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^ timmituff . 
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^^^^1 AlTIa 










I, N B K i 




One hundred years ago this very day I was engaged in precisely 
the same manner as at present, concluding my labour for the year 
by writing a Preface for the volume. In that I was obliged to 
confess that, after inditing a quarter of a hundred, I had ex- 
hausted all the topics which appeared to afford material for the 
interesting purpose ; and not altogether satisfied with the result of 
my labour, I handed it over to the printer's grimy messenger in 
waiting, with strict injunctions to bring me a "proof before I 
left my chambers for the evening. In tne excitement and hurry 
I had overlooked the "Compliments of the Season" which had 
been very freely tendered, and was therefore somewhat offended 
when I overheard my inky acquaintance mutter to himself, as he 
took his departure, something about its being " all the same a hun- 
dred years hence." My feeKng of anger was but momentary, for, 
calling him back, I first admonished him for his want of respect, 
but my words were apparently unheeded, until I tested his loyalty 
by presenting him with an impressed effigy in silver of his most 
sacred Majesty King George, when he brightened up, promised to 
be a good boy and to learn his Catechism. 

On the lad's departure I fell into a doze, and his muttered adage 
brought up a host of thoughts, many of which I now forget ; but 
amongst others, I remember putting the question respecting the 
hundred years, and whether it would be all the same then with 
the Magazine ; what if the Stuarts replaced the line of Brunswick ; 
what would happen if the French invaded and conquered Eng- 
land; and what, if we lost his Majesty's German dominions. 
The mismanagement of our American Plantations gave me some 
trouble, but India gave nie more. I had presented my readers 
with a map of Bengal, a place till then but little known, and 
this map carried me up the river " Uglcy," and to dwell upon the 
siege of Calcutta and the miseries of the Black Hole, the sad news 
of which had not long been received. Calcutta had again been 
threatened, the battle of Plassy fought, and we were in the daily 


expectation of fresh news on the arrival of the India fleet. No 
wonder, therefore, that I was engaged in asking some imaginary- 
attendant the question, " Will it be all the same a hundred years 
hence?" when the arrival of the printer^s boy with the proof 
aroused me from my dumber. 

The thought has constantly recurred to me, Will it be all the 
same a hundred years hence ? and as that period has now elapsed, 
we may judge how much truth it contains. The first proof that all 
is not different, is the great fact that the Gentleman's Magazine 
still lives and flourishes, shewing no signs of decay, nor is there 
reason to believe that it will not be all the same for a hundred years 
to come. The question respecting the Stuarts has long been settled, 
and the line of Brunswick still wields the British sceptre. The 
French, no longer considered our natural enemies, have not yet in- 
vaded England ; and, probably, if his Majesty's German dominions 
had been lost a century ago, the regret would not have been greater 
than at the present moment. The mismanagement of our Ameri- 
can Plantations has given rise to a nation of men speaking the lan- 
guage of England, animated by the same love of freedom, and ruled 
by the same laws, and bidding fair in less than a hundred years 
hence to become even greater than the mother country. India alone 
remains in nearly the same state as it was a hundred years ago. 
Instead of Calcutta, we have Delhi and Lucknow ; the Black Hole 
finds a parallel in the Well at Cawnpore, and Suraja Dowlah finds 
another in Nana Sahib. Good news, however, is daily on its way, 
and every man in England is determined that in India it shall not 
be all the same a hundred years hence. What the condition of 
England may be remains to be seen when in the year of grace 
1957 the Preface for the Magazine is being written "by 


E I'LUnilJUS L'Xl'M. 


The Band which confined Archbishop Cranmer to the Stake 

Wooden Coffin found near Gristhorpe 

Small Articles found in the Coffin 

Coffin found at Great Driffield 


Selby . 

Remains of Cistercian Monastery at Tetbury . 

Chalfont St. Giles ..... 

St. Andrew's College, Grahamstown 

Church of St. Nicholas, Newcastle 

Castle Dungeon, Newcastle .... 

Thomas Bewick's Workshop, Newcastle 

View in the Side, Newcastle 

Ancient Organ 

Drawing of a Bumbulum (Organ) 

The Bellows of an Organ 

Positive Organ . 

Great Tower, Rising Castle, from the south-east 

Plan of Rising Castle 

North Window, Great Tower, Rising Castle . 

South Door of St. Andrew's Hall, Norwich 

South Walk of Cloister, Black Friars, Norwich 

Miserere, north side of Choir, Norwich Cathedral 

Arch beneath Bishop's Throne, east end of Choir, Norwich Cathedral 

Dioscorides receiving a root of the Mandrake from the Goddess of 
Discovery ......... 





Cathedral of St. Canice — St. Kicran's Chair 
North-eastern Respond 
Corbel ..... 
West Door .... 
Doorway of the North Transept 
Foundations of the Round Tower 

African Head-dresses . 


. 631—633 




JULY, 1857. 




Amhupst's '*TeiT8e Filius." Oxford in 1721 9 

Lord Campbell's Lives of the Chief Justices 14 

Gfdmar theTrour^re 21 

The Siege of Kara 84 

Perry's History of the Franks 42 

Strolls on the Kentish Coast 48 

CORRESPONDENCE OF SYLTANUS X7RBAN.— Malahide and its Castle, 54; The Band 

which fastened Archbishop Cranmer to the Stake 61 

— Slgnrdsson's Diplomatarium Islandicum, 65; Rafh's Inscription* Rnniqnedu Pirto 

~Craik*8 English of Shakspeare, 06 ; £adie*s life of Kitto 67 

ANTIQUARIAN RESEARCHES.— Society of Antiquaries ; 67 ; British Arehseologieal As- 
sociation, 70; Archseological Institute, 71; Yorkshire Philoec^hieal Society— Ox- 
ford Architectural Society, 73 ; Society of Antiquaries, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 77 ; 

ArchiBological Excursion to Normandy ^9 


Promotians and Preferments ^ 90 

OBITUARY ; with Memoirs of Admiral Brown.— Mr Donglas Jerrold, 91 ; Wm. Wlngfleld 

Yates, Esq., 93; L. H. J. Tonna, Esq., 95; Wm. Walton, Esq 96 

BIRTHS, 96; Marriages 97 

CutaOT DSCXASBD ^ cm 98 

PsATHs, arranged in Chronological Order » 99 

Registrar-General's Return of Mortality in the Metropoli»— Markets, 103 ; Meteorological 

Diary— Daily Price of Stocks 104 



Mb. IJRBAy, — The fact mentioned by 
your corresi'ondent H. S. G. in your num- 
ber of December last, of one of this family 
being called John PycaH, alias Somery, 
goes far to removo a difficulty appearing 
in Texia de NtviJy pp. 40, 41. where it is 
8 lid that Robert Pipnrd held half a fee in 
Kin'.:ton, co. Worcester, of the barony of 
Jioger Pichard ; for as we read el-iewhere 
of no such barony, we may now infer that 
it was the barony of Roger Somery. Nash 
(" Collections for Worcestershire") tells us 
that a Robert Somiry had lands in King- 
ton 2S Edw. I., and Nicholas Somery 
28 Edw. 111., in which latter year I find 
from Habingdon's MS. in the library of 
the Society of Antiquaries, that Thomas 
Somery also had lands hi re conjointly with 
John Somervile ; and in Nash (App. Ixix.) 
it appi-ars that in 7 Ilcnry VI. the 
he'rs of John Somervile and Ihomas So- 
mery had one fourth pjirt of a knight's 
fee in Kington, which the said John and 
Thomas fonnerly held. It appears also 
from Nash that the property here which 
the Somer\'iles held conjointly with an- 
other family was the manor and patronage. 
Now what strikes me is this, that on the 
expiration of Robert Pipard's estate liere 
it reverted to I'ichard, alias Somery, and 
afterwards fell to the lot of a younger 
branch. But Pichanl must have held it 
of the Lncy's, who had it at the time of 
the General Survey ; and this will appear 
evident from what Nash tells us in ri>gard 
to Bishampton, five hides of which were 
held of Hugh do Lacy by John Picard, 
who leased them to Robert Pipard ; and in 
like manner as in Kington, the Somerys 
appear aiteni^'ards having lands in Bis- 

In 1209 Milo Picard 8ays,(^o/ Lit. Pal.) 
"Knov &c. that I have received Milo, 
■on of John Picard, my brother, in custody, 
from Walter de Lacy, my lord, &.c" In 
TeJtta de Nevil it is said that Milo Pichard 
held in Standun, co. Hereford, four hides 
of Sir Roger Picard, scil. of the honour of 
Wybreles, formerly of Walter de I^cy, 
by the service of one knight. Milo Picard 
occurs in 1221 in rrlation to half a knight's 
fee in Sapy, co. Woreestcr. 

This name of " Milo" occurs also joined 
with ** Somery.** Milo de Somery occurs 
in connection with Hampshire in 1209. 
He was one of the knights serving in 
lie and in 1210, (Rot, de Presiito.) Mdo 
de Somi-ry had lands in Cambndj:eshire, 
and had also lands in capite of the honour 
of Honlogne (Bouou*) in riglit of his mother, 
a diuighter and o-heiress of Lucy, (her 
sister U'ing mother of Robtrt Pinkney, 
whoi^e name occurs in the baronage.) His 
•on and heir was Rog^T de Somery in 1229, 
{fixcerpta e Motuli* Finium.) 

Writers on the barona^ teU w that 

Ralph Somery, Baron of Dudley, had fifty 
knight's fees in 8 John, yet a very few 
years after his son succeeded to only ten 
and a half fees. Now I find {Rot. de Oblat. 
et Fin.) that Roger «le Somery hud fifty 
knight's fees in 3 John Could Ralph 
have been mistaken for this Roger ? I pre- 
sume Roger was ancestx>r to the Earl of 
Winchester. However, we are further told 
that Roger Somery, Baron of Dudley, had 
firty-one fees, 29 Hen. 111. He succeeded 
to the barony in 13 Hen. III., and could 
not have been the Roger of 3 John. The 
mention of the latter has " Gloucester" in 
the margin. Collins (Peerage) says that 
Thomas Lord Bubeley (who died in 1243) 
married a (laughter of Ralph Somery, Lord 
of Campden, co. Gloucester, and nie<'e of 
William Marshal. Earl of Pembroke. 
Perhaps this Ralph was father of the 

The subject of this family is certainly, aa 
your correspontlent remarK?, a very diffi- 
cult one. The printed records contain very 
frequent mention of the Somerys, but no- 
thing to identify them with the Pichards 
ezci pt what I have stated. 

As to Adam do Somery, whose seal is 
mentioned by H. S. G., he was perhaps 
the same Adam de Somery who is men- 
tioned in the printed "Fine Rolls" in 1199, 
also twice in 1198, in relation to Essex and 
Hertford. I find also, in connection with 
Herts, Alan de Somery in 1199, and John 
de Somery in 1217 ; also John de Somery, 
member for Herts, 1307 ; Richard de So- 
mery de Herts occurs in 1322 ; and Ste- 
phen, son and heir of Roger de Somery, 
previously, in 1235. This was probably 
the same Stephen who, I find, held lands 
in capite in Essex and Hertford, and 
whose heirs in 1239 were his three nsten 
and his n. phew, whose mother's name waa 
Muriel, {Excerpta e Rot. Fin ) Now I find 
in Testa de Nevil^ "Domina Muriela de 
Somery" holding a knight's fee in Kent, 
the same county in which your correspon- 
dent places Pycard, alias Somery, of Bex- 
ley, that place being in Kent. I should 
think, however, that John, who was con- 
cerned with the Bishop of Chichester, lived 
a little too late to be the same John who 
married the heiress of Gervase PaganeL 
As to the arms of this Paganel, there 
seems no doubt that tliey were two lion% 
for his brother, also a baron, bore them. 
Banks assigns both them and the cinqne- 
foile to Gfrvase Paganel. The " Rolls of 
Arms" of the reign of Edw. II., published 
with the " Parliamentary Writs," gives to 
Sire Miles do Pyc>ard — Gules, a fess or, 
between three scollop shells. 

As the inquifut'on on the death of Ro- 
bert Somery, Earl of Winchester, relates 
to lands in Ireland, I think he must hare 
been connected with the Barona Peroeval 
of that kingdoDL A. Z. 





OXFORD IN 1721. 

•* A COLLECTION of cssays, under the title of Terra MUtts\ was published 
in two volumes 12mo., in 1726^, by Nicholas Amhurst, who on account of 
his irregularities had been expelled from St. John's. These essays contain 
much low abuse, and are destitute of all pretensions to wit or humour. Like 
most other satires of a local and personal nature, they are now fallen into 
that contempt which their malignancy and virulence so justly deserve.'* 
Such are the flippant, one-sided terms in which the learned editor ^ of the 
Oxoniana has thought proper to dismiss one of the wittfest productions of 
the last century ; a work whose merits, however, have more recently had 
the good fortune of being vindicated at the hands of a less partial judge. 

Amhurst's Terr(B Mlius,*' says Mr. Hallara, (*' Constit. Hist.," iii. 335,) 

is a very clever though rather libellous invective against the University of 
Oxford in the time of George the First ; but I have no doubt it contains 
much truth." With the dictum of the philosopher of history we unre- 
servedly coincide. Amhurst's papers, though occasionally tainted with the 
coarseness which English literature and English thought had inherited from 
the Saturnalia of the Restoration, are redolent of wit and humour in every 
page; while at the same time they are characterized by a pretty equal 
admixture of truthfulness and exaggeration : truthfulness, in his general 
descriptions of usages, manners, and events of the day; exaggeration, 
wherever the personal character of his enemies, real or fancied, is con- 

Amhurst was elected from Merchant Taylors* School to a Scholarship at 
St. John's College, Oxford, in the year 1716: his expulsion, the result of 

*■ It had been a custom of some antiquity in the University of Oxford, for a member 
of the University, under the name of Terra Filius (son of the earth), to mount the 
rostrum at the public acts, and amuse the audience with an oration replete with satire, 
scandal, and secret history. Occasionally this license was abused to such an extent, 
that the speaker got into serious trouble for the freedom of his language ; and about the 
end of the reign of Queen Anne the TerrcB Filius was dispensed with altogether. 
Antony k Wood j^ves numerous particulars relative to the Terr<B Filii of different 
periods, in the Ath, Oxon., vols. i. and ii. Ayliffe says that the "sportive wit of the 
TerrtB Filius had its first origin at the time of the Reformation, the object being to 
expose the superstitious practices of the Romish Church." 

^ It was originally published in half-weekly numbers (fifty in all) in 1721 ; and a 
lecond edition was published in 1726. 

* Mr. Walker, of New College, we believe. 

4 Ainhurst's " Terra Ftlius.^ [ Julyj 

repeated embroilments with the college authorities, bears date the 29th of 
June, 1719. If we are to credit his own version of the story, as related 
in the preface to his Poems *, and reiterated at greater length in No. 45 
of the Terra Filins^ he was persecuted solely for the liberality of his sen- 
timents, and his attachment to the cause of the Revolution and of the 
Hanoverian succession, in a community where Jacobites and Non-jurors in 
heart formed the large and all-powerful majority. That this alleged 
severity, however, was too well justified by the systematic irregularity of 
his conduct, his repeated violations of University discipline, and his insolent 
behaviour towards the colle|;e authorities, the President more particularly, 
there can be little doubt ; though at the same time, it is far from impro- 
bable that he was none the more recommended to the ten Fellows — out of 
fourteen — who voted for his expulsion, by his obtrusive and ostentatious 
Whiggery, his satirical vein, and his loudly professed hatred of the Stuart 
dynasty and its academic supporters. 

Thrown wholly® upon his own resources, and animated probably as 
much by self-interest as by motives of revenge, Amhurst penned the series 
of papers now under notice ; in the pages of which, while he attacks the 
Oxford dignitaries with bitter malignity and exaggeration, he loses no 
opportunity, when occasion offers, of appealing to the sympathy of his 
fellow- Whigs, and of representing himself as suffering martyrdom for the 
assertion of anti-Jacobite principles. His appeals, however, were uncared 
for by Walpole and his underlings ; who were all of them far too busily 
engaged in showering their golden favours among the parliament-men of 
the day, to heed the cries of a starving garretteer. But the day of 
retribution came, and, as an instrument in accelerating, however tardily, 
the downfall of the minister, Amhurst had his sweet but profitless revenge. 
Abjuring his former political creed, we find him in 1728 or 29 editor of 
*' Fog's Journal," a violent opponent of the Walpole administration ; 
shortly after which, under the auspices of Pulteney and Bolingbroke, — the 
man whose name and reputation, in the Terra Filius, he had more than 
once attacked, — he became, with the assumed name of Caleh D'Anvers, 
the working editor of the "Craftsman;" the great end and object of 
whose ably written pages was the political extinction of Walpole and his 
adherents. This effected, and the moment now at hand when he might 
look for some reward through the agency of his titled, and, so far as 
Pulteney was concerned, now influential coadjutors, he was doomed to 
experience the fate too frequently, and perhaps deservedly, experienced 
by men of genius, who have prostituted their abilities in furthering the 
intrigues or gratifying the malice of mere politicians, — great, maybe, ia 
name and station, but infinitesimally little in heart. 

In the very moment of his triumph, Pulteney turned his back upon the 
able penman who had so powerfully contributed towards ensuring his 
success. Nicholas Amhurst had served the frigid statesman's turn, and 
was now done with ; his reward was neglect, penury, and a premature 
death, accelerated by chagrin and a broken heart. He died penniless at 
Twickenham in 1742, and his body was only rescued from parish sepulture 
by the kind offices of an humble friend, Hichard Francklin the pubhsher : 

<* " Miscelbineous Poeins," published in 1720, a book now rarely to be met with* 
The prefjice is ironically dedicated to Dr. Delaune, President of St. John's. 

* In the preface to his Poems (1720), he tells us that ho is reduced to writing for bis 
bread, and is lodging in an upper room in Fleet-street, over the shop of Richard 
Franddin, his publisher. 

1857.] Oxford in 1721. 5 

Jidelis ad umam, from his own pocket he defrayed the cost of the luckless 
satirist's coffin and journey to his long home. Amhurst's descendants, it 
is said, are still living in Newfoundland. Premising with this brief notice 
of the clever but unscrupulous writer of this amusing work, a man respect- 
ing whom but few particulars have survived to our day, we propose to 
present to the reader's notice a few of the more striking passages in it 
which bear reference to men, manners, or events at the University of 
Oxford in the early part of the last century. Wherever he indulges in 
personalities, his words, be it remembered, must be taken cum grano : his 
truthfulness on such occasions is more than questionable. Trap, Warton, 
Keil, Charlett, Hole, Morley. Dobson, and even the doubly vilified 
Delaune, were all of them probably — Jacobites at heart though they may 
have been — men of at least respectable character, and such of them as still 
survive in the memory of posterity have suffered nothing in public esti- 
mation from the disparaging traits of Nicholas Amhurst. 

We may form some estimate of the length and breadth of Amhurst's 
effrontery and assurance from the fact that, because Dr. Mather of Corpus, 
the then Vice-Chancellor. had, to use his own words, " publicly branded and 
forbidden his book, as a libel upon the University," he therefore dedicated 
it to the said John Mather, '^ as having already interested himself in the 
work in so public and so signal a manner." This persecution, however, he 
is quite reconciled to share in common with such men as Antony di Wood 
and Thomas Hearne ; the Athenw of the former and the Camden's 
Elizabeth of the latter having found with the Oxford dignitaries no better 
reception than his own Terrcs Filiu8, 

Beginning "where every freshman begins, with admission and matri- 
culation," our satirist inveighs (No. 3) with an energy unsurpassed by their 
most zealous opponents in more recent times even, against the weighty and 
multiplied oaths that were in his day imposed upon the youthful student on 
his first initiation into the mysteries of Alma Mater ' ;— 

" If he comes elected from any public school, as from Westminster, 'Winchester, or. 
Merchant Taylor's, upon the foundation of any college, he swears to a great volume of 
statutes which he never roads, and to observe a thousand customs, rights, and privi- 
leges which he knows nothing of, and with which^ if he did, he could not perhaps 
honestly comply. He takes an oath, for example, that he has not an estate in lund of 
inheritance, nor a perpettial pension of five pounds per annum, though perhaps he has 
an estate of ten times that value. — To evade the force of this oath, several persons 
have made their estates over in trust to a friend, and sometimes to a bedmaker ; as a 
gentleman at Oxford did, who locked her up in his closet till he had taken the oath, 
and then dispossessed the poor old woman of her imaginary estate, and cancelled the 

We then come to the formalities of matriculation, and the contrivances 
that were formerly resorted to by the Jacobite portion of the community, 
not at Oxford only, but at other places as well, for evading the stringency 
of the oath of allegiance to the Hanoverian. dynasty : — 

"Within fifteen days after his admission into any college, he is obliged to be 
matricul «ted, or admitted a member of the University ; at which time he subscribes 
the Thirty-nine Articles of religion, though often without knowing what he is doing, 
beinj? ordered to write his name in a book, without mention upon what account ; for 
which he pays ten shillings and sixpence. At the same time, he takes the oaths of 
allegiance and supremacy, which he is pretaught to evade, or think null : some have 
thought themselves sufficiently absolved from them by kissing their thumbs, instead of 

' Though aware of the claim, we do not concede to Cambridge any title to a monopoly 
of this appellation. 

6 Amhursfs " Terns Filius" [July, 

the book ; others, in the crowd, or by the favour of an honest s beadle, have not had 
the book given to them at all." 

Merton College would appear in those days to have been the head- 
quarters of the Whig or Hanoverian party at Oxford ; who banded together 
and made themselves highly obnoxious to the Jacobite and High-Church 
majority under the name of the Constitutian Club ; the *' rise, progress, 
and final dissolution " of which, by the degradation or suspension of its 
members, is described by Amhurst in the closing number of his book. 
From the following extract (No. 5), we learn in what estimation the Merton 
men of that day were held by the honest party. The Professor so disre- 
spectfully alluded to is, probably. Dr. John Keil of Balliol, the Savilian Pro- 
fessor of Astronomy, a Scotchman by birth, and of Jacobite principles : — 

" Going into a coffee-house not far from Temple-bar, I saw a cluster of gentlemen 
talking together. One of them asked whether they had seen the new paper called 
Terrce Filius ? To which an eminent Oxford Professor, who was present, answered 
that he had, and could assure them, upon his astronomical word and honour, that 
there was nothing in it but lies, impudence, and scurrility : ' Oxford,' said he, ' is a learned 
and blameless society.' ' What !' said another gentleman, ' are there no abuses, Sir, no 
corruptions, no frauds, no debauchery, no disloynlty, no perjury, nothing of this nature in 
Oxford ?' • None at all,' replied the learned Professor. * No ?' said the gentleman again. 

* Not in Merton College, Sir ?' ' Hum ! why, indeed,* quoth his Professorship upon this, 

* yes, really, I have heard of strange doings ^ there* ' And ought not,* said the gentleman, 

* those strange doings to be corrected ?* * Sir,* said the Professor, ' we have nothing to 
say to Merton College ; we don't look upon it as any part of the University ; they are 
all rank schismaticks. Sir;* and so brush'd off in a passion.** 

No. 10 is devoted to the Oxford Professorships of the day, — so many 
"pensions and sinecures," he says, "given to any one that could make a 
good interest for them." Upon certain of these lucky sinecurists he is par- 
ticularly severe ; — 

" I haviB known a profligate debauchee chosen Professor of Moral Philosophy ; and a 
fellow* who never looked upon the stars soberly in his life. Professor of Astronomy. 
We have had History Professors who never read anything to qualify them for it but 

* Tom Thumb,* * Jack the Giant Killer,* * Don Bellianis of Greece,' and such-like valuable 
records: we have had likewise numberless Professors of Greek, Hebrew and Arabick, 
who scarce understood their mother-tongue; and not long ago, a famous gamester^ 
and stock-jobber was elected M — g — t (Margaret) Professor of Divinity ; so great, it 
seems, is the analogy between dusting of cushions and shaking of elbows, or between 
squandering away of estates and saving of souls.* 


What offence Amhurst had received at the hands of the elder Thomas 
Warton (father of the better-known poets Joseph and Thomas Warton), it 
is probably impossible now to ascertain. Be the reason what it may, the 
embittered satirist neglects no opportunity of emptying the phials of his 
wrath upon the professorial head: — 

"Amongst all the crowd of Oxford Professors, I cannot help distinguishing their 
Po — t — 1 -(Poetical) Professor, squinting Tom of Maudlin, who had lately that honour 
conferred upon him by a majority* of the whole University, at the intercession, and 

» A byword with the Jacobites for a staunch partizan. 

*» Jn allusion, probably, to the meetings of the late Constitution Club held there, 
under the auspices of Messrs. Meadowcourt, Ru:>sel, Cowper, and Bearcroft, Fellows of 
the college. 

* Dr. Keil, who, there is some reason to believe, really was a hard drinker. 

■* Dr. Dilaune of St. John's, whom Amhurst accuses, passim, of gaming, stock- 
jobbing, and peculation. 

» Thevoteswere— for Warton, 215, and for Randolph of All Souls, 179: "At which,** 
says honest Tom Heame, ** honest men are pleased, Mr. Warton having the character 

1857.] Oxford m 1721. 7 

upon the earnest reqnest, of great nambers of celebrated Toasts, who were best ac- 
quainted with his secret talents and hidden capacities. What charms this reverend 
rhymestpr may have to recommend him so universally to the good graces of the ladies, 
God and they only know ; visible ones I am sure he has none." 

The place yclept " Golgotha" at Cambridge is, or at least was, that part 
of the University church where the Heads of colleges sit. At Oxford, in 
the early part of last century, the name seems to have been given to a dif- 
ferent sort of place altogether, an apartment or room of state in the 
Clarendon Printing-house"^. The following items of secret history (No. 11) 
respecting it are not without interest : — 

'* But printing is not the only nor the principal use for which these stupendous stone 
walls were erected ; for here is that famous apartment, by idle wits and buffoons nick- 
named Golgotha, i. e. the place of Sculls or Meads of colleges and halls, where thev 
meet and debate. This room of state, or academical council-chamber, is adorned witn 
a fine portrait of her late majesty Queen Anne, wbich was presented to this assembly 
by a jolly fox -hunter in the neighbourhood ; for which benefaction they have admitted 
hitn into their company, and allow him the honour to smoke a pipe with them twice a- 
weck. This room is also handsomely wainscotted ; which is said to have been done by 
Older of a certain worthy gentleman who went to Oxford for a degree without any 
cl^m or recommendation ; and therefore, to supply that defect, promised to become a 
benefactor, if they would make him a graduate. Accor^ngly, as it is said, workmen 
were employed in great haste, and the Sculls, lest they should be behindhand in grati- 
tude, in as great haste, clapped a degree upon his back ; but the story unfortunately 
concludes, that when the Graduate was created, the Benefactor ran away, and left the 
good-natured Sculls to pay the joiners themselves.'' 

No. 13, with an apt motto from Juvenal, is devoted to the Footmen of 
the Oxford magnates, the undue influence they were supposed to possess, 
and their interference even in matters of college discipline. Without by 
any means vouching for its veracity, we give the following story of a very 
obliging prelate, as a sample of — the author's own inventiveness, per- 
haps : — 

• " Dr. Drybones", of Exeter, is also very famous for his familiarity with his footman, 
whom ho makes his confidant. Once upon a time, the late Bishop of Bristol", going to 
pay Dr. Drybones a visit, found him in his lodgings, by a little starving fire, with a 
rushlight candle before him, smoking a pipe, cheek by joul, with his man Thomas. Aa 
soon as my lord came in, up leaped the fellow in a great hurry, and was going out of 
the room ; but said his master — ' Sit down, Thomas, sit down and smoke your pipe out; 
here's nobody but my lord bishop, and he won't take it amiss : Thomas is a very honest, 
good-natur'd fellow, my lord, and sometimes I make him sit down, and smoke a pipe 
with me for company. Come, my lord, we'll drink his health, if you please.' * With all 
my heart,' said his lordship, and so it went round." 

Father William (Dr. Delaune), Dr. Pacquet (Charlett), of University 
College, Dr. Limekiln (Morley?), of Lincoln College, and Dr. Faustus 
(Dobson), of New College, are also reckoned in the number of " college 
noddles" who were under similar governance and control. 

At the close of the same paper, Amhurst gives some hints as to his? own 
Humble origin : — 

** Even I myself, overgrown as I am in fame and wealth, styled by all unprejudiced 

of a very honest, ingenious, and good-natured man ; and nobody looks upon Mr. Ran- 
dolph's being put up to be anything else besides spiglit." 

" At a later period the name was given to that part of the Sheldonian Theatre 
where the Heads of Houses sit. 

° Dr. Hole, whom Amhurst repeatedly accuses of parsimony and covetousness. 

• Dr. Smalridge. 

' This statement is not improbably a fiction. His grandfather was in orders, and 
A master in Merchant Taylors' School; and Amhurst himself was a native of Kent. 

8 Amhursfs " Terra Fllius.'' [July, 

and sensible persons, the instructxMr of mankind and the reformer of the two Universities, 
am by birth but an hamble plebeian, the younger son of an alehouse-keeper in Wapping, 
who was for several years in doubt which to make of me, a philosopher or a sailur : bnt 
at length, birthright prevailing, 1 was sent to Oxford, scholar of a college, and my elder 
brother a cabin-boy to the West Indies." 

Implying, no doubt, that the status of a cabin-boy was preferable to that of 
a scholar at Oxford. 

In Nos. 15 and 16, our satirist returns to the attack upon Warton and 
his Jacobite tendencies. After analyzing the Professor's political sermon 
preached at St. Mary's, on the 29th of May, 1719, from Hosea xiii. 9, and 
giving an account of Mr. Meadowcourt's ineffectual attempts to bring him 
to condign punishment for his hardly covert treason, he winds up with the 
following appeal to Whig political sympathy : — 

"Meanwhile, this is the man, O ye Whigs and patrons of liberty! O ye great 
talkers for King George and the Protestant succession ! this, I sny, is the man, who for 
preaching up perjury, rebellion, and bondage to the youth of the nation, for abusing the 
king, reviling his government, impeaching his right, and comparing him, and his 
glorious predecessor King William, with the worst of all tyrants and usurpers, gains 
esteem and encouragement among us ; enjoys at present a good place and a good fellow- 
ship, and lives in daily expectations and under daily promises of new preferments and 
new honours ! Whilst tliose few, those very few, who, in opposition to spirituul wick- 
edness, dared to assert the cause of the King, to whom they had sworn, and to oppose 
the person whom they had abjured, are left to the fury and vt ngeance of those men 
whose designs in the late doubtful crisis they watched and defeated : some of them 
have lost their degrees, some their fellowships, some have been expelled, and some 

From No. 19, which gives the story of an unfortunate Oxford scholar, 
who was only to be weaned from a dirty face, shabby clothes, and a life of 
learned drudgery, by the agency of certain heatix esprits of the University 
and the fair Toast Flavia, — all that we gather of interest is, that these same 
heaux esprits^ who were continually pestering poor Dick with such exhor- 
tations as — " Dick, prithee let's burn this d — d brown wig of thine ; get 
thee a little more linen," were themselves dressed to the very top of the 
fashion, and flaunted it '4u very rich lace, red stockings, and silver- 
button'd coats." 

The Oxford Poetical Club, under the presidency of Thomas Warton, had 
some existence probably beyond the fertile and mischievous inventiveness 
of our satirist. The history of its formation — not very truthfully related, 
perhaps — with a description of its original members, " persons of all facu]« 
ties and of no faculties," forms the subject of No. 25 ; wherein is also to be 
found a luculent exposition of the ten rules or orders of the society, where- 
by, among other things, it is provided " that no member, in any of his 
poetical lucubrations, shall transgress the rules of Aristotle, or any other 
sound critick, ancient or modern, or shall presume to reflect on the Church 
of England, or either of the two famous Universities ; and that no tobacco 
shall be smoked in the said society." 

No. 26 is devoted to the minutes of the first sitting of the said Poetical 
Club, which is soon enveloped in smoke ; Dr. Crassus^, the most portly of 
its members, having obtained leave to blow a cloud, by way of dispensation 
against the tobacco clause, on the ground of his '* being a very fat man, 
and of a gross constitution, and humbly apprehending that the use of tobacco 
would carry oflP those noxious, heavy particles which turn the edge of his 

4 From other sources we have found that he was one of the senior Fellows of St. 
John's College, but beyond that we have not been able to identify him. 

1857.] Oxford in 1721. 9 

fancy, and obstruct his intellectual perspiration." Por the humorous effu- 
sions which the satirist palms off upon Warton and his brother poets, we 
refer the reader to the pages of a former number'. 

With less of gallantry than poets mostly pretend to, our author is 
p rticularly severe (No. 28) upon the Oxford ladies, and more particularly 
** those divine creatures dignified by the name of Toasts,*' In those days, 
be it remembered, the intensity of a partizan's enthusiasm was measured, 
to a great extent, by his heartiness and persistence in drinking the heahh 
of the object of his affection, at all times and in all places ; and toastir.g 
was the homage paid equally by the Oxford freshman lo the pretty semp- 
stress who brought home his new bands and ruffles, and by the University 
don to his expatriated Chancellor, Ormond, or to his " King across the 
water," the first Pretender, The satirist's description of an Oxford Toast 
is by no means a flattering one, but as it bears reference to an institution 
which the University has long since learned to dispense with, we present 
it to the reader's notice : — 

" An Oxrord Toast, in the common acceptation of that phrase, is snch a crentnre as 
I am now going to describe. She is born of mepn estate, being the daughter of some 
Insolent mechanick who fancies himself a gentleman, and resolves to keep up his family 
by marrying his girl to a parson or a schoolmaster ; to which end he and»his wife call 
her prettif Miss, as soon as she knows what it means, and sends her to the dancing- 
school to learn to hold up her head, and turn out her toes : she is taught, from a child, 
not to play with any of the dirty boys and girls in the neighbourhoo<l ; but to mind her 
dancing, and have a great respect for the Gown. This foundation being laid, she goes 
on fast enough of herself, without any farther assistance, except an hoop, a g:.y suit of 
clothes, and two or three new holland smocks. Thus equipt, she frequents all the balls 
and public walks in Oxford; where it is a great chance if she does not in time meet 
with some raw coxcomb or other, who is her humble 8er\*ant ; waits upon her home ; 
calls upon her again the next day j dangles after her from place to place ; and is, at 
last, with some art and management, drawn in to marry her." 

Among other items of intelligence (No. 30) in a " Mail received from 
Oxford," we learn that TerrcB Filius has been recently voted by the Poetical 
Club, sitting in full conclave at the ** Three Tuns," '* not only an impudent 
and scurrilous, but also a silly and ridiculous libel ; and that Nos. 25 and 
26 have been ordered to be burnt, in sight of the members, by the hands 
of the common executioner." 

In No. 31, a letter of advice "to all Gentlemen-schoolboys who are 
designed for the University of Oxford," we have an amusing description of 
a " Sir Hobbledehoy," just let loose from one of the public schools of 
London or Westminster, his newly donned costume, and the consequential 
airs he assumes on the strength of his approaching entrance upon Univer- 
sity life : — 

" I observe that you no sooner shake off the authority of the birch, but you affect to 
distinguish yourselves from your dirty school-fellows by a new suit of drugget, a pair 
of prim ruffles, a new bob-wig, and a brazen-hilted sword ; in which tawdry manner 
you strut about town for a week or two before you go to college, giving yourselves airs 
at coffee-houses and booksellers* shops, and intruding yourselves into the company of us 
men, from all which, I suppose, you think yourselves your own masters, no more subject 
to control or confinement. Alas ! fatal mistake ! soon will you confess that the tyranny 
of a school is nothing to the tyranny of a college, nor the grammar-pedant to the aca- 
demical one ; for what signifies a smarting hide • [in comparison] to a bullied con- 
science ? What was Busby in comparison to D — 1 — ue (Delaune) ?'* 

Next comes a picture of the youth's reception, in those eminently tliirsty 

«• Gent. Mao. for October, 1837, pp. 374, 5 ; where the whole of the poetry of the 
TerrtB Filius is given, with a curious passage from the work relative to Dr. Crassus. 
* A more expressive word is employed in the original. 
Gent. Mao. Vol. CCIII. o 

10 Amhursfs '' Terrcs Filius" [ July> 

days, hy the jolly and genial foster-sons of Alma Mater — an original " Ver- 
dant Green" — a century and a half ago : — 

" After you liave 8wngg«Ted about town for some time, and taken your leave of all 
your old aunts [qv. haunts] and acquaintance, you set out in the stage-coach to Oxford, 
with recommendatory letters in your pocket to somebody or other in the college where 
you are to be admitted ; who introduces you, as soon as you get there, amon^ a parcel 
of honest, merry fellows, who think themselves obliged, in point of honour and common 
civility, to make you damnable drunk, and carry you, as they call it, a corpse to bed : 
the next night you are treated as civilly again, and perhaps for three or four nights 
afterwards. This glorious way of living being new to you, it confums the notion you 
had conceived, upon throwing away your satchels, that you are no longer 6ay«, but men, 
at your own disposal, and at liberty to follow your own inclinations. But let us now 
suppose this honey* week of jollity and drunkenness over; you are admitted into the 
college, and matriculated into the University ; you have taken the oaths to observe 
the statutes of both ; you have subscribed thirty -nine articles of religion and paid your 
fees ; in sliort, I will suppose you no longer strangers, but students, adopted babes of 
our venerable Alma Mater" 

Much of Mr. Amhurst's "advice to Gentlemen-schoolboys," &c. (Nos. 
81, 32, 33,) we are content to leave unnoticed, as of a nature to be ** more 
honoured in the breach than in the observance." From woeful experience, 
he is too keenly sensible that a youth may err in thinking and speaking too 
freely, and he therefore counsels his juniors who are desirous to '* get on" 
at the University — more in keen irony, perhaps, than in sober seriousness — 
to avoid the shoals upon which he has been shelved, by running into the 
opposite extremes of subservience and adulation. The following description 
of the genus ** toady, or sycophant," a creature not altogether extinct in 
our Universities in the present century even, though highly coloured, no 
doubt, is not undeserving notice :— 

" Leave no stone unttirned to insinuate yourselves into the favour of the Head and 
senior l''el ows of your respective colleges. Whenever you appear before them, conduct 
yourselves with all specious humility and demureness; convince them of the great 
veneration you have for their persons, by speaking very low, and bowing to the ground 
at every word ; wherever you meet, jump out of the way, with your caps in your handa^ 
and irive them the whole street to walk in, let it be as broad as it will. Always seem 
afraid to look them in the face, and make them believe that their presence strikes yon 
with a sort of awe and confusion ; but, above all, be very constant at chapel ; never 
think that you lose too much time at prayers, or that you neglect your studies too 
much, whilst you are shewing your respect to the Church." 

His warning as to the evil consequences of running into debt is redolent 
of wisdom and truthfulness, and ought to go far towards making amends 
for the questionable morality of much of his advice. As applicable to 
University life at the present day as it iias a century and a half ago, we 
give the passage without curtailment. Let every gownsman who reads 
them lay his words to heart, as little less than oracular, — experto crede : — 

" I have but one thing more to mention to you, which is, not to give into that foolish 
practice, so common at this time in the University, of running upon tick, as it is called. 
Raw, unthinking young men, having been kept short of money at school, and sent^ 
perhaps, to the University with a small allowance, are notwithstanding strangely 
flushed with the change of their condition, and care not how extravagant they are, 
whilst thev can support their extravagancies upon trust; especially when they have 
numberless examples before their eyes, of persons in as mean circumstances as them- 
selves, who cut a staring iii^ure in silk gowns, and bosh it about town in lace ruffles 
and flaxen tve-wigs. ITiey never consider that they pay at least cent, per cent, for 
their credit j and that the expense of one year's living in this manner will amount to 
as much as their parents can allow them for Ave or six ; nor that the continual dun- 
nings and insolent menaces of thdr creditors at the end of three or four years, at 

1857.] Oxford t« 1721. 11 

farthest, will make them weary of their lives, afraid to walk abroad, and nneai>y at 
home ; that it will, at length, reduce their fellowships to seqaestration, and themselves 
to misery and ruin." 

In No. 35 we have an amusing description of a visit which the author 
has recently paid — or perhaps pretends to have paid — incog, to his quondam 
College, St. John's. Beyond remarking that he is as embittered as usual 
against the President, Dr. Delaune ; makes merry with the chapel candle- 
sticks, epitaphs, and inscriptions ; visits the new cellar, and tastes its double 
and single Coll, (College ale) — " which the Fellows value themselves for 
having the best, both single and double, in the University ;" — and is particu- 
larly diffuse upon the curious contents of the College library and archive- 
room, — our limits preclude a more extended notice. 

One of his best papers perhaps is that upon ** Punning," (No. 39,) an art 
which, according to him, had been more than once employed, in the pulpit 
even, for promoting the restoration of the Stuarts : — 

" Indeed, the practice of punning in the pulpit is at present somewhat abated. Dr. 
South being, I think, the last learned divine that is eminent fur hil spiritual joking to 
save souls. But it is not yet wholly disused ; especially wlien tlie perverseness of the 
timt-s will not permit the good man to deliver bis meaning plainly and cxnl*cltly to the 
congregation. Thus, the Reverend Mr. Wharton, on the 29th of May, 1719, told us, 
in a very emphatical manner, that justice (hmongst other great wonders which it per- 
forms) rettoreth all things; and I have heard of another orthodox pastor who chose 
for his text, (which, by way of preamble, he told us was the Word of Qod) James the 
third *, and the eighth. Some persons have allege d very positively, in vindication of 
the clergy herein, that this pun-ick art is of divine institution, and have produced 
several instances out of the Old and New Testament to prove their assertion ; but as 
it is not the proper business of laymen to dt'cide in these cases, I will leave it to the 
determination of the proper judges." 

The paper concludes with a " Supplement to the Oxford Jests," com- 
prising ** a few more jests, bulls, and puns, of a later date ;" some of which, 
if they really are his own, do credit to his inventiveness. The following 
joke we surely have met with elsewhere : — 

" A famous preacher of Corpus Christi College had prepared a tickling sermon to 
preach before the University, in which he was very severe upon the soldiers, who were 
then quartered in Oxford, and called red the devil's livery; but, by mistake, he 
preached it upon a scarlet-day, when the Vice-Chancellor and all the Doctors go to 
church in red." 

University Fellowships for life find no advocate in Nicholas Amhurst. 
Though with him, very possibly, the grapes may have been sour, and a life- 
Fellowship may have been looked upon as an abomination only from the 
moment that he found himself debarred from all prospect of holding one, 
we recommend his piper (No. 40) on the limitation of the tenure of Fellow- 
ships to the notice of those who are qualified by youth or legislatorial rank 
to take an active interest in the subject. Though by no means free from 
the acrimony which too frequently characterizes his writings, it is ably 
written, and his arguments are powerfully supported. 

No. 41 is devoted to a letter — an imaginaiy one, perhaps — from a Whig 
gentleman-commoner at Oxford, and a member of the late Constitution 
Club. The worthy " Constitutioner " gives a description of the events of 
the memorable 6th of October, 1715, and is of opinion that it is by no 
means unlikely that he should have been *' knocked on the head by the 

* Of England and of Scotland refpeotively. 

12 Amhursfs'^TerrceFiliusy [July, 

West Saxons ^ if General Pepper's* seasonable assistance had not spoilt 
their longing :" — 

" The admirable conduct of which gentleman in surprising and quelling a city so 
universally disuilected will, no doubt, in some future unprostituted, ungarbled, history 
of the Rebellion, meet with its due encomium ; for my part, though I verily believe I 
owe my life to him, I dare not attempt it. The scene was now altered. We coijd 
walk the streets without fear of being stoned, had no occasion for pocket pistols, and, 
thanks to the soldiers, might now and then drink the King's health, without being 
fined for it. One only inconvenience remained ; because in gratitude we kept company 
with officers, less conversant indeed in metaphysics, but men of ten times more sense, 
truth, loyalty, and good breeding than themselves, our academical inquisitors g^ve ufl 
the denomination and degree of RakeSf and members of the Red-coat Club" 

The University Black Book, if we are to believe our satirist (No. 43), 
was in his day an instrument of vengeance unsparingly wielded by the 
Jacobite and High-Church partizans : — 

" There is, in the University of Oxford, (and, for aught I know, in Cambridge, too,) 
a dreadful register called the Black Book, (because no person, whose name is enrolled 
in it, can stand for his degree,) which the proctors for the time being keep in their 
custody, and can put anybody into it, at whom, whether justly or not, they shall take 
ofi'encc. This was at first designed to punish refractory persons and immoral offenders ; 
but at present it is made use of to vent party spleen, and is filled up with Whigs, Con- 
stitutioners, and Bangorians," [followers of Bishop Hoadly]. 

The power, too, of discommoning, or rather the abuse of it, comes under 
the lash of his unsparing censure : — 

" Tlio last thing which I shall mention as a support to the cause of High Church in 
the Universities, is the power they have to di.«coinmon townsmen, whereby they keep 
the tr;. de-men in awe as well as matriculated persons; for if any^saucy blue apron 
dares to aflront any venerable person, either by talking freely of him, or defending the 
present government, all scholars are immediately forbid to have any dealings or com- 
merce with him, until he asks pardon, and makes what other satisfaction the University 
thinks fit to require." 

No. 44 is almost wholly devoted to unmitigated abuse of Joseph Trapp, 
the then late Professor of Poetry, his translation of Virgil, and his Pra" 
lectiones Poeticm, After quoting from the Latin text of the latter work 
at very considerable length, he breaks forth indignantly, by way pf exposi- 
tion, into he following amusing tirade: — 


* Tliat is, en et ecce^ my noble auditors ! Walk in and see, ladies and gentlemen. 
Are not these fine new painted tdtar-pieces and glass windows? Have not we new 
chapels ami new quadrangles in abundnnce ? Now who but fools and traitors can wish 
that they were better inhabited ?* With this pathetical invective doea this voucher for 
Dr. Sach — U's^ blasphemous quotations at his trial, this right loyal chaplain to Sir 

■ Oxford was situate in the kingdoin of Mercia, we believe, not Wessex. 

' It was upon the occasion of Pepper's dragoons being marched into Oxford, and 
the University of Cambridge much about the same time receiving a royal present of 
Bishop Moore's library, that the well-known epigram was penned : — 

** The kinff observing with judicious eyes 
The state of both his Universities, 
To one a reximent sent, — ask you for why ! 
That learned body wantt^-d loyaltv : 
To t'other books he gave, as well discerning 
How much that loyal body wanted learning.'* 

Answered quite as happily, by Sir William Browne, on behalf of Cambridge : — 

** The king to Oxford sent a troop of horse, 
For Tories own no arrtument but force ; — 
With equal care to Cambridge books he sent. 
For Whigs allow no force but argument." 

7 Trapp was manager for Sacfaeverell at his trial in 1710. 

1857.] Oxford in 1721. 13 

O^n — e P — pps*, and the late* Lord Bolinbroke, conclude his immortal preelections — 
Oxonium quceras in Oxonio, and such old stnll*! — Fie for shame! Are these the sub- 
Ume flighu, is this the in^ii/ne recens indictum ore alio of so eminent a poet ? 'Ts the 
common cant of every Jacobite tapster in Oxford. After having: led Hob and Dick a 
dance through half-a- dozen spacious colleges, not forgetting the NicU-nackatory** by the 
way, he lugs them to the ale-house. * And now what thinkst ?' says he. * Are not 
these Whigs precious rascals, to run down such a fine place as ouis is?* *Ay, to be 
zure,' quoth Hob. * Fine pleace ! Udzooks, I believe 'tis the hugtst varsity alive. 
Lawd, lawd, Dick, what shall us zay to otir Kate, for having her at whonie ?' Hun- 
dreds of these admirers has our Alma Mater procured herself by her fine gown and 
petticoat ; lovers who knew no more of her good or bad qualities than poor Hob did of 
the Dorick or Corinthian order, when he was gaping at her buildings.'' 

In the Oxford Smart (No. 46), a sort of hybrid animal between the 
Bond-street lounger of forty years ago and the Addisonian Mohock of a 
century before, what with his pettitoes, his dram of citron, his skilful 
chaunting, his '* delicate jaunt,'* and his " long natural" tie-wig, we hardly 
recognize the prototype of the fast young undergraduate of more recent 
times : — 

" Mr. Frippery is a Smart of the first rank, and is one of those who come in their 
academical undress every morning, between 10 and II, to Lyne's coffee-house; »fter 
which, he takes a turn or two upon the Park, or under Merton Wall, whilst the dull 
Rejfulars'^ are at dinner in their hall, according to statute. About one, he dines alone 
in his chamber upon a boiled chicken or some pettitoes ; after which, he allows himself 
an hour, at least, to dress in, to make his afternoon appearance at Lyne*s ; from whence 
be adjonms to Hamilton's about five ; from whence, (after strutting about the room 
for a while, and drinking a dram of citron,) he goes to chapel, to shew how genteelly 
he dresses, and liow well he can chaunt. After prayers, he drinks tea with some cele- 
brated To ist, and then waits upon her to Maudlin Grove or Paradise Garden, and back 
again. He seldom eats any supper, and never reads anything but novels and romances. 
"\Viien he walks the street, he is easily distins^islied by a stiff silk gown, which rustles 
in the wind as he struts along ; a flaxen tie-wig, or sometimes a long natural one, 
which reaches down below his rump ; a broad bully-cock'd hat, or a square cap of nbove 
twice the usual size; white stockings, thin Spanish leather shoes; his clothes lined 
with tawdry s Ik, and his shirt ruffled down the bosom, as well as at the wrists. Be- 
sides all which marks, he has a delicate jaunt in his gait, and smells very philosophi- 
cally of essence." 

And yet the Smart was a very fast man in his way, and could ** d all 

strangers, or knock them down, as well as a ragged servitor of Jesus, or 
an half-starved^ scholar of St. John's :'* despite of his finical airs, he could 
in his manner and language be as rude and ungentlemanly as a Billingsgate 
porter or a Lambeth market-gardener, giving ** water-language" on the 
Thames: — 

" Would the Smarts be content to be foppish and ignorant themselves (which seems 
to be their sole study and ambition), I could freely forgive them ; but they cannot for- 
bear laughing at everj' body that obeys the statutes and differs from them ; or (to use 
the proper dialect of the place) that does not ctit as hold a bosh as they do. Tliey have 
singly, for the most part, very good as.surances; but when they walk together in bodies, 
as they often do, how impre^able are their foreheads ! They point at every soul, 
langh very loud, and whisper as loud as they laugh. * Demme, Jack, there goes a prig ! 
Jjct us blow the puppy up. — Upon which, they all stare him full in the face, turn him 
from the wall as he passes by, and set up an hor-^e-latigh, which puts the plain, raw 
novice out of countenance, and occasions great triumjh among these tawdry despera- 
does. There is one thing in which the afores^aid gownmen are very courtly and well- 
bred, — I mean in [not] paying their debts : for you are not to suppose that they wear 

■ Sir Con-itantine Phipps, late Chancellor of Ireland. He was counsel for Sacheverell. 

* Lately a lord, but now a lord no longer ; by reason of his attainder. 
^ A nickname given to the Ashmolean Museiun. 

* The slow men. of the present day. 

' Said in allusion to himself, no doubt. 

14 Lord Campbell's Lives of the Chief Justices. [July, 

all this rich drapery at their own proper cost and charges ; all the Smarts in Oxford 
are not noblemen and gentlemen-commoners, but chiefly of a m< aner rank, who can- 
not afford to be thus fine any longer than their meicers, tailors, shoe-makers, and per* 
riwig-makers will tick with them ; v hich now and then lasts three or four years ; ufter 
which they brush off, and return^ like meteors, into the same obscurity IJrom whence 
they arose." 

The " rise and progress," too, of the Smart, his transition from the g^b 
state of the country clown to the butterfly life of the University beau, is 
amusingly described : — 

" I liave observed a great many of these transitory fopling?, who came to the Univer- 
sity with their fathers (rusty old country farmers) in linscy-wolscy coats, greasy sun- 
burnt heads of hair, clouted shoes, yarn-stockings, flapping hats with silver hat-bands, 
and muslin neckcloths run with red at the buttom. A month or two afterwards I 
have met them wiih bob-wigs and new shoes, Oxford-cut; a month or two more after 
this, they appeared in dru>'get-cIothcs and worsted-stockings; then in tye-wigs and 
ruffles ; and then in silk gowns ; till by degrees they were metamorphosed into com- 
plete Smarts, and d— d the old country putts, their fathers, with twenty foppish airs 
and gesticulations/' 

The most interesting portion of the volume is of a nature, unfortunately, 
that will not admit of our giving a sample of its quality, by way of extract. 
We allude to the spirited engraving, representing the interior of the Shel- 
donian Theatre, which faces the title-page ; the subject being an unfor- 
tunate undergraduate, attacked, in presence of the Vice-Chancellor and 
other University dons, by an irate damsel, who fiercely plucks ofl^ his wig 
and bands, while a snarling cur flies at his heels, an old woman hurries 
away with his cap, and a college dignitary — his tutor, probably, — strips him 
of his academic costume. Tlie nature of the offence that has been com- 
mitted by this modernized Actseon, it is left for us to divine,— no very 
difficult task, perhaps,— see Number One of the "Rake's Progress.'* 
TV, Hogarth fee. is the signature to the engraving ; which is rendered ad- 
ditionally interesting by the fact that, so far as we are aware, it has never 
been not ced by any of the collectors of his works, and that, designed and 
executed at a period when the " pictorial Shakespeare" of the eighteenth 
century was as yet unknown to fame, it is among the very earliest produc- 
tions of his equally prolific pencil and burin. 


In this third volume, which comprises the biographies of Kenyon, Ellen- 
borougli, and Tentenien, Lord Campbell concludes his amusing series of 
'* The Lives of tlie Chief Justices of England.** From its smartness of 
style, its profusion of anecdotes, its predominance of disparagement, and 
its frequent narration of cases in which important principles or memorable 
persons were concerned, it must be acknowledged that the work is singu- 
larly entertaining, and entertainment, probably, was what the author most 
endeavoured to afford. A little more of dignity and wisdom would certainly 
have accorded better with the idea most people entertain of a Lord Chief 
Justice; but the seriousness, even of that great official personage, must 
have its relaxation, even though it should be found in making small of his 
predecessors. This, no doubt, when the wig is cast aside, is as good a 

• *t 

The Lives of the Chief Justices of England. From the Norman Conquest till 
the Death of Lord Tenterden. By John Lord Campbell, LL.D., F.R.S.E., Ac In Three 
Volumet. Vol. IIL" (London : John Murray.) 

1857.] Lord CampbelPs Lives of the Chief Justices. 15 

pastime as St^h Jinks, It comes, also, with something of a pledge for 
honest purpose from a judge who dares to say, '* With what measure I 
mete, be it measured to me aj^ain.'* 

And, in truth, Lord Campbell sets before his readers both the bane 
and antidote. If he writes of a Chief Justice in a depreciating, disrespect- 
ful tone, he faithfully records the facts from which a more favourable judg- 
ment ought in fairness to have issued. If his own decision is sometimes 
wrong, he always states the evidence exactly and in full, and by this plain- 
dealing often more than counterbalances the effects of his own prejudice. 
All this is nowhere more apparent than in the life of Kenyon. If Lord 
Campbell thinks meanly, and writes contemptuously, of any one of his pre- 
decessors, it is of the one whom we have just named. He has collected a 
crowd of little lowering anecdotes concerning him, which are^sown broad- 
cast in the biography ; — he takes care to tell us, that Lord Kenyon *' is said 
piously to have believed to his dying day that the sun goes round the earth 
once eveiy twenty-four hours ;" that he was, in his student-days, chary of his 
halfpence, and often gave a promise where a penny was expected ; that his 
slender store of Latin made him more than once the butt of persons who 
were mean enough to assail him in his own court in a language which he 
could not understand ; that he was passionate, dogmatic, and ignorant in 
an extraordinary degree on all subjects but law ; and that the very Eng- 
lish in whitth his judgments were delivered was full of errors of construc- 
tion and of incongruous metaphors, and of scraps of inappropriate as well 
as bad Latin, which, it is pretty broadly intimated, brought discredit on 
the bench. He tells us, too, that Lord Thurlow always called Kenyon 
" Taffy ;" that Home Tooke wantonly insulted him, and triumphed in the 
feat; and that George the Third, whose own ignorance and narrowness of 
mind it would have been hard to find a parallel to in all the broad dominions 
that he ruled, presumed, nevertheless, at a levee, to recommend the Chief 
Justice to stick to his good law and leave off his had Latin — advice which, 
adds his biographer, *" notwithstanding his extraordinary loyalty, he could 
not be induced to follow." But, side by side with all these trivial dis- 
paragements, there is — as we have said — the faithful record of far more 
than an equipoise of good. Hard, indomitable labour under adverse cir- 
cumstances, a very extensive knowledge of the laws that he administered, 
perfect fearlessness and conscientiousness in the performance of his judicial 
duties, quick and strong and generous affections, and a uniform propriety 
of personal conduct supported and sustained by loftiest convictions, — to any 
of wiiich no reader of the biography can doubt Lord Kenyon's claim, — were 
probably, upon the whole, a very adequate outfit for an English judge, with- 
out the aristocratic birth, and classical proficiency, and familiarity with sci- 
ence, which, undoubtedly, his Lordship gave no sign of in his public life. 

In some respects Lord Kenyon's career deserves to be a model to young 
men. In economy and assiduous application to his business, and self-denying 
observance of all moral obligation, no worthier example could be set before 
a student of .the law. It was mainly by these means that the provincial 
attorney's clerk — without fortune, friends, or education, or even brilliant 
powers of mind, to help him — ascended, through a succession of important 
offices, to the Chief Justiceship of England, which he held through four- 
teen years. Lord Campbell traces with a ready pen the intervening stages 
between the beginning and the end of his professional career. Disappointed 
of a partnership with the practitioner to whom he had been articled, Ken- 
jon, we are informed, entered as a student at the Middle Temple, where he 

16 Lord CampbelVs Lives of the Chief Justices. [July, 

** pored over his law-books day and night." It was at this period that he 
became acquainted with Home Tooke and Dunning, with whom he used to 
dine, in vacation-time, at a cheap eating-house near Chancery-lane. From 
Dunning, at a later period, he derived some advantages beyond the wit and 
wisdom with which we may suppose these meagre dinners were enriched. 
Discerning those "extraordinary merits as a lawyer" which had through 
years of "hope deferred" escaped all other eyes, Dunning soon put them 
to a profitable use by giving Kenyon occupation as hi^fag : — 

" With most wonderful celerity," we are told, " ho picked out tho important facta 
and joints of law which lay buried in immense masses of papers, and enabled the popu* 
lar leader to conduct a cause almo^it without trouble as well as if he had been studying 
it for da\8 together, — and many hundreds of opinions which Dunning had never read 
were copied from Kenyou's MS. by^ Dunning's clerk, and signed by Dunning*8 baud.*' 

This serious labour was indeed without direct remuneration, but it gradu- 
ally became known in the profession, and Kenyon soon became engaged in 
a large and lucrative practice of his own as chamber-counsel. Services of 
a somewhat similar character which he afterwards rendered to Lord Thur- 
low, were rewarded by the Chief Justiceship of Chester, — to which, besides 
honour in his own county, a handsome salary was annexed. The over- 
bearing Thurlow, who had helped him to this first elevation, continued ever 
afterwards his powerful and faithful friend. To that friendship Kenyon was 
indebted for a seat in the House of Commons, and for the successive offices 
of Attorney-General and Master of the Rolls ; whilst the high character 
which he won for himself in the esteem of Pitt induced that minister to 
promote him, when a vacancy was made by Mansfield's resignation, to the 
Chief Justiceship of all England. On the day that he was sworn in he was 
cremated, by letters patent under the Great Seal, Baron Kenyon of Gred- 
ington, in the county of Flint. Between this crowning honour and his 
earliest emergence into office only eight years had intervened. 

Ihe account of the concluding portion of Lord Kenyon's life is very 
agreeably written. Lord Campbell intersperses in his narrative a goodly 
store of those entertaining anecdotes — pointed, sometimes, with jest and 
gibe, and sometimes pregnant with instruction — which have more than 
once made the life of a busy lawyer a book of deepest interest, as well as 
rare amusement. We have only room for his Lordship's pleasant memory 
of a first visit to that court in which he now presides. He says, — 

" I now come to a trial at which I was myself actually present — the prosecution of Had- 
field for shooting at George III. On the 28th of June, 1800, being .yet a boy, for the first 
time in my life I entered the Court of King's Bench, and with these eyes I beheld Lord 
Kenyon. The scene was by no means so august as I had imagined to myself. I expected 
to see the judges sitting in the great hall, which, though very difibrently constructed 
for magnificence, might be compared to the Roman Forum. The place where the trial 
was going on was a small room enclosed from the open space at the south-east angle, 
and here were crowded together the judges, the jury, the counsel, the attorneys, and 
the reporters, with little accommodation for bystanders. My great curiosity was to 
iee Erskine, and I was amazingly struck by his noble features and animated aspect. 
Mitford, the Attorney-General, seemed dull and heavy ; but Grant, the Solicitor-Ge- 
neral, immediately inspired the notion of extraordinary sagacity. Law looked logical 
and sarcastic. Garrow verified his designation of 'the tame ttiger.' There were five 
or six rows of counsel, robed and wigg.^d, sitting without the bar, — but I had never 
heard the name of any of them mentioned before. I was surprised to find the four 
judges all dressed exa(;tly alike. Tliis not being a saint's day, the Cliiet Justice did not 
wear his collar of S8 to distinguish him from his brethren. There was an air of supe- 
riority about him, aa if accustomed to give rule, but his physiognomy was coarse and 


1857.] Lord CampbelVs Lives of the Chief Justices. 1 7 

In one or two particulars, besides his excellence of conduct and his 
knowledge of the law, some of Lord Kenyon's successors on the bench 
might have done well to imitate him. Here is one : — 

"He recommended that fashionable gaminji: establishments should be in<Ucted m 
eommon nuisances, addin;; this threat, which is said to have caused deep dismay : ' If 
any such prosecutions are fairly brought before me, and the guilty parties are convicted, 
whatever may be their rank or station in the country, though they may be the flnt 
ladies in the land, they shall certainly exhibit themselves in the pillory.' " 

A more amiable manifestation of his conscientiousness in the discharge of 
duty is recorded in the following passage. Lord Campbell says, — 

" I ought gratefiilly to record that he was very kind to the students who attended 
the courts. I cannot say that I ever heard (with one exception) of his inviting any of 
ns to dinner, but I have a lively recollection that, our box being near the bench at Guild- 
hall, — while the counsel were speaking he would bring the record to u^ and explain the 
issues joined upon it which the jury were to try." 

The latter days of Lord Kenyon's life were saddened by a great be- 
reavement. His eldest son — a promising young man, whom he loved with 
the strong love of his affectionate nature — was taken from him by death ; 
and we may well imagine the agony inflicted on him by this loss from his 
pathetic exclamation as he gazed into the tomb, — '* There is room enough 
far both /" Within a few months they were both there. 

His immediate successor in office was Lord Elienborough — a man as un- 
like him in every respect but that of legal knowledge as any the profession 
could supply. In Ellenborough's case there was no illiterateness for Lord 
Campbell to bewail. If he, also, brought discredit on the bench, it was by 
the want of something even more important and more indispensable than 
the education and the habits of a gentleman. The son of a bishop, and a 
distinguished student both at school and college, Mr. Law went to his legal 
Btudies with every preparation his biographer could wish for duly made. 
He went to them, too, with a deliberate purpose to obtain one of their 
great prizes. With this aim in view, he shrank from none of the driest or 
severest labours that promised to contribute in the end to its accomplish- 
ment. Conscious of his own capacity for disputation at the bar, he had 
nevertheless resolution enough, in order to render success more certain, to 
subject himself for years to the ill-paid drudgery of answering cases, and 
of other irksome business of chamber-practice. When, at length, he joined 
the Northern Circuit, his employment was from the first considerable. 
But in London he was not so popular ; and it was not till seven years 
afterwards, when the chief management of the defence of Warren Has- 
tings was entrusted to him, that he rose, at a bound, to high forensic 
eminence. In that great cause, with all who were loveliest and noblest in 
the land for auditors, and all who were ablest in eloquence for antagonists, 
he proved himself in no respect unequal to the extraordinary occasion. His 
rare abilities were indeed made amply manifest ; but so, also, was the 
harsh, arrogant, and overbearing disposition which abided with him both 
as barrister and judge. His ^knowledge of the law more than once gained 
him a superiority which — with Sheridan, and Fox, and Burke arrayed as 
managers against him — neither strength of intellect nor unscrupulous bold- 
ness, though he had both in perfection, would ever have procured him. 
At last, after the trial had " dragged its slow length along'* for eight years 
after he had been engaged for the defence, Mr. Law had the satisfaction to 
hear the acquittal of his illustrious client, and to know that his own pro-. 

Gekt. Mag. Vol. CCIll. d 

18 Lord CampbelVs Lives of the Chief Justices. [J«ly> 

tracted task was ended. " When the trial began," says Lord Campbell, 
'* he had little more than provincial practice, and when it ended he was 
next to Eiskine — with a small distance between them." 

Seven years after the close of this memorable cause, Mr. Law became 
Lord Chief Justice, with the title of Lord EUenborough. He had in the 
meantime signalized himself in several important trials, and had even 
baffled the wit of Sheridan in a cross-examination, and got from him an 
admission fatal to the prisoners he befriended. He had also held the office 
of Attorney- General for a single year, and had rendered that year notorious 
by his stern and, unfortunately, successful endeavour to procure the con- 
viction of Governor Wall — a triumph, we should apprehend, not often 
envied him where justice and humanity are prized. 

The hardness oif character which was manifested in this case, and the 
insolent asperity which had often marked the advocate's manner, appear in 
a more disagreeable intensity in the demeanour of the judge and peer. 
Amongst the interesting particulars which Lord Campbell has recorded of 
his sayings and doings in these capacities, there is more than one instance 
of a boisterous, bullying tone of oratoiy both in parliament and on the 
bench, of unprovoked insult both to barristers and witnesses, and of ex- 
cessive and unfair severity to those who had to defend themselves before 
him, such as — in the words Earl Stanhope once applied to him in the 
House of Lords — "might have been expected from Jeffreys or Scroggs." 
Towards the close of his life this aggressive and unmerciful spirit brought 
on him more than once a bitter, but not undeserved, punishment. The 
successive cases of Lord Cochrane, Dr. Watson, and Mr. Hone were a 
succession of disgraceful defeats to the Chief Justice. On the trial of Lord 
Cochrane, he did indeed succeed in obtaining a verdict against the de- 
fendant, but the sentence he pronounced upon him was so excessive that 
society, in all its ranks, was shocked by it : the House of Lords looked 
coldly on the Judge ; the citizens of Westminster immediately re-elected 
Lord Cochrane as their representative in Parliament ; the Crown remitted 
the most offensive part of the sentence; and a bill was brought into the 
legislature to abolish for ever a mode of punishment which it was felt that 
Lord EUenborough had, in intention, shamefully misapplied. On the trial 
of Dr. Watson, the jury stood out against the stern endeavours of the 
Judge, and his countenance was seen to collapse as their foreman intimated 
to him that their verdict needed nothing but the form of consultation. . The 
position of the Chief Justice was even worse on the two trials of Mr. Hone: — 
his cruellest efforts to procure a conviction failed of their effect ; he was 
compelled, at one part of the proceedings, to whine for forbearance from 
the very defendant whom he had sworn to crush ; and he had, at the close 
of each case, the mortification to hear a verdict of not guilty welcomed 
in a crowded court with shouts of incontroUable applause. It was the 
popular belief at the time that the Chief Justice was killed by these trials ; 
and Lord Campbell corroborates that belief to the extent of bearing witness 
that '' he certainly never held up his head in public after." 

Twelve months subsequently to the acquittals of Mr. Hone, Lord Ellen- 
borough died. In a summary of his character, his biographer metes to 
him all due praise. " His bad temper and inclination to aiTogance,'* we 
are told, " are forgotten while men bear in willing recollection his un- 
spotted integrity, his sound learning, his vigorous intellect, and his manly 
intrepidity in the discharge of his duty." Lord Campbell closes the 
biography with a selection of what he looks on as the facetuB of Lord. 

1857.] . Lord Campbell 8 Lives of the Chief Justicei. 19 

Ellenborough — a selection in which ill-natured insolence, verging on bru- 
tality, is undoubtedly far more conspicuous than wit. 

Under the impulse of a stubborn self-will, Lord Ellenborough turned 
aside from tempting prospects in the Church to enter on his successful 
struggle for the honours of the law. His successor, Lord Tenterden, was 
instigated by others to the same preference between the two professions. 
It is evident enough that Lord Ellenborough's choice was a judicious one ; 
but in Lord Tenterden' s case — prosperous as his career was — we cannot 
read bis biography without regietting that his lot was not cast amidst the 
duties of the peacefuller and nobler calling, with some fine old parsonage- 
house, inviting him by still and sweet seclusion to the studies he delighted 
in, for a dwelling-place, and, perchance, a mitre dimly visible afar off in 
the vista of his day-dreams. 

Lord Tenterden was bom in the same condition of life as Bishop Taylor 
— a bai'ber*8 apn. A comprehensive eulogy, both of his qualities and con- 
duct, is involved in his biographer's statement, that — 

"Hie scrnbby little boy who ran after his father, carrying for him a pewter basin, a 
case of razors, and a hair-powder bag, through the streets oS Canterbury, became Chief 
Justice of England, was installed among tlie peers of the United Kingdom, attended by 
the whole profession of the law, proud of him as their leader ; and when the names of 
orators and statesmen, illustrious in their day, have perished with tlieir frothy declama- 
tions, Lord Tenterden will be respected as a great magistrate, and his judgments h ill 
be studied and admired." 

But when we learn from Lord Campbeirs narrative that this uncommon 
elevation was achieved without the help either of influential patrons or 
commanding powers of intellect, by the mere strength of uniform propriety 
of conduct and indomitable energy of application, the example is felt to be 
on that account more imitable, and more worthy also of our admiration and 

In no part of Lord Tenterden's career is any gleam of brilliancy to be 
discerned. The dull boy became, by patient industiy, the finest scholar in 
the King's School at Canterbury ; and, in his eighteenth year, won by his 
proficiency a vacant scholarship at Oxford. This was at the very outset of 
his college life, and it ushered in still better honours. Four years after- 
wards he enjoyed the distinction of having gained a prize for Latin poetry 
and for English prose, and of being elected a Fellow and appointed one of 
the tutors of his college ; and he had also been chosen as the private tutor 
of a son of Mr. Justice Buller. It was by this gentleman's advice that he 
was induced to enter on the study of the law, and to remove, after a resi- 
dence of seven years, from Oxford to the Middle Temple. In his new pur- 
suits he exercised the same steady, all-subduing perseverance which had so 
well served him in his scholastic triumphs, and beginning — after an un- 
usually short term of preparatory study, which his extraordinary applica- 
tion had rendered ample — to practise as a special pleader, he continued 
through seven years, as Lord Campbell tells us, ^* sitting all day, and a 
great part of every night, in his chambers, — verifying the old maxim incul- 
cated on city apprentices, ' Keep your shop, and your shop will keep 
you.' " 

The shop kept Abbott well, and laid moreover a solid foundation for his 
eminent success after he had been called to the bar. A few years only had 
elapsed after that event before his fees fell little short in annual amount 
of the most that Erskine ever had received. Nevertheless, in some parti- 
culars which are commonly held indispensable to forensic superiority, he 

30 Lard CampbelPs Lives 0/ the Chief Ju$tice$. [ Jtiljr, 

continued to be, to the very last, deficient. He had no self-confidence — no 
dexterity in cross-examining a refractory witness — ^no eloquence, even in his 
advocacy of the right— and, above all, no skill or spirit in making the 
worse appear the better causes The weapons by which his honourable 
fame and large emoluments were won, were strict integrity, sound and ex- 
tensive knowledge of the law, strong sense, terse and accurate language, 
and a conscientious application of his mind to every case he was engaged 
in. It was by these qualities that he gained the respect of the bar and the 
attention of the bench, and, after a toilsome servitude of twenty years, the 
office of a puisne judge. Two years afterwards he was promoted to the 
Chief Justiceship which was made vacant by Lord Ellenborough's death. 

The habits wiiich had all along predominated in the Chief Justice*s na- 
ture were just those which would be sure to render him a cautious, upright, 
and impartial judge ; and we find, accordingly, that he was, during the 
fourteen years in which he presided in the Court of King^s Bench, conspi- 
cuous for those great judicial qualities. Lord Campbell corroborates his 
own convictions upon this point by the opinions of Lord Brougham and 
Mr. Justice Talfourd, which he quotes at very considerable length. After 
dwelling on the irritability to which he was occasionally subject. Lord 
Brougham happily describes the Chief Justice, with every trace of bygone 
storm dismissed, — 

" Addressing himself to the points in the cause with the same perfect calm and in- 
difference with which a mathematician porsues the investigation of an abstract truth, 
as if there were neither the parties nor the advocates in existence, and only bent upon 
the discovery and the elucidation of truth." 

It was the boast of Curran, that the profession of the law had in his per* 
eon raised the son of a ^peasant to the table of his Prince. But it did, we 
think, even more than tnis for the poor boy whose beginnings in the streets 
of Canterbury were so obscure and lowly. Five years before his death it 
raised him to the dignity of a Baron of the United Kingdom, — an elevation 
which his biographer regrets, on the ground that it associates the memo- 
ries of senatorial failure with the fame of an irreproachable judge. Un- 
doubtedly, Lord Tenterden*s exertions in the House of Lords will add 
nothing to the honour he had earned upon the bench ; but the example of 
that elevation will be, nevertheless, always valuable, though it were only for 
the encouragement it gives to labour and integrity of life. The good things 
unprincipled ability may gain were widely enough known ; but the very 
different lesson which Lord Tenterden's career furnishes was still far from 

We cannot take our leave of Lord Campbell's third volume without a 

Sarting word, expressive of our hearty liking of the series it concludes, 
luch there is in it that many will dissent from and dislike ; but the out- 
spoken spirit which prevails throughout it — its abundant store of entertain- 
ment and instruction, of wit and wisdom, and its easy grace of style — will 
render it a work which none can weary of, or wholly disapprove. May it 
be long before any diligent continuator can have an opportunity of includ- 
ing his Lordship's own life in some future collection of ** The Lives of the 
Chief Justices of England." 

1857.] 21 


Thb few particulars that have come down to us relative to Geffrei Gaimar 
the Trouvire** are wholly confined to such notices of him as can be gathered 
from his mutilated narrative ; in the course of which he not unfrequently, 
but always in the third person, makes mention of himself. Availing our- 
selves of the research with which the various details relative to him and his 
work have been collected and examined by the eminent medisevalists whose 
names are subjoined, we shall preface our remarks upon his Chronicle with 
some few of their leading results. 

From the closing lines of his poem. Gaimar ° appears to have been 
attached in some capacity — that of chaplain, perhaps — to the household 
of lady Constance, the wife of a certain Ralph Fitz-Gilbert ; who was 
upon terms of intimacy, he says, with Walter Espec of Helmsley in York- 
shire. This latter personage, it yr^^^.lt^rtained, died in 1153, and we 
are hence enabled, with toleral^vC(rrt8itnty,.-to conclude that Gaimar lived 
about the middle of the twelfll/.Century. Tram his mention, too, of David, 
king of Scotland, who reigned from 1,1 2^ to 1153, of Queen Adelaiz of 
Louvain, who died in 1151. and of Nicholas de Trailli, who was living in 
1135, Mr. Stevenson considers himself wt¥>tj^ ted in fixing upon 1140 as 
the time about which his work was written. Mr. Wright says that some* 
where between 1 147 and 1151 was the period. 

The principal residence of the Fitz-Gilbert family was in Lincolnshire; 
and this, Mr. Stevenson remarks, may serve to explain Gaimar*s allusion, 
among his authorities, to the " Book of Wassingburc**" — now Washing- 
borough, near Lincoln, — a place at which the monks of Kirkstead Abbey 
(with which Ralph Fitz-Gilbert was intimately connected) held property, 
the gift of Conan, Duke of Brittany. Hence, too, Lincolnshire being the 
district in which the Danes principally obtained a footing, the prominence 
assigned by him to the legend of Haveloc the Dane; his frequent allusions 
to early settlers of that race; and certain peculiarities in his language 
which savour of a Scandinavian origin. To this circumstance also we may 
attribute the comparatively minute information given by him upon historical 
events which took place in this part of our island ; with the localities of 
which he seems to have been more intimately acquainted. 

Gaimar's Estorie des Engles, he tells us, was translated by him from 

• " The Church Historians of England. Edited and translated from the Originalg, 
hy the Rev. Joseph Stevenson, M.A. Vol. II. : The History of the English, accordlDg 
to the Trandation of Master Geoffrey Gaimar. pp. 729, 810." (London : Seeleys.) 

•* Mommenia Eistorica Briiannica. Vol. I. Edited by Messrs. Petrie, Sharpe, and 
Hardy. — L* JEstorie des JSngl^, solum la Translation Maistre Oeffrei Qaimar, 
pp. 764^ 829.— rEstorie,., Qaimar. Edited by Thomas Wright, M.A." (Camden 
Sodety's Pnblications. London, 1850.) 

^ Ab to the difference between the Epic Tronvfere and the Lyrical Troubadour, see 
SiBmondi, " Lit. South of Europe," ch. vii. 

« From the line at the close of the poem, " Treske ci dit Gaimar de Troie," Mr. Hardy 
seems to infer that he was a native of Troyes. Mr. Stevenson, on the other hand, reads 
these words as implying that prefixed to his History of the English there was an 
account of the siege of Troj. This is probably the real meaning of the passage, as he 
tells us in the succeeding line that he commenced with the story of Jason, whose expe- 
dition was prior to the Trojan times. 

* An abbey chronicle, probably — now lost. Mr. Wright suggests that it may have 
been Alfred's "Orosius," or a copy, perhaps, of the "Anglo-Saxon Chronicle." See 
Poite's BrU. Antiqua, p. 357. 

22 Gaimar the Trotivere. [July> 

other works, at the desire, and with the assistance, of the lady Constance. 
The first part of it, beginning with the story of Jason and the Golden 
Fleece, is probably lost ; the portion which has come down to us, after a 
casual reference to the preceding matter, abruptly commencing with the 
arrival of Cerdic and the Saxons in 495. In three MSS. out of the four 
now known to exist, in place of the first part, we find substituted Master 
Wace's translation of the " Brut" 

That his work was based, to a great extent, upon the Anglo-Saxon 
Chronicle, the Book of Wassingburc, and the History of Winchester — 
whatever® this last may have been — we are distinctly informed by the 
chronicler himself. The question as to his remaining authorities is one, to 
all appearance, not unattended with doubt and perplexity. Sensible as we 
are of our own comparative shortcomings in Romance- Wallon, — or ra- 
ther Anglo-Norman, if indeed that is not a '* distinction without a differ- 
ence," — and strongly impressed with the belief that the text of ourTrouv^re 
is thoroughly corrupt from beginning to end, we are inclined to think, with 
all deference to such eminent scholars as Messrs. Wright and Stevenson, 
that they have mistaken the true meaning of a passage which occurs at the 
close of the poem, in coming to the conclusion that it bears reference solely 
to the British History of Geoffrey of Monmouth, and to no other book be- 
side. Censured though the Abbe de la Rue has been by the former of 
these gentlemen, for *' so strange a misconception and misinterpretation," 
we nevertheless are disposed to coincide with him in the opinion that allu- 
sion is here made to two distinct works, the one of which was corrected by 
the aid of the other. With somewhat less of confidence, we would also 
surmise that these two books may have been, the History of Geoffrey of 
Monmouth, translated from the Breton book that had belonged to Walter 
Calenius, Archdeacon of Oxford, and some Welsh History of the Britons, 
now unknown, passing under the name of Gildas, perhaps (see line 4L), and 
which, like the book of Calenius, had been recently translated by order of 
Robert, Earl of Gloucester. 

The question, perhaps, is one of as limited interest as importance ; but 
to enable the reader to form a judgment for himself, we give the passage 
as it appears in Mr. Stevenson's translation : — 

" Gaimar obtained many copies, English books and grammars, both in RomRnoe and 
Latin, before be could bring it to an end. If his lady had not aided him, he never 
could have finished it. She sent to Helmslac for the book of Walter Espcc. Robert, 
Earl of Gloucester, had caused this book' to be translated according to the Welsh books 
which he had of the British kings. Walter Espec had asked for it, and Earl Robert 
sent it to him ; afterwards, Walter Espcc lent it to Ralph Fitz-Gilbert. Lady Con- 
stance borrowed it from her lord, who loved her much. Geoflfrey Gaimar wrote this 
book ; he has inserted the accounts which the Welsh left out. He had before obtained, 
whether right or wrong, the good book of Oxford, which Walter the archdeacon made'; 
80 he corrected his book properly." 

With reference to the historical value of this poem, Mr. Hardy makes the 
following introductory remarks : — 

• See p. 24. 

' Icele geste. It seems not improbable that this book of Walter Espec is the gette of 
Gildas (whatever that may have been) mentioned in line 41. lliis may possibly have 
been employed by Caradoc of Llancarvan, who is mentioned by Geoffrey of Monmouth, 
at the end of his " British History," as the compiler of a History of the Welsh Kings. 
Under the name of Gildas (41), Mr. Stevenson says Nennius is meant ; but Constantine^ 
the nephew of Arthur, is mentioned by Gildas, and nowhere by the Latin Nennius : as 
to the Irish Nennius we cannot say. 

» Kifwt Walter Varcedaien,— " which belonged to Walter the archdeacon." 

1857.] Gaimar the Trouvire. 23 

''A mantucript of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle/' he says, "supplied Gumar with the 
basis of his work till near the close of the tenth century ; but thenceforward his notices 
derived from it are few and occasional. These, in his translation, are frequently abbre- 
Tiated, though the narrative is also often enlarged ; sometimes expletively, by mere re- 
dnpfication ; sometimes, as it would seem, from an illation of incidents ; and at other 
times by the insertion of matters wholly new, but apparently obtained from preceding 
narrations of a description more or less fabulous, but having among them various inci- 
dents which bespeak credible authority. In his version of the Chronicle, Gaimar does 
not always adbere to chronological order ; he often mistakes the sense, confounds dif- 
ferent persons of the same name, and distorts strangely the names of persons and places. 
In the portions after the Conquest his narrative, in a few instances, resembles that of 
Florenoe of Worcester, or of Simeon of Durham ; but, generally speaking, though his 
account of William Rufus seems sometimes to be taken from a source known to William 
of Malmesbury and to Ordericus Vitalis, he cannot be traced decisively to any known 

The History concludes with the death of William Rufus in 1100, though 
the author, from the language of his closing lines, would appear to have 
contemplated emhracing in his narrative the reign of Henry the First. 

Gaimar's style, it has been observed, is more pleasing than that of his 
brother Trouv^re of greater celebrity, Master Wace. Reluctant though we 
are to derogate from even this faint praise, his verse, we are constrained to 
say, is halting and defective in the extreme ; and it would really be no 
great stretch of imagination to fancy that the narrator is ever and anon 
talking himself out of breath, or is doing his utmost to clip his sentences, 
in emulation of the spasmodic distichs of Latin elegiac poesy. Presenting 
no beauties of diction, and possessing but few intrinsic merits as a chronicler, 
his great and perhaps only value is centred in such of his matter as is new, 
and not to be referred to any known authority prior to his day. To a few 
of the principal passages of this description w^e shall all but exclusively con- 
fine our notice. 

Commencing with a passage devoted to the mention of Costentin, the 
successor of Arthur, and of the chieftains, Cerdic, Modred, and Hengist, 
the History, or rather that portion of it which has survived, passes on to 
the once admired** romance of Haveloc the Dane and the fair Argentille; 
a story little short of 800 lines in length, and the singular extravagance of 
which may be appreciated from the fact that it seriously represents the 
Danes as established and ruling in England in the succeeding reign to that 
of King Arthur ; a personage who, having probably something more than a 
purely mythical existence*, cannot have lived at a later period than the 
middle of the sixth century of our era, little short of 250 years before the 
first invading Northman set foot on British soil. This romance, however, 
to give our Trouv^re his due, has every appearance of being an interpolation ; 
and indeed, in the Arundel MS. it is found appended to the History as a 
separate work, and in a form probably more nearly approaching its original 
shape- as a current story of the day. The reader who. not possessing a 
copy of the story as collated under the auspices of the Roxburgh Club, 
is desirous of perusing it in its fullest form, should read it, as appended to 
the Arundel copy, side by side with the text of the other three MSS. ; 
each version having occasionally certain circumstances that are wanting in 

^ Peter Langtoft, himself a Lincolnshire man, speaks of thin story in terms of high 
commendation. The Danish kin^, Adelbrit, he calls Athelwold, and " Goldeburgh*' is 
the name given by him to the king's daughter, Argentille. See Warner's " Albion's 
England;*' and Percy's " Ht'l'qiies," ArgentUe and Curan, 

^ Geoffirey of Monmouth represents Aschillius, king of the iwland of Dacia, as being 
slain in battle, fighting for Arthur apraifist Modred ; and this is the only instance in 
which we can find any allusion in his Ilistorj- to the Danes. 

24 Gaimar the Trouvire. [Juljj 

the other, and such, too, as Petrie has remarked, as would leave the story 
incomplete, unless supplied from the other copy. 

Why the learned translator, in his version of this tale^ should go out of 
his way to interpret grctipeU^ an edible fish, by our word " whale," (p. 734,) 
we are at a loss to imagine. He hardly needs to be reminded, we should 
think, that the word graspei^ is embodied in the English language under 
the form of ** grampus," the gras or grand poisson of the French. 

In his account of the tragical death of Cynewulf, king of Wessex, at 
Merton in Surrey, {suh anno 784, according to the Saxon Chronicle,) 
Gaimar gives some incidents that are not discoverable in any earlier writer. 
His narrative, however, is to all appearance in a confused and unconnected 
state, and the story, as it appears in the Saxon Chronicle — interpolation 
though it probably is — ^is related on the whole with superior distinctness and 

We extract the following involved passage, valeat quantum^ solely bc-^ 
cause it has been pronounced, on the high authority of Petrie and Steven- 
son, to bear reference to the composition of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 
To ourselves it appears a matter of doubt to what, in reality, reference is in- 
tended to be made ; — the prototjrpe, possibly, or skeleton, of the early part of 
the Saxon Chronicle, but hardly, in our opinion, the Chronicle itself, as it at 
present appears. From the query in p. 92 of his Preface to the Manumenta, 
Mr. Hardy would also seem to entertain his doubts upon the subject : — 

" (a.d. 826.) The sixth was Oswald, the seventh Oswi ; but their kingdom did not 
extend here; nor, in conseqaence of the wars, did any man know how far his lands 
extended ; and at this time men did not even know who each king was : but monks 
and canons of abbeys, who wrote the lives of kings, each addressed himself to bis 
patron saint [" bishop," perhaps ; son per], to shew him the true accomit of the kings ; 
in what manner each reigned, his name, how he died ; which was shun, and which died ; 
whose remains were preserved, and whose had perished. And of the bishops, at the 
same time, the clergy grave an account. It was called a Chronicle — a large book ; in it 
the English were coUected. Now it is there authenticated, that in the bishopric of 
Winchester there is the true history of the kings, their lives, and their memoirs. 
King Elfred had it in possession, and caused it to be fastened with a chain, that who- 
ever wished to read, might look at it well, hut might not remove it from its place." 

The text here, as elsewhere, is in all probability corrupt, and we ques- 
tion whetfier the real meaning of the passage is now capable of being ascer- 
tained. Be this as it may, no one of the copies of the Anglo-Saxon Chro- 
nicle that have survived to our times ever belonged to the abbey of Win- 
chester; and we have it here stated — pretty distinctly, it would seem — that 
the Winchester History came into the hands of Alfred already prepared ; 
while the Saxon Chronicle, on the other hand, there is every reason to be- 
lieve, was compiled from various sources under his inspection. Indeed, 
Gaimar himself informs us (sub anno 901) that King Alfred ** caused an 
English book to be written, of deeds, and laws, of battles in the land, and of 
kings who made war ;" a passage which, in our opinion, is certainly descrip- 
tive*^ of the compilation of the earlier part of the Saxon Chronicle in its pre- 
sent form. The former passage, as read with the context, has very much 
the appearance of an interpolation : it can hardly be looked upon as bearing 
reference to the same transaction as the latter one, for in 825 Alfred was 

The story of Osbrith, king of Northumberland, Buem the Buzecarle, and 

^ Petrie and Stevenson look upon this passage also as bearing reference to the com- 
pilation of the Saxon Chronicle. How the two accounts can be reconciled we are at a 
iofls to understand. 

1857.] Gaimar the Trouvere. 25 

the wife of Buem, an Anglo-Saxon version, we may almost style It, of the 
story of Tarquin and Lucretia, is curious, and is naively told by our Trouvere. 
"With the aid of condensation in a few unimportant particulars, it deserves 
transcription, — the more particularly as no traces of it occur in any previous 
writer ^ The Saxon Chronicle simply gives the fact of Osbrith's dethrone- 
ment ; here we find the key to the transaction : — 

** Osbrith held Northumborland : he was staying at York. One day he went into 
the forest : he followed the chase into the vale of the Ouse. He went privately to dine 
in the house of this baron, whose name was Buern the Buzecarle. The baron was 
then at the sea, for because of outlaws, he was accustomed to guard it ; and the lady, 
who was very beautiful, and of whose beauty the king had heard report, was at home, 
as was right : she had no inclination to evil. When the king had arrived, be assiu-cd 
that he was received with great honour. When he had eaten as much as be pleased, 
then he spoke the folly he meditated : ' Lady, I wish to speak to you ; let the room 
be emptied.* All went out of the room except two, wlio kept the doors ; these were 
the king's companions, and knew well his secrets. The lady did not perceive why the 
king had done this ; when he seized her according to his desire, and had his will with 
her. Afterwards he went away, leaving her crying ; he went spurring to York ; and 
when he was with his private friends, he boasted about this many times. The lady 
mourned much over the shame he had brought to her ; she became quite coloiu'less 
firom the grief he had caused her. This was seen by her husband Buern, who was 
very noble and gentle. When he saw his wife pale, and feeble, and thin, he asked 
what had occurred, what it meant, and what had happened to her. She replied to 
him, * I will tell you, and will even accuse myself; then give me the same justice that 
would be given to a robber when he is captiu-ed.* He said to her, * What has hap- 
pened V She said, * The other day the king lay with me ; by force he committed this 
crime. Now it is right that I should lose my life. Though this was done secretly, 
yet I am ready to die openly ; I would rather die than live longer.* She fainted, and 
tJirew herself down at his feet. He replied, * Rise, my beloved ! you shall not be 
hated for this. Feebleness could do nothing against force ; there is a very goodly dis« 
poation in you. As you have first revealed this to me, I shall have much pity for you ; 
but if you had concealed it from me, so that another had discovered it to me, never 
would my heart have loved you, nor my lips have^ kissed you. Since this felon com- 
mitted his felony, I will demand that he shall lose his life.' In the night he lay down, 
but in the morning he set out for York. He found the king amongst his people : 
Buern had many powerful relations there. Then Buern defies him : *1 defy thee, and 
restore thee all ; I will hold nothing of thee. Never will I hold anything of thee ; 
here I will return thee thy homage.' With this he went out of the house, and many 
noble barons accompanied him." 

The Trouvere then proceeds to relate how that the friends of Buern for- 
sake Osbrith, and ** make. king a knight whose name is Elle :" not content 
vrith which, Buern brings the Danish foe in the vicinity of York. Osbrith 
attempts resistance, but the city is speedily captured, and the guilty monarch 
slain, ** and thus is Buern his enemy avenged.'* Not less unfortunate is the 
fate of Elle (iEUa), his antagonist, also described by Gaimar for the first 
time. Florence of Worcester gives us the supplementary information that 
peace had been established between the rival kings before they attempted 
to make head against the Danes : — 

" Elle the king was in a forest ; he had then taken four bisons. He was seated at 
hiB dinner; he heard a man sound a bell; he held a little beil*" in his hand; it 
sounded as clear as a clock". As the king was sitting at his repast, he said to a 

* There is a firagment of a similar story, written in Latin, among the MSS. at 
C. C. C, Cambridge, belonging probably to the twelfth century. Buern is there called 
Emulf, " or in the language of the English, Seafar,'* (" seafaring man," a translation 
evidently of " Buzecarle,") and Ella, king of Deira, is the guilty monarch. Gower also 
gives the legend of King Ella in his Cor^essio Amantis. 

■ Lepers, beggars, and probably the bhnd, carried a bell in the middle ages. 

^ Bschelete we take .to mean the small bell called skilla, that whs hung in the in- 
firmary and refectory of monasteries. Hence, no doubt, our old English word skilUt. 
Gmtt. Mao. Vol. CCIII. x 

26 Gaimar the Trouv^re. [July, 

knight, ' We have done well to-day ; we have taken all we have hunted ; four bisons 
and six kids ; many times we have done worse.' The blind man <*, who sat at a distance, 
heard him ; then he said a word which was true : ' If you have taken so much in the 
wood, you have lost all this country ; the Danes have performed better exploits, who 
have taken York and have killed many barons; Osbrith*s enemies have slain him/ 
The king replied, * How do you know it ?' ' My sense has shewn it to me. As a sign, 
if you do not believe me, the son of thy sister, Orrum, whom you see there, is to be 
the first killed in the battle at York ; there will be a great battle ; if you believe me, 
YOU will not go forward. And nevertheless, it cannot be otherwise ; a king must lose 
his head.' The king replied, ' Thou hast lied ; thou shalt be put in confinement, and 
severely treated. If this should be untrue, thou shalt lose thy life; sorcery has been 
thy companion.' The blind man replied, ' I submit to this ; if this is not the truth, 
kill me.' The king had him brought with him, and commanded him to be well 
guarded. He put his nephew in a very high tower, tliat he might be there. They 
met many of the wounded and of the flying, who related all that the diviner had said ; 
not in one word had he lied ; and King Elle, with many great people, rode onwards 
furiously. But his nephew committed a great folly, whom he had left up in the tower. 
He took two shields which he had found, and went to the window ; then putting his 
arms into the shields, he thought to fly, but he came to the earth with a great shock, 
then fell. Nevertheless, he escaped unhurt, not the least was he the worse for it. 
He saw a horse, which he quickly took. A knight was near, holding the horse by the 
bridle, three javelins he had in his hand. Ornim was no coward; he seized the 
javelins, took the horse; and having mounted him, rode away quickly. The army 
was then near York, and be spurred the horse so that he arrived before the troops 
were mustered. Within himself he determined, like a foolish man, that he would 
strike the first blow. Into the rank that advanced first, he threw the javelin he held. 
It struck a knight, whose mouth it entered, and came out behind the neck ; he could 
not stand on his feet ; his body fell lifeless, — it could not be otherwise. He was a 
pagan ; he cared nothing for a priest. Orrum held another dart, which he lanced on 
the other side. He wounded a vile Dane ; so well he threw he did not miss ; entering 
his breast, it went to his heart ; he struck him dead. But as Orrum wished to turn 
back, an archer let fly a dart ; it wounded him so under the breast, that mortal tidings 
reached the heart. The roirit fled, the body fell, exactly as the blind man had fore- 
told. King Elle, when he knew this, felt in his heart a grief which he had never felt 
before. He cried out with boldness, and pierced through two of the ranks ; but he did 
this like one out of his wits ; he was quite beside himself. The Danes were on all 
sides ; Elle the king was slain. The place at which he was mortally wounded is now 
called Elle-croft; there was a cross towards the west; it stood in the midst of 
England; the English call it Elle-cross." 

Gaimar^s account of the martyrdom of Edmund, king of East Anglia, by 
the Danes, is borrowed, probably, from the Passio Sancti Eadmundi of 
Abbo of Fleury; with the exception, however, of the quibbling answer 
which the king gives the pagans when they overtake him and put the ques- 
tion to him, ** Where is Edmund?" a pia fraus mentioned by no other 
writer, we believe : — 

"'I will do so willingly and immediately; before I was engaged in this flight 
Edmund was here, and I with him ; when I turned away, he did the same ; I know 
not if he will escape you. Now the end of the king is in the hands of God, and of 
Jesus, to whom he is obedient.' " After a long parley, and an inefiectual attempt at 
proselytism on the part of his enemies, they determine upon making another Saint 
Sebastian of their resolute foe. " Then they sent for their archers ; they shot at the 
king with hand-bows. They shot so frequently, and pierced him so much, that his 
body was stuck as full of the darts which these villains shot, as the skin of the hedge- 
hog is thick with sharp prickles when he carries apples from the garden. To this 
hour, I believe, they might have shot, before the king would have done anything which 
these felons wished, who so maltreated his holy body." 

In those times it was a not uncommon belief that the hedgehog is in the 
habit of plundering orchards by rolling himself among the fruit and carry- 
ing it oflf upon his quills. 

* Who carried the bell. 

1857.] Gaimar the TVouvere. 27 

Sub anno 870, Gaimar is detected in the commission of an error that 
epeaks but disparagingly of his skill in Anglo-Saxon. " Then there came 
a Danish tyrant,'' he says, " whose name was Sumerlede the Great : he came 
to Reading with his host, and quickly destroyed whatever he found." From 
the Saxon Chronicle we learn that in this year *' there came a great sumoV' 
litha (summer-fleet) to Reading ;" and it is from this expression, no doubt, 
that the worthy Trouv^re has created his " Sumerlede the Great ;" his ima- 
gination being quickened so far even as to lead him to represent the tyrant 
as dying and " lying buried in an enclosed place" ! It is a curious fact, 
however, and somewhat perhaps in palliation of Gaimar's mistake, that 
there really was such a name as ' Sumerled.' Under the years 1164-5, 
mention is made in Hoveden and the Chronicle of Melrose of a thane of 
Eregeithel (Argyle), so called, who was at that period in active rebellion 
against Malcolm, king of Scotland. 

The story (suh anno 878) of the sally by the Christian forces from the 
castle of Cynuit in North Devon, the defeat of the Danes, the slaughter of 
Ubba, and the capture of the Reafan, forms an interesting episode in 
Alfred*8 diversified career. Circumstantially as it is related by Gaimar, 
the account given by Asser is even more so ; and we only quote the fol- 
lowing extract with the view of throwing some additional light, perhaps, 
on the Note subjoined : — 

" When the Danes had found Ubba, they made a great mound over him, which they 
called Ubbelawe." — Note. "Wright here tells us that near Kinnith, or Kenny Castle, 
nor fiir from Appledore, in Barnstaple Bay, there was formerly a mound on the 
* Barrows' [qy. Burrows], or sand-beach at Appledore, which was called Ubbaston, 
Hnbbaston, and Whibblestan; but that it has long smce been swept away by the 
tides." • 

Speaking from a distinct recollection of localities which excited our 
youthful curiosity some quarter of a centiu-y ago, a large white stone 
was in those days pointed out, in the vicinity of Kinwith, and distant about 
a mile from Appledore and the sea-shore, as marking the exact spot where 
Ubba was slain. The name given to it at the period of our repeated visits 
was ** Ubba's Stone ;** and the long field at the entrance of which it lay 
was traditionally said to have been the scene of battle, and still retained 
the ominous name of ** Bloody Corner." 

Borrowing in all probability from some earlier source, now unknown, 
Gaimar gives the romantic story of King Edgar, the beauteous Elstruet 
(Elfthryth or Elfrida), and the perfidious Edelwolt (Athelwold) at greater 
length, perhaps, and with more interesting minuteness, than any other writer. 
Occup3ring as it does several pages, our limits forbid transcription, and the 
narrative would be reft of much of its interest by any attempt at curtail- 
ment or condensation. Among other new particulars, we learn from him 
that Athelwold prevailed upon the king to become godfather to his child 
by Elfthryth ; whereby, as he says, " she became sister to the king ;" a 
spiritual affinity which Athelwold vainly contrived, in the hope that it 
would prove an effectual check upon any amorous inclinations on the part 
of his sovereign, should Elfthryth *s surpassing beauty become by acci- 
dent revealed. According to William of Malmesbury, Edgar, on finding 
himself deceived by Athelwold, under, pretence of hunting, sent for the 
earl into a wood at Warewelle, and pierced him with a dart. Gaimar, how- 
ever, tells us, that in travelling towards the seat of his government, north 
of the Humber, Athelwold was slain by outlaws and enemies ; adding the 
guarded, but more charitable, qualification, — " Some say that King Edgar 

28 Gaimar the Trouvire. [July, 

sent this company ; but no one knows so much about it as to dare affirm 
that it was he who killed him. The announcement of his death came to 
the king ; he could not then take vengeance, for he did not find out who 
deserved it, who had done the deed, or who killed him," 

In his account of the murder of Edward the Martyr, son of Edgar by 
Egelfleda the Fair, Gaimar differs in many particulars from the narrative 
of Malmesbury, as also from the earlier writer of the Passio S, Edwardi, 
The curious story of the dwarf is to be found in no other chronicler, we 
believe : — 

** King Edward reigned twelve [three] years : now I will tell you how he died. He 
was one day merry and gay ; he had dined in Wiltshire. He had a dwarf, Wnlstanet, 
who knew how to dance Hnd bound, how to leap and tumble, and play several other 
games. The king saw him, and called him, commanding him to play; The dwarf told 
him he would not do so, for his command he w< uld not play; and when the king en- 
treated of him more mildly, then he railed against him. The king grew very much 
annoyed at this. Wolstanct then went away ; he took his horse, which he found near, 
and went to the house of Elstruet (Elfthryth). He had only one country-house, which 
was very near Somerset ; there was a great and thick wood ; to this instantly the 
dwarf spurred. The king mounted to fbllow him on a horse that he found near ; he 
did not once stop galloping, for he wished to see the dwarf play. He went to the 
house of Elstruet, and demanded who had seen his dwarf: he found few people in the 
house ; no one said either yes or no, except the queen, who coming out of her chamber 
thus replied to him : * Sire, he has never been here. Remain with us j good king, dis- 
mount ; if it please thee, king, tarry here : I will cause thy people to come to me. I 
will have Wulstanet sought for ; I know well I shall find him.* The king replied, 
* Thank you, I cannot dismount here.* * Sire,' said she, * then drink while you are 
on horseback, if you love me.* ' I will do so, willingly,* replied the king ; * but first 
you will drink to me.' ITie butlers filled a horn of good claret p, and handed it to her. 
She drank the half of the filled horn, and then put it into the hands of King Edward. 
At the delivery of the horn he ought to have kissed •> her. Then came on the other 
side some one — I know not who— and with a large and sharp knife he wounded the king 
even to the heart ; he fell down and uttered a cry ; the horse was frightened. Bloody 
as it was, as God willed, with saddle and bridle, it went straight to St. Edward*s, at 
Cirencester ' ; there is the saddle, and there it ought to be. And the holy body of this 
martyr the queen caused to be buried at a distance. It was carried to a moor, where 
no man had been buried ; there the king was covered with reeds ; but he did not rest 
there long." 

The various other, and very conflicting, versions of this tragic narrative 
we shall find an opportunity, perhaps, of noticing on a future occasion. 

The preparations for the combat between Cnut and Edmund Ironside, 
each combatant '^ to be armed with a hauberk, a helmet, a shield, a battle- 
axe, a hand-axe, a sword, and a good mace,*' in the vicinity of Gloucester, 
upon an island in the Severn, are graphically described. Henry of Hunting- 
don, however, and Roger of Wendover differ from the other authorities — 
Gaimar among them — in representing the combat as actually taking place ; 
and Cnut, they say, on finding himself in danger of being defeated*, pro- 
posed the partition of England between them — Mercia for himself, and for 
Edmund, Wessex. 

The place and circumstances of Edmund Ironside^s death, within a few 

* p Wine mixed with honey and spices. 

4 A drinking usage which then prevailed in England. 

' Richard of Devizes says Shaftesbury, thence called St. Edward's Stow ; and there, 
he says, the saddle was still preserved. The early authorities say that he was murdered 
near Corfe, in Dorsetshire, but this account would imply the borders of Somersetshire. 

* So far from the combat really taking place, William of Malmesbury asserts that 
** on the proposal being made, Cnut refused it altogether ; afiSrming that bis own 
courage was surpassing, but that he was apprehensive of trusting his duninutive person 
against so bulky an antagonist.*' 

1857.] Gaimar the Trouvbre. 29 

weeks after his treaty "with Cnnt, are enveloped in the darkest mystery. 
According to Florence of Worcester, Simeon of Durham, and his copyist 
Hoveden, Edmund died at London. Henry of Huntingdon ^ and Roger of 
Wendover mention Oxford as the place ; while the Anglo-Saxon Chroni- 
cle, William of Malmesbury, the Chronicle of Melrose, John of Wallingford, 
and John of Glastonbury, by omitting all mention of the locality, would 
seem to imply that m their days it was looked upon as a matter of doubt. 
In spite, however, of Malmesbury 's assertion that ** by what mischance 
£dmund died is unknown," the preponderance of testimony goes far to- 
wards shewing that he died through the agency of the traitorous Ealdor- 
man Edric Streona. If the story, as related by Gaimar, is correct, Oxford 
was probably the scene of his death ; from its comparative vicinity — though 
situate in Mercia — to Edmund's own kingdom of Wessex, and the superior 
facility it would afford the king of paying a temporary visit to his insidious 
entertainer. No other chronicler gives so circumstantial and so curious an 
account of this tragedy as our Trouvere : — 

** Now they reigned more unitedly than would brothers or relations ; and, as I be- 
lieve, these two loved each other more than brothers. A traitor was envious at this, 
and thereupon this wicked man committed a great crime. He invited Eadmund, and 
went to solicit that he would come to stay with him. This was this man ; he so 
earnestly entreated King Eadmund, that he paid him a visit. He received abundant en- 
tertainment, but it was maliciously prepared ; he who gave it ruined the king entirely, 
for, like a wicked man, he murdered the king. Edric had caused a machine to be 
made ; the bow which he made he caused to shoot forth ; if anything touched the 
string, then he should speedily hear bad news. Even if a bason were opposed to it, a 
man would be struck by the arrow. Where that bow was placed, they formed a new 
chamber ; it was called a privy chamber ; people went into it for this business. The 
king was brought there at night, as Edric had commanded. So soon as he sat upon 
the seat, the arrow pierced his body upwards, until it reached his lungs. The feather 
of it was hidden in his body ; nor did any blood issue forth. The king uttered a cry of 
death, the soul fled, he was no more ; nothing could be done to recover him. His 
people carried him from thence, and took him to a minster,'' [Glastonbury]. 

Beyond the fact of Edmund*s death taking place within so short a time 
after the partition of the kingdom, there seems no sufficient reason (making 
all due allowance for the hints that are thrown out by Simeon of Durham, 
Florence of Worcester, and the Chronicle of Melrose,) for believing that 
Cnut was in any way implicated in the murder. From Malmesbury we 
learn that Cnut, immediately upon the agents of Edric confessing their 
guilt, ordered them for execution ; and that, although upon his assuming 
the government of the two kingdoms, he had conferred upon Edric the 
province of Mercia, he shortly after ", upon Edric taunting him with his 
own manifold services, and disclosing his share in Edmund's murder, caused 
him to be strangled in the chamber where they sat, and his body to be 
thrown into the Thames. Wendover mentions the story as related by 
Malmesbury, as also the version ^ here given by Gaimar in greater detail : — 

* Fanlkner, in his History of Brentford, gives that place as the scene of Edmund's 
mnrder, and mentions Henry of Huntingdon, in the Decern Scriptores, as his authority. 

» Christmas-day, 1017. 

' Wendover's brief account of the beheading version is as follows: — "After his 
treacherous murder of King Eadmund, Edric came to Cnut, and accosted him with this 
salutation : * Hail ! sole king.' And on being asked by Cimt why he so saluted him, he 
related to him King Eadmund's murder. On which Cnut replied, * As a reward of thy 
service, I will to-day elevate thee above all the nobles of the realm.' He then ordered 
liim to be beheaded, and his head to be flxed on a pole, and exposed to the birds on the 
Tower of London." 

30 Gaimar the Trouvhre. [Julyj 

" This wicked villain (Edric) went to London J Kinjf Cnut was there, and many 
harons. He kneeled before the king, and in his ear informed him how he had acted 
with Edmund, and how he had brought the children (of Edmund). When the king 
had thoroughly heard all this, he became very reproachful and angry. He caused all 
his barons to be brought (summoned), and he recounted to them the treason. When 
he had thus substantiated it in their hearing, he had him seized and carried upon an 
ancient tower, so situated that when the tide rose the Thames washed it. The king 
himself went afterwards, and he sent for all the citizens ; he caused an axe to be 
brought, I know not if there be another such under heaven. He caused a withe to be 
twisted round the forelock of the traitor : when it was firmly secured in the forelock. 
King Cnut-went instantly to him ; he gave liim a slight blow, with which he severed 
his head from the trunk : he caused the body to be let down below ; the tide flowed 
in ; then he caused the head of the traitor to be thrown in, and they went together to 
the main sea ; — may the living devil have them ! Thus ended E^c Estreine. And 
the king said to his confidants, so that many heard it — * This man killed my brother * ; 
in him I have avenged all my friends. He was indeed my brother in reality, nor will 
I ever put another in his place. Since this has happened so, may Beelzebu have the 
body of Edric ! ' " 

Our chronicler also adds several particulars relative to Edmund and 
Edward, the children of Edmund, — whom he wrongly calls Edgar and 
Ethelred, — their flight to Denmark and Hungary, and their subsequent for- 
tunes, which are not discoverable in any of the preceding writers. In his 
rendering and explanation of the following passage, relative to Emma 
Elfgivu, the widow of Ethelred and wife of Cnut, and the feelings enter- 
tained by her towards those children, the learned translator, it appears to 
us, is singularly at fault. Reminding the reader that Edward and Alfred, 
her sons by Ethelred, are at this time under their uncle's care in Normandy, 
that the two sons of Edmund Ironside are exiles in Denmark, and that at 
this period, in all probability, of her two sons by Cnut — if indeed Sweyn 
was her son — the eldest is as yet unborn ; we give the original and the 
translation, with Mr. Stevenson's explanatory Notes annexed : — 

** La reine Emme estait leur mere, 
Od le reis Cnuth teneit apres lur pere. 
Pur ses dons fiz, k'ele mult amout, 
De dus meschins mult li pesout. 
Et uncore pur son seignur partie, 
Lur portout ele mult grant envie.** 

Thus rendered in the translation :— 

" Queen Emma was their mother, whom King Cnut possessed after their father. 
She loved his \^Note, Cnut's] two sons so much iliat she made herself very unhappy 
about these youths, [Note, her own]. Moreover, for the sake also of her late lord, she 
had a great dislike towards them." 

The meaning of the last four lines, in our belief, is altogether diflferent : — 

" On account of her own two sons [by Ethelred], whom she greatly loved, she wag 
much troubled about these two unlucky ones [the children of Edmund Ironside]. And 
then, besides, for the sake of her departed lord, she had a great feeling of kindness 
towards them [her sons by Ethelred].*' 

It is seldom that, in a passage of such obvious meaning, we have seen so 
many errors compressed in so small a compass. 

Southampton y, on what authority we are unable to ascertain, is gene- 

* They had sworn eternal brotherhood and friendship. 

y Sandwich, if the story is anything more than a myth, may probably have been the 
locality. See the mutilated passage in the An^lo-Saxon Chronicle, eub anno 1029. 
Henry of Huntingdon makes no mention of Southampton in his version of the story. 

1857.] Gaimar the Trouvere. 31 

rally represented as the scene of Cnut's rencontre with the rebellious tide. 
Gaimar gives a somewhat different version of the story : — 

" Then Cnut was lord of three kingdoms ; ho foand few who dared to disobey him. 
And nevertheless he was disobeyed, and his command despised. He was in Loudon on 
the lliames ; the tide was fiowing near the church which is called Westminster. The 
king stood afoot at the strand ; on the sand the tide came struggling onward ; it ad- 
vanced much, and came near the king. Cnut held his sceptre in his hand, and he said 
to the tide, ' Return back ; flee from me, lest I strike thee.' The sea did not retire 
for him, — ^more and more the tide rose ; the king remained, he waited, and struck the 
water with his sceptre. The river retired not for that, so it reached the king and 
wetted him. When the king saw he had waited too long, and that the tide did' not 
r^furd him, he withdrew himself back from the strand ; then standing upon a stone, 
he stretched ont his hands towards the east. Hear what he said while his people were 
listening : — * Him who made the sea to rise, men ought indeed to bt'lieve and adore. 
He is a good King, I am a poor creature ; I am a mortal man, but He lives for ever; 
His command annihilates everything ; I pray Him that He may be my Protector. To 
Bome I will go to petition Him ; of Him I will hoM all my lauds.' " 

The degraded state of the English under Cnut and his 'Danish successor 
is described by our chronicler with a circumstantiality for which we were 
hardly prepared. The following details are not discoverable in any earlier 
writer : — 

** When the Danish heir (Hardicnut) was dead, the English rejoiced greatly. For 
the Danes kept them in a very degraded position, and often did them dishonour. If 
a hundred met one only, evil arose if they did not bow themselves to him ; and if they 
came upon a bridge, they were required to wait ; it was a crime if they moved before 
the Dane passed. In passing, every one inclined himself; whoever did not, if he were 
taken, was shamefully beateu. In such vileness were the English, so did the Danes 
vilify them." 

The tortures to which Alfred the Etheling, the eldest, or, according to 
some accounts, the youngest son of Ethelred and Emma, was put by the 
agency of Earl Godwin*, are described by Gaimar with a revolting minute- 
ness. The other chroniclers content themselves with saying that he was 
blinded by order of Godwin, and confined in the monastery of Ely, where 
he died of grief:— 

" Then they took Alfred and brought him to Ely. There they put out his eyes ; 
they made him go into a skin, where they drew from him the great entrails with 
needles they had made ; there they made him enter that they might draw out his 
entrails, so that he could not stand upon his feet. His soul fled : they rejoiced that 
they had murdered him in this manner ; they did this for love of Godwin." 

In the description of the trial of Earl Godwin for this crime — the earliest 
•• report," as Petrie has remarked, of a state trial in existence — mention is 
made of a certain "Earl Lewine (Leofwine), of Cheshire, and powerful," 
as being present. Mr. Stevenson observes upon this passage, that, although 
the high authority of Petrie has decided that " no Earl Lewine has been 
discovered at this period," it might be conjectured that this individual is 
the Earl Leofwine who fell with his brother Harold at the battle of 
Hastings. To us it would appear that there are no reasonable grounds 
nvhatever for such a conjecture. At the battle of Hastings, Harold and 
his younger brother Leofwine were still in the prime of hfe, and it is far 
from likely that, some five-and-twenty years prior to that event, Leofwine 
should be a powerful noble and an earl ; to say nothing of the improbability 
of his sitting in judgment upon his own father. And then, besides, from 

« It is extremely doubtful if Earl Godwin had anything to do with this murder. 
As the father of Harold, the Norman chroniclers lost no opportunity of libelling his 
memory. The Danish faction, to whom Earl Godwin was opposed, were probably the 

32 Gaimar the Trouvere, [July, 

Gaimar himself we learn that it was only after Godwin's reconciliation with 
Kins Edward the Confessor that his sons were elevated to the rank of 
earls ; whereas there is every reason to believe, though our Trouvere does 
not state to that effect, that the trial of Godwin took place in the reign of 
Hardecnut, Edward's predecessor. The " Earl Lewine" of Gaimar, in our 
opinion, remains unidentified. 

