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Full text of "The life and times of Gen. Francis Marion : with an appendix containing biographical notices of Greene, Morgan, Pickens, Sumpter, Washington, Lee, Davie, and other distinguished officers of the Southern Campaign, during the American Revolution"

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according to act of Congress, in the year 1845, by 

In the office of the Clerk of thn Eastern District of Penn a. 





Some account of Mar toil s family his birth early life 
his voyage to sea, and shipwreck remains at home 
a planter. Indian insurrections. Marion s first cam 
paign against the Chcrokees frightful picture of In 
dian warfare. Marion s letter. Marion among the 
first to espouse the cause of his country in its struggles 
with British tyranny his active measures elecled a 
captain under the gallant Moultrie bombardment of 
Fort Sullivan by the British fieet gallant defence of 
the fort anecdotes, etc. 

As a man and a patriot, bright is the example we have 
in the career of Francis Marion. Asa soldier, his name, 
more than any other, is identified with the stratagic wis 
dom, heroic exploits and military successes of the parti- 
zan war in the Carolinas, during the Revolution ; a war 
in which he " and his brigade were so distinguished," 
says Dr. Ramsay, " and at the same time so detached 
in their operations, as to merit and require particular 
notice." In following him through the trying times in 
which he acted, much cause as we shall have to glory 
in him as a military chieftain, we shall have no less 
reason to admire the self-command, rectitude, and ever* 
active humanity of his character. 



The family of Marion was one of the many Pro 
testant ones who who fled from France in consequence 
of the persecutions they experienced under the reign of 
Louis XIV. These dissenters from the Catholic reli 
gion were termed Huguenots, and our hero s grand 
lather, towards the close of the seventeenth century, 
left France and emigrated to the shores of America. 
His son, Gabriel Marion, was the father of Francis 
Marion, whose birth occurred at a place called Winyah, 
(S. C.) in the year 1732 or 1733. Biographers differ 
as to the year, but we are inclined to receive the earlier 
date as the more correct of the two. Francis Marion 
was the youngest of several children. He had four 
brothers and two sisters. " I have it from good author 
ity, 1 says Weems,* " that this great soldier, at his birth, 
was not larger than a New-England lobster, and might 
easily enough have been put into a quart pot." And 
all the accounts we have, concur in regard to the fact, 
that he was a puny and sickly infant ; so much so, that 
it was thought he would never survive till manhood. 
He however, lived through infancy, and at the age of 
sixteen, such had been the change of his constitution, 
he was an active and daring boy, who had already con 
ceived a strong notion of leaving the farmer s life he 
had been brought up to, and entering upon that of a 
sailor. The quiet life of the farmer was not one suited 
to his disposition, and though his mother endeavored 
to dissuade him from his inclination, his mind was de 
termined, and she finally yielded a reluctant consent. 
He started, as a sailor before the mast, upon a voyage 
to the West Indies, and had the .misfortune to be ship 
wrecked. The ship foundered, says tradition, from the 
injury done her by the stroke of a large whale. The 

* Weems Life of Gen. Francis Marion, 


crew escaped from the sinking vessel in the jolly-boat, 
and were tossed about on the ocean in a helpless condi 
tion for more than a week, when they were picked up 
by a passing vessel. While in the boat, they were 
without provisions, and had subsisted on the raw flesh 
and blood of a dog, which, as the ship was sinking, 
jumped into the boat. Six persons had entered this 
boat, but only four were taken from it by the passing- 
vessel. The captain and mate, in a state of phrenzy, 
produced from exposure to the rays of a scorching sun, 
and the use of salt-water, had the day before thrown 
themselves overboard, and perished. Marion and three 
others finally reached their homes. Marion, in com 
pliance with the earnest entreaties of his mother, re 
sumed his occupation of farming, at which he indus 
triously continued, and, at the death of his father in 
1758, he settled himself, at the age of twenty-six, upon 
a place that is called Pond Bluff. 

The colony of South Carolina, like other provinces 
of North America, was much harrassed by the preda 
tory incursions of Indians, and in the beginning of the 
year 1759 a war broke out between the colonists and 
the Cherokee tribe, and Marion turned out with the 
militia ; but a treaty of peace was soon concluded, the 
Indians not finding matters in the train they expected, 
and by which they anticipated a butchering conquest 
over the white men. Scarcely were the militia dis 
banded before the treacherous Cherokees again showed 
signs of hostility, and, such were their agressions upon 
the frontier settlements, that it was the next year decided 
that the country of the Indians should be invaded. The 
command of the whole forces now raised was given to 
Col. Grant of the British army, and Marion was ap 
pointed lieutenant of a native regiment, under the imme- 


diate command of Col. Moultrie, himself under the 
command of Col. Middleton. 

The combined forces under Colonels Grant and Mid 
dleton advanced (in June 1761) into the Indian. country. 
The approach was of course, from the kind of warfare 
carried on by the enemy, conducted with caution, and 
finding that the adversary was advantageously posted 
behind the thick wood crowning a mountain, through a 
dark defile of which the road lay. This, it was re 
solved, should be forced rapidly by a small body of 
soldiers, whilst the main army passed. For this peril 
ous enterprise a " forlorn hope" of thirty men, headed 
by Francis Marion, was chosen. Marion, with a heart 
undaunted by the almost certain death that awaited him, 
took the lead of his chosen band, and advanced with 
courageous rapidity, whilst the main army followed to 
support him and effect their passage. No sooner had 
Marion and his men entered the dark defile, than the 
loud war-whoop resounded from all sides, and a de 
structive fire blazed forth from behind the trees. Twenty 
one of the forlorn hope instantly were killed, and the 
hideously painted savages rushed forth in pursuit, with 
demonical yells and brandished tomahawks. Marion 
and his remnant of men fell back to the main army. 

The commanding officers, fully aware that a sangui 
nary conflict was at hand, animated their soldiers on, 
and represented the peculiar demand there now was for 
exertions of valor, inasmuch as if defeated they would 
be the victims of an indiscriminate slaughter. The 
soldiers cheered, and advanced gallantly to the conflict, 
determined to yield then only with their lives they 
knew no quarter would be shown to a prisoner, and that 
they must gain the victory or die on the spot. The Indians, 
too, were defending the most important pass into their 


country, and it could not be otherwise expected than 
that they would fight with signal bravery. And now 
followed the sharp crack of rifle after rifle; here, there, 
and on all sides, the flash illumed the dark lurking place 
of the foe; the bayonet of the soldier would be plunged 
into the thicket, its point penetrating the breast of an In 
dian, and at the same instant a ball reaches his own 
heart, he and his enemy falling dead side by side. 
Long the contest continued without any decisive result, 
and terrible was the carnage on both sides ; but at last 
it could be perceived that victory leaned to the side of 
the army ; that the Indian, who repeatedly dislodged, 
had as desperately returned to the combat, was now re 
luctantly yielding. The battle raged with great spirit 
for three hours, and in an hour more the surviving 
soldiers of the army had the satisfaction of congratula 
ting each other upon a hard-fought victory. 

Colonel Grant followed up his victory by pursuing 
the flying foe into the heart of their country, burning 
their towns, ravaging their corn-fields, and taking all 
possible means to punish them for their inhuman ag 
gressions upon the frontier settlements. Notso much for 
vengeance was the object, but to deter them from future 
encroachments by the severe retribution that they must 
expect from this precedent. It is said that Marion long 
after looked back upon the horrors of this war with a 
feeling of sorrow ; and that such was the fact, is corrob 
orated by his own words in a letter written to a friend. 
He writes as follows : " We arrived at the Indian 
towns in the month of July. As the lands were rich, 
and the season favorable, the corn was bending under 
the double weight of lusty roasting ears and pods of 
clustering beans. The furrows seemed to rejoice under 
their precious loads ; the fields stood thick with bread. 


We encamped the first night in the woods, near the 
fields, where the whole army feasted on the young corn, 
which, with fat venison, made a most delicious treat. 
The next morning we proceeded, by order of Colonel 
Grant, to burn down the Indian cabins. Some of our 
men seemed to enjoy this cruel work, laughing very 
heartily at the curling flames, as they mounted, loud 
crackling, over the tops of the huts. But to me it ap 
peared a shocking sight. " Poor creatures !" thought 
I, " we surely need not grudge you such miserable 
habitations." But when we came (according to orders) 
to cut down the fields of corn, I could scarcely refrain 
from tears. For who could see the stalks that stood so 
stately, with broad green leaves and gaily-tasseled 
shocks, filled with sweet milky fluid and flour, the staff 
of life ; who, I say, without grief could see these sa 
cred plants sinking under our swords, with all their 
precious load, to wither and rot untasted in their mourn 
ing fields ? 

" I saw everywhere around," continues his letter, 
" the footsteps of the little Indian children, where they 
had lately played under the shade of their rustling corn. 
No doubt they had often looked up with joy to the 
swelling shocks, and gladdened when they thought of 
their abundant cakes for the coming winter. When we 
are gone, thought I, they will return, and peeping 
through the weeds with tearful eyes, will mark the 
ghastly ruin poured over their homes and happy fields, 
where they had so often played. " Who did this ? they 
will ask their mothers. " The white people, the Christ 
ians did it !" will be the reply. 

The disastrous result of this war, (to the Indians) 
seems to have broken up all their hopes, and in a mea 
sure to have crushed their spirit forever. Marion again 


retired to private life, fulfilling his duties as a citizen and 
a farmer, and for fourteen years he continued this peace 
ful life, and by the honesty of his dealings and the pro 
bity of his character, he gained the esteem of all that 
knew him, and it is said no man was so universally 
beloved by his neighbors. Thus we find him when 
hostilities commenced between the colonies and Great 

Everything in South Carolina contributed to nourish 
a spirit of liberty and independence. Its settlement 
was nearly coeval with the Revolution in England, 
(1 688,) and many of its inhabitants had imbibed a large 
portion of that spirit which brought one tyrant to the 
block* and expelled another from his dominions. f 
Every inhabitant was, or easily might be a freeholder. 
Settled on lands of his own, he was both farmer and 
landlord. Having no superiors to whom he was obliged 
to look up, and producing all the necessaries of life 
from his own grounds, he soon became independent. 

The first statue that roused general and united op 
position to British taxation was the memorable Stamp 
Act, passed in the year 1765. By this it was enacted, 
that the instruments of writing which are in daily use 
among a commercial people should be void in law un 
less executed on stamped paper, or parchment, charged 
with a duty imposed by the British parliament. The 
indignation which this roused, induced an uniform line 
of conduct to be adopted by the different colonies, and 
a congress of deputies from each province was recom 
mended. This first step towards Continental Union, 
was adopted in South Carolina before it had been agreed 
to by any colony to the southward of New England. 
The example of this province had a considerable influ- 

* Charles I. t James II. 


ence in recommending the measure to others who were 
more tardy in their concurrence. The colonies on this 
occasion not only presented petitions and remonstrances 
to the British government, but spiritedly entered into 
associations against importing British manufactures till 
the Stamp Act should be repealed and they obtained 
their point. 

The experiment of taxation, however, was renewed 
in the year 1767, but in a more artful manner. Small 
duties were imposed on glass, paper, tea, and painter s 
colors. The colonists again remonstrated, again asso 
ciated to import no more British manufactures. And 
a second time did the government make a concession. 

In the year 1773 a scheme was adopted by the East- 
India company, to export large quantities of tea, to be 
sold on their account in several capitals of the British 
colonies. The colonists reasoned with themselves, tha,. 
as the duty, and the price of the commodity were in- 
separably blended if the tea was sold, every purchaser 
would pay a tax imposed by the British parliament as 
a part of the purchase-money ; *and, determined never 
to submit to British taxation, they everywhere entered 
into combinations to obstruct the sales of the tea sent 
out by the East-India Company. The cargoes sent to 
South Carolina were stored, the consignees being re 
strained from exposing it to sale. In other provinces, 
the landing of it being forbidden, the captain s were 
obliged to return without discharging their cargoes. In 
Boston a few men, disguised as Indians, threw all the 
tea overboard from the ships lying at the wharves. 
When the intelligence of this reached England, the 
British parliament proceeded to take legislative ven 
geance on that city. 

This measure of hostility towards Massachusetts had 


for its object the dissevering of the other provinces from 
her, but its effect was directly contrary. The other 
colonies determined to support her, and, as has been 
stated, South Carolina was the first southern province 
that did so. The whole country resounded with din 
of martial preparation. Volunteer companies were or 
ganized in every city, town and hamlet, throughout the 
provinces. Guns, powder, and the implements of war, 
were collected, and carefully treasured from the eyes 
of the government s officers and spies ; and liberal sums 
of money were contributed by persons of every rank 
and age, and the liveliest enthusiasm prevailed for the 
cause of liberty. 

Marion at once espoused the cause of his country 
his native land ; and that chivalrous feeling which so 
unhesitatingly prompted his heart to assert the undeni 
able rights of mankind, at the same time rendered him 
prompt in action. Not like your milk-and-water pa 
triots who only talk of liberty, he went boldly forward 
toc?o. Many of his tory-hearted fellow-citizens wavered 
between their fears, and doubtful of the issue, desired 
to be on the successful side. Policy, not principle, 
governed their craven hearts. Marion, unlike these, 
convinced of the justice of his cause, was bravely 
ready to do and die for it, and was one of the foremost 
of those gallant spirits who enlisted in the army raised 
by the legislature of his native state. He was also a 
member of the Provincial Congress of South Carolina, 
which in the exigency of the case was called together, 
sitting as a representative from Berkeley County. 

No sooner had the news of the battle of Lexington 
reached Charleston than the following act was passed. 
" The actual commencement of hostilities against this 
Continent by the British troops, in the bloody scene 


of the 1 9th of April last,* near Boston the increase 
of arbitrary imposition from a wicked and despotic 
ministry and the dread insurrections in the Colonies 
are causes sufficient to drive an oppressed people to 
the use of arms. We, therefore, the subscribers, in 
habitants of South Carolina, holding ourselves bound 
by that most sacred of all obligations, the duty of good 
citizens to an injured country, and thoroughly con 
vinced, that under our present distressed circumstances, 
we shall be justified before God and man, in resisting 
force by force do unite ourselves, under every tie of 
religion and honor, and associate as a band in her de 
fence, against every foe hereby solemnly engaging, 
that, whenever our Continental and Provincial Council 
shall deem it necessary, we will go forth, and be ready 
to sacrifice our lives and fortunes to secure her freedom 
and safety. This obligation to continue in force, until 
a reconciliation shall take place between Great Britain 
and America upon Constitutional principles an event 
which we most ardently desire. And, we hold all those 
persons inimical to the liberty of the Colonies, who 
shall refuse to subscribe to this association."! 

Declarations similar to the above were passed in 
most of the Provinces, and we perceive that a final 
separation from the Mother Country was not as yet 
contemplated, the object in view extended no farther 
than to a redress of grievances. (It was not until a year 
later that on the 4th of July 1776, delegates from each 
state assembled at Philadelphia, and passed that cele 
brated Declaration which is now the charter of our 

Two regiments were to be raised in South Carolina, 

* In the year 1775. t Vide Ramsay, vol 2. page 236. 


and Francis Marion was chosen a captain in the 
second, of which William Moultrie, under whom Ma 
rion had served in the Indian wars, was appointed 
colonel. The officers at once set about making re 
cruits. Captain Horry, Marion s firm friend through 
out all his future career, and who was elected an 
officer in the same regiment at the same time, accom 
panied Marion on his recruiting exoedition. 

Many amusing incidents are recorded as having 
occured to these officers in the duty upon which they 
were now engaged, but we pass over them to follow 
more particularly the momentous and chivalrous deeds 
of our hero, merely stating that the officers were suc 
cessful in raising (notwithstanding the amount of 
Tory opposition they encountered) two regiments of 
South Carolinians. 

The erection of Fort Sullivan on Sullivan s Island 
was now commenced and rapidly proceeded with. The 
defence of this- fort was confided to the gallant Moul 
trie, with about four hundred men, and thirty pieces of 
cannon. Daily in expectation of a British fleet, the 
men worked with untiring industry, and on the 31st of 
May,* a fleet appeared in sight. And now, for nearly 
a month, tides, calms and baffling winds, conspired to 
frustrate the fleet, and they were not enabled to get 
within the bar till the 27th of June. In the meantime 
the works of the fort were carried on, and indefatigable 
preparations made to receive the enemy. On the 
morning of the 28th, the fleet, commanded by Sir Peter 
Parker, came up with a fine breeze, and all sails set, 
before the fort and dropped anchor. Instantly the 
bombardment commenced. The British outnumbered 

* 1776. 


the Americans in men and guns. From the port 
holes of nine ships was an unceasing fire kept up, 
whilst the defenders of the fort, stripping off their coats, 
(the weather was very hot) fired their guns, loaded, 
fired again, and worked like men brave in a righteous 
cause. For eleven hours the action lasted, in which 
time such terrible destruction was made upon the 
enemy s fleet that Sir Peter Parker moved off, and the 
gallant defenders of the fort found themselves victorious 
over a foe that battled in the cause of tyranny. Con 
spicuous throughout the action was Marion, and he 
often leveled the guns himself. He, Moultrie, and 
several of the officers, (such was their coolness in the 
midst of the balls that everywhere fell around them) 
smoked their pipes, laying them down only when their 
duties called them to give orders, or, as we said of 
Marion, when they relieved a soldier at a gun. 

During the action a ball from the fleet struck the 
flag-staff, which fell on the beach, outside of the breast 
work, Jasper, a serjeant of grenadiers, immediately, in 
face of the enemy s fire, leaped over the ramparts, 
picked it up, regained the inside of the fort in safety, 
and restored the flag to its place. 

At one period of the action, the want of powder was 
severely felt by the Americans, and Marion, with a 
small party left the fort, seized upon an armed schooner, 
(it is said, and we have no reason to disbelieve the 
tradition) and thus obtained a supply of powder suffi 
cient to keep up the fire until a quantity was received 
from Charleston. 

Tradition also awards to the aim of Marion the tremen 
dous effect of the last shot that was fired from the fort. 
It was aimed at the Bristol, (the commodore s ship) and 
entering one of the cabin windows, struck down two 


officers who were drinking, and, ranging through the 
bulk-heads and steerage, killed three sailors. This in 
formation was got from five sailors of the British fleet, 
who that night deserted and came to the Americans. 

The loss of the British in this engagement, by their 
own account, was 113 killed and sixty wounded. Sir 
Peter Parker lost an arm upon the occasion. On the 
other side their was but about 12 killed arid 25 
wounded. The vessels of the British, two of them 
especially, were greatly damaged, and one, called the 
Acteon run a ground and was afterwards burnt. 

This defence of Fort Sullivan (or Fort Moultrie, as 
it was subsequently named in honor of the brave man 
who so successfully commanded it upon this occasion) 
is one of the most brilliant achievements that the his 
tory of our country records, and it was of incalcuable 
importance to the cause of liberty throughout the colo 
nies. Moultrie was promoted to the rank of Brigadier 
General ; Marion to that of Lieutenant Colonel in the 
regular service. 


Declaration of Independence. The British at Savannah 
arrival of the French Fleet activily oC Marion the 
battle deaths of Count Pulaski and Serjeant Jasper 
Charlestown besieged by the British anecdote of 
Marion surrender of Charleston massacre of the 
Americans at the Waxhaw settlements hair-breadth 
escapes of Marion ; he retires to North Carolina, and 
joins the army under Gates. A description of Marion 
and his men. Battle. Gates defeated brave conduct 
- and glorious death of De Kalb. Marion and his men 
burning boats. 

THE Declaration of Independence, proclaimed in 
Philadelphia on the 4th of July, was hailed in Charles- 
ton with great rejoicings, and the news of the battle of 
Fort Moultrie was welcomed in return with corres 
ponding manifestations of joy at Philadelphia, and 
throughout the confederated colonies. 

The inhabitants of all the colonies, while colonies, 
admitted themselves bound by their allegiance to the 
king ; but they disclaimed, altogether, the authority of 
parliament; holding themselves, in this respect, to re 
semble the condition of Scotland and Ireland, before 
the respective unions of those kingdoms with England, 
when they acknowledged allegiance to the same king, 
but each had its separate legislature. The tie, there 
fore, which our revolution was to break, did not sub 
sist between us and the British parliament, or between 
us and the British government, in the aggregate ; but 
directly between us and the king himself. The colo- 



nies had never admitted themselves subject to par 
liament. That was precisely the point of the original 
controversy. They had uniformly denied that parlia 
ment had authority to make laws for them.* 

The South Carolianians expected another visit of the 
British, but they kept their fleet otherwise employed 
on the Northern coast, and it was not until the close of 
the year 1778 that the fleet again came south, and 
their destination turned out to be Savannath instead 
of Charleston. In December four thousand men were 
disembarked from their fleet of upwards of thirty sail. 

The great number of these loyalists in Georgia, 
encouraged the British, and, after the disembarkment 
of their troops and the fall of Savannah into their 
hands, they rapidly possessed themselves of Ebenezer, 
Abercorn, and other posts in the interior. General 
Lincoln commanded the forces of the Americans, but, 
so small was his number, he was unable to oppose the 
enemy with any degree of effect. 

While the main army of the British was encamped 
at Abercorn, the Americans lay but a few miles 
from them, on the Savannah, at a place called Purys- 
burg. And while at Purysburg, there occurred an 
adventure, the hero of which was one of Marion s men, 
and the gaJlant William Jasper, of whom we had occa 
sion to speak in account of the defence of Fort Sullivan. 
" Jasper was a perfect Proteus, in ability to alter his 
appearance, perpetually entering the camp of the 
enemy without detection, and invariably returning to 
his own, with soldiers he had seduced, or prisoners he 
had captured. "f " He often went out," is the lan 
guage of Moultrie, " and returned with prisoners 

* Daniel Webster, t Garden s Anecdotes. 


before I knew that he was gone. I have known of his 
catching a party that was looking for him. He has 
told me that he could have killed single men several 
times, but he would not ; he would rather let them off. 
He went into the British lines at Savannah, as a de 
serter, complaining, at the same time, of our ill-usage 
of him. He was gladly received, (they having heard 
of his character) and caressed by them. He stayed 
eight days, and after informing himself well of their 
strength, situation and intentions, he returned to us 
again ; but this game he could not play a second time. 
With his little party he was always hovering about the 
enemy s camp, and was frequently bringing in pris 

Jasper had a brother who had espoused the other 
side of the contest, and was at this period in the British 
garrison at Ebenezer, holding the rank of a ser- 
jeant. Wishing to see this brother, Jasper made his 
appearance in the British garrison, much to the alarm 
of the other. 

" What brings you here, William ! Your name is 
well known ! You will be hung for a spy !" agitatedly 
remarked the Tory brother. 

"Give yourself no uneasiness, brother," cooly re 
plied Jasper " I am no longer an American soldier." 

" I am glad to hear you say so, brother glad to 
find you ready to serve the King !" exclaimed the Tory. 

"You mistake," said Jasper. " You presume 1 
have come to enlist myself under the flag of England, 
but it is not so. Little as is the encouragement I have 
in fighting for my country, yet I have not the heart to 
fight against her, brother !" 


Jasper remained two or three days with his brother, 
and there is no doubt he took notice of all that invited 
his observation in the garrison. Bidding his brother 
adieu, he stole out of the garrison at night, and re 
joined the Americans, reporting the amount of informa 
tion he had picked up. 

Some weeks after this, Jasper took it into his head 
to pay his brother another visit at Ebenezer, taking 
along with him serjeant Newton, a comrade, a 
strong and active man, and fully his own match in 
feats of daring and enterprize. The Tory brother 
received Jasper and Newton kindly, and the three 
passed away the time quite agreeably in the garrison. 

One day a party of prisoners were brought into the 
fort, on their way to Savannah, to which place a 
British officer was conducting them for trial. In 
speaking of the matter, " It will go hard with them," 
said Jasper s Tory brother. "It s my opinion they ll be 
hung certain, for they took arms with us and received 
the King s bounty; but when the American army raised, 
they broke their faith to the King and joined them." 

The prisoners were hand-cuffed, and presented a 
pity-impressive sight to both Jasper and Newton, and 
the wife of one of the prisoners, with her child, followed 
her husband, deeply sympathizing in his misfortunes. 
Moved by this scene of distress, Jasper and Newton 
were deeply affected ; tears trickled from their eyes, 
and their emotions were of more than ordinary feeling. 
That distressed mother and her child, how could they 
look on them unmoved? The poor wife gazing with 
tear-streaming eyes upon the sad countenance of her 
hope-forsaken husband, appealing with her looks for 
pity and assistance ! 

From this distressing sight, the two friends stepped 


aside and conferred together. That the prisoners, 
under the circumstances in which they had been taken, 
would be tried, convicted and executed, was a matter of 
certainty, unless they were rescued from the hands of 
the guard before they reached Savannah. Talking 
over the matter, Jasper and Newton determined to 
risk their lives in an attempt to rescue the priso 

Presently, the prisoners, under a guard of eight men, a 
serjeant and corporal, left the fort and proceeded on their 
route to Savannah. Soon after their departure, Jasper 
and Newton took leave of their Tory friend, and set out 
from the fort, taking a direction different from that 
upon which the guard had started with the prisoners. 
When they considered themselves beyond sight, the 
two friends struck into the forest and travelled hard 
after the guard, in sight of whom they came, and re 
maining unseen themselves, dogged them mile after 
mile, eager for a chance to strike a blow for the un 
happy captives. But, sanguine as they had been, the 
difficulty of accomplishing their object began to be 
apparent to them, for what could two unarmed men do 
against a guard of ten, each armed with a musket ? 
Notwithstanding this hopeless aspect of matters, the 
two friends followed on. 

Within two miles of Savannah there is a spring, 
famous for its good water, and at which travellers 
almost invariably stopped to drink and refresh. It oc 
curred to Jasper that most likely the guard would halt 
at this spring ; and the hearts of the two friends were 
instantly animated with a revived hope that an oppor 
tunity to rescue the captives might yet present itself. 
Immediately they hastened on by a short cut through 


the woods and reached the spring before the guard 
came in sight. Hiding themselves amidst the foliage 
and shade of shrubbery growing close to the spring, 
they lay waiting for the appearance of the guard 
which shortly came along, and, as Jasper had expect 
ed, the serjeant commanded a halt. The corporal, 
with four men, conducted the prisoners to the spring ; 
the serjeant, with the other four, after grounding their 
arms near the road, following. 

The long walk had fatigued the hand-cuffed prison 
ers, and they were granted permission to rest them 
selves on the earth. They availed themselves of this, 
and the woman, with her child, sat next to her 
husband. Two men were ordered to keep guard ; 
the others were to supply the captives with water 
from the spring. These last, stood their muskets 
against a tree, and having drank themselves, refilled 
their canteens to supply the prisoners. Now was the 
time for Jasper and his friend, and bursting out from 
their concealment, they seized upon the two muskets, 
and at once shot down the two men that were keeping 
guard. Clubbing their guns, the daring friends rushed 
forward upon the astonished foe, and a conflict for the 
loaded guns of the fallen soldiers ensued. The brains 
of the sergeant and corporal were beaten in, and Jas 
per and Newton secured the muskets. Such was the 
panic of the guard, growing out of the audacity and bold 
decision of the two Americans, that, without any 
farther resistance, they surrendered. 

The handcuffs of the captives were now broken off, 

and a musket was placed in the hands of each. With 

the captured British, and the released Americans, the 

brave Jasper and his friend now hurried away from 



the spring, and reached the army at Purysburg in 


The war was carried on with various success, until 
September, 1779, when a French fleet, under Count 
D Estaign made its appearance on the coast. A junc 
tion between the French and American forces was 
effected before the walls of Savannah, which resulted 
disastrously to the Americans in consequence of the 
ill-advised measures adopted by the French admiral. 
It is generally believed that if the action had at once 
commenced, the besiegers would have conquered, or 
that the alarmed garrison would have struck their 
colors without firing a single bullet; and we are war 
ranted in this supposition by the words of several of 
the English officers who subsequently became pri 
soners. Marion, and the officers of the Americans, 
advised a sudden attack, but the French commander 
thought proper to send a flag, " very politely" as the 
indignant VVeems sarcastically expresses it, " inviting 
the town to do him the extreme honor of receiving 
their surrender" In reply, the British commander 
asked twenty-four hours to consider upon the matter. 
The courtly D Estaing committed the fatal error of 
granting this request, and there was but one opinion 
throughout the American ranks in regard to this indul 
gence upon the part of the Frenchman, fully con 
vinced as they were that the situation of the besieged 
was in no condition to resist the attack, but that the 
time granted them for deliberation would be energeti 
cally employed in fortifying themselves. And such 
was the case. The British commander promptly sent 
for reinforcements to Sunbury and Beaufort, from both 
of which places he was supplied, and his fortress so 


well manned that he boldly defied the combined French 
and Americans. 

The course pursued by Count D Estaing highly ex 
asperated Marion. "My God !" he exclaimed,* "who 
ever heard of any thing like this before ? First allow 
an enemy to entrench, then fight him ! See the de 
struction brought upon the British at Bunker s Hill! 
And yet our troops there were only militia ! raw half- 
armed clodhoppers, and not a mortar, or carronade ; 
not even a swivel, but only their ducking-guns ! What 
then are we to expect from regulars, completely armed 
with a choice train of artillery, and covered by a 
breast-work? For my own part, when I look upon 
my brave fellows around me, it wrings my heart to 
think how near most of them are to their bloody 
graves !" 

The suspicions of Marion and his brother officers as 
to a ruse de guerre intended by the British commander 
were fully verified, for at the expiration of the twenty- 
four hours, he announced his determination to defend 
the place. The siege was now commenced, and con 
tinued for several days with little or no effect. It was 
not until the 9th of October that it was resolved to 
storm the British entrenchments, when " the whole 
army then marched towards the skirt of the wood in 
one long column, and as they approached the opeh 
place, was to break off into different columns, as or 
dered for the attack. But, by the time the first French 
column had arrived at the open space, the day had 
fairly broke; when Count D Estaign, without waiting 
until the other columns had arrived at their position, 
placed himself at the head of his first column, and 

* Weems. 


rushed forward to the attack. The column was so 
severely galled by the grape-shot from the batteries, as 
they advanced, and by both grape-shot and musketry, 
when they reached the abbatis, that, in spite of the 
efforts of the officers, it got into confusion, and broke 
away to their left, toward the wood in that direction , 
the second and third French columns shared, suc 
cessively, the same fate, having the additional discour 
agement of seeing, as they marched to the attack, the 
repulse and loss of their comrades who had preceded 
them. Count Pulaski, who, with the cavalry, preceded 
the right column of the Americans, proceeded gallantly 
until stopped by the abbatis ; and before he could 
force through it received his mortal wound. "* 

Great valor was displayed in this attack, but so 
strongly posted were the British, and so deadly was 
their fire, the French and Americans were finally 
obliged to retreat, with great loss, upwards of six hun 
dred Frenchmen, and four hundred and fifty Ameri 
cans, being left dead upon the field and in the ditches. 

Serjeant Jasper, who so gallantly replaced the flag 
on the ramparts of Fort Moultrie, received a mortal 
wound in this engagement. A set of elegant colors, 
(presented to the army after the defence of Fort Moul- 
Irie by Mrs. Bernard Elliot) during the heat of the con 
test, were planted on the enemy s entrenchments, and 
near where they floated in the air, the rage of the bat 
tle was hottest. Jasper was in thickest of the fight, 
and conducted himself throughout the action with 
signal bravery. At the moment the retreat was sound 
ed, he thought of the colors, and sprang upon the ene 
my s works to sieze them and bear them off. He sue- 

* Garden s Anecdotes of the Revolution. 


ceeded, but received a mortal wound in the act. His 
death was deeply lamented, as was that of Count Pu 
laski, Lieut. Bush, Lieut. Grey, Alexander Hume,Esq 
and others. 

After the action a flag was sent to the garrison, the 
Americans and French asking permission to bury their 
dead, which sad office to the remains of the brave men 
who had perished, was done by digging pits in the 
earth of a size to contain a great number of corpses, 
which, stripped of their clothes, were promiscuously 
consigned to their rest. So soon as the burying of the 
dead was concluded, Count D Estaign, with his artil- 
Wy and troops, hurried aboard the French fleet, and 
sailed from the coast. The Americans returned to 
South Carolina. 

The city of Charleston was now threatened by the 
enemy. General Lincoln, commander of the Ameri 
cans, proceeded to the city, leaving Marion in com 
mand at Sheldon. In February, 1780, Marion was 
ordered to Bacon s bridge on Ashley river, where 
troops were daily accumulating to defend the city. The 
drilling and disciplining of the militia devolved upon 
him, and the citizens generally exhibited a prompt 
alacrity in acquiring a knowledge and practice of the 
duties of military life. That the British would make 
the attack upon Charleston, scarcely a citizen doubted, 
so many matters conjoined to incite them on to the 
undertaking. Their late victory at Savannah, and un 
controlled sway of Georgia, together with the nume 
rous tories in North Carolina and Florida ready to as 
sist them, gave them so much encouragement, that 
early in the year, Sir Henry Clinton, with ten thou 
sand troops and a heavy train of artillery, arrived 
from New York, and invested the city. There were 


of the Americans, in all, four thousand to defend the 
fortifications, two thousand regular troops, and two 
thousand militia ; and the small-pox having made its 
appearance in the city, the country militia were de 
terred from coming in, dreading the disease much 
more than they did the formidability of the British. 
With this small number opposed to the ten thousand 
of the enemy (the latter fully armed, the former but 
scantily supplied with arms and ammunition) the be 
sieged held out for six weeks, yielding rather by fam 
ine than the arms of the besiegers. 

