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with tables of aocoxuodatio^ asn cost, and a series of selectf.n pi.ans. 

By ROBEBT kerb. Architect; 

AtcDnS Clition, rtbuuS, 





TIa Ti^t <{/' Tnnalali 





( iii ) 


The call for a Second Edition of this work has afforded an 
opportunity for its revision, which has not been neglected. The 
facts and opinions, of course, remain as they were ; but there 
have been innumerable occasions for incidentally improving the 
expression of the author's meaning, if no more, in the appli- 
cation of his principles to matters of detail. 

At the same time measures have been adopted for facilitating 
the use of the work as a Book of Beference ; and it has especially 
to be pointed out that, if the copious introduction of italicised 
taords should appear to be a literary blemish, this must be the 

The subject of Works of Alteration, although of so 
much practical importance in the exposition of House-plan, 
had by some means escaped attention in the original edition ; 
there is now, however, added, in the form of a Supplement to 
Part Second, what vdll supply the deficiency. Several addi- 
tional Plates, also, have been introduced to illustrate this part 
of the treatise specially. 

The lUustrcUions generally have been occasionally improved; 
and the opportunity has been '^takqii - f|f adding one special 
example (Plates XXXV. and. XJSjXVI.) 'vdiich will be useful in 
many ways. :-. 

The Sketches of Architectufdf.&kdej attached to Part Fifth, 
have been made wood engravings, as an improvement upon 
lithography ; but the designs are as before. 

Jteferences to the Plates have been inserted at every step of 

the exposition ; so that the reader may have practical cases in 

point continually presented to him. 

The JEstimateSf which constitute the chief portion of Part 



Fifth, have received a certain important amendment. It was 
pointed out by an intelligent critic that the prices, as set forth 
in the first edition, appeared to be excessive. The reason of 
this did not consist in any disregard of economy, but simply 
in the circumstance that, London prices being given as the stan- 
dard, it was not made so clear as could be wished that Local 
prices in the country are so much less, according to the locality. 
It will now be found that the allowance for these Country 
prices is pointedly set forth in every case. The primary London 
prices are still as before, because they were right 

The question of the application of the work to Small Houses 
demands a word of notice. It has been made matter of com- 
plaint that a person of moderate means cannot obtain from the 
book that assistance which he needs, because the majority of the 
illustrative plans are above his mark. To this it must be replied 
that these plans are not offered as models at all, but as cases in 
point for the service of the exposition. The work is not a 
book of designs for choice, but of principles for study ; and the 
reader who desires to learn how to plan a small house must be 
asked to take the same course as if he wished to deal with a 
large one, — ^the principles are the same. (See the Introductory 
Chapter to Part Secjond.) 

Throughout the revision of the work, as in its original pre- 
paration, one purpose has been persistently kept in view, — namely, 
the practical aim of the book. In dealing with such a subject 
there seems to be no need for attempting any attractiveness of 
form, beyond that which attaches to precision of ideas ; and the 
author therefore desires to be looked upon in no other light than 
as ^ man of business expounding in this simple way the know- 
ledge acquired in the daily practice of his profession. 

R. K. 

3, Harley Places Upper HarUy Street^ May^ 1865. 

( V ) 


The purpose of the present treatise is to set forth a systematic 
exposition of those details of arrangement v/Iiich make up tlie 
plan of a " Gentleman's House," — a convenient and comfortable 
English Eesidence of the better sort, on whatever scale. 

Other departments of the Architect's practice may oflFer more 
to his ambition as an artist or a man of science, but there is 
none which has higher claims upon him as a useful servant of 
the public than the design of Domestic Plan. Any endeavour, 
therefore, to treat this subject thoroughly will be received, no 
doubt, with every indulgence. 

It may be thought somewhat remarkable that the subject 
should not have been already exhausted ; for it is well known 
that there are few good things so good— and therefore so well 
worth describing — as a good English house ; but it is still more 
singular that no book wliatever appears to have been published 
from which we can obtain, with regard to Domestic Plan (except 
indirectly, as in the writings of the indefatigable Loudon), even 
matter for suggestion and inquiry, far less authority for reference. 

The author consequently has to submit the present work as 
one in which compilation has yielded him scarcely any aid, but 
which has been founded rather upon the experience of practice, 
and the study of years, directed to all examples, good or bad, 
which liave come within his reach. 

The intricacy and extent which the inquiry assumes, when 
one attempts to deal with it in any degree exhaustively, will 
become apparent to the reader by a glance over the items of 


the Index ; and how much has to be said upon many of these 
items may be perceived by noting the length of certain of the 
chapters. If the reader should experience surprise in either or 
both of these respects, the author has only to say that in com- 
mencing to write he himself did not expect either index or 
chapters to be so long. 

London, November, 1864. 



PREFATORy Notice .. .. .. iii 

Preface to the First Edition .. v 


A Sketch of the History and Development op Domestic 

Plan in England. 


I. — Proqramme : 

Pnipoae of the inquiry, 1 ; National peonliarities of domestic plan, 1 ; 
General history of plan in Europe, 1 ; The English system, 2. 

II. — Eleventh Ci«2jruRY — Saxon: 

Bnilding amongst the Gothic nations, 3 ; Primitive type of their Dwell- 
ings contrasted with the Boman type, 3 ; The Saxon HdU, 4 ; The 
Chamber, 5; Boyal Houses, with Chapd and Offices, 5; Saxon 
Ccu^, 6. 

lil. — ^Eleventh Century — Norman : 

Origin of the Angio-Norman CkuUe, 7 ; Two periods, 7 ; The first period 
in its inferior examples, 8; Gastletok (Plato I.), 9; Superior 
examples, 11; The Tower of London (Plate II.), 12. 

IV. — Twelfth Century: 

Monattic BmldingB, 12; Oastle Acre Priory (Plate III), 13 ; Further 
deyelopment of the Castle, 14 ; Castle Rising (^Plate IV.) 14 ; Con- 
dition of the Toyniif 16 ; Manor-houses and Granges, 17 ; Necham s 
account, — Hall, Chamber or Solar, Kitchert, Larder, Sewery, and Cellar, 
18; General arrangement of plan, 18; The King's Bouses, 18; 
Bemains, 19. 

V. — Thirteenth Century: 

Works of the Clergy, 19 ; Progress of Manor-houses, and their preference 
oTer the Castles, 20; The Royal Manor-houses, 20; Additional 
Offices, — the Buttery, Pantry, Chandlery, Wine and Beer Cellars, &c., 
and Wardrobe, 20 ; Subsidiary Chambers, 21 ; Freemantle and 
Woolmer, 21 ; Toddington, 22 ; " Bedchambers,' 22 ; Castles modified 
on the Manor-house principle, 23 ; Edwardian Castles, 23 ; Detail 
arrangements of the period, structural and domestic, 24 ; Remainst 
25 ; Cbarnkt Bassett (Plate IV.). 25; Little Wenham Hall, 26. 

VI. — Fourteenth Century: 

Privacy introduced, — the Priest's Chamber; the Queen*s Chamber, 
26 ; Other tests of Progress : augmented accommodation and im- 
proved arrangement, 28; The Great Hall in its perfection, 28; 
' Quadrangular Manor-house of the period, and its improred accommo- 

dation : Chapel and Chapel Chamber, Family Parlour or Withdraw- 
ing-room. Second Parlour, Lady's Chamber or Bower, Banqueting HaU, 
improved Stairs, Wardrobes, Bathroom, Garden, 29; BedcJtambers 
fully introduced, 30 ; Convenience not keeping pace, 31 ; Remains, 
32; Wolterton, 32; Kbnilworth (Plate V.), 32. 



VIT. — Fifteenth Century: 

Transitional chaiaeter of the time, and its effect on plan, 33; The 
Common HaU in decadence, 34 ; Improvements in SHeepinff^eeomnuh 
dation, 34 ; Supplcmentarj adciitions : Ewelme Inyentory ; Ewery and 
Cupboard, 85 ; Chamber of Pleamunee, 35 ; ScvUery, Builere Pantry, 
Bakehoum and Brewhmue^ StableB and Stable- Yard, 36; Half-sunk 
Btuement, 36; Woltebton Manob-bocsb (Plate VI.); Oxbuboh 
Hall (Plate VH.) ; Quadretngular plan feithout Corridor*, 36 ; 
Remains, 36 ; Corresponding improvement in Town-Houses, &c., 37. 

VIII.— Sixteenth Century: 

The Tudor period ; historical features, 87 : Diminution of the number 
of retainers, increased hospitality, &o. ; and further decline of the 
Hall, 38 ; Dining Chamber, ServaM HaU, and Entrance HaU, 38 ; 
Boudoir, Summer and Winter Parloun, increase of Bedehawiber^ 38 ; 
Corridors, Gallery, and Staircase, 39 ; Henorave Hall (Plate VHI.), 
39 ; Hatfield HorsE (Plate IX.), 40 ; The manner of Jolm Thorpe, 
41 ; Remains, 41. 

IX. — Seventeenth Century : 

Introduction of Palladian Architecture, corresponding revolution in 
domestic plan, and introduction of the Italian ViUa, 42; Basement 
OJftees, Saloon, Portico, Symmetrical partitionmeni, &c., 42; Deriva- 
tion from the ancient Roman manner, 43; Stoke Park and Am- 
BRESBURY (Plate X.), 43 ; Sacrifice of convenience to grandiose effect, 
44; The Puritan times, 44; Marlborough House (Plate XI.), 44 ; 
Preservation of the Elizabethan manner in the old houses, 44. 

X. — Eighteenth Ckntury: 

Continuance of Anglo-Palladian plan, 45; Bexnhbim (Plate Xn.)« 46; 
HOLKHAM (Plate XIIL\ 46; HaU and Sal4)on; Ground-floor Bed- 
dmmbert^ &o., 47 ; Refereooe to other examples, and general character- 
istics, 47 ; Review of progrtss under Palladianism unsatisfactory, 47 ; 
Advancement, however, of accommodation to the complete modem 
standard,'^I>iiNii^-fvom, Drawinff-rootm, Library, &c. &c. &c., 48. 

XI. — Nineteenth Century : 

A new era in domestic plan, 49 ; Various causes at work, — Revivalism in 
Ar^ Edectioism, Classicism, Mediisvalism, 50 ; The Greek revival of 
no effect 50 ; The Gothio rovival of much importance in the reintro- 
ducHom of the ElistAethmk model, 50 ; Its pr^erable general character, 
51 ; Reaction, also^ from Pkdladian sCateliDess, 51 ; New Mansions, 
aad altrmtioos of oU ones^ 52 ; Lomoleat and Toddikgtom (Plates 
XJV^ Xy.)t Aod referenoes to other examples, 52; Subsidence of 
Pialladian plan into the " Squaro house," 53 ; Abandonment of Base- 
ment Offioes, 54 ; Great imptovemeot* in the airangement of the 
Offices, 54 ; Present position of conflict of Styles in Architecturo ; 
corresponding rivalry in St^ of Plcua; the Medissral and Classic 
typm, 55: Ilhistratibns of contrast (Plates XVL to XXH.); Llwtn 
Horn and Old Ooknavgrt, 56; Osborne and Balmoral, 57; 
Bridqewatkr HotSB and West Shandon, 58; Pair of Coxpara- 
TTTK Dnraits, 59; Prospects of domestic plan at the present day, 
60 ; Competing merits of styles 61 ; Natural style of the soil, 62. 



The Principles of Plan as now Established. 
Chapter IirrRODUcroRY: 

Definition of a Gentleman's Houbp, 63 ; Scheme for the ClaatufiGHtion of tlio 
Apartments, G3 ; Treatment adopted in the exixwtion by Ghaptert), 65. 


_„._ Section I. — General Considerations. 

I. — ^Programme : 

Qualitiea of a good house, 66 ; Scheme for their consideration, 66. 

IIw — ^Privacy : 

Defined and exempllflefl, 67 ; Requisite for both family and servants, 68 ; 
Superiority of Elizabethan plan in this respect, 69. 

111. — Comfort : 

The basis of the English idea of comfort, 69 ; Defined and exemplified, 
70 ; Plotting furniture, 70 ; The Study of tlie three evils, 71. 

IV. — Convenience : 

Defined, 71 ; The Offices in adyancc, 72 ; The question of peouliurities of 
habits, 72 ; Comparison of the Classic and MedisBval styles of plan, 73. 

V. — Spaciousness : 

Too much overlooked, 74 ; Its value exemplified, 74. 

VI. — Compactness : 

Defined and exemplified, 75 ; Conmion form, 75 ; In London houses, 75 ; 
In Coimtry-houses, 76 ; Ready way of compacting large plans, 76 ; 
True and fiUse Compactness, 76 ; Comparison of the two types of plan, 

VII. — Light and Am : 

Principles to be duly esteemed, 78 ; The evils of borrowed lights, sky- 
lightB, and wells, 78. 

VIII. — Salubrity : 

General rules, 78. 

IX. — Aspect and Prospect: 

DiflSculties in towns, 79; But general sacrifice of aspect to proupect 
also in the country, 80 ; Toe Aspect-Compass, 81 ; Explanation thereof 
as to Sum^ine, the Seatoru, and Weather, 8 1, 82 ; The bearing of aspect 
upcm prospect, 83 ; Compromise of conflicting claims, 83. 

X. — Cheerfulness : 

Greneial prinisiploB and constituents, 84. 

XI. — £LlfiGANCK : 

Subrhied power the perfection of art, 85 ; Oocaaional conflict of purpose in 
decoration between the architect and the proprietor, 86 ; Tho views of 
the ladies, 86 ; Enriehmc^nt and dilapidation, 87. 

XII. — Importance : 

Deiinod, 87; A quality to be duly «?«Mwidored, 88; Often spd-'ially 
authuriijLMl in Uk- ThoHmj^hfaresj, 88; Omiiwrison of styles of plan, 




Meillier eioMi bor ]mm» 

Sbotios i 
I.— ^DnrufO-BOOM : 

IMned, 91 ; Aipeot» 9. 
Amt^genielil tod din 
HiwttQff Mffmnitim, 9 
Hatch: Iift4»bl^97 
• Wtlllng^NKnit 96; 
potitiob, 98; Appcoi 
Gtaario tad MediMfml 

IL-^Pabi/ntb DnrDfO-Booi 

0eaii6d,99; Uaeof tfaa 
itiieildfl^ Ac, 101 ; Fa 

IlL — ^MioBirnirchBoaM : 

DeMiibed in.ntfiety, 103 
KM; Poiiiiaii Midao 
tenud podiion, 105; I 

ly^— BltiAjap.40r OB Luiro0 

Defined and esempUfledf 

v.— D&Awnro^BOOM : 

Defined, 107; CSiaiactei 

windoira^ fte.,fi»pioep 

' Ug^tgenefally.lOO; C 

' etningwnflnte, 109 ; Hi^ 

111 ; Special anangem 

tion, 112; Bstemal p< 

podiioi^ 118 r nnMob 

Secondary Diawing-iooi 

4ion with olher apartnu 

Dining-room. 118 ; Km 

YI.-tBoudoib : 

Dtfned, 114; The tetm ai 
ftDow tboae of Diawin 
8idtebll5r Xnteioonimu 
Uft r Cknaervatofj or Bi 

TIL— LuaART : 

Iti cndiauychaiaoter definid,li6 ; Borition^llO; Aapeol» 116 ; Light, 
117; AaaDgWMDl^ interoommnnioation, &c.« 117; Diyneaa, yentih^ 
tion, hoqkoMea» flS; Aa a Study, 118; On a laige acale, 118; 
Ifoaemn, U8; fifpaie raoni attached, 119; libnuriaa'a xoom, 119; 
Ihteriar.alyleb 119« 

y IlL— BlI<LIABI>-B001C ': 

ne PlajBi^a plan deeoiihed, 119; Dimeoaiona, li^t, floor, 119; Ban- 
. qnetteb 190;. Foiitkma wdoiii, 190; Smokiog, 120; ninatiatioaa 

M # 




JX. — G entleman's-room or Business-room: 

Its uses defined, 121 ; Bitoation, and means of access, 121 ; Waiting- 
room, 121 ; Agent's-Toom, 122 ; Special Entrance, 122 ; Aspect, 122 ; 
Interior arrangement, 122; Strong-closet or Deed-room, 122 ; Lava- 
tory, &c., 122 ; Intercommunication, 122 ; When in Private Suite, &o., 
122; niustrations, 123. 

X. — Study : 

Defined, 123; Situation, aspect, &c., 123; Difficulty of light, &c., 123 ; 
model plan, 124 ; Exceptional cases, 124 ; Illustrations, 124. 

XI. — Saloon : 

A cliaracteristic of Palladian plan, 124 ; Described, 124; Sola or Salon, 
125 ; Adaptation to later plan, 125 ; Illustrations. 125 ; The MedisBval 
Gallery, 125! 

XII. — Private Family Suite : 

Described, 125 ; Illustrations, 126 ; Modificnl arrangements, 126. 
XI II. — House Conservatory (and Winter-garden) : 

Purposes of this Conservatory, 126; Illustrations, 126; Light, 126; 
Arrangement, 126; Heating apparatus, 127; Difficulties when at- 
tached to a Room, 127 ; Intercommunication, &c., 127 ; Aspect, 128 ; 
Winter-garden described, 128; Construction, 128: Arrangement, 

X I v. — Smoking-room : 

Purpose, 129; Position, access, pro6p(«t, and ventilation, 129. 

XV. — Gentlemen's Odd-room: 

Useful for miscellaneous purposes, 130 ; Size, position, look-out, and 
aix'ess, 130. 

Section III.— The Sleeping Koomb. 

I . — An Ordinary Bedroom : 

Chance plan objectionable, 131 ; Primary features, 131 ; Propei* arrange- 
ment of an ordinary room, 131 ; Additional windows, shutters and 
draperies, 132 ; French manner, 133; Alcove for bed, 133; Doors, 
133; Furniture, 133; Form, 134; Dimensions, 134; Closets, 134; 
Light and ventilation, 134 ; Aspect, 134 : Alcove dressing-place, 135; 
Illustrations passim. 

1 I.^-An Ordinary Drbbsing-room : 

Dimensions, uses, and furniture, 135; Arrangement and aspect, 136; 
General principles of accommodation, — Bedroom, one Dit'ssing-rooni, 
two Drefl8ing-ro(»n8, 136 ; Boudoir, 136. 

III. — General Arrangement of the Rooms: 

Common defects of plan, 136; Scheme of classification, &c., 137; Pro- 
gressive scale of accommodation, 137. 

IV. — Family Bedchamber Suite : 

Situation and seclusion, 138 ; Two models, 138 ; Constituent rooms and 
arrangement, 138 ; Attendants' access, 139 ; Addition of Boudoir and 
of Gentleman Vi-oom, 140 ; lilustnitions jxissim. 

v.— GutijTs' Suites: 

Purpose, situation, and arrangements genenUIy, and illustrations, 14(>. 



VI.— Other Special Bedchambers: 

Bachekms* Bedrooma, 141 ; Toong ladies' rooms, 141 ; luvalid auite, &o., 

YII. — Miscellaneous Bedchambers: 

Ordinary Bedrooms, 142 ; SubordimiteB' rooms, 142. 

Section IV. — The Children's Rooms. 

I. — General BemarKs: 

Such special rooms essential, 143 ; Of two departments, 148. 

II. — ^Nurseries and Suite; 

Ck)nsideration8 involved, 144; Day and Night Nurseries and their 
arrangements, 144; Nursery Scullery, and other conveniences, 145; 
Position for the Suite, 145 ; When connected with a Private Family 
Suite, 146 ; Ground-floor Day Nurseries, &c., 146 ; Conversion into 
Guests' Suite, 146 ; Strangers' Nursery or Sick-room, 146 ; Illustra- 
tions passim. 

III. — Schoolroom and Suite: 

Defined, 147; Complete Suite described, 147; Position, &c., light, 
147 ; Conversion into Bedchamber Suite, 147 ; The case of boys, 

Section V. — The Supplementaries. 
I. — Cloak-room : 

Its purpose described as a retiring-room, 148 ; Position, size, and fur- 
nishings, 148 ; Billiard-room for occasional use as such, 149 ; Ludies' 
Cloak-room, 149 ; Illustrations passim. 

II. — ^Lavatory, &c. : 

Within Cloak-room, 149 ; Furnishings and situation, 149. 

III. — Bath-room : 

Described in various forms, 150 ; Whether one or more, 150 ; Water 
supply, &c., 151. 

IV. — Plunge bath, &c. : 

If required, 151; Swimming-bath, description and directions, 151 ; 
Plunge-bath, ditto, 152. 

V. — Water-Closets : 

Notes thereon generally collected in tins chapter, 152; Axioms,—- 
distribution, situation, construction, and dimensions, 152, 153; 
Interior closets and well-holes, 154; Ventilation in difficult circum- 
stances, 154. 

Section VI — The Thoroughfares. 

I. — General Remarks: 

These the skeleton of plan, 155 ; List of Family ThoroughfSares, 155 : 
Diverging luies of conmiunication, 156 ; The same for Sleeping-rooms, 
156; Tests of a good arrangement, 156. 



II. — Porch : 

Defined and described ; both open and endoaed, 157 ; Oorrection of 
aspect, Ac, 158 ; Carriage-Porch, 159 ; Door-mat, &c., 159 ; Porch-fiteps, 
159; Dlastrations jxun'm. 

III. — Entrance-Hall : 

In various forms, 160; Distinctions of style, 160; Relative merits of 
Classic and Medi»val models, 160; Adaptability of the authentic 
Tudor arrangement, 161 ; Warming, 162 ; Porter^s-room and Servants' 
Waiting-room, 162 ; Cloak-room, 162 ; Fumitore, &c., 162 ; Ceiling- 
light, 162 ; Porch-Hall and double doors, 162 ; Illustrations pasHm, 

IV. — Garden Entrance: 

Described in several forms, 163 ; Not to be in connection with any Ser- 
vants* Passage, Ac. &c., 163. 

V. — Luggage Entrance: 

Purpose and position, 164 ; Illustrations, 161. 

VI. — Other Secondary Entrances: 

Business-Entrance, 164; Nursery-Entrance, 165; Seoondaiy Gkuxlen- 
Entrances^ 165; One for Family Suite, 165; Or for Invalid's Suite, 

VII. — Gallery, Corridor, Passage: 

Distinguished and defined, 165; Elements of Corridor plan, 165; 
Complex plan, 167 ; Relation of Booms, 167 ; Lines of approach, 167 ; 
Boutes of communication, 167; Privacy, 168; Corridor for Bedrooms, 
168; Inferior Passages, 168; Style; the Elizabethan Gallery; ite 
origin, character, and uses, 168 ; Further principles of plan involved, 
169 ; Misnamed Qalleries, 170 ; Illustrations passim. 

VIII. — Central Hall, Cortile: 

Their origin and adaptation, 170; The Palladian Hall and the Italian 
Cortile, 170; Distinguished in principle from the Mediaeval Hall, 
171; Inherent non-privacy, J72 ; Disposition, 172; Difficulty of treat- 
ing the Cortile, 173. 

IX. — Saloon, Ante-room, Vestibule, Lobby, <fec. : 

Saloon defined, 174; Its character in Palladian plan, 174; Garden- 
Entrance thnein, 174 ; In reduced form, 174 ; Parlour-Saloons, 175 ; 
Miscellaneous Ante-rooms, 175; Vestibules and Lobbies, and their 
uses, 175 ; Illustrations passim. 

X. — Staircases : 

Principal Staircase, when to Bedrooms only, in Classic and Eliza- 
bethan plan respectively, 175; Back Stairs, or Second Staircase, 176; 
Private Family Staircase, 177; Bachelors' Stair, 177; Young-ladies* 
Stair, 177 ; Other special Stairs, 177 ; When architecturally designed, 
177 ; Ordinary square open newel Stair, 178 ; Windows, 178 ; Circular 
and oval Stairs, 178 ; Double-flight Stairs, 178; Bule for steps, 178; 
Width, 178; Lighting, 179; Warming. 179; Basement Stairs, 179; 
Ventilation and self-enclosure, 179. 


I. — General Remarks: 

Definition, 180 ; Family comfort not to be sacrificed, 180 ; Two modes of 
el&cting this, 180 ; General rules still to govern, 180. 



II. — State Dininq-koom : 

Modification of ordinary principles, 181 ; Furniture, 181 ; Dinner-route, 
181 ; Service, Ante-Chambers, Approach, &c., 181 ; Position, aspect, 
&c., 182 : Supper-rooms and use of Family-rooms or Gallery, 182. 

III. — State Drawing-rooms: 

As a separate Circuit-Suite, 182 ; Family Rooms in connection, 182 ; 
Picture Gkdlery, ditto, 182 ; Special principles of plan, 183 ; Aspect, 
decoration, &c.; warming and ventilation, 183; More ordinary cases 
of a preserved Drawing-room; and occasional Reception-Suite of 
Family-rooms, 183; Illustrations, 184. 

IV. — Ball-room: 

Defined, 184; Arrangement of doors, windows (note on draughts'^, 
orchestra, banquette, dais, &c., 185 ; Common Hall of the kind Sot 
country-bouses, 185. 

V. — Music-room, Concert-room, Private Theatre, <fec. : 

Music-room, as an apartment specially contrived for acoustic purposes, 
185; Rectangular plan sufficient, 186; Harmonic proportions, 186; 
Other acoustic maxims of arrangement and construction, 186 ; Appli- 
cation of these to an ordinary Drawing-room, 187 ; Private Theatre, 
— a Music-room so &r sufficient, 187 ; Stage, Dressing-rooms, space 
for Scenery, &c., 187. 

VI.— Great Library, Museum, &c. : 

Arrangement of a suite of Libraries in bays, 188 ; Artistic capabilities 
189; Collections of art or science, 189; Arrangement of a single 
library of large size, 189. 

VII. — State Galleries, Galleries of Art, &c. : 

Reception Gallery defined, 190 ; Illustrations, 190 ; Ijighting, doors, &c., 
190 ; Model Picturc-GaUery ; its lighting, widtb. height, &c.. 191 ; Tlie 
case of Sculpture, 192; Coved ceiling-lights for cabinets, 192. 

VIII. — Domestic Chapel : 

Historical reminiscences, 193; Exceptional in our day, 193 ; Whether 
to be ecclesiastical in cbaracter or not, 194 ; Various means of en- 
trance, 194 ; Height, ornamental chamcter, altar, &c., desk, &c., seats, 
194 ; Vestiary. 195. 

IX. — State Guests' Chambers : 

State Bedrooms not in use, 195; Guests* Suite of Apartments reverte<l 
to ; Possible additions thereto, 195 ; The ease of Balmoral, 196. 

X. — State-Thoroughfares : 

Principles as before, expanded and elaborated, 196 ; Corridor to a circuit- 
suite of Reception-rooms not essential, 196 ; Cloak-rooms. 197 ; Accchs 
for servants, &c., 197; Warming and ventilation, and aspect of Grand 
Entrance, 197. 

Section I. — General Considerations. 

I. — Basis of Plax ; 

Classification of Officcp, 108; Considerations of work ditferont from 
those of residence, 198. 



II. — Privacy, Comfort, Convenience: 

Freedom from interruption, 199 ; Separation of the sezea, 199 ; Scale of 
comfort, 199 ; Principles of convenience, 200. 

III. — Spaciousness and Compactness: 

Cramped arrangements to be discouraged, but excessive completcnesA 
in the Offices a serious error, 200; Compactness especially neces- 
sary, 201. 

IV. — Light and Air, and Salubrity: 

Maxims, 201 ; More freedom here than in Family-rooms, 202. 
V. — Aspect, Ac. <fec.: 

Aspect, Ac., now differently affected, 202 ; Northward preferable, 203 ; 
Cheerfulness, 203 ; Distinctive character in design of Offices, 203 ; Appli- 
cation of observations generally to large and small houses alike, 203. 

Section II. — The Kitchkn Officer. 

J. — Kitchen : 

Origin and present model, 204; Position on plan and relations, to other 
Offices, 204; Purpose, lighting, coolness, dryness, ventilation, 204; 
Floor, wall-lining, 205; Doors, 206; Illustrations, 206; Cooking 
apparatus, &c., in detail, 206; Fittings in detail, 207; Dishing- 
Kitchen. 208; Small Kitchens, &c., 209; Dimensions, 209; When 
used as Servants' Hall, 209 ; Relation to Dining-room for service, 
209 ; Prevention of smells, 210 ; Basement Kitchen, 210 ; Relations to 
other Offices. 211 ; Outer Kitchen, 211 ; Cook's-room, 211. 

II. — Scullery: 

To be conjoined to Kitchen, 212 ; Door of intercommunication, 212 ; 
Light and ventilation, Ac., 212 ; Outlet towards Yard, if any, 212 ; no 
connection with Larders, 213; Fixtures in detail, 213 ; When used for 
secondary purposes, 213; Floor, drainage, 214. 

III. — Cook's Pantry, or Dry Larder (and Larder generally): 

Defined, 214 ; Ancient and modem terms, 214 ; Maxims of construction, 
214; Detached Larders, 215; Ceiling-ventilation, 215; Windows. 
215; Fittings, 215; Refrigerator, 216; Heating in winter, 216; Floor, 
216 ; Dimensions, 216. 

IV. — Meat Larder : 

Defined, &c., 216; If detached, 216; Fittings, 216; Special Compart- 
ments, 217 ; Walls and floor, 217. 

V. — Oame and Fish Larders: 

Game Larder, its uses and fittings, 217 ; Fish Lard(>r, ditto, 218 ; Town 
houses require no such accommodation, 218. 

VI. — Pastry-room : 

Its uses, position, construction, and fittings, 218 ; Oven, 218 ; Pastry- 
dresser in Still-room. 218; Confectionery, 218. 

VII. — Saltinq-room, Smokixg-house, and Bacon Larder : 

Sometimes required, 219; Fittings of Salting-room, 219; Dimensions 
sod construction of Smoking-house, 219 ; Bacon I^arder, advimihle to 
be removed from the House, 219. 



VIII. — Dairy and Dairy Scullery: 

Geneml model described, and fittings, 220; Dairy Scullery, its uses 
and fittings, &c., 220 ; to bo apart if extensive, 220 ; Cook's Pantry 
ased, 220. 

Section III. — ^Thb Upper Servants' Offices. 
I. — Butler's-Pantry and Appurtenances: 

Origin, 221 ; Position and relation, 221 ; Dimensions and fittings, 222 ; 
Plate-Safe, 222; Plate-ScnUery, 222; Butler's Bedroom, 222; Head 
Butler's Room, 222 ; A small Pantry, 222. 

II. — Service or Sideboard-room : 

Uses, dimensions, situation, substitutes, fittings, 223 ; Butler's Service- 
room, its position, uses, and fittings, 223; The case of Basement 
Offices; Dinner Stair; Lift, ftc, 223. 

III. — Housekeeper's-room : 

Purposes and relation to other quarters, 224 ; fittings, &c, 224 ; Store- 
room, 225. 

1 V.-^Still-room : 

Its origin, purposes, and position, 225; Fittings, 226; As Womcn- 
senrants' Hall, 226; Outer-Kitchen as Still-room, 226. 

V. — Store-room, <fec. : 

Purposes, position, and fittings, 226 ; When made a Housekeeping-room 
in a small houses 226 ; Supplementaiy Store Closets, 227. 

VI. — China-Closet and Scullery : 

Uses, position, and fittings of China-Cloeet, 227 ; Cliina-Scullery, ditto, 

VII. — House Steward's Office, <fec. : 

Purpose, position, &c., and accessories, 228; KitchenXSlerk's Office, 

VIII.— :StewardVroom, or Upper Servants'-Hall : 

Purposes, position, furniture, &c., 228 ; Scullery attached, 229 ; Supple- 
mentary uses and requirements, 229; Housekeeper's-room as a substi- 
tute, 229. 

IX. — Gun-room : 

Described, with fittings, 229 ; Position and requirements, 230 ; Substi- 
tutes in small houses, 230; When separate from the house, 230; 
Armoury, 230. 

Section IV. — The Lower Servants' Offices. 

I. — Servants' Hall, &c. : 

Purpose, 231 ; Belation to other Offices, &c., 231 ; Women's-room, 281 ; 
Fittings, 232; Incidental purposes, 232; Dressing, 232; Lady^s- 
maid's Boom, 232. 

II. — Housemaid's Closet: 

Purpose, position, and fittings, 232; When more tlian one, 233 ; One for 
the Principal Rooms, 233. 



III. — Clean JNG-ROOJis, Ac.: 

Bnuhing-room ; poipose, position, &C., 233; Brnshing-tablos at Back 
Staiia, 233 ; Knife-room, Shoe-room, 234 ; Lamp-room, 234 ; Poiposes 
and anangements, 234. 

Section V. — ^The Laundry Officks. 

I. — General Bemarks: 

When to be a separate building, and when to bo attached to the 
Hoose, 235. 

II. — Wash-house and Laundry : 

Waah-honse; purpose, dimensions, position, fittings, and arrangement, 
236 ; Laundry, ditto, ditto, 236 ; Belation together, 237 ; Substitutes for 
either, 237; Special Servants' Wash-house, 237; Ladies*-maids' 
ironing accommodation, 237. 

III. — Drying-room ; Hot CLasET : 

The old-&shioned Diying-loft described, 237 ; Hot Closet, its construc- 
tion and mode of operation, 238; The Laundry as a Drying-room 
&c, 238. 

IV. — Soiled Linen Closet: 

Of much use; position and arrangements, 238; Bin in Wash- 
house, 238. 

V. — LlNEN-ROOM, Ac. : 

Purpose, fittings, and position, 239 ; Closet for bedding, &c., 239. 

Section VL — ^The Bakery and Brewery Offices. 
I. — Bakehouse and Appurtenances: 

Purpose, position/ fittings, &c., 240 ; Oven described, 240 ; Storage of 
bread, 240; Flour Store, 240; Fuel, 240. 

II. — ^Brewhouse : 

Apparatus required, 241 ; Other arrangements, relation to house, cellars, 
Ac, 241. 

Section VIL — Cellars, Storage, and Outhouses. 
I. — Coal Cellar, Wood-house: 

Position for Coal Cellar, 242 ; Capacity, 242 ; Delivery. 242 ; Light, &c., 
242 ; As an open shed, 242 ; Position for Wood-house, 242. 

IL — Ash-bin : 

Podticm, &c, 243 ; 0£bl-bin, 243. 

III. — Wine Cellars: 

Position, entrance, and other arrangements, 243 ; Temperature, artificial 
wanning, 244; Fittings, &c., 244; Receiving Cellar, 244; Wine in 
wood, 244; Bottle-racks, 244; Butler's Cellar and Closet, 244; 
MadeifBrCellar, 245 ; Soda-water, &c., 245. 




IV. — Beer Cellar: 

PuipoBe, position, light, ventilation, acoess, &c., 245 ; Bottlcxl-beer, 245. 

V. — Miscellaneous Cellars: 

For vegetables, 245; Dryness, ventilation, &c., 245; Uonsekeeper's 
Cellar, 246 ; Fruit-store, 246 ; Men-servants' odd Cellar, 246 ; Spare 
Cellars desirable, and Cellar-closets, 246. ■ 

VI. — Ice-house : 

Purpose and scientific principle, 246; As an adjunct underground, 
aspect, plan and construction in detail, and drainage, 246 ; Mode of 
filling, 247 ; Similar plan when within the house, 247 ; When built 
apart, 247. 

VII. — Lumber-room, Luggage-room : 

Position for Lumber-room and requirements, 248 ; When to be used as a 
Workshop, 248 ; When provided at the Stables, 248 ; Luggage-room, 
its uses and requirements, 248. 

VIII. — ^Fruit-store : 

Purpose, position, and requirements, 249. 

IX. — Cistern-chamber, &c. : 

Cistern in roof, 249; Water-tower, 249; Pumping. 249; Bain-wator- 
tank, 249. 

Section VIII. — The Servants' Private Koomb. 
I. — Servants' Bedrooms: 

Women-servants'-rooms, their access, size, position, &c., 250; Men- 
servants' -rooms, ditto, ditto, 250 ; Dormitory subdivided, 250 ; Upper- 
servants'-rooms, and their respective positions, &c., 250; Superior 
servants' rooms, 250 ; Stranger servants' rooms, 251 ; Housekeeper's 
Bedroom, 251 ; Ladies'-maids'-rooms, 251 ; General maxims, 251. 

11. — Servants* Day-rooms : 

Steward, housekeeper, butler, cook, and valet, 252 ; Servants' Hall and 
Women's-room, 252; Steward's-room and HousekeeperVroom, 252; 
Ladies'-maids'-room, 252 ; privacy conditional, 252. 

Section IX. — Thobouqhfabes, Supplementabies, and Genebal 

Abbanoement of Offices. 

I. — Ground-floor Offices : 

Route to Entrance and the men's side, 203 ; Relations of Kitchen, &&, 
and the women's side, 253 ; The superior rooms, &c., 253 ; The Back- 
Offices, 254 ; Three departments, 254 ; Staircases, 254 ; Lift, 254 ; 
Supplementaries, 254 ; Pump, 255 ; Dinner-beU, 255. 

n. — Basement Offices : 

Serving-room and Dinner-Stair, &c., 255 ; Staircases, 255 ; Kitchen 
department, men's side and women's side, 255 ; Relation to Entrance 
above, 255 ; Relation to Principal Rooms above, 256 ; Kitchen-Court, 




I. — Introduction : 

Stabling in town and oountiy, 257 ; Primary acoommodation and addi- 
tional items, 257. 

n. — Stables : 

Many forms, 258 ; Artificial condition of the horse, and scientific problem 
accordingly, 258; Stalls, their dimensions, width of stable, fittings, 
259 ; Paving various, 259 ; Sloping or level fioor, 259 ; Gutters, 260 ; 
Stable with central passage, 260; Non-absorbent walls, &c., 260; 
Dryness. 260; Light, 260; Ventilation, 260; Height, 261; Aspect 
and temperature, 262; Artificial warming, 262; Cleansing, 262^ 
Flies, 262 ; Door and windows, 262 ; Corn-bin, shoot, fodder-bay, 262 ; 
Harness, 263 ; Loose-boxes, their dimensions, fittings, &c., 263 ; Gene- 
ral division of Stabling, 263. 

1 1 1 . — Ca&riage-house : 

Dryness and cleanness, 263 ; Dimensions and construction, 264 ; Heat- 
ing, 264; Relation to Stable- Yard, 264; Washing-pavement, 264; 
Harness, 264 ; Fender stoves and wheel-tracks, 264. 

IV. — Harness-boom and Saddle-room : 

Dryness essential; Construction, 265; Intercommunication, position, 
265 ; Heating, &c., 265 ; Fittings of a complete Harness-room, 265 ; 
Cleaning-room attached, 266 ; Saddle-room, 266 ; Ceiling-light, 266. 

V. — Grooming-Sued, <fec., and Horse-Bath : 

Grooming-shed, its purpose and position, &c., 266 ; Horse-bath described, 
and modification of this shed for it, 266; Common open Shed, its 
uses, &c., 267 ; Shoeing Shed, 267. 

VL — Stable- Yard, Ride, Dung-pit, and Water Sqpply : 

Position, dimensions, and character of Stable- Yard, 267 ; Entrance, 267 ; 
Paving, 268 : Covered Ride, uses and disposition, 268 ; Dung-pit, 
situation, various forms, liquid manure, emptjring, and access, 268 ; 
Water-supply, 269 ; Drainage, 269 ; Clock-turret, 269 ; Dove-cot, 269. 

VII. — ^Hay and Corn Lofts, &c. ; Boiler-house : 

Upper story usual for. such Lofts; construction and requirements, 269; 
Mode of supplying hay and com, 270 ; Fittings, ladders, stair, 270 ; 
Stores when on ground level ; fodder-bay, 270 ; Boiling or Steaming 
House, position and fittings, 270 ; Small Lofts, 270. 

VIII. — Sebvants'-rooms : 

In small establishments, 271 ; In larger cases. Sleeping-rooms over 
Stables, 271 ; Exclusion of stable vapours, 271 ; Mess-room and its 
fittings, 271 ; Staircase, 271. 

JX. — ^Fabm Offices : 

A proper Farmery to be built apart, 272; Ordinary attached Farm 
Offices alone here intended, 272 ; Relation to Stable- Yard, 272 ; Cow- 
house, dimensions, construction, and fittings, Sec, 272 ; Calf-house, 
ditto, 273; Sheep-house, ditto, 273; Piggery, ditto, 273; Poultry- 
houses, varfous, ditto, 274; Cart Stable, 275; Cart Shed, 275; No 
Bani,4o., required, 275; Slaughter-house, 275; Yard; paved path; 
Dong-pit, 276. 




X. — Workshops and Yard : 

General workshop useful, 276 ; Smith's shop, dimensions, situation, and 
fittings, &C., 276; Plumber and Painter's shop, ditto, 276 ; Carpenter's 
shop, 277 ; Oabinetmaking and upholstery, 277 ; Work-yard, 277 ; 
Belation of the whole to Stables and Domestic Offices, 277. 

XI. — ^Enqine-hoosk : 

For water-supply, general plan, purposes, and relations, 278. 

XIL — Gas-house : 

General arrangements required, 278. 



I. — ^Introduction and Programme : 

Special necessities of compromise in works of Alteration, 279 ; Forms of 
Alterations classified, 279; Programme of consideration, 280; Memo- 
randa of the chief defects for remedy, under Privaq/, Comfort^ Con- 
venience, Spaciousness, Compactness, Light and Air and Salubrity, 
Aspect and Prospect, Cheerfulness, &c., 280 ; other questions of Con- 
version, 284 ; Adaptation, 284. 

IT. — ^Whether to Alter or Rebuild : 

Disappointment common in respect of this question, 285; Process of 
calculation to compare the cost and the benefit, 285 ; Cost, 285 ; Value, 
286 ; Simple form for the issue, 286. 

m. — To ADD Principal Rooms : 

Example of the case, 286 ; Addition of Dining-room and Drawing-room 
as Wings to a house of regular plan, 287 ; As a one-story addition 
along the front, 287; As irregular additions, 287; Proposal for 
Drawing-room up-stairs, 287 ; Saloon, Picture-Gallery, &c., 288 ; 
Secondary Apartments, 288; Family-Suite, 288; Old rooms made 
Offices, 288. 

IV. — ^To ADD Bedrooms : 

Instances of the defect, 288 ; The addition of a story, 289 ; If over new 
rooms below, 289; Servants'-rooms, 289; Nurseries, 289; Ground- 
floor Bedrooms, 289 ; Invalid-suite, 289 ; Dressing-rooms, 289. 

V. — To ADD Thoroughfares and Supplement aries : 

Cases requiring such Amendments, 289; Difficulties of enlarging 
Thoroughfiu'es, and rule for guidance, 290; Illustration, — Longleat, 
290 ; Bath-room, 291 ; Water-closets, 291 ; Cloak-room and Lavatory, 
&C.. 291. 

VI. — To add Offices : 

Instances of the kind, 291 ; Cellars and miscellaneous rooms in con- 
nection with Uie scheme; also other Offices, 292; Palli\dian plan 
of Wings, 292 ; The case of London Houses, 292 ; Enlargement and 
re-arrongement of Offices (Plate XXXIX.}, 292. 

VII. — To Enlarge Principal Eooms Outwards : 

Instances of the application of this principle, 293 ; The structural ques- 
tion and varieties of the plan, 293 ; Secondary apartments, and general 
advantage of the principle, 294. 



VIII. — To Enlarge Principal Kooms Inwards : 

Seldom desuable, 294 ; In connection with new offices, 294. 

IX. — To Diminish Principal Booms : 

GaBes in pointi and principle involved, 294. 

X. — To Diminish the Accommodation Generally : 

Case of an Eighteenth* century Mansion, partly pulled down, and 
remainder converted, 295. 

XL — To He-arrange a whole Plan : 

A hazardous principle generally, 295 ; Instances requiring its applica- 
tion, 296; Process of conversion; especial risk in old houses, 296; 
Illustrations of Longleat (Plates XIY. and XL.), 296. 

XII. — To He-arrange Old Work for Incorporation with New : 

An everyday case, 297 ; Frequent fallacy involved, 298 ; (Plate XLI.) 
Restraint in plan, 298; Principles to he kept in view; Principal 
Rooms; Roof taken off; External modification, Situation, 298; 
General rule as to saving or loss, 298. 


Notes on Site and the Grounds. 
Introduction : 

Questions involved, 800. 

Section I. — The Choice of Locality. 

L — Climate : 

Its several varieties, 302 ; considerations of level, 302. 

II. — Shelter : 

Aspects in question, 802; Wood, 308; Sites on the Coast, 303. 

III. — Aspect : 

Consideration in the case of sloping land, 303 ; Effect upon climate, 303 ; 
Weather. &c., 304. • 

IV. — Ventilation : 

A question of shelter and level, 304 ; Effect of water, 304. 

v.— Soil: 

Its varieties compered, 305. 

VL — ^Water-Supply : 

Questions for inquiry, 306 ; Various forms of supply, 306 ; Various kinds 
of wells, 306; Qualities of water, 307; Question of depth, 307; 
Question of level* 307 ; Conveyance of supply, and apparatus, 307. 

VII. — Drainage : 

Considerations of level, &c., 308. 
VIII. — Salubrity : 

Good air and good water, 308 ; General considerations, 309. 

IX. — Landscape Gardening : 

This to be considered from the first, 309 ; Past and present ideas, 309 ; 
Features to be inquired for, 309. 

X. — Local Considerations : 
Hint! theieon, 310. 


Section II. — The Choice op Site. 


I. — ^Introduction : 

Statement of the qnestioD, 812. 

II. — Prospect and Aspect: 

Primary idea of an elevated site, 812 ; Aspect to be considered, 318 ; 
Ck)mpromise of antagonistic claims, 313; Southward and Eastward 
landscape to be looked for, 313 ; Case of Northward prospecti 814 ; 
The best site and the worst, 314 ; Disposition of the House, 814. 

III. — Adjuncts of the House: 

The artistic connection of the House with the ground, 815; The 
usual adjuncts, and the importance of level ground for their accommo- 
dation, 315 ; Entrance Court, 316; Tenace-walk, 316 ; Parterre, 316 ; 
Winter Garden, 316; Architectural Garden, 316; Disposition of 
Offices, 317 ; Approach, 317. 

IV. — Sanitary Provisions: 

Ventilation around the House, 317 ; Water-supply properly situated, 318 ; 
Drainage of sur&ce and House, its course and outfall, 319 ; Absorbing 
well, pump, cesspools, 319 ; Field and water vapours, 319 ; Cost, 319. 

V. — Position in the Landscape, and Artificial Site: 

Aptitude of site, 319 ; General notes, 320 ; Difficulties of artificial site, 320. 

Section III. — The Arrangement of the Grounds and Adjuncts. 
I. — Style in Landscape Gardening : 

The contrast between Classic and Picturesque here as elsewhere, 321 ; 
The Italian and English styles of landscape art, 321 ; Connection 
between the English style and tlie Gothic revival, and between the 
Italian style and Palladianism, 322 ; Features of the Italian manner, 
322 ; Features of the English manner, 322 ; The rival merits, 323 ; 
Origination of the doctrine of the Picturesque, 324; Ruins and 
Baronial architecture, 324 ; Practical connection of style in landscape 
gardening with architectural style in the House, 325; The present 
system of mixed style, 325. 

II. — Carriage- Approach : 

Now almost invariably of natural style; How to be disposed, 326; 
Gradient, directness, dryness, 326 ; Privacy of the Lawn and Garden, 
&c., 827; Direction of approach — Nor^ward — Southward, 327; 
Display of the House, &c., 327. 

III. — Entrance Court : 

Described, 327; Common to both Elizabethan and Palladian houses, 
828 ; Recently again common, 828 ; Palladian examples ; Elizabethan 
manner, 328 ; Present modified form, 329 ; Gates, surface, &c., 329 ; 
Open drive, 329 ; Dimensions, 329 ; Objection as to confined appear- 
ance, and remedy, 329 ; Illustrations poMitn, 

IV. — Terrace: 

Two varieties in use as question of style ; the balustrade the test, 330 : 
The primary essential the promenade, 330 ; Usually on the Drawing- 
room Front; width, continuation, elevation, steps, balustrade, 331; 
Illustrations, 331 ; When on any other Front, or in another position, 
331 ; Bays, bastions, grass-border, flower-beds, &c., 381 ; Width and 
height of steps, 882 ; Aspect and proepect, 882 ; Shelter, 382. 



V. — Rural-Italian Style: 

Its introduction as the legitimate sucoessor of Palladianism, 855 ; CSlia- 
racteristics compared with Mediaeval style, 356 ; Reference to niustra- 
tion, 356; Situation, 357; Scale, 357; Materiuls, 357; Cost, 357; 
Importance, 357; Ornamental character, 357; Internal style; the 
usual manner preferable, being part of our constructive system, 358 ; 
Tills manner the so-called Italian, really the vernacular English, 359 ; 
Interior influence, 359. 

VI. — ^Palatial-Italian Style : 

Its relation to the last, 360 ; Examples in London and the provincial 
towns, 360 ; Gharacteridtics, 361 ; Site, Scale, Materials, Gost, Im- 
portance, Ornament, Internal stylo, 361 ; Interior influence, 361 ; 
Adaptability to less important cases, 362. 

VII. — French-Itauan Style : 

Comparative merits of English and French architects, 362; Gharac- 
teristics of this style, 363; The gutter-member, great delicacy of 
projection, &c., 363 ; not to be adopted in England, 363. 

VIIL — English Eenalssance Style: 

French influence generally not prevalent in English architecture, 364 ; 
Adoption recently of the French roof^ and consequent modification 
of English Italian, 365 ; Englitdi treatments till characteristic, 365 ; 
Situation, Scale, Materials, 366 ; Gost, Importance, Ornamental Gha- 
racter, Interior Style, Internal Influence, 366. 


The vigorous character of modem Mediaevalism not to be disputed, 367 ; 
The great merit of recent Ecclesiastical Architects, 368 ; tlie universal 
adaptability claimed for Gothic Design, and the recent popularity of 
Ugliness, 368 ; More enlightened views, however, of the best practi- 
tioners of the school, 369 ; The real capabilities of the style, 369 ; 
Re-statement of tlie question of Style in the Eclectic form, 369 ; The 
characteristics of the style as at present practised, and the bearing of 
the illustration tliereon, 370 ; Situation, " venerable site," a wild site, 
a park, a street, 371 ; Scale of building, 371 ; Materials, 372 ; Gost, 
372; Importance, 372; Ornamental character, quaintncss, 372; 
Interior Style, unsuitubleness of Medimval finishings structurally, 
372 ; But if confined to non-structund detail not objectionable, 373 ; 
Internal influence on Plan, 373. 

X. — Cottage Style: 

Its prevalence, relation to tlie Italian, characteristic features, 374 ; 
Situation, Scale, Materials, Gost, Ornament, Internal Style, Influence 
on Plan, 375. 

XL — Scotch Baronial Style: 

Extensively used, 376 ; Peculiar features, 376 ; Primarily French ; cha- 
racteristics of effect, 377; Suitable only to Scottish scenery, 377; 
Gontrasts with other styles, 377 ; Situation, Scale, Materials, Cost, 
Ornament, Internal Style, Influence on Plan, 377. 

XII. — Concluding Eemarks : 

Ilibtorical and geographical variety of Style limited, 378 ; the Medieval 
or Gothic class, 378 ; the Italian class, 379 ; Two leading ideas, 379 ; 
The Battle of the Styles, 380. 


Notes on Accommodation and Cost. 


I. — ^Preliminary Data: 

Statement of the two questions, 881 ; A third question, the relation of 
Building Outlay to Income, 381 ; The. rule of one-tenth of Income for 
Rent, and its different applications, 382 ; Calculation of Rent, 382 ; 
Relation of Retinue to Scale of Accommodation, 383. 

II. — Modes of Estimating: 

Four modes, 384 ; By Bill of Quantities, 384 ; By Cube Measurement, 
385 ; By Superficial Area, 385; By Number of Rooms, 385; Compa- 
rison of these systems, and preference of the latter ones for our 
purpose, 385. 


Extras to be allowed for, and why, 386 ; Rule as to the allowances to be 
made for these beforehand, 387; Enlargement of the imdertaking, 
how to be considered, 387; Professional charges, 388; Architect's 
charges and duties, 388; Surveyor's charges and duties, 388; The 
Landscape Gardener and the Engineer, 388 ; The Clerk of Works, 
his duties and expenses, 389 ; Landscape Gardener's Superintendent, 
389; Law costs, 389; Fixtures, 389; Extra on drainage or water 
supply, 389; StabUng to be separate, 389; Porter's Lodge or 
Cottages, 389 ; The Land, fencing, walls, gates, &c., 389 ; Grounds and 
Garden, and the Landscape Gardener's work, 390 ; Decoration, &c., 
390 ; Architects' Estimates mistrusted : the remedy, 390. 

IV. — Calculation of Prices, Cubical and Superficial : 

Data per foot cube at London rates, 390 ; Reduction of these to super- 
ficial prices, and to prices per Room, 391; Estimator's Ready 
Reckoner, 392 ; Provincial prices, 393. 

V. — Example of a House of the Valup of 1250/. in London 
r (from 8502. to 1200Z. in the Country), 394. 

VI. — Example of a House of the Value of 2600/. in London 

(from I750Z. to 2400Z. m the Country), 395. 

Vn. — Example of a House of the Value of 5000/. in London 

(from 35001. to 47501. in the Country), 397. 

Vlll. — ^Example of a House of the Value of 10,000/. in London 
(from 7000/. to 9500/. in the Country), 400. 

IX. — ^Example of a House of the Value of 20,000/. in London 
(fiwn 14,000/. to 19,000/. in the Country), 402. 

X. — Example of a House of the Value of 40,000/. in London 

(from 28,000/. to 38,000/. in the Country), 405. 

XT. — Estimate of Stabling and Farm Offices: 

Variety of cost involved, 408; Approximate prices for Stahling per 
item, 409; Ditto for Farm-Offices, 409; Ditto for Work- Yard. &c., 
409; Example of such Offices for a small estahlishment, 410; Ditto 
for a superior cstahlishment, 410. 



Critical Notes on the Piates. 
Introduction : 

Classification of the plates, 412 ; Their general availableness for critical 
study, 412 ; The mode and pnrpose of their selection explained, 412 ; 
The uniformity of scale, 413. 


L — The Castle of Castleton (Page 10): 

The accommodation in detail, 413 ; Elements of plan ; the question of 
comfort, 413. 

II. — The Castle of London Keep (Page 12) : 

The system of arrangement, 414 ; Theory of appropriation of the apart- 
ments, 414 ; Subdivision and privacy, 415. 

in. — Castle Acre Priory (Page 14): 

Peculiarities of this example, 415 ; General remarks, 415. 

rV. — Castle Kifing ; and Charney-Bassett Grange (Page 16) : 
Castle Rising freely interpreted, 416; Charnet-Bassett, its scheme of 
appropriation in detail, 416. 

Y. — ^Kenilworth Castle (Page 32) : 

Of no practical interest ; general notes, 417. 

VI. — Wolterton Manor House (Page 34) : 

An example still serviceable ; the Hidl and its relations, 417 ; Its adapta- 
bility to modem practice, and suggestions thereon, 417. 

VII.— -Oxburqh Hall (Page 36) : 

The Hall as last ; want of Corridors, 418. 

Vin.— Henqrave Hall (Page 38) : 

Features of modem plan ; Corridors introduced, 418 ; The Hall changed 
in purpose, and not judiciously, 419 ; The principle of the conversion 
of the ancient Dwelling-Hall into the modem Entrance-Hall, 419; 
The accommodation otherwise; the Servants* Waiting-Hall, &c., 

IX.— Hatfield House (Page 40) : 

The Galleries critically considered, 420; The Hall ditto, 420; Tlie 
State-rooms, 420 ; The Wings, 421 ; Summer and Winter Dining- 
rooms, 421. 

X. — Stoke Park and Ambresbury (Page 42) : 

Stoke Park an example of the faults of Palladiam'sm, 421 ; Ambresbury 
in less measure the same, 422 ; The Staircases, 422 ; The *' Square 
House '* as regards its supposed merits, 422. 

XI. — ^Marlborough House (Page 44) : 

The raisgovemment of symmetry exemplified, 422 ; Thoroughfare doors 
at the window-waU, 423; The dinner route, 423; the Block-plan, 

XII. — Blenheim (Page 46) : 

Unsuitably grand, 424 ; Kegularity of features, 424 ; Miscellaneous notes, 



XIII.— HoLKHAM (Page 48) : 

A climax of Palladian plan, 425; The four PavilionB; the secondary 
Staiicases ; modified symmetry, 425 ; The secondary Entrances ; En- 
trance-route and other features, 425 ; Aspect, 426. 

XI Y. — LoNGLEAT (Page 50): 

Skilfully adapted to modem wants, 426 ; The Hall and its relations, and 
Thoroughfares generally, 426; The Family Suite; Inyalid's Suite; 
Garden Entrance, 427 ; Aspect, 427. 

XV. — ToDDiNGTOX (Page 52) : 

Designed without an Architect, 427; Needless irreg^ularity of Block- 
plan, and conventional symmetry of features, 428 ; Palladian Gothic, 
428; Disposition equally hod, 428; Aspect, 429; Bandom notes, 

XVI. — Llwyn House and Old Connaught (Page 54) : 

Llwyn House a clever Classic plan; Equality of Dining-room and 
Drawing-room ; Cloak-room, &c. ; Service passage, &c. ; Dining-room 
light, 430; Old Connaught of Mediaeval character; Disposition of 
the Hall; Service-room, &c., for Basement Offices; Butler's stair; 
Boute to Entrance ; Door of intercommunication, 431. 

XVII.— Osborne (Page 56): 

The Architect in a manner dispensed with ; instance in point, 431 ; A 
foreign character of plan; the Puhlic-rooms ; the Visitors* Apart- 
ments ; the Entrance-Hall ; the Visitors' CJallery, and other features, 
432 ; Palladian restraint, 432 ; The Corridor-Alcove, 433. 

XVIII.— Balmoral (Page 56) : 

Compared with Osbobne and Toddinqton, 433; The Entrance-Hall 
and Ghillery ; Puhlic-rooms ; Visitors* rooms ; Carden Entrance, 433 ; 
Various points in the Offices, 434 ; The Staircase and Private Suite, 
434 ; The Ball-room, 434 ; Aspect, 434. 

XIX. — Bridgewater House (Page 58) : 

The connection of the State-rooms; the question of circuit-suite for 
receptions and for a " show-house ; " The Staircase, 434 ; Aspect, 

XX.— West Shandon (Page 58) : 

An extreme case of irregularity, 435 ; Entrance-Hall ; Suite of Public- 
rooms ; Doors of intercommunication ; Drawing-room ; library ; Din- 
ing-room, &c. ; Offices; the Museums and Gallery, 436; Sham 
windows, 436 ; Compared with Plate XXXIV., 436. 

XXL, XXII. — (Comparative Designs in the Classic and Gothic 

Modes (Pages 60, 62) : 
Blodel plans of no Talue practically ; conditions adopted in this case, 
437; Plate XXL,— Cortile, Entiance-Hall, and Staircase; Public- 
rooms; Garden-Entrance; Family-Suite, 437; Offices separately 
treated, 437; Aspect, 438; Plate XXII. and reference to Plate 
XXXIV., 438 ; Refinements introduced, 438 ; Characteristic Gallery, 
Staircase, and Hall, 438 ; Family Suite ; Offices, 438 ; Aspect, 438. 

XXIII. — Kitchen Apparatus (Page 208), 439. 

XXIV. — Underscar — Grounds (Page 336) : 

A oomprehensiYe and compendious example, 439 ; Aspect ; Objectionable 
treatment of South-east Front, 439 ; Drying-ground, Stables, Gardens. 



XXV. — ^FiLLONGLEY ViCARAOE AND W00DHEYK8 Park (Page 440) : 

Useful examples, 440; The Parsonage: — Aspect; Dinner-seryico ; 
Side-Entrance; Porch and Hall, &c., 440; Woodheybs Pabk:^ 
Porch and Hall; Dinner-service; Boom-doors; Kitchen vapours: 
Morning-room ; Cloak-room ; Back Stair ; Stables, &o., 440. 

XXVI.— Bylaugh Hall (Page 440) : 

A good Classical plan, 441 ; motive of disposition of Booms ; Principal 
Staircase and Dinner-Stair ; Gentleman's-room and Library ; door in 
Dinner-Stair ; doors of Gk^ntleman's-room ; Entrance-Hall and Porter's- 
room, 441. 

XXVII.— Stormont Castle (Page 442) : 

Of mixed Mediasval tjrpe, 441; Entrance-apartments; Family-Suite; 
Dinner-service ; no Back-Stair ; intercommunications ; subdivision of 
Drawing-rooms, &c., 441. 

XXVIII.— Walton (Page 442) : 

An unusually stately plan, 442; Entrance-Corridor; Dining-room; 
Kitchen ; library, &c ; Servants* access to Entrance ; OfiQces generally ; 
Terrace ; peculiar habits, 442. 

XXIX. — Mr. Kemp's Model Plan, and Hinderton (Page 444) : 

The model-plan, — ^want of vitality in all such, 443 ; South-east Front ; 
Dining-room mistaken ; Hall and Corridor ; Conservatory ; Drawing- 
room; Gentleman*8-room ; Butler's Pantry, &c., a blunder; general 
value of the plan, 443 ; Hindebton much superior ; Entrance and 
Staircase; Cloak-room; Dining-room and service; Offices; Conser- 
vatory ; Objectionable relations of doors to jQreplaces, 443. 

XXX.— Hemstead (Page 444) : 

A medisBvalized Classical plan, 444 ; Entrance ; Hall and Staircase of 
peculiar character ; Saloon ; other Public-rooms ; Dining-room ; 
secondary Entrances, Lift, and Men's-Stoir ; Business-room ; Kitchen 
Offices and others, 444. 

XXXI.— Nun- Appleton (Page 446) : 

The old and new portions, 445 ; Office-Entrance ; Drawing-rooms ; sug- 
gested Hall ; Drawing-room aspect and prospect ; Conservatory, &c. ; 
Billiard-room as part of Corridor ; Dining-room peculiar, also Library 
and G^ntleman's-room ; probable reasons ; Offices ; avoidance of Base- 
ment Offices; ingenious Plate-closet; Servants'-rooms arranged for 
aspect ; particular interest of this plan, 445. 

XXXII. — Somerleyton Hall (Page 440) : 

Amateur architecture, 446 ; Entrance-Court and Landscape Gkirdening, 
447; Entrance-Hall, Cloak-rooms, Side-Entrances; Principal Stair- 
case and Garden-Entrance; Corridors bad; Drawing-room sacrificed 
to Winter-Garden ; Music-room ; Dining-Hall very objectionable ; 
Library and Breakfast-room ; Business-room a Counting-house ; 
Butler's-Pantry ; Kitchen Offices, 447; Stables and Aviaries, 447; 
the Winter-Garden of great interest ; the question of its attachment to 
the House discussed in detail, 447. 

XXXIII.— Mentmore (Page 448) : 

A grand Classic plan, 448; Central axes; Entrance -steps ; Drawing- 
room suite, Boudoir, junction of Conservatory ; Dining-room objec- 
tionable : Busincss-snite ; substitute for Cloak-room : smaller Dining- 
room or Breakfast-room ; labyrinth of Corridors, 448 ; Offices gene- 



rally; Kitchen group; Houaekeeper^s and Butler's departments ; 
Brewery and Laundry group ; Ceiling-light, &o. ; general character of 
Offices, 449. 

XXXIV. — Modern Scotch Model (Page 450) : 

The Scotch school of architects ; their practical merits and their short- 
comings, 449; principles exemplified in the plate, their adyantages 
and disadyantages, 450. 

XXXY., XXXVI. — Mansion, Berkshire (Page 452) : 

Purpose of the illustration, 451; Non-classical s^^le, 451; Basis of 
Picture-Gallery, the scheme of plan involved, 451 ; Other peculiarities 
on Ground-floor, 452; Ditto on upper stories, 452; Advantages of 
irregular plan, 452. 

XXXVII. — Design for London Houses (Page 454) ; 

Defective plan of the ordinary models arising from difficulties of site, 453 ; 
Purpose of the design, 453; Contrivance of light, 453; Basement 
Offices described, 454; Ground-floor or Dining-room story, 454; 
First-floor (Drawing-rooms), 454; Second-floor (chief Bedrooms); 
Third-floor (secondary Bedrooms) ; Fourth-floor (Nurseries and Ser- 
vants*-rooms) ; and Fifth-floor in roof, 454 ; Stables, 455 ; Principle 
of grouping the houses, 455 ; Urgent need of improvement, 455. 

XXXVIII.— Blake Hall (Page 454) : 

Two purposes of illustration, the Offices and the Alterations, 455 ; Addi- 
tions described successively, &c, &c., 455. 

XXXIX. — Latham Hall Offices (Page 456) : 

Their conversion for modem uses ; The Kitchen Offices ; Butler*s Offices ; 
Housekeeper's Offices, 456 ; Servants'-Hall and Women*8-room ; Ceiling 
light and aspect, 457 ; Stables and Workshops, &c, 457. 

XL. — Lonoleat, Original Plan (Page 458) : 

Introduced merely for comparison with the altered plan, Plate XIV., 

XLI. — ^DuNSDALE (Page 458) : 

An example of Incorporation, 457; Mode of conversion, chiefly into 
thoroughfiire space, 458 ; First-floor, &c., 458. 

XLIL — Windsor Castle State Rooms (Page 460) : 

Purpose of the illustration, 458 ; Want of motive in the grouping ; 
speculative arrangement, 458. 

XLIII. — Palace at Darms^fadt (Page 460) : 

Ccmtinental model, 459; The arrangements those of a Hotel; singular 
features throughout, and backward state of German plan, 460. 

XLI V-— House in Paris (Page 462) : 

The latest French style, 460; Ground-floor Entrance, Waiting-room, 
Staircase, and pecidiar Carriage-Entrance; SaUe^-manger and ser- 
vice; Office de Luxe; Salons; characteristic suite, 460; Boaement 
Waiting-rooms and Cloak-rooms ; grouping of Offices, 461 ; Character- 
istic compactness, 461. 

XLV. — Thoroughfare Plans (Page 464) : 

Purpose of illustration, 462; Practical motive of Thoroughfare plan, 
462; Bemarks on Plates XXI., XXXIV., XXX., XXXV., XU., 
XY., 462 ; Becommendations as to Thorougli&re drawings, 464. 

( XXX. ) 



Osborne Title-page. 

Aspect-Ck)mpefls Page 81 

Use of Bay Windows , 93 

Dining-room without Fireplace „ 95 

Model Parlour-Dining-room „ 101 

Model Morning-room „ 104 

Drawing-room Bow ,« 108 

Drawing-room : position for the Door „ 110 

Drawing-room connected with Dining-room „ 114 

Model Study 124 

English Bedroom „ 133 

French Bedroom , 133 

Bedrooms with Dressing AlooYes „ 135 

Porches to correct Aspect „ 158 

Double Entrance Doors , 163 

Various forms of Gallery, or Principal Corridor ,, 166 

Library in Bays „ 188 

Section of Picture Gallery, Soutd Kensingtom Museum „ 191 

GoYcd Gelling Lights for Ghillery „ 192 

Section of Ice-house „ 247 

Block-Plan for Sketches of Architectural Style ,. 343 

Sketch of Elizabethan Style 346 

Ditto Palladian „ 348 

Ditto Elizabethan revived „ 350 

Ditto Rural Italian „ 355 

Ditto Palatial Italian „ 360 

Ditto French Italian , 362 

Ditto English Renaissance ,, 364 

Ditto Mediaeval or Gothic „ 367 

Ditto Cottage Italian , 374 

Ditto Scotch Baronial , 376 

(For the Index to the Lithographic Plans see the General Index, Part Sixth.) 

( xxxi ) 




I to face 

tpage 10 

XXTV. .. tofac 

epage 336 



/ XXV. 




\ XXVI. .. 




/ xxvn. .. 




\ xxvin. 




/ XXIX. 


VIL .... 


\ XXX. 




/ XXXI. 




\ xxxu. . . 












/ XXXV. . . 






XIV. .. .. 


/ XXX vn. 


xv.» .. .. 


txxxvm. . . 




XXXIX.» .. 


/ xvn 



/ XTi. .. 



\ XTiL .. 


/ XIX 




1 XX. 


\ Xlilll. 




XTiIV. .. 


xxn. .. .. 


XTiV. .. 




^ So as to show the Number. 






CHAPTER I.— Pbogramme. 

Porpoae of the inqtiiiy. — NatioDiJ pecHliaritieB of domestic plan. — 6enen4 

hiiBtory of plan in Europe. — The English system. 

Although the primary purpose of the present treatise goes 
no farther than a practical exposition of the principles which 
regolate the Plan of an English Rmdence at the present day^ it 
will neyertheless proTe interesting, and indeed instructive, to 
take a prefatory review of the circumstances under which these 
principles have grown up and become established. 

It is not difficult to perceive that amongst the nations of 
Europe each one possesses its own peculiar model of domestic 
plan ; — the ViUa of Italy, for example, the Chateau of France, 
the dmntry-Seat of England — not to mention minor cases— differ 
from each other in their arrangements precisely as their occupiers 
differ in the habits of life. It must also be apparent that each 
manner has had its own peculiar process of development ; — and it 
militates in no way against this principle^ but the contrary, when 
we find these various processes to have been concurrent, starting 
together from the same point, and pursuing parallel courses even 
to the present time. 

The geneial bearings of this may be set forth in the following 
propositions. 1. Under the Boman domination all the Western 
countries alike exhibited side by side the luxurious Villas of 
the imperial officers and the simple abodes of the aboriginal 
chiefis.-^2. Upon the overthrow of Roman power, uncivilized 
maaneiB resumed the ascendency ; the rude Halls of barbarian 



custom became again the sole practice of building ; and pro- 
gress was but very slow for several centuries. — 3. At length 
came the age of chivalry, which produced, in the feudal Castles, 
examples altogether novel, and remarkable equally for magni- 
tude and skill. — 4. These in their turn gave place : population 
had increased; advancing intelligence and wealth had tran- 
quillised the state; the Strongholds of military rule were 
succeeded by the Mansions of refined ease ; and domestic build- 
ing began to advance rapidly. — 5. Then occurred the breaking- 
up of the mediaeval system, and that inauguration of modern 
principles on the basis of the antique which is called the Revival 
of arts and letters. The spread of resuscitated Classic archi- 
tecture now introduced tlwoughout the West, as the companion 
of the new Italian fashion of decorative design, a corresponding 
fashion of arrangement, which may be called Palladian Plan ; 
and this, modified more or less in various circumstances and 
different localities, has ever since prevailed. — 6. Of late, how- 
ever, it has been almost everywhere yielding. Partly, no doubt, 
by reason of changes in artistic motive, carrying with them 
corresponding changes in plan, but much more owing to the 
pressure from within of accepted principles of domestic habit at 
variance with the Palladian model, it is certain that the acade- 
mical precedents of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries have 
been during the last fifty years falling into disuse, and new 
systems of arrangement acquiring settled recognition ; so that 
the test of progress in domestic building throughout Europe is 
at this moment to a great extent involved in the question how 
far any particular nation has set aside the Palladian manner in 
favour of something more properly to be designated National Plan. 
Accordingly, the development of the English system, with 
which we have to deal, is its course of progress, in the line thus 
indicated, from the Hall of the Saxon Thane to the Mansion of 
the modern Gentleman. We need not commence earlier than 
the date of the Saxons. The Roman practice, having long before 
died out, had left no tangible impress. The barbarian practice, 
up to the Saxon time, had not advanced beyond the simplicity 
of the primitive type. Taking up the clue, therefore, at the close 
of the Saxon dynasty, we begin virtually at the beginning, and 
are able to go forward for eight hundred years, in direct sequence 
of events, along a line clearly indicated and fully illustrated. 


the tenth or eleventh century was neither more nor less than the 
universal Northern European house of the time, and indeed of 
time then immemorial, — ^namely, the primitive dwelling of the 
Goth or Northern barbarian. 

The house of a Saxon of average degree consisted of a single 
large apartment. We may assign to it the dimensions of from 
thirty to forty feet in length and about half as much in breadth, 
with a height which is believed to have been disproportionately 
small. This was the '* Hall " of ancient and invariable Northern 

If we glance back at the ancient Boman house, by way of 
contrast, we find its germ to have been the Atrium or Court, as 
an uncovered enclosure. Surrounding this were the Cubieuli or 
Rooms, more or less developed according to circumstances. It 
is the same idea which prevails in every form of Oriental plan, 
from the most remote antiquity to the present day ; and the 
Komans derived it indirectly from the East. But the germ of 
Gothic plan, coming from the less hospitable North, is essentially 
different. The primary object is shelter from the elements. The 
type is not therefore the uncovered, but the covered enclosure ; 
not the Court, but the Eoom ; not the Atrium, but the Sail. It is 
remarkable, also, that this radical feature, and under this primary 
name, — the Common Hall, otherwise "the House-place," — is 
found to retain its prominence, even in the most complex plans, 
throughout the whole of the mediaeval period in England. 

The ordinary Saxon ffall constituted the sole dwelling-room 
and eating-room, for lord and lady, guest and serf alike; it was 
kitchen .and scullery, of course; nursery also incidentally for 
both high-bom and low ; and quarters none the less for the sheep- 
dogs and wolf-hounds. It afforded stowage in one comer for the 
implements of husbandry, and in another for a store of produce. 
Lastly it was the one universal sleeping-room of the household, 
who disposed themselves ac>corxliDg to their rank upon the floor. 
The walls of the best examples were constructed of woodwork 
plastered with clay, and rudely ornamented; and the roof was 
substantially covered with thatch, or more neatly with shingles. 
The floor was of earth ; the door at one end was woven of osiers 
or made up of boards ; and there were small windows along the 
sides, closed by wicker shutters or canvas frames as the precursors 
of glazed casements. The fire of logs was lighted in the midst 
of the floor ; and the smoke, clinging for a while amongst the 


blackened roof-timbers and the stock of dried meats, escaped 
through openings in the gables or a funnel in the thatch. The 
plough-oxen were accommodated in a hovel, either attached to 
the Hall or not ; the sheep in a suitable enclosure ; the swine in 
another ; the grain and fodder in a barn. Other provisians, when 
in abundance, and the beer, were stored in what was early called 
a CeUar. It seems probable that in some cases this Cellar, and 
occasionally the cattle-houses, were made to form a basement- 
story under the HalL The whole establishment was surrounded, 
in cases of any importance, by a Court-yard, enclosed by a pali- 
sade and perhaps a ditcL 

In the better class of dwellings there was a second apartment, 
known as the Chamber. This was sometimes constituted by 
means of a transverse partition, or even a curtain, dividing the 
Hall into two suitable parts ; but more properly it was an addi- 
tional and smaller structure attached to one end. It possessed 
no provision for a fire, and was not necessarily entered from 
within, but probably in most cases by an outer door alone. 
During the day this apartment was not much used, except as an 
audience-chamber — ^the " Withdrawing-room " of later phrase- 
ology — where important business could be transacted apart; 
and during the night it served for a private sleeping-room, which 
the heads of the household shared (so simple were the habits of 
the time) with such of their followers and guests as they might 
choose to honour by this withdrawal from the commoner com- 
pany of the Hall. 

It is obvious that the enlarged retinue attached to the king 
and other chieftains of the highest rank must have demanded a 
further increase of accommodation; but as has already been 
fainted, this was provided in a very unpretending manner, and 
with the slightest possible departure from the common model. 
Two illustrations from the Welsh records, which are generally 
cited^ appear to add to the Hall and Chamber, with outbuilt 
Offices, such as have been already described, nothing more 
besides a Chapel and a Kitchen, — " Hall, Dormitory, Kitchen, 
Chi^l, Granary, Bake-house, Store-house, Stable, and Dcg- 
houae," being the words of one of the extracts in question, and 
the other being very similar. The Chapel had become a formal 
adjunct to the regal abode, and probably to many other establish- 
ments of high rank, in place of the little cell or Oratory which 
foond a place in less dignified dwellings ; and we may suppose 


it to have been a detached structure. The DormUcry was the 
<' Chamber " of the king ; and it seems not unlikely that there 
may have been sometimes a second such Chamber, the with- 
dra wing-room for secondary business, and the sleeping-room for 
secondary officers. Both would be in all probability attached to 
the Hall as befor . The Kitchen would certainly be a detached 
building, as it continued to be for a long time afterwards, on 
account of the risk of fira ThS^Stcre-houBe would be the Cellar 
before-mentioned, situated perhaps under the Chamber in the 
manner afterwards common. The Stable for the horses of the 
king and suite, and the Bog-house for the hounds, would be 
obviously necessary. The Oranary would be the bam. The 
Bake-house, otherwise called the Kiln, we may consider to have 
been an oven, perhaps in some way a smoking-house. And 
having understood thus much, it really seems that we have gone 
quite as far as evidence would warrant in forming an idea of the 
palace of Alfred the Great, or Edward the Confessor himself, — 
half-a-dozen wooden cabins, in short, for so many several pur- 
poses, huddled together within a palisada 

The Castles, which under the Anglo-Normans became such 
important structures, were in the hands of the Saxons of little 
account as fortresses, and as residences of none. The earth- 
work fortification, which was formed by a ditch and bank, 
surrounding a central mound, was the common Grothic camp. 
Where there was a citadel within, it was an insignificant tower, 
generally built of wood ; and when of stone of no considerable 
magnitude or substance ; designed for the quarters of a small 
garrison, but in no way adapted for the seat of lordly authority. 

This account of Saxon building may perhaps appear deficient 
in romance ; but subsequent chapters of our investigation will 
assist in showing that it is scientifically as well as historically 
correct. Indeed any introduction of greater refinement into the 
picture, unless of a very unpretending and exceptional kind, 
would only detract from its real value ; for it is in this simple 
and rude arrangement that we have the origin of a Style of Plan, 
peculiar to the middle ages, which we shall trace in the following 
chapters through an eminently characteristic history, and to 
which we have ultimately to assign perhaps the greatest share 
of the merit to be ascribed to our present English model in its 
best form. 


CHAPTER in. — Eleventh Century — Norman. 

Origin of ihe Anglo-Norman CasUe, — Two periods. — The first peridd in its 
inferior examples. — GAflTLirroN (Plate L). — The superior examples. — The 
TowES OF LoNDOK (Plate II.). 

The Norman conquest of England produced in one respect no 
difference in the system of domestic building; in another it 
created an entirely new order of things. In those dwellings 
which accommodated the peaceful cultivators of the soil, the old 
plan was still adhered to ; but, before long, the Castle of the 
feudal noble, or the fortress-residence, became another model, 
which entered upon a striking course of development. In other 
words, the house of the Hall and Chamber was now the plan of 
the husbandman, and its improvement was slow ; the ^' Gentle- 
man's House" of the period was the Castle alone, and its 
progress was both rapid and complete. 

It does not seem necessary to enter into any investigation of 
the origin of Castles, or to point to the inconsiderable influence 
of the Boman manner in Europe during the Dark Ages, and its 
greater influence in the Eastern empire. Beferring to the 
description given in our last chapter of the Castle of the Anglo- 
Saxons, this may be affirmed to represent the original Gothic 
model, independent of all Boman precedent, upon which that 
practice was based which is identified so much in history with 
the Anglo-Norman name. There can be no doubt that such 
primitive Castles were in use over the whole of Europe during 
the tenth century, for garrison purposes. In some countries 
political circumstances and national character would necessarily 
produce them in greater number than in others, and of greater 
importance structurally. It is manifest also that upon occasion 
they must have served as the temporary dwellings of their 
quarrelsome owners. It is quite probable, too, that in some 
cases an unruly or jparauding chieftain would make his fortress 
a permanent abode; indeed, one effect of the feudal system 
would be to encourage such a practice whenever possible. The 
feudal Normans, therefore, on French soil, may very fairly be 
believed to have used the fortress-residence to an extent cor- 
responding with their martial character, — that is to say, to a 
considerably greater extent than the cotemporary Saxons in 


England ; and the question, consequently, whether or not the 
conquerors brought across the Channel the idea of what is 
known as the Norman Castle, may be thus far answered in the 

At the same time, as regards scientific considerations, it is not 
to bo supposed that any remains or records exist which would 
warrant the opinion that the French Normans had built thdr 
Castles on the Continent upon any other than a very simple and 
rude system as compared with their future English works, or 
that any other Western people before the Conquest had pro- 
duced such buildings of anything like their subsequent import- 
4ince. In fact, we have to claim for England that in this species 
of domestic an^hitecture she pointed the way for Europe at 
large ; that the Norman Castle, considered as a commodious and 
stately Kesidence, was essentially ^^2a-Norman. To account 
for tliis, it seems only necessary to reflect upon the position of 
tlie conquerors in tlieir new home. They had taken possession 
of an extensive and wealthy kingdom ; they had divided amongst 
themselves as spoil of conquest, not merely the emoluments of 
its government, but the property of its soil ; they had assumed, 
after their feudal manner, a sort of ownership in the very 
persons of its inhabitants, — a race of kindred origin, and iu 
everything but the fortune of war equal to themselves. In such 
a condition of affairs it seems reasonable to say, first, that the 
prudence of the foreign lord would as a rule demand a defensible 
house ; and secondly, that the pride of the enriched adventurer 
would induce him to build it in stately form. 

Of the earlier Castles, perhaps the majority were constructed 
of wood ; but it is certain that firom the first some were built of 
massive masonry. In ornamental design it is not to be expected 
that much could be attempted ; nor, indeed, in scientific con- 
struction. But when we come to later examples, the merit in 
both respects is of a much more advanced order; indeed, a 
degree of refinement is sometimes attained in which they may 
almost be considered to vie with the buildings of the Church. 
There are thus constituted what we may call two distinct periods 
of style, of which, for the sake of convenience, and with very 
slight indecision chronologically, the one may be identified with 
the eleventh century, and the other with the twelfth. The 
former of these we now proceed to examine. 

The primary idea of the Anglo-Norman Castle is too often 


taken to be that of a Tower alone ; but this falls short of the 
principle of residence involved. The Tower was but the Keep ; 
the Castle as a whole comprehended an enclosed and fortified 
area, of which the Keep or Donjon was the core — the dwelling- 
house in the ificonvenient but necessary form of a tower. As a 
characteristic example of the simplest plan, the Gasde called 
CASTLEtON, in Derbyshire, is presented in Plate L 

The ordinary process of construction in such cases was this. 
A space of ground of from half an acre to an acre, or even more, 
was selected, possessing within its limits, generally towards one 
extremity, an eligible knoll or mound, or the means of forming 
one. Around this area there was dug a deep and wide fosse ; 
(Castleton, by the bye, being situated on an eminence, has 
none ;) and into this fosse, if possible, water was conveyed. The 
soil dug out was deposited as a bank within the fosse. Thus far, 
this was the old system ; and in many cases it is more than pro- 
bable that a Saxon Camp or Castle may have been made to 
serve the purpose. Along the summit of the bank there was 
now added a massive stone wall, with a terrace on the top, pro- 
tected by a parapet At the point fixed upon for the entrance, 
situated generally at the opposite extremity from the mound, 
a tower was built ; which contained the gate within an archway, 
and an apartment over it for its defence. This was the Qate^ 
home. In front of it the Drawbridge crossed the ditch. At 
other points of the circumVallation other towers of defence were 
sometimes placed, as occasion might be considered to require. 
On the mound within there was erected the Keep or Citadel, 
the dwelling-tower of the Castle; and wherever convenient 
within the waU there were jdaced the requisite Outbuildings. 

The Keep in an ordinary case was about 20 feet square 
internally, with walls as much as 10 or 12 feet thick, and of four 
stories, as a role, in height, with a flat roof at the summit. 
Each story was a single apartment ; this was characteristic of 
the whole class of simple Keeps. First was a vaulted base- 
ment, which, having neither door nor window in the walls, was 
accessible by a trap-door in the floor above. This, however, was 
not sunk underground, as convenience of entrance at the next 
story would dictate ; on the contrary, by its means the entrance- 
door was purposely elevated, for convenience of defence. The 
Cellar thus formed was made to accommodate heavy stores, and 
amongst the rest the timbers of a catapult or other war-engine 


to be used upon the roof. It was also obviously a Convenient 
place for the occasional confinement of a prisoner. The next 
story, second aboveground, we may call the Entry-place. The 
door was approached from without, by means of a wooden ladder, 
wliich subsequently became a long unprotected flight of stone 
steps. Windows were inadmissible, for militcoy reasons. As 
regards accommodation, this story probably served for little 
besides incidental stowage. The third stage in order constituted 
the HaU^ or Souse-place, — the dwelling, eating, cooking, and 
sleeping room of old Gothic custom, — but elevated now by some 
30 feet, or perhaps twice as much, of stone wall and mound from 
the level of the ground below. It was made lofty, and, after 
the manner of such an abode, stately. It was provided with 
several windows, although these were necessarily small in size ; 
and it generally had a fire-hearth against the wall, with a 
smoke-flue over it passing to the outer air. There would also 
be sometimes here formed a little cell in the wall, as an Oratory. 
The remaining story was the Chamber, provided with windows 
and generally a fireplace. Whether, as we should begin to 
expect, and as this last feature might be taken in some measure 
to indicate, the Chamber was now becoming more of a lady's 
apartment, it seems not easy, as regards direct evidence, to say ; 
although it is hard to believe now-a-days that female privacy 
was of such slow growth as we shall find it to have been : but we 
may at least take leave to suppose that the use of the upper 
room as a family dormitory must have become more invariable 
now; especially as the domestic relations which had existed 
between master and serf in the Saxon time could scarcely have 
continued in full force under the Norman regime. The Chamber 
being the uppermost story, there was yet a not unimportant 
stage constituted by the roof above; which was a platform 
surrounded by a parapet, — in faxjt, the fighting-deck of this 
unamiable mansion. There were other military contrivances 
more or less ingenious throughout the building ; but these we 
may pass by. The well-shaft we may note as having been 
carried up from the ground to the topmost floor, and oft€n to 
the roof; and the stair, from the entrance upwards, was either 
straight in successive flights within the thickness of the walls, 
or spiral in one angle. (See also the remarks on Plate I. in the 

The domestic Offices were only temporary structures as com- 



11*** Century. 





' ''iff «ff eni* ihres st«^ee m ihts tsrivnpU ) 





I approximate 

r T 



Scale 1 Inch to 30 Feet 

<a^ A .•♦ fK titfir ^ "fc'r*-- 



pared with the Keep and the circumvallation ; being, indeed, as 
a role, built of wood. There were necessarily the Stable and 
B€am, if no others ; and subsequently it was the custom to have 
a special Kitchen, They were no more than the same uncon- 
nected series of cabins and sheds which the Saxons had. 

The primitive tower just described as the simple Keep, we 
must from the first assign to inferior cases ; for we find a much 
enlarged plan adopted in superior examples, as in Eochester 
Keep, 70 feet square internally; Canterbury, 87 feet square; 
Wiii^bor, 90 feet in diameter ; London, 116 feet by 96 ; Col- 
chester, 140 feet by 100 ; — all early instances. The outer forti- 
fications also were correspondingly augmented both in extent 
and strength. The first line of wall and fosse became sur- 
rounded by a second ; and the defence of the Keep was sup- 
ported by a number of minor towers, which accommodated a 
garrison. But the most interesting question of plan which now 
arose was how to subdivide the large internal area of the Keep. 
It is suggested by some that there was generally formed an open 
central Court ; but there seem to be no traces of anything of 
this kind in the remains ; and it cannot be doubted, for example, 
that the great Keep of London, 116 feet by 96, one of the first 
built in the kingdom, was covered entirely with roofing. The 
mode of division was for some time extremely simple. At 
London and Colchester, notwithstanding the great size, a single 
wall of partition divided the tower. At Eochester thS plan was 
the same. At Canterbury, again, there were two such walls. 
There were few cross partition-walls ; sometimes none ; for con- 
structive reasons there would be timber posts, to carry the floors 
and roof ; but it does not appear that for convenience there had 
been even those wooden partitions or screens which might have 
added so much to the comforts of residence. 

The design of plan was of the most meagre kind ; and there 
was little that maintained its identity except the Great ffaU, 
which generally occupied the entire third story. The addition, 
however, of an external Vestibule at the entrance, as in the case 
of Rochester, was an improvement which showed a tendency to 
seek residential comfort at a slight sacrifice of defensive strength ; 
although the entrance was still one story above ground, and had 
to be approached by a long exposed flight of external steps. 
We must also allow the merit of improved convenience to the 
system adopted in the larger Castles, where several staircases. 


and numerous recesses like doset^ were provided in the walls. 
There is very apparent, moreover, in some cases, a distinction 
of staircases, as if all were not used indiscriminately. A little 
Chapel or Orvftory attached to the Hall seems also to have 
become more general 

The most interesting illustration of the larger class of early 
Keeps must oi course be that of the Castle of London, now 
called the White Tower. It is presented in Plate IL The great 
Chapel-royal of the king's head-quarters forms a conspicuous 
feature ; but in other respects the plan is primitive, and even 
purposeless, except as regards the defensive arrangements, with 
which we are not concerned. (See the description of Plate IL 
in the Appendix.) Colchester Keep is very similar ; and there 
are none of more advanced disposition belonging to tlie period. 
^ The great Keeps, accordingly, of this century cannot be as- 
signed any considerable superiority in a residential sense. In 
other words, we must consider the Gentleman's House of the 
early Norman age to have been, in respect of plan, little if any 
better than that of the Saxon time. 

CHAPTlTR IV.— Twelfth Century. 

Monattio Buildings, — Castle Acre Pbiobt. — Further development of the Oastle; 

— CAffTLE BisiNG. — Conditiou of the Toimu — Manor-howea and Chrangea. — 

— Necham's account, — HaUj Chamber or Solars Kitchen, Larder, Sewery, and 
CeUar. — General arrangement of plan. — The King's Houses. — Remains. 

Leaving for the moment the fiirther development of the Castle, 
our investigation may be assisted by looking now at the condi- 
tion of plan in Monastic Bvildings, Considering how great was 
the power of the clergy, and how exclusive their possession of 
the education of the day, the obvious conclusion is, as already 
hinted, that in domestic plan they must be expected to have 
excelled. Not only so, but their freedom from the danger of 
war, which caused the noble to coop himself up in a fortress^ 
would enable them, even admitting that some of themselves, as 
is very probable, were the architects of the Castles, to di^se 
their own dwellings upon a system much more refined. Accord- 
ly, in Plate UL, which represents the plan of a Not maa 


Ibmr of Louden. 

CASTLE OF LONDON KEEP, (the white tooh} 
II* CfenbiiT. 


the Refectory of the full height,) and a Library and Scriptoty 
probably on the upper story also ; there being, by the bye, no 
remains of Staircases in this example, — so that access to the 
upper rooms had been provided either by occasional wooden 
stairs within, or by trapdoors, or by external flights of steps. 
A separate block of buildings Eastward accommodated the 
Kitchen Offices and the ffatt for Servants, and another low 
range southward seems to have been Cellars, with a loft over. 

The Prior's Lodging^ west of the Cloisters, comprised a sort 
of Hall and five other apartments on the Ground-floor, and 
probably only two apartments above. One of these latter is 
recognisable as the prior's Chamber, and the other as his 
Chapel, The rooms below we may probably best appropriate to 
the accommodation of strangers and the poor, as on the plan. 

A Sacristy and Almonry are taken to be represented by the 
remains of two attached apartments at the North transept ; and 
an Infirmary was situated probably a little farther to the North, 
disengaged. The remains of a Porter's Lodge are seen not far 
off from the last-mentioned spot, and those of a Bam to the 
Westward ; the site of Stables and Brewery Offices being traced 
to a South-west quarter. Much, or all of this, however, is pro- 
blematical. (See the remarks on Plate HI. in the Appendix.) 

The study of this example leads us to two conclusions of much 
interest. First, our uncertainty as regards the appropriation of 
the several apartments, as well as the scattered grouping of their 
disposition, fully illustrate the primitive condition of domestic 
plan ; especially if compared with the compactness and precision 
of arrangement shown in the ecclesiastical part of the establish- 
ment. Secondly, as compared with the ordinary house-plan of 
the period, we cannot but perceive here a decided superiority, — 
in a word, the superior intelligence of the clergy. 

We may now the better appreciate that further development 
of the Castle which we associate more particularly with this 
twelfth century. During the whole of the century the times 
were troubled, from the assumption by the barons of almost 
sovereign independence during the civil wars at its commence- 
ment down to their combination against King John at its close. 
The Castle consequently is the form in which we may expect to 
see domestic plan chiefly progressing; and in this form it did 
progress most materially. 

Perhaps the most serviceable example is Castle Bisino, i]i 

Pram Bntton's Antiquitiee 

Plate 3. 

Ca»lle Acre IViory. 


T o .* e r 


• ; f — 4 

Pre sty t ery 



Norfolk, of which Plate IV. presents a plan of the principal 'story 
of the Keep ; in this case the second story above ground, — not 
as before, Uie third. The main bulk of the Keep is a parallelo- 
gram on plan, to which is added at one angle, the North-east, an 
attached square turret, with a low wing continued along the 
remainder of the East end by way of an entrance. The story 
below was vaulted, and consisted manifestly of what we may 
call cellarage, the access being from the upper floor alone by 
the spiral stairs downwards. The entrance-door, instead of 
being, as in ordinary examples, on the upper floor level at the 
summit of an external stair, was on the ground level (at the 
South-east comer), at the foot of an equivalent stair within. 
This stair occupied the low wing already mentioned, and led up 
in a straight line to a Vestibule formed by the North-east turret, 
from which a highly ornamented doorway opened to the great 
Common Sail. The main area of the building was divided as 
represented on the plan; the Hall occupying in height the 
whole remainder of the buildiog in one story, and the other 
divisions corresponding in two stories. The larger apartment 
adjoining the Hall, with a similar one above it, we may call 
lotaer and uppet* Cfiambers, otherwise (after the precedent of the 
Saxon " King's House," in the last chapter) we may suppose 
them to be respectively a Chamber or withdrawing-room for the 
lord, and a Dormitory or parlour and sleeping-room for the 
family. Over the entrance door is a Chapel, of the whole 
remaining height of the wing. The apartment between this and 
the lower Chamber would probably be a Priest's Chamber; and 
the room over this last a Chapel-C/iamber or Oriole, to which the 
occupants of the upper Chamber or Dormitory would proceed to 
listen to the morning prayers below through a squint or opening 
in the wall. The curious door in the East wall, with its ladder 
without, was perhaps a special entrance for times of siege, when 
the principal door would be permanently secured ; or perhaps 
DO more than the ordinary servants' entrance from the Offices 
without. The little box marked as the Warder's Cell could scarcely 
serve any other purpose. Lastly, if we consider the two small 
apartments at the West end of the Hall to have been a Bvitery 
for the service of wine and ale, and a Pantry for that of bread, 
and the space over them a Wardrobe attached to the Dormitory, 
(better known adjuncts at a period somewhat farther advanced,) 
the whole interior of the Keep is accounted for. Wooden 


screens and partitions do not appear to suggest themselves any- 
where. The Kitchen^ LardeVy and Cellar we may fairly pre- 
sume to have been external Offices, built of wood perhaps ; their 
functions in times of siege being accommodated indoors, in 

the Hall and its adjuncts. (See also the notes on Plate lY. in 
the Appendix.) 

If this manner of reading the plan seems to bring it too closely 
up to the merit of the monastic example lately described, and if 
it should be considered that we have drawn a little upon the 
antieipation of future improvements, still it is not likely that 
we can be far wrong in principle, and it is certain indeed that 
Castle BisijQg must have been sufficiently a chefSomvre of its 
day to warrant us in explaining it by the future rather than the 
past Its arrangements, therefore, we may pronounce to be re- 
markably complete, according to the habits of the age ; while at 
the same time we must admit that they constitute no very great 
step in advance as respects our modem ideas of comfortable 
domestic plan* 

Although Castle Eising is considered to belong, in point of 
date, to the eommencement of the twelfth century, it is not pro- 
bable that any improvement upon so superior a model was 
eflTected during the remainder of the period. We need only 
further remark that, although a large number of castellated 
dwellings were built during the troubled reign of Stephen 
(1135-1154), his successor, Henry II., is distinguished for 
having in the interest of peace destroyed the most of these, 
besides restricting the liberty of his nobles to build others- 
It may be noticed here what was the condition of the Towns. 
They were Villages, inhabited by the petty traders and crafts- 
men of the time, clustered under the Castle walls of their 
respective lords, and so protected from the spoiler. London 
itself, guarded by the Castle of the King, was but a crowd of 
small houses built of wood and clay, and roofed with thatch. 
Until late in this twelfth century, these very ordinary dwellings 
were only one story high ; and it was considered a great advance 
when a second came to be added, after the manner of the country 
houses which we shall have to consider presently. All that need 
be remembered, therefore, with regard to the towns is that their 
condition was not yet calculated to produce any advancement in 
building. Even in countries where commerce was far more 
flourishing than in England, as in Italy and Flanders, it is not 




13^ Cutuiy. 




apparent that the sources of architecture, so productive of great 
buildings for the Church, had yet been brought to bear in any 
degree upon public edifices for the City. 

Whilst, however, the baronial Castle had been attaining such 
a distinguished character, the Country-house of more peaceful 
associations, although of less importance, had not continued 
altogether unimproved. Any class of country gentlemen, as 
distinguished from the warlike nobles and knights, of course did 
not exist; but it is plain that there must have been a class of 
working agriculturists who could not dwell in Castles. In other 
words, the extensive landowners had to maintain FarmJumseSy 
or Manor-Jumfies as they were called, upon their several pro- 
perties or manors. The Monasteries had their Chranges for the 
same purpose. These accommodated the cultivators of the soil 
and their overseers. Feudal inferiors also occupied similar 
dwellings. Such were, in fact, the ordinary houses of the 
country. There were three classes of residences, therefore; 
namely, the Castles of the lords, the somewhat exceptional 
abodes of the townsmeu, and the Manor-houses of the husband- 
men ; and the first two being disposed of, we have now to look 
at the third. 

In planning the Granges of the clergy, it may at once be 
affirmed that there would be kept in view, as a rule, the occa- 
sional accommodation of a party of the brotherhood, and some- 
times the reception of the lord abbot himself. In the Manor- 
houses of the great proprietors also there would be provision 
made for lodging the lord and his officers ; and, in the case of 
royal properties, the same for the king. We are not able to 
assert that it was in any degree common for the owner of a 
Castle to forsake it permanently as a Residence; but it is beyond 
a doubt that the periodical occupation of the Manor-houses by 
the 1<»^ had come to be the universal rule. Indeed, we know 
it to have been a somewhat inconvenient necessity of the times, 
that the owner of many lands, having no means of selling for 
money the contents of Ids bams, was obliged to make the round 
of his possessions, and consume their produce in turn. The 
consequence was the practice of a systematic mode of Manor- 
house plan, of which we have many records. Indeed, a writer 
of the period, Necham, abbot of Cirencester, afibrds us very 
precise information upon the subject. (See Turner's ' Domestic 
Aidbitectnre of the Middle Ages.') 



Necham's account of a good Manor-house of his day gives it a 
SaU or public room ; a Chamber or private room ; a Kitchen for 
cooking; a Larder for preserving (larding) and storing meat ; a 
Sewery (serverff)^ or Buttery and Pantry combined, for the service 
of wine and ale, bread, and table-furnishings ; and a CeUar for 
miscellaneous heavy stores. The Hall floor was probably in 
most cases on the ground-level ; the Cellar the same ; and the 
Chamber (called in these circumstances the Solar) above the 
Cellar, the two together corresponding in height with the HalL 
The two-story adjunct thus formed was attached to one end of 
the Hall, and the entrance was at the other. Access to the 
Solar was only had by an external stair, and to the Cellar by an 
external door. The entrance end of the Hall was considered 
the proper place for the Larder and Sewery, which took the 
shape of an attached one-story building. This contained also in 
many cases a passageway towards the Kitchen, which was gene- 
rally removed to a little distance on account of the risk of fire. 
It was a luxury to have a small Parch outside the entrance to the 
Hall. Opposite the entrance-door in this case, which was in one 
side-wall of the Hall, there was a Back-door in the other side- 
wall, opening to a Yard, where the Stables and other Out- 
buildings were, and sometimes also the Kitchen. The Hall fire 
was still made in the centre of the floor ; and the smoke escaped 
through a louvre immediately over it in the roof. The only wall- 
fireplace was in the Solar. The Kitchen had generally a cooking- 
grate in the midst, with part of the roof above open to the 

Another model, which seems to have been sometimes followed, 
placed the Hall above a vaulted Basement, the approach to the 
main entrance being by a flight of steps externally. The Chamber 
was then on the level of the Hall, and in connection with it ; and 
the basement, which was accessible only by external doors, formed 
the Cellar &c. This plan, however, is of doubtful authenticity 
as applying to the twelfth century ; it will appear more definitely 

The " King's hotisea " of the day, which are alluded to in the 
records, such as those at Clarendon and Woodstock, were evi- 
dently similar Manor-houses to those described, augmented in 
size for the accommodation of a large retinue, and possessing in 
every case a Chapel as matter of dignity. The Common Hall 
(or Palace^ so called) of these and other more stately establish- 


ments was sometimes of such size as to require division into nave 
and aisleSy like a large church. The Chapel is clearly under- 
stood to have been used for business as well as worship ; and a 
single ** Chamber " is considered to have been the rule. 

The chief Remains of twelfth century domestic building are 
set forth by the best antiquarian authority on the subject (Parker) 
as being at Boothby Pagnell, Lincolnshire ; Christchurch, Hants ; 
Moyse's Hall, Bury St. Edmunds ; and Oakham Castle, Rutland.* 

CHAPTER V. — Thibteenth Century. 

Wocks of the GLergy. — Progreas of Manor-hoiuses, and their preference over the 
Gbrtles. — The Boyal Manor-houses. — Additional Offices : the Buttery, Pcmtry, 
Chamdiery, Wine and Beer CeOan, &c., and Wardrobe, — Svimdiary Chambers. — 
Frecmantle and Woolmer. — Toddington. — " Bedchambers" — Modification of 
the ancient Castles on the Manor-house principle. — Edwardian Castles. — 
Detail arrangements of the period, structural and domestic. — Remains. — 
Chabhkt BAffiETT (^Flatc rV.). — Little Wenham Hall. 

TmB century, opening with the inquietude of John's reign, 
seemed at first to promise but little of social progress ; neverthe- 
less it became distinguished later, not only by the rapid rise of 
the middle class, evidenced especially in the institution of the 
Commons House of Parliament, but ultimately by the consolida- 
tkm of public law under Edward I. It also saw before its close 
the culmination of ecclesiastical power in England, as elsewhere 
throughout Europe. Such a period could scarcely pass without 
great changes in domestic building. 

As respects the influence of the Church little need be said. 
The age which produced so many notable works of church-archi- 
tectore produced also a corresponding number of conventual 
houses ; and some magnificence was attained in a large propor- 
tion of them ; but so far as plan is concerned the improvements 
took the form of increased spaciousness and an augmented list of 
apartments, rather than any modification of principle. At the 

• In this oalalogne, and others which 
win be giren from the same source in 
dealing with ftttnre centories, it is not 
to be so ii iioge d tiiat any oonsiderahle 
pwp e itio a <if veliable iUiutrations of plan 

are to he fonnd ; neither are the lists to 
he expected to be complete, this would 
be impossible ; but as an index to which 
to refer the searcher for examples, no 
doubt they poasess due value. 

C 2 


same time the Granges and Abbots' Lodgings, which would con- 
stitute obviously the more proper examples of the domestic 
design of churchmen, were simply so many Manor-houses of the 
day, slightly modified in their arrangements to suit monastic 
requirements, but not otherwise peculiar. It must be observed, 
however, that, owing to the superior constructive skill of the 
clergy, the best examples of the Manor-houses of the period are 
those which belonged to them. 

Towards the middle of the century, as the government became 
settled under Henry UI. and his ministers, we find numerous 
licences being issued for the crenellation or fortification of Manor- 
houses; these licences being practically the royal sanction for 
building new Country Houses (not Castles) on such a scale as 
would suit persons of importance. From this we gather that the 
model of the Manor-house was coming more and more into 
request for the permanent family residences of the gentry. There 
is also reason to believe (as will appear more clearly presently) 
that the superior nobility themselves, the possessors of the great 
Castles, were acquiring that preference for Manor-house life 
which we could not affirm to have prevailed before. The open 
Hall and Chamber, with the surrounding Offices, in the midst of 
green fields, possessed beyond a doubt every kind of superiority 
in comfort, if not in pomp, over the dreary Donjon-Keep and the 
barren Bailey ; and as the condition of society had greatly im- 
proved, a certain general regard to defensiveness was all that 
could be required for safety. Thus originated the Fortified 
Manor-house ; which continued from thenceforth to be the stan- 
dard English Gentleman's House down to the time of the 

But our most available information with respect to the im- 
provements of the thirteenth century is identified with the 
Manor-houses which belonged to the Crown. The liberate rolls 
of the time of Henry III. supply us with descriptions which, 
although only incidental, are fully reliable. (See Parker's work.) 
They generjdly refer to such matters as the connecting together 
of scattered appendages which had been added from time to time 
to the royal Manor-houses, the erection of new rooms, or the 
alteration, improvement, and remodelling of old ones ; but they 
possess a certain precision which is very suggestive. Hitherto 
we have been familiar with the Hall, Chamber or Solar, Chapel, 
Kitchen, Sewery, Larder, and Cellar; now we perceive novelties. 


The Sewery, or general service-room of the preceding century, 
comes to be amplified, and subdivided ; and so we have, first, the 
Buttery y or butler's (bottler's) store, with Wine and Beer Cellars 
in connexion ; secondly, the Pantry y or bread, butter, and cheese 
store ; and thirdly the Chandlery. There was also added another 
new apartment (although we have ventured to suggest its exist- 
ence in the last century) called the Wardrobe, This served, 
instead of the chests which were formerly used, for the storage of 
cloths for the dress of the ofiicers and servants ; the tailors also 
made it their work-room. We find constant reference, again, to 
the addition of a second Chamber : there were the King's Chamber 
with its Chapel, and the QtieerCs Chamber with its Chapel. These 
Chambers, moreover, appear to have acquired the dimensions of 
state-rooms. There is also mention made of certain subsidiary 
Chambers — for instance, " the Chamber where Master such a one 
doth lie.** From this we may gather that the royal " Chambers " 
had become so far private at night, that the officers in attendance 
dept in adjoining apartments ; although the Common Hall or 
" great House-place " was still the general dormitory, beyond a 
doubt. The next item of improvement in connexion with the 
royal Chambers or Withdra wing-rooms seems to have been the 
custom of interposing a screen or wood partition "between 
the door and the bed," an arrangement which in these King's 
Manor-houses is frequently alluded to. In this, which amounts 
to a separation of the one part of the room from the other, — the 
Night-Chamber, so to speak, from the Day-Chamber, — we per- 
ceive the germ of the Parlour or proper Sitting-Eoom, as in the 
subsidiary Chambers we see the origin of separate Bedrooms, 

To come to the new houses of the time, we may notice one 
ordered to be built for Henry III., at Freemantle, in 1251. Its 
accommodation consisted chiefly of a Hally a 'Kitcheny a King's 
Chamber with, a Chapel and " an upper story y* a Queens Chamber 
with Chapd and upper story, and under one of the Chapels a 
Wine CeUar, Thirty years later we have another similar house 
built for Edward L, at Woolmer, in Hampshire. This had a 
JBoH, a Kitchen, an " Upper Chamber " 72 feet by 28, (a Cellar 
no doubt under it,) a small Chapel, and two Wardrobes, There 
was evidently no second Chamber here. Neither is any mention 
made of the ** upper story," which is twice specified in the pre* 
vious. example. This upper story appears to be the only novelty. 
It most not be imagined, however, that it was intended for sleep- 


ing accommodation ; future {eiets would not bear this out. One 
suggestion which may be made with some show of reason is this, 
— ^the open timber roof being found objectionable for the With- 
drawing-rooms, and a flat ceiling being made, an upper story , 
but not an upper roam, was the result — ^a sort of unavailable 

A mansion built at Toddington, in Bedfordshire, by a courtier 
of Henry UL named Paulin Peyvre, is recorded to have been a 
wonder of its day : it is chiefly interesting to us by reason of its 
being said to have included a novelty called ^'Bedchambers'^ 
It is sometimes found that kings build for use and courtiers for 
show ; and, therefore, it becomes a question whether the word 
^ Bedchambers " may not signify the existence of something at 
Toddington for which we have not been prepared by our exami- 
nation of the Boyal Residences at Freemantle and Woolmer. It 
will be best, however, in the mean time to pass by the question 
with this mention of it ; as it will come up again at the next 
stage of progress, and in better condition for settlement. At 
present we have only further to note that, although some allow- 
ance may have to be made for a certain superiority in the Boyal 
Houses over the average of others, yet we may without diSOiculty 
believe that the improvements which have now been described 
were more or less exemplified in all Residences of any import- 
ance, and especially in those which the nobility, as a class, had 
begun to build everywhere throughout the country under the 
old name of Manor-houses. 

We naturally inquire next, what was the eflTect of this move- 
ment upon the Castles, which still constituted the State Resi- 
dences of the aristocracy. Here the facts are very remarkable. 
The difiference between a new-fashioned Manor-house and an 
old-fashioned Dohjon-tower need not be expatiated upon; but 
we can easily imagine that the baroness and her daughters, 
although not yet very refined, and certainly quite unlettered, 
had begun by this time to consider the old Hall or great House- 
place of their ancestral Keep not only needlessly austere in its 
surroundings, but needlessly elevated in the air, occupying as 
it did the third lofty story of a tower perched upon a mound, — 
their Chamber or Withdra wing-room, moreover, being the fourth, 
20 or 30 feet still higher up, and the turnpike-stairs being by 
no means either spacious or easy of ascent. We can suppose 
also that the baron himself had begun to find the enlarged hos- 


pitality of the time considerably interfered with by the remote* 
ness of his Kitchen and domestic Offices in the Bailey below. 
What> therefore, was to be done ? As for altering the arrange- 
ment of the Eeep-tower, or enlarging it by additions, neither 
alternative could promise much. One other resource at all events 
was open ; namely, to abandon altogether the Keep, if not the 
Castle, and build something new in its stead. 

Accordingly, in the reigns of Henry III. and Edward I. we 
find it to have become a very general rule to allow the Keep- 
tower to fall into ruin, and to build adjoining it what may be 
most simply and intelligibly described as a complete Manor- 
house. The usual plan was to erect within the Inner Bailey, 
and on the ground-level, a capacious and stately Hall, whose 
great windows in front looked freely out upon the Bailey, the 
back wall being incorporated with the circumvallation. To one 
end of this Common Hall there were attached the Chamber (now 
the ** Presence Cfhamber ") and such ot&er Family Apartments as 
have been hitherto described ; and to the other end the Kitchen 
and Domestic Offices. The mode of carrying the idea into efifect 
was rendered very uncertain by the many varieties of form and 
disposition in the old Castle walls. Sometimes a Basement story 
was formed, such as we have seen in the Manor-houses. Some- 
times fortification was still a direct matter of consideration, and 
subsidiary Towers were built to protect the new buildings. In 
all cases the old defences of the Castle were retained ; and occa- 
sionally the Norman Keep was kept, if not in repair, in fighting 
condition, for possible emergencies. (See Kenilworth Castle, 
Plate V.) 

