, compared with the benefits which may 
be expected to flow from their introduction. 

We would now remind our readers that the 
best season for transplanting trees is approach- 
ing.and that a tew dollars expended in the pur- 
chase of ohoice varieties, adds more to the 
comfort of a family, and to increase the worth 
of property on which they are planted, than 
double the amount expended in any other im- 
provement. 

For the purpose of facilitating the introduc- 
tion of valuable kinds of fruit and ornamental 
trees, shrubs, plants, roots, or garden seeds, 
of any description, any orders sent to the of- 
fice of the Genesee Farmer will be strictly at- 
tended to, without ,»ny charge for pergonal ser- 
vices ; and any of the above articles will be 
procured from any part of the United States, 
when orders are sent seasonably. When per- 
sons are not acquainted with varieties of fruit, 
an experienced nursery-man will make the se- 
lection, if requested. % 

QtT Catalogues of most of the nurseries may 
be examined at this office. 



WHEAT. 

The Waterloo paper stales, thai upwards of 
100,000 bushels of wheat have been purchased 
in that county during the last six months, a 
great portion of which has been purchased in 
that village. 



DR. EIGHTS' ADDRESS. 



0° Correction of errors in the communi- 
cition on the Early History of the Genesee 
Country. 

In tho Noto on the Military Lands, for "ten 
square miles," road ten miles square. 

In the 3d column, for " 42 miles east of the 
82d mile stone," re»d 42 miles tocst, $-c. 

Toward the close, after "by a Mr Ca 

rev," add at Canaitdfiigita. 



We have read with much pleasure and in- 
struction the able address delivered on the 1st. 
hist, before the New York State Medical Soci- 
ety, by Jonathan Eights, M. D. the president 
thereof, and which is published with the pro- 
ceedings of tho society 

The subject of tho address is Vaccina, Coio 
or Kine Pock, and the manner in which it is 
treated is simple, clear and interesting. We 
should think no one could read it without be- 
ing fully convinced that vaccination, when 
properly administered, is a perfect security 
against small pox infection, and also against 
what is called the varioloid ; and we believe 
that if tho address were generally circulated 
among tho peaple, it would induce a general 
adoption of vaccination, and thus that Joath- 
somo disease, the small pox, would soon be 
known no more. 

The place which tho author held for many 
years, as physician of tho almshouse in this ci- 
ty, gavo him abundant and satisfactory oppol 
tunnies of observing this disease, and ol judg- 
ing of tho effects of vaccination. Among oth - 
er instances, ho mentions onenf a woman who 
had tho small pox and died with it, whose in- 
fant, which had been previously vaccinated, 
was nursed by he, and lay with bet uatil with- 
in two days of her doath, and escaped the con- 
tagion. 

In 1824, the small pox mado its appearance 
in this city, being brought by emigrants from 
Canada. It spread, says the author, with ra- 
pidity, for some lime, until checkod by a gen«[ 
■:ral vaccination, and tho prudent measoresoft 
our coTpor.itiou. Ho s^ys Ire believes there 



never was a greater proof of the preventive 
powers of kine pock th*n during the preva- 
lence of this disease Among all whom he bad 
vaccinated from 1810 to that time, he knows 
of no instance of small pox occurring 

The author satisfactorily accounts for the 
failure of vaccination in some instances, by 
showing that it was either performed by an ig- 
norant person, or that the matter used was 
not genuine ; and to prove his positions, he 
gives several cases which came unaer his own 
observation- 
He remarks — 

" In order to prevent the failure of vaccina- 
tion, it ought to be performed by no person uni 
less a regular physician. It unfortunately has 
been and still is the custom for persons of ev- 
ery grade, of every habit, of 6very occupation, 
men and women, to vaccinate, and with instru- 
ments as rude and as various as tnelr various 
occupations Can it then be a matter of sur- 
prise that failures do take place and that a 
greater havock in human lives does not occur 
during the prevalence of epidemic small pox : 
It bocomeslhen the duty of physicians to make 
themselves thoroughly acquainted with this 
disease, and with all its variations ; to lay aside- 
all sordid views ; to act as men who have the 
health, welfare, and preservation of human 
life only in view, and to consider this as their 
first great object." 

The address contains some remarks oa the 
subject of obtaining and preserving pure vac- 
cine virus ; and mentions the difficulty which 
often occurs of procuring pure virus when 
most wanted. To remedy this serious evil, the 
author suggests the establishment of an insti- 
tution, founded by private association, and de- 
pending on individual support ; or one estab- 
lished, conducted and supported by public pat- 
ronage. He says " an institution under the 
patronage and control of the stale, properly 
conducted, and established on a liberal plan., 
would be a public blessing." 
The address concludes with the following pa- 
ragraph, and it is hoped that the suggestion 
made, may obtain the attention of the legisla- 
ture and induce them to take active means in 
this great causo of humanity. 

'■ Almost all the governments of Eu- 
rope have institutions of this kind. Vac- 
cination is under (he direction, patronage 
and control of the states where they ex- 
ist ; and would not our legislature be con- 
sullina the vital interests of the state, of 
posterity and of mankind, by turning their 
attention to this impo:tant subject ? The 
preservation of health and ihe lives, not 
only of the present generation, but of un- 
born thousands, is certainly of as much 
importance as any subject that can en- 
gross their time or their attention. "-[Alb 
Dai. Adv. 



CARPET WEAVING. 

The business of manufacturing Carpets in 
this country, has not existed much beyond 
f our years, and yet with such signal soccees 
has it been prosecuted, and so good ate tliear 
ticlos made, that the domestic manufacture! 
have sopercedetl the foreign ones, and. they 
are now almost excluded Horn the market. — 
One of the principal establishments in this., 
country far weaving carpets, is at TanflViJIe, 
Connecticut, about eleven miles north west of 
Harlfoid, on the lTarraiugton river ; there aie 
four other establishments of equal magnitude 
in this country, namely. Enfield, Lowell, Great 
Falls, and Harghts, near New York, which 
supply the American market, and are aJmit- 
ted by the most prejudiced indtartduaU, to be 
qua! to the best imported. 

The village ol Tariffville is wholly suppor- 
ted by ftie Carpet Factffry.foiuTnlJelstreiweef; 



Vol. I.— No. 10. 



AND GARDENER'S JOURNAL. 



79 



llnee and lour hundied individuals ; the Fac- 
tory buildings consist of asoacious five story 
stone mill and a stone dye house ; a weaving 
house, machine shop and six oilier vvoodon 
buildings connected willi the woiking depart. 
inents; there are sixteen dwelling houses, be- 
sides taverns, stores, mechanic's shops, and 
other buildings attached to the establishment. 
It employs ti3 males and 42 females, and pays 
out annually, for labor and fuel, about $25. 
000 : the quantity of wool used yearly amounts 
tu 150,000 pounds, and much of it is brought 
from Soulh America and '.lie Mediterranean ; 
about 100,000 yards of Carpeting are manu- 
factured annually, and Ihe capital invested a 
mounts to upwards of $100,000. 

This estalbishment has seen in operation on- 
ly about three years, and has already an es 
tablished reputation for the beauty and dura- 
bility of its Carpets. The process of weaviug 
is singularly intricate and perplexing, partic. 
ularly the formation of thefiguies and the in- 
termingling of the various colors and timings ; 
this operation is performed entirely by males, 
principally Scotchmen, whose skill and expe 
i ience cannot be surpassed scarcely inEurope. 
The high price of .vool has tended to enhance 
the value of American Carpeting, but when 
our farmers turn their attention to the more 
general growing of wool, we may expect a 
vast quantity ol money will be liept ai home 
and the price of American Carpets piopor 
tinnally reduced, — Northampton Courier. 



SEWS OP THE WEEK. 



AMERICAN TARIFF. 

One effect of this measure ha9 been the im- 
portation of English yarn into the U. States, 
instead of eloth. Formerly we exported vast 
quantities of cloths'lo America, but the duty 
imposed by the tariff is now, including freight. 
&c. 1 8d per yard, and we send them the yarn 
to make them of in the dyed state Immense 
quantities of cotton, linen worsted and wool 
len yarns are now exported from England, 
and woven in foreign countries, in some of 
which the power-loom is in full operation. — 
Leeds Mercury. 

ANOTHER RESTITUTION. 

The comptroller of this state, has received 
an anonymous letter by the western mail, en- 
closing thirty five dollars, and containing the 
following words ; — " This money belongs to 
the canal fund — you will please appropriat 
it accordingly " 

NEWSPAPERS IN OHIO. 

The Zanesville Republican contains a list 
of all the newspapers and periodicals now pub 
lished in Ohio, giving the names of the pub 
hshers or editors, the size, and location o 
each. It appears from this that there are 101 
newspapers and five monthly journals now 
published in this state. 



A counterfeiter, calling himself Robert Gray, 
has been arrested in Vargennes, Vt. In his 
wao-on was found a roll of $1,800 in spurious 
bills— $1,000 on Geneva Bank, N. Y. about 
$500 on Rutland Bank, and $200 on the Uni 
ted States Bank, Philadelphia. He was on 
his way from Canada to New York. — Counter- 
feit Detector. 

The Naval Court Martial, lately sitting for 
the trial o! Co'rmodorp Creighton, at Phila- 
delphia, adjourned last Thursday, sine die. 

ST. JOSEP1I LAND OFFICE. 

The law having passed establishing a land 
office iu the St. Joseph country in Michigan, 
the president has appointed the lion. Abraham 
Edwards, register. Emigrants to the St. Jo 
seph country will no longer be under the ne- 
cessity of travelling 150 or 200 miles to enter 
their land at Detroit or Monroe. — Buff. Rep. 

IMPRISONMENT FOR DEBT. 

Abill abolishing imprisonment for debt was 
passed in in the Senate of Maryland on Thurs- 
day last. 

EXPLOSION. 

On the 24th ult. at 6 o'clock, P. M. one of 
the graining mills attached to the powder works 
belonging to Mr. Rogers^ at Newburgh, explo- 
ded, and killed one man, Francis Murfey, who 
was in it at the time. No other person was in- 
jured, and no damage of consequence done to 
any of the other buildings. There are no ap 
parent grounds from which to explain the cause 
of the accident. 

BRIDGE GONE 

The Bridge across the Gensee ftiver near 
Capt. Jones', between Geneseo and Leicester 
wascarried away by the ice and high-water, 
on the 4th inst. The Geneseo Journal of 
Wednesday, says — The water in the river is 
now high, overflowing the flats in some places ; 
and the river is completely dammed up with 
rce for several miles, opposite this town. 

SINGULAR EIRTH. 

A poor woman, in the vicinity cf Winchester, 
was on Tuesday safely delivered of twins, uni- 
. ted to each other precisely in the same man- 
ner as the Siamese youths, who have excited 
sueh curiosity in the metropolis. 



NEW CATALOGUE.— PRICES REDUCED. 

Linnaan Botanic Garden and Nurseries, at Fluslting, 
near NeicYork. 

WM. PRINCE &. SONS, proprietors of this establish 
moot, now annouuce that the great extension made in 
ihcir establishment, which now covers nearly, 50 acres 
compactly filled with the choicest Trees, Shrnlts, &c. 
has enabled them to reduce the prices for various kinds ; 
and their new Catalogue with the reduced prices will be 
speedily presented to the public, when it may be ob 
tained of the various agents, or by application to them 
selves direct by mail. The greatest attention and the 
strictest scrutiny have heeu exercised in regard to the 
quality and accuracy of their Trees, and they are of a 
larger size than at any previous period Aware that the 
establishment of Nurseries in every part of our country 
would be a national advantage, they will furnish all sup- 
plies in such cases at a liberal discount, and at a credit 
to comport with the convenience of the purchasers. Any 
information desired will be furnished by return mail, to 
those who desire it, and all orders rye. will receive the 
accustomed attention end despatch. - 

Those who desire any additional information respect 
ing the establishment, or who wish to send orders for 
Trees, Shrubs, etc are requested to call on A. REY- 
NOLDS, in the Arcade, first door below the Post Office 
who is an authorized agent of the establishment. 
. Rochester, March 12th, 1831. F2t 



ROCHESTER PRICES CURRENT. 

March 11, 1831. 

The Wheat Market — Owing to the late 
news from Europe, there has been considera- 
ble business done in wheat, the week past ; se- 
veral large lots have been bought, and prices 
have rather improved, although we quote the 
same as the week before. Several contracts 
have been made for delivery in June and July 
as high as $1 09, in lots of from five to ten 
thousand bushels. 



POTATO-ONIONS. 

SOME of these onions have been left with the Pub- 
lisher of the Farmer, for sale, by Mr. Barker. (See Far- 
mer no 7, page 51, for directions for cultivating them.) 

GARDEN SEEDS. 

THE subscribers arc now ready to receive the spring 
orders of their customers, having received by the Sove- 
reign, from London, and by arrivals from France and 
Mollaud, a choice assortment of Garden, Field »fc. Flow- 
er seeds— among which, are many fine sorts of early 
Cabbage ; early and late Cauliflower ; purple Cape Uro 
jeole ; early scarlet Radish ; Mangel Wurzell : Sir John 
Sinclair's new Silver Beets, (a very luxuriant and valu- 
I able vegetable); Bishop's early Dwarf Prolific Peas, 
[75 cents per quart. These peas need no recommenda- 
tion ; many who liad them last season attest to their su- 
perior quality — they were introduced by a Scotch Gar- 
dener, named Bishop, 1827, in London, and so great 
was their reputation, that they sold for one guinea pel- 
pint ; they are remarkably early, very productive, and 
grow only twelve inches high — should be planted three 
inches spart, as they spread like a fan ; they commence 
blooming when only three inches high. 

Also, a few pounds superior white Mulberry Seed, 
growth J 830, price 30 cents per oz. or 6 dolls, per pound; 
Perenniil Rye Grass ; Orchard Grass ; fine early Pota- 
toes ; Eijglish Windsor Beans ; Green Nonpareil Beans. 
&c. eye. 

Bird Seed of every sort ; fresh Embdon Grotts ; Oat 
Meal ; Bsrley Meal ; Rice Flour ; Shaker's Parched 
Corn ; Medicinal Herbs ; Barks and Rools in great va- 
riety. 

Also, 41 bushels fine white Mustard Seed, received by 
the Columbia and Hudson, le.te tendon arrivals ; this 
Seed was selected expressly for Medicine — is quite free 
of dust ami impurity 
Gentlemen supplied with Gardeners.by the day.monUj 
G. THORBURN & SONS. 
67 Liberty street, New York, 



Ashes per 2240 lbs 

Pot $91a92 50 

Pearl 100<tl02 50 

Apples per bushel 31n50 

Do dried 75 

Bris-tles.CQinb'd per lb 20a31 

Beeswax do 18a20 

Butter do 10o,12 

Beef— Mess per bbl $8o9 

Do prime do 5a7 

Do fresh per lb 02o03 

Barley per bushel 38a44 

Beans do 50a62 

Candles, mould per lb 9 cts 

Do dipped do 8 

Do sperm do 28 

Com per bushel 50n56 

Cheese per lb 04a05 

Clover Seed per bush $4 50 

Flour per bbl 5 50 

Flax per lb 07a08 

Flax Seed per bush ' 78a8' 

Feathers per lb 31n37 

Furs— Otter 100«400 

Fox, red 5Ua75 



Mink 12»31 

Raccoon 18a31 

Martin 25<t02 

Fisher 3*a50 

WildCot leo2G 

GrayFox 18a25 

Grass Seed per bush 62 

Hops per lb 12aJf> 

Honey do 09 

Lard do 06o07 

Mutton do 02o03 

Mustard Seed per bush &3 

Oats per bush 25a31 

Old Pewter, Brass and 

Copper per lb 14 

Peaches, dry'd bush 100a20O 
Pork, mess per bbl S12ul3 



Fox, cross 



Do prime 

Do fresh per lb 
Quills per 100 
Rye per bush 
Rags per lb 
Salt per bbl 
Tallow per lb 
Wheat per bush 



8«9 
03oll4 
25«30 

r,n<i5c 

03«04 
$1 75 
0fia07 
109«11 



lOOaSOOlBurkwheuiflour.cwt. $1 75 



METEOROLOGICAL TABLE, 

for the week ending March 5, 1831. 



Ther Baromet'r J Winds 



40 22 

42-12 



54i:» 

56 46 

3|42]40 

4 50 50 

5|44l34 



29,82 
■39,08 
29,74 



29,75 w 
29,64 se 
29.65 U to 
29,44 29,25s 20 
29,45|29,60 to 
29,35 29,30 \s w 
29,55l29,65iw 



« e 

s e 
.* to 
s to 

I to 
a to 
!to 



Weather 


"0 


"0 
"0 


a 


1= S 










i 








1 
1 










1 
1 
1 


1 


1 



Observa'h..-. 



No sleigh- 
1-2 in. rain 
gr'd bare 



XTTke Baromktrical and Tkermometrical observa- 
tions are registered at 10 o'clock A M. and P. M-, which 
by along series of experiments made for the pvrpose, 
show that time to give a nearer meat average of flit 
relative heat of a day than any other time. 

* Temp, in sun 114 deg.; in shade, CO deir. 2 o'clock- 



BANK NOTE TABLE. 

Corrected Weekly for the Rochester Daily Advertiser, 



or year. 
Feb. 2&-G F w 



NEW YORK. 

All banks in this state, par, 
except the following 
BrokeuBanks. ^Fashing- 
ton & Wau-en, Barker's Ex 
change, Franklin Bank, Mid- 
dle Dist., Columbia, Greene 
County, Marble Manuf. Co., 
Pittsburgh, and Niagara. 
MASSACHUSETTS. 
Al banks in this 6tate, par, 
except l!ie following 
Broken Banlta. Farmers' 
b'uk of Belchertowu, Sutton, 
Berkshi c, Essex and Brigh- 
ton banks. 

VERMONT. 
All banks io this stale, par 

UHODE-ISLAND 

All batiks in this state, par 

except the following 

Broken Banks Farmers' 

Exchange, and Farmers' & 

Mechanics' banks. 

CONNECTICUT- 
All brinks in this state, par 
except the fellowing 
Broken Banks. Fugle, 
Eagle pav'Me at Union bank 
New-Vor'k, Derby, and Der- 
by payable at Fulton bank 
New-Vork. 

NEW-HAMPSHIRE. 
All banks in this state, par. 

MAINE. 

All banks in this stale, par. 

except the following 

Broken BajiJcs. Castiue 



samaqnoddv banks. 

NEW-JERSEY. 

State b'nk, &, Trenton Bank- 

_ Company, par '. 

All other banks, 2 per cent 3 

except the following 
Broken Banks. Salem A. 
Phil. Manuf Co., Moamoutli, 
Hoboken and Grazing Co., 
N. Jersey Manuf. & Banking 
Co. at Hoboken, Slate Bank 
;it Trenton, Protection and 
Lombard, and Jersev City. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 
Philadelphia Banks, par. 
All other banks, %per cent, 

except the following 
Broken Banks. Farmers' 
& Mechanics' atN. Sa., Cen- 
tre, Huntington, Meadvllle, 
Marietta, Juniata, Grecncas- 
tle, Bedford, Beaver, Wash- 
ington. Uniontown, Agricul 
tural.Sil. Lake, Westmore- 
land al Grecnburgh, New- 
Hope Bridge Co new emis- 
sion, and Brownvilc banks. 

OHIO. 
AJIbnnks, 4 to G per cent, 

MICHIGAN. 
All banks, 2 per cent, 

except the foUowing 
Broken Bank3. Monroej 
and Detroit. 

CANADA. 
All banks, 2 f o 3 per cent, 

except the 



Upper Cana. at Kingston . 
Wiscasset, Hallowell & Au-land Unchartered banks, 
gusta, Kennebec, and Pas-| 

XT The above ta.ble when speaking of foreign Bills, re 
fers to those of $5,and over, asnone of a lessdenomin 
ntion arc receivable. 



MO 



THE GENESEE FARMER. 



March 12, 1S31 



misceiaaneous. 



there's music in a mother's voice. 
There's music in a mother's voice, 

More sweet than breezes sighing ; 
There's kindness in a mother's glance, 

Too pure for ever dying. 

There's love within smother's breast, 
So deep, 'tis still o'er flowing, 

And care for those she calls her own, 
That's ever, ever growing. 

There's anguish in a mother's tear, 
When farewell fondly taking, 

That so the heart of pity moves, 
It scarcely keeps from breaking. 

And when a mother kneels to Heaven, 

And for the child is praying, 
Oh, who shall half the fervor tell 

That burns in all she's saying ! 

A mother ! how her tender arts 
Can soothe the breast of sadness, 

And through the gloom of life once more 
Bid shine the sun of gladness. 

A mother ! when, like the evening's 6tar, 
Her course hath ceased boforo us, 

From brighter worlds regards us still, 
And watches fondly o'er us. 



Extract from an Address, delivered be- 
fore Ihe Massachusetts Charitable 
Mechanic Association, October 7th, 
lS30,by Joseph T. Buckingham, Esq. 
"Give me whereon to stand, exclaim- 
ed Archimedes, and with my lever I will 
move the world. The mechanics of 
these free and independent states can do 
as much ; they can make as proud a 
boast as the Grecian philosopher, and 
they are not, like him, without a sale po 
sitton on which to plant themselves,while 
they put the power into operation. The 
influence they possess as a body, is daily 
increasing. An awakening spirit is a 
broad among them, and stirring tbem up 
to the establishment of schools, lyceums 
and institutions for purposes of education 
and for uniting and directing their ener- 
gies to the advancement of literature, 
arts and sciences. The highest honor 
of a mechanic, or any other man, con- 
sists in the cultivation of his mind ; be- 
cause it is mind that contnls and directs 
eyery thing else. It is mind that pur- 
sues, preserves, Bnd enjoys happiness ; 
it is mind alone, of all earthly posses- 
ions, which is eternal , mind is the onlv 
attribute of our nature which exalts us 
to the likeness of our Maker — the only 
one in which the image of God is reflec- 
ted. 

"It is the mind that makes the body 
rich.'' It is wisdom and understanding 
that makes the man independent. Igno 
ranee is of all slavery the most degra- 
ding. Chains and fetters may bo made 
of gold as well as of iron, but neither 
ihe one nor the other can keep down the 
energies of an intelligent, well cultivated, 
independent mind, — a mind trained in the 
school of virtue, and imbued with princi- 
ples of honesty, integrity, firmness, and 
that self-love which forms the basis of 
the social system. The power of such 
a spirit is uncontrolable and unlimited ; 



its elasticity can no more be subdued 
than that of the vital fluid which sustains 
its physical organization. Prison walls 
cannot confine it, nor mountains nor 
seas set bounds to its operations. 

