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THE 



Gentleman s Magazine 

Volume CCXCI. 
JULY TO DECEMBER 1901 




Processe ^ Delectare ^Sk? ^»^ E Pluribus Unum 



£*/i/^*/ by SYLVANUS URBAN, GentUman 



lontton 

CHATTO & WINDUS, iii ST MARTIN'S LANE 

1901 



li ^ -'■-*• - ■■ - 



*>"-^ 



■^ , ' X "<• 



CONTENTS of VOL. CCXCI. 



[Alfred, Ad Old-English Hallad of. By J. J. Elus , , » ^^l 

lAmatrair Pedigree -Monger, Tht Ry P. Evaks Lewin , , 339 

lAmbassadors, Tales of. By GEORCtANA Hill .... 462 

' aticipated Scarcity, The, of Timber. By Arthur RaNSOM , 56 

rAppxntioti, The, of Mrs, VeaL By Ralph H. Brethkrton , 531 
Around the Three Towers of Grasse. By F. G. DUKLOP- 

Wallace- Good BODY 344 

stronomer. A Great Belgian. By J. Ellaro GorE, F.R.AS. . 445 

PAi Lyme Regis. By Maude Prowkr 307 

At (he Deodafs. Adapted by H. Mackemzik from the Danish of 

E. HOvER 417 

Solingbrokc, The Politics of. By Thomas Dateson ... 31 

80W, The Fight at, near London, in 1648. By Harold F. Hills 174 

Brass- Rubbing. By Rev. P. H. IJ1TCHFIEI.D, M.A^ F.S.A . . $11 

3roken Dream, The. By George Morley ..... 488 

BttCe, The Earl of. Dy J. A. Lovat-Fraser 559 

staways, their Influence on Population. By W. ALLtNCUAU . 273 

^C^herine IL and the Comte de S^gur. By Georciana Hill . 61 

Censorship, The, of Plays in France. By Maurice Daumart . 593 

China, Matrimony and Music in. By J. Cuthhert Haddem . 604 

Coleridge Country, The. By PERaVAL H. W. Almy ... 66 
CradteSongs, Italian. Bv E. C. Vansittart , . , .367 
IKd Mary Stuart love Bothwelt ? By Amy Tasker . . .570 

Eastern (question, Three Years of the. By \V. Miller, M.A . 429 
Education, The, of the Early Nonconformists, By Foster 

Watsom, M.A 229 

Elementary Schools in Japan. By Rev. WiLUAM Burnet, M.A. 282 

Evolution, The, of the Modem Gentleman. By Daniel Johnston 189 

Fight, The, at Bow, n«ar London, in 1648. By Harold F. Hills 174 
Grasse, Around the Three Towers of. By F. G. DUNLOP- 

Wallace Goodbodv S44 

Guizot By Georciana Hill 258 

Harvest on the Prairie. By HAROLD BiNDLOSS . . . • S^t 

Hertfordshire, Looking Backward la. By William Andrews . 454 
Hyderabad: a Chapter of Ancient History. By Colonel G. H. 

TkEVOR, C.S.I 245 

Irony and some Synonyms. By H. W. Fowler .... 378 

Italian Cradle Son^s. By E. C. Vansittart 367 

Japan, ElemenUry Schools in. By Rev. Wiluam Burnet, M.A 282 

iekylliana- By Emilv J. Climenson 346 

ewclry and Gems. By Emily Hill 585 

.'Ecole des Piifvcnus. By Edmund Oliver Bentinck . , i 

Looking Backward in Hertfordshire. By William Andrews . 454 

Lov« Story, The, of an Old Marquise. By Ja ye Garry . . tSo 

Love's Year. By M. A CURTOis 518 

Lyric Poetry, The, of Victor Hugo. By C. E. Meetkerkb , . 400 

Matrimony and Music in China. By J. Cuthbert HADDEN . 603 

Meiternich, Prince, and Napoleon. By Georciana Hill . 164 

Modem Gentleman, The Evolution of the. By Daniel Johnston 189 

Monks' Island, On the. By Z6uA DE LADEVkzE . . . • 125 
Mound'Making Birds. By Alex. H. Japp, LL.D. . , , .321 

Mrs. Veal, The Apparition ot By Ralph H. BretherTOM . . 531 

Mr. Wyatt. By Constance Montfort Nicklis ... 74 

Napoleon and Prince Meiternich. By Geokgiana Hl\.l. • , \^^ 




iv Contents. 

Hjom, 

Nightjars, A Study of. By Alex. H. Japp, LL.D 141 

Nonconformists, The Education of the Early. By FOSTER 

Watson, M.A 239 

dds and Ends in Pompeii. By jjLY WOLFFSOHN . , , 398 

31d Age. Py Rev. M. G. Watkins, MA 253 

Old Science, The, and ihe New. By E. W. Adams, M.D. . . 493 

Pcak]a^d Township, Sonne Bygone Happenings in a. By John Hyde ^Z() 

Pedigree- Monger, The Amateur. By P. Evans Lewin . . , 339 

Pepys, A Sussex. By Charles Cooper . . , • 17 

Pdrez Galdos, The Npvcls of. By \V. Miller, M.A, . . . 229 

Plantagenets, Se!f-Styled. By Albert M. Hvamson . . . 503 

Plays, The Staging of, 300 Years Ago. By Rev. Eric Rede Buckley 288 
Pohtics, The, of Uolingbroke. By Thomas Baieson . , .31 
Pompeii, 0|dds and Ends in. By LiLY Wolffsohn , . .298 

Prairie, Harvest on the. By HAROLD Bindloss . . ^ • 521 

Red King's Dream, The. By E. M. Rutherford .... 203 

Regicide in the Nineteenth Century. By S. Beach Chester . 382 

Rival Physicians, The. By N. P. Murphy 40& 

Science, The Old, and the New. By E. W. Adams, M.D. . . 493 

Sfcur, The Comte dc, and Catherine n. By Georciana HUX . 62 
Self-Styled Plantagenets. By Albert M. Hyamson . , .503 

Siddons, The. By H. SciiUTZ WiLSOW 473 

Some Bygone Happenings tn a I'cakland Tovraship, By JOHN HydE 389 

Some ExpeiimeDts with Jane. Uy M. A. CURTOIS . . . . 313 

Some Vulgar Errors. By Philip Kent . . . ... 49 

Sources of Wtst-Pyrenean Law. By A. R. Whiteway ... 83 

" Spectator, The." By T. R. Pearson 611 

Staging, The, of Plays 300 Years Ago. By Rev. ERIC Rede BUCKLEY 288 

Study, A, of Nightjars. By Alex. H. jAPP, LL.D 141 

Sussex Pepys, A. By Charles Cooper . . . . . 17 
Table Talk. By Sylvanus Urban :— 

Mr. Baildon's "Robert Louis Stevenson"— Wild Birds Pro- 
tection — Sea Birds the Fisherman's P'riends . , , 103 

A Holiday Suggestion — English Cathedral Churches — A Society 
for the Protection of the English Language — Respect paid 

to English in Past Times 206 

Modem Corruption of Language— Current Errors — Stale Quo- 
tations — New Quotations 309 

A. Primitive Stage Representation — *' Everyman "—Story of 
" Ever>'jman —Lancelot du Lac— Position of Lancelot in 
Arthurian Legend— "The Idylls of the King" . . .413 

The Hooligan— From Mohock to Hooligan— Decay of Discipline 519 

Civilisation vrrsui Barbarism— The Civilising of Central 

Afdca— Misprints— Modem Journalism . . . . 61S 

Tales pf Ambassadors. By Geokgi.ana HiLL .... 462 
Tennioating the Treatise. By ENOCH ScRlBE . . . .168 

Three Years of the Eastern Question. By W. Miller, M.A.. . 429 

Timber, The Anticipated Scarcity of. By Arthur Ransom . . 56 

Twelve Signs, The, By W. B. Waluce, B.A 105 

Victor Hugo, The Lyric Poetry of. By C. E. MeeikeRKE . . 400 

West-Pyrenean Law, Sources of. By A. R. WlirraWAY ... 83 

When London Liglus the Sky. By Rev. John M. BaCON, ^LA. . 95 

Wild Irishman's Exploit, A. By John K. Leys .... 2oy 
"Words, WbrxJs, mere Words." By Dora Cave . . , .101 



THE 

GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE 

July 1901. 



LECOLE DES PREVENUS, 

By Edmund Oliver Bentinck. 

SINCE the death of John Verrall, senior, founder of the eminent 
publishing house of Verrall, Beevor and Verrall, the manage- 
ment of the firm had been in the hands of his son, who bore the same 
name. Among men who had known the father intimately, and 
appreciated his value both as a friend and as a man of business, 
it was generally agreed that with all his undoubted good qualities he 
had one foible, which had done much to retard the prosperity of his 
house : in the world of literature, as in the world of real life, he was a 
confirmed misogynist His marriage (so he would tell his friends in 
expansive moments) had been the only violation of the principle that 
he had ever committed. But if any, emboldened by this admission, 
thought to pave the way for further confidences, with trite reference 
to rule-proving exception, then there was no more to be got out of John 
VerralL Only those who had known the wife interpreted his silence 
in her favour. 

And now that John the elder was dead, there were those who 
traced in his son indications of the same tendency, but in one 
direction only. John Verrall the younger had recently married a girl 
seven or eight years his junior, of whom it was allowed on all hands 
that Verrall could not have done better. He was aware of his good 
fortune. Passionately devoted to his wife, if he escaped the censure 
of uxoriousness, it was all that could be said of him. In character, 
in beauty, in tastes, in accomplishments, Dorothea Verrall was a wife 
of whom any man might justly be proud ; and Verrall sought not to 
conceal his pride. His attitude, moreover, in social matters had 
never been such as to justify the opinion which held gpodi Vcv ^<& 

VOL. cczci. Na 2047. ^ 





Tfu Gentiemans Magazine. 



tribute to feminine merit. 

But when it came to business, then the old leaven appeared with 
the strength of concentration. To present a woman's book to John 
Verrall's criticism was to offer a red rag to a bull. Had George ElJot 
herself appeared to him in the spirit, with MSS. in her hand, she 
would have met, it is lo be feared, with a frigid reception. Yet he was 
both a man of taste and a man of business, but— a monomaniac. 

This story opens barely six months after Verrall's marriage. It 
was not generally known that he had already quarrelled with his wife 
— quarreUed so seriously that they bad for the present separated. 
That was only known to three persons : to John Verrall himself, to 
Dorothea, and to John's maiden aunt, Jane Verrall, who lived with 
hem, and enjoyed the confidence of both in things great and smalL 
Vet, considering the passion that Verrall was known to entertain for 
his wife, the fact of her departure from his house, with the said Jane 
Verrall, and of her continued absence therefrom, could not pass 
without comment. Humorists were not wanting to declare that in 
Dorothea's cupboard was the skeleton — that behind her many known 
accomplishments lurked one unknown and greater — in short, that the 
guilt of the authoress was hers. 

The wags were in the right of it. 

One morning, when John A'crrall came down to breakfast, he 
found Aunt Jane looking rather uneasy, and Dorothea looking rather 
timid. John accord ngly looked pleased. It did not occur to him 
lo inquire why Aunt Jane looked uneasy j he was so pleased at 
Dorothea's looking timid. For two reasons, as he bad often told her. 
Firstly, because she was more bewitching at such times than at any 
others; and, secondly, because he foresaw that he was to have the 
pleasure of granting a request, or, as he preferred to call it, obeying a 
command. From the fact that she looked rather more timid than usual 
he merely inferred that the request would be worth granting, or the 
command worth obeying, as before. Being an epicure in uxorious- 
ness, he kept his counsel. 

Dorothea said nothing worthy of note until she had finished her 
breakfast. Then she asked him whether he would have another cup 
of coffee. They had a regular form of procedure, and this was how 
it always b<^an. The next thing was for John to pass up his cup, 
assuming the while a frigid expression, suggestive of tightened pursc- 
slrings. 

Then Dorothea said : 

"John, dear, will you do me a great favour.^" 



L'Ecole des Pr^enus, 3 

To which he, as in marital dignity boimdi replied : 

" Depends entitely what it is." 

So far, all was well. 

"John, dear, I've " 

"WeU?" 

"IVe 

"Yes?" Dorothea was playing up splendidly. 

"IVe " 

She came and stood behind his chur, in due adaptation of 
Delilah attitude to the circumstances of a breakfast-table. 

John, seizing her hands, crushed them with weU-modulated 
brutality. He was going to have something for his money. 

" John, dear, I'm afraid you'll be angry." 

" I expect I shall What have you done ? Written a book ? " 

This in grim playfulness, but the answer in tempestuous earnest : 

"Yes— not now — a long time ago — and I want you to look at it" 

"The devil!" John dropped the hands, and, turning his chair 
round, looked at Dorothea. " My dear child, I forget myself. But 
of course you're joking ? '* 

" No, I'm not I'm quite serious. Is it really so wicked of me ? " 

" Dorothea, you know there is nothing I detest so much. It's» 
oh ! it's un " 

No \ he could not tell Dorothea that anything she did was un- 
feminine. He saved himself by bolting, with a mumbled excuse. 

Dorothea was deeply wounded. The blow had come as unex- 
pectedly to her as to him. Of course she had heard of her husband's 
peculiar views about women-novelists \ the subject had been in his 
mouth a score of times since she had known him. But the mere 
recurrence of his jesting allusions to it had forbidden her to take him 
seriously. Aunt Jane, too, on receiving her confidence, had betrayed 
some anxiety; thereby amusing Dorothea, but by no means enlightening 
her. She understood now ; and, understanding, was determinednot to 
submit The thing was so absurd, so unjust, so childish. She would 
reason with John ; he must listen to reason. She longed for his re- 
appearance. Aunt Jane meanwhile sought to comfort her ; for the 
good lady's sympathy was entirely with Dorothea. It might be that 
she had in her something of her nephew's prejudice against feminine 
authorship ; somehow, it was not quite right that women should deal 
in pen-magic. But that was no adequate excuse for John's conduct. 
Of course, it would have been better that Dorothea should not have 
written a book ; but, as she had written a book, it was his duty to 
read it, and, if necessary, to publish it So she told 'Dora^cak\Ck«!\ 

•Ha 



The Gentleman s Magazine. 



prove^l 

, risen ^^ 



I 




sincerity ; yet could hold out but slight hope that John would prove^ 
amenable. 

Yerrall did not appear again until lunch-time. The meal passed | 
over without allusion to the matter in dispute. When they had 
from the table, Dorothea began the attack. 

"John, you will look at my boolr, won't you?" 

Verrall tried to look surprised. He was becoming conscious that ] 
he was a little afraid of Dorothea. He must be firm. 

" Dorothea, I had hoped to hear no more about it. You know 
my views." 

*' AVhat are your views, Joho, exactly ? " 

'■ That women should not meddle with writing. The thing 
contrary to nature." 

" But why ? " 

The word would out. 
*' It's unfeminine." 

Dorothea could not forgive " unfeminine." She took her revenge 
in kind. 

" John, you argue as women are said to argue. I ask you why 
fl thing is so, and you tell me ' because it is.' " 

We have said, invite John Verrall's mspection of a woman's MS., 
and you offered a red rag to a hull ; but convict him, lady-reader, of 
arguing like a woman, and you tied your red rag across his eyes — at ^| 
once a bolder and a safer act. ^^ 

John sat angry and sullen. He was silenced. Dorothea had 
told him the truth ; he could not argue on the matter, as he well 
knew. He was battling for a prejudice, dearer to him than common* 
sense, dearer than the prosperity of the house \ whether it was dearer^ 
to him than Dorothea, remained to be seen. For the present he held ' 
blindly to his point, his determination strengthened by the con- 
sciousness of tangible guilt ; for had he not said that she, <'m yvi-aiirAi'jl 
was unfeminine? 

" I am sorry I don't make myself clear. You will understand, atj 
least, that my opinion is based on practical experience." 

" Experience of women's books, John ? " 

Verrall got up. 

" 1 don't think we shall do any good by discussing it, Dorothea. 
I know you think me unreasonable. Bui I have my opinions, and I 
abide by them." And again he took refuge in flight 

Dinner that night was a very frigid affair. Verrall brought with 
him an air of reproachful gloom, which Dorothea's half-hearted 
efforts could not dispel. Her position was, perhaps, only the more 



'4 



A 



UEcok des Pr/venus, 5 

trying, in that she could perceive the humour of the situation, which 
Venallf apparently, could not "When," Dorothea asked herself, 
after the failure of each conversational opening, " When would he 
forgive her for having written a book, and when should she forgive 
him for refusing to read it?" Meanwhile the meal dragged on 
relentlessly ; and her heart sank within her, as she anticipated the 
possibility of others like it 

But here Aunt Jane intervened — a dea tx macMntty eflTectual for 
the moment, if dramatically premature. 

" John, my dear, Tm sure Dorothea is not looking well Let me 
take her away for a change. I suppose you can't get away yourself? " 

Verrall caught at the idea. Dorothea should go away for a few 
weeks, and would come back with all this nonsense driven out of 
her head, to the preservation alike of conjugal peace and editorial 
prejudice. 

" No, I mustn't leave town myself. But you're quite right about 
Dorothea. You'd like a change, wouldn't you, dear?" 

" Yes, John, I will go with Aunt Jane. But I warn you that I 
shall not come back till you become reasonable." 

"Nous perrons a gue nous verrons^" said John, achieving a 
timber smile. 

Accordingly, it was settled that Dorothea and Aunt Jane should 
go away on the following day. They were to go first to Eastbourne, 
where they would take up their quarters in a boarding-house ; for 
towards such centres of chill respectability did Aunt Jane's maidenly 
instinct ever gravitate. Dorothea professed complete indifference to 
all details. 

Charles Meldrum had been stopping at Eastbourne for exactly a 
fortnight ; and for the last ten days of that time he had been telling 
himself each day that he must go bock to town at once — to-morrow. 
He even knew the train by which he would go to-morrow, having 
looked it up to-day. He had written a letter to his landlady, telling 
her to expect him ; but he had not sent it. For, as on further re- 
flection he rightly argued, accidents may always happen, so a telegram 
on the day was better than a letter of the day before. As the reader 
will (k)ubtless infer, "accidents" had not been wanting to illustrate 
the justice of his reasoning. Consequently the telegram had not 
been sent either. 

Now, why all this delay? And whence this unprecedented run 
of "accidents"? 

Meldrum was staying in a boarding-house : the bat ^kicft^ vu^')^ 



The Gentkinatis Magazine. 



\\\ which an independent man would choose to stay. And Meldrum 
was independent— in so far, that is, as that he was subject to no 
coercion which Imposed on him the necessity of a boarding-house 
In fact, he had made his decision in a state of unsound mind. 
Fortune had dealt hardly with him these three years. During this 
period he had wasted liis substance on many type-writers, and nothing 
had come of it. The magazine editors had sent back his MSS. with 
neat little notes of rejection inserted somewhere about the middle. 
The publishers had besought that they might see his face no more. 
And now he was sick of it. Not that he had any intention of 
despairing ; but, for the time, he was sick of it. I le must have a holi- 
day, he decided. He must get out of town, and he must get away 
from himself. He did not much care where he went, provided that 
no great trouble was involved in getting there. He knew a little of 
Eastbourne. It is a good enough place in which to glut the cynical 
maw of disappointed authorship, better than its bigger neighbours on 
either side, because it is so new, so pleased with itself, so convinced, like 
Boston State, that it is *' the hub of the universe." What a feast was 
here for a moody scribbler ! Not that he meant to write about it : 
that was not his idea of a holiday, but it would give him someone else 
to be angry with. 

He was tired of being angry with insensate publishers. He would 
seek other objects for his wrath— the prosperous little tradesman, the 
local meteorologist, the brainless, knickcrbockered "blood." 

So, firstly, he had decided to go to Eastbourne. 

And, secondly, in his wicked perversity, he luid flung himself into 
a boarding-house. Here, too, there would be material for acid com- 
ment, or there is no faith in Holmes and in Balzac. He liad often 
declared to admiring but incredulous friends that he would some day 
spend a week or so in a boarding-house. Now should be the time. 
His expectations were not wholly disappointed. There was the 
*' relative in bombazine " to the verj- life ; I do not say that he could have 
sworn to the material. True, Miss Shairp was not called upon to 
repress the hungrj* clamourers for "buckwheat cakes": the fees 
charged being such as to ensure a sufficiency of that or any other 
commodity in reason, however *'skerce and high." Rather was it 
her function to keep ever-green the memory of her patroness's deceased 
husband : to chill thereby the flippancy of the young, and stimulate 
the ghostly anticipations of the old. Pire Goriot there was 
none ; as indeed how should there be in a boarding-house which has 
advertised itself for these ten years as being *^ under entirely new 
management," and in a fashionable English watering-place under 



^■im ■ 



i 



i 

4 



HEt^ dts Pr^vemms. 7 

management almost as nev? And had tbere hfrry Ac ■■—""■* 2sd 
pathos of his cfaaractgr would aEke have be^ ^rova aa»r apoB 
MddnuD, whose ofasenatirc bcnky had aircadj fetsad a peace cf 

concentiatioa. 

Among the con non y with vfaota be su down in ^Saoercatfee 
erenii^ of ha anifal, thoevas one of wbooi be sdc! s> ^Base% as 
he retired to his own room, diat here ia the iob was bb ideal d 
vcHnanhood. As somrthnrs happmi in spch caae^ he wocLd ! 
been sordj puzzled to dfscxibe her. He fcacv diae she «i 
thing abore the xweagt heigbc of woman, that her haar wja iiaek, 
that she was dressed in bbck. And diose «*ze fvo£a^ :be coif 
solid &cts in his pofwrainn. As to her a^ be ibooffx at £:sc tbat 
she was about tvent^, hot, in the tighe of sd»cqscEC onar'^Twym, he 
conceded her a possible mai)^ of five j^arsicar*:. HeEadorigHa^ 
supposed her to be the danghrrr of an tSiAe^laijwbomxoeaigaiatd 
her, but irtten Mrs. Windsor, their hostess, addressed her as Mn. 
VenaU he derided diat she was a widow, and be soon leamc fpxn ha 
own words that the elder ladjwas her annL Like fasmseSf , bcch Ia<£cs 
toc^ bntlittlepait in the convention of the table; andastbef had 
a private sittii^-room, be seMom saw them, during die fint wecx of 
his stay, except at meals. Yet in that time be bad made up fass mfnd 
that Mrs. Vemll icp t cacnle d the perfectioo of fieminine grace and 
beauty ; that every word of her mooth, every tboc^ of ber brain, 
was instinct with a saperfanman delicacy; and Ust, bo: not kast, that 
this creature of another qriiere wu gjadoosiy disposed to take a 
compassicmate interest in his unworthy sell 

This was precis^ why be was going away to-morrow. Had not 
Dorothea, in the fulness of her beait, cast upon him the eye of 
sympathy (the demcmstiation, it should here be said, had been evoked 
by the sig^t of an aboonnaHy large and heavily laden envelope which 
Meldrum had found on his [date at breaklast one nximii^) he would 
perhaps have alloired himsdf f^ weeks to come the lazozy of con- 
templation. But as things were, be felt that be could not sUy much 
longer in the same house with Mrs. Venall without making a fool of 
himself, as he rightly termed it : for a man may not marry a goddess 
with no more at his back than jQzoo a year certain, plus professional 
earnings at the rate of a guinea a week. He must give the goddess 
up. 

The process of abandonment had now lasted for ten days. And 
now came a stroi^er temptation. 

AmcMig Mrs. Windsor's guests was a solicitor, named Bannister, 
dear to his hostess as her fiist-bom. A mad fdlow, this Baxmister. 



8 The Genilevtan's Magazine. 

He would quip you, crank you, and so forth, by tlic hour, if you 
would ; and by the meal, whether you would or no. 

Only Dorothea, who certainly knew how to "look presumption 
out of countenance," was secure from his sallies. Twice he had 
originated and perfected some amateur theatrical abomination, and 
was even now suspected of mediuting a third attempt. Between 
him and Meldrum there existed a silent animosity, based not merely 
on incomi>atibility of tastes, for it may be questioned whether 
Bannister would ever have acted on grounds so intangible, but 
on a grave misdemeanour of Meldmm's. Bannister, it seems, had a 
cure of souls within the house, combining sprightliness with piety in 
a way which won all hearts. Every morning at breakfast he would 
execute a Grace, during which a man might, with due regard both to his 
God and to his belly, have worked through from his Benedichts 
btnedicat well-nigh to his Bemdicto benedicatttr. Then beneath a 
doubtful collar tucking a napkin where doubt was not he would fall 
to and tackle God's good bacon with a holy zest. Now, on the 
occasion of Meldrum's first meai in the house Providence, tempering 
the wind to the shorn lamb, had ordained that Bannister should be 
absent They had accordingly met for the first time at the breakfast- 
table on the following morning. Meldrum, uncertain as to the 
elasticity of the breakfast-hour, n'os punctual. Opposite to him on 
he table was a large covered dish. Almost opposite to him was 
Dorothea. He laid an officious hand upon the cover. " Let ms first" 
warned Bannister, with a glance towards Meldrum in which wrath 
was duly seasoned with unctuous pity. The cover was already on 
high, Meldrum was already looking towards Dorothea, when he 
realised the voice, now flowing in relentless periods, with a tincture 
of acidity for which he suspected that he was responsible. All 
through the lengthy declamation Meldrum stuck to his cover like a 
man, regarding with ambiguous gravity the dish of eggs and bacon, 
which seemed to throw up its steam with a sort of rollicking unholiness. 

The thing was unpardonable. 

Meldrum's resolute taciturnity had so far baffled Bannister's 
desire for revenge. Bui he waited his opportunity. 

Now Miss Shairp was inquisitive, and had charge oftheletter-bag. 
That large envelope of Meldrum's, which had called forth the 
sympathetic glance from Dorothea, had not escaped her \igihnce. 
It bore, on the other side, the name of a publisher. Here was a 
discovery I Mr. Meldrum was an author. Bubbling with excitement, 
Miss Shairp yet kept her secret for many days. At dinner this 
evening it was fated to come out. 



I 

1 




L'Ecoie des Privenus, 9 

The entertainment-man was darkly hinting at his theatrical plans. 
But Miss Shairp made up her mind to go one better. 

" Ah, Mr. Bannister^" she exclaimed, " I've got something new." 

** Well, Miss Shairp, what's that ? " with a great air of impartiality. 
" Everyone in his turn, you know. Let's play fair ; that's what I 
say. Let everyone have his chance. If your game's better than 
mine — why, let's have your game." 

" Ladies," said Miss Shairp mysteriously, " you may not know 
that there is a real live author among us." 

A horrible fear caused Meldrum's heart to stand still There 
was a feminine rustle of anticipation. 

"Am I not right, Mr. Meldnim?" 

A chorus of remorseless voices assailed the poor wretch, demand- 
ing that he should " read them something." 

This was gall and wormwood to Bannister. Meldrum, of all 
people ! How long should the ungodly prosper ? The possibility 
that the request should be otherwise than gratifying to his enemy 
would never have occurred to him, had he not seen Meldrum's face 
at the moment. Then he understood and used his opportunity. 

"Now, Mr. Meldrum," he urged, "you won't refuse the ladies?" 
(" The ladies " were for ever in his mouth.) 

Meldrum souffrmt en damni. He screwed out some lame 
excuse. 

To add to his torment was beyond Bannister's ingenuity. He 
returned to his theatricals, drunk with revenge. 

Meldrum's glance wandered round the table until it lighted on 
Dorothea. Once more he basked in divine compassion. 

When, a few minutes later, Bannister led his chattering troupe 
from the room, Dorothea lingered behind with her aunt. She turned 
to Meldrum, who was waiting for her to pass out. 

" Mr. Meldrum," she said, " won't you relent, and read us some 
of your book? We should both enjoy it so much — shouldn't we, 
Aunt?" 

"Certainly, my dear," said good Aunt Jane, "if Mr. Meldrum 
would be so kind as to read it to us upstairs, where we shall not be 
disturbed." 

This was quite another thing. Meldrum murmured grateful 
acceptance, yet not without misgiving. To present at the altar 
MS. which had been saved from the paper-basket only by its regular 
accompaniment of postage-stamps— what irreverence was this? He 
compounded with his conscience by calling it rather an appeal to a 
higher court 



lO 



The Gentleman s Magazine, 



" But I warn you," he addcd^ " that I am a rejected scribbleri a 
Failure of three years' standing. ' 

"Nevermind, Mr. Mddrutn, you shall find acceptance at last. 
We will wait here, if you will bring the MS." 

He might have been a six-year-old child sent to fetch his broken 
toy. This was Dorothea's fearless, maternal way with the objects 
of her pity. 

Meldrum did not recognise maternity in this youthful guise. 
(After all, he was about four years older than Dorothea.) Let us 
confess with shame that her conduct had filled him with a certain 
almost vulgar compbccnc)'. Must he indeed give the goddess up ? 
She was within his grasp ! It was hard, but ;^200 a year plus a 
guinea a week. lie must steel himself. 

On his return to the dining-room be was conducted upstairs to 
the temporary shrine. 

Aunt Jane, pleading the infirmity of years, took possession of a 
sofa in one corner of the room, Dorothea sat down by the fire, and, 
pointing to a chair opposite, ordered Meldrum to begin. 

Now that it came to the point Meldrum found that he was 
unable to begin. The difficulty had not occurred to him until 
now, but he had never been able to screw up his courage to the 
point of reading aloud. He remembered an occasion on which his 
steady refusal to read Tennyson to a certain persistent lady of his 
acquaintance had brought him into a situation scarcely less em- 
barrassing than that of the dinner-table a few minutes ago. But to 
read one's own stuff— without even the confidence that is begotten 
of publication ! SVith scarcely more difficulty he could have joined 
in the fatuous antics of Bannister's company downstairs. He 
implored Dorothea to read the MS. herself. 

"But,"' she objected, "I can't read aloud either, Mr. Meldrum; 
and if I read it to myself, what is Aunt to do ? " 

Now Aunt Jane, as Dorothea became aware at the moment, was 
palpably asleep. Her objection therefore becoming invalid, she took 
the MS., and read for some time in silence. 

Meldrum sat awaiting her verdict with due meekness ; his 
thought alternating, if truth be told, bet^Ycen " The Grey Goose " 
(chat was his title) and the weekly guine>i5. 

When Dorothea had got through some thirty pages she paused 
and looked up. 

" Yi3. But you know, Mr. Meldrum, you mustn't c;»ll a poor 
girl'GUdys.'" 

" Ob, she desen'es all that, as youll see, if you go on." 



VEcole des Pr^enus, \ i 

" But does the reader ? However, youVe managed to keep the 
' w ' out of it, which is something." 

" Well, you know best. What am I to call her then ? " 

" H'm. How would ' Dorothea ' do ? " 

" I suppose everyone has some names which he keeps sacred 
from the profanation of his own scribblings. Now for me there is 
only one Dorothea." 

She scarcely repressed a start. 

" In ' Middlemarch,' you know." 

" Oh, I see ; yes." 

Her momentary confusion did not escape Meldrum. " By Jove," 
was his imspoken soliloquy, "there'll be another Dorothea for me 
soon, if I'm not careful." Whence we may conclude : firstly, that 
he gathered from the little start that Mrs. Verrall's Christian name 
was Dorothea ; secondly, that the said confusion did not tend to 
diminish her attractions ; and, thirdly, that Meldrum had a very 
tolerable opinion of himself. 

" Well," said Dorothea, " that must be altered somehow. If it 
were not for one or two little things like that, the story would do 
very well, so far ; " and she resumed her reading. 

Meldrum, sitting opposite, drank unchecked of her beauty, till 
a vinous complacency crept over him. 

He was particularly grateful to her in that she was called 
Dorothea. The name guided his contemplations. He bethought 
him again of " Middlemarch," ever his text-book. He tried to fit 
upon her the delicious amethyst episode. It baffled him. Who 
shall pierce beneath the face of perfect womanhood, and view the 
crude religious flutterings of an unfledged soul ? Casaubon, too : 
bad she had her Casaubon ? It suited his mood to believe that she 
had. His thoughts waxed eloquent Some brain-crammed, heart- 
starved Cambridge don, some dusty blue-bottle of the combination 
room, battened for monotonous years on college pedantry and 
college port, and breaking at last his heaven-ordained confinement, 
to fasten with vampire greed upon this flower — God's gift, but 
not to him. Ugh ! A less revolting picture. The perfect scene 
with Lydgate, towards the end of the story. There was the 
keynote to this Dorothea's character, as to that of her prototype. 
Sympathy ! 

The frigid calculation of weekly guineas recurred to him. He 
fiung it from him, and clothed himself in courage. 

" With sympathy to back me, what may I not do— become ? " 

Dorothea, engrossed in her MS., looked up— somewhat at a loss 



13 



The Gentleman s Magazine. 



for the connection. How long bad he been talking, and she 
ignoring him ? 

" Be assured, Mr. Meldrum, you have my fullest sympathy." 

The words were perfunctory, but not the lone. 

He rose, and drew near to her chair. 

"Mrs. Verrall— Doro " 

" Mr. Meldrura ! '* 

He stood petrified— his attitude the perfection of awkwardness. 
As Dorothea watched him, indignation gave way to amusement. 
Take for similitude a dog — willing of spirit, but weak of flesh — dis- 
covered with forepaws on the breakfast- table, the forbidden rasher 
palpable within his jaws. 

"What can excuse me? You know what I would have asked? " 

Impossible to say " Yes." 

" WIml do you mean, Mr. Meldrum?" 

"I would have asked— that your sympathy — that your** (he 
stumbled on the word like a schoolboy) — " that your love might be 
mine." 

" You know that I am married ?" 

Meldrum sat back, stupefied, into the chair behind him, while 
Dorothea quietly resumed her reading. It did not take him long to 
rally his senses. Her matronly composure stung him deliciously. 
Vanity was absorbed in re\'erence. He caught himself thinking 
that she would be even more charming as Barbcrine than as Dorothea. 
I^t the reader feel no alarm ; there was not iwopennyworth of Roscm- 
berg in Mcldnim's composition. 

"Mrs. Verrall, will you— can you— forgive my idiocy?" 

"Never mind that, Mr. Meldrum. Now let us be practical 
Have you shown this to any publishers ? " 

"Yes ; every publisher in London, I should think." 

"Verrall and Beevor?" 

"Er-no." 

"But why not?" 

"Mr. Verrall is an old acquaintance of mine. One doesn't like 
to force one's stuff on a man in that way. Is ?" 

"Oh, what nonsense I Mr. Meldrum, you will ne\er make your 
way. You mustn't consider your friends. You mu3t/«M.'* Doro- 
thea spoke with authority. She knew the world; she. as the 
reader is aware, pushed. " How long have you known Mr. 
Verrall?" 

"I knew him a long time ago. I haven't seen him for yean." 
At last he could get his question in. " U that Mr. VermU ? " 



LEcoU des Privenus. 13 

"That Mr. Venall is my husband, yes. We must make him 
publish it." 

" But, Mrs. Veirall — I can't thank you enough for your kind- 
ness — but it really isn't fair." 

''Oh," with delicious candour, "it will have to be altered a 
good deal, of course— quite rewritten in some parts." 

Meldrum found that, under circumstances, he could enjoy 
humiliation. 

" You really think it is worth altering — rewriting ? " 

"Of course it is; you know it is. Mr. Meldrum, an author 
should be above petty self-disparagement." 

He would have sought to merit further reproof. But Dorothea 
resumed: 

" However, you must send it first, and have Mr. Verrall's opinion 
on the book as it stands." 

" But " 

" Now you are going to make excuses. I shall send it myself, 
to-night. Only you must write me a few lines to enclose with it. 
You can do that here." 

Protest was useless. Meldrum sat down at a writing-table. 
The letter only took him five minutes. When it was finished, he 
received his dismissal. 

All this had taken place on a Monday evening. On Thursday 
Dorothea received a letter from John, which we shall take the 
liberty of publishing : 

My dear Dorothea, — Do not suppose for a moment that 
this is a letter of submission. I am still good for another week or 
so ; after which period I foresee that I shall be " reasonable," for 
mere want of someone to pour out my coffee. It was a dastardly 
stroke to take Aunt Jane with you. But mind : my reasonableness 
will extend only so far as to read this abomination : publishing is 
quite another matter. Meanwhile I have other, and (my last 
flicker of independence) better fish to fry. Have you at Quebec 
House come across a man named Meldrum ? If so, you have met 
the George Eliot of our generation (though who shall persuade you 
that any man may bear comparison with her?) Perhaps I may 
have mentioned his name to you before, as he is an old acquaint- 
ance of mine, though I have not seen him now for many years. I 
had no idea that he possessed any literary ability — or even ambi- 
tion — until I received from him on Tuesday last a couple of MSS. 
<Mi which I have been occupied ever since. One of these— the 



14 



The Gentkmans Magazine. 



earlier— has evidently been ihe round of the publishers. It is' 
called "The Grey Goose." It has enough errors of treatment and 
construction to account for its failure : yet, on a more attentive 
reading, its good points arc so apparent that I can persuade myself, 
though with difficulty, that the man who wrote "A Student of 
Pascal" may have exercised his 'prentice hand on "The Grey 
Goose." As to the later book, I may possibly cool down a little : 
at present, it appears to me faultless — the work of a master. 
Evidently, Meldrum only sent the " Goose " as an afterthought, for 
his letter only mentions "a MS." But I have no doubt it may be 
worked into shape : I accordingly hope to come to terms with him 
about both books. The marvel is that he should have found no 
pubHisher : for it is impossible that these two should be consecutive 
books; he must ha\'e written a great deal in between. I have 
asked him to come up and see me as soon as he can. I am only 
sorry that you will not be here to receive him : for I will not deny 
you a certain passive intelligence in things literary. Now, shall we 
make a compromise? Come back at once, and I will read the 
thing : but under protest, and on the understanding that nothing 
of the sort is to occur again. Let mc know your decision. 

I remain, Madam, your obedient servant, ^m 

JOHX VeRRALL. ^ 

It was in ber own room that Dorothea read this letter. When 
she had finished it she flung herself upon her unoffending aunt and 
went near to strangling her. 

*' My dear, what is the matter?" asked the victim mildly. 

Dorothea deigned no oral explanation, but, sitting down, wTote a ' 
short note, which she handed to Aunt Jane. 

" Is not this wifely obedience ? " she asked. ^H 

Aunt Jane read : '■ 

My dear John, — ^^Ve will come home to-morrow. As to the 
MS., you need not read it. I will have nothing done under protest. 

Yours, 

Dorothea. 

*' My dear," was her comment, " I am very glad. You are a good 
child, Dorothea, John was in the wrong. Does he ask you to come 
home?" 

" Yes ; but of course he does not admit that he was in the WTong." 

" Men never do," said Aunt Jane, of her experience ; and added 
again, " but you are a good child." 

" Yes," Dorothea assented. 



I 



J 



LEcoU des Prdvenus. 15 

Preseatly there was a knock at the door. Meldrum appeared. 

" May I come in ? I am afraid, Mrs. Venall, that there has been 
some mistake about that unlucky MS. of mine." 

" Yes, I know," said Dorothea ; " I made a mistake. I will ex- 
plain, but not now. Mr. Meldrum, I want you to promise mc 
something." 

" I promise." 

" Say nothing to Mr. Verrall, and write nothing to him, until you 
have my permission to do so." 

"So be it." 

" I am going home to-morrow, and will explain the mistake to 
Mr. VerralL That will be better than writing." 

" Mr. Verrall has asked me to see him about the MS., my MS., 
so I shall be going up too." 

"When?" 

" To-morrow." He meant it this time. 

" Then you shall look after us and our luggage." 

Meldrum dined with the Verralls on the following night, for 
the party had arrived within half an hour of their usual dinner- 
hour. 

The meal was almost as silent as the last which John and 
Dorothea had together, despite the presence of a guest. Indeed} 
Meldrum was perhaps the most silent of the party. He was uneasy 
about the mysterious MS. which had, it seemed, accompanied bis 
own. John Verrall's mind was full of the same subject, from another 
point of view. So was Dorothea's. Aunt Jane alone showed due 
composure. There seemed to be a tacit agreement that no "shop" 
should be talked until dinner was over. 

Meldrum would drink nothing, and the quartette repaired together 
to the drawing-room. But Aunt Jane disappeared at once on some 
household errand. 

Verrall could hold his peace no longer. 

" Meldrum," he exclaimed, " I can't put those two books together. 
Tell me all about them. What have you written in between ? The 

' Student of Pascal ' is genius ; the other " He stopped, finding 

no convenient expression. 

Meldrum, remembering his promise, looked appealingly at 
Dorothea. 

She realised that she had been inconsiderate— almost ungenerous. 
She sought to make amends, and at the same time to disburden 
herself of her secret 



16 



The Genthmans Magazine, 



" To say truth, Mr. Meldrum, my husband is no critic. And in 
this case I fear marital prejudice is at work in my favour." 

He knew all. He seized Dorothea by the wrists. 

" You ? " he gasped. " Let me look at you. You wrote it ? 
The * Student of Pascal is yours ? " He knelt before his *' fair and 
strong and terrible lioness." *' Dorothea, trample on me. I am a 
worm .ind no man. Dorothea" — words failed him. "Dorothea, 
try my faith. Order me to publish a railway guide, on hand-made 
paper, with illustrations by Myrbach. Trample." 

Dorothea trampled, with dainty precision : 

N'ous Kroa£. par nos lois, Ics ji^ges des ouvrages ; 
Par nos lois, prose el vers, tout nous sera soutnis : 
Nul n'aura de Tesprit, hora dou» el nos amis. 
Nous chcrchciotu partout & trouvei i^ redire, 
Et ne verroni que nous qui sachent bien ^crire. 

Verrall sprang to his feet. There was yet a red rag for this tame 
bull — Alexandrine verse, spoken ; written, he could endure it as well 
as another man. 

"To the woman who can quote five consecutive lines of Moliire 
and flinch not, publishing is child's play. Dorothea, the fair fame 
of Verrall, Bcevor and Verrall is in your keeping." 

He made for the door, dragging Meldrum with him. 

But worse was to come. Dorothea was on her mettle. She 
intercepted Meldrum's flight. 

Vous, St vous connaisset des maris pr^veniui, 
Eavoyez>les, &u moins, i I'^cole chez nout. 

At the moment j\unt Jane entered. 

Verrall gave her a warning touch as Meldrum passed out of the 
room. 

*' Your niece, madam,'* he said, with complex irreverence, " is 
grievously vexed " 

Dorothea slammed the door in time. 

Criticism came hissing through the keyhole : " Unfeminine ! " 



'7 



A SUSSEX PEPYS, 



WILLIAM COWPER, who was afterwards Lord Chancellor, 
writing to his wife in 1690 from the comparatively civilised 
neighbourhood of Kingston-on-Thames, excused himself for not 
having written from Horsham — where he had been attending cir- 
cuit — on the plea that they had to send their letters six miles thence 
by special messenger to meet the post. Of the condition of rural 
Sussex at that time he gives a deplorable account " The Sussex 
ways," he says, "are bad and ruinous beyond imagination. I vow 
'tis a melancholy consideration that mankind will inhabit such a 
heap of dirt for a poor livelihood. The country is a sink of about 
fourteen miles broad, which receives all the water that falls from two 
long ranges of hills on both sides of it ; and, not being furnished 
with convenient drainage, is kept moist and soft by the water till the 
middle of a dry summer, which is only able to make it tolerable to 
ride for a short time." 

Very little substantial improvement seems to have been effected 
within the following fifty or sixty years. The roads continued to be 
impassable for the greater part of the year. The only way of 
getting about was on horseback — the husband riding with his wife 
on a pillion behind him \ a slip of road was made hard for horse- 
men by the refuse slag from the extinct ironworks, the rest of the 
roadway being available only in the middle of summer. 

It followed, therefore, that those who lived and carried on their 
business in the remoter Sussex towns and villages led singularly 
isolated lives, and of their habits and customs, amusements and 
mode of life, but few records have reached us. One curiously in- 
teresting one, however, survives in the diaries of one Thomas 
Turner, a tradesman of East Hothly, the manuscript of which 
having remained in the possession of his descendants for a century 
or more, came at last under the observation of Messrs. R. W. 
Blencowe and M. A. Lower, and formed the subject of a paper 
which was added to the collections of the Sussex Archaeological 
Society in 1859. 

VOL. ccxci. NO. 3047. c 



18 



The Gentleman s Magazine, 



In East Hothly, which ronxied the centre of a district bounded 
on one side by the sea and on the other by a swampy, ill-drained 
land intersected by almost impassable roads, Thomas Turner carried 
on the business oT general shopkeeper, a trade which, it has been 
whispered, has been the foundation of the fortunes of many well- 
to-do Sussex families of to-day. The old Sussex mercer was the 
precursor of the "stores" and the "universal provider" of the 
present day ; he dealt in e\erj'thing, from a flat-iron to a coffin ; he 
was grocer, draper, haberdasher, hatter, clothier, druggist, iron- 
monger, stationer, glover, undertaker, &c 

There is an old Weald of Sussex story which relates how that a 
Londoner, amused at the miscellaneous business carried on at one of 
ll\ese local stores, determined to pose its proprietor by asking for 
something which he could not supply. "Well, Mr. Smith," he 
began, " you sell everything, don't you ? " *' Not everything, sir," 
replied Mr. Smith, " but a good many things." " Well," said the 
Londoner, " I want a second-hand pulpit ; you can't supply that, I 
suppose?" '*Wcll, yes, sir, I can," answered Smith, "for our 
church has been new-pewed lately, and as I'm churchwarden, I 
happen just now to have a second-hand pulpit left in stock." 

I believe the stor)- has of late years changed its venue to West- 
bourne Grove, and been modified to suit the altered conditions ; but 
this is the true and original version, which was an ancient tradition a 
century ago. 

Whether Thomas Turner's trade was as varied as this docs not 
appear from the diary, but if we may trust its accuracy, business was 
ver)- dull during the greater part of llic eleven years (February 1754 
to July 1765) over which the record extends, entry after entry being 
devoted to bitter complaints of bad trade and doleful forebodings as 
to what would become of him and his family. It seems probable 
that Thomas Turner was somewhat of a croaker, given to look on 
the gloomy side of things, or else that in the latter years of his life, 
after he had given up dlar>' -keeping, his business must have con- 
siderably improved — possibly with the help of the money brought 
to him by his second wife, for it is certain that on his death in 1789 
he left a very flourishing esLiblishment to his son, whose turn-over 
tveragcd from ^50,000 to ^^70,000 a year for many years. 

Thomas Turner, the diarist, was a native of Groombridgc, in 
Kent, where he was born in 1 728. He is said to have been a man 
of good family. At any rate his tastes were probably far in advance 
of those of the majority of his contemporaries. He was an omnivo- 
rous reader, and in the course of a few weeks he mentions having 



A Sussex P€pys, 19 

lead Gay's poems, Stewart "On the Supreme Being," "The Whole 
Duty of Man," "Paradise Lost and Regained," Tillotson's 
"Sermons," "Othello," "The Universal Magazine," Thomson's 
"Seasons," Young's "Night Thoughts," Tournefort's "Voyage 
to the Levant," and " Peregrine Pickle." 

His criticisms were sometimes amusing and often just. " Clarissa 
Harlowe" he looked upon "as a very well wrote thing, though it 
must be allowed to be too prolix," but the emotional side of him 
was touched when his wife read him the account of poor Clarissa's 
funeral, and he breaks out with " Oh ! may the Supreme Being give 
me grace to lead my life in such a manner as my exit may in some 
measure be like that divine creature's." 

It is impossible to acquit Mr. Turner of a certain amount of 
pose. It was a hard-drinking time, and the good Thomas drank as 
hard as any, and he was as frank about his misdoings as Pepys him- 
self, but he had always one eye on the future possible reader of his 
lucubrations, so the over-night's debauch was always made the text 
for a moral and improving discourse, the fervour of which seems to 
be in exact proportion to the severity of the headache the potations 
had left behind them. Possibly Thomas Turner was not altogether 
a humbug ; a man of his literary tastes must have found the amuse- 
ments of his neighbours and friends somewhat unsatisfying, but he 
never seems to have had the strength of mind to resist temptation. 
"Video meliora proboque, deteriora sequor" might have been his 
motto, had he understood Latin, which it does not appear that he did. 

He started his diary with the best intentions in the world : 

"Sunday, February 8, 1754. — As I by experience find how much 
more conducive it is to my health, as well as pleasantness and 
serenity to my mind, to live in a low moderate rate of diet, and as I 
know I shall never be able to comply therewith in so strickt a manner 
as I should chuse by thd unstable and over easyness of my temper, 
I think it therefore fit to draw up Rules of proper Regimen, which I 
do in the manner and form following, which I hope I shall always 
have the strictest regard to follow, as I think they are not inconsis- 
tent with either religion or morality." 

The Regimen thus formally prescribed was exact in every 
particular, leaving little to chance or accident : to rise early, to 
breakfast between seven and eight o'clock, to dine between twelve 
and one, and never to go to bed later than ten o'clock were funda- 
mental conditions. At dinner he was to eat sparingly of meat, but 
plentifully of garden-stuff ; supper was to consist of weak broth, 
water-gruel or milk pottage, varied occasionally with a fruit pie. 

c a 



20 



The GeniiemaH^s Magazine. 



As regards the extent of his potations Mr. Turner was pedanti- 
cally exact. Whether at home, or in company abroad, he pledged 
himself never to drink more than four glasses of strong beer ; one to 
toast the King's health, the second to the Royal Family, the third to 
all friends, and the fourth to the pleasure of the company. If there 
were wine or punch the aUowancc was to be eight glasses, each glass 
to hold no more than half a quarter of a pint. 

Alas for good resolutions ! At this time Turner combined the 
duties of a schoolmaster writh his ordinary business. He seems 
hardly to have been a judicious instTxictor of youth, if one may judge 
from an entry on June 20, which, being his birthday, he celebrated 
by treating his scholars to five quarts of strong beer. Turner gave 
up his school in 1756. 

Mrs. Turner's family appear to have lived at Lewes, her constant 
visits to which place were very distasteful to her husband, who keeps 
careful record of their domestic bickerings on this subject. "Oh 1 " 
he writes on June 30, "what happiness must there be in the 
married slate when there is a sincere regard on both sides, and each 
partie truly satisfied with each other's merits ! But it is impossible 
far tongue or pen to express the uneasiness that attends the contrary." 

On another occasion he laments : " Alas ! what can be said of a 
woman's temper and thought ? Business and family advantage must 
submit to their pride and pleasure ; but though I mention this of 
women, it may, perhaps, be as justly applyed to men ; but most 
people are blind to their own follies. " Surely a hnndsome admission. 

Much of this domestic strife seems, in his own words, to have 
been " fermented " by other parties, notably by the inevitable 
motherin-law, Mrs, Slater, whom he describes as a very Xantippe, 
"havinga great volubility of tongue forinvcctive, and especially if I am 
the subject, though alas ! what the good woman wants with nic I know g 
not, unless it be that 1 liave offended her by being too careful of h^^^l 
daughter, who, poor crcatm-e, has enjoyed but little pleasure in \\m^ 
marriage state, being almost continually, to our great misfortune, 
afflicted with illness." 

One of the earliest entries in the diary refers to his carrj'ing down 
'some shagg for a pair of breeches for Mr. Porter." Tlic Kev. 
Richard Porter, M.A., had been inducted lo the living of Easi 
Hothly in 1742- He wji* a man of learning, and it is on record that 
he engaged Waller Gale, the schoolmaster of MayAcld, lo tran&aribo 
" A Translation from I.onginus of Sappho/' which he had an 
translated into Sapphic vcnic. to the sound, time, and metre with 
original Grctrk. 



A Sussex Pepys, 21 

With r^;ard to the parson's breeches, it appears that in East 
Hothly there existed a special provision for the furnishing of these 
necessary items of the clerical attire. Some generations before, a 
wealthy and benevolent lady in the parish having observed that her 
pastor's nether garments were in an unseemly state of disrepair, 
[ffesented him and his successors for ever with a piece of woodland, 
attached to the glebe, the proceeds from which were to be devoted 
to the repair and renewal of the vicar's garments. 

Probably the Reverend Richard Porter stood less in need of the 
help of the " Breeches Wood," as it was called, than many of his 
predecessors, since he married the daughter and co-heiress of a 
Yorkshire gentleman of fortune. 

Mrs. Porter seems at one time to have been disposed to give 
herself airs towards the good people of East Hothly, and her 
behaviour, on one occasion at least, deeply offended Mr. Turner. 

On May 20, 1756, he writes : " This day I went to Mr. Porter's 
to inform him that the liveiy lace was not come, when I think Mrs. 
Porter treated me with as much imperious and scornful usage as if 
she had been, what I think she is, more of a Turk and infidel than a 
Christian, and I an abject slave." 

It is satisfactory to know that the lady unbent later on, and, 
indeed, went to extraordinary lengths of affability, as will appear 
from an entry in the diary on February 25 in the following year: 
" This morning, about six o'clock," he writes, "just as my wife was 
got to bed, we were awaked by Mrs. Porter, who pretended she 
wanted some cream of tartar; but as soon as my wife got out of 
bed she vowed she should come down. She found Mr. Porter, 
Mr. Fuller, and his wife, with a lighted candle and part of a bottle of 
wine and a glass. The next thing was to have me downstairs, which, 
being apprised of, I fastened my door. Upstairs they came, and 
threatened to break it open ; so I ordered the boys to open it, when 
they poured into my room, and, as modesty forbid me to get out of 
bed, so I refrained ; but their immodesty permitted them to draw 
me out of bed, as the common phrase is, topsy-turvey ; but, however, 
at the intercession of Mr. Porter, they gave me time to put on my 
wife's petticoats; and in this manner they made me dance, without 
shoes and stockings, untill they had emptied the bottle of wine and 
also a bottle of my beer. . . . About three o'clock in the afternoon 
they found their way to their respective homes, beginning to be a 
little serious and, in my opinion, ashamed of their stupid enterprise 
and drunken preambulation. Now, let anyone call in reason to his 
assistance and seriously reflect on what I have before recited, and 



23 



The Gentleman' s Magaziiu. 



thef will join with me in thinking that the precepts delivered from 
the pulpit on Sunday, though delivered with the greatest ardour, 
must lose a great deal of their efficacy by such examples." 

A few days later — it being Sunday, March 3 — " We bad as good 
a sermon as I ever heard Mr. Porter preach, it being against swearing." 
Mr. Porter seems, like the Puntans of " Hudibras," to have com- 
pounded for the 

(ins lie was ioclinetl to, 
By damnine those he bad no tnimi (o. 



Swearing he objected to, but getting drunk, wnthout using bad 
language, he called " innocent mirth ; but 1, in opinion," says the 
moral Turner, " differ much therefrom." 

The same party met the same week at Mr. Joseph Fuller's, where 
"we continued drinking like horses, ajj the vulgar phrase is, and 
singing till many of us were very drunk, and then we went to dancing 
and pulling of wigs, caps, and hats ; and thus wc continued in this 
frantic manner, behaving more like mad people than they that profess 
the name of Christians. Whether this is consistent to the wise saying 
of Solomon, let any one judge: 'Wine is a mocker, strong drink is 
raging, and he that is deceived thereby is not wise.' " 

Following upon this was an evening of " innocent mirth " at the 
Reverend Mr. Porter's, a pathetic comment upon which appears in 
the diary entry of the following day : 

" At home all day. Ver>' piteous I " 

The round of orgies was completed by a meeting of the same 
party at Turner's own house— an invitation affair this time, not ai 
surprise-part)- like the last. After which he writes : 

" Now I hope all revelling for this season is over ; and may I 
never more be discomposed with so much drink, or by the noise of 
an obstrepertous multitude, but that I may calm my troubled mind 
and soothe my disturbed conscience." 

Lest it be supposed that there was anything very unclcrical in the 
conduct of Mr. Porter, according to the customs of his time, it may 
be well to (juote here an entry of a later date, referring to another pillar 
of the Church : — 

" Mr. , the curate of T^ughton, came to the shop in the 
forenoon, and he having bought some things of me (and I could 
wish he had paid for them), dined with me, and also staid in the 
afternoon till he got in liquor, and being so complaisant as to keep 
him company, I was quite drunk. How I do detest myself for being 
so foolish." 



A Sussex Pepys, 



Mr.Turner^s moral remarks and pious ejacubtions, whether they be 
aincete or not, add at limes immensely to the humour of his nfurative. 

Here is a gem : 

** December 25lh. — This being Christmas Day, myself and wife 
at church in the morning. We stayed the Communion ; my wife 
gave td, ; but they not asking mc^ I gave nothing. Ob ! may wc 
increase in faJth and good works, and maintain the good intentions 
wc have this day taken up.** 

Mr. Turner's experiences as overseer and churchwarden throw 
an interesting light upon the conduct of parish business in those 
days. On April 19, 1756, he was chosen overseer, and on the 
sist went to the audit, " and came home dnuk \ but I think never 
to exceed the bounds of moderation more." 

It seems to have l)cen the custom for the parish ofliccrs to make 
raids, during the service, upon the public-houses; thus on Sunday, 
April 25, "as soon as prayers were over, Mr. French and I went 
tand searched the public-houses. At Francis Turner's we found a 
an and his wife ; they seemed a very sober sort of people, and not 
a-drinking, so wc did not meddle with them." 

On another occasion, while the Psalms were being sung, he and 

the headborough again drew the ale-houses blank, but they caught 

tic barber " exercising his trade " ; but as it was a first offence they 

□rgave him. They were severely Sabbatarians these pious Sussex 

jllipplcrs. 

The year after his election as overseer Mr. Turner was chosen 
diurchwarden, for which he paid 4J. 6^., and got home about 
to P.M. — "Thank God, very safe and sober ! " 

Vestry meetings in those days, as occasionally at the present 
lime, were conducted with a good deal of heat. " We had several 
warm arguments at the vestry today," he writes, " and several 
volHes of execrable oaths oftcntinics redounded from allmost all 
parts of the room. A most rude and shocking thing at publick 
Dcetings." 

The follon-ing account of the way in which an undesirable 
parishioner was got rid of is instructive : " I went down to Jones's 
to the publick vestry. It was the unanimous consent of all present 
to give to Tho. Daw, upon condition that be should buy the house 
in the parish of Waldron for which he bath been treating, by 
reason tliat he would then be an inhabitant of Waldron, and dear 
of OUT parish, lialfc a tun of iron, ^10; a chaldron of coals, &:c., 
j^3 ; in cash, j^S ; and find him the sum of j£^3o, for which be Is 
10 pay interest, for to buy the said house ; a fine present for a man 



24 



The Gentleman s Magazine. 



that has already about j^So I but yet, I believe it is a very prudent 
step in the parish, for he being a man with but one leg, and very 
contrar}' witball, and his wife being entirely deprived of that great 
Messing, eyesight, ihere is great room to suspect there would, one 
lime or other, happen a great charge to the parish, there being a 
very increasing family ; and I doubt the man is none of the most 
prudent, he having followed smuggling very much in time past, 
which has brought him into a trifling way of life." 

Another instance of this free and easy way of dealing with 
public money is aflbrded by the calling of a vestry meeting in the 
churchyard, one Sunday after service, to dctcnnine whether the sum 
of six guineas should be lent, on the parish account, to Francis 
Turner, to enable him to pay a debt for which he was threatened 
with arrest on the Monday. The meeting unanimously decided 
that Francis should have the money, which was neighbourly, if, to 
us, it appears irregular. Arrest for debt was no joke in those days, 
however, and our Thomas Turner, who seems to have been a kind- 
hearted fellow, was sorely perplexed throughout several days of his 
diary, as to whether he had not been guilty of oppression in putting into 
the law)-cr's hands a fellow who had owed him a debt for four years. 

Recruiting for the Navy was a sweetly simple process then : 
'* Master Hookc and myself," he writes, " went and searched John 
Jones's and Prawle's [probably two ale-houses] in order to see if 
there was any disorderly fellows, that he might have them to the 
setting to morrow in order to send them to sea. We found none J 
tiiat wf thought proper to send." \ 

It would be interesting to have had Master Thomas Turner's 
exact d*;finition of " a disorderly fellow." 

The practice of limiting the time of an auction by the burning of 
a candle obtained at this time. In this year (1756), Mr. Turner at- 
tended a sale of some property in the parish of St. Michael's, Lewes 
The candle was lighted at four o'clock, and burnt until eight — four 
hours being spent in the disposal of property worth ;^42o. 

Trade was bad that year. He exclaims against the dearness of^ 
all proNisions, wheat being i«. ft bushel, barley Jj., beef ts. a 
stone, mutton 3^. a pound. " Oh 1 how dull is trade, how very 
scarce is money. Never did I know so bad a time before. What 
shall I do? Work I cannot, and honest I will be, if the Almighty 
will give me grace." 

The echoes of events in the great world reached East Hothly^ 
albeit slowly. From the following it appears that War Office delays 
and mismanagcoicnt are not of modem invention. 



A Sussex Pefys. 25 

" i8th July, 1756.— I this day heard of the loss of Fort St Philip 
and the whole island of Minarco (Minorca), after being possessed by 
the English nation forty^even years, and after bemg defended ten 
weeks and one day by that truly brave and heroic man, General 
Blakeney, and at last was obliged to surrender for want of provisions 
and ammunition. No man, I think, can deserve a brighter character 
in the annals of fame like this. But, oh I he was, as one may justly 
say, abandoned by his country, who never sent him any succouiA 
Never did the English nation suffer a greater blot Oh 1 my country, 
my country ! Oh, Albian, Albian ! I doubt thou are tottering on 
the brink of ruin and desolation this day ! The nation is all in a 
foment upon account of losing dear Minorca." 

Here are one or two entries made about this time : 

"August 22nd. — I sett off for Pittdown, where I saw Charles 
Di^ens and James Fowle run twenty rods for one guinea each. I 
got never a bet, but very drunk." 

The entertainment seems to have been kept up all night : 

" 23rd. — Came home in the forenoon, not quite sober. At home 
all day, and I know I behaved more like an ass than any human 
being — doubtless not like one tliat calls himself a Christian. Oh I 
how unworthy am I of that name ! " 

Mr. Turner could be quietly sarcastic about his associates some- 
times : 

" Was fought this day at Jones's a main of cocks between the 
gentlemen of Hothly and Pevensey. Query. Is there a gentleman 
in either of the places that was consernd ? " 

The hop-picking season in Sussex was inaugurated with the 
purchase and presentation of a neck-cloth for the pole-puller. This 
was of some showy colour, which made him conspicuous in the 
garderL The hop-pickers subscribed for the purchase, and the 
ceremony, like all the rest of the country celebrations, was reckoned 
a fit " excuse for a glass." 

" September 20th. — In the even Mr. Porter's hop-pickers bought 
their pole-puller's neckcloth." 

"September 23rd. — Holland hop-pickers bought their pole- 
puller's neckcloth ; and, poor wretches, many of them insensible." 

Here is an account of a typical expedition to a neighbouring 
town; 

"Monday, October 17. — Tho. Currant and I set out on our 
journey to Steyning, and arrived there in the even. Next day f 
settled with Mr. Burfield ; after this we must needs walk up to 
Steyning town, where he had us about from one of his friends' 



36 



Th^ Gentlemans Magazine. 



houses to another untill we became not verj' sober ; but, however, 
we got back to Mr. Burticld's and dined there. After dinner, think- 
ing myself capable to undertake such a journey, I came away leaving 
Tho. Durrant there, who actual was past riding, or amost anything 
else. I arrived home through the providence of God, very well and safe, 
about seven ; and, to give Mr. Burfield his just character in the light 
wherein he appears to me, he is a very good-tempered man, a kind 
and alTectionate husband, an indulgent and tender parent, benevolent 
and humane to a great degree, and who seems to have a great 
capacity and judgment in his business ; but, after all, a man very 
much given to drink." This comes wcU from Thomas Turner. 

The Turners' matrimonial felicity does not scera to have become 
more assured as time went on. Quarrels were frequent, and recon- 
ciliations followed close upon them. On one occasion, all the family 
having taken the Sacrament together, he and his wife resolved "to 
forsake their sins and to become better Christians, and to bear with 
each other's infirmities, and live in peace with all mankind." 
Thomas Davey, happening to drop in the same evening, Mr. 
Turner read him six of Tillotson's sermons, which seems rather hard 
upon Thomas Davey. 

In common with many other respectable persons of his time, 
Thomas Turner rt^arded church-going and a more or less scrupulous 
obser\'ancc of the Fourth Commandment as a cloak for a good many 
other irregularities of conduct. He did not always attend church, 
but he was always severe upon himself for the omission. One 
Sunday he writes : 

" I was at home all day, but not at church. Oh, fye ! No just 
reason for not being there." 

Another time he says : 

"No service at our church in the morning or afternoon. I 
dined on a roasted goose and applesauce ; I drunk tea with Mr. 
Carman and his family. This is not the right use that Sunday 
should be applied to. No, it is not." 

Notwithstanding his respect for dignitaries, he is very severe, in 
his diary, upon the Duke of Newcastle, who was wont to bring a 
large party of friends to llalland House, and to spend Sunday in 
feasting. This desecration of the Sabbath, coupled with the fact 
that the Duke carried several French cooks in his train, induced some 
very strong remarks, although, with Mr. Turner's usual 
plaisance," he seems to have been a frequent visitor at Halland 
where he was on friendly terms with the Duke's steward and man 
business, Mr. Coates. 



I 
I 



com- H 
land, ^1 
an of ^1 



A Sussex Pepys. 27 

Christmas festirities b^an early and continued late then, as we 
banily hear the last of them before March. 

The 6rst of the parties recorded in 1757 was on January 26, 
when they went to Whyly, and Mr. Turner is careful to record that 
they came home " I may say, quite sober," although he proceeds to 
explain that he had contracted a slight impediment in his speech, 
" occasioned by the fumes of the liquor operating too furiously upon 
my brain." 

On February snd they supped at Mr. Fuller's and spent the 
evening with a great deal of mirth. "Tho. Fuller brought my 
wife home upon his back." 

A second evening's entertainment at Whyly does not seem to 
have borne the morning's reflection quite so well : 

" We played at bra^ the first part of the even. After ten we 
went to supper, on four boiled chicken, four boiled ducks, minced 
veal, sausi^es, cold roast goose, chicken pasty and ham. After 
supper our behaviour was far from that of serious harmless mirth; it 
was downright obstreperious, mixed with a great deal of folly and 
stupidity. Our diversion was dancing or jumping about, without a 
violin or any musick, singing of foolish healths, and drinking all the 
time as fast as it could be poured down ; and the parson of the 
parish was one among the mixed multitude. If conscience " (here 
follows the inevitable moral reflection), " if conscience dictates right 
from wrong, as doubtless it sometimes does, mine is one that I may 
say is soon offended ; for I must say I am always very uneasy at 
such behaviour, thinking it not like the behaviour of the primitive 
Christians, which I imagine was most in conformity to our Saviour's 
gospel. Nor would I be thought to be either a cynick or a stoick, 
but let social improving discourse pass round the company. About 
three o'clock, finding myself to have as much liquor as would do me 
good, I slipt away unobserved, leaving my wife to make my excuse. 
Though I was very far from sober, I came home, thank God, very 
safe and well, without even tumbling" (this was apparently an 
exceptional experience); "and Mr. French's servant brought my wife 
home at ten minutes past five " (probably upon his back). 

Notwithstanding the frequent recurrence of these jollifications 
the badness of the times weighed more and more heavily upon his 
spirits. "A very melancholy time," he writes on March 23, 
*' occasioned by the deamess of corn, though not proceeding from 
a real scarcity but from the iniquitous practice of ingrossers, fore- 
stalling, &c." 

In July of the same year he complains of " a most prodigious 



28 




The Gentleman's Magazine, 



melancboHy time," which he atlributes to the increase of luxury, 
specially exemplified in the too frequent use of spirituous liquors, and 
" the exorbitant practice of tea-drinking, which tias corrupted the 
morals of people of almost every rank." As green lea was then 14J. 
a pound and more, and bohea 12^. and lor, it seems hardly likely 
that the " exorbitant practice " can have descended very low in the 
social scale. 

The potations of which Mr. Turner writes so often were 
probably in the main confined to strong ale. His objection to the 
excessive use of spirits is frequently expressed, and in somewhat 
more sincere a tone than his MawTvorm-Iike lamentations over his 
own backslidings. Curiously enough tea and spirit drinking are 
invariably coupled in his complaints about the growth of luxurious 
and intemperate habits. Two years later, we find him remarking 
that " Custom has brought tea and spirituous liquors so much into 
fashion that I dare be bold to say they often, too often, prove our 
ruin, and I doubt often, by the too frequent use of both, entail a 
weakness upon our progeny." 

On October 20, 1758, he " read the * Extraordinary Gazette ' for 
Wednesday, which gives an account of our army in America, under 
the command of General Woolf, beating the French army under 
General Montcalm, near the city of Quebec, wherein both the 
generals were killed and the FnglJsh General Monkton, who took 
the command after General Woolf was killed, was shot through the 
body, but is like to do well ; as also the surrender of the city of 
Quebec. Oh ! what a pleasure it is to every tnie Briton to see 
what success it pleased Almighty God to bless his Majesty's arms, 
they having success at this time in Europe, Asia, Africa, and 
America.'* 

At Halland, in December, Hawke's victory over the French 
fleet was celebrated, and one regrets to le.irn that Mr. Turner spent 
an hour and a half trying to get through Mr. l*ortcr's wood on his 
way home, "the liquor opperating so much in the head that It 
rendered my legges useless," 

On Sunday, October 26, of the year following, he notes the 
receipt of the melancholy news of the death of " the King and 
parent of our most happy isle, his most august Majesty George II." 

Death came nearer to him in June 1761, when he lost his wife, 
after a painful illness of thirty-eight weeks. Poor Peggy's contrary 
ways were straightway forgotten. Like " the incomparable Mr. 
Young," he cries, " let them whoever lost an angel pity me." With 
pardonable self-deception he even cheats himself into the belief 




A Sussex Pepys, 29 

that they lived a life together of undisturbed harmony, and in 
lamentiDg over his fiiture tipsy bouts he even ventures to suggest 
that he led a more regular life in " dear P^gy's " time. 

There is somewhat of a sameness in the diary entries for some 
considerable time, laments on bad trade, sorrow for his wife's loss, 
and records of drinking bouts with moral reflections thereon recur 
with monotonous r^;ularity. 

We hear incidentally of Thomas Davy again, and learn with 
T^ret that he apparently benefited little by his severe course of 
Tillotson's sermons. 

** The wife of Thos. Davy was this day delivered of a girl, after 
being married only six months ; two people whom I should the 
least have suspected of so indiscreet an act. How careful should 
we be of ourselves in this particular, &c., &c." 

However, he went to the christening, and came home " sober I 
Oh 1 how comfortable does that word sound in my ears." 

Two years after his wife's death the gossips of East Hothly were 
busying themselves with rumours of his second marriage, the effects 
of which suggestion are amusingly apparent in his diary. To his 
first denials of the possibility of such an occurrence follow an assur- 
ance that he has not made any resolution to live single. Presently, 
he discovers that " for want of the company of the softer sex I am 
become extremely awkward, and a certain roughness of disposition 
has seized on my mind," so that he is neither agreeable to himself, 
nor can his company be so to others. 

One is not surprised, therefore, to read of his walking over to 
Lewes one Sunday to see a girl to whom he thought of paying his 
addresses. He was still very lukewarm on the subject, and the 
young lady not being at home, he had only his walk for his pains, 
which, he says, " was, perhaps, as well." 

The object of Mr. Turner's well-regulated attachment, Molly 
Hicks, although in service at Lewes, was the daughter of a sub- 
stantial yeoman at Chiddingtey, with which parish the family was 
connected for many generations, and had some considerable expec- 
tations of her own. 

Three months after his abortive visit to Lewes, we find him 
visiting Molly at her father's home, where the ceremony of "sitting 
up" was gone through. 

" It being an excessive wet and windy night, I had the oppor- 
tunity, sure I should say the pleasure, or, perhaps, some might say 
the unspeakable happiness, to set up with Molly Hicks, or my 
charmer, all night. I came home at forty minutes past five in the 



30 




The Gentleman s MagazUu. 



morning — I must not say fatigued ; no, no, that could not be ; it 
could only be a little sleepy for want of rest. Well, to be sure, she 
13 a most clever girl ; but, however, to be serious in the affair, I 
certainly esteem the girl, and iliink she appears worthy of my 
esteem." 

Decidedly, Thomas was not a rapturous lover. In a subsequent 
entry in his diary he argues with himself the question of his 
marriage in as judicial a manner as Fanurgc. He is under no 
illusions as to the lady's attractions, and even admits her virtues 
with caution. "The girl, I believe, as far as I can discover, is a 
very industrious, sober woman, and seemingly endowed with 
prudence and good- nature. ... As to her person, I know it is 
plain (so is my own), but she is cleanly in her person and dress, 
which is something more than at first sight it may appear to be, 
towards happiness. She is, [ think, a well-made woman. As to her 
education, I own it is not liberal, but she has good sense and a 
desire to improve her mind, &c., &c." 

This being almost the last entry \\\ the diary, one cannot help 
suspecting that the charming Molly must have stumbled upon these 
indiscreet outpourings in the early days of her married life, and have 
expressed her disapproval of the practice of diaiy-making with a 
vigour that ensured its final discontinuance. 

They were married on June ig, 1765, and the event was briefly 
recorded on July 3 following — the final entry in the diarj'. 

" Thank God," he concludes, " I begin once more to be a little 
settled and am happy in my choice. I have, it is true, not married 
a learned lady, nor Is she a gay one ; but I trust she is good natured " 
(he is still apparently uncertain on the point). " As to her fortune, I 
shall one day have something considerable, and there seems to be 
rather a flowing stream. Well, here let us drop the subject, and 
begin a new one." 

So we leave Thomas Turner in the full tide of the "flowing 
stream " that bore him to his last harbour some hundred and twelve 
years ago. 

CHARUfS COOPER. 




I 



THE politiciil philosopher is apt to suffer from one of two 
defects. He may be merely a student without actual ex- 
perience of the working of those principles and passions which he 
describes. He may be merely a polilician, prejudiced by the long 
habit of taking sides and embittered by an acquired party spirit. 
The more he is of the one, the less he is sure to be of the other ; 
and he will rarely be like the ideal physician of Plato, who could 
prescribe for mankind, because he had proved their diseases in his 
own person. He will prescribe from a distant and uncertain know- 
ledge^ or be will himself be so weakened and deformed by disease 
as to liave lost the power to treat it properly. 

This consideration, trite as it may appear, is necessary to explain 
the life of Lord Bolingbroke. The world remembers him not only 
as a great orator, whose speeches it is our loss not to have preserved; 
or as the author of an epoch-making treaty with France; or as the 
man who rode the Tory party to an unexampled fall ; or as the 
disappointed {X)Iitician who pulled for many years the strings of an 
active opposition to Walpole. It remembers him also as the man 
who tried to construct a science of English pohtics ; as the writer 
who inspired the great protest of the eighteenth century against the 
system of parly government, though his own efforts in the world of 
politics went perhaps to perpetuate that system ; as the man who 
enunciated doctrines of policy that have become the heritage and 
the ideal of parties; and, above all, as the philosopher whose 
speculations profoundly aflectcd the whole course of eighteenth- 
century thought. But Bolingbroke was a philosopher only by cir 
cumstance, and a politician by nature. There were times — and 
such limes will occur to the minds of all— when he pretended to 
lire of the strife of parties, and to give himself to study in some 
quiet and distant country retreat ; and perhaps he did so retire for 
two short years of exclusion from power. But his eye was always 
cast back to the tumultuous world, which he had perforce aban- 
doned. He may have tried — he never managed — to be merely 8^ 



3a 



The Gentleman's Magasine. 



student. He might paint his haU with rakes and spades, &5 
eni1)lems nf the bucolic life which he intended to lead, or he might 
write in an affected strain of the pleasures of retirement or the 
consolations of exile ; but his mind was all the while on protocols 
and Embassies and coalitions. He talked of horses, but he thought 
of Cabinets, His studies were mere cloaks for plots and schemes. 
They were the dark shade from which he winged envenomed shafts 
against the men in power. 

It is not the purpose of this essay to dwell minutely on 
the early part of Bolingbroke's career, or, indeed, upon any 
part of it, the facts being sufficiently well known and, indeed, 
essential to the clear understanding of English history. The 
glories of his descent he shared with a crowd of the illustrious 
obscure ; the acts of his own life have given him a place 
among the makers of modem England We would rather attempt 
to disentangle from contradictory utterances and inconsistent 
actions the ideas which guided a life so long engaged in politics. 
Bolingbroke may, to use the words of Defoe -a man versed in 
affairs and a wise critic of statesmen— have done all merely to serve 
a turn ; but a mind like his could not but adorn the meanest 
occasions of political life. His motives may have been low and 
narrow ; his intellect gave them at least the colour of greatness and 
wisdom, and he built on them a superstructure of brilliant, if not 
aJways convincing, reflection. 

The story goes that Bolingbroke was put into Parliament by his 
family to wean him from an expensive and ruinous mistress. He 
was at the lime plain Henry St. John ; and he entered an assembly 
which had won power, but did not know how to use it, and which 
was constantly swayed by the most surprising gusts of passion and 
suspicion. The Revolution had placed England under the domi- 
nation of Parliament ; it had placed Parliament under the heel of 
party ; and parties were often filled with the most furious spirit of 
faction. Of this spirit Bolingbroke's early actions are a sufficient 
and instructive example. He was concerned in all llic insulting 
measures by which the Tory party embittered the latter years of 
King William. He opposed the Partition Treaties \ he opposed the 
war with France ; he prayed for the removal of the Dutch guards ; 
and he was popular with the country gentlemeri, who had come 
to London full of hostility to the men of money and the men of 
trade. From this care of the landed interest he swerved but little 
through all the inconsistencies of his life. It was the fijundation ^i 
that Tory system of which be wrote so much and said so much later. 




The Potiiics of Bolingbroke^ 



k 



k 



I 



Yet it was only by slow degrees, and to the alaxm of her wisest 
men, that England fell into the party system ; and it is not surprising 
to find that St John, Torj* as he was, attached himself to the man 
who made one of the last futile efforts to rule England in defiance 
of the new idea. He was an especial favourite of Marlborough; 
and he became a member of that mixed Ministry in support of 
which Marlborough hoped to unite all Englishmen till the 
exorbitance of France should be destroyed. It was a vain attempt. 
Marlborough himself forgot his first moderation^ and strove rather 
to overwhelm than merely to enfeeble France ; parly divisions were 
too wide and too representative of irreconcilable principles; and 
statesmanship was obscured by the rage of politicians. Subtle 
intrigues circled round the bemldcred Queen. Whig crossed Tory, 
and Tory hinted the danger of the Church. The dark, silent^ 
solemn plotter, Robert Harley, won upon the fears of the Queen till 
the Whigs by a lucky chance ejected him from the Ministry. With 
him went St. John, weary of the war and seeming to abandon 
politics for study in his pleasant retreat at Bucklcrsbury. But their 
exile was not long. Harley still held the threads of his intrigue, 
and stilt wove them round the Queen. His cause was strengthened 
by popular weariness of the war, and in 171 1 he and St. John were 
borne back to power on the flood tide of a Tory reaction which 
the imagined wrongs of the Church had done much to raise. 

There is no more melancholy story in the annals of English 
history than the fate of this, the first Tory Ministry. It began with 
•trength, union, and enthusiasm. It ended with weakness, bickering, 
and fatal mistrust. It began with a well-defined and acceptable policy 
of opposition to the war, hostility to Dissenters, and jealous respect 
for the rights of the Church. It fell amid confused and sinister 
designs, black rumours and suspicions, which no man has yet been 
able to clear away. It was first enfeebled by the timid ascendency 
of Harley. It was ridden to ruin by the headstrong leadership of 
BoUogbroke. 

No two men could be more unlike than those whom the fleeting 
chances of politics and an ephemeral personal friendship had placed 
together at the head of this Ministry. St. John was gracefuli 
eloquent, and convincing, ready of address and captivating of 
maimer, with a quick and fertile intellectf which saw life from many 
standpoints, less original and profound of thought than gifted with a 
ready power of assimilation and a wonderful richness of expression, 
that endowed the meanest of his ideas with the appearance of great- 
oess. Harle)- was slow, tedious, and hesitating, incohetcnl of %^^<^ 

VOL. CCXCI. »0. 304?. ^ 



J 



34 



Th^ Gentleman s Magazine, 



and slovenly of address — a man whom no one could understand, and 
who could not even explain clearly to himself the motives thai had 
induced him to enier public life ; yet, by carerully concealing his 
plans and uttering only vague generalities, he had raised great 
expectations of himself in the hearts of his party ; and he had a 
perfect knowledge of the secret arts by which men worm themselves 
into authority. He was among the very first to see a new political 
weapon of incalculable value in the power of the Press. Whether 
it was from a dim-fcli conviction, or because he fondly wished to fence 
in his own position on every bide, Harley now stood forth as the 
purblind representative of a decaying idea. He frittered away the 
strength of the Tory parly, while he strove to rally round his Ministry 
the moderate men of all opinions ; and he set his underlii^, Defoe, 
secretly to cajole to his support the moderate Whigs. On the other 
hand St. John, whatever he became later, was then all for party, and 
strove amid the plaudits of the country gentlemen to build up that 
Torj- system which he Iiad outlined in the days of his opposition to 
William III. Such divergencies of interest made a fatal breach upon 
their friendship. St John, the younger man, who had at first 
addressed Harley in the style of a disciple, calling him teacher and 
master, began to stand forth as his rival, and was aided in this new 
character by Harley's dilatory, perfunctory, and confused methods of 
conducting business. When Harley was made an earl and St. John 
only a viscount, this rivalry became a funous passion, breaking at 
last into the weekly quarrels which even Swift was unable to compose. 
It ended in the supersession of Harley by the readier and more 
decided BoUngbroke. 