The new Castles built by Edward I. in Wales, with others of 
the same date and of similar plan which were erected in that 
country, are generally pointed out as initiative examples of an 
entirely new style of plan ; and some theorists dwell upon the 
probability of their having been imitated from the fortresses of 
the East But this is surely an error ; a moment's consideration 
will show that they were no more than an imitation of the old 
Nonnan Castles in the improved condition thus described. They 
did not lead, that is to say, but follow. The precise form they 
took was this. The Citadel was no longer the Keep-Tower, 
within the Inner Bailey, after the old manner, but the Inner 
Bailey itself with residential buildings inside, after the new 
manner. Or, to put the case otherwise, a Court-yard of com- 


paratively small extent was surrounded by a massive wall and 
towers, and defended further by one, two, or three lines of eir- 
eumvallation. The central enclosure received, as an equivalent 
for the discarded Keep, the complete Manor-house which had 
lately been introduced into the old Castles. A Hall, Chambers, 
and Offices, according to the generally-accepted model, were 
ranged along one side ; and the remainder of the area became 
the private Court-yard of the mansion, the Stables and other 
Outbuildings being placed beyond the wall. This was the only 
principle involved ; the mode of adapting it to various circum- 
stances becoming matter of variety in plan. 

The opportunity may here be accepted to mention the fact, 
that the development of the Castle, which we have thus far 
traced in England, was following a somewhat similar course 

Before leaving the thirteenth century, a few notes may be 
made respecting minuti» of plan. Much was being done in the 
way of improvement ; but it was little compared with what has 
been done smce. Staircases, even as narrow spiral " turnpikes," 
were very rare ; external flights of stepSy internal trap-doors, and 
ladders, were the rule. For example, Henry HL at one of his 
manors, complaining that the way from his chamber to the 
Chapel takes him through a trap in the floor, orders the con- 
struction of a spiral staircase in the wall. Thoroughfares through 
all rooms alike were too common ; and probably without much, 
if any, of that help to privacy which boarded partitions, or 
rather screens, would have afforded. The same sovereign, being 
at Rochester Castle, observes that the whole household have to 
pass to the Chapel tluough his private Chamber. Fireplaces 
were few ; the hearth was still in the midst of the Hall ; the 
Kitchen still had an open roof; and portable braziers filled with 
embers were too often the only means of warming other apart* 
ments. Glass windows were almost monopolised by the Church. 
The HaH. floor was still usually of clay, except the Dais of wood 
at one end ; the floors of domestic Offices of course were of 
the primitive material. The general state of domestic habits 
may be best appreciated by illustrations beyond our province ; 
for example, spoons and fingers had to serve for forks, and, 
whether between linen sheets in the more private Chamber, 
or under a blanket in the Common Hall, the sleeper slept with- 
out the luxury of a night-dress ; but with such circumstances 


before us we can at all events the better believe that the 
rougUy-pUutered waUs of noble houses are scarcely admitted to 
have known either wainscoting or tapestry, whilst Hie furniture 
was only of that kind which coold be made on the spot by the 
village carpenter, and most of it fixed in its place. Drainage 
was so defective that the first attempt to carry it under ground 
is recorded to have been made at this time in the case of West- 
minster Palace, where the refuse and dirty water from the royal 
Kitchens flowed through an open gutter in the floor of the Great 
Hall itself in such a manner that the foul odours arising there- 
fix>m affected the health of persons at Court; wherefore a 
covered drain was ordered to be made to pass into the Thames. 
The almost universal BuUdinff-material, for even the best houses, 
was still timber. The bath, said to have been introduced from 
the East, appears only in royal houses, and then in the primitive 
form of a large tub in a closet. We welcome the addition of 
new and useful Offices ; but if we permit ourselves to hope that 
precision had been attained in their appropriation, we shall be 
much disappointed ; for not only was the Cellar of a good house 
often converted into a Stable, and the Stable frequently made 
available as a Dormitory for servants, but in the noblest Besi- 
dences bread and beer, cold pasties, napery, and chandlery fre- 
quently held joint possession of the Sewery ; and in the Ward- 
robes of a king's Palace the unpleasing odours of clothing-stufis 
mingled with those of the " stomatica," such as almonds, ginger, 
and sugars, whilst the tailors sat stitching upon the chest that 
held the royal plate. 

The list of Bemains given for the thirteenth century (from 
Parker, as before) consists of the following: — Pythagoras's 
School, Cambridge; Temple Farm, Strood, Kent; Aydon 
Castle, Northumberland ; Little Wenham Hall, Sufiblk ; Chamey 
Bassett, and the old Manor-house at Sutton Courtenay, Berk- 
shire ; Byball, Butland ; Somerton Castle, Lincolnshire ; Stam- 
ford, Aslackby, Nassington, Northamptonshire; Woodcroft, 
ditto; Thame Prebendal House, Chipping Norton, Coggs, and 
CoUisford, Oxfordshire ; Godmersham, Kent ; Goodrich Castle, 

Plate IV. presents, in the second figure, the plan of the 
Chabket Bassbtt example, called in the neighbourhood the 
Monks* House, and recognised to have been a Grange of the 
Abbey of Abingdon. The Hall as usual had no upper floor ; 


but both wings were of two stories. The circumstance that the 
monastic Granges furnish generally the most reliable remains 
of this date has already been mentioned : the disadvantage of 
the fact lies in the peculiarities whicJi were dictated by monastic 
habits, as exemplified in the present instance. The ManM 
Kitchen (as supposed) and a 'small Cellar in one wing have 
above them the Solar or Chamber and the Chapel (perhaps audi- 
torium and chancel rather). The other wing has a large apart- 
ment on each story ; perhaps the Monki Hall or Refectory y and 
the Mcnhf Dormitory or Chamber. The domestic Offices be- 
come matter of speculation. (See further the Appendix^ Notes 
on Plate IV.) 

Little Wenham Hall may also be described. It consists of 
a plain oblong Cellar on the ground-level and a Hall over, with 
a sort of turret at one angle, containing a vault on the Ground 
story, a Chapel on the level of the Hall^ and a small Chamber 
above the ChapeL A turnpike-stair leads from the ground to 
the Chapel and the Chamber over it ; and the Hall is reached 
by steps outside. It is possible that the apartment over the 
Chapel may be a Priest's Chamber: in this case either the 
house is altogether devoid of the customary Solar, or the lower 
apartment must be the Hall, and the upper the Solar. The 
uncertainty exemplified here, as in the previous example also, 
illustrates two points — first, the feebleness or want of skiU which 
characterises the plan of the period ; and secondly, the general 
accuracy of the broad principles of scanty accommodation which 
have been laid down. 

CHAPTER VI. — Fourteenth Century. 

Privacy introduced. — The Priest's Chamber; the Queen*s Chamber. — Other tests 
of Progress : augmented accommodation and improved arrangement. — The 
Great Hall in its perfection. — Quadrafigtdar Manor-house of the period, and 
its improved accommodation : Chapel and Chapel Chamber, Family Parlour or 
Wi(hdrawing'room, Second Parlour, Lady's Chamber or Bower, Banqueting HaU, 
improved Stairs, Wardrobes, Bathroom, Garden, — Bedchambers fully intro- 
duced. — Convenience not keeping pace. — Remains : Wolterton — Eenilwobtb 
(Plate v.). 

It must have been apparent for some time to the reader that 
one of the most important points involved in the improvement 


of plan has been that of domestic privacy. There are two forms 
in which, in our own day, this is especially cared for ; namely, 
the separation of the family from the servants, and the still 
further retirement of the female sex ; and it may appear won- 
derful that ideas now so axiomatic in their nature as these 
should have required any considerable time for development 
But in reality it is plain that the gradual and even slow evo- 
lution of this privacy was a great problem of plan in which up 
to the fourteenth century but very little progress had been 
made, and in which it will be found, moreover, as we go on, 
that for certainly two hundred years to come progress was still 
slow and uncertain. When our Saxon ancestor and his house- 
hold dwelt in a primitive Hall, the one only apartment they 
possessed for eating, cooking, sleeping, dressing, and altogether 
undressing, indiscriminately, we may be said to be as near 
the bottom of the ladder as imagination would approve. The 
Chamber was first added for the use of the master in business 
during the day, and the retirement of the family and friends 
during the night. The introduction of a separate Kitchen, we 
may say, then relieved the Hall of cookery ; and the Cellar and 
Buttery relieved it of beer-tubs and flitches of bacon. But this 
was only an insignificant advance after all towards privacy ; and 
the question will be asked — ^what member of the family first 
obtained an absolutely private room? The persons of chief 
importance in a noble household were three, — the lord, the lady, 
and the priest ; the first, we may say, the representative of dig- 
nity, the second of delicacy, the third of reflection. Which of 
these, in an age so unsophisticated, would be the first to claim 
privacy, is a point easily determined. The pride of the lord 
was not yet of that kind which we call exclusiveness ; the fasti- 
diousness of the lady was all undeveloped ; but the contempla- 
tive occupation of the priest demanded quiet Accordingly, 
beside the Chapel of the Norman Castle we have seen the 
Priest^ s CJiamber; and this constituted, we must say, the first 
properly private apartment in an Englishman's house. The 
Chamber of the lord, even at this commencement of the four- 
teenth century, is but a species of Family-Parlour-Bedroom, 
withdrawn from the turmoil of the " great house-place : " the 
** Lady's Chamber '* is generally a luxury to come ; it is in Royal 
Houses alone, and not until quite recently, that the mention 



of the Queen's Chamber marks the introduction of female 

It may further be said in general terms that there are two 
other principles upon which the progress of plan in the Middle 
Ages will be found to turn, namely, the advancement of admi- 
nistrative eflSciency by the addition of new apartments, chiefly 
Offices, and the improvement of the system of arrangement as 
a whole with a view to compactness and convenience. There 
are thus three questions henceforward to be kept in mind as 
elements of criticism; namely, increased privacy , augmented 
aecommodation, and improved arrangement. 

The progress of the fourteenth century was altogether in the 
same direction as that of the thirteenth ; it involved little that 
was novel, but a fair amount of serviceable amelioration on the 
past It is chiefly to be remarked that the Hall of the mediaeval 
house now reached perfection. Not only in the residences of 
the king, but in those of the princes, the prelates, the wealthier 
aristocracy, and even the new order of great merchants, it 
attained such dimensions and stateliness as are illustrated still 
in oiu' own day by Westminster Hall, for example, and Crosby 
Hall, the " great house-places" respectively of the King and of 
a munificent citizen. The Common Hall of this age was, in 
fiact, the grandest dwelling-room of which we have any record. 
Its lofty walls, expansive windows, and elaborated roof, placed 
its architecture on a par with the ecclesiastical. The spacious 
Dat8 at one end, raised by two or three steps, its walls covered 
with costly arras, was occupied by the chief or high table of 
state. At the opposite end the new feature of a wood partition, 
having sometimes considerable pretension, enclosed a vestibule, 
called the Entry or Screens, containing the entrance door, the 
back door, and others leading to the Pantry, Buttery, and house- 
hold Offices generally. The entrance door was protected by 
an external Porch. Above the Screens was the Minstrels* 
CFallery, In the centre of the Hall was placed the Reredos or 
brass grate for fire, with its Louvre in the roof above. Along 
each side of the lower Hall were placed the ordinary tables for 
retainers and less dignified guests. In the Screens were a side- 
board for serving, and a stone laver with its cistern for washing 
hands and dishes. The squire waited upon the knight at table, 
and the youth of noble and even royal birth " did service in 


the Hall." On the tables and buffet on the Dais the wealth 
of a king or a great courtier was daily displayed in a collection 
of gold and silver plate : and the good cheer of the banquet is 
still one of the most prominent and popular traditions of our 
land. It is only to be regretted that modem sentiments cannot 
be reconciled to what has still to be remembered, that when the 
feast was done the bulk of the company, of both sexes alike, 
passed the night upon the floor. 

For an instance of the ordinary Manor-house of this period there 
may be imagined a pair of irregular two-story wings attached 
to the ends of a large Hall. Sometimes the building enclosed 
in this way an interior Quadranffle ; having in front a wall, or 
Outbuildings, and a Gate-house; the whole surrounded by a 
Moat^ and presenting externally a castellated appearance. The 
wing connected with the Dais end of the Hall accommodated 
the tew Family rooms and the Chapel; the other wing the house- 
hold Offices. The principal improvements upon preceding plan 
may be gathered from the following notes. The Chapel was 
near the Dais. It was sometimes of the height of the two 
stories, with an auditorium below for the household, and an 
upper room or Chapel-Chamber (sometimes a gallery) attached 
to the chief Chamber above, for the lord and lady and the more 
honourable guests. The chief Chamber, Lord's Chamber^ or 
Parlaury being the Chamber or Solar of old usage, was now 
magnified both in size and importance into a WUhdramng-room ; 
the fetmily using the Hall only at meala It was situated be- 
hind the Dais and on the upper floor, and had a small interior 
window whereby to overlook what was passing in the HalL 
Under this apartment there was generally the traditional Cellar 
or general vault ; but sometimes it seems as if this space had 
been converted into a second Parlour, The Ladt/'s Chamber or 
Bower seems to have come into more frequent use. It was 
properly a new apartment (the " Queen's Chamber" of our last 
century examples) near the Lord's Chamber, as the lady's private 
sitting-room ; but in cases where the family Parlour took the 
place of the old-fashioned Cellar, the sleeping-room above, or 
Solar, may have served for the Bower. In the more stately 
royal Palaces and Castles this lower Parlour seems to have 
become a second Sail or private eating-room, called the Banquet- 
ing Sail as distinguished from the Common Hall or house-place. 
In large houses the external stairs of old custom had disappeared, 



as we should expect, in fayour of the spiral turret^stair or Turn- 
pike ; the access to the Minstrel's Gallery, however, and even 
to the chief Chamber, was often by clumsy wooden flights of 
steps inside the Hall. The KUcheny Buttery^ Pantry, Larder, 
and various Cellars for stores, fuel, and the like, remained pretty 
much on the former plan ; but although a Solar or loft was some- 
times formed over these, we have no reason yet to think that 
Bervanto' sleeping accommodation was thus provided, however 
self-evident the improvement may appear to us. Some supple- 
mentary apartments were still improving. The Wardrobe had 
become more established. It was generally on the Ground- 
floor, and sometimes took the place of the Cellar beyond the 
Dais. In large establishments there were several Wardrobes ; 
the storage of clothing, dress, furnishings, feather beds, and so 
forth, requiring considerable spaca Lofts may have been used 
for this purpose. The Bathrroom was also more common; it 
was attached to the sleeping accommodation, and contained a 
capacious tub and a laver of stone or lead. It may also be 
noticed that the Garden begins to be more freely spoken of in 
writings of the period ; sometimes the refined idea of placing 
the Bower on the Ground-floor, with a door to the Garden, is to 
be met with. In rare cases the Garden is thought to have con- 
tained not only various fruits and flowers, but such adornment 
as dL grotto could afford, or even o. fountain; the latter, however, 
being not a jet, but a flow. It is also satisfactory to know that 
at length glazed windows had become common, and not only in 
the Hall and Parlours, but in minor rooms. Thejirephice also 
was now universally in use for all Family-rooms ; and some- 
times even for the Common Hall. 

The question of BedchaniberSy which we allowed to be post- 
poned when dealing with the last century, comes now to be 
morfe intelligible ; as it is certain that, at the period now before 
us, considerable advance was made in the direction implied. 
One form in which the improvement suggested in the earlier 
use of the word " Bedchambers " might be accounted for is the 
subdivision of a large room into small compartments. There 
were certain cases, for instance, where the Dormitories of the 
monks were divided by curtains or screens into rows of small 
private cells ; and it has been inquired whether this plan may 
not have been adopted in private houses of importance. There 
does not, however, seem to be any actual evidence to support 


this hypothesis. On the other hand, we are asked to say 
whether the chief Chamber, when enlarged m size, may not 
haye been fitted np with screens, so as to hold several bed- 
steads : to which it may be replied that such certainly could not 
haye been the case while the apartment was used as a day-room 
alflo. Bat the point is practically set at rest now by the &Gt 
that the best fourteenth-century houses are ascertained to have 
possessed seyeral rooms specially set apart for sleeping. Not 
that these were always, or even generally, appropriated to single 
beds ; several bedsteads would be placed in a lai^ room, and it 
would be a small one indeed which had only one; but the 
(act that privacy of sleeping accommodation was now fairly 
introduced is none the less plain, and the great value of the new 
{Rinciple will be readily appreciated. 

The advancement of the science of house-plan was thus very 
considerable in the fourteenth century. The claims of privacy 
in particular had become much more clearly recognised. The 
La^*9 Bower^ (Boudoir,) the Family Parlour^ the multiplica- 
tion of BedroanUf are all most important nov^elties: and it is 
considered, by the bye, that a great deal was here due to the 
influence of France. We have to bear in mind, however, that 
the Sitting-room which contains no bedstead was absolutely 
unknown ; we must not overrate progress even yet. The Bower 
and the Lord's Chamber were both essentially sleeping apart- 
ments. In the Boyal Palace itself the king and queen gave 
audiences in what we should now call their Bedrooms; and 
petitions and presents, as records remark, were laid, not always 
on the table, but often on the bed. 

The extent to which improvement had come to be effected in 
respect of the second of our three principles of criticism is easily 
discernible : the additions to the accommodation being chiefly in 
the shape of the important Family-rooms just spoken of. The 
Ofiices, as will be remembered, having had their own peculiar 
period of prepress in the preceding century, stood less in need 
of extension. 

The better arrangement of the plan, as the last question, does 
not appear to have been much promoted. Indeed it is probable 
that ihe greater the number of apartments the less their merit 
of arrangement. In other words, the art of convenient dis- 
position was not keeping pace with the increase of accommoda- 
tion ; which, however, we could readily believe in any case. 


The list of remains of fourteenth-century houses, derived from 
the source hitherto quoted, is as follows : — Abbey Manor-house, 
Sutton Courtenay, Berkshire ; Prior Crawden's house, Ely ; 
Nash Court, Palace at Charing, Southfleet Eectory, Penshurst, 
and Court Lodge at Great Chart, Kent; UflSngton, Lincoln- 
shire ; Barnack, Northamptonshire ; Broughton Castle, Oxford- 
shire ; Acton Bumell, Ludlow Castle, Stoke Say Castle, Shrop- 
shire ; Bishop's Palace and Vicar's Close, Wells, and Clevedon 
Court, Somerset ; Place House, Tisbury, Wiltshire ; South Wrax- 
hall, ditto ; and the Mote, Ightham, Kent 

In illustration of the arrangements peculiar to the fourteenth 
century, we should have been glad to present an example of the 
more advanced Manor-house, or, in modern phrase, the Mansion 
of the period ; but the one which will be brought forward with 
the next chapter, in Plate VI., namely, Wolterton in Norfolk, 
is of such superior practical value for the purpose (although 
belonging in point of date to the following century), that it 
seems best to be content with this reference to it in passing, and 
to offer at present an instance of another kind. We therefore, 
in Plate V., give one of the Castles of the time, the fEunous 

The change, already described, which in the thirteenth century 
VFas introduced into the old Castles of England, continued in 
operation throughout the fourteenth ; that is to say, the practice 
of building within the inner Bailey an entire new Residence 
upon the model of the Manor-houses of the day was still pursued 
as a rule. In the case of Kenilworth, the Keep and one of the 
subsidiary towers are of Norman date ; in the thirteenth century 
additions of some magnitude were erected, probably of wood ; 
and in the fourteenth century these were removed by a new 
owner, John of Gaunt, who built what may be called a new 
mansion in the manner represented by the plan. The arrange- 
ment of these buildings furnished a very fair instance of the 
peculiar model of the period. A magnificent C(ymmon Hall was 
placed opposite the entrance. On the one side were ranged 
the Family Apartments, the detail of whose plan is now lost 
On the other side there were the Kitchen and domestic Offices, 
probably built of wood. The ancient Keep flanked the latter 
wing, being not incorporated with the house, but merely per- 
mitted to remain in existence, — partly perhaps as a relic of 
antiquity, and partly as a means of defence. The irregularity 


Plate 5. 


( With Su^eetionfi ^ 





of plan here exemplified is very characteristic of the age. 
Looking at the great extent of the wings, both that of the 
Family-rooms and that of the Offices, we may also feel assured 
that on both sides the multiplication of apartments was fiilly 
carried into effect None the less, looking at the disposition of 
the whole plan, and bearing in mind that Corridors were yet 
unknown, we may rest satisfied that inter-commimication was of 
the clumsiest, and convenience of the least. (See also Appendix, 
Plate V.) 

Of Warwick Castle, Broughton Castle in Oxfordshire, and 
Meare Manor-house in Somerset (an Abbey Grange), there are 
also published plans (see Parker), which may be examined with 
interest^ as illustratious of fourteenth-century arrangement. 

CHAPTER VII.— Fifteenth Century. 

Tmofitioiial character of the time, and its effect on plan. — The Common HaU in 
decadence. — Improvements in Sleeping accommodation. — Supplementary addl- 
tiona — Ewelme Inventory. — Ewery and Cupboard. — Chamber of Pleasaunce, 
— SeuHenf, BtUler*$ Pantry, Bakehouse and Brewhouse, Stables and Stable' Yard. 
— Half-€nink Basement — Wolterton Manob-house (Plate VI.). — Oxbubqh 
Hall (Plate VII.) ; Quadrangular plan icHhout Corridors. — Remains. — Cor^ 
responding improvement in Town-Houses, &o. 

Between the period we have just described and the well-known 
Age of the Tudors, the fifteenth century is little else than a 
tame of transition. 

The events which make this century so remarkable in the 
world's history are familiar to every reader, — the commercial 
levolittion effected by the mariner's compass, — the equal revolu- 
tion in warfjEtre produced by the use of gunpowder,— the spread 
of intelligence through the invention of printing and of paper, — ^ 
the dispersion of the scholars of Constantinople, and the revival 
of classic learning in Italy, — the establishment of numerous 
flcbolastic foundations, and the consequent spread of lay know* 
ledge, — the augmentation of wealth by the discovery of India 
and America,-^and the commencement of the reformation of 
religion. The influence of such events upon the subject of our 
present study would necessarily be very great 

Notwithstanding foreign and domestic wars which prevailed 



throughout the entire century, the social condition of England 
was steadily improving. The authority of public law was well 
established. Wealth was still increasing, and the refinement 
which it brings. The classes of traders and artisans were be- 
coming every day, not only of greater importance in the state, 
but of greater usefulness to the community. The serfs of the 
manors had attained the independence of hired labourers. The 
old-established officials of a household were becoming less of 
retainers and more of servants. The men-at-arms, who had for 
centuries crowded the baron's Hall, and eaten the bread of idle- 
ness, were scattered amongst his fields as industrious yeomen 
and peasantry. 

The first effects upon domestic plan were these. When forti- 
fication underwent a revolution, it became obvious that, although 
a stronghold of the State must withstand siege artillery, a pri- 
vate dwelling need not be calculated to resist more than the 
occasional violence of a mob. The ancient ** House-place,*' 
again, need no longer be of such magnitude as to accommodate 
a host of retainers and labourers, when these had been domiciled 
apart in homes of their own. The casteUated style of design, 
therefore, became henceforth mere matter of ornament ; and the 
great Hall of the preceding century began to be but thinly 

The chief apartment, however, in a fifteenth-century Manor- 
house was still the Common Hall. It still had its Screen and 
MinstreU Gallery, Entrance Porch, Back-door, and doors or 
passage to the household Offices. But the size was greatly 
reduced. The I>a\» was frequently omitted. A sideboard or 
buffet was sometimes placed at the back of the Dalis, or in a 
Bay-window at the side, which now became a characteristic 
feature in the HalL The reredos or brazier retained its general 
place in the centre of the floor ; but it was giving way more and 
more to ^^ fireplace in the wall. 

The Hall of a good house was no longer the general dormitory. 
Sleeping accommodation became much improved ; amongst the 
better class of people it was becoming more and more the com- 
fortable custom to retire to a special Bedchamber, assume a 
night-dress, and sleep between linen sheets on a soft feather- 
bed; the multiplication of Bedrooms in various forms conse- 
quently still went on. The records speak of the Camera, the 
Cubiculum, and the Dormitorium; distinguishing from each 



Plate 6. 

Woitei' ; nti 

From Veuista llonum*nl» 
I'with suggMtions*; 


■ I 

BedcKambfTS ' 


. I 


Outbuilding s 




■J=~ ' 

Scale. 1 Inch to :^0 Keel 


the Btitler'8 Pantry, which became, as regards the service of 
the table, greatly improved in character. Bakehouse and Brew- 
heme became more common. Stables were frequently built alto- 
gether apart, and combined with a Stable Yard. Of other less 
important changes it is not necessary to speak ; except it be to 
note the circumstance that the plan of placing the domestic 
Offices in a half-sunk Basement is considered to have begun to 
be practised, at least so far as relates to Store-rooms, Cellars, 
and other inferior apartments. 

An example of well-known interest is given in Plate VI. — the 
Manoi^house of Wolterton, at East Barsham, in Norfolk, 
assigned in actual date to the last years of this century, but 
probably as regards characteristic arrangement more peculiarly 
illustrative of the previous time. This house is of considerable 
size, but of simple plan. The Hall, Porch, Bay-mndow, and no 
doubt Screen, are all according to the best standard ; connected 
with the Dais-end of the Hall are the Family Kooms, and with 
the other the OflBces ; and the whole, in spite of a little uncer- 
tainty, gives us a clear impression of the domestic habits of the 
time. (See further the Notes in the Appendix, Plate VI.) 

Another of the best accepted examples of this period is given in 
Plate VII., namely Oxburgh Hall, in Norfolk, which was begun 
to be built in 1482. We perceive here what is called Quadran- 
gviar plan; but in its simplest form, that is to say, without 
Corridors, — ^a number of external doors towards the Court, and 
of internal doors of intercommunication between the rooms, con- 
stituting a very awkward substitute. The Hall, with its Screens 
and Poreh, forms the nucleus of plan. On one hand generally 
are the Offices, and on the other the FamUy'rooms ; the former 
connected with the Hall at the lower or Buttery end, and the 
latter at the upper or Dais end. The Bay-windows at this end 
also are remarkable ; so likewise the Staircase, if we may pre- 
sume this to have belonged to the original house. The arrange- 
ment of the Bining-Chamher and the Withdraioing-rooms is 
especially characteristic. It must be remarked that, as the 
drawing is of date 1774, it involves of courae in some instances 
modem alterations ; but on the whole the illustration is reliable, 
and well worthy of study. (See further the Notes on Plate VII. 
in the Appendix) 

The catalogue of fifteenth-century Eemains is of too great 
extent to be inserted here; but of those buildings which are 

L Bnttoris Antiquities, 
with Bu^entions*) 


Larder I 

Plate 7 


Servants' Hall 








(■ :i' ivi.^r .V Moiif'r: Apu . wi-; .»^^. : , 

iOO Feet 



most generally quoted, we may mention Haddon Hall, Hatfield, 
Eltham, Knowle, Crosby Hall, Hampton Court, and Oxburgh 
Hall recently referred to. 

The science of plan in respect of Country-Seats was thus 
rapidly advancing: and it may be noted with satisfaction in 
passing, that corresponding progress has now to be acknow- 
ledged, not only in the Town-Mansions of the nobility, but in 
the residences of wealthy merchants, and the dwellings generally, 
of the citizens, as well as in the Public Halls of the Guilds, and 
other civic buildings which lie beyond our province. 

CHAPTER VIIL— Sixteenth Century. 

The Tudor period, historical features. — Diminution of the number of retainers, 
increased hospitality, &o., and further decline of the HaU. — Dining Chamher, 
Servants* HaU and Entrance HaU. — Boudoir^ Summer and Winter Parlours, 
increase of Bedcfuimhers. — Corridors, GaUery and Stmrease. — Hengbaye Hall 
(Plate VHI.). — Hatfield House (Plate IX.). — The manner of John Thorpe. 
— Remains. 

The sixteenth century we may call the Tudor period. It is as 
closely identified with the reigns of the Tudors, — ^from the acces- 
sion of Henry VII., a few years before its commencement, to the 
decease of Elizabeth, three years after its close, — as the duration 
of that dynasty is well understood to constitute a definite, 
complete, and peculiar chapter of English history. In our par- 
ticular subject it forms a period of remarkable interest. In 
1563 we have the publication of the first English work an the 
new style of architecturCy by John Shute, who had just returned 
from Italy, its birthplace. The celebrated John Thorpe was 
busily at work towards the end of the century, and beyond it. 
Following him at a very little distance there was to appear 
Inigo Jones. Ecclesiastical building, early in the century, may 
be said to have utterly died out in England; and domestic 
design therefore occupied the entire architectural field. 

Although the wars of the Boses are not considered^to have 
either revived feudal manners amongst the belligerent classes, 
or discouraged progress amongst the more peaceable, the power- 
Tul government of Henry VII. still pursued the policy by whicli 
the Crown had for ages been strengthening its authority, and 


even more than ever took pains to change the character of the 
nobility. Not only were new families introduced extensively, 
but positive legal enactments appear to have been continually 
brought into operation to overthrow the ancient custom of main- 
taining large bodies of military retainers. The effect upon 
household arrangements was necessarily the promotion of further 
changes in the same direction as those which are identified with 
the preceding century. Wealth expended itself in more refined 
hospitality; equipage and retinue, with diminished numbers, 
exhibited increased magnificence; the distinctions of rank 
became wider; and the luxuries of life were every day more 
highly appreciated. Under Henry VIII. social advancement 
pursued the same course; and the confiscation of the eccle- 
siastical estates, and their bestowal upon the courtiers, especially 
accelerated the effect. The reigns of Edward VI. and Mary 
constituted in some respects an interval of reaction ; but that of 
Elizabeth carried forward the progress of society with redoubled 

It will be remembered that in the fourteenth century the 
great Common Hall, which had been steadily growing in magm'- 
tude and magnificence for four hundred years, had attained 
a climax in both respects; and that in the fifteenth it was on the 
decline. We now find it to have been still diminishing in 
importance during the sixteenth century, and in some instances 
indeed to have disappeared. In smaller houses more especially, 
where servants were few, by the time of Elizabeth a Family 
Parlour is considered to have been a most frequent substitute, 
the domestics being accommodated in the Kitchen ; whilst in 
many of the larger establishments a " Dining Chamber *' accom- 
modated the family, and an inferior Hall the 8ervants,-.-all that 
remained of the Common Hall of antiquity being a grand 
Mitranee-ffall, occasionally used for festivity but no more. 

The Withdrawing-room at the same time was acquiring in- 
creased dignity, and the separate Boudoir or Lady's Bower more 
comfort. We also meet with Summer Parlour and Winter 
Parlour^ in contradistinction. The number of Bedchambers was 
still increasing, and, in the best and latest examples, had reached 
very nearly the extended limits common in our own day. 

Applying the three tests of progress which we laid down 
several chapters back, that which turns upon the promotion of 
privaey was thus being abundantly satisfied ; with regard to the 

PlaJp 8. 

Chap. Vlll. HENGEAVE-HALL. 39 

other two, the degree of adyancement may with equal facility be 

In the matter of arrangement it must have been seen that 
hitherto the multiplication of apartments had produced little 
else than doors of intercommunication between rooms, an in- 
creased number of external doors, and a few internal Passages, 
narrow, defectively lighted, and tortuous. Now, however, 
although such doors and passages still remained in general use, 
yet in the better class of houses it was only in inferior parts ; 
and the chief thoroughfares were made in the novel form of 
Corridors. That peculiar feature of Elizabethan plan, the 
Gallery, was also introduced ; some examples being not only 
important in respect of size, but, we may say, magnificent in 
design. The Staircase also became much amplified and elaborated. 
This and the Gallery, indeed, were sometimes made to constitute 
the principal features of the house. Most welcome they were to 
English plan : and if they made their appearance in such per- 
fection that we must consider them to have been to some extent 
importations, yet they were certainly applied in a manner of 
which England must take the merit. As regards convenience it 
is obvious that they were of especial value. 

Of the progress of accommodation, the most remarkable illus- 
tration is the often-quoted inventory of the Rooms and OflSces of 
Hengrave Hall, in Sufiblk. The number of distinct apart- 
ments catalogued is nearly one hundred and twenty, of which 
the following are the chief in interest; — ^the Hall; the chief or 
Queen's Chamber, with Inner Chamber and Yeomen's QaUery 
adjoining; the Dining Chamber and closet; the Summer Parlour, 
the Winter Parlour ; the Chapel with its closet, and the Chapel 
Chamber; the Prospect Chamber ; the Galleries; nearly forty 
Bedchambers and other Private Rooms distinguished by the 
names of occupants and otherwise; the Nursery, and Maid^ 
Chamber adjoining; the Bathing Chamber; the Armoury; the 
Schoolmaster' s-room; "the Chamber where the Musicians play;" 
specific Rooms for the steward, clerk of kitchen, and other 
servants ; " the Hinds' Hall," the Kitchen, Pantry^ Dry Larder^ 
Wet Larder, Pastry-room, Scouring-house, nether and upper 
Still-houses ; " my Lady's Store-house^ in the Entry ; " the Laundry 
and lAnen-room; the Wardrobe; the Wine-cellar and Outer- 
cellar; the Dairy, Cheese-room, and Outer Dairy; the Brew- 
house, Bakehouse, Malt-house, Hop-house, and Hop-yard; the 


Slaughter-Jumse ; the Fish-house, and Fish yard; and the Porter's 

It is plain that this house contained almost all the material 
of a modem nobleman's Mansion, with indeed some additional 
items of questionable value. An examination of the plan 
(Plate VIII.) will show also how far the arrangements were based 
upon improved principles of internal communication. The 
drawing and the appropriation of the rooms are of date 1775, 
and will not be found to accord with the Inventory which we 
have quoted ; but the discrepancies are not such as to interfere 
with the illustrative character of the subject, and if carefully 
investigated will be found usefully suggestive. 

It will be seen that, as regards general arrangement, we have 
here again Qtuidrcmgular plan, but now with Corridors, and con- 
sequently without the numerous external doors and doors of 
intercommimication which in Oxburgh constitute so serious a 
defect The Hall is still the chief feature, but very much 
modified in respect of purpose, — probably exceptionally so. We 
have considered it to be the tendency of the age that the ancient 
Common Hall should lose the character of an eating-apartment, 
and retain that of an entrance-apartment Even in the case of 
Oxburgh this seems to be the practical reading of the plan. But 
in Hengrave the Hall obviously has no connection with the 
Entrance whatever. Neither does it present the other character. 
In the original design, no doubt, it was to be the great Dining* 
Hall of the family ; but it would seem to have proved unsuitable 
for this purpose at an early date, except perhaps on occasions of 
festivity. We must take it on the whole as an example of the 
uncertainty which was now creeping into MedisBval plan ; and as 
such it is instructive. Looking next at the Offices, we find that 
they are still connected with the lower end of the Hall ; they 
take, however, the novel form of a separate wing, and are dis- 
posed upon entirely new principles. The Family Rooms, on the 
other hand, with which the Quadrangle is now wholly sur*- 
rounded, have departed altogether from ancient precedent. (See 
further the Appendix, Plate VIII.) 

The other example, represented in Plate IX., Hatfield House, 
Herts, is perhaps the most remarkably characteristic plan which 
we possess of the final Elizabethan manner. Its actual date is 
supposed to be some ten years after the close of the century in 
hand ; but that is immateriaL The reader will find no difficulty 

Chap. Vlir. JOHN THORPE. 41 

in eliminating the modem part of the appropriation of the 
rooms: and that which remains — ^the skeleton of arrangement 
and the basis of ancient nomenclature — may, after what has 
been already said, be safely left to his attentive study. (See 
also the Notes in the Appendix^ Plate IX.) 

The historical position of the architect John Thorpe, as indi- 
cated by the peculiar arrangements of Holland House and 
various others of his works,* must not be overlooked. His plans 
are certainly not in the style of those just referred to as charac- 
teristic of his age. But we should do wrong to consider him in 
the light of a stepping-stone between departing Mediaevalism 
and the approaching Classicism of Inigo Jones. He seems to 
have divided his time between London and Paiis ; he certainly 
practised in France as well as in England; and his French 
designs exhibit the same manner of arrangement as certain of 
his English ones: — ^his peculiarities, therefore, we may consider 
to be French where they are not English ; there is no need to 
suppose direct Italian influence. No doubt the premonitions of 
the coming dominion of Italian plan, as, for example, in the 
adoption of Beisement OflBces by Thorpe in both countries, may 
have shown themselves in France earlier than in England, and 
thus in England through Thorpe ; but in the next chapter we 
shall see the advent of the proper influence of Italy in the form 
of a revolution the most complete, towards which the manner of 
Thorpe carries us but a very little way. It will therefore be 
wisest to regard the manner of the sixteenth century exclu- 
sively in the light of such examples as Hengrave and Hatfield 
(the latter, by the bye, being actually of Thorpe's time), so that, 
when Elizabethan plan reappears in revival two hundred years 
after, to recommence a progress here suddenly interrupted, we 
may recognise it in its true character. 

The existing Bemains of sixteenth-century houses are of course 
numerous; some of the chief being Hooton Hall, Wolverton 
Hall, Penshurst, Hampton Court (part). East Barsham, Oxnead, 
Burleigh, WoUaton Hall, and Hengrave. (For the architectural 
character of the Elizabethan houses, the reader, if uninformed, 
may turn to our Notes en Architectural Style, Chapter 11.) 

* See hifl drawings in Sir John Soane's Mosemn ; or the selection published by 


CHAPTER IX. — Seventeenth Century. 

iDtroduction of Palladian Architecture, corresponding revolution in domestic plan, 
and introduction of the Italian ViBa. — BaaemerU Offices, 8alo&n, PorUoo, Sym- 
melrieal PartUionment, &c. — Derivation from the ancient Roman manner. — 
Btokb Park and Ambbesbubt (Plate X.). — Sacrifice of convenience to gran- 
diose effect. — The Puritan times. — Mablbobough House (Plate XL). — Pre- 
servation of the Elizabethan manner in the old houses. 

Early in this century the revived Classic style of architecture 
in proper form was transplanted into England by Inigo Jones. 
(See the Notes an Architectural StyU^ Chapter III.) He had 
acquired the mastery of it by patient study upon Italian soil, 
where the worls of Palladio, then but recently deceased, were 
in full authority. There appears, also, to be no reason to believe 
that any other than Jones introduced Italian Plan. 

Nothing could be more decidedly a revolution than the change 
which now took place in the arrangement of an English Qentle- 
man's House. In a word, the old English model was made 
obsolete ; and a new Mansion, to be in Uie fashion, must be an 
Italian Villa, copied out of Palladio's book, reason or none. 
Under the mediaBval system, including the practice of the 
Tudor period, we have seen a large variety of apartments gra- 
dually grouped together, without much regularity of disposition ; 
the chief Dwelling-rooms and the OfiSces forming tlie Ground- 
story (as in Hengrave, rather than Hatfield) ; and the Sleeping- 
rooms, with some others exceptionally, constituting one floor 
above, or in occasional instances two. The new mode, on the 
contrary, as a rule, elevated the house upon a complete Base- 
ment, composed of the whole of the Offices, the Principal floor 
constituting the Family Dwelling-rooms, and one story above 
accommodating the Bedchambers. In the matter of stateliness 
of design, the utmost endeavours of the Tudor time had been 
limited ; an elaborated Porch at the Hall-entrance, — a resusci- 
tation in the Hall itself, in the form of somewhat meretricious 
ornament, of a little of that dignity which in all besides it had 
lost, — and a corresponding magnificence, quaint rather than 
imposing, in the new Galleries and Staircases, which had been 
copied, perhaps we may say, from the French. But now the 
old nledisBval Hall was entirely surrendered ; upon quite another 
principle there was formed a central Saloon ( a modification of 


Pbre 10. 

.^toke Park &■ Ambreobnr^. 


By Inije^o 


I ? 'U'l 1. 'II rir- 


S^-ale, 1 Inch lo 30 Feet 

From Vit.f-\ivius Rritannicus 



The task which the English domestic architects of the Pal- 
ladian school appear to have set themselves was this. In the first 
place they would design an edifice which should be imposing 
after the new style of grandeur ; exhibiting more especially that 
stately unity of composition, both in elevation and in plan, which 
we call Classic efiect In the second they would accommodate 
in this artistic shell, (artistic within no less than without,) in 
such completeness, compactness, and convenience as might be 
possible, all that had come to be considered requisite in the way 
of Family Booms and Domestic OflBces. In other words, we 
may say the sense of grandeur was the primary consideration, 
and the proprieties of convenience and comfort decidedly 
secondary. The witticism of Lord Chesterfield was but little 
overdrawn when he said of the new house of General Wade, 
that, as its owner found it all inconvenience within, in spite of its 
beauty without, the best thing he could do was to hire a lodging 
over the way and look at it. 

For thirty years in the middle of the century now under 
review, the Puritan revolution not only put a stop to all progress 
in building of the better sort, but no doubt positively discouraged 
the existence of intelligent designers as a profession. Sir 
Christopher Wren ultimately commenced a new order of 
things by applying the versatile powers of a clever philosopher 
to the business of an architect. For the remainder of the 
seventeenth century, however, domestic plan made no progress. 
Whatever Wren did he did well; and therefore his Marl- 
borough House, Plate XI., may be referred to as a pleasing 
example of skill in old age, and in probably an untried field ; 
but we have to wait till the next century before we see the 
English Mansion assuming the importance it previously held, 
especially in respect of plan. 

The question deserves to be mooted in passing, whether under 
the prevalence of this new system of plan there may not have 
been at least a respectable minority of intelligent persons who 
preferred the old mode, as more convenient if less academical, 
more comfortable if less statfely. This inquiry may be so far 
answered by the fact, that, whilst the ancient manner was sus- 
pended as regards new buildings for nearly two hundred years, 
we certainly do not find it to have been anything like the custom 
to alter the old houses so as to match the new. We may at 
least reflect, therefore, that when, in the course of iimOy we shall 


riaie u. 

lIarIbGa:'Ou^H0U9e . 

From ^truTiut Bntaraiicu* and other sources 
(with gu^gcsbons*) 

fvanlB Hall, Housekeepers 8t Butlers 
{ices &C-, &. Cellars, in Basement.) 

^Bedrooms only on Pirvt Floor.) 
k. Second. Hoot sxabse^uaxtt]^ addLecL) 






find the Elizabethan mode coming to light again, there will be 
no scarcity of genuine examples. 

(Notes on Stoke Park, Ambresbury, and Marlborouh 
House, will be found in the Appendix as usual, Plates X. 
and XI.) 

CHAPITER X. — Eighteenth Century. 

Gootinnanoe of Anglo-Palladian plan. — Blenheim (Plate XII.). — Holkhau 
(Plate XIII.). — HaU and Saloon ; Ground-floor Beddiamhers, &c. — Reference 
to other examples, and general characteristics. — Review of progress under 
Palladianism unsatisfactory. — Advancement, however, of accommodation to the 
complete modem standard : Dining-room, Dramng^oom, Librarif, &c. &c. &o. 

The history of our subject in the eighteenth century is for- 
tunately very simple. The volumes of the * Vitruviufi Britanni- 
cus ' present an exuberant variety of Mansions which were built 
during this period, differing in every particular of size, form, 
and detaiL Scarcely at all, however, does their design vary in 
principle. First, there is the great Saloon of Palladianism as an 
essential ; unless economy interposes, — and then a substitute is 
devised on such a scale as funds will permit. Again, the classic 
Portico is still the rule ; unless, again, the owner cannot afford 
it) — in which case something else of similar purpose is provided in 
its stead. Symmetrical rectangular subdivision, in the next place, 
is the only known method of forming rooms ; and all that inge- 
nuity can attempt in this matter is to take pains to proportion 
the gross area so that it may be capable of being subdivided with 
facility and precision. Waste of space is characteristic of the sys- 
tem, and variable only in degree ; and inconvenience of disposition 
a thing that cannot be helped. Basement Offices are the rule. 
When a somewhat extravagant refinement is allowable, the 
utmost that can be done is to relieve the Main House of its 
under-story (except in the form of cellarage), and attach a pair, 
or even two pairs, of Wings to accommodate the OfiSces. We 
must add to all this that in great houses the architect's ideas of 
magnificence expand beyond the utmost limits of precedent; 
and, as if Pseudo-Classicism were to be in fashion for ever, 
cause him to expend large sums of money in Porticoes, Colon- 
nades, and other majestic effi)rtfl in '^ the five orders of archi- 


tecture," whose grandeur now seems only to be matter of regret 
— that it should have to be kept in repair. 

First of eighteenth century architects, in date and eminence 
alike, was Sir John Vanbrugh, — aided, it is said, by Hawks- 
moor. So extraordinary was the power of his mind in the con- 
ception of massively majestic effect, that it has been a fashion 
to ridicule him for its excess. Pope's couplet is not yet for- 
gotten : — 

** Lie heavy on him, Earth I for he 
Laid many a heavy load on thee." 

But no critic can look at the plan of his great work, Blen- 
heim (Plate XII.), and fail to perceive at least the remarkable 
vigour of design which is present everywhere. At the same 
time it must be confessed that this great work must have its 
chief value in our reader's eyes as illustrating the extravagant 
culmination of Palladian grandeur. It is impossible to overlook 
the fact that the pictorial magnificence of Blenheim is obtained 
at a prodigious pecuniary cost, and at an equal sacrifice of con- 
venience and comfort Castle Howard and other designs of the* 
same author are in similar style, and have similar defects. (See 
further the Appendix^ Plate XII.) 

The architect Kent, the friend and coadjutor of the amateur 
Earl of Burlington, was a practitioner of somewhat later date, 
both greatly and widely respected. Plate XIII., which gives 
the plan of his principal work, Holkham, in Norfolk, illustrates, 
better perhaps than any other example that could be found, the 
peculiar merits of the more ordinary Mansions of the time. The 
extravagance of Vanbrugh is not here present; neither, of 
course, is his majestic power. »*At the same time it cannot be 
disputed that the plan, according to its style, possesses much 
dignity. Indeed, so much is Dignity the rule throughout the 
whole period, that it is questionable whether in this respect the 
best works of the eighteenth century have ever been equalled in 
the nineteenth. 

As one of the most notable features in houses of this period, 
we may point to the Small Interior courts for light. Such are to 
be seen in Blenheim, and also in Holkham ; and they obviously 
facilitate very much the arrangement of the plan. 

The treatment of the Saloon is an especially interesting point. 
The original Italian Saloon was a great dwdlir^-thoroughfare" 



apartment; as much so as the Gothic HalL But in England 
a separate entrcmce-thoroughfare was essential. So we perceive 
that the academical Saloon became in a manner divided, — into 
Entrance and Ante-room. The outer portion took the name of 
Rail; and the inner that of Saloon. The Hall retained the lofty 
height, the surrounding Galleries, and so on, of the ItaUan 
model ; but it was a Thoroughfare only. The Saloon became 
an inner Ante-room, in the centre generally of a suite of Draw- 
ing-rooms ; and if its direct communication with the open air, 
as being in fact the Garden-Entrance, constituted it so far a 
thoroughfare, it was still a Family-room. 

The Bedchambers on the Ground-floor of Holkham are to be 
noticed as a characteristic feature in the large houses of this 
period. The distance between the Kitchen and the Dining- 
room, although advantageous in itself, is of course excessive. 
The inconvenient character generally of the communications 
from the Main House to the four Wings is very remarkable. 
(See, however, the Notes on Plate XIII. in the Appendix for 
further criticism.) 

Amongst other architects who served the public successfully 
after the manner of eighteenth-century plan, we may mention 
Colin Campbell, Eobert Adam, and John Carr of York, the 
authors respectively of such works as Wanstead, Kedlestone, 
and Harwood Hall (see * Vitruyius Britannicus ') ; but there is 
nothing in any of their works which differs materially from what 
has already been explained. The Basement Offices, the Great 
Hall and Saloon, the Portico, the symmetrical system of partition- 
ment, the employment of detached wings, a reckless waste of 
space, and all-prevailing pretentiousness at the price of discomfort, 
still constitute the characteristics of the style; pedantic and fan- 
tastic forms of rooms are a common weakness ; and one thing which 
is more singular perhaps than all else, as indicative of positive 
want of skill, is the striking deficiency of ordinary Passages, and the 
readiness which is universally exhibited to create thoroughfare^ 
rooms — ^not excepting even the chief apartments of the house. 

Of Anglo-Palladianism, therefore, closing its career of two 
hundred years, we have to ask the question, — What had it done 
(stateliness apart) for domestic plan? It had improved upon 
itself, of course, and meritoriously so ; but what had it accom- 
plished to compete with the old system which it had sup- 
planted? The three tests of our former criticisms will still 


apply. Eespecting privacy, the progress had been little, perhaps 
less than appears : the thoroughfare-rooms, for example, might 
almost be considered retrograde. Respecting also improved 
arrangement, too much must not be claimed : compactness may 
have become better understood than in the Elizabethan time ; 
but convenience was sometimes, even at the close of the period, 
less rather than more. As regards two of our three questions of 
progress, then, there seems to be certainly not much to show for 
the work of two centuries of time ; and of this fact, we shall 
find, the old manner will have all the advantage presently. 

There was a great deal done, however, in respect of our third 
point The completion and proper organisation, at least, of the 
Catalogue of JRooms of a modem Gentleman's House were much 
advanced. A reference to our account of Hengrave will remind 
the reader that the constituents of plan in the sixteenth century 
were these : — the mediaeval ffall in transition, spacious OaUeries, 
and a Principal Staircase of noble proportions and elaborate 
design ; various Cfuzmbers and Parlours, — designated as Dining- 
chamber, Winter Dining-chamber, Summer Parlour, Winter 
Parlour, Lord's Chamber, Lady's Chamber, Bower, Withdrawing- 
room, Ac, — but all of them much too indefinitely contrived, as 
regards their precise uses and their relation to each other in 
disposition; numerous Bedchambers with Dressing-closets occa- 
sionally ; Nursery and Servants'-rooms ; Servants' HaU and 
apartments for chief domestics ; Kitchen Offices of such extent as 
to include Scullery, Pantry, several Larders, Still-house, Store- 
rooms, Dair)% Brewery and Laundry OflSces, and Cellars ; and 
various supplementary items of accommodation. A moment's 
refiection, however, will show that there is here wanting much of 
what is held essential to more modem convenience ; and that 
there is present in its stead a good deal that has since been dis- 
carded ; and the addition or subtraction of these one by one 
upon the list of accommodation may be called the chief work of 
the Palladian period in plan. By these means the presently 
prevailing system grew up, with the definite and invariable 
Dining-room and Drawing-room as fundamentals ; Morning-room, 
Library, Business-room, and Boudoir; Bedrooms and Bedroom 
Suites ; Ball-room, Music-room, and Billiard-room ; Picture Gal- 
leries and Conservatories ; Vestibules and Ante-rooms ; the Supple- 
mentaries, such as Bath-rooms and Water-closets ; and all that 
was wanting in the Domestic Offices ; so that there is perhaps 

Plate 13 


Prom Vitniviua Bniaimicua 






little, if anything, in the most comprehensive Mansions of the 
present day which is not to be found in those of the last century. 
When, therefore, at the close of that period, the practice of Pal- 
ladian plan may be said to have prepared itself for giving place 
in the march of progress to some other system, it has the credit 
of having completely filled up the list of accommodation for 
which the ingenuity of the succeeding generation was to devise 
that scientific mode of adjustment and arrangement which is the 
subject of the body of our present treatise. 

CHAPTER XJ.— Nineteenth Century. 

A new etA in domestic plan. — Various causes at work : Revivalism in Art, Eclee- 
tidsm. Classicism, Medwevalism. — The Greek revival of no effect. — The Gothic 
revival of much importance in the reiniroduction of the Elizabethan model, — Its 
preferahle general character. — Reaction, also, from Palladian stateliness. — 
New Mansions and alterations of old ones. — Longleat and ToDDiNOToar 
(Plates Xiy., XV.), and references to other examples. — Subsidence of PaUa- 
dian plan into the " Square house." — Abandonment of Basement 0£&ces. — 
Great improvement in the arrangement of the Offices. — Present position of 
conflict of Styles in Architecture ; corresponding rivalry in Style of Plan ; the 
Medimvdl and Clastic types, — Illustrations of contrast ; Llwyn House and Old 
OoNVAroHT ; Osborne and Balmobal ; Bbidoewater House and West Shandon ; 
Paib of Ck)MPARATiVE Dbbions ; (Platos XVI. to XXn.). — Prospects of domestio 
plan at the present day. — Competing merits of style. — Natural style of the soil. 

The portion of the nineteenth century which has already passed 
seems to constitute, in relation to the subject before us, as indeed 
to many others, a new era ; and in some important respects one 
more remarkable than any period of preceding time, at least in 
England. As regards architectural fine^rt, it has been with us 
the age of Revival. Opening with that Palladianism which had 
been long the vernacular of Europe, it introduced very soon the 
fastidious Chreek\ became involved more slowly, but even still 
more sorely, in the romantic Gothic ; spared a liberal portion of 
attention for the dainty Elizabethan ; and gave a still greater 
share to the eminently serviceable Non-Palladian Italian ; all 
the while openly avowing more or less the novel but striking 
doctrine of HcUcticism, — that all are equally good in their way. 
It has now to be shown that, not exactly on the same ground, 
but on ground equally good, perhaps better, our Domestic plau 



has also passed through a series of interesting phases^ following 
in fact a somewhat similar principle of succession ; and that its 
present practice is an Eclecticism which adopts the Palladian 
and other Italian models on the one hand, and the Elizabethan 
and pure Medlseval on the other, quite indiscriminately and 

Under the general freedom of thought which prevailed at the 
commencement of the century, it may be affirmed that the prac- 
tice of Palladian plan was becoming irksome. The fundamental 
ideas of the system were in a great measure unquestionably 
exotic ; and, in such a case, it is certain that sooner or later the 
tendency of progress must go to undermine the dicta of routine. 
At the same time there was arising, in respect of the spirit of 
Revival already referred to, that singular competition of con- 
trary ideas which, in due course, has of late ripened into a direct 
antagonism, in all arts and letters alike, between Clamdsm and 
Gothicism of style. One faction, in short, was already springing 
up on the basis of an attachment to the general sentiments and 
traditions which belonged to antique Boman and more primarily 
Greek models ; whilst another party adopted a similar attach- 
ment to those which pertained to ancestral mediaeval remains. It 
is not necessary for our proper purjx)8e that we should compare 
minutely the two processes of reasoning involved ; it is enough 
to remark that in both cases the development of opinion was 
gradual but well defined, and that the only inquiry pertaining to 
our present investigation is one which can be readily met, — 
namely, how far the two principles respectively produced any 
change in the subject of Plaru 

The answer is this. The Classic revival (of the pure antique) 
seems to have had no efiect whatever upon mere domestic 
arrangement; whilst the Gothic revival has had a great deal. 
Notwithstanding, for instance, all the fervour of the Dilettanti 
thirty or forty years ago in favour of the antique, no endeavour 
of any importance was made to introduce into England the 
elements of plan of the Pompeian house. But the Gothic 
revival exhibited its influence from the first, in a distinct demand 
for the imitation of mediaeval models of plan ; fixing attention 
earnestly upon the Tudor and Elizabethan houses, not only 
sesthetically considered, but as a whole. For the old English 
model, with all its crudities, was English, and not even obsolete ; 
and feuch a thing as the Pompeian house, with all its refinement. 

From BriUon't Antiquibvs 












ll.<. cni||m;i'. T1 •»;• Psti, 4«> 


been that of the solid block of building, generally with wings 
attached and Basement Offices; and that the fonn in which 
Elizabethan plan came in was commonly, perhaps chiefly, the 
quadrangular system, with the Domestic Offices on the Ground- 
floor, sometimes separate and sometimes not (Compare Hoik- 
ham, Plate XIII., with Longleat and Toddington, Plates XIV, 
and XV.) 

The adoption of Elizabethan plan was manifested in two ways ; 
namely, in the design of new Mansions in imitation of the old, 
and in the rearrangement of old Mansions for modem use. A 
spirit of severe antiquarianism, such as we sometimes meet with 
in the present day, would have demanded for an old house an 
exact restoration of its authentic arrangements, and for a new 
house a precise acceptance of the principles of antiquity. But 
this notion had not yet come into vogue, and therefore the 
remodelling of ancient examples was quite unfettered, and the 
imitation of their style in new cases equally free. 

In now citing illustrations of the manner of the first quarter 
of the nineteenth century, we must of course entirely ignore the 
somewhat large class of designs in which a symmetrical plan ol 
more or less Palladian character was merely clothed in an imita- 
tion of Gothic or Elizabethan detail. Our business being with 
plan alone, purely external treatment of this kind afibrds no 
test. We may accordinp:ly select for examples Longleat (Plate 
XrV.) and Toddington (Plate XV.), the former being a Mansion 
of the sixteenth century, remodelled internally, and the latter 
a new Country-seat, which was much spoken of at the time. As 
other well-known examples, mention may be made of WoUaton 
(altered), Cassiobury, Fonthill, Abbotsford, and Eaton Hall. 
The value of Toddington for our purpose is not lessened by the 
circumstance that it is one of the best of those amateur designs 
which in a great measure led the way in the Gothic revival at 
that early stage ; Abbotsford and others being in the same cate- 
gory. Longleat, again, is of enhanced value by reason of the 
admirable combination which it presented of that freedom from 
Palladian restraint which was thenceforth to be the criterion of 
merit, and that perfect symmetry which the professional archi- 
tects of the time would still necessarily seek after, — and which 
by the bye is fully, or more than fully, regarded in Toddington 

Longleat, in the matter of its re-arrangement, (by SiB 



Jefpry Wyatville,) is a work of remarkable merit. (In Plate 
XL. we give the old plan, to compare with Plate XIV., the 
new.) The fine Entrance Hall, still retained in all its mediaeval 
character, eyen to its " Entry " by way of Porch, and its Dais- 
bay-window ; the noble suite of Public rooms, disposed with per- 
fect convenience ; the Principal Staircase, central yet private ; 
the ready communication with the Dining-room from the 
Kitchen, and the still almost unimprovable grouping of the 
chief OflSces ; and last, not least, the completeness of the Pri- 
vate Suite at the south-west angle ; — all are suggestive to the 
practised eye of thorough comfort according to the habits of an 
English family. It is not too much to say that nothing of the 
kind is to be found, except piecemeal, in even the best of 
the eighteenth-century Mansions; and in fact, if we raise the 
question whether the Mediceval form of the block plan was not that 
in which the architect here found his advantage, there can be little 
doubt that most persons will answer in the aflSrmative. (With 
respect to this illustration, the reader has to be further referred, 
not only to the Appendix, Plate XIV,, but to the Supplement 
ON Works op Alteration, &c., which has been added to Part 
Second in the present edition.) 

In Toddington (Plate XV.) we have a somewhat extreme 
case of the development of the MediaBval idea as then under- 
stood. The Main House is quadrangular in itself ; the Domestic 
OflSces, irregularly connected with the House, are again quadran- 
gular; and the Stables, once more irregularly joined to the 
Oflfices, are once more quadrangular. In merit of interior 
arrangement it is very different f5pom Longleat ; but the prin- 
ciple of plan which was to prevail in future is more clearly 
exhibited, even although frequently illustrated by defects, (See 
Appendix, Notes on Plate XV.) 

Out of the change of practice thus developed there arose in 
the ordinary design of Country-houses and Suburban Villas a 
condition of plan which has continued to the present day. The 
Palladian principle settled into what is commonly called the 
" Square-house," either with or without a Basement of OflSces, — 
the substantial, economical, common, good house of every-day 
preference even at the present moment. To this form of build- 
ing a wing is attached at pleasure, to accommodate the OflSces 
generally ; or a pair of such wings in symmetry, for OflSces and 
Stables. Sometimes the OflSces have been more elaborately 


developed as a separate composition ; attached to the rear for 
example^ and embracing a small court-yard. Sometimes the 
pair of wings are made to provide certain of the principal 
rooms — say the Dining-room and the Drawing-room — and to 
enclose an Entrance-Court in fronts 

More recently, this square house of the old school has been 
superseded by the same idea in more irregular form, still pre- 
serving all, or nearly all, the economical advantages of its 
predecessor, but externally admitting of nK)re picturesque treat- 
ment whether in Gothic, Elizabethan, Italian, or Cottage style ; 
this being, in fact, at present the every-day model, almost with- 
out exception, for the smaller class of country houses. 

Still more recently, the Mediaeval principle has been developed 
further. In each of the styles just mentioned, irregularity has 
been carried from the exterior to the interior, and the plan is 
sometimes improved thereby and sometimes not. 

One thing, however, which has become more and more esta- 
blished in all cases, and which as matter of merit in plan is 
especially worthy of approbation, is the abandonment of Base- 
ment Offices. On Italian ground the under-story was in a 
manner, if not essential, almost indispensable for local reasons. 
When the Palladian model was adopted in England, this part of 
it was included in the imitation ; the previous practice of the 
Tudor and Elizabethan period exhibited nothing of the sort, 
except in the transitional manner of Thorpe, already alluded to. 
The dignified treatment of the artistic composition, both within 
and without, was thus greatly facilitated, of course: and how 
much this was considered we already know. But no sooner did 
the Palladian system begin to give way in England, than the 
old native notion of Ground-floor Offices claimed attention ; and 
the first step \^hich was Uiken in the way of general amendment 
in plan was the liberation of the Office from the restraints 
which had so long been imposed upon them in the under-story. 
Indeed, we find in many early instances that, while the Palladian 
symmetry of partitionment is strictly kept up in respect of the 
Family rooms, and while, in fact, the Basement story itself is 
retained in the form of a needless extent of inconvenient cellar- 
age, the Offices, transferred to the rear of the Ground-floor, are 
planned upon a totally diflferent principle. Thus, in the course 
of nineteenth-century improvement, the Offices in point of date 
precede the Family rooms. Perhaps the need for amendment 


B^ K BUu, 1860. 

Plate 16. 

UfMyxi Houae & 
Old. Cocmau^ht.. 

ScuVLory &c. 




By Umaa^ Ltatyon & Lynn, 185d. 

Fran the Buildbr. 





Scale, 1 Inch to 30 FmI. 


certain ground which is its own, claim a dear preference. The 
balance of power is perfect The charming irregularity of 
unfettered convenience is the Mediaeval merit, and, when duly 
refined by an educated and skilful judgment, can never be called 
upon to recede from its position ; but there is the stately Classic 
symmetry, on the other hand, all grace and balance, (claiming 
indeed to be a still greater refinement, the work of a still more 
highly educated and more skilful form of judgment,) which must 
not be denied one iota of its pretensions until the price of its 
elegance is the sacrifice of convenience. 

To give illustrations of the practice of these two 8tyle% of 
Plan from the works of the age is not by any means a difficult 
matter, but it is, of course, a somewhat delicate one. The mode 
which we have decided to adopt, it is hoped, will not be unsatis- 
factory. Four pairs of plans are given, of which each pair is 
considered to present a fair contrast of Classic and Gothic 
arrangements of a particular kind. At the same time, it will at 
once be apparent that the selection of the examples has turned, 
not upon any principle which can be considered to exalt these 
specimens above others, but rather upon eligibility for contrast 
alone — ^the convenience, in fact, of the author. 

The first of our contrasts is ofiered between two recently built 
Country-houses of small dimensions, represented in Plate XVI. 
Secondly, a comparison is instituted between the two recently 
built Eoyal Villas of Osborne and Balmoral in Plates XVII. and 
XVin. Thirdly, a contrast is presented between two other 
works of the passing day, Bridgewater House and West Shandon 
(Plates XIX. and XX.), not on the same grounds as before, but 
rather to place before the reader extreme examples. Fourthly, 
the author has made the experiment of illustrating the com- 
parison of styles in one other way, by himself preparing a pair 
of plans in which precisely the same accommodation is treated 
characteristically in the two forms (Plates XXI. and XXII.). 

The Ground-plan of Llwyn House (Plate XVI.) is, for so 
small an example, particularly expressive of Classic principle. 
The central lines of vista and approach throughout, and the 
perfect symmetry of division, are admirably contrived. (For 
critical remarks, see Appendix, Plate XVI.) 

Contrast with this the Ground-plan of Old Connauoht on 
the same Plate, and the Mediaeval features of the latter will 
readily be perceived. The Porch, with its uncentral position ; 

Plate 17. 



The Kiti'heii are separate in 
this quarter, with undfrgTcuiid. 
coirmiurjU'Jtiori . 



the Hall, with its Screen and Bay-window ; its communication, 
at the Dais-end (so to speak,) with the Family-rooms, and at the 
Entry-end with the OfiSces ; the privacy of the Staircase ; and 
the characteristic irregularity, although perfect convenience, of 
the thoroughfare lines, are especially interesting and ingenious. 
At the same time the absence of affectation in this plan is 
worthy of great praisa (See further. Appendix^ Plate XVI.) 

The Royal Marine Palace of Osi^rne, which is presented in 
Plate XVn., is a serviceable illustration again of Classic plan 
largely modified to accord with the habits of the present day in 
England. The Royal Castle of Balmoral, also, Plate XVIII., 
is an equally serviceable specimen of MedisBval plan modified in 
like manner. What constitutes these plans more particularly 
eligible for such a contrast as the present is the fact that the 
supervision of the late accomplished Prince Consort is under- 
stood to have minutely and intelligently governed both during 
the process of their design. We do not require to assume that 
any intention existed on the part of either the architect or the 
client, in whichever case, to produce a specimen of style in plan ; 
but so much the better for our purpose. Two Palaces, for the 
self-same occupation, and in circumstances by no means dis- 
similar, are designed under the self-same control, but by different 
architects, each in his own style unconsciously ; and the result 
is the interesting contrast in question. The architect of Osborne 
produces an Italian Villa ; the architect of Balmoral an 
Elizabethan Manor-house. Neither of them pretends to be 
punctilious ; on the contrary, both are anxious to attain perfect 
domestic convenience of a modem rural kind, independently of 
anything like mannerism of arrangement; both designers no 
doubt are equally unaware of any such mannerism in their 
work; and yet the two plans present, throughout their entire 
scheme, a striking dissimilarity of style. 

The Classicism (so to call it) of Osborne lies in a universal 
prevalence of symmetry in particulars, in spite of a certain pur- 
pose of irregularity in the bulk; a symmetry not merely of 
exterior, but of strictly-mannered partitionment within, more 
than is usual at the present day, — reminding the critic of Pal- 
ladianism. The Mediaevalism of Balmoral, on the other hand, 
notwithstanding an obvious desire to provide that regular dis- 
position of thoroughfare luies which is so important a means of 
convenience, and none the less that simple regularity of par* 


titiomrient which belongs to good plain modem rooms, yet dis- 
plays itself constantly in an unafifected bnt decided disregard of 
all needless or fictitious correspondenca In Osborne, also, as 
scarcely requires to be said, the central Principal Staircase by 
way of a Cortile, and the central axes of entrance and approach^ 
are all in marked contrast to the secluded Stairdise of Balmoral, 
the uncentral main entrance, the diagonal route through the 
Hall, the privacy of the Gallery, and much more ; whilst in the 
Offices also and the accommodation for the royal suite, the plan 
of Osborne seems to turn upon the same regularity, and the 
corresponding parts of Balmoral to be quite unfettered. (For 
further remarks see Appendix^ Plates XVII. and XVIII.) 

Proceeding now to our third contrast, we take up Plate XIX., 
Bridgewater House, the London residence of the Earls of EUes- 
mere ; and Plate XX., West Shandon, the seat of an eminent 
manufacturer, near Glasgow. The former plan gives the State- 
rooms of one of the stateliest Mansions in England ; the other 
gives the ordinary apartments of a large Family House, arranged 
with a decided disregard of the embarrassments of stateliness. 
The one, moreover, is the design of the late Sir Charles Barry, 
and the other is in a large measure the design of the clever 
proprietor. Bridgewater House exhibits with peculiar force 
the fastidiousness of Classic plan, refined to the last degree. 
West Shandon shows perhaps as much of the disorderly con- 
venience peculiar to Mediasval plan as could safely be compressed 
within the space. 

In Bridgewater House the governing features, as regards 
both the grandiose character of the arrangement and its essential 
Classicism, are obviously the central Cortile with its Arcade- 
Corridors around, and the sumptuous suite of State-Apartments. 
But the Staircase is an equally important feature; and with 
reference to this it has to be explained that the plan underwent 
an instructive modification during the process of building. Ori- 
ginally it was intended that the Staircase should ascend directly 
in front of the Entrance, as dotted on the drawing ; ultimately 
it was removed to its position on the East side. The first 
arrangement no doubt would have been more grand, and per- 
haps more characteristically Italian; but the second renders 
the Arcades more complete in purpose, and probably more 
graceful in design. In other words, the one plan would have 
compromised the Cortile for the sake of a grander Staircase ; 


Plate 19. 



trary to display characteristic features and qualities strictly 
subordinated to ordinary requirements, with equal convenience 
and equal stateliness in both. For the description of the plans, 
and such critical observations thereon as need be offered, we 
have to refer the reader to the Appendix (Plates XXL and 
XXII.) ; but the essential difference of treatment is a thing to be 
seen at a glance. That all classic motive is based on regularity, 
and all Gothic on irregularity, is still a first principle ; but that 
the Classic manner may pervade a plan in spite of irregularity 
in detail, and the Gothic manner similarly in spite of symmetry, 
is the final lesson this contrast is meant to convey. The one 
design is unreservedly an Italian Villa, and the other an Eliza- 
bethan Manor-house; both are essentially and persistently 
grounded on every-day modem arrangements; to live in the 
one would be precisely the same as to live in the other ; in a 
word, one might choose between them by lot (at least such is 
the intention, whether successfully accomplished or not); and 
yet this is our argument, — ^that the one exhibits throughout an 
all'pervading balance which need not be constrained, and the 
other an all-pervading freedom which need not be unruly, as 
two distinct styles of Plan between which there seems to be 
thus far really no difference of value. 

This preliminary essay may now be fitly concluded with the 
inquiry what may be the more immediate prospects of domestic 
plan at this moment. First, as regards any direct advancement 
in respect of either accommodation or convenient arrangement, 
it would seem that the only direction which this is open to take 
just now is that of the better use of the abundant materials at 
command. The weak point of present practice, to speak can- 
didly, is this : we have a system of plan whose resources are not 
understood. The public do not obtain practically the benefit of 
what, so to speak, they historically possess. The present work, 
for example, does not aim at any addition to the existing 
system ; but only attempts its explanation as it exists. Cen- 
turies have passed in its development; and all that is now 
needed is that it should be understood. In mere accommoda- 
tion it is in a certain sense inexhaustible and overflowing ; and 
in convenience and comfort, the works of really skilful architects 
may be said to leave little, if anything, to be desired by the 
most fastidious. 

To indicate some prominent points of deficiency, however, is 

Plate 21. 

0^np;iiative Plari 
t 'Lassie . 


certainly not diflScult — 1. In our best works, for instance, the 
Family apartments are frequently far inferior, in respect of 
scientific merit, to the Offices; the Bedrooms are notoriously 
deficient ; the reason perhaps is, that the science of the superior 
apartments is a superior effort. — 2. Another grievance (and one 
of universal prevalence) lies in the want of due consideration 
for the all-important question of Aspect — 3. There is again too 
frequently in this country a niggardliness of space. — 4. In respect 
of internal salubrity also, and external disposition, there is room 
for improvement ; and in respect very often of that cheerfulness 
of general character which is so charming when well contrived. 
— 5. The complex qualities of stateliness wedded to comfort, 
and comfort to stateliness, may also be suggested as jfrequent 
desiderata. — 6. The old Palladian sham-symmetries have not 
yet been entirely surrendered, at least in inferior works. — 
7. New affectations of architectural style are beginning to 
threaten many in<!onvenience8 and discomforts, as serious as 
those of Palladianism. — 8. Generally speaking, architects have 
to learn this golden rule — " Take care of the inside, and the 
outside ought to take care of itself." — 9. Architects must espe- 
cially consent to provide for the furniture. — 10. Nor must other 
minutiae be neglected ; nothing is too small to be seen when 
it is too late to mend. 

It may also be noted that the multifarious appliances which 
are nowadays offered to the public almost by the hundred pro- 
mise much for the increase of domestic comfort and convenience. 
In the awakening appreciation of art there is in like manner 
much to be expected. But in these cases, also, the direction 
of progress is still the same, and nothing needs to be added, 
except in the form of detail, to the abundant resources of the 
existing English system. 

As a second question of the prospects of plan, we may at 
least speculate for a moment on the rivalry of the two great 
styles as now practised — the Classic (or Italian) and the Mediaeval 
(or Elizabethan). Which is to displace the other ? How far 
may compromise or combination be desirable? What is the 
natural style of the soil ?. In architectural art such questions 
are often mooted, and not so often answered ; in our humbler 
but more important subject they need not at least be evaded. 
The grandeur, refined balance, and repose, of the Italian manner 
in its highest efforts are attributes all its own. The piquant 


utilitarianism of the Mediaeval manner is none the less peculiar 
to itself. This is so, just as much as in the decoratiye element 
the Classic style possesses the same grandeur, refined balance, 
and repose, and the Gothic the same piquant utilitarian charm. 
But these characteristics, we must congratulate ourselves, may 
in plan at any rate compete without collision ; we cannot consent 
to sacrifice either of them. Some of our ardent archaeologist* 
architects may occasionally stretch a point to carry the obsolete 
authenticities of the Middle Ages into practical house-building ; 
but the efibrt is harmless,— if the resident be pleased with his 
toy. When any similar attempt is made to reproduce the iden- 
tical glories of some forlorn Boman or Venetian Palazzo, the 
result is the same. No such mere authenticity is of the least 
value ; in this subject, fortunately, there are practical demands 
of the day which refuse to recognise any authority of the kind. 
(Would it were so in Art !) That either style will supersede 
the other becomes then a question of competition under such 
modification, indeed under such mutual influence and aid, that 
it involves aU that is required for harmonious cooperation. Let 
it be repeated therefore, — we cannot surrender either. Lastly* 
to the never uninteresting question what is our natural style, we 
need not hesitate now to ofifer a very simple reply. We have 
not failed, throughout the whole of this essay, to award to 
domestic plan of the Mediaeval type its full claim to historical 
authority on English ground. But this is not the end of the 
question. Whatever our national type of the old world, there 
was superadded, at the birth of the new world, in England only 
as everywhere else, and in the subject before us only as in a 
hundred others, a singular majesty and grace combined — we call 
this the Classic character — which the new world gathered gladly 
from antiquity in its Italian birthplace, and with which it clothed 
itself, never to be divested of it again, — unless some great 
change should come over intellect which is beyond our foresight. 
Both types, therefore, are our inheritance in modem England ; 
and t© suggest the repudiation of either is to imply disloyalty 
to both. 



Plate 22. 

Courparativc Vlaiii 
Medueval . 



- V 








'HM:)r:_=^:i^^:4J-^-:r_z^_- .-^-.^ij^-^-^ r^^ 




■"■*- ■*- 




•0 V««v 

5cM.le I loch i« 30 Fc«^ 





Definition of a Gentleman's House. — Scheme for the Classification of the Apart- 
ments. — Treatment adopted In the exposition by Chapters. 

" A Gentleman's House " — ^the common phrase which we have 
taken leave to employ as a technical term (simply because it 
really is so in ordinary conversation, signifying an idea not 
otherwise easily expressed) — implies of course that we do not 
propose to deal in any way with inferior dwellings, such as 
Cottages, Farmhouses, and Houses of Business. But at the 
same time it is not necessary, or even desirable, to apply the 
term in any more restricted sense. No question of mere mag- 
nitude is involved; no degree of embellishment; no local or 
personal peculiarity : but there is indicated an entire class of 
dweUings, in which it will be found, notwithstanding infinite 
variety of scale, that the elements of accommodation and 
arrangement are always the same ; being based, in fact, upon 
what is in a certain sense unvarying throughout the British 
Islands, namely, the domestic habits of refined persons. To put 
the case familiarly, there are houses in which the accommoda- 
tion is of the smallest, and the expenditure the most restricted, 
whose plan nevertheless is such that persons who have been 
accustomed to the best society find themselves at ease; and 
there are others upon which ample dimensions, liberal outlay, 
and elaborate decoration have entirely failed to confer the cha- 
racter of a Gentleman's House. 

A scheme of classification which shall be applicable alike to 
houses of all degrees of importance is not perhaps easily con- 
trived ; but the following is ofiered as being at least practical 
and simple. 

Primarily the House of an English gentleman is divisible into 


two departments ; namely, that of the Family, and that of the 
Sebvants. In dwellings of inferior class, such as Farm-houses 
and the houses of tradesmen, this separation is not so distinct ; 
but in the smallest establishment of the kind with which we 
have here to deal this element of character must be considered 
essential; and as the importance of the family increases the 
distinction is widened, — each department becoming more and 
more amplified and elaborated in a direction contrary to that of 
the other. 

In a few Mansions of very superior class another special 
department is constituted by the State-rooms. 

As outdoor departments or appendage, if any, there are the 
Stables and the Farm Offices. 

There seems to be no necessity for primary classification being 
carried fia.rther than this. 
The Family Depabtment may be subdivided thus : — 
The Day-rooms. 
The Sleeping-rooms. 
The Children's rooms. 
The Supplementaries. 
The Thoroughfares. 
A glance over the Index at the commencement of the volume 
will fully explain the application of this subdivision. 

The department of State-rooms may be treated of without 
subdivision ; as the Index again will show. 

The Servants' Department may be subdivided in this 
manner : — 

The Kitchen Offices. 
The Upper Servants' Offices. 
The Lower Servants' Offices. 
The Laundry Offices. 
The Bakery and Brewery Offices. 
The Cellars, Storage, and Outhouses. 
The Servants' private rooms. 
The Supplementaries. 
The Thoroughfares. 
A further reference to the Index will render this also plain. 

Now it must be obvious that in the scheme of classification 
thus set forth there are certain primary apartments which, fitly 
arranged, form essential elements of even the smallest house of 
the description with which we deal ; and that the remaifider 


constitute but the amplification of the same schen e according 
to the dignity of the establishment. Our task, therefore, ^vill 
be to comprehend as far as possible in our detailed exposition, 
chapter by chapter, all classes of houses together, — that is to 
say, all degrees of this development of accommodation, — so that 
the reader may discern, as regards any question in hand, alike, 
so to speak, the demands of a Palace and those of a Parsonage . 
To make this more clear, let us instance the chapter on the 
Drawing-room, or that on the Kitchen ; this treats of all classes 
of siuch rooms together: the reader being left to discern for 
himself (as he easily may do, it is hoped) the precise bearings 
of the argument on any particular scaje of Drawing-room or 
Kitchen which may be in his mind, — the principles being in all 
cases the same. But let us go farther, and take the chapter on 
the Boudoir, or the Billiard-room, or that on the Still-room or 
the /Steward's room ; the reader has here to discern, not only what 
such a room ought to be, but to what scale of building the pos- 
session of such a room pertains. To obtain still more assistance 
on this last-named question, the reader will do well, to refer to 
Pabt Fifth, which gives specific lists of accommodation in 
detail, corresponding to successive classes of houses. 

66 OENEBAL C0NSIDEBATI0K3. Pr. 11., Dir. I. 






CHAPTER L— Programme. 

Qualities of a good house. — Scheme for their consideration. 

Let it be again remarked that the character of a gentleman- 
like Besidence is not matter of magnitude or of costliness, but 
of design, — and chiefly of plan ; and that, as a very modest 
establishment may possess this character without a fault, all 
unadorned ; so also the stately Seat of a millionaire may per- 
chance have so little of it that the most lavish expenditure shall 
but magnify its defects. 

The qualities which an English gentleman of the present day 
values in his house are comprehensively these : — 

Quiet comfort for his family and guests, — 
Thorough convenience for his domestics, — 
Elegance and importance without ostentation. 

The account which has been given of the history of Plan 
will pretty clearly show in what manner and by what degrees 
these principles have come to be established, and how recently 
it is that they have been fully recognised ; but it is none the 
less certain that at the present moment they must be considered 
to be fixed and final rules, of which no compromise ought to be 
offered. However small and compact the house may be, the 
family must have privacy and the servants commodiousness, 
and the whole dwelling must display an unassuming grace. If, 
on the other hand, the circumstances of the owner and his tastes 
are such that magnitude and refinement ought to expand into 
state, even grandeur must not be pretentious, or wealth osten- 
tatious, and the attributes of an agreeable English home must 
never be sacrificed. 

Sec. I., Ch. IT. PRIVACY. G7 

There arise therefore certain geueral maxims of design, which, 
for the sake of these important qualities, may be laid down aa 
beyond appeal. The task of the architect is to fulfil all their 
requirements. An intelligent client will scrupulously exact 
their fulfilment. However meritorious may be the artistic treat- 
ment, the scientific construction, the administration of expendi- 
ture, nothing of the sort will be held to compensate for the want 
of these less striking but more fastidious characteristics. They 
form, in short, taken as a whole, the test of A Gentleman's 
House. These we shall now exami^ae and illustrate, under the 
following heads, namely : — 

Privacy. Salubrity. 

Comfort. Aspect and prospect. 

Convenience. Cheerfulness. 

Spaciousness. Elegance. 

Compactness. Importance. ^ 

Light and air. Ornament. 

CHAPTER II.— Privact. 

Privacy defined fuid exemplified. — Bequisite for both family and senrants. — Supe- 
riority of Elizabethan plan in this respect. 

The idea here implied has already been suggested ; being, 
indeed, the basis of our primary classification. It is a first prin- 
ciple with the better classes of English people that the Family 
Booms shall be essentially private, and as much as possible the 
Family Thoroughfares. It becomes the foremost of all maxims, 
therefore, however small the establishment, that the Servants' 
Department shall be separated from the Main House, so that 
what passes on either side of the boundary shall be both invi- 
sible and inaudible on the other. The best illustrations of the 
want of proper attention to this rule must necessarily be obtained 
from houses of the smaller sort ; and here cases more or less 
striking are unfortunately by no means rare. Not to mention 
that most unrefined arrangement whereby at one sole entrance- 
door the visitors rub shoulders with the tradespeople, how objec- 
tionable it is we need scarcely say when a thin partition trans- 
mits the sounds of the Scullery or Goal-cellar to the Dining-room 



or Study ; or when a Kitchen window in summer weather forms 
a trap to catch the conversation at the casement of the Drawing- 
room ; or when a Kitchen doorway in the Vestibule or Staircase 
exposes to the view of every one the dresser or the cooking- 
rangCy or fills the house with unwelcome odours. Those who 
are acquainted with the ordinary class of suburban " Speculation 
Villas," which, by the standard of rent, ought to be good houses, 
but are not, will at once recognise the unexaggerated truth of 
these illustrations ; whilst, on the other hand, the facility with 
which houses of the same size and value are arranged by better 
hands, for the express avoidance of all these evils, is equally 
weU known. 

On the same principle .of privacy, as we advance in scale 
and style of living, a separate Staircase becomes necessary for 
the servants' use ; then the privacy of Corridors and Passages 
becomes a problem, and the lines of traffic of the servants and 
family respectively have to be kept clear of each other by recog- 
nised precautions ; again, in the Mansions of the nobility and 
wealthy gentry, where personal attendants must be continually 
passing to and fro, it becomes desirable once more to dispose 
the routes of even this traffic so that privacy may be maintained 
under difficulties. In short, whether in a small house or a large 
one, let the family have free passage-way without encountering 
the servants unexpectedly ; and let the servants have access to 
all their duties without coming unexpectedly upon the family or 
visitors. On both sides this privacy is highly valued. 

It is matter also for the architect's care that the outdoor 
work of the domestics shall not be visible from the house or 
grounds, or the windows of their Offices overlooked. At tl>e 
same time it is equally important that the walks of the family 
shall not be open to view from the Servants' Department The 
Sleeping-rooms of the domestics, also, have to be separated both 
internally and externally from those of the family, and indeed 
separately approached. 

The idea which underlies all is simply this. The family 
constitute one community : the servants another. Whatever 
may be their mutual regard and confidence as dwellers under 
the same roof, each class is entitled to shut its door upon the 
other and be alone. 

When the question of the privacy of Rooms comes into notice 
more properly, in our examination of the apartments in detail. 

Skc. I.. Ch. III. COMFORT. 69 

the development of the principle at large will further appear. 
We may, however, here refer to one point at least of general 
application, namely, the comparative merits of Italian and 
Elizabethan plan in respect of the privacy of Thoroughfares. 
In the Classic model, privacy is certainly less. The Principal 
Staircase especially is almost invariably an instance of this ; so 
also are the various forms of Cortile, Central Hall, and Saloon ; 
all are in a manner public places. But in the Mediaeval model, 
privacy is never difhcult of accomplishment. The Staircase, for 
example, is generally secluded ; and even a Gallery, if properly 
planned, becomes almost a Family-room, In other words, it 
may be said that the open central lines of thoroughfare in 
Italian plan must necessarily favour publicity, whilst the in- 
direct routes of the Mediaeval arrangement must equally favour 
privacy. Or it may be put thus : the Italian model, legiti- 
mately descended from the Roman, still suggests its origin in 
the open-air habits of a Southern climate; whilst the old 
English model, the growth of Northern soil, displays a character 
of domestic seclusion which seems to be more natural to the 
indoor habits of a Northern home. (Compare, for instance^ 
Bridgewater House and West Shandon (Plates XIX. and 
XX.), Osborne and Balmoral (Plates XVIL and XVIII.), and 
particularly Plates XXXIII. and XXXIV., Mentmobe and the 
Scotch Model. See also Plate XLV. and tlxe Notes thereon in 
the Appendix, 

CHAPTER III.— Comfort. 

The basil} of the Engliflh idea of comfort. — Defined and exemplified. — Plotting 

furniture. — The Study of the three evils. 

What we call in England a comfortable Jumse is a thing so 
intimately identified with English enstoms as to make us apt to 
say that in no other country but our own is this element of 
comfort fully understood ; or at all events that the comfort of 
any other nation is not the comfort of this. The peculiarities 
of our climate, the domesticated habits of almost all classes, our 
family reserve, and our large share of the means and appliances 
of easy living, all combine to make what is called a comfortable 
home perhaps the most cherished possession of an Englishman. 



Pt. II., Div. I. 

To dwell a moment longer on this always popular theme, it is 
worth suggesting that indoor comfort is essentially a Northern 
idea, as contrasted with a sort of outdoor enjoyment which is 
equally a Southern idea, and Oriental. Hence the difference 
between the French habits, for instance, and the English. The 
French, like the modem Italians, represent the ancient Bomans ; 
while the English represent the old Goths by direct inheritance 
through the Saxons. 

In its more ordinary sen&e the comfortableness of a house 
indicates exemption from all such evils as draughts, smoky 
chimneys, kitchen smells, damp, vermin, noise, and dust; 
summer sultriness and winter cold ; dark comers, blind pass- 
ages and musty rooms.* But in its larger sense comfort includes 
the idea that every room in the house, according to its purpose, 
shall be for that purpose satisfactorily contrived, so as to be free 
from perversities of its own, — so planned, in short, considered by 
itself, as to be in every respect a comfortable room of its kind. 
This might be called convenience, as regards the Boom, but we 
prefer to apply that term to another and more general quality 
presently, relating to the House at large. 

It is too frequently considered, with respect at least to the 
more ordinary apartments, that almost any accidental proportion 
of form will do for a room, provided the door, windows, and 
fireplace, however accidentally placed, be not openly at variance, 
and provided space be adequate and height approved. But 
here lies the cause of incalculable shortcomings in respect of 
comfort. As a rule, no random arrangements of this kind 
ought to be tolerated. No room ought to pass muster on the 
plan until the designer has in imagination occupied it and 
proved it comfortable. It is not too much if he plots upon the 
drawing every important article of furniture which the room has 
to receive, and so establishes its capacities and qualities beyond 
all hazard. A little of this fastidiousness on paper will save 
much discomfort in the building. Take, for instance, the case 
of a Gentleman's Study of small size ; and suj^se, when the 

* It appears to have been matt<;r of 
disappointment to some readers of our 
first edition that we do not deal with 
this class of questions in detail, by way 
of pointing out the means of prevention 
and cure ; but a moment's reflection will 

show that, our subject being Plan only, 
these cousidemtions as a class cannot 
come formally into our programme. 
Several of them, however, are frequently 
spoken of incidentally throughout the 

Sec. I., Ch. IV. CONVENIENCE. 71 

occupant comes to place his desk in it, he discovers that he 
must choose between three evils (not an unfrequent case), 
namely, whether to turn his back to the fire, or to the door, or 
to the window. He will be told, perhaps, that the reason of 
this awkwardness lies in the conflicting claims of a neighbouring 
apartment ; or that it is the fault of the access, or the chimney- 
breast, or the prospect, or what not; but the simple fact is 
that it is the fault of the architect, — ^the room has never been 
plcmned. It is true, it would be dangerous to assert that the 
architect is bound to provide for each individual apartment an 
arrangement as perfect and complete as if itself alone were the 
subject of design; questions of compromise must continually 
arise, and often they will prove hard of solution ; but the skill 
of the designer lias its chief task here, in reducing every com- 
promise, by sheer patience of contrivance, to a minimum ; and 
the plan can never be considered perfect whilst anything of the 
sort is so left as to provoke the perception of a radical defect or 
even a serious discomfort. 

CHAPTER IV.— Convenience. 

CouTenienoe defined. — The Offices in advance. — Tlie question of peculiarities of 
habit. — Comparison of the Classic and Mediffival styles of plan. 

In drawing a distinction between comfort and convenience, we 
might say the former quality refers to the passive, and the 
latter to the active ; convenience being that characteristic which 
results from an arrangement of the various departments, and 
their various component paits, in such relation to each other as 
shall enable all the uses and purposes of the establishment to 
be carried on in perfect harmony, — a place for everything and 
everything in its place, — no deficiency, no superfluity, no awk- 
wardness, no doubtfulness, — one obvious way of accomplishing 
an object, and that the right way. 

Such convenience is necessarily of two branches, — that of the 
family, and that of the domestics. That of the family lies iu 
the contrivance of the relations of rooms to each other for occu- 
pation, the disposal of thoroughfares, and little else ; that of the 
servants consists in a similar contrivance of such relations. 


(although for operative purposes as distinguished from those of 
mere occupation), and in something more, — namely, the right 
provision of a variety of incidental appliances which expedite 
and facilitate the work. 

It may be remarked in passing that the demands of the 
servants in respect of convenience are generally more difficult 
to fulfil than those of the family, and, if not fulfilled, are 
always a more fertile source of complaint ; which may account 
for the fact that in one sense, up to the present point of pro-, 
gress, the proper arrangement of the Offices is more strictly 
a test of perfection than that of the Main House. This we 
referred to in our preliminary Historical Sketch ; showing 
that the Offices have long taken, and still take, the lead in 
improvement ; but it is to be hoped that the Family Depart- 
ment will not remain long behind; for, if the appliances of 
service are worthy of the utmost scientific pains, the enjoyments 
of occupation are surely no less deserving of the most intelligent 

That the pleasures of residence are dependent upon con- 
venience of plan everybody will admit ; but how much this is 
the case those only understand who can on the one hand refer 
to some masterpiece of arrangement wherein the skill of the 
architect has provided at every point against those collisions of 
interests and sympathies which even the little affairs of a house- 
hold will engender, and^ on the other hand, remember some 
abode of awkwardness, where every turning seems contrived to 
create confusion and strife. 

Under this head of Convenience we may very properly allude 
to the question how far it becomes the task of the architect of 
a Gentleman's House to provide for any peculiarities in the 
habits of the particular household. It is certainly true that the 
domestic arrangements of our better classes follow almost with- 
out exception a regular system. It must also be acknowledged 
that where the wishes and opinions of any one happen to be 
peculiar, the purj^ose of this treatise would certainly go to advise 
him to build according to received custom rather than indi- 
vidual preference. Yet still it cannot be overlooked that there 
must arise occasionally, indeed frequently, cases where special 
circumstances of a personal nature have to be considered with 
care ; and that, even when this is not so, there are certain points 
in almost every case upon which the architect will require 


definite information as to the habits of the family. In other 
words, although every country gentleman, for instance, in 
building a house upon his estate, whatever may be his own 
peculiarities, ought to build, according to his rank and circum- 
stances, a standard Family Besidence, yet it cannot be disputed 
that there are certain points upon which, without any infringe- 
ment of this fundamental rule of prudence, he may reasonably 
require his particular views to be consulted. 

One form, for example, in which this principle may some- 
times come into operation is that which distingttishes between 
the pretensions of the Dining-room and those of the Dmwing- 
room. If the family be distinguished for hospitality of one sort, 
the development of the Dining-room and its accessories, and 
sometimes of the Kitchen department, may perhaps become 
more prominent on the plan ; if, on the other hand, hospitality 
be equally great, but in another form, it is the Drawing-room 
and the ladies' department which may have to be developed 
in excess. Again, there are families who see few visitors, but 
cherish stately habits ; and there are others who follow a simple 
mode of life, but receive at the same time large parties of 
friends. There is the case also of a person rich in objects of art 
or curiosity, and with whom their proper display is essential ; or 
rich in books, which require special accommodation. Ancestral 
associations, again, frequently demand control over the arrange- 
ments of the house ; and sometimes there are hereditary family 
circumstances which, without calling for any positive deviation 
from received usages, still can be provided for by the skilfiil 
designer. All such cases furnish problems to the architect, 
which it is his pride to solve. 

If we draw a comparison as regards the facilities of conveni- 
ence between Classic and Mediaeval plan, the principle laid 
down in our Historical Sketch will no doubt always apply in 
the abstract Convenience, indeed, lies necessarily at the root 
of the MediflBval or irregular type ; and it is only by modifying 
its original system that the other or regular type can be brought 
into competition with it in this respect. At the same time 
it is only right to remember that the extent to which such 
modification is capable of being eflTected has never yet been 
declared too limited for any reasonable demand; so that no 
designer possessing proper resources need fear to undertake 
any problem of convenience on the basis of the Classic mode. 


(The reader may be referred to Plates XXL and XXII., as 
specially designed in contrast for the illustration of tliis pro- 

CHAPTER v. — Spaciousness. 

Too mach overlooked. — Its valne exemplified. 

As an element of comfort and convenience alike, amplitude of 
speice ought never to be grudged. That there is a definite limit 
here, according to the case in hand, need not be said ; but that 
our tendencies in this country, sometimes on account of com- 
pactness no less than economy, too often turn towards the 
contraction of that limit, is certain; and hence the frequent 
complaints of the unexpected smallness of rooms, narrowness of 
passages, and lowness of ceilings, and the occasioiial attempts, 
indeed, to increase the dimensions afterwards at a serious disad- 
vantage. Between a larger number of rooms of questionable 
size, and a smaller number whose amplitude of space shall be 
beyond controversy, choose, if it be by any means possible, the 
latter. If resources be so limited that a plan must be inevitably 
reduced, before the elements of proper spaciousness are touched 
there is always one remedy which, although unpalatable to his 
client, the architect will at least get future thanks for urgently 
pressing ; let a room or two be tlirown off, — it is better to be 
maimed in part than marred in all. There are many otherwise 
good houses in which the sense of contractedness is positively 
oppressive ; you experience a constant fear of overturning some- 
thing, a sense of being in somebody's way ; you speak in a 
subdued voice, lest you should be heard outside, or upstairs, or 
in the kitchen; you breathe as if the place were musty; you 
instinctively stoop to pass through a doorway ; you sit con- 
tractedly in your chair, and begin even to lie contractedly in 
bed ; and to step out into the open garden, or even upon the 
footpath of a street, seems an act of leaping into free space ! 
And there are others, perhaps of much less aggregate size and 
importance, where the mind and body, the spirits and even the 
self-esteem of a man, seem to expand and acquire vigour under 
the simple influence of elbow-room. 

Sec. I.. Cu. VI. COMPACTNESS. 75 

CHAPTER VI.— Compactness. 

Defined and exemplified. — Common form. — In London houses. — In Conntnr- 
houses. — Heady way of compacting large plans. — True and fiUse compactness. 
— Comparison of the two types of plan. 

Somewhat opposed to spaciousness, but only in appearance and 
by way of contrast, is the exquisite quality of compactness. 
The provisions of privacy, comfort, and convenience, already 
alluded to — not to speak of the demands of aspect and prospect, 
light and air, and others yet to be considered— all combine, 
especially when amplitude of space is made the rule, to give to 
the plan an extended and straggling character. This is neces- 
sarily the more so the larger the house becomes, and the more 
fully developed its arrangements. The principle of compactness 
thus acquires an importance which, although always most ma- 
terial, increases more and more as the establishment advances 
in dignity. In plain language, the more we have the harder is 
the task of keeping it well together, — the greater the aggregate 
the more diflScult the preservation of its unity. The very com- 
pleteness of convenience in one form produces inconvenience in 
another. The very elaboration of the mechanism disjoints it. 
OflSces become 8t.retched out to a distance which is practically 
beyond reach, or return upon themselves so as to intercept each 
other's access. Their Passages seem interminable, become in- 
volved and tortuous, lead everywhere and nowhere. The Family- 
rooms themselves part company, and the Corridors spread out 
in dreary blanks of wall, suggestive of secret chambers here and 
there within. All this has to be corrected by the painstaking 
elaboration of compactness. 

The more ordinary form of the quality before us consists in 
what may be called the concretion of the rooms so as to 
economise space and outlay ; an idea which in many instances 
acquires great prominence. It is true tliat this simple kind of 
compactness must frequently be effected at a sacrifice of one or 
ipore of the other essential qualities of a good house ; but it is 
enough if in ordinary cases the compromise is reduced to a 
minimum which shall involve no striking inconvenience. In 
London houses this form of compactness, as regards site at least, 


i8 a primary question; and hence the Basement-OflBces, the 
First-floor Prawing-rooms, and the long ascents of stair to story 
after story of Bed-rooms, two or three on a floor. 

But the more scientific form of the quality is that compact- 
ness of an extended superficies which is chiefly required in 
Coimtry-houses. Here the skill which has to be brought to 
bear upon the arrangement of plan is of the highest order ; and 
where two architects are equally perfect in their knowledge of 
the constituent requisites of the house, it is this which forms 
the next practical test of their comparative merits. After 
everything has been conveniently provided, all must be con- 
veniently compacted. 

r A handy way of compacting plans which the author has 
practised for many years with sufficient satisfaction to himself 
to induce him to venture upon its recommendation to others is 
this : — ^Having first made a complete classified list of the rooms, 
with the approximate dimensions of each (to be subsequently 
modified as required), cut out to scale small pieces of paper 
which shall represent these rooms individually ; and mark and 
classify the whole. The process of designing the plan then 
consists in arranging these pieces together, with intervening 
spaces for Staircases, Corridors, and Passages, &c., wherever 
necessary. Any number of trial arrangements may be succes- 
sively effected, and sketches made therefrom, with a facility 
which will be of course proportional to the skill of tlie operator. 
Some of the chief points upon which such skill will turn are the 
careful preparation of the preliminary lists, the judicious adjust- 
ment of the approximate dimensions of the rooms as the result 
of experience, the possession in the mind of complete general 
notions of plan, an assiduous attention throughout to the smaller 
details of requirement, and lastly patience. 

The object of compactness of arrangement is, in general terms, 
to simplify communication. The Thoroughfares, therefore, con- 
stitute a species of Skeleton of plan (see Plate XLV.), upon which 
the rooms are grouped ; the relation of rooms to each other being 
simply the relation of their doors. The best compacted plan is 
that which provides for every requisite variety of communication 
the shortest and easiest route. But it is necessary to point out 
the fact that compactness, especially in a large subject, is not 
always to be judged of by what may be called tlw compact appear- 
ance of the drawing. The designer must not be so easily satisfied 

Sec. ]., Ch. VI. COMPACTNESS. 77 

with this as he frequently is prompted to be. There are some 
cases in which mere regularity of plan produces an appearance 
of compactness which proves as fallacious in execution as it is 
pleasing in prospect. Our old advice regarding the Eooms must 
be repeated here regarding the Passages ; the architect must see 
in imagination the reality of his plan, and carry out thereon in 
fancy every partic\ilar form of communication to be provided for. 
Nothing short of this will make a really compact arrangement ; 
and it will be very likely to appear that that reguleirity to the 
eye which is often the charm of a plan on paper must submit to 
a good deal of modification to meet the very different standard 
which is arrived at in the practical transaction of affairs^ In 
the plan of regular features, as it may be called, beauty is only 
paper deep ; in the actual house such merits are altogether lost ; 
whereas it is frequently the case that arrangements which are in 
the building both convenient and compact have on paper an 
aspect of irregularity and want of repose which strikes the super- 
ficial critic as evidence of crudity. 

Marlborough House (Plate XI.) is a plan of exquisite regu- 
larity of features ; but it is not really compact. West Shandon 
again (Plate XX.), the most irregular in form, is still to be 
charged with false compactness. But the Scotch Mopel 
(Plate XXXIV.), however rambling in appearance, is in reality 
perfectly compacted. Bylaugh (Plate XXVI.), is both regular 
and compact to the utmost 

There is a difference as regards this question between the two 
styles of plan. The Italian, no doubt, possesses, iu its very ele- 
ments, compactness to a great degree ; it has at the same time a 
considerable leaning towards the mere feature-regularity which 
is deceptive. The Elizabethan model, on the other hand, if very 
characteristic, will prove all the more difficult to make com- 
pact ; but, having no leaning towards a symmetrical balance on 
paper, whatever compactness is legitimately arrived at is all the 
more likely to prove satisfactory^ 


CHAPTEE VII.— Light and Air. 

PrincipleB to be duly esteemed. — The evils of borrowed lights, skylights, and wells. 

Since the abolition of that ill-contrived impost the Window- 
duty, which made it necessary for the designer of even a Glentle- 
man's House to reduce its light to the verge of darkness, and its 
freshness to an equal extremity of deuial, the number of windows, 
more especially in the OflBces and Thoroughfares, has very much 
increased; and, accordingly, both hght and ventilation have 
been much improved. 

It is a never-failing principle to eiT here on the side of excess, 
for the sake of emergencies. Both light and ventilation are 
easily diminished ; but to increase the supply may be impossible. 
Let every Eoom in the house and every Passage be sufficiently 
lighted from the external atmosphere, and sufficiently ventUated 
from the external atmosphere. Borrowed light and borrowed air, 
even in a cellar-passage or a lumber-room, accept only as a last 
resource, and under the most favourable conditions. Avoid also, 
as much as possible, the use of skylights, and what are called 
wells or light and air shafts ; indeed, except in very special cases, 
consider them totally inadmissible. Water-closets, for example, 
in the midst of the house, communicating with the roof, through 
the intervening story or two, by such a contrivance, are not to 
be sanctioned on any terms. If our public Hospitals and Asy- 
lums, even our Poorliouses and Prisons, are expected to be models 
of airy freshness and thorough lighting, surely a Gentleman's 
House need not be behind them in such cheap and charming 

CHAPTER VIII. — Salubrity. 

General Rules. 

The observation with which we closed the last chapter may with 
equal force be applied to the subject of the present. That the 
dwellings of our upper or even middle classes are positively un- 
wholesome, one would not like to suggest; except it be with 


respect to the shortcomings of London and other great towns, 
where that free circulation of air which is so essential to health 
is so difficult to be obtained. But at the same time the question 
of salubrity, as respects even a Ck)untry-House, goes a good deal 
farther than this. 

The comparative merits of various soils, aspects, and situations 
with reference to surrounding objects, will be treated of under 
the head of Site. Drainage also must be left for consideration 
in its proper place in the sequel. But irrespective of these points, 
even the arrangement of the house is matter of salubrity or the 
reverse. Avoid for the windows, not only of the Family-rooms, 
but of the Thoroughfares, — and not only of the Offices, but of 
their Passages, — ^any admission of what is offensive to the sense 
of smell. Avoid, in other words, all outlook upon unpleasant 
places ; dust-heaps and gully-holes, and everything of the kind 
must obviously be kept clear of the windows. Extreme care 
also must necessarily be exercised in the disposition of offensive 
Apartments and Outbuildings, including not only Stables, Farm- 
yard, Poultry-yard, and the like, but the Scullery, the Wash- 
house especially aud Laundry, the Brewhouse, sometimes the 
Larders even, any Fruit-store, a Lumber-room, Housemaids'- 
closets, various Cellars, and so on. In short, every place that is 
likely to have in any way an unwelcome odour must be either 
placed apart, or associated with places of its own kind. 

CHAPTER IX. — Aspect and Prospect. 

Difficulties in towns. — But general sacrifice of aspect to prospect also in the 
country. — The Aspect-Compass. — Explanation thereof as to Sunshine, the 
Seasons and Weaiher, — The bearing of aspect upon prospect. — Oompromise of 
conflicting claims. 

The aspect of a room is the relation of its windows to sunshine 
and weather. The prospect of a room is simply the view from 
its windows; this being considered with relation, first, to the 
landscape, and, secondly, to the light in which that is to be seen. 
It is manifest that the pleasantness of the apartment — its comfort 
of the most essential kind — must be dependent very much upon 
these considerations. 

In towns, questions of this description are so entirely subordi- 


nated to others, that they may be said to be altogether lost sight 
of. In London, even in the very best quarters, with rare excep- 
tions, prospect of course there is none ; and no thought of even 
a makeshift appears to suggest itself: whilst as regards aspect, 
which is by no means so hopeless a matter, the apathy is no less 
complete ; for if one side of a street or square enjoys the perfec- 
tion of the genial morning sun and afternoon shade, and the 
opposite side consequently has a comfortless morning and a sultry 
dinner-time, in the first place no builder will venture to vary the 
disposition of the rooms to suit the one case and the other, and 
in the second place few occupiers ever think of preferring that 
side which the plan happens to suit. Indeed, in stately Suburban 
Besidences, where there seems to be no excuse for such neglect^ 
we find little if any improvement : the satisfaction of an agree- 
able prospect may be so far procured as a little ingenious gar- 
dening can affect it ; but as to the sister question of aspect, when 
the rule of absolute parallelism to the high road has been ful- 
filled in what is called the Front of the house, and an approxima- 
tion made towards coolness for the Dining-room and sunshine for 
the Drawing-room, it would be hard to point out, save when ex- 
ceptions prove the rule, where science has ventured much farther 
to go. We may even proceed to assert that too frequently in 
the open country, where everything in respect of site is 2)erfectly 
untrammelled, the proprieties, we will not say of prospect, but 
certainly of aspect, are generally so little regarded as to make 
it a question whether they are at all understood. All ever 
England there are plenty of examples of a well-built house (as 
the auctioneers say), situated on a rising ground, well sheltered, 
and affording a view of so many miles of fine country, with 
the hills of an adjoining shire in the distance ; but how many 
instances there are of a house whose plan is carefully adapted, 
none the less to make the most of the sceueiy in this way, which 
is an easy matter, but, what is not so easy, to give to eveiy part 
of the residence its most suitiible relation to the weather and the 
daily course of the sun, is quite another question. Every room, 
in short, has, according to its particular pur}X)se, not merely a 
better aspect as opposed to a worse, but a certain limited range 
of suitable aspect ajs opposed to the whole remainder of the com- 
pass more or less decidedly unsuitable. 

In our detailed examination of individual apartments, the 
considerations of aspect will have to be carefully developed ; at 


this point, therefore, it is desirable to set forth certain elementary 
principles. To aid the explanation c^ these, we submit a dia- 
gram to which the name of the Aspect Compass may be given. 


(ffofa.— Throughout the whole tre«iti»e, when qnestioiiB of upect htb under con- 

Bderation, tbu diegiam vriU aerre fbr (he iJloatratioii of Uie ugument. 

As respects, first, the Saruhine, it may be noted that the son, 
being South at noon, is East at 6 a.h., Soath-East at 9 A.H., 
South- West at 3 p.m.. West at 6 p.m., and North-West at 9 p.m. 
It is obvious, therefore, that such apartments as are designed for 
general coolness and shade ought to look ont in some degree 
Northward; for the morning sunshine, Eastward ; for the dood- 
day sunshine. Southward ; and for the evening sunshine. West- 
ward : for morning coolness, Westward ; for evening coolness, 

The extreme length of time daring which the sunshine will 
enter an ordinary window in a straight wall may be taken at 


9 boura. (The wider the window in proportion to the thickness 
of the wall the more this range is extended each waj, bnt not 
to any considerable extent) This will be understood more readily 
by referring to the centre of our diagram, which represents a 
common window on plan, facing the South, with the first and 
last rays of the sunshine indicated; these are evidently about 
9 hours apart, and it will be seen at a glance that this is a very 
fair general rule. Accordingly, taking the aspect of any vnndow 
as a middle point on our compass, 4^ hours on each side thereof 
will give the entire range of its sunshine. Eeferring to the Com- 
pass, it will be seen that the sun thus enters an East window at 
dawn, is full in front at 6 o'clock, and continues ascending till it 
is lost at 10*30 ; that in a Sontb^East window the sun enters 
at 4*30 (or at dawn if later), is full in front at 9, and continues 
ascending till noon, descends till 1*30, and is then off; that in a 
South window the sun enters at 7*30, ascends till noon when it 
is full in front, descends till 4*30, and is off; that in a South- 
West window the sun enters at 10*30, passes the meridian and is 
full in front at 3 p.m., and still descends till it is lost at 7*30 (or 
at sunset if earlier) ; and that in a West window the sun enters 
at 1*30 P.M., and descends till its setting, being full in front at 6, 
if not then set. 

With regard to the Seasons, the reader may be reminded (in 
round numbers) that at the Vernal Equinox, about March quarter- 
day^ the sun rises at 6 and sets at G ; at Midsummer, in June, 
rises at 3f , and sets at 8^ ; at the Autumnal Equinox, about 
September quarter-day, rises at 6 and sets at 6 ; and at Mid- 
winter, about Christmas, rises at 8^ and sets at 3f . This also is 
marked on the Compass. 

As respects, next, the WeatJterf the Westward aspects are wet, 
the Eastward dry, the Southward sultry, and the Nortliward 
cold ; the East is exposed to the well-known bitterness of the 
East wind, the West to rain, the South-West to much rain and 
boisterous winds, and the South-East to dry weather and mild 
winds. Accordingly, of all eligible aspects for a dwelling-room 
— eligible, that is to say, by reason of the possession of a con- 
siderable range of sunshine — the worst is the South-West, with its 
rain and driving wind, sultry afternoon, and level sunshine ; the 
best is the South-East, exposed only to dry balmy winds, open 
to the genial sun of the morning, and placed in cool shade during 
the afternoon. 


The bearing of aspect upon Prospect may lastly be adverted 
to, A moment's reflection will show that the effect of aspect 
upon the room within and its effect upon the landscape without 
are two considerations which do not always accord. Looking 
from a Southward window, for instance, we have all the glare of 
the sun in the picture; morning and evening effects may be 
very pleasing ; but the charm of a daylight landscape lighted 
from behind the spectator can never be had. An Eastward 
window, again, will look upon a morning effect with the sun in 
the picture, which is often very pleasant : the noon effect will 
be well lighted from one side, and the sunset effect will have the 
light behind the spectator, which in some cases will be favour- 
able. A Westward window will have a well-lighted view during 
the whole day, and the sunset also will be of the best A North- 
ward window will have the great advantage of looking upon the 
landscape from first to last lighted from behind the spectator. 
If the question here involved be put in scientific form, it is simply 
this : given a certain landscape, and the point from which it is 
to be viewed ; then how to turn it to the best advantage ? The 
first thing is to comprehend the varieties of chiaro scuro which 
in the particular case will correspond to the successive periods of 
the day. The varieties of atmospheric effect also may be taken 
into account as governed by the prevailing weather of the locality. 
The value of the prospect is thus definitely arrived at in a sense 
not suflSciently understood. If it be good only in the evening, 
it is of little use to dispose a morning-room to overlook it ; give 
the view to the Dining-room, if possible, or perhaps to the 
Drawing-room. H it be ap admirable early morning view, give 
the benefit of it to the room in which breakfast is to be served, 
or to the Gentleman's-room, and certainly to some of the best 
Bedrooms. A good prospect for noon and a few hours afterwards 
give to the Drawing-room. 