"Do yoo ask what is Ihe evidence to 
support so broad an assertion, look at 
your own doors. Look at your public 
school houses, which from year to year, 
send forth their hundreds of boys and 
gifis, instructed in all the elements of all 
that is indispensable, and of much that 
may be superfluous in education, forming 
a basis on which they may build a fabric 
of moral and intellectual power, which 
no commotion can place in jeopardy, no 
revolution can overturn or destroy. — 
Look at your infant schools where wo- 
man—the first and best instructor of hu- 
man ignorance — the first and last suppor- 
ter of human weakness — the purest and 
noblest nourisher of the human affections 
-waits and watches for the develope- 
ment of the yet unformed idea, and from 
the instant of its birth nurses it in ten- 
derness, and trains it with fidelity, till it 
shall acquire strength and firmness to be 
handed over to its ruder teacher, man. — 
Cast your eyes back only for a few days, 
and see your spacious common, crowd- 
ded with the beautiful, the innocent, iho 
wondering, ihe inquiring young, wiiose 
intelligent eyes asked of every passer-by 
in that splendid pageantry which marked 
your centennial festival, "what mean ye 
by this service and these testimonies V — 
Look on these things, and ask yourselves 
if you do not perceive in tbem the work- 
ings of a restless, deathless spirit of in- 
dependence — the glimmering of an un- 
quenchable spark of patriotism, which ti 
breath can raise to a flame — the con- 
sciousness of an indestructible and ev- 
er active mind, susceptible of all that 
is great, good, or elevated and honorable 
— an earthly essence that may be pre- 
pared lor weal or wo — a blessing or a 
cuisp, to itself and to all surrounding ex- 
istence." 

SELECTED FOR THE GENESEE FARMER. 
AN ACCOUNT 

Of a remarkable species of men, two liundred 
leagues from the country of the Hurons. 
A man who had rambled and travelled a- 
bout the world for many years, at length re 
turned to his native country — his friends flock- 
ed to welcome him, and every one expressed 
their jov to see him returned safe and sound, 
and after the mutual salutations were out, 
each wa* desirous he should recount some of 
his adventures, and give them a history of the 
wonders he had seen. 

The budget of miracles was presently open- 
ed, and among many others, hoPecouuted the 
following : " You well know my friends, the 
prodigious distance from ihis country to that 
inhabited by the tlnrons, well, two bandied 
leagues froth that country I saw societies of 
nea whose actions appeared very siugular to 
me. I'hey would often sit around \ tabie 
whole nights and days, though there r/as ne 
cloth laid, or any thing for them to oat, the 
thunder might roll over their heads, two ar 
mies might fight by ttwir sides, the beavens 



might menace ruin without making them quit 
their places, or giving them the least distur* 
bance; they appeared to be deef and dumb. — 
From time to time you might hear them uttei 
some badly articulated sounds, which had no 
connection with the business they were about, 
they ofien turned their eyes to some part ol 
the company in a strange manner, and made 
singular motions with their hands — looking 
with the most overpowering intensity on some 
little machines or images before (hem, 1 often 
looked at them with astonishment, for they 
were generally surrounded with spectator? 
who took no part in their orgies, but seemed as 
intently engaged as the sitters, and believe 
me my friends I shall never forget the trou. 
bled countenances which I have seen on these 
occasions, despair, rage, and sometime malig- 
nant joy, blended with mad inquietude were 
by turns depicted on their haggard counte 
nances, anon, with horrid blasphemies, thev 
exhibited the rage of Eurnonides, then the se- 
rious and sullen air of the infernal judges, and 
then the pangs of a malefactor going to the 
gibbet " 

But said our traveller's friends, "what had 
these onhappy creatures in view ? were they 
laboring for the public good?" No— '• VVeie 
they searching for the philosophers s'onef" — 
It was not that — " U was the quadratum of the 
circle or |the purpetnal motion. 1 ' — Still less — 
" Ah ! mo have it, they were performing pen 
ance for their crimes." — You are mistakes 
again — "Why then you have been telling us 
about a set of madmen or fools, without hear- 
ing, speaking, taste, or feeling, what could 
they be doing?" — They were civilized men in 
a christian country, gambling. 

HONEY LOCUST BEEK. 

Recipe. — Take one bushel of honey locus; 
seeds and pods, when about ripe, break tbem. 
put them into a barrel, and fill it with boiling 
water ; let il stand until milk warm, then add 
a pint of good yest. Put in the bung lightly, 
until fermentation is nearly over, then rack 
off, as with cider, when clear, bottle it and 
wire the corks. When kept a few months it 
is equjl to sparkling champaigne. It can be 
used in two days after it is made — Western 
Tiller. 

CULTURE OF SILK. 

Judge Spencer of Now York has made va- 
rious appeals to the House of Representatives 
to take up for consideration (be bill to promote 
the growth and manufacture of silk. The 
importance of this object has. as we learn from 
a Washington paper, strongly impressed, not 
only the learned and respectable Chairman erf 
the Select Committee by which the bill was 
reported, but also a great many of the most 
reflecting of the members ; and it is greatly 
to be regretted that every effort to reach it liar 
been vainly made. We annually export mil- 
lions for the purchase of foreign silks ; while 
for a Pingle appropriation of about one-fiftieth 
or one-sixtieth o( that annual expenditure, we 
might, as is averred, secure a home manufac- 
tured fabric, the material of which might be 
produced on our own soil, and the" reeling, 
weaving, and dying of which may be perform- 
ed by our own labor. It was hoped that a 
more successful effort would be made by Judge 
Spencer on Saturday, to induce the House to 
consider this interesting subject. 



THE G E I* E S K H PARMER 

AND GARDENER'S JOURNAL. 

Denoted ioA£ricnlturo. Horticulture, Domestic Econo 
my, Sic. Ac. 
Published on Saturdays, at $2 58 per annum, 
payable in six months, or at $2 00, it paid at the 
lime of subscribing, by Luther Tdcker, at 
the oflice of the Rochester Daily Advctflfccr. 



VOLUME 1. 



ROCHESTER, MARCH 19, 1831. 



IN UMBER 11- 



THE GENESEE FARMER 

AND GARDENER'S JOURNAL. 
Devoted to Agriculture. Horticulture, Domestic Ecouo 
my. itc. lie. 
Published on Saturdays, at $2 50 per annum. 
payable in six months, or at $2 00, if paid at ilie 
lime of subscribing, by Luther Tucker, at 
rfio office of the Rochester Daily Advertiser. 



3f. GOODSELL, EDITOR. 



COHiaiXJaTICATIOiWS. 



FOR TUB GENESEE FARMER. 

I was gratified by the editorial remarks in 
number 4, on the opinion that the life of a 
grafted tree is dependant on the life of the o- 
riginal seedling whence the graft had been ta 
ken; that the graft, lioicever vigorous may be 
the slock on which it stands, wilt not long sur- 
vive its -parent tree ; and that it is unsafe to 
set grafts loilhout first knowing that the ori- 
ginal seedling remains in a healthy condition. 
Not believing in this matter, I was pleased to 
find a coincidence of sentiment in one so expe- 
rienced as the writer of that article. 

In the manner of discussing subjects of this 
nature, I have sometimes seen much that was 
improper. Some people seem to think it 
a personal affront if another holds a different 
opinion, as if none had eyes to observe, or a 
right to judge, but themselves ; yet which of 
their/newt's does not differ from them in some 
point of the wide circle of speculative opinion i 
J mako these remarks partly in reference to 
the ill-humor that stained some columns of the 
American Farmer, a few years ago, in a des- 
cant on this very subject. Abuse is seldom 
employed but where argument is wanting. 

Among those who assert that a tree only 
Jives through adeterviinate pcriod,havc appea- 
red men of great eminence. Thomas Andrew 
Knight, the venerable pres't o{ the Horticultu- 
ral Society of London, has distinguished him 
self on this side, and has brought in its favour 
all the weight of a great name. However, 
i hough we are bound to receive his opinions 
with duo respect, we are not bound to surren 
der our own. 

The duration of some plants is very clearly 
defined. The life of the annual, and of the 
biennial, can only be prolonged by preventing 
them fcom seeding, by torpor from cold, by 
debility induced by heat, by excision of the 
H*ing 6tem, or by a division of the plant. The 
imperfect perennial is of more uncertain dura- 
tion, and ceases to vegetate when the dead 
■parts ot the plant, annually accumulating, pre- 
vent the extensien of vigorous fibres. 

In regard lo perfect perennials, Ihe learned 
and scientific Mir,bel remarks, that " a due 
Consideration leads us to distinguish — the new 
part which actually lives and grows, from the 
old part which has ceased to grow, and is dead. 
When vegetation revives in the woody plant, 
on the return of spring, it is because a new li- 
ber, endowed with all the p'roperties of a young 
herbaceous plant, has replaced under the cor- 
fex or rind, the liber of the preceding year, 
which has hardened and become wood. 

" The Yews of Surrey, which are supposed 
Co have stood from the time of Julius Caesar, 
and are now two yards in diameter ; the Cedars 
on !\J.ount Lebanon, nine yards in girth ; the fig 
free of Malabar, usuallf from sixteen ts seven 
teon yards round ; the stupendous chesnuts 
On M"unt JEtna, one of which measured 17 
yaixis in circumference ; the Ceibas of the eas. 
?e»n cotfst of Africa, o' 6UcJi bulk and height 
that a single stick is capable of being transfor 
med into a periogua or sailing vessel, c*f eigh- 
ffeen or twenty yajds from stem to stern, and 
of three or four yards in the waist ; the baobab 
of Senegal, of ten or twelve yards in girth, 
•2~.? c0 "!^' n S5 to 'he computation of Adamson 



•Hm M C0G0 years ! old . d h at^gimtis.as t/tey IfrASBtorf&S ^/vbSVff^ 



are, vegetate as does the humblest bush, solely 
by the thin herbaceous layer of the liber, annu 
ally produced at the inner surface of theb 
bark. The concentric layers of preceding libers 
constitute the, mass of the wood, a lifeless ske 
leton, serving solely to snppert the new formed 
parts, and to conduct to them the juices by 
which they are fed ; nor is it even necessary 
for these functions, that this should be in an 
entire state. Willows and chesnuts,* when 
quite hollow at the heart, still continue to grow 
with vigour; but in their soundest state, strip 
them of their bark, and they quickly perish 

" The liber which is formed on the stem of 
a tree of centuries old, if the tree has met 
with no accidental injury to affect its health, 
enjoys the vegetative power in as full forco as 
the liber which is formed on that of the sap- 
ling ; and that a sound well grown scion from 
the aged but healthy tree, affords as good a 
cutting for propagation as that taken from the 
young one, so that the race might be perpetua 
led by cuttings alone, without the assistance 
of seeds. 

" From this we are entitled to conclude thai 
according to the course of Nature, the prog- 
ress of regeneration by continuous evolution, 
would never be arrested, if the overgrown size 
of the branches and stem, the hardening of 
the wood, and the obstructions of the chan- 
nels that penetrate it, did not impede the cir- 
culation ot the sap, and consequently its ac- 
ctss to the liber. 

In fine, what we call death by old age, in a 
tret, to speak correctly, is the extinction of 
that portion of a race which has been carried 
on by continuous evolution ; the inevitable re 
suit of an incdental death in the liber, occa- 
oned by the privation of nourishment." 
These extracts present to my mind, a clear 
view of the subject in controversy. I have not 
been able to discover why a scion taken from » 
healthy tree, and grafted on a healthy stock of 
its own kind, should not produce healthy and 
vigorous branches ; nor why this operation 
may not be continually and successfully re- 
peated for centuries. 

The only cause of death that I can discern, 
belongs to incidental diseases, arising from 
unfavorable localities, climates, &c. Like o- 
ther organized bodies, plants are subject to 
constitutional injuries, — witness the white or 
yellow blotches in the holly, the box and the 
jasmine ; or the yellows in the peach tree ; 
nd if a diseased scion be grafted, that debility 
may extend through all its branches and rami- 
fications ; but a scion selected while the parent 
was in health, cannot be affected by the disease 
which that parent may afterwards contract. 

It is probably that scions of tho same tree, 
taken to different countries, may continue 
healthy and productive in one climate, and be- 
come diseased and worthless in another. I 
doabt not indeed, but some kinds are no lon- 
ger worth cultivating ; but if this be fully pro- 
ved, it by no ujetms affects or impairs the gen- 
eral proposition, that no lurking principle of 
ieath exists in a healthy tree. 

It may be fairly questioned, however, whe- 
ther those are qualified to determine the dura- 
tion of a plant, who only observe it as an ex- 
otic sxurcety acclimated — or at lea.-t scarcely 
bringing its fruit to perfect maturity for years 
in succession. Yet sush is the sta,te of the 
apple tree, in England, if we may place confi- 
dence in some accounts written and published 
n that country. I give one extract : 

"The apple has of late years scarcely ripen- 
ed. Indeed, we are informed upon good au- 
thority, that it is now [1818] sixteen years 
since the orchards have afforded a plentiful 
orop."( 

Jntrys ■fioimti'y trie Bullt/i icood una tire senir guiii, 
are tjtitt more rejnurkable examples. 
t Journal of Science and the Arts, ertite'd at trtfi Jl'oy-. 



And this accords with their importations of 
American apples, and with their ideas of the 
rich treat, which our apples afford. 

' I have seen an apple tree one hundred 
years old, still thrifty and vigorous. When 
the upper branches became mossy and died, 
the wood was so brittle as to be broken off by 
high winds; an opening was made fur new- 
branches, which rose and fell in suecessionf 
while the canker which began in the twigs o 
its surrounding contemporaries, spread down 
to the roots and destroyed them. Now if no 
storms had arisen to trim the old tree, and if. 
had died of canker, would its grafts ten miles 
off have died at the same time V 

It may bo said this would have been a case 
of incidental death, and not a death by oldaoe. 
With this opinion I would concur. 

One writer in favor of rejecting grafted trees 
of established reputation, proposed to select 
scions from seedlings not more than twenty or 
thirty years oid, evidently because older trees 
have only a short remnant of existence. In 
Lawrence's Treatise on Gardening, printed in 
1717, however, I find tho following varieties 
mentioned, which appear to be still in high re- 
pute; and I can attest that many of them in 
my grounds, even at this distant period, show 
no symptoms of decline. How old these va- 
rieties were at that time, I have not discover- 
ed; but it is remarkable that the Old Kewing- 
ton Peach was then called old. 

Pears — Windsor, Summer bon Chretien, Ver* 
te tongue, Rovsselet, Bergamot, Swan's Egg, 
Winter Thorn, Pound, St. Germaine, St. Catha- 
rine, Spanish bon Chretien, Colmar, Ambrettc 
Winter bon Chretien. [Buree du roy, Chrysan 
and Black Pear of Worcester.are also named.]* 
Cherries — May Duke, Orleans, Morello. 
(common Flemish also named.)* 

Plums — Drop of gold, Mrlonum bonum, Foth- 
erjng[bam], Orleans, Muscle, Roch Courbon, Vi- 
olet, Royale, White Perdrigon, Blue Perdrigon-* 
Damascene, (Queen Mother, and pear plum; 
also named.)* 

Apricots, — Masculine, Orange, (No other 
named.) 

Peaches— While Magdalen, Minion, [Mig- 
non ?] Old Ntwington, Admirable, Chevreux, 
[Nivet, also uamed.)* 

Nectarines — Red Roman, (the only one na- 
med. EP No list of apples was given.) 

Although Ieaunot adopt the hypothesis that 
the graft and its parent tree must perish near 
the same time ; yet if we owe to this notion 
the plan of originating new varieties of fruit, and 
tUepcrseveraJicew'ilh which it has been so suc- 
cessfully oondacted by President Knight, and 
Professor Va:i Mons, we can scarcely regret 
the speculative error, so great has been ttieprac* 
tieal good ; for theirs indeed, rank among tire 
great achievements of horticultural science. 
D. T. 



Which I have not noticed in modani catalogues* 

RHUBARB AND SEA-KJVkJE. 

The season has arrived to commence the forcing- 
and blanching of these fine garden productions. 
Put three or four barrels, divested of one hend>, 
or having no head, over so many stools of rhu- 
barb (pie-plant.) and sutrouad and eover them 
with recent stable or horse dung. The neat» 
generated by the fermentation of the manure 
will cause the plants to grow vigorously, and 

n from U to 5J8 days they will have reached 
the top of the cask, when the stocks may Ue 

akenofffor pies and tarts. 

Sea Kale may he forced in tlie s-ame way, 
taking small boxes, pots or kegs, to place o>er 
the plants, and taking care not lv give too in*ich 
heat. To blanch Qhly, the stools shoujd be 
covered with close pots, or wi'h a small pyra. 
mid of sand. The rhubarb reVju-ire* a rich 

oil. The sea-kale is finest ttpop a l%ht__sa.rid» 
without manure. B. 

MarchU. 1881. 



S2 



THE GENESEE FARMER. 



March 10, 1831. 



FOB THE GENESiS FARMER 

Mr. Editor— In your number for February 



done • Let a large hole be made, two and a,l this neighbourhood. Yes, it may have been 
half or :lirce feet across, and nearly tbe same! ignorance, but he made it profitable at my ex- 
let the bottom soil be thrown out, andj pense. 



06 rram pleased ,o observe that you have depth; ^ ^^XZ^T^vU^^-V^e^ o( P ^s ordered, but not sent, h. 
t ake'n Lice of the lis. of trees and shrubs, film ^^M^»^^^,&] pac ked several kinds .. ordered, charged a 
and hope to . have your rem* to wbtc you *<%fi™ ™ «e of you b g 



seem to promise; you will, however, please to^mou 
observe, ihat the list I furnished is not to be 
considered as containing all the known irees 
and shrubs, native of this country, but mere- 
ly a list in answer to n correspondent in the 
New York Farmer, who requested a list o 
things for ornamenting his place. Inisvvill 
account for the omission of some tilings you 
mention as native of the Genesee Country. 

You notice the omission ot Acer nigrum 
This species of maple is not common about 
here, and shows the utility that may be deri- 
ved from giving the description of the native 
plants and trees of the neighborhood where 
we reside, so that exchanges may bo made of 
seeds from one place to another, to m""ial 
benefit, and to the dissemination j f useiul 
knowledge ; I hope others will do tho same. 

You proceed to observe Fraxinus quad- 
ranaularis, (blue ash,; which you justly ob- 
serve is a fine stately tree. This tree also is 
properly a tree of the western states and ra- 
ther a stranger here. The Pinuspendula, is 
here called black larch and Tamarack, and is 
found in various sicamps from Jersey to Carta 
da The Pinus microcoria is a more northern 
and highland subject, and said to grow north] 
as far as Hudson's Bay, and on mountains of! 
New York .nd Pennsylvania; this is called 
• he red larch, arid it may he that you call ii 
Tamarack also; would it not be wonh while 
to examine if it is not the Pinus Pendula that 
grows in the swamps and the P. microcuffa- 
that grows on the driest hills, as you say that 
the P.\M- grows " equally well in deep swamps 
and on life driest hills." This last species | 
is not to be met with round here. I am sur- 
prised at your last paragraph, that you have] 
not been successful in transplanting the weep- 
ing willow ; but yuu have succeeded without 
tings of it. In my opinion no treo will trans- 
plant better or surer. But U not this riddle 
solved by your assertion in a former para- 
graph—" I have observed that some shrubs 
planted in autumn, weakened by lacerated 
roots and branchc-6. have perished in winter." 
Would it not have been better not to have the 
roots and branches lacerated 7 Autumn plant- 
in^ was not tbe cause of the death of the 
shrubs : it is not the winter that hills autumn 
planted shrubs ; it is the spring that kills them. 
tf this assertion should surprise you, I will ex 
plain : . 

A treo planted in the fall, the earth having 
been loosened by digging out the holo to re- 
ceive it, although the earth might be settled 
well down with the foot, pretty firm, as it ought 
lo he in tlie planting, yet the winter frost will 
penetrate deep ; and the consequence will be, 
that when the frost goesout in i lie spring, the 
"round will be raised, and the roots of the tree 
up along with it. having no firm hold in the I 
"round "and if Buffered to remain so will die. 
?t is a settled principle with Gardeners, that if 
the roots are not Grm to the soil, but are loose 
with hollows round the roots, the tree or plunl 
cannot thrive. Even if it should not dio imme- 
diately, it will go off in tbe summer Tu 
•niard against this evil, remember that <i/7 trees 
planted in the fall ought lo be carefully exa- 
mined in tho spring. 

As soon as the frost is out of the ground let 
ttieui be well trod down, as firm with the foot 
:rs oossible. and if large to be well staked and 
(ied, with soft matting or swingle tow, to 
•prevent the winds from moving them about — 
ftsamine them also after heavy rains, and sol- 
do them down with the foot, and if tho tree 
has bein Mowed on one side, set it up atonoo, 
j n ij suffer no holes to admit air lo the roots. 
Bxecpt these precautions are observed, it will 
he ot little use to plant in the fall, or spring ei- 
ther. 
Anolltcr observation on pfantTng, and I have 



he 

t 

er 

This was a piece of 



trouble to procure two or three loads, to be I had those kinds or not. 
ready to give each treo a good wheelbarrow supreme impudence 

full. Lefthe hole be raised higher in the mid- J .In their catalogues, some nurserymen men- 
die than the side, in a kind of conical manner: I lion the same plant under several names, not 
let the mould be beat fine; let the roots be !) as synonyms, but as entirely different plants, 
spread out ; and finally let the mould be well and ,1 the names were not manufactured forthe 
tod down after planting. purpose of deception, so that duplicates or 

Very respcctfully.your ob't serv't. j : triplicates oi the same plant may be sold a. 



ly.y 

MICHAEL FLOY, 

Nursery §• Seedsman, New York 



for the genesee farmer. 
" 1 shall how to the line, let the chips fly where Ihcy 
may." 
I know not whether any rules, founded on 
the broad principles of common sense and com- 
mon honesty, have ever been laid down panic 
ularly for the government of Nurserymen ; 
but abuses have hecomo so frequent, and so 
numerous, that it is time that something of the I 
kind should be attempted. In the immediate 
neighborhood of nurseries, where the purcha- 
ser can examine what he wants to buy; and 
can repress the itchings of knavery by his pre- 
sence or refusal, little cause for complaint is to 
be expected ; but it is often so inconvenient 
to take a long journoy, solely to procure 20 or 
30 dollars worth of plants,* that very consider- 
able sums are annually sent from Old. Genesee 
to distant parts, by some neighbor who knows 
nothing of the mailer hut to pay the bill. The l 
coast being thus clear for the full operation of 
unfair propensities, very great abuses arc prac- 
tised iu some of these establishments, on their 
absent and distant customers. 