Both the conduct of this Ministry and that of its opponents 
displayed in fatal strength all the eviU of the party system. But let 
lis leave the deadly spirit whicli induced the Whigs to abandon the 
Dissenters that they might combine with the excluded Tories under 
Nottingham ; and let us turn rather to the actions of the Ministry, 
and particularly to the peace which it made with France, and to the 
suspicions that have always hung around it of intriguing for the 
return of the Stuarts. There is no need to swell the partisan 
discussion tliat long raged round the Treaty of Utrecht. It seems 
that peace was needed ; that Enghind had entangled herself with 
greedy allies, who expected a generous reward for reluctant and tardy 
efforts, and that she bad won as much from the war as she could 
without overstraining her strength. But the peace was made by men 
whose fortunes and perhaps whose lives depended on its »peedy 
cotnplciion. It was made by men whose position at home wonld 




Tk^ Politics of Bolingbroke. 



» 



» 



35 



be weakened by English success in the field, and who therefore 
denuded the army of Marlborough that he might win no embarrsiss- 
ing Tictory. It was so carelessly drawn as to leave the French with 
a ready lever against the English in North America. The ncgotia- 
tiODS were in the main the work of Bolingbroke, who alone of the 
Ministry was qualified, both by his talents and by his knowledge of 
the French language, to conduct them with confidence. They 
languished in his absence % they were prejudiced by his indiscretions ; 
they were only accomplished by his overmastering zeal In one point 
alone be failed. He cou)d not persuade his countrymen to come 
into closer commercial relations with France. Neither his eloquence 
nor that of Defoe could overcome the time's belief that trade was 
only a subtle kind of warfare, in which the good of one side was the ill 
of the other. But he had put on record a principle which, except in 
times of national depression, had been strange to English politics 
since the days of Edward III., but which has now become an 
accepted axiom of national conduct He had for a few years 
removed England from active interference in the quarrels of Europe. 
And this was the comer-stone of that Tory system for which he 
had wrought the country gentlemen to leave the labyrinth of 
Haile/s vacillations. That system pleased their prejudice, and 
seemed to them founded upon an impregnable economic idea. Ever 
since the Revolution they had been as dazed children wandering in 
an unknown world. War had increased tlie expense of government 
and bowed England beneath a growing burden of debt. It had 
produced a cla^s of men who lived, not by their labour, but on the 
interest of what they had lent to the nation ; and these idle drones, 
scarce to be endured within the body politic, had pushed the 
country gentlemen from their old precedence. As they battened on 
war, so must England keep from war. As they mingled her with 
ungenerous allies, so must she keep within her .sea4x>und isolation. 
Moreover, the counlr)* tjentleraen had seen with noisy anger long 
attacks upon the dignity of the Church. Their jealous minds con- 
ceived that the toleration which the Dissenters had perforce 
received at the Revolution now tlu-eatcned to become an intolerable 
equality before the law ; and too many of their natural leaders, like 
the landed families of Cavendish and Russell, liad overwhelmed 
their opposition by siding with the easier and more latiludinarian 
Whigs. It was to avenge all this, and indeed to overturn tlie whole 
system of the Revolution, that they had come to the Parliament of 
171?. They were strong at last in the fears which the country had 
bc€Q moved to entertain for the Church ; and ihey (oWowed w\l\\ %. 



3« 



The Genikmafi s Magazine, 



^ 



noisy joy the roan who put their holf-artLcuIate wishes into the form 
of a party manifesto. 

Thus the Tory system was an attempt to set back the clock. It 
was an attempt to revive the days of the Stuarts without their 
tyranny and their worst religious vagaries. It was an attempt of the 
country squires to check the progress of society. It was one of 
those attempts, of which history is full, to call back political power 
to a class from which it was shpping away ; and it can be paralleled 
from the history of any narion of which we have record, from the 
struggle between the mountain and the plain at Athens, and between 
the patricians and the plebs at Rome. How much there was in it 
of mere unlovely prejudice, and how much of that reverence for the 
past which some may call " rock- bound antiquarianism " and some a 
"well-found instinct of beauty," which fired later the English protest 
against the French Revolution, it would be hard now to determine. 
The beauty of every cause is hidden from the multitude, who cry its 
watchwords and range themselves beneath its banner ; and it is hard 
10 see anything amiable in the shouting crowd of Squire Westerns, 
who followed at the call of Bolingbroke, and who were better judges 
of ale than of English politics. For Bolingbroke himself, he was 
without a doubt that product of the strife of parties, the opportunist 
leader, who will echo the passions of men for party or personal gain. 
His written addresses (we cannot now judge of his speeches) always 
ring to me with a cold note of insincerity ; but yet it would be rash 
to say that he did not fight for principles that sprang in him from 
aristocracy of birth and from a refinement of disposition, that shrank 
from the social upheaval of the Revolution, so destructive of what 
was time-honoured and revered, and that despised the bnuen crowd 
of new succcssfiil men it had so soon produced. That refinement 
of disposition showed itself in an easy polish and a perfect grace of 
speech and writing. That pride of birth saved his dignity in a life 
of sensual excess. 

Such a spirit might accept the Revolution as an end of tyranny, 
but could hardly welcome it as the beginning of a new age. It 
might accommodate itself to new modes, yet try to restrain what it 
thought to be their excess ; and it might keep this aim in inew 
through all the tortuous windings of a Ministerial career. Tliis is the 
best that can be said for BoUngbroke. The common cry of the 
lime was that he meant to crown his work by restoring the Stuart 
kings, and after his fall this cry was repeated with the wildest 
clamours by the triumphant Whigs, and indeed by all the adherents 
of the House of Hanover. If he meant so, neither he nor his party 




The Politics of Bolingbroke. 



• 



won any or that mournful gbmour which is, in remembrance at 
least, a compensation to the devotees of lost causes— that glamour 
which was shed by Keats on the imagined gods of an elder faith. 
The Tory gentlemen were slow to imperil their lives, and Boting- 
broke was never suspected of too much sincerity, and only the loftiest 
devotion can redeem the disgrace of failure. But while the Tory 
party wished for a king of English race, Bolingbroke might perhaps 
think of the Stuarts as men whose folly had brought England to her 
present pass, even though, since the \\l»igs choked up every avenue 
to the favour of Hanover, he feared for his country as well as for him- 
self the accession of a partisan king of that dynasty. But, whatever 
his designs, they were cut short by the unexpected death of the Queen. 
The accident of a few days lost stayed the course of English histor)'. 
The work of the Revolution went on to completion under the a^s 
of the WTiigs, while the whole Tory party stank under the twin names 
of "traitor" and "Jacobite." Bolingbroke himself was lost to thescr- 
rice of his country. He was thirty-six years old ; but though he Uved 
for forty more, his influence on English politics was always strange, 
secret, and illegitimate. It was as if a Prospero, full of spite, 
should raise a storm and confound his enemies, yet fail to regain 
bis lost dignities. 

In the first heat of the Whig triumph Bolingbroke fled to France, 
and entered openly into the service of the Pretender. That mis- 
guided Prince, with ordinary prudence, might already have been in 
the seat of George I. ; and even yet, in the hour of political defeat, 
it was not impossible that Bolingbroke might do something for him. 
The Tories in England bad been surprised, but not cowed ; thdr 
plans had been frustrated only by the accidents of time and by the 
disagreements of their leaders ; and they were more than ever 
inclined (o the Pretender, now that the Revolution had become 
a party triumph for the Whigs. But the Pretender «ras the meanest 
man for whom enthusiast ever laid down life or fortune. Loyalty 
to him could never be loyalty to his person and character. It was 
loyalty to his misfortunes as the fate of well-loved principles \ it was 
loyalty to that feudal idea of indefeasible royalty which passed away 
with the Cavaliers in whom it lived, and which must be held the 
more admirable in proportion to the folly of those whom it served. 
It was a loyalty which burned with a purer flame thirty years later, 
when the gross resentments of party defeat no longer fed the 
Stuart cause, and when it had become a whole-souled devotion to 
ftn antique idea. But, if Bolingbroke may be bcUevcdi no such 
loyaJty circled round the Pretender at St. Gcrxnams. \t\sVv \n\cA»^ 



-uLuiuLuuenL lo uie Aumon v^atnuH 
what Holingbroke could not understand. If nil 
it had already stood in the way of Holingbrokl 
and so it stood now in the way of his restoratil 
with this ill-timed consistency in his mind thati 
so often to the politic pliancy of Queen Elil 
Navarre. Moreover, the wretched crowd of col 
curious antipathy to his presence among the! 
enough to discredit him with James. His coJ 
his motives suspected, the rising of 1715 toq 
approval, and he on his side lashed with impatid 
courtiers and James himseIC At last he was] 
offices — an intended mark of ignominy which n 
unbeatable position, since no sentiment was strc 
in his mind before practical realities, and he had 
the Jacobite cause from the moment when I 
steadfast friend by the death of I^ouis XIV,, 
sentative of irresponsible royalty that Europe ! 
had borne too many rebuffs from I/)uis* A 
Private pique had brought him to this scnric 
pique away from it in the manner of his disniissa 
with him, he built on this private pique a general 
He would make clear to the misled Tory pa 

nrvtxihititv nf Tin iilillii m ^^^^^^^^^Mi 




The Politics of Bolingbrokc. 



his real discontent with vague reflections on the pleasures of exile. 
" A wise man," he would write one day, " looks on himself as a 
citizen of the world ; and when you ask him where his country lies 
paints, like Anaxagoras, with his finger to the heavcn.i." The next 
day he would ask a friend to intercede for him with the English 
GovemraenL During this time he made a lucky speculation in 
Mississippi shares. Indeed, he asserted that, had he wished, he 
could have made a lai^e fortune ; but he thought it unworthy of a 
gentleman to turn broker. AVhen at length he was allowed to 
return to England he came, as it were, to a strange country. Not 
only was the Tory party almost non-existent, but the ferments of 
t7ii bad subsided into a sort of slow indifference, in which the 
people lived careless of their rulers, while one jealous Minister 
monopolised authority and excluded from tlie councils of the nation 
all wliose ability might have enabled them to act with independence. 
A jealousy of able colleagues is indeed a common fault with Ministers, 
Walpolc shored it with men as unlike himself as Henry III. and 
ge in. It was thererore hardly strange that he should keep an 
B.Uy wary eye on Bolingbroke, allowing him to live, to bequeath, 
'~liid to inherit, but not allowing him to exercise any political 
fights. 

To live in England— that was the utmost grace Bolingbroke could 
obtain from the Whig Government of Walpole. Political vengeance 
had brought his fate near that of a man who had done more for the 
Revolution than some whose names are writ larger in history. 
Daniel Defoe only continued in politics after 17 15 as a spy of the 
Whigs on Tory journals, and in 1725 Bolingbroke only indirectly 
ade his way back to politics. Still half-proscribed, he kept up at 

tersea or Dawley the style of a leisured gentleman whose friends 
were men of letters like Pope or Swift, and whose recreations were 
in books of philosophic study. He was all that and more. He had 
found a more deadly weapon of political warfare llian that oratory 
which had once inflamed the hearts of country squires, and a wider 
audience than that which he would have addressed in the House 
of Lords. His audience was now the nation, and his speeches 
were not delivered, but printed and published under convenient 
pseudonyms. 

From one point of view Bolingbroke*s object was purely personal, 
yet different from that which he had brought back from France. It 
WM mad vengeance upon the statesman who hod condemned him to 
political death. It was to raise those first muttcrings of discontent 
which he had heard on his return to EngUind into a sVotm xVa\s\^o\k\^ 



40 




The Gentleman s Magazine, 



sweep away Walpole and his obstructive Ministry. It was to change 
public indifference to public passion; to unite not only the poor 
remains of the Tory party, now in captivity through Bolingbroke's 
own mistakes, but also those Whigs whose native love of office 
Walpole had disregarded j to join in one campaign men so dis- 
similar as the florid Paltcney, the melancholy Wyndham, and the 
exquisite Chesterfield— ^and all that Bolingbroke might sit again in 
the House of Lords. The means were worthy of such a cause. 
They were the worst devices with which a partisan Press long sinoe 
loaded constitutional government; not merely general charges of 
corruption, bribery, tyranny, illegality, and the like — in which there 
might be some truth, but in whose very vagueness lay the impossi- 
bility of their refutation — but the smallest acts of the Minister 
reviled and distorted as they could be only by a mind of the highest 
powers which lent itself to so malignant a purpose. Bolingbroke 
came amid difficult negotiations with a cry that Walpole did not 
know his mind. He charged him first with wishing to restore 
Gibraltar to Spain, and then with violating a promise to ^c* so. He 
declared that the folly of the Ministry had sent all our friends to the 
side of our enemies. " All other Powers softened towards each other 
by degrees ; and by degrees we got deeper into the quarrel. Spain, 
from having no ally, came to have many ; some more, some less to 
be depended on ; none to be feared. From living a multitude of 
disputes, she came to have none, except with us. We, on the other 
hand, from having none of our interests in dispute, are come to see 
hardly any others in controversy. From feeling ourselves backed by 
several allies we are come — at least, in the point of direct relation to 
us— to have but one ; and with that, we own, we arc dissati.sfied ; nay, 
we own that we are afraid of him." The difficult years from 1727 to 
1730 gave him an opportunity of which his minute knowledge of 
foreign affairs enabled him to take solid advantage. But he used 
best Walpole's excise scheme, opposing it on the puerile ground 
that an Engli-sh man's house was his castle ; and yet in his own time of 
power Bolingbroke had held the most enlightened views on trade- 
One day it was a vision of the Minister Irampling upon the British 
Constitution ; then a picture of a corrupt and indifferent rution, over 
which foolish fraud might reign supreme ; but always flouts and jeers 
and insinuations, which were none the less vile because they were 
fmely said, and none the less untrue because they brought examples 
from Greece and Rome. Such work in another age would have 
placed Bolingbroke in the front rank of mischievous demagogues, 
and the failure of its personal object was a meet reward. Id 1735 




He 



ihtl^ 



«d 



*fitMB 



Ml 

bM B otogbiii fce^ 
m the rtaiii Tbt 
iCBl otK to rssnoc* 

- voct vitfkoat lua. 

a fnvilB gntqfc 

*^''y pcBK cssoe* is a s&yniS 

the g^iii|w^i^i.ii of }aa»ory^ «bo teU bow thb 

cfiipor ibat coortiei^ beastf setSed the Arte of n&tiain. 

t gnatdmiee ever h i ppmrH — itmigfat be retarded or aocelented 

I so tnvitl a vsy. To think 90 is to set the vhims of miting* 

aboTC the mardi of pnnci|>ks. It is jks ir one sbonU 

I a Wfaitsiia firast voisld IdU ifae ciascent summer. Few public 

I bot are the sUves of causes which ihcy do not know. The 

giinds aU the pebbles od the bexh, and one or other idea 

orer every onxt of the human mass. Of those who hav« 

ite reseotmcDls, the commoner characters in history are those 

rho make them go hand-Ln-hand with public principles. At least, 

I so with Bolingbroke. George I. might not understand his 

, and might think a mere gush of words the eloquence in wluch 

• welled from him. " He talked only bagatelles,'* said George lo 

de: And e^'eryone must feel that Bolingbroke was at limes only 

; and playing. His conceptions arc of^cn cold, bis cloi]ucaco 

hollow, his arguments ephemeral ; and he seems in no more earnest 

ihin a Cavalier making by-pby with his handkerchief. '* Those who 

live to see such happy da>*s,'* he said at the end of " The Patriot 

I King," "and to act in so glorious a scene, will perhaps call to mind 

^ with some tenderness of sentiment, when he is no more, a man who 

contributed his mite to carry on so good a work, and who desired 

life for nothing so much as to sec a king of Great Britain the moit 

popular man in bis country and a Patriot King at the head of an 

united people." Is not this like a man laying his hand upon his heart 

. and calling hts gods to witness? But there was reason in Bolingbroka'i 

^arguments, and much in the state of England to give ihcm force. 

It was not good that constitutional government should have turned 

into petty squabbles between bands of oRice-tiecking Whigti. It was 

not right tiiat a great party should, in Bolingbroko's oft-quoted phrase, 

have become " hewers of wood and drawers of water " to their 

opponents. It was worse, too, to sec abroad a finrit of corruption 

which was slaying all sound political life ; and it woa, as Bolingbroke 

bdedared, a decaying nation from which there came no TcmeJl'), *VWl 



ITalpole 



The Gentleman s Magazine, 



remedy he himself supplied. He woke the nation from political 
sleep. 

Bolingbroke's chief cry was against the spirit of faction — 
by which he meant not the wild clamour of 1711, which 
would have too near an application, but the government of the 
country in the interests of a party, which, he said, was only 
possible when corruption had eaten away its strength. " A wise and 
brave people," he said, " will neither be cozened nor bullied out 
of its liberty ; but a wise and brave people may cease to be such ; 
they may degenerate; they may sink into sloth and luxury; they 
may resign themselves to a treacherous conduct, or abet the enemies 
of the Constitution under a notion of supporting the friends of the 
Government" Nineteenth-century criticism would present rather 
details and points of corruption, but that of the eighteenth loved 
to clothe itself in the abstract concepts of morality ; and it was the 
habit of Bolingbroke to insinuate the particular by means of the 
general, or to present it as a sly, allusive picture of bygone events. 
He found faction in every troubled reign of English history ; curbed 
by Elizabeth ; rampant under James I., " who seemed to expect the 
love and to demand the obedience of his subjects simply because 
the crown had dropt upon his head " ; incarnate in Buckingham, a 
sole Minister who betrayed his master (his character was an oblique 
reflection of Walpole) ; and then for a happy time beaten down by 
the Revolution, when Whig and Tory sacrificed (heir party to their 
country. But the Revolution had been pushed loo far; it retained 
too much of the spint of former animosities ; it left one party too 
eager and the other too sullen ; it made no safeguard against the 
corruption of Parliament ; and its chief result had been to increase 
the ability of the Crown to govern by that dishonourable expedient. 
" No instrument of tyranny," said Bolingbroke, "can be found so 
sure and effectual as an assembly of the estates of the realm, when 
such an assembly is so consliluted as to want the power, as was from 
the first the case of the three estates of France ; and the same roust 
happen when they are so constituted as to want the will, as became 
at last the case of the Cortes of Spain^ to secure the libertj' and to 
defend the property of the people against such kings as Philippe le Bel 
and such coadjutors as Marigny." (Philippe le Bel and Enguerrand 
de Marigny were brought from history pale prototypes of George and 
Walpole.) 

Thus Bolingbroke declared it his aim to call back England to the 
true principles of the Revolution. He spoke as one who believed 
that old party distinctions had then been destroyed. None but a 



The Politics of Bolingbroke. 



43 



few pmgmatical Tories maintained the doctrines of prerogative or 
worshipped at the shrine of Charles the Martyr. None but a few 
abandoned Whigs agreed with every excess of the new dynasty. 
Parties there were, and parties there must be ; but tiie panics of 
1733 were composed of those who loved their country and those who 
sought their interest ; those who fought against the corruption which 
was shackling the free Constitution of England, and those creatures 
of a profligate Minister who defende<I corruption as the oil that eased 
the wheels of government. They were, in fact, the old Court 
and country parties over again ; but now on a wider field and for a 
higher issue— no less than to beat down faction, to exorcise corrup- 
tion, and to restore the work of the Revolution, which had been 
trampled down in factious strife. It might not be sound history ; 
but it was a plausible and orderly argument, which went further than 
the Tory scheme of ijii only because it presented principles, 
whereas the other presented only means. 

That argument became a declamation against the whole system 
of party government, not for the subtler defects which modern 
minds have found in its workings \ as that it favours public licence 
and instability, political charlatanism, and demagogic tub-thumping ; 
that it is blind, noisy, partial, and unreasonable ; or that it permits the 
progressof society only by transverse undulations ; but because it broke 
Uie Constitution and must by nature become the rule of faction. 
"Party," said Bolingbroke, "is a political evil, and faction is the 
worst of parties." He thought that the best form of government was 
monarchy — fetching his reasons not from the needs of mankind, but 
from fancied first principles. Monarchy, he held, was a pale reflec- 
tion of divinity. Kings were to nations what God was to the 
universe. "God," he said, " is a monarch— not arbitrar>', but Hmited — 
limited by the rules which infinite wisdom prescribes to infinite 
power." So kings were limited by the duty of governing well, and 
by whatever fences society had built against the chance of tyranny ; 
but there was nothing — in the English Constitution, at least — which 
could lawfully make monarchy the vacuiz sedes et tnania arcana of 
authority. Bolingbrokc's gaze leapt over many troublous reigns of 
English history, in which the evil policy of kings bred parties and 
parties bred factions, till it rested on Queen Elizabeth, the national 
ruler and arbitress between a multitude of warring sects ; and then it 
turned to the days when faction should be overcome, corruption 
banished, and an united people guided by a Patriot King — 
that incarnation of all the virtues which Bolingbroke failed to find in 
George and VValpole. The features of this character arc well known, 



The Gentkmans Magazine. 

and there is no need to draw them here at length. The Patriot 
King would begin to govern as soon as he began to reign. He 
would seek the good of his subjects— not, like the Prince of Machia- 
velli, from motives of self-interest, but from a true regard for their 
welfare. He would espouse no party, but govern like the common 
father of his people. He would banish from his Court all those who 
had pushed themselves into the Administration by the arts of faction 
and corruption ; but, unlike the Hanoverians^ he would sacrifice his 
victims, not to party fury, but to national justice ; and he would call 
to his councils only such men as were willing to sen'e on the 
principles on which he intended to govern. Above all, he would 
not neglect that outward duty of dignity and decorum for the 
lack of which many kings lost the admiration of their subjects. 
*' What, in truth/* said Bolingbroke, "can be so lovely, what 
so venerable as to contemplate a king on whom the eyes of a 
whole people arc fixed, filled with admiration and glowing with 
affection?" The Patriot King was thus a Homeric figure, a 
true paler patria^ a kindly aristocrat of the eighteenth century, 
dispensing bounty and reproof to a submissive people — the antithesis 
of that hero-king, the man of demoniac energy, whom Carlyle 
pictured as appearing once in a while to dragoon mankind into the 
paths of progress. But then Bolingbroke wrote before the French 
Revolution. 

It is idle to dismiss the Patriot King as a mere piece of rhetoric. 
The occasion no doubt was low, and the result in keeping. Frederic, 
Prince ofWales, was too poor a thing to act the part, and George III. 
turned its teachings into folly; but it had a better, if a some- 
what self-seeking and fitful, exemplar on the Continent in the Emperor 
Joseph n. It was an eighteenth-century picture of popular despotism, 
vague and unfinished of outline, darkly coloured with the party hue, 
and overcrowded Viith vain figures of universal goodness and phil- 
anthropy ; and it took too little account of human nature. But it 
painted a political ideal which was at least as noble as the one it 
would displace, which was by no means impossible, and which later 
practitioners, such as the French of the Second Empire, have 
tried, however vainly, to realise— an ideal which rose before the 
English in their late humiliations. But the party taint maimed 
its worth. So far from killing party, it blew the party fire to a 
keener flame. It drove one party from a long monopoly, and 
after an inglorious trial of its principles, in which faction and 
corruption stalked abroad with all their former strength, it installed 
another party in an oppressive supremacy which the terrors of the 



The Politics of BoHngbroke. 



45 



French Revolution helped to maintain. That BoUngbrokc did so, 
thai he restored the Tor)' party lo what the critics call its true position 
in the balance of the cbecks of our Constitution, is held by many to 
be his chief title to praise ; and we find him set up as a pattern to 
a certain modern English statesman. 

It is said that when Bolingbroke's second wifedied— she who was 
the niece of Madame dc Maintcnon — he threw himself upon the 
bed where she lay, and sobbed as if his heart would break. He was 
then an old man. " He simulated grief very well," said Horace 
Walpole. This phrase, though from one who had been hard hit by 
Bolingbroke, tells us in part the cause of his personal failure. 
Nobody thought hira sincere. His pretence of living as a careless 
country squire at Dawley had long been inefleclual ; and, as we have 
seen, the men for whom he wrote speeches, and whose scattered 
resentments he had joined in one fierce plan against \Valpole, wished 
him out of the way because his ill-repute baulked their revenge and 
added strength to the Minister. 

Now, we have already hinted the curious union in Boling- 
broke of private grudges with public principles, and we must 
allow tumultuous spite so far supreme in him as to have dis- 
arranged and confused the body of bis ideas. It would be 
absurd to expect from a politician the clear-cut consistency of a 
philosopher. One looks rather for a jagged edge of thought, and 
behind that a shifting obscurity. But there is so much chaotic and 
incoherent and momentary in BoUngbrokc that one wonders how 
much he assumed to deck each occasion as it rose, and how much 
was the bed-rock of his opposition to Walpole and of his dislike of 
party government. In a man who wrote largely of philosophy one 
would look also for an attempt to ground political doctrines on ultimate 
principles ; but, except in the case of monarchy mentioned above, 
where the argument is false and fanciful, there is little of the kind 
in Bolingbroke. He wrote an essay on patriotism. It began by 
pnusing ihosi: who serve their country ; it ended by denouncing 
Walpole. It made no attempt to define patriotism, and conveyed 
little poUtical doctrine, except the implication tliat patriotism is a 
operty of the wealthy and well-born. Again, the ideas of the Tory 
erne never altogether left BoUngbrokc. He employed against 
Walpole the cries against national debts and standing armies which 
ad been current in the days of Queen Anne, but which sounded 
ngcly and faintly beside the Whiggish clamours which he uttered 
through the mouths of Pulteney and Wyndham. There was, it is 
trae, a dear note of warning in his cry against natioiud debts^ wUvch, 



46 



The Gentleman s Alagazine. 



it would not have harmed our forefathers to remember. That a 
nation with a debt is better than a nation which lias none, as some of 
our theorists have maintained, is one of those mysterious dogmas 
which the unassisted understanding cannot penetrate. But there 
was far more ultimate effect in Bolingbroke's unfashionable pronounce- 
ment of a true national policy. To decrease the number of soldiers 
and increase the number of sailors, to let the European Powers fight 
out their own quarrels and only to engage ourselves when interest 
imperatively demands, is a doctrine plain enough to us, but disregarded 
by the generation which haggled over Parma and Piacenza, and 
permitted the barter of Tuscany for Lorraine. It was Bolingbroke's 
merit to state thai doctrine clearly and leave it to the new Tory party 
as a watchword, which they kept in Opposition and forgot when they 
came to office. But ihe wonder Is how he turned this doctrine, like 
everything else, into a weapon against Walpole. You may, if you 
like, regard Eolingbroke as a political martyr. He was no martyr to 
principtc. He was rather a Samson who confounded his enemies 
in his captivity. 

Let mc insist here on Bolingbroke's conception of history. To 
do so ts to make no great digression from the subject of this essay, for 
Bolingbroke always fortified his political arguments by reference to 
the past, tangling indeed the whole thread of English history into a 
tissue of warnings against Walpole. He did not, like Burke, con- 
cave clearly of society as an organism which can only be understood 
by patient knowledge of its growth ; nor was he one of those, like 
Shelley, who deride the study of history. He saw several wa>'s in 
which it might be useless to mankind. Some men turned to it as 
to a game ; some that they might " shine in conversation " ; others 
" made fair copies of foul manuscripts, explained hard words, and 
made learning easier for the mass " ; others invented systems of 
chronology ; but all that was useless if it did not make a man a 
betiei citizen. True history was, he thought, the best means of 
education. It was philosophy teaching by example, and conquering 
the passions as well as the reasons of men. It was full of warnings 
both for States and individuals, which, if they were not pushed too 
far in particular cases^ were always safe and sufficient rules. It pre- 
pared a man for public Ufc, and no man was fit to serve his country 
who did not know minutely such treaties and compacts as those of 
Westphalia and the Pyrenees, which have from time to time settled 
the face of Europe, and who could not tell exactly how ever)- one 
of llie great monarchies had been built up and maintained. There- 
fore he thought it mere pedantry to linger over the beginnings of a 



The PoliiUs of Bolingbroke. 



47 



nation, or indeed over the events of any century up to the fifteenth. 
"Down to this era," he said, 'Met us read history; from this point 
let us study it." Now this is a fairly commonplace view, and it has 
on its own ground limitations obvious enough to those who know 
that the fifteenth or sixteenth century did not make a complete 
breach in the progress of Europe. Bolingbroke conceived of 
history as a study for the rich and wellborn, who might expect to 
hold public offices. He did not think of it quite as past politics, 
but as affording a content to that principle of his which was cast 
into veise by Pope: " The proper study of mankind is man." He 
looked to it for moral examples, warnings of decay, principles of 
wisdom, and guides of policy. He thought that only the best 
philosophy which had an ethical interest. He had none of the 
modern subtlety which wonders whether history merely refines the 
imagination of those that study it, or whether it enables them to 
re-create for the understanding of others the life of bygone ages. He 
was fax from that spirit which loves to wander wonderingly among 
venerable cathedrals or beautiful ruins. The tomb of Cestius or the 
Colosseum would have raised in him no feelings of reverence or 
sympathy. If they appealed to him at alt, they would only have 
fiiniished him with new invectives against George and Walpole. 

In religion Bolingbroke had few convictions and no enthusiasms. 
As an aristocrat he despised Dissenters, and, if we may believe the 
story, thought with horror of the days when he had been made to read 
ftll the discourses which the Reverend Daniel Burgess had composed 
upon each verse of the one hundred and nineteenth Psalm. He 
was perhaps attracted by the dignity and the grace of the service of 
the Church. As a politician he was content to be her faithful 
servant, and it was one of the taunts of her opponents that her 
interests were defended by a man so loose of life and principles. 
He was not an atheist. His attacks upon the Mosaic chronology 
and the authenticity of ecclesiastical history would shock our age 
less than they did his own. He declared himself ready to accept 
iny theory which would reconcile or account for those parts of the 
Bible which, as he said, were incredible to human reason. He 
believed that atheists and priests had joined together to delude roan- 
kind. Men of his own generation thought him monstrous and 
unclean. Rumour said that he died with curses on hia lips. His 
lack of religion, or his opposition to Christianity — call it which you 
will — it would be presumption here to praise or to condemn. But 
he judged rather the institutions of religion than religion itself, and 
there saw only the crudities with which men have so often overlaid 



SOME VULGAR ERRORS. 



A VULGAR error means merely a widespread error, such as <f?en 
the most refined may easily shaic, and do sometimes share, 
maybe yielding a little to their taste, in spite of their better Itnow- 
The belief that the swan sings herself to death is one of 
se widespread errors which poets and their next of intellectual 
kin are loth to forego — nay, do their best to keep alive. Tennyson, 
^for instance, speaks of the death-song of the swan. So, too, does 
Phincas Fletcher, who, in the days of Charles I., penned an allego- 
I poem called *' The Purple Island," wherein he sings : 

The beech »halt yield a cool safe canD|>7 

WTiile down I sit »nd chant to ibc echoing wood. 

Ah \ singing might 1 live, aod ungtog die 1 

Su by (ail Thames ox silver McOnrajr's flood. 

The dyiog swan, when yean hei temi^es pierce. 

In roBBC-slnuns breathes out her life and Terse ; 

And, singing her own dir^e, dies on her watery hearse. 

But truly the difficulty Is to name a poet who docs not, so to 
'speak, sing this self-same song. You may find it in Byron, Camp- 
bell, Wordsworth, Pope, Dryden, Thonison, Milton, Shake^}eare, 
Speniier, and Horace ; and I know of only one writer who takes the 
trouble to tell us that this is all moonshine ; and that writer's name is 
Pliny, who in plain prose says that he bad seen swans die, but never 
beard them sing. 

It occurs to me that I never did see a swan dying ; bat a few 

months ago I did see a swan dead, floating " on her watery hearse." 

With the poels, however, swans not only sing themselves to 

death, but are in life whitur than snow. In the winter of 1890-91 I 

trudged three miles through the snow on purpose to test the truth of 

[this poetic view ; and I saw three swans looking quite dingy as they 

Kswaro up a narrow stream, with a snow-clad bank for background. 

Another poptiUr, or poetical, error is the belief that little bears 
are bom shapeless, and then licked into shape by tlieir dam. 
Samuel Butler countenances this error in his "Hudibras"^ and 
^lienoc the ourenl phrase, "an unlicked cub," descriptive q{ qv\^ 
vou ccxci. no. 80«7, X 




The Genilemans Magazine. 



whose mother could not or did not teach him how to behave himself. 
I fear that this error may be traced to the great Aristotle ; but an 
eminent Italian naturalist took the trouble to watch a she-bear in 
labour, and found — as might have been expected^that little bears 
are no more shapeless at their birth than little babies. 

We smile when told that the father of the eminent Wesleyan 
minister, Dr. Adam Clark, used to till his North of Ireland farm on 
strictly Virgilian principles j using the " Georgics " as a sort of agri- 
cultural Bible. But 'tis far more astonishing to learn^ as we do from 
the history of silk-weaving, that for long years the French silkworm 
breeder who chanced lo lose his silkworms would resort to 
the same recipe for getting a fresh brood as that adopted by 
Aristxus, at the bidding of his mother Cyrene, for the renewing of 
his stock of bees. The recipe was to bury a calf in the ground, 
and dig it up after a certain number of days ; when the carcase 
would be found swarming with bees. And Arista:us, in the fourth 
Georgic, did so find it. But that in the real life of this work-a-day 
world a calfs carcase should spontaneously breed a swarm of silk- 
worms transcends belief. And yet French silk-breeders did really 
believe this ; unless Dr. Lardncr's " Cyclopaedia " be a most untrust- 
worthy guide. 

The popular belJerthat Pontius Pilate drowned himself in a tarn 
on the top of Mount Pilate, near Lucerne, is still, 1 believe, as 
vigorous as ever. But, as Dr. Trench long since explained, Mount 
Pilate is but a modern form of Mons Pileatus, the capped or hatted 
hill; because this hill often wears a cap of clouds like our own 
Skiddaw, as nins the old north country rhyme : 

When Skiddaw dons his hat, 
Men of the \-alc bewnre or iti&t. 

But the meaning of pileatus being lost in Pilate, and the name of 
Pontius Pilate found there, up sprang the legend which the guide 
still gravely repeats, and wliich finds easy credence ; as it naturally 
falls in with our human sympathies. 

I do not know whether anylwdy still believes that Mahomet's 
coffin continues to hang poised in midair at Mecca; but Samuel 
Butler made it so hang, spite of the additional objection that 
Mahomet lies buried at Medina. So that there is here exactly what 
the elder Mr. Welter would have craved for, a triumphant alibi. 

The vulgar error that the nightingale sings only by night— an 
error backed by Shakespeare— still holds its ground, although any- 
one who will take the trouble may easily conirince himself that the 
nightingale sings all day long. We may note in passing that even 




Tome Vuigar Errors. 




Tennyson, by terming the nightingale's song " the music of the 
moon," sccras to countenance the prevalent belief. 

A widespread error is that of im;igining that American humour — 
which consists mainly in gross exaggeration — is a nev birth of 
Time. On the contrary, this sort of fun prevaDed in the days of 
Quintilian, who lived some eighteen hundred years ago, and who 
gives some excellent examples of the art of killing a big lie with 
a bigger. But I think the best or at least the wickedest of his 
stones is that which tells of a man whose wife hung herself on a tree 
in his garden, and who was forthwith besieged by his mArried neigh> 
hours, begging him for a cutting of that tree. 

*Tis also a vulgar error to believe — as the French once did — that 
DO German can be witty. In a German playhouse^ where it was 
forbidden by Government to introduce any "gag." a German actor 
entered the scene on horseback, and his horse thought fit to relieve 
the wants of nature. " Now then, you beast," cried the horseman, 
" d' you want to get me into trouble ! That's not in the book." 

Another still more widespread error is the belief that all Germans 
are sages and thinkers ; the truth being that the Fatherland has 
somewhat more than her fair share of dutts and dunces ; so that we 
English-Scotch- Welsh- Irish could easily distance her "all along the 
Un^" did we but give ourselves fair play. 

Tis easy to lengthen our list of widespread errors. Tis a wide- 
spread and a deadly error to believe that whatever is new must needs 
therefore be best. This is untrue of servants, friends, wine, fiddles, 
fiutes, of many a book, of some pairs of boots, of cheese, of words 
and phrases, of physicians, of lawyers, of clay pipes, of most music, 
of the majority of pictures, all which things — like moons and trees — 
are all the better for being ripe. I shall not here attempt to prove 
my proposition. Indeed, in many, if not in all, of the cases named 
there needs no proof ; res ipsa loquitur ; but I will beg leave to put 
in a special plea in favour of old words and phrases as opposed to 
new. And first of the last, as Aristotle might say. I was lately 
reminded of a couplet of Dean Swift's, which runs ; 

Making tmc the ssying f>dd, 

Keu tbe church and fiu from God \ 

by-thc-by, has been turned against the Templars of to-day. 
: here Dean Swift was not inventing ; he was merely refurbishing 
a fragment of Spenser's "Shepherd's Calendar": 

To kirk the nurc, from God loorc Cu, 
Has be«D an old laid nw. 

11 



S2 



The Gentiematis Magazine, 



Ay, "old said," not "odd." So that Swift, instead of bettering the 
old saw, may be said to have taken the edge off it. 

And now a plea for the good old homely word " nosegay," which 
still lives upon the lips of (p-ey-haired hinds, though " bouquet " has 
banished it from the lips and pens of the upper ten — how many? 
Well, the word "bouquet " is useful when one wants to spealc of the 
perfume of good wine; and for that purpose let us keep it, but ro-ive 
the picture-word " nosegay," which, besides being pure English, says 
as plainly as words can say: *'Lo! I present you the image of 
something at once bright to the eye and fragrant to the nose. What 
better word could you have?" 

Meanwhile " bouquet," though bad enough as a makeshift for 
"nosegay," is a hundred times better than " buttonhole," which now 
threatens to juslle it out of life, as itself hasjustled "nosegay." Yes, 
but a few weeks ago a country lass proudly showed me a nosegay as 
big as a mop, and asked me to admire her " beautiful buttonhole." 
Now, though to call even a single flower a buttonhole is a violent 
figure of speech, no one but a pedantic prig would seriously object 
to the figure ; but to apply it to a big bunch of sunflowers and poppies 
is a violation of good sense that screams for protest. 

Another plea for another homely English phrase of old descent. 
Reading Gilbert While's " Natural History of Selborne" I stumble on 
the charmingly simple phrase: "Nanny has been ailing, but she is 
mending fast." Then I turn to my Times and light on this 
absurdity : " The Duke of Sutherland is now quite convalescent." 
Quite convalescent ! that is " completely mending." Why, the adverb 
and the adjective swear at one another like cat and dog. *' Well, 
but you who blame the Times used that selfsame phrase yourself 
only forty years ago." Yes, and my poor mother laughed rae to 
scorn for it ; Heaven bless her ! 

It seems hardly necessary to add that no one in his senses sup- 
poses the editor of the 7)Wj himself capable of uttering so gross 
an absurdity. Even the clerks in the Times counting-house know 
belter ; but these *' atrocities " creep in, and, in the hurry of " going 
to press," escape even the most vigilant editor's eye. 

Another popular error is the notion that " education " and " book- 
learning " are synonymous words. This error is embalmed in the old 
saying, that "a good boy minds his book." But, in truth, book 
learning is but a part of education, and by no means the most 
important part; as many an excellently well-read man feels to his 
cost every hour of the day. It is, however, gratifying to be able to 
tdd that — thanks in great part to the teaching contained in Mr. 




Some Vulgar Errors. 




Herbert Spencer's tittle book on " Education "—folks arc now be* 
ginning co took oil mere book-kaming with suspicious eyes. There 
is nov perhaps some danger or our running into the opposite extreme ; 
at least so &r as the upper classes are concerne<l 

1 now descend from this high ilight to plead for the revival of 
another old word — " needments " — which seems to me far better — 
as 'lis surely shoner — than its modem substitute, " necessaries." Why 
not *- needments oflife" instead of " necessaries oflife," which is now 
the standing Ulcrary and legal phrase ? See the leading case of Seatim 
V. Btntdict; where, bythe-by, Benedict — the married man — is a 
feigned name for a certain special pleader cither at or ttnder the Bar 
whose wife thought fit to run him into debt ^^200 for silk stockings 
some ninety years ago ; and the question for the judge — or jury — 
was whether so many pairs of silk stockings could be deemed 
necessaries of life for a person in her position. The reader will judge 
for himself on that point. Meanwhile 1 humbly submit that *' neces- 
ies " is a needlessly long and hissing word, which miglit well make 
y for Spenser's " needments." I lay stress on the hissing of the 
word because foreigners are wont to call English the hissing tongue ; 
and it behoves every Englishman who loves it to do his *' level best " 
to better it Great writers do this unconsciously. Little ones must 
do what they can. 

One gigantic popular error is to suppose, or rather to take for 
granted, that *tJs every wight's duty to ape the dress, or the manner, 
or the mode of living, or the style of writing or speaking of some 
other wight. This Js a deadly error, for it leads straight to affectation, 
which never fails to beget disgust the moment it is detected \ and 
detection dogs its heels. *' For who," as Tennyson asks, " can 
always act?" — i.e, play a part No one. The mask is sure to fall 
ofl* sooner or later; and there stands the hypocrite self-exposed, as a 
hypocrite In the pristine sense of the word, vTct^iin/t, an actor, 
though not an honourable actor \ a stage-player on the stage of real 
life. Thus, as Schopenhauer pointedly puts it, every man, instead of 
being boimd to ape others, is bound to be original to tlie best of his 
ability, within the limits permitted by the law and by the dictates of 
morality. These will hinder him from carrying his own originality 
so far as to meddle with the equal right of his neighbour. 

" And what of religion ? You speak of the restraints imposed by 
law and by morality, but you say nothing of religion." I imagine 
Ihe reader to raise an objection which has arisen in my own mind. 
But, on reflection, I find myself justified in keeping religion apart 
&om morality, because oxit most prevailing po^\ai crtoi \& NA 



54 



The Gentleman's Magazine. 



confound them as if they were one and the same. jVnd this is natural,' 
for tbc)' both have their root in the heart. Both arc feelings. Only 
they are not the same feeling. Religion is a feeling towards that 
great Buiiig whose Name is so often taken in vain ; morality is a feeling 
towards man ; and to treat them as one and the same feeling is to 
court confusion of thought within oneself^ and endless misunder- 
standing without 

There are vulgar errors and vulgar errors ; and " their name is 
Legion." As the poet Thomson says, " The choice perplexes,"! 
which, by-the-by, may well have given birth to the now hackneyed 
French phrase Vembarras de cfwix j for Thomson's ** Seasons ** — 
like Scott's novels after them, albeit not to the same degree— did notj 
fail to leave their mark on Continental literature. There is no more ' 
widespread — and, in that sense, vulgar — error than the belief that 
the Past dies ; a belief most a/>parenii}\ not to say obtrusively, 
present in Longfellow's " Let the dead Past bury its dead," which j 
further involves, though no doubt unwittingly, a perversion of the 
Redeemer's bidding, " Let the dead bury their dead.*' Not a 
syllable of a dead Past ! That is pure Longfellow. No, the Past. 
never dies. It lives in us who live, and will live in our children.! 
Hence, in spite of the "old said saw," bygones can never be entirely 
bygones, though wc may strive our utmost to treat them as such. 
Then, if the Past died, how could it bind us ? And if it bound us not, 
where— as George Eliot so pertinently asks — would duty lie? Why, 
we should haste to shirk all our obligations and frolic in a purely 
animal immorality. 

But ought one never to practise the proverb, " Forget and 
forgive " ? That were surely neither Christian nor moral, to hug the 
memory of old wrongs and ever lie in wait to avenge them. 
Doubtless. But here comes in a distinction which the popular 
proverb wholly ohscures : " Forgive, freely, with all your heart ; but 
forget never." Forgive with all your heart, but remember with all 
your head. And this for divers reasons; one of them being that, if 
the great Schopenhauer's theory of madness be just, as we venture to 
think it is, to court forgetfulness is to court madness. And mad 
ness— like dealh — is already cheap enough. We roust court neither. 

Here seems a fitting place to notice another widespread enor, to 
wit, that Schopenhauer advocates suicide. We have read his works 
from beginning to end : not a line that flowed from his pen has 
escaped us ; and wc assure the non-l>chopenhauered reader that, Ikr 
from advocating suicide, Schopenhauer severely condemns it as — 
piu^doxioil though this must sotind and seem —the most vehement 



Some Vulgar Errors. 55 

affirmation of the sinful will to live. The reader will not expect us 
to attempt to explain that startling paradox here and now in the 
tail of a fluent paragraph. It needs, what Schopenhauer gives it, an 
explanatory treatise to itself ; which to the reader might pass muster 
or not But we will ask him to take our word for it, that 
Schopenhauer strongly condemns self-slaughter; as indeed was 
pointed out some ten years ago by the author of an article in the 
ComMU MagMttu, 

That necessity — or need — is the mother of invention, cannot 
<airly be ranked as a vulgar enor. Need is the mother of all the 
useful arts. There, however, at " useful," we must dmw the line ; 
else we shall run headlong into the vulgar belief that need is the 
mother of the beautiful arts, and starve our poets, our painters, and 
their peers, on principle. Nay, then, but Juvenal knew better, and 
tried to teach men better, some eighteen hundred years ago. We 
know that Virgil was affluent. Donatus, indeed, makes him a mil- 
lionaire. Juvenal soberly tells us that 'twas the work of a whole 
mind, not distraught by the sordid cares of seeking food and 
blankets, to pit i£neas against Tumus, and to paint the snakes that 
encircle the heads of the Furies : 

Magnae mentu opus, nee de lodice paranda 
Attonitse. 

And so our own Spenser sings : 

The vaonted verse a vacant head demands, 
Ne woDt with crabbed care the Mnse to dwelt 

PHIUP KENT. 



The Gent/eniafis Magazine, 



THE ^ANTICIPATED SCARCITY OF 
TIMBER. 



As long as a great part of the world Tcmained unknown, man 
had no consciousness of being cramped. In distance 
there was always a beyond ; in resources there was always the 
practically inexhaustible. But now that the world has been 
measured and mapped, and no distance remains prohibLtive of 
intercourse, man is beginning to feel a new sensation — that of being 
cramped and confined within very definite bounds, and of being 
severely limited in his resources. This is necessarily a new, a 
modern sensation. The limitations of area and resources of which 
peoples and races were conscious in the past, were accidental and 
temporary. The limitations of which we are now conscious are 
inevitable and ultimate. We cannot make the wor!d larger than it 
is; we cannot increase its natural capacity of productiveness or 
impart to it fresh qualities. We can call into exercise the latent 
forces which it possesses, but we cannot create for it fresh forces. 
We know the world for what it is ; and all we can do is to develop 
as fully as possible its capabilities. In olden times there was 
always an horizon beyond the one wc saw ; now we have seen the 
farthest horizon. We are locked in, and are beginning to realise 
the fact. 

This consciousness of being locked in has taken some time to 
become acute. Long after the geographers had demonstrated that 
the earth was a sphere separated from the rest of the universe by an 
immense distance, and even after most of the earth's surface had 
been actually discovered by civilised travellers, the world seemed 
wide enough and empty enough to make it unnecessary to anticipate 
any inconvenience from its limited area. It is only in modern, quite 
modem, times that human enterprise has so rapidly and extensively 
swept across the oceans and over the continents as to compel man 
CO take practical account of the ultimate limitations of the area on 
which tt is possible for him to act. Enclosure has been added to 



The AnticipaUd Scartiiy of Timtbcr. 57 

endosme, ontfl we find omsdvcs viihin meascnbie i^^-g^"-*^ of the 
day when the whtAc world will be mf\tiK^A 

The £act dut we are opidljr appnuchii^ the "'"^Tr"'^ PrnTrf^frm 
of die area in which we are moffnfd is bong c^iocaZy i ui^eaaed 
npoa OS by a phenomenon which only die more specCaszj^ r^mtrrt 
of die past coald have antiripBTfd At the h«'gir-n?ng^ oc wha: «e 

rail fiwHi^arion Jnnxt^ mrr^ m part th^ *4 » u * ^ ni ;>w^K«w«y;>ifa> am 

material, and in pan inq»eneciable ic^iiaiis of nnstay and fcac. 
Gvilisation as it progressed found diera in die way, and he wfao 
helped to clear them was a bmefartor to die nee. Tarrr, maA 
later, when dmber had become immeasniafaiy more vahobfe^ farests 
were sdll re^uded as practicany innhamrible ; and, tboog^ dieir 
destmctioa was deploced in certain localises, it was left to dae mne- 
teenth contuiy to awaken to the &ct dut it «as possibfie so to 
deplete the forests as to bring about a world-wide dmber £umnc^ 
besides introducing calamitoiis ^-Hmafal and physical changes m 
large districts. Here we come upon oar new coosaoasness of 
terrestrial limitations. There are 00 new lands oyrered with nigia 
fwests for OS to discover. If we are to hare in the fotcre a snppfy 
oS timber cqaal to oar A^manH^^ ve must diaw it from die lands we 
know of; and if those lands are to cootimie their present sopply, 
their forests roust be dealt with much nxKe sdentiBcally than th^ 
are dealt with now. Thus the threatened timber famine possesses 
an interest orer and above that which necessarily belongs to it— the 
interest <tf being one of the first practical hints that we are locked in. 
Thoi:^ the evidences npoa which the cry of danger to the 
worid's timber supply is based are incontrovertible, that cry - in qiite 
of the persistency with which it is repeated — may still be met with 
incredulity by persons who have not paid special attention to the 
subject The casual observer sees trees in abundance in most places 
which he visits. He may have traversed some of the forest dis- 
tricts of Germany and Russia, or been in the pine woods of the 
northern countries of Europe. The " backwoods " of America, the 
"virgin forests" of Canada, are terms that suggest to him timber 
resources, the exhausdbility of which he may imagine that we can 
safely leave to be discussed by our descendants. Then he is apt to 
mention loftily the unsnrveyed tracts of Central Australia and 
Central Africa, with an iiKidental reference to South America. He 
knows of the immense forests in India, and has perhaps heard of the 
enormous band of untouched forest land that stretches across 
Asiatic Siberia. In the &ce of all this, the cry of alarm raised 
iqppearf to him unnecessary, not to say ludicrous. But the initiated 



58 



The Geniitmatts Magazine. 



know better. They know that the enormously increased and still 
rapidly increasing modem demand for timtxjr of all kinds has already 
made very serious inroads upon the more accessible forest territories 
of the world ; that the timber has been, and in many parts still is, 
felled in such a way as permanently to disafforest the districts in 
which it grew ; that the limber- producing countries are every year 
becoming more and more timber-consuming countries in the sense 
that they either do, or soon will, need all their own timber for their 
own use ; that some of the world's forest lands are so far away from, 
and so inconveniently situated with respect to, the chief impwrting 
countries, as to make the cost and trouble of conveying thence heavy 
limber prohibitive until famine prices are reached ; that, in a word, 
the present commercial demand for timber is so rapidly overtaking 
the present reproduction of limber througliout the world, tliat unless 
energetic measures on a large scale are very speedily taken to secure 
an adequate annual reproduction a very near future will find the cry 
of alarm converted into a universal lamentation over actual calamity. 
Because a man can lose himself in a wood even in comparatively 
woodless England, or can find in an hour's stroll a number of 
magnificent jjark trees, it does not follow that there is a plethora of 
limber in the world. Besides its annual crop of native timber, 
Great Britain is buying every year many million pounds worth of 
foreign limber, and is every year increasing its purchases. Trees do 
not grow up like corn or cabbages. Few are worth much in less 
than fifty years, and many require two hundred years to give them 
their full value. From these data it is not difficult ti> discover that, 
unless (are is taken to secure adequate reproduction^ the world's con- 
sumption of tim1)er must speedily overtake the world'.s supply. 

This is by no means all. A umber famine would be an enormous 
commercial and industrial calamity, and would prejudicially affect the 
conditions of life to an almost inconceivable degree ; but an equally 
if not a more serious result would be the effect produced upon 
climate and upon the general fertility of the earth by an excessive 
diminution of forest areas. How great have already been the 
clianges produced in the character of certain lands by the destruction 
of forests is not at present known to, or if known is not seriously 
considered by, the public at large. Influences that operate slowly 
and obscurely are easily overlooked, though their effects may in the 
long nin be most disastrous. It may appear to the unobservant and 
thoughtless a ridiculously far cry from the reckless destruction o( 
foresu to the spread of sandy deserts and arid tracts during historical 
tiroes over Northern Africa, South-Westrm Asia, and Southern and 



The Anticipated Scarcity of Tifnher. 59 



Western Europe. Vet the two phenomena are connected as cause 
and effect. It will be one of the politico-scientific tasks of the 
future to determine what ratio must be maintained between the area 
of woodland and of open country, in order to ensure the continued 
fertility and habitability of tbc open country. No development of 
industrially appHt^d science, no political sagacity, no intellectual cul- 
ture, no social system which does not practically recognise the 
necessity of preserving an equilibrium in Che great natural conditions 
of the earth's surface, will save man from ruin. Not only is man 
** locked in " here upon this globe, but he is able to make his world 
unfit for him to live in. He can convert his garden into an unin- 
habitable desert ; and he can do this with a facility of which very few 
appear to have any conception. He has only to go on for a few 
generations doing as he is now doing, supplying the year's market 
with the produce of a century, and making no adequate provision for 
the supplies of the future. The homely old phrase, familiar to agri- 
culturist, about •' eating the calf in the cow's belly," describes what 
is merely a invial blunder in comparison. Com and cattle can be 
speedily and easily reproduced \ but not so trees and forests. Not 
only do trees require many years to arrive at maturity ; but forests 
when recklessly destroyed are restored with extreme diificulty, and 
conditions are only too easily set up which render such restoration 
almost impossible. 

This article might be lengthened indefinitely by adducing a mul- 
titude of facts in proof of the above assertions. These facts have 
long been known to experts, and lo a small portion of the reading 
public. Action has Iiecn taken in some countries ; but that action 
is still too local, and in its totality altogether inadequate to the 
urgency of the case. It is not enough that a few nations should pre- 
serve their forests at home. What is urgently needed is that the 
great timber producing regions of the world should be protected from 
the calamity that threatens them, and through them all the peoples 
of the earth. The problem is both a domestic and a cosmopolitan 
one ; but to no Great Power is it more interesting than to the 
British Empire. In one form and another Great Britain consumes 
more timber than any other Power. Not one of the other 
important old countries produces at home less timber relatively to 
its sice. On the other hand, Britain owns, in her dependencies and 
colonies, more forest land than any other Power in the world ; and 
though her Indian forests are comparatively well taken care of, her 
|-colQcne« are very urgently in need of some action to prevent the 
ndtktt and wasteful destruction of their valuable timber tTca&ut«s>. 



» 



60 The CentUmmis Magazine, 

Neither at home nor in the colonies can the matter be safely left 
to uncontrolled private enterprise. At home, planting is insufficieDtly 
remunerative to call forth— or even to justify — any considerable out- 
lay on the part of the private capitalist ; in the colonies, where the 
timber has been already accumulated by untrammelled Nature, the 
private adventurer naturally considers only present profit and rushes 
the wealth produced by past centuries into the ever-eager markets. 
The inference is obvious : the whole question is one of State con- 
trol, not of private enterprise. Even in a small, or comparatively 
small, country like that of Britain, some kind of State initiative and 
control is necessary. The amount of capital that must long lie dor- 
mant, the extent of area required, the need for highly trained and 
carefully regulated skill and labour, the fact that many of the 
advantages derived from a judicious system of forest cultivation are 
national rather than personal, the Importance of securing a conserva- 
tion as well as a present supply of tlmbct— these and other reasons 
afford an accumulative argument in favour of State control. 

As to our own islands, it would be grossly unjust to our landed 
class, cither of the past or the present, to accuse them of a blamable 
indiffeience to timber cultivation. What growing timber we possess 
we owe to the often unrcmuncrated zeal of our noblemen and 
landed gentry in planting. We have unforgotlen traditions of 
" planting dukes," and of others who have devoted mucli thought 
and much money to this work. It is true that *' sport " has often 
been one of the prompting motives, and that a taste for richly 
timbered grounds has been another ; but there have been also other 
motives at work of a more practical and sometimes of a patriotic 
character. If there remains much land which might be planted 
with advantage to the country as a whole, this is not due to any 
reluctance to plant on the part of the landowners, but to their natural 
disinclination to incur serious risks, and to withdraw capital from 
more immediately profitable employment. Our arboricultural 
societies arc kept up to a large extent by landowners who are 
zealous promoters of forestry education and training. The British 
landowners are doing what they can ; but the work which 1ms to be 
done is too great for private, and too slowly remunerative for com- 
pany, enterprise. What private enterprise cannot do, however, the 
State might do, not only without loss but with profit to the nation. 
State initiative and control in this matter would not be open to the 
charge of benefiting one class at the expense of the rest. The 
benefit would, in one form or another, be felt by all classes. Timber 
is a commodity which is bound up with all the conveniences of life ; 



The Anticipated Scarcity of Timber, 6i 

and the physical benefits to be derived from a judiciously regulated 
ratio between woodland and open fields would be shared by all 
classes. It would be an extravagance to say, as some have done, 
that Great Britain could be made to grow all the timber she needs 
without interference with other land industries j but if she could be 
got to laigely reduce the quantity imported, the advantage would be 
universally felt when the stress of higher prices came — as it must 
com^ however speedily the great timber-producing countries set 
about the work of scientifically cultivating their forests. The evil 
has already gone so far that it would be too optimistic to hope that 
a temporary scarcity can be avoided. Such a scarcity is inevitable ; 
but to us in Great Britain, at least, its severity would be diminished, 
and its duration shortened, if some system of State forestry were 
at once initiated. 

ARTHUR RANSOM. 



64 



The Gentleman s Magazine, 



Catherme had a humorous way of referring to her vast empire 
as " my little household." While they were in the Crimea she said 
to De S^gur— 

" ni bet a wager, M. le Comic, that at this moment your fine 
ladies, your fashionables, and your iiferati at Paris pit)- you greatly 
for having to travel in this country of bears, amidst barbarians and 
with a tiresome Ccarina. I respect your learned men, but I love 
the uncultivated better ; for my own part I only wish to know what 
is necessary for the management of my little hcuse/iold.^* 

"Your Majesty," replied the Count, "amuses yourself at our 
expense. You well know that no person in France thinks of you in 
that manner. Voltaire is a sufticiently brilliant and clear inter- 
preter to your Majesty of our opinions and sentiments. You should 
rather be sometimes discontented with the species of fear and 
jealousy which the prodigious increase oi your littU Itousthold %\y^% 
to the greatest Powers." 

France was a great upholder of Turkey, and tlie Empress, 
referring to this, said lo the ambassador — 

*' Avouez que vos Turcs sont de bien vilaines gens, et qu*il est 
dommage dc les voir camper sur le Bosphore." 

The Count diplomatically replied, " Que votre Majestd prenne 
I'engagemcnt que d'autres ni plus vilaines ni plus beaux ne sc 
prt^nteront dans les eaux du Bosphore." 

The Comle de S^r was an excellent diplomatist as well as an 
agreeable trifler. He did not spend all his time in writing plays for 
the theatre at "The Hermitage, " or inventing rhymes. For years 
the French ambassadors had been striving to make a commercial 
treaty with Russia^ and obtain for French merchants advantages 
enjoyed by the English. De S^gur seized the moment when there 
happened to be a strong political feeling against Engbnd to press 
the Treaty question, and carried it through to the satisfaction both 
of his master and the Empress, who presented him with her portrait 
set in diamonds, a set of valuable furs, and the sum of 40,000 francs. 

The French Revolution brought the Comte de S^gur's mission 
to an abrupt termination. His S3'mpathies were strongly with the 
democrats, and he insisted on returning to France. No persuasions 
on Ihc part of the Empress were of any avail. After his departure 
Catherine showed great animosity against the Rcvolulionista, and 
caused invectives to be published against them. The consequencK 
was that she, in her turn, became a target for abuse, and the Count, 
who probably knew more about the private life of the Empress than 
any man out of Russia, is said to have inspired the pamphlets which 



Catherine II. and ike CanUe de Signr. 65 

appeared against her. Catherine's conduct furnished abundant 
material for her enemies, and it is quite po^ible that De S^nr 
turned informer. But it is only fair at the same time to remember 
that he has left among his own records a very discriminating and 
unprejudiced description of the Empress. According to him 
Cathmne's habits were simple and somewhat austere. She rose at 
six and lighted her own fire, and gave the morning hours to work 
with her Ministers and Government officials. She was served at 
table with as Uttle ^remony as a private person. Her pleasures 
never interfered with her business, and she had such a graq> of 
a&irs that her Bfinisters were more like secretaries, all the most 
important despatches being written at her dictation. " Le g&iie de 
Catherine £tait vaste^ son esprit fin ; on vpysut en elle un melange 
^tonnai^ des quality qu'on tronve le plus rarement ramies. Trop 
sensible aux plaisirs et cependant assidue au travail, elle £tait 
natureUe dans sa vie priv6e, dissimul^ dans sa politique; son 
ambiticm ne connaissait pas de bome^ mais elte la dirigeait avec 
prudence. Omstante non dans ses passions mais dans ses amiti^ 
elle s*£tait fait en administration et en politique des prindpes fixes ; 
jamais elle n'abandonna ni un ami ni un projet." 

GEORGIANA HILL. 



VM. CCXO. KO. 3047. 




Tfu Gentlemans Magazine, 



THE COLERIDGE COUNTRY. 

AMONG the many vicissitudes in the life of Samuel Taylor 
Coleridge, there was only one spot that possessed for him the 
trae affinities of home. Not the Lake District, not Nether Stowey, 
not the dreamed-of elysium on tlie banks of the Susquehanna, but 
a villi^e among the hills that cradle the brawling Otter, and the 
scenes of which that \'illage is the centre, can alone claim the dis- 
tinctive appellation of " The Coleridge Country." " For the world 
in general," says a biographer of the poet, "the name of Coleridge 
is so indissolubly connected with the Lake country and the Lake 
poets, that the fact of his being by birth a Devonshire man is almost 
forgotten." It was in the village of Ottery St. Mary that he first 
saw the light ; in point of time the place can claim but few years of 
his existence, but it remained to him, throughout life, the dearest 
spot on earth, and however Ulysses-like his subsequent wanderings 
may have been, a lengthening chain of memories and associations 
kept his mind in touch with the scenes among which his earliest ties 
were formed. It was, so to speak, the metropolis of his affections, 
and thither until the end all the avenues of his fancy and his 
thoughts tended. 

His poetry abounds in allusions to these boyhood haunts. The 
earliest notes that he uttered to the world are inspired by memories 
of Ollery. In the dedication of his first-published volume to his 
brother, the Rev. George Coleridge (which resembles Goldsmith's 
very similar dedication of " The Traveller " to his brother, the Rev. 
Henry Goldsmith, in nothing so much as in its longings for his first 
home and its pensive regrets for wasted years of wandering), he says : 

A blessed lot hath he, who haviDg past 

His youth and early manhood in the stir 

And tuimuit or the woild, letreais at length . . . 

To the Hme dwelling inhere his fathen dwelt. 



To me the Eternal Wisdom hath dispensed 
A diflereot fortune and more difTerent nund ; 



Thf CsSgFw^ 




He was never vcaty cf "'"''-■"■t : 
sbevn. Accpufipg lo ilie iiiHTi'iCBg s^ shl 
nearif lost fais life liriwri iB«aBB:v^>K 3m ^ar laesm joobc 
the anluiii of db aflcQaoo fcr £. Obe of Ics &i>JKcie: <»*wq^ ^^i 
the ** Pizie^ Pinloar/ a saodr ea miLiLC. ic die s& ie ae -mnmA- 
coTcnd hiD orerimigBi^ iSie bue. Iz zensHB 3&^vr 3c wcini •—^tt 
die same u an lUi i a i as vriea r&e poeE kaev 3L 7^ ties 3 :■£ 
trees " ixriertvined widi v3desz irini e L "ia ■fi i p" . ;s^ v:^ j^' 
fonn the odlii^ of the tsrt : 33 Bc3es ^>& «i3s se bgo-c v!q 

own and those of his iMutLov 'cK.'*'as at 'nWti^f 
band of their cfafldhood.* Tbxbcf be jsrC h rsacn. "-c it. aac 
sequestered reocst «oiiU mr^Tgc is •S-iy kc^ o*^ 21*^x9019 
that were at ooce fas weakness xsd "bia s:r:s^±. ^tt teras. v 
his ovennasterii^ chanc, asd =» in,:^^ cf -^^jp ^-^rtri'-iyiry ai£ 
impotence dnt weO-ni^ prored ha rxr:. " T-nfi^rT ^ b£ btx^ 



Of wild OBES 2in& tS^K' T I II j ' K^^ 

Of ndoiisoc sxc sxc^ sbskic. 



In his lines ** To a Beantiftil Spring in a VuK^e^* be ^1^ mi, 
his £Avoazite streain in terms of no sdnzed ^frrrion : 

Oaeemmtt sweet Kreaa, wi&tiem tux. « * ■*— ^^^ »>**y 

I blem thy Milky waun ecU Bad dor 

Eicaped the fli^EBg of die nooB-cide kons ; 

WnhoDC frab ptiacd atf^FSemc Amtu 

(Ere froB tbe Kffayr-bwnud fank I tsx,< 

My bagaid hud daS wratb ifay Brwj hb. 

Tberattic here at r-r ttTi imbijh yi^t ^^^ 

WUtfliaE km dima, lau ipoa tn onA ; 

Or WaitiBE, pwnesvitk hope-ai^|ed die^ 

To Ktt die BBdb-loTed bsIA wi ■humi i] uaA. 

Sbt, TBUilj KODdM of bcT dice's eoaaaid, 

Loitas tbe lone -filled pitcker ia bet hwL 



68 Th4 Gentleman' s Magazine, 

Unboftstful stfeam ! tliy fount with pebbled falls, 
The faded foim of past delight rccilU, 
What time the moming lun of hope arose 
And ftU was joy. . . . 

The satae theme inspires him again in the lines " Written in 
Early Youth": 

Dev native farook t like pctcc so pkctdly 
Smoothing through fertile fields thy current meek. 
Dear native brook ! where 6rst young poesy, 
Sured wildly eager in her noon-tide dream, 
Where blameless pleasures dimples quiet's cheek 
As water-tilies ripple a slow ntream. 
Oc&r DAtivc haunu ! where virtue still U gay. 
Where friendship's fixed sur sheds a mellowed ray ; 
No more slull deck your pensive pleasures sweet, 
Willi wreaths of sober hue my evening seat ; 
Vet dear to Fancy's eye your varied scene 
Of wood, hill, vale and -iparkling brook t>etweett } 
Vet sweet to Fancy's eu the warbled song 
That soars on morning's wing, your viles among. 

The beautiful sonnet "To the River Oiler" affords yet further 
prooC iT such were required, of his tender and lingering regard 
for the scenes of his childhood : 

Dear native brook I Wild ictreamlet of the West t 
How miuay various-fated yean have passed, 
What blissful and what anguished hours, since last 
I skimmed the smooth thin stnne along thy breast. 
Numbering its light leaps ! Vet so deep impressed 
Sink the sweet scenes of childhood, that mine eyes 
I never ^hut amid the sunny blaze, 
But strsigbt with all their tints thy waters rise ; 
Thy aossing plank, thy margin's willowy mate 
And bedded sand that, veined with various dyes, 
Gleamed thro' thy bright transparence to the gaze I 
Vlsioiis of childhood I Oft liave yc beguiled 
Lone manhood cares, yet waking fondest sighs. 
Ah ! that once more I were a carelcs child. 

In their aspects and history the scenes so celebrated are not 
unworthy of the poef s devotion to them. Ottery St Mary might be 
summarily described, in the language of the gazetteer, as an ancient 
market-town situate in a fertile valley on the eastern bank of the 
River Otter. But this would convey no adequate idea of the 
quiet, old-world charm, the sense of retirement and seclusion, and 
the sleepy atmosphere of poetic association that linger about its 
streets, and seem to impregnate the life and thought of the place 



The Coleridge Country. 69 

Owing to its proximity to Exeter it has played an important part in 
the histoiy of this country. During the long and dis^cting period 
of the Wars of the Roses, the splendid days of Elizabethan enteiprise^ 
the chances and changes of the time of Cromwell, the little town upon 
the Otter figures again and again. It was here that Henry VI. 
lingered on bis way to Exeter what time the dty streets ran with the 
rival blood of Lancaster and York. It was here that Raldgh made 
his home. It was here, at a room in Hayes Court (the seat of the 
late Lord Chief Justice Coleridge), that Cromwell held a convention 
for the purpose of raising men and money to fight the forces of 
Charles ; and it was bete that Fairfax had bis headquarters when, 
after the splendid victory of Naseby, he marched to quell the 
opposition in the West. Like Exeter, but unlike Plymouth and the 
northern part of the county, Ottery adhered to the Royalist cause 
during the civil wars of the seventeenth century, and it was probably 
on this account that the two great leaders of the armies of the Parlia- 
ment chose it as their temporary abidingplace. But the literary associ- 
ations of a locality are ever more interesting and abiding than those 
of a martial character, and Ottery is prouder of being the birthplace 
of Coleridge than of any real or imaginary distinction that kings or 
potentates may have conferred upon it. Thackeray was a frequent 
sojourner in the neighbourhood, and what the author of "West- 
ward Ho ! " was to Bideford, that, to a great extent, the author of 
" Pendennis " was to Ottery St Mary. Beneath a thin disguise, we 
have little difficulty in recognising the identity of Clavering St. Mary 
with that of the town upon the Otter, and Coleridge himself has not 
given us more charming pictures of the place than are to be found 
in the pages of " Pendennis." What, for instance, could be more 
charming or true to the facts than his description of " The Happy 
Village"?— 

" Looking at the little old town of Clavering St Mary from the 
London Road, as it runs by the Lodge at Fairoaks, and seeing the 
rapid and shining Brawl winding down from the town and skirting 
the woods of Clavering Park, and the ancient church tower and 
peaked roofs of the houses rising up amongst trees and old walls, 
behind which swells a fair background of sunshiny hills that stretch 
fit>m Claverii^ westward towards the sea, the place looks so cheery 
and comfortable that many a traveller's heart must have yearned 
towards it fi-om the coach-top, and he must have thought that it waa 
in such a calm friendly nook he would like to shelter at the end of 
life's struggle." The original of " Fairoaks,** the family demesne of 
the Pendenniaes, differs in nothing but the name from a place well 



70 



The Gentleman s Magazine, 



knovn in Ottery, where Thackeray used frequently to stay in his 
holiday visits lo the West. "Clavering Park" is no less easily 
distinguishable ; " the rapid and shining Brawl," celebrated as the 
scene of Mr. Pen's fishing and philandering expeditions, is no other 
than the Otter itself. Even the tree, in the hoUow of which the 
novelist's hero used to deposit his box of ground-bait and other fish- 
ing commodities, and which afterwards served the purpose of Love's 
post in his passage at hearts with Miss Amery, is known and 
indicated as an object of rare interest today. Thackeray, in his own 
inimitable way, has caught and expressed that drowsy, old-world 
atmosphere so generally associated with ancient respectable market- 
towns, and so particularly inseparable from Ottery. 

An object of important interest in the village is the Abbey 
Church, which rises up on the south side of the market "with its 
great grey towers, of which the sun illuminates the delicate carvings, 
deepening the shadows of the huge buttresses, and gilding the 
glittering windows and flaming vanes." Were it not a little beside the 
mark, it would be no uninteresting task to sit at ihc feet of our good 
friend Dr. Fortman and learn something of the history of this 
venerable pile. How it fared beneath the hands of the pious 
Vandals of Puritan days ; how it survived its rude and repeated 
purifications of fire ; how many of wise and of warlike have 
worshipped within its walls ; what scenes of bravery and of blood j 
what chances and changes, what hopes and fears its aged eyes have 
looked down upon ! In the long array of names, more or less 
distinguished, that occur in connection with the edifice, there 
is one that appeals to us with a sense of peculiar recognition. 
It wa."; probably about the commencement of the sixteenth century 
that Alexander Barclay was appointed by Bishop Cornish to a 
chaplaincy at Ottery St. Mary. He was one of the last, as well as 
one of the most popular, jioets of the era rhat immediately preceded 
the great sunburst of Elizabetlun song. In the light of retrospective 
criticism he does not occupy a very exalted position in the scale of 
poetic merit, but witli his contemporaries " The Ship of Fools " was 
popular for the unsparing onslaught il made upon the follies and 
vices of the times. To the reader of to-day its chief interest is in the 
picture it gives of contemporary manners and custom.-i. It abounds 
in allusions to the locality and people in and among which and 
whom the poet lived. At the end of the Latin dedication prefixed 
to the i>oem the following note appears : "This present boke, named 
the * Shyp of Folys of the Worlde,' was translated in the College 
Ssymc Olery in the cotmtc of Devonshyre : out of Latin, French 




The Coleridge Country. 



\ 



7« 



and Doche into Englysshe Tonge by Alexander Barclaye, Preste ; 
■nd at ihat time chaplen in the sayde college : Translated in the 
year of our Lord God MCCCCC, VIIJ." 

In modem times the name of the Rev. John Coleridge, Vicar of 
the parish, and Chaplain-Priest, and Master of the King's School, ia 
one which, for oar present purpose, is more important than that of 
Barclay's. Apart from the interest that attaches to him as father of 
the author of " OiHstabel," he was himself a personality to be 
reckoned with. He was one of the best Hebrew scholars of his lime. 
Il is said that, while preaching, he would frequently exclaim, "These, 
my brethren, are the words of the Holy Spirit," proceeding to quote 
from the Hebrew original, to the admiration, doubtless, if not to the 
edification, of his rustic hearers. De Quincey tells several stories of 
his eccentricity and absent-mindedness, some of which, however, are 
protiably more legendary than true. His son Samuel says of him 
that "in learning, good-hcartedness, absentness of mind, and exces- 
sive ignorance of the world, he was a perfect Parson Adams." He 
was the author of several books, including a "Critical Latin 
Grammar " and " Miscellaneous Dissertations arising from 17th and 
iSih chapters of the Book of Judges." 

Next to the church, the greatest object of interest in the village 
was, until recently, the Free Grammar School, commonly called the 
" King's School," founded by Henry VIU. Of this establishment 
the elder Coleridge was, as has been indicated, formerly the master; 
so also was the Rev. Mr. Wapshott, of " Pendcnnis." On the 
death of his father in 1781, Coleridge became a day scholar at the 
King's School, and continued in this capacity until early in the 
following year, when a presentation to Christ's Hospital was obtained 
for him. The school was some few years since pulled down, and a 
garden now adorns the site where once it stood. Some of Coleridge's 
biographers assert that the old King's School was actually the birth- 
place of the poet, but the Rectory— "a stout, broad-shouldered 
brick house of the reign of Anne," as Thackeray describes it — has 
probably a better claim to this distinction. 

In [783 the orphaned youth was ** transplanted " from the place 

of his " first domestic loves " and inducted into his new life as 

ft tivcried school-boy in th« depths 
or the huge city. 

Thus, "Tom by early sorrow from his native seal," it is not un- 
natural that his thoughts should revert to those early scenes, as to 
an Eden from which an unkind Fate had banished him. That this 
as so is evident from the references to this period which occui vr, 
bis later poems. Years a/ier ihe^ walls of the o\d Gte^ Yrat^Xa^ 



72 



Tht GentUiftan s Magazine. 



ceased to echo the accents of " the inspired charity boy," in the 
solitude of his cottage at Stowey, he recalls some of the impressions 
of those lonely schoolboy days. Musing by the low-bumt fire at 
midnight, and gazing on that fluttering film of soot upon the grate, 
which, country superstition avers, betokens the advent of a stranger 
at one's beartli, he says : 

How oft at School, with most believing miiul, 

Presogcfiil, have I gaiwl tipon the bnr» 

To watch Ihe fluttering atmngcr 1 Aod u oftr 

With uodosed liJii olicady have I dreametl 

Of my sweet Birthplace, and the old church lower. 

Whose belli, the poor nun's only music, ctatig 

From mom to evening all the hot Fiii-day, 

So sweetly that they stirred and btunted me 

With 8 wild pic&surc, falling od my car 

Most lilce articulate sounds of things to come I 

So gazed I till the soothing thingt I dreamt 

Lulled me to sleep, and &leep prolonged my dreams I 

And ED I brooded alt the following morn. 

Awed by the stem preceptor's Dice, mine eye 

Fixed with mock study on my swimming book : 

Save if the door half-ojicncd, aod I snatched 

A hasty glance, uid still my heart IcAped up, 

For still I hoped to see the stianger's face, 

Townsman, or aunt, or sister more beloved. 

My playmate when we both were clotlied alike 1 

There was at least one among his schoolfellows who was able to 
understand and appreciate these dreams and longings of the poor 
friendless boy. In •'Recollections of Christ's Hospital," "The 
Melancholy Elia," one of Coleridge's earliest friends, speaks for him 
in the following passage : " My parents and those who should care 
for me were far away. Those few acquaintances of theirs whotn they 
could reckon upon as being kind to me in the great city, after a little 
forced notice which they had the grace to take of me on my 6rst 
arrival in town, soon grew tired of my holiday visits. They seemed 
to them to recur too often, though I thought them few enough ; and 
one after another they all failed nac, and I felt mjscU' alone among 
some six hundred playmates. , . . How in my dreams would my 
native town (far in the West) come back with its church, and trees, 
and faces ! And I would wake weeping, and in the anguish of my 
heart exclaim upon sweet Calne in Wiltshire.*" 

" 'Calne' of course," says Mr. J, Dykes Cam)>bell in his "IJfe 
of Coleridge," " is only Lamb's device for concealing bis friend's 
identity, and was selected, doubtless* partly for its cadence and partly 
because Coleridge resided there shonly before going to Highgatc. 

With his entrance to Christ's Hospital, Coleridge's persooal con- 



The Coleridge Country, 73 

nection with Ottery was practically at an end. Although the place 
seems never to have lost its old charm for him, and his holiday visits 
thereto in after years were not infrequent, he appears never to have 
penioanently settled there after his first exile from it. It is possible 
that he spent some time there in 17S4, 17S9, and 1790. Again in 
1 791, between school and college, it is reasonably certdn that he 
went home, and the poem entitled " Happiness " bears internal signs 
of having been written at Ottery at this time. The long vacation of 
X793 appears to have been spent with his family at Ottery. To this 
period belong the verses called " Kisses " and " The Rose," which 
were originally addressed to Miss F. Nisbett, of Plymouth, whither 
the author accompanied his eldest brother on a visit. The " Song 
of the Pixies " appears also to have been written on the occasion of 
this home-going. 

After his departure from Cambridge in 1794 there appears to 
have been a breach of the friendly relations existing between himself 
and his family; but in the summer of 1796 he paid a visit of recon- 
ciliation to Ottery. Of this visit he says, in a letter to Rev. J. P. 
Estlin, of Bristol, a friend and frequent correspondent of the poet's : 
" I was received by my mother with transport, and by my brother 
George with joy and tenderness, and by my other brothers with affec- 
tionate civility." 

In a letter to his brother George in 1798 he proposed another 
visit to Ottery, but this appears not to have been carried out, and on 
his next return thither in August 1799 he was accompanied by his 
wife. Southey, who with his wife had set out for Sidmouth at the 
same time, was detained with the Coleridges at Ottery for some days. 
The gathering seems to have been a very happy one, notwithstanding 
the frequent disputes that took place between Coleridge and his 
brothers touching the extravagant political and religious views that 
the fonner had espoused. Southey, in a letter to his friend John May, 
gives an interesting description of the family gathering : " We were 
all a good deal amused," he says, "by the old lady [Coleridge's 
mother]. She could not hear what was going on, but seeing Samuel 
arguing with his brothers, took it for granted that he must be wrong, 
and cried out, * Ah ! if your poor father had been alive, he'd soon 
have convinced you.' " 

This was Coleridge's last visit to his native place. A lasting 
rupture arose between him and his family in consequence of the 
former's proposed separation from his wife. A return visit was 
suggested in 1807, but it was never carried into effect, and Ottery 
saw its best and noblest son no more. 

PEKCIVXL H. ^. K\:MX. 



74 



The Genilentan's Magazine, 



MR. WYATT. 



HE had the &ir of a music-master. We were unanimous on that 
point. The pursuit of no other calling could produce that 
look of pensive longing, or the pathos of those hollow cheeks and 
that emaciated stoop. Yes, he was, be must be, a music-master ; 
and our opinion was slrcngthcned when, after I had been hard at 
work all one morning on Chopin's " Fifth Prelude," near an open 
window, a neat professional card was found in the letter-box, 
inscribed : "Mr. Wyatt, Professor of Music, 156 Tinterden Road." 

*' Peter," I said, ** that black, cadaverous man is a muslc-mastcr, 
and he lives in Tinterden Road. He heard me practising this 
morning, and thought I needed a few lessons, so he's left a card to 
show me that I need not go far for instruction." 

After this, Mr. Wyatt became an object of daily interest, as he 
passed up and down the Terrace, intent on his high and artistic 
calling. Not that he possessed any of those melodramatic adjuncts 
peculiar to musical genius. He had no mane of waving hair ; he 
was not clean-shaven ; he wore no velvet coal. On the contrary, 
he had close- cropped, black, oily hair, and a stubbly moustache, and 
was neatly attired in black serge. In fact, as Peter said, he looked 
like a young man from a draper's shop, turned dissenting parson, 
who combined the clerical with the lay garb so successfully as to 
produce only a neat demureness of appearance. Nor was there the 
fascination of Bohemia about him. No, he possessed none of 
these attractions. Twice every Sunday, with a targe prayer-book 
tucked under his arm, he passed up and down the Terrace on bis 
way to and from church. "Ah ! an organist," we said. On these 
occasions his woman-kind accompanied him. With an elderly 
woman on bis right arm, whom we conjectured to be hts mother or 
molher-in-Iaw, and on his left a tail, angular woman, who we at once 
said was his wife, or perhaps his sister, with a sweet, pensive, yet 
triumphant smile upon his face, Ins walk along the Terrace partook 
of the nature of a saintly progress. Such an example of sanctified 
coquettishncfts wc had never before seen in a man. It was absurd, 



Mr. WyatL 




ridiculous, e?en contemptible — opinions which were banished the 
moment we felt the influence or the sweet but resigned melancholy 
of his careworn face. 