It must be clear that when considerations of prospect are 
allowed to set aside entirely those of aspect, this error of judg- 
ment is a grave one. Prospect, even the best, comes in time to 
lose its charm to the eye which constantly looks upon it : the 
aspect of a room, on the contrary, if radically unsuitable, will 
never lose its unpleasantness so long as the sun goes his accus- 
tomed round, and the wind and rain come from their allotted 
quarters. It wjU at once occur to the mind that there is oppor- 
tunity for the exercise of much ingenuity in the disposal of rooms 

G 2 


80 as to possess the advantages of aspect and those of prospect 
together, unconnected and frequently conflicting as the demands 
must be. Indeed, there are few subjects in the whole province 
of plan which are more difficult and complicated than this, if a 
problem of the kind is to be really well solved. There are, how- 
ever, two very simple expedients which may be mentioned ; firsts 
the provision of extra windows specially placed, and, secondly, 
the use of bay windows of special plan, as will be set forth in the 
sequeL Very much may be done by these means to make the 
best of a difficult case ; but, as a rule, when the considerations 
of aspect and those of prospect happen to be utterly irreconcilable, 
it will be wisest certainly to prefer the proprieties of aspect, as 
of the chief importance for the rooms, and to devise some mode 
of turning the prospect to account otherwise. 

CHAPTER X. — Cheerfulness. 

General principles and oonstitoentB. 

In a climate like ours, the form of agreeableness, so to call it, 
which is epecially demanded, is the cheerful form. With com- 
paratively little to fear from sultry heat, and no absolutely 
intolerable glare of sunshine, but with a considerable proportion, 
at all seasons, of dull weather, it is plain that we may always 
safely adopt the quality of cheerfulness as a leading idea. At 
the same time, it cannot be said that the English atmosphere is 
either so dreary that this quality should expand into much bril- 
liancy of colouring for contrast and counterbedance, or so dismal 
that it should be subdued to inordinate sobriety for harmony. 
In short, living in a temperate and medium climate, we have to 
provide for moderate and medium effects ; and as the average 
may be said to lean towards variableness and shade, our mode- 
ration may incline therefore towards vivacity. 

The chief element of cheerfulness is the sunshine. To produce 
in the house at large, therefore, a cheerful efiect, it becomes 
obviously desirable to dispose the chief roojns and thoroughfares 
so as to receive the sunshine, according to their several require- 
ments, not too much, but not too little. This is, of course, the 
ij^uestion of aspect^ of which we have had to say so much. Pros- 

Sec. In Oil. XI. ELEQANCE. 85 

pect also is equally an important consideration in this respect ; 
and of this also we have spoken fully. 

The other elements of cheerfulness are spacumsness of plan, 
loftineiB of ceilings, a slight excess, rather than otherwise, of 
light and air, a character of lightness in decoration and furniture 
(to be neither too massive in form nor too dark in colour), all 
coupled, of course, with elegance of design, and with general com- 
fort and convenience of arrangement^ without which it is difficult 
to make by any possible means a cheerful house. 

CHAPTER XI.— Elegance. 

Sabdned power the perfection of art. — Occasional conflict of porpoee in deoamtion 
between the architect and the proprietor. — The views of the ladies. — Enrich- 
ment and dilapidation. 

The very qualities which confer character upon the better 
classes of any community must, of course, turn necessarily upon 
the possession of a taste for the beautiful in its many forms ; and 
the progress of society is in a great measure no more than the 
improvement of this exquisite kind of judgment But the more 
advanced such taste becomes, the more fastidious is it found 
to be ; and this, not altogether in demanding graces that shall 
excel, but indeed much more in rejecting those that are too 
ambitious. Subdued power becomes the perfection of effort ; and 
we must not be surprised if the dislike of the meretricious or 
obtrusive sometimes leads even to a repudiation of the element 
of elegance itself and the preference of what used to be called 
archaic simplicity, the crudeness of unrefined thought^ the 
barrenness of an imagination devoid of resources. 

Again, it is easy to understand that the state and luxury which 
Qurround opulence and rank must sooner or later pall upon the 
sense, and become irksome; so that persons even the most 
exalted in station and dignified in demeanour shall seek relief 
in their private retreats by the adoption of simplicity and the 
exclusion of ceremonial. And, lastly, the higher the standard 
of intellectual eminence, and the more overflowing the sup- 
plies of material wealth, the more^ decided may be the develop- 
ment of this reactionary principle. 

There is, however, a medium here ; the luxury of grandeur 


may be redaced to a limit without ^inyolving the rejection of 
grace. This limit is indicated — colloquially, at least — ^by the 
term Elegance. It involves finish, precision, delicacy, and repose, 
without ostentation of any hind ; it is not rich, or elaborate, or 
sumptuous, or gay ; it is the subdued power which corresponds 
to cultivated, perhaps satiated, taste. 

The better classes of this country have almost always been 
disposed to make it a condition in respect of their houses that 
decoration and display shall be kept within these, moderate 
bounds. Indeed at the present time this general sentiment is so 
strong that in many cases amongst even the noblest mansions 
the architect has to restrain his natural inclination towards 
adornment within a line which, to an imaginative man, is not 
always easily kept. Accordingly, as architects are proverbially 
difficult of restraint here,— as they persist in introducing an 
ornate character, even when it is precisely what their clients 
desire to exclude, — and as it is natural that this should be so, — 
natural in the extreme that a professor of embellishment should 
forget that embellishment may be a bore, — ^it therefore becomes 
necessary to point out that he who would be a successful designer 
of a Gentleman's House must keep this principle of self-denial 
in view as one of the most essential of all. Grandeur and artistic 
ambition must be spared even in places of state : mere richness 
will often be pronounced vulgar; simple grace, and elegance, 
and perfect finish are generally enough ; their absence, it is true, 
will be at once detected, but any endeavour to reach beyond 
them will be labour in vain. 

Some are inclined to fancy that the sesthetic abstemiousness of 
our English gentlemen is not altogether shared by the ladies. 
It must be acknowledged, certainly, that the more graceful sex 
are generaUy better quabfied, both as respects taste and leisure, 
to appreciate the decorative element in whatever form of develop- 
ment ; and it is, perhaps, frequently the case in these days of 
universal hard work, that the master of the house finds a relief 
in relinquishing to the hands of his wife the control of much that 
is artistic ; but the architect who is on this account disposed to 
give rein to his professional aptitude for decoration will still be 
in error. The sound principles of criticism upon which the pre- 
tentious is discarded are quite as well comprehended by the 
ladies as by their lords, and sooner or later will be enforced, if not, 
perhaps, in exactly the same form, in degree quite as fastidiously. 

&£a I.. Ch. XII. ELEGANCE. 87 

It must strike any one who compares the practice of the 
Engh'sh in respect of decorative building with that of the French, 
that one of the most important distinctions is this : on the other 
side of the Channel the work is not done so substantially perhaps 
as might be, but it is carefully kept in order ; whilst on this, it 
is expected to keep itself in order. Observe the periodical clean* 
ing of the national buildings in smokeless Paris : and contrast 
with this the dirt-complacency with whidh our public edifices 
smile upon the murky air. There is here indicated, therefore, 
another principle upon which English self-denial in respect of 
embellishment may be said to rest The greater the amount 
of enrichment, the worse the result of its being left to its own 
resources ; the more the simplicity, the more likelihood of its 
preserving a presentable condition. 

Elegancey therefore, unassuming and ui^laborated, touching 
in no way the essentials of home comfort, never suggesting 
affectation and pride, moderated by unimpassioned refinement, 
and subdued even to modesty, will be invariably acceptable in 
England. Even where extreme wealth and exalted rank render 
it incumbent upon a family to surround itself with the most 
cherished products of industry and genius, it will be rarity and 
value that will be esteemed, — ^perfection of workmanship and 
pure or piquant exceUence of design, rather than splendour or 
luxurious richness or imposing grandeur; simplicity still, and 
subdued power, — ^the greater the power the stronger the sub- 
duing hand, — will be cherished even in magnificencei and the 
glare of pomp despised. 

CHAPTER Xn.— Importance. 

Defined. — A quality to be duly coDiddered. — Often spedaDy authorised in the 

Thoroughfiires. — Ck>mpariBon of styles of plan. 

NoTWiTHSTANDiKa what has just been said, and without in any 
way detracting from the absolute government of elegance as 
opposed to sumptuousness, there are certain considerations of 
dignity which must be taken to be essential in the plan of a 
G^tleman's House. However far removed from ostentation on 
the one hand, it must be equally free from meanness on the 


other. We might call this point Statelmess ; but let us use the 
less pretentious word Importance. 

The question of external importance is comparatively simple. 
To attempt to create a fictitious appearance, of either extent or 
cost, is a thing particularly distasteful. To make any sacrifice 
of those qualities is still a blunder. The happy medium is to 
display all to the best advantage, but honestly, and devoid of 
trick or affectation. In other words, the style of design, anount 
of embellishment, and quality of workmanship being deter- 
mined, it may be taken as a rule in any case that an English 
gentleman will require his house to be designed with due, but 
not undue, regard to the quality of Importance. 

In the interior, the whole of the arrangements must be 
governed by the same principle ; whether the house be large or 
smaU, the outlay restricted or profuse, the effect to be aimed at 
must be that of solid value for the money spent, — nothing more, 
but certainly nothing less. 

There is, however, one distinction to be noted in respect of 
the management of the interior. However judiciously the 
importance of the several Booms individually may have been 
provided for, it is manifest that their importance as a whole is 
greatiy dependent upon their means of communication — the 
Thoroughfares connecting them. To confer upon these, in 
proper degree, the quality in question, is most essential. We 
may indeed go farther, and say that, whenever display of an 
architectural kind is allowable at all, it is here that it ought to 
begin. Even more, — when the Dwelling-apartments are more 
than usually divested of state, and the simplicity of their home 
comfort and convenience made almost severe, yet still it will be 
found that in the main Thoroughfares — the Hall, Corridor, Stair- 
case, and so on — the proprietor not only permits the develop- 
ment of artistic dignity, but within reasonable limits expects it. 

In small houses it is of course impossible to attempt more in 
the way of importance for the Thoroughfares than comparative 
spaciousness ; but this will so far very well suffice. On the other 
hand, there are few faults which make themselves more con- 
spicuous, as productive of mean appearance, than parsimony of 
passage-room. The instances are not so few as they ought to be 
where such unwise frugality gives to a Mansion the appearance 
of a Cottage; whereas there are, it is to be hoped, equally 
numerous illustrations of the fact, that a little additional expan- 


sion of the Thoroughfares may confer upon a Cottage all the 
internal importance comparatively which a Mansion need possess. 
In treatmg of the contrast between the two great styles of 
plan, we referred repeatedly to the superiority of the Classic 
model in the quality now under review. Indeed, we were 
obliged to point out the fact that this quality had been too fre- 
quently carried to excess in Palladian Mansions, both in arrange- 
ment and in decorative design. It is one advantage pertaining 
to Mediaeval style in plan, as applied to smaller houses more 
particularly, that it has no tendency to run into this error. At 
all events, it may be remarked that when the quality of import- 
ance lias to be carried into that stateliness which is proper for 
dwellings of the very first rank, Italian plan will be acknow- 
ledged on all sides to offer peculiar facilities for grand effect ; 
whilst, on the other hand, if the problem be to design a Mansion 
of which the actual importance of size and cost, however great, 
shall be in a manner modestly understated, there is no doubt 
that Mediaeval arrangements will equally characteristically serve 
the purpose. To those who can read imi)ortance in a planj 
Bylauqh (Plate XXVI.) and Mentmore (Plate XXXIH.) will 
be interesting ; at the same time, a comparison of Hatfield 
(Plate IX) with Holeham (Plate XIII.) may leave it doubtful 
whether the former is not the superior of the two. As an 
instance of the value of accessories in this respect, see Somer- 
LEYTON (Plate XXXII.), where the adjuncts of the house are 
excellently contrived. 

CHAPTER XIIL— Ornamentation. 

Neither excess nor pauoity desirable. — Examples of dcficioncj. 

In our remarks upon Elegance, it was clearly laid down that 
English taste amongst the superior orders is averse to rich or 
sumptuous effects. Elaborate adornment, — such is the national 
creed, — is almost invariably vulgar, and at the best barbaric 
Nevertheless, to let the question rest here, and repudiate orna- 
mentation altogether, is not the only alternative. Moderation 
in this, as in all else, is the rule ; but nothing less ; no exube- 


ranee, but no poverty. For there may be even in simplicity an 
affectation as demonstrative as any other; and when the fas- 
tidiousness of excessive refinement takes refuge in a mental 
blank, it is but an artificial idiocy in taste. 

A Gentleman's House, in short, whilst it ought to be free of 
ostentation, ought to be equally free of any opposite extrema 
If we see a &mily of wealth and rank, and of otherwise accom- 
plished taste, dwelling within flat brick walls surmounted by red 
chimney-pots, we say there is an incongruity here. If we see 
stately entertainments conducted with all the manifestations 
of wealth, and with the aids of choice and valuable furniture, 
plate, paintings, perhaps sculpture, in rooms whose walls and 
ceilings are helplessly devoid of decoration, the contrast is 
absurd. Every one will affirm, therefore, that a Gentleman's 
House ought to be not merely substantial, comfortable, con- 
venient, and well furnished, but fairly adorned. It ought to 
exhibit a reasonable amount of intellectual liberality, £uthfully 
keeping on the side of simplicity and moderation, and clinging 
to the grace of elegance as the beauty which will last the 
longest; but avoiding none the less that poverty of dress which 
is not self-denial, but inhospitality. 




■ Ot 

CHAPTER L— Dining-room. 

Defined. — Ajspect. — Light ; Prospect ; use of Bay Windows. — Arrangement and 
dimensions. — Furniture, &c. — Fireplace. — Heating Apparatus. — Doors. — 
Dinner-routd and service. — Hatch; Lift-table. — Seryice-room. — Interoommu- 
nication as a Waiting-room. — Closets. — Spaciousness, &c. — External position. 
— Approach internally and Drawing-room route. — Classic and Mediieyal styles. 
— Illustrations pasHm, 

In a house of very good class this apartment is used almost 
ezclusiyely for serving luncheon and dinner, and perhaps break- 
fast ; and the characteristics of such a room are so different from 
those of the corresponding room in more homely form, which is 
made to serve also as a Sitting-room for the &mily, whether 
during the day or in the evening, that it seems most convenient 
to tr^t of the latter in special terms, which will be done in a 
separate chapter, under the name of Farhmr Dimng-TO(nn. 

The proper Dining-room is a spacious and always compara- 
tively stately apartment, of which the chief characteristics ought 
to be freedom from the heat and glare of sunshine at those hours 
when it is in use, and a certain sort of seclusion as respects its 
situation, both internally and externally. 

The best Aspect will obviously be Northward, — say due North 
or North-East It is true the North may be gloomy, and the 
North-East is in some degree ei^posed to cold bleak winds ; but 
North-West windows in the summer evenings begin as early as 
five o'clock to admit the rays of the setting sun ; and to dine in 
such circumstances, or with blinds drawn, may be unpleasant. 
The North also is the quarter where evening twilight lingers 
longest; and twilight, over dessert for instance, is better than 
candles. East is generally unobjectionable. Any aspect from 
South-East ^to South admits the sunshine strongly, although 
diagonally, at the hour of luncheon. A South or South-West 

92 THE DAY.ROOMS. Pr. IL, Div. I. 

aspect, it need not be said, may give a Dining-room the cha- 
racter of an oven. (See Aspect- Compass, p. 81.) 

The Windows ought, as a rule, to occupy one side (a Dining- 
room of any size being almost necessarily oblong), rather than 
one end A room lighted from the end alone cannot be so 
cheerful as it might be, especially if looking Northward ; it will 
also be comparatively close ; and when daylight is waning it will 
become unpleasantly dark in one part, whilst sufficiently illumi- 
nated in another. When light, however, can be obtained at one 
end in addition to the side windows, this, in a large apartment, 
is very pleasant. The aspect of such Undrlight ought of course 
to be Eastward rather than Westward. 

When the Dining-room is to be used for breakfast, it is spe- 
cially worth while to have, a more Eastward aspect, for the sake 
of the always delightful morning sun ; or an Eastward end-light 
will in this case be sufficient— often even preferable. (See 

When any special purpose of Prospect has to be provided for, 
it is as undesirable in the case of a Dining-room as in any other, 
that this should be allowed to affect the aspect of the principal 
or side windows ; end windows ought to be at once resorted to ; 
and it is plain that these may be contrived so as to meet almost 
any possible demand of prospect Even still, however, we must 
duly weigh whatever disadvantages may remain ; because, in a 
really good Dining-room, these may be of great moment ; and 
against such considerations the value of the prospect ought not 
to be overestimated. Ingenuity of arrangement may do much ; 
but suppose, for example, that in order to command an expan- 
sive view due Westward, the end wall is largely opened up in 
windows, it must never be forgotten that the amount of heat 
admitted during the afternoon and at the very hour of dinner 
may become very embarrassing, and this in spite of any attempt 
at its exclusion by opaque blinds, by which, of course, the 
cherished landscape also would be shut out 

Bay-windows, of various forms and sizes, are one of the most 
useful and pliant of all contrivances in respect of the more ordi- 
nary questions of prospect ; and it may be almost said that in 
no case ought a sacrifice of aspect to be resolved upon until 
every effort has been made in this way to avoid the necessity. 
Instances of the application of the bay-window are given on 
the margin. 

S£C. n., Cn. I. 



Ftospectk N. azul E. 

The internal arrangements of a Dining-room have to be based 
upon the primary idea of accommodating a given maximum 
number of persons at table, and in a 
given style. Taking the width of the 
dining-table, with the proper addition 
on each side for the company seated, 
and allowing free passage behind them 
for the servants, we obtain, accord- 
ing to the style of dining dictated, 
the requisite tvidth for the apart- 
ment; bearing in mind, of course, 
chairs left unoccupied at the walls, 
hearth-rug and screen, sideboard and 
dinner -waggons, so far as any of 
these may affect the question. The 
length is then determined simply by 
the number of persons to sit down, 
adding a sufficiency of clear space at 
the ends for service. The sideboard, 
if at one end, as it ought to be, and 
the fireplace, if this be at one end, as 
it very frequently is, must also have 
abundant space. A small Dining- 
room ought never to be less than 1 6 Progpect, r aod w. 
feet wide ; from 18 to 20 feet is a ^^e of bay windows. 

. (Dnmio-ROOM.) 

full width; beyond this is almost scaie i inch to 30 feet 

mat f/^r nf ofAf p "W". Wbidow. F. Fire. 

mailier 01 81»lie. 3 ^ ^^ window. T. Tabic. 

In plotting on plan the Furniture ^- 1^'- s- sidebowrd. 

of a Dining-room, allow from 4 to 6 feet for the width of the 
table; 20 inches on each side for the company seated; from 
24 to 30 inches in length as the sitting space of each person ; 
from 2 J to 5 or 6 feet, clear of furniture, for passage-way behind ; 
from 6 by 2 feet to 10 by 3 feet for the sideboard ; from 4 to 
5 feet by 22 inches for a dinner-waggon or cheffonier; 20 
inches from the wall for the projection of a chair ; and from 
15 to 30 inches for that of a chimneypiece and fender, keeping 
in view also the hearthrug beyond. 

The proper position for the Sideboard is at one end of the 
room ; at the back, that is to say, of the master's chair. Where 
it is not so placed, communication with the servants is rendered 
awkward, especially in smaller rooms. It need not be said also 

94 THE DAY-ROOMS. Pr. II., Div. I. 

that there is a certain importance about a good sideboard, which 
demands one end of the room for itself. Indeed, the general 
practice of forming a special recess in that position for its recep- 
tion can scarcely be improved upon. The sideboard ought never 
to be surmounted or even flanked by windows ; because not only 
are the operations of the servants thus brought into prominence,- 
but when a gentleman does honour to his guests by displaying 
his plate, its effect may be destroyed by the glare of light A 
bay-window at one end, facing the sideboard at the other, with 
the fireplace in the middle of one side, and the chief light 
opposite, make an excellent arrangement (See the second of 
the recent diagrams.) 

It is true that with English people the Dining-room is often 
in a great measure used .by artificial light; but this does not 
require any modification of the above arrangements ; if the room 
be accommodated to daylight, artificial light is easily accommo- 
dated to the room. 

The Style of finish^ both for the apartment itself and for the 
furniture, is always somewhat massive and simple ; on the prin- 
ciple, perhaps, of conformity ¥rith tlie substantial pretensions of 
both English character and English fare. It need not be sombre 
and dull, or indeed devoid of cheerfulness in any way ; but so 
far as forms, colours, and arrangements can produce such a 
result, the whole appearance of the room ought to be that of 
masculine importance. 

One feature which has always a substantial aspect in this 
apartment is the unbroken line of chairs at the wall. Although 
it is not desirable to make a Gentleman's Dining-room like the 
Assembly-Hall of a Corporation or the Long-room of a tavern 
by carrying this principle to an extreme, yet it is not well when 
other articles oif furniture are placed at intervals in such 
number as to give the apartment the character of a Parlour. 
In fact, as much as possible, every chair ought to stand at the 
wall facing its place at the table ; both for convenience and for 
association with the purpose of the room. With regard to 
dinner-waggons or cheffoniers, their best position, and most useful, 
is at the two end corners opposite the Sideboard. 

In very superior rooms it is sometimes the practice to place 
the chairs, or a portion of them, when not in use, not against 
the wall, but around the table. If this be done to leave the 
wall-space free for the display of objects of virtu, it is so far 

SBC. n., Ch. I. DINING-ROOM. 95 

well ; otherwise care has to be taken that there shall be some 
other sofBcient reason apparent. 

The position of the Mreplace with relation to the door and 
windows is in perhaps all other rooms a matter of the utmost 
importance. In a Dining-room, however, used exclusively as 
stich, the only purpose of the fire is to warm the room through- 
out, and if possible equably, without purposely constituting what 
is invaluable in a Sitting-room, a comfortable fireside ; so that^ 
but for our pardonable prejudices in favour of the open grate, 
the best mode of heating for the special purpose would be by 
hot-water apparatus. Consequently, the fireplace has simply to 
be placed where it shall best warm the room and least scorch 
the company. To put it in a recess sometimes helps the matter ; 
to bring it forward with a chimney-breast does the reverse. In 
any room over 30 feet in length two fireplaces are generally 
provided. Both ought to be on the same wall, opposite the 
windows, unless there be special circumstances to prevent it. 
If the fireplace should be in the end wall opposite the sideboard, 
it is satisfactory ; if flanked by end windows, there is no objec- 
tion ; if on the same wall as the door — an arrangement generally 
fatal to a Sitting-room — ^the Dining-room need not suffer, pro- 
vided the distance between the door and fireplace be sufficient. 

With regard to the use of Heating-apparatuSy the marginal 
sketch represents an arrangement adopted in a work of the 
author*s in special circumstances, in an old room which had 
two radical defects, an end-light and 
narrow width. The fireplace was built 
up, and two recesses formed, one on each 
side of it, for the dinner-waggons. Under 
these articles there were placed two small 

hot-water tables. Where the fireplace r^ «._ 

had been, a mirror was fixed, extending scateiinGhtoaofeec 
from floor to ceiling. (The end wall was also opened up into 
one large window ; and the result was that an apartment which 
had been before in a manner abandoned, as useless, became a 
light and cheerful Dining-room, fit for the purposes of a man 
of rank.) 

The Door of a small Dining-room, if there be only one, ought 
to be placed, for the sake of service, close by the sideboard. (In 
larger rooms, as we shall see, the case is different) Then, being 
hinged, according to rule, on the edge nearest to the fire, this 
will cause it, in opening, to expose, not the table, but the side- 

96 THE DAY-ROOMS. Pt. II., Div. L 

board ; which is as it ought to be. In the best form of an 
ordinary room it will thus occupy the sideboard end of the 
blank side wall. (See all the diagrams, p. 93.) Let it be 
specially made sufficiently wide for two persons to enter together 
without discomfort ; in good houses the width ought to be 3^ feet. 
It is also worthy of mention again, as specially important, that the 
door must open sufficiently clear of the sideboard to admit of free 
entrance ; a principle not always attended to in narrow rooms. 

It is not unusual, and may sometimes be very convenient, to 
have one of the windows in the form of a Sashrdoor, when open- 
ing on a Terrace or Garden, as in Plate XXVIIL Cases have 
not been wanting, however, when such a door has provided 
unhappy facilities for stealing the plate. 

The Dinner-route is a consideration second to none with 
respect to the position of the Dining-room. In a small house 
the room will generally have but one door for both entrance 
and service ; in this case the route to that door from the Kitchen 
must be as short and convenient as other considerations will 
permit. Again, as the dishes must be carried to and from the 
door through the family part of the house, — ^the Corridor, for 
example, Staircase, or Vestibule, — it is essential that they shall 
not cross the track of family traffic, or otherwise be obtruded 
upon the notice of the inmates or visitors. In both of the 
houses on Plate XXV. this difficulty is carefully avoided, if not 
fairly encountered. Compare also Plates XX X 11. and XXXIV. 
in this respect. The general question of the dinner-route is 
treated of under the head of Kitchen. 

A special Service-door is the next step in advance, as in 
Plates XVI. and XXV. It will of course be close to the side- 
board; it is sometimes put on the other side of this so as 
to match the principal door. Sometimes, however, and with 
good reason in larger examples, the latter is placed at the other 
end of the room, and none but the service-door at the sideboard 
end. (Many of the plates exemplify well the advantages of this 
arrangement ; indeed there are only a small minority on the 
contrary plan.) It is necessary, however, to remember that, if 
a service-door should communicate with the general Corridor of 
the Offices, this interferes with the privacy of the room ; besides 
that it is calculated also to admit the sounds of the Corridor in 
question. A double door is the remedy ; but the arrangement 
is still objectionable ; a private Lobby, however small, is mucli 
to be preferred. 

Sec. 11^ Ch. I. DINING-ROOM. 97 

Sometimes a small Hatch (the buttery-hatch of old time) is 
formed at the sideboard, through which the dishes are handed 
from the Pantry or a Lobby, or a Service-room. (See Plate 
XXV., the upper example.) This is a plan more specious than 
efficient in any case. In a large house it does not answer : the 
servants will often, in an emergency, wish heartily it were a 
door, and the continual interchange of audible communications 
through the aperture is a thing that can scarcely be prevented 
from attracting attention. 

Another appliance of recent introduction for Town-Houses, 
and others which have Basement Offices, is a lAJt-tabUy within 
the limits of the Dining-room, communicating with a Service- 
room below. A small dinner-waggon, properly in a recess, is 
00 contrived as to pass bodily up and down in a very simple 
manner, and the only task for ingenuity to accomplish is the 
satisfactory closing of the aperture in the floor when the Lift is 
down. The objections to the hatch still hold good here. 

When the style of living is at all above the average, it is 
exceedingly convenient to have attached to the Dining-room a 
Sermce-room ; and, as the rank of the house advances, the deve- 
lopment of this useful adjunct becomes more and more important, 
as the Plates show throughout. (See also Service-room.) Our 
immediate concern*, however, with this question need not go 
further than the proposition that the door, connecting it with 
the Dining-room, will be necessarily close to the Sideboard and 
the master 8 chair. Sometimes it has to be specially so placed 
as to protect the company from the curiosity of servants, parti- 
cularly such as are not actually waiting. In very large establish- 
ments an Ante-room may have to be formed adjoining the Dining- 
room, for servants in attendance. On grounds of privacy it is 
frequently desirable that this, and indeed a Serving-room no 
less, should communicate with the Dining-room through an 
intermediate Lobby, however small. 

It is the rule primarily to have no door of intercommunication 
between the Dining-room and any other of the Family Apart- 
ments. The special habits of a family may, however, sometimes 
require it. Double doors must of course be provided in such a 
case for the sake of privacy. The intercommunication will be 
least objectionable when it connects with the Business-room or 
Study, Saloon, Library, or Breakfast-room. To communicate 
with the Drawing-room, except in some very special case, is 


98 THE DAY-ROOMS. Pr. II., Div. I. 

quite out of order, although by no means so uncommon as 
we might expect (See Plates XVII., XXVIL, XXX., and 

It is to be remembered that the Dining-room is always subject 
to be used during the morning as a waitrng-roam for the gentle- 
man's yisitors ; this is a standard necessity in small houses, ai^d 
no less practically the rule in even the largest; its position 
therefore ought to be sufficiently near the GentlemanVroom or 

Chmts are generally considered out of character in a good 
Dining-room ; but there are persons of homely habits who some- 
times prefer to have a special Stare-^loaet at hand. (Plate XX.) 
Dwarf cupboards, it need not be said, are inadmissible, even 
in small houses ; they are only fit for the *^ Back-Parlour " of a 

It is self-evident that a good Dining-room should be lofty; 
that the windows should' be of full size ; and that ventilation 
should be cared for, not merely to promote the egress of 
dinner vapours, but to prevent their further passage into the 

The external position of the Dining-room ought not to be sucli 
as to connect it with what may be called the ladies' quarter or 
the Lawn ; neither ought the windows to be so directly over- 
looked from the quarter of entrance as is frequently the case. 

The approach from the Entrance-door to the Dining-room need 
not be so direct as that to the Drawing-room. But the Dramng- 
room route to and from the Dining-room ought to be invariably 
planned with an eye to facility, directness, and special import- 
ance ; inasmuch as where there may be no other ceremonious- 
ness whatever in the habits of a family, there will be at least a 
little of that quality, if only occasionally, in the act of proceed- 
ing to and from dinner. For such a route, therefore, there 
ought to be spaciousness; also some extent of length; and, 
lastly, directness, or freedom from turnings. A very excellent 
eflFect is had when the two doors in question, in a superior house, 
face each other at the ends of a Hall or Gallery. (Plate 
XXXV.) However small the house may be, to pass through a 
door of intercommunication, or to slip out of one door and in at 
the other three or four feet oflF, is always undignified. (Plate 
^ XXV.) 

Cases are too frequently to be met with, even in superior 

Sec if., Cn. n. PARLOUR-DIXIXG-BOOM. 99 

houses, where the Dining-room door is accidentally situated 
so close to the Entrance-Hall that strangers coming from the 
Dra¥mig-room to dinner are impressed with the idea of going 
oat of the house : this ought to be proTided against. It is an 
equally great mistake to place the Dining-room at such a dis- 
tance inwards from the central point of thoroughfare as to 
create a long special passage thereto ; the position of the door 
ought to be such that the room shall be seen to be one of the 
group of Family Apartments as much as any other. 

The question may feirly be asked whether any difference of 
general plan is recognised between a Dining-room of the modem 
Classic style, and one of the modem Mediaeval. The answer 
may safely be given, that any pretended peculiarity whatever 
of this kind may be taken for affectation in either style, except 
perhaps in the case of a State-room, which will be spoken of in 
its place. Any English gentleman of the present day who 
would consent to sacrifice the characteristics of a comfortable 
Dining-room for the sake of imitating the manners, whether of 
ancient or modem Italy on the one hand or Gothic or Tudor 
England on the other, would be charged on all sides, amongst 
his acquaintance, with something very much akin to eccentricity. 
(See further the next chapter on the Parlour 'Dining-room ; also 
that on the State Dming-room.) 

CHAPTER H— Pablour-Dintng-room. 

Defined. — Use of the tenn Parlow. — Compromised aspect. — Fireside, &c. — 

Furniture. — Modification of general features. 

In smaller houses, and indeed in many of considerable size, the 
Dining-room is used as a family sitting-room; sometimes for 
both day and evening ; sometimes for the day alone, with the 
Drawing-room for the evening ; and sometimes for the evening 
alone, — at least in winter, when Paterfamilias, having done his 
day's work and dined, refuses to move any more from a favourite 
easy chair. Then again, in some cases dinner is taken early in 
the day, without ceremony ; in some the Drawing-room is " pre- 
served : " both facts we must accept, and indeed others of similar 
bearing. In short, the character of the household, the style of 

H 2 


100 THE DAY-ROOMS. Pr. II., Div. I. 

living, and local peculiarities, form the grounds of a good deal 
of variety in the occupation of the so-called Dining-room, apart 
from mere eating purposes ; and thus, in one way or another, 
the homely character of the Family Parlour* of an inferior 
house is introduced ; bringing with it a certain kind of comfort 
which a formal Drawing-room, for instance, does not seem to 
possess. Or, to put the matter otherwise, where there is no 
Morning-room (which is a Parlour or more homely Drawing- 
room), the Dining-room is often used as such, and in the evening 
may either be superseded by the more formal Drawing-room, or 
may not. 

It is plain that such a Parlour-Dining-room (if the reader will 
accept the term) cannot be disposed strictly according to the 
rules set forth in the last chapter, if it is to be a pleasant sitting- 
room. Its requirements partake more or less of those of the 
Drawing-room; and in some cases it will be preferred that 
certain Drawing-room features should take precedence of all 

With regard to Aspect^ it has already been shown that a 
Dining-room, whether for eaily or late meals, ought to look in 
some degree Northward ; on the other hand, a sitting-room should 
obviously look in some Southward direction ; the Westward 
quarters — those of level sunset and rain — are more or less un- 
suitable for either case ; and a tendency Eastward, as a general 
rule, is acceptable for both. But although this indicates an 
Eastward direction for compromise in such a case as the present, 
yet there is obviously a wide difference between the extremes of 
Northward and Southward which have to be brought to meet if 
the room is in any degree appropriately to combine the attri- 
butes of both aspects. Indeed it may at once be owned that in 
so wide a difference no compromise whatever is possible (sup- 
posing the room to be lighted from only one side) upon the 
basis of mutual accommodation. If East be thought of, we have 
the cold, unhealthy winds, and the entire afternoon's shade, 
which, as regards Parlour uses, imply no compromise, but an 
absolute surrender of essentials. And when we decide upon 

* The vulgarity, if any, attachable to of whatever kind, may very conveniently 
the use of this good old English word, and expressively be called Parlours as a 
is to be regretted. Surely the term class. The author, therefore, has in the 
SiUing-room is worse instead of better, present edition freely introduced thia 
The fact is that aU Withdraunng-roomst ] term. 

Brc. n., Ch. II. PARLOUR-DINING-ROOM. 1 01 

South-East, in order to secure cheerfulness for the day, it is obvi- 
ously an acceptance of the Parlour conditions, and a surrender 
of those of the formal Dining-room. 

When the room is not occupied during the day, but in the 
evening alone, there is little need to interfere with the Dining- 
room rule for a Northward aspect. In winter the windows will 
be closed, and in summer the catching h'ghts of the setting sun 
will shoot very pleasantly across the prospect But it is injudi- 
cious to turn so far Westward as to admit the setting sunshine, 
or so far Eastward as entirely to lose its influence. 

End windows may often be made of considerable service in 
the species of room before us as respects 
the question of aspect. For example, 
with side-light looking North-East, and 
a good end-window South-East, the re- 
quirements of the Dining-room may be 
admirably met, and those of the Parlour 
none the less. (See marginal sketch.) 

Bay-windows also are invaluable in 

such a case. A cool Northward room „ „ 

may have a spacious adjunct of this kind scaie i mch to so feet. 
at the Eastward end, which, if kept in sunshine, shall be a little 
Summer Parlour in itself. (See, for instance, one of the sketches 
on p. 93, representing an octagonal adjunct at the South-East 

Although the sideboard and dining-table are still the leading 
articles of furniture, it must never be overlooked that the 
Dining-room, in this new form, has to be considerably modified, 
not in respect of aspect alone, but also in arrangement; and 
here the Fireplace is the feature chiefly in question. It has 
been already explained that equable and general warmth is 
what we require in the proper Dining-room, and not what is 
called a Fireside. But for any Sitting-room, keeping in view 
the English climate and habits, a fireside is of all considerations 
practically the most important No such apartment can pass 
muster with domestic critics unless the good old English circle 
round the fire be quite free from the possibility of disturbance. 
Even in the largest Dining-rooms, and the most formal, where 
people do not " draw round the fire," the principle of plan is the 
same. Accordingly, it is the disposition of the fireplace with 
relation to doors, windows, sideboard^ closets (if any), and fumi^ 

102 THE DAY-BOOMS. Pt. II., Div. I. 

tore generally^ which now becomes a problem. In spacious 
rooms, as will at once appear, there is usually little difficulty. 
In small rooms there is often a great deaL It may be advised, 
therefore, as a particularly good rule in every case of a Parlour- 
Dining-room in a small house, that we should err a little on the 
side of spaciousness ; and even if this cannot be done except at 
the expense of the Drawing-room, the advantage in every-day 
family comfort will be ample compensation. 

No modification of the standard Dining-room arrangements is 
required as regards the position of the Sideboard^ or of the Doors 
with relation thereto ; except that it may generally be advisable, 
if there be a service-door, to place this and the entrance-door 
both at one end rather than otherwise. It may, however, be 
found more or less desirable, according to the precise use which 
is made of the room, to interfere with the. disposition of the 
furniture generally, so as to intiwiuce couch, cabinets, card- 
tables, pianoforte, and so on, perhaps bookcases ; the Dining- 
room line of chairs being very likely sacrificed altogether. 

The convenience of a Sashrdoor opening on the Lawn or 
Garden, as suggested for the Dining-room, is now greater. 

The rule respecting the Dinner-route from the Kitchen must 
on no account be considered less obligatory. The contrivances 
for service may be iu any of the forms already described; 
although, as it is in the less stately establishments as a rule that 
the Dining-room takes this character, the less elaborate arrange- 
ments are therefore sufficient. 

Closets are little if any more allowable here than in the 
Dining-room proper ; but if insisted upon, let there be provided, 
not cupboards either dwarf or tall set up in recesses, but a good 
old-fashioned closet beyond the wall. 

Intercommunication with perhaps the Drawing-room, Library, 
or Study, may be convenient in a small house ; but too many 
doors, it will be obvious, must seriously interfere with the fire- 
side circle, even if they do not preoccupy the snug comers, 
create thoroughfare traffic and thorough draughts, and disturb 
privacy and comfort generally. 

With regard to the external position of a Parlour-Dining-room 
occupied during the day, the retirement desirable for the more 
formal apartment, and the seclusion from the Drawing-room 
Facade, became not only unnecessary, but inappropriate ; and 
the windows may even be all French casements opening on the 

Sica U., Gh. ni. MORNING-ROOM, 103 


Lawn. The approach to such a room internally requires to be 
more ready than before, as there will be direct traffic with the 
Entrance-door on Drawing-room principles. 

The StyU of famh and decoration, if not indeed that of the 
fomitore, ought to be modified from that of a more regular 
Dining-room ; so that feminine attributes may be, according to 
circumstances, duly represented. 

In a word, the arrangements are to be such as shall preserve 
as far as possible the characteristics of the proper Dining-room, 
and at the same time admit those of an informal Drawing-room 
or Parlour; — the circumstance whether it is to be occupied 
during the day or only during the eyening, being directiye as to 
the form these latter characteristics shall take. 


Described in variety. — Aspect, &c. — Arrangement and ftimiture. — Position and 
accessories. — luteicommunication. — Internal position. — Ulustrations. 

This apartment is introduced in superior houses primarily to 
relieve the Drawing-room : indeed, it may be called the 
Dratowg-room in ordinary of the house and no more, with in- 
formal comfort as its particular characteristic ; this is especially 
the motive in houses where the Drawing-room, so called, is 
*• preserved." 

In more homely establishments it is often the breakfast-room : 
luncheon or children's dinner may be served in it, or perhaps a 
quiet evening dinner itself; and sometimes the family, when 
small in number, may continue there afterwards. It takes, 
therefore, in such cases still more of the character of the old- 
fashioned Parlour, like the Parlour-Dining-room of the preceding 
chapter ; being based, however, more upon Drawing-room con- 
ditions than before. 

In respect of Aspect^ although it is a rule to avoid the level 
simshine of the evening, yet that of the morning is always 
welcome, and especially in the winter, dissipating as it does so 
pleasantly the ungenial atmosphere of night; and therefore, 
considering the Morning-room, in the mean time, as a break- 
fasting-room, or even an early Sitting-room, perhaps East would 
be the best aspect so Ceut ; because, in that position, the room. 

104 THE DAY-EOOMS. Pr. II., Div. I. 

after having received the solar warmth from the first, has by 
breakfast-time lost the glare, the sun having passed round about 
45 degrees from the front. But as the Morning-room has to be 
occupied during the whole day, it becomes desirable to turn it 
on this account more Southward ; and thus a South-East aspect, 
which keeps the sunshine till an hour and a half after noon, 
although it has the disadvantage of having it directly in front at 
breakfast-time, is perhaps after all the best. A South aspect, 
which takes the sunshine at 45 degrees at breakfast, and keeps 
it till 4 P.M., is an extreme in that direction ; indeed it becomes 
more sultry towards the latter part of the day than most persons 
would consider tolerable. A window-shade, however will assist 
the case. 

The remarks which have been made with respect to the appli- 
cation of end-windows in other rooms will still apply here. With 
the help of a bay-windoWy again, any difficulty of aspect may be 
even still more readily overcome, on the same principles before 
explained. (See the two preceding chapters.) A pleasing Pros- 
pect, by the bye, is especially desirable for a Tffoming-room. 

The principles of arrangement which govern here are those of 
the Parlour. (See Parlour-Dining-room.) ^deboard and dining- 
table, however, ought to disappear ; even for meals a cheffonier 
and centre table are sufficient. Supposing the fireplace to occupy, 
as it ought, the middle of one side, the door will be best placed at 
one corner opposite, in either the side or the end wall ; the win- 
dows may be either opposite the fireplace or at the end removed 
from the door, or both. 

In the generality of cases a Morning-room is only required to 
be of that moderate size which will be best about square in 
propoi-tion ; say from 15 to 25 feet square. The Furniture will 

consist of a centre table, a cheffonier or 
cabinet or two, a couch, chairs, easy-chairs, 
a side-table, the lady's work-table, a piano- 
forte, what-nots, and so on, according to 
style and use, with perhaps a lady's book- 
case. The marginal sketch gives a general 
MoJiS^^ id^ of what is perhaps the best model of 
Scale 1 inch to 30 feet. arrangement. 

The Windows may extend down to the floor, whether as sashes 
or easements; and one or more may open on the La\^Ti or 
Flower-Garden — the latter being perhaps preferable. 


The Service-rcmU from the Kitchen, if the Morning-room is to 
be used for luncheon, or more particularly for dinner in any 
form, ought to be almost as rigidly regulated as that to a 
Dining-room ; for no considerable traffic of dishes ought on any 
account to invade the main Thoroughfares. As regards a special 
Service'closet, or even a Service-door^ it may be always considered 
that such would be quite unsuitable for the apartment 

Dwarf cupboards are sometimes introduced in inferior cases ; 
but they are a clumsy contrivance ; cheffoniers ought to do all 
their duty. A roomy Clasety however, will not be out of place. 
There may even be, in small houses, and under a very homely 
administration, a door opening into the Lady's Store-room ; with 
a small intermediate lobby, of course, if not impossible; and 
dare being always taken, we need scarcely say, that the Store- 
room has also an entrance from without, and ventilation of 
its own. 

A door of intercommunication may connect the Morning-room 
with the Drawing-room in any case ; perhaps with the Dining- 
room, if in a small establishment ; or with the Library, or even 
the Boudoir, according to circumstances ; but, as a rule, such 
arrangements, unless very judiciously considered, are liable to 
prove more inimical to privacy and comfort in one way than 
favourable to them in another. One advantage, however, of a 
door of intercommunication between Morning-room and Drawing- 
room is that it provides for the ladies what is called escape in a 
manner the most legitimate of all, inasmuch as these two apart- 
ments become, without any violence to their characteristics, the 
best possible ante-rooms to each other. 

Irrespective of what has just been said, the internal position of 
the Moming-room ought to be more in connexion with the 
Drawing-room than any other apartment ; and, like the Drawing- 
room, it ought to be readily accessible from the Entrance for the 
reception of the more intimate class of visitors during the day. 

Instances of the Moming-room will be found amongst the 
illustrations in several forms, as in Plates XV., XXVII. (where 
it is properly a Boudoir), XXXI. (peculiar), XXXIIL, XXXIV., 
XXXV., XLI. ; in Plates XVL, XXV., and XXIX. it is absent, 
as beyond the scale of accommodation. 

106 THB DAY-ROOMS. Pr. II., Div. I. 

CHAPTER IV.— Breakfast or Luncheon-room. 

Defined and exemplified. — Aspect and arrangement — lUnstrationB. 

The so-called Break£Etst>rooin of smaller houses may be said to 
be an inferior variety of the Morning-room, and to be subject gene- 
rally to the same regulations, except that the more exceptional 
uses suggested for the Morning-room are more appropriate here, 
namely, the service of not only break£Etst, but early dinner or 
luncheon, or at times the quiet evening dinner when the family 
is small. It differs therefore from the proper Morning-room in 
this, that it possesses the character of the Parlour-Dining-room 
alone, and not that of the Drawing-roomat alL 

In larger establishments we find this apartment introduced in 
addition to a Morning-room ; and then each of these apartments 
takes its own proper purpose. The Morning-room relieves the 
Drawing-room only, and the Breakfast-(or lAindieonr)rooia the 
Dining-room only. Accordingly, the Morning-room being pro- 
bably attached directly to the Drawing-room, the Breakfast- 
room is similarly attached to the Dining-room, so as to be placed 
in intimate connexion with the Service-room. It then may 
formfJly take the character of the Dining-room in ordinary for a 
small family. 

Aspect will be governed here by the same principles as those 
which apply to the Morning-room, Dining-room, or Parlour- 
Dining-room according to the case ; and the internal arrange- 
ments will correspond, except that a small sideboard ought 
properly to have a place. In dimensions and proportion the 
room will be like the Morning-room, or rather less, say from 15 
to 20 feet square. 

Illustrations of the Breakfast-room will be found in Plates 
XX., XXVI., XXVin., XXXn. ; and in Plate XXXTTL there 
is the same feature under the name of " Small Dining-room." 

Sec. II.. Cu. V. DEAWING-BOOM. 107 

CHAPTER v.— Drawino-boom. 

Defined. — Character alwa3rB the same. — Aspect. — End windows, ftc., for pro- 
spect. — Side or end bow. — Windows and light generallj. — Conflicting aspect 
and prospect. — Internal arrangement. — Theoretical scheme of the Parlour. — 
Fumitore. — Special arrangements with upholsterer. — Intercommunication. 
— External position : Lawn, Terrace, &c — Intemal position. — Finit-floor 
Drawing-room. — Dimensions, Ac. — Secondary Drawing-room. — Ante-Draw- 
ing-room. — Conjunction with other apartments for a suite. — Such combination 
with Dining-room. — Music-room. — Dlustrations passim. * 

This is the Lady's Apartment essentially, being the modem 
form of the Lady's Withdramnff^oom, otherwise the Parlour, or 
perfected Chamber of MedisBval plan. If a Morning-room be 
not provided, it is properly the only Sitting-room of the family. 
In it also in any case the ladies receive calls throughout the day, 
and the family and their guests assemble before dinner. After 
dinner the ladies withdraw to it, and are joined by tlie gentlemen 
for the evening. It is also the Reception-room for evening 
parties. There is only one kind of Drawing-room as regards 
purpose : there is little dijBTerence, except in size and evidence 
of opulence, between that of the duchess and that of the simplest 
gentlewoman in the neighbourhood. Consequently, although in 
most respects the chief room of the house, it is, perhaps, the 
most easily reduced to system of any. 

The character to be always aimed at in a Drawing-room is 
especial cheerfulness, refinement of elegance, and what is called 
lightness as opposed to massiveness. Decoration and furniture 
ought therefore to be comparatively delicate ; in short, the rule 
in everything is this — ^if the expression may be used — ^to be 
entirely ladylike. The comparison of Dining-room and Drawing- 
room, therefore, is in almost every way one of contrast. 

The proper Aspect for a Drawing-room must, of course, be 
such as to meet sunshine and mild weather, so that the ladies 
may enjoy the most free and direct communication with the 
open air. Southward will consequently be the general tendency; 
and the precise point of the compass which \& most eligible will 
be determined by an avoidance on the one hand of the bitter 
and unhealthy East winds, and on the other of the quarter of 
wet winds and sultry sunshine. (See the Aspect^ Compass, p. 81.) 
The point generally preferred is as nearly as possible South-East, 



Pr. II., Div. I. 

taking the sun from early morning till about two hours after 
noon, and having it directly in front not later than 9 or 10 A.M. 
This gives to the apartment all the advantage of being rendered 
cheerful and pleasant by the morning sun in good time before 
occupation for the day, and also the equal benefits of shade 
towards the hottest part of the afternoon and relief from the 
level rays of the evening. Further South is further exposed 
to the sultry time of day, and to the wet quarter. South- West 
becomes very unfavourable in both these respects. Due West 
tak^ in extreme both the evening glare and the rain. The 
Northward and Eastward aspects are, of course, unsuitable, for 
want of sunshine. 

In a Drawing-room, more perhaps than in any other apart- 
ment, window-shades, or possibly a verandah, may be calculated 
upon to shield the room fi^m the sunlight ; but if the aspect be 
West, it is obvious that even these will not suffice to protect the 
room fi^m the evening glare. 

The desirableness of end mndows in the case of the Drawing- 
room is perhaps still more remarkable than in other instances, 
especially when an ' extensive and varied prospect — of so much 
importance for this apartment — is to be had. There is little, if 
any, objection to these being South- West, or even West : or 
otherwise they may be East or North-East without disadvantage. 
A Northward view, for instance, has the merit of presenting the 
daylight landscape lighted from behind the spectator, a matter 
of obvious value in the case of the Ladies' day-room. The em- 
ployment of the bay-window, 
again, in Drawing-rooms is of 
especial service ; indeed it is so 
general as to need little expla- 
nation, certainly no advocacy. 
If the window -side of a 
Drawing-room be formed in 
a curve or bow, of the entire 
length, or nearly so, the effect 
of space and importance be- 
comes much enhanced. If, in- 
stead of the side, it is one end 
that is so treated, the result, 
although less dignified than before, is still very satisfactory. 
The marginal sketch (part of Plate XXXVIII.) represents a 

Dkawino-room Bow. 
Scale 1 inch to 30 feet 

Sec. II.. Cii. V. DRAWING-ROOM, 109" 

Drawing-room of large size, in which the author adopted this 
principle. There are other elegancies of form which will occur 
to the architect according to the case. Indeed, it may be said 
that it is in this particular apartment, if in no other, that the 
designer may venture to take a little licence in respect of artistic 
plan ; provided at least he keeps fully in mind that not only the 
English gentleman, but the lady also, will be found to demur to 
architectural pretentiousness, — ^preferring, even in the best class 
of rooms, the graces of furniture and decoration to all that the 
architect values as " interior effect." 

The Windows of a Drawing-room are generally formed as 
casements, one or more of them opening on the Lawn, Flower- 
Garden, or Terrace. They ought to extend in height as near 
to the ceiling as the cornice and upholstery will admit of; and 
if they all reach down to the floor the cheerful character of the 
room will be much helped. In the case of a Drawing-room 
bay-window, by the bye, it is not generally advisable to make 
any of its casements assume particularly the character of a door, 
because this constitutes it practically a porch or thoroughfare, 
and destroys its utility as an Alcove. 

There is often a temptation to give a Drawing-room a super- 
fluity of window-space, for the sake of prospect (see Plate X VIL) ; 
but the provision of adequate wall-space for furniture is still 
more important ; and the character of a Gallery or Prospect- 
house must be avoided. In ordinary rooms it is very doubtful 
whether light on more than one side and one end is ever 

Prospect is generally held to be the most important of all 
considerations in the disposition of a Drawing-room; and 
certainly it must always be matter for regret if this room cannot 
be made to look out upon the very best view that the house 
commands. But let it never be forgotten that here especially 
aspect also is of the greatest moment; and if, when all the 
resources of end-windows and bay-windows are exhausted, the 
desired prospect is not obtained, the efibrt, in all but very ex- 
ceptional cases, ought scarcely to go further. The prospect 
may probably be turned to account in some other way ; but the 
discomfort of a Drawing-room which presents itself unfavourably 
to the weather or the sun will never cease to make itself felt 

In their general scheme the internal arrangements of a Draw- 
ing-room have several times been alluded to as those of the 



Pr. 11., Div. r. 

Sitting-room or Parlour. This scheme starts with the principles 
(speaking of a very common room), first, that the door should 
be iiEur from both the fire and the window, on account of the 
draught ; secondly, that the window should be near the fire for 
the sake of light at the fireside and warmth at the window ; 
thirdly, that the door should not come between the fire and the 
window ; fourthly, that the window should light both sides of 
the fire ; and fifthly, that the fire should have a central position 
in the room. Accordingly the fireplace, in ordinary cases, is 
best situated in the middle of one side (F in the marginal 
sketch), and opposite the windows (W). But in a room of 
medium dimensions and ordinary proportions, say 24 feet by 18, 
we fall immediately into a somewhat complicated series of petty 
difficulties. It will generally be found in practice that this 
inyolves our placing the door (as at a) in the same side-wall as 
the fireplace (see for instance both the Drawing-rooms in 

Plate XVI.). A preferable position is the 
middle of one of the end walls (i), if it can 
be had ; or even the extremity of one end 
adjoining the window wall (c) ; but both of 
these have their disadvantages. The ex- 
tremity of an end wall next the fire wall (d) 
is a worse position than any other, because 
it admits a current of air to take the fireside 
directly in flank. If we try, in the next 
place, to give either the fireplace or the 
window to an end wall, so that these difficulties shall disappear, 
fresh disadvantages arise : in the one case the fireside is con- 
tracted, and in the other the lighting is defective. But, at all 
events, it is obvious that the more nearly the form of the room 
approaches a square, the more these complications decrease; 
which so far renders a small and therefore square Drawing-room 
an easy problem of design. (See the sketch on p. 104.*) On 
the other hand, the more the dimensions exceed the average, 
the more the difficulties are diminished again, by reason of the 
lessened influence of draughts and the multiplication of windows. 

DBAWnrG'BOQM : Posnaov 


Scale 1 inch to 30 feet 

* Observe also that 
theoretically a large 
square room, with fire 
and door opposite cen- 
traUy, and in tiie other 

walls a window opposite a window 
centrally, is almost perfect, as on the 
margin. Practically, however, this illus- 
tration assists us very little. 

Skc. II., Cif. V. DBAWING-ROOM. Ill 

So that it is only in the average room that we experience the 
inoonyenience in question. In some cases a fayourable form of 
plan may be obtained by placing on the side wall opposite the 
fireplace a large bay-window (see the last sketch), vdth the door 
in tiiie end wall, at the comer near this window (at c). When 
the room is of large dimensions, probably the most convenient 
position for the door in any case is the centre of one end (b) ; if 
opening from an Ante-room or Saloon all the better. For a 
room beyond 30 feet in length let there be two fireplaces ; if 
possible both in one side wall, if not, one at each end. (Almost 
every Plate in the work is illustrative of this paragraph.) 

The Furniture of a Drawing-room is not such as to require 
any special arrangements of the architect's plan ; provided the 
desire to render the room graceful and light has not induced 
him to give window-space in such excess as to occasion an 
embarrassing deficiency of wall-space. In a small room there 
will be probably a centre table, perhaps with chandelier over, 
the usual chairs and couch, occasional table, so&-table, or 
writing-table, occasional chairs, a chefibnier generally, or one 
or more fiGmcy cabinets, perhaps one or more pier-tables, a what- 
not or the like, one or more mirrors, and a cabinet pianoforte. 
If there be sufficient space there may be an ottoman settee ; 
perhaps a pair of wall settees also. In a large room the prin- 
ciple of furnishing is still the same; everything becomes 
doubled in number or more ; varieties of chairs, lounges, tables, 
cabinets, and so on, are multiplied ; the pianoforte becomes a 
grand ; sculptures are perhaps introduced ; instead of a single 
chandelier there are two (although one is still preferable gene- 
rally), and accessory lights are added at the walls ; but never- 
theless the comparatively simple idea of a Parlour or Sitting-room 
is always preserved. 

The architect ought never to allow himself except in extra- 
ordinary cases, and with a very clear understanding in the 
matter, to make unusual provisions for furniture. Even in 
the case of mirrors, for example, although there are instances 
when an architectural effect may be aimed at, the architect 
must not venture to reckon without in the first place his client, 
and in the second his client's upholsterer. At the same time it 
must be admitted that if architect and upholsterer can be made 
to work together intelligently and artistically, very charming 
effects can be realised ; the architect's decorations bearing to the 

1 12 THB DAY-ROOMS. Pt. lU Div. I. 

hangings, mirrors, and the like, the relations of a framework 
whose own integrity is left untouched, and the work of the 
tradesman serving to fill up all gaps of design, and give richness 
to the architectural arrangements. 

A door of intercommunication is admissible in a Drawing-room 
when opening to the Boudoir, if any. Library, or Morning-room. 
For a small room such a door is never to be too readily accepted ; 
but that the ladies find it to be occasionally of service, especially 
in large establishments, cannot be disputed. Its general purpose, 
however, being less for mere intercommunication than for private 
exit or escape^ the connection in this way of the Drawing-room 
with the Morning-room or its equivalent is perhaps all that is 
necessary in the house. To correct the disturbance of privacy 
which a door of intercommunication appears to involve, a small 
intervening lobby and two doors, or even a set of double doors, 
may often be judiciously employed. By this means at least the 
chance of one's conversation being overheard is done away with. 
The interposition of a Lobby or small Ante-room between 
Drawing-room and Moniing-room, the two rooms having each 
its own proper door besides, is a very convenient arrangement. 
There are frequent instances in good houses where a door in one 
corner connects the Drawing-room with the Dining-room ; but 
this is at the best a clumsy contrivance, and the difficulty of 
keeping within their own limits the sounds and odours of the 
Dining-room must amount to impossibility. (See various 

In respect of external position the Drawing-room must face 
upon open Lawn or Flower-garden, or, what is perhaps best, a 
combination of both. In superior houses a Terrace is frequently 
formed along the Drawing-room front, an admirable feature in 
landscape-gardening, as w^ell as in architectural design ; but in 
massive Classic compositions it sometimes interposes a barrier 
to that communication between the Drawing-room and the 
Lawn, which is so much valued as matter of domestic enjoyment ; 
and this must always be taken into account. If the Terrace be 
strictly private, that is to say, private by reason of its conditions 
of plan, and only slightly elevated, (not necessarily balustraded,) 
and if the readiest possible connection be kept up with the Lawn, 
it will constitute, as an adjunct of tlie Drawing-room, a Lady*s 
Walk, which will be very much approved. (See Terrace in Part 
m. See also Plates XXL, XXIL, XXXIL, and XXXV.) 

Sec. II.. Cii. V. DRAWING-ROOM. 113 

The internal position of the Drawing-room ought to be such as 
to afford an easy, but nevertheless suflSciently stately, route 
of access from the Entrance door. Passage to and from the 
Dining-room must also be similarly contrived; this has been 
already explained in some detail when treating of the Dining- 
room, and will be further spoken of under the head of Thorough^ 
fares in the sequel. 

It is plain that we have been considering the Drawing-room 
all this time as a Ground-floor apartment; and so it ought 
always, if possible, to be. In town, however, the First-jloor 
Dramng-room must be accepted, simply for want of area. All 
that can then be done is to carry out the spirit of the foregoing 
rules as circumstances best permit. 

In size^ a small Drawing-room will be about 16 feet wide by 
from 18 to 20 feet long : 18 by 24 i^t is a good size : 20 by 30 
to 26 by 40 is enough for a very superior apartment. The 
height ought to be made specially adequate for the ventilation 
of the room when occupied by a crowded assembly, and at night- 

We must not overlook the necessity which frequently exists 
for a secondary Dramng-room. In the best ordinary eases the 
Morning-room is all that will be required, especially if connected 
with the principal Drawing-room. An Ante-Dramng-room^ 
however, in a large house is sometimes a useful apartment, being 
a smaller room, for ordinary use, attached to a Drawing-room 
whose dimensions and stateliness render it practically unservice- 
able except for company. Such a room may be placed between 
the Drawing-room and Morning-room with advantage, or it may 
connect the Drawing-room with the Library in some cases. (See 

Instances are not unfrequently to be met with where arrange- 
ments are made for occasionally forming a Suite by throwing 
some other apartment into combination with the Drawing-room 
by wide folding or sliding doors, for the reception of large 
parties, on the basis of the continental system, in which what we 
call the privaci/ of rooms is not a governing principle. (See 
Plates XVn., XXVIL, XLUI., XLIV., and the Notes on 
Plate XLIV. in the Appendix.) Sometimes, in very superior 
cases, it is a Picture Gallery which is so combined with the 
Drawing-room ; or perhaps a Music-room ; or it may be the 
Library ; it is very commonly indeed the Morning-room ; or it 
may be a Saloon on the Palladian modeL The interposition of 



Pt. II.. inv. I. 

an Ante-room however, if not exactly always to be advocated, is 
never to be discouraged. In the case of a Saloon, this is itself 

an Ante-room. (See Plates XIX., 
In snburban Villas and other small 
houses where the accommodation is 
radically insufficient for the numbers 
occasionally received, it may be re- 
quired that the Dining-room shall be 
connected with the Drawing-room in 
this way ; a grievous informality, but 
one which nevertheless will yield to 
contrivance. An Ante-room ought 
dltvay% to be interposed. (See Plate 
XXVII., in this respect decidedly in 
error.) The marginal sketch, a por- 
tion of the plan given in Plate XLI., 
shows how the author on one occasion 
endeavoured to meet the case fairly. 

A dosing observation under the head of the Drawing-room 
may refer to the fact that it is generally the Music-room of the 
house, and that it is well therefore to construct it accordingly ; 
but this question we leave to be treated of under the head of 
Mtmc-room in the sequel. See also State Drawing-room.) 

Dbawimq-roox uummB iT Ku with 


Scale 1 Indi to 30 feet 


Defined. — The terra sometimes wrongly applied. — Regulations follow those of 
Drawing-room. — When in a Private Family Suite. — Intercommmiieation, &c. 
— When on Bed-room storj'. — Conservatory or Balcony attached. — Illusira- 
tions passim. 

The proper character of a Boudoir is that of a Private Parlour 
for the mistress of the house. It is the Lady*8 Bower of the 
olden time. In this light it does not serve in any way to relieve 
the Drawing-room ; nor is it even supplementary or accessory 
to that apartment ; but as the personal retreat of the lady, it 
leaves the Dra>ving-room — and the Morning-room if any — still 
occupied by the family and guests. 

In some cases, however, what is called the Boudoir is simply 

Sec. II., Cn. VI. BOUDOIR. 115 

a secondary and smaller Drawing-room. It is then generally 
turned to account in the way of ordinary use, especially in a 
small family, so as to preserve the Drawing-room for occasions of 
importance. When the Drawing-room itself is very large, this 
arrangement has its advantages ; but it is manifest that such a 
Boudoir is really a Morning-room. 

The Boudoir in any case follows, in respect of situation, aspect, 
plan, furniture, &c., the ordinary regulations for a small 
Drawing-room ; that is to say, it is to be a Sitting-room, and to 
open if possible from the principal Corridor of the house. It 
may, however, be somewhat retired in situation ; although such 
retirement ought not to prejudice free access, it being in many 
respects the lady's business-roouL 

When there exists a private suite of rooms for the accommo- 
dation of the heads of the family, apart from both their guests 
and their children (see Private Family Suite), there need be no 
other Boudoir besides the Lady's Sitting-room tlierein involved. 
In this case directness of access may be a difficulty ; but it is 
none the less an advantage to have it. (Plate XXI., XXII., 
and XXXIV.) 

A door of intercommunication is frequently made between the 
Boudoir and Drawing-room; but as it is in all cases well to 
consider with particular care the effect of such a door upon 
privacy, in the present case it is especially so ; inasmuch as, if 
the Boudoir be one properly so called, so ready an access from 
the Drawing-room may be very inconvenient as regards the 
privacy of the lady. When Boudoir and Drawing-room are con- 
nected by folding-doors, so as to be capable of being thrown into 
one, this must be considered as an arrangement at variance with 
the requirements of the Boudoir, and only adopted as a means 
of enlarging the Drawing-room at its neighbour's expense. In 
Plate XXXIIL the Boudoir is very peculiarly placed, and at a 
total sacrifice of its proper purpose. 

If circumstances cause the Boudoir to be placed on the 
Bedroom start/, this is no objection, provided the access be well 
contrived. It may then be attached to the Mistress's Bedroom 
as in the case of the Private Suita (Plates XXXYI. and XLI.) 

A Conservatory opening from the Boudoir is obviously a 
charming addition ; so also is a Balcony when upstairs. (Plate 

116 THE DAT4t001C8. Fv.S^ Dm t; 


Iti (ndiiiiiy ohftnoter d6Aiied.--Bodt2oit---Aqp6oi-— IJc^--Aniiig«ittii^ 
intenpommiinkmtkm, fto.— Diyneii, Tontilfttioii; bookoMei. — At » Milf^^ 
On ft kige Male. — MoMam.— Sparo room atteohed; libxariaa'a soaa|rf|> 
Intwior i^yle. .- ^1 

, mm 

Thb degree of impartanoe to be amgned to the Library iiiiiif 
partjoolar home would appear, at first sights to dqpaid altogettH 
npon the literary tastes of the fiEonily, and to be, indeed, so fii4 
a criterion <rf those tastes. Bnt there is a oertam standard iidoi^ 
irrespective of such considerations, which constitates ^e libcaiy 
of an ayerage Oentleman's House ; and the varioos gradationi 
by which this may be either diminished in importance or ang* 
mented are easily nnderstood. It is not a Library in the sefe 
sense of a depository for books. There is ct oonrae the fail^ 
collection; and the bookcases in which this is accommodated 
form the chief fiimitore of the apartment Bat it would be an 
error, except in very special circumstances, to design the Library 
for mere study. It is primarily a sort of Morning-room for gen- 
tlemen rather than anything else. Their correspondence is done 
here, their reading, and, in some measure, their lounging; — 
and the Billiard-room, for instance, is not unfrequently attached 
to it At the same time the ladies are not exactly excluded. 

The position of the room internally ought therefore to be in 
immediate connexion with the principal Dwelling-rooms, so as 
to be equally accessible ; whilst, on the other hand, as regards 
external influences, it ought to be kept suflBciently quiet (although 
this is very seldom a practical problem), to prevent the inter- 
ruption of reading or writing. In accordance with these general 
ideas, and bearing out, moreover, the somewhat sober effect 
which bookcases always produce, the style of design and decora- 
tion ought to be, although not devoid of cheeifulness, certainly 
subdued in character. 

It is not often easy to obtain a choice aspect for the Library : 
but whenever this primary pleasantness can be had for it, so 
much the better, and it certainly ought never to be entirely 
neglected in this respect The reasons for preferring the South- 
East in the case of day-rooms generally have already been 
argued ; for a Library, perhaps, a rather more Eastward aspect 


Sec. IL. Cu. VII. LIBRAEY. 117 

is better, so that the sun may be off the windows at least before 
noon ; even due East might be preferred by some persons, the 
sunshine being thus lost about half-past ten. In any case, how- 
ever, the morning sun is to be preferred to that of midday or 
afternoon. If the room be large enough, end mndows may be 
used to advantage here as elsewhera A bay-window also is well 
known as a Library feature, even when not adopted for prospect, 
but as a trap to catch a sunbeam. 

A difficult question which often arises is how sufficiently to 
provide for persons engaged in writing b, front Ugktfrom the left. 
It is not that a snug seat by the fireside, with a table conveniently 
at hand, and a left front light, can by any possibility be pro- 
vided for many persons at once ; but it is very unfortunate when 
no position whatever will combine these advantages. (See Study^ 
In a Library, especially, this problem must be well worked out, 
and not for one writer only, but for severaL Ingenuity and per- 
severance will accomplish wonders ; and therefore, with the help 
of end light, a good Library may be expected in this respect to 
be brought very near perfection. 

The Fireplace ought to be placed so as to make a good winter 
fireside, because this is in great measure a Sitting-room. The 
door ought to stand in relation to the fire according to the prin- 
ciples already explained for such a room (see Drawing-room). 
A sash door to the open air is not desirable, except in some 
special case. 

Intercommunication is frequently made with the Drawing- 
room, and sometimes intimately (see Plates XVL and XXX.) ; 
and this carries with it no doubt a certain sort of convenience, 
because the two rooms can be thrown together occasionally ; but 
it is a question whether^ in a good house, and looking at such a 
question broadly, it is not on the whole a serious loss to both 
rooms as regards their more proper purposes. A door to the 
Dining-room is not formally advisable; nor even one to the 
Gentleman's-room ; although both these arrangements are to be 
met with (see Plates XXVI. and XXXIII.), and are occasionally 
convenient. A communication with the Billiard-room, some* 
times made, may give the Libn^ too completely the character 
of a lounge, so as to render it somewhat unfit for its better pur* 
poses. When the Library of a small house is used as the Study, 
by a clergyman for instance, or as the Business-room, a door to 
the Dining-room may be so useftd as to be specially admissible^ 

118 tHB DAY-BOOMS. Pr. II., Dnr. I^ 

the Dining-room being thus bEoi^ht to senre bb a Waiting-toom 
for the ocoaaioiL The interposition, if popble^ ci a Lobby ot 
small Ante-zoom, will, however, be an aid to propriety in almost 
all these cases. 

A library ought in every instance to have more careM vens^ 
tatien than usual ; as otherwise there will arise from the books 
a wdl«1mown odour of mustiness. Drynni to a mcnre Ihaii ordi* 
nary decree is also an essential, as damp proves v^ destruetite 
to books. The walls^ therefore, whidi are towards the outer air, 
and even the others also, if of brick or stcme, ought to be bat- 
tened. The bookeand ought to be made of careMly*selected, 
weUnseasoned dedl or pine, with backs to all ; and a small space 
had better be left undemeaih at the floor, and behind at the 
wall, for the passi^ of air all around, the space at the floor to 
be moreover high enough to allow the dust to be thorou^bfy 
cleared out The case^ do not require to be higher tibian tiieir 
own uses dictate ; indeed, a space of two er three feet between 
the top and the ceiling, to be oocuioed by busts for inrtanoe, is 
almost a standard feature^ 

It is to be observed that we have been hitherto dealing with 
the ordinary Library of an average house, and no more; but 
when the owner is a man of learning, we must either add a Study 
or constitute the Library itself one. In the latter case, in order 
to prevent disturbance, the door will be more conveniently placed, 
not in the main Corridor, but indirectly connected therewith ; 
no door of intercommunication ought to connect it with any other 
room (except possibly the GentlemanVroom) ; and the position 
externally ought to be more than ordinarily secluded. Double- 
doors also may be required. In short, the Library, which has 
hitherto been a public room, and somewhat of a lounge, becomes 
now essentially a private retreat. 

When the books form a large collectiony and" strangers, perhaps, 
are occasionally admitted for reading or reference, the Library 
neces£(arily assumes more extensive proportions, and its arrange- 
ments become more complicated. For example, heating appa- 
ratus becomes very possibly indispensable J the .question comes 
up of ceiling lights ; the apartments are probably carried up to 
the height of two stories, and Galleries formed around. Seclu- 
sion becomes again still more a point to be considered. 

K a scientific or other Mttseum of any extent be incorporated 
with the Library, special arrangements must of necessity be 


made according to the requirements of wall space vertically, 
table space horizontally, the particular kind of light which is 
most suitable, and tl!e means of access to the specimens. Paint- 
ings ought not to be hung in any ordinary Library unless they be 
curiosities, or otherwise such as not to demand special provisions 
for lighting, &c. : curious engravings are frequently accommo- 
dated so far as space will go. Statv^ry is eligible in a superior 
room ; and busts on the top of the bookcases and on pedestals in 
occasional recesses, more or less accidental, are always worthy 
of place, and indeed of prominence. (See GhreaJt Library, &c., 
under the head of State-Rooms,) 

An attached Spare room or closet is always desirable for a 
Library of any importance, to accommodate books newly re- 
ceived, or set aside for binding or other [such purpose. This 
becomes amplified into a Idbrarian's-room in other cases. 

In a Library of superior class, although excessive display is 
still undesirable, the architect will be allowed a little licence, 
sometimes a good deal, in the exercise of his tcdents for interior 
effect; and, by constituting the bookcases, sculptures, &c., as 
parts of his design, he may, even without pretension, produce a 
composition which shall be of considerable artistic merit. Lideed 
cases are frequent in which a good Library, by being compaiu- 
tively elaborated in this way, becomes the show-room of the 

CHAPTER VIIL— Billiard-room. 

The Player's plan described. — Dimenaionfl, light, floor. — Banquette. — Positions 

various. — Smoking. — lUustratioDS pauim. 

This apartment in a Gentleman's House is not meant to with- 
stand the criticism of players ; but we are bound to point out 
how it is to be more fastidiously planned when required* 

The difficulty lies more particularly in the arrangement of 
lights. The process of plotting the plan is this : set out 12 feet 
by 6 feet for a table of the most usual size, and not less than 
6 feet all round it for the player ; form a ceiling light about 
the size of the table, and exactly over it ; and give a fireplace 
wherever convenient, so as to warm the room effectually and 
yet not be in the way of the player. If a skylight cannot be 

120 THE DAY-ROOMS. Pr. II.. Div. L 

hady the character of the room for use by day is seriously 
damaged ; and windows in the walls must then be so contrived 
as to throw a light on the table which shall oe as nearly as pos- 
sible equal at all parts and without shadow, — no easy matter. 
For artLScial light three chandeliers over the table are considered 
best, placed on the central line, 8} feet apart, and 3 feet above 
the table. 

' It is important that the table should be warranted against 
vibration ; the floor, therefore, if there be a Basement under, 
must be made rigid, and the construction contrived with special 
reference to the bearings of the table-legs, four on each side. 

If the room be large enough, there may be fixed benches or 
couches along part of the walls, elevated a few inches by a ban- 
quette or step. 

The usual Billiard-room, however, is no more than an Apart- 
ment of about the dimensions above indicated, with both side 
and end light as an essential matter, if possible. 

The position of a Billiard-room (looked at as a po99ibly noisy 
room) is probably best when it opens either from a large Entrance 
Hall or from the entrance end of the Principal Corridor or 
Gallery ; and so as to be situated not exactly amongst the 
Dwelling-rooms, but still in close communication with them, for 
the access of the ladies. (See Plates XXI., XXH., XXVI., XXX., 
XXXIV.). Sometimes it is placed as an external appendage, 
approached by a short balcony or covered way ; but this is for 
smoking. (See Plate XLI.) Another form of the same idea, 
and a preferable one, is to interpose a Conservatory between it 
and the House ; whereby sufficient separation is effected without 
sacrificing the indoor character of the room. Sometimes the 
Billiard-room is combined with the Library; but generally to 
the disadvantage of the latter : sometimes it is made an open 
adjunct to the Entrance -Hall (Plate XXXI.) ; but this also 
with obvious inconvenience to the players. Sometimes the 
Entrance Hall itself is made to hold the billiard-table in the 
centre of the floor ; but this is to be considered as mere matter 
of economy. 

If a Billiard-room really within the house is to be used by 
smokers, care must be taken to shut it off, not only from the 
Public-rooms, but even from the chief Thoroughfares ; and it ought 
to be so ventilated that the passage of the smoke from the win- 
dows may not be a nuisance in any way. (See Smoking-room.) 

Sec. II., Cn. IX. BUSINESS-E003i. 121 

CHAPTER IX. — Gentleman's-boom or Business-room. 

Its usee defined. — Situation, and means of access. — TTaiting-room. — Agent's- 
room. — Special Entrance. — Aspect. — Interior arrangenient. — Strong-closet 
or Deed-room. — Layatory, &o. — Intercommimication. — When in Piivate 
Suite, &c. — Illustrations. 

This apartment in its most proper and characteristic form (see 
the plans generally throughout the volume) is the private room of 
a gentleman whose mornings are more or less spent in practical 
affairs. In a superior house it will be a good-sized plain room, with 
space for a few maps on the walls, bookcases for practical works 
of reference, the same for papers, and a fire-proof closet for deeds 
and documents of importance. If a justice of the peace, the 
owner will make this apartment his Justice-room ; as a landlord 
he will transact business here with his tenants and servants; 
and as master of the house he will receive the tradesmen and 
domestics. His intimates and acquaintances also will be shown 
in to him here. 

Accordingly, its situation ought to be such that it shall be, 
first, of course, readily reached from the family Thoroughfares ; 
but secondly accessible from the main Entrance without passing 
through the Family Department; and thirdly accessible from 
a secondary Entrance, which will be generally the principal 
Servants'-door or Luggage-Entrance. The purpose is to admit 
all sorts of persons on business as directly as possible to this room, 
without interfering with the Thoroughfares of the family, and 
using as little as possible those of the domestics. The most 
eligible position will consequently be what may be called the 
separating point between the Main House and the OflSces, with 
a direct access from both, and a judiciously -contrived route 
of entrance through each. 

A Waiting-room, or some equivalent space in the Servants' 
Corridor, ought to be provided in all good houses ; or the Butler's 
Pantry will be used for the purpose, which is inconvenient The 
Servants' Hall may be used more legitimately. 

The butler will generally be the personal attendant of his 
master; and so it is well to place his Pantry close at hand. 
The Dining-room ought also to be suflSciently near to serve as a 
Waiting-room for friends : the Library is better kept private. 

122 XHB DAT.B00M8. Pr. H^ Jkw. h 

Some genilemeii require an Affent^i-roam adjoining^ for the 

land atemrd or bailiff, or for a clerk ; this may have a door of 

interoommnBicatioii with the principal room (as indeed may tiie 

Waiting-room also), proyided it be not considered to intezfiBie 

with priyaey« A qiecud Entrance is in such a case sometimaf 

added^ called the BuibieiMwm Ewtrcmee; this idieres the 

Servants' entrance altogeHier, but not the entrance-door of the 

The agpeet of a Business-room will of conise follow the same 
principles which have already been alluded to in treating of the 

The interiiof plan of the room ought to be su^ as to idkw 
the occupant to have fire, door, and window, all in his fionti 
^see SXudy;) with, at the same time, not only oomfortaUe 
accommodation for a friend by the fire, but as much as posBfUe 
all that has been before claimed for an ordinary labraiy. The 
8tnmg<Umt ought to be placed in a very ccmvenient o(»mer, and 
certainly not exposed to the reach of persons passing in and 
out the room. This may be amplified, if necessary, to the size 
of a Deed-room^ — still made fire-proof of course. A capacious 
common CloHt will be found a convenient addition for the 
reception of bulky things. A Lavatory^ Sec, ought to be had, 
either specially or otherwise, at hand. 

A door of mtercommunicatum is sometimes made to the 
Library, or to the Boudoir or Morning-room; but the latter 
arrangements especially are quite irregular. When incorporated 
in a Private Family Suite, as in Plates XIV., XXVII., 
XXXIV., and others, the GentlemanWoom must not be 
allowed to suffer in any of the points above set forth ; and there 
is no necessity that it should do so. 

Although the description here given applies essentially to 
a room for the transaction of business, there are many in- 
stances where a gentleman's affairs are so simple as to involve 
little or no business whatever. In such a case the question 
of plan will be still the same ; the room will probably be dif- 
ferently furnished, but this is all ; and in every house of im- 
portance, even if the existing owner should altogether divest 
himself of business, it is still highly desirable to provide, 
according to the style of the establishment, the proper acces- 
sories, so that nothing may be found wanting if the system should 
be changed. 

Sec. II., Cn. X. STUDY. 123 

Plates XV., XVL, XXVL, XXVIU., and many others, show 
the Gentleman's-room in several yarieties, and Plate XXXDI. 
is to be especially looked at. 

CHAPTER X.— Study. 

Defined. — Situation^ aspect^ &c. — Difficulty of lights &c — Model plan. — Ex- 
ceptional casee^ — lUnstrationB. 

The simplest form of Stndy exists in a small house built for a 
studious man, for instance a Parsonage. It is generally the 
Library also for his own purposes ; a bookcase of lighter reading 
being placed in the Dining-room or Drawing-room, for the 
family. But the arrangements of a Study attached (we may say 
instead of a GentlemanVroom) to a larger Library will not 
necessarily differ fix)m what is required in this ; as a Study, in 
whatever circumstances, may be defined to be a place of reading 
and writing for one person alone. 

In situationy it ought specially to be retired, and if not too 
readily accessible, all the better: casual visitors need not be 
tempted to look in upon the student in pajBsing — "just to say 

The aspect, seeing that the occupant is probably engaged in it 
all day, ought to be cheerfiiL As respects both sight and sound, 
the surroundings ought to be such as shall not distract his atten- 
tion. No door of intercommunication is allowable, except it be 
to the Library ; or if for domestic reasons a connection with the 
Dining-room be dictated, it must be accepted only as a compro- 
mise. Otherwise the principles laid down for the Library and 
Gentleman's-room will govern the Study. It is generedly a 
small-sized apartment ; but ought always to be made larger than 
is the custom if possible, for the sake of a sedentary man's health, 
comfort, and cheerfulness of mind. 

It is never otherwise than most important in planning a Study 
that the student should sit comfortably at his desk as regards 
fireplace and door, and have the proper benefit of a front left 
light. In many a case (as has been hinted in our chapter on 
Comfort) he has to dispose himself in a very small room under 
the perplexing choice of placing his back either to the fire, to 


the door, or to the window itsdt It is petliaps perfectbn to 
have at his back a blank wall Govered with the bookoaaeSy cm 

bis left a window, on bis right the firOi and in his 
fiont the door. (See marginal sketdL) If the 
fire can be kept towards the blank end and the 
window towards the other, let them be so. The 
door, also, may be placed in the ang^e next the 
window, if preferred* 
soKteiuitoaoiBit. For a clergyman it will perhaps most generally 
happen that the Stndy mnst be so sitoated as to be of ready 
aeeen for the transaction of business; in which case the door 
ought to be placed within easy reach of the Front Entrance for 
one dasB of Tisitors^ and the Serrants* Entrance for another. 

The Study of an exceptional kind, as for a scientific man# 
a naturalist, or an artist, must necessarily be contriTed with 
special reference to peculiar dreumstances which cannot be here 
entered upon with any effect Certain a4juncts also may be 
required, according to the case, which are not, reducible to 
system. The occupant must dictate. 

(See Plates XXV., XXIX., and XLL, for examples of tha 

CHAPTER XI.— Saloon. 

A characteristio of Palladian plan. — Described. — Sola or /Stolon. — Adaptation to 
later plan. — Illustrations. — The MediaBval (^allery^ 

In our Mansions of the seventeenth and eighteenth ceuturies 
the Saloon is a standard feature. It occupies^ for instance, the 
middle of the Garden front, having on one hand the Drawing- 
room, and on the other perhaps the Library, with central doors 
of intercommmiication, by means of which the three apartments 
are thrown into a suite at pleasure. The external wall contains 
the Garden-Entrance as the central feature of the Facade, 
together with two or more windows ; and the opposite wall con- 
tains a central doorway from the Front-Entrance or the Central- 
HalL (See Plates XIL, XIIL) The Saloon in this fonn is 
chiefly used now as a stately Ante*room or Garden-Entrance- 
Hall ; but formerly it constituted definitely a Dwelling-room, of 
the more public Idnd peculiar to Palladian plan and character* 

Sec. II., Ch. XII. SALOON. 125 

istic of Italian and French honses to this day under the name of 
Sola or Salon. 

The Saloon when used in similar form in more modem 
honses is, as a rule, still more of a thoroughfare and less of a 
room; but there are some instances in which it has assumed 
a good deal of the continental character rather than the Pal- 
ladian, as in Plates XXX. and XXXI. In both these cases 
it is simply a large public apartment with the Dining-room at 
one end and the Drawing-room at the other, becoming itself 
properly an unoccupied general reception-room and a thorough- 
fare route between these two. In Plate XXX. this idea is very 
characteristically carried out, and the Loggia in front towards 
the Garden, like a verandah, still adds to the charm of the 
apartment — if there be light enough. But supposing this 
Saloon to be made a Family-Sitting-room, then it requires veiy 
careful special disposition, (as an examination of Plate XXX. 
will clearly show,) or the access of the rooms at the end may 
become very much confused. In a suite of State Apartments^ 
however, such a disposition may answer well. Arrangements of 
the Mediaeval style will probably make of the Gallery all that 
can be required. (See further Thoroughfares^ — Saloon,) 

CHAPTER XII.— Private Family Suite. 

Described. — lllastrations. — Modified arrangements. 


A FEATURE much esteemed in our best Mansions may be called 
by this name ; being, in fact, generally a suitable portion of the 
Ground-floor, perhaps one particular wing, specially appro- 
priated as a private lodging for the master and mistress of the 
hoiise. It comprehends when ' in perfection a Gentleman's 
Sitting-room (being the Business-room), and a Lady's Sitting- 
room (being the Boudoir), the Bedroom, Dressing-rooms, and 
appurtenances of a Principal Bedchamber Suite (see Sleeping- 
rooms), and occasionally a Waiting-room. The whole of these 
are grouped upon a private Corridor, which is often placed also 
in connection with a special Garden door, thus constituted a 
Private Entrance for the suite. A Staircase close at hand goes 
upwards to the Nurseries and Bedchambers of the Family. lu 

126 THE iaT>X00iai. Pr.IL, Sit. r. 

Plate XIV, the plan of Lonoleat, (historically peculiar in this 
respect,) the general art-angemeDt here described is to be seen 
to gteat adTaotage. (S«o also Plates XXI., XXII., and 
XXXiy.) A mo^flcatioD of the idea, frequently used, places 
on the Frindpal-floor the Geotleman's-room and Boudoir only, 
and the Beddiamber Suite immediately overhead, etill keeping 
the {Hirate Staircaae and the Entrance. Homclimes again the 
Qentleiiian'B DreMbg^ocm will be preferred on the lower level, 
attache^ to the QeDtlemnn's room, in spite of the inconvenience 
of paaing up and down itabB to. and ban bed. As regMda 
aspect, intnnal arraDgemeat, and other oouBderatkiu, A« pri» 
ciplea which apply are thoee vhidi gnem other i^iazbrata 
reipeotiTdj cimOar. 

OHAFTEB XnL— EoiFBi CommKViOQN {xsd Wimte»> 


PnipOMi of IhliOoniemloir.— niiittMticaii.— U^— AiM^fenHtit— Hnl- 
log appalBtlu. — Difflcnltiei when attacbed to s Boom. ^ Intenximmunicatioti, 
tm. — Aipect. — Wi]it«r.OMdea de«ciibed. — CoDBtinctioii. — Anangement. 

The Conservatory which is here referred to is merely snch a 
Btmctm^ as may be attached to the Honse by way of an adjunct 
to the Family-roomB, to accommodate potted plants, and perhaps 
a few creepers to cover a wall or run up a pillar. (See Plates 

To preserve the plants in good condition find natural form it 
is desirable to have as much as possible of equable front and top 
light ; the best arrangement therefore is that which provides a 
glazed screen along the trout and ends, and a wholly or partially 
glazed roof, the forms to be dictated by taste and convenience. 
In cases where a Balcony is formed above, the top light ought 
not to be too mach reduced in quantity. The screenwork in 
iront also ought to be in all cases as open as the architectural 
style will possibly permit 

This Conservatory may have any arrangement that is desired, 
subject to the conditions just laid down ; but generally the archi- 
tect wiU do well to provide for a dwarf itage or shelf about 24 
or 30 inches high and 12 inches broad along the open front, and 


an ordinary stepped stage against the back wall, with a passage of 
any width from 2 or 3 feet upwards, but the wider the better, 
between the two stages just described. This refers of course to 
ordinary cases: when an extensive structure of the kind is 
required, this becomes matter for special design and contrivance, 
involving principles which are beyond our present province. 

The Heating apparattis, in the form which has usually to be 
provided for, is comparatively simple. K there be a general 
hot-water supply, this will probably be made available ; if not, 
a Boiler-hcmse must be formed underneath, and fitted up with 
whatever description of boiler may be preferred from amongst 
the many that compete for public favour. In connection with 
this, the architect will have to provide for the actual heating 
pipes. These will be either placed under the pavement of the 
passage in a brick channel covered by a grating, or they will be 
exposed to view under the dwarf stages along the front The 
latter is the best arrangement, if so contrived that the doorways 
shall be avoided, as no dip of the pipes can be allowed. 

It must never be lost sight of that for a Ck)nservatory to be 
too directly attached to a Dwelling-room is unadvisable. The 
warm moist air, impregnated with vegetable matter and dete- 
riorated by the organic action of the plants, is both unfit to 
breathe and destructive of the fabrics of furniture and decora- 
tion. On a small scale, however, and when used only for com- 
paratively hardy plants, it may be a very pleasant adjimct, 
provided it be never overheated and always well ventilated. It 
need scarcely be remarked that the sashes, of whatever kind, 
ought almost all to open, so that in summer weather there may 
be no difficulty in the admission of air precisely as required. 

The intercommunication most usual for a Conservatory is with 
either the Drawing-room, Boudoir, or Morning-room ; or, what 
is probably better than all, with a Saloon, Vestibule, Gallery, or 
Corridor, immediately adjoining any of those apartments. The 
Staircase also may be connected with it so as to have a good 
efiect An outer door to the grounds is of course indispensable ; 
indeed a small Conservatory is probably best of all when con- 
stituted to form a floral porch. 

After what has been said, it will at once suggest itself that 
the interposition of a Lobby or small Ante-room^ or Porchy capable 
of thorough ventilation, may be made so serviceable in preventing 
ill effects, that it ought seldom if ever to be dispensed with. 

128 THB DAY-BOOMS. • ft.K^Div.i: 

The mfM ongbt to be sogIi as io caidi eyeiy posriUe lay <^ 
simahine in winter: oonseqnently tibe glazed sm&oes onght to 
extend as fiu* East and West as can be oontriTed. The moniing 
soni howoTer, if a chmce has to be made, is prefinaUe to that of 
the evening. 

The genmd rnle^ it may be worth while to state, for the dis- 
position of a Conservatory as regards aspecti supposing light to 
be equal on all sides, is to place the loDgitcidinal axis (with a 
ceuiaal path) due North and South. Thus the sunddne is 
thrown more on one stage of plants before noon and more on 
the other side after noon, and at noontide itself equally on both. 
This pimciple, however, seldom api^ies to such a case as we 
have in hand, except for example when the structure is more of 
an extended Covered-way or floral Gallery at right angles to a 
South front than a Conservatory proper. 

The term Wiafd^t-QixrAm is applied to a ^asshouse on so 
extensive a scale as to cover a consideraUe area, say 50 feet 
square or upwards. In the plan of Soksblstton Hall (Plate 
XXXn.) a structure of this kind is represented which has been 
much admired ; its dimensions being 100 feet square exclusive 
of accessories. The purpose in every such case is to accommo- 
date, for gardening effect rather than mere conservation, a col- 
lection of rare plants, to be kept in condition during winter by 
artificial heat, interspersed with sculptures, rockwork, shellwork, 
one or more fountains, and so on, and the pillars shrouded in 
masses of creepers and pendent runners ; and beyond a doubt 
the value of such an adjunct to a stately Mansion ought not to 
be underestimated. 

The mode of comtru^^icn adopted nowadays woidd be inva- 
riably to a great degree the use of iron. The roof particularly 
would be, as a rule, formed of an iron framework, for the sake 
of lightness of appearance, receiving the glass probably in 
ordinary deal sashes. The front, if of stone or brick, would be 
as open as possible, seeing that the weight upon it is trifling. 
With scientific adjustment the number of columns required 
within the area for the support of the roof may be reduced to 
very few. 

A good Fountain is almost an essential feature in a Winter- 
Garden, to be placed in the centre generally. Stages for pots, 
and hed% for plants, are to be arranged according to taste. 
Statues and vases constitute an invaluable aid to the charm 


desired. Mirror% may be introduced. Lamps also, or gasbghts, 
are sometimes part of the project. Omamentai pavement is par- 
ticularly applicable ; and decorative designs may also be adopted 
on the blank walls. The Heating apparatus may be of the 
ordinary kind, most probably circulation pipes in channels under 
the floor. 

It is manifest that other kinds of CheenJumaes may be added 
to form a more complete suite, if the taste of the proprietor 
leads him to desire such (as the Fern and Palm-houses in Plate 
XXXn.) ; but it is not necessary that in this treatise we should 
enlarge upon such particulars. Further notes, however, will be 
found amongst the remarks on the Grounds. 

CHAPTER XIV.— Smoking-room. 

Purjioee. — Position, Access, Prospect, and Ventilation. 

The pitiable resources to which some gentlemen are driven, 
even in their own houses, in order to be able to enjoy the pes- 
tiferous luxury of a cigar, have given rise to the occasional 
introduction of an apartment specially dedicated to the use of 
Tobacco. The Billiard-room is sometimes allowed to be more 
or less under the dominion of the smoker, if contrived accord- 
ingly ; but this would in other cases be impossible ; and there 
are even instances where, out of sheer encouragement of the 
practice, a retrejat is provided altogether apart, where the dolce 
far niente in this particular shape may solely and undisturbedly 

The position selected for a Smoking-room is sometimes a 
species of prospect-chamber in a tower; sometimes a room 
upstairs to which a spacious balcony is attached ; sometimes a 
chamber on the ground level, detached, or at least shut off from 
the Main House. In all cases of any importance the access 
ought to be as easy aa may be from the Dining-room quarter ; 
and if the room be situated on an upper floor it may even be 
well to have a small special stair to it. 

The prospect ought to be a pleasant one for the evening, and 
the aspect to be preferred will be Westward. A fireplace is 
necessary for winter ; and complete ventilation is essential on tho 


130 GBMTLSMEira ODD BOOM. Past IL, Diy. I. 

score of both health and deanlmess^ bo that a oompaiatiTely 
large yentilator in the oeiling will always be required. As 
regards provpeet more partJcnlarly, it mnst be remembered that 
snch a room onght to have some sort of inducement attached to 
it apart from mere withdrawal ; in other words, the smoker onght 
to be permitted to have some better excuse than the mere desire 
to smoke. For the same reason the room itself should be a good 
one, and well got up. In short, it on^t to be a charmixig dbai^ 
ting-room with smoking allowed. 

CHAPTEB XY.— Oentlemen's Odd book. 

Useftd fast misoeUaneoiis poxpofles. — Siaob posttkio, loofconi^ and aooeiB. 

In the countiy more especially, the young gentlemen of the 
house may find themselves very much at a loss sometimes for an 
informal {dace in which *' to do as they lika'' In (me comer 
there may be a work*bench and tool^chest; o?er the mantel- 
piece there may be foils and dumb-bells ; the fireside may be 
dedicated to the cigar, very properly forbidden elsewhere ; there 
may be a lathe in another comer ; in a closet, out of harm's 
way, there may be an electrical machine and half a dozen things 
of the sort ; while in a plain cabinet at the end of the room there 
may be deposited collections, prepared and unprepared, bota- 
nical, entomological, mineralogical, &c. &c. &c. There seems 
no reason why, in a large house, there should not be one room 
more on this account. 

In size such a room ought not to be too smalL In position it 
ought to be out of the Main House, and yet not directly amongst 
the OflSces: near the Butlers-Pantry will do; and next the 
Gun-room will be exactly right. It may have its look-out on 
the Lawn or Garden, or on the Entrance Court, but not on the 
Servants' department in any way. The route of access from the 
Front-Entrance ought not to pass through the chief Thorough- 
fares ; and the back-way may be the Luggage-Entrance. (See 
Plate XXXV.) 




CHAPTER L— An Ordinary Bedroom. 

Chance plan objectionable. — Primary features. — Proper arrangement of an ordi- 
nary room. — Additional windows, shatters, and draperies — French manner. — 
Alcove for bed. — Doors. — Furniture. — Form. — Dimensions. — Closets. — 
Light and ventilation. — Aspect. — Alcove dressing-place. — Illustiations jxustm. 

In the case of Bedrooms it is too much the practice to allow the 
plan of the rooms to go bt/ chance^ leaving the furnitm'e to be 
placed, and other internal arrangements for occupation effected, 
as best may be. But for so unintelligent a mode of proceeding 
there cannot be any real excuse. It is true that as a rule a 
Bedroom comes to be governed by the form of some other 
apartment beneath it, whose purposes are not perhaps analogous 
to its own ; but, whatever difficulties may thus arise, they will 
generally yield to the patience of an experienced designer ; and 
it is not too much to say that each Bedroom by itself ought to 
be made to display, not only the absence of that haphazard of 
which we complain, but an obvious attention to all those points 
of comfort and convenience which pertain to the character of so 
important an apartment. 

Tihe primary features of plan in a Bedroom are, first, the door 
or doors, the fireplace, and the windows; and secondly, the 
bedstead, the dressing-table, and the wardrobe ; and it has ^ be 
remembered that every Bedroom must be considered not merely 
as a sleeping-room but as occasionally a sick-room. 

Take the most usual kind of Bedroom, namely, one for a 
married couple with a Dressing-room attached for the gentleman. 
This may be considered as a room of good size, about square in 
form, with the window in the middle of one side, the fireplace 
in the middle of another side, and the door in one angle. Now 
we shall suppose the position of the mndaw alone to be de- 
termined. We may at once make it a rule to place the bedstead 

K 2 

132 *^ THS SLEEPIKO-BOOMS. Pr. 11., Div. t 

(its head being to the wall after the English manner) with its 
Me to the window, rather than its foot. By this means the 
light is fitToorably placed, whether for a sleeper or for a sick 
person : experiment mnst prove this. The next rule is that the 
side next the window ought to be the left side. (See margmal 
sketch — ^English Bedroom.) The door thus goes to the ri^t 
side (D) ; and the jEre ought then to be placed opposite the foot 
of the bed (F). The door is best placed in the position shown 
on the fiketch, because, as it must open with its back towards the 
fire (the rule for all doors), this position, allows it to open with 
its back also towards the bed (equally a rule). The Dressing^ 
room door may then be in any other comer, — say at d, or pr&* 
ferably at dL The result of all this is soon apparent ; the lady 
has the left side of the room, with the window, dressing table, 
washstand, and fire, all conveniently together, and the door quite 
out of the way, — ^the Dressing-room door being also out of the 
way if it be at the point d. In other words, the room is pre- 
cisely adapted for the ladv*s Drernna-room. 

In a so^or loom th^ .riUbe^o^ podtively at variance 
with this'SLgement; and ao it nia/rtdcJas a good 
elementary idea for all Bedrooms whatever, to be adhered to as 
often as possible, and to be kept in mind when not possible, so 
as to indicate what modifications of plan may be desirable by 
way of compensation. When the window cannot be placed on 
the proper side, the lady will probably follow her dressing-table 
to the other. 

When any additional window is introduced, this ought to be 
done with care ; so as not to interfere with the above arrange- 
ment, but rather to add something to it on the same principle. 
The designer must also remember that mndow-shtitters and 
draperies, and bed-curtains, ought to be capable of being more or 
less jdispensed with, — in other words, they ought not to be 
rendered necessary by his mistakes of lighting. 

Whilst, however, all this may be theoretically correct, it is 
certainly very often made the rule, especially in large rooms, to 
place a four-post-bedstead with its foot to the light. The prin- 
ciple chiefly in view is that a draught from the window is thus 
rendered impossible. Besides, the fireside, if the doors be well 
placed, may be more snug. In the case of an oblong room, 
with two or more windows along one side, this arrangement is 
frequently rendered inevitable. 

Skc, III., Ch. I. 



Engusu Bedboox. 

If the bedstead be placed after the French manner, with one 
side to the wall, the head ought to be in the direction of the 
light rather than the foot, and the fireplace if possible, rather 
than the window, in front 

The best French arrangement (Italian 
also) places the bedstead in an Alcove, as is 
well known ; but it is to be noted that this 
is done more on Sitting-room considerations 
than otherwise, the characteristic French 
Bedroom of the present day being so far yery 
much like the old English •' Parlour." At 
the same time, as a merely pleasant feature, 
the alcove in question is certainly worth 
copying in English plan, provided, of course, 
it is not to be occupied by a four-post- 
bedstead. This kind of room appears very 
suitable for young ladies. (See Plate 

The arrangement of the doors in a Bed- 
room is of no small importance, as there may 
be sometimes three or even four of these. 
If there be but one, let it be as far as possible from both the 
bedstead and the fireplace, in such a position as not to create a 
draught towards the bedstead ; and especially see that a straight 
line from door to fire shall not cross the bed. It is better to 
have the door near the bedstead than near the fire ; and it must 
on no account be near the window. The rule, that it should 
open with its back towards both bed and fire, we have already 
alluded to. When there are several doors, the question of their 
disposition becomes a problem on the same principles ; because 
all must be considered in this climate as sources of draughts. 
Much of the diflSculty, however, is lost when the size of the 
room is sufficiently large in proportion to the number of doors ; 
and for a small room to have many doors is a fatal mistake. 
In any case the problem is one for ingenuity to solve — how to 
place them as a whole least objectionably with reference to the 
bedstead, the fireside, and the dressing-table. 

The Furniture in a good ordinary Bedroom is as follows. 
There will be a small table to be accommodated, which may 
stand almost anywhere near the fire ; a washstand in the light ; 

Fbkxch Bedroom. 

Scale 1 inch to 30 feet. 

B. BedsteacL 
D.T. I>reaslng.table. 
W. Wardrobe. 
W. S. Watduitand. 


a pier-glass with its back to the light ; a wardrobe facing the 
light, and in a central position ; a couch, chairs, easy chairs ; a 
chest of drawers, cheffonier perhaps, or cabinet or side-table, 
and so on, according to the size of the room. 

It will be found, upon a careful consideration of these general 
principles, that the best form for an average Bedroom is the 
square : an oblong room must have either the bedstead or the 
light occupying one end or shorter wall, whereas for both alike 
the longer wall or side is most suitable. Oblong plans, however, 
are in practice most common ; and then the best is that which, 
by having light at the end, admits of the bedstead occupying 
one side, with the other arrangemients based thereon. In large 
rooms, however, the difficulty ceases to exist 

As respects Bize^ a square of 16 feet makes a good ordinary 
room, or 16 feet by 20 ; 20 feet square is a very commodious 
size ; 18 by 24 feet makes a room of the first class. For young 
persons it is not unusual to have bedrooms much smtdler, and 
the bedstead may, if necessary, be placed in a corner; but 
rooms of less size than about 14 by 12 feet ought scarcely to be 
proposed in a house of respectable pretensions. 

A good old-fashioned Clo%et is never out of place attached to 
a Bedroom, care being taken that it shall be very dry and (what 
is almost the same tiling) well ventilated ; small Bedrooms 
generally, especially in small houses, ought invariably to have 
such closets, or cupboards, to take the place of wardrobes. 

The lighting of a Bedroom ought to be cheerful and sufficient; 
but it is not advisable to multiply windows ; in most ordinary 
cases it is best to confine them to one wall. Loftiness and 
ventilation need scarcely be mentioned, except for the sake of 
remarking the fact that there is too often a disposition to 
economise expense in the height of the Chamber stories, some- 
times combined also with an inclination to depress the windows 
for the sake of exterior architectural effect. In small rooms 
there ought to be some simple means of assisting ventilation. 

The aspect of Bedrooms must generally follow the lead of the 
Dwelling-rooms below; but in selecting an aspect for any 
particular case, the principles to look at will be these. For the 
pleasantness of the morning sun, from North-East to South-East 
is to be preferred ; for coolness towards night in summer, the 
same ; for dry mild winds and daylight pleasantness, (as for a 

SKa III., Ch. II. an ordinary DRESSING-ROOM. 135 

sick-room,) South-East more particularly. South-West and West 
rooms become hot, and are exposed to boisterous weather and 
rain ; Northward rooms may prove cold. 

A very convenient form of Bed- www 

room is that which has an Alcove 
dresaififf-place. When the room is 
to be used by a bachelor, for in- 
stance, who makes it his private 
retreat during the day, or " own 
room," this arrangrement answers 

' . c**x»**g^iuoxji/ c»iiofTC7is Bkdbooms with Dbesbiko Alooveh. 

well; in case of sickness also it is scaieiiochtosofeet 

sometimes to be appreciated. 

CHAPTER n. — An Ordinary Dressing-room. 

DimensionSt uses, and furniture. — Arrangement and aspect. — General principles of 
accommodation ; Bedroom ; one Dressing-room ; two Dressing-rooms ; Boudoir. 

The primary idea here is that of a comparatively small private 
room attached to a Bedroom for the purposes of the toilet. The 
size of this room may vary from 9 or 10 feet square, as the 
smallest reasonable limit for a gentleman, up to the dimen- 
sions sometimes of a considerable apartment for a lady ; the 
gentleman requiring comparatively little space in general, 
and the lady always requiring a good deal more, — and still more 
if the room is made a private Sitting-room as after-mentioned. 
The furniture generally will consist of a dressing-table, wash- 
stand, wardrobe or drawers, and so on, for a gentleman, with a 
side-table and chairs ; and similar articles for a lady on a more 
extensive scale, including a centre-table perhaps. Closets and 
cupboards will always be valued if appropriately placed. In a 
gentleman's room of superior class there will be a small bedstead 
in one comer ; in which case the plan of the room has to be 
studied as a Bedroom. 

Every Dressing-room, without exception, ought to have a 
fireplace; and the relation between this and tiie doors must 
follow the general rule. When the room is to be used as a 
Sitting-room, care must be taken especially to make a com- 
fortable fireside. That a Dressing-room must always have its 

136 !rHB SLIXPraGkBOOlCS. /VT,JL,JHy.r. 

own (mUr door is matter of nnrr^Bal role. If a lady's room, it 
must also have a door of direct m^oommifniMlibfiwhli the Bed^ 
room ; whereas in a gentleman's room it is allowable to haye no 
more than the one enter door, provided it c^ns dose to the 
door of the Bedroom and within a priyate Lobby. 

The pinciples of atpeet jnst laid down for the Bedroom apidy^ 
when circnmstanoes permit^ with equal force to the Dressingw 
room. For day use, however, as a Sitting-room, the best aspect 
wonld of a)Qr8e be Soath-Eastward. 

The prmegsh cf aeeammodaticn which governs the providing of 
Dressing-rooms seems to be this. For a angle person the Bed^ 
roam oIom is sufficient^ as a rale. For a married couple with 
the least possible degree of fastidionsness the Bedroom alone, if 
of sufficient size, may still suffice* Then comes the case of one 
Dremng-room^ (the universal standard plan,) by which it may be 
said the gentleman's toilet is taken out ctf the lady's way, she 
retaining the Bed-noom ; thilEr admits also of the attendance of 
servants. Then foUows the case of two Dremng-rooms^ which in 
its simplest form supposes the lady not to give up the use of the 
Bedroom for dressing, but to mi^ use of a retiring-room for 
washing. Then as the size of this retiring room is increased, 
the lady removes into it the appliances of her toilet, and. of 
course her wardrobe ; still, however, retaining the Bedroom for 
dressing purposes as may be required, and this especially if her 
Dressing-room becomes a Boudoir without another being added, 
in which case the Bedroom must be more or less restored to its 
original character of her sole Dressing-room. 

CHAPTER ni.^GENERAL Abrangement op the Eooms. 

Common defects of plan. —Scheme of classification, &c. — Progressiye scale of 


The want of proper care in determining the plan of Bedrooms 
individually has already been alluded to ; a similar complaint 
has now to be made as regards their disposition together; for 
the ordinary mode of planning the sleeping accommodation of 
even superior houses must be said to be too often very much of 
a chance-medley. Following the arrangement of walls below, 


the upper stories are little else than divided into as many Bed- 
rooms of suitable size as can be had, with a certain number of 


Dressing-rooms and the proper Supplementaries ; an appropria- 
tion is then made throughout of such as are required for the 
family, the remainder being reserved for guests ; Passages are 
formed as required ; and the house is said to happen to be very 
well off for Bedrooms, or tolerably so, or not at all so, as fortune 
will have it But as we have before demanded that, in spite of 
accidental disadvantages, the Bedrooms individually shall be 
carefully accommodated to their internal requirements, so we 
must now claim that they shall be equally well studied collec- 

The Classificatian of the sleeping accommodation is in no case 
very complicated. The primary idea goes no farther in an 
average establishment than this, — that there shall be rooms for 
the Family, rooms for GtiestSy and rooms for Children. In 
superior examples there may be a Private Suite, perhaps more 
than one, as distinguished from all others. Bachelors^'rooms in 
many instances constitute a class. Young ladies' -rooms also are 
easily constituted a special class. The Nurseries are always 
separate. Occasionally an Invalid Suite is matter of special 
plan. Subordinates' rooms for tutor, governess, lady's companion, 
secretary, or the like, may also be called a class. (See Plate 
XXXVI.) The diversity, however, amongst all these is little 
more than that of position. The chief Guests' Chambers in a 
manner take precedence, with the rooms of the heads of the 
family ; those of the less formal guests and the rest of the family 
come next ; then the accommodation of the subordinates ; and 
lastly, the Nurseries. The advantages of position to be appro- 
priated are no more than these, — facility, and sometimes stateli- 
ness, of access, — superiority of aspect and prospect, — larger 
dimensions, and superior conveniences. In the remaining 
chapters of this Section what we have to say upon these 
questions will be found in connection with the particular classes 
of apartments as they arise. 

As regards the question of the scale of Bedchamber accommo- 
dation suitable for any particular case, if there should seem to 
be any difficulty involved it is more apparent than real In 
every instance of what we call a Gentleman's House, however 
small, there will be surely at least one of the chief Bedrooms 
which has a Dressing-room attached to it, (even although not 

138 THB flIjeEPIN0-B001l& ¥T.IL,Dnr.L 

always used,) and there will be more of these as the size of the 
house increases ; a Suite with two Dressing-rooms may be taken 
to mark a point of very considerable advance in dignity, ani 
there will be m<»e of these as the scale increases; self-enclosed 
Suites of the more complete diaracter, to be presently described, 
introduce an element of still greater refinementi and the forthw 
development of these carries forward the establidiment to the 
first rank As to ^aU Bedehtmben^ they will be spoken of in 
their place ; and &n^afite'-fooms also unde^ 


Bitostkn and leoliifkm. — Twoiiiodda.---Ckm8litiieatrooiiuuidaifai^^ 
Atiendanti' aooeah — Addition of Boudoir; sod of Genflwima'e-gponi. — ^ 

Although the mistress of a hospitable Englifih house will desire 
to give her guests every prefi^rencey yet thu need not deprive 
her own rooms of their right to conditions in every way fiekvour- 
able. The situation in all external and internal relations ought 
to be so selected and contrived as to combine the best that can 
be hewl of cheerfulness, aspect and prospect, convenience of 
access in various directions, and special retirement 

In superior houses privacy will require to be now carried so 
far that probably these rooms may form a department by them- 
selves, entirely separated. Here there are two models chiefly 
in use. In the one the Suite is placed on the principal Chamber- 
story, as a Bedchamber Suite^ and connected with the Gentle- 
man's-room and Boudoir below by means of a Private Staircase 
(see Plate XXVII.) ; in the other it is placed on the Ground- 
floor, and in direct combination with the Gentleman's-room and 
Boudoir, thus constituting the Private Family Suite which has 
been described under the previous Section of Day Booms. 
(Plates XIV., XXI., XXH., and XXXIV.) 

A complete Bedchamber Suite on the former of these models 
consists of the Bedroom, either one Dres8ing-ixx)m or two, a 
Bath-room, a Water-closet (or one to each Dressing-room), very 
often a special Wardrobe-room, always a private Passage or 
Lobby or its equivalent^ and, when the suite is upstairs, properly 
a private Staircase. If a Lady's-maid's-room be provided in 


conjunction, it ought not to be so placed as to be actually one of 
the Suite. (Plates XIV. and XXXIV.) The outer door of the 
private Passage or Lobby, when there is no private Stair, will 
open from the principal Chamber Corridor or its equivalent; 
and in the case of there being a private Stair, a door of connec- 
tion between this and the principal Chamber Corridor will follow 
the same rule. 

The best position for the Private Staircase for such a Suite is 
one that shall allow it to ascend from a point beside the doors of 
the Gentleman's-room and the Boudoir below ; and obviously it 
must on no account be liable to be mistaken for any other Stair. 
It may perhaps serve also for the Nurseries, as in the case before 
described in the Private Family Suite. 