It is most probably owing to the following accident 
that Marion was not among the captured when the 
city was taken. During the siege, he was one day 
dining at the house of a friend, who, having drank too 
much himself, pressed his mistaken hospitality upon 
Marion and other of his guests, with the avowed ob 
ject of making all of his company as inebriated as 
himself. Marion did not fqel in a humor to submit to 
this species of social slavery, though at the same time 
anxious to avoid giving offence; and, in this strait, he 
bethought him of the window the door of the apart 
ment having actually been locked by the host, and the 
key secured in his pocket, so determined was he to 
gorge his companions with liquor. Marion, having 
military duties to perform, and unwilling to insist upon 
being permitted to take his departure by the door, 
thought of the window, and at once, notwithstanding 
the dining-room was on the second story, rose from the 
table, threw up a window and leaped out. Each au 
thor who has written of Marion relates this anecdote, 
and in Weems we have the name of the host (Alex 
ander M Queen) and the street (Tradd) mentioned. 
By this leap, Marion broke his ankle, which entirely 


incapacitated him for service, and General Lincoln 
ordered him to retire into the country until his lame 
ness should be healed, and he should be able to return 
to active duty. So severe was the hurt he had received, 
he was taken from the city in a litter, and retired to 
his seat in the parish of St. Johns, Berkeley county. 

This accident to Marion is regarded as a fortunate 
occurence for his country; Charleston and its defen 
ders falling into the hands of the British, and the prob 
ability that he would have been among those that 
were captured, had he been in the city at the time of 
its surrender. 

It was on the 12th of May, 1780, that Gen. Lin 
coln, who had confidently expected hope from the 
country militia, finding his hopes vain, surrendered ; 
the terms of capitulation being that " the militia were 
to be permitted to return to their respective homes, as 
prisoners on parole, and while they adhered to their 
parole, were not to be molested in their persons or 
property." Sir Henry Clinton now turned his atten 
tion to the business of re-establishing the authority of 
George III. in the province. As a first step to this 
object he issued a proclamation, dated June 1, 1780, 
the purport of which was an offer to the inhabitants, 
on condition of theirsubmission, pardon for past offences, 
a reinstatement in their rights, and exemption from taxes 
excepting those passed by their own legislature. This 
proclamation was followed by the disposition of gar 
risons in different parts of the country, to overawe the 
patriots and shelter the tories. At the same time over 
2000 soldiers were marched towards North Carolina. 

The inhabitants were encouraged to stay on their 
plantations, with the prospect of neutrality ; but in a 
very short time these delusive hopes vanished. Tn- 


stead of drawing off the people gradually from an 
attachment to their late constitution, the conquerors 
were so far mistaken as to suppose that men could be 
instantly transformed from obstinate rebels to zealous 

The British confined some of their first prisoners in 
the vaults with the dead. When the number of priso 
ners multiplied, they were crowded on board prison- 
ships, where they suffered every inconvenience that 
could result from putrid air, and want of the com- 
forts of life. This was done not only to those who 
surrendered at discretion, but also to the private 
soldiers who were entitled to the benefit of the capitu 
lation of Charleston. The condition of these unfor 
tunate men was truly deplorable. They were crowded 
on board these prison-ships in such numbers that seve 
ral were obliged to stand up for want of room to lie 
down. The state of South Carolina rould afford them 
no supply ; Congress could not at that time command 
hard money for their relief. Wine and such like 
comforts, particularly necessary for the sick in south 
ern climates, were denied them from the British 

In the meantime a Continental expedition, under 
command of Col. Beaufort, was advancing from Vir 
ginia to the relief of Charleston. Beaufort had reach 
ed Camden ere he was aware of the surrender of the 
city, the tidings of which induced him to retreat. Corn- 
wallis, who commanded the British force on its way to 
North Carolina, sent forward the notorious Col. Tarle- 
ton, with 700 men, infantry and cavalry. The Ameri 
cans, under Beaufort, were but 400 in number Tarle- 
ton overtook the Americans at the Waxhaw settle 
ments, summoned them to surrender, and before Beau fort 


had time to reply, the British, brave because a weak 
opponent was before them, made an impetuous attack, 
and mercilessly massacred every man that surren 
dered. " Tarleton s quarters" became a byword here- 
after, and in subsequent battles, the recollection of 
this massacre embittered the hostility with which the 
patriots of the south regarded their enemy.* 

The butchery of these men, and the cruelties of the 
British after the fall of Charleston, exasperated the 
patriots so deeply that, far from accommodating them 
selves to the measures of Sir Henry Clinton, whose 
object was, as has been stated, the re-establishment 
of British authority in the province, they collected to 
gether in squads throughout the country, and, putting 
themselves under the command of such of their officers 
as escaped becoming prisoners of war, bade defiance 
to British arms. Moultrie and others were prisoners, 
but Sumpter, Horry and Marion were at large, and 
were each as ready to take command as were the in 
dignant patriots to enlist themselves. Marion, whose 
skill and intrepidity had made him particularly objec 
tionable to the lories, was now eagerly sought for by 
the British, and no measures were left untried to cap 
ture him. He suffered much from the hurt he received 
by leaping from Mr. M Queen s dining-room, and in 
this state he was necessitated to take refuge amid the 
swamps and forests, surrounded as he was by malignant 
enemies who were eager to give him up to the enemy. 
But, after passing through innumerable hardships and 
perils, often within an inch as it were of being captured, 
he finally escaped into North Carolina with a few de 
voted friends, and there fell in with his gallant friend 

* Vide Lee s Memoirs of the Southern War. 


Horry. Without money and without resources, the 
two friends made their way to the American army, 
raised by Congress for the purpose of recovering South 
Carolina. This army, which had set forward under 
command of De Kalb, was now placed under Gates, 
whose victory at Saratoga,* had given him a brilliant 
reputation. He was ordered by Congress to take the 
chief direction of the southern campaign. It is gene 
rally conceded that Horatio Gates was a man of but 
moderate abilities ; that he was vain, and fond of 
parade and external show. Col. Horry (vide Weems) 
says of him : "As a gentleman, few camps or 
courts ever produced his superior. But, though a per 
fect Chesterfield at court, in camp he was certainly 
but a Paris. Tis true, at Saratoga he got his temples 
stuck round with laurels as thick as a May-day queen 
with gaudy flowers. And, though the greater part of 
this was certainly the gallant workmanship of Arnold 
and Morgan, yet did it so hoist General Gates in the 
opinion of the nation, that many of his dear friends, 
with a prudent regard, no doubt, to their own dearer 
selves, had the courage to bring him forward on the 
military turf and run him for the generalissimoship 
against the great Washington." 

When Gates joined the army, he was advised to 
proceed southward by a circuitous route, where pro 
visions would be plenty; but, turning a deaf ear to 
counsel, he determined to rush on with all speed to 
encounter the British. From the pen of Col. Otho 
Williams, an Adjutant General in Gates army, we 
have the following description of him and his men. 
" Col. Marion, a gentleman of South Carolina, had 

* October, 1777. 


been with the army a few days, attended by a very 
few followers, distinguished by small leather caps, and 
the wretchedness of their attire : their number did not 
exceed twenty men and boys, some white, some black, 
and all mounted, but most of them miserably equip- 
ped ; their appearance was in fact so burlesque, that 
it was with much difficulty the diversion of the regu 
lar soldiery was restrained by the officers ; and the 
General himself was glad of an opportunity of de 
taching Col. Marion, at his own instance, towards the 
interior of South Carolina, with orders to watch the 
motions of the enemy, and furnish intelligence." 

Marion and his men accordingly received orders to 
penetrate South Carolina in advance of the army, with 
instructions to destroy scows, burn boats, and do every 
thing that could tend to prevent the escape of the 
enemy, so confident was Gates of a victory over the 
British. Marion and his friend Horry set forward 
through a country thickly infested by tories, and vigor 
ously prosecuted their business of boat-burning. The 
main army took up its line of march through a dreary 
tract of country, and hunger and fatigue were the con 
sequences. General Gates, whether he perceived his 
error or not, pushed straight forward for Camden, and 
" his only resource for meat was the lean beasts which 
were accidentally picked up in the woods. Meal and 
grain were also very scarce ; and as substitutes for 
bread, the soldiers were obliged to have recourse to 
the green corn and fruits which they met with. The 
consequence of unwonted diet was, that the army was 
thinned by dysentery and other diseases usually caused 
by the heat of the weather, and by unwholesome 
food." * 

Frost s Hist. United States. 


Gates, on reaching the frontiers of South Carolina, 
issued a proclamation, " inviting the inhabitants to 
join his standard, and offering an amnesty to such of 
them as, under the pressure of circumstances, had pro 
mised allegiance to the British government." This 
proclamation was . riot without effect, but it did not 
bring forth the numbers he calculated it would, and he 
could muster in all not 5000 men. Yet he determined 
to persevere, and marched about 10 o clock at night 
on the 15th of August (leaving his position near Ruge- 
ley s mills, twelve miles from Carnden) to surprise the 
enemy. The same movement was made by Cornwal- 
lis, who at 2 o clock that night set forward to surprise 
the-Americans in their camp. Mutual was the aston 
ishment of both armies at this encounter. Some firing 
took place, rather to the advantage of the British, but 
was soon discontinued, both parties willing to leave the 
matter to be decided by daylight. De Kalb now ad 
vised that the army should fall back to its position at 
Rugeley s mills, and await an attack from the enemy. 
His counsel was over-ruled, however, and early on 
the next morning both sides prepared for action, which 
commenced " by the advance of 200 of the British in 
front of the American artillery, who received them 
with a steady fire. Gates then ordered the Virginia 
militia to advance under the command of Colonel Ste 
ven s, who cheerfully obeyed the orders of his com- 
mander-in-chief, and when he had led his men within 
firing distance, urged them to charge the enemy with 
their bayonets. This portion of the army, however, did 
not emulate the gallantry of their leader. Lord Corn- 
wallis, observing their movement, ordered Colonel Web 
ster to attack them. This order was obeyed with a 
loud cheer," and the Americans yielded before the se- 


verity of the British fire, many of them panic-struck 
and flying without even discharging their muskets. 
Gates hurried from the field to rally the militia, whilst 
the brave De Kalb and his Continentals alone kept 
their ground, and stood -the fury of the charge. The 
gallant De Kalb, at the commencement of the battle, 
had leaped from his horse, drawn his sword, and led 
his command on foot. Never did men battle with more 
bravery than he and his handfull of Continentals, sus 
taining the shock of an overpowering host, amidst the 
death-dealing cannon and muskets that slaughtered 
their ranks. Cheering and animating his men, De 
Kalb received eleven wounds, and at last, faint from 
the loss of blood, fell to the ground. 

" The whole of the baggage and artillery of the 
Americans fell into the hands of the enemy, and the 
fugitives were pursued by the British cavalry for the 
space of twenty miles. So complete was this defeat 
that, on the second day after the engagement, General 
Gates could only muster 150 of his soldiers at Charles 
ton, a town in the south of North Carolina, whence he 
retreated farther north to Salisbury, and afterwards to 

" To add to the misfortunes of the Americans, the 
defeat of Gates was immediately followed by the sur 
prise and dispersion of Sumpter s partisan corps. This 
brave officer had succeeded in capturing the convoy 
with the British stores, but hearing of Gates s defeat, 
he began to retreat with his prisoners and stores.* 
Tarleton, with his legion and a detachment of infantry, 
pursued with such celerity as to overtake and surprise 
him at Fishing creek. All the artillery and stores fell 

* Forty wagons of booty and three hundred prisoners. 


into the hands of the British, and the whole detach 
ment was either killed, captured or dispersed. Their 
prisoners were of course all retaken." * 

Marion and his men were busy executing orders in 
destroying boats when the disastrous tidings of the 
army s defeat reached them. 

* Frost s United States. 


British atrocities. Proclamation of Sir Henry Clinton. 
Major James sent to Captain Ardesoijf ; interview be 
tween them ; insulting language of Ardesoijf and its 
consequences. Rising of the patriots at Williams- 
burg. Tarleton retreats from Capt. M Cottry. Mr. 
Bradley" 1 s house burned and himself taken prisoner 
his inhuman treatment. Marion leaping the barrier 
Sumpter s chivalry Genera] Pickens. Col. Dame 
routs the British British again repulsed battle of 
King s mountain a large force of the British surren 
der to five Americans desperate conflict between the 
Whigs and Tories death of Capt. Falls.-Marion de 
scription of his personal appearance. Marion defeats 
a party of Tories under Capt. Gainey. Marion at 
Post s Ferry rescue of prisoners at the Blue House. 
Defeat of Wemyss. Gallant victory of Marion and 
his brigade over the Tories at Black Mingo. 

" THE sickliness of the season prevented Lord Corn- 
vvallis from attempting to pursue the remains of General 
Gates army ; but he employed the leisure now afforded 
him in inflicting vengeance on such of the inhabitants 
of South Carolina as had been induced to join the Ame 
rican standard. The military men he doomed to 
the gallows. The property of the fugitives, and of 
the declared friends of Independence, he confiscated ; 
and he seized a number of the most respectable citi 
zens of Charleston, and most of the military officers 
residing there under faith of the late capitulation, and 
sent them to St. Augustine."* 

* Frost. 


Of those confined in the prison-ships, upwards of 
eight hundred, nearly one-third of the whole, exhaust 
ed hy a variety of sufferings, expired after a short 
captivity. The citizens of the town, who adhered to 
their paroles, were treated with great severity. Though 
they were not allowed rations, yet they were debarred 
from trade, and from exercising any profession ; and 
the king s subjects were strictly enjoined not to employ 
them on any pretence. 

Reduced to desperation by these injudicious severi 
ties, and British treachery rendering them indignant, 
(for in less than a month after his first proclamation 
Sir Henry Clinton issued a second which rendered 
nugatory the privilege granted by the other) the bold 
and active patriots formed themselves anew into parti 
san bands under different chieftains, among whom 
Marion and Sumpter were most distinguished by their 
spirit and enterprize. The first proclamation suffered 
the people to remain undisturbed upon parole, and 
such of the Carolinians as had accepted it, were now, 
by this second proclamation, not suffered to remain in 
this condition of allegiance, but actually commanded to 
rake up arms in support of His Majesty s government. 
At this the majority revolted. They had resigned 
themselves to the prospect of being lookers-on, but to 
shed the blood of brothers with whom they had hitherto 
fought side by side that they could not be brought to. 
The following is an anecdote illustrative of this crisis. 

In the month of June 1780, a British captain, named 
Ardesoiff, arrived at Georgetown and published a pro 
clamation, inviting the people to come in, swear alle 
giance to king George, and take protection. Many of 

* Ramsay s History of South Carolina. 


the inhabitants of Georgetown submitted. But there 
remained a portion of that district, stretching from the 
Santee to the Pedee, containing the whole of the present 
Williamsburg and part of Marion district, into which 
the British arms had not penetrated. The inhabitants 
of it were generally of Irish extraction, and very little 
disposed to submission. At this crisis there was a 
meeting of this people to deliberate on their situation. 
Major John James, who had heretofore commanded 
them in the field, and represented them in the state 
legislature, was selected as the person who should go 
down to Captain ArdesoifF and know from him upon 
what terms they would be allowed to submit. Accord 
ingly he proceeded to Georgetown in the plain garb 
of a country planter, and was introduced to the cap 
tain at his lodgings. 

After Major James had explained the nature of his 
mission, Capt. ArdesoifF, surprised that such an em 
bassy should be sent to him, answered " that submis 
sion must be unconditional." To an inquiry from 
Major James as to whether the inhabitants would be 
allowed to stay at home upon their plantations in peace 
and quiet, ArdesoifF replied, " Though you have re 
belled against his majesty, he offers you a free par 
don, of which you are undeserving, for you ought all 
to be hanged ! As he offers you a free pardon, you 
must take up arms in his cause." 

" The people I represent will never submit to such 
terms," said Major James, boldly. 

" Represent /" ArdesoifF emphatically repeated 
" Represent ! You rebel ! if you speak in such lan 
guage, I will immediately cause you to be hanged up 
to the yard-arm !" And the irritated captain pointed 


through the window, at which he was sitting, to the 
ship which he commanded lying in the river and within 

Major James, not relishing this language, and his 
blood being up, sprung in an instant to his feet, arid 
seizing the chair he had been sitting on, dealt a blow 
at Ardesoiff that sprawled the insolent tool of tyranny 
upon the floor. " Take that, d n you !" exclaimed 
the justly indignant major, as he struck the blow. In 
another instant, before Ardesoiff had time to recover 
and give the alarm, he was out of the house, had 
mounted his horse, and was far enough away from 
Georgetown before pursuit could be attempted. 

As soon as the major reached Williamsburg, the 
whole adventure was related, and the spirit displayed 
by him acted like an electric-shock in arousing 
others ; and it was unanimously determined by the 
citizens that they would again take up arms in defence 
of their country and not against her. Major James 
was desired to command them as heretofore, and they 
"arranged themselves under their revolutionary cap- 
tains, William M Cottry, Henry Mouzon, and John 
James, Junior. The latter was a cousin of the major. 

The small band thus resolved on further resistance 
to British tyranny consisted of but about two hundred 
men. It was agreed to despatch a messenger to Gen. 
Gates, who about this time had arrived upon the con 
fines of the state, requesting him to send them a com 

Shortly after this, Col. Tarleton, with a force of 
British, crossed the Santee at Lenad s ferry, and 
hearing of the late proceedings in Williamsburg, ap 
proached at the head of his cavalry to surprise the 


party of major James ; but Capt. M Cottry, as soon as 
he received notice of his movements, marched his 
company of fifty men to give him battle. Tarleton 
was posted at King s Tree bridge, on Black river ; and 
M Cottry approached him at midnight ; but by means 
of the wife of one of the loyalists of that part of the 
country, Tarleton gained intelligence of M Ccttry s 
movements, and marched away a few hours before the 
latter arrived. M Cottry pursued him, but without effect. 

In this route Tarleton burned the house of Capt. 
Mouzon, and took Mr. James Bradley prisoner. He 
took this gentleman by stratagem. He came to his house 
and passed himself off for Col. Washington of the 
American army. Bradley made much of his guest, and 
without suspicion freely communicated to him the 
plans and views of himself and the Carolinians for co 
operating with their countrymen against the British. 
When the interview and its hospitalities were ended, 
Tarleton requested Bradley to accompany him as a 
guide to a neighboring place. This service was cheer 
fully performed. On their arriyal, Tarleton s party 
appeared in full view, and took charge of Bradley as a 
prisoner. The host thus taken by order of his late 
guest was sent to Camden jail, and there confined in 

Marion, when in service, rode one of the fleetest and 
most powerful chargers the south could produce. When 
in fair pursuit, nothing could escape, and when retreat 
ing, nothing could overtake him. Being once nearly 
surrounded by a party of British dragoons, he was com 
pelled, for safety, to pass into a corn-field, by leaping 
the fence. This field, marked with a considerable de- 

* See Appendix A. 


scent of surface, had been, in part, a marsh. Marion 
entered it, at the upper side. The dragoons, in chase, 
leapt the fence also, and were but a short distance be 
hind him. So completely was he now within their 
power, that his only mode of escape was to pass over 
the fence at the lower side. 

But here lay a difficulty, which, to all but himself, 
appeared insurmountable. To drain the groun^l of its 
superfluous waters, a trench had been cut around this 
part of the field, four feet wide, and of the same depth. 
Of the mud and clay, removed in cutting it, a bank 
had been formed on its inner side, and on top of this 
was erected the fence. The elevation of the whole 
amounted to more than seven feet perpendicular height ; 
a ditch, four feet in width, running parallel with it, on 
the outside, and a foot, or more, of space intervening 
between the fence and the ditch. 

The dragoons, acquainted with the nature and extent 
of this obstacle, and considering it impossible for their 
enemy to pass it, pressed towards him, with loud shouts 
of exultation and insult, and summoned him to surren 
der, or perish by the sword. Regardless of their 
rudeness, and empty clamor, and inflexibly deter 
mined not to become their prisoner, Marion spurred 
his horse to the charge. The noble animal, as if con 
scious that his master s life was in danger, and that 
on his exertion depended its safety, approached the 
barrier, in his finest style, and with a bound that was 
almost supernatural, cleared completely the fence and 
ditch, and recovered himself without injury, on the 
opposite side. 

Marion, now facing his pursuers, who had halted at 
the fence, unable to pass it, discharged his pistols at 
them, without effect, and then, wheeling his horse, and 


bidding them " good morning," with an air of triumph, 
dashed into an adjoining thicket, and disappeared in an 

Astonished at what they had witnessed, and scarcely 
believing their foe to be mortal, the dragoons immedi 
ately abandoned the pursuit.* 

In another district of the same state, more elevated, 
drier, and therefore, more healthy, but less suited to 
partisan and predatory operations, because less abun 
dant in fortresses and retreats, flourished General 
Sumpter, a second warrior of freedom, terrible in ac 
tion, and peculiarly fitted for the place he occupied. 
Greatly superior to General Marion in personal 
strength, and trusting less to stratagem and skill, he 
placed his fortune much more exclusively on his 
daring resolution and the execution of his sword. 
Warm in temperament, and devoted to his country, 
whatever could contribute to rescue her from the in 
vader, and establish her independence became an ob 
ject of his ardent affection. He was also enamored 
of brilliant achievement for its own sake. To victory, 
and the glory attending it, he would cut his way through 
every danger, regardless alike of his own blood and 
that of his enemy. Into his brave associates, the 
hardy and powerful sons of the hilly country, he 
infused an abundant portion of his own spirit. 
Attached to his person, and inflamed by his enthu 
siasm, this dauntless corps followed him with alac 
rity through every difficulty and every peril. To 
them, as to himself, the sight of an enemy be 
came an object of pleasure. Accustomed to con 
quer, even when greatly outnumbered, they regarded 

* Caldwell s Life of Green. 


the order to prepare for battle as little else than an 
invitation to triumph. This was peculiarly the case 
when none but royalists were the object of their attack. 

Thus formidable in himself and his followers, the 
tories of his district began to tremble at the approach, 
and even the name of Sumpter; and the British, them 
selves, were compelled to respect him. His only object 
being the conquest or destruction of his enemy, and 
the liberation of his country, he was not very scrupu 
lous in his mode of warfare. Retaliation, in every 
form, he deemed justifiable. Hence, he sternly re 
torted on his adversaries whatever means they em 
ployed against him. If they inhumanly resorted to 
conflagration or the gibbet, he was not very reluctant 
to avenge the outrage by similar measures. The en 
tire annihilation of an invading foe, whose end was 
subjugation, and every form of violence their means, 
as well as of the miscreant inhabitants who flocked to 
their banner, he held to be a duty. 

Possessing this general fitness for the crisis, his ca 
reer was fertile in enterprise and deeds of heroism. 
If, from a want of due precaution, or from an exuber 
ance of courage, misfortune and defeat sometimes as 
sailed him, they neither broke his spirit nor enfeebled 
his hopes. Unmoved as the firmest Roman in the 
best times of the commonwealth, he never despaired 
of the arms of his country. With an inflexible resolu 
tion to witness her triumph, or not to survive her 
overthrow, he pressed towards his object with direct 
aim and unrelaxing vigor, and would have reduced his 
district to the condition of a desert rather than suffer 
the enemy to be master of it. 

In brigadier General Pickens appeared a third cham 
pion of freedom, worthy of the glorious cause he had 


espoused. Without so much experience in war, and 
with a character less strongly marked than his two 
cotemporaries, because he was younger, he rendered, 
notwithstanding, to his suffering fellow-citizens very 
important services. Gallant, enterprising and sensible; 
of a popular deportment, devotedly attached to the in 
dependence of his country, and possessing no incon 
siderable share of natural eloquence, he drew around 
him, like Sumpter, from another district of the hilly 
region, a band of followers, hardy, active and enamored 
of danger. 

At the head of these, capable himself of great exer 
tion, and uncommonly patient of privation and toil, he 
was indefatigable in his movements, traversing an ex 
tensive circuit of country, intercepting scouts, striking 
at foraging parties, and attacking, and sometimes car 
rying, posts, until he rendered himself exceedingly 
formidable to his enemies. In the worst times, he 
was at once a rallying point and a source of reliance 
to the friends of freedom in a large district ; he illustrated 
his career with numerous achievements of usefulness 
and renown, and proved himself an able partisan officer. 
But, successful as he was, in many of his enterprises, 
his most substantial services consisted, not so much in 
the work of his sword, as in keeping alive a spirit of 
resistance, and saving the people from despondency 
and submission. For it is, in the political, as in the 
animal body while a spark of life remains, resuscita 
tion is possible ; but, in either, real death is absolute 

In another district of country, still further from the 

sea-board, composed of sections of North and South 

Carolina, where those two states join, arose a fourth 

partisan officer, of high character and merit, who, at 



the gloomiest period of the southern disasters, did much 
to prevent and punish the atrocities of the royalists, cir 
cumscribe the range and influence of British detach 
ments, and sustain the wavering spirits of his friends. 
This was Colonel Davie, afterwards Governor of North 
Carolina, one of our embassadors to France at a very 
portentous conjuncture, and afterwards a private gentle 
man, reposing in the lap of science, resident on his 
estate in the same tract of country which he had 
protected. This distinguished leader, although younger 
by several years, possessed talents of a higher order, 
and was much more accomplished in education and 
manners, than either of his three competitors for fame. 
For the comeliness of his person, his martial air, his 
excellence in horsemanship, and his consummate powers 
of field eloquence, he had scarcely an equal in the 
armies of his country. So sonorous and powerful was 
his voice, so distinct his articulation, and so command 
ing his delivery, that the distance to which he could be 
heard was almost incredible. But his chief excellence 
lay in the magnanimity and generosity of his soul, his 
daring courage, his vigilance and address, and his un- 
relaxing activity and endurance of toil. So ardent was 
his attachment to the cause of freedom, and so disin 
terested his efforts to promote it, that, in equipping for 
the field his corps of followers, he expended his whole 
patrimonial estate. 

At the head of these, his exertions were unremitting, 
and his efficiency great. If he was less frequently 
engaged in actual combat than either of his three 
more southernly compeers, it was not because he was 
inferior to them in enterprise or love of battle. His 
district being more interior, was at first less frequently 
invaded by British detachments ; and the terror of his 


arms, either kept the royalists from embodying, or 
compelled them to scatter and fly at his approach. 
When, however, Lord Cornwall is ultimately advanced 
into that quarter, his scouts and foraging parties found 
Col. Davie and his brave associates as formidable an 
enemy as they had ever encountered. At the two 
gloomiest epochs of the southern war, soon after the 
fall of Charleston, and the overthrow of Gates, it was 
the good fortune of Col. Davie to be the first to shed a 
gleam through the surrounding darkness, and give 
hope to the country, by the brilliancy of his exploits. 
In one instance, without loss or injury on his part, he 
entirely destroyed an escort of provisions, taking forty 
prisoners, with their horses and arms. In the other, 
under the immediate eye of a large British force, which 
was actually beating to arms to attack him, he routed 
a party stronger than his own, killing and wounding 
sixty of the enemy, and carrying off with him ninety- 
six horses and one hundred and twenty stand of arms. 
The only injury which he himself sustained, in his com 
mand, was one man wounded. This affair occurred at 
Wahab s farm, in the Waxhaw settlement.* 

When Lord Cornwallis entered Charlotte, a small 
village in North Carolina, Colonel Davie, at the head 
of his detachment, threw himself in his front, deter 
mined to give him a specimen of the firmness and gal 
lantry with which the inhabitants of the place were 
prepared to dispute with his lordship their native soil. 

Colonel Tarleton s legion formed the British van, led 
by Major Hanger, the commander himself being con 
fined by sickness. When that celebrated corps had 
advanced near to the centre of the village, where the 

* Caldwell s Life of Greene. 



Americans were posted, Davie poured into it so destruc 
tive a fire, that it immediately wheeled and retreated 
m disorder. Being rallied on the commons, and again 
led on to the charge, it received, on the same spot, 
another fire, with a similar effect. Lord Cornwallis, 
witnessing the confusion thus produced among his 
choicest troops, rode up in person, and in a tone of dis 
satisfaction, upbraided the legion with unsoldierly con 
duct, reminding it of its former exploits and reputation. 

Pressed on his flanks by the British infantry, Col. 
Davie had now fallen back to a new and well selected 
position. To dislodge him from this, the legion cavalry 
advanced on him a third time, in rapid charge ; in full 
view of their commander-in-chief, and still smarting 
from his pungent censure but in vain. Another fire 
from the American marksmen killed several of their 
officers, wounded Major Hanger, and repulsed them 
again with increased confusion. The main body of 
the British being now within musket-shot, the American 
leader abandoned the contest. 

That they might, if possible, recover some portion 
of the laurels of which they had this day been shorn, 
colonel Tarleton s dragoons attempted to disturb co 
lonel Davie in his retreat. But the latter, choosing his 
ground, wheeled on them with so fierce and galling a 
fire, that they again fell back, and troubled him no 

It was by strokes like these that he seriously crip 
pled and intimidated his enemy, acquired an elevated 
standing in the estimation of his friends, and served 
very essentially the interests of freedom. With the 
resolution of Sumpter, and the coolness and military 
policy of Marion, he exhibited in his character a happy 
union of the high qualities of those two officers. 


Thus, did these four great partisan leaders, created 
by the exigency of the times, and springing each out 
of the nature of his own instinct, tend, by their vigilance, 
and unremitting action, to limit not a little the ravages 
of the enemy, and to preserve from extinction the em 
bers of resistance. But, although the most regular 
laborers in the sacred cause in which they co-operated, 
they and their immediate followers did network alone. 
By the occasional association and exertion of other par 
tisan warriors in different places, sundry enterprises 
of rare and distinguished lustre were successfully 

Every reader of history must be familiar with the 
celebrated and romantic feat of arms achieved on 
King s mountain, where the British bayonet, under 
colonel Ferguson, yielded to the American rifle, pointed 
by Cleveland, Shelby and Campbell. In number, the 
troops, on either side, were nearly equal. The British 
detachment was in high discipline, selected for a par 
ticular service, and encamped in a position chosen on 
account of its security and strength. The Americans 
were fresh from their homes, had no pretension to dis 
cipline, and most of them now for tRe first time faced 
an enemy in the field. Notwithstanding this, they ad 
vanced to the attack, with the steadiness and cool de 
termination of veterans. The resistance they en 
countered was firm and terrible ; yet fifty minutes con 
ducted them to triumph. 

The following brief, but picturesque account of this 
battle, is given by general Lee. " Our brave country 
men were formed into three divisions, under their 
respective leaders, and coolly ascended the mountain 
in different directions. Colonel Cleveland first reached 
the enemy, and opened a destructive fire from behind 


the trees. Ferguson resorted to the bayonet : Cleve 
land necessarily gave way. At that instant, from an 
other quarter, colonel Shelby poured in his fire ; alike 
sheltered and alike effectual. Upon him Ferguson 
furiously turned, and advanced with the bayonet ; gain 
ing the only, though immaterial, advantage in his 
power, of forcing Shelby to recede. This was scarcely 
effected before colonel Campbell had gained the sum 
mit of the mountain; when he too commenced a deadly 
fire. The British bayonet was again applied, and 
produced its former effect. All the divisions now 
returned in co-operation, and resistance became 

The trophies of the day were dazzling and glorious. 
The British party was annihilated. Colonel Ferguson 
himself was among the slain ; three hundred of his 
troops were killed and wounded ; and upwards of 
eight hundred surrendered at discretion. Fifteen hun 
dred stand of arms passed, also, into the possession of 
the conquerors. 

Never was victory more opportune ; nor, for the 
number of combatants, engaged in the conflict, more 
important in its immediate consequences. It broke 
the plan of the British campaign, rescued North Caro 
lina, from an invasion which would have devastated, and 
held in check, its strongest and best disposed district, 
disappointed the expectations of the royalists in various 
parts of it, preventing their intended co-operation with 
the invaders, and revived the sinking hopes, and in 
vigorated the exertions, of the friends of freedom. 
Further to the South occurred another affair of parti 
san gallantry, which although not very momentous in 
its consequences, was notwithstanding so extraor 
dinary, in its nature, conducted with so much address, 


marked with such a chivalrous spirit of enterprise, 
and so honourable to the officer who conceived and 
executed it, that it deserves to be much more generally 
known, than it has heretofore been.* 

On the river Ogechee, in the state of Georgia, was 
stationed captain French, with a detachment of about 
forty British regulars. At the same place lay five 
British vessels. Of these four were armed, the lar 
gest mounting fourteen guns. Colonel John White, of 
the Georgia line, meditating the capture of this station, 
was able to call to his assistance, but four individuals, 
captain Etholen, and three privates. Resolute in their 
purpose, notwithstanding the disparity of force they 
would be obliged to encounter, these five soldiers of for 
tune, boldly advanced on the enemy s post. 

Having arrived in the neighborhood of it at night, 
they kindled numerous fires, the light of which reached 
their adversaries, so arranging them as to represent 
by them, the lines of a considerable camp. To render 
their stratagem the more imposing, they then rode 
hastily about, in various directions, in imitation of the 
staff of an army, disposing their sentinels, and issuing 
their orders in a loud voice. The artifice succeeded, 
and convinced captain French that he was menaced by 
a large body of Americans. Accordingly, on being 
summoned by colonel White, he surrendered his de 
tachment, the crews of the five vessels, amounting to 
near fifty in number, with the vessels themselves, and 
one hundred and fifty stand of arms. But the difficulty 
of the enterprising captors was not yet terminated. 
The British soldiers and sailors might discover the im 
position that had been practised on them and attempt 

* Caldwell s Life of Greene. 


a rescue ; and five armed men were not sufficient to 
restrain by force near a hundred without arms. 

The same genius, however, that had planned the first 
part of the adventure, was comoetent to the completion 
of it. With great seriousness and some emotion in 
his manner, colonel White told captain French that 
in consequence of certain recent enormities, perpetrated 
by a detachment of British and royalists, his troops 
were so deeply exasperated that he was afraid they 
would advance on the captured party, and, in violation 
of his commands, put them all to the sword ; that he 
had already experienced great difficulty in restraining 
them ; and, should they be placed as a guard over the 
prisoners, he was convinced their rage would become 
ungovernable. He, therefore, directed the British cap 
tain to follow, with his whole party, captain Etholen, 
and two of the soldiers as guides, who would conduct 
them without delay to a place of safety and good 

For his kindness and humanity, colonel White re 
ceived the thanks of his prisoners, who immediately 
marched off in a body with their small escort, anxious 
to hasten their pace, lest the enraged Americans should 
advance on them and cut them to pieces. The colonel 
and one soldier remained behind, with a view, as he in 
formed captain French, to restrain by his presence 
any improper violence his troops might be inclined to 
offer ; and to conduct their march at some distance in 
the rear. 