The story of Taillefer*. at the battle of Hastings, is told more circum- 
stantially perhaps by Gaimar than by any other chronicler ; who also gives 
several other particulars relative to the battle and the preceding events, 
that are nowhere else to be found : — 

** When the squadrons were ranged and prepared in order of battle, ther€ were many 
men on both sides ; in courage they seemed leopards. One of the French then hastened, 
riding before the others. Taillefer this man was called; he was a juggler, and bold 
enough. He had arms and a good horse ; he was a bold and noble vassal. He put himself 
forward before the others; in sight of the English he did wonders. He took his lance by 
the handle, as though it were a cudgel; he threw it high above** his head, and caught 
it by the blade. He threw his lance three times in this manner; the fourth tiiue he 
advanced very near, and threw it among the English ; it wounded one of them through 
the body. Then he drew his sword, retired backwards, threw the sword which he held 
above ^ his head, then caught it. One said to the other of those who saw him, that this 
was enchantment which he wrought before the people. When he had thrown the 
sword three times, the horse, with open mouth, went bounding towards thfi English ; 
and there were some who believed that they would have been devoured by the horse 
which thus opened his month. The juggler had taught him this. He wounded an 
Englishman with his sword; he was skilled «= in the use of the point. He wounded 
another as he well could : but on that day he was badly rewarded ; for the English, on 
all sides, launclied javelins and dirts at him, and killed him and his war-horse : this 
first blow called for slaughter. After this, the French requited them, and the 
English fought** against them. A great cry was raised, so that till evening the wound- 
ing and shooting of arrows did not cease. Many knights died there. I know not how 
to tell — I dare not lie — which of them fought the best." 

With the exception of John Brompton, a writer who flourished some 
fifty years later than our Trouvere, he is the only one who represents 
liereward, the Saxon hero, as dying a violent death by the hands of his 
Norman foes. As already stated on a former occasion®, we are reluctant 
to give credit to this story ; but such as it is, as our last extract of any 
length, we present it to the reader's notice : — 

" When the Normans heard this, they broke the peace and assailed him. They 
assailed him during a repast. Hereward was so provided that the boldest appeared a 
coward. His chaplain, Ailwnrd, watched him badly : he was to guard him, but went 
to sleep on a rock. What shall I say ? he was surprised, but he conducted himself 
well ; he and Winter his companion conducted themselves like lions. He took a sliield 
which he saw lying near, and a lance, and a sword. He girded himself with the sword, 
which was naked, before all his companions ; he prepared himself like a lion, and said 
very boldly to the French, * ITie king gave me a truce, but you come in anger ; you 
take my property, you kill my people, you surprise me at my meal ; vile traitors, I will 
sell myself dear.* An attendant held three javelins, one of which he delivered to his 
lord ; before him were twenty-six men. A knight went about enquiring all over the 
field for Hereward, and anxiously asking for him. He had killed and put to death as 
many as ten of his men. As the knight continued seeking him, the brave Hereward 
came before him, and let fly a javelin ; it wounded the knight through his shield, and 
pierced his hauberk ; he could not standi his heart was pierced, so it happened ; he fell, 

■ He is mentioned also by Henry of Huntingdon, Master Wace, and the writer of 
the De Bello Hdstingensi Carmen. 

^ Encontremont would seem to mean " anyhow," " either end first." 
« Le poing lefit voler maneis. Query if not, " the hand made it fly skilfully " ? 
^ Contrejierent. " Did the opposite" ? 
• Gent. Mao., May, (1857,) p. 519. 

18570 Gaimar the Trouvire. 33 

it could not be otherwise ; at his death he bad no priest. Then the Nonnans assailed 
Hereward; they shot arrows at him and threw darts; on all sides they surrounded 
him, and wounded his body in many places. He struck at them like a wild boar as 
long as his lance would endure, and when the lance failed him, he struck great blows 
with the sword of steel. He thought it very base that he should be attacked by seven. 
When they found him so hard upo<i them, they scarcely dared remain th« re any longer, 
for he struck them vigorously and attacked them little and frequently. With the 
sword he killed four of them ; the wood resounded with the blows he gave ; then the 
sword of steel broke upon the helmet of a kni«^ht^ so he took his shield in his hand, and 
80 struck with it that he killed two Frenchmen. But four came at his back, who 
wounded him about his body; they pierced him with four lances; no wonder that he 
fell ; he kneeled upon his knees. With so much violence did he throw the shield, that 
in its flying it struck one of those who had wounded him so severely that it broke his 
neck in two halves. His name was Ralph de Dol; ho had come from Estutesbirie 
[Tewkesbury]. Now both would have fallen dead, Hereward and the Breton, but 
Huls^in approached, encouraged Hereward, nnd raised up his head ; he swore by God 
and his strength, and the others who saw him many times strongly affirmed, that one. 
so brave had never been seen, and that if he had three like himself with him, it would 
fare ill with the French, and that if he were not killed here, he would drive them all 
out of the country." 

We note the following passage for the purpose of remarking that, to our 
apprehension, it is the new castle (now Newcastle) which had been founded 
some fifteen years before by Robert, the brother of William Rufus, and not 
the castle of Malvoisin, as stated by Mr. Stevenson, that is here meant. 
Indeed, the context itself would go far towards proving that such is the 
fact, Malvoisin being in the vicinity of Bamborough, and much to the north 
of Newcastle and Morpeth. Florence of Worcester and Simeon of Durham, 
we observe, make * ntion of Newcastle as well as of Malvoisin, in their 
account of the rebe'li' n of Robert de Molbrai, Earl of Northumberland : — 

** Earl Robert entered within a castle upon the sea, which was called Bamborough. 
The king went thither with his army ; then he fortified the nem castle. Then the 
king took Morpeth, a strong castle which was situated upon a hill. It was placed 
above the Wenpiz [Wansbeck], and was in the possession of William de Morley (Mer- 
lay). When he had taken this castle ho went forward in the country. He caused his 
army to stop at Baenburc [Bamborough], on the sea. Robert of Mowbray was there, 
whom the king wished to take.'' 

We conclude our extracts by observing that Gaimar, although he speaks 
with somewhat of ambiguity, evidently intends to imply that William Rufus 
was purposely slain by Walter TireH. His circumstantial description of 
the last moments of the Red King is one of the most interesting passages, 
perhaps, in the book : — 

" The king fell ; four times he cried out, and asked for the Corpus Domini, But 
there was no one to give it him : he was in a waste, far from a minster. Nevertheless, 
a hunter took some herbs with all their flowers, and made the king eat a few of them : 
this he considered the communion. H e was and ought to have been in Gk)d ; he had 
eaten consecrated bread the Sunday before ; this ought to have been a good guarantee 
for him." 

Indebted to Mr. Stevenson, a& we feel bound to express ourselves, for 
giving an amply-illustrated translation of an amusing, if not a valuable, 
chronicle, we are at a loss to divine upon what grounds — beyond the proba- 
bility that he may have been chaplain to the Fitz-Gilbert family— Gaimar 
has been enrolled in the brotherhood of the ** Church Historians of Eng- 
land." Could the garrulous Trouvere, partaking of the enviable privilege 
of the Ephesian Sleepers, cast off his slumber of some seven eventful centu- 
ries, and awake to mortal consciousness and a much-changed world, not the 

' Because the king, in jest, had spoken to him of his intention of subjugating the 
whole of France. 

GiifT. Mag. Vol. CCIII. » 

34 The Siege of Kars. [July, 

least thing, perhaps, to excite his surprise would be the sight of Lady 
Constance's legend book perpetuated in print, and thus proclaiming his own 
canonization as one of the ecclesiastical annalists of his native or adopted land. 
We cannot conclude better than with the words with which worthy 
Gaimar ends ; — ** May God bless us ! Ainen." 


When war was declared between the Sultan and the Czar in the autumn 
of 1853, the Turks had already a tolerable force in Asia Minor, which re- 
ceived considerable accessions before the close of the year. Of this army, 
so reinforced, two-thirds were encamped at Kars ; and of the remaining 
'third, one- half was stationed at Batoum, and the other in the neighbour- 
hood of Bayazid^. 

A peculiar interest attaches to the history of the army of Kars ; its suf- • 
ferings and its heroic endurance alone give to its fate a sort of sad gran- 
deur. Throughout, it seemed to be pursued by some genii of ill-fortune. 
Throughout, it was its lot that almost every individual of its own nation who 
exercised any important influence over it, should possess, to the fullest pos- 
sible extent, all the worst vices attributed to the Oriental character ; and 
of these vices it was, invariably, the chosen victim. In the beginning, its 
best efi^orts were defeated by the incapacity and cowardice of its leaders ; and 
in the end, its grand success was rendered valueless for lack of the assistance 
necessary to allow of this success being followed up ; whilst, from first to 
last, it was for ever being reduced to the very brink of total destruction by 
the corruption of those entrusted to provide for its support. The ver\' first 
event of 1854 offered a good specimen of what was to ensue. Before 
January closed, Ahmed Pasha, the man whose disobedience had occasioned 
the defeat of Kedikler, was raised, purely by craft' and treachery, to the 
chief command of the army. This man had but one quahfication for the 
post, and that was his wonderful ingenuity in enriching himself at the ex- 
pense of whomsoever he had dealings with. He did not, of course, neg- 
lect to avail himself of the opportunities for illicit emolument presented by 
his new appointment. The money which should have been expended in 
furnishing his troops with food and clothes, was dropped into his own pri- 
vate purse without the smallest ceremony or scruple, and without the 
smallest care for the misery his depravity carried with it to multitudes 
of his fellow-countrymen. During his brief term of authority — only two 
or three months — many thousand soldiers fell sacrifices to his monstrous 
avarice and fraud. The hospitals witnessed scenes of suflfering too hor- 
rible even to think of; and the putrid bodies of those who perished, 
thrown carelessly into half-dug graves, were scratched up and devoured, 
under the very walls of the city, by the wild dogs and wolves. Ahmed 
was recalled to Constantinople in the course of the spring. His suc- 

% t* 

Narrative of the Defence of Kard, Historical and Military. By Colonel Atwell 
Lake, C.B." (London : Richard Bentley.) 

" A Narrative of the Siege of Kars, and of the Six Months' Resistance by the Tnrk- 
ish Garrison, nnder General Williams, to the Russian Army. By Humphrey Sand- 
with, M.D., D.C.L., C.B." (London: John Murray.) 

b For a full account of the whole course of proceedintrs in Asia, — for a fiill and good 
account, in fact, of the whole Russian war, — we would refer our readers to Messrs. 
Chambers' cheap and very excellent *' Pictorial History of the Russian War.** 

1857.] The Siege of Kars. 35 

cessor, Zarif Mastafa, was little better in respect of conscientiousness; 
in all that related to military matters he was still worse, as he had 
soon a notorious chance of proving. One morning in the beginning of 
August, 1854, news was brought to the camp of Kars that the Turkish 
army at Bayazid had sustained a defeat, and that a Russian force was 
advancing thence towards Erzeroum; another Russian force, it was also 
rumoured, was moving forwards from Gumri. The intelligence, of course, 
occasioned lio little sensation. It was clearly imperative that some mea- 
sures should be taken, and the question arose of what these measures 
should be. The poor Commander-in-chief was nonplussed by such a sud- 
den call upon his energy. He summoned a war-council of native offi- 
cers, and was even more in the dark after having received its sugges- 
tions than he had been before. At last he resolved to take the advice of 
General Guyon, the Hungarian officer, who strongly insisted upon the wis- 
dom of a night-attack upon the foe approaching from Gumri; at least, he 
resolved to take this advice with abatement. General Guyon urged that the 
attack should be immediate, but Zarif insisted upon a delay of three days. 
All this deliberation took place upon the 3rd day of the month, and accord- 
ingly the attack was appointed for the early morning of the 6th. The 
night was calm and bright, when, at midnight on the fifth, the Turks set 
out upon their march. A good deal of confusion occurred at starting, but 
order was at length restored, and by dawn the hostile armies were within 
sight. The Turks began well, and for a time had decidedly the advantage. 
But this did not last long ; soon were seen very evident symptoms of giving 
way. First one officer, and then another, took to flight ; the men faltered, 
and became entangled one company with another ; and, finally, the whole 
army, with the exception of two regiments, retreated from the field in the 
most disgraceful disorder. The European officers present endeavoured to 
rally the fugitives and bring them back to their posts ; but even the Euro- 
pean officers were divided against themselves, and consequently could not 
stand. If this had been otherwise, however, it is doubtful whether the 
course of affairs would have been different : the example of the many is al- 
ways more potent than the precepts of the few. As it was, a more thorough 
and humiliating defeat cannot well be imagined. It is affirmed that, after 
the first hour of action, there was scarcely a single native officer of the rank 
of colonel or major to be seen upon the ground ; the behaviour of the Com- 
mander-in-chief would have been the very perfection of comicality if its 
effects had been less disastrous. Thus ended the battle of Kurekdere. 

The Russians, strangely enough, made no attempt to pursue their ad- 
Tantage ; had they done so, there can be little doubt of the result. Of 
coarse the defeat did not tend to improve the condition of the army. The 
troops were dispirited and supine, and their commanders were not men to 
inspire them with more energy. General Km^ty, who had charge of the 
outposts, was indeed a man of true genius and valour, but his influence 
was limited ; and as to the bulk of the officers, these gentlemen, for a 
month or two after the battle, seemed to have overlooked the necessity of 
even keeping up the common drill. In fact, when the British Commis- 
sioner, Colonel Williams, arrived at Kars, in September, 1854, he found 
the army in a condition in all respects most deplorable. Both men and 
horses were suffering for want of sufficient food, and the provisions dealt 
out to the former were, for the most part, so adulterated as to be unfit for 
eating. The equipment department had been neglected just as culpably, 
or rather had fared just as badly in the generally prevailing system of pe- 

36 The Siege of Kars. [July, 

culation. The soldiers' clothes were worn to rags, and tbeir arms were 
singularly ill-suited to the kind of contest in which they were engaged. 

Had Colonel Williams been contented to limit himself to the letter of 
his commission* all the long train of evils which met him upon his entry 
into Kars need not have occasioned him much trouble. But he felt too 
forcibly the immense danger of delay to be contented so to limit himself. 
The importance of the position of Kars, as the key of Asia Minor, the 
extreme peril in which it was standing, the excellent elements which were 
distinguishable in the Turkish soldiery, and the influence which his own 
station and English name would insure him, all seemed to call him to im- 
mediate and decisive action ; and, accordingly, to immediate and decisive 
action he betook himself. There were no half-measures. The kitchens 
and the food were examined by him in person ; the culpable providers were 
summoned, and soundly reprimanded for their dishonest and injurious pro- 
ceedings ; the troops were brought out and exercised under his direct in- 
spection ; the hospitals were visited, and all reforms set about in these im- 
portant establishments that came within the compass of his means ; and, 
lastly, preparations were begun for a somewhat different accommodation for 
the troops during the approaching winter, than had been provided for them 
the preceding year. 

It was whilst he was in the midst of these multiform employments that 
Colonel Williams received a commission from the Porte, creating him a 
Lieutenant-General of the Turkish armv, under the anomalous title of 
Williams Pasha, — an appointment important in many respects, but chiefly 
BO from the additional weight it gave to an authority so ably and bene- 
ficially exerted. His authority was, indeed, almost the only one thus 
exerted on behalf of the ill-fated army. It seemed, to use Dr. Sandwith's 
expression, that its own government had forgotten its existence. It was in 
vain that its needy condition was represented at Constantinople : its nece - 
sities were either not attended to at all, or attended to in such a manner as 
to look, sometimes, a good deal like mockery. As an instance of this, we 
are told that when the drug dep6t was examined, its chief supplies were 
found to consist of croton oil, aromatic vinegar, and divers delicate kinds 
of perfumes and cosmetics. 

The spring passed away with the army at Kars without much incident. 
Zarif Mustafa had been superseded in his post of Commander-in-chief 
by Shukri Pasha, who, in his turn, was succeeded by Vassif Pasha ; but 
these changes produced no very particular results. During this time, 
Williams Fasha was established at Erzeroum, engaged in the business of 
fortifying that important city. In his absence, Colonel Lake and Captain 
Thompson were vigorously pushing on a similar work at Kars. The city 
of Kars is commanded on nearly every side by heights. A long range of 
hills, through a gorge in which runs the river Karschai, r ns from east to 
west, terminating at their eastern extremity in the height called Karadagh, 
and at their western extremity in that called the Tachmas ; whilst a large 
open plain, which bounds the town on the south, is traversed at a distance 
of some miles by hills again. On all tliese heights, and, indeed, upon every 
spot of riiiing-ground, Colonel Lake had been diligent in erecting his de- 
fences, which embraced, altogether, an extent of no less than ten miles. 
In his " Defence of Kars V' General Kmety gives a very able and learned 

« " A Narrative of the Defence of Kars ou the 29tli of September, 1855. IVans- 
lated from the German of Qeorge Km6ty, late Hungarian General." (London : James 

1857.] The Siege ofKars. 37 

description of the nature of some of these fortifications. From the hilly 
ground on the western bank of the river, and to the north-west of the city, 
rise two prominent elevations, the first of which commands the town and 
citadel, but is commanded itself by the second, — the Tachmas. On the 
first of these elevations were erected the redoubts called by the Turks the 
Ingliz Tabias. Of these, the largest, which was to be defended by several 
heavy guns, and which commanded Tchim tabia, an important redoubt 
overlooking a considerable part of the town of Kars, was Fort Lake ; the 
others were called respectively, Churchill tabia, Thompson tabia, Zohrab 
tabia, and Teesdale tabia, the last being commanded by a fort on the 
opposite side of the river, called Arab tabia. At some distance from these 
entrenchments, and above them, rises the Tachmas, the plateau of which is, 
according to General Km^ty, some 1,800 paces square. The ground here 
is unequal. On this position had been erected several important works. 
The centre redoubt, Tuksek tabia, was protected by two lunettes, from one 
of which a long breastwork, called Rennison*s Lines, stretched away to 
Shirspani-tepessi, an isolated elevation commanding the whole plateau of 
the Tachmas; beyond Shirspani-tepessi, upon the opposite side, another 
breastwork extended in the direction of Tchakmak. About 600 or 700 
paces from Yuksek tabia was another redoubt, Tachmas tabia, furnished 
also with two lines of breastworks, of which the one to the right of the 
redoubt faced Yuksek tubia. On the right bank of the river rose Kara- 
dagh, or the Black Mountain, the forts of which commanded the Arab 
tabia, which has been alluded to as commanding Major Teesdale's Redoubt. 
On this side the river also had been erected a number of other works, 
amongst the most important of which were the Yussuf Pasha tabia, the 
Lelek tabia, the Tek tabia, the Yen! tabia, the Hafiz Pasha tabia, and the 
Kanli tabia. 

At the time of the attack. General Kmety was stationed in the centre of 
the Tachmas plateau, consequently in the centre of the position where the 
fight raged with deadliest obstinacy. He commanded Rennison*s lines in 
person, whilst Major Teesdale — that daring, dauntless spirit — defended 
Yuksek tabia. In the Tachmas redoubt was stationed Hussein Pasha, a 
gallant Circassian officer, with two battalions of Arabistan troops. Tchim 
tabia was defended by Major Hussein Bey. Fort Lake was, at the com- 
mencement of the battle, held by Colonel Yanik Mustapha Bey, but this 
oflBicer subsequently going to the support of the Tachmas, the fort was de- 
fended by Colonel Lake himself. Captain Thompson was in command of 
the Karadagh tabia, and Lieutenant Koch, a Prussian officer, ably directed 
the operations in Arab tabia. 

The spring of 1855 had passed away, as we have said, without any par- 
ticular incident having occurred to alter the position of affairs at Kars ; 
but in the beginning of June it became evident that the Russians were 
contemplating an advance. Colonel Lake dispatched information to Gene- 
ral Williams of what there was reason to expect ; and the latter, with Dr. 
Sand with and Major Teesdale, forthwith left Erzeroum for Kars. General 
Williams reached Kars upon the 7th of June ; upon the 9th the Russians 
encamped near Zaim Keni, a village only eight miles distant ; and scarcely 
a week afterwards approached to the village of Magharadjik, a position in 
closer proximity still. Skirmishes between the foes were now of frequent 
occurrence, but as yet there were on neither side any decisive movements. 
The passiveness of the Turks was, in this case, forced policy, since the 
state of their army, however much it had been improved by the exertions 

88 The Siege of Kars. [July, 

of the European officers who had been sent to its assistance, was even now 
such as would admit of very little doubt as to the fatal result of an en* 
gagement in the field ; for the Russians, the formidable appearance of the 
fortifications probably influenced them to try a blockade before they at- 
tempted an attack. A blockade they soon succeeded in establishing most 
effectually. In one after another of the surrounding villages their camps 
sprang up in quick succession ; and finally *^ a cordon of Cossacks" com- 
pletely environed the unfortunate city : August saw it entirely invested. 
Meanwhile the sufferings of the garrison were very great : — 

** The weather," says Colonel Lake, " was becoming every day much colder, particu- 
larly at night, and the soldiers on duty, owing to the ragged state of their clothes, 
Boffered most severely. The consequence was that the hospitals were getting graduitlly 
more crowded. Many of the troops were unprovided with great-coats^ but fortnnatf ly 
tome sheep-skins had been kept, and these, stitched roughly together, served as cloaks 
for night-work, the sentries g^ing on duty taking them fiM)m those whom they relieved. 
In many cases the red stripes had been taken off the men's trousers to patch their 
jackets with, and, in short, nothing could exceed the miserable condition of their 
clothing. Some few regiments, it is true, were rather better off than the others, bnt 
they were all more or less in the state described. Their shoes were even more dilapi- 
dated than their coats, and the soldiers were only too glad to get strips of leather and 
■ew them together as a covering for their feet." 

And these evils were not the only ones, or even the worst ones, that had 
to be endured. The provisions, in spite of the diminished rations, began 
rapidly to fail ; all hope of fresh supplies was at an end, and starvation 
stared the devoted army full in the face ; already the appearance of the 
men began to tell, with painful distinctness, of small allowance and unsuit- 
able diet. The provender for the horses was almost wholly exhausted, 
and these wretched animals died off by hundreds; indeed, it was soon 
found to be impossible to pretend to keep up a cavalry-force at all. — In this 
way August passed, and the greater part of September. 

The morning of September 29th comes at last. Early, whilst it is yet 
dark, one of the advanced sentries on the Tachmas gives an alarm ; he 
fancies he hears an unusual sound in the valley beyond the works. General 
Kmety gives heed and listens. He too is, at last, distinctly conscious of an 
unusual sound, which grows minute by minute more unmistakeable in its 
character, and approaches nearer ; — a dull sound, as of the measured foot- 
steps of multitudes and of heavy wheels, — 

" A sound as of the sea," 

murmuring monotonously, afar off. Word is passed through the camp 
that the foe is come : every gun is manned ; every officer is at his post ; 
everyone is on the alert, in feverish expectancy. Order is given for a 
volley from the Tachmas, and a volley is fired accordingly ; and the muf- 
fled sound in the dark valley is succeeded by a fearful yell from " twenty 
thousand throats : " the Russians are close upon the works. The first 
column of the advancing force had been divided by the violent fire by which 
it had been met, and had swerved on either side,^-one portion attacking 
Yarim Ai, the lunette on the left of Yuksek tabia, and the other marching 
up stealthily to the rear of Yuksek tabia itself. Yarim Ai was quickly 
overpowered, and its garrison put to flight and replaced by Russians ; who, 
however, were soon, in their turn, compelled to evacuate their position, and 
content themselves with keeping to the reverse side of the parapet, where 
they continued to harass Yuksek tabia with a most galling fire. Mean- 
while, the other portion of their column, having made its way round, com- 
menced a vigorous attack upon the redoubt in the rear ; whilst still another 

1857.] The Siege of Kars. 39 

body of Russians were perceived hastening up to the support of their com- 
panions. There was no time to be lost, — scarcely, indeed, any time for 
thought : it was fortunate Yuksek tabia was in the hands it was. Leaving 
his post for an instant. Major Teesdale seized upon the first unemployed 
g^n in his way, ran it to the place of action, and commenced forthwith an 
incessant fire upon the hostile masses, distant now only a few yards from its 
mouth. The deadly engine did its work effectually ; the Russians broke, 
and finally fled down the hill. But Yuksek tabia was too important a po- 
sition for them to relinquish their efforts to carry it, here. The force outside 
Tarim Ai still maintained their stand, and continued to harass the unfor- 
tunate place with their fire ; whilst sixteen guns, by this time brought up 
on to the plateau, attacked it from another point. Presently, however, the 
guns of Vassif Pasha tabia and Tek tabia getting into play, began to do 
good execution in its service, and General Kmety, coming up, too, on his way 
to the assistance of the Tachmas tabia, scattered the remaining force with- 
out Yarim Ai. Until this time General Kmety had been engaged at the 
Rennison lines, to which a second column of Russian troops had advanced 
simultaneously with the one which had attacked Yuksek and Yarim Ai. 
The struggle in this breastwork had been bloody ; but, owing to the early 
fall of many of the Russian superior officers, it had not been continued 
with such pertinacity as at the other points of the attack. The Turkish 
loss was comparatively small, and General Kmdty was soon able to quit 
his station and repair to the relief of the more pressed positions. There- 
fore, having dislodged the troops about Yarim Ai, he hastened to the 
Tachmas tabia, where Hussein Pasha was completely surrounded; both 
from front and rear, and from right and left, the battery was being assailed. 
It was to the breastwork to the right of the redoubt that General Km^ty 
directed his first efforts. This, with a small band of gallant followers, he 
was not long in clearing. Meanwhile, within the redoubt, Kerim Pasha 
and Hussein Pasha had acted their part well. Their own ammunition being 
expended, they carried on the fight with supplies taken from their slain 
adversries: — 

" Incredible as it may appear," says Coldnol Lake, "the last hour of the battle was 
sustained by the ammunition of the Russian dead. Sallies were made for no other 
purpose than to obtain the needful supply, and at one time part of the garrison were 
employed in stripping off the pouches of the fallen on one side of the redoubt, and 
throwing them to their comrades, who were thus enabled to repulse the enemy on the 
other side." 

The game was prolonged, and the result seemed dubious. At length 
two separate reinforcements arrived — the one from General Williams, and 
the other from Colonel Lake. Nearly at the same time, Captain Teesdale, 
who was now disengaged, led a furious charge from Yuksek tabia ; whilst 
Hussein Pasha himself made a vigorous sortie. The contest was now, as 
it were, hand to hand and i raged with terrible fierceness; — a fearful 
din there was of clashing steel, of musketry, of confused groans and shout- 
ings, made to English ears the more appalling by the recurrence, ever and 
anon, of the strange, fanatic war-cry, *' Ood is God, and Mahomed is the 
Prophet of Ood** At last the Russians gave way, and ere long beat a 
precipitate and final retreat. 

Whilst these events had been passing on the Tachmas, a persevering 
contention had been going forward for the possession of the Ingliz tabias. 
Teesdale, Thompson, and Zohrab redoubts had been all three lost, and all 
the three splendidly re- won. Nothing could have been more honourable than 

40 The Siege of Kars, [July* 

the conduct of all those who took part in the defence of these important po- 
sitions. Colonel Lake himself commanded in the fort which bears his name, 
with a courage ^nd an address to which all his fellow-officers unite in bearing 
eager testimony ; whilst the able manner m which Captain Thompson and 
Lieutenant Koch directed the artillery from their respective stations of 
Karadagh and Arab tabia, contributed also no small part towards the 
triumph of this remarkable day. Remarkable we say advisedly, for it was 
remarkable, no less than memorable ; and it is no mean boast for us, that 
such a day should have owed so much of its glory to the ability, and cool- 
ness, and valour of Englishmen. Nevertheless, whilst the great praise 
due to our countrymen is undeniable, it behoves us to be careful not to 
overlook the claims of other officers, to whom belongs, perhaps, still higher 
merit. It is particularly painful that General Kmety, that during soldier 
and fine strategist, should have had to make a public complaint of neglect, 
especially as it must be indisputable to every candid inquirer into the 
subject, that it was to his genius and courage that this 29th of September 
was in reality mainly indebted for its victory. 

The Ingliz tabias were retaken, and their assailants put to flight ; the 
besieging multitudes on the Tachmas had been routed ; and between ten 
and eleven o'clock in the morning, after seven hours* fighting, the Russians 
finally relinquished the attack. There is a horrible subHmity in the follow- 
ing sketch which Dr. Sandwith gives of the scene presented within the 
Turkish garrison after the battle : — 

** I rode round the batteries," he says, " soon after the action — and seldom had the 
oldest soldier witnessed a more terrible sight. There were literally piles of dead, already 
stripped of their clothes by marauding soldiers, and lying in every posture ; while the 
plaintive cries of men with shattered limbs arose from time to time from amidst these 
acres of defacid humanity. Every ghastly wound was there, — deep and broad sabre- 
cuts, letting out the life of man in a crimson flood, limbs carried ofl' by round-shot, and 
carcasses of man and horse torn and shattered by grape. I urged our men to carry off 
the wounded, but this work proceeded slowly, for the distance to the town was nearly 
three miles, all, or nearly all, our horses and mules were dead, and oiu* ambulance corps 
thereby rendered useless. Suddenly a band of music strikes up ; it is the Rifle band, 
and the tune is a wild Zebal melody. At once a dozen of these mountaineers spring 
up from their repose, join hand-in-hand, and dance amidst the dead, the dying, and the 

The exultation of the Turks at their victory n\ as but transient ; they had 
suflfered too much already, and had too much yet to fear, to be long trium- 
phant. They laid their fallen comrades in the ground, and perhaps did 
not congratulate themselves very highly upon having escaped a similar 
fate ; — could they have foreseen the whole extent of the misery in store for 
them, they would assuredly have bitterly bewailed their sad lot in yet sur- 
viving. From the day of investment until that of its surrender, the history 
of the garrison of Kars is one of the most harrowing histories in the 
annals of sieges, 'j here was not a kind or a degree of suffering that 
it did not experience ; — cold, starvation, disease, all the worst evils that 
material nature can endure, were meted out to the unhappy army in over- 
flowing measures. But perhaps the part of their sufferings which was 
really most grievous, was the state of alternate expectation and disappoint- 
ment in which they were kept by the rumours and counter-rumours which 
reached them from without, respecting the efl^orts which were being made 
for their relief. Although they attempted no further ofl^ensive move- 
ments, the Russians were even more vigilant in their blockade after the 
attack than thev had been before; and dav after day, during the t«\o 
5 ' 

1857.] The Siege of Kars, 41 

months that they \f ere thus held in durance, the Turks were being tanta- 
lized with reports of the rapid advance either of Omer Pasha or of Selim 
Pasha to their assistance ; whilst day after day passed, and neither Omer 
Pasha nor Selim Pasha came. The hope was, had these Generals arrived, 
that by engaging the enemy in the field tbey would have forced him to 
raise the siege ; but Omer Pasha tarried on the coast, and Selim Pasha 
was too comfortably quartered at Erzeroum — where stores of provisions 
had arrived, just too late to be of any service to Kars — to care to move, 
even on an affair of life and death; so the weary watchers in the be- 
leagured city watched in vain. No wonder that they began at last to 
grow sceptical altogether about the pretended succour, and to give way to 
utter despondency ; — truly has the Wise Man said, that " hope deferred 
maketh the heart sick." 

Meanwhile, although the Pashas stood afar off" from Kars, famine and 
pestilence were near, even within its walls. *' No animal food for seven 
weeks," is the pathetic announcement in one of General Williams' dis- 
patches. ** I kill horses in my stable secretly, and send the meat to the 
hospital, which is very crowded," Colonel Lake says : — 

" The effects of starvation were becoming daily more and more apparent. Men were 
seen digging up small roots out of the ground^ which they eagerly devoured, the earth 
still clinging to them, their hunger not even allowing them to wait whilst they washed 
it off. The quarters of the English officers were literally besieged by the inhabitants 
of the town, craving most piteously for a morsel of food. As much as could be spared 
was given to them each day, but their anxious countenances and emaciated appearance 
plaiiUy shewed how insufficient it was. Women were seen at night tearing out the 
entrails of dead horses, over which — the men being too weak either to bury them or 
drag them out of the lines — a light coating of earth had been hastily thrown. Some of 
the women even took their chil£'en to the Medjlis, and laid them down at the feet ot 
the officers, saying they had no longer ^ly means of supporting them." 

Pestilence followed, of course, as an inevitable consequence of this con- 
tinued deprivation ; and it is almost to be marvelled at that the whole 
population of camp and town were not swept away together. The 
garrison had been visited by cholera before the Russian attack, but at the 
immediate time of the engagement the disease had abated ; quite in the 
beginning of October, however, it broke out again, and carried off great 
numbers, as many as seventy or eighty dying in a day. Nor was this the 
only cause of death. Multitudes perished purely of exhaustion, sank down 
at their posts, were taken into the hospital, and died there, without a 
murmur or a struggle, often within an hour of their admission : Dr. Sand- 
with, at one time, records a hundred of these deaths in the twenty-four 

But it is not necessary to dwell upon these horrors ; it suffices to know 
that they were actually endured, and endured with a grand fortitude and 
devotion which will give to the ** Siege of Kars" a memory through time. 
It was not until it became evident that a longer resistance would occasion 
the total destruction, not only of the whole army, but of the whole of the 
inhabitants of the town, that the gallant garrison were at length prevailed 
upon to agree to a capitulation, honourable alike to the subduers and the 
subdued. It was upon the 28th of November, 1855» that the Turkish 
troops in Kars laid down their arms. 

Gent. Mao. Vol. CCIII. 

42 [July, 


Gallic history, it would seem, has found high favour with English 
literature of late. Already have two large and learned volumes come under 
our recent notice, their subject — our Norman forefathers, as viewed before 
their appearance, with such world-wide results, upon British ground. Here, 
again, thanks to the learned author, who, if we may be allowed so to say, 
has successfully united the zeal of the enthusiast with the toilsome research 
of the student, we have the cradle history of another race ; one which, cen- 
turies after its removal to a foreign soil, was equally destined to take its great 
share in controlling the future fortunes of the earth. How world-renowned 
the Frankish name, how enduring the part played by those who have borne 
it in the great events of history, may be sufficiently estimated from the 
simple fact that, at the present moment even, in the mouth of the Turk, 
the Arab, and the Greek, the word '* Frank" is all but the synonym for 
** Christian," and is the universal designation, whatever his country, for 
** West-of-Europe man." 

Mr. JPerry, in our opinion, merits the thanks of those who take an interest 
in the records of the past, for having so patiently and so lucidly unravelled 
some of the few entangled threads of the world's history which are now 
discoverable, at a period when much of it is buried in fathomless obli- 
vion« and the little that is left to us is misrepresented by writers all but 
incapacitated by ignorance or partizanship for their task. Kings and 
queens, warriors and potentates, flit across his pages by the dozen ; their 
eccentric paths, amid the darkness of the darkest ages, only lighted up 
from time to time by the glimmering taper that has been held to them by 
the literary panegyrist or partizan, or by the fitful and lurid glare of their 
singular and transcendent crimes. 

If we may form a judgment from the character of his Notes, — the most 
amusing part, perhaps, of the book, if not the most instructive,— the author, 
or we are much mistaken, has been an attentive reader of Gibbon ; the foot- 
notes of whose ** Decline and Fall" not unfrequently, like the P.S. of a 
lady*B letter, contain the most telling and most pithy portions of his narra- 
tive. His style, too, — and, in our opinion, this is no slight commenda- 
tion, — wants nothing towards rendering his meaning always intelligible, 
and so recommending his subject, despite the sameness of its ever-recurrent 
wars, cruelty, and perfidiousuess, to the historical reader's undistracted 
notice and consideration. A good story is too often spoilt in the telling 
of it. 

Introduced with an daborate review of the tribes, usages, and supersti- 
tions of ancient Germany, the first six Chapters are devoted to the history 
of the Franks, from their earliest appearance on the page of history to the 
death of Pepin the Short, the father of Charlemagne, a.d. 768. The re- 
maining Chapters treat of the institutions, laws, usages, and religion of the 
Franks,, after their establishment on Gothic soil. It is to these last, more 
particularly, that we shall devote our notice, so far as our limited space 
will permit. 

With reference to the German origin of the Franks — an origin little 
dreamt of, perhaps, by most English readers — the following detached pas- 
sages are to the purpose : — 

• ** The Franks, firom their first appearance m History to the Death of King Pepin. 
By Walter C.Perry, Barri«ter-at-Law/' (London: Longmans.) 

1857.] Perry's History of the Franks. 43 

" It is well known that the name of ' Frank* is not to be foond in the long list of 
German tribes preserved to us in the Oermania of Tacitus. Little or nothing is heard 
of them before the reign of Gordian III. In a.d. 240 Aurelian, then a tribune of the 
Sixth Legion station^ on the Rhine, encountered a body of marauding Franks near 
Mayence, and drove them back into their marshes. The word * Francia' is also found at 
a still earlier date, in the old Roman chart called the Charfa Peutingeriana, and occu- 
pies on the map the right bank of the Rhine from opposite Coblentz to the sea. The 
origin of the Franks has been the subject of frequent debate, to which French pa- 
triotism has occasionally lent some asperity. At the present day, however, historians 
of every nation, including the French, are unanimous in considering the Franks as a 
powerful confederacy of German tribes, who in the time of Tacitus inhabited the north- 
western parts of Germany, bordering on the Rhine. The etymology of the name 
adopted by the confederacy is also uncertain. The conjecture which has most proba- 
bility in its favour is that adopted long ago by Gibbon, and confirmed in recent times 
by the authority of Grimm, which connects it with the Grerman word frank (free). 
Tlie derivation preferred by Adclung, framfrakt (in modem German,yrccA, bold,) with 
the inserted nasal, differs from that of Grimm only in appearance. The first appear- 
ance of the Salian Franks, with whom this history is chiefly concerned, is in the occu- 
pation of the Batavian Islands in the Lower Rhine, in which territory they were 
attacked by Constantios Chlorus in A.D. 292.'' 

The reign of Fharamond the author is inclined to look upon as a myth, 
and he considers it more than doubtful if such a personage ever existed : — 

"To this hero was afterwards ascribed not only the conquests made at this juncture 
(about A.D. 417) by the various tribes of Franks, but the establishment of the mo- 
narchy, and the collection and publication of the well-known Salic Laws. The sole 
foundation for this complete and harmonious fabric is a passage interpolated into an 
ancient chroniele of the fifth century ; and, with this single exception, Pharamond's 
name is never mentioned before the seventh century. The whole story is perfected and 
rounded off by the author of the Qesta Francorum, according to whom Fharamond was 
the son of Marcomeres, the prince who ended his days in an Italian prison. The fact 
that nothing is known of him hy Chregory of Tours^ or Fredegctrius, is sufficient to pre- 
vent our regarding him as an historical personage." 

Of the character of Clovis, the founder on an endunng basis of the 
Frankish kingdom in Gaul, and, in the eyes of Catholic historians and 
chroniclers, *• the Eldest Son of the Church," the learned author forms by 
no means a flattering estimate; considering him as " debased by a cruelty 
unusual even in his times ;^' as also by " falsehood, meanness, cunning, and 

And yet, upon one occasion, Clovis seems to have met with a horse — 
a veritable Houyhnhnm, one would almost think — that was at least his 
match in cunning ; if, indeed, both king and Houyhnhnm were not acted 
upon by some one endowed with more cunning than either : — 

" In the Gesta Francorvm we are told that Clovis returned to Tours, and enriched 
the church of St. Martin with many costly presents. Among other things he had 
given a horse, which he wished to re-purchase, and sent 100 solicU for the purpose ; upon 
which being given — [we are doing Mr. Peiry's work in translating the Latin]— the 
horse would not move an inch. Thereupon Clovis said, ' Give them another 100 solidi.' 
Another 100 solidi being paid down, the horse, the moment he was untied, took his 
departure. Then with joyousness did the king exclaim, ' Of a truth the blessed Martin 
is a good hand at helping, but a hard hand at making a bargain (c(trus in negotio)* " 

In the instance of Clotaire, who was cruel and licentious, ** even for a 
Merovingian," we have a glaring exemplification of the flattery and parti- 
zanship of Gregory of Tours, our main source for the history of these 
remote and obscure times. Chramnus, the son of Clotaire, has rebelled 
against his father, who is represented by Gregory, not as a demon of 
wickedness, but as " marching to meet his son like another David against 
another Absalom ;'* — 

44; Perry* s History of the Franks, [July, 

*'*Look down/ lie prayed, *0 Lord, from heaven, and jndge my cause, for I am 
undeservedly SHffering wrong at the hands of my son ; pass the same judgment as of 
old between Absalom and his father David/ Therefore, continues the historian, when 
the armies met, the Count of the Britons turned and fled, and was killed upon the field 
of battle. CSiramnus had prepared vessels to escape by sea, but in the delay occasioned 
by his desire to save his family he was overtaken by the troops of Clotake, and by his 
father's orders %dcu burned alwe with hie wife and children.** 

How loosely Gregory's morality sits upon him we may judge from an- 
other passage, where he is speaking of Guntram-Boso, one of the conspi- 
rators against Chtldebert XL, king of Austrasia, a man whom he quaintly 
describes as " too ready to commit perjury" {ad perjuria nimii^m prtspara- 
tits). "In other respects, however/' adds the historian, ''Guntram was 
sane bonus, a very good man" ! ! 

The following miracle of St. Columbanus is really too good to pass un- 
noticed. We commend the anecdote to the notice of the teetotallers and 
Maine Liquor -law people : — 

** After his banishment by Theodcric and Brunhilda, Columbanus is said to have been 
well received by Theudebert, who bid him choose a suitable place for a monastery. 
Columbanus fixed on Bregentz, which was at that time inhabited by a Suabian people. 
Soon after his arrival, while exploring the country, he came upon some of the inhabit- 
ants in the act of performing a heathen sacrifice. They had a large vessel, called oupa 
(kufe), which held about twenty pailsfull [pailfuls], filled with beer [wort ?], stand- 
ing in the midst of them. In reply to Columbanus's question, what they were going to 
do with it, they replied that they were ^oing to sacrifice to Wodan (whom some call 
Mercury). When the Saint heard of this horrible work, he blew on the cask, and lo ] it 
was loosed, and flew into pieces with a loud noise, so that all the beer ran out. This 
made it evident that the devil was in the cask, who wished to ensnare the souls of the 
sacrificers by earthly drinks. When the heathens saw this they were astonished, and 
said that Columbanus had a strong breath to burst a strongly -bound cask. But he re^ 
buked them in the words of the Gospel, and bade them go home/' 

With reference to the Prankish " Mayors of the Palace/' those hybrid 
but able sovereigns, the self- constituted guardians of the later Merovingian^ 
kings, and the founders of the Carlovingian dynasty, the origin and growth 
of their anomalous authority are ably traced by the writer. So little, how- 
ever, is known with certainty as to the origin of their title, that while major 
domus, " head servant of the palace," is more generally looked upon as 
such, Sismondi derives it from a source altogether diflferent — the words 
mord donij, "judge of murderers." Pepin of Landen, Pepin of Heristal, 
Charles (Carl) Martel, and Pepin the Short (father of Charlemagne), were 
the names of these de facto monarchs^ to whom France is so eminently 
indebted for much of her early progress in civilization. 

Few modern readers have any acquaintance with the Salic Laws, beyond the 
somewhat ungallant enactment — or rather the enactment which has been 
wrongfully** attributed to them — by which females are under all circum- 
stances excluded from inheriting the throne. As being to a great extent 

*» The roitfainiana (do-nothing kings) of iVench history. 

* In 750, Childeric III., the httt of the Merovingians, was shorn of his royal locks 
and deposed, and Pepin the Short assumed the name of King. 

<• We say wrongfitlly, because by the Salic Law the exclusion of females was only to 
take place whore there were males in the same degree of kindred to the ancestor, a 
principle which pervades our real property law at the present day. The fundamental 
law of France, however, which excludes females finom the succession to the crown, re- 
ceived at a very early period the appellation of the Salic Law, being either supposed or 
feigned by the lawyers to have been derived from the ancient code. — Singular anomaly, 
that a nation which has always assumed credit for its chivalrous gallantry towards the 
fair sex should have adhered so tenaciously to so ungallant a provision. 

1857.] Perry* 8 History of the Franks. 45 

the basis of our own feudal law^, and, in many of its provisions, a singular 
monument of usages and notions long since bygone, we give a few extracts 
from the Tenth Chapter of Mr. Perry's work ; the whole of which chapter — 
" brief and superficial view" though he modestly calls it^s devoted by the 
author to an able review of the principal enactments of this remarkable 
code : — 

" The Salic Law," he says, " has been handed down to us in a barbarous and corrupted 
Latinlty ; but whether it was originally composed in the Latin language is still a sub- 
ject of debate among antiquaries. The controversy has originated in the very singular 
fact that the oldest editions of the code contain a considerable number of words of un- 
known import, interspersed through the Latin text, but having no apparent connexion 
with the sense. These words, known under the name of the Malberg Gloss^ are con- 
sidered hy some writers (Leo, for example) to belong to the ancient Celtic language ; 
while Jacob Grimm declares them to be remnants of the German dialect in which the 
laws were originally composed, and which gradually made way for the bastard Latin 
of Merovingian times. In his eyes they are the only ' planks' and * splinters' that have 
been washed on shore from the shipwreck of the old Prankish tongue, and on that ac- 
count worthy of the notice both of the lawyer and the philologian." 

In reference to the above conflicting opinions, we fully coincide with the 
learned author in pronouncing against " the antecedent improbability** of a 
theory which maintains that " German laws brought by Germans from the 
German forests should contain the remnants of a Celtic dialect." 

Premising that the leodis or iceregeld of the Franks was a graduated 
price set upon life or limb, to be paid by the party inflicting the injury, we 
gather the following particulars from a large amount of curious information 
respecting it : — 

" The leodis for all free Germans who lived according to the Salic Law was 800 
denarii, or 200 solidi. This was increased to 600 when the murdered person was a 
puer erinitus (a boy under twelve years of age), or a free woman capable of bearing 
children. The leodis of the latter was increased to 700 in case of actual pregnancy. 
The unborn child was protected by a leodis of 100 sols. Where a woman was killed, 
together with the unborn child, and the latter happened to be a girl, the fine was 2,400 
sols ! The fine for killing another man's slave was 30 sols, and exactly the same punish- 
ment was inflicted for stealing him ; because he was regarded solely in the light of pro- 
perty. On the same principle, the leodis of the slave was greater if he were skilled in 
any art, because it made him of greater value to his master ; other crimes, where the 
perpetrator was an ingenuus (free man), might also be atoned for by money j and we 
find in the Salic Law a nicely graduated scale of fines for wounds and other personal in- 
juries : 100 solidi, a moiety of the weregeldy was paid for depriving a man of an eye, 
hand, or foot. The thumb and great toe were valued at 50 sols ; the second finger, 
with which they drew the bow, at 35 sols. With respect to other acts of violence, the 
fine varied according to several minute circumstances, — as whether the blow was with 
a stick or with closed fist ; whether the brain was laid bare ; whether certain bones 
protruded, and how much ; whether blood flowed from the wound on to the ground, 
&c., &c." 

In conformity with the enactments of these laws, it was the duty of every 
master (cl. 40) to have sticks always in readiness for the chastisement of 
his slave, ** which were to be of the size of the little finger, with a con- 
venient bench at hand over which to stretch the slave." The author re- 
marks that this reminds us of the popular error that a man may beat his 
wife with a stick " as big as his little finger." According to Justice Buller, 
however, one of our legal dignitaries at the beginning of the present cen- 
tury, the thickness was to be that of a full-grown person's thumb ; a 

* So much so, that the very best key, it appears to us, to a fair understanding of the 
otherwise almost unintelligible texts of the laws of the Confessor and of William the 
Conqueror, is a copy of the Salic Laws, the origin of their models. 

46 Pernfs History of the Franks. [July, 

dictum, the singular sapience of which secured for him the sobriquet of 
• Judge Thumbstick' to the day of his death. 

The penalties for theft, too, were very high. ** The fine for stealing a 
goose was 3 sols, the price of three cows ; and for stealing a single bee 
from under lock and key, (the thief) was punished by (a fine of) the in- 
credible sum of 45 sols !" It was not the stealing of the bee, we apprehend, 
that was thus severely punished, but the violation of the superior sanctity 
of lock and key : to steal a hawk from a tree was punished by a fine of 8 
sols only, from its perch 15, but from under lock and key 45 : — 

'* Even the honour and self-respect of the ingenuus were protected in the same man- 
ner. No man could insult another by word or act without exposing himself to the 
penalties of the law. To throw a stone over another man's house for the purpose of in- 
sulting him cost 7, and afterwards 15 sols. To call an ingenuus a fox, or hare, or dirty 
fellow, or to say that he had thrown away his shield, cost 3 sols ; to call a man a cheat 
cost 15 sols; to call him a wnzard ^2\ sols. To call a woman a harlot, without being 
able to prove it, cost 15 sols; while to call her a witch {atria) rendered a man liable 
to the enormous penalty of 187 sols ! or very nearly as much as if he had taken the 
life of a Prankish ingenuus" 

According to most authorities, the word morganatic, as applied to a mar- 
riage in which it is stipulated that the woman and her children shall not 
enjoy the rank or inherit the possessions of her husband, is derived from 
the Gothic word morgjan^ to " limit" or " shorten." In the following pas- 
sage, however, which bears reference to the Salic Code, we have another 
origin suggested : — 

" Besides the dowry which was given before the marriage ceremony had been per- 
formed, it was customary for the husband to make his wife a present on the morning 
after the first night. This was called the morgengahe, or morning-gift, the presenting 
of which, where no previous ceremony had been observed, constituted a particular kind 
of connexion, called mairimonium morganaticum, or moi^anatic marriage." 

Morgen, or Morgana, the name of the beneficent fairy who was fabled, in 
ancient British and Norman lore, to have tended the wounds of King Arthur 
in the Isle of Avallon, has also been suggested, but very fancifully, in our 
opinion, as the origin of the term. 

Some of the provisions of the Salic Code were singularly anomalous : 

" The fine for adultery with a free woman was the same as for murder, 200 sola. Yet, 
singularly enough, the rape of an ingenua puella (free-bom maiden) was only 62^ 
sola ; and where the connexion was formed spontanea voluntate, ambis convenieniibus, 
(spontaneously and by mutual consent,) it was reduced to 45 sob." 

All unions of this nature between free and bond, whether by marriage or 
otherwise, were prohibited by the severest penalties : — 

" The ingenuus who publicly married a slave fell ipso facto into slavery himself. If 
a free woman married a slave, all her property fell to the royal fiscus, and any of her 
relations might kill her with impunity. If any person gave her bread or shelter, he 
was fined 15 sols. The slave was broken on the wheel with the most excruciating 
tortures. Snroller offences against the modesty of an ingenua were also severely 
punished. To stroke her hand or finger, in an amorous manner, was a crime to be 
atoned for by a fine of 15 sols ; if it was the arm, the fine was 80 sols, and if the 
bosom, 35 sols. Offences against the chastity of a female slave were considered chiefly 
in the light of an attack upon another man's property, and punished accordingly.** 

The Christian Church, as established among the Franks, forms the 
subject of the Eleventh Chapter. The following remarks relative to the 
adoption of many of the most absurd tenets of heathenism by the early 
Church, are probably as well-founded as they are interesting in an anti- 
quarian point of view : — 


1 85 7.] Perrn'st 'History of the Franks. 47 

" Many writers VMnre attempted to shew that much of the spirit of Greek and 
Roman mythology was brought at various periods into the Church by the policy of 
adaptation, consciously or unconsciously followed ; and how many of the corruptions 
which still deform the Roman Catholic Church may be clearly traced to this polluted 
source ! It is evident from the Frankisli history of St. Gregory, from his Epistles, and 
from many other ecclesiastical records, that the existence of the heathen gcids was not 
always denied by Christian believers, but that they were r^arded as evil demons who 
imposed on the credulous to the destruction of their souls. Gregory makes no secret of 
his belief in all kinds of auspices, omens, and prodigies, and betrays throughout his 
history a simple and thoughtless credulity equalling anything to be met with in Hero- 
dotus or Livy. Among other methods of penetrating into futurity which he describes 
and made use of himself, were the Sortes Sanctorum, in which three of the sacred books 
— the Prophets, the Gospels, and the Epistles — were placed upon the altar, and an 
omen taken from the sense of the passages which first met the eye when the volumes 
were opened. On one occasion, he tells us, a shining star appeared in the middle of 
the moon ; but what this magnum prodif/ium portended he confesses his inability to 
say. The plagues which desolated the country in the sixth century are all announced 
beforehand by preternatural appearances. These phisnomena are of various kinds. 
Sometimes the household vessels of different persons are found to be marked with mys- 
terious characters, which cannot by any means be effaced. Rays of light are seen in 
the north, three suus appear in the heavens, the mountains send forth a mysterious 
bellowing, the lights in a church are extinguished by birds, the trees bear leaves and 
fruit unseasonably, serpents of immense size fdiHl from the sky ; ' and among other signs,' 
he adds, ' appeared some which are wont to foreshadow the death of the king or the 
destruction of the country.' " 

Some of the miraculous powers imputed to the relics of saints and mar- 
tyrs imply a grossness of superstition, as the author remarks, which would 
appear inconsistent with the very lowest views of Christianity. Less, per- 
haps, for the reader's edification than for his amusement, we select the fol- 
lowing instances : — 

" The people of Tours and Poictiers almost came to blows for the possession of the 
corpse of St. Martin, and among the arguments brought forward by the former in &- 
vour of their claim was this, that while the Siunt had lived in Poictiers he had raised 
tuH> dead men, while since he had been Bishop of Tours he had only raised one, * What, 
therefore,* they added, * he did not fulfil while alive, he must make up when he is 
dead.' So strong was the belief in the miraculous powers of relics, even when obtained 
in an unlaw^ manner, that Mummolus and Guntram-Boso actiudly »tole a finger of 
the martyr Sergius." 

A miracle, too, of another description : — 

" When Bishop Briccius of Tours, a man renowned for the purity of his lif^ was 
suspected by his flock of being the father of his laundress's new-bom child, the bishop 
sent for the child, then thirty days old, and questioned it publicly. The child replied, 
• Non es tu pater meus* (Thou art not my father.)" 

Whether it is more likely that the good bishop was a skilful ventriloquist, 
or that this was really one of the very few *' wise children that know their 
own fathers," it would perhaps be presumptuous on our part to pretend to 

The crime of forgery was as rampant in the early Prankish days as it 
was some four hundred^ to a thousand years later; fictitious bulk and 
diplomata, in the absence of cheques and bank-notes, were the things that 
the learned artists exercised their abilities upon. Of the 360 Merovingian 
diplomata given by Brequigny {I>ipl. Franc, 1791), no less than 130 are 
looked upon as false. 

With the following instances of the fulsome servility of the otherwise 

' See Gent. Mag. for April, 1857, pp. 431, 2 ; for May, 1867, p. 696 ; and for June, 
1867, p. 663. 

4B Strolls on the KentislrCoast, [July, 

haughty Merovingians to the dignified clergy, we conclude. No wonder 
that such a dynasty soon required Mayors of the Palace to do the work of 
governing for it : — 

" When Severin approached Clovis for the purpose of healing him, the king worshipped 
him — adoravit eum rex. When Germanus, bishop of Paris, had one day been made to 
wait too long in the antechamber of King Childebert, the latter was (naturally) taken 
ill in the night. The bishop was sent fbr, and when he came, ' Rex adlambit sancti 
palliolwn,* — The king licked the holy man's pall r* 

Should the present volume ** meet with any degree of public favour," 
Mr. Perry hopes to publish another on the Life and Times of Charlemagne. 
We sincerely hope that he will receive sufficient encouragement to induce 
him to carry out his laudable design. By way of parting advice, however, 
we would suggest that it would be as well to give translations of his Latin 
quotations?. To illustrate an English text by notes more than one-half 
Latin, is in many instances to explain ohscurum per obscuriuSj to " make 
darker what was dark enough before ;" for it is not every Latin scholar 
even that is able to understand satisfactorily the crabbed and unclassical 
language of the Gesta Francorum, of Fredegarius, and of Gregory of Tours. 



There are various ways of reaching Deal beach, where we consider our 
present day's excursion to commence. We may take a boat at either 
Ramsgate or Pegwell, stretch across the bay, and be landed on a low 
shingly point called Shell-ness or Shingle-end, where we find gay-coloured 
flowers and well-polished shells in equal profusion ; or we may walk to 
Stonar-cut, (already mentioned as well on towards Sandwich*,) be there 
ferried over the Haven, and find ourselves in a marshy pasture overrun 
with wormwood, but soon changing as we make towards the sea into a 
sandy waste, which echoes under our feet — it being undermined by rabbits, 
whose burrows present a succession of pitfalls to the unwary pedestrian. 
We shall, however, by either of these courses lengthen our journey con- 
siderably, and therefore we save time by taking the railway to Sandwich, 
where we find ourselves betimes, and not more than two miles in a direct 
line from the sea. 

We turn sharp to the right on leaving the station, and pass along the 
Mill-wall ; we see on the left the great Norman tower of St. Clement's 
Church, apparently as firm as when its parson made his journey to London 
more than 500 years ago, to give evidence against the Templars ; but the 
Castle, where the Bastard Faulconbridge withstood for a time the power of 
the House of York, has disappeared, as well as Sandown Qtite, which stood 
near it. Beyond its site we find ourselves in the open country, but we 
keep on the beaten road for a mile, until we have crossed the sluggish 

» We can excuse him not giving a translation of the " free and easy " tpeech of 
Basina, the mother of Clovis, in p. 68. 
• Gbkt. Mao., July, 1856, p. 65. 

1857.] Strol/n on the Kentish Coast. 49 

North stream, when we roam rather more freely, having the spire of the 
church of Worth on the right, and at some distance ahead a heavy-looking 
round fort, beyond which the sea heaves and glitters in the sun. We soon 
pass a shallow reedy pool, known as the Old Haven, but we feel far more 
certain that it produces an abundance of flowering rush and other marsh 
plants, than that it is the site of Csesar's naval camp, or that the hillocks 
around are sand- heaps piled by the winds on the remains of the intrench- 
meiits by which he protected his battered fleet. Some learned antiquaries 
have maintained the affirmative, but whether it be so or not, we know that 
war has raged in these parts. We see, in the mind's eye, the forlorn hope 
of the unfortunate who goes, rightly or wrongly, by the name of Perkin 
"Warbeck, cut off* by the train bands of Sandwich; and, 150 years later, 
a fierce skirmish between a force landed from Prince Charles's ships in the 
Downs and the Parliamentarians. The object of each body of invaders 
was to overthrow a government not long before established by force, and 
we cannot help musing on what a different aspect English history might 
have presented, had either attack succeeded. 

We are aroused from our day-dream by coming on a Battery, as it is 
termed, one of the many memorials along our southern shore of the fears 
felt, or perhaps only affected, half a century ago of a French invasion. The 
work has evidently never been completed, as the enormously thick brick 
wall is but about four feet high ; and it is overgrown with herbage, among 
which may be seen wild flowers enough to detain a professed botanist a 
summer's day. It now serves the purpose common to most of the Batteries 
and Martello Towers, of inclosing a coast-guard station. A mile further on 
we have another Battery, originally of a like kind, but now larger and much 
more pretentious, as ail the buildings are inclosed by a wall loop-holed for 
musketry, and two guns are to be seen " in position," under a shed. Once 
when we passed, the men were just assembling for their great-gun exercise, 
and they looked as fine a body of sturdy, active, intelligent fellows as we 
could wish for the defence of our "sea-girt isle." Hard by we see a 
wretched thatched hovel called the " Hare and Hounds," but though there 
is no other house of entertainment near, we feel no inclination to enter it. 
At length, in about an hour from leaving Sandwich, we pause before the 
rude fort of Sandown, a memento, and an ugly one, of the suppression of 
the monasteries. 

The fort is now a coast-guard station, but it is open to inspection, and 
will repay it. It consists of a low but large round tower, at the base of 
which are placed four lunettes, with odd oven-shaped openings for windows, 
now half choked with vegetation. The structure has been more encroached 
on by the sea than the kindred castles at Deal and Walmer, and seems 
likely one day to be washed away, unless protected by groynes. The 
waves, which leave but a narrow passage in its front at any time, and lave 
its walls at high water, have engulphed good part of the moat, and lay the 
rest (which is the coast-guardsmen's cabbage-garden) under water in heavy 
weather. We see the Tudor rose, in coloured brick, beside the only 
entrance, the bridge and stout gates of which have been recently re-edified 
after the most approved barrack fashion. Invited to enter, we do so. Our 
guide conducts us through a heavy archway and across a court-yard to a 
low door, which when opened displays a dismal flight of steps, and we 
fancy that we shall soon learn what a dungeon really is ; nor are we dis- 
appointed. We descend, and find ourselves in a gallery wrought out of 
the thickness of the wall into one continuous series of dungeons, some 
Gent. Mag. Vol. CCIII. h 

50 Strolls on the Kentish Coast. [July, 

with a glimmer of light, but more in total darkness, from the walling up 
of the " ovens*' in the sea face. The openings that remain are not above 
a foot square, and they have been secured by cross-bars and an iron shutter, 
some of which remain. The grate is placed in the middle of the opening, 
which spreads out on each side in hour-glass fashion to the dimensions that 
we have seen (in the upper story) on the outer face, and inside affords a 
recess which was the only bed- place of the prisoner, his cell, exclusive of 
that, being but about ten feet long by three feet wide. Each cell has 
been separated from the others by a double iron grate, and in the space 
between is a recess in the wall, where it is presumed the bread and water 
of the captive was placed in sight, but out of reach, to be dealt to him at 
the discretion of his keeper. 

Having made the dreary circuit, and gathered material for appreciating 
the " sighing of the prisoner," we ascend to the court-yard, and are con- 
ducted by another flight of steps into the central tower, great part of which 
is occupied by the Hall, a large comfortless-looking apartment, where 
Colonel John Hutchinson, one of the regicides, was imprisoned, and where 
he ended his days'* ; and next we mount to the roof, where the wide and 
varied prospect, aided by the brisk sea air, dispels the gloom of our prison 
musings. "We see even the sand-hills and marshes looking bright and 
cheerful, and beyond them, to the west, we mark Sandwich and Richborough ; 
we have the Duwns, st'idded with tall anchoring barks, to the east; Deal, 
and Eamsgate, and both the Forelands, north and south. Our gttide en- 
deavours to persuade us that the flagstaff of Dover Castle is visible, though 
the castle itself is shut out by the intervening high ground. It may be so, 
but we are not so clever at using his telescope as he is, and we think we 
have done quite enough in that way when we have read '*D L" on one 
lugger, "14" on another, and " Lloyds" on a flag on the beach a mile off, 
betokenii g the quarters of the Agent of that well-known mercantile body. 

VV^e make a slight acknowledgment to our cicerone and recommence our 
stroll. A board close by the castle denounces the anger of the Archbishop 
of Canterbury on all who remove sand or shingle from the beach, and we 
thus learn that his Grace is lord of the manor. A walk of a mile, passing 
a handsome terrace also called Sandown, a mill or two, and the Pier, brings 
us into Deal, which we find, along the beach at least, to be a fresh, clean, 
pleasant-looking place, many of the houses being of wood, neatly painted, 
with nice flower-gardens, — the agreeableness of the picture being increased, 
to our thinking, by often seeing a hearty old sailor engaged in trimming 
them. Close on the beach we have a Navy-yard, which need not be expected 
to be picturesque, and next appears Deal Castle. This is now a family resi- 
dence, and has been added to and altered accordingly ; still it looks well 
on the land side, as the walls are ivy-grown and the moat half filled with 
trees and shrubs. Then we have the great Naval Hospital, with its 
red-coated sentries, and to it succeeds the *' ville " of Walmer. Here we 
see a smart little new church, though with an inscription not to our taste ® ; 

*» The well-known book, hig Life by his widow Lncy, gives a painfully interesting 
account of his sojourn at Sandown; and if her statements of the insults, annoyances, 
and I hreats of the dungeon are true — and they read as if they were — we may readily 
conceive what it must have been to be a prisoner there under the Tudors. 

* " Applications for sittings to be made to No money can be taken on Sun- 
days." This reatls b;idly enough, but it is exceeded by the notification at the church 
at Heme Bay, where, on what looked like a toll-board, we once read something to this 
effect : — ** This church being supported by subscription, those who do not pay must not 
expect seats." 

1857r] strolls on the Kentish Coast. 51 

many good houses, and the shingly beach levelled into an esplanade, which 
affords firm walking, very different from what we shall find lower down the 
coast. The Strand, its main street, bears but small resemblance to that 
London thoroughfare through which, according to Dr. Johnson, flows " the 
full tide of human existence :" whether the full tide of ocean makes ample 
amends is a point which we at least, sauntering along under a warm sun and 
fanned by a brisk breeze, are not inclined to question. 

At the end of Walmer we have the Barracks, and here the road turns 
inland, but we keep along for a quarter of an hour on the smooth hard 
beach, and are then abreast of Walmer Castle, another of the ugly block- 
houses of Henry VIII. This is as much modernised as its fellow at Deal, 
and though six small cannons seem ready to carry on a ** little war,'* we 
observe that the platform on which they stand is a flower-garden ; we see 
also within the enciente the trees and the chimney-pots of a modern resi- 
dence ; and though we know tha^-ttjphs^ Duke lived and died there, we 
do not desire admission. 

Below Walmer the charact/Zo^iiS bfeaptlVhanges considerably. It is 
about five miles from the poiift Where we first l^eached it, and it has hitherto 
consisted of a low shore, whei*e the brilliaBt Viper's bugloss is almost the 
only flower that springs out among the sanv and shingle. Now it has a 
far more varied character. The.sarid j» teplaced by banks, and in some 
places hills, of shingle, — very unpleSsaTTt walking it must be allowed, and 
bare of flowers ; but they are backed by cliffs of far more picturesque ap- 
pearance than the wall-like heights of Ramsgate, and between runs a good 
road belted on each,side by a strip of something veiy like garden earth, Trom 
which springs a flora rich in hues and various in character. The rains 
and frosts every year splinter the cliffs, and bring down masses of earth as 
well as chalk, and thus at their base has been formed a constant succession 
of moderate hills, which are overgrown with verdure, and on which shrubs 
and even small trees appear. Gay-coloured lichens and wall-flowers deck 
the gaps and gorges high up, whence the masses have fallen, and these 
have been deposited long enough to be in most cases clothed with brambles, 
the dog-rose, the dwarf elder and bryony. Nearer to the sea, and encroach- 
ing on the shingle, we still find earth enough to nourish the sea- holly, and 
poppy, and pink ; and looking back to the base of the cliffs, we might make 
a perfect catalogue of the wild plants that delight in the chalk — as bastard 
rocket, or wild mignonette, vetches of every variety of colour and size, 
thrift, orchises, toad-flax, and many more, to enumerate which would take 
too long a time, though the eye is not easily lired of contemplating their 
graceful shapes and brilliant hues ; but we notice with regret that they are 
generally scentless. 

In the midst of such scenery stands the very small hamlet of Kingsdown, 
with its houses ranged in a row at right angles to the beach, and with a neat 
new church and parsonage on opposite sides of a steep wooded lane which 
leads to the top of the cliffs, here near 300 feet high. The beach bears 
evidence that the recent fiery trial of war has not passed over us without 
leaving traces. A large building of corrugated iron, several targets bearing 
numerous indents, some small breastworks, rudely constructed of chalk and 
shingle, and designed for the practice of the coast-guard and naval volun- 
teers, shew that something like a systematic preparation for the day when 
we may have to fight for our hearths and altars has engaged the attention 
of our rulers. 

Three miles of lofty cliff, grassy hill, firm road, and shifting shingle, with 

53 Strolls on the Kentiish Coast. U^Yt 

the choice of traversing as to three out of the four, brings us to St. Mar- 
garet's Bay, where there is a very steep road up the cliff, and where, of 
course, is also a coast-guard station ; the cliff to the left hand is the South 
Foreland, and as we wish to see its Lighthouses, we prepare ourselves for the 
ascent by a halt at the " Green Man," which is placed between the cliff and 
a high bank of shingle, and so is not to be recommended for the extensive 
prospect that it commands ; but it has a much stronger claim on our atten- 
tion, as we need refreshment, and it is the only hostelry in the place. 

Having dispatched this matter to our satisfaction, W6 commence the 
ascent. A very short distance up brings us to a rough wall which reduces 
the road to a narrow pass, but whether this is a measure of military pre- 
caution we are unable to learn. Just beyond it to the left we discern a 
foot-path, which ascends the cliff, having a look-out-house, with a trim 
flower-garden surrounding it. Before us, considerably higher up, and 
half a mile off, we see the Low Lighthouse, with the High Light a 
quarter of a mile still more distant. They are much alike in outward ap- 
pearance, consisting of a lantei*n tower and gallery rising in the centre of 
a good dwelling-house, with a spacious and well-kept garden, surrounded 
by a stone wall. They are of a dazzling whiteness, and their carriage gates, 
handsome doors, and plate-glass windows of large dimensions, with blinds, 
give them the appearance of marine villas. A request to see the interior 
is readily complied with, and this is what we find in the High Light, as it 
is hardly necessary to any but professors of dioptrics to visit both. 

We are admitted into a small stone hall, in the centre of which rises a 
pillar ornamented with the arms of the Trinity House, and round which 
winds a stone staircase, by which we reach an upper room, where brightly 
polished copper cans for oil and large curved bars of glass of triangular 
shape (a reserve of tlie lighting apparatus, to provide against accident,) are 
the only remarkables, beside the sea view from the windows. Above this 
is the lantern-room, where the light is exhibited. The whole structure is 
apparently fireproof, being of stone, but in this room, for further assurance, 
three winding staircases and the platform to which they lead are of iron. 
The lamp is of brass, of moderate size, but mounted on a metal pillar of 
about four feet high ; it stands in front of a reflector of polished silver, the 
brightness of which is painful to look on, and which forms about one sixth 
of the circumference of a lantern, twelve feet high, with glass sides and 
copper top, in which three men may conveniently stand. The light is on 
the dioptric principle — that is, a series of window-sashes, as they may be 
termed, surround the lamp, each composed of a central plate of glass about 
nine inches deep and two feet wide, having both above and below a num- 
ber of glass prisms of the same width, which diffuse the illumination by 
refraction. Of this the keeper gives you a curious illustration, by desiring 
you to walk into the lantern while he remains outside : on looking through 
the glass, to your surprise you see the smart sailor has suddenly doubled 
his height. The Low Light is illuminated on a different principle, a lamp 
being there placed before fifteen parabolic reflectors. Not caring to hear 
a lengthened, though perhaps not very profound, dissertation on the relative 
merits of the various systems of lighting, we step into the stone gallery, and 
while we gaze on Dover Castle and its Roman pharos on the one side, by 
taking a turn have a view of the high tower of Calais Lighthouse on the 
other. Our guide tells us that the cliff is here 280 feet high, and the gallery 
where we stand about 30 more, and the extreme height to the top of the 
tower 3*26 feet. Two keepers are employed at each lighthouse, who go on 

1857.] Strolls on the Kentish Coast. 53 

duty alternately from midnight to midnight, the night's watch being agree- 
ably wound up in the morning by whitening the stone steps, black-leading 
the iron, burnishing the copper and brass, and polishing the plate-glass, 
tasks which sound oddly as the employment of seamen, but which they ac- 
complish in a manner that might raise the envy of the mistress of half-a- 
dozen housemaids. Indeed, it seems difficult to conceive anything more 
scrupulously nice than the interior of the Lighthouse, unless indeed it be 
the garden that surrounds it. 

We now write our names in the Visitors' Book, acknowledge in a suit- 
able manner our guide's attention, and prepare for our return. If our 
imaginary companion should be footsore, or afraid of his complexion, we 
will advise him, instead of sunning himself on the beach, to make his way 
past the poor battered little church of West Cliffe, which we will point out 
to him a long mile off, and so into the high road, where an omnibus will 
pick him up and convey him to either Deal or Dover. But we, and those 
who with us prefer the sights, the sounds, even " the ancient fish-like smell" 
of the shore to anything (even an omnibus) that the dusty highway can offer, 
descend again to the beach, and as we move steadily along occupy ourselves 
with subjects that have literally emerged from the ocean since the morning. 
The tide has fallen, and we could proceed under the Foreland in search of 
the fresh-water spring said to exist there, or the iron door which gives ac- 
cess to the submarine cables that stretch across the deep to Calais and 
Ostend, but that is not our road home ; so we make our way northward, 
seeing all the way at a distance of from three to five miles from the shore, 
a quasi-island, fresh and green, pleasant enough to look at from the beach,' 
but "fatal and ominous" to navigators — the famed and dreaded Goodwin 
Sands. Just covered at high water, at other times they appear as an archi- 
pelago which stretches in lobster shape ^ for ten miles from north to south, and 
in breadth occupies from three to four miles ; but there is an inlet with deep 
water nearly opposite Sandown, called Trinity Bay, where vessels often find 
shelter. Schemes have indeed been proposed for embanking the sands and 
rendering them firm ground, when they would be a more efficient break- 
water and protection to the shipping in the Downs than they are at pre- 
sent ; and it has been thought that the treasure that would be recovered 
from the numberless wrecks that for so many ages have occurred there, 
would more than reimburse the expense. The fate of various beacons that 
have been erected as a base of operations and have soon after disappeared, 
it must be owned is not very encouraging, but "engineering difficulties" 
are said to be unknown at the present day, and so we have ample food 
for reflection to last us until we arrive at the " beginning of the end" of 
our journey, the railway-station at Deal. We soon get home, a little 
wearied and a little sunburnt, and somewhat travel stained, but still well 
pleased with our stroll, all the pleasure and none of the discomforts of 
which we hope many of our readers may be tempted to experience in their 
own proper persons. 

*• The Barrier, the East Dike, the North Sand-head, the West Dike, and the Bunt- 
head, form the back and tail, and the North and South Callipers the claws, which point 
toward the South Sand-head, where is a light-vessel, so called, five miles north-east of 
the South Foreland : the North Sand-head light is about the same distance south-east 
of Ramsgate ; and the Gull light-ship lies near the Bunt-head. These vessels are well 
known, by name at least, to the summer visitors to Thauet, trips to them being a 
regular part of each day*s amusements. 

54 [July, 



Mr. Urban, — The district of Fingal (that part of the county Dublin which 
is north of the Liffey, and which derives its name from its early occupa- 
tion by the Danes, the Finn Gael, white, i. e. fair, foreigners,) is replete 
with objects of interest. Here is the Pagan cromlech, the mysterious round 
tower, the old Irish rath, the earth-raised Danish camp, the rude primitive 
dallan placed over the grave of an ancient hero, the sculptured tomb of the 
later cliief or noble, the ruined church and abbey, the ivy-grown castle of 
the Anglo-Norman, and the " strong house" of more recent times, that 
transition building between the war- like fortalice and the more peaceful 
habitation ; — and here, too, are lovely landscapes and noble sea-views. 

Among the many attractive objects is one which is highly interesting for 
many reasons; and first for its rarity, a castle with its estate, which, despite 
all the changes so common in Ireland, formerly from confiscations and 
outlawries, and recently from the ** sweep-away*' powers of the Encum- 
bered Estates' Court, still, after the lapse of nearly 700 years, remains 
in the possession of the lineal descendant of the Anglo-Norman grantee ■ ; 
I mean Malahide Castle, the seat of Lord Talbot de Malahide, situated 
near the pleasant maritime village of Malahide, seven miles from Dublin. 

When Henry II. came over to receive the homage of the Irish, 1171, 
Eichard Talbot (brother of Gilbert of Eccleswell, Herts, progenitor of the 
Earls of Shrewsbury,) accompanied him, and received from the king a 
grant of the manor of Malahide, where he founded a castle, some portions 
of which still exist, incorporated with the present enlarged and improved 
structure, which stands on a gentle elevation, having a view of the village 
and the bay. Richard Talbot of Malahide, fourth in descent from the 
above-named, was Sheriff of Dublin, and distinguished himself in arms 
against Edward Bruce, (son of Robert Bruce, king of Scotland,) when he 
invaded Ireland. But in 1329 Talbot was slain at Ballybragan (co. Loulh), 
by a faction of eminent Anglo-Normans, the De Verdons, Gernons, Savages, 
&c. ; and with him fell many of his own kindred, John de Birmingham, 
Earl of Louth, and sixty of their English adherents. The cause of strife 
was jealousy of De Birmingham having been raised to the rank of Palatine 
Earl of Louth, that being the county of the De Verdons, &c. He had 
been thus honoured for having defeated and killed Edward Bruce in a 
great battle at Dundalk, in which De Birmingham had been aided by Miles 
De Verdon and his forces. 

Early in the fifteenth century. Sir Richard Talbot of Malahide married 
the Honourable Maude Plunket, daughter of Christopher ^ fir«t Lord 
Killeen, by his rich wife Joan Cusacke. The name of ** Maude Plun- 
ket'' is, to the present day, a familiar word in ^this neighbourhood, on ac- 
count of a singular event in her life. She was first married to 'J'homas 
Hussey, Baron of Galtrim*^; but immediately after the ceremony the 

• There is but one other castle, I believe, similarly circumstanced in Fingal, — the 
Castle of Howth, in the possission of St. liawrencc. Earl of Howth. 
** Ancestor of the Earls of Fingal. 
' In Meath. 

1857.] Correspondence of Sylvanus Urban. 55 

bridegroom was obliged to change his bribal robe for his armour, to repel 
the sudden attack of a hostile party, and was unhappily slain in the con- 
flict ; thus the fair bride had the romantic fate to be maid, wife, and 
widow between sunrise and sunset on the same day. She obtained, 
however, a royal patent, by which she was recognized as the widow of 
Hussey of Galtrira, and received a jointure from his estate. Her grief for 
the husband of a few hours was consoled by Sir Richard Talbot, to whom 
she was married under more auspicious circumstances. Her first marriage 
has been made the theme of a pretty ballad, by Gerald Griffin, "The Bridal 
of Malahide ;" but the poet, in connecting her fame with Malahide, where 
her picture and her tomb are extant, has forgotten that her first ill-starred 
wedding could not have taken place here, as she was a lady of Killeen (in 
Meath), and her husband Baron of Galtrim. 

Maude Plunket's connexion with Malahide was not formed till her 
second marriage with Sir Richard Talbot, who subsequently left her again 
a widow, but with the consolation of a son and heir, who succeeded his 
father at Malahide. In 1444 the Lady Maude married once more, taking 
for her third husband John Cornwalsh, Chief Baron in the reign of Henry 
VI., and continued to enjoy her dowers, both out of Galtrim and Mala- 
hide, in right of her two previous marriages. She survived her third 
husband also, and after many years of widowhood, she died in July, 1482, 
and was interred in the chapel or small church adjoining the Castle of 
Malahide, the residence of her son. In six years after her death. Sir 
Richard Edgecumbe, who was sent to Ireland by Henry VII. to receive 
oaths of allegiance after Lambert SimneVs rebellion, landed at Malahide, 
and •* was there received and hospitably entertained by a gentlewoman 
named Talbot," probably the daughter-in-law of the Lady Maude. 

In the great civil war, John Talbot, then Lord of Malahide, adhered to the 
king, and was outlawed by the victorious Parliament in 1 649, and his castle, 
with 500 acres, was granted to the regicide Miles Corbet, who kept pos- 
session for about seven years; and Cromwell is said to have paid him 
a short visit here during his occupation. But upon the restoration of 
Charles II., Corbet was arrested in England, and hanged at Tyburn, for his 
share in the death of Charles I., and in 1665, Talbot of Malahide was 
restored to his property, and in his male line it continues. 

In 1831 the title of Baroness Talbot de Malahide was conferred upon 
the venerable widow of Colonel Talbot (who had died in 1789). She was 
daughter of James O'Reilly, Esq., of Ballinlough, Westmeath. Her eldest 
son Richard succeeded her ; but dying without issue, was succeeded by his 
nephew, the present and second Lord Talbot,— one of those desiderata for 
Ireland's prosperity, a good resident landlord, anxious for the welfare of 
his tenantry; and a man of literature, taking an interest in national 

But it is time we should speak of the castle. The original structure of the 
days of Henry II. was enlarged and repaired in the reign of Edward IV. : 
it must, however, have become much dilapidated during the succeeding 
ages ; for at the beginning of the last century it was of inconsiderable size, 
and had lost its castellated character. It owes its present noble appearance 
to the late Colonel Talbot (husband of the first baroness), and his suc- 
cessors. It now forms a large quadrangle, battlemented, flanked by towers, 
and adorned with a very handsome Gothic entrance-porch, near which are 
stone effigies of those fine dogs, Talbots, that figure in the family arms. 
The original moat has been converted into a grassy slope, covered with 

56 Correspondence of Sylvamis Urban. [July, 

ornamental shrubs and trees ; indeed, the whole landscape round the castle 
has been very tastefully planted. The castle itself is tapestried with masses 
of luxuriant ivy, relieved by gayer creepers, and among them the light- 
leaved, silvery starred jessamine. But, gentle reader, let us avail ourselves 
of the courtesy extended to strangers by the noble and liberal proprietor, 
and enter : we shall find much within to engage our interest. 

In the hall we pause to look at the curiously carved oak chairs, pieces of 
armour, and ancient halberts, &c. ; but the gem of the castle is the Wain- 
scotted Room, to which visitors are usually first conducted ; and it weH 
deserves the precedence, being generally considered as without a rival in 
Ireland. It is one of the ancient apartments, and is entirely wainscotted 
throughout, from floor to ceiling, with oak, beautifully and elaborately 
carved, grown black with age, and highly polished : it strikes the spectator 
as though he were suddenly placed in a large and exquisite ebony cabinet. 
The panels are filled with incidents from Scripture history : e. g. our first 
parents in Eden ; the temptation ; the expulsion ; Joseph sold by his 
brethren; Joseph before Pharaoh, &c. The lofty and magnificent oak 
chimney-piece is a peculiarly beautiful specimen of artistic skill, crowded 
with figures ; among which are an Apotheosis, and the Virgin and Child, 
that are especially admired. This fine room is lighted by a window of 
painted glass. When the eye can at length be diverted from the antique 
carvings, other attractive objects await its observation. Fixed opposite to 
each other, on two low pedestals, are two suits of plate armour, cap^a-pie 
complete, and standing erect, as though they were still filled by the 
forms of the stalwart knights who once wore them ; and those knights 
were the first and second husbands of Maude Plunket. The cuirass of the 
ill-fated Lord of Gal trim is broken high up on the breast, by the spear 
that inflicted his death-wound. The armour of Sir Richard Talbot is 
perfect and intact : the flexibility of the iron glove made of small scales 
laid closely over each other, is remarkable. Beside this suit are placed the 
helmet and the upper part of the armour worn by James II. at the battle 
of the Bojme ; or rather during the battle, of which he was only a distant 
spectator. In this room, the curtains and the covers of the chairs are of 
satin of a considerable antiquity, very thick, and richly brocaded with 

The great hall, lofty iand spacious, is ribbed and arched above with 
carved oak, and its walls are covered with portraits. The first we seek for 
is that of the traditional heroine, Maude Plunket. There she stands, 
a full-length figure, in a white satin gown braided with gold, having a 
peaked body like a cloth of gold, finished by a deep lace tucker fastened 
with a brooch ; a red and white feather is placed far back upon her head. 
Her eyes and hair are brown ; her face is not handsome, but the expression 
is good. On a high table covered with crimson lies her lap-dog. a pretty 
little red and white creature, resembling a spaniel. A green curtain behind 
the lady is drawn aside, to afford a distant view of the village of Malahide. 
A portrait of Maude Plunket must necessarily be interesting ; but I confess 
that the picture appeared to me too modern -looking for the early part, or 
even the middle, of the fifteenth century ; — perhaps it is a modernized copy 
from an old original. 

A very attractive picture is that of the Vandyke family, by Vandyke him- 
self, in three generations. It is crowded with figures ; among them are 
Vandyke's father the painter on glass, and his mother, the skilful embroi- 
deress ; Vandyke himself, and his wife, who is an object of interest from 

1857.] Correspondence of Sylvanus Urban, 67 

her own family history, independently of her connexion with the great artist. 
She was Maria Ruthven, only daughter of Patrick Ruthven, youngest brother 
of the unfortunate Earl of Gowrie, whose mysterious " Plot,'* so called, is 
the puzzle of Scottish history. The innocent Patrick, after the slaughter of 
his two elder brothers, was kept in prison till he reached middle age ; he 
enjoyed a small pension from Charles I., whose queen brought up his 
daughter Maria, subsequently given by the king in marriage to Vandyke, 
who survived their union little more than a year and a half, leaving an 
only child, Anna Justina, who married Mr. (afterwards Sir John) Stepney, 
one of the Horse-Guards of Charles II. After the death of Vandyke, his 
widow Maria married Sir J. Pryse, Bart., but had no children. The last 
male descendant of Vandyke and Maria Ruthven was a personage once 
well known in London life, Sir Thomas Stepney, of Prendergast, Pem- 
brokeshire, who died about 1825. 

Among the historical portraits here are — Queen Elizabeth, by Federigo 
Zucchero, taken a little before her death ; dressed in black, very old and 
cadaverous. — Her unhappy rival and victim, Mary Queen of Scots ; her face 
not beautiful, but mild, pleasing, and pensive : she wears a red gown, 
embroidered in silver, with strange appendages on the shoulders, like ex- 
panded wings ; on her head is a small, close, bejewelled cap. 

Philip II. of Spain, full length ; magnificently apparelled, but with a 
most repulsive countenance. 

Ernest, first King of Hanover; a three-quarter length, in a Hussar uni- 
form : a handsome picture. 

Oliver Cromwell, in black. 

Richard Talbot (of the English branch), the celebrated Duke of Tyr- 
connel**, so created by James II., whose Lord-Lieutenant in Ireland he 
was, and who died of grief for his royal master's reverses, at the siege of 
Limerick. The countenance of this portrait is very handsome and expres- 
sive ; it was painted by Sir Peter Lely, as was also the portrait of the 
Duchess of Tyrconnel ; — she was one of the beauties of Charles II. 's court, 
Xo Belle Jennings, sister of Sarah Duchess of Marlborough, and widow of 
George Hamilton, grandson of the first Earl of Abercorn, a Count and 
Marshal du Camp in France, by whom she had three daughters. Talbot, 
after a long courtship, married the fair widow in France ; upon his eleva- 
tion she came to Ireland, with her three Hamilton daughters, who all mar- 
ried Viscounts : Elizabeth, Viscount Ross ; Frances, Viscount Dillon ; 
Mary, Viscount Kingsland ; — at the vice-regal court they were known as 
the Three Viscountesses. After the death of Tyrconnel, the Duchess, and 
her two daughters by him, lived at St. Germains, on a small pension from 
Louis XIV. ; but afterwards, establishing a claim for a jointure, she came 
to Ireland in 1708; lived at a place called Arbour-hill, near the Phoenix- 
park, Dublin ; founded the Convent for Poor Clares in King-street ; died 
in 1733, and is buried in St. Patrick's Cathedral, along with her three 
Viscountesses. She was ninety- two at her death, which was caused by her 
falling out of bed one winter night, and being unable to rise from the 
floor, on which she was found in the morning, expiring from the cold. 

Here, also, are the Duke of Tyrconnel's two daughters, the Ladies Char- 
lotte and Catherine, painted by Sir Peter Lely ; lovely young girls, with 

* The Dake's only sister married Richard Talbot, Auditor-General of Ireland before 
the Revolution of 1688, from whom the present Lord Talbot de Malahide ib fourth in 
direct descent. 

Gijrx. Mag. Vol. CCIIL x 

58 Correspondence of Sylvanus Urban. [July, 

luxuriant flowing curls, both dressed in blue. They married foreign noble- 
men, (Charlotte, the Prince di Vintimiglia.) and died on the Continent. 

Another Talbot, Peter, the brother of the Duke of Tyrconnel, appointed 
Boman Catholic Archbishop of Dublin in 1669. He had studied among 
the Jesuits in Portugal, then removed to Antwerp, and is believed to have 
been the ecclesiastic who received Charles II. into the Church of Rome at 
Cologne, 1656, On the marriage of Charles with Catherine of Portugal, 
Peter Talbot was appointed one of her chaplains, on account of his early 
acquaintance with her native language. Receiving a dispensation from his 
Jesuit vows, he was raised to the archiepiscopal see of Dublin. The 
troubled state of Ireland caused him to fly to France in 1674 ; but he re- 
turned to Ireland in very bad health, and in 1678 was arrested at Malahide 
on the charge of being concerned in the " Popish Plot,** was imprisoned in 
Dublin Castle, and died there in 1680. In his portrait (which is by Riley), 
his countenance is strikingly intelligent ; he is in black, and wears a trian- 
gular hat, resembling that of an abbot «. 

The portrait of the first Baroness Talbot de Malahide is a very excellent 
painting of a most venerable-looking lady, in a black dress, with a close 
white cap. 

Her d£iughter, Frances, Canoness of the Order of St. Anne of Bavaria, 
is the subject of a picture full of character ; a fat, old, very German-looking 
personage, in a kind of religious garb of black, with a very expansive white 
ruff, with her hand on a richly-bound and clasped breviary, lying on a table 
beside her. 

Colonel Richard Talbot, in a green and gold uniform, and holding his 
horse, has an expressive countenance. 

A very striking portrait is that of Count O'Reilly (brother of the 
first Lady Talbot). His face, which is far advanced in middle age, is very 
handsome and intellectual ; his white hair is in close, short curls ; his nose 
is aristocratic, thin, and well- shaped. He wears a white Austrian uniform, 
laced with gold ; a red and white striped ribbon round his neck suspends a 
white Maltese cross. Count Andrew O'Reilly was second son of James 
O'Reilly, Esq., of Ballinlough, Westmeath, born 1742. He entered the 
Austrian service very young, and distinguished himself in the war against 
the Turks, and against the French in Italy and Germany, and in 1809 was 
Governor of Vienna, and sustained the city against Napoleon I. till he 
received orders to surrender ; after which he served no more, on account of 
his advanced age. He was a Field-Marshal, Knight Commander of the 
MiUtary Order of Maris^ Theresa, and Count of the Holy Roman Empire. 
He married a wealthy Bohemian heiress, for whom he had fought three 
duels with a brother-officer. Major Count Klebersberg, a Bohemian of colos- 
sal frame, whom he killed in the third conflict, which was fought with such 
determined animosity that it lasted two hours and fifty minutes. Count 
O'Reilly died childless in 1832. He always loved his country, though so 
early expatriated ; and the name of his birthplace is said to have been the 
last word he articulated on his death-bed, ('* History of the Irish Bri- 

We must not pass by Sjr Neil O'Neil, of Killileagh, a brave commander 
under James II., for whose service he raised a regiment of Dragoons at his 

• There had been another Talbot Archbishop of Dublin, viz. Richard, brother of 
Talbot the great hero of the English wars in France, tempore Henry VI. He was 
consecrated 1417, aud died 1449^ and was buried in St. Patrick's CathedraL 

1857.] Correspondence of Sylvanus Urban. 59 

own expense. At the battle of the Boyne, Sir Neil defended the passage of 
the river at Slane, against the troops detached by King William, and bore 
a heavy fire for upwards of an hour. In this battle Sir Neil met his death, 
from a wound in his thigh. In his portrait he appears in armour, wearing 
a long flowing wig, and holding a truncheon. The painter is Gamly. 

Near him hangs a pleasing picture of his widow, Prances 8, daughter of 
Molyneux, third Viscount Sefton. Her countenance is sad, but placid, as 
though time had softened down deep grief; she leans on a tomb sculptured 
with a scull and cross-bones ; she has laid by her weeds, for her robe is red, 
over a frilled dress of white lawn ; her neck is open, her hair raised, pow- 
dered, and curled ; her eyes dark, and very fine. She was married in 1677, 
and widowed in 1690. 

In a small ante-room is a picture of Queen Elizabeth when a child, 
standing in front of her governess ; whole-length figures. The little princess 
is rather a homely child, dressed in red ; the governante (Margaret, lady of 
Sir Thomas Bryan, a kinsman of the Boleyns,) is in black, and looks sufii- 
ciently prim for her onerous office. 

The drawing-room is rich in objects of vertu, cabinets, porcelain, &c. 

Among the pictures are the beautiful but meretricious Louise de Que- 
rouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth, the French mistress of Charles II., 
fondling a dove. Her son, the first Duke of Richmond ; — both by Sir Peter 

The Duke of York (afterwards James II.) and his first wife, the Lady 
Anne Hyde, who is represented as by no means handsome ; but her hair is 
very unbecomingly dressed in thin, ugly, little flat curls. By Sir Peter Lely, 

Charles I. (when Prince of Wales), dancing a minuet with the Spanish 
Infanta, at the Escurial. The slow movement is very well expressed. The 
Infanta is in white, the Prince in a dark suit, and wearing a plumed hat ; 
courtiers, gaily dressed, are looking on. 

A very fine piece, in three compartments, by Albert Durer, representing 
the Nativity, the Circumcision, and the Adoration. It was an altar-piece 
from a small oratory belonging to Mary Queen of Scots, and was given by 
Charles II. to the Duchess of Portsmouth, who presented it (together with 
the above-named portraits of herself and her son) to Mrs. Wogan of Ra- 
coflley, county Kildare, grandmother of the late Colonel Talbot, (whose 
widow was the first Baroness). 

The Lady Catherine Plunket, daughter of Lucas Plunket, Lord Killeen 
(created first Earl of Fingal in 1628), and wife of John Talbot of Mala- 
hide, who died 1672; a three-quarter-length figure, life-size, seated ; the 
face handsome, the hair brown, and drawn up ; the dress, an open, amber- 
coloured robe over a blue petticoat. 

In the small room of a circular turret are two remarkable miniatures, — 
one of John Talbot, Lord Furnival, and first Earl of Shrewsbury ; and his 
second wife, Margaret Beauchamp, eldest daughter and co-heir of Richard 
Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick. This is the great soldier Talbot of Shake- 
speare, the hero of the French wars of Henry VL, when French mothers 
used to hush their refractory children by threatening them with '* that 
great dog Talbot." He was, however, defeated by Joan of Arc in 1429. 
Previously he had been Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland (in 1414), as Lord Fur- 
nival, but seemed to have thought it not worth his while to display the 

f Lady (VNeirs daughter. Rose, married Nicholas Wogan of RacoflPey, county Kildare, 
Esq., jand was grandmother of Col. Talbot, the grandfEkther of the present Lord Talbot 
de Malahide. 

60 Correspondence of Sylvanus Urban, [July, 

best points of his character in poor Ireland ; for Marlburugh says of him, 
in his Chronicle, that when he left Ireland (in 1419), he ** took with him 
the curses of many ; for he, being run much in debt for victual and things, 
would pay little or nothing at all :*' accustomed to the freebooting habits 
of foreign wars, doubtless he deemed it all fair to quarter upon the " Irish" 
enemy. Gaining fresh laurels abroad, he was in 1442 created Earl of 
Shrewsbury by Kdward IV. Becoming again Lord- Lieutenant of Ireland, 
he was created Karl of Waterford and Wexford in 1446. But he returned 
to the wars in France, and in his eightieth year was killed at the battle of 
Chatillon (or rather was mortally wounded), in 1453, having been victorious 
in forty battles. His son John, Lord of Lisle, was slain with him. His 
sword was found upwards of a century after, in the river Dordogne (run- 
ning by the scene of action) : it bore his name, and the date 1443. The 
face in the miniature has a keen expression ; the figure is wholly clad in 
armorial bearings. 

The miniature of the Countess (who is very plain) is quite grotesque, 
especially the head : no hair is visii)le, being covered by a very flat, very 
close white cap, with yellow oval wings standing erect at each side ; — the 
robe of the lady, like that of her lord, is wholly composed of coats of 
arms. She died in 14C8. 

From the castle we proceed to the small ruined church, fenced in by a 
a low battlemented wall, and darkened by the spreading branches of lofty 
trees. The building is open to the weather, for the regicide Miles Corbet, 
with as little respect for a consecrated edifice as for an anointed king, took 
off the roof to cover a barn. The chancel is divided from the nave by a 
rounded arch. The east window has mull ions and tracery in the Perpen- 
di. ular style. Beneath the belfry (which is pierced for three bells) is an- 
other Gothic window, in two divisions, with crocketted ogee canopies. 
Near the chancel, a side door, with a pointed arch, leads to some apart- 
ments formerly appropriated to ecclesiastical purposes, such as a vestry, 
book-room, &c. Among the tombs, the most interesting is that of Maude 
Plunket. It is an altar-tomb, with the full-length effigy of the thrice- 
widowed lady, attired in the full-plaited gown and the high, heart-shaped 
head-dress of the fifteenth century. There is no date or inscription on the 
monument, but it is sufficiently marked by its armorial bearings. At one 
side, the arms of Talbot impaling Plunket ; at the other side, Plunket im- 
paling Cusacke (the arms of Maude's father and mother). At the head of 
the tomb is a shield charged with the seamless garment of our Lord, and 
the instruments of His Passion; at the foot, a heart transfixed by two 
swords in saltire, (emblematic of the heart of the Virgin Mary, in allusion 
to the text, *' Yea, a sword shall pierce through thine own soul also," 
(St. Luke ii. 35). 

The sea-side walks around Malahide present the rambler with lovely 
panoramas at different points. There is the fine and lofty promontory of 
llowth, green to the top, with its pier, and its little town and scattered 
dwellings ; and the neighbouring rocky isle of Ireland's Eye, now invested 
with a tragic interest, from the murder of the unfortunate Mrs. Kirwan ; 
and the more distant island of Lambay, and the undulations of the coast 
far away northwards. A headland within a pleasant walk of the village 
is appropriately crowned by the ruin of a small, dark castle, commonly 
called Ilobswall, and Robert*s-wall Castle, a corruption of Roebuck's 
AVall. It was erected in the fifteenth century, by Roebuck de Birmingham, 
cue of a family with whom the Talbots, as is traced in their early history^ 

1857.] Correspondence of Sylvanus Urban. 61 

were on friendly terms (when Ireland was distracted with feuds among 
neighhours), and contracted alliances. This small castle and its lands 
passed into the possession of the religious house of the Virgin Mary at 
Grace Dieu, near Duhlin. At the dissolution of monasteries it was granted 
to the Barnwall family ; and lately, we believe, Lord Talbot de Malahide 
has become the proprietor. 

We must not quit the shores of Malahide without a mention, en jpa^sant, 
of the oyster-beds. *' Malahide oysters" enjoy a gastronomic reputation 
not confined to their own locality. M. £. M. 



Mr. Urban, — Hallowed as Oxford is by the names and labours of holy 
and learned men almost without number, it is a singular fact that so few 
tangible relics remain to us of those who in many cases have spent life, and 
energy, and fortune in her interest. The birthplaces, the habitations, or the 
tombs of men whom the world still honours in death, have each in our day 
their own peculiar interest — interest the more touching because of its reality 
— each has its relic or tradition to shew, binding our thoughts more closely 
to the memory of the past ; but it is without that we must look for all per- 
sonal traces of the heroes of theology and science whom Oxford has bred, 
and in whose memory lies her chiefest glory. And perhaps in no instance 
is this more strongly exemplified than in the case of the three Protestant 
Bishops who in Oxford sealed the faith of Christ with their blood. Their 
memory still lives, for no ignorance or neglect can erase the names of 
Cranmer, of Ridley, and of Latimer from the brightest page of England's 
story ; but of them personally, even during their last dreary sojourn in 
Oxford, when, facing death for the Redeemer whose pure faith tliey had 
vindicated in life, they waited bravely and patiently till they were called to 
give that latest sharpest proof of their faith, even then, when we might not 
unreasonably have expected some slight personal memory of them to have 
remained even to our day, we find that every trace of their presence has 
passed away. Others have died in England as nobly and as unjustly, but 
the relics which remain to us of their latest days on earth are neither few 
in number nor deficient in interest. The chair from which Mary of Scotland 
rose to meet her death at Fotheringhay, the napkin which enfolded the gory 
head of the Martyr-king on the scaffold, the seat which tradition assigns to 
Wycliffe as its possessor, — hundreds of such relics mark throughout Eng- 
land the interest which England feels in all which bears on the memory of 
the good or remarkable persons who from age to age have shone forth in 
her. Even in our prisons, though in a debased and degraded form, the same 
desire to connect ourselves tangibly with past deeds is brought strongly out. 
Few prisons throughout the land, from the state fortress of the Tower to the 
petty borough gaol, but can shew some memento of men notorious in their 
time for misfortune, who have died or been imprisoned within their walls. 

But in Oxford, where, for all these reasons, we might have looked for 
some relic of the Protestant martyrs, we meet with nothing but a recently 
erected ** Memorial" to tell us how nearly connected is the ground on which 
we stand with that chapter in the rehgion of our country. 

A broad street passes over the city ditch, whither the old bishops went 
put that cold October morning to meet their fate. The gaol which witnessed 
•their latest contests with their enemies, their latest consolations to each 

62 Correspondence of Sylvanas Urban. [July, 

other, no longer stands, and every trace of their captivity, save only the 
door of one of the cells of the prison, now in St. Mary Magdalen Church, 
has vanished as though it had never heen. 

But one relic was exhibited at the last meeting of the Oxford Architec- 
tural Society, which shews at least that, if this state of things has so long 
existed, it has been rather through the ignorance or neglect of later officials 
than of those who preceded them. It would seem that no less an object 
than the iron, or rather steel, band which confined Archbishop Cranmer 
to the stake was once preserved in Bocardo, the gaol whence he was taken 
to his death, and that this band has been now recovered and identified. 
The history of this band since it left the gaol is clearly made out, and in 
presenting your readers with a sketch of so interesting a relic, it only 

remains for me to lay before them some of the most prominent features 
in the evidence which identifies it. The band itself is of steel, of early 
and careful workmanship, and, as the drawing shews, of most singular 
form. Indeed, the first idea which strikes the spectator is the almost im- 
possibility of assigning any other use to such an instrument than that which 
attaches to it in the account given of it by its present possessor. It is 
furnished with four apertures, through which a staple passes to confine it 
by a padlock round the body of the criminal ; and thus, when stapled by 
the two small chains pendent from each side to the stake, it forms at once 
the simplest, the most secure, and the most durable instrument which could 
have been contrived for the purpose. 

The history of its loss from the gaol, and subsequent recovery, seems to 
be as follows: — Some eighty years since, as all Oxford historians know, 
the old gaol called Bocardo, which was indeed but one of the city-gates of 
Oxford, was pulled down, and a new gaol rebuilt in a distant part of the 
city. By some singular neglect of the authorities, all the old iron-work of 
the gaol, comprising manacles, bolts, chains, keys, and other fittings, many 
of them of singular and curious construction, were, by contract or other- 
wise, allowed to be taken from the old gaol, and new ones supplied in their 
places. Nothing was left. No single spark of interest seems to have at- 
tached, in the minds of the Oxford city magnates of the day, to the asso- 
ciations which such objects in such a place might have suggested to any 
thinking man. All were taken away, and in the present gaol at Oxford 
nothing can be found by the antiquary of the slightest historical interest 

1857.] Correspondence of Sylvanus Urban, 68 

We do not panse to moralize on the facts which these few words convey, 
or to pay more than a passing tribute of respect to the private liberality 
which rescued the old door of the bishops' cell from its threatened destruc- 
tion, and placed it in its present position in the nearest church. Suffice it 
to say that thus passed all the ironwork of the gaol into private hands, and 
amongst it the band in question. Nor was this done in ignorance. The 
legend which attached the name of Cranmer to the instrument of death 
went with it to its new possessor, and he was, as we are informed, for 
many years in the habit of exhibiting the relic to curious persons at a small 
charge. Years passed on. Children were born to him, and in course of 
time he died, leaving his children to follow his trade of blacksmith in a little 
town near Oxford. 

The interest which at first had attached itself to the band, even in the 
uneducated minds of those into whose hands it had fallen, became more and 
more weakened by time. Several times it was on the point of destruction 
for some purpose of the blacksmith's trade, but still there it hung on the 
wall of the old forge, and there, in 1847, it was found by a collector of 
curiosities in his monthly travels round the country. 

He bought it as the band which had *' confined Cranmer in the prison at 
Oxford," that being the form which eighty years had given to the tra- 
dition with the Ensham blacksmiths, and with that legend it was sold, in 
1855, to its present possessor, Mr. Bennet*, of University College. 

* Mr. Bennet, to whom the greatest credit is due for the care and diligence with 
which he has made the necessary investigations, has attached to this interesting relic 
the following documentary statement : — 

" I, the undersigned, Henry Couldrey Smith, of Abingdon, in the county of Berk- 
shire, do hereby certify that I have this day sold to Mr. Edward Kedington Bennet, of 
University College in Oxford, for a certain consideration, whereof these shall be a full 
and sufficient discbarge, a certain ancient iron collar, or hand, hinged in the midst, and 
having a short chain pendent from each side ; which chains and band 1 received about 
the year 1847 from Mr. Burden, locksmith, of Ensham, whose father being employed 
to amend and restore much of the iron- work in the gaol at Oxford about the year 1770, 
received the said band amongst other old iron-work from the turnkey of the said gaol, 
as being the very and true band used in the confinement of the Lord Archbishop Cran- 
mer when he was confined in Oxford in the year 1555. And from time immemorial 
the said band had been always regarded and acknowledged in tlie s^d g.iol as the 
lame and very band used in the confinement of the said Archbishop. And I further 
declare that I received all the above particulars concerning the said band from the said 
Mr. Burden on his father's express and explicit information to him delivered; and that, 
fully believing them to have been honestly and truly given, they are, to the best of my 
knowledge and belief, true in all particulars. In witness whereof 1 have hereto set my 
hand and seal this sixteenth day of November, 1855. — Signed, H. C. Smith. 

bv m \^' Sheffield, Normanby-park, Lincoln." 

Completing the chain of evidence, we have also the following statement, drawn up in 
the same manner by Mr. Bennet : — 

*' We hereby declare that on Wednesday, the fifteenth day of April, 1857, we called 
upon and interrogated two brothers named Burden, living together in the town of 
Ensham, and practising the trade of blacksmiths, one of whom is referred to in a certain 
writing signed by Henry Couldrey ^mith, of Abingdon, and dated the sixteenth day of 
November, 1855, as the person from whom the said Henry Smith received a certain 
iron collar, or hand, particularly described in that writing, and sold on the day and 
year last mentioned to Mr. Bennet, of University College, in Oxford. That the said 
brothers Burden, being asked by us for some account of the band referred to, did of 
their own accord give the same account thereof as that cont^ed in the writing above 

64 Correspondence of Sylvanu^ Urban. [July, 

He first observed it in an upper room of the collector's house, among old 
clocks, scraps of old armour, rusty fire-irons, and all the thousand and one 
pieces of rubbish which make up the iron-work department of a country 
dealer's emporium. 

After making some few enquiries in Oxford, the probability of its really 
being — not, as the dealer, in his ignorance, represented it to be, the band 
which confined Cranmer in his prison, for it is needless to say that no such 
band ever could have existed, but — the identical instrument with which the 
Archbishop was confined to the stake, seemed to him so strong, that he at 
once purchased it. Every enquiry has been made since then, which could 
in any way tend to throw light on the subject, and all have, directly or 
indirectly, tended to support the original theory. No documentary evi- 
dence can be found in the city archives which directly identifies the chain ; 
but the accounts rendered of the charges incurred in burning the bishops 
are still extant, and afford one singular ground of belief in the existence, 
at least, of some such instrument as that before us. 

From these it will be seen that in the case of the first executions two 
chains are provided for the purpose required. In the case of Cranmer's 
execution, no such charge is made. There would seem to be something 
singular in this very fact. The expense of a piece of chain was not great, 
and there is no reason why one of the chains used in the burning of Ridley 
or Latimer should have been carefully stored up from October to March, 
on the speculation of Cranmer's guilt being proved, and his consequent 
execution. But a reason may be fo*md in the circumstances of the time. 
The Marian persecutions were raging with their utmost fury. The royal 
mandate of 1555 was in full force, and justices of peace throughout the 
country were '* diHgently searching out heretics," and superintending their 
execution. The great fountains of learning were deeply infected with 
the ** Protestant heresy," and the executions of the two bishops in Octo- 
ber, t555, seemed a too portentous sign of what Oxford might expect to 
see ere Mary's reign ended. What, then, would be more likely than 
that the authorities of the city would in such a conjuncture order precisely 
Buch an instrument as the present to be made, which would serve, not for 
Cranmer's execution only, but for all others which they might be called on 
to carry out ? 

So far as has been ascertained, no execution by fire has taken place in 
Oxford since Cranmer's death, and the expectation of the Oxford aldermen 
was, happily, never fulfilled. But the band remained, with the name of him 
for whose sole use it had unwittingly been made firmly attached to it in the 

mentioned, and did fully corroborate all the statements made by Mr. Smith aforesaid 
in that writing ; save only that in respect of the manner by which the said band came 
into their father's possession, they, the said brothers, were not able to say whether tlieir 
said father received the band immediately from the turnkey of the gaol at Oxford, or 
from one Mr. Bush, ironmonger, sometime of Oxford, who had considerable dealings 
with the authorities of the said gaol and with their said father, both in matters con- 
nected with his trade. And they further declared that the said band had been in their 
tfud father's possession irom a time beyond their own memory, and that be constantly 
and invariably gave the same account thereof as they have given to us. And we 
further declare that both these men, the brothers Burden aforesaid, made all these 
statements freely and voluntarily ; and that in our judgment all the statements made 
by them in the matter are true and credible. 

" Signed at Oxford, the seventeenth day of April, Anno Domini 1857. 

" Robinson Duckwobth, Univ. ColL ; Liverpool. 
"£d. Kedikoton Bennst, Univ. ColL; Cheveley, Suffolk." 



MiscellaneovLS Reviews. 


prison traditions ; and we can only again express our regret that a body of 
men should have ever held the reins of civic authoritv in Oxford, who could 
have had so little regard for the duties, at least, which they owed to the 
city and the country in preserving the relics entrusted to their care, if not 
for the memory of him whose death has done so much for the religion 
which they professed. — ^Yours, &c. Oxonibnsis. 


Bislcupa Soffur, ffefltar ut af hinu Is" 
lenzka Bokmentafhtagi. Eaupmannahdfn, 
1856, 7. 

The Sagas of the \^Icelandic\ Bishops ; 
published hy the Icelandic Literary So* 
ciety. Parts 1 and 2, 8vo. (Copenhagen.) 
An elegant and most acceptable book, 
which we have great pleasure in intro- 
ducing to our readers, as another year will 
elapse before the continuation appears. 
All who have in any way followed the civil 
and ecclesiastical history of the North 
during the middle ages, or who collect 
the curious traditions connected with the 
great Icelandic saints, will be most grate- 
fiil for this work. A complete collection 
of the records of the Icelandic Church and 
State, the Lives or Sagas of its great 
Bishops, as they have been for five or six 
hundred years inscribed on the smoky 
parchment tomes which enrich the north- 
em libraries, has been a desideratum. The 
two volumes now before us are an instal- 
ment of this contribution to "Scandina- 
vian History." Thpy are edited, like the 
** Diplomatarium Islandicum," by the in- 
defatigable J6n Sigurdsson, are hand- 
somely and correctly printed, and are 
published at a very moderate price. 

Part I. opens with EIristin Saga, a 
well-known source of the earliest history 
of the Icelandic Church. Next comes the 
Pattr (sketch) of Porvald the Widefarer, 
a most charming piece of contemporaneous 
picture-writing. Then the pfittr of Isleif 
Bishop, and thereafter the famous Hun- 
grvaka (Hunger-waker), written, as the 
author himself tells us, to excite hunger 
for our native history, and love to our Old- 
Norse mother- tongue. This is followed by 
the older Bishop Porlaks Saga, a man whose 
praise was in all the churches, so that 
groat gifts came to his shrine in Skalholt 
from all the northern lands, or, in the 
words of the Swga, "principally from 
Norway, largely from England, Switheod 
(Sweden), Denmark, Gautland, Gotland* 
Scotland, the Orkneys, the FsBroes, Cat- 
Gekt. Mag. Vol. CCIII. 

anes (Caithness in Scotland), Hjatland 
(Shetland), Greenland, and most of all 
from within the land (from Iceland itself). 
And thereby may we know the love men 
had to him, that the first time mass waa 
said in his chapel there were burning 
one hundred and thirty wax-lights." We 
next have the curious Saga of Bishop V&L 
(Paul), who died in 1211, followed by the 
older Bishop J<5n*8 Saga, from the great 
Skalholt MS. 

Part II. gives us another recension of 
this saint's life, and the younger Saga of 
Bishop Thorlak, together with the oldest 
recension of Bishop Gudmund's Saga, who 
died in 1237. 

These lives, in the genuine Icelandic 
style, are filled with civil history, often 
in minute detail; but they also contain 
numbers of the miracles and wonders of 
the age, and open a clear insight into the 
homogeneous character of '••"■^jprn super- 

Many of these Sagas are now printed 
for the first time from the original MSS. ; 
all are carefully corrected, and notes and 
readings are appended, and they will, we 
hope, find many British readers. 

Diplomatarium Islandicum. Islenzkt 
Fombrkfasafn, sem hefir inni ad halda 
Brhfog Qjwningay D&ma og Mdldaga, og 
adrar Skrdr, er suerta Island eda Islenzka 
Menu. Oefid ut of hinu Islenzka Bokmenta 
fklagi. I. Kaupmannhofn, (8vo. pp. 820.) 
— This noble commencement of a noble 
task, the publication of all the letters, re- 
scripts, deeds, and other documents, whe- 
ther in Latin or Icelandic, which concern 
Iceland, will be hailed with gratitude by 
all who are interested in the literature 
and history of a country which is so inti- 
mately bound up with the language and 
annals of our own. It is edited by that 
excellent scholar J6n Sigurdsson, a ger.- 
tleman profoundly versed in northern lite- 
rature, and now speaker of the Icelandic 
Parliament (the All-thmg). It is beauti- 


MtscellaneouB Reviews. 


fully printed, and is published by the Ice- 
lanoic Society, costing its members only a 
couple of shillings. 

'i'his first half volume opens with the 
doubt ful letter of the Emperor Ludovicus 
in 834, and goes down to 1200. The 
oldest documents are of course in Latin, 
the rest in Old-Norse, carefully collated 
and printed, with various readings, intro- 
ductions, Bnd critical notes where re- 
quired. The manuscripts have been faith- 
fully followed, no attempt made to " doc- 
tor" the text, and every correction of 
possible clerical errors at once signified. 
It is tlicTifore of no Itss value to the phi- 
lologist than the historian, and will be a 
boon to all who take any int( rest in this 
attractive branch of archaeology. 