I am free to admit thai there is a fair pro- 
portion of honorablo men in that business ; 
and were I not determined to abstain from 
personalities of every kind. I would name 
some fi>r whom I have great regard ; and also 
some others. But it is my design to expose 
vices, and not men. Of course, il is not to 
be known whether I have sent to Boston, N. 
York, Philadelphia, or Baltimore ; but the 
tricks which I shall notice, have been practised 
at different limes, and in different places. 

In his new printed catalogued found the names 
of several plants that I wanted, the order was 
written, and the return was made ; — not quite 

" A beggarly account of empty boxes," 
but not one third of my order was sent. — 
No, I had not to pay for what I did not get, but 
I had to pay for transporting a box almost emp- 
ty ; and in consequence of his false signal (slA- 
vertising what he could not furnish) it was too 
late to procure them from others, and I had to 
wait another year. 

In his new printed catalogue, the price was 
affixed to each plant. This cannot be con 
sidered bv any fair interpretation, less than it 
pledge not to charge hie customers more than 
such published price ; yet disregarding good 
faith and fair dealing, in two small bills now 



distinct plants, it requires much charily not to 
bclievo that these names are retained for that 
purpose. 

Rejected trees sometimes attain a large size 
in old nurseries. As a particular favor I a far- 
mer of Old Genesee, re'.eivcd such at double 
price, which he would have scorned as a pre 
sent in tbe nursery. At sight of the box, when 
tt arrived, the wondering neighbours gathered 
round; the latinist esolaimed, monstrum hor- 
renduin I— but the bills for box, trces,and trans- 
portation were all paid. 

These abuses have been practised by some 
who affect to holdup their heads among honest 
men. I will mention no names; but I have 
several bills which I am willing to havo filed in 
your office, along with my outers, and their 
catalogues. Let the farmers of Old Genesee 
call and examine them, -iiid Icon the difference 
between profession and practice, before the*, 
irust their purses in the hands of strangers. 
Veebuu Sat. 



as 
at 



For the Geaosce Parmer, 
SINGULAR. PnOPtKSlTY IN A COCK TIT.KEY. 

The circumstance I am about lo relate, 
far as I know, is not common, if it exists 
all. ' I have been in ilio habit of raising u 
good many domestic fowls, and among lliein 
have been rather partial to the turkey, particu- 
larly to setting ones, about Christmas. A 
mong a brood I once possessed, there was om 
male, who was a long legged, gander shanked 
fellow, of a most unique appearance. During 
the period of incubation, or as soon as one ol* 
the hens began to set which she, seeming to 
know tlie old gentleman's propensities, was 
very careful to manage in a very private and 
secret manner, he began lo grow uneasy, and 
mounted tbe stumps and fences, watching for 
tbe appearance of the hen, and peering abont 
to find the place of her concealmcni, vt hit h he 
usually discoverd the first or second day ; when 
he, by virtue of Ins authority as one of the 
lords of the creation, immediately took posses- 
sion of the nest, and fr»m Ilia! lime forward, till 
the period of hatching, went on with '.be leg 
ul ir process, when be brought off bis brood 
and duly carried them forward tu maturity 
while the ben. poor simple wife, was alto wed 
to trudge along at a respectable distance, iu 
true after-honeymoon style. 

Although I am aware 1hnt certain other birds, 
male and female, alternately sit upon the nest 
during the period of incubation, yet I am not 



lying before inc. l\\\s pkdgr is violated C times.- m |f irmL ,a 'f anv C . ISB where a mile has shown 
and 50 per cent added to.each item, though not 8Ucn a decided" passion and propensity, for the 
one plant of extra size or value is among ihern. i sedentary habit' of hatching eggs ; this he bru- 
it is also fairly to be inferred and understood, " 
that plants advertised in this mannei'.shall be in 
a thrifty state, and of medial size. Y'et stunted 
shrubs or trees, the refuse of old nurseries. 

peach trees, dwindling with that contagious 

malady, the yellows; or layers, just separated 

by a pruning knife, with one or two little, short, 

succulent fibres, ready io'rot or lo wither— have 

been sent, charged at foil prices. True. he may 

have had no others, but ho ought to havo hail 

the grace to apologize by adjusting the price to 

the value. 

In one small package, two plants were sent 

Under wrong names, ul high prices, as raro ox- 

otios, which are vcrv common ; and with one, 

a cart might bo soon loaded from a bank in 



performed for ihreo years in succession, and 
being such a notable exhibition of pugnacious 

opposition to petticoat government, that be 
became quite a favorite, and 1 intended to have 
kept him as an example to some of my ne : gh- 
bors, and as a ram- arts in Urns. 

Hut onu night he '.aiiie up missing, and who 
ill,., he was sacrificed as a target at n cbristrmis 
"itmbol, of made one at master Reynard's sup- 
er, or is even \ct silting on eggs that prove! 
ddle, I was never abb- to ascertain. V. 



*Bv plants I mean frtiil trecB, orUamenfaltri-cs, shrubs 
anil Bcrbac'cous p.c-rcniifnrs. 



'• A sufTcrer" stales, in tho N. Ft. Farmer. 
that tbe field mice arc operating under tbe 
-now upon the bark near the roots of the young 
peach trees The mischief inai be prevented 
by removing the snow around the ropfo 



Vol. 1.— No. 11. 



AND GARDENER'S JOURNAL. 



83 



SELECTION. 



A Great Mistake. 
Many persons suppose that no more improve- 
ments can be made in agriculture — that even 
subject has been sufficiently discussed; and 
therefore nothing more need be said or writ- 
ten. It might suffice, to rebut this assertion, 
to say that it is neither more nor less than say- 
ing — ■' the agriculture of the United States 
has attained a state of perfection." Gut it is 
a great mistake. Agriculture has scarcely 
passed its infancy in this country. We speak 
of agriculture in general. There are a few 
farmers who have made advances far beyond 
ihe mass of husbandmen ; but thev areoxcep 
Linos which prove the general rule. Pray 
how many farms in the United States, of the 
same number of acres, (250) have sold as much 
produce as the Orange farm during last year ? 
Are we wide of the mark in saying, not one 
in Maryland, not ten in the Union ? How ma-l 
ny have produced hall" as much ? The Orange 
farm sold last year nine thousand six hundred', 
dollars worth of produco. Let it not be ask- 
ed, " to what kind of produce is the Orange 
farm devoted," for all farmers are at liberty to 
^o and do likewise ; hut let the question, how 
many farms produce as much ? be answered. 
If none, or few, which is ti.e fact, then how 
can it be said or rationally supposed, that no 
further improvements can bo made in our agri- 
culture ? The truth is, that by attention to 
small things, economising in time, making the 
most of every thing, and gathering up the 
fragments, the proprietor of Orange farm 
makes dollars, where most farmers would make 
cents. Go to that farm ; look at its arrange- 
ments and management. There you will see 
nothing lost: neither time, which is money, 
nor labor, which products money. There 
every particle of matter that can he converted 
into food for man or 6east is availed of. One 
half the nutriment of fodder is not lost by 
passing the stomachs of catile undigested, in 
consequence of improper feeding, but the whole 
is saved, by preparing the fodder by cutting and 
steaming ; so that not only all the nutritive 
matter is saved, but the food is rendered more 
palatable lo the animals. The intelligent ma- 
nager of that firm allows no animal to be fed 
on long or raw food. Another peculiarity in 
his management is worthy of notice. There 
is not on Orange firm an unproductive ani- 
mal, or a useless thing. The very dog that 
basks in the sunshine and barks back the poa- 
cher, has Ins regular hour of duty in the wheel, 
pumping water, cutting straw, turning the grind- 
stone, ifc. If there are no useless animals 
to foed, neither arc there any worthless build- 
ings to keep in repair for show. On passing 
Orange farm, the traveller would suppose, it to 
he the comfortable residence of some comfort- 
loving, unambitious farmer, who has enough, 
because ho wants no mere — being just able to 
pay his taxes, and " make both ends meet'' — 
yet Orange farm produces nine thousand dol- 
lars a near ! How. it wiil'be asked, does this 
farmer produce so much mure than any other. 
We answer emphatically, by discarding* as 
fallacious, the idea of perfection alluded to at 
the head of this article ; by believing, that e- 
ven his system is far Irom perfect ; and by con- 
finually bending his attention to improvements. 
IT, therefore, agriculture in this country is not 
susceptible of immense improvement, why do 
not our farmers produce as much as *he skill- 
ful one of Orange farm ? Taking this farm as 
the acme of perfection, surely it will be ad- 
mitted that all our farms of equal soil may be 
made equal to it; and i," so, has the subject of 
Agriculture been sufficiently discussed ? need 
nothing more be published ? are there no more 
improvements to be made ? — Am. Furmer. 



Another Great Mistake. 

Many farmers suppose, that the small sum 

"hey pay annually for a newspaper or an agri- 

<>uUoral paper, is so much money given away. 

Mi^veUotlmie to tetfd i>,sqys one ; jt notorf-' 



ger possesses novelty for me, says number; ij 
cannot afford to take it says a third. Now lei 
us suppose a case — an extreme one, it is al- 
lowed, but perfectly applicable to such rca 
soners : 

Suppose the art of printing, writing, and 
the mail, to be struck from existence — what 
would he the condition of the farmer? We 
leave the answer to farmers themselves, satis- 
fied that there is not one intelligent man in the 
United States, that would not freely givo dou- 
ble the sum they now contribute to their sup- 
port, for their restoration. The press is like 
many other blessings — it confers its favors im- 
perceptibly. Every farmer is benefited by the 
press without knowing it. He receives infor- 
mation, which at the time is not noticed ; but 
it is precious seed accidentally scattered in the 
soil, which at the proper season will yield him 
valuable fiuit. We need not descend to par- 
ticulars; but refer every farmer to his own 
case. Has he not obtained some new and val- 
uable mode of cultivation ; some method of 
correcting an evil, or preventing loss ; some 
new article of cultivation ; some new material 
for improving land ; some remedy for disease 
in his stock, through the medium of his pa- 
per, which has enabled him to make or save 
more than the cost of the paper? We can 
name many persons who have informed us 
that they have made and expect to make ra i 
ney by taking the American Farmer. Some 
have said th it they have made more than 
one thousand dollars from information derived 
from a single article in our columns, and we 
will venture iln assertion, that ihere is not a 
single individual who has taken the Farmer 12 
months, that would be divested of the infor- 
mation thence obtained, for double the cost of 
it. Then is it not a very great mistake to say 
that you cannot afford to take an agricultural 

paper. — ft. 

From Lire New York farmer. 

An Economical Method ov raising Early 
Potatoes. 

In the month of February and the first part 
of March, let the potatoes intended for faun 
ly use be pared somewhat deeper than usual 
— Save the parings by spreading them on the 
cellar floor, or any other place where they 
will not freeze or dry up. About the 20th of 
March prepare a hot or forcing bed in the or- 
dinary way, with fresh stable manure. Spread 
over the manure an inch or two of sand, or 
light earth ; then lay your potatoe parings 
with tho skin up close t<* each other, so that 
the whole, forcing bed may be covered, and co 
ver the parings with light earth two inches- 
deep. Water tho bed frequently, and protect 
it from the frost by covering with mats or 
straw when necessary, and let it be exposed 
to the sun and air in moderate weather. When 
the plants are two or three inches high, trans- 
plant them into rows or dril's two and a half 
feet apart, and ten inches from each other in 
the di ill, and yod will have potatoes earlier 
and of a larger size than in any other way. — 
The time of preparing the hot bed and of set-! 
ting out the plants will vary according to the 
time when the last frosts are expected, and ac- 
cording to the care taken to protect the plants 
after they ate set out. 

The writer of the above has made the ex- 
periment three years in succession with uni-j 
formly pleasing restilts. The potatoes wore 
what am called in Pennsylvania, Mercer or! 
Neshanock ; any other early kind may answer! 
as well. The same kind of potatoes were! 
planted at the time the parings were placed! 
in the forcing led, in the ordinary way, byj 
cutting and whole, and those from the parings! 
were earlier and larger than those raised in 
the common way. From experience he is 1 
satisfied that it is useless if not injurious to 
plant more of tbe old potato than is sufficient 
to cause the bud to germinate. 

The greater part of the potato usually plan- 
ted may thus be saved and Used for the cat-; 
(Te. Ij. 'is rt.evertheress tftougftt finporfanl td 



select the largest and most perfectly formed 
potatoes for seed, because they will afford pa- 
rings suitable for planting, and will probably 
improve the stock, which will degenerate if 
small and deformed one* are used fur seed. 
Princeton- (M~.J.) Feb. 1st, 1831. 

Beurre D'Aremeerg. 

This very excellent variety was introduced 
into our country, from Flanders, about eight 
years since, and has become pretty widely dis- 
seminated throughout the middle and eastern 
states of the Union. The Gloux Morceau, 
which was sent to England from Flanders, at 
tho same time with th'.s, has been cultivated in 
several English nurseries and private collec- 
tions for this kind, and in some instances the 
error originated there, has been extended to 
this country, hy trees sent from them. Tho 
Gloux Morceau, although of great excellence, 
is rather inferior in quality to this. 

I extract the following description from the 
Pomological Magazine : 

•' This pear is truly characteiized in the Hor- 
ticultural Transactions as deserving ' to be 
placed at the head of all the pears in cultiva- 
tion.' We certainly do not know any variety, 
which can upon the whole be said to equal it . 
for its flavor is not only excellent, and its flesh 
tender and juicy but It is hardy, a great heal- 
er, and will keep till March. It is usually cul- 
tivated as a dwarf, being grafted on quince, and 
trained against an east or west wall, but it suc- 
ceeds perfectly well as an open standard. — 
Summer Melting Pear. 

This is a tree of the niost vigorous growth^ 
and flourishing appearance, shooting erect in- 
to astutely form, the fruit is of a fair size 
ripens early in August, and has by some, been 
considered tbe best pear of its season. After 
it comes into bearing, it increases annually in 
fertility and the quantity a' its produce, but it 
attains considerable size bofore it produces 
freely. 

I received the original tree of this variety, 
in 1802, from a person then resident in Calti 
more, who was very curious m fruits, and who 
had a number of French larieiies of pears. — 
(t was on a quince stock, and soon bore fruit-. 
which was larger, handsomer, and more mel- 
ting than any I since had on pear stocks. — 
Prince's Manual. 

RAW SILK. 

The following facts from the worts of K- 
Randall, esq., in the library of congress, being: 
a view of the silk trade, and the measures «; 
the British government relative thereto, will 
show Ihe immense value of this article of eoni- 
nerce 

Dining the term of seven years, from 1821 
lo 182", there were imported into Great Bri- 
tain. 21.157,510 pounds of raw silk, which, at 
$5 Ihe pound, cost $120,787,580- It also 
appears from the same work, that during the 
like number of years, Ihere was imported of 
(his article from Italy alone, to the value of 
§59,881,2-33. 

SILK WORM-1. 

In the Legislature of MassaGhusetls, on 
Thursday ,the Committee on Agriculture made 
an interesting repoit to the House, in favor ot 
encouraging the cultivation of Mulberry trees, 
and the raising of Silk Worms. The tepoft 
concluded with a resolve requesting the Gov- 
ernor to cause a book to be compiled on ihe 
subject, and distributed to the towns in (he 
commonwealth ; six hundred dollars wa9 ap- 
propriated to defray the expense. 

LEGENDS OF NEW ENGLAJSD. 

This is the title of a volume just published 
ia Hartford, Conn., for the appearance of tvltich 
we have looked with some anxiety. A copy 
has not reached us yet ; we hope it will come 
.soon. It is by John G. Whittier. He is a fine 
poet and a chaste prose writer. We anticipate 
much pleasure from a perusal of " Legends $f 
New EnglttirdV 



84 



THE GENESEE FARMER 



March 19, 18SJ. 



THE GENESEE PAHMEH. 



SATURDAY, MARCH 1L>, 1831. 



IT* From llic very flattering reception which ' 
ihe Genesee Farmer has met with from the 
Editorial corps, and the public generally, and 
the constant augmentation of its subscription 
)ist, we augnr the fulfilment oP our most san- 
guine expectations ; indeed, we never doubt- 
ed the success of a paper of the kind., From 
the prompt manner in which some of the 
most talented rnen,;devoted to Agriculture. 
&c. have come forward to second our efforts, 
iiy their contributions and exertions to extend 
its circulation, we have been induced, at con- 
siderable expense, to maUe a permanent ar-]l 
rangement wilh Mr. N. Goodsell, oneoftliejj 
Corresponding Secretariesof the Monroe Her- 
licullural Society, to take entire charge of the 
Editorial Department. Mr. Goodsell is a prac- 
tical Farmer and Gardener; and whose long 
experience in this country, and the advantages 
or an European tour, with a view to observe 
the progress and improvements of those sci- 
ences in the " old world," will enable hiui. it 
is believed, so to conduct the Farmer, as to 
place it in a high rank among the agricultural 
papers of our country. 

We cannot refrain from tendering our thanks 
to the correspondents who have thus far con- 
tributed so liberally to our columns. A refer- 
ence to the well known signatures which have 
already appeared in the paper, will show that 
among the number are several of the first men 
ii the state, and we have the promise of con 
ttibutions from many others in due time. 

For the purpose of extending the usefulness 
of this papor, and its patronage, exertions are 
making to prooure correspondents in Ohio. 

and also in the province of Upper Canada. 

The climate and soil of the fertile district on 
tho north side of Lake Erie, are nor dis.-i 
tnilar to those of the Genesee Country. It 
will be interesting to note the observations 
of intelligent agriculturists io those regions. 

As soon as navigation commences, now 
type will bo procured, on which to print the 
Farmer; and no pains will be spared to im- 
prove the appearance, as well as the matUr, of 
•the paper. [ 

We canaot better conclude this article- than 
by giving one of tho numerous approbatorv 
letters we have received from men of the first 
rack in tho state. The name of the writer in 
omitted, as we have Dot his permission to pub- 
lish it. 

t.etter from erne of the Judges of the Circuit Court of the; 
United States: 



CHEESE MAKIJGi , ofour druggists who do notkeep it and few of 

(Continued from page 7C] .. r 

... ,, , ., , . ... . j our villages where it cannot be procured. 

It is well known that cheese of the best quail- _. , . , f 

. . ,V , I lie green colour of the Swiss cheese, is 

ty, by keeping assumes a yellow.color.more or I . , .; ; . _ .. ' ,. 

.■" .' ,. .' * , _;; '. ,'. ... . given by using the juice of the common Hhk- 
lessincltnmgtored. Thiscolor being indicative! ... , % . ,. „, ... 

»...'■'.. L I to* ot our ga'dens. Trifohum, Mehlotus, offici- 

os quality 10 cheese, various attempts have; ,,„.• T ™, n . . ■„.,. i , ■ 

. ^ ', ..'.., K. . „ . \\nahs, L. ll.e juice of this plant not only im- 

been made to imitate it, in those ot interior , ___,,, ,..,, ,_ _ , , , , , . 

... , ,. ... j. parts the green colour to this cheese, but that 

quality, by adding some colouring ingredient I „„„„i- . , . . , . . . 

? i ... L r . ■ • j. peculiar strong flavor, for which it is celebra 

to the milk, before the coagulation. L.j ,i,i,„.,„-L :. : ,, • . . , 

„,,. , , • , , . , !|-ed, although it is generally imputed to its being 

this has been practiced so ong oy our best; m .,j. pi. " ,, ,, r . , , . ,° 

|| made from the milk ofgoats, which is not the 

case. 



" Sir — I send you enclosed Two Dollars to 
pay for T/ic Genesee Farmer for one year. I 
had formed arc-solution not to extend niy sub 
scription for Periodicals of any description : 
hut this publication is calculated, from its na- 
ture, th become so eminently useful — it has 
thus fur been so well condncted — in short, it 
has won so muoh npon my good will, that I 
cannot withhold from it my support as a sub- 
scriber. * 

Wilh the best wishes for the success of your 
meritorious enterprise, I am, sir, very respect 
fillty, yourob'ts-erv't." 



dairymen, ihat the idea of excellence is now 
inseparably connected with the color ofcheese, 
and custom, lhatgreat law-maker, now direct, 
that those who would manufacture the article 
for market, should resort to this artificial re- 
commendation. 

On the choice of the coloring material, not 
only the health, but even the life of the consu. 
mer depends. From an injudicious selection 
of it, those fatal accidents occur which we of- 
ten 6ee noticed io the newspapers, where 
whole families become poisoned by eating 
cheese, in which some noxions drug has been 
incorporated, for the purpose of giving colour. 
One of the poisons most common, and at the 
same time the most dangerous, is red lead. — 
Lead taken into the stomach, in any shape, is 
a powerful poison, and we caution dairywo- 
men against using it in any way, about cheese 
making, either in the milk, or by rubbing it on 
the outside. 

The safest, and therefore most approved, ar- 
ticle for colouring cheese, is the Spanigh Ar- 
natto. This is a preparation from ibe seeds of 
d tree growing in South America, the Biza o- 
rctlit-na of Linnzeus. 

The seeds of this tree are covered with a 
rod pulp ; they are macerated in warm water, 
which is allowed to stand undisturbed until the 
coloring matter subsides, when it is made up 
into rolls and dried, as we find it in the shops. 
The quantity necessary to give a fine orange 
colour to milk or cheese, is so small, when 
it is good, that it does not communicate any 
taste or smell to tho cheese, and is free from 
any deleterious effects when taken into the 
stomach. 