In the mean time, with the aid of the soldier retained, 
he took active measures to collect, as expeditiously as 
possible, a body of militia from the neighboring dis 
trict. Placing himself at the head of these, who were 
mostly mounted on good horses, he soon overtook his 


prisoners, whom he found safe under their guides, and 
rejoicing in the generous treatment they had experienced. 

Equally, perhaps, unknown to most of the inhabi 
tants, and singularly neglected in the history of our 
country, is another very gallant partisan adventure, 
achieved on the 22d of June 1780. Neither Ameri 
can regulars nor British soldiers had any concern 
in this spirited affair ; it was fought entirely by raw 
militia-men, of the whig and tory parties. About 
twelve hundred of the latter, having assembled un 
der the command of Colonel Moore, encamped in 
a strong position at Ramsaour s mill, a few miles 
westward from the Catawba river, and in the vicinity 
of the line which separates North from South Carolina. 

In addition to rapine, and the production of general 
distress, a favorite object of this party was to overawe 
and weaken the adjacent country by capturing and 
carrying within the British lines a number of its most 
influential inhabitants. Besides being thus prevented 
from taking a lead in active measures of resistance, 
these were to be held as hostages for the good conduct 
and neutrality of their friends. 

To defeat the mischievous purposes of this party, and 
to dislodge them from their strong hold, the most spir 
ited of the whigs from Tredell, a neighboring county, 
assembled to the amount of three hundred men, under 
the command of colonel Locke. These consisted 
principally of foot ; but, in part, of a small corps of 
mounted infantry, armed with rifles, pistols and sabres, 
led by captain Falls, an officer of peculiar gallantry 
and worth. 

This hasty levy of soldiers presented a spectacle 
eminently interesting. They were fresh from their 
homes, their private habits unbroken, no discipline or 


concert of action established among them, and all their 
domestic feelings clinging around their hearts. They 
were, in the true sense of the expression, a band of 
friends and neighbors, being all from the same settle 
ment, and perfectly known to each other in private life. 
In the whole party there was not an individual who 
had not repeatedly united with the others, in rural sport 
and social enjoyment. As citizens, they were all of 
the same rank, and all respectable. They were mas 
ters of the soil they had assembled to defend. 

Of this corps of patriots, the military prowess was 
entirely untried ; not one of them, with the exception 
of captain Falls, having ever confronted an enemy in 
the field. Their only warlike acquirement was great 
expertness and skill in the use of the rifle. In that 
qualification they had few superiors. Being all dressed 
in their common apparel, they exhibited no uniformity 
of appearance. To remedy this, and to distinguish 
them from the tories, who were known to be dressed in 
the same way, they fastened over the crowns of their 
hats, from back to front, descending to the rims, on 
each side, strips of white paper about two inches broad. 
Each one brought to the place of rendezvous his own 
rifle, fifty rounds of powder and ball, a week s provision, 
and a light blanket. That they might be perfectly un 
encumbered, neither baggage-wagon nor pack-horse 
was attached to the party.* 

Thus accoutred, eager for battle, and panting for 
glory, without waiting for a considerable force that was 
assembling in Rowan, a neighboring county, under 
general Rutherford, to join them, they moved, in haste 
and silence, towards the scene of action. The second 

* Caldwell s Life of Greene. 


day s march brought them into the immediate vicinity 
of their object. They encamped for the night, deter 
mined to strike, and hoping to surprise, the enemy, in 
the morning. But, in this, they were disappointed. 
On advancing to the attack, about break of day, they 
found the foe on the alert, and ready to receive them. 
They, therefore, resolved to wait, until it should be 
completely light, that the aim of their rifles might be 
the more deadly. 

The morning opening, disclosed to them a prepara 
tion for defence and resistance, much more formidable 
than they had expected to find. The enemy were 
posted on top of a hill, covered with timber, which af 
forded them a shelter. Their flanks were protected 
on one side by a mill-dam, and on the other by a 
swamp, a small stream of water flowing in the rear. 
In front of their encampment, was erected of stakes 
and brush-wood, a breastwork so compact as to be 
proof against small arms, and to impede, in a great 
measure, the operation of cavalry. A strong de 
tachment of the foe was stationed in advance of the 
breast-work, armed with rifles, and concealed behind 

At. first sight, this array of men and means was 
somewhat appalling. But the Rubicon was passed. 
Retreat would be ruin, accompanied with disgrace. 
Battle might also be ruinous, but could not be dishon 
orable. Without hesitation, therefore, the latter was re 
solved on. At his own request, captain Falls, with his 
mounted infantry, led the attack. When at the distance 
of about eighty paces, he received the fire of the ene 
my s advance. Returning this with considerable effect, 
he rushed, sword in hand, into the midst of them, threw 
them into confusion, and forced them to fall back. 



Pressing his fortune with too much ardor, he received 
a ball through his breast, and fell dead from his horse. 

His party, however, undismayed by the loss of their 
leader, continued the action, with great gallantry, until 
the foot advanced to their support, when the enemy was 
driven behind his breastwork. Here ensued a most 
murderous conflict. The whigs, having so far levelled 
the obstruction, as to render it passable, rushed over it, 
mingled with the enemy, and, in many instances, 
grappled with them, man to man. Every instrument 
and means of death was now resorted to. The bullet, 
the sword, the rifle-but, and even the hatchet, with 
which some were provided, were abundantly employed. 
Rarely, in any case, has blood been more inexorably, 
or, by the same number of combatants, more prodigal 
ly, shed. 

For a time, the issue was doubtful. Pressed, by su 
perior numbers, the whigs were once compelled to give 
ground, some of them retreating across the breastwork. 
But resolutely bent on victory or death, they returned 
to the charge, with such fierce impetuosity, and decisive 
effect, as bore down all resistance. The tories broke, 
and fled in confusion, the whigs for some distance 
hanging on their rear with terrible slaughter. 

Thus terminated an affair, in which so many gallant 
spirits made their first, and, too many of them, alas ! 
their last, essay in arms. In the course of it, the 
whigs performed prodigies ; and the royalists mani 
fested a degree of resolution and valor worthy of a 
better cause. The latter lost, in killed, wounded, and 
prisoners, upwards of six hundred men. The prison 
ers and wounded were paroled, and liberated, on the 
field of battle. The numerical loss of the former was 
exceedingly heavy, nearly half of them being killed or 


wounded. But the actual loss, which consisted in the 
character, rather than the number, of those that fell, 
was incalculable. On that fatal day some of the 
choicest blood of the south was heroically offered, on 
the altar of freedom. 

The death of captain Falls, in particular, was deeply 
lamented. In the ranks of his country, he did not leave 
behind him a purer patriot, or a more gallant soldier. 
His son, a youth of fourteen, had accompanied him to 
battle. When the captain fell, this high minded stripling 
moved by an instinctive impulse of affection, sprang 
from his horse, to embrace the body, and protect it 
from insult. One of the enemy, believed to be the 
same that had shot captain Falls, advancing, with a 
view to plunder the corpse, the son, suddenly snatch 
ing the sword of the deceased, plunged it into the 
bosom of the marauder, and thus, at once, punished 
audacity and nobly revenged his father s death. 

So deadly was the aim of the tory riflemen, at the 
commencement of the action, before the smoke of their 
own fire had obstructed their view, that many of them 
placed their balls in the lower end of the strips of 
paper, which the whigs wore over the crowns of their 
hats. Every shot of this description, passing through 
the brain, was instantly fatal.* 

The messenger despatched to Gates returned with 
the glad information that Francis Marion was to take 
command, commissioned by Gov. Ruttledge ; and a 
few days previous to the defeat of Gates, Marion 
reached the post where M Cottry had taken his 
position, and, as we have stated, he and his brigade 
were on the Santee river destroying boats when 

* Caldwell s Life of Greene. 


the news of the last battle was received. Such 
was the origin of " Marion s Brigade." Of Ma 
rion s personal appearence at this time, we have the 
following graphic account from the pen of Judge 
James, a son of the major, and who at the early 
age of fifteen served under him. " He was a stranger 
to the officers and men, and they flocked about him to 
obtain a sight of their future commander. He was 
rather below the middle stature, lean and swarthy 
His body was well set, but his kness and ankles were 
badly formed, and he still limped upon one leg. He 
had a countenance remarkably steady ; his nose was 
aquiline, chin projecting ; his forehead large and high, 
and his eyes black and piercing. He was then forty- 
eight years of age, with a frame capable of enduring 
fatigue and every privation. He was dressed in a 
close round-bodied crimson jacket, of a coarse texture, 
and wore a leather cap, part of the uniform of the 
second regiment, with a silver crescent in front, in 
scribed with the words, Liberty or Death. "* Weems 
describes him as a " little, swarthy, French-phizzed 

We now approach the exciting part of Marion s 
career; and as captain of his brigade we will follow 
him through his perils, adventures, stratagem and ex 
ploits. We equally admire the boldness of his deeds 
and the never-failing resources that he commanded 
within himself. At a moment when the cause for 
which he battled seemed to be given over, he alone 
kept the field as its champion. A few others there 
were who assisted in keeping alive the hopes of the 
Southern patriots, but the name of Marion was the 
only rallying cry which inspirited effectual confidence. 

* A sketch of the Life of Marion and History of his Brigade, 
by Wm. Dobein James, A. M. 1821. 


Equally without the means of warfare and of com 
fort, he and his brigade despaired not, but with such 
weapons as they had fought, and with such sustenance 
as they could get existed. LIBERTY OR DEATH was 
the motto worn by Marion, and, for Liberty,toil and 
hardships were cheerfully endured with an unwavering 
resolution that it should be Death rather than the 
cause of Liberty should be relinquished. 

In a few days after taking command, Marion led his 
men across the Pedee at Post s ferry, to disperse a 
large party of tories commanded by Major Gainey, 
collected between the Great and Little Pedee. This 
Gainey was a great champion of the tories and stood 
high in their estimation as a partizan officer. He and 
his band of tories were encamped at a place called 
Britton s Neck. In secrecy, Marion formed his plan, 
marched rapidly all night, and came upon the tories 
at day-break. He paused not an instant, but rigorously 
attacked their camp, and the surprise and disaster 
was complete ; one of the tory captains and several 
of their privates were slain. Of Marion s men not one 
was lost, and only two wounded.* 

Being informed that another body of tories were 
strongly posted in the neighborhood, under command 
of Capt. Barfield, he resorted to a stratagem, placing a 
part of his men in ambush, and with the other part 
pretending a retreat. This feint had the desired effect, 
for Barfield pursued the retreating party, whilst those 
in ambush came upon his rear, and the defeat of the 
tories was entire. 

After this, Marion returned to Post s Ferry, and 
threw up a redoubt on the east bank of the Pedee, 

* Ramsay s Hiat. of South Carolina. 


manning his little fortification with two field-pieces 
which he captured in his successes against the tories. 
Whilst thus employed, he heard of the defeat of Gen. 
Gates at Camden, Aug. 16, 1780. Fearful of the 
effect this tidings might have upon the spirits of his 
brigade, he kept it concealed from them, and, getting 
advice that a British force, with a great number of 
American prisoners, was on its way from Camden to 
Charleston, he resolved to attempt a rescue. He im 
mediately marched ibr Nelson s Ferry on the Santee, 
and near Nelson s he learned that the British, with 
their prisoners, the former ninety strong; the prison 
ers two hundred, had stopped at a house on the east 
side of the Santee. Just after dark, Marion and his 
brigade crossed the river. He directed Col. Horry to 
gain possession of the road at the entrance of a 
swamp, and led the main body himself by a circuitous 
route to attack the rear of the enemy. 

" The Blue House" was the name of the tavern at 
which the British halted with their prisoners. Col. 
Horry in taking his position, advanced too near a sen 
tinel, who fired upon him. No time was now to be 
lost. The word was given for an attack. The sen- 
tinels fled towards the house, the Americans following. 
The surprised enemy surrendered at once, and Marion 
was by this achievement well supplied with muskets. 
" After securing their arms," writes Weems, " Marion 
called for their captain ; but he was not to be found, 
high nor low, among the living or dead. However, 
after a hot search, he was found up the chimney !" 
He begged very hard that his men should not know 
where he had concealed himself. 

Notwithstanding this gallant success, the defeat of 
Gates at Camden, which now became generally known, 


damped the ardor of the people throughout the coun 
try, and instead of rallying under the flag of Marion, 
the dastardly Continentals he had released from the 
British, replied that it would be risking life without any 
hope of success, and all, with one or two exceptions, 
returned to their homes. Marion and his unconquer 
able brigade kept the field, however, and the severi 
ties practiced by the British, after the fall of Camden, 
drove many indignant men into his ranks. Corn- 
wallis issued a proclamation, ordering positively that 
all the inhabitants of this province who have sub 
scribed, and have taken part in the revolt, should be 
punished with the greatest rigor ; and also those who 
will not turn out, that they may be imprisoned and 
their whole property taken from them or destroyed ;" 
and "that every militia man, who has borne arms 
with us, and afterwards joined the enemy, shall be 
immediately hanged." Many men were hanged, and 
the property of a number of families confiscated. 

The audacity and skill of Marion, necessarily ren 
dered the British commander desirous of taking him, 
and Tarleton, and Major Wemyss, and a strong force 
of tories, were despatched against him. The tories 
were commanded by Major Harrison. Marion had 
under his command but a very small body of men. 
Hearing of the expedition that had been set in motion 
against him, he despatched Major James, with a choice 
band of volunteers, to reconnoitre the enemy and as 
certain their force. Major James concealed himself in 
a swamp on the line of the enemy s march, and having 
satisfied himself in regard in their numbers, returned 
to Marion, reported the British force to be double that 
of the patriots, while the tories in the rear were alone 


estimated at five hundred men. This intelligence was far 
from encouraging, inasmuch as they had no force that 
could possibly contend with such a host. About half 
of Marion s men left him, considering it useless to 
keep the field under these circumstances, dropping off 
one by one on the route towards North Carolina, he 
and his officers having commenced a retreat. Those 
that remained with him were colonels Peter and Hugh 
Horry, colonels John Erwin and John Baxter, major 
John James, major Benson, and about sixty men. 
Marching night and day, they soon reached the eastern 
bank of Downing creek in North Carolina. 

.From this place the gallant Major James obtained 
leave to return at the head of a few volunleor.s, to gain 
intelligence, watch the movements of the British, and 
do his best to rouse the spirit of the country, now over 
run and desolated by the British and Tories. Farms 
and plantations were laid waste, and Wemyss swept 
the land with fire and sword. Houses were consigned 
to the flames, and thousands of the inhabitants were 
plundered by the tories, who revelled and rioted in the 
destruction they made. Cattle were wantonly shot, 
and grain ruthlessly destroyed. All who were in the 
slightest identified with the patriotic cause suffered 
from the depredations committed by Wemyss. Many 
of Marion s party were reduced from easy circum- 
, stances to poverty. 

In the meantime, Marion had pitched his camp at 
Whitemarsh, near the source of the Waccawaw, 
where he and his brigade submitted to hardships and 
necessities of more than ordinary rigor. 

Major James, and many scouting parties, returned 
to the camp with the tidings of Wemyss destructive 
progress over the country, and the indignant feelings 


that had been roused among the inhabitants. Marion 
at once took up his line of march back to South Caro 
lina, and on his way he was everywhere joined by the 
roused militia. He found his men in the proper spirit 
to do battle, and he determined to strike while the iron 
was hot. Arrived at Lynch s creek, he was informed 
that a great body of tories, under a Capt. Ball, lay at 
Black Mingo, fifteen miles below. Every voice was 
enthusiastically loud for the attack. " Lead us on ! 
Lead us on !" was the unanimous cry. There was a 
spirit of justifiable vengeance breathing through the 
entire command, officers and men. 

The tories were strongly posted at Shepherd s ferry, 
on the south side of the Black Mingo. This was the 
passage of the stream, and Marion, to approach them, 
was obliged to cross a plank-bridge a mile above.the 
ferry. As soon as the front files of his advance had 
struck the bridge, an alarm-gun was heard from the 
Tory camp. Rapidity was now necessary. Marion 
and his officers urged forward their men. The Tories 
were not unprepared to receive them, and a severe con 
flict ensued. Some of the patriotic troops fell back 
with confusion, but were soon rallied and led on to the 
charge. So near were the parties engaged for a part 
of the fight, that the wads of their guns struck on each 
side, and both fired balls and buckshot. In an interval 
of platoons, Marion was heard to call out, " Advance 
cavalry and charge on the left." Instantly the tories 
broke, and ran for Black Mingo swamp. 

In this conflict, if either party had had bayonets they 
would have used them, so close were they to each 
other in the struggle. Captain Logan and one private of 
Marion s party were killed, and nearly one half of his 
ttien wounded. Two gallant officers, Capt. Mouzon, 


and his lieutenant, Joseph Scott, were rendered unfit 
for further service. The tories, who were twice as 
strong as the patriots, lost their commander, leaving 
two-thirds of their number killed or wounded. " The 
surprise and destruction of the tories," says Col. 
Horry, " would have been complete, had it not been 
for the alarm given by our horses, that in passing 
Black Mingo bridge, near which they were encamped. 
Marion never afterwards suffered us to cross a bridge 
in the night, until we had first spread our blankets on 
it, to prevent noise." 

After this victory, Marion, without delay, marched 
to Williamsburg, and, such was the magic of his name, 
numbers flocked to his standard, and the few with 
which he had gained his success at Black Mingo, was 
in a. short time greatly increased.* 

* Marion s Brigade, by W. D. James. Ramsay s Hist. 
South Carolina. See Appendix B. 


Marion sets forward to chastise the Tories under Har 
rison Surprises the Tories under Col. Tynes. Hard 
ships of Marion and his men. Tarleton in pursuit of 
Marion. Sumpter defeats Maj. Wemyss. Tarleton 
relinquishes his pursuit of Marion and goes after 
Sumpter battle defeat of the British. Marion s 
enterprize against Georgetown death of Gabriel 
Marion. Marion s encampment at Snow s Island 
martial law the flag of truce Marion dines a 
British officer, ect. etc. 

The victory at Black Mingo was followed by a re 
spite to the soldiers, who were allowed to visit their 
families, necessitated as they were to provide for their 
wives and children. Marion would have kept them 
together and followed up the tories, but consented to 
their request on their promising to return as soon as 
called upon. True to their word, after looking to the 
care of their families, all returned to the command of 
their leader. Marion now set forward to chastise the 
tories under Harrison, posted at Lynch s creek. On 
his march he learned that a certain Col. Tynes was 
collecting a large body of tories in the fork of Black 
river, distant about thirty miles. This Col. Tynes was 
a man of valor, and generally very much upon his 
guard, though he was at last caught napping by Ma 
rion. He had brought arms and ammunition with 
him, and had them in abundance to supply those 
who joined him. Marion felt it his duty to check him 
before he should have an opportunity to make much 
headway. Marching with extreme rapidity, he came 
up with the camp of the tories at night, whilst they 



were feasting, drinking and gaming. He quickly made 
his arrangements for the attack. Those that slept 
were awakened by the guns of the assailants, and in 
an instant the patriots were among them, hewing them 
down, and the surprise and discomfiture of the tones 
was complete. Captain Gaskens, one of the plunder 
ing companions of Wemyss, was killed with a card in 
his hand. Many were killed. Col. Tynes, and two 
of his officers, were captured ; a great number of 
horses, and all the baggage was taken ; the larger 
number fled to a neighbouring swamp, from which 
some emerged the next day, and joined the ranks of 
Marion, whilst others fled to their homes. This victory 
was achieved by Marion without the loss of a single 
man upon his own side.* 

Is it to be wondered that these brilliant achieve 
ments, so rapidly following each other, should make 
the name of Marion dear to every heart that partici 
pated with love of country ? In all these forced 
marches, Marion and his men lay in the open field, 
with little covering, and with little other food than 
sweet potatoes, and meat mostly without salt. The 
general fared worse than his men ; for his baggage 
having caught fire by accident, he had literally but half 
a blanket to shelter him from the dews of the night, 
and but half a hat to shelter him from the rays of the 
sun. Tea or coffee he seldom tasted, and liquor as 
rarely passed his lips. Thus suffering deprivations, 
thus enduring fatigue, Marion and his men continued 
to hold out against the combined forces of the British 
and Tories ; and so great was now his influence 
throughout South Carolina, that the British commander 

* Ramsay s Hist. South Carolina. 


found it impossible to reduce the province to loyalty 
whilst he kept the field. To capture him, however, 
was a matter that would necessarily entail much diffi 
culty ; one day in one part of the country, the next 
fifty miles distant, as he constantly was when avoiding 
pursuit ; hardened to every trial, yet ever in undis 
mayed spirits. But he must be captured, the British 
commander resolved ; no point must be left unstrained 
until he was taken ! Who was the officer to accom 
plish it ? Who but Tarleton ? But he was lying ill 
of a fever at Charleston. Sick as he was, Tarleton 
signified his willingness to seize upon the first moment 
of returning health, and carry into effect the desire of 
his commander. 

Accordingly, as soon as he was able, he set for* 
ward with a troop of horse, to meet his legion at a de 
signated place on the Wateree. Marion, apprized of 
his having set out from Charleston, and presuming that 
he intended to force his way to Camden, started in 
pursuit of him. But, in consequence of defective in 
formation from his scouts, Marion did not succeed in 
overtaking his foe. Tarleton met his legion, and 
Marion was first apprized of his whereabouts by the 
burning of the mansion on the plantation of General 
Richardson, one of the patriots. Gen. Richardson in 
person presented himself to Marion, giving intelligence 
of the enemy s great force. Marion, thus finding his 
enemy so strong that the prospect of an engagement 
was utterly hopeless of success, and one of his own 
men having deserted to the foe, retired from his posi 
tion, crossing an extensive swamp. Tarleton pursued, 
day after day ; but Marion constantly changed his 
ground, until he wearied out his pursuer, who turned 
his legions in search of Sumpter, who had now got to- 


gether a force of about five hundred men, and encamp 
ed within twenty-eight miles of Cornwallis, who lay 
at Winnsboro . 

Thus, while Marion engaged the attention of Corn 
wallis, whose cavalry and artillery were drawn to the 
east of the Santee, Sumpter hovered on the west of 
the river, searching for some valuable point to assail. 
This officer, equally enterprizing and indefatigable as 
Marion, had the mountainous country of the Caro- 
linas to draw upon for assistance. He had therefore 
the advantage of Marion in numbers ; commanding 
five hundred sometimes, and at others eight hundred 
men. When Cornwallis became acquainted of Sump- 
ter s approach, Major Wemyss was detached to sur 
prize him, which he thought possible from the fact that 
Sumpter, on past occasions, had displayed more bold 
ness than vigilance. Wemyss directed his march with 
great secrecy to Broad river, where Sumpter was en 
camped. The silent celerity with which he advanced, 
brought him, sooner than he intended, to the vicinity 
of his enemy ; and, apprehending that Sumpter might 
be apprized, before morning, of his proximity, he de 
termined on an attack by night. His corps was im 
mediately formed for battle, and advanced on Sump- 
ter s camp. Anxious to observe the condition of his 
foe, Wemyss placed himself with the van officer, who 
soon fell on Sumpter s piquet, and threw them back on 
the main body. Only five muskets were discharged* 
and two balls pierced the major, disabling him from 
further exertion. 

The command devolved upon a subaltern, who, al 
though unacquainted with the ground, and uninformed 
as to the plan, determined to press the attack. He 
found Sumpter prepared to receive him ; and very soon 


the contest terminated in the repulse of the British, who 
retired, leaving their commandant and twenty men on 
the ground.* 

Sumpter, satisfied with his success, did not pursue 
it, but crossed the Broad river. Cornwallis, chagrined 
at the defeat of Wemyss, and provoked by the daring 
of Sumpter, directed Tarleton to proceed without delay 
and chastise the audacious rebel. Quick were the 
movements of Tarleton, and he arrived in the neigh 
borhood of Sumpter before the latter had even heard of 
his advance. Pushing up the Ennoree river, Tarleton 
hoped to place himself in his enemy s rear, but Sump 
ter became apprized of his adversary s movements, 
immediately drew off, passed the Ennoree, and contin 
ued to retreat, having the Tyger, one of the most rapid 
and obstructive rivers, in his front. Tarleton, foresee 
ing that should his adversary pass the Tyger, there 
would be little prospect of bringing him to action, re 
doubled his exertions to overtake him. Well knowing 
the character of his foe, he had preserved his force in 
compact order; but his apprehension that Sumpter 
might escape, his ardor in pursuit, and desire to con 
tinue the success with which his zeal had been generally 
crowned, impelled him to deviate from that prudent 
course. In the evening of the 20th of November, 
(1780) at the head of his cavalry, about one hundred 
and seventy in number, and eighty mounted infantry 
of the 63rd regiment, he dashed forward to bring Sump 
ter to battle, before the latter had passed the Tyger, 
and soon came in sight of his enemy, who had selected 
a strong position on Blackstock hill, on the eastern 
banks of the river. 

* Lee s Memoirs of the Southern War. 


Here, prudence would have dictated to Col. Tarleton 
a pause. The residue of the 63rd regiment, the legion 
and light infantry, were following with all possible 
despatch, and in one hour might have joined him. But 
delay did not comport with the ardent zeal or experi 
ence of Tarleton, and he boldly advanced to the assault. 
That part of the hill to which the attack was directed, 
was nearly perpendicular, with a small rivulet, brush 
wood, and a rail fence in front. The rear of the Amer 
icans, and part of their right flank, was secured by the 
river Tyger, and their left was covered by a log barn, 
into which a considerable division of their force had 
been thrown, and from which, as the apertures between 
the logs served for loop-holes, they fired with security. 

British valor was conspicuous in this action ; but no 
valor could surmount the obstacles that here stood in 
its way. Of the 63rd regiment, the commanding offi 
cer, two others, and one third of the privates, fell. 
Tarleton, observing their situation, charged with his 
cavalry ; but, unable to dislodge the enemy, either 
from the log barn on his right, or the height on his left, 
he was obliged to fall back, leaving Sumpter in quiet 
possession of the field. Sumpter occupied the ground 
several hours, but having received a severe wound, and 
knowing the British would be reinforced before next 
morning, he thought it hazardous to wait. He accord 
ingly retired, and taking his wounded men along with 
him, crossed the rapid river Tyger. Sumpter s wound, 
unfortunately for his country, long detained him from 
the field ; but useful consequences continued to result 
from the deep impressions of his example, and from the 
spark he had infused, and the experience gained under 
his guidance. 

Tarleton was no sooner recalled from the east of the 


Santee, than Marion emerged from his concealed re 
treat, traversed the country from Georgetown to Cam- 
den, and endangered the communication between them. 

Thus, in this gloomy period, was resistance in the 
South continued ; embarrassing to the enemy, exhilira- 
ting to the hopes of the patriots. It produced in Con 
gress, and in the nation, a solacing conviction that the 
spirit of the people was not subdued.* 

The British post at Georgetown was one of consid 
erable strength, and Marion, who was bare of supplies, 
meditated an ingenious attack upon it, in order to fur 
nish himself with clothing and ammunition ; and being 
now supported by Lieut. Col. Lee, he disclosed his enter- 
prize to that officer, who readily consented to join in 
the undertaking. General Greene had arrived and 
taken command of the Southern army. To him Ma 
rion disclosed his plan. Gen. Greene approved of it. 
The plan of the assault was founded on the facility with 
which the assailant might convey down the Pedee a 
part of his force undiscovered, and land in the water 
suburb of the town, which is situated on the bay into 
which the river empties. This suburb, being always 
deemed secure, was consequently unguarded. After 
this body should have reached the wharves, it was to 
move in two divisions. The first was to force the com 
mandant s quarters, known to be a place of parade, 
then to secure him and all who might flock thither on 
the alarm. The second was to be charged with the 
interception of such of the garrison as might attempt to 
gain the fort, their chief point of safety in annoyance. 
The militia and cavalry of the legion, under Marion 
and Lee, were to approach near the town in the night 

"See Appendix C. 


and when the entrance of the infantry, passed down by 
water, should be announced, they were to rush into it 
for co-operation and support. 

Agreeably to this plan, the infantry of the legion 
were embarked in boats, under command of Captain 
Games, with orders to fall down the Pedee to a desig 
nated island, during the first night ; to land and lay 
concealed there the ensuing day ; to re-embark at an 
early hour of the night following, and to reach George 
town between one and two in the morning. 

Marion and Lee proceeded to their destination, hav 
ing taken all the requisite precautions to prevent any 
intimation to the enemy of their approach. At twelve 
o clock on the second night, they occupied, unperceived, 
a position in the vicinity of the town, and awaited 
anxiously for the annunciation of Game s arrival. 
This officer met with no difficulty in descending the 
river, and reached the appointed island before dawn. 
He remained there the ensuing day without discovery. 
Gaining his place of destination, with precision in point 
of time, he landed in the suburb unperceived, and in 
stantly advanced to the quarters of the garrison s com 
mander, Col. Campbell, who was secured; and Carnes 
judiciously posted his division for seizing such parties 
of the garrison as might flock to the parade ground. 
The other division, with equal good fortune, gained the 
vicinity of the fort, and arranged themselves ready to 
arrest any fugitives. On the first fire, which took 
place at the commandant s quarters, the militia of 
Marion, and the dragoons of Lee, rushed into the town, 
prepared to bear down all resistance. To the astonish 
ment of these officers, every thing was quiet ; the legion 
infantry holding its assigned stations, and Col. Camp 
bell a prisoner. Not a British soldier appeared ; not 


one attempted either to gain the fort, or repair to the 
commandant. Having discovered their enemy, the 
troops of the garrison kept close to their respective 
quarters, barricaded the doors, and determined there to 
defend themselves. 

The assailants, unprovided with the requisite imple 
ments for battering doors and scaling windows, were 
compelled to retire with but a partial accomplishment 
of their object. Col. Campbell was suffered to remain 
on parole. 

An accident, in the highest degree distressing to 
Gen. Marion, resulted from this attack upon George 
town. A nephew of his, Gabriel Marion, a lad who 
shared the fatigue and danger of his uncle, fell into the 
hands of the tories, who, in spite of the intercession of 
the British soldiers, called loudly for the boy s death. 
The soldiers represented to them the inhumanity of 
putting to death a mere boy, but the sanguinary tories, 
because he bore the name of Marion, were deaf to their 
intercessions, and hewed him to pieces. 

Unsuccessful in his attempt upon Georgetown, Marion 
took a position on Snow s island, where he pitched his 
camp. Snow s island is situated at the conflux of the 
Pedee and Lynch s creek, is of a triangular form, and 
is bounded by the Pedee on the east, by Lynch s creek 
on the north, and by Clark s creek, a branch of the 
latter, on the south and west. Here, by having the 
command of the rivers, he could be abundantly supplied 
with provisions, and his post was inaccessible except by 
water. It was in December (1780) that he went into 
winter quarter s on this island, a post particularly ele- 
gible for his purpose of carrying on the war with the 
tories. He actively went to work, sending forth his 
officers and scouts in all directions. He laid the coun- 


try under martial law, too, with commands to his sub 
alterns to destroy boats and canoes, take horses, arms, 
ammunition, and to prohibit all persons from transport 
ing any kind of provisions into Georgetown, or to any 
place where the British could get them. 

A popular anecdote, the incidents of which occurred 
while the camp was on Snow s island, may be here in 
serted. A flag of truce was sent from the British post 
at Georgetown, and brought by a young British officer, 
the object of which was some arrangements in regard 
to an exchange of prisoners. The young officer was 
met at some distance from the camp, and, after being 
blindfolded, conducted into the encampment. The 
bandage taken from his eyes, he found himself sur 
rounded by a motley throng of tattered fellows, bare 
legged, bareheaded, some asleep on the ground, some 
roasting potatoes, and others variously employed. 
What a contrast these to the gaily-dressed soldiers of 
the garrison at Georgetown ! Not a little was the 
young officer surprised, and his surprise was doubled, 
when, asking to be presented to General Marion, a 
little, swarthy-featured man stood before him. His 
manner expressed his astonishment. What this Ma 
rion ? This diminutive, unprepossessing, ill-clad 
could this be Marion, the celebrated, adventurous, 
skillful, victorious Marion ? 

" General Marion," says Lee in his Memoirs of the 
Southern War, vide vol. I. appendix, page 396, " was 
in stature of the smallest size, thin ns well as low 
His visage was not pleasing, and his manners not cap 
tivating. He was reserved and silent, entering into 
conversation only when necessary, and then with mo 
desty and good sense. He possessed a strong mind, 
improved by his own reflections and observations, not 


by books or travel. His dress was like his address 
plain, regarding comfort and decency only. In his 
meals he was abstemious, eating generally of one dish, 
and drinking vyater mostly. He was sedulous and 
constant in his attention to the duties of his station, to 
which every other consideration yielded. The pro 
curement of subsistence for his men, and the contri 
vance of annoyance to his enemy, engrossed his en 
tire mind." 

Nor is the surprise of the young officer to be won 
dered at, accustomed as he was to the large persons, 
and cavalier carriage of the commanders of the Bri 
tish army, whose dress glittered with ornaments of 
gold. The prowess that the name of Marion carried 
with it, had led him to expect in the man a person of 
lofty stature, and commanding appearance. 

The story goes, that the young officer, as soon as 
the business upon which he came was satisfactorily 
arranged between Marion and himself, took up his hat 
to retire. Marion requested him to be in no hurry. 
" Dinner is preparing, and you shall stay and dine 
with us, sir." 