The Gentleman's Dressing-room need not be of any more im- 
portance than the best of its kind. The Lady's Dressing-room, 
however, may be required to be a very elegant apartment, as a 
second or even sole Boudoir. In this case let its door be oppo- 
site the entrance from the Corridor, so that it may be of direct 
and somewhat stately access. (Plate XLI.) The Bath-room 
ought to communicate with the Bedroom, having also, if possible, 
a second entrance from the private Passage. It ought certainly 
to have a fireplace. The Wardrobe may be either a small room, 
a closet, or a lobby, containing large presses ; sometimes a fire- 
place may be serviceable. Care will especially be required that 
all these and other smaller apartments, including the private 
Passage or Staircase, shall be well lighted and ventilated. This 
problem, if to be solved with due regard to compactness of 
arrangement, is not always easy. (See the Plates before-men- 
tioned, also XXXVI. and XXX VII.) 

There must not be forgotten the lady's-maid's access to this 
Suite of apartments, perhaps that of the valet also. At the same 
time, to have these attendants placed in any immediate connec- 
tion with the rooms ia seldom desirable, and it will be generally 
sufficient if they can reach with facility from their proper 
Sleeping-rooms respectively the Corridor with which the private 
Lobby of the Suite is connected. Sometimes the lady's-maid 
may have her room placed in commimication with the Wardrobe, 
and so attached to the Suite. 

In some cases the accommodation comprehended in a Suite of 
this kind includes, besides the Dressing-room, a special Sitting- 
room for the lady, there being then no Boudoir elsewhere; 

no THE SLBEPING-BOOlfS. . ?t. U^ Dit. t 

Imt this inyolyeB no modification of plan beyond what is self* 

For the formal addition of the GentlemanVroom and Bondoir 
to the Bedchamber Suite here described, see Prwate FamSjf Sidie 
wider ^hesA o{ Dajf Booms. On the other hand, the contraction 
of the Soite within smaller limits than those above described b 
easily effected on whatever scale may be thooght proper. 

CaHAPTER v.— QuiBOTs' Suites. 

PnxpoMb litiiatioii, and anangenienta genemOj; snd Utm^toAiooB. 

Of similar importance to the Suite of Beddiambers for the 
heads of the &mily there may be (still speaking of sapeik^ 
houses) one or two such Principal Suiteo for married gueiti of 
thdr own rank, situated of course amongst the ddef Bedrooms. 
They wiU correspond generaUy to the description given in the 
last chapter ; but they are seldom expected to have all the com- 
pleteness which we have set fortlL 

As to access, it is obvious that no special Stairs are required ; 
on the contrary, in Country-Houses generally the Principal 
Staircase is essentially the Guests' Chamber-Staircase, and ought 
to lead into an important Gallery or Corridor, in which the 
entrances to the Guests' Chambers and the Family Suite (if so 
situated) shall constitute almost the only doors. (Plate XXXVI.) 

If a Lady's Dressing-room be provided in this case (which is 
not usual), the same principles which have been laid down will 
still govern, according to the importance of the room. As 
regards attendants' access, it has to be borne in mind that this now 
refers to the rooms of the strangers' servants, who are perhaps 
accommodated slightly apart from the domestics of the house. 

It is a very good plan in a house of superior style to provide 
as a rule a series of Ordinary Bedchamber Suites on a moderate 
scale for the accommodation of guests generally ; that is to say, 
a niunber of good Bedrooms, with the one Dressing-room of 
everyday rule attached, also the private Lobby if possible, and 
alwieiys the private Water-closet; the seclusion thus afiTorded 
confers a home character upon one's rooms which English people 
cannot fail to appreciate. (Plate XXXVI.) 


CHAPTER VI. — Other Speciatj Bedchambers. 

Bachelors'-Bedrooms. — Toung ladies* rooms. — Invalid suite, &c. 

Bachelors^ Bedrooms, so called, are generally provided in a large 
establishment, as a number of smaller single rooms, placed 
together in a secondary position, with some sort of separate access, 
such as to enable the occupants to pass to and fro without 
ascending the Principal Staircase, or otherwise using the chief 
lines of Bedroom thoroughfare. The object is chiefly to provide 
for the sons of the family, and other young men, unceremonious 
apartments, and an unceremonious access thereto. (See Plate 
XXXVI.) The arrangement described a few pages back (see 
Chapter I., on an Ordinary Bedroom), which gives the Bedroom 
an attached alcove for dressing, is very useful here ; as a single 
gentleman more than any one else is glad to make his bedroom 
a " sanctum." As a curious case in point the reader may be 
referred to the plan of Balmoral (Plate XVIII.), in which the 
only accommodation of a private kind for the Minister of State 
in attendance upon the Sovereign is a Bedroom with attached 
Dressing-closet, and a room for his valet. 

Toung ladies' rooms may be formed by setting apart two or 
three contiguous ordinary Bedrooms, not too small in size, de- 
signed internally on a suitable plan (with Alcoves, for example, 
in the French manner), approached possibly in some special 
way, and perhaps possessing a private lobby or passage for them- 
selves. The Governess's room, if any, ought to be not too far 
off; because the young ladies must in some cases be under her 
charge. Ready communication with the lady of the house is 
also the rule. In Plate XXXVI. an arrangement of this kind 
is carried out ; and a private Bath-roomy ^c, and Wardrobe lobby 
complete the scheme. 

There are cases where in a large Mansion it may be deemed 
desirable to provide for the contingency of having, either in the 
family or amongst the guests, some one who by illness, infirmity, 
or old age, ia incapacitated for passing up and down stairs, 
and at the same time is able to hold a place in the family 
circle. This is done by forming on the Ground-story an In- 
valid Suite, consisting of Bedroom, Sitting-room, Attendant's- 

143 THE SLSEPINO-BOOMS. Fr. 0^ Dnr. L 

room perhapBy private Lobby, and iqppiirtexiaiiceSy sitaated in 
some imfieqiiented podtion as r^aids the traffic (tf TboroQgh* 
fiureSy but within easyieach of the PaUic Boom% and, p^h^iSp 
of the Entrance. These apttrtments^ wh^i not in nse for tiie 
poipos^ here indicated, m^j be otherwise oocnpied ; although 
where much company is received, there will generally be some 
ime to whan sach aoocmimodation is not nnwdooma 

It is also by no means an nnfreqnent custom to have suoli 
a set of apartments formed /^r a marmd eoiipfe, rodiar than a 
single person ; and when, as is sometimes the case, a manried 
8(m, for instance, resides peimaneiitly with the parents^ a Suite 
oi ibis kind proves to be very convenient indeed, possessing a 
great deal of the character of a s^Nutate lodging. If specmDy 
accessible from withont, all the bettor, by one partkniar Gardta 
Entrance for exampla 

% 1 

CHAPTEB YIL— UisoEiiLAinDOUB BedCxumbbob, 

Ordinary Bedrooms. — SnbordinateB* roomi. 

With the exceptions now set forth, the entire sleeping accom- 
modation of the house will be divided into the Ordinary Bed- 
rooms of everyday custom, some larger, some smaller, and some 
with a Dressing-room attached, as may be most readily arranged 
on the plan, but every one deserving of being carefully planned 

For Tutor, Governess, Secretary, Companion, and the like, 
according to the requirements of the case, Bedrooms in the 
Family Department, but necessarily of a character appropriate 
to the position of the occupants respectively, will be very readily 
set apart. It will be borne in mind, however, that a person 
holding any of these offices in a superior establishment may 
require a small private Sitting-room, which it is probably best 
to attach to the Sleeping-room. 

The Bedrooms appropriated to the children of the family will 
be spoken of presently under the head of the ChUdrerCs-rooms. 

Sec. IV., Cii. I. THE CHILDREN'S-ROOMS. 143 



CHAPTEB L— General Eemarks. 

Such special rooms eBsentifd. — Of two departments. 

The principle of Privacy which was laid down at an early stage 
of our investigation, whereby in every Gentleman's House a 
distinct separation should be made between the Family and 
Servants, has a similar application here; that is to say, the 
main part of the house must be relieved from the more imme- 
diate occupation of the Children. More particularly, in every 
house of the class we have in hand, however small, the special 
provision of appropriate Nursery accommodation is a vital point 
If not directly required by the family for whom the dwelling is 
being erected, and if on that account overlooked, it is certain 
that another household comes into occupation, sooner or later, 
whose case is different ; and then what would have been an easy 
matter at the first is found perhaps to be impracticable, except 
as a makeshift. Moreover, no loss of accx)mmodation, or even of 
convenience, need be sustained in providing what is here referred 
to, inasmuch as the rooms, when not required for their more 
special purpose, ought to be suitable for other occupation. 

The Children's-rooms, when complete, are of two departments, 
namely, that of the NurBery and that of the School-room, In 
the one the younger children are accommodated under charge 
of the nurse ; in the other, those who are withdrawn from the 
Nursery are placed under the charge of the governess ; after a 
few years, when the boys are sent to school, the girls remain, at 
least for a time ; and ultimately, at a certain recognised age, the 
young people take their place with the adults of the family. 
This at least is the general theory of the case, subject to modifi- 
cations of arrangement, according to circumstances, which need 
not be here elaborated. 

14i THE GHILDBEN'S-BOOlia. J^r. IL, Diy. i; 

CHAFTEB n.— NiTBSEBiES ahd Smnu 

M * 


OoiMideratiaiis faiTolTecL — D»j tnd IHg^t Kmeries and iteb •imi9eiiWBt&— 
KuiKfy SenUerj. and otiwr oonTenSeiioeB. — Positkn te tbe Siiito,— WImb 
oonneoled wiUi a Piiyate Familj Suite. — Gxoimd4loQr Bay Knneriai^ Aa. — 
OonTenten into Gneala* Boite. — Btnngen* NnxMiy or SIck-foooL ---IlhiBiKatftoiia. 

As agamst ibe principle of tbe withdrawal of the childzeii for 
domestic oonTenience, there is the consideratioii that the mother 
will require to have a certain £Acilit|r of aocefls to tton. The 
distinction which thns arises is this: in houses below a certain 
mark this readiness of access may take precedence <tf the motited 
for withdrawal, while in houses above that mark the cam]^te(e^ 
ness of the withdrawal will be the chief object l!here is^ faow^ 
eyer, this reservation, that in large establishments it is H 
withdrawal bom the guests' qnarter more particiilarly that is 
required ; whilst at the same time a sort of restoation to inti^ 
mate connection with the parents' qnarter may be acoomplislied* 
In other words, in a house where the children are supposed to 
be placed under the care of less experienced and responsible 
attendants, the Nurseries, although still kept apart, ought to be 
80 placed as to be under the immediate supervision of the 
mother, both by day and by night ; secondly, in houses where 
superior servants are to be calculated upon, the care of the 
mother has only in a smaller degree to be provided for; but 
thirdly, this is a maxim of our national house-building, — that no 
English mother, even a duchess, will confide her children wholly 
to other hands than her own ; and fourthly, when the scale of 
the establishment is such that the heads of the family can treat 
themselves to a Private Suite of rooms, they will desire to have 
their children close to themselves. 

The primary form of proper Nursery accommodation in the 
smallest house is that of two rooms, a Day-room and a Sleeping- 
room. To determine the proper size for these apartments it is 
only necessary to arrive at an abstract average for the niunber 
of inmates, and to provide for these according to the style of the 
establishment ; leaving any case of excess beyond that average 
to be dealt with, when it arises, by some temporary expedient at 
the expense of the adjacent rooms. Upon this principle it will 
be generally sufficient to provide for three children and a nurse 

Sec. IV., Cii. II. NUESEEIE8. 145 

in the Sleeping-room. The Day-room may be made as large as 
circumstances will allow, not only for the sake of space for play, 
but in view also of the fact that this room will often have to 
accommodate in various ways, besides some of the older children, 
the children of guests, and the guests and visitors of the 

The Night Nursery is to be carefully planned for several 
beds, and governed as much as possible by the rules laid down 
for Bedrooms ; a cheerful morning aspect being extremely de*- 
sirable, and a comfortable fireside for seasons of illness. Good 
cupboards are useful, and a roomy Closet not to be refused. A 
convenient position may be created in superior cases for a 
spacious enclosiu-e to accommodate a bath and washbasiny fixed ; 
although many nurses will prefer to have such articles moveable, 
as being more convenient An improvement, however, upon 
this, is to have a BathrTOom attached. There must be a Water- 
chsety of course ; and this may be in the Bath-room. (See Plate 
XXXVI. for Nursery Suite generally.) 

The Day Nursery ought to have all the characteristics of a 
cheerful Sitting-room, even at the risk of displacing some 
equally important apartment. The wardrobes will stand here, 
by the bye, if not in a lobby or closet 

A Nursery Scullery ought to be had in every case of any pre* 
tension. This is a small apartment, opening from the Day 
Nursery or close at hand, containing a fireplace, a sink, closets, 
and shelving, for the use of the nurse. The Bathroom may open 
out of this ; although it is better to be connected with the Night 
Nursery. A private Passage is almost essentiaL 

In all cases the nurse in charge will sleep in the Night 
Nursery; but in superior houses a Nurse^s-room must be also 
provided. It may very conveniently open out of the Night 
Nursery, and so be available also as additional accommodation 
when required. 

The most usual position for the Nurseries in a good house is 
at that point where the Family Sleeping-rooms and the Servants'- 
rooms meet at the Back Staircase, and on the First Floor. 
This gives ready access from each side ; there is also an easy 
communication with the open air, apart from the Principal 
Staircase, and yet in immediate conjunction, if the plan be a 
good one, with the Principal Corridor below, and probably with 

14t iHi GiBU»ara<ooHa. n.iL,iin,h 

« leaoAdtfrSinbMw. TW vkds Mdte itf iooum oi^^t i^n> 
flMJjWhxt y wi ftl ii iT i 

A. till lwtt« •mofanMOt, In ohm vlwi* ifaan it a jghvUt 
FHfeQ^BMlabMSbflrSidUt «qp0ObS7 if thil b« en tbe Gronnd* 
Hen,, ii tP (ann • eom^iaiidiing suite over for the Nursery 
Dspntment u a irbxAe. Whni tlie Family-iSuite, for example, 
lldattag tlM Boadoir, if not 4larj the Gentlemon's-room, ia 
IWKbtO JbnttldfwkaBdaapaiato wing of the house with tlie 
NUMOeiOfflr, llw aiittaaLomii, and a private Garden Entrance 
•nd RttirnilMt aafliing oui be a. more exquisitely English 
tBQoh ct iatumtio reftaMBent (See Plates XXI., XXII., and 
XXXI?.) 13w dolditn an thtu entirely vritlidrawn from the 
Kmb Hooh aacl all ita Tbonnf^An»,m the doDiaiD «f tiM 
gMitti and tba paraat^ i» tfwmwlTW vithdnnriBff likeiriM^ 
ar» vaaU«A to rooorar tiw Bnnadiate«i9araBCin at l£eir fiuxdly. 
bi fllC^ bete M fllanrbae^ the pnCtotim of eUbonticn it ^ 
attafauBtrnt ttf nmidioi^, and tbe dake asd iaebidm bam 
acquired at laat the hcnnelj oom&rt of nmiile get^SabVg. 

Notwithstandfaig aU tbat baa bean laid, tbere nkHj aeeau to 
be BO valid leaioit whj m Oomitry Hotuw we Aoold not bare 
man feeqaeatly a Gromd-Ilier .Oi^JAmcfy. Jn 'diroot oon- 
nectioQ with a retired nook of Lawn for playground, such a 
room with good aspect would be greatly superior, for all con- 
sideratious of the health and pleagore of the children, to any 
apetairs room. Indeed we can imagine cases where the entire 
suite of NuTsery-rooms, and eveit the School-room for the older 
childrffli, might with every advantage be disposed on the 
Ground-Floor, for the same reason that the Day-rooms of 
the house are iuTariably there, and fiieqaeotly also the best 
<^ the Bedrooms. 

When there are no children in the house, a good Korsery 
Suite makes a very superior Chiettt? Suite,^-ihG Night Nursery 
becoming the Bedroom, the Day Nursery a Sitting-room (or a 
second Bedroom), the Scully being made a Dressing-room, 
and the Supplementaries being of course complete. 

A spare-room, or an ordinary Bedroom> oommonicating with 
the Nursery Passage, may at times be very useftd in the capacity 
of a Strangert' Nursery or in that of a Sick-room. (See Plate 

5ec. IV., Cn. Iir. SCHOOL-BOOM. 147 

CHAPTER m.— School-boom and Suite. 

Defined. — Complete Suite described. — PositiQn«&a; Light — Conversion into 

Bedchamber Snite. — The cfUM) of boys. 

This is the name given to the apartment which is appropriated 
to two or three children withdrawn from the Nursery and placed 
under the care of a governess. In ordinary cases it will be not 
merely the Study, but also the Day-room of the pupils^ and in 
some degree the Sitting-room of the governess, 

A complete School-room Suite consists of the School-room itself, 
a Govemess's-room adjoining, a private entrance-lobby if pos- 
sible, a Washing-closet, &c., and perhaps a book-closet as better 
than a press in the School-room. (See Plate XXXVI.) 

The pontian ought properly to be within easy reach of the 
lady of the house ; in other respects a place amongst the Bed- 
rooms will almost always be appropriate. The Nurseries need 
not be further off than may be otherwise necessary. The same 
Staircase may serve for both departments. The School-room, 
however, ought not to be above the First Floor if possible ; if a 
position on the Ground Floor can be had (as lately suggested 
for the Day Nursery), so much the better, although that is 
seldom to be hoped for. The Govemess's-room, if not ad- 
joinipg, ought to be as near as possible : and the Bedrooms of 
the young ladies also ought to be not too far removed from the 

The character of the School-room itself ought to be especially 
cheerful eixid comfortable. The light ought to be abundant, for 
various educational reasons. 

A complete Suite of the kind above indicated is obviously 
convertible into a Bedchamber-Suite when not in use, the Bed- 
room, Dressing-room, private lobby, &c., being exactly as they 
ought to be. (See Plate XXXYL) 

The requirements for boys at home imder a tutor would be 
parallel to those which have been described ; so that no separate 
discussion of the case is needed ; but as it is so little the custom 
now to keep boys at home in this way, we may c(m8ider it quite 
unnecessary to provide formally for them. All we can say is 
that some of the spare Bedrooms would have to be made 
available if required, or an Odd-room (Plate XXXV.) provided 
on the principles set forth in a former chapter (Dajf-rocms, 
Chapter XV.), and used for this purpose incidentally. ^ 





GHAPTEB L—Cloak-boox. 

Ill popote damfted ai a raiiiiiig>»vooBi.— Portion, die, and Analiii^-^ 
BQUaidriooiii for nfmaiininal vaa aa anoh. -— lAdteaT Cnioak*xooiiL -— UliiatelioM 

A Omab-boox in the sense hem refen^ to is a Betiring'Mtmi 
Sat gentlemen. When Ihe Entranoe-Bnll . is a laige oa^ w 
flirther aocommodation is generally feqnired meiely for hats 
and doaks: when, on the otiier hand, the Hall is only a Yesli*. 
bole (Hate XX.), this apartment in question becxmies d^ 
sinhle as a Clpak-zoom in the more literal meaning of the teiaa» 
In both cases alike, howoTer, the JRetirinff'room must be coOf^ 
sidered essential to a good honse ; and therefore we make it a 
maxim that in the one form or the other this Cloak-room ought 
always to be provided. (See Plates XVI., XXV., XXIX., 

XXXV., xxxvn., xxxvm., xli.) 

As regards its position, some remarks may be made. It is not 
altogether advisable that it should open from within the limits 
of any Central-Hall or interior Corridor, but rather from an 
Entrance-Hall beyond those limita If there be, in addition to 
this Hall, an enclosed Porch, the connexion ought still to be 
with the HalL But if there be no proper Entrance-Hall, but a 
Porch or Vestibule alone, as the approach to the Corridor or 
Staircase within, then the Cloak-room must be connected with 
either Corridor or Porch, as may be most convenient In short, 
the object will be to place it, not within the line of the Family 
Thoroughfares, if possible, but not too much beyond that line. 

The furnishings of a proper Cloak-room are nothing but hat 
and cloak-stands and a table ; and it leads to a Lavatory within 
(see next Chapter). Its dimermans must simply be governed by 
the scale of hospitality which has to be provided for. A Cloak- 
room, however, in very simple form, may have a washstand in 
one comer, and thus require no other Lavatory. 

Sec. v., Cu. II. CLOAK-BOOM. 149 

For the sake of accommodating large parties of visitors where 
there is no spacious Hall, it may be convenient in some houses 
to consider the position of the BilliardHroom with reference to 
its being made use of as an occasional Cloak-room ; but generally 
there is no diflSculty whatever here. (Plates XXL, XXTT^ 

Where receptions on the largest scale are to be given, it 
becomes necessary to provide Cloak-rooms to correspond with 
the circumstances, and this we shall speak of in dealing with 
the class of State-Booms; but it may be sometimes thought 
desirable, although rarely, to provide in less important cases 
two Cloak-rooms, for ladies and gentlemen respectively. (See 
Plate XXXn.) 

The Cloak-room which we have already described being con- 
trived for gentlemen only, it may be pointed out that one for 
ladies will dififer from this. First, as to situation, it is not 
uncommon to place the two apartments face to face on opposite 
sides of the Entrance-Hall ; but this is an error, as respects both 
good taste and convenience. The Ladies' Cloak-room ought to 
open from within the family boundary, as certainly as the other 
ought to open from without it. (The example in Plate XXXTT. 
would thus be in error.) It is perhaps the best plan after all, 
in any ordinary case, to let some of the Sleeping-rooms be taken 
for Ladies' Dressing-rooms when required. 

CHAPTEB n.— Lavatory, etc. 

Within Gloak-Foom. — Fumishings and Situation. 

The only form in which provision of this kind requires to be 
made in the Family Department of the house is as a small 
Dressing-room for gentlemen within the Cloak-room just de- 
scribed, or constituted by the Cloak-room itself; and then it is 
of great convenience. A Water-closet within this Dressing-room 
is further to be recommended in probably every possible case. 
(See the Plates mentioned in last Chapter.) In a house on the 
most moderate s^ale, a roomy Closet, if no more, with a wash- 
basin in one comer, ought, if possible, to be provided near the 
Entrance. A Dressing-room, however, of proper dimensions. 

150 Toat rnnjJKMBsmxas. '^.nuBnr.i. 

• mSL be ioffioinit to mxmtaiucMb^ gweraUj Iwo imiMmbA in 
a nudbb dab, wtA eniolotttte uidei; « fcMi»'taMe» dkaii:% «ttl 

• Mfluun iiltr ftp ibifflK 

Hw xeison £ar bftTlag Abm tMnTnuNUMei eonmocted ipitii lii^ 
.Knfalnoe is tbat fbejr am psrriflbd in > giPM moime fer 
tbe TUB ci genflemen Tinton^ who can always find tlmr ii^ 
to 4lia Ihidlaiite^BUl^ tf acMr^^ 


CfiAJniHE HL— Batb-booil 

♦ • ■ ■ . . 

Ko boDii <if way jptMensbns wfll be devoii of a piii^ntl jBMI^ 
fi#Mi; en^ k'a kige bofse tiiere must be «et6Mil of tib^ie. Ilifo 
rfie tf tbe apitrtQieKit iir tbitpLy to be lat^^ enofiigli to eoirtiiid 
e te^ibik^betii and a fti^flao^ ^iriib ]p^iiaps !a AovfefhMt 
eiAier aepamto <«* ever ihe ether, ^ebd suffioiettt; (space ftr 
drattbi^. ^e li^ fiiay eiflmr be by window or by sky^^ 
t^^imefiMbv^ Ottght to be well cOnadeT^, chiefly ihat there may 
be an escape for steam, either by the window or otherwise. If a 
>%eparate Dresmtg-roam be directly attached, there ought to be a 
fireplace in this, rather thaxi in the Bath-room* In the case of 
a private Bath-^oom, or merely an adjunct to a private Dressing- 
room, the case will be dmili^. In ^thercase smaller dimensions 
than otherwise will obviously be suflScient for the Bath-room 
alone ; but the door of intercommunication ought, for the sake 
of warmth, to face the fireplace as nearly as may be. . In the 
case of a Bath-room as an appendage to a Bedroom-Suite (see 
Family Bedchamher- Suite, ^c), if it be attached to the Lady's 
Ihrearing-room, it must not be congiidered as perlamiDg to this 
alone, but must be provided with another door to the private 
Lobby for the gentleman's use. It ought moreover to be of Ml 
size in such circumstances, and to contain a fireplace. If 
however it be attached to the Bedroom only, which is the nsind 
plan, it may be smaller in size, without a fireplace, and even 
devoid of an outer door. 

If the house has but one Bath-room, it will be best placed in 
a retired position amongst the Bedrooms, and not too far off 
Ihe Principal Staircase; if there be twoy one wiU be especially 

Siic. v., Cu. in. BATH-BOOM. 151 

appropriated to each sex, and placed accordingly, that is to say, 
the one for gentlemen somewhere near the Staircase, and that 
for ladies more retired, or one on one story and one on another. 
In an establishment of importance, a ServcmUf Bathrroom also 
ought to be provided in their department ; and in a very large 
Mansion one for each sex is necessary. They will be in con- 
nexion with the Servants' Sleeping-room& 

If there be sufficient hot-water apparatus in the house, the 
Bath-rooms ought to be placed with special reference to a 
supply; if there be none, there are various contrivances for 
obtaining a supply from a fireplace-boiler in the room itseli^ and 
otherwise. Cold water of course must be supplied, and a waste- 
pipe laid to the drain. 

A good Bath-room vnll always possess a wasJirbasin; but if 
there be a Dressing-room, it will of course be rather placed 
there. A Water-closet also ought to be in conjunction if possible ; 
or the plan of putting a seat in the Bath-room itself may perhaps 
generally be adopted. 

CHAPTER IV.— Plunge-bath, etc. 

If required. — Swimming-bath, description and directions. — Plnnge-bath, ditto. 

It is very rarely that this is expected to be fbxmd in a private 
Residence ; and when it is to be met with it is perhaps gene- 
rally in the form of a separate building in the Grounds, as a 
Swimming-bath. But there seems to be no good reason why on 
a smaller scale it should not be more frequently provided as a 
Plunge-bath only. 

A Smmming-iath may be of any dimensions exceeding about 
20 feet by 10 ad a minimum^ with a platform about 3 feet wide 
or more along one side at least On so small a scale the depth 
of water would require to be capable of regulation to suit the 
bather. On a larger scale the depth would be made to vary, by 
mean» of sloping the bottom, from about 3^ feet at one end, to 
perhaps 5 feet at the other. A Dressing-room ought to be 
attached, with a fireplace. The swnshine ought to be admitted, 
either by ceiling-lights or elevated windows. If warm water is 
to be supplied (which must be the case if it is to be much used), 
this must be provided for ; and if advantage be taken of any 

152 ' THX snPfLBllIirFABnB. tlikmBmL 

OoDsorwtoiy ifqptiatiifl, or tibie Uk% thd iitaalkii of Ab Btttb 
mnrt be, of coone^ detenniiiedMOQtdiiig^y. Tb» Bitii itself 
will be ftmed of ordiiiazy bikk walk ud patiiig^ lined iriik 
cementi aqplialte, eii«melled tSttB, or tiles. Tbe oc3km best 
adapted tar tibe bottom, to gife deamess to the irster, is said 
to be a xoug^ granito of ie4 Uad^ and white. 

An ordinaiy Pbmg^'haUk will be 6 or 6 feet sqnaxoi and of 
depth not to exdeed 6 feet; with a plationn oa one side.abont 
8 feet wide, and peihiqps a Dnminffro a m attaohed. It may be 
placed at any conTenient qpot in oonnezion with the Gfoond*! 
Floor of the MainHoose, either attached to an ovdinaxy Bath^ 
room or by itselfi 

y. — Watu-olosstb. 


Kblet a«eoa gmaaSij oolkoted in Odi dbi^ir.--AziQiiii.--'Iliftrilnittoa.-- 
HinaiioiL — Ooti0tniotioQ tnd diiiMnrioiis.---kiiteiior olonli tnd weH-holet. — 
VoitUation in difBonft flf tt i iirmfamni n 

It seema conyenient to collect in one chapter like this all that 
has to be said respecting these important sanitary appliances ; 
and accordingly, the occafiional references to them throughout 
the work are comparatively infrequent. 

The primary considerations to be kept in view with respect to 
them are these : — ^that there shall be a sufficient numier ; that 
they shall be properly distributed ; that they shall be thoroughly 
ventilated and directly lighted from the open air; that they 
shall be placed in situations that are private ; that the mpplt/ of 
water shall be ready and abundant; and that the means of 
drainage shall be efficient, and so disposed as to have always a 
short and direct route out of the building. 

The rules for number and distribution are these. In the 
smallest house there will be one for the servants^ separate from 
that for the family. As the next advance, there may be pro^ 
vided an extra one for the Bedchambers upstairs, the ordinary 
one being on the Ground Floor. The one on the Upper Floor 
^vill then come to be considered as appropriated to ladies. In 
the country an additional one is often provided in the Garden 
for gentlemen. The Cloak-room will have one attached to its 
Lavatory ;«^if on a large scale, it may have two. When there is 

Sec. v., Ch. V. WATEE-CLOSETS. 153 

no other already provided in such a position as to be available 
for the purpose (as in the Cloak-room), there ought to be a 
special one so placed as to be readily accessible from the Dining- 
room. It is sometimes thought proper that the Billiard-room, 
if quite removed from the main house, should have one ; so also 
with the Smoking-room ; so also with the Library, if extensive, 
and used for study* One may also have to be provided in 
connexion with the Business-room and its adjuncts^ In large 
establishments there will necessarily be several for the servants ; 
chiefly in groups externally, for the sexes separately ; but an odd 
one also here and there in connexion with outlying departments. 
Amongst the Bedchambers again, when these are numerous, 
there must be a suflScient number properly distributed, for th^ 
family, guests, and servants separately, as obvious propriety will 
suggest. A suite of Nurseries must also be specially supplied ; 
as also a School-room. Lastly, when the architect is arranging 
those private Bedchamber-Suites which have been described, 
each Suite ought to have one as an essential element of its own 
comfort; or the two Dressing-rooms of the same Suite may 
have one each. It is a common plan to make a Bath-room 
conta]u.a seat ; but in any superior case there ought to be rather 
an attached Closet. There are also, it may be remarked, in 
particular houses, special circumstances in which the designer 
will readily perceive the advantage of having one more rather 
than less of these conveniences,— easily to be overlooked, by the 
bye, but not so easily to be afterwards supplied. Finally, it has 
to be kept in mind that in large houses they must be in pairs 
sometimes, — ^for instance, at the Cloak-room and amongst the 
Bedrooms. (See Plates XXXV. and XXXVI.) 

It is sometimes difficult to select pointums for convenience 
which shall at the same time be suitable for privacy. The prin- 
ciples of English delicacy are not easily satisfied ; no one would wish 
them, however, to be less fastidious. The Closets must of course 
be upon the chief Corridors, the Staircase, the Entrance-Hall, 
and other Thoroughfares ; but if the access be too direct, it is a 
serious error. For instance, small ante-lobbies are cJways useful. 
Out-of-doors the position must be carefully selected, so that 
neither the entrance nor the route thereto shall be overlooked 
from the windows. The servants, also, are held to be entitled 
to precisely the same consideration as their superiors. 

It is a maxim so to place the Closets that they shall be col* 


rVft fi^ Dir. t 

keted togribs^ on w Ibut pnii of 1ii0 ffhtt m jpoiHbb Thai 
4W«fy TFo lir flb irf «foiiU it jrfg g tf fwwgwfc «»Mi«'Mi<M0 it a 
nik wldflh coght not to be mlttlBd tf poM^ Omtt»lba 
tdniif alao^ at y t ga i dt €wiwift MpaantM^ liMit liiiBir inwitiiyn jg 
ttoi tiMh at too nadi to paofoka idantification. 

Aa lagtrit tiia mxaomg pmiiiknB^ kA tibaa&lift tf not of bridc^ 
of doidila foartflKing liiied vitii £^ JSpuNb dboit bu^ aomoi- 
tiiiitt be leqainl 3%eam<tfthe(9oaaliBaybeftomllftatto 
6 fiMt vide ormofee^ and fiiom 6 to lOfiMfclmic^etidiittfeofaiiy 
aatoJobbjr. Thatwt lw ^ jyii miwtbeto pheedaatoadmitqf aaay 
aaaattatrfaon ; aid lihe mHpi/m alae, aaild thaCfvpt at tbalbo^ 
eo|^ to be aqoalty aooeaaibb : tiieat aio oooaidaratiMt of into- 

The ayatomfi»qMii% adopted <rfbaT^ Water'dmgii 

l^^htod and tafftikted bf «dBU^ 

^oeB&ng to tile foof^ tiboagb one orpediapa tipo intanrauiBg 
icMi^ at V617 landk to be ditooonged. Bkjl^da at tiie top ave 
dbtokitely naeatMiry; to keep time opaai in bad weatiier (tibe 
TOKj tiflte ilMit air it atoti leqoiied) it pnwtioaMy impoarfbfo; 
mad efon wben theyaie Icept opaa, or nbea ihof are protided 
frith TontilatorB, it eaiinoi be » oerfadnty that flie draug^ shall 
not paas downwards and into the house instead of upwards and 
out of it* 

* If any of onr readers ahonld bftTo 
a 'water-eloeet which caimot be made 
to odmnumicate directly with the open 
air, and is liieiefore (no onnstial case) 
ventilated through a borrowed light into 
the Staircase or a passing Corridor, 
there is a remedy. Let the borrowed 
light be fixed, and supplied with doable 
glass or doable sashes, so as to be air- 
proof and Boond-proof ; then cany a 
ixdie, aboat 4 indies in diameter or more, 

from the ceiling by some means or other 
to the open air, no matter at what dis- 
tance ; or into a chimney-floe ; tiie higher 
the outlet the better. If this should be 
not enough, there may be a second such 
tube added, so as to create circulation ; 
or air mi^ be admitted by some means 
near the floor. If weU managed, this 
ought to ensure ventilation, at least so 
far as it is possible in so desperate a 






CHAPTER L— General Bemabks. 

These the skeleton of plan. — List of Family ThoFough&res. — Diverging lines 
ofoommnnication. — The same for Sleeping-xooms. — Test of a good anange- 

The Corridors and Passages of a house, as we have before said, 
are the Skeleton of its Plan ; because the relatioixs of the rooms 
to each other are in fact the relation of their doors ; and accord- 
ingly, every one can call to mind instances where these Thorough- 
fares and this relation of doors are so contrived that one appears 
to understand their system instinctively, and bthers, on the con- 
trary, where one is always at a loss. The traffic of the establish- 
ment in the one case passes to and fro with smoothness and 
fieicility; in the other there is a constant awkwardness and 
complication. (See Plate XLV. and the Notes thereon in the 
Appendix.) The reason lies in the difference between a well- 
oombined plan and one that is disjointed — ^between a good 
skeleton and a bad. If the system -upon which the doorways 
are disposed be simple and compact, and the transit to and fro 
easy and dfa^ct, the whole plan is brought into practical har- 
mony ; and if the passages be involved and circuitous, the house 
is the habitation of confusion. 

The Family Thorofughfares — ^those of the Servants* Depart- 
ment having to come before us in the sequel — are more or less 
the following, according to the size of the house ; namely. Porch, 
Entrance-Hall, Garden-Entrance, other Secondary-Entrances, 
Luggage-Entrance; Gallery or Corridor, Central-Hall orCorfile; 
Saloon, Ante-rooms, and Vestibules; other Passages generally; 
and lastly Staircases. 

The centre of the system of Thoroughfares will be that one upon 
which the Family Day-rooms are grouped ; namdy, in certain cir- 
cumstances, either a Gallery or Corridor, or in others a Central* 


HUa,SaIoaii,Steiioai6-HaIl,orYeda^ Uie flirt being rf Me- 
dieval type— the derelcqnneiii of the Fb8b^ 
its dongrted finrm, and the second being of CSaano type— 43ie 
adaptatkm of the Ckntile— and so letaining more or leas the 
form of a square or ito eqinitalent (For illi»tration compaxe 
Plates XXL and XXK, XXXTTT. and XXXTV,, and oth^&) 
From this apartment Ihree primary Unei of c&mmmieaUm have 
to drrerge^ if not Ibiir ; namelyi one to the exterior, as the line 
of entrance; a second to the &Hiher interior, being Ihe Staircase 
usually, leading to the rooms above; a tiikd to the ServantaT 
Department; and mort commonly a fonrth to tiie Garden. It 
is plain that tiie compact arrangement of fliese is frequently 
matter of great skill; especially when we bear in mind the 
infinite variety of considerations fleeting the Booms which have 
to be {wovided for, and the consequent complexity in many 
instances of the Tbox0U^i£Btfes th^nselvea. 

The landing of the Steircase iu'common cases^ or whatever 
equivalent featave npy take ita place in more complicated plans, 
becomes a %mmdmty main for the Sleeping-rooms. From this 
point also^ acoorttig to the sine of the house, several Unu cf 
thonmghfare have tp be more or less establidied ; namely, one 
to the principal Bedrooms, one to the inferior Bedrooms, perhaps 
one to the Nurseries, and one to connect with the Servants' 
Department, — indeed, sometimes more. Although these lines 
are comparatively of less importance than those before men- 
tioned, they must not by any means be treated carelessly, as 
they too frequently are. . 

A well-arranged plan, whether on a large or a small scale, may 
first be recognised by its exhibiting the whole system of Tho- 
roughfiEtres in a form which may be said to bear upon the face of 
it the character of (nmplicity. It is often weU worth while, for the 
obtainment of this result, to make a drawing which shall represent 
the Thoroughfares specially, with their doors and windows, and 
nothing more ; whereby the eye is not distracted by the arrange- 
ment of the Booms. (See Plate XLY.) By this means many a 
defective point may be permitted to force itself upon the attention 
whicb otherwise would be only discovered when beyond remeed. 
The self-evident principles of dmgn are not difficult of applica- 
tion. Directness and shortness of route ; readiness of intercommu- 
nication between the Thoroughfares themselves where desirable, 
and the reverse where not so ; a plain distinctness and promi- 


nence for the chief lines of traffic, and a certain nnmistakableness 
for the chief doorways ; these are instances in point. That every 
part should be sufficiently lighted and ventilated is a universal 
rule ; that spaciousness, loftiness, and cheerfulness should have 
the benefit of any doubt is equally so. That a little artistic and 
decorative pretension is often allowable in Thoroughfares more 
than in Booms has already been explained. (See Section I., 
— ^ihe Chapter on Importance.) Unpleasant prospect^ also, as 
a thing to be avoided, is worthy of more attention than is often 
accorded to it 

CHAPTER n.— Entrance-Porch. 

Defined and deecribed ; both open and endosed. — Correction of aspect, &c, — 
Carriage-Porch. — Door-mat, &o. — Porch steps. — Illustrations pa$sim. 

The purpose of a Porch we may define to be in various forms 
the shelter of an Entrance ; and it is common to both Classic 
and Mediaeval plan. To prevent the draught of external air from 
entering the house by the door when opened, we construct a 
Porch : or we do the same to counteract the effect of an aspect 
which faces severe winds : or we provide a covering from the 
rain for a person standing without ; or a shelter for a carriage at 
the door: and on the same principle, whatever description of 
outer apartment of comparatively small size may be interposed 
between the Entrance-HcJl or its equivalent and the external 
door, it is a Porch. 

The cUmensums of an Open Porch will necessarily vary ac- 
cording to the character of the house. For mere shelter from 
the rain, little more is required than a few square feet of roof- 
covering, in any form which may be considered most appro- 
priate, — a canopy on brackets or posts, a Portico projecting or 
recessed, a small Verandah, and so on. (See Plates XYI. and 
XXXVn.) For an Mtclosed Porch the dimensions are regu- 
lated only by the consideration of what space is required for the 
convenient opening of the outer and inner doors ; beyond which 
the size may be amplified, if desired, according to taste. It is 
not necessarily placed beyond the main wall of the house, but 



TBbm JWri ri h i w to an W iiel oiwI Bawh, tf any» eoMwIi fi i qpB t t ji 

hImii man tht& liw ii fntrodoead^ the qpMtetel ii 110 kxogtf a 
Bonh, Int w BBtnomAdl; and Hoi principle eog^ to %m 

#• to pravwt tfcil VBoatonKty iridoh bqA iDifreqiieBcfl]^ doom 
mkm A» oocnpiqreoniai to dial iriMi the fu etl ioa fai BtniMring: 
An Entnnoe-Hall, again, is striotij an apaitamft wittlii 
home; wlulflt a Potdli k a Toaiibiile wiiiioiit^ to 

One important point iriffai reipeot to a Sgreli ia that wUdi 
ariaea ivhen the Ei^ranoe zeqmrea a Mrrmttd mp$oL The SMA- 
«ail qnartar, to eyamplfy ia ao opyi to cbif^ nina tibat an 
Enbanoe^ if dlreoily eipoaed tiot that'aiqpecti may itswe to be not 
merely iheltered, hot paotoetedi mmL aoopediog^y. it may bf 
adVinMe, If it lyn be Ams^ tp Jbm a pn{)eott|ig^ Porol^ and 

enter at one or boih a&a of tUi rather than 
. in fronts-— NoorflMveal liiat la to aa^, te better 
atiUSontkeaai^'erboaL (Bee Ae int aketeh 
in the maigia.) Hie ]!lbrik'0&d aspect alao ia 
one which may be advantageously dealt with 
in a similar way by making the door South- 
east The NcfthioeH aspect for a Porch is in 
this respect unfortunate ; inasmuch as the front 
direction is exposed to a blustering quarter, 
and the sides, North-east and South-west, to the same. (See the 
second sketch.) South, and South-east, and a little further East, 

are of course the best aspects for the Entrance ; 
but this quarter is not often available, seeing 
that it is so much in request for the Dwelling- 
rooms, from which the Entrance ought to be 
separated. The only resource we have, there- 
fore, as a rule, is to keep the Entrance any- 
where in the funsUne if possible ; and if not, m 
sight of sunshine ; and to meet any extreme di£S- 
culty of aspect as above set forth in the best 
way that offers ; bearing in mind that^ although a comfortable 
Entrance is a great luxury, excessive &stidiousness about it may 
cost too mudi in other conveni^ice. 

8. B. lESSranoe. 

Sec. VI., Ch. II. ENTEANCRPOBCH. 1 59 

A Carriage^Porch is so contrived that the approach shall pass 
under a Portico or vaulted tower or whatever else, with sufficient 
width for a carriage to be driven through. To avoid the appear- 
ance of difficulty, the dimensions clear within the sides and top 
of the openings ought to be at least ten feet of width and twelve 
feet of height At the best, however, such a Porch, as generally 
executed, although convenient for carriages in bad weather, is 
always inconvenient for persons on foot, besides being some- 
what gloomy; (see Plates XVH,, XVHL, XXVUL, XXX, 
XXXIU., XXXrV., XLIV. ;) and, to be as one would wish for 
the convenience of all and at all times, it ought to have first a 
good ceiling-light, and secondly an aisle at the side of the car- 
riage-way (Plate XXXY.) next the house; sometimes also a 
similar aisle outwards, so that pedestrians might enter and car- 
riages set down in front in fine weather. 

As matters of detail of no inconsiderable importance in prac- 
tice, let provision be specially made at the back of the Entrance- 
door for a mat which shall not be in tJie way ; and take care that 
the foot-scrapers, &c., are at the bottom of a flight of steps rather 
than the top. It is usual to form a sunk panSl in the floor for 
the mat ; but so much of the success of this contrivance depends 
upon the thickness of the mat being precisely as intended, that 
the more old-fashioned plan of raising the door-threshold two 
inches above the floor-level is generally preferable. 

If any considerable ascent has to be made from the ground to 
the floor-level, it is worthy of consideration whether the st^ 
shall be external or internal. As a rule, an external flight of 
steps, cJthough sometimes conveying an effect of importance, is 
always in one way or another inconvenient ; whereas, if space 
will admit of it, the same flight internally may probably have a 
greater degree of importance, and without involving any incon- 
venience. (Compare for instance Plates XXVII. and XXXIU. : 
also Plates XH. and XIH.) 

lea THs nmoixanMBs. a^ o^Dm t 


Til tfiriffiM^ffftirt — Tii i*«iw^fai« ^ fliyi«L — n^UM^ BMrili of Oliafe «icllfedl<* 
ttfal ■Miiluli AiliiitalllUt of tiit mrtiiif fi ti iT Toior fti'iriMm"if mt. *<- WaiarfMr* 
•--Fioiti^lMKMm and Bomi^ — doalHtDOPi.— V^nallnBb Ao» 

— f^iih^ ^h i^ffiK^ — 'Fnreh-HaH jinii ikrnMft tkmm ■ HlmtfulltTiw jpimhn 

Thb Entranoe-HaU ui an apartment of so many cHaiacterirtig 
Tarietiea tibat it may almost be taken as a oriterion of the daai 
to i/tiaStL the honae belongBL In a ease of the least amUtioiia 
Oder it will be*no moie than a sufficiently wide pasaage fiosa 
tbe XSntianoe-door to the Staizcase, being also aU that i^ hovaa 
poasessea for a Corodcv to the principal rooms; whereas in a; 
fiist<elass Mansion it will be a spacioiis and peihaps stately 
apartment interposed between the Porch and tbe Gallery or 
Oortile^ decorated witii paintings and stataaiy, ancestral annoor, 
and the trophies^of the chase. 

In fxst histono^ dbapters and oilierB it has been pointed oat 
fticidentally that were aze timo di^eretii prmcifU$ whidi in cases 
of any importance goyem tbe arrangement of an Entrance-Hall 
especially, as matter of style, involving the distinction between 
Italian and Medioeval design. Our illustrative plans generally 
may be referred to as exemplifying both modes in many forms ; 
in the mean time Plates XYII. and XYIII. may be compared, 
XXL and XXII., XXVI. and XXVH., XXXUL and XXXV. 
In the one class of cases it is essential that the route of entrance 
should be central and direct, leading from the outer doorway 
straight forward through symmetrical Thoroughfares, to ter- 
minate at some such point as one of the chief doors, or perhaps 
the ascent of the Staircase. The other mode appears to take its 
character from an avoidance of such directness and symmetry : 
it places the outward doorway at one comer, for instance, and 
the inward doorway at another, and not even opposite ; the latter 
also will perhaps enter the CJorridor or Gallery in an equally 
irregular way ; and in like manner the room-doors and the Stair- 
case are placed more or less irregularly. The distinction, there- 
fore, is one of fundamental principle. The stately and sym- 
metrical arrangement, as we know, is Classic ; the other, based 
on random convenience, and sometimes on a desire for piquant 
efifect, is Gothic. As to their comparative merits apart from 

Sec. VI., Ch. III. ENTRANCE-HALL. 161 

style, the principle of criticism involved appears to be this : it 
may not be desirable to sacrifice convenience for mere symmetry, 
yet if irregularity be carried into affectation this is even still 
more decidedly an error against good taste. Accordingly, if the 
view we have taken of the mind of Englishmen be correct, — 
namely, that state is to be avoided in the Family-rooms, but 
moderately encouraged in the Thoroughfares, it is probable that 
the symmetrical system, if not pushed to an extreme, will be in 
many cases intelligently approved, and so hr the Classic model 
preferred. At the same time, that there is a tangible charm in 
the other system is proved by abundant evidences' of approba- 
tion, equally intelligent and ardent ; so that it may be said, on 
the authority of the Mediaeval model, that the very absence of 
stateliness, as an element of value, is in numerous instances 
allowed to preponderate here no less than in the rooms. How 
far both characteristics may be combined is sliown in many 
instances by our Plates, as in Nos. XXIX., XXX., XXXIL, 
XXXIV., and XXXV. 

As regards artistic character^ the Entrance-Hall of Classic 
style may be planned of whatever form may be otherwide 
desirable, provided it be only symmetrical ; (see Plates XVI., 
XIX., XXI., XXVI., XXVIIL, and others;) but in anything like 
the Mediaeval manner there seems to be no reason why the old 
Gothic Hall should not be kept strictly in view, this Entrance- 
Hall being all that has been left in its stead for three centuries 
back. (See Historical Sketch, Sij^teenth Century.) For mere 
utility, the very features of the Tudor Hall can scarcely be 
improved upon. We have the Porch-entrance towards one end, 
the Bay-window towards the other; the latter marking the 
quarter of the Family-rooms, the former that of the Ofiices. 
(Plates XVL, XXH., XXXV.; especially the first) The 
Screen of old custom may also be most usefully introduced ; and, 
if it reasonably combines with other arrangements, the Dais 
itself might be elevated a few steps to reach the level of the 
rooms beyond. There is no reason either why the ancient 
Minstrels'-Gallery over the Screens should not be introduced as 
a passage across at the Chamber-Floor level ; and of course there 
is no reason why the Hall should not be two stories high. 
Without recommending anything like mere archaeological au- 
thenticity, one may certainly say that such a Hall might be 


102 TH» 

m&3^ m mAMb iiiimiMitmiiKiiL U imb^ 
and cadnMiA^ ^iiwsleiriilie^ 

JLMfmsimmj nnflmm m 
aay hcM nfag - toM o or ayiHr noli .mem aititdd appsnia^ii 
pecbmit ahmys to be feooouiMBded ; bat tiiia rule is agoodoM 
too tAan ne^^leotod tiiat one or fhe otiher oog^t to be prcmdei 
ia idiatovier ctn^ fer tern fhmgi ba^e a lew hMpftaUe eflbot in 
wintar iba& tte diiD of aa Entance tha*^ baa nener loiowii 

A small P^Hm^^-tmrn k in some aupeiior caaea leqpdted m 
eotmecli oii Iwt b tbe Eaftmiioe-HiaUy aic^ninuig tbe outer, door. 
(Plato XXVL) Tim may alao aerve aa a Skrwrn^* Wmik^ 
romL (Flatoa VIIL and XXL) Tbe Cloak-ream, witb Ha 
Lavatory A& ipitibiii, may alao moat pxif&Aj epesa out of tbe 
Entraaee^HalL {Bee (Moak^-om.) 

Tbe JWndm of an Jlbtmooe-Hall oooaigli^ aoooiding to its 
8be» of one or more taUea at tbe wall^ some obaiis and bendhesy 
petbapa tbe moal atenda (or peibapa sot) for beta, doaksi and 
wafardlai^ and aome miJDor inaMna JPieUtrm are introdnoed, 
and in aapeiior eaaes lr«fiiUai'o£ Inmljng* and tradition; auouary 
alao 18 oocasionally aiq»lkabie» as' &r instance in tbe form of 
portrait busts. Here also seems to be the most eb'gible place 
for arirworh in carvings, stained glass, parquetry flooring, and 
other characteristic decorations. The biUiardrtable has been 
sometimes placed here, but not advantageously either for the 
purposes of play or for the proper purposes of the apartment. 
In a large Entrance-Hall, however, a stately centre-table some- 
times becomes a desirable feature. AMiqtie furniture, by the 
bye, is peculiarly suitable here, — much more so than in any 
other part of the house ; indeed in examples of the most cha- 
racteristic Classicism there seems to be recognised a certain 
appropriateness in even mediaeval relics, and certainly in any- 
ihiQg of traditional interest^ as such, of whatever style. 

It may be noticed in conclusion that, althoiigh there may be 
occasionally a convenience in lightmg an Entrance-Hall from the 
ceUingy this is not to be encouraged. As such an apartment is 
cJways very much of a Waiting-room, the vcJue of a common 
wall-window for look-out must not be forgotten. 

In many smaller houses the uses of Porch and Entrance-Hall 
are combined in a single moderate-sized apartment^ perhaps 


10 or 12 feet square, or larger, having on the outer wall the 
entrance-door, and opposite thereto a pair of glazed doors leading 
into the house. Here we may recom- 
mend double doors at the entrance, — 
namely, a close door externally for the fflfcp^^-^T^llB 
nighty folding away in two leaves against flHJ >^ / |^^ 

the sides, and exposing a pair of glass doors flU ^ l^^k 

within for the day : with this arrangement " 
the Entrance-Hall is made very service- 
able and simple, if large enough ; and the 
recessed doorway forms a Porch, which is ^"" ^"^^^^ '^"^ 
quite enough for its purpose of shelter provided the aspect 
be favourable. 

CHAPTER IV.— Gauden-Entrance. 

Described in aeveral forms. — Not to be in connection with any Servants' Passage, 

Tms is a feature which is not always introduced, even in 
a Country-house ; but, when properly disposed, it places at a 
serious disadvantage every form of that inconvenient substitute 
(even in the old Palladian Saloons) a sash-door in a room. 
Several cases occur in our illustrations, as for instance in Plates 
and others. 

Its purpose is to provide a means of communication with the 
Garden which shall serve for the whole of the rooms of the 
Family Department as a group. There may be a Lobby, or 
a species of Ante-room, or a Conservatory ; or there may be a 
doorway in the Staircase or Saloon, either with or without 
a Porch attached in whichever case ; all that must be prohibited 
is its being so placed as to make of any Dwelling-room a 
Thoroughfare. In position, it may be central in exterior or 
interior eflTect ; thus forming a prominent point of symmetrical 
plan ; or it may be accidentally situated so as to be retired and 
unconspicuous. The latter notion is Mediaeval in style; the 
former Classical. 

To combine it in any way with a Servants' Passage is so 
obviously unadvisable that one is disposed to wonder how this 

M 2 


occurs so ofleu. To plucc in juxtujtositiuu with it, 
times done, a Store-room, Bath-room, or Water-closet, is still 
more an error. As a principle, tho Gai'den-door ought to be a 
epot where a family group may collect at any time, as being 
entirely its own ground. 

For the case of a Saloon- Entrance see the chapter on Saloon, 
^c, a fi>w pages forward. 

CHAPTER v. — Ldogagk-Entr-vnce. 

Piupose aud poaitim 

This k a useful feature in any considerable house. It might 
said more properly to belong to the Servants' Department ; but 
as an auxiliary to the Principal Entrance it may be best 
included here. The idea involved ia simply that of providing at 
any convenient pouit a secondary Entrance to which a carriage 
can pass directly from the Porch-door and set down the luggage 
and sonants. Tlie acceis cyjens of course directly to the Ser- 
Tonts' Department, and not to that of the Family ; and the 
Serrant^-Hall will be one of the first rooms reached. To avoid 
the multiplication of external doors, this may frequently serve 
all the purposes also of the special Entrance for the Bimnesa- 
room. The Owi-room also may be in juxtaposition with it. The 
nearer the Back-Stairi the better. In a lai^ house a luggage- 
Uft will be useful. (See Plates XVII., XVIU., XXI, XXn., 


CHAPTER VL— Otheb Secondabt ENTRAMOEe. 

BaBmeK-Entiauce. — NoTMiy-BntrBDce. — Seoondwy Garden -EntnmoeB. — Ona 
for FWniljr Suite. — Ottx iDvalid's Suite. 

It has already been pointed out, when treating of the Gentle- 
man's-room, that a country gentleman may require a special 
Busineaa-Mttrance; in cases, for example, where the Agent is 
provided for, or where the Luggage-Entrance does not happen 


to be convenient, and so on. The principles to be kept in mind 
have also been discussed. It only remains for us now to notice 
the form such an Entrance may take ; which is a very simple 
consideration. The position ought to be quite withdrawn from 
the Garden, but within easy reach of both the Main Entrance 
and the Servants' Entrance ; so that strangers may approach it 
without crossing the view of tlie Family-rooms, and be also 
readily directed to it from either of the ordinary Entrances. 

A Nur%ery Entrance, so far as the name goes, has often to be 
provided, as in Plates XXI. and XXII. ; but only as a secondary 
Grarden-Entrance. Occasionally, as in Plate XXXV., it may 
serve as a Gtirden-door for the Gentleman's-room. Otherwise 
the Luggage-Entrance may suffice. 

Secondary Oardenr Entrances are not uncommon, (as in Plate 
XVn.) ; especially, for instance, in connection with a Private 
Family Suite, or an Invalid Suite, 

CHAPTER VII. — Gallery; Corridor; Passages. 

Disiinguished and Defined. — Elements of Corridor plan. — Complex plan. — 
Relation of Rooms. — Lines of approach. — Routes of communication. — Privacy. 
— Corridor for Bedrooms. — Inferior Passages. — Style ; the Elizabethan (Gal- 
lery ; its origin, character, and uses. — Further principles of plan involved. — 
Misnamed Galleries. — Illustrations passim, 

A Corridor is a wide and stately Passage : a wider and more 
stately Corridor is a Gallery. In respect of dimensions, we 
may consider any width from 6 to 1 2 feet as belonging to a 
Corridor ; the suitable width for a Gallery being from 14 to 20 
feet ; the length may stretch to almost any extent, from perhaps 
double the width as a minimum. 

Let us first treat of the ordinary Principal Corridor of every- 
day use, and of those simple arrangements of plan on a moderate 
scale whereby on the Principal Story the Day-rooms are made 
to open from such a Thoroughfare, and on the floors above the 
Bedrooms to do the same. 

As regards its Plan, the following suggestions may be offered 
as the simplest first principles. It is a primary rule that a 
Corridor is most advantageously disposed when the windows 
occupy the whole length of one side. (See Sketches, Nos. 1, 




[■t. II., Div. I. 

2, and -L) 'i'he eutmiice from without may theu be best situated 
w'llier at the centre of the other eide. (as in No. 1,) or at the 
centre of one end (Nos. 2 and i). To occupy tlie other end (a» 
in No. 2), or each end (oh in Ho. 1), aa the cafle may be, there 
may be the door of one of the principal apartments. The Stair- 

case may be in the middle of the length (Nos. 1 and 2), or at 
one extremity (No. 4), as may be preferred ; or at one comer, 
say opposite the entrance (S' in Nos. 2 and 3). If the light he 
wholly or chiefly at one end (as in No. 3), Uie consequence is 


darkness at the other ; if in the ceiling, there is generally a want 
of eheerfabiess ; and to be well lighted and cheerful are essential 
points. Subject to modifications indefinitely, these may be 
accepted as the elements of Corridor plan, and indeed it will 
be obvious that our remarks bear equally upon the arrangements 
of the Gallery on whatever scale. 

Complex plan is not advisable ; as for instance when the intro- 
duction of alcoves and breaks in excess produces a want of 
facility in perceiving the relations of the doorways of the apart- 
ments to each other. Convenience, in short, is the first con- 
sideration, and architectural eflfect the second. (See Plate XV. 
for an instance of complexity.) 

As regards the relation of roomsy when the chief doors — those 
of the Dining-room and Drawing-room in most cases — occupy 
the ends centrally and conspicuously, the route between these 
two rooms may be said to have all the importance that plan 
can give (as in Sketch No. 1). The secondary doors, — those 
of the Boudoir, Morning-room, Library, &c., — will then occupy 
one side or both; and if the Staircase and Hall occupy the 
middle of the length opposite each other, the result is at any 
rate a good symmetrical standard plan (as again in Sketch No. 1). 
Otherwise, the ends ought certainly to be occupied, if not by the 
chief doors, by some other features which shall still be important 
(as in Nos. 2, 3, and 4) — such as a window, the Staircase, or 
the Entrance. In every case it ought to be matter of special 
care that the principal apartments shall be readily distinguish- 
able as regards the arrangement of their doors, so that they 
cannot be mistaken for each other — the Boudoir for the Billiard- 
room, for example, or the Drawing-room for the Hall. 

The lines of approach from the Entrance ought to be well 
considered. That to the Drawing-i-oom must be principal in 
importance and facility; that to the Dining-room is of com- 
paratively much less consequence; except it be used as a 
Parlour, when it so far stands for the Drawing-room. The 
Morning-room ought to be of easy access ; and the Boudoir, if 
possible, in some degree the same, — although the quality of 
retirement is generally adverse to this. The Library may be 
secluded to some extent, or it may not, according to the case : 
the Billiard-room ought certainly to be somewhat retired, and 
separated if possible by an Ante-room or Lobby. 

We have to avoid as far as may be possible for all principal 


routes of communication twitted and involved lineg; such us ariseyfl 
for iiigtance, when the comimuy leave Uie Drawing-room on onafl 
aide of a Corridor and enter the Dining-room abniptly on thafl 
same side, or when a fomer has (o be tumeii. It is nhvayafl 
preferable to have the two doors at least in view of each uther^H 
however far distant To pass out of the Drawing-room, wheell 
about, and bo enter tlie Dining-room at the distance of a yards 
or two, is a most mean arrangement. Tu have the two dooiv fl 
directly opposite to each other across the Corridor ia almosfc:! 
worse. (Plate XXV.) I 

Caro ought to bo taken that the domestics have not to trespaB^'J 
too much on the privacy of a Princijial Corridor ; it must in fact I 
be treated as essentially a Family Passage, to which the servants^ 
have no access except when engaged in any special act of per- I 
Bomil attendance. If possible let there be a way from the OSiceff m 
directly into the Entrance-Hull (Plates XVI., XXXV., and! 
others) ; if this cannot be, let the route of a servant to and from I 
the Entrance be so contrived as to cross the Corridor in some I 
almost unobservable way. (Plates XXII., XXVIII., and I 

Ab regudfl Btdnom Oorridon, a nmilar applicsticm of the 
principles of privacy and importance may be made. Although 
it ia essential to have ready accesa for the personal attendants, 
they ought to- be able to reach every part without in any way 
appearing to make the Corridor their own. The routes to the 
Ijadiea' Dressing-rooms, if any, probably most be considered in 
the light of their being Sitting-rooms. 

Paatagea of le8s magnitude and importance, chiefly required 
for the Sleeping-rooms, are to be laid out upon the same rules, 
although perhaps less stringently applied ; and everywhere let 
them be spacious, well lighted, li^e from all unpleasant look'out, 
lofty and well ventilated, cheerful and elegant 

To take up now the question of Style, it vriU be readily 
remembered by the reader of our Preliminary History how 
remarkable a feature in Medieeval plan the G&llebv was,— or, 
it ought rather to be said, in that form of Medifeval plan which 
is the basis of its modern adaptation, namely, the Elizabethan. 
The introduction of Corridors, as a general principle, became a 
prominent point in our view of the sixteenth century ; but the 
adoption of the Gallery assumed the character of a grand artistic 
question, apart from mere accommodation and convenience. 


Previously, in the most objectionable form, thoroughfare-rooms 
had been the universal rule, as is seen in the plan of Oxburgh 
(Plate VII.) : the Corridor came in to knit the entire arrange- 
ment together, on a principle at once novel, simple, and perfectly 
effective, as in Hengrave (Plate VIII.). Within half a century 
or so, as in Hatfield (Plate IX.), we have the Gallery, To the 
great convenience of the Corridor, the Gallery adds a degree 
of stateliness which in its own province certainly cannot be sur- 
passed. The only rival of the Elizabethan Gallery is the Italian 
Cortile (Plates XIX., XXL, XXXIIL, and others) ; and in 
respect of such qualities as cheerfulness, domestic privacy, and 
comfortable usefulness, we confess to hold the Gallery the better 
of the two. 

Between a Gallery and a Corridor there is a question of 
difference in vtilitarian character. A Corridor is contrived for 
passage only, — it is a Thoroughfare proper and no more : a Gallery 
has superadded to this the character of a Family Apartment, 
like the Saloon of the old Palladian and the present continental 
houses. In summer weather it may become, if well planned, a 
favourite lounge. On the occasion of receptions it may take 
rank as one of the chief Public Apartments, both for accommo- 
dation and for display. It is there that the family portraits will 
commonly be placed. It may be even a specially designed 
Picture-Gallery. (Plate XXXV.) In many instances it will 
be the Ball-room of the house, and a very convenient one 
indeed. Accordingly, there are points of style, and points also 
of characteristic convenience, by which other considerations may 
be a good deal influenced. For example, the character of a 
private Family-room, now assumed by what was formerly only 
a Passage, renders it less desirable to have the door of entrance 
in the centre of one side ; a position at one extremity, either on 
the end wall or even towards the comer on the side wall, being 
so far preferable, as in Plates XVIII., XXIL, and XXXIV. 
The Staircase, again, is placed under a similar change of purpose. 
It ought scarcely to divide the Gallery in halves by occupying 
the centre of the length (more especially with the Entrance 
opposite), but ought rather to be withdrawn to a position more 
calculated to secure all the appearances of privacy for both 
the Gallery and itself, — at one end perhaps, or towards the 
extremity of one side. (Plates XXII., XXXIV., XXXV.) In 
any case, the Staircase may require to be separated by a screen 


170 THE TnoBOUGHFARES. IT. II., Div. I. 

if the general aspe<^l uf privacy is to be tnaiutaiiied efFectivoly. 
Firejilacea also havo generally to be introduced in a Gallery. 
A prevailing air of importance, and an amplified purjiose of 
di.'Comtion and artistic effect. becx>me likewise essential objects 
of design ; and a character of clieerfnlneaa is more necessary 
than ever. 

If an Upper Cfallery, pertaining to the Bedrooms, should be 
included in tlie plan, its purposes and principles of aiTaugement 
will be still the same ; but it is expected to be kejit more espe- 
cially to the character of a Corridor, as being a great Ante- 
chamber to Sleeping-rooms. 

In some cases there are ao-ccdUd QalUries, which onght 
rather to be designated Corridors. The four great passages 
which may surround an Elizabethan quadrangle on the Upper 
Htory are called so many Galleries, In the same way we speak 
of the Galleries which surround, whether above or below, the 
Cortile of an Italian Mansion (Plate XIX.>; and indeed we 
apply tho same term to the open Passives around the Court of 
an old English Inn, on Asiatic Caravanserai, or an ancient 
Assyrian Palace. But the Gallery in perfection, oa an Eliza- 
bethan feature appropriated in modem plan, (Plates IX., XVIII., 
XXIl., XXXIV., XXXV.,) is something apurt from these j and 
we prefer therefore to apply to all else the term Corridor. 

CHAPTER TUL— Oentrai/-Hall; Cobtile. 

Tbeii origin ind adaptetion. — The PoUardun Hall ajui the Italian OortUe. — 
DiatiiigtiiBbed in principto iroia tlis Medimval Hall. — Inherent ooo-piivac;. — 
Diapositioii. — Difficult; of troiUng the CoTtile. 

The Gentbal-Hall — sometimes called Saloim, — ^is the Falladian 
equivalent for the Elizabethan Giallery: the Cobtile again is 
the more properly Italian feature upon which it was founded, 
and which has been more recently introduced into English plan, 
as in Bridgewater Honse (Plate XIX.). 

When the followers of luigo Jones brought the Palladian 
model into use in England, this Ghreat Sail was made in a 
manner dogmatically essential. In place of the fotaaken 
Gcallery of the previous ag>e, the basis of internal communication 


was a great central chamber, extending in height to the roof, 
and gnrrounded by the Day-rooms below and the Sleeping-rooms 
abova (Plates XI., XII., XIII.) The Staircase in connexion 
was not generally at first of commensurate importance ; Palla- 
dianism differing here again from Elizabethan plan, in which 
the Staircase had latterly acquired considerable magnificence. 
(Compare even Blenheim itself with Hatfield ; Plates XII. and 
IX.) But in spite of much grandiose endeavour accumulated 
by one age after another upon the Palladian model, it must be 
acknowledged that in course of time the comfortless character 
and barren pretentiousness of the Great Hall came to be 
everywhere manifest ; and, before the date of the reintroduction 
of Elizabethan plan, it may be considered that it had very 
generally become contracted into that more manageable central 
apartment still so much in vogue, which within a comparatively 
small compass includes Hall and Staircase together, as in several 
of our illustrations. (See especially Plates XVII., XXVil., 
XXIX., and XXX.) 

The Cortile, to which its original Italian appellation is still 
distinctively and very conveniently applied, is a most important 
feature, available only, it is true, in rare instances, but capable 
of being treated with so much of the spirit of elegance and 
dignity as to become in every way worthy of being caUed the 
perfection of domestic grandeur of the Classic style. On its 
native ground the Cortile was the interior Court-yard of a 
Palazzo, primarily open to the sky, but ultimately covered over 
in various characteristic instances ; it necessarily embraced the 
entire height of the building; accommodated within itself, or 
had for an immediate adjunct, a stately Staircase ; and was gene- 
rally surrounded by an Arcade-Corridor on each floor, from 
which opened the doors of the several apartments around. The 
covered model would obviously be the only form in which the 
Cortile could be adapted to the purposes of an English dwelling, 

The Palladian or other Classic HaU, it must be clearly borne 
in mind by the architect, has nothing in common with the 
Mediceval Hall ; not only in origin, but in application, the dis- 
tinction is wide. The Classic models are founded upon the 
primitive idea of the Boman Atrium or Court ; the Mediaeval 
upon that of the Grothic Cabin or House-place. In modem modi- 
fications, therefore, of whatever kind, the Classic Hall ought 
to be, as an miter thoroughfare, identified directly with the 


ftWoiTimodation of the Staircase as u eontiiiuatJon of aiieli iuner I 
tlioroiiKlifor.^ (iis in Plates XXI., XXVI., XXXm., &c.); 
wliereas it is oqnally clear tliat of the grand feudal Common- J 
Halls of thi^ fdiirtfienth century nothing is left but the Entrance- J 
Hiill (if so treated) of an Elizabethoji Mansion, a thoroughfare I 
certainly, hut of aii esaentially outer character, and to be con- 1 
nepteid with the Staircase, if at all, only incidentally, I 

The object of a Gallery, as we have jjointed out, involves to a I 
oertain extent the character of a Famili/ Apartment combined { 
with that of a Thoroughl'are, The Central-Uull and Cortila \ 
ecein to be at first sight both in the same position. There ia i 
a difference, however, between the Mediieval feature and the I 
Classic ones in this respect. In the former cose, privacy, a i 
Northern characteristic, ia a supreme consideration; in the J 
latter thoi-o exists that Southern element of non-privacy, which 1 
in a negative, if not a jKisitive form, appears to be iuherent iu I 
Italian plan. Do what we can, it seems impossible to render I 
any form of Cortile or Central-Hall strictly private in the sense I 
here implied. The connexion of the Staircase with it, for 1 
example, is directly at variante with privacy, as riewed in | 
conti'iist with the relations of the Elizabethan Staircase and 
Gallery. (Compare for instance Plates XXI. and XXIT.) The 
invariable necessity, also, of having a top-light has the same 
effect, tending to keep the Hall to the character of a grand 
Thoroughfare and no more, in spite of all desire to the contrary. 
The excessive height adds stOl again to the same result So 
that when, ae is sometimes the case, the Central Hall is used as 
a lUceptum-rovm for important occasions, the impression left 
upon the mind of an EngUshman is that of being received in a 
fine Vestibule at the best ; whereas the Gothic Gallery in such 
circmnstances may have all the character of a strictly private 
chamber. (Compare Plates XXX Til, and XXXV.) 

The principles of disptrntion, as regards the routes of thoron^- 
fare, the relations tt^ether of Entrance, Staircase, and chief 
doors, may be accepted here as laid down under the head of 
Corridor ; and, as matter of style, symmetry and central lines 
are to be everywhere the rule. It u obviotiB that for stateUness 
of communication the Cortile, or any other form of Central-Hall 
on a spacious scale, must outbid all competition. (Plates XIX., 
XXI., and XXXIH.) But on the other hand, if any endeavour 
be made to dispense with the strict integrity of Clasuc regularity, 


nothing can be more instantly productive of dissatisfaction. 
This makes the Cortile in every case a difficult subject of design 
with us. ' K the surrounding apartments were to be formed by 
the mere symmetrical subdivision of a Falladian plan, to be 
appropriated afterwards as best might be, and approached 
through each other (Plates XI., XII., XIII.), all would be easy ; 
but now that we have come to adopt severe rules of primary 
adaptation, by which every apartment is to be specially contrived 
and specially approached, the problem of the adjustment of 
conflicting requirements so as to meet symmetrical arrangement, 
(a thing sufficiently delicate in any case,) when to be worked 
out on the basis of a symmetry so inflexible as that of the 
Cortile, is such as to demand the highest powers of ingenuity. 
In our examination, for instance, of Bridgewater House (Part I., 
Nineteenth Century)^ we could not help seeing that, even in the 
hands of so accomplished a master as Barry, the Cortile was 
matter for much anxiety. 

As regards its adoption for ordinary dwellings, there is this 
objection to the Cortile, tliat the chief Bedrooms, which neces- 
sarily occupy the Upper Story, appear to want privacy. If their 
doors open upon the surrounding Arcade-Corridors, their ex- 
posure to each other is especially inconvenient; in fact, the 
floor of the Cortile, do what we may, can never be divested of 
its public character ; it is little if any more private than the 

However, in those comparatively few instances where the 
upper-story as well as the lower is devoted to Day-rooms, — 
induding for example State Apartments, — the availableness of 
the Cortile cannot be questioned. With a State Staircase in 
combination, probably also a correspondingly fine Entrance-Hall, 
spacious open Corridors around, and the aids of statuary and 
painting suitably provided for, the effect of magnificence in its 
most concentrated form may be made very striking. (Plate XIX.) 



CFIAPTER IX. — Saloon, Ante-room, Vestibuie, LobbtJ 


Solnon defined. — Its (ihamota- in Paltitiiian. pUn. — Gan^tm-Entraiice Uierciii. - 
In ndncecl form. — PfljIout-SalfionB.. — MbrcUiuieonfl Anle-rooma. — Veetihnli 
uud Lobbies and tlicii uk«. — IllnstrHtions. jiiaiim. 

The tfTm Saloon (ItuJian Sala, French SalU. Salon) is 1 
quMitly applied to almost any sort of Central-Hall such ae 1 
beon describe*! in our last chapter ; but this use of the word i! 
not advimble, nor indeed at all necessary, now to encourag* 
Tliia diHtinttion may be laid down. The Hall of any kind, I 
tlie Corridor, must be a Thoroughfare primarily ; tlie 8alo< 
like tht) Gallery, ought to be only partially and secondarily s 
combining with the character of the Thorou^fare that alsd 
the Private Apartment as perhaps its chief purpose, (See i>(tj^] 
roorru. Saloon.) 

The Saloon, in a superior Palladian house, (Plates XI,, XII.^4 
Xin.i) is a stately apartment terminating generally the Central*! 
Hall, fni'inp the Garden or 'J'erraee, and flanked en suite on the ' 
one hand by the Drawing-room, and on the other by a Ball- 
room, Music-room, second Drawing-room, Library, Kcture- 
Oallery, perhaps Morning-room, or even Dining-room, according 
to circumstances. The Garden-Entrance is frequently accom- 
modated in such a Saloon, with perhaps a fine flight of steps to 
the ground ; a very characteristic and imposing arrangement^ 
but one which nowadays must yield to the principle tMt the 
Garden-Entrance, properly so called, onght to be altogether s 
public way. If the apartment be large, the height is often 
carried up to two stories, and it becomes a species of State 
Receptiou-room. A Conservatory also, as a more modem 
adjunct, may be formed occasionally in combination with it very 
effectively. (Later adaptations of the principle may be seen in 
Plates XXI., XXn., and XXX.) 

Frequently, especially in smaller houses, the place of the 
Saloon is now occupied by a smaller apartment of the same 
character, and not unfrequently called by the same name, bat pro- 
perly an Ante-room, sometimes even little else than a Veat^mle _ 
for the Garden-Entrance, — the latter a decided improvement ia 
principle. (Plates XXVI., XXXIII., XXXV., XLI.) 


Occasionally, however, we meet with an apartment in new 
houses of the present day, (see Plate XXX. more particularly,) 
which, under the name of Saloon, takes the character of the 
continental ScdUy or the old English Parlour, more than any 
other; but for this again the reader may be referred to the 
Chapter on the Saloon under the head of Day-rooms. 

MiscellaneoiLB Ante-rooms are introduced with much usefulness 
in certain cases which have already been frequently alluded to 
in treating of the combination of apartments, where they serve to 
interpose between communicating rooms a more efficient barrier 
than the thickness of a door. They also serve for WaiUng-rooTns 
in certain cases. Under this latter arrangement it is worth re- 
membering that the principal apartment ought to have a second 
door, — as probably an invariable rule, although often neglected, 
A fireplace is also indispensable in such an Ante-room. 

A Vestibule in many cases is so far equivalent to an Ante^ 
room, that the only difierence lies in the Vestibule being a 
Thoroughfare only, and the Ante-room something more. A 
Lobby again is so far an inferior Vestibule. But it is chiefly 
when the apartment is a sort of diminutive Hall, for access to a 
certain group of doors rather than to one individual door, that 
it becomes more properly a Vestibule. There is little that 
requires to be said with regard to this class of Thoroughfares, 
except it be that too often there is serious neglect as to their 
light and air, whereby they become not only useless, but worse. 
In cases where absolute enclosure is not essential, this difficulty 
is obviously to be so far surmounted by leaving them open iii 
front, as alcoves. 

CHAPTER X.— Staircases, 

Principal Staircase: when to Bedrooma only, in Classio and Elizabethan plan 
respectively. — Back Stairs, or Second Staircase. — Private Family Staircase. — 
Bachelors' Stair. — Young-ladies' Stair. — Other special Stairs. — When archi- 
tecturally designed. — Ordinary square open newel Stair. — Winders; Circular 
and oval Stairs. — Double-flight Stairs. — Rule for steps. — Width. — Lighting. 
— Wanning. — Basement Stairs. — Tentilation and self-enclosure. 

The Principal Staircase, in an ordinary Country Besidence, 
is no more than the ascent to the Sleeping-rooms of the Main 



House. It tliorefure lusee some part of thi' Btatolmess which 
attaches to it in Town Mausions of any magnitude, where the 
l>ra wing-rooms necessarily occupy the FirstrFloor. However, it 
rutaitis in the Country House enough of importance to render 
it one of the chief features of plan ; whilst in some respects it 
even gains in characteristic value, by being asaociateJ exclusively 
with the privacy of the Sleeping-rooms, rather tiian constitm 
a general and open liighway from the Entrance. Wo may fli 
therefore, treat of ita principles in the Country House. 

Aa regards p*»/(iOTi, there are two considerations to be keptte' 
view together. First, tlie Staircase ought to ho so placed as to 
afford direct passage, for the ladies particularly, from the Puhlic- 
roouis to the liodrooms ; and secondly, the aoceas from the 
Entrance ought to be equally direct, for the ladies again, when 
coming from out of doors, — so that they may not have to pass 
through any great extent of interior thoroughfare. 

In speaking of the Ceutral-Hali and Cortile in Classic plan, 
and tlie Gallery in Media:)i"al plan, we have of necessity said 
almost all that has to be said of the Principal Staircase as regards 
other })oint6 of general arrangement. In the Classic model it will 
probably be placed either in the central Jirea itsflf or in imme- 
diate conjunction with it. In the Elizabethan arrangement it 
will be attached to the Gallery or its equivalent, sometimee (for 
the sake of privacy and comfort alike) screened off, but more 
usually open in front its whole widtL It ascends sometimes no 
further than the First-Floor, there being a secondary Staircase 
adjoining which leads therefrom to i^e rooms above. In other 
cases' the main Staircase itself is carried up to the Second-Floor. 
The former plan ie perhaps the more stately, but the latter 
is generally the more convenient. Moreover, a second story of' 
Bedrooms, accessible by the Principal Staircase, must be obviously 
much more valuable (if the rooms be good enough) thatf the same 
accommodation accessible only by an inferior Staircase. When 
the Firet-Floor is occupied by S^te-roome, however, it becomes 
a self-evident rule that the Grand Staircase shall terminate at 
that stage, and the Bedroom Stair be carried up apart, as in 
Plate XIX. 

The Principal Staircase, as a rule in any good house, is under- 
stood to be closed against the passage up and down of the servants. 
A second Staircase accordingly is provided, called commonly the 
JBack-iStairi. It runs generally from bottom to top of the house. 


Sec. VI., Ch. X. STAIKCASES. 177 

— from the Basement to the uppermost story ; and, subject to 
further refinements in superior houses, it takes, first, all the 
traffic of the servants to the Bedrooms, — secondly, all the Nursery 
traffic, — thirdly, a great deal of family traffic which avoids the 
Principal Staircase for the sake of privacy, especially that of the 
young men, — and fourthly, the traffic of the servants, in part at 
least, to their own Bedrooms. In very large houses there may 
be more than one of these second Staircases, as in Plates IX., 
XII., Xin.; but it is a sign of unskilful plan when there is a 
complication of purpose in this way. 

The further refinements above alluded to are these. The 
Second Staircase may be relieved, first, from the whole of the 
Nursery traffic, which will then be accommodated by some such 
private Staircase as that of a Family-Suite. Secondly, it may 
be wholly relieved from the traffic of the servants in passing to 
and from their own Bedrooms ; tliis being, as a rule, efiected by 
the introduction of Servants'-Stairs and the arrangement of the 
Servants'-rooms apart Thirdly, it may be relieved, in part, of 
the traffic of the young men, by the provision of what is called 
a Bachelors' Stair. Fourthly, it may be relieved of a good deal 
of the housemaids' traffic^ or perhaps all of it, by having a private 
access to the Bedroom Corridor fi^m the quarter of the women's 
rooms, so as to make the Women's Stair serve for the house- 
maids. By these means the Back Stair comes to be at length 
simply a handy way for incidental traffic generally. 

The Private Family Staircase referred to is a special stair from 
the Gentleman's-room and Boudoir below to the Family Bedroom 
Suite above, and so on to the Nurseries. The Servants' /Stairs will 
be treated of under the Servants' Department A Bachelors' Stair 
is one by which single men can reach their own rooms, from per- 
haps dirty weather outside, without using the chief thoroughfares. 
A Young Ladies' Stair, lastly, is one by which to reach, probably 
from the quarter of the mistress of the house, those rooms which 
are appropriated to the young ladies. (See Plate XXXVI.) 

There may also be occasionally other Special Stairs for such 
purposes : indeed, although the multiplication of Staircases with- 
out skilful plan is an evil, yet the experienced designer will not 
scruple to introduce a special stair wherever it may be really 
necessary ; for a Stair, after all, is only a vertical Passage where 
one is wanted. 

The form and architectural composition of a Staircase must be 




luatfcr for the designer; aiid some-times it will be a, siilijt-rt 
wortliy of hia l-est eudeavoure after artislin elTect. In tLe Cortilo 
more especially, or in connection witi it, tlie arrangement may 
have almost an nnlimited amount of novelty and Itcanty, as in 
the native Itnlian Palazzi. But, a|)art from tliis single excep- 
tion, tiie form which seems generally to be preferred in all cases 
i» the tiiniple square open-newel-stair, with half-space, or pre- 
fembly qudrter-space, landings. Winders ought never to be 
allowed iu u good example ; eveii in htK^-k-stairs they are incon- 
venient. Circular and oval Staireases, although attractive on 
paper, are far from being equally good in execution ; the steps 
of such are all winders, and, although the inconvenience may 
not be serious, it is still perceptible ; moreover, the introduction 
of any form of landings at intervals, for the sake of rest, breaks 
tJie curve disagreeably end disjoints the plan. As a thorough- 
fare between the Drawing-room and Diuing-room, a Stair witli 
winders of any sort is notoriously inconvenient, obliging the 
company to come ilown more or less in Indian file. 

That refinement upon the square open-newel-staircase which 
gives a central first flight, with divided upper flights each way, 
is stately and attractive, if space be sufficient ; but always pro- 
vided the pliiii is such that the traffic shall naturally divide 
itself between the two side flights (as when there are two wings of 
Bedrooms) ; otherwise one of them becomes a manifest superfluity. 
Another variety which places the central flight at the top and the 
side flights below is sometimes to be met with ; the advantage here 
being a central position on reaching the landing above ; but tie 
exposure of the under surface of the central flight is not pleasing, 
besides that the construction of that part is complicated. 

To determine the proper height and width for the atepi is 
matter of rule, in a way not always properly understood. Taking 
the proportion of seven and eleven inches as an ascertained 
standard for ordinary stairs, the rule in question is that as the 
one dimension is diminished the other must be increased, in such 
a manner as to bring the footpace as nearly as possible to the 
same interval. Thus a riser of 6 inches will be less easy than 
one of 7 inches, unless the tread be widened to 12 inches or a 
little more ; and 5 inches for the riser will require 14 inches for 
the tread; and so on. Sabject to this rule, however, shallow 
risers make an easy stair. 

The width of a Stair, from wall to handrail, may be as much 
as can be had between 3 feet and 6 feet : the former is the 

Sec. VI.. Cii. X. STAIRCASES. 179 

lowest limit for a secondary Staircase, and anything beyond the 
latter is matter of state. A central flight, when used, ought to 
be about one-half wider than the side flights to which it belongs. 

The aspect of a Staircase is considered to be best when North- 
ward, so as to escape the glare of sunshine and the necessity for 
blinds. Nevertheless, if the glass be obscured or coloured in 
such a way as to render the sunshine, without being ofiensive, 
productive of an effect of its own, there is no reason why the 
result should not be advantageous. Ceiling light is sometimes 
to be tolerated, but never to be preferred for a Staircase, except 
Avhen the walls are adorned with the work of the artist, or when 
the architectural effect itself is sufficiently ambitious to demand 
downward shadows ; in ordinary cases a wall window alone can 
give cheerfulness and proper ventilation. 

Care should be taken to supply means of warming for any 
good Staircase. If so placed with relation io a Corridor or Hall 
as to be warmed indirectly from that source, nothing more is 
needed ; but if not, or if the amount of warmth be insufficient, a 
fireplace or stove, if it can be had, will be found very useful. 

The practice so commonly adopted in small houses, especially 
in towns, of placing the Basement- Stair under the Principal-Stair, 
is not worthy of approval : a slight gain of space is had by this 
means, but convenience will generally be best served by placing 
the lower Stair elsewhere. In a large house the Stair to the Wine- 
cellars, &c., may very possibly be under the Back Stair ; but the 
Principal Stair must be wholly free from everything of the sort. 

One principle with regard to Staircases which we may place 
last, as a means of directing particular attention to it, is this — 
that they act with marvellous facility as condtictors of odours. 
For this reason, as a rule, the service of dinner must on no account 
pass through the Principal-Staircase, or indeed any Bedchamber 
Staircase whatever. Again, if the Kitchen be in the Basement, 
the Dinner Stair (see chapter on Basement- Offices) ought to go 
no farther up than to the Dining-room. Ventilation for all 
possible Stairs is of the utmost importance;, The enclosure of 
Stairs generally, by doors at bottom or doors at top, or both, 
although not always requisite, is never unworthy of consideration. 
At the same time, the maxim that a Staircase is a natural venti- 
lating shaft to the house is to be fully acknowledged, provided 
the house needs, as it ought not to need, such aid. 





CHAPTER I.— General Rbmakks. 

Defliiltion. — Familj comfort not to be stKlificed. — Two modes of ■noJingingthilL-^ 
GentraJ nili» titill to gorem. 

Although we set out with a maxim to the effect that the 
of society with whose Residences we are dealing desire the 
t«(!t to restrain his professional leanings towards display, yei 
there are necessarily instances where in liousea of the first class 
the high position of the owners in rank and wealth requires to 
be maintained in palatial state. A few brief remarks, therefoi 
upon the dameetic view of State-Apartments will properly foi 
pan of onr inquiry. 

The primary maxim in favour (X family comfort in the Family- 
rooms must be understood to govern, without diminution, no 
matter wlu^ amoimt of state may reign elsewhere. There are two 
waya of accomplishing this ; either the State-rooms may be alto- 
gether separated from the Family-rooms, or ingenuity of plan may 
be brought to bear upon such a combination of the two claaseB 
t^^ther, upon the basis of Thoroughiares which shall be in whole 
or in part common to both, as shall preserve for the Family- 
rooms in their everyday use the quietade, comfort, convenieoce^ 
and freedom from display, which are so mnch esteemed. The prin- 
ciple of Beparatian is obviously best applicable to the more exten- 
sive establishments, and that of combinatim, to the less extensive. 

It may be noted preliminarily that what has to be said will 
turn very much upon the assertion of a principle which mig^t 
easily be forgotten, namely, that even these apajtments of state 
are not to be exempted from the ordinary r^;ulationB of plan, — 
in other words, that they are not to be governed too exclusively 
by consideratioDB of ceremonial and display, but none the less 
by the same views <tf practical utilitarianism and re£ned modent- 
tion which have been o^ed for less imposing cases. 


CHAPTER II.— State Dining-room. 

Modification of ordinary principles. — Fomiture. — Dinner-route. — Service Ante- 
chambers, Approach, &c. — Position, aspect, &c. — Supper-rooms and use of 
Family-rooms or Gkdlery. 

In the apartment known by this name, however grand, it is very 
important that the architect should be governed by the same 
general principles which have akeady been laid down for the 
ordinary Dining-room ; there being, indeed, but little to add in 
respect of plan except expansion of dimensions and superior im- 
portance. It would be too much to say that architectural effect 
should be repudiated on the same grounds as in an ordinary 
Family-apartment; on the contrary, the character of state 
renders it often desirable to attempt artistic treatment of the 
best, not merely in decoration, but in arrangement itself; never- 
theless to exceed in this respect the bounds of good taste is an 
easy matter. To make of the room any sort of Grand Hall, — 
to give it circular, cruciform, or other complicated plan, — to 
provide ceiling-Ughts in place of wall-windows, — ^to finish with a 
dome instead of a flat or covered ceiling, — are illustrations of 
what must be considered to mar the very purpose of the apart- 
ment, which, while certainly a State-room, is a Dining-room stilL 
The dining-table, again, does not depart from the simple usual 
form ; and it has to be remembered that it is not an increase in 
the number of guests, but a superior style in the service of the 
repast, which constitutes the character of state. (Plate XIX.) 
In respect of sideboard, also, and other furniture, the old rules 
still apply, except that statuary and other objects of art, with 
the requisite pedestals and cabinets, may be perhaps largely 
introduced in harmony with the architectural design. 

The rules for an ordinary Dining-room with reference to the 
cUnner-ToiUe and the usual relation to the Butler' 9-Pantry must 
still be kept strictly in view. The ServiS^oom becomes appro- 
priately enlarged ; and a Butler' ssermce^oam may have to be 
specially provided. The Ante-chamber for servants is more ne- 
cessary than before ; not forgetting an intervening Lobby. An 
Ante-room or VestibtUe, also, attached to the entrance, is of im- 
portance, if it can be had, with folding doors. The character of 

fTAT^aocns. nc 

e br ike^ifnaek maAthoht natter of pumtakio^ 

t ia view M • nile. JUptet maaanr uait aspeemSij ho 

I, aad pvtiralariT ftw tW anaduknp of tbe erenti^ 

(Ib Plate TCt.n. Uie Piiuii{r*nioB. Wahing^Kim. utd 

s'mvob, may tfjud ai illnstratioas of Uh-> State 

, Hemcofooat. umI Bailer'»«CTviee lec^-^r^. 

B DinMr£tatr ataj alao be pointed otU, and tlie isalooD-nmto 

.. ) 

■ CMM wtmv fitab* l>nwiDg'n)ogu ar« Euda* to ocFopj the 

WVbtli-Vloar, the Sbile l>aiii>g-rouiii vill often be better pitOAtfd 
l>«n the Grooud-FtiKir; (lliix, Ituirerer, is not so in Plait XXX. ;) 
1 liieii ai)j>iUURg it there may puwiUy be certain le« im- 
kOt afttrlmcnts to be used ts additional Sapper-rooms fior a 
9 canjNUiy. Otberwiie the FaniilT Pining-^txim and aome 
I OD the OnKinii-I-loor may be made arailaUe for i 
; aod a eprndaoB Oallecy, if there be one, may i 

Ue far thi^^ 
may nlBn^^l 

CHAPTEE m.— State DRAwraa-Hoom. 

A* k Mpante Cbcnit-Smle. — Familj Booma in moDectioB.— PicKne QaDay, 
ditto. — Specul priodplei of ]dui. — Aspect, decoration, tc, vajming ukd tod^ 
tihtitm- — Hore ordjnurj caaea of s preserred Dnwing-room ; aod oecaaioDal 
Beceptton-thtite of Vtmlj-iooiDa. — Illustrations. 

Whes these are of great magnitude, for receptions of the highest 
class, it becomes desirable that no other apartments whatever 
shonld be so placed as to interfere or cotmect with them. Sup- 
pose them, for example, to occupy the whole or the chief part ct 
the First Floor, they ought to form one grand Oircuit- Suite, 
beginning at tbe Staircase and returning to end there, — the 
private part of the house being altogether separated. If, how- 
ever, the architect's jpstmctions should be to place some of the 
private Family-roomt, say Drawiug-room, Library, and Saloon, 
in such connection with the State-rooms as to be available as 
part of the Suite when required, this may be done on the same 
principle. In such a case, however, an Ante-room ought to be 
interposed at the point of division. A Picture- Qalkry may also 
be very advantageously made to form part of tbe Suite. Plate 


XIII. shows an arrangement which is by no means satisfactory. 
Plate XIX. is much better. Plate XLIII., viewed in the light 
we have indicated, seems all in confusion. Plate XLII. itself is 
not what we could wish. 

The principles of plan in State Drawing-rooms will be scarcely 
the same as those of the ordinary Drawing-room, — although the 
purposes may seem to be analogous. A series of spacious Gal- 
leries is what is now required, almost exclusively for evening 
use, occupied by all the varieties of tables, seats, cabinets, and 
ornaments, but everything so disposed as to allow the promenade, 
conversation, and pastime of the fashionable world to be con- 
ducted, with as little awkwardness as possible, in a crowd. 
Aspect and prospect are therefore, so far, of little moment. The 
principle of the fireside is left far behind. The form is no longer 
confined to simplicity ; any amount of complex eflfiect may be 
safely aimed at in this way t>o long as the purposes of the rooms 
are fairly answered. The rule in favour of a light and graceful 
sti/le of decoration will still hold good. In respect of perhaps all 
other points upon which we laid stress in treating of the ordinary 
Drawing-room, tlie rule of practice will be self-evident. Warm- 
ing and ventilation^ liowever, will be seen at once to be amongst 
the most important questions. A thorough genial warmth ought 
to be kept up in the rooms continuously, and the vitiated air of 
a large assemblage readily and imperceptibly renewed ; and in 
both cases the effect has to be accomplished in spite of open 
doors, and without creating draughts of any kind. 

There are instances where in less pretentious Mansions a cha- 
racter of state is assumed by the Drawing-rooms in a way which 
deserves to be alluded to. There is provided a second and 
superior Drawing-room, which is preserved^ — that is, seldom used 
except for receptions, when it is thrown into connection with the 
ordinary Drawing-room (perhaps the Morning-room) with excel- 
lent effect. The interposition of an Ante-room, however, is 
always to be recommended ; or a large Saloon, if disposed on the 
Palladian plan, is still more available for this purpose, becoming 
in some cases the means of throwing into combination with the 
Drawing-rooms, as an Occasional Reception^ Suite, one or more of 
the other Family-rooms, and perhaps a Gallery also or Central- 
Hall, whereby the ensemble has a very superior character for the 
time. The remarks which we have made respecting the Gallery, 
Central-Hall, and Cortile, may be further referred to as bearing 


1*1. 11.. Uiv. U 

upon tiiis queetion. (Plates XIIL, XVI.. XXVIl., XXX.. 
XXXIII., XLl., aud XLIV., may be looked at with referenot 
tu thi! general printriples here involved.) 

CHAPTER IV.— Ball-room. 

DuHnvil. — ArmngmiCTit of Jooni, windowi, (Note ou draughla). Orehretm, IWu- 
quetle. Dula, &c. — Camiuon-Hntl of the kind fi>r Couotrj Haiuea. 

Thu* term is uftcn applitMi in a colloquial way to the n])iirtm(iut 
described in the last chapt<?r as a supplementary Drawing-room ; 
and in any other form it seldom otrciirs except in jialtiti'al hooaes. 
In the former case, being still eBsentially a Pra wing-room, if it 
be planned and fumisbed with an eye generally to the ptirposes 
of dancing, this will be enough ; but in more formal cases it 
becomes very diEfereut iJi principle. 

A proper Ball-room will be a spacious apartment entirdy 
unfurnished except with seats and ornaments, — the whole cen- 
tral area being vacant, and couches or chairs placed around tlie 
walls. (Plate XLIII. exhibits a good Ball-room; but certain 
Continental peculiarities are to be allowed for.) Wide foldii^ 
doors ought to be provided ; placed in the centre of one or both 
ends, rather than at the side. The mneU>w» ought to be elevated, 
BO as not to incommode those persons who are seated under 
them." An Orchettra may be constructed as a gallery. A 
Banquette or platform, raised one, two, or even three sncoee- 
aire steps, may be put round the walls for the seats, to elevate 

• Hanj peraons oannot andentand 
vby theie dumld be a dmnght trtsia t. 
closed iniidow. Let the SEbee be fitted 
evei to well, shattere ehvt, and coiteine 
diKwn eTsr to tightly, yet still theie a n 
di&Dght, the; ny. So tbare miut be. 
Bappoae it ii ytsrf cdd without and very 
wann within : ooTer the window m yon 
may, the altimate dinaion between the 
eold and the warm air it bnt thin glsn, 
a rapid oondnclor at the beat In dedgn- 
iag the initinctB of the atmosphere Pro- 
vidence does not aeem to have thooght 
of bthioDable yoaug ladiet vraltzing in a ! 

crowd at two in the morning in mid- 
winter. The warm air within r*Tnrtt. 
therefore, in sharing lis oalori(% through 
the giaw. with the cold air withont; and 
no sooner ia it suCBaieDtly moled thwaby 
than it mahe* back into the wanntii 
again. The glass snrfaoe la probably 
tatge, ao mnoh the more of thia goes on : 
the shatters and drapery aie taMbSij 
cloaed, and ao much the more Tiolenlly 
do the alternate streama afaoot like ahaip 
lances through all crevioes. If mil fitted 
shutters be pnt oaimde, by the bye, matters 
will be mnoh improved. 

Chap. V. BALL-ROOM. 185 

the sitters sufficiently for a view of the dancers. A Dais at one 
end may be required for Eoyal or other princely state ; perhaps 
a special Gallery or Balcony for spectators. 

The position for a Ball-room in most cases ought to be as 
nearly as possible in conjunction with the Drawing-rooms. Good 
contrivance, with the help of Ante-rooms, must prevent the 
sound of the music from seriously disturbing the company else- 
where. It need scarcely be remarked that in any case the 
floor upon which dancing is to take place must be constructed 
with a special view to rigidity. Warming and ventilation are 
more than ever important. 

In some cases there is a spacious apartment called by the 
names of Ball-room and Banqueting-room interchangeably. This 
is no more, however, than a supplementary Common-Hall to 
accommodate large assemblies (whether gentle or simple) for 
whatever purpose, — ball, banquet, concert, or anything else of 
the kind. The Orchestra is essential. Otherwise the design 
may be plain ; and the furnishing is of little moment There is 
an apartment of this sort at Balmorajl (Plate XVIII.) ; it is 
modelled in some degree on the ancient Common-Hall ; and one 
is prompted to wish it had been made much larger, so that the 
historical arrangement might have been carried out wholly. 
Indeed in passing wte may suggest that a " Hall " for merry- 
makings might often be so added to the plan of our Country- 
Houses with excellent utilitarian effect, so that " the good old 
English Grentleman," when he desires to entertain his tenants, 
perhaps his constituents, need iwt have to choose between a 
tavern and a marquee. 

CHAPTER V. — Music-room; Concert-room; Prfvate 

Theatre; etc. 

Mumo-room, as an apartment specially oontrived for aootiBtio piizx)oee8. — Bectan- 
Cfolar plan sofflcient. — Harmonic proportionB. — Other aooiutic mATima of 
arrangement and construction. — Application of these to an ordinary Drawing- 
room. — Private Theatre — a Musio-room so far suflScient. — Stage, Dressing- 
rooms, space for scenery, &c. 

The reason we have for treating of a Music-room in this 
Section is not to suggest any need for including such a thing 

186 STATB-EU0M8, KTr:, Pr, ll„ Inv. IL 

omnngst ordinary Stnte-rncima ; but rather, iijwn the liiwJs of tlio 
idea that aa apartment really suitable for music may sometime« 
be made an item of a*'rommo<iation for company, to point out a 
fow cousideratiose afli'Ctiug rooms in goiu^ral as regards Euch 

A Music-nooM in ordinary parlanco la Bometimee conatitnted 
by placing an orpaii iu a particular Ante-room, or in a Saloon 
or Gallery, whereby tlic apartint;nt is in a manner idoutilied 
with ijinsieal performances of a more pretentions character than 
those of tho pianoforte in the IJrawiug-room ; but there is no 
snllicicnt reason why the name should be applied iu any stioh 
ciute, or in any case at all, unless when the ajtartmeut is to some 
extont epecjally coufitmcted for acoustic pur|jo8e8. 

The suggestion which might at first occur to the mind as 
regftrds the form of a projier Bluaie-room is that it ought to bo 
a BOrt of reduced example of a Theati-e ; but to proceed u|)on 
NUeli an imjtression would be quite an error, — for tliis reason, 
that no apartment of the kind iu a private Kcaidence can 
possibly be requirtd of sncb large size as to demand the aid of 
theatre-plan. A vocal performer of the most moderate voice can 
Iki beard distinctly throughout a plain rectanfrn'ar room, 40 feet 
wide by (iO feet long; dimensions quite sulEcient for any private 
Music-room. (For instance, the Concert liooni at Ijuckingham 
Palace is 70 by 40 feet, and about 27 fnfet liigh.) So far tliere- 
fore as regards mere form, there may be said to be no necessity 
for improving much upon the model of an ordinary apartment. 

The considerations which have to be adverted to are conse- 
quently no more than those which give to an ordinary apartment 
acouatie aid. First, it is (Knsidered desirable that the dimensions 
of height, breadth, and length should be exact harmonie pro- 
portiona, such aa 2, 8, and 4, for example, respectively; say, 
perhaps, the height 16 feet, the width 24 feet, the length 32 
feet. We are supposed by theorists to secure by this means a 
harmonious concordance of the waves of sound ; which one must 
ask the reader to take upon trust, as tlie question is not within 
our present province. A mere approximation to sucb propor- 
tionp, however, is said to be worse than a total disregard of them : 
and the room must on no account be comparatively lofty, as this 
allows the sound to be lost in the waste space above. It is well 
also to form tbe ends on some other than a plain rectangular 
plan ; — with a curve perhaps, or a spacious recess, or at least 


rounded angles: this prevents reverberation. For the same 
reason we have to avoid plain blank side-walls : their surfaces 
must be broken up by means of recesses, windows, piers, and the 
like ; and curtains also will assist the object. The ceiling again 
ought in like manner not to be occupied by hollow skylights, 
which prevent proper reflection ; but rather by panelling, or by 
some light open roofing. Another principle is to cove the ceil- 
ing, especially at the ends; whereby transmission of sound is 
augmented as regards the performers, and at the same time co!n- 
centrated as regards the audience. Then let the walls, and 
indeed the ceiling, be as far as possible lined with boarding 
rather than covered with plaster ; — this produces resonance, con- 
stituting the room a sort of musical instrument. Lastly, the 
floor must be specially covered with a soft and absorbent ma- 
terial, such as carpet or matting; or the room must be well 
filled with an auditory to serve the same purpose. These 
appear to be simple principles readily made available ; and no 
doubt a great deal is to be done, by means of their application, 
towards making a simple room acoustically efiicient. 

It has already been suggested that a Drawing-room might in 
many cases be made a subject for similar treatment, for the 
mere sake of its ordinary use in respect of music ; and indeed it 
is so often remarked that certain rooms of everyday proportions 
are favourable to the musician, while certain others, seemingly 
very much the same in form, are strikingly unfavourable, that it 
cannot be doubted we should often do well, in the construction 
of ordinary Drawing-rooms of large and important character, to 
give a place to several or perhaps all of the considerations 
recited. At any rate the use of wood or some other sound- 
absorbing material for ceiling and walls, and perhaps the sub- 
stitution of coves or curved comers lor the square angles of 
common custom, might be easily effected, if nothing more. 

For private theatricals, so far as they may have to be specially 
provided for, nothing more seems to be required in the first 
instance than to have a Music-room constructed on acoustic 
principles as just described ; all that applies to music applying 
equally to elocution. The proportion of the plan, however, if 
particularly intended for dramatic performances, might be more 
nearly square. It might also become desirable to have the 
seats, if possible, no longer level, but raised from the stage back- 
wards. The stage is most properly provided for by forming an 

188 STATE BOOMS, ETC. Vr. JI., I>iv. II. 

adjunct of audi sizts aa may be dictated, with two or more Dreas- 
ing-roome couveuiently near, and sufficient space over and under 
and at the wings for the management of the eceuee. All this, 
however, is matter which does not, in such a work as tlie present, 
demand anjihing approaching to detailed description : and it is 
best for us to consider that a Music-room as above described 
may be made to serve all possible purposes by enclosing a stdgg 
~ temporarily at oue end, and using for dressing-rooms such apart- 
ments as may be conveniently at hand. 

■* CHAPTER VI. — Great Library; Mdseum, etc. 

AiTBUgemEnt at a. t^uile of LibmrieB !□ bajs. — Artistio cnpabtlitieB. — CollecUoiu 
of art or aeiciice. — Arrangomcut of n Single Libtarj orlar^ size. 

It sometimes becomes necessary in a tirst-clasa Mansion to pro- 
vide accommodation in a stately manner for a very exteoaive 
collection of books. The principles of plan which arise in large 
Jjibrariea may therefore to some slight extent demand attention 

The idea which might first occur to the mind is ihatrti a 
single spacious apartment; but for convenience, and in order 
to preserve the domestic character, it is generally preferable to 
make use of several smaller apartments as a Suite of Libraria. 
On this plan the arrangement which is perhaps most &vourable 
to considerations of utility, 
and on the whole most cha- 
racteristic, is to set out a 
given width of clear passage- 
way along the central line of 
the rooms, and then to di- 
vide the apace on each side 
into a succession of com- 
partments or bays, by means 
of transverse bookcases in 
pairs back to back; such 
bays being only large enough 
BaieiiDdiiciMiM. to accommodato a reading* 

table, vrith sufficient space around for reaching the books, 
opening the doors of the cases if any, and so on. If the rooms 


be lighted from the roof, the lights ought to correspond with 
the division into compartments, so that none of the fronts of 
the bookcases shall be placed in shadow. If there be windows 
in the walls, there ought to be one in each bay along one side of 
the room or both as may be desired Bookcases against the 
walls are obviously most serviceable with the ceiling light ; with 
side windows, even when these are on a high level, there is 
always a difficulty in reading the back-lettering imder the light ; 
and when the windows are on a low level, dwarf bookcases under 
them are practically of little use. 

As for artistic treatment, nothing can be more appropriate for 
the character of a Library than those effects which are at the 
command of the architect in a Suite of apartments of this kind, 
laid out probably with some variety in the general forms as well 
as in the fittings, and involving perhaps the introduction of 
sculptures and paintings of a suitable kind. Elaborate effects, 
however, of whatever sort, and the accommodation of any other 
works of art than those whose merits are kindred to the cha- 
racter of the more proper contents, ought not to be encouraged. 

As regards curiosities and other artistic or scientific collections^ 
these may very properly be accommodated, whether in upright 
cases to correspond with the bookcases, or in cabinets to take 
the place of the reading-tables. 

The arrangements proper for the alternative plan of a large 
Single Library are obviously simple. A gallery is probably 
carried round the apartment ; the bookcases extend along the 
wall below, and are reproduced above; the light comes from 
either the roof or the upper part of the walls ; the floor area 
is generally occupied solely by reading-tables and cabinets. 
Objects of art or curiosity when of large size are more pro- 
minently displayed by this arrangement ; and the whole effect 
may be made very imposing; but it is doubtfrd whether con- 
venience and comfort can by any means be so properly provided 
for as in the other modeL 

There are questions of detail which might be further entered 
upon ; but a reference to what has already been advanced under 
the head of the ordinary Library will probably suffice. 


OHAPTEB VIL — State Galleries, Galleries of Art, 


beeqiUMiQanarjdalliitMl. — Illusinitions —Ligbting,<liM)n,&a.— Model Pictun^ 
GidlaX ; ita li^ttug^ wi'lth. Iiciglit, &u. — Tlie otuc of Boulptuie. — Coved ceUiiig- 

Ths KpeoieB at GtilliTy hero first implied, at a State Reeeptitm- 
romi, ia a connteipiirt of the Elizabethan Galk'ry, but without 
its character of a 'I'lioroughfare. To be complete in it-s object, 
it ought to acconiuiixlatc, if not a coUectiou of ijictiires and 
atatoary, at least u sutlicient oasemblage of miscellaueoua objects 
of art to give it value. An organ ali^o, for essmple, loay be 
placed in it with advantage, so as to confer upon it an additional 
parpose. It may be of wlmteycr length may hap|>en, buyoud at 
least twice its width ; but its width niu;^t be such m to betit a 

Tba TariooB forms of Galleries which appear in Plates IX^ 
Xn, XnL, XIX.. XX., XXXV., XLII., and XLni., will be 
generally illnstntivc of tlie present chapter. 

The Ughdng may lio eitlifr ironi tlie ceiling, or from ordinary 
windows, or from elevated windows ; but in usual cases, if 
ordinary windows are possible, they are probably always to be 
preferred, — other modes of lighting being deficient in cheerfiJ- 
ueas. At the same time, for the display of pictures and 
sculpture and other kindred ort^works, when this is the chief 
point for consideration, top-light is essential. Perhaps in many 
instances an occasional wall-window of the common form may 
be made sufficient for cheerfulness, in combination with the 
general top-light for use. 

The doors may be in various positions ; but upon these will 
depend very much the character of the apartment. With doors 
in tlie centre of each end, it acquires more of the appearance at 
least of a Thoroughfare-Gallery ; with doors in one side only it 
will have more of the appearance of a Drawing-room ; whilst 
one or more French-casement windows opening towards a Lawn 
or Terrace, or even a Balcony, and doors opposite towards some 
of the Family-rooms, will give it the character of a Saloon. In 
either of these forms it may be made a very charming feature in 
a good house, — preferable for instance in most cases to anything 
more strictly in the form of a supplementary Urawing-room. 


For a more proper Pieture-Gallery a very good practicable 
model will be in width about 20 feet, in height 20 feet, and in 
length anythiDg from 50 feet to 100; as in Plates XX. and 
XXXV, For cases of greater state, the width being increased, 
the height, especially by the help of architectural troatment in 
the ceiling, may he increased as much or more, and the length 
dealt with according to conYCnience. (See Plate XIX.) The 
designer onght to represent upon his sectional drawing the size 
and situation of the pictures, statues, and other works, which 
are to be accommodated; and two questions are then to be 
carefully studied. First, the dUposUwn of the light, in the 
ceiling most probably, must be such that a person looking at a 
pictui'e in front, and at whatever reasonable distance, shall not 
see the reflection on the varnished or glazed surface. Secondly, 
the amoma of light onght to be sufScient to show clearly the 
smaller objects; which is not generally the case in (jralleries 
more than 25 or 30 feet high. Keeping in mind these two con- 
siderations, and regulating the width of the opening accordingly, 
it seems only necessary further to remember that the more 
nearly the akylight is made continuous the better, because, if 
there bo left sufficient intervening 
space anywhere to cause a shadow to 
be cast, the elTect upon pictures may 
be prejudiciah 

The marginal illustration represents 
the Section of one of the Picture-Gal- 
leries at the South-Kensington Mu- 
seum, London, which is found to be 
the most satisfactory in respect of s«i. i ind. lo an ttat 

lighting. The width is 20 feet, and the height about the name. 
The light is in tlie ceiling, about 10 feet wide, extending along 
the centre continuously. To ascertain the conditions of any ' 
such Gallery with regard to the first-mentioned consideration 
of reflection is easy enough. Add to the sectional drawing an 
accurate reverse of itself on the basis of each wall, or, more 
correctly, on the bases of the planes of the pictures to he 
placed thereon. (In this instance both walls are similarly 
circumstanced, and the reverse is drawn on one side in dotted 
lines; the picture-plane being taken as vertical.) Then indi- 
cate the position of any required point of view; and from 
that point draw lines to the edges of the reverse of the light. 