This is the artiole that Is made use of for co- 
louring the fine Gloucester und Cheshire 
cheese: of England, the former of which is per- 
haps the finest that is known. The manner of 
Qsing it is thus described by Loudon : 

" There when tho colouring matter is want- 
ed.it is usual to tie upas muoh of the substance 
as may be deemed sufficient, in a linon rag . 
and putting it into half a pint of warm water, 
to let it stand over night. In the morning, im- 
mediately before the milk is coagulated, the 
whole of this infusion is mixed with it in the 
cheese tub, and the rag is dipped in the milk, 
and rubbed on the palm of the hand, until all 
the colouring matter is completely extracted." 

A more simple method is directed by Par- 
kinson : 

" Take a piece about the size ot" a hazel 
nut, put it into a pint of milk the night before 
yon intend to make cheese, and it will dissolve. 
Add it to the milk at the time the rennet isj 
put in. This quantity will suffice to colour a' 
cheese of 20 lbs. weight.' 

From the simplicity and safety of tho nse oft 
ariiatto, we hope our dairy-womon will select itj 
n preference to any and all other substances' 



SPECIMENS OK ISGBA.FTIKC, &C. 

Members of the Monroe Horticultural Soci 
ety,and others who may wish to improve them- 
selves, or learn the art of ingrafting, budding, 
&c. can see some well executed specimens o!" 
the various and most approved methods of 
cleft, crown, tongue, whip, and saddle graft- 
ing, inarching, budding, shield budding, gin! 
ling, or incissure, &c. at the store of Messrs. 
Lar.gworthy and Green, Carroll st. by calling 
an Mr. (I. N. Lang-vorthy.one of the members 
of the Examining Committee. 



BASS MATTING. 

We would recommend to the superintend- 
ents of state prisons, keepers of poor houses, 
&c. the manufacture of a new article ; via— 
bas6 matting. 

We are confident that if '.he manufacture of 
this article was carried on in the United States, 
that it would not only become one of exten- 
sive use among ourselves, but of considerable 
consequence for exportation. 

The uses to which this article might be np-. 
plied would be first, for carpels, for churches, 
court houses, halls, &c. ; for bagging fol 
hops, cotton and wool, and fur wrapping dtv 
goods, furniture, fruit tries, Ac. &c. 

Wo receive tins artiole mostly from Rtissia, 
but there is no country in the world that can 
furnish the bark in quality and quantity equal 
lotho United States ; and the cost ef it would 
be little more than the cost of transportation ; 
and as the manufacture of it would bo simple 
and easy, we doubt not but under favourable 
circumstances, it would be attended with 
profit. 

The bark might be taken from the trunks of 
the trees, after they were felled, from twelve 
to fifteen yards in length, the rough part eha 
ved off and the inner bark cut in strips, of con- 
venient width for transportation, when it 
might be coiled up in a very compact form, and 
might be kept fur any length of time. 

The mode of manufacturing would be, first 
to split the bark into strips of about half an 
inch wide, with a splitting gaga ; after which 
it might he boiled to dissolve the mucillagi- 
nous matter contained in it, when tho strips 
may bo divided with ease, as the ooitioal lay- 
ers are onlv held together by the mucillagiuous 
matter, and after that is discharged, the bark 
becomes flexible, and possesses a considerable 
degree of strength, and Wo doubt not would 
muko wrapping paper of a very superior quali- 
ty- 

We have seen this article rrsed for carpeting 

1 in Europe, and was informed lhat it was very 



durable. The eost of it manufactured in this 

country, would not exceed ten cents per yard. 

We sincerely wish the superintendents of 

for a colouring materiaj. The»e are very fewl prisons and work houses, would make the e.v 



Vol. 1.— Xo. II. 



AND GARDENER'S JOURNAL,. 



86 



periment this spring, as it could not be attend- 
ed with much expense. 

THE PRIMROSE. 

Few flowers liavo been more celebrated by 
"he Poets, than the primrose ; and yet so 
little are the Lady-florists in this country ac- 
quainted with it, that we have seen no less than 
four varieties of the Primvla family, which 
were called primroses. As the varieties of 
•his plant produce some of the most charmin, 
Bowers of the garden, we tinst descriptions of 
varietios will be acceptable. 

the primrose— Primula vulgaris, L. 

This a common perennial plant, growing by 
■ w he hedges in England, producing flowers in 
March and April, but in this section in May. — 
They have a rich velvet appearance ; the co- 
lors are yellow and purple, or yellow in the 
-•enter, with a purple border. A good primrose 
should be three quarters of au inch in diame- 
ter, and on a single scape or stem about four 
inches long. 

the cowslip — Primula vcri, . 

This is more fragrant than the former varie- 
ty, and is distinguished by producing many 
flowers upon one stem, umbel-like ; the flow- 
ers are uot so large as the primrose, and are 
mostly yellow. Tho flower has an involucre, 
with a funnel shaped corolla, much indented. 
the oxlip — Primula, clatior, L, 

This is distinguished from tho primrose by 
us many flowered umbels, and from the cow- 
slip by the corolla, which is much larger and 
flat. 

All three of the above varieties, are hardy 
plants, and may be propagated from seeds, or 
offsets after the season of blossoming is over. 
The leaves of these three varieties bear a 
strong resemblance to eaoh other, being long, 
oval and rough ; and it is probably owing to 
this resemblance, that such oonfusion has been 
introduced in regard to names, as they are all 
Galled Primroses, Cowslips and Polyanthus, as 
suits the poetical taste of the florist. 

The common name of Primula for th;»e 
plants, is the generic name; vulgaris, veris, 
md elatior, are the names of (be species ; and 
Polyanthus, is the name of a variety, and be- 
longs to the Primrose, which is genus Primu- 
la, species vulgaris, and variety polyanthus. — 
As they are all hardy plants, wo recommend 
them as among the handsomest border flowers. 



NEW ZEALASD SP1JIAGE. 

Having raised the New Zealand spinage the 
last summer, we cannot but recommend it to 
ihoso who are fond of spinage dishes, during 
'he summer months. It is a very luxuriant 
■•rowing annual plant, witn thick succulent 
Seaves of beautiful green color. 

The »eed of this plant siiould be sprouted 
;h a hot-ted, in order tohavo it fit for use be- 
sore tho middle of summer. The branches 
are decumbent and spreading to the distance 
jf two feot from the roots, which is a suitable 
distance for setting the plants from each other. 

After the plants imve grown about a foot 
'ong, the tips of tho branches may be cut for 
iso ; they will be found very tender and well 
j3avored. It continues growing very luxuri- 
antly until killed by the frost. The seed is 
produced at the axils of the leaves. Eight or 
ten plants will be sufficient for a large family, 
both for producing seed and for boiling. 



THE FIG. 

The fig tree is a native of Asia, and has beer- 
cultivated for its fruit, from time immemorial. 
In our southern and middle stales, the fig pro- 
duces two crops in one season, and I ihink 
mi"ht be cuhivated on the south side of Lake 
Ontario, to some advantage. The tree is of 
humble growth, rarely if ever rising more than 
fifieen feet in the middle states, and will bear 
when not more than four feet high. The wood 
is soft and porous. 

Should this tree be found too tender for our 
climate, by traiuing tho trees with two main 
horizontal roots on opposite sides, the tree 
might be laid down in the fall, and covered 
with the same care as a tendergrape vine. 

The fig is easily propagated, as it grows rea- 
dily from cuttings or layers ; the latter method 
:sj generally preferred, as bearing limbs laid 
down do not cease bearing, and even cuttings 
bear the second year. 

The fruit of the fig is different from most 
other kinds, as it is, strictly speaking, the calyx 
of the flower, the stamens and pistils being 
contained within it. 

The fruit is eatonboth green and dry, and in 
some oountries is stewed when green, in the 
same manner as apples. 

We sincerely hope that some of our garden- 
ers will make a few experiments with this tree, 
and lay the result before the public. 



PREPARE FOR GRAFTING. 

We again repeat the caution to Farmers ar>d 
Gardeners, that now is the time to see that their 
cions for grafting, are collected, and put in a 
safe place for keeping until they are wanted. 
There is no witchcraft attending the operation 
of grafting ; it is as easily done as setting oui 
cabbage plants ; and yet wc know of farmers 
who will hire some strolling quack to do it for 
them, and pay him as much for one day's im- 
position, as themsolves could earn in a week, 
besides spending as much time in waiting up- 
on them as would have been required for doing 
it themselves. 

Cut your cions with a few inches ofold wood 
with them, and stick them down in the garden, 
where they will not be disturbed until wanted. 

It may be useful to new beginners to spend 
an evening in practice before grafting season ; 
for tliis purpose, procure some green limbs of 
suitable size for cions and stocks, and proceed 
to fit thorn together, both by cleft and whip 
grafting. This will be found very useful when 
you commence grafting your trees. Prepare 
your wax, and ascertain whether it is of the 
proper consistency. Have ready narrow strips 
of cambrick, dipt in the wax for use in graft 
ing ; this being the easiest and sorest way of 
using it, as it prevents the wax from cracking, 
which it is apt to do when put on warm; and 
it serves as a bandage at the same time. Al 
ways prefer whip-grafttng where the size of 
the stork will admit of it, in preforenco to 
cleft grafting. But when large stocks must 
be grafted, see that your wedge corresponds 
with the length of the cleft. 

Remember that not only apples and pears, 
but plnms, cherries, quinces, chesnuts, wal- 
nuts, and most kinds of forest trees, as welt as 
ornamental trees and shrubs, may he grafted, 
and now is the time to prepare for it. 



FOB Ttf G£HESEf FARMER. 

There is no subject more interesting to the 
farmer, than the selection of his cider fruit, 
lor I am decidedly of opiuion, that the apple is 
capable of producing, under proper culture and 
care, as wholesome, and very near as palata- 
ble a liquor as the vine. The objects to be re- 
garded are the selection of fruit, the si e of 
the orchard, and ihe manufacture, particularis- 
tic fermenting process, of the cider. 

Two properties determine the quality of an 
apple for oider, viz — the saccharine matter and 
astringent principle. The first is indicated by 
the sachromcter— the more saccharine matter 
| the heavier will he the must, and the g raster 
the proportion of alcohol after fermentation, 
The astringent principle is dedecied by the 
taste, and is supposed to be principally tannin. 
Sorao fruits, in which it most abounds, are aus- 
tere, acrid and uopleasant to the taste. It is 
this property principally which preserves ci 
dera from the acetous fermentation. Hence 
the requisite properties ol a good ider fruit 
are seldom found in apples esteemed for table. 
The Virginia crabs, which yield a cider nearly 
equal to Champaigns, are not eatable, and give 
a must specifically lighter than water. 

Of the old varieties, the styre, redstreak, 
and fox-whelp were esteemed as giving the 
strongest liquors, yet the specific gravity of 
their must did not exoced 1,079, water being 
1,000. Knight has produced four vari cties 
yieldiug a stronger juice than either of tli em, 
His Downton and Foxley pippins give a must 
of 1,080 his yellow Siberian 1,085, and his 
Siberian Harvey 1,091, which last is said to 
be the heaviest cider must known. The first 
named of these is considered a very beautiful 
table apple. 

Of our table varieties, the Harrison, Can • 
field, Winesap, Greyhouse, Poughkeepsie, 
Russett, Cooper's Russetiug,Ruckman's rear- 
main, <tc. The Harrison, Winesap, and 
Ruckman's Pearmain are fine for the table and 
kitchen. We have probably many other na- 
tive varieties equally good ; and it is desirable 
that our native kinds should be subjected to a fair 
test, inorder to determine their relative value. 

It is believed that cider properly manufactu- 
red from any one variety, or perhaps two vari- 
eties, properly blended, would always com- 
mand a ready market in our cities and towns, 
at five to ten dollars tho barrel. The Harri- 
son and Canfield cider sells at this price ; and 
I recollect seeing in the memoirs of the Phil- 
adelphia Society, a letter Irom a Mr. Wyn- 
koof, of Lancaster, detailing the profits of hrs 
cider orchard ; the amount of which was, that 
four acres in Virginia oralis, afforded him eve- 
ry second year, 40 hogsheads of cider, which 
sold by contract at about §10 per barrel, or 
$1,600 for the crop. There is no art in ma 
king cider from this fruit. It requires merely 
to be made separate and with caio. 

It is as unreasonable to expect a fine oider 
from a dozen or twenty varieties of the apple, 
as it would be to expect a fine wine from as 
many kinds of the grape. The proper way is 
therefore, for tho planters to select one or more 
kinds for his cider, and to manufacture the fruit 
of each by itself, or to blend them in such pro- 
portions as experience shall dictate. The Eng- 
lish rule, that a good cider apple is cither red or 
yellow, though correct in the main, will no! 
hold in regard to our crabs. 

The site of the orchard should be elevated 
or sloping — a souili to east aspect the best — 
a dry preferable to a wet soil — and an ordinary 
richness of soil better than one of too great 
fertility. It is a conclusion drawn from expc- 
perience in England, that the best cider comes 
from a calcareous or marly soil. Upon these 
situations the fruit is not so large, but the jui- 
ces are far more concentrated than upon moist 
or rich soils. 

The subject of manufacturing eider, particu 
larly that part which regards tho fermenting 
process, requires more time to detail than I 
have at present at command. I shall there- 
fore defer it till another occasion. J. B. 

Majrch 10,183). 



86 



THE GENESEE FARMER 



HOT-BEDS. 

This is the proper season to commence 
preparations for raising early plants for the 
•rarden. From various experiments, we are 
convinced that a hot bed planted by the first 
of April, in this section, is as profitable as one 
planted sooner. 

In order to have a bed ready to plant by the 
iifst of April, the manure should be collected 
by the 20th of March, and pnt in a heap, that 
the fermentation may commence; and it is 
well to turn it over once before putting it in 
the bed, that all parts may be well incorpora- 
ted. The bed should be fotmed three or four 
days before it is to be sowed. If a bed is well 
managed at this season, the plants will be 
large enough to transplant by the tenih of 
Mav, which is as early as is safe to put them in 
open ground. Early sallads may be used from 
'.he beds, and some cucumber andmellon plants 
may be left upon the bed for early use ; they 
will be much more forward than those trans- 
planted. A bed about four feet wide, and four- 
teen feet long will produce plants enough for 
a common family garden, which can he raised 
with more certainty than in open ground, and 
about one month earlier, which will well pay 
for the little extra expense attending. 

The best manure for a hot bed is that from 

ihe horse stable, the litter included. A bed 

made the first of April, need not be more than 

eighteen inches thiol;, and will not require any 

additional heat. 

MANURE. 

The month of March is a verv important 
one to farmers who wish to keep their farms in 
order, by saving and applying manure. As a 
great proportion of the manure from the faun 
yard is made from straw and refuse fodder, it 
is important that this should lie turned to the 
greatest profit. It is more easily collected into 
heaps at this season, before the frost is out of 
lite ground th.m afterwards ; besides when the 
ground becomes soft, much of it is trodden 
into the ground, where it often remains after 
the ground becomes dry and hard. As remo- 
ving all the soil from the yard, as deep as had 
teen penetrated by the feet of cattle, would 
require too much labor, therefore it is better 
to scrape the manure into heaps as soon as the 
frost is out of it in the spring, and appply it to 
the fields as soon as is convenient, remember- 
ing that manure left to ferment in heaps until 
it becomes rotten, loses half of its valuable 
properties, We know that unrotted straw appli- 
ed to some crops, would he unpleasant to work 
rnong, but yet from the diversity of cropping 
on a farm, it can always be applied somewhere 
to advantage. 

There needs no stronger .proof of a sloven. 
if farmer, than too see the manure lying round 
tiisbarn year after year, piled tip against the 
lower timbers in many instances, rotting them 
away, not to mention the effect upon the at- 
mosphere which is unhealthy as well as un- 
pleasant. 

APPLE PUDDING. 

Pare, core, and stew sour apples, till they 
ate sufficiently soft to strain through a sieve or 
Colander. When thus prepared, to the pulp, 
(sufficient in quantity for baking upon a soup 
i_)latc^ add one spoon-full of melted huttcr.one 
egg, and three spoons-full of smrar: then add 
nulmes or essence of lemon, according lo 
taste, afirTbake wifVrif a cover a? tarts. 



March 19, 1831. 



Horticultural Society. 
The nest semi-annual meeting of the Do 
mestio Horticultural Society of the Western 
Part of New York, will be held at Canandai- 
iua, on the 30th day of June next, when the 
following Premiums will be awarded : 

Fruits. 
For the best quart of ripe Strawberries $2,00 

Next best do 1,00 

For the best quart of Raspbenies 2, IK' 

Next best do 1,00 

For the best quart of ripeCherries 2,00 

Next best ' do 1,00 

For the best of Gooseberries 2, OH 

Next best do 1,00 

Culinary Vegetables. 
For the best half peck green peas in the } „ ( 
pod J ' 

Next best 1,00 

For the best half peck string Beans in > nn 

the pod" I ^' UU 

Next best do 1,00 

For the best 100 shoots of Asparagus 1,00 

Next best do 50 

For the best dozen young Turnips 1,00 

Next best do 50 

For the best doz. young Oniens 1,011 

Next best do 50 

For the best 25 young Potatoes 1,00 

Next best do 5I> 

For the best 3 Cabbage Heads 1,00 

Next best do 50 

For the best 25 Radishes 50 

Next best do 25 

For the best 6 Lettuce plants 1.00 

Next best do 50 

For the best 6 blood Beets (long orehort) 1,00 

Next best do 50 

For the best 6 Cucumbers 1,00 

Next best do 50 

For the best dozen Carrots 1,00 

Next best do 50 

For the best specimen of any valuable cul- 
inary Vegetable, not enumerated, one dnllai 
each, extending to three sorts. Of culinary 
Vegetables, every specimen entitled to a pre- 
mium must be meritorious, and fit for the ta- 
ble. 

F LOWERS. 

For the most beautiful and desirable ? 
double Tulip J 

Next best do 

For the most beautiful and desirable sin- \ 
gle Tulip 5 

Next best do 
For the most beautiful and desirable } 
double Hyacinth ) 

Next best do 

For the most beautiful and desirable > 
monthly Rose J 

Next bo*t ' do 
the in 



For 



1,00 

50 
1,00 

50 
1,00 

50 
1,00 

50 



50 



ost beautiful and desirable ) , 
hardy Rose \ J » 01 

Next best do 
For the most beautiful specimen of flow 
not enumerated, one dollar each, to extend to 
six sorts. 

Discretionary premiums will be awarded for 
such valuable Plants. Fruits, Flowers or Vege- 
tables, not enumerated, as may be presenied, 
and deemed worthy. 

Every specimen otTered of fruits, culinary 
vegetables, and flowers must have been cull i 
vatedby the person claiming the premium, or 
by some member of his family ; and no premi- 
um can bo awarded except to a member of the 
Society. Any person can become a member 
af the Society, at the time of the stated 
meeting, or at any time before, by sending the 
name, and paying the annual subscription of 
a member, (two dollars,) lo Joseph Fellows, 
of Geneva. 

Each successful applicant for a premium will 
be required to furnish a written and particular 
statement of the cultare of the plant, with the 
soil and aspect. 

FRANCIS GRANGER, ) Commute, 
MARK U. SIBLEY, }ofArrav 

ALEXANDER DUNCAN. S mniig} 
March 16, 1831. 



1; 



NEWS OF THE WEEK, 
FIRE 

Thularje flouring mill on the east bank of the 
Genesee river in this villa (re. owned by H. Ely, 
■ eenpied by Messrs. Ford &. Bissell, was de- 

troyed by fire on Tuesday night, There was 
in ihe Mill about twelve thousand bushels of 
wheat, on which there was an insurance often 
thousand dollars. Owing to the skill and ex- 
ertions of the different fire companies, the ad 
joining buildings ivere saved from the devour- 
ing element The fire was got under in time 
io save the walls of the building, and although 
the wheat is spoiled for flouring, yet it is hoped 
sufficient will bo realized from it to cover all 
damages which mav have accrued above the 
insurance. There was also an insurance upoti 
the building, of five thousand dollars. 

In (be U- S. supreme court, at Washington 

.n Saturday, Mr. Sergeant, on. hehalf of the 
Cherokee nation, moved for an injunction a- 
gainst the state of Georgia, in pursuance of a 
bill in equity filed and read by him in open 

■ourt. 

The editor of the Washington Globe has is ■ 
sued proposals for the publication of that pa 
per as a daily journal. 

The Richmond Enquirer states that Mr. 
Archer, the present chairman of the commit- 
tee on Foreign Relations, is spoken of as tin 
successor to Mr. Randolph in the mission to 
Russia. 

The Augusta (Geo.) Courier of the 28lh 

nit contains the following paragraph : — Ot: 

Friday oight last, some villains killed five milk 

ows in the upper end of Broad street, skio> 

ned and left the carcases in the street. 

HYDROPHOBIA. 

We are inlormed by a gentleman of Mo$= 
cow, that a rabid dog has lately bitten several 
logs and other animals, in the (own of Leices- 
ter ; and that the inhabitants of that (own have 
taken measures to destroy all dogs found ruti- 
iing at large within it. — Lip. Jour nil. 
roitOERY. 

A forged note for one housand dollars was 
latt !y presented at the Auburn bank by a mar. 
named Fox, formerly of Delphi, in this coun- 
ty. The note contained the signatures of 
Messrs. Hall of Skeneateles. a Mr. Taylor o: 
'bis town, and Elisha Litchfield of Pompey. 
Fox was taken into custody, and is now con- 
'ined in Auburn gaol, theie to await his trial. 
This all comes of making too fiee with other 
men's names. — Manlius Rrpos. 

The Washington Spectator, tuns describes 
the winding op of the late session of Congress : 

As the session drew to a close, Congress 
were in their usual hurry. Like Don Quixote 
among the toys of the show-man, they passed 
some propositions, mutilated more, and knock- 
ed doicn a still greater number, upon or under 
the table. It is ardently to be desired that the 
time may come, when Congress, instead of 
winding, like iho rivers of Africa, through a 
long and sluggish course, and then rushing to- 
wards its end, with a headlong impetuosity, 
will move, like some of our American rivers 
steadily onward from the first, powerful, eJii ■ 
cient and majestic. 

The governor of Pennsylvania has- appoint- 
ed Samuel Meredith, Esq. Attorney at Law in 
tho city of New York, a Commissioner to ad- 
minister oaths, and take depositions in relatio.il 
to causes pending in the courts of Pennsylva- 
nia, and to take the acknowledgement and 
proof of deeds, mortgages or conveyances to 
bo recorded in, or of any instrument under 
seal, to be used in said State. 