At mention of dinner, the officer looked round to 
see where the preparations were. Marion observing 
his looks, smilingly ordered a black servant to serve 
up the meal. The servant at once commenced poking 
with a stick among the ashes and embers of a smoul 
dering fire upon the ground, and roused up several 
roasted sweet potatoes, cleaning off the ashes by blow 
ing them with his breath, and rubbing them upon his 
sleeves. These potatoes were presently served up to 
Marion and his guest on pieces of bark, and placed on 
the trunk of a fallen tree. 


Marion apologized for the humbleness of the fare, 
but said it was the best he had to offer, and trusted his 
guest would take it in as complimentary a view as if 
he were placing before him all the luxuries of a din 
ner and dessert. 

The mild and dignified simplicity of Marion s man 
ners had already produced their effects, and, to pro 
long so interesting an interview, the invitation was ac 
cepted. They sat down on the log, and began to eat 
and converse ; the young officer asking many ques 
tions, which Marion frankly answered. He asked 
Marion if this was not merely an accidental dinner. 
" You do not always fare thus /" 

" Generally worse," said Marion. 

" Worse ?" repeated the officer. 

" Indeed, sir," continued Marion, " we are fortu 
nate on this occasion, entertaining company, to have 
more than our usual allowance. Poor as our fare is, 
sir, poor as you see it, it is not always we have enough 
of even this to satisfy our hunger." 

u But you are paid well ? said the officer. 

" Not a penny," answered Marion. 

" Neither paid nor fed what in Heaven s name do 
you keep the field for then ?" 

" For liberty!" Marion emphatically replied. "It 
is for the blessings of freedom," he added, " that I 
fight bessings I may never live to see in the soil of 
my birth, but for which I nevertheless contend, trust 
ing as I do that the day is not far distant when your 
king shall be forced to yield the independence of my 
country and the proud thought now swells my heart, 
that though my bones may rest in the earth, posterity 
will cherish with gratitude the remembrance of one 


who has never a moment ceased in his struggle for the 
freedom of his native land !" 

It is said that the young officer retired from this in 
terview deeply impressed with a conviction of how 
utterly hopeless was the object of British arms re 
ducing a country to its former allegiance when offi 
cers and men, without pay, and literally but half-clad, 
would endure privations and toils of the roughest kind. 
Indeed, so deep was the impression made upon his 
feelings by this interview with Marion, that he shortly 
afterwards threw up his commission, and retired from 
the service. 


Gen. Greene. Gen. Morgan his birth; his early ca 
reer ; his valor at the assault on Quebec ; his capture ; 
is exchanged, and is at the battle of Saratoga ; receives 
ill treatment from Gen. Gates ; joins the Southern 
Army Greene s estimation of Marion description of 
him by Col. Lee. Marion destroys the waggons and 
baggage of the British at Keithjield. Morgan Col. 
Washington Rudgely, the tory, and his garrison cap 
tured. Distressed situation of the inhabitants of Ninety- 
Six. Tarleton in pursuit of Morgan. The battle of 
Cnwpens. Tarleton is pursued. Narrow escape of Col. 
Washington. Marion a terror to the Tories. Col. 
Watson despatched in pursuit of Marion some of Ma 
rion s men butchered by the tories. Watson s expedi 
tion to surprise Marion death of the tory, Harrison 
Marion fording Black River the bridge jired retreat 
of Watson skirmish at Wither spoon s ferry, etc., etc. 

General Greene, a soldier of great firmness and pru 
dence, directed his whole attention to the high duties of 
his command. He found the army not more than two 
thousand, and but scantily supplied with provisions and 
ammunition. But the unfavorable aspect did not dis- 
curage him. A wide sphere of intellectual resource 
enabled him to inspire confidence, to rekindle courage, 
to decide hesitation, and infuse a spirit of exalted patrio 
tism in the citizens of the State. By his own example, 
he showed the value of obedience, of patience, vigilance 
and temperance. Dispensing justice with an even 
hand to the citizen and soldier ; benign in heart, and 
happy in manners ; he gained the attachment and esteem 
of all. He collected around his person able and re- 



spectable officers ; and selected, for the several depart- 
ments, those who were best qualified to fill them. His 
operations were then commenced with a boldness of 
design, well calculated to raise the drooping spirits of 
his country, and to excite the respect of his enemy. 

Eldest among his officers, and at this period fore 
most in renown, was General Morgan. As much as 
is the case with any mortal, this veteran s reputation 
and fortune were the work of his sword. His mind, of 
perfect Roman texture, its firmness and valor, which 
originally nothing could shake, had been still further 
strengthened by much severe and dangerous service. 
Nor were his corporeal qualities less adapted to the toils 
of war and the exertions of battle. His frame being 
large, and his person muscular, early labor and exten 
sive practice in athletic, more especially pugilistic exer 
cises, had rendered him exceedingly strong and capable 
of enduring great fatigue; and had further taught him 
the art of using his strength when engaged in combat 
with the deadliest effect. 

He was born in New Jersey, where from his poverty 
and low condition he had been a day-laborer. To early 
education and breeding therefore, he owed nothing. 
But for this deficiency his native sagacity and sound 
judgment, and his intercourse with the best society, 
made much amends in after life. Enterprizing in his 
disposition even now, he removed to Virginia in 1755, 
with a hope and expectation of improving his fortune. 
Here he continued at first his original business of day 
labour; but exchanged it afterwards for the employ 
ment of a wagoner. 

His military novitiate he served in the campaign 
under the unfortunate Braddock. The rank he bore is 
not precisely known. It must however have been hum- 


ble; for, in consequence of imputed contumely towards 
a British officer, he was brought to the halbert, and re 
ceived the inhuman punishment of five hundred lashes ; 
or, according to his own statement, of four hundred and 
ninety-nine ; for he always asserted that the drummer 
charged with the execution of the sentence miscounted, 
and jocularly added " that George the third, was still 
indebted to him one lash." To the honor of Morgan, 
he never practically remembered this savage treatment 
during the revolutionary war. Towards the British 
officers whom the fortune of battle placed within his 
power, his conduct was humane, mild and gentlemanly. 

After his return from this campaign, so inordinately 
was he addicted to quarrels and boxing matches, that 
the village of Berrystown, in the county of Frederick, 
which constituted the chief theatre of his pugilistic ex 
ploits, received from this circumstance the name of 
Battletown. In these combats, although frequently 
overmatched in personal strength, he manifested the 
same unyielding spirit which characterised him after 
wards in his military career. When worsted by his 
antagonist he would pause for a time to recruit his 
strength, and then return to the contest again and again 
until he rarely failed to proye victorious. Equally 
marked was his invincibility of spirit in maturer age, 
when raised by fortune and his own merit to a higher 
and more honorable field of action. Defeat in battle 
he rarely experienced ; but when he did, his retreat was 
sullen, stern and dangerous. 

The commencement of the American revolution 
found Mr. Morgan married, and cultivating a farm, 
which by industry and economy he had been enabled 
to purchase in the county of Frederick. Placed at 
the head of a rifle company raised in his neighbor 


hood in 1775, he marched immediately to the Ameri 
can head-quarters in Cambridge, near Boston. By 
order of the Commander-in-chief, he soon afterwards 
joined in the expedition against Quebec, and was 
made prisoner in the attempt on that fortress, where 
Arnold was wounded and Montgomery fell. During 
the assault, his daring valor and persevering gallantry 
attracted the notice and admiration of the enemy. The 
assailing column to which he belonged was led by 
Major Arnold. When that officer was wounded and 
carried from the ground, Morgan threw himself into*t he 
lead, and rushing forward, passed the first and second 
barriers. For a moment victory appeared certain. But 
the (all of Montgomery closing the prospect, the assail 
ants were repulsed and the enterprise abandoned.* 

During his captivity, Captain Morgan was treated 
with great kindness and not a little distinction. Me 
was repeatedly visited in confinement by a British offi 
cer of rank, who at length made an attempt on his 
patriotism and virtue by offering him the commission 
and emoluments of Colonel in the British army on con 
dition that he would desert the American and join the 
royal standard. Morgan rejected the proposal with 
scorn ; and requested the courtly and corrupt negocia- 
tor " never again to insult him in his misfortunes by an 
offer which plainly implied that he thought him a vil 
lain." The officer withdrew and did not again recur 
to the subject. 

On bejng exchanged, Morgan immediately rejoined 
the American army, and received, by the recommenda 
tion of General Washington, the command of a regi 
ment. In the year 1777, he was placed at the head of 

* Caldwell s Life of Greene. 


a select rifle corps, with which in various instances he 
acted on the enemy with terrible effect. His troops 
were considered the most dangerous in the American 
service. To confront them in the field was almost cer 
tain death to the British officers. 

On the occasion of the capture of Burgoyne, the ex 
ertions and services of Colonel Morgan and his rifle 
men were beyond all praise. Much of the glory of the 
achievement belonged to them. Yet so gross was the 
injustice of General Gates, that he did not even men 
tion them in his official despatches. His reason for 
this was secret and dishonorable. Shortly after the 
surrender of Burgoyne, General Gates took occasion to 
hold with Morgan a private conversation. In the course 
of this he told him confidentially, that the main army 
was exceedingly dissatisfied with the conduct of Gene 
ral Washington ; that the reputation of the Commander- 
in-chief was rapidly declining; and that several officers 
of great worth threatened to resign unless a change 
were produced in that department. 

Colonel Morgan, fathoming in an instant the views 
of his commanding officer, sternly and with honest in 
dignation replied, " Sir, I have one favor to ask. Ne 
ver again mention to me this hateful subject ; under no 
other man, but general Washington as commander-in- 
chief, will I ever serve." 

From that moment ceased the intimacy that had 
previously subsisted between him and General Gates. 
A few days afterwards the general gave a dinner to 
the principal officers of the British, and some of those 
of the American army. Morgan was not invited. In 
the course of the evening that officer found it necessary 
to call on general Gates, on official business. Being 
introduced into the dining-room, lie spoke to the gene- 


rai, received his orders, and immediately withdrew, his 
name unannounced. 

Perceiving from his dress that he was of high rank, 
the British officers inquired his name. Being told that 
it was Colonel Morgan commanding the rifle corps, they 
rose from the table, followed him into the yard, and in 
troduced themselves to him, with many complimentary 
and flattering expressions, declaring that on the day of 
action they had very severely felt him in the field. 

In 1780, having obtained leave of absence from the 
army, on account of the shattered condition of his 
health, he retired to his estate in the county of Freder 
ick, and remained there until the appointment of gene 
ral Gates to the command of the Southern army. Be 
ing waited on by the latter, and requested to accompany 
him, he reminded him, in expressions marked by resent 
ment, of the unworthy treatment he had formerly ex 
perienced from him in return for the important services 
which he did not hesitate to assert he had rendered him, 
in his operations against the army of Gen. Burgoyne. 

Having received no acknowledgment, nor even 
civility for aiding to decorate him with laurels in the 
north, he frankly declared that there were no consider 
ations, except of a public nature, that could induce him 
to co-operate in his campaigns to the south. " Motives 
of public good might influence him ; because his 
country had a claim on him in any quarter where he 
could promote her interest ; but personal attachment 
must not be expected to exist where he had exper enced 
nothing but neglect and injustice." 

The two officers parted mutually dissatisfied ; the 
one on account of past treatment, the other of the re 
cent interview. 

In the course of a few weeks afterwards, Congress 


having promoted colonel Morgan to the rank of bri 
gadier-general by brevet, with a view to avail themselves 
of his services in the south, he proceeded without delay 
to join the army of General Gates. But he was pre 
vented from serving any length of time under that 
officer, by his defeat near Camden before his arrival ; 
and his being soon afterwards superseded in command 
by General Greene. 

Such were the qualifications, and such had been the 
services of general Morgan, when Greene took com 
mand of the Southern army. His conduct in the battle 
of the Cowpens will be stated hereafter. There existed 
in his character a singular contradiction which is 
worthy of notice. Although in battle, no man was 
ever more prodigal of the exposure of his person to 
danger, or manifested a more deliberate disregard of 
death, yet so strong was his love of life at other times, 
than he has been frequently heard to declare, " he 
would agree to pass half his time as a galley-slave 
rather than quit this world for another." 

The following outline of his person and character is 
from the pen of a military friend who knew him 
intimately. " Brigadier General Morgan was stout and 
active, six feet in height, strong, not too much encum 
bered with flesh, and was exactly fitted for the toils and 
pomp of war. His mind was discriminating and solid, 
but not comprehensive and combining ; his manners 
plain and decorous, neither insinuating nor repulsive ; 
his conversation grave, sententious, and considerate, 
unadorned and uncaptivating. He reflected deeply, 
spoke little, and executed with keen perseverance what 
ever he undertook. He was indulgent in his military 
command, preferring always the affections of his troops, 


to that dread and awe, which surround the rigid dis 

A considerable time before his death, when the pres 
sure of infirmity began to be heavy, he became seriously 
concerned about his future welfare. From that period, 
his chief solace lay in the study of the scriptures, and 
in devotional exercises. He died in the belief of the 
truths of Christianity, and in full communion with the 
Presbyterian church.* 

Gen. Greene fully appreciated the value of an officer 
like a Marion, in a country full of deep rivers and im 
passable creeks and swamps, where Whigs and Tories 
were hourly butchering each other. " Spies are the 
eyes of an army," Greene wrote to Marion, " and 
without them a general is always groping in the dark, 
and can neither secure himself, nor annoy his enemy. 
At present I am badly off for intelligence. It is of the 
highest importance that I get the earliest intelligence of 
any reinforcement which may arrive at Charleston. I 
wish you, therefore, to fix some plan for procuring such 
information and conveying it to me with all possible 
despatch. The spy should be taught to be particular in 
his inquiries, and get the names of the corps, strength, 
and commanding officer s name place from whence 
they came and where they are going. It will be best 
to fix upon some body in town for doing this, and have 
a runner between you and him to give you the intelli 
gence ; as a person who lives out of town cannot make 
the inquiries without being suspected. The utmost 
secrecy will be necessary in the business." 

Of Marion and his movements at this time, we have 
the following description from the pen of Col. Lee. 

* CaldwelPs Life of Greene. 


" Marion was about forty-eight years of age, small in 
stature, hard in visage, healthy, abstemious and taciturn. 
Enthusiastically wedded to the cause of liberty, he de 
plored the doleful condition of his beloved country. 
The commonweal was his sole object ; nothing selfish, 
nothing mercenary, soiled the ermine of his character. 
Fertile in stratagem, he struck unperceived ; and retir 
ing to those hidden retreats, selected by himself, in the 
morasses of Pedee and Black river, he placed his corps 
not only out of the reach of his foe, but often out of 
the discovery of his friends. A rigid disciplinarian, he 
reduced to practice the justice of his heart ; and during 
the difficult course of warfare, through which he passed, 
calumny itself never charged him with violating the 
rights of person, property or humanity. Never avoid 
ing danger, he never rashly sought it ; and acting for 
all around him as he did for himself, he risked the lives 
of his troops only when it was necessary. Never 
elated with prosperity, nor depressed by adversity, he 
preserved an equanimity which won the admiration of 
his friends, and exacted the respect of his enemies. 
The country from Camden to the sea-coast, between 
the Pedee and Santee rivers, was the theatre of his 

When Lee joined Marion, previous to the assault on 
Georgetown, (detailed in the preceeding chapter) an 
officer, with a small party, was sent in advance to find 
out Marion, who was known to be constantly changing 
his position among the swamps of Pedee, sometimes in 
South Carolina, sometimes in North Carolina, and 
sometimes on the Black river. With the greatest diffi 
culty did this officer learn how to communicate with 
him ; and did it by the accident of hearing among our 
friends on the north side of the Pedee, of a small pro- 


vision party of Marion being on the same side of the 
river. Making himself known to this party, he was 
conveyed to the general, who had changed his ground 
since his party left him, which occasioned many hours 
search even before his own men could find him.* 

While at Snow s island, Marion kept himself busy 
in annoying the enemy. In January 1781, he sent 
two small detachments of militia, under the command 
of Major Postell and Cap. Postell, to cross the Santee. 
The former destroyed a great quantity of valuable 
stores at Manigault s ferry ; the latter did the same at 
another place in the vicinity. Marion himself marched 
to Keithneld, near Monk s corner, where he destroyed 
fourteen wagon-loads of soldier s clothing and baggage ; 
besides several other valuable stores, and took forty 
prisoners, chiefly British regulars, and effected the 
whole without any loss. In the course of these desul 
tory operations, he killed and captured a number of 
British and Tories, more than double his own force.f 

Gen. Greene, conscious that it would be madness to 
encounter the superiority of the British forces in a 
pitched battle, encouraged this predatory warfare, and 
many skillful and gallant successes were obtained over 
the enemy in these skirmishes. On one occasion, Bri 
gadier Morgan penetrated the country between the two 
armies, after a foraging party of British. But the 
vigilant adversary eluded the blow, and returned in 
safety to Camdea. Lieut. Col. Washington,:): at the 
head of the cavalry, having taken a more extensive 

* Lee s Memoirs. t Ramsay. See Appendix D. 

t Lieut. Col. William Washington, eldest son of Baily Wash 
ington, of Stafford county, Va. 


range than the infantry, discovered that a party of loy 
alists were stationed at Rudgley s farm, about twelve miles 
from Camden. He moved instantly towards them, in 
expectation of carrying the post by surprise ; but in this 
he was disappointed, as they occupied a barn, surround 
ed by an abattis, and secure from an attempt of calva 
ry. Rudgley and his friends were delighted with the 
safety their precaution had produced, and viewed the 
approach of horse with indifference. Short was their 
repose. Col. Washington, well informed of the char 
acter of his enemy, shaped the trunk of a tree in imita 
tion of a field piece, and, bringing it up in military 
style, affected to prepare to cannonade the barn. To 
give solemnity to the device, he sent in a flag, warning 
the garrison of the impending destruction, which could 
only be avoided by submission. Not prepared to resist 
artillery, Rudgley seized with promptitude the oppor 
tunity, and, with his garrison of one hundred men, 
surrendered at discretion ! 

Gen. Greene, understanding that the inhabitants of 
the district of Ninety six, who had submitted to the royal 
authority, were severely harrassed by the acts of plun 
der committed by the King s troops and the Tories, des 
patched Gen. Morgan into that quarter with a small de 
tachment, which, on its arrival, was speedily increased 
by the oppressed inhabitants, who were highly indig 
nant and burning for revenge.* 

The British commander-in-chief, hearing of this 
movement, despatched Col. Tarleton with a command 
of 1100 men to drive Morgan out of the district. This 
detachment, after a fatiguing progress of some days, 
at about ten o clock, on the evening of the 16th January, 

* See Appendix E. 


(1781) reached the ground which Morgan had quitted 
but a few hours previous. The pursuit commenced at 
2 o clock next morning, and was rapidly continued 
through marshes and broken grounds till day-light. 

Morgan, having been accustomed to fight and con 
quer, did not relish this eager pursuit of Tarleton ; and 
sate down at a place called the Cowpens, near Pacolet 
river, to give rest and refreshment to his troops, with 
a resolution no longer to avoid action, should his enemy 
persist in pressing it. The British, beside their field 
pieces, had the superiority in infantry, in the proportion 
of five to four, and in cavalry of more than three to 
one. Beside, nearly two-thirds of the troops under Mor 
gan were militia. Morgan drew up his men in two 
lines. The whole of the North and South Carolina 
militia present, were put under the command of Col. 
Pickens, and formed the first line, which was advanced 
a few hundred yards before the second, with orders to 
form on the right of the second when forced to retiree. 
The second line consisted of the light infantry under 
Lieut. Col. Howard, and the Virginia riflemen. 
Lieut. Col. Washington, with his cavalry, and about 
forty-five militia, mounted and equipped with swords, 
under Lieut. M Call, were drawn up at some distance 
in the rear of the whole. The open wood in which 
they were formed, was neither secured in front, flank 
or rear.* 

On the verge of battle, Morgan availed himself of 
the short and awful interim to exhort his troops. First 
addressing himself, with his characteristic pith, to the 
line of militia, he extolled the zeal and bravery so often 
displayed by them, when unsupported with the bayonet 

* Gordon s History. 


or sword ; and declared his confidence that they would 
not fail in maintaining their reputation, when supported 
by chosen bodies of horse and foot, and conducted by 
himself. Nor did he forget to glance at his own unva 
rying fortune, and superior experience ; or to mention 
how often, with his corps of riflemen, he had brought 
British troops, equal to those before him, to submission. 
He described the deep regret he had already experienced 
in being obliged, from prudential considerations, to re 
tire before the enemy ; exhorted the line to be firm and 
steady, to fire with good aim, arid if they would pour 
in but two volleys at killing distance, he would take 
upon himself to secure victory. Then, taking post with 
his line, he waited in stern silence for the enemy.* 

The British, led by Tarleton himself, advanced with 
a loud shout to the attack, and poured in an incessant 
fire of musketry. Col. Pickens directed the militia not 
to fire until the British were within forty or fifty yards. 
This order, though executed with great firmness, was 
not sufficient to repel the enemy. The British ad 
vanced rapidly and engaged the second line. The 
Continentals, after an obstinate resistance, were com 
pelled to retreat to the cavalry. Col. Ogilvie, of the 
enemy, had been ordered to charge the right flank of 
the Americans, and was engaged in cutting down the 
militia ; but being exposed to a heavy fire, and charged 
at the same time by Col. Washington s dragoons, he was 
forced to retreat in confusion. A great number of the 
British infantry officers had already fallen, and nearly 
a proportionable one of privates. Col. Howard seized 
this favorable opportunity, rallied the Continentals, and 
charged with fixed bayonets, nearly at the same mo- 

* Lee s Memoirs. 


ment when Col. Washington made his successful at 
tack. The example was instantly followed by the 
militia. Nothing could exceed the astonishment of the 
British, occasioned by these unexpected charges. 
Their advance fell back, and communicated a panic to 
others, which soon became general. Two hundred 
and fifty horse, which had not been engaged, fled 
through the woods with the utmost precipitation, bearing 
down such officers as opposed their flight ; and the 
canon were soon seized by the Americans, the detach 
ment from the train being either killed or wounded in 
their defence. The greatest confusion now followed 
among the infantry. In the moment of it, Lieut. Col. 
Howard called to them to lay down their arms, and 
promised them good quarters. Some hundreds accepted 
the offer and surrendered. The first battalion of the 
71st. regiment, and two British light-infantry com 
panies, laid down their arms to the American militia. 
The only body of infantry that escaped was a detach 
ment left at some distance to guard the baggage. 
Early intelligence of the defeat was conveyed, by some 
Tories, to the officer commanding that corps. What 
part of the baggage could not be carried off, he imme 
diately destroyed ; and with his men mounted on the 
wagons and spare horses, he retreated to Lord Corn- 
wallis. The British had 10 commissioned officers and 
upwards of a 100 rank and file killed ; 200 wounded; 
29 commissioned officers, and above 500 privates fell 
into the hands of the Americans, besides two pieces of 
artillery (first taken from the British at Saratoga, then 
retaken by them at Camden, and now recovered by the 
Americans) two standards, 800 muskets, 35 baggage 
wagons, and upwards of 100 dragoon horses. 

Col. Washington pursued Tarleton s cavalry for sev- 


era! miles, but the far greater part of them escaped. 
In the eagerness of pursuit, Col. Washington advanced 
nearly thirty yards in front of his regiment. Observing 
this, three British officers wheeled about, and made a 
charge upon him. The officer on his right was aim 
ing to cut him down, when a sergeant came up and 
intercepted the blow by disabling his sword arm. At 
the same instant, the officer on his left was also about 
to make a stroke at him, when a waiter, too small to 
wield a sword, saved him by wounding the officer with 
a ball discharged from a pistol. At this moment the 
officer in the centre, who was believed to be Tarleton, 
made a thrust at him, which he parried ; upon which 
the officer retreated a few paces, and then discharged 
a pistol at him, which wounded his knee.* 

In this battle the Americans had only 12 men killed 
and 60 wounded. 

In the meantime General Marion actively followed 
up his operations against the British and Tories on the 
Pedee river, and he so effectually thwarted the schemes 
of the enemy, that to drive him out of the country be 
came again a favorite object of Lord Cornwallis. He 
and his brigade were the terror of the Tories. A. new 
and well-concerted attempt to destroy, or disperse, the 
brigade was made early in 1781. Tarleton and others, 
as we have seen, were engaged in pursuit of Marion 
without success ; and now a Col. Watson was sent 
with a body of picked men, amounting to five hundred, 
with orders to search him out and destroy him and his 
brigade. This march was to be conducted with great 
caution, and was remarkably well planned. 

Meanwhile Marion, Col. Horry, Major and Captain 

* Marshall s Life of Washington. 


Postell, M Cawley, and others, continued their opera 
tions against the British posts and the Tories. The 
warfare was various and bloody. Marion always felt 
the want of ammunition. Often did he go into an en 
gagement when he had not three rounds to each man 
of his party. At other times he brought his men into 
view, though without a particle of ammunition, that he 
might make a show of numbers to the enemy. To 
provide swords for his brigade, the saws of the mills 
throughout the country were put into the hands of 
blacksmiths and converted into sabres. He and his 
men slept in the open air, and sheltered themselves in 
the thick recesses of deep swamps ; from whence he 
sallied out whenever an opportunity of harassing the 
enemy presented itself. 

Lieut. Roger Gordon, of Marion s party, being on a 
scout upon Lynch s creek, stopped at a house for re 
freshments. While there, the house was beset and 
fired by a Capt. Butler and a party of Tories, greatly 
superior in numbers. Gordon s party surrendered 
upon a promise of quarters, but after laying down their 
arms, Butler fell upon them and butchered ihemincold 
blood. In consequence of this massacre " No quarters 
for Tories" was hereafrer the cry of Marion s men 
when going into action. Still, however, the regular 
British forces were treated with lenity, and agreeably 
to the generally received rule^of war, when they laid 
down their arms. 

Whilst the brigade were encamped at Snow s island, 
Major John Postell was stationed to guard the lower 
part of the river Pedee. While there, Capt. James 
Depeyster of the royal army, with 29 grenadiers, 
having taken post in the house of the major s father, 
the major posted his small command of 28 militia men 


in such positions as commanded its doors, and demand 
ed their surrender. This being refused, he set fire to 
an out-house, and was proceeding to burn that in which 
they were posted ; and nothing but the immediate 
submission of the whole party restrained him from 
sacrificing his father s valuable property to gain an 
advantage for his country. 

As has been stated, careful preparations were in em 
bryo for the surprise and capture of Marion and his 
brigade. Col. Watson, to whom this expedition was 
entrusted, left Fort Watson early in the spring, with 
five hundred men ; and at the same time Col. Doyle, 
at the head of a British regiment, left Camden, to join 
Watson at Snow s island, as it is supposed. Watson 
moved down the Santee. Of his movements Marion 
had ample information, but the slow approach of Doyle 
was in a measure unsuspected. 

Marion called in his scouting parties, and marched 
with his whole force to encounter Watson. He laid 
the first ambuscade for Watson, at a swamp nearly 
opposite the mouth of the present Santee canal, on the 
east side of the river. Marion had but very little am 
munition ; not more than two rounds to each man. His 
orders were to give two fires and retreat ; and they 
were executed by Col. Peter Horry with great effect. 
Watson made good the passage of the swamp, and sent 
Major Harrison, with a*corps,of Tory cavalry and 
British, in pursuit of Horry. This had been forseen 
by the cautious Marion ; and Cap. Daniel Conyers, at 
the head of a party of cavalry, was placed in a second 
ambuscade. As soon as the Tories and British came 
up, Conyers, in a spirited and well-directed charge 
killed with his own hands the officer who led the oppo 
site charge, (Harrison,) and his men followed his gal- 


lant example. Many of Harrison s party were killed, 
and the remainder made their escape to the main body 
of the British. 

Marion continued to harrass Watson on his march, 
keeping just sufficiently ahead of him to place an am 
buscade wherever an opportunity presented itself; by 
pulling up bridges, and opposing him in like manner 
at every difficult pass, until they reached the lower 
bridge oh Black river, seven miles below King s Tree. 
Here Watson made a feint of marching down the 
road to Georgetown. Marion, being too weak to de 
tach a party t the bridge, had taken an advantageous 
post on the road ; when Watson, wheeling suddenly 
about, gained possession of the bridge on the west side. 
This was an important pass on the road leading into 
the heart of Williamsburg and to Snow s island. The 
river on the west runs under a high bluff; the grounds 
on the opposite side are low, and the river, though 
generally fordable, was then raised by a freshet nearly 
up to the summit of the opposite shore. 

Watson still hesitated about passing. Marion, with 
out delay, approached the river, plunged into it on 
horseback, and called his men to follow. With alac 
rity they one and all followed their gallant leader, 
reached the opposite shore in safety, and marched for 
ward to occupy the east end of the bridge. Marion 
detached Major James with forty musqueteers, and 
thirty riflemen under M Cottry, to burn the bridge. 
The riflemen were posted to advantage on the river 
bank; but as soon as their friends had gained posses 
sion of the east end of the bridge, and had applied 
fascines to it, Watson opened the fire of his artillery 
upon them ; but it was unavailing. The west bank of 
the river was so much elevated above the east, that be- 


fore his field pieces could be brought to bear upon the 
Americans, his artillerists were exposed to the fire of 
the riflemen, who deliberately picked them off as they 
advanced to the summit of the hill. In the meantime 
Major James s party fired the bridge. 

Watson was now completely cut off in his attempt 
to pass the river, and he was so much intimidated that 
he retreated down the banks of the stream, Marion s 
men picking off his men from the opposite shore. 
Night put an end to the conflict, and both parties en 
camped in the woods. On the following day, Marion 
as successfully baffled every attempt ofthe enemy to 
cross the river, and Watson found himself losing so 
many of his men, and the sharp-shooters of the Amer 
icans annoyed him so effectually, that he turned and 
retreated higher up the river; pitching his camp in the 
most open field he could find, dreading the woods, be 
hind every tree of which he feared a rifle. Thus he 
remained several days, completely surrounded by an 
active foe, who cut off his supplies, and his men were 
almost hourly perishing in the continued skirmishing 
that the Americans kept up. He finally proceeded by 
forced marches towards Georgetown. Marion re- 
crossed the river, and hung alternately on the rear, the 
flanks, or the front of the enemy, until they reached 
Sawpit bridge, nine miles from Georgetown, where a 
skirmish took place, in which Watson very nearly lost 
his life. Watson, fatigued in body, and mortified in 
spirits, finally reached Georgetown. 

Col. Doyle, meanwhile, had reached Snow s island, 
and driven Col. Erwin, who had been left there with a 
few men to guard it, from the place, and Marion s 
stores had fallen into his hands. This was disastrous 
intelligence to Marion, but, much as he grieved over 


the loss of arms and ammunition, he was too well 
schooled in adversity to regard it in any other light 
than an accident of war, and he promptly marched his 
men in pursuit of Doyle. Doyle made his way to 
Lynch s creek at Witherspoon s ferry, where he posted 
himself. When Marion arrived at the creek, they dis 
covered the British on the opposite side busy in scut 
tling the ferry boat. M Cottry advanced in front, 
cautiously approaching the water s edge, and gave 
them an unexpected fire. A short conflict took place, 
the balls of the enemy hitting the branches and tops 
of the trees behind which the riflemen of M Cottry 
were sheltered, whilst the well directed aim of the latter 
seldom failed of doing execution. Doyle retreated, 
pursued several miles by Marion, and finally hurried 
as fast as possible back to Camden. 

This attempt to capture Marion and disperse his 
brigade, proved as successful as the former similar 
undertakings of Wemyss and Tarleton. 

In addition to these skirmishes, Marion made two 
descents upon Georgetown. In the first, he came un 
expectedly on a body of Tories whom he charged and 
dispersed, killing their captain and several privates. In 
the second, he marched to Georgetown, and began re 
gular approaches against the British post at that place. 
The British evacuated their works, and retreated to 


Cornwallis pursues the American army. Greene joins 
Morgan. Crossing of the Catawba crossing the Yad- 
kin crossing the Dan. Marion s enter prize against 
the British and Tories. Gen. Greene returns into 
North Carolina. A gathering of the Tories ; Colonel 
Lee s manoeuvre by which between 200 and 300 of them 
are cut to pieces. Tarleton s retreat. Greene asking 
bread of his soldiers. The battle of Guilford Court- 
House. Marion besieges Fort Watson Lee joins him 
novel expedient by which the fort is captured. The 
battle of Camden, <SfC. 

THE defeat of Col. Tarleton at Cowpens was highly 
unexpected to Lord Cornwallis, and he instantly re 
solved on a pursuit of the American army, with an 
expectation of demolishing Morgan s corps, and re 
gaining the British prisoners he had taken. Having 
presented to the reader the partizan movements of 
Marion, we now proceed to sketch the history of the 
army up to the point of time concluding the exploits 
of the partizans in the previous chapter. 

Morgan, aware of the consequences of delay, sent 
on the militia with the prisoners taken at Cowpens, and, 
to cover their retreat, manceuvred in their rear with his 
cavalry and infantry. Greene concluded that if he 
were present with Morgan, he could so order the move 
ments of both divisions for forming a junction, ns 
would excel any directions which could otherwise be 
given. He therefore left the camp, and set forward, 
attended by one aid-de-camp, and two or three militia 
men armed and mounted. The first intelligence he 



gained on the route was that Cornwallis was marching 
after Morgan with great expedition. Greene continued 
his route, and, on the 31st of January, after a journey 
of 150 miles, joined the light troops encamped at 
Sherrard s Ford, on the north side of the Catawba. 
About two hours after Morgan crossed the Catawba, 
the British advance arrived. It rained hard that night, 
and the river rose so high as to prevent Cornwallis 
from getting over. Had the rise taken place a few 
hours earlier, Morgan, with his whole detachment and 
five hundred prisoners, would scarcely have had a 
chance of escaping. Cornwallis could not cross for 
two days, which gave an opportunity of sending the 
prisoners forward with safety. 