Inscription Runique du Piree interpretee 
par C C. Rafn, et pubJiee par h SocietS 
Rot/ale de Antiquaires du Nord, (Copen- 
hagen, 185G, pp. 25 k) With numerous 
wood -engravings. — Who has not heard of 
the famous marble lion of Venice, in- 
8( ribed with mystic characters ? Who has 
not longed for an interpretation of the 
wondrous secret ? 

It is this which Her Rafn, the learned 
secretary of the Royal Society of Northern 
Antiquaries, has hero attempted. 

He traces the history of this lion from 
the time of Pericles, or shortly after, and 
\\% erection in Athens, its removal to 
Venice in 1687 by Morosini, and the va- 
rious theories with respect to the marks 
upon it, wh"('h gradually ripened into a con- 
viction of their being Scandinavian Rimes. 
After numberless attempts and kind as- 
sistance, he at last succeeds in decypher- 
ing them, and here lays before us the 

He attributes the inscription to Ilarald 
Slgurdss >n, the renowned king of Nor- 
way, but during his youth, when he was 
out as a V^ringer in the service of the 
Gnck Emperor. It is intended to com- 
memorate his ixploits in the Pireus and 

We have not space to go into details, 
ntr is it necessary. Tlie book is easily 
a..'cc8sible. It is highly interesting, and, 
as far as we can judge, Herr Rafn has 
been eminently successful in the main 
facts. The result may be considered as a 
new triumph of modern research. The 
inscription is therefore from the year 1040 
or thereabouts. 

The book also contains a number of 
Runic monuments in various parts of the 
North, read and commented, and a valuable 
Runic Glossary. 

Hie English of SJcaJcspeare Ulustra' 
ted in a Philological Commentary on his 
Julius Ccesar. By Geohge E. Cbaik. 
(London : Chapman and HhII). — In a 
clear and unpretending preface Mr. Craik 
makes us acquainted with the purpose and 
extent of his endeavours as a commentator 
on Shakspeare. His commentary is, as 
the title of the volume indicates, mertly 
philological : — 

** The only kind of criticism which it profe88(>8 
is what is called verbal criticism. Its whole 
view, in so fiir as it relates to the particular 
work to which it is attached, is, as far as may be 
done, first to ascertain or determine the tex^ 
secondly to explain it ; to inquire, in other 
words, what Shakspeare really wrote, and how 
what he has written is to be read and construed." 

Mr. Craik has very generally confined his 
observations within these self-appointed 

But whilst he has done this in the case 
of the commentary, he has wisely allowed 
himself a wider course in that admirable 
collection of prolegomena which he has pre- 
fixed to the philolc^cal commentary. 
This, probably, will be regarded as the 
most useful and important portion of Mr. 
Craik's volume. Undir the several sec- 
tions which are devoted to Shakspeare's 
personal history — his works, the sources 
for the text of his plays, his editors and 
commentators, the modem texts, the me- 
chanism of English verse, and the prosody 
of the plays; and, finally, the play of 
"Julius Cffisar," — there is a comprehen- 
sive mass of valuable information on tlie 
respective subjects, which is communicated 
to the reader in a clear and pleasant, 
though concise manner, and is likely to 
be ot incalculable use to all those whose 
attention is, in beginning an earnest studv 
of the great dramatist's productions, di- 
rected for the first time to the special 
themes on which these prolegomena dwell. 

Of all Shakspeare's plays the " Julius 
Cffisar" has come down to us in the least 
unsatisfactory state, and Mr. Craik has 
therefore made use of the received texts, 
with a few amendments, as the basis of his 
commentary. He has adopted sixteen of 
the twenty- six new readings in Mr. Col- 
lier's corrected folio, and has added two 
or three of his own unobjectionable emen- 
dations. His annotations are, upon the 
whole, of great value, both in their imme- 
diate application to the play he has se- 
lected, and their obvious bearing on the 
great body of Shakspeare's other dramatic 
works; and they are, moreover, always 
interesting, often ingenious, and sometimes 
clearly indicative of a habit of composition 
which will prove a serviceable clue through 
many an intricacy of the other plays. The 
one obvious fault of some redundancy of 


Antiquarian Researche$. 


annotation is thus extenuated by the 
author : — 

" I confess that here my fear is that I shall 
be thought^ have done too much rather than 
too little. But I have been desirous to omit no- 
tiiing that any reader might require for the full 
understanding of the play, in so far as I was 
able to supply it." 

In his references to the text of Shak- 
speare, Mr. Craik has adopted the simple 
and singularly convenient expedient of 
numbering the speeches in the play, and 
then making his reference, not, as is custo- 
mary, to the scene, but to the number of 
the speech. The advantage of this mode 
of reference is unquestionable: Mr. Craik 
makes out by calculation that it is, in the 
case of the " Julius Caesar," " between 
forty and fifty times more precise, and 
consequently more serviceable, than the 
other." The example is worthy of all 
imitation iiT new or newly edited com- 
mentaries on any of the writings of the 
glorious company of our old dramatists. 

It is Mr. Craik's good fortune that all 
his books are popular, and this, we are 
sore, will be no exception to the rule. 

Life of John Kitto, D.D., F.S.A. By 
John Eadie, D.D., LL.D. (Edinburgh : 
William Oliphant and Sons.) — In our 
Magazine for October last, in noticing a 

Life of Dr. Eitto by Mr. Ryland, we en- 
tered at considerable length into the per- 
sonal history of that good and learned 
man, whose strength of character and 
courage ruised him from a condition of 
almost hopeless wretchedness into a high 
and influential rank amongst the biblical 
scholars of h's age. Mr. liy land's bio- 
graphy of that extraoriliiiary person did 
justice to his positive attainments, both in 
Chrbtian goodness and in scholarly 1 ^re, 
but it dwelt with cold and scant recog- 
nition on the terrible impediments by 
which poor Kitto's path was rendered 
hard and rude. Here, however, in Dr. 
Sadie's ri.'Cord of the same life, we see the 
shieM on its other side. Entering with a 
genial sympathy into that struggle with 
adversity which made the eminence of Dr. 
Kitto's subsequent learning so marvellous 
— contempLiting his character as one that 
had been tested and proved true in the 
fiercest fires of disaster and distress — Dr. 
Eadie, by this very insight in investigation, 
does ampler and far higher justice to the 
subject of his biography than his prede- 
cessor had done, and gives to the admirers 
of the Lite Dr. Kitto a memorial of him 
far more accordant with thut noblest 
truth which is more conversant with the 
B^>irit than the letter. 

Reviews of several works are in tifpe, and will appear in our next Magazine. 



May 21. Edward Hawkins, V.-P., in 
the chair. 

Mr. George Robert Wright was elected 

M. Morgan, V.-P., exhibited three pedo- 
meters for refl:istering the number of steps 
taken in walking; the workmanship of 
the seventeenth century. 

Mr. Fairhult exhibited a knife-blade, a 
key, and a pair of shears, sijl of iron, found 
in Lothbury, close to the spot where the 
copper bowk engraved in the twenty -ninth 
volume of the Archeeolc^ia were discovered. 
The latter are ascribed to the eleventh cen- 
tury, but the relics now exhibited Mr. 
Fairholt considers somewhat later in date. 

Mr. Henry Norman exhibited a quantity 
of Koman and medieval pottery, discovered 
during excavations made for the founda- 
tions of the new banking-house of Messrs. 
Jones, Lloyd, and Co., Lothbury. 

Mr. B. Wilmer exhibited several draw- 
ings executed by himself, of buckles, fibulse, 
etc., found in the Frankish cemetery of 

Rambonillet, and now in the collection of 
M. Mont ie. 

Mr. A. W. Franks exhibited a sword- 
blade, a blade of a knife, and a spear-head, 
found recently in the Thames. The first 
resembles in form the scramasax of the 
Franks, of which examples are very rare 
in England, and bears a row of Runic 
characters, inlaid in gold. 

Mr. W. M. Wylie communicated a trans- 
lation of the first portion of the Abb^ 
Cochet's further report on his excavations 
in the desecrated cemetery at Bouteilles 
near Dieppe, the remainder being reserved 
for a future meeting. 

Mr. Octavius Morgan exhibited a silver 
disc inscribed with amuletic characters, 
and read some remarks on the use of 
these objects. 

May 28. Joseph Hunter, Esq., V.-P., 
in the chair. 

The Rev. J. Silvester Davies, Incum- 
bent of St. Mary extra, Southampton, nnd 
Mr. Hans Claude Hamilton, of her Ma- 


Antiquarian Resea/ckes. 


jesty*g State-Paper Office, were elected 

Mr. Franks exhibited two astrolabes in 
brass, tbe work of the fifteenth and six- 
teenth centuries. 

Mr. Evelyn Philip Shirley, M.P., local 
secretary for Warwickshire, communi- 
cated an account, which had been fur- 
nished him by Mr. Jesse Kingerlee, of the 
discovery of Roman coins in the parish of 
Kineton. Four of these coins were of 
brass, and of the age of Constantine, one 
of silver of the Emperor Julian the Apos- 
tate, and a sixth of the Emperor Clau- 
dius I. 

Mr. Akerman, Secretary, exhibited a 
dagger of the fifteenth century purchased 
by him at the recent sale by auction of 
the antiquities and curiosities of M^or 
Macdonald. On the pommel, which has 
three faces, are engraved two shields of 
arms, the first being. Bendy of six; in 
base, a human face : on a chief, a dragon 
on its back?— legend, above, donec, nvp- 
8ER0. The second. Quarterly ; 1. A castle, 
triple towered j 2. A wolf salient ; 3. An 
eagle displayed; 4. Three bars. On the 
third face is engraved a male figure in the 
costume of the fifteenth century, holding 
in his left hand a dagger, his right foot 
trampling on a globe — legend : non YELVT 


Mr. Edward Stone communicated a de- 
tailed account of certain British and Saxon 
remains lately discovered at Standlake and 
Brighthampton, Oxon, of which a notice 
was read from Professor Phillips at the 
meeting of the 7th of May. Mr. Stone 
also exhibited a model, and plans of the 
pits, and the remains found in them and 
in their vicinity, comprising fragments of 
urns, of apparent BritL«h origin, bono im- 
plements, and knives, etc., of the Saxon 

The secretary then read the concluding 
portion of Mr.Wylie's translation of the 
Abb^ Cochet's report of his excavations in 
the Norman cemetery of Bouteilles. The 
Abb6 sent for exhibition specimens of 
the pottery discovered on this occasion, 
together with examples of the leaden 
crosses inscribed with the formula of ab- 

The Society then adjourned over the 
Whitsun holidays to Thursday, June 11. 

June 11. Joseph Hunter, Esq., V.-P., 
in the chair. 

A donation of nearly 500 volumes of 
books chiefly relatinsf to the histoid and 
topography of London and its suburbs, 
from Mr. J. R. D. Tyssen, a Fellow of the 
Society, to whom an onanimous vote of 
thanks was returned. 

The Rev. Frederick Hill Harford, resid- 
ing at Croydon, was elected Fellow. The 
Secretary exhibited a number of relics, 
obtained by Major Campbell, of the 71st 
Highlanders, from the ancient catacombs 
at Kertch. They consisted of some in- 
teresting examples of pottery and glass, 
beads, coins, and fragments of the blades 
of swords. Mr. Akerman remarked that 
these weapons had been discovered in the 
tombs of men, as he was assured by Major 
Campbell. It would be in the recollection 
of the Society that several fibulae of a de- 
cidedly Qermanic type had been found by 
Dr. Macpherson in the excavations prose- 
cuted by him at Kertch, and these had, 
by some antiquaries, been at once assigned 
to the Varangian Guard, — mercenaries in 
the pay of the Byzantine princes. The 
finding of the swords appeared to furnish 
a proof that the individuals here interred 
had been consigned to their last resting- 
places, more Oermanorum, The coins 
comprised several examples of the ancient 
kings of the Bosphorus, but others were 
as late as the reign of Constantine the 
Great. Major Campbell had promised him 
a detailed account of his excavations, which 
he trusted might be laid before the Society 
in the ensuing session. 

Mr. Octavius Morgan, M.P. exhibited a 
large and very interesting collection of as- 
tronomical, astrological, and horometrical 
instruments, consisting of astrolabes, via- 
toria, or portable sun-dials, and a very 
curious dial in the form of a hexagonal 
gilt cup, accompanied by a verbal expla- 
nation of their several uses. 

Tile Rev. J. Montgomery Traherne ex- 
hibited drawings of Roche Castle in the 
county of Pembroke, and communicated 
some account of the ancient lords of this 
strong-hold. A note was read from Mr. 
J. H. Parker describing its architectural 

Mr. George Chapman exhibited two an- 
tique Chinese silver enamelled vases of 
peculiar form, which he stated had long 
been in the possesion of an English 

Mr. J. Jackson Howard presented to 
the Society's collections a proclamation 
of King James II. dated January 31, 
1687, granting to the distressed French 
Protestants " the benevolenoe of all loving 

Mr. William Bollaert then read a com- 
munication entitled "Antiquarian Re- 
searches in the Province of Sarapaca, and 
discovery of the pintados or ancient 
Indian pictography." 

Mr. Bollaert as early as 1827 noticed 
these "pintados" sculptured in the sides 
of arid mountains in the province of Tara- 


Antiquarian Researches. 


paca, consisting of figures of Indians, 
llamas, dogs, fish, circles, etc., made by 
scratcliing or scooping on the sides of 
mountains, the surface of which was 
ftony and blackish, having a white ground 
underneath. These figures were 20 to 30 
feet in height^ the lines 12 to 18 inches 
broad and 6 to 8 inches deep. Mr. Bol- 
laert thought at that period that these 
figures had been done by the old as well 
as the modem Indian for amusement. Some 
years afterwards Mr. Seymour noticed a 
pintado near Santa Rosa called Las Kagas 
and was informed that it was probable 
that Indian rites had been and were still 
performed here. 

In 1853 Mr. Bollaert revisited Peru, 
and after examining many of these pin- 
tados scattered over the said province, 
consisting generally of the colossal figures 
of Indians, pumas, llamas, and other 
animals, circl^ squares, oblongs, etc. etc., 
came upon one south of La Pena on the 
track to Iquique, the principal figure 
made up of compartments joined by their 
comers, one of them was found to be a 
huaca, or grave, containing a female ha- 
bited in a dress of feathers, having on her 
head a helmet of straw, and under her 
head a jar containing too small bones. 
Here, then, is an instance shewing that 
some of these pintados are tombs, and in 
all probability of the more ancient Ay- 

Mr. Seymour, who hast just returned 
from Peru, informs Mr. Bollaert of the 
existence of a trident-looking pintado 
near Pisco, 200 yards long : this Mr. Bol- 
laert thinks may be the tomb of some 
chief at least as old as the times of the 

Sculptures on rocks are not uncommon 
in the New World, but the existence of 
these pintados is not found noticed, ex- 
cept in England, one of which is the 
White Horse of Uffington in Berkshire; 
this, probably, is of religious origin*. 

June 18. John Brace, Esq., V.P., in the 

Mr. Cole presented to the Society a 
proclamation dated February 21, 1732, 
calling in the gold coins called "broad 
pieces." The Report of the Finance 
Committee on the receipts and expendi- 
ture of the Society was read by the 

Professor Ranke was elected an bono* 

■ Mr. Akerman, in a comnmnication to the 
Society of Antiqaaries, is of opinion that the 
'White Horse of Uffington must be ascribed to 
an age prior to the Saxons, and considers it of 
idigiooB origin. 

rary Fellow, and Mr. Charles Eean was 
elected a Fellow. 

Mr. J. G. Nichols exlubited a bronze 
statuette of a wild man kneeling on one 
knee, sai^ to have formerly belonged to 
the late General Sir Charles Napier. 

Mr. Richard Almack exhibited a bond 
in £1000 penalty, given by Thomas Duke 
of Norfolk, Roger Towneshend, and Sir 
Nicholas Le Strange for the due per- 
formance of the covenants on the mar- 
riage of Roger Towneshend with Jane, 
daughter of Anne, Lady Stanhope. This 
instrument is dated in the sixth year of 
the reign of Queen Elizabeth. 

Mr. Ouvry, the Treasurer, exhibited, by 
permission of Mr. J. W. Farrer of Ingle- 
borough, a collection of relics obtained by 
the latter gentleman from Dowkerbottom 
cave near Amecliffe, Yorkshire, compris- 
ing human and animal remains, fibulse of 
bronze, armillss, bone implements, spindle- 
whirls, etc From the discovery of coins 
of Claudius II. and Tetricus with these 
objects, they may be pretty confidently 
ascribed to the late Romano- British period. 
They very closely resemble the remuns 
discovered, some years since, in the caves 
at Settle in the same district, and described 
in Collectanea Antiqua. 

Sir George Musgrave, Bart., by the 
hands of Admiral Smyth, forwarded a 
pen and ink sketch of a stone axe, with 
the wooden handle still attached to it^ 
found recently by a labourer when dig- 
ging peat in the Salway Moss, near Long- 

Mr. Charles Reed exhibited a deed 
bearing the signature of Henrietta Maria, 
dated July 22, 1664, conveying to her son 
Charles II. twenty-four tenements, with- 
out Temple Bar, supposed to have occu- 
pied the site known as Somerset-place. 

The Rev. Thomas Hugo presented a 
rubbing from a fragment of an inscribed 
stone in his possession, found in Budge- 
row, London, bearing the following letters 
of a mutilated inscription : — 



Mr. Morgan, Y.P., exhibited his collec- 
tion of clocks and watches, of which he 
gave a verbal description. 

Mr. Ashpitel then read a communica- 
tion entitled "The City of Cuma and the 
recent excavations there." This included 
an account of the tombs containing the 
skeletons of individuals who had been de- 
capitated, the heads being represented by 
waxen substitutes. 

The Society then a^oumed over the 
recess to Thursday, November 19. 


Antiquarian Researches, 



Mai/ 13. John Lee, LL.D., F.R.S., 
F.S.A., Vice-President, in the chair. 

The Earl of Scarborough, the Rev.R.H. 
Poole, and Mrs. Bellamy of Abergavenny, 
were elected Associates. 

Mr. W. Calder Marshall, R.A., exhibited 
an impression of a fine Celtic gold coin, 
found a short time since at Erith, in Kent, 
the original of which is in the possession 
of Mr. Flaxman Spun ell, of Bcxley -heath. 
Obv.f the so-called head of Apollo Belinus, 
to the letl. Mev., the horse and charioteer. 
Beneath the belly of the horse, a rose or 
■ex-foil ornament. Weight, 116 g^rains. 

Mr. Charles Ainslie produced two gold 
coins discovered at Chinkford, in Essex. 
The earliest much like Mr. Marshall's, but 
in the place of the rose a bull's head. The 
other coin a well-known type of Cunobe- 
line. Obv., horse galloping to the right ; 
above, a bough (?) ; beneath, CVN. JSev., 
ear of corn. (Ruding, 1*1. iv. fig. 7.) 

Mr. Gibbs exhibited the centre of an 
oak mantle-tree of the time of James or 
Charles I. It measures 3 feet 5 inches in 
length, and 13 inches in breadth. In the 
centre the royal arms, surrounded by the 
garter, surmounted by the crown, and 
with the lion and unicorn for supporters, 
are carved. Towards each end is a semi- 
drcular-headed arch, beneath one of which 
■tands a bearded man in a long doublet 
tmttoned down the fi-ont, and beneath the 
other, a female in a farthingale, with arms 
a-kirabo. Figures in such situations are 
generally termed Jack and Jill, from the 
supposition that they represent the man 
and maid-servants. 

Mr. Ainslie exhibited six fine and per- 
fect keys of iron, taken from the Thames 
at Westminster, when excavating for the 
new palace. The earliest was of the close 
of the thirteenth century. He also ex- 
hibited a rapier of the time of Charles I., 
the steel pommel and guard of which are 
richly decorated with three-quarttT busts 
of a female and Cupids. It was exhumed 
in Bloody-lane, near Louth, Lincolnshire, 
a spot traditionally said to be the site of 
a rencontre between Cromwell and the 
Parliamentarians in 1643. 

Mr. Wills exhibited a very extensive 
collection of keys, — Roman, medioeval, and 
of later times, — in iron and in bronze. 

Mr. Forman exhibited a remarkably fine 
collection of gold and silver antiquities, 
■ome of which were Celtic, some obtained 
from Ireland, others from Gaul, and others 
were decidedly Danish. They were re- 
ferred to Mr. Syer Cuming for arrange- 
ment and description, as being of great 

Mr. Cuming read a curious paper on 
Cromwellian Relics, which gave rise to an 
interesting conversation, in the course of 
which Mr. Wilkinson, of Lambeth, gave an 
account of the head of Cromwell, which, 
having been blown down, was obtained for 
one of the Russell &mily, and had passed 
into that of Mr. W. during the last half 
century. Various portraits, medals, &c., 
of the Protector and members of his 
family were produced, and references made 
to others at the Chequers, Buckingham- 
shire, in the possession of Lady Fraukland 
Russell, &C. 

June 10. John Lee, LL.D., F.R.S., 
F.S.A., Vice-President, in the chair. 

Henry Kerl, Esq., J. W. Pettigrew, 
Esq, and Henry N. Scaife, Esq., R.N., 
were elected associates. 

Presents were received from the Archseo- 
logical Institute, the Canadian Institute, 

Notes on brasses laid before the Asso- 
ciation by Dr. Lee, and Observations on 
Mr. Wills's collection of rings, by Mr. 
Syer Cuming, were read. 

Mr. Curie exhibited a knife-handle of 
brass, of the time of Charles I., represent- 
ing a lady and gentleman in the dress of 
that period. 

Mr. Wright exhibited two examples of 
spurs, formerly belonging to Lord Lovat» 
beheaded in 1745. 

Mr. Norman exhibited three bronze 
mirrors, two of which were Etruscan, the 
third Danish. 

Mr. C. Ainslie exhibited the key car- 
ried by Lord Rochester^ chamberlain to 
Charles II. 

Robert Temple, Esq , Chief Justice of 
Honduras, read a paper on "Treasure- 
Trove," in which he contended that ring^, 
bracelets, collars of gold, breast places, 
helmets and swords inlaid with gold, and 
costly robes of silk or velvet embroidered 
with gold, did not come under that deno- 
mination, which applied only to money or 
coin, gold, silver, plate or bullion. In 
supporc of his opinion he cited many defi- 
nitions and h gal opinions. Mr. Vere Ir- 
ving referred to the Scotch laws upon the 
subject, and the chairman stated Black- 
stone's views in particular. The whole 
subject was referred to be reported on, 
and printed in the Journal. 

The Annual Congress was summoned to 
take place in August next, at Norwich, 
assembling in that dty on the 24th. 
Excursions were in course of arrangement 
for Caister Castle, Burgh Castle, Yar- 
mouth, Lynn, Castle Rising Castle, Bin- 
ham Priory, Walsingham, Barsham Hall, 
Thetford, Ely Cathedral, &c. Norwich 


Antiquarian Researches. 


and Ely Cathedrals are to be lectured 
upon by H. H. Burnell, Esq., and C. E. 
Davis, Esq., F.S.A. Mr. Planche super- 
intends the sculptures and monumental 
effigies ; Mr. W. H. Black the charters, 
deeds, and municipal documents; whilst 
the description of the castle of Norwich 
and the remains of ancient ed fices will be 
imder the direction of W. C. Ewing, 
Esq., and Robert Fitch, Esq., of Norwich. 
Mr. Palmer conducts the Association over 
the antiquities of Great Yarmouth, and 
the Earl of Albemarle presides over the 


June 5. Lord Talbot de Malahide, Pre- 
sident, in the chair. 

An extensive series of portraits of Mary 
Queen of Scots was, in accordance with 
the announcement made at the previous 
meeting, brought before the Society. It 
was stated that in consequence of the 
high degree of interest with which the 
proposed formation of such a collection 
had been received, and the readine^ss with 
w^hich various portraits of value had been 
promised by private collectors and public 
bodies possessing such memorials of the 
Queen of Scots, it would be impracticable 
to complete the requisite aiTangements 
for some days to come. The collection 
already displayed would ere long be aug- 
mented by the portraits liberHlly con- 
tributed by the Duke of Northumber- 
land, the Duke of Richmond, the Vis- 
count Duncan, the Earl of Warwick, 
Mr. Howard, of Greystoke Castle, Mr. 
Botfield, M.P., Sir John Richardson, 
Bart., and others. The Prince Albert, 
patron of the Society, had also conde- 
scended to signify his approbation of the 
undertaking, and permission had been 
graciously conceded that the series should 
be enriched by certain valuable portrai- 
tures from the Royal collections. In ad- 
dition to the portraits of Mary Stuart, 
several valuable documents and auto- 
graphs would be produced; and amongst 
the reliques of undoubted authenticity 
received for exhibition were the precious 
objects originally given by Mary to Bal- 
four, Governor of Edinburgh Castle; her 
veil, worn at her execution, now the pro- 
perty of Sir John Hippisley, Bart.; her 
enamelled Rosary, a present from the 
Pope, with other precious ornaments pre- 
served at Corby Castle. Through the 
kindness of Mr. Stirling, M.P., Mr. Slade, 
the Rev. Dr. Wellesley, and several dis- 
tinguished collectors, the series of con- 
temporary engraved portraits had been 
rendered very nearly complete. 

Mr. Freeman gave a description of the 
uncommon architectural features of a re- 
markable church in Monmouthshire, St. 
Mellon*8, near Cardiflf, and produced seve- 
ral drawings in illustration of his remarks. 

Mr. Octiivius Morgan offered a very 
interesting explanaton of the progress of 
the art of watch-making, as exemplified 
by the extensive collection formed by 
him, and brought before the Society on 
this occasion. He set forth the charac- 
teristic peculiarities in their construction, 
from the earliest specimens of pocket 
clocks, as they were termed, produced by 
the ingenious artificers of Niu^mbei^, at 
the commencement of the sixteenth cen- 
tury; and he traced the gradual progress 
of the improvements by which the high- 
est degree of perfection in mechanism had 
ultimately been attamed. Lord Talbot, 
referring to the numerous interesting me- 
morials of the ill-fated Queen of Scots by 
which the atulience were surrounded, ob- 
served that Mary Stuart appearid to liave 
had a great predilection for watches and 
orloges; and that amongst the number- 
less specimens traditionally attributed to 
her, there were doubtless some of high 
interest and authenticity, as identified 
with her history. Miss Agnes Strickland, 
the accomplished biographer of the Queen 
of Scots, being present on this occasion, 
specially mentioned as of most interesting 
character the watch presented by Mary 
to her f^thful attendant Mary Seton, and 
now in the possession of Sir John Dick 
Lauder, Bart., as also the watch pre- 
sented by Mary to John Knox, which 
came into the hands of Mr. Thompson, 
of Aberdeen, as stated by the biographer 
of the Reformer, the late Dr. M*Crie. 

Mr. Westwood brought an ancient por- 
trait of Shakspeare, which bears strong 
resemblance to the celebratetl Chandos 
portrait. He also offered some remarks 
on several beautiful sculptures in ivory, 
sent for examination by Mr. Webb, two 
of them of the Carlovingian period, the 
other an example of Italian art, of rare 
beauty in its design. Mr. Westwood ob- 
served that the beautiful facsimiles of 
sculptured ivories produced in this country 
by Mr. Franchi, chiefly under the direc- 
tion of Mr. Nesbitt, and brought under 
the notice of the lovers of art through the 
Arundel Society, had suggested on the 
continent similar reproductions of the 
beautiful examples of art of that class. 
He brought the catalogue of an extensive 
series of facsimiles in imitative ivory from 
the Darmstadt Museum, and other collec- 
tions in Germany, now to be obtained from 

Professor Buckman gave a detailed ac- 


ArUiquarian Researches. 


count of the completion of the mnseum 
erected at Cirencester as a depository for 
the numerous antiquities of the Roman 
and other periods recently there discovered. 
This structure has been provided through 
the liberality of the Earl Bathurst ; and 
the remarkable mosaic pavements brought 
to light during the last few years have 
been successfully transferred thither by 
the care and skill of Professor Buckman. 

Mr. Freeland brought a curious conduit 
pipe of terra-cotta, lately found on his pro- 
perty near Chichester, and doubtless, as 
was confirmed by the opinion of Mr. Ne- 
ville and other gentlemen present familiar 
with Roman remains, to be classed with 
vestiges of that character. It is, however, 
of very unusual fashion, and fabricated 
with great skill. Mr. Freeland described 
the abundance of Roman remains and 
coins constantly occurring in the neigh- 
bourhood, the traces almost daily to be 
noticed of the ancient inhabitants of Reg- 

The Duke of Northumberland, who 
honoured the meeting with his presence, 
contributed for exhibition the original sil- 
ver seals engraved by Simon, bearing the 
achievement and portrait of Algernon 
Percy, Earl of Northumberland, Lord 
Hiu'h Admiral, 1632 ; and the curious 
leaden seal, found in the Thames, with 
the effigy and name of Henry de Percy, 
a relique of the thirteenth century. The 
Duke sent also for examination a beautiful 
gold ring of the Roman period, found at 
Corbridge, and the exquisite miniature 
portrait of the Duke of Buckingham, by 
Oerbier, the finest existing example of his 
productions. It is dated 1618, and repre- 
sents the Duke in superb costume, on 
horseback : in the distance appear James 
I. and his suite. Baltazar Gerbier was the 
protegi of the Duke of Buckingham, and 
attended him in Spain. This exquisite 
miniature, which is mounted in an elabo- 
rately enamelled cnsc, is probably the iden- 
tical portrait executed for the Duchess, in 
accordance with the request made by her 
in a letter to her husband, at that time in 
Spain — " I pray you, if you have any idle 
time, sit to Oerbier for your picture, that 
I may have it well done in little," 

The Hon. Richard Neville produced a 
choice selection from his collection of rings, 
consisting of recent additions to his Dacty- 
lothcca, of various periods, including seve- 
ral examples attributed to the Anglo-Saxon 
ape, with others of very beautiful work- 
manship and value. Mr. Neville brought 
also a stone implement of very rare tj'pe, 
found with a large cinerary urn at Audley 
End. It bears resemblance to a small club 
or maul, but its use may have been for 

triturating grain at a very early period. 
Similar mullers have been found in Angle- 
sea, and some other parts of England. 

Captain Hoare, of Cork, sent a notice of 
a rare example of ring-money, an unique 
variety, found in the county of Dublin ; it 
is of pure gold, and resembles a specimen 
found in the south of England. It is of 
the form termed penannnlar, and consists of 
seven hoops united together, and weighing 
6 dwts. Mr. Rolls brought a bronze spear- 
head of massive proportions, found near 
Cardiff, and remarkable as being found 
with barbs. Lord Talbot observed that 
no similar type had occurred to his know- 
ledge, and that it was unknown amongst 
the numerous varieties found in Ireland. 
Mr. Le Keux exhibited a collection of very 
interesting architectural and topographical 
drawings by artists of note now deceased, 
including Turner, Prout, Sir H. Englcfield, 
John Carter, Heame, Pyne, Bartlett, &c. 
Captain Oakes presented some beautiful 
photographs taken by bimself in Norfolk, 
and presenting admirable illustrations of 
Castle Rising, Pentney Abbey, and the 
ancient buildings at Lynn, Middleton 
Tower, and other remarkable architec- 
tural examples, in addition to the beauti- 
ful photographs taken by Captain Oakes, 
with which he has enriched the collection 
of the Institute. 

Mr. Howard, of Greystoke Castle, ex- 
hibited, through Mr. Charles Long, a 
miniature of Queen Elizabeth by Isaac 
Oliver, originally in the collection of 
Charles I. Tlie face had been greatly 
injured; the costume is of the most ela- 
borate richness. The portrait, in its 
original ivory case, bears the date 1588. 

Announcement was made of the satis- 
factory arrangements for the annual meet- 
ing, to commence at Chester on July 21. 
The objects of interest within easy reach 
are very numerous and varied. An in- 
vitation had been received from the Lan- 
cashire Historical Society to visit Liver- 
pool, and the extensive archseological col- 
lection formed by Mr. Joseph Mayer, 
P.SA. Mr. Watt, of Speke HaU, had 
also proposed to entertain the Institute 
in that ancient mansion, one of the best 
examples of Domestic Architecture of its 
age in Lancashire. A brilliant conver* 
tazione would be given in St. George's 
Hall by the Mayor of Liverpool in honour 
of the visit of the Institute. A special 
day had been appropriated to the Art 
Treasures at Manchester, when Mr. Scharf 
and other gentlemen engaged in that great 
undertaking will discourse on the rich and 
instructive collections there arranged. An 
excursion to Carnarvon and other sites of 
historical interest is contemplated. The 


Antiquarian ReaearcJiei. 


local mnseiim will be formed in the pic- 
tnresque refectory of St. Werburgli's 


The Monthly Meeting of the above 
Society took place June 3, Robert Davies> 
E.oq., F.S.A., in the chair. 

The Rev. John Kerrick read a commu- 
nication from Mr. Tef silale, of Welburn, 
near Castle Howard, respecting the dis* 
covery of a number of Roman bronze-pang 
or skilletts, on the estate of the Duke of 
Sutherland, at Stittenham. They were 
found at a small depth below the surface. 
In form and fashion they correspond exactly 
with one preserved in the Museum of the 
Society. When found, they were packed 
one within the other, and seem to have 
formed a regular succession of sizes. Their 
contents are respectively, 16 oz., 22 oz., 
40 oz., 80 oz , 92 oz. of water ; on one of 
the handles are the letters p. cipi. polib. 
and on another p. CIPI. Polyib. Some 
fragments of Egyptian pottery with Greek 
inscriptions, mentioned at a former meet- 
ing in January, were presented by the 
Misses Cheap. Tiie debased and scarcely 
Ic^bile Greek character in which they are 
written was illustrated by comparison with 
the Turin and Berlin papyri, of the Pto- 
lemaic age, published by Peyron and 
Boeckh. with facsimiles. 

llie Rev. James Raine, jun., then read 
a paper entitled, "Illustrations of Life 
and Manners from Wills," a subject which 
had naturally engaged the author's at- 
tention, in connection u ith his publication 
of the Testamenia JEhoracensia for the 
Surtees Society. Hii present paper was 
confined to nuncupative wills, or those 
made by word of mouth, a practice very 
common in ancient times, when both the 
art of writing was less generally diffused 
than at present, and writing materials 
were not readily to be found. Mr. Raine 
read extracts from some of these, chiefly 
of tlie sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, 
which in their qufunt and homely phrase- 
ology, conveyed curious particulars of the 
liCe and manners and sentiments of those 
times, and of the hearth and home of our 
humble progenitors. A nuncupative will, 
made under remarkable circumstances, 
was that of a female of Richmond, in the 
North Riding. The plague committed most 
dread t'ul ravages in that town, three 
fourths of the population having been 
swept away. The will in question was 
made by word of mouth from a window ; 
for the plague being in the house, all en- 
trance was barred, and it was in this way 
only that the will of the testatrix, who 

Gbitt. Mag. Vol. CCIII. 

was herself smitten with the disease, could 
be witnessed. It was not, however, in 
humble life, or among the illiterate alone 
that this practice prevailed. The will of 
Dr. George Mountais^ne, Archbishop of 
York, who dieil in 1628, was nuncupative. 
He was a native of Cawood, and of very 
humble birth, but became successive y 
Bishop of Lincoln, London, and Durham, 
and finally. Archbishop of York. When 
raised to this dignity he was in s ^ch in- 
firm health that his physician predicted 
he would not live out the year, and he 
died in about three months; so that, ac- 
cording to the remark of Fuller, " he was 
hardly warm in his seat before he was 
cold in his coffin." His will contains a 
singular bequest of four rings to four Uttle 
girls, whom he calls his wives. 


A VEETiKa of th's Society was held on 
Wednesday, May 27, the President, Dr. 
Bloxam, in the chair. 

The following pre>!ents were ackno'V- 
Icdgcd : — Transactions of the Architectu- 
ral institute of Scotland, Sessions 1855-56, 
presented by the Institute. Three fifteenth 
century Inscriptions from St. Mary's 
Church, Kelveden, Essex, presented by 
the Rev. D. F. Vigers. 

After some discus»on, a memorial to 
the Commissioners appointed to adjudi« 
cate on the design? sent in for the new 
Government Buildings was adopted, sub- 
mitting for their consideration some 
rea«»ons why the Gothic style should be 

The l^esident then called on the Hon. 
H. C. Forbes for his Paper on the History 
of Abingdon Abbey, of which the follow- 
ing is an analysis : — 

In the year 675. two years after the 
birth of the Venerable Bede, and one year 
after the foundation of the monastery at 
Weremouth, it appears we must date the 
commencement of the once famous Abbey 
of Abingdon. lb was founded by Ciasa, 
Viceroy of the West Saxons, or by his 
nephew Heane. Probably Cissa and Heane 
were joint founders, of whom the latter 
became its first abbot, and the former was 
buried in the abbey, though "the very 
place and tomb of his burial,*' says Leland« 
"was never known since the Danes de- 
faced Abingdon." This event, so disas- 
trous to the Abbey, here alluded to by 
Leland in his Itinerary, took place in the 
year 873, nearly two centuries since the 
foundation of this abbey, during the reign 
of Alfred the Great, who fought many 
battles with the Danes, of which the 


Antiquarian Retearchet. 


sliarpest was at Alnn<^don. In the mid- 
dle of the ten'h century, by favour of the 
kings Edred and Edgar, the abbey, which 
ha I been destroyed by tho Danes, was re- 
built by Kthelwohl, who became the first 
abbot of this ri*8to edmoms'ery; and now 
it Wiis that the Benediittine ruh; wa-i es- 
tabl shed in th s and other moua<tic bodies 
in England, ch efly through the influence 
of Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury. 
Nearly fifty abbots presided over this 
house from the time of Ethel wold to that 
of Thomas Pentecost or Rowland, the last 
abb >t, by whom it was surrendered to the 
commissioners of Henry VIII., in tlie year 
1538. This abbi'y w»»s formerly rich and 
powerful, and its revenue at the Dissolu- 
tion was £1876 \Qs. 9^. The buUiings 
of it have be»n almost entirely destroyed, 
and no hing of it remains that would lead 
us, unaided by history, to conceive its 
ancient grandeur and importiince. 

June 10. The third meeting was held 
at their room in Holywell, the Uev. the 
Master of University College, Vice-Pre- 
sident, in tlie chair. 

The proceedings of (ho Kilkenny Ar- 
ch8e)logical Sixjiety for March were pre- 
sented bv the Society. The atmual nu- 
dittd accounts of the Society were sub- 
mitted to the Meeti g. 

A Paper was read by Mr. J. T. Jeffcock, 
of Oriel College, tm ** Gothic Architecture, 
a National StyK*." He expl dned his con- 
ception of the term "national style.* It 
was a style adapted to the physical nature 
of a country, to its climate, to the terres- 
trial and melcorolog cal phenomena to 
which it was subject. It was one for 
which suitable materials to carry it out 
coul I be found on the spot, or be im- 
ported without too great expense. It was 
one which c >uld be employed for buildings 
civil and religious, public and private, 
large and small. Lastly, it was no use 
that it should bo proved theoretically 
8uit> d to a na ion, if at the same time 
the nation did not practically end *rse the 
proof by commonly a lopting the style. 
He proceeded then to shew how far Gk)thic 
in England came up to this dcsciiption, 
and to weigh its eliims with those ad- 
vanced by Classic architecturie. He con- 
sidered that the climate of England, as 
contrasted with that of Greece and Italy, 
demanded an essentially different style of 
archit 'ctnre. "Our climate is essentially 
one which requires damp-excluding build- 
ings; and in sucli« if 1 ght is to be ad- 
mitted, but not the chill damp air, win- 
dows must ever form a most prominent 
characteristic. An English national style, 
thereibref most be one in which the win- 

dows form a grand feature. And which 
style, the Gothic or the Classic, is best 
calculated to employ windows with beau- 
tiful effect? Greece and Rome scarcely 
had windows at all, in our sense of the 
word ; hence they made no provision for 
them in their architecture; and, pace 
Sir Christopher Wren be it sjwken, none 
of the classic architects, in my opinion, 
have ev«T introduced windows in their 
buildings with grace and eleyjince. Their 
windows look, as indeed they are, inter- 
lopers " In point of materials to be em- 
ployed, he instanced All Saints' Church, 
Margaret-street, as making use of brick, 
tile, marble, and stone, all in one edifice, 
a proof of the universality of materials 
allo.ved in Gothie architecture. He 
thought that large towns like Liverpool 
or iiradford might build their Public 
Halls of stone, but the poor parish in 
which clay only is found ouglit not to be 
required to expend its funds on the car- 
riage of stone, but should be enabled, so 
far as architectural style is concerned, to 
build its church from bricks furnished by 
the soil itself. 

Gothic architecture was equally suited 
to the church, the c »llege, the nobleman's 
seat, (as the Marquis of Hreadalbane's, at 
Taymouth Castle.) and the public build- 
ing, like the new Houses of Parliaoient, 
or the new Museum at Oxford. He main- 
tained that where:is Classic architecture 
admitted only of the sublime, and th« re- 
fore required large buildings to set it off, 
otherwise it ran the risk of falling into 
the ridiculous; Gothic architecture aimed 
in the first instance at the beautiful, and 
so was equally adapted to the small edifice 
as to the large ; and in the case of lar^e 
buildings, in addition to all the beauty of 
detail, there were proportions xast and 
magnificent as any the Classic style could 

Next as to the matter of fact ; it was 
admitted that classical ecclesiastical build- 
ings, so much in vogue in the days of Sir 
C Wren, had gone out wiih cla^ical pe- 
dantry and full-bottomed wigs. The de- 
based G'thic of the Heformation era, and 
the Classic of the subsequent period, had 
given way to genuine Gothic; and this 
not in Oxford only, not among churchmen 
only, but amona: dissenters in England, 
and among members of the National and 
Free Churches of Scotland, whose known 
detestation of aesthetics was proverbial. 

That it had been so success ul in civil 
edifices he was not prepared to assert. He 
thought the new Houses of Parliament, 
though a bad example of Gothic, were a 
good proof that Gothic was n t unpopu- 
lar j otherwise FArliainent would not liA7e 


Antiquarian Mesearches. 


adopted the style for their houses of as- 
sembly. He th'»ught the popular ft?eliiig 
was in favour of Gotliic. Consider the 
many thousands who year a't<r year on 
snnny days stroll among our ruined Eng- 
lish abbevs; the intense interest which 
attaches to these buildings; and this not 
from the pictuvesqueness of the scene only, 
or the associations connected with it, but 
from the intrinsic beauty of the ediHce. 
'J he peaceful valley and meandering stream 
were adjuncts, but it was architectural 
beauty which rendered the abbey so great 
a favourite. No doubt Mr. Ruskiu might 
be the hierophant of Gothic architecture ; 
but, he contetided, the p; aceful valley with 
the ivy mantling round the ruined pillar, 
with the beautiful clerestories stiU re- 
maining in many instances, in some with 
them just di8ap))earinur. had done more to 
educate tlie popular mind, to give it a due 
appreciation of Gothic architecture, than 
many books. Gothic architecture was a 
style of home growth ; it wns William of 
W>keham who invented the Perpendi- 
cular. English Gothic is purely an Eng- 
lish style. We live in an eclect c ^e ; the 
Crystal Palace givts us in theory, and 
Lon«lon affords in prnctiee, examples of 
all the styles that ever flourished on the 
globe. He preferred the American with 
bis "wiy coun'ry," of which he was so 
) roiid, and held him up as nn example to 
the Englishman in the matter of English 
G thic. In architecture, at least, he felt 
boimd to cry out with Sydney Smith, save 
ns from " loo much Latin and Greek." 

Mr. Freeman, while expressing his Ap- 
proval of Mr. Jeffcock's remarks, calle I 
attention to the d fficulties which modern 
architects had to contend with in ac^apt- 
ing Gothic windows to modem requiie- 
ments. He alludeil at some length to the 
designs whii h were now being exhibited 
in London for the Government offices, and 
while admitting the supericrity of the 
Gothic designs over the Palladian, he 
could not but regret that in all of them 
a sort of wild attempt at combining in- 
congruous forms in one design, seemed to 
mnr their general effect, destroying: that 
purity which is so remarkable a feature 
in English Gothic, and especially so at the 
period when the Perpendicular style was 
introduced by that great architect, Wil- 
liam of Wykehau), into this country. ,He 
said that, in a word, they all exhibited 
thot-e mistaken theories of architecture 
which luid recently obtained so much in- 
fluence in the country, Bnd which he ex- 
pressed by the word "Ruskinism," as he 
cons'dertd that Mr. Ruskin in his unin- 
telligible volumes bad been principally 
tbeir pfomoter. He spoke of tlie HoTises 

of Parliament as so many walls erected 
according to Palladiun rules and on a Pal- 
ladian plan, with pieces « f Gothic stolen 
from Henry Vllth.'s chap«l nailed on to 
them, wiihout any regard to principle or 

He referred also to mnny buildings on 
the continent, in illustration of what he 
considered were the requirements which 
should be taken into account in adopt ng 
a national style. 

Mr. J. H. Parker, referring to that part 
of Mr. Freeman's remarks whieli related to 
win lows, begged to observe that Gothic 
windows, by bein^ splayed, in reality gave 
as much light as Palladian wimlows with 
much lariier apertures. He also suggested 
that the difficulty of the mullions inter- 
vening was easily surmounted, by having 
the framework and sashes placed within, 
and entirely independent of, the mullions, 
which plan, while no dis-sight, afforded all 
the convenience required. 

These remarks were corroborated by 
Mr. Bennet, of Univei-sity College, who 
cited the New Buildingr* of the Union 
Society as a case in point. He also, 
while speaking on the subject of window**, 
suggested a plan of construi ting the build- 
inir so that the sashes might be made to 
slide into apertures in the thicknt'sa of the 

After a diseussion upon this point some 
interesting remarks were offi?red by the 
Chairman upon the general lieariua; of 
tlio contest ns to the superiority of «he 
Gothic over the Palladian for domestic 
bnildings; he instanced the building's of 
the New.>treet in London leading from 
St. Paul's to London -bridge, the archi- 
tecture of wiiich he considered admirably 
adapted to the pnrjwso for which it was 
required. He sp/'ke of the necessity of 
rearing houses in towns to four or even 
five stories in height, and which he thought 
was scarcely in accordance with a Gotliic 
design, i 1 1 reply to thi-*, Mr. Parker quoted 
some instances, both in England and also 
on the continent^, (wnere we have princi- 
pally to look for authorities for meiUeval 
town-lioust s,) in which buildings of four 
stories were found. 

Mr. Bennet then exhibited what he be- 
lieved to be a most interesting relic, viz. 
the steel band with which Archbishop 
Cranmer wns bound to the stake. He 
brought forward most clear and conclu- 
sive evidence in support of his theory, 
shewing how it had ))a^sed from Bocardo 
into his possession, and had always home 
the name of Ci-anmei-'s band. The exhi- 
bition excited considerable interest and 
promoted some discussion, after which, at 
a very late hoar, the meetbg leparated. 


Antiquarian Researches, 


The annnal Excnrsion took place on 
June 15, and from the beginning to the 
end was as successful and satisfactory as 
could be wished. The members and their 
friends started from the Society's Rooms 
in Holywell at ten o'clock, and in the 
course of half an hoar reached the parish 
church of Eynsham, where they were re- 
ceived by the Vicar. Some jud'cious res- 
torations in the nave of the church were 
generally approved, especially the renewed 
clerestory and roof. The Secretary, how- 
ever, felt it necessary to enter a public 
protest in the name of the Society against 
tlie extraordinary arrangement of the 
chancel. The communion-table (in ac- 
cordance with a long antiquated rubric, 
and afrer the example of some miserable 
clmrches in the Channel Islands) stands 
under the chancel-arch ; while within the 
altar rails, in the usual position of the 
altar, is an old barrel organ! There is 
another organ immediately opposite this, 
at the west end of the church. At about 
coon the party reached Northleigh, whi re 
they were joined by the Rev. J. L. Petit. 
They were received by the Rev. Cyrus 
Moirall, the Vicar, who had invited the 
members of the Socie^y to inspect his 
church previously to its restoration. Tlie 
curious old Siixon tower, and the fine 
chapel of the Wilcote family, were greatly 
admired, and much sympathy was felt and 
expressed for the Vicar in his earnest de- 
sire to clear his ancient church of the 
accumulated rubbish of centuries, and 
make it once more worthy of its sacred 
purposes. Afler the members of the So- 
ciety liad cotnpleted their inspection of 
this church they partook of the refresh- 
men's which had been bountifully pro- 
vided for them in the vicarage, and pro- 
ceeded, accompanied by the Ri'V. Cyrus 
Morrall and his family, towards Witney, 
which they reached at halt-past one. At 
the entrance of the town they noticed 
with considerable approbation, a small 
chapel of ease in the Early* Knglish style, 
which was built a few years since, by Mr. 
Ferrey. It was considered, however, that 
the bell -turret was disproportionately 
small. The church of Witney is a very 
fine cruciform building with a central 
tower and spire of great beauty ; the in- 
terior is decidedly disappointing, as the 
area is not only very irregular and un- 
manageable, but sadly encumbered with 
pews. The south transept attracted 
attention, especially the beautiful monu- 
ments under the south window. U'he gra- 
duated wooden platform is modem, but it 
is evident that there was originally an 
altar-platform at Che end of the tran- 

The carria^res left Witney at half-past 
two for Minster Lovell, where some time 
was spent in the inspection of the fine old 
church, and the interesting ruins of the 
manor-house— the scene of the Old Eng- 
lish Baron. The hall of the latter is very 
well worth a visit, and has a go }d entrance 
with a groined roof. The part of the ruin 
which adjoins the bank of the little river 
Windrusli has a sint^ularly picturesque 
newel staircase in the south wall. The 
church was built at the same time as the 
manor-house and by the same man. It 
is a very good specimen of 15th century 
work, cruciform, and retaining its original 
"canted" roofs — the portion over the 
sacrarium panelled and painted — in a good 
state of preservation. The central tower 
is supposed to be unique ; it is carried on 
arches acr>iss the angles, similir to the 
Pembrokeshire " squints," but loftier and 

Returning by the outskirts of Witney, 
the parly reached Ducklington a', four 
o'clock. The church is a fine one of tho 
14th century; the north chapel being 
of extremely rich work, and remarkable 
for some curious groups of sculpture let 
into the wall in sunken panels. At the 
vicarage the membei-s of the Society par- 
took of a dinner, which had been very 
kindly provided by the Rev. Dr. Failey. 

The next church visited was Standlake, 
where Mr. Petit again joined the party, 
and exhibited one of those admirable 
sketches for which he is so famous, which 
he had just made of that very interesting 
church. The building is of the 13th 
century, and in a very fair condition; 
the great attraction, however, was its 
tower, which is octagonal from the ground, 
and has a short octagonal spire. Shortly 
before entering tins village, the excur- 
sionists drew up for a few minutes beside 
a large wheat-field, and inspected the site 
of some ancient " pits" recently discovered 
in this parish. 

ITio next church was Northmore, which 
was built in the 14th century, and, with the 
exception of the addition of a tower in the 
15th, has evidently never been altered in 
any way. Nearly adjoining it is a pic- 
turesque pigeon-cote, a little be.vond, the 
parsonage-house, a fine old moated struc- 
ture, built in the latter part of the 15th 
century, and in a very perftct state. It 
is now occupied by a private family, and 
the parson's quarters are limited to a 
couple of comfortable rooms in the north- 
cast wing. 

At about a quarter to eight o'clock the 
carriages entered Stanton- Harc<mrt, which 
is so well known as to render unnecessary 
anything beyond a bore allusion to its 


Antiquarian Researches. 


Doble church (with the Harcourt chapel, 
and the old rood-screen, the ea? liest wood- 
work known to exist), the remains of the 
fine old manor-house, the noble kitchen, 
and •* Pope's Tower." All of these points 
of interest having been carefully examined, 
the whole party assembled on the lawn of 
the vicara^e-house, where a tent hid been 
erected, and tea had been provided by the 
liberality of the Rev. W. P. Wa sh. 

The Society reached Oxford at haK-past 
nine o'clock, having thoroughly enjoyed, 
and, without doubt, learned much from 
what they had seen during the day, and 
all were grateful for the kind and cordial 
hospitality which hud been shewn them 


The June meeting was held on Wed- 
nesday, the 3rd instant, in the castle of 
Nt'wcsstle, John Hodgson Hinde, Esq., 
in the chair. 

Family op Geobge Washington. 

Mr. Hylton Longstaffe brought before 
the meeting a copy of a curious and in- 
teresting letter, found among the papers 
of a deceased barrister, addressed to Wjish- 
ington Smirk, of Butterknowle Colhery, 
October, 1836 :— 

*' Dear Brother.— I write this to inform rou 
of our decent, the papers I hare seen, nnd what 
my dear mother told me respecting it. Our 

erandfatlier's nai e was Thomas Washing' on, 
rotlier to General Georpre "Washington, of North 
Ameri a. Our frmndfather was a planter of Vir- 
ginia, Nevis, and St. Kits, and that he traded in 
bis own vessel to Kngland. The ports he used 
were Liverpool and Newcastle. The last ship he 
came to Newcastle in wai? the '• Duke of Argyle " 
He died sudd nly, at Gateshead, without a will, 
le.«ving our grandmother with three daughters, 
Haiy, Surah, and Hannah, who at her death 
were taken hy Alderman Baker, Alderman Pear- 
eth, and Alderman Vernal, each one with a pro- 
mise of bringing them up according to their de- 
C( nt, but were made servants of, and they re- 
mained so until marriage. Our grandmother's 
name was Murv Smith, a native of Alnwick, 
Northumberland. She had an annuity from 
N...wick [pariially illegible^ estate for her life; 
but how tnat was le't I do not know. Mr. Wil- 
liam Peareth never let the sistei s rest until he 
got the papers fi om them to do them justice, but 
he never would confess with them after. He 
Bent them to America. A gentleman belonging 
to Bum Hall, near Durham, told our aunt M.>ry 
he had sei-n a letter wrote by the G* nerul's own 
hand concernng thr<e orphan sisters, a sum of 
£20,000 for then. Mr. Peareth would nevir con- 
f 88 anything after that, which caused my father 
to go to I/ondon. He could make nothing out, 
but that the money came, received by who thvy 
would not say ; and having no one to advise l>im, 
came home and would never see after it afiain ; 
•o it was lost. I read mvself, in the Newcastle 
paper put in by a Mr. Wilson, of N wca.'^tle, son 
of Rector Wilson, that the niece of General 
Washington called upon him, and he presented 
her with £6 m a token of respect ; and that per- 

son was Aunt Mary. I have to inform you Rector 
Wilson married our father and mother in the 

Sear of our L<>rd 1780, the 23rd of Mav, at Wash- 
igton Cimrch, near Usworth. Our mother was 
up mostly at Usworth Hall. 

** Our father, Edward Smirk, was respcctfally 
decended from the Wyiams family. The Miss 
Peareths always looked upon Aunt Mary's s»m, 
and always gave him whenever he went on our 
mother's account ; but we never went. They are 
all dead but an old lady, the last time I heard of 
them. My dear mo'her many a time has sat and 
wept when she looked at her sons and daughters, 
to ti'ink how they were wron ed. She always 
committed her case to the God of her salvation, 
and she used to say He would always avenge the 
cnsp of the innocent. Our hairs are numbered, 
and a sparrow cannot fall to the ground without 
His permission. I know what I have said to he 

** So dear brother, farewell, 

** Saeau AnmsoM." 

The seal, Mr. Longstafie stated, was a 
crest — a demi-lion holding a cro68 pat^e 
fitch^e. Motto, " Labor omnia vincit." 

Mr. White remarkefl that the letter was 
a very important contribution to local his- 
tory, lie had read an article in the 
" Quarterly Review" claiming the Wash- 
ington family for Northamptonshire. 

Mr. Longstaffe said, the Washinjrtons 
were connected both with Northampton- 
shire and Lancashire, and had a knight- 
hood in the fam ly. The General's ancestry 
went out to America about 1657, in the 
persons of two brothers, John and Lau- 
rence, whose names ocrur as younger sons 
in the English pedigree at that period. 
The traditions of the American branch 
gave the North of England as their former 
home. The family had removed from 
Washington, county Durbnm, the cradle 
of the n^ce at a remote peri< d ; and the 
marringe of Thomas Wa^-hinston there, in 
1780, may only be a coincidence; but, as 
the bride came from Alnwick, it was, per- 
haps, connected with sentiment. Mr. 
Longstaffe had paid no particular atten- 
tion to the family. The letter, however, 
was so Fugfi^estive and interesting, that he 
produced it to elicit further information. 

A Cellaeer op the Fipteenth 

Mr. Raine read extracts, which had been 
made during the progress of Mr. Surtees'g 
history, from the accounts of John Barley, 
cellarer of the convent of Durham. Date, 
1424. John disbursed weekly 68. 6d. for 
666 red herrmgs— (that is, 6i lone: hun- 
dreds, of 120 to the liundre«i) He also 
borght white herrings. "Dogdrayes" 
occurred among his purchases, an item 
unknown to the accounts of other monas- 
teries.— [It was suggested that codfish 
from the Doggerbank, dried, was meant.] 
"Fishes of Iceland" also occurred, 
(Iceland being the great emporium of 


Antiquarian Researches. 


ttocJc'JUh), Salmon the monks had all 
the yi ai* round. Thete was "close time." 
By well was the chief source of su| ply ; 
and there was a case on record of four 
salmon slipping from the hands of the 
bearer in crossing the Dt rwenr, and being 
no more seen. For a pound of rice John 
Barley paid a penny ; and for three lbs. 
of almonds 7i. The total disbursements ^ 
of a month were £23 3s. 5 id. 


The Very Rev. Chas. Eyre read a letter 
which he had received from an intelligent 
artisan : — 

'* Berwick-on-Tweed, May llth, 1857. 

" Rev. Sir.— As I know you take some interest 
in ccclesiast'cal archiU'Ctiire, a'ld al>o in anti- 

giianan matters, I huve taken the liberty to trou- 
le you at present with some account of the old 
griory of Coldingham. We have at present a 
ouse painting there, and I nm down at the old 
ruins whenever I' am out at the Job. You aro 
perhaps aware that they have been making alter- 
ations in w'liat rem ins of the priorv, and which 
has been used as the parish (hutch f r two or 
thiee hundred years. I think they have done 
the work tolerably well, exc p. that, in rebuild- 
ing the west end, they have merely repeated the 
east end. They are both now similar. I think it 
is to be deplored that they did not make some 
variation. But the inside, now, is remarkably The north side and ea>'t end (which are 
original) can hardly be surpassed. Thcv have 
Btripped ull the old galleries away, and there is 
little to obstruct the view. The rcsto-ations 
which have been made are very carefully done ; 
and I ihink that if you c uld see it, vou would be 
much pleaded witl. if. They have laid bare, on 
the outside, the foundation of the soiit > transept. 
There is, in some jtai ts, four or five feet <»f the 
wall and pillars standing. There are al^^o the 
ba>>e8 of the pillars of the centre tower They 
htive levelled the groui d in the churchyard. 
Indeed, that is not finished yet. In doing all 
this they have found some curious cut stones, 
&c. ; but the mof^t remarkable discovery w.i8 
jnade lust week. In clearing auav some of the 
Tubbiith imd debris where the great tower had 
been, they came on the tombs of two of the 
priors. They lie nearly side by i«ide. The one 
wanted the top covi r to the grave, but the other 
is most perfect, and the i scription on it runs 
down the centre, — • Eknaluvs PaioR.' 

" The graves are built witit thin stones set on 
edge, the stones perhaps six or eight inches 
thick, with one large stone for the heud, cut 
out as thev usually are tn stone coffins f r the 
head and shoulders. The body seemed to have 
been enwrapped in something'thot the ap- 
ptarjince of leather, but perhaps it is nome sort 
of woollen, steeped in pitch or wax. The bones 
were nut disturbed. They closed them again 
very carefully. 

•* \ y object in wri'ing this to you. Sir, is to ask 
the question. Can you tell me anything of tiie 

Eriors of Coldiigham, or when I'rior Kmald 
ved? and whether there was more than one of 
thrtt name ? The letters are toU-rablv well cut, 
and an* incised on the stone : — does that lead to 
the period about which he died T 

** I fear that you will scarcely make out this 
Bcruwlof mine. 

•• I am Sir, > our most obedient Servant, 

" The Very Rev. Charles Eyre." " J. D. Evans." 

Mr. Raine ol served that one very im- 
portant fact was stated in this letter. He 

referred to the statement that the ntone 
was ** cut out for the head and si oulders" 
— a practice h therto supposed not to be 
of older date than the i ign of Edward the 
First ; and yet. Prior Ernaldus died before 


Dr. Bruce said, when the circular con- 
vening the meeting was issued, there wis 
no paper in prospect, and he Imil therefore 
written a short one, not anticipating the 
many interesting eommuniccitions that 
would be made, and which had filled np 
the meeting so asp*eeably. His paper was 
on the subject of the clay -pipes occasion- 
ally found ill situ'itioos where we should 
only expect to find remains ot a time long 
anterior to that of Sir Walter Kalei^h. 
To this subject his attention had been 
turned, wiihin the last few days, by a 
letti r received by the treasurer (Mr. Fen- 
wick) fr6m a mutual friend. Dr. Daniel 
Wilson, of Toronto. The Doctor wrote : 
— " Wliat says he (Dr. Bruce) to the Ro- 
man tobacco-pipes now ? Tell him I have 
got a crow to pluck with hiui for that. I 
get quoted from his pages, and held re- 
sponsible for nmch mtjre than I ever 
thought, said, or meant to say. Let him 
look out for a missive from the land of 
tohacc')." 'Vhe pas-age referred to in his 
.(Dr. Bruce's) second edition of ** The Ro- 
man VN all," had, curiously enough, and 
vexatiously enotigh, been more quoted and 
translated, perhaps, than any other. It 
asked if smokin^-pipes must be numbred 
among Ro tnn remains, such pipes (some 
of the ordinary size, others of pigmy di- 
mensions, with intei mediate siz«s) having 
been foimd in Roman stati ns, in close as- 
sociation with remains of undoubted Ro- 
man origin. Dr. Wilson was quoted on 
the subject, where, in his " Archaeology of 
Scotland," he speaks of " Celtic," " Eltin." 
or " Danes'" pi[>e8, occasionally found un- 
der circumstances raising the supposition 
that tobacco was only introdn&d as a 
superior substitute for older narcotic-*. 
Dr. Bruce ]»rodMced several specimens — 
one, a tiny bowl, dug from a depth of ten 
feet, in 1854, at the back of the Assembly 
Rooms of Newcastle, where, when a sewt-r 
under the vicarage-house was in courte of 
construction, he was on the look -out for 
remains of the Roman Wall. In the Ant- 
werp Museum such pipes were exhihited 
as Roman antiquities, and some were 
found in 1853 near the foundations of the 
Wall <.f Roman London, when laid bare 
in 1853. Still, to Dr. Wilson's Trans- 
lantic enquiry, " What SMys he to the Ro- 
man tobacco-pipes now ?" he had to reply, 
that he feared they were but medieval* 


Antiquarian Researches. 


find, moreover, of a la^^e date. He would 
briefly state the grtmnds of thia conclu- 
sion : — 1. They were only met with hero 
and tliere, in connection with Roman re- 
mains ; while, in every Roman station, all 
tlie kinds of pottery u^t'd by the Romans 
were invariably found. — 2. No 'traces of 
the practice of smoking presented them- 
selves in chissic authors. — 3. Ancient her- 
bals contained no notice of any vegetable 
used for smoking with ])ipes. — 4. These 
old pipes, laid together, exhibitetl a regular 
gridation in size, from the fairy bowl to 
the pipe of the present day. Elfin pipes 
were found, some few years ago, at Hoy- 
lake, in Cheshire, on the site where the 
tr«>ops of William III. were encamped 
previous to their embarkation for Ireland, 
on the battle- Held of IJoyne at Dundalk, 
and in other parts of Ireland where Wil- 
liam's troops were quartered. " With re- 
spect,*' 'said one of his (Dr. Bruce's) re- 
viewers, " to the little tobacco-pipe bowls, 
we may observe that their comparative di- 
minutive size may be well explained by the 
fact I hat, in the time of Queen Eliz;tbeth, 
tobacco was sold at five guineas the ounce, 
and that in afertimes those who in- 
dulged ii» the expensive luxury of smoking 
tobacco were accustomed in buying it to 
throw five-shillmg pieces into the opposite 
scale." He (Dr. Bruce) feareil, then, that 
the Elfin pipes, the Fairy pipes, the 
Danes' pipes, must be placed in the same 
categ ry with — " Severus's Wall." 

The next meeting at the Castle will be 
held in August, the country excursion 
taking the place of the intramural meeting 
of July. 

Abchjeological Excubsion to Nob- 


The zeal which has ever animated the 
proceedings of the Sussex Archsetilogical So- 
ciety, has lately led to an extension of its 
field of observation. The intimate histori- 
cal relations between the province of Nor- 
mandy and the county of Sussex, have 
induced a wish on the part of many of the 
members to visit that interest n^ part of 
Fra'ice. A considerable number of them 
huvin:.'', therifore, enrolled themselves for 
an archaeological excursion, to iiicliuie 
Dieppe, Rouen, Caen, Bayeux, &c., and 
having invited the companionship of some 
eminent antiquaries of other countries, the 
projected journey was undertaken on Mon- 
day, Jtme 22nd. Much interest in this 
new movement of the Su-sex Archaeologists 
had been excited by the extensive circula- 
tion in the public journals of the following 
paragraph, originally given in a northern 
paper: — 

" " At a la*e meeting of the SoclPty of Antiquaries 
of Newcastle-upon-Tyno, Dr. Bruce stated that 
an invasion o( Normandy wis contemplated by 
the Sussex ArchflBologicul Society ; in which, he 
believed, any member of the Newcastle Society 
ni=ght join. If they ancceeded in effectinar a 
landing at Dieppe, he hoped that Mr. Lower 
would be I he Master "Wace of the expedition, and 
indite a poem thereon ; and t lat tlie f icile ftngers 
of the Lewes M-aildas woul I duly represeut Uie 
principal events of the campaign." 

The French newspapers gave further 
publicity to this scheme; and even the 
facetious Charivari made it the subject of 
an article a whole column in length. 

On Monday morning, somewhat before 
nine, the excursionists took their places on 
board the Newhaven steamer " *Jrleans,*' 
(Capt. Harvey,) which brought the in- 
vaders safely into the port of Dieppe in 
five hotirs and a-half. The " landing" was 
efiected, with no further opposition on the 
part of the Normans than that which 
commissaires du police, douaniers, hotel- 
tou' ers, et omne hoc genus, so well know 
how to offer. The first point to be gained 
was the great church ol ^t. Jacques, which 
building was entered without opposition. 
Nay, symptoms of d'sloyalty in the Nor- 
man camp were strongly displayed by a 
certain sacerdos whose revelations of the 
secrets of i he ancient graves of Noi mandy 
are well known in England, who received 
the antiqiiaries in a most cordial mann r. 
The Abbs Coch t entered fully into de- 
tails as to the strong and weak points of 
the edifice, and traced its history trom the 
twelfth to t!ie nineteenth century. The 
church of St. Jacques is a noble building, 
of catht dral-like dimensions and propor- 
tions, anil ccntrasts widely with the Re- 
naissance church of St. R6my, which was 
also visited, 'ihe arcl>ffiological treasures 
of the Abb6 Cochet, Celtic, Roman, and 
Prankish, obtained during a series of years 
devoted to nntiquarian research, was next 
inspected ; and it is due to the invaders 
to say tli;it they considerately re rained 
from abstracting any more of this wealth 
th in they could carry away in their heads 
and skutcli-books. And when they heard 
how the Prrfect of the Seine, and the Em- 
peror himself, encouraged the Abbe, they 
could not refrain fnun blushing for Eng- 
land, and their loyalty was for the moment 
shaken. The good things of several hotels 
w« re laid under contribution, and a cer- 
tain Ntirman, called Pourpoint, gave the 
Englishmen a v. ry warm reception, and 
wassails and drink -heils that would uot 
have done discredit to the followers of 
Harold were uttered over his cool and 
ancient winei^. 

Having thus become masters of Dieppe, 
at 5 P.M. the invaders took the train for 
the purpose of effecting a descent upon 


Antiquarian Researches. 


the ancient capital of Normandy. After 
a safe and rapid transit through the lovely 
valley of the Scie, and tlie ancient histo> 
ricrtl sites of Longneville, Auftay, St. Vic- 
tor, &c. they reached Kouenj and a'ter 
encountering a resistance even le<s fteble 
than that offend them on their landing, 
they took up a position on the right bank 
■of the Seine, near the centre of the city, 
and bearing a name of happy omen — the 
Hotel d'Aiiuleterre. litre, imitating the 
example of the Norman Conqueror, they 
caused a dinner to be prepared ; and here 
they slept. Here, too, a certain clerk 
called the muster-roll of the invaders, 
and found that not one of the milites 
had been slain. In fact, Normandy was 
theirs without bloodshed. It therefore 
only remains for the historian of the ex- 
pedition to desiTibe what the Sussex men 
saw from this time, rather than what they 

Early on Tuesday a pilgrimage was 
matle to the church of St. Mary of Bon- 
Secour, a btiilding of which the people 
of Rouen are very proud. It is situated 
upon the lofty hill of St. Catharine, and 
is of modern date, in the style of the thir- 
teenth century. It is decorated after the 
manner of La Ste. Chapelle at Paris, and 
serves to shew how subversive of sound 
architectural effect and devotional feeling 
Buch excessive painting, and gilding, and 
decoration prove to be. The noble and 
extensive view from the Cote Ste. Cathi- 
rine, embracing the wide-extended and 
many-towered city, and the broad, wind- 
ing course of the beautiful river, excited 
much admiration. 

The city itself and its monuments were 
next examined, commencing with the ca- 
thedral. Visits were duly paid to the 
tombs of Rollo and William of the Long- 
Sword, the first two dukes of Normandy, 
and to the spot where once lay buried the 
heart of Richard Coeur-de-Lion. That 
heart, inclosed in a box of lead, was brought 
to liglit in 1838, and its remains, now a 
little shining whitisli dust, are deposited 
in a glass box in the Museum of Anti- 
quities. '1 he great church of St. Ouen of 
course attracted much attention, fonniug, 
as it does, the noblest of all examples of 
14th century architt cture. Kvery part of 
the building was carefully inspected; an 
ascent was made into the triforium, and 
thence to the parapet,— the whole party 
making the entire circuit upon the leads, 
and divi.iing their attention between tlie 
wonderful structure at their feet and the 
fine scenery which this elevation com- 
mands. Before leaving the precincts of 
St. Ouen, a committee -meeting of the 
Society was held, and three new members 

were elected. At the public library, a 
variety of ancient MSS. were examined, 
including two of special rarity, viz. a mis- 
sal of the 10th century, and a bencdic- 
tional of the llih, both brought from En^r- 
land by Robert of Jumi^ges. 'i he tireat 
gradual lyhieh employed t he monk D* Au- 
l)onne for 29 years, and was finished about 
150 years since, was also noticed. At the 
Museum of Antiquities, which suitably oc- 
cupies the cloisters and quadrangle of the 
convent of St. Mary, the follDwing objects 
were regarded wit h great interest : — a deed 
conferring a mill on the abbey of Ju- 
midges, attested, among others, by Wil- 
liam, afterwards the Conqueror : to this do- 
ment is attached a piece of wo d, as evi- 
dence of seisin ; a charter of the Conqueror, 
1085, in which he styles hiuiself "^a^ro- 
nus Normaunorum et Rex Anglorum;" 
an exquisite collection of Roman g'ass 
vesse s in a perfect stat e ; Roman pottery ; 
and some extremely curious Roman sculp- 
tures from Lillebonne; Roman inscrip- 
tions ; and coffins in lead ; a cinerary urn 
with an inscription around it. I'hese 
Roman moimments have a charm in hav- 
ing been found in Normandy; and Dr. 
Bruce rem:irkcd that they indicated a 
nmch more settled and luxurious life 
among the Roman occupants of Gaul, 
than was ever attained by that people in 
Britain i'. 

In the evening the excursionists re- 
paired to the Place de la Pucelle, memo- 
rable for the brutal murder of Joan of 
Arc in 1431; and the ad'acent curious 
mansion, call d the Hotel de Bourgthe- 
roulde, with its well -designed scenes from 
the celebrated Field of the Cloth of Gold, 
— of which, it seems, no copies have been 
made for oiur national museum, although 
the subject appertains as much to English 
as to French history. They also repaired 
to the church of St. Gervais, memorable as 
the bite of the abbey where William the 
Conqueror died; and equally so as the 
buri}d-})lace of St. Mellon, first Archbishop 
of Rouen, and his successor, St. Avician. 
Their tombs are in a vault below the 
choir; and this vault is generally assigned 
by French antiquaries to a peri(xi coeval 
with their death; but some doubt as to 
its being of Roman architecture was ex- 
pressed by several of the party. That a 
Roman building had stood near the spot, 
however, seemed pretty clear, as somu Ro- 
man tiles have been worked into the ma- 
sonry of the walls. 

{To he continued.) 

^ Many of these Roman sculptures are figured 
in the VolUctanea Antiqua, 



C5f MonWu JfntelUflencer, 



Foreign News, Domestic Occurrences, and Notes of the Month, 


Emolakd — 496 Members. 

Abingdon J. T. Norris. 

Andover... Alderman Cubitt ; Hon. D. Fortescue. 

Anglesey Sir R. Bulkeley. 

Arundel Lord E. Howara. 

Ashburton G. Moffat. 

Asbton-under-Lyne C. Hindley. 

Aylesbury T.T.Bernard; Sir B. BetheU. 

Banbury H. W. Tancred. 

Barnstaple SirW. Fraser; J. Lauiie. 

Batb Sir A. Elton; W. Tite. 

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Bedford S. Wbitbread; T. Barnard. 

Bedfordshire F. H. Russell; Ck)l. Gilpin. 

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G. H. Yansittart. 

Berwick J. Stapleton; D. C. M^joribanks. 

Beverley Hon. W. J. Denison; E. A. Glover. 

Bewdley Sir T. Winnington. 

Birmingham G. F. Muntz; W. Scbolefield. 

Blackburn J. Pilkington; W. H. Hornby. 

Bodmin Capt. Vivian; J. Wyld. 

Bolton Capt. Gray: J. Crook. 

Boston H.Ingram; W.H.Adams. 

Bradford... H. W. Wickham ; Gen. P. Thompson. 

Brecon Col. Watkins. 

Breconsbire Sir J. Bailey. 

Bridgenorth H. Whitmore; J. Pritchard. 

Bridgewater Col. Tynte; A. W. Kinglake. 

Bridport T. A. Mitchell ; P. Hodgson. 

Brighton Admiral Pechell ; W. Coningham. 

Bristol ...W. G. Langton; Hon. F. H. Berkeley, 

Buckingham Sir H. Vemey ; Gen. Hall. 

Buckinghamshire ...B. Disraeli ; C. G. Du Pi^ ; 

Hon. C. Cavendish. 

Bury R. N. Philips. 

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J. A. Hardcastle. 

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Cheltenham Capt. F. W. Berkeley. 

Cheshire, North W. T. Egerton ; G. C. Legh. 

Gkht. Mag. Vol. QCUl. 

Cheshire, South. . .Sir P. Egerton ; J. Tollemache. 

Chester Earl Grosvenor ; E.G.Salisbury. 

Chichester Lord H. G. Lennox; J. A. Smith. 

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Clithero J. T. Hopwood. 

Cockermouth J. Steel; LordNaas. 

Colchester T. J. MiUer ; J. G. Rebow. 

CornwaU, East T. Robartes; N.Kendall. 

Cornwall, West M. Williams; R. Davy. 

Coventry E. Ellice; Sir J. Paxton. 

Cricklade J. Neeld; A. L. Goddard. 

Cumberland, East Hon. C. Howard; 

W. Marshall. 

Cumberland, West Gen. Wj-ndham ; 

Capt. Lowther. 

Dartmouth J. Caird. 

Denbigh District T. Manwaring. 

Denbighshire. . Col. Biddulph ; Sir W. W. Wynn. 

Derby M. T. Bass; S. Beale. 

Derbyshire, North W. P. Thomhill; 

Hon. G. Cavendish. 

Derbyshire, South T. W. Evans; C. Colvile. 

Devizes S.W.Taylor; T. Griffiths. 

Devonport Sir E. Perry ;;j. Wilson. 

Devonshire, N. ...J. W. Buller ; Hon. C. Trefusis, 

Devonshire, South Sir J. Y. Buller; L. Palk. 

Dorchester R. B. Sheridan ; Captain Stxirt. 

Dorsetshire.. .Hon. M. Portman; H. K. Seymer; 

H. G. Sturt. 

Dover B. Osborne; Sir W. Russell. 

Droitwich Sir J. Pakington. 

Dudley H. B. Sheridan. 

Durham W. Atherton; J.R.Mowbray. 

Durham, N.... Lord A. V. Tempest ; R. D. Shafto. 
Durham, 8 H. Pease; Lord H. Vane. 

East Retford Viscount Galway ; F. Fo^ambe. 

Essex, North Colonel Beresford; C. Ducane. 

Essex, South... T. W. Bramston: R. B. Wingfield. 

Evesham S.rH. WiUoughby; E. Holland. 

Exeter E. Divett; R. 8. Gard. 

Eye SirE. Kerrison. 

Falmouth S. Gurney; F. Baring. 

Finsbury T. Duncombe; W. Cox. 

Flint Sir J. Hanmer. 

Flintshire Hon. T. E. Mostyn. 

Frome D. Nicoll. 

Gateshead W. Hutt. 

Glamorganshire C. Talbot; H. Vivian. 

Gloucester .. Aldm. Sir R. Carden ; W. P. Price. 

Gloucestershire, East R. S. Holford; 

Sir C. \N . Codrington. 
Gloucestershire, West... J. Rolt; Col. Kingscote. 
Grantham ...Hon. F. Tollemache; W. E. Welby. 
Great Yarmouth... T. M'Cullagh ; E. W. Watkino. 
Greenwich. Sir W. Codrin^^ttn, J.Townsend. 


The Monthly InttUigencer, 


Crimshv Lord "Worslcv. 

Guildfoid R.D. Mangles; W.Boviil. 

Halifax Sir C. Wood; F. Crossley. 

Hampuhi^c, N W. W. B. Beach; G. Sclater. 

nampshire, S....IIon.R. Dutton; Sir J.Jervoisc. 

Harwich R. J. BagHhawe; Col. Warburton. 

Hastin,fs P. Robertson; F. North. 

Haverfordwest J. H. PhilUps. 

Helfton C. Trueman. 

Hereford H.M.Clifford; G. Clive. 

Herefordshire Sir U. G. Cotterell; 

T. VV. B. Blakemore ; J. K. King. 

Hertford ...W. F. Cowper; Sir Minto Farquhar. 

Hertfordshire Sir E. L. B. Lytton; 

Sir H. Mcux ; C. W. Puller. 

High Wycombe... Sir G. Dashwood; M. T. Smith. 

Honiton J.Locke; Major Wortley. 

Horsham W. R. 8. FiUgerald. 

Huddersfleld E. Akroyd. 

Hull J. Clay; Lord Ashley. 

Huntingdon General Peel ; T. Baring. 

Huntingdonshire J. Rust. 

T»««Ki« ^^^.^ ( J. M. Heathcote. 
Double return } ^ Fellowes. 

Hythe Sir J. Ramsden. 

Ipswich J. C. Cobbold; Col. Adair. 

Kendal G. C. Glyn. 

Kent, East Sir B. Bridges; Sir E. Dering. 

Kent, West W. Martin; J. Whatman. 

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Lancashire, S W. Brown; J. Cheetham. 

Lancaster 8. Oregson; W. J. Game t. 

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E. B. Farnham. 

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J. B. Stanhope. 

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Sussex, East J. G. Dodson ; Lord Pevensey. 

Sussex, We8t...Earl of March; Capt. Wyndham. 
Swansea L. Dillwyn. 

Tamworth .Vise. Baynluuni Sir B. Peel. 


The Monthly Intelligencer, 


Taanton H. Labouchere ; A. Mills. 

Tavistock Hon. G. Byng; Sir J. Trelawny. 

Tewkesbury Hon. F. Lygon; J.Martin. 

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T. Thomely. 

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J. H. Foley. 
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York Col. Smyth"?; J. P. Westhead. 

Yorkshire, E. . .Lord Hotham ; Hon. A.Duncombe. 
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Yorkshire, W. ...Lord Goderich ; E. B. Denison. 

Scotland— 53 Mkxbkbs. 

Aberdeen Colonel Sykcs 

Aberdeen County LordHaddo 

Argyleshire A. 8. Finlay 

Ayr Burghs E. H. J. Craufurd 

Ayrshire Lord J. Stuart 

Ban£bhire Lord Fife 

Berwickshire Hon. F. Scott 

Buteshire Hon. J. 8. Wortley 

Caithness-shire G. Traill 

Clackmannan Yisoount Melgund 

Dumbartonshire A. Smollett 

Dumfries Burghn W. Ewart 

Dumfriesshire H. Johnstone 

Dundee Sir J. Ogilvy 

Edinburgh City C. Cowan; A. Black 

Edinburghshire Earl of Dalkeith 

Elgin Burghs G. 8. Duff. 

Elginshire C. L. C. Bruce 

Falkirk J. Merry 

Fife«hire J. Fergus 

Forfarshire Lord Duncan 

Glasgow W.Buchanan; R. Dalglish 

Greenock A.M. Dunlop 

Haddington Sir T. H. Davie 

Haddingtonshire Lord Elcho 

Inverness Borough A. Matheson 

InvemessHihire J. II. Baillic 

Kilmarnock Bur Hon. E. P. Bouveric. 

Kincardineshire General Arbuthnot. 

Kirka Idv Burghs Colonel Ferguson. 

Kirkcudbright J. Mackie, jun. 

Lanarkshire Sir E. Colcbroke. 

Leith Burghs J. Moncieiff. 

Linlithgowshire G. Dundas. 

Montrose W. E. Baxter. 

Orkney F. Dundas. 

Paisley Archibald Hastic. 

Peeblesshire Sir G. Mont^mery. 

Perth Hon. A. Kinnaird. 

Perthshire W. Stirhng. 

Renfrewshire Sir M. S. Stewart. 

Ross and Cromarty Sir J. Matheson. 

Roxburghshire Hon. J. E. Elliutu 

St. Andrews Burghs E. Ellice, jun. 

Selkirkshire A. E. Lockbart. 

Stirling Sir J. Anderson. 

Stirlingshire P. Blackburn. 

Sutherlandshire Marquis of Stafford. 

Wick Burghs Lord J. Hay. 

Wigton Burghs Sir W. Dunbar. 

Wigtonshire Sir A. Agnew. 

Irklakd— 105 Meubkrs. 

Antrim County... Col. Pakenham ; G. Macartney. 

Armagh 8. Miller. 

Armagh County S:r W. Verner; 8. M. Close. 

Athlone ! J. Ennis. 

Bandon Captain Bernard. 

Belfast H. M*C. Cairns; R. Davison. 

Carlow Borough J. Alexander. 

Carlow County H. Bruen; Capt. Bunbury. 

Carrickfergus C. Dobbs. 

Cashel Sir T. O'Brien. 

Cavan County Col. Maxwell ; 

Hon. Capt. Annesley. 
Clare County... Lord F. Conyngham ; F. Calcutt. 

Clonmel J. Bagwell. 

Coleraine Dr. Boyd. 

Cork City W. Fagan ; F. B. Beami-^h. 

Cork County R. Dcasy ; A. Macarthy. 

Donegal County ...Major Conolly ; Sir E. Hayes. 

Down County Lord A. E. Hill ; W. B. Forde. 

Downpatrick R. Kcr. 

Drogheda J. M'Cann. 

Dublin City E. Grogan; J. Vance. 

Dublin County J. H. Hamilton; Col. Taylor. 

Dublin University ...J. Napier; G. A. Hamilton. 

Dundalk G. Bowyer. 

Dungannon Hon. W. S. Knox. 

Dungarvan J. F. Maguire. 

Ennis J. D. Fitzgerald. 

Ennlskillen J. Whiteside. 

Fermanagh ...Capt. Archdall; Hon. H. A. Cole. 

Galway Lord Dunkellin ; A. O'Flaherty. 

Galway County... Sir T. Burke; W. H. Gregory. 

Kerry County . . .H. A. Herbert ; Lord Castlerosse. 

Kildare County D. O'C. Ilenchv; 

W. H. F. Cogan. 

Kilkenny Borough M. Sullivan. 

Kilkenny Coimty Hon. A. Ellis ; J. Greene. 

King's County P. O'Brien; L. H. Bland. 

Kinsale J. Hearde. 

I/Pitrim County ...H. L. Montgomery; J. Bradv, 

Limerick City J. O'Brien ; W. F. Russtil. 

Limerick County ...W. Monsell; 8. £. De Vere. 


The Monthly Intelligencer. 


liflbtim J. J. Riehardflon. 

Londonderry City Sir R. A. Ferguson. 

Londonderry County... J. J. Clark ; 8. M. Greer. 

Longford County Col. White; Col. Greville. 

Louth Co. ...C. S. Fortescue; Major M'CIintock. 

Mallow Sir D. Norre;^. 

Mayo County Captain Palmer; 0. H. Moore. 

Meath County Major ConoUy ; E. M'Evoy. 

Uonaghan County... Sir G. Forster ; C. P. Leslie. 

New Rosa C. Tottenham. 

Newry W. Kirk. 

Portarlington Captain Darner. 

Queen*8 County Sir C. Coote ; M. Dunne. 

fioscommon Co. O. D. J. Grace ; Col. F. French. 

filigo J. P. Somers. 

€1^0 County Sir R. G. Booth ; £. J. Cooper. 

Tipperary Co. ...The G'Donoghue ; L. Waldron. 

Tralee Captain D. O'ConneU. 

Tyrone County... Lord C. Hamilton ; T. L. Corry. 

Watcrford City J. Blake; M. Hassard. 

"Waterford County ...N. M. Power; J. Esmonde. 
'Westmeath Co. ...Capt. Magan ; Sir R. Levinge. 

Wexford Borough J. T. Devereux. 

Wexford County P. M'Mahon; J. HatchelL 

Wicklow County Vise. Milton; W. F. Hume. 

Youghal L Butt. 


The Maclise Drawingt in the Royal 
Acadermf. — We must leave to our con- 
temporaries the task of generally criti- 
cising the pictures in the Royal Academy, 
as there is but little to call for our special 
commendation or notice. As usual, there 
is the average amount of portrait, land- 
scape and genre painting, shewing, it is 
true, technical ability of a high order, but 
of historic art, with one exception, there 
is scarcely a single achievement. The Prse- 
RafiTaelite school comes forward with scanty 
Strength, and even of those veteran punters 
upon whom we have been accustomed to 
rely, but few appear with their wonted 
force or ability. 

Yet, as we have said, to this there is an 
exception, for we have merely to step into 
the quiet North Room to be at once struck 
by a noble series of drawings by Mr. Ma- 
cUse depicting the story of the Norman 
Conquest. They are forty-two in number, 
and are most exquisitely drawn in blaclr 
and white chalk upon tinted paper, the 
mze of each averaging 25 in. X 7 in. Al- 
though, as may be supposed, the artist 
is l^gely indebted to the well-known 
Bayeux tapestry for the mun suggestion 
of subject, yet it is no stretch of language 
to assert that, for richness of imagination 
and the highest artistic grasp and learn- 
ing, we have seen nothing to surpass them. 
There are few works in the whole range 
of art in which masterly power is more 

apparent. The vigour, variety, and free- 
dom of drawing are beyond all praise and 
in due keeping with the subject. The artist 
has adopted a more severe and simple 
mode of treatment than is usual with 
him, yet withal a most beautiful play of 
line runs throughout the series, chinn- 
ing even in its abstract quality. Cha- 
racter and expression are rendered with 
befitting care without violence or exag- 
geration. Appropriate action and repose 
alternate in delightful sequence, sus^in- 
ing the spectator's interest throughout the 
lengthened story. 

Nor have the minor accessories of cos- 
tume and other details been overlooked, 
but everywhere there appears evidence of 
a careful consultation of the most trust- 
worthy authorities, to which, indeed, not a 
little of the picturesqueness may fairly be 
attributable Archseology has here proved 
a valuable handmaid to the artist, a fact 
our younger painters would do well to bear 
in mind. For incidents Mr. Maclise has 
judiciously referred to the old chroniclers, 
and by them been furnished with some 
interesting episodes, which, although per- 
haps doubtful as to strict historical fact, 
may yet be considered within the limits 
of a painter's licence, and for the use of 
which we are not disposed to find fault. 

We proceed to name, in a condensed 
form, a few of the leading subjects, but 
for a fuller enumeration we must refer 
our readers to the pages of the Academy 
Catalogue : — 

I. Harold departing on a visit to William 
of Normandy. 

3. Harold's ship stranded on the Nor- 
man coast. 

6. Harold's Captivity announced to Wil- 

8. Harold and William meet. 

9. Harold, William's companion in his 
campaign in Brittany, receives the sub- 
mission of Conan, Earl of Bretagne. 

II. Harold's oath of fidelity to William, 
sworn over the concealed reliques of 

12. Harold bids adieu to William. 

14. Edward the Confessor's death. 

15, 16. The Coronation and marriage of 

18. William in his hunting ground at 
Ronan receives intelligence from Toetig 
of Harold's Coronation. 

22. William, bent upon invading England, 
begs aid of Philip of France and Bald- 
win the earl. 

24. Pope Alexander in the Vatican con- 
secrates William's banner. 

27. Dnke William crosses the channeL 

28. William stumbles and falls as he lands 
in England. 


The Monthly Intelligencer. 


31. Harold's interview with Tostig and 
Hasdrada before the battle of Stamford 

83. Harold the conqueror at Stamford- 
Bridge, and wounded, sits at a ban- 
quet at York — a Herald announces the 
landing of William. 

37, 88. The eve before the battle. 

89. The morning of the battle ; the Nor- 
man minstrel and chief taillefer, leads 
'William's van, singing the song of Bo- 
land, and juggling with his sword. 

41. Harold in front of the standard of 
England is pierced by a falling arrow. 

42. The night of the battle; Edith dis- 
covers the body of Harold. 

In these days of lame attempt and com- 
parative absence of motive we ought not 
to withhold our full meed of praise to Mr. 
Maclise for his noble attempt to invigorate 
the English school of art. We venture to 
add a hope that these manly designs may 
be destined to adorn, on a larger scale 
and more enduring material, some one of 
our national edifices. 

Mat 28. 

House of Lords, — An innovation has 
been introduced this week into the prac- 
tice of the House. Hitherto, division-lists 
have been supplied to the journals by the 
** tellers." There were frequent inaccura- 
cies, and, at the instance of Earl Stanhope, 
the House agreed to adopt the practice of 
the House of Commons. In the " Minutes 
of Procee<Hngs" of Monday are published 
the lists of voters in several divisions which 
occurred in Committee of the whole House 
(when proxies are not admissible) on the 
IHvorce and Matrimonial Causes Bill. The 
lists are not alphabetical, as in the House 
of Commons, but arranged according to 
priority of rank and title, the Archbishop 
of Canterbury and the Lord Chancellor 
taking precedence by right. 

The Mcurshalsea Prison. — Mr. Dickens, 
in concluding "Little Dorrit," says:^. 
** Some of my readers may have an inte- 
rest in being informed whether or no any 
portions of the Marshalsea Prison are yet 
standing. I did not know myself^ untU 
the sixth of this present month, when I 
went to look. I found the outer front 
court-yard, often mentioned in this story, 
metamorphosed into a butter-shop ; and I 
then almost gave up every bride of the 
gaol for lost. Wandering, however, down 
a certain adjacent ' Angel-court* leading to 
Bermondsey, I came to 'Marshalsea-place:' 
the housM in which I rec(^ised, not only 
as the great block of the former prison, 
but as preserving the rooms that arose in 
my mind's eye when I became Little Dor- 
rit*! iHographer. The smallest boy I ever 

conversed with, .carrying the largest baby 
I ever saw, offered a supematurally intel- 
ligent explanation of the locality in its old 
uses, and wm very nearly correct. How 
this young Newton (for such I judge him 
to be) came by his information, I don't 
know ; he was a quarter of a century too 
young to know anything about it of him- 
self. I pointed to the window of the room 
where Little Dorrit was bom, and where 
her father lived so long, and asked him 
what was the name of the lodger who 
tenanted that apartment at present ? He 
said 'Tom Pythick.' I asked him who 
was Tom Pythick ? and he said, ' Joe Py« 
thick's unde.' 

" A little farther on, I found the older 
and smaller wall, which used to endose 
the pent-up inner prison, where nobody 
was put, except for ceremony. But, who- 
ever goes into Marshalsea-place, turning 
out of Angel- court, leading to Bermondsey, 
will find his feet on the very paving-stones 
of the extinct Marshalsea-gaol, will see its 
narrow yard to the right and to the left, 
very little altered, if at all, except that the 
waUs were lowered when the place got 
free, will look upon the rooms in which 
the debtors lived, and will stand among 
the crowding ghosts of many miserable 

June 1. 

Madrid has been placed in a state of 
mourning in consequence of a disaster 
which has befallen her favourite bull- 
fighter, Dominquez, known by the name of 
Desperdicios, who met with one of those 
grievous accidents which sometime occur 
even to the most skilfrd of these modem 
gladiators. A bull caught him on the 
right side with the left horn, then on the 
left with the right horn, toKed him, and 
as he fell caught him under the chin, 
splitting his jaw, and driving the horn up 
to the right eye, which it forced out. The 
poor fellow displayed the pluck usual in 
members of his dangerous craft ; he sub- 
mitted with great fortitude to the neces- 
sary operations; but the loss of blood was 
so great that it was deemed impossible he 
could survive, and the last sacraments 
were administered. Nevertheless on the 
following morning his state was somewhat 
better ; 10,000 persons were spectators of 
the horrible sight. 

The Tomb of Tasso.—On lately open- 
ing the old tomb of Tasso in the convent 
of St. Onufrio, at Rome, it was remarked 
that the leaden coffin containing his re- 
mains was much smaller than the usual 
human stature, proving that the ashes of 
the great poet had already been disturbed 
at some former period, llie coffin having 
been opened, the bones were found heaped 


The Monthly Intelligencer. 


together, and no longer, presenting the 
fonn of a skeleton. 

JuifE 2. 

Scotland, — The General Assembly of 
the Church of Scotland closed its sittings, 
and appointed Thursday, the 20th of May, 
1858, for the next meeting. The Free 
Church Assembly, on the same day, did 
exactly the same. 

Some subjects of more general interest 
than those which occupied the early days 
of the session were discussed in the latter. 
In the General Assembly of the Esta- 
blished Church, Dr. Cook, of Haddington, 
read a report from the Education Com- 
mittee. It appeared that there were 181 
schools, providing instruction for 20,000 
scholars, of whom 3,000 attended school 
on Sun»lays only. The report on the 
Endowment scheme, road by Dr. Crombie, 
sheveed that £61,046 was collected in the 
last year, making a total of £300, 211 
subscribed in the last and previous years. 
Two important motions were made on the 
last day of the session. Great difficulty is 
foimd in working the Church Benefices 
Act. It is stated that the law is not suffi- 
ciently definite in its provisions, cither as 
it aftccts the patron or the people. An 
overture was submitted by several mem- 
bers asking for the appointment of a com- 
mittee of inquiry, with the object of ob- 
taining " such a legislative measure as will 
clearly define and fully preserve the rights 
of the Christian people in the settlement 
of ministers." But the Assembly would 
not do more in the matter than consent to 
the appointment of a committee to in- 
quire into the working of the act, and 
report thereon to the next Assembly. The 
second motion condemned the new Oaths 
Bill, and ordered that a strong protest in 
the name of the Assembly should be lodged 
against the omission of those significant 
words " on the true faith of a Christian." 

In the Free Church Assembly, Dr. Cand- 
lish made the annual statement with re- 
gard to the Sustentation Fund. The total 
amount received during the past year was 
£108,638; the number of ministers was 
791, the dividend paid to 700 ministers 
¥ras £138 each. Dr. Candlish also read 
the report of the Education Committee. 
The total number of schools was 609, the 
number of scholars, 68,560; both these 
figures exceed those reported in 1856. 
Adding the attendants at evening schools, 
the number of scholars will be 76,811. 
But although the schools and scholars 
have increased, the funds have decreased. 
Dr. Candlish accounted for this by the 
delusive ho})es which people had been led 
to cherish as to a scheme of national edu- 
cation. "But they were not going to 

have their efforts paralyzed, thwarted, and 
disconcerted by the continual flinging of 
some national scheme in their way." 

Ireland. — The " Banner of Ulster*' glo- 
rifies " Fifby-seven" as it is in Ireland. 
What a change in ten years ! In January, 
1849, there were 620,000 paupers in the 
workhouses and on the poor-books; in 
1857 the total was but 65,000. In 1849 
the note circulation of Irish banks was 
£3,840, 450, and the stock of bullion 
£1,626,000; in 1857 the figures have 
swelled to £7,150,000, and £2,492,000. 
This year, large tracts of land have been 
broken up for the first time by plough and 
spade. Potatoes, oats, wheat, all promise 
well. While labour is scarce and costly, 
the "ruined" agriculturists obtain for 
their produce 100 per cent above the 
prices of 1842. 

June 7. 

Leghorn. — Upwards of 3,000 persons 
were assembled in the theatre degli Aqui- 
dotti to witness the representation of the 
taking of Sebastopol, when suddenly one 
of the rockets let off to imitate the bom- 
bardment set fire to the side-scenes. A 
sudden panic seized the public, and many 
of those who were in the boxes and gal- 
leries attempted to save themselves by 
jumping into the pit. Many thre^ them- 
selves out of the windows. The hospitals, 
whither the wounded were taken, were 
soon besieged by such crowds that the pub- 
lic functionaries were obliged to place them- 
selves at the doors. The Grand Duke im- 
mediately came over to Leghorn, and per- 
sonally visited the hospitals. Some of the 
letters received from Leghorn assert that 
the carbineers, thinking at first tliat a 
political emeute was intended, began by 
closing the doors of the theatre, which 
rendered the catastrophe more fatal. The 
English Consul, Mr. Macbean, placed se- 
veral ladders at the windows with his own 
hand, but the terrified crowd still persist- 
ed in throwing themselves out. One poor 
woman was prematurely delivered in the 
theatre, with loss of life both to herself and 

The official Monitore Toscano of the 
8th says that, according to the last ac- 
counts, the killed were 43 and the wounded 
134. The fire never got beyond the scenes, 
and did no damage to the other part of 
the theatre. No person of consequence 
had as yet been found among the victims 
of this deplorable event. 

JiJnb 8. 

Church Extension in the MetropolU, — 
The annual meeting of the London Dioce- 
san Church Building Society was held at 
Willih*8 Rooms, King-street, St. James's, 
the Bishop of Lo^don in the chair. His 


The Monthly Intelligencer. 


lordship, in opening the proceedings, said 
that, although no fewer than 200 churches 
had heeu consecrated within the last thirty 
years in the diocese of London, yet, owing 
to the accumulated arrear of spiritual des- 
titution, caused by the neglect of former 
times, as well as owing to the un][)aralleled 
increase of population (at the rate of about 
60,000 souls a-year), there were a number 
of parishes in which a grievous want of 
church accommodation and a pastoral super- 
intendence still prevailed. From the recent 
census it appeared that the total provision 
for public worship is actually less in Mid- 
dlesex than in any other English county. 
There were 35,000 persons in St. Dunstan's, 
Stepney; 32,000 in St. Mary's, Hagger- 
stone ; 25,000 in St. John's, Hoxton ; 
25,000 in St. Leonard's, Shoreditch ; 
22,000 in St. Luke's, Old-street; and 
25,000 in St. James's, Clerkenwell, con- 
nected with one church, and under the 
nominal care of one incumbent. 

June 16. 
Winchester. — Removal of the Con- 
ventual Establishment. — A special 4rain, 
which left at an early hour (four o'clock) 
last Tuesday morning, conveyed from Win- 
diester the reUgious community of EngUsh 
nuns of the order of St. Benedict, who have 
occupied for more than sixty -nine years past 
the premises of St. Peter-street, lately known 
as "The Convent," but in former times 
as " The Bishop's House." Very little is 
known, generally speaking, respecting the 
history of this establishmenfc, though the 
irreproachable character of its inmates was 
known to all by repute, and many families 
resident in Winchester have frequently 
visited them, and can testify to the amia- 
bility and courtesy of their manners, as 
well as to the serenity and happiness of 
their pious life. As to the history of the 
convent, the following summary, though 
somewhat concise, may prove interesting 
to a portion of our readers: — This com- 
munity was the first monastery of EngUsh 
nuns founded on the continent after the 
dissolution of the religious houses in Eng- 
land at the Reformation ; and at the close 
of the last century, when the French revo- 
lution compelled the various English reli- 
gious establishments existing in France 
and the Low Countries to seek an asylum 
in England, this community was the first 
also that reached our shores, landing at 
St. Katharine's stairs, London, on the 6th 
of July, 1794. In the year 1597, the 
Right Hon. Latly Mary Percy, daughter 
of Lord Thomas Percy, Earl of Northum- 
berland, K.G., escaped, after a long im- 
prisonment on account of her religion, to 
Brussels, where, with the assistance of the 
Rev. Father William Holt, of the Society 

of Jesus, she obtained a brief from Pope 
Clement VIII. empowering her to four.d 
at Brussels the first English Benedictine 
convent. Having purchased a house, she, 
with some other English ladies who de- 
sired to embrace a religious state, took 
possession of it on the 11th of July, 1599. 
By the advice of Father Holt, Lady Mary 
Percy had obtained leave for Dame Joanna 
Berkeley, (daughter of Sir John Berkeley, 
of Beverston, in Gloucestershire, Knt.,) a 
professed Benedictine of the great abbey 
of St. Peter's, at Rheims, to come to go- 
vern the new monastery, and she was 
solemnly blessed and installed as their 
Abbess by the Right Hon. and Most Rev. 
Lord Mathias Van Hou4 Archbishop of 
Mechlin, on the 14th of November, 1599. 
Eight days afterwards she gave the habit 
to Lady Mary Percy and to seven other 
ladies, among whom were two daughters 
of Lord Arundel, of Wardour, and also to 
four lay sisters. This ceremony was ho- 
noured with the presence of their Royal 
Highnesses the Archduke Albert and the 
Archduchess Isabellii, Infanta of Spain, 
and by all the grandees of their court, and 
a general holyday was observed through- 
out the city. Their Royal Highnesses 
gave a sumptuous dinner to the inmates, 
and partook of it themselves in the refec- 
tory. At the end of twelve months there 
was another day of great rejoicing through- 
out Brussels, and their Royal Highnesses 
and court again attended the monastery to 
witness the profession of these ladies, and 
they gave another noble banquet. To 
shew the spirit of these ladies, it may be 
stated that in the following year, when 
the Infanta graciously ofiered to endow 
the convent with a good annual rental, 
they, fearing that they might be deprived 
of the free and entire liberty of choosing 
their own Abbesses, thought it best not to 
accept the proffered Royal favour. At the 
death of Lady Joanna Berkeley, in 1616, 
the community elected as her successor 
the Lady Mary Percy, who from that time 
ruled over the monastery for twenty -six 
years, she having died on the 16th of 
September, 1642, in the 74th year of her 
age. The community continued to flou- 
rish, and so increased in numbers that in 
1623 it sent a filiation to Cambray, which 
is now located at Stanbrook, near Worces- 
ter, and in the following year a filiation 
to Ghent, which community is now located 
at Oulton, in Staffordshire. In 1652 the 
Cambray community sent out a filiation 
to Paris, and it is now established at 
Rugeley ; and that of Ghent sent out no 
fewer than three filiations, which were 
severally founded, in 1652, 1662, and 1665, 
at Boulogne, (afterwards removed to Pon« 


The Monthly Intelligencer. 


toifl, near Paris,) Dunkirk, and Tpres. 
The ktst still flourishes at Ypres, and was 
the only community which remained in 
the Low Countries at the time of the 
French Revolution. That of Dunkirk 
(now settled at Hammersmith) had been 
there joined by the Pontois community, 
who broke up their own establishment in 
1784. It is a practice with these commu> 
nities every year to communicate with the 
mother house, and pay their respects and 
reverence. The parent establishment had 
existed for a period of nearly 200 years, 
and had numbered among its members 
many individuals descended from some of 
the oldest and best of English families, 
when it was assailed by the votaries of 
anarchy and infldclity. The peaceful in- 
mates were compelled to quit their ancient 
monastery and seek a new home. Tliey 
quitted Brussels on the 22nd of June, 
1794, passed through Antwerp, and ar- 
rived at liotterdam on the 26th. There 
they embarked for England on the 2nd of 
July, and landed on the 6th of the same 
month at St. Katharine's stairs, near the 
Tower of London, where they were re- 
ceived by their friends, and among others 
by the Kight Rev. Dr. Douglas, the Catho- 
lic Bishop of the London district, (who 
generously offered them his house at Win- 
chest<T (the late convent). On the 9th 
of July they left London for Winchester, 
and on their arrival they were received by 
the Rev. Dr. Milner, the well-known Win- 
chester historian, who rendered them every 
assistance in his power, and endeavoured 
to make them as comfortable as circum- 
stances would permit. However, they 
continue<l for some vears in an unsettled 
state, expecting to oe enabled to return 
to Brussels and regain possession of their 
own church and monastery; but every 
year made it more hopeless, so that at last 
they quietly settled down. Yet the small- 
ness of their grounds was a subject con- 
tinually regretted; and, as time pro- 
gressed, the erection of new buildings, 
which overlooked their premises and en- 
croached upon thsir privacy, together with 
the gradual symptoms of decay of their 
house, which was built as far back as the 
reign of Charles I., induced them to turn 
their attention to the advisability of find- 
ing another new and more suitable home ; 
80, after a few more years had elapsed, 
they succeeded in meeting with an eligible 
piece of proi)erty, with extensive groimds 
attached, at East Bcrgholt, in Suffolk, and 
on which stands a large mansion, built 
about a century since by Sir John Hankey, 
of which the community have just taken 
possession. During the sixty-four years 
of their residence in Winchester the above 

religious body have buried four Abbessei 
who governed in succession, and the lady 
who now rules over them was elected in 
1851. She was solemnly blessed and in- 
stalled by his Eminence Cardinal Wise- 
man. on 4e 15th of Augurt in the «une 
year, and is the 16th Abbess of their mo* 
nastery, reckoning from the time of its 
foundation in the year 1599. 

Christening of the Infant Princess, — The 
sacred rite was performed in the private 
chapel of Buckingham Palace. Two rows 
of chairs of crimson satin and gold were 
placed on each side of the centre, for the 
use of her Miyesty and sponsors, and ihe 
royal personages invited to be present. 
The heralds and sergeant-at-arms were 
on duty to usher the ^stinguished person- 
ages to their seats in the chapel. The 
band and choir were placed in the gallery, 
and Sir Gleorge Smart presided at the organ. 
The illustrious visitors haying taken the 
places assigned to them, her Majesty and 
his Royal Highness Prince Albert entered 
the chapel, accompanied by his Imperial 
Highness the Archduke Maximilian of 
Austria, their Royal Higlmcsses the Prin- 
cess Royal and Prince Frederick William 
of Prussia, her Royal Highness the Duchess 
of Kent, her Royal Highness the Duchess 
of Cambridge, her Royal Highness the 
Princess Mary, his Royal Highness the 
Duke of Cambridge, his Royal Highness 
the Prince of Wales, Prince Alfred, lYinoess 
Alice, the Hereditary Prince of Saxe Mein- 
ingen, Prince Edward of Saxe Weimar, &c. 
Her Majesty and his Royal Highness Prince 
Albert were attended by the Duchess of 
Sutherland, Duchess of Athol, Countess of 
Gainsborough, Lady Caroline Barrington, 
Hon. Flora Macdonald, Major-General Boa- 
verie, Major-General the Hon. Chas. Gray, 
Hon. Charles Beaumont Phipps, Lord 
Camoys, Major-General Berkeley Dmoi- 
mond. Colonel Francis Hugh Seymour, 
Baron de Moltke, Count Zichy, Count Sta- 
dek. Baron Bruck, Lady Augusta Bruce, 
&c., with the great officers of state. The 
ceremony was performed by his Grace the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, assbted by the 
Bishop of London, the Bishop of Chester, 
Clerk of the Closet, and the Hon. and 
Very Rev. the Dean of Windsor. The 
Royal Princess was named Beatrice Mary 
Victoria. The bells of various churches 
pealed during the day. 

June 19. 

The Handel Festival—The "Handel 
Festival" at the Crystal Palace has drawn 
great numbers to Sydenham this week. 
Fortunately, the weather, though sharp- 
ened by the east wind, has been very fine 
and sunny. The first performance, on the 
15th, drew an audience of 11,129 persons. 


The Monthly Intelligencer. 


and afPbrded a brilliant spectacle. On 
the 17th, when the Queen and her dis- 
tingmsh^ guests attended the celebra- 
tion, the number of persons within the 
Palace, 11,649, did not much exceed that 
of the first day, but the number outside 
was much greater. The lanes nnd woods 
between Dulwich and the Palace were at 
an early hour lined and occupied l>y ranka 
of well-dressed persons four or five deep, 
the ladies predominating. Within the 
Palace, the efiect of such a large assem- 
bla^^e of the gentle sex was very striking. 
Viewe<i upon the level, they looked like 
a flower-covered prairie ; but when seen 
fr< m a high gallery, they took the foi m 
and regularity of a garden, the blocks 
being all separated by well-marked di- 
visions, allowinn: free ingress and rgress, 
but each block closely packed with fashion- 
able occuprnts. U'he Queen arr ved at the 
Palace a little before one o'clock. With 
her were the Archduke Maximilian of 
Austria, Prince Albert, the Princess Royal, 
and Prince Frederick William of Prussia, 
the Pnncess Alice, and the Prince of 
Wales. The reception of her Majesty by 
the people, followed by the national an- 
them, was very stirring. As soon as the 
audience had settled themselves for the 
concert, a photograph of the whole scene, 
with the royal box as a centre, was ra- 
pidly taken ; and before the Hrst part of 
the oratorio was over, well-finished copies, 
framed and glazed, were laid before her 
Majesty and her guests. It was observed 
that the Queen beat time with her fan, 
and Prince Albert with a roll of music. 
An obstinate demand was made for a re- 
petition of "See the conquering hero 
comes." Mr. Costa hesitated, and looked 
towards the Queen, who, bending forward, 
sided with her people against the dictator 
of the day. Before the Royal party left 
Sydenham, Prince Albert conducted the 
.^chduke through the grounds. They 
were dogged by mobs of visitors. A body 
of police, acting in military fashion as a 
corps of observat ion, moved from place to 
place, and occupied positions that would 
have enabled them easily to intetpose 
between the Princes and the ciowd had 
it been expedient. The Queen did not 
reach Buckingham Palace on her return 
until six o'clock. On this, the last day, 
nearly 18,000 persons were present. 

The New National Gallery. — The 
Royjtl Commissioners have presented their 
report on the site of the Nai ional Gktllery. 
The report has not yet been made actu- 
ally public, but, as its general tenour is 
notorious, there can be no harm in an- 
ticipating by a few days the conclusions 
of a document which are everybody's se- 

QKirr. Mao. Vol. CCIIl, 

cret. The Commissioners recommend that 
the National Gallery shall be left where 
it is. This was the chief po'ut at issue. 
Mr. Richmond was, we believe, the only 
dissen ient in favour of the more courtly 
theory which would have removed the 
Gallery to South Kensington. 

June 20. 

The Old Court Suburb of Kensington 
has had a loss in the last few days wliich 
will be regretted by some of our club gos- 
sips. The King's Arms has been totally 
destroyed by fire, it was the last place 
in or about London wheie the old coffee- 
house style of society was still preserveil, 
and where Members of the Legislature 
and a hi.'h class of gentry were to be met 
with in rooms open to the town. It was 
extremely old fasluoned in iU furniture ; 
and the upper rooms, with their wains- 
cotting and faded finery, took one back 
to the days of Queen Anne. It gained its 
vogue from its having been actively pa- 
tronised for many years by the fami'y at 
Hollaiid House, and Moore m his *' Diary" 
alludes to it. In summer-time it was a 
favourite haunt of gentlemen of the most 
opposite tastes, and occasionally members 
of Brookes's, the Carlton, and other clubs, 
were to be seen there engaged in animated 
talk with the Lord knows who. Several 
very interesting characters were amongst 
the frequenters of that quaint old hostelry. 
Amongst them was " Yeaey, junior,** (Lord 
Eldon's Law Reporter,) \\ho preserved his 
forensic name to his eightieth year. 1- lax- 
man, the sculptor, was fond of retiring 
thither, and always <lined in one of the 
small rooms overlooking the gardens ; and 
it was there also that " the Doc or" (Wil- 
liam Maginn) was to be found in hid best 
conversational mood. It was a pleasant 
summer lotmge, where old friends drank 
old wine, and thought and talked of " the 
days that are no more." 

An Ancient Church. — The Church of 
Minster, in the Isle of Thanct, one of the 
oldest in England, is a noble edifice, but 
time is playing its part on it. Beams and 
rafters are reported as fiist decaying ; un- 
sightly pews, or rather boxes of various 
heights and sizes, ** grace" the interior ; 
several coats of whitewash '* adorn" many 
of its fine pillars, and hide their beauty, 
and a considerable sum would be required 
to put the ancient fabric in proper order.' 
A Church-rate, however, in these high- 
rated times, IS quite out of the question, 
and the only reasonable and fair way is to 
fall back on its own property, all of whi* h 
being na' ional property, part might be 
well applied on this national building. 
The living, with rents of glebe lands, &e., 
is over £800 per annum, and if the Arch- 



TTte Monthly Intelligencer. 


bishop wonld limit the Vicar's salary to 
£500 a-year on the next presentation. 
Church-rates might be al)oli8hed, distaste- 
ful wooden mullions replaced by stone 
ones, other architectural blunders rectified, 
and all fear of the edifice fulling down be 
banished. Persons visiting the towns of 
Margate and Rawsgate will at any time 
be repaid by a vioit to this beautiiiil, 
although retired village. Its ancient church 
is supposed by some to be the oldest Chris- 
tian pliice of worship in England, and 
which contains many Saxon remains, tombs, 
&c. Its ancient abbey also fxirnishes a 
subject of no small interest to the anti- 

June 23. 
Shakspeare^s Relatives. — Mr. Walter 
Savage Landor having heard that some of 
Shakspeare's descendants were living in a 
state of poverty, proposed a subscription 
on their behalf; this proposition has elicited 
the following letter from Mr. Halliwell : — 
" Mr. Landor*s eloquent advocacy in favour 
of the descendants of Shakspeare would no 
doubt have met with a ready and cheerful 
response were it not for the circumstance 
that the poet's direct lineage has been 
long extinct. I expected others would 
have mentioned this, but as no notice has 
been taken of Mr. Landor's communi- 
cation, and it might appear that there 
was an apathy on the subject, I venture 
to trouble you with a few lines briefly 
stating the facts of the case. At Shaks- 
peare's death, in 1616, his family consisted 
of his wife, his daughter Susanna, married 
to Dr. Hall, his daughter Jndith, married 

to Thomas Qniney, and Elizabeth Hnll, a 
granddaughter, the only child of Susanna 
Sliakspenre. Judith Quiney had several 
children, who were all dead as early as 
the .year 1639, leaving no i;»ue, she herself 
surviving till 1662. The poet's gnmd- 
daughter, Elizabeth Hall, was married in 
1626 to Thomas Nash, who died in 1647 
without issue ; and secondly, in 1649, to 
John Barnard, afterwards Sir John Bar- 
nard, of Abington, county of Northampton, 
by whom she had no family. Lady Bar- 
nard died in 1670, leaving no children, so 
that with her the lineal descent from 
Shakspeare expired. 