The nomination by the Governor, of Wn. 
r M'Coi .v, of the city of New-York, asVicc- 
hanccflor, \v,\s confirmed by the Scrlafie on 
.Fridav. 



Vol. I.— No. U. 



AND GARDENER'S JOURNAL. 



81 



FLOUR. 

The ci.lire exports of floor from the United 
States to all parts of tho world in the year 
1830, ending 30th September, 1,225.881 bbls. 
And of wheat, 45,289 bush 

Which exceeded the average 

exports (or 8 years previous 

about 400,000 bbls. 

And of wheat, 20,000 bush. 

T heeverage exports of flour to 

G. Britain from the U. S. 

for 8 years past, amount to, 04.274 bbls. 
But, owinsr to n deficiency of 

crop in England in 1828 .our 

exports there for 18"29, to 

meet said deficiency, in- 
creased and amounted that 

year to, 221,170 Ibis. 

And, owing to the deficiency 

of crop there in 1S29, our 

exportsin 1630, ending 30th 

Sept last, amounted to, 326,lc2 bbls. 

Which exceeded the average 

export of eight years prcvi- 

, 1U 8 t 231, GOG bbls. 

During this period, it will be borne in mind . 
that llie^grain countries of the continent of 
Europe furnished large supplies to Great Bri- 
tain, and when the ports opened in England 
!ast summer, a very large stock of grain and 
flour then in bond, wns entered for consump- 
tion—so that, at the close of 1830, (two months 
Since,) there was not remaining in bond in all 
Great Britain, in svlioat and flour to exceed 
180,000 barrels flour. 

Wc now nome to the probable demand in 
Encland for the year 1831. 

Tho consumption of (ireat Britain is esti- 
mated at something like 14 millions of quarters, 
or say 112 millions bushels. The deficiency of 
the crops of 1830 is variously estimated— some 
say 15, some 1-4 ; and Ireland, a usual supply 
country, is said to be shorier. Circular state- 
ment from sources in which much confidence 
;"s placed, estimate the quantity that will be re- 
quired in England before the next harvest— 
from abroad— at two millions of quarters-equal 
to, say thiee millions and half barrels Flour. 

The next inquiry is, whence is Englond to 
get this supply ? or even the half of it, with- 
out occasioning serious advances in the coun- 
tries whence these supplies are drawn. 

The reports from all the Grain countries in 
Europe announce short crops — and some of 
them, instead of furnishing supplies, are more 
likely to need supplies themselves, and the dis- 
turbed stale of the Grain couniries themselves 
—and the existence tbero of large embodied 
armies— evens hould no war occur, increases 
The difficulty of furnishing supplies to Eng- 
land. All now concur that the main supplies 
Cor England are looked to from the United 
Slates. 

It then behooves us to look at home and es- 
finute our ability to furnish— having regard to 
our own wants for consumption, and that ol 
markets about us on this side of the ocean, 
mainly depending upon ua 

The Purls of England will no doubt be open 
by or before the close of April-arid as the stock 
in bond to be entered, will be far short of for- 
mer periods, there is scarcely a doubt also that 
the ports will continue to remain open to the 
result of the harvest. If the statements and 
estimates of deficiency and supplies prove any 
way near correct, a wido allowance may be 
made for error or exaggeration, and still leave 
us a market in England for the export of Flour 
there for the year 1831, ending in September, 
equal to our entire export to all places in 1S30 ; 
and which export from official data, may be 
yepn to have exceeded tho average exports of 
oighf years past about 400,000 barrels. 

We have no data to estimate the extent of 
the crop of 1830 in the United States — buj 
whether abundant or otherwise.it should be re 
membered that our own consumption is vast 
and rapidly increasing 

Wo wish to be understood as abstaining from 
*he expression of our own opinions— but would 



commend the consideration of the above to 
those who may feel an interest in examining 
into and testing its correctness. To the man 
ufacturing interest of our country, it may be 
found to involve a serious inquiry. A period 
may be at hand, furnishing an illustration of 
the truth that the corner stone of national pros- 
perity and wealth is its agricultural resources, 
and out of its abundance grow up all other in- 
terests. Without it, a nation must depend 
mainly on the political policy or calamities of 
other nations. The low cost of a loaf of bread 
enters more in aid of protection to manufac- 
tures, than we are apt to allow. If the calam- 
ities of other nati"iis offer us high rales for 
comestibles, a tarifT'of protection may be found 
inadequate to keep spindles profitably employ- 
ed. — Boston Gazette 

NEW BANKS. 

Five banks have been incorporated by the 
Legislature, each with a capital of $100,000 — 
viz : the Tanner's Bank at Catskili ; Bank of 
Buffalo ; MadisonCounty Bank, at Cazenovia ; 
Oswego Bank ; and Ulster County Bank, at 
Kingston. Tho vote was unanimous on the 
last named bank, and nearly so on each. 

Bills have passed the House, and are now 
before the Senate, to incorporate the Mont- 
gomery County Bank, and tho Yutcs County 
Bunk. 

WASHINGTON AND WARREN BANK. 

The receiver of this institution has .i.ade an 
arrangement and sale of the effects of the 
company, by which the holders of all certifi 
cates granted by him, and the owners of all 
bills re Inch are now in circulation, are to be 
paid the par value thereof, provided they are 
presented before the first of July The pay 
merits will be made at anytime after the first 
of April, in thecily of New -York. — Jllb.Jirg. 

The seats of sixteen ol the membeis of (lie 
United States Senate were, wc believe, vaca- 
ted on 3d inst. ten of whom, viz -. Messrs. 
Woodbury ,of N. H. Willey. of Conn. Chase, 
of VI. Sandford, of N. Y. Marks, of fa. Ire- 
dell, of N. C. Smith, of S- C Burnet of 
Ohio, M'Kinley, of Alabama, and Bat ton of 
Missouri, have had leave (o reUre lu private 
life. Of this number, Messrs. Chase. Iredell 
and Bnrnet declined a reelection. Five of 
the sixleen have been re-elected, viz : Messrs 
Chambers of Maryland, Forsyth, of Geo. 
Johnson, of Lou. H ndricks, of Indiana, and 
Kane of Illinois. I" Kentucky no choice has 
I j et been made. — JV. Y, JUcratntile Adv. 

On Saturday last Mr Bigelow, of Boston, 
proposed in the House of Representatives, of 
the Massachusetll Legislature, now in session, 
an amendment to the Marriage Act, which 
passed, making it lawful for any authorised 
person to join in marnage any negro, mulatto, 
or Indian to any white porseu. Formerly the 
law imposed a penally on any one so marrying 
and the marriage itself was declared null and 
void. 

The AIaiiket — Owing co the h»l slate or 
the roads, (here has been but little doing in 
the Wheat Market the week past. We quote 
the same prices as the week before. 

SSED STORE. 

THE subscribers, in connexion with Mr. N. Goodscll, 
Etlitur of thetienesec Fiirmer, hfive uiuiic arrangements 
to supply tins village and the surrounding country with 
evory variety of Agricultural, Horticultural and Flower 
Seeds, tugether with Fruit and Shade Trces.Grapo Knots 
Flower Pots, Garden Tools, etc. Orders will he recoi- 
ved for Trees and olhcr articles, from the following Nnr- 
scrios and Hotel Stores : — I'rince s, aud I'armt-iilicr's, 
Long Island ; Floy's, Wilson's, Thurburn's, and A. 
Smith and Co. 1 ?, f\e\v York ; Betel's, Albany ; uud Laa 
dreth's, Philadelphia. Orders which ore left previous 
lo tho 1st of April, will tic filled as noon as the canal o- 
pens. As the subscribers intend giaduuUy to establish 
an extensive Seed Sloro, they tiosl that the friends of 
Agriculture and Horticulture in this vicinity, will render 
them all the facilities and encouragements in their power 

A NUR8KUY, under the control of Sir- Goodsell, is 
now lu progress, from which many first-rate Trees .md 
Grape Vines may be selected tor Ihis spring's transplant- 
ing, mar ID KO?SITER ami KNOX. 



METEOROLOGICAL TABLE, 

for the week ending March 12, 183). 



Ther Baroinel'r i Winds 



42 34 

30,28 
62! 32 

36128 
54 1 40 
50 1 40 



29,55, 29.lol»e 
29.4529,55 ! » 
29,68l29.50|e 
29,25 29,3-1 \m 

29,55 29,55'» 

29.35129 281 



a f- 

n ID 

n w 
la 
|n e 

8 W 





Y en ther 


s£ 


►, 


-3 




















u 
















; 


l 




1 


i 
i 

i 


l 





Obscrvn'ii: 



t-IOicr't 



1-10 in. r'a 



29,25120,1515 w -io 
T7 The Baromttrical and Thermometrical observa- 
tions are registercdat 10 o'clock A M. and P. HI., tahiCl 
by a long series of experiments made for lite pnrposc, 
show that time to give a nearer mean average of tJlc 
relative heat of a day than any other time. 



ROCHESTER PRICKS CURRENT 

March 18, 1831. 
Mink 



Ashes per 2240 lbs 

Pot $91(i92 50 

Pearl I00al02 50 

Apples per bushel 31a50 

l>o dried 75 

Bristles.comb'd per lb 20a31 

Beeswax do 18a20 

Butter do lOalS 

Beef— Mess per bbl $8a9 

Do prime do 5a7 

Do fresh per lb 02aO3 

Barley per bu&hcl 38n44 

Beans Co 50a62 

Candles, monld per lb 9 els 

Do dipped do 8 " 

Do sperm do 28 " 

Corn per bushel 50a56 

Cheese per lb 04a05 

CloverSeedper bush $4 50 

Flour per bbl 5 50 

Flax per lb 07a08 

Flax Seed per bush 78a87 

Feathers per ib 31a37 

Furs-Otter lOOa-JOO 

Fox, red 50a' 



I2tf3 

18a3i 



Raccoon 

Martin 

Fisher 

Wild Cat 

Gray Fox 
Crass Seed per Lash 
Hops per lb 
Honey do 
Lard do 
iVIutlou do 

Mustard Seed per bush , 
Oats per bush 25o*jL 

Old Pewter, Brass and 

Copper per Ib K 

Peaches, dry'd bush lOOffSOil 
PorU, mess per bbl $12<il:: 



25flfi2 
37*50 

18a2T. 
18a25 

i2oin 

09 
Q6aOT 

02fll 



Fox, cross 



Do prime 


8a9 


Do fresh per lb 


03n04 


Quills per 100 


25o30 


Rye per bush 


5( «5t> 


Rags per lb 


03o01 


Salt per bbl 


Si 75 


Tallow per Ib 


06n07 


Wheat perbiish 


109all5 



100o200|Buck wheat flour. cwi. S> 7r> 



bank: note table. 

Corrected Weekly for the Rochester Daily Advertiser. 
BY C. W UUNDAS. 



NEW YORK. 

All banks in this stalo, par. 
except the following 
Broke.nBa.nks. JFashing 
ton <fc Wairon, Barker's Ex 
change, Franklin Bank, M id- 
die Dist., Columbia, Greene 
County, Marble Manuf. Co., 
Plaitsburgh, and Niagara. 
MASSACHUSETTS. 
Al bauks in this state, par. 
except (he following 
Broken Bank* . Farmers 
b'nk of Bclckrrtowi], Sutton. 
Rerkshi c, Essex and Biigh- 
ton banks. 

VERMONT. 
All banks in this state, par. 

UHOD! ISLAND 

All banks in this stale, par, 

except tho following 

Broken Banks Farmers' 

Exchange, and Farmers' & 

Mechanics' banks. 

CONNECTICUT- 
All banks in this state, par, 
except the fellowing 
Broken Banlcs. Eagle, 
Eagle pay'ble at Union bank 
New-York, Derby, and Der- 
by payablo at Fulton bank 
New-York. 

NEW- HAMPSHIRE. 
All banks in ihis siute, par- 

MAINE. 

All banks iu ihis state, par. 

except the following 

Broken Banks. Castino, 

Wiscasset, Hallowcll «fc Au- 



suraarpioddy banks. 

NEW-JERSEY. 
State b'nU, & Trenton Bank- 
ing Company, pay. 



Ali other banks, 



'■ per rtuty 



except the following 
Broken Banlts. Salem & 
Phil. Manuf Co.. Monmouth, 
Hoboken and Grazing Co., 
X. Jersey Manuf Si Bantling 
t-o. at II' boken, State Bank 
ai Trentun, Protection and 
Lombard, and Jtrsey City. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 
Philadelphia Bauks, par- 
All other banks, ^per cent, 
except the following 
Broken Banks. Farmers-' 
&■ Mechanics' at N. Sa., Cen- 
tre, Huntington, Meadville 
Marietta, Juuiata, Greeocas-, 
tie, Bedford, Beaver, WasJi- 
lugton, Uuiontowii, Agricu! 
turaJ.Sil Lake, Westmore- 
land at Greenburgh, Neu^ 
Hope Bridge Co new emis 
sion,and Brownvile bank;. 

OHIO. 
All bonks, 4 to G per ccflt, 

MICHIGAN. 

Ali banks, 2 per cent, 

except the following 

Broken Bojtks. Monroe, 

aiid Deiroit. 

CANADA. 
All banks, 2 to 3 per cent. 
oxrept the 
Upper Cana. at Kingsipn 
and Unchartered basks. 



gnsta, Kennebec, and Pas 

XT The above table when speaking of foreign Bilh^rc 
fers to those of $5, and over, as none of a lessdenovmt 
ation are receivable. 



THE ALBANY NURSERY "~ 

NOW contains 177 varieties of the Apple, 12C of the 
Poar. 50 of the Plum, 27 of the Cherry, 30 of the Pearii, 
40 of the Crape, tyc— Apricots, Nectarines, Quince?' 
Strawberries Gooseberries, Raspberries, Currants, &-c. 
—more than 146 varieties of hardy Roses, aud other de 
sirnble varieties of Ornnmental Shrubs and Trees. sinH 
Herbaceous and Green House Plants, of vigorous growth 
ami in fine condition for transplanting. Tuberoses, DaV 
lias, Feirariae, Jacobean Lillies, and other tender roots. 
shoaUl be planted in May, aud now is the time to order 
them. Orders solicited, aud Catalogues furnished gr*»h 

Albany, March, 1631. BUF.L and WILSON 

m T9 Ord-crs w i ll be received by LUTH EH TUC7vE R , 



*8 



THE GENESEE FARMER. 



March 19, 1831 



SELECTION.?. 



Setectcdfor the Grnr.see Farmer, by D. T. 
From Lawrenco'a Gardening, printed in 1717. 

At my first coming to my parish, I found 
-iom.o difficulty to preserve my fraitfrom rol) 
hers ; hereupon I resolved upon this strata- 
gem I ordered t lie smith to make a large iron 
trap, with formidable teeth, to close within 
another, which was called a %nan Imp. This 
was hung Up several weeks', at the smith's 
shop, in tcrrorem, giving it out, that now there 
would be great danger, if any one should at- 
atten-ipt to rob my garden. This, without set- 
tin" the trap, succeeded to my wish, and I have 
Mot been since rf-bbed these 12 years. 

It is very convenient to have a large cistern 
,.r Htono trough — and if it should be thoughi i 
difficult to procure such a sort of slone as] 
will endure the hard frosts in the winter; as a 
romedy for this, I made an experiment upon 
a very brittle stone trough, — which the mason I 
told tne would not endure the frost, — and it 
succeeded according to my expectaiions. I 
used it for salting meat in the bouse, far two 
or three months, till 1 thought it was thorough- 
ly soaked with brine, and then set it abroad ; 
and it has already endured six winters, and 
defied even the, great frosts in 1708. 



From the New England Farmer. 
FARMER'S WORK FOR MARCH. 
Cattle should be liberally suppl.ed with food 
from this time till they can be turned to grass. 
As straw and hay become drier than they were 
: n the fore part of the winter, the supply should 
be greater, and the quanlity of roots which you 
give them had better he increased than dimin- 
ished. Potatoes are better food for breeding 
ewes than turnips, which it is said are apt to 
injure the lambs. 

Dress with stable, compost, hog pen, or such 
other well rotted manure as you have, such 
grass ground as you have neglected in au- 
tumn; three loads now, may he i-qual to two 
then : hut it is best to secure a good crop even 
now. Your winter grain should bo now dres- 
sed with plaster, if it was neglected at seed 
time : your mowing grounds which are upon a 
dry soil, will pay you well for a bushel or two 
of piaster, or a few bushels of lime or leached 
ashes to the acre. 

Your orchards continue to claim your atten- 
tion — give to eaclt tree a top dressing of your 
best chip, stable, or compost manure ; your 
fruit will richly repay besides the extra profits 
upon your grass under your tress, whether 
mowing or pasture.logether with the growth of 
your trees. 

Look to your water courses, and change 
their direction, to receivo the benefit of the 
spring rains ; the frequent changing of vour 
water courses will render your mowing even, 
and prevent one part from becoming rank, and 
lodging before the other part is fit to cut, and 
thus turn to-your best pro-lit, that which if neg- 
lected, would become waste and damage. 

Do not permit the carcases of dead animals, 
such as lambs, cats. Ac. to contaminate your 
premises, and poison its inhabitants. When 
tlomeslicatod animals die, it is the common 
prnctice to let them rot above the gronud. — 
TJiis is suro to annoy the neighbaurhoori. If 
the stencil from the animal be too distant to 
contaminate the air, dogs are fond of carrion, 
and after they have gorged themselves with it, 
become insufferable inmates to the families to 
which they belong. The dead animal should 
be laid on a thy:k layer of earth, and well co 
voted with the same material. After the co 
vering has sunk in, and the earth has absorbed 
the animal matter, the compost will not be more 
offensive than slaughler house dung, provided 

a sutlicieuey of earth has been employed. 

They should be hauled to the field during win- 
tor, and ploughed under us soon as frost will 
tpermit. The same should also be done when 
■fight soil is osed. 

Sir Hufnplrrev D;cvv ol^tyVed' flint <* Ma- 



nures from animal substances, in general re- 
quire no preparation to fit them for the soil. — 
The great object of the farmer is to blend them 
with earthy constituents, in a proper state of 
division, and to prevent their too rapid decom- 
! position. 

The .ntire parts of tho muscles of land ani- 
mals are not commonly used as a manure, 
though there are many cases in which such an 
application might bo easily made. Horses, 
dogs, sheep, deer, and other quadrupeds, that: 
have died accidentally, or of disease, afierj 
their skins are separated, are often suffered toj 
remain exposed to the air, or immersed in wa- 
ter, till they are destroyed by birds or beasts of 
prey, or entirely decomposed ; and in this case, . 
j most of their organized matter is iost for the 
land on which they lie, and a considerable por- 
lion of it employed in giving off noxious gases I 
to I he atmosphere. 

By covering dead animals with five or six 
times their bulk of soil, mixed with one purl 
of lime, and guttering (hem to remain for a few] 
months, their decomposition would impregnate! 
the soil with soluble matter, soasto render it. 
an excellent manure; and by mixing a little 
fresh quick lime with it at the lime ol its re- 
moval, the disagreeable effluvia would be iu a 
great measure destroyed ; and it might be ap- 
plied in the same way as any other manure 
to crops. 

Procure the very best of garden seeds, and 
other seeds for the ensuing season. If you 
mean to deserve the character, and realize 
the profits of a good cultivator, you will see 
that every arlicle of use in your honorable vo- 
cation, is among the best of its kind- You 
must plant good seeds, or you will not grow 
good vegetables, possess good breeds of do- 
mestic animals, or your slock will not be so 
valuable as it might and ought to bu. If your 
tools and implements are not the best, you will 
waste much strength to little purpose, when 
you attempt to use them. 

Those plants, which you wish might yield a 
forward crop, such as garden peas, beans, &c. 
may be sown very early iu the spring, and very 
thick in hoi houses, or under hot bed frames, 
or the south side of walls, and transplanted 
when they are one or two inches high, into 
ihe places in which they are intended to stand 
for a crop. 

Your ploughs, harrows, carls, hoes, rakes, 
&.C. should be inspected and put in readiness 
for use. They will last the lunger if painted 
or covered with some suitable composition. — 
Covering wood repeatedly with oil or grease, 
will have a tendency to preserve it. Where tools 
or implements are exposed in the field, a good 
part of the year, they require to be new pain 
ted at least every second year. This applies 
as well to the iron as to the wood, both of 
which should he kept coated, as far as practi- 
cable, with paint or oil. 

It will soon bo (if it is not now) ihe proper 
season for pruning fruit trees. London says, 
'• For all the operations of pruning which are 
•performed ou the branches or shoots of trees, : 
'it would appear the period immediately be- j 
] fore, or commensurate with the rising ot the J 
sap, is the best." Col. Pickering observed, 
" ftjy practice has been to prune in tlic spring, 
beginning when the bads have scarcely begun I 
to swell, aud coiling before the expansion of 
tho leaves llui 1 never leave ' slumps' of 
lin.bs. Every branch that is taken away, is; 
cot close and even with the stem or limb where 
it grows; and llie healing of the wound com 
ineiicesixail proceeds kindly as vegetation ad- 
vances. II the branch cut off bo largo, the 
wound should bo covered with some kiud of 
plaster." 

Here follows the communication of our qor- 
respondent D. T. on pruning, for which sue 
number 3, of this paper. 



MAPLE ^UGAR. 

As the season for making maple sugar is ap- 
proaching, we think it may be of use to some 
of our readers to attend to the following di- 
rections. 

Scald your buckets for catching sap, before 
tapping the trees. 

The sap should be kept clean from dir; 
through the process of boiling. 

Avoid leaving your sap long in an iron kettle 
as the rust will give it a dark color. 

When nearly boiled down to syrup or thin 
molasses a little lime thrown into the kettle 
will be of use. 

At this stage of boiling, as well as in sugar- 
ing off, care should he taken to avoid heating 
the top of the kernel too hot, or any other way 
burning, as it will injure the colour, and Ihe fla- 
vor of the *ugnr. 

When thi syrup is boiled down, turn it while 
hot, into a clean wooden vessel ; let it stand 
two or three days and settle ; then turn \'. 
carefully from the dirt at the bottom, and strain 
it. 

Hang it ovor a gentle fire, and when it is 
warm, stir in one pint of milk to four or five 
gallons of syrup, which will rise as it begins 
lo boil, and must be taken off will) a skimmer. 