The arrival of Gen. Greene was no less providen 
tial than the rise of the river. Gen. Morgan was for 
retreating over the mountains, a different route from 
what Greene proposed. So attached to his own opin 
ion was Morgan, he declared he would not be answer 
able for consequences if it was not followed. " Neither 
will you," replied Greene, " for I shall take the mea 
sure upon myself," and he gave directions accordingly. 
The event has shown that the other route must have 
proved fatal, and that the junction of the light troops 
with the main army could not have been effected 
by it. 

When the waters subsided, Cornwallis crossed the 
Catawba, and hurried on after the Americans, hoping 
to overtake them before they should get over the Yad- 
kin ; but when he arrived at that river, to his great 
mortification, he found that the Americans had crossed 
it, partly in flats, and partly by fording, and had se 
cured the boats on the other side. Here, as at the 


Catawba, a rapid rise of the river took place, and re 
tarded the British. 

Unable to cross at the spot where the Americans did, 
Cornwallis was obliged to march his troops twenty-five 
miles higher up the stream, where he found it fordable. 
And whilst he was employed in this circuitous move 
ment, time was given for Greene to unite his main army 
with the forces of Morgan, on the 7th of February, near 
Guilford Court House, where they rested and refreshed 
themselves. Greene s forces still being so weak in com 
parison to the enemy, he did not choose to risk an en 
gagement, but hastened on towards the river Dan ; 
whilst Cornwallis, traversing the upper country where 
the streams are fordable, proceeded in the hope that he 
might gain upon the Americans so as to overtake them, 
in consequence of their being obstructed by the deep 
water below. But the advantages resulting from the 
season of the year, and from the face of a country in 
tersected with rivers and creeks, were so improved by 
the sagacity and activity of Greene, as completely to 
baffle Cornwallis ; and his army crossed the Dan into 
Virginia, artillery, baggage and all. So narrow was 
the escape, however, that the van of Cornwallis s army 
arrived in time to witness the ferrying over the rear. 

It was with inexpressible vexation that Cornwallis dis 
covered all his exertions had been in vain, that all his 
hopes were frustrated. He consoled himself, however, with 
the reflection that the American army being driven out 
of North Carolina, he was master of the State, and in 
a condition to recruit his forces by the accession of 
Tories to his ranks. He erected the royal standard at 
Hillsborough, and summoned all true subjects of His 
Majesty, George III, to repair to it. 

During these transactions, Gen. Marion defended 


himself with his faithful brigade, in the swamps and 
morasses of the settlements near Charleston, and was 
frequently sallying out from his hiding-places, and en- 
terprizing something in behalf of his country. He in 
tercepted the British convoys, infested their out-posts, 
destroyed their stores, beat up their quarters, and so 
harrassed them with alarms that they were always 
obliged to be on their guard. 

Cornwallis had long been led to suppose that there 
would be a general risingof loyalists in his favor through 
out the State of North Carolina. Greene being informed 
that numbers had actually joined the royal standard at 
Hillsborough, and that many others were repairing to 
make their submission, was apprehensive that, unless 
some spirited measure was immediately taken, the 
whole country would be lost to the American cause. 
He concluded, therefore, upon returning into North 
Carolina. He re-crossed the Dan on the 21st of Febru 
ary, and, the more effectually to alarm Cornwallis and 
discourage the Tories, rode with his aid-de-camp twenty- 
one miles towards the enemy, and within about fifteen 
of his lordship. The report of his being within that 
distance soon reached Cornwallis, who inferred that the 
American army was equally near; and he despatched 
Col. Tarleton with the British legion from Hillsborough 
across the Haw river to Major O Niell s plantation, to 
protect a considerable number of loyalists appointed to 
meet there on the 24th inst. Gen. Pickens and Col. 
Lee, who had intelligence of Tarleton s movements, 
concerted measures to bring him to action. Lee s cav 
alry were to attack those of Tarleton s command, 
while Pickens militia should disperse the collected 
Tories. These Tories got together in a great body, on 
the night of February 25th, in a long lane leading 


towards O Neill s house. Lee led his cavalry into the 
lane, mistaking the Tories for a part of Pickens militia, 
which he supposed had arrived there before him. After 
he discovered the distinguishing red rag in their hats, 
he with great presence of mind passed on, intending to 
leave them to the treatment of their countrymen under 
Pickens. When these came up, and a firing had com 
menced between them and the royalists, Lee, with his 
cavalry, returned and fell upon the latter, who not see 
ing Tarleton s dragoons, mistook Lee s cavalry for 
them. While laboring under this mistake, Lee and his 
cavalry cut them down as they were making ardenl 
protestations of loyalty, and asserting "that they were 
the very best friends to the king." A horrid slaughter 
was made of them, between 200 and 300 being cut to 

Tarleton was refreshing his legion about a mile from 
the scene. Upon hearing the alarm, he ordered his 
men to mount, precipitately re-crossed the Haw, and 
returned to Hitlsborough. On his retreat he also cut 
down several of the royalists as they were advancing 
to join the British army, mistaking them for rebel mili 
tia of the country. This event, together with Greene s 
having re-crossed the Dan, confused all the measures 
of Cornwallis. The tide of public sentiment was no 
longer in his favor. The recruiting service declined 
and was stopped, which, had it proceeded a fortnight 
longer, would have so strengthened his lordship that it 
is more than probable he would have been able to keep 
possession of the country. The advocates for royal 
government were discouraged, and could not be induced 
to act with confidence. Considerable numbers who 
were on their way to join his lordship, returned home 
to await further events. 


While Gen. Greene was in fact unequal to even de 
fensive measures, and waited to have his army 
strengthened, he lay for seven days within ten miles 
of Cornwallis camp ; but he took a new position every 
night, and kept it as profound a secret with himself 
where the next was to be ; so that Cornwallis could not 
gain intelligence of his situation in time to avail him 
self of it. During these manoeuvres, Greene was often 
obliged to ask bread of the common soldiers, having 
none of his own. Miserable too was the situation of 
his men for clothing, " many hundreds of the soldiers 
marking the ground with their bloody feet. But not 
withstanding their sufferings and excessive fatigue, they 
remained in good spirits."* 

On the 15th of March an engagement took place 
near Guilford Court-house. All the advantages of vic 
tory were on the side of the Americans, for although 
Cornwallis kept, the field, he had suffered such loss in 
the action, that he was unable to act on the offensive 
directly after, and was soon compelled to march to 
wards Wilmington, (N.C.) leaving his sick and wounded 
behind him. On his retreat he was pursued by Gen. 
Greene as far as Deep river. f 

The prompt resolution of Gen. Greene now was to 
carry the war without delay into South Carolina ; there 
by to oblige the enemy to follow him, or to endanger 

* Letter from Greene to Gen. Washington. One day, Gen. 
Greene, passing a sentinel who was barefooted, said " I fear, my 
good fellow, you suffer much from the cold." " Very much," 
was the reply, "but I don t complain; I know we should fare 
better if our general had the means of getting us supplied. They 
say, however, we shall have a fight in a few days, and then I shall 
take care to secure a pair of shoes for myself." 

i See Appendix F. 


their posts in that state. He discharged all his militia, 
refreshed his regular troops, collected a few days pro 
visions, marched on the 5th of April towards Camden, 
and in the morning of the 20th encamped at Log-town, 
within sight of the enemy s works. On this march, 
Col. Lee, with his partizan legion, was detached to join 
Gen. Marion, on a secret expedition. To secure the 
provisions that grow on the banks of the Santee and 
Congaree rivers, the British had erected a chain of 
posts in their vicinity. One of the most important was 
on Wright s Bluff, and called Fort Watson, situated be 
tween Camden and Charleston. To take this fort was 
a desirable object of the commander of the American 
army, and the undertaking was consigned to Marion, 
and Lee was to assist. 

Lee having arrived within a day s distance of the 
Pedee, sent forward an officer, with a small party of 
dragoons, to discover in what part of his extensive 
range the Swamp Fox then was. The officer, on 
reaching the river, learned that Marion, when heard 
from a few days before, was in the swamps of Black 
river. This was his general quarters when he found 
it necessary to retire from active service. It not only 
afforded safety, but, there being several fertile plan 
tations in one settlement, he was well supplied with 
provisions and forage. Marion received with joy Lee s 
officer, and furnished boats, which he kept concealed 
on the Pedee, for the transportation of the corps across 
the river. That the meeting of these military friends 
was cordial, we have from various authority. They had 
not met since their joint attempt upon Georgetown, and 
were rejoiced at being again united in the great object 
of wresting South Carolina from the British. The 
letter from Gen. Greene, inclosing his plan of opera- 


tions, was delivered by Lee to Marion. The evening 
was devoted to repose, and on the next day the two 
corps quitted the dark and marshy recesses of the 
swamp, for the execution of the trust confided to them. 

Determined to carry Fort Watson without delay, on 
the 15th of April, Marion, with Lee, sat down before it. 
Marion commanded the place to surrender, but was 
answered by a haughty defiance from Cap. M Koy, the 
commandant. The fort was an Indian mound, gene 
rally supposed to have been the burial-place, at some 
remote period, of the aborigines inhabiting that region ; 
it was at least thirty feet high, and surrounded by 
table land. 

Marion, from information he had received, did not 
doubt but the garrison would soon be compelled to ca 
pitulate for want of water, with which it was supplied 
from an adjacent lake, ahd from which it was now in 
his power to effectually seclude it. Cap. M Koy, the 
commandant, saw at once his inevitable fate, unless he 
could devise some other mode of procuring water, for 
which purpose he sunk a well within the fort, and baf 
fled Marion s expectation upon this point. 

Destitute both of artillery and intrenching tools, 
Marion and Lee began to be doubtful of success, when 
Major Mayham, one of the brigade, suggested a plan, 
which was no sooner communicated than adopted. He 
proposed to cut down a number of trees, and with 
them, piled crosswise, one above the other, to raise a 
tower sufficiently high to overlook the enemy s breast 
work ; this tower to be covered at the top with a floor 
of logs to stand upon ; and protected on the side op 
posite the fort with a defence of light timber. Dragoons 
were immediately despatched to the neighboring farms 
for axes, the only necessary tool, of which a sufficient 


number being soon collected, relays of working parties 
were allotted for the labor ; some to cut, some to con 
vey, and some to erect. 

Major Mayham undertook the execution of his plan, 
which was completely finished before the morning of 
the 23rd, presenting to the eyes of the besieged a lofty 
tower of an elevation higher than their fort. The be 
sieged, like the besiegers, were unprovided with artil 
lery, arid could not interrupt the progress of the work. 

A party of riflemen, being ready, took post in the 
wooden tower the moment it was completed ; and a 
detachment of musketry, under cover of the riflemen, 
moved to make a lodgment in the enemy s ditch, sup 
ported by Lee,s legion with fixed bayonets. Such was 
the eminence of the tower, the riflemen fired into every 
part of the fort, and Cap. M Koy, finding every re 
source cut off, hung out the white flag. It was fol 
lowed by a proposal to surrender, which resulted in 
capitulation. Marion despatched an official letter to 
Gen. Greene, dated the same day, (April 23. 1781,) 
detailing the manner in which the fort was taken ; en 
closing a list of the prisoners and stores taken, and 
announcing his determination of marching to the High 
Hills of Santee, there to await his orders. The num 
ber of prisoners taken were 114. In the course of the 
following day they were brought to the camp of Greene. 

Camden was defended by Lord Rawdon with about 
900 men, and already straitened for provisions, and 
despairing of succor, he resolved to risk a battle. 
Giving orders for his troops to make ready, he ad 
vanced at 9 o clock on the morning of the 25th April, 
and, avoiding the direct approach to the American 
camp, he took a circuitous course, along the margin of 
the swamp which lines Pine-tree-creek, and winds with 
its meanders. 


The Americans were most of them cooking their vic 
tuals,* and Greene was at breakfast, when some of the 
advance sentinels, half a mile in front of the camp, fired 
upon the van of the British. The American army, 
notwithstanding its short notice, was quickly ranged for 
action. All the baggage, as is customary in general 
actions, was ordered off. The cavalry, which was un 
saddled and feeding on the first alarm, was quickly 
ready ; and so certain was Greene of success, he ordered 
Lieut. Col. Washington to turn the right flank of the 
British, and to charge in their rear. By this time the 
fire between the British van, and the American light- 
infantry pickets became very lively. Greene in per 
son led on two Virginia regiments. The artillery were 
well posted and doing great execution, and a small body 
of militia was coming into action, when suddenly a 
number of the Americans began to retire, though the 
danger was not apparently great, and every body 
seemed ignorant of the cause. Col. Washington, in 
the execution of the order given him, had at one time 
possessed himself of near 200 prisoners; but he relin 
quished the greatest part on seeing the army retire. 
The officers he paroled on the field of battle ; and then 
collecting his men, wheeled round, made his own re 
treat good, carrying off with him fifty prisoners. The 
fortune of the day was irretrievable, but Greene, with 
his usual firmness, instantly took measures to prevent 
Rawdon improving the success he had obtained. The 

* In the morning Carrington joined, with a comfortable supply 
of provisions, which had been rather scarce during the late hurried 
changes of position. These were issued, and of course engaged a 
portion of the troops ; while the residue were employed along the 
rivulets in washing their clothes, an occupation which had been for 
some days past impracticable. Lee s Memoirs of the Southern War. 


retreat was effected with such good order and delibera 
tion, that most of the American wounded, all their artil 
lery and baggage were safely carried off, together with 
six royal commissioned officers, beside Col. Washing 
ton s prisoners. The action was continued with inter 
vals till about four in the afternoon, and till the Amer 
icans had retreated about four miles ; when a detach 
ment of the infantry and cavalry under Col. Washing 
ton were ordered to advance and annoy the British. 
The British retired to Camden ; the Americans en 
camped about five miles from their former position. 
The field of battle was occupied only by the dead. 

Very soon after the action, Greene, knowing that 
the British garrison could not subsist long in Camden 
without fresh supplies from Charleston or the country, 
detached a reinforcement to Marion, on the road to 
Nelson s ferry ; and on the 3rd of May he crossed the 
Wateree, and took occasionally such positions as would 
most effectually prevent succors from going into the 
town from that quarter. On the 7th of May, Lord 
Rawdon received a considerable reinforcement under 
Col. Watson. With this increase of strength, he at 
tempted the next day to compel Gen. Greene to another 
action, but found it impracticable. Failing in his design 
he returned to Camden, and on the 10th burned the 
jail, mills, many private houses, and a great part of 
his own baggage. He then evacuated his post, and 
retired with his whole army south of the Santee, leav 
ing about thirty of his sick and wounded, and as many 
of the Americans, taken in the recent action. He offered 
every assistance in his power to the friends of the 
British government who would accompany him. Seve 
ral families accepted his offer, but were cruelly neglected 
after their arrival at Charleston. 


Evacuation of Camden surrender of the garrison at 
Orangeburg. Marion beseiges Fort Motte anecdote 
of Mrs. Motte the roof of her mansion fired by ar 
rows surrender of the fort. Marion rapidly follows 
up his successes Georgetown surrenders to him. Ma 
rion and Sumpter dispersing the lories. The seige 
of Ninety Six ; the seige is abandoned. Greene offers 
battle to Lord Rawdon. Marion and Lee drive Col. 
Coates from Monk s corner gallant pursuit of the 
British battle of Quinby bridge Col. Armstrong 
fifty of the brigade killed. The execution of Col. 
Hayne. Marion defeats the British at Parker s ferry. 

- Battle of Eutaw Springs. 

THE evacuation of Camden animated the friends of 
patriotism, and daily increased their numbers, while 
the British posts fell in quick succession. The day 
after the evacution, the garrison of Orangeburg consist 
ing of 70 British militia, and 12 regulars, surrendered 
to Gen. Sumpter. 

Marion and Lee, after the capture of Fort Watson, 
crossed the Santee, and moved up to the siege of Fort 
Motte. This post was the principal depot of the con 
voys from Charleston to Camden. A large new man 
sion house, belonging to Mrs. Motte, situated on a high 
and commanding hill, had been selected by the British. 
It was surrounded by a deep trench, along the interior 
margin of which was raised a strong and lofty parapet. 
To this post had been regularly assigned an adequate 
garrison of about one hundred and fifty men, which 
was now accidentally increased by a small detachment 



of dragoons, which had arrived from Charleston, a 
few hours before the appearance of the American troops, 
on its way to Camden, with despatches to Lord Raw- 
don. The fort was commanded by Cap. M Pherson, 
with a garrison of 165 men. 

Opposite Fort Motte, to the north, stood another hill, 
where Mrs. Motte having been dismissed from her 
mansion, resided in an old farm house. On this height, 
Col. Lee, with his corps, took post, while Marion and 
his brigade occupied the eastern declivity of the ridge 
on which the fort stood. Very soon the fort was com 
pletely invested ; and a six pounder was mounted on a 
battery erected in Marion s quarter for the purpose of 
raking the northern face of the enemy s parapet, against 
which Lee was preparing to advance. M Pherson was 
unprovided with artillery, and depended for safety upon 
timely relief, not doubting its arrival before the assail 
ant could push his preparations to maturity. 

The vale running between the two hills admitted a 
safe approach for the Americans to within four hundred 
yards of Fort Motte. This place was selected to break 
ground. Relays of working parties being provided for 
every four hours, and Marion having persuaded some 
of the negroes from the neighboring plantations to as 
sist, the works advanced with rapidity. It was on the 
8th of May, the Americans set down before the fort, 
and such was the forwardness of their works on the 
10th, that it was determined to summon M Pherson to 

A flag was accordingly despatched to the comman 
dant ; he replied, that, disregarding consequences, he 
should continue to resist to the last moment in his 
power. The retreat of Rawdon was known in the 
evening to the besiegers ; and in the course of the night 


a courier arrived from Gen. Greene confirming that 
event, urging redoubled activity, and communicating 
his determination to hasten to their support. Urged by 
these strong considerations, Marion and Lee persevered 
throughout the night in pressing the completion of the 
works. On the next day, Rawdon reached the country 
opposite Fort Motte ; and in the succeeding night, en 
camping on the highest ground in his route, the illumi 
nation of his fires gave the joyful annunciation of his 
approach to the despairing garrison. But the hour was 
close at hand to convert this joy into sadness. 

The large mansion of Mrs. Motte in the centre of 
the surrounding trench, left but a few yards of the 
grounds within the fort uncovered, and burning the 
house must force the garrison to surrender. The ex. 
pedient of setting fire to the roof by shooting arrows 
upon it, was the plan suggested by Marion, and orders 
were instantly issued to prepare bows and arrows 
with combustible matter. 

The devoted house was a large pleasant edifice, in 
tended for the summer residence of the respectable 
owner, whose deceased husband had been a firm friend 
to his oppressed country. Dearly was Mrs. Motte be 
loved by the Americans, and it was with somewhat of 
reluctance they adopted the measure. Nevertheless, 
the imperative obligations of duty must be obeyed ; the 
house must burn ; and a respectful communication to 
the lady of her destined loss must be made. The next 
morning, Col. Lee imparted to Mrs. Motte the intended 
measure ; lamenting the sad necessity, and assuring 
her of the deep regret which the unavoidable act ex 
cited in his own breast and that of those under his 

With a smile of complacency, this exemplary lady 


listened to the embarrassed officer, and gave instant re 
lief to his agitated feelings, by declaring that she was 
gratified with the opportunity of contributing to the 
good of her country, and that she would view the ap 
proaching scene with delight. Learning the manner 
in which it was intended to set the house on fire, she 
brought forward a bow and arrows, imported from Af 
rica, that happened to be in her possession, requesting 
their substitution, as probably better adapted for the 
object than those already provided. 

The lines were now manned, and an additional force 
stationed at the battery, lest the enemy, perceiving his 
fate, might determine to risk a desperate assault, as 
offering the only chance of relief. As soon as the 
troops reached their several points, a flag was again 
sent to M Pherson, for the purpose of inducing him to 
prevent the conflagration and slaughter which else 
must ensue. But the British captain remained immove- 
able, repeating his determination of holding out to the 

It was now about noon, and the scorching rays of 
the sun had prepared the shingles of the roof for con 
flagration. The bow and arrows were put into the 
hands of a strong-armed member of Marion s brigade. 
He drew the bow, and an arrow flew, striking the 
roof, and three of the shots communicated fire to the 
shingles, quickly kindling it into a blaze. M Pherson 
ordered a party to repair to the roof of the house, and 
by knocking off the shingles to stop the flames. As 
soon as this was perceived, the fire of the six-pounder 
was brought to bear upon them, and they were soon 
driven down ; and no other effort, to stop the flames 
being practicable, M Pherson hung out the white flag. 



Mercy was extended, although policy commanded 

Two days after this surrender, the British evacuated 
their post at Nelson s ferry blew up their fortifica 
tions and destroyed a great part of their stores. The 
day following, Fort Granby, about thirty miles to the 
westward of Fort Motte, surrendered by capitulation, 
and 352 men, a great part of them Tories, were taken 
prisoners. On the 21st of May, the British post at 
Silver Bluff, called Fort Dreadnaught, surrendered to 
a detachment of Americans^; prisoners, and a large 
quantity of stores falling into the hands of the captors. 

Marion now proceeded against Georgetown ; post 
after post of the British had successively yielded, and 
Gen. Greene was now ready to advance upon Ninety 
Six, the only remaining fortress in the State, besides 
Charleston, in the enemy s possession. Marion s ap 
pearance before Georgetown was early in June, and the 
garrison, after merely a feint of resistance, fled to their 
galleys. Marion secured the stores, demolished the 
works, and retired. 

Ninety-six was strongly garrisoned by the British, 
under Col. Cruger of New York, and, assiduous as 
were the exertions of Gen. Greene, he was unsuccess 
ful in his attempt to reduce it. Lord Rawdon, with a 
reinforcement of troops from Ireland, marched from 
Charleston and relieved it, compelling Greene to re 

The following is an account of this siege as 4escribed 
by Ramsay, in his Hist, of South Carolina, vol. 2. page 
423, " Greene proceeded with the main army to Ninety- 
Six. This place, being of great consequence, was de- 

* Lee s Memoirs. 


fended by a considerable force. Lieut. Col. Cruger 
conducted the defence with great bravery and judg 
ment. On the left of the besiegers was a work erected 
in the form of a star ; on the right was a strong stock 
ade-fort, with two block-houses in it. The town, flanked 
by these two works, was also picquetted with strong 
picquets, and surrounded with a ditch, and a bank near 
the height of a common parapet. There were also 
several flushes in several parts of the town, and all the 
works communicated with each other by covered ways. 

" On the 23rd of May, 1781, the main body of the 
American army encamped in a wood, within half a 
mile of Ninety-Six ; and, on that night, threw up two 
flushes within a hundred and fifty yards of the star 
fort. The next morning the enemy made a sally, and, 
being supported by the artillery and musketry from the 
parapet of the star redoubt, drove the besiegers from 
them. The next night two strong block batteries were 
erected at the distance of three hundred and fifty yards, 
which were opened in the morning. Another battery 
twenty feet high, erected within two hundred and 
twenty yards, was finished within a few days ; and 
soon afterwards another of the same height was erect 
ed within a hundred yards of the same fort. 

" Approaches were gradually carried on against the 
redoubt on the left. Col. Kosciusko, a young gentle 
man of distinction from Poland,* superintended the 

* Thaddeus Kosciusko, a Polish general and patriot, was born 
in 1746, in Lithuania. When the American colonies threw off 
the yoke of the Mother Country, Kosciusko entered into their 
service and was made a colonel of engineers and aid-de-camp to 
Washington. After the Independence of America, he returned 
to his native country and took an active part in her struggles. 
After the fall of Poland he was imprisoned in St. Petersburg un 
til the accession of the Czar Paul, who liberated him. The re- 


operations of the besiegers, and by his assiduity, though 
the ground was hard and the situation unfavorable, a 
third parallel within thirty yards of the ditch was com 
pleted on May 14th ; and a rifle-battery, upwards of 
thirty feet high, erected at the same distance. On the 
17th, the abbatis was turned, and two trenches and a 
mine were extended so as to be within six feet of the 
ditch. Few sieges afford greater instances of perseve 
rance and intrepidity, than were exhibited on this 
occasion by the besiegers and besieged. Riflemen were 
employed on both sides, who immediately levelled at 
every person who appeared in sight, and very seldom 
missed their object. Various success attended the con 
flicts between the several covering parties of the 
workmen, and those who repeatedly sallied from the 

" On the 3rd of June, twelve days after the com 
mencement of this siege, a fleet arrived at Charleston 
from Ireland, having on board, the 3rd, 19th and 30th 
regiments of his Britannic Majesty, a detachment from 
the guards, and a considerable body of recruits, the 
whole commanded by Lieut. Col. Gould. Earl Corn- 
wallis had given permission to the commanders of the 
British forces in South Carolina, to detain these rein 
forcements if they conceived that the service of his 
Britannic Majesty required it ; otherwise they were to 
be sent forward to join his lordship. On the 7th of 
June, Lord Rawdon marched from Charleston, with 
these newly arrived troops, for the relief of the gar 
rison at Ninety-Six. Great were the difficulties they 

maining part of his existence was spent in America, France and 
Switzerland, but chiefly in France. He died at Soleure, Oct. 
17. 1817. Biographical Dictionary. 


had to encounter in rapidly marching under the rage 
of a burning sun through the whole extent of South 

" The American army had advanced their approach 
es very near the critical point, after which further re 
sistance on the part of the garrison would have been 
temerity. At this interesting moment, intelligence was 
received that Lord Rawdon was near at hand. An 
American lady, who had lately married a British officer 
then in the British garrison at Ninety-Six, had been 
bribed by a large sum of money to convey a letter to 
Col. Cruger with the news of the approaching relief. 
The vicinity of this large force made it necessary for 
the Americans either to raise the siege, or attempt the 
reduction of the place by a coup-de-main. This last 
was agreed. upon, and the necessary dispositions were 
made on the 18th of June. Col. Lee, with his legion 
of infantry, and Cap. Kirkwood s light infantry, made 
the attack on the right. Col. Campbell, with the first 
Maryland and first Virginia regiments, were to have 
stormed the redoubt, the ditch of which was eight or 
nine feet deep, the parapet eleven or twelve feet high, 
and raised with sand-bags near three more. 

" The forlorn-hopes were led on by lieutenants Du- 
val and Sheldon, and were followed by a party with 
hooks and intrenching tools, to pull down the sand-bags 
and reduce the parapet. Had this been effected, the 
beseiged could not have annoyed the assailants without 
exposing themselves to the American marksmen. The 
artillery soon made sufficient breaches bn the fortified 
redoubt on the right, for the infantry under the com 
mand of Col. Lee to assault the garrison. It was 
therefore abandoned, and the Americans took posses 
sion without loss. The parties, led by Duval and Shel- 


don entered the ditch, and, though galle J by an inces 
sant fire, made every effort to get down the sand-bags. 
Both these gallant officers were wounded, and not 
more than one in six of their party escaped. 

" The near approach of lord Rawdon, and the uncer 
tainty of final success, induced Greene to raise the 
siege, and retreat over the Saluda ; after having lost 
about one hundred and fifty men." 

It was a mortifying circumstance to the Americans, 
to be obliged to abandon the siege when in the grasp 
of victory. On this sudden turn of affairs, Greene 
was advised by some persons to leave tne state, and 
retire with his remaining force to Virginia. To such 
suggestions he nobly answered " I will recover the 
country, or die in the attempt." 

On the 20th of June, the American army crossed 
the Saluda, and retired towards Broad River. They 
reached the Enoree on the 24th. Thus far Lord Raw 
don pursued them; when finding it impossible to over 
take them, he faced about and returned. He consoled 
himself with the imaginary advantage of having driven 
the rebels out of the country, supposing they had gone 
to North Carolina or Virginia. But Greene halted and 
refreshed his army ; and, being informed that Raw 
don, with about half his army, was marching to the 
Congaree, all the effective infantry marched by way of 
Winnsboro, to encounter the British. The -cavalry 
was previously detached to watch the motions of Raw 
don, and did it so effectually, that a part of them 
charged and took a captain, a lieutenant, a cornet, and 
forty-five privates of British dragoons, with all the 
horses and accoutrements, one mile from their en 

In the meantime, Marion and Sampler were follow. 


ing up their success in dispersing the Tories wherever 
they got information of their gatherings. On the 12th 
of July, Gen. Greene, having called in the militia un 
der Marion and Sumpter, and attaching them to the 
Continentals, offered Lord Rawdon battle. But his 
lordship, secure in his strong position at Orangeburg, 
would not venture out, and Greene was too weak to 
attack him with any prospect of success. Greene now 
detached the cavalry of the legion, the state troops, 
and the militia, to make a diversion towards Charles 
ton, and the rest of the army was ordered to the High 
Hills of Santee. Sumpter was placed in command of 
this detachment, with Lee, Marion, Taylor, Horry, 
Mayham, Hampton, and others, acting under him. 
This detachment was sent off to Monk s Corner, and 
Dorchester, and moved by different roads to the scene 
of operations. 

Col. Lee broke up the post at Dorchester, and inter 
cepted and captured all the wagons and horses belong 
ing to a convoy of provisions, on its way to the Bri 
tish. Col. Wade Hampton, with the state cavalry, 
pressed on to within five miles of Charleston, fell in 
with some mounted Refugees, dispersed the whole, and 
made forty or fifty prisoners. He also took fifty pri 
soners at Strawberry Ferry, and burned four vessels 
loaded with valuable stores for the British army. 
Sumpter and Marion hastened towards Monk s Cor 
ner, where lay the 19th regiment of the British, com 
manded by Col. Coates, with a garrison of 500 infan 
try, and upwards of 100 cavalry, at Biggen s church, 
about a mile distant. Sumpter and Marion arrived 
before this post on the same day, and Col. Lee, having 
called in his parties, followed on the subsequent morn 
ing. Lee expected Sumpter would have seized the 


bridge over Cooper river, near Monk s Corner, which 
afforded a direct route to the militia camp. But Col. 
Coates, the British commander, had very prudently 
occupied the bridge with a detachment from his regi 
ment, compelling Lee to take a very circuitous route 
through deep sands, in the heat of July, to reach 
Sumpter, then ready with Marion to fall upon the 
enemy as soon as the desired junction should take 
place. The next morning the enemy were to be as 
saulted, but during the night Coates decamped, setting 
fire to the church which had been used by him as a 
magazine and fortress, and where a great quantity of 
stores were accumulated. These stores Coates did not 
choose to leave for the accommodation of the Ameri 
cans, and at about midnight the latter descried from 
their camp the roof of the building on fire. 

Pursuit of the British was immediately commenced, 
led on by Lee s legion and Hampton s state cavalry. 
Lee came up with a part of the enemy near Quinby 
bridge. With this body of men was the greater part 
of the baggage of the British army. The Americans 
charged upon them furiously, and so terrified were they 
that they threw down their arms, and begged for quar 
ters. The cavalry, leaving the captured in care of a 
few militia, pressed on for Quinby bridge, and Captain 
Armstrong, with the leading section, first came in sight 
of Coates, who, having passed the bridge, was care 
lessly reposing, waiting for his rear guard, which had 
been captured, having determined to destroy the bridge 
as soon as it and his baggage should have passed it. 
Already he had raised the planks from the sleepers, 
lying them on loosely, ready to be thrown into the 
stream when the rear should get over. 

Armstrong put spur to his horse, and at the head 


of his section dashed over the bridge in face of the en 
emy, throwing himself upon the guard stationed there 
with a howitzer. So sudden was this charge, he drove 
all before him the guard abandoning their piece. 
Some of the loose planks were dashed off by Arm 
strong s section, which, forming a chasm in the bridge, 
presented a dangerous obstacle. Nevertheless the 
second section, headed by Lieut. Carrington, took the 
leap and closed with Armstrong. Cap. O Neal, with 
the third section, cowardly halted. The bridge was 
densely crowded, and plank after plank sliding from the 
bridge into the stream. The creek was deep in water 
and deeper in mud, so that the dragoons, who had dis 
mounted for the purpose of replacing the planks, could 
not get a foothold to stand upon ; nor was it possible to 
find any firm ground from which to swim the horses 

In this perplexing condition, the victory gained by 
the gallantry of Armstrong and Carrington was wrested 
from them, when to complete it only a passage across 
the creek, not twenty yards wide, was wanting. The 
British, discerning the state of matters, took courage 
and rallied. Armstrong and Carrington, saw them 
selves unsupported, and were compelled to abandon the 
unequal contest. They forced their way down the road, 
turning into the woods up the stream to rejoin the corps. 
Col. Lee continued struggling to replace the planks, 
until Coates, relieved from Armstrong, repaired with 
the few around him to defend the bridge, where re 
mained his deserted howitzer. The most of his men 
had fled from the field Coates himself, with a few 
others, had gallantly defended himself at the side of a 
wagon, effectually parrying the many sabre strokes 
aimed at his head. Col. Lee, having only sabres to 


oppose the enemy s fire, and those sabres withheld 
from contact by the interposing chasm, was forced to 
draw off from the vain contest, after several of his dra 
goons had been wounded . 

As soon as he had reached the enemy, Lee des 
patched the intelligence to Marion, urging his approach ; 
and now foiled at the bridge, he communicated to Ma 
rion his having moved some distance up the creek to 
a ford. Marion pressed his march with diligence, 
bringing with him the legion-infantry ; and having 
passed the creek, united with Lee in the afternoon. 
By this time the British, after destroying the bridge, 
had advantageously posted themselves in the house and 
negro huts of a plantation. An attack, however, was 
made, the post of danger being taken by Marion and 
his brigade, who followed it up for three hours. The 
British were too securely posted to be dislodged, and 
their fire from the houses was severely destructive 
among the ranks of Marion, of whom between forty 
and fifty were killed. The loss of the enemy was 

About this time Lord Rawdon, leaving Lieut. Col. 
Stewart in command at Orangeburg, sailed for New- 
York, and from there to Europe. Stewart did not es 
tablish a post, as was expected, at Orangeburg, but, 
moving his whole force towards the Santee, sat down 
near the confluence of its two branches, about fifteen 
miles from the American army, on the opposite side of 
the river. 