Hui'li lineK, wluTe they put the wall, will euclose the pn 
space wliicli will yield a reflection of the light to tlie gi^en 
point of TiBW. Awordiiigly, if wc ttikf the height of 4 feet 
from thp floor for tht- t>ye of a peraon Boated, and SJ feet for 
that of a person standing, and plaoo points at these heights 
at Biiccpsaive diHtances from the wall, drawing lines to the reverse 
of the light as juBt described, we ascertain what height of wall ia 
in each case Gee from reflection. 'ITie linos on the illustration 
show that tlie example before lis is very well contrived in thia 
respect. A person standing very near the wall to inspect 
muiut© work sees to the height of 8 feet ; if seated in the middle 
he eoes to tlie height of iO feet; and if looking at a large 
picture from the opposite side of the Gallery lie sees ^^^ till 
height of 15 feet. As regards secondly the question of 
amount of light (which depends upon the circumstouces of ail 
tion in many ways), the dze of the ceiling opening in this 
namely half the width of the Gallery contmnously, may no 
doubt be accepted as a certain standard, — obviously, however, a 
very ample allowance, to meet the case of the metropolitan 
atmosphere, and requiring diminution by blinds when tho 
weather is bright. 

For sculpture \]i(; lif^lit ought to be ])eculiar; in fact, as a 
riih.'. ever;' stiiliio nij;;lil |<i liave its om W^hX. 
both as regards position and elevation, — with no 
interference &om other lights. Choice works 
are worthy of this rule being provided for; 
although it is seldom done. Ordinary works 
must take their chance ; but in most Grall^ies 
oov» CBUKo LBm ». ^'t'^ forethought (with top-Ught as an easen- 
■w ouun. tial) might effect a good deal of improvement 

Sc4le I Inch b> W f»L ^ - ., ■ 

even m tnis. 
For the most efficient lighting of small objects in cabinet$, 
a coved ceiling is recommended, with skylights along the 
coves alone ; but the width and height of the Galjery most be 
suitably proportioned — a thing to be best done perhaps by 
special experiment according to the case in hand. This section 
however is not so well adapted for pictures on the scorfi of 


CHAPTEK Vni.— Domestic Chapel. 

Historical remiiiiBoenoes. —Exceptional in our day. — Whether to be ecdesiastioal 
in character or not. — YarioiiB means of access. — Height, ornamental character. 
Altar, &c. ; Desk, &c. ; Seats. — Yestiaiy. 

In out preliminary history, the Chapel, it will be remembered, 
was foimd to be a somewhat prominent feature of domestic plan 
in the middle ages. As early as the commencement of the 
Anglo-Norman period it proved to be a point of propriety that 
the house of a gentleman, even on a small scale, should contain 
a little cell for prayer. In the establishment of the Sovereign, 
however, a considerable Chapel was evidently indispensable: 
and it is easy to understand that the greater nobles followed the 
same nile, and so introduced within the walls of their dwellings, 
as matter of public and private duty, the formal Chapel, of a 
degree of dignity corresponding to that of the house. 

The principle involved was essentially Mediaeval, or, as we 
UQW say, Romanist; so that, upon the introduction of the 
reformed faith and discipline, the office of a family chaplain, and 
the purposes of a Family Chapel, would obviously fall into 
desuetude. From that time, consequently, the Chapel, as a 
feature of domestic plan, may be considered to have entered 
upon its decadence. Another cause which no doubt operated 
indirectly was the circumstance that the Chapel primarily was a 
thing pertaining to the great Castle rather than to the small 
Manor-house ; and so, although the Manor-house itself became 
great, and ultimately supplanted the Castle, it scarcely accepted 
the Chapel as a rule, except in the largest examples. At all 
events, the Reformation certainly oflfered no encouragement to 
the continuance of Private-Ohapel worship ; and it is only in first- 
class Mansions that a Chapel is included after that date, — as 
matter of traditional dignity indeed, rather than anything else. 
Accordingly, in the series of our chronological illustrations, 
although not only Hengrave and Hatfield, but Stoke Park, 
Blenheim, and Holkham, possess every one the Chapel in its 
integrity, yet if our examples had been of inferior class, the 
case would not have been so. In the present century it is 
only very rarely that the Chapel has been retained in the 

plan of a new building. Such cases, however, still occasion- 



?T. II., r>iv. U. 

tlM Domestic Cimpel must so fnr lio 


now " 

Tl» fint qBMliim (rf Mp ia this ;— aball tho Chapel of a. 
IfrMMMM dii^lay a denunstoith-o eeckgiiutical aspect, or sliall it 
ndMt ba nikde Wwtlra Mf IMI mudvetlT' d<mi€stio f Tbere will 
bs tn opi ni cMM on lltil ^pMAion. One claea of persons will 
adTOOkte llie idea that itl mtiteA character ought to be mnni* 
ftitBd ia gWnyfluDft that for example it Rliould be sepamt^l 
flma & balk of the Dirdliiii^ — api>roa<-hed from the open air, 
— Adgned in itrictly eoderautical, and by no meane domostio 
. «r wna^ax etyle. — tbat in a word it should be a complete little 
Chnratk Ai>n*t>«» dMi oi parsons will ai^uo on the conttwy 
thai itl Ibiotif dmwitiD ofaaractor ought to be carried into 
eTai7 detail of its ■irangBiawat and design,— that it ought to ba 
BMte IJka ft ISbaxj in mienrance, an integral part of the 
Dwdhnf both withoot and within, — and, above all other con- 
wtfaiatiotM^ diitinotlT' nODreedisiastical. 

For llioaB whoee opnioBa accord with the first-mentioned 
■enthaewt^ no qiedel deaoriplaou of particulars is here neGe»< 
mrj, beoaoK Aeir ivqninaients would be merely those «f 
ordinary Chiu<(!li plan; bot btith parties may perhaps safely 
adopt the following suggestions. 1. There may be a priTate 
Family Entrance, — on the Ground-Floor if possible, yet not 
opening from the Principal Gallery or Central-Hall, bat rather 
from a secondary Corridor or the Entrance-Hall ; the Servant^ 
aaxn ought then to be from a Corridor of their own ; and pro- 
miscuous vintoTB may enter by both means. — 2. Otherwise, 
there may be but a saiffle entrance, from the Entrance-Hall or 
some other point at which the family and the aerrant^ can meet 
without passing over each other's ground. — 3. Or, once mcve, 
the ancient form of a Balcmy-gaSety on the upper floor level 
may be used for the FamUy-aeiU ; hot this is not so convKiient 
as a craiuection with the Ihincipal Floor. — 4. If the Chapel b» 
removed from immediate connexion with the House, it ou^t to 
be accessible if possible by a Covered-way or Cloiater; which, of 
course may be made to serve for all classes of worshippa« alikft 
To come to other particulars, the height of the Chapel oaght to 
be lofty, — say equal to two stories in many oases. The i^le tjf 
dea^ within may be moderately imposing and elaborate; oer- 
taiuly characteristic, if not altogether ecclesiastical ; end refined, 
if not rich in ornament. No Chcmcel seems to be oecessary or 


desirable. The Communiontable will be placed at one end (East 
if possible), with a decent extent of unoccupied floor around it 
No AUar-rail is requisite, but the usual elevation by means of 
two steps is proper. A Pulpit seems unnecessary ; a Desk or 
Lectern on one side of the altar will be sufficient for all its 
purposes, with a suitable chair or other seat beside it for the 
clergyman. The Seats for the auditory may be either benches 
or chairs, certainly not pews ; and they ought to be simply and 
regularly set so as to face the Desk and the Altar, without any 
compromise on the score of what may be called Drawing-room 
considerations. The best of all systems of arrangement is to 
place the family and their guests in front, strangers of position 
next behind them, and the upper and lower servants, together 
with strangers of their classes respectively, in successive order. 
Private Chantries, stalls, and so on, are all affectation. 

A Vestiary ought to be placed in immediate connexion with 
the Chapel at the altar end. The door of intercommunication 
is better on the floor level than on that of the altar platform. 
There ought to be an outer door also. The room itself may be 
small, and need not contain anything more than a table and 
chairs and a closet for the vestments. 

CHAPTER rx.— State Guests' Chambers. 

state BedfoomB not in nse. — Gneets* Suite of Apartments reyerted to. — Poenblo 

additions thereto. — The case of Balmoral. 

A State Bedroom was an occasional Elizabethan feature ; but it 
is never required in a modem house. In other words, a complete 
Chiests* Suite, such as we have described elsewhere, (see Sleeping- 
rooms,) will suffice for every reasonable occasion. However, there 
are one or two points in which it may be suggested that some 
very special case might possibly admit of extra refinement. 1. A 
small Private Gallery might be incorporated with the Suite, to 
the great augmentation of its importance. — 2. The Principal 
Staircase being of course the proper approach, the JEntrance 
ought to be so placed as to be reached from the landing in a 
stately manner. — 3. A Boudoir may be added, besides the Lady's 
Dressing-room. — 4. A sort of Qentleman^s-room, Library, or 

o 2 


I'lirltmr I)inIii((-room may bo «.\ao nddtfil, for ocwiaonal i 
wlimt pHviioy b dciiml. The riwo of Balmokal ia in a ma 
lUiwlmliv" iif lla*) lutflicrtions. (S«c Plata XVHI.) 
lVinoI(«l SIni^vM<^ U in fiirt Uio private Hoyal etaircaae, lea 
til a oumj'lt'to f*iii(t» (if i>rivi>t« romiis pn^cisely on this priocipU^fl 
wliWt wvn)iy Uii> witiw I>rBwiiig-Toom front on tlie upper fl- — 
|tH>ii>K IIh> ii|>|H>r llAllorjr m a privato Curridor. 

i'llAlTKU X. — Static-Thobouohfaees. 

tHlli"ltit>4 «! IwAns rviMO'tnl KtKl rlnhimlnl. — Cairidnr to a CirGoit-Stiile a 
Hwt^'tUM) na>MH »<'> t^niiint. - <1iwk-n>i>iiu. — Aamni for wrtiuit^ fto.- 
WhHii*)^ W»t viHittUltirin, Witt Ai(vcluf (InuHl-RlitRuice. 

'I'llHHM U llUlo to Ih< mill n<rtiu>i<tiiig 8tate-Thorodohfar£8 a 
HMMxt of )iUli, t^xot'l't llint ill every case llie principlee laid I 
i\\,k\M\ ftir tihliii»py "l'lH»r«ugltfiirea have to be strictly and intelU^ I 
g»n\if iWTiwI imt, witli exactly aueh espansion of space and | 
wW^HMVl^uu of ilttitigQ OS circumstances may require; beuing ] 
tu Uliitil. however, most especially, that State-Thorwighfarea 
Imyti til acoommixiate a crowd, and tiiat iit ttio Enlranee more 
partioolarly it viU be well to err largely aa the side of am- 

It is in the Thorongbfares more than in the Booms, here as 
elsewhere, that the ambition of the architect will be least 
restrained ; and perhaps there are few problems possible which 
are capable of affording more exquisite opportunities for refined 
artistic design than the Entrance-Hall, Cortile or Galleries, and 
Grand Staircase of a Palace. 

It has to be remarked that a Corridor in connexion with the 
Beception-rooms is not essential When these constitute a 
Circuit-Suite on plan, (see State Dratmt^-roanu,) it is scarcely 
necessary, and on some accounts even undesirable, than any 
other passageway should be provided than that which carries 
the visitor through the rooms themselves j but if a circuit 
cannot be had, it then becomes essential to afiford some other 
means of returning to the Staircase (unless there be a second 
one at the further end) than the retracing of one's steps. When, 
however, there is such a Corridor, it ou^t to be as short as 
may be ; unless it can be amplified into a Picture-Galleiy, and 


80 embraced in the suite of Reception-rooms, — when other 
principles will obviously apply. 

Care must be taken to provide cloak-rooms, and their acces- 
sories, in connexion with State-Thoroughfares. (See Supplemen- 
tarieSy — Cloak-room.) 

Means of access must also be planned with care, so that the 
servants shall reach the Thoroughfares, and in some cases the 
Booms themselves, expeditiously and privately at all quarters. 
Private access ought also to be made from the Family Depart- 
ment of the house. 

Warming and ventilation are essential questions here, that 
there may be freedom from both chill and draughts, and espe- 
cially that the closeness of a crowd beneath may not be per- 
ceptible above. The aspect also of a Grand-Entrance demands 
special attention if there is to be comfort within. 



Pr. II.. Div. ni. 




CHAPTEB I— Bask op rum. 

XNidamttODB cf work iliStTont fium tlioao ot ivaldaim>.~ 

TH31 dassfloatba whioh we hare ulready set forth for thin 
Jkigtxtmsat is as follows, namelf : — 
The Eitchen Offices. 

The Upper Servant^ Offices. 

The Lower Servants' Offlcea. 

The Laundry Offices, 

The Bakery and Brewery Offices. 

The Cellars, Starve, and Outhouses. 

The Servanto' Private Booms. 

The Supplementaries. 

The Thoroughfares. 
The primary idea of plan appertaining to this part of the 
house is in a certain seose quite different firom that which has 
been running through our iuvestigatioti hitherto. In a word, the 
Family Apartments have to be contrived for occupation ; bat 
the Offices for work. Agreeable residence on the one hand, 
and efficient service on the other, are different questions ; and 
in plan they demand accordingly different styles of treatment. 
In the Family Booms the problem is how to make them most 
comfortable and pleasant ; in the Offices it is rather how to 
dispose everything for facility of business. And although there 
most necessarily be a considerable difference between the 
arrangements of a large establishment and those of a small one, 
this fundamental principle will be equally discernible in both. 


The following glance at the questions of which we spoke when 
commencing to deal with the Family Booms, under the head of 
General Considerations, will at once show in what manner the 
two Departments thu9 hi differ. 

CHAPTER II.— Privacy, Comfort, Convenience. 

Freedom from interruption. — Separation of the sexes. — Scalo of comfort — Prin- 
ciples of conyenienoe. 

As respects Privacy y in the place of that seclusion which is the 
privilege of the family, what we have to provide for the servants 
is that freedom from interruption which is essential to the 
efficient performance of their work. For instance, in a large 
house the Kitchen must be kept clear of all business but that of 
the cook. The several Corridors of the Offices generally must 
be free from the passage to and fro of persons who are not con* 
nected with the business to which they respectively belong (see 
Plate XXXV. in illustration) ; and the use of such Corridors by 
the family especially, or by persons whose business is with the 
family and not with the servants, ought to be avoided. 

In one* way, however, privacy, or at least separatum, must be 
still more attended to in every house which is to contain both 
men and women servants. The working rooms of the men ought 
to form one division, and those of the women another. In all 
good plans this distinction is very clearly to be seen ; the Ser- 
vants'-Hall being properly the point of meeting, with the domain 
of the butler on one side and that of the housekeeper on the 
other, and as little necessity as possible on ^either side to pass 
the boundary. (Plates XXTT., XXXTV., XXXY.) Sepajrate 
Passages and Stairs also lead to the private rooms of each 

As for Comfort, the rule would be in the abstract this : — all 
work-rooms to be in every way wholesome, and all private rooms 
to be equal to those of a similar class of persons in their own 
homes — perhaps a little better, but not too much so. That every 
room by itself is to be well planned, in respect of light, entrance, 
fireside, and so on, as occasion may require, is of coarse under- 



Convenience of distribution aud contrivance are drmandpd by 
tlio n',-cessities of busintwa aa much, or if possible even more, than 
for the proprieties of n>sid'>nci_i. Tlie Offices indeed oft<?n pre6S 
hoarily upon tiio resources of the architect in this respect; and 
perftrtion ia hut soldom attained, notwitlistanding the fact that 
it is this convenience of the Offices to which tho attention of 
domeatic architects of the highcgt doss has long been more iiap* 
ticnluriy directed. 'Hiat every apartment should be placed 
itd proper rehitions to those others with whose business its oi 
is more or less connected, — that the supervision of all should 
efficiently provided for, — that each in itaolf should be comph 
for its own purposes, — that every servant, every operation, 
utensil, every fixture, should have a right place and no right 
jilnce but one, — all these are nice and complicated questions, 
which must bo duly met, or the neglect will sooner or later 
appear; in the aggregate constituting a problem of skill, Yihoaa 
difficulties, in view more especially of the midtifarious varii 
of circnmstances every day occurring, had better not be unJow 
estimated by any one who seta himself the task of surmount ' 
them all. 



CHAPTER HL— SPACiotmuEBS amd Cokpaothess. 

Camped airaDgements to be duoonraged, bat exoe«aive completeneM in the Offloea 
a eerioiu enor. — CompBatDcss eBpedall; Tisceaaaxf. 

The good mle which leads us to err on the side of Spadmunea 
generally must be held to apply here with a certain reservation. 
Cramped and penufioua arrangements of the Offices have spoilt 
so many houses, large and small alike, and will in all probability 
spoil 60 many more, that it would be most dangerous to overlook 
the fact ; but at the same time it must be borne in mind by all 
prudent persons that there is great danger in making the Offices 
too complete and elaborate for the rank of the establishment. 
Or, to put the case otherwise, extravagance in the Family Booms 
is a thing to be avoided certainly; but much more so ia the 
excessive development of the Servants' Department, — as many 
an individual of moderate means, many a one indeed of large 
means, too well knows. The advantages to be here promised 


from spaciousness, therefore, must be limited by this considera- 
tion, that the scale of living must be strictly kept in view. For 
the chief Offices and Thoroughfares individually a reasonable 
liberality in mere spaciousness may be encouraged; and lofti- 
ness especially is always to be advocated ; but the augmentaticn 
of the number of the minor Offices, and the elaborate development 
of appliances, are matters to be very prudently dealt with. It 
is manifest that the amount of accommodation must be regulated 
directly by the list of servants to be kept. This list being deter- 
mined, the accommodation has simply to be made to correspond. 
But if on the contrary it be the accommodation that is first 
determined, and this in excess for the sake of completeness, the 
corresponding excess of servants must inevitably follow, with a 
long succession of pecuniary consequences. 

Of Compactness we may say that convenience of arrangement 
as respects the facilities of business of any kind so essentially 
depends upon this quality, that, desirable as it always is for the 
Dwelling-rooms of the femily, it must be more desirable still for 
the Work-rooms of the servants. The skeleton of plan which 
in a house of any size is formed by the Passages must now be 
most anxiously studied, so that readiness of communication 
may be, according to the case, brought to perfection. (See 
Plate XLV.) The question of compactness as a whole we have 
already so far discussed (see the chapter on the subject under 
the Division of Family Apartments), that it is only necessary 
here to remind the reader again of the danger there pointed out 
of mistaking for this quality that mere regularity of arrangement 
which pleases the eye on paper, and to hint once more that at 
every point the designer, if he would produce the realisation of 
complete convenience, must take the trouble to imagine that 
realisation in all its detail, and to carry out in fancy all the 
operations for which he has to provide. 

CHAPTER IV. — Light and Air, and Salubbity. 

Maxims. — More freedom here than in Family Booms. 

The same principles which affect in these respects the Main 
House may almost be said to govern the Offices still more 

Origin bhU ptwont model, — Pomtioa on plM, oini retationB4o oUicr C 
Purpoae; Lighiing: Coolnew; Drjnciw; Ventilnlion. — Floor; Wall-li 
Iteoni. — Uloatraljona. — Cooking apparatus, *c., in UolaU. — Pittings ii 
— Diijiing KMipn. — SmBll KilchcDi, Bin. — Dinieosinns. — When i 

(BErrnDU'-Hall : Itetation to Dming-room for serdce. — PreTCRtion of 
BajiemiiDt Kilclien. — Kolatioiu to other Offices. — Outer Kitchen, - 

The rise and progress of this important item of plan has I 
Ixaced in general terms in our opening treatise ; first, coming ii 
view &8 the occasional appendage of a noble Itesidence i 
times, with its centre fire and roof above otK?n to the sky, i 
" Cellar " attachc-d, and ]ittl« else ; and altainiiif^ at last in c 
own day the character of a complicated laboratory, snnxnmded 
by numerous accessories specially contrived, in respected disposi- 
tioD, arrangement, and fittings, for the administratiMi of the 
culinary art in sU its professional details. 

Dealing with it, however, as we see it in the present day, we 
may begin by pointing out that it demands a povitUm which may 
be called primary on the plan ; having proper relation, first, 
to the Larders and the Back-Entrance for supplies ; secondly to 
the Scullery for cleansing ; thirdly to the Dining-room (or itB 
Sideboetrd-room) for service ; fourthly to the Servanta'-Hall and 
Steward's-room if any; and fifthly to the Housekeeper's-room 
and Still-room if any. 

Its purpose is essentially cooking ; and what it has invariably 
to accommodate is the cooking-apparatua on whatever scale may 
be suitable, one or more dressers, a centre table, and some minor 
matters, all of which will be described in turn. 

lAgM in abundaoce is most important ; and this with equal 
reference to the cooking-apparatus, the dressers^ the centre table, 
and whatever else ; in a word, it ought to be well lighted every- 
where. For this reason a ceiling-light is preferred in Kitchens 

Sec. II., Ch. I. KITCHEN. 205 

of magnitude ; although at the same time wall-lights ought pro- 
bably never to be altogether dispensed with. When there is no 
ceQing- light, perhaps it is in all eases most advisable to form a 
single window of large size, rather than several small ones, unless 
the room be very spacious indeed. Such side-light ought, lastly, 
to flank the range rather than to be in front of it, and this on 
the cook's left side rather than the right, when working over 
the fire. 

Coolness is exceedingly necessary, for two reasons ; first that 
the unpleasantness of the fire heat may not be needlessly aug- 
mented, and secondly that the air may not be tainted. The 
Aspect of wall-windows ought therefore to be Northward or 
Eastward, never Southward or Westward. Any ceiling-light 
ought to be so placed as to avoid hot sunshine. To make a 
Kitchen especially lofty (two stories in one in important instances) 
becomes also a means to the same end. The roofing, it need 
scarcely be said, ought not to admit the heat of sunshine. 

Dryness must not be neglected. If there be any damp in the 
floor or walls, the air will so far lose its freshness, and the cook 
will justly complain. It is to be borne in mind too that the 
heat within does not always dry such damp, but in some cases 
is supposed rather to promote its ingress. 

Particular attention must be directed to ventilation ; and this 
not altogether, or even chiefly, on account of temperature, but 
rather for the avoidance of that well-known nuisance the genera- 
tion and transmission of kitchen-odours. It ought even to be 
made matter of special contrivance in particular cases that the 
vapours of cooking shall be hurried off as they arise, carried in a 
direction away from the Main House, and if possible discharged 
into the outer air at such a point and at such a height as to be 
altogether lost. This may be effected, for example, by having a 
considerable vacancy of roof above the ceiling, with a discharge 
therefrom by an air-shaft amongst the chimney-flues. Steam 
has also to be carried off, for which the same means will suffice. 
A canopy or hood over the cooking-apparatus a little above the 
height of a man will be sometimes useful, having an air-flue for 
outlet. The shaft in all cases will be useless, however, unless it 
be large. 

The floor of a Kitchen of good size ought to be of stone. A 
central space of wood under and around the table is generally 
provided ; but if the stone floor be perfectly dry this may be 

ililpeMl J iffth I fldunHM « piece of matting or ctOfH Rndor tho 
IdUe iriD MflM; or, m It not nnueual. a BtiuKtin^-Uitinl, about 
S feat wite Hid lodged hAA loose around a table or along tli« 
ftoDt of ft dnmr. Jn nMll bouBPs, however, uhen t^e Kitcliaa< 
•anci ftbo m the Bamoibi'-Hall, a wood floor for tbo whole ii 

fOIMlllIlM jMitHAlL 

111 ■!! euea when aiteiteiTe operations are to be carried 
the iMjtMMniv, or at leut the lowi>r port of it, ought to bti 
oomBOB jihiitwi mit. iMt some material wliicli shall 
danigs Md admft of flvquent cleaning:. — Ixmrding, perhaps 
iMWd OOBWBt^ or era kUna, tiles, glazed brick8, or the jiki\ 

TSe Aflf* of ft KitfiieB f^enerally are theso:— on© for 
tnuiM fion thB Corridor, ^liioti is ic< be well removed from the' 
ti qdiwe; one to enter IIig Scnllerj, which is best dose to the 
to op koB t for eonvenioue of L-on!itaut pesmige to and fro while 
«(Mki>gl and nBoally one to lead to the Lard^ra &n outer 
door to the KitcboDiTtsd ie probably never advLsable, ulthmigK 
mppmtiag in Hme exraqdbs. In addition to theoe doora there 
Bttjr be ft imteh, that ii to say a lifting window or shutUtr, fc 
tlte dtfirtcy of dmtier. 

Amongit the plana which constitute our ilhistrations the' 
reader will find many Tarieties of the Eitchm sod Hb i^^i^ 
tenances, which will amply illustrate alraoBt all pc^ts ot inqniry. 
Plate XXin. also exhibits specifically the whcde of the fit- 
tings and their arrangement, in such a form as to be most 

The Cookinff-apparatut in a good standard example wQl be as 
followa. The Jireplaee, for a rwitting-range with boiUr at Uie 
bock (and perhaps oven), will be placed centrally in the cwld wall, 
from 5 to 7 or 8 feet wide, with a depth of &om 27 to 36 inches. 
A ro(Uting-«creen in front will project about 3^ feet. The 
standard size for the chimntf/-Jhe of the range is 14 by 14 
inches ; iot a large range, and to include any other fln^ 18 1^ 
14. This accommodates the mtohe-jack. There may also be 
minor ^fiueg, 14 by 9 inches, &b required for other appaiatos; if 
possible, every separate fire onght to have its own fine ; that is 
to say, the practice of carrying these into the main fine is always 
to be disapproved. If it do not form part of the range, the oven 
will be placed next the range, separately, occupying about 3) or 
4 feet by 2} on plan, with ita fire-grate and fine. Stewii^ atacet, 
twc^ three, or four in namber, will be trom 3 to 6 feet by 2i feet 

Sec. if., Cu. 1. KITCHEN. 207 

on plan ; with grates about 10 inchos squats for cliarcoal : they 
will stand in conjunction with the other cooking^apparatus, and 
in the best light, probably at one extremity of the series. The 
hot-plate, including the hrailmg-gtave, will probably adjoin the 
range, or otherwise be dose at hand, .and will occupy on an 
average 6 feet by 30 inches. A hot^hsetj wherein to place the 
yiands to be kept warm and the plates and dishes to be warmed 
for use, may occupy almost any position in conjunction with the 
rest. It will be about 4 feet by 27 inches on plan, and will be 
heated probably from the range-boiler. A hot-table is a useful 
addition in good Kitchens, set in almost any position for keeping 
warm the dishes during the operation of service. It will occupy 
about 4 feet, less or more, by from 2 to 3 feet, and will be 
heated probably by steam from the range-boiler. A pair of 
coppers are occasionally placed in the Kitchen (when the Scul- 
lery is less perfect than the rule), for boiling vegetables, fish, 
joints, &c. : they occupy about 4 feet by 3 on plan. Otherwise, 
as preferable for ordinary cases, there will be a set of perhaps 
three steam-kettles placed on a dresser and heated from the 
range, and occupying about 4 feet by 2. A hainrmarie is a sup- 
plementary article for purposes similar to those of the hot-plate ; 
it is about 2^ feet by 2 feet, and is heated by steam or water 
from the range-boiler. A hot-water cutem, if required, will be 
placed in some comer (either of Kitchen or Scullery) con- 
veniently, as a reservoir of supply from the range. Lastly, a 
coalrhox ought to be provided in connection, perhaps under the 
hot-plate or in some other such place. In the absence of other 
instructions, the architect is expected to provide accommodation 
for all these appliances in proper order ; but if the proprietor or 
his cook should happen to be in any way fEistidious about the 
matter, there are so many ingenious contrivances competing for 
public favour that the architect will do well not to interfere 
further than by promoting a timely selection, and taking care 
that there shall be no deficiency of smoke-flues and ventilation. 

The further FiUing% for a case the same as before wiU be 
these. The ordinary kitchen dresser is 10 or 12 feet long by 
30 or 36 inches wide ; and it has one tier of lai^ drawers about 
10 inches deep. It stands against the wall, and the space under 
the drawers is sometimes open and sometimes enclosed with 
doors ; in either case accommodating the cooking utensils, which 
are placed on a bottom shelf or pot-board raised about 6 or 9 

Pr- U^ Dir. Ul. 

iDches from Uie floor. Tlie walWpace is covered to the hi^igl 
of about 7 feet by (lie dreaser^aek, consisting of a surface of 
boarding wtuch mipixtrt^ several tiers of narrow shelves for the 
ordiuary dinner Btoneware, or for the copper articles, the edges 
being stmldi^d with email brass hooks fur jugs, &c. In a ^aIg6 
Icitchon tliero will bt; one or more side-dreasert to occupy the 
wall-space elsewliere, but probably witliout back or jxit-botird, 
A ooffee-mill, a pepper-mill, ami a aplce-miU, may be fixed in 
conn^niuut i)ositioDS on tlic sides of the dresser-back, or close at 
hand. An ordinary kitchen talk is from 8 to 10 feet lon^ and 

, aljont 4 feut wide or a little more, and is set in the midst of the 
floor, so OS to bo in ready communication with the whole of the 
cooking-ap]>amtiis, the hot-closet and hot-table, if miy, the 
j8»ei«, and the Scullery door, equally. It has one tier of 
drawers about 24 inches wide, and is open underneath. It may 
have a mariU alab, or perhaps two, let into the top for tlie 
advantage of certain processes of i>rejturation. A mortar is 
generally fixed in any vacant place near the dix^er. A chop- 
pmg-lflock also is sometimes accommodated similarly. Sfteltdng 
for the copper things in any convenient place, if not oii a 

' dressei^bock, will be required ; and also smaller shelves and 
jijps beside the ccmking-apjiaratus at a convenient height for 
depositing forks, spoons, and other articles there in use. A 
tpit-rtuk may occupy any spare comer. Pin-raib for metal 
dish-covers will be put near the dresser. A common cupboard 
is always convenient Toael-roUeri are required. A Fttsl-cloget 
ought also to be thought of, sufficiently near the Kitchen, for 
a considerable supply. 

In the largest Kitchens there is generally nothing further con- 
tained except in the way of amplification of the apparatus and 
fittings above described. In some instances, however, where the 
operations of mere cooking are more extensive, those of pre- 
paring, dishing, and garnishing are excluded from the apart^ 
ment, and with them the accommodation for utensils and dishes, 
and also the common dresser, hot-table, hot-closet, &c., except 
in forms more peculiarly applicable to cooking alone. A Dish- 
mg-Kitchen, in contradistinction to the Cooking-Kitchen, is then 
provided. Its fittings are a range for supplementary purposes, 
dressers vnth backs, centre table, hot-platee, and hot-closets, 
probably a serrice-batch, cupboards perhaps, and shelving, 
drawers, pin-rails, &c., as before. The dishing being thus di»- 


Pkte 23 


Sec. n., Ch. I. KITCHEN. 209 

posed of, the preparing is to a large extent accommodated in 
the Scullery and Larders, amplified accordingly. 

In small Kitchens^ on the other hand, the complexity of the 
arrangements is much diminished. A rcmgey containing oven 
and boiler, occupies the fireplace, and constitutes perhaps the 
entire cooking-apparatus ; the smoke-jack is most probably dis- 
pensed with ; in the case of a close range (that is, one with doors 
and cover to enclose the fire at pleasure) there will probably 
be all that is required for hot-plate on the cover itself, and a 
substitute for hot-closet and hot-table in the open space of the 
fireplace above ; the roasting-screen also will serve similar pur- 
poses to these ; an adjoim'ng hot-phte of small size may be added 
for a somewhat superior case, but nothing more ; and the usual 
dresser and back, table^ shelves and pin-railsy cupboard^ coal-ioXy 
mortary coffee-mill^ and towel^oller, will make all complete. 

In the smallest Kitchens, few if any of these items will be 
omitted, but the diminished scale of the whole meets the case. 
Let this, however, be a rule, that in no circumstances ought a 
Kitchen to include the fittings proper to a Scullery, — for 
instance, the usual sink and plate-rack. Neither ought there to 
be any compromise of the independence of the Larder, — ^as 
when, for example, a Cook^s Pantry for cold meats and pastry 
takes the form of a close closet in the Kitchen comer. 

The size of a Kitchen for a small house may be from 15 to 
18 feet square : it should never be too small. For a Mansion it 
will increase to as much as 18 or 20 feet by 25 or 30 ; some- 
times going even beyond these dimensions, although present 
custom leans rather towards a reduction of size and an increase 
of compactness. It should never be less than 10 feet high in 
the smallest house ; 20 feet will not be too much in the largest 

The use of a Kitchen as a Servants' Hall can only be admis- 
sible in small houses, where, for instance, there is no man- 
servant, and where the cooking is on a modest scale, and the 
apparatus consequently less prominent; but the standard two 
maid-servants, or even three and a page, can very well make 
the Kitchen their Hall. Here, however, there must not 
be forgotten some little regard to Sitting-room conveniences ; 
culinary smells must be got rid of; a boarded floor gene* 
rally will be expected ; and a little extra size will probably be 

To place the Kitchen in proper relation to the Dining-room^ 


M M to ftriflHal* ttd process uf serTing dinner hot, is of the 
gtMiteit faaportltM fa nil oases : and it ia in the best class of 
hwtai ffast ibs diAcolties of thia quetitioa are greatest, owing 
toflM6]rtnrioB of dilClincea on the ]i!an, the augmented amount 
cf obUaAuM kJtdm odours, the increusod intt^rference of other 
tnffi^ Hkd of eoons Ae considerationa pertAining to more deli- 
I and BKOe fastidious eaters. The means of com- 
bwur I oiitg, ought to be primarily as direct, as 
■tnigli^ and w emy u ean be contrived, and as free as possible 
ftvm mtariilrii^ bmAo. At the same time it is even more essen- 
tU itOI tt«t the ttwumiMion fff kitchen smelU to the Family 
ApartBMiitfl AmU be guarded against ; not merely by the unavail- 
btg hiteiga^tiaa at a Pafeuge-dour, but by snch eipedieuts as 
MB sloimstoil wbA periups circuitous route, au inteq>osed cnrrent 
of ooter tbt and so on, — expedients obviously depending for 
tbek atteeoM i^iod tboee very qualities which obstruct the ac-r- 
vloa vd oocA tbe dUkes. In respect of thia we can only say 
flist ffPoy OHft hM itt own peculiarities; and that there are few 
if KOf geaml vaka to be relied upon. A delivery-hatch, or 
Iffting Mdk or dmtter (like the " buttery hatch " of the mediie^-al 
time), opening from tlie Kitchen to a Corridor or Lobby, or 
Service-cloeet, or sometimes to the Servants'-Hall, with a drener 
within and without, is a very convenient arrangement for deliver^ 
ing the dishes to the servants without their entoring to encumber 
the Kitchen. When by this means the Kitchen door ia ren- 
dered capable of being removed still farther from the TSaia. 
Uoose, for the avoidance of smells, so mnch the better. AuoUier 
excellent measure for preventing smells, hut at the expense of 
facilities of service, is to place the Kitchen door in an external 
position, communicating with the House ouly under a porch, 
pent-roof, or covered-way. (See Plates XVIII. and XXXVII.) 
In some instances the purpose of ventilation might he equally 
well served by forming in the Corridor a window to open mfti- 
ciently near the Kitchen door, or two such windows oppofate one 
another. The passage-way from the Kitchen to the Main House 
ought of course to be wide throughout, and thoroughly venti- 
lated ; and no Staircase ought to open out of it to cany the 
odours upwards. 

When there is a Basement-Kitchen the difBculties of route ere 
overcome by having a special Binner-Stair (or by adapting the 
Men-servants' Stair to ike purpose), or by usiikg a Lift; the 

Sec. II., Cn. I. KITCHEN. 211 

transmission of smells, however, may possibly be increased by 
such means, and the plan of the external Kitchen door is still 
well worthy of consideration. (Plate XXXVil.) Again, with 
a Basement-Eitchen we have to avoid the placing of its windows 
under those of any room where the smells will be unwelcome, — 
as also the placing of the Kitchen itself under any room where 
its heat will be unwelcome ; the hood over the cooking-apparatus 
is especially necessary. 

As the position of the Kitchen governs the arrangement of its 
accessories, — Scullery, Larders, &c., — ^it need only be remarked 
here that all these must be kept in view in determining such 
position. The relations which they bear to the Kitchen will be 
treated of in dealing with them in their order. The relations of 
other Offices to the Kitchen will be taken up in the same way 
in the chapters on the Servants'-Hall, Housekeeper's-room, 
Steward's-room, Still-room, &c., and in the chapter on Thorough- 
fares and General Plan. 

In some of the largest houses there is provided, as separate 
from the Cooking-Kitchen, an apartment under the name of 
Otiter-Kitchm. There is no Still-room (which see) in such a 
case ; this apartment being made to serve all its purposes, and 
others of like character, the making of the pastry for example. 
Here also the lady of the house may come to confer with the 
cook or to give directions in respect of the kitchen department. 
The fixtures and furniture will be very nearly such as are usual 
in the Housekeeper's-room (which see), with a dresser and centre 
table, and perhaps rails for dishcovers, the copper vessels being 
left in the Cooking-Kitchen. 

The Cook'9-Boom (see this under the section of Servants* Day- 
Booms) becomes a necessary adjunct of the Kitchen when a man- 
cook is kept : it is in fact his official retreat where alone he can 
reflect upon the mysteries of his art and consult his authorities. 
(Pktefl XXYin. and XXXTII.) 

p 2 


CHAFTKU II. — Scullery. 

To bo cdDJoinccl toKitobcit. — Door of mterrommmiieoticin. — Light Bud »i 
tJun. Ike, — Oulii't tuwunis Yiinl, if Miy. — No mimoctioD with Lnnlora. — 
tures in dotoil. — Whon used for oocoiiduiy purjioses. — Floor. — Drunogb 

TlTE ScOLLERY IB BO intimately connected with the Kitchen tlmt 
there must on no account l>o any intervening Bpace between 
them, even it be the Buiollest PaSBOge or Lobby. On the 
contrary, the daw of irUercommunication and the internal iirraiif^- 
ment^ of both roomB ouglit to be ho contrived that the paseiug 
of the servants to and fro between tlie cooking-apparatus, dreeeent, 
and tuble in tlio ono, and the sinks, plate-racks, dresser, and 
copper or boilers in the other, may be in every possible way 
mo«t convenient and ready. This door, therefore, in ordinary 
ca^a may be placed as near to the Kitchen fireplace as caii bo 
managed, leaving sufficient space for the operations of the cook 
to be carried on there without disturbance, but not being a single 
fltep out of the way of those operations. (The Plates generally, 
from XXI. to XLI„ esemplify this rule.) The opening of tlie 
door oughl to Ije oulwanls from thi^ Kitchen into Ihe Sc'ullery. 

Good ligkt and ventilation, ccolnega, and dryneat, as in the 
Kitchen, are still important here ; because the Scullery is to be 
used, not merely for washing dishes and vessels, but for preparing 
vegetables, fish, game, and so forth, for the Kitchen. 

It is often desirable that there should be some ready meauB of 
passing from the Scullery into the open air. (See Plates XVIIL, 
XX., XXIX., and others.) Sometimes there will be an ootw 
dooi in the room itself ; but it is preferable in most cases to place 
this door rather in a Passage, so as to serve the Kitchen and 
adjoining OfBces also. The purpose of the door is to lead to tlte 
Coai-Cellar perhaps, the Wood-house, and the Ash-bin, as well 
as to bring into connection with the Scullery the Kitchen Court 
for various incidental matters of out-door cleansing. It is Dot 
desirable, however, that this should be constituted the Back 
Entrance of the house, except in very small examples. Moreover, 
in perhaps the majority of the best plans the principle of com- 
munication in question is altc^ether ignored ; the Kitchen- 
Entrance giving access to Kitchen and Larders, but the ScuHery 
being a mere cleansing-room behind the Kitchen. (Plates 

Sec. ir., Ch. II. SCULLERY. 213 

XXVm., XXXn., XXXV., show this system, and so does Plate 
XXXTTL in a modified form.) 

No direct communication from the Scullery is proper to any 
Larder, Dairy, Pantry, or other such Store-room ; because the 
air of a Scullery, what with steam, heat, and vapours, can never 
be what one would wish for these OflSces. If there be a special 
Closet for the Kitchen utensils, this may open out of the Scullery 
very suitably ; as also the Closet for fuel. 

First amongst the Fixtures there may be a boiling-capper for 
kitchen cloths, and for supplying hot water for cleansing, if such 
be not otherwise provided. There may also be a pair of cappers 
for vegetables, &c., if not in the Kitchen; these to be conve- 
niently near the Kitchen range. A second caaking-range on a 
small scale is usually provided in the Scullery in occasional aid 
of the Kitchen apparatus. Next may be mentioned the sinks or 
washers: let these be placed if possible directly under the light. 
Cold water must be laid on to each, and hot water also from the 
Kitchen boiler probably. Let the waste-pipe be so contrived 
that it shall be neither liable to become choked by the congela- 
tion of fat, nor capable of being opened by the servants in their 
eagerness to promote the passage of substances which are better 
kept back. A single stone sink, 18 inches wide and from 3 to 
4 feet long, will suflSce for a small house ; a complete set of 
washers for a large establishment will comprehend two of slate 
and as many as four of wood, the size of each being about 3 or 
3|^ feet by 2|^, and 21 inches deep. Next among the fixtures we 
may refer to the dresser, to be placed in full light, — merely a 
strong plain table. Sometimes there will be more than one of 
such dressers, and these will have backs and shelving to accom- 
modate the stoneware of the servants. There may also be a 
central table as in the Kitchen, but smaller. A plate-rack has 
also to be provided, placed above the sink or washers, to drain 
thereinto by means of a drip-board, slightly inclined and grooved ; 
in large Sculleries there will be two of these. Beside a sink in 
any case there may be formed, as a rule, a small piece of 
dresser of this kind by way of continuation, whereon to place 
articles in hand. (See note, p. 227.) 

In smaller houses the Scullery will sometimes be made a 
spacious place^f-all'Warkj washing especially included ; in other 
cases it will be used as a Bakehouse ; if so it must be made sufii- 
ciently large, and there must be provided in the latter case a 


proper poeition fur a brick Oven. Tlie dre^er must also be 
increased in size for Lamlliiig the bread. 

Tbe Scullery _^<wr ought always to be of painng, with a drain- 
trap placed ia a suitable comer to carry off tbe wator with which 
it requires to bo frequently cleansed. 

The drainagt. is important, for tlie vapouis from a Scullery 
drain ore notably impleasaQt. 

CHAPTER m. — Cook's Pantry or Dry-Larder (a: 
Larder oeserallt.) 

J^oed. — Ancient and modtjn terms. — Mwuma of conatnwtion.- 
lArdfflB. — Ceiling ventilation. — Winiiowa. — Fitting*, — BefriBemtBt — 
ing in winter. — Floor. — Dimensiona. 

The modem Ctms's Pamtry or Dry Larder is a Bmall apt 
ment close to the Kitchen, in which are kept cold meats i 
whatever may accord therewith. Ia ordinary cases it serYes for 
bread, pastry, milk, butter, and so on ; but tbe nilo is to exclude 
all oncooked meats, including poultry, game, and fish. 

It is plain that this is a modification of the ancient Ptmtry, 
the name of Dry-Larder being a modem phra% which roAlIy 
confuses the idea. The old Larder accommodated larded or 
preseired meat raw, and the old Pantry was the bread-store: 
the modem Larder still takes the meat raw, but the I^try is 
less identified with bread than with meat cooked ; so we call the 
raw meat store a Wet-Larder and the cooked meat st<»e a 
Dry-Larder. The more homely phra6eol<^ however still pre- 
vails to a very considerable extent, in respect of smaller houses, 
speaking of Larder and Pantry simply. In large eetablishments 
the Pantry is relieved by the pastry going to a PoMtry-Larder, 
and sometimes the bread to a Bread-Store ; whilst the milk and 
butter may be transferred to a Dairy. In like manner the 
Larder becomes reheved by a Gamer-Larder, and pethaps a Fu^ 
Larder. (See Plates XVm, XX, XXIX, XXX., XXXIV., 

The primary amaideratiotw in a Iiarder of whatever kind ar6 
coolness of temperature, freshness of ventilation, and dryness. 
The atpect of windows must therefore favour the North and 

Sec. II., Ch. III. PANTRY; LABDEfi. 215 

East ; the transmission of heat through the roof must be pre- 
vented ; floor and walls must be perfectly free from damp ; a 
constant current of air must be promoted ; and that air must 
not come from any tainted, damp, dusty, or heated source, from 
ash-bin or drain-trap, window of Beer-cellar, Scullery, Wash- 
house, Laundry, Stable, or anything of the sort There ought 
also to be no fireplace or hot smoke-flue in its walls. 

A plan which is theoretically very good is to form a detached 
Larder on the North side of the house, so as to be entirely 
sheltered from sunshine South and West, with windows all 
around, a ventilator at the top, floor of stone if dry — otherwise 
of wood, and overhanging roof. But in most instances the 
requirements may be suflBciently met without going beyond the 
limits of the house, and without even departing from the ordi- 
nary arrangement of contiguous square apartments, provided the 
principles of proper situation, aspect, and construction be duly 
regarded as above laid down. 

Another idea which is of considerable value is that of forming 
a series of (mtbuUt Larders, with a Covered-way along the front, 
leading directly from the Kitchen or Scullery. 

When a Larder has roof light and ventilation^ great diflB- 
culty will be experienced in consequence, a sufficient circulation 
of air becoming almost impossibla Much may be done no doubt 
by artificial ventilation ; but it is far better to rely upon the 
simple plan of a thorough draught by wall windows. Mere 
coolness, it must be remembered, is not sufficient without fresh- 

The windows of a Larder are to be filled with wire gauze 
instead of glass, to admit light and air and exclude flies and 
dust. Any ventilator will of course be similar. A Dry-Larder, 
however, ought to have glazed casements inside, to be shut in 
severe weather. There may also be on a centre table a safe of 
wire gauze, 3 or 4 feet square, or more, for additional security 
from insects; or covers of that material may be used for the 
separate dishes. 

The Fittings of a Dry-Larder consist of a broad dresser (without 
drawers) round three sides, and shelves in two or perhaps three 
tiers above it. These may be of slate or marble to promote cool- 
ness ; the dresser, 2^ or 3 feet wide, and the shelves 18 inches 
or 2 feet In a large example there will be also a small centre 
table of similar material, leaving sufficient space to pass round it. 


21t? THE DOUESTIC OFFICES. Pr. IL. Dtv. lu. 

A Itefrigerator may be placed here, probably as a moveable 
box, in one angle of the apftrtin«nt. It will occupy on plan 
about 4 feet by 2^ feet, or le»s. There will be deposited in it 
such small dishes as have to be cooled m ice before being served. 
In Buporior caees it will be an enclosure of larger size and G feet 

For use in winttT tht're may be in the Larder a hot-water cit' 
eulation from the Kilchen boiler, that the temperature may be 
kupi above thn framing point. 

If the gjound bo not damp, let the^^wr be of stone, with a 
drain for carrying off the water of cleansing. Vermin of every 
kind must bo carefully excluded. 

The size of a Dry-Larder may be from 8, 10, or 12 feet by 
up to IS feet square. 

CHAPTER IV.— Meat-Lahdeb. 

Defined. &c. — If detached. — FittiagB,'— Special rompartmcnts. — Wallj 


This, which is also called the Wet-Labder, is the B^wrate 
apartment provided for uncooked meats and other similar pro 
visions. As respects size, arrangement, and general require- 
ments, its principles have been laid down in the last chapter, 
while treating of the Larder generally. In small examples it is 
sometimes planned as an inner compartment accessible from the 
Kitchen through this Pantry ; but such an arrangement, altbon^ 
convenient, is not advisable in superior cases. 

In some better examples a Meat-Larder especially, for tiie 
sake of more complete ventilation, has been preferred in tlie 
detached form described in the last chapter ; but in general this 
is not deemed necessary, an ordinary apartment within the walla 
being quite capably if well placed, of being made in every way 

In this Larder, if not in the Kitchen, there will probably be 
fixed the balance for weighing. In Country-hooses there may 
be a bacotir^ack suspended &om the ceiling ; unless there be a 
separate Bacon-Store. More generally, bearers «nly will be 
required at the ceiling, with books sliding thereon for hanging 


joints, game, &c Under this, if space admits, there will be 
a table. 

A chapprng-hlock is a proper fixture here ; and there may pos- 
sibly be a special place for saUing-jxms, A marble fahrsloA may 
also be required. A small refrigerator or ice-box also may be 
placed here. A hoz-amk in a windownsill or dresser will likewise 
be convenient 

The dressers and shelving will be as described for the Dry- 
Larder ; except that their being made of some such material as 
slate or marble becomes still more desirable. 

Vegetables and fruit may sometimes be accommodated here ; 
in a special compartment; although, generally speaking, the 
daily delivery of vegetables, whether by the gardener or the 
dealer, renders special accommodation unnecessary. Sometimes 
there may be two compartments to the Larder itself inde- 
pendently of this consideration, — an outer and an inner one, — 
the outer part accommodating what is most in request, and the 
inner being more particularly under lock and key. 

For greater coolness the walls of this Larder (and indeed of 
others) may be lined, if thought fit, with glazed tiles ; or any 
hard non-absorbent cement will answer the same purpose. The 
floor should certainly be paved. 

CHAPTER V. — Game and Fish Larders. 

Game-Larder, its uses and fittings. — Fish-Larder, ditto. — Town honses reqnire 

no such accommodation. 

The two chief Larders already described afford suflScient accom- 
modation for moderate wants ; but in some establishments these 

are not enough. 
A Game Lardeb, in cases where game and poultry are 

largely used, becomes desirable for the same reason that the 

poulterer's shop and the butcher's are better two than one. 

The fixtures will consist of bearers and hooks overhead, in such 

number as may be required, and a slate or marble dresser at 

one end imder a window or in the centre of the apartment. The 

general principles of the Meat-Larder, as already laid down^ will 

of course still govern. 


A Fish-Larder is sometimes provided where tlie locality 
demauds it, fitted up with a broad elate or marble table all 
round, aud a few hooks above, with little else. la Town houses 
it is to be borne iii mind that these Larders would be superfluous, 
because of the facilities of daily supply : indeed, the Larder 
accommodutioa as a whole becomes then of much less momeDt. 

CHAPTER VI.— Pastry-Room. 

Its mea, poaitiou, ponBtniption. and fltticgs, — Oven. — P««try-iirMscir in 
Still-room. — CanEootioDory, 

A Pastry-Larder, Pastry-room, or Pastry, ia especially 
usefiil in any considerable establishment. It will open out of 
either the Kitchen or Still-room, or he conveniently at hand ; eo 
as to be used for making the pastry and storing it, the baking 
being done in the Kittheu oven, or in that of the Still-room 
preferably if there be one. A drawer about 27 inches wide, of 
marble, or with at least 3 feet long of marble in the middle is 
to be fixed undi?r the light.; and shelves all around the walls. 
The drcssfr being used for making the piustrj-, it uitiy be filled 
underneiith witli deep dniu-t-rs, fur flour, sugar, imd otlier 
materials. Sometimes a jUmr-box is formed at the one (xmier 
of the dresser (if long enough), with a hinged cover ; and simi- 
larly a wink at the other. Particular dryness ia essential here, 
and less cold is desirable than in other larders ; the jloor thei^ 
fore may be of wood, and also the wall-covering. The thorough 
draught by means of gauze in the windows is not needed if ven- 
tilation of the ordinary kind be complete. The oven oug^ tp 
be readily accessible; sometimes there .is one (an iron one being 
always preferred for pastry) provided in special connexion, either 
in the apartment itself or in the Still-room. 

In many cases where there is no separate Pastry-room, its 
purposes are very well served by means of a paatri/'dretter in the 
Still-room, with the Pantry for storing. On the other hand, in 
very superior houses there may sometimes be required an ampli- 
fied Pastry-room called the Gonfectiomsrt, where the pasfay- 
cook conducts hie part of the work. The principles are the 
same as before. 

Sec. U., Ch, VU. SALTING-ROOM, ETC. 219 

CHAPTER Vn. — Salting-Room, Smoking-House, and 


Somotimes roqulred. — Fittings of Salting-Room. — Dimensions and oonstraotion 
of Smoking-House. — Bacon-Larder : advisable to be removed from the House. 

In a large Country House it may be that the salting of meat is 
occasionally done on so considerable a scale as to be decidedly 
objectionable in a proper Larder. A Salting-Room may then 
be provided, either on the Ground-floor or in the Basement of 
the House, or better stiU amongst the Outbuildings. It ought 
to be as regards coolness and yentilation all that has been 
described for a Leirder. The Fittings are chiefly a strong dresser 
for cutting up the meat, and the requisite number of trays of 
stone placed along the waUs for placing it in pickle, some of 
these of sufficient size for a side of bacon, and others for various 
smaller pieces. Otherwise, part of this accommodation may be 
afforded by a shelf only, whereon to set moveable trays of 
earthenware. It is usual to attach waste-pipes to the fixed trays 
to carry the brine to a vessel beneath, at such place as may be 
convenient within the room, to be kept there for further use. 
A supply of water is essential, and a stone floor with a drain. 

If a Smoking-hocse be added, it may be from 8 to 10 feet 
square, with several iron bearers across overhead on which to 
hang the meat. The fireplace, probably outside the chamber, 
has to be constructed for burning wood, sawdust, or peat ; the 
smoke is led into the chamber itself and allowed to escape only 
by small regulated luffer-frames in the roof. 

It may be necessary also to provide a special depository by 
way of a Bacon-Larder, which will be fitted up with a rack or 
shelves for bacon, and bearers with hooks for hams. Otherwise 
the Salting-room may serve this purpose also. 

These Offices, by the bye, are amongst those which it is 
well, if possible, to remove altogether from the house, — to the 
Farm Buildings for example. 



n«nGr«.l model desoribed. and fittingi. — Dairj-BcnIlCTy, its uses and flttbgs.Ac. 
To be apurt if exteoaiTO. — Cook's Puitry uat d. 

Under this head we need only descrilre Buch special accom- 
modatiou as is required for properly domestic purposes, and not 
any sort of Farmitig Dairy, or even that pleasant plaything, a 
Fancy Dairy. It will l>e a small apartment not far from the 
Kitchen, similar generally to a Larder, jwrfectly cool and well 
ventilated for summer, and supplied with glass inner windows for 
cold weather, Seatmg-pijKS may perhaps also be introduced ; the 
object being to keep the temperature equable at all seasons, from 
50 to 55 degrees Fahrenheit. All vapours or odours of whatever 
kind ought to be most carefully excluded, except those of milk 
itself and fresh butter. The Jioor may be of etone or other like 
material, with drainage for copious cleanaings ; and there ought 
to be a cold-water tap for this purpose. The walU may be lined 
with tiles or non-absorbent plaster. The shelves, one tier all 
round, will be about 2 feet wide, of slate or stone, for portable 
milk-dishes. Otherwise there may be mtlk-trat/s formed aa 
fixtures, with taps to draw off the contents ; some are made ooca- 
eionally with a hollow compartment around for containing water 
to keep them cool. 

A Daibt-ScttI'LEBT may be placed adjoining, and will contain 
a copper or boiler, a dresser, and benches. The vessels are 
scalded here, and set np to dry ; the operation of churning the 
hutter is also here performed. The making of cheese need not 
be taken into account If there be no Scullery of this kind, the 
cleansing ought to be done in the Kitchen-Scullery, and the 
churmng in the Dairy. (Rate XXX.) It is always best, by 
the bye, that the Dairy itself should not have any door of inter- 
communication whatever, — even to its own ScuUery, for instance, 
on account of the steam. 

When the Dairy is on an extensive scale, it is much prefer- 
able to build it apart, either in connexion with the Farm OfficeB or 
as alittle establishment by itself; the arrangements may be then 
considerably amplified, although the principles remain the sama 

It has been already pointed out that the Cook's Pantry is 
made to serve as Dairy in all ordinary cases. 




CHAPTER I. — Butler's-Pantry and Appurtenances. 

Origin. — Position and relation. — DimenmonB and fittings. — Plate-Sufe. — Plate- 
Sonlleiy. — Butler's Bedroom. — Head Butler's Room. — A small Pantry. 

In the legitimate sense of the terms, the ancient Buttery or 
BuTLERY was the oflBce of the Butler or Bottler, the dispenser 
of drink, and the oflSce of the Server or Sewer was the Sewery, 
the depository of napery, plate, and so on. The modem butler 
is both bntler and chief server; and his Pantry,* so called, 
accommodates both the service of wine and the service and stow- 
age of plate. 

A position ought to be chosen for the Butler's-Pantry which 
shall answer for several relations. It must be as near as pos- 
sible, indeed close, to the Dining-room, for convenience of 
service. It ought to be removed from general traffic, and espe- 
cially from the Back-door, for the safety of the plate. The 
communication with the Wine and Beer Cellars must be ready, 
and in a manner private. The Housekeeper's-room ought to be 
within convenient reach, although quite apart; and if there 
be a Steward's-room, it ought to be close at hand. (See House- 
keeper's-room and StewarcTs-room.) With the Kitchen the butler 
has no direct intercourse whatever, except for serving the table. 
There are, lastly, two peculiar relations not to be lost sight of 
in good houses. First, as the butler is probably the master's 
personal attendant, liis Pantry ought to be, if possible, near the 
6entleman's-room. Secondly, as he or his subordinate will have 
to attend to the Entrance-door, his Pantry ought to overlook the 
Approach, so that timely notice may be had of the arrival of a 

* The Pan/ry was origiDally of course 
the Bread-Store; and it became com- 
bined with the Napery as the Sewery, 
This became combined in its turn with 

the Buttery ; when the bread was trans- VII., VIII.) 

ferred to the Larder. The name of 
Pantry however, which had not boon 
disused, was still retained : hence the 
Butler'i Pantry. (See Plates IV., VI., 

Carriage. Proximity to the Servauts'-Eiilrance 0^ the J^uggage- 
Xntrance 18 moreover part of the first of these eonaidemtioos, and 
fcady access to the Princijial Entrance part of the seconil (See 
Plates XIV., XXVin., XXIX., XXX., XXXV., XXXMD, 
XXXIX., and others, for examples of the BntlerVPantry 
Various forms and relations.) 

A proper Biitler's-Pantry will he of fair sae, eay from 12 of 
14 feet sqnare up to twice tJiat size. The Fittmga consist of s 
mall dresser eontaioing a pair of small lead sinks, with folding 
Covers, for hot and cold water respectively, large closets for 
g-lass, Ac, a moveable tahle, perhaps a napkin-piess, drawers 
fcr table-linen, shelving, and hat-pegs, and a closet for plate 
»itb sliding trays lined with haize. W'hen the plate is of moc^i 
Value, it is usual to attach to the Pantry a fire-proof Pla: 
Bafe with brick enclotmre and iron door; If noecssary it may 
Warmed to expel damp. 

A separate room for cleaning the jilate, called the Pia' 
■8cDl,LBBY, is useful where there is much of such work to di 
It will open of course from the Pantry alone, and will cool 
the usual pair of sinks and a dresser. 

The BtTLER't^EEDRooM is best placed in immediate coo-" 
nectioQ with the Pantry, whereby the plate is nndw gnaid at 
night. Frequently, however, a cloeet-bedatead is provided for 
s subordinate in the Pantry itself; but this is obvioaaly s make- 
shift. It is not unusual to place the door of the Plate-Safe 
within the Butler's Bedroom. In fact, one of the moat essential 
points in respect of the Butler's-rooms is to provide against the 
theft of the articles under his charge ; and this idea must govern 
every question of plan. 

In larger establishments this charge of the plate will deTdve 
upon the under-butler ; and a second private room will have to 
be provided for the superior servant, hut still dose at hand if 

A tmaU Butler^ t-Pantry, where perhaps no man-servant at all 
is kept, is to be contrived on the same principles ; the service of 
wine, b'nen, and plate, is the object as before and tlie fittings 
are therefore still similar. (See Plate XXV.) 


Sec. UI., Ch. II. SEBVICE-ROOM. 223 

CHAPTEE II. — Service oe Sideboard-eoom. 

Usea, dimensioDB, situation, substitates, fittings. — Butl6r*s Senrioe-room, its posi- 
tion, uses, and fittings. — The case of Basement Offices ; Dinner Stair ; lift, &c. 

It is extremely important in a house of any pretension that 
an apartment should be provided in communication with the 
Dining-room for the service of dinner. This appendage will be 
of such a size as to accord with the style of living, from 10 to 20 
feet square ; and will be simply furnished with a plain dresser 
whereon to place the dishes. As regards position^ it will of 
course be situated in the direction of the Kitchen by way of the 
Butler's-Pantry, forming in feet a species of Ante-room to the 
Dim'ng-room towards the OflSces, for the serving of dinner, wine, 
and dessert In small houses, rather than dispense with it alto- 
gether, a Lobbt/ attached to the general Corridor of the OflSces 
will suflSce (Plate XLI.) ; but to make use of the Family-Stair- 
case, or any Vestibule attached to the Family-Thoroughfares, is 
always a mistake. There is no great objection, however, to the 
Serving-room being made available as a sort of Vestibule, con- 
necting the Dining-room with perhaps an outer door to the 
grounds or the like ; but such a thing requires skilful manage- 
ment. (Plate XXXIV.) The sermce-door beside the sideboard 
(see Dining-room) will open into this room either directly or by 
means of a small intervening Lobby (Plate XXXV.); but no 
Corridor ought to be allowed to intervene to break the con- 
nection. A fireplace is not actually necessary, although not 
objectionable. A hat4able may perhaps be fitted up as part of 
the dresser in some cases. A lead sink and washbasin will often 
be found useful (Plates XVIIL, XX., XXI., XXIL, XXX., 
XXXI., and others, may be referred to.) 

There is sometimes in larger houses a separate appendage 
called the Butler's-Service-roamy directly attached to the ButlerV 
Pantry and communicating with the Dining-room through the 
general Service-room. The Fittings will be a dresser as before, 
for plate, wine, and dessert^ with a closet or two. It is an 
equivalent arrangement to place the BuUer's-Pantry in inter- 
communication with the Serving-room. 

If the OflBces should be situated in the Basement, the com- 


Pr. IL, Dir. m. 

flunieatton therefrom to the Berric^room (still to bci attacliec 
to tt> Dining-room) miiBt be specially contrived. (Ilates XITfl 
XVI, XIX,, XXVI., XXVU., XXXVn., and XXXIX.) PflT 
flw passage of the servants there will b« a Dinner- Stair, i' 
■tiuted as to 1(6 convenient for both Kitchen nod Butlei^j 
hatiy. For the dishes there may be a Lift. The position d 
dw Itfl then hecomee matter for carefiil adjustment. The i ' 
of • proper double lift is about 5 by 3 feet ; and it must 1 
abnbtely vertical throughout. 

In small houses the Butler'»-P<mtry may very cosily be c 
i the Serving-room. (Plate XXV.) 


CHAPTER HI. — Housekeepkb's-eoom. 

Fuipoaea and relatioas l« otlict quarlen. — FittingB, Ik. — Slore-nMm. 

Tan ie primarily the Bueiness-room and Parlour of the honm^ 
keeper. The chief conBiderations with regard to the position of 
the room are Fiuch as refer to convenience of BTipervwion on Iior 
part. For this purpose she ought to be placed in proximity, 
first to the Eitcben-OflSces, secondly to the Servanta'-Hall, and 
thirdly to the Servants'-Entrance. It is, moreover, deeirable 
that there may be sufficiently ready communication with the 
ordinary apartment of the lady of the house, whether Drawing- 
room, Morning-room, or Boudoir. In many good homes below 
a certain standard the housekeeper is cook also : in such circum- 
stances the Housekeeper's-room and the Kitchen are to be kept 
within immediate reach of each other, although of course not 
connected. In a large house where a separation between the 
men and women servants is especially carried oat, the house- 
keeper's position generally is to be such as to overlook the 
whole of the women's department, leaving that of the men to 
the butler or steward. IJastly, the upper servants take break- 
fast and tea, and perhaps pass the evening, in the House- 
keeper's-room ; and it must be situated conveniently for this 
arrangement. The same persons dine here also if there be no 

The Fittings, besides the ordinary furniture of a plain Sitting- 
room, will consist of spacious preteet, from 18 to 24 inches 

Sec. III., Ch. IV. STILL-ROOM, ETC. 225 

deep, filled with drawers and shelving, for 'the accommodation 
of preserves, pickles, fancy groceries of all kinds, cakes, china, 
glass, linen, and so forth. It may be worth while to note 
that sugar is kept in drawers or canisters; tea in canisters; 
spiceries and light groceries in small drawers; cakes and 
biscuits in canisters ; glass and china in drawers or on shelves ; 
and linen in drawers ; at least this arrangement is one that may 
be called the standard. Certain of these articles, however, will 
obviously be transferred to the Stare-room if there be a complete 
one : and in cases where no housekeeper is kept, the Store-room 
may take the place of the Housekeeper's-room altogether, as in 
Plate XXDC (See Storeroom.) 

Examples of the Housekeeper's-room are to be found in almost 
every possible form throughout the Plates. 

CHAPTER IV.— Still-boom. 

Its origin, purposes, and position. — Fittings. — As Women-servants'-HalL — 

Outer-Kitchen as StiU-room. 

This room in the best cases is provided for the use of the 
housekeeper and her special assistant the still-room-maid, in 
preparing tea and coffee, making preserves, cakes, and biscuits, 
and so on. (The name is derived from its uses in the sixteenth 
century for that distillation of household cordials which 
was then so highly prized amongst the arts of housewifery.) 
In establishments of less magnitude it relieves the Kitchen 
of all but luncheon and dinner cooking; and occasionally, as 
when the family are not at home, may serve for Kitchen alto- 
gether. The jMistry-work may also be done in it, and various 
odds and ends, -to the further relief of the Kitchen. Sometimes 
it is connected with the Housekeeper's-room by a door of inter- 
communication ; but this is not always convenient. It is also 
common to have a door between the Still-room and the Store- 
room, so that the stores may be unpacked in the Still-room as 
matter of convenience ; but this also is not always desirable. 
The Housekeeper's-room, Still-Jroom, and Store-room, however, 
in any case will be well placed in close conjunction. (Plates 
XXXIX., and others.) 



The Still-poom fittingt will be b small range and boUer, a ooBf-' 
feotioncr'B (Jruu) «ven perlutpN, sometimes a small hot-plate m 
connection, a covered liwid eink or a pair, with dretter, table, 
eU»ett, and sheloiiv}. 

8()iuctiniM tlm Stilt-room is ased as a Woom:'ten(mUi'-IfaU, 
but not in superior tiouBes. In other inataacea an Oa1<>r> 
Kitchen (see Kitchen) a made to serve as a sabstitute for 

CHAPTER v.— Stobe-boom, etc. 


This apartment accommodates groceriea and other mmilar 
stores under charge of the housekeeper. It miist be dry, cool, 
and well ventilated, or it will become offtmsive. It ought also 
to be warmed in winter. Its precise size will be according to 
the scale of the establishment, and in poaitiou it must alwa^'a 
adjoin the Houaekeeper's-room or Still-room, if any. Tho 
fdtingx will be a dresser with drawers, and closets undL*meatli, 
broad shelving in two or three rows on the walls generally, and 
pinr-raZa in several qoarters for different descriptionB of goods to 
be hong up. One side of the floor may be Idt osoecn^ed for 
goods in boxes. 

In a amaU establishment, where a housekeeper is not kept^ 
the Btore-room is sometimes made to serve certain of the pur- 
poses of a Housekeeper's-room for the mistress. In such a case 
there will be required a better dres»er, with a covered tmk, — 
larger space, indeed, — and a fireplace if possible. It may then 
serve diso for the china, glass, and napery, and, if there be no 
Butler's- Pantry, for the plate. It is, however, generally beat to 
}H-eserTe a Store-room for its proper purposes ; and in the case 
just described, if the room be divided into two, the inner part 
for the stores under lock and key, and the outer for the porposee 
of Hoosekeeping-room and Cbina-doset, — ^the arrangement will 
probably in most families be found superior. In cases of this 
kind the Store-room, which must necessarily be near the 
Kitchen, ought also to be conveniently placed for the lady's 

Sec. m., Ch. VI. STORB-ROOM, ETC. 227 

Small Closets here and there may be very usefully appro- 
priated as Supphmentary Store-closets for miscellaueous purposes. 
Such Closets may be in almost any qu6ui;er of the house, but 
more especially amongst the Bedrooms. They must open from 
Corridors, of course, not from rooms. The fitthigs wiD be simply 
shelves ; and in every case ventilation, if not lighting, should be 

(For examples see last chapter.) 

CHAPTER VI. — China-closet and Scullery. 

Uses, position, and fittings of China-closet. — Ghina-SouUoiy, ditto. 

The China-closet is a small apartment near the House- 
keeper's-room, or otherwise conveniently situated if the lady be 
her own housekeeper, for stowing china and stoneware, &c., not 
in everyday use (Plates XVI. and XXXI.) It requires a dresser,* 
and shelving around the walls. This Closet ought not to be 
dark, as it sometimes is. It may contain locked cupboards, if 
desired, instead of open shelving. 

In superior cases there is sometimes attached to the House- 
keeper's-room a small special ChmorScfolleTy. Its fittings will 
be the usual dresser and a sink or washer. In the case of 
a China-closet of sufficient size this accommodation may be 
included in itselfl 

In a small house the China-closet, Butler's-Pantry, and 
Housekeeper's-room may be combined, as set forth in the last 

* The term dretser, it may be nece»- ' generally fixed ; a thd/ ia stiU nairower 
sary to explain, includes all between the j and more necessarily fixed. A dresser 
shdf and the table. A table is oompa- I is for dressing, arranging, or working 
raiively wide, and generally moveable ; | upon something ; a shelf for depoiitiiig 
a dre$aer is oompanitively naixow and , something. 

Q 2 


CHAPTER Vn.— Hodse-Stewakd's OFriCE, etc. 
Pntpoast podUoD. to. : and AcceaMrie.— Eltcbcn^erk'a OtSoe. 

In some Tery large establishments the butler and housekeeper 
are relieved from the business of provisiouiiig the house ; and a 
bouso-Bteward is employed as the chief officer of all, assisted 
perhaps by a kitchen-clerk. The steward orders and receive* 
everything supplied by the tradespeople ; the kitchen-clerk 
chocks, weighs, and keeps the accouuts. 

A Steward's Office, therefore, is the business-room (and 
private apartment) of the houBe-8t«ward. Probably his Bedroan 
will adjoin it. A small Safe for his books oaght also to be pro- 
vided. In position, it ought primarily to be near the Larders and 
the ICitchcu-En trance, and its niudow ought to overlook all that 
passes out and in ; it ought also to be easily accessible from the 
superior secondary Entrance (the Lnggage-Entraiice' probably) ; 
convenience of communication with the housekeeper and butier 
must also be kept in view; and lastly, the Men-eerTBUt«' 
Department as a whole has to he so disposed as to be com- 
manded by the steward Irom this room. 

A Kitcheh-Clerk's Office (Plate XVm.) must Btill more 
immediately adjoin the Kitchen and Larders : it is fitted op witli 
desk, dresser, balances, shelving, &c, and may be pertiaUj a 
Store-room in iteelf. 

CHAPTER Vm.— Stewabd's-eoom, oa UpperSebtamtb'- 

Poipom, podtion. fDntitiire, &o. — Scnllerj aHscbed. — Bapplementuy ting and 
requirements. — Hotuekeeper'a-room m a mbstitutA 

The purpose of this apartment in a superior bouse is to constitDte 
a Dining-room for the upper servants, and incidentally a comm<m 
room for them during the day, and a sittang-room for them in 
the evening. The bouse-eteward, if there be one, claims tite 
chief interest in the apartment, in his character of chief of 
the men-servauta ; bat those who enjoy the right of dining here 

Sec. m., Cn. IX. GUN-ROOM. 229 

with him are such as the valet, the butler, the head cook, the 
housekeeper, the head lady's-maid, and the head nurse, with 
strangers' servants of equal rank, and some others occasionally 
or by invitation; not including, however, any persons of the lower 
grade, which is thus very clearly marked. It is accordingly the 
Upper-servants'-Hall. (See Plates XVIEL, XXVIH., XXXI., 
and others.) 

The pontion oi this room on plan is therefore not difficult to 
be understood. It ought obviously to be placed in ready com- 
munication with the Kitchen for service, and at the same time 
in a convenient relation generally to the offices of the upper 
servants. The furniture embraces dining-table and sideboard, a 
bookcase probably, and one or two closets or presses and the 
like. A small Scullery is sometimes attached for washing and 
putting away dishes, &c. (Plate XVIII.) 

An incidental purpose of the Steward's-room is to receive 
visitors of the i:ank of the upper servants, and superior trades- 
people and others coming on business, whether to the servants 
or to the family ; being thus used as a Waiting-room, and, when 
occasion requires, as a Befreshment-room, It must therefore be 
so situated as to be readily accessible from the Back-Entrance ; 
and the nearer it is also to the Steward's-office and Gentleman's 
Business-room the better. 

In many very good houses where the number of indoor 
servants is kept down, the Housekeeper's-room is made to serve 
for all that is here referred to. (See Plates XX., XXX,, 
XXXn., and others.) 

CHAPTER IX. — Gun-boom. 

Described, with fittings. — Position and requirements. — Substitntcs in smaU 
houses. — When separate from the house. — Armoury. ' 

This term is used to indicate an apartment which is indispens- 
able in a Country-House of any pretensions, as the depository 
of sporting implements. A room fix)m twelve to fifteen feet 
square, or sometimes larger, is fitted up round the walls with 
presses or glass cases and occasional drawers, according to the 
species and extent of the sporting to be provided for, in which 
to place the guns, fishing-rods, pouches, bags, baskets, flasks. 


Pt. n.. Ore. ni. 

tranisterB, Bets, and all other appliauces in proper order, upon 
pretty much the same peoeral priuciplea which may be dis- 
cerned ill the arrangement of the same articles in the tihope of 
their maniifacturers. A strong table for cleaning, and two or 
three chairs, will complete the tumishing of the room. 

The Gun-room ought to occupy a position either near the 
Eotrance-Hall, or, in a large house, near a secondary Entrance ; 
not, of conree, at a Garden-Porch, but the haggage- 
Entrance. The apartment ought to have a goo<l window ; and 
9 fireplace ia important. It ia also essential that procuutions 
should be taken otherwise to secure dryness. The cages must Ikj 
M made (as described for Library bookcases) aa to havo a free 
circulation of air all around and at the back, and the wood used 
must be thoroughly aen^ned. 

In small estabUshments wo sometimes find the mbttitutt for 
the Guu-Toom to be a suitable locked closet in the 8er\'ant8'- 
Hall, or even in the ButJer's-Pantry : or a Cloak-room may 
serve the purpose. In cases of the other extreme, the Gan- 
poom will be in a separate building comprising the Ke^aer^t- 
DtetUing also. There are likewise some instances where a 
family of the highest rank and of great ancestral dignity will 
still be found to keep up an Armouri/, in a room or series of 
rooms designated accordingly, accommodating a stock (tf nriou 
arms for the defence of the peace if occasion should leqaira^ as 
well as a collection of warlike relics. (Plates XVIU, XXX^ 
XXXIL, and XXXV., exhibit rarieties of the Gou-ioom.) 

Sec. IV., Ch. I. SERVANTS'.HALL, ETa 231 



CHAPTER L — Sebvants'-Hall, etc, 

Puipose. — Relation to other Offices, &c. — ^WomenVroom. — Fittings — Incidental 

purposes. — Dressing. — Ladies'-maids'-room. 

In a small house the Kitchen suffices for the servants' common 
room (Plate XXTX.) ; but in a larger establishment it becomes 
necessary to provide a special apartment under the name of the 
Servamts'-Hall. (See the Plates generally.) In houses of 
high class there will be moreover an additional room of a 
supplenientary kind for the use of the women-servants alone, 
usually called the Women's Work-room, The upper servants 
are accommodated separately in the Steward's-room and House- 

The paaitim for the Servants'-Hall ought to be first near the 
Kitchen, for convenience in serving meals; secondly between 
the Kitchen and the Butler's-Pantry ; and thirdly, if there be 
no separate room for the women, sufficiently near the House- 
keeper's-room for supervision. Fourthly, if there be a Women's- 
BooM (sometimes called the Housemaids'-Boom), this will be 
near the Housekeeper's-room on one side of the house, leaving 
the Servants'-Hall more on the other side, as the common-room 
of the men. It must still however be as near as ever to the 
Kitchen, seeing that it is the Dining-room of the lower servants 
as a whole, the Women's-room accommodating the maid-servants 
as a sitting-room and work-room only. Fifthly, the Servants'- 
Hall ought to be near the Back-door, for readiness of access from 
without ; as it is the waiting-room for all persons of the rank of 
the under servants. 

As respects other arrangements, there ought to be a comfort- 
able fireside, and a prospect which shall be at least not dis- 
agreeable ; the outlook, however, ought not to be towards the 



waUa flf tlwbmily; ncitlier need it be towards the Approach. 
A aautU Soullbbt may be coDvenieiitly attached sometimofs 

Th« FUttHgt are Iho centre table for meals, geoerally also u 
•Mb^oUf or a Jr m ei', ooe or more closets or dwarf closets, pin- 
nOt JDr hati and cloaks, and a jack-towel roller, perhaps a 
■nuU ioeieatB, totnetames a closet subdivided iato private loehert 
for oerUin of ths Barvaiits. 

In nnaller hooaea tho Servanta'-Hall ia made to serve for 
nutDjr JH eid m t a l purfotes ; ob for bruBliiD^ clotbea, or for ironing 
at ttmaa; or for diahinfr and serving dinner, n-ith a hot-plate 
periufia amongst ita tittings; or for wasliing-iip, when a pair 
of aMa will be pravided ; and so on. There are abo a few 
iiutaaoea where it is tho Oun-room of the houae, having a locked 
oloaet oostaining the sporting apparatus of the family under 
diaige of the batler. There may sometimes be a Urebsiko- 
OLOOr in omtnexion with the Servants'-Hall, fitted up with 
haabaa, {an-milfl, towel-roller, &c., for the men. In smaller 
booaeB tite Cleaning-room and the Butler'a-Pantry will serve 
tliia pvpoaeb 

There ia one nuwe apartment of tho character of a Servanta'- 
Hall which is required in an establishment of high standing 
namely, a Ladies -haids'-rooh ; and this is probably best 
situated on the Bedroom-Story, in connexion of coorse with the 
Servants' Corridor, at some convenient point for communication 
with the Main House. (Plate XXXVI.) It will be an ordinary 
work-room and sitting-room for the accommodation of the two 
ladies'^maids or more belonging to the family, together with 
those belonging to visitors. A good side-table or dresser ought 
to be provided for clear-starching. 

CHAPTER II — Hodsemaid's Closet. 

Purpose, poaitioD, and flttiogs. — Wlien more tluu) one. — Ooe for the I^incqnl 

This is generally a small apartment, with proper light and venti- 
lation, in which the housemaid keeps pails, dusters, candlesticks, 
a coalbox, &c., for the service of the Bedrooms. It ought to be 
provided in every house of even medium pretensions. It must 


contain a sink, with water laid on, (The water ought to be soft, 
if this can possibly be had. Hot water will also be laid on 
where there is a supply.) Other fittings, if any, will be a small 
dresser with drawers, shelving, pwrrcdl, and perhaps a cujh 

In a good Mansion there ought to be these Closets in seyeral 
situations, at any rate one on each Bedroom floor (see Plate 
XXXVI.), for the convenience of the servants, and to prevent 
their carrying pails about. It is to be observed, however, that 
the place selected for any such apartment ought to be not 
amongst the Bedrooms themselves, or on a chief Staircase or 
Corridor, but rather in a Servants' Passage and at some point of 
junction with the Main House, or at the end of a Corridor, or 
next the Back Stair. 

It is generally well to provide a Housemaid's Closet also 
amongst the Ground-floor or Basement Offices ; this being not 
for the Bedroom work, but for that pertaining to the Principal 
Booms, and for odd work generally. In large houses more 
especially it is desirable. It ought of course to be situated on 
the women's side, and not too far off from the chief Thorough- 
lares. (Plate XXXV.) 

CHAPTER in. — Cleanino-rooms, etc. 

Brauhing-ioom ; purpoeo, pomtion, &c. — Brashing-tables at Baok-Stoirs. ->Knife- 
loom. — Shoe-room. — Lamp-^oom. — Poipoees and arrangomenta. 

In a house of moderate size the brushing of clothes will be done 
in the Servants'-Hall ; but it is desirable in a larger establish- 
ment to have a separate and special Brubhing-room. It need 
only be said that it will be a smaU room adjoining the Butler's- 
Pantry or Servants'-Hall, containing a large tabU and little else. 
If there be sl fireplace, all the better ; in a large Country-House, 
indeed, the fireplace ought to be a good one, so that the wet 
garments, whether of the family or the servants, may be dried 
there, rather than in the Servants'-Hall or Kitchen. Sometimes, 
when the Bedrooms are very numerous, there may be an 
advantage in making some incidental Lobby or spacious landing 



Pi. n.. DiT. m. 

on the Back-Stoirs, to receive a bmshing-Iable, proTtded tliere 
bo an escape for the dust — by a window probably. 

There are other small apartments of the same class, still oo 
the men's side of the house (where there is such a distincttoo), 
in whioh knives and boota are cleaned, called the Knipk-room 
and Sboe-boou. They may be in the Kitchen-conrt rather than 
indoors, if so preferred. 

In Country-Houses whore oil-lamps have to be used, it becomes 
necessary to provide, near the Kitchen, Servants'-Hall, or 
Butlers-Pantry, according to the scale of the house, a small 
Laup-iioom for trimming these, and indeed for dejKtsiting them 
during the day. It must contain a table, gficlvea around the 
walls, and perhaps a locked cupboard, or an inner closet, to 
receive the oil-caus and some of the valuable lamps. In smaller 
houses, candlesticks pertain to the Housemaid's Closet; and it 
is not uncommon to combine that apartment with the Lamp- 
room, or to make the latter an inner closet to the former. AJl 
silver of this department goes to the Butler's-Pantry for safetv. 
(See Plates XV., XXL, XXIL, XXX TIT., XXX IV.. inry y 
and others.) 

Sec. v., Ch. I. GENERAL BEMARKS. 235 




CHAPTER L— General Eemarks. 

When to bo a soparate building, and when to be attached to the House. 

It is sometimes considered desirable to constitute this depart- 
ment a separate building at a distance, — ^at the Stables perhaps, 
or the Farm-yard ; and this chiefly on account of the difficulty 
(see Plate XXIV.) of attaching a Drying or Bleaching-ground 
to the House itself. On the other hand, if the lady of the house 
or the housekeeper desires to supervise the operations of the 
Laundry, the provision of a Hot-closet will enable outdoor 
drying to be dispensed with ; whilst, as regards bleaching, a 
portion of the linen may obviously be carried in baskets to 
a green at a distance with less labour than would be required to 
convey the whole to a Wash-house equally removed. It may bo 
therefore laid down as the best advice, that, for those establish- 
ments, chiefly on a smaller scale, in which the supervision of 
this department of the work is of importance, its Offices ought 
to be in connexion with the House, and that in cases where the 
amount of labour is larger, and the habits of the family less 
homely, distinct Laundry Offices at a distance may be very 
much preferable. At the same time, with regard to this and 
some other questions, it has to be remembered that one result 
attached to the removal of such work trom the house is the 
diminution of the number of indoor servants of inferior class ; 
and, as an obvious rule, the fewer of these the better. 


CHAPTER n. — Wash-house and Ladmdrt. 

W*th-buiiM, tnupoBT, ^imonsicnu. pontion, SttJngii, and amngemont. — ZaanAij, 
ditlo, ditto. — Rolntion together. — SahatitutfiB fur ulhur. — Spod&l Semmb- 
Waali-hoiuc. — LAiIita'-muiJa' ironing aoconmuxlation. 

A Wash-house on tlio ordinary scale for a good Country-nonao 
will be an a{>artnicnt of fnjin 20 to 30 feet by from 15 to 20, 
It miiat be well ligbted, and lofty. The free esrapo of steam 
muHt be provided for by numerous air-flucB or ollK^r openings at 
the ceiling, or n large iomTetl ventilator, as circumstances may- 
dictate ; and fresh air may be admittod, whether at tlie floor or 
ceiling, by regulated openings. If attached to tlie houso, its 
position ought obvionaly to be well removed from the Family- 
rooms and also from the Lawn, as the smell of washing som<>- 
times travels far. The apparatus comprises a large copper nr 
boiIinj*-pan ; a dresser containing four, six. or more wash-trayit, 
having hot and cold water laid on, and a waste from each, willi 
grated washer, plug, and chain; separate boiler apparatus may 
be needed for the supply of hot water ; a place may be required 
also for a wringing-mackine, perhaps for a wiuAm^MaeAwM ; and 
a good-sized table will be desirable in any coQTenieiit position. 
The uKuh-trays ought to be under the light ; theii dimecsiona 
are generally about 2^ or 3 feet by 18 or 24 inches and 18 
inches deep, the width at bottom being 6 inches less. The 
jloor most be of stone, with a drain for cleansing; and there 
oogbt to be loose standing boards provided at the 6ont ot the 

The question of fuel must not be foigotten : either the Coal- 
cellar must be at hand or a special Store provided. 

The Laundry to coirespond will be in size rather larger than 
the Wash-house. It must be well lighted and ventilated ; and 
the floor ought to be of wood. For apparatus there will be one 
or more ironing-tables under the light ; an ironing-stove (which is 
a close stove or hot-plate on which the irons are placed to heat) ; 
a spare table; and a mangle or its equivalent An average 
ironing-table will be 6 or 8 feet by 3 or 4 ; or one of any greater 
length may be provided for more than one laundress at work. 
An old-fashioned mangle is about 8 feet by 4, and requires 
a space of 4 feet at each end for the box to pull out ; newer 


inventions however take up very little room. The mangle may 
be put in that part of the room where the light happens to be 

As regards their relation together, the Wash-house and Laimdry 
are generally placed in conjunction, with intercommunication. 
Sometimes tiie Laundry is placed over the Wash-house, with a 
small stair for access ; but this is not always convenient. It is 
also frequently the case in small houses Uiat the work of the 
Laundry is done in the Kitchen, and a Wash-house only pro- 
vided in addition ; whilst in the smallest class, for still greater 
economy of space, the Wash-house and the Scullery are often 
ona Under these latter arrangements it is well to allow a little 
additional size for the apartments in question. 

Li cases where the Laundry department is placed at a 
distance, there may often be required a small Wash-house 
within the house, to be used by the ladies'-maids and others; and 
for ironing a table may be fixed in the same place, or in the 
Women's-room. In larger houses, however, where the ladies'- 
maids have much clear-starching to do, they will expect this to 
be accommodated in what they consider to be their own depart- 
ment ; (see Chapter I. of this Section ;) or some unoccupied Bed- 
room may be thus appropriated, or one of the Nursery-rooms. The 
Housekeeper's-room also is sometimes made to do duty in this 
way; and the Servants'-Hall is occasionally turned to account; 
although in houses of superior class this cannot be done. (See 
Plate XXX., XXXin., XXXIV., XXXIX.) 

CHAPTER in. — Drying-boom, Hot-closet. 

Tho old-fashioned Drying-loft describod. — HotH^loset, its oonstraction and mode 
of opetation. — The Laimdry as a Diyiag-room, &o. 

An old-fashioned Drying-room is an upper room or loft of large 
size, with or without windows in the walls, but almost invariably 
with a louyred ventilator or lantern at the ceiling. The linen is 
hung on Iiorses, which are run up to the ceiling by weights or 
otherwise ; and by means of hot-water coils at the floor, or one or 
more stoves^ the temperature is so kept up as to evaporate the 
moisture with great rapidity. Such an apartment ought to be 

238 THS DOSCKSTIC 0FFICE9, Pi. XL. l>iv. ni. 

near the Wtwh-houee and Laundry, and may bo very conve- 
niently placed ov«r either or both. 

A recent improvtiment upon thig is the HoT-CLoSET, which is 
a WftUed cliamber immediately attached to the Laundry, about 
({ or 8 feet iiquaro tor ordinary cases. It contains a number of 
hwset or upright frames sliiUng side by side, which have to be 
drawn out to thisir full length to be loaded with the wet linen, 
and tlieii pushed back into the closet; and there are series of 
interposiid coiU of hot-water pipes within, by which the temp^ 
rature is kept at the requisite point for rapid evaporation. The 
titcam escapes by a proper Jtae ; and air is chielly admitted, or 
even wholly, by the crevices of the shutters or flanges attached 
to the horses to close up the front. The hot-water circulatioa 
generally requires a special furnace underneath or at one side i 
to which there ought of course to be attached a small receptacle 
for fuel. 

In small establiahmontfl where there is no Hot-closet, the 
u))eration of drying indoors is sometimes provided for by consti- 
tuting tlie Laundry a Drying-room of the kind first descnbed; 
but this is not a good phiu. There are also Drying-rooms wUicJi 
di'iMJud uixin thorouj^'h draught only, without heat, an obviously 
simple plan at the least 


Of much nse. — Poation and ORBngemeDts. — Bin in Wasb-hoae. 

Tbib is a desirable item in many houses, of a size proportioned to 
the requirementa. 

It is probably best placed adjoining the Wash-house, or near 
it, but not in any position where pilfering is to be feared in case 
the door be left unlocked. In small houses, and in cases where 
the Wasb-hoose is removed Irom the house, a place on the 
Bedroom floor ia frequently preferred on this account. Let 
such a closet be ventilated if not lighted. A very osefol 
arrangement ia to have it of good size, and lighted, odA fitted 
up witJli a number of bins for the classiflcation of the articles. 
A bin or box should also be provided in the Wash-boiue itself 
for the linen in hand. 

Sec. v., Ch. V. LmiN-ROOM, ETC. 239 


Poipoee, fittings, and position. -^ Cloeet for bedding, &o. 

Tms is a small apartment placed near the Bedrooms, where the 
bed and table-linen of the establishment is kept in stock ; per- 
sonal linen being carried directly to the Bedrooms and Dressing- 
rooms, and the table-linen actually in nse being placed in charge 
of the butler or other equivalent servant. Its ftttinffs consist of a 
dre98er under the light for folding, with presses according to the 
size of the establishment, containing sliding-trays^ shelves, and 

The sittuxtion of a Linen-room ought to be such that the access 
of the servants shall be ready on all sides, buf without its being 
too prominently placed It ought to be very dri/ and well venti" 
lated; if there be heating apparatus in the house, it may be 
heated thereby ; if not, there may be & fireplace, 

A Closet for bedding and upholstery is sometimes provided ; 
requiring no description, except that it may be fitted up with 
either presses or broad shelves according to its size. It ought 
to be well ventilated (See Plates XXXVL, XXXVIIL, XLL, 
and others.) 




I ^tKAITEK I. — Bakehouse and Appurtenances. 

jHhh tiiat ia strictly required for baking purposes is an ajuirtmout 
(rf goiBcieut size for tiie operations involved, generaUy placed nt 
gome Bitremity of the Offices, witU a drester at the window for 
making the bread, a trtn^h for kneading close at baud, ajhur- 
eheet next to this, and au ooen. 

The proiier Own for bread is made, not of iron, bnt of brick ; 
it is about 4 feet by 3 insde, either roond or sqnare, and &om 
18 to 24 incbea high, and is lined with fireJirick. The procesa 
of baking is simple. Fuel is burnt in the oven till it is suffi- 
ciently heat«d, and the ashes are swept out ; &fitie towards the 
front of the oren carries off the smoke ; the bread is put in ; 
and the flue then serves to carry off the steam. An irm oven, on 
the' contrary, is beat«d by means of a small furnace undemeatli. 

When the amount of baking is large, it may be desirable to 
put up shelves in the Bakehouse whereon to place the brefid 
in store: otherwise it is carried to the Dry-larder, Pantxy, or 
Fastry-Larder, as the case may be. For stow^e <^ floni no 
special provision is generally needed, the sacks being simply 
deposited in a convenient comer; but occasionally a small 
Flodb-stobb is added to the Bakehouse ; this must be a mere 
question of the circumstances of supply. 

Sometimes the Kitchen-Scullery will be made to serve as 
Bakehouse (in small establishments), the making of the bread 
being done in the Kitchen. In this case a small supply of flour 
may be kept in the Store-room, 

The proper fuel being wood, unless the Wood-house be close 

Sec. VI., Ch. II. BREWHOUSE, 241 

at hand a small Fuel-Cellar or closet must be provided in con- 
nexion. (See Plates XX,, XXVIII., XXX., XXXIV., and 

CHAPTER II. — Brewhouse. 

Apparatus required. — Other arrangements, relation to House, Cellars, &c. 

The Apparatus pertaining to a Brewhouse on a considerable 
scale for domestic purposes need not occupy more than 18 or 20 
feet long by 5 or 6 wide, either in a straight line or not ; it 
consists of a large elevated boiler, and furnace under this, a suc- 
cession of shallow coolers, a mash-tub, an underback or receiver 
therefrom, a pump from this to the boiler, and a working-tun, 
unless this be the mash-tub also. The malt need not be stored, 
but may be brought in as wanted, and deposited at once in the 
mash-tub. From the worldng-tun the beer may be carried to 
the casks in the cellar by a pipe, if the cellar can be conve- 
niently situated for this operation. The Brewhouse itself ought 
to be so placed that its vapours shall not penetrate into and 
around the house. In any case it ought to be amongst the 
Outbuildings, and not surmounted by a second story. It ought 
as a rule to have a door to the outer air, and yard-space for 
casks and the like. It is well when the Beer-cellar has its 
external entrance adjoining. Access for carts ought to be con- 
sidered. The supply of fuel must of course be kept in view. 
(Plates XXXm., XXXIX.) 





CRiU'TEIl I. — Coal-Cellab, Wood-house. 

IT. m. 


The <Ie|xisitory for coals onght to have such a position as to fad- 
Utat« the delivery from the waggon externally, and at the same 
time to be of ready access from the Offices, — more particularly 
the Kitchen, and the Wash-house and Balcehouse if any, — and 
under cover if possible. Sometimes therefore it will be on the 
[^ound-Ieve! amongst Outbuildings, and sometimes in the Base- 
ment amongst Cellars. 

Ae regards the capacity of a Coal-Cellar, it is aufBcient to 
consider one ton of coal ae equivalent to 45 cnbic feet of space, 
the height of tiom 4 to 6 feet being all that can be calculated 
upon as arailable in ordinary cases. 

Care must be taken in a Country House that a coal-waggon 
with BOTeral horses shall be capable of being brought close up 
to the point of delivery; and this without passing along the 
principal Approach or crossing the Pleasure-grounds ; also with- 
out interfering with convenient access to the Offices during the 
time of discharging the load. If the Cellar be in the Basement, 
let the coal-sboot be placed well out of the way of passeis-by, 
and by no means at the side of a door. 

Z/^ht ought to be admitted to a Coal-Cellar. It is desirsble 
also that the floor and walls should be reasonably dry, as oool is 
very absorbent 

It is a plan frequently followed to make an external Coal- 
Cellar an open iShed: sometimes also, although only in obsolete 
arrangements, the roof itself is dispensed with. 

A Wood-house ought never to be indoors : in fact, wood 
onght not to be kept in any considerable quantity under the 
same roof with the Main House. When largely employed, wood 


is generally stacked, and brought under cover as required for 
splitting up. The ordinary Wood-house therefore is an out- 
house which contains the supplies of small wood for fire-lighting. 
It ought to be readily accessible fix)m the Offices, as in the case 
of a Coal-Cellar. 

CHAPTER n. — Ash-bin, etc. 

Poeition, &c. — Offal-bin. 

The position of this place is the only question of importance in 
connection with it. It ought to be out of doors, but readily 
accessible from the Kitchen, under cover if possible: at the 
same time, as it must be so situated as to be inoffensive, it is 
well to have it removed from all lines of passage. A wire- 
screen ought to be fixed over the Ash-bin as a sifter. 

A separate bin for kitchen ofial is desirable where the amount 
of such is large. By this arrangement, if the cinder-ashes 
should be allowed to accumulate, the animal and vegetable 
reftise need not accumulate in proportion, the Ofial-bin of course 
being emptied every day or two according to the season. 

CHAPTER m.— Wine-cellars. 

Position, entnmoe, and other amtngements. — Temperature, artiflcial wanning. - 
Fittings, &c.— Beoeiving-Gellar. — Wine in Wood. — Bottle-racks. — Butler* 
Cellar, and Closet. — Madeira-Cellar. — Soda-water, &o. 

Several points of arrangement are involved in the proper postr 
turn for a good Wine-Cellar, Being generally under-ground, 
we may say, as matter of course, it must be so situated that in 
the first place access on the part of the butler from his Pantry 
shall be as easy as possible ; and secondly, it will be generally 
required that access on the part of the master should be suffi- 
ciently easy. The immediate entrance of the Cellar internally 
ought also to stand in some degree apart from general traffic. 
Light is not to be admitted, because therewith must come vari- 
ation of temperature by means of the window. At the same 



time a communication witb the exterior must bo provide^i 
whereby to admit the wine in casks ; and this in a conreniei 
position with reference to otiier cousideratious. 

The Wine-Cellar is best placed ton-ards tJie interior of th 
honse, for the sake of obtaining a moderate and equable tej*^' 
perature, which will generally be secured in a central positicoif 
without artificial heat ; but, if reqnin'd in any particular case, 4 
eirciUation of hot water, (atill objectionable, however,) to bfl 
made available only when really necessary, will make it mattaVi 
of certainty. 

A Wine-Cellar is fitted up with bma 24 or 30 inches sqoam 
on the face and 22 inches deep, so as to take two bottles laid 
neck against neck. They are commonly formed with brick 
upright diviaiona from floor to ceiling, and shelves of slate, stonsyj 
or brick arching, generally making three or four tiers of hioa. 
There are several sorts of iron divisions, however, which ore now 
much used. The door ought to be strong, with a proof-Ioct 
The Jloor is to bo paved, aud the ceUing formed of arches or aa 
equivalent. The size of a Wine-Ccllar is obviously matter of 
choice for the owner. 

Between the Wine-Cellar of a good house and' the exterior 
there ought generally to be a BccErviNO-CELiiAB, or other 
space for unpacking, washing bottles, stowing hampers, &c. 
This will have a window for light. It may, in fact, constitate a 
species of vestibule to the Wine-Cellar ; and here may be the 
doorway and flap for access from without. A pipe of vrine is 
5 or 6 feet in length and from 30 to 36 inches in diameter. The 
door and flap ought therefore to be wide enough to admit tie 
breadth eaaUy. Sometimes a Winb-ik-Wood-Cellab, used 
also for bottling, is interposed between the outer and inner 
Cellars recently alluded to; or it may be constituted by die 
outer Cellar itself. 

Backs for bottles may be placed either in the Packing^^MIar 
or in the outer air ; if the latter, let the racks be shot in by 
locked doors. 

A Butler's-Cellar, so called, is sometimes necessary in 
connection with, but outside the main Wine-Cellar, wherein to 
deposit from time to time a small supply in chaise of the butler,' 
leaving the general stock imder the key of the master. A small 
Closet or cupboard is sometimes formed also, Therein the 
butler may lock up wine in decanters with the advantage 


of the cellar temperature ; or he may use his private cellar for 
this purpose. 

A separate Madeiba-Cellab may be demanded, requiring 
a higher temperature ; and here a circulation of hot water may 
be specially introduced. 

A small Cellar or Closet may sometimes be useful for soda- 
water and other such bottled drinks, which are required to be 
accessible without going into the Wine-Cellar ; or the Butler*s- 
Cellar may serve the purpose. 

For a small house, it need scarcely be said, a single small 
Wine-Cellar will be sufficient to meet all demands in these 

CHAPTER IV. — Beeb-Oellab, 

Purpose, positioD, light, yentilatioD, aocesa, &o. — BotUed-beor. 

Thebe are generally in a superior house one Cellar for the 
table-beer of the servants and another for the better qualities. 
They ought not to be in immediate connection with the Wine- 
Cellars, although adjoining for convenience. Light and ventUor 
tion are both desirable. The Fittings consist of nothing more 
than ttooU for casks. The access from without depends upon 
whether the beer is brewed at home or not. For the former 
case see the chapter on the BrewJumse: otherwise the casks 
must be brought in by means of a flap-door similar to that which 
has been described for the Wine-Cellar; or, if convenience 
should be served by so doing, the Outer Wine-Cellar may be 
constituted a general Receiving Cellar for wine and beer alike. 
In smaller houses the Beer-Cellar is frequently placed in front 
of a small Wine-Cellar within. For bottled beer a small Cellar 
or Closet like that described at the close of the last chapter may 
be sometimes necessary; or the Butler's-Cellar maybe sufficient 

CHAPTER V. — Miscellaneous Cellabs. 

For vegetables. — Dryness, ventilatioii, &c. — Housekeeper's Cellar. ~~ Fniit-s(ore. 
— Men-servants' odd Cellar. — Spare CeUars desirable ; and Cellar-eloaets. 

One or two Cellars may sometimes have to be appropriated for 
the storage of potatoes and other roots. Great care has to be 
taken to provide against damp and frost. At the same time 


246 TEE DOMESTIC OFFICES, P-i. II,. IJiv. 111. 

ventilation is necessary, or the contents mity be spoilt. L^it 
iilso ia desir&ble. In most houses, however, all supplies nhaterer 
of vegetables autl fruit are brought in daily. 

'Die hotuekefjMT may wish to have a small Cellar (when her 
Offiees are abovegronnd) wherein to place various articles in 
saltry weather : ca)lness is the chief characteristic required. 

Sometimes fruit may bo stored in a Cellar ; but drynesB is w 
extremely necessary for such a purpose that this is not to be 

A. small Cellar for lumber and odd things generally in tlie 
hands of the men-servants will be useful in a good boose, — of 
course to be oosily iicceasible. 

A few S/xtre CtUars will be always of service. Two or tltiee 
locked alosttfi or cupboards amongst the Oellara are also to be 


plaaaul ^ 

uul mieatlfia prinolple. — Ab hu a^jnuct undergioiind 

uvtioD iu di'tail, iinil iliuiiiAge. — Mu'Ic or ttlliiig. — Similur |>laii ivlii:i 
within tlio houae. — Wliun built apart — WLvn un ordinury Cellar ailapled. 

This may bo i^itber contrived as a Cellar attached to the honse 
or as a detached building : in both cases the principles of con- 
structioD are the same. The purpose is to provide a place which, 
when once reduced to a freezing temperature, shall admit heat 
and damp as little as possible from without. A covering of 
straw or chafiT of sufficient thickness, effectually enveloping a 
maas of ice, will be found to protect it for a long time, even in 
the sunshine of summer and aboveground ; but a more acientifio 
receptacle, unless most carefiilly constructed, will not do bo 

If attached to the Cellarage, the Ice-house may perhaps be 
disposed as an adjunct underground witJumt the waUs ; and the 
North side of the building is preferable. The receptacle itself 
or ice-well, is generally, although not necessarily, circular on 
plan, from 6 to 10 feet in diameter at tiie top tApering down 
to 3 or 4 feet at the bottom, the depth being about equal to the 
top diameter, measured from the level of entrance downwaidB. 
This well is surrounded by double walls, with a space of aboot 
9 inches between them, the ceiling also being similarly ooxi- 

Sec. VII. Ch. VI. ICE-HOUSE. 247 

structed. A small doorway is made for entrance on one side, 
the sill being about 6 feet below the ceiling for headroom ; and 
here there ought to be double doors. Sometimes there is a level 
flap to cover in the well at this height when full, so as to exclude 
the air in the upper space from acting upon the surface of the 
ice. From the bottom of the well a drain must be laid to carry 
off immediately whatever water is produced from the ice : this 
must be trapped, and if it be below the level of general drainage 
there must be a cesspool formed, with a small pump to keep it 
empty. In this and all else it must be borne in mind that 
moisture is almost more to be dreaded than warmth. The ice- 
well being thus complete, the ceiling of it will be covered three 
or four feet deep with earth, and the connection with the house 
will be by a short underground passage, perhaps not more than 
five feet in length, with double walls, and another door ; and in 
the further passage within the house there may be stiU another 
door. The double walling ought to be of hard brick ; never of 
stone, because all stones are ready conductors of damp. A coating 
of asphalte may be used in addition, or this may render single 
walls impervious to damp. In filling, the ice requires to be 
broken up and packed very closely, water being sprinkled over 
it from time to time to cement 
all together by instantly freez- 
ing; a certain thickness of 
straw or chaff has to be placed 
at the bottom and also on the 
top; and if necessary this may 
be continued round the -sides. 
The open space above the ice 
will be packed with straw ; and SBcnon op ice-hoobb. 

sometimes the space between ^^^ ^ *""*" ^ ^^ ^"^^ 

the double doors. No window or other communication with the 
outer air is admissible in either the well itself or the passages. 

A similar plan may be carried into effect within the walls of 
the House ; and the marginal sketch, designed on this basis, will 
serve to explain both modes. 

If the Ice-house is to be built apart, it may be placed on the 
side of a bank if possible, so that the descent of the entrance 
shall be not inconvenient Let the depth of soil above the 
ceiling or dome be made 3 feet or more, by forming a slight 
mound over it if necessary. The entrance ought to open towi^ 

248 TBB Doiosnc omoi& ri. iL. on. in. 

• ami wpuct or be Aaded wHh tnos. The {iks will bftaiiBilar 
to tfast which has beea deimU^ — • einal«r well, doable doon, a 
paaage, ooe iiilenDodiatc d4M>r. aud the rater docff fur enttaace. 

CilAFTEB VIL — Lciucit-Boox, Lcogaob-bodm. 

fualluo Air Limber-iuan sod ivpacemcata. — Wbca to bo« 
— WbcB pfiwidol ■! the BtoMm.^ liggigt w. tin «— 

No bona.- cif good sue cao be complete whboirt the spedal pn)- 
TiaioD of iw!C(imtDodalion tor huuber, — old and qtare fnmhnre, 
limki^D artirlcv, packiog-oaees, and a faQodred rarietiee of eoiplus 
muttrre. Tht! Llubeb-room will be a garret of any kind, of 
Mifficicnt tx-ight, with wiiidows, a tirepUci.' if ixn^ble to keep it 
drjr, and meitug of access which sball be adeqDate for laige and 
liLiavy thirigH. The bent potxtion is bad when part of the hoose 
being lower thao the rest an entrance is obtained to the interior 
of Ute lower roof from some oooTement point on probablir the 
Fi«t-FlfJor, obvioualj- id the Servants' quarter. 

Ill §ome cuses it luay answer a ser^iceiibie i»iir|X)se to constitute 
u Luruber-room of lliis kind a stirt of Workuhop also, where for- 
niture may be repaired and such other operations conducted. 
Otherwise it may be deemed a preferable arrangem^it to 
make this Lumber-room a loft at the Stables. The accommo- 
dadou for workmen repairing fnmitare is thus generaHy more 
conTenient ; it is only more likely thict damp may be allowed 
to injure the contents through want of care. 

A LuooAQE-BOOM, t^ain, is an apartment of great use in 
superior houses as a reci^;iiised depository for portmanteaus, 
caniage-boxe& and other lug^jage-cases, which are always well 
worth being carefully kept. The apartment need not be large, 
hut it ought to have a fireplace if possible for airing its contents. 
It need scarcely contain any fittings except a strong shelf ot two 
and perhaps a small table. When no other accommodation is 
to be hod, a Lumber-room, if dry, may serve for Luggage-room 


CHAPTER Vm. — Fruit-Store. 

Purpose, position, and requirements. 

A SPACIOUS 6u:ea in the roof, easily accessible fh)m the domestic 
OflSces, will sometimes be set apart for the storage of apples and 
other fruit; but only in peculiar eases. Especial C6u:e must 
be taken, however, that the odour from this place does not 
penetrate into the house. It must be very dry and well venti- 
lated, and ought not to be exposed to extreme variations of 
temperature; in other respects, its requirements are of the 
simplest kind. 

CHAPTER IX. — Cistern-Chamber, &c. 

Cistern in roof. — Water-Tower. — Pmnping. — Rain-water-tank. 

The chief purpose for making a short chapter on this subject is 
to make it matter of specif note that the water-supply is a 
thing not to be overlooked in planning a house. 

In ordinary cases all that is required is to take care that 
some portion of roof space^ above the loftiest point of service, 
shall be available for the accommodation of a cistern, and 
properly accessible. In large Mansions it will be necessary to 
provide a Tower^ or its equivalent, for the purpose of holding a 
great cistern at the summit. The pumping^ whether by hand or 
by engine, must also be provided for. 

A Rain-water-tank^ for the storing of soft water, is also 
invaluable in most localities. It will be a vaulted chamber of 
suitable size under the OflSces. A supply cistern in connection 
therewith may also bo had over the Bedroom floor, to serve the 
Housemaid's Closet. 



CHAPTER I.— Seiivamts' Bedkooms. 

WomeD-temata' mom, tLeir accen, kikc, poation, &c. — MeD-nerrants' roona, 
(Utto, ditto. — Domiilory inbdiTided. — Upppr-nerTeuitij' rooms and Uieir refpec- 
tivo positioaa, Ac. — SuiHrrior-aemuiti' roolDd. — Stmrxgei-iierTants raoma. — 
UousekutjM-r'B Bodrooln. — LoiIios'-maidB' roomB. — GeDtral muiimi). 

The onlinary female domestics are usually proWdod with Bed- 
rooms on the uppermost story, or over the Offices, accessible hy 
the Back-Staircase. Tliese rooms ought to be of small size, 
suitable for not more than two pereons. They ought as a 
whole to be grouped together. Every room ought to han 
a fireplace, and good light and ventilation. 

The ordinary 7)iotsermntv must have their Sloeping-rooras in 
a separate quarter. Each man ought properly to have s separate 
room I or otherwise a good plan is to divide a large dormitory 
into small compartmeata or boxes hy board partitions about six 
or seveD feet high, each box with its one bed. When the number 
of men-eervants is sufficiently large, their rooms ought to be 
approached by a special Staircate, ascending of course from their 
own side of the Offices. Sometimes it is desirable to dispose 
certain men-servanta, indeed all of them if there are but two or 
.three, on the Ground- Floor, in different quarters of the house, 
for protection at night. 

The upper-servants of each sex will expect to have separate 
rooms as follows. The housekeeper ought to sleep near the maid- 
servants; the lady's-maid if possible near her mistress (see 
chapter on the Family Suite) ; a woman-cook may have a separate 
room amongst the others ; a tnan-cook will have a room near the 
Kitchen ; the butler will sleep near the Pantry ; and if the valet 
can be put within reach of his master, eo much the better for the 
efficiency of hie attendance during the day. 

Superior servants, such as a steward or a chamberlain (the lady's 


secretary and manager), have their private Bedrooms on a similar 

The body-servants of visitors must in a large establishment be 
specially provided for. A suflBcient number of rooms (called 
Stranger-servants' Eooms) will be set apart for these, in con- 
nexion, more or less, with the apartments of their equals of the 
household, of each sex respectively; but subject to this prin- 
ciple, that hospitality gives slightly superior accommodation to 
the stranger. 

The Housekeeper's Bedroom^ when upstairs, ought sometimes 
to be situated, not exactly amongst the apartments of the women, 
but rather so as to command the whole of them. It will be well- 
placed, for instance, in immediate connexion with the Staircase, 
probably one story below the rooms of the subordinates. 