There may, however, be descendants 
from the Shakspeare family still living, 
deriving their g^nealogv from Joan, the 
poet's sister, who married William Hart 
of Stratford. Joan and her sons are 
kindly mentioned in the poet's will. The 
pedigree is not complete, and there is only 
a descent firom the second son Thomas, 
to whose son Thomas, with a remainder 
to his brother George, the birth-place and 
adjoining premises at Stratford were be- 
queathed by Lady Barnard in 1669. These 
continued in the possession of the ikmily 
for upwards of a century. About fifty 
years ago the Harts removed to Tewkes- 
bury, where, in 1848, resided Thomas 
Shakspeare Hart, the eighth in descent 
from the sister of the great dramatist. 
One's fancy is apt to aid in deception in 
such matters, but I remember to have 
traced in his features a remarkable simi- 
larity to those of the bust of Shakspeare 
at Stratford." 


Sir Lawrence Fed to be a Director of the 

William Blanshard, esq., to be Recorder of 

Viscount liBmonto be Lord-Lieat.of Tlpperary. 

Sir Wm. F. WiUianu to be Governor of MalU. 

OAnnx FasrsaxKNTS, fto. 

May 27. Tlios. Geo. Baring, esq., to be one of 
the Lords Commisfdoners of the Admiralty. 

Henry Singer Keating, esq., Q.C., to be So- 
ILeitor General. 

Henry Arthur Herbert, esq., to be Chief Seere« 
tary for Irdand. ____ 

Jane IS. The honour of Knighthood was this -- - , • n 7* 

day conferred on Charles Cooper, esq.. Chief Memher returned to eerve m ParhamenU 
Justice of the Supreme Court of South Australia. County qf Carmarihen.^Dvtid Fugh, esq. i 

For a complete list qfthe Members of the New ParUametU see p. 81. 





Jttn9 17> At his residence, Southampton, 
aged 79^ Thomas Brown, Esq., Admiial of 
the Bhie. 

lipomas Brown entered the navy towards 
the close of 1787| as midshipman, on board 
the ** Elizabeth," 74, giiard-ship at Ports- 
mouth, and in the following year sailed for 
the East Indies in the '' Pboeniz," 36, com. 
maoded successively by Capts. Geo. Anson 
Byron and Sir Rich. John ^trachan, under 
the latter of whom he partook, in Nov., 
1791, on the Malabar coast, of an obstinate 
conflict with the French frigate, *' La 
Jtisolue,** of 46 guns, which terminated in 
the enemy striking his colours after occasion- 
ing a loss io himself of 25 killed and 40 
wounded, and to the British of 6 killed and 
11 wounded. In 1792 Mr. Brown removed 
to the " Winerva," 38, flag-ship of Hon. 
Wm. Comwallis, and after assisting, in 1793, 
at the reduction of Chandenagore, Pon- 
dicherry, and other places, he returned 
home with that officer in the " Excellent," 
74, and next followed him into the ** Cssar," 
80, one of the fleet in the Channel, where he 
was promoted to a Lieutenancy in the 
"Glory," 98, bearing the flag of Rear- 
Admiral Bourmaster, Oct. 24, 1794. His 
succeeding appointments were — in Nov. fol- 
lowing, to the " Venerable," 74, flag -ship of 
Sir John Orde on the same station ; April 
11, 1795, to tho" Flora," 36, Capt. Robt 
Gambler Middleton ; June 19, 1801, as First- 
L'eutenant, to the "Centaur," 74, Capt. 
Bendall Kobt. Littlehales, in the Channel ; 
March 26, 1802, to the " Leander,"60, Capt. 
Upton, fitting for the Halifax station ; and, 
July 3 following, to the "Royal Charlotte" 
yaclit, Capt. Sir Harry Burrard NeaJe, oflf 
Weymouth. During the six years he was 
attached to the " i^lora*' we mid him pre- 
sent at the occupation of Porto Ferrajo, in 
July, 1796 ; at the capture, besides the 
French 16-gun corvette *♦ La Corceyre,*" of 
nine privateers, carrying in the whole 102 

Eand 640 men ; and in the expedition to 
t under Lord Keith and Sir Ralph 
sromby, whose mortal remains he sub- 
aequently conveyed to Malta. Capt. Brown, 
who was advanced to the rank of com- 
mander Oct. 8, 1802, was next appointed, 
Jan. 14, 1803, to the " William*' store-ship, 
and, in Sept. of the same vear, to the 
'* Orestes," l4, in which vessel he afforded 
every support and assistance to Commodore 
Owen of the ** Immortalite" in a skirmish 
with the Boulogne flotilla, Oct. 23, 1804, and 
bad the misfortune to be wrecked, July 11, 
1805, on the Splinter Sand, in Dunkerque 
Road. After cruizing for some time to the 
westward in the "Raven" brig, he was 
awarded, Jan. 22, 1806, the command of the 
"Solebay," 32, engaged on Channel service, 
and he next joined m succession— Sept. 8, 
1808, the "Inflexible," 64, employed m the 
river Medway and off Hali&z; May 29, 

1810, the^Curagofl," stationed in the Chan- 
nel ; August 80, IblO, the " Vengeur," 74, 
flag-ship of Sir Joseph Sidney x orke, in 
which, after escorting a large body of troops 
intended as a reinforcement to the Duke of 
Wellington's army in Portugal, he cruized 
off the Western Islands for the protection of 
a homeward-bound l<;ast India fleet ; Nov. 
29, 1811, the " Bulwark," 74, Commodore 
Sir Rich. King, serving off Brest and L*Orient, 
—and, March 21, 1812, and Nov. 20, 1814, 
the " Loire," 38, and " Saturn," ; 6, in both 
of which ships he took a very active part in 
the hostile operations on the coast of North 
America, and in the former captured, Dec. 
10, 1813, the »* Kolla" privateer, of 5 guns 
and 80 men He was placed out of com- 
mission April 24, 1815 ; obta ned command 
of the Ordinary at Sheemess, Oct. 14, 1816 ; 
was selected by Rear-Admiral RoLt. Lam- 
bert to be his 1? lag-Captain in the " Vigo," 
74, at St. Helena, then the abode of Napo- 
leon Buonaparte, Nov. 12, 1819 ; from Oct. 
16, 1822, until his return home with specie 
to the amount of 820,000 dollars, Jau. 81, 
1826, commanded the "Tartar," '1 2, in 
South America, where he was presented by 
the celebrated Bolivar, with his portrait, as 
a mark of esteem ; was next appointed, OcL 
26,1831, to the " Talavera," 74, employed 
on particular service ; and on May 17, 
1833, assumed command of the " Caledonia," 
120, as Fiag-Captain to Sir Josias Rowley in 
the Mediterranean. Capt. Brown was su- 
perseded in Oct., 1835, and has since been 
on half. pay. He obtained his flag June 28, 

Mr. Douglas Jerrold. 

June 8. At his residence, Kilbum-Priory, 
St. John's Wood, aged 54, Douglas Jerrold, 

Douglas Jerrold was bom in. London on 
the 3rd of January, 1803 ; but his early 
home was Sheemess, where his father was 
manager of the theatre. The profession of 
his father might thus have given a colour to 
his literary tendencies ; yet that professl< n 
had no attractions for bun. He chose the 
lite which so many an ardent youth has 
chosen, and he became a midshipman under 
Captain Austen, the brother of Miss Austen 
the novelist. In his brief period of service, 
the sensitive boy was filled with terror and 
indignation at many of the severities of na- 
val discipline as then enforced. We have 
seen his eyes fill with tears, and his lips 
quiver, as he detailed his feelings at seeing 
a sailor flogged through the fleet. The 
pe<ice came, and he had to choose another 
calling. He was ar>pi*enticed to a printer 
in London. The labours of a printer's ap- 
prentice are not ordinarily favourable to in- 
tellectual development ; the duties of a com- 
positor are so purely mechanical, and yet 
demand such a constant attention, that the 


Obituary. — Mr. Douglas Jerrold. 


8ubject*matter of his employ can rarely en- 
gage his thoughts. It was not in the print- 
liig oflBce that the mind of Douglas Jerrold 
was foioned, although the aspirations of the 
boy might have thought that there xn as the 
hume of literature. He became his own in- 
structor after the hours of labour. He mtido 
himself master of several languages. His 
" one book" was Shakspere. He cultivated 
the habit of expressing his thoughts in 
writiui: ; and gradually the literary ambition 
was directed into a practicable road. He 
was working as a compositor on a news- 
paper, when he thought he could write 
something as good as the criticism which 
there ^ appeared. He dropped into the 
editor's letter-box an essay on the opera of 
Der Frittchutz, which performance he had 
witressel with wonder and delight. His 
own copy, an anonymous contribucion, was 
banded over to h m to put in type. An 
earnest editorial "notice," &oliciting other 
contributions ftx>m our "correspondent," 
&c., was the welcome of the young writer, 
whose vocation was now determined^ We 
qu te this from the " English Cyclopa;dia," 
in which the notice of his life was written by 
one who had the happiness of his friendsh'p. 
He wiote for the stage, to which he felt a 
family call, and produced clouds of pieces 
ere he wa? twenty, sonne of which still keep 
the stage. like ' ' More Friorhtened than Hurt, ' 
performed at Sadler*s Wells. He engaged 
with David ge, thi n manager of the Coburg, 
to produce pieces at a salary ; and some of 
his plays at t is time, hastily composed, and 
as he thought unworthy of his powers, ap- 
peared under the name of Henry Brownrig. 
In consequence of quarrels he went from the 
Coburg 'Ihoatre to the Surrey, with ♦* Black- 
£ved Susau^ in his hand. He had brought 
from the quarter-deck of the ** Namur" a love 
of the sea and a knowledge of the service, 
which he turned to account on the stage and 
in his general writii^gs. Salt air sweeps 
through these latter like a breeze and a 
perfume. "Black-Eyed Susan," the most 
successful of his naval plays, was written 
when he was scarcely twenty years old, — a 
piece wliieh made the fortune of the Sur- 
rey Theatre, restored Elliston from a long 
course of disastrous mismanagement, and 
gKve honour and independence to T F. 
Cooke. Indeed, no dramatic work of ancient 
or modem day ever reached the success of 
this play. It was performed, without break, 
for hundreds of uiglits. All London went 
over the water, and Cooke became a per- 
sonage in society, as Garrick had been in the 
days of Goodman's Fields. Covent Garden 
borrowed the play, and engaged the actor, 
for an afterpiece. A hac%ney cab carried 
the triutii]ihant William, in his blue jacket 
and white trousers, from the Obelisk to Bow. 
street, and Mayfair maidens wept over the 
strong situations, and laughed over the 
searching dialogue, which had moved an hour 
before the tears and merriment of the 
Borough. On the 300th night of represen- 
tation the walls of the theatre were illu- 
minated, and vast multitudes filled the 
thoroughfiuxs. When subsequently ropro- 

duced at Drury Lane it kept ofif ruin for a 
time even from that magnincent^misfortune. 
Actors and managers throughout the country 
reaped a golden harvesL Testimonials were 
got up for Elliston and £or Cooke on the 
glory of its success. But Jerrold's share of 
the gain was slight: — about 70/. of the many 
thousands which it realized for the man- 
agement. With unapproachable meanness, 
Klliston abstained from presenting the 
youthful writer with the value of a tooth- 
pick ; and Eliistou's biographer, with a 
kindred sense of poetic justice, while chant- 
ing the praises of Elliston for producing 
"Black- Eyed Susan," forgets to say who 
wrote the play I When the drama had run 
800 nights, I'.lliston said to Jerrold, with 
amusing coolness, " My dear boy, why don't 
you get your friends to present you with a 
bit of plater 

Many dramas, comic and serious, followed 
this first success, all shining with points 
and colours. Among these were "Nell 
Gwynne," "The School-fellows, "• and "The 
Housekeeper." Drury Lane opened its ex- 
clu-^ive doors to an author who made fortune 
and fame for irlliston and Cooke. But Mr. 
Osbaldiston, who only timidly perceived the 
ran ire and swoep of the youthful genius 
which he wooed to his green-room, proposed 
the adaptation of a French piece, offering to 

fay handsomely for the laoour. Adapt a 
'rench piece! The volunteer rose within 
him, ana he turned on his heel with a snort. 
Drury Lane was then in the hands of the 
French, freshly captured, and the boy uho 
had gone to sea in order to fight Napoleon 
refused to serve in London under his literary 
marshals. He retumed to the theatre after 
a while with his "Bride of Ludgate," the 
first of many ventures and many successes 
on the same b >ards. " The Mutiny at the 
Nor j" hail followed the first nautical success, 
and his minor plec.s on the Surrey side con- 
tinued to run long and gloriously. But the 
patent theatres, with a monopoly of the five- 
act drama, were strongly garrisoned by the 
I rench, aided by native troops whom they 
had raised, and some of wnom, such as 
Poole and Planch^, were men of great tech- 
nical skill and &cile talent ; and he never 
felt his feet se ure in either theatre until the 
production of his "Rent- Day," a plav 
suggested^ and elaborated from Wilxie s 

{)ictures. 'Wilkie sent him a handsome 
etter and a pair of proof engravings with 
his autograph. The public paid him still 
more amply. 

A selection from the early writings for 
the stage, made by himnolf, has been pub- 
lished in tho Collected Edition of his works. 
But many were unjustly condemned, and 
among those rejected plays tho curious 
seeker will find some of the most sterling 
literary goli'. His wit was so prodigal, and 
he priz^ it so little, save as a delight to 
others, that he threw it away like dust, 
never caring f«>r the bright children of his 
brain, and smiling with complacent kindness 
at people who repeated to nim his jests as 
Uieir own I At the least demur, too, he 
would surrender his most happy alKuHons 


OfiiTDAHY. — Mr. Douglas Jerrold. 

■nd hli most trencbsnt hits. In one of hia 

Slays m old sailor, Ir7iii2 to snatch a kias 
om a pretty girl— a« old sailont w-ill— got a 
boi on iho oar. " There," exo' aimed B ue- 
jaoket, "like my luck ; always wi-ockei on 
the coral ne(s\" The mauager, whon the 
play was read in the green-room, could not 
aee the fun, and Jerrold itruck it out, A 
friend mada a cnptioua remark on a very 
characteristic touch in a msauscript oomedy 
— and the touoh went out; — a cynical dog 
in a wraDg:le wiih hia much better-half, said 
to her, " My notion of a wife of forty is, that 
a shuuld be able to change her, llk^ a 

The beat part of many years of his life 
wasgiveD up freely to I hesB theatrical tasks, 
for Eia geniua was dramatic ; hia fiimily 
belonged to th ta^ d h' p Ip't 

■a he though stood bo md h oo 1% ts 
His father hi m tb an hi sisters 

■U ndomed tog is isl^rs d 

than bimse m mod m og r^ 

one. the 1 te M H tn ei. 

humourist, as ul ag 

Dniry Lan M Co w 

the Liverpoo T R al H m 

Lis own ei U13I mm TV 
Ghont." li 

journalism, re 

the plays n rf ed 
James'n Tbea red a^ 

After tb m 
thegrsatee and m m 

In '■ The P 80 st 

for them, th w K 
highest comi B 

Day" followed th m ec n d wi y 

play in the E ghsh nguag play b 

out story, scenery, or cbaracter, but which, 
by mere power ofdiilogiie, by flash, swirl. 

paw," proJuc 
Cupid, '' an eii 

, piece, first pro- 

auce.i at Windsor Castle, and aftflr«ari[s 
M the Princess's Theatre, with IAts. Eean 
in " Dorothy," one of the raosc dainty and 
tender assuniptjons of this oharming artist ; 
and "I'he Heart of Gold," also produced 
by Mr. Eean, complete the series of his later 
works. We are glad to announce, howeier, 
that the dramatist has left behind a finiabcd 
five-act comedy, with the title of "'I'he 
Spendthrift," for which the managemcota 

CoQlemporancoualy he had worked his 
wsv into notice as a proao writer of a Teiy 
brilliant and original type — cliieHy throunh 
the periodicals, flis paswon was periodicity 

many years he brooded over the thought of 
" Punch." He even found a publisher and 
a wood-engraser, and a suitable "Punch" 
appeared. Out the publisher waa less rich 
in funds than he in epigrams, and after five 

vivad the thought, and our mtrry com- 
panion — uow of world-wide name — appear- 

ho-deyil"atthedoor, "Men of Character" 
ippeared in " Blackwood's M.igaeine ;" 
' the Chnmicles of Cloveraook" in the '■ 11- 
uminated M.igaiine," of which he waa 
oundor and ajitor ; ■' St. Giles and St. 
lame^" in the " f^hilling Hagazine" of 

T 3t( Feather," -Punoh'i Let. 

ers t« his Son,' and the "Caudle Lee- 
urea Pun h." The ciquiaite gallery 

btvcome, "aovemook" 
rt than many & 

biv forgotten ai 

Jcrt Ml 4l^ ia lis and diSL-oursed of i 
essays contril 

"The Cats- 

, osori 

v£ nekf m Iothe"Atheni 

B aeWiC agarine" rank amonK the most 

tii^ IS productions of his muse. 

__^ se ara past he had ilevotod him- 

F cs in Bed ha^ always attracted him 
as h y ra iie strong and the BUi- 
ceptihle. In the dear old days when Leigh 
Hunt was sunning bimsalf in Hursemonger 
Lane for calling U^rge IV. n tat Adonis of 
forty, and the like crimes, he composed a 
political work, in a aplrit which would pro- 

■ The book was printed, but the pub- 

's lad 


. the pub 
IS only ti 

it. Only a few copies ai 
tnnt. Of late years he had returned to poli- 
tics, as awritarfor the " Ballot" under Mr. 
Wakley; and aa sub-editor of the "Ex- 
aminer" under Mr. Fonblanque. returned 
to find bia opiniona popidar in the country 
and tHumpbant In the House of Commoni. 
He afterwards edited " Douglas Jerrold'a 
Weekly Newspaper;" and when he con- 
sented, at the earnest wish of the proprietiur 
of " Lloyd's Newspaper," to undertafca 
its editorship, with, we believe, a salary 
of £1,000 tt-year, bo bocame deeply im- 
pressed with the conviction that he had 
undertaken a charge which demanded the 
exercise of his best fncultjes. He waa td 
address a very largo number of readers in 
various walks of life, and especially the 
working classes. Ue felt that the moat 
solid foundation tor doing good amongst t^ 

nen -~ briefly, rapidly, irresistibly. 

94 Mr, Douglas Jerrold, — Wm. Wingfield Yates, Esq. [July, 

the community as bound together in com- 
mon duties and afifections. At the same 
time he endeavoured, whilst administering 
no stimulus to those violent opinions which 
are the most opposed to real political im- 
provement, to mark his scorn of every 
manifestation of injustice and tyranny, from 
whatever quarter it proceeded ; and to urge 
forward the great social reforms which Kng- 
land has yet to make^ if she would hold her 
claim " to teach other nations how to live." 
In addressing large masses of the people, 
his taste and knowledge, and, above all, his 
own experience of what the people required, 
always prevented him falling into the delu- 
sion that it was necessary to write down to 
popular understanding. In speaking to a 
million of readers he never hesitated to draw 
from the copious fountains of his extensive 
reading, and to feel that the humblest 
artisan must be approached with the same 
respect for an intellectual being as the writer 
would shew to his own most cultivated asso- 
ciates. He went thoroufi^hly along with the 
present elevated tone of English journalism, 
and in his hands it has lost nothing of its 
true dignity and usefulness, in mingling fun 
with reproof, and sarcasm with armiment. 

The conversational powers of Douglas 
Jerrold cannot be enlarged upon in this 
place. The general public will never pro- 
perty appreciate them. The sayings that 
nave circulated from mouth to mouth in the 
London world of letters will be long repeated, 
and some will find their way into print. 
But no repetition can convey any impression 
of the wonderful instinct with which his un- 
studied wit flashed forth in the most unex- 
pected sallies, upon the most seemingly im- 
possible opportunities. Some of the brilliant 
sayings which he scattered about amongst 
his choicest friends have been reported as if 
they were the outpourings of a severe na- 
ture ; but no mere repetition can exhibit 
that true estimate of them always produced 
by his own genial lau^h, which shewed there 
was no malice in the jest, and made the ob- 
ject of it almost proud that he bad given oc- 
casion for such a contribution to social en- 
I'oyment. Jerrold was truly a man of a large 
leart, as well as of a great original genius. 
He never lost an opportunity of lalK>uring 
in any act of benevolence that his sense of 
duty set before him ; and his last words 
were those of affection towards all with 
whom he had been associated in friendship, 
—to him a sacred relation. 

'i'he deceased was buried at Norwood 
Cemetery on the 16th ult. The pall-bearers 
were Mr. Charles Dickens, Mr. Hep worth 
Dixon, Mr. Thackeray, Mr. Horace Mayhew, 
Mr. Charles Knight, Mr. Bradbury, Mr. 
Monkton M lines, M.P., and Sir Joseph Pax- 
ton, M.P. 

The gentlemen who occupied the mourn- 
ing coaches were the late Mr. Jerrold's eldest 
and youngest sons, Mr. William Blanchard 
and Thomas Jerrold, Mr.. Henry Mayhew, 
his son-in-law, Mr. Copoland, his brother-in- 
law, and the three medical men. Dr. Wright, 
Dr. Quoin, and Mr. Cleveland, who attended 
the deceased in his last illness. 

Among those who followed in procession 
were Sir Charles Eastlake, Mr. Mark Leinon, 
MnJohn Forster, Mr. AlbertSmith, Mr. Ster- 
ling Coyne, Mr. F. J. Serle, Mr. Bayle Ber- 
nard, Mr. Wostland Marston, Mr. Tom Tay- 
lor, Mr. Heraud, Mr. Shirley Brooks, Mr. 
Robert Bell, Mr. Peter Cunningham, Mr. 
George Hodder, Mr. Moxon, Mr. Murray, Mr. 
Hazlitt, Mr; Wm. Bennett, Mr. Barlow, Mr. 
Lloyd, Mr. Jas. Hannay, Mr. livans,Dr.lras* 
mus Wilson, Messrs. Henry and Augustus 
Mayhew, Mr. E. S. Pigott, .Mr.Hansteed, Mr. 
Mitchell, F.R.S., Mr. S. Lucas, Sir Charles 
Eastlake, Messrs. Thomas and George Land- 
seer, Mr. Creswick, Mr. E. M. Ward, Mr. 
Augustus Egg, Mr. Frank Stone, Mr. Frith, 
Mr. George Cruikshank, Mr. John Leach, 
Mr. Landells, Mr. Tenniel, Mr. Kenny 
Meadows, Mr. E. H. Bailey, Mr. Webster, 
Mr. Buckstone, Mr. Wilkinson, who played 
the principal character in Mr. Jerrold's nivt 
dramatic production in 1821, and Mr. Nelson 

The following is from a correspondent :— 
Jerrold's dramas have doubtless worked 
much good ; that combination of wit and 
pleasantry with virtuous and moral teach- 
ing in which they abound, is peculiarly 
adapted to lead and guide the taste of the 
people. His first piece, *'More Frightened 
than Hurt, " a very poptilar farce, was pro- 
duced at Sadlors Welb in 1821. From that 
period to 1830, he wrote many successful 
dramas for the Surrev and Coburg Theati-es, 
" Black Eyed Susan'' being the favourite. 
In January, 1832, "The Rent Day" was 
produced at Drury Lane ; after which ap- 

geared at Drury likne, Covent Garden, tne 
trand Theatres and the Haymarket, the 
following brilliant series . — the ** Bride of 
Ludgate," "The Golden Calf," 1832*; "NeU 
Gwynne,"1833 ; "llie Housekeeper," 1«38 : 
"The Wedding Gown," 1834 ; "Beau Nash,'' 
1834 ; "l-he Hayard of the Die," 1835 ; '•I'he 
School-fellows," 1835; "Doves in a Cage," 
1885 ; " The Painter of Ghent," in which he 
himself peformed the principal part, 1836; 
" The Perils of Pippins,^' 1826 ; " The White 
MilUner," 1841 ; "The Prisoner of War," 
1842 ; " Bubbles of the Day," 1842 ; '• Ger- 
trude's Cherries, "1842 ; "Time Works Won- 
ders," 1845 ; " The Cat's Paw," 18.^^0 ; ** Re- 
tired firom Business," 1851: "St. Cupid,* 
1863* (first acted before her Mxuesty at 
W incisor Castle, and afterwards produced at 
the Princess's.) 

WiLUAM Wingfield Tates, Esq. 

William Wingfield Yates, of Holne-Cot» 
Devon, formerly of Parkfields, Staffordshire, 
Esq., was the eldest of the two sons ^the 
Rev. Samuel Wildman Yates, of Readmg, 
being the other,) of John Yates, of Barlas- 
ton-hall, Stafibrdshire, Esq., by his wife 
Harriott, daughter and co-heiress of Wing- 
field Wi dman, Esq., the grandson of John 
Wingfield, of Norton and Hazlebarrow, in 
Derbyshire, Esq. John Yates was the eld- 
est son of William Yates, of Springtide, 
Bury, in Lanoashire, Esq., whoso other 

1857.] Wm. Wingfield Yates, Esq.— L. H. J. Tonna, Esq. 95 

issue were, — 2qcI, Ellen, who married the 
first Sir Robert Peel, Baft, by whom she 
had the late lamented Prime Minister, Sir 
Robert Peel, and o:her issue ; 3rJ, Edmund, 
of t airlawn, Kent, and Ince, in Cheshire ; 
4th, William, Rector of Eccleston, in L^n- 
eashire ; ith, Thomas, of Irwell-house, in 
Lancashire ; 6tb, Eliza, wife of Robert Peel, 
of Wallin^n, in Norfolk, Esq. ; 7th, Jane, 
wife of Robert Peel, of Taliaris, Esq. ; and 
8tb, Jonathan, a General in the army ; — 
an deceased. 

Mr. William Wingfield Yates, the subject 
of this memoir, was educated at tho Royal 
Military College at Mario at, and at the age 
of sixteen obt lined his commission, as en- 
sign in the 47th Foot, — the head -quarters 
of which he joined at Gibraltar, in 1808, and 
served with it through the greater part of 
the Peninsular War. He was a most active 
officer ;— he brought up Sir Lowry Cole's 
IKvision (the 4th) to join Lord Hill on the 
retreat to Madrid, rioing 200 miles over the 
most difficiilt country to effect that object. 
He was present at the siege of Tarifa, siege 
of Cadiz, battle of Barossa, the surrender of 
Tarragona to Marshall Suchet, and many 
small afifiairs. In a foraging party on the 
banks of the Doure he was severely wound- 
ed, and at Vittoria he was so dangerously 
wounded in both legs as to be incapacitated 
for further service. For his meritorious 
services he received a medal, with chisps for 
Barossa and Vittoria. 

Mr. Wingfield Yates married, in 1817, Ce- 
cilia, daughter of John Peel, of the Pastures- 
house. Derbyshire, Esq., by whom (she died 
in 1844, while at CarUruhe,) he had issue 8 
sons and 5 daughters, who all, except one 
son, survive him, and who are here enume- 
rated; — Ist, Lieutenant- Colonel Edmund 
Robert William Wingfield Yates, unattach- 
ed, for many years Military Secretary in 
Jamaica, in Mauritius, and in the East In- 
dies, to Creneral Sir William Gtomm, G.C.B. ; 
8nd, John Wildman, for some years an 
officer in the 82nd Foot, and now retired 
from the service : 3rd, Frederick, Captain 
in Count Walmoaen's Austrian Cuirassiers ; 
4th, Augustus, formerly Captain in Count 
Walmoden's Cuirassiers, and afterwards 
Major in the 1st Royal German L^on ; 
5thu Henry Peel, Major in the Royal Horse 
Artillery, who served with distinction in the 
Crimea ; 6th, Ferdinand, Lieutenant in Ist 
Devon Militia ; 7th, Pargeter de Wingfield, 
still under age. Of the daughters, — 1st, 
Juliana Vittoria, married Colonel Willitim 
Nesbitt Orange ; 2nd, Georgiana Cecilia, 
married the Kov. William Blake Doveton ; 
8rd, Marianne Louisa, married John Tyrrell, 
Esq. ; 4th, Charlotte Adelaide, married 
William George Cunningham, Esq. ; 5th, 
Frances Maria Wilhelmina. The deceased 
son, George, entered the Royal Navy, and 
served in the Syrian campaign of 1&10-41, 
for which he obtained a medal. He died 

Mr. William Wingfield Yates died at 
Holne^Cot, on the 28th of January last, and 
was buried in the churchyard at Holne. 


L. H. J. Tonna, Esq., F.S.A. 

jlprU 2. Aged 46. Lewis Hjrppolitus 
Joseph Tonna, Esq., F.S.A., F.R G.S., Secre- 
tary of the United Service Insitution. 

Ho was bora in Liverpool on the 3rd of 
September, 1812. His father was Vice- 
Consul of the kingdoms of Spain, and Consul 
of the two Sicilies. His mother was daughter 
of IL S. Blanckley, Esq., major in the 
army, Consul-goneral in the Balearic Islands, 
and at Algiers, a descendant of Guillaume 
de Blanc-Lis, a Norman Knight in the service 
of William the Conqueror, who was present 
at the battle of Hastmgs. Mr. Tonna evinced 
at an early age talents of a very superior 
order: his love for science, and the facility 
with which he acquired knowledge and 
languages, was extraordinary. At 16 years 
of age, in consequence of his father's death, 
he left Corfu, where he had been studying 
^^at the university foimded by Lord tiuil« 
ord) imder Bambas and Grasetti, and ac- 
cepted the appointment of Naval Instructor 
on board H. M. firigate ** Rainbow," and 
accompanied Sir John Franklin in 1830 to 
the Mediterranean, by whom he was greatly 
valued. When stationed in the Gulf of 
Corinth, his thorough knowledge of the 
French, Italian, and Greek languages was 
specially broug^ht into play during the time 
Tyabellas held Patras, prior to Uie arrival 
of King Otho. In 1894, upon Sir John 
Franklin leaving the Mediterranean station, 
Sir Pultney Mtucolm, then Admiral in com- 
mand, expressed a desire that Mr. Tonna 
should be appointed to his, the flag- 
ship. After remaining a year in the 
♦* Britannia," Mr. Tonna returned with Sir 
P. M. to England, and was soon elected 
Assistant Director of the United Service In* 
stitutiou, in the room of Cap tain (afterwards 
Colonel) Stodart, who was killed in Persia. 
Mr. Tonna then became Secretary, and devo* 
ted his untiring energies to the improvement 
of that institution for a period of twenty-oiu 
I/ears. After a season of over-exertion and 
anxiety during the year 1852, when ha 
made great sacrifice of time, strength, and 
money for the Institution, his healUi b^an 
to decline, and although he continued nis 
labours until a few weeks before his death, 
he sank from exhaustion on the 2nd of Aprils 
1857. The Council passed a resolution ex- 
pressive of ** their deep regret at the loss the 
Institution had sustained by being deprived 
of Mr. Tonua*s zealous and effective services, 
which had been rendered by him for so 
many years." 

Mr. Tonna was the author of several 
books and tracts, amongst which are ** Nuns 
and Nunneries,*' " Erchomena," " Elieshib,** 
"PrivilMfed Persons," "The Lord is at 
hand,*' £c. He edited "Bible Character- 
istics,'* "Memoir of Jack Britt," &c„ and 
'*The Christian Annotator, or Notes and 
Queries x)n Scriptural Subjects," which in- 
teresting and useful work originated with, 
and was carried on entirely by, himself. 

Mr. Tonna was married twice, — first to 
Charlotte Elizabeth, in 1841: she died in 
1846. Secondly, in 1848, to Maxy Aime^ 


William Walton, Esq. — Births. 


daughter of Charles Dibdin, Esq., who now 
lives to deplore the loss of one so universaUy 
beloved, respected, and regretted. 

WiLUAM Walton, Esq. 

May 6. At his residence, Lone -Wall, 
Oxford, in his 74th year, William Walton, 
Ksq., formerly British Agent at Santo 
Domingo, and a voluminous writer on the 
Spanish Colonies, the Carlist War iu Spain, 

Mr. Walton's father was Spanish Consul 
at Liverpool, and sent him at an early age 
to Spain and Portugal, in order to acquire a 
knowledge of the &ngtiages of these coun- 
tries and of commercial life. Mr. Walton 
was the first, we believe, who introduced the 
Peruvian alpaca to the notice of the British 
public, and was not less instrumental in 
regard to the importation of guano as a 
fertilizing manure. Mr. Walton said that 
the merchants of Liverpool at first treated 
his proposal respecting this manure with 
disdain, and asked him if he thought they 
would tutn their ships into dung-carts. 
Mr. Walton has been heard to say that he was 
deputed, by the Mexican govemmeu tin 1815, 
to offer the crown of Mexico to his late 
Royal Highness the Duke of Gloucester, and 
n^ociations to that effect were in full train 
between the British government and Mexico, 
when Napoleon Bonaparte made his escape 
fVom £11m, setting all Europe in a flame, 
and directing the attention of England to 
matters of nearer and deeper interest. Mr. 
Walton at one period gave the benefit of 
his extensive experience and great know- 
ledge to the columns of the Morning Chroni- 
cle, in which he was a frec^uent writer, and 
we believe he also wrote m several cf the 
Beviews and Magazines of the day, being a 
gentleman of great mental activity and im- 
wearied habits of research. He had drawn 
up, shortly before his death, an account of 
the Duke of Wellin^n's estate in Spain, 
derived from personal inspection and know- 
ledge, and a detailed comparative view of 
the AJps and the Pyrenees. During his long 
and cheauered life, Mr. Walton had been on 
terms of personal friendship and intimacy 
with many of the most distinguished Engliw 
and Foreign diplomatists and statesmen, 
and his conversation was full of interesting 
particulars, derived from extensive observa- 
tion both at home and abroad, during a long 
and active life. 


May L At Howe Hatch, the Hon. Mn. 
Fre«li.rick Petre, a son. 

May 6. At Orosvenor-sq., l^scountesa Milton, 
a son. 

May 14. At Hatton-castle, Aberdeenshire, the 
wife of Major Duff, a dau. 

May 15. At Harbledown-lodge, near Canter- 
bury, the wife of Lieat.-Col. T. Jackaon, late of 
the 10th Regt. Bombay N.I., a son. 

May 16. At Sket; y-park, Oiamorgansbire, the 
wife of O. B. Morris, esq., a dan. 

May 17. At Sherborne, Dorset, the wife of 
John Goald Avery, esq., a aon. 


May 18. At Carishrooke-lodge, DTurham-park, 
Gloucestershire, the wife of Alfred Chillcot, esq., 
a son and ht ir. 

May 19. At Speke-hall, Lancashire, the wife 
of Richard Wait, esq., a daughter. 

if y 21. At Bellefield-house, Parson 's-grern, 
Middlesex, the wife of Henry Brinsley Sheridan, 
esq., M.P., a son. 

May 22. At Clifion, the Lady Isabella C. Grant, 
a son. 

At Eton, the wife of the Rev. John W. Hawtrey, 
a dau. 

May 23. At Leamington, the wife of Charles 
Wriottesley Digbv, esq., a dau. 

May 24. At Roehampton, the Hon. Mrs. Biber, 
a son and heir. 

May 26. At St. Leonard*s-on-Sea, the Mar- 
chioness of Queensbury, permaturely, of twin 
duughtera, still-born. 

May 28. At Stanley-place, Chester, the wife of 
£. G. Salisbury, esq., MP., a daughter. 

May 30. At 36, Chester-sq., thu wife of CoL 
Steele, C.B., Coldstream Gua ds, a dau. 

ifay 31. At 73, WedtboxuTie-torrace, Hyde- 
park, the wife of Maurice James OTonn 11. esq., 
of Lakeview, Killarney, Kerry, a son and heir. 

June 1 . At Bagneres de fiigorre. Hautes Pyre- 
nees, the lady of Col. William Crumpton, a dau. 

At Hundill-hall, near PonteAract, the wife of 
J. R. W. Atkinson, esq., a dau. 

At Dallingion Vicarage, Suxsex, the wife of the 
Rev. Ralph Raisbeck Tutham, a son. 

June 2. At Abbotsford, Mrs. Hope Scott, a aon, 
the only great-grandchilii of Sir Walter Scott. 

At the Parsonage, New Bolingbruke, the wife 
of the Rev. Justice Chapman, a ton. 

At Newton-house, near Chester, the wife of 
Edward Henry Rot>coe. esq., a son. 

JuneZ. At Park-st, Gro«venor-»q , London, the 
wife of Col. Herbert WatKin Wynn, M.P., Cetn, 
near St. Asaph, a son and heir. 

At Chesham-pl., the wife of Charles W. Oren- 
fell, esq., M.P., a son. 

At Richroond-hill, the wife of O. R. Lang, 
esq., of Overtoun, Dunbartonshire, N.B., a 

Jiinei. At Bulmershe-court, Reading, Lady 
Catherine Wheble, a son. 

At Weston-hall, Yorkshire, Mrs. C. H. Daw- 
son, a son and heir. 

At South wick -crescent, Hyde-park, the wife 
of C. Darby Griffith, esq., M.P., a dau., still- 

At Farmington rectory, near Northleach, the 
wife of the Rev. W. H. Stanton, a son. 

At Fauikboume rectory, Essex, the wife of the 
Rev. F. Spurrtll, rector, a dau. 

June 5. At Torquay, the wife of Henry J, 
Baker Baker, esq.,|of Elemore-hall, Durham, a 
Junes. AtSouthborough.KingKton-on-Thames, 
the wif- of Sir Fred. Cume, Bart., a son. 

June 10. At Southwick-crescent, Hyde-park, 
the wife Of Major Jervoi^ R.E., a dau. 

At Eccleston-sq., the Hon. Mrs. Frederic 
Hob irt, a son. 

June 11. At Woodchester-houae, Gloucester- 
shire, Mrs. Edward Wise, a dau. 

At Woodland's-ter., Blackheath, at the house 
of her father. Gen. Mr Edward Nicolls, K.C.B., 
the wife or J. Hill WiUiams, e^., of Waterloo- 
pi., PaU-Mall, a ciau. ; 

Jun- 13. At Talaore, Flintshire, the Hon. Lady 
Mostjm, a son. 

The wife of Sir Godfrey J. Thomas, Bart., a 

At Boddington Manor-house, Cheltenham, the 
wife of Capt. Herbert Gall, H.M.'s 14th Dra- 
goons, a son. 

At Belgravc-sq., the Hon. Mrs. Horatio Fits 
Roy, a dau. 

June 14. In the Cathedral-close, Winchester, 
the Hon. Mrs. William Warburton, a son. 

At Eaton-sq., the wife of Frank Croealey, esq.; 
M.P. for Halilftx, a son and heir. 

] 857.] 

Births. — Marriages. 


At Onslow-M., London, the Hon. Mrs. Newdi- 
gate Borne, a dan. 

JuM 16. At Hyde^park-gardens, the wife of 
Fuller Maitland Wilson, esq., a son. 

June 17. In the Close, Winchester, the wife of 
the ReT. R. Payne, Ticar of Dovmton, Wilts, a 


April 8. At St. Paul's Cathedral, Calcutta, 
Sir James W. Colvile, of Ochiltree, to Frances 
Elinor, eldest dau. of J. P. Grant, esq., of the 
Bengal Civil Service. 

April 14. .\t St. George's, Hanover-sq., London, 
W. Ayshford, eldest son of E. Ayshford Sanford, 
esq , of Nynehead-court, to Sarah Ellen, dau. of 
the late H. Seymour, esq., of Knoyle-house, Wilts. 

At St. George's, Hanover-sq., Arthur Lionel, 
eldest son of the late Hon. Arthur Ceesar Tolle- 
mache, to Emily, eldest surviving dau. of the late 
Major-General Sir Jeremiah Bryant, C.B., of the 
Bengal Army. 

April 18. At the British Embassy, at Paris, 
Richard William Bulkeley, esq., of the Royal 
Horse Guards, eldest son of Sir R. W. Bulkeley, 
M.P., to Mary Emily, eldest dau. of Henry 
Baring, esq., M.P. 

April 19. At Dublin, John, second son of 
Robert Hedlej, esq., of Hartford, Northumber- 
land, to Henrietta, youngest dau. of Sir Thomas 
Butler^ Bart., of Balling-temple, Carlow. 

April 20. At Emmanuel Church, Camberwell, 
Wm. Clay» esq., late Capt. in H.M's 87th Regt, 
and eldest surviving son of the late Gen. Chiy, 
K.C., to Caroline Julia, eldest sister of Sir Claude 
C. de Crespigny, Bart. 

May %, At Netherseal, near Ashby-de-la- 
Zooch, Oforge Charles Bume, esq.. Commander 
in the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation 
Company's service, Bombay, second son of the 
Rev. H. T. Bume, of the Vineyards, Bath, to 
Mary Ann, youngest dau. of Col. Sir G. H. Hewitt, 
Bart., of the former place, and srand-dau. of the 
late Right Hon. Sir G. Hewitt, Bart., G.C.B., 
formerly Commander-in-Chief in India, and of 
the late Right Rev. Henry William M^Jendie, 
Lord Bishop of Bangor. 

May 23. At St. Paul's Knightsbridge, Frederick 
Morion Eden, Fellow of All Souls', Oxford, eldest 
son of the Right Rev. the Bishop of Moray and 
Ross, to Lousia Anne, eldest dau. of the late 
Vice-Admiral Hyde Parker, C. B. 

May 25. At St. George's, Hanover-sq., Archi- 
bald Peel, esq., a son of General Jonathan Peel, 
M.P., to Miss Palmer, only dau. of Sir Wm. 
Roger Palmer, Bart. 

May 26. At St. Peter's, Eaton-sq., the Earl of 
Stradbroke, to Augusta, widow of Col. Bonham, 
«f the 10th Hussars, and second dau. of 'the late 
Sir Christopher Musgrave, Bart. 

At St. Paul's, Knightsbridge, Augustus Arthur 
Vansittart, esq., yoimgest son of the late General 
YMisittart, cm)., of Bisham Abbey, Berks, to the 
Hon. Rachel Irby, eldest dau. of the Right Hon. 
Lord and Lady Boston. 

At Marylebone Church, Lieut. Ralph Gore, 
Roval Horse Artillery, only son of the late George 
Adenbrooke Gore, esq., of Barrowmount, Gore's 
bridsie, Kilkenny, to Arabella, dau. of the late 
Edward Godftey, and of the Dowager Countess 
of Morton, late of Old-hall, East Borgholt. 

May 27. At St. George's, Hanover-sq., Andrew 
Buchanan, esq., her Majesty's Envoy £xtr«torWi. 
nary and Minister Plenipotentiary at the Court of 
Denmark, to the Hon. Georgina Elixa Stuart, 
dau. of the late, and sister of the present, Lord 

June 1. At Sidmouth, Devon, the Hon. Wm. 
Arthur Hobart, son of the Rt. Hon. and Rev. the 
Earl of Buckinghamshire, to Marianne, dau. of 
the late Richard Kennet Dawson^ esq., of Friok- 
ley-hall, Yorkshire. 

At Ottery St. Mary, the Rev. A. P. Torquaod, 

Gent. Mao. Vol. CCIII. 

second son of the late William James Turqnand, 
esq., of the H.E.I.C. Bengal Civil Service, to 
Ellen Eyre, dau. of Uie Rev. Dr. Cornish, Vicar 
of Ottery St Mary. 

June 2. At|A^bby-de-la-Zonch, the Rev. John 
Denton, M.A., Incumbent of the Holy Trinity 
Church, Ashby-de-la-Zouch to Mary Ann Eliza- 
beth, third dau. of the Rev. Mr. Marmaduke 
Vavaffour, Vicar of Ashby-de-la-Zouch and eanon 
of Peterborough. 

At Handsworth, Chan. H. Halcomb, esq., of 
Woodhouse, Cheadle, Staffordshire, to Susanna 
Mary Frances, eldest dau. of the Rev. John 
Hand, Rector of Handswortii. 

At Clifton, Charles Mahon Tyndall, esq., bar- 
rister-at-law, to Louisa Miriam Sophia, eldest 
dau. of the late Ed. Tyndall, esq., Lieut. R.N. 

At Chiswick, Donald William Mackenxie, eso.. 
of Canton, China, son of the late Major Donald 
Mackenzie, Royal African Corps, to Ricarda 
Catherine, youngest dau. of the late Captain 
Richard Croker, R.N. 

Jufie 4. At Ban well, James Adeane Law, 
Captain Bengal Service, second son of the Rev. 
Chancellor and the Lady Charlotte Law, to Har- 
riette Ellen Blachley, third dau. of the Rev. W. 
H. Turner, Vicar of Ban well, Somerset, and 
grand-daughter of the late Dean of Norwich. 

At Charlton, Kent, John, onlv son of Wm. 
Kettlewell, esq., of Upminster, Essex, to Mar- 
garet Ma.s8on, eldest dau. oi Charles Sutherland, 
es |., of Lee, Kent. 

At St. Nicholas, Brighton, W. H. Somerton, 
esq., of Cotham-lodge, Bristol, to Eliaabeth, 
widow of C. A. Curtis, eeq., of Abingdon, Berks. 
At St. John's, Paddington, William W. Faw- 
oett, esq., eldest son of Col. Fawcett, of Craven- 
hill, to Caroline Elizabeth, only dau. of Robert 
Stafford, esq., Hyde-park-sq., and Millbank, 

At St. Pancras, John Arthur C^husac, esq., 
F.S.A., to Harriot, widow of the late Rev. T. 

At Clapham. John Bruce, esq., writer to the 
*' Signet," Edinburgh, to Jessie, third dau. of the 
late Robert Taylor, esq., of Broomland, in the 
Stewartry of Kukcudbright. 

At the Chapel of the British Embassy, Paris, 
George Harris, esq., H.M.'s Consul-General at 
Venice, to Ellen Henrietta, dau. of Daniel Mag- 
niac, esq. 

June 5. Prince Oscar of Sweden, bom in 1829, 
second son of the reigning monarch, to the Duke 
of Nassau's sister, bom in 1836. 

June 6. At Barnstaple, Cadwallader Edwards 
Palmer, esq., son of the late Very Rev. Joseph 
Palmer, Dean of Cashel, to Elizabeth, second 
dau. of the late Rev. Wm. Spurway, Rector of 
Clare Portion. Tiverton, and Alwington. 

At Ashwiok, Somerset, George Strachey, esq.. 
Attach^ to H.M.'s Legation at Stuttgart, to 
Georgiana, dau. of the late Richard Strachey, 
esq., of Ashwick-grove, Somerset. 

June 9. At All Souls', Langham-pl., the Rev. 
E. Spooner, son of the V. Archdeacon Spooner, 
to OcUvia, dau. of Sir Oswald Moslcy, Bart. 

At St. John's, Paddington, Grinham Keen, esq., 
of Serjeants'-Tnn, second son of tlie late William 
Keen, esq., of Godalming, to Mary, youngest dau. 
of the late Francis John Gunning, esq., of Cam- 

At Lacock, the Hon. Geo. Augustus Hobart, of 
the Bombay avil 8 rvice, son of the Earl of 
Buckinghamsh., to Jane, eldest dau. of bir John 
Wither Awdry, of Notion, Chippenham. 

At Kingswinford, Wordsley, Staffordsh., Wm. 
Terrell, e«j., of Clifton, Bristol, to Caroline 
Harriet, eldest surviving dau. of the late Samuel 
Girdlestone, esq., of the Middle Temple, Q.C. 

At St. James's Piccadilly, Capt.H. Byng, R.N.. 
of Quendon-hall. Essex, to Mary, eldest dan. of 
the late Lieut.-Col. Gubhins, C.B., of Belmont, 

June 10. At St. Ippolyt*8 Church, the Rev. 
Lewis Hensley, Fellow of Trinity Collegs, Cam- 


Marriages. — Clergy Deceased. 


bridge, and Vlear of Hitchin, Hertfordsh., to 
Margaret Isabella, only dau. of Andrew Amos, 
esq., of St. Ibb's. 

At Games Eskan, Dumbartonsb., Capt. Mid- 
dleton, 7ch Dragoon Guards, to Janet Hamilton, 
youngest au. of Colin Campbell, esq., of Colgrein. 

At Bishop's Hatfield, Herts. Capt. Alexander 
Wats 'n Mackensic, late 9l8t Highlanders, only 
■on of Thos. Mackenzie, esq., of Ord, Ross-sbire, 
to Angel Babington, eldest dau. of the late Bey. 
Benjamin Peile, of Bishop's Hatfield. 

Frederick, only son of Richard Webb, esq., of 
Donnington-hall, Hereford sh., to the Hon. Miss 
Fienne'i, youngest dau. of Lord Saye and Sele. 

At Liverpool, the Rer. Dr. Bateson, Master of 
St. John's C 'liege, Cambridge, to Anna, eldest 
dau. of Jas. Alkin, ef>q., of Liverpool. 

At Willesden, Capt. Charles C. Mason, 45th 
Begt., M.N. I., fifth son of the late Vice-Admiral 
Sir Francis Mason and the Hon. Seliua Lady 
Mason, to Lucy Eda, youngest dau. of the late 
William Holmes, esq., Kilrea, Ireland. 

June 13. At St. Nicholas' Church, Glamorgan* 
•hire, Capt. G. H. Browne, of the 88th Regt., 
only son of the Hon. Howe Browne, and nephew 
to Lord Kilmaine, to Louisa, youngest dau. of 
Adm. Sir George Tyler, of Cottrell, in the same 

At Heavitree, W. Henry Robinson, barrister- 
at-law, eldest son of the late Wm. Robinson, 
LL.D., of Tottenham, to Susannah, youngest 
dau. of the Rev. H. G. Salter, M.A.y of Hea^ 

June 16. At St. George's, Hanover-sq., Capt. 
Thomson, King's Dragoon Guards, Fon of the 
late Robert Thomson, esq., of Camphill, Ren- 
frewsh., to Fanny Julia, youngest dau. of Sir 
Henry Ferguson Davie, Bart., M.P., of Creedy- 

At Edinburgh, Capt. Wm. Abdy Fellowes, 
R.N., eldest son of the late Adm. Sir Thoe. Fel- 
lowes, C.B., to Hannah, only child of the late 
Harry Gordon, esq., of Knockespock, Aberdeen- 

June 17. At Padrlington, Major Wm. Rick- 
man, of the Dcpdt Battalion, Pembroke, and 
late of her Majesty's 77th Rofrt., to Mary Puls- 
ford, dau. of the Right Hon. W. G. llavter, M.P. 

At Barnet, George, third son of Robert Han- 
bunr, esq., of Poles, Hert^, to Mary, eldest dau. 
of John Trotter, esq., Dyrham-park, Herts. 


March 25. At Sierra Leone, the Rt. Rev. John 
William Weeka, D.D., Lord Bishop of Sierra 
Leone, havinjf only returned on the 17th from 
visiting the stations of the Yoruba Mission of 
the Church Missionary Society. The •• African," 
a Sierra Leone paper, of the 26th of March, 
gives the following account of the last moments 
of the departed bishop :— *• It is with a heavy 
heart that we have to annouce to our readers the 
death of the Right Rev. Dr. Weeks, which took 

?lace about a quarter to five yesterday morning, 
he hopes that were entertained that a return to 
his own home and the care of friends might con- 
tribute to restore his shattered frame have proved 
Tain. He gradually sank from the morning of 
his landing on the 17th inst , and yielded up his 
spirit in sure hope of seeing Him in whom he 
bad believed. A most touching incident occurred 
a few hours before his death. He was asked bv 
a friend, 'Is the Lord preciotis to your soulr 
A smile lit up the features that were already 
shewing the effects of approaching dissolution, 
when he deliberately spelt the word ' precious,' 
pronouncing each letter di.<*dncily, and then 
added very. They were the last words which he 
was heard, to speak, and soon after aU that was 
before the eyes of weeping friends was but the 
cold and earthly tabernacle of the departed 
spirit. His career as a bishop, however short, 
wai memorable. He had ettabUshed a oatlTe 

ministry. Seven naUve eateohists were admitted 
by him to the deaconate in this colony, and four 
in Abbeokonta. Bishop Vidal was only fourteen 
mon-hs in actual residence in his diocese. Bishop 
Weeks was some two months longer. The one 
was struck d )wn while yotmg and lull of life and 
hope ; the other had been a veteran in his Mas- 
ter's service, and is laid in the mid^t of those to 
whom his name had been as a household word." 
Mr. Weeks was for some years an active and 
zealotis missionary stationed in that part of the 
globe previously to being appointed to the vacant 
see. The climate, however, at length impaired 
his health, and he found it necessary to return to 
England for its restoration. Having recovered 
his former state of streng^th and vigour, he be- 
came minis er of St. Thomas's Church, in the 
Waterloo-road, Lambeth, a poor, ignorant, and 
most depraved neighbourhood, where his Chris- 
tian efforts proved most successful, and bis ami- 
able disposition and general benevolence won for 
him almost universal esteem. Here he con- 
tinued to labour for some time with unwearied 
diligence, until the Government about three 
years since offered him the Bishopric at Sierra 
Leone, which he at once accepted, and shortly 
afterwards departed upon his voyage to the fu- 
ture scene of his ministry, in which happy and 
glorious work he has now finished his course, 
and gone to his reward. 

April 21. At Rome, aged 38, the Rev. Sdward 
Thomas JCvane, B.A. 1845, M.A. 1848, Queens' 
College, Cambridge, P.C. of Llandudno (1850), 

AprilTA. The Rev. C. Moore^ of Monasterevan. 

April 25. At Llanegrin, aged 87, the Rev. 
Thomas Jones^ B.A. 1814, P.C, of Llanegrin 
(1814), Merionethshire. 

April 29. At Tan field Parsonage, aged 62. 
the Rev. William Simpson, P.C. of Tanfleld 
(1824), Durham. 

May 4. At Sontham, aged 81, the Rev. Utid 
Thomas, B.A. 1799, M.A. 1808, Grid College, 

May 6. Aged 56, the Rev. Wilmot Cave* 
Browne-Care, P.C. of St. Barnabas, Homerton, 
Hacknoy (1856), fourth son of the late Sir Wil- 
liam Cave-Browne-Cave, of Stretton-hall, Ashby- 

May 16. At Enmore, Somerset, aged 87, the 
Rev. John Poole, B.A., Brasenose, 1792, M.A. 
1794, Oriel College, Oxford, R. of Enmore (1796), 
and of Swainswick (1811), Somerset. 

Aged 48, the Rev. Hobert Spofforth, of Maricet 

May 18. At the Vicarage, Scottow, aged 57, 
the Rev. John Lubbock, B.A. 1824, M.A. 1827, 
Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, R. of 
Belaugh and V. of Scottow, Norfolk. 

Aged 79, the Rev. Richard Frost, for 57 yean 
the diligent, faithful, and beloved pastor of the 
Independent Church at Great Dtuunow, Essex. 

May 20. At Passenham Rectory^ Northamp- 
tonshire, aged 73, the Rev. Loratne Loraine^ 
Smith. The deceased gentleman was the only 
son of the late — Lorrame, esq., proprietor and 
lord of the manor of Enderby, in the eounty of 
Leicester, and descended ft*om an ancient family 
in the north of England, well known to all read- 
ers of English and Border history. Educated at 
Eton, and proceeding to the University, he ao« 
quired both a knowledge of and a taste for 
classical literature ; and, bestowing upon it his 
excellent abilities, he kept up his early acquire- 
ments, and maintained through them, in af er 
life, a congenial intercourse with many distin- 
gtdahed persons amongst the nobiUty and gentry, 
to whose society his fine commanding persoi^ 
elegant manners, amiability of disposition, and 
finished style of dress and eqtiipage, rather en- 
hanced thiui otherwise by its origflnality and 
eccentricity, gave a welcome xert. As a eotinty 
magistrate, he was active and serviceable in 
many respects, tempering lostioe with mercy, 
and ever keeping in mind tne pabUc good. Ae 


Clergy Deceased, 


a member of general society he was not only 
hospitable and generous, but will be long re- 
membered and missed, as one whose kindly dis- 
position led him to bring the different classes 
together at his social board, and to promote a 
friendly feeling among them. Heir ta a hand- 
some patrimony, and mixing from his youth in 
the higiiest rank of society, where the sports of 
the field were the leading objects of pursuit, he 
was amongst the number of those clergymen, — 
now fast disappearmg from among us, but sanc- 
tioned in a manner by the laitv of tho!*e days, — 
who prided themselves upon the merits of their 
" turnout," whether in the field or on the high 
road; and no one was more diatingui in this 
respect than the deceased. But in justice it 
may be said, that no man was ever mure at- 
tentive to the wants and sicknesses of his poor 
parishioners. Uaving long studied, and ac- 
quired gnreat skill in the healing art, he was 
most prompt and kind in visiting all cases of 
affliction in his parish, and tenderly applied 
with his own hands the remedies he had in store 
to tJle sores and wounds of his people. His re- 
mains were consigned to the earth on Thursday 
last, attende.i, at his expressed desire, by his 
immediate relations onlv; but the unusually 
dense assemblage of all ranks and conditions 
on the occasion, many of whom had requested 
permission to accompany his corpse to the grave, 
attested the large share of personal interest and 
regard that he had attracted to himself during a 
residence of more than forty years. The de- 
ceased gentleman has left a widow, and two 
daughters married to B. Lee Bevan and A. 
Fuller, esquires. 

At Bath, aged 89, the Bey. John Bayly^ late 
Vicar of ChUthome Domer, in the county of 
Somerset, and of St. Meryn, Cornwall. 

At Corfe Mullen, the Rev. McUthew McCohb^ 
who for the la»t eighteen years, as Chaplain of 
the Union Workhouse in wimbome, had been 
greatly beloved by the officers and inmates both 
for his marked humility and punctual attention 
to the performance of his religious duties at the 

At Southampton, aged 43, the £ev. Joseph 
Pechey^ Wesleyan Minister. 

At the Manse, Marykirk, aged 46, the B«t. 
Alex. C. LotCt Minister of the parish. 

May2\. The Yen. fFt//tam X^a/ty, Archdeacon 
of Killala and Rector of Moylough. 

May 22. At the Manse of Balmerino, Fife, aged 
60, the Rev. John TTwrmon, in the thirty-third 
year of his ministry. 

May 23. The Hev. Matthew Forde Smyth, 
P. C. of Rathmel (1855), Yorkshire. 

May 29. At Cockbum Bank, Bonnington, aged 
55, the Rev. Thomas CutlaVj Minister of East 
Anstruther, in the 14th year of his ministry. 

June 1. On board the mail steamer ** Jura," 
between Alexandria and Malta, aged 33, the Rev. 
John Pawley Pope^ B.A., assistant Chaplain on 
the Madras Establishment, fourth son of Mr. John 
Pope, of Gascoyne-terrace. 

June 2. Aged 42, the Rev. Edward Walker, 
B.A. 1839, M.A. 1842, Senior Fellow and for- 
merly Bursal of King's College, Cambridge. 

At' Mercury-house, near Brentford, of disease 
of the heart, aged 57, the Rey. Edward Trimmer, 
late of Putney, Surrey. 

June 8. At Bradford, the Rev. William Gear, 
For a period of twenty-five years he was minister 
of the Independent chapel in that town, which 
office be resigned about twelve months since. 

At Idlicot, Warwickshire, aged 86> the Rev. 
William Godfrey Huet, B.A. 1794, M.A. 1797, 
St. John's College, Cambridge, R. of Idlicot. 
(1840), Warwickshire. 

June 4, in College, aged 36, the Bev. Richard 
Watson, B.A. 1847, M.A. 1850, Vice- President 
and Tutor of Queen's College, and Senior Proctor 
of the University of Cambridge. 

At the Free Church Manse of Aldearne, the 
Bev. William Barclay. 

June 5. At the Beetory, aged 8S, the Ber. 
James Vavghan, B.A. 1798, M.A. 1804, Edmund 
Hall, Oxford, R. of Wraxhall, (1801), Somerset. 

In Edinburgh, aged 79, the Rev. George Jlagar, 
for many years Incumbent of the Episcopa; Chapel 
at Lonmay, Aberdeenshire. 

June 6. At the Rectoi y, Pewsey, Wilts, aged 72, 
the Hon. and Rev. Frederick Pleydell BouteHe, 
B.A., 1805, M.A. 1810, All Souls' College, Oxford, 
son of the second Earl of Radnor, Canon of Salis- 
bury (1826), R. of Pewsey (1816), Wilts, and R. of 
Whippingham (1826), Isle of Wight 

At Newbury, aged 64, the Rev. Hibbert Binney, 
DC.L., B.A. 1842, M.A. 1844, Worcester College, 
Oxford, R. of Newbury (1838), Berks, and Minis- 
ter of Trinity Chapel, Knightsbridge. 

At Winsford, 8omeri«e', the Rev. Bennett 
Michell,\ic&r of the said Parish, and a Magistrate 
for the county of Somerset. 

June 7. In Regent-st. aged 78, the Bev. Thos. 
Bersey, Wesleyan Minister. 

June 9. At the Vicaragf, Withington, aged 70, 
the Rev. William Walthall Greiton, B.A. 1810, 
Clare College, Cambridge, V. of Withington 
(1816,) Here ordsh ire. 

At Palgrave, Suffolk, aged 72, the Bev. William 
White Henchman, B.A. 1807, Pembroke College, 
Cambridge, late of Earl Soham, Suffolk. 

June 10. At Weston-super-Mare, aged 49, the 
"Rev.Bobert Lawson, B.A. 1839, M.A. 1842, Jet'US 
College, Cambridge, formerly B. of Moulton St. 
Michael, Norfolk. 

June 11. At Great Wratting, aped 76, the Bev. 
Thomas Blomfield Syer, for thirty-nine years 
Rector of Great and Little Wratting, and many 
years a Magistrate for the county of Suffolk. 

June 13. At the Rectory, Colchester, aged 65, 
the Rev. John Woodroof Morgan, B.A. 1814, 
M.A. 1817, University College, Oxford, R. of St. 
Giles, Colchester (1818). 

At Blaina-cottage, aged 64, the Rev. Daniel 
Bees, for thirty-four years the faithful and be- 
loved Incumbent of the Parish of Aberystruth, 
Monmouthshire. He was also Magistrate for the 
' euunty, and Deputy- Lieutenant. 

June 15. Aged 82, the Rev. Wm. Michael Lally, 
LL.B. 1803, Si. Peter's College, Cambridge, B. of 
Drayton Basset (1810), Suffordshire. 

June 18. At Slielton, in Cleveland, at an ad- 
vanced age, the Rev. Wm. Close, M.A., Inctmi* 
bent of that place and of Brotton for many years. 



Jan 3. In New Zealand, aged 23, Henry, second 
son of Sir Wm. Lawson, Bart., of Brou^h-hall, 
Yorkshire, unfortunately drowned while en- 
deavouring to save the life of his servant. 

Feb. 18. At Malta, George Hardy Appleton, 
esq.. Paymaster of H.M.S. "Centaur," son of 
the late George Thorpe Appleton, esq., R.N., of 
Homerton, Middlesex. 

March 1. At Bathurst, Australia, Robt. Fredk. 
Browne, esq., surgeon, formerly of V\ iUiam-st., 

March 14. By suicide. Gen. Stalker, and 
shortly afterwards Conmiodore Etheridge, the 
British commiinders in Persia. On the morning 
of the fatal occurrence, Gen. Stalker was cheerful 
and in good spirits. Shortly after rising he re- 
quested his aide-de-camp to load his pistols for 
him. Capt. Himtcr did so, and placed the wea- 
pons on the table in the General's tent, who then 
dressed and went over to the mess-tent to break- 
fast with Sir James Outram and Capt. Jones, the 
resident. After breakfast he wrote down his 
name in the mess-book with that of a guest lor 
dinner. Capt. Jones accompanied him to his 
tent, and sat with him a shoct time. There was 
then a weariness about his manner, which the 
Captain observed, and ascribed to the relaxing 
effects of the hot wind ; but, as his friend left, 
the General rose and shook hands with Mm *'lh 



r [July, 

his usoal hearty manner." Ten minutes later ho 
was a corpse. Such are the faets proved at the 
inquest, and such the evidence, as far as it bears 
upon the question of a dread of and a shrinking 
from responsibility. It should be added, bow- 
ever, that Captain Hunter speaks of observing 
much anxiety on the part of the General, derived 
A'om causes of a private nature. In the case of 
Commodore Etheridge. from entries in his own 

Journal, it plainly appears how unequal this im- 
brtunate officer was to the office which he filled. 
Two months before his death such notes as, ** My 
poor head is sadly confused. I have dreadfm 
attacks at times." A week before his death he 
writes, "I feel more and more my unfitness to 
command. I am broken down. M> head gone 
and the terrible responsibility I I shall make a 
mess of it." The fatal contagion of suicide has 
often been remarked. In this case its operation 
can scarcely be doubted. Before the camp had 
recovered the shock of General Stalker's death. 
Commodore Etheridge, too, had shot himself 
through the head. 

March 20. Off Rio de Janeiro, aged 15, Nevil 
Maskelyne, Navul Cadet of H.M.& '* Virago," and 
second >on of Henry Maskelyne, esq., of Farring- 
don, Berks. 

March 29. Aged 31, Anne, wife of Thomas 
Plant, esq., £1 worth-hall, near Sandbach. 

AirilS. At Hiiralcondah, Madras Presidency, 
of cholera, aged 37, Capt. Geoi^e Elliott Cotton, 
60tU Re^t. N.I., third son of the late Joseph 
Cotton, esq., of Woodford Bridge, Essex. 

April 8. On board the "Gosforth," on his 
passage home from India, Lieut.-Col. Pratt, 9th 

April 18. Suddenly, at Meerut, India, aged 
25, Thomas Palmer Hutton, of H.M.'s 6th D.G., 
which he had Joined but a few months, second 
«on of the Rev. Thomas Palmer Button, vicar of 
Sompting, Sussex. 

Aged 52, Mr. William Jarrold Ray, of Ipswich, 
Bufiolk. son of the late Shepherd Ray, esq., J. P., 
of the same town, by Miss Marianne Jarrold, of 
Norwich. By his wife, Mi^s Phebe Primrose, of 
Yarmouth, in Norfolk, he has left eight children ; 
who memorialize him, as '* a kind and devoted 
husband, and a fond and affectionate fatiier;" 
and one *' who will be much lamented, for, like 
his good father, he was always ready for every 
good work." 

April 25. Off Colon, on the Spanish Main, on 
board th'> W. Indian U.M. ship ** Dee, ' frum the 
effects of an accident, followed by yellow fever, 
aged 19, Arthur Gore Tarver, 5th Officer, eighth 
son of the late J. C. Tarver, esq., of Eton College. 

April 26. At Madeira, aged 45, Major Peter 
Lance Hawker, of Longparish-house, Hants, 
only son of the late Col. Peter Hawker. 

May 2. At Charlotte Town, Prince Edward's 
Island, the Hon. Capt. S. Rice, L.C., only son of 
the late J. Rice, esq., of Shoreham, Sussex. 

May i. Aged 68, His Highness the Prince de 
Bohan-Rohan-de Soubise, de Ventadour, &o. 

May 9. At Weston-super-Mare, Somerset, 
affed 14, Susan Mary, eldest dau. of the late 
Major Smith. 

At St. Catherine's, near Montreal, Canada, 
aged 82, Lieut.-CoL Maxwell, late of H.M's. 15th 

May 10. At Hulme, Manchester, aged 83, 
John Moore, esq., F.L.S., President oi the Royal 
Manchester Institution, and of tiie Manchester 
Natural History Society. 

At his seat in Hertfordshire, Rear-Admiral D. 
H. O'Brien. 

May U. In St. Michael's-terrace, aged 84, 
James Jenner, esq., late a clerk in Her Majesty's 
Dockyard, Devon|>ort. 

May 12. At Middicton, Suffolk, George Bandell, 
esq., formerly of the H.E.l.C.'s Service, Magis- 
trate and several times Mayor of the boroughs of 
Orford and Aldborough. 

In Smith-8t., ChelMa, aged 79, Sophia Sarah, 
relict of MiO<v Thos. St.Oeorga Lyatcr, lata of 

the 6th Dragoon Guards, and dan. of Lieut.-Gen. 
Henry Lister, of the Coldstream Guards. 

At Laira-green, aged 52, John Blake way, esq., 
late of Hall Grceen-hall, near Birmingham. 

May 13. At St. Heller's, Jersey, aged 83, 
Richard, third son of the late Lieut. -Col. D'Arcy, 
Royal Artillery, and Lady Catherine, sister of the 
present Earl De La Warr. 

At Hotham-hall, Yorkshire, William Ark- 
wriffht, esq. 

May 1 5. Emma Hamilton, wife of Thomas H. 
England, esq., of Smitterfield, Warwickshire. 

Sophia Elizabeth, wife of Major R. M. Poulden, 
late Royal Artillery, only dau. of the late Right 
Hon. Lady Sophia Foy, and of Lieut. Col. Foy, of 
the Royal Artillery. 

May 16. At Chiswick-honse, Charlotte, eldest 
dau. of the late Sir Thomas Windsor Hunloket, 
Bart., of Wingerworth-hall, Derby. R.l.P. 

At Cowbridge, Glamorganshire, aged 77, Col. 
William Henry Taynton, formerly of the 64th 

At Kettering, aged 72, Thomas Smith Wooley, 
esq., of CoUingham Manor, near Newark, an 
Assistant Tithe and Inclosure Commissioner. 

At Conduit-vale, Blackheath, aged 53, Lieut.- 
Col. Hort, late of the 8ist Regt. 

May 17. At her son's. Great Gransden, Hunts, 
aged 69, Ann, widow of Rev. Dr. Webb, Master 
of Clare Hall, Cambridge. 

May 18. Aged 77, Joseph Wardell, esq , of 
Salton-lodge, and late of Old Malton. 

At his residence, Newton-le-Willows, Laneash. 
aged 75, James Allen, esq., formerly of Old-hall, 
Strand, near Manchester. 

At Bathwick, Bath, aged 17, Louisa Margaret, 
eldest dau. of Lieut.-Col. £. H. Atkinson, 19th 
Madras N. I. 

At Cottingham, aged 42, Wm. Ritson Dryden, 
esq., solicitor, of Khigston-upon-Hull. 

At Henwick Orange, Worcestershire, aged 56, 
F. St. John, esq., youngest son of the late Rev. 
J. F. St. John, Prebendary of Wore. Cathedral, 
and grandson of the Hon. St. Andre waSt. John, 
D.D., Dean of Worcester. 

At Wereham-hall, Norfc^ aged 67, John 
Houchen, esq. 

At Haverhill, Suffolk, aged 49, Stephen, eldest 
son of tile late D. Gurteen, esq. 

Aged 59, Edw. Sex, esq., of Mount Pleasant- 
lodge, Upper Clapton, and of the Stock-Exchange. 

May 19. At Brighton, Elizabeth, wife of Thos. 
Wakley, eso., coroner for Middlesex. 

At his father's house, in Devonshire-pl., aged 
56, James Wm. Freshfleld, Jun., esq., of New 
Bank-bdgs., and of the Wilderness, Reigate. 

In Wimpole-st., Cavendish-sq., aged 70, Wm. 
Wallis, R.N. 

At Ashstead. Surrey, aged 77, Lieut.-Oen. 
John Chester, late of the Royal Art. 

At Lower Walmer, Deal, aged 64, Com. Wm. 
Batt, R.N. 

At Eastrv, Kent, aged 42, Sarah, fourth dan. 
of the late Wm. Fuller Boteler, esq., Q.C. 

At the residence of Field Uppleby, esq., Lin- 
coln, aged 37, Jonathan Field, esq., of l<aoeby, 

At Whitley, aged 57, Emma, relict of Wm. 
Bishop, esq., of Sbelton-hall, Stafford. 

May 20. At his residence, Bournemouth, 
Hants, aged 69, Major-Gen. Wm. Daniel Jones, 
late of the Royal Artillery. 

At King's Lvnn, aged 81, Rebecca, wife of 
Lewis Weston Jarvis, esq., solicitor. 

May 21. In St. James s-pl., Thomas, eldest son 
of the late T. Hodgscm, esq., of Wanstead, Essex. 

Aged 64, George Davey, esq., of Overy, Dor- 
chester, Oxon. 

John Cruitenden, esq., of Robertsbrldge, Sus- 
sex, eldest »>n of the late John Cruttenden, esq., 
of Salehurst, Sussex. 

At Brighton, aged 63, Benjamin Laurence, esq. 

At Brocklands, Havant, aged 64, Henry B. 
Ward, esq., last snrriving son of the late George 
Ward, esq., of Northwooo-park, Isle of Wight^ 




May 23. At Hendon. aged 54, Henry Walker, 
e5q., H.E.I.C. Service, late Professor of Physio- 
logy and Comparative Anatomy in the Calcutta 
Medical College, and formerly Surgeon to the 
Gov.-6en. Lord Hairdinge. 

Suddenly, at the University Club, aged 65, 
D. A. S. DavieSj esq., M.P. for Carmarthenshire. 
He was a bamster-at-law, and for many years 
chairman of the Cardiganshire Quarter Sessions. 
He was first returned for Carmarthenshire in 
1842. In politics he was a Conservative, and he 
▼oted against the Government on the subject of 
the Chinese war. 

At Falmouth, aged 71, John Hill, esq., Com- 
mander R.N. 

May 23. Suddenly, at Paignton, Jane, widow 
of John Dulhunty, esq., for many years surgeon 
of the Royal Naval Hospital at Plymohtb. 

Aged 42, Thos. Micklethwaite, esq., Banister- 
at-Law, and Poor Law Auditor for the West 
Yorkshire Audit District, and formerly proprie- 
tor and editor of the ** Wakefield Journal and 

Near Paris, the celebrated mathematician, M. 

Awed 88, Charles Emile Laurent, esq., one of 
the Musical Directors of the Argyll Rooms, Lon- 
don, and Member of the Royal Society of Musi- 

May 24. At the Elms, Ham-common, aged 43, 
John Arthington Leathara, esq., barrister-at-law, 
eldest son of the late William Leatham, esq., of 
Wakefield, banker. 

May 25. At Tivoli-place, Cheltenham, Ralph 
Gore, esq., Lieut. R.N., son of the late W. Gore, 
esq.. Chairman of the Stamp Office, Dublin, and 
of the family of Lord Arran, Ireland. 

At his residence, Napier- villa. East Greenwich, 
aged 67, James M'Carthy, esq. 

In Cecil-sq., Margate, Mary Ann, wife of Major 
T. Armstrong, and only dau. of John Slater, esq. 

At Portland-place, Mary, wife of Samuel Ware, 
esq., of Hendon-hall, Hendon, Middlesex. 

May 26. At Albury, of disease of the heart, 
aged 62. the Dowager Lady Gifford, widow of the 
learned Judge and first Baron, who held succes- 
sively the high appointments of Solicitor and 
Attorney-General, Lord Chief Justice of the Com- 
mon Pleas, and Master of the Rolls. She was the 
dau. of the Rev. Edw. Drewe, and married in 
1816 the late peer, by whom (who died in Sep- 
tember, 1826) her ladyship had issue the present 
peer, three other son?, and two dau;;hters. 

At Curzon-st., aged 87, Lady Mary Singleton, 
widow of Mark Singleton, esq., and dau. of the 
first Marquis Cornwallis. 

At Cawstone Grange, Rugby, Alicia, wife of 
Wm. Liggins, esq., and only child of the late 
Wm. Sutton, esq., Whitehall, near Dunchurch. 

At Cheltenham, Lieut -Col. James Delancey, 
late of the 1st Dragoon Guards. 

Suddenly, at Great King-st., Edinburgh, aged 
65, Robert Thomson, esq., advocate, Sheriff of 

May 27. At his residence, Bankhead, Forfar, 
Chas. Dickson, esq., advocate, Sheriff-Substitute 
of Forfarshire. 

At the Elms, Torquay, Louisa Mary, eldest 
dau. of the late Rev. Spencer Madan, Vicar of 
Batheaston and Twerton, Somerset, and Canon 
Besidentiary of Lichfield Cathedral. 

At Clevedon, aged 32, John Brettell, eldest son 
of the late Edw. Causer, esq., of Greenfield-house, 

At Bamingham, aged 84, Bessy, only dan. of 
the late George Hobson, esq., of Middleham, and 
widow of the Rev. Samuel Swire, D.D., formerly 
Rector of Melsonby and Barningham, in the 
county of York. 

At Welliiigton-road, St. John's- wood, Frances, 
widow of Peter Levett Hurst, formerly of Pet- 
worth, Sussex. 

At the Rectory, Marian, the wife of the Rev. 
C Fax Chawner, M.A., Rector of Bletchingly, 

May 28. At Tandridge Priory, Godstone, aged 
79, Robert Welbank, esq., Capt. m the H.E.I.C.8., 
and one of the Elder Brethren of the Corporation 
of the Trinity-house, London. • 

At Bath, aged 87, Lieut.-Col. Tatton, late of 
her Majesty's 77th Regt. 

At his residence, Oray's-inn-place, aged 82, 
Joseph Smith, esq., barrister-at-law, F.R S. and 
F.L.S., for upwards of fifty years an inhabitant 
of Gray's-Inn. 

In Portugal-st., Grosvenor-sq., Sarah. Dowager 
Lady Dillon Massy, relict of Sir Hugh Dillon 
Massy. Bart., of Doonass, co. Clare, Ireland. 

At Ruislip, near Uxbridge, aged 83, William 
Wood, esq., F.R.S. and L.S. 

At Jedburgh, Alexander Anderson, esq., M.D. 

May 29. At Clarendon-pl., Plymouth, Eliz., 
eldest dau. of the late James Bleazby, esq., of 
Dumford-st., Stonehouse. 

At Cambridge, aged 37, George Brimley, esq., 
M.A., Librarian of Trinity College. 

At his residence, Bache-hall, near Chester, 
Robert Broadhurst Hill, esq. 

At Swynnerton-hall, Francis Fitzherbert, esq., 
youngest brother of the late Thomas Fitzherbert, 
esq., of Swynnerton-hall. - 

At Liverpool, aged 32, Wm. Reid, eldest son 
of Wm. Charles Lempriere, esq., of Ewell, 

Suddenly, at Hastings, aged 71, Lieut-Gen. 
Charles Rarasa^r Skardon, H.E.I.C.S., of Lans- 
down-ter.. Nutting-hill. 

Aged 59, George Cheveley, of Colchester, third 
son of the late Richard Dodson Cheveley, for- 
merly of Messing-lodge, in the co. of Essex, and 
latterly of Liverpool. 

At Albanv-st., Edinburgh, Jane Wilkinson 
Massiah, wife of Wm. Ivory, esq., advocate. 

May 30. At Westboume-park-pl., aged 78, 
John Lodwick, esq., J.P. and Deputy-Lieut, for 
the couniy of Essex. 

Suddenly, at Bedford-pl., Russell-sq., London, 
Jane Matilda, wife of Mr. Sergeant Miller. 

At Bournemouth, aged 20, Robert E. Stnart, 
eldest son of the Hon. and Rev. Andrew Godfrey 

John Dodd, esq., of Chenies, Bucks. 

May 31. At Shanbally-castle, aged 83, the 
Right Hon. Viscoimt Llsmore. By his lordship's 
marriage with the Lady Eleanor Butler, dau. of 
the Marquis of Ormonde, he leaves two surviving 
children, the Lady Dunally and Hon George 
Ponsonby, present viscount, married to Mary, 
second dau. of the late Mr. John George Norbnry, 
and has two sons, Hon. Gerald, bom Nov. 3, 
1847. and Hon. Wilfred Ormonde, bom Nov. 14, 

At Walton Rectory, Sophia Mary, wife of the 
Rev. J. G. Hickley, and dau. of the late Sir A< 
Hood, Bart. 

Majo'-Gen. Cassius Matthew Johnson, Bur- 
leigh Field, near Loughborough. 

At Brighton, Chas. Edmund Rnmbold, esq., of 
Preston Candover, Hants, late M.P. for Yar- 

Lately, at Brixton, of apoplexy, aged 76, Chas. 
Boyd, esq., late Surveyor-Gen. of Her Majesty's 
Customs for the United Kingdom, and formerly 
Corarai»sioner in Ireland, after fifty years' active 
service. The deceased was great-grandson of the 
fourtii and last Earl of Kilmarnock. 

Aged 82, Mary, wife of Samuel Cooper, of 
Brierley-hill, Warwickshire. The deceased had 
been married and lived with her husband neariy 
sixty-three years, and has left behind her ten 
children, ijeventy-two grand-children, and forty- 
three great grand-children. This is the first 
death that has occurred in her immediate ^jamily 
for fi'ty years. 

Recently, at Rome, Baron Gazioli. Baron 
Gazioli arrived at Rome as a journeyman baker, 
with seventeen baiocchi (sous) in his pocket, but, 
by his talents in business, in a few years amassed 
a colossal fortune, and at his death left one of the 
largest fortunes in Rome. In memory of the 




■eventeen baioechi of capital with vbioh he com- 
menced, he has held that number in veneration. 
He had seventeen farms, seventeen houses, and 
seventeen different kinds of investment of monev. 

June 1. At Bedlay-house, Lanarksh., aged 73, 
Mrs. Mary Craig, vridow of Jas. Christie, esq., 
and elder dau. of the late Thos. Craig, esq., some- 
time of Nantwich, Cheshire. 

At Orove-hall, 8tratford-le-Bow, Middlesex, 
aged 46, Byron Aldham, fourth son of the late 
cStpt. Gfeorge Aldham, R.N. 

At Old Trafford, Manchester, Elizabeth, wife 
of the Bev. Thos. Buckley, M.A., eldest dau. of 
the late Jonathan Akroyd, esq., of Woodside, 
Halifax, and sister of Edw. Akroyd, esq., M.P. for 

At his residence, Sussex-sq., Hyde-park, aged 
72, Wm. Wilber force Bird, esq. 

At Edinburgh, Margaret W. Johnstone, wife of 
Mr. Isaac Anderson, Solicitor, Supreme Courts of 

After a short and severe illness, aged 46, Henry 
Frauds Metcalf, esq.. Grove-lodge, New-park- 
road, Stockwell. 

Juns 2. At Hastings, aged 62, Wm. Hanunond, 
esq., of Camden-road-villas, and Si ott's-yard, 
London, and Exning. Suffolk, a Magistrate for 
the county of Middlesex, and for upwards of 
forty years a respectable merchant of the ciiy of 
London. The deceased was said to be one of the 
last lin«il descendants of Shakspeare. 

At Mount Annan, Dumfriesshire, aged 62, 
lieut.-Col. Dirom, late Grenadier Guards. 

At his residence, the Minories, Newcastle-upon- 
Tvne, aged 79, Wm. Armstrong, esq., Alderman 
of the Borough. 

At Park-village-west, aged 23, Caroline Ann, 
wife of K. B. Baxendale, esq., and dau. of Major 
Durroch, of Gouroch, N.B. 

At Paradise-sq., Sheffield, aged 67, Henry 
Broomhead, esq., solicitor. 

At ber residence, Highbury-ter., Maria, relict 
of the late Rev. John Yockney. 

At his residence, Highbury-pl., London, aged 
76, Richd. Ramsdcn, esq. 

At Brompton, Annie Blanche, wife of Capt. 
Henry Shakespeare, 25th Regt. N.I., and Com- 
mandant of the Nagpore Irregular Force. 

At her residence, Lansdown-cottages, Lower- 
road, Islington, aged 84, Mary, wife of^the late 
James Edwards, esq., of Wornlley, Herts. 

In Paris, Oliver Rajrmond, second surviving 
Bon of Samuel M. Raymond, esq., of Belcamp- 

June 3. At the residence of his daughter-in- 
law, East-hill, Colchester, aged 78. Edward Blair, 
esq., late Capt. of the 3rd Regt. (Buffs), and 
Mtgor in the Portuguese Service. 

At his residence, Southwell, Notts, aged 68, 
Wm. S. Leacroft, esq. 

At Windror, aged 73, Charles Montagu Snow- 
den, esq., J. P. 

At Weston, near South Shields, aged 62, Sarah, 
wife of Rev. Wm. Ives, Yicar of HaltwhisUe, 

June 4. At Warwick-hall, Cumberland, aged 
74. Mary, widow of Thomas Parker, esq. 

At Kinnaird, Fifeshire, aged 88, John Pitcaim, 
esq., of Kinnaird. 

Aged 51, Eleanor Judith, wife of Thomas 
Browne, late of Amble-house, in Northumberland. 

At the Parsonage, Speenhamland, Berks, aged 
21, John Edward, elaest son of the Rev. J. A. 
Deverell Meakin. 

June 5. At Brixton, Surrey, aged 37, Louisa 
Esther Bardouleau. youngest dau. of the late 
Ren6 Bardouleau, esq., formerly of Combe Piiory, 
Donhead St. Mary, Wilts. 

At Send.grove, near Guildford, Surrey, aged 
78, George Rickards. esq. 

Ai his house, in Porcbester-ter., aged 52, Wil- 
liam HoUowav, eso., of Lincoln's-Inn. 

June 6. At Woolpit Parsonage, aged 87, 
Dorothy, widow of the Rev. Spencer Cobbold, 
late Rector of that pariah. 

At Leeswood, near Mold, the seat of his bro- 
ther, J. Wynne Eyton, esq., aged 63, Capt. W. 
W. Eyton. R.N., who commenced his naval 
career with the batt'e of Trafalgar. 

At Croydon, aged 77, Sarah, for 52 years the 
beloved wife of Henry Siedall. esq. 

At Brighton, aged 56, Henry Cobb Cornwall, 
esq., formerly at Kensington and Bamard's-inn. 

Aged 55, Elizabeth Jane, wife of George R. 
Gainsford. esq., of Regency-sq , Brighton. 

Aged 69, Daniel Olney, esq., of Tring. 

June 7. At Pau, Basses Pyrenees, aged 39, 
John Mercer, esq., of Maidstone, banker. 

At Acomb, near York. Jane, relict of Lieut. 
Clarkson, and dau. of the late Francis Bulmer, 
sen., esq., of York. 

At Northumberland-st, Edinburgh, John Mur- 
ray, esq., S.S.C. 

At Siddington Rectory, Gloucestersh., Mary, 
Elizabeth, wife of Jas. C. Fyler, esq., of Heffleton, 
Dorset, and of Woodlands. Surrey. 

At Borstal, Kent, aged 28, Matilda, wife of the 
Rev. W. Dawson, curate of Cooling. 

At Barrymore-house, Wargrave, Berks, Richd. 
Searle Newman, esq., formerly of Kingston, 

At Prospect-pl., Deal, aged 74, Sarah, wife of 
G. CurUng, esq. 

June 8. At Ferham-house, Yorkshire, Uie re- 
sidence of Wm. F. Hoyle, esq., aged 85, Mary 
Elizabeth, eldest dau. of the late Capt. William 
Grave, R.N., of Bristol. 

At Teignmouth. Harriet, eldest dau. of the late 
Wm. Baring Gould, esq., of Lew Trenchard. 

At Beaminster, agea 83, Frances Lre Way, 
widow of Holies Bull Way, esq., ot Bridport. 

Aged 91, Mrs. Jane Bolland, relict of James 
BoUand, esq. 

June 9. At Park-st., Bath, aged 60, Frances, 
widow of the Rev. W. Greenlaw, late Rector of 
Woolwich, Kent, and second dau. of the late Sir 
R. Baker, of Montague-place, Russell-Square, 

At Dorset-sq., Agnes, relict of John Ritchie, 
esq., of Liverpool, and dau. of the late Walter 
Ritchie, esq., of Greenock. 

Aged 21, Alfred Wm. GiUing. only and beloved 
child of Alfred and Anne Bigg, late of Clifton, 
near Bristol. 

At Shandwick-pl, Edinburgh, Magdalene, wife 
of Alex. Jas. Russell, C.S. 

At Tichfield-ter., Regent's-park, aged 63, Dr. 

At Stainsby-house, near Derby, aged 58, Chas. 
John SitwcU, esq., youngest son of the late E. S. 
W. Sitwell, esq. 

At Leamington, John Brown, esq., late of 

June 10. At Grove-hill, Dedham, aged 72, 
Anna Maria, widow of John Wilkinson, esq. 

At the Rectory, Pcwsey, Wilts, aged 29, Dun- 
combe Pleydell Bouverie, Capt. 63rd Regt., 
youngest son of the late Hon. and Rev. Fredk. 
Pleydell Bouverie, Rector of Pewsey. 

Aged 91, Mary, relict of Joseph Neeld, esq., of 
OlouccHter-pl., Portman-sq. 

At Hickling, Norfolk, aged 80, Storer Ready, 

Richel, widow of Capt. Simon Fish, of South- 

June II. At her residence. Tavistock-pl., Ply- 
mouth, aged 62, Elizabeth, relict of Lieut. Mat- 
thew Hay, R.N., and mother of James B. Hay, 
esq.. Paymaster, R.N., and John Hay, esq.. 
Paymaster, R.N. 

At New-court^ near Roes, Herefordshire, aged 
40, John Gwatkm Brown, esq. 

At Boulogne-sur-Mer, Emma, wife of the Rer. 
James Bewsher. 

At St. Mary's, Colchester, aged 87, Anne, 
widow of William Mason, esq., of Colchester. 

June 12. At her house, in Chesham-pl., aged 
71, the Hon. Mrs. Da«son Darner, relict of Hon. 
Henry Dawson Damer, and mother of the Earl 
of Portarlington. 




June 13. Yiscotintess Gage was suddenly seized 
with an alarming symptom of apoplexy, and not- 
withstanding the promptest medical attendance, 
expired at twenty minutes after ten o'clock. The 
lamented lady was, to all appearance, in the en- 
joyment of her usual health up to the moment of 
the attack. The deceased Vi((C0un'e8<( was eldest 
daughter of the late Hon. Edward Foley, brother 
of the first Lord Foley, and was bom March 5, 
1793. Her ladyship married, March 8, 1813, 
Yiscoimt Gage, by whom her ladyship leaves 
issue two sons and four daughters. Lord and 
Lady Foley, Lady Emily Foley, Admiral Sir Wm. 
H. Gage, the Hon. Mr. and Mrs. S. Vereker, and 
other families are placed in mourning by this 

Aged 67, Sarah, wife of Matthew Bridges, esq., 
of Chesterhill-house, in the county of Gloucester. 

At the house of her son-in-law. Gun-wharf, 
Portsmouth, aged 44, Caroline Elizabeth Barlow, 
widow of the late Charles Winkworth, jun., esq., 
late of H.M.'s Customs, London. 

June 14. At Brussels, aged 30, Martha Ann, 
second dan. of Robert Marriott, esq., late of 

At Vassall'^ottages, Addison-road, Kensington, 
James Home Renton, esq. 

At Belle- Vue-cottage, Folkestone, aged 63, John 
Craxford, esq. 

June 15. At his residence, Marlborongh-hill, 
St. John's-Wood. aged 67, A. Rivolta, esq. 

At Lathallan-house, Mrs. Sophia Lindsay 
Lumsdaine, relict of James Lumsdaine, esq., of 

At his residence at Oxford-ter., Clapham-road, 
Thomas Owen, esq., solicitor, Bucklesbury. 

In Best-lane, Canterbury, aged 76, the wife of 
the Rev. Joseph Wilson. 

June 16. At Brompton-sq., Harriet Elizabeth, 
wife of William Farren, esq. 

At her residence, Mount Radford, Exeter. 
aged 60, Elizabeth, relict of Commissary-General 

At Lewisham-house, Kent, John Frederick 
Parker, esq. 

At Kingston-on-Thames, aged 61, Samuel 
Mason, esq. 

June 17. At Plymtree, aged 56, Anne, eldest 
dau. of the Rev. Daniel Veysie, late Rector of 
Plymtree, and Prebendary of Exeter Cathedral. 

At Howdon, aged 53, George Hassel Huntley, 
esq., surgeon. 

At Newton-house, Sturminster Marshall, aged 
19, James, eldest son of James Tory, esq. 

June 18. At New Swindon, Wilts, aged 35, 
Minard Christian Rea, youngest son of the late 
Rev. Joseph C. Rea, of Christendom, co. Kil« 
kenny, Ireland. 

(From the Seturtu issued hy the Hegistrar- General.) 

Week ending 







Deaths Registered. 
















Births Registered. 




Average ^ Wheat, 
of Six > #. d. 
Weeks J 57 11 
Weekendingl , 
June 13. /60 ] 



9. d, 

38 9 1 


9, d. 

25 2 

26 5 


9. d, 




9, d. 

43 6 

44 3 


9, d, 
41 4 

1 42 11 


Hay, 3/. 0*. to 4/. 0*.— Straw, 1^. 5*. to \L 8*.— -Oover, 4/. to 4>L 17*. 6d. 

HOPS.— Weald of Kent, Zl 5*. to 4i.>.— Mid., and East Kent, Zl 10*. to U, 12#. 

To sink the Of&l — per stone of 81hs. 

Head of Cattle at Market, Juve 22. 

Beasts 4,240 

Sheep 27,600 

Calves 402 

Rgs 280 

COAL-MARKET, Jukb 22. 
Wallsend, &c., per ton. 15*. ^d, to 17*. Other sorts, 12*. ^d. to 15*. 3d. 

TALLOW, per cwt.— Town Tallow, 60*. Zd, 
WOOL, Down Tegs, per lb., 18<2. to IS^c^. Leicester Fleeces, \hd. to 16i. 

Beef 3*. Od, to 4*. 4ci. 

Mutton 4*. 0<f . to 4*. 8<2. 

Veal 35. 8<i. to4*. %d. 

Pork 3*. 8d. to 4*. %d. 

Lamb 5*. 2d, to 6*. 2d, 

Ih>m May 21 to Jaitt 23, inelnriw. 











































cloudy, fine 







do. clondy 













do. do. 













































do. f^ 







do. ahowert 







do. do. 






















cidy. Tain, iaii 












do. fine 
























do. do. 






wy. rain, fur 



















Ei. Blllt 

Ei. Bond*. 









92 J 












221 i 

4. fl. pm. 

*: 7.' IZ 
4. 7. ptn. 

2 pm. 
2. 6. pm. 
2. 6. poi. 
2. 4. piu. 

1. 2. di^ 



2.di.. par. 
6. .1. din. 
5. di«. par. 
3. di«. par. 
3. dU. par. 
3.du. par. 












4 ail. 
4 dig. 















Stock and Share Broken, 

17, Change Alley, Lgn 





AUGUST, 1857. 



MINOR CORRESPONDENCE.— Thomas Brookn, the Nonconfbnnist— Tablet to the Memory 

of Mr. Stowe—Introdaction of Christianity into Britain 106 

Thom&B De Quincey 107 

On some Curious Forms of Sepulchral Interment found in East Yorkshire 114 

The Chronicle of FabiusEthelwerd 120 

Chappell's Popular Music of the Olde n Time 132 

Poste*8 Britannia Antigua ^^^^^^H^y,- • • -V ^^ 

The Archives of Simancas J^^^M&^ii^^ 152 

The Life of George Stephenson l|0....^^^^',^....,....> 159 

Church Restoration, alias Destmp(lion;**;7.\w«...iv.i, 169 

Lee's History of Tetbury \.rc**v:vK..;*.#.,ivi' 171 

CORRESPONDENCE OF SYLVANUS TFttBAJt-^llss's "Reliqniie Heamianae," 174; 
Burgh-Ie-Marril and the Neighbourhood, Lincolnshire, 177 ; Worcestershire Notes, 
180 ; Birchanger Church, 182 ; Shakespeariana 183 

HISTORICAL AND MISCELLANEOUS REVIEWS.-Schiem's Historiske Studier, 183 ; 
Theiner's Annales Ecclesiastici, 186 ; Blaokie's Comprehensive History of England— 
Carthew's Town we Live in— Encyclopeedia Britannica— Bohn's libiaries, 187 ; Ox- 
ford Pocket Classics— Lambert's Amusing Library— Freeland's Lectures and Misoel- 
lanies — Philosophy of Shakspeare— Reed's Lectures— Pictures of the Heavens — Bo- 
hun's Diary— Sedgwick's Married or Single, 188 ; Walton's lives— Grove's Echoes 
from Egypt— Pusey on the Real Presence -Woodgate's Anomalies in the English 
Church, &c., 189 ; Keble on Divorce— Bp. Armstrong's Sermons, and the Pastor in his 
Closet— Bp. of Oxford's Sermon— Lee's Sermon, 190 ; Cooke's Sermon— Chase's Sermon 
—Boucher's My Parish— The Fatner's Hope— Tracts on Copftrmation— Stories for 
Young Servants— Wantage Report— Claughton's Questions on the Gospels— Farmer's 
Wise to Win Souls 191 

ANTIQUARIAN RESEARCHES.— British Archaeological Association— Surrey ArchiBolo- 
8:ical Society, 192 ; Architectural Museum, 194 ; Oxford Architectural Society, 197 ; Kil- 
kenny and South-East of Ireland Archaeological Society, 198 ; ArchaBolc^cal Excursion 
to Normandy, 199 ; The Merovingian Cemetery at tbe Chapel of St. Eloy, 200 ; Dis- 
covery of Roman Remains at Plaxtol, Kent— Numismatics 201 




OBITUARY— with Memoirs of the Duke of Marlborough, 214 ; Earl of Momington, 215 ; 
Hun. General Anson, 216: Admiral Sir Robert Bromley, Bart.— Admiral BuUen, 217; 
Rev. Joseph and Richard Mendham, 218; Archdale Palmer, Esq.— Germain La vie, 
Esq., 219; Anna Gumey, 220 ; Hon. W. L. Marcey— M. B6ranger 221 


Deaths, arranged in Chronological Order 224 

Meteorological Diary— Registrar-General's Return of Mortality in the Metropolis— Markets 232 



THOMAS BROOKS, THE silent under all chnnj^es that have or may 

NONCONFORMIST. pass upon them in this world, &o. ; lately 

Mb. Ubban,— Can you or any of your pn«»te(l, and dedicated to aU afflicted, dis- 

readers inform me where any ihforma- tressed, dissatisfied, disquieted, and dis- 

tion is to be obtained respecting " Master composed Christians thorowout the world." 

Thomas Brooks," who, twp centuries ago, _ The fifth of these works, the " String of 

V as "Preacher of the Gospel at Margaret's, ^^earls, is in my possession, and displays 

New Fish-street ?" He was the author of ™^<^^ learning and ability. " Margaret's," 

the following works, print, d and " sold by ^ presume, was the Puritan form of styling 

John Hancock, at the first shop in Pope's- " S"^°* Margaret's." W. D. 

head Alley, next to ComhiU." Philadelphia, 

1. "Precious Remedies against Satan's 

Devices ; or Salve for Beleevers and Unbe- Mb. Ubban, — A tablet to the memory 

leevers : being a Companion for those that of Mr. Stowe has recently been erected in 

are in Chi-ist, or out of Christ, that sleight the Chapel of Oriel College, Oxford, with 

or neglect Ordinances, under a pretence of the following inscription : — 

living above them; that are growing in " Sacred to the Memory of 

spirituals or decaying, that are tempted or Mr. Hxioit 8tow«, FeUow of this CoUege, 

deserted, afflicted or opposed, that have who lefc iu walls in Febmarv. 1855,, that he 

assurance or without it ; on the second of Jnight distribute the boanty of his coimtrymen 

Corinthians thn Rpcnnd and thp plpvpnf h " ^ ministering to the wants of the army in the 

o .rS • ^^^ ^^ '^"e eieventn. Crimea; and died at Balaclava on the 20th of 

2. "Heaven on Earth: or a serious June in the same year, aged 80 years. 
Discourse, touching a well-grounded As- " A few of his friends have erected this mona- 
.urance of men', everla.tmg h.ppin^s and .^S't ta'tewTSS h,r«br.«^t Sd 
blesselness, dtscovenng the nature of As- whose death is associated with events of deep 
Burance, the possibility of attaining it, the interest in the history of this country." 
causes, springs, and degrees, with the reso- 
lution of several weighty questions on the INTRODUCTION OP CHRISTIANITY 
8th of Romans, 32, 33, 34 verses. INTO BRITAIN. 

8. " The UnseMrchable Riches of Christ : ^^ ,t^_ „ t . , „ „. ' - i-^. 

or Meat for Strong Men and Milk for ^^' F^^^^""^'' *S® "History of Dis- 

Babes, held forth iS two-and-twenty Ser- ??^^"' ^J^'^'^lu^"! J""?. ®!i"!^ 

mon., from Ephesians iii. 8, preached on w?i,"S^^%w 1^ .1?*^?"*^ <^ *^« 

his Lecture-ni^hts at Fish-str^t HiU." 7^^^ TViads, that Chnrtianity was thus 

4. « Apples of Gold for Young Men and }^^^^^ '^^ u rt ' ^^^''^^S? 

Women, ^d a Crown of Glory for Old ^">g .jonq^^ed by the Romans, was with 

Men and Women: or the happiness of ^ T^J^^ *"4 ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^ ^""^^^ ?™°; 

being good betimes, and the honour of ««^^Ptive to Rome, where thjy heard 

beini an Old Disciple, clearly and fully *^^ Gospel. Bran and »ome othen be- 

discoursed, and closely and fJthfhlly ap- ??°!« ^"^^^, \^^J^^?' ^^ ^ 

plied." *'^®'' return to England, introduced it 

6. "A Strinjr of Pearls- or the Best ^®^®' "*^ Cyllin, the son of Caractacus, 

Things reserved till kst • delivered in a ** te«^e^ St. Cyllin— Eigen, the daughter. 

Sermon preached in London, June 8, 1657, ^S» *^« ^ ^^*4^ [«™"^« ^^' ™» 

at the Funeral of (that triumphant saint) ??^^« ^?™l^y *» ""'^^ ^J®/?^""*^i^J° 

MUtris Mary Blake, late the wife of his ^"^^J^ ^^^ seventeenth (?) year of the 

worthy friend Mr. Nicholas Blake, Mer- ^"^ V^,.«*^ ^ ^»^« ^'^^^^l "^^ 

chant * ^ ^ * Christian Jew, and Cyndav, a 

6. "The Silent Soul; with Sovereign ^'^^^f' ^ propagate the Go8peL»--CaQ 

Antidotes against the most miserable Exi- fj^ Pj l?^ ^^^" »."^^"^ "^« ^^^ »^- 

gents : or A CTiristian with an Olive-leaf *'^*'"*^ *^^^ ^« ^f *^ statement ? 

in his Mouth, when he is under the great- ^j, ,. ^^^^ **^ ^^' Cabteb. 

est afflictions, the sharpest and sorest trials -LntoUn, 
and troubles, the saddest and darkest pro 

vidences and changes ; with answers to di- *#* It is requested that the Tiile-poffe for 

vers Questions and Objections, that one of Vol. CCII, given with this mmtber nuof 

g^eateit importance, all tending to win be substituted for that given in last 

and work souls to be still, quiet, calm, and month's. 






Thirty- SIX years ago, within a month or two, the reading public were 
delighted and perplexed by an article from a new contributor, which had 
appeared in two consecutive numbers of the '' London Magazine.'' Just 
at that time the '' London" was amongst the most popular and prosperous 
of monthly periodicals, and it well deserved its reputation and success. 
Its celebrated editor, John Scott, had indeed fallen in a duel six months 
before ; but there still remained amongst the writers whom he had enlisted 
in the work, men as able as Carey, Cunningham, Hazlitt, and Charles 
Lamb, who were contributing to it some of their most powerful and charm- 
ing compositions. Even in this company the new contributor's article was 
held to distance all competitors both in brilliancy and depth ; and even the 
masculine vigour of the '* Table-Talk," and the inimitable delicacy of 
" Elia's Essays," were slighted for awhile in the tumultuous burst of appro- 
bation with which " The Confessions of an English Opium-Eater" were 

This was Mr. De Quincey's first effort as a writer for the public, and it 
was a noble harbinger of the long series of his subsequent productions. 
All the characteristic qualities which an examination of the whole collection 
of his writings would incline us to attribute to him, may be found, in 
greater or in less degree, in the " Confessions." It was obvious then— and 
the little work, in its original form, bears witness to the- same facts now — 
that the author had at his command far larger stores of knowledge, and 
powers of mind w^ich had been subjected to a far richer and completer 
culture, than those which the common herd of men of letters wielded ; that 
he combined, in a word, philosophy, and scholarship, and science, and ima- 
gination, with an almost unequalled mastery of the arts and Ornaments of 
speech. We believe, indeed, that it would be hard to find, in all our recent 
literature, another ^r«/ work as strikingly indicative of genuine and mature 

But the " Confessions" were very far from being confined to the one subject 
of Opium-eating. Indeed, for any parallel to the absolute unreservedness 
of De Quincey's communications concerning himself, we question whether 
it would not be almost necessary to go back to the Essays of Montaigne or 
the *' Confessions " of Rousseau. Along with the history which he gave of 
his own indulgence in the '^ accui*8ed drug," he associated a pretty complete 

• « 

Selections, Grave and Gay, from Writings Published and Unpublished, by Thomas 
Pe Quincey." (Edinburgh : James Hogg. London : B. Groombridge and Sons.) 

108 Thomas De Quincey, [Aug. 

account of all that had been most interesting in his life, both with regard 
to outward influences and inward development, up to the very time at 
which the " Confessions" were composed. The early loss of an accomplished 
father, and subsequent contention with an unaccommodating guardian, 
plunged the precocious boy into " a sea of troubles," from which he only 
escaped at last, tempest^tost, and sorely hurt in body and in mind. The 
description of his suflTeiings during that period of his youth in which the 
worst of his privations were experienced is painfully eloquent, not merely 
because it discloses an appalling stress of hardest physical ills, but also be- 
cause it gives us more than one accidental glimpse of the singularly loving, 
sensitive, and thoughtful nature which the poor boy bore with him in the 
bitterness of his destitution. By a hollow reconciliation with his guardian, 
he was eventually rescued from that perilous state, and enabled to return 
to the studies which, even at that age, he passionately loved. The wish 
that he had faithfully clung to was gratified by a residence at Oxford, 
where, amongst the multitude of his enjoyments, not the least, assuredly, 
arose out of the intimacy which he formed with John Wilson, Two or 
three years afterwards he is found tenanting a cottage at Grasmere — a cot- 
tage which Wordsworth had before inhabited — the '* white cottage, em- 
bowered with flowering shrubs, so chosen as to unfold a succession of 
flowers upon the walls and clustering around the windows, through all the 
months of spring, summer, and autumn, — beginning, in fact, with May roses, 
and ending with jasmine," — which he has described with so much beauty 
in the " Confessions," and in which it was his lot to taste by turns the plea- 
sures and dread pains his opium-eating brought. His half-playful and 
half-loving picture of this home, rich only in its books and beauty, is as 
faithful as it is charming. In this '^ humble cot," placed upon " the calm- 
est, fairest spot on earth,'* he resided twenty years, enjoying the society of 
the many gifted men who were then living in the lake-country, studying 
subjects of philosophy from which most of his contemporaries would have 
shrunk, drinking his ruby-coloured laudanum freely, dreaming glorious 
dreams of loveliness and awe unspeakable, and pouring forth the treasures 
of his rich intelligence in contributions to the periodical press. 

But of the peculiar force and splendour of the opium-dreams, it should 
be remembered that scarcely anything can be attributed to the opium. It 
might, by its specific influence, assist in concentrating and increasing ac- 
tivity, but it would add nothing either to the organic power of the indivi- 
dual, or to the elements of new combinations which might be already hoarded 
in his memory. Yet it is out of these, in their relation of material and 
constructive faculty, that any new creation must proceed. Give the drug, 
in quantity sufficient to produce sleep, to an ignorant, unimaginative man, 
and you will probably get from him in his dreams nothing grander than 
Charles Lamb's " Ghost of a Fish-wife ;" but give it, under the same condi- 
tion, to Coleridge, and his imagination would have bodied forth the '* sunny 
pleasure-dome with caves of ice" of Kubla-Khan, the stately palace — 

" Where Alph, the sacred river, ran. 
Through caverns measureless to man, 
Down to a sunless sea." 

Or give it to De Quincey, and he shall dream of some Sabbath-scene of love- 
liness expanding into the magnificence of mountains raised to more than 
Alpine height, with interspace between them of savannahs and forest-lawns, 
and some unforgotten grave amidst it ; or some solitary well-remembered 
form of one whom he had lost in early youth, *' sitting upon a stone shaded 

1857.] Thomas De Quincey. 109 

by Judean palms," silent and solemn as a spiiitual presence, and vanish- 
ing in dimness and thick darkness, as the scenery of his dream is changed 
into the lamp-light of a London night, where he walks, with the lost one 
he had wept for walking again with him, just as he had done ** eighteen 
years before, along the endless terraces of Oxford- street." With great 
truth " Elia" tells us, in one of his excellent essays, that " the degree of the 
soul's creativeness in sleep might furnish no whimsical criterion of the 
quantum of poetical faculty resident in the same soul waking." 

The " Confessions of an English Opium- Eater" were published in a small 
volume, which sold well, and was for a few years a somewhat scarce book. 
Besides this reprint from the pages of the ** London," we believe that the 
novel of " Walladmor," " Klosterheim." and " The Logic of Political Econo- 
my," are the only works of Mr. De Quincey which his readers have had ac- 
cess to in the form of separate publications. His other voluminous writings 
were contributed to various periodical works, — to the "Encyclopedia Britari- 
nica," the "North British Review," the "London Magazine," the Magazines of 
Tait and Blackwood, and to " Hogg's Instructor." Many, possibly, may have 
been buried in repositories less popular than those which we know of and 
have named. In any case, it is quite time that essays which are for the 
most part possessed of many of the best and rarest qualities of literature- 
effusions of one of the 'subtlest intellects and most powerful imaginations of 
the age — should be collected and preserved, before the task becomes in 
reality, as the author himself is said to have once declared it to be, " abso- 
lutely, insuperably, and for ever impossible." The five volumes now before 
us are a good beginning of the work which, according to Mr. De Quincey, 
neither "the archangel Gabriel nor his multipotent adversary" durst 

It is a good beginning of the work ; for though many a choice paper 
remains of necessity not gathered in at present, the selection has been 
made in such a manner as to embrace examples, collected without regard to 
time or place of original publication, of most of Mr. De Quincey's great 
and various literary powers. After the " Confessions of an Opium-Eater," 
the brief biographies of Coleridge and Wordsworth, which made their first 
appearance more than twenty years ago in " Tail's Magazine," will be likely 
to attract, and they will assuredly well reward, the attention of the reader. 
Of these illustrious writers, nothing equal in merit to Mr. De Quincey's 
essays has been ever before written in so small a space. Enjoying an inti- 
macy with them, probably the more unreserved because of that very depth 
and wide range of sympathy with their respected modes of thought which 
made him the most congenial of all companions to them, and the most com- 
petent of all commentators on their genius to us, he has, in these papers, 
produced the truest and most interesting estimation of them that we ever 
have seen, or ever expect to see. His reverence for them had grown with 
his own growth : — 

" At a period," he teUs us, ** when neither the one nor the other writer was valued 
by the public — both having a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule, 
before they could rise into their present estimation — I found in these poems [Lyrical 
Ballads] < the ray of a new morning,' and an absolute revelation of untrodden worlds^ 
teeming with power and beauty as yet unsuspected amongst men." 

It was, moreover, a crowning interest in the case of Coleridge, to hear, 
a few years later, that he " had applied his whole mind to metaphysics and 
psychology," which was at that time De Quincey's own pursuit. In his 
delineations of these extraordinary men, whom he studied with a zeal pro- 

110 Thomas De Quincey. [Au"' 


portioned to the fervour of liis admiration, it is not merely the inner being 
that is analyzed and set before us ; not merely Uieir knowledge that is 
strictly measured, and their understandings and imaginations that are 
faithfully appraised; and their moral natures, in the weakness and the 
strength of each, that are weighed in the critic's scale ; but a crowd of 
interesting circumstances of their outer life, graphic outlines of their habits 
and environments, and social and domestic influences, are grouped about 
the main design, giving to it a new value from the grace and the appro- 
priateness of these beautiful accessories. As an instance of Mr. De Quin- 
cey 's happy management of these subordinate particulars, we give the 
reader, from the sketch of Coleridge, a passage which describes — as a con- 
trast to the attics of the '* Courier " office, which the philosopher had not 
long left — his mode of life in Mr. Wordsworth's home at Allan Bank, in 
which he was a guest : — 

" Here, on the contrary," says our author, ** he looked out from his study windows 
upon the sublime hills of 8e<it Sanded and Arthw's Chair, and upon pastoral cottages 
at their feet ; and all around him he heard hourly the murmurings of happy life, the 
sound of female voices, and the innocent laughter of children. But apparently he was 
not happy : opium, was it, or what was it, that poisoned all natural pleasure at its 
sources ? He burrowed continually deeper into scholastic subtleties and metaphysical 
abstractions; and, like that class described by Seneca, in the luxurious Rome of his 
days, he lived chiefly by candle-light. At two or four o'clock in the afternoon he would 
mHke his first appearance, llirough the silence of the night, when all other lights had 
disappeared in the quiet cottages of Qrasmere, hi* lamp might be seen invariably by 
the belated traveller, as he descended the long steep from Diwmailraise ; and at seven 
or eight o'clock in the morning, when man was going forth to his labour, this insulated 
son of reverie waa retiring to bed." 

In turning reluctantly away from these delightful sketches of the two 
most distinguished men, as philosopher and poet, which have adorned our 
present age, there is one striking difference between them which we must 
allow our author to point out. Coleridge, as the passage we have just 
quoted might suggest, was an earnest and insatiable student of books : he 
read everything that was worth reading ; and, during his temporary resi- 
dence in the valley of Grasmere, borrowed as many as five hundred vo- 
lumes from the library of his neighbour, Mr. De Quincey. Books, indeed, 
were to the great philosopher necessities of life : but it was not so with 
Wordsworth: — 

" Very few books," we are told, " sufficed him ; he was careless habitually of all the 
current literature, or, indeed, of any literature that could not be considered as enshrin- 
ing the very ideal, capital, and elementary grandeur of the human intellect. In this 
extreme limitation of his literary senNbilities, he was as much assisted by that accident 
of his own intellectual condition — viz. extreme, intense, unparalleled onesidednets [ein^ 
seiti^keW} — as by any peculiar sanity of feeling. Thousanda of books that have g^ven 
rapturous delight to miUions of ingenuous minds, for Wordsworth were absolutely a 
dead letter, closed and sealed from his sensibilities and his powers of appreciation, not 
less than colour from a blind man's eye. Even the few books which his peculiar mind 
had made indispensable to him, were not in such a sense indispensable as they would 
have been to a man of more sedentary habits. He lived in the open air, and the 
enormity of pleasure which both he and his sister drew from the common appearances 
of nature, and their everlasting variety — variety so infinite, that if no one leaf of a 
tree or shrub ever exactly resembled anotlier in all its filaments and their arrange- 
ment, still less did any one day ever repeat another in all its pleasurable elements. 
This pleasure was to him in the stead of many libraries : — 

* One impulse, from a vernal wood, 

Could teach him more of man, 
Of moral evil, and of good, 
Than tU the sages can.' 