One cannot ridicule that which one pities. 
It was a real pleasure to ns when we saw him riding a bicycle. 
How many months of self-denial might not that purchase have cost 
him? It was rather a nice bicycle, too, and he rode it not un- 
gracefully. 

Perhaps Fortune was going to smile on our music-master. But, 
aUs for the frailty of human life and the tmcertainty of human 
hope ! 

When next we saw him he was mourning. 

He passed down the Terrace that Sunday as before, but the 
saintly friskiness was gone. He wore a d^^p hat-band, and carried 
blade Icid gloves and an umbrella. 

How hard it seemed that to lives so little joyous, spent not in 
grinding or sordid, but — what is perhaps more painful to some 
natures— /afrt^'n>^ poverty, the separation of death should come ! 
We felt not a little sympathy for Mr. Wyatt, and a melancholy 
curiosity as to the nature of the loss he had sustained. On the other 
hand, we felt that the consolations of his religion must be bearing 
him up under his afHiction. It is at such a time as this that one 
appreciates the worth of religion. Mr. Wyatt mourned for fully 
twelve months, although, as time went on, the burden of his woe 
appeared lighter. In the early days of our interest our observation 
had been more general than particular. We had seen him surrounded 
by his woman folk and had vaguely characterised them as his mother 
or sister or wife, or what not. Now we became aware that his 
companions never exceeded two in number. The third — there had 
often been a third — had disappeared. She it was whom death had 
taken. 

But — wife, sister, or mother— Mr. Wyatt was recovering from her 
loss. His step had once more resumed its jaunty demureness : he 
even seemed to be indulging in a reverential witticism on the 
Sunday's sermon with one or other of the clinging women whom he 
supported. It is not pleasant to think that the dead are so easily 
Corgotten, but who could resent the fact that happiness in some 
measure was returning to a life of such sombre possibihties ? 

Happiness was returning to Mr. Wyatt. Of that there could be 
no doubt. But we feared for his health. In spite of the bicycle, 
the purchase of which had necessitated such economy, Mr. Wyatt 
was finding it necessary to visit many of his pupils in a hansom cab. 



I 



unsom became more frequeni 
occasions Mr, Wyatt was not alone. 

In spite of his poverty, his asceticism, and ap| 
death, K(r. Wyatt evidently intended to marry. 

We had but fleeting glimpses of the lady of 
seemed neither very young nor very pretty. CI 
have been, for, as tlic da)-s went by, Mr. Wyall's di 
more and more apparent. Then the bdy disappear) 
went to his pupils unattended, although he was oi 
supported by ihe usual number of feminine adherents, 

About this time I left home to pay a short visit. 
Ijack, my friends called, as at other times, to con; 
themselves on my return. Some of them, however, ci 
business-like and less pleasant enand. They were ", 
in every sense of that comprehensive word, and the) 
me if I would take Geraldine's Sunday-school class ft 
as she was going away for a week to a wedding, ai 
attendant. 

Naturally I fel t somewhat aggrieved. I am 
Curates had never attracted me, even before my hair « 
bachelor vicars of High Church tendeacies always 
chilly and neuralgic 

But, as I told Peter, if I am not "good ** I am "t 
taui^t Geralduic's class of rirl" ihir & 



76 



The Gentleman s Magazine, 



But as his health declined, his spirits rose. He became thinner 
than ever, his face in repose more melancholy, but there could be no 
doubt tliat that gentle, coquettish buoyancy grew apace. 

One day Peter came to roe and said that he had seen Mr. Wyatt 
going down the Terrace just after sunset with his arm round some 
girl's waist. Peter spoke rather under his breath : we were not in 
the liabit of mentioning such tilings, and the idea in connection with 
Mr. \V)-att seemed preposterous- But it was a fact, for I saw the 
same thing myself n few days later. 

The use of the hansom became more frequent, and on many 
occasions Mr, Wyatt was not alone. 

In spite of his poverty, his asceticism, and apparent nearness to 
death, Mr. Wyatt e\idently intended to marry. 

We had but fleeting glimpses of the lady of his choice. She 
seemed neither very young nor very pretty. Charming she must 
have been, for, as the days went by, Mr. Wyatt's devotion became 
more and more apparent Then the lady disappeared. Mr. Wyatt 
went to his pupils unattended, although he was on Sundays still 
supported by the usual number of feminine adherents. 

About this lime I left home lo pay a short visit ^\'Tien I came 
back, my friends called, as at other times, to congratulate roe or 
themselves on my return. Some of them, however, came on a more 
business-like and less pleasant errand. They were " good " people, 
in every sense of that comprehensive word, and they came to ask 
me if I would take Geraldine*s Sunday-school class for one Sunday, 
OS she was going away for a week to a wedding, and the gaieties 
attendant. 

Naturally I fell somewhat aggrieved. I am not "good," 
Curates had never attracted me, even before my hair was put up, and 
bachelor vicars of High Church tendencies always make me feel 
chilly and neuralgic 

But, as I told Peter, if I am not " good " I am " amiable." So I 
taught Geraldine's class of girls that Sunday afternoon. It was my 
first experience of that kind. 

There were collects, and hymns, and the ringing of bells to indi* 
cate the exact moment for each. The girls were uninteresting, and 
found the greatest difficulty in responding correctly lo my question, 
*' What is thy Desire 7 " I felt very weary, and even went so far a& 
to suppress a yawn in the middle of a plaintive hymu, when my 
attention was arrested. . . . Did I not see our Mr. Wyatt singing, 
Gunoundcd by a group of girls? 

He xt^t an organist, then, and this was his church. 



Mr. Wyaii. 



11 



The hymn was finished, but instead of a collect and the benedic- 
tion immediately following, as I had been given to understand they 
would, Mr. Wyatt advanced. 

He walked up the long room with the same air of a saintty 
progress that was so well-known to us on the Terrace. Arriving at 
the reading desk, he paused. 

I held my breath— was he going to teach us to sing ; or was he 
going to sing himself as an object-lesson ? 

Neither. 

Turning from right to left, with a curious glance which seemed 
intended to catch some eyes and pass by others, he b^an — " My 
dear young ladies." 

Now there were a few men teachers besides Mr. Wyatt at the 
Sunday-schoo!, but they were evidently not included in his address. 
This, then, was the meaning of that discriminating glance — he was 
speaking to girls only. 

My name is Celia, but I recoUecl feeling a dim, uncomfortable 
uncertainty whether I was not a man, and ought to go. However, 
the other men stayed, and, on second thoughts, I did too. 

" My dear young ladies," began Mr. Wyatt, *' in looking back, as 
one always does when a change from any established order of things 
is imminent, the first feeling that one experiences is that of regret 
If ibis be the case when leaving behind us unpleasant memories 
how much more so when the past has been a happy one? The 
kind interest that you have always taken in my poor affairs " — here I 
thought Mr. Wyatt looked a triHc conscious, and certainly more 
than one young lady blushed — " makes me feel it to be my duty, as 
well as my privilege, to inform you of an important step which I am 
about to uke." 

There was a hushed expectancy in the air, and, as Mr. Wyatt 

1 tpoke, his audience hung upon his words. I glanced at the faces 

' around me. Here was one with bright eyes, flushed checks and 

tremulous lips. Her neighbour was differently affected. She 

looked cold, haughty, and so scornful that her very scorn gave the 

^ lie to that apparent indi Terence. But Mr. Wyatt was speaking. 

'* My dear young ladies," he repeated, "I am about to marry 
r^agun." 

"Ah I * widower, as we thought," I murmured to myself. 
FThe temptation to took round again at my neighbours was 
inesistible. 

The scornful girl opposite me had bitten her Up till it bled. 
Cruel I I looked another way, only to meet the eyes of the ^izl 



78 



The Genllemans Magazine, 



nhose flushed cheeks had now turned pale. It would not do. I 
kept my glances to myself, and sat and wondered. What peculiar 
attraction for the fair sex did this poor sallow-faced musician 
possess ? Scornfiil Miss Denvcrs was a lady by birth and education, 
and her father, Dr. Denvers, if not wealthy, had one of the finest 
practices in the neighbourhood ; while pretty, flushed Miss Carlyon, 
I knew, had many admirers. 

Heedless of the fact that Mr. Wyalt was still speaking, I sat still, 
with downcast eyes, the one question repeating itself in my mind, 
" Wliat can be the attraction ? " 

At that moment I began to believe in " magnetism." 
But Mr. Wyatt was finishing his little address. I came in for 
his last remarks. 1 understood bim to say that, as their sympathy 
had not failed him in his sorrow, so now he looked for it in his 
happiness — his great happiness — a happiness which was possibly 
only heightened by a half-regretful backward thought of the things 
that had been. Not only for himself did he crave this kind and 
sympathetic feeling, but for his future bride, " a good, Christian lady, 
who would be of the greatest possible help to him in that labour 
which was the joy of his heart." 

I think the vicar seemed relieved when it was all over, and, 
indeed, so emotionally had his organist spoken that one might not 
unnaturally have looked for tearful effects in so responsive an 
audience. 

I paid but little attention either to final collect or benediction, 
and my feelings of weariness had long since disappeared. Threading 
my way among the crowding children, I gained the door, and was 
walking thoughtfully down the flagged pathway leading from the 
school to the road, when I espied Miss Leslie, whom I had not 
noticed during the afternoon, some fifty paces ahead of me. Miss 
Leslie is an interesting woman —plain, sensible, and humorous. 

I hurried to overtake her. Hearing my footsteps, she turned, 
and greeted me with — *' Well ! I am surprised to sec you teaching 
a Sunday-school class." Miss Leslie knows tliat my tastes do not 
he in the direction of philanthropy, and 1 have before now Binarted 
under tlie caustic la.sh of her remarks. But I disregarded her 
innuendo, and asked her the question thai 1 had been asking myself 
for the last half-hour. 

" What can be the attraction ? " 

" What can be the attraction ? Why, money ! " 

" Money ! " I exclaimed. *' A poor organist like Mr. Wyatt ! " 

Miss Leslie looked at mc wonderingly a moment 



Mr, Wyaii. 



79 



" Mr. Wyatt ? 1 don't know who it is you're talking about I 
thought you meant Mr. Passmore, who has been announcing his 
coming marriage this afternoon to his many worshippers." 
It was my tarn now to wonder. 

" But he's Mr. Wyatt," I said stubbornly, "a poor music-master, 
an organist, who has saved up money enough to buy a bicycle — he's 
poor, very poor, lliough "—meditatively—" he does drive rather often 
in hansom cabs." 

I was determined that Peter and I should not be done out of our 
little romance. 

'• How can Mr Passmore be Mr. Wyatt ? " urged the sensible 
Miss Leslie. " I presume you arc speaking of the gentleman who — 
this afternoon— announced his intention of re-marrying ? " I nodded 
my head. 

" Well ! " said Miss Leslie, " that is Mr. Fassmoret a widower — 
his wife died eighteen months ago. He has ;^7,oooa year, and lives 
at the other end of your Terrace." 

" But," I protested, " if he had ;^7,oqo a year he would not live in 
our Terrace." 

" He prefers to spend his money on charities," stud Miss Leslie 
severely. 

"On his Christian and philanthropic labours," I corrected. 

Miss Leslie smiled. " Yes," she said, "he is much interested 
in the physical culture of the working girl. He devotes a large 
portion of his leisure to giving her musical drill. ANTiat is left over 
be spends in choosing the different coloured ribbons used in the 
various exercises." 

" Ah," I murmured, " we knew he was aesthetic. We were right 
there." 

Miss Leslie looked contemptuous. But my cuKosity was not yet 
satis&ed. 

"Whom is he going to marry ?" I asked. 

" A cousin of his first wife's. She is ver>' delicate ; so was his wife. 
Id feet " — a little grimly—" I don't think anyone robust would have 
a chance." 

I looked rather keenly at Miss Leslie. 

'* He must be what Peter calls a frequent widmmr^ I said. 

" The future Mrs. Passmore faints when you look at her, I'm told." 

1 looked again at Miss Leslie, but gave no sign, I tmst, of my 
tlunigbts. 

" It has been a grtat blow to the Misses Mullins," she went on. 
" They were perfectly furious at first." 



8o 



The Gentleman s Magazine. 



"Who are the Misses MuUins?" I asked. 

" Don't you know the Misses Mullins ? They go to church with 
him every Sunday. One of them acted aheniately with iier sister as 
companion to his wife before she died. After her death he found it 
so lonely they both stayed as lus companions." 

"Then they weren't his mother and sister ! We always thought 
they were his mother and sister. What an out-of-the-way man he 
must be'" 

With all our im^^inings about Mr, Wyalt, Peter and I had never 
credited him with originality. 

" You," I said ; " you know them — and him ? " 

" Oh, yes, I know them. I was there one evening for supper. 
That is one of Mr. Passmore's peculiarities ; he never will dine in 
the evening. He says a 'cold repast 'suits him better, and makes 
him feci more fit for " 

" His Christian and other labours," I chimed in. 

" Quite so," said Miss Leslie. 

" But do tell me what happened when you went there ! " 

" So I will, if you will let me." 

" I'm sorry," I said. " I'm dying to hear." 

"Weill after supper Mr. Passraore produced innumerable 
coloured ribbons, and for a long lime employed us in tying bows of 
the colours of his choosing. He was full of enthusiasm, as there 
was to be a musical drill exhibition by the AVinsford Rope Factory 
girls the next week. At last, to my great relief, the Misses Mullins 
created a diversion by insisting on my going upstairs to see a piece 
of Roman embroidery they had just finished. I went willingly, 
though I didn't care twopence for the embroidery, but anything was 
belter than those eternal ribbons. But instead of bringing out the 
embroidery, no sooner had they closed the door than they Ihiew 
themselves upon me with — 'Oh, Miss Leslie, how shall we save 
dear Jack ?' I looked at them, and then an awful suspicion crossed 
my mind. The meaning of the drill and the bows and the Christian 
labour flashed upon me. ' What?' I said, in a frightened whisper, 
' He*s mad ? ' ' Mad ? Of course he's mad. Isn't it madness to 
think of marrying a woman like that— so delicate that she has to 
winter abroad— and a weak heart— wby, she faints if you look at her.' 

"The Misses Mullins' distress was evidently produced by quite a 
different sort of oudness to what I had thought They described 
ererythiog to roe — ^how Mr. Passmore had met this cousin of his 
wife's, and how they liad become engaged, and the cruel moment 
when he had broken the news to them. And then they wailed, and 



said that they must save dear Jack, and wanted to know if I didn't 
think it would be a good plan for them to ask their vkar to speak to 
dear Jack, and point out to him how important it was for his bapfH- 
ness that he should marry some one who could help him in his 
various charitable schemes. 1 felt doubtful, but, as they had set their 
hearts on it, I suppose they did speak to the vicar, and that is the 
reason * dear Jack ' referred to the * good Christian lady * who is to 
be such a help to him." 

"Well, it was no use?" 

** No use at all, as you heard to-day. The good Christian lady 
has already persuaded him to spend a little more money on other 
things than philanthropy. He is leaving his house, and taking that 
large one with the pretty gardens near the Park gates. We shall 
next hear of a carnage and pair, I expect." 

Wc had been loitering along to spin out the distance we had to 
walk together before our ways separated. Now we had come to a 
stand-stitl, and, as it was rather late, and I knew Peter would be 
waiting for me to give him his lea, I said good-bye to Miss Leslie 
and hurried home. 

I found Peter sitting in the dusk, with only the firelight for com- 
pany, I burst in upon him. 

" Oh, Peter 1 such news I " I said, as I flung off my furs and 
gloves. •' But ril give you your tea first, as il*s waiting. . . . Such 
news I Mr. Wyatt is not poor, nor a music-master, nor Mr. Wyatt 
atalL" 

"AVhat is he then ? " asked Peter. 

•• He's Mr, Passmore, and a merchant, and rich, and he's going 
to be married to 'a good Christian lady who will be of great help to 
him in his philanthropic labours.* " 

I broke off", laughing. **I have brought the trick of speech 
making from the Sunday SchooL" 

" But how do you know all this ? " Peter asked, for he is some 
times a little sceptical of stories and imaginings in which he has act 
collaborated. 

" He told me so himself— at least, not that. But. you know, 
Peter, he does teach in a Sunday School, although he isn't an 
org^st. He taught in the Sunday School this aAernoon, and when 
it was nearly all over, and there ought to have been a collect, he made 
a speech and announced his engagement. His speech was quite as 
good as a collect. I mean, it made you feel as ecclesiastical. Do 
you know that to hear Mr. Wyatt speak is a great incentive to ** 
I hesitated, t was going to say eloquence, but I thought of xo^viU 
vou ccxcu NO. 2047. Q 



Tf^ Genthtnan s Alagazine. 

possible correction — " volubility ; even Miss Leslie, 
ing to me afterwards, spoke Hke a book." 
lid Miss Leslie tell you all about it ? " 
much as she knew. And she knows a good deal. She 
i Mr. Wyatt's— I mean, of Mr. Passniore's — atid of ihe 
lins." 

ire the Misses Mullins ? " 

11 telt you all about it properly," I said, and so, while 

s, muffins, I described my afternoon, and told my news, 

had finished we both sat silent for a while. 

it disappointing, isn't it, Peter ? I suppose Mr. Fenwick 

t when he says that musicians never brush their hair — 

do it. The close- cropped, sleek-haired Mr. Wyatt^ — 

I thought— isn't Mr. Wyatt at all, but Mr. Passmore, 



&u know/' I went on, more cheerfully — it is curious how 
Imen always become over episodes of this kind in the lives 
I" do you know, I think Miss Leslie had felt a slight 
|ir the position of helpmeet to Mr. Wyatt? She is so 
religious, she ' district-visits ' and all that kind of thing. 

jine why Mr, Wyatt didn't marry her instead of the other 




I 



ft 



** T T ISTORIES make men wise," ' says Bacon; but does not 
XT. Ihis terse proposition require qualification ? Histories of 
what? Not of the names of kings and of their mistresses, but the true 
story of peoples, of their customs, and above all of their laws. The 
cnstonuuy Uw of any insulated nation is the true fountain of its 
history, its wars and alliances but part of the stream. If, then, the 
right reading of true history makes men wise, how essential is it that 
the sources of the customary law of the district to which it applies 
should be accurately ascertained and investigated 1 

The district under present consideration is that which lies on 
both versanis of the Occidental Pyrenees, including the country of 
the peoples of Bigorre, Bdam. Gascony, and Basque-land. The 
popular idea, though propped up by Laferriere,* that the Basques are 
a nation apart, in so far as regards tiieir liaving separate institutions 
and customs, is erroneous. This idea may well lie attributed to our 
ignorance of the origin of the Basques, to their having a separate 
language and personality, and to the passionate attachment shown 
by them of late, in two Carlist insurrections, to the Fueros' of the 
provinces in which they dwell. But the Basques as a nation have no 
Fuero or For peculiar to themselves, not even a general one, as have 
some of their provinces, like Navarre, which latter is, however, not 
written in Basque, but in Spanish patois. They jkkscss no customary 
Uw profoundly differing from that of neighbouring populations of 
Keltic origin, which all, Ba:>quc, Bdamais and Gascon alike, liave 
in common with Gauls or Kelts. This view of Jullen Vinson and 

' fc-M«y L. ot Studici. Howdiffcrcnt from the cheap inodcin cyrticisio, *'The 
only faiUDcy worth writing is (he hisliny ihjU cannot t#e writlco" [NitteiefntM 
Cf»\tMry, 1900, p. 89J). 

' Hittatre du Drott Fntm^Mt, 

' Tb« dirtioci incantng? of the word " Fuem" are bwi Men io the anida 
• Fucxak " In CJinmUr^i Em^ilsfaiiia. 

0% 





84 



The Gentleman s Magazine, 



of Balasque' is borne out by the internal evidence of the Fors 
and Fueros themselves, or which we shall have occasion to say more 
hereafter. 

The prime source of ancient law in the Western Pyrenean 
district being Keltic or Germanic, it remains to be seen how in 
process of time it got so much affected as it did by other systems of 
legislation. What more natural than that the successive occupations 
of the North of Spain by the Romans, the Goths, and the Moors, 
left indelible footprints on the plastic customs of the Kelts, the first 
invaders of all, or that in South-west France Roman institutions 
in especial, and certain Norman ones likewise, forced themselves 
upon the overridden people of the duchies of Aquitainc and 
Guyenne? The situation of the district, cspcx:ially of many of its 
valleys a clteval on the mountains, is physically just such as would 
probably be occupied by the "remnant that remained" of each of 
these successively conquered races. Further along the Pyrenean 
chain they could not go. What fitter spot, then, could be found for 
making an investigation into certain simple racial forms, in as nearly 
a rudimentary state as can be found ? This, bcing]an enquiry to be 
pursued upon the historical method into an archaic state of society 
relatively little operated upon by sudden or outside changes, is of 
the kind recommended " by Sir Henry Maine. 

To begin with the Spanish side. The first thing that strikes the 
student is the extreme difficulty of dealing with_^the^materials, from 
which alone a correct estimate of the contents of the Fueros and of 
the relative independence assured by them can be formed. There was 
little literature in English having any bearing upon the Fueros 
before Major Hume came upon the stage. In French the enquirer 
can find nothing worth mentioning, and not even a bibliography of 
Spanish books upon the ancient law of that country, in " La Grande 
Encyclopedic," iub vofe Espagnc. So little, indeed, do the French 
seem to know about Spain, that a learned writer like I-emoinne falls 
into the enor ' of stating that the Basque provinces are practically 
bdependent, and have no bishops or dioceses. "Zw cur^s" he 
continues, ** svnt maUns chtz enx, ft ne soudcnt Hen du Saint 



• J. Vinson, Etudes de LiHguisfiftu, p. 195. BAlakjue, StttJei sur la VUU 
d* Baymntt vol. ii. p. 3a^. 

• An^itnt Law, p. 89 and p. 119. Perhaps, howerer, in preference to the 
use ofdocunicnls (U tfthey weie themselves authi<nlict aod Ibcicfrom rlctlucint; 
coocltuiont, a better nictho^l is the eotnparabvc method, i.e. using rlociUDctiit 
only OS ft meaiiK of getting at bets to be interpreted by cotnpui&oa with others, 

• y^urnat <Ui DH^t, June 16, 1874. 




Sources of Wesi-Pyrenean Law. 



Pin" the truth being that there arc two Basque diocescsi with 
priests absolutely Ultramontane. 

Thus, in order to understand something about the Fueros, we 
have to go almost entirely to Spanish sources, which arc difficult to 
use, as modem discoveries have made of no value much of the older 
literature' upon the subject. There being as yet no classification of 
modern Spanish historical work, and the Fueros pronng too nume- 
rous and too lengthy to be carefully read in their entirety, any attempt 
to generalise upon the comparative value, and to dogmatise upon the 
spirit even of each Fuero General, must be hazarded with diffidence. 
Catalonia, with Barcelona as its chief centre of population, on the 
extreme cast, opposite to Rousillon and Foix, lies beyond the scope 
of our inquiry. All, then, that need be said of its Constitutions is 
that they rendered it the most democratic of Spanish States.* We 
then come to Aragon, which was also democratic, with Saragossa and 
Huesca as towns, and to Aragon we shall hereafter have a little 
more to say. Next we pass on to Navarre, and lastly to Guipuzcoa, 
with Sl Sebastian for its chief town, and then to Biscaye by its side, of 
which Bilbao is the capital, both on the sea shore. Inland lies 
Alava, better known from V7toria, one of its most important 
places, immediately south of the two last- mentioned Basque pro- 
vinces. As far as can be generalised with any fair amount of 
accuracy, the most important Spanish laws of North-wcslem Spain 
are the " Fuero Real " (1^55) and the " Sieic Partidas," an adapta< 
tion of the "Forum Judicum/' or "Fuero Juzgo," to a more 
I advanced state of society (1256 or 1238), both which saw the light 
in the time of Alphonso the Wise. Then came the " Ordenamiento '* 
of the Cortes of Alcala, the work of Alphonso XI. (1348), which 
latter attempted to subject local Fueros to Royal Edicts. Next in 
value arc perhaps the Royal *' Ordonnanccs " of Castile, that we 
owe to Ferdinand the Catholic in 1488, and the eighty-three laws of 
Toro promulgated in 1505. Afterwards come the "Nueva Recopi- 
lacion "(1567) and the "Novissima Recopilacion " (1805). These 
various important enactments have to be read side by side with the 
customary or local law (*' Dcrccho foral ") of each particular district, 
the " Derecho comun " being the only branch even now which can 
be considered to be contained within the four corners of a code, if 

* E.g. TTie Celltcdcn de Doiuminia tditoj para la Hiit»ria dt RtpaHa^ in 
iboot too volumrs, pnhlishrri by ihe Spat^Uh Royal AcAtlemy of History. 

• Botet Antetiuen »ay<, p. yn,i " Majore autem pwle tunliconim utitnuf, 
Gotiiicu TCTO Icgibus paadssimts ulimur, legilius quldem Rotnuui plurfbus 
KiMD." Us Utagn di B^ahnm (to6S) is th« oldest exiiting cuuam. 



86 



The Gentleman s Magazine. 



we except the penal law, commercial law, and civil procedure, into 
which, of course, except perhaps the first, local custom does not 
much enter. 

Among the first laws in point of date that we know of upon 
the Western Spanish versant, which have more particularly influenced 
later legislation, are the " Fuero de Albedrio " (Arbitral) and that of 
Sobrarve, i.t. the mountainous part of Aragon, and the "Forum 
Judicum "or "Fuero Juzgo," a Visigolhic code ' that belonged more 
to Castile and Aragon than to Navarre, with which latter country we 
are here more particularly concerned. Each province had as a 
rule a Fuero General, and each town or group of villages in it a 
particular Fuero. Whenever a town was founded it was given a 
Fuero in Spain, or in Bdarn or Bigorre a For ; as, for example, was 
done in the case of Oloroo. This was called a " Carta de Poblacion." * 
It set out the privileges granted by the Sovereign lo such persons as 
would come and live in this new centre of habitation. Any case not 
provided for in Navarre, either by the Fuero General or by the 
particular Fuero of the town, as, for example, by thai of Jaca (1090), 
was decided according to Roman law, but according to the Fuero of 
Castile all through Alava. This was called lex supktoria^ and must 
by no means be confounded with the Obstrvanctas and AmejoramUn- 
tos which supplemented the Fuero General. In Navarre the date 
of the Fuero General is said to be 1300, but it was not printed until 
1686. Then came the Atntjoramiento of D. Ph^lipe de Ebreus in 
1330? ^nd that of Don Carlos el Noble in 1418. The first printed 
edition of the Fuero and Obsermndas of Aragon is that of 1496,' 
but their actual date is, of course, much earlier. There was also a 
famous Compilacion in 1549. In the Spanish Basque provinces 
other than Alava there was a Fuero General, and, as we have seen, 
its place was taken in Alava by the Fuero of Castile. There were, 
however, many municipal Fueros granted in that province between 
iiaS and 1337. In Biscaye we find several editions of a Fuero 
General (i343t MS^p and 1527) besides sundry municipal Fueros; 
and the same was the case in Guipuzcoa, where the date of the 
Fuero General seems to be as late as the year 1690. It is necessary 
to mention these details, as the condition of the inhabitants in 



> II. E. Wttts, Spain, p. 145. 

' Erptessions likt ihe following ire ftrand in inch documeats t— •' Pro unon 
quod ibi fioqumiset populetis. Propter amorem quod vos populetU In prcdieto 
culTO «1 piano." Tbe object wu '* Uevirgin&re iciram." 

■ The bctt aecannt of the Fueros of Aragon it by RtEiel d« llrcu y 
Smenjtca^ in th« Hivixtm df Arthh/ttt April uid Mfty 1900. 



Sources of IVest-PyreneaH Law. 

Guipiucoa and Biscaye was and is much more democratic than 
in Alava and Navarre. The reason seems not (ar to seek. An older 
civilisation bad been constantly forced backwards by fresh immigra- 
tion, and could get no further than Guipuzcoa and Biscaye. Alava 
was inland and a more desirable resting-place, as also was Navarre. 
Therefore it is hardly to be wondered at that the Fueros of the 
fonner got little from the Roman law, even through the oiedium 
of the Visigoths, while those of Alava and Navarre, on the other 
hand, take much irom that source. 

I'he root of the Fucro General of Navarre is supposed to be the 
Fuero of Sobrarbe and some other municipal Fueros of the district, 
said by Moret to have been granted by Theobald I. No copy exists 
of the Fuero of Sobrarbe, but Alphonso, King of Aragon and Navarre, 
is allied to have given it when he conquered Tudela from the 
Moors in 1117. The Fuero General of Navarre contains a strong 
admixture of Visigothic customs, as well as the mark of mediscval 
feudalism.' Its date is probably about 1155. The first edition 
is that of t686, which leaves out such parts as the Cortes, held on 
January 7 in the preceding year, considered to be evil-sounding or 
indecent It is in Spanish, though not the Spanish of Castile, and 
strikes the reader as remarkable in form, from being rather a narrative 
than a list of commands. Its source is plainly Visigothic, acting upon 
existing custom and tinged with feudalism. It shows the hand of the 
priest, and recalls the Basque proverb, " Kach district has its own law, 
and each family ils proper custom." In this Fuero General, which is 
perhaps the most important body of laws belonging to the Western 
Pyrenean section of the Spanish versant now extant, several matters of 
principle at once arrest attention. Its style is almost that of a good- 
humoured exhortation, divided, after the Roman method, into books, 
titles and chapters. Roman influence, to put it most succinctly, is 
noticeable in its treatment of women as wives or concubines, in 
the institution oifiadons, i.e. fideiJussortSy and recognition of the 
relationship of agnates. The husband becomes the master of his 
wife's fortune, and she during marriage is more or less under his 
fot4s/as. Nevertheless Germanic influences are seen in the gifts 
given by husband to wife, in the warranty of her virginit>-, in the 
pftxtnership in family property ordained by the Fuero, as well as in the 
OEtntordinary liberality of its arrangements as to a woman's power to 
contract, make a will, and enjoy a life interest in her husband's estate 
tftcr his death. The universal custom of providing sureties also has 



^ Ihidfviui du D*uHt De Conditiooe MuUemin (188S), p. looi 



88 



The Gentleman's Magazine, 



the same origin, as well as tlie traces of Wehrgtld^ Ordalies, and right 
of private vengeance that pervades its criminal law. The eifect of 
feudalism is noticeable in the marked dtiTcrcncc made between 
nobles and roturitrs {ruptuarii)^ and the impossibility for a noble 
lady to marry out of her class. At the same time the King of 
Navarre, owing to the operation of the Fucro General, was rendered 
a constitutional monarch, perhaps the first in Europe, as can readily 
be understood if we read carefully the five oaths taken by each king, 
as given by I^rere,^ It is to be remarked that they do not appear 
in Uie printed edition of this Fuero, but only in certain early MSS. 
The same remark applies to the various paragraphs to be found in 
the Appendix (p. 204) to *' La Contrageregonza," or " Refutacion 
jocosen'a del Ensayo Histdrico-critico sobre la legislacion de Navarre. 
Compuesto por D. Josd Maria Zuasnavar. En Panzucola, 1835," ao 
anonymous book, perhaps by Miranda, and probably really published 
at Pampeluna. 

On the French versant we have chiefly to do with the Fors of 
Bigorre, B»!arn, Soule, Labourt, Bayonne, and Bas Navarre, for the 
Gascon Customs of St. Sever, Dax, Bordeaux, and such like scarcely 
come within our horiron. Speaking geographically, Rousillon, with 
Perpignan for capital, joining Foix and Andorre, the former of which 
itself touches Couzerans next the mountains, and Comminges more 
inland, form (he eastern lialf of the French Pyrenean region. Then 
come Lcs Quatre Vall&s, witli Nelrauzan lo the north and Aslarat 
or Esterac and Armagnac each still further north, bounded on the west 
by Bigorre ; afterwards Bi^*am, with Chalosse to the immediate north, 
and then Soule. Next comes Navarre, and lastly Labourt with its 
chief town Bayonne, having Gascony to the north. The Fors of 
Bigorre and its immediate neighbourhood are numerous, and include 
that of Luz and Barege, of which we have Npgucs* excellent com* 
mentary,^ Arrcns, Azun, Bagneres, Guizerix, Ibos, Lannemezan, 
Lourdes, Maubourguct, Monifaucon, and Tarbes, with those of 
Les Quatre Valli^cs as perhaps the most important. Lagrez^ in 
his •' Droit dans les Pyr^n^es," not only gives a fair account of most 
of these, but even the text in many cases. Of them, as a whole, it 
may be safely said that they display unusual liberality, and testify lo 
the mildness of the form feudalism look in Bigone. This is bome 
out even by a cartulary of the Abbey of St. Savin, which has been 

* Ainhtrr« FraMftUse, vol. U. p. 23, 

* La CoOiume de Dar^eavM: les U«sg«s du I^yt du Lavedin, de U nlle Ae 
Loucde, de \% BuroAnit dca Angles, Mjmiaiut de Bcue ct ftuttes endrolti. 
Toolmue, [76a 



Sourus of West'Pyretuan Lam. 



89 



preserved in ihe archives of Tarbes. The rights of women are 
particularly cared for, and that of the eldest child, male or fctoalc, 
to succeed to family property often recognised and enforced, as, 
to give but one instance, in the custom of Barege.* Except in 
Roudllon, which used to go with the countship of Barcelona and 
kingdom of Aiagon, the force of the Fuero Juzgo ncvtx made itself 
felt on the French side of the Pyrenees, In it arc no traces of 
feudalism. It was merely a Germanic custom, modified by the 
ecclesi:\siical influence of the Councils of Toledo. One great 
principle which seems to run through the civil law of the French 
Pyrenees is reconciliation of the rights of the individual, which were 
then in an inchoate state, with those of the family, and the earlier 
Uw of Rome with the absolutely feudal institution of fiefs. In pro- 
cedure, again, feudalism and indi^'idual liberty were always pulling 
different ways, the county courts lending to decentralisation, while 
the supreme court ever attempted to correct this defect 

Before considering the Old Fors of B^am, which are the most 
important on the French side, as the course legislation took can be 
so well traced in them by comparison with the New For of 1552, it 
maybe well to mention the Custom of Bordeaux, a printed edition of 
which exists, dated 1617.' This For applied also to the Sdni5» 
cbauss^e de Cuyetmc and to the Pais de Bourdelois. Although 
this custom in fifteen rubrics upholds feudal rights, according to it 
fiefd can be divided among children without the leave of the lord^ as 
well as the properly of an emphyieote. In it " le mort saisit U vi/** 
while the eldest son is called chef de maison^ and his main duty seems 
to be to preserie the home. But a de[>endant, if he misbehaves with 
any woman belonging to his lord, loses his head sans merci ; is hung if 
he steals over 50 francs' worth of goods belonging to his lord, and is 
whipped twice when the property is of less value. Into the Custom 
> of Saintonge, with its twenty rubrics including an interesting one upon 
partnership, it is hardly necessary here to go. Its date is 1520, and 
chief town St. Jean d'Angcli. There is of it a printed edition, also by 
Millanges, dated 1603. He published besides (in 1617) " lyCsCous- 
tumes G^nt^rales ct Pariiculicres de la Ville et Prevost^ d'Aci 
(Due).'' This custom is in eighteen rubrics, and dates from I5i4< 
Millanges had previously brought out, in 1603, the General and 
Jx}cal Custom of the Town Prevostd and Sitge of St. Sever. This is 

* \\ % qaite a mislftke to suppose that urict jnimogenilute was coofined to 
Buqw-luid. See, Tor enmple, For d^Amn, Ail. 86, givea in lagi^te, Droit 
4mm Ut Fyriniti^ p. 450- 

* Pu SimoQ Miltanccs, Impimcot Ordinaire da Roy, Bordeaux. 



90 



The Genllemans Magazine. 



in twenty-nine rubrics, and was approved in 1514 by the Parliament of 
Bordeaux. Among them is an interesting rubric stating that serfs 
{questaux) cannot contract or make a will, and that the lord may 
lake away their goods whenever be likes.' There in also a clear 
(local) article upon voisinsy which shows that at St. Sever a stmnge 
woman marrying a vohin became, until she remarried, a voisine. 
But neither a strange man who married a voisine^ nor any of their 
children became fftfiVi'w. There was also published in eighteen rubrics 
by Millanges in 1603, "Les Cousturaes Centrales gard^ et ob- 
serv^es au pats et Baillage de la Bourt (L^bourt) et ressort d'iceluy." 
These, too, were authorised in 15 14. We now come to the "Coft- 
tumes G^ndrales du Pays et Vicomti de Soule," approved by the 
Parliament of Bordeaux in 1520, which begin thus : " By a custom, 
which has been kept and observed from all time, all the natives and 
inhabitants of Soule are i7e& and of free condition without mark of 
slavery. No war levy has nor can be made upon the inhabitants, nor 
any right be demanded on the ground of the status or (pretended) 
servile condition of the said inhabitants or any of them." The chaj»e 
was free In Soule, and there the elder child, whether male or female, 
inherited in certain families. The thirty-seven rubrics of this custom 
are perhaps the most liberal of all those in the Pyrenean district, and 
Bela's manuscript commentary throws light upon many peculiarities 
and clears up sundry difficulties In them, as has not been done for 
the other Basque customs, which, it should be observed, are none of 
thera in the Basque language, and seem to have been more or lei*s 
adapted to the model of the New For of B&im. In the Custom of 
Soule the desire to uphold the family ts particularly conspicuous, as 
well as the Germanic mther than Gallic or Roman position taken 
by the women. Under the Roman system, from having been utterly 
in her husband's power, as she was among the Gauls likewise, she 
became in later days absolutely unfettered, and frequently in con- 
sequence quite undomestic. But the mumiium or mainbour of the 
Germans, which was a sort of parental or family tutelage, seems to 
have hit the raiddit: course, and safeguarded the woman's condition 
in all three Basque customs. This position of women stands out 
particularly clear in the old Custom of Bayonne (13th centui;), os 
compared with the more modem one of 1514 in twenty rubrics, aJso 



* Cumpanft in his EtwU f/itt. it Jur. sur U Cettmat tt U Strea^t (Bordeaux, 
18S3) well ibowK froai tlic oUCuMoai uf Bordaux (t4th ccotury) what their 
pontioti th«n wai, 

* Tb* oontruy wu the cna b llie Fvr 0/ Jifavam IUf»-fyrft, RoK isdr., 
An.3. 



Sources of West-Pyrenean Law. 



9J 



ublJshed by Miltanges, and shows the absence of the strict Roman 

7rt potestas even in the case of children. 

" Los Fors et Coshimas deu Royaume dc Navarre Dega-Ports " 

is usually found tn the duodecimo edition of 1732, printed at Fau 

by Jerome Dupoux. It was authorised in its present form by the 

Parliament of Navane sitting at Pau in the year 163T. This custom 

is in substance, of course, much older, and received letters patent from 

Louis XIIL in 161 1. Its rubric concerning the status of individuals is 

^conceived in an especially liberal spirit, granting ipso facto ihe rights of 

^Woisin even to the stranger who marries the heiress of a voisin. It also 

gives a special power to districts to meet and arrange their common 

,lflairs. Testamentary privileges likewise are liberally accorded 

'' especially in the case of acquired as opposed to ancestral property ; 

but no one can contract without the leave of his curator until be 

attains the age of twenty-five years. 

The old Fors of B^arn are the following : " La Charte d'Oloron," 
1080; "Le For de Morlaas," not, renewed in laao; "Le For 
d'Owaa," " Le For d'Aspe," " Le For de Baretous," all three in 1 2a i ; 
" Le For Gdn^ral de Biarn," the latter in part probably about 1000, 
and in part renewed in 1288. The only edition of these is that of 
Mazure and Hatoulet {1840), taken from the one manuscript then at 
the Pau archives. As there are now known to exist four manuscripts, 
I text needs collation. In these Fors the /afrta pafes/as was feeble, 
nd a girl at seven could be betrothed witli the consent of her guardians, 
who were (if alive) her father and mother. At twelve she became of 
ge,and then thc/tf/«/*w ceased. Here we have a state of things vastly 
: the Roman system, while the conditions upon which a child 
could be disinherited and the authority of the husband over the wife 
from a Roman source. The Lex Julia de Fundo Dotali gives 

the husband power, with the wife's consent, to sell biens dotaux 
This law passed through the Theodosian Code into that of B(*am, 
^•nd its force is perceived even in the New For of 1552, but not the 
ohibition contained in the same law, viz. not to mortgage hiens 
dolaux even witli consent. Probably the distinction between 
alienating and mortgaging was too subtle for the jurisconsults of the 
Middle Ages to grasp. The Gallic custom of the return of the dot 
to the wife's family often appears,' while the prohibition to sell bien$ 
tufhies is to be attributed to the effect of feudalism. It is necessary 
in the Pyrenean customs to state whether by primogeniturt is meant 
ahsciute primc^eniture, i.e. male ot female, or maU primogeniture 



ceame I 



E.g. Old Vutt Rub. xxxL, Art. 6S. 



92 



The Gentlemans Magazine, 



only. Male primogeniture is upheld in noble families, and in the 
New I'or a father can leave even the domaine rural to one child, 
as is the case in most of the Basque Fors. In this way the New For 
made succession to roturier property similar to that to noble, whereas 
the older ones had here previously favoured equal partition. 

To conclude. The effect that barbaric, especially Germanic, 
legislation has had upon the Fueros and Fors it is difficult to esti- 
mate, because so much of this was itself saturated with Roman 
principles of law. It is not only in the compendia to other 
5>*stems, as in the case of " Les Lois de TEmpereur " and " Les 
Bdnrffices " as r^ards (he Old Fors of B&irn, that Roman juris- 
prudence is to be found, but it also appears welded in the system 
itself, often perhaps unconsciously to the people to whom such 
system belonged. For example, the principle of mttayage (cf. gazalka) 
was not directly derived from the practice of Frankish and Lombard 
sovereigns granting away parts of the public domain to their soldiers, 
but from the gifts to the ccloni ffwrffV/arrV of earlier date.' But we may 
be pretty sure that the freedom of dealing with acquired property 
though not with Urre nobU granted by the Fors came from the German 
practice as to Wtkrgtld ^w^ /fafius tnoncyt though their practice was 
different as to AUod. Perhaps, in nothing is pure Germanic 
influence more clearly seen than in the necessity for the consent of 
children to any interference with their rights* to family property. 
In Gains' time the patria potcstas was almost at its zenith, and yet 
it little influenced those free Germans whose root idea was the 
"corporate union of the family" under the Mund, Is this not to be 
seen, too, in the language of almost every chart in the Pyrenees? 
" I Gaston grant, and I Talese his wife confirm, and I Centulle their 
son likewise confirm " ' were the words of the grant of a For to 
Morlaas. The favour shown a widow is also of Germanic origin,* as 
is Esdiif, or the right of the accused to clear himself by his own 
oath and that oi conjuraiores.^ These and many more like customs, 
such as great length of prescription, attributable to the Church*s 
influence, are to be clearly seen in the Fors, with which the Romans 
had nothing directly to do, contrary, however, to the opinion of the 
learned Marca,* 



' Maine, Ancunt Zme, p. 301. But the system itself was much earlier. 

• For <le Morlau, Rab. xxxi.. Aits. 71 utd 75. ud Rub. sUx., AiL (7S. 

• Muca's ffist. 9/£/am, p. 336. 

' Lafcrricrc, Ef^ut Ctliiqut^ ii, 66. 
' 5f irai'i Hist. 0/ B^rm, p. 891. 

• o: tit., p. 344. 




Sources of IVest-Pyrcnean 



The large extent of ground that it has l>een ncccssjir>' to cover 
has of necessity made this study somewhat slight. ]( shows, how- 
cTcr, how far-reaching was the effect of the earlier Roman law 
throughout the Pyrenees, trAnsccnding as it did purely Keltic or 
aanic customSi and also the living influence of feudalism. 
• joint effect vras beneficial, and, if the Church's iiifluciice hod 
en less upon the Spanish vcrsant, culminating as vrc 5nd il in 
the introduction of the Inquisition, with the general use of Torture 
and other attendant horrors, the condition of this district in the 
Middle Ages would upon the whole compare favourably with that of 
any other. The inliabilants, if poor, were for the most part free, and 
had privileges which enabled them to live better than the peasant 
elsewhere. For the Pyrcncan proprietor, tliough no dominus ttrrtt 
Jaiiidmus^ was yet often in good sooth satis beatus untm Sabinis, 



ADDITIONAL NOTES. 



Perhaps the most useful book on enrly Pyrcnean Spanish law is 
" Historiadelderecho en Caialuna, Mallorcay Valuncia, Codigodc los 
Costumbras de Tortosa, por el D, S. O. Bienvenido Oliver." 4 vols. 
Svo. Madrid,ed. 1876-1881 (MigueIGenesta,cal!cdeCampomanes8). 
There are also subsequent volumes. His view is llwt the chief 
sources of Pyrcncan law are (i) Pirrnaica, costumbras y tradiciones 
Vascas, de Bigorre, Valle dc Aran, Pcrpignan y Aragon. 

(2) Catalufia^ Los Le}'es Visigodas, Los Usatgcs Costumbras de 
Barcelona, Lcrida, Mallorca y Valencia. 

(3) Gothica, Germanic from the North. 

(4) JRamana, Western Roman Law. Justinian or Komano* 
Byzantine not being known in the Pyrenees till the twelfth century. 

(5) Eccicneutka or Canonica. 

(6) Municipia, as Dcrtossa (now Tolosa) which rounicipia Of 
colonia all modelled on Roman law, yet preser%'cd their own 
laws and customs. See Aulus Gellius. Noctes Attica:, Lib. XVI. 
CI 3, Paris, 1847. Hadnanusmiran'seostenditquodctipBiltaliccnscSr 
ct quxdamitem alia munJcipia antiqua in quibus Hltiosenses nominate 
cum suis morihus legil>u«jue uli possent in jus coloniarum mutarc 
gesdverint This author also quotes with approval front 1 .aferrihc, 
"Histoirede Droit Fran^ais," tomciL 37 — "There are three national 
types which hare been well conserved : Ei Euskaro f^<rj('<T (Basque) 
in the West, <*/ Idero-La/ino, which predominates in Beam, Bigorre, 
CoaUDiogcsv and Foix, and <l Visile or Idero-GtrmanUo^ itU\cU Vk 



■■ 


H^^^^^^^H 


1 


The Genilemaits Magazine. 

rved in RousiUon and Catalonia." Further he says that 
1 legislation there is some Roman element. 

the effect of Roman law in Aquitania (Guyenne) the 
uable book is " Rerum Aquitaniarum libri quinque, 
D. Alteserra," Tolosa, 1648. The gist of it is that in 

land was allodial ; that there the Roman law persisted, 
nrrently with it ran older and other customs : " Legum 
iva non est vilis auctoritas, sed non adeo valent ut usum 
t mores (p. 226)." He treats the curiae of Aquitanian 
"avitae Ubertatis reliquiae" (p. 183). Cf. Maine, "Ancient 
joa. In the union of the country of Toulouse and of all 
with France, it was stipulated " ut jus commune iUabaium 
" (p. ao4). 

A. Rn WHITEWAV. 


1 


■ 




• 



k 



IVHEN LONDON LIGHTS THE SKY. 

" 'T^WENTY-six miles, four furlongs out from Tyburn Turnpike 

X OD the great road to Birmingham you reach a small town 
of 399 houses and 1,963 inhabitants. Post-horses can be supplied at 
the King's Arras. Here is a receiving house, and the mails anive at 
3 o'clock in the morning, leaving again at 10 at night." 

So runs a record of the year 18 19, and anyone electing to make 
the journey to London by the above 10 o'clock mail would travel 
through the night by way of Boxmoor and Watford over Bushey 
Heath to Stanmore, and passing toll-gates at Edgware and Kilbum, 
would arrive in the small hours of the morning at the spot where 
the Marble Arch will soon cease to be. 

At the above small town, now increased sixfold, I lately arrived 
by train two hours after dark on a black November night, when the 
warm still air dense with moisture was condensing into a universal 
pitiless drizzle. The dark and lonely roadway into the town was 
aiterly deserted, and, all objects being shrouded in gloom, it suited 
my humour to mentally put myself back in time and try to imagine 
that for all tliat could be seen or heard it still might be eighty years 
igo. But this idea was by one small circumstance rudely dispelled. 
Far away in the S.E. was a broad red glow, faint but steady, and 
stretching skyward. Ixmdon lay over there, and it was impossible 
thai her light could have been seen as now two or three generations 
«go. 

I returned to the same spot with an old resident, who noted 
nothing unusual in the spectacle, and, as merely stating a well-attested 
tact, said, " When London lights the sky like thai we look for stormy 
weather." I enquired if the light were never seen in the dry east 
winds of spring, to which my informant replied that " tf so it nas at 
iny rate a different kind of light from what we then saw." 

^VhOe he was speaking there was a sudden shriek, and round the 
£ar corner the down express dashed into sight at some fifty miles an 
hour Qying against the wind. To us the actual train was invisible, 
oftly the under side of a rolling fiery trail was seen, which lengthened 



I T TM^ iTTl^i^^-^*^' '-' - '"'^^ 



96 



The GentlemayCs Magazine, 



out and again shortened as, with altering perspective, the engine 
passed and sped away in the distance. Then, when some half-mile 
from us, the glare of its furnace was caught anew in a long lurid 
streak thrown backward high in the sky, doubtless reflected off the 
moist cloud which, issuing from the funnel, had now escaped into 
upper air. In this incident of the train I had sufficient proof, if such 
were needed, that the distant glow to the S.E. was but the light of 
I^ondon's million lamps reflected from watery haze condensed out of 
the motsture-ladc:n air. 

Herein was in truth the verification of an old weather sign. It 
is said at Chiswick — which, it should be observed, lies to the W.S.W. 
of London and only seven miles from Charing Cross, that when the 
lights from the distant streets are seen in the sky rain may be ex- 
pected next day. And other versions of the same weather-saw may 
be found elsewhere. In the same way again the watermen at Dover 
declare that when Calais lights up the night sky then wind is coming, 
and wind and rain arc but synonymous terms in those jaws of the 
Channel through which cyclonic disturbances are for ever struggling. 
It is seldom realised, save by aeronauts and mountaineers, how 
much watery haze the lower air contains. Blue sky itself is but the 
ultimate fading out of haze, and when lower layers of the atmosphere 
are surmounted the blue above is bluer than before only by reason 
of the haze there being more attenuated. The result of the most 
recent investigations carried out chiefly by high-flying kites goes to 
show that though at great heights the air may be spoken of as dry, 
this is but a relative term. Commonly about one-half of the water 
vapour in the air is left below by the time the first mile and a half is 
climbed ; but the actual moisture present varies with circumstances. 
Thus up to a few thousand feet the air is drier during winter and at 
night and damper during summer and by day, than it is near the 
grotmd. 

In the light of these iacts it becomes easy to conceive how in 
certain conditions of moist weather and on a dark night the light of 
a large town reflected in the heaven may be seen even at a long 
distance. Under the clear skies of other lands reflection may be 
seen on the under surface of a cloud over great ranges ; thus the 
cloud-heaps over thunderstorms on the American prairies may 
sometimes be seen at night on the horizon at a distance amounting 
to some aoo miles. Again, it will be easy to grasp the further fact 
that haK in the air is more cleariy manifested to the observer who, 
whether in a balloon or on a mountain side, has climbed above its 
lower moister levels. Here the explanation is] simply that from his 




IFAfn London Lights the Sky. 



new point of view the haze is seen against the dark carlb white bdng 
itself illumtiuted by the light from the sky above. 

An interesting speculation will find place here as to the appearance 
which our earth would present to an observer removed entirely out- 
side her limits— say to an inlubitant on ^Ll^s. It will almost seem 
that as a telescopic object our planet must sadly lack clear definition. 
The abundance of cloud alone would bring this about, but even 
where clouds were not there would still be the entire depth of the 
moisture in the atmosphere to blur, in the way we have been con- 
sidering, the outline of seas and continents which we are in the 
habit of picturing as so clearly defined. 

Perhaps few facts are more strikii^ than the actual statement in 
figures of what the presence in the air of mere moisture amounts to. 
In actual quantity it is altogether inconsiderable, being less tlian one- 
half per cent. But its physical effect is astounding. Experiment 
shows that the quantity of aqueous vapour contained in the atmo- 
sphere, minute as it is, nevertheless absorbs more than seventy times 
the amount of radiant heat absorbed by the air itself. 

But an intensely interesting question is opened up by the con- 
sideration that the vault of heaven may be lit up by light reflected 
from quite another source, and one which so far has only been hinted 
at. If distant London can light the sky with a glow of another 
type when dry east winds are blowing, then we must suppose tliat 
■ the reflecting particles in this case are not moisture but rather dust 
—dust carried far aloft from off the face of a broad continent and 
held captive in the upper air. There are various ways of conceiving 
how so vast a cloud canopy can be lifted into space off the arid 
plains — the mere columns of warmer air rising off heated earth 
surfaces may suffice to bear upwards clouds of impalpable dust, 
just as they carry far into the sky light floating seeds that will not 
infrequently soar upwards past a lofty balloon. Or again the cause 
may be found in the eddying movements of air with which we are 
so familiar, and which on a large scale are spoken of as cyclones. 
These are known to be capable of whirling dust particles into the 
atmosphere up to very considerable heights. 

Naturally it must be only the finest particles that can be carried 
Hx aloft and remain long suspended in the thinner air. But in real 
fact such finely divided dust is being perpetually created by commo- 
tion great or small constantly going on on the earth. Let me give- 
an illustratioa 

There is among the familiar "animated pictures" exhibited by 
the Rjnematograph a well-known representation of the thtcnrat% 
VOL. ccxci. NO. 2047. \i 



J 



98 



The GeniiematCs Magazine. 



down of a condemned tall chimney-sUck. The picture shows a 
lai^c portion of one side of the base of the chimney removed and 
replaced temporarily with timber struu. Then a fierce burning fire 
is kindled around these props and the work of demolition is watched 
from a safe distance. In due time, the fiames having done their 
work, the lofty stack inclines slightly from the perpendicular, and 
then, as one entire whole, falls with a mighty sweep to earth. But 
while we watch the picture perhaps what strikes us most is the 
silence of the catastrophe. The fall is so realistic and so apparently 
near, that tlie crash impresses us by its absence. In actual fact the 
result of the falling mass would be terrific. Its sudden arrest 
would mean its conversion into heat and into violent vibrations of 
the air producing sound. But as such results do not appeal to the 
eye the impression for a moment is that the *' moving picture " can 
teli nothing of the after effects of the great impact. And yet if 
closely watched it docs. Over the fallen ruins there immediately 
bangs a small white cloud, shortly vanishing into clear air. 

This it may be said is but a trinal consequence of such large 
commotion, and yet in a sense this too will be hardly a correct 
statement. The amount of impalpable di^bris consigned to the 
air is indeed relatively small, but its effects may be almost inconceiv- 
ably great and far-reaching. Professor Tyndall brought out this 
fact by exhaustive investigations, showing that it is matter in the air 
which chiefly inBuences its power to transmit radiant heat. Dealing 
witli one of his experiments he asserts that " an amount of impurity 
loo small to be seen by the eye is sufficient to augment fiflyfold 
the action of the air." 

We have certain means of examining and testing the actual dust* 
motes that hang above us. The readiest of these are perhaps the 
showers of rain which wash the sky, or the flakes of snow which, 
slowly falling, carry down the dust from great heights. By these 
agents careful and accurate analyses have been made limes out of 
number of the dust which has gone heavenwards, and which has 
proved to be organic as well as inorganic ; but to deal adequately 
with the results obtained would need a separate article. 

We have, however, to recognise that by no means all the dust 
has come from below. Some, and not a little, hails from no man 
knows where, except that it nmsl be from the void of space. Thia, 
it may be supposed to have come from other worlds destroyed, or, 
if we like to think it, from worlds that were never formed. There 
is not only no doubt of this, but there have been very plausible 
calculations made as to the actual amoont of cosmic debris thai 



r 



IV^n London Lights the Sky. 




from this source alone comes into our atmosphere. Thus one of out 
greatest authorities has arrived at the conclusion that it is approxi- 
mately not greatly less than one hundred tons or greatly more than 
one thousand tons in the course of every day. This quantity, large 
in the abstract, may appear after all to be relatively smalt^ and we 
have to look to our own earth and the forces which reside within it 
as the main source from which our great dust atmosphere, as we 
must regard it, comes. 

And in truth the air does comprise a great dust atmosphere all 
its own. This has been made patent to alt scientific explorers of the 
air. But results become far more remarkable and instructive when 
gathered far away from tlie reach of land. As one example of such 
a result we may cite that obtained by Professor Piazzi Smyth, whose 
observing station was the lofty peak of TenerifTe, standing far out in 
mid'Ocean. Tliis accurate observer records IiavJng seen, from high 
Up the mountain, strata of dust rising to an altitude of over a mile, 
and extending to the limits of the visible horizon ; sometimes, more- 
over, so dense as to hide the neighbouring island mountain, the peak 
alone of which was seen standing out of what was virtually a dust 
ocean. Perhaps it is not altogeihcr a welcome thought and yet one 
that we must recognise, that e\'en in our proverbially purest air — 
that which lies over the broad ocean — there is to be found this 
enormous admixture of what we have to regard simply as foreign 
matter. 

Some few facts might find a place here, which, though admitting 
of no real question, seem almost to belong to the world of romance. 
When Chicago was burned io 1871 the mere smoke that arose was 
perceived as far away as the Pacific coast, or, in other words, from 
2,ooo miles away particles of soot were seen floating in the air, and 
if this meajis that they had risen fairly above the horizon, then firoro 
considerations of the mete curvature of the earth we have to conceive 
that these particles were l}'ing in a dense mass at several miles above 
the earth's surface. 

But a fiercer fire went heavenward in 1883 when near the corner 
of Sumatra the volcanic mountain of Krakatoa broke into eruption. 
The story of the result of this came in from almost all over the world. 
Fine dust — so fine that it took many months to subside — seems to 
have spread the globe round in a direction opposed to lower prevail- 
ing winds. In the tropics the air became so laden with this dust 
that the sun grew blue, and then green as it sank towards the horizon. 
In England similar phenomena were observed differing only in 
intensity, while the afterglow assumed such abnormal vividness as 



xoo 



The Genllemans Magazifte. 



to penetrate and colour a winter's fog. More than this, in the towns 
the fogs during this period grew crimson when lit merely by street 
gaslight. Neither was this the end of the wonder. At night-time 
there were seen for a lengthened period, but gradually fading, what 
were spoken of as " luminous douds," which were doubtless but 
another evidence of the same dust floating at a height estimated at 
at least sixty miles. 

The story of Krakatoa is no isolated one. The Loess or loamy 
dust of China has been pretty certainly proved to have been borne 
aloft and carried at least a quarter round the globe, having been 
found floating as a permanent dust atmosphere above the highest 
mountains of California. 

Again, in 1880 Mr. Whymper watched an eruption of Cotopaxi 
sixty-five miles away. On that occasion an uprush of inky smoke 
towered into the air, and then was borne away horizontally, c^'entually 
after several hours i>assing in front of the sun, which thereupon 
assumed a green tint, different from any that the observer bad ever 
witnessed in the heavens. 

Having then no uncertain information of what the sky may be 
trusted to reveal respecting the matter it holds within it at varying 
levels up to an unlimited height, we are justified in devoting the 
most careful attention to all such lessons as it con teach us. What 
the light of a distant town tells us we have already discussed, but 
another light, that of the sun, hangs below the horizon twice in each 
day, and this almost constantly lias its message — sometimes in the 
mddy sundown, revealing only the presence of high clouds in a 
dry atmosphere ; sometimes in the yellower sunset tints that as a 
rule give warning of wind; again in the dawn when ruddy light 
will usually be reflected by denser clouds which have been settling 
through the night, and which betray vapour already gathering for 
precipitation and rain. 

These arc only generalisations, but the light and colouring in the 
sky afford indications which are manifold, and in which every 
intelligent observer will learn to seek many of his surest tokens. 

JOHN M. BACON. 



•.:- : A<>c\: ^' \ -:•: : } i '-:••' 



" WORDS, WORDS, MERE WORDS, NO 
MATTER FROM THE HEART" 

WHERE go all the words that are spoken, 
Words that are spoken every day ? 
Vows of constancy, secrets broken, 

Heedless words that men lightly say ? 
Words compelling, that all obey, 

Bitter words with a poison sting, 
Farewell words, of life's woe the token, 
Words beseeching, and words that sing ? 

Far away through the desert places 

Fly the words when their work is done ; 
Fast they fly through the wind-swept spaces 

Where no moon is, where shines no sun : 
Words that are spoken, evety one, 

Bright with joyance, or dim with woe, 
Fly and leave of their flight no traces 

More than leaves in the air the snow. 

In the silence resounds their story, 

*' Strong our calling and keen our cry. 
Whether we tell of grief or glory. 

Kings that triumph or slaves that die I 
At our bidding men smile or sigh. 

Falsehood, treasure and truth forget 
Youth glad-hearted and Wisdom hoary 

We ensnare in our star-gemmed net ! " 

M^ords I ye are treacherous, fleeting, hollow : 
Thought ye baflle, and Hope ye bind, 

(Circling swift as the light-winged swallow, 
Clouds before you and mists behind.) 





Eyes of vision ye fain T^rould Hind, 
Joy would tear from the storm-tossed heart: 

Doubt and dread in your footsteps foHow, 
Trust to torture and souls to part 

Words, how bootless are rhyme and reason 

All your pitiless power to prove ! — 
So the wind in the frost-bound season 

Waves of the ice-locked mere should move. — 
But, one conquers you — even Love ! 

In Love's Kingdom abased ye fall \ 
Love can laugh at your guileful (reason : 

Love needs never a word at all. 

DORA UlWE. 

• 




TABLE TALK. 

Mr. Baildon's "Robert Louis Stevenson." 

THOSE whom my recent observations concerning Stevenson 
in Southern Seas may have interested I venture once more to 
address, in order to commend to their attention the life-study of the man 
by Mr. H. Bellyse Baildon.' Being got up uniform with the principal 
works of Stevenson, this work stands a good chance of 6nding a 
place in every Stevensonian collection. To such a distinction it is 
entitled by its own intrinsic merits. A school-friend of Stevenson, 
Mr. Baildon preserves some interesting particulars of his early life. In 

' later yeare the intimacy, as must almost of necessity be the case when 
a man chooses, as did Stevenson, for his dwelling-place spots so remote 
as the islands of the Southern Seas, was confined to correspondence. 
The work of Mr. Baildon is accordingly less interesting from the 

y personal revelations it furnishes than from that of critical estimate. To 
those — if any arc so unhappy — who are debarred from access to 
Stevenson's works, this study of them will stand as the best available 
substitute. A couple of admirably executed portraits add to the 
attractions of a volume which the student of Stevenson will hasten 
to possess. I have only one faint of alteration to make. When 

■ Robert Bums speaks of the exhilarating influence of " a pint," it 

kmight be worth while to inform the "Southron" reader that a 
sh pint is the equivalent of two Saxon quarts. I own, however, 

kthai it is not in the least Mr. Baildon's duty, even though it might 

Ibe bis privilege, to enlighten English ignorance. 



WlLD-BlRD PROTECTION- 

IHAVE more than once drawn attention to the fact that bird life 
is more abundant in or near London than it was a few years 
|aga My observation is confined to what can be seen or heard from 
' study windows, or observed during a prowl through the fields and 
I Uses that environ Hampstead and Highgate. I am delighted, 

' Quito & Wtodiu. 



104 



The Gtntitmafts Magazine. 



however, to leam from genuine woodlanders that the results of wild- 
bird protection are becoming manifest. Writing in the Cornhili 
Magazine, Mr. C J. Cornish gives some eminently gratifying infor- 
mation on the subject. On a particular spot with which he is 
concerned Mr. Cornish says : " There are now some five or six 
hundred pairs of terns, lesser terns, shore curlews, redshanks, and 
peewits nesting where ten years ago there were not one-sixth of the 
number." From various quarters comes the information that many 
varieties of birds, including, in Northumberland, flycatchers and 
woodj)eckers, "flourish exceedingly." One discouraging faa re- 
mains, that " goldtinches and linnets arc, in some districts, almost 
exterminated by bird-catchers, and the mountain linnet or twite has 
become rare'* in Cumberland. The loss of these birds of sweetest 
song is much to be deplored. As a rule the districts are richest in 
bird life wherein the great landed proprietors co-operate with County 
Councils or with other administratois of the Wild-Bird I'reservation 
-\cis. On the whole, then, considering how far from adequate is the 
legislation that has been passed, and how grave and numerous are the 
difHculties in the way of its administration, the reports I now read 
are encouraging. 

Sea Birds the Fisherman's Friends. 

TO one curious fact, very encouraging to those who seek to 
protect bird life, Mr. Comisli draws attention. The entire 
race of sea-gulls is now, he says, under the special protection 
of the fishermen of the coast of South Devon. The explana- 
tion of this is as follows : " Four winters ago two large 
ships, passing up Channel in a dense fog, were warned of their 
approach to the rocks by the incessant calling of the sea-fowl, which 
had greatly increased in numbers and tameness since they had been 
protected by the Devonshire County Council" No longer afraid of 
man, the birds flocked to the ships in search of food, and so gave 
warning of the nearness of the rock-bound coasts. Those accord- 
ingly who shoot sea birds are regarded in Devon as no friends to 
the fisherman. The birds themselves preach the lesson of their 
own defence. This recalls the moral of Coleridge's "Ancient 
Mariner." 

SVLVANUS L'RBAN. 



THE 



GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE. 

August 1901, 



THE TIVELVE SIGNS, 



By W. B. Wallace. 



No. 3 Charlotte Square. 

WITHOUT doubt Bloomsbury is a region of "restful quiet," 
as the owners of certain private hotels in that favoured 
locality, with a pleasing absence of the usual mendacity of the 
Lvanserai, proudly and exultingly term it in their advatisements. 
: eternal but muifled roar of the great city, so near and yet so far, 
ather enhances tlian detracts from the tranquil enjoyment of its 
staid inhabitants. The mighty ocean of life surges and chafes 
around them, it is true, but only its peaceful ripples reach their 
island shores, and from their secure havens ihey look forth with 
Lucretian complacency — not unmingled, let us hope, with pity — 
upon those who are toiling and moiling and occasionally making 
shipwreck in the boiling maelstrom of London. This blissful retreat 
seems lo be at once hallowed and ennobled by the imposing presence 
of the British Museum. It is as though Pallas Athene, patroness of 
learning and tutelary divinity of the great army of struggling authors 
penniless students who daily resort with the zeal of Avicenna to 
' great Palace of Books, had spread her sgis over the place, and 
transformed it into the best imitation possible in a busy metropolis 
those classic shades once so dear to her heart— the groves of 
adcmus. Nor arc the dwellers in Bloomsbury unworthy of their 
environment, for they are, or have been, as a rule, ialelVtcX\»\ 

TOU OCXCL Ha M48. \ 



^mm 



J 



io6 



The GentUntati 5 Magazine^ 



vrorking-bees of the great London hive — artists, literary men, retired 
merchants, and members of the learned professions. 

Charlotte Square is in tlie heart of Bloomsbury, and a very 
typical portion of it. It is a small inclosure, scarcely perhaps repre- 
senting with mathematical accuracy, the 6gurc denoted by its nam^ 
and boasting a few formal scats, a few formal flower beds, and a few 
equally formal gravel paths, converging upon a fountain, insignificant 
and of a debased style of art, in the centre of the pleasance. This 
metropolitan Eden is surrounded by tail, solemn, respectable red- 
brick houses, whose one attempt at originality or eccentricity is 
displayed in their hall doors, the {lanels of which are ablaze with 
gilding and the most crude, glaring, and incongruous colours. 
Every man, it is said, is insane on one point, and the dictum must 
be extended to houses ; for the most prim and demure dwellings 
sometimes irretrievably forfeit their character for sanity and sobriety 
by one outrageous freak— one damning flaw— one unpardonable 
violation of that good taste whose laws men and mansions must obey. 
But notwithstanding the azure here, the ochre there, and the 
-vermilion elsewhere, all picked out with gold, which adorned and 
beautified^or the reverse — its presumably hospitable |)ortals, 
Charlotte Square at the time of which we write might very fairly 
have been considered, taking it on the whole, the pink of propriety, 
had it not been for the fatal delinquencies of No. 3. This house 
was an insult, an anachronism, a plague spot, a reflection upon the 
morals and respectability, not alone of Charlotte Square, but of alt 
Bloomsbur)'. It was as though some fell Bohemian magician, at 
war with the decencies and conventionalities of modern life, had 
transported it from the realms of Comus and set it down in the 
midst of a quiet, law-abiding neighbourhood, there to be a perennial 
scandal and rock of offence to the inhabitants. 

And yet No. 3 had not always been cursed with this ^\\\ reputa- 
tion. Its fortunes, in fact, were not dissimilar to those of Foe's 
<■ Haunted Pabce." In the time of its former owner, Mr. Obadiab 
Dcncb, no finger in Bloomsburj- could have pointed at it, whether 
in derision or disapprobation. The old Indian merchant, who liad 
been a trusted agent of Warren Hastings in his extremely question- 
able dealings with the Trinccsscs of Oudc, had shaken the pagoda-lrce 
— such things were possible in the days of John Company— to some 
purpose ; the glittering fruit had come down upon him in golden 
showers, J la Jupiter and Danac ; and when he returned to England, 
liis yellow face, although not his fortune, was commonly regarded as 
jjrrabolical of it— so suggestive in tlwsc days was Indian jaundice 




The Twelve Signs, 



107 



of Indian gold He had married in Calcutta an extremely wealthy 
Eurasian heiress, and the fruit of their union bad been one son, who, 
in deference to some unexplained ancestral pcmhant for the eupho- 
nious names of the Hebrew Minor Prophets, had been christened 
Amos. When Mr. Dench returned to England he was a widower, 
and was accoropacicd by this son, tben a boy of ten years. Thanks 
to his own accumulations and his wife's fortune, he was possessed of 
princely wealth, which he promptly proceeded to augment by pri- 
valely embarking in the lucrative but nefarious career of a London 
usurer. As far as externals went, howe\-er, nobody could find fault 
with him. His residence in Charlotte Square rigidly conformed to 
the orthodox traditions of his surroundings. It was, in (act, Poc's 
Palace in its first stage, minus iLs gracious shapes and joyous music; 
for gloomy, taciturn, preoccupied, and misanthropic, Mr. Dench, 
although a stickler for the decencies and proprieties of life, neither 
saw nor went into company ; while his household was limited indeed, 
consisting only of his son. a younger brother, Captain Joel Dench, late 
of the H.E.I.C.S., and two rather ancient handmaidens. The only 
visitors who came to the door of the great Bloomsbury mansion were 
proposing borrowers and certain lawny Indians and Cingalese, whose 
business none could tell. 

For fifteen years the routine of existence had never varied an ioia 
Obadiah Dench played his sordid role of Ilarpagon to such per- 
fection that, although nobody had any precise idea what he was worth, 
it was rumoured that he had more than quadrupled the wealth be 
had brought back with him from India. The Captain, who was a 
profound scientist and a confirmed old bachelor, read, wrote, and 
worked out problems, as he had done on many a lonely day when he 
was stationed in the sacred but turbulent city of Benares; while 
Amos, a long, loose, flabby youth, with dull leaden eye and hanging 
underjaw, as yet an unknown and negligible quantity, spent his time 
in indolence, studying with scr\ile adulation his father's every whim, 
and nursing within him the seeds of hypocrisy, cruelty, treachery, and 
profligacy, ready to spring up and flourish and bear fruit when the 
sun of occasion should arise. For it is a curious fact that although 
both are Aiyans— members of the great Indo Germanic family — the 
offspring of an English father and an Indian or Eurasian mother 
rarely tunis out, from an anthropological point of view, an unqualified 
success. 

Indian suns and the glaring desert sands had played havoc with 
Obadiah Dencb's eyes, and his hearing had become sadly defective. 
It ts obrious that men labouring under such disabilities should avQid 

\% 



io8 



The Gentieman's Magazine. 



London thoroughfares and London crossings as they would the 
plague, the cholera, or the inSuenza ; it is equally obvious to the 
cynic of the street and the protective policeman that these are pre- 
cisely the persons who are the most daring and foolhardy of pedes- 
trians. And so one fine day this old hound of Ptutus, keen on tho 
scent of lucre, but oblivious of all else, was knocked down and lost 
his life beneath the wheels of a hansom. 

His brother did not miss him, for there had never been any sym- 
pathy between Ihcm ; and his son, far from missing him, secretly 
rejoiced at the dawn of the day of liberty —or licence. It was a case 
of 7W^« estmort : vivt Caligule. Amos Dench was five-and-twcnty, 
and the lamp of his youth, which had long been hidden beneath the 
bushel of a slavish and despicable fear, was promptly taken forth from 
its concealment and placed upon a shameless pedestal, where it flamed 
and flared to the four winds of heaven, casting a lurid radiance 
athwart the night, and attracting to itself dire shapes, moths with 
■human heads and faces and harpy-claws, creatures of the outer and 
fetid darkness of the London streets. Under the new r^giftte No. 3 
•Charlotte Square rapidly fell from its high estate ; the second stage in 
the history of Poe's " Haunted Palace " was soon reached 

The order of the day was as stereotyped now— only afler a very 
different fashion— as it bad been during the life of Obadiah. Every 
morning the staid and elderly cook and the equally elderly and stilt 
primmer housemaid — why they lingered on in such a sink of iniquity 
was a puzzle to the neighbours— were exposed to the incursions of 
chefs, waiters, confectioners, florists, market gardeners, and others, 
who came to slay. The first care of a contingent of these gentry was 
to clear away from the vast dining-room the visible signs and tokens 
of the preceding night's debauch, such as the dibris of the banquet 
— empty bottles, broken Stvrcs and other costly ware, stained and 
withered orchids, lilies, camellias, and gardenias— with all or most of 
which the carpet was invariably covered. Then the kitchens were 
requisitioned, and all day long preparations were there made, regard- 
less of expense, for a new feast of Camacho at night, or rather in the 
early morning, Amos and his guests waited on themselves — such 
was his fad— and the viands were cold ; but all the delicacies of the 
season, all the rarities that the most lavish outlay could secure, were 
there; and when the various artistes had completed tlicir labours, the 
banqucting-room seemed transformed for the nonce from something 
worse than a tap-room into a veritable Elysium, bright with resplend- 
ent plate and blooming exotics as redolent of mingled perfumes as 
ihc j^ardens of Gulbtan, while the gorgeous t^t emembU was bathed 




The Twelve Signs^ 



109 



in ihe chastened rndiancc of colossal shaded standard lamps. Amos, 
who slumbered through the day like a second Mycerinus, would then 
put in an appearance, sur^'cy and approve the work of his ministering 
genii, and subsequently fare forth in the dark into the worst quarters 
of the town in quest of guests. 

" Tell me what a man reads, and I can lell you what he is," says 
some superior and sapient Individual. It was perhaps due to the 
Asiatic strain in his blood that the only works which Amos had per- 
used with anything like interest during his long minority had been 
stories of imagination, pure and simple — the wilder and more extrava- 
gant, the better. His chief favourites had been the "Arabian Nights," 
the "Persian and Turkish Talcs," the "Tales of the Genii," the marvel* 
lous " History of Maugraby," and the gloomy but magnificent 
" Vathek." This fantastic course of reading had wrought as power- 
fully upon his mind, at once feeble and presumptuous, as, we are told, 
" Amadis de Gaul " and other mediaeval romajices did upon the crazy 
wits of that ingenious Iberian gentleman, Don Quixote de la Mancha. 
When therefore, at his faiher's death, he came into possession of 
what he deemed incjdiaustible wealth, he determined, like the worthy 
Hidalgo of Cervantes, to transfer the wondrous adventures which be 
delighted to read into real life— his own life, with himself as their 
bero. Henceforth London, forsooth, must be his Bagdad, the 
Thames his Tigris, and he, Amos Dench, a modem Haroun 
Alraschid. 

His uncle never interfered with him ; nor indeed would he have 
permitted him to do so had be been so incline<L Captain Dench^ 
contemptuously tolerated by his nephew, continued to occupy his 
suite of apartments as heretofore, although under sadly-altered con- 
ditions. Often and often, in the smalt hours, when this modem 
Archimedes was engaged in some abstmse calculation, a string of 
cabs, laden with the Circes of Piccadilly and the Haymarkct, and 
their male companions, would rattle up to the door, to the intense 
disgust of adjoining peaceful households, and dtsgoige their riotous 
occupants, who, under the auspices of Amos as Master of the Revels, 
would then commence the agreeable process commonly called 
"making a night of it." But the military sage possessed two valuable 
phylacteries : imperturbable sang-frei'd, and an unrivalled power of 
abstraction. The popping of champagne corks, floating fragments of 
ribald songs, shrieks of ma;nad laughter, accentuated by masculine 
imprecations, the crash of shattered glasses— ;iU these things soon 
became to him as much part and parcel of his natural and accustomed 
atmosphere as the cries of the wounded and i.hc d^\^%, vVit ^\tv ^A 



no 



The Gentleman s Magazim* 



catapult and balUsta, and the various discords of a besi^ed city 
were 10 the philosopher of Syracuse with whom we have compared 
him. 

II. 



The Treasure, 

Captaim Dekch was not so much a man as a calculating machine, 
lie was as cold and passionless as Euclid the geometrician — whom 
one can never somehow picture to himself as a family man — was or 
ought to have been. His tall and meagre figure, his high and polished 
cranium, his parchment face, eagle nose, and sunken eyes were of the 
earth, but his spirit dwelt in a mathematical Nir\'ana of its own, 
where A' was no longer an unknown quantity ; where sine jostled cosine, 
and tangent cotangent ; where conic sections, differential calculus, 
algebraic formulae, and all the my&iic entities of science were domi- 
ciled citizens, and met and associated with him on equal and friendly 
terms. We must not deny him the possession of a heart in the 
physiological sense of the word, but being, as he was, little more than 
a mathematical abstmction, it would have been a gross mistake to 
credit him with that sensibility with which, by a confusion of ideas, 
the important internal organ in question has come to be synonymous. 
He was simply a man without vices and without virtues, cold, 
pitiless, rigid, and impartial as Fate herself, neither loving nor hating 
anything or anyone on earth. Perhaps the latter part of the pro- 
position admits of qualification, for he felt something as nearly akin 
to hatred as was possible for such a nature as his for anything that 
interfered with or drew him away from his favourite pursuits. 

At the commencement of his mad career Amos had flippantly 
delegated to him the charge of all financial matters, and he had 
accepted the responsibility, believing that he owed his nephew some 
return for his free quarters. These affairs were his great bug-bear ; 
and yet, for the reason we have stated, he went through the distasteful 
routine as diligently and faithfully as if the eye of Astra^a herself had 
been bent upon him all the while, although he inly rejoiced when the 
hateful task was for the time completed. 

At the end of three years, however, of wanton waste and extrava- 
gance probably unparalleled since the days of Nero and bis Golden 
House the Captain found that bis office as steward and accountant 
was soon likely to become a sinecure. .'Vmos had scattered gold *» 
prodigally as the Eastern princes of romance in their bridal proce** 
sioM— scattered it with both hands ; and now the enormous wealth 



T&£ Txvelvt Si^us, 



III 



amassed m bade ind cxtocted b; npiot j, aadN', and vsbj was 

almost exhsosted. 

It «ss a NoTcmber aftemoao, and ■faw^m^ not "w'««g^ vJA 
fog. was &st dofiiiig m opoa OaiWlf Sqaaie. The m iuisteky 

genii, hariog placed the banquet for iht night ia resdioess, bad tiken 
dteir depai tu re; siknoe reaped is the boose; and CafXaio Dcocb 
was seated in his deceased brother's stodjr, with Tarioos saaD pOcs of ' 
docJceted papers, bills, account books, and memcvanda on the tabLe 
before him. His acute mind bad just socceeded in erolTiz^ order 
out of chaos, and he had condusiTriy demonstrated to himself that 
hi3 nephew — who at that moment was wending his way to his usual 
unsaroury haunts — was verily and Indeed, in a pecuniary senses 
" upon his last le^.** 

** Another monih," soliloquised the Captain, with a grim attempt 
at humour, " at the present rate of expenditure, and Amosi, the inc- 
ducible surd, the decidedly inational quantity, becomes, in defiance 
of all mathematical law, equivalent to zerO| and may be eliminated 
fcom alt monetary calculali(xis." 

The nearest approach to a smile that it had ever Vnon-n crossed 
the Captain's yellow %*isage:. It was not caused by any sense of 
rejoicing at the coming discomfiture of Amos, but partly by his own 
rather laboured witticism, and partly by the consoling thought that 
the hour of final deliverance from the Egyptian bondage, as he con- 
sidered it, of his stewardship was fast approaching. 

" I must inform Amos this very night of the state of his aOairs," 
he muttered. " It would be mistaken kindness to permit him to live 
on in a fool's paradise. If there be any good in the fellow — which I 
am inclined to doubt — the cold douche will sober him, and Ihc few 
thousands that are left will enable him to make a fresh start And 
yet how to administer the salutary bath ? He will return at one or 
two o'clock in the morning, and will almost certainly refuse to leave 
his bacchanalian rout to listen to my lectures. I shall be thankful 
when I am well rid of the whole business. I shall lose my free 
quarters, it is true, but then, thanks to John Company, I shall always 
have enough for a glass of dry sherry and a grilled chop, and Science 
is a mistress who does not scorn a garreu" 

Having thus delivered himself, the Captain arose and perambu- 
lated ttie apartment with slow measured strides. His exterior was 
calm and impassible as usual, but in his heart he did not relish the 
coming interview. And then the I^dy Wv^yKtf, already responsible 
for a Parisian romance, began to put matters in train for a London one. 