If the plan, in a superior house, will admit of the ladies'-maids 
being specially accommodated on the First-Floor, this may be 
found convenient as well as satisfactory, inasmuch as they ought 
to be advantageously disposed for attendance, which is best done 
by placing them on the same floor^evel as their mistresses, and 
at hand. To put tliem generally in immediate connexion with 
the Back-Staircase does well for the purpose. It has to be noted 
that in some cases a Lady's-maid's-room will be required to serve 
as a Wardrobe-room; in which case the usual presses must be 
provided. Perhaps in most ordinary cases the size of a Lady's- 
maid's-room ought to be suflScient to admit also of clear-starching 
being done in it 

Every one of the Servants'-rooms ought to have a fireplace, 
for use in case of illness if no more ; and the caution is worth 
reiterating here that the architect must never neglect to plot 
upon his plan the position for every bedstead throughout the 
whole. If an)^hing be left to chance as regards this matter of 
arrangement, tlie inevitable consequence will be a reduction of 
the accommodation realised as compared with that which has 
been promised, besides a general character of discomfort which 
can never be remedied afterwards. (For the illustration of this 
chapter see Plates XXXV. and XXXVI.) 


OHAITEE 11. — Sebvants' Day-kooms. 

Stomrd, IioiueksfpoT, butler, oook, and valet. — Sarraula'-Hull and Women V 
room. — StPWttidVroom and HoaBokeeper'»n>Diii. — Lddiea'-niaid'B room. — 
Privscjr uourlitionul. 

Most of what has here to be said must be only a repetition col- 
lectively of what has been already set forth in detail. The 
sUwiird has his ORice, secondarily his private room : the hataer 
keeper has the Housekeepers-room, which is more of a [niblic 
room : the Mttler has his Pantry, which is more of a work-room, 
and Ijeaides this he Ua& only his private Bedroom : the man-cook 
has a private room by llic Kitchen, being his Bedroom also : and 
tlm vakt has a similar room, perltaps near his master. The 
inferior servants have the Servants'-Hall for their aoeommoda- 
tion generally ; the women having a separate apartment in 
large eBtablishmentB. Tlie upper-servants have for their collec- 
tive purposes the Steward's-room and the HousekeeperVroom. 
In addition to these there is sometimes a special room for the 
ladies' -maids, mon? particularly thosf in attendance on risitors, 
which may be placed upstairs, in connexion with their Bedrooms. 
Another way is to place the Day-Niirsery, as secondarily the 
Sitting-room of the head nurse, at the disposal of the ladies'- 
maids as her guests during the evening. For other Berrants 
there does not appear to be any special accommodation reqnimte. 
Throughout the whole a sort of general principle is held to 
govern, that any Sitting-room of the servants is only conditionally 
private, and may be open, according to arrangement, to some 
partner of the same rank ; and this more particularly when the 
accommodation of visitors' attendanta comes into question. 





CHAPTER I. — Ground-floor Offices. 

Route to Entrance and the men's side. — Relations of Kitchen, &c., and the 
women's side. — The superior rooms, &c. — The Back-Offices. — Three depart- 
ments. — Staircases. — Lift. — Sopplementaries. — Pump. — Dinner-belL 

The main Corridors of the Department of Offices have for their 
purpose the compact connection of the whole series amongst 
themselves, with proper Entrances from without, and convenient 
communication with the family part of the house. 

We shall at first consider the case of Offices attached to the 
House on the Ground-Floor; leaving Basement Offices to be 
afterwards spoken of. 

Perhaps the foremost consideration in primary arrangement 
ought to be the disposition of the main Corridor of the Offices so 
that the access of a servant to the Principal Entrance for the 
admission of visitors should be convem'ent. The route from the 
working apartment, whether the Kitchen (in a very small 
house), the Butler's-Pantry, or the Servants'-Hall, ought to be 
short and direct. It ought also to pass as much as possible 
clear of the Family-Thoroughfares; for nothing can be more 
unsuitable than an established traffic through the Gallery or 
Cortile of a Mansion to answer the door. Even in such houses 
as have a Hall-porter, the case is still the same. As a general 
rule, therefore, the men's side of the Offices ought to be next the 
Entrance, the Butler's-Pantry being at the nearest extremity, 
and the Servants'-Hall at the other, but not too fSEtr off. 

The next consideration may be so to place the Kitchen^ 
first, that its communication ^vith the Dining-room shall be 
comparatively easy, direct, and uninterrupted; secondly, that 
its odours shall be excluded from the Main House ; and thirdly, 
that its position shall form a central point around which to 
dispose the other Offices in appropriate relatioiL 

The Butler^ S'Pantry being situated between the Kitchen and 


the Dining-room, this may l>e niHd<- to hring the men's depart- 
ment altogether on one sido of the Kiteheu and tho women's on 
the other. The ffoiaekefper'a-room and its ndjuncla will then bo 
on the women's side, generally between the Kitchen and the 
Main House, The Stcw/ird't-rimn ought to be lietween the 
Main House and the Servants^ -ff all ; and it will he well to have 
tho Luggage-Entrance sufficiently near for ready access to botii 
of tliese rooms. The SetdUrg will lie beyond the Kitchen ; the 
Larders also in a similar relation to it. The Kitchen-Court will 
lifl Iieyond the Kitchen and Scullery, and will probably be 
wholly or partially surrounded by minor Offices mtd Outbuild- 
ingt. The Laundry, if not removed to a distance, and also the 
Bakery and Brewery, will probably be placed in connexion with 
this Court, perhaps separate, and accessible under cover. CoaU 
and wood ought to be delivered into their Cellars from without 
tho Court The principal Back-Entrance of the house ought 
not to be in the Kitchen Court, but there ought to be a gate- 
way into this for the trad^men'a carts to enter and deh'ver at 
a Kitchen^Entraiice. In a smaller establishment, however, these 
two Back-Entrances may be one. 

There are thus three chief Departmenta amongst the Offioea, 
namely. Hint of the ButUr and the men on one Kide, that of 
the Cook and the Back-Offices in ft manner central, and that 
of the ffffutekeeper (including the Women's-room) on the other 

The Staircases as regards the servants' use have bden generally 
treated of in the chapter on that subject in connexion with the 
family part of the house ; it may simply be noted here, chiefly 
in repetition, that the Back-Staircase, or ordinary combina- 
tion of housemaids' stair and secondary family stair, ought to 
be conveniently placed for the women's use ; also that this 
may serve for the Nurseries, and possibly for the women- 
servants' Bedrooms ; that the men's Bedroom-etair must be oa 
the men's aide; and that this may possibly serve for the 
Bacbelors'-rooms, besides descending to tbe Cellars. 

A Lift may advantageously be provided in almost every good 
house in connexion with the Back-Staircase, for coals, luggage, 
linen, the Nursery dinner, and whatever else may be heavy to 
carry up-staiis. 

Reference may be made to the chapters on iSupplemmtarjf 
Apartments m the fonner division of the work for all that would 
reqaiie to be said here r^arding Water-closets, Baths, ^. 


A Pump may very likely be required in a Country-House for 
the water supply, and a Pump-room accordingly. It is best 
situated near the men's Offices, so that the motive power may be 
ready at hand when accidentally required. 

The dinner-bell will be placed either inside or outside, accord- 
ing to the nature of the house ; but the pull ought to work 
easily (without cranks or pulleys if possible) from beside the 

Our illustrative plans aflFord a variety of useful examples of 
the arrangement of Ground-floor Offices; and the descriptive 
remarks in the Appendix will fiirther explain their bearing. 
Plates XV., XVm., XXIX., XXX., XXXITL, XXXIV., 
XXXV., and XLV., may however be specially referred to. 

CHAPTER II.— Basement Offices. 

Semng-room and Dinner-Stair, &c. — Staircases. — Kitchen department, men's 
side and women's side. — Relation to Entrance above. — Belation to Principal 
Booms above. — Kitchen-Court. 

In the country this system ia scarcely ever to be recommended. 
In London and other large towns it will of course be not only 
generally, but perhaps invariably, adopted ; but where the site is 
unconfined it will be only in circumstances of very extraordinary 
kind, as regards level for example, that Basement Offices will be 
found necessary. 

In this case the Serving-room alone will generally be on the 
Ground-Floor; and in a large house a special Dinner-Stair, 
with probably a Lift in addition, ought to lead to this firom 
beside the Kitchen, perhaps £rom another Serving-room in the 

The Back-Staircase will of necessity ascend from the Base- 
ment ; and there ought never to be any Cellar-Stair under the 

In arranging the Offices the best must be done to meet the 
principles already laid down for each ; the Kitchen department 
centridly ; the MerCs Offices on one side (under the quarter of 
the Dining-room probably), and the WomevCs Offices on the 
other ; with in all cases light Passages, and an Office-Entrance 
where most convenient 


Tliere oaght to l»e no windows under the Principal Itoomij if 
pocpiblp, but rather the blank walls belonginf: to Cellare, &e. 
Such expedients as a spacious and deep Ari'a witliia a Terrace^ 
or a raised basement balf above ground, so as to obtain a ranga 
of lower windows all round, are calmdated, not only to interfere' 
with privacy in reality, but still more to destroy it in appeai<- 
once. To approach the Entrance-door in face of thfi Kitchen- 
windows is especially objectionable. The view of Larder-safes,, 
Wttterbutts or cisterns, Beer-cellar flaps, area-doors, the Dust-bin, 
and such like, is even still more to bo avoided. 

With Basement Offices special attention must be directed to 
the protection of the Principal Booms from the noise of what 
puases below them. Consequently it becomes not ouly necessary 
to render the floors so far sound-proof by pugging, hut deairabla 
aUo, in ordinary cases, to dispose the Oflicea so that the prin- 
cipal work-rooms shall not lio under the superior Apartments. 

It is probably never to be expected that Basement Offices 
(thall be so perfectly convenient as those which are disposed 
aljove ground ; and as one pirticnlar disadvantage, at least ia 
towns, there cannot be a Kitchen-Court except it be in the form 
of a sunk Area of some confined sort ; bnt when the reason for 
iiduptiriy tin: ayslriii tics merely in some question of site, it will 
greatly facilitate good arrangement if one of the four sides of the 
house be appropriated exclusively on the Ground-Floor to the 
inferior apartments of the family, and if in the Basement that 
side be taken for the chief Offices, with an enclosed Eitdieot- 
Court attached. Even in towns this idea may be worked oat by 
placing such a Court at one end (presuming the house to be so 
far detached), with the Garden either in front or behind, or 
both. The Stables in this case would My connect with tiie 
same end. 

As examples of Basement Offices, Plates SXXVIL, XXXES., 
and XLIV. may be referred to. Plato XXXIX. also has an 
additional purpoee,^namely, an exhibition of the defective 
disposition of the Offices generally in one of the large Palladian 
Mansions of the eighteenth century, contrasted with the snpe- 
rior arrangements of the same subject as recently altered to 
suit modem requirements. 




CHAPTER I. — Introduction. 

stabling in town and country. — Primary accommodation and additional items. 

There are scarcely any exceptions to the general rule that a 
Grentleman's House in the country, or in a smaU town, is 
required to possess Stable-Offices on a sc*^le commensurate 
with the magnitude of the establishment. In London, on the 
other hand, and the great provincial cities, the case is different ; 
a large proportion of houses of very good class are devoid of 
Stabling altogether ; and in every instance where the accommo- 
dation is provided it is confined within narrow limits. The 
same principles will however apply in both instances, and 
according to the space at command the same general features 
of plan will be in request. 

Whether the Stables shaU be attached to the House or 
removed to a distance, either greater or less, is not by any 
means an unimportant question; but it does not materially 
affect our treatment of their plan. Suffice it to say here that 
the points at issue are so well understood that every gentleman 
can decide for himseK in his own case without any help from an 

The primary items of accommodation are the Stable, the 
Carriage-House, the Hay-Loft, the Stable-Yard or its equiva- 
lent, and the Dung-Pit On the smallest scale these will con- 
stitute the whole. As requirements increase, besides the 
increased development of each of these in itself, there will be 
added the Harness-room, the Saddle-room, the Boiler-room or 
Scullery, the Horse-Bath, Loose-Boxes, rooms for the servants, 
and so on, as will be seen in the following chapters. 

The illustrations of Stabling given in Plates XIL, XY., 



XSIV., SXV., XXXII., XXXVII., mul XXXTX. have a 
general bearing which will be readily uiideretoixl ; so that parti- 
calar references ou matters of detail may be dispensed with. 

CHAPTER XL— Stables. 

Manj foitiu. — ArtilicUl condition of Uib home, ami Klentiflcpiobloiii BCDordiugt;. 

— StuUa; tlH'irttimoiuiuiu; width ofsbtble ; BttingB. — PuvingvarioUB. — 6Io[d^ 
or Ipvolfluor. — Gutters. — BtoWewitliMmtralpaamgo. — Hon-Bbsorbent walls 
Ac — Dryuew. — Light Tentil&tioii. — Height Aspcot aoil temperktam. 

— Aiiiflciftl wkrtuiiig. — Cloanaiug. — Flies. — Door awl windows. — Com hoi^ 
aliuot, fudder-haj. — ELirucait. — Looae'buxGtf, tb^ dlmunsions, Smngi^ Ac — 
OoDeiul dinaioD of Btabling. 

Thb Stable in its simplest form is often an exceedingly unpre- 
tending matter ; but aa another extreme it frequently goea to n 
considerable length in what may be called scientific fastidious- \ 
ness, so that the variety of ingenious contrivancea brought 
forward in competition for public preference is sacb that one j 
scarcely knows where to choose. It is not for ns at present to \ 
attempt any discrimination between the merits of rival iuven- 
tioMfi ; and indeed it Is always advisable for on architect (who ia 
not usually a horsey man) to leave the choice in the hands of 
his client. But we may verj- safely endeavour to set forth the 
scientific questions wliich bear upon the matter, and which, 
whetlier in more or in less imjK>rtaut instances, ought always to 
be duly taken into consideration. 

The horse is obviously constituted by nature for dwelling 
in the free space and fresh air of tlie field. If we could place 
him in idleness in a meadow, with a shelter for his voluntary 
retreat, he would of course he independent of scientific lodging. 
But as we beep him for work, and work that requires amongst 
other things a gentle temper and a sleek coat, it is necessarj' 
to contine him in an enclosed apartment ; and so the operations 
of feeding, cleansing, and ventilating, become matters of con- 
trivance. All is artificial. The animal which is neglected, 
whether in respect of food, or of cleansing, or of tlie purification 
of tlie air he breathes, becomes diseased. The problem there- 
fore is so to lodge him that his food shall bo readily supplied, 
his stall easily cleansed and well drained, and the air kept, if not 
absolutely fresh, at least sufficiently so. Light of course has to 

Chap. II. STABLES. 259 

be admitted; and the natural temperature ought to be cool 
in summer, and not cold in winter. 

In an ordinary Stable the proper dimemions far a stall are 
6 feet in width, and 9 feet in depth from the wall to the heel- 
post. The passage behind is from 9 to 10 feet wide, making the 
entire width of the Stable from 18 to 19 feet Sometimes 
the stalls are made less than 6 feet wide; but this is not 
advisable for good horses; neither is it necessary, although 
occasionally done, to make them wider. The stalls are separ 
rated by board partitions, the heel-post and capping being either 
of oak, cast iron, or wrought iron, and the height of the partition 
being about 5 feet at the post, ramping up to 7 or 7^ feet at 
the wall. The watt-space at the head of the stall ought also to 
be boarded, unless it be preferred to cover it with tiles or other 
enamelled lining. The partition ought to be a little clear 
of the floor. The form of manger, rack (high or low), water- 
trough, if any, and other fittings, must be selected according 
to the opinion of the owner or groom, the rival patterns being 
numerous and widely advertised. 

The paving of the entire floor ought to be of a substance 
strong enough to keep unbroken, smooth enough to let water 
pass off readily, sufficientiy rough to afford a footing for the 
horse, and as far as possible entirely unabsorbent The paving- 
bricks and clinkers which are commonly used would seem to be 
perfect but for their absorbency, which sooner or later, in spite 
of cleansing, makes of the whole floor an offensive evaporating 
surface. Pitching-stones or pebbles are scarcely preferable; 
because their interstices become filled with dirt, from which the 
evaporation goes on. Small squared granite is serviceable, 
where it is to be had ; but it is of course ezpensiva Lastly, 
there are several forms of recently introduced terro-metallic 
bricks, which are approved for their perfect non-absorbency. 
Practically perhaps this is the most important consideration 
possible ; for we may hold it to be an established principle that 
a coachman will admit as little cold air as possible into his 
Stable, and the less absorbent the floor the less need for air. 

The fiooT of the stalls used formerly to be laid sloping from 
the wall to a gutter along the back, for purposes of drainage ; 
and the idea seems now to have taken such a hold upon some 
minds as to be advocated for supposed reasons of the horse's 
muscular comfort ; but the balance of opinion is in favour of 



a leyel floor. Tlio (Irftinagfl-slope, n-ith a gooii ]iaviiiK nidt^ria], 
may be very slij^lit, aiwi towiirdu the centre of the stall ; and it is 
now tlie universal practioe to put in iron guttering lea^liiig from 
this jwiiit in ijut-li wiso IntckwHrdi to the line of the old channel, 
which ia still the main line as before. Tbia guttering in the 
elieupcst form is open, and consequently allows its amteuta to 
evaiMjrate; an improved contrivance gives it a close cover, wliidi 
not only prevents evaporation, bnt, by being removable at 
plousQre, permits frequent cleansing. Small trapped pots aIko 
are now made, to be fixed at everj- point where the drainage 
enters. Lastly, as cast iron ia objectionable on account of its 
Inittleness, the introduction of wrought iron for all these articles 
ill a final improvement which seems to moke them perfect. 

For the sake of economy of space a Stable is sometimes made 
with a central jiasiage, and a row of stalls on each aide, having 
the door at one end and windows at both. This plan howevt* is 
not much favoured, as there is generally a deficiency of light and 
air. Occasionally a Stable of this, kind is to be met with lighted 
from the roof ; but neither is this preferred by authorities. 

In a good Stable it is important that not only the floor, aa 
nlrcndy stated, but the u-all-surface, should be nou-absorbent. 
Bough brickwork, therefore, ought to give place to smooth 
plastering; a plaster ceiling also ought to be formed; and the 
material used, at least for the finishing coat, may with advantage 
he any hard cement rather than common lime. Too modi 
boarding is not to be encouraged as regards this purpose ; on the 
contrary, tile-facing is much approved. 

Drffnett of floor especially, and general freedom fiom damp, 
are essential to the healthiness of a Stable. 

The amount of l^ht to be admitted will be based npcm what 
would be comfortable to the eye of man in the case <A a common 
dwelling-room; it may be less than this rather than more. If 
a horse be kept in the dark, or even in a sort of twilig^^ tiie 
glare of the open day, when he is suddenly brought oot, is 
painful to him ; and it requires some little coaxing to pot him 
at ease. Whether wall windows or skylights are best is a 
question that seems doubtful. Wall windows, if in a tange 
behind the horses, have many advantages; and especially 
if well aspected for sunshine, for sunshine is welcome to all 

The important qnestion of vt/atilatian, is perhaps of m<ae diffi- 

Chap. II. STABLES. 261 

cult application to our horses than to ourselves. Some stable- 
servants entertain such a horror of draughts, and this in so 
dogmatic a way, that even in temperate weather the total exclu- 
sion of the external air seems to them their chief duty ; and this, 
not only by the shutting of doors and windows, but by the stuflT- 
ing up of scientific ventilators with straw. Their horses, they 
say, are very susceptible to cold. It need scarcely be said that 
this over-anxiety to exclude the air is frequently the very cause of 
the susceptibility complained of. If the horses, even when wet 
with exercise, are allowed a reasonable supply of the indis- 
pensable element, they will suffer less from its mere coldness 
than they do from the closeness of an unventilated stable. At 
the same time, with respect at least to valuable horses, it must 
be acknowledged that rude natural ventilation, such as that of 
open doors and windows, will not answer ; so that some artificial 
system seems to be absolutely necessary. 

There are several forms of artificial ventilation applicable to 
Stables which are well known in practice. Without entering 
upon their merits, it may be remarked that the great defect to 
be dreaded is the creation of a draught ; and inventors are not 
always to be believed when they affirm that their respective 
contrivances are perfectly free from this. Any apparatus which 
is placed over the head of each horse, as if to carry off his indi- 
vidual pollution of the atmosphere, is so far unscientific, and to 
be strongly suspected of a draught. Any admission of air at the 
floor-level is not likely to be satisfactory in this respect^ except 
under very judicious and somewhat complicated management. 
A mere escape-apparatus in the ceiling, unless when placed at a 
very great height and ingeniously contrived, is not to be relied 
upon. Ventilators inserted in the windows are no better. There 
have been lately introduced, however, a variety of ceiling-venti- 
lators, of which, if divested of affected complexity, we cannot 
help thinking the principle is sound ; the old-fashioned plan of 
carrying several tubes, about ten or twelve inches square, from 
the ceiling through the loft to the outer air, is very nearly of 
the same effect. One of the most useful aids to ventilation lies 
in making a Stable lofty ; none ought to be less than 10 feet 
high ; to be 12 or even 15 feet is better. Another great advan- 
tage is possessed when a favourable aspect is obtained for doors 
and windows, that is to say a Southward one ; these openings are 
thus sheltered from the strong winds^ and the natural ventilation 
of which they are the means is available to the utmost. 


For the same reason a Southward aspect is the best as respects 
equality of temperature. In winter, also, it affords the ben^t of 
whatever sunshine there may be. In summer the excessiYe 
heat may be excluded by the help of open windows and lonvie 
blinds. One point which must never be overlooked if a 
Stable is to be either warm in winter or cool in summer, is the 
formation of a space between the ceiling and roof-covering. A 
Loft above is the best form for this. In very cold and damp 
climates it may be thought necessary for the sake of wintor 
comfort to cover with boarding the whole of the walls and even 
the ceiling ; but the disadvantage already attributed to boarding 
must not be overlooked. 

Artificial warming ought apparently to be used more than it 
is ; not so much for the sake of warmth as for that of ventila- 
tion, — ^that the groom may be induced to admit fresh air. 

The last of the chief questions for inquiry is the aieanaimg. 
There is no better mode for removing the litter than conveying 
it in a wheelbarrow through the doorway. At the same time, if 
the Dung-pit should be so situated aa to be directly aocesrible 
through a hatch or shutter-opening in the Stable wall, there is 
no reason why this should not be the plan, except indeed such 
hatch should admit an unwelcome blast in severe weather, when 
of course it would have to be disused for the time, and a passage 
by the doorway resorted to. 

The plague oi Jiies will be much lessened by the promotion of 
ventilation : flies, in a word, follow their noses, and their pre- 
sence in large numbers is but an index of unsavouriness. 

A Stable-door ought to be 4 feet wide and 7 feet high, and 
cut in two heights; and windoivs ought to be well elevated. 
Iron sashes are much used. If the aspect be as it ought to be, 
hinged shutters of louvre boarding may be advantageously addetl 
outside the sashes, for bright and hot weather. 

A Corn-bin is generally placed in tlie Stable, under a window 
for instance, or in a corner ; it may be either a wooden box, or 
an iron one which is kept in stock by manufacturers of Stable- 
fittings. Another arrangement is to have the Corn-bin or its 
equivalent in the Loft above, with a wooden shoot leading down 
therefrom to a convenient lieight from the Stable floor : the corn 
is put in at the top, and by means of a couple of slides is drawn 
off below in regulated quantities or feeds as wanted. Sometimes 
a spare stall is formed as a Fodder-bay, where the corn-bin, and 
indeed the hay, and also the wheelbarrow and other implements 


in nse^ find a place. In fact, this arraDgement is now much 
favouredy the com and hay being brought in as required, per- 
haps daily^ &om the Farm-0£Bces. A small cupboard in a 
conrenient position, for currycombs and other small things, will 
be useful If the Stable be on a modest scale, with no Harness- 
room attached, the harness-pegs are sometimes fixed against the 
wall or on the heel-posts ; but this is not advisable : the Carriage- 
house is a better place for the purpose, the Stable air being apt 
to become heated and moist, and thus prejudicial to leather. 

A Loose- Box for the use of a lame, sick, or otherwise peculiar 
horse, is generally a stall of large size, or rather a space of from 
8 to 10 feet by 10 or 12 feet, altogether enclosed and entered by 
a small door. The enclosure is similar to a stall partition, about 
7 feet high, the upper 2 feet being preferred of open iron trellis- 
work. Sometimes a Loose-Box is formed as a separate apart- 
ment, or one-stall Stable, the dimensions being as before, or a 
little larger; this is preferable for some cases of sickness espe- 
cially. The manger fittings for a Loose-Box are to be had in 
great variety on the same principles as the others. The drain- 
age is effected by a trapped pot at the central point, with gutter- 
ing as already described. 

In a large establishment the Stabling is usually divided into 
several sections ; one Stable being appropriated to carriage-horses, 
another to riding-horses, a separate one to hunters perhaps, 
another to the horses of strangers, and sometimes one for post- 
horses apart from the rest. Loose-Boxes also are then commonly 
placed by themselves, either as separate small apartments, or 
collectively in one large Stable ; and they may be required by 
some gentlemen in such number as to constitute a considerable 
proportion of the total accomm<9dation. 

CHAPTER nL— Carbiage-House. 

Dryness and cleanness. — Dimensions and conatrnctioD.^ Beating. — Belation 
to Stablo-Yard. — Washing-payement. — Harness. — I\Bi4<v-etones, and wbed- 

The primary essentials in respect of a Carriage-house of what- 
ever kind are thorough dryness and cleanness. Damp is the 
surest destructive of the coachmaker's work ; and dirt and dust 

264 STABI-INQ AND FARM 0FFI0P.3. Tr. II., Uiv. IV. 

of course occasion uectlless cleansing. The floor ought conse- 
quently to be formed of very good paving-brick or stone, — strong 
enough, by tlie byp, to resist the wear of wlieels ; and the walls 
ami ceiling ought to be plaatered. In spet^ial cases the floor 
and even the wall-liningB may require to be of wood. 

The dimensions for a doorway are from 7 to 9 feet as tJie 
width, — 8 feet being a very good size, — and 8 feet or more as 
the height Wliere several carriages have to be accommodated, 
GO many doors like this are placed side by side, separated by 
limber posts or stone or brick pillarF, to which the doors are 
hinged in pairs, the space within being not dividefi by partitions. 
The ikpth for a Carriage-house of any pretension is about 18 
feet. The height ought to be ample, 10 feet as the minimam, 
for the sake of airiness. There ought to be sufficient light 
admitted, by glass pane« for instfluee in tlie upper part of the 
doors, to admit of the carriages being rubbed up occasionally 
without being exposed to the weather. 

To prevent damp a stove is sometimes introduced. Otherwiae, 
when the Hames3-room adjoins the Carriage-house, the flreplare 
requisite for the Harness-room is pnt in the division wall, so that 
the Can-ill gc-hon?e is wanned from the back ; or a form of etovo 
is used which has a beating face each way ; or a door c^ inlep- 
communication is. kept open, bo that the warm sir of the one 
apartment passes into the other. 

The Carriage-house will usually front upon the 8table-Yard, 
in common with the other Offices : a Poet-carriage-houBe, how^ 
ever, may be, with the Post-horse Stable, placed out of the Yard, 
so 08 to avoid interference with the establishment. 

In front of the doors it is always necessary to form a Inoad 
wa»kii^-pavement of brick or stone, on which to wash the car- 
riages. It is drained by a trap in the centre. 

In a small Carriage-house, when there is no Harness-room, it 
is usual to provide accommodation for the hamem by fitting 
up so many pegs as may be required. A small eujAoard, or 
shelving, may in any cose be provided for the cleaning things. 

Although stablemen become sufficiently skilful in wheeling 
the carriages out and in at the doors, it is always desirable to 
place fencUr-atmes at the posts, not only to protect these, but to 
save the wheels from being injured by abrasion. Where car- 
riages are heavy and valuable, it is desirable to torm vheel- 
tracka to guide them safely and easily. 


CTTAPTEB IV. — Habness-eoom and Saddle-eoom. 

DijneflB eflsential; oonsiraotion. — Intercommiinicatioti : position. — Heating, &c. 
— Fittings of a complete Harness-room. — Cleaning-room attached. — Saddle- 
room. — Ceiling-light, 

The primary object in a Habkess-eoom is that the harness 
shonld be kept in a dry atmosphere. The floor is therefore to 
be of wood ; and the wcdls are lined, either to the whole height, 
or at any rate to the height of the harness-pegs, with boarding. 
The ceiling, and the remainder, if any, of the walls, ought to be 
plastered. A convenient mndaw and door are matters of course : 
there may be also an inner door to the Carriage-house, but not 
one to the Stable, as the latter would admit moist and impure air 
from the horses. At the same time the position of the Harness- 
room ought to be in close connexion with the Stable for obyiou» 
reasons. A fireplace is also necessary if the harness be worth 
preserving ; and in the last chapter we have already explained 
how this may be made to serve for the Carriage-house also. In 
ordinary cases moreover the coachman makes the Harness-room 
his place of business for the day. 

As regards the Fittings, we may describe the complete arrange- 
ment of a Harness-room for a large establishment ; the way in 
which the less extensive requirements of inferior cases are to be 
met will then become readily apparent. In one part are placed 
a row of saddle-trees from 6 to 8 feet from the floor ; with ?U)oks 
and In-ackets for bridles, girths, and stirrups, under them. In 
another part, at the same height, there is a row of coHar-brackets 
for the carriage-horses ; with other hooks, brackets, and trees, 
for the pads, bridles, reins, traces, &c. Each set of harness is 
of course kept by itself, and probably the name of the wearer 
inscribed above it. Over the fireplace, or near it, is a glass ease 
in which the curbs, bits, spurs, chains, and other small steel 
articles, are hung in order ; and another glass case may receive 
the more valuable harness, pertaining to state-carriages we shall 
say, arranged on trees and brackets, &c., like the other. A con- 
venient comer is appropriated to whips and lamps, these being 
hung on the wall on their proper hooks and brackets. A press 
is eiso provided for rugs, horsecloths, and the like, and drawers 
for brushes and other small articles ; and a large table occupies 
the middle of the floor. Otherwise this table may be a sort of 


dres$er, filled UDdemeath with draweis and a doset or two of 
shelviDg, for the cloths and so on. 

In some instances it is deemed advisable to provide a small 
adjunct to the Harness-room as a Cleanu^-roam. This maj 
contain a tink ; indeed there seems no reason why a Hamesv- 
room generally should not be so provided. 

When the establishment is laige enough for divided jurisdic- 
tion, the Saddle-boom appears as a separate apartment^ attaching 
itself to the Nag-Stable, and leaving the Harness-room in ooih 
nexion with the Carriage-Stable. The principles of plan are 
still obviously the same; but the Saddle-room becomes the 
special dominion of the head-groom or outrider, leaving the 
Harness-room in charge of the coachman. 

For the sake of a saving in wall space, and perhaps greater 
security from theft, a Harness-room is frequently lighted from 
the ceiling ; but wall-windows always make a more airy roonu 

CHAPTER V. — Grooming-Shed, etc., and Horse-Bath. 

Grnoming-.slH'd ; its j)uri>f»se and j^osition, &-c. — Ilorso-lwith clesoribed, ami motliti- 
catiou of this slied for it. — Couimon oikmi shed ; its uiieu, &c. — Shoeing-shed. 

Ix smaller estiiblisliments the groom will clean and rub do^ii 
his horses in the Stable or outsitle the door ; but in more im- 
portant cases it becomes necessary to provide a Shed for this 
sj)ecial puri)ose. It will of course be placed sufficiently near the 
Stable-doors, and made sufficiently large to accommodate one or 
two horses at a time, according to the entire number for which 
it has to serve. Such a Shed is sometimes formed as a Vestibule 
to a Stable : it is always open in front. 

Sometimes nowadays we have a Horse-bath fitted up in this 
Shed. It requires notliing more than a capacious cistern over- 
head, with the usual shower-bath apparatus, an enclosure for the 
patient, folding away close to the wall when not in use, and a 
dnun to take off the water from the floor. In this case, however, 
the Shed will probably have the means of being altogether 
enclosed in bad weather, as by folding-doors : it may also perhaps 
communicate with one or more of the Stables for access under 

Chap. VI. STABLE-YABD, ETC. 267 

An ordinary Shed is commonly provided for sheltering an 
occasional vehicle, or for receiving a cart, or the like : 12 feet is 
a sufficient depth for it ; and it may be of from one to three or 
four compartments, as required* 

Wheelbarrows, brooms, &c., have also to be accommodated, 
either in the Shed just described, or in some convenient comer. 

If there be a Smithy attached to the Stables, as is often 
desirable in extensive establishments, a Shoeing-^hed must be 
placed in connexion with it : about 8 feet wide will be sufficient 
for one horse at a time. (See chapter on Workshops,) 

CHAPTER VI.— Stable-Yard, Ride, Dung-Pit, and 

Water Supply. 

Position* dimensions, and chaiacter of Stable-Yard. — Entrance. — Paving. — 
CoTeredRide, uses and disposition. — Dung-pit, situation, various forms, liquid 
manure, emptying, and access. — Water-supply. — Drainage. — Glook-torret — 

An Open Yard is always necessary for the ont-door work of 
both Stable and Carriage-house ; and where the Offices are on a 
large scale, the dimensions of this Yard require to be considerable 
— say from 40 to 100 feet by 40 or 50, or even more. The 
almost universal practice nowadays is to place the whole of the 
Stable-Offices, so far as they go, around this area in the form of 
a quadrangle, and looking inwards upon it Sometimes, how- 
ever, they form a single range of buildings, with the Yard in 
front The site is frequently chosen in immediate connexion 
with the House ; and perhaps quite as frequently it is separate, 
and at a distance. 

The evUrcmce to the Stable-Yard may be by one gateway or 
two. If the position be in conjunction with the House, adjoining 
an Entrance-Court on a large scale, both a stately effect and a 
convenient arrangement are produced by making an appropriate 
gateway at one side ; so that home-carriages, having set down at 
the Porch, proceed to the Stable-Yard without having to leave 
by the principal Approach, or otherwise, when coming to take 
up, do so without having to enter by it On this plan, however, 
it is necessary to provide for the Stable-Yard a second Entrance 
for its own more proper affairs ; at the further end probably, and 


in connexion with the Drive at a little distance, or with some 
other roadway. If, on the other hand, the Stables are altogether 
removed from the House, one Entrance is sufficient^ taking the 
place of the second just alluded ta 

Irrespective of the paved space in front of the Carriage-hoiise8» 
it is not unusual, if the area be not too large for economy, to 
pave the entire Yard, eitlier with brick or stone pitching. A 
good gravel surface, however, is certainly of much less cosL 
The question of difference turns upon the cutting up of the gravel 
by the wheels, and the consequent dirty condition of the Yard, 
besides tlie constant need of repair. In any case there ought to 
be a pathway of paving in front of all the buildings. 

In large establishments there is sometimes formed a covered 
Bide round the entire quadrangle of the Stable-Yard. It will 
be about 10 feet wide, and may be planned in various ways, not 
only as regards construction, light, &c., but as to whether it shall 
be external or internal in its relation to the Stable-buildings. 
If beyond the buildings, it is plain that it leaves the commonicar 
tion complete from each of them to the open central Yard ; if 
within the buildings, its position is obviously more convenient 
for its own purposes. It serves as a continuous Shed for 
whatever uses, and affords the means of exercising the horses 
in bad weather and during sickness. It must be circular on 
plan ; or, if square, it must have widely rounded corners, to 
prevent accidents. (See I^late XV.) 

The position to be appropriated to the Dung-pit is not to he 
carelessly fixed upon. If it be not reasonably convenient for the 
stiible-man in wheeling the litter, he will complain of it, or 
perhaps establish a rival hcnip in another place. At the same 
time it ought to be sufiiciently removed from all dixu*s and 
windows, as a first principle of sanitary propriety. In the case 
of a small Stable it mav be conn)arativelv innoxious in a comer 

. L * 

of the Yard ; but in a large establishment it assumes correspond- 
ing dimensions, and becomes a |X)sitive nuisance if not quite 
removed. In these circumstances it is perhaps most advisiible 
to make a special enclosure or Yard for it behind the Stable 
buildings, or otherwise at a little distance. If possible, the 
Stiible drainage (with not too large an admixture of surface or 
roof-water) may be led into it, and a cess{x>ol formed underneath 
for the reception of the liquid nuuiure. The removal of the 
contents of the Dung-pit ought to be so contrived as not to pass 
through the Stable- Yard ; it is usual therefore to provide, if no 


more, a special door for emptying outwards, and so carting away. 
The access from within may also in this case be masked, as by a 
Porch ; and thus the sight, and in a great measure the smell, of 
the manure shut out. A separate Yard, however, in any con- 
siderable establishment is always best. 

The water-supply for the Stable- Yard may be simply by a single 
pump in small examples ; but in large establishments it must be 
laid on to each Stable for cleansing purposes, and for the drink 
of the horses ; to the Harness-rooms or their immediate vicinity ; 
to the front of Carriage-houses for washing carriages ; and to the 
Boiling-house, if any, for the supply of the copper. 

The drainage of the Stable- Ywd seems to require no descrip- 
tion, except that it must be complete, including amongst its 
provisions a drain from every branch of water supply. 

A very common feature in Stable-Offices of any size is a Clock" 
turret At all events a clock can scarcely be dispensed with if 
time is to be kept in the hourly affairs of the Stable- Yard ; and 
therefore it may be said that the necessity of some provision for 
it is fair matter of remark in the present chapter. If a Dovecot 
be desired, it may very appropriately be dealt with at the same 

CHAPTER VII. — Hay and Corn Lofts, etc.; Boiler- 


Upper story usual for such lofts; conshnction and reqnirements. — Mode of sup- 
plying hay and com. — Fittings, ladders, stair. — Stores when on ground-level ; 
Fodder-bey. — Boiling or steaming house ; position and fittings. — Small lofts. 

An upper-floor is always formed over the whole or part of the 
Stable-Offices ; and in what may be called the more ordinary 
and more old-fashioned cases, the chief part of this serves for the 
accommodation primarily of the hay and com. The interior of 
the walls may be left in plain brickwork limewhited, and there 
is no need for any ceih'ng to the roof; but the wooden floor has 
to be considered as regards the passage of dust through its joints 
to the story below, where it would obviously be unwelcome. 
This furnishes one particular reason for having a plaster ceiling 

These Lofts receive their contents by doors opening to the 
outer air in convenient positions for delivery from carts. Loft- 


doors Bro cut across tlie middle of the height. The ligiit is 
admitted by ordinary windotca. 

Convenience of tupply for the hay and com at the proper 
points below places a Hay-Loft, aucording to rule, over a Stabk*. 
The old practice of droppibg tlie hay through the floor into tlie 
racks is, however, now discontinued. The manner of supplying 
the com by a Bhoot has aheady been described wliLm treating of 
the Stable : the adoption of this mode renders it desirable that 
the Graiii-Lofl should be in a suitable place. Indeed, so far it 
becomea of some iuiportance that the Stables should bo grouped 
together aa much us possible, so that one Corjj-Loft may supply 
all; otherwise corn-bins must he placed in tliosc'stables wbich 
cannot be reached. 

The Fittiiiffs of a Hay-Loft aro none, except that the chaff* 
cutting machine is there placed. In the Corn-Loft the oats will 
be deposited in sacks ; but one or more bms must be made to 
hold a quantity for immediate uae. Beaus and tlie like will also 
be similarly stored. 

A trap-ladder is placed in each Stable to reach the Hay-Loft. 
The Com-LoFt may have a separate and better stair communi- 
cating with the outside — a straight stair, by the bye, if possible, 
for convenience in I'lirniiip; u\\ saokw by that way. 

In more ailvdiirrd iiiiHi(;l>, howi'ver, the Lofts thus described 
are frequently abandoned, and the hay and com stored on the 
ground-level. , In this case there may be a special aportmeut, 
for example, between two Stables ; or there may be a Bpare ^aU, 
so called, or fodder-bat/, in each Stable. The actual storage for 
hay and com is then provided at the Farm-buildings alone, and 
small supplies are brought to the Btables as wanted. 

It may be noticed that in many cases a Boiling or iSteammg- 
house is required for the preparation of certain kinds of food. 
All that is here necessary is a moderate-sized apartment on the 
Ground-Floor, containing a copper and bins. The bins hold 
oats, beans, linseed, and chaff; and the copper boils these as may 
he necessary. Otherwise, the food may he mixed in the bins, 
and steamed there by a pipe from a boiler. 

It win be readily understood that in small sets of Stabling the 
Lofls above described have to be provided in commensurate form, 
and on a simple plan ; in very inferior coses a single smaU Loft 
ia all that is required. 


CHAPTER Vni.— Servants' Rooms. 

In small establishments. — In larger cases. Sleeping-rooms over Stables. — Ex- 
drndon of Stable vapours. — Mess-room and its fittings. — Staircase. 

Where one man only is employed, with perhaps a boy, he will 
occnpy the Harness-room during the day, and have sleeping 
accommodation adjoinmg the Loft above. A married coachman, 
in even a good ordinary establishment, will be content with two 
or three rooms on the Upper-Floor ; and these accessible gene- 
rally by ascending the ladder in the Stable, and passing through 
the Bfciy-Loft. Indeed careful men will object to sleep anywhere 
else than over their horses. Even in the larger establishments, 
where the principal coachman will have a cottage somewhat 
apart, there must still be Sleeping-rooms over the several 
Stables to accommodate his subordinates. It need scarcely be 
remarked that a Living-room, under these arrangements, ought 
always to contain a cooking-range, and every Sleeping-room a 

Care ought to be taken to prevent the vapours of the Stables 
from finding their way into the rooms above. Stablemen, it is 
true, and even their wives and families, look upon this as of 
small account ; but no one else can take the same view of it ; 
and the result of a little care will at least be always approved in 
the end. 

A Mess-room will be necessary when the servants are numerous, 
furnished with merely a table and benches, a cupboard, small 
dresser, and range with oven and boiler. Here all the inferior 
stable-servants have to take their meals in common, the coach- 
man and some others going to their own homes or to the House. 
This apartment, like all the other Servants' rooms, will be on 
the Upper-Story. The Staircase will ascend from beside the 
Harness- room. 


CHAPTER IX.— Farm Offices. 

A ftnpa J^naerf tn be bailt apart. — Onlinu; aUuhed Fum OffloM aloae bm 
iulottdcd. — Il<.4ittiiiii Id t^lablo-VuiL — Cuw-hoiiMi diiaeiiiicinB, mnuttm^n, 
iumI fitllogH, Ac — Oilf-hoiiK, diU/x — Sbecp-boiue. ditto. — Piggoj. ditto. 
— I'oulMy-houjBB. *Bri™«, ditt* — Oart-Stabio. — Qut-alicd. — No Ilanw 
roquired. — Slaughter.hcnwc. — ToiU. psTod path, Dimg-pil. 

It would be manifestly out of our province to enter apon 
widu and contluually clianging field of Fabm Boildikos 
lurge. A country geiitlcman who desires, eitlier for tlie amu8i>- 
nient of hia leisure or for iitfuuiary advantage, to engage iii 
funning operations, may require to build the requisite OlBcea, 
neeording to the nature of lii.'ii lund and the style of farming to 
I* adopted; but he will certainly not attach these to his House 
if lie be a prudent man, but constitute them a separate estab- 
lishment altogether at a distance, based upon the views of the 
ordinary Farmery rather than anything connected with hia own 
residence and personal comforta. 

In plain country establishments, however, especially those of 
small and average size, where no farming is in question, there 
will generally bo at least something of the nature of a little 
Farm-yard for the aceommodation of the one or two cowa, the 
horse and cart, the poultry and pigs of the family, together witli 
the hay-elack, the wood-pile, and so on. 

No Offices of this kind ought to be placed directly vpoa die 
Stable-Yard, because they must inevitably interfere in muiy 
ways with the business proper to the place. Bat it is perlu^ 
an advantage in most cases if they be made to form a specieB of 
adjunct to the Stables, just as it is desirable to place the HtftUes 
themselves in a similar relation to the Domestic OfficeS) bo 
that buildings and business alike may be concentrated nthw 
than scattered. (See Plate XXXVm.) 

The ordinary Cow-house ought to be formed of a width of 
15 or 16 feet, the len^k being at the rata of 5 feet for each 
cow. The height of the walls ought not to be less than 9 or 10 
feet, and there need be no plastering or ceiling. The ,^oor will 
be of brick or pebble-paving, either level or sloping very slightly, 
with a longitudinal open gutter about a foot wide, and 8 feet 
from the manger-front, and a drain therefrom. The door may 
be about 4 by 6^ feet, cut across in two heights; and the lig^ 



ought to be freely admitted by small glazed windows. A venti^ 
later of any simple sort, as for the Stable, may be put in the 
roof. The manger is generally a wooden trough along the wall 
towards which*the animals are to face, about 18 inches wide by 
12 -inches deep, and elevated 12 or 18 inches. There may be 
short stall-partitions to divide the length into single or (not so 
well) double stalls ; or there may be none. A foddering-bay is 
often provided at one end, or in the middle ; and sometimes in 
connexion with this a narrow feeding-pa^ssage is formed between 
the mangers and the head-wall ; or if there be no foddering- 
bay, this feeding-passage may have a door opening from without, 
in a Shed probably. A Cow-house ought to be kept very clean 
and fresh ; but all that the architect can do to this end is to 
provide spaciousness and height 

A Calf-house is matter of a little controversy. Some autho- 
rities will be satisfied with a sort of small Loose-Box about 7 or 
8 feet square, adjoining the Cow-house, and separated by a 
wood-partition or a dwarf-wall to keep the calf out of sight, but 
not out of hearing, of the mother ; whereas other persons require 
that the Calf should be removed out of hearing altogether. It 
must be remembered that the milk has to be carried to the Calf- 
house ; so that it must not be inconveniently placed as regards 
this. It has also to be kept especially clean, and therefore it 
has to be well drained. If accommodation is likely to be re- 
quired for two calves, there ought to be two pens ; or the calves 
must be tied up if in one. 

A small Sheep-house may sometimes be required for the 
safe keeping of the animals during severe weather or at night. 
It will be a simple compartment amongst others, of a size 
according to the case, and its purpose is not protection from 
cold, but from storm and snow. (A Shed in a sheltered position 
is therefore sometimes deemed sufficient, if safe from theft ; as 
airy and open as may be.) The floor of a Sheep-house ought to 
be of paving ; and a covering of perforated boards may be fitted 
in over it, resting on shallow bearers for drainaga The rack 
may be similar to the common one which is used in the fields. 

The Piggery will consist of small covered houses about 7 or 8 
feet square, and open yards a little larger in connexion. The 
houses ought to be close at sides and back, roofed over, and iu 
front enclosed by a dwarf-wall 3 or 3^ feet high, the partitions 
and yard walls being of the same height. The roof may project 



■ert ^fe^naimt Trvuffha are tlie ouly 

^^ y** ■'*TV '0*''® ^y ^"y caTpenter in wood, or 

-^^ T^ **?io i)ufl«"d«'*l>'» Tarinly in iron, Tliere ara 

^^^1"'*^^ /bf liwrt imd m«ic« of fading wUicb are not 

— '^"'T^ kfo: the Hunplest plan is to have coiumon 

,— wili ^**» ""^ *** '^' ''^'^ troughs preseut an euj 

hin^ 'rT^niJl for reeeivmg the swill, 'i'he drainage must be 

jltfufljf* j^d, bousea and yarja ; and the liousea may have 

f*"^ toATiliiig 00 the floor, aa in the Sheep-house. The 

P"!^ of • I%B®'y o^'S^t to be ft* eouveiiient as possible for 

^Tcgrritg" thereto of the refuse from the Kitchen, and eepe- 

^Jy IKan the Dairy, il' there be any cheeae or bntter made. 

4( the aomo time a pig-sty must not be too near to any placu 

ytliere JUt'i are unwelcome, especially a Living-room or Pantry 

of any kind ; althongh, to do justice even to pigs in this matter, 

it leost bu uotetl again that wherever the flies congr^;ato, the 

feet is a protest of nature against the nnclcauliness, not so much 

«l th* caged and helpless animals, its of their humaa m 

^lrill be required s 

Varmth and tirj 

libu eipectally for laying-fowls, becaoae otherwise efen the 
most liberal feeding may fail to produce eggs in anything like a 
maximum quantity. For the common poultry a separate chamber 
ought to be provided, with roosts as required, and one or more 
ladders for reaching them. A number of nests have also to be 
fltted up around, so formed as to be really snug retreats, where 
the occupants can fancy themselves entirely sliut in from obser- 
Tation ; they ought also to be elevated sufficiently above the 
floor to be beyond the reach of vermin. Duckt and geeae require 
accommodation somewhat similar, except that they use no 
roosts, and must have their nests on the ground-level Twrk^t, 
if kept in sufficient numbers, ought to have a separate house 
with high roosts and ladders ; or they may have no house at aU 
(which leaves them to roost in the trees), except fw incubation. 
Other f<ml» less common may generally be lodged with those 
already spoken of, each species according to its sympathies and 
habits. Fattemng-hutchea may be put up in the Hen-house and 
Turkey-house, ducks going into the former and geeee into the 
latter. This must not, however, cause any disturbance to the 
privacy and quiet of the nests ; and, therefore, if there be much 
fatting, there ought to be a special house for the purpose, which 


may accommodate alL The warmth of a Cow-house or Stable 
may sometimes be turned to account by being allowed to be 
communicated, by means of the roof for instance, to the Poultrj'- 
houses. Occasionally heating apparatus has been brought into 
use. In any case care must be taken to exclude frost, by means 
of a thatch-roof, or straw or felt lining under slates or tiles. 
There ought to be scarcely any light admitted to a Poultry- 
house ; as it is always disagreeable to layers and sitters, whose 
occupations are associated with ideas of the most complete con- 
cealment ; it is no less unfavourable for fattening. Attached to 
the Poultry-houses there is sometimes a Yard for occasional 
enclosure, containing a pond for ducks and geese, if there be 
any ; but more commonly the Farm-Yard, Stable- Yard, and 
a Paddock perhaps, are open to the range of the fowls pro- 
miscuously. It must be remembered that none will flourish 
without a good run of greensward. Any enclosed yard ought to 
face the South, and be otherwise well sheltered. 

A Stable for a cart-horse or two will be of course similar 
to those already described in detail, except that the farm- 
horse, being less delicate and less sleek than his brother of the 
carriage and saddle, and more steadily in exercise, is not to be 
quite so fastidiously housed. There ought to be no diminution, 
however, of the allowance of space ; and ventilation, drainage, 
and so on, if not so complicated, must be no less complete. 
When only one farm-horse is kept, he is often lodged in the 
Cow-house, in a stall at one end. 

The Cart-shed will be about 12 or 14 feet deep, open in 
front in bays of 7^ or 8 feet wide. This Shed ought to be 
made a bay or two larger than may appear strictly necessiiry, 
as it will often be used for other implements besides the cart, 
as also for the stowage at a time of many large articles. 
Over the Cart-shed rather than anywhere else there may be 
a Loft, if required, for grain, fodder, and the like, similar to 
what has been described for a Hay-loft for the Stables. 
There may also Jbe a room for a farm-servant. A Common 
Shed may be provided with advantage in every case of any 
importance, not only for occasional stowage, but for work. 

No BarHy Granary , Rick-yard, ^(?., will be required in such 
a Farm-Yard as we have in hand ; but a suitable place for a 
hay-stack or two must be found. 

A small Slaughter-house is sometimes necessary ; it will 

T 2 

278 PABM OFFICES. Pr. ".. Div. IV. 

be near the Sheep-hoiise. An adjuining compartment may 
rontain a boiler for the supply of hot water, 'Jliis may serve 
also as a Boiliso-qodbe for various food and other puri)08os, 
and as a Cleeattng-hotuc for matters pertaining to the Fann- 
Yard. Both places must be well drained. Flies must be 
cart'fully excluded from the Slaughter-houBo, and therefore 
total darkness is to be advocated ; at tlie same time ventila- 
tion and pertect freshness are indiepensable. 

A pathvfay of paving ought to run along the front of all 
the buildings, communicating with the Entrance-gate. Tlie 
eurfane of the Yard ought to be kept clean, and therefore 
niuBt bo Well drained. The J>mti^-/«'( ought to be located on 
similar principles to those laid down for that of the Stables. 

CHAPTEli X. — WoHKSHOPs and Yard. 

Ocnml Workshop naefiil. — Smilti's thnp, dimerurirmg. situntion, and flttiDgii^ &c. 
— Plnmber uul Pwnler's Slwp. ililo- — Oarpenlor'B Kiop. — Oabinct-making imil 
TTpliolsUTy, — Work-yanl. — Kolution of the wLolo to SUblea oud DoLat^Uo 


A WORKSHOP for general purposes is useful in connexkni with 
even a small establishment in the country ; and in jerj snpe- 
rior cases it becomes necessary to provide several of varioofl 
kinds for the occasional operations of the smith, the plumber 
and painter, the carpenter, upholsterer, and cabinetmaker, and 
perhaps more. (See Plate XXXIX.) 

A Shith'b Shop will be of dimensions sufficient to accom- 
modate the furnace-bellows, anvil, and bench for the Tice, 
with some shelving for tools, &c. This may bo so placed as to 
serve for shoeing the horses, with a Shoeinq-shed attadied, 
as has been previously described. The jloor will be ol con- 
crete probably. A fair nze is from 12 to 14 feet square. 

A Plchbeb and Padjtek's Shop will be small — say 12 feet 
square — and will contain &fireplace,e, i^ncA for general purposes, 
ahelving, a nest of drawera for colours, and a rack for glass. One 
part of the bench will be kept for glass-cutting. There may 
also be a caiting-table for making sheet-lead, vrith a fireplace 
sufficiently large to melt the metal in the requisite quantitiee ; 
but such requirements are not so common now as they once 


were. The floor of the Shop will be of wood or of stone- 

A Carpenter's Shop ought to be somewhat larger than the 
former two— probably at least 12 by 16 or 20 feet. It will 
contain a fireplace or detached stove, the well-known work- 
bench of the trade, and perhaps a lathe. Space is also re- 
quired for the equally well-known collection of odds and 
ends which so soon accumulates. Shelving, pigeanrholes, and 
drawera will be required for stowing the ironmongery under 
lock and key. Over the bench there ought to be the usual 
continuous series of windows. The flx)or is to be of wood. 

A Cabinetmaker's Shop would be precisely like the last ; 
but one place generally serves for botL Upholsterer^ s toork is 
also commonly done in the same shop ; although at times a room 
pertaining to the House itself is used for this purpose — ^perhaps 
one attached to the Eitchen-Court, or a Lumber-room. The 
upholsterer requires in the way of fittings little else than a few 
drawers for his materials. 

An enclosed Work-tard is always required for completeness, 
at least in an establishment of importance. It ought to be say 
20 feet wide or more, by any convenient length. The Work- 
shops ought all to face it, and the entrance ought to be a cart- 
way. The carpenter's stock of timber and deals will be here 
deposited. Stone, bricks, slates, and other rough material, will 
also be piled where convenient, and empty casks and cases 
deposited. An Open Shed is very useful for stowage, and also 
for varioufl kinds of rough work in bad weather. 

The position of the whole ought to be such as to afford a ready 
communication with the House (by way of the Kitchen-Court), 
the Stables, and the Farm- Yard alike. It has been already 
noted in a former chapter, that it is common to place the Work- 
shops (except that of the Smith) in the Lofls over the Stabling. 
In this case the Work-yard may still be intaxxiuced. The Shops 
ought to be so compacted together as to look outwards upon 
a convenient spot for this purpose. The Stable-Yard must 
obviously be kept free from all connexion with them. 

2re WORKSnOPS. ETC. rr. ll-.liiv.lV. 

CnATTER XI. — EsoiNE-nocsE. 

Pot wotcf Biipplj. gi^naml plnn. purpoaw, and njlnlFoua. 

Wbkn n Bteaui-engine is need for pumping tlie water-supply, it 
ia probably beet placed in connexion witli the Work-yard ot 
Pami-Yard. For a 4 or O-liorse oiigiiic aud pwmi» an ftpart- 
mcHt of about K! foet square will be required, with an addition 
of from <I to 8 foet in width for the Ixiiler, either as a separate 
cnmmiinieHting chamber, or as on enlnrgcmcnt of the En^ue- 
room. No plan need be suggested for the arrangement and 
couati'uction, becauso oil depends iijmn the dictation of tho 
macliinist to meet tho particular cirt-umstaiicos of the ease. A 
Coal-hauM about 10 feet square will be attachwl, and an A»h-pit. 
The architect mnat not forget, as regards artistic consider^tiouii, 
that & tall chimney is required ; and if there bo no smoke-pro- 
Tenting apparatus, (and, in fact, at this moment all snioko 
prevention, except the mere use of coke or anthracite coal, may 
be pronounced, as regards common pitrjmsca, to bo a fallacy,) 
care must be taken that it shall not prove a bad neighbour to 
the Gardi'n or I.awii, or the Laundry, not to sjteak of the win- 
dows of the House itself. 

CHAPTER XII. — Gas-House. 

General amngementB required. 

It is becoming common now, in planning lai^ Country-honsea, 
to include provision for gas-lighting. The fact consequently 
demands recognition here, althougli it would be out of place to 
enter minutely into questions of detail. There are moreover 
several competing modes of manufacture. The architect's pro- 
vince need go no further than to accommodate the gas-engioeer 
according to his demands. A small Chamber for the Tetorta, a 
Tank for tar, a Yard for the gasometer, and stowage for coalt 
and cdke, are the chief features. These he will have to dispose 
together at a convenient angle of the Farm-buildings, or perhaps 
of tlie Stabling, well removed from the House, and also from the 
inore proper operations of the Offices, and readily accessible for 
the supply and removal of the particular materials ia question. 




CHAFFEE I — Introduction and Programme. 

Special necessities of compromise in works of Alteration. — Forms of Alterations 
classified. — Programme of consideration. — Memoranda of the chief defects for 
remedy under Privacy^ Comfort^ Convenience^ Spaciousness^ Compactness, Light 
and Air, and Salubrity, Aspect and Prospect, Cheerfulness, &c — Other questions 
of Conversion. — Adaptation. 

Although the principles of plan which are to govern the 
designer in the alteration of an old house must of course be 
the same which guide him in the design of a new one, yet 
there is no doubt that in works of transmutation there are fre- 
quently, indeed commonly, involved peculiar questions, well 
worthy of study ; in a word, a new house and an altered house 
are only theoretically similar ; practically there is in the altered 
house certain elements of contrivance which are entirely novel, 
namely, the necessities of compromise with the old plan. 

The several forms which the problem of Alteration tak^ may 
be put as follows, namely : — 

1. To rearrange the house. 

2. To add to the house. 

3. To add and rearrange. 

4. To diminish and rearrange. 

5. To incorporate old in new. 

In other words, the owner may put the particular inconvenience 
which he desires to be remedied under one of these five heads : — 

1. His house is large enough and good enough, but it is in- 
conveniently planned ; and he wishes its plan to be altered. 

2. His house is well planned, but too small ; and he requires 
the addition of certain apartments, — perhaps Public Booms, per- 
liaps Bedrooms, or whatever it may be, — ^with only such modi- 
fication otherwise as this augmentation may involve. 


.". Ilia house is badly iilanned as well as too small; and he 
rwiuirta certain new accommodation generally, and therewith a 
remodelling of the old. 

4. He haa become possessed, by purchase or iiiheritaQce, of a 
Iioiiso which ia too large for his purijoai?, (not a very unusual case 
with eighteenth-century Mansions,) and he wishes to reduce it 
to more manageable limits, and in so doing necessarily to modify 
tta plan. 

6. He has made up his mind to rebuild, but subject to tho 
consideration how far the old bouse may be judiciously preserred 
and incorjKirated in the new. 

If this classification of ordinary requirements be accepted aa 
BufBciently complete for our present purpose, perhaps the follow^ 
ing scheme may be accepted with it as the programme for our 
consideration of the subject in detail, namely ; — 

The question whether to alter or rebuild. 

The addition of Public Rooms, 

The addition of Bedrooms. 

The addition of Thoroughfares and SupplemeDtariea* 

The addition of Offices. 

The oiilargenient of the Principal llooms ontwarda. 

The same inwards. 

The diminution of the Principal Booms in size. 

The diminution of the accommodation generally. 

The rearrangement of the plan as a whole. 

The incorporation of old building in new. 
No doubt it is very much a question of the nature of the 
disease and the skill of the doctor how far an old house may be 
remodelled with success ; and it is particularly clear that the 
ability here required is in a certain sense greater in amount 
than in the case of a work entirely new ; that it inTolves, in 
fact, the full complement of ordinary plan-knowledge plus a 
great deal of special cleverness and painstaking ; but we may 
say, nevertheless, without hesitation, that, provided the old 
house be worth preserving on other grounds, it must be a desperate 
case indeed in which its mere plan cannot be cured of what- 
ever error, or adapted to whatever necessity. 

It may be here desirable to note preliminarily the chief 
defects which commonly occasion the necessity toi tlie a]terati<ni 
of old houses, otherwise substantial and worth preserving ; and 


it will, perhaps, be most convenient to classify these, under the 
heads set forth at the outset of our Exposition of Plan as 
General Canstderatians. 

PnvflKy.— The separation of the family part of the house fipom 
that of the servants insufficient: this especially in smaller esta- 
blishments. The family thoroughfares more or less objectionably 
used for servants' traffic, — the Principal Staircase, for example, 
and very frequently, indeed, the chief Bedroom-Corridors. The 
Corridor of the Offices constituted the Garden-Entrance, or other 
secondary Entrance for the family. The Gentleman's-room 
improperly placed amongst the Offices. The sounds of the 
Offices impleasantly audible to the family and guests ; even if 
the sight of them through thorough£Etre doorways be not, as is 
too frequently the case, continually before their eyes- The 
windows of the Family-Eooms overlooked from the Offices ; or 
from the Approach; or from the public road; or the walks 
of the family overlooked from the servants' windows. Such 
apartments of special privacy as the Gentleman's-room and 
the Boudoir wanting, in cases where the want of them is in- 
convenient The system of thoroughfare-rooms and short cuts 
forced into acceptance by reason of unsuitable Corridors ; the 
Dining-room, therefore, even the Drawing-room, the Library 
frequently, deprived of all privacy. The privacy of the servants 
defective ; the sexes unseparated, whether in respect of their 
work, their leisure, or their sleeping accommodation ; and the 
upper servants confused with the lower. The separation of the 
Servants' Bedrooms from those of the fiamily insufficient ; — a 
very common defect. That classification of the Bedrooms at 
large neglected which confers a special privacy upon the family, 
the guests, the dependants, and so on respectively. 

Comfort. — ^The principal rooms inconvenient internally ; per- 
haps too small, or too narrow, or merely awkwardly disposed ; 
their windows uncomfortably placed ; their doors and fireplaces 
at variance amongst themselves; the fiirjiiture incapable of 
being arranged, except in disagreeable compromise; doors of 
intercommunication perversely set in comers which ought to be 
snug, or connecting rooms which ought never to be connected. 
Gaunt State-rooms, uncomfortable in proportion to their size, 
and stately Thoroughfares the same ; or a great Palladian Cen- 
tral-Hall, incapable of being ever warmed, or furnished, or 
otherwise comforted, proclaiming itself obsolete, unsuitable, and 


AI,TEn.\T10II OF EXISTIKG H008ES. rr. II.. Scpvt-r. 

iij^clcfS. The Bedrooms of iincomfortnble, random shapea, in- 
rnpabla of Iteing fiirnislied; perhaps too amali, or Uw f''w; 
Drrasing-rooms deficieut. No proper Nursery fteroiamodation ; 
l^erhaps no Day-NorBery wlmtever ; very commonly no Srulleiy, 
or other ponveniences. Serrante' Sleeping-rooms dtfieient 
ai»e and number. Itedrooms devoid of fireplaces, Bath-i 
dnd Water<;lo8etfl wanted. No Cloak-room with its eon' 
niencos. — a nniversal defect, t'orridors like thoso of a Bt 
bleak, draughty, and generaHy inhwpitable; no comf( 
Eiitmnce-tlall ; a Porch wanted to correct the aspect: the 
to the Dining-room uneom fort able — a frequent defect, 
leading out of the bouse, if nothing worse. The intolerable 
comfort of kitchen Bmells ; sometimes the vapoura even of 
ing and brewing pervading llie house ; ■perhaps the Stables a 
nuisance : perliaps the I^nndry-Officea desirable to be removed 
to a distance, and their place otherwiae occupied. Very often 
indeed the comfort of the household marred for want of secondi 
Famiiy-Hooms and secondary Offices geucmlly. 

Convmiefux. — SuperHuoufl and inconvenient doort; wiudi 
designed to match etioh other academically, rather than fym- 
veniently (o light rooma ; certain apartments made too gmall or 
li>o nnrrow, in order to matrh certain others that nre again ttm 
large or too wide. The Dining-room oat of proper shape ; cannot 
be properly furnished. The dinner route inconvenient, lengthy, 
tortuous, and crossed by undesirable traffic. The Drawing-room 
removed from the Lawn or Garden. The approach to the 
Drawing-room indirect, and otherwise inconvenient. No "escape," 
to tlie frequent vexation of the ladies. Drawing-rooms apetairs, 
inexcusable in the country. Boudoir within Drawing-room, cont- 
municating perhaps by wide folding-doora. Honte to Dininj*- 
room inconvenient in any one of many ways. The Entrance- 
Hall devoid of that convenience which is its real purpose; 
showy, perhaps, like the vestibule to a wareroom, but not nsefiiL 
Garden-Entrance a^ent or inconvenient Luggage-Entrance 
ditto. Access to Business-room bad. Family traffic and ser- 
vants crossing and intermingling. Boute to open the Entrance- 
door very often inconvenient. Random additions to the house 
in past time that cannot be got into convenient order. Make- 
shift rooms generally. The chief Staircase badly placed, often 
more or less confined and inconvenient, perhaps even dangeroos 
by reason of winders. A second Stair wanted ; Servants'-Stairs 




inconveniently situated or otherwise defective ; Cellar Stairs the 
same. Corridors and passages dark, straggling, or otherwise 
inconvenient, with unexpected steps here and there. Again, 
the Offices wrongly disposed or defective in many ways; not 
classified, insufficient in number or size, or disconnected ; per- 
haps of merely obsolete plan. The butler complaining of an 
inconvenient Pantry, no Safe, no Bedroom, no Serving-room, 
an inconvenient distance from the Dining-room, or from the 
Entrance-door. The Housekeeper's-room inconvenient in posi- 
tion or otherwise; no Store-room, no Still-room, no China-closet, 
no Housemaid's-closets. The cook complaining of the Scullery 
and Kitchen being separated by a passage, or of the Larders 
being in the wrong place, or the coals being too far ofi^, or the 
back door situated inconveniently. A Luggage-room wanted ; 
Cleaning-rooms defective ; the inhospitable character of the 
Servants'-Hall objected to, — accessible inconveniently, too small, 
looking out upon some unpleasant place. Lastly, Basement 
Offices which ought to be abandoned and new Offices bmlt 
above ground. 

Spaeioumess. — The want of this agreeable quality a widely 
prevailing evil : Booms too small. Passages too narrow. Staircases 
mean, giving to the whole establishment a sordid, unwholesome, 
inhospitable character : and yet the house substantial and worth 

Compactness. — A disjointed skeleton of plan, — ^very common 
in old Country-Mansions, and in houses generally which have 
been planned at random or built piecemeal : Passages straggling, 
routes of traffic unintelligible, and conflicting. Inseparable 
rooms separated, such as Bedroom and Dressing-room, Butler's 
Pantry and its accessories, Kitchen and its accessories. Liter- 
communications wanting where desirable and according to rule; 
and those special routes which ought to be short and direct 
being the reverse ; so that the inmates of the house appear to 
be always in the Passages ; these Passages being in themselves 
all the more inconvenient and uncomfortable from the same 

Light and Air, and Salubrity, — Borrowed hghts too often in 
the best houses, and dimly Ughted Passages and Stairs, and 
ceiling light which ought not to be required. Borrowed ventila- 
tion therefore, and insufficient ventilation when not borrowed ; 
and ceiling ventilation — which is never to be relied upon. 


Lar<lei8 and Store-closets ventilated from Corridnra ; sometimes 
oven « Scullery or a Bath-room, the Butlcr's-Pantry occa- 
oioDftlly, Serviintu' Sleeping-rooms frci^iiently, Water-closets a 
great deal too (requently, — the laet a tiling utterly unjustifi- 
able. Wat«r-cloaet8, again, lighted and ventilated by long sliafU 
passing tlirough iijiper stories to skylighta, — a clumsy con- 
trivatiee never to be adopted, except in works of alteration 
where l)etter cannot be done. Offices often badly lighted ; and 
therefore unwholesome, seeing tliat light and air practically go 
together. The mark of the window-tax, although itself a thing 
gone by, left (upon many a goodly house) in defective light and 

Aspect and Prospect. — Aspect aacrificed to Prospect : — for 
iuet^mce, Dining-room put Southward and Westward ; Morning- 
room Northward ; Drawing-room North-west, North-eaat, East, 
West, &c. (Eud-windowB and bow-windowg here very useful.) 
Irfirdere Southward or Westward ; Kitchen the same ; Prospect 
(Kca-sionally a question to correct the dicta of the window-tax ; 
or to relieve Garden or Lawn from being overlooked by the 
Offices, or by the Entrance-approach ; and so on. 

Cheerfutneas, Elegance, Importance. — Deficiencies in each 
respects as tliese, although frequently giving rise to alterations, 
and very properly so, seem not to require recital. 

In addition to these memoranda of specific defects, there are 
the necessities of Converaum generally, or the remodelling of a 
house on the basis of changed conditions and purposes. Obsolete 
arrangements have very frequently to be dealt with : or a honae 
of one class may have to be converted into one of another class; 
— as when a Farmhouse is turned into a private Besidence, ae a 
place of business sometimes similarly changed. Stables, again, 
may have to be made into Domestic Offices; or Offices con- 
verted into other rooms ; and so on ; or vice versa. 

The Adaptation of old buildings to new, or the incorporation 
of the whole or part of an old house in the plan of a new one, 
has also to be referred to as an important and very frequent 
kind of remodelling, to be treated of in its place in the sequeL 


CHAPTER n. — Whether to Alter or Bebuilu 

Duappoiniment oommon in respect of this qnestion, — Prooeas of calctilation to 
compare the cost and the benefit. — Cost. — Value. — Simple form for the issue. 

In this chapter we have to deal with a question which too 
commonly is entertained by way of dissatisfied reflection after 
the fact, but which ought to be made matter of intelligent and 
definite calculation before. To some persons the sweeping idea 
of the entire demolition of an old house commends itself too 
readily ; to others the notion of saving it» either in whole or 
part is equally too attractive. What we have to explain is that^ 
whatever may be the case, it can be made the subject of an 
intelligible balance-sheet beforehand, as between the cost and 
the benefit. 

First, let the entire project be defined. It may be, for in- 
stance, the addition of certain apartments and the alteration of 
certain parts of the old house : or the enlargement of certain 
apartments: or the remodelling, in a certain way, of the old 
house in whole or part : or the retention, if no more, of certain 
portions of the old house to form part of the new : whatiever the 
scheme may be, let it be first thoroughly digested ; for, amongst 
all the evils of '^ bricks and mortar," nothing else is so dangerous 
as to begin alterations without a definite limit in view. And 
let this limit be defined, moreover, with due dread of self- 
deception ; for nothing is more easy than to persuade one's self 
of fallacious facilities in matters of this kind. 

A reliable practical estimate of the cost is the next essential. 
This must be made with large allowances for extras, — at least 
so far as any alterations go : in other words, let it be remem- 
bered that however definite the additions may be made, as new 
work, the alterations on the old work wiU invariably assume 
increasing proportions as the undertaking goes on, — and this in 
a most insidious manner, not easily foreseen. 

The next step is to conceive the general idea of an equivalent 
new house, very likely by the analogy of some case in which a . 
house of corresponding size has been built for corresponding 
occupation. A comparison has then to be instituted between the 
two houses, — first as respects cost, secondly as respects value. 

The comparison of cost is generally not difiScult, except in 
complex cases of leasehold and so on which lie beyond the scope 
of such an exposition as this. The question is this simple one, — 


what sum of luonoy is reqiiirtni for the additions and altcratioi 
oil the one hami, and ou the other what sum woiild be i 
qnired to pull down and rebuild ? 

The comparison of value w not so easy, — the value in question " 
being that of residential comfort and convenience. That of tlic 
new house, however, is generally eiifficiently appreciable to 
enable one to draw up a list of drawbtu-ks on the altered oUi ; 
house, by means of a careful contrast For instance we ma 
consider circuuutftiK^es of situation ^lerhaps, drainage, snIubriQ 
or wliat not ; peculiarities in the old plan. incoiiveDienees, i 
comforts; defects in acconunodation, in privacy, in compactnei 
Kltucdousnese, light and air, cJieerfuhiess, pros}tcet, aspect, and | 
ou ; questions of substautiality and durability and expenses i 
repairti ; all these are matters of value. It is true they cam 
always be reduced to the form of pounds shillings and pciu 
like the difference of cost j but although we must accept 1 
condition that the one sido of our balance-sheet shall be i 
money, and the other in inconveniences, yet this will seldom b 
any serious obstruction provided the issue be put in a certa^'* 
very simple ibrm, — namely the following. On the one side there 
is the saTiiig effected by retaininc: the old bnildinG; ; it is exactly 
yo much muiipy. On the oIIm.t side (lieic is llie'list of inconvc- 
uiences. — Shall I, in consideration of this sum of money, accept 
these inconveniences ? Or shall I, by the additional expenditure 
of this sum of money, purchase their abolition? — The pro- 
prietor is to judge for himself. Sometimes his answer will be 
one way, sometimce another ; but in all cases of any importance 
the question ought to be fairly put, and the answer intelligei^y 
arrived at ; we should then hear less of those subsequent regrets^ 
which are none the less vexatious however unavailing. 

CHAPTER III.— To Add Peincipal Kooms. 

Example of the vase. ~ Addition of DJDtDg-ioam and DraMlag-nxm as WingB to 
a house of rcgulai plan. — Ae a une-etorj' addition along the front — Ai iire- 
gular additiouB. — Proposal for Dmwing-ioom ap-Bl&its. — SalooD, Picture' 
Gallery, &c. — Secondaiy Apaitmenla. — Fouuly-Buitc. — Old nxHni made 

This is one of the simplest of all schemes of alteration, and is 
calculated to effect much more in the way of general amend- 


ment than may be in many instances apparent. The ease to 
which it is usually applicable is this': — the old house is a good 
one ; but the chief Public-rooms are too small ; secondary rooms, 
snch as Morning-room and Gentleman's-room, are wanting; 
Supplementaries also are perhaps wanting; perhaps the En- 
trance-Hall or the Corridor is too confined or inconyeniently 
disposed. Add Dining-room and Dramng-room, and yery often 
little more is needed. The old rooms thus disengaged are con- 
yerted into the secondaiT' apartments ; very likely some acces- 
sory addition of space is either necessarily involved or advan- 
tageously offered in connection with the formation of the new 
roomis, whereby the requirements of Thoroughfares and Supple- 
mentaries are accommodated; and the house has acquired, 
perhaps without any further alteration, an altogether superior 

In smaller houses of the eighteenth century, more or less 
Palladian, and strictly regular extemaUf/, the common plan of 
adding a Dining-room as one wing, and a Drawing-room as 
another to correspond, can scarcely be improved upon, so far. 
But care must be taken that the route between these rooms is 
made in accordance with rule, — not always an easy matter. 

In stQl smaller houses of regular design the two rooms may 
often be made in the form of a one story addition along the fronts — 
perhaps with an Entrance-Hall between them. In this case care 
must be taken that the rooms formerly in front, now obscured 
by the addition, can be converted without sacrifice of space. 

In irregular houses the difficulties above suggested become 
much lessened ; because in the majority of such cases the addi- 
tion can be put in any position, and in any form, which may be 
dictated by convenience, — ^provided of course the architect will 
take a little pains with his design. 

There are many ways, also, in which a house of symmetrical 
form may be externally rendered sufficiently irregular to admit 
of the new rooms in question being attached without regard to 
the trammels of regularity. When questions of aspect are 
difficult, the adoption of this expedient may facilitate the 
design of plan very much. 

Any proposal which would place the two rooms one above 
another — the Dramng-room upstairs — whether on the score of 
economy or for any other reason, must be discouraged. Even 
when the mistress of a small house " preserves " her Drawing- 


room altogether, yet atill tlie rule of communication with the 
open air ought never to be Burrendercd, 

K the addition goes »o further than one room, or if it goes to 
the extent of more than the two chief rooms, the principles are 
still the Baine. (Plate XXXVIH. may be here referred to.) 

To add a Saloon and no more, or a Ptnture-Oallery, or a 
seooud and superior Ihrawing'room, or a good Library, and so 
on, is another form lu which, in a multiplicity of ways, tho 
accommodation of tho house may be augntentc-d in the samo 

The addition may frequently take tho aliape of secondary 
apartnuftitt rather than primary ouea; the old Dining and 
Prawtng-rooma may suiBce, and a Morning-room, Boudoir, 
Gentleman's-room, Billiard-room, Study, or whatever else, bo 
added on the same principles generally. 

In a large Mansion tho addition of a Private Family Suite (as 
it appears in Plates XXII. and XXXIV, for example) may ba 
of infinite value. Whether this can take the form of a separate 
wing, or whether it must he in some way incorporated in an 
existing symmetrical design, will be a question of style in a 
great mea^iurc, of peculiar circumstances, and of skill on the 
part of the designer. 

In some instances the addition of Principal Booms leaves tho 
old rooms for conversion most conrenieiitly into Offices ; all that 
seems necessary to be said on this point is that the boundary 
of the Family Department ought to be carefully reconstituted, 
which is not always an easy matter. 


a of the defect. — The odditicn of a Story. — If otbt new nxHtw below. 
— Bervaota'-roouia. — NureerieB. — GroDDd-floar BedroomB. — Invalid-Suite. — 

Cases very frequently occur in which the accommodation is 
complete except in the single article, always an important one, 
of Bedrooms. It is often the result of the house having been 
originally built for a small family ; or Public-rooms may have 
been added at some intermediate time, or the establi^iment 
otherwise advanced in scale without the sleeping accommodation 



Chap. V, TO ADD BEDROOMS. 289 

being made to correspond. Or, as the case too often stands, tbe 
Bedrooms may have been simply treated with neglect in the 
plan. Or it may be that there have been no Dressing-rooms 
provided; or that such as there are have been required for 

If the addition of a 9tory to the house, either wholly or in 
part, can be made to remiedy the evil, with perhaps some altera* 
tion of the old Bedrooms to make them suitable as principal 
ones, this is always a comparatively easy matter, and no exposi- 
tion in detail seems necessary. 

The same may be said of any case in which Public-rooms are 
being added below, with Bedrooms over; except that there 
is this advantage now, that the new Bedrooms will probably 
themselves be the chief ones, so that the alteration of the old 
accommodation is made less necessary, — it being always a rule 
to leave old work alone if possible. (See Plate XXXVIII.) 

The case of Servants' -rooma will follow the same general 
system, with or without new Offices under. 

Nurseries, also, may be dealt with in the same way. A com- 
plete suite of Nurseries on the First Floor, with a Private 
Family Suite under on the Ground Floor (see last chapter), 
make one of the best possible practical additions to a Country- 

To add Bedrooms on the Ground Floor can seldom be advan- 
tageous; but it is possible, for instance, to form an Invalid Suite 
in this way, with perhaps a Bedroom Suite or Nurseries over. 

The formation of Dressing-rooms will never be difficult: it 
merely involves a change of purpose for some of the old Bed- 
rooms, the shutting up or opening of a few doors, and the divi- 
sion of a room occasionally. 

CHAPTEK v.— To Add Thoroughfares and Supplemen- 


Cases lequiring snch Amendments. — Diffioultlee of enlarging UioroaghfiEtfes, and 
rule for guidance. — Illustration : Lonoleat. — Bath-room. — Water-Closets. — 
Cloak-room and Lavatory, &c 

A Principal Staircase unsuitable in fiizoy or inconvenient in 
position, a Back Stair altogether wanting, a Hall or chief 
Corridor of inferior character, perhaps no such apartment at all 


of any proper kind, — these are instances of occasional dtjfi- 
ciencies in othenvise gotxl houses. Again the want of Cloak- 
room and Lavatory, Batb-rooms, and Water-closets, is I^io 
goneral to require further explanatloD, As regards the Tho- 
roughfares, however, it is seldom that the necessity for remodel- 
ling them exists without a seed for dealing in some wsj witb 
the Fatuily-rooma. The Supplementaries, on the other hand, 
frequently demand attention when nothing else is in fault. 

The primary importance of good Thoroughfares is a point whiih 
need not bo dwelt upon ; but it must be owned that in most 
cases the mere space which is required to improTe a Stairaaw or 
It Corridor is a thing which cannot be easily got. When the size of 
tlm adjacent rooms con be sacrificed ; — as wlien, by reason of the 
addition of new ones, the old are reduced to inferior purposes, — 
this may effect the object ; or when, in extensive alteratione, 
certain rooms can be surrendered altogether, to become vesti- 
bules and so on ; or when u Staircase can be made entirely new 
without the walk ; or when a sufficient area caii be cleared for 
it within ; but, short of these extreme measures, it is generally 
found that the improvement of Thoroughfares becomes one of 
the hanlcst possible problems for tlic architect to solve. The 
best rule seems to be to look the necessity fairly in the face, 
accepting as unavoidable a considerable waste of old rooms, and 
providing new to make up the loss, and at the end to calculate 
strictly, on the plan we have laid down a few pages back, 
whethtr the improvement is worth the outlay or not. 

The varieties of contrivance involved in this question generally 
are so multifarious that it is quite impossible to attempt any 
classification, and indeed almost useless to suggest cases by way 
of special illuatratiou. An examination of Plates XIV. and 
XL., showing the alterations of Lonoleat, will, however, consti- 
tute a very good lesson in respect of the accomplishment of the 
purpose in question. An old house of the sixteenth century 
virtually devoid of Thoroughfares is by a very simple con- 
trivance amply provided with Staircase and Corridors perfectly 
modern. In this precise form the case is not a common one; 
but the principle of procedure is one which will be found fre- 
quently applicable to apparently dissimilar problems, and when 
not applicable directly, still suggestive. 

As a rule, to add new Thoroughfarea in any case is better than 
to remodel old. 

Turning now to the addition of Supplementaries, our task is 

Chap. VI. TO ADD OFFICES. 291 

much more easy. To provide an ext^u Bathrraom or two, or 
any requisite number of Water-chietd, requires little else than 
the careful consideration of what may be the most advisable 
positions for these conveniences. If they must be formed inside 
the walls there may be more difBculty, and if they can be 
attached outside tliere may be less; but generally speaking 
no one need experience any anxiety about the problem. 

To form a Chdk-room, with Lavatory and Water-closet, at the 
Entrance, is an amendment that can be recommended for houses 
of all classes with infinite advantage. (See Plates XXXYUL 
and XLI.) Where it is impossible to procure the space imme- 
diately at the Entrance, some private position elsewhere must 
be accepted ; but still the value of the improvement for the 
convenience of gentlemen visitors and guests is so self-evident 
as to need no discussion. 

CHAPTER VI. —To Add Offices. 

Initenees of the kind. — Gellani and miaoeUaaeoiu rooms in connection with the 
teheme ; also other Offices. — Palladian plan of Wings. — The case of London 
Houses. — Enlargement and re-arrangement of Offices, Plate XXXTX , 

This is a frequent case. The causes are various. In some houses 
the designer has not possessed a sufficient knowledge of plan in 
respect of the Offices, and has therefore made them deficient 
both in size and number, as well as inconvenient in arrange- 
ment. In other cases the Offices have been built in an inferior 
manner, and have gone to decay; so that the occasion for 
rebuilding them ofiers an opportum'ty to improve their plan. 
Or, in still other cases, the Main House has been enlarged at 
some time, without the Offices being included in the improve- 
ment. Or the old Offices are in the Basement^ and it is deter- 
mined to abandon them. 

In circumstances like these it may often be found advan- 
tageous to add Offices as a whole, or nearly so, in the form of an 
appendage to the Main House, probably at (me end, and of 
course at that end at which the Dining-room stands. The 
arrangement of the Kitchen Court, Kitchen Offices, Houses 
keeper's and Butler's Offices, Servants' Hall, &a, has simply to 
be contrived upon the recognised principles, subject only to such 

u 2 


conditions of compromise as may arise out of tlie peculiarities of 
the old house. The addition to the comfort of the house whicli 
may be effected by this form of improvement in always perhaps 
greater than would appear. 

Cellars may liave to be added also, or Servants' Bedrooms, or 
Serving-room, or Gun-room, or Odd-room, or Linen-room, House- 
inaicb'-closet, &c , or Laundry, Brewery, or Dairy Offices or 
Stabling, or perhaps Farm-yard ; but uothitig need be said 
beyond the suggestion of such cases. 

The Palladia') plan of forming two symmetrical wings of Offices, 
flanking on each side an Entrance-Court, is seldom if ever to be 
recommendeil now ; tlie restriction of the Lann and Garden to 
one Front of the house, and the communic»tioii which must be 
established across the Entrance-Court, are both at variance with 
propriety. Accordingly, in adding Offices to a house of regular 
form, the architect will do well to accept the irregularity of 
appearance consequent upon tlicir being attached to one end — 
jierhaps even one comer — and make the best of it. 

In LoTidon houaa there have been various cases of late years 
in wliieli, on account of the inadequacy of the ordinary Base- 
ment to acc(imn[o<late complete Oflfices eucli as a good Louse 
ought to possess, it has been deemed advisable to extend the 
Basement itself. The way in which this ia generally to be 
effected is indicated in the Basement Floor of Plate XXXVIL 
The Basement, in a word, is carried under the small Court or 
Garden in the rear, and by this simple expedient a sufficient 
addition ia usually obtained to answer every purpose. If there 
be Stables at the back, the Offices may be still further carried 
under them. The surface of the Court over is very easily 
formed in the character of a flat Terrace if desired, by means of 
aspbalte work on a concrete roof. In a plan uf this kind, it will 
be found advisable in probably all cases to place the Kitchen 
Offices JB front, and the Servants' Hall and Butler's Offices 
towards the rear. T{ie lighting and ventilation of the latter 
become matter of special contrivance, but there need not be 
much difficulty. 

Of the mere enlargement or improvement of the Offices in part, 
as distinguished from the addition of tlie whole, it is unnecessary 
to speak ; and the various questions of detail which may prac- 
tically arise are probably all to be answered \>y a reference to 
the general rules laid do\vu for Offices considered as new. Bat 


there is one point to which attention may here be directed 
especially ; if it is necessary as a rule to avoid the undue ampli- 
fication of the Offices in building a new house, this is in a certain 
sense more necessary still when new Offices are being added to 
an old house. 

Plate XXXIX. is a very excellent illustration of the mode 
in which an experienced architect proceeds in converting old 
Offices into new, with additions where required. The fitcility 
with which the undiscriminating and haphazard arrangements of 
Palladian plan are changed into a sufficiently near approximar 
tion to the careful adjustments of the modem system is very 
clearly perceivable by the experienced eye. 

CHAPTER Vn.— To Enlarge Principal Eooms Out- 

Instances of the application of this principle. — The stmctaral question and 
varieties of the plan. — Secondary apartments, and general advantage of the 

This is a proceeding usually applicable only to small houses. 
The arrangement of plan being acceptable, and the Dining-room 
and Drawing-room alone perhaps being deficient in size, it is an 
alteration which has the great merit of not involving any inter- 
ference with the interior. Moreover, to an occupant whose 
desires are easily satisfied in respect of all else, provided he have 
two good Public-Eooms (a very common case), this affords gene- 
rally all he can wish for with little outlay : in fact, to purchase 
a small house with a view to this precise mode of increasing its 
accommodation is often a very good bargain. 

The structural question is almost always easy enough. One 
wall of the room is pulled down, a girder inserted (probably an 
iron one nowadays) to carry the wall above, and the new wall 
is built as far forward as may be wished. The mere plan may 
take several forms, not only as to whether it is the fireplace 
wall, or a window wall, or a blank wall which is dealt with, but 
also as regards the removal of the old wall in part rather than 
wholly, the use of a bay window or a recess to serve for the 
extension of space, and so on. It seems needless to remark that 
the essence of the plan is that no intermediate colunm shall be 
required to support the wall above. For the mere occasional 

cnlftrgcmput of any KcmJary ajttrtmerU the same means are of 
course at command, Biid the same adTHtitjige ia always had, 
namely, tJiat interior alterationa are avoided. 

CHAPTEK Vin. — To Eniabob Pbimoipal Roomh Inwabds. 

' Beldam dMimble. — In wnnection wiUi now Offioes. 

What has been enid in the last chapter will sufficiently suggest 
the Tact that the enlargement of a room inwiirds is almost inva- 
riably attended with more risk of exjienae than might appear. 
If two rooms can be thrown into one to answer the purpose, this 
is ejtsy enough, but it is ouly when tliere is a superabundance of 
fimall secondary rooms — a very rare case — tJiat this can be a 
feasible plan ; and on the other hanti, if llie st^heme should take 
the form of the enlargement of several rooms in different situa- 
tions at the expense of neighbouring apartments which cannot 
well be spared, the case is desperate. As a nile, lai^ houses 
and large rooms go together, so that the need for enlarging thu 
Tooras ia so far identical with the idea that there ia no space t" 
spare, but the reverse. 

There is one case, however, in which this plan may be some* 
times adopted without so much hesitation. When the old house 
includes the Offices under the same roof, and the owner is pre- 
pared to huild new Officer as an appendage outside, then the old 
Offices thus abandoned may perhaps enable him to enlarge the 
Family-rooms in this way. But even yet it has to be remem- 
bered that extensive internal alterations are especially hazardous 
in respect of involving extra works. 

CHAPTEE IX.— To Diminish Principal Kooms. 

Cnsee in poinl, and principle involTcd. 

This is not a case of frequent occurrence. It may however 
occasionally happen, when the rooms are superior in respect of 
size, and deficient in number, that the house maybe in a manner 
lowered in scale, and comparatively increased in accommodation. 


by diminishing the size of some of the principal rooms and so 
forming new secondary rooms out of the spare space. For 
instance a spacious Oround Story, consisting originally of Dining- 
room, two Drawing-rooms, Library, and Saloon, may thus be 
oanverted into smaller apartments in such a way as to add within 
the walls Morning-room, Gentleman's-room, Billiard-room, and a 
Cloak-room and its i^purtenances, sacrificing perhaps one of the 
Drawing-rooms, or the Saloon ; and no doubt the improvement 
might be well worth the outlay. 

CHAPTER X. — To Diminish the Accommodation 


CSase of an Eighteenth-century Mansion, partly pulled down, and remainder con-^ 


Sometimes a gentleman may become the possessor of a house 
larger than he requires: what is to be done? Cases have 
occurred in which, for example, in a large eighteenth century 
Mansion, the new owner has simply ordered the pair of Wings to 
be pulled down, retaining the Main Uouse as it was. But this 
is not a satisfactory plan. What we here propose is, that such 
a diminished house should be treated on the basis of what was 
described in the last chapter, by decreasing the size of the chief 
rooms and forming new secondary rooms out of the spare space. 
In the hands of a skilful designer this scheme may be carried 
into effect very easily in most cases, and within reasonable limits 
as to cost. In any event the expense of the altering the house 
must exceed that involved in merely leaving it alone ; but in the 
one case we have accommodation which is complete in itself and 
of the scale desired, while in the other case the rooms are both 
deficient in number and inconveniently large. 

CHAPTER XI.— To Re-arranqe a Whole Plan. 

A bazardoui priiMsiple ganeraUj. — Instanoea requiring its appUoation. — Prooess 
of conyerBion : especial risk in old houaea. — lUiuirationa of Lqnoleat, Platea 

The remark may be fiankly made at starting, that this is a 
hazardous proceeding unless great discretion and skill be em* 


ployed. It is nerertheless a thing which may frequently t>u 
done with every advantage. 

Perhaps the aspect of the chief rooma ia objectionable ; or 
their relations towards each other may he ill contrived ; or tho 
Thoruiighfares, forraiDg what we have called the skeleton of the 
plan, may be inconvenient ; or, in §liort, in any one of a dozen 
ways, the external walls of the hotiao may be simply a good shell, 
whose contents imperatively demand to be rearranged, 

Although this might at first sight appear to be a subject for 
somewhat lengthy discu^^ion, the fact is tliat very little can be 
put in words which would elucidate or even illustrate principles 
of procedure. So long as room con be exchanged for room, with 
the mere alteration of a door, or window, or fireplace, as the 
means of adaptation, no one needs much direction ; but whenever 
the conversion becomes in any degree complicated, the problem 
is simply one of personal skill and experience in the minutest 
details of di8]X)sition, The architect takes the plan of the existing 
arrangement as representing no more than a series of unap- 
propriated rooms; he looks at the aspect, prospect, quarter of 
entrance, relations of Grounds, position of Offices, and so on; and 
all be has to do is to devise an appropriation which shall on the 
one hand be baacil upon the standard proprieties of jiltin with as 
little compromise as may be, and on the other hand involve no 
more demolition and reconstructioa than is absolutely necessary. 
How to do this, therefore, is strictly a problem for the occasion. 
In many cases, skill and discretion will devise a plan that may 
without hesitation be subjected to the full scrutiny of the balance- 
sheet of cost versus benefit, which we have described a few 
chapters hack ; in others the prudence of the outlay will be very 
doubtful indeed. In the case of old houses especially, the whole- 
sale reconstruction of the interior which is frequently involved 
becomes so hazardous in respect of unexpected extra works, that 
no amount of improved convenience is sufficient to turn the 
scale, — the house is not worth altering and must be let alone. 
No other work of building, treacherous as all building is pro- 
verbially, is so charged with hidden danger to the pocket as what 
is called "pulling about an old house;" indeed, as a maxim, 
wherever addition externally can be had, reconstruction inter* 
nally is generally to be avoided. 

The case of Longleat, illustrated by two of our Plates, is a 
very remarkable instance of rearrangement on a laige scale. 


Plate XL. represents the original disposition pertaining to the 
sixteenth century, with probably very few modifications, if any. 
What the skill of Wyattville was able to make of this raw 
material is represented in Plate XEV. The utter confusion of 
the old arrangement is only to be appreciated by comparison 
with the new : the extraordinary cleverness of the new is best 
seen by contrasting its translucency of motive with the extreme 
obscurity of the old. That such a complete transmutation could 
have been effected with so little demolition seems more wonderful 
still. The process of design is the simplest possible. The Hall 
is retained ; the Chapel is retained ; a new Principal Staircase is 
placed centrally; the East wing is converted with the utmost 
facility into a suite of noble Public Eooms; the South-west 
quarter is readily formed into a charming Family Suite; the 
North-west comer becomes a pleasant Private Suite ; a few 
Offices in the interior are pulled down and rebuilt at the North ; 
new Corridors are carried round the Quadrangle ; and this is 
all ; the exterior meanwhile remaining unchanged except as to 
the few Offices at the back. The house could scarcely have 
been better planned if it had been wholly new. We cannot say 
that all cases are equally easy of treatment ; but certainly this 
must be taken as at the least a very encouraging example. 

CHAPTEE Xn. — To Ee-arrange Old Work for Incor- 
poration WITH New. 

dAn ereryday case. — Frequent fallacy involved. — Plate XLI. ; restraint in plan. — 
Principles to be kept in view ; Principal Rooms ; Roof taken o£f ; External modi- 
fication ; Situation. — G^eial rule as to baving or loss. 

Every day this is a case of common occurrence. A new bouse 
is to be built ; the old site is acceptable ; a portion, or perhaps 
all, of the old house is substantial enough for incorporation in 
the new ; and the only problem is how to contrive this incorpo- 
ration. It is no longer a matter of planning certain additions to 
the old house ; the old house itself is now the addition to a pro- 
posed new one. 

It is in problems of this particular class more perhaps than 
in any other that the question whether to alter or rebuild (see 
Chapter U. of this Supplement) becomes of the utmost moment. 

208 ALTEUATIOS or EXISTING OOUSXa. Pi. 11^ Scpki. 

Tbe temi^timi to lavt the old bnilding, or ^en a little of it, ii 
bud to wtlbstand. It mutt atve money, is the argument of nine 
peiBoos out uf t«n beforehand: it bus cost me Iwkv its mucb m 
tb*- «Ting, is too ofWn the reHection aftervank. In every case. 
Ihervforr-, of this kind, let thu bnlanee^heet of pntfit nod otwt W 
very capefoily workM <>uL 

In Plate XXXVUI. we bare ^ven a case of addition; in 
F)at« XLL there ia a Terr fair example of mere inoorporation. 
Tbis is aleo a good ilhtstratiom of tbe fact tliat such iQcorporation 
almost always leads the new house into some peculiarity of form. 
There is a want of freedom about snch desi^s ; restraint and 
compromise seem to ran throngb the whole, which ought not lo 
be the case in new work; and the allowance to be made for 
inconveniences in the companson of value which we have Jwveral 
timee alluded lo ought to be on this particular account generally 
very considerable. 

At the same time that an (Ad house may most frequently l>n 
mode available in this way is not to be disputed. We have only 
to advise in all cases that tbe Principal Rooms should be in tbe 
new building ; and not only eo, but that as much ae possible tfa* 
old budding should l)e appropriated to the very inferior rooms, 
and indeed frequently to tbe Offices; bearing in mind that, 
although tbe old rooms may look pretty well amongst each other, 
tbey have ultimately to stand in contrast with new rooms, and 
must necessarily lose greatly by the comparison. 

As a rule, when tbe roof has to be taken off the old building, 
it is seldom worth saving. In any case the damage by reason of 
the inevitable use of tbe old rooms as workshops is a serious 
matter of cost ; in this rase the additional damage by the weather 
becomes still more serious. 

Tbe external modification which invariably attaches to the 
incorporation of old work with tbe new ia another consideration 
which must not be lost sight of. 

If tbe situation of the old boose be at all inconvenient, let this 
be allowed great weight in the calculations : the importance of 
this hint is obvious. 

1b b word, perhaps a general rale may be suggested tlifle: — 
if the new part of a house be inconsiderable in comparison wiUi 
the old, tbe case is safe : as the proportion of old approaches 
equality with tbe new, the risk increases : if tbe old is but littJe 
less in extent than tbe new, all that may be required is caution 


in respect of the details of conversion ; but as the proportion of 
old diminishes further, the likelihood rapidly increases that the 
Baying may prove to be false economy, until we reach a certain 
point, not easily indicated except by the instinct of experience, 
when it may be said that the retention of so inconsiderable a 
proportion of old building will inevitably involve a loss. 




INTRODUCTION.— Questions Ihtoi.\-ed. 

It is not our purpose to touch, except in the most incidental 
way, the province of the landscape gardener; but there aro 
obviously certain questions affecting the BUrroundings of llin 
House rather than the Uouee iteelf. to which both the awhitctl 
and his client must give intelligent attention from the begin- 
ning; besides that there are considerations of still another class, 
affecting the eligibility and resources of the situation, whicli 
the architect especially must keep in view as matter of his 
own busineas. A few hints, thorffore. upon these topics ought 
obviously to be included in our scheme. 

A Geutleman's House, however unpretending, ought to he 
placed in a well-selected locality generally, on a well-selected 
site specifically, and with due regard in detail to aspect, 
prospect, approach, soil, salubrity, water, air, drainage, and 
other influences and surroundings ; — in short there ought to 
be a thorough preparatory consideration of how to make the 
best of everything which nature supplies. For id these pre- 
cautions a little care goes a long way ; and even where it 
costs nnespected pains to avoid a fault, we may reflect that it 
would coat much more to cure it 

The first question necessarily is the approval of the Localittf; 
the second the choice of a Site; thirdly comes the whole 
question of the Arrangement of the Grounds around the Site. 
If the Locality has been primarily resolved upon for reasons 
paramount to all other considerations, the only course is to 
make the best of what capabilities it may happen to possess ; 
but if there be any choice left, the proprietor and his adviser 
ought to inquire into several important matters. The same 
may be said with even greater force of the question of Site. 


The following chapters will therefore consist of brief notes 
upon these matters so far as they seem to come within the 
scope of the purpose above defined. 

With regard to Locality, first, we shall treat of Climate^ 
Shelter, Aspect, and Ventilation ; the nature of the Soil, and the 
Water-supply ; Drainage, and general Salubrity ; the capabilities 
for Landscape-gardening ; and what we may call certain Miscel- 
laneous Considerations ; and the mere recital of these heads will 
suggest how important are the questions involved, and how 
frequently in one way or another they are neglected. 

As respects Site, secondly, we have to consider Aspect and 
Prospect, provision for the Adjuncts of the House, Sanitary 
JProvisians, and lastly the relation to the Landscape, and the 
necessity, if any, of modifying the site artificially ; and these 
also are points of obvious importance, and often more or less 
lost sight of in practice. 

In the matter of the Arrangement op the Grounds and 
Adjuncts, thirdly, we have to touch upon the usual require- 
ments of the landscape-gardener, with reference to the several 
items of his charming work in their succession, in order that 
we may have before us, not only the House itself, but the whole 
carpet of art-work which is to be spread gracefully around it. 




CHAPTER t— Clihate. 

Ill M*enJ TBiH^M. -^ Ooiutdentkoi of lercl. 

This may be said to be of four chief varieties; worm and cold, 
and ia either cose dry or moist. It is a rule, fimt, to avoid if 
poeaible a moist atmoephere, whether cold or warm; iu one 
case there may be apprehended rheumatism if aothing woree, in 
tlie otlier the unwelcome accompauimeatu of malaria. A dry 
atmosphere, on tlie contrary, is favourable more or less with 
whatever temperature : dry cold may be considered bracing, ami 
its extreme is to be ameliorated by obtaining the shelter of wood, 
natural or arliticial : dry warmth is the most genial of all, and 
in excess may be tempered by shade. These, at least, are the 
general maxims. 

A very common secondary test of climate arises out of con- 
siderations of comparative level. So long as there is not involved 
difficulty of access, or excessive exposure, it may be said that 
the higher the level the better ; that is to say, we prefer to be, if 
not exactly on the summit of a high hill, well up the slope. In 
other words, low localities are more or less damp and stagnant ; 
hill-tops are windy and cold ; there is a medium, and the rule 
(«em8 to be to prefer within the limits of that medium an 
elevated site. 

CHAPTER II. — Shelter. 

Aspect ID queitioD. — WcK>d. — Silra on the coait. 

Not merely as regards the site for a House, but as aOecting 
the property as a whole, and the proposed Gardens and 
Pleasure-grounds more especially, the question of shelter from 

Sec. I., Ch. III. SHELTER— ASPECT. 303 

wind must always be looked into. If the land, for instance, 
should slope towards an aspect of strong bleak winds, — ^North- 
ward or Eastward, — ^the shelter of wood is most important as 
a corrective. Indeed, as probably an invariable rule. North- 
ward and Eastward wood is to be considered not only welcome, 
but almost indispensable, for land which is to be converted 
into Pleasure-ground. In some cases South-west wood is also 
valuable. For similar reasons a locality on the sea<x)ast must 
be closely examined as to shelter; especially on the East coast, 
where unwelcome winds are very severe ; and although no rule 
need be sought for this particular question, inasmuch as local 
circumstances are so widely various, yet the purchaser of a 
residential estate near the sea must never fail to inquire as to 
the particular quarter to be dreaded, and so to ascertain whether 
shelter is in existence, or, if not, whether its deficiency is capable 
of being corrected by planting. 

Mere trees, by the bye, scattered apart, do not necessarily 
constitute shelter ; they must be sufficiently closely planted to 
form a barrier against the wind. 

CHAPTER III.— Aspect. 

ConmderatioQS ia the case of sloping land. — Effect upon climate. — Weather, &o. 

When an estate slopes very rapidly to the North, it is 
obviously so much the less presented to the influence of the 
sun's rays; the course of the sun is so much lowered and 
lessened ; the latitude is practically so much more North. If, 
on the other. hand, there is a great inclination towards the 
South, the amount of heat is so much increased, the course of 
the sun heightened and lengthened, and the latitude made in 
a manner more SoutL The chief effect upon the land is as 
regards evaporation from the soil. The North slope will be 
the more moist as an advantage in dry weather, and the 
same as a disadvantage in wet weather; the South will be 
the less wet in winter, but the more parched in summer. The 
declivity must be very considerable before any great difference 
is to be perceived ; but it is manifest that if the climate of 
the locality at large should be too warm, a more Northward 


aspect will 80 far improve it, and, if too ooltl, a more South- 
ward aspect ; if too laoist, the South side of the liill ia bo ftir 
the beat, and if too dry, llie Nortli. In any quarter, again, 
where tlie East wind is partirularly unwhole-somo, we should 
obviously prefer a Westward inclination. The shelter of mere 
wood ia of iraperfeet service against the j^eeuliarities of this 
wind ; that of a hill-top is much better. There may be other 
local circumstances of weather also which here and there 
require similar consideration ; in short, the question of aspect 
here is the broad inquiry how it afiect^ in whatever way, 
the comfort of the occupant ; and this, not only as respecta the 
House in which he would dwell, but with equal regard to 
the ground over which he proposes to walk and drive, and 
upon which Lis fruit, flowers, vegetables, ornamental wood 
and shrubs would have to be grown, the land wliich would 
form liis pastures, and perhaps bis corn-fields. Some estates, 
in a word, have aspect all in their favour, others have it the 
reverse, and tlie practical difference is too well known to he 
unworthy of the best consideration of a purchaser. , |^^h 

CHAPTEK IV. — Ventilatiok. 

A queetioii of sLeltcr and level. — Effect of water. 

The sufficient circulation of air, or the ventilation of an estate, 
is by no means a point to be overlooked. It is generally a 
question of shelter and level. An elevated locality may be 
somewhat densely timbered, and yet have the air always in 
motion, and the sense of its freshness a constant satisfaction; 
while, on the low bottom-land beneatli, tlie tendency to stag- 
nation may bo such that when the last tree has been cut down, 
even then the sense of closeness shall not cease to weigh upon 
one's lungs and head, spirits and energies. A lake or a running 
stream is in this respect a priceless benefit to low-lying land, 
and if it be made the means of thorough surface-drainage all 
around, it will ofteu prove a cure for an otherwise desperate 
case. The treatment of timber, and especially underwood, as 
regards circulation of air, is not sufificiently witliin our province 
to require comment. 

Sso. I., Ch. V. SOIL. 305 

CHAPTER v.— Soil. 

Its varieties compeied. 

The nature of the soil is a question which is always of im- 
portance. As regards its farming and gardening value it is 
for the farmer and gardener to decide ; and no less as regards 
its capabilities for the growth of timber and shrubs. The 
proprietor, however, must not fail to have these points inves- 
tigated before he determines where to build. 

Clay doih are perhaps the most objectionable of alL Irre- 
spective of considerations of cultivation and drainage, there 
are to be borne in mind the unpleasant effects, alike of wet 
weather and heat, upon their surface ; and what is often equally 
disadvantageous, they are all more or less unsafe for building, 
requiring unusual precautions if the house is to be effectually 
ensured against the exhibition sooner or later of those little 
cracks and settlements which mark an unstable foundation. 
Gravel, on the other hand, when of a good depth, is always 
considered worthy of approval, if there be but a sufficiency of 
surface-earth for the gardener. Kain is rapidly absorbed, and 
evaporation is reduced to a minimum ; j>aths and drives, and 
even lawns, are almost always dry ; and the building foundation 
is the best possible. Rocky and stony soils, chalk, peat, sand, and 
the many intermediate and intermingled varieties of ground, 
all require careful consideration, on the basis of the same 
principles which in their application to extremes have just been 
suggested. The mere surface of any soil is capable generally 
of being improved by the gardener; and the architect can 
equally readily accommodate his construction to the foundation 
given ; but these are often matters of very considerable expense, 
if not of difficulty and doubt ; and as the simplest of all rules, 
if a position can be had which, instead of demanding unusual 
trouble and outlay, requires less than the average, so much the 


CHAPTER VI.— "Wateb-scpplt. 

QiimUods for iDquby. — Vaiirnu tornu of wipply, — Tariom kind* ofVoUa, — 
QiulittM of water. ^Q<iL<iili"a of ilqilli. — Qnerticitt of IcveL — CoDvejBiKe of 
iuppl}', wid kpjiuutiu. 

Tuis 18 a matter very frequently overlooked iu determining 
locality. The simplest of all modes of ascertaining the resoui'ces 
of suy particular spot is exjicrimeDt. Quantity aud (ptalUy 
alike are questions whioh demand investigation ; and the mode 
of emvet/ance to the house, and to any other point proposed, 
must also be considered. 

The Supply itself takes various forms ; it may he had from 
au artifiL-ioI conduit, or from a stream, lake, or spring; or a well 
may have to he sunk, or there may he necessary au Artesian 
boring. If there be a public supply, as in a town, nothing 
further, of course, is needed, except that the luxury of well- 
valer for drinking may perhaps be indulged in besides. The 
reeourcea of a neighbouring river or lake may be readily ascer- 
tained on the s[K)t. A running 1nudsjiring may by chance, 
although seldom, he available. But that which is almost inva- 
riably required in the country is the well. 

Of the Well there are several kinds, — the surface-well, the 
common suction-well, the deep-well, the Artesian-well, and the 
Artesiau'fountain. When the superficial strata are gravel and 
sand, it is not unusual to find good water without going deeper, 
and it will also Iiave the advantage of being of soft quality. 
But it is obvious that there are tliese risks, — that after much 
rain the water may become cloudy, and that in seasons of 
drought it may entirely disappear. The well of most usual 
depth has to be sunk from 2U to 30 feet ; and it may be said 
that this depth, being that for which a suction-pump will suffice, 
is considered to be a standard. Beyond this, therefore, we say 
a well becomes disadvantageously deep, and its force-pump an 
increasing inconvenience. But again, there are many localities 
where the water lies so deep as to be deeper than even the 
patience of the well-digger can go ; and when this is suspected 
to be the case, the boring tackle, which is now very common, 
has to bo resorted to. The problem then is to attain by boring 
a depth at which the water lies under sufficient natural preflsnre 

Sec. I., Ch. VI. WATER SUPPLY. 307 

to cause it to rise through the bore to a level at which digging 
may conveniently meet it. This is the Artesian-well. Lastly, 
it is possible in certain circumstcmces geologically to reach by 
a bore of this kind a stratum from which the water shall rise to 
the very surface of the ground, and, indeed, sometimes run 
over ; this gives what is called the Artesian-fountain. The last, 
by the bye, is the only ** Artesian-well " of scientific writers, but 
the distinction we have drawn is now fully recognised in common 

The chief practical diflBculty in most cases of search for water 
is to procure at once an adequate supply and an approved 
quality; and therefore it becomes extremely important that 
this question should be fully inquired into before any locality 
is accepted for the building of a Kesidence. Pure and soft 
water is perfection ; hard water has often to be made welcome ; 
but water tainted either to taste or smell by organic impurity 
OP mineral impregnation must not be too readily accepted, 
because filtration, imless on a very small scale, is not to be 

In most localities, water is to be found at the same depth 
and of the same quality over the entire field ; but there is 
sometimes a perplexing uncertainty in this respect, and in 
such cases the boring-tool has to be employed in repeated 
trials until an eligible spot is discovered. 

It may at first be imagined that high localities must have 
little water, and low localities much ; but, although this is true 
in a certain way, it is not by any means a reliable rule, as the 
water-bearing strata, generally gravel and sand, are often found 
on the hill-top in quite as serviceable a condition as in the 

The Conveyance of the water from the source of supply to 
the point at which it is to be used is the last question for 
inquiry under tliis head. In most instances a well is sunk on 
the site of the house (more than one if the depth be small), 
and then all is easy; and in some the supply may without 
difficulty be brought by the pump from a remote point. A 
natural supply from high ground may have only to be con- 
ducted by a pipe to a cistern in the house, the conduit following 
the ground-line where hollows occur, and even acting as a 
syphon over some insignificant eminence ; or a Pump-house at 
a distance may have to be erected, where manual labour shall 

X 2 


fill a supply cistem placed on the requisite level. But if it 
should be necessary to introduce more complicated apparatus, 
or to use inacliinery, perhaps to provide a water-ram, or wheel, 
or steam-engine, it is only in a very considerable establishment 
that the expense and constant ettentioa hereby iarolrcd can be 
safely undertaken. 