1857.] Thomas De Quincey, 1 1 1 

And he, we may be sure, who could draw 

* Even from the meanest flower that blows, 
Thou^ts that do often lie too deep for tears ;' 

to whom the mere daisy, the pansy, tbe primrose, could ftimish pleasures — not the 
puerile ones which his most puerUe and worldly insulters imag^ed, but pleasures 
drawn from depths of reverie and meditative tenderness, far beyond all power of their 
hearts to conceive; that man would hardly need any large variety of books." 

Besides his rare scholarship, his very extensive reading, and his singular 
familiarity with that German literature with which — ^in an article on Jean 
Paul, in the ** London Magazine,*' in 1821 — he was the first to make the 
English public acquainted, Mr. De Quincey's genius appears to be distin- 
guished chiefly by his rich and strange humour ; his great analytic power, 
and subtlety of understanding ; his extraordinary, almost unequalled, ima- 
ginative eloquence ; and a mastery over language, both in regard to preci- 
sion and magnificence, which has no parallel at all amongst his contempo- 
raries. In some of his best papers these various phases of his genius are 
made to succeed and relieve each other with brilliant eflTect ; others, again, 
are cast in one mood, and characterized throughout their whole extent by 
the predominance of one power. In the ** Confessions" — although the 
greater part of the narrative has an atmosphere of sadness shed around it 
from the depths of agony which it discloses — ^the reader will have no diffi- 
culty in recognising the acute logic and the genial humour which shew 
themselves, from time to time, struggling upwards, as it were, out of the 
grief and grandeur of the author's eloquent revelations. His compositions 
in a single key are numerous enough. In one of the volumes now before 
us there are three or four productions, severally manifesting genius of a 
separate, special kind, such as would be sufficient of itself for the founda- 
tion of an ordinary writer's fame. There is the lecture on '* Murder con- 
sidered as one of the Fine Arts," which runs over, in a manner, with a ripe 
and laughter-moving humour from the first page to the last; there is a 
history of the " Revolt of the Tartars," as splendid and sustained as one of 
Gibbon's chapters, and as good an imitation of a narrative of true events as 
any of Defoe's, yet which has, nevertheless, not a word of truth in it from 
one end to the other ; there is the " Dialogues of Three Templars, on Poli- 
tical Economy," which is terse, and logical, and subtle, and at the same 
time so simple as to make some of the abstrusest principles of that import- 
ant science easily understood by any attentive reader, however absolute his 
previous ignorance may have been ; and there is, lastly, a *' Dream-Fugue" 
on sudden death, so full of the sweetest and the choicest inspiration of 
imagination, so rich in trembling tenderness, with interserted/ symphonies of 
grandeur, as to require only the accident of metre, if indeed it requires 
even that, to deserve a place amongst the choicest and most charming spe- 
cimens of genuine poetry. These, let it be remembered, are only a portion 
of the contents of one of the collected volumes, and that one not by any 
means undoubtedly the best. Amongst the articles not yet hived in the 
collection, we are sure that we could point to several which are at least 
equal, and to one or two which ai*e superior, to the most admirable of those 
which are contained in these volumes. 

Mr. De Quincey's mastery of language, which we have already men- 
tioned, is worthy of a somewhat further notice, since it is, in fact, from its 
very perfection, one of his most wonderful accomplishments. Both his 
choice of words, and his mode of arranging them into sentences^ is, as 
nearly as can be, fault Tilson, as we are told by Mr. Gil- 

112 Thomas De Quincey, [Aug. 

fillan, once said of him, — " the best word always comes up." There seems 
something of an intuition in this felicity in the choice of words ; but it 
presupposes a vast acquaintance with the vocabulary of all knowledge* 
which is the storehouse that he chooses from. It is, we suspect, mainly to 
make use of the one best word, that he affects '* a frequent use of scholastic 
terms, and the forms of logic," — a peculiarity which has been objected to 
as a fault in his style. It is where these terms and formulae give to the 
expression of his ideas an exactness not obviously attainable by other means, 
that he employs them — not else. A merit scarcely less marvellous than his 
invariable choice of the best word, is the clearness which he maintains 
amongst the successive clauses of his long sentences, and the accumulated 
force and fulness with which every period closes. In this respect, as well 
as in his subtlety of thought and frequent use of parenthetical qualifications 
and limitations, he will sometimes remind the reader of the late John Fos- 
ter, although Mr. De Quincey's style has a clearness, ease, and brilliancy, 
to which that of the profound and powerful Foster never, in his noblest 
passages, made the least approach. Still less does the style of that writer 
— or of any other that we know of amongst the memorable authors of the 
age — ever soar into harmonies so glorious as those which sometimes burst 
on the enraptured reader's ear in Mr. De Quincey's best imaginative woiks. 
In one of the volumes now before us there is an article on Joan of Arc, 
which we remember reading with great delight when it was first published 
in *' Tait's Magazine," not very many years ago, and which we refer to at 
present as an example of a class of Mr. De Quincey^s writings in which 
moral earnestness — earnestness, in this instance, of admiration of the heroic 
girl — keeps, as it were, midway between his humorous and his imaginative 
moods, yet through a path so narrow as hardly to keep clear of either. 
The passage we are about to quote comes ailer the specification of a few 
great intellectual heights which woman has not strength to scale, and it 
goes on to do eloquent and ample justice to the patient and enduring cou- 
rage with which she can die grandly in a good cause. The passage is as 
follows : — 

" Tet, sister, woman, thongh I cannot consent to find a Mozart or a Michael Ang^lo 
in your sex, cheerftiUy, and with the love thiit bums in depths of admiration, I acknow- 
ledge that you can do one thing as well as the best of us men — a greater thing than 
even Milton is known to have done, or Michael Angelo — you can die grandly, and as 
goddesses would die, were goddesses mortal. If any distant worlds (which may be the 
cast* ) are so far ahead of us Tellurians in optical resources as to tee distinctly through 
their telescopes all that we do on earth, what is the g^randest sight to which we ever 
treat them ? St. Peter's at Rome, do you fancy, on Easter Sunday, or Luxor, or per- 
haps the Himalayas ? Oh, no ! my friend : suggest something better ; these are haublos 
to them ; they see in other worlds, in their own, far better toys of the same kind. 
These, take my word for it, are nothing. Do you g^ve it up P llie finest thing, then, 
we have to shew them is a scaffbid on Uie morning of execution. I assure you there is 
a strong muster in those far telescopic worlds, on any such morning, of those who hap- 
pen to find themselves occupying the right hemisphere for a peep at us. How, then, 
if it be announced in 5ome such telescopic world by those who make a hvelihood of 
catching glimpses at our newspapers, whose lang^ge they have long since deciphered, 
that the poor victim in the morning's sacrifice is a woman ? How, if it be published 
in that distant world, that the sufferer wears upon her head, in the eyes of manv, the 
gnrlands of martyrdom ? How, if it should be some Marie Antoinette, the wiaowed 
queen, coming forward on the scaffbid, and presenting to the morning air her head, 
turned grey by sorrow, daughter of Csesars, kneeling down humbly to kiss the guillo- 
tine, as one thiat worships death ? How, if it were the noble Charlotte Corday, that 
in the bloom of youth, that with the loveliest of persons, that with homage wfuting 
upon her smiles wherever she turned her face to scatter them — homage that followed 
tho^e smiles as surely as the carols of birds, after showers in q;ning, follow the reap- 

1857.] Thomas De Quincey. 113 

peariog rm and the itidag ninbcaias over the hillt — yet thought all these things 
BhE:^icr than the doat apon her sandals, in comparison of deliverance from bell fbr her 
dear suffering France P Ah ! these were spectacles indeed for those sympathiaing 
people in distant worlds ; and some, perhaps, would suffer a sort of martyrdom them- 
selves, because they could not testify their wrath, could not bear witness to the strength 
of love, and to tbe fury of hatred that burned within them at such scents ; could not 
gather into golden arns eoui^ of tliiil gl'iriisus iluH, whioh rcst«d in the catacombs of 

The eloquence of the pnssnge we have juet quoted is not much above the 
ordinary tone of Mr. De Quiiicoy's seriou's Essays. It is quite as sure that 
many passnges — both of thu jinpcra ivjiveh ire included in these volumes 
and of the greater number wliich baye yet to he culleeted — rise into a far 
higher strain than this, as that any fink \ery much belov it. It is, in fact, 
one of Mr. De Quincey's conspicuous charactei'istics to be not at all chary 
of his ample intellectual wealth. He lavishes the treasures of his learning, 
and his humour, and his logic, and his eloquence, indiscriminately, on all 
occasions, not from any petty motive of display, or any craving after admi- 
ration, but in absolute unmixed prodigality of nature. He has never learned 
economy from limitation of his means. He talks as well as he writes, ai 
freely and as fluently, iind with just as unsparing an expenditure of his 
immense resources. We have even heard, on an authority that seemed not 
unworthy of credit, lliat tbe proofs of his Magazine contributions have been 
not seldom returned to the printer with their margins enriched with a pro- 
fusion of notes of comment, caution, and complaint, so rich in fancy, fun, 
and knowledge, that they alone — had they been collected and arranged — 
would have composed an article quite as entertaining, and almost as in- 
structive, as the test about which they were so sportively accumulated. 

There is one other circumstance concerning Mr. De Quincey and his 
works which tlie briefest notice of the man or his writings would be blame- 
able in leaving unrecotded. In our speculative age it is almost a distinction 
for a scholarly and subtle thinker to have kept the simplicity of his childish 
faith and love unimpaired, and to have been able to sustain bis piety oa 
grounds of adamantine evidence, without sacrificing any of its sweetness. 
Yet tbie has been our author's enviable good fortune. With learning and 
philosophy enough to be a meet antagonist for tbe ablest of the assailants 
of Christianity, be has never wavered in his own stedfnst reverence for its 
divine truths. Over and above all their other signal merits, tbe great body 
of his writings are, on this account, imbued with the beauty of religious 
feeling. There is nothing sanctimonious or austere in them — no injudicious 
headlong introduction of religious topics at unseasonable times — no unbe- 
coming assumption of the preacher's office — not often, even, any direct or 
recogniseable digression for a moment's space, in order to exhibit or en- 
force a sentiment or doctrine of the faith ; but there is, nevertheless, an in- 
definable flavour in the stream that bears eloquent witness to the nature of 
the spring from which it flows. There is not a seriotia article — scarcely, 
perhaps, a humorous one — in tbe whole collection, that we can carefully 
read through without carrying from it, along with something to increase 
our knowledge, or improve our taste, or animate our reason or imagination, 
a persuasion that we have been enjoying the companionship of a loving and 
believing mind, — 

" Kot for reproof, but high and warm delight. 
And grave encouragement." 

As far as this republication extends at present, it has been carefully and 
well done. The addition of double title-pages, so that tbe volumes might 
Gekt. Mas. Vol, CCHI. q 

114 On some curious Forms of Sepulchral Interment [Aug. 

be distinguished by respective numbers, would have been a convenience to 
those who may happen to have occasion to refer others to any particular 
portion of the collection, as well as to the readers to whom such a reference 
may be given. In the important matter of editorial revision, the various 
articles have generally fared well. Large sections, Mr. De Quincey tells 
us, have been added, ^^ and other changes made, which, even to the old 
parts, by giving veiy gi-eat expansion, give sometimes a character of abso- 
lute novelty.'' It is certain that, where the old text was familiar to our 
ear, and sometimes also to our heart, there is nothing in the new matter 
that does not easily associate itself with the old agreeable impression. The 
rifacciamento^ as Mr. Coleridge was pleased to call the result of his kindred 
labours on '* The Friend," is not such as to displease the admirers of the 
Essays as they first appeared. Mr. De Quincey, indeed, has too much of 
poor Goldsmith's gift of touching nothing without adorning it, to allow of 
any apprehensions being seriously entertained as to the effect of his re- 
visions, be they ever so unsparing or extensive. We shall look, therefore, 
with a confident hope for the improvement of the old favourites which have 
yet to reappear. Even papers like those on the Essenes and the Caesars 
may possibly come forth with a new value conferred upon them by his fur- 
ther care. Nor would it be a matter of surprise though the Suspiria 
themselves — solemn, glorious, and surpassingly affecting as they now are 
— should come to us with a deeper pathos in their grief, or with grander 
harmonies of speech, or more magnificence of imaginative beauty, when 
they come to us newly touched and tuned by him whose spiritual nature 
they disclose. 



Bt Thomas Wright, Esq., F.S.A. 

It will be hardly necessary to inform even the most general reader that 
the only intelligible remains of the earlier inhabitants of our island are 
found in their sepulchral interments. These, it is true, are often very in- 
definite, and are not easily identified by themselves with any particular race 
of people, but by means of careful observation and of patient comparison 
with other examples, they may be ultimately made to throw some light 
upon primaeval history. It is in the hope of contributing to this object 
that I would call attention to a very curious class of sepulchral chests, or 
coffins, which appear to me quite novel, and which seem to be peculiar to 
East Yorkshire. 

On the summit of the high cliffs near the village of Oristhorpe, about 
six miles from Scarborough and fifteen to the northward of Bridlington, are, 
or were, three ancient tumuli. That in the centre, a tolerably large one, 
waR opened on the 10th of July, 1834, and was found to contain what was 
at first taken for a mere rough log of wood, but on further examination it 
proved to be a wooden coflSn, formed of a portion of the rough trunk of an 
oak tree, the external bark of which was still in good preservation. It had 
been merely hewn roughly at the extremities, split, and then hollowed inter- 


found in East Yorkshire. 

nally to receive the body. The accompanying cut (No. 1) wilt give the beat 
DotioQ of the appearance of thie primitive coffin, which was much damaged 

in its removal from the tumulus. The trunk of the tree had been split 
tolerably equally, for the coffin and its cover were of nearly the eame dimen- 
sions. The only attempt at ornament was what was taken for a rude figure of 
a human face cut in the bark at one end of the lid, which appeared to have 
been held to the coffin only by the uneven fracture of the wood corresponding 
on each part. At the bottom of the cofQn, uear the centre, a hole three 
inches long and one wide bad been cut through the wood, apparently for 
the purpose of carrying off the aqueous matter arisiug from the decom- 
position of the body. This coffin was about seven feet long by three 
broad. When first opened, it was nearly full of water, bat on this being 
cleared away a perfect and well-preserved skeleton presented itself, which 
was laid on its right side, with the head to the south. The body, of which 
the skeleton measures six feet two inches, having been much too long for 
the hollow of the coffin, which was only five feet four inches long, the legs 
had been necessarily doubled up. 

Several small objects were found in the coffin with the skeleton, moat of 
which are represented in the accompanying cut. They are, three pieces of 
chipped flint (figs. 1, 2, 6) ; a well-execated ornament, resembling a targe 
stud or button, apparently of horn, which has every appearance of having 
been formed by the lathe (fig. 4) ; a pin of the same material, which lay 
on the breast, and had apparently been used to secure a skin, in which the 
body had evidently been envdoped (fig. 7) ; an article of wood, also 
formed like a pin, but having what would be its point rounded and flattened 
on one side to about half its length (fig. 8) ; fragments of an ornamental 
ring, of similar material to the stud, and supposed, from its large size, to 
have been used for fastening some part of Uie dress (fig. 3] ; the remains 
of a small basket of wicker-work, the bottom of which had been formed of 
bark ; and a flat bronze dagger, or knife (fig. 5), None of these articles 
give us any assistance in fixing the age of this curious interment, except 

116 On some curious Forms ofSepuichral Interment l.Aug. 

the dagger, and that is not very certain. Chipped flints are found rery 
frequently in Roman intennenta, both in this country and on the continent ; 
and 1 have alaa found them in Saxon ginvee ; but the dagger belonga to a 
type of which several examples have been found in the WUtahire harrows, 
as well as in similar interments in other parts of England, which, from all 
the circumstances connected with them, we should be led to ascribe to a 
remote date, perhaps to the earlier period of the Roman occupation of the 
island. A quantity of vegetable substance was also found in the coffin, 
which was rather hastily conjectured to be the remains of mistletoe. The 
coffin, after being deposited in its grave, had been covered over with large 
oak branches. The tumalus above this was formed of a layer of clay, then 
a layer of loose atones, another layer of clay, and a second layer of loose 
stones, and the whole was finally covered with soil, which had no doubt 
collected upon the turoutas during the long period since it was raised*. 

The wooden coffin from Gristhorpe. with its contents, were deposited in 
the Scarborough Museum, where they have always excited considerable 
interest. The skeleton, which has been unadvisedly called that of a 
" British chief," has by some chemical influence become as black as ebony, 
from which circumstance some pleasant archEeologist jokingly gave to the 
British chief the title of the Slack Prince, it remained an uniqae example 
of barrow- interments, until I received from a friend in that part of York- 
shire, Mr. Edward Tindall, of Bridlington, information of the discovery of 
a similar interment near Great Driffield, in the August of last year ; and 
soon afterwards I learnt that another oak coffin of this description had been 
found near Beverley in 1848. Of the latter I have received, through 
Mr. Tindall, some account from Dr. Brereton, of Beverley. It appears 
that in the year just mentioned a labourer named Fitzgerald, while digging 
B drain in the ground called Beverley Parks, near that town, came upon 
what he supposed to be a portion of the trunk of a tree, which had been 
turned quite black from the chemical action of the iron and gallic acid in 
the soil. On farther examination it proved to he a coffin, which was formed 
very similarly to that at Scarborough. A stab, which had been cut, or 
split from the rest, formed the lid ; but it had been fastened to the chest 
by means of four oaken thrindles, or pegs, about the size of the spokes of 
s common ladder, and the ends of the coffin had been bevelled off, so as 
to leave less of the Hubstance of the wood where the holes for the pegs were 
drilled through. This coffin was nearly eight feet and a half long ex- 

• An accnnnt of the opening of this tmuDliu, nnd of its contents, waa published by 
Mr. W. C. Willianuon, curator of the MaacheBler Natnna History Sodet;. Second 
edition. ScnrlraruDgh, l&Sa 4to. 


found in East Yorkshire. 

nrnaiiy, Hnd seven feet and a half internally ; and it was four feet two 
inches wide. It is understood to have contained some frsgmenta of human 
boneB, not calcined, but no careful examination appears to have been made 
at tbe lime of the discovery. A quantity of bones of different kinds of 
aoimalB were found in the soil about the spot. Tbe tumulus, in this case, 
had probably been cleared away long ago, without disturbing the inter- 
ment, in consequence of the position of tbe latter below the sur&ce of the 
ground. This, I understand, was tbe case also with the cofHn at Gria< 
tborpe, which had been placed in a hole some depth below the original 
surface of the ground. 

From the description I have received it seems rather doubtful whether 
the barrow in which the third oak coffin was found, and which is »tuated 
by one of the fine clear streams in the neighbourhood of Great Driffield, 
near a place called Sunderland wick, be altogether artificial, or whether an 
original rise in the ground bad not been taken advantage of by those who 
erected it. If the latter were tbe case, then a hole has been dug here also 
for the reception of the coffin ; but if the whole mound, which was com- 
posed of clay, were artificial, the cofGn mnst have been laid upon the sur- 
face of the ground. Two large and thick branches of trees had here, as at 
Gristhorpe, been placed over the coffin before the mound was ffiled in. Tbe 
coffin in this instance was, like the others, hollowed from the solid trunk 
of a tree, but it differed from them in having no ends, and, although it 
came in two pieces when taken out of the earth, (or rather in three, for 
the lid broke in two,) it was supposed by those who found it that it had 
been originally one entire piece, a sort of large wooden tube, or pipci 

formed by hollowing through the heart of the timber. This coffin wa» 
about six feet in length and four feet in breadth, the disproportion in 
breadth being accounted for by tbe circumstance that it was intended to 
contain three bodies, two of which were laid with their heads turned one 

118 On lome curious Forma of Sepulchral Interment [Aug. 

way, and the other turned in the contrary direction. The coffin, ia con- 
sequence of the ends being unprotected, nas filled with clay and sand, 
which had become mised with the human remains, and the skulls and 
other bones were in so fragile a condition through decay, that ihey fell to 
pieces when disturbed, and did not admit of aoy profitable esaminatioo. I 
understnitd that no articlea of any kind, which might assist in fixing the 
date of this interment, were found ; bat a quantity of ashei lay mixed with 
the surrounding soil, which are described as •till retaiaing a burnt smell. 
The cofSn in thia instance lay due east and west *'. 

No circumstance connected with these two last interments is calculated 
to throw any light upon their dates, which, however, I think we may safely 
consider as not more recent than the close of the Roman period. But as 
I was putting these notes together, information reached me of a atil! more 
singular discovery. During the last two years, the local hoard of health 
at Selby has carried on extensive excavations for sewerage, &c., in that 
town, which have brought to hght numerous ancient remains, includ- 
ing the foundations of a fortified gate, or bridge, of very massive character. 
In the month of June of the present year, while cutting through a piece of 
ground called the Church Hill, which is understood to be the site of the 
ancient parish church, destroyed when the old abbey church was made 
parochial, and in which considerable foundations of stone were found, the 
workmen met with not one, but fourteen wooden coffins, all made, like 
those I have been describing, out of the solid trunks of oak trees, which 
had been separated into two pieces in order to furm a chest and lid, and 
had been scooped out to form a receptacle for the corpse. 1 have been 
favoured with an account of this discovery by Mr. George I.owther, of 
Selby. I'bese coffins, he informs me, were found near the surface of the 
ground, some of them at a depth of not more than eighteen inches, lying 
parallel to each other, not exactly east and west, but rather E. N. E. by 
W. S . W., a variation of two points. To Mr. Lowther, also, I am indebted 
for a drawing of one of these coflins, found on the third of June, 1857, 
which is copied in the annexed woodcut. It was the only one which ap- 

pears to have been very carefully examined, but, as far as I can gather, 
they all contained remdns of human skeletons, though accompanied by no 
articles which might assist us in assigning a date to them. The skeleton 
contained in this coffin was pronounced by a medical gentleman present at 
the examination to be that of a full-grown female. This coffin was six feet 
ten inches long ; one which lay near it measured nearly eight feet. It dif- 
fers in one rather remaikable circumstance from those previously described, 
namely, that although similarly cut and hallowed from a solid trunk of 
oak, the interior work is finished in a less workmanlike manner. In the 

1857.] found in East Yorkshire, 119 

Gristhorpe and Beverley coffins ^the cavity for the reception of the body 
must have been finished internally by the chisel, as their ends stand at 
right angles, or nearly so, to the bottom, which is flat in the whole length ; 
but in the Selby coffin the cavity has been formed by an adze, or similar 
instrument, fitted for hollowing or scooping a block of wood, but not for 
cutting it out clean at right angles. It is also deserving of remark, that 
the upper part, or Hd, is hollowed out in a corresponding manner to the 
lower part. The two parts of the coffin were in this, as in the others 
found at the same place, fastened together by oval wooden pegs, driven 
down into the sides, resembling in this respect the Beverley coffin. When 
it was first discovered, and the soil cleared away from it, the wood of the 
upper part was found decayed and broken away, so as to expose to view 
the face of the skeleton, as shewn in our engraving. 

Although we have nothing to define the age of the Selby wooden coffins, 
we have the certainty that they belonged to Christian interments, and that 
they were laid in regular juxtaposition in a churchyard. All the circum- 
stances connected with them would lead us to ascribe them to a remote 
period, and I do not think it improbable that they may be anterior to the 
Norman Conquest. I am not at this moment aware of the discovery of coffins 
of the same description in other parts of the island, and they seem to shew, 
which would indeed be a curious fact, that a peculiar burial practice had 
continued to exist in this district (Eastern Yorkshire) from a period dating 
as far back as the commencement of the Roman occupation of the island to 
probably a late Anglo-Saxon period, that is, during a thousand years. 
This should be a sufficient warning against our assuming too hastily that 
a particular form of interment must be characteristic of a particular date. 
I must, however, add, that I am rather inclined to doubt whether the 
contents of the Gristhorpe tumulus do not rather prove that the pecu- 
liar shaped dagger or knife found in it was in use at a later period than 
is commonly supposed, than that the dagger proves the extremely remote 
age of the coffin. From various circumstances which have come to my 
knowledge through the researches of Mr. Tindall and others, I am inclined 
to think that most of the barrows in the maritime district of Yorkshire to 
the south of Scarborough belong to the later Roman period, in which case 
we may much more easily understand how a particular form of coffin then 
in use may have continued in use during the Anglo-Saxon period. It 
must be added, as a fact of considerable importance with regard to these 
interments in England, that, as I learn from the English edition of Wor- 
saae's Primeval Antiquities of Denmark (Parker, 1849), examples of ex- 
actly similar coffins have been found in one or two instances in barrows in 
Denmark and Germany, which date, probably, from about the fourth 

120 [Aug. 


JPatricius Consul Fahius Quaator Ethelwerdus — such are the high- 
Bounding titles assumed in his dedicatory address by Fabius Ethelwerd, the 
writer of the concise and meagre Latin Chronicle now before us; titles 
which, borrowed from the usages of their Burgundian neighbours, implied 
the rank, we are told, among the Saxon nobility, of Ealdorman, and in 
some instances, even of Dtix or duke. Ethelwerd being of royal descent, 
the latter may in all probability have been the rank he held ; but how a 
Saxon nobleman could possibly come by a Roman ^ prsenomen we are at a 
loss to explain ; a double^ name of any kind being a thing rarely to be met 
with in Saxon times. 

From his parenthetical observations in B. iv. c. 2, and the language of 
his Dedicatory Epistle to his kinswoman (consohrina) Mahtilda, who stood, 
he says, in similar relationship to King Alfred, we learn that Fabius 
Ethelwerd was great-great-grandson to Ethelred, brother of Alfred ; and 
are hence enabled to form a pretty accurate notion as to the period^ at 
which he lived. The positive identification of him with any historical per- 
sonage is perhaps impossible, but Mr. Hardy is probably correct in his con- 
jecture that he was the ** Ealdorman Ethelwerd" to whom iElfric addressed 
certain of his works, and who was sent in the year 994, as we learn from 
the Saxon Chronicle, by Ethelred II. to King Anlaf at Southampton. 
Relying also upon the same excellent authoiity, we are inclined to believe 
that he is the Ethelwerd Dux whose name is subscribed as attesting wit- 
ness to several monastic charters between the years 976 and 998. Mr. 
Stevenson goes still further, and proposes to identify him with the Ethel- 
werd, (son of the Ealdorman Ethelwine*,) who is mentioned in the 
Saxon Chronicle as being slain in battle, a.d. 1016, fighting for Edmund 
Ironside against Cnut. 

Though Ethelwerd has afiforded us no information as to whether it was 
through the paternal or the maternal line that he derived his descent from 
King Ethelred, yet as to the identity of his fair correspondent Mahtilda, on 
whose ancestry he enlarges at much greater length, singularly enough, a 
greater degree of perplexity would appear to have arisen. And yet for such 
difficulty there seems but little reason to exist, for he distinctly informs 
Mahtilda that she was descended {principium tenes nativitatii) from 
Eadgyde (Eadgyth) grand-daughter of Alfred, by her marriage with Otho, 
(afterwards emperor of Germany) ; to which Eadgyde, Mahtilda, from the 

* " The Church Historians of England. Edited and translated by the Rev. Joseph 
Stevenson, M.A. VoL II. : The Chronicle of Fabius Ethelwerd, pp. 407—440." (Lou- 
don: Seeleys.) 

" Six Old English Chronicles. Edited and translated by J. A. Giles, D.C.L. The 
Chronicle of Fabius Ethelwerd, pp. 1 — 40." (London : Bohn.) 

"Fahii Ethelwerdi Chronicorum Libri Quatuor. MonumetUa Historica BrUannica, 
Vol. I. 

*> It is just possible that it may have been adopted as a nom de plume, in compliment 
to his Italianized kinswoman, Mahtilda. 

c Moll Ethclwald, Eadbryht l^cn, Eadulf Cudel, and Ethelard Umming, are hardly 
cases in point. Osgod Clapa was of Danish descent. 

** We cannot agree with Mr. Wright {Biog. Brit. Lit.), although he has the autho- 
rity of Pits, Vossius, Bishop Nicholson, and others on his side, that Ethelwerd wa;s still 
living in 1090. 

* iEthclsig, or ^thelsy, is another reading. 


1857.] The Chronicle ofFabius Ethelwerd. 121 

fact of her being great-great-grand-daughter ^ of Alfred, could have stood in 
no other relation than that of grand- daughter. Liudulf, duke of Suabia, 
son of Otho and Eadgyde, had a daughter, we find, named Mahtilda, who 
was born in 949, died in 1011, and was the wife of Obizzo, count of Milan. 
We therefore unhesitatingly concur with Mr. Hardy and Mr. Stevenson as 
to the extreme probability that this Mahtilda was the august personage to 
whom Ethelwerd dedicated his work ; and we cannot but express our sur- 
prise that Mr. Stevenson should be of opinion that the claims of another 
Mahtilda, daughter of Otho by a second marriage, and in no way de- 
scended from Alfred, "might appear at first sigM^ to be nearly balanced 
with hers 8^. Such a position, unless we dehberately throw overboard Ethel- 
werd's own words, cannot for an instant be maintained. 

Ethelwerd's Chronicle professes to commence with the Creation, and to 
conclude with a.d. 975, the last year of King Edgar's reign. Borrowed 
as it is, almost wholly — and sometimes inaccurately — from the Saxon 
Chronicle, its chief merit consists in the fact that it is the only Latin 
Chronicle that we have in the lapse of two centuries**; and its principal 
value, as Mr. Stevenson remarks, is its representing an early copy of that 
Chronicle which now no longer exists, and so enabling us to asc^ain with 
tolerable precision what was the state of that document towards the close 
of the tenth century. We are informed also, upon the same authority, that 
the copy of the Saxon Chronicle to which the text from which Ethelwerd 
transcribed, most closely approximates — though with some important varia- 
tions — is the MS. (A), now preserved in the library of Corpus Christ! 
College, Cambridge. With numerous omissions from the text of the Saxon 
Chronicle, as it now appears, there is also a small amount of additional in- 
formation, derived probably either from local tradition or from other written 
sources : in addition to which, and with all these concessions, to use Mr. 
Stevenson's words, ** there still remains a large body of supplemental matter 
which clearly indicates the former existence of a distinct recension of the 
text with which we are at present acquainted only through the medium of 
Ethelwerd's labours." 

William of Malmesbury is probably the earliest writer that makes men- 
tion of Ethelwerd in his capacity of chronicler, though at the same time he 
refuses to accord to him the rank of an historian, and is very severe — and 
justifiably so — upon the flagrant defects of his style. "As to Elward" 
[Ethelwerd], he saysS "an illustrious and noble person who has attempted 
to arrange these chronicles in Latin, it were better to be silent ; his inten- 
tions I could commend, did not his language cause me so much disgust." 
Making every fair allowance for the probable corruptness of the text in its 
present state, whether owing to the carelessness of transcribers or to the 
ignorance of printers, Ethelwerd's language is singularly ungrammatical, 
we must admit, — so much so indeed as to be at all times obscure, and occa- 
sionally little short of unintelligible. When we say that his violations of 

' In speaking of Alfred as her atavus, be clearly means great-great-grandfather, and 
not great-grandfather's grandfather. 

« We take this Opportunity also of remarking that Mr. Stevenson states {note, p. 408) 
that Hugo, duke of France and Burgundy, succeeded to the throne of France in 936. 
This is new to us : we had hitherto thought that Louis d'Outremer was restored in 
that year, on the death of King Raoul. Hugh le Grand declined the crown, and was 
never king of France. His son, Hugh Capet, became king some fifty years later. 

^ Between Asser and Florence of Worcester ; looking upon the periods at which the 
works of Nennius and Gildas were compiled as doubtful 

* Preface to his " History of the Kings." 

Gent. Mag. Vol. CCIII. 'b 

122 The Chronicle of Fabius Ethelwerd. [Aug. 

the most ordinary rules of grammatical construction may be numbered by 
the score, aye, by the hundred even, we say no more than truth, but 
quite enough. 

His chronology, too, is equally faulty with his text. Instead of adopting, 
with other chroniclers, the year of the Christian era, he reckons by the 
number of years intervening since the event last noticed, often omits the 
year altogether, and occasionally differs from the dates given by the Saxon 
Chronicle as it at present appears. In the margin of Savile's edition there 
are certain dates inserted, more erroneous even in some instances than 
those given in the text. Whether these dates were originally to be found 
in the MS. from which Savile took his text, or were additions by his own 
hand, it is now impossible to decide. 

Ethelwerd's Chronicle was first published by Sir Henry Savile, in his 
Scriptores post Bedam, Lond. 1596, more incorrectly reprinted at Frank- 
fort 1601. Savile makes no mention of the MS which he employed, but 
it was in all probability the copy belonging to the Cottonian collection, 
which perished in the fire of 1731. This being the only MS. of the 
Chronicle known to have come down to modem times, not the slightest 
aid was to be obtained from manuscript collation, and consequently Mr. 
Petrie deemed it his duty to reprint Savile's text, in the Monumenta Hist, 
Brit, with all its faults ; his own conjectural emendations being annexed 
by way of note. 

The authority and value of Ethelwerd as an historian, Mr. Hardy re- 
marks, are not to be despised ; and in this opinion, brief, obscure, and cor- 
rupt as the chronicle is, to some extent we are disposed to coincide. In 
bringing the four Books of his History before the reader's notice, so far as 
our limits will permit, we shall confine our remarks to the author's exclu- 
sive information — trivial in some instances though it be — and to such dif- 
ficulties as are presented by the corrupt state or the natural obscuri- 
ties of the text ; with such observations as may be elicited by the mode 
in which his translators, in their respective versions, have dealt with the 

Mr. Stevenson, we observe, in reference to the question, whether the 
person to whom Ethelwerd dedicates his Chronicle may not have been Mah- 
tilda, daughter of Otho, and abbess of Quedlinburg, has remarked that, 
from a few incidental expressions and the general tone of the dedications 
in which Ethelwerd addresses her, it might at first sight be inferred that 
she was at this time the inmate of some monastic establishment. For our 
own part, we have searched in vain for these indications, either in the dedi- 
catory epistle, or in the prologues to the several books ; in each of which 
the chronicler personally addresses his fair kinswoman. In the first book 
he certainly dedicates the work to her as '* a most eloquent and truthful 
handmaid of Christ f' but this we take to be a mere complimentary ex- 
pression, and no more. As to the prologues to the succeeding books, 
we shall give the reader an opportunity of judging for himself. 

The exordium of the work, down to a.d. 167, is apparently derived, as 
Mr. Hardy remarks, from the Origines of Isidorus Hispalensis, or from 
some intermediate work of which it was the basis; as also from Beda's 
Historia Ecclesiastica, The whole of this part of the Chronicle, to a. d. 
409, is omitted by Dr. Giles, who curtly dismisses it with the remark that 
'^ in these pages the writer, like other annalists, deduces his history from 
the creation. It is now universally the custom with modern writers and 
translators to omit such prelitninary matter." As to the universality of a 

1857.] The Chronicle of Fabius Ethelwerd. 123 

custom so unsatisfactory, and so unfair to the reader, we beg to say that, as 
at present informed, we have our doubts. 

In Ethelwerd's description of the native countries pf the Teutonic tribes 
which invaded England, we find interpolated the following comparatively 
unimportant passages, not to be met with in the kindred texts of the Saxon 
Chronicle and Florence of Worcester : — 

" Old Anglia is sitoate between the Saxons and the Jutes [Gioti], having a capital 
town in the Saxon language called Sleswic, but m the Danish Haitbaby j. On this ac- 
count Britain is now (»dled Anglia, receiving the name of its conquerors. These north- 
em unbelievers are oppressed by such a delusion that they worship Wothen [Woden] 
as a god, even to this day : namely, the Danes, the Northmen, and the Suevi." 

The next exclusive information that our chronicler gives us is, that in the 
sixth year after their arrival (a.d. 500), *' Cerdic and his son Cinric sailed 
round the whole western portion of Britain, which is now called West- 
sexe." Whereas the Saxon Chronicle and Florence of Worcester inform 
us that in the succeeding year " Port and his two sons, Bieda and MiBgla, 
came to Britain with two ships, at Portsmouth, where they soon effected a 
landing, &c.," Ethelwerd mentions Bieda only. In the text, as printed by 
Savile, the transcriber has transformed the proper name '* Port*^" into the 
Latin preposition ** post ;" a circumstance from which Petrie has ingeni- 
ously conjectured that the MS. from which the edition was printed cannot 
have been of later date than the eleventh century. By Ethelwerd's addi- 
tion to the account given by the Saxon Chronicle and Florence, ** on the 
river Avene," we are enabled to ascertain with certainty that the battle of 
Cerdicsford (a.d. 519), which secured to Cerdic the kingdom of Wessex, 
was fought at Charford on the Avon, in Hampshire. 

Contenting ourselves with such scanty gleanings as these, we come to 
the Second Book. As a fair specimen of our chronicler's wretched style, 
we give a portion of the Prologue, with the two English versions annexed. 
Making every allowance for the difficulties presented by the passage, we 
are compelled to say that we are by no means satisfied with either : — 

" Ad nostri etigeneris proprietatem nunc calamum dirigere oportet. Et quamvis 
non famose pupilla dicitur membrum, veruntamen ministerium prajstat non exiguum 
majoribus membris. Itaque hortamur in Domino ne nostra spemantur a phagolidoris 
dicta, scd potius prseopimas regi ccelorum gratias reddant, si se sapere alta videntur." 

As translated by Dr. Giles : — 

" And now I must turn my pen to the description of those things which properly 
concern our ancestors ; and though a pupil is not properly called a member, it yields 
no little serrice to the other members. We therefore entreat, in God's name, that our 
words may not be despised by the malevolent, but rather that they may give abundant 
thanks to the King of Heaven, if they seem to speak things of high import." 

By Mr. Stevenson : — 

" It is now, &c. ; and although a young maiden is not reckoned a famous member of 
any house, yet she affords no small aid to more important members. Hence I exhort 
yon in the Lord not to despise my words as bitter to the taste, but rather may they 
render you especially thankful to the heavenly King, if they seem to you at last agree- 
able to the palate." 

As a closer approximation to the author's meaning we would suggest 
the following: — 

See a similar passage quoted from Roger of Wendovcr in p. 7. 
"* Sub anno 837, the transcriber has made a similar mistake, transforming " Port" 
[Fortsmoutli] into **post** 

124 - The Chronicle ofFabitM Ethelwerd. [Aug. 

** And I must now direct the pen to what in particular concerns our own family. 
And although the eye is not in general styled a memher, yet no small ud does it afford 
to the members that are larger. We therefore entreat in the Lord that our words 
may not be despised by the gluttonous, but rather that they may return abundant 
thanks to the King of Heaven, if they seem to themselves to have tasted of things of 
high import." 

Utigeneris probably stands for etiam generis ; and phagelidaris is pro- 
bably a corruption of, or a substitution for, phagonihus^ a word found in 
Nonius Marcellus. In his use of the word pupilla, " eye," the author, in 
our opinion, alludes to himself, and his humble office, as penman, of guid- 
ing the pen, dirigens calamum, to points which may interest other mem- 
bers of the family of more exalted station than himself. He then changes 
the figure, and likens his task to that of a provider of a feast, a simile 
which he resumes in his address to Mahtilda,at the conclusion of c. 2. B. iv. 
The things " of high import," there can be little doubt, are the arrival of 
Augustine and the introduction of Christianity. Is it upon his singular 
translation of p^pilla that Mr. Stevenson bases his inference that Mahtilda 
might possibly be the inmate of a monastery ? 

From the Saxon Chronicle we learn that, a.d. 658, Cenwaih fought 
against the Welsh at Peonna [Fen], and drove them as far as Pedreda 
[Petherton, in Somerset]. The passage is mistranslated by Ethelwerd, who 
transforms the place into a person, and tells us that '^ kings Cenwaih and 
Pionna renew the struggle with the Britons, &c." Again, whereas, sub 
tmno 661, according to the Saxon Chronicle, "Cenwaih fought at Posen- 
tesbyrg [Pontesbury ?], and Wulf here, the son of Penda, laid the country 
waste as far as Ashdown*' — Ethelwerd erroneously says, that ** Cenwaih 
fought near fosentesbyrg, and led captive Wulfhere, the son of Penda, 
after overcoming his army at Escesdune [Ashdown].*' 

In A.D. 671, we learn from other sources that there was a great destruc- 
tion of the feathered race. By his use of the word ruina \ our chronicler 
would seem to imply that it was a pestilence that destroyed the birds ; and 
he gives the supplementary and somewhat curious information, that *' there 
was a most noisome stench perceived, both at sea and on dry land, from 
the carcases of birds, small as well as great." Roger of Wendover gives 
a somewhat different version, and tells us that ** there was an extraordinary 
battle among the birds, insomuch that many thousands were found killed, 
and it seemed that the foreign birds were put to flight." Henry of Hunt- 
ingdon states to a similar effect, and adds that there was a great fight 
among the birds, at Rouen, in the reign of Henry I., with a like result ; 
' a presage, of course, of coming events. 

A.D. 710, kings Ina and Nunna wage war with Gerente, king of the 
Welsh. Ethelwerd, with singular carelessness, transforms the ** with 
Oerente*^ of the Saxon Chronicle into a proper name, and tells us that 
Ina and Nunna fought against King Wuthgirete I So much for our glean- 
ings from the Second Book. 

The Prologue of the Third Book is comprised in five lines, the greater 
part of^ which calls for no notice. The concluding line, — ** In quantum 
ergo longinquo spatia mens metitur, in tantum charitatis propius generatur 
affectus," — is rendered by Mr. Stevenson, " Whatever the length to 
which my mind measures its space", so much the nearer to you does it 
draw forth my affectionate regards." Dr. Giles's translation of the pas- 

' Florence of Worcester uses the word straget. 
" The space of what ? 

1857.] The Chronicle of Fabius Ethelwerd. 125 

sage, though it has the modified merit of not being consummate nonsense, 
is hardly more happy than the other. To our mind, the meaning is, — " The 
more, then, my mind appreciates the distance that so widely separates us, 
the nearer to you am I brought in aflfectionate regard." The chronicler's 
request on this occasion, that Mahtilda " will not grow weary of his work, 
through the length of time occupied in reading it,*' goes far, in our opinion, 
towards shewing that she was not an inmate of a monastery. Had she 
been either boarder, novice, or nun, she would unfortunately have had 
too much time for reading left upon her hands. 

A. D. 787 is memorable for the first landing of the Danes, in hostile 
form, upon the British shores. Making some addition to the story, as re- 
lated by the Saxon Chronicle and Florence, Ethelwerd informs us that, when 
the news of their landing from their fleet of three ships was brought, — 

"The king's reeve", who happened to be staying at the town called Dorchester, 
leaped on his horse, and rode to the port with but few attendants, thinking them to 
be merchants rather than enemies, and, commanding them in a tone of authority, 
ordered them to be driven to the royal city. But he and his attendants were slain : 
the name of this officer was Beaduherd.'* 

In A. D. 822, a great Synod was held at Cloveshoo, near Rochester. 
Ethelwerd informs us that there two ealdormen {duces), Burghelm and 
Muca, were slain : a mistake, probably, as the Saxon Chronicle and Florence 
merely mention the fact of their death in the course of that year. In the 
following year, we find mentioned elsewhere, the defeat of Beomulf, king 
of Mercia, at Ellendune, a place that has not, with any certainty, been 
identified. We have the supplementary information in Ethelwerd, nowhere 
else to be found, that " Hun, duke {dux) of the province of Somerset, 
was there slain, and now lies buried in the city of Winchester." 

From A.D. 836 to 871, Ethelwerd diflfers in the reckoning of his years 
from the Saxon Chronicle, as it now appears. 

Suh anno 857, Ethelwerd, in common with the Saxon Chronicle, Florence 
of Worcester, and other chroniclers, introduces the pedigree of iEthelwulf, 
father of Alfred ; and deduces his origin, through a long line of ancestors, 
including Cerdic and Woden, from Scef, son of Noah, according to the 
Saxon Chronicle, and born in Noah's ark. Ethelwerd omits all mention 
of Noah, but gives the following legend, not to be found in Florence or 
the Saxon Chronicle : — 

"This Scef was carried, with a single dromond [dromone], to an island of the 
ocean, called Scani, surrounded with arms; and he was a very young boy, and un- 
known to the people of that land. But he was well-received by them, and they guarded 
him with much care, as though he had been one of their own, and afterwards chose 
hira for their king. It is from him that King Athulf [^thelwulf] derives his 

In Florence of Worcester, again, there is no mention of the ark ; and, 
making Sceldi, or Sceldwa, to be the son, not of Scef, but of Heremod, he 
traces the pedigree up to Seth and Adam, through Seth° the son of Noah, 
and grandfather, thrice removed, of Heremod. Wendover and Malmes- 
bury make Sceldwa to be son of Scef, and Scef son of Heremod ; and their 
account goes far towards proving that Ethelwerd has carelessly omitted a 
portion of the pedigree, they giving the same legendary story, but in a 
more curious and more circumstantial form. We quote from Wendover : — 

" Exactor regisy — the reeve of the shire ; our " sheriff." 

" A mistake, evidently, for Shem. Simeon of Durham and Hoveden g^ve a pedigree 
resembling that given by Florence. 

126 The Chronicle ofFabius Ethelwerd. [Aug. 

" Scef, they say, was, when a little boy, carried in a vessel, with no one to row it, to 
a certain island belonging to Germany, called * Scandalin,' mentioned by the Gothic 
historian JordanusP, and was found asleep '< with his head on a bundle of com, wliich in 
the tongue of our country we call ^ scheft but in the Gallic tongue *garhe* For this 
reason he was called * Schef ',' and was considered as & prodigy by the people of that 
region, who carefully brought him up. On arriving at man's estate, he reigned in a 
town which was then named Slaswic, but now Uarchabi [Haithaby, see p. 4, before]. 
That country was called Old Anglia, whence the Angles came into JBritain, and it lies 
between the Goths [Jutes] and the Saxons." 

The Prologue of the Fourth and most important Book is comprised in 
some six lines of our chronicler's usual bad Latin : in it he again speaks 
apologetically of his inflicting a burden upon Mahtilda by sending her so 
much to read. In the course of the book, at the close of Chapter ii., he 
again interrupts his narrative for the purpose of giving his cousin {conso- 
hrina) some further account of their common ancestry. In concluding 
these parenthetical remarks, he reverts to the figure v?hich we have men- 
tioned as being employed in the Prologue to Book II., and likens his work to 
intellectual food set before his readers. In both of the translations the word 
canistris^ " baskets," is loosely rendered " feast ;" and the, to our mind, 
evident allusion to Matt. xiv. 20, and Luke ix. 17, is wholly overlooked, 
either in the way of note or translation. The following, we would suggest, 
is the meaning, — " If others receive this work with disdain, let them be 
judged unworthy of our food-baskets: but if not, we advise all, with 
Christian love, to gather up what is set before them." 

Sub anno 866, our chronicler mentions " the tyrant Igware" as arriving 
in East Anglia from the North, In a Note, Mr. Stevenson remarks that 
" neither the name of this individual, nor his place of burial, is recorded in 
any copy of the Saxon Chronicle which we possess." Igware, we would 
observe, is no doubt the same person as Inguar ; and Mr. Stevenson needs 
hardly to be reminded, we should think, that Inguar*8 name is mentioned, 
with that of his brother Ubba, in the Saxon Chronicle, sub anno 870, and, 
with that of his brother Healfdene, 8. a. 878. As to the place of Inguar's 
sepulture, nothing whatever can probably be ascertained, the time and place 
of his death being apparently involved in great obscurity. Ethelwerd re- 
presents him as being slain, with Eowyls [Eywysl] and Healfdene, in the 
year 911. In the parallel passages, however, of the Saxon Chronicle and 
Florence, only the latter two are mentioned ; Florence stating, by way of 
addition, that they were brothers of Inguar. Simeon of Durham, evidently 
by mistake for their brother Ubba, speaks of Inguar and Healfdene, as 
being slain on the coast of Devonshire in the year 877 ; and Wendover 
improves the story by making Inguar and Healfdene, as well as Ubba, fall 
upon this occasion ; not content with which, he contrives to kill Healfdene 
over again in 911. Gaimar mentions Iwars, — " brother of Ubba and Healf- 
dene" — he says, as remaining in London, about a.d. 875, while Healfdene 
set out on an expedition against the Picts : and John Wallingford speaks of 
him as taking London, and being slain by the Northumbrians, before the 
death of Ubba, who was himself slain at Kinwith*, a.d. 878. Such are the 
few and conflicting particulars that we have been enabled to gather respect- 

P Jomandes. *! A puerile invention, no doubt. 

' It is just as likely that he was so called from the schipf, or skiff*, in which he 

• Sec Gent. Mag., July, (1857,) p. 25. iElla is mentioned by Ethelwerd only as 
qtiidam ignobilit. 

1857.] The Chronicle ofFabius Ethelwerd. 127 

ing the end of Inguar, a man as sanguinary, Henry of Huntingdon says, 
as his brother Ubba, and as remarkable for his genius {i/ngens ingenivm) 
as Ubba was for his valour. 

Sub anno 867, we learn from Florence of Worcester, Simeon of Durham, 
and other authorities, that peace was established between Osbrith and 
-^lla, the rival kings of Northumberland, before their troops advanced 
against the Danes. The battle between the Danes and Northumbrians is 
described by Ethelwerd, but Mr. Stevenson has given such a turn to his 
translation of the passage as to make it appear that it was fought between 
the parties of the rival kings, and not between them, combined, and the 
Danes, The better to support this incorrect view of the author's meaning, 
he goes somewhat out of his way to translate relicti eorum, SfCy " the sur- 
vivors on each side make peace with the hostile army;" the meaning 
in reality being that the survivors of the combined Northumbrians made 
peace with the Danes, Dr. Giles appears to have taken a more correct 
view of the general drift of the passage ; but some of its verbal difficulties, 
we find, he has not ventured to face. 

Under the same year, the death of Eanulf, duke {dttx) of the province 
of Somerset, with the fact of his burial at Glastonbury, is mentioned ex- 
clusively by our chronicler, William of Malmesbury {^^Antiq. Olaston^) 
speaks of him as comes, or earl, and states that, with the consent of King 
^thelwulf, he gave to the said monastery Dicheshete, twenty hides at 
Lottesham, Hornblowton, and Beange Anhangran, 

Sub anno 870, Ethelwerd makes mention, not to be found in the Saxon 
Chronicle or Florence, of the death of Iwar, king of the Danes. It is pretty 
evident from the context, that our chronicler intends to identify him, though 
erroneously in all probability, with the murderer of King Edmund, of East 
Anglia, Igware or Inguar already mentioned. Mr, Stevenson, in a note to 
his translation of William of Malmesbury, (" History of the Kings" p. 
99,) identifies King Ivar with Bachsseg or Beegsceg, (called * Osecg* by 
Malmesbury, and ' Osryth' in the Book of Hyde,) who was slain at the battle 
of Escendun [AshendonJ in 871, He is probably correct, but we have 
this difficulty, that Ethelwerd also mentions the death of Bachseeg (under 
the name of * Berse*) in the succeeding year to that of Iwar. Gaimar, on 
four occasions, mentions Inguar by the name of Iwar ; and in the Index 
to Petrie's Monumenta, we find the Iwar of Ethelwerd mentioned as an- 
other reading for Inguar. As already remarked, Ethelwerd, with equal in- 
correctness, probably, again mentions Inguar as being slain in 911. 

At the battle of Reading, a. d. 871, Athulf, or iEthelwulf, the brave 
ealdorman of Berkshire, is slain. Ethelwerd is the only chronicler who 
informs us that " his body was removed by stealth, and carried into the 
province of Mercia, to a place, called * Northworthige,' but in the language 
of the Danes, * Deoraby' [Derby]." Mr. Stevenson remarks, (Preface, p. 
ix.,) that Ethelwerd is the first author that mentions the fact of King Burh- 
red being buried at Bury St. Edmund's. Such, however, is not the case; 
in common with the Saxon Chronicle and Florence, {sub anno 874,) he 
states that Burhred was buried in the church of St. Mary, or School of the 
Angles, at Rome. The learned translator probably means Edmund, king 
of East Anglia ; for Ethelwerd is the earUest writer, we beUeve, who men- 
tions his sepulture at Beadorices-wyrthe, or Bury St. Edmund's ; informa- 
tion upon which Wendover, in the miraculous line, has marvellously im- 

In reference to the movements of the Danes previous to the battle, and 

128 The Chronicle ofFabius Ethelwerd. [Aug. 

after their arrival in the vicinity of Reading, Ethelwerd has the following 
passage : — 

" Et jam diebus peractis tribus ex quo venerant, illo protendunt ante duo consules 
eorum jam apparatu equestri, quern natura negarat, obllti classe, aut certe explorationis 
ritu, tarn celeres, aut setemi numinis, per arva sylvasque feruntur." — 

lines which have proved somewhat of a stumbling-block, it would 
appear. Dr. Giles, with the remark that he '* shall be glad if his readers 
will find a better translation for this obscure and inflated passage/' contents 
himself with a very elliptical interpretation of it : — 

** And three days after they came, their two consuls, forgetting that they were not 
on board their fleet, rode proudly through fields and meadows on horseback, which 
nature had denied * to them." 

Mr. Stevenson attacks the* difficulty with greater diflfuseness : with what 
success, the reader who has not * forgotten his Latin,' and who will pay 
attention to the few remarks that we have to make, must decide : — 

" So that, three days after their arrival, their two chiefs career pompously about on 
horseback, although naturally ignorant of the art of riding", and, forgetful of their 
fleet, gallop over the flelds and through the woods, lor the sake either of exploring the 
country, or of obtaining for themselves a lasting reputation." 

From an examination of the corresponding passages in Florence, Asser, 
Gaimar, Simeon of Durham (his two versions), Wendover, and Henry of 
Huntingdon in particular, who says that the Danes were so numerous that 
they proceeded thither in separate bodies and by dififerent routes, we are 
inclined to think that part of the Danish forces passed up the Thames 
towards Reading in their fleet^, while other detachments took a more 
direct route from East Anglia by land. Premising also that, in our belief, 
ohltti, and not ohliti, is the correct reading, and that sufficient weight has 
not been given by the translators to the words illo and pfotendunt, we 
would suggest the following as the meaning : — 

'' And three days having elapsed after their arrival, two of their chiefbains, either 
blocked up with their fleet, to which ^ nature had denied a passage *, or else liuiding 
with a view of reconnoitring, push on before in that direction [Reading], and # # * 
are borne along through fields and woods." 

A copulative conjunction has evidently dropped out of the text, and tarn 
celeres, aut cdtemi numinis is as clearly corrupt. The original reading 
may possibly have been, et hostium immemorest aut Sfc, — *' and, un- 
mindful of the foe or of the eternal Deity, are borne &c.** It may have 
been, possibly, in consequence of, or in connexion with, this stoppage of 
their fleet, that the Danes threw up the entrenchments across the tongue 
of land between the rivers Kennet and Thames, which we find so generally 
spoken of by the chroniclers above-mentioned. 

Sub anno 876, the Danish forces under Guthrum, Oscytel, and Annuth, 

' Novel information this, that the Danes were not Centaurs ! 

^ On the principle, we suppose, that sailors, like tailors, make bad horsemen. Wc 
have yet to be persuaded that the Danes knew nothing of the art of riding. Those 
who read our early Chronicles attentively will find too good evidence to the contrary. 

* It was at a later period in this year that a Danish sumor-Utha, or " summer-fleet," 
passed up to Reading, as to which Gdmar has matle such a singular mistake. See 
Gent. Mao., July, 1857, p. 27, where, for 870, read 871. 

y We obsen'e the false concord, quern for qnam : concords, however, are little re- 
garded by Ethelwerd. 

* In consequence, probably, of the shallowness of the water. 


1857.] The Chronicle of Fabius Ethelwerd. 1 29 

or Anwynd, move from their quarters at Grantan-bricge [Cambridge], and— - 
a thing which they had never done before — unite with the western army at 
Werham [Wareham] ; a junction mentioned by Ethelwerd, and by no 
other writer. He also gives us the exclusive information that Alfred, on 
the occasion of his treaty at this period with the Danes, paid them a sum 
of money by way of tribute. The Danish encampment also at Gloucester, 
A.D. 878, is spoken of only by this chronicler, we believe. 

Sub anno 878, Ethelwerd mentions Healfdene, ** brother of the tyrant 
Igwar," as arriving off the coast of Devon, with thirty ships, and being 
slain there. Ubba, brother of Healfdene and Igwar, is the person meant ; 
and his ships were in reality but twenty-three in number. Ethelwerd is the 
earliest writer too that speaks of Odda, or Oddune, the valiant duke of De- 
von, who slew Ubba in the vicinity of Kin with. If the words, ** postremo 
victoria obtinent locum etiam Dani^'* are intended to mean that the Danes 
at last obtained the victory on this occasion, the worthy chronicler is egre- 
giously mistaken ; for not only was Ubba slain, but the magic standard of 
the Iteafan, worked by the three daughters of Bagnar Lodbrok, was also 
captured, with a loss of upwards of 800, or according to some accounts, 
1,200 of his men. 

At the close of a. d. 885, we have a confused passage of a couple of lines, 
which bears marks of being condensed, in a very corrupt form, and trans- 
ferred from the Saxon Chronicle for the year 894. Dr. Giles gives up the 
translation of it in despair : Mr. Stevenson's version is as correct, probably, 
as, under the circumstances, can be expected. 

Pope Marinus, we observe, who sent to Alfred lignum Domini, a piece 
of the true cross, which he afterwards presented to Glastonbury, is incor- 
rectly called Martinus, 8, a, 885. 

Sub anno 891, Ethelwerd, with other chroniclers, gives an account of 
Dufslan, Macbeathath, and Magilmumen, three Irish pilgrims who sailed 
over to the coast of Cornwall in a coracle made of hides, their boat being 
guided by the will of God — ** non armis nee copiosis lacertis^* — ** not by 
their weapons,** Mr. Stevenson says, *'nor by the strength of their arms." 
How the learned translator would steer a boat by his weapons we should veiy 
much like to know : he surely must have forgotten his Virgil, or he would 
have borne in mind that " arma,** in addition to its other meanings, signi- 
fies the * rudder' or * helm* of a vessel. 

After introducing the aforesaid pilgrims to King Alfred, Ethelwerd tacks 
on to their adventures, as related by the other chroniclers, a rigmarole 
sleeveless story of their pilgrimage to Rome and Jerusalem, which has so 
completely nonplussed Dr. Giles, that he determines to ** omit this obscure 
passage rather than run the risk of misleading the reader by an inaccurate 
translation of it." Why undertake a task for which he so repeatedly ad- 
mits his own incompetence p Had he been compelled to translate the work, 
nolens volens, his candid admissions and his deprecatory ejaculations 
might have gone much further towards disarming censure than at pre- 
sent we are disposed to allow them to do. Mr. Stevenson, fairly enough, 
gives the best translation that the passage will admit of. There can be 
little doubt that the obituary of Swifneh, the Scottish teacher, mentioned 
in the Saxon Chronicle as dying in the same year, with other portions, 
probably, of his story as well, has been mixed up in some unaccountable 
manner with this narrative of the adventures of the Irish devotees. In- 
deed, to Version F of the Saxon Chronicle there is a Latin addition, which 
represents Swifneh as having been their companion when he died. 

Gent. Mag. Vol. CCIII. s 

130 The Chronicle of Fabius Eihelwerd. [Aug. 

From A.D. 894, the period, probably, down to wbicb it was brought by 
order of King Alfred, the Saxon Chronicle is not so closely followed as before. 
In that year, the Etheling Eadwerd, son of Alfred, is mentioned by our chro- 
nicler, and by him only, we believe, as holding office {exercitans) among 
the Southern Angles, and as making head against the Danish invaders, 
with the assistance of iEthered or Ethelred, ealdorman of Mercia. Though 
styled rex by Ethelwerd, Ethelred was in reality only sub-kin^ of Mercia, 
and held London in fealty under Alfred, as Malmesbury says. Mr. Steven- 
son, in our opinion, ought not, as he has done on two occasions, to have 
given a literal translation of the word, and styled him ** king," without 
vouchsafing the reader a note to the above effect. Dr. Giles, again, errs 
in the opposite extreme, and translates rex ** earl," without saying a 
word further about it. Ethelred was the husband of Alfred's illustrious 
daughter, Ethelfleda, the Lady of the Mercians ; who, with the exception of 
London and Oxford, continued her husband's rule, under her brother Ead- 
werd, after Ethelred's death in 911. 

Sub anno 896, the death of Guthfrid, king of Northumbria, on the Na- 
tivity of St. Bartholomew, is mentioned by Ethelwerd, though not to be 
found in Florence or the Saxon Chronicle. He states also that Guthfrid 
was buried in the principal church at York. Simeon of Durham speaks of 
a Guthred, king of the southern parts of Northumbria, the same person^ 
probably, as dying in 894. 

The battle of Holme (probably Holmesdale in Surrey), which, according 
to Florence of Worcester and Simeon of Durham, was fought in 904, is 
erroneously placed by Ethelwerd in 902 ; and, to make bad worse, he bor- 
rows his account of it from the description given in the Saxon Chronicle 
and Florence, of a battle fought in East Anglia in 905 by Eadwerd against 
the Danes ; in which the latter were victorious, though losing their king, 
Eohric [Euric], and many more men than the English. 

In 911 was fought the battle of Wodnesfeld, in which the Danes were 
defeated, and, according to the Saxon Chronicle and Florence of Wor- 
cester, their kings, Eowyls and Healfdene, slain. Florence merely speaks 
of them here as brothers of Inguar, but Ethelwerd improves the story by 
reckoning Inguar himself among the slain. From his disappearance, how- 
ever, from the page of history, there can be little doubt, as already men- 
tioned, that Inguar had gone to his last account some thirty to forty years 

In the succeeding year dies Ethered [Ethelred,] " superstes Merciorum,^* 
" ruler of the Mercians,'' as we would render it. Both translators, in our 
opinion, give Ethelwerd credit for too good latinity in rendering the word 
superstes " survivor" or " surviving ealdorman." There can be little doubt 
that it is here merely a word of barbarous coinage, signifying one who rules 
or stands over — super stat. And then, besides, Ethelred was not " survivor 
of the Mercians, for there were plenty of Mercians left after him; nor 
was he " surviving ealdorman of the Mercians/' for there was only one 
ealdorman of the Mercians at a time. 

The last date mentioned is a.d. 973, and the work concludes with thirty- 
nine halting ungrammatical lines — verses* we can hardly call them — part 
of which are devoted to the praises of King Edg^ and the — hradifonus 
Moysea — ** Moses slow^ of speech," by whom Dunstan is probably meant. 

* They bear some resemblance to the poetical lines inserted in the Saxon Chronicle 
under the years 973 and 975. 
^ Why Mr. Stevenion Bhonld prefer the incorrect tnnslatioii, ** ioft>fpe«kiDg," we 

1857.] The Chronicle of Fabius Ethelwerd. 131 

The coronation of Edgar at Bath, " so from its boih'ng waters called," is 
slightly alluded to, and the lines end with an obscure allusion to the death 
of Edgar, an event which took place July 8, a.d. 975. 

Dr. Giles, as usual, declines to face these lines, on the plea that they are 
*' of a most obscure and ungrammatical character, and altogether untrans- 
lateable." Mr. Stevenson, more laudably, but not so happily as we could 
wish, attempts a translation of them, with the omission of two lines, which 
are certainly little better than gibberish, but in which allusion is pretty evi- 
dently made to the murrain (jpestis) that took place shortly after the death 
of Edgar. 

In Mr. Stevenson's translation, the words—- 

" Argiv88 hebdomadas gentis posaere magistri, 
SeptimanaB redtant post quas nunc voce Latini," 

are rendered into nonsense by — "The masters of the Greek nation have 
used their word for week, after whom the Latins now use the word for 
sevenfold." We have no hesitation in saying that the meaning is, — " The 
masters of the Greek nation have used the word hehdomas, for what the 
later Latins now call by the name of septimana^J* 

The following passage is as obscure, no doubt, as it is corrupt^ but we 
have yet to learn that Edgar died either 5y or with a "leap from the 
earth:" — 

'* Pofitque spiramen reddit author! 
TeUuris instdtus, marcesoens ab eA 
Lumina cemit Altitonantis." 

Mr. Stevenson here might have thought of the great earthquake all over 
England, mentioned by Florence of Worcester and Simeon of Durham as 
having occurred shortly before the death of Edgar ; and he does not seem 
to have been aware that the comet, also spoken of by the same writers as 
having appeared in the autumn of that year, may possibly be the lumina 
here alluded to. In lieu, then, of his translation, — " Afterwards he ren- 
dered up his breath to its Author bi/ a leap from the earth, and while 
fading away from it, he beheld the countenance of the Mighty Thunderer*' — 
we would substitute, as at least something more rational, — " At length, amid 
quakings of the earth, he jrielded up his breath to his Author ; and, as life 
ebbed at his departure thence, he beheld the light that was sent by the 
Thunderer on high." 

In taking our leave of Ethelwerd, we cannot but say, and with regret^ 
that, whereas we anticipated a careful and trustworthy work in Mr. 
Stevenson's ** Church Historians of England," so far as our present re- 
searches have extended we have found ourselves eminently disappointed. 
If our chroniclers are to be treated in such a skin-deep, superficial manner 
as this, better far to leave them to their original Latin, the dust of their 
shelves, and an undisturbed repose. 

are at a loss to understand. He sorely cannot have forgotten the words of Moses 
(Exod. iv. 10), to which this is evidently an allusion, " I am slow of speech, and of 
a slow tongue." 
^ In the Latin of the middle ages the week was called de^tmana. 

182 [Aug. 


LiKB the generous host who adds some rare and unexpected luxury to 
the good things he had agreed for, Mr. Chappell diversifies and enriches 
the intellectual entertainment which he asks us to hy more than one treat 
not promised in his invitation. He ^ves us, indeed, the old airs which 
may have been listened to with mute entrancement centuries ago, and the 
sweet old songs and ballads in which the character of bygone generations 
is embalmed, and the introductory notices in which the history both of the 
music and the poetry is told, but he pours forth at the same time with 
lavish hand a stream of antiquarian anecdote and information worth all the 
rest together, which we had no grouxid to hope for from the title or the 
promise of the work. He has given, in a word, all that he engaged for, 
with an ample store of " rich and rare" instruction and amusement over. 

In his introductory chapters the author gives us a very interesting 
account both of the early history of music in England, and of those 
privileged minstrels who, through many generations, charmed with harp 
and song the hearts of prince and people, not merely amongst the ancient 
inhabitants, but amongst their successive invaders also, whether Saxon, 
Dane, or Norman. Mr. Chappell records a circumstance indicative of this 
delight in the minstrel's art, which he refers to a period as far back as the 
closing years of the fifth century. Alfred's exploit in the Danish camp, 
nearly four centuries afterwards, is one of the wondrous histories that 
we all remember; but it is less commonly known that the same artifice 
was made use of for the same purpose by a Danish monarch sixty years 
after: — 

" With his harp in his band, and dressed like a minstrel," says Mr. Chappell, ** Anlaff, 
king of the Danes, went among the Saxon tents; and taking his stand by the king's 
pavilion, began to play, and was immediately admitted. There he entertained Athel- 
stan and his lords with his singing and his music, and was at length dismissed with 
an honourable reward, though his songs might have disclosed the fact that he was 
a Dune." 

Descending a little later, we find the memorable battle of Hastings be- 
ginning with a song. A Norman herald-minstrel spurred his horse to the 
front of William's army, and began the song of Roland, in the burden of 
which his fellow-countrymen, as they advanced to battle, joined. Mr. Chap- 
pell prints a tune which has been said to be that of the Norman war-song, 
but he warns his readers — judiciously, we think — that he gives it (ts a 
curiosity^ without vouching for its authenticity. From the Conquest 
downwards, through many reigns, there is proof enough of the unabated 
popularity of the minstrels and their art. Under the second Henry their 
influence would seem to have been as beneficial as it was considerable. 
" Minstrels and poets," as we are told in the words of Mr. Sharon Turner, 
" abounded under Henry's patronage : they spread the love of poetry and 
literature among his barons and people, and the influence of the royal taste 
soon became visible in the improved education of the great, in the increasing 
number of the studious, and in the multiplicity of authors, who wrote during 
his reign and the next." The estimation in which minstrelsy was held at 
this time may be indeed collected from the fact that songs were amongst 
the means made use of to excite amongst the people an enthusiasm for the 

• "Popular Music of the Olden Time; a Collection of Andent Songs, Ballads, and 
Dance Tunes, illustrative of the National Music of England. By W. Chappell, F.SJL 
Parts L to IX." (London : Cramer, Besle, and Chap^ll, 201, B^gent-ftreet) 

1857.] ChappelVa Popular Music of the Olden Time. 188 

new crusade. One of these is quoted by Thierry, and is thus translated in 
Mr. Bohn's edition of the history of the Norman Conquest : — 

" The wood of the cross is the standard that the army will follow. It has never given 
way ; it has gone onward by the power of the Holy Spirit. 

" Let us go to Tyre, 'tis the meeting-place of the brave : 'tis there should go they 
who, in European courts, so arduously labour without good firuit to acquire the renown 
of chivalry. 

" The wood of the cross is the standard that the army will follow. 

''But for this war there needs robust combatants, and not effeminate men; they 
who are too assiduous as to their persons gain not God by prayers. 
" The wood of the cross, &c. 

" He who has no money, if he be faithful, sincere faith will suffice for him : the 
body of the Lord is provision enough on the way for him who defends the cross. 
" The wood of the cross, &c. 

** Christ, in giving His body to the executioner, lent to the sinner : sinner, if thou 
wilt not die for Him who died for thee, thou retumest not that which God hath 
lent thee. 

** The wood of the cross, &c. 

"Listen, then, to my counsel; take up the cross, and say, in making thy vow, 
I recommend myself to Him who died for me, who gave for me His body and 
His life. 

** The wood of the cross is the standard that the army will follow." 

Foremost amongst the heroes of the crusade which followed was that 
King Richard who, stained as he was by vice and crime, still kept a min- 
strel's spirit unextinguished in his nature, and submitted himself almost as 
often and as heartily to its refining influences as to the crueller promptings 
of his fierce propensity to war. His reign was the golden age of minstrelsy 
in this country. Skilful himself in the delightful art, under his patronage 
it *' flourished with peculiar splendour." And it will be remembered, too, 
that he received from it a munificent return of good, since it was solely by 
the co-operation of his own proficiency with that of the faithful minstrel he 
had loved and served, that a way was opened in the end for his release 
from the rigorous captivity which interrupted his return from the Holy 
Land. Some of his own compositions have lived through the intervening 
centuries, and continue to bear witness to his skill. 

Mr. Chappell has arranged his materials, for the most part, in the order 
of successive reigns, and the last of the parts now before us — the ninth- 
contains an interesting disquisition on the influence of Puritanism on music, 
and a commencement of the scoffing and satiric songs of the defeated cava- 
liers under the Commonwealth. But the author deviates from this general 
arrangement in the second chapter of his work, in order to introduce an 
account of music in England down to the close of the thirteenth century. 
The reader who is conversant with music as a science will fasten upon this 
preliminary chapter, and pore over it as one of the most precious fragments 
of the work. All the changes which the science underwent — from the 
four scales of Saint Ambrose in the fourth century, and the extension of 
these, two centuries afterwards, to the " eight ecclesiastical tones [or scales] 
which still exist as such in the music of the Romish Church, and are called 
Gregorian, after their founder," down to the beginning of the fourteenth 
century, when a papal decree from Avignon reproved those " disciples of 
the new school who would rather have their ears tickled with semibrevea 
and minims, and such frivolous inventions, than hear the ancient ecclesias- 
tical chaunt," — are indicated with a brief and clear exactness, and a happy 
choice of illustrative anecd ^nd^r the chapter a good example 

134 ChappelPs Pcpular Music of the Olden Tkne. [Aug. 

of the mode in which instruction on such a suhject may be most agreeably 
conveyed. Amongst the attractive materials which Mr. Chappell has 
brought to the elucidation of this part of his subject there is the interesting 
early song, " Sumer is icumen in," which is, as we are told, ** not only one 
of the first English songs with or without music, but the first example of 
counterpoint in six parts, as well as of fugue, catch, and canon ; and at 
least a century, if not two hundred years, earlier than any composition of 
the kind produced out of England." This pretty composition is referred, 
on unimpeachable authority, to a period not later than the middle of the 
thirteenth century. Mr. Chappell gives it, with great propriety, as the 
first of his English national airs. The words — ^not in their modernized 
form, but, as Ritson quotes themi from the Uarleian manuscript, — are as 
follows : — 

« Samer is icumen in, 
Lhude sing cuccu ; 
Groweth sed, and bloweth med. 
And springth the wde du. 

Sing, caeca ! 

•* Awe bleteth after lomb, 
Lhouth after calve ca ; 
Bulluc sterteth, bucke vcrteth, 
Marie sing caeca. 

** Caeca, caeca, well singes tha, caeca, 
Ne swik tha naver na« 
Sing, caeca, na, sing, caeca. 
Sing, caeca, sing, caeca, na.'^ 

Resuming the history of minstrelsy, our author traces the fortunes of the 
tuneful brotherhood downwards, from the distinction which belonged to 
them under the first Edward, to that disastrous epoch, towards the close 
of the reign of Elizabeth, when an act was passed which made minstreU 
wandering abroad punishable as rogues, vagabonds, and sturdy beggars. 
But in the intervening years, honour and emolument had often mllen 
largely to their share. They had been welcome, and on great occasions 
indispensable, guests in courts and castles, satellites of king and knight in 
peace and war. Sums were lavished on them scarcely less, according to 
the value of money in their times, than those by which the " sweet singers" 
of our own age are often recompensed. Their ministry, indeed, was an 
important one. They solaced the warrior in his hours of festivity and 
peace, excited and encouraged him when war drew near, and celebrated 
his success in strains to which all ears and hearts were open. The con- 
queror at Agincourt had taken his minstrels with him to the camp, which 
resounded, on the day before the battle, with the national music ; and 
though, amidst the rejoicings on his triumph, he bade the songs of exulta- 
tion to be stilled, *' for that he would whoUie have the praise and thaukes 
altogether given to God," yet his command was disobeyed, and there has 
come down to us more than one of the minstrel-pieces which were written 
to commemorate the victor's fame. It was not till more than half a century 
after these events that the old form of minstrelsy began, visibly if not 
quickly, to decline. It had, in fact, served its purpose in society. The 
revival of letters, the invention of printing, and the great and general 
activity of mind which these occurrences gave birth to, were fatal to many 
a worse social evil as well as to the wandering minstreFs callmg. A better 
sustenance, to understanding and to heart, was offered to the hungry mul- 
titude at infinitely smaller cost. 

1857.] ChappeWs Popular MuHc of the Olden Time. 135 

Music and song were, however, as flourishing as ever they had been. 
Mr. Chappell quotes a long list of entries from the account of privy-purse 
expenses of Henry the Seventh, which plainly enough shew that the great 
penuriousness of that monarch was still overpowered by his love of music. 
Besides a variety of lesser sums disbursed for dotes and lutes for the young 
princesses, and players on the fidell, there is one payment of no less than 
d&30. ..." delivered to a merchant, for a pair of organnes." His children, 
too, were all proficients in the art he loved. His son, Henry the Eighth, 
was described by a Venetian minister in London. as " an excellent musician 
and composer;" and some of his productions are still extant to justify the 
reputation. The people, at the same time, naturally enough participated in 
the royal taste, and delighted in the songs and ballads which their young 
king encouraged; but before his reign closed there came a season when 
the sense and feeling of his subjects, as it was outspoken in these composi- 
tions, ceased to be accordant with his selfish will, and when he — who had 
meanwhile ripened from the promise of his brilliant youth into a brutal sen- 
sualist and tyrant — prohibited under the penalties of fine, imprisonment, 
and forfeiture, "all such books, ballads, rhymes, and songs, as be pes- 
tiferous and noisome," — pestiferous and noisome being, in this case, con- 
vertible terms with counter to his Majesty* s caprice. 

With the exception of Mary's short reign, during which a vigorous pro- 
hibition of books, rhymes, and ballads, was enforced, every period of our 
history, from the times of the seventh Henry to the Commonwealth, supplies 
some contributions to Mr. Chappell's glorious stream of music and of song. 
But no other reign can at all compare in this respect with that of the 
Virgin Queen. There muft have been something appalling to men as little 
" moved with concord of sweet sounds" — if any such existed then — as Dr. 
Johnson and Sir James Mackintosh, in a state of society as musical as that 
which our author describes. He says : — 

" During the long reign of Elizabeth, music seems to have been in miiversal cultiva- 
tion, as well as in general esteem. Not only was it a necessary qualification for ladies 
and gentlemen, but even the city of London advertised the musical abilities of boys 
educated in Bridewell and Christ's Hospital, as a mode of recommending them as ser- 
vants, apprentices, or husbandmen. In Deloney's 'History of the Gentle Craft,' 1598, 
one who tried to pass for a shoemaker was detected as an imposter, because he could 
neither * sing, sound the trumpet, play upon the flute, nor reckon up his tools in rhyme.* 
Tinkers sang catches ; milkmaids sang ballads ; carters whistled ; each trade, even the 
beggars, had their special songs ; the base-viol hung in the drawing-room for the amuse- 
ment of waiting visitors ; and the lute, cittern, and virginals, for the amusement of 
waiting customers, were the necessary furniture of the barber's shop. They had music 
at dinner, music at supper, music at weddings, music at funerals, music at night, music 
at dawn, music at work, and music at play." 

Hard judgment, too, was dealt to those who were deficient in the general 
taste. A writer, whom Mr. Chappell quotes, scruples not to denounce 
those whose misfortune it was not to love music, as " very ill disposed, and 
of such a brutish stupidity, that scarce anything else that is good and 
savoureth of virtue is to be found in them." With more charity, and more 
truth, a pretty couplet of that musical age tells us — 

^ Such servants are oftenest painfull and good. 
That sing in their labour, as birds in the wood." 

Mr. Chappell's account of the most popular instruments of the time— 
the cittern, the gittern, the lute, and the virginals — ^is clear and curious in 
itself, and is rendered mteresting by the variety of old and odd quotations 


186 ChappeWs Popular Music of the Olden Time. [Aug. 

which, as is his wont on sach occasions, he accamulates ahout the explana- 
tion. Thus, in reference to lute-strings, we learn that they were not only 
much in vogue as new-year's gifts to ladies, but that they often served also, 
like bad wine in our own day, as a substitute for sterling cash. In one of 
his illustrative passages, from a book written in 1594, a money-lender, 
clamorous for repayment, receives this reply : — 

" I pray you. Sir, consider that my loss was great by the commodity I took up ; you 
know. Sir, I borrowed of you forty pounds, whereof I had ten pounds in money, and 
thirty pounds in lute-strings, which, when I came to sell again, I could get but five 
pounds for them, so had I, Sir, but fifteen pounds for my forty." 

Musical, however, as all classes of society were during the reign of 
Elizabeth, it was vocal music that was most cultivated, — instruments being 
chiefly made use of as accompaniments for the voice, or in solo per- 
formances. It was the great musical characteristic of the reign of James 
the First that this predominance was reversed, and that the taste for instru- 
mental music — auchy especially^ as could he played in concert — ^grew 
rapidly in public favour, whilst the more elaborate kinds of vocal music lost 
ground. A circumstance which Mr. Chappell notices is strikingly indica- 
tive of this change. He says : — 

" I know of no set of madrigals printed during the reign of Elizabeth, which is de- 
scribed on the title-page as apt *for viols and voices* — it was fully understood that they 
were for voices only; but, from 1603, when James ascended the throne, that mode of 
describing them became so general, that I have found but two sets printed without it." 

But songs and ballads were still made and sung, and even the first of 
those collections of them which were called GaTlands, is supposed by our 
author to have been produced during the reign of James. 

A very interesting section of Mr. Chappeirs work is that which refers to 
music in its subjection to the pernicious influence of Puritanism. He is 
probably not guilty of any real, certainly not of any intentional, misrepre- 
sentation, when he says that Puritanism, " having once gained the ascend- 
ancy, aimed not only at the vices and follies of the age, but also at the 
innocent amusements, the harmless gaieties, and the elegancies of life." 
But it should be remembered that it was only from a conviction that the 
amusements were not innocent, the gaieties not harmless, that Puritans as- 
sailed them. What they truly aimed at as their ultimate result was '* to 
bring the divine law of the Bible into actual practice in men's afilairs on the 
earth," and whatever impeded or opposed this was neither innocent nor 
harmless in their sight. Devoted to this purpose, and with the persuasion 
ever present to them that human life was but a brief novitiate beyond 
which judgment and eternity awaited them, it would be not wonderful if, 
in the earnestness of their endeavour, the greater portion of men's gaieties 
and amusements should, from their very tendency to distract the mind 
from sterner cares and occupations, be regarded as follies at the least, if 
not absolute vices. They found their allotted time little enough for the 
work they had to do without misusing it. And it would have been excus- 
able, too, if they had looked on music with suspicion on account of the evil 
association in which they had been wont to find it. Its chief supporters 
had been met with in the Romish Church, which the people most feared 
and hated, and in the State-party which had most oppressed them. It was 
on these grounds, but especially on the ground of its disastrous influence on 
religion and morality, that the Puritans — as Mr. ChappelPs own quotations 
shew — avoided and opposed music. One of their pamphlets pra3rs '' that ail 

1857 J ChappelPs Popular Music of the Olden Time. 137 

cathedral churches may he put down, where the service of God is grievously 
abused hy piping with organs, singing, ringing, and trowling of Psalms, 
from one side of the choir to another, with the squeaking of chanting 
choristers, disguised [as are all the rest] in white surplices." And, in the 
** Anatomy of Abuses," complaint is made of music " being used in public 
assemblies and private conventicles as a directory to filthy dancing;" 
whilst it is also urged against it that *' through the sweet harmony and 
Bmooth melody thereof, it estrangeth the mind, stirreth up lust, womanisheth 
the mind, and ravisheth the heart." Coming to them under this loathsome 
aspect of a grievous abuse of God*s service and a provocative of effeminate 
and impure affections and pursuits, how, with their deep, enthusiastic sense 
of duty and devotedness, could the Puritans have given larger toleration 
than they did to music, or how yield themselves to its seductive influence, 
without, as they believed, surrendering in some degree the great paramount 
concern of doing, as they best might do, God's work and will on earth ? 

Some, nevertheless, amongst the memorable men who laboured for the 
Commonwealth found it possible to avoid the evil of music without forfeit- 
ing the good. Cromwell and Milton, undoubtedly, were not men who 
could be moved to abate anything from the strictest claims of duty, yet 
both loved and cultivated music. In the instance of the former, Mr. Carlyle 
tells us, how — alter a princely entertainment given at Whitehall to the 
Honourable House — ** after dinner his Highness withdrew to the cockpit, 
and there entertained them with rare music, both of voices and instruments, 
till the evening ; his Sighness being very fond of music ;" and in the 
instance of the great poet, his delight " in the solemn and divine harmonies 
of music" is as well and widely known as his learning, or his patriotism, or 
his vast imaginative power. 

The cavaliers too, throughout the civil war and Commonwealth, kepi 
song and music from declining, and supported in some degree by their 
loyal strains the cause which they had been unable to sustain in sieges and 
in battle-fields. The influence which is on good authority attributed to 
some of their favourite tunes and songs is such as the strangest witchery 
music has been ever known to exercise hardly exceeds. Amidst the multi- 
tude of these productions, which served the royalist party while they stung 
the other, one especially which was written by Martin Parker, — *' the king 
shall enjoy his own again," — appears to have animated even the darkest 
fortunes of the defeated family with light and hope. Mr. Chappell, in his 
quiet enthusiasm, tells us it " did more to support the failing spirits of the 
cavaliers throughout their trials than the songs of all other writers put to- 
gether, and contributed, in no small degree, to the restoration of Charles 
the Second ;" and Ritson, in a louder tone of approbation, says : — 

" It is with particular pleasure that the editor is enabled to restore to the public the 
original words of the most famous and popular tar ever heard in this country. Invented 
to support the declining interest of the royal mnrtyr, it served afterward, with more 
success, to keep up the spirit of the cavaliers, and promote the restoration of bis son ; 
an event it was employed to celebrate all over the kingdom. At the revolution it of 
course became an adherent of the exiled family, whose cause it never deserted. And as 
a tune is said to have been a principal means of depriving King James of the crown* 
this very air, upon two memorable oecasions, was very near being equally instrumental 
in replacing it on the head of his son." 

Admitting the obscurity which time may have cast over many of the 
allusions, we must still believe that the charm of this celebrated piece was 
not at all communicated by the words. They are as follows :^ 
Gent. Mag. Vol. CCIII. t 

138 ChappelVs Popular Music of the Olden Time. [Aug. 

"Wbat'Hooker doth prognosticate J 

Concerning kings or kingdoms feite, 
I think myself to be as wise 
As he that gazeth on the skies : 

My skSl goes beyond 

The depth of a Pond, 
Or rivers in the greatest rain : 

Whereby I can tell 

All things will be well. 
When the king enjoys his own again. 

" There's neither swallow, dove, nor dade. 
Can soar more high or deeper wade ; 
Nor show a reason, from the stars. 
What causeth peace or civil wars. 

The man in the moon. 

May wear out his shoo'n. 
By running afcer Charles his wain : 

But all's to no end. 

For the times will not mend 
Till the king enjoys his own again. 

" Full forty years this royal crown 
Hath been his father's and his own; 
And is there any one but he 
That in the same should sharer be ? 

For who better may 

The sceptre sway 
Than he that hath such right to rdgn ? 

Then let's hope for a peace, 

For the wais will not cease 
Till the king enjoys his own again. 

" Though for a time we see White-hall 
With cobweb-hangings on the wall, 
Inntcad of gold and silver brave, 
Which, formerly, 'twas wont to have. 

With rich perftuno 

In every room. 
Delightful to that princely train j 

Which again shall be 

When the time you see 
Tliat the king enjoys his own ag^n. 

" Did Walker no predictions lack. 
In Hammond's bloody almanack ? 
Foretelling things that would ensue. 
That all proves right, if lies be true ; 

But why should not he 

Tlie pillory foresee 
Where in poor Toby once was ta'en ? 

And, also, foreknow 

To th' gallows he must go, 
Wlicn the king enjoys his own again. 

" Then fears avaunt ! upon the hill 
My Hope shall cast her anchor still, 
Untill I see some peaceful Dove 
Bring home the Branch I dearly lo>'e; 

llien will I wait 

Till the waters abate. 
Which now disturb my troubled brain, 

Else never rejoyce 

Till 1 hear the voice 
That the king enjoys his own again." 

1857.] ChappelVs Popular Music of the Olden Time, 139 

The Martin Parker to whom the Royalists were indebted for this effec- 
tive rallying-cry, was a diligent and valuable worker in their cause. 
Another of their busiest rhymers was one John Cleveland, a Fellow of 
St. John's, Cambridge, who is chiefly remembered now for his fidelity 
and his misfortunes, and for the insolence of those satires which the dis- 
tinguished individuals they were meant to injure generously and somewhat 
contemptuously forgave. But, on Cromwell's own account, his hberality 
to the unprosperous satirist deserves to be recorded. He had been more 
than once subjected to the merciless scurrility of Cleveland, whom Mr. 
Chappell represents as " a powerful, and often dignified, yet most sarcastic 
writer." In the poet's " Definition of a Protector," whatever else we meet 
with, power and dignity are assuredly not predominating qualities. He 
says : — 

" What's a Protector ? He's a stately thmg, 

Tht^ apes it in the nonage of king; 

A tragic actor — Caesar in a clown : 

He's a brass farthing stamped with a crown ; 

A bladder blown, with other breaths puflf'd ftill; 

Not the Perillus, but Perillus* bull : i 

^sop's proud ass veil'd in the lion's skin ; 

An outward saint lin'd with a devil within : 

An echo whence the Royal sound doth come. 

But just as barrel-head sounds like a drum : 

Fantastic image of the royal head. 

The brewer's with the king's arms quartered : 

He is a counterfeited piece, that shows 

Charles his effigies with a copper nose : 

In fine, he's one we must Protector call, — 

From whom the King of kings protect us all." 

Arrested at Norwich by Colonel Hayes, and taken before the Commission- 
ers, he was sent by them to the safe keeping of the prison of Yarmouth. 
The upshot of his business, Mr.Carlyle tells us : — " he indites a high-flown 
magnanimous epistle to Cromwell, on this new misfortune ; who likewise 
magnanimously dismisses him, to ' sell his ballads' at what little they will 

Mr. ChappelFs interesting work, as far as it is now before us, leaves the 
subject of the Commonwealth unfinished. In the parts which are yet to 
come it is only fair to anticipate no falling off of the entertainment and in- 
struction which are poured forth in such abundant measure in the sections 
which have been already published. In this respect the author's extra- 
ordinary labour in collecting his popular airs of the olden time, in referring 
to each of them all the songs of any bygone celebrity that have ever been 
sung to it, and in ransacking libraries of obscure forgotten books for any 
information of an interesting kind concerning either tune or words, has had 
the result which was to be expected from it. It has procured for him 
a vast store of valuable materials, which his practised skill has used to good 
purpose. He has succeeded in producing a book which will be deservedly 
welcomed with an equal warmth by persons who are little accustomed to 
find gratification in any common source. The student of history, the anti- 
quary, the reader for amusement, and the cultivated lover of sweet sounds, 
will come alike to Mr. Chappell's volume in search of gratification for their 
several tastes, and will assuredly not come in vain. 

14fl Ikng. 


Premisixq that the work now under notice is the result of the recondite 
reading and assiduous researches of a gentleman already favourably known 
to the antiquarian world by his publications on subjects of a kindred nature, 
the best commendation perhaps that we can bestow upon it, and indeed our 
only possible means of giving the reader any adeqiiate notion of its diversi- 
fied contents, will be, without further preamble, to place before him an out- 
line of the leading subjects to which its pages are devoted. Of necessity 
very concisely stated, the principal matters treated of are as follow : — 

" The Histories of Asser, Gildas, and Nennius ; the Ancient British 
Poets ; the Historical Triads ; the Cambreis and other works of the elder 
Gildas ; the Life and Acts of King Arthur; the Discovery of Arthur's Re- 
mains ; Strathclyde in the Sixth Century ; the Battles of Arderydd and 
Gododin ; the Ancient Sea-coast of Britain ; Observations on the MbnU' 
menta Historica Briiannica ; Emblems and Memorials of the Early Chris- 
tians in Britain ; Proofs that Constantine the Great was a native of Britain : 
the Belgic Gauls in Britain and the Craniology of ancient Britain : Roman 
Strategical Works in Central Britain ; the Roman Walled Towns in Britain ; 
the History and Career of Carausius ; the Attacotti of Britain ; the Career 
of Aurelius Ambrosius ; Celtic titular names ; the name " Vitalis," as occur- 
ring in Roman British inscriptions ; the Alleged Works of Richard of Ciren- 
cester ; Particulars relative to Ponticus Virunnius, the Italian author of a 
History of the Britons; the Chronicle of Gottofrid of Viterbo; Ancient 
Accounts of Britain ; with numerous Miscellanea, in conclusion, relative to 
Ancient British Histoiy, Geography, and Ethnology." 

Such, upon the present occasion, is Mr. Poste's varied bill of fare. We 
ourselves have heartily relished them, and can honestly say that, as in general 
his intellectual viands are of recherchi quality, though very possibly they 
may prove " caviare to the general," every true lover of our national anti- 
quities who thinks proper to make an investment with Mr. Russell Smith, 
may safely reckon upon a like enjoyment. In some few instances, as in- 
deed, where the subjects set before us are so numerous and so diversified, 
was naturally to be expected, the learned author has failed to satisfy us. 
Where such is the case, without pretending to be able, from our own re- 
sources, to supply matter of a superior quality to his own, we shall not 
hesitate to adopt friend Horace's first alternative, and "candidly impart" 
the grounds of our objection or mislike. The remaining space at our com- 
mand will be occupied by a brief selection from the many curious passages 
that are everywhere interspersed throughout the work. 

In running over the author's remarks in support of the authenticity 
(genuineness }) of the works attributed to the early Welsh poets — Taliesin, 
Llowarch-H6n, and Merddyn Wyllt for example, our notice has been ar- 
rested by the following : — 

" Giraldus Cambrensis has no express treatise on the Welsh bards ; but in his Liber 
Distinctionum, c. 9, he mentions their Cantorea Historici (historic singers), which im- 
plies that he knew of the existence of the poems ; for if they were historical singers, it 
9urely must be implied^ that their songs, the subject of their singing, were writun." 

• " Britannia Antiqua, or. Ancient Britain brought within the limits of Authentic 
History. By Beale Poste, author of * Britannic Kescurches/ &c.'* (London : John 
Rutisell Smith.) 

^ The it«licf are our own. 

1857.] Posters Britannia Aniiqua. 141 

To our humble apprehension, the concluding words here have all the 
appearance of a nonsequitur. Has Mr. Poste ever read the JProlegomena 
of F. A. "Wolf? We trow not. Had he done so, he would, perhaps, have 
been convinced that it is quite possible for a poet, say Homer for example, 
to have been an " historical singer,'* and for his songs to have had a tradi- 
tional existence, for centuries perhaps, without ever having been committed 
to writing. We would not by any means suggest that such was the case 
with the works of the British bards in question ; but we really are inclined 
to think that Mr. Poste is somewhat at fault in demanding so much more 
to be implied than most of his readers can concede to him, or indeed than 
is requisite for the proof of his position. 

The British Historical Triads, though cited in Speed's History (1614) as 
being mentioned in a work intituled The Reformed Sistory of England, 
seem to have been hardly known 150 years ago, when the antiquarian Lhuyd 
announced that such documents were in existence. They have since been 
published, both in Welsh and English ; but as they are still somewhat in the 
background, Mr. Poste is of opinion that the following statistics relative to 
them may be of utility : — 

"The Historical Triads, as originally published, were 126 in number; and in 1840, 
eleven supplementary Triads were added, which are believed to be of good authority. 
We give the subjoined estimate of the subjects of the whole 137, which probably ap- 
proaches nearly to truth. They may be stated to contain about ICKX) alleged historical 
and ethnographical facts or allusions, of which about 300 are my thol(^oal, or next akin 
to tliat class. Of the remaining 700 facts or allusions, about 400 are mentioned else- 
where in the circle of Welsh or Caledonian literature ; while the remaining 300 are 
found solely in these documents ; and we are almost entirely destitute of other evidence 
as to their veracity or falsehood ; but the truth| o r partial truth, of the greater portion 
of them is to be presumed." 

The third chapter— 110 p^^^fe^-il^j^e voted to the "History of. 
Arthur Mabuter (son of Uth(OT)i Kit^'oT th^ Britons," whom Mr. Poste 
considers to be, and justifiably, 4n pur opinlio/y, — though we by no means 
agree with him in all his minutiae, — a good di^al more than a mere creation 
of romance. The name, he tells us, is derived from Arth-Erch, '* fierce 
bear," and the throne of Dumnonia, he says, Arthur's hereditary dominions, 
(comprising modern Cornwall, Devon, and Somerset), had been occupied by 
his family, of Romano-British descent, for many generations, several mem- 
bers of which, besides being sovereigns of their own state, had been elected 
kings or head rulers {Fendragons) of the Britons. 

With reference to this Pendragonship^ or chief sovereignty over the island, 
held, according to our author, in the fifth and sixth centuries of the Chris- 
tian era, successively by Aurelius Ambrosius, his brother Uther, and his 
nephew Arthur, we have the following particulars — new, in all probability, 
from the very obscurity of the subject, to many of our readers : — 

" When the Romans had completed their conquests here, they appear to have treated 
the people of Dumnonia with singular distinction ; since no garrisons are recorded aa 
being placed within their limits, and they continued to exist, though tributaries, as a 
distinct native power. This seems to have brought them forward to a pre-eminence 
among the other tribes when the Romans left, and they supplied, in the person of 
Constantine of Armorica, who was of the lineage of their kings, though, indeed, he came 
over to Britain from Gaul, the first independent sovereign of the island. After hira^ 
they lost the chief sovereignty for two reigns, those of Vortigem and Vortimer, when 
it fell to a state of Britain called the DemetSB ; soon, however, they set up a concurrent 
dynasty, and recovered the full exercise of the power under Aurelius Ambrosius, in 481. 
They retained it to the year 557, when the proness of the Saxons in the south of 
Britain became so connderable, and, in particular, the newly-founded Anglo-Saxon king- 

142 Posters Britannia Antigua. [Aug, 

dom of Weflsex became so formidable, that they began to be somewhat isolated in thdr 
position in Britain, and their commnnications with the other Britains intercepted. 
Nevertheless, they continued a vigorous resistance against the Saxons, after they had 
lost the sovereignty paramount, till they were conquered by Athelstan in 932." 

To the story of the parentage, birth, exploits, and tragic fate of Arthur, 
traced as it has been by the author with indefatigable research, and related, 
\?e might almost say, with the circumstantiality of a paragraph in yester- 
day's paper, we can do little, as to those points on which we are in accord 
with him, beyond making a slight and passing reference. His mother's 
name is said to have been Eigyr, or Igerna, the faithless wife of Gorlais ; 
and Leland, we are told, found a tradition still current, in his day, that Pad- 
stow, in Cornwall, was the place that gave him birth. The precise date of 
this event is unknown, but it is generally considered to have been some- 
where about A.D. 499. 

Considerable perplexity, however, has been caused to such of the readers 
of our early history as are disposed to look upon the existence of King Arthur 
as something more than a myth, by the conflicting statements that are found 
in chronicle and romance relative to his wife or wives — ^the number of them, 
one, two, or three, being part of the difficulty — known as "Guinever" in 
ordinary parlance. The pages of the work now under notice throw much 
additional light upon this subject, and, sceptical though we are as to many 
of the alleged facts connected with King Arthur, we only wish that some 
of the more knotty and more important points of history could admit of 
as satisfactory a solution : — 

" Objection sixth," says our author, " advanced against the reaUty of the existence 
of Arthur is that he had three wives, all of the same name, Gwcnhwyvar, and 
daughters of different people ; which could not be meant for a fact. And why not ? 
Should not this last circumstance have opened the eyes of the certainly highly learned 
and talented objector [the Honourable Algernon Herbert] that the name was titular ? 
Gwenhwyvar, Weneveria, or Gwenever, is varied, in Geoffrey of Monmouth's History, 
ix. 9, in a way apparently more reasonable than usual with that author ; for he informs 
us that she was named Ghoenhumara, which imports, in the ancient British language, 
' high lady,' or ' queen.' It consequently may easily be imagined that the wife of the 
king of the Britons was usually styled so ; at least in those times. We have not the 
wife of any other Pendragon of this era mentioned by name, and thus we are so far 
deprived of corroboration. However, this explanation removes the inconsistenoy of the 
three queens being all of the same name ; and also clears Arthur of being necessarily 
either a bigamist, trigamist, or polygamist, as there might have been intermediate 

And further, as to the personal identification^ of Arthur's three queens :— 

" The wives of Arthur have all one name handed down to us, Gwenhwyvar, which, 
as we have exphuned, is titular, and always signifies ' queen.' The first, then, was 
Gwenhwyvar, the daughter of Gwythyr of the North; the second, Gwenhwyvar, 
daughter of Gwaryd Ceint ; and the third, Gwenhwyvar, daughter of Gogyrvan Gawr, 
whose mother was a Roman, and who had been educated by Arthur's cousin, Cador, 
earl of Cornwall, as he is called. This was the person left as regent with Medrawd, 
(Modred) ; for whom, however, she deserted her husband, whic^ occasioned the civil 
war. She afterwards, according to the Chronicle, took refbge in a nunnery at Caer- 
leon. Giraldus records the second as buried with her husband at Glastonbury ; but 
ethnologically, the yellow hair** would denote a Caledonian race." 

Whether or no Sharon Turner is justified in his conviction that the 
series of Romances connected with the story of Arthur are exclusively of 
Armorican origin, we have not leisure at present to enquire ; but we cannot 

c We refer to the book itself for the authorities. As to the title Owenhumara, see 
further in p. 339 of the work. 
** Which fell to dust on the disoovery of the two bodies by Abbot Henry de Soilly. 

1857.] Posters Britannia Antiqua. 143 

by any means agree with Mr. Poste in his assertion that the historian '* is 
unquestionably in error in supposing that the original document used by 
Geoffrey of Monmouth in compiling his History originated in those re- 
gions, there being no internal evidence to that effect in the Chronicle 
itself." Whatever the internal evidence of the Chronicle may be, the con- 
cluding words ® of the History are strongly confirmatory, in our opinion, 
of Turner's belief that the document was compiled in Brittany. — " I advise 
them [Henry of Huntingdon and William of MalmesburyJ to be silent 
concerning the kings of the Britons, since they have not that book, written 
in the British tongue, which Walter, archdeacon of Oxford, brought out 
of Brittany, and which ... I have thus taken care to translate." It is our 
own opinion that a very large portion of our knowledge respecting Arthur 
is due to Brittany ^, the rest probably to Wales. 

Though by no means prepared to prove him in the wrong, — and, indeed* 
the onvA prohandi does not rightfully attach to us, — there are some of Mr. 
Poste*s Arthurian positions, to which, with every acknowledgment of his 
scholarship and research, we are by no means prepared, as at present in- 
formed, to yield our assent. If we are to credit the supporters of the 
theory of Arthur's extended sway, and the wide scope of his valorous 
deeds, his battles were fought in Lothian, in Northumberland, in Durham, 
in Warwickshire, and in Hampshire, (Silchester, for example,) to say 
nothing of Norfolk, (according to some authorities,) and various other 
localities now unknown. It wholly passes our comprehension how the 
prince of a petty community, not sufficiently civilized to possess a coinage 
even, and with necessarily very limited resources in the way of transit, 
could possibly move large armies, with all the requisite munitions of war, 
between £uch distant parts of the island as these. The organization neces- 
sary for such a purpose, supposing even that all the other states of Britain 
were ready to yield implicit obedience to the military requisitions of their 
Pendragon, would imply, to our minds, a degree of civilization and powers 
of locomotion beyond anything that we can at present concede to the help- 
less Romanized Britons of the fifth and sixth centuries. For some ex- 
planation on this point we have in vain searched the various extracts, and 
the author's deductions from them : wherever Arthur is wanted, there he 
is, just in the nick of time ; but how he gets there, and what are his means 
of transit, we are never informed. The following passage in reference to 
Arthur's " perambulatory habits," as Mr. Poste calls them, or his ubiquity^ 
as we should be rather inclined to term it, is somewhat to the purpose ; 
though it in no way helps us in our dilemma, but only strengthens our 
incredulitv : — 

" It may be suspected, as many of Arthur's military operations had evidently the 
character of surprises, where any imperfect details are mentioned, that, from his 
popularity in the ^orth during the Saxon war, and being able, at all times, to collect 
together a large body of men at a short notice, he was accustomed to tinverse great 
distances, and to appear suddenly on any point where the Saxons or IMcts were in the 
field in force. The poems of the Bretons certainly seem to favour the idea, for they 
speak of his army in march suddenly appearing on the hills with all due pdraphemalia 
of war. The ap earing thus unexpectedly with his troops, is evidently an idea now 
connected with him in Brittany; therefore it may be concluded it was founded on 
some facts of the case anciently." 

We are almost half inclined to suspect that poets and chroniclers have 

* Alluded to by Mr. Poste himself in p. 343. We note his remarks on the same sub- 
ject in his Brit. Rettearcheg, pp. 197 and 201. 

' The Saxon chroniclers, be it remembered, never mention hun even. Who Nenniua 
was, and what was the age of his History, \b wholly a matter of doubt. 

144 Posters Britannia Antigua, [Aug* 

attributed to one Arth-Erch the valorous deeds of perhaps numerous 
Arth-Erchs, and that the Arth-Erch of Dumnonia, who waged war with 
the Saxon invaders in the south of England, was altogether a different 
personage from the warrior of that name who held his court at Carlisle, 
and fought against the Picts in Lothian. As to Arthur's descent upon 
Ireland, his conquest of Denmark and Norway, and his expeditions to 
France in support of Childebert I., though assented to by Mr. Poste, and 
many other antiquarians, probably, as well, we are well content to suspend 
our opinion until we are more largely informed upon the subject. When 
we grant that he was a petty king of Dumnonia, that he opposed the 
Saxons, was slain in battle, and was buried at Glastonbury, we reach the 
limit of our' present concessions. 

It has always struck us, too, as something singular, that Taliesin and 
Llowarch-H6n, " the two great literati of the day," as our author calls 
them, should have given so little information about Arthur and his 
valorous exploits?. Mr. Poste has seen the difficulty, and, valeat quantum, 
thus accounts for it : — 

" The first of these bards appears to have been in the service of Maelgwyn Gwynedd, 
or in that of his son, or to have dwelt in his territories; and between this person and 
Arthur there are evidences of an outstanding feud : while the second, Llowarch-H^n, 
is recorded, in Triad 112, to have been likewise himself at variance with Arthur. 
This would have its effect in preventing him from benjij the subject of their epics. 
We should say that the bards were naturally timid in riskin|if the loss of their entolu- 
ments at the court of a monarch who protected them ; while, on the other hand, we 
can find no evidence that Arthur favoured this order, which might be another reason 
for their being disinclined, at that day, to celebrate his praises. Maelgwyn Gwynedd 
influenced nearly all of South Britain which was at that time clear of the Saxons, 
Dumnonia excei)ted. Besides, if it were not so, there is no great evidence of Arthur's 
popularity in Britain, out of Dumnonia. The great stand made ag^ainst him by Me- 
drawd, in so bad a cause, seems to imply that he had not that hold on the affections 
of the Britons of this quarter that might have been expected." 

After the recital of the Pendragon's valorous deeds, at such a distance 
from home, and at the head of vast levies contributed to their sovereign 
paramount by the minor princes of Britain, we are certainly surprised to 
hear his want of popularity and want of influence pleaded, in South Britain 
more particularly. Another suspicious circumstance, too, connected with 
his northern battles, is the fact that Cheldric, his chief opponent in the 
greater part of those battles, is altogether unmentioned in history. Mr. 
Poste in one place (p. 105) informs us that the voice of antiquity appears 
to have appropriated to this prince of Dumnonia " a species of permanent 
territory at Carlisle and in that quarter ; where it is implied that he re- 
sided during the intervals when there was a lull in the hostilities, and kept 
his court." And yet on another occasion (p. 123) we are told — and how 
are the two statements to be reconciled? — that as Arthur had no civil 
jurisdiction over the island, "when the war was over," — we quote the 
author's words, — ** Arthur's occupation was in a measure gone ; and he 
seems to have traversed the island as a species of itinerant, till some new 
enterprise arose. That he was somewhat restless, we might almost con- 
clude from the passage in the * Life of St. Padam,* Cottonian MSS., 
wherein it is said, * a certain tyrant walked up and down these regions 
(South Wales) on all sides, by name Arthur, &c.' " To say nothirig of his 
foreign expeditions to Denmark, Jsorway, Ireland, (Mr. Poste does not go 

f They merely mention his struggles with the Saxons in the south, and say not 
a word about his battles in the north of England. 

1857.] Posters Britannia Antiqua. 145 

80 far as to say Iceland), and France ; what with his wars in remote parts 
of Britain, his keeping court at Carlisle, or else roaming about the island 
in quest af new enterprises, we are compelled to come to the conclusion 
that this patriotic sovereign, spite of the ill-will of his Cambrian neighbour, 
Maelgwyn Gwynedd, and the hostile advances of the Southern Saxon in- 
vaders, who were gradually encroaching upon him and founding the king- 
dom of Wessex, troubled himself little or nothing about his domestic 
affairs, but left his native Dumnonia to take care of itself! 

Arthur, too, found time, we are told, for writing poetry. The only relic 
of his composition that has come down to us, it appears, is a triplet 
which forms part of Triad 29, and which, with a translation, we subjoin. 
Mr. Poste is of opinion that it is " forcibly expressed, and in a somewhat 
flowing strain.'' . There is much in enthusiasm ; but to our humble appre- 
hension it looks very like the most prosaic of all prose — the items of a 
trade catalogue : — 

" Sef ynt fy nhri Chadfarchawg, 
Mael bir, a Llyr Lluyddaug, 
A Cholofo Cymru Caradawg/* 

In English : — 

" These are my three battle knights^ 
Mael the T^ and Llyr the brilliant Chief, 
And Caradog the Pillar of the Cambrians." 

About the Round Table, which he seems inclined to look upon " as a 
fancy of after-times," our author gives no particulars. The oflScers of 
Arthur's guard, he thinks, may have been the persons whom romance has 
designated as the Knights of the Round Table. Mr. Roberts has sug- 
gested, in his edition of Tysilio*s Chronicle (p. 151), that a circular table 
might have been used, with the view of avoiding all cavils in respect to 
precedency, among the illustrious visitors who came to Arthur's festivals. 

Among the places which have received their name, Mr. Poste says, 
*' from this ancient British king,'' or, as we should be inclined to think, 
from various persons who have been known by the name or title of Arth- 
Erch or Arthur, the following are enumerated : — 

" Arthur's Chair, a mountfun craig near Edinburgh ; Arthur^s Chair (Cadair Arthur), 
a mountain in Brecknockshire ; Arthur's Oon, an ancient Roman circular building in 
Fulkirkshire, now removed, supposed to have been a temple ; Arthur's Castle, which 
are certain foundations near Penrith; Arthuret, a village in Cumberland; Arthur's 
Hall, in Cornwall," &c. »» 

Mr. Poste's enquiries into the locality of the battle of Camlan — near 
Camelford, in Cornwall, probably — are by no means the least interesting 
portion of his Arthurian researches ; in them, combined with his descrip- 
tion of the engagement, his account of Arthur's death, and his explanation 
of the story of Arthur's fair leech, the hospitable Morgana, the antiquarian 
reader will find much that is worthy of notice. The story of Morgana 
became gradually expanded into numerous fairy tales, and was in succeed- 
ing ages transferred to Sicily by the Norman knights who had settled in 
that island and on the coasts of Apulia : — 

" Morgana, transformed into a fairy, was said to reside there. The mirages and 
optical delusions on the sea-coast were called by her name. Fata Morgagna ; and she 
was said to preside in Arthur's phantom palace, in the forests at the back of Mount 

** There are the remtuns also of Arthur's Castle, as it is said, in the vicinity of Huel- 
goat, in the department of Finisterre, in France. 

Gent. Mao, Vol. CCIII. v 

146 Posters Britannia Antigua. [A^ug. 

Etna, where he lived in happinesB unbroken and nndouded ; not only restored to life, 
but restored also to his kingly state." 

These additional particulars we also find in another passage relative to 
Morgana * : — 

" Morgana, asserted to have been Arthur's near relation, and according to some his 
sister, there is reason to believe was a real existing personage. Her name is truly 
British, and according to some accounts she was sent for, and came from some distance, 
to attend him when wounded, at Glastonbury, and remained tendering her assistance 
till his death. According to other accounts, she had a residence, retreat, or establish- 
ment of her own, at Avallon ; which is, indeed, by far the best-founded opinion, and 
more consistent with the transfer there of the wounded king. She is not only de- 
scribed in the verses as placing the king on an embroidered couch, and ministering to 
him in his afflicted condition, but when dead, according to Qiraldus, she duly attended 
to his funeral obsequies. Romance has been busy with her memory, and as Arthur was 
feigned to be conveyed away to Sicily, so she was made to be his attendant fairy. 
Together with this, the mirages, optical delusions, and refractions on the coast were 
called ' Fata Morgagna ;' literally, ' Morgana the Fairy,' but perhaps originally more 
closely associated with the idea of her agency in these phenomena, in the form ' Fatti 
di Morgagna,' or the ' Doings of Morgana,' being supposed her production ; and so 
known to this day, not only on the coast of Sicilyi but in all other parts of Europe, and 
indeed of the world." 

About King Arthur we derive no information whatever from coins. The 
following admission, it strikes us, does not say much for the civilization of 
the times immediately succeeding the abandonment of our island by the 
Romans, in the reign of Valentinian III., a.d. 446 : — 

** We need not remind our readers that, in treating of our subject, we are without 
the usual resource of coins and inscriptions to bring to the aid of the history of this 
era. When the Romans left the island, they took their art of coining with them ; and 
it reappeared no more for about two centuries, when the Anglo-Saxon sceattas began 
to be struck. It is unnecessary to enlarge on the great utility of this species of illus- 
tration, which does not exist in the present case. We have no coins of Vortigem, 
Vortimer, Constantino of Armorica, Aurelius Ambrosius, Uther Pendragon, Arthur, 
Constantine III., Aurelius Conanus, or Vortipore, king of the Britons. Nor are their 
heads, likenesses, effigies, or representations, at all known, or those of any of them." 

Mr. Poste's account of the discovery of Arthur's remains at Glastonbury 
Abbey we only notice with the view of correcting one or two errors into 
which the learned author has fallen. The year 1070, he says, (meaning 
1170, we presume,) has the authority of Giraldus Cambrensis as being the 
year in which the disinterment took place, and Henry de Blois was abbot 
at the time. Such is not the fact : Giraldus says, in a passage, too, from 
the Liber Distinctionum quoted by Mr. Poste himself, that the discoveiy 
was made by Abbot Henry, who was afterwards Bishop of Worcester, — a 
dignity which Abbot Henry de Soilly ultimately attained, but which was 
never bestowed upon Henry de Blois. Henry de Soilly, too, was made abbot 
little, if anything, before 1 189, the last year of Henry II., and, as well as 
Henry de Blois, was related to the royal family, — a fact that evidently has 
escaped the author's notice. There ought, too, in our opinion, to be the 
less confusion about the two Abbots Henry, seeing that Robert ^, Prior of 
Winchester, succeeded Henry de Blois in 1171; and after his death, in 
1178, the abbacy remained vacant for several years. 

Mr. Poste's explanation of the almost cabalistic characters on the two 
pyramids situate near Arthur's grave, at Glastonbury, does credit to his 
ingenuity ; but we commend to his notice the somewhat different readings 

^ As to the word Morganaiic, see Qent. Mao., July, 1857. 
J It is pretty evident, fh)m what he says in p. 167, that 

Mr. Poste has also over- 
looked this fact. 