If you wish to make your sugar very nice 
coo! it until one half or two ihirds will grain . 
torn it hot into a light cask ; let it stand until 
it is grained at the bottom. Turn off the mo- 
lasses, and turn the cask botiom npwards ove" 
some vessel to catch what will drop; then 
set vour cask upright, and what moisture re 
mains will settle to the bottom, leaving the 
tup dry, and the sugar will he of a superiol 
quality. — Osi«c»» Pallad. 



CiARDElV SEEDS. 

THE subscribers ur>: now roaily to receive the spring 
I orders of their customers, having received by the Sove- 
reign, from London, and by arrivals from France auc 
j Holland, a ciioice assortment of Garden, Field & Flow- 
er seeds— among which, are many hue sorts of enrry 
| Cabbage ; early and Iato Cauliflower ; purple Cupe Ilro- 
jcole ; early scarlet Radish ; Mangel \Vur2cll : Sir Join. 
Sinclair's uew Silver tlcets, (a very luxuriant anil vain - 
jablo vegetable); Bishop's early Dlrarf Prolific Pent. 
75 emits per rjuart. These peas need no rcconinienda 
tion i itmuv who iiad them last season attest to theirsii- 
perior quality — they were introduced by aScotcu Gar- 
dener, named Bishop, 1827, in London,, and so great'' 
was their reputation, that they s.dd for one guinea per 
pint ; they are remarkably early, very productive, an.: 
grow only twelve inches high — should be planted three 
inches apart, as they spread liko u fan ; they coiuiucucc. 
blooming when only three inches high. 

Also, a few pounds suporior white Mulberry Seed 
growth lS3u,prico59 cents per oz. or 6 dolls, per pound 
Perennial llyo Grass ; Orchard Grass ; tine early Pota 
toes ; English Windsor lieaus -, Green Nonpareil Beans 
Ate. iyc. 

Bird Seed of every sort : fresh Emhdon Grotts ; Oat 
Meal i Barley Meal; Kice Floor; Shaker's Parched 
Corn ; Medicinal Herbs ; Barks and Roots in great, va- 
riety. 

Also, 40 bushels fine white Mustard Seed, received, by 
the Columbia and Hudson, late LoudoD arrivals; this 
Seod was selected expressly for Medicine— is qurte frer 
ofdust and impurity 

Gentloiuen supplied with Gardeners, by the dav, loom* 
or y ear . O. THOKBURN & SONS. 

Feb. 29— G F C w 67 Liberty street, New Vork t 



Who is the best F«nner ! Not lie who lias 
the largest firm or the tno9t land. But he 
who does all his wOfik aj flye rrfehtr Oih'o,, apd 
iti flie trglu Vf try 



MEYV CATALOGUE.— PRICKS REDUCED. 

Linntan Botanic Garden and Jfurscriit, a&l'lusjiinj/ 
near TVetr-lorft. 

WM. PRINCE & SONS, proprietors of this establish" 
ment, now announce that llu) great extension made in 
their establishment, which now covers nearly TiD acre? 
compactly lilted with U»e choicest Trees, Shrubs, &c. 
has enabled them to reduce tho prices for various kinds . 
and their new Catalogue with the rcdooed prices will I. 
speedily presented to the public, when it may bo ob- 
tained of the various ageou, or by application to them 
selves diu-ct by mail* The greatest attcnttcai and thr- 
J strictest srrutiuy have baeu exercised in regard to the 
[quality and accuracy of their Trees, una. they are of a 
larger sj-.ee than at any previous period Aware thai the 
establishment oX Nurseries in every part ojf olrt ronutry 
woutd be a national uuv.-image, they will furnish ajl sur- 
plies ,11 such cases at a liberal discount, ajid at a credit 
to comport with 1 he convenience 0/ ihe purchasers. An^ 
information desired will be tarnished by return majl, ti 
those who desire it.oud all orders <ye. Will receive thi 
acteosioinrd attention "Bd despatch. 

Those who desire any iidilitiouul uit'oruunkfti respect- - 
ing tjio establishment, or who wish to send utders fir 
rrcoai SIlTUtut, etc are retjueatcil to coll on A- KKV. 
NOM1S, in the Arcade. Bin door belo\v^licPK?t Q/fivv ,. 
who is an ajithnrr.3!!l agent of /Jrts OBb,Rli|i7e , 'f-. 

Riie,1te-- ;.;f\ * , 'r->:- -, > I'J'.li.T-'.'l F» 



mmmm. ^®Lmmmm* 



VOLUME I. 



ROCHESTER, MARCH 26, 1831. 



NUMBFR 12. 



THK U K IS E S K E FARMER 

AND GARDKNKr's JOURNAL. 

iDovotedto Agriculturo, Horticulture, Doinestio l.rorio 

qiv. &.C- &c. 

N. GOODS! LL, EDITOR 

Published on Sat ui days, at $2 50 per anndm, 

payable in six months, or at $2 00, if paid at the 

time of subscribing, by Luther Tuckfr. at 

the office of the Roithester Daily Advertiser. 



COIHOTTJNICA riONS. 



FOR THE GENESEE FIRMER. 
CIDER. 

Cider, as well as all other fermented liquors 
is benefited by close fermentation. \U car- 
bonic acid gas in the original must or juice, (if 
there were any,) or all that may be generated 
in the process of fermentation should be re 
tamed if practicable. Therefore the juice 
should be put in a strong cask, before any fer- 
mentation commences. Every thing that has a 
tendency to clear the juice of the pulp and o- 
ther matter, and charge it with carbonic acid 
gas, will give that lively zest which is so highly 
prised in fermented liquors. 
The first thing should be to run the apple juice 
through a rectifier, made by laying flannels in 
the bottom of a cask, over which should he a 
layer of pounded limestone, made very fine, 
then a layer of charcoal, recently burned and 
made fine. Running the juice through this 
will deprive it of nearly all ihat would make 
lees. 

The enrbonic acid gas may be retained in the 
liqnor by fitting to the bung hole of each cask 
a safety valve which may be made in the fol- 
lowing manner: 

Lay upoti the hung hole some twenty or 
thirty leaves from the grape vine, or some oili- 
er large leaved plant, such as will not imparl 
an unpleasant taste to the cider, on these place 
a small piece of board, and i.pon it as much 
weight as the strength of the cask will bear 
Thus, much of the gas may be retained, and 
the remainder can pass off by raising the 
weight upon the leaves. 

If your casks are musty, or otherwise not 
sweet, they must be rendered so by what is 
called matching, or stumming them. For this 
purpose take a strip of linnen or cotton cloth, 
about a foot long, more or less, dip it ,n mel- 
ted brimstone. set one end on fire, and drop it in- 
to the bung hole of the cask, holding the oiher 
in yourfingers. and pressing the bung in gently 
with the end of the match by the side of it. — 
Let it remain in this situation for an hour or 
two. and if on removing the bung any of the 
musty smell remains in 'he cask, the mUohing 
must be repealed 

The practice of putting cider trora the press 
into open vns or tubs to ferment, that the pu 
mice may rise, or the clear liquor be drawn from 
"under the scum, is undoubtedly a bad one, and 
it is useless, for if it is passed through a rectifi 
er. that will e'.ear it effectually. Besides re- 
fining it, the coal will give it a beautiful amber 
oolour, w'nh the mellowness common to white 
wines. Bottle the cider in March, and when 
it is a year old, if it is well managed, it will 
sparkle like champaigne, and if made froua 
unripe fruit, it will sparkle mure than when 
made from ripe fruit. 

If you wish at any period of the fermenta- 
tion to stop its further progress. it may be done 
fty adding one ounce of sulphate of potash to 
a barrel, which will n 't affect the flavor of the 
cider. There is no doubt but that some kinds 
of apples are better for cider than others, 
and that some countries produce belter fru't, 
ooth for cider and the table than others; foi 
instance, those from France ate better than 
those from England. About Detroit and the 
western end of Lake Erie, the apples are bet 
ter than those of the eastern states: the ori- 
ginal stooire of the former were from France, 



while orchards- raiser) from seeds brought from 
:Vew England are inferior to those raised from 
French stocks, for cider, as the juice from the 
latter contains more saccharine matter. 

Yours, &c. B. F. STICKNEY. 
Port Lawrence, (Michigan) Feb. 7th, 1831. 



FOR THE GENESEE FARMER. 

Mb. Editor— If you think the following 
wotihy of a place in your very useful paper, 
you will notice it. Although apparently insig- 
nificant, it is of much importance to breviers. 
and a serious injury to young calveH — it is a 
remedy for the scottrs,llte natural consequence 
attending the feeding of young calves with a- 
nv other food than new milk. I have prac- 
ticed it this season with a number of calves, and 
have had entire success. 

The course I pursue, is simply to add a little 
pulverized chalk to their food at every meal. 
I have experienced more inconvenience from 
this malady than any other attendant upon the 
rearing of calves. The great benefit to be de 
rived from il, is in being able to have the use 
of a greater portion of the milk, at the season 
when most wanted, as skimmed milk boiled, 
with the addition of a little meal, is as good as 
the new milk, with a small feed of dry bran 
and hay twice a day. 

Calves treated in this manner through the 
summer, have decidedly the advantage over 
those that are brought up on ihe cow. They 
are much more hearty — are not so dainty of 
what they eat — and winter far better. 

Yours, vory respectfully, A Breeder. 

FOR THE GENESEE FARMER. 

In the Genesee Farmer, page G2, informa- 
tion relative to the extent of the snow storm 
which occurred at Rochester, on the 22d ami 
23d ultimo, is requested ; and iu compliance 
wnli that notice, I present the following mem- 
oranda made at Greaifield. Cayuga county : 

2 mo 22. In the morning, the sun was jus' 
discernable through the clouds. Yvfind, model 
ato, south-south-east. Half past 2 o'clock P. 
M. it began to snow— about an inch fell At 
sunset, it became calm; and soon after the 
wind sot in very moderately from north-north- 
east. A cold rain through the night — not warm 
enough to melt all the light snow of the prece- 
ding day. 

23. Wind north-west by north. Grew cold 
very suddenly in the morning. Very sinanlar 
figures of frost-work appeared on the board 
fences, two inches across, finely curved like 
feathers or the curled foliage of the vine — 
A' 11 o'clock it began to snow very moderate 

■y- 

24. Continued to snow a little from the 
north-west till noon— then cleared up. This 
was a light snow of only two or three inches. 

In a letter dated the 23d ult. near Montrose. 
Su-quehanna comity, in Pennsylvania, the wri- 
ter remarked " It is now raining here, the rner 
cury is up to 40 " 

It appears that the freezing wind from the 
N. W. by N. which prevailed at this place in 
the morning, had not reached Montrose at ihe 
time that letter was written. 

As ' continuation of my remarks on north- 
east storms, 1 add the following : 

1 mo. 31. Thin elouds from the S. W. Wind 
S. S. E. In the evening it began to snow 

2d mo. 1. Morning. Wind N. N. W. Depth 
of ibis snow was 8 or 9 inches. 

Mem. It appeared by the newspapers that a: 
ihis lime a north-east storm raged on our sea 
coast. D. T 

FOR THE GENESEE FARMER. 

The olfactories of some people are kepi 
mostly employed while they are ranging thro' 
a flower garden ; and the odours of the Inn 
cinth, the sweet violet, some lulips, the honey- 
suckle, the rose, and many others, present pow- 
erful inducement's for the jjruosjee ; {nit ih,c 



following brief extracts from Loudon's Ency- 
clopedia of Plants, show that caution is neces- 
sary in some cases. 

Narcissus. Derived from a Greek word sig- 
nifying '-stupor, on account of the dangerous 
effecls produced by the smell, even of the least 
perfumed kinds, upon the nerves. For this 
reason [the] Nurcissus was consecrated tn '.ho 
Furies, who by means of it were [supposed! 
to stupify those whom they wished lo punish." 
In that volume 55 species of A t <it«ssks are enu- 
merated, including the Daffodils, Jonquils, and 
Polyanthus-Narcissus. 

Aconilumrapellus — Monk's hood. " Some 
persons only by taking in the effluvia of the 
herb in full flower by the nostrils, have been 
seized with swooning fits, and have lost their 
sight for two or three days." P. 

Grorelnnd, MarchlGth, 1831. 

Mr. Editor — I was highly gratified when 
the publication of your useful paper was first- 
announced, and my name is in Ihe list of your 
subscribers. Your importunate appeals to 
practical farmers, for any communications 
which oan be useful or entertaining, upon ag- 
ricultural subjects, have induced me to address 
you. although I have nothing very important to 
offer; as indeed, I think a little of mere chit- 
chat on such subjects, between farmers, may 
be useful. 

In the first place, sir, allow me to inquire, 
whether Horse Beans, which are so commonly 
.and extensively grown all over Europe, aro 
cultivated in any part of Western N. York 1 
They are of very great importance in the hus- 
bandry of England, and are mixed with oats 
for feeding hard working horses, all over the 
kingdom, being very nutritious. They suc- 
ceed best on clays and loams, the richer the 
better. This crop, well cultivated, proves an 
excellent preparation for yvheat. They should 
he drilled in rows about 27 inches asunder s» 
is to allow a plough to work between them. 
If the experience of last season may be relied 
upon for the future, they will come off tha 
ground immediately after wheat harvest, thus 
allowing ample time for one ploughing, prepar- 
atory to sowing the same land with wheat. 

I sowed a few last year on the flats, but they 
were injured by a flood in the summer, and the 
crop, not yet thrashed, will be small; the sam- 
ple is, however, very good. I shall try them, 
again this year, under more favorable circum- 
stances. 

I shall be glad to hear from any farmer who 
s in the practice of sowing spring wheat. Tri- 
iu.nm Ostitmm— what is the period which he 
finds best for sowing it. The latter end of A- 
nrtl is thought the best season in England ; but 
i suppose it should be sown earlier here, as the 
great heats of summer come on so very soon 
after vegetation Do you know a species of 
wheat, called in England, Talavera ? It is.as 
yon would infer from the name, a Spanish va- 
riety, introduced in England, during the Pen- 
insular War. 

The millers there prefer it to any other kind 
It is a large, full, white grain, the bran remar- 
kably thin7 Very litile of it is sown there, as 
the summers are seldom so dry and warm as 
its constitution reqit'ues, I procured a little 
of the seed from England, the produce efl82S, 
but it was so much grown out, owing to the 
wet harvest of that year, that hardly one gram 
n ten vegetated : still I hope that I saall he 
able to save enough to give it a fair trial. 

1 shall feel obliged for any details of the ac- 
tual produce of Hemp per acre, both in quan- 
tity aud price, as also of the expense. Is there 
any where in this part of the country, one of, 
those patent machines, which are said to sn> 
persede tbe necessity of rotting it ? 

lam, sir, your obedient servant, 

A 8R0VEri>si> SAinisT.: 



90 



THE GENESEE FARMER 



March 26, 1831 



FOR THE CENESEE FARMER. 

Mr. Editor — Enclosed in the accompany- 
ing letter, I have received the seeds and de- 
scriptions therein mentioned ; and as its partic- 
ular habits, and periods of ripening its seeds,arc 
unknown to me, I have thought it advisable to 
plant them in pots, in order to bring them for- 
ward as early as possible for transplanting. 

That evory facility may be jiven to try the 
experiment, on as extended a scale as the quan- 
tity of seed will admit, I shall be happy to 
distribute the plants among the members of 
the Society, as soon as they shall be in season, 
of which notice will be given through the rne- 
dillm of vour journal. 

From the English -ieseription, if it should 
not prove a RiUa Baga or Mangel WuriztU bub 
ble, and unfilled both. to our climate and rural 
economy, it may prove not only a valuable 
ortcn crop, bur a curious and ornamental item 
in our list of herbaceous exotics. 

Acco'ding to the Liniiren system ofBotany, 
it is refeired to class Pentandria, order Mono- 
gynia 

The donsr will please to accept my own and 
- Ii . ■ Society's thanks for his polite attention 
and donation. Yours, &c. 

March 22, 1831. L B. LANGWORTHY. 

Rochester, March 17, 1831. 

Dear Sir — While I was at Quebec, on 
business, the oast season. 1 became acquainted 
with Mr Myers, recently from Ipswich, Eng- 
land, who presented me with a few seeds of 
the Prickly Comfiey, a new species of lood for 
cattle, which was originally discovered by a 
Traveller at Caucasus between the Mountains, 
near the Caspian Sea. For particulars in re- 
gard to the value of the plant, I refer you in 
the accompanying certificates. It struck me 
very forcibly lint it might be cultivated to great 
advantage in the valley of the Genesee; I 
therefore present the seeds ! obtained, through 
you to the Monro- Horticultural Society, as 
one of their officers, hoping it may be found 
useful to our agiiculturists. 1 am. sir, your 
ob't servant. SAMUEL MURDOCH.. 

L. B. Langworthv, 

Ouo of the Cor, Sec'y'sof the M. II. Society. 

A Letter addressed to ihe Right Honorable Lord Fnrn- 
burough, on the cultivation of the Symphytum Asper- 
rimuni, or Prickly Comfrey, a new species of green 
food fur cattle ; a hardy perennial of gigantic growth, 
introduced from Caucasus, as an Ornamental Plant. 
My I. ouo — Some years back I happened to 

have two of the above plant- growing near an 



open fence, where my cati le passe I daily. As 

sprung up, so that they could reach 

it, they feu on ii with the greatest avidity; 



the following ye u they did the same. 1 then 
thoughi, if it should prove wholesome.it might 
be turned to good account, as green food tor 
cattle generally ; and in consequence, I set a 
bout increasing it, ami have fed horses, cows, 
sheep, pigs and geese with it, and they have 
all done well ; and, as it is of such wonderful 
growth, and may be cut successively from A- 
pril to October, it may be cultivated to great 
advantage. 

For horses, to be put in racks, spread on 
pastures, or the green stalks to be rui with 
chaff, it will be found most useful. About two 
out of three will take it upon tho first trial; 
the others will soon follow ; and when once 
th tasle is acquired, they will never leave it. 
My neighbour, Moorey, the Veterinary Sur- 
aeon, hail a young mare, lasi autumn, very bad 
with the strangles, so much so, that she had 
left off feeding ; bethought of the Comfrey, 
and sent for soiue ; she immediately began to 
feed on it, and she s ion gol well : he considers 
that, on account of its oily nature, it was of 
the greatest service. 

Cows do not take it, in the first instance, so 
freely as the horse ; but they will soon take to 
it, and then are quite as eager for it. In J 827, 
( fed the worst cow I had, entirely upon ii, for 
some length of tune; she did well, and milk 
od bet'er than -h< h id done before. The 
.ream was ;bickcr, and good flavored. 



For sneYp and lambs it is very good ; they 
will eat it freely. Lambs will all feed on it 
before they area month old; and as itissucli 
a very early plant, it will immediately follow 
the turnips. For the first crop of leaves to he 
fed off before the flowering stalks rise, care 
being taken not to feed too hard, so as to da- 
mage the crowns of the plants; lobe spread 
on pastures, or put in racks in the folds, on 
fallows, it will be found of grpat service. 

For pigs it is very useful, they oat it freely, 
and do well, I kept a sow chiefly on it with 
twelve pigs, and she brought them up well ; 
they all fed on it before they were three weeks 
old. Geese do well with it; the young ones 
will feed on it as soon as hatched. 

I have no hesitation, my Lord, in pronoun- 
cing it a most valuable discovery, as it will 
grow in all soils and situations, superior to a- 
ny other plant ; it may be planted by the sides 
of ditches in anv waste corner of fields, or- 
ctiards, gardens, &c. where useless rubbish 
grows ; it is a plant thai no one can lose by, as 
the only expense is the purchase of a few in 
the first instance, as it may soon he increased 
to any quantity, and when once established, I 
believe, it will last forever. I never knew a 
plant to die, and I know some that have stood 
more than twenty years, and are as full of vi- 
gour now as they have ever been. It is now 
ready for cutting, which shows it is a plant 
of such early growth, that it must come into 
general use. 

I have no doubt but in a few years, it 
will be cut and carried in bundles, and sold a- 
bout the streets of London, and other great 
lowns, as tares, rye, clover, &c. now are ; as 
it comes before, with and after them, and the 
produce being so enornions, and the expense 
so trifling, in comparison with all oilier crops. 
I have out it when more than seven feet high, 
and as thick as it could stand on the ground. — 
1 once cut and weighed one square rod ; the av- 
enge was seventeen tons three hundred per 
acre. I have no doubt but in the course of 
the year, the produce would have been thirty 
tons. 

I cannot undertake to say what effect con- 
tinual cutting may have on the plant, or on the 
land, for tnanj years logo. her. but as far as I 
have experienced, it does not weaken the 
plant. I Have cut it three times in the year. 
& found it equally strong the following spring. 

The proper distance for planting it, is from 
two to five feet square, according to the quali- 
ty of the land. Ii may be planted at any time 
of the year; hut, like other herbaceous planls, 
it moves best when in a growing stale. 

I am mv L'-rd, your obedient humble ser'vt, 

March 31 1830. D. GRANT. 

A copy of Q letter, extracted from the Farmer's Journal 
ofth.l-ltliof June, k-<30. 

Sir — Having beard much of the Symphytum 
Jispirrimum, or Prickly Comfrey, and having 
had a put of ii during the sprii.'g, for show, I 
wished to see it in its cultivated state, in the 
ground. I went down to Lowishrtm, last 
week, for this purpo-e, and can assure you I 
was very much pleased, I u ay say astonished 
at the produce : it was beautifully in bloom, 
and some of it near seven feet high. AH Mat 
Mr. Grant has said of the produce and quali- 
ty, seems t<> be quite correct ; from the taste of 
it, I think there can he no doubt but it con- 
tains agreat deal of nutritious matter, and is 
wi II worth a trial. 

I saw one plant which, I was informed, had 
been planted three years, containing thirty-two 
stalks, none of them loss than six feel high, and 
from one and a half to four inches in circumfe- 
rence; 1 also saw stalks, said to 1 1 i v . been 
planted but fourteen months, from five to six 
no !o s in circumference, and seven feel high. 

I am, Sir, yours, $c. W. W. FARNES. 

West Smtthland, June ll th, 1830 

The plant containing the thirty-two stalks, 
was cut and u ighed in the presence of Mr, 
VV. G. Selby, of the Bridge-house Farm, Lew- 



isham, on Monday, the 14th of June, 1830, and 
weighed 56 lbs. 