ConBiliiMtioni of level, &c. 

Drainage as regards the land is a quf!«t.ion we leave to the 
farmiDg adviser ; and as r^;arda the architect's interest in the 
immediate site of the house, it will have to be spoken of a 
few chapters forward ; but there are general considerations 
which none the less must be thought of from the first. If the 
Boil be gravelly, absorption will do almost all tliot is necessary 
in the way of surface-drainage ; hut where it is of a loamy 
character, if not worse, there may be a difficulty. A basia of 
clay, for instance, is not to be approved ; even if it have a 
lake or pond in the middle, this is likely to be not only 
frequently dry, but always stagnant, A perfect leyel, even 
on gravel, is not to be much preferred. A gentle slope is 
perhaps the best of all in respect of drainage ; but in any case 
there ought to be a certain self-draining character of surface, 
(of which the eye can scarcely fail to judge,) and a natoral 
otitlet for the water to pass away. 

Good air and good water. — G«aeral conaderations. 

Respecting Salubrity it is not necessary to say much. What 
has already been said with regard to climate, shelter, aspect, 
the circulation of the air, the nature of the soil and its 
drainage, and the supply of water, all bears upon salubrity, — 
a quality which may, in fact, be very simply defined to con- 
sist in the possession of good air and good water. Moderate 
warmth and dryness, shelter from noxious winds, ventilation, 


an absorbent or well-drained soil, and abundance of pure water, 
or as many of these blessings as can be expected all together, 
with as little as possible of their opposites, require nothing 
more to constitute salubrity. Positive annoyances, however, 
and even nuisances, there may be, about which one must not 
neglect to inquire. In towns and their suburbs there may be 
offensive manufactories sufficiently near to be a serious draw- 
back to comfort, and even an injury to health; and in the 
depth of the country, unwholesome exhalations may rise at 
times from pools, marshes, or autumnal woods, and be swept in 
gusts over the most pleasant spots, or left to cling about them 
more vexatiously still. 

CHAPTEE IX. — Landscape-gardening. 

This to be OQnaidered from the first. — Past and present ideas. — Features to be 

inquired for. 

In every case in which it is to be ultimately introduced, this 
question must obviously be a particularly interesting one in 
the choice of an Estate for residence; and wherever it is 
possible the professional landscape-gardener ought to be con- 
sulted from the first. A hundred years ago he would have 
sought for little else but the ground on which to form stately 
Avenues, Gardens, and Terraces in perfect symmetry; regu- 
larity of surface was often deemed the chief element of eligi- 
bility, and a dead level a grace beyond the reach of art But 
in the more modern style of design he takes quite an opposite 
view of the matter. On flat ground he is ill at ease ; regularity, 
except in the more architectural parts of the scheme, he con- 
demns; he luxuriates in the play of nature's own features,— 
refining these, but little more; he pursues in every possible 
form the picturesque, the charm of infinite variety, the piquancy 
of surprise. Towards the Northward quarter he will look for 
shelter ; if it be that of high ground and old wood, so much the 
better ; and more Eastward a similar shelter on a less scale will 
be approved. South and West he will be anxious to see a 
broad panorama of lower landscape, perhaps a river, and the 
opposite watershed rising up in distant hills. The general 
position of the estate itself he will hope to find to be upon a 


wimowhftt Southward elojie, or if not, inclining Weatward rather 
than Kastward. If the Kortli and East alielter be wanting or 
detii'iciit, lie will coiifider how to BUpply it by new plantation. 
If tbo estato bf on a Northward incIinatioD, unless it be s very 
alight nntf indeed, he will soo reason for much anxiety ; if it be 
actually oa the North sido of an exposed hill, the case i* 
deapemte. Thi< surface of tlie estate will best pleaae his jadg- 
mt-nt if it be of varied level and varied character. Groups of 
trees scattered here and there will bo most welcome, and larger 
clumps of wood, which he may cut np into grunps or make nso 
of in tlioir natural shape as may seem best. If by good fortune 
he sbutdd find a running stream placed at his disposal, thcrv 
will rise up before his fancy those pleasant pictures of lake and 
brook and Bshpond, cascade, waterfall, dripping well, and grotto, 
which make even a ditch, if it be but well filled with clear 
watc<r, a treasure Ui the skilful artist. If the estate be extensive, 
he will look for woods tljrough which to o|ien up vistas and 
gludcB, and peeps, as he oalls them, of far-off places ; and the 
rolling pastures he will hope to be convertible into a quiet deer- 
.park, wid long graceful woody drives. He will not object to 
bffiken ground, rooks, wild knolls, n },'ravel-pit even; quite the 
contrary, — he will convert everything of the sort into dashing 
hits of art. But what he will not like is such a thing as a 
congeries of square flat ploughed fields, bounded by trim hedge- 
rows, — every stick of timber cut away for the ventilation of 
heavy crops, — every little excrescence pared off, and every 
rough place made smooth, — not a weed to be seen upon the 
land it may be, and not an inch of opportunity lost for making 
two blades of grass to grow where but one grew before, — but 
nevertheless, with all its complacent material plenty, to the 
artist's eye a barren desolation — a vacant clock-face, without 
a single feature upon which the ingenuity of art can hang a 

CHAPTER X.— Local Considerations. 
HidIb tberecm. 

The question of facility of communication with a railway, or 
,a high road, or a surrounding property, or a town or village, 


or with the church, the post-ofBce, the doctor, or whatever else, 
is always of more or less importance. There will be inquiries 
to be made also as to the society of the place, and other local 
social influences; and as to the idiosyncracies of the owners 
of conterminous properties; not to speak of legal points as to 
the existence of those indisputably good fences which all the 
world over make good neighbours. Sporting considerations are 
also frequently made of more or less moment. There may be 
the calculation of remunerativeness in various forms. Perhaps 
other such questions might be suggested, — indeed many of 
them. But these can be attended to without the architect; 
although there can be no harm in his pointing them out if no 
better authority happens to do so, as every one of them has 
a bearing upon that entire satisfaction of his client in which he 
is always so deeply interested. 




CHAFfEK I. — Introdcctiok. 

BUtctnont of tlie quoBlion. 
AtTHOcOH it ia obvioiwly impossiblo to prononnce oneself per- 
fectly satisfied with any general eituation for the eetablisbment 
nl large, without having ascertained definitely that it offers an 
eligible spot for the position of the House as centre and heart of 
nil, yet we may perhaps be most readily followed, theoretieally, 
in dealing first, as we have done, with the wider question irre* 
speetive of the narrower one, and now, secondly, with the latter 
by itself. Indeed in practice the form of inquiry may be th« 
same. First api)rove the general characteristics of the Estate, 
subject to the approval of such Site as it may offer for the 
Konse ; subsequently investii^ate entirely for itself thia othov 
question. Many a fine Estate possesses at the best but an 
inferior Site for building ; and many a charming spot for a house 
is destroyed in value by the disadvantageous circumstances 
which surronnd it. 

A great deal, if not nearly all, of whot we have laid down as 
bearing upon the selection of a Locality for the Estate must be 
considered as applying also to the approval of a particular Site 
for the House ; the following remarks, therefore, need not go to 
the reiteration of what has been said, but rather to the supply 
of additional principles and illustratioua which bear upon the 
House alone. 

CHAPTEE II. — Prospect and Aspect. 

Frimarj idea of an elevated site. — Aspect to be coimdered. — Compioinite of 
ontagoDiBlic claims. — Bouthward &ni Eaatvatd landscape to be looked for. — 
Cnsa of Korthwiud prospect. — The beat aite and tbe worat. — DiBposition of the 

The first idea which arises in the mind, in looking over an 
estate to find a Site for a House, is to fix upon some elevated 


spot which shall command a view of the landscape around. 
This is simply turning to account the Prospect or pictorial re- 
sources of the property as one would avail himself of any other 
element of value. But the matter is not by any means settled 
by the mere selection of a point of high ground : the difficulties 
only now begin. 

Perhaps the readiest way to conmience the test of eligibility 
is at once to introduce the rival question of Aspect. In speaking 
of the detailed characteristics of the various apartments, we 
have already had occasioii to point out how intimately conside- 
rations of aspect affect the comfort and convenience of almost 
every room. What we have now to do is to apply those prin- 
ciples in generalized form to the general features of the spot of 
ground in question ; and what we have particularly to bear in 
mind is this — ^that proprieties of aspect, except in the most 
peculiar cases (and those will therefore be the most difficult and 
the most hazardous), ought never to be sacrificed to the other- 
wise commendable desire to have a certain pleasant landscape 
always in view. Aspect first, prospect second ; this is the rule, 
and exceptions only prove its importance. Prospect being 
charming, aspect never thought of; this is too often the practice, 
and no remedy is of any avail. The skill of the experienced 
architect will enable him in almost every case to combine both 
virtues, and the task he has to set himself is to make the very 
best of both. It is seldom that they do not put in many 
antagonistic claims ; and very frequently it is hard to decide 
between them: to the indolent this course is always open, 
namely, to favour those considerations which most forcibly 
strike the superficial observer, and leave the more recondite to 
the chance that nobody will discover their neglect; but the 
intelligent and experienced contriver of plan will generally find 
that a little pains will accomplish more than is at first to be 
expected, and that, with the help more particularly of the 
landscape-gardener's art, no one need abandon the hope of 
acceptable scientific compromise, except in cases which must be 
so rare as to be virtually almost impossible. 

It will be remembered that in nearly every instance of a 
dwelling-room the aspect of South-East was found to be more or 
less desirable beyond all others. Accordingly, if the windows 
are to be placed with absolute propriety, and to enjoy a pleasant 
prospect, it is plain that a SouUiward and Eastward landscape is 

Sli CBOICB OF BITB. Pabt 111. 

the first tliinj? to be looked for: not that we ought to be liis- 
hoftrtenwl if thin pmspect should fail to be the most pictureeqne 
at command, or tht> most extensive ; but that we should certainly 
heBtlato if it bo not Bufficiently picturesque and extensive for 
the purpose of an agreeable look-out For instance, take an 
oxtrwme case. If tlie only wide and pleasing view were towards 
the Northward, — say a sea view, — with the whole Southward 
sweep hemmed in by wood or buildings, or occupied by flat, 
Bquure, farming Gclits, or sandbanks and back-water, or peat- 
bog, or what not, — then it would certainly be very doubtful 
whether any possible ingenuity could accomplish a compromise, 
whereby to save the Drawing-room from the desperate alterna- 
tive of having either a simless exposure or a desolate view. But 
if, with the North as tlie preferable prospect, the South should 
bo nevertheless in any reasonable degree acceptable, the conreo 
is elear ; — give to the Drawing-room Front the inferior view with 
Uie favourable aspect, and make available the pleasant landscape, 
which is so unfortunately situated, by opening it to the Dining- 
room and some others. Or, even more, by some carcsful trick 
of plan give to the Boudoir, the Morning-room, perhaps the 
Dmwing-room itself, one of those supplementary windows we 
Imvo oftoLi sjiokcii of, titid let llie charms of asju-ct and prospect 
be combined. But the object of the present paragraph is to 
point out this principle, — that if the landscape of Southward 
tendency at large be decidedly unfavourable, the architect must 
begin to consider, not how to cliange the direction of his Fronts 
but how, accepting the evil, to correct it by his own ingenuity 
and that of the landscape artist. Accordingly, as has before 
been hinted, the beat possible site is that by which Irom a slight 
eminence on the Southward side of a hill you look upon the 
whole expanse of Southward country beneath, having on the 
North, t<^ther with the shelter, the view also of higher ground ; 
whereas the worst possible site is that where you find yourself 
on the Northward side of the same hill with the genial warmth 
of the sunshine and the wide expanse of the landscape alike 
shut out by the summit, and the exposure and cheerlessnesa of 
a Northern aspect together superadded. 

A good standard disposition under the most favourablo 
auspices will be this: South-east the Drawing-room Fa^e, 
North-west that of the Dining-room, and North-east the Offices, 
the South-west being left for any compensation required by 


necessities of plan. The entrance may then be either North- 
west or Sonth-west; or by moving the Offices to the North 
angle it may be obtained on the North-east, or at the East 
angle. The South-east as matter of aspect is best for the 
Entrance, as for almost all else ; but to place it on the Drawing- 
room Facade is not to be suggested. 

CHAPTER HE. — Adjuncts op the House. 

The artistio ooonexion of the Honae with the ground. — The usual Adjuncts, and 
the importance of level ground for their aoconunodation. — Entrance Court. — 
Terrace-walk.— Parterre.— Winter Garden. — Ajchitootural Garden.- Dig - 
podtioQ of Offices. — Approach. ' 

To some extent in the case of even a small Residence, but in a 
degree which increases with its style and magnitude, the build- 
ing ought to be connected with the surrounding surface of the 
gronnd in a way which may be called artistic ; and in dealing 
with Mansions of superior class the utmost efforts of the designer 
have frequently to be called into request to form around the 
House, as itself only the central object or casket, a carpet of 
design, which shall spread on every side in the various forms 
of Terrace and Court, Parterre, G-arden, and Lawn, until the 
architectural element is gradually expanded, expended, and 
exhausted, and the artificial blended insensibly into the natural. 
Too often tliis principle is notably neglected ; and the conse- 
quence is a sort of nakedness of the soil which cries out to be 
covered, — ^an incongruity between the upright ornamental walls 
and the plain level green grass all around, which demands a 
bond of combination, — ^a want of foothold which inclines one to 
ask whether it is that the soil is a quagmire, so that the house 
has sunk in it up to the ankles. 

Leaving out of sight all considerations of mere style of land- 
scape-gardening, and proceeding upon that generally recognised 
basis of existing practice which arises out of custom and conveni- 
ence, independently of artistic effect, and which may be adopted 
in whatever style, the case of the more ordinary and accepted 
Adjuncts may be put thus. 

The KitchenrQ-arden, in an establishment of importance, is 
probably removed to a distance. The Flower-Garden also may 
be put some way off. But it is always desirable to require as 


mncli BntTOundiiig ground, at the level of the Ground-floor or 
not far below it, as shall accommodate, first, a Terrace-icidk for 
the Drawing-room Facade ; aecondly, the lady'e Parterre of 
flowers ; and tliirdly, space for the access of carriages at the 
Poreh, whether with or without a regular ^frojice-Cowrt; whilst 
there ought aUo to be such a furtlier cooiiexion between the 
Drawing-room P'a(;ade and the surface at large as to render the 
passage to and from a more extensive Lawn perfectly easy. A 
really good site, therefore, will obviously consist of a consider- 
able space of nearly level ground : and whatever picturesque 
effects an architect may be tempted to seek by irregularities of 
surface, or whatever ingenuity of plan he may be ready to bring 
to bear upon overcoming the inconveniences thus arising, he 
may rest assured tliat all his contrivance will never do more 
than embellish the defect, — he may ornament the eccentricityi 
but he can never eBace it. 

The Entrance-Court ia an adjnnct which is now very much 
in use for large houses, superseding the great gravel sweep 
which was formerly so common. It need scarcely be remarked 
that the requisite space for this ought to be perfectly leveL Its 
arrangement will be spoken of a few pngps forward. 

The 'I'ku RACE-WALK (wliich will also be jm-scntly described) 
will demand a certain space none the less absolutely level along 
the Drawing-room Fajade, or in an equivalent position. When 
the house is placed on the gentle slope of Southward aspect, 
which we have repeatedly described as the beau icUal of site, 
such a space is readily appropriated. 

The Parterre is generally not a matter of rule as regards 
either form or size ; it may even be no more than a fringe to the 
Lawn or Terrace-walk. We need not, therefore, attempt to 
reduce its requirements to system, but remark that level space 
ia still the best. 

If the somewhat unusual luxury of a Winteb-Gabden be 
indulged in, it is manifest that a sufficient area must be had on 
the general level, and in connexion with the Drawing-room 
quarter of the housa In the model case described two pages 
back, where the South-west front was unappropriated, part of 
this line might be thus utilized. (See also Plate XXXII.) 

If there be what is called an Architectural or Italian 
Garden, where all is symmetrical, geometrical, and, in short, 
purely artificial, this becomes matter for special de8igu,in which 
the architect may govern himself by whatever circumstances 


exist; bat it is still manifest that the rule of general level 
cannot even yet be too far departed from with conyenienee. 

The chief purpose of this chapter, therefore, is to show that 
whenever the site is irregular in surface it is an important point 
for inquiry whether the appropriation of a sufficient area for the 
accommodation of the House, Offices, and immediate Adjuncts, 
if no more, all on one general level, is practicable ; for notliing 
tends more effectually to the disjunction of features of plan 
whidi ought not to be disjoined than the necessity of going up 
and down long inclines and flights of steps. With regard to the 
less immediate Adjuncts also, where variety of level is less to be 
complained of, let it still be remembered, whatever artistic 
effect may be aimed at, that the more easy the means of com- 
munication throughout, the better will that convenience be 
served which sooner or later becomes the chief consideration 
with the occupier. Half a dozen steps here and there need 
never be objected to; but more than this must be considered 
matter of anxiety. 

It is a rule that all Offices ought to be kept together on one 
of the four sides of the House, so that on three sides the prospect 
may be open. The Kitchen-Garden and Farm-Building8, if 
removed, ought to lie on the quarter appropriated to the Offices 
and Stables, that the communication with them may be carried 
on without affecting the Dwelling-rooms. The line of tlie 
Approach ought then to be laid down so as to advance either 
directly towards the Entrance, or rather towards the Offices 
than otherwise, leaving the other fronts of the House more 
private. At the same time it is not to be understood that the 
Offices are to be placed in a position of prominence, but the 
reverse : the Main House ought in any case to present itself 
towards the Approach as the chief mass from first to last. 

CHAPTER IV. — Sanitary Provisions. 

Yentilation around the House. — Water-inpply properly ntoated. — DiaiiiAge of 
gar&ce and House ; its course and ouUaU. — Absorbing well, pump^ oeaspools. — 
Field and water vapours. — Cost. 

The observations which have been made respecting VentUaticn^ 
or the circulation of air on the Estate at large, acquire still 

818 GH0IC8 OP 8ITB. Pabt III. 

greater fbroe when applied to the immediate vksiiuty of the 
Hbuee. The ahelter which on^t to he had for the Northward 
and Eastward Fronts^ whether hy the adoption of old wood or 
the creation of new, must never he such aa to oanse anj stagnar 
tion of air. The ornamental timber alao, which may be made 
of 80 much yalne in the pictoiial eflbot of the Hooaey must never 
be peimitted to stand so near aa to interfere with thorongh 
ventilation* Even the plan of the exterior walla mnst be ao 
rpgnlated that no stagnant coznera shall afterwards appear, with 
that green monldiness npon the wall which nothing can remove, 
or that damp within which cannot be aoconnted for, or that long 
weak grass upon the tnrf which requires constant renewal, or 
those mnsty odoors at the mndows which seem to come from a 

What has been said of TRrteivra|i»pfy, also, seems scarcely to 
require additioiial detail; except it be to remark that if a well 
is to be the source it mnst obviously be the object of experiment 
to ascertain whether such can be had exactly on the Site and in 
the proper position thereon. In most cases a few yards of space 
make no difference; but there are sometimes peculiar instances 
where, owing to the irregularity of the stiatiflcation, a very little 
distance will cany you from a good supply to absolutely none. 

Drabuige requires to be specially considered. It is now to be 
inquired, not whether the sur&ce generally has a sufficient 
waterslope, but whether, at this spot where the House is pro- 
posed to stand, bearing in mind the lowest level to which a 
Basement or Cellar-floor has to be carried, there exist suck 
relations to surrounding levels as to admit of the entire drainage 
of the surface and the house being conveyed to a proper outfall 
or receiver, and this in a convenient direction. A rapid fall for 
such drainage is not necessary, or even desirable ; but care must 
be taken to insure the house against the possibility of such a 
thing as undrainable Cellars, and also to ascertain that a course 
can be had for the main line of foul-drain which shall not cross 
the Lawn, Garden, Entrance, or any other quarter where it 
would be a nuisance to open it for repair. If the outfall is into 
a natural water-channel, it must be such a one as shall not he 
injured or made offensive ; it must not be a mere half-stagnant 
ditch, or the soil will be conveyed there only to accumulate as 
black slimy mud ; it must not be a clear little fishing-brook, or 
the clearness and the fish will be destroyed together; it muts 


obyiotisly not be a still pond, or even a quiet pool where the 
stream rests for a moment nnder the shade. 

The ordinary resources for drainage are too well known to 
require mention here. There are two yery scientific measures, 
however, which may be alluded to as extraordinary resources, 
for the simple purpose of advising that on no account should 
either of them be countenanced in dealing with a quiet Gentle- 
man's House. These are the ab%orbing-vfell and tlie pump. The 
ee99pool, the great bugbear of modern sanitarians, need never be 
objected to if it follow three yery simple conditions; first, it 
must be sufficiently removed from the House, for convenience 
of opem'ng ; secondly, it must be sufficiently removed from any 
well, according to the nature of the soil ; thirdly, it must have 
^an overflow, unless the soil be of such an absorbent character as 
to render this manifestly needless. 

In the country it becomes also an important point so to place 
the House, and even the Adjuncts, as to be inaccessible to those 
wandering Odours which emanate from autumnal woods, vege- 
table fields, and the very necessary but unsavoury operations of 
manuring. An expanse of Water none the less is to be kept at 
a reasonable distance : however pleasant the margin of a lake 
may be, there is no question that it will be a moist situation. 
In towns and suburbs, similar rules ought especially to bo 
applied in many ways. 

It need scarcely be pointed out that expense is frequently an 
important consideration in respect of sanitary provisions ; and 
that when there appears to be any serious difficulty or departure 
from common usage, it becomes advisable for the proprietor to 
keep an eye on the cost. 

CHAPTER V. — Position in the Landscape, and Artifi- 
cial SITE. 

Aptitude of Site. — General Notes. — Difficulties of Artifida]- Site. 

It is evidently a sound principle, as proved indeed by universal 
reference to it in practice, that the House should be placed upon 
a Site which possesses an appearance of special aptitude for the 
purpose, — some prominent natural position, in other words,— a 

320 CHOICE OP SITE. Part 111. 

dlif^ht elovation, for example, a plateau, a Bpot of oruamental 
limber, or some other such fociia of lanilei^ape. The skilful 
designer will alao he able, where no §uch natural site offers 
itAelf, to form one by artificial means, so that there shall appear 
to have beeii a reason of this kind fur tho house beiog placed 
wherti it is. 

The general rule is to look for elevation, aspect, and prospect, 
immediate shelter, and Bufficient space, combined ; considera- 
tioua which we have bad occasion already to deal with, as 
n-gards at least their real if not apparent value. Beyond these, 
A wooded hill Northward is generally looked upon as a very 
good fisatnre. The value of a valley and stream Southward ia 
obvious. That the proposed space for Lawn should be sufB- 
cjeutly extensive, and pleasantly varied in surface if possible, is 
mo«t important; as also that the park-land towards the quarter 
of entrance should be suitably timbered. Other capabilities for 
the formation of ornamental grounds are not to be forgotten. 
All should properly combine in directing attention to the Site 
aa a focus ; and this, if not always naturally, then artificially. 

The formation of an Artificial Site however is very often a 
problem of much anxiety. To pare off the summit of an emi- 
nence and deposit the spare soil around the base may not 
perhaps he difficult, if not too expensive. To excavate to any 
I'easible extent the side of a hill for the formation of a plateau is 
another operation of similar kind. But to elevate the site is a 
serious task ; and this not merely on account of an almost 
invariable want of material, but much more by reason of the 
impossibility of building on made-ground. If the desired eleva- 
tion can be obtained by forming a Cellar-story or even an empty 
Basement on the original foundation, and making up the level 
around this, the question is chiefiy one of cost as regards the 
waste walling ; but to raise a site either wholly or partially to a 
desired level, with the expectation that the construction, not of the 
House merely, hut even of such a thing as a Terrace-wall is to 
be accomplished thereon by any means sliort of carrying the 
foundations down to the original bottom, is altogether vain. 
Jfuch, however, may be done by tho skilful use of excavation 
around the site, as a means of comparatively raising the surface 
within, if it cannot be accomplished absolutely. 




CHAPTER I. — Style in Landscape-Gardening. 

The contraat between Claasic and Picturesque here as elsewhere. — The Italian and 
English styles of landscape art. — Connexion between the English style and the 
Gothic reyiyal ; and between the Italian style and Palladianism. — Features of 
the Italian manner. — Features of the English manner. — The rival merits. — 
Origination of the doctrine of the Picturesque* — Ruins and Baronial arohi- 
teciore. — Practical connexion of style in landscape-gardening with architectural 
style in the House. — The present system of mixed style. 

What the architect needs chiefly to bear in mind as respects 
the question of style in the treatment of landscape-design in 
England at the present day seems to be this. We are. well 
accustomed to the contrast in architectural design of the two 
great modes which we call Classic and Gothic, — the more severe 
and the more picturesque, — the manner of revived Italy (as the 
birthplace of all modern European art), and that of mediaeval 
Europe which this suj)planted. We have seen also that the 
same distinction prevails even in domestic plan, where we might 
scarcely expect to find such a thing. We have now further to 
remark that a similar diversity of principle divides into two 
corresponding styles the art of landscape itself. There is only 
this diflference in the present case, that although the Classic 
style, as in architecture, is historically Italian, the Picturesque 
style is not, as in architecture, mediaeval, but modem, in fact 
English. Landscape art had its rise in the Italian period ; and 
therefore set out on Italian principles : there having been no 
previous style superseded, there has been none to revive ; the 
opposing system, nevertheless, came duly into being, and its 
principles are in the abstract analogous to those of Mediaeval 
design. Still the rise of this new style was in no way dependent 
upon the process of Gothic revivalism ; on the contrary, as a 
singular and most interesting fact, it was by means of the intro- 
duction of the new principles of landscape-art that the archi- 


toctnral revival itaelf first acquired stauding-ground. In n word, 
if we 6iiy that tlie origiuatioa of llio " Natuml " style of land- 
scape gardening in England gave riso to the rcviviU ofliotliii' 
arcliitecturo and Gothic art at large in Kuropt>, tliia in practically 
very nearly correct, — aa we shall see. 

We thus arrive at a dofinition which is both interesting and 
importaiit. Tlift two rival styles of Imwlscnpti-gardening are by 
iiamo the Jtalinti, which is tlie Classical, and the Enijliah, or 
Natural, which is the Picturesque. The Gardens imd Adjuncts 
of our eightuvuth century Mansions arc Italian : these uf the 
nineteenth century onos Englisli. The stylo of the former is 
a part of Pal]iMliaDi»m ; and that of the latter, although not 
to bo idcntifietl with authentic Gothic, may ho fairly classed 
with that uodera schcxil of thought to which tlie more refined 
dov^opnuiikt of revived Mediievalism beloogs. 

The eliaractCTistica of the Italian or Classic manner all torn 
upon the statelincRs of symmetry. The central axia of (lie 
AfonsioD itself, for example, dividing the Portico, Eutrance- 
ilall, Grand Hall or Cortile, Saloon, and Gardeo-Eutranoe in 
the severest symmetry, is continued la one direction, not only 
through tlic midst of a spa'.'ioua syninietri<>)d Eiitniiiee-Court. 
hot along the line of a vast Avenue of symmetrical trees, aod iu 
the other du'ection none the less symmetrically through the 
midst of Gardens, Terraces, Alleys, Fountains, tlut)ugh the 
centre of a geometrical Basin, and along some further vista 
perhaps to a distant summit crowned with a Columu or on 
Obelisk. Upon this grand central line of plan other lines 
are again formed, crossing and i-adiatiug, however capriciously, 
always in perfect symmetry, and every one becoming iu its turn 
a new basis for similar efforts of desifrn. In lees imposing ex- 
amples the government of symmetry is no less strict; the centre 
line of the House becomes that alike of the Gai'den in inrnt and 
of ihe Garden in the rear, the basis of a plan all geometrical 
and all in perfect balance. 

Tlie English or picturesque style is altogether different from 
first to last. The stately Avenue of trees leading from an inde- 
finite distance grandly up to the door gives place to the cir- 
cuitous Approach or l)rive, winding between stray knolls and 
rocks and cimnps of \vood, and piueing at the Porch only to 
pass on to seek the Stables or to meet another line of accesB. 
The level Forest is now a Park of varied sur&ce; and the 


geometrical network of Paths and Alleys, and the lonp Vistas 
tenninsting in formal features of statuary, Fountains, and archi- 
tectural Arbours, have made way for scattered gronps of trees, 
whose merit it is that no shade of symmetry shall appear to 
weaken the charm of theij^ infinite variety, and whose ] only 
greater charm is the piquancy with which at every step they 
open to the eye some sudden glimpse of unexpected landscape- 
The Lawn spreads forth a series of the same irregular beauties ; 
and if a P&rterre of flowers, a Terrace, a Fountain, or a series 
of statues, may be permitted to stand in symmetrical disposi- 
tion, it is more for contrast than anght else, that even variety 
itself may not be too unvaried. The Palladian Basin, with its 
Revere geometrical form, has become an irregular Lake, with 
stray arms bending behind bushy promontories and meeting 
ix>und little islets of trees ; and the underground conduits, by 
which our grandfathers would have supplied and relieved it, are 
open streamlets, meandering waywardly over whatever variety 
of bed the artist can command. 

The compettnff merits of these two stylos are easily to be 
understood. That the symmetrical regularity of the one may 
become wearisome monotony, has been proved in too many 
instances; and the readiness with which an unrefined taste may 
produce in the other a pretentious eccentricity, instead of the 
natural grace of the true picturesque, has also been often 
demonstrated; but it is equally true that some of the efforts of 
the old school, although now out of fashion, are of an imposing 
grandeur which will never cease to attract admiration, and that 
on the other hand the charm of the new style, if fashion were to 
change tomorrow, is a thing that no considerations of deficient 
stateliness could ever set aside. The remarks we have so fre- 
quently had occasion to make in contrasting the idea called 
Classicism with that called The Picturesque might be repeated 
here with the same force as ever ; each has its o^vn merits, its 
own occasions, its own province, where it has no rivalry with the 
other ; and each has its own legitimate influence with the other 
in the hands of an intelUgent and experienced artist. 

The question how far the two styles of landscape-gardening 
are respectively to be identified with the two corresponding 
styles of Architectural Design takes three forms ; — namely, first 
as regards historical connexion, secondly as regards artistic con- 
nexion theoretically, thirdly as regards practical adaptation/ 



lu the first of these forniB, so for as tha quostiuo lias not been 
nlnrntly answered, it is easily disposed of. The introduction of 
what ID called the English manner of landscape-gardening was 
the work of those writers of the tatter part of the eighteenth 
cttntury who in a certain sense discovered the Picturesque. 
Biaaatified in a vaguo way with that eRcte traditional Chissidsm 
whirli nniyersally prevailed in all arts alike, the common sense 
of the English intoUect may be said to have opened an attack 
inatibetively upon the most vulnorahle jioiiit M'hat, it was 
asked, i» Hw spirit of a picture — that which a painter seeks as 
the first eHscnlittl of hia subject — the piquancy of nature? For 
want of a better term it was called The Pictcrehquk. Why 
tliim should tliat be ignored in nrtificiul landscape, which is 
the essential charm of notnral landscape ? The argument was 
accepted; it became the fashion to speak of The Picturesque; 
and the landscape-gardener had to abandon his Falladion ex- 
amples and seek Nature for his ratister as he best could. The 
results were often erroneous, but the rule was established ; and 
over Bince that day the progress of landscape-art in England 
has turned ujton the study and refinement of this rule alone. 
Again, as a natural coosequence of the application of the new 
principle, it came to be argued that Ruing were useful as ele- 
ments, not merely for a picture, bnt for a picturesque landscape, 
English ruins, as it happened, were of specially picturesque 
character, — indeed of the Picturesque style of architecture. 
This was fortunate for the furtherance of the new principle; 
the co-operation was thus secured of the architectural anti- 
quaries. These were equally satisfied with the alliance. Baronial 
architecture, as it was called, was patronised by the Picturesque 
school. Gothic architecture as a whole followed. Gothic art as 
a whole has followed since, and is still following fast. Gothic 
customs have made some energetic efforts to follow too ; aud 
will probably continue to do so, to the astonishment of many. 

It might now be supposed that there is a theoretical con- 
nexion of an artistic kind which renders the English style of 
landscape-gardenhig the proper concomitant of a Medinjval 
design in architecture; and the Italian style more appropriate 
for a Classic design. lint this is not exactly so. There can be 
no doubt that for a Classic Rtansion on a grand scale a con- 
siderable amount of Italian landscape-gardening ought to be 
introduced, in order to carry out the principle of stately severity 


which 18 enthroned in the Building as the centre of the com- 
position. It is equally obvious that if the surroundings were 
designed on the Classic model and the house on the Mediaeval, 
the natural picturesqueness of the architecture must be subdued 
into regularity if incongruity is to be avoided. But at the same 
time, in the one ease there is no need for an absolute adherence 
to the Italian manner, and in the latter none the more for 
an entire repudiation of it. The skill of a refined artist will 
find little difficulty in surrounding a Classic Mansion with the 
charms of the Natural style of landscape ; and the combination 
within reasonable limits of picturesque architecture with stately 
landscape is matter of equal facility. 

As regards lastly the question of the practical employment 
of the two styksy the present custom of landscape-gardeners is 
sufficiently clear. A certain amount of symmetry is almost 
invariably adopted in the best examples for the immediate 
Adjuncts of the House; while as regards the more remote 
arrangements the English style is now exclusively employed. 
As the architect, however picturesque in his sentiments short of 
acknowledged eccentricity, will be certain to exhibit some sort 
of regularity in his design, this is quite enough for the land- 
scape-artist to found his own modicum of symmetry upon: the 
Entrance-Court and the Terrace will probably be symmetrical 
features ; the Flower-Garden, if of any importance, as matter of 
received rule, is made symmetrical ; the Lawn will of course bo 
connected more or less symmetrically with both Terrace and 
Garden ; and a Conservatory or a Winter-Garden can scarcely 
be designed irregularly except in caprice. Further off, how- 
ever, there is the Approach, which is almost invariably laid 
down for Picturesque considerations; the Park is purposely 
divested of all appearance of regularity ; and the remote Lawn 
and Ornamental Grounds at large exhibit only such scattered 
items of symmetry as occur in and around their architectural 
embellishments and occasionally in the works of the sculptor. 
Where the House is of more than usually severe Classic form, 
the treatment of all this will lean more towards geometrical 
regularity ; where, on the other hand, the architecture is more 
than ordinarily piquant in its effects, the landscape-artist will 
adopt more unreservedly the freedom of the Picturesque : in the 
former case the immediate surroundings of tjie House have to 
be so disposed and designed that the symmetrical idea of tba 


architecture shall merge gmdoally into tho irregularity of the 
natural dJutanno ; in tliu latter ivign tliis iiTegiilarity of naturtt 
may bo ppiniittf*], uiidor the rofioiug coutrol oi' art. to approach 
almost to iho dogr. 


tlow ftlnHMt iDvnriablj fit Natuial nljle. — Hon tu W dwpoKcJ. — Umdioit, lUnwt- 
ncss, ilryuesa. — l*ri*iit-j of Uio Iawd and fliuilco, &o. — Directioa of ^tproach^ 
Nortliwnri SunlliwunJ. — Displny of tlit Htmsc, ic 

It is very seldom indeed non~aday8 ttiut this is designed in any 
other than tlie free or Xatural manuor of English laotlscape- 
gordening. We may occasionally find a ense where circum- 
utauces recommend, for part of the Drive at least, a return to 
the stately soverity of the Italian manner ; but this will be 
very seldom. The problem, therefore, in llie best instances i» 
generally this, — ^how to lay out a line of road whieb shall be of 
easy levels, sufiiciently direct, and properly dry ; which sbali 
not intei-fi-Tfl with the privacy of rifhcr Laivn or Garden, or 
generally of the Drawing-room prospect ; and which lastly ^11 
be well calculated to show the beauties of the landscape near 
and far, and to present in creditable view the House itself. 

That the road shall be of easy gradients (say never more than 
1 in 40 if possible) ia most important. Directness has very 
frequently to be sacrificed to this ; and more or less every other 
consideration whatever must give way rather than we should 
have the permanent inconvenience of an uneven road. Subject 
to this condition, directness of line must be the next endeavour. 
Not that sort of directness, however, which makes simply a 
short cut in a straight line, as the perfection of convenience: 
but such a corapromLse between this and other considerations 
which have to follow as shall reduce intentional circnitousness 
to the minimum. The question of dryne»», again, is of tho 
utmost importance. Not only have proper constructive expe- 
dients to be adopted ; but it nmst be remembered thnt all these 
arc liable to fail imless the road has an absorbent bed below, 
and an open circulation of air above. Although shelter is in 
many circumstances desirable, overhanging trees, except when 
Tery lofty and open, tend to make a wet road. A high bank 

^BO. IlL, Cu. U. CAllBIAa£.AP]t'ROACH. ^2f 

will often have the same effect ; and when there is a cutting of 
any ocHiaderable depth (unless when yery wide), special drainage 
m obyioiisly both essential and difiicult 

As r^ards the privacy of the Grounds — ^the Lawn and Garden 
more especially — it is a rule that the Approach should not over- 
look these, or indeed the Drawing-room Fa^e itself, even at a 
remote distance, if it can be avoided. This is of course a ques* 
tion of the relation between the House and the high road as to 
anpeet. To reject that point of entrance which convenience dic- 
tates is more than can be suggested ; but when this lies North- 
ward of the House it is certainly matter for satisfaction, and 
when Southward the reverse. In the latter case it becomes 
matter for ingenuity to devise a line of approach which, without 
setting too much aside the principle of directness, shall keep 
clear of the private Gix)unds and the Drawing-room view as 
much as possible ; and to meet this it becomes the task of the 
architect to place the chief Entrance of the House in a suitable 
position, and that of the landscape-gardener to modify the ar- 
rangement of his Lawn. 

That the line of approach should be in itself graceful, and 
that in its disposition it should be intelligently planned for pic- 
turesque effects^ are questions purely belonging to landsci^-art, 
solvable only on the spot according to the peculiar circumstances 
of the case. The principle that the Approach shall also exhibit 
the House to advantage will of course be considered an essential 
part of the scheme. 

These remarks obviously apply chiefly to the more important 
class dT undertakings ; but in inferior cases the same general 
ideas still govern, and the object of the designer Avill be, accord- 
ing to circumstances, to seek the nearest possible approximation 
to what he could better effect with larger space. 

CHAPTER ni.— Entrance-Court. 

t>C8cribed. — Common to both Klizabotlian and;Fblladianliotuc8. — Recently again 
common. — Palladian examples; Elizabethan manner; present modified form.— 
Gatesi sor&ce, &c. — Open Drive. — Dimeuaions. — OlgectiQn as to confined ap- 
pearance, and remedy. — lUastnLtiona TpaBtim, 

As nn architectural enclosure for the accommodatioUy as we 
may define it, of an equipage nt the door, this feature of plan 


lias prevftiled in one form or another throngliont the whole.hJstory 
of our subject; and, coatraating ultiiiiiitely tha Eliznbetlian 
hoii»CH with tho I'alliuliuii, it ie diUieult to say whether it belongs 
to ono niori) ihau to the other. At tJio wiino time we ean scarcely 
afHrm that it in I'Mciitial to either. Ijoukiag again at the ques- 
tion 118 one iif landscape-art, we cannot help seeing that the 
tendency of J'icliiresque style has always been to dispense with 
it, whilst the Italian Bystera iu its best esamplea decidedly 
eocouTBged its adoption. If we make inquiries as to its present 
a»e, we pert'vive that in spita of any tendency to the contrar)-, 
H is so much in favour with even tho most picturesque practi- 
tioners of the English school that we find it introduced in all the 
chief works of tlie day. The couchision at which we arrive^ then, 
is this. In I'altadian plan its stateliness made the Entrance- 
Court B most characteristic feature. In the early efforts of the 
new Kchool of landjiciipe, and accordingly in the Country-Seata 
of fifty years ago of tlio revived " Baronial " model, it was gene- 
rally BCt aaide, —notwithstanding the fact that architecture, in 
changing its style of detail, had surrendered none of its accua- 
tomed symmetry. More recently, although this character in 
the House itself has often entirely disapjienred, the value of the 
Kiitriinee-Cuurt i\* tin iirtistin iV'iilurt' l)U3 so far ac'iiiired fresh 
recognition that it has come into general use, in the hands of 
the landscape-gardener if not the architect. It is, however, not 
in its old stately I'orm, but much less pretentiously, that present 
custom uses it ; more aa matter of apparent convenience than 
formerly ; and, artistically considered, merely as a sort of con- 
necting link between tlio regularity of a Building and the irre- 
gularity of a Park. 

The Entrance-Court of Falladianism was an elaborate compo- 
sition in accord with the House, surrounded iu some cases by 
Colonnades, in others enclosed between wings of the building, 
the front line in any case being an architectural Fa^de of the 
full amount of pretension. (Plates XL, XII.) Otherwise it 
was the gmnd interior Cortile of an Italian Palazzo, surrounded 
on all sides by the building, and entered by a gateway, or rather 
a thoroughfare Porch, in the centre probably of the principal 
front. It will be remembered that the mediieval Mansions pos- 
sessed occasionally an interior Court of the latter kind, although 
never of equal importance with the grand Italian examples 
(Plate VII ) : the exterior Court also of the Elizabethan period 
was similar to that of the Palladian model, except in this respect. 

Sw. nLt Ch. m. ENTEANCE^OITRT. 329 

Aat the front line was constituted less as a Fa^de, and more as 
a wall (as in Plate VL). The manner of the present day, again, 
18 different from both of thesa It is very seldom indeed that 
the architect includes an Entrance-Court in his design ; and, as 
a rule, in the hands of the landscape-gardener it becomes little 
else than a suitable space of ground enclosed by a dwarf wall. 
We may hope, however, that architects will resume the use of 
this feature, as an essential part of their designs ; and then it 
would no doubt recover, if not the pretentiousness of the Palla- 
dian examples, at least all that is required, according to cir- 
cumstances, of their dignity. (Plates XXL, XXII., XXXII., 

It is not usual at present to have any gate to the entrance 
of the Court ; indeed in a dwarf wall such would seem inap- 
propriate, because useless ; but if the enclosure be higher, a gate 
becomes more suitable, and its absence indeed may be said to 
become conspicuous ; it would be such a gate, however, as should 
stand open all day and be closed only at night. 

An Entrance-Uourt of the old school was either paved or 
graveUed throughout ; we nowadays find it convenient sometimes 
to lay a turf border round the enclosure to prevent the accumu- 
lation of weeds and damp. When on a large scale, there may 
be a Fountain introduced in the centre of the area ; but this is 
not common in the present day. 

As a rule, it is only in a case of considerable importance that 
an Entrance-Court can be appropriately introduced. Indeed in 
many of the principal cases amongst our Country Seats it has 
been specially preferred that the Drive should come up to the 
Porch without any such intervention, so that the open Park may 
be separated from the House, if it all, by nothing more formal 
than a screen of shrubbery. For smaller houses, however, this 
latter arrangement is especially and exclusively suitable. 

The size of an Entrance-Court ought not to be too great in 
proportion to the magnitude of the House: to augment the 
dimensions for the sake of expcuisiveness involves in any case 
questions of repair ; and to carry such expansiveness far enough 
to dwarf the House itself is a thing that may be easily done. 

The chief objection to all ordinary forms of the Entrance- 
Court seems to be that there is a certain gloomy or at least dull 
and restrained aspect given to the termination of the Approach, 
as compared with the cheerful character of the mere Drive. In 


order to meet tliis ubjectiou fairly there liaa beeu Bometimes 
adopted an arrangement of this «)rt. The eudosuro in front of 
tlio Eiitriiiiou iK mode to fnlce more of thu appeamnoe of a sliort 
Terrace, aud a Gateway at each end allowij the Curriagewsy to 
pass through in lui uuintemipted line. 'I'he omamoiital effect 
of a Court, or indeed ereu it3 dignity, may be time obtoiix^d, 
without any sacrifice of tlie character of laiidscagie style. 

CnAPTEIt IV. — TEititACE. 

Two VBrleliGa fu mbo db ijacslion oT «lylo : llii- liiliintiwli' I1iu (rat. — Tlie tirimary 
UMOiitia] tbc praiBcnbde. — Usually on the Drewing'Kom FnnL — Wklth, eon- 
tlnaation, olewUni, u^ps. bnitutnulc. — lUuMnvtionii. — When ou uij otlm 

Fivni, or ID BimUipr position. — Uuya, boalious, grnst Imnlur. Iluwui-bode, &c,— 
Wi Jtli anil lidght of Bli^pa. — Ab|h*1 oiwl ]irospL-ct. — 8lM;ller. 

There may be said tu be tuto varietiea of the doniestiu TeBBACR 
in ordinary use; and the distinction involved may be considered 
u qneatioQ of atyle. The one Bpeeies may be dctitied to be a 
promcnoilo iiloDg any I'"n(;iido of the House, eiicloseil in front l>y 
a dwarf wall or baltutrade, and elevated to meet the level of tho 
I'riacipiJ-Story — some feet above the surrounding surface. Such 
a Terrace is generally in appearance altogether separated from 
the lower ground, m a distinct subject. Tlie other species, on 
the contrary, is not bo sejiarated from the low er ground. It is n 
promenade as before ; its comparative elevation may be tlie 
same; it has however no enclosing wall or balustrade, but a 
IjrasB slope along the J'ront serves to unite it to the Lawn 
helow. In some instances the grass slofte has a stone curb 
along the summit; in othere it is applied together with 
the balustrade. It is the question of balustrade or none 
which seems to be one of style in landscape gardening. The 
balustrade is essentially a paii of the Italian manner (none the 
less so because used in the Elizabethan age) ; and the turf slope 
as essentially belongs to the English or Picturesque manner. 
To put the case otherwise, tho one is more essentially a work 
for the architect, the other a work for the gardener. 

The idea which landscape-artista appear to have of the primarg 
form of a Terrace involves no more than a bi-oad straight walk, 
of considerable length ; not necessariiv elevated nboTC the 

9Ba lit, Cir. IV. TERBACk 831 

gronnd/and therefore not necessarily separated therefrom by 
either balustrade or slope* Eleyation, therefore, becomes only 
matter of dignity ; and balustrade and slope two dififerent styles 
of finish accordingly. But one thing has here to be noted, 
namely, that the long straight walk is the essence of the Terrace ; 
so that a mere plateau of other form than tliis must be con- 
sidered to be a misconception of the subject Again, to speak 
of a Terrace surrounding several sides of a House becomes a 
misdescription, the proper expression in such a case being that 
so many Terraces are attached to the several fronts respectively. 

In this view of the case, a Terrace, that is to say a Promenade, 
becomes not only au intelligible and useful adjunct, but one tliat 
may be introduced with effect in all houses from the larpfest to 
the smallest class, wherever there is the ground on whicli to 
form it 

It is the nile almost invariably in ordinary cases that the 
Terrace is placed along the Dra>ving-room Facade, as a gravt'I- 
walk from 8 to 12 feet wide, or more, perfectly straight, and 
periiaps continued at one end or both beyond tho liniitn of the 
building itself, for the sake of such increased length of pro- 
menade as may be desired. AVhen {x^ssible, tho elevation 
already spoken of is given to it, to the extent of from 3 to 6 feet 
usually. One or more flights of steps are placed conveniently 
for access to the Lawn. Finally the point of stylo is settled by 
the use of a balustrade or of a grass slope. (Plates XXI., XXIJ., 

It is quite in order, however, to form a Terrace in connexion 
with any other Faqade than that of the Drawing-room. As an 
appendage to the Dining-room, for instance, or to the Library or 
Billiard-room, the promenade in question may be very useful. 
In some cases, also, peculiar circumstances may induce the de- 
signer to form the Terrace along a screen-wall in continuation 
only of the Drawing-room Front or any other, or even at right 
angles to it. Or otherwise still, it is obvious that a Terrace may 
be formed altogether apart from the House, ns a part of an 
ArchitecturaMTarden for example. 

It is also to be noted that although the straight form of a pro* 
menade is essential, it is quite usual to constitute variety cf out- 
line by the introduction of breaks, bays, and bastions at the 
angles. Pedestals, vases (filled perhaps with flowers), and sta- 
tuary arc also very freely used. A gross border is seldom appli* 


Pablo, except fo fill up receases in the plan of the Faqade. A 
tho insido line of a bahistrado it would be out of place, 
were tiven possible to ki'i-p it in gtiod order. As for flower-bei 
they may of course bo introducetl in any of the recesses of pi 
wbicli we hare spoken of as being often filled in witb turf; 1 
they must be very s]iaringly used if tbe §ubject is to be t 
to the character of a Terrace aud not a Parterre. 

In fonning the FUghU of Steps wliich descend to the L&vn, 
it is always well to let tho treads be very wide, even as muck 
lu 20 or 22 inches, and the risers correspondingly low, say i a 
5 inches : care ought of course to be especially used that walw 1 
shall not accumulate either at top or bottom. 

The pleasantness, indeed tho ordinary utility, of a Terrace 
dejtends upon aspect and prospect more than almost any other 
consideration. An agreeable view during the promenade up 
and down may be stiid to be an essential element in the purpose, 
so far at le-ast as such is to be had : and, on the other hand, that 
the aspect should be such as to keep the promenade fresh and 
dry ia a principle that needs no illustration. SJuUer becomea 
also very frequently a matter for careful attention. It is manifeflta 
that these questions are much more difficult of adjustment gen^ 
rally when it is di-sircd to I'nrm fi Ternice on iitiuT than the Draw- 
ing-room Front In a word, any other than a Southward exposure 
with shelter at both ends ia likely to occasion anxiety. 

CHAPTEK v. — Lawn. 

Cliaractcr and dlapoBitJon. — Of picturesque style, — Connoiion with tbe House. 

This is the Pleasure-G round more directly attached to the 
Drawing-room, aud in full view of its windows. It is the rule 
to endeavour to preserve two of the four quarters around the 
House for this purpose, leaving one other for the Entrance and 
one for the Offices. The treatment of the Lawn quarters is then 
to be contrived with all the character of delicate refinement 
which lies within reach of the designer. 

The Lawn itself is simply an expanse of smooth turf, and 
level as much as possible. There seems in present practice to 
be no alternative of style; symmetry in general ia perhaps 


seldom if ever attempted, but the open freedom of the pic- 
turesque almost always preferred; boundaries, therefore, are 
rendered studiously irregular, and frequently concealed or dis- 
guised; shrubberies are placed irregularly also; and, in a word, 
the only way in which the idea of balance can be recognised is 
when we lay down the rule that the expanse of greensward 
should not be one-sided, either in extent or in disposition. We 
may add to this the principle that close to the House the walks, 
flower-pots, and shrubs, with statuary, if any, and other oma- 
meuts, ought to be arranged with such amount of regularity of 
plan as shall constitute that portion of the surface a connecting 
link between the architectural character of the House, and 
perhaps Terrace, and the landscape character of the further 

The various ways in which an ordinary Lawn may be designed 
according to circumstances, and the perfect freedom and great 
simplicity of the question, are well understood ; and the more 
complicated forms of treatment are entirely matter for the 
skilled landscape-artist. 

CH AFTER VI.— Flower-Gardens, etc. 

Several kinds. — The Parterre in its yarieties of form; aspect; relation to the 
House. — The Architectural or Italian-Garden; its various forms and features. 
— Two extremes compared. — The treatment of surface level. — Avoidance of 
excessive display. — Flowers in Kitchen-Garden. — Bosery, Pinetum^ Evergreen- 
Garden, American-Garden. — Character and situation. — Femeiy and Bock- 

There are several modes in common use for the formation 
of the Flower-Garden. One is to cut out a number of 
liAWN-BEDS along the front and side edges of the turf, and 
elsewhere at pleasure; sometimes geometrically, sometimes at 
random. Another plan is to make a Parterre close to the 
House, as a Garden altogether geometrical, and separate from 
the Lawn. Still another model is what is called the Italian or 
Architectural-Garden as a special artistic feature. For our 
present purpose the disposition of Lawn Flower-beds may be 
passed over, and our attention chiefly confined to the di£ference 
between the Parterre and the Italian-Garden. 

Tlie Parterre, when properly introduced and skilfully ar* 


rangod, poMesses, l>y rirtuc of its gimjiliojty sml doliciicy, a chann 
wliicli may bo colled anperior to tlmt of its moro impo«ing riral. 
Perlittiw what wonlil otherwise be a portion of the Lftwn is taken 
for tiiR purpose, and imaffectedly cut np into a jirotty geometrieal 
maze of little betts for little flowers. Sometimes a charming 
ami aittigether iieeulW effect, ie prodaced when this urrangeinent 
takes the form of ribboii^work cut out of «mootIi turf. Again, a 
central position on the lawn itself may be appropriated, and a 
Parterre constituted of square, octagonal, or circular shape, but- 
roiinded by a gi-arel path, the turf within cut up into geometrical 
beds aa before, and the whole becoming a prominent feature of 
comiKwition approaclied on sevei-al sides by paths either straight 
or winding. In other cases a Parterre of a still more formal 
kind is attached directly to tbo House, enclosed by a dwarf-wail 
or balnstrade to correspond probably with that of the Terrace, 
and disposed in a geometrical pattern of narrow gravel walks, 
enclosing small flower-beds as before, but now without any turf 
Bnrfacc. In tliis form the Parterre may veiy probably bo ele- 
vated a little above the I-awn, in connexion with a Terrace, and 
entered therefi'om rather than otherwise. It is obvious tliat 
considerationM of aspect nniat be here kept distinctly in view ; 
the Porterre must be Southward of the building rather than 
otherwise, and not Northwai-d on any account Again, as 
to situation, a direct connexion with the Drawing-room is obvi- 
ously the best ; or, if this be inconvenient, with the Jloruiug- 
I'oom, Boudoii', tjaloon, or the like. That the position must be 
jiroperly sJwltavd from such winds as would damage th» flowers 
is manifest. 

The Architectural or Italia\-(Jarden is a much more 
]»ret«ntiou3 subject of design. It may be more or less extensive ; 
in some cases it has been made to cover many acres of ground, 
and in others it is little more than an amplifiration of the Terrace 
and Parterre. It may be attached to the House as part of the 
nrchiteetural work ; or it may be altogether removed osaseparate 
design. But the essential character is always the same, — tliat 
of a symmetrical composition, in which some sort of architectural 
principle governs the primary features, leaving the more par- 
ticular arrangements of the gardener, although often more than 
usually reSned, in what may be called secondary importance. 
In other words, the primary features will be Terraces, flights of 
St^s, Basins, Fountains, Sculptures, Seats, Conservatories, and 

Sec. IlL, Cn. VI. FLOWEB-GABDENS, BXa 335 

formal paths, all in strict regularity; the secondaiy feature s, 
equally severe arrangements of flower-beds and turf as the filling 
up of such a groundwork. 

A distinction, however, may be drawn between two extremes 
of this kind of Garden. The one is aknost exclusively matter 
o£ architectural design ; the other of formal gardening rather, 
wherein the purely architectural element is kept within narrow 
limits, from a desire, not perhaps to dispense with its effect, so 
much as to avoid its expense. In the former case Terraces and 
Steps will probably be balustraded, Fountains made more promi- 
nent, and statuary more stately, screen-walls introduced, and the 
very paths designed as architectural approaches and promenades ; 
all for elaborate effect : in the latter, similar Terraces may be 
faced with the simplest bank of turf, the other features arranged 
Avith regularity but no more, and the entire composition kept 
down to the charact^ of a Flower-Garden properly so called, 
merely of the Italian or symmetrical type of form. The nature 
of the surface-level may to some extent guide if not govern the 
designer in choosing between these two species. If the ground 
be flat, the less architectural form will at least be more suitable 
than on a steep declivity ; and if the ground be irregular, the 
more areliitectural mode of treatftient may be better tlian on a 
dead level ; although both styles may be adapted to both cii*cum- 
stances. When there is a considerable declivity of surface, 
receding regularly from what may perhaps be a noble Saloon 
Faf ade, the Architectural-Garden becomes capable of very grand 
treatment in combination with the House. At the same time 
one princi^Jc must be carefully kept in remembrance,— ostenta- 
tion has to be avoided ; the succession of Terraces, the lines of 
statues, the Fountain-groups, and the stately flights of steps, . 
must be kept within limits of effect, as if matters of necessity 
rather than effort, and of 8ub<lued vigour nither than over- 
elaboration. It is on these conditions alone, in this as in other 
questions too easily transgressed, that grandeur is allowable in 
the home of an English family. 

For the supj^y of eutjlawer$, it is usual to provide, in addition 
to the Greenhouses, sufiicient space in the Kitchen-Garden. 

A KosERY is a special Parterre for roses alone, best perhaps 
when constituted as a geometrical group of beds upon the Lawn, 
in a sheltered but sunny spot. 

A PiNETUM is a similar group of beds for specimens of pmo' 

■ •.■• 


niid flr-sIiruLs, including cedars, cypresses, junipers, and tlie lika, 
iirranged aa a special gardtn. 

An Evebobeen-Garden (called Wint«r-Garden commonly^] 
is a similar provision for Evei^reens. Tlie Knetura may, liow^l 
ever, accoramodate other Evergreens besides those specialljifl 
implied. Otherwise the Evergreen-Garden may include thi 

An American-Garden is similar to the last, with rho( 
di.'i)drons and kindred shrubs included. 

Eur all tliese a prominent position on the Lawn or iuconnexiai 
with it will suffice, well sheltered and pleasantly approachedj- 
of course by gravel paths. 

A Febnery or a Eock-Gabden, or both combined, may I 
formed in any shady sirot, retired from the House and fro 
general observation. A small pool of water is desirable, for tliK 
sustenance of various favourita rock-plants. 

CHAPTER VIl. — Kitchen-Garden and Orchard, Gbeem ' 


Form and disposition, mils, accoss, &c.— Ststcmenl of MoeiBorieB ia Garden- Yard. 
— Gardeoer's Lodgis, — Cunimunication wilb tLe Btablefl. — Orcbard. — Green- 
hoiues in KilcheD-Garden ; tlieii aepoct ; boiler-house ; Forcing-pits ; Uot- 
bouM8 «n iHifa. — Illustration. 

In a case of importance, it is (he invariable rule to appropriate 
at a distance from the House an adequate space for a Kitchen- 
Gahden, and to enclose it with high brick walls. The usual 
form is an oblong, with its longer axis North and South. The 
ground is laid out by the gardener for vegetables and fruit ; a 
Basin is perhaps formed in the centre ; and the walla accommo- 
date according to tlieir aspect, and frequently outside as well as 
inside, the varieties of wall-fruit. The access ought to be suffi- 
ciently direct from the Servant^'-Entrance or from the Kitchen- 
Court ; while at the same time a ready way should be made for 
the family. The latter approach is sometimes made a feature of 
effect, leading probably from the Lawn, 

It would be quite beside our province to enter upon the 
arrangement and construction of the numerous Adjdncts of a 
complete Kitchen-Garden, — Greenhouse, Boiler-house, Plant- 


stove, Vineries, Peach-houses, Plant-pits, Pine-pits, Cucumber and 
Melon-pits, Mushroom-house, Rubbish-pit, Manure-pit, Potting- 
shed, Toolnshed, Potato-shed, Seed-room, Open-shed, and perhaps 
more ; the gardener will prefer to dispose them for himself. It 
may be noted, however, that a separate enclosure is often pro- 
vided for the accommodation of most of these under the name of 
the Garden-Yardy generally attached to the Garden itself at the 
further extremity. 

A Oardener's Lodge is often placed in connexion with the 
Kitchen-Garden, for protection and supervision ; and sometimes 
lodgings for his assistants. 

The road from the Stables must obviously be considered, as 
regards the conveyance of manure ; and there must be a cartway 
for entrance. 

The Orchard is simply a sufficient space of ground for fruit' 
trees, in conjunction generally with the Edtchen-Garden. In 
small festablishments the Orchard need not be considered an 
eyesore if seen from the Dwelling-rooms ; but the Kitchen Garden 
ought always to be separated. 

As regards Greenhouses little need be said. The Qremhome 
is the structure in which the plants are cultivated, as distinguished 
from tlie Ccmservatory as that in which they are placed for display. 
As it is common to provide space in the Kitchen-Garden for the 
supply of flowers for cutting, so the Greenhouse, being for a 
similar purpose, is generally placed within the same enclosure. 
If attached to a wall, it ought to have a South exposure. If, as 
is preferable, detached, it ought to have its lengtli North and 
South, with a middle passageway. The Boiler-Jumsey if possible, 
ought to be placed beyond the Garden wall ; and if the Forcing- 
pits are to be heated by water, the one apparatus may suffice if 
these be suitably placed. 

A favourite plan, in the case of several Hothouaes being pro- 
vided, is to place the whole en suite, — Vineries, Peach-houses, 
Plant-houses, and Greenhouses. The less important items, — 
Sheds and the like, — may then be disposed along the back of 
the rear-wall, and the Pits separately, still farther back. 

Plate XXIV. exliibits a fair illustration on a modest scaje. 



CHAPTER Vril. — CossF-nvATOHiES, etp, 

NotM OS Ln gencnil provisioDx. 

We use this term to signify glass-liouses for the disjjlay of oina- 
mental plants, pertaining to the House and Garden rather than 
elseivhere. They may be of various kinds. The Coueervatory 
directly attached to the House has been spoken of in its place ; 
and occasion was taken at the same time to describe the prin- 
ciples of the Winter-Garden. In addition to these, or in their 
stead, the separate Conservatory, the FerT^hoiae, the Palm-houee, 
&a., need only now to be mentioned as items of plan for which 
accommodation may be more or lees required ; bnt the extent 
and form in which these may have to be provided are searo«ly 
matter of rule, while the mode of constniction is seldom if ever 
different in principle or purpose from what we have already had 
occasion to describe. It is purely a matter of personal choice 
for the proprietor, what he may dictate in respect of such accom- 
modiition ; and all that seems to fall to the architect is to providft 
for the Conservatories in every cnse good aspect, ample light. 
efficient warming and ventilation, and the capability of being 
conveniently planned according to the special purpose. 

Aviaries may be mentioned as generally placed in connexion 
with a Coneer\'atory, — with the Winter-Garden very appro- 
priately if there be one. 

CHAPTER IX. — Ornamental-Grounds. 

Che Houae on four qusrtera. ~- 
; ftaturcfl. 

These areof conrse the domain of the landscape-gardener alone. 
He may form them on whatever quarter he deems advisable and 
in whatever manner. It may be always borne in mind, however, 
that there are recognised these simple princtpUe of general dispo- 
sition by which he is most likely to be directly guided. On the 
Entrance Front there will be a landscape less refined ; on the 
Drawing-i-oom Front one more so. The former will consist of 


Park or pasture, dotted with groups of forest-trees, and close to 
the House more ornamental shmbberies and turf. The other, — 
in fact the LatvUy — we have already described, with its soft and 
delicate turfed surface, Parterre, and Gardens, On a third front, 
Westward perhaps, or more or less Northward, it is preferred to 
place the Kitchen-Oarden and its appurtenances, in direct com- 
mimication, if not in conjunction, with the OflSces. The fourth 
quarter is an extension of the Laum, bounded perhaps by 
wood. It is chiefly the Lawn quarters that become Orna- 
mental Grounds. 

To speak of the many species of embellishments by which 
the landscape-gardener will give grace and spirit to his work 
would be little else than to recite a catalogue. The Fountain^ 
Bastn, and Fish-pond; Dripping-well and Chotto; Arbour ^ 
Bower, Summer-house, and Seat ; Statuary, Sun-dial, and Vases ; 
Terrace-walls and Screen-wall; Lake, Stream, and Pool ; Bridge 
and Boat-house; Avenue and Shrubbery-walk; Oroquet-Lawn ; 
Archery-ground and Bowling-green perhaps ; — all these are 
matters whose superficial principles require no explanation, and 
whose particulars are beyond our province. To deal also with 
questions of Park, Deer-park, Grazing-park, or Cover for game, 
or with the employment of Timber, Shrubs, and Trees, <fec., in the 
design of the Grounds, would equally be beside our purpose. 
All that we can take upon ourselves to do is to direct the 
attention of architect and proprietor to the list of subjects thus 
involved, as the last class of the many and varied considerations 
affecting the plan of a Gentleman's House. 

z 1> 

Tlin pctplexitieg of a choice of Style. — What ia Style? — Tlio connoissenrahip oT 
tlio age. — Bororenco to txaiuples. — Plan of tlie KtntDpie*. — Consideralions 
uf inquiry in eorti cose. — Tho Cliksmonl and Iho Pictufeaque. — C!ns«flai- 
tjon nf tho Qxikniptes. ~ Genonil onmpariBoii, with r^trnl to Site; — Smle of 
bnildiug ; -•Mnlecials ; — Cost; — Impoftence: — Omomontftl chmactcr ; — Vie 
of ityle ioternslly r — Influence n|>i>u Interior phm. 

In what Stj/U of Architecture shall you build your house? 
A question universal in these days, in England if not elsewhere ; 

nlDiou^li one which in other a^es would have ln^en namejiniDir ; 
a question, therefore, which, if not involved in our Bubject of 
merely utilitarian plan, is one wljich we may be reasonably 
expected to entertain, at least so far as a few notes can be made 
to explain [wpularly what the question is. 

The -ai-ehitect liimself will jjeuerally put this query to liis 
client at the outset of their intercoui-so ; and if the client be 
inexperienced in such matters, he may be somewhat astonished 
to discover what it is he is invited to do. By the exercise of 
some instinct, or some caprice if it so pleases him, — the com- 
plaisant artist cares not which, — he is expected to make a choice 
from amongst half-a-dozen provailiiif; "styles," all more or less 
antagonistic to each other, all having their respective adherents 
and opponents, and all very likely to prove more and more 
unintelligible the longer they are examined — the longer, that 
is to say, they arc jiermitted to contradict each otlier. 

A bewildered gentleman may venture to suggest that be 
wants only a simple comfortatble liouse, " in no style at all — 
except the comfortable style, if there ho one." 

The architect agrees; but they are all comfortable. "Sir, 
you are paymaster, and must therefore l>e pattern-master ; you 


choose the style of your house just as you choose the build of 
your hat ; — you can have Classical, columnar or non-columnar, 
arcuated or trabeated, rural or civil, or indeed palatial ; you can 
have Elizabethan in equal variety ; Renaissance ditto ; or, not to 
notice minor modes, Mediaeval in any one of its multifarious 
forms, eleventh century or twelfth, thirteenth or fourteenth, 
whichever you please, — feudalistic or monastic, scholastic or 
ecclesiastic, archseologistic or ecclesiologistic, and indeed a 
good many more." 

"But really, I would much rather not. I want a plain, 
substantial, comfortable Gentleman's House; and, I beg leave 
to repeat, I don't want any style at all. I really would very 
much rather not have any ; I dare say it would cost a great 
deal of money, and I should very probably not like it. Look at 
myself; I am a man of very plain tastes ; I am neither Classical 
nor Elizabethan ; I am not aware that I am Renaissance, and 
I am sure I am not Mediaeval ; I belong neither to the eleventh 
century, nor to the twelfth, thirteenth, or fourteenth; I am 
neither feudalistic, nor monastic, nor scholastic, nor ecclesiastic, 
neither archaeologistic nor ecclesiologistic ; — I am very soiTy, 
but if you would kindly take me as I am, and build my house in 
my otvn style — " 

Now what is Style ? 

It is plain that in different nations, and at different periods of 
time, people have built differently. By the variety of circum- 
stances, in respect of climate, materials, wealth, social require- 
ments, and all sorts of influences besides, there has been produced 
a variety of manner in architectural design ; and in so far as 
such variety of manner has acquired characteristic system, there 
have arisen various Styles. The English Architect of the nine- 
teenth century professes to have studied all these styles, and ho 
will design in any one of them according to order. 

But why cannot a plain gentleman have a plain house built 
for his family without being involved in these geographical and 
historical considerations ? 

The reason for this really very odd state of things (which 
does not exist in any other country but our own) is to be found 
in the unprecedented degree to which English people have 
lately become imbued — it will seem strange to say so — with the 
character of virtuosi. The statement will appear strange, 
because, so thoroughly have we accepted the principle, and by 


such imperceptible degrees, that few may be able to iim^ine | 
tlie possibility of its beiug anything like the iniiovatiou it i 
But it is nevertlieless the fact, for instance, that fifty years ago, J 
even after two centuries of the existence of ontiquarianism i 
a profession, the entire kingdom could not have clubbed togethw i 
so mueli of this kind of knowledge, or half so much of its i 
enthusiasm, as go to the furnishing at the present day of oca I 
head out of a score that can be found in any county in the landa-f 
We live in the era of Omnium-Gatherum ; all the world's \ 
a museum, and men and women are its students. To design 
uny building in England nowadays is therefore to work under 
the eye, so to speak, of the Society of Antiquaries. And all the 
while these very critics keep up a contemptuous cry — Why has 
not our age a Style of ite men, like all other ages ? — How could 
it have s style of its own in such circumstances? Or let it be 
answered, if it has no style of Ma own in one sense, it has in 
another a very notable style of its own, and a very novel one ; — 
the style of tliis miscellaneous connoisseurship, — the style of 
instinct superseded by knowledge, — a state of things charac- 
teristic of our age as no other state of things could be charac- 
teristic of it. Our Style of the passing Age (which theorj' very 
truly aiHmis cannot possibly be non-existent) exists in utter 
bewilderment. Much learning hath made it mad. The cha- 
racter of the nineteenth century in our architectural history 
will be simply this ;— An inconceivable appetite for relics of the 
Past was at once its virtue and its vice. 

All that is proposed to be done here, however, in dealing 
with style, is to refer the non-professional reader to a series 
of sketches which we have prepared for the purpose of repre- 
senting, as characteristically as we can in such a manner, the 
chief accepted varieties of style in our Domestic Areliitecture, 
and to give such explanations as may enable him to discern the 
points of contradistinction, of course historically, but practically 
much more. 

There are in all ten of these sketches, which will be found at 
the head of ten successive chapters, representing respectively 
the following styles : — the Elizabethan manner of the sixteenth 
century, — the Palladian wliich took its place for the seventeenth 
and eighteenth, — the Elizabethan of nineteenth century adapta- 
tion, — the cotemporary Kural-Italian, — the Italian of the Palatial 
or more stately manner recently introduced, — the lonespondinp 


style now used by the French, — ^the more elaborate and some- 
what Ck)ntinental '* Kenaissance " at present coming into esteem, 
— an equivalent form of the MedisBval type, likewise a new 
fashion, — and two other styles supplementarily, namely, tlie 
ordinary Cottage style, or that of the every-day English Villa, 
and the Scotch style (of the Elizabethan period), which has 
spread over Scotland and the North of England from the head- 
quarters of Edinburgh. 

The mode in which the problem of contrast has been worked 
out in these sketches is this : a yery simple and ordinary form 
of exterior plan has been laid down (as _«..._ 
represented on the margin), and used for 
the entire series of designs throughout. 
It would have been more easy to select 
published examples; but if more authentic 
and even more characteristic in many "^""^ 

ways, these could not have been equally 
useful as regards comparison with each 
other : whilst again, as it is an essential 
part of our purpose for the occasion to 

recognise these styles solely in the light ^■°"* 
of Eclecticism, as a variety of modes of treatment, all equally 
adaptable to those utilitarian dictates of plan which we hold to be 
the first consideration^ they are obviously to be best exhibited 
in this light by taking the same subject for all. Of course it 
will be understood that in every case the sketch represents only 
one individual manner of a class, for the subdivisions of style 
are infinite. 

In the following chapters we shall examine each style of the 
series in order, of necessity briefly. The considerations which 
seem to be involved are these : — 

Situation ; 

Scale of building ; 

Materials ; 

Comparative cost ; 

Comparative importance ; 

Ornamental character ; 

The use of Style internally ; 

Influence upon the interior plan. 

The great primary division of all architectural art (and all 
art whatever) into the Classical and the Picturesque, has been 


frbfjiitjiilly Hlluded to in the former [larts of this work ; iiud it I's 
not ilifficiilt to marshal niir present illuBtmtious under tlieiMS two 
heada. The Classic character, the reader may be rominded. 
\» that of stately, symmetrical, refined baliinee aiid repose, with 
simple elaboriited elegance in the ornament: the Pictureequo 
clmriuiter is that of nnBymmetrical, vigorous, sparkling piquancy, 
with ornament not bo much refined es animated. It is only 
[Hirt of the diatiuftiou that the original type of the Classic is of 
iioriKontal character of form, and that of the Picturesque of 
vertical character; the one the Cireek temple, for instance, — 
tlie other the Gothic minster. Of pnrely Classic type, then, we 
have in our series the I'alladian, the Palatial-Italian, and the 
French examples ; of purely Picturesque type, the Elizabethan, 
both ancient and modern, the Mediteval, and the Scotch ex- 
amples; whilst the Rural-Italitin is obviously Classical rendered 
picturesque, the new Keiiaissance the same, and the Cottage 
stylo, within narrow limits, still the stkme. 

Taiiug now, preliminarily, a general view of our list of con- 
siderations, and commencing with Situation, we may say that 
i'ieturesque architecture suits best a picturesque site, and Classic 
tliti reverse. 

As regards next the Scale of building, the Classic manner is 
at least the more imposing for the largest masses. 

With reference to Materials, again, the less finished their 
character the greater the inducement to adopt picturesque 

Cost, in the next plaee, is not properly a question of stylo at 
all, and indeed very seldom in ordinary cases a question of 
exterior efl'ect. It is true that if an effort in design should 
involve numerous excrescences of efieet otlierwise needless, — 
turrets, projecting bays, balconies, ornamental chimneys, stu- 
pendouH roofs, and so on, — tlicse of course cost money; but, 
none tho less, if an cflTort alter Classical stateliness should involve 
gigantic porticoes, statuary, domes, balustraded terraces, and the 
like, do these cost money too; and it is impossible to say that 
cither form of extravagance costs more than the other. 

In the next place, what degi-ee of Importance attaches to each 
description of style, is not easily explained ; except in so far 
that stateliness of character, finish of material, and refinement 
of decoration, other things being equal, must necessarily possess 
an advantage in many ways over the opposite qualities. 

Our next j>oint. Ornamental Character, has already been 


touched upon incidentally ; the ornament of Classicism is 
primarily refined, but may easily be rendered insipid and 
clumsy, — that of the Picturesque is primarily crude, but is 
capable of any amount of refinement according to the taste of 
the designer. 

As to Style internally, it must be owned that if the Classic 
spirit should be can-ied to an extreme, it would be irksome and 
oppressive; but, on the other hand, if anything like authentic 
Mediaevalism should be recommended, then let the master, and 
perhaps still more the mistress, take care that the consequences 
are thoroughly understood ; whilst again, if an architect proposes 
to disregard in the interior the trammels of some exterior style, 
we should not counsel his client to suspect him to be deficient 
either of good sense or of artistic feeling. (See Chapters IV., 
v., and IX. for the reasons why.) 

The last point on the list is the influence of exterior Style on 
Interior Plan; and here there are many important considera- 
tions. Classicism in excess, with its symmetries and formulas, 
has too often rejected a useful thing, which a different style 
would have clieerlully made the best of; with its over-compact- 
ness, it has too often cramped accommodation and curtailed 
convenience ; with its stateliness in great things, it has too often 
cast comfort in small things to the wall. But this excess is not 
essential. In similar excess the Picturesque may run riot in 
eccentricity, and so clothe every utility with some fantastic 
whimsy thiit the commonplaces of life shall be swallowed up 
amidst the unsubstantialities of a dream. But neither is this 
excess essential. Within reasonable limits there is nothing to 
fear in either case. 

CHARTER II. — Elizabktiian Style. 

The ElUabethan was simply the Eoglisli domestic adaptation 
of wliat was originally Ecclesiastical, namely, the Mediieval or 
Gothic" style. In fatt, towai-ds the Elizabethan period, cliureh 
architecture itself had lapsed into very much the same character 
of design ; or, to put it perhaps better, the ecclesiastical forms 
in their decline froiii the thirteentli century, and the domestic in 
their rise from the eleventh, had met at this period of the six- 
teenth on almost mutual ground. The only radical difference 

■ Tlio ttnn GoUiie, as ajipliod lo He- ' it applies is of tlie Xuitlicrii Europenn 
diiGvitl aicliik'ctun.-, luis liet'U o1>JGott(] Ijpo [lertaiiiing lo ttiOBc i,Gotliic) nations 
lo as convpying nn insinuiitioo of barba- , wliicli overtbrow the GonuiD Empire, 
riam; Bnditiflnowusud iiiasense wliieli, Tiio Cliutic era of ancient Kome gave 
inTolring no eurli Htigiiia, bocomea re- pluce to tbe Gothic em of Miili^val Eu- 
markablj eiproflHiTe. The name of Go-' rope. The Modern era succeeded the 
thir now siguilies tliat tbe nrt to vliiob Gotliie. 


of style was to be found in respect of a certain importation of 
Italian mouldings into combination with the old established 
English features of design ; and this, although often feeble and 
meretricious, is still as frequently pleasing and characteristic. 

In the more material pai-t of structural design, the deficiencies 
of the time in respect of building resources must be expected 
necessarily to have produced corresponding shortcomings ; 
although in some instances even in this there was all that could 
be desired of magnificence (witness Hatfield, amongst our 
plans, Plate IX.) The windows, however, for example, if cha- 
racteristic at all, however wide and lofty in the eniire opening, 
are cut up into small compartments vertically by mullions, and 
horizontally by transoms of stone (remains evidently of the eccle- 
siastical character) ; and this is decidedly inconvenient in the 
eyes of the present generation, accustomed to large open sashes. 
Casements again (hinged sashes), are essential to the style, and 
cannot be compared for comfort to our modem sash windows 
hung with weights. The lead lights and little diamond panes, 
if deemed essential to the style, would be a still more grievous 
inconvenience. On the other hand, the lofty chimney-shafts 
are highly serviceable. The high roofs, also, are useful within, 
and effective without. The joiner's work of the period is of 
course far behind what we are now accustomed to, and cannot 
be imitated for the sake of authenticity without serious objection 
on practical grounds. The same may be said of other matters 
of finishing pertaining to the style. But in most points of gene- 
ral arrangement and expressive feature, it becomes a matter to 
boast of that the native English model of three hundred years 
ago seems as lit as ever for English uses now — ^at least in the 
country, and, by reason of its purely picturesque motive, in- 
finitely capable of adaptation to whatever particular items of 
internal plan may happen to dictate external form. More than 
this need not be said at present, as the next chapter but one will 
treat more in detail of the same style as revived and modernised. 

CHAPTER III. — Tailadias UnhE. 

- Ilaprovalec 

Ab the influence of occlosiasticism waned in Itiily in tlie fifteenth 
and sixteenth centnries, the changing system of thonglit, identi- 
fying itself with ancient learning, introduced the study of ancient 
architecture amongst the rest ; and as Italian ecoleaiasticism 
in building was hy tlits time no better than in other matters, 
there arose the fiisliiou of imitating the old Koman designs. 
In due course of time this imitation wiis reduced to system in 
books ; the book of cliief influence in this way waa the work of 
Palladio ; it became a text-book throughout Eur0j>e ; and thus 
tlie particular form of this revived antique which came to bo the 
rule was Palladiaimm. It waa introduced into England by Inigo 
Jones at the date in round numbers of 1600, and speedily dis- 
possessed the old Eiiglisli style altogether. 

The style at lai"ge, culled the C'in^iuvenCint (lliat is, of the fifth 


— for fifteenth — century), or the Italian (because of its birth- 
place), or the Revived Classic (being the academical antique), 
is primarily based upon the columnar system of the Greeks, 
received by them historically from the East, and transmitted 
historically Westward, on the tide of empire, to Rome. The form 
in which the style became systematised for domestic design was 
this : — a square flat-walled house, of several stories in height, 
pierced with square symmetrical openings for windows and doors, 
was dressed up with some range of columns for ornament, per- 
haps only in the form of a portico, or perhaps repeated more or 
less over the exterior ; the horizontal entablature academically 
pertaining to the columns, with its projecting cornice (the re- 
deeming feature of even the worst Cinquecentism), was carried 
round the summit of the walls ; perhaps the " Order " of columns 
was of one story in height, perhaps of two stories, perhaps there 
were two Orders for successive stories ; perhaps the line of front 
was broken up into more or less complicated forms (compare for 
instance our plans of Ambresbury and Stoke I^ark, Plate X.) ; 
most probably a crowning parapet, perhaps with balustrade, 
pedestals, vases, statues, was placed along the summit to conceal 
the roof ; perhaps there was a pediment given to the portico, 
perhaps a dome was added for a central feature, perhaps a Ter- 
race for a spreading base ; the columns might be of any of " the 
five Orders," and the windows and doors might have either 
arches or lintels ; occasionally the columns were omitted, but all 
else retained ; perfect symmetry in every case governed the 
whole ; and the result, even when spiritless (and it soon became 
spiritless enough), was at least the stately representative of a 
system which had had its rise " in Thebes's streets three thousand 
years ago," which Pericles had decked with the sculptures of 
Phidias, and Augustus adorned with the tribute of the world. 

During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries universally 
this manner of design prevailed everywhere in England, as in- 
deed throughout Europe. In the less advanced countries of the 
Continent it still prevails, very much in proportion to the re- 
tention of their old social systems ; but in England (as in France 
and some parts of Germany) it has declined, and is now little 
used except in very much modified forms which will come before 
us presently. Perhaps the most characteristic as well as familiar 
of the domestic works of the style, on the largest scale, and 
in the form it finally assumed, are constituted by the Terraces 


and Villaa of the Regent's Park iu London, by Nesh, nnqties- 
tionably elegant and gnind of their sort, but unhuppily identified 
with cement faping and sham design in a way whieh no doubt ■ 
materially helped to overthrow PalladianiBm in England. 

Further than this historical view of the style it is not neceesary 
for us to go ; as in the case of the Elizabethan, the principles 
involved will come up again in future chapters. 

CHAPTEU IV. — Ei.iZABKTHAN Stvlk Hkvivkp. 

CircunistHiicea of Ha revival. — RrroLienitHdetuiletit first. — But a iiattoDslitj in the 
type. — Inlenlionul irregulBrlly inlroduced, uiiil irregular grouping, &c. — 
SituBtion : rolation of picturesque architeutiirc to picturesque site. — Settle. — 
Malerialfl. — Cost — Importance. — Ornamental chamcter.— Internal style; 
generally disspproTcd; considered rs for tlinrnug;li fares and Ptatp Rnnms. — 
Interior influencp on pinn. 

The circumstance wliich brimght about, in England, a revival 
of this style for Country- Hourps havn bpon s]ioken of in our 


historical essay ou Plan. The primary agency at work was a 
peculiar spirit of romanticism, which introduced, in fact, the 
archaeological ideas of the present day, — not by introducing anti- 
quarianism itself (which had of course existed since the Eevival of 
Letters), but by substituting that which pertained to our own 
soil for that which looked back to ancient Greece and Borne. 
In respect of house-building, it brought forward with all its 
ardour what was called the Baronial style. The name was ap- 
plied chiefly to the old Manor-houses of the Tudor age, and the 
Castles of the immediately preceding time. Before any begin- 
ning was made to analyse the principles of plan and construction 
which are the bases of architectural design, the mere surface- 
character of the examples was laid hold upon without study, and 
imitated with a want of understanding almost incomprehensible 
in these more laboriously archaeological days. The result was 
that the spirit of Style was completely missed. 

The "Baronial Mansions" of the early nineteenth century 
were regarded in their day with a complacency that had no mis- 
givings, as reproductions of " the glorious old English times :" 
they are now looked upon only as caricatures. Palladian plans, — 
of the commonest haphazard type, not internally merely, bufr 
externally, — with all the flat, spiritless symmetries in form and 
disposition of the every-day custom of the day, — wing nodding 
to wing, each chimney having its brother, and half the surface 
helplessly reflecting the other (see Plate XV.), — were tricked out 
in a few misunderstood details of Medisevalism, and all was done. 
It was enough that there were gables, turrets, castellated towers, 
— cannon perhaps frowning in their battlements, — pinnacles and 
crockets, mullions and cusps, tracery and groining, grotesques 
and heraldry ; and if the cannon were of wood, the stonework 
of cement, the groining of lath and plaster, the grotesques 
tame, and the heraldry imaginary, no matter. But when all 
this gradually fell into disuse and ridicule, there was still some- 
thing in the real Elizabethan model which struck root and grew, 
and has been growing ever since. There was, in fact, a strong 
nationality in it. Here was a style which not only was without 
dispute the unimported product of the soil, but wliich had been 
in its full strength when it succumbed to revolution ; its plan 
had now resumed authority by its own merits, and commenced a 
new career ; there was nothing unlikely therefore in the idea 
that its artistic forms also would be capable of being reinvigo- 


rated Riiil readapted (on tliis plan of it« own) to L'irvninstuncea I 
whicrli, if somewliftt changed, were cortainly not altogether new. I 
There lias been displayed great variety of detail in the Eliza- M 
butliaii stylo its thus restuicd to modem use; and our sketch caa I 
do no more than present one raauner out of a great many. Our I 
special purpose, however, is to exhibit eertiun leading principleal 
whicli dietinguish the new Elizubetlian from the old. Fc^ifl 
instance, in the ancient buildings, although, tlieoreticaUyspeokyB 
iug, variety was a governing chamcteristic, yet practically ther^J 
WHS almost always a disposition to obtain balance (whicli is thaV 
simplest form of agrceableness) by tho simplest means — namely, I 
symmetrical disjiosition. In other words, the authentic archi- I 
lecture of the period exhibits nothing liko intentional irregif I 
Ittrity; on the contrary, the intention always goes in favonr otM 
regularity, so far as it conveniently can, and sometimes farther. ■ 
Itut in modem designs, esitecially at the passing moment, it ibJ 
generally deemed desirable to produco a certain iimount — fr^ J 
qiiently a very considerable amount — of positive intentional I 
irregularity ; as v>hen, in our sketch, the two equal gables (whicbJ 
are left in equality, as far as possible, in our illnsfratioii oCil 
the ancient manner) arc now made dissimilar. Again, in the " 
Entrance-tower there is presented an instance of another item 
of corresponding system, whereby tlie building is sought to be 
grouped, by the formation of one prominent feature, ut a promi- 
nent [wint of the composition, and that [wint not a central point. 
Once more, in tho chimney projections there is presented a 
feature which is eixjcially a favourite with modern architects — 
much more so than with the unaflected builders of the sixteenth 
century, — in its simplicity by no means a refined feature, but 
decidedly picturesque. Critics will jierceive that all this while 
wo have refroined from introducing those eccentricities which 
are more characteristic of many of our picturesque designers 
than could be wished. Amongst other things, the frequently 
intentional disturbance of horizontal range is not exemplified. 

To take up now the special inquiries laid down in our intro- 
ductoiy chapter, and to commence with Situatiim, it seems 
obvious that a style of tliis type, if carried intentionally into the 
picturesque character, must best accord with picturesque site. 
Therefore, when a Parsonage or Villa, us is frequently the case, 
has to be built in a Hat field, with no means nt command for 
artificial landsca))e, tlie design of it in anything like extreme " 


picturesqueness makes it but a merry-andrew amongst the 
meadows. If Elizabethan style be dictated, let it be at least as 
quiet as the architect's fancy can permit. For it must not be 
disguised that intentional irregularity is in the nature of the 
thing eccentricity; and accordingly, when one starts on this 
track, it must he warily, — for the slightest change of fashion 
converts the eccentric into the absurd. In fact, variety which 
is permanently charming is that kind of it which is unostenta- 
tious and subdued ; and we may say of the Elizabethan, as a 
style to be cordially favoured in this land, that it is well worthy 
of being refined and rendered graceful, its proportions carefully 
adjusted, and its balance weighed, piquancies rather discouraged, 
and the elegancies of repose elaborated. Even where the site is 
absolutely wild, it is questionable whether good taste can let 
irregularity run wild over the building: to be in keeping, the 
owner himself also ought to be as wild hs the rest. Still, as an 
ordinary ride, in English scenery of that quietly picturesque 
character which is perhaps most common, an Elizabethan house 
of a quietly picturesque character will always prove pleasing. 
Landscape-gardening, to accord, ought to be of the same sub- 
dued picturesque, or so called Natural or English style. 

As to Scale of building, this style is probably suitable for every 
possible degree. The treatment of it must obviously be adjusted 
to the case ; and the larger and more important the house, the 
less irregular and j)i(iuant it ought to be — just as the mastiflF is 
less sportive than the spaniel. 

In respect of Materiahy it is to the advantage of this style 
that all kinds of rough stone-work and brick-work are eligible ; 
but it ought to be particularly remembered that the use of crude 
materials does not necessitate crude design, or what is flatter- 
ingly called dashing effect. 

Considerations of Cost may be readily met in Elizal^ethan 
building. Although no style carries ornament better, none can 
more easily dispense with it — provided only that refined judg- 
ment guides the pencil. Cheap Elizabethan, however, as such, 
is only fit for a Workhouse. 

Next, as regards Importance^ it must be affirmed that if the 
manner of design be piquant, it necessarily loses importance by 
the fact Dignity involves repose ; let repose be the chamcter- 
istic of an Elizabethan composition, and it will gahi in import- 
ance accordinglv. A large Mansion, frittered away into an 

2 A 


infinitude of strained irregularities, appeam to be not worth half 
its cost. At the same time miicli depends upon the mnnage- 
mont of detail; if the features severally bo designed with 
im|)orianoe. tbe same character will attach to the ag^T^gafe they 

The Ornamental charactfr of the Elizabethan ia crude, if 
authentic, hecauee all things mediEeval were crude ; but it hae 
capabilities of refinement which have certainly not been yet 
exhausted ; and its secondary features, each aa terminals, chim- 
ney-sliafta, gablets, Ac, have frequently been rendered extremely 

As to the use of lutemal Style, we have already expressed a 
disapproval of all special efforts of the kind. Endless discussion 
might be ba.sed upon tbe doctrine that style is to lie used exter- 
milly, but not internally t such, however, is not the teaching of 
this argument. The way iu which style is used in its authen- 
ticity, for external decoration, must be accepted as a fact of the 
day ; but we must equally accept the fact that it is matter of 
definite disapprobation with every sensible English gentleman 
that any authenticity, opposed to that of the passing period. 
slifiiild be introduced into the I'welling-rooms of his family. 
Let us confine the inquiry, however, to the application of exterior 
style to Thoroughfares and State-rooms, — an Entrance-Hall, for 
example, Gallery, Staircase, State Dining-room, Ball-room, or 
the like, — and the que-stion becomes at any rate more reason- 
able how far any particular style can be judiciously introduced- 
As regards Elizabethan, then, in this light, we have to acknow- 
ledge that, with very careful treatment, and an avoidance of 
authenticity of the more Uledieeval type, it may be made suffi- 
ciently charming. But the mode of treatment must be such as 
to require no modification of structural character ; for in our 
present age the fundamental bases of structure, finishing, furni- 
ture, and occupation, are at variance with those of the sixteenth 
century, simply because the habits, resources, and appliances of 
England have changed entirely. 

Lastly, we come to the Internal Iiifiuenee of this style on tlie 
plan. This may be disposed of in very few words. The style 
admits of any amount of utilitarian irregularity ; and this is all 
in favour of convenient plan. If windows, for instance, divided 
by stone raullions and filled in with casements, are inconvenient, 
and if roofs of high pitch favour the formation of objectionable 


garret-rooms, these are what the architect'B ingenuity mast over- 
come ; and on the whole there is perhaps no other style which 
has fewer difficulties in relation to internal arrangement 

CHAPTER V. — Rdral-Italian Stvle. 

Its iDtroduction as tlic li^timate aucceswr of PaJlndiaiuHin. — Ch&racCemtics com- 
pared witli Media val atjle, — Brference to illustration. — Situation. — Scale. — 
MateriolB. — C wt. — Importance. — Oroamental character. — Internal Style : the 
usual manner pTvferable, being part of our oonstructiTB Bygtetn. — This manner 
Uie BO-called Ibiltun ; rcallj the vernacular Engliab. — Interior influence. 

The decline of Palladianism did not, however, leave the design 
of English' Coontry-Houses wholly in the hands of the Eliza- 
bethan scliool. Tlie mere utilitarian character of Elizabethan 
plan was accepted, in most instances, without anything approach- 
ing to antiquarian authenticity in the matter of its decorative 
style. On the contrary, it was the charming character of the 
irregular Villa of Italy which so far most usually pleased the 

2 A 8 


tu^e; nnd tin's was so ensily adapted to Engligli uses, that 
tile style haa over since been common everywhere. Tliia Rorai, 
Italian, in fact, was the direct descendant of the Palladian ; it 
was the Palladian revised, rutionolized, simplified, reduced to 
common-sense every-day wants, and so re-accepted. Its prefer- 
abk-ncss over the Elizabethan lay cliiefly in its complete and 
legitimate employment of the more refined Classical detail. It 
was the importation of Pallndian mouldings aiid other miuutiai 
ee an essential element of the Elizabethan in its own period, 
which conferred upon what was otherwise of crude Jjediceval 
motive a cei-tain grace that was most welcome to the eye. But 
there was in this Italian manner no such mixture ; although all 
the picturesqnenessof the Elizabethan was at command, Med ia3val- 
ism was wholly absent ; irregularity and free treatment could be 
had without restraint, and at the same time without departure 
from that accustomed system of detail with which, as detail, no 
dlBsutisfaetiou had ever been felt This detail — of mouldings, for 
example — had become fixedly vernacular in every item of the 
common work of house-finishing ; indeed it will bo shown in the 
present chapter that it continues so to this day, — that it is, in fact, 
an integral part of our conafniptive Hvstem. The Riinil-Ilalian, 
therefore, was this, — picturesque composition with Palladian 
detail. As a style, its Classicism was as authentic as the Palla- 
dian system itself; it had not been deemed of sufficient dignity 
to be made the subject of elaborate books ; but, as its more dig- 
nified relative had now become worn out, it succeeded legiti- 
mately as tbc next of kin. 

Examples of the style, of all degrees of importance and merit, 
are familiar everywhere. One of the most widely known of late 
years is the Itoyal Marine Villa of Osborne, in the Isle of 
Wight The plan of the house, which is given in Plate XVII., 
displays the characteristic features so far very well, — the regu- 
larity of internal disiwsition and at the same time the irregularity 
of exteraal etiaemble. (See also the vignette on the Title-page.) 
This in'eguiarity, however, has no sympathy with ecce^ntric 
caprice ; and here, in fact, is indicated a certain limit which 
in this style is imposed upon the Picturesque. In Medijeval 
design, and in Elizabethan of the more Mediaeval type, ver- 
ticalism encourages caprice ; in all Classical styles horizon- 
talism discourages it The pictui-esque of this style con- 
sequently is of a refined and subdued character essentially, and 


therefore all the more pleasing to the usual sentiments of 

The illustrative sketch we have given at the head of the 
present chapter is as nearly as possible the equivalent of the 
Elizabethan design of the chapter before. The Portico at 
the Entrance is, however, a characteristic addition, and there is 
an absence of those intentional irregularities which in the other 
style are more common. At the same time, it is only fair 
to both styles to note that an equally good open Porch, for 
instance, could be added to the Elizabethan design ; — that an 
objectionable affectation of irregularity is not altogether wanting 
in some of our Italian Villas ; — and tliat even in respect of bal- 
conies and window-dressings the Elizabethan, in one or other of 
its forms, need not suffer from poverty of resources. 

That kind of Site for which the best Rural-Italian style is 
especially suitable is the modestly picturesque. For a more 
disquieted landscape the mode of treatment must be correspond- 
ingly disquieted ; but the style may suffer if this goes beyond a 
certain limit ; and for a perfectly placid, flat situation all that is 
necessary is to moderate irregularity, or even dispense with it 

To the Scale of building, whatever it may be, the style is 
readily adaptable : a little Cottage may be as pretty as one could 
wish, and a Palace may be as noble. 

Materials, again, in all their variety, are suitable. Rough 
material makes rough work ; fine work must have fine material ; 
but, subject to this consideration, the style is at home any where 
in the three kingdoms. 

Cost is no hindrance to the use of this style. It is not a large 
proportion of the total outlay, let us repeat, which is affected by 
external design of any reasonable character; but, when it is 
thought proper to economise in this, there is no difficulty here. 

In Importance, again, all degrees whatever are equally obtain- 
able. In humbler efforts, the style lapses easily into the impre- 
tending Cottage style, which will be spoken of in its turn ; at 
the other extreme it passes into the Palatial-Italian without 
any difficulty, and by yielding more and more of its piquancy 
acquires dignity in exchange. 

The Ornamental character of the Rural-Italian has already 
been incidentally described. Its details are those of Claasicism, 
but divested altogether of the inherent pomjiousness and ulti- 


mate feebleness of Falladian administratinii. Brought down to 
thp uses of everj'day England and freed of all pretentiousness, it 
ia hard to conceive any mode of decomtion which is more cal- 
culated to satisfy the common sense of practical men. 

As to the M«e of Sti/k intemallif, we have already said that, 
wlien any such effort of style involves a departure from the 
common comfort and convenience of the house, a plain English 
gentleman will object to it, and very properly. It may be argued 
that the proposed novelties of form and arrangemcut, although 
different from the old system, will be equally good ; but he is 
incredulous, because he knows that such novelties prove gene- 
rally a mistake iu the end. If Le should desire to inspect a speci- 
men of the novelty beforcliand, would it not be difficult to point 
even now to any acttiaUy esecuted example of such a thing, worthy 
of the name, (in joiners' work, for example), which he would l>e 
likely to prefer to the simple model of immemorial custom? 
For this model is, in fact, as already hinted, an integral part of 
our customary construction ; its forms liave become t:stablished 
side by side wilh the very ptocesseB of our workmen. Now, 
the reason why no anxiety is ever felt in respect of interior style 
wlieii using this so-called Italian manner of design, is simply 
because its details are identical with the details of common 
English use, — those details which have grown gradually into a 
constructive sj-etem with us through the entire modem history 
of material progress. For example, take the doors of our rooms ; 
they are square headed, framed, panelled, and moulded, with 
moulded architraves around,— to he gi-ained oak and vamislied. 
Thus they have been from time out of mind ; and thus they are 
constructively ; and thus therefore they must continue to be as 
part and parcel of common English joiner's work. But let ua 
attempt to introduce style — say, some form of fashionable 
Medievalism — and what is the result ? There are scores of 
instances to be referred to. The pleasing refinement of our 
little mouldings round the panels is superseded by clumsy 
stopped-chamfers ; perhaps the very panelling is displaced by tlie 
" match ed-and-beaded-boanliug " which has so long been iden- 
tified with the stalls of Stables ; the neat, simple, serviceable 
architraves become heavy, odd splays ; it is not unlikely that the 
very form of the doorway must be amended — an arch perhaps 
used, in defiance of workmanship ; it is a mercy if the hinges 
and lock escape from an appeal to the dicta of authenticity; 


and lastly, the graining (one of the most charming and useful 
species of common-sense art ever contrived in the world) is 
adjudged to be deceptive in fact and non-authentic in history, — 
so that we must be content with the varnish alone, — with a stain 
perhaps underne^h, to make the common deal resemble the oak 
we cannot afford. It is plain that not one English gentleman 
out of a hundred will submit to this ; and we are at least happily 
free from all difficulty of the kind in respect of the style of 
design called the Italian ; for the details of our favourite doors 
and windows and all the rest are exactly the details of that 
style. Our 8(hcalled Italian is in reality the vernacular EnglUh 
style of modem hovse^uilding. 

The Interior influence of this style comes lastly to be spoken 
of. Here we may say that the armngements of internal con- 
venience are left entirely free. If the character of the plan 
should be irregular in whatever degree, corresponding irregu- 
larity externally is the rule ; if the plan be symmetrical, every 
facility is afforded for creating symmetry outside. 


CHAPTER Vr. — Palatial-Italian Style, 

It» Tclalinil to tlio Inst. ^ Exam |>!i'i< in London and tbe provincini towns. — Cliarnc- 
Itristin!. — Site, Smlc, Malpritilii, C-ost, Iniportjinoe, Omivment. Inttmal Style.^ 
Interior influcnoc. — Ailaptabtlity to Icsa imjiuitant casts. 

This may be called the more urbim form of tlie style last treated 
of; 01' the other may be called the rural form of this; both are 
It^ilian iu their origin (aa indeed are all post-Medireval style's 
whatever) ; but the rural form has prevailed longer in Eiiglaud 
tlian the urban ; iu other words, Palladianism died faster in the 
country than iu the towu. 

IjRiDGEWATEii House, of which the plan is given in Plate 
XIX., is probably the best example which has been pnxluced iu 
England ; and our sketch at the head of the present chapter is 
imitated therefrom so far as the conditions of (romparison irermit. 
The great Club-houses of Pail-Mall, which are all iu the same 
description of style, although in various phases, and numerous 
oxcelleut esamples amongst the public buildings in Loudon 


otherwise, and throughout the provincial towns, have made the 
style familiar. The great orders of Palladianism, with their 
columns perhaps thirty feet high, and embracing two stories of 
windows as a rule, are entirely abandoned ; if a columnar order 
be used, it is ap{)lied almost without exception to a single story 
of its own height * (obviously a far more legitimate manner) ; 
and except in highly ornate work the use of columnar decoration 
is generally discouraged, or confined to such a feature as a 
Porch, or a Loggia, or the dressings of openings. Accordingly, 
with smaller columns come smaller entablatures ; except that in 
some cases a crowning entablature is made proportional to 
the height of the whole Fa9ade, either without any columnar 
arrangement under it (as in the Reform Club), or with one (as 
in the Aimy and Navy Club), at the risk of establishing in the 
latter case an incongruity between the scale of the columns and 
that of the entablature. 

The description of Site to winch this style is applicable for 
domestic purposes is first a situation in a town, and secondly a 
grand situation in the country. Stateliness — the palatial cha- 
racter specially — is essential; no irregularity can be allowed. 
The Scale of building must be large. The Materials must be of 
the best. Cost will follow ; especially if the element of Import- 
ance be a ruling consideration. The character of Ornament is 
the same which we discussed in the last chapter, now to be 
carried into more elaborate and refined effects, — for this is the 
most princely manner of all. Style internally then comes into 
play, in whatever degree may be desired, without any incon- 
venience, and it may be made to reach the very acme of 

Lastly, the Influence upon interior plan is very decided, if the 
style is to be carried out appropriately. For in such case a 
gentleman is building right nobly ; and he will often find, unless 
his architect be skilful, careful, and patient to a marvel, that 
grandeur will elbow humble utilities out of its way. However, 
in a Country-House there is no reason why this more symmetrical 
and stately manner should not be confined to the more stately 
facades of the Building, and so permit the others to be treated 
more irregularly, after the rural form of the style. 

* The columnar order of a single story 
was well known in Palladian design ; 
indeed the two styles have other mutual 

ground besides; but it is very conve- 
nient to identify the one with the largo 
columns and the other with the small. 



For less important cases, however, wlien the mere symmetry 
and repose of tbis style may be desired instead of the compara- 
tive freedom of the properly rural style, this is easily to be had 
without iDvolving any of the more costly and imposing charac- 
teristics. Inferior materials also are available, if skilfully 
adapted ; and the absence of the more ornate features need not 
be any disadvantage to the elegant Classicism of the efifect. 


('HAl'TEli VII. — Fiikscii-It.\.i.ian Stvik. 

a>iii)Hiativt) iiieriM ot KiiglUli uiiil Krpiu'h Hrrliitccl^. — UliHrBctcrislU'B uf lliis 
fctvlf. — Tlie gultcr-niMiibiT; gnat liulicftcy of projectimi, &i:. — Ncit In \x 
udiipttfd in Kn^rlniid. 

As a comiiaiiion sketcL to the exaiiijilo of I'ulatial-Itulian, we 
j;ive an illustration of tlie Ibmi wliioh the same usseiitial ideas 
have recently tiikeu in the gnu-elul liamls ot'llu' French. 

Tliere nn^ rurtain respects in which the English iirchitects of 


the present day are fairly entitled to claim superiority, but there 
are others in which the French can never be denied the palm. 
For muscular power the one side of the Channel, for more 
feminine grace the other ; for the more dashing Picturesque the 
one, for the more elaborated Classical the other ; the one seldom 
brilliant, too often clumsy and crude ; the other too often finical, 
but never unpolished. 

There are two especial characteristics noticeable in the new 
French manner ; one consists in a peculiar treatment of the main 
cornice, by the addition of a highly ornamental member repre- 
senting the eaves-gutter ; the other lies in the extreme delicacy 
with which projections are handled, — tending towards feebleness 
as compared with the bold and heavy work of the English 
school, and only redeemed by the perfect precision of both 
design and workmanship. So delicate indeed is the breaking 
up of the wall-surface, that it is diflBeult to represent the refined 
spirit of this except in the correspondingly delicate manner of 
French drawing. However, the illustration may at least be 
accepted as indicating (as usual, in one of many prevalent forms) 
the way in which the French architects at present prefer to 
treat, for example, a Parisian Villa. The style is essentially 
Classical, necessarily symmetrical in its best subjects, elaborately 
polished rather than thoughtful, keenly refined almost to 
piquancy, but never picturesque — indeed essentially very much 
the reverse of such a thing. 

In feeble hands, and especially in hands both feeble and 
foreign to the mode, this style of design becomes insipid to the 
last degree. Moreover it requires the clear atmosphere of 
France, and in many respects the peculiar materials and work- 
manship of France, to do it justice ; and it is not likely to be 
adopted, or even imitated, in this country, unless (as it has 
already been, and by no means successfully) in very exceptional 
cases. The present allusion to the style, therefore, need not 
carry us into any further particulars. 

UHAFPER VIII —English Revaisxance Sitle 

jotaOi-On n Cm I U. by uttniii I fl n -e 

Irlnch influence, however, has not been altogether nnfelt of 
iute. Renaissance may be uuderatood to mfaii the modei-u 
adaptation of Classicism, ([iriiiiarily Italian), riH-eived, wherever 
it may ha|>j»en to be, throiigli a Freitcli cliaimt;!. Some writers 
call the entire European school of modern Italian iirchitecture 
by the name; but this is likely to mislead. 'J'he hitluence of 
French taete in ihe original spread of the Classical architecture 
throughout Europe was certainly not great ; in England it wjia 
small. But recently, however, a certain continental, if not 
especially Frencli spirit, has been imported inty English- 
Italian, which has caused the t.^i'iu litiuiismncc to bo used a 


good deal. If therefore we may venture to call this new mode 
by the French name, and yet to identify it with English 
practice, the complex phrase we have adopted may be more 
expressive of the facts of the case than any other. 

There is in this manner no doubt a certain amount of free- 
dom which has been superadded generally to the more ordinary 
Italian spirit of English architects ; but the chief characteristic 
consists in the adoption of the high-pitched roof, which certainly 
takes a form that is French. It is not usual for a single feature 
to produce a modification of style in the way thus indicated ; 
but in this instance it is certainly the case to a very consider- 
able extent. The Palladian roof was essentially "unpresent- 
able," and was hid away as best might be. The Gothic roof 
was essentially a part of the comiK)sition, whether graceful 
in itself or not. But the reintroduction of the Gothic roof 
in Gothic works necessarily disturbed our satisfaction with the 
Palladian roof for Italian works. The flat-pitched roof of 
the Rural-Italian had been common everywhere ; but this was 
not enough. The French were using a model as old as their 
old Chateaux, — a steep-pitched roof, with a flat top, and having 
an ornamental character confeiTcd upon this flat, as also upon 
the sloping angles or hips, and especially upon the dormer- 
windows which became necessary. The picturesque eflFect of all 
this, still so admirably in accordance with Classic style, has 
pleased us very much ; so that certainly there is every apj>ear- 
ance of the innovation becoming general. Together with the 
roof, however, we have accepted a general tendency to verti- 
cality, which, although not always French in itself, is readily 
deducible from the spirit which gives character to this roof. 
Arched openings, broken entablatures, subdivided facades, the 
formation of " pavilions " * the use of a tower with probably 
a square or octagonal dome, and particularly the introchiction 
of dormers, become characteristic features ; aiul no doubt the 
Italian of everyday practice is considerably modified as the 
result. All the while, the style need not certainly be French, — 
it need have nothing in common with the French manner 
except certain features of form, not of expression. The treat- 
ment throughout is far preferably English, — massive and bold, 

* PariUons aro those squaro blocks, ' rally risiupj ono story above llie ordinary 
almost like dwarfed towtri}, with cither j height of the ImiUling, which aro so 
pyramidal or domed roofs, and gone- { common in oM French works. 


pictUTCBque even when ri-quired, eimple, substantial, and un- 
altected ; a style- in whicJi it may be said the Eugtish Gharact{>r 
of design is at the preaeiit moment ]iarticHh\rly calculated 
to produce admirable works, provided only there be BUfGcient 
thought, construcfiTe as well as eesthetic, expeuded upon the 

'I'd take up our act-epted series of questions with that of 
Situation, it is easy to perceive that this style is capable of 
almost any severity of Classical repose, and none the less of any 
moderate degree of Picturesque effect, and that therefore it 
is thus far suitable for any description of landscape winch may 
be sufficiently artifii-ial to correspond with what is certainly 
ft more thamisually ornamenia! character. The Scale of Build- 
ing, secondly, ought not to he inconsiderable ; but it may be of 
any extent of magiiitude, fur the manner has in it all the 
resources of grandeur. With regard again to Material*, it 
is not easy to adapt any style of the kind to a crude or rough 
surface, or a mean substance ; but any sort of good stonework 
with fair dressings is sufficient for ordinary cases. The CW, ia 
the next place, would no doubt be greater than that of the 
Itural-Ilalian, in proportion to the degree to wliicli ornament is 
added ; although it must be repeated that the difference goes no 
further than the exterior shell — which does not by any means 
represent so large a portion of the whole outlay as many are apt 
to suppose. The next point of Importance is perfectly met by 
the style in hand, whatever may be the dictates of the occasion. 
The Ornamental character of the style is essentially that of our 
accustomed use, cajtable of being refined to the utmost. Oi Style 
in tJte Interior little need be said ; the details are wliolly those 
of the Italian — the vernacular English of the last two hundred 
and fifty years ; involving therefore no innovation — no reference 
to authenticity. Lastly we have to speak of tlie Interior In- 
fiuence of the style ; and here the question is whether tlie 
treatment is to be severe and symmetrical or free and irregular. 
In the former case symmptries without must produce restraints 
within ; in the latter case freedom without gives freedom within ; 
or a mixed effect without will admit of a mixed cliaracter 


CHAPTER IX. — MEDfj:vAL on Gothic Style. 

The TigoToiu chsracter of modeni Englieb MediienJiBm not to be diBpnted. — 
Tlie great merit of receDteccleaiastical arcbilects. — The naWanal adaptability 
claimei] for Ootbic design. -and the recent popularitj of Dgliness. — Hare en- 
lightentrd yicwg, liowever, of tlie best pmctitionciB of the bcIiooI. — The real 
capabilities of tlie Btf 1e. — Be^tatcment of tlio qurstioii of Btf le in tlio Eclectio 
form. — The chnracterislicaof the Btyloas at present practised, and tiie bearing of 
the illustration therron. — Bituation; "venerable site;" a wild ulo; a pork; a 
street. — Seal of building. — MBteriale. — Coat. — Importance. — Omwnental 
character; quaintnesB. — Interior BtjJe; nnauilableness of Medieval flniahJDga 
structurally. ^ But if confioed to non -structural del4u], not objectionable.— 
Internal influence on plan. 