Pacing up and down in the fuliginous twilight, his foot came into 



112 



The Gentleman^ Magazine, 



rather violent collision with an object in a dark comer of the room 
which he had never happened lo notice before. It was a quaint old 
Indian cabinet of camphor-wood, on whose panels the native artist 
had depicted the incarnations of Vishnu. The housemaid had either 
scorned or overlooked it in her periodical descents upon the study of 
the late Obadiah Dench— to which the Captain seldom and Amos 
never resorted— and it was consequently coaled with that thin layerof 
dust which is such an abomination in the eyes of careful housewives. 

The Captain carelessly glanced at this piece of antique furniture. 
*' One of Obadiah's Oriental 6nds or purchases," he said to himself. 
" By-the-by, as a crash appears to be imminent, I may as well see if 
it contains any private papers which one would not care to be perused 
by the broker." 

The cabinet was locked, but after diligent search in an old- 
fashioned, brass-bound desk, amongst the keys of the late proprietor 
Captain Dench discovered one that fitted the lock. Upon opening 
the disused receptacle, he found himself confronted by a double tier 
of small drawers having an arched recess between them. With the 
contents of these drawers the searcher felt inhnitelydisgusted; they were 
trivial and utterly unworthy the attention of a man of science or c\-en 
of business— cowries, a few mohurs, other Indian coins and medaU 
of less ^'alue, some entomological specimens, fragments of ore, and other 
unconsidered bric-A-brac- He was on the point of closing the cabinet 
when it suddenly occurred to him that there was a considerable 
amount of space not accounted for, and that the space lay at the back 
of the arched recess above referred to, which was comparatively shallow, 
while the drawers on either side traversed nearly the entire depth of 
the cabinet 

The Captain loved the solution of mechanical problems and 
puzzles of all kinds ; he was quile a proficient in applied mathe- 
matics, as well as in pure ; and his keen faculties were promptly set 
to work, with the result that the Indian cabinet yielded up its secret 
in a remarkably short space of time. AVithin the hiding-place whose 
existence he had so sagaciously inferred lay a scaled letter, and 
nothing more. Glancing at the superscription — " To my son, 
Amos" — he had no diflSculty in recognising his brother's clear and 
formal handwriting. Methodically replacing the drawer and closing 
the cabinet, he drew down the blind, pulled the curtains to, lit the 
lamp, and, wheeling an casy<hair round to a bright fire, sat down in 
the light and warmth— no mean aids lo reflection — lo consider the 
situation, with the letter still in his liand. 

He was a man who had never troubled liimself with mctaphpical. 



The Twelve Signs. 113 

ethical, or theological subtleties— opon wbkfa be bad abn^ ^iEwf«f^ 
to look down from the superior scientific frfatfonn — but be was doC 
deficient in a sense of bonoor wbidi bad bitberto been ba gnide m 
all matters of conscience ; and this sense of honour was now doing 
battle^ within his sool, with the fonnidable foe Ezpediencf , and 
rapidly getting wmsted in the contest 

*' In the abstract, no doabt," be afgned, as be hdd the letter 
between bis finger and thnmb and stared tboi%|itlaIIy at the wofdt 
"To my son, Amos," ** it is a disbooomable tfaing— gn hwoming «a 
officer and a gentleman, and so forth — to open and read a letter 
addressed to another. Bq^ on the other band, drcnmstanoes not 
only modify, bat alter and control cases;. Now, bow do matteis 
stand in the present instance ? Amos is posMSsed by all die devOs 
of Mary Magdalene. I sboold bare 00 hfsHation in calbog bia 
non eow^os mentis. I am his next friend and nearest rebtire; more- 
over, of his own accord be has placed all business matters in my 
bands. I therefore coodnde that it is within my rights — nay, that it 
is my boonden duty— to open and read this letter." 

Suitir^ the action to the word, be brdce the seal, UkUl the 
contents from the envelope, and read as fi^Uows : 

" Sow Alios, — It really matters but little whether you find this 
letter, whether it falls into other bands, ot whether it remains tm- 
discovered sine die. I leave all that in the bands of Fate. Should 
you, however, come across it, please not to act upon the information 
it contains till all is lost Even in the grave I would hug my che ri shed 
secret to the last 

"When yon have wasted— as I foresee yon wiD— the vast patri- 
mony whidi you wiD inherit on my death, then — but not till then, if 
you r^ird my wishes — descend secretly, with taper and matchrs, in 
the still hours of the night, to the vaults beneath this house: Enter 
the second passage to tbe left ; in the centre of the wall that faces 
you, and five feet from the ground, you will discover, fixed in what 
is apparently solid masonry, a small knob^ scarcely distinguishable 
from the bead of an iron naiL Press it, and a door will open, dis 
dosii^ a narrow aperture in the thickness of the wall. When yoa 
have entered the recess^ tbe door will instantly dose upon yon. But 
let not this alarm you ; for on your return yoa can readily open it 
ag^ by means of another knob in a corresponding posidon on the 
smooth inside surface. Here a portal of polished steel will confront 
yoa. In pbce of bdtsand bars, lock, or other fi nt min a yuo wiU 
ace twdve bnsen discs engraved in strange Indian &diioa with tfa*. 



114 



The GenilefHans Alagazine^ 



twelve zodiacal signs, and arranged in the form of a qulocimx. You 
will find, moreover, that these discs are inserted in an oblong 
metal plate traversed by a network of grooves, along which they can 
be easily moved in a perpendicular or lateral direction. They may 
thus be transposed at will, and are, of course, susceptible of an 
immense number of different combinations. Unless, however, they 
are arranged according to the schema which I enclose herewith, no 
force short of dynamite can open the door. This ingenious con- 
tri^-ance was the gift of a Fakir to whom I once rendered a service 
which cost mc nothing. He assigned to it certain magic virtues; 
but I am not a believer in magic — unless it be the natural magic of 
tlie purse. When the figures have been duly placed in the proper 
position, the portal will fly open, and you will gain admittance to the 
shrine where my soul worshipped— a temple of Plutus indeed. You 
will find wealth, compared with which what you inherited &om me 
was a mere pittance. Use or abuse it. Whichever course you may 
elect, I do not fancy that it will trouble my repose. I have read 
your character, and know you to be a monster and a fool, with 
potentialities for evil, limited only by the narrow scope of your 
intellect and lack of opportunity, which will develop in time, and 
most hkely lead to disastrous results, I am not such a lover of 
society, of my kind, that I should greatly care. I might, it is true, 
have bequeathed these riches to hospitals, to heathen missions, or to 
be applied to the reduction of the national debt ; but then the world 
and its charitable institutions are vile shams — as vUe as you are ; and 
you, such as you are, are at least my fiesh and blood. Of the various 
claimants, then, you have the best right to my treasure. 

" I had almost omitted to say that when you wish to leave the 
secret chamber — the door of which, like that leading from the vault, 
will automatically dose when you enter — you will find a similar 
arrangement of brazen discs within, which must be placed according 
to the schema before you can obtain egress. 

•' Obadiah Dench." 



It seemed as though Fate bad mockingly ordained that this 
evening, for the first time in the course of his life, Captain Dcnch 
should be called upon to face and solve moral rather than mathematical 
problems, and questions in casuistry rather than calculus. The 
perusal of this cynical and most amazing letter, discovered \yy the 
merest chance, threw the scientist off his balance— quite stag- 
gered him. What should he do? This was a harder nut to 
cmck than tlic question of opening the letter hod been. After long 



The Twelve Signs* 



i»5 



I amdous deliberation he came to the conclusion that it would 
be best, in the fint place, to test the genuineness of the communi- 
cation, which, after all, might be only a practical joke — huge and 
grim— and shape his future action according to the result. 

The two old servants were generally in bed by ten o'clock — 
AiDOs admitting himself and his companions in the early morning 
hours with a latchkey — so that there would be ample time and oppor- 
tunity for making an unobserved descent into the subterranean regions 
before the return of lus nephew. He would wait till eleven o'clock. 

Never did lover count with greater eagerness and impatience 
the ** fly-slow" hours than did the gaunt old Anglo-Indian the 
moments intervening between six and eleven o'clock. Barely had 
the latter hour chimed when he arose, proN-ided himself with lamp 
and matches, and, not forgetting the letter and the precious schema, 
made his way noiselessly to the vaults. Here be found that all 
tallied with the circumstantial instructions given by tlvc dead roan, 
which he unhesitatingly followed till he stood within the narrow cell, 
facing the steel portal. 

As he was about to lift, as it were, the last veil of the mystery, 
an unwonted tremor pervaded his whole being. He hesitated. 
AV'as his action wise? What should he see behind that barrier? 
What were the strange experiences which lay literally within arm's 
length of him ? He speculated— men will do so at the most 
imlikely times — as a suicide might speculate who, with the barrel 
of a pistol pressed close to the roof of his mouth, wonders what 
sensation will succeed the shock and thunder of the discharge when 
he has pressed the trigger. Death might lurk behind the door. 
He might be caught, on entering, in a man-trap which would never 
release its fatal hold. He might be cast headlong down some deep 
and noisome welL A skeleton might leap forth and clasp him in its 
bony arms. Again, there might be only darkness and a great void, 
which incoherent and conflicting surmises afforded lamentable proof 
cf two facts — that the calm of the self-contained savant had given 
place to the fever, fear, and sujierstition of the treasure- seeker, and 
that Captain Dcnch had no very great faith in the amiable intentions 
of his deceased brother Obadiah. 

** I must make the plunge/' he murmured at last, " even though 
the issue be as uncertain as that of * Hobbes's last voyage.'" 

Consulting the schema, and nerving himself for the worst, he 
placed the figures in position, and straigliiway the door flew open- 
No ; Obadiah had not lied, notwithstanding his brother's strong 
doubts as to his veracity. Far from lying or exaggCT^VkVx^>as.\\:L\ 



ii6 



The GentUmans Magazine, 



used such tame and prosaic language that the Captain was quite 
unprepared for the apocalypse of splendour that almost blinded his 
eyes. It was evident that the agent of the imperious and un- 
scrupulous lord of Daylesford had not neglected to feather his own 
nest whilst engaged in the task of intimidating the unhappy Begums of 
Oude ; and it was equally evident that the mj-sterious Indian visitors 
at Charlotte Square had not come empty-handed. 

The Captain stood on the threshold of a small square chamber 
of considerable altitude, whose walls, completely covered with plates 
and laminae of solid burnished gold, fla.shed back the rays of the 
lamp which he bore. Along each side of the apartment were 
disposed in regular order large vases of porphyry, malachite, jade, 
and agate, wherein were piled pyramidically heaps of precious stones 
— diamonds, rubies, pigeon's-blood and balas, emeralds, amethysts, 
topazes, sapphires, cat's-eyes, and, in short, elect and priceless 
specimens of all known gems, some cut and polished, oUiers in the 
rough. In the centre— enthroned, as it were, upon an aitar of purest 
gold— lay the monarch of this chamber of treasure, the divinity to 
whom no doubt Obadiah lunch's orisons were addressed— a diamond 
which might have vied with and surpassed the great Braganza, 
larger than a hen's egg of the average size, and probably weighing 
close upon 2,000 carats. 

As we have seen. Captain Dench's philosophical equanimity had 
sustained many a rude shock during the course of a fateful evening j 
it now finally gave way, and he felt inclined, treading in his brother's 
footsteps, to fall down und worship before this superb and radiant 
embodiment of wealth and the power that wealth gives. 

It is a curious psychological fact and mystery that riches oflen 
possess the greatest attraction for those who are unable to enjoy, or 
even use them. Our old student was a sad exemplification of this 
truth. Gloating over the gold and gems, attempting to assess their 
value, then giving up the hopeless task, an hour in the subterranean 
chamber passed for him like one moment. 

It was now time for hira to return to the upper atr, and consider 
what course he should adopt with reference to Amos and the 
treasure, whose existence he had proved to be a dazeling fact. 

He did not regain his apartments till somewhat p.ist midnight, 
but before an hour had elapsed his fertile mind had bit upon and 
elaborated a plan of campaign. Just then, to his great surprise, he 
heard the lumbering footsteps of Amos in the hall. 

*' What can have happened ? " he exclaimed, " Amos back a 
^ood hour or more before bis usual time, aiMl alone ! " 




The Twelve Signs. 




IIL 



ThB TtttLlTE SiCXS. 

" Pardon me for being peraooal, Amos, bat reaUy you look u if 
you had just seen a ghost" 

" Oh, bother ghosts ! " savagely retorted the young man. " I 
BQppose a fellow may be seedy occasionaUy." 

At the best of times, as we hare intimated, Amos Dench was fas 
UoxSi being handsome or attractive ; now be was positively hideous, 
for his chocolate visage was mottled with violet patches, like the 
disconsolate lover in Horace, his goggle eyes had a fishy glaxe, and 
his long under-lip hung like a door loose on its binges. 

Uncle Joel, who had met his nephew in the hall and followed 
him LDto the dining-room, was too much accustomed to his amenities 
to feel surprised at his rudeness on the present occasion. AVhat did 
surprise him was the early return of Amos, sober, unaccompanied 
by his usual rabble rout, and looking the picture of the most abject 
terror. 

He would have been stilt more surprised had he known the 
catisc of his hopeful nephew's alarm. like most blusterers and 
profligates, Amos Dench was a veritable Bob Acres — a man of no 
moral, and very shaky physical, courage, and he bad really had a 
tremendous fright that night — seen a ghost, or something worae. It 
had chanced in this wise. Passing down Church Street, Soho — then 
a gloomy haunt of poverty and vice,*horae and foreign, of Anarchists 
and painted women — he had been suddenly met face to £ice by an 
old man, below the middle height, but thick-set and burly, wearing a 
long blade cloak and low, broad felt hat. His visage was har^ry, 
olfish, and ghastly, and his lurid eyes flamed into those of Amos 
lilh a fierce and irresistible mastery. He had hoarsely whispered 
into the young man's ear "Come with me," and at the same time 
with some violence clapped his hand upon his shoulder. Oh, that 
irm ! that grip ! When the hand descended, it seemed to Amos as 
if a thick iron bar had forcibly struck him ; when it rested upon 
him, the chill as of an Arctic iceberg had tingled through his being, 
quickly succeeded by such intolerable heat as only the furnace of 
Geherma could generate. Straightway what manhood ho possessed 
bad forsaken him. With womanish tears he had wailed, *'Oh, spare 
me I spare me I " and the terrible lips, writhing in hellish sneer, had 

Three' 



Ii8 



The Geniiemans Magazine, 



come for you." With these words he had vamsbed from the sordid 
circle of the lamplight. 

After this rtncontre the young geatlcman had felt in no mood 
for Wtissail or wassailers. Cold, trembling, with chattering teeth, and 
a strange sinking feeling at the heart, he had hied him home at 
once, wearing the hang-dog aspect which had elicited his uncle's 
remark. 

Once within the precincts of his Bloomsbury mansion, however^ 
he began to breathe more freely. Paying no further attention to 
Captain Dench, he filled a tumbler with brandy, and drained it at 
a gulp. 

" I don't remember ever feeling so much out of sorts," he said 
in a tone bet%reen a growl and a whine. " I think I shall be off to 
Led." 

" Have some more brandy." 

Nothing loath, Amos swallowed another glassful of the raw 
spirit. *' Dutch courage ! Dutch courage ! " he muttered. " Any- 
how, it is better than a blue funk." 

The Captain watched his nephew narrowly, and saw with satis- 
faction that, under the potent influence of the alcohol, he was rapidly 
recovering from his mysterious quandary. He was a man of iron 
tenacity of purpose ; he had arranged all his phms, and he was 
quite determined at all hazards to carrj* them out that very night. 

" \ am glad you seem better, Amos," he said, "for I have some 
important matters to communicate to you. Sit down, and let us 
proceed to business." 

"Business 1 oh, hang it all ! not tonight. Wait till I have slept 
and had some breakfast." 

" Impossible ! " was the Captain's curt and cool rejoinder ; *' you 
must hear all now." 

A currish nature instmctively obeys a firm hand^ and the old 
oHicer knew his man. 

*'AII right" — with an air of sullen resignation. "I don*t suppose 
I could sleep, if I tried. Only, I say, cut it as short as you can." 

" /ffi/n/A'/j," began his uncle, in a raatteroffacl tone, " I regret to 
inform you that you are ruined — or, rather, have ruined yourself," 

" Ruined? You don't mean it I " yelled Amos, starting up and 
fixing a glassy eye of horror upon his uncle. 

» Oh yes I do, though," retorted the other. •' Perhaps, however, 
it would be more correct to say that you are trembling on the verge 
of ruin. A couple of thousands still remain, but you will get 
llirough them in a month's time." 



The Twelve Sipts. 



119 



Upon which unexpected and astounding intelligence the wretched 
prodigal bowed hU head in his hands upon the table, and for the 
second time that night began to weep— this time maudlin tears. 

His uncle regarded the sordid picture of cowardly and unedifying 
humiliation with a look of contempt and disgust for a moment. 
Then, crossing to him, he laid his hand lightly on his shoulder. 

He certainly had not calculated upon tlic result Amos, to 
whom the sudden touch recalled his recent Soho adventure, bounded 
to his feet with a wild scream, as though he had received a powerful 
dcctric shock. 

Noticing the look of horror and alarm in his nephew's face, but 
misinterpreting the cause, Cjptain Dench made haste to reassure 
him. " Be a man, Amos," be said ; " things may not be as bad as 
you fancy." 

"But— but," whimpered the other, whom shame for his own 
cowardice withheld from enlightening his uncle, " you say that I am 
ruined ; and you ought to know, for you have kept the accounts." 

" That is so," rejoined his uncle coolly. " And yet there may 
be a door of hope, for all that • , . And now pull yourself together^ 
if yon can, and give me your best attention." 

For answer Amos, who had resumed his seat and his despondent 
attitude, raised his sodden face and nodded. 

'* I have made a strange discovery," began the Captain. 

" Is it anything like ' A New Way to Pay Old Debts ' ? " sneered 
Amos, who happened to remember the title of Massiiigcr's play^ 
irith a sickly attempt at a witticism. 

••That is precisely what it is." 

"I^t us hear the wonderful prescription, then. It has certainly 
turned up in the nick of time." 

" Presently. You must hear what I have to say first. Supposing 
that the discovery which I have made should lead to your obtaining 
ft fortune compared with which that which you have just squandered 
would be but a bagatelle, would you be willing to give me a brief 
written agreement undertaking to share equally with me the wealth 
which I should be instrumental in placing in your hands, and, 
furtlierraote, to pledge me your word of honour that you will turn 
aver a new leaf for the future ? The conditions are not hard. I 
I a childless old man, and my portion of the treasure-trove would 
ultimately revert to you ; and the second stipulation is manifestly in 
your own interest Do not speak at once ; take time for reflection. 
Should you decline my terms, I keep my discovery to ni>'sclf." 

This stupendous announcement, revealing much and hinting at 



120 



The GentUmans Magazine, 



still mote^ completely sobered Amos, upon whom the pint of brandy 
which he had imbibed was beginning to lake efTect. Once more he 
was poor and needy ; once more an unkind fate had called upon 
him to deal with an old curmudgeon who had power to give or 
to withhold ; it was time to drop bluster, to alter his tactics, and 
slink back to the rdU which he had played with such signal 
success in his father's lifetime — tlut of a false, supple, cimging 
Tarlufie. 

" Dear Uncle Joel," he exclaimed, with much apparent enthu- 
siasm and affection, "you are my good genius. I accept — thankfully 
accept — your conditions. Half of the fortune is too much ; the third 
part will be enough for me. I will give you the written agreement. 
As for turning over a new leaf, I faithfully promise you that I will. 
In fact, I have got quite sick of that sort of thing." 

"Methinks this gentleman dolh protest too much," said the 
Captain to himself. Then aloud : " I am glad that you take such 
a sensible view of things. You might just let me have the very 
briefest memorandum. I shall be quite satisfied with an equal 
share." 

Procuring writing materials, Amos at once complied with his 
uncle's request, and handed him the document, which that gentle- 
man carefully perused, folded, and placed in his breast pocket along 
with Obadiah's letter and the schema of the Twelve Signs. 

"And now, sir," said our young man, "I am most anxious to 
hear the story of your lucky find." 

The Captain, whose new code of ethics did not condemn a 
slight and necessary supprcssh vcri^ proceeded to relate how he had 
found in a secret receptacle in the Indian cabinet a brief statement, 
in Obadiah Dench's liandwriting, indicating tlie existence of an 
immense treasure in the vaults beneath the mansion, and giving the 
necessary directions for obtaining access to it. " This," he said, 
producing the schema and showing it to Amos, who glanced at it 
with a mystified air, " is the key to the secret." 

Replacing the document in his pocket, the Captain continued : 
*' At first I could scarcely credit the evidence of my own senses j 
my next thought was that your father could not have been in his senses 
when he penned the statement. Nevertheless I deemed it best, on 
the whole, to investigate the matter. The result, I confess, surpassed 
my wildest imaginations. The scene I beheld reminded me of those 
subterranean palaces of the genii descrilx:d in your favourite book, 
' The Arabian Nights,' " 

'Ilie dull e)*ea of Amos shone for a moment wiuj tnc light of 



The Twelve Signs. 121 

cupidity. ** Dear uncle," he cried, " will 70U be my guide without 
further delay to this home of enchantment 7 " 

"Wait here, then. I shall be with you in a moment I want to 
see that all is quiet upstairs." 

"Gold," says the mocking fiend Mephistopbeles, "rules the 
world "j it certainly changes the character of men. Its sunny 
gleam, supplemented by the more potent radiance of the great 
diamond and its attendant gems, had turned the dreamy, speculative 
Archimedes whom, at the commencement of this narratircv we 
contemplated deep in his mathematical problems^ into a not over- 
scrupulous man of action and resource. 

" I don't quite like the expression in that fellow's Cace," mused 
the Captain when he had gain^l the solitude of his bedroom. " He 
looks as if he had met the deviL" 

He drew Obadiah's letter from his pocket, threw it into the fire, 
and watched it till it was reduced to ashes. He next unlocked a 
bureau, and deposited therein the schema together with the brief 
agreement which Amos had just written out 

" My brother's letter to Amos," he thought, " was decidedly de 
trop -J I am not likely to forget the collocation of the signs "—the 
Captain had the memory of a Magliabechi — "and these documents 
will be just as well here for the present" 

Taking a neat little revolver from the mantel, and thrusting it into 
his bosom, he hurried downstairs and rejoined Amos, who was 
walking up and down impatiently, while his unprepossessing coun- 
tenance was working with excitement 

" Come on, Uncle Joel," he gasped. 

It was nearly three o'clock in the morning when the two men 
stealthily descended to the vaults beneath the old mansion. On 
their way the Captain explained to his nephew in low tones the 
important part which the twelve zodiacal signs played as guardians of 
the treasure. 

"The cabalistic figures on the paper you showed me are the 
* Open Sesame * of this wonderful cave ? " questioned Amos carelessly. 

" Yes," replied the other ; " that is the key to the arrangement of 
the brazen discs of which I told you — the only means of gaining 
access to or egress from the secret chamber." 

They had now reached the first stage in their adventure, and the 
Captain directed the attention of bis companion to the small knob in 
the wall. 

The secret door yielded to the pressure of the spring, noiselessly 
closing again when they had stepped into the cavity. 

VOL. cczcL Na 2048. ^ 




123 The Gentleman s Magazine. 

Amos, holding the candlestick aloft with trembling hand, now 
saw the steel barrier and the Twelve Signs. These, by virtue of a 
curious mechanism, lapsed back into confusion on each occasion 
simultaneously with the closure of the door, so that it was now 
necessary for the Cnptain to arrange them once more in the order of 
the schema. 

"Don't you want to refer to the paper?" anxiously inquired 
Anios. " You have it in your pocket." 

"Yes, I know," rejoined his unde, "but I think I can trust to 
memory." 

With steady hand he carefully adjusted the signs, and the door 
admitted them, shutting to spontaneously when they had entered, 
while the brazen discs within immediately formed a new combination. 
The candlestick would h.ivc dropped from the nerveless grasp of 
Amos if the Captain had not promptly seized it, exclaiming, "Steady, 
man ! it would never do to be left in darkness here. I have forgotten 
Jiiatchcs, and I don't suppose you have any." 

Amos, in truth, seemed to have lost the power of speech and 
■niolion. He could only gaze open-mouthed at the massive glittering 
red gold thai lined the chamber, at the costly urns and their still more 
•costly burden, and the prismatic scintillations of Uie great diamond. 
" This is an Aladdin's Cave indeed," he whispered at last. *' Here 
is wealth sufficient to buy up an Empire." 

"Yes, boy," returned Captain Dench, with a strange weird light 
of enthusiasm on his cadaverous face; "and it is all yours and mine. 
I shall probably not need it long j but while I Hve, it will be the one 
pleasure of my existence to come down here occasionally to bathe in 
the glorious light of that diamond, (o plunge my hands in yonder 
vases and let the rubies and sapphires ripple like bmbcnt fire through 
my fingers." 

As he spoke, gold worked another fatal metamorphosis. The 
spendthrift became a raiser. He wanted all for himself — all— and 
now. He could not share it, and he could not wait. How tantalis- 
ing to think that one old and feeble life alone barred him from the 
sole, absolute, and undisputed possession of riches such as Croesus 
had never dreamt of 1 

And then the demon of murder, who is twin-brother and constant 
associate of the demon of greed, whispered : *' That barrier must 
be removed. You have the means wherewithal to do so— the 
revolver in your pocket, the companion of your nightly prowlings. 
You were too great a craven a few hours ago to turn it against the old 
man of Soho ; use it now." 



Tfie Twelve Signs, 



123 



The Tceble, guilly, sodden, polluted soul heard, and did not, 
could not, resist the inner voice of ihe tempter. 

" My dear uncle," he whispered, as if afraid to trust his own 
voice, " do you not detect a slight flaw in the lower surface of this 
splendid diamond?" 

" Surely not," said the old man, stooping down to scrutinise the 
jewel, while he placed the candlestick on the ground between two 
vases. 

He never rose again, for the next instant a bullet from Ins 
nephew's revolver passed through his brain, and he fell forw-ard, dead, 
across the golden altar. 

For the moment Amos did not trouble himself about the body. 
He danced about like a maniac ; he tossed the great diamond up in 
the air and caught it again; he buried his hands deep in the urns, 
and anon suffered the sparkling gems to flow in streams of coloured 
light through his fingers. 

'* All mine ! all mine ! " he cried, in delirious ecstasy. 

Time flew rapidly by ; the candle was burning low, and he 
knew the servants rose at six- He must for the present leave the 
enchanted chamber ; the disposal of the body could await his 
convenience. 

The schema ! Faugh ! he must touch the corpse. He must 
take the paper from the breast pocket, where he saw his uncle place 
it. He turned the body over on its face, and put his hands into 
the pocket He encountered somctliing smooth, hard, and cold- 
It was the barrel of a revolver. There was no paper — no other 
contents. 

There was now but an inch of candle left. 

With the howl of a wild beast the murderer threw himself on 
the meagre corpse of his victim, staring glassily up at him with 
yellow grin. He frantically rifled all the dead man's pockets. There 
was no schema to be found. 

The door I the Twelve Signs ! 

His last hope was that by some lucky chance he might hit upon 
the right arrangement before the light failed him. He tried combi- 
nation after combination — all in vain. 

And then, in the midst of his experiments, the flame of the 
candle leaped tip and expired. He was in darkness, shut oC for 
ever from the living, without hope of release — alone with his gold, 
his gems, his murdered man \ 

Wth an awful shriek of despair he launched himself against the 
door of steel The words of his father's letter— that letter which he 





■i^H^^^[^B 


The GentkmatiS Magazine. '-^^ 

seen — were no itlle boost \ no force short of dynamite 
lil against it. 

blasphemies, prayers, rushed from his foaming lips in 
luence* Then came oblivion for awhile ; but then the 
ening. 

to his appointmentjthe old man of Soho came for Amos 
lidnight On the third day, 

L' Envoi* 

Iter the kpse of many years, chance led to the discovery- 
it vault, and the two skeletons were found lying ihereia 
in regal state, sunounded by gold and precious stones, 
k Holmes of the period, with the aid of the schema, 
jid documents belonging to the Dench family, togetlier 
[circumstantial evidence afforded by the subterranean 
id its grisly occupants, pieced together inductively an 
leory respecting the tragedy of the two men whose sudden 
0U3 disappearance had startled the contemporaiy world 

^ory has furnished the present writer with material for the 



ON THE MONKS' ISLAND. 



THE low, mellow tones of a bell tolling solemnly half awakened 
me. I began to wonder feebly where I was ; but instead of 
trying to solre the question, I listened dreamily to the two soundt 
nhich of all others are dear to me — the slow ringing of a dccptoncd 
bell, and tlie lapping of the sea on the rocks. 

Where was I ? A moonbeam fell across my face, and by its 
iij^ht I distinguished the canvas of our tent. Such a tent it was, too I 
A yard from some old ship had been lashed firmly to a tree ; over 
this a sail was thrown, whose ends were roughly secured to the 
ground with improvised tent-pegs. The door of the tent— if ono 
may make use of such an expression— consisted of an old sheet much, 
but neatly, patched. I could see the outline of the patches in the 
moonlight. Lulled to rest by the lap-lapping of the waves and the 
throbbing of the bell I fell asleep again without having distinctly 
decided where I was. I was in Hlysium, at any rate, and was not 
that enough 7 

Next morning I was awakened in real earnest, not by pale, blue 
moonlight, but by the brilliant sunshine of an August morning, and 
realised that I was on the island of St. Honorat, oft Cannes. 
On throwing back the curtain a scene fit for fairyland met my gaze. 
Southward, as far as the eye could reach, the broad expanse of tlie 
blue Mediterranean sparkled and danced in the sunlight. To our 
left was the well-wooded island of St. Marguerite, whose fort is 
celebrated as being one of the residences of the unfortunate wearer 
of the Iron Mask. It was in this same fort that Bazainc was 
imprisoned. His escape thence was long planned for by liis friends, 
and, as some think, not regretted by the French Government. The 
lact that the boat on wliich he sailed away was getting up steam off 
tbe island the day before his flight, in full view of his gaolers, seems 
to support this supposition. 

Behind us lay the fairest of all the lovely towns of the Riviera— 
Canites. As we looked at its sandy shore, its white villas, and a,t 




The Gentleman s Magazine. 

the old town climbing up the bill on the Idl, with the blue mountains 
of the Est^rel in the distance, we agreed that wc had never seen a 
more charming picture. 

After a swim in the sea, which is so clear that yoa can distinguish 
the pebbles and shells at the bottom through many feet of water, we 
came back to our tent, guided thither by a refreshing odour of coffee. 
We found a sailor's wife, who was to be our caterer, cook, house- 
maid and messenger all in one, grinding the fragrant berries in her 
little hand-mill, talking the while to her wee son, who had, as he 
anon informed us with great dignity, lately attained the age of four. 
Our factotum had a sweet face, a delicate brunette skin, and dark 
hair brushed back in gentle waves from the forehead. Her e)*es, as 
they lit up to greet us, were of that liquid yet fiery t)'pe which is so 
characteristic of the Southerner. They looked like two deep, dark 
lakes with sunlight glinting on the surface. 

She came to meet us, holding out her hand, with easy grace. 
Had we enjoyed our bath ? Had we slept well ? What did Madame 
think of her first night in a tent ? Oh I for Monsieur she was not 
uneasy. An officer, who had been abroad on active service, and 
must have camped out who knows where, would make allowances; 
but Madame ? Here she shrugged her pretty shoulders and looked at 
me inquiringly. I assured her I had never slept better in my life, 
and asked her the meaning of the bell which had awakened but not 
disturbed me. 

That was the bell of the reverend Fathers whose monastery spire 
wc could see in the distance through the trees. They had to rise 
at three o'clock every morning, peckcre! Xxy go to Matins, and the bell 
rang to call them. But now she would miokc the cofTce, and then 
she must be off to get the day's provisions. She made it on a gipsy 
fire, and excellent it was. She still chatted pleasantly, telling us that 
her husband would soon be back from fishing; at which the little 
Louis clapped his hands with glee, cxcbiming: 

" Tu nous/eras de 2a bomliabaisse^ dis,f>ttifi mhref" 

She smilingly assented, then asked if wc should like to taste this 
southern delicacy, wliich is highly esteemed all along the coast from 
Marseilles to Mcntonc. Monsieur knew it, of course ; but Madame ? 
Again the inquiring glance and the pretty movement of her shapely 
shoulders. Finding Madame liked nothing better than to try 
every new dish that came in her way, she asked for out commhshns^ 
which included the following somewhat incongruous articlr^s : the 
daily paper, two chops, a box of hairpms, some stamps, a bottle of 
ink, and some fruit. She got into a boat with little Louis and rowtd 



On the Monks Island. 



1*7 



off towards the shore. We watched them gliding slowly ihrough the 
traler and listened to the pla^ of the oars, then turned to go round 
the island. 

St. Honorat was already known to me by name, for a much- 
admired friend, cutting short a brilliant career, turning his back on 
the world and its honours, had buried himself in the monastery 
which occupies the centre of the island. He was no longer there j 
but the place was dear to me for hb sake, and I was very dcidrous 
of visiting the church where he had so often worshipped. 

1 had paid a hasty visit to the island with my husband, wlio 
knew it well, a week before, and, seeing a few tents there belonsing 
to fisherfolt, thought how delightful it would be to spend a week 
or so m one ourselves. We applied to the sailor's wife in question, 
who, having obtained the requisite permission from the Rh^rtnds 
Peres (the whole island belongs to them), pitched our tent near 
her own. 

St, Honorat is about a mile in length. As it is not very broad, 
one does not take long to walk round it. It is covered with pines 
that afford a pleasant shade and emit that peculiar odour which, 
when mixed with sea air, is so exhilarating. On one side the 
island slopes gently down to the water ; on the other the coast is 
formed of bold rocks. There are many little inlets, which make 
limpid bathing-pools and fishponds. As we turned round a point 
we came upon the old monastery, a large square building of yellow 
stone, standing out in delightful contrast with the blue sea and sky. 
That it was founded by St. Honorat (at the beginning of the 
fifth century) the name of the island still proclaims. The actual 
building was finished about the year 1 1 16. It Is a fortress, and has 
repelled many an attack from pirates and others. The island was 
conquered or invaded half a score of times from 731 to 1746. At 
the time of the Revolution it became propriety nationale. It then 
pftssed through various purchasers' hands, including an actress and a 
butcher, imlil il was bought by the Bishop of Fr^jus, forty ye^rs 
■go, and the new convent was built and the monks reinstated. 

The old fortress-monastery is preserved by the State as a 
moKutrunt hiiiorique. A lay-brother, dressed in brown frock and 
cowl, showed us over it He was an ideal monk, with finely cut 
features and an ascetic air that, combined with his genial smile, 
inspired one with confidence. He pointed out to us the remains 
of the refectory, the chapel, and traces of the cells. 

la Imagination we went back several hundred years and saw the 
monks engaged in tbdr peaceful avocations (save when obliged to 



128 



The Gentleman s Magazine, 



repel iavaders), walking with bent bead and gentle tread, ever silent 
yet never idle, 

" WTiat Order do you belong to ? " I asked our guide. 

"AVe arc Bernardins dc rimmacuWe Conception," he replied. 

" Indeed ; that is a new name to roe." 

" We were established in France between 1840-50 by the 
R(5vtfrend Perc Dom Marie- Bernard." 

"But I thought you were Cistercians." 

"So we are, Madame. This is how it is. Religious services, 
and necessarily religious Orders, were suppressed at the Revolution. 
By degrees some of the latter were reestablished, but not all. On 
the other hand, several new Orders were founded, and amongst them 
our own. We are a branch of the Cistercian Order, which itself is 
nothing else than the Order of St. Benedict restored to its primitive 
institutions and original severity by the reform of 109S, which was 
brought about by Sl Robert de Champagne in the monastery of 
Citeaux. St. Bernard, the most illustrious monk of that abbey, founded 
the monastery of Clain'aux. Many others wcreestablished in thecoursc 
• of time,andtodistinguishthc Reformed Benedictin^i from the ordinary 
monkstheformerwerecalledCisiercians. The peoplc^addedourguide, 
with a smile, "call us the white monks, as our choir-brothers wear 
white frocks and cowls in honour of the Virgin. The ordinary Bene- 
dictins they term black monks, for they have adhered to that colour." 

" But I always hear you spoken of as Trappists. Why is that ? " 
I asked. 

"Ah, Madame, in this evil world all degenerates; religious 
Orders, alas ! form no exception to the rule. By degrees discipline 
became lax, and a new reform was started by the Abbot de Ranc^ 
(who, as commendatory abbot, h.^ lived for naught but pleasure 
and fashion up to the age of thirty) at the monastery of La Trappe ; 
hence the name Trappists, which is applied to those Cistercians 
that adopted this reform. 

"When the R^v^rend Vcre Dom Marie-Bernard founded our 
Order he mitigated somewhat the severity of the Trappist rule. The 
attenuations are very slight, the chief one being that we have 
separate cells instead of the common dormitory of the Trappists. 
So, strictly speaking, we arc not Trappists, though we arc so similar 
that the general public sees no difference and calls us by that name. 
However, all branches of tlie Reformed Cistercian Order — severe and 
mitigated — have been lately united in a kind of federation which, 
whilst leaving each of them independent, procures for them all the 
advantages accruing from union. This federation bos as its h«ad 




On ike Monks' Island, 



» 



129 



and representadve in Rome an abbot who bears the title of *tAlM 
G^/rai de tOrdre de Citeaux,* There ore about sixty houses 
bdoi^ng to the Order all over the vortd, twcnty^onc of which are 
in France.'* 

We climbed the steps to the roof of the old fortrcg^, and, looking 
over the battlements, admired the wonderful view. 

*' Is it true." I asked — and I suppose my voice expressed the 
sympathy I felt, for I saw a gleam of mischief flash over our guide's 
face as he answered me — " is il true that the Tmppists never upeiik ? " 

" It is quite true. Madame knows that the Holy Scriptures soy 
that he that offends not with his tongue is perfect. Trappists aim 
at this perfection, and only use their tongues to confcsN their faults 
and sing the praises of God. Those that by their functions aru 
obliged to speak, such as the abbot, the gue$t-master, the porter, 
&c., as a rule much regret that their duties prevent them from 
keeping silence, and they speak as briefly as possible. Madame 
perhaps knows that there arc convents for women of the samo 
Order, and that they are the most flouri-^hing of any," 

That I could understAnd ; in fact, it seems 10 me tluit the only 
oonvent where you could expect peace to reign over a week would 
be one where silence is absolutely binding. However, I was not 
{j-oing to admit this to our amiable conductor, and I objected : 

"In some cases it would be very hard to keep silent. If a monk 
saw his brother in danger from a falling tile or a vi[>cr, I should think 
be would be tempted to break the rule." 

*' He would break no rule by speaking in such a caw. La chariti 
pisu avant tout, and it would be his duty lu speak. Much, how* 
ever, may be done by signs." 

Here we arrived at the foot of the ruin, and, fearing to weary the 
kindly monk with further qucstionsi we took leave of him for that 
day. He shook my husband's hand warmly, and in a misguided 
moment I held out mine. He drew back a step, then said 1 " Ah, 
Madame, we are not allowed to touch the fair sex ; " then, with a 
courteous inclination of the head, he added gently, as if afraid of 
having wounded me, " Tis our loss, Madame, mais ^est la rtgU." 

We wandered on, and came upon an orphanage for boys which is 
entirely supported by the monk^. The children arc taught printing — 
we heard the press working as we approached. Wc visited llie 
building, and noticed how well-behaved its inmates were. Ai we 
cominued our itroU we arrived at the door of the present monastery* 
with its simple church (dedicated, as arc all churches of the Order, to 
the Blened Virgin), surrounded by the monks* cells. We were 



I30 



The Gentiemans Magazine. 



admitted, on ringing, to the parlour. We asked to be shown over 
the monastery. The porter said that Monsieur was very welcome to 
see the building, but Madame — here he turned to me and, bowing 
politely, asked : *' Madame knows our rule ? Indies are never 
admitted within the ddture" 

" But I so much want to see the church and one of the cells," I 
replied. " Won't you let me iii for one minute ? I will only just 
peep, and come away." And I looked pleadingly at the monk. 

" Madame sees me profoundly sorry to be obliged to refuse, but 
no woman, unless she wears a crown, may be admiticd within the 
elfitufr. Cest ia rigU,'' Then, seeing ray disappointment, he added, 
*' There is really nothing to see — ^a plain church, and small rooms 
much like this parlour.** 

But I was not prompted by curiosity, as he thought, but by 
afliection. I wanted to kneel in the stall where my friend bad knelt, 
and sec the little room where he had so often poured out his soul 
to God, where so many recollections of his former manner of life 
must have come crowding round him. 

Still there was nothing left but to come away. My husband, 
who knew the convent well, did not care to revisit it without me, 
and he did his best to console me ; but he had hard work. 

During the afternoon we rested under the pine trees with the 
sea at our feet, as smooth as glass, vibrating in the heat of the sun. 
We gave ourselves up to the doke far nicnU which is only pleasant 
or possible under cloudless skies. Towards evening we watched the 
sun preparing to sink behind the Estdrel, and admired the changing 
hues of the water. In the haxy distance tlie sea shimmered with 
all the delicate and varied lints of moiher-of-pcarl, and the pale 
moon, growing gradually luminous, shed a faint track of siK*ery 
light across the wavelets that rippled noiselessly in the refreshing 
evening breeze. 

We were sitting speediless, lost in admiration, when we beard 
the voice of little Louis calling to us : " Venct viU^petitt mire a fait 
ia bouiUabaisse" We followed him, and found our hostess^ 
surrounded by a few fisher-folk, bending over her cooking-pot, 
whence issued an odour of fish, saffron and garlic She cut slices 
of bread into a soup-tureen, and poured over them the hot fish soup. 
Knowing thai my face was being carefully watched, I took my first 
spoonful of the new dish with an appreciative smile which earned 
for me the approval of the entire group and made them my friends 
for life. 

After supper we chatted with the kindly people, the moon throw- 




On the Monks* Island, 



131 



Tng dark shadows on the ground. My husband amused Louis by 
making shadow animals for him on the tent, imitating their cries. 
The child was delighted, and dapped his chubby hands, shouting 
"Emorel tncortl" We were young and inexperienced, and did 
not know how narrow is the borderland between smiles and t«irs, 
fun and fear in children's minds ; so picture succeeded picture until, 
suddenly, the little boy hid his face on his mother's breast, exclaiming 
"y *"*/""*> WW*/" Nothing could console him, and he awoke 
several times during the night, liauntcd by the weird shadows he 
had seen in the moonlight. 

And so the days passed by, leaving behind them memories that will 
never lose their charm. One afternoon we watched the Mediterranean 
Squadron steam by on its way to anchor in the Golfe Juan. We 
had felt so carried back to the Middle Ages by our surroundings and 
the very garb of the monks, whom we watched at their daily work 
in the fields, that these modem monsters seemed an anachronism. 

We made another visit to the fortress, and were heartily welcomed 
by our former guide. 

" Why did your bell ring at eleven o'clock last night ? " was my 
first question. 

"Did it disturb Madame?" he asked quickly, with that sincere 
consideration for the comfort of others which true ascetics, who 
admit of no ease for themselves, always show. 

" No, indeed," I replied ; '* 1 love to hear it day or night ; it has 
seemed a living thing to me all the time we have been here. I only 
wondered why it rang," 

"Because it was the eve of the Assumption of our Lady. We 
rise at eleven on the eves of the great feasts." 

"Then you have only three hours' sleep?" 

"Just so, Madame." 

" What do the monks do all day long on ordinary occasions ? " I 
asked. 

"Madame refers to thc/^.r, no doubt. There are two classes 
of monks." 

"Yes, I notice some of you wear brown frocks aod cowls, and 
the others have white frocks and black siapulains*' 

"Those of us who are clad in brown are the frires convers 
lay-brothers). We do the rougher work of the monastery. Some 
of us cannot even read, and could not follow the Offices with profit. 
'Mais celui qui iravaiiU prie^ not so Madame? The p^res (choir- 
brothers), who are dressed in white, sing the praises of God from 
their books, as wc cannot do ; but we often join them in church 





132 The Gentlcmans Magazine. 

during the day and praise God in our humble way. I will tell 
Madame how the pires spend the day. We all rise at five minutes 
to three. We sleep in our frocks, ready to get up the moment the 
bell rings, and by three o'clock we are all in the church reciting 
Matins of the Office of our Lady. After this the f^ra draw their 
hoods over their heads, and sit in the dimly lighted church meditating 
for half an hour. At four o'clock Matins and Lauds of the Monastic 
OfBce are recited. At five o'clock those plrts who are priests say 
Mass ; the others pray and meditate. At .seven o'clock I'rime is 
sung, followed by the Chapter, where the Rule is sung and explained, 
and all infractions arc publicly confessed by the assembled monks. 
After this we break our fast — if it happens to be during the time 
between E.nster and September 14— by eating a slice of bread and 
n piece of cheese ; unless it is a fast day." 

'* And if it is not between Easter and September? " I queried. 

"We eat nothing till noon," he rephcd calmly. 

" But how can you sing and pray and work for nine hours with- 
out taking food? I should think some must faint from exhaustion." 

" I have never seen that happen. It is necessary to master the 
body, so that the spirit may be more at liberiy.'* 

" Well," I replied, " I am glad to know that you have breakfasted 
4o-day. What do the/i^rfj do next ? " 

" They go to their cells, sweep and tidy them. Then they per- 
form their ablutions. After this they work at some manual labour, 
generally in the fields, until nine o'clock, when Tierce is recited, after 
which they are free to work in their cells. They mostly pass the 
time in the study of the Bible and of those works of the Fathers 
that deal with monastic life. When work ts pressing, on account of 
the weather, or in harvest, the hours are somewhat altered ; they 
then work seven hours a day out of doors, if necessary. At half- 
past eleven Sixte and examination of conscience. Then dinner." 

I heaved a sigh of relief. 

" I hope you have a hearty meal. What do they give you?" 

•* Vegetable soup, a vegetable dish, bread and a fruit. All is 
mnigre : neither fat nor butter is used in preparing the food ; we can 
have oil and vinegar. We have a sufficient quantity, and half a litre 
of wine each for the twenty-four hours. During the meal the life of a 
saint is read by the monks in turn, a week at a time. As we go to 
the refectory we chant the Miitrcre, and on leaving it another Psalm. 

"After dinner we are free to do as we like. Some walk in the 
cloisters, some tend the garden, others read or study, but no one speaks 
A word. 




On ike Monks Island. 



" At two o'clock the pins work again in the fields. Madame 
has seen them ? '* 

" Yes, often ; it interests me to watch them." 

" At four o'clock ihey leave their work and go to Vespers in the 
church. Then they study again in their cells. At half-past six, 
meditation. At seven o'clock supper, which resembles dinner. 
Half an hour later Chapter, when some ascetic work is read out 
loud. Then Compline is sung in the church, and after examination 
of conscience the day is closed by the singing of Salve Rcgina, and 
we all retire to resL" 

In r^sum^ : 

Four hours of manual work at least, this being the minimum. 

Four hours of study. 

Seven hours spent in singing the praises of God, in meditation 
and in prayer. 

Two hours' recreation, including meals. 

Seven hours' sleep. 

And some people talk about lazy monks ! 

The words of R. L. Stevenson on this subject recurred to me : 

" Into how many houses would not the note of the monastery 
bell, dividing the day into manageable portions, bring peace of mind 
and healthy activity of body ! We speak of hardships, but the true 
hardship is to be a dull fool, and permitted to mismanage life in 
one's own dull, foolish manner," 

I asked our friendly cicerone, on another occasion, what faults 
they were that had to be publicly confessed at Chapter. He men- 
tioned the following : 

Speaking, though but a single word. 

Raising the eyes, on entering the church, to the gallery where 
i-isitors sit. 

Being late for the Offices. 

Working in the fields with nonchalance. 

Refraining from singing during the Offices. 

For these infractions of the rule the Abbot inflicts punishments 
which differ according to the gravity of the offence, and the individual 
temperament of the delinquents. 

Those who arrive late for the Offices sit in the lower row of stalls, 
where there are no Iwoks, to avoid disturbing their companions, who 
are already in their places, by passing in front of them. Other 
punishments are to kiss the feet of each monk in turn ; to kneel 
during the first part of dinner ; to dine sealed on a stool, or some- 
times even kneeling, in the middle of the rcfector}*. The most 



'32 



The Gentleman's Magazine, 



during the day and praise God in our humble way. I will teU 
Madame how ihe/^« spend ihe day. We all rise at five minutes 
to three. W't sleep in our frocks, ready to get up the moment the 
bell rings, and by three o'clock we are all in the cbtucli reciting 
Matins of the Office of our Lady. After this the pires draw tlieir 
hoods over their beads, and sit in the dimly lighted church meditating 
for half an hour. At four o'clock Matins and Lauds of the Monastic 
Office are recited. At five o'clock those pins who are priests say 
Mass ; the others pray and meditate. At seven o'clock Prime is 
sung, followed by the Chapter, where the Rule is sung and explained, 
and all infractions are publicly confessed by the assembled monks. 
After this we break our fast — if it happens to be during the time 
between Easter and September 14— by eating a slice of bread and 
a piece of cheese ; unless it is a fast day.'* 

'* And if it is not between Easier and September?" I queried* 

" We eat nothing till noon," he replied calmly. 

" But how can you sing and pray and work for nine hours with- 
out taking food? I should think some must faint from exhaustion." 

" I have never seen that happen. It is necessary to roaster the 
body, so that the spirit may be more at libeny." 

"Well," I replied, " I am glad to know that you have breakfasted 
40-day. What do the/t-^f do next ? " 

" They go to their cells, sweep and tidy them. Then they per- 
form their ablutions. Af^cr this they work at some manual labour, 
generally in the fields, until nine o'clock, when Tierce is recited, after 
which they are free to work in their cells. They mostly pass the 
time in the study of the Bible and of those works of the Fathers 
that deal with monastic life. When work is pressing, on account of 
the weather, or in harveitt, the hours are somewtiat altered ; they 
then work seven hours a day out of doors, if necessary. At half- 
past eleven Sixte and examination of conscience. Then duiDer.** 

I heaved a sigh of relief. 

" I hope you have a hearty meal. What do they give you ? " 

" Vegetable soup, a vegetable dibh, bread and a fruiL All is 
aigre : neither fat nor butter is used in preparing tlie food ; we can 
have oil and vinegar. We ha\-e a sufficient quantity, and half a litre 
of wine each for the twenty-four hours. During the meal the life of a 
saint is read by the monks in turn, a week at a lime As we go to 
Ihc refectory we chant the Afisererr, and on leaving it another Psolra, 

"After dinner we axe free to do as we like. Some walk in the 
cloisters, some tend the garden, others read or study, but noone^eaka 
A word. 



Om Urn Mmks* Idmmd. 135 



"At two o'd(M^ die /errr vert a^dn m die fie3& 
fais seen diem?* 

"Yes.aAm; k nHocds me to valdi dicm.' 

■■Atfoord'dockdi^lesicdieB-wiikaDdgD toVcspcs ia &e 
dinrdi. Tlien di^ stvif ^5^^ m dior ceftL. Aft Iwlfjif s^ 
iiie£tatioiL At seven oclocx "'jf^*^ ■IdlIi ics^Bfaies dHBoi 
Half an boor later fJnplrr, vfaen some asoebc nk is icad art 
loud. Then Ccoipfine is song m die dandi, and afio^ eoMBatiiH 
of f ntwrimrr. die d«y is dosed by the sfapog of Sibe ib^ena, aid 
we all ictiie to rest* 

Inrfenmf : 

Foot boors of manaal work at least, dns beii^ ifae ■■' 

Four boms of stody. 

Seven boms qient in sing^ tbe poises of God, in metfisazioa 
andinpniyer. 

Two boors' recieatiao, indDtfiz^ meak. 

Seven hoars' sleepu 

And some people talk about la^ monks ! 

The voids of R. L. Stevenson 00 this sobject lecmicd to me : 

" Into bow manj hoases would not die note of the monastery 
bell, dividu^ die day into manageable portions^ bnr% peace of mind 
and bealdiy activity %A body \ We speak erf* barddiips, bat the tree 
hardship is to be a doll fool, and permitted to mismanage life in 
one's own doll, foolish manner." 

I asked oar fiiendly cicerone^ cm another occasion, what £uilte 
they were that had to be pobUdy ccmfessed at Ch^iter. He men- 
tioned die followii^ : 

Speaking diough hot a single word. 

Raising the eyes, on entering the church, to the gallery where 
visitors sit. 

Being late for the Offices. 

Working in the fields with nonchalance. 

Refrsuning from singing during the Offices. 

For these infractions of the rule the Abbot inflicts punishments 
which differ according to the gravity of the offence, and the individual 
temperament of the delinquents. 

Those who arrive UUe for the Offices sit in the lower row of stalls, 
where there are no books, to avoid disturbing their companions, who 
are already in their places, t^ passing in front of them. Other 
punishments are to kiss the feet of each monk in turn ; to kneel 
during the first part of dinner ; to dine seated on a stool, or some- 
times even kneeling, in the middle of the refectory. The most 



136 



The GentiemaiCs Magazine^ 



monks had fallen on their knees, with their faces to the earth, thd 
chantn crying, in the wailing tones we had just heard, the word* 
Domine I The monks replied, lower down the scale, Miscnre super 
peccatorem. Then the chantn again uttered that heart-rending cry, 
Doming t and the monks replied. Yet a third time that piteous 
call, as of a soul on the confines of despair, Votnine / and once more 
the response, which floated over the wall like a sob, " Pity for a poor 
sinner." I was thrilled through and through. 

The day continued mule and oppressive. Little Louis was 
fractious, and his gentle mother had much to do to keep him amused 
all day. He complained of his head, of being tired, yet unable to' 
sleep. The adult portion of our community seemed depressed and 
weary. There was an unearthly hush, as if some terrible catastrophe 
were at hand. Instead of being borne up by the atmosphere, the air 
rested heavily on us, as if for support. On the horizon were clouds 
of a coppery hue, and the sailors shook their heads as they looked 
out to sea. After supper we went for a stroll round the island, but 
every stone seemed to me to be listening, every rock waiting, for 
something ind^finissabk yet awful ; from behind each tree I fancied 
I saw a mysterious white-robed figure glide as we approached. In 
the stillness, so intense that it was as if Nature herself were holding 
her breath to listen for that \-ague but dread something, I suddeiily 
heard an unearthly shriek, Domine ! 

It was purely imaginary, but I could bear it no longer, so we 
hastened back to the tent. We found Louis moaning in his sleep 
in his mother's arms. She was not over-anxious about him ; she 
said /e kmps Hait maladt^ and made the child maladt too. 

When I fell asleep, it was to repeat in my dreams the haunting 
sensations of the day, I thought it was my friend who was dying, 
1 heard the four consecutive knocks, several times repeated, and they 
seemed to be beaten on my heart. I strained my ears, striving, yet 
fearing, to catch the fatal roll announcing that all was over. As the 
silence was prolonged after the last four knocks, I hoped against 
hope. But, suddenly, I heard the dreaded roll beginning in the 
distance, feebly at first, but growing stronger and stronger, until it 
ftppeaxed to me to be a living thing rolling towards me, to burst to 
untold horror on my beating heart, and I was powerless to lift a 
finger. As it was about to touch me, I recoiled with a despairing 
elTort, and awoke with a scream. A flash of light, which in my over- 
wrought state I took for the open heavens, was followed by a second 
roll, terminating in a tcrrixic crash. I realised, at last, that a violent 
thunderstorm was breaking over our heads. In another moroenl the 




On the Monks Jsland. 



m 



rain streamed down, as it only can in the South. Our tent was wet 
through berore we bad finished huddling on our clothes, and soon 
protected os little more thnn would a hair sieve. Wc hastily sought 
refuge in the htlle restaurant, and thence watched the lightning 
playing round the island. At one moment it illuminated the 
whole of Carmes, which, for a passing second, was as visible as at 
high noon. Then it flashed behind the Estcrel ; then the whole 
horiron seemed on fire. The thunder was now rumbling, now 
tearing and cracking over our beads. It was terrible, yet it brought 
relief. Nature, who had been mute for two whole days, now gave 
vent to her pent-up feelings ; the strain was over. One brilliant 
fiash, with a lurid fork of lightning zigzagging down into the sea, was 
accompanied by a succession of reports, as though sheets of iron had 
been torn in half and tlie jagged edges hurled against each other 
again. 

After this the storm began to abate. The rain rattled on the roof 
of our shelter in a crescendo which would have been unbearable but 
for the silence of the preceding days. Now all sound was welcome. 
I felt tempted to rush out into the ratn and shriek with the storm. 
By d^ees the thunder rolled sullenly away into the distance, and, 
tired out with our previous sleepless night, we lay down to rest 
on our improvised beds, and fell asleep to the soothing lullaby 
of the monastery bell, for it was now three o'clock in the 
morning. 

We awoke later in the day to find the sun shining in a cloudless 

omc of blue ; the only sign of the night's turmoil was the tossing 

It seemed to be fretting over the past disturbance and to be 

' too agitated to forget it and settle down again to its usual summer 

repose. The air was delicious, and we felt new*born as we inhaled 

the aromatic odour of the pine trees and the ozone from the sea. 

was skipping about in unconscious reinvigoration of body. 

fishcr-folk, bright and cheerful, hailed one another with a 

nse of a vague danger overpast 

Wc stayed a few days longer on the island, then bade farewell to 
our ^end the monk. Our hostess accompanied us to shore, her 
iktisband rowing, with little Louis by his side, who, with his chubby 
baby hands on one of the oars beside his father's rough brown fingers, 
was convinced that he was doing all the work. 

As we looked back at tlie island where we had Sjient such happy 
and such memorable hours, I had but one r^rei, which I whispered 
to my husband : " If I could only have seen the church and have 
knelt in that stall I "* 

VOL. c«ci. NO. acktS. ^ 



»38 



Tim GentUnuiiCs Afagaztne. 



II. 

Ons da^ in the following March, as I vas sitting in our villa, in 
foU view of the islands (for ve bad settled near them, so great nras 
their attraction), singing a lulbby to our baby, who had come with 
the New Year, my husband entered with the air of one who brings 
good news. 

"Your wish is to be gratified at last, petite!'^ he exclaimed. 
"Just listen to this." He read a paragraph from the paper, announc- 
ing that the benediction of the newly-elected Abbot of Notre-Dame 
de Ltrins (the group of islands, including St. Marguerite, St Honorat, 
and several tiny islets, is called Us ties de JJrtns^) was to take place 
on the following Tuesday, and the Pope had granted a dispense per- 
mitting women to enter the church and be present at the ceremony. 
The news seemed too good to be true, but there it was in black and 
while. 

Rising early on the Tuesday morning, wc embarked on the 
steamer that was to convey us to St Honorat When we reached 
the convent, I found, to my regret, thai women had to go to the 
gallerj' and men to the nave of the church. "Then I shall not see 
the stall, after all," I said to my husband. 

*' Yes, you can see it from the galler>'. It is the eighth from the 
altar on the right-hand side." 

All the best places were taken upstairs, so I had to keep at the 
back. I began to count the stalls. 1 could see the sixth, and, by 
craning my neck, the arm of the seventh, but not an inch of the 
eighth. It was loo provoking I 

The two chapels, the large one for the Bishop and the small one 
for the Abbot, were visible. I noticed two little wine-casks covered 
respectively with gold and silver paper ; also two enormous loaves 
similarly decorated. As 1 was wondering what they were for, the 
procession entered the church. I followed the service with much 
interest The Bishop and the Abbot-elect donned their sacerdotal 
garments. Then two Abbots, from monasteries belonging to other 
Orders, presented the postulant to the Bishop, who was seated en 
his throne. Six times, in response to the Bishop's questions as to 
whether he would be circumspect in conduct, a faithful leader of ihe 
flock, obedient to the Pope and to the Bishop, &c,, the Abbot 
replied " Volo." Then they both said Mass in their chapels. After 
the Psalms and the Litany, chanted by the monk^, during which the 
Abbot-elect lay prostrate on the ground, the Bishop blessed him and 



Oh ike Monks* Island. 



139 



the monVa sang the Kyrie. Before the Preface the Abbot rose, then 
knelt before Ihe Bishop ; at its dose the impoduon of bands took 
place. Some prayers followed ; then the Prelate gave successively 
to the kneeling Abbot the Rule, the crosier, and the ring (set with a 
diamond). Then the Bishop gave him the kiss of peace, as did also 
the two Abbots. After the offertory the Abbot presented the casks 
of win^ the loaves, and two candles, weighing four pounds each, to 
the Bishop. The bread and wine, I was told afterwards, were 
emblems of eternal priesthood after the order of Melchisedec ; the 
candles recalled the words of our Lord, " Ve are the light of the 
world." Mass proceeded, but the Abbot did not pronounce the 
words of consecration. The Bishop received the communion in 
both kinds, then gave the hostU to the Abbot After the Post-com- 
munion the Bishop gave the benediction, and placed the mitre on 
the Abbot's head, removed the ring and put on the gloves, replacing 
the ring on the gloved finger. The bells now rang joyfully as the 
pontiff conducted the Abbot to his abbalial chair, and, placing the 
crosier in his left hand, gave him authority to govern the monastery 
and its inhabitants. He then began the Te Deum. iVfter the first 
line the Abbot rose, and, accompanied by his brother Abbots, pro- 
ceeded round the church, blessing the people : the monks then 
advanced in order, and, after a profound inclination, exchanged with 
their new conductor the kiss of brotherly love. After the Tt Deum 
and a prayer the Abbot rose, gave the solemn benediction, and 
terminated the ceremony by turning towards the Bishop and singing, 
on his knees, Ad multos amws. 

The procession left the church, the Abbot blessing the people as 
he passed. Outside a very aged couple were awaiting the Abbot, 
and, kneeling, begged to kiss his hand; they made a touching picture. 

The mass of visitors went off by the steamer. We had engaged 
a boat to row us back, so stayed behind, and, returning to the monas- 
tery after revisiting the old familiar spots round the island, foimd we 
were free to enter. We \-isited the Chapter and the refectory, but 
were not allowed to see the cells. When it was time for Vespers, we 
went into the gallery and listened to the monks chanting the office. 
We were quite alone. The slow Gregorian clrnnt, the tender 
reverence expressed in the tones of the singers, the white-robed 
figures, the dimly-lighted church, made a harmonious whole, and 
carried us back to the early ages of Christianity. I now saw and 
heard how my friend had passed many an hour. 

After the last prayer had been said, and the monks had left their 
stalls, returning with bent heads to their cells, we went down» and^ 



1 


TAs Gentientan's Magasine. 

iring us, entered the nave and went to the stall — at last I 
)iQ overwhelmed by a host of conflicting emotions, tny 
reeling by my side. I prayed fervently for my friend, and 
in hand, we went to our boat and rowed home bathed in 
, then crimson, glory of the setting sun- 
h had been gratified ; I was content. 

z£l1A DE LADEVfezE. 


1 


■ 



A STUDY OF NIGHTJARS. 



I. 

THE Nightjar is one of the most curious and highlr ipectaUBed 
of our birds. It is interesting not only on account of iti 
peculiar habits, but for certain things about it in which it differs 
from any other bird. Its protective marks and highly proteclivc 
insliocu are what first attract and almost fascinate the student ; but 









'">'!l. 



THK MCHTJAt. 

the more he observes and studies, the more do his surprises increase. 
Even its multitude of names is suggestive, proving that long before 
the days of exact natural history it was much looked alter and 
vatcfacd, and its peculiarities noted, and many of them preserved in 
names. Besides the Nightjar, it is the goat*8ucker, the eve-churr, 
the eve-jar, the wheel-bird, the dorr-hawk, the fern-owl, the chum- 
owl, and the fern-hawk. It is, in aspect, somelliing between a hawk 
and a cuckoo, or, as some have said, between a swallow and an owl. 
In ccitain positions and aspects it has really a touch or reminder 
of all these birds, yet in other things it is thoroughly unlike all or any 
of them. 



142 



The Gentlemafis Magazine, 



II. 

In some parts of the country it is regarded by the rustics as a 
monstrosity, as an uncanny bird that it is not lucky to come near; 
and by farmers and woodmen in some parts it is mercilessly hunted 
and shot down, though, as we shall see, it is one of their very best 
friends. In look it certainly is strange, outri^ and somewhat eerie. 
It has no beak to speak of, and when seen in front directly, it really 
seems, wilh its bright, wide-open eyes, like some vcird and eerie 
cllin thing, more especially if sitting, as it invariably does, not across 
as true pcrchcrs do, but lengthwise on the branch of a tree, or 
brooding on n'hat passes for its nest in a little depression on the 
bare ground. Hundreds of times have I seen it, flat, scarcely notice- 
able on a tree^ and sometimes when it became certain it was seen, it 
would run up or along the branch like a little quadruped — or some 
new species, say a tree vole— to disappear on another branch, putting 
the trtmk between it and you. Its mouth is carried far back, and is 
wide — the biggest mouth of any bird, whatever its size— and on the 
upper part of the beak it is armed with a drooping row of peculiar 
spine-like appendages or bristles (really quills or undeveloped 
feathers). Its stretch of wing is remarkable for the size of its body, 
and its flight is very silent, due to the presence of soft downy 
swathes on the breast, under the wings, and over the l^s, which are 
short, so that only the toes are visible. And the toes — particularly 
the middle toe — are unhke those of most other birds. This middle 
toe is elongated out of all true proportion in the lower joint, and is 
furnished with a kind of comb-like flange or fringe, about the true 
purpose of which, as we shall see immediately, naturalists have had 
many different notions and theories, but have as yet come to no real 
agreement or conclusion on the point. The best theory with regard 
to the purpose of this special feature is that it is employed to dean or 
clear from its mouth the dibris of moths and beetles, which is apt to 
remain fastened there by the gummy substance with which it lines its 
mouth, to make the surer of keeping what it has caught as it flies 
round and round, for, being strictly crepuscular, its time for catching 
prey is comparatively short, especially when it has young to feed. 

The Nightjar is a bird of the twilight or eve rather than of the 
night (though on moonlight nights our Nightjar can work on into 
the night), and is exceedingly shy and secluded. The plumage is a 
mixture of moorland tints— the ash-grey, brown, and yellow of furze, 
firs, and ferns, with dim blotchings here and there Ukc the russet of 
fading leaves. By loosening out its feathers a little and lying flat it 




A Study of Nightjars, 



can exactly match a grey weathered post-top or rail. It will lie 
along the top of a post or along a rail as well as on the branch of a 
tree precisely as though the bird were a part of it, and thus will lie 
secure in the sense of protective hues till you actually put out your 
hand to touch it. During the day it scoops out a slight hollow in 
the earth or among leaves, and lies there matching them exactly. 
Mr. Hudson admirably says ; 

" During the daylight hours he sits on the ground among bracken 

or heather, or by the side of a furze-bush, or in some open place 

where there is no shelter; but so long as he remains motionless it is all 

but impossible to detect him, so closely does he resemble the earth 

in colour. And here we see the advantage of his peculiar colouring 

I -^the various soft shades of buff and brown and grey which, at a 

[short distance, harmonise with the surroundings and render him 

' invisible." ' 



HI. 

Its name of goatsucker in nearly all tongues, from the Greek 
Aiyotf^Xof, Latin Caprimulgus^ Italian Succiacapre^ Spanish Chota- 
£<ibraSy French Tette-c^rc, down to the German Zie^nmelker, 
attests how extensively it has been associated with goat-sucking. A 
very good authority says : 

"The name of goat-suclcer is common to many of the modern 
£uro[)ean languages, as it was to the Grecian and Roman of old, and 

^was probably taken from the large size of the mouth, which must 
have appeared unnecessarily large for any ordinary diet In Engbnd 
they are sometimes called Nightjars or eve-jars, fern-owls, or night- 
hawks. The tumcs show the popular idea of affinity to the birds of 
prey, which Vigors, Swainson, and other ornithologists insist on being 

'the case, and which certiinly ap[iears to have some foundation in 
naturt;, the resemblances being more than those of simple analogy." " 
Mr. Ruskin prettily says : 

" I keep the usual name Nightjar, euphonious for night-churr, 
from its continuous note like the sound of a spinning-whccl. ... I 
had at first thought of calling it Jiirundi) noctuma ; but this would 
be loo broad massing ; for although the creature is more swallow than 
owl, living wholly on insects, it must be properly held a distinct 
species from both. . . . Owls cannot gape like constrictors; nor have 
swallows whiskers or beards, or combs to keep both in order with, 
on their middle toes," ' 

> Sritiik Birds, p. i8o. » JcrdoD, 1 p. 187. ' iMt'i AfelHU, p. aoi. 



144 



The GentkntatCs Magazine. 



Professor A. Newton says that it is called the wheel-bird from its 
making a noise UIec that of a spinning-vheeL' Our idea, however^ 
rather is that it is so called because of its very noticeable and 
characteristic wheel-like motion round the lops of certain trees and 
bushes, as we have mentioned. 

As to its name of goat-sucker, it is derived from the universality 
of the early notion that the bird really did suck or milk the goats* 
its form of mouth being held fitted for such an indulgence. 

A much more probable reason for the name, however, is the habit 
of the bird in certain situations to go flying about the recumbent 
herds — goats, sheep, or even kine — and, with the utmost dexterity, 
picking up and off certain insects— favourite insects with it— which 
gathered about them. WTiite of Selborne noted this, and Waterton 
followed suit, and celcbraled it finely, apostrophising the bird thus : 

" Poor, injured little bird of night, how sadly hast thou sufferec^ 
and how foul a slain has inattention to facts put upon thy character t 
Thou hast never robbed man of any part of his property nor deprived 
the kid of a drop of milk. W'hen tlie moon shines bright you may 
have a fair opportunity of examining the goat -sucker. You will see 
it close by tlie cows, goats, and sheep, jumping up e\*cry now and 
then under their bellies. Approich a little nearer. Sec how the 
nocturnal flies go tormenting the herd, and with wliat dexterity he 
springs up and catches them as fast as they alight on the bellies, legs, 
and udders of the animals." 

The fishermen of the Norfolk Broads, as Mr. Emerson tells us, 
call the Nightjar the "razor^rinder " because of the noise it makes, 
and one of ihcm pictured him as " sittin' along o' the branch as if he 
were glued to it." 

W'iuLe was one of the first carefully to study the fern-owl, as he 
calls it. He says : 

" This bird is most punctual in beginning its song exactly at tiie 
close of day, so exactly that I have known it strike more than once 
or twice just at the report of the Portsmouth evening gun, which we 
can hear when the weather is still. ... I have always found that 
though sometimes it may chatter as it flies, as I know it does, yet, in 
general, Jt utters its jarring note .sitting on a t>ough \ and I have for 
many a half-hour watched it as H sat with its under mandible 
quivering. ... As my neighbours were assembled in an hermitage 
on the side of a steep hill where we drink lea, one of these chum- 
owls came and settled on the cross of that little straw ediiice and 
began to chatter, and continued his note for many minutes ; and we 

> VUHcnofy of Bh^t, UL (t. 6y^ 



Siudy of Nightjars. 



were an struck with wonder to 6nd tluLt the organs of that little 
aninuU, when put in motion, gave ft sensible vibration to (he whole 
boildiiig.'' 

IV. 

If you go and sit in certain places favoured by it, quite still, in 
the twilight, you will be sure to see it circling round the tops of tbo 
Trees it favoars — firs and oais and hazel stubs— and you will be iurc; 
when you do not see the bird> to hear its peculiar tumhf rnonotonout 
chur-r-r, chur-r-r, something like a telegraph instrument as luu l)cen 
well said» or occasionally striking its wings across its back| making an 
odd sound as it silently wings its way, with wide gape, ready to idm 
the moths and beetles and other night-flying insects, in which proceu 
it is much helped by a kind of glutinous secretion with which it co\'er» 
the greater part of its mouth and the inside of the bristles or quills, 
on which the insects ore, so to speak, glued as soon as they touch. 
If it comes dose to you, and notices you in flight, it is not unlikely 
that, by a sudden striking of its i^nngs, in some way special to Itself, 
over its back, you will hear one of the most ghostly sounds, and 
cease to wonder, as you had done before, at the superstitious fou felt 
at these sounds by the rustics in many places, tJiough the main pur- 
pose of this, some think, is to frighten certain moths and beetles from 
their hiding-places. 

Instead, however, of being an enemy to formers or foresters it is; 
as said already, one of their greatest friends, for it destroys both the 
eggs and the larvae of many insects which are very destructive to 
some plants and to the wood of some trees— heavy beetles among 
them, and, more especially, the cockchafer, Macgillivray found 
that it devoured certain caterpillars, and Sccbohm held that it ato 
slugs ; as neither of these are flying creatures, but are frequently to 
be found in crevices or covered over with earth, this lends some 
cotmtenancc to Dr. Bowdler Sharpe's suggestion that the pectinated 
claw may be for service in this way— that is, scratching up earth to 
get at this prey. 

It has, too, a habit of circhng round tlie tops of certain trees. 

Mr. Meyer, in his " Birds of Great Britain," has noticed in a 
felicitous manner some of the habits and motions of the Nightjars 
He writes : 

"When in pursuit of thdr prey, which chiefly consists of moths 
and other nocturnal insects, we have seen ihcm fly round a bush or 
tree as a moth does round the flame of a candle, or like the swallows 
in iweeping round high and low, and falling over in the manner of 



I 



I 



146 



Tlie Gentkmads Magazine, 



tumbler pigeonsi or rolling in the air like a ship at sea or a kite in a 
changing wind. It is beautiful, indeed, to watch the^e birds and 
easy to approach tlicm very nearly, as they seem to take hardly any 
notice of an observer, and where they have a brood the pair will fly 
so close that the wind produced by the movement of their wings may 
be plainly felt." ^ 

Mr. Meyer is perfectly right in this — a movement which I have 
observed hundreds of times ; and in writing of Mr. Kcarlon's " Birds 
and Uieir Nests " shortly afler its publication I pointed out this fact 
to him as being a characteristic one about the bird, in addition to 
its mode of hunting over open, fern, or whortleberry clad slopes. Wiite 
of Selbornc also noticed this, speaking of its flying round the oaks. 
"Fern-owls," he wrote, "have attachments to oaks, no doubt on 
account of food." 

When speaking about the gummy saliva with which the Nightjar 
now coats or lines the inside of its moutli, more especially when 
hunting during the brooding season, so much was suggested that we 
could not then possibly say all we wished to say without breaking 
the thread. Tliat gummy saliva points, in our idea, to much. The 
Nightjar, which certainly in some traits resembles the swallows, was 
once a nest-builder like them, and used this saliva to aid it in the 
firming of its nest ; but owing to changes and the increasing difficulty 
of finding sufficient food in the short hours it has for hunting, it now 
needs, at all events in the breeding season, to economise this gummy 
saliva for the great purpose of aiding it, not so much to catch the food, 
OS to keep it secure in its mouth till, with it, the bird can feed its young 
ones. And to make this quite plain we must refer to certain things 
in the tongue of these as well as of some other insect-eating birds. 

V. 
The tongues of almost all insect-eaters bear, towards the base, 
numerous papillce — blunter or more spiny — and the object of these ap- 
pears to be to work the foodaulomaticallytowards the gullet. Further- 
more, there is often a plenteous supply of sharp, back wardly -directed 
points about tbe glottis— all there that tlic food may be aided to glide 
safely past the windpipe and swallowed while the bird is in flight. 
The tongues of owls, some of which arc insect-eaters as well as mice- 
and bird-eaters, are uitermediate between those of the goat-suckers 
and the diurnal birds of prey, being rather fleshy and armed with small 
spines on the posterior half. This wc learn from that admirable bird 
anatomist, Mr. Lucas^ of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 
' Biritt U. p. 191. 



A Stmfy 0/ 



147 



I 



I 



^ will 
■ any 



TbetoBgoes of the wood p e ci e a an dighdy bwbcd on ciibersida 
■t IkK txEK sod «i& the nppcz sBrfKX covered with l»ckimn%MSiivcte<d 
SfmcA s> minme that it needs a magoiiying gjbss lo aee tbcm 

Tbe tODgae of Ibe N«gfa^, being rttf dt&akdf so baibe4 u 
fliBiidiwnblyadiptedtoitsaiiodeorprociiringfoodand feedir^as 
it fie&. Bat viiieD it has its jtNtog to feed and does not wish to 
•■■liw vfaat it catcbes in its ftjgfat, k mast have means of slopping 
or Rtai^ng the action of these papOhe, mhkh, ooce tooched, voold^ 
so to say, automaticallj work ibe food towards the gullet Ttus 
mart, of course, be the case with all birds of this ukscct-fcoding class, 
and oor opinioa is that, then more especially, the guiu is required lo 
fix the insects caught in the mouth, so that the action of these 
papflfae nay not be excited by touch, and that without this gum — at 
that time more especially, and tolerably hbentlly secreted too — it could 
not succeed, or at all e\-enis succeed nearly so well, in keeping intact 
the prey caught in its coroparatit'ely short twilight or crcning hunting 
mofcment for its young ones. 

VI. 

Tbe Nightjar makes no nest, but b}*s its ^gs in a slight 
depression on tbe bare ground in the sand, or on the dry grass 
and twigs at the foot of a trec^ in whidi it diiefly lies, the eggs 
— generally two and never more, and sometimes indeed only one — 
being of a colour so like to that on which they arc placed that the)' arc 
not easily recognised. They arc pcarly-whitc at base, with leaden 
streaks and moltlings of dusty brown and umber, the very colour of 
the decaying vegetation of the heathy, ferny, or waste land it favours. 
One may go past them over and over again, and even tread on them, 
without having seen them. They are as wondrously protected w 
any eggs. And yet Dr. Russel Wallace has these remarks on this 

inl: 

" Many other birds lay their white eggs in open nests, and these 
a/Iotd some very interesting examples of the varied modes by which 
concealment may be attained. All the duck tribe, the grebes, and 
the pheasants belong to this cbss, but these birds Iiavu all the habit 
of covering their eggs with dead leaves and other material whenever 
they leave the nest so as cflcctually lo conceal them. Other birds, 
as tltc short-eared owl, the goat-sucker, the partridge, and some of the 
Australian ground pigeons, lay their white or pale eggs on the bare 
soil ; but in these cases Uie birds tliemselvcs arc protectively coloured, 



248 



Th$ Gentleman's Magazine, 



so that when sitting they are almost invisible ; but they have the habiL 
of sitting close and almost continuously, thus effectually concealing 
their eggs." 

But how can it properly be said, as Dr. Wallace says above, that 
our Nightjar's eggs are white or pale ? They are blotched and spotted 
exactly like the soil or dried grass or fern on which they may be laid, 
and are not white or pale. 

The bird's devices to decoy any intruder from its eggs or young 
are really wonderful. It will flutter and circle, and trail itself, as if 
on the lips of its broken wings, along the ground, will feign to have 
wounded itself or been wounded, and in some cases for a short time 
will lie quite still, as though dead» till you advance close to it, and 
then it is off again, as if half-he!pless with broken wing. The 
^shortness of its legs enables it apparently to roll over and rest for a 
■ inoment on the tips of its wings, as it were. Very probably it will 
succeed in its devices, unless you are very experienced and expert 
Indeed, it will try to frighten you, and will, as if by conscious 
mimicry, assume its most hawk -like aspect, and brush suddenly right 
Against your face^ as if it knew that thus it might repel where other 
means bad failed. 

When sitting on eggs the bird has the power of assuming, in a 
kreally striking and wonderful way, the appearance of a rude stmnpi 
and as its eyes alone would, by their clearness, destroy this illusion, 
the instinct of closing or almost closing them when anyone comes 
near is brought into play— an instinct which the young ones, from the 
very egg c\*cn, seem to share. 

Whence come these wonderful instincts, this special knowledge 

I so well applied and so well fitted to secure the existence of this 

t creature, so much exposed as it would seem in other ways? No one 

can tell ; but in it the protective resources which arc found in the 

klapwings and other birds are developed to the full, though from its 

greater rarity, its seclusion in wooded areas or bushy slopes, and its 

nocturnal habits, there are comparatively few who have observed 

tthem. 

Mr. Norgate tells' how, on August 6 at Beeston R^is, he found 
a young Nightjar about the size of a starling and without feathers. 
* An old Nightjar fluttered away from it along the ground, apparently 
|carrying something about the size of the young one in its mouth. 
)n returning to the spot I found the old bird and two young ones. 
Two or three days afterwards I looked in vain for them, and suppose 
he old one had lemOT'cd them both." 

• Z90i«gisi^ 1884. 



A Study of Nighijars. 



149 



He also tells of Mr. Baker, Cambridge, and Mr. Qough 
Newcomc, at Feltwell, finding a dutch of two Nightjar's eggs j that 
Mr. Baker touched one and wished to take them away, but left them 
tni he should return. Mr. Newcome said the old one would remove 
them after handling, and when ihey returned the eggs were gone. 

"On the other hand, last year, when a Nightjar was hatching and 
rearing a second clutch, with the assistance (a very close company) 
of two older young ones, near my house, she was visited and 
disturbed day after day for weeks, but I could never sec that the 
young were shifted more than a yard or two ; possibly they crawled 
that distance when hungry to meet the mother, for they are much 
more active with their feet than they appear to be before they are 
disturbed. After the young were able to fly a few yards they returned 
to about the same spot where they were hatched. My attention was 
called to this double brood on July 13, when a gamekeeper stated 
he had seen two young ' night-hawks * about a fortnight ago, and 
told me where to find them, which I did the same day. Three 
Nightjars fiew up from the same spot. The two young ones were 
greyer and lighter in colour than the old bird, which feigned lameness 
considerably, fiuttering along the ground, and often alighdng very 
near roe. 

** On looking at the place whence they rose, I found two Nightjar's 
^s much sat upon ; one was chipped The next day I saw the 
old female and two young ones fly up together from the two ^gs. 
The same day, at a few hundred yards' distance, I found another 
female Nightjar sitting on two downy young ones, about three days 
old. On the 19th I inspected the double brood and again saw the 
old one fly off from two very small downy young ones, the eggs being 
hatched and the eggshells lying near. 

" I did not see the fledged young of the former brood on the 
19th, but the next day one of them flew up with the mother from the 
newly-hatched young ones. 