FOR THE GENESEE FARMER. 

Being at Philadelphia in in the year 1819, I 
bought an Agricultural Almanac, embellished 
at the heatl of each calendar p^ge with wood 
cuts descriptive of such rural labour? as seem- 
ed most appropriate to the month. I had to 
remark, however, that in all my researches a- 
mong pictures, from the period of my child- 
hood till that day, I had never seen any thing 
so destitute of expression, as several of these 
figures. 

The following year,if I mistake not, an Ag 
ricultural Almanac was got up by my old friend 
the Editor of ThePlough Boy; and greatly to 
my surprise, the same awkward images were 
pre-ented on his pages. Whether he procu 
! red the blocks at Philadelphia, or got some Chi- 
nese genius to copy them, 1 know not; but 
!from that time we may date the decline of the 
\jine arts in New York, as applied to almanac. 
[ making Either the same blocks, or copies of 
them, have been employed, on other almanacs : 
and we presume more than a hundred thousand 
impressions have been presented to the inhab- 
itants of ihe Old Genesee Country. 

Let any farmer look at those (.lu.osv fellows 
in the firs: picture, and say if they ever had 
hold of Jlails before 1 See that creature with 
au ax In the next picture, and say if he has the 
attitude and nerve of an American ? The man 
at the break appears to he just commencing a 
new business. Perhaps the best representa- 
tion is the hoy who pulls the sheep towards 
the water precisely as an awkward boy might 
be expected to do. Both boy and artis' should 
be better taught. The prints from these old 
blocks are wretchedly black and indistinct ; 
and 1 enter myprolest against those caricatures. 
Let our almanac-makers throw away such 
old trumperv,and either leave the spaces blank, 
or represent us at our labors in decent style. 

A Farmer. 



SELECTION?. 



t-N RAISING CALVES. 

Extract of a letter from Gorham Parsons, Esq. to the 
Rev. Gardener B , Perry. 

Respecting the proper time and manner of 
weaning calves, I have considered if you in- 
tend raising the calf at the time it is calved, it 
is best to take it from the cow the day after, or 
not to exceed two davs — unless the udder of 
the cow is swollen 01 hard, then it may require 
the process thai nature points out lor the calf, 
the forcible application of the head against the 
udder, which generally reduces the swelling 
and hard bunches; while either remain I should 
noi take away the calf. But supposing no 
difficult) of that kind, the caif should be taken 
from the cow the first day, or twelve hours al- 
ter it is calved, thin fed from a bucket or small 
lub, with two quarts uf milk from the cow, in 
the morning and evening. the finger hold in tbo 
milk will very soon induce the calflo suck, and 
in a very short time he will drink the milk free- 
ly and readily. 

I have h id a piece of leather (upper leather) 
sewed together, of the size and in the form of 
a cow's teat, a small opening at 'he top, the 
bottom so cut as when nulled to the bottom of 
the bucket or tub with three pump nails, (be 
milk will |iass under easily, and tlow to the or- 
ifice of the teat; the calf will soon press for.it 
with as much earnestness as for that of his 
dam, and shortly he will be so impatient for 
.us i.i, akfasl and sapper, that tin- process of 
tucking will tie too tedious, and he will dftVik 
fieely — it will not be necessarj to increase the 
quaotit) of milk beyond iwo quarts night and 
morning, hut as be ad', a ices in size, add a lu- 
ll water, a pint at first, and increase it, e 
same Warmth as the in. Ik, lo which add a gil 
of Ind.an meal, which may, be increased to a 
pint, al hough I prefer using double the quan- 
tity of wheat bran, and ibink it far bettor for 
milch cows than Ind an meal— offer b' rn "ecom! 



Vol. 1.— No. 12. 



AND GARDENER'S JOURNAL. 



91 



crop hay, (if before the season for grass) he 
will soon eat of it, and may have skimmed 
milk soon substituted for now milk, made warm 
with water, as milk directly from the cow. 

When four or five weeks old he will eat 
grass and dnnk water, and be quite as large at 
if ho had taken ail the milk from the cow.— 1 
The saving of milk will amply pay for the 
trouble, and the calf will not be stinted in 
size. I think we err in permitting calves to 
suck to much at first, even when intended for 
the butcher. They fa! better by beginning 
moderately, and increasing gradually, as gor- 
ging is injurious to the brute creation as well 
as to the human race. 

Let a man pu' chase an animal as prepared 
and presented ai cur cattle shows for premi- 
um, stuffed and pampered for the occasion, 
then let him feed fairly, as a good farmer would 
and ought to feod, and beiore the next cattle 
show, the animal would be iiku the lean kine 
of Pharaoh. You see I differ from many good 
men as to the condition in which animals 
should be exhibited at our cattle shows — I do 
i:ot mean the cattle as fitted for boef although 
in that case I should lean to the firmer who 
presented well fatted beef at the least expense 
I have thought it better to have rather small 
enclosures for grass for calve.', and change 
them every two or three weeks. It' the feed 
should be short, or the flies so troublesome as 
to prevent their eating in the day time, feed 
with a quart of wheat bran, or three pints per 
day — if no bran, a pint of Indian meal — some 
crusts of bread occasionally, of which they 
soon become fond. 

I am fully of opinion, calves should be so 
ted as to keep them in a growing state, but 
never gorged or pampered. It frequently oc- 
curs that they require a very small piece ot 
their tail cut off; the necessity is ascertained 
by pulling the tail,aud if the hones are loose and 
the skin spongy, cutting is necessary : they are 
what fanners term tail sick. They should be 
provided with salt to lick when they please ; 
I use the crude lump salt from Liverpool :-- 
ray cattle of every description lick it freely. 
It is economy to use it, and I think it answers 
the purpose quite as well as white and granu- 
lated salt that is more expensive — you can see 
some of it at my farm in Eyefield. 

The age at which they should have their 
first calf does not appear to be settled, as 1 find 
farmers disagree, some preferring two years 
old past, or the month of June succeeding the 
spring when they were two years old, others 
three years old paM — I am rather inclined to 
prefer the latter agr-, unless Ihpcalf grows ra- 
pidly, and has attained great size, and may be 
considered a forward animal. Never allow a 
heifer to calve till June ; the verv last of the 
month is preferable ; they will then have a flow 
of nutritious grass feed, which will swell the 
udder, give health and strength, and unless a 
violent cold rain storm, no injury arises from 
calving in the pastures. 1 have thought it 
best to use bows, straps, or stanchions, to tie 
them up, as it is termed.; the first fall they 
are brought to the bar, I have had practised, 
(and my father before me, who was remarka- 
bly fond of them, and an excellent judge of 
their qualities.) handling the udder almost ev 
cry morning, when tied up feeling the teats 
and, if I may use the term, make believe milk- 
ing, if dene gently it will save trouble, which 
frequently happens with heifers with the first 
call. 1 think I have known several spoiled 
for want of this attention, and were ofno val- 
ue as milch cows — requiring their legs tied, 
and were not milked well, becoming the terror 
of female and finally of male milkers. 



The expense would not exceed from 25 10 50 
cents. Many would undoubtedly bo neglected 
and die ; but many, also, would grow and bear 
fruit abundantly. • Let it be not an objec- 
tion, that the tenant is to occupy but one 
year. — N. Y. farmer. 



LARGE AND FAT OXER. 

A pair of a North Devonshire breed was ex- 
hibited in this city on the 25ih inst. Thev 
were raised and fattened by Mr. Hurlbut, of 
Winchester, Conn, and weighed each 2700 
pounds. They were a very fat, handsome, 
and noble pair of oxen. The stock was deri 
ved from Mr. Coke, the celebrated and opu- 
lent English Agriculturist, Our farmers are 
entitled to all praise when they send to our ci- 
ty such specimens of what their management 
and their farms produce. — lb. 

CHARC0 4L FOB HAMS. 

A writer in the American Farmer recom- 
mends to pac|t hams, after they have beet: 
smoked, in pounded charcoal. It keeps out 
the flies, and prevents the foetid smell and uri 
pleasant taste too often found in hams exposed 
for sale.— lb. 

TAR ON SHEKP. 

It is but little known, but it is nevertheless 
a fact, says the Portland Mirror, that a little 
tar rubbed on the nocks of young lambs or 
geese, will prevent the depredations of foxes 
upon them; these animals having an uncon- 
querable aversion to the smell of tar. — lb. 



peas, the marrowfats are generally ureferred, 
and are very productive. Keep your peas 
clear of weeds, if you mean to havo them do 
well. — lb. 

The durability of posts used in making fen- 
ces, is a matter of great importance to our 
farmers.and will continue so as long as the pre- 
sent system of fencing is continued We 
have been informed that the shakers at Union 
Village, have been in the habit of making oak 
posts as durable as locust, by a very simple 
and easy process. This is merely to bore a hole 
m that part of the post, which will be just at 
the surfaco of the earth, with such a slope as 
will carry it just below the surface, and fill it 
with salt This, it is said, will preserve the 
timber from decaying for a long time ; and 
from the knowledffe we have of the influence 
of salt.in preserving ship timber,when treated 
in a somewhat similar manner, we have no 
doubt of its being a-- excellent method.— ib. 



PASTURE AND AAY. 

He who wishrs to have good pasture thro'- 
out the season, and good crops of hay, must 
keep his stock in his barn-yard until his pas- 
ture fields are well grown over with stout grass, 
and by no means turn his cattle, horses, or 
sheep into his meadow. 

Some farmers come short of hay, and rather 
than buy, feed off their meadows ; the conse- 
quence is, their next crop of hay is ruined, and 
the spring following they are compelled to do 
the samo ; thus they arc ever straightened for 
hay, and their farms are impoverished — it is 
just so with pasture fields. 

He who turns out his stock early will never 
have good pasture ; and his fields are kept 
bare, by close grazing, until they too are 
exhausted ; and what grass roots the horse 
and sheep do not pull up in the fall, are so ex- 
posed by their nakedness, that the frost of the 
winter destroys them, and thus the grazing 
part of the farm is ruined. Let him who wish- 
es to have a vigorous and early growth of grass 
permit his fields to go into winter quarters 
with a good cover of old grass, keep the bars 
all up, the sheep off during winter, and he can 
never fail. — L. hi. Farmer. 



From the New t^ogland Farmer. 

TO PREVENT SOWS FROM DESTROYING THE1P 

OFFSPRING 

* * * * Last summer a vessel arrived at 
Long wharf, in this city, having on board a 
sow, which, very soon after reaching the wharf, 
produced a fine litter of pigs She very soon 
began to devour them, upon which the captain 
threw her several pieces of salt pork, which 
she ate greedily, and disturbed the pigs no 
more The captain, who was formerly an ex 
perienced farmer as well as sea captain, said 
he had often tried the experiment, and always 
with perfect success. This may, or may not, 
be new to your readers. To me it appears 
very important. Yours, (ruly, B. 

Boston, March 1, 1831. 



VEGETABLE " COINCIDENCE." 

We were shown this morning, by Mr. San- 
derson, of the CofFeeHouse,a curiously-formed 

oraDge. left with him by one of his friends. 

The fruit was shaped in exact resemblance to 
the head of a parrot. Not the slightest min- 
utiae: Df a like appearance, was omited. The 
eyes, the crest, the bill, — and the whole con- 
tour of the bird's visage, were all " as to the 
life." In this age of wonders, such a vegeta- 
ble curiosity deserves a record. — Phil, Gaz. 



PLAST1NG VINFS IN YARDS. 

Every persan who occupies a house, either 
in the city or country, should consider himself 
under obligations to plant a vine in his yard. — 
.Suppose a choice variety of either foreign or 
native grapes should be planted ill every yard 
in this city, in a few years not a family liowev- 
fr poor, would be without this delicious fruit. 



They should be sowed as early as may be 
harrow them in, but they may be ploughed it 
in, if thought best. Be cautious and see thai 
they are not covered too deep. Oats or some 
other plants should be sown with them, in or- 
der to support them ; as their stems will be 
too feeble to support them alone The crop 
should be cut before the peas become too dry. 
Lay them in small heaps, and thrash them in 
the common manner when they are dry e- 
uough. The sti aw is good for fodder. Peas 
are good for fatting «» ine or cattle, and mix 
od with oats make excellent provender for a 
horse. Some people sow them on purpose for 
fodder, which is proved to be a mo6t nutritious 
and heavy crop. They leave theground mel 
low, and in a good state for a crop of grain. — 
As to bugs, let the poas be soaked in some rich 
and suitable liquor, made hot, before sown — 
r<*or the garden, peas should be sown about 
once a fortnight. Thus you may have green 
peas through the season. Sow them in double 
rowB.and stick them between,having the brush 
or-sticks placed firm in the ground. 

There is an early sort, called the Washing- 
ton peas, which are very excellent. For later 



It is stated in Watson's Annals of Philadel- 
phia, that the original cultivation ofbroom corn 
in this country originated with Dr. Franklin ; 
the Doctor accidentally saw an imported whisk 
of corn in the possession of a lady in Philadel- 
phia, and while examining it as an article of 
curiosity, saw a 6eed, which he secured and 
planted, and thus originated the abundant and 
lucrative crops which are so beautifully spread 
over meadows in the season of vegetable life. 



SILK WORMS. 

In (he Legislature of Massachusetts, on 
I Thursday, the Committee on Agriculture made 
I an interesting report lo the House, in fa^or of 
encouraging the cultivation of Mulberry trees, 
aod the raising of Silk Worms. The report 
concluded with a resolve requesting the Gov- 
■ynor to cause a book to be compiled on the 
subject, and distributed to the towns iu the 
commonwealth; six hundred dollars was ap- 
: loprialed to defray the expense. 

A Parsnip was raised in the garden of Mr 
L. Hine, in the village of Cairo, which grew 
from the seed, since last spring, weighing five 
oounds aDd fouitcen ounces, and had it been 
dug entire, would have exceeded six pounds. 
Its circumference tvas tweDty inches. 



Who is the best Lawyer ? Not he who 
makes the most writs, or gets the most money. 
But he who has the most knowledge, and uses 
that knowledge honestly 



92 



THE GENESEE FARMER 



March 26, 1831. 



THHaBNSSEE VABXtSim. 



SATURDAY, MARCH 26, 1831. 



MARCH. 

Thi9 may properly be called a month for pre- 
paration, ratlier thnn for finishing business, 
with tho Farmer. Nevertheless, it is a verv 
importunt time to those who would have 
their work well done, for unless work is done 
in season, it canno'. be called well done ; and 
in order to have it done in season, it must be 
commenced in season. The weather during 
this month is very variable, and out -door work 
frequently interrupted by storms. Ye: this 
should not lessen the exertions of the farming 
man ; let him always remember that when he 
cannot work out doots, there is enoujh to be 
dune within; therefore he should never be 
idle. 

During stormy weather he should examine 
his field and garden seeds, and see that ihe 
quality and quantity are suitable for his ap 
proaching wants. Cider barrels that have been 
emptied during the winter should be rinsed out 
first with water, and afier that rinse them with 
lime-water ; then bung them perfectly tight — 
see that the tap and vent holes are tight, when 
ihey may be packed away. Wood for sum- 
mer should he cul and piled up, as it is a great 
hindrance in the summer to allow a man to 
chop wood, besides the axes are dull at that 
season. 

It is well to split rails, and lay them in a fa- 
vorable situation to dry, if they are not wanted 
immediately on the fences; repair gates and 
bar-posts, aa a broken post may occasion the 
loss of a crop. It is useless to raise crops un- 
less they are well fonced. Ploughs, carts, 
harrows, yokes, hoes, forks and harness, should 
be pin in order. 

Much of the manure from the yard can be ta- 
ken out upon sleds, while the ground is frozen, 
with less labor than upon carts. Fences should 
be repaired as soon as Ihe srnund will permit. 

Some farmers allow their catile to range o- 
ver their meadows in the spring ; this is bad 
policy, as the injury they do by rendering the 
surface of the ground uneven, is g. eater than 
the benefit derived by iheir feoding. Where 
the surface of the meadows is not smooth, 
they should be rolled, which will compensate 
for the trouble; this should be done as soon 
as the frost is out of the ground. 

Where meadows have been mowed many 
years, it often happens that the clover anil 
herd's grass havo been run out (to use the com- 
mon phrase) by spear grass ; in such cases, it is 
well to sow on more 6eed,and drag the ground 
both ways, after which roll it. We have seen 
flie crop of hay donblod by this management. 

Where hay is foddered out from stacks, care 
should he taken to remove the manure before 
the frost is all out of the ground. If left un- 
til May, the grass roots under it will be killed, 
and if not removed at all it will be several 
years before the manure will be sufficiently rot- 
ted to allow grass to grow upon it. When we 
see tho slack pens remain in meadows through 
the summer. wi:h the manure about them, we 
think that it is bad farming. Pigs should 
always be ringed, and sheep trimmed, before 
they are allowed to run in the fields in the 
spring. Parsnips that have stood in the ground 



through the winter, should be dug as early as 
possible. 

Bee hives should be raised, and all the dead 
bees, and whatever else is offensive to them. 



Red # GrMn Sweeting—This is one of the ap- 
ples arranged by Prince in his catalogue. It is 
a large fruit, and as the name implies, the color 
is red and green striped. The flavor is sweet 
eared from the hive. In shorl. March ami 1! and pleasant. The tree is agood grower, but 



April are two important months for nursing all 
kinds of stock upon a farm. 



POMOLOGY. 

We have oinittted the descriptions of ap 
pies for some time, waiting for Mr. Prince's 
forthcoming work on Pomology, but as tha' 
has not arrived, and the season for cutting ci 
ons has, we will givo such descriptions of som> 
of the best apples of this section ufcountrv 
with their common names, as will furnish those 
who have not had an opportunity of becoming 
acquainted with them, some directions foi 
making up a good assortment for the different 
seasons. Aware of the confusion that exists 
among Horticulturists with regard to nami s, 
we shall endeavor to keep clear of local where 
general names are known. 

Juncatiiig, Large Early, or Yellow Harvest — 
This is ons of the earliest apples we have a- 
mongus, ripe the last of July and first of Au- 
gust, of middle size, rather flat, of a pleasant 
acid flavor, colour yellow, wiih a slisht blush , 
the tree is a good bearer. This apple is called 
the Bow by many orchadists in this country) 
but the growth of the tree is sufficient to dis 
tinguish it from that apple. It is rather sm ill 
with a flat top, the limbs of a dark color, free 
from spurs, and produce their fruit at the ex 
tremeties of a year's wood, where they often 
part into three branches, each branch growing 
very straight. 

Large Early Dough, or German Baugh — 
This is one of the finest early apples, it ripens 
about the tenth of August, is of a large size 
rather conical shape, of a beautiful yellow whet 
ripe, the flavor sweet, ami the flesh tender. The 
tree is an annual bearer, of rather slow growth, 
the limbs are curved, and have very yellow 
bark. As the apple grows uncommonly fair 
we do not know of any early apple that soil- 
butter ,n the market. 

Tool's Indian rare ripe — This apple ripens 
at the same time with the Bough, and is with, 
out exception, the finest early apple we have 
ever seen. It is very large, of a beautiful 
light yellow, handsomely blushed on the sunny 
cheek, with a pleasant acid flavor, and uncom. 
monly tender, so much so, that they frequeni 
ly break to pieces in Tailing from the trees; the 
shape is rattier conical, and the fruit remarka- 
bly fair. The tree is an annual bearer, and is 
of fine growth and lofty appearance, and noeds 
but little pruning. This is a new apple, and is 
a native of this state ; and we most cheerfully 
recommend it to all lovers of good fruit. It 
should be introduced into every orchard. 

Golden Pippin — There is an apple known b; 
this name in western New York. which is well 
worth cultivating. We are not certain tlintil 
is arranged in any of the eastern catalogues ; if 
so, we do not know by what name. It is a 
middle sized fruit, somewhat smaller than the 
bough, of a bright yellow, and very sweet and 
tender. It ripens about the middle of August. 
The above four kinds, (two sweet and two 
sour) indr the best suite of early apples with 
which we are acquainted. They will contin.l 
ue through the month of August. 



with us the young trees are rather shy bearers- 
[t ripens in September. 

Large fall pippin, or Pound Sxreeting — There 
s an ..|,plo cultivated in this county called by 
these names, a few trees of which would be 
well in every orchard. The apple is very 
arge w ightng from twelve to twenty ounces, 
■of a light green, covered with a bloom, and 
turning to a beautiful yellow when ripe. The 
flavor is sweet, and the flesh tender. The 
lee grows very thrifty, and the top is rather 
broad, and the ends of the shoots when grow- 
ing are covered with down, not unlike the 
Rhode Island Greening. The apples should 
be picked as soon as ripe, for if allowed to 
hang on the tree they become watery, and are 
good for nothing. They ripen in October, and 
if picked seasonably, will keep until January. 
Holland pippin — This is one of tho finest 
looking apples of the season, large and well 
sh;iped. of a pale yoliow colour, and sub-acid 
flavor. The flesh is while and juicv, but not 
very rich. Tiie tree is a thrifty grower, with 
large upright shoots, and smooth bark. It is 
in eating from October to January, and is fine 
for Cooking, 

Seekno-furtherr — Thure are two apples known 
in thu state by th<- same name, both very good, 
and so nearly alike in flavor as not to be distin- 
guished when eaten in the dark. The original 
>>ne is a fine apple, of a deep red color, with 
• mall l,ght specks, the size rather above mid" 
iliiig, tapering toward Ihe blossom end, and 
we do not know of any apple that is so nni- 
"••rsally fair as this ; ihe tree is a constant bea- 
rer, and has a beautiful lop, which seldom 
wants pruning ; the limbs are well shaped to 
-u.port their giowlh and fruit ; the bark is 
smooth, and of a light grey color. The flavor 
is sub-acid and musky, the flesh tender, and of 
a beautiful yellow. As an apple for all purpo- 
ses, there are very few that can compare with 
it, It comes into eating in October, and will 
keep till March. 

The oilier variety is supposed to havo origi 
■ iitetl in the neighborhood of Slockbridge 
Maks. and is sometimes called the Stockbricbge 
Seek-no-further. It is not as large as the pre. 
ceding variety, bui is a very valuable apple. — 
The colour is striped red and green, the flesh 
inclining to yellow, and very rich. This apple 
ke'eps longer than the preceding variety. The 
tree resembles the other in arowth, but is ra- 
ther thicker in the top, and more inclined to 
tlnow out seekers ; like the other it is a good 
bearer. Both kinds are excellent cider ap- 
ples. 