That we may form a clearer conception of the 
miseries attending this war in South Carolina, we have 
before us copies of letters transmitted to different per- 


clause which required him to bear arms in support of 
the royal government. The commandant of the gar 
rison, Brig Gen. Paterson, and James Simpson Esqr, 
intendant of the British police, assured him that this 
would never be required ; and added further that when 
the regular forces could not defend the country without 
the aid of its inhabitants, it would be high time for the 
royal army to quit it. 

Having submitted to the royal government, he was 
permitted to return to his family, happy in the expec 
tation of preserving it through the prevailing pestilence. 
But in this hope he was sorely disappointed ; his wife 
and two children fell victims to the fatal malady. 
These afflictions were augmented by the fact that the 
British authorities, in violation of their contract with 
him, repeatedly called upon him to take up arms 
against his countrymen, and finally threatened him with 
close confinement if he did not comply. 

In this situation Hayne was found when Greene forced 
the enemy from the upper country. A detachment of 
Marion s militia, under Col. Harden, passing to the west 
of the Edisto for the protection of their homes, reached 
the neighborhood of Hayne. They solicited his co 
operation. The success of their cause was the wish of 
his heart he said, but stated the change in his political 
condition, and that he was bound by his declaration of 
allegiance. Yet he assured them -that whenever he 
found the royal authority unable to afford its promised 
protection, he should consider himself absolved from the 
extorted allegiance, and would with joy enrol himself 
with the defenders of his country. 

Thus did Col. Hayne scrupulously adhere to a 
contract which was never obligatory, having been 


coerced by the duress of power, and in palpable violation 
of the capitulation of Charleston. 

Soon after this occurrence, the British were driven 
below the Edisto, and nearly the whole country there 
fell under protection of the American arms. Every 
person in the recovered country believed himself re 
leased from the obligations imposed by the late condi 
tion of affairs ; for it was justly thought that the allegi 
ance due to a conqueror ceased with his expulsion from 
the subdued territory. Under this correct impression, 
Hayne and many others repaired to the American camp. 
His merit attracted immediate attention, and the militia 
of his district honored him with the command of a regi 
ment. He immediately took the field, and conducted 
an expedition in the enemy s country. Some of his 
mounted militia penetrated the neck of Charleston, and, 
near the quarter-house, took Gren. Williamson prisoner. 
This was the same Williamson who was an active offi 
cer in the South Carolina militia from the commence 
ment of the war to the surrender of Charleston, after 
which event he became a British subject^ and was as 
energetic in supporting the royal authority as before he 
had been opposed to it. 

Such was the anxiety of the British commandant to 
rescue Williamson, he ordered out his whole cavalry on 
the business. This detachment fell suddenly on the 
camp of Flayne ; but was handsomely received and re 
pelled by Col. Harden, who, owing to the inferiority of* 
his force, did not deem it prudent to push his success 
by pursuit. Col. Hayne, (attended by his second lieu 
tenant, Col. M Laughlin) had unfortunately gone to 
breakfast with a friend about two miles from camp. 
The house was on the Charleston road, and Hayne was 
unapprized of the enemy s approach until he saw them 


sons from Gen. Greene at this period, The following 
are extracts " The animosity of the Whigs and Tories 
of this state, renders their situation truly deplorable. 
There is not a day passes, but there are more or less 
who fall a sacrifice to this savage disposition. The 
whigs seem determined to extirpate the tories, and the 
tories the whigs. Some thousands have fallen in this 
way in this quarter, and the evil rages with more 
violence than ever. If a stop cannot soon be put to 
to these massacres, the country will be depopulated in 
a few months more, as neither whig nor tory can live." 
Among other atrocities, the murder of Col. Isaac Hayne 
roused the indignation of the Americans, and left a 
deep disgrace upon the character of the British a dis 
grace so indelible that time can never remove it. 

During the siege of Charleston, Col Hayne served 
his country in a corps of mounted militia. After 
the capture of the city, and the investment of it with 
British authority, no alternative was left him, but either 
to abandon his family and property, or to surrender to 
the conquerors. He concluded, that instead of waiting 
to be captured, it would be more safe and honorable to 
go within the British lines, and voluntarily surrender 
himself. Accordingly he repaired to Charleston, and 
offered to bind himself by the honor of an American 
officer, to do nothing prejudicial to the British interest 
till he should be exchanged. Reports made of his 
superior abilities and influence, uniformly exerted in 
the American cause, operated with the conquerors to 
refuse him a parole, though they were daily granting 
that indulgence to other inhabitants. He was told he 
must either become a British subject or submit to close 
confinement. To be arrested and detained in Charles 
ton, was not to himself an intolerable evil, but to aban- 


don his family both to the ravages of the small-pox, 
then raging in the neighborhood, and to the insults and 
depradations of the loyalists, was too much for the 
tender husband and fond parent. To acknowledge 
himself the subject of a government which he had from 
principle renounced, was repugnant to his feelings ; but 
without this he was cut off from every prospect of a 
return to his family. To his friend Dr. Ramsay, 
(afterwards the historian) who was then a prisoner with 
the enemy, he communicated the conflicting emotions 
of his mind. " If the British," said he, " would grant 
me the indulgence, which we in the day of our power 
gave to their adherents, of removing family and proper 
ty, I would seek an asylum in the remotest corner of 
the United States rather than submit to their govern 
ment ; but as they allow no other alternative than sub 
mission or confinement in the capital, at a distance 
from my wife and family, at a time when they are in 
the most pressing need of my support, I must for the 
present yield to the demand of the conquerors. I re 
quest you to bear in mind, that, previous to my taking 
this step, I declare that it is contrary to my inclination, 
and forced on me by hard necessity. / never will 
bear arms against my country. My new masters can 
require no service of me but what is enjoined by the 
old militia law of the province, which substitutes a fine 
in lieu of personal service. That I will pay as the 
price of my protection. If my conduct should be cen 
sured by my countrymen, I beg that you would remem 
ber this conversation, and bear witness for me, that I 
do not mean to desert the cause of America." 

In this state of perplexity, this amiable man sub 
scribed a declaration of his allegiance to the king of 
Great Britain, but not without expressly objecting to the 




clause which required him to bear arms in support of 
the royal government. The commandant of the gar 
rison, Brig Gen. Paterson, and James Simpson Esqr, 
intendant of the British police, assured him that this 
would never be required ; and added further that when 
the regular forces could not defend the country without 
the aid of its inhabitants, it would be high time for the 
royal army to quit it. 

Having submitted to the royal government, he was 
permitted to return to his family, happy in the expec 
tation of preserving it through the prevailing pestilence. 
But in this hope he was sorely disappointed ; his wife 
and two children fell victims to the fatal malady. 
These afflictions were augmented by the fact that the 
British authorities, in violation of their contract with 
him, repeatedly called upon him to take up arms 
against his countrymen, and finally threatened him with 
close confinement if he did not comply. 

In this situation Hayne was found when Greene forced 
the enemy from the upper country. A detachment of 
Marion s militia, under Col. Harden, passing to the west 
of the Edisto for the protection of their homes, reached 
the neighborhood of Hayne. They solicited his co 
operation. The success of their cause was the wish of 
his heart he said, but stated the change in his political 
condition, and that he was bound by his declaration of 
allegiance. Yet he assured them -that whenever he 
found the royal authority unable to afford its promised 
protection, he should consider himself absolved from the 
extorted allegiance, and would with joy enrol himself 
with the defenders of his country. 

Thus did Col. Hayne scrupulously adhere to a 
contract which was never obligatory, having been 


coerced by the duress of power, and in palpable violation 
of the capitulation of Charleston. 

Soon after this occurrence, the British were driven 
below the Edisto, and nearly the whole country there 
fell under protection of the American arms. Every 
person in the recovered country believed himself re 
leased from the obligations imposed by the late condi 
tion of affairs ; for it was justly thought that the allegi 
ance due to a conqueror ceased with his expulsion from 
the subdued territory. Under this correct impression, 
Hayne and many others repaired to the American camp. 
His merit attracted immediate attention, and the militia 
of his district honored him with the command of a regi 
ment. He immediately took the field, and conducted 
an expedition in the enemy s country. Some of his 
mounted militia penetrated the neck of Charleston, and, 
near the quarter-house, took Gen. Williamson prisoner. 
This was the same Williamson who was an active offi 
cer in the South Carolina militia from the commence 
ment of the war to the surrender of Charleston, after 
which event he became a British subject^ and was as 
energetic in supporting the royal authority as before he 
had been opposed to it. 

Such was the anxiety of the British commandant to 
rescue Williamson, he ordered out his whole cavalry on 
the business. This detachment fell suddenly on the 
camp of Hayne ; but was handsomely received and re 
pelled by Col. Harden, who, owing to the inferiority of* 
his force, did not deem it prudent to push his success 
by pursuit. Col. Hayne, (attended by his second lieu 
tenant, Col. M Laughlin) had unfortunately gone to 
breakfast with a friend about two miles from camp. 
The house was on the Charleston road, and Hayne was 
unapprized of the enemy s approach until he saw them 


a few rods from the door. Being very active and reso 
lute, he pushed for his horse, mounted, and forced his 
way through the foe. To pass a fence in his route, he 
put spur to his horse, who fell in making the leap, and 
the entangled rider was overtaken by his pursuers. 
M Laughlin, being cut ofFfrom his horse, died sword in 
hand, bravely contending against the surrounding 

Coi. Hayne was conveyed to Charleston, and lodged 
in the prison of the Provost. This prison was the mid 
dle part of the cellar under the Exchange. The damp 
ness of this unwholesome spot, together with the want 
of a fire-place, caused among its unhappy inmates some 
deaths and much sickness. In it the American State 
prisoner and the British felon shared the same fate. 

At first, Col. Hayne was promised a trial, and had 
counsel prepared to justify his conduct by the laws of 
nations and usages of war ; but this was finally refused, 
and he was ordered to be executed on the 31st of July. 
This sentence was given by lord Rawdon and Col. 
Balfour. The prisoner addressed a letter to the two 
British officers, to which the town major returned the 
following answer. "I have to inform you, that your 
execution is not ordered in consequence of any sentence 
from the Court of Inquiry ; but by virtue of the authority 
with which the commander-in-chief in South Carolina 
and the commanding officer in Charleston are invested : 
and their resolves on this subject are fixed and un 

The royal Lieut. Gov. Ball, and a great number of 
the inhabitants, both royalists and patriots, interceded 
for his life. The ladies of Charleston generally signed 
a petition in his behalf. Mrs. Perronneau, his sister, 
accompanied by hi children, all clad in the deepest 


mourning, and manifesting the torture of heart-rending 
agony, waited on Lord Rawdon, and on their knees 
supplicated for the life of their unfortunate relative. 
But all was of no avail; his lordship s "resolve was 
fixed and unchangeable." 

Disdaining further discussion with relentless power, 
Hayne merely solicited a short respite, to enable him 
for the last time to see his friends and children. The 
respite was granted. He was repeatedly visited by his 
friends, and conversed on various subjects with becom 
ing fortitude. He particularly lamented that, on prin 
ciples of retaliation, his execution would probably be 
an introduction to the shedding of much blood. He 
requested those in whom the supreme power was vest 
ed, to accommodate the mode of his death to the feel 
ings of an officer ; but this was refused. On the last 
evening of his life, he told a friend that he was " no 
more alarmed at the thoughts of death than at any 
other occurrence which was necessary and unavoidable." 

On receiving his summons, on the morning of the 
4th August, (1781) to proceed to the place of execu 
tion, he delivered to his eldest son, a youth thirteen 
years of age, several papers relative to his case, say 
ing, " Present these papers to Mrs. Edwards, with my 
request that she forward them to her brother in Con 
gress. You will next repair to the place of execution, 
receive my body, and see it decently interred among 
my forefathers." He then embraced his son, implor 
ing the Divine Blessing upon his orphan children, and 
took his final leave of the boy. Dressed with his ac 
customed neatness, accompanied by a few friends, he 
marched with unruffled serenity through a weeping 
crowd. The procession began from the Exchange, in 
the forenoon. The streets were thronged with thou- 


sands of anxious spectators. He continued on his way 
to the place of execution, with such decent firmness, 
composure and dignity, as to awaken the compassion 
of many, and command respect from all. There was 
a majesty in his sufferings which rendered him supe 
rior to the pangs of death. 

When the city barrier was past, and the instrument 
of his catastrophe appeared in full view, a faithful 
friend by his side whispered that he " trusted he would 
exhibit an example of the manner in which an Ameri 
can can die." 

" I will endeavor to do so," was the tranquil reply 
of the martyr ; and never was an intention better ful 
filled. Neither arrogating superiority, nor betraying 
weakness, he ascended the cart, with a firm step and 
serene aspect. He inquired of the executioner, who 
was making an attempt to get up to pull the cap 
over his eyes, what he wanted. Upon being inform 
ed of the man s object, he replied, " I will save you 
that trouble," and pulled the cap over his own eyes. 
He then gave the signal for the cart to move, illustra 
ting by his demeanour that death in the cause of our 
country, even on a gallows, cannot appal the virtuous 
and the brave ! 

Thus perished, in the bloom of his life, a gallant 
officer, a worthy citizen, a just and upright man ; fur 
nishing an example of heroism that extorted a confes 
sion from the British, " that though he did not die in a 
good cause, he must at least have acted from the per 
suasion of its being so." Unhappily for this virtuous 
man, the royal power was fast declining in the South. 
The inhabitants were eager to cast off the temporary 
allegiance of the conquest ; it was deemed necessary 
to awe them into submission by some distinguished se 
venty, and Col. Hayne was the selected victim ! 


Marion and his brigade, though they mourned the 
loss of their brave compatriots at the battle of Quin- 
by s bridge, were far from being disheartened, and 
while the main army was encamped among the High 
Hills during the intense heat of the season, we find 
them and their leader busy at work among the Tories. 
With a body of two hundred men, Marion proceeded 
on a secret expedition to the relief of Col. Harden, 
who was closely pressed by a very superior force of 
British in the vicinity of the Edisto. Marching ra 
pidly a distance of over a hundred miles, he arrived in 
time to concert an ambuscade in a swamp adjacent to 
Parker s Ferry, where he decoyed the enemy, and com 
mitted a terrible slaughter upon their cavalry, rescuing 
Harden without any loss. 

Gen. Greene now concerted measures for forcing the 
British from their posts. Though the two armies were 
within fifteen miles o f each other on a right line, yet, 
as two rivers intervened, and boats could not be pro 
cured, the American army was obliged to make a 
circuit of seventy miles, the more conveniently to cross 
the Wateree and the Congaree. Soon after crossing 
these rivers, they were joined by Pickens, with a party 
of militia ; and Marion and his brigade reached them 
on the 7th of September, the day before the battle of 
Eutaw Springs.* The whole American force being 
thus collected, 2000 in all, Greene prepared to give 
battle. The force of the British under Col. Stewart, 
was about the same in number. They had retired from 

* " We moved by slow and easy marches, as well to disguise 
our real intention, as to give General Marion an opportunity to 
join us, who had been detached for the support of Col. Harden. 
Gen. Marion joined us on the evening of the 7th,, at Burdell s 
plantation, seven miles from the enemy s camp." Gen. Greene s 



the Congaree about forty miles, and taken post at 
Eutaw Springs, about sixty miles north of Charleston. 

Quite early on the morning of the 8th, the Ameri 
cans moved to the attack, and fell in with two ad 
vanced parties of the British, about four miles ahead 
of the main army. These, being briskly charged by 
the legion and state troops, soon retired. The front 
line advanced, and continued firing, and advancing on 
the British legion till the action became general. In 
the hottest of the engagement, while great execution 
was doing on both sides, Col. Williams and Col. Camp 
bell, with the Maryland and Virginia continentals, 
were ordered by Greene to charge with trailed arms. 
Nothing could surpass the intrepidity of both officers 
and men on this occasion. They pushed on in good 
order, through a heavy cannonade and shower of mus 
ketry, with such unshaken resolution, that they bore 
down all before them. Col. Lee, with great address, 
turned the left flank of the British, and attacked them 
at the same time in the rear. Henderson, being wound 
ed early in the action, the South Carolina state troops 
were led on by Col. Hampton, the next in command, 
to a very spirited charge, in which were taken upwards 
of a hundred prisoners. The militia from North and 
South Carolina was commanded by Marion, General 
Marion, Colonel Malmady, and General Pickens, con 
ducted the troops with great gallantry and good con 
duct, and the militia fought with a degree of spirit and 
firmness that reflected the highest honor upon that 
class of soldiers. 

The British were routed in all quarters, and were 
closely pursued. On their retreat, numbers of them 
threw themselves into a strong brick house; others 
took post in a picquetted garden among impenetrable 
Bhrubs. The eagerness of the Americans urged them 


to attack the enemy in these positions. Col. Washing 
ton made every possible exertion to dislodge them from 
the thickets, but failed ; he had his horse shot under 
him, and was wounded and taken prisoner. 

The battle lasted upwards of three hours, and was 
fiercely contested, every corps in both armies bravely 
supporting each other. The loss was uncommonly 
great, more than one-fifth of the British, and one- 
fourth of the American army, being killed and wound 
ed. The British made 60 prisoners, all wounded. The 
Americans about 500. The entire loss of the British 
amounted to more than 1100. Among the killed of 
the American officers, was the brave Lieut. Colonel 
Campbell of the Virginia line. After his fall he in 
quired who gave way, and being informed the British 
were fleeing in all quarters, he added, " / die content 
ed," and immediately expired. 

The British commander, leaving his dead unburied, 
commenced a retreat, and avoided the engagement 
which Gen. Greene had determined to renew on the 
following day. Pursuit was commenced, and Greene 
detached Marion and Lee, with a view of seizing the 
first strong pass on the road to Charleston, as well as 
to interrupt Stewart, and to prevent any accession of 
force which might be detached from the British gar 
rison at Charleston ; while he himself continued in 
his camp, actively engaged in preparing arrangements 
for the conveyance of the wounded to the High Hills. 
Marion and Lee, approaching the enemy s left, discov 
ered that he had been busily employed in sending off 
his sick and wounded. News was received that a de 
tachment, from Monk s Corner, led by Maj. M Arthur, 
was hastening to join Stewart. This detachment effected 
its junction with the main army, and Marion retired to 
a favorite place of retreat in the Santee river swamp. 


Malicious destruction of property by the British ; their 
officers speculating in negroes. The fall of Corn- 
wallis rejoicings in the camp. The tories massacre 
Cap. Turner and twenty others by a band of tories 
Cunningham s murder of Hayes and others. The 
army at Round O its tattered condition mutiny * 
execution of Gornell. Marion elected to the legisla 
ture he repairs to Jacksonborough the British take 
advantage of his absence. Marion hastens to the Pedee 
country to quell a rising of the Tories under Major 
Gainey. Murder of Col. Kolb by the Tories. Treaty 
between Marion and Gainey. Marion protects Butler, 
the tory. Evacuation of Charleston by the British^ 
Marriage of Marion. His death. 

MARION did not remain in the Santee river swamp 
any longer than to refresh his men and call in new re 
cruits, for the British commander, well convinced that 
the career of British arms in South Carolina was not 
to continue much longer, began to lay waste the plan 
tations and destroy property. The prospects of gain 
from the sale of negroes were too seducing to be re 
sisted by the officers of the British army. They 
plundered them from the plantations, and shipped them 
from Charleston to the West Indies, where they found 
a ready market. It has been computed that between 
the years 1775 and 1783, the state of South Carolina 
lost in this way twenty-five thousand negroes. It was 
with a view of profit thus to be gained that the Tories 
frequently made a rising, plundered the plantations of 
the Whigs, carried off their negroes, and sold them to 


the British officers for small prices. Against Tory 
gatherings of this kind Marion and his brigade, every 
now and then set forth, dispersing them and keeping 
them in check. 

The tidings of the capture of Cornwall is at York- 
town,* reached the American camp on the 9th Novem 
ber, and there was consequently much rejoicing. At 
the same time, the thanks of Congress were forwarded 
to Marion. 

About the middle of November (the 18th) Greene 
broke up his camp at the High Hills, and put his army 
in motion. The British retreated before him, and such 
was the success of the Americans, that the enemy were 
completely shut up in the city of Charleston and its 
isthmus. At this juncture, a desperate band of Tories 
adopted the infernal scheme of taking their last revenge, 
by carrying fire and sword into the plantations adjoin 
ing the city. To this end, Major William Cunningham, 
of the British militia, collected a party ; and having 
furnished them with every thing necessary for laying 
waste the country, sallied from Charleston. In the un 
suspecting hour of sleep, and domestic security, they 
entered the houses of solitary farmers, and sacrificed 
to their revenge the obnoxious head of the family. 
Their cruelties induced some small parties to associate 
and arm in self-defence. Cap. Turner and twenty 
men, on these principles, had taken post in a house and 
defended themselves till their ammunition was expended. 
After which they surrendered themselves, on receiving 
assurance that they should be treated as prisoners of 
war. Notwithstanding this solemn agreement, Turner 

* 19th October, 1781. 


and his party were put to instant death by Cunningham 
and the men under his command. 

Soon after this massacre, the same party of Tories 
attacked a number of American militia, in the district 
of Ninety-Six, commanded by Col. Hayes, and set fire 
to the house in which they had taken shelter. The 
only alternative left was either to be burned, or to sur 
render themselves prisoners. The latter being preferred, 
Col. Hayes and Cap. Daniel Williams were at once 
hung on the pole of a fodder stack. The pole broke 
and they fell, upon which Cunningham inhumanly cut 
them to pieces with his own sword ; then, turning upon 
the others, he continued on them his operations of sav 
age barbarity, till the powers of nature being exhausted, 
and his enfeebled limbs refusing to administer any 
longer to his insatiate fury, he called upon his com 
rades to complete the dreadful work, by killing which 
ever of the prisoners they pi-eased. They instantly put 
to death such of them as they personally disliked. 
Only two fell in action, but fourteen were deliberately 
cut to pieces.* 

The further progress of this sanguinary officer and 
his butchering followers, was checked by Marion, who 
drove him back to Charleston. 

The main army under Gen. Greene was now en 
camped at Round O, situated between the Edisto and 
Ashepoo rivers, about fifty miles from Charleston. 
Greene detached Marion with his militia to the east of 
Ashley river, with orders to guard the district between 
that river and the Cooper. 

The tattered condition of Greene s and Marion s 
soldiers at this time, and their destitute situation, wag 

* Ramsay. 


such " that seven hundred of them were as naked as 
they were born, excepting a small slip of cloth about 
their waists ; and they were nearly as destitute of meat 
as clothing. Though they had abundant reason to 
complain, yet, while they were every day marching, 
and almost every week fighting, they were in good 
health, good spirits, and good humor; but when the 
enemy was confined within his fortifications, and they 
were inactive, they became sickly and discontented, and 
a few began to be mutinous. Their long arrears of 
pay, their deficiency of clothing, and their want of 
many comforts, were forgotton whilst constant action 
employed their minds and bodies ; but when an inter 
ruption of hostilities gave them leisure to brood over 
their calamities, these evils were presented to their 
imaginations in aggravated colors. A plan was seri 
ously laid to deliver their gallant and victorious leader 
(Greene) into the hands of the British ; but the whole 
design was happily discovered and prevented from 
being carried into execution. To the honor of the 
Continental army, it may with justice be added, that, 
notwithstanding the pressure of their many sufferings, 
the whole number concerned in the plot did not exceed 

Early in the year 1782, Gen. Marion, leaving his 
brigade near the Santee river, repaired himself to Jack- 
sonborough, there to take his seat in the Legislature, 
to which he had been elected a member from the par 
ish of St. John s, Berkeley. His absence from the 
command, inspired the enemy with the hope that a 
corps which had heretofore been invulnerable might 
now be struck. A detachment of seven hundred men, 

* Appendix G. 


cavalry and infantry, under Col. Thompson,* passed 
the Cooper river, near Charleston, late in the evening, 
and proceeded towards the Santee Gen. Greene ob 
tained a hint of the approach of this detachment against 
the camp of Marion, and sent word to Marion that he 
had better hasten to resume the command of his brig 
ade. By a circuitous route and rapid riding, Marion 
hurried from Jacksonborough, but hearing that the en 
emy were retiring, he halted to refresh. This delay 
proved fatal to his brigade. It was merely a feint of 
the British, who, observing the greatest secresy, and 
pushing their march with diligence, fell upon the camp 
and completely routed the brigade. Some were killed, 
some wounded, and the rest dispersed. Major Benson, 
an active officer, was among the killed. Thompson 
hastened back to Charleston with his detachment, and 
Marion, undismayed by this loss, energetically com 
menced reassembling his brigade. 

For several months, the inhabitants of South Carolina 
had been in the peaceable enjoyment of legal govern 
ment, except Charleston, and a small range of country 
on the little Pedee, where the British still held the pow 
er. Major Gainey, (Marion s old enemy) and a band 
of Tories, resided here ; and, insulated as they were, 
still resisted, f The absence of Marion from that part 
of the country emboldened them, and a rising took place. 

* Benjamin Thompson, born in New Hampshire, espoused 
the Royal cause, and after the war, was knighted. He subse 
quently entered the Bavarian service, and was created Count 

t A party of them, commanded by a Cap, Jones, surrounded 
and set fire to the house of Col. Kolb, a respectable American 
militia officer. He, after receiving assurance of being treated as a 
prisoner of war, surrendered, Nevertheless, he was instantly put 
to death in the presence of his wife and children. 


Marion, arranged his plans for quelling this insurrec 
tion, and moved rapidly towards the Pedee country, 
and sudden and unexpected was his arrival, and they 
were taken by surprise. The very name of Marion 
was a terror to them, and his presence doubly so. 
They showed no disposition for fighting him. Gainey 
sent a flag to Marion, announcing his readiness to re 
new the treaty which had been entered into a year 
previously. Commissioners were appointed on both 
sides. These commissioners could not agree, and sepa 
rated in anger ; after which Marion and Gainey met in 
person, at a place called Birch s mill, on the 8th of June. 
By the treaty which was here signed by the respective 
commanders, more than five hundred men laid down 
their arms. The treaty was in the following words. 

ARTICLES of Treaty between General Marion, in behalf 
of South Carolina, and Major Gainey, and the inhabi 
tants under his command, which were included in the 
Treaty made the 17th day of June, 1781. 

" ARTICLE I. Major Gainey, and the men under his 
command, to lay down their arms as enemies to the 
State, and are not to resume them again until ordered 
so to do, in support of the interests of the United 
States, and of this State in particular. 

ARTICLE II. We will deliver up all the negroes, horses, 
cattle, and other property, that have been taken from 
this or any other state. 

ARTICLE III. We will demean ourselves as peaceable 
citizens of this state, and submit ourselve^ to be 
governed by its laws, in the same manner as the rest 
of the citizens thereof. 


ARTICLE IV. We do engage to apprehend and de 
liver up all persons within our district, who shall re 
fuse to accede to these terms, and contumaciously 
resist in rebellion against this state. 

ARTICLE V. We will deliver up as soon as possible, 
every man who belongs to any regular line in the 
American service, and every inhabitant of North 
Carolina, of this, or any other state, who having 
joined us since the 17th of June 1781, when the 
former Treaty was made, or oblige them to go out 
of the district ; and whenever they return, to take 
and deliver them into safe custody in any jail within 
the state. 

ARTICLE VI. Every man is to sign an instrument of 
writing, professing his allegiance to the United States 
of America, and the state of South Carolina in par 
ticular ; and to abjure his Britannic Majesty, his heirs, 
successors and adherents ; and promise to oppose all 
the enemies of the United States, and the State of 
South Carolina in particular. 

ARTICLE VII. All arms, amunition, and other warlike 
stores, the property of the British, to be delivered up. 

ARTICLE VIII. The above seven articles being agreed 
on, they shall have a full pardon for treasons com 
mitted by them against the state, and enjoy their 
property, and be protected by the laws thereof. 

ARTICLE IX. Such men as do not choose to accede 
to these Articles, shall have leave to go within the 
British lines, and to march by the 25th inst, and be 
safely conducted, with such of their wives and chil 
dren as may be able to travel, and carry or sell their 
property, except cattle, sheep and hogs, which they 
may dispose of, but not carry with them. Such 
women and children who cannot be removed, may 


remain until the 1st of September next. The officers 
to keep their pistols and side arms ; all other arms 
to be disposed of, and not carried with them. Each 
field officer and captain to retain one horse, not 
exceeding twelve in the whole ; and no other per 
son to take with him any more horses that may be fit 
for dragoon service, within the British lines. 
We have agreed to the before- mentioned nine articles, 
and have signed the same at Birch s mill, on Pedee, 
this 8th day of June, 1782."* 

Marion now set to work to bring all the inhabitants 
of this disaffected district to submission. The wise and 
forgiving policy pursued by him, was attended with the 
happiest consequences. Bitter enemies were converted 
into warm friends ; and many of these reclaimed citizens 
enrolled themselves in the corps of Marion, ready to 
fight by the side of their countrymen, whose lives they 
had sought by night and by day, from the fall of Charles- 
ton to the period of this Treaty. Marion granted writ 
ten protections to all who came forward and subscribed 
to the treaty, and took into custody those, who, unwil 
ling to retire within the British lines, remained without 

Among others who submitted was a certain Capt. 
Butler, who had been particularly oppressive upon the 
Whig families of the Pedee country. It is said of him 
that a more sanguinary being never existed. He had 
cruelly oppressed and butchered some persons, whose 
surviving friends were in the camp. Irritated to mad 
ness at the thought that such a man was, by submission, 

* (Signed,) Francis Marion, Brigadier General, State of South 
Carolina. Micajah Gainey, Major of Loyalists, Pedee. 


to escape the just reward of his crimes, a hasty and in 
temperate message was sent to Marion, purporting that 
such a villain ought not to receive protection. To this 
Marion calmly replied, " Confidently believing that 
the pardon offered by the Governor would be granted, 
the man whom you would destroy has submitted. Both 
law and honor sanction my resolution. I will take 
him to my tent, and at the hazard of my life protect 

A second message now informed him that Butler 
should be dragged from his tent and be put to death. 
" I am an officer acting under orders," replied Marion, 
" and bound to defend him. I will do so though I 
perish." He then collected a guard around the tent, 
into which he had introduced Butler, and, at an early 
hour after night-fall, had him conveyed to a place of 

Having effectually reduced the Pedee country to sub 
mission, Marion, leaving a command of a hundred and 
sixty men to maintain the ascendancy, hurried his re 
turn to the Santee. Here the militia collected around 
him, and he remained the scourge of the British and 
Tories until the evacuation of Charleston. 

In the summer of 1782 the British announced their 
intention of evacuating Charleston. They offered to 
pay for rice and other provisions that should be deliv 
ered to them before their departure, and at the same 
time threatened that if it was with-held, it should be 
taken by force, and without compensation. The object of 
Gen. Leslie (the British commander) was to provision 
his fleet and troops previous to his departure. The 
civil authority, incensed at the threat accompanying 

* Garden s Anecdotes. 


this proposition, objected to any intercourse being open 
ed between the town and country, and issued orders to 
Gen. Greene to that effect. 

In this state of matters, the British commander 
urged to it by the necessity of his case, sent out parties 
lo sieze provisions near the different landings, and to 
bring them by water to Charleston. One of the most 
considerable parties on this service was sent to the 
Combakee river, where they arrived on the 25th of 

Brigadier General Gist, with about three hundred 
cavalry and infantry of the Continental army, was de 
tached by Greene to oppose them. The British with 
a fleet of boats and schooners, had already rifled many 
of the neighboring plantations, and ravaged the pro 
perty of numerous persons who, their small means thus 
taken from, were left comparatively destitute. 

Gen. Gist captured one of their schooners, and in a 
great degree frustrated their designs upon the Com 
bakee. In this expedition Gist was joined by the young 
and gallant Col. John Laurens, who, hearing of it, rose 
from a sick bed, and resumed his command in the 
brigade, and, emulous of distinction, solicited the post 
of danger. The British, defeated by Gist from securing 
provisions on the south side of the river, had crossed 
it, and being apprized of the movements of Col. Lau 
rens, they placed an ambush for him on the road which 
he must pass to take command of the post to which he 
had been appointed. 

Laurens passed the night of the 26th at the planta 
tion of a lady, whose house was so nigh the post to 
which he was on his route, that it was easily practi 
cable for him to spend a few hours in the company of 



some agreeable ladies at the house, and reach his 
post before the break of day. At a late hour the com 
pany broke up. Laurens, and his small party, set out ; 
The British made an onset from their ambush, and 
Laurens was killed at the first discharge. 

Never was soldier more beloved by the people of 
South Carolina than this gallant young officer. "Na 
ture had adorned him," says Ramsey, " with a profu 
sion of her choicest gifts, to which a well conducted 
education had added its most useful as well as its most 
elegant improvements. Though his fortune and family 
entitled him to a pre-eminence, yet he was the warm 
friend of Republican equality. Generous and liberal, 
his heart expanded with genuine philanthropy. Zealous 
for the rights of humanity, he contended that personal 
liberty was the birth-right of every human being, how 
ever diversified by country, color, or capacity. His 
insinuating address won the hearts of all his acquaint 
ances ; his sincerity and virtue secured their lasting 
esteem. Acting from the most honorable principles 
uniting the bravery and other talents of a great officer 
with the knowledge of a complete scholar, and the en 
gaging manners of a well-bred gentleman, he was the 
idol of his country the glory of his army and an 
ornament of human nature. His abilities shone in the 
legislature and in the cabinet, as well as in the field, 
and were equal to the highest stations. His admiring 
country, sensible of his rising merit, stood prepared to 
confer on him her most distinguished honors. Cut 
down in the midst of these prospects, he left mankind 
to deplore the calamities of war, which in the twenty- 
seventh year of his life deprived society of so invalua 
ble a citizen." 