"On August 7 I saw the old one and the two last hatched young 
ones fly from the spot where they were hatched, or within a yard or two 
of it, for they had shifted iheir home a few feet now and then. I also 
saw a fourth bird— evidently one of the older young ones of the former 
brood — fly from a spot about three yards from the others. 

" I never saw more than two Nightjar's eggs in one clutch, but I 
have beard of a brood of three young ones found. ... On June 29, 
j8j6, in Hockering Wood, I saw a female Nightjar sitting on her 
two young ones, which were nearly feathered. The old bird, on my 
approach, remained motionlcssi except that it closed — or nearlY 



I50 



The GtnilematCs Magazine. 



closed — its large eyes, or at any rate that eye that I could see, as if 
it was aware that its eyes were the most conspicuous part of it." 

And Mr. Norgate, in view of all the facts narrated in that 
admirable article, thus sums up his results : 

"The foregoing notes show that the Nightjar arrives here in the 
second week in >ray, or earlier, and lays its two eggs as early as the 
list week in May, and as late as the first week in July, or later, as 
some of those mentioned were found unhatched in the first week in 
August ; that its young are hatched pretty early in June, and are 
nearly able to fly by the 28th of that month ; that it occasionally 
raises more than one brood, one brood apparently assisting in 
keeping the eggs of a later brood warm ; that the late brood fly well 
by the first week in August ; and lastly, that the Nightjar remains 
here till the middle of September, and has been seen on the wing as 
late as the middle of October." 

Mr. J, H. Gumcy says that he feels sure the Nightjar has two 
broods in Norfolk.^ 

VII, 

The Nightjar, though pretty widely distributed in our country, is 
very capricious as to the spots that suit it. In most of the home 
counties — that is, the counties immediately round Ixindon — it is found. 
Wimbledon Common, at certain secluded parts, is visited ; Holm- 
wood Common, in Surrey, is a good spot for study ; and at Epsom 
and all round Leith Hill, and along the Surrey hills everywhere 
thereabout, ample opportunities for observation and study of its 
habits present themselves ; and many a twilight hour near Leith 
Hill, in Mosse's Wood and in Mr. Pennington's coppices and park, 
have I lain and watched it on summer nights in years bygone ; and 
never were hours of mine belter spent or more fully rewarded. It 
visits some parts of Kent and Essex, and the southern portion of 
Herefordshire and Wilts, Yet very often in places which would 
seem quite as suitable for it >*ou search for it and do not find it. 
If you do catch a gh'mpse of it on tree-branch or rail or weathered 
post-top, you will see that its bright, clear, wide-open eyes, by 
instinct it closes to mere slits. It is very fond of dusting itself in 
tlie cart tracks of roadways. Often have I seen it doing this near 
Cold Harbour, Dorking, and at Chiiworlh, and down near Haslemcrc. 
The young ones newly-hatched have by instinct the same power or 
knowledge, and close the little eyes to mere slits. They are feathered 
with soft downy first feathers, and can run soon after batching. 
* ZMhgisIt 1S83, p. 439. 



A Study of Nightjars. 



J5« 



vnt 

Various theories, as wc have seen, have been advanced to account 
ror the long pectinated middle claw, some holding that it Is for the 
purpose of cleaning the feathers, the shortness of its beak [naking 
the mouth hardly effective for this purpose. Dr. Bowdler Sharpc 
tells that his friend Dr. Giinther had kept young Nightjars in confine- 
ment, and had never noticed tliem use this claw for anything but to 
scntcb on chair or floor where they chanced to be. But I would 
lay zkO weight on any such obsenation of young creatures in confuic- 
ment, and for a very good reason, even though Dr. Giinther reported 
iL Dr. Bowdler Sharpe, however, led to it by tins suggestion, thinks 
U may be a useful appendage for scratching or distributing the cnrtli 
for the purpose of seeking its food. 

Dresser thinks that the pectinated claw is for disengaging iJic 
hooked feet of beetles from the bill, to enable the bird to swallow 
tbem.^ This same pectination is, however, found more or less in the 
cbws of different species, the bittern and gannet, which have no 
bristles at the base of the bill, and the herons and barn-owls. All 
these birds arc fish- or flesh- or offal -feeding, and our idea is that in 
all these cases the pectinated claw has to do with cleaning the mouth 
from floury dust panicles adhering in consequence of the gummy 
saliva mote or less apt to cover It as the food Is passed down. 




IX. 

le Nightjar does not stay long with us. It does not arrive liH 
the middle of May, one of the latest reluming migmnts, and it 
ckparts usually early in September, though it is sometimes un- 
accountably later than this in certain localities. But, generally, it 
may be said that, if it comes later than the nightingale, it goes wriih 
it to softer, sunnier cUmes, where some supply of its favourite food 
may still be found. It does no more than by its eggs and rear its 
brood ; then it migrates. How the ** little pinch of down," grown to 
some semblance of the parent bird^ manages the long, long flight if 
a mystery \ but it does. 

Mr. Howard Saunders says that eggs of the Nightjar, which usually 

leaves in September, have been found as late as August 1 2.* In that 

case, if the adult bird stayed to hatch the eggs and rear its young 

ones, it could not have migrated till the beginning of October. X 

• BirJj^ Iv. adl«e. * MohuhI, p. 258, 



«s» 



The GcntUntans Magazine, 



once saw two Nightjars near I^cith Hill m the middle of October, 
and once I saw one near Clul worth — on the main road, of all places I 
— on October lo, the season that year having up to then remained 
exceedingly mtld and warm. 

This fact is rather against than in favour of UTiitc of Selbome's 
assertion that invariably " each pair breed but once in a summer." 

But, as in all other cases, much must be due to special circum* 
stances, to air and climate, in the determination of dates of migratioD ; 
for Mr. Cecil Smith, in his "Birds of Guernsey," cites Miss Carey's 
report in the "2^1ogist" for 1872, of the Nightjar having remained 
in the island till October 16, and he says he had himself killed one 
as late as November 12 ; this bird had its stomach crammed with 
small-winged blackbeetles (not house beetles). These dates are 
much later than the Nightjar usually remains in England, though 
Yarrcll notices one in Devon as late as November 6, and one in 
Cornwall on November 27. Colonel Irby, on the report of Fabier^ 
says the Nightjars cross the Straits of Gibraltar, on their southward 
journey, from September to November. 

Macgillivray says that the whirring sound is produced when the 
bird is sitting. " After having been engaged for twenty-eight minutes 
in capturing his prey, and whistling now and then whilst doing so, he 
sat upon the top of a tree and whirred six minutes without inter- 
mission." This was on a Wednesday evening, June 5. As WTiite 
said, when flying it utters frequently a peculiar note. Mr. Seebobm 
has rendered this as to-ic co-U^ but to our ears was rather more of 
£^U co-it. 



Mr. MacIIwrailh, in his useful and valuable *' Birds of Ontario,"' 
quotes the following lines from what he calls " the unromantic 
plains of Chatham " : 

With half-closed e^es and quivering boom. 
Descending Uiro' the deepemog gloom, 
like plunuDCt filing firom the iky, 
'W'here some poor moth xoay vsinly txy 

A goal to wia— 
He holds him with his glittering eye. 

And scoops him in. 

Taking this fact of the closing of the eyes when an intruder draws 
near, and looking through the merest slit, along with this other iact 

' P. «56. 




A Study of Nightjars, 

that, when bunting, it really does half-close its eyes, as is told us in 
the Chatham verse, I have often thought that, as in the case of many 
short-sighied people, it gains clearness of vision for small things not 
just quite nearband by this drawing together of the eyelids; and in 
this too, as much as in anything else, may He the reason that, when 
hunting, it will allow you to come so very near to it that the " wind 
produced by the movement of its wings may even be plainly felt." I 
have stood on the ferny slopes above Cold Harbour, near Leith Hill, 
and seen it, if one may use the phrase, "quartering " the ground in 
a peculiar triangular manner — by double zigzags, so to say. Standing 
quite still at one point, the bird would sometimes pass me so close 
on the side that I felt the wind of its wings, and then after the lapse 
of a few minutes, it passed mc on the other side, in this very 
peculiar process of " quartering," about which there can be no doubt 
whatever. The flight being silenced or softened by swathes of soft 
feathers under the wings, as we have seen, this adds much to its 
apparent " buoyancy of flight " which Mr. Dewar has well celebrated. 
" The buoyancy of the Nightjar's flight surpassed that of any bird I 
bad ever seen ; it was full of grace." ^ 

XI. 

As in the cases of many other species of birds, the most outri^ 
interesting, and curious traits are found in foreign species. This 
makes the work of comparative ornithology very attractive. The 
further you extend your survey in other lands— not to say from 
China to Peru— the morej[ remarkable^ things you meet — remarkable 
in themselves and remarkable also* in their lelalions to conditions, 
circumstances, &c 

My studies of Nightjars in England, precisely as in the case of 
cuckoos and dabchicks,^led mc to study some foreign species. I first 
turned to India. There, I found that in the Nilghri Hills, where, in 
certain parts at all events, the sun heat is much greater than with 
us, the Nightjars seemed to apprehend and to ulflisc this fact, and to 
make heat directly aid them injlhe work of incubation. This is the 
case with many birdsjbcsidcs some of the mound birds— with the 
dabchicks more especially. This we shall find well borne out by 
the report of a most reliable authority, who has made very raluable 
contributions to Indian ornithology— Miss Coclcburn, who, writing 
from Khotagherry, says of the Nilghri Nightjar {Caprimulgus 
Ktlarti) : 

** This Nightjar nc%'cr builds a nest, but laj-s' her eggs (generally 

' WtULsfi iH i/amfihirt JIigkhn4st p. 82. 
voifl ccxcr. sa iOfS. -^ 



<54 



Tfte Genlktnans Magazine* 



tiro ia number) on the bare ground^ and occasionally on a shelf of 
rock, where there is not the slightest appearance of anything 
resembling a bush to shade the bird from the searching rays of the 
sun while engaged in the work of incubating. She evidt-nlly 
prefers heat ; and for this purpose chooses very warm locaUiies. 
This bird is often contented with only one egg, which it is supposed 
to have the instinct to remove to another place if looked at too 
frequently by man. The business of hatching is api\arently left 
rcntirely to the female, as she alone is seen near the eggs. The 
INightjar's eggs are found in the months of February, March, and 
April. Some of them are perfectly oval ; others are thicker at one 
end than the other. I know of no bird's eggs whose colours (adc 
BO very much if kept after being blown. When first taken, the 
prevailing hue is a beautiful salmon-colour, with large blotches of a 
darker shade ; but in a short time they lose their freshness." ' 

The American night-hawk, as we shall soon see from Thorcau's 

account, is inclined to brood its eggs on bare rocky shelves on 

•slopes. In this it resembles apparently Caprimulpts Kelarti of the 

"Wilghri Hills, though whether the same motive of deriving from the 

'Sunheat aid to incubation is a motive we cannot undertake positively 

"to say. We should think, however, this motive in America, where 

the heat in summer in certain parts is intense, is very likely indeed 

with such a bird to have play. 

Some of the Indian Nightjars produce the most beautiful eggs of 

^1 the species. This especially applies to the eggs of Caprimufgns 

,andamanensiSi which differ from those of any other Indian species, 

•■"The ground colour," says Mr. Hume,* "is a delicate salmon-pink, 

mottled and streaked and ornamented with zigzag and hieroglyphic* 

like lines of a darker and somewhat purplish pink." 



xn. 

Nightjars are very capricious in distribution everywhere as well 
as in England. Mr. F. Lewis tells in the " Ibis," in an article on the 
Land Birds of SalTamgamuwa Province, Ceylon, that he has observed 
a very curious break in the distribution of the bird there. "It is 
found in abundance in and around the Uttle village of Vcralupe, 
adjoining the town of Ratnapura ; but half a mile to the east it does 
not occur, and a little distance beyond it again appears in numbers. 

* Hume, Ui. p. 42. The fact but noted abov* U ftDOtbcf waxiung ngunsl 
ilnaibiRe egS^ loo absolutely from spedmens foimcJ ia caUoets— even BcUlsh 
Mtueum cafalaets. 

• Siraj FsatAtrXt t p. 471. 



A Study of Nigkijan. 155 

I can find no exphnatioo for this cazioos pbenosKnon, thoqgh I 
bare waicbed tbe cas« with curiosity for sotne xeus.* > 



Caprimstiius mairurm^ or higD'ti[3ed gOAt^acker, is the only true 
Kig^tj&r yet discoreml is Ansbaln. It was fiwod at Port V-«^ftg«'-»_ 
by ilr Gilbert, frcquentizig the open forest, and socMtiiDes ia deoK 
thickets, sheltering itself m>der a bo&h or tnfi of dead leares on the 
surface of the groand, in which position it sts so doce that it may 
be almost trodden opon before making any eadeavoar to escape ; 
bat, on taking wing, it flies with amaring swiftness and with a agng 
motion, suddenly dropping into aone near place of conoeafancnL 
Ii is said to breed in October. From the plate given by Mr. Gilbal^ 
(be rictal bristles in this species are very Icn^ and incline fiHwtrd 
when the bird is at rest In general habits it dosdy resembles 
our own Nightjar ; but Bronowski says that it invariably lays but one 
cg^ and lays it on the bare ground. 

The "more-pork," or tawny frogmouth of Anstralia, more es- 
pecsally of Western Australia, is scientifically Podarpts sirigotdes^ 
«im) is perhaps the nearest of all the other varieties to the true 
N^htjar. It is said to have been called "more-pork " from its cry, 
wrfaich was thought to be very near to that ; but the " U'cstcm 
Australian Museum Guide " says this is an error — that the more- 
pork call is really the cry of the boobook owl {Xinok 600600A) 
which was at first wrongly attributed to this Nightjar. At another 
place this is added : " For years the cry of the boobook owl (* more- 
pork ') was attributed to the tawny frogmouth {Fo<fargus\ which 
has quite a different note."* The tawny frogmouth has some 
, notable characteristics, just departing sufficiently, and no more, from 

^K the normal traits of the common Nightjars. This makes them the 
^M more interesting in themselves and the more worthy of study. My 
H friend, Mrs. Pcggs, who has resided for some years in Roebuck llay, 
H has described the bird there to me thus : 

B " It is grey-green ; its ftathers appear to stick quite out from the 

H bdrd, and, when resting on a tree along the branch, it is almost 
^k indisdngnishable from a portion of the branch, and ttiis habit of 
H itself would sulEce to class the- bird. It is said sometimes to lay its 
H two eggs or its one egg on the bare ground, and tometimes to Cnd 
^H accommodatioa in tbe hole of a tree or a disused, rough tiest of 

^1 ■ I^^ Jttly 1S9S, p. 356. * Guidi 10 tt^itttm AusiralioH Miutum, p, 27. 



IS6 



The GeniiematCs Magazine, 



another bird. The ' more- pork ' cry is certainly not used when the 
bird is surprised by too close an approach. I have never heard ft 
give that cry when I surprised it ; then it gives a very different cty, 
hard to dcsai be— something between a hiss and a squeak. It very 
seldom takes prey on the vring, but searches for it on the ground." 

Podar^s strigoides literally means "owl-like swift-fool," and the 
narac " frogtnouths " has been given to the whole genera, while 
one variety has been expressly called Balraehostoma^ so that the 
round mouth and open gape is found in them all, suggesting 
that neither one nor other did originally search for its main food on 
the ground, though that habit has developed a harder, thicker bill, 
the presumption being that they all originally caught it in flight like 
our own true Nightjars, and that probably differentiation has pro- 
ceeded in this way along with increase in size, &c., to protect the 
species from certain owls or eagle owls. The nocturnal habit has 
also in some of the varieties been much modified. 

If, however, Australia has, so far as we yet know, but one true 
Nightjar, it has a further number of birds closely allied, yet with 
traits of the owls — indicating thus, it may be, a link between these 
species. In structure, plumage, and aspect they are Nightjars, the 
owl affinities lying more in habit than in appearance. They are 
called owlet Nightjars— one of them, scientifically ^i^otheUs JVbvm- 
Holhnda^ departs from the practice of northern Nightjars by nesting 
in holes or spouls of trees— more particularly of the gum-trees, and 
in perching across, not parallel to, a branch. In the nesting in 
holes it has reached a habit fixed and uniform, which with the 
" more-pork " is as yet but occasional. Its flight ia straight, and 
not at all marked by the sudden twists and turns and ligzags that 
distinguish the Eiirojjcan Nightjars. B^ono^vski tells how it may be 
disturbed and seen by tapping at the lase of rotten or hollow trees, 
when one or other of tl^c birds will put its head out of the hole, just 
as a human being would put head out of door or window, on any 
unusual noise being heard, to see what is the mniier. 

Another is the white-bellied Nightjar, ^^thetes ieucogaster^ larger 
and more powerful than the owlet, and strictly nocturnal in its habits, 
which the owlel hardly is. 

Dr. Russel Wallace makes reference to the peculiar habits of the 
Australian /Wu/yn"— huge goat-suckers, which build nests very similar 
to woodpigcons', and their eggs are protected much as the wood^ 
pigeons* are >— but unfortunately he does not, or cftnnot, tell t» 
much mote of thcra» 



A Simdy of Nightjars^ 157 

In his work on ** DistribotioD of Plants and Animals," Dr. Rossd 
Wallace tdb ns that the Nigh^axs do not readi New Zealand, irtuch, 
GODsideTing that the species in seroal of its varieties is well repre- 
sented in AostiaUa, is die more snrprisiDg. Dr. Wallace also tells 
us of a new and rematkable varietr called SteaiorMis, irtiich is more 
rdated to tiie goat-sndbos dian to any other q»edes. It was first 
disoOToed by Homboidt in a caTera at Veoexuda, and it has since 
been foond in caves and deep laTines in Trinidad and otbo- parts of 
die West Indies. The most remarkable thing about it is that it is 
a vegetable feeder, whidi a bird that has bq^n, as the more- 
poika or frogmooths have doo^ to find all its food on the ground^ 
is most certainly on the way, in a modified foshioo, to become. 

Dr. Wallace^ in his " DistributicHi of Plants and Animals," tells 
us also that the {rfants of New Zealand are mostly dull in colours of 
flowers^ being wind- and not insect-fertilised, and be adds that insects 
there are scarce: This would account for the lack of bright-coloured 
and ccHispicuous flowers, as well as for the absence of Ni^tjai^ 
idiicb^ if they were there; would have to adopt some of the haluts 
of ceitun of the Australian Nightjars, and cease to catch prey on the 
wii^ and to search for it on the ground, so becoming more and more 
vegetable feeders. Thus do all things in Nature hang together : no 
sceated w bright-coloured flowers means few insects ; no insects 
means no purely insectivorous birds. Nightjars or others, just as Mr. 
Darwin proved that where there were old maids with cat^ there would 
be plenty of humble bees. 



XIV. 

The common night-hawk of America, as it is called there, and 
sometimes the Virginian goat-sucker, is scientifically Chorddia^ 
mrgiiiuiHuSt and is very dose to our common Nightjar. Thoreau 
had his own special exp^ences to record with regard to it. In his 
Diaiy, under date June 7, we find him writing : 

** Visited my night-hawk on her nest. Could hardly believe my 
eyes when I stood within seven feet and beheld her sitting on her 
eggs^ her head towards me ; she looked so satumian, so one with the 
earth ; so sphinx-like, a relic of the reign of Saturn, which Jupiter 
did not destroy, a riddle that might well cause a man to go dash 

■ The origin of this wonl is u follows : xvH^f^^**^* * ttringtd mnrickl 
fautnmeiit, SftA^aeTening— which shows that the oiilier obwrven had ■ fucy 
for findiiig nranc In the note, caUias the bird " ereQing moiical initniine&t." 



1S8 



Tim Gcnihmans Magazine^ 



his head against a stone. It was not an actual living creature of tfie" 
air, but a figure in stone or bronze, a fanciful production of art, like 
the grjrphon or the phcenlx. In fact, with its breast towards me, and 
owing to its colour or size, no bill perceptible, it looked like the end 
of a brand such as arc common in a clearing — its breast mottled or 
alternately waved with dark brown and grey, its flat, greyish, weather- 
beaten crown, its eyes nearly closed, purposely, lest those bright 
beads should betray it : with the slony cunning of the sphinx. A 
fanciful wurk in bronze to ornament a mantel. It is enough to fill 
one with awe." 

Again, under date July 22, he thus speaks of the young:^ 
bird: 

"One of the night-hawk's eggs is hatched. The young is exactly 
like a pinch of rabbit's fur or down of that colour, dropped on the 
ground, not two inches long, with a dimpling, irregular arrangement 
of minute feathers in the middle, destined to become its wings and 
tail. Yet even it half-opened its eyes and peeped, if I mistake 
not. Was ever bird more completely protected both by the colour 
of its eggs, and of its own body that sits on them, and of the young 
bird just hatched ? Accordingly, the eggs and young arc but rarely 
discovered. There was one egg still, and by the side of it this little 
pinch of down fluttered oul, and was not observed at first ; at foot, 
down the hill, had rolled half the shell it had come out of There 
was no callowness as in the young of most birds. It seemed a 
singular place for a young bird to begin its life, this little pinch of 
down, and lie still on the exact spot where the egg lay — a flat, exposed 
shelf on the side of a bare hill, with nothing but the whole heavens, 
the broad universe above, to brood it when its mother was away." 

This name of Corddks^ however, has, with the newer school of 
ornithologists, given place to Caf>rimul^us amen'canus ; and under 
this designation we find Prince Buonaparte writing of them. He 
says that " the night-hawks are among the swallows what the owls are 
among the Falconida^ and, if we may be allowed the expression, tlie 
C. amificanui has more of the hirundine look than the others. 
When in woods or hawking near trees, the flight is made in glides 
round the tops or branches, and often it will settle for a few seconds 
on the very summit of the leading shoots. The eggs are of a dirty 
bluish while, with blotches of dark olive-brown. During incubation 
the male keeps a most vigilant watch round. In wet and gloomy 
weather these birds are active all day," * 

Dr. Elliot Coues says that if they do not circle tree-tops in flight 

■ Wilson, pp. 371 ftod yi^ 



A Sludy of Nightjars, 



«59 



for capturing prejr, they quarter the air ; and he adds that one of the_ 
: may be hatched a good deal sooner than the olhcr. " I one 

'^ found," he states, "an intcnal of three days elapse between llie"^ 
batching of the two eggs of the night-hawk. Nuttall fi})cak« of iho 
night h^wk sometimes actually visiting towns, and then sailing round 
chimnc>'s and other elevated stalks or points in circles. 

The whiP'Poor-wiU is more familiar to us, since its singular cry 
or call is often referred to by popular writers who arc not called on 
to describe the bird or othcmisc to note its class or peculiarities It 
has been at diflerent times differently ranged. Dr. Elliot Coue 
writes : 

" The common whip-poor-will has been referred back to the old 
genus Caprimutguu >Vhilc it certainly differs from the chuck will'iJ 
widow type of Antrosiomus in not having the rictal bristles garni-nhc 
with lateral filaments and is not very obviously different frow^ 

\ Caprimulgxn of the old world, it may be best to keep it with 
AntrostomuSy where all the Kew World species are usually referred, 
until the limits of the respective genera arc better understood."* 

From all we can gather, whip-poor-will (C vociftrm) is so nearly 
allied to C. iarolinemis that an ordinary observer would never 
distinguish them. Wilson notes how in the evening they will go 

F skimming on the grass within a foot or two of a person as if never 

^ seeing him, the eyes so intent on the insects hunted. 

In the lower pan of the State of Delaware Kuttall found these 

. birds troublesomely abundant at the breeding season. It was the 

P reiterated cries of whip-poor-will, whip-pcri-will, issuing from several 
birds at the same time, that caused such a confused vociferation as at 

J first to banish sleep.' Nuttall notes another peculiarity of the whip- 

riK30r-will, and tells us that this call, except on moonlit nights, iaX 
continued usually till midnight, when they ceasCt until again arouscdj 
for awhile at the commencement of twilight* 

Nuttall, who dearly paid much and close attention to this bird, 

^aIso tells us that the whip-poor-will is the only Nightjar which hasj 
white, unspotted eggs ; and that both male and female take part ia { 
Incubation. The young of this variety, as of the night-hawks and i 
those wc have in England, are hatched downy — in this, as Dr. E. 
Coues remarks, resembling the lower order of birds, and not the 
higher with which they are associated. Tliis suggests more than one 

^question — why, for instance, a bird so specialised and developed 
fthould in this respect make itself a complete exception, so high, yet \ 



' Key, p. 449. 
« nu. p. 74+. 



> OmUMegy ef Vniitd Staiti, p. 379. 



]6o 



The Gentleman s Magazine. 



so low, in this matter, which is no doubt correlated with its now 
building no nest whatever. Only the more prominent parts on the 
young are covered with this down ; the naked parts arc covered in 
three or four da)'s, the inequality of the distribution of this down 
which marlis all the Nightjar young, gives the dimpling character 
which Thoreau noted in the young night-hawk when first seen by him. 

Mr. Thomas Macllwraiih has given a pretty full account of the 
night-hawks and whip-poor-wills in Canada. He says of the latter : 

" It is seldom seen abroad by day, except when disturbed at its 
resting-place in some shady part of the woods, when it glides off 
noiselessly like a great moth. . . . Not unfrequently it perches on 
the roof of a farmhouse, startling the inmates with its cry, which 
they hear with great distinctness. This is the only song of the whip- 
poor-wi]I» and it is kept up during the breeding season, after which it 
is seldom heard." 

Mr. Nuttall notes thisabout chuck-wiU's- widow (C Caro/inensis): 

It commences its singular serenade in the evening soon after 
sunset, and continues it with short interruptions for several hours. 
Towards morning the note is renewed, until the opening dawn. In 
a still evening this singular note will be heard for half a mile, its tones 
being slower, louder, and more full than that of whip-poor-will.^ 

Audabon celebrates the sensitiveness of this bird : 

" When the chuck-will's-widow, either male or female (for each 
sits alternately), has discovered that the eggs have been touched, 
it ruffles its feathers and appears extremely dejected for a minute or 
two, after which it emits a low, murmuring cry, scarcely audible to 
me, as I lay concealed at a distance not more than eighteen or 
twenty yards. At this time I have seen the other parent reach the 
spot, flying so low over the groimd that I thought its tittle feet must 
have touched it as it skimmed along, and, after a few low notes and 
some gesticulations, all indicative of great distress, take an egg in its 
large mouth, the other bird doing the same, when they would fly off 
together, skimming closely over the ground, until they disappeared 
among the trees. He adds that the eggs, of a dull oUvc colour with 
darker specks, are about the size of pigeons' eggs. 

Mr- Gosse makes this note ; 

" It wanted but a few minutes of midnight when suddenly the 
clear and distinct voice of the chuck-will's-widow rose up from a 
pomegranate tree in the garden below the window where I was 
silling, and only a few yards from mc. It was exactly as if a " 
being had spoken the words." ' 

* OnUtMf^, p. 74a ' Romsna 9/ Natmr«it BiHory^ p. 



A Simdy 0fNigiijmrs, ifix 



WatCftOD did not fcnet to uIhur. kA to Frrnrf on jomc 5*^^*^ 
AiDoicui ycc iefc In tbe wco p d jwiiikj Sd Jfnamlmr& and 
SnzO he writes: 

** The pfcttiljr moflkd r*™'"j**^^V- gp■^fTT%r^•. TJartiM* nffhr 
owlf mmts the fantre viooi s ocuuvisd is i^ *'*'^f 'f cf die IsidB flf 
day. This at once mnks horn as a ]o«s of die joik: xdood^ js^i&g 
ncams. There are mne ipcrJtshcre. T^ie '**'j^'^ *jjf-**y "rtry 
the siae of the FngfiA voodnwl te aj b sDJonsikadib d&t^ 
hawing ODoe heard i^ yoa viO Bcm- fo^ ]L Hlben zqptt sbbk 
over these ii ii inrjMij tte nilds^vfcfia }pDeis jfoor hmoBBE^Tm 
wiD hear diic goat-aidKr h ii iriiiMig Ske one id dee^ dHDaem. A 
stnuger vonld never ccDcehc 31 tobeliiecryofainEd. He vouid 
say it 1IM the de yailiug voice cfanadiu^iHPOBndaedTacaap, cr &e 
lastvaifingof Niobe far her poor f^nVfam i^Dce J&e was moKid 
intostaae: Sn p iios c yocndf in huydci* soppwj teypyafljaiia^ 
load note and praooBoce ' Ha, hi, ha, ha, la, ha, ha,* tacii sole 
kmerand lowtr till the laA is scarcxily heard, pnxBmc a «*'^'*^'* 
betwiit evay note; and yoo viQ hzvr Bosae idea cf ihcanaaasfc^ 
the hugest goot-sodKr in Deaezaa. 

" Four odierqiedescl' the soat-^zxia^' wrrr-^at-t tasut w«di » 
dtstinctiy that they have jec ri icd tfacarnaaoe* fecm &e«cascsK«* 
they nttei; and absolntdy benlder die sataogs csi his anml is 
these paits. The most toin ii ra i ob>£ lia dovs ctuse by ycmr dc«r, 
and flies and a^^ three or fcior jzidi t^on: y^ic, as yvD ira3k 
along the road, cxyin^ ' Who are y^s ; -vbrj, wijrj, -viio are ywj ? ' 
Another bads yoa * Woik away ; wodc, vgric, vcck avay/ Atlibd oics 
moamfiilly.'Willy-coaie'go; WHj-WaEy-W^'j-ccaac^^^' Aadloti^ 
op in the ooontiy a fioonh tdb yoo to * yfiap^fK^cm^wiB ; vfaiji^ *h)p, 
wUp-poor-nIL' 

" Yoa win never pemsMk the n«gzD to destroy these Lordi, or fet 
the Indian to let fly hsanov at than. They are birds of ooMxi and 
reverential dicad. They are the receptacto for dqa n cd scwls who 
conoe back again to eaxdi, or areesprtss^y sentby Jnniboor Yalofaos 
to hanm cnid and baxdJieaited mastery and iculiate in|iiries ttcemd 
from dtenL* 

XV. 

Dr. Freeman, in lus interesting book, "Asbanti and Jaman," has 
a good deal to say about the fibmrnffd Nightjar of Wert Africa, 
with its reoMikable CTititandiffg wing-liBathers. These^ as be ttj^ 

« Pp. 145^ 



l62 



The Geniiemans Magazine. 



arc caused by the quill of a feaiher from the carpus of each wing 
being developed to an enormous length — fully t«*ice as long as the 
bird's body. He was perfectly astonished when he first saw the bird 
flying. It seemed that, at a distance from the bird, at each side 
were two dark bodies like butterflies, or some other insect, and about 
this matter at niglit he could by no means satisfy himself, as then the 
elongated quill or featlier stalk was entiruly invisible, of course. 
But afterwards he came upon the bird through the day because of a 
habit it has of frequenting pathways, and there it would sit, with the 
long wing-feathers directed straight up above it, till he was within a few 
j-ards of it, then fly away, to advance farther up the path, and then 
sit down, to go through exactly the same process as before. When 
silting among the long grasses, which sometimes reach as high as 
seventeen feet, and long-stemmed vegetation with feathery tops, this 
Nightjar's filaracntcd feathers fall in well with the general uflcct- 
the more, as with our own Nightjars, this blid tries to scratch 
a depression beneath it— the fiJamented feathers rising up straight 
over its back. It may be suggested that concealment in such 
retreats, which it can always find, is tlu reason for this feather, 
development At all events, there is no other more likely explanatio 
as yet The general habits of this Niglitjar otherwise very closely" 
resemble those of the Nightjar in England, which we know best. 



XVI. 

My old friend, Canon Tristram, was so good as to answer a 
query of mine about the Nightjars of Palestine, to the following 
effect : " So far as I had any opportunity of observing the habits of 
the Palestine species of Nightjars, they do not in the slightest degree 
vary from ours. They have the same trick of lying flat on a 
horizontal rail or pole, and passing for a piece of wood. Thii only 
eggs I took were on the bare ground, two in number.** 



There are yet several points to settle about our common Night- 
jar; so that young ornithologists who will specially devote themselves^ 
to it. and not grudge to give summer evenings patiently to watch and 
study it, have sUU chances of distinguishing themselves and adding 
to the accepted facts about a bird as interesting, strange, weird, and 
unaccountable as any. 



A Study of Nightjars. 163 



APPENDIX. 

I. If we knew more about the special habits of diflerent Tarieties of Ntghtjan* 
we could at once make oar sorvey more pro6taU]r compantire, and perhaps 
Tcadi come secrets of difieientiation or variation. Tbos the zigzag turnings and 
drdii^ in flight, or "quarteiii^theair,** are common to all of the true Mightjan, 
while those which have departed from this habit, like jEgstheUs Neva lUUandm, 
have also ceased to be truly noctnmaL Ltttagasttr^ agsJn, whidi remains noc- 
tnmal, still retains these marked diaracteristjcs in ffigbt, tbot^ mying from the 
Dormal in some ways. 

X Hare those Nightjars which, tike the so-called Anstraltan more-pork 
occastonally, and Mgotheks Nova HdUuida systematically, seek their food on the 
ground andare seldom on the wii^, been modified, and how Us, in bill andwing* 
and m the pectinated toe t— whldi in that cue, if it is nsed for scratching up food 
in earth, snails, gmbs, &c., would need to become strongeraswcll as the beak— n 
process which, we believe, has aheady proceeded so fitf in the tawny Irogmouth, 
and perhaps farther stiU in ^gothtUi Neva Hollands. 

3. An important question arises : What modifications, if any, have been effected 
in the young from the nesting-in-hole habits, as occasionally in the so-called more' 
pork, and absolutely in Mffithdes and the Podargif which, as Dr. Wallace telU us, 
bnild nests like wood-pigeons'? Are the yom^ still hatched downy or to the same 
extent, or are observable modifications to be noted ?— the highly specialised bird 
then comii^ more and more in this respect to rank itself with tlie hi^^er Urds 
her^ while filing into other halats more like some <3S the lower birds. 

4. We are told that the ^gs of the whip-poor-wills are pure white. Is 
there anything special to this class in nestii^ or in variation of habit in regard to 
I^aces in which they lay the eggs, since they are not colour-protected, as in the 
case of most other Kightjais which lay thdr ^gs on the bare ground ? This 
observation would be most ioteresting and helpful towards a theory of modified 
haUts affecting coloration of e(^ 

5. The males of some species appear very closely to share the iocubatlon with 
the females ; in others this is not so. Is there in this difference grounds for 
pointil^ to differences in de^'elopment of certain parts, or is this either way un* 
arrompsnifd by any modification, however slightly marked otherwise ? 

ALEX. H. JAPP. 



1^4 



The Geniiemans Magazine, 



NAPOLEON AND PRINCE 
METTERNICH. 



PRINCE METTERNICH was driving in Vienna one day dunr 
the Congress of 1815, when the horses bolted, the carriage was' 
overturned, and Mettcmich was thrown into the roadway. Finding 
he had no bones broken he picked himself up and walked quietly 
away. The same evening he met the King of Naples, who had seen 
the accidenL " How horribly frightened you must have been," said 
the King. "Not at all/' answered Mettcmich; *' it is no merit of 
mine, but I am constitutionally inaccessible to fear." " It is as I 
thought," replied the King ; "you axe a supernatural being." 

The man who had learnt in his youth to confront Napoleon wa 
naturally an object of awe and admiration to the crowned heads 
Europe. Curiously enough Napoleon himself singled out the man 
who was to become his greatest diplomatic opponent. When Count 
Cobenzl was appointed in 1S06 as Austrian ambassador at Paris, 
Napoleon took exception to the choice and pointed out young 
Kcttemich as the most suitable person to be sent to his CourL It 
had been previously decided to send Mettemich to St. Petersburg, 
actd he was on his way thither from Berlin when Napoleon 
signified his request. Motternich received instructions to stop at 
Vienna, and there he learned that his destination was Paxis. 
Napoleon took a pleasure in conversing with him at the Sunday 
receptions at the Tuileries, when the whole diplomatic corps would be 
Assembled €n masst. " You are young," said Napoleon, " to represent 
so old a country." "Your Majesty was only my age," replied 
^lettemtch, " when you fought AuslerUtz." 

Mctternich made a brilliant success in Paris. His manners, his 
address, his appearance recommended him not only to Napoleon, 
but to the whole Court circle. He was appealed to as an authority 
•on all matters of taste and etiquette. No ceremonies or enlcrtain- 
Tnents were undertaken without his advice. He played the rdle of 
trifler to perfection, and while he appeared to be immersed In gaieties 



Nt^olnm mmd Pnme* MtUetmuJk. i6$ 

be «>s oiqilajed in vstdungpoEticftleTentsazid studying Napoleon^ 
dsposuOiL 

After tiie naiittge of Napoleon vtth the Archduchess Marie 
Lonise^ Menennch was treated iridt still more confidence hy tho 
Emperor and admittffd to the doscst intimacy. Napoleon urged 
him to visit dbe Empress more often and with less ceremony, and left 
them alone, dot they m^t couTeise more freely. The Empress 
was not always so jndidoQs in her conduct as was desirable^ and 
N^toleon asked Mettemich to advise her with regard to her attitude 
towards strainers. "The Empress is young," he remarked; "she 
mig^ think I was going to be a severe husband ; you are herfather% 
nunister and the friend of her childhood ; what you say vrill have 
more efiect upon her than anything I could say." 

When war finally broke out with Austria Napoleon's wrath 
eiqiloded over the head of the ambassador who had, as he felt, befooled 
him and lulled his suspicions irith hk words. The French reprcr 
sentative at Vienna had faithfully reported to his master that Austria 
was making unusual preparations to increase her military strength, 
but Mettemich*s soothing phrases calmed Napoleon's rising wrath 
and gave Austria time to complete her arrangements. Events suc- 
ceeded each other so rapidly that the Austrian despatch warning 
Mettemich to fly from Paris had only just arrived when Napoleon, in 
hot indignation, gave orders to Fouch^, Minister of Police, to seize 
the ambassador and march him to the frontier under strict guard. 
Fouch^ however, was not disposed to carry out his instructions au 
pUd de lakttre. He called at the Austrian Embassy and courteously 
asked Mettemich when it would suit him to leave Paris. He even 
put off the journey for a couple of days after the date was fixed, in 
order to give Mettemich time to recover from a slight indisposition. 

It was to Mettemich that the Allied Sovereigns turned in 1813 
when Napoleon, who wanted time to reorganise his forces, was doing 
all in his power to protract negotiations. M. de Bubna, the Austrian 
ambassador, had been spending fruitless days in trying to gain an 
interview with Napoleon at Friedrichstadt, near Dresden, where the 
Emperor had stationed himself. Time passed on, and still the 
business was no nearer being settled. The Sovereigns grew more 
and more uneasy and consulted Mettemich as to what was to be done- 
This brought matters to a head. No sooner did Napoleon hear that 
Mettemich was in the confidence of the Allies than he made up his 
mind that further delay was useless. He sent a message requesting 
that Mettemich would come and see him. The utmost excitement 
prevailed. Mettemich went in the character of mediator for half 



l66 



The Gentleman s Magazine, 



Europe Ministers, generals, ambassadors thronged the onto- 
chambcrs of the palace in fc%'erish anxiety. 

The interview began at two o'clock in the afternoon. Napoleon, 
who was standing with his hat under his arm, began in an injured 
tone : " Here you are then, M. de Metternich, at last, Vou have 
come very late, for twenty-four days have elapsed since the armistice 
was signed and nothing has yet been done. All this lias arisen from 
the delays of Austria. I have long been sensible that I could not 
rely on my relations with that Power. No extent of obligation 
or kind deeds has been able to overcome your inveterate hostility 
towards me." 

Warming to his subject Napoleon proceeded to set forth how 
benevolent and pacific had been his conduct throughout, and 
•how ungrateful Austria had shown herself towards him. Metternich 
replied that he Iiad come to ask for peace, and explained the 
proposed terms. Thereupon Napoleon broke out into fury and 
insult. 

" I know," he said, " what you desire in seact. You Auslrians 
desire to get Italy entirely to yourselves ; your friends the Russians 
desire Poland ; the Prussians are set on Saxony, the English on 
Belgium and Holland. And if I yield to-day you will to-morrow 
• demand of me those the objects of your most ardent desires. 
But before you get them prepare to raise millions of men, to shed 
the blood of many generations, and to come to treat at the foot 
of Montmartrc. Oh, Metternich 1 how much has England given you 
to propose such terms to me ?" ' 

After this Napoleon continued in a blustering strain, saying that 
lie would rather die than tarnish bis glory. "I am a soldier. 
I have need of honour and glory. I cannot reappear lessened 
in the midst of my people. I must remain great, glorious, admired." 

Metternich asked, if that were the case, when the war was to 
come to an end, and added, " I have just traversed your army ; 
your regiments are composed of children ; you have anticipated the 
regular levies and called to arms a generatiun not yet formed; 
if that generation is destroyed by the war in which you arc engaged 
where will you find a new one to supply its place? WiU you 
descend to a still younger brood of children ?" 

At this point Napoleon lost the last remnants of his self-control; 
he grew pale with rage, and letting fall the bat which he had been 
carrying he walked up to Metternich, exclaiming, " You are not 
a soldier, sir ; you have not even the soul of a soldier : you ha^-e 

' Aliion's Livts^L^rd Csaikn^ and Lord Stttvartt vol. i. p. 6ju 



Napdkon and Prince Mettemich, t^*^ 

not lived in camps or learned to despise your own life or those 
of others when their sacrifice is necessary. What are two hundred 
thousand men to me? I can afford to spend a hundred thousand 
men every year." 

"Let us open the windows," replied Mettemich, "that Europe 
in a body may hear you, and if it does so the cause I am pleading 
will not suffer." 

Kicking his hat into a comer Napoleon paced about the room, 
haranguing in an impassioned strain on his indifference to the 
slaughter of any number of soldiers belonging to other nations, and 
descanting forcibly on the unpardonable ingratitude of Austria after 
he had done her the honour of marrying an Austrian archduchess. 

All through the June afternoon this duel of words was carried on. 
Napoleon trying to g£un his point by invective, Mettemich sticking 
doggedly to Uie original terms of the negotiation. The sun went 
down, it giew too dark for the opponents to distinguish each other's 
face^ and still the anxious watchers outside the locked doors waited 
in w(»i(tering suspense for the issue. 

At last, finding he could make no headway, Napoleon exclaimed, 
**Vous persisted vous voulez toujours me dieter la loij eh bien, soit 
la guerre I mab au revoir k Vienne," 

" You are lost. Sire," was Metteraich's parting word. " I had 
the presentiment of it when I came; now, in going, I have the 
certainty." 

When Mettemich came out Berthier rushed up to him and 
eagerly inquired if he were satisfied with the Emperor. " Perfectly 
so^ replied Mettemich ; " he has taken a load off my conscience, for 
I swear to you your master has lost his senses." 

Napoleon in describing the interview the same evening, said 
to some one, " I have had a long conversation with Mettemich. 
He held out bravely ; thirteen times did I throw him the gauntlet, 
and thirteen times did he pick it up. But the glove will remain 
in my bands at last." 

GEORGIANA HILL. 



i6k 



The Genihmatis Magazine 



TERMINATING THE TREATISE. 



A GHETTO SKETCH. 

THE Beth-Hatnidrash of the synagogue of the "Seekers of 
Truth " is thronged to-night with an immense assembly. 
The large dark-ceiled, dingy-walled room, wliich wears a gloomy 
aspect by day, is now lit up with a blaze of splendour : the central 
chandelier— hanging from a blackened beam above the Aimemmor 
or precentor's platform — glittering with a blinding effulgence that 
is reflected from its many clusters of prismatic drops ; gas-jets 
blazing with their flaming tongues ; candles shining with their serene 
slender rays. A babel of a hundred voices roars tumultuously in 
the " house of study " ; eager excited talk flows freely on every 8ide» 
accompanied by ceaseless gesture. Knots of men are gathered here 
and there: near the "holy ark" containing the scrolls of the Torah 
— a cabinet behung with a blue plush curtain, and surmounted by 
twin tablets inscribed with the decalogue; beside the huge bookcase 
with glass sliding doors, stocked with ponderous leather-bound 
volumes ; and about the many massive pillars supporting the ceiling, 
to one of which is attached a crescent -shaped tin box with a slit in 
the top, which serves as a depository to givers of charity in secret. 
A loquacious little fellow, with a silk hat on the back of his head, is 
explaining to several open-mouthed listeners an elaborate table m 
the tiniest c^ type, displayed on one of the walls, and that shows 
the calendar for as many years in tlie future as any frequenter of the 
sanctuary is likely to require ; a hatchet- faced, grizzled wight is 
harangubg a small company on the gradual spread of Sabbath- 
desecration ; a solicitous father is arranging terms with a Mclammed 
for tlic Hebrew instruction of his backward son ; numerous groups 
arc hotly debating matters of policy concerning the synagogue ; two 
or three " Seekers of Truth *' are discussing the discourse delivered 
by the Maggid (preacher) on the prenous day ; and many a 
workman is raiUng at the tyranny of employers In tliG sympathetic 
hearing of his discontented mates. 

A big placard, printed in bold and weak characters b aU«fiuUe 



Tcmiinating the Treatise, 



169 



Jincs, posted on a disused door, attracts the attention of every 
ival, who, though aware of the nature of the night's event, reads, 
rhaps for the tenth time, the following announcement, which has 
stared at bim from many a shop window and hoarding in the last few 
days : " On the first day of the week, section And he Hved^ at 
8 o'clock in the evening, our teacher the Rav . . ., the son of our 
teacher the Rav . . ., will terminate the treatise New Vear, and 
whosoever cometh, h.-ippy will he be and blessed will bis name be 
caUed." 

Seated on the benches about the middle of a long tabic, between 
the pbtform and the bookcase, are a group of elderly men swaying 
intermittently over faded folios, and deeply engrossed in study and 
discussion, despite the general commotion around them. The table 
is covered with a print cloth stained with candle-grease, which Is 
tied to the legs in vain pro\'ision against physical demonstrations of 
mental exdtement. The diligent circle consists of those who 
r^ularly attend the Talmudical expositions, synecdochically called 
the £/af/ or leaf, which are delivered by the Rav (minister) on every 
night but the Sabbath. They are labouring over a treatise which 
begun some two or three months ago, and of which, in 
cordance with traditional custom, the subtleties and perplexities of 
the last page or so have been left to be unravelled to-night, with all 
the honour of an especially large audience and the rumoured 
reward of a subsequent repast. Some of them have the reputation 
of scholars versed— nay, thoroughly steeped — in the entire rabbinical 
literature ; and report says that one, with a grey forked beard and 
wizen cheeks, sitting in a huddled posture, possesses the letters 
patent of a Rav, whereof a cruel fate has presented his enjoying the 
fruits. The others, with the exception of the Melammed, who is 
constantly wiping his spectacles with a snufTy, red-patterned hand- 
"kerchief, and the bookseller— fabled to incorporate in his person the 
being of an author too— follow quite humble callings, comprising as 
they do a retail grocer, a glazier, a pedlar, and an itinerant egg-dealer. 
Absorbed the whole day long in seeking little more than the bread 
of life, they now are lost to all worldly distraction, wandering in a 
maze of dialectics, and forming a striking picture of animated study 
amid the surrounding stir and babble — with lips trolling, eyes flashing, 
brows wrinkling, shoulders heavinp, bodies swaying, and thumbs 
resolutely scooping the air as though to clinch the momentous argu- 
ment. Blithely they follow the bewildering passage of the dicta of 
opposing schools; keenly past barriers of objection and lurking 
falUclcs, they scent the trail of the guiding truth, and vigorously they 
vol- cc.xci. NO. acvtS, N 



17© 



The Genlietnans Magazine, 



clutch each other's gesticulating hand in vehement dispute, while 
pouring forth a torrent of references, and whirling their own free hand 
in rhythm with the sequence of contrasted clauses. 

But suddenly the hubbub ceases; the hatchet-faced haranguer 
restrains his exhortations, the uproarious debaters check their fiery 
eloquence, and a lanVy ill-clad youth who has been poring over a. 
volume of the "Midrash " by the light of a candle on a broad window- 
ledge, turns round wondering at the abrupt lull. "The Rav is 
here ! " is whispered throughout the room. The throng quickly, 
reverently parts, and a slim black-coated figure of medium height 
hastens past with lowered visage to the seat next to the ark, where 
he stops and faces the walL iUl gossip is stayed ; the people 
assume an attitude of prayer ; and a fatherless worshipper, still \x\ 
his period of eleven months' mourning has ascended the Aimtmntor 
to do the precentor's office. 

The service concluded, the assembly press forward to the 
Talmudical tabic. But the benches arc of limited capacity, and 
after they have been filled to their utmost there still remains a 
modest multitude who form a triple straggling fringe on either side. 
Amongst these is the Parnass^ the directing genius of Uie shrine for 
the current year, who, with an unconvincing look of wisdom, ia 
leaning his elbows on the back of a bench ; but a past president 
and former rival of the present warden, who has long seceded from 
the " Seekers of Truth " because of the waning of his influence, lut 
has been invited to the celebration because of the air of importance 
lent by his dignity as communal chairman, is given a scat of honour 
and comfort. The shuflling of feet and buzz of voices yet continue, 
and the Shamtnes (beadle) feeling his authority defied, takes up a 
prayer-book, strikes it thrice with his heavy palm, and belches forth 
an emphatic imperious " Sha-a-a I " 

Silence follows. All eyes turn to the impressive figure at the 
centre of the table. A dark grave face, vivid eyes, snowy beard, 
thin firm lips, silver-streaked earlocks, and a lofly forehead surmounted 
by a skull-cap ; the whole pervaded with a glow of enthusiasm, an 
ineffable halo of piety and learning : — such is the appearance of the 
Rar. At his elbow is a pile of six or eight stout volumes for 
purposes of reference ; and a pair of thick wax candles, in tall silver 
candlesticks, shed their light around him. His forefinger passes 
qnickly down the page of the bulky tome as he reviews with the 
glance of a veteran the preceding arguments, and a feint strain of 
the traditional sing-song slowly issues from between bis lips. 
Almost imperceptibly, amid breathless stillness, [be begins in knr 



Temttnating the Treatise^ 



dear tones to unfold the theme of his exposition ; and in another 
moment he has embarked on the advertised passage. 

" The sea of the Talmud," as the Rabbis call the thesaurus of 
andent Jewish lore, is an expanse whose every inch is known to him, 
whose depths are revealed to him in their very outline, whose currcnta 
Bow harmoniously with the trend of his thoughts. Vast, indeed, 
it is, almost immeasurably vast, but he has traversed its mighty 
bosom more than once, with a perseverance that grew with time and 
a joy augmented by the belief that only thus could one reach celestial 
territory. His mind glides upon it with the ease begotten of fifty 
years' practice, and his features wear a look of anticipated success. 
At first with steady course, to suit the feeble wits in the company, 
he steers the way on the great tract — which contains in its midst 
elements of all earthly science, scraps of saga and fable, gems of 
truth, lumps of wisdom, myth, allegory, all resting on layers of 
religious legislation — skilfully avoiding dilemmas and passing safely 
over stretches of logomachy, cleaving asunder conflicting theories 
and principles, and stopping ever and anon to study some interesting 
spot more minutely in strips of bordering commentary, and then 
continuing cheerfully and more briskty on the path strewn for him 
with the light of Heaven ; what time he marks his progress by a 
Quaint fantastic air, rising now to treble and sinking soon to a soft 
Pnimbling bass, now quavering, now flowing, now harsh, now sweet, 
vibrating with tender emotive chords and loud with grating ululations 
wherein resounds a people's voice with the wailing echo of tlie 
centuries. And his hand, restless as with some feverish transport, 
iinda with pointed finger hither and thither, following the varied 
urns and twists of the fluctuating argument as it ploughs the 
(Talmudical deep. But soon there comes a pause : the need of 

chiog outlook arises, of penetrating a cloud of hazy hypotheses, 
^and the passage is stayed while the master of the Gemara, with 
knitted brow, consults the ponderous books at his side. 

Meanwhile the rumoured possessor of a rabbinical diploma 
discusses in an undertone with the erudite grocer; the itinerant egg- 
dealer, with much taking of snuff and stroking of his beard, 
Lexchangcs \'icws with the philosophical glaiier ; and the Mclammedi 
[placing his fore&nger to the side of his nose, gives ear to the 
[strictures of the learned pedlar. Meanwhile the gaunt goatcc-beardcd 
Ibeadlc^ perched on the narrow ledge of the bookcase, with his hand 
rgrasping a shelf, and bis legs dangling, succumbs to the fatigue of 
the day, the heat of the room, and the dryness of the discourse; 
bis eyes doee, hb head droops, and he is on the point of falling to 

N a 



172 



The Gentletnans Magazine, 



the floor when he awates with a start and a look of wrath. Mean- 
while the communal chairman, helpless before the like soporific 
influences, is bowed in peaceful slumber, his gold-rimmed pincc-nn 
clinging lovingly to his nose ; and the Chazan (precentor), a dense 
portly personage, sitting apart in solitary state beside the ark, listens 
to the general hum and hums himself an original refrain for the 
" additional " service of an approaching festival 

At length the Rav has concluded his research ; a luminous 
commentary has dispelled the overhanging mist, and with a pleased 
countenance, from which the wrinkles seera to have vanished, he 
continues the voyage in the ancient volume. But floods of reason- 
ing press heavily about him ; the argument toils on wearily; and 
the burden must be lightened by the jetsam of anecdote and recurrent 
wit. Still there are spells of uninterrupted /¥^/ (dialectics) when 
the whole assembly seem borne along as by some mighty impulse, 
the movement of their minds evincing itself in their faces, which 
Resent a panorama of wrought-up interest, anxiety, cogitation^ 
delight, and concentrated study. They watch the course of the 
Rav's advance with eager eyes, with close-pressed lips, ever on the 
alert for a deviation from the rightful path, and quick to exclaim 
their queries or self- convinced corrections. Often, indeed, there 
rises a vigorous dispute between master and men as to the true 
lenour of the labouring ratiocination, and on either side is heard a 
strong expression of subtle views — voluble quotation of maxims and 
authorities — weakening down at last in favour of the grey preceptor. 
Then there spreads across the faces of the more light-hearted a 
smile of triumph at the confusion of those that would be clever, and 
though the chsmces are great that to ihcm the meaning of the whole 
discussion is a dark impenetrable mystery, yet many are the mutual 
smirks and the shakings of forefingers that serve as signals of a 
complete agreement with the final decision. 

And so the argument struggles on^ with r^fular visits to the 
neighbouring commentary*, returning ever and again to the midst of 
the text ; and as the Rav glances round he meets with many an 
assenting nod and sage demeanour, affected by wise and unwise 
alike, and prompted by a general desire to appear sympathetic Yet 
here and there are drowsy e>es, heavy drooping heads \ victims as it 
were to Talmudic sea-sickness, whose habits have estranged them 
&om this exhausting excursion. A swart puny creature, with a cloth 
cap on his dishe\"eHed shock, who has been lately bereft of his wife, 
has lulled himself to sleep, and on his knee sits a little weakling boy 
with pitiful eyes and pole thin cheeks. An etat-famcd Melamtned, 



Terfninating ike Treatise, 



173 



purblind and doddering, looks on with a vacant stare ; and leaning 
against the charity-box pillar stands a man of demented wit, with a 
pbronied bearded face, and leering glittering eyes, 

Bui now a sense of relief seems to hover about the company : 
a dim perception that the end of the passage is drawing nigh ; and 
their hearts beat faster, and their attention becomes more keen as 
they await the issue of the Ray's disputr.tive emprise. And be, with 
a voice still bold and steady, and little subdued by an hour's incessant 
speech, pursues his path with undiminishing zest, his dark, grave 
features Ut up with majestic glow — fed by internal ardour— and his 
lips throwing forth the ever-succeeding measures of dialectical lore 
with rapid, delightful accents. Diligently the seven faithful students 
follow the winding track — the dizning disquisition— insensible to 
the tossing and rocking on the theological tide, and lifting up their 
eyes ever and again from their tomes gaze with a look of reverence 
on the thoughtful aged countenance. Slowly the bark glides on, 
Land now it sails swiftly, on and on, with a pleasant rhythmic motion, 
^neaiing safely its destination \ and as the tones of the Rav are stilled 
and bis Talmudic voyage ended, a Hearty joyous shout breaks forth 
from every throat : " Yosher Kowack (Strength increase) ! " and a 
mirthful uproar reigns throughout the room. 

Again and again is the hand of the Rav shaken with unutterable 
Mdmiration. Wishes galore hail down upon him that he may live to 
Ftcrminate many a treatise in the days to come. With a smile of 
content he mops his brow and nods acknowledgments on every side. 
And the fatherless worshipper, who read the evening service 
hurriedly recites the customary prayer of thanksgiving, in which 
occurs a specially long glorification of God, and favour is besought 
"for all who study ilie Law in whatsoever place." After which 
spiritual invocation a general exodus ensues into an adjoining 
chamber to complete the celebration with material festivity. 



ENOCH SCR IDS. 



174 



The GenlUmatis Magazine. 



THE FIGHT AT BOJV, NEAR 
LONDON, IN 1648. 



" Essex U comming up w' a pcticiuQ wbidi displcftscth the bosses, and thcrdbre 
wonld hinder It either by foire ineanes, sending downc Knights of that Sbtrc to 
receive it or to pcrswadc ihcra to send it up by n few, or by foule, fo which 
purpose a Regiment of I lorse U to be sent to Riimfotd, and onotho' to Bow oader 
the command of Cromwell.'' 

*■ Essex I'etitioa is now expected and Cromwell goa to 6ow» in cue they 

come with number to opix^se them." 

(Extracts from Letter of lateU^eticc, May i, 1638. Claicndcm MS.] 



AT the time of the historic contest for supremacy between the 
Cavaliers and Roundheads, Bow was a rural town situated sonic 
two and a half miles east of the City of London. It was a settle- 
ment which had grown up on both sides of the bridge erected in the 
twelfth century over the river Lea. The eastern portion of the bridge 
is in the county of Essex, and the western portion in Middlesex. 
Bow was then, as now. one of the Tower Hamlets, but tt is now 
surrounded for mites on every side with nineteenth -century buildings, 
and but for the church and the river, and tlie position of the bridge 
and the highway, little remains to mark the town which Cromwell 
knew. The year 1648 was a period of great unrest and disturbance 
in London. Frequent collisions occuncd between the parliamentary 
army and the London populace. The majority of the citizens and 
of the inhabitants of the neighbouring counties of Essex, Kent and 
Suney were in favour, at this lime, of making a compromise with 
King Charles, and of restoring him to the throne with somewhat 
diminished power and authority. Ilie King was now a prisoner in 
Carisbrookc Castle in the custody of Colonel Hammond, and in ll»c 
early part of the year even Cromwell and his party still thought it 
might be possible to come to terms with him, or to induce him to 
abdicate in bvour of one of his sons, who was, however^ to be 



The Fight at Botv^ near London^ in 1648. ijs 



dq»ived of certain prerogatives which Charles considered belonged 
to the Crown. 

Dissatisfaction with the existing condition of aHaiis was becoming 
general throughout the countr)-, and high-handed proceedings by 
Parliament, and more particularly by the parliaraenlary army, had 
ded the Cavaliers in their task of stirring up opposition to Cromwell 
nd his friends. The occupation of London by the parliamentary 
army had aroused the keen resentment of the citizens, and Cromwell 
and Fairfax saw with some alarm thai they might be called upon to 
keep down the City by force of arms at the same time lliat they were 
doing battle with the Welsh and the Scotch, This they knew the 
army was not strong enough to accompUsh, and they therefore 
resolved to appease ihe City fathers. Accordingly, Fairfax (the 
Lord-General of the parliamentary forces) announced to the House 
of Commons (May 1) his intention of sending Cromwell into Wales, 
and withdrawing the regiments from Whitehall and the Mews, and 
aving the protection of Parliament to the London forces under 
fajor-General Skippon, a Presbyterian favoured by tlie Londoners, 
He also withdrew his soldiers from the Tower, and allowed the City 
to garrison that fortress with its own militia \ and permitted the 
replacement of the chains which had been drawn across the main 
thoroughfares to prevent cavalry charges, and which had been taken 
down by the army. 

AlUiough the army was cordially bated by the people of London, 
the citizens were too much afraid of a fresh outbreak of war to take 
^active measures against it, and when, at the end of May, the Kentish 
ilists mobilised and met at Blackheath, and asked for support 
from the City, these concessions probably influenced the townsfolk 
in their decision to refuse to render any assistance. 

However, in the early part of the year the discontent in the Gty 

was so widespread that the Parliament dreaded the appearance of 

.any great gathering of malcontents, even though they came only to 

ppresent a petition; hence the order to Cromwell to prevent the 

ssage of any large number of the Essex petitioners through London, 

Peithcr by fair means or foul. 

The petitioners were to be persuaded to allow the petition to be 

ented by a few representatives who might pass to H'estminster , 

rithout attracting undue attention ; and should the petitioners prove 

untractable Cromwell was to disperse them with his cavalry. But 

Lihc men of Essex seem on this occasion 10 have been a match for 

rihe forceful Puritan, as the distasteful petition which pra>'cd that 

the Ring might be satisfied was actually brought to Westminster on 



.76 



The GcntkmatCs Magazine, 



May 4 by a procession of some 2,000 men, and was said to repre- 
sent the wishes of 30,000 of the Essex inhabitants. Probably 
Parliament at the last moment concluded that it would not be wise 
to use force of arms merely to prevent the presentation of a petition; 
but twelve days later the men of Surrey presented a similar petition, 
and John Evelyn in his diary notes that "some of them were slajme 
and murder'd by Cromwell's guards in the New Palace Yard." 

The people of Kent also determined to present a like petition, 
and to support it if necessary by force of arms. A general rising of 
this county took pbce on May 21, and Rochester, Siltbgboumc, 
Favcrsham, and Sandwich were occupied in the King's name. It 
was agreed that on May 30 the supporters of the petition should 
meet, fully armed, at Blackheath. The petitioners came as far as 
Deptford, but then retreated because news arrived of the approach of 
the parliamentor)' forces. A detachment of the petitioners was 
defeated at Maidstone on June 1 by Fairfax, and the greater part of 
the Kentish men then dispersed. The Earl of Norwich (Lord 
Goring), the leader of the royalist forces, fled, and reached Black- 
heath on the evening of June 3 with some 3,000 followers*, 
Fairfax, who had still to occupy other towns in Kent, detached a 
body of horse under the command of Colonel Whalley (first cousin 
to Cromwell) from his main army to deal with Norwich and his 
party. Professor Gardiner, in his " History of the Great Civil War," 
says that " when Nor^vich reached Blackheath he found no sign of 
welcome. With the gatos of London shut against him, and WhaUe/s 
troops pressing in his rear, his position was untenable* A gleam of 
hope, however, reached liim from Essex, where, as he was informed, 
thousands had risen for the King. Crossing the river alone he rode 
ofl" to Chelmsford to ascertain the truth, leaving his deserted 
followers distracted by panic. The greater part of them fled 
hurriedly into Surrey, abandoning their horses and casting away 
their arms to escape observation. About 500 crossed the 
Thames in boats, their horses swimming by the side, and the 
following rooming established themselves at Stratford and Bow, 
where they were at last rejoined by their commander, who found no 
signs of a rising in Essex. Taking possession of Bow Bridge, 
Norwich cut the communication between Essex and tlie City, hoping 
in the first place tlmt London would c\-en yet admit him within tia 
walls, and in the second place that, if that was not to be, he might, 
by his interposition, give a bre^ilhing space to the men of Essex to 
rally round him.** 

A pamphlet entitled " Ne>C8 from Bowc," printed in 1648, tclli 



The Fight ai Bou.u fuar Linden, in i6^8. 177 




I 



I 



I 



us thai " On Sunday night hst, being the rourth of this instutt June, 
there was a small skinntsh between soote of tbe Lord Gorings forces 
which were joyncd with the Essex men at Bow, ind sotue of the 
Lord Gcneralls horse which were come back to mflg end, and are 
commanded by Col: Wbalcy, there was aboot thite men kiUed on 
both sides, those of the Essex party were fixccd to retreat again to 
Bow bridge and farther action ceased for Ibe present There are 
more horses mounting in the Oty of London to aastst those on that 
side of the river of bow and the L.Gen. (Fair£at) is ooaug^ bad^ 
and will be on the other side this ni^ht or to-morrow.* 

A weekly newspaper called 7%e Kin^iiUi WttJtly ImitiUgmcer, 
in its issue for the week ending June 6, 1648, informs us that on 
Sunday, June 4, Lord Goring " with the cfaoyaest of his men waa 
ferryed over into Essex, baring beard that the Essex men bad began 
to rise into a body, and planted two Drakes on Bow Bridge, where be 
(the reporter) beard they appeared to stand in a posture of defence 
but interrupted none tliat passed that way. About one of the dock 
in the afternoon Coltood Whaley who with a coosiderxble party of 
horse was sent in pursuit of the Lord Goring did advance after him 
into Essex over the river (over London Bridge), and had his Reodex 
Tous on Mileend Green, from whettce he bad sent many Prisoners 
vhich he had l&ken, to Guild- Halt The Lord Goring being come 
into Essex, the militia of the City sent up two Lrraks to Aldgate 
which were planted for the present safety of the City." 

The same periodtcai in its news for Monday, Jane 5, states that 
" Collonel WTixley the last night had like to have been ingaged with 
tbem (the royalists) not far from Bovr, having with him a con- 
siderable Body of Horse, besides three troops lent from Lieutenant 
GeneiaU Cromwell, and a troop belonging to the Gty, under the 
command of Capt Cook. But finding the Foot had lined the 
Hedges, and dressed an Ambush for him, be did forbear, and was 
content to return with two or three prisoners taken, and as many 
slain." 

From a narrative of the Great Victory in Kent, and of the fight 
al Bow, ordered to be printed by the House of Commons in 164S, 
we lean) that " The Lord Goring with those at Stratford and Boe 
had a dispute with some of ours, where wc killed them a Major, and 
three men, and took six prisoners, with one man slain on our part, 
and upon assurance of an indemnity the £lssex men wilt be quiet" 

Many of the royalist papers printed at this period were rcty 
lewd and coarse, and few more so than Tfu ParUamtnt Kitt^ but 
the issue of this newspaper for June S, 1648, contains the following 



«r8 



Tke Geniiemans Magazine, 



interesting reference to the seiiuie of Bow Bridge : Lord Coring 
"ferryed over his Horse and Foot at Black-wall, and so in good 
Eqipage marched to Stratford -langton, and possessed themselves of 
Bow-bridge, and surprized two Foot Com panics of the (Tower) 
HamletLs, all but those that flung down their Armcs, and run for it, 
one of which was said to be the cowardly Gale alias Disch. From 
Bow on Sunday in the afternoon, a Party of about 13 Horse 
scouted out as far as Mile-end, and gallantly charged some four 
Troops of Fairfax his Horse who like valiant Rebells, b^an to run 
for it." 

According to Professor Gardiner, Norwich, leaving his troops 
behind him under Sir William Compton, hurried to Chelmsford on 
the 7th, and after a conference at Brentwood with the principal 
Essex royalists relumed to Stratford, and on the 8th took his troops 
to Brentwood, where he joined his forces with those of Sir Charles 
Lucas ; but a letter from Sir Thomas Honeywood to Col. Cooke, 
dated June 7, states that " the rebels that were at Bow have been 
driven thence by Col: Whalley who is now at Stratford Langton 
with orders to pursue them." 

The story of the retreat of the royalists to Colchester, and the 
long siege of that town by Fairfax, is too well known to need repeti- 
tion here. The ro)-alists did not surrender until the aSih day of 
August, and during all those long weeks of si^e Bow Bridge wis a 
position of great importance from a military point of view, for the 
bridge is on the direct road from X^ndon to Colchester, and greatly 
facilitated the transport of food, arms, and ammunition. Its 
importance is sufficiently indicated in the following Orders and 
letters from the Committee of both Houses of Parliament which sat 
at this time at Derby House : 

June S, 164S. — Warrant to the Committee of the Tower Hamlets. 
"You are authorised to draw forth upon this occasion 120 trusty 
men, with two pieces of ordnance, to secure the bridge at Bow and 
passages at Ham, in order to prevent the enemy from seizing on them 
and thereby hindering the coming of provisions into the City and so 
breed a discontent there. Also by guarding tlie said bridge and 
passes many disaflectcd persons may be kept from repairing to the 
rebels and their correspondence with the City hindered," 

July 3, 1648.— Letter to the Lord General (Fairfax). "The 
enemy have an intention to stop the passage at Bow Bridge so as to 
hinder the coming of ammunition and other provisions by that way 
to you." 

July 5, 1648. — Letter 10 the Militia of the Tower Hamlets. 



The Fight at Bow^ near London, in 1648. 179 

"Tliere are now a guard of Essex horse at Bow Bridge, but as there 
may be occasion to employ these elsewhere, you are desired to pre- 
pare a guard of 100 men to sectu% these bridges." 

July 20, 1648. — Order to Major>General Skippon for a convoy 
from London to Bow, and the like to Colonel MUdmay to take 
charge of the said ammunition from thence till he meet another con- 
voy (from the army before Colchester). 

The presence of troops was no novelty in the little town of Bow, 
for in Z589 the inhabitants of Bow, Bromley, and Stepney had been 
oU^ed to receive into their houses, and find victuals for, several 
htmdred of the troops who were sent into Portugal When the troops 
had departed the inhabitants petitioned the Government that they 
might be " paid the several sommes of money due unto them for 
the victualing of soldiers before their going into Fortugale," and 
the Privy Council generously ordered that jQio should be distributed 
that " the poore men maie in some sort be relieved and our selves 
no more trobled." The Government of the present day would 
probably be glad to dispose of their bills for the victualling of soldiers 
in a similar manner. Nevertheless, the passage of Fairfax's army and 
all the attendant paraphernalia of war through the rural hamlet 
was a stirring episode to be long remembered and discussed by the 
inhabitants. 

The capture of Colchester by Fairfax and Ireton was followed by 
the barbarous execution, after surrender, of two of its most gallant 
defenders. Sir Charles Lucas and Sir George Lisle. Thus 
terminated the last struggle for King Charles, and a few months later 
the ill-&ted monarch was beheaded. 

HAROLD F. UILLS. 



]8o 



The Ceniieman^s Magadne, 



THE LOVE STORY OF AN OLD 
MARQUISE. 

IN the late autumn of 17 13, a young girl, Mademoiselle de Froulay, 
daughter of one of the most aristocratic houses of France^ made 
her first journey to Paris. She travelled in a post-chaise, and was 
alone, save for one woman-attendant and the two postillions that her 
father had sent from Paris to escort her. They were six days on the 
road — those villainous roads that nothing but the exigencies of a 
royal progress could make tolerable — and when at the journey's end 
she was met by her father at the de Froulay Hotel in the Rue St. 
Dominique, he received her as coolly as if they had separated only 
the evening before, though, curiously enough, he had never seen her 
[till then during the fourteen or fifteen years of her yo'mg life. 

This visit to Paris was a tremendous and unexpected epoch in 
Mademoiselle de Froulay's career. Her mother had died at her birth 
while her father was away commanding his troops on the Germim 
L.frontier ; and, as soon as she was able to dispense with a nurse's 
.care, she was taken in a litter to the Abbey of Montivilliers, where 
her serene childhood was passed among the quiet Sisters, under the 
direct and kindly supervision of her aunt, the imposing Abbess. 
She was a specublivc, dreamy child, and would spend hours, eerie 
twilight hours, in the sepulchral chapel where the abbesses of the 
convent lay buried ; feeling no fear of the gloom, no terror of the 
tombs and efligics of the departed abbesses \ she looked on these 
latter rather as her spiritual kin among whom her aunt would one day 
be laid ; among whom she might eventually lie herself as her aunt's 
successor. For there seemed nothing but the cloister before her. 
All the hopes of the house were centred in her only brother, a hand- 
some young seigneur who had been, as was the custom of his class 
and period, so much away from his family that she never saw him 
till she was eight years old ; her father's estate was not large enough 
to dower her according to her rank ; and her grandfiither, the only 
one of his line who had married into ^/ami/U dtfinami^ was con- 
sidered a deplomblc example for all the rest of his blood to avoid. 
Then, one da/, when she was in her fifteenth year, news oune to 



I 



The Love Story of an Old Marquise. 1 8 1 

the convent which brought a supreme change into her quiet destiny. 
Her brother the young seigneur was dead, and, though married, had 
leftxu> children. She was, therefcH'c, no longer the possible re/tguuse 
with the veil before her ready to hide the world from her young and 
curious eyes, but a great heiress, fitted by rank and wealth for almost 
any fortune that France could offer. Her accomplishments, too, 
were all tliat any lady was expected to acquire, but her aunt, the 
Abbess, wisely decided that the usages of the grand monde in wliich 
ber future would probably be spent, were not to be lightly picked up 
by hearsay or intuition ; ibcy could only be learned in Paris under 
the careful guidance of some high-bom dame to whom the practice 
of such knowledge was an everyday affair. 

Hence Uie journey to Paris— when the prescribed period of 
mourning was over — where her father, after ordering a satisfying 
quantity of confectionery even for the appetite of fifteen, took her to 
the Hotel de Breteuil, where she was to pass the winter with her 
aunt, the Baronne de Bretcuil-Preuilly (her father's sister), learning 
meanwhile what had suddenly become an important and serious 
branch of her education — the manners and habits of aristocratic 
France as practised at Paris. 

Notwithstanding the tears shed at parting with her indulgent 
sunt the Abbess, this sudden excursion into an entirely new life was 
fiill of charm for the intelligent young girl whom the Fates had 
dowered at birth with the magic gift of observation. The Hotel de 
Breteuil was a handsome building ovcriooking the gardens of the 
Tuileries and divided into several flats of eight or nine rooms ; each 
storey occupied by different branches of the Breteuil family. 

Thus, the ground floor was the pied-dterre of Ijdy Laura de 
Breteuil, a peeress of Britain, descended from the Roj-al Irish line 
cf the O'Briens. Her mother was superintendent of the exiled 
Queen's household at St. Gcrmains, where they had sumptuously 
furnished apartments ; indeed, the whole family were ferment Jaco- 
bites, devoted to the Stuart cause ; an important factor in one 
episode in Mademoiselle de Froulay's life. 

The second storey was occupied by the Countess of Breteuil 
Cbanneaax, born a dc Froulay, who was a source of wondering 
amusement to the young visitor. She was a vain, exacting, egotistical 
dowager, who kept seven waiting-women employed night and day 
with her whims and fancies. She never went out save in a gorgeous 
coach drawn by six horses, with coachman and four lacqueys in 
grand livery, looking, as her brother-in-law the Baron — who had to pay 
—sarcastically remarked, " like nothing so much as a show a.V^ASV«r 



l82 



The Gentleman s Magaztm, 



The Commandeur de Breteml Chantecler lived in the third 
storey, and was, to alt his servants, a man of mj^tcry. His life was 
quiet and rcgubr : he was singularly lenient to his people ; yet, 
whenever he walked out at evening with a hood drawn over his head, 
and his long cloak wrapped closely round him, his domestics would 
peer curiously from the windows, and invest his unobtrusive habits 
with a romantic interest, all of which was to the young mademoiselle 
full of charm and excitement. 

She was tlius suddenly transplanted into the midst of a family 
not her own, so critical and txig/ant that at times it seemed to her 
a veritable thorn bush. The relatives with whom she had come to 
spend the winter were the Baron and Baronoe dc Brclcuil-Preuilly, 
who retained the first storey for themselves, while the fourth and 
topmost floor was given up to their five children. A beautiful 
apartment in tin's latter flat was assigned to the visitor, which 
especially delighted her because it "gave" on to the gardens of the 
Tuileries ; but this privilege earned her the enmity of her cousin 
Emilie, some few years younger than herself, who had to turn out 
of it into three liny rooms during the whole of her cousin's \'isit. 
There was a natural antipathy between the two girls ; the little 
guest thought Emilie of gigantic proportions for her age, with 
enormous hands and " terrible " feet, and a skin like a nutmeg-grater ; 
and in after life was angry with Voltaire because that sliarp-eycd 
critic of his kind dared to call this self-same Emilie " beautiful and 
wise.'* 

The household of the wealthy Baron was earned on in the 
generous opulent style prevalent at that period among the rich 
aristocracy. The house was gilded and decorated in the gorgeous 
fasluon then affected ; forty-four servants were needed to keep the 
establishment going, which is not surprising, for twenty extra covers 
were nightly laid for guests who might or might not come in to 
supper. The Baron had a fine library for the time, and cultivated 
letters, or men of letters at least. Fontenellc was a constant visitor 
on Tuesdays, and, being of good family as well as a literary celebrity, 
was always welcomed at supper; while Rousseau (not Jean Jacques), 
whose lyrics were admired but whose birth was obscure, was enter- 
tained only at early dinner ; for the Baron's complacent patronage 
of letters never overpassed the bounds of the proprieties by asking 
him to supper ! Just as in our day people on the boundaries of class, 
of equivocal undefined position, may be freely asked to lunch, but 
never invited to the more solemn festival of dinner. In two hundred 
years notlung is changed save the designation of the meaU t 



f 



I 



TA^ Love Story of an Old Marquise, 1 83 



\ 



There vas the Due de St. Simon, too, a disagreeable old man, 
BOD of St. Simon of the famous " Memoirs/' Ue also came 
frequently, but rarely stayed to supper, not from lack of the requisite 
rank but because of his wretched health, and, bis enemies said, 
because he was too parsimonious to give suppers in return. Rousscau*£ 
sharp tongue did not spare him— perhaps, as poets will, he thus 
re\*enged himself for unreturnable aflronls : noting the Doc'» 
jaundiced complexion and "little black satanie eyes" he likened 
them, to the girl's delight, to " daix charbotis dam une omtUtlt " in the 
pleasant French fashion of the period, whic:h found it impossible to 
be witty without being personal. S/te said he was like an ugly sick 
raven, devoured by ambition and \'anily, and always perched upon 
his ducal crown. 

Into all this stir of unaccustomed life came the young heiress in 
the dawn of womanhood, eager after her peaceful girlhood in the 
serene atmosphere of the Benedictine nunnery to see everything 
that was fit for eyes so fresh and innocent. Though a spectator, she 
took little part in all that went on around her; she was too truly the 
jeuneJilU of an aristocratic house to be allowed any freedom incom- 
patible with the strictest supervision. One can see her, demurely 
observant, but entrenched behind her fine, high-bred reserve ; seeing 
much, saying nothing, storing up all the keen new impressions 
which bit into her vivid young brain Uke an etching. She sat straight 
up on a backless chair— no gvrl of that day dreamed of placing her- 
self on a chair with a back to it, while to have taken an armchair 
would have been considered an enormity — with Iji nri/it/ pu^rt'/e et 
konnete^ which her aunt had given her to study. It was an old 
edition of Poitiers, giving much quaint advice as to etiquette which 
had become obsolete ; with much sound practical teaching also that 
sustained Mademoiselle in the social functions at which, in her 
eventful future, she was to shine with brilliance and distinction. 
Her aunt, the Baronne, was an invaluable teacher of the forms to be 
observed in every conceivable situation. She was zgraside datne^ 
placidly beautiful, of the unsmiling Madonna type, to whom etiquette 
oxtd form were as the law of life. She could pronounce " Mon- 
teigneur " with the exact nuance necessary to differentiate it when 
speaking to a bishop or to a prince of the blood, an accomplishment 
that was Justly considered among those who knew no small achieve* 
ment. She had a passion for preserving the minute distinctions of 
rank, and was for ever impressing on her children the shades and 
niceties of deference to be observed in the daily duties and occur- 
rences of life. Though the fashion of senditig rttund cups and 



1 84 



The Genileman's Magazine, 



glasses by the sons of the house was the mode of the moment in 
Paris as in England, it was not favoured by this arch-mistress of 
manners ; it savoured too much of ihe bour^oiiU^ she said, and 
accordingly forbade it. 

Presently, into this calm routine of regular tasks and simple 
pleasures came a disturbing influence, an exquisite new experience 
that the young girl, fresh from tlic cloistered seclusion of Monti- 
villiers, found "sweetly strange and strangely sweet." Jacobite plots 
were being hatched at SL Germains, and the ground-floor of the 
Hdtel de Breteuil, occupied by the superintendent of the exiled 
Queen's household, was naturally a rendezvous for political inter- 
views between the adherents of the Old Pretender. Among the 
most active of these was George Keith, the young Earl Marischal of 
Scotland, who had quite recently, with all Ihe enthusiasm of a con- 
vert, joined the ranks of the Jacobites, partly owing to the influence 
of his maternal uncle the Duke of Perth, whose line had ever been 
loyal to the House of Stuart ; but chiefly, perhaps, because he had 
been deprived of his appointment as captain of the Royal Guards, a 
deprivation which, in young hot-headed fashion, he meant to avenge 
by throwing all the weight of his wealth and position on the side of 
the Jacobite party. 

He ift-as introduced to the salon of the hospitable Baron, and 
there, among a numerous company, the young Mademoiselle de 
Froulay met him for the first lime. He was just twenty-five; 
handsome, accomplished, wise for his years, serious because of Ihe 
tremendous import of his mission ; she was about fifteen, on the 
beautiful tremulous borderland of womanhood, her heart wailing 
to be impressed with the indelible stamp of first love. They 
were drawn to each otlicr by that indefinable perfect attmction 
of two strong natures mentally akin yet physically opposite ; th^ 
looked at one another first with surprise, then with interest ; then 
the room was empty to cither if the other was absent. Instinctively 
they learned the art of speaking to each other without saying a 
word; soon they dared not conwrse in the presence of friends 
lest their trembling voices should break down and betray their 
emotion. It was the simplest, purest love-idyll, accompanied 
by no secret kisses, no clandestine meetings; every word, every 
movement was in the presence of a dozen or score spectators, each 
of whom would have remarked censoriously on the slightest deviation 
6om the most severe propriety. One day, chancing for a few 
minutes to fmd themselves isolated in a crowd of guests, he said to 
bcr suddenly, with all the diffident shyness of young passion : 




» 



» 



TAe Love Story of an Old Marquise, 1S5 

" If I dared to love you, would you pardon me?" 