Swaar — This is undoubtedly one of I he most 
valuable winter apples of our western states. 
It is of a middle size, well shaped, grows fair 
is green in autumn, and is one of the heavi- 
est apples known; as it ripens ii become- 
of a bright yellow, and though of a subacid 
flavor when green, the juice becomes extreme 
ly rich in saccharine matter when ripe ; and w c 
doubt whether aiy apple cultivated among us 
gives a juice of greater specific gravity. Tin 
growth of the tree is rather thick, and requires 
much pruning ; the limbs arc thick, strong,an<! 



Vol. 1.— No. 12. 



AND GARDENER'S JOURNAL. 



93 



thickly set with fruit spurs. it is ar. annual 
bearer. It is in eating from February till 
June .— ( To be continued.) 

SHADE TREES. 

There are few things whirh add more to the 
beauty of a town or village, than the proper 
arrangement of shade tiees ; whether they are 
intended for the purpose of giving shelter and 
shade from the inclemency of the scorching 
sun, or for heightening the beauty of other ob- 
jects connected with them in perspective, they 
are equally desirable, and connect witli them 
such ideas of comfort, 'aste, and rural enjoy 
rnent, that they are the pride of those who 
possess them, and the admiration of passing 
strangers. 

What can give a more pleasing introduction 
to a town ur village. than entering it through a 
well arranged avenue of trees, whoso different 
shape* and shades of foliage seem to lend new 
beauty to all surrounding objectH, and produce 
that association of ideas which can better be 
imagined than described. ResideB shelter- 
ing the inhabitants from the sun. they are of 
gr^at service in tempering the winds, by check 
ing their violence, and in summer they distri 
buto their fragrance in every gale. 

For the purpose of lining streets and ave 
nues, forest trees are better calculated than 
fruit trees ; they are of larger growth and lon- 
ger lived, and their beauty ofien increases with 
their age. 

The effect of trees upon the salubrity of the 
atmosphere is very great, not only by thuir in 
fluence upon the temperature, which thev ren- 
der more equal, but by their inhaling and exha- 
ling different portions of the atmosphere. 

If we examine the results of different expe- 
viments made by scientific men, we are forci 
bly led to the conclusion, that the all-wise 
Creator designed that animals and plants should 
inhabit the same region, and breath the same 
atmosphere. When a quantity of atmosphe- 
ric airis taken into the lungs of an animal, the 
oxygen is retained, and the hydrogen and car- 
bonic acid is given off. On the other hand, 
"when atmospheric air is taken into the leave? 
or lungs of plants, the hydrogen and carbonic 
acid is retained, and the oxygen is given off. 
thus each acting for the other's benefit by an 
unerring law of nature each rejecting that por- 
tion of the atmosphere which is requisite for 
the health of the other. 

As most transplanting is done in the spring* 
we would recommend, the following kinds, 
vhere they are intended for ornament only : 

Tulip Tree, or Whitewood. Liriodcndron 
ulipifera.. This is one of the handsomest trees 
of our forests. It grows to a large size, with 
a handsome shaped head or top — the leaves are 
large and of a beautiful shining green ; the tree 



is not often infested with any worms, and may 
be called a very clean shade ire-o. Tht6 tree 
produces a profusion of flowers, somewhat re- 
sembling a large tulip, which are fragrant. The 
seeds are produced .n a strobile, with woody 
scales, not unlike the pine. 

Buttokvvood, or Plane Tree. Platanus oc- 
udcntalus. This is one of the most rapid 
growing trees of this section of our country. 
When set as a shade, it forms a very hand- 
some conical head, rather open than other- 
wise. The leaves are five angled, of a pale 



green, inclining to yellow ; the blossoms are too 
small to be taken into consideration, when set 
as a shade tree. The seeds are produced 
the shape of a ball thickly set with hairs. As 
these are produced in profusion, they are the 
Greatest objection to the tree, which added to 
the sloughing off of tht outer bark, annually 
makes it unpleasant when set near a dwelling ; 
but for an avenue it is very ornamental. 

Basswood. Tilia Americana. Of this ge- 
nus there are several species, all very well 
calculated for ornamental trees. It grows 
large, with well shaped lops, and very thick. 
The leaves round and cordate ; some varieties 
are shining, while others are somewhat downy, 
• ini have red twigs, others are of a brownish 
green. The flowers are inferior, but fragrant, 
and inviting to bees. 

Elm. Ulmus Americana. Of which there 
are several varieties, the white elm with pen 
dulous branches being preferred. There is 
also an European that is more beautiful in its 
growth than any of the American varieties.— 
This may be budded or grafted upon our na- 
tive stocks. The flowers of all the varieties 
are inferior, producing single seeds inclosed in 
a winged pericarp. The leaves are rough, 
cordate, but of a beautiful green color, which 
ihey retain very late in autumn. 

Hacmatack. Pinus Microcarpa. This tree 
when mixed with others, has a pleasant ap- 
pearance, with leaves somewhat resembling 
ether pines in summer, but falling off in win 
ter. It is a tall fast growing tree, and may be 
found in most of our swamps ; bears trans- 
planting well, and although natural to swamps 
it grows well upon our dry soils. The seeds 
are produced in strobiles, like other varieties 
uf pine. 

Maple. Acer saceharinum and rubrum. Both 
tbeso varieties are well calculated for shade 
trees. They are both hardy and bear transplan- 
ting well. The rubrum or soft-maple, produ- 
ces its blossoms very early in the spring, which 
are very showy. The leaves of both are five 
lobed, and the seeds are produced in winged 
pericarps, joined at the base in pairs. 

Black Walnut. Juglans nigra. This 
is a hardy tree, with an open top, the limbs 
branching wide, leafets lanceolate, sub-pubes 
cent.lhe fruit globular. The whole tree rather 
fragrant. 

Wild Cherry. Prunus virgmiana. This 
tree, from its large growth and inferior fruit, is 
more deserving of a place among shade tree 8 
than in the orchard It forms a very handsome 
top, and the flowers, which appear in compact 
racemes, are rather ornamental. It is well de- 
serving a place in the avenue. 

The Vinedresser's Theoretical and Practical Na 
nual. By Thikbaut De Bf.rneaud, Secrcta 
ry of the Lmnrcan Society of Paris. 
This is the title of a treatise on the cultiva- 
tion of the vine, making wine, &c. ; and al 
though carculatod for a foreign olimate, will be 
found to contain some excellent directions, ap. 
plicabla to the same objects in this country. — 
As we intend hereafter to make some extracts 
from tins work, we shall accompany thein with 
such observations on the difference of climate, 
soil, variety of grapes, manner of training,&c. 
as we think will be beneficial to those engaged 
in the business in this country. 
Eor the present, we have only to observe, 



that we are convinced that we shall find it for 
our interest to plant vineyards with American 
grapes in preference to foreign varioties. We 
repeat this opinion, in hopes that it may induce 
those who have it in their power, to collect 
and plant out cuttings of such varieties as are 
good bearers, either of the Fox or Chicken 
grape, without reference to their being plea, 
sant table grapes, as some that are austere and 
unpleasant to the taste, may be valuable for 
wine, and it is only by repealed experiments 
that we are to find the most valuable varieties. 



RENSSELAER COUNTY 
IIORTICCLTniAL SOCIETY. 

We have been favored by one of the officers 
of the above society, with a copy of the de- 
claration of the objects of this society, togeth- 
er with their Constiiuton and By-laws. 

Among the names of the officers c f this so- 
ciety, we see some of the most scientific and 
literary men of our state. When such men 
associate themselves for the improvement of 
Agriculture and Horticulture in our country, 
we cannot for a moment doubt their patriot- 
ism or success, and we hope that, their exam- 
ple will be followed by all the counties in the 

state. 

Objects of the Society. 
To stimulate Industry, directed in its efforts 
by Art, Science, and Philosophy; to observe 
facts, and to communicate them ; to excite a 
generous competition ; and, finally, to make 
Horticulture al once a sourco of elegant a- 
musement, of domestic and social happiness, 
and of profit, are among the objects of Horti- 
cultural Associations. It has been supposed, 
for somp time, that among the intelligent and 
enterprising cultivators ofthesoil ofthis coun- 
ty, a disposition prevailed favorable to the ex- 
periment of an effort. We are about to make 
this experiment ; for which purnose has been 
formed and organized, The Rensselaer County 
Horticultural Society, under a Constitution and 
iiy-Laws, to which all that feel friendly to its 
objects and purposes, are invited to add their 
signatures. The organization is nearly com- 
pleted ; the officers elected, to serve one year: 
and we are assured by thosp persons most 
competent to form an estimate of its pros- 
pects, that about 100 signatures may be expec- 
ed in Troy alone. 

It may be proper to ob-erve, that the Pre- 
miums and subjects of Premiums, will soon 
be declared ; before which i*. is necessary thai 
the extent of patronage should he ascertained. 
We therefore say, to all those who love an a- 
bundance and variety of the good things of tin; 
Garden, the Orchard, and th«i Finn — to all who 
love to see labor well diree'ed and successful 
— to the patriotic lovers of their country, and 
all the friends of improvement — be prompt 
in your action, and lot us go zealously to work. 
That whatever increases the variety and 
abundance of the productions of the soil, is a 
public benefit, ali men admit. But that.in the 
same ratio as this abundance and variety is ex- 
tended by skill and science, is both land and 
labor made more productive, seems either to 
have been questioned, or the fact too general- 
ly overlooked. Horticulture, stimulated by al; 
effort such as we are about to make, will de- 
monstrate this, not only as Horticulture mere- 
ly, but in the mure extended operations of.?4'- 
riculture ; a remark to which we invite the 
attention of Farmers throughout the country. 
That highly cultivated Unds have a local, 
artificial soil, is generally known ; but that 
they have, also, in a degree — and, during the 
season of vegetation, in a very great degree — 
a local climate, also, available for important u- 
-es, may have escaped general observ ation.— ■ 
The fact, however, is undeniable. We are 
thus enabled, and with great profit, to propa- 



94 



THE GENESEE FARMER 



March 26, 1831. 



gate many very desirable things, even from 
distant and different climates and soils, great 
ly extending the variety of our own produc- 
tions. 

There are now, in successful operation. both 
in our own country and in foreign slates, many 
such Horticultural Societies, which have been 
found to be productive of much good. We 
propose to derive all the benefit we can from 
their experience ; to add their publications to 
our Library, 'or the use of members, and to be 
omulous of good example and honest fame, in 
a career of soiiul usefulness and activity. — 
We have much to learn in culture of all sorts ; 
yet eacli of us knows something, and this, 
when thrown into common slock, will at least 
soon enable us, we trust, to take a respecta- 
ble rank among the kindred institutions of our 

country. 

From the New Kngland Weekly Review. 
Uncommon Density of the Atmosphere — Du 
ring the eclipse of Ihe sun, it is obvious that 
thermometers will always suffer a depression 
and that this change will be greatest in those 
placed in his rays. Perhaps also, '.here might 
be expected a slight difference in the height of 
the barometer at the same time, owing to the 
increased density of the atmosphere, in conse- 
quence of the sudden interposition cf the sun's 
lieat; but on watching a very delicate instru- 
ment, with which a thermometer is connected, 
I saw no such change during the late eclipse. 
On the morning af.er the eclipse, however I 
was surprised to find that the barometer, sus 
pended in a chamber indicated a degree of at 
rnospheric density which I had never before 
witnessed, the mercury standing at 30 inch. 
34-100. the thermometer at the same time be- 
ing at 45°. 

The greatest pressure indicated by the same 
instrument for a series of years, was on the 
0th of Feb. 1830, being 30, 40, thus indicating 
a density, in the present instance, greater by 
44-100 than had been before ob.-crved. 

On examination of a series of barometrical 
ndicationsmade at the sent of Earl Spencer 
in England, I find no instance of a greater 
heigbth of the mercury than 30 53. Several 
series of observations' with this instrument, 
made in this country, have also been examined, 
without finding an instance of atmospheric den- 
sity equal to that above noticed. 

Without at present supposing that this great 
density of the atmosphere had any connection 
with the eclipse, it would be a subject of cu- 
rious inquiry, a; least, to ascertain whether 
the same observations has been made by oth- 
ers, in different sections of the country. Pos- 
sibly the density above noted, is not so un- 
common as is apprehended, but the observa- 
tions already made, together with the fact, 
that the writer has been in the habit, for a 
:onsiderable period, of observing daily, the 
indications of the barometer. will tend to show 
i hat at least, such a degree of pressure is not 
nommon. 

Should inquiry prove that 30, 48 is a very 
uncommon degree of atmospheric pressure, at 
about 100 feet above the level of the sea, and 
that this observation coincides with those made 
by others in different parts of the country, it 
's not therefore proposed to connect the phe- 
nomenon with the eclipse, since this single 
coincidence proves nothing. But shoubi fu- 
ture observations prove the same coincidence 
with respect to other solar eclipsos, it will 
■ lien be in time to propose some hypothesis 
to account for the connection between the 
cause and effect. 
Hartford. February 20, 1831. 
It will be seen by the above observation, 
male by Doctor Comstocl;, of Hartford, Con- 
necticut, that on the day after the eclipse of] 
Feb. 12th, the mercury of the barometer rose 
to the uncommon height of 30, 84-100ths — 
nearly 31 in. which was 4 llOOths higher than 
lie had ever before observed. 



of the air.fora series of years,. he was very na- 
turally surprised at this great change, and en 
quires if it corresponds with other observa 
tions upon the same instrument in different 
parts where tho eclipse was visible. 

Professing, if possible, a deeper interest in 
thre subject than Dr. C. we thank him for di 
recting our inexperience to this question, as 
we find by reference to the record which we 
made, and have been making, since the com 
mencement of the year, tit 10 o'clock, morning 
and evening, at a height of more than 600 feet 
above the level of the sea, tiie fo'lowing ob- 
ervations, which, but for him, would have 
I passed unnoticed : 

Barometer. A'ind. 



oElo£ I <= E | a S 



rb'y 


11 


57 


Do. 


12, 


47 


Do. 


13 


35 


Do. 


"i 


50 


Do. 


15 


5* 



I- 



29,301 
1 29,62 1 
29,93 
30,20 
39,90 



E - j 



02 [89,48 29,39 29,5 'to 
47 ,29.7S 29.70 ~~ 
55 30,15 30,06 
59 130.02 30,11 
64 29,58,29,74 



17,5 >n w j n to 

9,5 in w ,ia 
19 » \e 
36 » !» e 



Do. 16| 62 !29,23| CO |29,15!29,19i40,5 iste 
Thus it will be seon, that from the morning 
of the 11th, to that of 'he 14th, the mercury 
rose 90-100ths. declining from thence till the 
eve of the 16th, and from 10 o'clock on the 
morning of the eclipse till the same hour on 
the 14th, it rose 58-lOOihs. 

As we neglected to record the extremes, ii 
may have risen much higher during the night 
of ihe 13th, or between the 10 o'clock obser- 
vations. 

As our observations commenced with the 
year, we can do but little else than present 
the facts. And should the inference that the 
eclipse had an agency in increasing the densi- 
ty of the air, be sustained by other solar e- 
clipses, still we have no probable explication 
to offer, but only to state, that greater changes 
of mean daily temperature have occurred the 
present year, with comparatively little altera- 
tion of atmospheric pressure, and even a com' 
bination of the same circumstances, in the 
chanaes of temperature and direction of winds, 
has produced a contrary result, a depression of 
the mercury in ihe barometer. 

As these are the only barometrical observa- 
tions during the eclipse, that we have noliced, 
it remains an interesting inquiry, whether the 
density of the air, throughout the U. States, 
and at other places where this piienomena 
occurred, was also increased, and its connec- 
tion, if at all, with tho obscuration of the sun, 
which can only be ascertained, by comparing 
the effect in this case, wiih oihers yet to come. 



ol different locations, whether in i he same lat- 
itude or not, and the effects of mountains, val- 
leys, rivers and lakes, in retarding or accelera- 
ting the dovelopment of vegetable life, from 

'.he swelling of the germ, to perfect maturity. 

______ \ 

POMOLOGICAL MANUAL. 

We have received from Mr. Prince several 
sheets of this work, from which we shall make 
quotations in our next 



CATALOGUES. 

The Catalogues of Messrs. Buel & Wilson, 
Wm. Prince & Sons, Michael Floy Mrs. Par- 
mentier, G. Thornburn « Sons, and S. Cor- 
nell, may be examined at the office of tho Ge- 
nesee Farmer, where orders for any of the es 
tablishmeuts may be left. 



CALVES. 

At this season of the year, calves sometimes 
are troubled with lice, which increase to that 
extent as oven to endanger the life of the ani- 
mal. To destroy these, take common unguin- ' 
turn of the shops, rub a little about the horns 
and ears, also some about the nose, which will 
effectually destroy all ihe lice. 



March. FLOBAL CALENDAR' 

15— Tulips. Hyacinths, Crown Imperials, (F. Imperia 

lis,) Dptr„dils,(iVarri« , _ , i/_o,show an inch or raort 

above ground 

23— Lilac. {Syringa\,budB quite swelled and expanding 
24— Gooseberry, iu warm situations, leaves quite percep 

tible. blue-birds and robbiao have made their op 

pearaoce. 



FLORAL CALENDAR. 

Under this head we intend to give a weekly 
notice of the first appearance of the vegetation 
of those plants which are generally to be found 
in all gardens and fields—of the first appear- 
ance of (lowers, and the ripening of fruits — 
also, the appearance and disappearance of 
birds of passage — the ripening of grain— and, 
the earliest appearance of green vegetables in 
the market. 

If any of our readers will take the trouble 
to do Ihe like, and forward them for publica- 
tion, we shall be happy to give them an inser- 
tion. 

The objects we design to effect are, to ex- 
cite attention to every thing appertaining to 
the vegetablo economy, and to serve as a cn- 
Ashe has been an observer of the density 1 ! tcrion as to the favorablencss, or the contrary. 



U_r Several communications have been re- 
ecved, which will appear in our next 



NEWS OP THE WEEK. 



LATEST FROM LIVERPOOL. 

Th' ship Chandler Price, Gap'am Pulaski, 
arrived at Baltimore on the 17th inst. Capt 
P, sailed on the 8lh of February, but unfortu- 
nately brought no papers later than the 27th 
January. Cap'., P. s'atts that American flour 
was in brisk demand when he sailed, and was 
quoted at 34s fid. a 35s. Gd. The cargo of the 
Dorothea, fiom Philadelphia, was sold at 35s 
a 35s, 6d. 

Liverpool, Feb. 3— Since our last respects 
we have little of interest to add. It will not 
bi known till to-morrow whethsr the turn out 
cotton spinners have resumed their work to- 
day. The market is steady, with a limited de- 
mand. Bonded flour, fine, at 34s. 6d a 35s. 
CANAL NAVIGATION. 

We iearn thai the Bo.ird of Canal Commis- 
sioners have ordered that the Erie Canal be 
put in readiness for the passage of boats, &c 
the lotb day of April next, and also, that ar- 
rangements are making by the superintend- 
ents for carrying the same into affect through- 
out ihe whole line of the canal. 

A violent fall of snow commenced in Phil- 
adelphia, at i past 11 on Thursday morning 
the wind blowing hard (rom W. by N, 

The Western Sentinel, Mansfield, O. givi 
an account of tho destruction by lightning, at 
early as the 2d inst. of a barn belonging to Col. 
David Robinson, near Wooeter, in Wayne co> 
The barn and its contents were consumed, to- 
gether with several stacks of hay in an adjoin- 
ing yard. Two men were at the time thresh- 
ing in tho barn, who escaped uninjured, altho 
the straw around them was set in flames by the 
lightning. 

Governor Tomlinson of Connecticut, has re- 
signed the gubernatorinl office, in consequence 
of Ins election as V. S. Senator from that state, 
fur the torm of six years, commencing on till 
4th of March inst. 



Vol. I.— No. 12. 



AND GARDENER'S JOURNAL. 



95 



GRAIN AND FUEL. 

The New York papers furnisli the Report oi 
the City Inspector to the Common Council, 
showing the quantity, average price, and a^ 
mount of Firewood. Anthracite, Viijrinia, anri 
Charcoal, which have been inspected in that 
city, during the year 1630 Foreign Coal is 
not subject to inspection. To mis document is 
addod the quantity, average price and amount 
of Grain inspected during the same period. 

Wood. Average price. Aintpryear 

■.'05,079 loads Oak, $1 03 $334,428 40 

4l',244 loads Nut, 2 2d 91 893 90 

52,283 loads Pino, 1 '27 (ilj.764 80 



297,600 loads. Total amount, $493,085 80 



Coal. Average price. Ami pr year. 

23,005 ions Anth. $8 47 $200,060 73 

11,8.05 chi. Virginia, 43 76.547 39 

12.593 tons Charcoal, 3 58 45,114 08 

Total amount for Wood and CoaI,$814,817 60 
Bushels. Aver. price. Aintpryear 



Wheat, 


900,442 


$1 02 


$927,105 8b 


Rye, 


428,020 


65 


281,048 46 


Corn, 


l,10O,u97 


52 


576,446 60 


Oats, 


798,134 


35 


280,638 50 


Barley, 


124,663 


64 


80,939 18 



Bushels, 3,351,338 



$2,140,214 62 



Fractions »f less than ono cent in the aver 
age prices aire omitted. 

MEXICO. 

It is stated in the N. Y. Com. Adv. that the 
Mexican Congress have allowed a pension ol 
three thousand dollais per annum to the widow 
of Guerrero. There are rumors that the par- 
ty which supported this unfortunate military 
chieftain will rally under the banner of the 
exiled Pedraza. We hope, however, whatso- 
ever the nghts of the question, if there are any, 
may be, that the government of the Southern 
Un.ten States will now assume something line 
an aspect of stability. The Regislro Official 
of February 22, contains a decree of Congress, 
sanctioned by the acting President, Busta 
mente, granting a pension of $3000 per aim 
to citizen Bemardo Gonzales Angulo. 

PARLIAMENTARY KEFOKM 

Motions on this subject in the House of 
Commons, during the last fifty years :— 
1782 by Mr. Pitt negatived by 20 

1782 Mr Sawbndge do 88 

Mr Pitt do 144 

Mr. Pitt do 24 

Mr. Flood withd