The evacuation of Charleston took place on the 14th 


of December 1782. On that, and the succeeding day, 
the British went on board their shipping, and the city 
was entered by Gov. Matthews and the American army, 
without any confusion or disorder. Those who re 
mained in Charleston felt themselves happy in being 
delivered from a garrison life. The exiled citizens ex 
perienced sensations more easily conceived than ex 
pressed, on returning to their houses and estates. The 
patriot exulted in the acknowledged independence of 
his country. The soldier rejoiced that the toils of war 
were over, and the objects of it fully attained. The 
farmer redoubled his industry, from the pleasing con 
viction that the produce of his labor would be secured 
to him without any danger from British bayonets. 
Cheerfulness and good humor took possession of minds 
that, during seven years, had been continually occupied 
with anxiety and distress. 

To this happy result, none had contributed more than 
Francis Marion. 

The citizens generally, instead of repining at their 
losses, set themselves to repair them by diligence and 
economy. The continental officers who had served in 
the state, and whose bravery and exertions had ren 
dered them conspicuous, were so well received by the 
ladies, that several of them had their gallantry rewarded 
by the hands of some of the finest women and greatest 
fortunes in South Carolina. The adherents to Royal 
Government were treated by those in power with mode 
ration and lenity. Though the war was ended, some 
address was necessary to compose the minds of the 
people. Some of those who under every discourage 
ment had steadily adhered to the cause of Independence, 
took to themselves the appellation of the virtuous few, 
and looked down with contempt on such of their fellow- 


citizens as had conformed their allegiance to existing 
circumstances. A disposition to proscribe and banish 
persons of the latter description showed itself under the 
auspices of self-constituted committees ; but the weight 
of government, and the influence of the better informed 
citizens, was successfully exerted to counteract it. 

After the evacuation of the city, the army was dis 
banded. Such was the condition of the public treasury 
of the United States, that Congress was scarcely able 
to defray the expenses of the soldiers in returning to 
their homes. The laurels they had dearly earned ; the 
applause of their countrymen, which they had eminently 
obtained ; and the plaudits of their consciences, which 
they honestly possessed ; were almost the only rewards 
they carried home at the termination of a war, in which 
many had injured their constitutions, and all had dimin 
ished their fortunes. Sympathizing with the embar 
rassments of their countrymen, sensible of their inability 
to pay them their stipulated dues, and confiding in their 
justice to make them future retribution, they cheerfully 
relinquished the uniform of the military for the plain 
garb of the citizen. 

After the war was over, Marion retired to his farm 
at St. John s, Berkely. This lay within a short dis 
tance of the usual routes of the British army, an d had 
been repeatedly ravaged; and furniture, horses, stock, 
clothing for his negroes, etc., were now wanting, and 
he was without means to purchase. His friends held 
out to him the prospect of half-pay, but this was never 
granted him. He cheerfully set to work, however, and 
with a manly industry retrieved his diminished fortunes 
as much as possible. 

The people of St. John s knew that his services were 
not less valuable in the halls of legislation than in the 


camp, and they elected him as their representative to 
the Senate of the State, where, by his counsels, he ju 
diciously aided the civil operations of a government, to 
the establishment of which his sword had so largely 
contributed. In his nature there was nothing vindic 
tive, and his " poor deluded countrymen," as he termed 
the Tories, found in him an advocate, who far from 
visiting them with the severities with which others were 
ready to retaliate upon them, always gave his voice 
and vote on the side of mercy. " It is peace now," 
said he. " God has given us the victory. Let us show 
our gratitude to Heaven, which we shall not do by 
cruelty to man." 

Whilst he was a member of the Senate, the following 
resolution was passed on the 26th of February 1783. 

" RESOLVED, nem. con., That the thanks of this 
House be given to Brigadier General Marion, in his 
place, as a member of this House, for his eminent and 
conspicuous services to his country. 

RESOLVED nem. con., That a gold medal be given 
to Brigadier General Marion, as a mark of public ap 
probation for his great, glorious, and meritorious 

The President of the Senate, in conveying to Marion 
the sense of the preceding resolutions, spoke of the in 
expressible pleasure with which he was filled upon an 
occasion so interesting ; " but when I reflect upon the 
difficulty of doing justice to your distinguished merit, 
I feel my own insufficiency. Your conduct merits the 
applause of your countrymen ; your courage, your 
vigilance, and your abilities, have exceeded their 
most sanguine expectations and have answered all 
their hopes." 

To the speech of the President, (of which the quota 


tion is but a brief extract,) Marion replied : " Mr. 
President; The approbation which this house have 
given of my conduct, in the execution of my duty, 
gives me very pleasing and heartfelt satisfaction. The 
honor which they have conferred on me this day, by 
their thanks, will be remembered with gratitude. I 
shall always be ready to exert my abilities for the good 
of the state and the liberties of her inhabitants. I 
thank you, sir, for the polite manner in which you have 
conveyed to me the thanks of the Senate." 

In the year 1784, the Legislature of South Carolina 
passed a bill for the erecting and garrisoning of Fort 
Johnson, in Charleston harbor. Marion was put in 
command of this port, with a salary of $2000 per an 
num ; the sum being voted him in remuneration for his 
losses during the war. But in a year or two, citizens 
grumbled their dissatisfaction, and it was finally re 
duced to 8500. 

At this time, a lady of wealth, who " loved him for 
the dangers he had passed," disclosed the state of her 
affections to some persons, who were the mutual friends 
of either party, and Marion being made aware of the 
impression he had made upon the heart of this lady, 
solicited her hand, and was accepted. The name of 
this lady was Miss Mary Videau, whose ancestors, like 
his own, were among the Huguenots that sought liberty 
of conscience on the shores of America, being denied 
that inestimable privilege in the land of their birth. 

Marion was past fifty years of age, and the lady was 
not young. They lived happily together ^ and Marion, 
" beloved by his friends, and respected by his enemies, 
exhibited a luminous example of the beneficial effects 
to be produced by an individual, who, with only small 


means at his command, possesses a virtuous heart, a 
strong head, and a mind devoted to the comman good." 
The death of Marion took place at his residence in 
St. John s parish, in the month of February 1795. 
On his tomb is an inscription, which reads as follows. 
" Sacred to the memory of Brigadier General Francis 
Marion, who departed this life on the 27th of February 
1795, in the sixty-third year of his age, deeply regret 
ted by all his fellow citizens. History will record his 
worth, and rising generations embalm his memory, as 
one of the most distinguished patriots and heroes of the 
American Revolution ; which elevated his native coun 
try to Honor and Independence, and secured to her the 
blessings of liberty and peace. This tribute of venera 
tion and gratitude is erected in commemoration of the 
noble and disinterested virtues of the citizen, and the 
gallant exploits of the soldier, who lived without fear, 
and died without reproach." 

Francis Marion, in the trying times of the Revolu 
tion, occupied one of the most difficult situations in 
which a man can be placed. The scene of his exer 
tions was (as we have seen) in a country where the 
inhabitants were by no means unanimous in their oppo 
sition to the British government ; but, surrounded as he 
was by loyalists, and at the head of a soldiery unac 
customed to subordination, he encountered and sur 
mounted difficulties in situations that probability rendered 
hopeless, and " with a steady hand he steered the vessel 
amid the terrors of the storm, and through fearful 
breakers safe into port." 

To General Marion, as a military chieftain, our 


country is deeply indebted, and, though for many years 
he did not receive the approbation his valor had earned, 
public conviction has of late become sensible of the 
obligations that she owes him ; and it is now conceded, 
that we are indebted as much to his untiring persever 
ance in subduing the Tories, as to the prowess of Gen. 
Greene against the British Armies, in bringing the 
Southern war to a successful termination. But, glori 
ous as is his name as a soldier, his greatest glory lies 
in the moral excellence of his character, his spotless 
integrity, disinterested patriotism, and invincible for 
titude. He was patient under defeat, moderate in vic 
tory. And, if in any matter we see the especial hand 
of Providence, surely it is manifest in the remarkable 
preservation of him throughout the numerous and im 
minent dangers he passed during the Revolution. 

The time-enduring fame of the patriot, is too often 
lost amid the glitter of military renown, and the splen 
dor of actions miscalled great. "Mankind," says Dr. 
Channing, " when they hear of battles, the picture 
which rises to their view, is not what it should be a 
picture of extreme wretchedness, of the wounded, the 
mangled, the slain ! These horrors are hidden under 
the splendor of those mighty energies which break forth 
amid the perils of the conflict, and which human nature 
contemplates with an intense and heart-thrilling delight. 
Attention hurries from the heaps of the slaughtered to 
the victorious chief, whose single mind pervades and 
animates a host, and directs with stern composure the 
storm of battle, and the ruin which he spreads is for 
gotten in admiration of his power. Thus, war is the 
surest and speediest road to renown ; and war will 
never cease while the field of glory, and the most lux 
uriant laurels, grow from a root nourished with blood." 


Alexander Cesar Napoleon ! In the halo of ad 
miration with which we surround the names of these 
conquerors, do we not thoughtlessly lose sight of the 
horror and misery which strews the path to their great 
ness ? The wars waged by them, what were they but 
heaps of slaughter to create for themselves a mon 
ument of military fame? Ambition Self was the 
object of their energies ! Turning from these, how in 
finitely more of intrinsic worth and real greatness, 
purity of purpose, and love of country, are we called 
upon to admire in the character of a Washington and 
a Marion ! " The characters of these, judged by pos 
terity, have risen in the estimation of men, whilst in 
the career of Cromwell, Marlborough, Charles XII, 
and other warriors, it is prominently glaring how pat 
riotism dwindled as a motive until utterly lost amidst 
baser sentiments." 


A. PAGE. 45. 

AFTER this, Mr. Bradley, was frequently carted to the 
gallows to witness the execution of his countrymen as 
rebels, and told to prepare for a similar fate next time. 
On such occasions, and when interrogated at courts- 
martial, he made no other reply than that " I am 
ready and willing to die in the cause of my country ; 
but remember, if I am hanged, I have many friends in 
General Marion s brigade, and my death will occasion 
a severe retaliation." Either awed by his virtues, or 
apprehensive of consequences, his captors did not ex 
ecute their threats. His life was spared, but he was 
kept in irons as long as the British had possession of the 
upper country. He bore the marks of these rugged 
instruments of confinement till the day of his death, 
and would occasionally show them to his young friends, 
with a request " that if the good of their country re 
quired the sacrifice, they would suffer imprisonment 
and death in its cause." Vide RAMSAY, vol. 2. p. 403. 

B. PAGE. 70. 

The rapid movements of Marion, and effectual ser 
vice he rendered the patriotic cause, at this early period 
of his military career, are thus mentioned in his own 
official correspondence with Gen. Gates. On the 29th 
Aug. 1780, he writes from Pedee " As the militia 



is not under my command, some days I have not more 
than a dozen with me. On Sep. 4th, marched with 
53 men to attack a body of 200 Tories, who intended 
to surprise me: surprised a party of 45, killed and 
wounded all but fifteen, who escaped : met and at 
tacked the main body, and put them to flight, though 
they had 200 men."" Marched to Black Mingo, Sept. 
24th, where was a guard of sixty of the [royalist] 
militia; attacked them on the 28th; killed 3, wounded 
and took 13 prisoners. I had 1 captain and 1 private 
killed ; 1 captain, 1 lieutenant, and 6 privates wounded; 
several of the enemy have since been found dead in a 
swamp to which they took. So many of my men were 
desirous of seeing their wives and families which have 
been burnt out, that I found it necessary to retreat next 
morning. The prisoners taken are men of fortune and 
family, which I hope will check the militia from taking 
arms against us." Vide GORDON, vol. 3. p. 112. 

C. PAGE. 77. 

Marion writes to Gates, Oct. 18th, 1780 "I have 
never yet had more than 70 men to act with me, and 
sometimes they leave me to 20 or 30." " Nov. 4th. 
I crossed Pedee the 24th Oct ; the next night came up 
with 200 men under Col. Tynes, whom I surprised ; 
killed 6, wounded 14, and took prisoners 23, and got 
80 horses and saddles, and as many stand of arms. 
The Colonel made his escape ; but, sending a party to 
the High Hills of Santee, he fell into our hands, with 
several other prisoners, and some who have heen very 
active against us and great plunderers. The militia 
are now turning out better than they have done. At 
present I have upwards of 200 men, and expect that 


in three or four days it will be double." " Black-river, 
Nov. 9th, Col Tarieton [with his corps] has burnt all 
the houses, and destroyed all the corn, from Camden 
down to Nelson s ferry ; has behaved to the poor wo 
men with great barbarity ; beat Mrs. Richardson, the 
relict of Gen. Richardson, to make her tell where I 
was, and has not left her a change of raiment. He 
not only destroyed all the corn, but burnt a number of 
cattle in the houses he fired. It is distressing to see 
the women and children sitting in the open air round a 
fire without a blanket, and women of family and that 
had ample fortunes ; for he spares neither Whig nor 
Tory. Most of the inhabitants to the southward are 
ready and eager to take up arms against their task- 
masters." " Nov. 21st, Tarieton retreated to Camden, 
after destroying most of the houses and provisions on 
the High Hills of Santee. I am obliged to act with so 
few, as not to have it in my power to do any thing 
effectual for want of men and ammunition." GORDON, 
vol. 3. p. 113. 

D. PAGE. 93. 

The distinction of Whig and Tory took its rise 
from the very beginning of the Revolutionary struggle. 
Both parties in the interior country were then embodied, 
and were obliged to impress provisions for their res 
pective support. The advocates for Congress prevail 
ing, they paid for articles consumed in their camps ; 
but as no funds were provided for discharging the ex 
penses incurred by the royalists, all that was consumed 
by them was considered as robbery. 

This laid the foundation of a practical war between 
Whigs and Tories, which was productive of great dis- 


tress, and deluged the country with blood. After the 
capitulation of Charleston, political hatred raged with 
intense fury. In numerous instances the ties of nature 
were dissolved. Countrymen, neighbors, friends, and 
brothers took different sides. In every little precinct, 
more especially in the interior parts of the state, 
" king s-men" and " congress-men" were names of 
distinction. Bad passions on both sides were kept in 
continual agitation, and wrought up to a degree of 
fury, which rendered individuals regardless not only 
of the laws of war, but of the principles of humanity. 
While the British had the ascendency, their partizans 
gave full scope to their interested and malicious feel 
ings. Persons of the worst character emerged from 
their hiding-places in the swamps, called themselves 
" king s-men," and appropriated to their own use 
whatever came in their way. Every act of cruelty 
and injustice was lawful, provided the actor called 
himself a friend to the king, and the sufferer was 
denominated a rebel. 

Of those who were well-disposed to the patriotic side 
of the contest, few were*, o be found who had not their 
houses and plantations repeatedly rifled. Under the 
sanction of subduing rebellion, private revenge was in 
numberless instances gratified by cold-blooded murder. 
In fact, rapine, outrage and murder, became so fre 
quent as to interrupt the free intercourse between one 
place and another, and people were obliged either en 
tirely to abandon their home, or to sleep in woods and 
swamps. RAMSAY, vol. 2. p. 446. 


E. PAGB 94. 

IN consequence of the civil wars between Whigs and 
Tories, and other calamities, resulting from the opera 
tions of the British and American armies, South Caro 
lina exhibited scenes of distress which were shocking to 
humanity. The single district of Ninety-Six contained 
within its limits fourteen hundred widows and orphans: 
made so by the war. The American government was 
suspended, and the British conquerors were careless of 
the civil rights of the inhabitants. They conducted as 
though interior order and police were scarcely objects 
of attention. The will of the strongest was the law. 
Such was the general complexion of those who called 
themselves Royalists, that nothing could be expected 
of them but outrages against the peace and order of 
society. They were an ignorant, unprincipled banditti, 
to whom idleness, licentiousness, and deeds of violence, 
were familiar ; and others whose atrocities had exiled 
them from society, attached themselves to parties of the 
British ; and encouraged by their example, and insti 
gated by the love of plunder, they committed the most 
extensive depredations. Under the cloak of attachment 
to the old government, they covered the basest and most 
selfish purposes. The necessity which their indiscrimi 
nate plundering imposed on all good men of defending 
themselves, did infinitely more damage to the Royal 
cause than was compensated by all the advantages re 
suiting from their friendship. Vide RAMSAY, vol. 2, 
p. 452. 


R PAGE 111. 

Lord Corn wall is, after the action with Greene near 
Guilford Court House, crossing Deep-river, marched for 
Wilmington, and afterwards concluded upon marching 
to Virginia. He arrived at Petersburg on the 20th of 
May 1781. The young Marquis de La Fayette com 
manded the American army, and so superior to the 
American force did Cornwallis feel himself, that he ex- 
ulted in the prospect of success, and despising the youth 
of La Fayette, he unguardedly wrote to Great Britain 
" the boy cannot escape me" La Fayette s little army 
consisted of 1000 continentals, 2000 militia, and 60 
dragoons. Cornwallis proceeded from Petersburg to 
James river, which he crossed in order to dislodge La 
Fayette from Richmond : it was evacuated on the 27th. 
His lordship then marched through Hanover county, 
and crossed the South Anna river ; La Fayette con 
stantly following his motions, but at a guarded distance 
in every part of his progress. His lordship at one time 
planned the surprisal of the Marquis ; but was diverted 
from his intention by a spy, whom the latter had sent 
into the British camp. The following account of the 
manner in which this spy got into the camp and out 
again is not without interest. 

Very desirous of obtaining full intelligence concern 
ing the movements of his enemy, La Fayette had con 
cluded upon prevailing, if possible, upon one Charles 
(generally called Charley) Morgan, a Jersey soldier, of 
whom he entertained a favorable opinion, to turn de 
serter, and go over to the British army, in order to his 
executing the business of a spy the more effectually. 
Charley was sent for, and agreed to undertake the haz 
ardous employ ; but insisted that in case he should be 


discovered and hanged, La Fayette, to secure his repu 
tation, should have it inserted in the Jersey paper that 
he was sent upon the service by his Commander. This 
was promised him.* Charley then deserted, and, when 
he had reached the royal army, was carried before 
Corn wallis, who inquired into the reason of his deserting. 

" I have been, my lord," said Charley, " with the 
American army from the beginning, and while under 
Gen. Washington, was satisfied ; but being put under a 
Frenchman, I do not like it, and have left the service." 

Cornwallis commended and rewarded his conduct. 
Charley was very diligent in the discharge of his mili 
tary duty, and was not in the least suspected ; but at 
the same time carefully observed all that passed. One 
day, while on duty with his comrades, Cornwallis, in 
close conversation with some of his officers, called 
Charley to him and said, 

" How long time will it take the Marquis de La Fay 
ette to cross James river?" 

Charley paused for a moment, and answered, "Three 
hours, my lord." 

" Three hours ! why it will take three days." 

" No, my lord," said Charley, " the Marquis has so 
many boats, and each boat will carry so many men. 
If your lordship will be at the trouble of calculating, you 
will find he can cross in three hours." 

Cornwallis turned to the officers, and in the hearing 
of Charley remarked, " The scheme will not do." 

Charley concluded that this was the time for his re 
turning to the American camp. He, as soon as possi 
ble, plied his comrades with grog till they were well 
warmed, and then opened his masked battery. He 
complained of the wants that prevailed in the British 
camp, commended the supplies with which the Ameri- 


cans abounded, expressed his inclination to return, and 
then asked, " What say you, will you go with me ?" 
They agreed. It was left to him to manage with the 
sentinels. To the first he offered, in a very friendly 
manner, the taking of a draught of rum from his can 
teen. While the fellow was drinking, Charley secured 
his arms, and then proposed his deserting with them, 
to which he consented through necessity. The second 
was served in like manner, and Charley by his manage 
ment carried off seven deserters with him. When he 
had reached the American army, and was brought into 
the presence of La Fayette, the Marquis, upon seeing 
him, cried out " Ha ! Charley, are you got back ?" 

" Yes, and please your Excellency, and have brought 
seven more with me," was Charley s respectful answer. 

When Charley had related the reason of his return 
ing, and the observations he had made, the Marquis 
offered him money. But Charley declined it, and only 
desired to have his gun again. The Marquis proposed 
to promote him to the rank of a corporal or sergeant. 

" I will not have any promotion, your Excellency," 
Charley replied. " I have abilities for a common sol 
dier, and have a good character. Should I be promoted, 
my abilities may not answer, and I might lose my 
character." He, however, nobly requested for his fel 
low-soldiers, who were not so well supplied with shoes, 
stockings and clothing as himself, that the Marquis 
would promise to do what he could to relieve their dis 
tress. Vide GORDON, vol. 3, p. 207. 

G. PAGE 151. 

This treason had for its object the purpose of seizing 
Gen. Greene and delivering him over to the British. 
Four sergeants of the Pennsylvania line, headed by one 


named Gornell, and a few others, were concerned in 
this conspiracy. Gornell was a soldier heretofore much 
esteemed, and possessed talents adapted to enterprize. 
It was discovered, the night before they were to put 
their meditated treachery into execution, that Gornell, 
and his associates, held continual correspondence with 
the enemy. Greene, acting with his customary de 
cision, ordered the arrest and trial of Gornell. This 
was immediately done ; and the prisoner being by the 
court-martial condemned to die, the sentence of the 
court was carried into effect on the 22d of April 1782. 


WILLIAM MOULTRIE, was a native of Great Britain, 
but emigrated to South Carolina at an early age. He 
served with distinction in the Cherokee war in 1760, 
and in its last campaign commanded a company. 
When difficulties occurred between the Mother Country 
and her Colonies in North America, he zealously es 
poused the cause of the latter, and, at the commence 
ment of the Revolution, we find him a member of the 
Provincial Congress, and a colonel of the second South 
Carolina regiment. For his brave defence of Sullivan s 
Island, he received the thanks of Congress, and the 
fort was afterwards called by his name. In 1779 he 
gained a victory over the British at Beaufort. He 
afterwards received the commission of major-general, 
and was second in command to Gen. Lincoln at the 
siege of Charleston. After the close of the war he 
was repeatedly elected governor of South Carolina. 
He published " Memoirs of the Revolution in the Caro- 
linas and Georgia," and died at Charleston in 1805. 

BENJAMIN LINCOLN, was born at Hingham, Mas 
sachusetts, in 1733, and was engaged in agricultural 
pursuits until he was forty years old. At the com 
mencement of the Revolution, he was elected a mem 
ber of the Provincial Congress ; received the commission 
of major-general in 1776, and vigorously employed 



himself in improving the discipline of the militia. He 
was second in command in the army which compelled 
the surrender of Burgoyne, at Saratoga, in October 
1777. On the day after the battle of Still water, he 
received a dangerous wound in one of his legs, and 
was confined for several months by its effects. He 
was subsequently appointed to the command of the 
Southern department, and while in this post attempted 
the defence of Charleston, but capitulated in May 1780. 
He was a prisoner until the November following, when 
he was exchanged, and in the year following he joined 
the army on the North River, NT. Y. Gen. Washington 
placed great confidence in his military talents, and at 
the siege of Yorktovvn he commanded a central division, 
sharing largely in the dangers and honors of the day. 
In 1781, he was appointed secretary of the war depart 
ment, and on several occasions commissioner to treat 
with the Indians. Peace being concluded, he returned 
to Massachusetts, and in 1786 was appointed to com 
mand the troops employed in the suppression of the 
insurgents in that state. The insurgents, commanded 
by Daniel Shays, were dispersed, and a few killed. 
In 1788, he was chosen lieutenant-governor of Mas 
sachusetts, and in 1789 he was a member of the con 
vention which ratified the constitution of the United 
States. He passed his days with honor, and closed 
his useful career in 1810. He was the author of sev 
eral interesting papers ; was a member of the Academy 
of Arts and Sciences, etc. 

JOHN RUTLEDGE, one of the earliest patriots of the 
Revolution, in which he took an active part, and ren- 


dered his countrymen, the most effecient services. He 
was a member of Congress, in 1774; commander-in- 
chief of the province of South Carolina, in 1776 ; gov 
ernor of it under the new constitution, in 1779 ; judge 
of the court of chancery in 1784 ; judge of the Su 
preme Court of the United States, in 1789; chief jus 
tice of South Carolina, in 1791 ; and chief justice of 
the United States, in 1796. His whole life, public and 
private, was that of a pure patriot and upright citizen. 
His death occurred in 1800. 

AUGUSTUS DE KALB, a German nobleman, entered 
the French service, and afterwards came to America. 
He received the rank of major-general in the army under 
Washington, and gained a high reputation as an officer. 
He fell, fighting desperately at the head of his soldiers, 
at the battle near Camden, in August 1780. As an 
officer he was brave and skillful, and universally be 
loved by those under his command. 

HORATIO GATES, was an Englishman by birth, 
(born in 1728,) and, having very early in life entered 
the British army, rose by his merits to the rank of 
major. He was under the command of Braddock in 
that unfortunate officer s expedition against Fort Du- 
quesne, and received in the famous battle with the In 
dians a severe wound, which debarred him from active 
service for some time. He settled in Virginia, where 
he resided till the commencement of the Revolution. 
Congress appointed him, in 1775, adjutant-general, 


with the rank of brigadier, and in 1776, he received 
the command of the army in Canada. In October 
1777, he captured the army under Burgoyne. In 1780, 
he was appointed to the chief command of the Southern 
department, but proved unsuccessful, and was super 
seded by Gen. Greene. He was restored to his com 
mand in 1782. After the war, he resided on his farm 
in Virginia for several years, but removed in 1790 to 
New York, where he lived much esteemed and res 
pected. He died in 1806. 

COUNT PULASKI, was a native of Poland, a celebrated 
soldier ; and he made brave, though successful, efforts 
to restore his country to independence. During the 
Revolution he came to America, and received the rank 
of brigadier-general in the American army. At the 
attack on Savannah in 1779, he was so seriously 
wounded that he survived but a short time. Congress 
voted to erect a monument to his memory. 

miral, born in Auvergne. He was under Lally in the 
East Indies, and escaped from an English prison by 
breaking his parole. He was commander of the French 
squadrons sent to assist the Americans, in their Revo 
lutionary struggle, and was gullotined during the Reign 
of Terror, arising out of the French Revolution. He 
suffered in 1783. 


CHARLES CORNWALLIS, son of the first Earl of 
Cornwallis, was born in 1738 ; educated at Westmin 
ster, and St. John s College, Cambridge, and then en 
tered the British army. In 1761 he succeeded to the 
title. During the Revolution, he commanded in the 
Southern states, and signalized himself at the siege of 
Charleston ; but was surrounded at Yorktovvn and 
compelled to capitulate. From 1786 to 1792, he was 
governor-general of, and commander-in-chief in, the 
British Indies. From 1798 to 1801, he was lord-lieu 
tenant of Ireland. The treaty of Amiens, in 1802, was 
signed by him. In 1804 he was again made governor- 
general of India, and died in the fol owing year, at 
Ghazepore, in the province of Benares. Sound prac 
tical sense, not brilliant talent, was the characteristic of 

SIR HENRY CLINTON, born in England, entered the 
British army, served in the Hanoverian war ; he was 
sent to America in 1775, with the rank of major-gen 
eral. He distinguished himself at the battle of Bunker 
Hill, evacuated Philadelphia in 1778, and took Charles 
ton in 1780 ; for this last service he was thanked by the 
House of Commons. He returned to England 1782, 
and soon after published an account of the " Campaign 
in 1781 83," which Cornwallis answered, and to 
which Sir Henry replied. He was governor of Gibral- 
ter in 1795, and died soon after. 


NATHANIEL GREENE, was born at Warwick, Rhode 
Island, in 1741, and though he enjoyed but limited op 
portunities of education, he early displayed a love of 
study, and industriously applied himself to the acquisi 
tion of such knowledge as was within his reach. He 
was elected to the state legislature in 1770. In 1774 
he enrolled himself as a private in a company called 
the Kentish guards, and from this situation he was ele 
vated to the command of three regiments, with the title 
of major-general. In 1776, he accepted from Congress 
a commission of brigadier-general, and distinguished 
himself by his skill and bravery at the battles of Trenton 
and Princeton. In 1778 he was appointed quarter 
master general, and rendered great service in the office 
by his talents for business. He presided at the court- 
martial which tried Major Andre, and was appointed to 
succeed the traitorous Arnold in command at West 
Point. But he held this post only a brief time, being 
appointed in that year (1780) to the command of the 
Southern army. He assumed the command in Decem 
ber, and in this situation displayed a prudence, intrepi 
dity and firmness that elevated him to the first rank 
among the officers of the American Revolution. In 
September 1781, he commanded at the famous victory 
of Eutaw Springs, for which he received from Congress 
a British standard and a gold medal, as a testimony of 
their value of his conduct and services. On the termi 
nation of hostilities, he returned to Rhode Island, and 
in 1785 removed with his family to Georgia, where he 
died suddenly in June (the 19th) of the following year. 
South Carolina had presented him with an estate worth 
10.000; Georgia, with an estate a few miles from 
Savannah, worth 5.000 ; and North Carolina, with 
25.000 acres of land in the state of Tennessee. 


HENRY LEE, a Virginian, born in 1756, graduated 
at Princeton college, and in 1776 was captain of one 
of the six companies of cavalry raised by his native 
state. These were afterwards embodied into one regi 
ment, and added, in 1777, to the main body of the pro 
vincials. At the battle of Germantown, Lee was se 
lected with his company to attend Washington as his 
body-guard. In 1780, with the rank of lieutenant- 
colonel, he was sent with his legion to the army of the 
south, and continued with it until the close of the war. 
In 1786 he was a delegate to Congress from the state 
of Virginia, and remained in that body until the adoption 
of the present constitution. In 1792 he was honored 
with the governor s chair of his native state, and in 
1799 was again a member of Congress, and while 
there he was selected to pronounce a funeral oration 
upon the death of Washington. In the latter years of 
his life he became embarrassed in his circumstances. 
He was severely wounded during the riot in Baltimore, 
1814, and his health declined. His death took place 
in 1818. It was while confined for debt within the 
limits of Spottsylvania county, that he prepared for 
publication his " Memoirs of the Southern War," pub 
lished in 1812 ; and from which excellent work a great 
amount of information has been obtained for the present 

THOMAS SUMPTER, a very distinguished soldier of 
the war in the southern states, was born in 1735. 
Governor Rutledge appointed him brigadier-general in 
1780, and his military career was bold and brilliant. 
He took his seat in the United States senate, in 1811, 
as a senator from the state of South Carolina. He 
died at the age of 97 in 1832. 


OTHO HOLLAND WILLIAMS, a native of Virginia, 
born in 1748. A company of riflemen was raised in 
Frederick county at the beginning of the Revolution, 
to which he was given the command, and he at once 
repaired to the American camp near Boston. At the 
capture of Fort Washington in New York, Williams 
was taken prisoner. After being exchanged, he com 
manded the 6th Maryland regiment, and was detached 
to South Carolina, and, with the rank of adjutant-gen 
eral, he continued to participate with zeal and activity 
in the dangers of the campaign. He was subsequently 
promoted to the rank of brigadier-general. He died 
in 1794. 

land, brought to America in his childhood, and educated 
at Princeton college, where he graduated in 1776. He 
studied law for a short time, but such was his interest 
in the Revolution, he entered the army as a lieutenant 
in Count Pulaski s legion, and distinguished himself by 
his efficiency and courage. After the war, he devoted 
himself to the practice of law ; and in 1787, he was 
chosen a delegate from South Carolina to represent that 
State in the Convention which framed the Constitution 
of the United States. Unavoidable absence prevented 
him from affixing his name to that instrument. He 
was afterwards governor of North Carolina, etc. His 
death occurred in 1820. His person was dignified ; as 
a soldier no man was ever more courageous ; his legal 
abilities were more than ordinary. 


JOHN EAGER HOWARD, a native of Baltimore city, 
born in 1752. He was one of the most distinguished 
officers of the American Revolution, and at the battle 
of Cowpens, he had in his hands the swords of seven 
British officers, who had surrendered to him personally. 
After the war he resided on his estate, near Baltimore, 
and the citizens of Maryland subsequently elected him 
to the dignity of governor of their state, and he was 
also a member of the United States Senate. He died 
at the age of seventy-five in 1827. " As a patriot and 
a soldier," said Gen. Greene, " Colonel Howard de 
served a statue of gold no less than Roman and Grecian 

WILLIAM WASHINGTON, born in Virginia, served 
in the Revolutionary war from the commencement of 
the contest, received a wound at the battle of Trenton, 
distinguished himself in the Southern campaigns, and 
commanded the cavalry at the battle of Cowpens. For 
his bravery and military skill at this battle, Congress 
presented him with a sword. It was his misfortune to 
be wounded and taken prisoner at Eutaw Springs, 
which deprived his country of his services for the re 
mainder of the war. He remained a prisoner until the 
conclusion of the war, after which he married, and 
settled in South Carolina ; in the legislature of which 
state he exhibited the talents and virtues of an honest 
statesman. His death took place in 1810. 


of Moira, in Ireland, and born in 1754, educated at Ox 
ford, travelled on the continent of Europe, and entered 
the British army as an ensign. He was among the 
troops sent to America at the commencement of the 
Revolution, and took part in the engagement at 
Bunker s Hill. He subsequently commanded in South 
Carolina, where he displayed considerable valor, and 
was perhaps the most efficient of the British officers in 
the Southern war. Illness obliged him to embark for 
Europe ; on the passage the ship in which he sailed 
was captured by the French, and taken into Brest ; he 
was soon released, and reached England, and was re 
warded for his exertions in America by being created 
a peer. In parliament he distinguished himself, and in 
1793, upon the death of his father, he succeeded to the 
title of Earl Moira. In 1794, with the rank of major- 
general, he commanded, under the duke of York, against 
the French armies in Holland. The Whigs -wished to 
place him at the head of the ministry in 1797, but 
were unsuccessful. In 1812, having for several years 
previous been employed in political negotiations, he re 
ceived the appointment of governor-general of British 
India, in which office he evidenced great abilities. He 
resigned in 1822, and returned to England. After 
which he was appointed governor of the island of Malta. 
He died in Nov. 1825. 