"I should be charmed," was her half coqueitbb, wholly truthful 
reply. 

Hardly another word was said, but a sweet new confidence was 
established between them, and, whenever they dared, they looked at 
each other with the perfect, rapturous content that is the birthright 
of first, unsullied love. 

Six weeks or two months of this happiness, this ever fresh delight, 
passed thus, vfben her aunt, the Baronne, suggested that the young 
heiress should take a few lessons in Spanish from the Earl Marischal, 
who was an unusually good linguist for his time, speaking French, 
Spanish and Italian as well as his native tongue. 

" Why not English ?" asked the Earl Marischal, thinking, perhaps, 
of the day when he might take this peerless French maiden as his 
bride to his romantic Highland home. 

•* Ob, not English, Monsieur," was the reply. " You of the North 
learn Southern languages ; wc of the South look still farther South ; 
we all naturally turn to fine climates, the land of sunshine^ the land 
of good wine." 

But what did it matter to the young lovers which language they 
studied since they had learned from each other the softest and easiest 
language of the world — that of life's first love ? 

So in the great salon Mademoiselle de Froulay sat on her high 
stool, while the Earl Marischal — " milord George " as she loved to 
call him to herself — seated himself behind her on a folding chair. 
Madame la Baronne was not far away, be sure ; her sweet, serious 
eyes, "gray as those of an eagle," watched all her brood wiiii the 
never-winking vigilance of the bom duenna. Visitors and con- 
spirators came and went ; other Bretcuils, from their various apart- 
ments in the big mansion, looked in; but the Spanish lessons 
went on at their appointed times with praiseworthy regularity. Was 
much Spanish learnt? She was an apt pupil there is little doubt, 
but she was learning sweeter lessons than even the sweet Spanish 
tongue. 

*' I have been translating a verse from English into French," be said 
to her in a low tone one evening as they sat demurely " studying." 

" Wliat is it ? " she asked, full of eager interest and admiration for 
ail be might say or do. 

" It is a quatrain that my father composed for me ; I should like 
you to know it. I have rendered it into blank verse, according to 
ibe English (aahion, which is verse without rhyme, but not without 
reason, as you wiU sec" 

mm. ccxci. v<x 3048, ^ 



l«6 



Tfte Gentlentan* s Magazine. 



He handed her a slip of paper— a paper that she stUl treasured 
when her hair was gray — on which was written : 

**Quand vosyeux, en tuussant, ft'oovraient i la Itunii-rc, 
Chacan vous sourioit, mon fUs, et vous pleuriet. 
VWn sj Wen, (^u'un jour, a. voire dcrniirc bcurCi 
Cbacun verse des pleor* et qu'on vous voie sourire." 

Another evening he told her, in a quiet monotone that might have 
been tlie mutleiings of Spanish grammar, the latest story from 
London. A rich Dutch heiress had fled to England with one of the 
adherents of the detested William of Orange. Her relatives had no 
clue as to her whereabouts, so they caused an advertisement to 
appear in the London papers, beseeclung her to come back to the 
home her absence had made desolate ; or, if she would not return, at 
least to send them the key of the tea-chest which she had, by mistake, 
carried off with her ! 

A simple enough storj', in Irulh, but the lever, nevertheless, which 
moved the balance in which hung great fortunes ! Anything whereby 
the Orangists — whom, as good Jacobites, they virtuously hated — were 
held up to ridicule would have tickled the lively imagination of 
firteen, and the two sat laughing decorously, delighted to share a joke, 
"however small. Emilie, )^^ gauche cousin, scowling sulkily from her 
comer, concluded, with tlie angry sensitiveness of a child, that they 
leere laughing at her, though nothing could have been further from 
their thoughts, which, with the egotism of love, simply flowed from 
one to the other ! However, as soon as Emilie could obtain a 
bearing she made such spiteful, envious remarks, that the Earl 
Marischal, foUo^ving his inclination, and in self-defence, made a 
formal proposal for the hand of Mademoiselle de Froulay. 

This was a serious matter ! A de Froulay bom, and an heiress 
to boot, was not to be promised in marriage lightly. The proposal 
vas, with due ceremony, submitted to her father, her grandmother — 
a quaint old lady who wore five rows of corkscrew curls, and an open 
coat over a skirt embroidered with all the beasts of the ark in siU-er 
thread — and her eldest aunt, the vain, dry-hcatled woman residing in 
the Hotel Breleuil who lived only for show and vanity. Made- 
moiselle waited for their decision with rosy pictures floating nebulous, 
unbidden, like sunset clouds across her menu Ivision ; pictures, tUas 1 
that too soon were rudely brushed aside by bitter realities. 

" He is a ProlesUuit, a Calvinist I " almoict shrieked her aunt, llie 
Countess, when the object of the family condave w;ls declared. 

Poor little Mademoiselle! It was the dreadful truth, though 



Tk$ Lmx Simy ^ mm Oid JKvts^ 1S7 



BO ooe had CBqpnedKftD is ■'iTpji i ii anes adccK. cnw^ 
doubt, became aesiraX goad Jmsxms wsss cood CsiSiriass; 
Questianed oa the sojec:, ce Ezi VTrSr^raa ovzoi x. an^^, 
ti nim^l fai MM Jy , icdaag too «e£ ssk ae ^as aos "^^^t^ a aocae^ 
faopdesa^ l aw p amfcibh, faetvets ^na aac is iavc *^*'*' ttw^, xhoc 
«as 00 more Id be said. "Vth Ae tiiLtwaj-g m^iAsjuu mSach a 
the lost Ir a rhihe of the Qkc&l i^pk thscm ^is s soo^iietiK 
bohaik of jy t ln M il f , ViiliiaiiiTi de Froebr bo«ed ha poor 
little taOcring faeut to the iaetittbie, nthoac hesaanoe^ seeftaog 
DO comptoaust, thmfcfng of i» ■ i^'im Their rmoi%ir pax 
jomig dream vas coded bya u^tanm eof pWEMn? saSenxig; and 
the £art Marisdalkft '-*"**'*"'*'; far his 000007, vbere, leDdercd 
the more '^«^*^"^ bf the cznel coodosiaa of las brre-idriU be 
duev hinisrif wkfa iccUess Ast^pod into tbe c o p y racy vbich 
coded in the disastroos risxi^ of i7i5< 

HisvasDohalfheaztedaD^iaDoe; his methods voe too dedsiw 
and direct to admit of any doobe as to whkh caose he had espoused. 
He maiched at the head of a company of nobles to the town of Aber- 
deen, where at the maiket cross he prodaimcd King James VIII^ 
and, for a few brief wedcsi town and district, in a foot's paradise of 
delusion, were subject to Jacobite rulers. Then came the day of 
awakening, the disastrous day of Sherifimuir, where the rising hopes 
of the Stuart party were dispersed like mist-wreaths before the wind. 
The Earl Marischal commanded two squadrons, and in the utter 
rout managed to escape to the continent 

Some time after this he wrote a letter to Madame la Baronnc, full 
of sadness and desp^, telling her of the grievous failure of the 
Jacobite enterprise; adding that his estates were forfeited and he 
hims^ attainted. 

Bereft of his lands, a price on his head, he wandered to various 
courts of Europe, wasting the best years of his life, as did so many 
others, for the foolish futile Jacobite cause. He intrigued with 
Spsun, and, two years after the " fifteen," again attempted to misc a 
rebellion in Scotland in the abortive campaign organised by Cardinal 
Alberoni ; then, again escaping with disaster, he sought refuge at the 
Spanish Court, where for many years he was intermittently entrusted 
with political missions. Finally, in middle life he drifted to tlio 
Court of Prussia, where the Great Frederick, perceiving the worth 
and wasted abilities of this unfortunate nobleman, ofTcrod him bin 
kingly friendship, and showered honours on him, in appreciation of 
his brilliant quoUties. He created him Knight of the Black Eaglo of 
Prussia; he appointed him Governor of a diitrict in Switzerland ; 



x88 



The Gentlcmans Magaziiu, 



and, in 1751, sent him as Prussian Ambassador to the Court of 
France. • • • * • 

Half a lifetime had passed. The young Mademoiselle de 
Froulay had long since become the Marquise de Crdquy, a very 
great lady, and distinguished in that vicious age for the exquisite 
propriety of her life. She had become a grandmother too ; but 
though a true wife, with an admiring apprecialion of her husband'5 
many excellent virtues, yet in the treasure house of her memory 
illumined by the halo that hovers round happy days, she cherished 
the romantic recollection of her first love which had blossomed and 
suffered blighL The Earl Marischal of Scotland was still her hero, 
still the fauldess young lover who liad never fidten in her esteem 
because of the wear of life's daily demands and duties. She had no 
thought of ever seeing him again ; nought save a remembrance 
which was, as she said, " toujours honorable ti chh-t." Then, one day, 
they met in the presence of Madame de Ncvers, he in the white- 
haired seventies, she with the griefs and joys of more than half a 
century traced with Time's graver on her face and heart. 

"Listen," he said to her, after their first formal greetings, " listen 
to the only French verse I have ever made, perhaps the only reproach 
I have ever directed to you : 

" Uq tfait lano^ par caprice 

M'aUvignit tlaiu mon priotcinps. 
J*cn porte U cicatrice 

Encor tous oies cheveux blaocS' 
**Cniignes les nuax qn'amour cause, 
Et plaignCK un imeiit^ 
Qui n'a point cueilli la rose, 
Et qiielVpinea blessi." 

They were both deeply afiected. Tears glittered in his proud eyes. 
. . . She was transported in thought to the beautiful unfulfilled dream 
of their youth. After a few moments of emotional silence she asked : 

" Are you soon going back to the King of Prussia ? Sliall we be 
separated for ever ? Are you still unconverted ?" 

" I am yours after as before death," he said simply. " I 
loved you too well not to embrace your religion. What other faith 
could hare given you the strength to make such an unmurmuring 
sacrifice? I have become a Catholic in sjjirit and in truth." 

They never met again, but that declaration ft-as, for the old 
Marquise, a sweet assurance for the rest of her long life. With the 
serene absolute faith of her religion she looked forward In quiet hope 
to the happy future, when those two, who bad been so mercilessly 
parted in their youth, would meet again in the Iranscti - of 

die Bright Uercafict. jAVt- ,....-.. 



iS5 



THE EVOLUTION OF THE 
MODERN GENTLEMAN. 

IT is a little disappninTing tbjt sach an ardeiit sodctogst as ICr. 
HertieTt Spencer has not dcTX>ted a portisa of h» imTVTi^ 
cneigrto a dqnrtnient of science which is stiktly anrhropotogpca! — 
die evolutioa of a gendemazL The title of gentlesan oovcn in- 
tcfpretadm of a tboosand shades, azid is S3 cxKn-eniesr^j vagae that 
the reseazches of reisatile genius would hare a wide fidd for 
borrowii^ cot the first notioos of gentilitj firom the most piimiil ie 
stzata. True enough, the perrexse interTO^doa of the old rhpncr 
voold seem to place such ipTcstigation oioder lixcis : 

VEIkb Ad>nt ddred and Ere ^aa. 

But we have learned now to ph3oscphise without foondic^ on a 
state of nature, and we arc entitled to a sospidon that the notion 
of gentility is traceable from a cmde and early derelopment It 
is a culpable sin of omission to be laid to the accoont of those 
people who have raked tc^etber the data of anthropology from the 
ft^-kne of countless ages that they have left us in outer darkness 
cm the origin of this interesting sentiment. When we do recognise 
the gentleman, he comes in on the full tide of an advanced drilisa- 
tion. He has already the brilliance and wit of the modem gentleman, 
and we are left in wonderment to look for the link of coimection 
between him and the days <rf^his remote parentage, when bis ancestors 
sought to assimilate the qualities of their respected dead relatiTes 
by makirtg them the meet considerable item of a substantial dinner. 
In the absence of convincing evident to the contrary the assumption 
may be permitted that this laudable desire, in spite of the distinctly 
disagreeable form in which it was meant to be realised, was a spedes 
of reverent homa^^ to " superior quality " which must be taken as 
a ron^ synonym for primitiiw gentility. 

Beyond this it would scarcely be safe to infer much m<xe from 
Eesearches among the Yncas or the Kbonds. But among andent 



igo 



The Gentleman s Magazine, 



historians Herodotus* inclinations and tastes set strongly in the 
direction of such interesting questions, and from a patient collation 
of his entertaining tales it would be possible even to piece together 
types of the primitive gentlefolk. There were people in Athens 
who set great store by a long pedigree— a pedigree so long, in fact, 
that some professed to be descended from an asparagus. 

There were the great folk of Eg)'pt and the lesser folk, and the 
privileges of the former were considerable. They indulged the 
luxury of emtjalming in its most expensive form ; they were entitled 
for a consideration to have their brains drawn out through the nostrils 
with an iron hook, and to have the body stuffed with " pure myrrh, 
pounded cassia, and other perfumes, frankincense excepted." Hero- 
dotus also tells us that superior quality had substantial recognition, 
especially among the Royal Scythians. In the burial riles there was 
a wonderful elaboration of detail. "In the remaining space of the 
grave they bury one of the king's ladies, having strangled her, and 
his cu|}-bearer, a cook, a groom, a page, a courier, and horses, and 
firstlings of everything else, and golden goblets; they make no use 
of silver and brass," 

There is another charming story of Hlppocleides, the son of 
Tisandcr, who surpassed the Athenians in wealth and beauty. It 
throws a sidelight on the accomplishments of the people of quality. 
Hlppocleides had come among a company of gentlemen to woo 
the hand of the wealthy Qeisthenes' daughter. '*When the day for 
the consummation of the marriage arrived, and for the declaration 
of Cleisthencs himself, whom he would choose of lliem all, Cleislhenes 
having sacrificed a hundred oxen, entertained both the suitors them- 
selves and all the Sicyonians ; and when they had concluded the 
feast the suitors had a contest about music, and any subject proposed 
for conversation. As the drinking went on, Hlppocleides, who 
much attracted the attention of the rest, ordered the flute player to 
play a dance ; and when the flute player obeyed he began to dance ; 
and he danced, probably so as to please himself; but Cleistfacoes 
seeing it beheld the whole matter wiih suspicion. Afterwards, 
Hippodeidcs, having rested awhile, ordered someone to bring in a 
table ; and when the table came in he first danced Laconian figures 
on it, and then Attic ones ; and in the third place, having leant his 
head on the table he gesticulated with his legs. But Cleislhenes, 
when he danced the first and second time, revolted from the tliought 
of having Hlppocleides for his son-in-law, on account of his dancing 
and want of decorum, yet restrained himself, not wishing to burst out 
■gainst him ; but when he saw him gesticulating will) his legs, he wu- 



The EvoiuiioH of ike Modern Gentleman. 191 



\ 



no longer able to restrain biaiself, and said, ' Son of Tisander, you 
hare danced away your marriage.' But Hippocleides answered : 'Oh, 
it's all one to Hippocleides.' Hence it became a proverb." But the 
prototype of the modern gentleman is something diiTerent from this. 
There is a degree of narvet^ in the earliest types of which the well- 
bred man would protest his innocence. 

The Athenian gentleman of antiquity is really the fount and 
source of the modem social virtues. The wisdom of the philosopher 
had defined him as the kuAdc MyaOtict but unfortunately the moral 
and spiritual significance of the term speedily disappeared. The 
nature of gentility chose to develop the more material concep- 
tion of the "man made up to the nail," which was the rougher 
Roman idea. Contrasts between ideals and reality are always in^ 
structive, and very often amusing. The scrupulous attention which 
the Greek philosopher paid to the elaboration of the gentleman 
makes a chapter of ethics read like a handbook of modem etiquette. 
Aristotle's magnificent man and liigh-minded man, and their opposites, 
exactly embody the idea of what a gentleman should be and what 
he should not. There is just the taint of moral pcndantry, a kind 
of intellectual snobbery in the descriptions which is apt to place the 
gentleman in a somewhat ridiculous light. By piecing together his 
various characteristics as they are scattered through a Classification 
of the Virtues and Vices, we have the conditions of " quality " in a 
mosaic 

"The magnificent man is like a connoisseur in art; he has the 
faculty of perceiving what is suitable, and of spending Lu^e sums of 
money with good taste. . , . He will spend his money, too, in a 
cheerful and lavish spirit, as a minute calculation of expense is a 
mark of meanness. He will consider how a work can be made 
most beautiful and most suitable, rather than how much it will cost, 
ai>d how it can be done in the cheapest way. . . . [Magnificence] 
displays itself on such private occasions as occur once in a lifetime 
—t^. marriage and the like." 

Whereas the ungentlemanly fellow " exceeds in spending more 
than is nght, for he spends large sums on triUcs and nuikes a display 
which is offensive to good taste, as, e^. by entertaining members of 
his club at a breakfast which is as sumptuous as a wedding breakfast^ 
and if he provides a comic chorus, by bringing the members of it on 
the stage in purple dresses, after the manner of tlic Megarians." 
After this criticwm in lesthetics he presents the roan of quality in 
aaotbex lighL " It would seem, too, that the high-minded man 
poncHes such greatness as belongs to every virtue. It would b« 



193 



The Gentkma^Cs Magazine. 



wholly inconsistent with the character of the high-minded man to 
run away in hot haste, or to commit a crime ; for what should t>e 
his object in doing a disgraceful action, if nothing Ls great in his 
eyes? . . . Such honour as is paid by ordinary people and on trivial 
grounds, he will utterly despise, as he deserves something better than 
this. ... He will not be exceedingly elated by good, or excessively 
depressed by ill-fortune ; for he is not affected in this way by honour 
itself as if honour tuere the greatest thing in the world. Again, the 
high-minded man is not fond of encountering small dangers, nor is 
he fond of encountering dangers at all, as there are few things which 
he values enough to endanger himself for them. . . . 

" Accordingly he will tell the truth loo, except when he is ironical, 
although he will use irony in dealing with ordinary people." With 
the same gravity Aristotle proceeds: "It seems too that the high- 
minded man will be slow in his movements, his voice will be deep, 
and his manner of speaking sedate, for it is not likely that a man 
will be in a hurry, if there are not many things that he cares for, or 
that he will be emphatic, if he does not regardanything as important, 
and these are the causes which moke people speak in shrill tones 
and use rapid movements." 

Unfortunately, or rather fortunately, the Greek gentleman de- 
clined to conform to this prim and rigid canon of gentility. Earlier 
than this by a few centuries the lyric poets embodied in their verses 
the non-ethical interpretation of the sentiment. It is on this inter- 
pretation that the modern spirit has seized, and in accordance with 
it the modern idea has been moulded. The philosophers' gentleman 
is still the endless theme of sundry homilies, but he is none the less 
an abstraction and is likely to remain so. Horace Walpolc protested 
that he was not a learned man, only a gentleman, who pottered 
among chipped vases and ladies' epigrams and court scandal ; he 
would have shuddered if his gay friends had read the AristotcUan 
meaning into his title of gentleman. The man " foursquare without 
a flaw " was an instructive ideal, but for bone of our bone and flesh 
of our flesh we must turn back from the vapounngs of philosophy to 
the truer instincts of poetry. Lesbian song, for instance, welled up 
from the pure springs of a busy commercial class. But active 
commercial life, the restless and varied existence of those luurdy 
folk whose business was in the waters, had in it little that was sordid 
and nothing that was prosaic. Tbe old nobility cast their spell upon 
society, and tinged with romance the merest commonplaces of life. 
Love, wine, politics, or warfare are the inexhaustible theme Tliese 
n'rid pictaresi Earned in tcattercd fragmenU of verse, profess to deal 



The EtfohUion of ike Modem Gentleman, 193 

with nothing but the truth. They have at times seemed IQcely to 
pay the price of their candour, and have perhaps been rightly de- 
scribed as too realistic for the cold morality of Northern Protestantism. 
Here at any rate is the gentleman's life as it really was lived, and in 
the life of the modem gentleman history repeats itself. There is 
none of the mawkishness of the erode poetry of the Roman deca- 
dence. The Greek gentleman is unschooled in artifice : his very 
excesses are half redeemed by their freshness. 

There is the old story of the man and the maid, but the old story 
possesses more than its ordinary interest when it is told by Alcaeuj 
and Si^pho and in their own words. Alcaeus writes ardently in 
praise of his mistress, *'pur^ soft-smiling Sappho." He would speak 
with her, but shame prevents him. The lady replies in his own 
metre, but will take neither his meaning nor his pleasure. Her 
suspkicm is conveyed to him in a chilling hypothesis. Shame would 
ncA prevent him from open speech with her, did he not harbour 
some evil intent or thought But Sappho herself had to feel that 
love was not so fair as fickle. The scattered fragments of hex verse 
are a pathetic chapter of the intensest human passion. The sorrow 
ai)d anguish that are of the essence of love and are mingled with 
love's enchantment are drawn in sore travail from the souL There 
is a world of unuttered passion in her complaining of Eros (Gk. Ipvt) : 

lovtf that *' bitter sweet irresistible beast" 

Cmel } but love makes all that love him well 
As wise as heaven and crueller than hell. 
Me hath love made more bitter towards thee 
Than death toward man ; but were I made as He 
Who hath made all things to break them one by one, 
If my feet trod upon the stars and sun. 
And souls of men as His have always trod, 
God knows I might be crueller than God. * 

Modem prudery has seen fit to lift its skirts and tread daintily 
by the most beautiful of those sacred relics. Modernism is un- 
speakably shocked at the unconventionality— that is what pricks the 
modem social sense — of such regrets as the following — 

Af'Svict fiiw A ffXAtn 
winrn, n^ V Ipx^'"' *P«i 

* Swmbome, Anoctoria. 

* * The moon has set, and the Pleiads, and it is midnight, and the hoar goes by, 
bat I lie alone.* 



194 



The GentUmans Magazine. 



This is only a benighted fragment, and perhaps we dare not attempt 
an interpretation of it out of its context ; but against it and a few 
others Uke it have been levelled the venomed lances of outraged 
prudery, and the poor lady has been covered with epithets which 
have little flavour of charity. 

The home of the Lesbian was chosen by nature to be the sacred 
precinct of love. In the white heat of those southern gardens the 
languor of love as the languor of laden flowers settled on all created 
things. Gardens lit nith ablaze of colour; fountains that sprayed 
refreshment on the weariness of noontide, orchards where the 
quivering leaves ministered shade and fruit ; music of nature that 
never ended, day or night This was the environment of the poetry 
of passion. 

The verses of Alcaeus read like a prophecy of our Cavalier fore- 
fathers, the gay gentlemen of Oxfordshire who rode well to hounds 
and drew their swords for the king. The storms of politics no less 
than the storms of love have gone to the fashioning of a gentleman. 
And wine, " wine that maketh glad the heart of man," Alcaeus has 
cro\vned with a rarer chaplet than the flowers with which he often 
decked the brimming cup. The soldier poet is familiar to our 
history and fiction, especially of the se^-enleenth century. 

Now, ye wild blades, thai make loose inns yoor stage 
To Ttpout forth the acts of tbU &sd age, 
Stoot Edgchill fight, the NcwUrrics or ihc West, 
And nortliern ckJihcs, where yon stitl fought l>est ; 
Your strar^e escapes, your dangers void of fear. 
When bullets flew between the head and car. 
Whether you fought by Damnie or the Spirit, 
Of you I speak. 

Naturally their loyalty and their wine were boon companions ; 
Bring the bowl which yon boast, 

FtU it up to the brim ; 
Tis to him we love most, 

And to all who love htm. 
Brave gallants, stand Qp, 

And avQUDt, yc base cutn. 
Were there death in the ojp, 

Here's health to King Charles I 

The riot of wine road mirth is preserved in the following venes 
from " Wine, Women and Song " : 

In the public bouse to die 

Is my resolution ; 
Let wine to my Up* be lu^ 

At life's dissolution j 



TJk^ Evoimtum of tie Modem GemUemau 395 

Wia fftA CKit'irtiim, 

Canlier poetmsten cf oar cnm kind. 

Alcaens was a better pod -Aaxix v^r^tm^ viiersK onr paar 
TOldaJccs were mosc mmbfe vjdi titeir swords ssar vxii liKar 
Ttnei. When it came to s«ard pbj die T-rKThr" gk7:>"Tr Knaed 
onthesideof pnideDce; ibf; after aC, 

Be wso "jpff ibb mBf- ^^tw 

Bat the irresastifaSc " genilexBis of booarr,*' id zneet vbccL Crsmr^in 
was baxd at woric Tnining bis tspcen, did itiSSis sernix fir iu 
sacxed Majesty thin for the saccd Xiasi zad x woclf ut so pDft 
Ubd on bis it^mes at least to a^7 tc. rbos tie secsa-f 'isit cc :bs 
old c{ut^ph of — 



Wbo fanfce tic }>vs tf Go£ Z3k£ b>c ans aesrsv 
The lore-malciiig <^ tbe Gredcs rans^ ':^ ^r^^rtr^ r zr:,:: fi,i j - j 
with a touch of l^;hter romaixs. Tbs '^^jff'gr v£X czrn&d cc: wt^ 
aU tbe aits that a lorer coiJd cxxssazA fcr "Ha urrice c^ :ii btuvr^^ 
and of an the gende arts tbe sercad* V2s iL* j^ti^tsr. izti. zi.'jvt 
atnactive. Mr. Symoads \vnafrr^ tbe foUc/wia? ^it 1-^ r-ivt r.,t:ai 
sang by an Athenian \oxts UDder it -rL-xivir ctf ili Er>:^dei : 

Siine Ibnh, 1=7 ^^£c= fe-,. 

My loTtJj- rn> cot ! 
S««et bod of batrrr, TsrC-ig U bearre£*i snoe ! 

Tim funs &oe 
Of aD tlvt ticccB ^i<'^ '<^ «^~'*^ cutL : 

Wby wC: :b=c si= 
These Tor£s '.lii vile iLee ^c 1 Lap;ier berth, 

TLoB iboe^^d^coe.' 

K«y, (far ms aoE : be: nse ! 

And let Hsj imogerei 
Be to me u tlie li^ 

Wliidi anioas nigfat 
For all his doods and ifaidovs cumot dwe awar ! 

It is Melaiubiia cries : 
Arise! Arise! 

And beam apoa faim vhb tfay spirit's day 1 
Nay, ere he dies. 

Be piti&il, aod ease 
TIk UngDor of bb knre^ Endbdes I 



■J. A. SynoodL (OiBtto & WndH, 18S4.) 



196 



The GeniUmans Magazine, 



It is not liard, either, to find out what were the accessories and 
perquisites of the gentle life. The Athenian gentleman had other 
pleasures besides a well appointed table. For, after all, cxceUent cakes 
and loaves, wine-bibbing, the wearing of garlands, and a provident 
begetting of children were minor and even sordid cares. No doubt it 
was a pleasant employment to loiter over a dessert of figs and peas 
and beans, to roast myrtle benies and beech nuts at the fire, and to 
taste with the precision of a connoisseur the most delicate Attic 
confectionery ; but if a gentleman was to be something more than an 
epicure and fly the reproach of belonging to a mere " City of Pigs " 
he had to affect a much wider range of interests. A categorical 
enumeration of these would be tedious, but it was the profession of a 
gentleman to admire painting and embroider)-, to acquire valuables 
in gold and ivory, to practise the arts and music, to indulge rhapso- 
dists, actors, and dancers. A subsidiary item was an army of tutors, 
wet-nurses, dry-nurses, tirc-woraen, barbers, cooks, and of course 
doctors. 

It was not the genius of the Roman lo add much that was 
original to the sentiment^ but he strutted pompously in magnificent 
and borrowed plumes. Greece set the fashion, and Rome pat on 
the old-fashioned bra^ciy without an attempt at improvisation on 
her own account. At first it sat awkwardly, and was nc%'eT worn 
tf illiout some apology or with an uneasy consciousness of guilt But 
at length the uneasy feeling passed away and the Roman wore his 
gilded accomplishments with an air of original proprietorship. And 
fine gentlemen tliere were in plenty, though the idea of gentility was 
cast in a more material and luxurious mould. Moral pedants like 
Cato kept haughtily aloof from contamination with the accursed 
thing, but conservatism of that sort was whimsical and problematic. 
There is no need to search for illustrations of the amours and 
symposium of the Roman gentleman in the erotic poetry of Ladn 
literature. The pages of Roman histor)- blaze with his brillLincc. 

The infection spread to the Senate and the camp, and a gcntle- 
tnan's romance hovered over the "House" and perched upon the 
Imperial Eagles. Pompey, we are told, was so handsome that 
Roman ladies wished to bite him ; and modem biographers of the 
great Julius have complained because Cxsar's good looks and cliarm- 
ing manners made him the object of malicious scandal which 
involved him in endless complications and impossible intrigues with 
half the married women of Rome ! The distracted Cicero at an 
important crisis could do nothing but wring his hands and spitefully 
bemoan the inactivity of his colleague Pompey, who tat speechlea 




Thi EvQluiion of ike Modem Gentleman. 



in ParUarnent admiring his 6ne clothes. And yet Cicero himself 
sedulously cultivated the life of a gendeman, and in bis pleadings 
before the jary indulged in raptcroas excursions into the fairyland 
of art and rashion, and, fearful lest be should stop short of any one 
accomplisbmcnt tn the cxacUng title, with pathetic canity he look to 
anting poetry. A gentleman poetaster is always a picturesque figure, 
but the father of the fatherland in such an association is as ridiculous 
as Frederick the Great galloping from a lost battle wth a quire of bad 
verses in one pocket and a ^*ia] of poison in the other. Cicero 
represents what is best in Roman society. He was a ntftwx hom» 
and had little to boast of in the imagines which were the pride and 
glory of the great Patrician houses. After him we have plenty of well 
preserved portraits of the Roman gentleinan, but they are such as to 
dazxle and confuse without delighting the eye. The whole is too 
plainly oventudied ; there is a lavishness in detail which vitiates 
ihe general effect The excesses of the Greek gentleman were 
picturesque divergences from a prim canon of taste ; the excesses 
of the Roman gentleman were only the painful exaggerations of a 
part that was already overdone. 

The gigantic resolution which inaugurated the triumph of the 
Teutonic nations altered social no less than political conditions. It 
ao excellent tonic, which braced a nervous system enervated 
nost past hope. It seemed at first as if this terrible physic would 
stroy the system with its pitiless ravages, but the wreckage of the 
"old constitution harboured vitality enough to support the strong 
infusion of new life. The immediate prototype of the modem 
gentleman occupies an interesting period of transition between the 
old and new schools. Christianity put a new face on many aspects 
of the old Roman civilisation, and from the nature of things it 
played havoc with the traditional sentiment of gentility. And here 
again there is no need to evolve the man of quality from the 
diecadenl literature of a dotard civilisation, for he is part and parcel 
of history. The Hfe of Augustine is a curious episode in the long 
history of this sentiment of gentility. In a little volume of the 
Confessions there are prefaced categorically the main facts of a life 
full of incident and interest styled "Compendiosa D. August ini vila 
cum suis annorum notis." ' Under \ht praapua facta is a statement 
of his conversion which marks an interesting di\-ision — '* Tandem 
Delesti voce pcrcussus convcrtitur." It is interesting because previous 
I the *' percussion " which effected his conversion he appears to have 

• 4$tguitiHi CwfiuimHM Libri Trtdicim. roriHU iftjmd Kogei ei F. Oienwritt 



198 



TIic Genliefttan* s Alagazine, 



typified the gentleman of the Inter I^tin culture. He "professes" 
rhetoric at Carthage, and pays overmuch respect to astrology ; he 
repairs to Rome ; later he professes the artcm oraioriam^ falls under 
the influence of Amhrose, and is gathered in sinum Eciksta 
€athoU(a, Under the lenz of an ascetic, and espedally an ascetic 
taking posterity for his father confessor, the virtues and ^ices of 
the gentleman are viewed with Utile discrimination and dismissed 
with scant respect. 

On the vanity of elegant accomplishments he delivers himself 
thus : "Scducebamur et seduccbamus, falsi atquc fallentes in vants 
cupiditatibus, el palam per dociritms, quas liberates vocanf^ occulte 
autcm falso nomine religionis ; hie superbi, ibi snpcrstitiosi, ubiquc 
vani. Hac popularis gloriae sectantes inanitatem, usque ad thcatricos 
plausus et contentiosa carmina, et agonem, coronarum foeDearum, ct 
spectaculorum nugas, ct intemperantiam libidinum." In the fourth 
book he asks with the indignation of rhetoric what the ten categories 
of Aristotle had availed him when a pupil under a Carthaginian 
master, who is humorously described lecturing with extraordinary 
vigour, " buccis typho crepantibus " ! He lays it rather bitterly to the 
charge of the liberal arts that they did not save him from the lust of 
the flesh : " Et quid raihi proderat, quod omncs libros artium quas 
liberales voeant, tunc nequissimus malarum cupidiiatura servus, per 
TOc ipsum Icgi et intellexi, quoscumque legerc polui?" 

But after his conversion and baptism he still retains his old 
sestheiic tastes, and in his most ecstatic moments he confesses how 
deeply the swell of mighty music moved him: "Quantum flevi 
in hymnis et canticis tuis, suave sonantis Ecclesi<c tuae vodbus 
commotus acriterl Voces illx influebant auribus meis, et eliqua- 
batur Veritas lua in cor mcum ; ct cxzcstuabai inde affectus pictatis, 
ct currcbant lacrj'mx, et bene mihi crai cum eis." 

Speaking of the pleasures of the ear in a similar strain he 
confesses his partiality : " Aliquando enim plus mihi videor honoris eis 
tribuere quamdecet; dum ipsis Sanctis diclis religiosius, et ardentiuB 
sentio moveri onlmos nostros in Bammam pietatis, ctun ita cantaatur, 
quam si non ita cantarentur." 

To be sure the reason of his commendation is a pious one : 
"Adducor . . . cantandiconsuetudinemapprobareinecclcsia; utpcr 
obleclamcnta auriura infirmior animus in affectum pietatis assurgat." 

He bridles himself also against the temptations of the eye, and 
in his enumeration of these he is evidently taking a retrospective 
glance at his owti former tastes. The passage is well worth quoting, 
and is in his usual omatc and abundant style. " Quam innumerabilii, 



TiU ^smUtatt of Uu M^dtrm GaUlamsm, 199 



rTuiis ambus «t apAda, m fcsbbos, oVginrnlB i nsb^ et oijnsqDftJ 
okofi bbootiaaibaift pktaris etiua dHvsbqoe fiemeoci^ atqtte 
«*«tti iiinwiiBm alque moderatam «( [mm agntfioixwem fec^sef 
tmi niuli< iMifaitL irtriirtrnifit hnrnfnrr w1 illiTrhfir nrrrlnrmn 1 ' 
Tlw Biodem jyjMhnnri of our o«n bad iriQ reoMnber wiUi j 
pride tloC lie does oot derive his Htfe exdodvety &oai the social 
^-irtoes of HePcnian. There ms an abonghul snb«tnte which 
provided the musexy far a more preSeodoiB ioipoKtaiioa. Befonti 
the Roonm soldier or the Romftxicuhnzc had pBSSed into these idaodi: 
there wen gentlefolk of a son, people of quality with an innate 
of the finer things around them. Men of leieen hkail 
I or Dion Cassias were at pains to git^e a studied mtsnpi«»^ 
1 of the distant islandersL A patxiotic Scotsman attributes 
I paxdonable superstition snch descriptiona of the Caledonian of j 
I dmes as include him in a species of " semi-aquatic anitna^ ' 
who passed the greater portion of bis time sirimming in the lochs.** 
Grtek roDumce and the tales of CirtruTeUed men boldly dis- 
cotined of ooe-lboted folk and of strange fantasies in the ro}-al lijia] 
"Thulc. "They" (the ancients), says Gibbon, "sometimes amuscdJ 
• ttncy by filling the \-acam spaces irith headless men, or rather 
with horrid and cloven-footed satyrs, with fabulous 
anrs, and with human pigmies, who waged a bold and doubtful 
lirai^ire against the cranes." Of fiction and ftiiry tale of this sort 
nothing can be made ; all wc have to go upon in the way of conjec- 
ture ore the KjoAkeNmoddin^ or kitchen middens, the relics of the 
fiift Age, yet even this prehistoric epoch has its affinity with the 
later ages of culture. " Even if many linlcs in the chain that binds 
^tbe present to the past be tost, notwithstanding the facility with 
rhich the Scot has been credited for constructing a pedigree, wc 
have doubtless his living representative among us still, were we only 
acute enough to discover him."^ A rudimeniary conception of art 
expressed itself in homely and natural fashion. Lubbock speaks < 
the passion for self-omamcntation as prevailing among the lowest, at] 
much as if not more than among the more civilised races of man- 
itind.' Another hbtorian finds in the beads and amulets of the 
gra%*e] deposits, in the charncl houses of a rude and hoary antiquity 
in the rudely ornamented urm, in the axe-heads of exquisite work- 
man&liip, in the mouldering relics of the funeral feast, an cxpressio 
, of the ambition to realise one's strength in the contcmpkilion of the 
firork of one's bands, an impressive monitor "that so it has been 

' Mackinnon, CitUufv in Earljr SfOtiaaJ^ 



20O 



The Gentleman s Magazine^ 



from of yore, for the same soul moves in primeval savage and 
modem philosopher, though it reveals itself after a different fashion." 

The West slowly took the impression of Roman culture. It 
passed from Gaul to the British shores ; and for long it was accounted 
the fascination of a magic for the undoing of liberty, a delicious but 
resistless power. That Thule possessed a professor for itself is 
probably no more than the fancy of Martial and Juvenal, but that 
Britain was the conquest of the Gallic schoolmaster is one side of 
sober truth. 

It would be idle to look for any great refinement of taste among 
a wild untamed people who were as yet only the bewildered 
spectators of an invader who came with stranger and more potent 
weapons than the sword and flaming brand. When at length the 
glory of the new culture and the religion of Christ had stirred tliem 
to emulation, they turned to the building of abiding monuments, 
which with their grave and decorous proportions were the silent 
prophets of the triumphs of western architecture. The genius and 
cuUure of every age have studied to reproduce themselves in 
the elegance and magnificence of public buildings. "L'archi- 
tccture a ^l^ jusqu'au quinzieme siecle le registre principal de 
rhumaniti5 . . . toutc id^c populairc comme loute loi religieuse 
a eu ses monuments ; le genre humain enfin n'a rien pens^ 
d'important qu'il ne I'ait ^crit en pierre . . . L'architccture est le 
grand Uvre de I'humanitt!, I'cxprcssion principale dc Phommc & ses 
divers tftats de ddveloppement, soit comme force, soit comme 
intelligence."' 

Romance has made King Arthur the centre of a large cj-cle of 
legends, and the character of the king has been woven at the poet's 
pleasure and fancy to wear well on soldier, saint, or gentleman. He 
was born of some ancient God, the idol of bardic enthusiasm, but 
under the hand of Geoffrey rose into splendid prominence in 
mcdiicval romance. At the end of the twelfth century, when a historian 
had to clothe his thoughts in language suitable to the exacting taste 
of the gentle life, Jocdinc, the monk of Fumess Abbey, made a 
biography of the less shadowy figure of Kentigern. It was his 
business to present to his readers not so much a saint as the hero of 
a modern novel, *' to clothe so precious a treasure, if not in gold tissue 
and silk at least in clean linen." Of Kentigern himself nothing can 
be known with any certainty : it is doubtful if his rigid asceticism 
would fall in with the easy m /^ • • ,an in orden 

a span of ceiUuries later. 11. . ' _ : :. of him that 

* Victor Hugo, N6tn-l>*m* 4* iiaiu 




I 

I 



Tks Evoiution of (he Modem Gtnthman. 201 

** tbe Sight or tooch of the most beautiful maiden had no more effect 
tqpon him than the hardest fiint" For the age of the biographer we 
[ this was a most unpalatable reminiscence — even of a saint 
; arc not surprised to find that the Celtic monk savoured more 
of tbe gentleman than the Calvinistic Puritin. He tempered his 
piety with that cool sense of refreshment which King James sighed 
for in the Presbyterian ism of his Northern KJngdom. The Celt 
indulged the human passion for ornament, and his piety glowed 
liom an environment dainty and delicate with a hundred and one 
pleanng trifles. "Even yet," says Dr. Mackinnon, "it requires no 
small courage on the part of the candidate for the favour of a Presby- 
terian congregation to appear on the day of the preadiing match with 
a ring on his finger ! I hare known more than one aspirant for a 
parish who was prudent enough to denude himself of this emblem of 
worldlincss, and carry it in his vest pocket for the occasion.'* Bui those 
innocent concessions to refined habits of living did nothing to 
traduce the Celtic monk from the purpose of his calling. By an 
ingenious trick of plastic art, the representations of Pagan mytho- 
logy were enlisted in the service of the Christian Church. The 
gorgeous bestiaries of the Middle Ages are traceable to the cultivation 
of morality by the symbolism of animal life. The centaurs and 
winged genii were bat the old Pagan pictures set in a new frame. 
Orpheus was rapidly converted into the Good Shepherd, and the 
dragon which guarded Andromeda made a tolerable whale of sufficient 
capacity at least for Jonah. That immortal allegory, richly sculp- 
tfifcd, served the ecclesiastics well when speech was helpless before 
the great mysteries of religion. It may have been a little crude, but 
as a symbol of the resurrection the interpretation was unmistakable 
and irresistible. Those who wish to harvest all the attainable 
information of a bjgone culture must examine with their own eyes 
the quaint museum of curios that tdl thctr own story of the gentle. 
life of the dark centuries. 

Epilogue. 

The eighteenth century, the century of gentlemen, is most represen- 
tative of the style and sentiment of modem gentility. The preceding 
centuries contented themselves rather with conning isolated lessons 
learned from the old schools of fashion and culture. There is to be 
found a curious gentry in the p.igcs of history and romance ; a 
robuster sort tj'piGcd by Duke Humphrey of Oloucester, a man of 
ttttexs who combined his bookish tastes with a genius for intrigue 
in politics and the embarrassments of love. There are the gentle 

TOL. ccxci. so. 2048. p 



202 



The Genliemans Magazine, 



pUgrims of Chaucer's creation, who rode upon a day to Canterbury in 
all the bravery in which the observant worldly wise poet si;t them 
forth. There are the bold knights who could pay the prettiest com- 
pliments to the Virgin Queen, and win or lose a fortune in the high 
seas with the reckless gaiety of the pirate who was nothing if not a 
gentleman. There are the knavish gentlemen of history like 
Wharton, whose manners were shining and irresistible, who was 
nercrthcless, in the conceit of the old Tory, " the most universal 
villain I ever knew " — the Satan of apostate Whiggism. 

But my Lord Chesterfield of the eifjhleentli century is the best epi- 
logue of the fine sentiment. He gathers together all the subject matter 
pertaining to it, and presents his son with the ethics of gentility in a 
body of precise and terse laws. In his advice there is a punctilious- 
ness that would bear comparison with Aristotle, though further com- 
parison is impossible in the matter of morals. Such comments as 
the following must have a familiar ring to those who are on much 
less intimate terms with Aristotle's Ethics than with their Bible : 
" To conclude this article : never walk fast in the street, which is a 
mark of vulgarity, ill befitting the character of a gentleman or a man 
of fashion, though it may be tolerable in a tradesman ; " or, " In my 
mind there is notliing so illiberal and so ill bred as audible laughter. It 
is low buffoonery, or silly accidents, that always excite laughter ; and tliat 
is what people of sense or breeding should show themselves above." 
It was Chesterfield's experience, he tells his son, that virtue to keep 
its lustre must be polished like gold. But the furbished virtues must 
shower their blandishments on all, not merely on *' shining and dis- 
tinguished figures, such as ministers, wils, and beauties." The com- 
mon run of ugly women and middling men were to be courted with the 
fiameassiduity, forthat was the price of popularity and general applause, 
Mauvaise honte was productive only of bitter animosities. " I have 
been in this case, and often wished an obscure acquaintance at the 
de%il for meeting and taking notice of me, when I was in what I 
thought and called fine company." But the results he found were 
unpleasant. Music, to be sure, was a liberal art, but a man piping 
himself at a concert was in degradation. A gentleman should pay 
the fiddler, but never fiddle himself I His obser\'atlon on die osten- 
tation of learning is very shrewd and discerning : " Wear your 
learning like your watch, in a private pocket, and do not pull it out, 
and strike it, merely to show thai >^u liave one." Polished and 
shining manners are prelude and burden of the strain ; but nothing 
overmuch, mannered^or moralled. " We may bliiue," says my lord, 
" like the sun in the temperate 2oac, without scorcliing." 

DANIEL ;0IIN$T02r. 



ac^ 



THE RED KINGS DREAM, 

■■ If he left off dROSD^* TveeOedee ntforc^ ** yxCi. be =c«^eR. Y» ic 
od^ m sort afdngkihisdmH. If ibiilzacvaa ^a «ue joc'<£ £9 cc: ^c« 
cndle." — 72^ tU Imkim^ Gta. 

NIGH17S hodi— azid aE &e deep Uixsh roses psle, 
Tlie Tallej steeped in dev, acd o'er the bul 
(Cravn'd with dark fizs) a, shzoodin^ misty tuI — 

One «atcfaii% o'er the ymr, Tfaeie all is sd3. 
And seems bat to exist for those looe eyes 

Nov fcffping T^3. Lov there sees the star 
Which faci^iitly lit the aznre er'nizig skieSf 

And some £um streak of grey, from East afar, 
Tdb of %. moniiz^ when the world will be 

Kot for <s>e watch alone, but l^bily gleam 
For many ; and there dawns reali^ — 

Or are we alwap i^iantoms in a cream ? 

Whose dream ? My dream ? Soreiy the dream is mine 

Here^ in the silence. Yet, at waking day. 
Love ! I would rather that the dream was thine 

Than I without thee walked Love's living way ! 
Thy dream ! Bat then at this calm hush, when night 

Broods o'er still sleeping day, life's mysteries 
Seem nearer, truer, than the deeds of light — 

My soul and thine alike as part of these. 
Our dream ? Then, waking, shall each cease to be ? 

With dawn of day the rose is deeper hue ; 
When day shall dawn will not my love for thee 

Know all that sooice of truth whence comes the true ? 

O Red King, dreaming ! what are we and ours 
If thou dost wake ? And even what are we 

Whilst thou dost slumber thro' our living hours 7 
And what is life, and what reality ? 



204 '^^^^ GeniUmafis Magazine* 

All that we hnotv is change. The fact of seeing 

Stamps it but passing shadow, which may last 
One year or many ; but it's changeful being, 

So late the future, soon must be the past. 
Thou wak'st, we pass away — but passing where ? 

Going out But what is outside ? Dies the flame : 
And has earth passed with that one flick'ring flare? 

Did the faint rushlight give the world a name? 

Comes there a colour o'er the rose — a sound 

Where hang the creepers in untrain'd array, 
Festoon'd for fcathcr'd homes ; a rustling sound 

Of wings, to flap the freshen'd air of day. 
The chill stream bathes the feet of rising dawn, 

The river bird knows where the rushes bend 
With Morning's breath, the dew be-tasselt'd awn, 

Her pink-tipped fingers raise and greeting send 
From rosy lips o'er all the earlli. Dost still 

Slumber adown the wood, strange, sleeping King ? 
There is a golden glow o'er yonder hill, 

And at thy feet hath sprung the fairy ring 
From warm, moist earth, which all thy dreams have made 

Enchanted ground. Then, if I, dream-form'd, rove 
Only while thou art here in slumber laid, 

Dream thou of Earth's one dream of Heaven — Ia/h ! 

I am but living in that dream ? I care 

For that not one spent petal of the rose — 
So where I am my love is also there ! 

Then let the Red King's eyes in slumber close. 
Or if he wake and we are outside? Well — 

We are outside together^ and dim space 
Has no black darkness. In a dream, to dwell 

With Love were worth full many firmer place ! 
The pines stand sentinel to guard this way, 

The cup-moss here is at its loveliest. 
Dream on t I'hc cold cares of prosaic day 

May gain a glamour from this couch of rest. 

The waters thro* the cold, dull afternoon 
Flow on. The sunny ripple comes again. 

The silver beams of Autumn's harvest moon 
Will follow long dark nights. And what U gain 



Tk$ Red Kin^^s Dream, 305 

Is loss 80 soon — ^how do we even dare 

To think that such is life— in troth and all? 
The flitting shadows mock us everywhere, 

There is no answer to the spirit call 
For substance. O I Red King, I kiss thy brow, 
Sleep on ! For thou hast dream'd sweet dreams for me, 

And what was not sweet I forgive thee now — 
*Tis such a fraction of eternity 

Thy slumber takes. Yet would I pray thee, sleep. 
Dream on ! For sometimes waking is a sorrow ; 

While in this dream, I know, but shadows weep, 
Bat cannot tell who weeps in that to-morrow ! 

E. U. RUTHERFORD. 



3o6 



Tke GentUmati s Magazine, 



TABLE TALK. 



A Holiday Suggestion. 

TO those (including, as I hope, the majority of my readers) who do 
not find the slaughter of grouse or any other form of destruc- 
tion an indispensable accompaniment of a holiday, and who have not 
mapped out schemes of Alpine climbing or seaside ablution, and yet 
feel it incumbent on tl)em to quit London for awhile — a duty or 
obligation which weighs lightly on me — let me commend the 
revisiting of some group of our English cathedral churches. Of 
course, I do not prohibit an exploration of the whole. Nowhere, to 
my thinking, can repose be found more peaceful, or more enchanted, 
than in a quiet cathedral close with the daws swarming around 
the towers and clamouring without disturbing the calm. Mine 
is a seal without knowledge. I am shamefully ignorant of archi- 
lecture of all sorts, and especially of ecclesiastical architecture, yet 
I know no form of man's work that appeals to me so directly and 
so strongly. I do not think I could bear to Uve the rest of my life 
in a place such as Wells, Lichfield, or Ely, as I would scarcely on 
any conditions forswear the intellectual collision and unrest of 
London. Yet I am not sure that to do so, to spend one's life drink- 
ing in and absorbing, so to speak, every phase of beauty and delight 
to be drawn from one Gothic building, such as Wells, would not be 
as pleasurable and remunerative as retiring, as Byron suggests, to the 
desert for a dwelling-place. 

With one fail spirit for my minister. 

For every cathedral church, and I know all that are within practical 
rcacii in Western Europe, has a physiognomy as distinct as that of a 
beloved woman. There may be rhapsody iu the comparison, but 
there is no irreverence. 

Engush Cathedral Churches. 

LET the reader summon up his memories, for I will not assume 
that there is one who cannot do so, of Durham, York, and 
Lincohi, of reterborougli, Norwich, and Ely, of Cloacesler, 
Worcester, and Hereford, of Canterbury, of Salisbury, of Winches- 
ter, of Exeter, of Wells, and say, if he dares, wliich he likes beat I 



Table Talk. 



aoy 



use no qualifying adjective concerning these edifices, since, in fact, I 
[lack the courage so to do. The language of eulogy seems weak and 
powerless to cbatacterise our superb fanes. It seems to me as if any 
one of them might justify a life's devotion, and there are, I believe, 
those who dwell beside them who yield them such. I am willing to 
admit the claims of edifices such as are to be seen in Rouen, 
Amiens, Rheims, Paris, Orleans, Bourges, and Chartres, some of 
them, perhaps, more brilliant than anything that we can show. But 
our English architects seem to have consciously or unconsciously 
absorbed the influence of English surroundings, and our English 
churches have a reposeful beauty which I find nowhere else. Let the 
reader pardon mean outburst in which I do not often indulge. The 
summer brings with tt "immortal longings," and I would like to 
infect one here and there of my readers with the notion of breathing 
the balmy atmosphere of the English close, and contemplating once 
more the glories of an English cathedral 

A Society for the Protection of the English Language. 

A FRIEND of mine, a scholar of high position and editor of 
a well-known blerary periodical, suggests the formation of 
a society for the protection of the English language, and surely 
something of the kind seems to be needed. In presence of the 
assaults made upon it by those who should be its defenders, it 
calls for protectors as loudly as do the children, animals, and birds 
which we are always trying to defend. Possessors of one of the 
noblest and richest tongues that man has devised or obtained, we 
treat it with neglect equally incomprehensible and shameful. It 
is painful to contrast Uie cultivation of style which prevails in 
Fiance and extends to Spain, Italy, and Belgium, with the neglect, 
almost amounting to contempt, exhibited in England. Ignorance 
and rapidity of production are responsible for the slovenliness of 
much of our Press work. It would be futile, however, to pretend 
that the writers for the Press are the only offenders. Scarcely 
one of our producers of history, science, or beUes lettres is there that 
extends the slightest consideration or homage to our language. 
Most of them, indeed, might almost be charged with mangling 
purposely the bosom from which they draw their sustenance. 

Respect Paid to Ehcush in Past Times. 

IT was not always thus. In those Tudor times in which our 
language took the shape, lovely and majestic, tt has long borne, 
and stiU at times exhibits, men prized it as 

Tbe richest Ireaiure that out wit kffoids. 



208 



The GenthmarCs Magazine. 



In lines which should live for ever in men's hearts, Saraucl Daniel, 
the poet, animated by a fine spirit of prophecy, asks — 

Ot should we, carelesse, come beluode the rest 

In powre of wordcs, that goc bcrore in worth* 
Whereas our accent, cquall to the best, 

Is able grtfttcr wonders to bring forlh : 
When all that cucr holler spirits expresi 

Cumea bellred by iJie patience of the North ? 
And who, in time, knowes whither we maj send 

The treasure of our tongue, to what stringe shores 
This gaine of our t)est'gIory shall be sent, 

T* enrich vnVnowing Nations with oor stores? 
What worlds in th' yet xnfonned Occident 

May come rcfm'd with Ih* accents that arc ours? 
Or, who can tell for what great worke in hand 
The grotnes of onr Stile is now ordain'd 7 

I quote, not as I fear for the first timev though it is very long 
since I used them, these words, the beauty and justice of which can- 
not easily be ovcr-praiscd, using for the purpose, since the poem 
whence ihey are taken, " Musophilus," is not even now easily acces- 
sible in a modern form, the edition of 1602. The mission of our 
tongue is not yet accomplished, and beside the " unformed Occi- 
dent," with which men's minds in Daniel's time were filled, we are 
spreading the "accents that are otirs " over "the gorgeous East," 
and orzT an austral world of which Daniel never dreamed. Who 
shall limit the extent or the sway of our language ? ^Vho also dares 
talk of the greatness of our (modern) style, or dream of foreign 
nations being " refined " by such accents as wc now use ? 

SVLVAKUS URBAN. 



THE 



GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE. 

September 1901. 



A WILD IRISHMAN'S EXPLOIT. 




Bv John K. Leys. 

MR, JOSEPH BELLRINGERwastheeditorandsoleproprictoc 
of the Weekly Mirror {and Cn'tu), a steady-going, old- 
fiashiotiedi weekly journal. The Mirror had been established nuny 
yean. It had had a considerable reputation in its day, but that day 
was now long past; lately il had not been doing very well, for it had 
been eclipsed by younger and more dashing rivals. It did not 
pursue any special path, but meandered overall things in heaven and 
earth in a sober and somewhat melancholy fashion, from week to 
week and from year to year. 

Mr. Bellringer resembled his journal. He too was steady, old- 
fiishioned, stiff, somewhat feeble, and very discursive in his talk. 
But at the office of the Mirror, the old man was an autocrat His 
sub-editor, Thomas Larkyns, was little more than a proof-reader, 
except for the fact that he wrote an article and a column of personal 
paragraphs for the paper every week. 

On one point only had Mr. Bellringer yielded to his subordinate's 
suggestions, Mr. Larkyns had represented that it was absolutely 
necessary to have a column or two of Personal paragraphs — " Personal 
Tit-bits " — the sub-editor wished to call them. After much argument 
the new feature in the paper was announced ; but Mr. Bellringer 
with a frown drew his heavy goose-quill through the title beloved of 
the sub-editor, and substituted " Personal Notes and Anecdotes." 
In all other matters it was the same. Nothing of an objectionable 
or even a questionable tendency c\'er appeared in the Mirror, One 
might have thought that the sheet was issued by the Religious Tract 
Sodcty^ so free was it from scandal, periifiagt^ or frivolous matter. 
VOL. ccxci. Ko. 3049. (^ 



il 



A 



3IO 



The Geniiemans Magazine. 



And it may be imagined that it was often extremely difficult Tor Mr. 
I^arkyns to find — as it was his duty to do every week— a supply of 
*' personal " paragraphs which would suit the fastidious laste of Mr. 
Bellringer, and would be, at the same time^ worth printing. 

It was the height of the season ; London was very full ; and the 
Mirror was pursuing the even tenor of its way, when Mr. Bellringer 
was suddenly summoned to Brussels, to see an aged aunt, from 
whom he had long expected a fat legacy. So, although it was 
Thursday morning (an important day at the office of the Mirror)^ 
he made preparations to set out at once. 

" You must write the leader yourself this week," he said to Mr. 
Ijrkyns. " Be moderate ; above all things be judiciously moderate. 
I think the new commercial treaty with Denmark will be as good a 
subject as any. And do take care of your * Personal Notes.' Don't 
be too personal, I would say. Give no one any ground for complaint. 
I shall be back by Monday, I expect. — Good-day." 

Friday rooming found Mr. Thomas Larkyns at the office^ 
laboriously constructing top-heavy sentences with no meaning in 
particular, about a commercial treaty with Denmark, when the door 
of his sanctum was pushed rudely open, and a brother of the quill, 
a jovial Irishman named Dennis O'tTaherty, walked into the room. 

"Get away, Dennis ; I'm busy," said Larkyns virtuously. 

*' Where's the ouldcock?" responded O'Flahert)', nodding bis 
head towards the editor's room. 

" Gone to Brussels." 

" The Divil he has ! TTiiti ye'll just come with me. Tommy, my 
lad. Lightfoot and Marrablc and one or two more of us arc going 
to make up a party. We lunch at the Cock Pheasant at halfpast two, 
and go to see Tottie Howard in ' Sly-Bools ' in the evening. To- 
morrow we all run down to Marrable's place at Richmond. His 
better halfs away. We'll play whist or poker and drink whiskey, all 
Saturday, Saturday night and Sunday, and come back to town on 
Monday morning mightily refreshed. What say you, old man?" 

" rd be delighted to go with you," said Larkyns ruefully; " but 
I've got this confounded article to write, and a heap of proofs to 
conect, and " 

" Is that all ? Go on grinding out the meal, and I'll lake a look 
at these little slips." 

So saying Mr. O'FIaherty threw aside his hat, lit a cigar, tilted 
bis chair back on its hind Icg<:, and picked up a proof-sheet. 

Long before the article was finished, the proofs had been disposed 
of ; and the Irishman left lus friend on the underf landing that he 



A Wild Irishman s Exploit. 



211 



would turn up at tbe Cock Pbeasaai at half-past two, or as soon after 
as be could. 

Never had an article given Lark)7is sach trouble as this one did. 
The sentences would not come right ; they would not hang together 
even decently. A thousand times the young fellow cursed his 
employer's folly in tying him down to a barren subject about which 
it was next to impossible to say anything. But the most tiresome 
tasks gel finished at last. The article was at length completed and 
despatched to the printers, with instructions that the proofs were to 
be forwarded to him at the Cock Pheasant. 

It was past three before Tom Larkyns joined his friends ; and 
lunch (which was practically their dinner) was nearly over. How- 
ever, he ate and drank heartily, nuking up for lost time. After his 
meal he drank the best part of a boUle of sherry ; and he had just 
reached an extremely comfortable stage when a waiter brought in a 
note for him. 

He lore open the envelope, glanced at the scrawl within, and 
uttered a cry of dismay. 

" What's the matter? " asked one of the company. 

" Matter enough ! " cried the luckless journalist, dropping his 
head upon his hand. " I'm ruined \ I've forgotten my column of 
* Personal Notes I "* It was true. The unmanageable article had 
so filled his mind that be had entirely forgotten the " Notes." 

" Wc started them just a month ago," said I.arkyns, " and I know 
my chief will never forgive my going to press without them. Besides, 
I haven't anything ready to fill the space. What shall 1 do ? I'm 
in no condition to write now." 

"Hold up your head, Tommy," said O'Flahcrty. "I'm the 
soberest man present, /'//write your pars. Get me a dozen sheets 
of note-paper and a pen," he added to the waiter. 

Larkyns grasped his friend's hand with the effusive gratitude of a 
who has taken as much wine as he can conveniently carry; and 
O'Flaherty retired into a corner with the writing materials. 

In an hour and a half the task was completed ; and O'Flaherty 
carried his goodnature so far as to go down to the printers an hour 
or two later, and see tbe paper put through the final stages before 
going to press. He then joined the rest of the party at the theatre. 

The Richmond programme was carried out ; and on Monday 
forenoon I^j-kyns entered the office of the Mirror a little pale, and 
a little shaky, but otherwise none the worse for his excursion. 

" Mr. Bellrlnger has returned, sir," said one of the clerks to bim. 

"Ohl" 



313 



The Gentlemans Magazine. 



Tom pulled himself together, and entered the editor's room. 
Mr. BcUringer wa*-' sitting at his writing-table, his elbows on the table, 
and his head betvrecn his hands. 

*'Good-inoming, sir," said Mr. Larkyns, with a feeble smile. 

The editor looked up, and the 5ul>cditor's smile died away. 
Mr. BcUringer was glaring at him like a wild beast ! Then suddenly, 
with a half-articulate cry, the old man jumped up from his seat, 
sprang on his sub-editor, grasped him by the coat collar with both 
hands, and shook the unfortunate journalist as hard as be could. 

" Mr. Bdlringer ! Sir ! ^Vhy do you—? What— do you mean ? " 
gasped l^rkyns, as he swayed to and Uo. Mr. Bellringer had been a 
powerful man In bis youth, and was still rather muscular. 

" Mean I " shouted the owner of the Mirror ; *' I mean that you 
have ruined me ! At least you have ruined my journal. Such infernal 
impudence 1 never heard of ! But you shall suffer for it I Oh, but you 
shall pay for it dearly \ I will encourage tliesc people to prosecute you 
— criminal information, of course. You'U get on an average, I should 
say, six months for each offence— say three years' imprisonment. 
That will settle you, you villain ! That will teach you to sting the bosom 
that warmed you, and bring an old man's grey hairs with sorrow " 

" Look here, sir," said Larkyns 6rmly, " I'm verry sorry if any- 
thing's gone wrong, but really I don't know what it is." 

This cool impertinence (as it seemed) almost stupefied Mr, 
Bellringer. 

« Do you mean to tell me," he said, " that you do not knffw 
what you have done ? Have you no conscience? No sense of decency? 
No brains left you?" 

"If it's anything in the Mtrrory I may tell you I haven't seen 
a copy of the last issue. I've been in the country — for my health's 
sake— and have just returned." 

Mr. Bellringer's passion mastered him once more. 

" Rtad that \ " he screamed» thrusting a copy of bis journal 
under hi^ sub-editor's nose. " Read it, sir 1 Read it aloud ! *' And 
Mr. I-arkyns read as follows : — 

"The upper ten (if one may so speak) of the ecclesiastical world 
is talking of nothing but the unfortunate scrape— to call it by no 
harsher name— in which the Bishop of one of the northern dioceses 
has unfortunately become entangled. It appears that about a month 
ago his lordship took a railway journey from London to his own 
cathedral city, travelling in a smoking carriage, for (as everybody 
knows) his lordship is in private an inveterate lover of the n^ed. 
AVlicn the prelate chose hia caxriage it had already one occu]>ant— a 



A Wild IrUkm4u£s ExpkU. 2x3 

hdy well known to the fteqoenten of the Fimdi^ Theatre for her 
»kin as a d am s n ts t . TlieBisbop'sfriendssay that there «u no otbcr 
aeat m asoMildogcairiageavailabk; cioqitonefilled bjrsoDieaitisans 
of his lordship^s flock in a state of semi-intoiifation ; but another 
accoont states diat iri»en tbc guard with some drflknlty made room 
d at w htie, his lordahqi^ ^andug at tfiechanning £Keof the yomg 
hdj opposite^ pointedlj idbaed to move Be this as it majr, diere 
can be littte doubt dsat the faisbop and the ^EuuwtrtxaTdkd togelfacr 
from ten A.11. — ^well, sereol boms. It is iriiisperad that the joang 
lady paited from his kvdship mider the finn impresnon dsat die was 
engaged to be matiied to him ; and that the result voold ineritafaly 
have been an action for bccadi of pitmuse^ had it not been for the 
weU4nown &ct that his lordship is a manied man— as nrodi married, 
in fiul, as was Bishop Proodie himselt At present, the shot hangs 
fire ; bntas a man's being married is no legal bar to an action of 
this nature^ we may expect some day soon an annuing trial; unless 
the fair actress consents to c omp ro mi se her ciaim. We can anthorita- 
tively contradict the report that his lorddiq> is honocary prdate to 
the Chnrdi and Stage Guild. On the contrary, his locdsfaq> has 
always been considered a strict Evai^elical." 

" Horrible ! Infamous ! Atrodons ! " cried Mr. BeUringer. 

Mr. I^rkyns groaned, and the paper fell from his hands. He 
remembered only too wen. The traitor OTIaberty had done this thing. 

" Go on, sir ! Go on 1 " screamed Mr. Bdlringer. 

Mr. Larkyns went on, and found that two columns were filled 
with paragr^hs of this description. In many cases hints were given 
as to the identity of die persons lampooned, faints which might apply 
equally weD to any one of half a dozen pcop^ " A maiden lady of 
uncertain age, and yet more uncertain temper," but related to one 
of the oldest families in England, had clandestinely married her 
youngest footman. The sale of Dunderton Castle, "which our 
readers will find advertised in all the leading dailies," had become 
necessary, owing to the frightful losses which his Grace had sustained 
at baccarat And so on. 

** Wdl, sir, what have you to say to all this ? " cried Mr, Belltinger, 
in a voice that was hoarse with rage. " I have had visits from 
several indignant gentlemen, each supposing himself to be the 
brother of the lady who had married her footman. As for the story 
about the Bishop, it*s simply blasphemous — shockii^ Then, the 
Duke of Dunderton " 

" But— but there isnt any Duke of Dunderton ! " ejacuhued Mr. 
LarkynsL 



214 



The Gentleman s Magazine, 



" It doesn't matter," said Mr. Bellringer severely, " the names 
may be fictitious, but the persons are real^enough, or at any rale the 
slanders are — these gross^ false, wicked calumnies are real. Can 
you deny that^ sir? " 

There was no answering arguments Uke this, and the unlucky 
sub-editor began to explain that under the stress of work he had 
left it to a friend on the press to write the paragraphs ; but the 
proprietor of the Mirror would not listen to him. 

" It doesn't matter, sir, whether it was by utter n^lcct of your 
duties or by wilful malice that you allowed such abominable false- 
hood.<; — or childish nonsense — to appear in my journal," said Nf r, 
Bellringer, in a lofty yet angry tone. " Meantime the least you can 
do is to sign this Retractation and Apolog)*." So saying the old man 
placed before the delinquent the draft of an apology so humble in 
its tone that Larkyns's cheeks flushed as he read it. Still, he reflected, 
some explanation was due, and he was not in a position to stand 
upon trifles. He seized a pen and signed the sheet. 

" Now you can go, and I hope never to see you again," said 
Mr. Bellringer with a grim smile, as he locked the Apology up in 
his drawer. 

">Vbat, sir? Am I dismissed?" cried poor Larkyns, 

*' Dismissed ? Certainly. What else did you expect, pray ? " 

The young man's heart seemed to leap into his mouth. He 
turned on his heel without a word, and walked out into the street, 
the pitiless London streets, which seem to the unfortunate colder 
and harder than any other streets in the world. 

All that day he spent in trying to find another situation— unsuccess- 
fully. On Tuesday he fell in with O'Flaherty, who received Larkyns's 
story with shouts of untrammelled laughter, till the melancholy end 
was reached. The Irishman was sincerely sorry, which did not do 
the unhappy man much good. 

On Thursday I.Arkyns remembered that the Mirrcr owed him a 
little money, and he thought he had Iwtter call and see the cashier. 
He did so, and learned to his surprise that Mr. Bellringer had not 
been at the office since Monday. A little further inquiry made him 
aware that the unfortunate journalist, tormented by threats of actions 
for damages and criminal prosecutions, and wincing under the 
sarcasms of his S)*nipathising friends, had immured himself in his 
house at Bayswater, abandoning himself to the gloomiest fore- 
bodings. As for the Mirror^ Mr. Bellringer had apparently left it to 
take care of itself. Except tlie abject Apology which Larkyna had 
signed under the impression that it would be accepted as an atone- 



A JTild /rzsJkmam's Ej^£mI. 213 



ment far his Bnk, tfaezc VZ5 Doctxg 3x trpc kx t=e aex2 issae. b 
looked fts if OTUmty^ ntdssed jett mnUpKove tbe dsxfa^ilov 
of the poor old Mimr. 

When L«ifcFi>s had ascntaoied in tfai^ be west to a taiartt«here 
he knew he sfaould prafaaUrCnd OHHihalT and conSded 10 Uaa 
tike &ct of die i i iM i ihrrt decease of the J&nr. ■■ And in bt^ 
DenniSk nn'not 90R7* he added, "far dae l in diui ie oU as^ Bdl- 
TiDgcr, has the Apofegj- he vTUss from me in trpe, readf far insertioi^ 
with my name in feoen half an indi kng at die fcoL I should 
neier be ahle to hold np my head i^in if that thing vere 
pobBsbed." 

The Iridinian went on sipping his brandj and water for some 
little time in silence : then suddenly he started up^ and absohi^j 
focgettiz^ to empty his glass called oa^ ** Wait for me here ! * to his 
friend, and homed from the room. 

An hour — two hoars— passed, aod OTIaherty returned, evidently 
in a state of great excitement 

" I've done it. Tommy," said he. 

"Done what?* 

"IVe bought the Mirror V 

" But — but yCMi've got no money to pay for it." 

"It doesn't matter. Ill keep it going; that's the main thing. I 
made the old man take bills ; and if I can't meet them out of the 
profits di the paper I'm no worse off than I was before. Will you 
have a half share with me ? " 

"On these terms — that I take profits, and can't pay losses? — 
certainly ! " said Larkyns, staring at his friend. 

"I consider you're entitled to that," said the Irishman; "but 
come along, my boy. You and I have to write a whole number of 
the Mirror before this time to-morrow ; so there's no rest for you or 
me this night" 

When Mr. Bellringer opened his copy of the Mirror on Saturday 
rooming expecting to find in it the Apology (a masterpiece, he 
flattered himself, in that species of literature), he found instead the 
following Editorial, which proceeded, it is needless to say, from the 
iiadle pen of Mr. D. O'Flaherty :— 

" To our great surprise and intense amusement, we find that the 
column of * Personal Notes ' in our last issue, which we intended as 
a piece of harmless fun, has been taken seriously by some worthy 
pec^Ie. It may sound incredible, but such is the fact Enraged 
fathers and furious brothers have called and threatened us with 
sudden and unprovided death because we said an old lady had 





Tk$ GentUniafi s Magasine^ 

r footman ! She can't liave had €tH those fathers and 
From every diocese in the province of York old ladies 
female) have undertaken a journey to London on purpose 
us, and ask us to tell them in the strictest confidence if It 
[ear bishop who travelled with the actress. Nay more, we 
il letters from the wives of bishops' chaplains, offering to 
2 our veracious anecdote by evidence of similar incidents 
>f to themselves. Alas, for poor human nature 1 " 
Flaherty followed this up with a series of paragraphs more 
more amusing than the former ones, as well as a couple 
to correspond. The old subscribers to the paper were 
but the paper sold, and succeeded better than it had ever 
le reign of Mr. Bellringer. O'Haheny and his friend 
exceedingly \ and they are flourishing still. 



"HE NOVELS OF PEREZ GALDOS. 



B£FOR£ the beginning of the present year few persons outside 
of Spain had ever heard of Benito PtSrcz Galdds. One of 
his novels, " Dona Perfecta," had, it is true, been translated into 
several European languages, but the translations had made little 
stir even in literary circles. Suddenly, however, in the 5rst quarter 
of 1 90 1 there appeared at Madrid a play called "Electra," which 
obtained a success such as few dramas have ever liad in Spain, and 
which has gained for P^rez GaldtSs a European reputation. Not, 
indeed, on account of the literary merit of the piece, for if " Electra " 
had been performed in Paris or London it would probably have 
been pronounced mediocre and uninteresting. But it so chanced 
that the first representation of the play coincided with the most 
violent outburst of anti clericalism which Spain has known since 
the days of the Liberal Minister, Mendizabal, in 1836. The public, 
embittered against the friars by the privileges enjoyed in respect of 
taxation by those semi-religious bodies, was raised to fury by the 
revelations of the Ubao case — an action brought by the guardians 
of a rich young lady to obtain her Release from a convent, in which 
she had been incarcerated against their wishes but with her own 
consent At this juncture— when the excitement had reached 
a pitch that the particular convent in question was in danger of being 
burned to the ground by the mob, and monks and nuns found it 
wiser all over the country to keep out of the way— P^rez Gald*5s 
produced his drama, a work full of allusions to clerical tyranny. 
Never has author known better how to seize the psychological 
moment " Electra " has proved to be a perfect example of Mr. 
Kipling's theory that " it does not matter what you write, provided 
you know when to write it" At once the Liberal Press throughout 
Spain hailed the play as a new programme for the anti-clerical party. 
The bishops, by forbidding the faithful to attend any representations 
of the " immoral " piece, naturally gave it a tremendous advertisement, 
2nd all Spain, from San Sebastidn to Algeciras, flocked to the theatre 
whenever " Electra " was advertised So great was the alarm o( the 



2l8 



Th$ Gentleman's Mc^aztne, 



clergy that in clerical Seville they laboured, with success, to secure 
the boycott of the drama in the local Press. But elsewhere their 
eHTorts failed. Even the rival charms of the bull-fight paled before the 
delights of applauding the anti-clerical hits in the play, and of shout- 
ing " iMrnran los fraila I " (" Death to the friars ! ") and " / l^wa la 
Liberdad/" The sixtieth performance, which took place when the 
present writer was in Madrid, was a perfect triumph for the author, 
who further increased his popularity by handing over the proceeds 
to the poor of the capital. No nation reads less than the Spaniards, 
-who appear to consider a love of books as a sign of a \'acant mind. 
Yet " Electra " has reached the — for Spain— unprecedented sale of 
20,000 copies, and it is usually the only book that can be purchased 
at the one bookseller's shop of a small Spanish town. Meanwhile 
the name and fame of the dramatist spread abroad. He had hcconw 
at a bound the most prominent man in Spain ; he had quite thrown 
the Sagastas and the Silvelas of politics into the shade ; he had even 
striven successfully with Cerrajillas, the noted bull-fighter, in the 
race for notoriety, and reports of " Electra " threatened to crowd out 
the daily bulletins of that wounded gladiator's health from the 
columns of the Madrid papers. As public men in Spain usually 
decline to lead public opinion, Vittz Gald(5s became in himself a 
leader, and the most widely read Austrian paper published a long 
article from his pen on " Spain of To-day," which was repro- 
duced all over the Peninsula. From Portugal, where there is an 
anti-clerical movement simitar to that in Spain, came eager applica- 
tions from rival managers for the dramatic rights of the notorious 
drama. An impetus was also given to the sale of the author's previous 
works in Spain, and the volumes of his " Episodios Nacionales," 
bound in the red and yellow of the national colours, enlivened the 
windows of the Puerta del Sol. By yet another stroke of luck the 
publication of the last volume of that series of historical novelf^ 
** Bodas Rcales " (" Royal Marriages "), happened to coincide with 
the very unpopular royal marriage of the Princess of Asturias, the 
young King's sister and possible successor. P^re2 Oald6s's novel had 
nothing to do with the Princess and her husband, but took its title 
from those **Spanii>h marriages" which, in 1846, led to so mucli 
unpleasantness between Oreat Britain and France. The name was, 
however, quite enough for the enterprising publisher, and the reputa- 
tion of the novelist as the interpreter of what Liberal Spain was 
thinking received further confirmation. To-day it is not too much 
to say that Perez (>ald(5s is the one Uving Spanish writer whose 
name has any significance north of the Pyrenees, and tlw one author 



Tfu Novels of Ptfnz Califs, 



319 



who wtdds infiuence soutb of that range of mountains at which, it 
■vnts once sarcastically said, "Africa begins." 

To those who desire to gain some acquaintance with the romantic 
episodes which made up so much of Spanish life in the first half of 
the last century, no better guide can be recommended than this 

> popular novelist and dramatist. For a number of years Ptfrez (jaldds 
concentrated all bis efforts on the production of a great prose epic 
which should do for modern Spain what Zola's " Rougon-Macquart '* 
series of novels did for modem France, and what the late Gustav 
Krcytag in his " Ahiien '* did for Germany across the ages. The thirty 
volumes of the " Eptsodios Nacionales"cover thcwhole field of Spanish 
affairs from the battle of Trafalgar, which gives its name to the first 
of the scries, down to the Royal Marriages, which furnish a title to 
the last. During those forty-one years Spain was almost constantly 
the theatre of grtat historic events which attracted the attention of 
the whole world, and in which Englishmen played an important part 
The Peninsular War, the Restoration of the Bourbons, the march 
of the French through the country under the Due d'Angoulfimc, the 
wretched reign of Fernando VII. with the "Apostolical" rising, the 
intrigues round the sick-bed of the miserable despot, the proclamation 
of Isabel II., the first Carlist War, and the subsequent disturbances 
of the military chiefs— all these form the background to the pictures 
of Spanish life which the novelist has drawn in this his longest and 
most interesting work. All the leading men and women of the 
period are presented to us as living personages of the narrative, with 
all their virtues and defects [xirtrayed at times in almost Tacitean 
colours. We have the Queen-Regent of those days, the lovely 

j Neapolitan, Maria Cristina, of whom a Carlist said to the dejected 
etender, " c\'crything would have been otherwise if your Majesty's 
itigust sister-in-law had been born with a squint," ' and whose " beauty 
the political support to wliich both Liberty and the Monarchy 
d their principal successes." ' We are told how she captivated 
all hearts wlien she entered Madrid as a blushing bride in the winter 

L of 1829, and how poets exhausted their vocabulary of complimentary 

Pcpilbets in their desire to do her honour. In another novel we liave 
a description of her abdication and departure from Valencia in 

tJ84o. Wu are shown the marked contrast between Don Carlos 
nd his greatest general, the ill-fated Zuraalacarregui, '* the former 
the living personification of absolutism, the latter the pcrsonifica- 
tioD of the formidable national force which loved and defended it.** ' 

• iimJisJM, p. 165. * Ihid, pw 163. 



220 



Tiu Gentleman* s Magazine, 



In one volume after another we see the self-styled Carlos V., 
naiTOw and obstinate, beloved by his friends, yet devoid of every 
particle of statesmanship, keeping up a miserable and distracted 
Court, now at Ofiate, now at some wretched mountain hamlet 
where a dish of beans was regarded as a luxury for the royal 
table, but always and everywhere the victim of monks and friars, 
and solemnly proclaiming the Virgin as the Generalhimn of his 
armies. No writer has studied Carlism more carefully than P^rez 
Galdds, and, opposed to it as he is from conviction, he yet does 
justice to the sterling qualities of the rank and fiJc on both sides. 
He makes a Sicilian diplomatist say of the Pretender's Court at 
Ofiate : " My friend, here everything you see is false, and in this 
diminutive capital you will find no more truth than in the big one 
at Madrid ; false is the piety of most of these courtiers ; hypocritical 
is their belief in the divine right of this poorcomedy-king ; deceptive 
is the enthusiasm of those who loaf about in the army and in the 
public offices." Yet the same cynical observer is made to continue : 
"The one element of truth is the ptoph in its ignorance and its 
innocence ; that is why it is the donkey which bears all the burdens. 
// does everything : it fights, it pays the costs of the campaign, it 
dies, it rots away in misery, so lliat these phantoms may live and 
glut their greed of place and pelf." * And in the same novel the 
author expresses the same contrast in his own words : "The story 
of the ' Apostolical * and Royalist campaigns and that of the mutual 
extermination of Spaniards during the dynastic war down to the 
Convention of Vergara cause grief and horror, because of the vast 
scale on which lives were sacrificed, and the pettiness of the persons 
in whose names the most flourishing part of the nation died or 
allowed itself to be butchered." ' Yet, as one of the charaaers in a 
later volume confesses, "Spain is an Invalid which can only live by 
being bled " ; and, again, " TTje Spaniard is a born fighter, and when 
he cannot have a natural war he invents one." * 

The military leaders on either side come off better than the titular 
heads of the contending factions. The two men whom Gald6s roost 
toves to honour are Zumalacarregui the Carlist and Espartero the 
champion of the "angelic" Isabel. Honesty and simplicity are 
typified in the doughty guerilla chief who is sent by the intriguers of 
the Carlist headquarters, against his own wishes, to besiege Bilbao, 
then as now the great Liberal stronghold in ilie North. Few scenes 
in this whole epic of civil wAt are more pathetic than that in which 

' Da OUttti i la Gnmf*y p, l8$. * /^^ m^r- 

' ^«n/<T it OtWt pfk. JS, 63. 