X857.] Posters Britannia Antigua. 147 

given by William of Malmesbury and his copyist John of Glastonbury, 
ivith which he would seem not to have been acquainted. Under the general 
name of Antiquitates Glastonienaes^ our author, it seems to us, has con- 
fused three essentially different works, — the " Antiquities" of Glastonbury, 
by William of Malmesbury ; the "History" of Glastonbury, by Adam de 
Domerham ; and the " History" of Glastonbury by the anonymous writer 
styled by Hearne John of Glastonbury. The latter, though employing the 
works of the former two in his compilation, and continuing the narrative 
where left off by Domerham, has no claim whatever to be called their 
editor ; for his chronicle is totally distinct from theirs,-=-retaining all the 
matter of Malmesbury, adding considerably to it, and rejecting much of the 
text of Domerham. Mr. Poste's dates, too, on this subject, are singularly 
faulty : the third volume of Gale's Quindecim Scriptores was published 
in 1691, not 1697; Hearne's "Malmesbury and Domerham" in 1727, not 
1709 ; and Hearne's " John of Glastonbury" in 1726, not 1709. Domer- 
ham's History extends from 1126 to 1290, and not to 1190. The work, too, 
of John of Glastonbury is perfect, not down to 1334, but to 1342; after 
which it is continued by the short book of " William Wych the Monk," 
down to 1493. The accuracy of figures is a thing by no means undeserv- 
ing a scholar's notice. 

Upon what ground Mr. Poste has ventured to include the kingdom of 
the Franks among the Gothic kingdoms of Gaul, we cannot understand. 
It may possibly be a colloquial mode of expression merely ; but it involves 
an inaccuracy none the less. The Franks were no more Goths than the 
Saxons were. While the Goths, or Guttones, were making the tour almost 
of the then civilized world, and devastating much of it with fire and sword, 
the Franks were leisurely and more noiselessly crossing the Rhine, and, 
after a short but sharp struggle, becoming amalgamated with their more 
civilized and more numerous, though less warlike neighbours, the Romano- 
Celtic population of Gaul. On the other hand, however, we are quite 
willing to make Mr. Poste a present of the Vandali and the Alani, and 
even the Burgundiones, as of Gothic extraction, — and it is not every one, 
perhaps, who will do as much as that. 

Fifty pages are occupied with an elaborate examination jof the ancient 
poem, the " Battle of Gododin," by the bard Aneurin ; an event which 
the author supposes to have taken place at the eastern extremity of the 
Wall of Antoninus, which ran across Strathclyde. The locality, the Kal- 
traeth of the poem, he looks upon as identical with the modern Coreddin, 
a place about fifteen miles from Edinburgh ; and the poem, in his opinion, 
bears no reference whatever to the massacre by Hengist at Stonehenge, as 
suggested by Mr. Edw, Davies and the Hon. Algernon Herbert. Aneurin 
he considers to have been a native of Strathclyde Proper, who accompanied 
the British army as herald, and was taken prisoner by the Saxons and 
Picts. At a later period, Aneurin resided in Cambria, at the college of 
St. Cattwg ; with which, in Mr. Poste's opinion, he was officially connected. 

The following extract relative to the site of Canterbury, from the re- 
marks upon the ancient sea-coast of Britain as illustrated by that of Kent, 
is sufficiently curious, from its novelty to most readers, to deserve quo- 
tation : — 

"Canterbury may be considered to have been a seaport in Roman times, though 
history be silent on that subject. The foundations of the present city are 13 or 14 feet 
below the original ground. There is, therefore, a great accumulation of soil in the town, 
and not less exists in the surrounding levels, once, like those of Fordwich, occupied by 
water. There is about this city ample space and dimencdons where a harbour might 

148 Foste's Britannia Antigua. [Aug. 

have been, and indeed we may say with some confidence, where a harbour wcu in andent 
times. In proof of this, to say nothing of the said port of Fordwich, only two miles 
below on the river, we may allege the instance of the anchor of a ship found at Brooms- 
downe, two miles above. (See Harris's * History of Kent.*) This last place seems to 
have been near the small village of Thanington, opposite Tunford and Bigberry ; and 
the estuary itself may be considered to have extended as high as French's Hill, in Chil- 
ham, near the present railway-station." 

A propos of the mutations of the coast of Kent, for the benefit of those 
in the number of our antiquarian readers who may not possess the ArcTuBO* 
logia, in the fifth and sixth volumes of which the subject has been discussed 
at considerable length ; we extract the following singular information relative 
to the Pudding-Pan Rock, or shoal, which lies at sea among the flats con- 
tiguous to Heme Bay, Reculver, and Whitstable, — a Roman pottery sub- 
merged by the ocean, it would seem : — 

" This rock, or shoal, is remarkable for the g^eat quantities of Roman pottery raised 
np from it by the fishermen in tbeir nets ; whence the opinion is frequently entertained 
of a vessel from Italy, laden with pottery for the use of the Romans in Britain, having 
been wrecked upon it. The earthenware found u of two descriptions— j>a/cr« and cape- 
dines [cups] of the red species, usually called Samian ; and simpula, aimpuvia, [both, 
probably, smaller cups or ladles], and ealini [dishes], of the dusky black, or Tuscan 
class. Many of these last are found whole, and are stated to be used in the fishermen's 
families for domestic purposes*'. The rock, or shoal, is described as half-a-mile long, 
thirty paces broad, and as having fix feet water upon it at low tides. According to 
Mr. Keate, it is at one particular spot that the pottery is fotmd ; and that after it has 
been agitated by storms. Governor Pownall further ascertained the existence of Roman 
masonry here, fishing up a large piece of brickwork, and the usual tiles. This removes 
the id^ of a vessel wrecked here, before most commonly entertained as the readiest 
solution for the pottery discovered. Pownall concluded that there had formerly been 
a pottery manufacture on an island at this place, which had been washed away, like the 
neighbouring shores of Rccidver, though no history records it. From Ptolemy's maps, 
he was at one time inclined to think that this island was that styled Counos, but after- 
wards abandoned that supposition." 

Coins and numerous other articles of metal were probably the frequent 
accompaniments of Roman sepulchral deposits; hence the frequent dis- 
coveries of them, in Mr. Posters opinion, in the marshes and low grounds 
in the vicinity of London, upon the banks of the Thames : — 

*' These ancient marsh or low -land borders of the river may be considered as having 
been occupied by numerous cemeteries of ancient London ; and the more so, as we find 
but few places of their sepulture recorded in localities which would have been within 
the suburbs of the ancient city. The bed of the Thames, it is well known, is replete 
with Roman coins and other specimens of the antiquities of that people — as rings, seals, 
and the like. We find that it has exercised the speculations of some of our most eminent 
antiquaries to account for their existence in that situation ; nor has anyone professed 
to point out a satifefactory reason. In our present enquiry we may possibly be able to 
assign one, which is comprised in the suggc^stion that the water-margins of which we 
speak, replete with interments, and abounding consequently with the various objects of 
f\inereal di'posits, were from time to time washed away into the river, and that their 
contents became transferred to its bed. The eminent antiquary, Mr. C. Roach Smith, 
has noticed this circumstance of the deposit of Roman coins in the Thames, and was 
evidently at a loss for their occurrence there in so large quantities : the cause, as al>ovo 
assigned, will probably be deemed sufficient by most enquirers — coins being frequent ac- 
companiments of sepulchral deposits. As to other objects ; many emblems connected 
with paganism were, no doubt, as usually supposed, committed U) the river when the 
Roman Britons renounced that creed." 

'' Stale, very stale, as the saying is, we risk the repetition, " Truth is stranger than 
fiction." Imagine fishermen's children supping their broth from earthenware near 
two thousand years old ! Little did the potter wot of the mouths in whose behoof he 
was turning the wheel. 

1857.] Po8t€?8 Britannia Antigua, 149 

In two numbers of our Magazine for 1824 we gave some little informa- 
tion — we are not going to quarrel with Mr. Poste for saying that our notices 
*' hardly profess to be accounts''^ — respecting an ancient vessel that had 
been recently dug up from^a deserted branch of the Rother, in the parish 
of Rolveden, in Kent. With the zeal of a genuine antiquarian, he has col- 
lected a large amount of additional matter relative to this singular dis- 
covery, and in his opinion the vessel was not improbably employed in one 
of the French expeditions of Edward III. or Henry V. Shortly after the 
discovery, it vi?L^ floated to London, exhibited there, and, proving an un- 
fortunate speculation, proh pudor ! was broken up in 1824 ; having found 
a much better friend in the mud of the Rother than in the good taste and 
civilization of the nineteenth century. Extracted from many equally cu- 
rious particulars, we can find room for the following items, and no more : — 

" The pottery found in it comprised a dark earthen jar or vase, nnglazed, with three 
feet triangularly disposed ; two other jars also, with three feet and a pair of handles 
each ; these were glazed inside, and had been used on the fire as cooking utensils. With 
these was an earthen jug of about a pint measure, similar to those used in Flemish 
public-houses, as delineated in the pictures of Teniers. Of glass there appears to have 
been only one specimen, a small glass bottle, with a swelling and somewhat globular 
lower part, a rather long neck, and a very wide rim round the orifice for the stopper ; 
having been, as may be surmised, a medicine -bottle, or cruet. Among the other articles 
found in the caboose was a curious oaken board with twenty-eight holes in it, which had 
a very short shank or handle. Some conjectured it was used to keep a reckoning, others 
in playing a game'; while, again, there were those who thought that it was for cuHnary 
purposes. It was, however, too large to enter any of the cooking vessels. Many articles 
of metal were found : a steel for striking light ; several hooks ; parts of two locks ; a 
hilt of a sword ; a sounding-lead, which was a short octangular bar of that metal, and 
not cylindrical, as now is the case. Among bones of various kinds, the skull of a man 
and other human bones were found in the cabin ; and those of a boy amidships. His 
legs were aloft towards the side of the vessel, whilst his head and shoulders had found 
some temporary support, till the silt entered and consolidated around, as a very com- 
plete impression remained of them in the above substance with which the slup was 
filled. As to the impression in the silt ; at Herculaneum was found the same kind of 
plastic moulding of the head and breast of a woman in the tufa, which seems a parallel 


In reference to the sand-hills between Deal and Sandwich, and the pur- 
poses for which they have been employed in former times, the following 
sinister passage has arrested our notice : — 

" We should note that there was one obvious use to which these sand-hills were ap- 
plied, — that of their being frequently made the burial-places for shipwrecked mariners, 
of which there is no doubt. A few years since the skeletons of fourteen men were found 
in one of them, very perfect, the date of the interment not known. The bones were 
broken up, and sold by the bushel for manure." 

Broken up, quotha, and sold hy the hushelfor manure ! 

'* To what base uses we may return, Horatio !" 

In these enlightened days, when a use is found for everything, and the 
charnel-houses of Hamburg and the battle-fields of Germany are actually- 
emptied into Yorkshire billy-boys for the fattening of British soil, the 
pagan S. T. T. L. ™, we opine, would make an epitaph the reverse of com- 

^ This may possibly have been an early specimen of a shovel-board, or shuffle-hoard^ 
used in a game formerly much in vogue in this country. The game is still played in 
the United States, and is more particularly a favourite pastime on board ship with our 
Transatlantic cousins. 

° Sit tibi terra len'st, — "May the earth lie light upon thee." Reversed in the 
satirical epitaph upon Sir J. Vanbrugh, — " Lie heavy on him, earth," &c. These human- 
bone-grinding gentry must surely be descendants of the Fe-fo-fum man of nursery lore, 
who seems to have had a penchant of a similar nature. 

150 Posters Britannia Antiqua. lA^S* 

plimentary ; and Sir John's superincumbent load were a penalty by no means 
to be deprecated by those who advocate the for-ever-unmolested repose of 
the dead. For the sake both of the living and the dead, we shall have to 
think seriously about urn-burial before long. 

To turn to another and a more pleasing subject. Despite the grumbling 
that we have heard of in some quarters, in Mr. Poste's general commenda- 
tions of that great national work, Fetrie's Monumenta JSistorica Britannica^ 
we cordially acquiesce; while at the same time we equally concur with 
him in condemning the division of the classical extracts relative to Britain 
into a triple series, — historical, geographical, and miscellaneous ; an arrange- 
ment, as he justly says, and as we ourselves know by troublesome expe- 
rience, which involves confusion in a work necessarily of a somewhat com- 
plicated nature, and makes reference less easy. We are also of opinion 
with him that extracts — if, indeed, any such there be — should have been 
given from ancient Oriental writers who have mentioned the British isles. 
" There are also omissions,'* Mr. Poste says, " of various passages of classic 
authors, which one way or the other have escaped the compiler ;" a remark 
which, to some extent, we are also enabled to confirm. For example, we 
have searched in vain for the famous fragment of Hecatus of Miletus, quoted 
by Diodorus Siculus (ii. 47), the oldest passage, perhaps, bearing reference to 
Britain, and descriptive of the round temple of Apollo there — not improbably 
Stonehenge. The Index Nominum to the extracts, the want of which 
Mr. Foste looks upon as a considerable defect, he will find included in the 
Index Berum, or General Index : so far as our own researches have ex- 
tended, the names are there fully given. 

Mr. Foste has laboured strenuously, and with much ingenuity, to prove 
that Constantine the Great was a native of Britain : the current of testimony, 
however, is generally considered to run in another direction, and I^aissus, 
or Nyessa, in Mcesia Superior, is all but universally looked upon as his 
birthplace". Unfortunately for the author's argument, that it was Con- 
stantius II., and not his father Constantine, that was bom at Nyssa, it is 
just as generally conceded that Constantius was a native of Sirmium, in 

The following are the motives which, according to our author, impelled 
the Romans to wall their cities and towns in Britain : — 

" I. To give this additional defence to the capital cities of the island, the chief seats 
of the Roman power. II. To form permanent places of defence against the descents of 
the Saxons, or other rovers of the sea. III. Ditto, against the Scots and Picts; and 
to constitute a continued line of fortifications across the island, from Solway Firth to 
the Tyne. IV. For garrisons in the states of native princes. These may be regarded 
as their principal objects; nor are we to suppose that there are many exceptions to 
these views." 

The ancient Roman walls, he informs us, of Anderida or Pevensea, are 
still from 25 to 30 feet in height. 

Of detached towers of undoubted Roman construction, scarcely a speci- 
men, Mr. Foste says, now remains in this country. Of course he is well 
acquainted with the Fharos in Dover Castle, so recently respited from 
the contemplated onslaught of one of those soulless nuisances, happy 
in nothing but their name of '* Boards :" the material of it is undoubtedly 
Roman, the construction probably so. The small tower still existing in the 
abbey gardens of St. Mary's at York is generally looked upon, we believe, 

" The opinion that Constantine was a native of Britain is considered to have been 
ably refuted by Schopflin, in his Commentationes ffisioricce, Basil, 1741. 

1857.] Posters Britannia Antiqua. 151 

as of Roman origin ; but, so far as our memory serves us, it was origi- 
nally connected with the city walls. 

In the chapter upon '' the Nature and Scope of Celtic titular Names," 
we note the following passage : — 

"An, aun, aint, or on, is Teutonic, and the same as the modem German ami, an 
office or duty. It is found combined with very numerous Celtic titular names, — Meiriaun, 
Cynau, Geraint, Tasciovan, Farin, (Vawr-an,) Caredigion, &c., &c., — ^and implies indif- 
ferently the office or government itself, or the person holding it ; as if we should ex- 
press 'governor' and 'government* by the same word. Shakspeare gives us an in- 
stance, in his ' Komeo and Juliet,' act ill. scene 8, where be says the ' County Paris,' 
for Count Paris," &c. 

As to this last assertion we beg to differ from our author. The word 
' county/ it appears to us, is in no way intended, in this instance, to bear 
reference to the office or government of the Count. We take it to be 
merely a nearer approximation to the original Norman word comte 
(count), with its vowel termination, and nothing more. 

Mr. Poste remarks that the name " Vitalis," though apparently of Latin 

" does not appear ever to have been borne by any Roman whose Latin descent can 
be shewn, but to be rather the designation of persons of the Celtic race. Though of 
Latin formation, it is, in fact, a Celtic name Latinized ; and there is but little doubt 
that it represents the personal Celtic appellation, Guethelin or Guitolin." 

So far as the later adaptation of the Soman name to the Celtic one, he 
may possibly be correct ; but if he will look into Fabretti, he will find a 
Homan artist of this name, Fapirius Yitalis, a painter, mentioned in an in- 
scription now in the Vatican. There seems no reason, it appears to us, for 
believing that this person was of Celtic descent ; at least, it is just as pro- 
bable that he was a member of the plebeian branch of the Papiria Gem at 

In his careful enumeration, too, of medioeval inscriptions bearing this 
name, Mr. Poste has omitted to mention Vitalis, one of the early abbots 
of Westminster, who died in 1082, and whose tomb is still to be seen in 
the cloisters there. There was also, more recently, Janus (John) Vitalis of 
Palermo, an author who died in 1560. 

Speaking of Richard of Cirencester, Mr. Poste remarks that " the name 
of the town, Cirencester, according to the pronunciation of the present day, 
is ' Cissester,* and so the word may have been pronounced in the middle 
ages." We think not. Gaimar, a Norman writer, who would be not un- 
likely to spell the word as it was pronounced, gives the name, in all the 
MSS. now existing, as Cirecestre, 

So much for the few passages of importance in the work that, after a care- 
ful perusal of it, we have found open to any kind of question or criticism. 
As for the numerous good things in it, after the many samples we have 
given, we doubt whether it would not be little less than unfair to the 
author, even if space permitted, to dip into them any further. The reader 
who is curious in these matters — and we trust that there are very many 
such — must get the book, and search for them himself : our word for it, his 
pains will be rewarded ; for there is much, very much, in its clearly and 
closely-printed pages to gratify most varieties of antiquarian predilection. 
Had it been— as it ought to have been — like the *' Britannic Researches," 
accompanied by an index, we should have been enabled to recommend it, 
not only as a work characterized by curious learning and laborious research, 
but as, upon a great diversity of important subjects, a very useful book of 
reference as well. 

152 [Aug. 


Wb possess at present no good history of Spain. The pure Castilian of 
Mariana has made him a classic, hut his great work is rather the poetry 
than the philosophy of history. Meudoza, Moncada, Coloma, and Melo 
are masterly painters of historic scenes, or of portraits by which the past 
is revived in incidents of high dramatic interest and of individual greatness. 
La Fuente is yet unfinished : his style is pure, but often affected ; he 
writes with the patriotism of a Spaniard, but cannot approach that com- 
bination of dignity and grace, of meditative feeling and of picturesque 
originality, which characterize the authors we have quoted. It is rather 
to England and America a Spaniard must look for the history of his own 
land. The free breath of opinion has there passed over the history of the 
tyranny of his oppression. To Germany, Spain owes the illustration of her 
literature, and its wider introduction into Europe ; to France and Belgium, 
the publication of a most interesting series of her archives. Whence comes 
it that Spain is thus a debtor ** to the Greek also and to the barbarian ?" 
Documents abound ; men second to none yet give repute to her academy ; 
the memory of her great deeds still stirs the heart as the sound of a 
trumpet : Spain possesses the noblest of all living languages, through 
which to narrate the actions of her sons ; but Spain is crushed beneath the 
weight of former greatness. The desire to revive is powerful, but its 
highest force is the exhausted effort of paralytic strength. The historical 
documents of Spain have necessarily suffered with her material condition. 
Indifference, neglect, war, pillage, have alike combined for their destruction. 
For a people to be regardless of the records of the State is a sign of 
national degradation. 

The principal depots which now exist are, — that of Simancas, wherein 
the acts of the Crown and of the Government are kept ; the depot of Se- 
ville, containing the papers relative to the Spanish Indies, above 30,000 in 
number, and put in order, on removal* from Simancas, by Lara and Cean 
Bermudez ; the depot of Barcelona, being the documents connected with 
Catalonia, the kingdom of Valencia, and of provinces dependent upon the 
crown of Arragon : this is one of the most important ; it possesses an un- 
interrupted series of state-papers from a.d. 848, the acts of the kings are 
inscribed in registers which date from a.d. 1 162 ; — the depot of Pampeluna, 
formed of the ancient title-deeds of Navarre ; the archives of Galicia. To 
these may be added the collections of the great religious houses, for the 
most part dispersed at their suppression or decay. Commissions have been 
recently appointed in regard to these, in the hope of recovering such docu- 
ments — historical, literarv, or artistic — as mav remain. 

The kings of Castile, a.d. 1035 — 1476, had for a long time no place 
appointed for the preservation of the archives. These were dispersed in the 
abbeys and principal cities, or left in the care of the Secretaries of State. 
John II., who reigned 1407 — 1454, and Henry IV., were the first who col- 
lected and placed them in the Castle de la Mota de Medina, and in the 
Alcazar de Segovia. Ferdinand and Isabella made further regulations. 
By a decree dated Medina del Campo, March 24, 1489, after having ap- 
pointed their court and chancery at Valladolid, then the chief tribunal of 
justice, they ordered that a chamber should be fitted up to contain all the 
state documents ; which decree, Nov. 20, 1 494, was extended to the new 

1857.] The Archives of Simancas, 158 

chancery of Ciudad Real, then seated at Granada. Further, by an ordon- 
nance dated Seville, June 9, 1500, all corregidors are directed to construct 
a great chest with three locks, in which to deposit the papers of the 
council. The secretaries of councils throughout the kingdom are enjoined 
to make registers of papers, in which, within the space of 120 days, were 
to be transcribed all letters and ordonnances sent in their reign to each 
locality, and another to record the privileges conceded. In 1502-3 regula- 
tions were made for the preservation of all judicial acts of the tribunsJs of 
the kingdom. 

But it is to Cardinal Xiroenes — the nobler Richelieu of Spain — that 
Simancas owes its historical interest. Upon April 12, 1516, he wrote to 
Ferdinand to submit it should be enjoined upon all secretaries, receivers, 
and notaries of the council of Castile, to remit the documents of their offices 
for safe custody at Simancas. No immediate result followed ; and dur- 
ing the insurrection of the cormmiros under Padilla many fell into their 
hands. These were destroyed, or scattered about as spoil. In an ignorant 
age, the rights of a people are founded upon their traditions ; they regard, 
not unfrequently, a legal document as the plea or the evidence for their 
usurpation. Charles V. in 1531 collected such as could be recovered ; and 
on Feb. 19, 1543, Simancas was designed as the depot for the state 
archives. On May 5, 1545, Antonio Catalan was appointed keeper, at 
a salary of 5,000 maravedis. This interesting document has been printed 
at full by M. Gachard in his Notice JSistorique des Archives de Simancas — 
Lettres de Philippe IL, 4to., vol. i. p. 8. 

Simancas still retains the rank it held in the middle ages — that of a royal 
city — although it reckons now no more than 300 veeinos, or householders. 
It is situated about two leagues from Yalladolid, on the right bank of the 
Pisuerga, which flows about a league from thence into the Douro. It is 
a city of great antiquity, called in the Roman Itinerary Septimanca, In 
the year 573 Alphonso the Catholic conquered it from the Moors. It was 
lost and recovered in 883. In 934 its citizens distinguished themselves in 
the battle under Ramiro II. In 938 another of those chivalrous encounters 
which characterize these and following centuries took place at the con- 
fluence of the Pisuerga with the Douro. Both armies claimed the victory. 
The Christian hosts appealed to it as a sign of the protection of Heaven ; 
the Mussulman cited it as the greatest of the glories of Abdelrahman. 
In 984 it was besieged by'Almanzor, and did not return to the Spanish 
Crown until after the victory* of Toledo, 1085, won by Alphonso VI. In 
the fifteenth century the castle was the property of the Admirals of Castile, 
whose arms may yet be seen in the vaultings of the arches of the chapel. 
The castle is surrounded by a double ditch and battlemented wall, with two 
drawbridges, and is still kept in excellent preservation. A melancholy in- 
terest is attached to Simancas as a state prison. Sandoval, in his *' Life of 
Charles V.," vol. i. pp. 33, 34, narrates that when Ferdinand the Catholic 
quitted Burgos in a dying state, July 20, 1515, he gave orders for the con- 
finement here of Antonio Augustin, the Vice-Chancellor of Arragon, then 
on his return from the Cortes of Moncon, for having dared to avow his 
love to the queen, Germaine de Poix. The punishment appears just. 
Augustin had not the plea of Tasso, but was more fortunate : after a cap- 
tivity of many years, he was released by Cardinal Ximenes. Antonio de 
Acuna, Bishop of Zamora, the companion of Padilla, who headed a force of 
a thousand men — five hundred of whom were priests of his oum diocese^^ 

Gknt. Mao. Vol. CCIII. X 


154 The Archives of Simancas, [A-ug. 

during the rising of the comundroSy was taken prisoner after the battle of 
Villala, April 24, 1521, and confined here by order of Charles V. Accounts 
differ as to the manner of his death. He was either strangled or beheaded 
by virtue of a brief from the Pope, for the murder of the keeper of the 
fortress, in attempting to make his escape. 

But Simancas is memorable as the place selected for the execution of the 
Seigneur de Montigny. He had been the associate of Egmont and of Horn. 
Hoping little, fearing much, he undertook the mission to Philip H. to induce 
a change of policy. Philip received him with much honour, but in concert 
with Alba had already resolved upon his death. Amid the splendour of the 
court, Montigny discovered he was a prisoner. Upon the execution of Eg- 
mont, he was confined in the castle of Segovia. All intercourse with his 
family was prevented. It was only by an incident as romantic as that of 
Blondel is traditional he heard of the execution of Egmont. He resolved to 
attempt his escape. Friends were at hand, — the means provided. The ill- 
timed gallantry of Lopez de Palacio, his major-domo, frustrated the design. 
The king now resolved to hasten the forms for his condemnation. In the 
autumn of 1568 the mockery of his trial before the Blood Council of Alva 
took place. On March 4, 1570, his sentence was pronounced ; he was to 
be beheaded, and his head placed on a pike. Alva sent a requisition for the 
execution of this decree to all the authorities of the Pays Bas and Spain. 
Upon receiving this, there was a serious debate before the king in council. 
To execute Montigny publicly was deemed impolitic. It was suggested he 
should be slowly poisoned. Philip declared this would not satisfy justice : 
he was a suspected Protestant, the confederate of Egmont and of Horn ; 
as such he should die — hut secretly. To himself he reserved both the 
manner and the means. The plan was worthy of his genius and of his 
heart. On August 17, 1570, he ordered Don Eugenio de Peralta, keeper 
of the fortress of Simancas, to remove Montigny from Segovia. This was 
done under a strong escort, the prisoner being placed in irons. Even Philip 
felt it due to apologize to Alva for this last act of cruelty. Upon his arrival, 
a spacious apartment was allotted to him, and he was allowed to walk in 
the adjacent corridors. Philip now commenced the further execution of his 
plan. A forged letter was written, in the palace of Madrid, addressed to 
Montigny, intimating that another attempt would be made to effect his 
escape. This was transmitted to Peralta, by whose orders it was thrown 
into the corridor where the prisoner took exercise. Here it was found and 
brought to Peralta, who now accused Montigny of the plot, and ordered 
his confinement in the Cuba del Obispo, or Bishop's Tower. The false 
charge, the threatening severity, brought on an access of fever. The 
medical ofiScers appointed were next introduced to the castle, in apparent 
attendance on Montigny, whose state they announced to be beyond re- 
covery. Peralta now proceeded to Valladolid, to arrange with Don Alonzo 
de Avellano, the Alcalde entrusted with the execution of the king's orders, 
the manner of Montigny's death. They were both to reach Simancas at 
night. That night and the day following were granted to the prisoner to 
prepare for death. Fray Hernando del Castillo was appointed his confessor. 
The execution was to take place between one and two o'clock the following 
morning, so as to allow the Alcalde and his officers time to reach Valladolid 
before daybreak. Montigny was forbidden to make a will, and ordered, if 
he wrote, not to allude to his execution, but to write as a man seriously ill^ 
and who feels himself at the point of death. He was garotted on the night 
appointed, and buried, as became his rank, in the Church of St. Saviour at 

1857.] Tke Archives of Simancas, 155 

Siraancas, Oct. 16, 1570. A grand mass, and seven hundred lesser, were 
permitted to be celebrated for his souFs redemption*. 

The mind of Philip is inscrutable. One would suppose that a king who 
could compass with such subtlety the death of a subject, who stained an act 
of state with the hues of murder, who enjoined silence upon his agents 
under penalty of death, and who laid perjury upon his soul by the attestation 
of false documents, would have destroyed every document that established 
such a crime. But it was not so : he smiled with contempt at the coming 
Nemesis of Time — he gave minute instructions for their preservation. The 
correspondence of the heads of all departments, ambassadors, commanders, 
all appear to have been read by him, from the notes existing in his own 
handj» He corrected errors, criticised the style, and gave to every state- 
paper the impress of his own mind. On his accession, he confirmed his 
father's decree appointing the fortress of Simancas as the depot of the 
state archives. He named Briviesca de Munato^es as the successor of 
Catalan, and on his death, Diego de Ayala. On March 14, 1567, Geronimo 
de Zurita was ordered to collect the records belonging to all offices of State, 
to be placed at Simancas, and of which an account was to be sent to the 
hing. He directed Juan de Herrera to enlarge the rooms for their safe 
deposit, and visited the fortress to inspect the works. Throughout his reign 
this attention is manifest. He complained of the neglect shewn in i^l his 
councils for the preservation of state-papers, of their bad arrangement, the 
want of means of reference, and projected an additional muniment-room at 
the palace of Madrid. The zeal of Diego de Ayala seconded the desire of 
the king. He recovered many documents concealed by the comuneros in 
1519, and diligently sought for others dispersed or detained in the hands 
of the Secretaries of State. To this he sacrificed the resources of his 
private means. As a reward, his place was considered a mayorazgo^ and 
reserved as the hereditary right of his family. " When," says M. Gachard, 
"I reached Simancas in 1843, it was still an Ayala who held the post of 
Keeper of the Records." 

The care of Philip was not only extended to the collection and preserva- 
tion of the records, — he ordered an inventory to be made by Ayala, and 
drew up himself the regulations under which they were to be consulted. 
During the reign of his successor, and the sway of his weak and bigoted 
minister, the Duke of Lerma, no attention was given to these instructions. 
Philip IV., struck with the inconvenience arising from the distance of Si- 
mancas from Madrid, desired to transfer the collections to his palace. He 
revived, therefore, the plan of Philip II. to this eflect, and addressed a 
decree, August 13, 1633, to the Marquis of Legan^s for its execution. 
During the reign of his imbecile successor, Charles II., the collections were 
destroyed by neglect, and rendered useless by bad arrangement. To remedy 
this, Philip v., in 1726, charged Don Santiago Agustin Riol to draw up 
an account of the state of the public archives, and to detail the measures 
best adapted for their preservation. Riol complied, and drew up a Memoir, 
which has been printed in tome iii. pp. 75 — 234 of the Semanario Erudito, 
a collection of documents, in thirty-one volumes, pubHshed in 1787, 1790, 
edited by Don Antonio Villadares de Sotomayor. It recommended that 
a State-Paper Ofiice should be established at Madrid, to contain all royal 
and judicial acts, and documents connected with the Holy See ; that an in- 

' Consult Gachard, Correspondence de Philippe IL, tome ii. ; Motley, " Rise of the 
Dutch Republic," vol. ii. pp. 305, 814 ; Prescott, " Philip II.," voL ii. p. 278. 

156 The Archives of Simancas, [ 

ventory of the entire collections should he made, especially of those termed 
Registros de Corte, which treated of the most important affairs hefore the 
Council of Castile since 1475. He proposed also to transfer other portions 
of the collections to the Escurial, — a plan we helieve to have been revived 
in the present reign. 

No resolution was taken upon Ribl's Memoir. It met with the usual 
fate reserved for such documents : to be discussed in an academy or 
learned society, to be transmitted with encomium to a Secretary of State, 
to be referred by him to another, to obtain the opinion of a more 
competent person, to be postponed, to be revived, to be reconsidered, to 
be deferred, and then to be consigned to the official vault for ever. A 
great change occurred when the dynasty of the Spanish Bourbons was gwept 
away by Napoleon. The mailed hand of military despotism was stretched 
forth over the land. Napoleon had long conceived the plan of collecting 
in Paris the state-papers of all the countries he had conquered. Paris was 
to be the seat of universal power, the capital of Art, the guardian of all 
the historical monuments of Europe. In accordance with this idea, shortly 
before the signature of the Peace of Schonbrunn, October 10, 1809, he 
ordered the removal of all the state-papers kept in the chanceries of 
Vienna to Paris. 

Under the direction of Count Daru and M. Bignon, 3,139 cases were 
sent, containing 39,796 bundles. On May 17, similar orders were given as 
regarded the records of the Vatican. These amounted to 102,435 bun- 
dles. The archives of Simancas could not escape. In August, 1810, 
orders were transmitted to Kellermann to remove the papers from Si- 
mancas to Bayonne. To superintend this, a M. Quiter was specially 
appointed, who forwarded to Bayonne 152 cases, containing 7,861 bun- 
dles. The report made upon these by M. Quiter is of great interest. He 
found the collection arranged in 29 rooms. The savants of Spain, he 
wrote, had long suspected that the process of Don Carlos was at Si- 
mancas. In chamber 1 was a chest with three keys, which Philip II. 
had forbidden the keeper to open under penalty of death. He himself 
retained one key. This tradition appears to have rested on the authority 
of Cabrera. 

By order of Kellermann, and under the inspection of Don Manuel 
Mogrovejo, the chest was opened, and found to contain the process 
against the minister Calderon. This was doubtless that of Don Rodriguez 
de Calderon. The disgrace of the Duke of Lerma, his protector, in 1618, 
had occasioned his fall. The imputed crimes were many, the real were his 
low birth, his sudden rise, his great wealth. This process was continued 
for two years and a half, protracted to prevent the return of the Duke of 
Lerma to power, by thus nourishing against him the hatred of the people. 
The Count Duke Olivares, notwithstanding Calderon was declared guilt- 
less, resolved to sacrifice him to the public hate. He was decapitated 
October 21, 1621, more Hispanico, — that is, literally, his throat was cut**. 
In Spain, traitors alone are beheaded with their faces downwards; in 
other cases, the executioner performs his office face to face with the 
sufferer. He made bare his neck, he yielded his limbs to be bound with 
the utmost composure. He then reclined himself backwards, and whilst 
in the act of recommending his soul to God, his head was in a moment 
severed from his body. 

^ Watson, " Philip III.," voL it p. 187. 

1857.] The Archives of Simancas. 157 

Whilst M. Guiter was occupied in a selection of documents for trans- 
mission, news of Massena's defeat at Torres Vedras reached him. In 
haste he forwarded his spoil to Bayonne. In 1811 it reached Paris, where 
the papers were classed and divided into 14 sections. The archives of Pied- 
mont and of Holland were also ordered to he transmitted to Paris. The 
former consisted of 6,198 bundles, and the latter comprised not only the 
state documents, but the most valuable relating to the great cities. To 
provide a depot commensurate with the collection, the Hotel des Archives 
was enlarged, and the Emperor gave orders for the erection of a new 
building on the left bank of the Seine, between the bridge of Jena and the 
Pont de la Concorde. This was prevented by the events of the year 1813. 
The year following the allies entered Paris. The dream of universal em- 
pire and of universal possession was rudely broken. Restitution of the 
spoil was universally demanded. M. de Labrador addressed M. de Talley- 
rand for the restoration of the Spanish papers. This was conceded, but it 
was not until 1816, upon the final close of I^apoleon's career, that the 
documents reached Bayonne. Nor did Spain ever recover all that had 
been abstracted. On a false plea, that many related to Erance, a most 
valuable series of papers was withheld. These referred to the treaties 
concluded between France and Spain from the fifteenth to the seventeenth 
century ; the correspondence of the court of Madrid with its ambassadors 
in France from 1540 to 1701; that also of Charles V. and of Philip II. 
with the Viceroy of Arragon; the despatches addressed to Philip II. 
and his successors, by their ambassadors at Venice, 1579 to 1609. M. 
Gapefigue has been indebted to these in his Histoire de la Reforme, de 
la Ligue ; M. Mignet, in the Negotiations relatives a la Succession 
d' JEspagney and other recent works. It does not appear that any quali- 
fied person was ever sent from Spain to superintend the recovery of 
property so shamelessly purloined. By order of Philip IV., October 25, 
1628, Don Antonio de Hoyos had compiled two catalogues. These in 
1810 had been sent to Paris by Kellermann, where they still remain. 
Deprived of these, the Spanish Government, although aware of the defi- 
ciencies, was not of their extent. Nor was this all. After the departure 
from Simancas by the French, the peasantry of the neighbourhood had 
free access to the castle. They tore away the parchment cover from the 
bundles, and the strings which bound them, thus adding to the destruction 
caused by the troops of Kellermann, whose soldiers, notwithstanding the 
remonstrance of Joseph Buonaparte, used the papers to light their fires. 
Ferdinand VII. gave orders, upon his restoration, for the re-arrangement of 
the papers ; and two inscriptions, one over the principal entrance into the 
court, and another over the bronze gates in the Botundin, the work of 
Berruguete, attest the fact. The history of the records may be said here 
to close. We propose to add a few notes, on the regulations, the keepers, 
and the actual state of the archives. 

The first regulations relative to the archives bear the date August 24, 
1588, and were drawn up by Philip II. 

It is singularly indicative of his minute particularity, and cautious habits 
of restriction. Elaborate indices, analytic narratives of the contents of the 
documents, were to be made, and official historic accounts of the principal 
events relating to each department, were to be annually compiled and 
transmitted to Simancas. But the Archiviste could not give a copy of any 
document whatever, not even upon the requisition of a court of law, 
without the authority of the king's sign-manual. Were even copies con- 

158 The Archives of Simancas. [-^^g* 

ceded, these must be given, not to the parties for whom they were made, 
but to a person specially named in the warrant. The search for the docu- 
ment was to be made under the immediate superintendence of the keeper ; 
the requisitionist could not be present at the time. No copy could be 
made of any document, but by an official, and this must be collated and 
signed by the Archiviste. Somewhat modified by Philip IV., Jan. 27, 1633, 
these regulations were in force on M. Qachard's arrival at Simancas in 
1844. Owing to his remonstrances, and the liberal views of M. Pidal and 
the Marquis of Penaflorida, some restrictions have been removed, especially 
as relates to the necessity of all documents being copied by the officials. 
But as the regulations relative to Simancas flow from the central govern- 
ment, and as that government changes periodically, it is impossible to state 
with accuracy under what conditions they may be now consulted. But in 
truth, it is not so much to the government, as to councils, and the illibe- 
rality of particular ministers, we must attribute the jealousy with which 
access to Simancas has been conceded. Kobertson was denied permission. 
In 1649, Juan Francisco Andres de Uztarros desired to continue the 
annals of Arragon : in vain he urged the king's authority, — he died unable 
to effect his purpose. In 1656 the exertions of Don Juan Alonso Cal- 
deron met with similar results. Diego Josef Dormer, nominated Chronicler 
of Arragon in 1675, and anxious as Uztarros to continue the annals of 
Zurita, of necessity sought access to the documents at Barcelona and 
Simancas. The king authorized him, the Council of Castile off*ered no 
opposition, the minister of the day was smilingly pliant, but Ayala the 
Archiviste was inexorable ; he objected, he delayed, until objection and delay 
became denial. In 1844, the instructions were drawn up by Don Gil de 
Zarate, and it is presumable, since then no regressive action has been 
authorized. Of the inventories or catalogues, no exact detail can be given. 
The catalogues drawn up by Antonio de Hoyos are at Paris, and these 
M. Gachard recommends should be consulted prior to proceeding to Siman- 
cas. In 1811, forty-six volumes of various inventories existed. On Ferdi- 
nand VII. recovering his throne, Don Tomas Gonzalez was appointed 
keeper. He adopted a new classification, and compiled a brief inventory 
of the collections, dated Dec. 6, 1819, and to him and to his l^rother Don 
Manuel much of the merit of the present arrangement and restoration of 
the papers is due. In 1844, M. Gachard computed the collection to consist 
of 62,000 liasses or bundles, distributed in fifty halls or corridors. It is 
impossible to give even a modified analysis of their contents. Let the 
reader recall the outline only of the history of Spain : her subjugation by 
the manly power of the Eoman ; the romantic interest attached to the history 
of the dominion of the Moors in Spain ; the reigns of Ferdinand and Isabella, 
of Charles V. and Philip II. ; the acts emanating from the Crown in rela- 
tion to the proud nobility of Spain, and of various independent states, until 
merged into one. Seldom satisfied, never satiated, we yet await the full de- 
velopment of the discovery and the conquest of her American possessions. 
The perusal of the documents in relation to these awes the mind. We are 
oppressed by the daring elevation of the ambition to discover and to pos- 
sess, by its fearless fanaticism, by its remorseless cruelty. Spain looked 
down from her imperial throne upon the world at a period when the in- 
tellect, bursting from the bonds in which it had been swathed, achieved 
works of enduring greatness, — works yet unequalled, both in poetry 
and art, — and wrestled with the questions upon which all social interests 
rest, and upon whose truthful acceptation no less the moral elevation of 

1857.] The Life of George Stephenson. 159 

individuals than the grandeur of a state depends. In the document re« 
lating to the Inquisition, the history of the political degradation of Spain is 
written in lines of blood ; in those which lay bare the action of the court, 
the chief means of her social and individual debasement. 

Italy is associated with her greatness, our own annals attest her power, 
and in the Netherlands, France, and Germany, successive governments have 
sought by the publication of documents belonging to the history of Spain, 
the surest illustration of their own. The perusal of historical narratives 
does not alone constitute the study of history. The annals of every nation 
are but evidence of the changes in the social condition of mankind. History 
is the narrative of effects by which we seek to trace the law of universiJ 
cause. How far actions excited action, how far these depend upon the 
conditions of race and locality, how far, more or less, civilization advanced 
or depressed a people, how far individual character influenced the common- 
weal, is the problem to be solved. This is the philosophy which, hosed 
on coeval documents^ makes history the great example. We live in days 
when this principle is conceded, and in this spirit we trust the story of the 
fortunes of our own land will be hereafter recorded. We cannot close this 
notice of the archives of Simancas without expressing the obligation due 
to M. Gachard of Brussels, so well known for his long and honourable 
labours as regards the history of Belgium, for the means to present it to 
our readers, and it is to his work, Correspondence de Philippe IL, sur let 
Affaires des J^ays Bas, we would specially direct attention. 


When, in the year 1602, a certain Mr. Beaumont, of Northumberland, 
to facilitate the progress of his heavy waggons, had wooden rails laid down 
along the road which led from his coal-pits to the river-side, he had doubt- 
less very little intention cf laying the foundation for one of the most won- 
derful inventions of the world ; but it is, nevertheless, from this improve- 
ment of his, that we must date the rise of railways. It was not a very 
splendid origin, and the advance of the system was singularly slow. It 
was only very gradually that iron rails began to take the place of the 
wooden ones ; and it was not until the beginning of our own century that 
the idea was even suggested of adopting the use of rails upon the ordinary 
high-roads. Neither was it until our own century was nearly a quarter old, 
that any really active measures began to be agitated for effecting a revolu- 
tion in the kind of propelling power employed upon these railways. Yet, 
athough it was late before anything was actually achieved in this last re- 
spect, the practicability of turning steam to purposes of locomotion was a 
subject which had early attracted the attention of the speculative and en- 
terprising. Before the middle of the seventeenth century we find Solomon 
de Cans imprisoned in the Bicetre, for enunciating a theory of moving 
land-carriages by means of steam. Subsequent thinkers, both in his own 

a « 

The Life of George Stephenson, Railway Engineer. By Samuel Smiles." (London : 
John Murray.) 

160 The Life of George Stephenson. [-^^S* 

and other countries, distinctly recognised the same possibility. In 1784, a 
small model of a steam-carriage was made in England, by William Mur- 
doch. It of course excited considerable astonishment, and occasioned 
some ludicrous adventures, but as far as its designer was concerned, no- 
thing came of it. In 1802, however, Richard Trevethick, the captain of a 
Cornish mine, and a pupil of Murdoch's, embodied his master's idea in the 
shape of a stage-coach worked by steam. This steam-carriage was in- 
tended not for railways, but to travel upon common roads. It was brought 
to London by its projector, and exhibited for some time as a curiosity, near 
Euston-square. The effect produced by the apparition of this strange 
machine, as it came steaming and snorting along the roads, on its journey 
to the metropolis, was somewhat overwhelming. The general belief seemed 
to be that it was no other than his satanic majesty in propria persona. 
At one toll-gate a comical enough scene occurred: "What have us got 
to pay here ?'* was the inquiry addressed to the toll-keeper. The poor 
man, almost imbecile from fright, flung the gate wide open, and endea- 
voured in vain to articulate the word " Nothing ^ " What have us got to 
pay, I say ?" repeated one of the attendants of the infernal monster. This 
time the bewildered man-of-office regained his utterance : *' No-noth- 
nothing to pay !*' he stammered out ; " my de-dear Mr. Devil, do drive on 
as fast as you can ! nothing to pay !'' 

Trevethick was a true genius, and had he devoted his mind steadily to 
the question of steam-locomotion, there is no doubt that he would have 
solved it completely and triumphantly. He seems, however, to have been 
a man of little patience or perseverance. In 1804, he constructed an 
engine to run upon railroads, which was tried upon the Merthyr Tydvil 
railway, and which, although in many respects imperfect, was, neverthe- 
less, a very remarkable work. After this, he troubled himself about the 
locomotive no farther. But the invention had gone too far to sink into 
oblivion. Although for some years after Trevethick's last effort no im- 
provements were effected in it, it still kept its place in the estimation of 
the go-ahead spirits of the age, and stood out conspicuously in their visions 
of the future. In 1812, eight years after Trevethick's engine had been 
tried at Merthyr Tydvil, mechanical genius began again to busy itself ener- 
getically with the locomotive. In this year, engines began to be employed 
regularly upon the railway between the Middleton collieries and the town 
of Leeds. These engines were contrived upon a peculiar principle, the 
wheels being cogged, to work into a cogged rail, an expedient which was 
adopted to avoid the danger of slipping, which was supposed to attend the 
smooth wheels and rails. 

At the same time that these engines were in action at Leeds, Mr.Blackett, 
a colliery owner of Newcastle, was also anxiously engaged with the loco- 
motive. In 1811 he had ordered an engine from Trevethick, although, 
from some cause, it had never been brought into service. In 1812 he 
ordered a second engine ; and, according to all accounts, this " second 
venture" of his was the most cumbrous, ungainly-looking machine that 
imagination can picture. After incredible trouble, it was at length set in 
motion, but this achievement was no sooner accomplished than it burst to 
atoms. " She flew all to pieces," reports an eye-witness, graphically, 
** and it was the biggest wonder i* the world that we were not all blown 
up." Nothing daunted by his ill- success, however, Mr. Blackett persevered 
in his endeavours. His third engine he had constructed under his own 
inspection. This succeeded better than its predecessors, inasmuch as it 

1857.] The Life of Ge&rge Stephenson. 161 

did actaally get to work ; but it remained a question how much it was to 
be considered an improvement upon the old method of traction, since its 
speed was rather under a mile an hour, and it required a staff of attendants 
to be constantly in waiting upon its movements to rectify its unceasing 
derangements. But it was in vain tha this neighbours laughed ; Mr. Blackett 
would neither be prevailed upon to part with his uncouth darling, nor to 
desist from further experiments. In 1813 he took out a patent for a frame 
to support the locomotive engine. The wheels of this frame were con- 
structed without cogs, or any of the contrivances which had been resorted 
to with the idea of obtaining a firm adhesion between the rail and the 
wheels; and it succeeded sufficiently well to prove that the risk in the 
smooth rail and wheels was purely an imaginary one. 

Amongst the visitors who came to view Mr. Blackett's locomotive at its 
heavy work, there might frequently have been seen a man whose earnest 
attention indicated something more than vague curiosity ; and, indeed, upon 
one of his examinations of the " Black Billy," the individual in question 
had been heard to express a belief that he could make a much letter engine. 
This man, albeit of humble condition, had already achieved a kind of repu- 
tation in the neighbourhood of Newcastle. His great mechanical ingenuity, 
his strong, sound judgment, and his prodigious industry, had already begun 
to win attention and respect, not only from those in his own rank of life, 
but also from people occupying more influential positions ; his ability and 
excellent character had, in fact, already raised him, at the age of scarcely 
more than thirty, from the commonest grade of workman to the responsible 
post of an " engine- wright;" what more they were to do for him is almost 
told when it is said that this man was no other than George Stephenson. 

George Stephenson was bom at Wylam, a village about eight miles 
from Newcastle, upon the 9th of June, 1781. At the time of his infancy 
his father was fireman of the pumping-engine of "Wylam colliery, and in re- 
ceipt of a salary of eight shillings a-week. With such means, and a family 
of six little ones, it was of course impossible for the poor man to provide 
his children with anything beyond the bare necessaries of life. Education 
was not to be thought of : none of the Stephenson family in their child- 
hood ever went to school. Neither did it fall within their lot to enjoy 
that long period of delicious idleness which is the privilege of most children. 
As soon as they were strong enough, they were obliged to contribute to- 
wards their own maintenance. George was only eight years of age when 
his father was removed from Wylam to Dewley Burn ; but no sooner were 
they settled at Dewley Bum than George was put to work. His first situa- 
tion was that of herdboy to a widow who kept a farm close by his father's 
cottage. He was paid the magnificent wages of twopence a-day, and his 
duties were not onerous, so that he considered himself, on the whole, a very 
fortunate fellow. Even at this early age the peculiar bent of his genius 
began to display itself, although no one, probably, ever suspected that the 
little bare-legged herdboy was a genius at all. His favourite amusement 
in his spare time was modelling little clay engines ; he got the clay out of 
a neighbouring bog, and hemlock -stalks served for steam-pipes. 

From tending cows, George was at length promoted to the more digni- 
fied occupation of leading the plough-horses and hoeing turnips; and 
again from these employments to that of " corf-bitter" at the colliery. 
This was a grand epoch in life to him, for to be taken on at the colliery 
was the very summit of his ambition: his joy was almost unbounded 
when, a little later, he was promoted to the post of assistant- fireman. 

Gent. Mao. Vol. CCIII. t 

162 The life of George Stephenwn. {A^g^ 

It was not long after he had obtained this appointment that, the coal at 
Dewley Burn being worked out, the family were transported thence to a 
place called Jolly's Close, a village a few miles distant. In the neighbour- 
hood of Jolly's Close several workings of coal had been opened ; and at 
one of these, the ** Mid Mill Winnin," George was, before long, stationed 
as fireman upon his own account. Here he remained for about two years, 
and was then removed to Throckley-Bridge, still in the same capacity of 
fireman to the pumping-engine. It was at Throckley-Bridge that, on his 
wages being increased to twelve shillings a-week, he gave utterance to the 
memorable exclamation, *' I am now a made man for life !'* And from this 
period he did, in fact, continue to advance, if not very rapidly, at least 
very steadily and very surely. He was only seventeen years old when he 
was appointed plugman to the engine at Water-row pit, his father acting 
under him as fireman. This is an important incident, inasmuch as it shews 
that Stephenson had already begun to gain a character for superior intelli- 
gence ; a plugman's situation being one requiring considerable judgment 
and skill, and one in which it was very unusual to place so young a work- 
man. But even if the estimation in which he was held had been much 
higher than it actually was, it would not have been disproportioned to his 
deserts. In the view which we get of him at this time and during the 
next few years, his life is, in the best sense of the words, respectable and 
dignified. Although he was always ready to take part in all the innocent 
pastimes of his age, and indeed was always foremost in them, no induce- 
ment could ever tempt him to participate in any degrading or even ques- 
tionable amusements. Upon the pay-Saturday afternoons, which were 
holidays, instead of joining any of the drinking-parties formed amongst his 
fellow-workmen, he invariably spent his time in cleaning his engine, taking 
it to pieces and putting it together again ; making himself, by these means, 
intimately acquainted with all its minutest peculiarities of construction and 
operation. Another favourite employment of his leisure hours, too, con- 
tinued still to be the modelling of clay engines : he not only modelled those 
he had seen, but also those of which he had heard descriptions. Nor were 
these the only kinds of self-improvement in which he was at this time en- 
gaged. He had already begun to be keenly ahve to the disadvantage at 
which he was placed by his want of education. He heard rumours of 
wonderful things in books, — histories of grand discoveries in science, and 
astounding feats of mechanical ingenuity, — and these things were beyond 
his reach : for any service they were to him, they might as well have 
been never recorded. He made up his mind to learn to read ; and, accord- 
ingly, to will and to do being synonymous terms with him, did learn to 
read. It did not require any very long-continued effort of his vigorous in- 
tellect to master the accomplishment ; but no sooner was it attained than 
other deficiencies began to force themselves into recognition. A know- 
ledge of arithmetic, especially, he felt to be a great desideratum. This was 
a study entirely to his taste, and he pursued it with even unwonted zeal. 
The sums which were set him at his evening school were worked out by 
day beside his engine ; and did any unforeseen circumstance prevent him 
from going himself to get a new supply when these were finished, the 
slate was invariably forwarded by some trustworthy agent. 

It was in this way that George Stephenson passed the three years which 
carried him from seventeen to twenty. At twenty he was appointed brakes- 
man to the colliery at Black Callerton. This was another upward step. 
His wages were now a pound a-week ; and he increased this income con- 

1857.] The Itfe of George Stephenson. 163 

eiderably by employing what leisure time he had in mending his neigh- 
bours' shoes. It was a somewhat curious combination of trades, that of 
engineer and cobbler ; but George had some particularly cogent reasons, just 
then, for being anxious to make money. At a certain farmhouse at Black 
Callerton lived the very prettiest and most modest of little maid- servants, 
and George began to dream (tempting dreams) of a home of his own, with 
Panny Henderson for its mistress. And by dint of his shoe-mending, and 
his industry and economy, these dreams were not long in being realized. 
When, in his twenty- second year, he left Black Callerton for Willington 
Quay, he was enabled to take Fanny Henderson with him as Mrs. George 
Stephenson: they were married upon the 28th of November, 1802. 
Quietly settled in his new home, Stephenson was in happy circumstances 
for pursuing with success his efforts after improvement. It was a pleasant 
thing, after his daily work was done, to sit down to his plans and models 
beside the hearth his own industry and perseverance had been the means 
of gaining. The light of his own fire, and the still clearer light of his own 
wife's bonny, loving eyes, were good to study by ; they were sure in- 
fluences to promote earnest, unflinching endeavours in a warm, true heart, 
like that of our young brakesman ; and the three years he spent at Wil- 
lington were, accordingly, very fruitful ones in Stephenson's mental life. 
Although, having little access to books, his knowledge was obtained almost 
entirely from his personal experience, and he consequently often wasted 
many an hour which would have been saved by more extensive reading, still 
these were invaluable years. His mind exercised itself freely and boldly. 
He engaged in all sorts of speculations and experiments ; — amongst other 
things, spending a great deal of time in attempts to discover perpetual mo- 
tion, and going so far, even, as to construct a machine by which he ima- 
gined he had secured it ; — and, doubtless, it was during these busy evenings 
that he possessed himself of more than one of the sound practical principles 
which did him such excellent service in his subsequent career. 

But there was soon^a break in the tranquil happiness of George Stephen- 
son's life at Willington. First came a removal from Willington to Killing- 
worth ; and then came death and sorrow : he had hardly left Willington 
before his gentle wife was taken from hinu This bereavement had probably 
some effect in prompting him to accept an invitation, which he received soon 
after his migration to Killingworth, to superintend the working of one of Bol- 
ton and Watt's engines in Scotland ; at any rate, the invitation was accepted. 
He was absent about a year, and upon his return resumed his situation of 
brakesman at the West Moor pit of Killingworth. But at no very considerable 
period after his return, a circumstance occurred which was the means of ma- 
terially altering his position. At some little distance from the West Moor 
pit, the lessees of the Killingworth collieries had opened another working, 
called the High Pit. An atmospheric engine had been fixed at this place 
to keep the pit clear of water ; but, from some cause or other, pump as this 
engine would, it still failed to compass the desired object : the workmen 
were completely " drowned out." All sorts of expedients were adopted to 
induce a more effectual action. All the best engine-men in the neighbour- 
hood were summoned in consultation ; but it was all of no use : for a 
whole year the machine went on pumping, but the water did not decrease. 
Stephenson had all along watched the progress of this engine with parti- 
cular interest. He had visited it whilst it was in course of construction ; 
and had even then given his opinion that it was defective, and would not 
answer its purpose. When it was in full play at its station he still visited 

164 Thi lAfy of George Stephenson. [Aug« 

it, and still continued to express his belief that, in spite of all exertions, in 
its present condition the engine would never be made to do any good. He 
furthermore signified his conviction that, if it was placed in his hands, he 
could put it right. There was little heed paid to these opinions at the time 
they were uttered; but at length, when everyone was in despair at the 
engine's failure, people began to repeat what Gheorge Stephenson had said ; 
and in the end it came about that George Stephenson was commissioned to 
see what he could do in the matter. He set to work with characteristic 
energy, and in less than a week from the day on which he began his task 
the pit was cleared of water. This affair gained him, as was just, much 
credit ; and although the only immediate acknowledgments offered him 
were a ten-pound note and the appointment of engine-man at the High 
Pit, about two years afterwards, upon the death of the engine- wright of 
Killingworth colliery, he was promoted to the vacant post. This situation 
brought him in a salary of a hundred a-year, — an increase of income which 
was very acceptable on all accounts, but particularly as it furnished him 
with the means of gratifying his fond desires respecting his young son. It 
had always been Stephenson's grand wish to be enabled to afford his child 
the advantages of education, which he had, in his own case, so often felt 
the loss of ; and the boy was now growing of an age to require better in- 
struction than was to be obtained at village schools. Thus it was one of 
the father*s early cares, after his advance in fortune, to place his son at a 
first-class academy at Newcastle. The lad was also entered a member of 
the Newcastle Philosophical and Literary Society; and on Saturday after- 
noons, when he came home to Killingworth, he invariably brought with 
him some scientific volume from the library of the institution, to study with 
his father. On these occasions a chosen friend of the elder Stephenson*s, 
a farmer's son, generally made one of the party, and the evening was 
passed happily and profitably between the book itself and the conversation 
and experiments which the book gave rise to. 

The precise period at which the idea was first presented to Stephenson 
of employing steam as a locomotive power is not very certain ; but it is 
certain that it was no sooner presented to his mind than it was received 
with the utmost faith and enthusiasm. His belief in the ultimate prevalence 
of a system of steam-locomotion upon railways was, from the beginning, 
of the strongest and most hopeful kind. But in making the matter a sub- 
ject of practical consideration, his object at first was a no more ambitious 
one than to furnish a less tardy and expensive transit for the coals of the 
Killingworth colliery. An inspection of the locomotive engines of Leeds 
and Wylam tended to confirm him in his opinion of the admirable capa- 
bilities of steam for this purpose ; whilst, at the same time, the glaring de- 
ficiencies of these machines served to encourage him in bis own efforts, by 
the assurance they afforded that any really efficient and cheap locomotive 
engine would be, after all, hardly short of an invention. Accordingly, he 
commenced his " travelling engine." Lord Ravensworth, the prmcipal 
lessee of the colliery, had already conceived so good an opinion of his me- 
chanical ability as to be quite willing to advance the necessary frinds, and 
the chief difficulty, therefore, was to obtain able agents to cacry out his 
designs. This difficulty, however, was not a trifling one ; and his under- 
taking no doubt suffered materially from the want of adroit workmen. 
Nevertheless, the engine was completed and ready for use by the 25th of 
July, 1814. It was undeniably the best achievement of the sort which 
had been hitherto accomplished; bat still it had considerable imperfections. 

1857.] The L\fe of George Sfephenton. 165 

Amongst other evils, the vaete stesm was allowed to escape freely into the 
air, and thereby caused great noiee and in convenience. This was a defect 
which had been felt in the previous locomotivea, and which other mecha- 
nicians had attempted to correct, and indeed had corrected. But it did not 
tatiafy George Stephenson's fertile intellect merely to correct a fault ; the cor- 
rection must in itself involve an improvement. He pondered over the matter 
for some time, and at length struck out an original and beautiful plan for 
employing the waste steam to excite the combustion of the fuel, — an enpe- 
dient hy which the power of the engine was more than doubled, whilst its 
weight was in no way increased. But, even with this signal improvement, 
Mr. SCephensOD was far from being contented with his engine. The expe- 
rience he had obtained whilst engaged upon it had taught him so much, 
that he became very anxious to set about the erection of another. There- 
fore, in the beginning of 1815, he took out a patent, in conjunction with 
Mr. Doda, the head'viewer of the colliery, for a second engine. This engine 
was completed in the same year ; and although Mr. Stephenson and his 
eminent son subsequently introduced many minor alterations in the con- 
struction of the locomotive, it may, «w«re told, " be regarded as the type 
of the present locomotive engine/tA^^-V^, 

The interstices of Mr. t^tepbeMon^^ine' ift this period were abundantly 
occupied in labours not inferior u uaffi^>s^-tohia efforts with the locomo- 
tive. The distressing loss of lif^j^njfejxia ao frpniiently taking place from 
explosions in the mines, miide if a» tpdliVpensabli.- nec^essily that the pitmen 
should be provided with some descripttoii of lamp whicli would accommo 
date them with suffieient light, but which would not be liable to ignite the 
inflammable gas which was constantly issuing from the crevices in the pit. 
How such a lamp was to be obtained, however, was the question. This 
question Ur. Stephenson took Into his consideration ; and, after no small 
study and pains, produced a " lafety-lamp." But Sir Humphrey Davy 
had also been busy with the same subject; and his invention appeared 
almost contemporaneously with that of Mr. Stephenson. The great philo- 
sopher and the humble engine-wright were thus brought into rivalship ; aud 
the result was an animated contest between their respective friends as to 
which of their inventions was entitled to the honour of priority. The con- 
troversy was conducted by Sir Humphrey's party with considerable haughti- 
ness ; nor were Mr. Stephenson's supporters, on their side, deficient in 
earnestness. But a comparison of dates can leave but little doubt that 
Mr. Stephenson was, in fact, the first inventor ; and, at any rate, it is quite 
clear, from the quickness with which the two inventions followed each 
other, that neither inventor could have received the slightest hint or aid 
from the production of the other. 

Whilst Mr. Stephenson was almost day by day quietly adding fresh 
improvements to his railway and locomotives, and fresh supplies of prac- 
tical knowledge to his own experience, outward events were gradually 
opening a wider sphere of action for him than the little village of Killing- 
worth. Id 1819 the proprietors of the Hetton colliery, in Durham, de- 
termined to have their tramroad converted into a locomotive railway, and 
invited Mr. Stephenson to superintend the work. This invitation he waa 
very ready to accept, and his employers at Killingworth were very ready 
for him to accept it, — it being arranged that his brother sbould reside upon 
the spot as resident engineer. The proposed line was to extend eight miles, 
namely, frum the colliery, near Houghton -le-Spring. to the banks of the 
Wear, near Sunderland. In its way occurred a considerable elevation ; and 

166 The Life of George Stephenson. L^^S* 

the character of the country was generally rough. The funds placed at 
Mr. Stephenson's command not being ample enough to permit him to con- 
struct any heavy works, these peculiarities caused him some trouble ; but 
his undertaking was at length brought to a prosperous termination. 
When the Hetton railway was opened, it was unanimously acknowledged 
to be a decided success. 

Meanwhile other railway schemes were in active progress. A survey had 
been taken in 1821-22, under the auspices of a Mr. William James, for a 
line of railway between Liverpool and Manchester; and in 1821, Mr. 
Edward Pease, of Darlington, had actually succeeded in passing a bill 
through Parliament for a railway from Stockton to Darlington. As far as 
regards this latter line, however, its projector had never dreamed of em- 
ploying upon it any but a horse-power. It was not until after his introduc- 
tion to George Stephenson that he began to entertain thoughts of the 
locomotive. ' It was by George Stephenson's eaiiiest entreaty that, in an 
amended Darlington and Stockton Act, passed in 1823, a clause was in- 
serted giving the proprietors liberty, should they so please, both to adopt 
the locomotive and to convey passengers. But before this bill was passed, 
the first stone of the Stockton and Darlington Railway had been laid, and 
George Stephenson had been appointed its engineer. Upon the duties of 
this appointment Mr. Stephenson entered with heart and soul. He took 
up his abode upon the spot, and devoted his whole time and thought to his 
work. Every foot of the line he laid out himself. He used to start very 
early in the morning, carrying in his pocket some bread and a piece of 
bacon, which latter he would contrive to get cooked, about mid-day, at 
some road-side cottage. On this simple fare he made his dinner, and then 
returned to his business. The evenings were generally spent with Mr. 
Pease, in talking over plans, and arguing disputed questions. Stephenson 
had succeeded in inoculating Mr. Pease with some of his own enthusiasm 
respecting the locomotive ; but the other members of the company were 
less favourably disposed towards what they looked upon as at best but a 
doubtful innovation. For a long time it remained an undecided point what 
mode of traction should be adopted ; but finally it was agreed to make a 
compromise, — both horses and engines were to be employed. As for the 
passenger traffic, the directors entertained no very sanguine expectations 
that it would prove a profitable speculation, and were proportionately re- 
luctant to have anything to do with it. It was not without much difficulty 
that Mr. Stephenson prevailed upon them to buy up an old stage-coach* 
and have it placed upon the line. This primitive railway-carriage was called 
**The Experiment," and a very excellent experiment it turned out. 

The Stockton and Darlington Railway was opened upon the 27th of 
September, 1825. Its first trial was eminently satisfactory and encourag- 
ing ; but, encouraging as it was, its promise fell short of the success which 
subsequently attended the working of the line in its regular course of 

And during this period the scheme of the Manchester and Liverpool 
line had not quite stagnated. Mr. James, that indefatigable railway ad- 
vocate, had been compelled, in consequence of some pecuniary misfor- 
tunes, to leave England ; but Mr. Saunders, the gentleman with whom the 
notion of the railway had originated, was still faithful to the project. The 
inconvenience of the existing inadequate means of transit for merchandise, 
and the monopoly of the canal companies, were evils which were daily being 
felt more oppressive; and numbers were daily added, both in Liverpool 

1857.] The Life of George Stephenson. 167 

and Manchester, to the list of those who were growing impatient for a rail- 
way. In 1824, when the Stockton and Darlington line was drawing near 
its completion, a party of gentlemen waited upon Mr. Stephenson to con- 
sult him ahout the proposed undertaking ; and then, under his escort, pro- 
ceeded from Darlington to Blillingworth, to inspect the working of the rail- 
way in that village. Very soon after this the preparations began to assume 
a more tangible shape. A prospectus was drawn up, a subscription -list 
was opened, and Mr. Stephenson was invited to make a survey. This was 
not to be done without immense trouble, for the landowners were furious at 
the threatened intrusion upon their domains, and did not hesitate even to 
offer personal violence to any obnoxious individuals whom they suspected 
of the intention of taking measurements of their property, or even taking 
measurements near it : surveyors, in fact, were for the nonce a proscribed 
race, their hand being against every man, and every mans hand against 
them. Under such circumstances, when the survey was at last accom- 
plished, it was accomplished in so superficial and imperfect a manner as 
to form a very sorry guide for Mr. Stephenson in the preparation of his 

The bill for the new railway was brought before Parliament, and the 
House went into committee on it upon the 2l6t of March, 1825. The 
landowners and canal companies had, of course, spared no expense in their 
efforts to get the unpalatable measure handsomely damned ; there was an 
alarming ** array of legal talent** in the opposition. Mr. George Stephen- 
son was called into the witness-box on the 25th of April. For three days 
was he exposed to the bullying and baiting of some eight or ten barristers. 
His estimates, his plans, his peculiarities of pronunciation even, all in turn 
came in for their share of ridicule ; but the thing that of all others excited 
the amusement of his opponents, the crowning joke of the whole, was his 
scheme for carrying his railway over Chat Moss, a dreary, ** bottomless" 
swamp, extending for four miles along the line of road. Mr. Stephenson 
acquitted himself, in his trying examination, better than might have been 
anticipated from the odds against him ; but still the result was not much 
in his favour : his estimates, as we have said, had been made under great 
disadvantages, and were unfortunately anything but invulnerable. Upon 
Mr. Stephenson's evidence followed an infinite amount of testimony on the 
opposite side, to prove the grievous damage which the proposed proceed- 
ing would occasion. The issue of the whole affair was, that the projectors 
at length withdrew their bill. This withdrawal, however, was by no means 
prompted by any disposition to relinquish their project. On the contrary, 
they immediately commenced preparations for bringing in another bill the 
succeeding session. A fresh survey was taken, and fresh estimates were 
made out, and, profiting by past experience, they determined that this time 
their papers should not go into Parliament without the authority of some 
known professional name. The survey was taken, and the estimates were 
prepared this time by the Messrs. Rennie. A second bill was presented 
to the House in the March of 1 826, and carried without much delay. 

The company were now free to proceed with their operations as fast as 
might be. To the surprise, and somewhat to the annoyance, of their par- 
liamentary engineers, their first act after the bill was passed was to appoint 
George Stephenson as the engineer of the line. As for George Stephenson, 
his first act on his appointment was to set to work to make his road over 
Chat Moss. This work was of itself enough for a lifetime. The expenses 
were so great, and the thing appeared so hopeless, that even the directors. 

168 The Life of George Stephenson. [Aug, 

after a tolerable trial, felt every inclination to abandon the attempt ; they 
began to look upon Chat Moss as a very ** slough of despond." But Mr. 
Stephenson was not to be daunted. It was nothing to him that directors 
looked grim and assistants doubtful ; that after filling in for weeks and 
weeks, his embankments had not risen a single inch ; that everything 
thrown in seemed 

" to be swallowed up and lost" 

in the floating mire : all he said was, " We must persevere." And indeed 
there could not be well found a more eminent exemplification of the aphor- 
ism, that " perseverance conquers all difficulties,'' than the result of his 
labours. In less than six months from the day upon which the directors 
had held a meeting to take counsel whether the Chat Moss undertaking 
should not be given up altogether, these very directors were whirled over 
the said Chat Moss behind a locomotive engine. 

Whilst the railway steadily advanced, discussions began to arise, as in 
the case of the Stockton and Darlington hne, respecting the kind of power 
to be employed upon it. Some individuals still adhered to the horse- 
power, but the majority of those concerned in the afiair were in favour of 
stationary engines. George Stephenson was alone in standing up for the 
locomotive. The directors, in their great confidence in Stephenson, would 
not treat any of his opinions lightly ; therefore they employed two expe- 
rienced engineers to make a careful examination of the advantages and 
disadvantages of both modes of working, and to report accordingly. This 
was done, and the engineers were against Stephenson ; indeed, not a single 
professional voice of authority was with him. But the man who had obtained 
the mastery over Chat Moss was not the man to succumb to a little oppo- 
sition. He persisted in maintaining and supporting his conviction with all 
the earnestness of his character ; he produced evidence to prove that the 
powers of the locomotive had been understated, and its expense overstated, 
by the engineers employed to inquire into the subject ; in short, he left not 
a single expedient untried in the cause of his beloved locomotives. The 
directors were at length prevailed upon to offer a prize of £500 for a loco- 
motive engine which should successfully fulfil a certain number of specified 
conditions. This was just what Stephenson wanted. An engine was im- 
mediately commenced at the Newcastle factory, under the superintendence 
of Mr. Robert Stephenson, which should triumphantly answer all the ne- 
cessary requisitions. When the day of trial came, there were several en- 
gines entered upon the lists ; but Mr. Stephenson's *' Rocket" bore off the 
prize from all competitors : it strictly performed all the stipulations, and 
was a complete success. This settled the question of the tractive power 
to be employed upon the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. 

The public opening of the railway took place upon the 30th of Septem- 
ber, 1 830. It was a proud day for George Stephenson ; the great work 
of his life was well done ; he had stamped his footprint on the tands of 
time : — 

" In his birth obscure, 
Yet bom to build a fame that should endure." 

We have already so far overstepped our limits, that for all particulars of 
the late portion of Mr. Stephenson's career we must refer our readers to 
Mr. Smiles' book itself. We can assure them that, for all attention they 
give it, they will be well recompensed ; it is long since it has been our good 
fortune to meet with so admirable a biography. 

1857.] 169 


We are indebted to Mr. Harrod • for some very valuable remarks upon 
tbe so-called restoration of churches, in spirit so entirely in accordance with 
our own expressed opinions upon the same subject that we transfer them to 
our pages. They form a portion of the preface of a volume that Mr. Harrod 
has published by subscription, which we hope to notice at some length in 
the Magazine for September or October, and which, in the meantime, we 
recommend to our readers as a work exhibiting considerable research. 

After regretting that more attention is not paid by antiquaries to the 
conservation of our popular monuments and buildings, many of which are 
being destroyed under the specious plea of restoration, he proceeds : — 

" When we are engaged in preparing such expensive and admirable re- 
positories for our written records, it is most strange that the public feeling 
is so supine about our ancient monuments. 

*' The public is fully alive to the importance of preserving our ancient 
manuscripts intact ; the value of an original over a facsimile, be the latter 
ever so good, is at once seen and appreciated, but our more material records 
in wood and stone are suffered to be destroyed and replaced by at best 
poor imitations of ancient art, not only without censure but in many cases 
with approbation. Meanwhile the evil goes on increasing, and in the 
course of another half-century, unless public opinion can be brought to 
bear upon the matter, there will scarcely be any ancient buildings left in 
the land. 

" In dealing with an increasing evil like this, nothing is to be done ex- 
cept by earnest, steady, uncompromising energy ; any other course only 
serves to produce irritation without any compensating results. I had 
hoped, with many others, that the Society of Antiquaries was about to 
rouse itself, and to deal energetically with the giant evil ^. But, alas ! the 
Council, having delivered itself in the year 1855 of a strong resolution, has 
apparently ceased to trouble itself with the difficult task. 

•* This resolution, I submit, with all due deference, ought to have been 
followed up by strong representations in every quarter where the matter 
could have been dealt with, and some feasible plan suggested for a super- 
vision and conservation of our ancient monuments ; and I still hope, 
although much valuable time has been lost, that the Council will yet bestir 
itself on a subject of such national importance. For our churches are not 
only records of the history of English architecture, but also of the history 
of the Church itself ; and I would myself deal as gently with the works of 
Elizabethan and Jacobean periods as with the works of earlier times, ex- 
cept where they are undoubted obstructions to public worship. 

** In one of our Norfolk churches, a few years ago, the chancel remained 
as arranged during the Commonwealth ; the table was in the centre, and 

• « 

Qleanings among the Castles and Convents of Norfolk." By Henry Harr<>d, F.S.A., 
Local Secretary for Norfolk of the Society of Antiquaries and of the Archseological In- 
stitute, Corresponding Member of tbe New England Hiitorico-Geiiealo^cal Society, and 
late Honorary Secretary of the Norfolk and Norwich Archeolo^cal Society. 

^ Why don't the Society act ? It allows other and less influential bodies to nsorp 
its own proper and legitimate functions ; and suggestions which would be listened to 
if emanating from so respectable a body as the Society of Antiquaries meet with no 
attention when offered by oth«rs, 

Gbjtt. Mag. Vol. CCIII. z 

170 Church Restoratum alias Destruction. [Aug. 

seats round it. I believe there is scarcely another example in the king- 
dom. This arrangement offered no obstruction to the decent performance 
of our present ceremonies, and I confess I cannot enter into the feelings of 
those who could view it as offensive, and would insist on the table being 
placed close to the east wall, and the rest of the chancel re-arranged. 

** Before I close my observations on this subject an instance or two may 
be named of the proceedings of restorers : — 

'^A large and fine church in the country has an able and energetic 
minister. It was cumbered from end to end with ugly pews. A large 
sum of money was raised, the pews were removed, and their place supplied 
by oaken benches. Now, if there be one feature of the arrangement of 
our Norfolk churches which may be called a prevailing character, it is the 
use of the poppy- head benching. I know none where the slightest re- 
mains of early benching have been left where it was otherwise. This 
church has now benching of a pattern common, I am told, in Somer- 
setshire, although large remains of the bench-ends among the pews shew it 
to have been arranged originally after the Norfolk fashion. And this is 
called restoration, and was done under the supervision of an eminent 
architect ! 

" I will name another instance which came under my notice of a pro- 
jected restoration. It is of a small but beautiful country church, to which 
much has been judiciously done of late years, the fabric being sound in 
every part, and calculated, with occasional repairs, to last for centuries ; 
and there is ample accommodation for any congregation likely to be 
gathered there. But the incumbent has become an * ecclesiologist,' and 
now proposes to destroy a screen dividing the church from the chancel, 
having figures of saints painted on the panels, and to erect in lieu thereof 
a fine open iron-work screw, nearly filling the arch. An arch is to be made 
iii the north wall of the chancel, and a vestry — I beg pardon, a ' sacristy,* 
— built. Within the arch an organ is to be placed. Chancel seats, of ap- 
proved mediaeval design, are to be constructed, from one of which the in- 
cumbent is to read or intone the service, the reading-desk — sad relic of 
Puritanism ! — being done away with ; an ancient and curious family pew 
is also doomed to destruction. The east window is to be renovated and 
filled with stained glass, and silken hangings are to adorn the walla around 
the altar ! And this is restoration ! Restoration to what ? 

" It should be stated, too, that in the instance I have named, and in a 
vast number of others, there is no pretence that the space is inadequate for 
the wants of the congregation, the plea advanced is simply that of a desire 
to restore, 

** That a feasible plan of church conservation might be adopted I have no 
doubt. Meanwhile, much might be done if appointments to deaneries and 
archdeaconries were made with some reference to the fitness of the persons 
appointed to undertake one of the most important duties of those ofifices. 
Among the present holders of such offices — I say it with all possible re- 
spect — a knowledge of architecture and a reverence for ancient art is the 
exception and not the rule. 

" It has been thought that much might have been done by the Archaeo- 
logical Societies. My experience has convinced me that it is not so. The 
manner in which, during my official career, the most respectful represent- 
ations, the mildest observations in opposition to the views of the restorers 
were received, would, I feel sure, amply confirm me in that assertion.** 

Most of our readers could without doubt confirm Mr. Harrod's assertions ; 

1 857.] Le^» History of Tetbury. 1 71 

but we are sorry to say that the passion for destruction is not confined to 
young and ignorant architects, it is largely participated in by older mem- 
bers of the profession, and whose published opinions are directly contrary 
to their practice « 


"Tetbyki," as described in Leland's Itinerary, "is vii miles from 
Malraesbyri, and is a praty market-town, Tetbyri liyth a 2 miles on the 
lift hand of from Fosse, as men ride to Sodbyri. The Hed of Isis in 
Cotteswolde riseth about a mile a this side Tetbyri." Pleasant as well as 
pretty, and commanding, from its situation on the Cotswold-hills, a wide 
tract of surrounding country, Tetbury presented suitabilities for a military 
station, of which both the Britons and the Romans took advantage. 
Camden says that Cunwallow Malmutius, King of the Britons, built a 
castle there : the remains of a Roman camp were not obliterated until the 
middle of the last century ; and Roman coins, heads of arrows and jave- 
lins, "horse-shoes of the ancient form, and spurs without rowels," have 
been at difi*erent times dug up, to bear their important though silent 
testimony to the history of the place. 

Mr. Lee has sought, with praiseworthy zeal and learning, in all the 
sources of information concerning the ancient fortunes of the town and 
parish he has chosen for his theme, and his labour has been rewarded with 
the fruits that it deserved. He has traced their history downwards from 
the earlier periods of invasion, recording a number of interesting events — 
not omitting battles and assaults during the civil war — of which they have 
been the scenes, and gathering in his harvest of particulars even to the 
present times. Amongst the curious matter which he accumulated, his 
account of the spring in Magdalen, or Maudlin, or in the corrupt pronun- 
ciation which has, we believe, become most popular in the neighbourhood, 
" Morning Meadow," is well worthy of the reader's notice, especially as the 
water from this spring, whilst the fame of doctors fluctuates unceasingly, 
maintains its reputation for curative virtue unimpaired. Mr. Lee says : — 

" The springs rising in this parish are worthy of especial mention. The Bristol Avon 
takes its rise from the spring in Magdalen Meadow, which is one of the original sources 
of that river. It leaves the parish almost immediately, and passing by Brokenborongh, 
Malmesbury, Chippenham, and Bath, (where it becomes navigable.) runs to Bristol, 
and there falls into the Severn. This river was formerly the boundary between tho 
kingdom of Wiccia, and that of the West Saxons. 

" The water of the spring in Magdalen Meadow was famed in past years, both for 
its healing and petrifying nature. It was said to be exceedingly good for sore eyes, 
and to possess many other excellent qualities ; but at the present time it hns become 
mixed with other streams, and we are afraid has lost both these virtues. The following 
extract from * England Displayed* will shew in what esteem it was held when this 
book was published. 

" * A little to the north of this town is a meadow called Maudlin Meadow, because, as 
we were told, it belongs to Magdalen College, Oxford. Here the inhabitants shewed 
us the head of a spring, which flowing from thence runs into a hedge- trough, and some 
tops of the wood that grows in the hedge rotting, and fulling into this rill of water, 
are by it turned to stone. We took up a great many of them, which are generally in 

• " The History of the Town and Parish of Tetbury, in the County of Gloucester, 
compiled from original MSS. and other Authentic Sources. By the llcv. Alfred T. Lee, 
M.A., &c., &c." (London : John Henry and James Parker.) 

173 Lee^s History of Tetbury. [Aug. 

the skapd of pipes, (as thev are commonly called,) which the peroke-maken curl their 
hair upon, and of a whitish, stony substance. We broke divers of them, and in the 
middle found generally a stick of wood, some as big as a goose-quill, and others larger ; 
some had but a thin stony crust aboat them ; in others the stick was no bigger than a 
large needle. Again, some had no stick in them, but only a hole through them like 
that of a tobacco-pipe ; and in some others we could perceive no woody substance, nor 
hole at all, but the whole was a soft kind of stone. Hence we guess that the sand 
which the water brings down with it, gathers and crusts about these sticks, and that in 
time the stick consumes, and the stony and sandy substance fills up and supplies its 

" How much this spring was valued, and how needful it was to the inhabitants of 
the town, is shewn by the titles of the following deeds, hearing date in the reign of 
Edward III. and Henry VII. 

" ' One deed wherein John de Breousa, L* of Tetbury, sonne and heyre of L* Tho- 
mas Breousa, granteth for ever to the inhabitants of Tetbury free liberty to fetch water 
in Mngdalen Mead, with sundry other clauses. Dated Anno R. Edward III., the 30th 

** * One deed whereby it appeareth, that John Lymericke, of Tetbury, gent., hath 
for him and his heyres for ever, given leave to all the inhabitants of Tetbuir to fetch 
water at one, or well spring butting uppon Maudlin Mead, in Tetbury Fielo. Dated 
Jan. 19, Anno E. Hen. VII., the 2nd (1487).' "—(pp. 39— 41.) 

Mr. Lee closes his first chapter with a suggestion as to the origin of the 
name of Tetbury^ which he supposes to be the result of a combination, not 
by any means unexampled in the names of other places, of the old British 
desi<?nation vrith a Saxon word expressive of some distinctive circumstance 
which the invaders sought to denote. Thus, according to his speculation, 
*' * Tedd,' in British, signifies an open space, an expanse, which may, 
perhaps, apply to the Cotswold Plain, in this direction, and * Bury * is the 
Saxon for a place of some strength ; so that the composite word, * Tedd- 
bury,' would signify a fortress in an open plain." The castle that un- 
questionably stood there, both in British and in Saxon times, supplies, in 
the opinion of our author, some countenance to the probability of the 

One of the portions of Mr, Lee*8 volume which will be most generally 
interesting is his account of the monastery at Tetbury, in which the Cister- 
cian monks (who seem to have been somewhat nice in regard to the conve- 
nience of their habitations) found — not peace, assuredly, — but many minor 
comforts, thrbugh a considerable term of years. We have only space for 
parts of Mr. Lee's narrative of the changes which these uneasy mortals 
made in the case of their local habitation. He says :^ 

" They had not long been settled at Hasildene, when they found themselves much 
inconvenienced from want of water, of which there was a great scarcity ; so at the sug- 
gestion of Reginald de S. Walerick, they removed to Tetteburie, where he generously 
bestowed some lands upon them, near which was a perennial spring, which would never 
fail to supply them with water. 

*' This removal of the monks from Eingswode gave great offence to Roger de Ber- 
kelo (heir to the before-mentioned William,) and he forthwith drew up a remonstrance 
of this affiur, and presented it to the King, complaining of the injury done to hia 
father's foundation, setting forth that Eingswode was left to him by his predecessor as 
a noted Abb* y, but that it was only held as a Grange to Tetteburie, the main body 
of the monks having removed thither ; and he insisted that either he might have his 
land again, or the monks be recalled and settled once more at Eingswoode. The 
Eing thought tliis reasonable, and yielded to liis request ; but by the interposition of 
the General Cliapter of the Cii»tercians, the Eing was induced to revoke his order, and 
it wad determined that Eingawode should remain a Grange to Tt^tteburie, but that the 
mass should be constantly read at Eingswode, by some monk that was a priest, at the 
proper altar deputed for that purpose ; and the monks, in order to make matters eaj^, 
compounded with Roger de Berkele, to give him twenty-seven marks and a half of su- 

1857.] Lee's History of Tetbury. 173 

ver, and one mark to his son, (in all £19,) and therenpon Roger de Berkele, by hif 
cluurter, ratified the compact, and confirmed to them his father's gift.*' — (pp. 90 — 92.) 

But even Tetbury ceased to satisfy them : — 

** Some time afber the monks at Tettebnrie, not well liking their situation, and hav- 
ing scarcely room enough for the commodious settling of an Abbey there, and finding 
great inconvenience through the scarcity of wood for firing in those parts, being forced 
to fetch their fuel from Klngswode, which lay at a considerable distance, they deter- 
mined to remove back to Kingswode ; but the buildings there not being sufficiently 
large for the reception of their number, Bernard de S. Walerick, the founder of Tette- 
burie church, requested and obtained from Roger de Berkele, Lord of Kingswode, forty 
acres of land at Mireford, a place bordering on Kingswode, near the water side, and 
thore erected a new abbey about 1170, and transferred the Monastery of Tetteburie 

" After the monastery of Tetteburie was removed to Kingswode, it is probable tliat 
Tetteburie became a Grange to Kingswode ; for there is an ancient farm-house in this 
parish, at a little distance from the town, which formerly had a chapel attached to it. 
The house to this day is called The Grange." — (pp. 93, 94.) 

Parish registers, churchwardens' books, and monuments in graveyard 
and in church, supply so diligent an antiquary as Mr. Lee with many an 
interesting page. Pedigrees, too, of families connected with the place, and 
brief memorials of one promising young poet, John Oldham, whose early 
death even Dryden has lamented, contribute to his ample store of rare and 
entertaining information. There is, indeed, no conceivable source of light 
on the local antiquities of Tetbury to which the author has not, in the 
course of his researches, turned ; and it cannot, we think, be regarded as 
other than a favourable circumstance that the attention of so diligent an 
investigator of the disregarded records and decaying relics of the past 
should have been directed, while it was yet time to decipher them aright, 
to a district so rich in such historical remains. In every year that passes 
over us some such materials perish : old deeds become illegible, old land- 
marks are destroyed, old monuments and trophies crumble into dust ; and 
with every memorial that is in this manner lost, there is a line or leaf for 
ever gone from that volume in which history's best credentials are con- 

Of these materials Mr. Lee's work will preserve many. That the author 
has not employed himself so usefully from any want of ability for pursuits 
of a more brilliant kind, a single passage of his " history *' will prove. In 
a few well-felt and well-written remarks on the proper character of inscrip- 
tions on Christian monuments, he says : — 

<' Surely it is not too much to ask, that the monuments in English churches should 
harmonise with the character of the sacred edifices, and the inscriptions on them accord 
with her doctrines; yet how seldom is this the case ? How rare, till of late years, to 
find in any churchyard the symbol of our redemption, the holy cross erected over the 
grave of those who, if they were Christians indeed, had daily borne it after their Lord. 
Yet, how common is it now to see in every churchyard the symbols wherewith the 
pagans of old marked the burial places of their dead, — the inverted torch, to symbolise 
that all hope had fled ; think of this over the grave of a Christian, whose hope should be 
in his death ! The sepulchral urn, which in heathen times contained the ashes of those 
whose bodies had been burnt after death ; think of this as a Christian memorial over 
one whose body had been the temple of the Holy Ghost ! If Christian mourners fur a 
moment allowed such thoughts as these to take possession of their minds, they could not 
permit the resting-place of their beloved ones to be desecrated by these symbols of a 
heathen worship, a worship which delighted to honour, not the God who created and 
redeemed them, but the devil and his angels, who ever seeks to ruin and destroy them. 

" The proper design of a Christian epitaph is to excite in the mind of the reader, 
penitential sorrow, or consolatory reflection. Tlie tomb of a Christian should speak to 
passar-by, of the oncortainty of Jife, of the Uessedneas of purity and holiness^ and of 


Correspondence of Sylvaruu Urban. 


the sore reward laid np in store for the godly. If such were the case, they being dead, 
would yet speak to ns, would urge us to follow their example, would incite us to greater 
humility and watchfulness ; as we passed by their silent tombs to enter the house of 
God, solemn thoughts would arise in our hearts, we should remember that we were 
trea^Ung on holy ground, that around us rested the dust of saints, waiting for the 
quickening breath of their Lord and Giver of life to awaken them to an immortality of 
bliss/'— (pp. 153—155.) 



Mr. Urban. — In the recent publication thus intituled there are a con- 
eiderable number of curious things, that, you will perhaps agree with me in 
thinking, deserve to be brought before those who interest themselves in the 
men and manners of by-gone days. In the number of such persons there 
will be many of your readers, no doubt, a great majority of whom, from its 
very limited impression, must of necessity be either totally or comparatively 
strangers to the work. There are also several matters of interest, mentioned 
here and there, which seem to require further elucidation, in reference to 
the degree of credit that is to be attached to honest Tom's statements there- 
on. Many of your correspondents, I should think, will be found both able 
and willing to contribute information in reference thereto, should you think 
these queries and extracts worthy of a place in the correspondence columns 
of your valued Magazine. Henrt T. Rilet. 

Kitcat Olub, (p. 70). — It is g-enerally re- 
presented that this club took its name 
from one Catt or Katt, a cook of Shire- 
lane, Temple Bar ; or rather from his pies, 
known as Kit-cats, and which always form- 
ed a standing dish at the meeting of the 
club. Heame calls him Christopher Oat- 
ling, a " pudding-pye man." His account, 
be it observed, (1705,) is earlier than Ad- 
dison's, " Spectator," No. ix. Ned Ward 
says that his name was Christopher, and 
that his sign was the " Cat and Fiddle." 

Duchess of Marlborough. — A favourite 
nickname of the Duchess, with the Jacob* 
ites, so early as 1705, seems to have been 
Queen Zarah [p. 78]. Why Zarah, in- 
stead of Sarah, does nc»t appear. It is a 
maWs name in the Old Testament. 

Whole Duty of Man. — Heame's proofs 
that Archbishop Sancrofb was the author 
of this work are circumstantial, and well 
worth examination, (p. 107). In the latter 
part of his life, however, he seems to have 
changed his opinions: (July 31, 1732) 
after rejecting Lady Packington's claims, 
he comes to the conclusion that Mr. Abra- 
ham Woodhead, a convert to the Roman 
Catholic faith, was more likely than any 
one else to have been the writer. In a 

letter, again, written about a year later 
(not in the present work), to Dr. Claver- 
ing, bishop of Peterborough, he mentions 
a Mr. Baskett as havmg some claims to 
the authorship. 

Sir W, Raleigh, (p. 115). — The reason, 
Heame says, of his being put to death for 
things done twenty years before, was his 
" putting a cast-off mistress to the earl of 
Salisbury, and then bragging of it. This 
comes from Dr. Eaton, who had it from 
one Bond, who was a dependent on the 
lord Chancellor Egerton.** A ** most lame 
and impotent" story, it would appear, and 
hardly worth confutation. 

Dr. Bull and his Pipe ^When the b-ll 

for the security of the Church of England 
was read, the clause in it for repealing the 
Sacramental te^^t was assented to by eleven 
bishops, and opposed by six. From what 
Heame says ^. 116, Feb. 7, 1707), Bull, 
bishop of St. David's, seems not to have 
voted, but " sate in the lobby of the House 
of Lords all the while, smoking his pipe" 
Tempora tnutanfur. The worthy bishop 
died in 1709, aged 75. 

Dr. Bowles and Dr. Samford, (p. 134). 
— " Dr. Bowles, Doctor of Divinity, mar- 
ried the daughter of Dr. Samford, Doctor 


Correspondence of Sylvanua Urban. 


of Physic, and vice versa. Dr. Samford, the 
daughter of Dr. Bowles : whereupon the 
two women might say to the men, ' These 
are our fathers, our sonnes, and our hus- 
bands.' — Out of Archbishop Usker^s MSS. 
Collections, penes Jac. Tyrrel" To my 
thinking. Physic and Divinity ought to 
have been ashamed of themselves fur a 
couple of dotards, if not something worse. 

Lardner the Camisard, (p. 147). — Men- 
tion is made (August, 1709) of one Thomas 
Lardner, " formerly a Cambridge Scholar, 
who had been expelled for lewdness and 
debauchery," as joining the Camisards or 
French prophets, and travelling about the 
country with them. Is anything further 
known of this Lardner ? and what ulti- 
mately became of him? Sir Kichord 
Bulkeley, "once looked upon as a sober, 
grave, and religious gentleman," Hcame 
says, wrote in defence of these Camisards. 
Is this work known to be in existence ? 

David Jones, the Preacher. — A 'person 
of this name is mentioned (p. 170) as being 
**a soft, mild preacher, in compari^on of 
Sacheverell." Is anything further known 
of him? His rather ominous name was 
borne also by a person who translated Pez- 
ron's "Antiquities of Nations" much about 
the same period. 

Jacobite verses spoken at Brazen- Nose, 
— A copy of verses of this nature, spoken 
by the butler on Shrove Tuesday, is as- 
cribed (p. 180) to Mr. Shippery, This is 
clearly a mistake; the author was pro- 
bably Will. Shippen the Jacobite, the 
"honest Shippen" of Pope. He was a 
member of Brazen-Nose, and his brother 
was President of the college, as staunch, 
at one time, in his Jacobite predilections 
as ever the parliament-man was, but in 
the later part of his life his opinions ap- 
pear to have become considerably modi- 

The Salamander, — The following is an 
extract (p. 217) out of Mr. John Chreaves's 
papers t upon this curious subject. The 
locality is not mentioned, but it is Italy, 
we presume. "The apothecary had two 
salamanders, which lived two hours in a 
great fire. They often cast out little drops, 
which in the fire make great bladders or 
bubbles, as big as one's dst. He is very 
cold, not moist, whereby to extinguish the 
fire. He is rank poison, and the very 
smell of him alive would cause the head- 
ache twenty-four hours. I found no such 
efiect of him doitd, only I observed the 
flesh still stanke, which might be because 
he was not well dryed. The skin is black- 
ish, and he hath many yellow spots, where- 
of some aie long and as big as a 3d. or 
more. He is like a cameleon for the head, 
legs, and taile, but yet a little less." 

John Greaves, of Merton College, a cele* 
brated Eastern traveller, was a man of 
credit, but as the anim^ was not shewn 
to him alive, it is more than probable that 
he was imposed upon. 

A correspondent of your worthy con- 
temporary, "Notes and Queries," has re- 
cently called attention to a still more ex- 
traordinary passage on this subject in the 
" Autobiography of Benvenuto Cellini :" — 
" When I was about five years of age, my 
father happened to be in a little room 
where there was a good fire burning ; with 
a fiddle in his hand, he sang and played 
near the fire, the weather being exceed- 
ingly cold. Looking into the fire, he saw 
a little animal resembling a lizard, which 
lived and enjoyed itself in the hottest 
flames. Instantly perceiving what it was, 
he called for my sister, and after he had 
shewn us the creature, he gave me a box 
on the ear. I fell a-crying, while he, 
soothing me, said: — *My dear child, I 
don't give you that blow for any fault you 
have committed, but that you may re- 
member that the little lizard which you 
see in the fire is a salamander ; a creature 
which no one that I have heard of ever 
beheld before.'" We should think not, 
indeed ; though the story about the sala- 
mander is to be found many ages prior to 
Benvenuto, who on this occasion is either 
a dupe or a fibber. 

The description given by Bandal Holme 
in his " Academy of Armory and Blazon," 
is derived in a great measure from Pliny ; 
but Holme evidently confounds it with 
the stellio, which the Roman naturalist 
makes to be a difierent animal altogether. 
In B. X. c. 86, Pliny says:— "The sala- 
mander, an animal like a lizard in shape, 
and with a body starred all over, never 
comes out except during heavy showers, 
and d'sappears the moment it becomes 
fine. This animal is so intensely cold as 
to extinguish fire by its contact, in the 
same way as ice does. It spits forth a 
milky matter from its mouth ; and if any 
part of ihe human body is touched with 
this, all the hair falls ofi*, and the part as- 
sumes the appearance of leprosy." 

In other place:), Pliny says that this 
animal was eminently poisonous; and in 
b. xxix. c. 23, he goes so far as to say 
that if it crawls up a tree it infects the 
fruit with its chilling venom, and renders 
it fatal; even more than which, if it only 
touches with its foot the wood on which 
bread is baked, or if it happens to fall 
into water or wine, the same fatal results 
will ensue. Singularly enough, however, 
on the same occasion, he modifies hif 
former story about its incombustibility ii| 
the following words : '' As to what the ma- 


Correspondence of Sylvatms Urban, 


gicians say, that it is proof against fire, — 
being:, as they tell ns, the only animal that 
has the property of extinguishing fire, — 
if it had been true, it would have been 
made trial of at Kome long before this. 
Sextius denies that the salamander has 
the property of extinguishing fire." 

Like the stellio, the salamandra was 
in all probability a variety, but a more 
rare one, of the gecko, or tarentola, of 
Italy, an animal which raises blisters on 
the Bkin, from the extreme sharpness of 
its nails. Pliny's marvellous story of its 
ability to poison whole nations, was de- 
rived probably from the Magi of the East, 
through the works either of Pythagoras 
or Democritus. 

The First Pretender secretly in Eng- 
land, (p. 240). — "Mr. Oiffard told us 
last night (when several of us were in 
company, all honest [i. e. Jacobite] men,) 
that the young King James III. was in 
England when the present queen (as she 
is styled) his sister [i. e. Anne] was 
crowned, and he further says, that the 
queen kissed him at that time, he being 
present at the coronation. This is a great 
secret" [Heame's own Ital.] Is any- 
thing further known of this singular 
story ? There is probably much better 
evidence that the second Pretender was 
present at the coronation of Qeorge III. 

Francis Cherry, Esq, — Are any further 
particulars known relative to this gentle- 
man, the friend of Henry DodweU, and 
the kind patron of Heame ? He is men- 
tioned [p. 293] as dying at Shottesbrooke, 
in Berks, Sept. 23, 1713, aged about 48 
years. Like Dodwell, whom he assisted 
in the De Cgclis Veterum, he was a non- 
juror. Is the family of which he was a 
member still in existence ? 

Tompion, the watchmaker. — Nov. 27, 
1713, Heame notes him [p. 298], as hav- 
ing died last week [Nov. 20.] From 
being originally a blacksmith, he became 
the first watchmaker in Europe. He and 
his successors, Graham and Quare, were 
Quakers. Their shop, I believe, is still 
a watchmaker's, in Fleet-street. Tompion 
was buried in Westminster Abbey. 

Male, meaning a bag. — Quoting from 
Bolton's Nero CcRsar, 1623, Heame has 
the following passage [p. 308] :— " They 
hung about the neck of one of Nero's 
statues a leathern sack, to upbraid his 
parricide, the punbhment whereof was 
to be traped into such a male, with a 
cocke, a dogge, and a viper, &c." This 
is a rare instance of the use of the word 
mcde, 8'gnifying a bag ; whence our later 
word mail, of the same signification, now 
applied exclusively to the letter-bog, or 

to what it carries. — Bolton has omitted 
the ape. 

Proclamation for taking the Pretender, 
(p. 809). — " The queen hath issued a pro- 
clamation [a.d. 1714,] offering a reward 
of £5,000 to any one that shall take the 
Pretender (as they style the Prince of 
Wales)." Is this the trath? If so, it 
comports but little with the predilection 
which Anne is sud to have entertained 
for her unfortunate brother in the latter 
years of her life; or with the political 
tendencies attributed to Harley and Bo- 
lingbroke, her ministers at this period, 
who were scheming, it is supposed, how 
to secure the throne to the representative 
of the Stuarts. This was only five weeks 
before Anne's death, and I am inclined to 
think that Hearne must be mistaken. 

Anonymous Letter to the Mayor of 
Osford. The day after the death ol 
Queen Anne, the Mayor of Oxford re- 
ceived the following anonymous letter, 
given by Heame [p. 312.] It may pos- 
sibly have been the genuine production 
of some enthusiastic Jacobite, and not an 
idle hoax; but as an imitation in style, 
evidently, of the famous Monteagle letter, 
it is worth transcribing : — 

•' Oxon, August 2, 1714. 
*' Mr. Mayor, 

*' If you are so honest a man as to prefer your 
duty and allegiance to your lawful soTereign be- 
fore the fear of dangler, yon will not need this 
caution, which comes from your fHends to warn 
you, if you should receive an order to proclaim 
Hannover, not to comply with it. For the hand 
of God is now at work to set things upon a right 
foot, and in a few days you will find wonderful 
changes, which if you are wise enough to foresee, 
you will obtain grace and favour from the hands 
of his sacred malestie King James, by proclaim- 
ing him voluntanlv, which otherwise you will be 
fo' ced to do with disgrace. If you have not the 
courage to do this, at least for your own safety 
delay proclaiming Hanover as long as you can, 
imder pretense of sickness, or some other reason. 
For you cannot do it without certain hazard of 
your life, be you ever so well guarded. I, who am 
but secretary to the rest, having a particular 
friendship for you, and an c^inion of your honesty 
and good inclinations to his majestv's servio«, 
have prevailed with them to let me give you tliia 
warning. If you would know who Uie rest are, 
our name is 

** Lboxov, and «o« are many. 

** This note shall be your sufficient warrant in 
times to come for proclaiming his m^Jestie 
King James, and if this does not satisAr 
you, upon your first publick notioe we wiU 
do it in person. 

" For Mr. Broadwater, mayor of 
the city of Oxford, these." 

The writer, though a proclamation of 
£100 was offered for his discovery, doe§ 
not appear to have been found and brought 
to justice. 

{To he continued.) 


Correspondence of Sylvanm Urban, 




Mb. Ubban, — It may perhaps be in- 
teresting to you to receive some account 
of a short visit which I had lately occa- 
sion to make to the small town of Burgh- 
on- the -Marsh, near Boston, abont six 
miles from the east coast. I nm down 
from Hull on the afternoon of her Ma- 
jesty's birthday, May 26, by the East 
Lincolnshire Railway, to Bnr^h Staticm, 
passing through a flat alluvial country, 
which exhibited here and there, in the 
railway-cutting, deposits of small chalk 
pebbles, the debris of the low -lying range 
of the Lincolnshire chalk to the westward. 
This range was generally visible during 
the whole journey, at the distatice of two 
or three miles; and, on the other hand, 
though they were not in sight, I knew 
that we were skirting the eastern marshes, 
— those dead-level alluvial marshes wliich 
stretch from north to south over so many 
square miles, with a varying breadth from 
east to west, crowded in summer with 
numberless cattle, and intersected with 
never-ceasing dykes of stagnant water. 
The stations along the line bore names 
in which Saxon and Danish still struggle 
for the mastery ; for this is the old de- 
batable battle-ground, harassed so long 
with fire and sword by the barbarous and 
wide-wasting hordes of the Vikings, who 
obtained in it at length a permanent 
settlement. The curious traveller reads 
their history in the towns and villages 
called by their names, and more than half 
realizes their images as he watches his 
fellow-travellers along the line of this 
rnilway. He learns that these scourges 
of men were not mere roving adventurers, 
who cume and plundered, and then imme- 
diately returned to their own land; but 
that they conquered and colonized York- 
shire and Lincolnshire, and introduced a 
new element, not only of language, but 
also of national form and features. The 
Abbey of Croyland is not far fh)m Burgh ; 
and Mr. Worsaae relates that soon aher 
A.D. 800 there were an abbot and monks 
of that place, three principal benefactors, 
and several villages in the neighbourhood, 
all with Danish names. And accordingly 
wc find, at the present diiy, that the 
names of the stations between Hull and 
Burgh are in great part Danish. 

Burgh-le-Marsh has a few hundred in- 
habitanto, an ancient market, and an early 
Perpendicular church with a very stately 
tower. The tower of Burgh, in this flat 
district, is an ornament and landmark for 
many a tedious mile. At the entrance of 

Gent. Mag. Vol. CCIII. 

the town from the railway-station, and 
close to the road on the right hand, is a 
large and ancient artificial tumulus, which 
has been at some time scooped out to 
serve for a cockpit, and is still called 
"Cockpit-hill." Opposite this tumulus, 
on the other side of the way, there are 
the marks, almost defaced, of two square 
trenches, indicative of a remote occupa- 
tion. These remains are attributed by 
the inhabitants to the Romans. The Ro- 
mans, say they, constructed the " sea- 
bank" which protects the marsh from 
inundation ; and coins of Antoninus Pius 
are said to have been found at Burgh. 
I myself, however, saw no remains which 
could with certainty be attributed to that 
great people. 

A gentleman shewed me a peculiar and 
very rude kind of brirk, which is some> 
times found in quantities hereabouts, but 
never, as it would seem, in such a posi- 
tion that its use or age can be determined. 
If you were to take a large handful of 
soft clay, squeeze it into a cylindrical sort 
of shape, leaving your finger-marks all 
round it, then strike it flat at the top 
and bottom, and afterwards bake it, you 
would have produced a perfect f'ac- simile 
of one of these bricks. I cannot make 
a guess at the use of such coarse pottery. 
Is it possible that it was used in road- 
making, for want of stone ? 

The town is built of brick, half in the 
marsh and half upon a rising -ground 
which there skirts the marsh towards the 
west. Before my departure, I succeeded 
in ascertaining the geological character of 
this low elevation, which many antiquaries 
have been disposed to regard as partly 
artificial. About a mile to the west of 
Burgh is a place where there have long 
been diggings for road-stone, and I ob- 
tained there the following section, which 
throws much li^ht upon the structure 
and geological age of the neighbotirhood 
of Burgh : — 

1. Marly-looking alluvium, free from peb- 
ble.^, but occasionally intersperi«d with 
morsels of white chialk. From S to 7 


2. Red-coloured sand, mixed with pebbles. 
About 3 feet. 

3. Rolled and water -worn chalk flints, 
commonly of large size, frangible and 
splintery, mixed indiscriminately with 
ostrea, inoceramus, ammonites, echi- 
nidse enclosed in the flints, and, in one 
instance, the base of a gasteropous shell 

▲ a 


Correspondence of Sylvanua Urban. 


much resembling the common whelk. 
With these occurred fragments of fossil 
bones, which had apparently belonged 
to large animals. I was also shewn a 
perfect tooth of a young mammoth 
found here; and the gentleman who 
shewed it me assured me that horns of 
deer occur in the same pit. From 8 to 

4. A loose bog, with trunks of trees, under- 
lies tliis drift, but the depth of it is not 

This deposit of " diluvial elephantoidal 
gravel" appears to be of no very great 
extent, and probably does not underlie 
the marsh to the eastward of Burgh. Its 
average depth, from the report of the 
workmen, is about eight or nine feet; 
and the whole average depth, from the 
surface of the ground to the top of the 
subjacent bog, is said to be about twenty 
feet. The marsh itself seems to be a vast 
tract of alluvium, with traces of a sub- 
terranean forest to be seen, at low water, 
at Ingoldmells, and other places along the 
adjoining shore. 

On the morning of the 27th, the day 
after my arrival at Bui^h, I rode to the 
lea at Skegness, (or, as these people call 
it, Skegg's Nest). The road lay directly 
across the marsh, with a drain or dyke 
on each hand, and was much too narrow 
to be safe for driving, at least with 
spirited and unaccustomed horses. The 
cowslip prevailed in the pastures, and 
the cuckoo-flower in the boundary dykes. 
There was a great absence of wood, and 
comparatively little tillage. Rooks and 
skylarks were the principal birds observ- 
able. Several churches were in sight — 
many of them remarkably handsome and 
interesting churches, laboriously reared, 
in pious ages, in the midiile of this pesti- 
lent marsh — as Addlethorpe, Ingoldmells, 
Skegness, Winthorpe, and others. Three 
of these I examined in the course of the 
day, and the notes which I made of them 
I shall be glad to lay before you in an- 
other letter. They contain many points 
of unusual antiquarian interest, in screens, 
pulpits, fonts, brasses, altar-stones, &c. 

All the three churches that I examined 
to-day in the marsh were built of a fine, 
sharp, enduring oolite-freestone, which is 
very little the worse for wear. I suspect 
this oolite not to have been obtained in 
Lincolnshire, but rather brought by sea — 
say from Scarborough or Dorsetshire — be- 
cause the churches that I inspected on the 
edge of the marsh to the westward, as 
Burgh and Orby, are principally of green- 
sand. Now if the oolite of the marsh 
churches were brought from the interior 

of Lincolnshire, as it may have been, then 
I should have expected, a fortiori, to have 
found it used equally on that side of tho 
marsh, as at Burgh and Orby, which it is 
not. So far as my small experience en- 
abled me to judge, I suspected it to have 
been brought in ships for the erection of 
these marsh churches, because they are 
bounded on the east by the sea, and on 
the west by churches of greensand. More- 
over, the tower of Burgh, the only part 
which is not chiefly of greensand, is said 
to be of Portland oolite; so that there 
seems here to be a junction of the two 
kinds of material. But the texture of the 
fine stone of Burgh tower is not oolitic, 
and I do not recognise it as at all identical 
with the marsh oolite proper. It would, 
perhaps, demand a wider observation of 
the existing conditions than I had leisure 
to make, before one could say conclusively 
whether the marsh oolite be Lincolnshire 
stone or not. I have little hesitation in 
assigning the greensand aforesaid to the 
neighbourhood of Halten-Holegato, a vil- 
lage between Burgh and Spilsby ; for we 
drove through sufficient sections of it there 
to account for its presence in the adjacent 

But I must return to the neighbourhood 
of the sea at Skegness. It was now the 
finest weather imaginable ; yet all the 
marsh was full of intermittent fever, ague, 
and measles. I ascertained these diseases 
at several points of my day's ride, and 
had reason to believe them very widely 
spread. There is a good beach at Skeg- 
ness, and we just arrived as the tide was 
retiring, leaving broad, dry, level sands 
plentifully covered with marine animals, 
plants, and shells. The low coast of Nor- 
folk was just visible across the water, said 
to be seventeen miles distant; and it 
seemed to me so much like the shore of 
a foreign country, that I bad some diffi- 
culty in persuading myself that I was 
only looking across the Wash. Skegness 
b becoming a kind of watering-place, and 
now attracts a considerable number of 
summer visitors, who frequent it for its 
sea-breezes. But the salubrity of this 
marsh in general is something more than 
questionable ; for if it is half made healthy 
and invigorating with sea-airs, it is more 
than half poisoned with the noisome va- 
pours which exhale from so many leagues 
of stagnant dykes. If anyone shall desire 
to see the "pestilence that walketh in 
darkness," let him go and take a lodging 
in one of these marsh villages, and, some- 
time in the early summer, let him rise up 
in the middle of the night, and look out 
of his window. He shall see the damp fog, 
white and fleecy like wool, enveloping the 


Correspondence of Syhxmus Urban. 


whole marshes with a mantle; and he 
shall remember the tale of the valley of 
Devno, and, hiding himself in bed, dream 
restlessly of the ague, and fancy he sees 
the fever-fiend. Yet there is no lack of 
ancient men and women, who have spent 
their long lives in this marsh. 

There were many young crabs on the 
sands at Skegness, and many star-fishes. 
Three examples of echinidae fell in my 
way, belonging to two distinct families, 
and one actinia, or sea-anemone. The 
shells were for the most part empty, (ex- 
cept in one or two instances of whelks and 
teilens,) and belonged to the following 
genera: — mussel, cockle, oyster, murex, 
Bolem, pccten, pholas, mya, purpura, as- 
tarte, trochus, tellina, fusus, balamus (at- 
tached to mussels), buccinum (rendatum, 
the common whelk), and perhaps others. 
Of these, some were very plentiful — as 
solens, pectens, cockles, tellens, and above 
all, whelks. On the other hand, certain 
common genera appeared to be wholly un- 
represented here; viz., cyprcea (cowry), 
bidla, patella (limpet), dentalium, scalaria, 
area, &c. 

I paid no attention to the algsd, or 
sea-weeds ; but picked up certain common 
zoophytes, attached to the shells of mus- 
sels, and belonging to the families sertu- 
laria, flustra, and sponges. There were 
also lying about on the sands empty eggs of 
whelks, skates, and other marine animals. 

The pebbles on this low alluvial shore 
were few and small, both much fewer and 
much smaller than I had lately seen thein 
on the diluvial shore at Withernsea, in 
Holderness, where they have contributed 
materials for the erection of churches. 
The opposite coast of Norfolk, across the 
Wash, being cretaceous, it was to be ex- 
pected that chalk-pebbles would prepon- 
derate at Skegness ; and so they are found 
to do. I noticed, however, a fair propor- 
tion of fossils from the lias, which must 
have been brought down hither by strong 
currents from the coast of Yorkshire ; car- 
diiiise, belemnites, and very much worn 
gryphoeae incurvse. I also picked up, 
amongst other things, a large and hand- 
some piece of agate. 

The sea gives up her dead profusely at 
this point, in wave-worn skulls aind thigh- 
bones of men, and many remains of other 
animals. On the whole, this Skegness is 
a very interesting place to visit ; and, ac- 
cording to my experience, those lovers of 
nature who shall spend an hour upon its 
beach will have no cause to complain of 
the " unfruitfulness** of the sea. 