JOHN LAURENS, son of Henry Laurens, the Ameri 
can patriot and statesman, was liberally educated in 
England, and, having returned to his native country, 
joined the American army in 1777. He displayed pro- 


digies of valor at Brandy wine, German town, Monmouth, 
Savannah and Charleston, and was killed at the very 
close of the war in a slight skirmish. In 1780, he was 
sent as a special minister to France to negotiate a loan, 
and, after being subjected to a vexatious delay, he de 
termined to present a memorial to the king in person 
at the levee. This purpose he carried into effect: the 
memorial was graciously received by Louis XVI., and 
the object of negotiation satisfactorily arranged. He 
was but twenty-seven years old at the time of his death 
in 1782. 

GEORGE WASHINGTON, the illustrious founder of 
American independence, was born in 1732, in the 
county of Fairfax, in Virginia, where his father was 
possessed of great landed property. He was educated 
under the care of a private tutor, and paid much atten 
tion to the study of mathematics and engineering. He 
was first employed officially by General Dinwiddie, 
in 1753, in remonstrating to the French commander 
on the Ohio, for the infraction of the treaty between 
the two nations. He subsequently negotiated a treaty 
of amity with the Indians on the back settlements, and 
for his honorable services received the thanks of the 
British Government. In the unfortunate expedition 
of General Braddock he served as aid-de-camp, and on 
the fall of that brave but rash commander, he conducted 
the retreat to the corps under Colonel Dunbar in a 
manner that displayed great military talent. He re 
tired from the service with the rank of colonel, but 
while engaged in agriculture at his favorite seat of 
Mount Vernon, he was elected senator in the national 


council for Frederic county, and afterwards for Fair 
fax. At the commencement of the revolutionary war, 
he was selected as the most proper person to take the 
chief command of the provincial troops. From the 
moment of taking upon himself this important office, 
in June, 1775, he employed the great powers of his 
mind to his favorite object, and by his prudence, his 
valor, and presence of mind he deserved and obtained 
the confidence and gratitude of his country, and finally 
triumphed over all opposition. The record of his 
services is the history of the whole war. He joined 
the army at Cambridge in July, 1775. On the evacua 
tion of Boston in March, 1776, he proceeded to New 
York. The battle of Long Island was fought on the 
27th of August, and the battle of White Plains on the 
28th of October. On the 25th of December he crossed 
the Delaware, and soon gained the victories at Trenton 
and Princeton. The battle of Brandy wine was fought 
on September llth, 1777; of Germantown, October 
4th; of Monmouth, February 28th, 1778. In 1779 
and 1780 he continued in the vicinity of New York, 
and closed the important military operations of the war 
by the capture of Cornwallis, at Yorktown, in 1781. 
When the independence of his country was established 
by the treaty of peace, Washington resigned his high 
office to the congress, and, followed by the applause, 
and the grateful admiration of his fellow-citizens, re 
tired into private life. His high character and services 
naturally entitled him to the highest gifts his country 
could bestow, and on the organization of the govern 
ment he was called upon to be the first president of the 
states which he had preserved and established. It was 
a period of great difficulty and danger. The unsub 
dued spirit of liberty had been roused and kindled by 


the revolution of France, and many Americans were 
eager that the freedom and equality which they them 
selves enjoyed should be extended to the subjects of 
the French monarch. Washington anticipated the 
plans of the factious, and by prudence and firmness 
subdued insurrection, and silenced discontent, till the 
parties which the intrigues of Genet the French envoy 
had roused to rebellion, were convinced of the wildness 
of their measures and of the wisdom of their governor. 
The president completed, in 1796, the business of his 
office by signing a commercial treaty with Great 
Britain, and then voluntarily resigned his power at a 
moment when all hands and all hearts were united, again 
to confer upon him the sovereignty of the country. 
Restored to the peaceful retirement of Mount Vernon, 
he devoted himself to the pursuits of agriculture; and 
though he accepted the command of the army in 1798, 
it was merely to unite the affections of his fellow 
citizens to the general good, and was one more sacrifice 
to his high sense of duty. He died after a short ill 
ness on the 14th of December, 1799. He was buried 
with the honors due to the noble founder of a happy 
and prosperous republic. History furnishes no parallel 
to the character of Washington. He stands on an un- 
approached eminence ; distinguishad almost beyond 
humanity for self-command, intrepidity, soundness of 
judgment, rectitude of purpose, and deep ever active 

JOHN CADWALADER, was born in Philadelphia, and 
rose to the rank of brigadier-general in the American 
army during the revolutionary war. He was a man 


of inflexible courage, and possessed in a high degree 
the esteem and confidence of Washington. In 1778, 
he was appointed by Congress general of cavalry, an 
appointment which he declined on the score of being 
more useful in the situation he then occupied. After 
the war he was a member of the assembly of Mary 
land, and died in 1786, in the 44th year of his age. 

CHARLES LEE, a major-general in the army of the 
American revolution, was born in North Wales, and 
became an officer when very young. He served at 
an early age in America, and afterwards distinguished 
himself under General Burgoyne, in Portugal. He 
subsequently entered the Polish service, wandered all 
over Europe, killed an Italian officer in a duel, and in 
1773 sailed for New York. Espousing the cause of 
the colonies, he received a commission from Congress 
in 1775, with the rank of major-general. In 1776 he 
was invested with the command at New York, and 
afterwards with the chief command in the southern 
department. In December, 1776, he was made 
prisoner by the English, as he lay carelessly guarded 
at a considerable distance from the main body of the 
army in New Jersey. He was kept prisoner till the 
surrender of Burgoyne, in 1777, and treated in a man 
ner unworthy of a generous enemy. In 1778, he was 
arraigned before a court-martial, in consequence of his 
misconduct at the battle of Monmouth, and was sus 
pended from any commission in the army of the 
United States for one year. He retired to a hovel in 
Virginia, living in entire seclusion, surrounded by his 
books and his dogs. In 1782, he went to reside at 


Philadelphia, where he died in obscurity in October 
of the same year. He was a man of much energy 
and courage, with considerable literary attainments, 
but morose and avaricious. He published essays on 
military, literary and political subjects, which with his 
extensive correspondence were collected in a volume 
in 1792. The authorship of the Letters of Junius has 
been ascribed to him. 

RICHARD HENRY LEE, an eminent American patriot, 
and signer of the Declaration of Independence, was 
born in Virginia in 1732, and received his education 
in England. He returned to his native country when 
in his nineteenth year, and devoted himself to the 
general study of history, politics, law, and polite litera 
ture, without engaging in any particular profession. 
In his 25th year, he was chosen a delegate to the house 
of burgesses, where he soon distinguished himself by 
his powers in debate. In 1764, he was appointed to 
draught an address to the king, and a memorial to the 
house of lords, which are amongst the best state papers 
of the period. His efforts in resisting the various en 
croachments of the British government were indefati 
gable, and in 1774 he attended the first general Congress 
at Philadelphia, as a delegate from Virginia. He was 
a member of most of the important committees of this 
body, and laboured with unceasing vigilance and 
energy. The memorial of Congress to the people of 
British America, and the second address of Congress 
to the people of Great Britain, were both from his pen. 
In June, 1776, he introduced the measure that de 
clared the colonies free and independent states, and 


supported it by a speech of the most brilliant eloquence. 
He continued to hold a seat in Congress till June, 
1777, when he solicited leave of absence, on account 
of the delicate state of his health. In August of the 
next year, he was again elected to Congress, and con 
tinued in that body till 1780, when he declined a re 
election till 1784. In that year he was chosen presi 
dent of Congress, but retired at the close of it, and in 
1786 was again chosen a member of the Virginia 
assembly. He was a member of the convention which 
adopted the present constitution of the United States, 
and one of the first senators under it. In 1792 he 
again retired from public life, and died in 1794. 

PATRICK HENRY, an American orator and statesman, 
was born in Virginia in 1736, and after receiving a 
common school education, and spending some time in 
trade and agriculture, commenced the practice of the 
law, after only six weeks of preparatory study. After 
several years of poverty, with the encumbrance of a 
family, he first rose to distinction in managing the 
popular cause in the controversy between the legisla 
ture and the clergy, touching the stipend which was 
claimed by the latter. In 1765 he was elected a 
member of the house of burgesses, with express refer 
ence to an opposition to the British stamp act. In 
this assembly he obtained the honor of being the first 
to commence the opposition to the measures of the 
British government, which terminated in the revolu 
tion. He was one of the delegates sent by Virginia 
to the first general congress of the colonies, in 1774, 
and in that body distinguished himself by his boldness 


and eloquence. In 1776 he was appointed the first 
governor of the commonwealth, and to this office was 
repeatedly re-elected. In 1786 he was appointed by 
the legislature one of the deputies to the convention 
held at Philadelphia, for the purpose of revising the 
federal constitution. In 1788* he was a member of the 
convention, which met in Virginia to consider the 
constitution of the United States, and exerted himself 
strenuously against its adoption. In 1794 he retired 
from the bar, and died in 1799. Without extensive 
information upon legal or political topics, he was a 
natural orator of the highest order, possessing great 
powers of imagination, sarcasm and humor, united 
with great force and energy of manner, and a deep 
knowledge of human nature. 

THOMAS JEFFERSON was born in Albemarle county, 
Virginia, in 1743, and was entered a student in the 
college of William and Mary. On leaving this semi 
nary, he applied himself to the study of the law, 
under the tuition of the celebrated George Wythe, and 
was called to the bar in 1766. He soon occupied a 
high stand in his profession, and at the early age of 
twenty-five entered the house of burgesses of his 
native state. In 1774 he published a Summary View 
of the Rights of British America, a bold but respectful 
pamphlet addressed to the king. In 1775 he was 
elected a member of the continental congress, and in 
the following year draughted the Declaration of Inde 
pendence. Between 1777 and 1779 he was employed 
together with George Wythe and Edmund Pendleton 
on a commission for revising the laws of Virginia. In 


1779 he was elected governor of Virginia, and con 
tinued in office until June, 1781. In the latter year 
he commenced his celebrated Notes on Virginia, and 
in 1787 published it under his own signature. In 
November, 1783, he again took his seat in the con 
tinental congress, and in May following was appointed 
minister plenipotentiary, to act abroad with Adams and 
Franklin in the negotiation of commercial treaties. In 
1785 he was appointed to succeed Dr. Franklin as 
minister to the court of Versailles, and performed the 
duties of this office till 1789, when he returned to his 
native country and was placed by President Washington 
at the head of the department of state. In 1797 he 
became vice-president, and in 1801 president of the 
United States. At the expiration of eight years he 
again retired to private life, and took up his residence 
at Monticello. He still continued anxious to promote 
the interest of science and literature, and devoted the 
attention of several years to the establishment of a 
university in Virginia. He died on the fourth of July, 
1826, the fiftieth anniversary of the Declaration of In 
dependence. In stature Mr. Jefferson was six feet 
and two inches high. His person was erect and well 
formed, though spare. In his manners he was simple 
and unaffected, simple in his habits, and incessantly 
occupied with the pursuits of business or study. Four 
volumes of his Correspondence have been published 
since his decease. 

NICHOLAS BIDDLE, an American naval officer was 
born in Philadelphia, in 1750. He entered the 
British fleet in 1770, having previously served several 


years as a seaman on board merchant ships. On the 
commencement of hostilities between the colonies and 
the mother country, he returned to Philadelphia, and 
received from Congress the captaincy of the Andrew 
Doria, a brig of 14 guns, employed in the expedition 
against New Providence. Towards the close of 1776, 
he received command of the Randolph, a new frigate 
of 32 guns, with which he soon captured a Jamaica 
fleet of four sail richly laden. This prize he carried 
into Charleston, and was soon after furnished by the 
government of that town with four additional vessels, 
to attack several British cruisers, at that time harassing 
the commerce of the vicinity. He fell in with the 
royal line of battle ship Yarmouth, of 64 guns, on the 
7th of March, 1778, and after an action of twenty 
minutes, perished with all his crew except four, by the 
blowing up of the ship. 

JOHNSON BLAKELY, a captain in the United States 
navy during the late war, was born in Ireland in 1781. 
TWO years after, his father emigrated to the United 
States and settled in North Carolina. Young Blakely 
was placed, in 1796, at the university of North Caro 
lina, but circumstances having deprived him of the 
means of adequate support, he left college, and in 1800 
obtained a midshipman s warrant. In 1813 he was 
appointed to the command of the Wasp, and in this 
vessel took his Brittanic Majesty s ship Reindeer, after 
an action of nineteen minutes. The Wasp afterwards 
put into L Orient ; from which port she sailed August 
27th. On the evening of the first of September, 1814, 
she fell in with four sail, at considerable distances 


from each other. One of these was the brig-of-war 
Avon, which struck after a severe action ; but Captain 
B. was prevented from taking possession by the ap 
proach of another vessel. The enemy reported that 
they had sunk the Wasp by the first broadside, but 
she was afterwards spoken by a vessel off the Western 
Isles. After this we hear of her no more. Captain 
Blakely was considered a man of uncommon courage 
and intellect. 

DANIEL BOONE, one of the earliest settlers in 
Kentucky, was born in Virginia, and was from in 
fancy addicted to hunting in the woods. He set out 
on an expedition to explore the region of Kentucky, in 
May, 1769, with five companions. After meeting with 
a variety of adventures, Boone was left with his 
brother, the only white men in the wilderness. They 
passed the winter in a cabin, arid in the summer of 
1770 traversed the country to the Cumberland river. 
In September, 1773, Boone commenced his removal 
to Kentucky with his own and five other families. He 
was joined by forty men, who put themselves under 
his direction ; but being attacked by the Indians, the 
whole party returned to the settlements on Clinch 
river. Boone was afterwards employed by a company 
of North Carolina, to buy, from the Indians, lands on 
the south side of the Kentucky river. In April, 1775, 
he built a fort at Salt-spring, where Boonesborough is 
now situated. Here he sustained several sieges from 
the Indians, and was once taken prisoner by them 
while hunting with a number of his men. In 1782 
the depredations of the savages increased to an alarm- 


ing extent, and Boone, with other militia officers, col 
lected one hundred and seventy-six men, and went in 
pursuit of a large body, who had marched beyond the 
Blue Licks, forty miles from Lexington. From that 
time till 1798, he resided alternately in Kentucky and 
Virginia. In that year, having received a grant of 
two thousand acres of land from the Spanish autho 
rities; he removed to Upper Louisiana, with his children 
and followers, who were presented with eight hun 
dred acres each. He settled with them at Charette, 
on the Missouri river, where he followed his usual 
course of life, hunting and trapping bears, till Sep 
tember, 1822, when he died in the eighty-fifth year of 
his age. He expired while on his knees, taking aim 
at some object, and was found in that position, with 
his gun resting on the trunk of a tree. 

JOHN BURGOYNE, was a natural son of Lord Bingley 
he entered early into the army; and in 1762 displayed 
much talent and enterprise, in command of a party of 
British troops in Portugal. In the American war, h* 
led the army which was to penetrate from Canada 
into the revolted provinces. At first, he was success 
ful ; but, insuperable obstacles thickening round him, 
he was ultimately compelled to surrender at Saratoga. 
Disgusted by the conduct of the ministry after his re 
turn, he resigned all his employments. He died in 
August, 1792. Burgoyne wrote the dramas of the 
Heiress, the Maid of the Oaks, the Lord of the Manor, 
and Richard Coeur de Lion ; some pamphlets in his 
own defence ; and a Probationary Ode. 


JOHN CHAMPE, a soldier in the American Revolution, 
was born in Louden county, Virginia. In the year 
1776 he was appointed a sergeant-major in Lee s regi 
ment of cavalry, and after the discovery of Arnold s 
treason was employed by Washington in a service of 
much danger and difficulty; this was, to visit the 
British army as a deserter, in order to ascertain if any 
other American officers were engaged in that conspiracy, 
and to secure if possible the person of Arnold. In the 
latter object of his enterprise he unfortunately failed, 
but he effected his own escape in safety, and returned 
to his companions. Washington treated him munifi 
cently, and presented him with his discharge from 
further service, lest, in the vicissitudes of war, he should 
fall into the hands of the enemy, and perish upon a 
gibbet. He died in Kentucky about the year 1797 

GEORGE ROGERS CLARKE, colonel in the service of 
Virginia against the Indians in the revolutionary war, 
distinguished himself greatly in that post, and rendered 
efficient service to the inhabitants of the frontiers. In 
1779 he descended the Ohio and built fort Jefferson 
on the eastern bank of the Mississippi; in 1781 he re 
ceived a general s commission. He died in 1817 at 
his seat near Louisville, Kentucky. 

RICHARD DALE, an American naval commander, was 
born in Virginia in 1756. At twelve years of age he 
was sent to sea, and in 1776 he entered as a midship 
man on board of the American brig of war Lexington. 



In the following year he was taken prisoner by a 
British cruiser, and after a twelve month confinement 
lie escaped from Mill prison, and succeeded in reach 
ing France. Here he joined, in the character of 
master s mate, the celebrated Paul Jones, then com 
manding the American ship Bon Homme Richard. 
He was soon raised to the rank of first lieutenant and 
signalized himself in the sanguinary engagement be 
tween the Bon Homme Richard and the English 
frigate Serapis. In 1794, the United States made him 
a captain in the navy, and in 1801 he took command 
of the American squadron which sailed in that year 
from Hampton roads to the Mediterranean. From the 
year 1802, he passed his life in Philadelphia, in the 
enjoyment of a competent estate, and much esteemed 
by his fellow-citizens. He died in 1826, leaving the 
reputation of a brave and intelligent seaman. 

STEPHEN DECATUR, a distinguished officer in the 
navy of the United States, was born in Maryland iu 
1779, and received his education in Philadelphia. 
He entered the navy in 1798, and first distinguished 
himself when in the rank of lieutenant, by the destruc 
tion of the American frigate Philadelphia, which had 
run upon a rock in the harbor of Tripoli, and fallen 
into the hands of the enemy. For this exploit, the 
American Congress gave him a vote of thanks and a 
sword, and the president immediately sent him a cap 
taincy. At the bombardment of Tripoli the next year, 
he distinguished himself by the capture of two of the 
enemy s boats, which were moored along the mouth 
of the harbor, and immediately under the batteries. 


When peace was concluded with Tripoli, Decatur re 
turned home in the Congress, and afterward succeeded 
Commodore Barron in the command of the Chesapeake. 
In the late war between Great Britain and the United 
States, his chief exploit was the capture of the British 
frigate Macedonian, commanded by Captain Garden. 
In January, 1815, he attempted to sail from New 
York, which was then blockaded by four British ships ; 
but the frigate under his command was injured in pass 
ing the bar, and was captured by the whole squadron, 
after a running fight of two or three hours. He was 
restored to his country after the conclusion of peace. 
In the summer of the same year, he was sent with a 
squadron to the Mediterranean, in order to compel the 
Algerines to desist from their depredations on American 
commerce. He arrived at Algiers on the twenty-eighth 
of June, and in less than forty-eight hours terrified 
the regency into an entire accession to all his terms. 
Thence he went to Tripoli, where he met with like 
success. On returning to the United States, he was 
appointed a member of the Board of Commissioners 
for the navy, and held that office till March, 1820, 
when he was shot in a duel with Commodore Barron. 
He was a man of an active and powerful frame, and 
possessed a high degree of energy, sagacity, and 

GEORGE WYTHE, a signer of the Declaration of 
American Independence, was born in Virginia in 1726. 
His early course was dissipated, but at the age of thirty 
he .reformed, turned his attention to literature, studied 
law and commenced its practice. At the breaking out 


of the revolution he was a distinguished leader of the 
popular party. He was for some time speaker of the 
house of burgesses, and in 1775 was elected a member 
of Congress. He was one of the committee to revise 
the laws of Virginia in 1776, and had a principal 
share in preparing the code adopted in 1779. Soon 
after he was appointed one of the three judges of the 
high court of chancery, and subsequently sole counsel 
lor. He was a member of the convention of Virginia 
to consider the constitution of the United States. 
His death, which was attributed to poison, took place 
in 1806. 

JOHN PAUL JONES, a native of Scotland, was born 
in 1747, at Selkirk, and settled in America when young. 
He distinguished himself by his bravery in the 
American service, during the contest with the mother 
country, particularly in a desperate action with the 
Serapis frigate, which he captured. He died in Paris 
in 1792, and was buried at the expense of the national 
convention. Jones was not only a man of signal 
courage, but also of great talent, and keen sagacity, 
wrote poetry, and in France aspired to be a man of 
fashion. His memorials and correspondence are quite 

GEORGE WALTON, a signer of the Declaration of 
American Independence, was born in Frederic county, 
Virginia, about the year 1740. He was early ap 
prenticed to a carpenter, but at the expiration of his 


apprenticeship he removed to Georgia and entered the 
office of an attorney at law. In 1776 he was elected 
to the continental congress. At the siege of Savannah 
he was wounded and taken prisoner, but was exchanged 
in September, 1779. In the following month he was 
appointed governor of the state, and in the succeeding 
January was elected a member of Congress for two 

DAVID RAMSEY, an American historian, was born in 
Pennsylvania, in 1749, was educated at Princeton 
College, and commenced the study of medicine. After 
practising a short time in Maryland, he removed to 
Charleston, South Carolina, in 1773, and soon rose 
to an extensive practice. He took an active and early 
part in the cause of the colonies, and was for some 
time a surgeon in the revolutionary army. In 1782 
he was chosen to a seat in Congress. He wrote a 
History of the Revolution in South Carolina ; a History 
of the American Revolution ; a Life of Washington ; a 
History of South Carolina ; and a History of the 
United States. He died in 1815. 

officer of the revolutionary army, was born in South 
Carolina, received his education in England, and 
studied law in the Temple. On returning to his 
native province in 1769, he devoted himself to the 
successful practice of his profession. On the com 
mencement of hostilities he renounced law for the 


study of military tactics, and was soon promoted to 
the command of the first regiment of Carolina infantry. 
He was subsequently aid-de-camp to Washington, and 
in this capacity at the battles of Brandywine and 
Germantown. On the surrender of Charleston he 
was taken prisoner, and remained so till all opportunity 
of gaining fresh reputation in the field, had passed. 
He was a member of the convention which formed 
the federal constitution, and in 1796 was appointed 
minister to France. When preparations were making 
for war on account of the expected French invasion, 
Mr. Pinckney was nominated a major-general, but he 
soon had an opportunity of retiring to the quiet of 
private life. He was afterwards president of the 
Cincinnati Society of the United States. He died in 

DANIEL MORGAN, a distinguished officer in the army 
of the American Revolution, was born in New Jersey, 
and removed to Virginia in 1755. He enlisted in 
Braddock s expedition as a private soldier, and on the 
defeat of that general returned to his occupation as a 
farmer. At the commencement of the Revolution he 
was appointed to the command of a troop of horse, 
and joined the army under Washington, then in the 
neighbourhood of Boston. He distinguished himself 
very much in the expedition against Quebec, where 
he fell into the hands of the enemy. On the exchange 
of prisoners, he rejoined the American army, was ap 
pointed to the command of a select rifle corps, and 
detached to assist General Gates on the northern fron 
tier, where he contributed materially to the capture of 


General Burgoyne. After a short retirement from 
service, on account of ill health, he was appointed 
brigadier-general by brevet, and commanded at the 
force by which Colonel Tarleton was routed at the 
battle of Cowpens. He soon after resigned his com 
mission. In 1794 he commanded the militia of 
Virginia called out to suppress the insurrection in 
Pennsylvania, and continued in the service till 1795. 
He afterwards was elected to a seat in Congress. He 
died in 1799. 

JAMES NICHOLSON, an officer in the American navy, 
was born in Chestertown, Maryland, in 1737. He 
followed the life of a sailor till the year 1763, when 
he married and settled in the city of New York. 
Here he remained until 1771, when he returned to his 
native province. At the commencement of the Revolu 
tion, the government of Maryland built and equipped 
a ship of war, called the Defence, and the command 
of her was intrusted to Nicholson. He performed 
various exploits during the war, and before the close 
of it was taken prisoner and carried into New York. 
He died in 1806. 

JAMES MONROE, President of the United States, 
born in Virginia, in 1759, and was educated in William 
and Mary College. He entered the revolutionary war 
in 1776 as a cadet, was at the battles of Haerlem 
Heights and White Plains, and in the attack on Trenton, 
and rose through the rank of lieutenant to that of cap- 


tain. He was present at the battles of Brandywine. 
Germantown, and Monmouth, as aid to Lord Sterling* 
Resuming the study of the law, he entered the office 
of Mr. Jefferson, and after being a member of the 
assembly of Virginia and the council, he was elected 
in 1783, a member of the old Congress. In 1790 he 
was elected a member of the Senate of the United 
States, in 1794 went as minister plenipotentiary to 
France, and in 1799 was appointed governor of 
Virginia. In 1803 he was appointed minister extra 
ordinary to France, in the same year minister to Lon 
don, and in the next minister to Spain. In 1806 he 
was again appointed in conjunction with Mr. William 
Pinkney, minister to London. He was subsequently 
governor of Virginia ; in 1811 was appointed secretary 
of state, and continued to exercise the duties of this 
department, and for some time those of the department 
of war, till 1817. In that year he was chosen presi 
dent of the Union, and in 1821 was re-elected by a 
vote, unanimous, with the single exception of one vote 
in New Hampshire. He died in New York, on the 
fourth of July, 1831. 

ARTHUR MIDDLETON, a signer of the Declaration of 
American Independence, was born in South Carolina 
in 1743, and received his education in Europe. Soon 
after his return home, he began to take an active part 
in the revolutionary movements, and in 1776 was 
chosen one of the delegates from his native state to the 
American Congress. At the close of the year 1777 
he resigned his seat, leaving behind a character for 
the purest patriotism and unwavering resolution. In 


the year 1779 many of the southern plantations were 
ravaged, and that of Mr. Middleton did not escape. 
On the surrender of Charleston he was taken prisoner 
and kept in confinement for nearly a year. In 1781 
he was appointed a representative to Congress, and 
again in 1782. In the latter year he went into retire 
ment, and died in 1787. 

JOHN ADAMS, a distinguished patriot of the American 
Revolution, was born in 1735, at Braintree, Massachu 
setts. He was educated at the University of Cam 
bridge, and received the degree of master of arts in 
1758. At this time he entered the office of Jeremiah 
Gridley, a lawyer of the highest eminence, to complete 
his legal studies ; and in the next year he was admitted 
to the bar of Suffolk. Mr. Adams at an early age es 
poused the cause of his country, and received numer 
ous marks of the public confidence and respect. He 
took a prominent part in every leading measure, and 
served on several committees which reported some of 
the most important state papers of the time. He was 
elected a member of the Congress, and was among the 
foremost in recommending the adoption of an indepen 
dent government. It has been affirmed by Mr. Jeffer 
son himself, " that the great pillar of support to the 
Declaration of Independence, and its ablest advocate 
and champion on the floor of the house was John 
Adams." In 1777 he was chosen commissioner to 
the court of Versailles, in the place of Mr. Dean, who 
was recalled. On his return, about a year afterwards, 
he was elected a member of the convention to prepare 
a form of government for the state of Massachusetts, 


and placed on the sub-committee chosen to draught the 
project of a constitution. Three months after his re 
turn, Congress sent him abroad with two commissions, 
one as a minister plenipotentiary to negotiate a peace, 
the other to form a commercial treaty with Great 
Britain. In June, 1780, he was appointed in the place 
of Mr. Laurens ambassador to Holland, and in 1782 
he repaired to Paris, to commence the negotiation for 
peace, havjng previously obtained assurance that Great 
Britain would recognise the independence of the 
United States. At the close of the war Mr. Adams was 
appointed the first minister to London. In 1789 he 
was elected vice-president of the United States, and 
on the resignation of Washington, succeeded to the 
presidency in 1797. After his term of four years had 
expired, it was found, on the new election, that his 
adversary, Mr. Jefferson, had succeeded by the majority 
of one vote. On retiring to his farm in Quincy, Mr. 
Adams occupied himself with agriculture, obtaining 
amusement from the literature and politics of the day. 
The remaining years of his life were passed in almost 
uninterrupted tranquillity. He died on the fourth of 
July, 1826, with the same words on his lips, which 
> fifty years before, on that glorious day, he had uttered 
on the floor of Congress " Independence for ever." 
Mr. Adams is the author of An Essay on Canon and 
Feudal Law ; a series of letters published under the 
signature of Novanglus ; and Discourses on Davila. 

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, a philosopher and statesman, 
the son of a soap-boiler and tallow chandler, was born 
in 1706, at Boston, in America. He was apprenticed 


as a printer to his brother, at Boston. It was while 
he was with his brother that he began to try his 
powers of literary composition. Street ballads and 
articles in a newspaper were his first efforts. Dis 
satisfied with the manner in which he was treated by 
his relative, he, at the age of seventeen, privately 
quitted him, and went to Philadelphia, where he ob 
tained employment. Deluded by a promise of patron 
age from the governor, Sir William Keith, he visited 
England to procure the necessary materials, for esta 
blishing a printing office in Philadelphia ; but, on his 
arrival at London, he found that he had been deceived, 
and he was obliged to work as a journeyman for 
eighteen months. While he was in the British 
metropolis, he wrote a Dissertation on Liberty and 
Necessity, Pleasure and Pain. In 1726 he returned 
to Philadelphia ; not long after which he entered into 
business as a printer and stationer, and, in 1728, esta- 
tablished a newspaper. His prudence soon placed 
him among the most prosperous of the citizens, and 
the influence which prosperity naturally gave was en 
hanced by his activity and talent. Chiefly by his ex 
ertions, a public library, a fire preventing company, an 
insurance company, and a voluntary association for 
defence, were established at Philadelphia. In 1732, 
he began Poor Richard s Almanac. His first public 
employment was that of clerk to the general assembly 
of Pennsylvania ; his next that of postmaster; and he 
was subsequently chosen as a representative. Philoso 
phy, also, now attracted his attention, and he began 
those inquiries into the nature of electricity, the results 
of which have ranked him high among men of science. 
In 1753, he was appointed deputy postmaster-general 
of British America ; and from 1757 to 1762, he resided 


in London, as agent for Pennsylvania and other colonies. 
The last of these offices was intrusted to him again in 
1764, and he held it till the breaking out of the con 
test in 1775. After his return to America, he took an 
active part in the cause of liberty, and, in 1778, he 
was despatched, by the Congress, as ambassador to 
France. The treaty of alliance with the French 
government, and the treaties of peace, in 1782 and 
1783, as well as treaties with Sweden and Prussia, 
were signed by him. On his reaching Philadelphia, 
in September, 1785, his arrival was hailed by applaud 
ing thousands of his countrymen, who conducted him 
in triumph to his residence. He died April 17th T 
1790. His Memoirs, written by himself, but left un 
finished, and his Philosophical, Political, and Mis 
cellaneous Works, have been published by his grand 
son, in six volumes octavo. 

SAMUEL ADAMS, one of the most remarkable men 
connected with the American Revolution, was born at 
Boston in 1722. He was educated at Harvard College, 
and received his honors in 1740. He was one of the 
first who organized measures of resistance to the 
mother country ; and for the prominent part which he 
took in these measures he was proscribed by the 
British government. During the revolutionary war, 
he was one of the most active and influential asserters 
of American freedom and independence. He was a 
member of the legislature of Massachusetts from 1766 
to 1774, when he was sent to the first Congress of the 
old confederation. He was one of the signers of the 
Declaration of 1776, for the adoption of which he had 


always been one of the warmest advocates. In 1781 
he retired from Congress, but only to receive from his 
native state additional proofs of her confidence in his 
talents and integrity. He had already been an active 
member of the convention that formed her constitution, 
and after it went into effect, he was placed in the 
senate of the state, and for several years presided over 
that body. In 1789 he was elected lieutenant-governor, 
and held that office till 1794 ; upon the death of Han 
cock, he was chosen governor, and was annually re- 
elected till 1797, when he retired from public life. He 
died in 1803. The following encomium upon Mr. 
Adams is from a, work upon the American Rebellion, 
by Mr. Galloway, published in Great Britain, 1780 ; 
" He eats little, drinks little, sleeps little, thinks much, 
and is most indefatigable in the pursuit of his object. It 
was this man, who, by his superior application, managed 
at once the factions in Congress at Philadelphia, and 
the factions of New England." 

WILLIAM PINKNEY, an eloquent lawyer and states 
man, was born in Maryland in 1765, and prepared 
himself for the bar under the instruction of Judge 
Chase. He was admitted to practice in 1786, and 
soon gave indications of possessing superior powers. 
He was a member of the convention of Maryland 
which ratified the federal constitution. In 1776 he 
was appointed one of the commissioners under the 
British treaty. The state of Maryland also employed 
him to procure a settlement of its claims on the Bank 
of England, and he recovered for it the sum of eight 
hundred thousand dollars. This detained him in 



England till the year 1804, when he returned and re 
sumed his professional labors. In 1806 he was sent 
as envoy extraordinary to London, and in 1808 re 
ceived the authority of minister plenipotentiary. He 
returned to the United States in 1811, and soon after 
was appointed attorney-general. This office he held 
till 1814. During the incursion of the British into 
Maryland, he commanded a battalion, and was wounded 
in the battle of Bladensburgh in August, 1814. He 
was afterwards representative in Congress, minister 
plenipotentiary to Russia, envoy to Naples, and in 
1819 senator in Congress. In the last office he con 
tinued till his death in 1822. 

OLIVER HAZARD PERRY, an American naval officer, 
was born in Rhode Island in 1785. Entering the 
navy in 1798, he served in the Mediterranean in the 
expedition against Tripoli, and distinguished himself 
in the late war with Great Britain by obtaining a 
splendid victory over a superior force on Lake Erie. 
For this exploit he was raised to the rank of captain. 
He commanded the Java in the expedition to the 
Mediterranean under Commodore Decatur. He died 
in the West Indies in 1820. 


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