The Novels of PArz Ga!d6s. 221 



the wounded Carlist is tmken to die in his simple %-ilUgc home. " He 

was," such is the author's epitaph upon htm and at the siune lime 

upon his party, " the soul and the arm of the Absolute Monarchy, 

and the Carlist cause died with him. Although its ghost has not 

e^-cn }et been Isud to rcst^ Carlism was buried with the bones of 

Zunuiacarregui beneath the fligs of the pamh church of Ccgama." * 

On the other side, Espartero, hero of the bridge of Luchaju, R:lie\'cr 

of Bilbao and Duke of Victory, who wound up the first Carlist War 

by the pact of Vergara with the more moderate section of hia 

opponents under Maroto, comes in for unstinted praise. He is held 

up OS a colossal figure, such as Spain no longer produces, and his 

ambition is forgiven because of his firmness of cliaracter. For 

GaldiSs, Liberal though he be, is under no illusions. *' In our country 

of chick-peas and military risings," he writes, "the successful soldier 

is ihc only possible saviour," ' *' Ever)' Spaniard,'* says one of the 

characters in"Los Aposidlicos,""when bedemandii Liberty, means bia 

own, caring little about that of his neighbour. Des{>otism beati in 

every Spanish heart and runs in all Spanish veins. 1 1 is our second 

nature, it is the leprous inheritance of past centuries, and will only lie 

cured by the bpse of centuries to come."' Hence the author's 

manifest liking for such another strong man as the Carlist leader, 

Cabrera, nicknamed *' the leopard," whose bloody reprisals for the 

savage murder of his mother by the other side are described in 

" La Campafta del Maestrazgo." Yet the folly and futility of aU iheae 

operations and all this bloodshed are never concealed. " Why arc 

we fighting?" asks one of the people in this last-named novel. '*If 

I examine the question thoroughly, I find no reason for this butchery. 

Liberty, forsooth ! Religion ! The rights of the Queen, or those of 

Don Carlos 1 When I set to work to philosophise on this war, X 

can*t help bursting out laughing ; and, laughing and thinking, 1 end 

l^ convincing myself that we are all mad. Do you think that 

Cabrera cares one jot for the rights of his male Majesty ? or that 

tboae on the other side care one jot for the rights of her female 

Blajesty? I believe that they arc both striving for domination and 

offke, and for nothing more." • And elsewhere, in " Lo« ApotuUkot," 

GaId(Ss reads his countr>-men a severe lesson on the results of this 

insensate struggle between rival parties in the field. " The outline 

of our country," be writes, ** does not reicmbte a geognphical mapv 

but the strategic plan of an endless battle. Oor people ia not a 

people, but an anoy. Our Government doef not govern, U dofondi 



222 



The Gentleman's Magazine. 



itself. Our parties are not parties as long as tbey have no generals. 
Our mountains are trenches, and that is why they have been wii^dy 
stripped of trees. Our plains are left uncultivated, in order that 
artillery may career over them. Our commerce exhibits a traditional 
nervousness, caused by the fixed idea that to tnorrffW there vrill be a 
row. . . . Peace is here merely a preparation for the next struggle, a 
brief breathing-space, in which men dress their wounds and clean 
their weapons in readiness to begin again." * No words could better 
express the modern history of Spain, 

While he reserves his warmest admiration for the generals, Galdds 
is not unkind to the politicians pure and simple — if purity and sim- 
plicity can be predicated of any politicians. For Mcndizdbal, the 
famous Liberal Minister, who honestly tried to rid Spain of the 
incubus which slill impedes her progress— the friars and the nuns — 
he has a profound liking. The strange career of this able man is of 
special interest at the prt-scnl moment, when Spain is confronted by 
exactly the same problem which he tried in vain to solve in 1836. 
Galdds devotes a whole novel to the statesman whom the Spaniards 
summoned in their despair from his counting-house in London to 
save the State, and who relied more on Villicrs, the British Ambas- 
sador, than on his own followers. He shows us at once the strength 
and the weakness of the popular idol of that day — his unSpanisht 
English style of speaking ; his great knowledge of affairs and his small 
knowledge of the classics; his vast plans of reform and his petty vanities 
of dress; his gigantic stature, which earned him the nickname of 
"Don John-and-a-half " ; and his small feet, of which he was 
extremely proud. His rapid rise and still more rapid fall arc depicted, 
and the scene in which the fallen Minister quits his post is one of 
singular dignity. Palace intrigue, and the lack of that" glorious Par- 
liamentary oratory which is in Spain and in the Spanish genius a sort 
of combative poetry," caused his failure.' Besides, the Spaniards 
love " to throw stones at the idol which they bavt- set up." * Galdds 
evidently believes that what Spain wants is a new Mendi^ibal who 
would secularise the monasteries and abolish the friars. Yet he 
is not, as he has been described by his enemies, an advocate of vio- 
lence, even towards the religious orders. Some time ago a rabid 
Spanish paper published a cartoon reminding the Madrid populace 
how its forbears had set fire to the convents and massacred ihdr 
inmates on the fatal i6th of July, 1S34. But Gald(5s, in his graphic 
account of that event, is all on the side of humanity and the friars. 

' Xm JjutiliMtt p. 63. * /fu/, p. 57. 

■ Menttt di Oat^ p. 4^ 



The Ncfveh of P/res GaldSs, 



225 



He tells us how the alann of Asiatic cholera, then an unknowtk 
disease, fell upon the ignorant mob ; how some playful children were 
seen throwing a few handfuls of soil into the water-butts, and how 
this simple act was skilfully combined by a reckless anti<lerical 
^tator with the equally inoffensive action of a friar who had im- 
fted a load of sacred eanh from a shrine at Manresa, and was so 

^distorted as to appear a delilx:ratc attempt on the part of the religious 
orders to poison the people. At once the logic of the agitator went 
home to the excited brains of the distracted and tcrri6ed madrikHos^ 
and the guiltless friars were butchered in cold blood, dying like heroes 
on their knees before the altars.' Only a few weeks ago Galdds 
most emphatically protested that he was no foe to religion and the 
Church, and he is too humane a man to treat even those whom he 
considers to be the worst foes of his country with unfairness. 

The " Episodios Nacionalcs " might be read with interest for the 
historical scenes alone, such as the famous intrigue round the sick- 

[bcd of Fernando VII., when Doiia Carlota, the Queen-Regent's 
ster, gave the historic box on the cars to the base and grovelling 
Minister, Calomarde, who meekly replied, "White hands offend 
not" ; or such as the comical interview between Maria Cristina and 
the revolutionary sergeants at La Granja ; or the refusal of the 
Basque soldiers to fight any more for Don Carlos after six long years 

"of combat.' Very touching, too, are the betrayal and execution of 
the chivalrous Montcs de Oca, the paladin of Maria Cristina, who 
her banner against Espartcro's Regency, and who, though a 

^dreamer, is one of the purest figures in all this gallery of portraits, 
" the living personification of the poetry of politics." ' But in each 
novel there is a more or less complete scene of private life, as 
aflected by the public events of the time. In this respect, how- 
ever, the '* Episodios Nacionales " suffer from a defect common 
to all long series of stories, and indeed inevitable in that class 
of composition. The same characters reappear in successive 
volumes, often without the slightest explanation, and thus the 
reader, who has neither time nor patience to wade through all 
the previous books of the series, finds himself suddenly plunged 
into the middle of things with no clue to guide him. Vet the 
characters are all types, and intended to be regarded as such. There 
is the type of the young and ardent *' Royalist volunteer," who quits, 
his quiet work as sacristan of a convent at Solsona for the excite- 
ments of warfare, of which, like Don Quixote, he has read much in 

' Un fatiioia mit y aignnci fraiUt mtnei. ' V$rgara, 

* M<mt4s dt Oe^ p. S47. 




Tki GentUntans Magazine, 



books, but which he soon finds to be not all heroism. There is ihe 
nun with whom he has fallen violently in love, but who calmly sends 
him to the scaffold in place of a Liberal agent who possesses her 
affections, and who has been captured and condemned to death by 
the •' Apostolical " party.* There is the military priest, who goes in 
quest of buried cannon for the Carlists, shares their miserable head- 
quarters, consoling himself with the reflection that "there is no 
mattress like Faith," * and is then captured and converted by the 
Cristinos, being now confident that one side is no better and no 
worse than the other. There is the young man of doubtful parent- 
age but enormous inBuence who chases the lovely ward of a 
diamond merchant all over Spain, and goes on missions to the 
Carlists at one moment and escorts helpless damsels through the 
hostile lines at another. There is the cleric whose one idea is bull- 
fighting, who discusses politics in the jargon of the bull ring, and 
thinks it quite becoming to one of his sacred profession to go to a 
corrida de toros^ yet refuses tickets for the performance of a hannless 
play. And there is the ruined old aristocrat of proud Aragdn, 
whose life is one long struggle to wring money out of his careful and 
penurious grandson in order that he may continue to live as an 
extravagant grandee, going about the country with his reminiscences 
of Napoleon and his rather risky anecdotes of Parisian society as he 
had known it before that great man had revolutionised everything. 
Side by side with this representative of the old school we have 
portraits of typical members of the middle class, " that formidable 
class which to-day is the universal power which does and undoes 
everything, which is nowada}*s omnipotent in politics and the 
magistracy, in administration, in science, and in the army, .and which 
first saw the light at Cidiz amidst the roar of French bombs and the 
perorations of a hybrid Congress."' It is this middle class which, 
as the author show;;, has elbowed its way between frtars and nobles 
and " created a new Spain." But Gald(5s more than once expresses 
the opinion that the best hopes for the future of his country are to 
be found, not so much in any one class or in any particular set of 
institutions as in the national character, that "tenacity, lliat 
chivalrous courage, which make up the whole history of a race, 
which, e^'en when it is falling to the ground, thinks how it is to raise 
itself again," that "tenacious Celtiberian constancy" which has 
enabled the Spaniards to survive so many disasters.* 

One of the most interesting features for British readers of these 

■ Zmmiacarr^^uiy p. 196^ ■ ZMmalae«rrt^i, |t]x 150, S4-$5* 




t 



* 



>6tf Novels of Ptfrez Galdds. 



novels is the kindly feeling which they display for our national 
character and customs. We are apt to 6nd pictures of ourselves 
the reverse of flattering in most foreign novels at the present day ; 
but in the pages of Galdos it is not so. The British envoys who 
come to prevent the brutal system of shooting all prisoners during 
the first Carlist War, are regarded as the benefactors of Spain and 
of humanity ; an old Spaniard is represented as considering it one 
of his proudest distinctions to have rendered a service to the great 
Betittgton, while another Englishman, Lord John Hay, is favourably 
known to the populace as Lorch^n. In the thirties, of which period 
Galdt^s has given us such a minute and careful picture, English, 
and not French, fashions were the rage in Madrid, and Mendizabal's 
English clothes were the envy and admiration of all who beheld 
them. It was to London that the Spaniards of that time looked for 
political no less than sartorial advice, and even the Carlists were 
constrained to imitate their opponents and import a financial 
Minister from the City. When an enthusiastic mechanician, whom 
his friends regard as crazy because he foretells the construction of 
screw-steamers and ironclads, dreams of a great commercial future 
for Bilbao, it is to England that he looks for llie capital and enterprise 
necessary to accomplish his ideal.' And it is the British House of 
Commons which the Spanish Uberal statesmen of that generation 
extolled as the highest incarnation of political wisdom ! Among 
his own countrymen, the author reserved the highest encomium for 
the people of Aragdn and Navarre, whose tenacity of purpose he is 
never tired of extolling. When an old rake is asked how he had 
the audacity to make love to the Empress Josephine, he answers by 
the simple and sufficient reply : '* I come from Navarre." On the 
other hand, the butt of the company is usually an Andalusian, with 
his soft pronunciation and his clipped and shortened words. Tor the 
Basques, in spite of their devotion to Don Carlos, the novelist has 
a regard no less strong than that which Loti has shown in his 
famous story of Basque life, "Ramuntcho." That strange people 
with its tmcouth tongue naturally pla}'s a'great part in his narrative, 
and if, for the bene6t of his readers, he has translated the phrases 
of that primitive language, which is said to have puzzled even the 
devil, he has left all the local colour of the Basque Provinces in 
hb picture. 

Galdds is intensely patriotic; and while his patriotism is for 
Spain as a whole, without distinction of races or languages, he has 
done something in the course of his rutional epic to stimulate the 

vot. ccxci. NO. 2049. K 



226 



The Geniienian's Magazine. 



pride of almost every city in the Peninsula. The social life and 
politics of the capital &re dearly reflected in his stories ; the plays 
aud the scandals ; the new fashions and the new jokes that interested 
and amused Madrid under Ferdinand VII. and his "angelic" 
daughter arc faithfully recalled. The gardens of I^ Cranja, the 
lugged passes of the Pyrenees, the small northern towns among the 
mountains, the great brown plains of Castile, and the invincible 
fortress of Bilbao pass in succession before our view. He does not 
idealise, but presents things and places as they were, and we miss at 
times the quaint picturcsqueness with which Borrow, writing of the 
same period, invests even much that was commonplace in the Spain 
of that day. Nor is Galdos tempted to take higher flights into the 
regions of philosophy and metaphysics ; he presents us with no 
complicated problems of science or religion ; he contents himself 
with the more useful function of interpreting the past life of the 
Spanish jKople for the beneGt of the new generation. Yet in the 
third series of his " Episodios " he is beset by the danger, as he 
himself points out, tliat he may inadvertently give offence to some 
who arc old enough to have witnessed the events nanalcd. It was 
this fear which made him decide at first to close the natiotial epic 
with the end of the second series, and it was only after a long 
interval that he altered his intention and added a third series of ten 
more volumes to those already published. Judged by Spanish 
standards this sequel seems to have attained success, for as many 
as 10,000 copies have been issued of several <A these later stories. 
Gald(5s humorously complains that his countrymen always borrow 
any book that they desire to read ; but his work has recently been 
laid before them in the cheapest and most popular of all forms — 
that of iX^^ feuiUetoH at the bottom of the page of a halfpenny news- 
paper, the Republican Pais. 

Unlike so many modern novelists, the leading Spanish 
writer is singularly free from all that is morbid and un- 
wholesome. The youngest of " young persons " might read him 
without being shocked. In his descriptions of private life be 
looks at the bright side of things, and, possessed of a keen sense 
of humour, is frankly and genially optimistic. But when he posses 
on to consider the future of his country he becomes a pessimist, and 
in this respect he may be compared with most Italian writers of the 
present day. At the end of the second series of the " Episodios 
Nacionales" there is a dialogue on the prospects of Spain between a 
sanguine old gentleman and a disillusioned Liberal. The latier's 
opinion we take to be that of the author, from tlie great stress which 




Tiu Novels of Pdrez Galdds. 



» 



U laid upon iL "Salvador," he writes, " had but Hitle confidence in 
the union between liberty and the Church, of which his companion 
dreamed. He bid bare bis inmost tliouglus, and said that in all his 
lifetime he expected to see nothing but blunders and errors, barren 
struggles, essays and attempts, leaps backwards and forwards, corrup- 
tion of the new system which would increase the partisans of the 
old, noble ideas degraded by treachery and progress almost always 
conquered in its conflict with ignorance. ' Better days,' he cried, 
as he pointed with his stick to the horizon, ' are still so far off that 
assuredly neither ycu nor I will lire to see them. Reform is slow, 
because the disease is serious and dccp-scated and can only be 
cured by individual efToit. ^ty ideal is far ahead. But it will come, 
and even if we are not allowed to see it realised we may console 
ourselves by penetrating, in thought at least, the dark future and 
contemplating the beautiful innovations of the Spain of our grand- 
children. Meanwhile I cannot share your enthusiasm, because I 
do not believe in the present. I seem to be a spectator of a bad 
comedy. I neither applaud nor hiss. I am silent and perhaps 
asleep in my stall. I shall dream of that distant future of our 
country, of that time, my dear friend, when the majority of Spaniards 
will laugh at your angelic innocence of politics.' " * These lines were 
written in 1879, but the events of the last twenty-two years do not 
appear to have greatly modified the author's views. In his manifesto 
on the state of Spain, published last April,^ he despairs of the future 
unless the education of the young can be taken out of the hands of 
the Jesuits and the Government of the country taken out of the 
hands of the professional politicians. 1 -ike Gambctta he points to 
clericalism as " the enemy," while he considers the Spanish system of 
(tmqvismOy or the supremacy of a few party leaders, or '* wirepullers," 
as wc should say, as the curse of parliamentary institutions. 
Certainly, unlike his hero, Salvador, whom we have just quoted, he 
b not content to be merely a ".spectator." He has rendered by his 
writings yeoman's service to wliat he considers to be die true interest 
of his country, and as he is not yet an old man he should have 
plenty of useful work still left in him. Like Salvador, too, he has no 
family ties, and can accordingly devote himself entirely to his task. 
Unfortunately for his fame abroad, those who write in Spanish must 
be, for the most part, content to find their audience either in Spain 
or in South America. Happy is the novelist whose lot it is to be 



• U»fa£thsa mSs y algutwi /railtt menfi, pp- 3»8-^ 
» ffet-arJa dt Madridt April 9, 190I, 



a J 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^1 1 


The Gentieman^s Magazine, 

France or Great Britain, And who thtis escapes those 
who are proverbially traditori ! 

is the epic which Gald6s has written for the benefit of his 
in. He treats of a time when, as he saySf " poor modern 
1 was vanishing, rubbed out like paint that had been badly 
d leaving behind it feudal quarrels, mystic 2eal and super- 
irrible cruelties and eminent virtues, heroism and poetry, 
mtton of angels and devils, who walked about the world, 
[ and at liberty."' The theme is a good one, but the 
" execution is not always excellent. Galdds wrote these 
s of thirty novels at headlong speed ; some volumes were 
iff in some six weeks at Santander, where the novelist 

time when, he is not in Madrid* Hence they lack finish, 
reader who has fotlowed the adventures of a leading 
or some twenty chapters is astonished to find the person- 
am he is interested married or killed off in a single page, 

in a few lines, at the end- A foreigner cannot pretend to 
of a Spanish writer's style ; but Spaniards accuse C^]d(5s ol 
aisms in his prose. He certainly writes clearly, and shows 
li knowledge of human nature. AVhether his work will 
ns [0 be seen ; perhaps he has been too prolilic a writer 



THE EDUCATION OF THE EARLY 
NONCONFORMISTS. 



EDMUND CALAMY wrote "A Historical Account of ray Own 
Life," 1671-1731, which was first published in 1829, under the 
editorship of John Towill Rult; and from this wc can learn direct 
as to his schools and masters. 

Calaniy came from a representative Puritan family. His father 
was one of the ejected ministers of 1662. His f.xiher's father— they 
all are called Edmund for Christian name — was one of the authors of 
" Smeclyninuus." His father's father's father is said to have been an 
exiled Huguenot from the coast of Normandy. They were each of 
them learned men, given to the Puritanic traditions. But in i66j, 
E^dmund Calamy, father of the writer of the autobiosraphy, was driven 
from his church, though he had voluntarily given of his means to the 
King's Exchequer in 1661. After e\*iction from his living, Calamy 
continued to preach privately in his own house. But, by the 
Clarendon Code in operation, this was illegal, and warrants were 
issued against him. "And though," as we arc told in the Non- 
conformists' Memorial, " he usually met his people every Lord's Day, 
and sometimes twice in a day, and even several times in a week, so 
favourable was Providence to him that he was never once disturbed 
in the time of divine worship." 

Before proceeding to an account of Edmund Calamy's education, 
it is fitting to note the manner of father whom he had, Here is the 
old-time description of him : " He was a man of peace and of a very 
candid spirit, who could not be charged, by any that knew him, with 
being a Nonconformist either out of humour or for gain. He 
abhorred a close and narrow spirit, which affects or confines religion 
to a party, and was much rather for a comprehension than for a 
perpetual separation. He was ready to do good to all as he had 
opportunity, though such a lover of retirement, that he was for 
passing through the world with as little observation as possible; and 
therefore, he was not upon any occasion to be persuaded to appear 
i« print," Or, to quote the words of the son's autobiography : — 




a30 



The Gentlemans Magazine* 



" I was from my infancy carefully instructed in the common 
Christian principles of truth and duty, so in matters of diiTcTence 
among professing Christians I had moderation instilled into tne from 
my very cradle. Never did I hear my father inveigh against those 
that officiated in the public churches, nor did he attempt to create 
in me any prejudices against them or their way ; but he took all 
occasions that offered to declare against heat and rancour on all 
sides, and for loving all such as were truly pious and bore the image 
of God upon them, wlialsocvcr their particular sentiments might be." 

The latitudinarianism of men like Jeremy Taylor and Chilling- 
worth was repeated in the Puritan Nonconformists like Edmujid 
Calamy. To show this side of Nonconformity, it would only be 
necessary to trace the history of its cultured men ; and an investigation 
of the annals of the dissenting academies of the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries would show that the claim of the exercise of the 
judgment and conscience by the individual was one made ivith a 
tender consciousness of the right of all others to exercise the same 
privilege, to whatever conclusions they might thus be led. No doubt 
the sufferings which were undergone by Nonconformists embittered 
many against their persecutors ; still, the Nonconformist ministry has 
never lacked witness, even in the midst of suffering, to the right of 
their persecutors to hold their own convictions as long as they were 
held sincerely. And so one generation passed on to another the gentle 
word, tnoderation or toleration, and it is to this Puritanic tradition, in 
a very high degree, that we must trace historically the basis of liberal 
Christianity, which is prepared to face all investigation so as to find 
llic truth, and to put aside prejudices of partisanship and of creed. 
The elder Calamy, as described by the son, was not an exceptional 
Nonconformist; he is typical of the more cultured, as they passed on 
the light of their free souls from generation to generation. The 
history of the education of these men, persecuted and despised as 
ihoy were by scornful and self-satisfied contemporaries, would be 
the flnest record of education, outside of the ancient Universities of 
Cambridge and Oxford, to be found in England. It is not improbable 
that in the eighteenth century their academies afforded an education 
cyan superior to the contemporary Universities — sujwrior, if not in 
book-learning, at any rate in the culture of the finer virtues of life. 

Whilst Edmund Calamy is typical of the emphatic appreciation 
of the best culture of the times by the Puritanic Nonconformists, he 
has admirably supplied in his autobiography the means of tracing 
his course of education. He changes his schools frci^ucntly, but 
ihcre seems to be a method in his madness. Either his own family 




» 



Tke Edu^atton of the Early Nonconformists, 231 

to remore out of the way ol those who arc likely to Interfcr- 
with or persecute them, or those who are keeping school find they 
are within reach of the law for endeavouring to teach school without 
confonntDg to the Church, and taking out a licence for teaching 
from the Bishop of the diocese in which they were living. 

In his early years Calamy was taught at home by his mother. He 
was very delicate, and his mother, who was naturally anxious about 
him, look great pains over lura as to his reading and to his know- 
ledge of the Catechism. '* And when I had learned it she carried ms 
in her hands and delivered me to the care of good old Mr. Thomas 
l>yo, to be publicly catechised by him on Saturday afternoons, at 
Dyers' Hall, having been herself catechised by him in her younger 
years, which she seemed to mention with abundance of pleasure. 
That old gentleman was remarkable for his particular talent in 
dealing with children upon the first principles of religion ; and 
some were observed," adds Calamy, with modesty of statement, '* lo 
retain the good impressions then made upon them all their days 
after." 

It is not easy at the present time to estimate the importance and 
infiuenceofthecatecheticalinstructionofthepast From John Brinsley, 
in 161 a, in his " Ludus Uterarius," and from Charles Hoole's "New 
Discovery of the Old Art of Teaching School," in 1660, we learn that 
religious instruction by means of catechisms ^ was part of the regular 
school course, though in boarding-schools it formed a constituent 
part of the Sunday occupation. Adam Martindale, in his "Autobio- 
graphy "(Chetharo Society's Publications, vol. iv. p. 12a), says : "Within 
the compass of this septennium, in the year 1656, the ministers . . . 
agreed upon some propositions about the work of personal instruc- 
tion. Multitudes of little catechisms we caused lo be printed, 
designing one for every family in our parishes; and to all or most 
ihey were accordingly sent." It is a mistake to suppose that tlie 
Assembly's Catechism, though the most famous, was the only 
catechism In use. There were many. In a catalogue, of 1658, 
of books "vendible in England," I notice over twenty, besides 
inwjmerable expositions of the Lord's Prayer, different portions of 
Scripture, and of the Creed. Amongst these teachers Mr. Thomas 
Lye held, as Calamy affirms, an honoured place. He had written 
an explanation of the Shorter Catechism, under the title "The 
Assemblies Shorter Catechism, drawn out into distinct propositions, 

* Charles Hoole aiys the oiastcr is not to " wiU it in ■ (nlinus, iinneihocluei) 
nurse, concerning ihlngs anncccsatj to be tmkeo notice of, and unmeant for 
ijren to be puzxlcd nith." 



232 



The Genileman^s Magazine, 



and proved by plain and pertinent Texts of Scripture at large. 

With short Rules of Direction for Masters of Famtiies^ how to use this 
Book to the best advaritage." This was printed in 1674. It is in the 
directions to masters of families we see that Thomas Lye was alive 
to the importance uf teaching— and it is to the same spirit was due 
the well-known work of that famous Nonconformist, Daniel Defoe, 

•The Family Instructor." Hereare Thomas Lye's plain directions : — 

1. Thai it should be gone throu^jh in a family once a month. 
It is therefore divided into thirty pans. 

2. It is to be distinctly read over by ports at a time, till the 
portion for the day is fmtshed. 

3. "When you first begin to examine your family, let thcra 
answer only within book ; and Jafter you have once or twice gone 
over the whole Catechism witliin book, and you perceive the under- 
standings to be somewhat enlightened, then, and not till then, let 
them be required to answer without book" 

4. Keep close and constant to the questions of the text. 

We thus see the method of teaching adopted by Mr. Lye. In 
1673 he published his vicwsat more length, in " A Plain and Familiar 
Method of Instructing the Younger Sort. According to the Lesser 
Catechism of the late Reverend Assembly of Divines, specially 
intended for Governours of Families." He there lays down that 
there arc seven rules of catechising : — 

First. That the question be barely propounded, and the answer 
returned. 

Second. That truth must be separated from falsehood by trying 
the child's understanding with further simple questions. "To repeat 
words," he says, "and not to understand the truths contained m 
Ihera, is but to act the parrot, and profits very little." 

Third. The child must be tested as to his ability to express his 
knowledge of the meaning of every hard and diflSculi word or 
phrase. 

Founh. Draw the whole answerinto several doctrinal propositions 
if it contains more than one. Bid the child prove each of them by 
Scripture, since " the Holy Scriptures arc the only foundation and 
touchstone or proof of infallible and saving truth." 

Fifth. " Take the several Scriptures annexed to the answer, and in 
order propose them distinctly to the child. Ask him what he 
obsen'es from them, and from wlut part of the text especially he 
draws his observation." 

Sixth. Propose such usual objections from Scripture or reason as 
seem to contradict the truths asserted. 



The Education of (he Early Noiumforwuts. z^ 

Seventh. Particularly improve and apply the several truths which 
have been opened and proved by Scripture. 

All these directions arc copiously and conclusively illustrated by 
Mr. Lye, and, given his premiss that the Scriptures are the "only 
foundation of infallible truth," and that they can be dissected into 
texts of equally iiifallible worth, whether isolated or in their context, 
Lye's method is excellent, and is undoubtedly keenly logical Indeed, 
be was in sober earnest over this matter of education. He published 
"A New SpeUing Book." The book is fully described by iu further 
title, "Or Reading and Spelling English made Easier. Wherein all 
the words of our English Bible are set down in an alphabetical order, 
and divided into their distinct syllables. Together with the grounds 
of the English tongue laid in verse, wherein are couch'd many 
moral precepts. By the help whereof, with God's blessing, little 
children, and others of ordinary caducities, may, in few months^ 
be enabled exactly to read and spdl the whole Bible." Thomas Lye 
signs himself'*Fhibnglu5," and the British Museum copy is the second 
edition, published in 1677. At the end of Lye's 1674 edition of 
"The Assemblies Shorter Catechism" is an advertisement of "The 
Child's Delight, together with an English Gramar." 

It is quite clear that Thooias Lye was logically driven into 
paying attention to the teaching of children, since religious truth 
required a knowledge of the Scriptures, and these again could only 
be consulted through a knowledge of reading and spelling. His 
spell ing4>ook, therefore, contains the words used in the English 
Bible, But the teaching to read (for the sake of Bible-reading) 
becomes eventually an end in itself, and Lye becomes enthusiastic 
in drawing others to the work of leaching. The advice given to 
amateur teachers of spelling is excellent, but it is too long to quote. 
Lye triumphantly asserts : " I have presented thee with something 
that thou thyself wilt say is new. Probably thou hast heard of an 
Iliad in a nutshell, or seen the ten commandments cut on a small 
petuiy. But didst ever yet behold the whole Bible, every word 
therein distinctly set before thine eyes, in a few pages?" 

Edmund Calamy learned to read from Mr. Lye. He says of 
himself : " I was betimes inclined to learning, a lover of my book, 
and eagerly bent on being a scholar." He left Mr. Lye, we arc 
not told why, and learned " the accidence and grammar " from 
Mr. Nelson, curate of Aldermanbur^-, " who kept school in the \'cstry 
of the church of St Alphagc." On leaving Mr. Nelson, Calamy was 
sent " for the bene6t of the air " to Mr. Yewel's at Epsom, in Surrey. 
Mr. Nelson had been too indulgent; Mr. Yewel was too strict He 



I 



234 



The GetUUman's Magazine, 



was not a great scholar, but very pious, spending much of his own 
and of his pupils' time in prayer. Calamy thus describes this 
school :— 

" This good man had a considerable number of boys under his 
care; but they fared so well, and the rates he had witli them were 
so low^ and he was at the same time at so great an expense to keep 
up a meeting on the Lord's Day in his school-house, to which 
ministers came down every week from London, that he got very little 
for all his pains, and he was often in trouble. And it was observed 
that he proved at last but unhappy in some of his own children, who 
discredited thdr strict religious education. My being there increased 
and confirmed my health, though it did not much advance me in 
learning." 

Calamy next went to scliool with a man who had been a pupil 
under the famous Dr. Busby, of Westminster School — Mr. Tatnal— 
who kept school in Winchester Street, near Pinner's Hall. Mr. 
Tatnal, we leara from the Nonconformists' Memorial, bad had 
experience in teaching at the free school at Cox-cntry, and is said to 
have taken "great and successful pains in instructing youth." He 
is also said to have had great skill in vocal and instrumental musiCj 
which rendered him "acceptable to many of the gentry in and about 
the city." Calamy says that whilst at the school he sometimes said 
by heart a satire in Juvenal in a morning. 

In 1682— that is, when CaUimy was eleven years of age — he went 
to Mr. Doolittle's school, apparently as a boarder. Mr. Doolittlewas 
a native of Kidderminster, and had been "converted" by Richard 
Baxter. He studied at Canibrii^e, and entered the Church. But in 
1662, on the passing of the Act of Uniformity, "upon the whole" he 
thought it his "duty to be a Non -conformist." He first started a 
boarding-school at Moorficlds, then a larger one in Bunhill Fields, 
and during the plague he removed to Woodford Bridge, near Chigwell, 
in Essex, in 1665. His next place of school was at Wimbledon, and 
then at Islington. It was whilst he was at Islington that Edmund 
Calamy became his pupil. Calamy says that Doolittle had a "con- 
siderable academy " in his house. He names some, who became well- 
known mini.sters of religion, who were his contemporaries at Mr. 
Doolittle's, studying philosophy and divinity. Calamy says it was of 
advantage to him and to Ebencwr Chandler, another boy, "to 
have from day to day free liberty of conversing with those who, in 
age and knowledge, were so much our superiors." Mr. Dooh'itlc 
was again obliged " by disturbance " to remove, this time to Battersea, 
whitlier Calamy did not follow him. 



Bdmcmtian of tkt Earfy Nofum^formisls, 235 

Calamy next vas pUced at the MerchuU Tajrloc^ Sdioo2, under 
Mr. HATtcUfl: 

5£r. Uaitcliff placed Cakmy in the fifth fonn, and sooo raised 
him to the sixth. As an i lhtttntion of the disability of Nor- 
looolbrmists of the time to their school caieer, the instance of Joseph 
iKentiith is worth qooting from Calamy : *' He was captain of the 
, andt in compKance with hi» £kther, stood ai this time as one 
^desrous of going to the University, for which he was generally 
redoned as fit as anvone in the school AH in the u|^r forms were 
then examined by Bii^hop Mew, of \\'inchester, the President of 
Sl John's, Dr. Kidder, and other divines, who gave their presence 
, tipon the occasion. The upper scholars were examined with a 
Ipecnliar strictness, and none more criiically than this Mr. Kentish, 
rho gave great satis^ction. But the examines being informed that 
This ^ber was a Dissenting niinister, after they had gone over sercnil 
parts of learning, according to custom, thought fit to ask him some 
questions about conformity to the Church. Among other things 
they inquired whether he had ever recei\'ed the Sacrament according 
to the Church of Engbnd? He returning a negative answer, they 
seemed surprised, and blamed the master for not obliging the upper 
lads that intended 10 stand at the election for the University to 
receive the Sacrament before they did so, desiring that this nught bo 
carefully minded for the future. They asked Mr. Kentish whether 
he was free to receive the Sacrament in the Established Church, 
telling him lliat without that— luy, without yielding to an entire con- 
formity — he had better not think of the University, which would be 
a-giving him-telf and others much needless trouble. He modestly 
made answer that he had not, as yet, received the Sacrament any- 
where, not being satisfied as to his being fit or qualified for so 
solemn an ordinance ; and, he added, that as to conformity in all 
hthings to the Church of England, it was a thing of weight, and that he 
'could not but think it would be a great weakness in him to pretend to 
determine or promise it without mature and close consideration.** 
iTbe examinere, whilst they applauded Mr. Kentish's learning, agreed 
rto appoint someone else in his stead. Hartcliff, it is said,' received 
the appointment of Headmaster of the Merchant Taylors' School 
through the interest of his uncle. Dr. John Owen. But Calnmy 
speaks well of him: "Often would he carry me into his Btudy and 
talk with me alone about the improvement of my leisure time. He 
lent mc Greek authors, which I found great pleasure in readings 

» Wilson. HiUtry tf Menkant Tayitrt* S,h»ct. 



2.?6 



Tht Gentleman's Magazine, 



often wondering at St, Augustine's acknowledgment that in the 
beginning of his studies he haled Greek learning. My master also 
furnished me with other books, putting me upon making references 
and remarks in a sort of commonplace book ; inquired bow I went 
cn, and gave me particular directions and advice as he sav 
occasion. When I was leaving him he offered me any ser\'ice he 
could do me at the University if I looked that way; and when he 
was afterwards made one of the Canons of Windsor, and heard I was 
conic abroad into the world, he would often speak of mc with respect, 
upon occasion, and when I came in his way ever treated me with the 
utmost civility." Again, Cakimy was placed with an ejected minister, 
Mr. Walton, at Bethnal Green, but had to leave through his school 
breaking up. Whilst there, however, he says he and another pupil 
" had free access to the old gentleman's library, and were admitted 
to familiar conversation with him, who spent some time with us every 
morning and afternoon in reading Thucydides and Tacitus, on both 
which he would make pleasant remarks as we went along. This I 
found both agreeable and profitable." 

A\Tiilst Cabmy was at Bethnal Green, Mr. Charles Morton heard 
of him. This Mr, Morton is described as one who had been 
" eminent for training up young gentlemen in an academical 
way at Nemngton Green." But, driven by persecution to seek 
refuge in America, he determined to invite others to accompany him, 
and asked Calamy to come and be as his own child to him. 
Calamy's mother objected, and instead of going to America with 
Mr. Morton, the youth next went to Mr. Samuel Cradock. 

Cradock had been a Fellow of Emmanuel College at Cambridge, 
and, taking a living in Somersetshire, ;wa5 ejected in 1662. Later on, 
however, he had succeeded to an estate in Suffolk, and from 1673 to 
1706, in which year he died, he acted as a minister of religion with- 
out payment, and look in pupils to his " academy." He lived as a 
country gentleman. There Calamy met Mr. Timothy Goodwin, who 
was a good Grecian, and " we two often spent our winter evenings 
together in reading over some or other Greek author." Goodwin 
became Archbishop of Cashel. ** Mr. Cradock treated us in a 
gendenunlike manner. He lived upon his own estate, kept a good 
house, and was much respected by the gentlemen all round the 
countT)', preached in his omi dwelling twice every Lord's Day,and such 
of his neighbours as were inclined to it were his auditors, and his 
ministry was of use, though he had nothing for his pains. He had a 
good correspondence with old Mr. Cowpcr, the minister of the 
parish." 



TAe Edmcaium of ike Early Ntmamformists. 257 

WhcnCalany hadgonelfaroag^acoaiaeof phikianiihy widiMr. 
Cradock he letpmcd to London, and for a afaoit time be was again 
I^aced under Mr. DooGttle. In 1687-^8 be vas nsed to go to 
HoQanc^ to pmsne his stodies at Ubecfat. On ir a rh i i i g Utiecfa^ 
Calamj went to die Enghdi coflee-hoos^ and ducofcicd a wnnhgr 
of F.«g1i«h itndnitii and cesidents. There was abo an Fn^ith 
cfaarcb, thoogb vitb a Dnrrhman as pieadier. ia to tbe UtredA 
students Calamy says : — 

** I cannot bat radon it a disuhantage to diem that tfaey were 
left to their ovn my, witboot aiqrooe to instruct tbeir uuau ei a. 
Tbeynug^ indeed, be as good as they would, stody baid in thdr 
sevoal lod^i^nga^ and lire sobeify and nrtooosly, if tfaey were that 
way inclined ; bat if it were otherwise; and they mtwpent their 
time^ and neither attended the professors nor studied in their own 
quarters, ibef bad none calling them to an aocoont ; and I cannot 
but s^ I re<^on the collegiate wa^ of liviog in oar Eng^ Unirtr- 
aities^ iriiere lads have their particnlar tnton^ as wdl as each hoose 
has a separate master empowered to keep in order his own sociely, 
much to be p i efe ii ed to the liriz^ so at laij^" 

As to studies at Utrech^ Calamy went throu^ a coarse of 
philosophy under De Vries ; civil law with Van der Moyden ; cne 
□pcm "Sophodes" under Grerin^ and another under Grevios on 
"PufiendcHTs Introduction to History." He was also under 
Witsius for theology, and attended lectures of three other Professors 
of IHvinity. Calamy gjves many interesting details as to his life and 
studies in Holland, where he remained three years. In 1691 be 
returned to England, and proceeded to Oxford for the purpose of 
studying there. 

We have followed the course of his education — up to this point — 
through his list of schools and teachers. They were prevailingly 
Nonconformist in tendency. Nothing couM be better indicative of 
the (^ten-mindedness of Calamy, and indeed kA his trainers, than 
the &ct that when he gets to Oxford he writes : '' I had it now 
particularly imder consideration whether I should determine for 
conformity or non-conf<ninity.'' 

The influences at Oxford were distinctly favourable to an in- 
clination towards the Chorch of England. Calamy himself says : 
" I was entertained from day to day with what tended to give any 
man the best ofunion of the Church by law established. I was a 
witness of her learning, wealth, grandeur, and splendour. I was 
treated by the gentlemen of the University with all imaginable 
civility. I heard their sermons, and frequently attended their public 



238 



The Gentleman s Magazifie, 



lectures and academical exercises. I was Tree in conversation as 
opportunities oflTered ; and was oRen argued with about consorting 
vith such a despicable, such an unsociable sort of people as the 
Nonconform isls were represented. But I fook all occasions to 
express my hearty respect and value for real worth wherever I eould 
meet with if.** Cabmy ^o^v carefully studied the Bible, read Church 
History, some of the Early Fathers, and controversy centred about 
Ignatius's " Six Epistles " ; Chilli ngworth's *' Religion of Protestants, 
a Safe Way to Salvation " ; Hooker's " Eight Books of Ecclesiastical 
Polity." Later, too, he read Jeremy Taylor's " Ductor Dubitantiura," 

Calamy, at any rate, was in earnest in his search for truth. 
Perhaps the tendency of his education and anteccdenUi pre- 
disposed him ; but his attitude in his search was truly admirable. 
He "determined" for Nonconformity. "I, at the same time, 
resolved that I would ever study the things that made for peace and 
mutual edification, and do all that in me lay to promote a catliotic 
spirit and brotherly love, and avoid, as much as I was able, nanow- 
ncss, bitterness, wrath, clamour, and evil speaking, and such-like 
fruits of the flesh, together with giving oflcnce to any in the use of 
my liberty : ' Keeping the unity of the spirit in the bond of peace,* 
Thus doing, I thought I could ntrver be justly charged with that 
uncbaritableness and disa^ection which passes in Scripture under 
the name of ' schism.*" 

If we consider the educational influences under which Calamy 
was brought up, it seems safer to term them Puritanic in the old 
sense of the term rather than Nonconformist in the modem sense. 
Taught by his mother, "the good old Mr. Lye," by Mr. Nelson 
(the church curate), by Mr. Vewel, Mr. Tatnal, Mr. DooUitle, at 
Merchant Taylors' under Mr. Hartcliff, by Mr. Walton, and by Mr. 
Samuel Cradock, there is a charming division of influence bet^veen 
Church and Dissent, provided always that the pieiistic element was 
retained. Even in his University life, at Utrecht and at Oxford, he 
passed his time in and out amongst both sides ^"d, when he finally 
decides for Nonconformity, more impressive than his actual choice 
is his spirit of tolerance and admiration for what he admits to be 
good in the religious organisation outside of which he elects to take 
his stand. 

In taking the case of Edmund Calamy for illustration, ve ore 
inclined to believe that it is a t)*pical case. 

It is not easy always to trace with the same closeness of detail the 
course of thcschool-trianing of early Nonconformists, for the schools 
of the Nonconformists were mercilessly harried out of enslcnce, or 



The Education of the Early Nonconformists, 239 

changed from one place to another, so as to make their tracing diHi- 
cult. There arc sufficienl indications of this persecution in the sketch 
given by Calamy. But the best features of a liberal education were 
keenly sought after by Puritanic families of the Calamy class. It was 
not merely a liberal education of the old grammar-school type — 
founded upon a severe course in the reading of classical authors, in 
theme-writing, and endless imitation of Cicero and Terence — but an 
education which, in the end, brought the man to an eager desire for 
theological truth» and a willingness to take untold pains in its in- 
vestigation, together with a spirit of charity which could bless and 
wish god-spccd to those who differed from him in opinion, as long 
as he believed that those differing from him were sincere and right- 
hearted. 

It is not possible, in the limits of this article, to sketch in detail 
the history of Dissenters* academics. But it is desirable to point 
out the spirit of the liberal education which went on in them. The 
first was established by Richard Frankland, who is said to have been 
nominated by Cromwell as vice-president of the college which the 
Protector intended to establish at Durham. This, however, was not 
carried out, and on the accession of Charles II. and the passing of 
the Act of Uniformity, Frankland declined to conform, and was duly 
ejected. He started an academy, to which some of the gentry sent 
their sons, instead of sending them to the Universities, and along 
with these he educated others for the ministry. He illustrates well 
the determined spirit in which these Puritanic teachers persisted 
in their work. He began his academy at Rathmel, in Yorkshire. 
Dri\*en by the implacable persecution of those in auth(»ity from 
Rathmel, he ttansferred his academy fir^t to Natland, near Kendal ; 
thence to Dawsonfield, in Westmorland ; thence to Halburrow, in 
Lancashire ; tlience to Calton, in Craven, in Yorkshire ; thence to 
Attercliff, near Sheffield ; finally, back again to Rathmel. " The 
good man's life was a pilgrimage indeed, in external changes as well 
as in the inward temper of his mind ; and the students, as well as 
the tutor, were disciples of the cross. . . . Scarcely a year elapsed, 
from 16S8 till his death, in which he did not suffer trouble for 
keeping an academy and training up young men for the dissenting 
ministry." ' " He was a man of great moderation," says Calamy, in 
the Nonconformists' Memorial. 

In the " Continuation of the Account of the Ejected Ministers," 
by Calamy (vol. l pp. » 77-97), is given Cliarles Morton's " Viodi- 

* BogtK lad BctinctI, ilitUry eftht Ditttnttts^ vol i. p. 999, 



240 



The Gentiematts Magazine. 



cation of Himself and BTethren» being reflected upon for teaching 
University learning." This is the Charles Morton who wished to take 
Calamy with him to America. Speaking of the objection that some 
Nonconformists sent their sons to the Universities and some to the 
Academies, so evidently [all were not of the same mind, Morton 
disclaims all responsibility for those whose consciences would allow 
Ihcm to be so inconsistent as to partake of a University education at 
the cost of professing ecclesiastical views which they did not really 
believe. But he adds : " I shall conclude, heartily wishing and 
praying that there may be an happy end of these divisions, and that 
all men would unite in being conformists to the infallible and 
indispensable rule, the pure Word of God." 

Mr. Samuel Cradock,whoalsowrotea"Vindication of Academy- 
Teacliing,"also appears in the " Continuation " as a representative of 
*' moderation." ^ Mr, Bury, who preached the funeral sermon, says 
of him ; " His temper was truly catholic. He \-alued every man for 
his goodness, and was valued by all that were truly good, and not 
abandoned to parties or schismatical principles on one side or other." 
Samuel Palmer, in his " Defence of ihc Dissenters' Education in 
their Private Academies" (1703), gives his testimony as to his old 
tutor at one of these academies : " 1 never beard him make one un- 
handsome reflection on the Church of England, though I know he 
abhorred the profane faction that confidently assume that honour- 
able name ; but have heard bim speak with that high character 
of the piety, virtue, and learning of my Lord of London as ex- 
ceeds all that the Episcopal clergy themselves usually speak of that 
prelate." 

These passages will be sufficient to show the attitude of the 
Nonconformists in the Nonconformists' academies of Calamy's 
times towards the Church. It represents, indeed, a detachment 
from the Church ecclesiastically \ but in spite of persecution, un- 
deniably bitter and unjustified, there is still the sympathy towards 
so "venerable a body" which at least provided an educational 
element in the academy of great consequence for the intellectual 
discipline of the students. The great German educational philosopher, 
Herbart, says that education consists in its materia), not merely in 
the acquisition of knowledge through instruction ; but he insists that 
equally necessary is the instruction which widens the sympalhics and 
helps men better to understand one another. Itappears dear that with 
these early Nonconformists — if Calamy's is a typical case, as we believe 
it is, of the representative early Nonconformist academies— even 

' Vol U. p 735. 



Tk^ EducaiioH of the Early Nonconfomttsts. 241 

ijte theological studies were conducted in a way which broadened 
the sympathies of the students, and helped their education away from 
that narrowness of dognutic assertion which has regard to the intel- 
lectual position of opponents. 

This position of attempting to undcn>tand points of view different 
from one's own seems to us to mark a new era in theological education, 
and in education generally. It is comparable, politically} to the New 
EnglanJcrs, who, thoUfjh bound to oppose the mother -country, felt 
a great love and leaning even to those who were doing them so great 
a wrong in the attack on their political rights and freedom. And the 
constant good feeling between America and England, in spite of all 
the cruel hardships which have had to be borne, as shown in the 
best minds and hearts of both nations, is paralleled in the altitude of 
the cultured Nonconformists of the academies to the old Church 
from which, for conscience' sake only, they liad to shut themselves 
off. This giowth of sympalliy, combined with knowledge, isi the 
academies is undoubtedly connected historically with the finest 
spirit of tlie modem demand for freedom of thought in all matters of 
speculative inquiry. 

So far as to the relation of Nonconformist education to the 
development of inquiry, at once critical and sympathetic, to standing 
institutions. It is the inculcation through instruction of what 
Herbart calls sympathy. Some account f^hould be added as to the 
material of knowledge given in these academies. 

Boguc and Bennett, in their " History of Dissenters," state the 
ordinary curriculum as being: Greek and Latin classics, logic, 
metaphysics, natural and moral philosophy, rhetoric, theology, and 
biblical criticism. Palmer, in his "Defence of the Academies," 
states that the course of training \n the academies was ordinarily 
for five years. The text-books used by Mr. James Owen ^ in his 
n^acadcmy at Shrewsbury were : — 

In logic, Burgersdicius, Hereboord, Ramus; in metaphysics, 
Fromcnius, Eustachius, Baronius ; in phpics, I^ Clerc, Du Hamcl ; 
in geometry, Tardic's Elements, Euclid \ in astronomy, Gassendus ; 
in chronology. Strauchius ; in ecclesiastical history, Spanhemius ; in 
^theology, Wollcbius. A very interesting and complete account of 
he work of an academy is given by Palmer * : — 

" It was our custom to have lectures appointed to certain times, 
and we began the morning with logic We read Hereboord, which 
is the same as is generally read at Cambridge. The next superior 

1 Bogoe and Benoctl, t. 345* 
■ Qaot«d by Soguc aad Bennett, [. 34J. 
VOL. CCXCl. KO. 2049. 8 





242 




The Gentlemans Magazine, 



class read metaphysics, of which Fromcnius's Synopsis was our 
manual, and, by directions of our tutor, wc were assisted in our 
chambers by Baronius, Suarez, and Colbert. Ethics was our next 
study; and our system — Hereboord in reading, which our tutor 
recommended to our meditation, Dr. Henry More, Marcus Antonius 
Epictetus, with the Comments of Arrian and Simplicius and the 
morals of Solomon, and, under this head, the moral works of the 
great Puffendorf. The highest class was engaged in natural 
philosophy, of which Le Clerc was our system, whom we compared 
with the ancients and with other moderns, as Aristotle, Des Cartes, 
Colbert, Staire, &c, We disputed, every other day, in Ijtin, upon 
the several philosophical controversies, and as these lectures were 
read off, some time was set apart to introduce rhetoric, in which 
that short piece of John Gerard Vossius was used in the school, but 
in our chambers were assisted by his larger volume, Aristotle, and 
Tully, ' De Oratore.' These exercises were all performed every 
morning, except that on Mondays we added, as a divine lecture, 
some of Buchanan's Psalms, the finest of the kind, both for purity of 
language and exact sense of the original ; and on Saturdays all the 
superior classes declaimed by turns, four and four, on some noble 
and useful subject, such as ' De pace,' ' Logicane magis inserviat 
CKteris disciplinis an rhetorics,' 'Dcconnubto virtutis cum doctrina,' 
itc, and I can say that these orations were, for the most part, of 
uncommon eloquence, purity of style, and manly and judicious 
composure. 

"After dinner, our work Ijegan by reading some one of the 
Greek or Latin historians, orators, or poets, of which, first, I 
remember Sallust,, Quintius Curtius, Justin, and Paterculus ; of the 
second, Demosthenes, Tully, and Isocrates' ' Select Orations ' ; and 
of the last, Homer, Virgil, Juvenal, Persius, and Horace. This 
reading was the finest and most delightful to young gcnllemen of 
all others, because it was not in the pedantic method of common 
schools ; but the delicacy of our tutor's criticisms, his exact descrip- 
tion of persons, terms, and places, illustrated by referring to Rosin 
and other antiquarians, and his just application of the morals, made 
such a lasting impression as rendered all our other studies more facile. 
In geography we read * Dionysii Pcriegcsis ' compared with Cluverius, 
which at this lecture always lay upon the table. 

*' Mondays and Fridays we read divinity, of which the first lecture 
was always in the Greek Testament, and it was our custom o go 
through it once a year ; we seldom read less than six or seven 
chapters, and this was done with the greatest accuracy. We were 





The Education of the Early Nonconformists. 243 

obliged to give the most curious etymons, and were assisted with 
the Synopsis Criticoram, Martinius, Favorinus, and Hesychius's 
lexicons, and it was expected that the sacred geography and 
chronology should be particularly observed and answered too, at 
demand, of which I never knew my tutor sparing. The other 
divinity lecture was on Synopsis Ptirioris Theologias, as very accurate 
and short ; we were advised to read by ourselves the more large 
pieces of Turretine, Theses Salmurienses, Baxter's Methodus 
Thcologiffi, and Archbishop Usher's, and, on particular contro- 
versies, many excellent authors, as, on original sin, PlacKus, and 
Barlow, * De Natura Mali ' ; on grace and free-will, Rutherford, 
Strangius, and Amyraldus ; on the Popish controversy, Amesius 
Bellarminus £nervatus> and the modern disputes during the reign of 
King James; on Episcopacy, Altare Damaccnum, Bishop Hall, and 
Mr. Baxter ; Bishop Stillingfleet's Irenicum, Dr. Owen and Ruther- 
ford ; and for practical divinity, Baxter, Tillotson, Chamock — and, 
in a word^ the btst books of the Episcopalian^ Pttshyierian, and 
Independent divines were in their order recommended, and con- 
stantly used by those of us who were able to procure them ; and ail 
or most of them, I can affirm, were the study of all the pupils." 

Boguc and Bennett also give the testimony of Mr. Seeker (in a 
letter to Dr. Isaac Watts) as to subjects and methods pursued at 
the Gloucester academy of Mr. Jones. Seeker's letter confirms the 
liberal nature of the academy's courses. 

It will thus be seen that these old Nonconformist academies 
were very much in the position of the newer Universities of the 
present day. They ventured to introduce new studies and new 
methods ; but they were largely bound by the old traditions whenever 
these seemed to be of valid significance for general culture. Episco- 
palian classical writings were welcomed even in these Nonconformist 
theological seminaries, if ibey brought forward material for theological 
culture. These institutions may have been schismatic in relation to 
the Church, but they were not sectarian in their spirit. And the 
scienti6c attitude of free inquiry thus found its way into institutions 
for theological studies. Men like Calamy, with broad outlook on 
life, could go through these academics and at the end of their course 
preserve an open mind— and it was only after further study they 
*' determined " for or against Episcopalianism. 

It is difficult to say how many of these academies there were in 
the early days of Nonconformity. Bogue and Bennett mention 
Taunton, Shrewsbury, Hoxlon Square (London), Newington Green, 
Exeter, Bridgwater, Tiverton, Colyton, Gloucester, Tewkesbury, 

S2 





A 



J 



244 



Tke Gentleman s MagaztTte. 



Manchester, Coventry- ; and tempcrary academies at Suiby (North- 
amptonshire), Netllebed (Oxfordshire), Wickhambrook (SufTolk), 
Islington, Saffron Walden, Pinner, Uighgate, Dartmouth, Lincoln, 
Nottingham, Stourbridge, and at Llangynwydd In Glamorganshire. 
There are suggestions of others, but this list is sufficient to show 
that scholarly Nonconformity liad to supply from within the place 
of the Universities for those Nonconformists who were unwilling for 
ihcir sons to subscribe the tests, with which they did not intellectually 
agree. And the evidence seems to suggest that Calaroy is a typical 
early Nonconformist of the cultured type. 

Let me repeat the words of Calamy describing the spirit of his 
father's method of training — which I suggest is on excellent state- 
ment of the early Nonconformist attitude towards religious educa- 
tion : — 

" I was from my infancy carefully instructed in the common 
Christian principles of truth and duty, so in matters of diflerence 
among professing Christians I had moderation instilled into me 
from my very cradle. Never did I hear my father inveigh against 
those tliat officiated in the public churches, nor did he attempt to 
create in me any prejudices against them or their way ; but he took 
all occasions that offered to declare against heat and rancour on all 
sides, and for loving all such as were truly pious, and bore the 
image of God upon them, whatsoever their particular sentiments 
might be." 

When the history of English education comes to be written, it 
will be surely found that this spirit of the early Nonconformist 
academies was a great formative influence, and has had effects 
not sufHciently recognised upon the course of the history of our 
national culture. 

FOSTER WATSON. 



HYDERABAD: A CHAPTER OF 
ANCIENT HISTORY. 



Kot uident in point of time, for tbe scene I am about to recall Es Uitle more 
ihon thirty yexn old ; bat compuc it with the Hyderabad of the present day, and 
you will see it has some cl&Lm to be so called. 



U^ 



I 
I 



10 the year 1868 the British representative (called the 
Resident) at the Court of the Nizam and his suite, when 
paying a visit to His Highness, used to take off their shoes in an ante- 
room, struggle through a motley crowd of hangers-on into the Hall 
of Audience in stockinged feet» and seat themselves on the floor to 
the left of the Musnud, on which, sitting motionless like a sphinx, 
with eyes fixed on vacancy that refused to meet those of his visitors, 
the 6rst of our Indian feudatorj' princes awaited their coming. To 
the right of the Musnud — a simple contrivance of cushions co\"ered 
in white cotton on a raised pbtform — with their feet tucked under 
them, their hands with joined palms in prayerful attitude, knelt or 
sat on their heels the Dewan (or Prime Minister) and chief nobles of 
Ihe Court; while behind the Nizam knelt Shams -ul-umra, Amir-i- 
Kabir, holding a tuft of peacock feathers secured in a long socket^ 
which every now and then he waved slowly over the royal turban, 
thereby denoting that it was the privilege of the Premier noble to 
guard his chief from the intrusive fly or mosquito. 

From a British point of view the ceremony was anything but 
impressive. The Nizam, whose fair skin and grey eyes recalled his 
Mongol origin, had at one time been a tall, fine man, with a taste for 
hunting and active habits, which disappeared soon after his elevation 
to the Musnud, it being a tradition of office that no man was worlliy 
to approach the Presence save with bowed head and downcast eyes, 
and that the Presence was of such exalted dignity it should not make 
itself cheap by leaving the precincts of its own palace too often, 
dthcr on horse or elephant or in a carriage. When it did leave 
those precincts and passed tlirough the city on very rare occasioni 
«a edict went forth commanding His Highness's subjects to descend 




246 



The Genileman's Magazine. 



to the ground floor of their dwellings as he passed, so that the sacri- 
lege of anyone being on a higher level than the Sun of the Universe, 
the Pole Star of the Firmament, &c., &c., might be avoided. No 
wonder that when, as one of the Resident's Assistants, I first set eyes 
on the Presence it was a mountain of flesh. Yet there was no mis- 
taking its dignity. Afzut-ud-doulah looked a king, while he posed as 
a god. What he was like when he stood up 1 cannot say ; in my day 
Englishmen never ever saw him on his feet ; that was a privilege, if 
report spoke truly, reserved only for fiddlers and dancing girls, who 
saw more of the Presence than anyone else- It is the misfortune of 
princes to be nursed on adulation ; this one, alas ! had fattened on 
the diet to such extent that he honestly believed himself far above 
the level of humanity, bound to look down on all round him. He 
would call his Dewan a dog, not out of anger, but merely because 
no one else dare treat the second man in his kingdom with anything 
but respect. The gulf between an Eastern potentate and his Minister 
is always immense ; nowhere within the bounds of civilisation could 
it have been wider than at Hyderabad in those days. Yet even 
AfJEul-ud-doulah must have known that his Dewan, Sir Salar Jung, 
had rendered priceless service to the State, and was one of nature's 
noblemen to boot. The favour with which he was regarded by the 
British Government, the high esteem in which he was held by all 
classes, accentuated, no doubt, his master's disfavour; more especially 
as that master's feelings towards the Paramount Power were inwardly, 
it was sometimes thought, less imbued with loyalty than his outward 
policy. The latter had been framed on the counsels of Sir Salar 
Jung and the leading nobles, and bad brought him nch reward in the 
dark days of the Mutiny, when Hyderabad refused to be led astray; 
yet the Nizam had never shown cordiality towards the British 
Residency or its supporters— possibly because he did not wish to 
acloinwledge too openly the source of his dignity and power, and pre- 
ferred the barbaric isolation which he conceived it to be his duly as 
head of the State to maintain unimpaired from the hands of his pre- 
decessors. His view of past history dwelt, as far as possible^ on the 
relations of his Court towards the pioneers of England in the East 
a century ago ; uneducated and not too intelligent, he remained 
imbedded in a cocoon of ignorance and tradition from which he bad 
no desire to emerge. One can understand, and not without 
iympathy, the delight he must have experienced in receiving an 
envoy from the Queen in a manner more befitting the past than the 
present ; a manner which even an enlightened and patriotic Minister like 
Sir Salar Jung was anxioui to uphold, because it marked a privilego 



Hyderabad : a Chapter of Ancient History. 247 

enjoyed b}' no other feudatory prince in India. For a few moments 
it placed the Nizam on a level with the then independent King of 
Ava. It was amusing to note how His Highncss.would maintain this 
high level by restricting his interview with the Resident to a few slow 
sentences, delivered with an impassive countenance. After the 
Court Munshi, standing up, had read out in sonorous Persian the 
Viceroy's Kharita deputing the Resident by name to be his repre- 
sentative at tlie Nizam's Court, and commending him to his "honoured 
and valued friend," &c., tlic officer so accredited would express his 
pleasure at having at length obtained the desire of his heart in being 
deputed to Hyderabad, of whose renown he tiad often heard, and 
also his wish to avail himself of every opportunity to cement the 
relations of amity and concord which had so long subsisted between 
Her Majesty's Government and that of her faithful Ally. If the 
Nizam were in a good humour he might respond by giving the 
speaker a word of personal welcome, as brief as possible; but 
generally he put aside verbiage of that kind as unnecessary. He 
would inquire first after the health of Her Alajcsty, then as to the 
Viceroy's health, after a long pause : another pause would prelude a 
remark that he understood the Viceroy had gone to the Hills for 
cliange of^r j a third would introduce an observation as to the air of 
the Hills being cold. Short sentences and long pauses are in accord- 
ance with Oriental etiquette at fuU-dress Durbars, and conduce to 
dignity ; so, having referred to the Queen and Viceroy, and not caring 
to descend to lower topics, His Highness would give the sign for 
distribution of a//ar and /an, a ceremony that denoted the termina- 
tion of the Durbar and brought the Resident and His suite to their 
feet again. Then we filed out again, each salaaming as we [xisscd in 
front of His Highness at a distance of several feet, scrambled in 
the ante-room for our boots, and departed, as we came, on elephants. 
Some of us, especially the General, his Slaff, and other military 
officers from the Cantonment of Sccunderabad, who were wont to 
accompany the Resident on such occasions, would wonder how a 
scene like this could be enacted in the year 1S68. And no one 
wondered more than Mr. Charles Burslem Saunders, C.B., of the 
Bengal Civil Service, who went to Hyderabad that year as Reiident. 
His retiring disposition, kindness of heart, and unbounded hospi- 
tality, had made him extremely popular wherever he had served; no 
one could have been more aflfablc or considerate towards rutives as 
well as his own countrymen, or less open (o the faintest suspicion of 
haukur or highhanded dealing. His courage had been tested in 
tb« Mutiny, and he had been created C-B. when quite a young man 



248 



The Geniieman's Magazine, 



after the siege of Delhi ; but no remembrance of these scenes was 
ever allowed to influence his gentle guileless nature, so full of good- 
will to all men, white or hrown, as those who knew him in the 
Punjab, Berar, Mysore, and Hyderabad can testify. The spirit of 
the imperial race within him kicked, however, at the idea of Kngllsb 
officers being obliged to sit shoeless on the floor in the presence of 
any tributary prince ; he resented the ceremonial just described as a 
personal indignity as well as a slight to his Government, and seemed 
to derive little consolation from the view that old customs die hard, 
and that the survival of this one during and since the time of the all- 
compelling Dalhousie must indicate the existence of reasons at least 
entitled to respect. It had lived to be an anachronism, no doubt, 
through the tenderness of the Paramount Power towards old 
traditions ; but the difl^culty of getting rid of it during the lifetime of 
a Nizam who had stood by that Power in the Mutiny, and had been 
rewarded in consequence, was often lost sight of by its critics. To 
understand the posiuon further, it must be remembered that at that 
lime Hyderabad, a hotbed of intrigues of various kinds, an Atsatia 
for all who plotted against law and order, offered an asylum to 
ruflians wanted by the police all over British India, with which it was 
still unconnected by rail ; and our Government was trying to 
strengthen the hands of a Minister who had already done much to 
improve its administration. Any attempt to diminish what the 
Nizam conceived to be his dignity would certainly have weakened 
the authority of Sir Salar Jung, already regarded by his master with 
jealousy and suspicion on account of his supposed subserviency to 
British interests. 

On the 26th February, 1869, I was sitting with Mr. Saunders, 
when a mounted orderly galloped up to the Residency with a letter 
from the Minister, announcing the startling intelligence of tlie death 
of the Nizam. His Highness, though not forty-five years of age, 
had long been in bad health, afflicted by a disease which, it was said, 
would have yielded to the knife of a skilful English surgeon, had he 
cared to consult one. It was his way, however, to be treated only by 
native hakttms or doctors, who dared not, and would not hnve been 
aIIo\\-ed had they dared, to resort lo other remedies than medicines 
which they were obliged to swallow themselves when prescribing for 
the royal patient, in whose presence two or three doses would of^cn 
be made up, one of which the prescriber had to take himself before 
Uie other reached the lips of the Nizam. Apart from the distrust 
implied by this Oriental method, the responsibility of advising and 
prescribing for a personage of such exalted rank and power was 



Hyderabad: a Chapter of Ancient History. 249 



enoogh to make the most competent hakeem hesitate to incur the 
least risk ; so temporary relief was all they aimed at, and no wonder. 
Ttie cause of death, however, was, we learned afterwards, an attack of 
fever, which His Highness insisted on treating in a manner not 
ordered by his physicians, and which no one anticipated for a 
moment would be fatal. Hence its result look the Minister and 
Resident completely by surprise. The latter at once sent a reply 
to say he would call on the former, and ordered his carriage for that 
purpose ; but before he started a message from Sir Salar Jung begged 
him to delay lus visit, as the city was in an uproar, and a party of 
Arabs (in those days a considerable faction, remarkable for their 
turbulence) had taken possession of the bridge which guarded the 
entrance to it, and would let no Englishman pass. In the course 
of an hour or so, Sir Salar Jung had cleared away this obstacle, and 
Mr. Saunders was soon able to confer with him in his palace, about 
a mile and a half from the Residency, as to the steps to be taken. 
All that day the uproar continued, fomented by rumours, spread 
abroad by disaffected [Arsons, that the British Government would 
annex the Stale ; till, towards the evening, the Resident deemed it 
prudent to authorise the issue of a proclamation that the Govcrnratnt 
of India would recognise the succession of the late Af^ul-ud-doulah's 
only son, a child three years old. Then things quieted down, and 
during the next two days the Dcwan, the premier noble, and his 
eldest son, who was married to a daughter of Afzulud-doulah, met 
Mr. Saunders at the Residency in conference as to the scheme of 
administration to be submitted for the approval and orders of the 
Viceroy, who had, of course, Ijeen informed by telegram of all that 
had occurred. 

It is Ihe custom on the third day after the demise of a ruling 
chief for the British representative to pay a formal visit of condolence 
to his successor. Great importance was attached to this visit as an 
act of State sealing the recognition already proclaimed of the heir to 
the Musnud ; and great was the concern of Sir Salar Jung and his 
colleagues to hear at those Residency conferences that Mr. Saunders 
was bent on abolishing the old manner of his reception by the Nizam 
and introducing the custom of all other Indian Courts, which 
allotted chairs lo the right in Durbar to all British officers, and did 
not oblige them to take off their shoes. In vain the Minister 
pleaded for the retention of the one privilege which distinguished 
the Nizam's Court, the first in order of precedence, from others, and 
urged that to take it away now at the commencement of a minority, 
when the young prince was unable to say a word on his own behalf. 



250 



The GefUleman's Magazine* 



would reflect unfavourably on the reputation of the Paramount 
Power, and sliU more on his own, be being joint guardian of the 
prince's interests. Mr. Saunders stood firm, and declared that unless 
the Viceroy, to whom the question had been referred, should order 
otherwise, he must seize the present opportunity of ending an 
anachronism which, if it had any meaning, was derogatory to the 
Paramount Power. He pointed out at the same time that it was a 
relic of barbarism, no Indian prince or subject being ever asked to 
take off his turban in the presence of Her Majesty ; and further, 
that the custom in question operated to bar all intercourse between 
the Nizam and the Resident, whose advice should be freely offered 
at all limes to the head of the Stale, who under the new ngime to be 
inaugurated would be educated to fulfil his duties according to tlio 
requirements of modern civilisation. Then Sir Salar Jung played 
his last card, and said he did not know how he could undertake to 
answer for the safely of the Resident on his journey to and from the 
Nizam's palace if it were known that this a.ncicnt privilege was to be 
taken away. Mr. Saunders responded by referring to what Lord 
Canning bad said some years before, when a shot had been fired iii 
the presence of Nizam Afzul-ud-doulah by an unknown hand at 
Colonel Davidson, or else for the purpose of intimidating h\rtu 
Rising to the occasion with dignity and good sense, His Highness 
commanded his Minister to escort the Resident back to the 
Residency — " His safely be on your bead," he added. The Viceroy, 
in noticing this incident, congratulated His Highness on the spirit 
he had shown, hying stress on the fact that the Imperial Govern- 
ment regarded the person of its ambassadors as sacred, and stating 
tliat had the Resident been injured on this occasion it was impossible 
to say what consequences might have ensued, imperilling even the 
independence of the Hyderabad State. Mr. Saunders's reference to 
this letter, followed shortly after by a telegram from Lord Atayo 
(ihcn Viceroy) approving his proposal, closed the discussion, and 
there was nothing left to the Mini!>ler and his colleague, the Nawnb 
Shams-ul-umra« but to give effect to the change in question. 

On the morning of the visit of condolence there was a large 
breakfast parly at the Residency, which included the General and 
other officers from Secunderabad ; a troop of Horse Artillery was 
encamped in the grounds to fire a salute in honour of the young 
prince; and for the first time telegraphic communication between the 
Residency and cantonment, four miles disunt, was established. A 
special significance attached to this last arrangement, made hurriedly 
in view of the recent and still seething comtnouon in the city, and 






Hyderabad: a Chapter of Ancient History, 251 

the desirability of keeping ihe Government of India informed with- 
out delay of anything that might occur at such a time of excitement ; 
while the difficult)* referred to just now of guaranteeing the Resident 
a safe return from his visit lo the Nizam suggested the issue of 
certain instructions for Ihe guidance of the General and First 
Assistant Resident before Mr. Saunders started on his journey. As 
I was one of the two English officers who accompanied him, the 
other being the commandant of his escort, that journey is indelibly 
stamped on my memory. Oar two elephants waded slowly through 
dense crowds up to the door of the Nizam's palace. Being on the 
leading one, tn the same howdah with Mr. Saunders, I remember 
there was not too much room for me, and that not a hand was lifted 
to salaam the Resident as he passed. The silence and sullenness of 
the masses on either hand, from which looked up uncouth Arabs, 
bold Pathans (locally known as Rohillas) and Hindustanis, faces 
stamped with lawlessness by the side of others, fortunately more 
numerous, which wore an aspect of docile indifference, were not 
over pleasant, more especially as every man in the mob carried arms 
of some description. AH along the line, particularly where side 
streets and lanes abutted the main thoroughfare, were posted State 
oops and loj'al adherents, who could be relied on to repress any 
Iden hntuk. The Ministers had taken every precaution to guard 
e Resident ; the only risk was from the bullet of some fanatic or 
secret enemy— the common risk of all persons in high station every- 
where, though commoner in some places than in others, and in times 
when hearts are burning than when they are cooL Nevertheless, it 
iras a relief, not less to Salar Jung and Shams-ul-umra than to the 
Resident, when the day's ceremony was safely concluded. It was 
very brief. The young Kizam appeared in the arms of a nurse to 
hold his first Purbar, not without alarm, as was natural, at the sight 
of so unusual a concourse and his first view of white faces. But his 
tears were soon dried by the Resident's modal and my watch chain 
being dangled in front of him, and his being allowed to play with 
them— an omen regarded as of happy import by those around. 
With a few kind words and smiles Mr. Saunders, after taking his 
scat on the right of the child, soon closed the interview; the 
Ministers presented attar and pan^ and wl- left the palace. On our 
return journey the tension in the air which had marked, or seemed 
to mark, our previous progress, was sensibly diminished. If it really 
existed in the imagination of more than a few persons it was probably 
more due to the rumours which had been circulated of a want of 
benevolence in the intentions of the Imperial Government with 



I 



25^ 



The Gentleman s Magazine. 



regard to the Nizam's succession than to any idea of the general 
populace that his dignity was about to be lowered by a new method 
of reception in Durbar, of which I can hardly suppose them to hare 
been made aware. However this may be, the new method vras 
inaugurated without any hitch, and without evoking any visible sign 
of displeasure then or since. Nowadays it has become old, to the 
satisfaction, I dare say, of the most conservative Hydcrabadee who 
desires the welfare of his country. No one can blame Salar Jung 
for resisting its introduction, or impute to him any wish to retard 
useful progress ; but times change, and I who knew him intimately 
for many years doubt if he passed from the scene of his triumphs in 
1883 regretting the failure of his efforts to preserve for bis master 
what he esteemed an ancient privilege. Alas, that the famous 
Minister should have been struck down by cholera before that master 
attained his majority, and that both his sons died in early manhood t 
His philosophic temperament rebelled against no change that 
appeared inevitable ; and he may even now in another world regard 
with equanimity the fact that a son of his ancient rival and stoutest 
opponent occupies the post he held with such surpassing tact and 
skill. But my little stor>' is finished, and I must not give way to the 
temptation of further reminiscences. I have thought this one worth 
recounting, partly out of respect to the memor>' of a former chief 
and friend, also passed away to the Land of the l^al, and partly 10 
mark the contrast between Then and Now. Those who know the 
present Nizam, His Highness Mahboob Ali Khan, the splendid 
entertainments he gives to distinguished persons when they visit his 
capital, and his skill with riSe and spear, will be surprised as they 
read, though some eager spirits and well-wishers of the State 
generally may wish the gulf between Past and Present in Hyderabad 
ways and politics were even wider than it is. Mr. Kipling teaches 
that " to hustle the East " is a vain thing, and he is right Still, in 
many ways and in many places the wheels of change and progress 
have been very busy these last thirty years, and if one wanted a. 
single striking illustration of this truism, by way of contrast to the 
scene just depicted, it might be found in a spectacle witnessed not 
long ago, when the child 1 saw in his nurse's arms, the first of his 
dynasty who ever paid a visit to Calcutta to greet an English Viceroy, 
was entertained by His Excellency at a banquet at which, espousing 
the cause of his Suzerain in a foreign contest, be publicly and 
spontaneously proffered her his sword and the entire resources of bis 
kingdom, thereby showing that be identified her interests with bis 
own, and was both an intcUigcnt and loyal supporter of her Empire. 

C u* XaEVOR. 



OLD AGE. 

'T'^O say that all men desire old age and yet that most of them 
X grumble when it comes sounds like the answer to a conun- 
drum. It is rather a truth wbich the moralist carefully studies and 
relegates to the proper position in his system. Doubtless Methuselah 
philosophised on old age when himself 900 years old, made the 
ordinary good resolutions* which the old always do, and was sur- 
prised when sixty-nine years afterwards the end came. So slowly 
does age creep over us, that it is something of a shock to find our* 
selves even at the beginning of old age. Our faculties appear as 
sound as ever, our taste for life and its varied occupations and 
pleasures as keen, our schemes and hopes as eagerly cherished, but 
tliere is a scarcely perceptible languor in the frame, the limbs are 
stiffcr than they used to be, slight shades of silver and gray show 
themselves in the hair. Even then no one suspects old age. At 
length a man hears someone say irreverently of him, " Old So-and-so " 
said, or did, such and such a thing. Then there can be no doubt. 
The shades arc beginning to deepen. It is as well to look into 
matters, learn in what spirit old age must be welcomed, and what 
prospects a reasonable man has of finishing the work he has set 
himself to accomplish in this world. 

No moralist, whether in ancient or recent times, has dwelt so 
beautifully and with so much common sense upon old age as Cicero. 
Every scholar remembers his famous aphorisms Mriih regard to it : 
** Naturam optimam ducem tanquam Dcum sequimur," and again, 
"Aptissinu omnino sunt arma seneciutis arles exercitationesque 
▼irtutura." Theology reserves her teachings naturally for the pulpit, 
and warns off men from expecting the future in this world, a time 
which may never be granted. Serious thoughts spring forth with a 
religious man in due order, like the fullblown rose from its bud. The 
ordinary man, however, is wise if he makes betimes a gradual pre- 
paraUon, even in worldly matters, for old age. Settled habits must 
be cautiously laid aside. A man, for instance, who has been wont 
all his life to read more or less late into the night should innovate 
*lowly. Any diangc may affect the digestion or the power of sleep. 



'"^^ -*■ 



254 



The Gentleman s Magazhu. 



Outdoor sports, again, must be cirtifully indulged. It may be a 
question, save with a strong man, whether it were not safer to give 
up hunting and shooting, at least to prosecute them with much 
discretion. The proper sports for an old man are golf and fishing, 
and even the latter rccrealioti must be used with fitting caution. It 
may seriously affect the heart, if it does not directly cause gout and 
rheumatism. A sensible person will relax his bodily efforts and be 
contented with less exercise than he required in earlier life; gradually 
dissociate yourself from, but do not wholly banish, the favourite 
amusements of manhood — such seems the best advice to give with 
regard to this aspect of old age. 

The greatest and most becoming help in old age is undoubtedly 
literature. '* Nihil est otiosa senectute jucundius. " In this leisure 
able state of mind the old man betakes himself with renewed zest to 
the poets and prose writers which formed his youth and manhood. 
He finds new beauties and fresh graces in every favourite author. 
It may be that he takes up his own pen and delights hts contempo- 
raries with ripe wisdom and chastened language, the (hiils of long 
observation and wide experience. VltiaX then matter 

Th« foot less prompt to meet the morning dew, 
The heart less iKMindinQ at emotion new ? 

On the sunny garden seat, or by the winter hearth, he can 
summon the wit and the sage from every country and period to take 
counsel with him, and by their wise sentiments add to his own store 
of knowledge. Plato's pictures of old age often dwell upon these 
characteristics. Thus, Cephalus, sitting with a garland round bis 
head discoursing of the advantages of old age, is a charming idylL 
" It is not old age," he says, " but men's dispositions which render 
old age bearable or the reverse. If their tempers are mild and 
easily contented, old age brings men no more troubles than will 
youth," A landscape which is a perfect gem at the beginning of the 
"Laws," "on the road from Gnossus to the cave and temple of 
Zeus," forms an exquisite background for the aged sages of that 
dialogue to converse on many moral and political subjects.' Just as 
the stag and eagle renew their youth, so old men find their pulses 
quicken and their intellects stimubted by such discourses as 
Reynolds, Boswcll, and Johnson might liave exchanged with each 
other in " The Club " ; nay, as we know from Bo^zy himself, they 
did indulge in. A very sensible answer was that of Gorgias, when 
asked how he had managed to grow old so pleasantly and so full of 

■ ZV XtfitMcat i. uo ; Itgitt 1. 604% 



Old A^, 



255 



observatian : ** I have Dcver," said be, ** been voot to do anything 
for the sake of pteuure." 

Cicero sums up the four disabtfities of old age : that it caJb as 
away from acttve life, makes the frame weaker, deprives us of almost 
all our pleasures, and is bat a step distant at any time from death. 
A man of (be world would still dread these accompaniments of 
advanced life, but Christian leadiing possesses a sure dcfL-ncc against 
tlictr power. Nowadays a man decries old age mainly because it 
leaves him alone in the world, relatives and friends having gradually 
blktt off from him. Loss of memory, too, oppresses a man, 
especially if he be a scholar. In other respects old age has brought 
him judgment, sympathy, and love. Home pleasures, and especially 
those derived from a flower garden, as opposed to the only garden 
Cicero or VirgiVs Con-cian old man knew much of— a kitchen 
garden — are always grateful to old age. Calm and iUumined like a 
I^pland night is the model old man's ending. £nv)-, hatred, and 
other disturbing passions are conspicuously absent. He has schooled 
himself into peace and submission and at threescore years and ten 
death comes to him as a friend. 

If they are wise, old men will consort as much as possible wiih 
the young, in order to keep their intelligence bright and flexible like 
a Damascus sword-blade, and to maintain an abundant crop of 
sympathies. Young men will similarly find it adi-antageous to associate 
largely with the old. Thus will they be preparing themselves for 
old age, and, if their aged friends be sensible and good-natured, their 
own experience of life cannot but increase. Old age, indeed, can- 
not away with the strong meats and drinks which are in a way 
natural at young men's feasts, Cicero again has some useful and 
pointed remarks on the dietary of old age, on the "pocula minuta 
atque rorantia " which best become it Exercise both bodily and 
Qcntal is beneficial to old age. The love of a garden, to insist upon 
: again, always cheers and pleases old age, as may be seen from 
Laertes to Canon Bcadon. Old Parr and Jenkins seem indeed to 
have grown to thcJr great age mechanically, as it were. As a general 
rule for a happy old age e^-ery faculty of body and soul ought to be 
xercised, but not so much as to fatigue them. This is the great 
liculty to be guarded against in a healthy age. Every kind of 
ulariiy is thus to be avoided. Small wonder that the good 
things of the Court killed old Parr. 

One of the latest authorities to philosophise on old age wns the 
late Master of Bolliol. All who had the happiness of knowing him 
can imagine how dispassionately and with what an c\-enly balanced 



256 



The Geni/etnan's Magazine, 



judgment he would treat so familiar a subject. " I alvrays mean to 
cherish the illusion/' he says, " which is not an illusionf that the last 
years of life are the most valuable and important ; and every year I 
shall try in some way or other to do more than the year before." ' 
He goes on tu explain that about fifty-five years of age the memory 
begins to fait. Efforts of thought or feeling ought then to be avoided. 
" Kepose is the natural slate of memory," 

In wise words the Master writes to Lady Stanley : "1 ask you 
not to think it an affectation if I say that the later years o^ life appear 
to mc from a certain point of view to be the best. They are less 
disturbed by care and the world ; we begin to understand that things 
never did really matter so much as we supposed, and we are able to 
see them more in their true proportion, instead of being overwhelmed 
by them. We are more resigned to the will of God, neither afraid 
to depart nor over-anxious to stay. We cannot see into another life, 
but we believe with an inextinguishable hope that there is something 
still reser^'cd for us." " 

It is worth while adding his apothegms on Old Age ; they are 
full of hints for the old, and abound in practical wisdom : — 
" 1. Beware of the coming on of age, for it will not be deiicd. 
" 3. A man cannot become young by over-exerting himself. 
"3. A man of sixty should lead a quiet, open-air life. 
"4. He should collect the young about him, though he will find 
probably in them an inclination to disregard his opinion, for he 
belongs to another generation, and ' crabbed age and youth cannot 
dwell together.' 

"5. He should set other men to work. 

" 6. He ought at sixty to have acquired authority, reticence, and 
freedom from personality. 

" 7. He may truly think of the last years of life as being the best, 
and every year as better than the last, if he knows how to use it. 

"8. He should surround himself with the pictures, books, 
subjects in which be takes an interest and which he desires to 
remember."' 