I examined the churches of Winthorpe, 
Addlethorp, and Ingoldmells, and then 
returned and made notes of the church of 

Burgh. Its plan is — west tower, nave and 
aisles, north and south porches, and chan- 
cel. The tower, as I have said, is very 
handsome and stately, and built with a 
fine, close-grained white stone, in the man- 
ner of the purest Perpendicular age. It 
has a west door, west window, and we^^t 
niche for the Madonna or patron saint, 
with buttresses and belfry -windows of very 
good character. The tower- arch, resting 
on capitals, is Perpendicular and plain. 
The nave has five arches on each side, 
resting on octagon piers, with po<^r and 
shallowly-moulded capitals, (according to 
the fashion of Perpendicular architecture 
in the Burgh district, so far as I have 
been able to observe it). The windows in 
the clerestory are Perpendicular, of three 
lights. The ancient oak roof, very well 
preserved, with fair bosses, rests on stone 
corbels, variously, but not very legibly, 
sculptured. The subjects of the sculpturos 
do not seem to possess mnch interest, so 
far as they can now be made out. The 
font, plain, but of good proportion, had 
till lately a cover of most cumbrous size 
and unsightly appearance, which is now in 
the north porch, amongst divers other 
vestiges. This font-cover is one of the 
things which, me judica, ought not to be 
restored. It seems to be of Carolean age, 
and is, without doubt, hugely clumsy and 
awkward, as I ascertained by having it 
temporarily replaced on the font. The 
north porch, now a lumber-room, has a 
Perpendicular inner door. The inner por- 
tal of the south porch is of early Perpendi- 
cular character, and this appears to be the 
age of the oldest parts of this church. 
There are windows in both aisles, three 
or four in number, which indicate a tran- 
sition from the Decorated to the Perpen- 
dicular style of architecture. Especially 
the east window of the north aisle deserves 
careful notice. At first sight it might 
appear to be pure Decorated, but I do 
not hesitate to describe it ns late and 
transitional. There runs underneath it a 
stringcourse, which is characteristic of 
the oldest parts of the present structure, 
and the absence of which serves to mark 
subsequent repairs and alterations. This 
string runs round the buttresses on the 
north side ; its lower surface is undercut, 
its upper, a good ogee. I believe it to 
belong to the early Perpendicular age, 
and it certainly points to the date of the 
foundation of the existing edifice. The 
chancel is late and poor, and this distinc- 
tive string does not occur upon it. 

Tliere is an ancient rood-turret on the 
north side of the chancel-arch, and small 
remains of old glass are yet to be seen in 
some of the windows. 


Correspmdence of Sylvanus Urban. 


The cbanoel>8creen is Perpendicular; 
tbo chancel itself not worth mention, ex- 
cept for its present furniture. I would, 
however, call attention to that part of its 
fumimre which is next to be described. 
There are reared up round its waVs what 
seem to be the ancient screens of tne two 
aisle-chantries, and these are the best, 
perhap:^, of all the fine screens in this un- 
usually interesting^ "screen" district. I 
have seen much ecclesiastical woodwork 
in parish churches, but never any that 
may be compared, for beauty and preserva- 
tion, with the w()odv\'ork of tiiid district, 
as shewn in Wlntnorpo, Addlethorp, and 
Burgh. The screens hereabituts are ap- 
parently as old as the churches, and have 
worn as well. Everything in their design 
anil execution goes to prove that they be* 
long to the transition from Decorated. 
Tiiere was a compartment of screen- work 
in Brough chancel, which, if I had seen it 
alone, I must have assigned to Decorated ; 
and, taking all the parts of these Burgh 
screens together, they have a much more 
Decorated than Perpendicular aspect. Cer- 
tain details, however, correct this first im- 
pression, and t< ach us to ascribe them to the 
best Perpendicular age. It was a late in- 
cumhent who adorned the chancel with these 
fine old screens, which ap))ear to have been 
broken up and mutihited for that occasion. 
It may, however, reasonably be doubted 
whether the prop* iety would not have been 
just the same, and the artistic eff'ect nmch 
gpreater, if he had set them up, not round 
the interior walls of the chancel, but round 
the ext<^rior walls of the clerestory. How 
much has thus perished from the church 
of Burgh, of which no ve»tige now re- 
mains there, we may judge from a cotn- 
]ari8on of some neighbouring churches 
which have had less cost and pains be- 
stowed on their restorations. 

The pulpit of Burgh Church is Jacobean 
— and such Jacobean ! King James him- 
self might have sat, with pleasure and ad- 
yantag'*, under such a pulpit. And in- 
deed upon the front of it there is surely 
the royal portrait, — with the royal hat, 
and beard, and frill, — amid great plenty of 

Ionic volutes, and other medleys of the 
Renaissance. The wood, which must be 
of the firmest heart of oak, has endured 
remarkahly, and looks quite sound. 

The royal arms, surmounted with helmet 
and crest, and supported by the "Lion 
and Unicom" of King James, are carved 
on the upright board at the back, whilst 
on the front there is a legend, saying: 
" 1623, John Houlden." We sbdl hear 
of this John Houlden again in relation to 
Certain bells. He seems to have been of 
old a great benefactor to Burgh ; as, more 
recently, was one James Palmer. 

There are legends on four out of five of 
the bells, which I succeeded in deciphering, 
after the usual amount of trouble, and 
grease, and all kinds of filth, had been 
gone through. They are : — 

(1.) " 161 1. I ffweetiv toling men do call 

To taste on meats that feed the 

This bell had the customary devices of 
cross, sun, and moon. 

(2.) « James Harrison, founder, Barton, 1820." 

(3.) " John Ilolden to all sood Christian people. 
Who gave this Bel to grace this Church 
and Steeple. 1616." 

Devices of cross, &c., as in (1). 

(4.) *' Will" Paulin chimed so well. 

He paid for casting of this BelL" 
** Hie campana beata sucra Trinitate . . ." (T) 
" Thou Ryme." 

(5.) No legend. 

There was a little outside bell on the 
top of this tower, which bore this line, — 

" 1633. Jesus be our speed ;" 

a common legend in that age. 

Savins: the "tower and some oolitic re- 
pairs of the south aisle made in ancient 
times, this, as I have said before, is a 
church of " greensand." 

And now, Mr. Urban, I will immediately 
desist from this long story which I have 
told you, about the sea and htnd of the 
neighbourhood of Burgh; not informing 
you at present when I went away from 
thence, nor how, nor whither — that I may 
not further trespass upon your patience. 

Yours, &c., T. W. de Dbax. 


Human Skin Tanned. 

Abottt thirty years ago, a man named 
William Waire was executed at Worcester 
for the murder of his wife's daughter (by 
a former husband), a little girl named 
Sarah Chance, by throwing her into an 
exhausted coal-pit. At this time dissec- 
tion was a part of the sentence of mur- 
derers, and the entire skin of this man 

was preserved by Mr. Downing, then an 
eminent surgeon at Stourbridge. It was 
not tanned, but preserved by a prepara- 
tion of sumach, as I believe he told me. 
I was one of the counsel on the trial. 

F. A. Cabbington. 

Extent op the Ancient Diocese of 

The Diocese of Worcester, before the 


Correspondence of Sylvanus Urban. 


formation of the sees of Gloucester and 
Bristol by Henry VIII., contained all 
Worcestershire, except sixteen parishes 
beyond Abberley Hills, belonging to the 
diocese of Hereford; all Gloucestershire 
on the east side of the Severn, with the 
city of Bristol; and near the south half 
part of Warwickshire, with the town of 

The Pale. 

Near to Cowley-park, on the road to 
Leigh Sinton, Worcestershire, there is a 
picturesque gabled house, bearing the date 
M DC XXXI. This house is called "The 
Palf." It was built by one who had ac- 
quired a large fortune as a baker. He 
was not ashamed of the trade by the pro- 
fits of which he hud become " a prosperous 
gentleman," and therefore resolved to call 
his residence by a name having reference 
to his former occupation. The " Pale" is 
the name given to the long wooden shovel 
on which the bread is placed in order to be 
pushed into the oven. 

Sack Wine. 

What was the ancient wine called sack ? 
Has its name been chan),^ed — when, and 
why ? Dr. Percy tinds the ancient mode 
of spelling to be seek, and thence con- 
cluded that sack is a corruption of sec, 
signifying merely a dry wine. The term 
9ec is still used as a substantive by the 
French, to denote a Spanish wine. 

White Livebed. 

" White-liver'd rascal " is a common 
term of reproach in this and the arljoin- 
in^ counties. A young woman said she 
had been advised not to marry a sweet- 
heart because he had a white liver, and 
she would be dead within a year. 

Who was Antoni Tolli ? 

In Worcester Cathcilral is the name of 
a sculptor on a tomb erected to the me- 
mi)ry of a former bishop of the diocese, 
who dii'd 1591. On the end of the tomb 
is inscribed — 

" Antoni . Tolli 
Me X Fecit." 
Who was this individual ? 

Scotch Pbisoxers in 1651 sold as 

The battle of Worcester was fought 

Sept. 3, 1651. On the same day in the 
preceding year the battle of Dunbar was 
fought, in which Cromwell slew 3,000 and 
took prisoners 9,000 Scots. The disposal 
of a part of the latter (and from which 
we may infer the kind of slavery to which 
the Worcester prisoners were afterwards 
subjected) is thus described in a "letter 
from Mr. John Cotton to Lord General 
Cromwell," dated "Boston, in N.E., 28 
of 5th, 1651 :"— 

"The Scots, whom God delivered into 
your hands at Dunbarre, and whereof 
sundry were sent hither, we have been 
desirous (as we could) to make their yoke 
easy. Such as were sick of the scurvy 
or other diseases have not wanted physick 
and chyrurgery. They have not been sold 
for slaves to perpetuall servitude, but for 
six, or seven, or eight years, as we do 0ur 
owne; and he that bought the most of 
them (I heare) buildeth houses for them, 
for every foure a house, layeth some acres 
of grounde thereto, which he giveth them 
as their owne, requiring three dayes in the 
weeke to worke for hun (by tumes), and 
four dayes for themselves, and promeseth, 
as soone as they can repay him the money 
he layed out for them, he will set them at 

In Cromwell's answer to this letter, 
dated "Oct. 2, 1651," he thus alludes 
to the battle of Worcester : — 

" The Lord hath marvelloasly appeared 
even against them ; and now again when all 
the power was devolved into the Scottish 
kinge and the malignant partie, they in- 
vading England, the Lord has rayn«d upon 
them Such snares as the enclosed will show, 
only the narrative is short in this, that 
of their whole armie, when the narrat,ive 
was framed, not five of their whole armie 
were returned." 

Both letters will be found in Governor 
Hutchinson's " Collection of Original Pa- 
pers relative to the History of Massachu- 
setts Bay, Boston, 1769." It is mngtilar 
that Hume does not notice the sale into 
slavery of the prisoners taken either at 
Dunbar or Worcester. Southey, in his 
" Book of the Church," says, — • 

" After the battle of Worcester, many 
of the prisoners were actually shipt for 
Barbadoes, and sold there." 

J. Noaee. 

Worcester, July, 1857. 


Correspondence of Sylvanus Urban. 



Mb. Ubbak, — I resnme my list of arms 
in the hundred of Uttlesford, Emex, and 
propose continuing them alphabetically. 


On a monument to John Micklethwaite, 
Esq., of Beeston St. Andrew, co. Norfolk, 
who died 1799, and Elizabeth his wife, 
daughter and heir of Williiim Peckhamf 
Esq., of Iridge Place, co. Sussex : — 

Micklethtoaite, cheeky arg. gu., a chief 
indented az. on an escutcheon of pre- 

Peckham, erm., a chief quarterly or, gu. 

On a flat stone to William Beade, gent., 
1639, and Anne his wile, daughter of — 
AJUeyn, gent., of Braughing, co. Herts : — 

Betide, az., a g^ffin segrcant or, a can- 
ton of the last, imp. ALleyn, per bend 
rompu arg. sab., six martlets counter- 

On a monument to Isaac Moody Bing- 
ham, 1807, Rector 48 years : — 

Bingham, az., a bend cottized between 

six crosses patccs or, imp. a bend 

cottized between six martlets. 

Qbeat Chestebfobd. 

In the east window of the chancel two 
coats: — 

1. The See of London, imp. Hovoley az., 
an eagle displayed ermlnois, on his 
breast a cross flory gu. 

2. Hervey, Marquis of Bristol, gu., on 
bend arg. 3 trefoils slipped vert. 

On the encaustic tiles in the chnncel : — 

Hervey, imp. Ryder az., 3 crescents er- 
minois, 2, 1. 

On a monument to James Edward Ry- 
der Magennis, Esq. : — 

Vert, a lion ramp, arg., on a chief or a 
sinister hand couped gu. Crest, a 
boar pass. 

Little Chestebfobd. 

In the east window an old coat of arms 
in stained glass : — 

Quarterly — 1, 4, vaire; 2, 8, gu. fess 

arg., between 6 crosses avelaine or, 

Another coat in stained glass, c.1600: — 

Arg., 2 bars sab., on a canton of last 

a cinqucfoil or. 

On an elaborate monument in white 
marble, with reclining effigy, to James 

WaUingham, Esq., son of Thomas Wal- 
singham, Esq., of Scadbury, co. Kent, (by 
the Lady Anne Howard, daughter of 
Theophilus, Earl of Suffolk,) and a de- 
scendant of Sir Richard Walsingham,Knt., 
temp. Henry VIII. He died Oct. 1728, 
aged 82. Arms, quarterly of 20 — 5,5,5,5. 
Now almost defaced ; but I have supplied 
one or two missing ones, and corrected 
the whole both by Coles' MS. and also by 
a shield of arms in stained glass in the 
hall of Emmanuel College, Cambrid>^, 
where the first nine quarterings occur in 
the same order as on this monument : — 

1. Waleingham, paly of 6, or, sab., a 
fess gu. 

2. ■ another coat, gu., besanty, a 
cross formy cheeky arg. az. 

3. sab., a lion ramp. or. 

4. erm., on a chief indented sab. 

a trefoil slipped, between 2 annulets 

5. gu., guttee d'eau, a fess nebuly, 

and a border arg. 

6. gu., a chev. between 3 g^bs 

arg., 2, 1, and 3 cross crosslets or, 1, 2. 

7. sab., a bend arg., thereon an- 
other, wavy of the field. 

8. arg., 2 bars and a canton gu., 

over hU a bendlct sab. 

9. sab., a chev. between 3 rams' 

hcnds conped arg., attired or, a mul- 
let for difference. 

10. sab., 3 gauntlets arg., 2, 1, a 

border of the same. 

11. arg., on a cross gu. 6 lions 

ramp. or. 

12. harry of 6 arg. sab., over all 

a cross or. 

13. quarterly or, gu., on 2 and 3 

quarters 3 annulets arg., 2, 1. 

14. erm., 2 chevronels sab. 

15. harry of 6 or, az., over all a 

cross cheeky arg. gu. 

16. arg., on fess sab. 3 eagles dls- 

phiycKl or. 

17. gu., a fess cheeky or, az., be- 
tween 6 cross crosslets or. 

18. gu., a fess or, and file of 3 

points erm. 

19. arg., a cross crosslet gu., an 

annulet for difference. 

20. paly of 4 or, sab., on a chief of 

the first a demi-lion ramp. gu. 

John H. Speblino. 

Wicken Rectory, July, 1857. 


Miscellaneous Reviews. 



Mb. UBBAy, — Few passages in Shake- 
gpeare have given rise to more discossion 
than the opening lines of the second scene 
of the third act of '* Romeo and Juliet :"— 

," Gallop apace, you flery-f.->oted steeds, 
I'owards Pcoebu^* mansion : >uch a waggoner 
As Phueton would whip you to the we»c. 
And bring in cl* ^udy night immediately. 
Spread thv close curtain, love-performing 

That runaways* eyes may wink ; and Romeo 
Leap to the^earms, untalked of and unseen !** 

Some of the commentators, nnable to 
explain what is meant by the word run- 
awaySy have proposed to substitute rumour- 
ers' for it ; and others think that rude day* 9 
eyes was the correct reading. 

It is suggested that the horses of the 
Bun, which ran away with Phaeton, were 
the runaways meant, and that Juliet's 
wish was, that they might close their eyes 
in sleep, having completed their day's work 
in less time than usual by running away. 

Shakespeare uses the wcnrd wink in the 
sense of going to sleep in the forty-third 
sonnet : — 

** When most I wink, then do mine eyes best 

For all the day they view things unrespected ; 
But when 1 sleep, in dreams they look on 

And again, in sonnet 56 : — 


Althoogh to-day thoa fill 

Thy hungry eyes, evwi till they wink with 

To-morrow see again." 

A passage in the first act and first scene of 
** Hamlet" has also been much discussed : — 

'* A little eve the mightiest Julius fell. 
The graves stood tenantless, and the sheeted 

Did squeak and'gibber in the Roman streets ; 
Ah stars with trains of fire and dews of hlood 
Disasters in the sun. 

The last branch of this sentence is un- 
meaning as it stands, containing no verb. 
Is it not probable that Shakespeare wrote 
did usher, instead of disasters f This would 
correspond with the preceding clause, 
where it is stated that the sheeted dead 
did squeak and gibber. 

The printer's eye was probably caught 
by the word stars in the preceding line, 
after he had commenced setting up the 
phrase did usher; or it may have been so 
carelessly ^-ritten as to be mistaken for 
disasters, WiLLIAH DUAKB. 



HistorisJce Studier af Frederik Schiem, 
(Kjobenhavn : 1 deel, 1856, 8vo., 394 pp. j 
2 deel, 1857, 475 pp.) — Professor Schiern, 
of the University of Copenhagen, is the 
greatest historical genius in Denmark, 
perhaps in Scandinavia, and the subjects 
he has chosen for his sketches are mostly 
of more than local interest. The great 
merit of these " Historical Studies" is, 
that they are higlily artistic in form and 
complete in execution. Each essay, how- 
ever apparently insignificant, is a well- 
rounded whole, a sort of cabinet picture, 
filling the reader with satisfaction, and 
betraying the hand of a master. Pro- 
found research and mature meditation are 
united to a certain piquancy of style and 
anecdote, a life and vigotir of expression, 
a noble dash of high-minded and catholic 
love of humanity and progress, whereby 
is produced an effect seldom found in 
writings of this description. 

Of course we cannot think of going 
into detail ; but a list of contents cannot 
but be welcome. These articles are now 

for the first time collected from the va- 
rious Historical Jomrnals or Reviews in 
which they first appeared, are almost un- 
known to the general public, and are now 
published in a revised form. 

Volume I. (pp. 1 — 39) opens with a mo- 
nograph on '* The Spaniards in Denmark," 
that remarkable episode in the career of 
the first Napoleon, when 14,000 Spaniards, 
the fiower of the Spanish army, were 
transported to Denmark, to take part in 
that French demonstration against Swe- 
den, our faithful ally, which ended in the 
loss of Finland, stolen by the Czar, sacri- 
ficed by England, and ever since allowed 
to remain in the grasp of the Muscovite, 
manning his frigates and gun-boats against 
their Scandinavian brethren and ourselves. 
When Spain rose against her oppressor, 
and the national Junta summoned all her 
children to the rescue of her liberties, an 
Englishman, Mr. Robertson, undertook the 
arduous task of smuggling himself tlirough 
the enemy's lines, and carrying the news 
to the galUuit and knightly Spanish com- 


Miscellaneous Reviews. 


mander, the Count Romana. The toil- 
some efforts made, and his final escape to 
Spain with the mass of his troops, are 
here detailed from all sorts of printed 
sources, and from tradition in Denmark 
itself. The measures taken hy the English 
Admiral, Sir Richard Keats, were crowned 
with success. 

Next comes (pp. 40—109) " The Wan- 
derings of a Northern IVadition, parti- 
cularly with regard to the Story of Wil- 
liam Tell." The various forms of tliis 
folk-tale as found in the Northern Sagas 
are traced from age to age, and land to 
land, the Swiss adoption and localization 
of the tale pointed out, the connection 
between Northern sources and the myth 
of Tell defined, while the English version 
(the ballad of " William Cloudesly") is not 
forgotten ; and the literature of the whole 
subject is brought down to our own time. 
Nothing can be more charming. 

Pp. 110—127 give us "The last [Ro- 
man] Catholic Bishop of Denmark," a 
semi- political, semi-ecclesiastical picture of 
the essentially selfish Reformation in Den- 
mark, and the last noble-bom and noblc- 
miniled bishop of the old creed, whose 
memory is here resctied from unmerited 
aspersion. Joachim Ronnow, who died a 
Protestant state-prisoner in 1544, will re- 
main a shining name in the history of his 

Article 4, (pp. 128—144,) on " Tlie 
Peasant Wars of the Reformation," is full 
of notable facts and refiections. It is a 
subject which has been hitherto scarcely 
touched upon. The reaction against the 
grinding feudal system, the consolidation 
of power in the hands of one monarch in- 
stead of a thousand tyrants, the outbreak 
of popular jacquerie in connection with 
that great European movement called the 
Reformation, and unsuccessful because the 
age was too barbarous and the time not 
come, are bound together with a thread 
of philosophy, and treated in the most 
attractive manner. 

" A Polish Contribution to the History 
of Denmark," (pp. 145 — 164,) next chal- 
lenges our attention. The march of the 
Polish contingent commenced in August, 
1658, and a number of piquant details are 
communicated on the i'ortunes of this de- 
tachment, mostly from the journals of 
the Polish officer, Johannes Chrysostomiis 
Passek, who died about 1690. 

This is foUowed (pp.165— 191) by "The 
Historical Aspects of the Straensee and 
Guldberg Ministries," in which the con- 
nection of events in Denmark with the 
general tendency of things in Europe is 
triumphantly pointed out. The merits 
and extravagancies of Strueosee, and the 

reaction under Guldberg, are carefully 

The seventh paper, (pp. 192—206,) "On 
the Armed Neutrality," is a most valuable 
contribution to Northern history, from 
the period when the Russian minister. 
Count Nikita Panin, succeeded in esta- 
blishing the armed neutrality of 1794 
against England, acceded to by Denmark 
— thanks to Russian intrigues — her minis- 
ter (Guldberg) receiving a gold box, with 
the inscription to " Danien*s Mentor," to 
the battle of Copenhagen, April 2, 1801. 
Its tone is most friendly to England. 

" The Development of Historical Wri- 
ting" comes next, (pp. 207—259). We 
have never met with anything more pro- 
found or more brilliant, so clearly marking 
out the progress and ideal of this noble 
branch of composition. From old legends 
and epic songs, to the chronicle, the arti- 
ficial school, the pragmatical school, the 
reasoning school, the Chnstian schqpl, the 
philosophical school, we are led to under- 
stand the various epochs of this kind of 
writing, the difference between petty facts, 
which may be infinite and worthless, and 
salient facts, keys to the story,— and how 
far the historian should be governed by 
theory in his representations of humanity 
and its destinies. The ooncliision, that a 
real historian must be the harmonious 
combination of the scholar, the philoso- 
pher, and the poet, is one in which we 
all must agree. In this department, the 
days of pedantry and party are ended. 

We now come to " Belgium, its Na- 
tionality, and Struggle for its Mother- 
tongue," (pp. 260—290,) too short for so 
interesting a subject. The author has 
studied the question on the spot, and 
stands forth, as might be expected, as the 
champion of nationality and the rights of 
the noble Flemish tongue. Very pro- 
perly, he advocates the re-union of Hol- 
land and Belgium as the only method for 
giving strength to the country and life 
to the language, against the artificial 
usurpations of the French dialect. 

" On the Choice of the Swedish Suc- 
cessor, in 1809 and 1810," (pp. 291—849,) 
is the title of the next paper. It tretits 
of the election of Carl August, and after- 
wards of Carl Johan (Bernadotte), and, 
as might be expected, is full of the most 
interesting details. The author has ex- 
hausted all the materials in Scandinavia 
and elsewhere. The infamous tactics of 
Russia, the perfidy of the Slesvig-Holstein 
party, the vain efforts made to obtain a 
Northern dynastic union, are all laid bare. 

The volume closes with " The Emigra- 
tions frx)m Normandy to Italy, and the 
first Conquests of the Normans in Naples 


Miscellaneous Reviews^ 


and Sicily/' (pp. 850—894). This piece 
(in its firsts less perfect, form) has already 
been translated into English, (" Norman 
Adventures and Conquests in Italy during 
the Dark Ages, ftom the Danish of F. 
Scliiem," American Review, June, 1848). 
It exhibits proofs of the deepest research, 
and at the same time reads as smoothly as 
an historical romance. 

We now come to the next tome. It 
begins with ** The Historical Development 
of Absolutism," (pp. 1 — 30,) a short but 
remarkably clear and philosophical sketch 
of the tendency of the European states 
towards a monarchical despotism about 
the close of the middle ages, the vain 
efforts made by individuals and (Masses to 
resist this necessary evil, — for feudalism 
had done its work, state-unity was the 
great want of the populutions, — and the 
thread which unites the several move- 
ments in this direction through the va- 
rious European states. The application to 
Denmark is most instructive. 

Paper 2, " The Modem Nationality 
Movement," (pp. 31 — 47,) shews how this 
great fact is the key to much of our 
modem history. It was this which shat- 
tered the autocracy of Napoleon, which 
was solemnly betrayed by the Congress 
of Vienna, which has since shewn grt ater 
life and vigour than ever, and which, the 
author thinks, only bides its time, and 
must eventually triumph. Spain and Por- 
tugal will eventually win their union, as 
will all Scandinavia, and so many other 

"An Historical Parallel" is the next 
essay, (pp. 48 — 77). The agreement 
pointed out is between the Slesvig-Hol- 
stein intrigues and revolt in our time 
against Denmark, and the similar German 
crusade against this gallant people in 
1627*9, under Wallenstein. llie simi- 
larity in general and in particular, in in- 
solent claims to Danish Sleavig, and in 
hatred to Danish liberty, is certainly most 
remarkable and instructive. 

This is followed by an article " On the 
Influence of Humanity on the ancient 
Roman Legislation," (pp. 78—94). This 
subject hits often been handled, both 
among ourselves and elsewhere. With 
great tact and impartiality our author 
goes through the evidence on both sides, 
and shews the exaggerations of those who 
attribute all the progress of philosophical 
and humane legislation among the Ro- 
mans, previous to and after Constantine, 
entirely to the influence, direct or indi- 
rect, of Christianity. The Stoical philo- 
sophy was long active in this direction, 
and evidence is adduced of a curious cha- 
racter in the course of the discussion. 
Gent. Mao. Vol. CCIII. 

<'Soon^s (Scania's) Political and Na- 
tional Union with Sweden" comes next, 
(pp. 95 — 168). It is invaluable to a stu- 
dent of Northern history. These rich 
provinces were at last seized as part and 
parcel of the plan for a Northern union, a 
united Scandinavia, which at that peiiod 
was only interpreted as p<)ssible by means 
of conquest. The episodts connected with 
the question are full of life and anecdote. 
The author shews any further weakening 
of Denmark — by the lo«s of Slcsvig or 
otherwise — to be impossible, and that the 
Scandinavian union has become a neces- 
sity, and will soon become a fact. 

Next we have a valuable monograph 
on " The old Cog^atic Succession -law in 
Spain, its illegal Abolit on under Pliil'p V., 
and its Restoration and renewed Acknow- 
ledgment," (pp. 164 — 201). A number of 
curious details are brought together on 
this subject, which we have nowhere seen 
treated so ably and so fully. The whole 
is brought out as a parallel to the illegal 
abrogution of the Danish Cog^atic sue- 
oes8ion-liiw (the Ux regia) in 1858, by 
which Denmark has become a vassal and 
eventual fief of Russia, the whole being 
** a Russian intrigue, assisted by Knglish 
statesmen." We need make no further 

" On the Situation of Westerfold," (pp. 
202—207). This is proved to have been 
in Friesland, — perhaps the now over- 
whelmed sea-board of Nordstrand, — and 
not in Norway. Consequently there never 
was a Norwegian kingdom in South Den- 

" On Queen Dagmar," (pp. 208—279). 
Margareta Dagmar (d. 1212) was the first 
queen of the Danish Yaldemar II., the 
Victorious. She was a Bohemian princess. 
All sorts of doubts and difficulties have 
been started concerning her common name 
Dagmar, not even Bohemian scholars 
having been able to settle the question. 
Proftssor Schiern has brought together 
a mass of miimte information and inge- 
nious philological investigation and induc- 
tion, and has succeeded in identifying the 
princess and her name, which last he 
proves not to be a Danish appellative, 
(the " Day-M«y," " Bright Mwden," &c.) 
He shews that she was the daughter of 
the Bohemian king, Premysl Otakar I., 
that Dagmar is merely a popular corrup- 
tion of the Bohemian name Dragomir 
(Darffmar), and that it means *' Dear- 
Peace," or the " Peace- Darling." 

The next, ** The Western Powers against 
Rusna in the Baltic," (pp. 280—412,) is 
the gem of the whc^. It is absolutely 
invaluable, especially at a time when we 
have no modem history worthy of the 



Miscellaneous Reviews. 


name. It traces Russia from the time of 
Czar Peter, when she had not one inch 
of sta-coast in the Baltic, down to the 
grim attitude assumed hy the immense 
line of her sea-hoard — north, and east, and 
south of the Balt'c — two or three summers 
ago, < very ell of it literally stolen. The 
various campai^rns hy England and Franca 
against the Muscovite in the Baltic during 
the last 150 years, and the way in which 
Russ'an intrigue has pitted, and bought 
and sold, and betrayed Denmark against 
Sweden, and Sweden against Denmark, 
and England against them both, and vice 
versd, so that these noble brothers have 
been cutting each other's throats and an- 
nihilating each others' fleets for the espe- 
cial benefit of their common enemy, are 
most carefully followed. Every document 
has been ransacked, a vast amount of new 
ideas developed. We have no such mas- 
terly sketch in our langua<2e. The author 
does justice t-o the good intentions of 
Eni^lind in the affair of the drea^lful loss 
inflicted on his country when its fleet was 
carried away, and shews the secret his- 
tory of this transaction ; the Danish king, 
Frederick VL, being the party most to 
blame, but he himself being a mere tool 
in the hands of Russia. In closing this 
remarkable article, the feeling of the stu- 
dent is, that it is hiu'h time the Scandi- 
navian states formed a firm alliance and 

" The Disposition of the National Con- 
vention with respect to Superior Educa- 
tion," (pp. 413—439). A remarkable 
sketch of the barbarism which threatened 
France at the first flush of the Revo- 

"On the Slavic Origin of some local 
Names in the minor Danish Islands," (pp. 
440 — 475). Enters into minute details on 
the subject, and proves that the Wends 
have left traces of their former power and 
multitude in the population and on the 
map of Denmark. 

Our readers will confess that this notice 
is not too long for so remarkable a volume, 
and could scarcely have been shorter to be 
intelligible ; that the work is of high in- 
terest, and should be in the hands of those 
specially concerned in these studies; and 
that more than one of the articles treated 
of should become familiar among us in an 
English dress. There is no political branch 
to firuitflil and so necessary as history, 
especially that of the last and present cen- 
tury, and more particularly of those gal- 
lant Scandinavian peoples whose brothers 
we are, end whose interests so entirely 
coincide with our own. But much of this 
historical field is uncultivated among our- 
selves, and must always be so to a certain 

extent. Hence the advantage of the di- 
vision of labour. Lst us make more use 
than hitherto of that mass of most excel- 
lent historical literature which is daily 
springing up in the Scandinavian lands. 

Annates JScclesiastici : quo* post Ca- 
sarem 8. R. JS. Cardinal^m JBaronium, 
Odorioum Raynaldum ac Jacohum Leader' 
ohium, Presh. Cong, Oratorii de Urhe ; ab 
anno MDLXXII. ad nostra usque Tem- 
pora eontinuat Augustus Theiner, ejusd. 
Cong, Breshyter. (Romse : e Typographia 
Tiberina. 1856. Three Volnmes, filio. 
2,046 pp.)— The work of the Magdebourg 
centuriators excited the jealoiisy of the 
Romish see, and the painstaking Baronius 
was set to woik to write a history that 
would supersede the Protestant history. 
Commencing his work at the age of thirty, 
he laboured perseveringly at it for forty 
years, and produced nineteen volumes in 
folio, bringing the AnncUes JEcclesiastici 
down to the year 1198. Raynaldus suc- 
ceeded to the work, adding fiHeen more, 
but ending with 1565; at which period 
Laderohiiis took it up, and added seven 
years. In adilition to these, Mansi added 
notes, and Pagi some very learnt- d chrono- 
logical researches. But at the year 1565 
the work remained stationary, until, by 
command of the late Pope, Gregory XVI., 
M. Theiner recommenced it, and afler 
twenty years' labour, has gpven the world 
the tt.ree above-mentioned volumes. 

The two th- usand pages contain the 
Annals of but twenty years, and are com- 
piled in the most uninteresting manner 
that can be imagined. Each year com- 
mences w th matters connected with Ger- 
many ; next oomes Scandinavia ; then 
France, Spain, and Portugal; and after 
them, the colonies under the dominion of 
Roman Catholic countries. The Eastern 
Church and Great Britain are only men- 
tioned so far as they come under the no- 
tice of communications from missionaries. 

Events of the most commonplace nature 
are allowed to take up more space than 
others which produced a lasting effect on 
the Church ; and individuals whose names 
were never heard out of their immediate 
circle, are mentioned to the exclusion of 
others of European &me. No discrimina- 
tion whatever is observed in the use of 
phrases, no discrimination of chnracter is 
attempted. All the RomHnist bishops are 
vig^ilant and laborious, all the heretics (so- 
cflJJed) crafty and subtle. 

Much fault may also be found with the 
manner i» which document after docu- 
ment is printed in extenso, some occupying 
several pages, when an analysis in so many 
lines would have answered every purpose; 


Miscellaneous Reviews. 


and that M. Thelner, instead of connecting 
the document8 given, in too many places 
does not even condescend to give one word 
of explanHtion. In conclusion, we have to 
express our regret that the continuation 
of so valuable a work as that of Barouius 
should have been placed in the hands of 
80 incompetent a person as M. Thelner. 

The Comprehensive History ofJEn^land, 
of which the first two parts have reached 
us from Messrs. Black ie and Son, bids fair 
to be, when completed, one of the most 
nsefiil popular histories of the day. The 
plan of the work is excellent. It is to be 
not merely a history of the battles and 
sieges, and a chronicle of the kings, but is 
to be a history of the people. Ihe editor, 
the Rev. Thomas Thompson, and his as- 
sistant, Mr. Charles Macfarlane, were both 
engaged upon the " Pictorial History" of 
Mr. Charles Knight. Our own pages, and 
those of the Journals of the ArcnsBological 
Societies, might, we think, be consulted 
with advantage. We would also recom- 
mend the editor to abstain i>om all at- 
tempts at fine writing. 

The Town we Live in is the title of a 
Lecture delivered by Mr. G. A. Carthew, 
F.S.A., at the Kast Dereham Mechanics' 
Institute, in which the origin and history 
of this ancient town is traced with con- 
sid'Table care. Appended are a number 
of illustrative notes relating to the church, 
wills of eminent persons, parish annals, the 
hist two being the entry of the bui'ial of 
the poet Cowper, May 3, 1800; and July 
17, 1803, the baptism of George Borrow, 
author of the " Bible in Spain," &c. ; uUo 
the fragment of a scarce poem by Arthur 
Gumey, published in 1581 : "A Doleful 
discourse and ruthfuU reporte of the great 
Spoyle and lamentable loss by fire in the 
Towne of East Dearham." And lastly 
some extracts from the Ueadborough's ac- 

The e'ghth edition of the Encyclopedia 
Britannica may almost be regarded as a 
new work. All the old articles have been 
revised or re-written, and a glance at the 
array of contributors' names conveys the 
opinion that Messrs. Black have been de- 
sirous of obtaining the best writers on the 
numerous subjects embraced in the Cyclo- 
pedia. Of these we may mention that Dr. 
Daniel Wilson contributes Archaeology; Mr. 
Macaulay, Dr. Johnson, Bunyan, and Gold- 
smith ; Mr. Beckett Denison, Clock and 
Watch Work, Bells, and Locks; Professor 
Hosking, Architecture, Construction, Build- 
ing ; while amongst other contributors we 
find the names of Abp. Whately, Professors 

Masson, Spalding, Aytoun, Pillans, Christi- 
SOI), Blackie, and a host of others equally 
celebrated in their various lines. 

The thirteenth volume, just published, 
contains admirable articles on Locks, by 
Mr. Denison ; on Law, by Mr. Mc Lennan ; 
Libraries, by Mr. Edwards ; Logic, by I'ro- 
fessor Spalding; Luther, bv the Chevalier 
Bunsen; on Language, revised by Dr. 
Latham ; Light, by Dr. Traill ; and Mada- 
gascar, by Mr. Ellis. London, we are sorry 
to S(H>, was placed in the hands of a gentle- 
man north of the Tweed, who, being obliged 
to make use of books, has consequently 
fallen into mistakes that a Londoner would 
have avoided, but the mistakes are tricing. 
Altogether the work is one to be proud of, 
and its very excellence renders it so in- 
dispensable as a work of reference that no 
library of any pn tensions can do without 
it; and as a present to a sou on his 
entrance into life, to a minister, or to a 
relative in a distant clime, nothing could 
be more acceptable. 

Mr. Bohn has added to his Illustrated 
Library — A Guide to the Knowledge of 
JPottery, covprising an illustrated cata- 
logue of the Bemal collection of works of 
art, with the prices at which they were 
sold by auction, and the names of the pur- 
chasers. Prefixed is a lecture delivered 
at Richmond by Mr. Bohn, displaying con- 
siderable knowledge of the subject; and 
appended is an engraved list of marks and 

To the Classical Library the sixth and 
concluding volume of Pliny^a Natural Sis-- 
tory, translated by Dr. Bostock and Mr. 
Riley. It embraces an account of paint- 
ing.' s and colours, ]>recioiis stones, the natu- 
ral history of metals, and remedies derived 
from aquatic animals, together with a com- 
plete index to the six volumes. 

To the Scientific Library — A Manual 
of Technical Analysis. A guide for the 
testing and valuation of the various natu- 
ral and artificial substances employed in 
the arts and in domestic economy, founded 
upon Dr. P. A. 1 Volley's Handbuch der 
technisch-chemischen, untersuchunyen, by 
Dr. Benjamin H. Paul, with very consi- 
derable additions by the tr:inslator. 

This enterprising publisher annoimces 
another series, under the title of Bohn's 
Historical Libkaby, the first vohime of 
which is to be issued early in August. Tlie 
series will consist of Memoirs, Le ters, and 
Diaries, of which Mr. Bohn possesses so 
nmny copy ights, including Evelyn's and 
Pcpys*. I'he first work will be* Jesse* s Me- 
moirs of the Court of England during the 
reign of the Stuarts, originally published 
at £2 16fl.« but which will be now published 


Miscellaneous Reviews. 


with forty portruU in additioo, in three 
volumes, at five shillings each. We wish 
every success to the series. 

To the excellent series of Oxford Pocket 
Classics now in course of publication, 
"Messrs. Parker have added the Anabant 
of Xenophon, from the text of Kiihner, 
with the argument of Schneider prefixed. 
We are glad to hear that these correctly 
printed and very cheap editions of the 
Class cs are superseding the German edi- 
tions, which in such a discreditable man- 
ner were allowed to become the text- 
books ill so many English schools. 

Messrs. Lambert and Co. have added a 
nice little volume of tales by Miss Pa&dob, 
Abroad and at Home, to their *' Amusing 
Library ;" also a very pleasing selection of 
Amtuing Poetry, edited by Mr. Shibley 

The Old World, a Poem in five parts, 
fcith Miscellaneous Poems, by the Hey. 
Obobob McCbie, (London: Nisbet and 
Co.), is a very ambitious work. The " Old 
World" relates to ante-dilnvian times, 
when the sons of God intermarried with 
the sons of men, and the author thought 
poetical licence would permit his describ- 
ing a wall built up to separate the evil 
ftom the good ; it was built in one night, 
very much to the astonishment of the 
natives, who, when they awoke, — 

•* Great was their wonder, and their terror great. 
To fliid theniflelvefl divided by that wall I 
It iieeme'i to stand before them like a dream 
That had the conflrm<ition of the scfn. 
But nothi g more, so strange, so terrible I 
For all the rac*^ in twice ten thousand years 
Could not liave reared this tiulwark of a night. 
So high, that they who walked beneath its < ase 
AVere dwindled into dwarfs, and dizzy goscd 
Upwards upon its walls un caleable. 
'^' ere awful blocks symmetrical wore knit 
As into some great pier, on which the tide 
Of mankind was to bout, ages in vain I" 

But in process of time a portion of the 
wall was thrown down, and evil intro- 
duced amongst the good, 

«• With loss of Eden." 

The deluge is described, and the fifth book 
ends with the coming fortli from the ark. 
Whether Mr. McCrie will continue the 
work or not will perhaps depend upon the 
reception this volume may meet with. 

Lectures and Miscellanies. By IL W. 
F BEE LAND. (London : Longman and Co.) 
— Mr. Freeland, in his lecture on Literary 
Impostors, notices Macpherson, Chatter- 
ton, and Ireland, and the less known but 
very curious forgeries of the Abb^ Vela, in 
Arabic and Italian. Lamartine, who ii a 

great favourite with the author, forma the 
subject of the second lecture ; and at the 
end of the volume are some short reviews 
contributed by Mr. Freeland to variooa 

7*he Philosophy of William Shakspeare, 
(Ijondon: William White,) consists of 
seven hundred and fifty passages selected 
from his plays, a heading pla^d to each, 
and the titles arranged alphabetically; 
e, g. Cordelia's reply to her father is under 
A., — A Daughter's Love ; while King 
Henry's Address to his soldiers before 
the battle will be looked for under 7'^. 
The editor has shewn great judgment and 
taste in making his selection, and ha^ pro- 
vided a rich store of Shaksperian readings 
for family use. The work is printed and 
bound in a very elegant manner. 

Lectures on the Enylish Poets, by 
Henry Reed, has been added by Mr. 
Shaw to his " Excelsior Library," and will, 
we hope, have an extensive circulation: 
it is the kind of book we should like to 
see given as a prize to the best readers 
in national schools, and placed within the 
reach of all boys big enough to under- 
stand the author's meaning. 

Pictures of the Heavens, (London : 
J. and C. Mozley). — Under tliis unassum- 
ing title, and in a small compass, we have 
one of the most intelligible treatises upon 
Astronomy that can well be conceived, 
sufficiently scientific for all ordinary pur- 
poses, and yet free from all appearance of 
pedantry. A better knowledge of the 
starry heavens may be acquired from this 
little book than from all the Catechisms 
of Astronomy that we have seen. 

We have to acknowleda^ the receipt of 
the privately printed Diary and Auto- 
biography of Edmund Bohun, Esq,, Au- 
thor of the "History of the Desertion" 
of the throne by King James II., Sfc. ifc. 
Licenser of the Press in the reign of King 
William and Mary, and subsequently Chief 
Justice of South Carolina ; with an Intro- 
ductory Memoir, Notes and Illustraiions. 
By S. Wilson Rix. — A very interesting 
volume exceedingly well edit<^. 

Married or Single, by Miss Sbdowick, 
(London: Knight and Son), is the Lon- 
don reprint of an American work which is 
disfigured by more than the usual num- 
ber of faults of style peculiar to novels 
emanating iirom the pens of transatlantic 


Miscellaneous Reviews. 


Walton** Lives of Dr, John DonnCf Sir 
Henry Wotlon^ Mr. Richard Hooker^ Mr, 
Oeorge Herbert, and Dr. Richard Sander- 
son. A new edition, to which is added a 
Memoir of Mr. Izaac Walton, by Will, 
Dowling. (London: Henry Washboume 
and Co.) — Does any contemplative man 
wish to raise his thoughts heavenward ? 
Then let him retire to some shady bank, 
far away from the noise and bustle of the 
crowded city, and taking witli him honest 
Ij^aac's beautiful volume, let him learn how 
God's saints lived while on earih, and how 
they served their Master. Let him learn 
to say with Donne, that he was * so happy 
as to have nothing to do but to die, to do 
wliich he stood in need of no longer time ; 
for he had studied it longr, and to so happy 
a perfection that in a former sickness lie 
called God to witness he was that moment 
rt ady to deliver his soul into His hands, 
if that minute God would determine his 
dissolution." From Wotton also he may 
learn how to be happy, for of him we are 
told that, " after his customary public de- 
votions, his use was to retire into his stu 
and there to spend some hours in readiii|^- 
the Bible and authors in divinity, <^d|»i^' 
up his mcditat ons with private p'ayDti''* 
Or from the learned and judicious Hooker' 
he mny learn that it is passible trt carry a 
Christian temper into the every-day trials 
of life. From George Herbert h(& may 
learn to do his duty in a conscientious man- 
ner, and from Sanderson to sacrifice every- 
thing but integrity. And may not some- 
thing be learnt from Isaac himself? Let 
the reader attentively peruse Mr. Dow- 
ling's interesting life prefixed, antl we will 
answer for his being a better and a wiser 
m:m. In conclui^ion, let us add, that this 
edition of a favourite author leaves but 
little to be di-sired ; the engravings are 
good, the typography excellent, and the 
price reasonable. 

Echoes from Egypt, or tlie Type of An- 
tichrist. By the Rev. William John 
Groves, somt'time Vicar of Chewton Men- 
dip. (London : Kiviuijtons). — The object 
of this work is to throw light upon the 
mystic nurabev of the beast spoken of in 
Revelation, upon which the author was 
induced to enter by the fact that none of 
the methods pursued by previous inves- 
tigators have been sat sfactory to all parties. 
Accordingly, with a view to the solution 
of this jmystcrious subject, Mr. Groves 
in siparate chapters discusses the origin of 
Idolatry and JSacrifico, Idolatry in Egypt, 
Egyptian Triad, Manotho and the Monu- 
ments, Josephus and Manetho, the date of 
Joseph's entry into Egypt, Israel in Egypt, 

the Cataclysm, the Brazen Serpent, Baby- 
lon and Egypt, The Woman clothed with 
the Sun, Michael and the Dragon, and 
similar sa^ jccts. We are unable to give 
any of the arguments made use of, but 
would recommend the work to the biblical 
student as one that in a reverent manner 
discusses some new views of an old sub- 

The Real Presence of the Body and 
Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ the Doc- 
trine of the English Church ; with a Vin- 
dication of the Reception by the Wicked, 
and of the Adoration of our Lord Jesus 
Christ truly present. By the Rev. E. B. 
PiJSEY, D.D. (Oxford : J. H. and J. Par- 
ker. London: Rivingtons.) — This is the 
most important book Dr. Pusey has yet 
written, and will, no doubt, become a 
standard work with that party which he 
is supposed to represent in the Church. 
The form in which it appears is unfor- 
tunate; it is in reply to the large work 
of the Rev. W.Goode, who is the champion 
JoTHl^ other side, — consequently there is 

^ JilucVihat is of an ephemeral character. 

y 'J^m tW Fathers, from the belief of the 
/^a^y English Church, from the Reformers 
Ul England and on the Continent, and 
frbm later divines. Dr. Pusey adduces evi- 
dence of the general assent to this dogma. 
Of ceurse much may be said on the other 
Side ; but that in all ages there has been 
a belief in the real presence, — not, as the 
Romanists say, a corporal presence, but 
a real, spiritual presence, — the evidence is 
on Dr. Puscy's side. 

As to the second part, " What the 
Wicked Eat," the learned Doctor himself 
had not clearly made up his mind till 
very recently, and will therefore not be 
surprised if he find that many persons 
will not assent to the statement of Arch- 
deacon Denison, endorsed by him. 

The work altogether is a valtiable con- 
tribution to the learned literature of the 
day, and we are sure that all our readers 
will with ourselves regret to hear that 
the health of Dr. Ptisey has broken down 
under the task he set himself. 

Anomalies in the English Church no 
just ground for Seceding ; or, the Abnor- 
mal Condition of the Church considered 
with Reference to the Analogy of Scrip- 
ture and History. By Heney Arthur 
WooDOATE, B.D. (Oxford and London: 
J. H. and J. Birker.) — In this well-con- 
sidered little treatise we discern the hand 
of an able debater brought up in the 
school of Butler and treading in his f >ot- 
step?. The avowed object is to meet the 


Miscellaneotis Reviews. 


argutnents drawn from the disorganized 
and abnormal state of the English Church 
cotnpared with the (supposed) more per- 
fect and normal system which the Church 
of Rome offers. The Romish claims Mr. 
Woodgate shews to be based upon very 
insecure foundations, and that there is in 
that Church a vast amount of unsatis- 
fletctory teaching. There are anomalies 
enough in the English Church, and cor- 
ruptions enough too, but the very effort 
made to get rid of them is evidence of life 
and vigour, and when we look at the rapid 
gprowth and steady increase of the Church, 
every year sending out tresh, healthy, and 
vigorous branches, some of them, it may 
be, twisted and gnarled like our native 
oak, yet firm and strong, we see no 
cause to fear the progress of Romanism, 
if progress there be, which we much 
doubt, but on the contrary have reason 
for thankfulness at so many able cham- 
pions coming forward in her defence, and 
•o many active pioneers helping to clear 
the way for further progress. 

Sequel to the Argument against immedi- 
ately Repealing the Lawe which treat the 
Nuptial Bond as Indissoluble. By the 
Rev. John Keblb. (Oxford and London : 
John Henry and James Parker). — Mr. 
Keble brings forward a large array of 
weighty arguments, drawn from writers 
of all ages, to prove that the Church has 
always held that the marriage bond is 
indissoluble, saving in cases of adultery, 
and therefore that the present laws should 
not be repealed. 

Parochial Sermons, By the (late) Ria:ht 
Rev. John ABH8T£oya,D.D., Lord Bishop 
of Grahamstown. (London : J. H. and J. 
Parker.) — We rarely meet with a volume 
of sermons display ing so much earnestness 
and common sense as the volume before 
us, which we are glad to see has reached 
a second tdition. Too often the language 
of sermons is stilted, unreal, and point- 
less, and consequently the congregation is 
charged with inattention, or with having 
itching ears. If clergxmen generally 
would preach the kind of sermons which 
Bp. Armstrong did, and such as we find 
in this volume, churches would be better 
attended, and meeting-houses closed. 

J%e Pastor in h s Closet, by the same 
author, is intended as a help to the de- 
votions of the clergy. Without doubt they 
are the devotions u»cd by the bishop him- 
self, reflect his own mind, and may serve 
as a key to the success he achieved in his 

holy work. What an epitome of this does 
he give in p. 13 : — 

**A8 I have many things to do, to pray— to 
read Thy Holy Word- to pnach accortlingly— 
to offer up supplications for the sick, and thanks- 
givings for those to whom Thou hast shewed 
meicy— to baptise— to receive the blessed Sacra- 
ment of lliy Body and Blood— to administ* r itr-« 
to lay in the grave those of our brethren whom 
it hath pleaned Thee to take from us unto Thy- 
self. — help me, Holy Jesus, in h11 these acts of 
devotion, that the spirit of devotion may be sus- 
tained throughout, that all my ministrations may 
be done with a single mind, and may be blest 
unto myself and unto thotte to whom I minister." 

To all clergymen in earnest about the 
spiritual interest of their flocks we heartily 
commend this little volume. 

The Rebuilding of the Temple a time of 
Revival, A Sermon preached at the re- 
opening of the cathedral ofLlandaff, April 
16, 1857, by the Right Rev. Samuel, 
LoHD Bishop op Oxpohd. (Oxford : J. 
H. and Jas. Parker) — A most eloquent 
Sermon, well sn ted to the occasion, and 
nobly responded to by the hearers, whose 
offerings amounted to the large sum of 
£620. It is also gratifying to learn that 
on the day the sermon was preached, a 
further subscription was set on foot for 
the purpose of entirely restoring that por- 
fion of the fabric which is still in ruins. 
It was proposed to raise £10,000, and 
£2,775 was subscribed on the spot. His 
Royal Highness the Prince of Wales has 
since subscribed £100, and further sums 
have been promised, so that the subscribed 
amount already exceeds £4,000. Well 
may the time of re-building be considered 
a time of revivaL 

The Progress of the Church, A Sermon 
preached in substance at Berkeley Chapel, 
diucese of London, on Whitsunday, 1857. 
By Fbedebick Geobge Lee, S.C.L., 
F.S.A., (London : Masters.) — A recent trial 
in which a clergyman, appending F.S. A. to 
his name, figured rather prominently and 
not veiy creditably, has shewn us that a 
proprietary chapel, although avowedly be- 
longing to the Church of England, may 
ncvertheh ss be ministered in by those who 
are not of her communion. The Kermon 
before us suggests the enquiry whether 
Brrkeley chapel is still in connection with 
the Church of England, for in the terms 
made use o^ by the preacher there is not 
only nothing that would render it unfit for 
the audience of a chapel under the super- 
intendence of Cardinal Wiseman, but a 
good deal thnt would commend itself to 
members of that communion. Being ** pub- 
lished by request," we may fisurly assume 
that the hearers were pleased with it. 


Miscellatuotu Reviewa. 


Weekly Communion the ClergymanCi 
duty and the Layman's right. A Visita- 
tion Sermon, by the Rev. W. Cooeb. 
(London: J. H. and Jas. Parker.)— In 
this, we think the author, with the best 
intention, we are sure, poes beyond the 
spirit of the Prayer-book. In cath» dral 
churches doubtless the Holy Communion 
was intended to be celebrated every Sun- 
day, but we are by no means satisfied 
that this rule applies to ordinary parish 

Constitutional Loyalty. — A Sermon 
preache«l be*bre the University of Oxford, 
June 20. 1857. By Drummond Pebct 
Chase, M.A. (Oxford and London : J. H. 
and J as. Parker.) — \Vhile we fully sym- 
pathize with Mr. Chase in his complaint 
that the Acce!<8ion Service is enjoined by 
state authority alone, we must regret that 
he should have taken the opportunity for 
making his complaints in a sermon preached 
before such an august body as the Univer- 
sity of Oxford. Of the four Occasional 
Services it is perhaps the only one that 
will eventually be retained, and is certainly 
the only one that all churchmen would 
regret to part with. It would therefore 
have been more becoming the University 
preachor had he simply pointed out the 
fact of the want of full ecclesiastical au- 
thority for its use, and urged upon his 
hearers the desirableness of obtaining what, 
in his opinion, was required, 

My Parish^ or the Country Parson*s 
Tint to his Poor. By the Rev. Babton 
BorcHEB. (London : Shaw). — This is the 
second part of what appears to be a very 
useful book for parochial use; it oonsists 
of three very well told stories, each incul- 
cating some divine lesson. There are some 
verses at the end which Mr. Boucher will 
not thank us f^)r saying had better be 
omitted in a second edition. 

a story of seduction, desertion, and of the 
penitent's return, incbiding her admission 
into one of the Houses of Mercy. The tale 
is on the whole well told, but some parta 
are not very probable. 

A Course of Lectures, in outline, on 
Confirmation and Holy Communion. Bj 
the Rev. G. Abden. 

Notes on Confirmation. By A Pbiest. 

Two useful tracts for parochial use, 
uniform in type with MessrS' Parker's 
well-known series. 

Stories /or Young Servants. (London: 
Mas'^ers.) — Four excellent stories are con- 
tained in this little volume, which our lady 
readers will thank us for bringing befbre 
their notice, and recommending as a pre- 
sent which will be considered both instmc- 
tive and amusing, whether read by young 
domestics or by those further advanced in 

The Report of the Some far Peniieni* 
at Wantage is a very satis&ctQry pi^bli- 
cation, and affords evidence of the influence 
of such institutions an4 the need for their 
better support. 

Questions on the Collects, Epistles, and 
Gospels throughout the year. Edited by 
the Rev. T. L. Clauohton, (Oxford and 
London : J. H. and Jas. Parker,) will be 
found well adapted for the use of teachers 
in Sunday schools, and for parents at home 
who desire to make their children intelli- 
gently acquainted with the Church Service. 

In T?i€ Father's Kope^ or the Wanderer 
Returned (London : J. Masters), we have 

Wise to Win Souls, by Sabah H. 
Fabkkb, (London: Hamilton), is a 
Memoir of the Rev. Zephaniah Job, a 
Wesleyan preacher ; it exhibits tbe life of 
a pious man in humble circumstances who 
early joined the Wesleyan ministry, and 
spent the whole of his short life in the 
endeavour to benefit his fellow-creatures. 





The British Archseological Association 
will hold their fourteenth annual meeting 
at Norwich, during the week commencing 
Aug. 24. — The following is the programme 
of prot'eedings: — Monday, Aug. 24, Meeting 
of the Committee in the council -chamber of 
the Guildhall of -Norwich, at half-past one 
p.m. Public meeting in the Guildhall at 
three p.m. President's address. Exami- 
nation of the castle, under the guidance 
of R. Fitch, Esq., and of various places in 
Norwich, churches, &c. Evening meeting 
at the Guildhall, for the reading and dis- 
cussion of papers, exhibitions of antiqui- 
ties, &c., half-past eight p.m. — Tuesday, 
August 25, Visit to St. Andrew's Hall, 
the remains of the convent of Black 
Friars. Examination of the cathedral. 
Visit to the Bishop's palace. Evening 
meeting. — Wednesday, August 26, Excur- 
sion to Lynn. Examination of the churches 
and ancient remains in the town. Inspec- 
tion of the corporation records, regalia, 
&c., at the Town Hall. Visit to Castle 
Kising and examination of the castle, 
under the superintendence of Mr. A. H. 
Swatman. Evening meeting at Norwich. 

— Thursday, August 27, Excursion to 
Great Yarmouth. Reception by the mayor 
and corporation. Visit to the church of 
8t. Nicholas. Ancient remains in the town. 
Departure for Burgh Camp and Caister 
Castle. Visit to Somerleyton Hall. Even- 
ing meeting and conversazione at Mr. Pal- 
mer's, Yarmouth. — Fr^d^y, August 28, 
Visit to Eaf^t Dereham Church. Excursion 
to Walsingham and Binham Priories. East 
Barsham Hall. Evening meeting at Nor- 
wich. — Saturday, August 29, Visit to 
Tlietford. Examination of the Priory re- 
muns. Inspection of Ely Cathedral, under 
Mr. C. E. Davis, F.S.A. Closing meeting. 

— The following papers have been an- 
nounced : — Mr. Pettigrew on the Antiqui- 
ties of Norfolk; the Convent of Black- 
friars ; the Norwich churches, and succinct 
account of Kett's It* beUion in 1549. Mr. 
Planche on the Earls and Dukes of Nor- 
folk. Mr. Daniel Gumey's extracts from 
the Chamberlain's Accounts and other 
documents belonging to the Corporation 
of Lynn, relating to the Imprisonment of 
Queen Isabella at Castle Rising. Mr. Hud- 
son Gurney's Remarks to prove Nor^'ich 
to have been the Venta Icenorum. Rev. 
Beale Poste on some representations of 
Minstrels in early paiutid glass, fonnerly 
at St. James's Church, Norwich. Mr. H. H.* 


Bumell on Norwich Cathedral. Mr, J. A. 
Repton on tlie original work of Bishop 
Herbert in the upper jiart of the Ch'»ir o£ 
Norwich Cathedral. Mr. C. E. Davis on 
Ely Cathedral. The Very Rev. Dr. Husen- 
beth on Sacramental F<mts in Norfolk. 
Mr. W. H. Black's examination and re- 
ports on the Archives at Norwich, Lynn, 
and Great Yarmouth. Mr. Goddard John- 
son's extracts from MSS. in the possession 
of the Corporation of Norwich. Mr. C. J. 
Palmer's remarks on St. Nicholas Church, 
Great Yarmouth. Mr. A. H. Swutman 
on the Antiquities of Lynn, and on Castle 


The fourth annual general meeting of 
this Association was held on June 27, at 
the Deep<lene, Dorking, by the kind per- 
mission of Henry Thomas Hope, Esq., a 
Vice- President of the Society. The pro- 
gramme of the day proved unusually at- 
tractive, inasmuch art it afforded the ar- 
chaeologists and their friends an oppor- 
tunity of inspecting two of the most 
interesting domains in the county of Sur- 
rey, the Deepdene, with its treasures of 
classic art, and its highly picturejiqne 
grounds ; and Wotton-park, celebrated as 
the residence • of the Evelyns since the 
reign of Elizabeth, but more especially as 
the birthplace and retirement of the pious 
and learned John Evelyn, whose " Sylva " 
and "Diary" endear his name to every 
lover of pure English literature. 

A large party of the arcbeologrists and 
visitors arrived by railway at the Box- 
hill station, and proceeding thence to the 
Deepdene, previously to the hour of the 
meeting, viewed the cliarming grounds 
which present a felicitous oombiuHtion of 
nature and art rarely equHlled. The es- 
tate is named from the Saxon Deop den, a 
deep vale, which applies to the natural 
configuration of the grounds. Two cen- 
turies ago it was described by Evelyn as 
" Mr. Chiirles Howard's amphitheatre, 
garden, or solitarie recess, bemg fifteen 
acres environed by a hill," and possessing 
" divers rare plants, caves, and an elabora- 
tory." Somewhat later Aubrt-y described 
the place as '* a long hope (i.e. according 
to Virgil, deductU valiis), in the most 
pleasant and delightful solitude, for house, 
gardens, orchards, boscages, &c." ITie Hon. 
Charles Howard "hath cast this hope in 
the fonn of a threatre, on the sides whereof 
he hath made several narrow walks, which 


Antiquarian Researches. 


are bordered with thyme and some cherry- 
trees, myrtles, &c.," orange - trees, and 
syringes, and "a pif stored fiill of rare 
flowers and choice plants. Aubrt-y, in his 
gossiping odd wiiy, refers to the grotmds as 
" an epitome of Paradise and the Garden 
of Eden seems well imitated here; and 
the pleasures of tlie garden were so ravish- 
ing, that I can never expect any enjoy- 
ment beyond it but the kingdom of Hea- 
ven." Dating our recollection of this 
beautiful spot some forty y. ars back, we 
were charmed with the rare success with 
which the taste of the present possessor of 
the Deepdene has completed what may be 
termed the restoration of Mr. Howard's 
design. Here is no intrasiou of art, but 
every embellishment is part and parcel 
of the natund scene. The flower-garden 
area, the steep amphitheatral banks clothed 
with trees and shrubs in luxuriant and 
picturesque variety, and the long flight of 
steps ascending to a Doric temple, and a 
noble terrace with an avenue of graceful 
beech-trees, almost realize in the spec- 
tator even Aubrey's quaint ecstasies. In 
part of the old garden, lying low in the 
hope upon some old brickwork th it formed 
part of Mr. Howard's elaboratory, is a 
tablet bearing some elegiac lines to his 
memory, written by Lady Burrell in 1 792. 
How fitted is such a sweet spot for the de- 
lightful pursuit of philosophy and science ! 
and when it is recollected that in the ad- 
joining mans on Mr. Hope wrote his fasci- 
nating '* Anastasius," and Mr. Disraeli his 
poliiical novel of "Coningsby," the Deep- 
dene must be regarded as a retreat hal- 
lowed by labours of genius and refined 
taste. From the terrace just named you 
look down a ste^p, once a vineyard, into 
the adjoining Chart-park, and Betchworth- 
park, also Mr. Hope's property, and, with 
the Deopdene, twelve miles in circumfer- 
ence. Here the picturesque massts of 
Scotch pine, oriental plane, and cedar 
of Lebanon, remind one of the landscapes 
of Hobbima and Kuysdael. Nearer the 
mansion the copper-coloured beeches, Hun- 
garian limes, and American oaks, are re- 
markably fine. 

The visitors were received in the great 
Bcnipture-hall, which is euriolied with 
statues and antique busts, and in the 
centre area Bartolini's copy of the Flo- 
rentine Boar, in wliite marble. Here are 
several fine works by Canova and Thor- 
waldsen, Flaxman and Chantrcy. The 
meet ing of the society was held in one of 
the noble apartments, Mr. Hope prcnding; 
the nrchasolngists being accom|)anied liy 
several elegantly -dressed ladies. The 
chairman having gracefully expressed the 
gre:it pleasure he felt in receiving the 

Gekt. Mao. Vol. CCIU. 

archeologists and their friends, the Be- 
port of the society (read by the Hon. SiC, 
Mr.G. Bish Webh) stated tho nuralxT of 
members to have increased during the piut 
year. The Report having been unani- 
mously ad'^pted, a communication was 
rt'ad irom Mr. John Wickham Flower, 
proposing the publication, by the society, 
of a map of Surrey at the Saxon and 
Roman periods, and at the Domesdny 
survey. Mr. R. Gkxlwin Austen sp ke 
strongly in favour of the proposition, 
which was referred to the council; and 
a*t«T a few elections of new memher*«, and 
other routine business, the proceedings 
closed with a watm vote of thanks to 
Mr. Hope for his great courtesy, 'i he 
company then partook of refreshment, 
and proceeded to inspect the wot ks of art 
in the superb apartments of the mfui«<ion : 
the family portraits, and the matchless 
collect iun of Etruscan va<«s, attracting 
the greatest attention. The majority of 
the visitors then left the Deepdene for the 
"Red Lion" Hotel in Dorking, whence 
they proceeded in carriages to Wotton- 
p irk, by invitation of J. W. Evflyn, Esq. 
The uuilulating heath and woid scenery 
of the road, and more especially the gproves 
of Bury -hill and the Rookery, were much 
admired ; a few of the archsBologists halt* d 
to inspect Wotton Church, the dormitory 
of the Evelynfl, and at length the visitors 
reached Wotton-park. The mansion, situ- 
att'd in a valley, though really upon part 
of Lfith-hill, was originally built of fine 
red brick in the rei^n of Elizabeth, and 
has been enlai^ed by various members of 
the Ev elyn family. Hence the absence of 
^ uniformity in the plan of the house, and 
within our recollection it has parted with 
many of its olden features. The apart- 
m* nts are, however, convenient, and realize 
the comfort s of an English gentleman's pro- 
))( r house and home. An etching by John 
Evelyn shews thb mansion in 1653. The 
grounds arc watered by a winding stream, 
and are backed by a magnificent range of 
woods, partit ularly beech ; the goodly oaks 
wt-re cut down by John Evelyn's grand- 
father, and birch lias taken the place of 
be^ch in many cases; but we trace Evelyn's 
hollifs **a viretum, all the year round;" 
and the noble planting of the author of 
** Sylva," notwithiitandl^ the thinning of 
the woods by the great storm of 1703, 
when 2,000 trees were uprooted, and ** no 
more Wotton (Wood-town) stripped and 
naked, and almost ashamed to own its 
name " In the rear of the mansion re- 
miun the well-turfed mount, cut into tor- 
races, and the ct'lonnade, effectively back* d 
by full-grown firs. And here, iudused 
Vithin brick walls, is all that remains of 



Anliquarian Reaearchea. 


John Evelyn's flower-garden, which was 
to hHve formed the nncleos of his Elysium 

The archfleologists evidently enjoyed the 
interior of tlie fine old place, \i% oddly 
planned rooms, its quaint carvings, its 
pictures, more especially the portraits of 
the Evelyn family : the aatbor of " Sylva," 
by Kneiler, was generally recognised as 
the original of the engraved frontispiece 
to Evelyn's " Diary," by economy of print- 
ing now become a household book. Upon 
the tables in the rooms Mr. Evelyn had 
kindly caused to be pkced several relics of 
special historical interest, as the Prayer- 
book used by Charles I, on the scaffold; 
a pinch of the powder laid by Guido 
Fawkes and his fellow-consinrators to blow 
up the Parliament ; a curious account, in 
John Evelyn's hand, of the mode in which 
the Chancellor Clarendon transacted busi- 
ness with his royal master ; several letters 
of John Evelyn, and his account (recently 
found) of the expense of his building Mil- 
ton-house, which occupied four years : the 
house remains to this day. The printed 
books and pamphlets were not shewn. 
Evelyn was a most laborious annotator, 
never employing an amanuensis : among 
his MSS. is a Bible in three volumes, the 
margins filled with cloftely-wiitten notes. 

Ihe visitors were most hospitably re- 
galed with luncheon and delicious fruit ; 
after which the more archseologically dis- 
posed members of the party journeyed on- 
ward to Abinger Church, which has just 
been restored, and was re-opened in the 
preceding week. The church has a higher 
lite than any in the county. The west 
end is of the Norman period; the nave 
Early English ; the altnr has sedilia, and 
formerly had a piscin>t ; and on the north 
side is a chancel belonging to the Wotton 
estate, and restored at the expense of Mr. 
£\ elyn : here is a small organ. The altar- 
window of three lights has been filled with 
pninted glass by O'Connor, a very merito- 
rious work, llie architectural character- 
istics of the church and its restomtion 
were ably pointed out in a lecture by the 
Bcctor, the Rev. Jihn Welstead Sharp 
Powell, whose eloquence drew from the 
visitors many a contr bution to the resto- 
ration fund. In the churchyard in a 
Tault are interred Lord Chief Baron Abin- 
ger and his first wife; and to the latter 
there is a marble monument on the inner 
wall of th^' chancel. Adjoinins: the east 
side of the churchynrd is a small green, on 
which are sto<'ks and a whipping-poet, but 
which, to the honour of the parish, are 
believed never to have been used. 

From Abinger Church and Wotton Park 
the archsBologists and their friends re- 

turned to the " Red Lion" Hotel, Dork- 
ing, and there ins|)ected.a collection of 
paintings, prnts, and books, illustrative of 
the past history of the town and neigh- 
bourhood, which had been collected prin- 
cipally by Mr. Charles Hart, the intelligent 
local Honorary Secretary. The company 
then sat down to a well-appointed cold 
dinner in the assembly-room of the inn, 
Mr. Hope presiding, and having on his 
left the Lady Elizabeth Wathen. Nearly 
half the number of the guests were ladies. 
The usual lo\al toasts were drunk, Lady 
Wathen speaking to the health of her 
Majesty. ** The Bishop and Clergy of the 
Diocese," was acknowledged by the Rev. 
A. Burmester, Rector of Micklebam, famed 
for its beautifiilly restored Saxon church. 
"Prosperity to the Surrey Archieological 
Society," and *<l1ie health of the inde- 
fatigable Honorary Secretary" followed; 
then " The health of the Chairman :" " The 
Visitors," acknowledged by Professor Do- 
naldson ; and " Mrs. Hope and the Ladies." 
The party then broke up, highly gratified 
with the day's proceedings. — Illustrated 

Abchiteotubal Mubettm. 

July 18. The annual conversazione was 
held in the new building at Brompton. 
The Right Hon. Earl de Grey, the Pre- 
sident, took the chair, and was supported 
by many distinguished men, and a very 
crowded gencrsd assembly, including a 
large number of ladies. 

The noble Earl, on taking the chair, 
said he had attended some three or four 
previous conversagioni, but the present 
was the first occasion on which he had 
been able to " see" all who were present. 
Those who recollected the former place 
of meeting would remember the extreme 
pressure that previuled on these occasions, 
the difficulty that there was of dther 
seeing or being seen, or in properly ex- 
hibiting the examples of architectural 
taste which it was the object of the 
Museum to bring before the public eye. 
In its present situation, howevw, he 
thought they had no reason to find fault 
on that score. The change of situation 
fi<om the confined position in which they 
formerly were was undoubtedly a gretit 
step in the advances to be made in the 
future progress and improvement of the 
Architectural Museum. He did not mean 
to say but that there might be difficulties 
in the selection of any place for such a 
purpose. The first spot that was selected 
was the best that could be obtained. In 
the earlier stage of its existence its posi- 
tion was adequate for its purpose, but it 


Aniiquarian Retearcbe*. 


was found, long before tbey actually did 
remove, that it would be impossible the 
collection could progress, or tliat the In- 
stitution could confer that reputation on 
itself, or that amount of profit on the 
pub ic, which it was intended to confer, 
by remaining in its confined locality. 
There were many other circumstances, 
moreover, that made it of importance to 
change, if they possibly could, for the 
belter. It had been urged that the for- 
mer situation was preferable quasi situa- 
tion, and he did not deny that there 
might be advantages. There might be 
people living in the neighbourhood of the 
late locality, who might be more or less 
inconvenienced by coming further afield, 
but then it was to be recollected that a 
great number of people might be on the 
west side of the metropolis, to whom the 
new locality would be »s convenient as 
the old locality was to those living on the 
east. It had b-en observed, though he 
thoueht the observation was without 
foundation in fact, that, because they 
had selected a spot more or less connected 
with Government, and the locality of other 
public institutions, they were therefore 
likily to be what they might call ab- 
sorbed by the public institutions around 
them. Well, he candidly confessed, al- 
though the public institutions around 
them might be large and very powerful, 
and though they might have a great 
swallow, he did not think they would 
swallow the Museum. He thought the 
Museum would hold its own, and that it 
would be a tough morsel to masticate. 
The great object of the Museum was not 
merely to collect togeth< r isolated models 
or casts, but to collect them in the mass. 
Taken in an isolated way, or individually, 
they were of little value ; but taken col- 
lectively, in connection with specimens of 
the same date, and of the same style of 
architecture, they became, for the purpose 
of study and compHrison, invaluable. It 
then became of value, and available by 
all connected with the noble profession of 
architecture. Everythinar, under these 
circumstances, that favoured the important 
object of classification and separation, and 
avoided that of confused intermixture, by 
appropriating proper things to proper 
periods, and placing all in chronological 
order, in connection with all classes and 
styles of architecture, must be of im- 
mense value. He believed that the In- 
stitution only required to be known to 
be appreciated ; that numbers would come 
to it, «nd that it would recommend itself 
to the increased t>upport of the members 
and the public. It did not require a lai^e 
amount of contribution. A great nuxnlmr 

of small contributions would go much ftir- 
ther than many a swaggering donation, 
that sounded big, and perhaps only de- 
terred other people from subscrblng. 

Mr. Q. 6. Scott then read the following 
Report: — 

"JBly Lord, Ladies, and (Gentlemen, — 
It has been the practice at our annual 
conversazioni, though I do not know how 
it originated, nor see the connstency of it, 
for me, as Trea>urer to this institution, to 
read a sort of report which has nothing 
whatever to do with the office I have the 
honour of holding, but which is dimply in- 
tended to keep up in the minds of those 
present the objects for which our museum 
was founded, and the great necessity which 
exists for the liberal co-operation of the 
public I need hardly repeat, on this our 
sixth anniversary, that our single object is 
to aid those who are following up the 
study of architecture and its subsidiary 
arts, by bringing within their reach speci- 
mens worthy of their study, and which 
they would find it difficult to obtain a sight 
of without the aid of sueh a collection. 

*' Another great object was this, that 
though our museums contain specimens in 
great abundance of the styles of art of the 
ancient world, no collections had been 
made illustrating the indigenous arts of 
the nations of modem Europe, as exem- 
plified in the buildings of the Middle Ages. 

*' These two great desiderata we have, 
by the most strenuous exertions, been the 
means in some degree of supplying, or we 
may at the least boast of having done so 
in a greater degree than bad ever been 
before efiected. 

*' In carrying out these neat objects, we 
have had to contend with great difficul- 
ties, and, though I would l^ the last to 
make any parade of our exertions, I do 
think that they have been such as to en- 
title us in some degree to the generous 
consideration of those who feel with us at 
to the desirableness of the objects we have 
had in view. 

" Our difficulty all along has been one of 
supplies, and, consequently, of npacc. The 
undertaking was a very costly one, in- 
volving a considerable outlay of capital in 
the fint instance, which the committee 
obtained by way of loan ; and also a very 
considerable annual expenditure, which 
the subscriptions were barely sufficient to 

" In spite of these continual difficulties, 
we have gone boldly and determinedly on, 
till our c >llection has become oneof national 
importance, and, from a small commence- 
ment in the private exertions of a few in- 
dividuals, has grown to be one of the moft 
important ooUeoUom of art in this coontrys 


Antiquarian Researches. 


"Our exertions commenced in conse* 
qnence of the failure of various attempts 
to induce the Government to take up the 
matter. As we progressed, however, our 
efforts have been recognised by the Go- 
vernment authorities. The I>epartraent 
of Art became, in the year 1855-6, sub- 
scribers o^' £100 in return for the free ad- 
miss on of ther students, and some other 
privileges. This whs, howt ver, withdrawn 
on their remo¥al to Kensington, and from 
our making specinl application for its con- 
tinuance, originated the proposal for the 
triinsference of our musou n from Canon- 
row to the building in which we are now 

" The proposal received on our part very 
long and most anxious consideration. It 
would be difficult on the present occasion 
to go through all the practical arguments 
for and against this step. The greatest 
nrguinen's in favour were, that we had 
outgrown our firmer premises, and had 
no means of extending them ; — that it was 
a great object to free our income from the 
burden of a heavy rent, and to be able to 
apply it more directly to the objects of the 
Institution ; and that as our pi-imary wish 
was to form a national collection, it was 
an important step to connect our museum 
in some degree with those being formed 
by the Government. On the other hand, 
we somewhat feared that our apparent 
connection with a Government depart- 
ment niight be made an excuse by half- 
hearted supporters for withdrawing, on 
the plea of such connection, and we fully 
appreciated the much more tangible ob- 
jecti n of t'.:e distance from the centre of 
Loudon causing inconvenience to stu- 

"The first of the objections we have 
guar led against, by the most stringent 
stipulations for the fullest possible amount 
of independence and s- If-government, and 
by the fact that, whereas in our old loca- 
tion wo had received (iovemment aid, in 
our new one we receive none whatever^ 
except the premises granted us, in which 
we are similarly placed with half a dozen 
sc'cntiric foci^ties, whicli, thouurh housed 
by the Government, retain undisturbed 

" We sire, then, reduced to the one ob- 
jection of site, and it would be al)surd to 
deny that it has its weight. We all most 
heartily wish tlmt the museums in which 
we Rre assembled wee at Charing-cross ; 
but how is it possible that a building re- 
quiring such an enormous amount of space, 
and the capacity for continual extension, 
should be placed exactly where we might 
in the abstract desire to see it E I ear- 
nestly wish that a nearer position might 

be found for all the collections now be- 
neath these roofs. Yet so long as they 
remain here, I hold that it is advantageous 
to our students to be near to the other 
collections of art and to the art library, to 
which, when they come here, they may 
have access ; and th:it this advantage does 
very much to compensate them for the 
additional trouble of getting here. That 
the distance is anything but prohibitory, I 
have only to refer for proof to the returns 
of the numbers who attend, both on the 
public and on the students' days. 

'* The fact is, that the number who visit 
our museum is increased since our removal 
by at least ttoent^-fold ; and, judging 
from appeanmces, 1 am of opinion that 
a large proportion are of the classes which 
it is our object to benefit. 

" 1 have gone more at length into this 
subject because it has been made the 
ground of repeated, and, I cannot but 
think, considering the exertions and sacri- 
fices we have made, somewhat ungenerous, 
attacks upon us. Whether we were right 
or wrong in coining here, we fe<d that our 
motives have been ffood, and that we are 
undeserving of such attacks. My object, 
however, is not to defend ourselves, but 
most earnestly to appeal to our supporters 
for the continuance of their aid. We are 
determined to press on the objects of our 
institution with the same vigour which 
has brought it to what it is. If there are 
any disadvantages in our present position, 
there are so many reasons for more strenu' 
ous exertion. We aim at making our 
museum the noblest collection of archi- 
tectural art in existence, C8p<.'cially in our 
leading department, the architectural art 
in the middle ages. If it is too far off, 
we will make it all the more worth the 
trouble of getting to it; or all the more 
worth the exertions of Government to 
bring it to a nearer point. 

" We therefore urge upon you rrf- 
doubled exertions. We urge upon you 
to come forward with donations to relieve 
tlie funds of that debt which has all along 
been the great clog to our progress. We 
ui^ upon you to continue and add to 
your subscriptions, and to beat up right 
and left for new supporters, that we may 
be the better able to pre»s on the great 
work for which we are banded together; 
and we urge upon you to use ,voar infiu- 
ence in procuring for us specimens of the 
best periods for the continued enrichment 
of our collection. If you ha^e been pre- 
judiced against us by what has been said 
since our removal, all we ask is to try us, 
and see how we go on in our new position. 
But do not let what is said by irrespon- 
sible parties lead to the withdraw^ gf 


Antiqiiarian Researches. 


your confidence in those who have with 
the utmost exertion and zeai formed the 
collection to what it now is. nor withhold 
your aid from a movement which has al- 
ready been of the utmost bene tit to those 
engH^^ in architectural art." 

After which the meeting was addressed 
by Professors Donaldson, and linden Powell, 
Mr. Godwin, Mr. Henry Cole, &c. 


The nineteenth annual meeting was 
held in the Society's rooms, Holywell, on 
Monday tlie 22nd of June. 

Mr. Tlioiras Grimsley, sculptor, St. 
Giles's, Oxford, was elected a member of 
the Society. 

The following Annual Report was read 
by tite Hon. Secretary, the Rev. F. C. 
Hingeston, B.A., of Exeter College : — 

" The Committee have now to lay before 
the So iety the nineteenth Hunual Report : 
flnd in doing so th'y feel that thi'y Hre 
fully justified in congratulating the So- 
ciety on its present position aud future 
prospects. During the past year the num- 
ber of members has been steadily increas- 
ing, and the funds of the Society are in a 
suthciently healthy state to admit of the 
bidance of last year being carried on to 
thiM. At the same time it must not be 
forgotten that our prosperity in this re- 
gpci-t is in no small degree dei^endent on 
the annual subsc;ription of ten shillings by 
the life-members, the appeal made by the 
c mmittee in 1855 having been liberally 
responded to. The committee, therefore, 
feel that they must renew their appeal; 
and they do so in the hope that, while 
residents in the University continue to 
gi\c the Society the support which it is 
foirly entitled to claim, those who have 
long ngo removed to distnnt places will 
not be forgetful ot a Society, their fom er 
connection with which they doubtless 
often think of with pleasure. 

"Among the paper* which have been 
read dunng the past year at the o dinary 
meetings, many have been of consid« rable 
interest and value. In Michaelmas Term, 
1856, papers were read by the Hon. H. 
C. Fori MS on *The choice of a Style for 
Church-building ;* by Mr. James Parker, on 
th" curious Subterranean Chamber which 
was discovered in the Cathedral of Christ 
Church, during the recint alterations ; 
by Mr. Buckeridge, architect, on * *i he Uni- 
ver.-al Application of Gothic Architecture.* 

*• At th»^ first meeting of last term, Mr. 
Freeman desd il>ed at considerable length 
a tour which he hud recently made, chiefly 
in South Franco, and exhibited a large 
number of sketches. Papers were ftlio 

read on * The Study of Architecture, histo* 
rically considered,' by Mr. James Parker, 
and afterwards l*y Mr. Forbes ; and a paper 
on Town Churches, by Mr. Lowder. During 
the present term but two papers have 
been read, — the first by Mr. Forbes, on 
Abingdon Abbey ; the other by Mr. Jeff- 
cock, on 'Gothic Architecture a national 
Style.' The intermediate evening was oc- 
cupied by a discussion on the 'Internal 
Arrangement of Churches.' For each and 
all of these the committee desire to tender 
their thanks to the respective authors. 
With n gard to the papers for the coming 
term, the committee have great satis ac- 
tion in seating that they have organized a 
sclieme for the delivery of a series of lec- 
tures on the Colleges, Halls, and Public 
BuiMings of Oxford, which they have 
every reason to hope will be more than 
ordinarily useful and interesting. 

" The committee have received but few 
applications for advice, and those chiefly 
in matters of but small importance; they 
do not regret this, however. Local societies 
have sprung up on every side, depriving 
our Society indeed of the amount of work 
^hieh it was called upon to do while it 
stood alone, but spreading through the 
length and breadth of the land the prin- 
ciples which it was the first to advocate. 

" The annual excursion of the Society 
may be regarded as a decided success : the 
party was Lirge, but it would have been 
far larger, had it not been on a day when 
many who desired to join it were prevented 
from doing so by unavoidable engageiKents. 
The places visited were Ensham, North- 
leigh, Witney, Minster Lovell, Duckling- 
ton, Standlake, Norihmore, and Stanton 
Harcourt; — Northhigh on the special in- 
vitatitm of the Vicar, who was anxious to 
ohtain the opinion of the members of the 
Soc ety on the present state of his church, 
before pra(;eeding to its restoration. 

"In the last annual Report the com- 
mittee directe<l attention to the success 
of English architects in the competition 
for Lille, and especially to the distin- 
guished position occupied by one of our 
own members, Mr.G. E. Street; they now 
congratulate the Society on the fiEu:t that 
the same architect has met with similar 
success in the present year in the compe- 
tition for the Memorial Church. at Con- 

" Tlie important architectural works 
which were enumerated in the last report 
are now either completed or are rapidly 
approaching completion. The chapel of 
B^liol College, which is nearly ready to 
be opened, is remarkable for considerable 
vigour and originality of design. At 
Exeter College, the library is completed. 


Antiquarian Researches. 


the Rector's new house nearly so, and the 
walls of the ma^ificent chapel are rising 
rapidly. All of these works are most 
satisfactory, ond worthy of the eminent 
architects who are employed on them. 
In the Rector's house especially, Mr. Scott 
has practically vindicated the suitability 
of our national style to domestic purposes. 
The windows, though strictly Gothic, ad- 
mit abundant I'ght, and are in every re- 
spect as convenient as the common sash- 
windows in ordinary dwelling-houses. 

" The decoration of the President's room 
at Magdalen College has been completed 
by Mr. Grace. 

"The committee congratulate the So- 
ciety on the fact that the restoration of 
coloured glass to the windows of the 
chapel of this college has been intrust* d 
to Mr. Hardman, of Birmingham, whose 
works are now generally admitted to be 
more successful than those of any other 

"The works at the new Museum pro- 
ceed steadily and satisfactorily, and there 
can be no doubt that the high anticipa- 
tions which have been formed of this 
building will be fully realized. The com- 
mittee feel that they cannot enter into a 
detailed criticism of so great a work until 
it shtiU be completed. 

"The architects of the Museum have 
recently completed a new debating-room 
for the use of the members of the Union 
Society, in which they have successfully 
adapted Gothic architecture to the peculiar 
requirements of the case. 

" The chancel of the parish church of 
St. Pet er-in-the- East has l)een paitially 
restored, and in that of Holywell very im- 
portiint and extensive alterations have 
been earned out. In the latter church 
decorative colour has been largely em- 
ployed, especially in the root^ and on the 
eastern nnd western walls, wheve groups 
of angels have been painted with admir- 
able effect by Mr. Belt a London artist. 

"The committee must not neglect to 
call attention to the great competition for 
the proposed public buildings at West- 
minster, which stilt remains undecided; 
especially as the Society has recently pe- 
titioned the promoters of the scheme in 
favour of the adoption of that national 
style which it is the especial office of the 
Society to promote. 

" The committee had previously decided 
that it was necessary that this 8t< p should 
be taken without delay, in consequence of 
an opinion generally prevailing in London 
that it is the intention of tht; authorities 
to adopt that nondescript kind of archi- 
tecture commonly called 'the Classic,' 
which would be anywhere ugly and inap- 

propriate, because unsuitable to our cli- 
mate and needs, but utterly out of place 
in Westminster, the stronghold of Gothic 
architecture in the metropolis. 

"The committee congratulate the So- 
ciety on thi' appeal which it was the first 
of all the sister societies to make, and they 
earnestly hope to be able to record in 
their next annual Report that the award 
of the judges, which is now awaited with 
deep interest and no little anxiety, has 
been satisfactory. 

" In cmclusion, they would urge on 
every individual member of the b'ociety 
the necessity of renewed effoits in pro- 
moting the caune which all alike have at 
heart, — and they wonld pomt to that 
which has been already effected as an 
eam*'8t of what may yet Be done. 

" It is true that we have no longer to 
battle for principles which are now as 
widely recc^iised as in the early days of 
this Society^s Ciireer they were ignored, 
but we must not imagine that we can 
maintain this success without an effort; 

"We have, indeed, won our position, 
and, so far, a part of our work is at an 
end: our work now is to keep what we 
have won." 


At the meeting held July 1, the Very 
Rev. the Dean of Ossory in tne chair, 
Mr. Robertson exhibited a rare variety of 
the gun-money crown of James II. Mr. 
Lindsay, in his " View of the Coinage of 
Ireland," says that "the crowns (gun- 
money) exhibit no varieties of type or 
leg»nd." However, Mr. Robertson's spe- 
cimen differs very much in both type a' id 
legend irom the common variety. The 
legend on the obverse of the latter is, 


HIB. BEX. In the former it is, jac. ii. ds. 
OBATiA. FB. ST. HIB. BEX. The chief 
difference in the type of Mr. Robertson's 
specimens are that the groutid under the 
feet of the horse is wavedy and the loot of 
the rider is representetl as being horizontaL 
In the old varitty, the heel is very much 
deprcsscHi and the toe elevat* d. 

Mr. Danifl MacCarthy continued his 
valuable contributions from the Stiite Paper 
Office, Ijondon. The subject of his present 
paper was a notable device of the " jrood 
Queen Bess" for pacifying the turbulent 
Irish chiefs, and winning them over to 
a^lopt the English fashion as to dress and 
other usages, hy prcsentint^ to their ladies 
some of her Majesty's own dresses from 
the royal wardrobe. The Earl of Des- 
mond and Hrlogh Linogh O^^ wvre at 


Antiqttarian Researches. 


the time inclined to be troublesome, and it 
WHS resolved that the grand experiment 
should be bejfun on their wives. Accord- 
ingly, two dresses of cloth of gold, were 
despatched from London to Dublin, to be 
presented to the ladies by the lord-deputy j 
but to the horror of his ExctUency and his 
council, on these precious garments being 
uiipai-ked and inspected, it was found that 
the fronts were unfortunately "a little 
slobbered." and the council, doubting whe- 
ther the gifts in this state would be appre- 
ciated, were obliged to remove the front 
breadths of the gowns, and send to Eng- 
land for some more of the material, to 
make good this deficiency. The dressen were 
afterwards presented ; but although it was 
remarked that the ladies thus honoured, 
always declared they never sympathized 
in the rebellious proceedings of their lords, 
still the ingenious scheme of her Majesty 
had not the effect of keeping the chief- 
tains quiet, or winning them over to Eng- 
lish notions of civilization. The corre- 
spondence on this subjtct, supplied from 
the public records by Mr. MacCurthy. and 
which will be published in the Society's 
Transactions, is very curious and highly 

Mr. T. L. Cooke contributed an elaborate 
topographical paper, having for its text an 
ancient wayside cross-slab, occurring at 
Di isoge. King's County. 

Tne usual vote of thanks to donors and 
exhibitors havii g been passed, the meeting 
adjotimed to the first Wednesday in Sep- 

Abchjeolooical Excursion to Nob- 
MAKDY, (^continued from p. 80^. 

At ti'U o'clock on Wednesday morning 
the excursionists took a steamer to La 
Bouille. a point about eighteen miles down 
the Seine, whence they proceeded by dili- 
gence to Bei ney, and thence by railway to 
Caen, where they arrived about six in the 
evening. The voyage intr« duced ihem to 
some of the romantic and beautiful scenery 
of this part of the Seine. Cantelus on the 
right bank commands, perhnps, as fine a 
view as can be obtained in Europe. Na- 
poleon I. offered a large sum for its pur- 
chase, and it is truly an eyrie worth an 
imperial eagle. Lower down, both banks 
of the river are stud<led with villages, 
every one of which is associated in some 
way or other with the annals of Normandy 
and of England. Passing the small ro- 
mantic town of Molmeaux, the steamer 
soon arrived at the equally picturesque 
village of La Bouille. The road out of La 
Bouille is of almost Alpine steepness, and 
in its numerous windings commands noble 

views of the Seine. Hence, passing through 
th*' forest of La Loude, the road leads to 
the small town of Bourgtheroulde, beyond 
which the country is chiefly occupied for 
agriculture. The crops are everywhere 
fine, and convey a favourable imfiression 
of Norman farming. At Brionne a glance 
of the castle, famous in baronial times, was 
obtained ; and further on, the ruined tower 
of (he abbey of Bee, renowned in Norman 
times as a school of philosophy and the 
Athens of France, which gave, in the per- 
son of Lanfranp and Anselm, two arch- 
bishops to the See of Canterbury, reared 
its lofty head. At Beruey are ftome churches 
of considerable architectural interest ; and 
the noble cathedral of the fine old city of 
Licieux caused many of the party to reg^t 
that the prescribed time of the tourists 
was so limited. 

At Caen they were welcomed by M. 
Channa, the president of the Academie 
des Sciences, Arts, et Belles Lettres, and 
one of the leading members of the Stxnety 
of Antiquaries of Normandy. M. Tonnet^ 
president of the Society, and prefect of the 
department of Calvados, was also present, 
and in the name of the Society gave its 
confreres of Supsex a most cordial wel- 
come. A visit to the public library, and a 
promenade in the garden of the prefecture, 
brought this day's proceedings to a close. 

On Thursday moruing there was an ex- 
cursion to Bayeux, a distance of about 
seven leagues, for the purpose of examin- 
ing the famous tapestry representing 
the train of events which preceded and 
accompanied the conquest of England by 
the Normans. Dr. Bruce, who, as the 
author of "the Bayeux Tapestry Illus- 
trated," was eminenily qualified for the 
task, consented to lecture on the subject, 
which he did in a manner that greatly 
interested every auditor. This wonderfVil 
worsted document, which is nearly 214 
feet in length, and about 2 feet in height, 
is believed to be the work of Matilda, 
Queen of the Conqueror, and the ladies of 
her court. It was formerly preserved in 
the Cathedral of Bayeux, but is now care- 
fully stretched continuously upon a stand, 
and covered with a glass case, in the pub- 
lic library. Having minutely inspected 
this venerable relic, so interesting to every 
Englishman, but particularly to the Sus- 
sex antiquary, the Cathedral of Bayeux, a 
fine building of Norman date, now under- 
going external repfdrs, was next inspected, 
and in the evening the party retm'ned to 

At Caen the first objects of interest 
were, of course, the churches of St. Etienne 
and St. Trinity, founded respectively by 
William the Conqueror and his Queen 


Antiguarian Researches, 


Matilda, in e:q>iation of their having 
married within the prohibited degrees. 
The Church of St. Etienne stands, in all 
its main features, as it was in the Con- 
queror's own days,— plain, massive, and 
majestic : " Disdaining to bo decorated, it 
geekn to be sublime." The stone which 
covers the rema ns of William lies in the 
ohoir before the high altar, having been 
removed thither from the i ave. Matilda's 
church has more ornament; but it is at 
present so much disarranged by the repairs 
which are going forward,^that it is diffi- 
cult to judt^e its interior proportions. In 
a vault beneath it lies the original tomb- 
stone uf Matilda. The acyoining < onvent 
is now the abode of the Sisters of M« rcy. 
The churches of St. Pierre, St. Nicholas, 
&c., and the ancient citadel and fortifica- 
tions of the town were also visited. In 
the evening the Society dined at the Hotel 
d'Angh terre, when Mr. Blencowe, as chair- 
man, proposed the tlianVs of the members 
to Dr. Bruce for his lucid and interettting 
discourse on the Bayeux 'i'apestry. Dr. 
Bruce, in ncknowledgint; the complimenr, 
remarked that that singular piece of anti- 
quity bore internal evidence of being a 
genuine oontemporaiy record, if not ac- 
tually the work of Queen Matilda. An 
animated discourse ensued, in which the 
citairman ventured, on account of two or 
three rather indelicate representations, to 
doubt if the Queen could have been con- 
cerned in its production. Professor Char- 
m>i denied that the work was by the hand 
of Matilda, and ascribe! it to the minions 
of Odo, bishop of Bayeux, who figures so 
largely in the transactions represented. 
Odo was universally hated at the time, 
and was in disavour with his half-brother, 
the Conqueror, and this tapestry, M. Char- 
ma considered, was prepared as a monu- 
ment of Odo's merits to regain him a lit- 
tle popularity. The thanks of the meet- 
ing wert) also voted to M. Charma for his 
kindness in rec< iving the Society, and in 
pointing out the antiquities of Caen ; and 
he was also requested to convey to the 
Prefect the sense entertained by the vbi- 
tors for his cordial reception. 

On Friday morning the excursionists 
visited the Museum of Antiquities (which 
sadly wanes a good illustraU'd catalogue), 
and inspected the various groups of C!eltic, 
Boman, Merovingian, and Midieval anti- 
quities discovered in the department. 
There is a silver-gilt cup or chulioe which 
excited much interest; the surface is 
nearly covered with bronze Roman coins 
let into the metal. It is ascribed to the 
time of William the Conqui ri>r, but it is 
more probably a work of the 14th centtiry. 
By the courtesy of the prefect, who again 

met the party, an opportunity was afforded 
of examining the archives of the depart- 
ment, which are admirably arranged, and 
which contain, aaiong other very curious 
and valuable documents, charters of Wil- 
liam Rufus, Richard Cceur-de-Lion, etc 

The objects of the excursion being now 
fully antl sittisfactoi ily ri alized, the mem- 
bers set out on their return to England, 
which they reached in the course of Fri- 
day, p. M., and Saturday morning, via 
Havre, Roui'U, Diepi^e. and Newhaven. 
In another year it is possible this move in 
the right direction may be modified and 
improved. In order to mnke such con- 
gresses of true archaeological value, parti- 
cular tasks should be assigned to particu- 
lar persons, and they should be left per- 
fectly free from all other duties. Jf r^ 
union* daily could be conveniently made 
when the woikinf; had ceased, they would 
form an agreeable relaxation; but these 
should in no way be allowed to embarrass 
and imp«*dd the iMigent men of research 
and inquiry. Meetings for the reading of 
papers resulting from huch congresses could 
be made at convenient season:* in England. 

The Merovingian Cemetery at the Chapel 
of St Eloy. — In our number for Ai g^t, 
i856, we printed a notice of the allegped 
discovery of a Merovingian Cemetery by 
M. Letiormant, and stated facts which 
tended to throw suspicion on the learned 
antiquary's statements. In corroboration 
of our views ^e now add some remnrks by 
Mr. Koach Smith in the preface to the 
fourth volume of his Collectanea Antiqua, 

" I subjoined to the Hccount of my Ltst 
tour in France a review of Monsieur Le- 
normant*s Decouverte d*un Cimetih^ MS' 
rovinffian it la ChapeUe Saint- Eloi (Rure), 
(See p. 30.) I did so, becaus.^ a portion of 
the essay had reference to notes I had m tde 
at Evreux ; because the contents of M. Le- 
normsint's pamphlet were calculated to 
interest in the highest degree the anti- 
quaiies of England, and indeed of all 
Europe, as well as those of France; be- 
Ciiuse the Institut of France, of which 
M. Lenormant is a disting>iished mem- 
ber, had, by its reception of a pa()er by 
the author, disarmed all suspicion of the 
possibility of finding that doubts existed 
on the genuineness of the inscriptions, and 
on the main points of the entire discovery. 
Imleid, up to the present time, the In- 
stitut has not impugned the correctneu 
of M. I^normant's statements; but the 
Society libre du Departement de I'Eure 
has printed the report of a Commission* 

• De la Dieouverte d im pretendu CtmetUrt 
Mirovingien d la CKapelU SaiHt'£loi, par M. 


Antiquarian Researches. 


appointed to investigate the sources of the 
discovery, which report denies not only 
the accuracy of the facts and th" validity 
of the conclusions deduced from them, but 
it also asserts that M. Lenormant has been 
det-eived. To this report M. Francois Le- 
normant has replied *»; and the Commis- 
sion has published a rejoinder reiterating 
its Hssertions*. The late Mr. Kemble, 
moreover, informed me that he and Dr. 
Grimm believed the runic inscriptions to 
be forgeries. Thus -stands the matter. 
The public must suspend its judgment 
until M.*Lenormaut himself and the In- 
stitut have responded to the objections 
made by the Commission, and dispelled 
the suspicions it has excited." 

Discovery of Roman Remains at PlaX' 
tol, Kent. — Some rather remarkable ob- 
jects hiive been recently turned up by the 
plough in a field at Plaxtol, the property 
of Mr. MHrtin. They chiefly consist in 
the foundations of a building which seems 
to be of the better class of Roman dw«*ll- 
ing-houses, if we may judge from the flue 
and hypocaust tiles, which are of a superior 
description. Some of these tiles are covered 
with an inscription which seems to resolve 
itself, into some such a form as C ARAB an- 
TIV8, or Cabbiabanti; but having seen 
only a few fragments, we cannot, at pre- 
sent, with certainty determine the correct 
reading : neither is it easy to say if the 
word be merely the name of the maker, 
or of a more extended signification. The 
importance of inscriptions upon Roman 
tiles is well known to the antiquary. The 
location of legions and cohorts are often 
recorded by them ; and to go no ftirther 
than the county of Kent, (remarkably 
barren in Roman inscriptions,) the tiles 
discovered at Lympne are among the 
most valuable results of the excavations 
made at that station by Mr. Roach Smith 
and Mr. Elliott; for they enabled the 
former of these investigators to detect the 

Charles Lenormant. Rapport fait i la Soeiiti 
libre du Departement de I'Rure, et publii par son 
ordre. (Evreux, 1855.) 

'I De V Authenticiti aeM Monuments deeouverti 
d la CTuipelle Saint-^Eloi^ par M. Francois Lsnorm 
mant. [L^ Correspondantt Sept. 25, 1855.) 

DeuxUme Rapport, fait d la SocUti 4$ PRure. 
(Evreux, 1856.) 

evidences of the particular body of troops 
stationed at the tortus Lemanis, (s( e his 
*' Report on the Exoivations,'' and the 
** Antiquitii s of Hichborough. R**culver, 
and Lympne"). We shall, therefore, look 
forward to a complete excavation of the 
spot in which these remains are found, and 
which, we understand, Mr. Martin is quite 
willing to permit. A statuette of P. i lias, 
of good workmanship, has also been dup up. 

About half a mile distant, in a field be- 
longing to Mr. 'JTiompson, Roman sepul- 
chral remuns have lately been exhumed. 
Mr. Thompson has very kindly permitted 
M%jor Luard to excavate the field; and 
Mr. GoKling has liberally allowed the urns, 
and various other objects already found, to 
be deposited at the Mote-house, at Igh- 

Numismatics. — Mr. Rolfe, of Sandwich, 
has recently added to his valuable collec- 
tion of local antiquities a very rare coin 
of Carausius, which seems to have been 
found in the neighbourhood. Numisma- 
tists will immediately understand its pe- 
culiar value, when we inform them that 
it is an example of the very coins on a 
mistaken reading of which Dr. Stukeley 
founded an essay to prove it to be a coin 
beai ing a representation of Oriuna, whom 
he imagined to have been the wife of 
Carausius, but of whose existence there is 
no historical evidence, and no monumental, 
either, as was soon found by a less imagi- 
native antiquary demonstrating the Oriuna 
to be neither more nor less than a portion 
of the word Foetvna, round a head, which 
in Mr. Rolfe's coin looks more like that 
of a male than a female. Nevertheless, the 
coin, in other points of view, is of much 
interest, and we are glad to see Mr. 
Roach Smith has announced his intention 
to engrave it. 

Mr. Humphry Wickham, of Strood, 
has obtained a new variety of the gold 
British coins, reading com. p., which waa 
found in digging on the line of the new 
Dover railway. It is in fine preservation, 
and reads on the obverse com. p., within a 
wreath; on the reverse, a horseman. It 
resembles one, much smaller in itize, in Mr. 
Rolfe's cabinet, which bears EPPI in addi- 
tion to the COM. p. ; and which wai also 
found i& Kent. 

GEirr. Mag. Vol. CCIII. 




Cj^t MonWu JfuttUiflenctr, 


Foreign News, Domestic Occurrences, and Notes of the Month, 

June 26. 
Derby. — The sixth conversazione in con- 
nection with the Derby Town and County 
Mu<(eum was held at the Royal Hotel, 
under the presidency 6f the mayor, H. V, 
Gisborne, Esq., who, after the preliminary 
business of the evening had been con- 
cluded, called upon Mr. Llewellynn Jewitt, 
F.S.A., to read a paper on " The Tradus- 
man'rt Tokens of Derbyshire of the Seven- 
teenth Century." Mr. Jewitt, after a few 
prefatory remarks, began his paper by 
tracing the origin and history of tokens 
from the earliest perii>d. and shewed how 
they had gradually become necessary, from 
the w mt of a regular medium of currency 
of smaller value than the sivcr monies in 
use at the vnrious periods through which 
he traced the history of these interesting 
relics. He then shewed, most forcibly, 
the value of these tokens to the topc^ra- 
pher, the historian, and the archecological 
student, and explained their import >nce 
as illustrations of the customs, costume, 
trades, &c, of the people, and as illustra- 
ti;)ns of the prodnc ions of old writers, and 
of the b>dlads of the people. 'I'his part 
of his subject he interspersed with many 
qu dnt and curious anecdotes, and extracts 
from old writers, whieh rendered the paper 
extremely interesting. Mr. Jewitt then 
prcce -dod to describe the tradesman's to- 
kens, amounting to about one hundred, 
wh ch were struck in the county of Derby 
during the seventeenth century, and ex- 
hi >itcd a large number of the coins them- 
selves. Of these, it appears about thirty 
were struck in Derby alone, which he de- 
scribid. With regard to two of them, 
wliich bear the head of the Sultan Morat, 
. or Araurath the Great, Mr. J. gave some 
.h'ghly curious psurticuliirs, and exhibited 
some specim ns struck at the Morat*8 
Head, in Exchange-alley, and containing 
some curious alluciions to the then newly 
introduced lux-iry of tea, which was sold 
at that establishment at jfrom six to sixty 
shilling's a-pound. After fully describing 
the various issues of these coins, Mr. Jewitt 
CO eluded his paper by saying, that as the 
little coins he had been describing were 
issued, not as sterling coins, but as tokens 
that a real value might be received for 

them, he hoped the audience would re- 
ceive his paper as a token only, and seek 
for the sterling coin in the study of that 
branch of antiquities to which he had for 
a few minutes ciEdled their attention. The 
rest of the evening was spent in the ex- 
amination of the large assemblage of in- 
teresting objects kindly brought for exhi- 
bition by some of the members of the com- 
mittee. Amongst these were a collection 
of antiquities embracing the Egypt'an, 
Etruscan, Celtic, Komatio-British, and me- 
diffival periods, with a large assemblaire of 
historioil medals, coins, and about a thou- 
sand tradesman's tokens, contributed by 
Mr. L. Jewitt, and a fine series of coins 
and antiquities, by Mr. W. H. Cox, &c. — 
Derby Telegraph, 

Order of Valour. — The first presenta- 
tion of the new Order of Valour took 
place to-d ly, in Hyde-park, when sixty -two 
officers ami men, who liad been seKcted, 
received it from the hands of her Majesty, 
in H>de-park, in the presence of nearly 
10.000 troo)iB and 100,000 spectators, or 
rather would-be spectators, for, from the 
number of complaints, it would appear that 
very few of those present were able to see. 

June 27. 

France. — The result of the elections is 
now known; but so well have they been 
managed, that but six of the opposition 
candidates have been elected. 

Island in the Pacific ceded to Great 
Britain.— The "New York Tribune" says: 
— " The island ceded to England by the 
New Granadian Government is probably 
that which is known as Isia del Rey, and 
it is an acquisition of vast importtnce as a 
naval dep6t or C3mmercial haven. It af- 
• fords means for the protection of the vast 
British trade passing from Australia to 
Panama, and will enable Great Britain to 
command the whole bthmus regions on 
the Pacific side as completely as she now 
does those on the Atlantic side." 

June 29. 

Manchetier, — Visit of her Majesty to the 
Exhibition, — According to arranuement, 
the Queen arrived this evening, and rested 
at Worsley-hall, the seat of the Earl of 
Ellesmere. Notwithstanding the lateness 
of the hour at which her M^esty arrived, 


The Monthly Intelligencer. 


there was a considerable number of people 
a^-sembled at tbe station, who welcomed 
her with much cheering. In preparation 
for the royal visit, a large pavilion, 120 
feet long, had been erected over the station 
platform. The interior was adorned with 
tapestries, and with stands of flowering 
plants. Over the entrance to the stair- 
case leatling from the station was placed a 
crown of flowers. Tbe royal party passed 
nnder a triumphal arch near the station, 
past the Bridgewa^er foundry and Moii- 
ton-green, to the private car ri«g ••drive to 
Worsley. In the private grounds a num- 
ber of Lord Ellesmere's tenantry were 
engaged to ass st in preserving «>rder, but 
their services were not so much required 
as they might have been if the arrival had 
taken place as early as was at first con- 

The progress of her Majesty and the 
royal family next mominer, fVom Worsley- 
hall to the Exhibition building, was a sight 
which comparatively few of the specttitors 
could parallel in their recollections. The 
distance from the noble Earl's residence to 
Old Traflbrd, where the building is situ- 
ated, is about nine miles, through the 
boroughs of Manchester and Salford; and 
to say there were half a million of her 
Majesty's subjects on tlie line of road 
would be a moderate estimate. Gratify- 
ing as was the reception her Majesty re- 
ceived in 1851, on her visit to Manchester, 
it must be confess' d that it has been 
ecHiwed by the proceedings now described. 
Of triumphal arches there were plenty; 
whilst every house, factory, and wm rehouse, 
offering a suitable elevation, was decorated 
with flags, festoons, or ornamental device 
of some kind. Kich nnd tasteful floral 
designs, and many -coloured dr.iperies, were 
displayed from windows and house-fronts, , 
whilst the rich dresses of the ladies con- 
gre<;ated in window, balcony, or on plat- 
form, to say nothing of the attractions of 
the wearers, contributed much to the 
gaiety of the scene. The weather was 
fine until the Queen entered the building. 
Some slight showers had fallen during the 
morning, clearing the atmosphere, and 
rendering the heat less oppressive than for 
some days previously. From the time of 
hor Mnjcsty's arrival at the Art Treasures* 
Exhibition there was a succession of heavy 

Her Majesty and the royal party Icfl 
Worsley-hall, with the punctuality usual 
on such occasions, at nine o'clock. Tlie 
corfege consisted of six carriages, in the 
last of which were seated the Queen, the 
Priiice-C-»nsort, Prince Frederick William 
of Prussia, and the Princess-Royal. 

Her Majesty arrived at the Exhibition 

building, which had long previously been 
almost filled by an elegantly-attired com- 
pany, exactly at twenty miimtos past eleven 
o'clock. The royal party all occupied open 
carriages. Only once, and that when in 
Market-street, did a shower of rain compel 
her Majesty to use her parasol as a protec- 
tion, and that was for a few moments only. 
Her Majesty wore a black silk dress trim- 
med with crape, black mantle, and white 
bonnet ; and the two Princesses were at- 
tired with equal simplicity. They and the 
Prince-Consort, who wore the Order of the 
Garter, appeared to be in good health. A 
salute of twenty-one guns from the royal 
artillery anu' -uncetl her arrival at the Ex- 
hibition. On entering the building, the 
Queen and royal visitors ]»roceeded to 
the reception-room at the entnmce, from 
whrnce they emerged into the great central 
hall after an interval of only five minutes, 
and were conducted up the ctntral aisle 
by the president, chairman, and members 
of the executive committee, to the dais in 
the transept. 

At the conclusion of the national an- 
them, Mr. Fairbaiin, the chairman, and 
other members of the executive committee, 
with Mr. Deane, advanced to the front of 
the dais, and Mr. i-airbairn read an ad- 
dress to the Queen, which her Majesty 
received most graciously, and having 
handed it to Sir George Grey, read the 
following reply : — 

•• I thank you sincerely for tbe assurance of 
Tour attachment to my throne and person, and 
for the affectionate wishes for myself and my 
family which you have expres.'ied in your loyal 
and dutiful addr' ss. 'Ihe splendid spcctocle pre- 
sented to my view on this occasicm affords a 
gratifying proof both <-f the generous munifi- 
cence with which the possessors of valuable 
works of art in this country have responded to 
your desires, and rncouraKcd your t-ff rts in the 
attainment of tliis great result, and also of th") 
enligiitened taste and judgment which have 
guided you in the arrangement of the treasures 
placed at your disi osal. I leam with great 

Pleasure that the ctmtributions which ii has 
een the happiness of myself and of the Prince, 
my Consort, to offer to this Exhibition, have en- 
hanced its value, and have been conducive to 
the success of an undertaking of such high na- 
tional interest and useiulness. I cannot doubt 
that your disintei ested exertions wili receive 
their best reward in the widely-diffused gratifi- 
cation and the elevating and refining influ( nc6 
produced among the vast numbers of i very rank 
and station, whom tbe position of this building, 
in the midst of a dense and industrious popula- 
tion, invites to a contemplation of the ma.nifl- 
cent collection of works of art displayed within 
these wuliS." 

Mr. Fairbaim and the members of the 
committee h:id then the honom* of kissing 

Mr. James Watts, the Mayor of Man- 
chester, Mr. R. B. Armstrong, the He- 
corder. Aldermen Watkins and ICichollB, 
and the Town*Clerk« then advanoedi and 


The Monthly Intelligencer. 


the Recorder read an address by the Cor- 
porntion of Manchester, to which her 
Majesty replied as follows : — 

*• I receive with great satisfaction the assar- 
anoe which you have on this occiiaion offered me 
of devoted attachment to my throne and person. 
I thank you sincerely for the warm interest 
which you have expressed in all that concerns 
my own welfare and that of my familjr, and for 
your congiatulxtions on the approaching union 
of my I Idest daughter with the Prince of an illus- 
trious house, which, while it affords to them, 
under God's blessing, the best prospect of happi- 
ness, will, I trust, also be conducive to the in- 
terests of this kingdom. I have the greatest 
Pleasure in again visiting Manchester, not only 
Dcause it enables me to mark my cordial np- 
proval of the valuable und interesting exhibition 
which has been opened with so much success 
within these walls, but also because it has given 
me another opportunity of witnessing the grati- 
fying proofs of the urdent loyalty and attach- 
ment of tt)e in^iabitants of this great seat of 
xn-muracturing industry. You may be assured 
that there is no object nearer to my heart than 
to advance the be>t interests and permanent 
welfare of my loyal and faithful people." 

Lieutenant-General Sir Harry Smith 
hero came forward, and having banded 
biH sword to the Qut-en, her Majesty was 
preciously pleased to conftr the honour of 
Knighthood upon the Mayor of Manchrs- 
ter. Sir James Watts and the other 
members of the deputation had the honour 
of kissinjf hands before they retired. 

Mr. St>ephen Heelis, Mayor of Salford, 
then advanced at the head of a deputation, 
and read an address, to which her Ma- 
jesty returned a gracious reply. 

Her Majesty and the royal party spent 
upwards of an hour in the gallery of the 
old musters, and then were re-conducted 
to the reception-room, where Mr. Donald 
had provided lunch. The royal table was 
futnished with a magnificent service of 
gold plate bv Mr. Donald, and the table- 
service of china, set with pearls and gold, 
supplied by Alderman Copeland, is said to 
have eost 2,000 guineas. In the centre 
of the royal table was an ^p rgne in 
frosted silver, of most exquisite design 
and workmanship. After partaking of 
refreshments, the Queen and the rest of 
the royal party spent some time in the 
gallery of modem paintings, and did not 
leave the building until nearly 3 o'clock,^ 
returning rajjidly to Worsley by the route 
they had passed over in the morning. 

July 1. 