That there is o. spirited and substantial vigour in the prevailing 
revival of Mediaeval arcliitecture is not to be questioned — far 
less explained away. People may not sympatliise with the 
demands of pre-Eaffaellite enthusiasm, or the afTectations of 
sentimental romance ; they may emile vrith disdain, or laugh 
with derision, when they see oontmon-sense unreservedly and 


even angrily cast ovorboiirJ ; tlioy may very fairly l>e permJtt* 
to express a doubt wlii-tlier so Bingiilar nn Dtithtisiasm as this 
" Gothic mania " ever sf-ized upon Art before, or ever will seize 
npon it again: tliey may reasonably speculate npon tlie ques- 
tions bow long if is to endnre, and what nmoiint of ridicule ia to 
be visited H|ion it by posterity; but all this does not. deprive 
musimlarity of its musenlnrity. 

llie revival of Gothic architecture, ns wo have repeatedly bnd 
occasion to say, began with tho " Baronial Mansion " at the close 
of tho eighteenth century ; bnt it was in ecclcBiaslical design 
that it ultimately established its authority, and displayed all its 
moat interesting authenticity and characteristic power. For the 
last thirty years the dominion of Chnrch-biiiiding in England 
haa been osclusively in the hands of Gothic architects ; and it 
would be imjMsaihlo to deny them the merit of having used their 
opportunity faithfully and earnestly. 

Three facte however have to be alluded to. First, the practice 
of Gothic architecture in ecclesiastical building is passing (like 
all other things) through a succession of mere fashions ; eeeondly, 
there is arising a claim to universal domini(m for Mediievalism, 
and deslnirtion for nil else, wbicii ia arrogant and transcendenlal ; 
thirdly, there has been growing up an incredible worship of the 

Confining our attention, as we do, to Domestic architecture, 
we need not enlai^e upon the first of these three pro|K>sitions 
at all ; but with regard to the universal dominion of Mediteval 
design, and the question of Ugliness, we must explain a little 

The imiversal adaptability of Gothic principles, however obso- 
lete historically, — indeed their direct applicability to all modern 
wants in England, however changed onr manners and habits, — 
we have been lately much accustomed to bear expatiated upon, 
Chielly on account of the preposterous practice of counterfeit 
with which the Classicism of the last generation of architects is 
80 much identified (as when their vast sham coloimades, for 
instance, in "compo," cover the ignoble and ill-built brick walls 
of London streets), and also to some extent on account of that 
jirevailing feebleness wliich came to be the ultimate destiny of 
their borrowed refinement, certain it is that reaction has taken 
the form of those qualities which are the readiest reverse of such 
deceptiveness and inibevility. Hence the intmduction of a love 


for undisguised honesty in the first place, however crude, — and, 
in the second, for mascuhne simplicity, however unrefined ; for 
unaflFected construction, in other words, and unaffected form, 
both in their extremes; for Gothic models, therefore, because, 
however rough-and-ready, they are tnithful and sincere, — and 
for the Ugly, because, however odd, it has at least not the weak- 
ness of being feminine. 

But how far an English gentleman will recognise such abstract 
principles when he is invited to admit any obsolete mannerism 
or intentional ugliness into the building of his house, is quite 
another question. Certainly there have been some examples 
of Country Mansions lately published in the professional journals, 
of which the style is obsolete and ugly to an incredible degree ; 
and nothing would have been easier than literally to copy their 
details in our illustration of the Mediaeval style, if our desire 
had been to show it at its worst. But the interest of our readers 
is to have it shown at its best ; for there is much in its resources 
which has no sympathy with ugliness, especially as an inten- 
tional element of merit, and no sympathy either with anything 
that is obsolete if it can possibly be avoided. The faith of the 
best masters of the style is in brief this : — that the pointed arch 
and its concomitant features are in form truthful, graceful, 
picturesque, and above all vigorous; that if everything that 
is obsolete and inapplicable be frankly avoided, there is still 
enough left for present purposes ; that mere historical authen- 
ticity is of little importance ; that j)erfect freedom of modification, 
in good hands, ought to be the rule ; and that elegance, propor- 
tion, grace, and unaffected pleasantness of every kind, ought to be 
the constant aim ; this only being imposed by way of principle, 
that Mediaeval fonns shall be allowed to govern, — being truthful, 
as already affirmed, graceful, picturesque, and vigorous, — essen- 
tially national also, some will add, (although this is not clear), — 
and essentially Christian, others will suggest, (which is absurd). 

The point at which we have now anived in dealing with the 
question of Style generally may be set forth here, because this 
is the last of the leading styles, — the two further illustrations 
being supplementary to the series. The doctrine, then, of the 
Eclectic school of architects, that there are a number of dog- 
matic styles of design, all in a certain sense equally eligible and 
authentic, from which a selection is to be made, by architect or 
client^ either on grounds of professional opinion (doctors agree- 

2 B 

870 xoTES ON AcniTF-rTrnAL stym-:, p*t>t iv. 

ing to tliffer, because cimciTiiing taste it ib n vain thing to 
dispute), or on grounds of uon-profeBsional instinctive jtrefeteiice 
or eaprice (iw when n la<iy cliofisos ti bonnet, or a cliilti a toy), — 
this doctrine we nmy dot-litie to uecept rosthetirallv, but hiittori' 
cully we must submit to it. In lliis age, when tlie world of art 
is living upon its gatheriTigs from other ages, and from all ages 
alike, the proposition that certain styles are defined auil accepted 
AS such is merely a fact ; that from amongst these styles archi- 
tects are accustomed to make a selection for the occasion, — 
some preferring one elyle always and some another, some adopt- 
ing several aiid some using all indiscriminately, some having a 
preference and some having none, — is a fact ; that the client is 
in like manner invited to choose for himself, if only on the com- 
mercial i)rinciple of paymaster pattemmaster, is a fact ; and 
from these facts we cannot escape. Moreover, it seems by no 
means probable tliat any change, except change of passinfj 
fashion, will come over this state of things for a long time. 
We may now explain a few details upon the basis of our illus- 
' trative sketch. The characteristics of tlie Gothic manner, as 
['Applied to domestic building in England, are more abstract and 
gramtii.tticjil Ihaii imitiitivc'. They nrn not derivpii from extant 
Media?viil ('satnpics of iho same chiss, for it is not too mu<'li to 
say that there is scarcely atiylhing thus available in England ; 
but they are more indii'etrtly deduced from the study of ecclesi- 
astical,, and collegiate remains generally, — of one 
period no more than another, — of England no more than Italy, 
France, and Germany. These characteristics are (at the present 
moment) such as the following: — intentional irregularity of 
plan; intentional variety in height; general verticalify of 
features; then a compromise of this primary verticality to meet 
a recent innovation of bauds of varied colour ; the use of turrets, 
as part of the verticality ; the essential use of the pointed arch 
for the same reason; then the modification of this principle 
by the introduction of various flat arches and lintels (which are 
more convenient internally); the especial use of roof-cresting, 
and other ornamental ironwork, such as finials and railings ; the 
conspicuous display of all roofs ; the use of mullions in the 
windows sparingly; the repudiation of crockets and pinnacles 
an being tainted with feebleness of purpose ; the very rare use of 
buttresses; the application of continental pierced parajiets; the 
use of rough stone and hrick in the horizontal variety of colour 


already alluded to ; and so on ; with of course throughout the 
whole the acceptance of Gothic detail. The illustrative sketch 
is intended to exemplify these principles in a subdued manner 
(as compared with certain recent works), so as to accord with 
the proper moderation of domestic requirements; but at the 
same time characteristically, so that the true aspirations of 
the style may be understood ; there is nothing represented that 
would be deemed eccentric, and nothing indeed that would 
involve a wilful sacrifice of house-comfoit ; in short, the design 
is meant to form a fair contrast with the preceding one. 

We have to conclude with our ordinary series of questions. 
As to Situation, we may say that such a style of design is 
obviously the utmost legitimate application of the picturesque 
idea in domestic building ; and that accordingly it is desirable 
for the surroundings to correspond. For example, the Site, 
if not naturally picturesque, ought to be capable of being made 
artificially so ; the immediate Adjuncts ought to be made of a 
character equally informal with the Building; and the land- 
scape-gardening ought to be of the English or picturesque style 
as a whole, — anything symmetrical (like an Architectural- 
Grarden) being but questionably, available at the best. The 
notion about a venerable site — old trees perhaps around, an 
ancient Church at hand, traditions of antiquity attaching to the 
spot, and so on — that such features point to this style as the 
most appropriate, is of no value ; in fact, this style not only is 
spurious historically, but in its new form is devoid of even 
national authenticity. Its claims are not properly archaeological, 
as in the case of a Church, but pictorial, — not ancient, but 
modem, — not traditional at all, but fashionable. A wild site 
is much more to the purpose, — a hanging cliff, a deep ravine, 
the side of a rocky stream, a grim sea-shore, the traditions of a 
remote uncivilised locality, or the associations of a bleak moun- 
tainous landscape. A wholesome expanse of level smiling fields, 
or a gently rolling and wood-dotted park, or a long avenue 
of chesnuts or elms, it would be diflicult to bring into accord 
with a style so devoid of repose. The street of a to^vn, unless it 
be little more than the cart-road of a village, most persons will 
consider to be altogether at variance with it. 

The Scale of Building involves only this difliculty, — that in 
our day any very large domestic edifice in such a style would be 
pronounced to be a College or a Convent, if not an Asylum. 
And this, in fact, although not the fault of the style at first 

2 b2 


Right, is really on reDaction its misforttiDe at Icimt; seeing tba/t 
Colleges and Convents are its authentic hiatorical model?, so far 
aa it has any. On tlie other hand, a Gothic Parsonage may b»' 
unmistalceahly pleasing and perreclly eharACtemtic ; although 
even tliis lies open to the question why the Eliziibcthna slionld 
bo superseded. 

MateridU, in the nest place, are easily Bceommodatetl iu thi*- 
style, aa in the Elizabethan, when they are less finiHlied than 
Uftiml. Rough stone, and this of a variety of colours if so, and 
brickwork of whatever sort, are quite in character, 

Cogt, again, is not, as sometimes lias been argued, an impedi- 
ment to the use of Gothic design. The Htyle is perfectly capable 
of being adapted to any priiw whatever, from the most restricted 
to tlio most profuse. 'Die money-value of the effect mast 
of conrse be matter of opinion ; but the nocessity for expensive 
labour !a no greater in this style than in any other. 

With regai-d to Importance, it is very doubtful whether Gothic 
building of any domestic sort is not of necessity placed at a dis- 
advantage. Indeed, that a house of this kind looks smaller than 
it is, will be considered self-evident by most persons, and that it 
looks cheaper cannot be doiibted. Its features are in fact those 
of a meaner age than tlifi present, and are therefore meaner 
features ; they cannot easily be refined to the stiindard of those 
models which pertain to a more advanced state of civilization. 

As to Ornamental Character little need Ijc said. If the archi- 
tect be an advocate of mere juuscular iigliness, his work will 
probably set common cnticism at clefumce; but if he be of the 
opposite and more intelligible school, there is no reason why he 
should not display grace and elegance in every detail. To those 
who are partial to quaintnoss, MediaDvalism will always furnish 
abundant materials fur enjoyment; und this is a merit peculiar 
to it. It is a thing, however, easily overdone ; and those who 
are not partial to it are almost invariably distressed by modem 
quaintness as an aflcctaticin. 

We come now to the inijKirtant quest ion ^especially important 
with regard to Gothic — of tJie use of Interior Style. It has been 
loudly maintained, by purely archajological connoisseurs, that 
the forms and constnictive data of the middle ages are perfectly 
suitable to our nants ; but they cannot get the public to agree 
to this. In a previous chapter we have endeavoured to explain 
that the so-called Italian features of our internal work are in 
reahty items in our coustructive system, which had its rise after 


the close of the Gothic period, and which it is not competent for 
an aesthetic innovator to touch. The old systems of carpentry 
and joinery, for example, are not merely obsolete, but utterly 
superseded — distanced by three hundred years of material 
progiess. The idea of reverting to such a kind of workmanship 
is in itself as wild as would be a proposal to nullify the steam- 
engine ; those who affirm that our doors and windows are in 
fashion absurd, might as well pronounce the electric telegraph 
to be absurd. Consequently, if any practical builder, or archi- 
tect, not an archaeologist, will pursue this principle on constructive 
ground into the details of form and arrangement which con- 
stitute the ordinary style of our interiors, it will be found that 
our wood-work and plaster-work, our doors, windows, fireplaces, 
partitions, and staircases, with our chimney-pieces, plaster cor- 
nices, glazing, painting, graining, and paper-hanging, and even 
our chairs, tables, sideboards, carpets, and other multifarious 
furniture, are a system, which has grown up gradually year by 
year, which belongs rightfully to the time, and cannot be inter- 
fered with except in defiance of natural laws. If this be so, 
then there is little need for the introduction of obsolete Mediaeval 
details in an English Gentleman's House. Nevertheless, if 
those architects who theoretically lean to Mediaevalism as a 
universality, will consent to accept the modern constructive 
system without reservation — to confine their Gotbicism strictly 
to that which is not essential — such as mere superficial outline 
and non-structural decoration, — there may be reason, whenever 
Gothic architecture is imitated without, to have some sort of 
similarity of detail thus far within. But let it be distinctly 
understood that this cannot justify any imitation of the sub- 
stantial peculiarities of a Mediceval House ; bare stone or brick 
walls, exposed joisting, unpainted wood-work, stoveless fireplaces, 
vaulted passages, boarded ceilings, darkness, nakedness, ugliness, 
public opinion in England will pronounce to be simply pre- 
posterous in theory, and unsuitable in practice. 

As regards, lastly, the influence of external Gothic forms upon 
Internal plan, we may happily change our toue to one of perfect 
satisfaction. Nothiug can be more convenient, we have re- 
peatedly said, than the entire freedom of the Mediceval or Gothic 
type of arrangement. We have, however, exhausted the facts 
in various parts of the work, and need not repeat them again. 

(.MAFILU X. — Thf. (ottage Style. 

I-, (>~r. OnjKii.. I.I. I1.1 

Ml Siyl. 


Af,Tn<ii';n thi; i'li»ra''t'.-r of (k-sifoi li'.-re referred to cauuot he 
wild to tiik<: iiriyiiriisti'- jtositiori on a jiar with the styles hitherto 
d<-wTil>i-<i, v'-t it h;iH Ik-«-ij ho t-xtemively in vofrue throughout 
thti cntiri! kin;.^iioni for iiumy vf'ani, as the c'onimon model for 
hfiiidl tJiiniitry-llouwiH, tliat it i.s cutilh-d to |ierhaps infonuai hnt 
.■i!rt.iinly nUrjiiivi- .■nusjik-ratioii. 

It JM [iniliiilily to In; IjcMt df.'wrilied a» an inferior sort of K lira 1- 
Itiiliiui. 'J'Ik' a'-itdciiiii'ul fijiLturcti of Classic decoration are 
filiiiiwt i:iitin-ly oiiiilti.'d ; hh u leading eharacteristic, the roofs 
lire rnu<lf! 1(i jiroji-i-l. — not Hli'.'hlly hy means of a eornice, but 
I'ciriKidrrithly hy nifaiiK of 11" ov(.'iliun<;ing soffit. The openings 
ui'i- jfencrally jiliiin. or surrounded witii simpli' arrhitinveB, The 
inch JH Miiiielinn'M iutrodui-i'd, hiil witli no prcaler iimonnf of 

Chap. X. COTTAGE STYLE. 375 

decoration. If the carved wooden barge-board used in the 
Elizabethan period be added to the gable-roof (not so in our 
illustration), the principle of Mediae val ism generally stops there, 
except that the pitch of the roof in such a case is usually in- 
creased; otherwise the ordinary pitch is very low, after the 
Italian manner ; and sometimes the gabled roof is not used, but 
the ordinary hipped-roof of the Italian Villa. Whenever 
mouldings are used decoratively they are of the usual Italian 
profile, us in cornices for the chimneys or elsewhere when re- 
quired. Beyond this there is really little to describe. 

The style is suitable to any Situation^ because it is perfectly 
unpretentious in the first place, and, in the second, capable of 
being treated with any amount of regularity or irregularity that 
may be thought proper. The Scak of building ought not to be 
large, because the • style is essentially not important. The 
Materials may be economical to any extent, but ought not to 
be otherwise ; and the Cost is correspondingly low. The Oma" 
mental character, under good management, is simple and neat. 
The Internal style is precisely tliat of common use. The Influ- 
ence on plan is simply this, — that any amount of symmetrical 
arrangement or of freedom therefrom is equally suitable. 


(■llAITKi; XI. -1 

in: ^^uTl 

[ "IJaiiu-viai. S 


r..s. _ |*riii,;i 

lylVmh. tliBiacl 

— Suiliiblo oNly U. Scollisb »< 

iiry. — cm 

i>.b) Willi otlirr etyl 

Sodf. Mntiii.ils, C<.,(. Oniaiuci 

, St 

1.-, Iiilluoiipe oi, Pla 

'lnKitK is a ])Oi-iiltnr clmnictcr hfie involved which not only is 
worthy of illiislmtion lor its own sake, but demands notice on 
ucconiit ol' the ciiTUinstnnce, strange as it may seem, that a good 
many fir.4-ratc Jlansions have been Imilt in this manner, not 
only in Scolhind, but in various ]iarts of England ; and not only 
twenty or tliirly ycai-s ago, but at the ]irt'sent time. 

The pccnliar features of tlie style are chiefly these: — small 
tiirrels ou the angles of the building, sometimes earned u|t from 
the ground, and Monictinn.'s built out ou corbelling ; crow-stepped 
gables; Uttllemcntcd parajiels; small windows generally; the 
introduction jiliuo^it iilways of a main tower ; and oyer the whole, 
in one form or another, a severe, heavy, crude, castellated cha- 
racter. In Scotland the style may be accepted on traditional 


grounds, or even admired as being in harmony with much of the 
scenery of the country; but in England it seems difficult to 
conceive any applicability in it, or anything, however accidental, 
to redeem it from the charge of incongruity. 

The character of the style is primarily French of the Tudor 
period, and Scotch only by modification. The effect, when of 
the best^ is quaint, but not graceful ; noble by association with 
ideas of power, but that power of an obsolete order. The flag- 
staff on the loftiest of the ungainly turrets certainly may suggest 
the idea of a truculent old baron's flag flaunting through the 
mist defiance at an angry neighbour, whose cattle he has " lifted," 
and whose gillies he has hanged ; but common sense reflects 
that the actual owner is but a quiet county member, who comes 
down to this old-world abode only for the shooting, and, on chang- 
ing certain of his habiliments for the occasion, complains of taking 
cold in his knees. In a word, it is especially an uncivilized style, 
and ought never to be brought into juxtaposition with anything 
more highly cultivated than the beautiful heather-braes of Loch 
Lomond, or the fir- woods and birch-covered banks of the Dee ; 
in the vicinity of a sweet English village, or in the midst of an 
English piirk, or on the fair and sunny South coast, such a 
thing would be a standing frown which no sunshine could brighten 
into beauty. Even the goodly Castle of Balmoral, with all 
the advantages of modest unpretentiousness, earefuUy-refined 
detail, and most exquisite masonry (of fine-tooled granite, gleam- 
ing like marble in the highland landscape), if set down in the 
place of Osborne, would be an eyesore to every passer-by. 

The sketch which we offer by way of illustration is intended 
to show the characteristics of the style, unexaggerated, of course, 
but unsubdued also. For to subdue is here to weaken. Compare 
the sketch with that of the Medioeval style, and this* principle 
will perhaps api^ear self-evident. To subdue, in the latter case, 
is not to weaken. To compare again the Scotch example with 
the Cottage is to contrast perfect extremes of art. 

Taking up now the series of questions with which the reader 
is familiar, we may say of Situation that all we should have to 
note has been already remarked upon in the ])revious part of 
this chapter; and with regard to Scale of buildinff, that any 
sc^le will be suitable, except that on the one hand very small 
size makes a toy-building, and on the cfther such dimensions as 
involve grandeur must be handled in this style in an especially 


gruD<l atid uassire maimer. Tlivii, «s fur Materiah, i\wy uuglit 
to be genenilly rather imlinisbed than the rcveree, — the poU&bed 
ftu-e of Balmoral being adinissible only as an except iuiial case. 
Of tW( iiolhiug lived be said, except that there is a spKoial ele- 
ment of extra outlay here in the perfectly useless turrets with 
wbitth tht^ building must more or less bristle. The Importatux 
of thu Ntyle depends u{>on the architect; but its realty largo 
works must Ije Oaatles if they are to be impressive. The Omor 
mifntal character of the efyle is simply uncivilized, and must be 
accepted as such, Itcgarding tlie use of Style inUmaUy, mo 
may only n*mark that a very simple and crude Medituvnlitnn 
wotdd have to bo the nde, which would bo unfortunate. Lastly, 
ati to Irifiuence on plan, it may be said that this is nut for gixxl. 
Lofty towers, diminutive " peppei^mstor" turreta, turnpike sUiin*. 
and intentiotutlly crabbed features generally, certainly do not 
favour modern anun^emente ; however flexible in one way, auch 
things arc very uiucii the reverse in another. 

CHAPTER XIL — (!0NCLUDiN(j Kemakks. 

r aljlc liiiiiUsl. — The Medueval or (iuUiii- 
I'liiiiiig i'i^.n^^. — Tlie Botlle ot Ihe Styles. 

A FEW rellecfions will now make if njiiiareut that the actually 
historical and geographical variety of style at onr command in 
Domestic ArehitectuTO is but limited. The class of styles afforded 
by the Middle Ages give us, first, no authentic Gotliic manner ; 
secondly, a serviceable, sensible, nutii)nal manner, obsolete in its 
mere aiithciitieities, bnt readily resumable again, — namely, the 
Elizabethan ; thinlly, the said manner so resumed, and gradually 
modilied and adapted to changed circumstances which are still 
nationally similar, Mhereiu we have almost all that could be 
desired for ]>Ieasaut a.spect, I'reo couveuienee, and unaffected 
general worth; fourthly, a so-called purely Gothic manner 
(being, however, in fact, only n uioderu Faucy-Mediaivalism), 
which manner, if whimsieal, is at least muscularly so, and 
capable of being made gracefully so by those who are not in 
siieli inli-lleclual desi)air as to set up I'gliuess lor an idol; and 
(ifthly, ii nido hypeil>orean iimnncr, whirh ha> its own quaint 


cfharras in the " land of brown heath and shaggy wood," but 
which would little accord with bluer skies and greener fields. 
As a whole, these styles thus at our service are practically of 
a single type — the Elizabethan, We merely have varieties 
of this in the Elizabethan old and original ; the Elizabethan 
modern and modified therefrom ; the newly-concocted fanciful 
(that is, not historical) Mediaeval, based on the same ideas ; and 
the supplementary Northern manner of the same original date. 
So much, then, for one class of styles. We take now the other 
examples, and the period of the Kevival of Letters furnishes us 
with, first, a manner derived directly from the antijque of Italy, 
and adapted to modern house-building but clumsily, — graceful 
often, stately always, but constrained by symmetries and regu- 
larities often too heavy to bear ; secondly, from Italy likewise (as 
the cradle of all modern systems), a rural manner of the same 
type as the last, but free from its restraints, and therefore, as 
based immediately upon modern wants, thus far both theoreti- 
cally and practically perfect, — its details, moreover, becoming 
part and parcel of our common constructive formulee, as these 
took their rise and grew ; thirdly, a merely palatial variety of 
the self-same model, combining usefulness and grandeur with 
great success ; fourthly (and this in a manner only supplemen- 
tarily as it concerns us), another variety worthy of notice, de- 
vised by our gi-aceful neighl)ours, but not quite suitable to our 
climate ; fifthly, a more elal)orate sort of the palatial style, 
more flexible, and, by means of some new features imported 
from abroad, (the roof chiefly,) of a more refined and finished 
ensemble, other qualities of serviceableness remaining the same ; 
and sixthly, a more modest version of the rural manner — ^thatof 
the cottage — its simplicity, its charm, and its utility undimi- 
nished, if not increased. Now, as in the case of the first class, 
here also these several styles are all of (me type — the Italian. 
We merely have varieties of this ; — in the obsolete Palladian ; 
in the later Italian (Italian meaning, in fact, modem European), 
comprising the Rural, the Palatial, the characteristic French, 
and the half-Continental new Kenaissance; and, lastly, in the 
unpretending Cottage manner. Style is not such a complex 
(juestion, then, after all. The range of human invention in the 
article of building art of the domestic kind is not so great as it 
may have once appeared. We have but two leading ideas to 
choose between : first, the Italian or C-lassic spirit — that of 


Eiiroiw after the aixtcenth conlury; secondly, tlie (Jotliic! spirit 
— that of Europe before the eisteeutb ceiitury ; or, in common 
English phraseology, tiio fine tho type of England before the 
Keformatioii, and the other the type of England after the 
Kcformatioii ; the several varieties under these two heads being 
but phases of tlie two ideas in various circumstances. 

'I'lii^ present condition of the arts is a conflict betwe?n the two 
rival and, in a certaiu sense, antagonistic schools of intellect 
here indicated. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centu- 
ries. Classicism, in evertlung, reigned aloUe. lliat it abused its 
authority and fell into decay is but the fate of all ascendancies. 
The nini-'tcenth century has introduced Gothiciem ; it is a powers 
l^il, uncomproniisbg, retiolute, and sometimes insolent insurre(.-tion 
agaiiixt this Classicism, which it proclaims to have been always de- 
void of regal right, and devoid of regal power. So the new prin- 
ciple has grown up and increased, and has lifted up ita voice more 
and more loudly, and stretched out its grasp more and more widely, 
aspiring to the entire and identical dominion which the other held, 
and to tlie violent overthrow of the other into the oblivion that 
waits upon imposture. The old principle, however, dies hard, — 
so far lie it dies at all. When the new becomes openly jubilant 
riomcliincs, am! ri'i'kli'sslv dfllunt, surh indisci-L-tion is in favuur 
of the old ; when ihe old giiins some vantage and goes to sleep 
again, the new lecovei's gioiiiid ; enlliHsiasm in the one leads 
now and then to ridicule, ajiathy in the other now and then to 
contempt ; a very interesting game, and stimulating to many an 
active mind and in many a sphere of various atrtivity. In the 
sphere of architecture this is the " Battle of tlie Styles." 




CHAPTER I.— Preliminary Data. 

Statement of the two questions. — A tliinl question, tlie relation of Building Outlay 
to Income. — The rule of one-tenth of income for Rent, and its different applica- 
tions. — Calculation of Rent. — Relation of retinue to scale of accommodation. 

Two very important practical questions are here to be dealt with ; 
first, the progressive degrees of accommodation, and, secondly, 
the relation of accommodation to cost ; in other words, given the 
scale of the establishment, required the precise list of the apart- 
ments, and their dimensions, and the total outlay involved. 

As regards scale of accommodation in itself, there are of 
course no recognised stages of gradation ; but it is easy to 
assume such stages on the basis of outlay ; and we shall find no 
difficulty accordingly in determining a regular ratio of advance 
in this way, commencing with a very modest establishment, and 
ending with a vei y stately one. The number of apartments to 
coiTespond with each step, and tlieir dimensions, we shall then 
arrive at by means of certain principles of estimate of cost, 
which will constitute the second subject of investigation. 

In tlie arrangement of our argument we shall have to reverse 
the order here indicated, but that is immaterial ; the develop- 
ment of our scheme of estimating must necessarily precede, and 
our illustrations of accommodation (based on such estimating) 
must follow. 

There is a third subject of inquii'y which is at least very im- 
portant to persons intending to build, namely, what relation 
ought to subsist between the Residence and the Rent-roll, — 
that is to say, what proportion the outlay upon a new House 
ought to bear to the value of the Estate, or to the other income 
of the owner. Here however it must be frankly admitted that 
in spite of anxious endeavour to arrive at some standard of 
judgment or advice, we feel obliged to yield, not before the 


It has also to be bonio in miuil llmt »•• part of tlie retinue ' 
to be proviHed for in a Urge honse tlicre aro the serrants of 

Aa regards out-door retinue atlrti-liotl to the Offices, our labn- 
ittttfd statement may 1>r continued as fulluws. Farm and ilairy 
servants are not intended ; and the pecnliaritiefl of larpo hunting 
Mtablinhments, and eHperially of breeding and racing eitables, 
RPO obviously beyond our province. 














It need scarcely be remarked thnt the Stable« as well ns llie 
Ilouse liavc occasionally to aoeommodate the retinue of l«trnu^I!rH. 

A eaqienter. smith, or other artiznn, may alao have to bd 
aecommodated in connexion with the Htftblinfr. 

CnAPTEIt II. — Alonrs of Estimatiko. 

Four moili'9. — Ily liili of nuniitifii'.i, — By pull." iiioBBurcnient. — By Bupertoial 
aicn. — By iiumluT of Riimiie. — GiirapnrLM.ii of tliese ByBtciiia, and preferrace of 
tlie InttiT ones for our piirjuiiii.-. 

The usual modL-s of ascertaining the cost of a house are, first, 
by a bill of qiiantitici^, more or less delailed, of the builder's 
work, or, secondly, by u valuation per cubic foot of space; but 
there are otlier modes «liicli for our present purpose are perhaps 
preferable, luimely, thirdly, by a vidualion upon superficial area 
of floor, nnd, fourthly, by a valuation per Kuom. 

I. It being now the almost universal custom in England to 
build by contract, the builder ascertains the value btf a bill of 
quantities ; that is to sav, a survevor measures the work from 
the [jlaus an<l rethices the whole to a systematic account, and 
the contractor puts recognised prices to this, and arrives at a 
contract value. This jiroccss is obviously the only way to attuin 
an absolutely certain conclusion ; and even the preliminary 


estimate of the architect, if it is to be definitely reliable, can be 
obtained by no other method, except in so far as he may feel at 
liberty to abbreviate the calculation, retaining the principle. 

IL Estimate by cubical contents is quite a different matter. 
By multiplying together the length, breadth, and height of the 
building, — in one item if the form be very simple, — ^in many 
if it be very complex, — we ascertain the entire space occupied, 
including walls, foundations, and roof. It is then matter of no 
more than approximation by help of precedents, what price ought 
to be put upon this space per cubic foot ; and it is correct to 
say that precedents are so many, and have been so well studied, 
that experienced men, with due consideration of the peculiarities 
of the case in hand, can give an opinion of the value in this 
simple way with much more decision than might be thought 
possible. However, it is scarcely necessary for us to point out 
the fact that no builder could take a contract on such a mode 
of estimating, and that therefore it is never in any case to be 
recognised except for the mere purpose of a hasty approximation. 

III. Estimate by superficial area is derived directly from the 
system just described. If numerous examples of actual cost 
enable us to arrive at certain prices per cubic foot for certain 
descriptions of buildings respectively, it is plain that the next 
step is an easy one to transform these prices into a shape which 
shall enable us to say that a certain sort of apartments, of an 
understood standard height, will cost so much per superficial foot 
of floor, or more conveniently per Square of 100 superficial feet. 

IV. Estimate by number of rooms is in turn derived from the 
same principle, amounting to no more than this — that average 
houses of a certain scale of accommodation contain a certain 
average number of rooms, so that the average cost per room is 
so much. In this mode of calculation the difficulty is how to 
count the rooms — whether to consider, for example, a spacious 
Gallery as one, or two, or three, and what limit to define in 
counting two small places as one. In any case, it may be re- 
marked, a Staircase must be taken as one room on each floor ; 
Corridors and Passages must be included in the enumeration ; 
and all matters beyond the average must be allowed for after- 
wards. (Illustrations of this mode of counting appear in the con- 
cluding Chapters of this Part) 

A comparison of these several systems as regards serviceable- 
ness is easily oflFered. First, for an accurate estimate, the bill 



of quantities, in one form or ouother, cunnot be dispensed with ; 
wliiltit at the aamo time tho estraordliiary diflereneee which 
ofLen appear in the tenders of different contraftors for the same 
work, indicating serious differences in the rate of prices, come to 
render even tliis detailed manner of calcnlation so far uncertain. 
Secondly, in the handa of an experienced person, the principle 
of estimate by the cubic foot affords unquestionably an easy and 
reasonable approximation, provided it is carefully managed ; but 
here the intended building must be fully determined upon, and 
the cubical contents, in fact, obtained by careful measurement 
of proper drawings. Thirdly, the mode of dealing with super- 
ficial area is more witliin reach in cases where the pioject baa 
not been wholly reduced to drawing ; inasmuch as a table of the 
apartments required, with their dimensions, allowing proper 
additions for walls and waste space, will be sufficient to enable 
the intelligent calculator, possessed of prices but not plans, to 
arrive at a tolerably correct idea of cost. Lastly, to reckon by 
the number of rooms is obviously more convenient still in this 
way, if it can be made sufficiently reliable. 

The object of this argument is to pave the way for an endea- 
vour in the sequel to make available tho more facile modes of 
e.'itimfttiDg. To make unr culculjilioTis here ujion either qunn- 
tities or cubical computation is obviously impossible. After a 
few further remarks, tlierefore, of a preparatory nature, it will 
be our task to reduce to system the modes of estimatiug by 
superficial^ area antl by number of rooms, which we shall after- 
wards use exclusively. 

CHAPTER III. — Supplementary Expenses. 

Eitnia to bo allowed for, and why. — Rule as to tbe allowances to bo made fnr 
these bofurohaud. — Eulargemenl of tbe undertaking, bow to bo couBidcrcd. — 
Profeesiona] cliargcs. — Aicliiti'cfs clinrgea and duties. — Surveyor'acliaigeBand 
duties. — The Landi«ca;>e-gB[di;Uer end the Eogitieer. — The Clerk of Works, bia 
duties and eipensea. — lADdncape-gardeoer's Superintendent. — Law coala. — 
Fiiturea. — Extra on drainage or wnlor-supply. — Stabling to bo ecpamlo. — 
Porter's lodge or Cotlagoa. — The LauJ, fencing, walls, gal".'!*, 4c. — Grounds 
and Garden, and the Londscape-gnnleoecfl work. — Decoration, &e. — Archiled'it 
Eilinialet miBtmated : the remedy. 

One thing that must not be forgotten is this, — that, as the 
various modes of estimating above described, if kept withia 


their proper and safe limits, go no further in any case than 
the charges of the builder for a definite amount of work, the 
proprietor must take due note, from the first, of all the supple- 
mentary expenses which will have to be incurred. These we 
shall therefore now set forth. 

First, there will be JExtras. There may possibly be such a 
thing in the records of building transactions as a contract which 
has involved no extras whatever ; but if so, let no prudent man 
reckon upon his own being another. The common way in which 
the appearance of extra charges is avoided is by the architect 
providing in his contract with the builder that a certain sum or 
certain quantities of work shall be allowed for in addition to 
what is represented by the plans ; and in experienced hands this 
is generally satisfactory ; but as regards the real question in- 
volved, the practice only testifies to the fact that extras must 
inevitably accrue; although it goes far to show also that the 
allowance to be made for such extras has been reduced almost 
to a certainty. It is not that the architect makes positive omis- 
sions in his drawings and specification ; this is rarely the case. 
But, as the work proceeds, the constant occurrence of after- 
thoughts on the part of both architect and proprietor, especially 
the latter, is such as to make it matter of certainty that addi- 
tional expense will be occasioned by their adoption. The archi- 
tect therefore makes an allowance for this according to his 
impressions of the character of the work and the disposition 
of his client. This allowance ought to be never less than 5 
per cent., and more generally 10 per cent will be advisable. 
Secondly, experienced persons will agree that beyond this the 
proprietor himself will do well to appropriate in his own calcu- 
lations, as his own personal allowance for extra orders^ a further 
percentage, to be saved if possible, but spent if better cannot be. 
It will be a rare case in which the dissatisfaction arising from 
extras will occur if these sensible rules be followed. 

As to the extra expenditure which arises, not from mere after- 
thoughts in detail, but from enlarged limits in the undertaking 
itself, it must be admitted that, although it is unfair to cast the 
responsibility upon the architect, it is nevertheless the fact that 
an experienced adviser will be able very frequently so to anticipate 
probabilities as to avoid the complication referred to. In the 
case of a high-class Residence more than any other subject within 
the arcliitect's province, the danger of the client being led into 



additional outlay, both direttly and indirectly, reqaires to be-* 
kept coiitinually in view. 

After the question of Extras, we may mention that of Pro- 
fetsioned Charge*. It must always be remembered that theae 
are not only a sc-parate item from the estimate of building, but 
one that ought to be kept separato. The Architect's standard 
charge is 5 per cent, on the total outlay ; this covers the whole 
of his routine services for the design, drawings, specification, and 
8uperiutt<ndenee ; and if there should bo any extra trouble 
(which there need not be), it is chargeable at an equitable rate ; 
travelling expenses also being additional.* Another professional 
man who follows the Architect is tlie Surveyor. He measures 
the work if required for the oblainment of a contract, and at tlie 
close he measures for valuation any deviations therefrom which 
may have occurred. He is paid for this by a fixed commission; 
but his cliarges are generally included in the Builder's aecoimta, 
and 80 do not appear. A Landacapf-gardene/a charges are ge- 
nerally made by time, according to the standing of the artist ; 

■ The remnrkB of certain reriewera 
ptompt tlie inKTticm of a note here on 
the importnnl prftcticttl (|a6stio!i. vHttthrr 

there are slronp iuiintempnls fnr a 
gentlemnn of iutelligtooe itud leisure hi 
take jjeraonnl cliaige of Hie bulliiiiig of 

I hotu 

It I 

thing; anil so plenimrBl>]c ; no strangei 
txa iindemtiind so well wliat cnu viHiita ; 
architecta nro auid to bH faatidioua, 
WBstefiil, anii espenaive; aud lasUy, as 
it is now snugeslod, Iipfp is a bonk in 
nhicli a pruftaaional ari'ldtcct explains 
EtU the aecrets of tiis experience, for the 
very purpueo of hrJpiog the amatoni. 
Now it is ecrtuitily true that we l\ayi! 
not hesilaleJ to iRy before Ihe genera! 
reader, and with the utmost anxiety that 
it ahouJd be intelligible, cverytliing of 
house-plan thut sefma wurlh his kuow- 
ledge; but it must lie frankly explained 
tliat thisia ii'il fur the jmrposo of rLBsiatiiig 
Lim in the dangr rniis fiBfclime of iiiiiiiti'ur 
archilorturo. Wo strive to interest liini 
in the Bu1ij«!t of plan : to teach him 
liow to judge for bimsijf of its minutest 
delaila: to show him what a gondly 
thing a gond Engliali dwelling ntny be i 
mndo : but to allow biin to supptne tlist j 

bj the help of Ihii book he o 

o<ni architect " would b 

weakness. If oreasionally an orchitecrt 

chiefly ; Bod ten times mora fre<|Ui>ntly 
is nioney wasted, and l«n times inore 
laviably, for waul of the ^idauec of \tia 
skill. If a client sometimea feels mm- 
pellinl to Hiirrendpt his personal wiahea 
to professional dictation, it is his own 
fault if he does no without good reason. 
In n word, the aiehitect is but one 
amongst tbe many trained exports who 
hare become indispeusable in bneiiieea; 
and Aiiia% without him is simply going 
heck JSfly or a hundred years. To pre- 
vide for his client □& hi iraiibi, to do tbis 
helUr than it could be done otherwise, nnd 
to do it more eftwipfj, are hie primary fuue- 
tions. It la good oounsel to say — Avoid 
biiitdiug ; but if it cannot be avoided, 
good counsel says — Take good advice. 

It may be mentioned by the way that 
disputes on (he suly'ect of arcldtecla' 
charges are now in o very great measure 
prevented by llio Royal Institute of 
Architects having published an autho- 
rized Tariff, which is to be bad bv any 
perBon on application at their Hall in 


although sometimes by commission or contract ; but as we give 
no estimates of the cost of landscape-gardening, these rates need 
not be spoken of. The Engineer is very seldom required in 
domestic buUding except for mechanical apparatus, when his 
services are included in the trade cost of the goods. Lastly, it 
has to be borne in mind as an item of outlay, that a Clerk of 
Works, or superintendent, has to be employed in any case of 
importance, to direct the Contractor's operations under the 
Architect's orders : he is a weekly servant at something more 
than foreman's wages. The Landscape-gardener has a cor- 
responding Superintendent if necessary. Law costs we ought 
perhaps to mention as a possible charge; but these are not 
generally to be considered as probable. A properly-drawn con- 
tract, however, may cost a few guineas, if the work be too 
important to trust to the Architect's conunon form of agreement. 

Fixtures are a subject that may be next mentioned. It is 
generally understood that in ordinary estimates at the present 
day all the more common fixtures are included, such as dressers, 
shelving, cupboards, sinks, bells, water-pipes, &c. ; and even 
stoves and chimney-pieces ; but such fixtures as are more akin 
to furniture, and any apparatus or appliances of an extraordinary 
kind, must be matter of additional cost. 

Drainage and Water Supply, within usual limits, formno extra 
beyond the total of ordinary estimates ; but anything beyond the 
average in either of these forms must be specially provided for, — 
as for example a very deep well, pumping machinery, a distant 
outfall of drainage, or the like. 

As regards Stabling, it may be here remarked that it is not 
advisable to mix up its cost in any way with the estimate of the 
House. It is generally a separate matter of plan, and in valua- 
tion it stands at a lower rate of prica We prefer therefore to 
let it form a special subject in the sequel. 

A Porter's Lodge if required must be separately estimated ; 
sometimes there are more than one of these, and even other 
Cottages for servants. 

The Land actually occupied for residential purposes we have 
already said must be made a special item of calculation as regards 
investment ; we have now to point out that the requisite feTidng^ 
walls, and gates, whether on a large or small scale, must not be 
overlooked. If already in existence, they add to the value of 
the land ; if not, they have to be provided and paid for. 


'ITic formation of the Grounds and Oarden, the supply of 
sbnibs, the makiag of roadwayfl, turf work, Gurden walls, tireen- 
hniiaea and Sheds, Terraces, and in short all tlie works of tlie 
laudscupe-gardertcr, most be duly allowed for ; and these are 
muttora which it is diffitiult to put a prit-e upou, except ia view 
of a case iu hand. The only advioo that can be offered to tlia 
reader is to allow for them (with a percentage for extras) on the 
basis of the best precedent ho happens to have at command. 

Decoratwn of all ordinary kinds suitable for the house, accord- 
ing to its rate, is included iu any complete estimate, by what- 
ever mode arrived at ; but an extra allowance has to be mado 
for any superior style of finish. Internally there may be art- 
work of high class, sculpture, tigure-painting, elaborate modelling 
and oorving, marble or 8<.'agh'ola work, bronze, parqueterie, the 
use of costly woods, and so forth; all obviously beyond the 
legitimate boundaries of constructive work. Externally there 
may be costly material, elaborate workmanship, an expensivo 
style of design, intricate efli'cts of art, numerous ornamental 
adjuncts, and perhaps other causes of unusual expenditure. It 
will be matter of experienced judgment to determine the preciaa 
limit in these respects which shall correspond with a given limit 
uf iK-i'omiiiiidulion ; but tliifi must \>M done, ami anything be- 
yond must be fairly allowed for as extra on the standard of out- 
lay for the Building. 

It is well known that Architects Estimates are generally mis- 
trusted : it is a good rule to pay a few guineas to an independent 
Suraeyor tor an independent estimate. 

CHAPTER IV.— Calculation of Prices. 

Data per foot cube at London mtea. — Bcduction ot these to mperflcial prices, and 
V> pricus per Eoom. — Eatimatur's Rumly-rockooer. — Pn>¥incial prices. 

Taking as our standard the best ordinary model of plan, and 
the localitif of London, we may set out witli the fact that by 
cubical contents a well-built Residence is fouud to cost as 

follows ; — 

Pm caWc t»L 

For the Main Building or Family Department .. .. 8ii. to 15d. 
For tlio attached Offices or Servants' Department .. Grf. to IM. 
For Stables and Farm-Offi«a 4rf, to 8rf. 


The minimum prices refer to the Bmallest and simplest descrip- 
tion of houses; the maximum prices are those which pertain to 
the most sumptuous. 

Proceeding upon these data, and bearing in mind that the 
progressive scale of accommodation carries with it not only a 
progressive rate of price per cubic foot, but secondly a gradual 
increase in the height of rooms, and thirdly an augmentation of 
the size of rooms, the following Table can be readily understood 
as the result. (See following page). 

It will be seen that the ratio between the successive figures in 
each column is that of geometrical progression ; in other words, 
it may be laid down as in a manner self-evident that a regu- 
larity of increase of this sort must be found to exist in every 
particular element of the gradually increasing total, — namely, 
in the cubical value, in the average height of rooms, in the 
value superficially, in the total superficial area, in the total 
number of rooms, and in the average value per room. The 
mode in which the Table has been prepared is therefore this. If 
we take 1250/. to represent the cost of an assumed minimum of 
accommodation, and 80,000/. that of a maximum, the interval 
is divided into progressive stages of Outlay proposed, by the 
easy means of making each successive amount double that of 
the preceding, — ^which is of course the simplest possible form of 
geometrical progression. The Culical Values from 8d. to 15c/. 
per foot in the Family Department, and froin 6d. to lOd. in the 
Servants' Department, are then graduated between extremes to 
correspond in ratios of their own (columns 1 & 1). The Heights 
are next treated in like manner (columns 2 & 2). The result is 
a graduated scale of average Prices per superficial Square in each 
case, — forming the columns 3 & 3 of the table. The columns 
4 & 4, in so far as they represent the Proportions of Superficial 
Area between the two Departments, must be the result of 
experiment. The two columns 6 & 6 are similarly obtained, — 
the Number of Rooms in each Department. The columns 5, 5, 
& 7, 7, are no more than the money results of the others, — the 
Proportion of Cost between the Departments and the Price per 
Room in each. The final right-hand column of the Resulting 
Outlay (the addition together of the amounts in columns 5, 5) 
is the proof of the calculation, as compared with the preliminary 
column of Nominal Total Outlay on which it started. 

Whether it is right to assume the absolute government of 










2 2 K 5 3 S 1 









g g g g S S S 

^ is s s 5 i ^ 














-,i s g g 1 S 1 1 

2 S S 3 B g S 



-^ Slim 


'is X 

g g S i g g g 

* s s 1 g 1 1 





^ — 2 = S 2 S 





geometrical progression throughout all stages and all elements of 
the calculation, is a thing that we cannot pause to investigate ; 
but it may be at least assumed here as plausible in theory, and 
tested afterwards by its application to practice. It need only be 
said that the results appearing in the successive detailed Esti- 
mates in the sequel certainly seem to be such as to warrant us 
in affirming the principle to be one that gives a fair and intel- 
ligible average. (The actual value of the Table, however, in 
respect of its precise figures, depends of course upon the accuracy 
of its experimenttd data ; and as these at the best may be called 
matter of opinion, the reader who differs from our details is 
invited to make his own allowances, which cannot be a difficult 

We now proceed to set forth Estimates of Accommodation and 
Cost for the series of cases thus indicated. 

One question must, however, be first taken up which will 
suggest itself to every reader ; namely, what is the relation of 
the London prices here dealt with to the local rates of various 
provincial localities ? It is not easy to answer in this respect 
except in very general terms. In London, as a rule, all 
ordinary material and labour are at their highest price. Accord- 
ingly, in any given locality in the country, provided the ma- 
terial and labour of the locality be accepted, there must be a 
reduction in price according to the remoteness of the place from 
the influence of London — or of course any other large town. 
But the acceptance of the material and labour of the locality 
must obviously depend upon the description of work required, 
— that is to say, generally upon the rank of the house; and 
whenever the material or labour of a superior locality (espe- 
cially of London) has to be brought down to the spot^ the 
greater the distance the greater the extra cost for carriage and 
various disadvantages, and very often for workmen's lodging ;• 
and this may tell up rapidly. Then, besides these more general 
considerations, there are numerous minor points which may 
seriously affect the rate of cost, — such as the accidental local 
cartage of bricks or stone from the brickfield or the quarry, or 
of timber from the nearest wharfage, or of sand from the nearest 
pit, and so on ; and here it is very plain that at so much per 
load per mile the difference between one mile of good road and 

* Skilled workmen sent to the ooon- 
iry from London receive their usual 
London wages, and in addition thereto 

all travelling expenses and the whole 
cost of their lodging in the country. 


many miles of bad may become serious. However, it Beems to 
l>6 thoiiglit rcusonable to say that, aetfidcuts apart, there will ha 
in plmn country works a reduction on London prices varying 
from 6 or 10 jK'r cent, on tbe whole cost, up to 20 or even 25 
per cent., or sometimes still more, iicconling to ihe general rate 
of the comparative valiie of money in the locality : but tlmt in 
more elaborate works this reduction will bo more or less counter- 
balanced according to the degree of elaboration and the distance 
from headquarters. Such allowancea, however, it is obviously 
necessary for us to leave to the judgment of the reader in 
dealing witli any particular case on the spot. 

OHAPTEK V.~ExAMPLE ov a Hoc8E of the Value of 
1250i IN London. (Fhom 850/. to 1200/. m the Countkt.) 

Taking our standard London prices by auperficinJ area at the 
r»teB of 40/. per Square of 1 00 feet for tbe Family Kooma, and 
28/. for the Servant's Rooms, ec^ording to the Table, the fol- 
lowing accommodation may be here suggested. 

Family Department : 13 Rooms. 

1 Dining-room 18 x 15 feet = 270 feet. 

1 Drawiag-room 18 x 15 270 

1 Porch 8x6 40 

2 Floors of Staircase 12 x 7 1(!8 

2 Bedrooms Jfi x 13 4X6 

2 Ditto 12 X 12 283 

1 Dressing-room 8x8 (i4 

1 Kurscry 14 x 14 196 

1 Bath-room and W. C 10 x 10 100 

1 Passage to Bedrooms ,. 46 

13 Hooroa 1858 

Walls and Waste, Bay one-fifth ,. .. 372 

A^regatc superficial Area 2230 feet, 

£. s. d. 
2230 feet at 40?. per square = 892 

Sertakts' Dbtabtment : 13 Rooms. 

1 Kitchen .. .. 16 x 14 feet = 224 feet, 

1 Scullery and Wash-house .. 14 x 14 196 

1 Larder 8x6 40 

3 Rooms .. .. Carried forward 460 i:8!>2 

Chap. VI. HOUSE OP THE VALUE OP £850-1250. 395 

£. 8, d, 

3 Rooms .. .. Brought forward 460 feet 892 

1 Pantry 8 x 5 feet = 40 

1 Lady's Store-room and China-) -.a v. q o/\ 

closet J 10 X 8 80 

1 Linen-closet 6x5 30 

1 Knife-house 6x5 30 

1 Ashbin and W. C 8x6 48 

1 Coal-cellar 10 x 7 70 

1 Wine-cellar 10 x 7 70 

1 Beer-cellar, &c. 10 x 7 70 

1 Servants' Bedroom 12 x 10 120 

1 Passage 57 

13 Rooms 1075 

Walls and Waste, say one-fifth 215 

Aggregate superficial Area 1290 feet. 

1290 feet at 28/. per square = 361 


The additions to this estimate for the other items of cost, 

already particularised and explained, may be suggested as 

follows : — 

£. 8, d. 

For the Fences, Gates, Gardener's- work, a small Greenhouse,) i ca n n 

Shrubs, &c. (no Stabling), say ^ lou u u 

For Professional charges, (no Clerk of Works,) and Sundries 80 

For extra Fixtures, &c 25 

For Extras, allow for the sake of prudence 10 per cent, on) -.qs o 

the House ) 


For cases in the country, according to what has been laid 
down in the last chapter, these amounts may be put at 850/. 
and upwards, and 2602. and upwards, respectively. 

CHAPTER VI. — Example of a House of the Value of 
2500/. IN London. (From 1750/. to 2400/. in the 

Our standard London prices for a house of this class, at per 
Square of 100 feet, will be seen by the Table to be 48/. for 
Family Booms and 31/. 10s. for Offices; and at these rates 


the follovviDg may be Bet forth as an appropriate ecbeme of 
accommodatioa for the present example. 

Famu-y DKPAaTKBST : 20 Boomi. 

1 DiniDg-room .. .. . 

1 Drawing-room 

1 Library or Study 

1 Porch 

1 Hftll 

1 Staircase 

1 Ist Floor Stttircase .. 

1 2nd Floor ditto .. . 

1 Corridor 

2 Bedrooms 

2 Ditto 

1 Ditto 

I Dreasing-room 

1 Ditto 

2 Nurseries 

2 Bath-roona and W. Ca. . 

6 feet = 320 feet. 

y ODC-Efth .. 
Aggregate superficial Area .. 
3750 feet at 48/. per square . 

3750 feet. \ 

£. J. d. 

.. = 1800 


Sbhtastb' Department: 19 Rooms. 
16 X 16 feet = 256 feet. 

1 Scullery 

2 Larder and Pantry .. 
1 Store-room, &C. 

1 Wash-hotiso 

1 Linen-closet 

1 Butler's Pantry ,. .. 

1 Knife-house and W. C. .. 

1 Ashhinand W. C 

1 Coal-cellar 

I Wine-cellar 

1 Beer-cellar 

3 Servauta' Rooms 

3 Floors of Second Stair, &o. 

Walls and Waste, say one-fifth ., 

Aggregate superficial Are& . . 
2222 feet at 312. per square . 

Chap. VII. HOUSE OF THE VALUE OF £8500-5000. 397 

To complete the cost, as before explained, we may suggest the 
following figures : — > 

£. «. d. 

For Fences, Gates, Garden-walls, Greenhouse, Shrubs, and) oqa a a 
labour on the ground, say ) 

For Stables and Outbuildings (on the scale of one carriage, 
two horses, and two men for Stables and Garden), say 

For Professional charges (no Clerk of Works) and sundries 

For extra Fixtures, &C. .. 

For Extras allow prudentially 10 per cent, on House 






Country prices, as before, would give 1750/. and upwards, and 
800/. and upwards respectively. 

CHAPTER VII. — Example of a House op the Value op 
5000/. IN London. (From 3500/. to 4750/. in the 

In this case it may be well, as an exercise, to vary our mode of 
proceeding, and, on the basis of the Table to show how the scale 
of accommodation may be made the subject of direct calculation. 
That is to say, supposing 5000/. (London prices) to be the 
outlay resolved upon, required the list of apartments, and their 
dimensions, which can be had for this amount. 

By referring to the Table, we find in the first place that in 
the Family Department we can have 30 Eooms, and in the 
Offices 29 Rooms. 

Let us therefore, as the second step, attempt to construct 
a list approximately; say as follows, commencing with the 
Family Department of 30 Booms. We will mark with a point 
of interrogation the items for possible reduction, if necessary. 

1 Dining-room. 

1 Garden Porch.? 

1 Drawing-room. 

2 Floors Corridors. 

1 Library. 

1 Passage (remaining Floor). 

1 Morning-room. 

3 Floors Staircase. 

1 GentlemanVroom. 

9 Bedrooms.? 

1 Boudoir.? 

3 Dressing-rooms.? 

1 Cloak-room and W. C. 

(to count 

2 Nurseries. 


2 Bath-rooms and W. Cs. 

1 Porch. 


1 Hall. 

32 Rooms in all. 


Then, aa a tliiid step, there being here 32 rooms instead of 
the reqnired number of 30, we must remove from the list twa 
Let these be the Boudoir and the Garden Porch ; in other words, 
let na content ourselves with th© Morning-room for the former 
and a Garden-door for the latter. The list so far may tlien be 
considered settled. 

The Offices next, of 29 Rooms by the Table, we approximate 
in a similar way. 

I KilehHi. 1 Knife md Shoe House. 

1 Scullery. 1 BrnaliiDg-rooni. ? 

.r J /«\ f Ctwo of thfse mnall „jAshbiQ I (to connt aa 

(Uriers (3) ^^^^ u> count m ^J^^,^^^,,,^ ] two). 

iSlor^roon, ( ^j_ j WiDc-wUw. 

1 Wash-liouse. 1 Becr-oellar. 

1 lAundry. 1 Coal-oelUr. 

1 LineD-rixim. 1 Spftre Cellar. P 

1 Boiler's rantry. 4 PedroomB. ? 

1 ^orvicc-rooni. 3 Floors Slaircaso. 

1 Houaekeeper*8-room. qlCorridor t (lhr«e Btoriea, to cixiut 

1 Still-rtwra.? tPurages f Hiree> 

1 Bervanta' Hall. 1 Lumber and Bca Room,? 

1 BouBrmald'g Closets (two to — 

(xtviTit as ont). 32 RoomB in all. 

To reduce this to the proper number, 29, let via remove the 
Still-room, Brush ing-rooni, and Spare Cellar, (Here however 
an explanation must be made which it is to be hoped is self- 
evident to most readers. It does not follow that in tliis House 
we cannot have a Brushing-room or a Spare Cellar ; we remove 
these from the list merely as one way ot reducing the number. 
In fact, here and elsewhere it would obviously be quite com- 
petent for us even to substitute for certain of the apartments 
retained ou the list certain others not oa the list, according to 
the circumstances of the case in hand, without in any degree 
invalidating the illustration.) 

The next step is based upon a further reference to the Table, 
It appears that the 30 Family Koonis must be made to occupy a 
total superficial area of 03] feet, and the 29 Offices a total of 
3900 feet. The dimensions of the several apartments have 
accordingly now to be made matter of adjustment. The result, 
after a good deal of trimming, which must be patiently per- 
formed, will be something like this : — 

Chap. Vn. HOUSE OF THE VALUE OF £3500-5000. 399 

Family Depabtmbni 

M 30 Booms. 

1 Dining-room 

.. 24 

X 17 feet 

= 408 feet. 

1 Drawing-room 

.. 24 

X 17 


1 Library 

.. 14 

X 14 


1 Morning-room 

.. 14 

X 14 


1 Gentleman's-room or Stndy 

.. 12 

X 10 


1 Cloak-room and W. C. 

.. 10 

X 10 


1 Porch 

.. 8 

X 8 


1 Hall 

.. 14 

X 12 


2 Floors Corridors 

.. 20 

X 8 


1 Passase 

X 12 


3 Floors Staircase 

.. 12 


3 Bedrooms 

.. 16 

X 14 


6 Ditto 

.. 14 

X 14 


8 Dressing-rooms 

.. 10 

X 10 


2 Nurseries 

.. 14 

X 14 


2 Bathsand W. Cs 

.. 10 

X 10 


30 Booms 


Walls and Waste, say one- 

.fifth .. 

• • • • 


Aggregate superficial Area 
6310 feet at 57)2. per sc 

6310 feet. £. $ d. 


• • • • 

.. =: 8639 

1 Kitchen '. 

.. 18 

X 16 feet 

= 288 feet 

1 Scullery 

.. 14 

X 12 




.. 15 

X 9 


.. 10 

X 8 


1 Wash-house 

.. 16 

X 12 


1 Laundry 

.. 16 

X 12 


1 Linen-room 

.. 9 

X 9 


1 Butler's Pantry .. .. • 

.. 12 

X 12 


1 Service-room 

.. 10 

X 7 


1 Housekeeper^s-room 

.. 16 

X 12 


1 Servants' Hall 

.. 16 

X 12 


1 Housemaid's Closets (2) .. 

• • • • 

• • 


1 Knife and Shoe House .. 

.. 10 

X 5 


jAshbin ) 
^t Water-closets f - - 

• • •• 



1 Wine-cellar 

.. 12 

X 8 


1 Beer-cellar 

.. 10 

X 10 


1 Coal-cellar 

.. 10 

X 10 


4 Bedrooms 

.. 12 

X 10 


3 Floors Staircase 

.. 10 

X 6 


1 Corridor 

•• •• 



26 Booms .. .. Carried fc 

3000ft. £3639 


26 RoomB .. „ Brought fonmd 3000 feet. 3C39 

e Panagw l^i) 

1 Lumber and Box Room .. .. 10 x 10 feet z= 100 

29 Rooma 3250 

Walli aiul Waste, Nt7 oue-fifth .. .. 660 

Aggrepufe niperfcial Area 8900 feet. 

3000 r«cl at 35^. per square = 136S 

£5004 O 

In tliJB case the additional JteniB of cost might probably Bland 
Botnewbat as follows: — 

t. t. d. 

For FencM, QaUa, &c 300 

For Kitchen-garden and Oroands, including Greraliotiiai .. 500 D 

For Lodw, Stable* (on the smIb of two earriagea and fourl onn n r, 

horw*). and rnnall Farm-offices | BOO 

For Profeaiiional cliargw, Clerk of Works, and Sundries ,, 460 

For e»tra Fixtures and Decoration, Ac 250 

For Eitraa on Douse allow 10 per cent. 900 

Country prices, aa in former cases, would reduce these amounts 
to 3500?. and upwards, and 2000?. and upwards, respectively. 

CHAPTER VIII. — Example of a House of the Value 

OF 10,000/. IN London. (From 7000?. to 9500i. m the 


By the Table we have these data: — Family Rooms 45,= 
Area 106 Squares; and Offices 43,=Area 68 Squares. The 
process followed out in our last chapter will result in a pro- 
gramme like the following : — 

Family Department: 45 Hooms. 

1 Dining-room 28 x 19 fcet = 532 feet. 

1 Drawing-room 30 x 20 600 

1 Library 20 x 16 320 

1 Morning-room IC x 14 224 

1 Billiard-room (or Couservatory) 20 x 16 320 

1 Gentlenian'a-room 14 x 12 168 

6 Kooms .. .. Carried forward 2164 

HOTJBE OP THB VALUE OF £7000-10,000. 

1 Cloak-room and W. C 14 : 

7 Bedrcxms, average 16 : 

7 Ditto 14 ; 

2 Dressing-rooms 12 ; 

1 Ditto 10 ; 

2 Nureerieii 16 : 

J2 Bnth-rooma 10 : 

^(5 W.Ca 8 ! 

1 Entrance Hall 20 : 

1 Garden Entrance 10 ; 

1 Gallery or Central Hall 

2 Corridora 25 j 

2 Floors Principal Staircaae to) ,- 

First Floor only ( ^^ ■ 

3 Floors Secoad Staircase .. .. 11 : 

Aggn^to aaperficial Area .. 
10,600 feet at 692. per square 

1 Kitcben 

1 Scullery 

2 Urder8(4) 

1 Dairy 

1 Wash-hoiue 

1 laundry 

{Hot Closet 
Soiled-linen Cloaet 

1 Butler's Pantry 

1 Safe and Scullery (2) .. .. 

1 Sidelxiard-room 

1 IIoiisi'kefl]jer'a-roora 

1 Still-rwm 

1 Store-room 

1 Store-closets (S) 

1 Scrv«,ls' ilail 

I ll.jiL.--TOftiiri-clo»clM (2) .. ., 

1 Hnisl, 

I Knire and Shoe House .. 

1 Aslibin 

2 Water-clcaela (4) 

1 Coal-celUt 

43 Booms. 
18 X 16 feet = 288 feet. 
14 X 12 168 

24 Rooms 

Carried foi-ward 




24 Rooma .. .. Krought forward .. 

1 Wood-htmso ., 10 X 10 

2 WiQc-«ellar« 20 X 12 

1 Beer-oelUr. && 14 X 10 

1 Bpare Cellar 14 x 10 

1 Lumber aud Liigpge Room ., 19 x 10 

7 Bedrooms, ftven^ 12 x 18 

4 Floors Suireaaa 12 x 6 

2 Floors Paiwtgei 

43 Room* 

Walli and Wu(«, o 


AggreE»ie nuperficinl Arrti 6800 feeU 

6«00 feet at 39/. 10». i«r sqwire = 2,68(1 


The addilional expense's (o be in tbia case prorided for would 

poewibly bo us follows ; but such mattora now become very 

£. >. a. 

For eitn Fixtures and Artistic Decoration, from SOW. to .. 1000 

For Fenon, Oftlei, Ac 500 O 

For GardeDs, Grounds, Grfcn houses, and Drive, from lOOW. to 1500 O 

For L<.d-e, Sliilil,;,, B.iii F«rai-onicts 1;.(K) n 

For Professional charges and Bundrica 800 

For Extras oq House allow 10 jier cut 1000 

Country prices, as before, would give 7000/. and upwards for 
the House, and amounts similarly reduced for the additional 

CHAPTER IX. — Example of a House of the Valde of 

20,0007. IN London. (From 14,000/. to 19,000/. IH the 


By the Table we have for the Family Department 67 Rooms, 
with a total area of 178 squares; which may be appropriated 
thus : — 

Family Rooms, 67 in uumbi'r, 

1 Dining-room 30 x 20 feet = 600 feet. 

1 Drawiiig-rooui 40 x 20 800 

1 Library 22 x 16 352 

1 MomiBg-room 20 x 16 320 

4 Rooms ., ., Can led forward 2,072 

Chap. IX. HOUSE OP THE VALUE OF £14,000-20,000. 403 

4 Rooms .. .. Brought forward 2,072 feet. 

1 Breakfast-room 16 x 14 feet s 224 

'Gentleman's-room 14 x 14 196 

6 Boudoir 14 x 14 196 

Family Suite and Wardrobe .. .. ., 700 

1 Billiard-room 24 x 16 432 

1 Conservatory 24 x 12 288 

1 Cloak-room 12 x 10 120 

1 Lavatory and W. C 12 x 10 120 

1 Gun-room 14 x 12 168 

24 Bedrooms and Dressing-rooms : — 

8 average 20 x 15 2,400 

8 „ 16 X 14 1,792 

8 , 14 X 10 1,120 

2 Nurseries 16 x 16 512 

1 School-room 16 x 14 224 

1 Porch 10 X 10 100 

1 Entrance-Hall 24 x 16 384 

1 Garden Entrance 8x6 48 

1 Luggage Entrance 12 x 5 60 

1 Gallery (or Cortile) ,. .. 48 x 16 768 

1 Ditto, Upper Floor 48 x 10 480 

3 Other Corridors, &o •• 560 

2 Vestibules 200 

2 Floors Principal Staircase .. 20 x 16 640 

6 Ditto Secondary Staircases (2) 10 x 10 600 

2 Bath-rooms 10 x 10 200 

3 Water-closets (6) 8x6 240 

67 Rooms 14,834 

Walls and Waste, one-fifth 2,966 

A^regate superficial Area 17,800 feet. 

17,800 feet at 83/. per square ;= £14,774 

For the OflBces we are allowed by the Table 65 Booms, with 
a total area of 11,770 feet; in accordance with which the 
following seems a fair appropriation : — 

Offices : 66 in number. 

1 Kitchen 20 x 18 feet s 360 feet. 

1 Scullery 16 x 14 224 

2 Larders (4) 10 x 8 320 

1 Dairy 10 x 10 100 

1 Brewhouse and Bakehouse .. 20 x 14 280 

1 Oven 10 X 10 100 

1 Flour-store 10 x 10 100 

1 Wash-house 20 x 16 320 

9 Rooms .. .. Carried forward 1,804 £14,774 



Rocnus .. .. nroiigljl forward .. 

1 Lduudry 86 i 

1 Hol-cloaet \0 i 

1 Soiled-lmen aowl 10 ; 

1 LincD-nxiiD 12 1 

1 BuiWg raniry IB ) 

2 Safe and Scnllerj 20 1 

1 Sidaboard-room 15 1 

1 Steward's- room 18 i 

I HoiuekecperVronm ,. ,. 18 ) 

I Still-room IG ) 

1 Slore-nmm 13 > 

1 Store-closeU (2) 10 ) 

1 China-ctcMet 10 ) 

1 ServaDU'Hall 20 ) 

1 WoDien'a-room 10 ) 

2 HouitQDaida*'-cloMls .... 9 > 

1 Crushing- nioiu 10 > 

I Emfe-rooiu 10 > 

1 Slioe-room ., ,. ■ .. .. 10 > 

1 Lamp-nKon 10 > 

1 Asbbin .. .. 10 * 

3 Water-cloacU (6) 6 > 

2 Oosl-cellan 12 > 

1 Wo.h1 iioiiBo 1*; > 

3 Wme-cellars 12 > 
1 Beer-cellar 12 > 
3 S[>an! Cellars 1j > 
1 Lumber ruoiii 20 > 
1 Lu^g%.p room Iti > 

1 Ice-!iouso lU > 
10 liedrooms, 4c, avera^o 12 x 

(i Floors Stairs, oil Stones 10 >i 

2 Ditto l'assi4;(--s, ditto ,. .. 50 x 

Gj Rooms 

Walls and Wnste, one-fifth 

Ag^repate siipcrficia! Artft 

11,770 feet at 41/. 10s. i>er siiiiarc 

1,801(1.14.774 9 


The additional outlay requisite in such a case may be sug- 
gested as follows, but quite at random : — 

For Fixtures and Artistic Uccorations 
For Fences, Gates, &c 

Chap. X. HOUSE OF THE VALUE OP £28,000-40,000. '405 

For Gronnds and Gardens, Drive, Lake, &c 2000 or more. 

For Lodges, Stables, and Farm-buildings .. ., 2000 „ 

For Professional charges and sundries .. .. .. 1500 „ 

For Extras on the House 10 per cent, , 2000 „ 

At country prices, as formerly, the House would stand at 
14,000/. and upwards, according to locality, and the additional 
outlay would be proportionately reduced. 

CHAPTER X. — Example of a House op the Value of 
40,000/. IN London. (From 28,000/. to 38,000t. in the 

Foe the Family Department we have here by the Table 
100 Booms and 298 squares of total area, with which the 
foUowing list wiU correspond :— 

Family Eooms, 100 in all. 

1 Dining-room 36 x 24 feet = 864 feet, 

1 Drawing-room 48 x 24 1,152 

oiSaloon 30 x 30) 

"^ (or Picture Gallery .. .. 45 x 20J "^ 

1 Library 40 x 16 640 

1 Billiani-room 24 x 18 432 

1 Morning-room 24 x 16 884 

1 Luncheon-room 16 x 16 256 

1 Gentleman Vroom .. .. 16 x 16 256 

1 Boudoir 20 x 15 300 

5 Rooms Family Suite and) o/v% 

Wardrobe ] ' " ^^ ■ 

1 Conservatory 30 x 20 600 

5 Rooms Principal Guests* Suite .. .. 1,050 
10 Bedrooms, average .. .. 24 x 16 3,840 

10 Ditto 16 X 16 2,660 

10 Dressing-rooms 14 x 12 1,680 

6 Extra Supnlementaries to) ^n x 10 600 

ditto and Nurseries . . . . ) 

4 Nursery Suite .. 652 

1 School-room 16 x 16 256 

1 Cloak-room 12 x 12 144 

(Lavatory 12 x 10 .12Q. 

^(Water-closets (2) 6x5.. 60 

64 .. .. Carried forward ,. ^. .. ., 17,646 


64 l!n)m> .. .. Brmi^M tomud. 17,646 fe< 

3 Bttb-raonu 10 x 10 foet = 400 

6 Wswr-cloMti (10) ....8x4 330 

1 OnD-icom 19 x 10 190 

1 Oda-room 10 x 20 320 

1 WaltlDg-niom U x 13 ISO 

I Ponh 16 X 10 150 

1 BUiwov-HaII 28 X 19 &S2 

1 Qknlini Enlnuioe 10 x 10 100 

1 Luggnga KutraQM .. 200 

1 CMriftge Vonii It! X 16 258 

1 Btrcus ClMcl *ud Lobby .. 10 x 8 80 

1 QKlleiT 80 X 20 1,200 

a FloDia PriiKaptl Stadrawe .. IN X XQ 800 

5 TwtibulM 10 X 12 360 

6 CoTii*>t» SO X 8 1,200 

» FliMnBea»dvjSuini(3) 10 x 10 900 

^gsregate »uperfii»a1 Are» 29,600 feet. [£. 

2i',(W0 feet at ILXU per »(iu»re = 2^,8^0 

For tbe Officea we may faftve, ac4X)rding to the Table, 97 
Apartments and 204 squares of area. For this the following 
amy be suggested : — 

Oftjcm; 97 Rooms. 

1 Kitdicu 30 X 20 feet = 600 feet. 

1 Scullery 16 x 16 256 

6 Larders 10 x 10 500 

1 Dairy 15 x 12 180 

1 Dairy Scullery 15 x 12 180 

1 Bakehouse 18 x 12 216 

1 Oven 10 X 10 100 

1 Flour-atore 12 x 10 120 

1 Brewhouse 20 x 14 280 

1 Shed 16 X 12 192 

1 Waah-houBe 24 x 10 384 

1 Laundry 30 x 16 480 

1 Drj-ing-room 30 x 16 480 

IHotCloset 10 X 10 100 

1 Soiled-linen Room .. .. 10 x 12 120 

2 Linen-Toom 10 X 12 240 

1 Butler's Pantry 16 x 16 256 

1 Safe 10 X 10 100 

1 Silver Scullery 18 x 10 160 

24 .. .. Carried forward 4944 £29,800 

Chap. X. HOUSE OF THE VALUE OF £28,000-40,000. 407 

24 Rooms .. .. Brought forward 

1 Service-room 20 

1 Housekeeper's-room .. .. 18 

1 Still-room 16 

1 Store-room 16 

2 Store-closets (3) 10 

1 China-closet and Scullery .. 12 

1 House-Steward's OflBce .. 16 

1 StewardVroom 18 

1 Servants' Hall 30 

1 Women's-room 20 

2 Housemaid's-closets (4) .. 10 

1 Brushing-room 15 

1 Knife-room 10 

1 Shoe-room 10 

1 Lamp-room Cloeet .. .. 10 

1 Ashbin 10 

3 Water-closets (6) .. .. 6 

3 Coal-cellars 15 

1 Wood-house 25 

4 Wine-cellars, average .. .. 16 

2 Beer-cellars 16 

5 Miscellaneous Cellars .. .. 15 

1 Ice-house 10 

2 Lumber-rooms 20 

1 Luggage-room 20 

20 Servants'-rooms, & Sundries 12 

8 Floors Stairs 10 

5 Passages, average .. .. 40 

£. 8, d. 

4944 ft. 29,800 .0 

X 10 feet = 


X 16 


X 16 


X 14 


X 8 


X 10 


X 14 


X 16 


X 16 


X 16 


X 8 


X 10 


X 10 


X 10 


X 12 


X 10 


X 4 


X 12 


X 12 


X 12 


X 12 


X 10 


X 8 


X 12 


X 10 


X 12 


X 10 


X 6 


97 Rooms 17,000 

Walls and Waste, one-fifth 3,400 

Aggregate superficial Area 20,400 feet. 

20,400 feet at 50^. per square = 10,200 


In such a case as this the additional items of outlay may be 
suggested thus ; although now more at haphazard than ever, 
seeing that the higher the scale of building the more depends 
upon the personal views of the proprietor. 

£. a. d. 

For Fixtures and Artistic DecoratioDs 5000 or more 

For Fences, Gates, &c 2000 „ 

For Ornamental Grounds, &c 5000 „ 

For Stables and other Offices, &C. 6000 „ 

For Professional charges and sundries 3000 

For Extras on the House 10 per cent .. •» •• 4000 


Conntrj- prices, as id former cnse!i, wonld give 28fl(H)l. &oA 
upwawla for the Home, and correapondingly reduced amonnts 
for the additional itema 

It seems now annpcessary to carry our illustrations further- 
Beyond tlie scaIq last dealt with, tho accoramodation becomes 
involved in considerations which can scarcely be reduced to 
any etandurd. State-rooms are generally introduced, and 
especially State Thoroughfares; and the principle of estimate 
muxt be changed. If no more, a Cortile alone may be desired 
which shall cost a rery large sura ; or a Ball-room or a Picture 
Gallery of like importance. We may, in a word, rest very well 
satisfied with a system of relative accommodation and estimate 
which we have been able with so little trouble to carry forvi 
from a house worth 1250i. to one worth 40,000?. 


CHAPTKR XI. — Estimates of Stablinq and Fabm 

Tuietj nT cost bivolvcd. — Approximate prit^ts for Slabling per ilem. — Dit(o fnr 
Vnna OfBoea.'— Diltii for Worh-yard, &c. — Eianipla of auch Offices for « small 

Establishment. — Ditto for a superior EiitAbliHhnicnt. 

It is obvious that the scale of expense in these Offices varies 
very much. In Stables, for example, the outlay per stall may 
be fairly said to vary almost as much as the value of the horses 
to be accommodated, and necessarily so. The same principle 
applies to the housing of carriages and harness ; the higher their 
value the greater the inducement to house them well. It follows 
also, when expense is not spared in these the leading items in 
the design, that a similar liberality in spaciousness and style of 
finish should be carried through the whole. In Farm Offices, 
again, the case is still the same; and more especially iu view 
of the fact that when they are connected with tlie Establishment 
these are likely to be visited a good deal by the family and their 

Perhaps the best way to set forth the simple data we have to 
give with res^iect to the cost of these OlBces is to adopt the very 
simplest form, and give a list of prices for the various items in 
succession, from which an approximate estimate may be made by 
the help of a certain amount of acquaintance with tho subject. 


Accordingly the following list is oflfered; to which must be 
added, as before, allowances for extras, professional services, and 
whatever else may be involved in the particular case ; and from 
which may be deducted a percentage, as before, for country 

Stable Offices. 

Stable, per Stall from 20 to 50 

Looee Box „ 20 „ 80 

i per Horse „ 5 „ 10 

Carriage-house, per Bay „ 20 „ 60 


Harness* cleaning-room » .. .. „ 20 „ 60 

Grooming-shed „ 25 „ 150 

Horse Bath and Shed „ 50 ,,100 

Open Carriage-shed, per Bay .. „ 15 „ 30 

Stable-yard (Walls and Paving and Gates, &c.) .. „ 30 „ 500 

Dungpit (or Yard) „ 5 „ 50 

Boiler-house „ 20 „ 50 

Smithy and Shoeing-shed „ 50 „ 100 

Clock Turret (and Clock) „ 50 „ 300 

Hay-lofts, &c., each „ 30 „ 100 

Servants* Rooms, each „ 30 „ 50 

Mess-room .. .. •• .. , 80 „ 150 

Staircase, complete „ 25 „ 50 

Water-closets, each , .> „ 10 „ 30 

Farm Offices. 

Cow-house, per double Stall from 15 to 30 

Calf-house „ 10 „ 30 

Sheep-shed „ 20 „ 80 

Piggery, per Sty „ 5 „ 20 

Poultry-houses, each „ 15 „ 30 

Cart-stable, per Stall „ 16 „ 30 

Cart-shed, per Bay „ 15 „ 30 

Slaughter-house „ 20 „ 30 

Boiler-house „ 10 „ 25 

Spare Shed „ 15 „ 60 

Farm-yard (Walls, Gates, &c.) „ 20 „ 200 

Work- Yard, &c. 

Workshops for Carpenter, Painter, Smith, &c., each from 25 to 100 

Yard and Open Shed „ bO ,,200 

For an Engine-house or a Gas-house no estimate 'can be 
offered that would be of the least service. The machinery and 

apparatus, and their application to the work to be done^ depend 



obviously in respect of cost, as of everything else, upon ( 
staiices which cannot readily be classified; and the buildiug 
accommodation, therefore, must be no less irregular in its 

Two illustrations of the mode in which the above list of prices 
is proposed to be applied may now be given, — one for a small 
Establishment and one for a large one ; London prices in botli 

Fob a Small Ebtabusbkbnt. 

StaWe. 2 Stalls, «nd Fodder Bay nt20i='60'v 

1 Loose Boi .. .. .. „ „ 20 20 

I'arriagc-honse, 1 Bny „ 25 25 

Haraess-room (3 Horses) « 6 16 

Open Klieii, email 2fi 

Bt»bl«-Tar4 „ .. SO 

Dong-idt., ., „ ,. S 

Hi^bft „ .. ao 

CoMJiiBui's BednxHO „ .. 90 

"Wtbu-doKlt „ .. 16 

Cmr-bonn, 1 Double St«U „ 20 » 

8twd,nimU „ „ 16 

Figgei7. 2 SliM „ 8 18 

Pooltay-lioaM . IB 

Ttudfiiiudl „ , ., ao 


Allow for ExtntB 10 per oeni M 

Froreasional charges, &c. 23 

For a SnFERioR EsTABLtsmiEKT ; Stabliko oklt (tncIudiDg 
accommodation for Visitors). 

£. £. 

Carriage Stable, 8 Stalls at 35 = 280 

Nag Stable, 6 Stalls „ 35 210 

Huntera' Stable, 6 Stalls „ 40 240 

Strangers' Stable, 4 Stalls 40 160 

Loose Boies, 4 average „ 60 20C 

Carriage-boiises, 6 Bays „ 40 240 

Harness-room, 8 Horses , 10 60 

Saddle-room, 12 horses „ 10 120 

Hamess-cleaning-room „ .. 30 

Grooming-sbed 60 

HoTM Bath and Porch „ .. 80 

CsJried forward 

Chap XI. 



Brought forward 

Open Carriage-shed, 2 Bays 




Smithy and Shocing-shed 

Clock Turret and Clock 

6 Hay-lofts, &c average 

10 Servants* Rooms average 


2 Staircases 

3 Water-closets 

• • 
at 30 


„ 60 
„ 40 
„ 30 
„ 20 

Allow for Extras 10 per cent 
Professional charges, &c. 















Total £4000 

4£B' critical notes ox the plates. 



Cliu«6cBlir>n of tho i>!iilo(i, — Their general »Tnilable7jes8 fo» criijcsl MuJj.^ 
Tbe aiiAc atw) pnrptMo uf thtir aclooti'jn ei|)l»iiied. — The UnKbnuilj of ecaie. 

This concluding portion of our work is intcndoil to illusbste 
preceding arguments iu a practical way, by pointing out tho 
noticeable features of the collection of plans which form our series 
of plates. 

The first twenty-two ptales are historical: aitl their boarings 
in this view have l>een duly set forth in the Historical Sketch of tha 
Development of Plan which constitutes Part Fmsr of tho volnme. 
Bnt at the same time it is evident that, although some of the«e 
represent iiltas now obsolL'te. the j^reatcr portion of tlieni have a 
practical application to existing regulations. Tlieee, therefore, ore 
now to be taken up in this new aspect. 

From amongst the other plates, however, twenty-three in number, 
we have to esehide only two (namely, Plate XXIII., Kitchen-appa- 
ratus, aTid Plato XXIV., an example of tho laying-out of Grounds), 
and tho remaining twenty-ono are, in fact, a series of specimens 
carefully selected for the special purpose of such illustration as is 
now involved. 

There is thus a considerable field for the criticism of the reader, 
under the guidance of tlie notes now to be offered ; and it will be 
found that the variety of treatment exemplified is on the one hand 
as complete as could reasonably \>e desired, and on the other but 
little open to the charge of repetition. 

The names of the authorities are inscribed on the plates; and 
the author has to tender his best thanks to all parties interested. 
When private soiirccs of information have also been made avail- 
able, the circumstance is noted ; and wherever tho author's own 
reading of historical matter has been introduced, the points are 

It is only fair to let it be understood that the examples thus 
selected arc by no means intended to bo held np to tho prejudice of 

Appendix. INTRODUCTION. 413 

other plans, or to tlie credit of their authors above other architects. 
The object has been, not the exhibition of models to be imitated, but 
the illustration of principles to be studied. Our criticism, accordingly, 
will proceed upon this basis alone. 

In order to facilitate that comprehension which depends so much 
upon readiness of comparison, the entire series of plans (with only 
two exceptions,) are drawn to the same scaky namely 1 inch to 30 feet. 
(This is the case with the marginal woodcuts also.) The exceptions 
are Kenilworth, Plate V., and Blenheim, Plate XII.; a portion, 
however, being in each case drawn separately on the standard scale, 
to indicate the difference. 

To make the notes complete for reference, we shall describe each 
plate in order ; and if it be necessary to repeat what has been said 
of any one in the historical account, this will be done with due 
respect for the patience of the reader. 

PLATE L— TuE Castle of Castletox. (Page 10). 

The aocommodation in detail. — Elements of plan ; the question of comfort. 

This illustrates the arrangement of the simplest form of the 
Norman Keep, and gives us an unroraantic but true idea of the 
unsophisticated habits of the English gentleman of the twelfth 

The lord of Castleton possessed three rooms, one above another. 
These accommodated himself, his lady, his children, his servants, 
his soldiers, his guests, the passing wayfarer, and upon occasion a 
prisoner. First, there was the Cellar, which did not serve for much 
but lumber. Then came the House-place, or Common-Hall, the 
abode of everybody. Lastly, there was the Chamber or the private 
room of the family — the best Dormitory more than anything else, 
the Hall being the common Dormitory. 

There was usually (although not at Castleton) a fourth apart- 
ment, — an Entry-place between the Cellar and the Hall. This held 
stores, and served also as a guard-room, and thus relieved the Hall 
a good deal, — making it, if not more private, somewhat less public. 
But privacy, it must be remembered, had not yet acquired much 
value. The Entrance was in any case on what we call the First- 
floor, approached by a ladder or a flight of steps. 

The elements of plan are here the same as in the primitive 
Gothic house, — namely. Hall, Chamber, and Cellar, with perhaps 
a Porch or screened Entry, perhaps not. The only difierence, so 
far is, that for purposes of defence, this simple series of apartments 
is in a manner set on end. 

4U ouTUULnnnwsnnJxxa. .^Mrn. 

Hk tam^pk* «tev is Mi* «»*«. fta prtvydaA IB MHAaih a» 
««11 is « 4ui^ nd ft* Itttk Onitorj n th» Cbutw iw^ O* 
^■wwr windtowi, and Um tapfomi itrnwhoigp ai ih» 4Mr, aaw l i h i 
to flonqdata fits piotim of « toij aaafcatoil, but we should add 
Wj «BO(HBfi>HaU«, plMM of nndsaOB. Coidbrt, however, we 
mrt bMT in mind, it after all onlf oompaiattTa ; and there is little 
yUk Jib nggeating that even Oaadatom OaaOa. parched on a barren 
•ad inaooaMible rook, may hvn bean wialftilly gazed back upon, 
jmmf a tiiM, i>f ft departing knight or damael, with a tear for the 
knf^ da^ ipcnt within ila now diraal walla. 

. PLATE IL— The Gibtui w Lohdom Kmep. {Vafga i&) 

!■ iliii example we have the oj^oaite «itrenw from CastletoB, af 
ngMda at least oapacdfy and digni^. Hera dwdt tite Newman 
Kins of Aidand with hia Tetinue. 

Befanlnglothe aeotiooaldtawingwhiohiapUoedabcmlhajpln, 
it wUl be Bean that Uiia R^yal Keep coonated ot fimr atwiaa 
OronghoDt; except that the Ohi^, whioh oooapiad on* aagl^ 
•orra^onded in hei^ with two of ibioK, the tidid and finutb. 

Tba arrangement of plan ia -miy simple. Beeidea the flwuml, 
thwe are oa each of the two npper atoriee two large apartnvita, one 
9fi hj 40 feet, and the other 65 by 30 feet On the two lower 
stories there are similar apartments, with a third under the Chapel ; 
the lowermost story, howeTer, being, as usual, no more than vaulta. 
■What may have been the precise appropriation of the various apart- 
ments must be matt«r of conjecture ; but the following suggestions 
may at least represent an application of the customs of the time. 
The Common-Hall of the King would be most likely the larger 
Apartment on the third story ; and the smaller one the Presence- 
Chamber ; both being connected with the lower floor of the Chapel. 
The apartments on the story above (the uppermost) would be, the 
larger one perhaps a Dormitory for officers and guests, and the other 
the Family-" Chamber;" both commtmicating with the triforium or 
gallery of the Chapel, upon the principle that prayer must begin 
the day. Pass down now to the second story above ground, on the 
level of entrance, and the greater apartment may be oonsidered to 
have been the Entry (and Garrison) Hall, and the smaller one the 
Chamber of the officers ; the space under the Chapel being perhaps 
the Armoury and Wardrobe. The lowermost etoiy was no doubt 
occupied by the cellarsge and the dongecms. The Galleries of 


defence which BurrouDded the building are easily understood from 
the plan. The Kitchen-Offices were doubtless altogether apart, 
within the walls of the Inner Bailey. 

The ranges of timber posts, which for modem purposes support the 
floor and roof, are retained on the plan, as a very probable feature in 
the original construction. 

What amount of subdivision may have existed in the large apart- 
ments, by means of wooden partitions or screens, is doubtful ; except 
that we may safely conclude, from the habits of non-privacy which 
prevailed, that there was very little, if any, of this. The utter 
absence of what we call sleeping- rooms was of course characteristic 
of the period : for instance, although the king and queen and their 
children woiild be all accommodated for the night in the one 
" Chamber " which we have allotted to them (and which was their 
Withdrawing-room duiing the day), yet still theie is every proba- 
bility that they could spare a comer or two for relatives or friends 
without the slightest idea that posterity would consider such a thing 
objectionable. Looking at our plan of Windsor Castle (Plate XLL), 
there can scarcely fail to be awakened strange reflections when we 
compare with it the primitive abode which the subjects of William 
the Conquei*or no doubt deemed the perfection of magnificence. 

PLATE III.— Castle Acre Priory. (Page 14.) 

Peculiarities of this example. — General remarks. 

This illustration is one upon which little can be said by way of 
either description or criticism, except in repetition of what is set 
forth in Chapter IV. of our Historical Essay. Moreover, the 
example takes its place in our series only as an evidence of the 
superior skill of the clergy in building; and even the domestic 
portion of the plan is of a different species of domesticity from that 
which constitutes our province. It is indeed also a question how 
far the details of the arrangement belong to the precise period with 
which, in our argument, we have associated the subject. And, in 
addition to all, it is obvious that conjecture must enter very largely 
into any explanation of the plan, and conjecture founded almost 
wholly on the practice of later ages. However, as a design for the 
Eesidence of the peculiar community which was constituted by a 
monastic brotherhood, we may look critically at this plan with 
much satisfaction. The unsophisticated simplicity of the domestic 
habits of the time are perfectly distinguishable ; and considering 
the very moderate demands of Ibe twelfth century as regards inter- 


CO mmuut cation, wbotlier by pasmgee, vtmn, or oven doorwajs, lb* I 
monks of Ctwtle Acre mH&t be uUowed the credit uf having boitt I 
for tbeiuGelves an exceedingly systeniatic and compact dn'elHng. Ill 
the Buggesliuns niaikod on ihe plan the author has deviated a good J 
deal frum hie authority, but always with the desire of freeing cha 
Bubject from those " comforts " (euch as the interior kitclieu, the 
interior staircuee, the private bedroom, and bo on) which the modera i 
mind 0u<1b it ho difficult to surrender to what is nevertheless iIm | 
hintdriuul fact, that such comforls hud to introduce themselves bf ,, 
degrL'iw luiig after the time in question. 

I'LATE IV. — Castle Risinq and Chabhey-Bassett 
GitASGE, (Page IG.) 

Castu Bulvo &cel; interpreted. — CfuioiBY.BAMn-r, ita BpLcme of appropdutian 

Tbe remarkable meiite of the pl&n of Ca«tle Bising have been jnll/ 
spoken of in Part I. ; and there is ideally nothing to be now added, 
except it be to remark, as was done with reference to the last plate, 

that the author has taken the liberty of reading the arrangement 

for liimsBlf, :iu<.l uf ilivestiuy it of fcrtaiii modem idtas which appear 
in the authority, 

Itospecting OLamey-Bassett Grange, aa our first example of a 
Uanor-house, there is more to be said. The way in which we have 
lead this plan is that the central apartment (which was in one 
height) would be (he Common-IIall of Ihe Manor or farm, in which 
the labourers and their superintendent dwelt, cooked, ate, and slept; 
that the monks, when they came to the Grange, instead of associating 
with their dependants, would have a separate apartment (marked on 
the plan " Monks' Hall " or Ecfeclory) ; tliat the monastic practice 
of having a epecial Kitchen might very leasonabiy so appi'opriate 
the apartment at the other end of tlie building; that the upper story 
over the Monks' Befectory would he their Domiitory, and that the 
same over the Kitchen would be the Solar or Chamber of the lay 
occupants, (this being the theory of the authority,} or perhaps rather 
an Auditorium attached to the little Chapel indicated on the plan, 
the identity of which is considered to be ascertained. Tlie Cellar 
under this would be quite in accord with the Kitchen in connection. 
The so-called Solar, if for other occupation than that of the monks, 
is scarcely in accord with the connection of the Chapel therewith ; 
besides that the class of persons who occupied the house as servants 
of the manor would scarcely require any such apartment at all. If 


we were to call the apartment the Abbott's Chamber, this might 
possibly be correct. The apparent absence of a Buttery we need 
only note as matter for specalation. 

PLATE v.— Kenilwobth Castle, (Page 32.) 

Of no practical interest ; general notes. 

Utilitarian Criticism in the case of this plan has obviously no 
footing. The general scheme of the Castle in this complex form is 
of course long ago obsolete. The adaptation of the Manor-house 
model to the case is also of no modem value. No Gentleman's 
House of the present day could have anything in common with such 
an instance ; so that its interest is purely historical. The Great 
Hall, however, nearly 100 feet by 50, with its Porch, no doubt its 
Entry or Screens, and the Offices attached, — with its Dais also at 
the other end, and a series of Family-apartments in connection 
therewith, — all surrounding the Inner Ward, — with the abandoned 
Norman Keep, moreover, flanking the group at one extremity, — and 
with later buildings at the olher, added in extension, from time to 
time, of the &mily accomnodation, and in furtherance of the grow- 
ing principle of family privacy, — all this is at least entertaining, if 
the ruins are too much decayed to be instructive, as an illustration 
of the highest character bearing upon the still xffarvellously simple 
and crude arrangements of our forefathers. More than this it 
scarcely interests us to inquire. 

PLATE VI.— WoLTEBTON Manob-House. (Page 34.) 

An example still senrioeable; the Hall and its relations. — Its adaptabilitj to 

modem practice, and suggestions thereon. 

Wk now come to an example of more practical interest ; for it is 
quite possible to find the general idea of this plan imitated in a 
modem Residence. The genuine Gothic Hall, 40 feet by 20, with 
its Porch and Bay-window, is so far perfectly suitable to be used in 
the form of an £ntrance-Hall, as a basis of arrangement in a good 
Country-Seat any day. Observe then, first, that the Offices are 
grouped all together in conjunction with the entrance end of the 
Hall : we should of course introduce now the more modem Corridor 
and alter entirely the character of the Offices themselves; but the 
general principle still remains serviceable. Observe next that the 
Family-rooms are grouped by themselves at the Dais-end (although 

2 £ 


tlioro woiJcl l«e no elevated Dais now) : (Uie aleo is a principle still 
to be iiccepted, introducing, of course, as in the case of the Ufficee, 
&1I modem improTements. The Entranc«.>-(_'oiirt in fi'ont is again a 
still serviceable feature, with ito Gate-hon«e in front, or An eqai- 
-Talent in some other form — proljably a l*ortera Lodge. The depth 
of such a Court, however, would no doubt bo increased nowadas^a ; 
and the Ontbuildinge along the front wall would be inadmixsible. 
I'robably this Court would be Northward or Eastward, by the bye; 
and the Drawing-room Front Southward, either at what would be 
the tup of this plan or at the left side. The Stair which is 
BUf^sted on the plate (instead of a modem arrangement in the 
authority) would have bt-en but small and inconvenient; we shoold 
now form a larger Staircage, and attach it, if ihe house were small, 
directly to the Dais-end of the Hall ; or otherwise form a Galler^- 
>0 commence at that point, with the Staircase attached in aomo 
Other way. 

PLATE VU.— OxBCRQH Haj.i- (P^e 36.) 
The Hall as ln« ; wMit of CorrUots. 

Thx Gothic Hall appears ^;ain in this example in a genuine form 
very similar to that which it took in the last; but otherwise thu 
plan is of little ya^i:e for modem ui^e. The quadrangular system iii 
this instance is carrie<l out in a manner which we must call ex- 
tremely crude ; and it is easily perceived that this is simply owing 
to the want of Curridnrs. Thf open Cinirt is in fact the great 
Thoroughfare o f the house ; and there are no fewer than eleven 
doorways in it, besides the Hall-entrance and the Gateway. Five 
of these doorways open into as many Staircases, not otherwise 
directly accessible. Thoroughfare -rooms are the rule, even in 
the case of the Bed-chambeTB. In a word, Oxburqh, looked at 
oritically, only serves the purpose of a oontras*^ with HENaBA.TB, 
which follows. 

PLATE Vin.— Henqrave Hall. (Page 38.) 

FeatnTesof modem plan: Ckimdots intradaced. — Tks Hnll changed in purpose, 
and not judicioQsl;. — The prindple of the onnTeraion of tho ancient Dwelling- 
Ilall into the modem Entrance-Hall. — The Baconinii>datioQ otherwue; the 
Berranl^ Waiting- Hall, &c. 

Hkrk we perceive at length (having arrived historically at the 
sixteenth centuiy) the features of modem plan, although as yet 


unrefined. The Corridors so much wanted in the case of Oxburgh 
are now introduced : and the consequence is that with pretty nearly 
the same materials otherwise, the confusion of the previous model 
is now exchanged for comparatively perfect order. 

But it must be noted that with this addition of the Corridors 
there comes an entirely new character of the plan. The Hall is 
now singularly changed in purpose. The ancient form is pre- 
served ; but the character of an Entrance, which the Hall con- 
tinued to possess in Oxburgh, is now surrendered : and at the same 
time the character of a Dining-hall, which it had in the olden time, 
is not successfully preserved. We may suppose it, perhaps, to be 
retained as a Banquet-hall for festive occasions, or a Saloon for 
assemblies; but otherwise the apartment seems to be practically 
useless. The Hall of Oxburgh, like that of Woltertox, stood at 
the back of an open Entrance-Court, and the Gateway in front was a 
Carriage-Thoroughfare: but in Hengrave the Entrance-Court is 
gone ; the Quadrangle is only an interior area for light; and so the 
Hall, being retained in precisely the old position, is made accessible 
by mere Corridors. In a word, the old Gothic Hall has disappeared. 
One thing which is incidentally very plain is that the conversion 
of the ancient Dwelling-Hall into the modem Entrance-Hall is a 
well-founded measure. In this very instance of Hej^grave, a com- 
parison with Oxburgh and Wolterton proves the case. 

As for the general accommodation, and its arrangement in detail, 
there is not much to interest us. Historically the plan is of great 
merit; but practically it is unsuitable for modem requirements. 
The grouping of Offices at one angle is sound in principle, but there 
are various deficiencies which are to be seen at a glance. The 
Garden-Entrance, again, is quite out of modem form as it stands. 
The " Servants' Waiting-Hall," by the bye, deserves attention as a 
thing worth imitating: there are many cases in which the En- 
trance-Hall of a good house (especially in a Classic plan) might 
very judiciously be relieved of the servants in this manner. The 
door of such an apartment, however, ought to open from the 
Entrance-Hall, and not from the Con-idor within. 

It will be observed that, notwithstanding the Corridors, thorough- 
fare-rooms are frequent ; and that exterior doors are still in excess. 
There appear to be as many as seven Porches around the house, 
besides the main Entrance-door and four other incidental doors: 
this would be fatal to any house in our day. 


4sib cBifnitL nam Qlr XH> runs. i 

PIATE IX.— HATmLD Horak (Puge^a)^ 

Tub lenutrlnbls pUn aBudM t 
1. Tlw lewlisg idea !■ the m^gnifiocmt Qt31m. 2. The ancient 
Hdl ifpein igKin in « peonlicr fitnn. 8. Tba inrge spartmeDls 
irtiioh flank tibe tnMO biuldi(ig •» also aai^o^ially noticeable. 
4. Tlia wings in femt, botb aa exlainal ftatorts and as groups of 
iatnnal diapoaition, moat attnot attention. Thwe aits so toany 
yw at bna, thenlbr^ ts Im takwk ap in ordar, 

YUat regard to ttta Oalleriea, we mnat flnt n^itice a defect. The 
main BDtranoe opma into fba lower one in the middle of its length, 
and witfKmt the intorrestioB ot any Bntnuae-BaU ; there is thus a 
waate of ^gnity. Bat the fine expanae of the npper Gallery ia 
veiy gnndlj diapoBed. Whether die doon in the ends might have 
beoi hotter plaoed oentrally is a qnestian fin- i-ellection ; to put 
thnn aa th^ an, however, makes the GaDery look less like a 
Otnridor. The diapoaitloQ of the Btairoases ia bettor as regards 
giaad efleot than, if there had beam one oentnally. At the same 
time then is oertainlj a want at felid^ in the eonneotion of the 
Stainasea with the Galleiy on onr plan. The Principal Staircase 
eqteraallj is Tirtosllj an appendage to "King James's Room," 
being only indireotly an ^ipraaoh to the Oalleiy by means of the 
narrow Baloony across the Halt. The Second Stair also, although 
it lands at the Galleiy door, yet has a want of finality at that point 
by reason of the returning landing and the large window at the 
back. But the long perfect range of Gallery windows, and the 
noble length and breadth of the apartment, are safGcient to cover 
such shortcomings; besides that, t^r all, they are but historical 
and characteristic. 

The Hall cornea under review now in something like the same 
oircumBtances as at Hesgrave. An Entrance-Hall it oannot be 
called, although as a Vestibule to the Staircase it is no doubt 
grand : as a Banquet-Hall it would be superfluous ; it must there- 
fore be said that in this form it is but the shadow of the old Gothic 
Hall lingering as a tradition. The next step historically dismisses 
even this tradition of the Hall, and introdacee the Saloon of Italy. 

The Great Library and " King James's Room," each 60 feet in 
length and proportionately wide, are to be looked at as fine State- 
rooms; and, in this view, the circuit (whether for reception or sight- 
seeing) which is constituted by ascending the Priucipol Staircase, 
passiDg through " King Jomos'a Room," along the Great Gallery, 

Appendix. HATFIELD — STOKE PARK. 421 

and through the Library, and so descending tho Second Stair, must 
be accepted as a very fine instance of what Mediaeval plan can 
accomplish, — ^to be compared, for example, on equal terms, with 
Bridgewateb House as an illustration of Classic plan of like pre- 

In examining the Wings of the building as characteristic features, 
we may first dispose of them artistically by pronouncing them to be 
almost perfect specimens of effective disposition, at least in front. 
Then, internally, what we have chiefly to note is that there is con- 
siderable awkwardness involved in respect of isolation. There ia 
the separate Staircase in each case, which is no doubt for the best ; 
but instead of joining this to the Great Galleiy by a short Corridor, 
(the plan which we should now adopt as matter of course,) the 
Billiard-room is made the thoroughfare of connection on one side, 
and the Chapel-GkJlery on the other, — in each case a characteristio 
but imperfect arrangement. 

The reason of the distinction between the Summer Dining-room 
on the Ground-floor looking Eastward and the Winter Dining-room 
on the Upper-floor looking Northward, is, as regards aspect, not 
easily understood : but perhaps this arrangement, at present only 
traditional, was originally more accidental than scientific. In respect 
of convenience, the Winter Dining-room upstairs appears to be 
accommodated to the circumstance that, in a house of this large size 
and peculiar plan, the fomily will desire to live entirely on the 
Upper-floor in the winter season ; but this would seldom if ever be 
the case in a new Country-House of the present day. 

PLATE X. — Stoke Pabk and Ambresbuby. (Page 42.) 

&roKB Pabk an example of the faults of PaUadianism. — Aubbebbubt in leas 
measure the same. — The Staircases. — The ** Square House " as regards its sup- 
posed merits. 

The plan of Stoke Park has been inserted in our series of iUustra- 
tions upon quite other ground than that of domestic conTenience ; 
perhaps there is not a more striking example of the worst faults of 
pompous Palladianism than this. With its exterior effect we take 
no concern ; but it is evident that for this consideration eyeryihiug 
like interior utility had been sacrificed without scruple. It was a 
mere copy of the Villa of Italy, the academical study of a beginner 
in an age of artistic revolution ; a warning to other beginners in 
other days of revolution to beware of the fatal charms of academical 
authenticity. In a warmer climate, however, and with the habits 
incidental thereto, such a plan might no doubt have many merita 



To AMniuxiii.ii(V wo hiivo iho work of the raony mittuiv mind i/ ■ 
(ie Naiuo arcliileiot, with prekntioiiimL'Bs very much tnirrenden4 W I 
miiturwl o(iuveui<Mioe. Tliti uharact«rUtio deficiencies of the rails- I 
dinn Hysldn, liijW(!V«r, are fuUy exemplifictl in snuh nuittvni u tin I 
plitcing of the room-iloom cloao to the fireplaces, tlie introducticm J I 
burrowed -lights in the Stairoase, and the uiidisoruuinntiiuc guviuih I 
tai!iit of Hyninietrical portitioDtueiit. I 

The curious contrivance tf iho Stairca!,o, with a eecond sbjr I 
witltiu it for the use of the servaiita, is woilJiy yf note. In mmm I 
piitHtiul phins of the Claseio type, thia idea might still be aooietimu I 
workvil out to sdvaiitage. I 

This [iliin oxhibitfl tlie sort of arr&ngi'inent which oltiiuately took ' 
root in England in what is culled the "oommou sqiianj house," sod 
which, in factj still keeps its place with such poisona as oonnti; 
builders. Its supjiosed culvanlages aic coonomy of both epace an^ 
cost, and economy also of fiio-heat. It is at^ed that this four- 
square enc]o^u^e must obviously give the greatest amount of iuteiior 
space, with the smallest amount of walling and roof; and that ta 
havo tlio fireplaces collected together in the interna] woIIm tnust 
obviously abo ki*p the heat within the house. Of course tliera Ja 
some truth in all this; hut, in the liuuds of a skilled mtihitvct, 
ouiuudemtions of the kind are perfectly safe without any such 

PLATE XI. — Maklbouough Hocse. (Page 44.) 

The iniagovernmciitnrf,jTnui6tr)reMiiiplifie<l, — Tliorouglifareiloorsat the window- 
wiOl. — Tlio Jinucr ruute. — The Blotk-plan. 

Althodoii this is one of the best plans of the period, yet it is remark- 
able how domestic convenience is still subordinated to Palladisn 
regularitiea. So sc'vercly does symmetry govern {or misgovern) all, 
tliat the origimil appropriation of the rooms is matter of conjectine 
at this moment ; and if wo ivore oven to a-sscrt that such original 
appropriation was very much i)f the character of haphazard, wo 
should he in a certain sense nearly right For in.-tance, the Kitchen 
forms the main bulk of one wing; there is, therefore, an exactly 
similar building op]i(*ite. The Kitchen is lofty, and accordingly its 
reflection accommodates two stories ; the reflection must have two 
rows of windows, and therefore the Kitchen must have two rows of 
windows. Again, the Steward's- room adjoining the Kitchen has its 
reflection opiKisitu, as lx;fore ; the onlj' difference is (Iiat the latler 
is divided in two. Then the Dining-room (in one) has its reflection 
again (in two) ; and the Principal Staircase, being larger than the 


Back Stair, must still make a reflection of it, the latter having 
a little Ante-room behind to make up the difference. The only 
irregularity in the whole house is that one of the end Drawing- 
rooms has its fireplace, for some reason, different from the other ; 
the entire arrange ment otherwise is in the most complete and 
unreasoning symmetry (and not on that story alone which is repre- 
sented by our plate) ; so that one is almost inclined to express 
surprise that such unphilosophical work could have the name of Sir 
CuKiSTOPHiuB Wricn attached to it. But so it is ; such was the system 
of Palladian plan, and it would never occur to him to question its 

The defects of the time appear now more characteristically than 
before in two respects: first, the custom of having thoroughfare 
doors throughout the whole of the Public Rooms (and sometimes 
elsewhere) ; and secondly,, the consequent necessity of putting thase 
doors in a series along the external or window- wall. Both those 
ideas would be held objectionable now. 

As a most remarkaUe instance of plan, let us look at the dinner- 
route. Sir Christopher Wren perhaps was above considering such 
a question ; the remark may be made without any disparagement 
of his judgment, for there have been too many architects at all times 
who would disregard such a thing. Now the Kitchen is on the 
groimd-level. The Dining-room is on the ground-level also. But 
to carry the dinner across the Entrance-Court and in at the front 
door (see the plan) would never do. To carry it round by the 
Garden and in at the Saloon-door would never do. We might 
contrive a third route, thus : along the Colonnade, in at the Library 
window (or sash-door rather), and so through the rooms and main 
thoroughfares; but this, although really the best that could be 
accomplished on the ground-level, is still a jest. The actual route 
was this ; first downstairs to the Basement ; secondly, through the 
Basement Corridors (probably dark as Palladian Basement Corridors 
generally were) ; thirdly, upstairs Si^ixi by any one of three equally 
awkward means; and fourthly, so on to the Dining-room in a 
manner (whichever of the three stairs might be preferred) still as 
awkward as the rest. And vchy all this inconvenience ? Merely, it 
would seem, because the idea fixed itself in the architect's mind that 
the Kitchen would make a good Wing, lliat the Kitchen must 
form an obtrusive and pretentious sham two-story house, with a 
sham reflection opposite, was no matter ; that its windows must look 
out upon the Entrance Court, and that it must actually have a door 
o|Xining into the Court (under a sham Loggia), were acceptable con- 
ditions ; that the unhappy footmen, for a hundred years or more, 
must stumble downstairs and upstairs, and through infinite tor- 
tuosities besides, with their soup tureens and barons of beef, was not 


to 1k> Ltlpod ; lot the Kilclicn be a Wing, and it was a Wing. Such 
wuB Pttlladian plan. 

As an examplo of block-plan, mARLnoROuoit HonsR is ezqnifiitcly 
good: it ie tho ardstic hand of SiR Chkistophek Wre> which is 
therein eeon. But, uoTerthcloss, wo miiBt not forget that this merit 
may prove after all to ho itself a fault upon closer iDHpection ; for if 
it liould be no moro than that pnper-doep boauty against which wo 
have taken occaaioD to warn the reader (iu tho chapter on Compact- 
ness, in Pakt Second), the more complete it is, the more dangerous. 
And that this is very much the case in Maklbohouuh House will 
readily bo perceived. 

PLATE Xn.— BimmiM. (Page 16). 

Unfnitablj grand.— Begnluritj of features. — SlisccUaneoiis notes. 

Tae esceptional character of this stupendous Mansion has been 
spoken of in our Historical Sketch. As an English Genlleman's 
House it is altogether a mistake ; if it coiild be transferred to 
London, and converted into a National Museum, fur instance, tho 
nmgiiificcncn of il« Greiit Omrt of nearly thrco acrt^ in extent. — of 
its Gateway-screens of moro than a hundred columns, — of its Great 
Hall and Saloon, Great Gallcrj-, Great Porticoes, and we might go 
on to say Great Greenhouees, Slablcs and Yards, — might be worth a 
journey to sec, wholesomely filled with holiday crowds; but as a 
Coimtry-Seat its glories are only overwhelming. 

At all events, here we have again the plan of r^ular features, 
suspiciously regular from tho first, fallaciously regular on examina- 
tion to the last. Observe the Kitchen and the Chapel helplessly 
reflecting each other's forma ; a huge Greenhouse at one flank, and 
a huge Greenhouse therefore at tbe other ; a Stable^yard gate at ono 
side of the Entrance Court, and therefore a Kitchen-yard gate 
opposite ; and so on. All this, however, we should espect to find ; 
it is Palladian authenticity, and we need not dwell upon it 

Tho characteristic thoroughfare doors are still present in this 
example. Tho Corridors are very stately. The Great Gallery is 
nobly planned for artistic eflect. The block-plan as a whole is 
admirably conceived, especially tho form of the Great Court, with 
the contracting wings towards the Portico of entrance. 

Appendix. HOLKHAM. 425 

PLATE Xni.-HoLKHAic (Page 48.) 

A climax of Palladian plan. — The four Payilious; the seoondary Stairca8e&; 
modified symmetry. — The aeoondary EntraneeB; Entranoe-roate, and other 
featores. — Aspect 

The applicabiliiy of this plan to our purpose historically is apparent 
at a glance. The characteristic regularity of Palladianism here 
attains a climax of its kind. The four wings surrounding the 
central mass are the extreme of wha