India — News of an alarming natnrc 
has been received. More than thirty 
thousand Sepoys have mutinied, killed 
most of the English officers, have seized 
Delhi, one of the strongest fortresses, and 
fought a battle under its walls. Mea- 
sures have been taken to repress the re- 
volt, which it is hoped will be speedily 
put down. General Sir C<^ CunpbeU 

started at twenty-four honn' notice, tmta 
London, to take the supreme command 
of the army, and 20,000 additional troops 
are being sent. out. The " Bombay Times'* 
states that some time sim-e a troop of the 
8rd cavalry, at Meerut, being ordered on 
parade to load and fire with the cartridges 
supplied by the government, under assur- 
ance that no animal fat had been used in 
their manufacture, only five men out of 
ninety obeyed. The eighty-five men who 
refused were tried by oonrt-martial, and 
sentenced to imprisonment varying from 
five to ten years. On Saturday, the 9th 
of May, the prisoners were ironed on the 
parade-ground, in presence of the troops^ 
and marched ofif to gaoL No suspicion 
seems to have been entertained that a 
rescue would be attempted, but towards 
the evening of Sunday a furious rise was 
made by the regiment, in which, by evi- 
dent preconcertion, they were joined by 
the bazaar and townspeople, and by the two 
native infantry regiments, the 11 ^h and 
20th, also cantoned in the plnce. Meerut 
is one of the largest stations in India, and 
before the European part of the force, 
consisting of her Majesty's 6th Dragoon 
Guards, the 60tb Rifles, and the ArtiUery, 
could be assembled, half the Section was in 
flames, and the torritjed women and chil- 
dren of our soldiers were in the hands of 
the savage and infnriated crew, who mur- 
dered them under circumstances of un- 
heard-of barbarity. Each officer, as he 
rushed from his bungalow to call back 
the men to their allegiance, was shot 
ruthlessly down, and before the Eiu^pean 
forces were able to reach the lines, the 
bloody work was pretty well completed. 
At the second volley of the 60th Rifles, 
the mutineers and the whole crew ran, 
, and were followed some miles otit of 
Meerut by the Dragoons, who sabred a 
considerable number; but, by some lament- 
al)le oversight, the pursuit was now dis- 
continued, and to this we owe a repeti- 
tion of the dreadful tragedy at Delhi. The 
mutineers reached that city early on Mon- 
day morning, and were immediately joined 
by the thr^ native regiments stationed 
there, the 88th, the 64th, and the 74th 
Native InfHutry, and, unwillingly, by the 
Artillery. During the Monday, all the 
Europeans of tlie place, except a few ladies 
and gentlemen who rode for their lives to 
neighbouring stations, seem to have been 
butchered ; but as the place remiuns in the 
hands of the mutineers, we may hope that 
others, of whose fate we have no certain 
news, have also escaped. The powder 
magazine fell into their hands, but a gal- 
lant young hero, Lieut. G. D. Willoughby, 
of the Artillsry, is said to haye blown np 


Tli£ Monthly Intelligencer, 


the other magazines, himself perishing with 

July 3. 
Sir Colin Campbell, — Lieutenant-Gene- 
ral Sir Colin Campb* 11, who has just been 
appointed Commander-in-Chief in India, 
entered the army in 180S, as an ensign in 
the 9th regiment of foot. He served in 
the Walcheren expedition, and throughout 
the Peninsular campaigns, having been 
present, amon^ other engagements, at the 
battles of Vimiera, Cot unna, fiarossa, and 
Vittoria, and at the siege of San Sebastian. 
He received two wounds at San Sebastian, 
and was again severely wounded at the 
passage of the Bidassoa. He then pro- 
ceeded to North America, and served there 
during 1814 and 1815. He was subse- 
quently employed in the West Indies, hav- 
ing been attached to the troops which 
quelled an insurrection in Demerara in 
1823. In 1842 he embarked for Chin:i, 
in command of the 98th regiment of foot, 
which he hiaded during the stormii'g of 
Cbinkeangfoo, «nd tlie operations in the 
Yang-tsze-Kiang, which led to the signa- 
ture of the peace of Nankin. His next 
field of service was India, where he preatly 
distinguished hin)self in the second Pun- 
ja"b camp«ign, und«T Lord Gough, in 
1848 and 1849. Throughout that cam- 
paign he commanded a division of infantry, 
which was engaged at the battles of Chil- 
lianwallah and Goojerat, and the other af- 
fairs with the enemy; and he took an 
active part, after the battle of Goojerat, in 
the pursuit of Dost Mahommed, and the 
oceupation of Peshawur. He was among 
the wt)unded at the battle of Chillian- 
wallab, and in consideration of his dis- 
tinguished services in the campaign, he 
was ai>pointed a Knight Commander of the 
Bath. He subsequently held the command 
of the troops in the district of Peshawur ; 
and during the years 1851 and 1852, he 
repeatedly undertook successful operations 
aprainst the Momuds and other turbulent 
tribes of mountameers in the neighbour- 
hood of Peshawur and Kohat. He after- 
wards returned to £ngland, and proceeded 
to Turkey in command of a brigade of in- 
fantry. His brilliant services throughout 
tlie operations in the Crimea, during which 
he commanded the Highland brigade and 
the Highland division, are fresh in the re- 
collection of everyone. His services dur- 
ing the Russian war were rewarded with 
promotion to the rank of Ineuteuant-gene- 
ral, :<nd the Grand Cresses of the Bath, the 
Legion of Honour, and the Sardinian order 
of Maurice and St. Lazare. He bus re- 
cently held the office of Inspector-gineral 
of Infantry, which he has now quitted in 
order to assome the supreme comBumd iu 

Bengal, at a time when the actual and con^ 
tingent danvrers arising from the mutinies 
in the Bengal lyitive army render it neces- 
sary to eujploy a general officer possessed 
of the highest vigour, a<tivitv, and capa- 
city, and acquainted with the nature of 
Indian service and the peculiarities of the 
native soldiery. 

July 4. 

Oxford. Rating the University Build' 
ings. — Judgment was given by the Court 
of Queen's Bench in the question pending 
between the Guardisms of the Poor of 
Oxford and the Uni\ersity of Oxford, with 
respect to the ratirg of certain lands and 
buildings held by the University, and to 
the college chapels and coUepe li' raries. 
The decision was taken on a special case. 
Mr. Justice Coleridge delivered judgment. 
He decided that neither the Bodleian Li- 
brary, nor the Convocait ion -houses, nor 
the ••Schools," nor theAshmoh an Museum, 
nor the Sheldonian Th#tre, nor the Bo- 
tanic Garden, nor the University Galleries, 
were rateable, because each was necessary 
to the general purposes of the University. 
But the court found that the cellars under 
the Theatre, the lower part of the Ash- 
molean Museum, and the houses of the 
Professor and Curator of the Botanic Gar- 
den, were rateable, becau^e they aie bene- 
ficially occupied. With resptct to the 
college chapels and college libraries, the 
court thought the colleges rateable. They 
wanted the ground of exemption on which 
the University rested. The chapels were 
consecrated, but that did not make them 
exempt when in the hands of a college, 
any more than a private chapel in a house 
would be, or a proprietary chapel, if the 
bishop should be induced to consecrate it. 
These colleges, therefore, wo«ild be rate- 
able in respect both of the chapels and 

July 9. 

Scotland. — Th« trial of Miss Smith be- 
fore the High Court of Justiciary termi- 
nated this, the ninth day, in a verdict 
practically tantamount to an acquittal. 
Throughout the proceedings an unprece- 
dented excitement has prevailed, not only 
in Scotland, where the local newspapers 
groaned under the burden of successive 
editions, but all over the country. With 
all the comparative fulness of the reports, 
supplied to the press from hour to hour 
by the short-hand writers, and supple- 
metited by electric telegraph, they have 
been produced under such disadt aiitages, 
and the evidence is so extensive, that pro- 
bably no complete and connecUd view of 
the case, out of court, will be obtained 
until the trial shall be pablishid in a sepa- 
rate form, ai one of the most remarkable 


TJie Monthly Inlelligencer, 


causes cilhhres. In the meantime, we 
must place upon record as complete an 
outline of the case as the limited space 
and imperfect material at our disposal 

The deceased Emile L*Angelier is first 
heard of (in the evidenct* advanced for the 
defi nee) as in " the service of Dickson Hud 
C'>., of Edinburj^h," in 1843. He came 
from Jersey, and appears to have returned 
thither, for one of the witnesses met Idm 
in Jersey in 1846. Afterwards he went 
to France, where it is supposed that he 
for some time acted as a courier, for he 
spoke of havinjr given arsenic to horses on 
a journey, to give them wind. He boasted 
ofhavngbeen engaged in the revolution 
of 1848, and of llaving served in the Na- 
tional Guard. Snbsequ^-ntly helfftFrance; 
and he is found in 1851 living at a tavern 
in Edinburgh called tlje *' Rainbow," in 
abject poverty; sleeping with the waiter 
of the tavern ;#bo low in spirits, from 
a cioss in love, that he frequently spoke 
of Kuicide, talked of throwing Idmself out 
of a window six stories h'gh, and of jump- 
ing off Leith pier. During his stay at the 
*' Rainbow," he often remarked how much 
the lidies admired him — they looked at 
him in the street. One of the witnesses 
once 8:iid in his presence that L'Angdier 
was '* rather a pretty little person ;" upon 
which he went out, and on his return said 
that a lady in pa^^sing had expressed ad- 
miration of his *' pretty little feet." This 
witmss believed L'Angelier had concocted 
the story, and regarded him as " a vain, 
lying fell )W." From Edinburgh he went 
to Dundee, and engaged in the service of 
a nurseryman there, for bed, board, and a 
few shillings a-week. Here, again, he fre- 
quently spoke of killing himself. He 
wrote to his friend the waiter at the 
" Rainbow" — " I never was so unhappy in 
my life : I wish I had courage to blow my 
brains out." [All the witnesses on this 
point seem to have thought that he would 
have killed'lf, had he been brave 
enough.] At Dundee, where he was 
thought a ** mor d" lad, but vain and 
boantful, he at« poppy-seetls once till he 
was giddy ; talked of rej^ularly using ar- 
senic, and continued to boast of his inti- 
macy with the ladies. From Dundee he 
went to Glasgow, but when or how there 
is no evidence ; nor is there any evidence 
to shew how he obtained the situation of 
clerk to Hu^ns and Co. But he was in 
Glasgow in 1853 ; for we find him dining 
with a Mr. Roberts, merchant, on the 
Christmas-day of that year. After dinner, 
he was so ill from an attack of vomiting 
and diarrbcea, that he had to be sent home 
in a oab. 

In the year when M. L'Angelier arrived 
in Glasgow, Miss Smith returned from a 
boarding-school at Clapton. She was then 
about seventeen. Her father is Mr. Jiunes 
Smith, an architect in Glasgow ; her mo< 
ther is said to have been a natural daughter 
of the late Duke of Hamilton. Whon the 
scene opens, Mr. Smith lived in India- 
street; whence he removed to 7, Blyths- 
wood-square ; and he had a country-house 
at Rowaleyn. 

L'Angelii-r appears to have seen Miss 
Smith some time before he was introduced 
to her; for we find him in 1855 very 
anxious for an introduction. He begged a 
young man of his acquaintance, Robert 
Bairti, to introduce him. Baird applied to 
his uncle, who was in Huggins' warehouse ; 
but the uncle declined: next he asked his 
mother to invite Miss Smith and L'Ange- 
lier to an evening party, but she declined. 
One day, in the street, Baird and L'Ange- 
lier met Miss Smith and her sister, and 
the introduction took place there and 
then. From the mass of letters read at 
the triid, the progress of their intercourse 
through all its phases can be traced. 

The introduction, in the spring of 1855, 
rap'dly ripened into intimacy. The first 
letter from Miss Smith to L'Angelier be- 
gins — " My dear Emile, I do not feel as 
if I were writing you for the first time. 
Though our intercourse has been very 
short, yet we have become as familiar 
friends. May we long continue ko; and 
ere long may you be a friend of papa's is 
my most earnest desire." Some time after, 
date not attainable, it appears she bade 
him adieu, and declined further corre- 
spondence ; and she wrote to Miss Perry, 
(a respectable elderly lady, who act<'d as 
the confidante of both the parties,) asking 
her to "comfort dear Emile." "Papa 
would not give his consent; so I am in 
duty bound to <»bey him." But L'Ange- 
lier would not retreat so easily. He evi- 
dently wrote again ; for in September Miss 
Smith wrote to him in a fond strain, and 
sikcned herself "your ever-devoted and 
fond Mini." In December their personal 
inlereourse had begun ; for she writes on 
the 3rd of that month, — " I did not expect 
the pleasure of seeing you last evening — of 
being fondled, dear, dear Emile" She 
recommends him to consult Dr. M'Farlane, 
and not try to doctor himself; and a talk 
of marriage begins. In April and May, 
1856, the young lady's lang^uage increases 
in warmth ; secret assignations are made : 
— "The gate; hal»-past ten; yon under- 
stand, darling : aud then, oh happiness!" 
— " As you say, we are man and wife ; so 
we are, my pet : we shaU, I trust, ever re- 
main 80." She signs herself bis "ever- 


The Monthly Intelligencer. 


devoted and loving wife." A letter dated 
" Helensburgh, 7th/' [evidently 7th May, 
'56,] has this pussngc : — " Beloved, if we 
did wrong last night, it was in the excite- 
ment of our love. I suppose we ought to 
have waited till we were married. Yes, 
beloved, I did truly love you with my 
soul. . . . Oh, if we could have re- 
mained, never more to have parted ! . . . 

Any place with you, pet 1 shall always 

rememl)er last night. ... 1 shall write 
dear Mary [Miss Perry] soon. What 
would she say, if sh«^ knew we were so in- 
timate ? She would lose all her good 0[>i- 
nion of us both, would she not ?" In June, 
1856, she says : — " I trust you will take 
care of yourself, and not forget your Mini. 
Oh, how I love that name of Mini ! You 
shall always call me by thut name ; and, 
dearest Emile. if ever we should have a 
daughter, 1 should like you to allow me to 
call her Mini, for her father's sake." In 
this style the letters proceed ; beginning 
— " Beloved, dearly beloved husband," and 
containing passages such as those we have 
quoted, and others not printed by the 
newspapers, and described as unfit for 
publication. In July she says: — "Our 
intimacy has not been criminal, as I am 
your wife before God ; so it has been no 
sin, our loving each other." In another 
she says : — " I think a woman who can be 
untrue ought to be banish* d from society." 
" 1 am as nmch vour wife as if we had 
been married a year." This was in July, 
1856. The marriage, spoken of for Sep- 
temlier, was '* put ottV " Minnoch left 
[Helensburgh] this morning. Say nothing 
to him in passing. I was not a moment 
with him by myself." In August, Emile 
came to a stolen interview at Helensburgh. 
He looked ** cross at first," but ere he left 
he looked himself. " Would you leave me 
to end my days in misery ? for I can never 
be the wife of another, after our intimacy. 
[Here a blank occurs.] No one heard you 
Inst night. Next night it shall be a dif- 
ferent window ; that one is much too 
small." Mr. Minnoch is spoken of as 
" most agreeable " in September. L'An- 
gelicr is reminded that her little sister is 
in her bedroom. " I could not go out by 
the window, or leave the house, and she 
there. It is only when P[apa] is away I 
can see you, for then Janet sleeps with 
M[amma]." L'Angelier is recommeuded 
to g« t "brown envelopes" tt) drop into her 
window in the Glasgow house, because 
they are not s<'cn so much as white ones. 
In November, 1856, she writes : — " If M. 
and P. were from home, I w. uld take you 
in very well at the front-d »or, just the 
same way iis I did in India-street ; and I 
won't let a chance pass — I won't, sweet 

pet of my soul, my only best-loved dar- 

Troubles arise between them in Decem- 
ber, 1856. L'Angelier is jealous, asks 
awkward questions, and complains of 
evasive answers. There seems some idea 
of an elopement, but the "horrid banns" 
fill the young lady with fear. The as- 
signations at "the window" continue to 
be made; but it is evident from her let- 
ters that L'Angelier was v« ry jealous of 
her flirting with Mr. Minnoch. She con- 
soles him by saxing, that the first time 
papa and mamma are from home, he shall 
be with her. On the 23rd January she 
writes: — 

" Emile, what would I not give at this moment 
to be your fond wife! My night-dress was on 
M hen you saw rae ; would to God you had been 
in the satne attire. We would be happy. Emile, 
I adore you. I love you with ray heart and soul. 
I do vex and unnoy you ; but oh, sweet love, I 
do fondly, truly love you with my soul, to be 
your wife, your own sweet wife. I never f' It so 
restless and unhappy as I have done for some 
ti I e past. I would' do anything to keep t'ad 
thoughts from my mind ; but in whatever place, 
gone things make mi* feel sad. A dark spot is 
in the future. What can it be? Oh, Go<l, keep it 
from us! Oh may we be happy! Dear darhng, 
pray for our happiness. I weep now, Emile, to 
Ihiiik of our fate. If we could onlv get married, 
all would be well. But, alas, alas! I see no 
chance, no chance of happiness for me." 

On the 28th January she accepte<1 Mr. 
Minnoch's offer of innrriage. Early in 
February she begins to sj^eak to L'Angelier 
of coolness on both sides ; to complain that 
her letters are returned to her, " not for 
the first tin]e;" and to ask for her own 
letters and likeness : — 

" Sunday night, half-past seven. 
"Emile, my own beloved, you have just left 
me. Oh, sweet darling, my heart and soul bums 
with love for you, my husband. What would I 
not give at th:8 moment to be your fond wife. . . • 
But oh, Rweet love, I d' arly love you, and long 
with heart and soul to be your wife. I never felt 
so restless and unhuppy as 1 have done for some 
time past. I would do anytliing to keep sad 
tho ighis from my mind. A dark hpot is in my 
future. What can it he ? Oh, God, keep it from 
UH ; and may we be happy. I weep to think of 
our fate. If we coul.l only be married, all would 
be well ; but, alas, ulas ! 1 see no chance of hap- 
piness for me 

" MiKi L'Akoklier." 

*• I trust that you may yet be happy, ond get 
one more worth v of you' than I. 

*• I am, &c. M." 

•• Thursday, seven o'clock. 
" You maybe astonished at ti»is sudden change, 
but for some time back you must have noticed a 
coolness in my notes. My love for you ha-* ceased, 
and that is why I was cool. I did once love you 
truly and fo dly, but for some time back I have 
lo««t much of that love. There is no other reason 
for my conduct, and I think it but fair to let yon 
know this. I might, hare g ne on and become 
your wife, but I could not have loved you as I 
ought. My conduct you will condemn, but I did 
at one time love you with heart and soul. It haa 
cost me much to tell you this - sleepless nights— 
but it was necessary you shoQld know. If you 
remain in Glasgow, or go away, I hope you may 


The Monthly Intelligencer, 


succeed in all your endeayouri. I know yon will 
never injure the character of one you so fondly 
loved. No, Emile, I know ynu have honour, and 
are a gentleman. What has passed you will not 
mention. I know, when I ask you, that you will 
comply.— Adieu." 

L'Angelier's reply filled her with terror 
— it appears to have been a threat to send 
the letters to her father. In an agony of 
alarm she wrote on the 10th February, 
passionately conjuring him not to bring 
her to open shame — death — madness; and 
on the next day she wrote in this strain : — 

*♦ Tuesday evening, twelve o'clock. 
*< Emile— I have this night received yoar note. 
Oh, it is kind of you to write to me. Emile, no 
one can know the intense agonv or mind I have 
suffered last niglit and to-day. Emile. my father's 
wrath n oiild kill me — you little know his temp'T. 
Emile, for the love you had once for me, do not 
denounce me to my P. Emile, if he should read 
my letters to > ou, be will put me from him— he 
will hate me as a guilty wretch. I loved you, 
and wrote to you in my first ardent love— It was 
with my deepest love I loved you. It was for 
your love I adored you. I put on paper what I 
should not. I was tree because I loved you with 
my heart If he or any other one saw those fond 
letters to you, m hat would not be said of me ! On 
my bended knees I write to you, and ask >ou, as 
you hope for mercy at ihe judgment-day, do not 
inform on me— do not mxke me a public shame. 
Emile, my love has been one of bitter dinappoint- 
ment. You, and only you, can'make the rest of 
my life peaceful. My own conscit-nce will be a 

Sunishmcnt that I shall carry to my grave. I 
live deceived t'<e be-t of men. You may forgive 
me, but God never will. Foi God'i love, forgive 
me, and betray me not. For the love you once 
had to me, do not bring down my father's WTath 
on me. It will kill my mother, who is not well. 
It will for ever cause me bitter u happiness. I 
am huinb e before you, and crave your mercy. 
You can give me forgiveness ; and you — oh, you 
only can make be happy for the rest of my Ufe. 
I would not uHk you to love me, or ever make me 
your wife. I iim too >(uilty for that. I have de- 
C' ived and told you too many falsehoods for you 
ever to respect me. But oh, will you not keep 
mv secret from the world ? Oh, you will not, for 
Christ'n sake, denounce me T I shull be undone. 
I fhnll be ruined. Who would trust me? Shame 
will be my lot. Despite me, hate me, but moke 
me not the public scandal. Forget me for ever. 
Blot out all remembrance of me. ... I have used 
Tou ill. I did love you, and it was my sourn am- 
bition to be ^our wife. I asked you to tell me 
my faults. You did so, and it made me cool to- 
wards you gradually. When you have found 
fault vnth me, I have cooled. It was not love for 
another, for there is no one 1 love. My 'ove has 
all been given tt» you. My heart is empty — cold. 
I am unloved, 1 am despised. I told you I had 
ceas< d to love you— it was true. I did not love 
as I did ; but, oh, till within the time of our 
coming to town I loved you fondly. I longed to 
be your wife. I had fixed February. I longed 
for it. The time I could not leave my fat cr*s 
house. I grew discontented; then I ceased to 
love you. Oh, Emiie, this is ind«ed the true 
statement. Now you can know my state of mind, 
Emile; I have suffered much for you. I lost 
much of my father's confidence since that Sep- 
tember ; and my mother has never been the same 
to me. No, she has never given me the same 
kind look. For the sake of my mother— her who 
gave me life- spare me from chame. Oh. Emile, 
you will in God's name hear my prayer I I ask 
God lo forgive me. I have prayed that He might 
put ill your heart to spare me ftrom shame. 
Nerer, never while I live, can I be happy. No, 


no, I shall always hare the thought I deoetved 
you. I am guilty; it will be a punishment I 
shall bear till the dky of my death. I am hum- 
bled thus to crave yo-ir pardon ; but I dare not. 
While I have breath I shall ever think «*f tou as 
my »>est friend, if you will only keep this between 
ourf»elves. I blush to ask you. Yet, Emile, will 
you not grant me this my last favour ! yoo will 
never reveal what has paa^ted? Oh, for God's 
sake, for the love of (leaven, hear me. I grow 
mad. I have been ill, very Ul, all day. I hare 
had what has given me a false spirit. I had re- 
sort to what I should not have taken ; but my 
brain is on fire. I feel as if death would indeed 
be sweet. Denounce me not. Emile, Emile, 
think or our once happy days. Pardon me,- if 
you can; pray for me as the most wretched, 
guilty, miserable creature on the earth. I < ould 
stand anything but my father's hot displeasure. 
Emile, you will not cause my detah ! If he is to 
get your letters, 1 cannot see him any more; 
and my poor m thcr, 1 will never more kiss her. 
It would be a shame to them all. Emile, will 
you not spare me this T Hate me, despise me, 
but do not expose me. I cannot write more. I 
am too ill to-night." 

Four days afterwards she says,— "Do 
not come and walk about, and become ill 
again. Yoii did look bad on Sunday night 
and Monday morning. I think you got 
sick with walking home so late, and the 
long want of food ; so the next time we 
meet, I shall make you eat a loaf of bread 
before you go out. I am longing to meet 
again, sweet love." 

She recommends him to travel in the 
South of £ngknd He is full of doubt 
and jealousy; cannot believe there is no 
foundntion for the report of her coming 
marriage with Mr. Minnoch ; asks why he 
is recommended to go " so much South." 
Miss Smith's letters to L'Angelier in 
March are as full of amatory expressions 
as ever—** sweet love, pet, tender embraces, 
fond kisses," &c., prevaiL At the same 
time, she wrote this to Mr. Minnoch : — 

'< Stirling, 16th March, 1857. 
"My dearest William,— It is but ftur, after 
yt'Ur kindness to me, that I should write a note. 
The day I pass from friends I always feel sad ; 
but to part from one I love, as I do you, makes 
me feel truly sad and dull. My only consolation 
is that we meet soon again. To-morrow we shall 
be home. I do so wish you were here to-day. 
We might take a long walk. Our walk to Dan* 
blane I nhall ever remember wi'h pleasure. That 
walk fixed a day on which we are to begin a new 
life,— a life which I h«>pe may be of liappineas 
and long duration to both of u*. My aim through 
lire I'hall be to please and study you. Dear WU- 
liam, I must conclude, as manuna is ready to go 
to Stirling' I do not go with the same pleasure 
as I did the last time. I hope yon got to town 
safe, and found your sisters well. Accept my 
warmest, kindest love ; and ever believe me to 
be yours, with affection, Madxlkims.** 

One letter only from M. L'Angelier to 
Miss Smith was put in. It is dated 6th 
March, 1857, and complains of her '* really 
cold, indifferent, and reserved notes;" he 
is " sure there is foundation" in the it*port 
of her marriage with another : — 

** I know yon cannot write me fhxn SUrlinv- 
shire, as the time you have to write me a letter 


TTie Monthly Intelligencer. 


is occupied in doing so to others. There was a 
time you would have found plenty of time. An- 
swer me this. Mini,— who gave you the trinket 
you shewed me ; is it true is was Mr. Minnoch ! 
And is it true that you are directly or indirectly 
engaged to Mr. Minnoch, or to anyone else but 
me ? These questions I must know. The doctor 
s lys I must go to the Bridge of Allan. I cannot 
travel five hundred miles to the Isle of Wight, 
and five hundred back. What is your object in 
wishing me so very much to go South V* 

The last letter is from Miss Smith to 
L'Angclicr. She had written to him on 
the 19th, making an appointment for the 
20th M^h. He was at Bridge of Allan, 
and of course coold not keep it. She 
wrote another on the 20th, making an 
appointment for the 21st. He received 
that letter at Bridge of Allan on the 22nd, 
and at once returned to Glasgow : — 

•• Why, my beloved, did you not come to me ? 
Oh, my beloved, are you ill! Come to me. Sweet 
one, I waited and waited for you, but you came 
not. I shall wait again to-morrow [Saturday] 
night, — same hour and arrangement. Oh, come, 
sweet love, my own dear love of a sweetheart. 
Ck)me, beloved, and clasp me to your heart; 
come, and we shall be happy. A kiss, fond love. 
Adieu, with tender embraces. Ever believe me 
to be your own ever dear, fond Mimi." 

Such is the picture of their intercourse, 
derived from Miss Smith's letters, up to 
the moment of its abrupt termination. 
The {dm on the part of the prosecution 
was to prove that L'Angelier met his 
death at the hands of Miss Smith. Three 
charges were preferred against her, — 
namely, that on the 19th Februarv, the 
22nd February, and the 22nd March, she 
administered poison to her lover. It was 
proved that on the 11th February she 
openly tried, but failed, to procure prnssic 
acid. It was clearly shewn that L'Ange- 
lier had been seriously ill twice before the 
illness that ended with his death; and 
mediciil testimony shewed that the symp- 
toms manifested on all those occasions 
were consistent with death from arsenic. 
It was proved — Miss Smith herself admit- 
ted it — that she had purchased arsenic 
mixed with colouring matter, telling the 
druggist that she wanted it to kill rats, 
but to others professing that she used it 
as a cosmetic to improve her complexion. 
Miss Perry, the confidante of his inter- 
views with Miss Smith, deposed that 
L'Angelier told her he was ill after tak- 
ing coffee at one time and cocoa or choco- 
late at another from Miss Smith ; and she 
fixed the date of the illness at the 19th 
and the 22nd or 23rd of February. But the 
Lord- Advocate admitted that, id though it 
was proved that Miss Smith had bought 
arsenic on the 21st of February, the day 
before L'Angelier was seized with illness, 
it was not proved, and he could not prove, 
that she had arsenic in her possession 
prior to the 19th.' It was shewn that she 

Gent. Ma.q. Vol. CCIII. 

bought arsemc on the 6th, and aUo on the 
19th of March ; it was on the 23rd that 
L'Angelier died of that poison. It was 
important to shew that there wai a mo* 
tive — that was abundantly found in the 
letters; it was important to shew that 
there were opportunities — but although 
they had met more than once in the house 
in India-street, only one interview toUhin 
the house in Blythswood-square was prov- 
ed to have taken place ; that other inter- 
views did take place, the prosecution relied 
on the letters to establish. The Lord-Ad- 
vocate sud the letters spoke of things that 
could only have taken place in the house. 
But it was most important to prove that 
an interview took place on Sunday the 
22nd of March. It was proved that L'Ange- 
lier, after receiving the letter making the 
appointment for the 22nd, hastened from 
Bridge of Allan to Glasgow ; that he ar- 
rived at his lodgings in good health and 
spirits, staid to take tea, and walked out 
about nine o'clock. He was seen saunter- 
ing in the direction of Blythswood-square 
about twenty minutes past nine : he call- 
ed upon a friend, but did not find him at 
home. Here all trace of him is lost, until 
he was found by his landlady, at his own 
door, without strength to open the latch, 
at two o'clock in the morning, doubled 
up with agony, speechless, parched with 
thirst ; he was admitted, and died of ar- 
senic in eleven hours. The Lord-Advo- 
cate argued, that although he could not 
trace L'Angelier's movements from half- 
past nine at night to two the next morn- 
ing, yet it was impossible to believe that 
he would give up his purpose within a 
hundred yards of the house in Blyths- 
wood-square; that although the prisoner 
said the appointment was for Saturday, 
and not Sunday, yet it was impossible to 
believe she did not wait for him on Sun- 
day, or that she went to sleep and did not 
wake until the following morning. He 
told the jury that he was sure they would 
come to the conclusion that every link in 
the chain of evidence was so firmly fasten- 
ed, every loophole so completely stopped, 
that there did not remain the possibility 
of escape for the unhappy prisoner from 
the net that she has woven around her- 

The defence lay mainly in the earnest, 
able, and argumentative speech of Mr. 
Inglis, the Dean of Faculty. With con- 
summate skill he reviewed the whole case, 
massed the facts of each phase of the in- 
tercourse, and brought out his points with 
extraordinary distinctness. His very open- 
ing riveted attention. " Gentlemen of the 
jury," he said, "the charge against the 
prisoner is murder, and the ponishment of 

E e 


The Monthly Intelligencer. 


murder is death; and that simple state- 
ineiit is sufficient to suggest to us the 
awful solemnity of the occasion which 
brings you and me face to face." He said 
he should not condescend to beg, he should 
loudly, importunately demand justice. Re- 
viewing the character and career of L'An- 
gelier — an unknown adventurer, vain, con- 
ceited, pretentious — he pointed out the 
innocent character of the first mouths of 
the correspondence; shewed that it was 
brt>ken ofif towards the end of 1855; that 
it was renewed, as he inferred, in conse- 
quence of the importunate entreaty of 
L'Angelier ; and, picturing him as a cor- 
rupting seducer, he shewed how the pri- 
soner fell — how, through his evil influences, 
she lost, not her virtue merely, but her 
dense of decency. Then passing over the 
progress of the intercourpe, he minutely 
examined the three charges of the indict- 
ment. In dealing with the evidence re- 
specting the opportunities of meeting, he 
shewed that between the 18th of Novem- 
ber, 1856, wlieu the Smith family first 
went to reside at the house in Blythswood- 
squaie, and the 11th of January, 1857,(the 
parties could only have met once noithin the 
house, namely, on that occasion when Chris- 
tina Haggart, the servant, at Miss Smith's 
request, let I/Angelier in at the b;»ck-door, 
and, while the lovers were in her bedroom, 
remained herself with the cook in the 
kitchen. The only opportunity of meeting 
t» the house was when both the father 
and mother were out, and that opportunity 
only occurred once during that period. 
It was admitted that they might have 
met at the window. The theory for the 
prosecution was, that the moment she had 
Accepted Mr. Minuoch, on January 28, 
her whole character changed, and she be- 
gan to prepare for the perpetration of a 
foul murder. Such a thing was impos- 
sible. Now, the first charge was that she 
attempted to poison L'Angelier on Feb- 
ruary 19. ITie Dean shewed that L'An- 
gelier was not even ill at that date. Mrs. 
Jenkins said his first illness was eight or 
ten days before the second, llie second 
was fixed on February 22 by the prose- 
cution. Eight or ten days before that 
would be February 13. Miss Perry indeed 
said it was the lUth, but she had no re- 
collection of the day, either at her first, 
second, or third examination; and she 
only took up the notion on a suggestion 
by one of the clerks of the Fis(»l. Be- 
sides, the prisoner was not in possession of 
arsenic before Febiuary 19. If, therefore, 
he was ill from arsenic on the IDtli, he 
must have received it from other hands 
than the prisoner's. That disixw* d of one 
charge. With regard to the second charge. 

he met it by shewing fixMjd theevidenoe of 
Hrs. Jenkins, the luidlady, that Jj/kngfi- 
Her did not go out at all on that day; 
and further, that this date for his ilUidM 
could only be fixed by an onwarrantable 
inference from the letters — such as infer- 
ring the date of a letter from the date of 
an envelope in which it was found. Then 
came the third charge. It was that Min 
Smith poisoned L'Angelier on March 22. 
L'Angelier went to Bridge of Allan on 
lliarch 19. He was expecting a lett^ 
from Miss Smith. She, not knowing that 
he had left Glasgow, wr^te on the J 8th, 
and appointed a meeting for the 19th. 
It was not posted till tbe l^th ; it followed 
L'Angelier to Stirling; he got it on the 
2i[)th; but, finding that he was too Uie 
for the appointment, he did not return to 
Glasgow imme<Hately, because he knew 
that he could noi see the prisoner except 
by appointment. Miss Smfth wrote agHhi» 
appointing a meeting on the 21st, Si^ur- 
day; L'Angelier received it at Bridge of 
Allan on Sunday morning, and he returned 
to Glasgow in the evening. The Dean of 
Faculty here endeavoured to shew from 
the evidence, that he might not have re- 
turned to meet the prisoner, as again h^ 
had received the letter too late. Miss 
Smith did not expect him on Stmday. 
She was at home with her father, brothers, 
and sisters. They were all at prayers 
together at nine o'clock. The servants 
gradually go to bed, the cook as late as 
eleven. Miss Smith and her sister go 
to bed together about the same time; 
they go to sleep, and awake together In 
the morning. Could the prisoner and 
L'Angelier have met, and there be no 
evidence of it ? The Lord- Advocate said, 
as a matter of infereuce and ooi\jecture, he 
had no doubt that they met. "Inference 
and conjectiure! I never heard such an 
expression made use of in a capital charge 
before, as indicating or describing a link 
in the prosecutor's case." After an elabo- 
rate argument to shew the improbability 
of the whole charge, the Dean of Facnltv 
closed with a deeply impressive appeal. 
For himself, he said, he nad a personal 
interest in the verdict ; for if there was 
any failure of justice, he could only attri- 
bute it to his own inability to conduct the 
defence ; and if it were so, the recollection 
of that day and that prisoner would haunt 
him as a dismal and blighting spectre to 
the end of his life.^ 

The Lord Justice Gerk summed np 
with g^cat care and solemnity, reading 
over and commenting upon all the evi- 
dence, dwelling on tnat which was un- 
favourable as well as that which was 
favourable to the prisoner. But on the 


The Monthly Intelligaicer. 


whole, Ids siimmaiy told on behalf of the 
pfrisoner, becaiiBe he over and over again» 
while admitting that there was strongf 
suspicion, emphatically declared to the 
jory that they mnst not find their verdict 
on strong siu^icion, but on strong con- 
viction alone; and he pointed out with 
great force the weak parts of the testi- 
mony directed against the prisoner. 

The jury were absent twenty-two mi- 
nutes. When tbey returned to court, they 
ddivered their verdict, finding in each 
case " by a majority," that the prisoner 
was " not guilty'' of the first charge, and 
that the second and third charges were 
" not proven." 

The announcement of the verdict was 
followed by cheering, which could hardly 
be suppressed by the efibrts of the judges 
and the officers of the court. 

The Lord Justice Clerk, in thanking 
the jury for their services, said they 
would have perceived from what he had 
said to them in lus charge, that his 
opinion quite coincided with theirs. 

The prisoner was then dismissed from 
the bar. 

During this extraordinary trial, the 
court presented a striking appearance. 
One writer says — " The whole of th» Fa- 
culty of Advocates would seem to be there, 
filling more than their own gallery ; a 
goodly array of writers to the Signet ap- 
pear in their gowns ; upwards of a score 
of reporters for the press ply their husy 
pencils ; the western side-gallery abounds 

in moustachioed scions of the aristocracy ; 
ministers of the Gospel are there gathering 
materials for discourses; and dvic digni- 
taries are in abundance. A few women, 
who may expect to be called ladies, are 
mingled in the throng. Lords Cowan and 
ArdmiUan, after they are relieved from 
their duties elsewhere, come and sit in un- 
dress on the bench; so does the venerable 
Lord Murray, and Lords Wood, Deas, and 

The behaviour of Miss Smith struck 
everyone. Her " coolness," her dauntless 
bearing, her " perfect repose " of manner, 
her '*jauntv air," her neat and elegant 
dress, her abstinence from food, her pene- 
trating glance, are all noted. Only when 
her own letters were read did she wear 
her veil down and shade her face with her 
hand. She maintuned her bold attitude 
throughout. When the jury were absent 
consulting, she shewed no symptom of 
agitation ; when they returned, she shewed 
no emotion; but when the verdict had 
been read she breathed a heavy sigh, and 
over her face " broke a bright but agitated 

The proceedings terminated a Uttle be- 
fore two o'clock. Great anxiety was shewn 
to get a sight of the prisoner ; but she did 
not leave the court till nearly three o'clock, 
and did so comparatively unobserved. She 
drove, it is understood, to a roadside rail- 
way-station, but her place of asylum was 
not made known. — Spectator, 


April 20. At Banrakpore Catitonment, near 
Calcutta, the wife of Maj.-Gen. Hearsey, C.B., a 

April 24. At Calcutta, the Hon. Mrs. Edmund 
Drummond, a son. 

June 16. At Qorhambury, the Countess of 
Yeralam, a dao. 

June 17. At Glocester-pl., Portman-sq., the 
wife of Capt. N. Chichester, 7th Dragoon Guards, 

At the Rectory, St. Petro Minor, Cornwall, 
Lady Molesworth, a son, who survived its birth 
only a few hours. 

fu^ne 18. At Orimston Garth, Yorkshire, the 
wife of Marmaduke J. Grimston, esq., a dau. 

Jwie 20. At RhyU North Wales, the wife of 
the Rev. John H. R. Sumner, a dau. 

At Upper Seymour-st., Lady Lavinia Dutton, 
a son. 

June 21. At the residence of her father-in-law, 
Bir. Seijt. Clarke, Upper Bedford-pl., the wife of 
Chas. Harwood Clarke, esq., F.8.A., a dau. 

At Severn-house, Henbury, Glocestershire, the 
wife of Edward Sawyer, esq., a dao. 

June 22. At South Audley-st., Lady Olitla 
Ossulston, a dau. 

At Parley-park, Berks, the wife of A. H. Ley- 
borne Popham, esq., a dau. 

At Ufford-ball, Northamptonshire, Mrs. Arthur 
William English, a dau. 

At CrondalU Famham, prematurely, the wife 
of Capt. the Hon. L. Addmston, a dau. 

At Bushbridge-hall, Godalming, the wife of 
R. W. Wilbraham, e»q., a son. 

June 23. At Lowndes-sq., the Countess of 
Antrim, a son. 

At Deerpark, Devon, the Lady Frances Lind- 
say, a son. 

At Littleton Rectory, near Chertsey, the Hon. 
Mrs. O. R. Gifford, a son. 

At Cottrell, Glamorganshire, the seat of her 
father, Adm. Sir George Tvler, Mrs. Richards, 
widow of Edward Priest Richards, esq., of Plas- 
newydd, near Csurdiff, a dau. 

At Ankerwyoke- house, near Wraysbury, 
Bucks, the wife of Cotterill Scholefield, esq., 

June 24. At Radstock Rectory, Mrs. Horatio 
Nelson Ward, a dau. 

At Horfield, near Clifton, the wife of Major 
Shervinton, Brigade-Maj. Military Train, a son. 

At Southfleld-house, Paignton, the wife of 
Tarde Eastley. esq., a son. 

June 25. At Belgrave-sq., the wife of the 
Right Hon. Sidney Herbert, M.P., a son. 

At Woolwich, the wife of Lieut.-CoL Blackwood 
Price, Royal Artillery, a dau. 

June 26. At Boxley-abbey, near Maidstone, 
the wife of T. D. Lushington, esq, of the Madras 
Civil Service, a son. 


Births. — Marriage*. 


June 27. At the Vicarage, Warminster, Wilts, 
the wife of the Rev. Arthur Fane, a son, still- 

June 28. At Egginton-hall, Burton-on-Trent, 
Lady Every, prematurely, a son, still-born. 

At Herriard-park, Hants., the wife of F. J. E. 
Jenroise, esq., a son. 

.\t Efher, the wife of Charles Buxton, esq., 
H.P., a dau. 

June 29. At the Dowager Lady Bateman's, in 
Great Cumberland-place, the Hon. Mrs. George 
Dash wood, a son. 

At Nee^Uiam-hall, near WIsbeach, the wife of 
F. D. Fryer, esq., a son. 

At Woodlands, Darlington, the wife of J. W. 
Pease, esq., a son. 

June 30. At Leith-hall, the wife of Capt. Leith 
Hay, a aon. 

Juiy 2 . At Cheltenham, the wife of Lieut.-Col. 
Brown Constable, a dau. 

At Upper Gower-8t., the wife of R. Francis 
Reed, esq., of Stockton-upon-Tees, a son and 

At Arrowe-park, Cheshire, the wife of John R. 
Shaw, esq., a son. 

July 3. At Gartnagrenach-house, Argyleshire, 
the wife of Maj.-Gen. D. Cuninghame, E.LC.S., 
a dau. 

July 4. At Wrenbury-hall, Nantwich, the wife 
of Major Starkey, a son. 

At Woolneding Rectory, nearMidhurst, Sussex, 
the wife of the Rev. Francis Bourdillon, a son. 

July 5. At Caimbank, Forfarshire, the wife of 
C. H. Millar, esq., a son. 

At Warren Comer>bou8e,Crondall, Mrs. Parker, 
a dau. 

Jt Ij 6. At Edgville-house, Leamington, the 
wife of W. E. Jones, esq., M.A., barrister-at-law, 
a son. 

At Clave-house, Yorkshire, the wife of Capt. 
J. C. v. Minnett, late 3l8t Regt., a aon. 

At St. Leonard*s-on-Sea, the wife of Octavius 
John Williamson, esq., barrister-at-law, Glo- 
cester-terrace, Hyde-park, a dau. 

July 7. At Ickworth, Sufltolk, the Lady Arthur 
Hervey, a dan. 

At Brampford Speke, the wife of MaJ. Rattray, 
First Devon Militia, a son. 

At Roeherville, Kent, the wife of Capt. Chads, 
Paymaster Ist Batt. 60th Royal Rifles, a dan. 

Juljf 8. At Park-house, Selby, the wife of J. 8. 
Harrison, esq., of Brandsburton-hall, a son. 

At Dartmouth-house, St. James's-park, the 
wife of Henry Woods, ef>q., M.P., a dau. 

At Preston-hall, Maidstone, the wife of Edwd. 
L. Betts, esq., a son. 

At Beckford-halU Glocestershire, the wife of 
Mr. John Woodward, a dan. 

July 10. At Bawcliflle-hall, Mrs. Creyke, a dan. 

At Waltham-abbey, the wife of Capt. Inglis, 
Royal Engineers, a son. 

July 11. At St. Andrew's, the Hon. Mrs. Rollo, 
prematurely, twin daus., who survived their 
birth a few hours. 

At the Hermitage, Sandgate, the wife of Lieut.- 
Col. J. R. Heyland, Military Train, a son. 

At Weymouth, the wife of Lieut.-Col. Alooek 
Stawell, of Kilbrittain-castle, co. Cork, Ireland, 
a dau. 

July 12. At Grosvenor-place, the Lady Adela 
Go(f, a son. 

At Wandsworth, the wife of Arthnr Alexander, 
Corsellis, esq., a dau. 

July IS. At St. Oeorge*s-terr., Hyde-park, the 
wife of Clayton W. F. GItu, esq., a son and heir. 

At Camyr Alyn, Denbighshire, the wife of 
Edm. Swetenham, esq., barrister-at-law, a son. 

July 14. At Olton-hall, Warvdckshire, the 
wife of the Rer. B. Jones Bateman, a son. 

At Greeston-house, Lincoln, the wife of John 
R. H. Keyworth, esq!^ a dau. 

At Sheuey-house, Wigan, the wife of N. Eek- 
ersley, esq., a son. 

July 15. At Hamilton-place, PiecadiUy, the 
Countess Vane, a dau. 

At Hubert-terr. , Dover, the wife of Col. Lysons, 
C.B., 25th King's Own Borderers, a son. 


March 17. At Fort "nctoria, Vancouver's Is- 
land, William John Macdonald, esq., to Catherine 
Balfour, second dau. of Capt. Jas. Murray Reid, 
H.H.B. C. 

April 14. At Poosah, in Bengal, Henry Bruce 
Simson, of the Bengal Civil Service, second aon 
of George Simson, of Pitcetthie, in Flfeshire, to 
Madge, second surviving dau. of Lieut. -Gen. 
Vincent, of the Bengal Army. 

May 25. At Aden, Capt. S. Thacker, 9th Regt. 
Bomlmy N.I. and Brigade-MaJ. at Aden, to Har- 
riett Emiline, eldest daughter of Major Wilton, 

June 10. At Merevale, Warwickshire, Peter 
Roth well Arrowsmith, esq., the Ferns, Bolton- 
le-Moors, J.P. for the county of Lancaster, to 
Mary Jane, fourth dan. of the late Jas. Knight, 
esq., and sister of the Rev. James Wm. Knight, 
Baxterley-hall, Atherstone, Warwickshire. 

June 11. At St. James's, Hyde-park, Samuel 
H. N. Johnston, second son of the late Samuel 
Johnston, esq., of Olinda, New Brighton, to 
Caroline Emma, second dau. of the late Peter 
Clutterbuck, esq.. Red-hall, Herts. 

June 15. At Gibraltar, in the King's Chapel, 
the Rev. J. A. Crozier, M.A., Chaplain to the 
Forces, to Frances Elizabeth, younger dau. of 
the late Wm. Frederic Chambers, M.D., K.C.H., 
Phrsician in Ordinary to the Qaeen. 

June 16. At Rjde, Isle of Wight, Lieut.-Col. 
Wise, late 65th Regt, to Mary Catherine, widow 
of the Rev. Thomas Bevan, late Incumbent of 
the Holy Trinity Church, Twickenham, Mid- 

At Walton-on-the-hiU, the Rev. John Ixmiax, 
of Easingwold, to Ellen Margaret, eldest dau. of 
Captain Woodgate, of Everton, late 20th Light 

At Ightham, Kent, the Rer. James Sandford 
Bailey, M.A.. of Jesus College, Cambridge, to 
Lavinia Grevis, dan. of Demetrius Grevis James, 
esq., J.P. and D.L. of Ightham-court and Oak 
Field-court, Tunbridge-wells, and late High 
Sheriff of the county. 

June 17. At Monktown, John Henry Bnlloek, 
esq., eldest son of the late Major Bullock, of Uie 
Ist Life Guards, to Janette Francis Daroy, eldest 
dau. of the Uite Col. Miller. C.B., K.H. 

At Dublin, Arthur Hen. Taylor, esq.. Assistant- 
Surgeon RoVal Horse Artillery, Knight of the 
Legion of Honour, eldest son of Josei^ Henry 
Taylor, eso., H.P. Unattached, late 9th Regt., of 
Hillbrook-house, county Dublin, to Georgtanna 
Elizabeth, eldest dau. of Commissary-Gen. George 
Adams, C.B. 

June 18. At Buoklesham, Suffolk, Harry 
Browne, of Broom-haU, Sunningdale, Berks, 
second son of the late Joseph Saterton Saterton, 
esq., of Chatteris, Cambs., to EUen. youngest dau. 
of Wm. Daniel, esq., of BuckleMiam-hall, Ips- 

At Carrickfergus, the Very Rev. the Dean of 
Connor, to Anne, second dau. of the late P. Kixk, 
esq., of Thomfield, formerly M.P. for Carrick- 

At Cheam, Edw. Blaker. esq., of Portslade, 
Sussex, to Emma Diana, eldest dau. of Robert 
Lewin, esq., of Cheam, Surrey, and grand-dan. 




of the late Rev. Spencer James Lewin, "^oar of 
Ifield and Crawley, Suaaex. 

At St. Marylebone pariah church, Frederick 
Willis Farrer, of Gloucester-ter., Regent's-park, 
third and youngest son of the late Thos. Farrer, 
esq., to Mary, eldest dau. of George Richmond, 
esq., of York-st., Portman-sq. 

June 20. At St. Pancras, T. H. Butler Fel- 
lowes, Lieut. R.N., son of Six James Fellowes, to 
Constance Fanny, dau. of Charles S. Hanson, 
esq., of Conatantmople. 

June 22. At Enfield, Francis Clare Ford, esq., 
son of Richard Ford, esq., of Heavitree, First 
Attach^ to Her Majesty's Legation at Lisbon, to 
Anna, dau. of the Marchese Garofalo. 

June 23. At Walcott, Bath, Boscawen Trevor 
Griffith, esq., late 23rd Royal Welsh Fusiliers, 
only son of the late Thomas Griffith, 'esq., of 
Trevalyn-hall, near Wrexham, to Helen Sophia, 
eldest dau. of Rear-Adm. Norwich Duff, of Marl- 
borough-buildings, Bath. 

At Milton Ernest. Bedfordsh., the Rev. Chas. 
Frederic Hildyard, B.A., of Worcester College, 
Oxford, and of Grantham, Lincolnsh., to Louisa 
Eliza, eldest dau. of the late John Wm. Hamilton, 
esq., of South Hackney, Middlesex. 

June 24. At Stand, Comm. H. W. Comber, 
R.N., Knight of the Legion of Honour, eldest son 
of I he Rev. H. W. Comber, Rector of Oswaldkirk, 
Yorkshire, to Maria, eldest dau. of A. Comber, 
esq., of Stand-house, Lancashire. 

By special license, at Warley-house, near ELali- 
fax, Ernest, second son of the Hon. and Rev. B. 
W. Noel, to Louisa Hope, only dau. of Thomas 
Milne, esq., Warley-house. 

At the Catholic cnapel, Hethe, the Hon. Bryan 
Stapleton, of the Grove, Richmond, to Mary 
Helen Alicia, onlv dau. of J. T. Dolman, esq., of 
Souldem-house, Oxon. 

June 25. At Wicken, Cambridgeshire, Henry 
Miller, esq., formerly of Norton-hall, Suffolk, to 
Emma, dau. of Joseph Slack, esq., of Thorn-hall. 

At the Chapel of the British Embassy, Paris, 
Robert Dalglish, youngest son of the late John 
Grant, esq., of Nuttall-hall, Lancash., to Madeline, 
second dau. of Wm. R. Bayley, esq., of Sidbury, 

At Exeter, the Rev. Henry Tripp, Vicar of 
Denchworth, Berks, and Fellow of Worcester 
College, Oxford, to Anne, second dau. of the late 
Rev. George James Gould, Incumbent of Marian- 
sleigh, Devon. 

At Bexley, the Rev. John Wm. Holdsworth, 
Vicar of Linton, Kent, only son of the Rev. W. 
Holdsworth, D.D., Rector of Clifton, NotUng- 
hamsh.. to Eliza Sarah, youngest dau. of Thomas 
S. Rawson, efti., of Bridgen-^lace, Bexley, Kent. 

At BaHsingboume, Cambridgeshire, the Rev. 
Sydenham Francis Russell, M.A., to Mary, second 
dau. of the Rev. W. Herbert Chapman, M.A., 
Vicar of Bassingboume. 

At Walcot Church, Bath, Henry Oawler, esq., 
barrister-at-law, eldest surviving son of Col. 
Gawler, K.H., late of the 52nd Regt., and for- 
merly Governor and Resident Commissioner of 
South Australia, to Caroline Augusta, third dau. 
of the Rev. B. Philpot. 

At St. George's Tombland, Capt. Magnay, 68rd . 
Regt., eldest son of the late Christopher James 
Magnay, esq., of Crouch-end, Middlesex, to 
Catherme Jane, only dau. of the Rev. T. J. 
Batcheler, Rector of Arminghall, Norfolk. 

June 27. At St. George's, Hanover-sq., Capt. 
William W. W. HumblfcV, late 9th Lancers, only 
son of Col. Humbly, of Eynesbury, St. Neot's, 
Huntingdonsh., to Elizabeth Nelson, only sur- 
viving dau. of the late Wm. Nelson Watson, esq., 
of Gahisborough, Lincolnshire. 

At Edenhara, Lincolnsh., Allen Fielding, esq., 
of Canterbury, son of the Rev. H. Fielding, and 
grandson of the late Rev. Sir John Fagge, Bart., 
of Mystole, Kent, to Ellen Spencer, second dau. 
of the Rev. W. E. Chapman, Rector of Somerby 
and Edenham. 

June 29. At Drumcondra, co. Dublin, Major 

Thomas Henry Somerville, late of the 68th Light 
Infantry, son of Thomas Somerville, esq., of 
Drishane, qo. Cork, to Adelaide Eliza, dau. of the 
kite Vice-Adm. Sir Joeiah Coghill Coghill, Bart., 
of Belvidere-house, Drumcondra. 

June 30. At Royal Circus, Edinburgh, Robert 
Foulis, esq., M.D., youngest son of the late 
Major-Gen. Sir David Foulis, K.C.B., to Mary, 
fourth dan. of James Stevenson, esq. 

At East Budleighj the Rev. George Dacres 
Adams, eldest surviving son of the late Gen. Sir 
George P. Adams, K.C.H., to Elizabeth Agnes, 
eldest dau. of the late Rev. Charles T. Pattrick, 
of Ackleton, Shropshire. 

At Ampney Crucis, Gloucestershire, the Rev. 
Thomas Daubeny, M.A., son of the Rev. E. A. 
Daubeny, Vicar, to Mary Cecilia, dau. of Wm. 
Kaye, esq., of Ampney-park. 

At Chepstow, the Rev. Wm. Talman, Incum- 
bent of Tnames Ditton, Surrey, and Fellow of 
King's College, Cambridge, to Charlotte, third 
dau. of the late James Evans, esq., of TutshiU- 
lodge, Chepstow. 

At the Embassy, Brussels, John Josiaa Cony- 
beare Olivier, esq., to Juliana Elizabeth, second 
dau. of the late Major Henry Bullock, of the Ist 

At Beddington, Surrey, the Rev. G. M. G. 
JoUey, M.A., of Clare Hall, Cambridge, to Adeline, 

?oungest dau. of the late George Gwilt, esq., 
'.R.S., F.S.A , of Southwark. 

July 1. At Southwick, Robert Lucas, esq , 
eldest son of Robert Tristram Lucas, esq., of 
Castle-grove, Bampton, to Ellen Chandler, second 
dau. of the late Charles Lane, esq., of London. 

At St. Marylebone, Thomas Greenwood Clay- 
ton, esq., of Bessingby-hall, Yorkshire, to Emily 
Mar^, youngest dau. of the late Capt. James - 

At Cheltenham, Benjamin Aylett Branfill, 
Lieut. 10th Royal Hussars, of Upminster-hall, 
Essex, to Mary Anna, dau. of Capel Miers, esq., 
of Peterstone-court, Brecknock. 

July 2. At Seend, Wilts, Henry Wydham, esq., 
of Roundhill-grange, Somerset, to Agnes Lud- 
low, dau. of the late Wm. Heald Ludlow Bruges, 
esq., of Seend. 

At Newton, near Wisbech, John, only son of 
Hugh Wooll, esq., of Upwell-hall, Cambridge- 
shire, to Martha Elizabeth, only dau. of the late 
of John Cole, esq., Guanock-gate-house, Sutton 
St. Edmund's, Lincolnshire. 

At Tenby, Henry R. Mitford, Capt. 51st Light 
Infantry, to Dora, third dau. of tne late Capt. 
Wm. Broughton, R.N. 

At Cheltenham, John Locke Blagdon, eso., of 
Boddington-manor, Glocestershire, to Isabella 
Harriot, only dau. of the Rev. Cicero Rabbitts, 
Rector of Wanstrow, Somerset. 

At Hurstpierpoint, John G. Blencowe, ebq., 
only son of Robert Blencowe, esq., of the Hooke, 
to Frances, eldest dan. of W. J. Campion, esq., 
of Danny, Hurstpierpoint. 

July 4. At the Cathedral, Armagh, George 
Gabriel Stokes, esq., M.A., Fellow of Pembroke 
College, and Lucasian Professor in the University 
of Cambi idge, and Secretary to the Royal Society, 
to Mary Susanna, only dau. of the Rev. Thomas 
Romnev Robinson, D.D., F.R.S., formerly Fellow 
of Trinity College, Dublin, and Astronomer of 

July 5. At St. James's Church, Paddin^ton, 
Wm. Lonergan, esq., to Caroline Emma, widow 
of the late Hon. John Stourton. 

July 6. At Leeds. Henley Rogers Higman, esq., 
second son of Rear-Adm. Higman^ R.N., to 
JcFsy, third dau. of the late Jonas Ridout, eso., 
of Moortown-house, in the ik&rish of Whitchurch, 

July 7. At Glasgow, Malor Robert Dennistoun 
Campbell, of the 71st Highland Light Infantry, 
to Sarah, eldest dau. of James M'Call, esq., of 
Baldowie, Lanarkshire. 

At Cheltenham, Henry Pelham Close, esq., son 
of the Dean of Carlisle, to Annette Charlotte, 




dao. of Robert Burland Hudle«ton» esq^ Northa* 
ban-ooTirt, Oheltenham. 

At Hook, Surrey, Harrey Philpot, e^q., of 
Friday-st., London^ and Thames Ditton, Surrey, 
to Elizabeth, second dau. of Thomas Cardus, esq., 
of £ar well-court, near Kingston-on-Thames. 

JulyB. At Trinity Church, Paddingl<m, the 
Rev. Frederick Manners Stopford, B.A., eldest' 
•on of the late Hon. Edward Stopford, Lieut- 
Col, of the Scots Fusilier Guards, to Florence 
Augusta, younger dau. of Charles Alexander 
Saunders, esq., of Westboame-lodge, in that 

At Bristol, William Henry, youngest son of 
George Coleman, esq., H.C.S., F.R.A.S., of 11, 
Guildford-st., Russell-sq., Ixmdon, to Mary Tice, 
fourth dan. of the late Robert James, esq.. Soli- 
citor, of Glastonbury, Somerset. 

At Walton-on-Thames, William Christopher 
Daniel Deighton, esq., M.A., Fellow of Queen's 
College, Cambridge, Barrinter-at-Law of the 
Inner Temple, to Agnes Buston, second dau. of 
Jonas Wilks, esq., ofOatland's-park, Walton-on- 

At Camberwell, Henry Beitt, esq., of Cowley- 
wL, Westminster, only son of the late Anthony 
Beitt, esq., of Darlington, to Louisa Maria, dau. 
of the late W. Moore, esq., €.£., of Westminster. 

July 9. At Dedham, the Rev. Henry Golding, 
Rector of Stratford St Mary, Suffolk, to Mary 
Isabella, eldest dau. of T. L'Estrange Ewen, 
esq., of the Rookery, Dedham. 

At the Church of the Holy Trinity, Bishop's- 
road, Robert Neville, Capt. M.M. 1 1th Regiment, 
son of the late Brent Neville, esq., of Ashbrook, 
county of Dublin, to Emma, only child of William 
Helsham Candler Brown, esq., of Tilney, Nor- 
folk, and Agheemere, county Kilkenny, Ireland. 

July 11. At St. Mary Magdalene, the Lord 
Rebert Gasooigm* Cecil, M.P., to Geoi^rina Caro- 
line, eldest dan. of the late Hon. Baron Alderson. 

At Heaton-MerMy, neftl* Manchester, ihe'Rer. 
John Booker, M.A., of Magd. Coll., Cambridge, - 
Curate of Prestwich, to Sophia Katharine Lee^ 
eldest dau. of the Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of 

At Christ Church, St. Panoraa, Harold Au- 
gustus Emuin, esq., of Aylsham, Norfolk, to' 
JuUa Walldnshaw, youngest dau. of the late 
Thos. Wyatt, esq., of W&enhall, Warwickshire. 

At Streatham, Charles Ede, fioarth son of the ' 
late Thomas Waller, esq., of Luton, Bedford- 
shire, to Jane, fifth dan. of the late FraneLs Ede, 
eaq., of Pishobury, Herts. 

July 13. At Kensington, Swynfen Jervia, esq., 
of Darlaston-hall, Staffordshire, to Miss Cathe- 
rine Daniell, of Notting-hill. 

At St. James's, Piccadilly, Col. N. R. Brown, to ' 
the Hon. Mary A. Abercromby. 

July 14. At Pusey, Berks, Frederle Riehard 
Chadwick, esq., of Bumbam, Somerset, to Eliza ' 
Susan Mary, eldest dau. of the Rev. William 
Evans, B.D., Rector of Pusev. 

At Woolsthorpe, near Belvoir-cattle, Charlea 
Hampden, second son of Money Wigram, rtq., 
of Wood-bouse, Wanstead, Essex, to Beatrice, 
only child of the Rev. Philip Hall Palmer, Rector 
of woolsthorpe, Lincolnshire. 

At St Saviour's, Paddington, Capt Franeia 
Randolph, Royal Engineers, son of the late Right 
Rev. the Lord Bishop of London, to Fanny F. 
Freer, dau. of Noah Freer, esq., of Montreal^ 
Canaoa East. 

Julu 16. At St. George*B, Hanorer-aiK, Lord 
Burghertth, eldest son of Gen. the E^rl of 
Westmoreland, G.C.B., to Lady Adelaide Cor- 
zon, dau. of the Earl Howe. 

At St. Margaret's, Westminster, the Hon. Ed- 
ward William Douglas, youngest son of the Earl 
of Morton, to Miss Bankes, voungest dau. of the 
late Right Hon. George Bankee. 


The Duke or Marlborough. 

July J. At the family seat, Blenheim- 
palace, Woodstock, a^ed 63, Qeorge Spen- 
oec Churchill, sixth Duke of Marlborough, 
Idarquis of Blandford, Earl of Sunderland, 
Earl of Marlboroufi^b, Baron Spencer, and 
Btfon Churchill, Lord -Lieutenant of Ox- 
foi*d8hire, and High Steward of Oxford and 
oi Blenheim. 

His Grace was the eldest son of Geoi*go, 
fifth Duke of Marlborough, by Susan, daugh- 
ter of John, seventh Karl of Galloway, in 
the Scottish peerage, and was bom at Bill- 
hiU, in the parish of Sonning, Berks, Dec. 
27, 1793. He received his early education 
at Eton, and Christ Church, Oxford, and 
first entered upon publio life as Marquis of 
Blimdford in the summer of 1826, when he 
was elected as one of the members for his 
Other's pocket borough of Woodstock, 
which he continued to represent down to 
the dissolution conseouent on passing the 
Reform Bill, in June, 1832. On the retire- 
ment of Captain Peyton, in 1838, He was 
again elected for Woodstock, and continued 
to hold a seat in the Lower House for that 
borough until March 6, 1840, when the 
death of his father caused him to be sum- 
moned to the House of Peers. In 1846 ho 
was appointed Lieutenant-colonel command- 
ing the Oxfordshire Yeomanry Oayalry, and 

succeeded the late Earl of Macclesfield as 
Lord-Lieutenant and Custos fiotulorum of 
the county of Oxford, in 1842. His Grace 
was also patron of eleven livings. 

The Duke was married three times : first, 
Jan. 13, 1819, to his cousin, Lady Jane 
Stewart, eldest daughter of the eiffhtli Earl 
of Galloway, who med Oct. 12, 1844 ; se- 
cond, June 10, 1846^ to the Hon. Charlotte 
Augusta Flower, daughter of Viscount Ash- 
brook, who died Apru 20, 1850 ; and third- 
ly, in 1861, to Miss Jane Frances Clinton 
Stewart, daughter of the Hon. Edward 
Richard Stewart, who survivee him. His 
Grace has siuriving issue b^ each of his 
marriages, and is succeeded m his title by 
his eldest son by his first wife, John Win- 
ston, who, as Marquis of Blandford, sat for 
Woodstock for sereiral years, and unsuc- 
cessfully contested Middlesex in 1852. His 
Grace was bom June 2, 1622, and married* 
July 12, 1843, the Lady Jane Franoes Anne 
Vane, daughter of the late, and half-sister 
of the present, Marauis of Londonderry, by 
whom he has a youtnftd £Eimily of three sons 
and three daughters: As a member of the 
Lower House of the Legislature, his Grace has 
been distinguished for the introduction of 
many measures of Chimih reform, and we 
doubt not that he will prove a valuable 
addilioD to the debaters in the Upper House. 

1837.] The Duke of Mnrlborough^—The JEarl qfMmw^ofL 215 

The title of Marlborough was conforred 
in 1702 upon John Churchill, the most 
oelebrated captain of the age in which he 
Uved, and, in some respects, the first Greneral 
in the military annals of England. In his 
youth he was a page of honour to the Duke 
of York, through whose favour he obtained 
a commission as ensign in the Guards. In 
1671 he served against the Moors at Tanfi^er ; 
and in the next vear signalised himself at 
Maestricht^ whither he had been sent to 
the assistance of Louis XIV. against the 
Dutch. He aftorwards attended the Duke 
into Flanders, and in his progress into Scot- 
land, where he was able to reader essential 
service to his Roval Hijg^hness, into whose 
favour he so compietelv ingratiated himself, 
that in December, 1682, he was created Lord 
Churchill of Eyemouth, county Berwick, in 
the peerage of Bcotland ; and next year, 
being then a general ofi&cer, obtained com- 
mand of the 1st Regiment of Dragoons, at 
that time newly raised. The Duke of York 
hiving ascended the throne as James IT., 
his good fortune and favours continued to 
attend upon Lord Churchill, who was ac- 
credited by his Majesty as ambassador to 
Paris, and raised at the same time to an 
English peerage. Notwithstanding, how- 
ever, these marks of the royal &vour, Lord 
Churchill was one of the first who betrayed 
his benefactor : having assisted in the defeat 
of Monmouth, at Se^emoor, he espoused 
the cause and fortunes of the Prince of 
Oranee in 1688, and voted in the Conven- 
tion Parliament that the throne was va- 
cated, and ought to be filled bv the Prince 
and Princess of Orange. For these services 
he was sworn a member of the Privy Council 
of the now sovereign, and elevated in April, 
1689, to the earldom of Marlborough. In 
the same year he was sent to command the 
English forces in the Netherlands, under 
Prince Walbeck, General of the Dutch troops. 
He subsequently, however, fell imder the 
displeasure of ms royal master, and waa 
for a time confined in the Tower of London. 
Upon the accession of Queen Anne, her 
Majesty appointed the Earl of Marlborough 
Captain-General of her forces in England, 
and of those employed in conjunction with 
her allies abroad ; and in 1702 she further 
rewarded him by raising him to the highest 
ffrade of the English peerage, as Duke of 
Marlborough and Marquis of Blandford. 
Within two years afterwards his Grace won 
the splendid victory of Blenheim, over the 
French and Bavarians, and for which he 
obtained a grant from the Crown of the 
royal manor of Woodstock and the hundred 
of Wootton, Oxfordshire, to himself and his 
heirs. Here a nplendid palace, bearing the 
proud name of Blenheim, was erected for 
him by Sir John Vanbrugh, at the national 

The great Duke died in 1722, having sur- 
vived bis mental faculties some years, and 
was succeeded in the dukedom by his eldest 
daughter, the Countess Godolphin, on whose 
death, in 1733, the title and estates passed 
to ber nephew, Charles Spencer, fifth Earl 
of Sunderland, who became third duke, but 

whose AQoeston had Bat in the House «f 
Ix>rd8 aiooe 1603, as Lord Spencer of Wonn- 
leighton. Another branch of this family is 
BtiU rapresonted by Earl Spencer. By hi« 
wife Elisabeth, daughter of Thomas, Lord 
Trevor, his Grace had three sons and two 
daughters. He was a Bri^jpftdier-gmeral in 
the army, and commanded a brigade of 
Foot-Guards at the battle of Dettingen,and 
was ultimately Commander-in-chief of th« 
British forces intended to serve in Germany 
under Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick. Hia 
eldest son, Geoj^e, fourth duke, by his wife 
Lady Caroline Russell, daughter of John, 
fourth Duke of Bedford, had issue, besides 
several daughters, two sons, of whom Um 
younger was created Lord Churchill in 1815, 
and Uie elder was the fi&thw of the duke so 
recently deceased. He was called to tha 
Upper House during his father's lifetime, as 
Baron Spencer, and died in 1840. 

The terms upon which the Duke of Marl- 
borough holds Blenheim from the naticm 
are, that ''on every 4th day of Ang^ust, Um 
anniversary of the victcMrv of Blenheim, tha 
inheritors of the duke's honours and titles 
shall render, at Windsor, unto her Majesty, 
her heirs, and successors, a standard of co- 
lours, with three fleurs-de-lis painted there- 
on, in acquittance of all manner of rente, 
suits, and services due to the Crown of Eng- 
land.** It is by a similar tenure that the 
Duke of Wellington holds the mansion of 
Strathfieldsaye ; and in each case the ac- 
knowledgment of the royal or national 
favour is regularly paid down to the present 

The Earl op Mobntootok. 

Julu 1. At his lodgings, in Thayer street, 
Manchester-square, ag^ 69, William ToU^ 
Tylney-Long-Wellesley, fourth Earl of 
Momington, Viscount Wellesley of Dangan 
Casde, and Baron of Momington in the 
county of Meath, Ireland, and Baron Mary- 
borough in the peerage of the United King> 

The deceased peer was the only son of the 
third earl, by his wife Katharine Elizabeth*, 
eldest daughter of Admiral the Hon. John 
Forbes, and grand-daughter of Geoige, third 
earl of Granard, and was bom June 22» 
1788. The " Morning Chronicle** thus states 
the Earl's character .— 

"The deceased earl had retired from 
the gay circle of fashionable life for m;iny 
years, and it seems that for the last four 
years he resided in obscure lodgings in the 
neighbourhood of Manchester- square, Lon- 
don. On the day of his death he complained 
of a slight indisposition, arising, as be sup- 
posed, firom a oronchial affection, and so 
sudden did the stroke of death come upon 
him, that the deceased had an egg, which 
he was partaking of, in his hand when he was 
seized with the latal attack. Information of 
the awfid visitation was sent to the Countess 
of Momington ; also to the deceased earl's 
eldest son and successor to the title, William 
Bichard Arthur Pole- Tyhiey. Long- Welles- 

216 The Earl of Momington. — The Hon. General Anton. [Aug. 

ley. The earl had been married twice : first 
io Miss Long, one of the richest heiresses in 
the kingdom, whose fortmie, as well as his 
own, he quickly squandered ; and his second 
marriage was with Mrs. Bligh. He had a £&• 
mily of five children by his first wife, but both 
marriages turned out very unfortunate,and for 
upwards of twenty years prior to his decease 
the Countess had been living apart from him. 
The mockery of heraldry was never more 
displayed than in the case of this most un- 
worthy representative of the honour of the 
elder oranch of the house of Wellesley. His 
second wife, Helena, third daughter of 
Colonel Paterson, who had *a direct royal 
descent from the Plantagenets,' having lived 
with him for vears in adultery, was, on the 
death of her husband and his wife, married 
b^ him, and became equally miserable with 
his first ; wasted with care, involved in debt, 
living in garrets, and even occasionally ap- 
plying to a police-magistrate or a parish for 
assistance as Countess of Momington— an 
honoured name, borne before her by the 
mother of Wellington and Wellesley. A 
spendthrift, a profligate, and gambler in his 
vouth, he became a debauchee in his man- 
hood, and achieved the prime disgrace of 
being the second person whom the Court of 
Chancery deprived of paternal rights, and 
withdrawing out of his care his children, 
whose early tutors and whose morals he 
wickedly endeavoured to corrupt, from a 
malicious desire to add to the agonies of 
their desolate and heart-broken mother. 
Redeemed by no single virtue, adorned by 
no single grace, his life has gone out even 
without a flicker of repentance ; his * re- 
tirement' was that of one who was deservedly 
avoided of all men." 

At the coroner's inquest on the body, a 
verdict of death from natural causes was re- 
turned. The earl's life was insured for 
about a quarter of a million ; but he lived 
upon an allowance of 10/. a- week from the 
Duke of Wellington, though he often writhed 
under the obhgation. His death, as de- 
scribed by his valet, was sudden in the ex- 
treme : it appears ho dined about seven on 
Wednesday evening, and while sitting at 
dinner suadenly exclaimed, " Good God I 
what can ail me ?" his head dropped on his 
chest, an alarm was raised, and Dr. Probert 
was sent for ; but the earl was dead in twenty 
minutes. Death was caused by a rupture of 
a vessel near the heart. 

Major Richardson writes to the papers, 
correcting some mistakes that had got 
abroad. He states : — " The earl never gam- 
bled in his life, either at cards or upon the 
turf, and could not play any game of chance 
of any description. 1 can assure you that 
during his whole life Lord Momington never 
lost or won twenty pounds. The fortime of 
Miss Tvlney Long is stated to have been 
' £oOO,600 ;' whilst the fact is, that this 
wealthy heiress in 1812 possessed, in landed 
estates alone, £1,500,000 ! It is also said, 
•That all thi-4 splendid property, so derived 
from his wife, the profligate Rpendthiift and 
gambler, the ICarl of Momington, has wasted 
and squandered every shilling o£' 1 assure 

you that the Tylney estates in Essex and 
Hants were settled, in 1812, upon the late 
Earl of Momington on his marriage, a^ 
tenant for life, in the event of his surviving 
his wife, and which estates were all that the 
late earl obtained by his marriage, and those 
estates are fiilly worth at this moment 
£1,400,000 ; and so far from the Earl of 
Momington having * spent, squandered, 
wasted,' and gambled this princely fortune, 
they have descended to the son of the earl, 
who is at this moment in possession of the 
same, not lessened in value one shilling ; nor 
has my lamented friend ever sold a single 
acre, ror in truth he had not the power to 
sell, as the same were settled upon his son^ 
who now succeeds to the property." 

The Hon. General Anbon. 

June 27. At Kumaul, of cholera, aged 59, 
Major-General the Hon. Geoi^ Anson, Com- 
mander-in-Chief of her Majesty's troops in 

He was the second son of Thomas, first 
Viscount Anson, and brother of the first 
Earl of Lichfield. He was bom on the 13th 
of October, 1797^ and entered the army at 
an early age in the Srd or Scots Fusueer 
Guards, with which regiment he served at 
the battle of Waterloo. He continued in the 
Guards until he obtained the rank of Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel, in May, 1825, when he was 
placed on half-pay. He was for many yearn 
a member of the House of Commons, having 
been returned to that assembly in 1818 for 
Great Yarmouth, which he represented in 
several parliaments before and after the 

?assing of the Reform Bill. In February, 
836, he was elected, on the death of Mr. 
Heathoote, for Stoke-upon -Trent, and sat 
for the southern division of Staffordshire 
from 1837 to 1853, in the August of which 
year he accepted the Chiltem Hundreds, on 
being appointed to his high command in 
India. General Anson served the ofiice of 
Principal Storekeeper of the Ordnance under 
the administration of Viscount Melbourne, 
and also that of Clerk of the Ordnance from 
July, 1846, to Febmary. 1862. He was, by 
hereditary descent and by personal convic- 
tion, a Liberal in politics, and invariably 
sided with the leaders of the Whig party. 
In November, 1830, General Anson married 
the Hon. Isabella Elizabeth Annabella Fores- 
ter, third daughter of the late, and sister of 
the present, Lord Forester. He received the 
local rank of General on assuming his high 
command in India in 1855. On the death of 
Lieuti'nant - General the Hon. Henry E. 
Butler, in December, 1856, General Anson 
succeeded to the Colonelcy of the 55th Reop- 
ment of Foot, which is again vacated By 
his death. His commissions bore date as 
follow: — Ensign and Second Lietitenant, 
January 8, 1814 ; Captain, January 20, 1820 ; 
Major, April 1, 1824 : Lieu tenant- Colonel, 
May 19, 1825 : Colonel, June 28, 1838 ; and 
Major-General, Nov. 11, 1851. The late 
General was a zealous patron of the turf, on 
which he was better known under his name 
of Colonel Anson. 

1857.] Adm. Sir Rob. Howe Bromley, Bart. — Adm. BuUen. 217 

Adm. Sib Robert Howe Bromlet, BIrt. 

July 8. At his seat, Stoke-hall, near 
Newark, Notts, aged 78, Sir Robert Howe 
Bromley, Bart., Admiral of the White, 

He was bom Nov. 28, 1778, and was the 
only son of the late Sir George Bromley, 
BarU, whom he [succeeded in Aug. 1808, by 
the Hon. Esther Curzon, eldest daughter of 
Ashton, late Viscount Curzon, and aunt of 
the present Earl Howe. He entered the 
Navy, Dec. 26, 1791, as Captain's Servant, on 
board the ** Lapwing," 28, Capt. Hon. Henry 
Cnrzon, on the Mediterranean station ; 
joined next the "Lion," 64, Capt. Sir Eras- 
mus Gower, under whom he accompanied 
Lord Macartney's embassy to China; re- 
moved as Midshipman, in 1794, into the 
"Triumph," 74, lying at Spithead; after- 
wards served in the Channel and o£f the 
Western Islands on board the "Queen 
Charlotte," 100. flag-ship of Earl howe, 
"Molampus," 36, Capt. Sir Richard John 
Strachan. and "Latona," 38, Capt. Hon. 
Arthur Kaye Legge, from 1795 to 1797 ; 
was then appointed Acting-Lieutenant of 
the " Acasta," 40, Capt. Richard Lane, em- 

?loyed in the North Sea ; and, on Jan. 22, 
798, was there confirmed into the "In- 
spector," 10, Capt. Charles Losk. Mr. Brom- 
ley was subsequently employed, on the 
Home and West India stations, in " L' Aim- 
able," 32, Capt. Henry Raper, " Pelican," 18, 
Capt. John Thicknesse, and "Doris," 36, 
Capt. John Halliday. He was promoted to 
the command of the "Inspector," in the 
North Sea, Feb. 14, 1801, and obtained 
his Post- commission April 28, 1802. His 
succeeding appointments were — for a short 
time to the "Squirrel," 28, lying in har- 
bour; Sept. 24, 1803, to the "Champion," 
24, in which ship we find him constantly in 
collision with the enemy's flotilla and bat- 
teries between Ostend and Havre, (including 
one afiiiir in which the " Champion," on July 
23, 1805, suffered severely in hull, masts, 
and rigging, besides losing 2 men killed and 
3 wounucd), until at length sent to Quebec 
and Halifax; Nov. 10, 1806, to the "Solo- 
bay," 32, stationed in the North Sea ; and, 
July 31, 1807, to the '♦ Statira," 38. After a 
further servitude in North America, oflf the 
coast of Spain, and in the Bav of Biscay, he 
was placed on half- pay in 1809, since which 
period he had not been afloat. 

Sir Bobt. Howe Bromley was Deputy- 
Lieutenant for the CO. of Nottingham. He 
married, June 8, 1812, Anne, second 
daughter of Daniel Wilson^ Esq. of Dallam 
Tower, co. Westmoreland, and by that lady 
had issue five sons and six daughters, and is 
succeeded in the baronetcy by his second 
son, now Sir Henry, late a Capt. in the 48th 
Regt., who was bom in 1816, and married a 
daughter of Col Rolleston. 

Admiral Bullen. 

July 17. At Bath, aged 96, Admiral Jo- 
seph Bullen. 

Joseph Bullen, bom April 14, 1761, was 
second son of the late Rev. John Bullen, 

Gent. Mag. Vol. CCIII. 

Rector of Kennet, co. Cambridge, and of 
Rnshmoor-cum-Newbum, co. Suffolk. He 
entered the Navy, in Nov. 1774, as Midship- 
man, on board the " Pallas," 36, Capt. Hon. 
Wm. Comwallis, with whom he continued 
to serve, in the 60-gun ships "Isis," "Bris- 
tol," and "Chatham," and 64-gun ship 
" Lion," on the coasts of Africa and Nortn 
America, and in the West Indies, until 1779. 
During that period he was present in the 
"Isis," at the attacks on Red- Bank and 
Mud-Fort, in Oct. and Nov. 1777 ; and, as 
Master's Mate of the "Lion," took part, 
July 6, 1779, in the action between Vice- 
Admiral Hon. John Byron and the Comte 
d'E^taing off Granada, on which occasion 
the latter diip was f(aarfully cut up, and en- 
dured a loss of 21 killed and 30 wounded. 
Mr. Bullen, who had been promoted to the 
rank of Lieutenant March 6, 1778, shortly 
forwards joined the " Hinchinbroke," 28, 
Capt. Horatio Nelson, whom he accom- 

fanied, in 1780, in the armament against 
brt St. Juan, on the Spanish Main. He 
then returned to the " I^un," commanded, 
as at first, by Capt. Comwallis, and ulti- 
mately by Capts. Wm. Fooks and Pigot; 
and, on being lent to the " Prince George," 
90, Capt. John Williams, he participated, 
as officer in charge of half the middle gmi- 
deck, in Rodney's victory over the Comte do 
Grasse, April 12, 1782, after a glorious con- 
flict, in which the " Prince George" occupied 
a very coniroicuous position, and had 9 men 
killea and 1^ wounded. As Lieut eniint, Mr. 
Bidlen's subsequent appointments were — 
May 2, 1785, and July 6, 1786, to the "Car- 
natic" and "Bombay Castle," 74's, guard- 
ships at Plymouth, both commanded by 
Capt. Anthony Jas. Pye MoUoy ; Juno 16, 
1790, to the "Monarch," 74, Capt. Peter 
Ranier, fitting at Spithead for the East In- 
dies ; Feb. 6, 1793, to the « Agamemnon," 
64, Capt. Horatio Nelson, actively employed 
in the Mediterranean; and. Sept 11, follow- 
ing, to the " Victory," 100, flag-ship of Lord 
Hood at Toulon. At the defence of the lat- 
ter place against the revolutionists he held 
for three weeks the volunteered command 
of Fort Mulgrave, where the bursting of a 
86- pounder Killed and wounded every one 

g resent except himself and Capt. Walter 
erocold. On Nov. 20, 1793, Mr Bullen's 
exertions were rewarded by his promotion 
to the command of the " Mulette," 20, but, 
the latter vessel bein^ absent, he was ap- 
pointed Acting. Captam of the " Proselyte" 
iH^to. In tmit ship, with the view of res- 
cumg 300 Spanish and Neapolitan troops, 
who otherwise would inevitably have fallen 
into the hands of the French, he was the 
last, when Toulon was evacuated, to quit the 
harbour; and so impracticable had nis es- 
cape, in consequence of this voluntanr act of 
humanity, been considered, that Lord Hood, 
in the despatches he was about to send home, 
had actually returned the "Proselyte" as 
iMt, During the early part of the siege of 
Bastia, in March, 1794, Capt. Bullen served 
as a Volunteer under Capt. Serooold, who 
had superseded him in the " Proselyte," out 
of which sliip they were both burnt by rod- 


218 Admiral BuUen. — The Revs. Jos. and Rd. Mendham. [Ang. 

hot shot, and, towards the close of the ope- 
rations, he commanded an advanced battery. 
His servic2S throughout were reported by 
Nelson in the highest possible terms. He 
invalided in July of the same year, and was 
afterwards, in the course of 1796, appointed, 
as a Volunteer, to the " Santa Marg riitV' 
of 40 f^ns, and 237 men, Capt. Thos. Byam 
Martin, and, as Commander and Acting- 
Captain, to the " Scoui*ge" sloop, and " Alex- 
ander," 74, in the fii-st of which ships he 
assisted in the management of the main- 
deck gims, and distinguished himself by his 
meritorious con luct, at the re-cipture, on 
June 8. near Waterford, of ti.e '' Tamise." of 
40 guns and 806 men, of whom 32 were killed 
and 19 wounded, while of the Uritish only 2 
w.Te ^lain and 3 wounded, after a close and 
gall nt action of 20 minutes. Capt. Hullen, 
vho was odvanced to Post-rank Nov. 24, 
1796, sU')sequently commanded, for want of 
ability to p osuie a ship, the Lynn Regis 
district of Sea Fenc'bles, from Sept 26, 
1S04. u-itil the dishandnient of that corps in 
1810. He has since been on half pay. He 
became a Rear- Admiral Aug. 28, 1819 ; a 
Vice- vdmiial Nov 12, 1840; and a full Ad- 
mual Nov. 23, 1841. Bu len married, in 1801, Margaret 
Ann, o ly daughter of the late W. Seafe, 
Ksq., of the Leagues, co. Durham, barrister- 

Th^ Rev. Joseph and Richard Mendham. 

June l'>. At Sutton ColdfioM, Warwick- 
shire, aged n7, the Rev. Robert R land 
Mmdham, son of the Kev Joseph Mend- 
ham, who dcpar ed this life in the same 
hou<e, on Novem^ er 1, 1856, aged 82. 

The Rev. Joseph .Mendham mamed in 
early life, Maria, eldest daughter of the Rev. 
John Uilaii'i. Kectorof Sutton Coldfield, and 
frloa I and fellow-'abourer of the Rev Henry 
V inn, author of ** The Complete Dity of 
M m.'" He was a gentlenan of the deepest 
learning and researc!i, biblical and ecclesi- 
ast cal ; and on all p-nnts of controversy be- 
twejn t JO Romish and Protestant Churches 
was perhitps the highest authority in the 
land ; while his " I/terary Policy of the 
Chuich of Kotno," and his ** Memoirs of the 
Co mcil of Trent." compiled from seventy 
folio volumes of MSS. in the Spansh lan- 
guage, are im'ierishuble momeats of his in- 
delatigab'e industiy. 

His son, the Hev. Robert Riland Mend- 
ham, passed through his col ege course with 
the highest credit, but was naturally of a 
very bashful and retirino: disposition. A 
fever, which he took soon after ho entered 
the ministry, increased his natural sensi- 
tivencss, and d sinciined him from taking 
any oJhcial dntv. He then entered entirely 
into his father's sedentary habi s and pur- 
suits ; being only known in the neighbour- 
hood where they dwelt, as his devoted and 
affoitionate son, and constant companion. 
At" er the deitli of Mrs. Mendham, about 
twenty yea 8 aojo, the two gentlemen lived 
almost secluded from sooiety, their seden- 
iary habits bein^ooDfinned by long oontinu- 

ance ; but the father*8 biblical, elassioal, 
controversial, and patristic knowledge caused 
him to be continually applied to for aid by 
others in whose works his leamin? shines as 
well as in his own erudite and invaluable 
treatises: and the sou had so imbibed his 
spirit and entered into his t'loughts, that as 
the one declined, the other seemed to supply 
his place, until both were called away. 

After the death of bis father, the Rev. 
Robert Ri and Mendham became gradufiUy 
better known in his own neighbourhood ; 
and a hope began to be entert lined that he 
woull tike his proper position as an in- 
fl -ential and leading inh oi ant of his native 
town. This fhistrated by his suddea 
removal to a bitter homo, «fter a single 
hour's unconsciousness. His charities were 
not spasmodic, but as a constantly running 
stream. He was especially a regular visitor 
of the poor, though in the most quiet and 
imostmt itious way, continually supplvmg 
th m with books calculated to instruct them 
in the truth of religion, and warn them 
against the errors of toe times. And though, 
by habit as well as education, h j had be- 
come a warm opponent of Romanism in 
ever}' shape, yet he had nothing of the 
asperity of the controversialist, kindliness of 
heart nnd quiet humour being his peculiar 

The sudden removal of the Rev. gentleman 
will be deeplv felt and deplored by his hum- 
bler neighbours, as well as sincerely lament- 
ed bv those wh'm ho honoured with his 
fricnc^ship. He has left by his will £500 
towards building a chiu-oh in the Coldfiel J, 
a new district which is formed near 
Oscott college. Among other charitable 
donations, are £100 to the Blind Asylum, 
and £100 to the Deaf and Dumb Asylum, 
at Hirmingh m. 

A portion of their valuable library will, 
by mutual arrangement of fath r and son, 
bo added to the Bodl ian collection at Ox- 
ford. They wjre po sessors of the celebrated 
York Missal, valued nt £ 00, and also of a 
still more rare and valuable work, a copy of 
the Bible of Pope Sixtus, amended by his 
successor in the papal chair. Clement Vni. 

It is somewhat remarkable, and conveys 
a painful reflection too on the patrons of 
church preferment, that n>twithstinding 
the Rev. Joseph Mendham's well known ana 
admitted lear ing, piety, and ut lity in the 
literary world, he never r ceived any dis- 
tinction or reward at a due appreciation of 
his merits, either as a scholar or divine. 

The death of these two gentlemen has 
left a blank which will not reaiily be fllleit 
The father was the author of numerous and 
valuable works, chiefly conneoted with the 
Rom n Catholic controversy, the product of 
a mind richly stored with historical fact and 
crit'c!\l acuinen, and po^^se-ssing a library 
the most unique and valuable of its class in 
the Midlan I Counties. The R.'vorend gen- 
tljmen were in t emselves a constant I ook 
of refoionce, to wh^m numerous wr.tors in 
various parts of the county — the author of 
this sketch among the number — applied for 
help whao the ferlfiMiUon of quoti^tioDS ▼•• 

1857.] Archdale Palmer, Esq. — Germain Lavie, Esq, 


Deeded ; and scarcely ever did the liring 
indices fail to point to the authority re- 

Archdale Palmer, Esq. 

May 30. At his residence, near Cheam, 
Surrey, aged J<fi. Archdale Palmer, esq., of 
that place. His death was occasioued by 
intemal injuries received through a fall from 
his horso while riding in his own grounds 
about a month previously. 

His father was the second but eldest sur- 
viving son of the late Thomas Palmer, eso., 
citizen and merchant of London, by Sarah, 
daught r of Sir Robert Jocelyn, of Hvde- 
hall, near Sawbridge worth, Herts ; and he 
was himself the elder bnther of the late Mr. 
William Palmer of Nazing-park, formerly a 
magi trate and High Sheriff of Kssex. whose 
e'dest son, the late Geo. ere Palmer, esq., of 
Nazing, was many years MP. for the South- 
ern Division of that county. Jiy the death of 
Mr. Archdale Palmer, the son ot the latter 
gentleman, George Pal . er, esq., the present 
proprietor of Nazing, and Lieutenant -Ck)l(inel 
of the West Essex Yeomanrv Cavalrv, be- 
comes the representative of the Palmer fa- 
mily, another branch of which is represented 
by Sir (ieoi-go Palmer, bart., of Wanlip-hall, 
Leicestershire. M . Archdale Palmer, «ho 
was a tine specimen of the old English 
gentleman, was, we beUeve, one of the first 
members, and certainly the last survivor, of 
the London and Westminster Volunteers, 
a regiment raised by Coloi el Hcrries at the 
ti I e when the notion was threatened by an 
invasion of the Emperor Napoleon, and in 
which the late Duke of Montrose, and many 
other noblemen, served as i rivates. An ac- 
count of tl;is regiment, publi.-^hed by Collier 
a few years ago, mentions tli?it the late r.m- 
peror of Rus-ia. an<l the King of Prus.»>ia, on 
paying their visit to this country in 1814, 
particularly requested tD be allowed to see 
this regiment o. noble and wealthy volun- 
t<ers reviewed ly royalty, and that the wish 
of the allied sovereigns was granted. The 
regiment was finally disbanded in 1828, 
while the Marquis of Lansdowne was Home 

Germain Lavie, Esq. 

July 13. At St. George's Hospital, Hyde- 
park comer, (iermain Lavie, esq., an emi- 
nent commercial lawyer. 

Mr, [^vie was not only a solicitor of large 
pr.ictice, and thoroughly master of his woi-k, 
out he was also gifted with mmy talents 
and accomplishments which enhanced he 
influenco due to his professional position. 
Ho wa-j educated at Kton, where he was 
highly distiijguished as well for imlu^try a d 
capacity as for gejieral good conduct. From 
Kton he weiit to Christ Church College, Ox- 
fonl, and took his degree in 1823, having 
obtained a fi st « lass in mathematics. At 
this time he was intended for t e bar, but 
the sudiien death of his father, who was a 
member of the old firm of Crowder, Iayib, 

and Co., induced him to change his views, 
lu order to supply as far as possible hia 
fiither's place, he enured the office as clerk 
to Mr, Oliverson, then and now a member of 
the firm, and, alter completing his articlis, 
was admitted to practice as a solicitor in 
Easter Term, 1827. Mr. Lavie was a stu- 
dent of Christ Church, and it was at one 
time probable that he wou'd have been 
elected to a fellowship at Merton CoUeg?. 
Up to the time of his death ho held the 
office of au itor of Christ Church, and under 
this title wtis the professional adviser of the 
C4>llege ; and he enjoyed in a high degree the 
friendship and confidence of that dis m- 
guished Dody. Ability and industry had 
won for Air. Lavie high academic honour, 
and when he I ad taken his degi ee at Oxford 
and turned his thoughts to the bar, his own 
powers, and the position of bis father, as an 
eminent solicitor in Loudon, appeared to 
pomise him an early and great success But 
on his father's death he .sacrificed whatever 
hopes he may have chen-hed of the more 
splendid triumphs of the bar, and devoted 
himself to supply to h s family, as far as 
possible, the heavy loss they had sustained. 
To th 8 du y he was constant throughout 
bis hfe, and we have been informed that he 
remained unmarried in order to dischai^e 
more the obligation he had t:\k(n 
upon himself of providmg for those whom 
his father's death had left in embarrassed 
circumstances. To the profession which ho 
thu^ adopted, rather under a sense ot duty 
than from choice, Mr. Lavie brought the 
same assiduity and the same capacity which 
he had di.«played at Et n and at Oxford. 
For many years past he has been the pro- 
fessional a viser of a large number of the 
leading commercial estatblishments of the 
city ot London, an<l also of niany ot the 
mercantile firms of Scotland, Ireland, and 
the provinces. He wa- a member of the 
council of the Incoiporated Law Society, and 
always attended the discussion of questions 
which were deemed to lie within his pecu iar 
province. He also acted in his turn as an 
examiner of the candidates for admission. 
Mr. Lavie was a meml er of the Royal Com- 
mission, appointed in 1854 to inquire into 
the arrangements for biw-study in the Inns 
of Court Deing the only solcitor who as* 
sisted n that invest'gation. In the appen- 
dix to the rep rt will be found a statement 
of Mr. Lavie's own opinion, which must con- 
vince every reader that the author of it was 
a very able man. We need n t repeat the 
me'ancholy detuls of Mr Lavie's deat>, 
wLioh have app ared in the daily papers. 
It may, perhaps, aop-^ar rath-^r strange to 
hear ojf a solicitor ridmg in the park at 10 in 
the morning, at which hour most men are 
either at. or making their way t<» i heir offices. 
But it was Mr. Lavie's habit to take exor- 
cise at this lime, and to go into the city at 
11 or 12 o'clock, and to stay there much be- 
yond the usual hour. Ho was a very eatly 
riser, and had been all his life a most, hanf- 
workiag man, although his hours of labour 
were not exactly those most usuall v adopted. 
It in satisfaotory to know that there u no 


Obituabt. — Anna Oumey. 


ground for imputing delay or n^leot to anv 
one who was near the scene of the fatal acci- 
dent. The injury was so severe as to admit 
of neither remedy nor hope, and the unfor- 
tunate gentleman was insensible and pain- 
less from the moment of £filling fh)m his 
horse. This sad event occurred veiy near 
the spot which proved fatal to the late Sir 
Robert Peel. We have heard that when an 
undergraduate at Oxford, Mr. Lavie received 
a severe injury while riding, caused by his 
horse suddenly throwing back his head and 
striking him violently on the face. One of 
his eyes was very seriously damaged by the 
blow, and his sight was permanently im- 

f)aircd by it. For six months he was abso- 
utoly forbidden to look into a book, and he 
spent the interval at Tours, acquiring a 
mastery of the French language, which 
proved most valuable to him afterwards in 
his business. 

Anna Gurnet. 

June 6. After a short illness, Anna 

She was the youngest child of Richard 
Gumey, of Keswick, near Norwich. The 
father and mother of Anna Gumey were 
Quakers, and to her death she preserved a 
simplicity of dress and a certain pecuhar 
kindliness of manner which are among their 
distinguishing features. But her character 
was her own, and was developed by circum- 
stances which, to women in general, would 
seem entirely incompatible with usefulness 
or happiness. 

She was bom in 1795. At ten months old 
she was attacked with a paralytic affection, 
which deprived her forever of the use of her 
lower limbs. She passed through her busy, 
active, and happy life without ever having 
been able to stand or move. She was edu- 
cated cliiefly by an elder sister and other 
near relations, and as her appetite for know- 
Icdfro displayed itself at an early age, her 
parents procured for her the instructions of 
a tutor, whose only complaint was that he 
could not keep ])iice with her eager desire 
and rapid acquisition of knowledge. She 
thus learned successively Latin, Greek, and 
Hebrew ; after which she betook herself to 
the Teutonic languages, her proficiency in 
which was soon marked by her translation 
of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle printed in 

In 1825, after her mother's death, she 
went to live at Northrepps Cottage, near 
Cromer, a neighbourhood almost peopled by 
tho various bitmches of her family. North- 
repps Hall was the country residence of the 
late Sir T. Fowell Buxton, whose sister, 
Sarah Buxton, Uved with Miss Gumey on a 
footing of tho most intimate and perfect 

In 1839, Miss Buxton died. Miss Gumey, 
to whom this loss was entirely irreparable, 
cuntlnued to inhabit her beautiful cottage, 
and found consolation and happiness in dis- 
pensuig every kind of bent fit and service 
around her. She had procured, at hor own 

expense, one of Captain Manby's i^paratitf 
for saving the lives of leamen wreoKed cm 
that most dangerous coast : and in cases of 
great urgency and peril, sne caused herself 
to be carried, down to the beach, and from 
the chair in which she wheeled heraelf about, 
directed all the measures for the rescue and 
subsequent treatment of the half-drowned 
sailors. We can hardly conceive a more 
touching and elevating picture than that of 
the infirm woman, dependent even for tha 
least movement on artificial help, coming 
from the luxurious comfort of her lovely 
cottage, to Cfice the fury of the storm, tiie 
horror of darkness and shipwreck, that she 
might help to save some from perishing. 

But ever3rthing she did was done with aa 
energy, vivacity, and courage, which might 
be looked for in vain among the vast majo« 
rity of those on whom Nature has lavished 
the physical powers of which she was de- 
prived. She devoted her attention to tJie 
education as well as the material well-beingf 
of the poor around her, by whom she was 
justly repfarded as a superior being — supo- 
rior m wisdom and in love. To the children 
of her friends and neighbours of a higher 
class she was ever ready to impart the 
knowledge with which her own mind was so 
amply stored. Even Uttle children found 
her cheerful and benignant countenance and 
her obvious sympathy so attractive, that 
the wonder and alarm with which they at 
first watched her singular appearance and 
movements were dispelled in a few minutes, 
and they always liked to return to her pre- 

It may be supposed that Miss Gumey did 
not live in such constant intercourse with 
Sir T. F. Buxton without imbibing his zeal 
in behalf of the blacks. She maintained up 
to the time of her deaUi a constant and 
animated correspondence with missionaries 
and educated negroes in the risinfi^ settle- 
ments on the coast of Africa. Well do we 
remember the bright expression of her face 
when she called our attention to the furni- 
ture of her drawing room, and told us with 
exultation that it was made of ootton from 

Miss Gumey died, after a short illness, on 
the 6th of June last, and was buried by the 
side of her beloved friend and oompanion in 
the ivy-mantled church of Overstrand. We 
hear m)m a correspondent that above two 
thousand people congregated frt)m all the 
country side to see the li^loved and revered 
remains deposited in their last resting-plaoe. 

We can easily believe it. But it is not 
her benevolence, great as that was, which 
prompts this homage to her memory. It is 
that which was peculiarly her own---the ex- 
ample she has left of a life, marked at its 
very dawn by a calamity which seemed to 
rob it of everything that is valued by woman, 
and to stamp upon it an indeUble gloom, 
yet filled to the brim with usefulness, ac- 
tivity, and happiness. She was cut off from 
all the clastic joys and graces of youdi : 
from the admiration, the tenderness, ana 
the passion which peculiarly wait on woman 
from tho light pleasures of the worid, or the 


The Hon, W. L, Marcey. — M. B6ranger. 


deep happiness and honoured position of the 
wife and mother. What, it might be asked, 
remained to give charm and value to such a 
life? Yet those who knew Anna Gumey 
would look around them long to find another 
person who produced on those who conversed 
with her an equal impression of complete 
happiness and contentment. Her conversa- 
tion was not only interesting, but in the 
highest degree cheerful and animated. 
When talking on her fevourite subject—phi- 
lology^ she would suddenl;^ ana rapidly 
wheel away the chair in wmch she always 
sate and moved, to her well-stored book- 
shelves, take down a book, and return de. 
lighted to commimicate some new thought 
or discovery. Never was there a more com- 
plete triumph of mind over matter ; of the 
nobler affections over the vulgar desires ; of 
cheerful and thankful piety over incurable 
calamity. She loved and enjoyed life to the 
last, spite of great bodily suffering, and 
clung to it with as much fondness as is con- 
sistent with the faith and the hope of so 
perfect a Christian. 

May some murmuring hearts and some 
vacant listless minds be seduced or shamed 
by her example into a better and more 
thankful employment of God's gifts ! S. A. 

The Hon. W. L, Marcey. 

July 4, Very suddenly, at Ballston, 
Saratoga Coimty, United States, aged 71, 
the Hon. W. L. Marcey, an eminent states- 

Ho was bom in Stourbrid^, Massachu- 
setts, in 1786, and early in life, after gra- 
duating at Brown University, in Rhode 
Island, removed to New York, and com- 
ma m cod tho practice of the Icgid profession 
at Troy, of which city he became Recorder 
in 1816, and after occupying the highest 
stations of trust, rosnonsibility, and honour 
which tho citizens of New York could confer 
upon him, — Adjutant-General inl821,Comp- 
troller in 1823, Judge of the Supreme Court 
in 1829, United States' Senator in 1881, 
Governor in 1833, to which office he was 
twice ro- elected, — he was selected by suc- 
cessive national Executives to fill the post 
in each Cabinet, which for the time being 
was the most arduous and prominent. As 
Secretary of War under President Polk, we 
are largely indebted to his energy, activity, 
and skill for the succossfid prosecution of a 
contest which gave fresh lustre to the laurels 
of the American army, and added California 
and New Mexico to the Republic. His sa- 
gacious use of the means at his disposal to 
render the army as efficient as possible, 
without increasing the taxation or having 
recourse to any extraordinary expedient, — 
the ability with which the war was brought 
to a close, — and the magnanimity which 
was displayed in tho conclusion of peace, 
are alike honourablo to himself and the 
country. As Secretary of State under Gene- 
ral Pierce, the career of the great statesman 
was not less distmguished, although in a 
different sphere of action. His management 
of the enlistment question, and his diplo- 

matic controversy with the Earl of Clarendon 
on Central American etffairs, together with 
the many able State-papers wnich issued 
from his pen during his four years' tenure 
of office, are fresh in the recollection of the 
pubhc, and entitled him to the highest rank 
among the leading men of his time. His 
firmness, sagacity, strong Conservative ten- 
dencies, unswerving patriotism, sterling in- 
t^rity, and eminent ability as a statesman* 
won him the respect and confidence of all 
parties in his own country, and caused his 
name to be universally honoured abroad, 
while ^in private life few enjoyed a larger 
circle of devoted and admiring friends. 


July 16. At Paris, aged 75, Pierre Jean 
B^ranger, the poet of the French people. 

Pierre Joan Stranger was born on the 
17th of August, 1780, at the residence of his 
grandfather, a poor tailor, living at No. 60- 
Kue Montorgueil. His father, who followed 
the same calling, was a man of unsteady 
propensities, who cared little for his &mily, 
and was at no jpains to provide for their sub- 
sistence. His mvourite crotchet was that he 
was the descendant of illustrious ancestors, 
and the greater part of his time was occu- 
pied in tracing his pedigree to noble and 
aristocratic sources. Of his son he took little 
heed, leaving him to grow up as he pleased, 
and to wander about the streets of Paris 
with any associates that chance might throw 
in his way. The boy remained with his 
grandfather until he was nine years of age, 
when he was sent to live with his maternal 
aunt, who kept a small inn in the suburbs of 
P^ronne. His duties of tavern-boy left him 
but little leisure for the indulgence of his 
vagrant propensities ; but at such brief in- 
tervals as he could snatch from his homely 
employment, he managed to form an ac« 
quaintance vnth the writings of F^n^on, 
Voltaire, and Racine. At the age of 14 he 
was apprenticed to a printer at P^ronne, of 
the name of Laisn€, having acquired what 
little he knew at the Institut Patriotique, a 
branch of the school founded by M. Ballu de 
Bellangese, upon the system of J. J. Rous- 
seau, for the dissemination of liberal pnnci- 
ples. His new occupation was doubtless 
more favourable to his literary taste. It 
was whilst he was engaged in setting up the 
types for an edition of the poetry of Andrtf 
dhenier that^oung Stranger first attempted 
the composition of verse, and from that day 
his chief ambition was to become a poet. 
At the age of 17 he returned to the house of 
his grandfather, and tried his hand in several 
styles of versification, but does not appear 
to have satisfied himself or those about him 
that he was bom a poet. Sick of the poverty 
by which he was surrounded, and the want 
of sympathy which it was his fate to en- 
counter on all sides — ^for he had published 
before he left P^ronne. without exciting tmy 
attention, a small volume of songs, entitled 
the ** Garland of Roses," — he determiued to 
go to Egypt, then in the occupation of the 
French army, but the wipromisiDg account 


Obituary. — M. Beranger. 


given him by an acquaintance who had re- 
turned thence induced him to abandon his 
project. About t' at time he wrote a comedy 
enti'led "Ihe Hennaphrodites," but being 
unable to get it accepted at any of the 
theatres, he threw it into the fire, h or more 
than a year ho followed no seitled occupa- 
tion, althouKh during that interval he is said 
to have produced his best s ng^. Embittered 
by dLsapnointment, and almost hopeless tf 
success, he resolved to collect all the poems 
he had written, and send them to Lucieii 
Bonaparte, the brot er of the First Consul, 
who was known to be a liberal patron of 

" In 1803," says he, "without resources, tired 
of fallacious hopes, versihring without aim and 
witho'it encouragement, I conceived the idea — 
and how many smiliar ideas have remained 
without result ! — I conceived the idea of enclosing 
all my crude poems to M. Lucien Bonaparte, 
already celebrated for his great oratoric il talents, 
and for his love of literature and of the arts. My 
letter accompanying toem was worthy of a young 
nltra-repubican brain ! How well I remember 
it! It bore the impn ss of pride wounded by the 
necessity of having recourse to a protector. 
Poor, unknown, bo often disappointed, I could 
scarcely count upon the success of a step which 
no one seconded." 

Nor was he, on this occasion, doomed to 
further disappointment. The prince, favour- 
ably disposed towards the young poet, not 
only bv the specimens wh'ch he had for- 
wardei, but 1 y the man'y tone of the letter 
by which they were accompanied, relieved 
him almost immediately from his suspense. 
He answered his application in the kindest 
and most encouramng terms, and having 
sent for him to his house, a<i vised him as to 
his future cour-e, and promised to afford him 
more substantial assi^tance. Before he had 
an opportunity of cnirying out his benevo- 
lent intentions, the Prince became himself 
an exile. On his arrival at Kome, however, 
he transmitted to B^ranger an order to re- 
ceive and apply the salai-y coming to him as 
member of the Institute. The aid thus af- 
forded was most seasonable. He was soon 
able to find employment for his pen. During 
the two years 1805-6 he assisted in editing 
*• T andou's Annals of the Mus6o," and in 
1809 he managed to obtain the post of copy- 
ing clerk in the office of the Secretary of the 
University, with a salary of 1,2 Ofr. a year. 
He was now in comparatively independent 
circumstances. Mis genius had, moreover, 
begun to attract notice in hii^h places. 
Napoleon's laughter on reading, for the first 
time, B^ranger's **Roi d'Yvetot' (a good- 
humoured satii e on hU own pietensions) is 
said to have been exuberant. In 1813 
B^ranger was elected a member of the So- 
ciety of the Cave.iu, then the resort ot the 
most distinguished literary men of the ti:ne; 
and, cncouniged by the cordial reception 
his songs met with from its frequenters, he 
ro olved to devote himself exclusively to 
that class of composition. Towanls the latter 

{)art of the year 18 15, when the first col- 
ecteU e<li ion of his rongs made its appear- 
ance, he had b^an to be widely known to 
the French pubui^ La BeguiU de$ Ctdem 

de Qualiti and Le Cenaeur were by this time 
on the lips of all Paris. The' Jast named 
song had wol -nigh br. ught him into trouble ; 
but Bonaparte had made his escape from 
Elba, nnd among other chang.s B^ranger 
was actually ( ffcrei a post in ihe office of 
the Imperial censorship. The proposal was 
received by B6r. nger and his jovial filenda 
of the Caveau with laught r, and he con- 
ti' ued to retain his humble clerk^hip in the 
office of the Secretary of the University. 
His second scries of songs, published in 
1821, cost h m his pi ce (no g^ at loss) and 
throe months' in prisonment in the prison of 
St. Pflagie. His third (1828) subj ct d him 
to nine months* imprisonment in \a F.rce 
and a fine c f 10,000fr. The fine w. s, how- 
ever, paid b^ t e poet*s admirers, and the 
prison in which he was confined became the 
rendezvous of the most distinguished men of 
the day. From behind his prison bars 
B^ranger kept up so deadly a fire on the 
Government that ne contributed more effec- 
tu Uy to destroy it than all the bIov\s of the 
heroes of the Three Day. After having as- 
si ted so importantly in winning the battle, 
however, he refus d to accept any share in 
the spoil. His friends, who were now occu- 

Eying the highest places, would have loa''ed 
m with titles and honours, but he declined 
all pavmcnt for his services, an i to avoid 
being mixed up with the ever variable 
politics of the capital, he ret red. fir t to 
Passy, next to Fontainebleau, and finally to 
Tours, where he completed what he called 
his 31 moires Chantants, by the publication 
of his fourth volume of songs. At the revo- 
luti -n of Febuiary he was ejected to the 
Constituent Assembly, but a ter a sitting or 
two he sent in his resignation, which was at 
first refused l»y the chamber, but aft« rwardg, 
although most unwillingly, accepted. He 
was then again residing at Puss^, and he 
remained there until a short time back, 
when a removal into Paris, for the sake uf 
medical advice, was deemed necesssry. 
During his residence in the Rue Vendome 
he had the gratification of find ng himself 
the oliject of the deepest interest, and his 
friends have the ctmsolition of knowing 
that he received every attention that human 
kindness could suggest. 

The flineral took place, by order of the 
French Govemmmt, within twenty -four 
hours after his death, and was attended by 
a large concourse of people. Lai^ge num- 
bers of troops and of the police ^ere in 
readiness to act, but their services were not 
called into requisition. Except the tem- 
porary assistance which B€ranger received 
during his earlier strugg es wiui adversity, 
and while his genius wa<4 yet unknown, 
from the beneficent hand of the Prince 
de Cauino, who was h mself ardently de- 
voted to lette s, and whose epic of Char/e- 
magne^ au VEgtite Dilitrie^ has some pas- 
sages of merit, he was inde'f ted to no man 
for favours. He owned no protector except 
his own energy ; and with the modest frmts 
of his labours he remained contented to the 
last He accepted rewards or honours from 
noGovemment; he wag not ereo a member 


M. Ber anger. — Clergy Deceased. 


of the Legion of Honour ; and not many 
months since he declined, not arrogantly, 
but with the utmost respect, the muir.ticenco 
oflFcred him in the most delicjite and gracedU 
maniier by the Emperor of the French, who 
solicited the hon.tur of clieeri; g the declin- 
ing life of the poet. He had been for years 
in the rece pt of an annuity from M. PeiTO- 
tin, the liberal proprie or of the copyright 
of his works. The allowance was modest, 
but it was sufficient for his wants, and even 
for the practice of the b-T.evolence which 
was his great characti*r stic. Nv> man was 
mote universally popu'ar, and none more 
endeired to the F.ench people. At the 
mo.iient his remains were approaching the 
portal of the Chu ch of St. Elizabeth, amidst 
the silence that prevailed, some de icate hand 
suddenly touched the organ, and played in 
slow and exquisite cadence the well-known 
air of one of the poet's most pathetic songs — 

♦♦ Parlez-noiis de lui, grand mdre, 
" Purlez-nuus de lui !" 

It was only for a moment, but the notes 
brought so forcibl . to the mind the memory 
of the hero, an«i of the poet who sung his 
deeds, that the effec was jnde.-cribab e. 

The portia't of B^ranger will be placed 
in the Museum of Vei saille=«, in the gallery 
with those of Molidre, Come lie, and Lafou* 
taine, and the street in which he died is to 
be cal ed the Rue de B^rauger instead of 
the Rue de Vendome. 

The posthumous works of B^ranger con- 
sist of from 40 to 60 songs, wh ch were do- 
posited by him some years ago in 1;he hands 
of a notary in Paris. During his residence 
at Passy he prepared notes for a sketch of 
the revolut onary period o ' France, and he 
be^jan his Memoirs, lie did not long con- 
tinue this work, and it 's said that ne de- 
ftroyed with his o \ n hand all the documents 
he fiad collecte I for that purpose. A few notes 
without met od, and his Correspondence, 
which U considerable, remain. The intimate 
friendship which existed between the poet 
and the political leader and orator Manuel, 
contiimed unabated to the 1 ist moment of 
the life of the latter. After his death many 
letters from the poet were found among his 
papers, written with that gaiety and bon- 
hoinmit which characterized him, and it is g to see the playful manner in which 
he avoids discussion on politiciU topics at a 
time when politics were so engrossing. Ho 
had the good sense to resist the entreaties 
df the injudicious friends who wanted to 
make him a political personage, and his 
firnme-s in declining the post of represen- 
tative to the National Assembly, to which 
more than 200,000 voices h id elected him, 
is entitled to all praise ; it proves that good 
Common sensj is not incompatible with high 
poetic genius. 


Ifny 21. At the liouse of the Rev. G. W. Dan- 
buy, Seond, Wilts, aged 45, the Rev. Oeorge 
SiernrdL, B.A. 1831, M.A. 1837, 8i. John's College, 

May 25. At the Vicamge. asred 74, the Rev. 
William Wilson, B.A. 1806, M.A. 1809, f rmirly 
Fellow of Je<U8 College, Cambridge, Vtcar of 
Elm>Je;jd (18.2), E-rox. The funeral wan at- 
tended by a long train of mourning pariHhioners 
and rricnds; many old p:iri<<liioners came from 
a distan e, tiia' they might thus 'estify iheir re- 
spect for tiie memory of the reverend and • ener-