Old age, then, resembles any other fragment of human life ; it is 
a process of natural growth, cannot be avoided, and is alwaj's defied 
at a man's own peril. He has it largely at his own command 
whether advancing years shall leave him as a Nestor or a Theraitcs. 
Hence the necessity for preparation during youth and manhood for 
an orderly, and therefore a bappyi Old Age. Its philosophy appeals 
10 all. 

' Jowctt, Uft mtdLeittrSt U- p. 44. ' f^id, p. 382. * loiJ. ^. 79. 



Old Age, 257 

Each person's idiosyncrasy will suggest one of the two great 
methods of q)eDding old age^ whether in the serene enjoyment of 
the comitry and the tastes it engenders, or amid the society of friends 
and acquaintances and the eager hurrying life of a great city. 
Perhaps a judicious participation in the pleasures of each in turn is 
the wiser |»rescription for sensible old age. A man rusts out in the 
country, charming though the process be to certain minds ; he loses 
in the other much of the leisure which is so necessary to a well- 
sprat old i^;e. Whatever a man does> however, let him realise that 
there is yet a call for his energies to be utilised. He may leave a 
fragrant memory behind him and be sure that the good is not always 
interred with his bones. The best monument is the world's respect. 
And the inevitable end should never be forestalled either bodily or 
intellectually. So long as the faculties are mercifully spared. 

Old sge hath yet bis honoar and his \xA\ ; 
Death closes all, but something ere the end. 
Some work of noble note may yet be done. 

A good conscience and the approbation of the world are the best 
secular comforts for what, after sJl, needs no comforting, but possesses, 
its own pleasures and its own consolations. Let the wise man go. 
forth into the dark valley upheld by Thankfulness and Love. At a. 
certain point religion and morality touch. Then it behoves the 
latter, where old age is concerned, to lay her hand upon her mouth 
and be still. 

M. G, WATKINS. 



VOL. CCXCI. HO. 3049. 



ajS 



The Gentleman s Magazine, 



GUIZOT, 



WHEN M. Guizot came as Ambassador ExtraordiDar>^ and 
Minister Plenipotentiary to the Court of St. James's in 
XB40 it was the first time he had set foot in England, although he 
was then fift>'-three years of age, and lie suffered under the still 
grcatur drawback of never having been engaged in diplomac)* before. 
He made his d^but in the diplomatic service here, and he made it 
at a time when the political relations between England and France 
were tending to complexity ; when France liad been undergoing 
a series of convulsions, and the average term for a Ministry to 
remain in oflice was between seven and eight months. Guizot, 
moreover, was in temperament as well as in politics totally opposed 
to the brilliant chief at the English Foreign Office, and he was the 
minister of a King whom Lord Palmerston distrusted and disliked 
for his faults of character as much as for his policy. If Louis 
Philippe had been "a very straightforward, scrupulous, and high- 
minded man," wrote Lord Palmerston to Earl Granville, "he would 
not now be sitting on the French throne." 

As a set-off against this Guizot had made a reputation for 
statesmanship in his own country. He was respected and welcomed 
by Liberals and Conservatives in England as pacific in his dealings ; 
he was a man of letters who had won an honourable place ; and, 
lastly, he was a Protestant, and so recommended himself to the more 
thoroughly English portion of society. Guizot was the first 
Protestant Ambassador whom France had sent us since the days 
of the Stuarts. He was sometimes called the French Puritan. 

Guizot lived through the most eventful periods of modem 
France. He was bom in 17S7 amid the multerings of the Revolu- 
tion. Guizot's parents were married by a proscribed Protestant pastor, 
and his birth was never legally registered. His father, who was 
an advocate, used his talent for public speaking in the interests of the 
persecuted Protestants, and became a marked man. After living for 
several weeks in danger of his life he was at last arrested, unwillingly 
enough, by a gendarme who knew and respected him. '* Shall 
I let you escape?" said the roan. "Are you mauicd?" replied 



Guixoi, 



*59 



IkU GoiioL " Ves, I bave two chBdrtn." ** And lo hane I," replied 
the prisoner, *' bat you would hare to piy for me ; let us go on." 
They went on, snd M. Gaucot died oo the sc&ffold a fcv days later. 

At this txine FiangoiSi the future statesman, who was the elder of 
the tvo children, was six and a half years old, arkd alwaj-s i»^esenrcd 
the recollection of going to see his &thcr in prison, or what was 
euphemisticaUy cilled (be House of Justice^ His ^routh was 9^tt& 
at Geneva, whither Madame Guirot retired in 17^ for the sake 
of her children's education. AAer her hosband's tragic death she 
derated hcisclf entirely to her two sons. They were obliged to live 
very frugally, and Madame Gui/ot did most of the household 
worit with her own hands. But she managed to secure the best 
mastCfs for the boys, and al*-ays found time to be present at their 
lessons. She was so entirely one with her children that in the 
screre winters, when the liitic boys' hands became sore and stiff with 
chilblains, she would write their exercises for them from their 
dicution. Besides the regular course of study she had tliem taught to 
ride and to swim, and not content with giving them a good scholastic 
education, she insisted on their learning a trade. Franjois worlted 1 
at carpentering, and became a skilful joiner. So the early years wci^ 
9pefil in simple, studious fashion under the eye of the stronir 
helpful mother who, for her childrcn*s sake, battled against tlm 
overwhelming horror and grief of the Reign of Tenor. 

Guizot is described as a coatcroplatire boy, fond of study 
and rctiremenL It was difficult to arouse him when absorbed 
fn thoughts, and his companions used ineffectually to („ 
; of practical jokes. The seriousness of his mind and the 
trend of his chamcicr are evidenced in the following extracts from a 
letter to his mother when he was nineteen ; — 

" MonU Uw is the law to which I would refer ev-ery question. 
I look upon every temptation to step aside as a danger, and I 
disregard every path which does not lead me back to the right 
road. I have one quality wluch is, perhaps, favourable to mv 
principles, although it is often reviled by the world-obsHnacy 
I may be wrong, but whenever I think that I am right the whole 
universe has no influence upon my opinions." 

In 1805. when he was eighteen, the little household at Geneva 
was broken up. Madame Guizot and the younger boy went to 
Ntmcs to Madame Guizofs parents, and Francois was sent to Paris' 
10 read law. Being a conscientious, dutiful son, he worked 
diligently at his legal studies, but his heart was in literature 
Confident of his own ability, he writes to his mother in 1806 :— 

TJ 



in his own 
the effect 



26o 



The Gentknian s Magazine. 



" I do not know how I chanced to open the drawer to which I had 
banished the first attempts of my pen. I was not able to resist the 
temptation of reading some of them, and it made me sad to do so. 
I possess talents, but I cannot yield to their impulse. I cannot 
devote my youth to studying the art of writing, and all that apper- 
tains to it, so as to enable me in my riper years togive free expression 
to my ideas. I shall never be able to recover the time which I might 
have spent with so mucli satisfaction ; it will never come back. 
Must I then be in every way thwarted by circumstances? 1 was 
intended by nature for a distinguished man of letters ; I am some- 
times devoured with the longing to write, if it were only for myself. 
... I feel drawn towards literature and poetry by a charm which 
makes me miserable." 

For about three years he struggled manfuUy with bis inclinations, 
for Madame Guizot had no opinion of literature as a profession ; but 
at length, by the intervention of a mutual friend, she was persuaded to 
let her son go his own way, and in 1808 he renounced the law and 
gave his whole time to letters. He seems to have been fortunate in 
obtaining remunerative work, for at twenty-two we find him with a 
variety of " orders." He is writing articles for the Manure which 
meet with general satisfaction, translating a book of travel, writing 
notes on Gibbon, and compiling a dictionary of synonyms. VVhUc 
he was busied in this way he aime into contact with Mdlle. Pauline de 
Meulan, who was writing for the PublUhU, a newspaper cslabhshed 
by M. Suard, Permanent Secretary of the French Academy, whose 
acquaintance Guizot had already made. Mdllc. de Meulan belonged 
to an exiled aristocratic family. Her liierary gift remained hidden 
for some time, but blossomed forth under the impulse of necessity. 
While she was writing for the Pu&iuiste a fresh domestic misfortune 
overtook her, and anxiety and illness prevented her from accomplish- 
ing her usual task. Guizot hearing of this undertook to write the 
required articles, and worked for her without her knowledge. 
Gradually the acquaintance ripened into intimacy, and in 1S12 they 
were married. It was just after the marriage that Guizot was made 
Professor of Literature. Henceforth it was a joint literary life. 
\V'hile the husband was writing political pamphlets, the wife was 
writing novelettes, and they were planning work in common. She 
writes : — 

"As you know, I wanted to find something which would give us 
a settled eniployment and prove the foundation of a dificrunl sort of 
life than ours U now. ... Do not be afraid of setting me to work» 
dearest . . . What I should much prefer would be some book in 



Cuizot. 261 

iriiidil should undertake the dnsd^eiy, and to which you would give 
ooloor and bveftdth." 

The difficulties which beset vires and mothers in their liteiaty 
woik are shadowed forth in the following lines from Madame Guizot 
to her husband : — 

** I am wdl, only rather sleepy in consequence of a detestable 
oi^iit. Ifthere were no writing to be done I should have nothing to 
complain of, but it is a great misfortune for me that I cannot make 
Uteraiy woik agree with the rest of my life. If it were possible for 
me to give myself entirely up to it by devoting all my time and 
thou^ to it, as you when you want to write well, I should write well 
too. I still have the power of so d<Hng but I have not that (^pass- 
ing continually from one life to another, from the multitude of 
feelii^ cares, and thoughts connected with other lives to those con- 
ceptions which I alone can originate. When I am not writing I am 
jvtt, or I belong to my child ; I think of what you are doing, of what I 
have to do for my boy. In order to write I must be myself only, 
and I have no time for such transitions. I exhaust mj^f, and I 
have no power left fcv anything." 

Guizot was not long to remain in the calm seclusion of his study. 
Politics interested him more and more, and in 1814 he gave up his 
studies and his teaching for the post of Secretary to the Minister of 
the Interior. Talleyrand was then serving Louis XVIII., and though 
their paths lay apart Guizot must have had opportunities of 
learning som^bing of the leading statesman and diplomatist of the 
times, whose character he summed up in after years with a good deal 
of discernment At the Home Office, as we should call it, Guizot 
remained until forced back into retirement with the Hundred Days. 
He served again under the Bourbons, becoming a ConseilUr d'£tatj 
until they were driven from the throne, and he then took office under 
Louis Philippe. 

When in company with the other advisers of Charles X. he was 
dismissed, and retired to the house called Maisonnette, near Meulan, 
lent him by Madame de Condorcet, he wrote : — 

"At that time I was strongly attached, and have ever since 
remained so, to public life. Nevertheless I have never quitted it 
without experiencing a feeling of satisfaction mixed with my regret, 
as that of a man who throws off a burden which he willingly sustained, 
or who passes from a warm and exciting atmosphere into a light and 
refreshing temperature." 

The life at Meulan suited him. He writes: — 

" I sometimes went to Paris on affairs of business. I find in a 



262 



The Geniieman's Magazine. 



letter which I wrote to Madame Guizot during one of these joumcys 
the impressions I experience. At the first moment I feel pleasure at 
mixing again and conversing with the world, but soon grow weary of 
unprofitable words. There is no repetition more tiresome than that 
which bears upon popular matters. We arc eternally listening to 
what we know already ; we are perpetually telling others what they 
are as well acquainted with as we are: this is at the same time 
insipid and agitating. In my inaction I prefer talking to the trees^ 
the flowers, the sun, and the wind." 

He gives us a picture of his life at McuLin : — 

" The house, not too small, was commodious and neatly arranged : 
on either side, as you left the dining hall, were large trees and groves 
of shrubs ; behind and above the mansion was a garden of moderate 
extent, but intersected by walks winding up the side of the hill and 
bordered by flowers. At the top of the garden was a small pavilion, 
well suited for reading alone or for conversation with a single com- 
panion. Beyond the enclosure, and still ascending, were voods, 
fields, other country houses, and gardens scattered on different 
elevations. I lived there with my wife and my son Francis, who 
had just reached his fifth year. My friends often came to visit me. 
In all that surrounded me there was nothing either rare or beautiful. 
It was Nature with her simplest ornaments, and family life in the most 
unpretending tranquillity." . . . 

" In the bosom of this calm and satisfying life, public affairs, the 
part I had begun to take in them, the ties of mutual opinion and 
friendship I had formed, the hopes I had entertained for my country 
and mj-self, continued nevertheless to occupy much of my attention. 
I became anxious to declare aloud my thoughts on the new system 
under which France was governed ; on what that system had become 
since 1S14, and what it ought to be to keep its word and accomplish 
its object" 

Considering the active part which Guizot took in politics, theea.se 
with which he resumed bis literary labours after each interruption, as 
if he had only the moment before laid down his pen, speaks much 
for the placidity of his disposition and his powers of concentration. 

As a politician he worked very hard, and gave lumself up entirely 
to affairs of state ; but when the moment came for retirement he could 
^e^:nler his library, gather his works about him, and take up the life 
of a philosopher and student Society he could always command, 
even when the social fabric was shaken to its centre. 

" The world in which I had long lived— the amiable, poU-^hed, 
and educated society which had rallied under the Empire, and 



stz 




odiec br 

I _ 

al tfatf tMK flB odoBSK jp wii^^ Tf anrivsc ir sar s^n. manaot 
CBde ihe xical dbaaB «f -vokx Jbe Txssaz. -wade los asjLJwsd. 
Oar tatOM^ vac du rfi ^^^ £ 3e -■■^ym^ ic ^le Xknr oe 
Bra^kL £«^ if 3^ DiEai^ xaz ^amsc nie gr:yS,-r sE liL 
die KHHBDBBcei jnn 1 1 1 i T 13 i^ xEZK^aie wifii i yn^ in besdf ^ 

WhcB G«mat cane t9 Trirhnif ss ifbe J^aaasaocr oc Lccs 
FtaSplie io xftfO ke «as k die iifl i Tuui cf ifas cae-eer. AmrFg !^ 
cuuuUj MttihcmMthefatqwacnassf bsride.opeof AepiScsof 
uic iCoBntBy. Aaoog pcftiti^as uraui les busk oirned we^gpi 
as a flua of afaffity aad i^m^iwji^ ndpaers. asd bcdi «i boMC «sd 
abroad be was irtj i riird far fas ILpjij iroA. ^VlKEfaer GtssK's 
taloits were so vcfl ^fispbred as a dipkxninsi xs c^en to <;Dest3on. 
That be n aooepCaUe in Es^hnd ai the time of his mxssko tbene 
is no feason to doobt, for akboo^ Eag^aod had do paitkuUr likii^ 
for the Orleanisi prince vfaom Gnuot had belied to the Ouone, the 
majority of the Eog&b people preferred stabOityto disocdcr, and aft«r 
the froqamt and vkdent diods wfakfa monardiy in France had under^ 
gone doring tiie bst balf-centnry, there ms a good d<al to be said 
for a consistent advocate of social order. AXlien entering public life 
Gutzot tfaos explains his positi<Hi : — 

"Bom a citizen and a Protestant I have ever been unswen-ingly 
devoted to Hboty of conscience, equality in the eye of the law, and 
all the acquired privil^es of social order. ... I have c\'cr prited 
above aU oonsideiations just policy and liberty restrained by law. I 
despaired of both under the Empire ; I hoped for them from the 
Restoration.'* 

It has been said of Guizot by an American writer that " as a 
diplomatist he was not sufficiently shrewd for the sharp practice of 
those revolutionary times." That may well have been so ; but con- 
sidering with whom Guizot had to deal, it was perhaps fortunate in 
tike interests of peace that France did not send us a man of " sharp 



264 



The Geni/emans Magazine, 



practice," who would have polished his wits against those of Lord 
Palmerston, and brought about a complete rupture between the two 
countries. Guizot, pitted against leading contemporary statesmen 
and diplomatists, is rather like a steady hack in a racing stud. He 
is not a striking figurt: In company with the unconquerable Talleyrand, 
or with the astute Metternich and the far-seeing Pozzo di Borgo, 
both in their several ways checks upon Napoleon, or with our own 
brilliant Foreign Secrctar)', who was feared abroad as much as he 
was admited at home. Guizot, though he had his detractors, was 
not the nun to excite in other countries tlie feeling which inspired 
the couplet : — 

\lai det Teard cioeii Sohn, 

So Ut er Mcbcr Palmcr&ton. 



Guizot was thought in his early political life to fax'our English 
laws and customs, but he prided himself on being a Frenchman of 
the French. In after years he made a profound study of the history 
and national life of England, and took an active part in the French 
Chamber in affairs which touched England. It was his knowledge 
of, and his interest in this country, acquired from books and study, 
that formed one of his recommendations for the post of Ambassador. 
But as a young man he had no eyes except for his own country. 
He writes : — 

" I have been accused of desiring to model France upon the 
example of England. In 1815 my thoughts were not turned towards 
England— at that time I had not seriously studied her institutions 
or her history. I was entirely occupied with France, her destinies, 
her civilisation, her laws, her literature, and her great men. I lived 
in the heart of a society exclusively French— more deeply impregnated 
with French tastes and sentiments than any other." 

But if Guizot grew up with traditions exclusively French he bad 
one feature in his character that gave him a kinship with Englishmen, 
and that was the domestic temperament. Guizot was quite a family 
man. He had as deep a respect for the sanctity of domestic life as 
the most insular of our countrymen. His affection for bis motl)cr, 
his wife, his children, and his delight in their society were unfeigned. 
His chivalry to women was one of his most delightful characteristics. 
After he had retired from public life he gathered as many relations 
about him as the house at V&l Richer would accommodate. Not 
content with children and grandchildren, he sheltered under his 
hospitable roof an aunt of his two sons-in-law, and treated the old 
lady with the utmost respect and consideration. He never (ailed to 



tfaek stBdKS and aHHoeBK. ' .i B nw i n ng im. iasr jmaunwja ^ 

iwiw i li He cfayectt to siB vmaf '""'t'"— ~— "^"^ i ■f ii i^ 
IficfadtA 'WmKMf «f FaoR* soe if Koae^ ^nsi !icn( 
fit, Bi fas ^tfBtoCHH, Ac ^lA&BL. Sit juvLKft 3i^B9ic 3LjiQirx 
"HBtoty of Kflnc* He ■ '"■■'■ "»■■ i""i^» iie j"ff^'"™'"* 3£ 

itO|is and <piiiriig ■iin i wi* wimufeC ; j iii ir i iwpg , T^ Jizle 'scwi 

and sfarafas nemiw ziBSoed naai ae'inpir. T^^ic cu -nns s 
tfaetr fitthcr in Eirgfitif.,. xb£ .bskI^. jubl sm JPCBTafiiif 'Ssbdhsq 
on diar piug^uiL 

It was Gnor's sBer-oMnr -nc sw :3e .i j r "i ti sige:=z- 
ir ii d n ur of las Iwiw i Mi i rf «ue ae -was xaoj 2 y-Wamr a rv 
1S40 bis stamd «i£e was dead. Be -vrxss 31 pac <v^-7 azccc :=e 
in^KOVcaMnKs to be ''-"'"f^ one c Vxl ? ■■■"'^i" ^^^ Xccsiaacj msK^ 
wlikfa hid been taken » ae peeasaaenc VrrTy -f lii i a' 1 ■ > Etci 
alien fiu asaj, in tocaJr '^*- ^'f s=rrgca£3Q. c icj ' -lLijg ypTwi 
present to fab qpe. He^scsaaes c:e jcvtt^x cc ±e Jcvr. sae<5s- 
posalof thesoi|ihitcgna,aep'a*r^g«':bebedttes.±ccocsg-3g3^ 
of adoor,cra]tbecarpeciuidcia=xvi:^zesc. I2 ttxcc hs jccren 
be describes a vist be paid to the X>'^s£. of Xordarntbedand at ^oa 
House:— 

"All nxmd the ho^ae zre those maTrftlfss green fields of 
RngbnH, coTcnd with beantifal sheep simI govs, all as dean and 
irdl cared for as the giass. Yet I tike my Val Richer a thoosand 
times better." 

For the cdiildren's amasement he describes incidents of his life 
in Errand, and tells them an anecdote of his first visit to Windsor 
Castl^ which be says they mast not repeat lest it should bring him 
into trouUe. One can easily imagine how the penny-a-lin« would 
have enjoyed emlvcHdeiing on the following story : — 

"On Wednesday evening at Windsor the Queen retired at 
eleven o'clock. We stayed behind talking for half an hour. At 
midnight I set out to find my own apartment, and I lose myself in 
the galleries, saloons, and corridors. At last I slowly open a door, 
taking it for mine, and I see a lady beginning to undress, attended 
*ManvMtmtrigX9fMm^J)nfU, M. C M. Slnpnn. 



266 



The Gentlematis Magazine, 



by her maid. I shut tbc door as fast as 1 can and b^io again to 
search for my own room. I at last find someone who shows me 
the way. I go to bed. The next day at dinner the Queen said to 
me, laughingly, * Do you know that you entered ray room at mid- 
night?' *How,Ma'am, was it your Majesty's doorthatlhalf opened?' 
'Certainty.' And she began laughing again, and so did I. I told 
her of my {)eri)lexity, which she liad already guessed, and I asked 
whether if, like St. Simon or Sully, I should ever write my memoirs 
she would allow me to mention that 1 had opened the Queen of 
England's door in Windsor Castle at midnight while she was going 
to bed. She gave me permission and laughed heartily." 

Court life in London, though it interested him from some points 
of view, he must have found dull. He thus describes his first dinner- 
party and lev^e : — 

" On Thursday, the 5th Marcli, I dined for the first time with the 
Queen. Neither during the dinner nor in the drawing-room after- 
wards was the conversation animated or interesting. I'ohtical 
subjects were entirely avoided ; we sat round a circubr table before 
the Queen, who was on a sofa ; two or three of her ladies were 
endeavouring to work ; Prince Albert played at chess ; Lady 
Palmerston and I with some effort carried on a flagging dialogue. 
. . . On the day after, the 6th March, the Queen held a lev^e at 
Sl James's Palace — a long and monotonous ceremony which ne\'cr- 
theless inspired me with real interest. I regarded with excited esteem 
the profound respcctof that vast assembly — courtiers, citixens, lawyers, 
Churchmen, officers, military and naval— passing before the Queen, 
the greater portion bending the knee to kiss her hand, all perfectly 
solemn, sincere, and awkward." 

In England M. Guizot became acquainted with the leading 
aristocrats on botli sides ; but he saw more of the Wliigs ilian of the 
Tories, for the reason, as he explains, that the Tories had fewer 
centres in London. He became a constant visitor at Holland 
House. Lord Holland's sympathies always went out towards France, 
and Guizot was evidently hked by Lady Holland, who on one 
occasion gave him a glimpse of her real nature which awoke his 
sympathy and respecL He happened to call one evening and 
found Lady Holbnd alone in the library. On his asking her if she 
were often thus by herself she replied : " No, very seldom ; but when 
it occurs I am not without resources ... I entreat tlic friends you 
see there to descend from above [poindng to the pictures]. I know 
the place that each prefcned, the armchair in which he was accus- 
tomed to siL They come : I find myself again with Fox, RomQey, 




Gutzot. 267 



Mackintosh, Sheridan, and Homer ; they speak to me^ and I am no 
longer by myself." The genuine feeling with which she spoke was 
a revelation to GuizoL 

At Holland House be used to meet Sydney Smith, Lord Jeffrey, 
Mhd hosts of others, and had ample opportunity of gauging the 
qoality of English Society. With Hallam^ the historian, Guizot 
fratemised as a man of letters, and the two writers speedily became 
intimate. HaUam introduced him to Bean Milman and to Macaulay, 
who undertook to pilot Guizot through Westminster Abbey. On that 
occasion Macauluy poured forth all his stores of learning and elo- 
quence, descanting, explaining, and answering questions before each 
monument to the immense delight and astonishment of Guizot, who 
expresses the most sincere admiration for his brilliant companion. 
The Duchess of Suthcrbnd invited him to Sutherland House to meet 
Dr. Arnold. The Dowager Lady Stanley of Alderley, then Mrs. 
Stanley, introduced him to Daniel O'Connell. The two Miss 
Berrys received him in the evening at their delightful little riunions. 
Poor old L/)rd Grey, living in the cold shade of retirement, was 
warmed and cheered by friendly, unceremonious calls from the 
French Ambassador, to whom he sadly commented on the number 
of people who then passed his door without entering. 

Guizot also dined, among others, with Elizabeth Kr>-, whom he 

' had met in Paris, and with Grote, the historian, at whose house he 
met some representatives of the Radical party, who were not very 

.active just then. The clergy received Guizot with open arms, 

rdeligbted to make much of so distinguished a Protestant. The 
Bishop of London yearned to take the Ambassador in state to 
St. Paul's for all the worid to see ; but Guizot declined the honour 
and insisted on going quietly like one of the ordinary congregation. 
No wonder that he writes : " At home and abroad, between business 
and societ)', ray time was much occupied'' AVhen he adds: "I 
cannot say that it was entirely filled," one feels that it was only his 
insatiable thirst for occupation making itself apparent. While he 
was Minister of the Interior he worked so IndclatigaLly that M 
Casirair-P&ier said one day to Louis Philippe, "Sire, you will want 
M. Guizot for a long time : tell him not to kill himself aU at once 

m your service." He was by nature a hard worker. He says of 

himself : — 

" I have given myself up to public affairs as water rolls, as fiome 
ascends. When 1 saw the occasion, when the event called upon me, 
1 neither deliberated nor selected, I betook myself to my post." 

The time which in London was not " entirely filled " Guizot 



4 



268 



The Gentleman's Magazine, 



employed in regrets for the companionship of his children. He was 
never happy for long away from hts domestic circle, and not all the 
distractions of politics and society could moke up to him for thftt 
daily intimate intercourse with his own kith and kin. 

The man whom Cuizot knew best among the Tories was John 
Wilson Croker, who was living in Kensington Palace in rooms given 
him by George IV. Guizot and Crokcr had met before in Paris, and 
when Guizot came to England Croker acted as a kind of guide 
to the section of society in which he mo%'ed. The friendship was 
kept up by correspondence in after years. 

It was at this time that Guizot saw Stratford Canning, of whom 
he says: "Sir Stratford Canning had not then displayed in the 
embassy to Constantinople his prevailing and indomitable energy; 
but the manly frankness of his character and the tempered elevation 
of his manners possessed for me from the first a charm which his 
diplomatic disagreements had never effaced." 

Guizot was undoubtedly a popular Ambassador in society. He 
appreciated the special virtues of the English, was an agreeable 
guest, and understood his duties as a host. Lady Holland wrote to 
a friend in Paris : " M. Guizot pleases all the world here, including 
the Queen. The public augurs well from his having placed the 
celebmted Louis at the head of his kitchen : few things contribute 
more to popularity in London than good cheer." The aforesaid 
Louis was a cA/who had formerly been in the employ of Talleyrand, 
and was brought from Paris by Guizot in his train. 

It was greatly in Guizot 's favour that he understood English 
history and institutions better than most Frenchmen of that time, 
lie had a pretty iair command of the language, though in a titt-it-UU 
with Lord Melbourne each statesman spoke in his mother tongue. But 
at the Lord Mayor's banquet, given about a month after his arrival, 
Guizot made a speech in English, which was loudly applauded. 
He was advised by Earl Granville, who was then in Paris, to make 
a similar elTort at the Royal Academy banquet a tittle later, but 
reasoned rightly that French, which would have been unintelligible 
in the City, would be appreciated by the guests at the Royal 
Academy. 

It may be interesting at this point to quote Guizot's impressions 
of the English cliaraclcr : — 

" When I say that the air is cold, in society as in the climate, I 
do not mean to say that the English people are cold — obser>'ation 
and my own experience have taught me the contrar>'. \Vc not only 
meet amongst them lofty sentiments and ardent passions ; they ore 



Gmizot, 26^ 



tlso TCiy cMpihle of pntoopu sflbctian^ viadi ooce cdcnog into 
Uieir hesrts become as tender as tfaey are deeply seated What 
tfaef mnt is iiwIJ i w l i w^ praoqil; nrnmsd ijmpailw . . . Tfarao^ 
awKwaiui icss oe sijiiess as loiich as uwougb pnde, i3>^ stJdoni 
ednfait what they naDy fed . . . Eicn ji wibu tfa omtl t u the^ are 
btfle ftank and corfiil ^ di^ faare aliDGst alwavs an air of dxsdaxirfnl 
and canst ic ressre vtudi fafutlies and luspues ft secret and tiiiul 
di sco n te nt . . . HieEo^diareii^inattaKlnngtfaelqgbettvalne 
to didr internal fife^ to tfacir jImi^ and above all to the doseness of 
the cacqa^ tie ... It is certain that to eojor Eog&sfa society ve 
nnist f^"*E to domgstic »iH ifi jo o f r rat i 5 4?**"*** latber *Hatt g^re 
ouisdfcs Qp to die ^^^'*f employments of the vorid and cuncnt 
erents," 

Gntsot ms sent to Eiq^and as Ambassador because a man of 
more wci^ and Tnftnmrr than Manhal Sphastiani vas needed to 
lepiamil France. Lord PUmerston was anxioos for a dtangt of 
Amfaaaaador^ and looked Ibrvaxd to Gmsot's arrival to male things 
nm more easily. He writes to Lord Gramine^ March 1 1, 1840 r— 

" Sehastiani was ofl^ I bdiere, today. I hope and trust that 
Gnizot win come over widiODt delay. It is of great importance that 
be should do so. He is a sennble and enl^tened man, and I can- 
not but think diat we may be able to say things to him and to point 
ont to him consideiations which must bare we^t in his mind, and 
that through him we may act upon the French Goremment ; bat then 
be must come soon." 

TronUes were pending in Egypt and S}-ria which threatened to 
reopen the Eastern question. The quarrel between the Saltan and 
his imperious vassal, Mdiemet Ali, Pasha of Egypt, was becoming 
a European a&ir. Lord Palmerston, unwilling to believe in the 
rottenness erf' Turkey and foreseeing a danger of French predomi 
nance in ^ypt and Russian aggression in Turkey if Mehemet Ali wen. 
allowed to deiy the Sultan, was all for upholding the authority of the 
Porte. The year before France had agreed to treat this question 
in concert with England, Austria, Russia, and Prussia, and Lord 
Palmeiston now called upon Fiance to keep to the terms of that 
agreonent In Guizot he hoped to find a statesman who would 
ccmnder the question broadly from an international point of view, 
and who would see the necessity for adhering to that doctrine which 
has been the fetish of European statesmen for so many years — the 
maintenance of the integrity of the Ottoman Empire. But Guizo: 
personally had no faith in the vitality of Turkey or in her capacity 
for decent govenmient, and represented that to reduce Mehemet Ali 



270 



Tkc GentUman 5 Magazine, 



to submission and to give the Sultan absolute power in Egypt and 
S)Tia would be to introduce a reign of anarchy. The French had 
ibeir own reasons for supporting the pretensions of Mchemet Ali, 
and obstinately refused to come into agreement with the other 
Powers. 

The conversations which Guizot had with Lord Palmerston were 
long and serious, but did not do much towards a rapprochement. 
According to his ovn account, Guizot used to get the better of 
J^rd Palmerston in argument^ and harangued him with a great show 
of reason and justice. But as a man of action the Ambassador wa^ 
no match for the English Foreign Secretary^ as events proved. 
Lord Palmerston held to his own opinions while Ustcning to all 
Ciuizot had to say, and told him very plainly that he exaggerated the 
helplessness of Turkey and did not grasp the far-reaching aims 
of Russia. 

In the meantime Guizot and Thiers were corresponding at great 
length, quibbling over the significance of a comma in one of Thiers's 
communications, which Thiers at last confessed meant nothing. 
Thiers was advising Guizot to be cold and reserved, which bang 
translated into Lord Palmcrston's terse phraseology was *' looking as 
cross as the Devil," and the " English and French politicians, having 
failed to understand each other, were each at the foot of the 
wall ready to jostle. *' Lord Palmerston understood the position 
thoroughly, and knew that if he held firmly to the terms of the agree- 
ment he could make the other three Powers go with him. Mettemich, 
who was the most important factor in the Concert, he knew he 
could count upon, and the only result of France's obstinacy would 
be that she would be left out in the cold. France tried to com- 
promise matters by extracting concessions from Mchemet Ali with 
regard to the limitation of his power, and sent Count Walewski with 
counsels of peace to the fiery Pasha, but these concessions did 
not satisfy Lord Palmerston. He prepared for action, and presently 
France saw with dismay an English fleet in possession of Beyrout 
and Mehemct Ali deposed. 

Guizot (ailed in the principal object of his mission. He 
negotiated gome other unimportant matters successfully. It was 
through him that application was made to the English Government 
for permission to remove the remains of Napoleon from Su Helena 
to Paris, but this being a request which lilngland was perfectly ready 
to grant, and not afiecting the relations between the two countries, 
did not require much negotiation. About this lime also a dispute 
arose with Naples over the exportation of sulphur products, ftod the 




^BESB^^B sue ^VCS^^-^tUBS' 
je«L IOC D«." _ 

-»ii.'i'f •^ 'JTittw*' IT' £aBK9D£ 

was dof to &Ei »ar'.'j"riig- X<i£aiB ?^iiznce ^j!!iari.-wf . — 

"M. TrWpfTfT fr '' ** ^^*'< f Mi i n mM3r T**f *Fpr iexac 'smcnfiLiix^ 
h goenc 11 me ^ ^ot^^-xii ot scx^jl rii=xz ^Esstzmas: 
de&Mcit gijm eg^xea I' l r e gin:^i:t 'fn'wrT =bgr aJE '' gmes .* 

It vai not woo5s5ai 2K Gascc ad act ±.l i . ' . i i : bf==£r k a 
dqilooBtitt. He ins nore rrfrrL** tsei »-:r* , cii *s fxif «C3c^ 
sored liiai «^ ki =bs o«n < ■ <iri ■ j ▼=« sac ce' £mc rse r? bia 
abroad. T^M ii ir^g a3d <ijT' iTareacc:=er3£:gq rTrr^ 3cra=Agib«s- 
sador. As an Bi£nd3il be «as »i.'.r;>iK y £— s<i ^ oe pcec : ;x b£ 
coold be agReaUe to trose to vbocs be vas pcciacalT cp^Keed^ aad 
during his niil?pwj node =a=T feSeaca vbo we^cooed hfaa a^izia 
wfacnheigtnmrdasaaecSeiniS^gu Lccdf^IaestcfLUcoc^ccbin; 
was kind and oordia], diowiag him hcspcalin- in his msfectnnes. 

When the iw o lusi on of 184S broke oct the Gainx tamih- jC* 
came to England in detachments. Goizot's mocher. who was then 
e^^i^-six yeaxs of a^e^ airinog first with h« gTandchildrea At 
<Hie moment it seemed as if the tragedy cf her husband's death vas 
to be re-enacted in the person of her sotl But Guixot escaped 
safely, and the refugees setded down in Pelham Crescent, Biompton. 
But the strain c^ witnessing a second rerolution was too mud) for 
Madame Gnizot, and she died a fortnight after her anival 

After the Act of Amnesty Guizot was able to return to France, 
and in July 1849 re-established himself at Val Richer. In th« 
following year his two daughters married the brothers De Witt, thii 
double alliance giving him great satisfaction. In the same yenr 
Louis Phflippe died, and thenceforth Guizot took no acli\'e p»it in 
politics, although he followed the course of events with the keenest 
interest In 1855 he paid a visit to England on the anntveraary of 
Louis Philippe's death, and again in 1858, when he stayed with I^rtt 
Aberdeen, with whom he had always been on parttcuUrly good tcriiii. 
But his life was spent chiefly at Val Richer with hit family, the 



272 



The Gentkmans Magazine. 



routine being varied by visits to Paris. His English friends who had 
the privilege of being entertained I^ him at his Normandy home 
speak of him with admiration as a host. Mrs. Simpson in her 
interesting volume of reminiscences' describes a visit she paid to 
Val Richer in i860 with her fatlier, Mr. Nassau Senior. Guizot, 
she said, lived " in patriarchal fashion^ surrounded by his children and 
grandchildren, and waited upon by his old senants and their 
descendants." 

Among other literary work he began to write his memoirs in 
1857, and liad them published in his lifetime, for the excellent reason 
which he gives in his opening chapter: "I publish my memoirs 
while I am still here to answer for what I write." 

He always retained the liveliest interest in English affairs. Mr. 
Nassau Senior, who saw a good deal of him in Paris, describes how 
he would talk of nothing but English politics when he went to call 
on him one day in the spring of 1853. On one occasion h« gave 
Mr. Senior his opinion of the EngUsh as he found them in society. 
He said : '* I am going to give the English some praise and a little 
blame. No people have more of the elements of good company, 
more knowledge, or imagination, or taste, or humour, or wit. But 
they are too reserved or too indolent to make the best use of them : 
they want free trade in ideas, and often substitute words for them. 
From time to time I have Uved in an English country neighliourhood ; 
in every house I ate the same dinner and heard the same conversatioru" * 

When the Franco- Prussian War broke out Guizot was shocked 
and distressed beyond measure, and asks in a Icttur: "Which of the 
two Governments and nations Is the most entirely deficient in good 
sense and morality ? In truth 1 should find it hard to say." The 
disasters that followed struck him to the heart, and he fell ill, but 
recovered sufficiently to resume his writing. He was much saddened 
by family bereavements and the death of many friends, but these 
losses only made him cling the closer to those who were left. He 
never grew moody or sohtary in his habits. When very busy with 
work he would every now and then leave his study and seek out one 
of his daughters saying, "1 have come for a little talk," and after 
chatting pleasantly for awhile would return (refreshed to his labours. 
He completed the fourth volume of his " History of France " in the 
summer of 1874. This was his last effort ; after that be succumbed 
to liis increasing infirmities, and died peacefully in tbc same year at 
the age of eighty-seven. 

CEORCIANA HriX. 



Mtmy Utmmitt */ Maty Peefit, 



' Cemftrtatimts. Masan Scxiiur. 



273 



CASTAIV^YS, AND THEIR 
INFLUENCE ON POPULATION. 



NAAHGATION naturally Iiad its origin on the classic waters of 
the Mediterranean, where the conditions are especially favour- 
able for coastal excursions ; and probably the earliest efforts of man- 
kind to rule the waves were due as much to accident as to design. 
Horace, in that delightful ode addressed to the tiny craft about to 
hconvcy Virgil to the sunny shores of the Grecian Isles, declaimed 
'against the man who first ventured to woo fickle fortune in a fragile 
barque upon the stormy sea. The mariner's compass was then 
unknown, the ships were sorry specimens of the naval architect's art, 
, the methods of navigation had little to commend them, and the 
ay toilers of those narrow waters never willingly lost sight of the 
*land. Homer, in the "Odyssey," reveals the andent mariners ten- 
tatively and loilfuUy following the coast, or stolidly steering by the 
scintillating stars on a clear night Invariably they hailed with 
r unfeigned thankfulness the rosy-fingered dawn. Occasionally, how- 
^evcr, the fates were unkind, and compelled them seaward, in spite of 
themselves, to learn that the sea but joins the nations it divides. 

The Trojan war was the greatest achievement of the Heroic age ; 

and the varied experience of the Heroes will serve to demonstrate the 

truth of the contention that accident waa quite an important factor 

in determining the earliest of voyages. Returning exultant from the 

reduction of Troy, the Grecian fleets were widely scattered by a 

I savage storm that threatened dire destruction to all under its iii- 

^ fluence. inasmuch as the Homeric ship was but an open boat fitted 

with one mast, decked over only at either end, and utterly unsuitable 

,,i6r striving successfully against the combined forces of Aeolus and 

' Neptune. Remote from the land, the friendly pole-star hidden from 

view by the angry clouds, the condition of the small craft careering 

^before the gale was eminently critical. Such as survived the rude 

Iboffeting by wind and by sea were wrecked on unknown shores. 

fXTlysses, the bravest of the brave, wandered wearily through many an 

unexplored region for more than a decade, quite unable to regain his 

VOL. ccxci. NO, 3049* i; 



274 



Tke Gentleman's Magazitu. 



native land even if he had known its geographical posiiion. Aeneas, 
son of Anchiscs and Venus, reached the coast of Libya where Dido 
reigned, if we may believe Virgil's pleasant passages. The unhappy 
queen received the wanderer with affection, only to find that her 
charms proved less potent than his nostalgia. In historic times we 
have Sl Paul driven out of his course by a storm in a complaining 
craft, crowded with two hundred and seventy-six despairing persons, 
and eventually arriving at Malta, or, as some assert, an island on the 
coast of Dalmatia in the Adriatic. In every instance the tempest* 
tossed travellers doubtless shuddered at the stormy sea, but were 
thrust Ihilhcr as cxpiotcrs by circumstances over which they lud not 
the least control 

The liardy Norsemen, whose home of yore was ever on the foam- 
ing sea, quite accidentally discovered North America long before 
Christopher Columbus was bom. Sailing slowly from headland to 
headland of Norway's rocky and indented shores, in clumsy craft that 
were quite unmanageable unless the wind was fair and moderate, the 
virile Vikings Iiad precedence forced upon them. Gales drove them 
wcstwardover an unknown sea until their straining eyes were gladdened 
by the sight of what is now known as Iceland. There, like Aeneas 
and his followers, in a far fairer land, they sought the green sward to 
rest their wearied limbs. There they foimded a colony ! Once dis- 
covered, communication was maintained despite Uie very vague ideas 
of these intrepid sea-rovers with respect to navigation, even though 
the heavenly bodies tn the celestial concave invited every confidence. 
On one occasion they sailed past Iceland, probably during foggy 
weather, and arrived, after many searchings of heart, at Greenland. 
Westward the star of empire was wending its way by accident rather 
than by design. Eric the Red founded a colony there xn 986 ; and, 
a few years later, his son Leif sailed southwards, as far as the forty- 
first parallel of north latitude, in order to test the reports of his 
countrymen who had been driven thither by storms and painfully 
worked their way back to Greenland. After the naanner of his race 
Leif founded a colony somewhere lietwecn the positions now occu- 
pied by Boston and New York, and allotted to it a name which may 
be freely translated as Vincland, Communication between Norway 
and North America was maintained for about three centuries \ )'et 
the very existence of the American Continent appears to have 
become legendary when Columbus set out to win a way to Far 
Cathay. The Shellands, Iceland, and Greenland, were but stepping- 
Btones for the Norse rovers, driven westward from their native land 
in blissful ignorance of what the fates had in store for ihcm. A 



Casimwat^ mad thnr Imfianta em Pi^^mJktt^m. 375 



cfaaah e j V**^'**' emti tfaae x ssiS tcsscZ vxs &7rea eat torn 

frOBI IlBUIH^ SB^ XSff ft dcnOQS OCR 9B0SSQC ^*^**-**'. CftSltXOOf 

readied dtfaaViE^na or Ffanifa. There is sSso a stocr afloat that Sir 
Waber BaTfTg*' famid tbe natzies of TiiglEua ^l ei fcif^ Critic (jone 
flnentlj ^ ^mA Ais sost be aoc^ited with eicij luuif.. 

KeoeDt apeneoces go 6r to sappoit the mficrcDce dint csstavns 
have often beea tihe p ione ea of geogiaphical dacoray. In zS&S^ 
tbe Olftiwii'ai, a snuD aaft of t«entr-ooe toos^ actoaUf daftcd 
from S*****""** to Nonrsf vhfa OD^f a voman on boaid. Tlie Tessd 
tnded among the acatto ed gnxxp of islands, manned bracxrwof 
tbxe^ vfaoh on diis oocasioo, sooght the solid shme predpitatelj 

* >*<iMt*ij she itianded near Lenrv^ Whether the trio focgot 

die woman pasaenger, <k jg" * *^ *^ ^(^ ™ * zecUess rush for the 
boat, is not quite dear. Soon the Coimmh'iit floated off the bank, 
and die old lady fbmid hersdf monardi of all she sonreyed, with 
eroy p io sp ec t of a watery gnrei An easterly gale drore die gallant 
litde vernd wdl to die westward ontil Iceland was apparently in 
ri^t. Then the wind shifted to the westward, and the CoArinfcW 
drifted towards Nonray. She deared the dangerons reefe of Vigero 
Fjord in a marreUoos manner, threading channels which eroke tbe 
ntmost ddn of a local pilot to avoid die merdiant-marring rocks, 
and e?entnally readied the shore. The fisher-folk happened to sight 
the stianded vessd ; and, at great risk, got the famished and half- 
froaen castaway safely to land. In Febmary, 1893, ^ hundred and 
fifty miles north-west of Mayo, Cape Verde Islands, the Finland 
barqoe Im^f Captain Bystrom, e^ted a timely rescue from a 
felucca, the IJtn's Amigos^ which had sailed from Santiago, C.V., for 
Mayo, had been driven from the land by a gale, and was quite 
unable to get back again, being destitute of a mariner's compass and 
a navigator. These castaways consisted of a crew of four, and six 
ptssengeis (including two girls), not one of whom had tasted water 
or food for a week. Captain Bystrom kindly received them on 
board his barque ; left the felucca to her fate ; ministered to every 
want of tbe castaways, and landed them at Martinique, a fortnight 
later, none the worse for so perilous a passage. In July, 1895, ^^^^ 
hundred miles north of Bermuda, the British steamer BtHardtn fell 
in with a small sloop of four tons, the Rosie^ which had been blown 
to sea while attempting to sail from one island to another of the 
"vexed Bermoothes." On board this tiny craft were Joseph 
Dioniso, his wife, and two children, who had been a week without 
either food or water. The master of the steamer supplied them 
with the necessaries of life, gave them the course to steer for New 



376 



Tlie GentUnian 5 Magazine, 



York, and they arrived there witliout further mishap in a few days. 
This castaway family went to pay a visit to a next door neighbour. 
IS it were, remained on llie stormy sea suffering severely for more 
than a month, travelled over many a weary league in their curious 
craft, and eventually reached a huge city of which thej' knew nothing 
except by repute. Hence it b to be inferred that the Viking cast- 
aways did not accomplish anything more man'ellous than the weak 
woman and the frightened family above referred to, compelled by 
boisterous breezes to become ocean explorers against their will. 
Similar instances of castaways* experiences in the Atlantic are not 
far to seek. 

The enormous number of insignificant tslcls, strewn lavishly all 
over the Pacific Ocean, from tropic to tropic, afford very favourable 
conditions for persons carried out to sea in open boats. Doubtless 
many of the pretty Pacific pinnacles were peopled, in the first 
instance, by castaways from neighbouring islets, or from the con* 
tinent of Asia, The aborigines of New Zealand, the Maoris, as they 
are termed, hold fast to a tradition that, in the dim and distant past, 
their ancestors came in capacious canoes from a place knotrn to 
them as Hawaiki, which is supposed to be identical wiili the modem 
Hawaii of the Sandwich Islands. Even the names of the cumber- 
some canoes have been piously preserved and handed down from 
father to son through the ages. Among them arc the AoUa ; the 
Arawa, which reached the land first, having on board the principal 
idols; the Tainui, and others of less renown. Some palatial passenger 
steamsliips belonging to the Shaw, Savill, and Albion Company, 
trading between London and New Zealand, are actually named after 
the legendary canoes of the old-time Maoris, If only those un- 
tutored savages could revisit the scenes of their former exploits from 
the shades, perhaps the most marvellous creations of modem men 
would appear to their eyes to be those stately steamsliips moving 
swiftly through the water without oars and without sails— «<• remis 
nee veils, as the Institute of Marine Engineers expresses iL The 
natives of the Pacific islets are dauntless seamen, and make voyages 
of very many miles in quaint conceits of outrigger boats, fastened 
together solely with small cord made from the husks of cocoa-nuUt. 
Kotzebue, the famous Russian mivigator, in the opening years of 
the nineteenth century, picked up some natives of the CaroUne Islands 
who were two hundred miles from their homes, having been im- 
pelled seaward in a canoe and unable to return. Captain Beechy, 
R.N., fell in with tired Tahittans some six hundred miles away from 
their native land, driven seaward by a careering c)dooc Asolititry 



Castau^aySf and ikiir Influ$nc^ on Population, s;; 



njuD, similarly imperiUed, succeeded in reaching the Friendly 
UUnds after a risky run of four hundred miles. The American ship 
/csfph Spinney, while crossing the Pacific Ocean, with the nearest 
dry land distant at least two hundred miles, picked up an old chief 
and five other despairing natives of the Pellcw Islands adrift on a 
lofujy sea in an open boat Thc>' had set sail intent on pa)ing a 
call cm some friends of a neighbouring islet, had to run before a 
gale, and were then enduring the eighteenth day of compulsory 
stanration. Temporarily insane, consequent on thirst and himger, 
they had just arrived at an agreement to slay the son of the chief, a 
youth of sixteen summers, in order thai his body should provide 
sustenance for his famished fellows. Fortunately they were spared 
this last resource of suffering humanity, inasmuch as their every 
want was satisfied on board the Joseph Spinney. Notwithstanding 
kind nursing and good food, the chief and one man died. The 
stuvivors were taken to Japan, whither the rescuing vessel was 
bound. 

Pitcairn Island was uninhabited when discovered in 1767. 
Twenty-two years after, however, nine of the mutineers from the 
Bounty, together with four men and eleven women of Otaheite, 
founded a settlement there far from civilisation. Meanwhile Captain 
Bligh and his faithful few managed to reach Timor after covering a 
distance of twelve hundred leagues, in open boats, with black care 
behind the helmsman all the way. The castaways on Pitcaim 
Island, or rather their descendants, remained undiscovered by the 
outside world for nearly a quarter of a century. Then the news leaked 
out Qiat an American whaleship, under CapUiin Folgcr, had visited 
the island in 1808. He had expected to find that the inhabitants of 
this solitary spot were savages, perhaps cannibals, and was most 
agreeably surprised by a visit from civilised residents who spoke 
English fluently. In 1814, the year af^er Captain Folger's dis- 
closure, the island was visited by two British frigates, ihe Briton and 
the Tagus^ quite by accident. Sir Thomas Staircs, commanding the 
Briton, reported his curious find to the Admiralty, and awarded 
great praise to the "venerable old man, John Adams," the only 
surviving Englishman of the Bounty mutineers, who landed 00 
Pitcaim Island flushed with their successful revolt against tl'.c 
authority of Captain Bligh. The varied experience of that stolid 
.Scotch sailor, Alexander Selkirk, which served r>anicl Defoe as the 
foundation on which to build his inimitable and imperishable 
•* Robinson Crusoe," was all obtained on Juan Femandes, an island 
of the South Pacific, where he was for some time a castaway. " Was 



I 



278 



The Gentleman's Ma^acine, 



iherc anything written by mere man," said Dr. Johnson, " that was 
wished longer by its readers, excepting ' Don Quixote,' ' Robiruon 
Crusoe,' and the • Pilgrim's Progress * ? " 

In 1832 a Chinese junk driftedlright across the Pacific Ocean to 
Vancouver Island, and another to the Sandwich Islands, A third, 
bound from the Loo Choo Islands to Shanghai, was wandering for ten 
tiresome moons, as the pigtailcd mariners poetically expressed the 
devious drift, and eventually reached Baker's Island, a small guano 
deposit. Seven of her nine men bad succumbed to slow starvation 
and dire despair. All three of^ these junks were of the type common 
to the China coast for many a century. Each had a staring eye 
painted in a prominent position on the bow, so that she might (ind a 
pleasant path across the trackless main ; for, in the broken English 
of the almond-eyed Celestial, ' No eye, no see, no sabbee." Such 
instances of vessels driven seaward by unfavourable gales, despite the 
efforts of their crews, who could not return owing to ignorance of 
navigation, must be well weighed when endeavouring to determine 
the probable origin of the dwellers on the infinite number of islets 
dotted all over the Pacific Ocean. 

Quite recently several;ship3' crews have suffered severely as cast- 
aways on uninhabited islands. The barque IVandering Afimtrel 
stranded on Midway Island, and all hands had to eke out a 
precarious existence there for'six months. Then the mate, a sailor, 
and a young Chinaman, left in an open boat to seek succour at the 
Sandwich Islands. These three were never heard of e^aiu. Eight 
more months of leaden-footed hours passed away down the avenue 
of time ; the ship bad been given up as totally lost with every soul 
on board, and the underwriters had long since paid her insurance, 
when the schooner Noma happened to observe tlic castaways' 
signals, and took them to Honolulu. Five men had died on the 
island during the weary wait of fourteen months ; but the captain's 
wife and four young cliUdrcn were among the sur>ivors. Au 
American barque, the Te^vhesbtny L. Sweat, on her way from 
Australia to China, was wrecked on one of the CaroUne Groupdurif^ 
a hurricane. Her cosmopolitan crew lived there among the savages 
for over seven months, receiving the moral support and active 
assistance of an English castaway, one Charles Irons, who had been 
four years a resident, had t&kcxi to himself seven wives, and attained 
to high rank in the chiePs court Tirtd of involuntary exile, these 
sad seafarers at length bade farewell to their primitive hosts, and 
sailed away in boats and canoes until picked up by the barque 
JUfirmiNf S/ar, after a perilous passage of ovts one thousand nilci, 



CastawaySi and their Infiu€*u€ on Population. 279 

and carried to Honolulu. An iron British barque, the Henry Jam^t 
proceeding from Australia to California, struck on a coral reef near 
Palmyra Island, and became a wreck. Her crew and passengers 
sought safety on this lonely place. Fearing that the two ladies and 
the four little children would perish if help were long delayed, the 
chief officer, Donald Macdonald, volunteered, with four sailors, to set 
out for Samoa in an open boat in order to obtain assistance. On 
Palmyra Island tliere were found the ruiiis of six huts, evidently due 
to the labours of prc\ious castaways j cocoa-nuts, eels, birds, eggs, 
land-crabs, and pepper-grass were plentiful, and sufficient water was 
found to satisfy the demand. Illegible inscriptions were noticed, cut 
deep into some of tlie trees, but defaced by the relentless hand of 
time. With the exception of leeches, which proved painfully 
rmvenous after rain, and dysentery, all went well on the island until 
the American steamship Mariposa came and rescued the castaways, 
\xi compliance with the retiuest of the dauntless volunteers who had 
reached their objective point after a terrible trip of thirteen hundred 
mites, which occupied nineteen days. One volunteer had sucked 
his own blood to quench a maddening thirst, others had eaten their 
boots and the telescope cover, and all five had to be carried ashore 
on arrival at Samoa owing to extreme weakness. 

In July, 1875, the sailing ship, Stralhmore^ of Dundee, struck on 
an outlying reef of the Crozet Islands, while on the passage from 
London to New Zealand, with eager hearts and willing hands for the 
" new and happy land." Loss of life occurred, and the sorrowftil 
survivors passed a Robinson Crusoe existence on a desolate island, 
under an inclement sky, for nearly seven months. Nine years ago, 
the iron barque Comjxtdre caught fire in mid-ocean, and was after- 
wards purposely put on shore ot Auckland Isbnd in order to save 
the lives of all hands. There the castaways remained for over one 
hundred days. Among them was an apprentice, E. Roberts, 
apparently born 10 be drowned, although not widiout a serious 
struggle. After reaching England again he was appointed to a 
veaid, which was run down in the Channel a few days from home, 
and be happened to be among the seven saved- The next voyage 
he accomplished without mishap ; but, on the fourth voyage, the 
vessel was lost on Tristan d'Acunha, and the unfortunate Roberts 
was drowned with two of the crew. In 1898, H.M.S. Thntsh took 
off some castaways from Tristan d'Acunha, escaped from the 
wrecked ship GUnhuntiy^ who had been guests of the poor islanders 
for five months. 

Consequent on several shipwrecks on \!tvt \s\a.Ti'i\ ^V^tXtwJt 



280 



The GeniiemavLS Magazine. 



Southern Ocean, between t!ie meridian of ihc Cape of Good Hope 
and Australia, there have been established depots of food and 
clothing for castaways on several of the most important of those 
isolated dangers to navigation. On Hog Island, Crozet Group, the 
depdt is a hut near the landing-place. There the French war-vcssd 
JUi Mcurihe left a ton of preserved beef, half a ton of biscuit, three- 
quarters of a hundredweight of sardines in oil, twenty blankets, 
fifteen pairs of shoes and trousers, all carefully packed ; together 
with two spears, two hatcliets, and some cooking utensils. At 
Possession Island the depots are also huts, in which were deposited,, 
by the British warship Comus, a sufficiency of provisions to last fifty 
people for fifty days ; together with stockings, shoes, and jerseys. 
On the islands of Amsterdam, St. Paul, and Kerguelen, the French 
u-ar-vessel Eure established depots containing necessaries of all 
kinds for castaways, no matter wliat their nationality might be. At 
Amsterdam Island, in a large cavern on a hill-side, there are avail- 
able, for castaways, supplies of beef, biscuit, shirts, underclothes, 
blankets, and some matches enclosed in a metal bo.x hermetically 
scaled There are also, in the same cave, several cots, a cooking pot, 
and dry wood, left by fishermen who occasionally visit the island. 
Cabbage and celery, fish and lobsters abound. At St. Paul's Island 
the dep6i is in a rough stone hut surmounted by a thatched roof. 
Food and clothing in thirteen barrels are in evidence there. At 
Kerguelen Island the depot is in a cave, indicated Tjy a twelve-foot 
high cairn, and consists of a like quantity of food and clothing. 
Each of these three depots is clearly marked out by a board bearing 
the following legend : — " France. Vivres, V6temcnts pour naufiBge& 
Ettre^ Janvier, 1893." 

Nearer New Zealand there are also depots for castaways on 
several of the islands. At Kermadec Islands there are two, each in 
a small iron shed fitted with spouting and a tank to catch fresh water. 
Food, medicine, tools, and clothing, are plentifully present. At the 
Snares Islands and the Antipodes Islands the dq)Uts are in huts. 
On the principal islands of the Auckland Group are three depdts, 
one in a square wooden house ; and a lifeboat has been placed on 
each of the three islands, Enderby, Adams, and Rose. There is 
also a dep6t at Campbell Island. All are indicated by prominent 
finger-posts. A Government steamer visits Kermadec Islands once 
a year, and the Snares, Bounty, Antipodes, Auckland, and Camp- 
bell Islands twice a year, for the purpose of rescuing any castaways^ 
•nd replacing such stores as may have become unfit for issue. 

SimiUfly satisfactory dcpou are estab^hcdun Vancouver Island, 



Ctuiaways, and ihtir Influence o% Pcpulaiiom, 281 

.at Gqie Bale Ligjbtlioase, and Cannanal Ughthoas& Nodce- 
boatds are erected around die coast, setting foctfa infionnation far 
cu ta w ays irn > fi.li ii g Ibe directioo and tbe disunrr of the nearest 
depdl^ and also <tf the nearest Indian vilbge where assistanoe can be 
obtained. In the accredited GorcnuDent pabUcations isaied to 
manoen by the sevoal maxitinie natioas there are gi?en detailed 
desa^ptkns of every snch reAige far castaways^ and its exact 
geug tap h i nal position. 

Sailix% ships cibea come to grief when Tentorii^ dirough Torres 
Strain diat naiiow waterw^ dividing Aostrdia from New Gainea, 
where coral reeb abound ; and steps were taken by the uithorities 
to enme both the necessaries of life and shelter to the castaway 
crews. At Booby Island, not iax from Cape York, so long ago as 
1857, H.1C.S. Torch left a small sapfdy of perishable articles, sadi 
as tea, sugar, and tobacco; casks of bee^ po^ and bread were 
carefoUy stowed away in a cave dearly indicated by a flagstaff; and 
a receptacle arranged with shdves and drawers containii^ litHary 
bo(^ pens, ink, writing-paper, and a letter-bag for the Postmaster* 
General, Sydney, the whole being covered with a tarpaulin mazked 
" Post OflSce." Passing ships would heave-to, and send a boat on 
shore to replenish the small stores ; make a record in a book left f<»: 
the particular purpose, and take away any letters, to deliver them at 
the next port 

Sufficient has been written to indicate the influence that casta- 
ways have exercised on the peopling of islands, and therefore on the 
lawignage spoken ; as also the earnest endeavours made of recent 
years, both by England and by France, to ensure that timely succour 
shall be available always for castaways on isolated islands of the lone 
Southern Ocean and elsewhere. 

WILLIAM ALUNGBAM. 



sSi 



Ttte Gtntiefiians Magazine, 



ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 
IN JAPAN. 

IT is only lhirty-(hree years since, in 1868, Japan passed 
through a very thorough, though peaceful, revolution, known 
as the "Meiji," or "the era of illustrious rule." That was in a 
measure the result of the opening of the country to foreign nations; 
but it was really the crisis and consummation of a long period of 
silent preparation. One of the most important of the changes which 
followed in its train was the oi^anisation of a complete system of 
education, reaching from the University downwards to the remotest 
village schools. 

Wc propose to offer our readers a description of some of the 
chief features of the primary as well as of the higher schools, as 
far as we have been able to ascertain them from the Reports of the 
Japanese Department and from information supplic*d in this country 
by natives or English Missionaries. 

Education, we are told, attained a very high In-cl in ancient 
times, declined during what are lo us the Middle Ages, and has since 
revived and reached its present efficiency under the existing Govem- 
menl. Before the Revolution the higher learning was confined to 
the Chinese and Japanese classics, and elementary education did 
not extend beyond the three R's. In X867 a Provisional Board was 
established at Kyoto, and some higher schools, already formed at 
Nagasaki, Osaka, and other towns, were reopened on a better 
system, and under more competent men, invited from various 
districts to act as professors. In the following year the " Shockoko," 
or University, became the central authority; but in iS7ian Education 
Department was constituted in its place to control all scholastic 
matters. A code was soon afterwards enacted. Inspectors and other 
school officers were appointed. Normal training colleges were 
opened, and gradually the present system was evolved, which has 
since been extending itself more and more widely through the 
Empire. At first some of these meaaurcs proved abortive through 
lack of funds. Seven normal colleges, for instance, founded in the 
provinces, besides one at Tokio, and seven *' foreign language 
jciiools^" iiad to bo dosed for thai reason. But of late yean the 



EUtittntary Schools in Japan* 




country bis awakened more fally to its obligations in the matter and 

great advances have been made. Fifty-three thousand primary 

schools were at first proposed, and we have reason to believe that 

more than half that number have been built and are now actively at 

fWorlL A few years since it was stated that they had upwards of four 

millions of scholars, of whom quite one-fourth were girls. Training 

colleges for teachers have been also established in most parts of the 

|Country, besides middle and hij^hcr grade schools. The Japanese, 

rlikc ourselves, have had many revised and re-re^'ised codes, for they 

have been steadily feeling their vtay towards the standards maintained 

in European countries and in the United States. Such in general 

seems to be the position. Pursuing our inquiry into particulars, wc 

irill first notice what has been done in the more elementary schools. 

Although in 1880 education was made compulsory for all children 

between the ages of six and fourteen, school fees are usually charged. 

These are 50 sen, or about 2^. per month per child, but only half 

that sum is required from poor parents who cannot afford the whole. 

Moreover, when there are more than two or three of school age 

in a family a further reduction is made. The elemental^- course, 

.According to the strict letter of the law, should extend over eight 

Pycars. Still, a simpler three years' course is allowed in districts where, 

ftin account of the poverty of the inhabitants, the complete one 

cannot be supplied. This is restricted to reading, writing, com- 

position and arithmetic, the last subject occupying at least half the 

time. The full clemenlaiy course is divided into two grades, the 

lower for children from six to nine years of age, the higher for 

those from ten to thirteen inclusive. The lower grade comprises 

spelling, reading, writing, arithmetic, according to European methods, 

morals, conversation, hygiene, geography, grammar and elementary 

science. The higher gmde embraces also writing in Chinese 

characters, correspondence, drawing, natural history, geometry, 

chemistry, and physiology. Such, at any rate, are the syllabuses 

■prescribed by the Code. How far all these subjects arc thoroughly 

'worked out we are not in a position to say. " Multa," not " Multum," 

would seem to be the motto of these educationists, and one cannot 

but fear lest quality be often sacrificed to quantity, unless the children 

of the poorer classes in Japan arc more Tecepti\-e and intelligent 

than our own. The attempt, however, to do so much is highly 

creditable to this highly gifted and energetic race, and will lend to 

raise it more and more in the scale of civihscd nations. Still, it 

should be added that a certain margin of discretion is left to the 

^3ocal authorities in omitting some of these subjects, when drcum- 

Kitaoces render it deiiirable. There are also schools for infants fiom 



284 



The GenlUmans Magazim. 



Ihrcc to six years of age, where ihe Kindergarten system has been 
partially adopted. In these, as in our own, amusing occupations, 
which tend to train the eye and hand, are provided, such as stick-laying, 
building with bricks, rings, pins, &c. Simple practical Instruction 
is giren the children, "in order," it is said, "to develop bodily 
strength, to facilitate home education, and to prepare them for the 
elementary schools." 

But the Japanese are not content with establishing primary 
schools. They have for many j*ears also paid much attention to 
higher education. Their middle schools, whose course extends 
over five years, are designed to prepare the pupils for business life 
and ordinary avocations. These are maintained in each Province 
at the public cost 'llicir syllabuses include Japanese and Chinese 
classics, history, geography, English Readers, arithmetic, geometry, 
algebra, elementary trigonometry, chemistry, and other physical 
sciences, and militar)' drill. The high schools are of two grades. The 
curriculum of the first lasts for three years and is intended for youths 
preparing for the University, who study litCTaturc, history, phtlosopby, 
modern languages, law, and politics. They may take up any 
particular branch of study which they wish to afterwards pursue with 
a \'icw to their degree. The second grade is of a still more 
advanced kind, and the course extends over four years. In all 
these schools fees are charged, except to scholars who are excep- 
tionally clever, industrious, and persevering, and as such have been 
selected by the ko<ho or magistrate. 

One most important branch of the educational system remains 
to be noticed. The Japanese are now thoroughly alive to the 
necessity of carefully training teachers for their schools. At first, 
in consequence of the lack of duly qualified native professors, they 
had to employ foreigners, often English or American Missionaries, 
for this purpose ; and since many of these having at the time an 
mpcrfect grasp of the language of the country had to give instruc* 
tion through interpreters, this was of course a most unsatisfactory 
arrangement. So the authorities have since spared no pains or 
expense in providing training colleges, with practising schools 
attached to them, in every Province. In 188S there were 46 of 
these with 4,416 male and 662 female students; but the niimben 
have no doubt largely increased since then, though we have do 
positive information on the subject. The general course of study 
there is much the same as in the high schools, and is spread over 
four years. In the last year special attention ts also given to 
schoJastic methods and practical school work. No fees arc cbaiiged 
— board, Jodging, dollies, and tttrjvVattt T\W£&arfx ts well m 



.&Mk^ m /j(»BL. sS; 





coDese; btf the jv^g woeibsx 2i« jc icaa^^-man.: 

■ohafaie fioeiBBd fa^Sio. Cg nnrart i 

mtiaa. and sc iei|Hed teoa il v^ia vsoue 

<v nmticBcs. SiS, i^ my be ^i«x idicr < 

Ac f "«^*»* of the Vc^maaat, hf de Ak«^ pnnasd Ah 

caa£data fassc sand ai wwlyifi. iar one k»^ ^^ daeif] 

tberarenot ndcr r»a^ jcss cfage, x'l 

and are BOO^ » ««■ «s pbjsaSr czaSficd Tbe 

to IwffC afaott afaaotee poacr o«a' de wj < hf'¥ s wir*ihnir*wg 

tbdmlades for a noaefa al a tsne^ or ia deprnag csemof diar 

ootificatES pnvnsooafiif , and cvcei Eaaiir, nr sBiBcaBciict or nfffttt 

of dotf , r^'^'^j^ aa ^ipcal is open to tbe DtqaztBesc Ob tJhe 

oUkt bud, tttr*"" ■— <K«^iif* Wrhf rfcfri brtbat of impwlni^ aj^w,w<gj 

for danentarf Kfaook bj die local arrt^yrirs and far die 

middle and Ugb scboob by die Dcpaitmatt. Tbex xiat die 

dementaiy adiools mondilr and die odxn twice cr tfance a jctr, >» 

order to give advice to die teacfaen and to report on die schools to 

the local or die ccDtial antfaonties. There is also a local comiaiitee 

for eadi adiool on which the male teachers sit, and this cominittee 

admes the Jkacia about the afiaiis of the sdiooL Besides die head 

certificated teachers there are in tbe larger sdiools assistants who 

need not be certificated. For any number up to serenty one 

certificated teacher is required; for more than seventy up to one 

hundred and forty one certificated master or mistress with an 

assistant must be provided. These very inadequate requirements 

seem to indicate a paucity of fiiUy-qualificd instructors. Perhaps this 

may be partly due, as respects the elementary schools, to the very 

meagre salaries, if judged by European standards. 

The scale of payments to ceitificated teachers is divided into eight 
grades ; and their ordinary stipends range from 7 yen per month 
(that is, a yen being equivalent to 2s. o^d.^ 14s. 3^.) to 15 yen (or 
jQ2 y. j^d.) per month in the lower elementary schools, whilst tn 
the higher of these schools they rise from 7 yen to 30 monthly. But 
in the middle and high schools the payments are on a much more 
liberal scale, ranging from 20 to 150 yen monthly in the former, and 
from 50 to 300 or more in the latter. Probably the style of living ii 
much simpler and less expensive in Japan than here. Moreover, 
houses or house-rents are provided for the teachers ; and honoraria 
are added at the end of the year for good general work or tpeclal 
services. Travelling expenses according to time and diitance aro 
paid for in the case of removal to another tchooL Durln% U!Lt\<«ia^ 
if it )aft9 no more than A month, the full ulu7\icmC0cNOM^\Vllw 



386 



The GentUmans Alagazine. 



not more than two months, the half is allowed ; but after that it 
ceases altogether. After twelve years* service teachers are entitled to 
a pension, and at their death their relatives receive three months' 
salary. The school hours are much the same as in England, twenty- 
eight per week. Besides Sunday (which it is interesting to notice is 
recognised in all Government institutions as a weekly rest) and 
certain special heathen festivals, there arc forty-nine holidays in the 
year, which may be fixed for the summer or winter according to the 
convenience of the locality. Altogether there would seem to be 
considerable attention paid by the Japanese to the comfort and 
well-being of their public teachers. They do not enjoy as much 
liberty and independence as do our English teacho-s ; but are kept 
under very strict and often summary discipline. Still in other 
respects they are well treated. " Autres pays, autres moeurs ; " and 
when we consider for how short a time the present system has been 
established, and how imperfect must yet be the civilisation of Japan, 
we can only wonder at the progress adiieved in education as well as 
in other matters, and may anticipate a still brighter future for that 
Empire. There is only one dark blot in this otherwise promising 
system. This is of course the entire absence of religious teaching. 
■The old ancestral faiths arc gradually dying out amongst the more 
I Cultured and intelligent Japanese ; whilst Christianity is by stow 
degrees, though with decided marks of progress, winning its way into 
their confidence. Morality is, indeed, taught, but of no rery high 
order, and without, it is to be feared, much practical effect. We are 
told on the authority of a late Prime Minister that " Education Is 
non-religious and utilitarian, and educated youths are mostly 
Agnostics with a morality that is loose and low." In some plaoe.^ 
however, as we have seen, the Missionaries have been allowed to teach 
English in the State schools, and so have gained a good influence over 
thescholars. Schools for this purpose have been opened at Yokohama 
and Nagasaki under their charge, besides others of their own, inde- 
pendent of State control. By these and other more direct means, a 
purer light is slowly, butsurely, spreading amongst this wonderful and 
highly gifted race ; and ere long wc trust that theirs will become io 
reality, as well as in name, "The land of the rising sun." 

A few facts connected with this part of our subject may interest 
our readers. In 1897 the Japanese Education Department took a 
new departure by sending a Japanese lady 10 England to study the 
educational system and methods of our country, as well as to imprarc 
hcf knowledge of our language. Special arrangements were made 
by the authorities for her to liavtV wxvh a lady Missionary. This 
My was asked by 00c ot l^e \ewi\a4 ^ fee \v\^ci -tVwA^jfcfc 




torn to pnce ihcff ffhnip 
English better. The 
t^tihe tB #T*>*y fiaaUy dial 
the viahor wadd be 
stood cbs£ emj dcBofafe 
led to a figthg e ^i b fyaiiw 
uiDcst C hrtw^ and iMtaKW ntm nil 
better, for tber are sve to be kiad to ber.~ 
tbea besseir a tfaon^gh 
WaAxaxf 6aeMiA^atiertm&%had o opi in oB d ber thtt tbeie ii 
one ScpreiDe Bcii^ that she bad ie«d a good deal of the Kev 
cnt, bat dkl not ytt. andenland its irarhtnB Sdn sbe 
iaoaniioMlotaow Aetrmhtfaat Aegesfniiid to be cfcry 
that dnriog ber ¥isit to Kngbwi tfaraqgh ber imamun e intb 
, earnest peopie^ abe would sain deanr oonictioiiaaboK 
1 subjects; andtbat after ber rem faooM sbe wodd h«>e a 
' infioeaoe over ber popAL It is «dl to add that tbe iottitQ- 
^tioD to wfakfa she belonged vas a tcaimng school far **«'^*t^, aod 
that on account of ber b^h rbaririer and abiUties she w» lelected 
' this special woriL Soch instances are not infrequent, bat occur 
tme to tznie to cheer the beaits of the Misnonaries. In the 
dtf of Tokushiroa it was reported by tbe CM.S. that two pabUc 
Lscbool-boys were baptited after careful instmctioo, and that several 
I others were studying the Bible under tbe Missionancs. They would 
probably cany the knowledge thus received to their parents and 
homes. Another, a boy of about fourteen years of age, being 
edocaied in a middle school of his town, came at fir^t to a Mission- 
ary to lean) English, became gradually interested in the Gospel, and 
.eventually a believer in Christ, :md then endeavoured to lead his 
'achool-fellows to Him. Older sludenti, intended for the University 
atTc^io, at times apply to the Missionaries for lessons in English or 
German, which are given on condition of half the time being 
Idevoted to reading the Bible in the language that they are learning. 
At the same time we ore told th.it of the 100,000 students at Tokio 
the great majority have abandoned the national faiths and as yet 
believe in nothing. The present is e\'idcntly a transition period. 
I The minds of these intelligent Japanese are very tmsclilcd. They 
' have been brought into close contact with European religion as well 
as civilisation, but ore not yet as a nation prepared to accept our 
faith, though they have so largely adopted our arts, sciences, and 
general culture. Still the light is steadily spreading and will in (ha 
end prevail. 



2S8 



The GeniUnuin*s Magazine. 



THE STAGING OF PLAYS 
300 YEARS AGO. 

THE conditions under which a play was produced in the age of 
Shakespeare differed very widely from those which prevail 
to-day, and a right understanding of what these conditions were 
may often serve to make plainer obscure points in the dramas of that 
period. Among the chief differences to be noticed are the absence 
of scenery, the admission of the spectators to seats on the stage, the 
impersonating of the women's parts by boys, the manner in which 
the performers were dressed, and the fact that in some of the theatres, 
at any rate, the performance took place by daylight. 

First, the absence of scenery. This is vouched for up to 1581 by 
the well-known passage in Sidney's "A Defence of Poesie," "You 
shall liave Asia of the one side and Afric of the other, and so many 
other under kingdoms, that the player, when he comes in, must ever 
begin by telling where he is, else the tale will not be conceived. 
Now shall you have three ladies walk to gather flowers, and then we 
must believe the stage to be a garden. By-and-by we hear news of a 
shipwreck in the same place, then are we to blame if we accept it not 
for a rock." 

To obviate the difficulty alluded to by Sidney various devices 
were resorted to, one common one apparently being to bang* up a 
notice indicating the scene the spectators were desired to imogitie. 
Of this we have an interesting instance in the "Spanish Tragedy," 
where one of the characters in the "play within the play" says, 
'* Hang up the title, our scene is Rhodes." Another device was the 
use of the prologue, as, for instance, in " Henry V.," where the con- 
cluding portions of the prologues to acts iii. and iv. prepare us to 
travel in imagination lo Harflcur and Agincourt respectively. The 
concluding line of the prologue to acti.ii. in the same play, " Unto 
Southampton do we shift our scene," might at ftrst sight appear to 
furnish evidence of a directly opposite nature ; but on closer examiiu- 
2ion this appearance will be found to be delusive, as there is no cvi- 
destcc to show lliat the word scent ttu used ia its present signiiication 



Tir SS^gaf rf P&gvs jjc Fdorr A^*t. z^ 




fix 'h** 3HB^C X 'lOSBSBXXtBS.W ^*tf »n>£ 

dK JDc w*^"» 3c 111 mill I'll li" "^w^ 

b ic hhv 3e wtutii "touc Jiiistv s son. td 
; of :&e anoesEB J&sxnf ic 
Fsa^ vfaoL in a. pBBxiziiaiicE ^iv^ "■ li^"; jsnes L s. se =^1 <x 

a confi^ipaEKj apeeaov (i^atOEd Ixv Xuone: sis: *^Vict t&ieieo 
• . . of pMMtied dJuJiM cbcirsaige <nit i^cv:^e^ ''hw^ s zuAnaig 
of one tEipi^-^ ScqbmSk. wbbi in ricn DmesaoE ^rcvuicA T^>y 
"S^geaf ghr»fa*^ *fa> »T,^«"Ti*«r x xs i -*^:egrseiciccir b? =:e ir: 
of praapedbe in ■n i r%' * dfgr*? Trrrrirw riat rte sscurfmesc ct 

tbe *pEni oid ssk* viis. :=e •'■ ■itnim ^ ±si in ^se. 
Tfand^, dnt vfaflie maat iBSancsi csa be aajiirfd oc ^st use ct 0£ 

pj^saodwiii j ii lof rfie frnrhay cf £3e ie t ff .F PrT', t ? ic^tt3rT.-g3=cc 
possAle to lamluce one fmninrr m wIu-ll ir on be desrly sirvn » 
^nify a poinBed bock cbxh, choaaficrra c=e cse of tiK weed jcene 
in sane m«m i r% (t^. Jaasoa's Mjaqpe ac Vscocnc H^£a^»n s 
Mazmge) far what ve sfaooSd nov pofc^s describe as a tabkaa^ tc 
is easy to tee how the noce nudon sense ot the word arose. Of 
coone; it is not denied dnt pointed badt clochs. or sooie sccfa 
thii^ were osed in the xepresentatkai o( masques : bat these vould 
seem to have been caDed ~ devices,' as appean from an account of 
the bmning of Whitehall Palarp, in which we leam that "the device 
(rf* the masque^ all of oiled paper and dzy fir,"* cai^t fire : but it is 
&irfy certain that at the period we are considering these ** devices ** 
were not called scenes, and were not employed on the sta^^es of 
ordinaiy theatres. One other passa^^ relating to this question 
deserves consideration in the present context, Marlowe*s " Oido," 
act u. scene i., which seems to imply the use of something of the 
natoxc of scenery ; the manner in which i^eas and Achates are 
affected by the sight of the story of Troy depicted on the Temple 
walls seems to require the use of pictures or tapestries of some kind 
to make it intelligible to the audience. We know, however, thftt 
"painted doths,"' a sort of cheap substitute for taiiestry, were often 

* C/t Una 34 and 35 of the same prologue : '* The icene li now IrfttiiiHulcU 
to Soathimpton," whence we see that the word "ihift " muit nut Im» taken In Iti 
modem sense, toy more than the word ** scene.** 

' These " painted cloths " had pictures on them. C/, Wllklns, Miuriti ^ 
Enfor^d Marriaget act It. : " More miserable than <»e of the wicked elders la 
the painted doth.'* 

vou ccxci. HO. 3049. X 



290 



The GenlUmans Magazine, 



employed at this period for decorating the walls of rooms in private 
houses, and something of this kind would no doubt have been used 
in the present case, and one or two painted cloths would ha\-e had a 
place in the list of properties required for representing this play, for 
there is abundance of evidence to prove the use of properties in the 
plays of the period themselves. 

In the Induction to Jonson's " Bartholomew Fair " we find the 
"Stage-keeper " says, *' Would not a fine pump upon the stage have 
done well for a property now?" while in the old play of "The 
Taming of a Shrew " one of the players who is to act before Slie says, 

I'll speak for the properties. My Lord, we miut 
Have a shoulder of mutton for a property. 

Now both tlicsc quotations show that " properties " three centuries 
ago consisted of much the same things as they do to-day. The 
mention of properties in the stage directions of old plays ace frequent ; 
a few instances must suffice. In Greene's " James IV." we are directed 
to have " a tomb conveniently placed upon the stage " ; while in the 
same author's " Alphonsus of Arragon " we read, *' Exit Venus, or if 
you conveniently can, let a chair come down from the top of the 
stage and draw her up." This is interesting both for the fine con* 
sideration for the convenience of others which it implies and also 
because it shows that the use of mechanical appliances for introducing 
a deus ex maehin^ were not unknown. In Henslovve's Diary we find 
an entry for a disbursement for a somewhat similar contrivance — " a 
pair of pulleys to hang Absalom." On this point, as on so many 
others, Henslowe provides us with a great deal of valuable information. 
In his Diary for September and October 1598 we find that he 
expended ^2^ ss. on properties for ** Piers of Winchester," a 
4arger amount than was usual with him for one play ; the properties 
for " Patient Grissel " cost him the much more moderate sum of 
j^'\ S^- 7 while among an inventory of properties belonging to the 
Admiral's men we find such entries as "Tasso's picture," "a tree of 
-golden apple," "three imperial crowns." 

Now wlien we remember the manner in which the stage arose in 
England, the absence of scenery will seem natural enough. Prior 
to the building of the first theatre in London in Elizabeth's time, 
performances had been given in tlie halls of countr)' houses or in 
the cotutyards of irms ; and even after the building of the early play- 
houses performances in inns do not seem to liave ceased altogether. 
Such a state of affairs would readily allow of the use of properties^ 
especially such tilings as chairs, tables, beds, Sec, which might easily 




Staging of Plays 300 Years Ago. 291 



be borrowed, but would have made the use of scenery, as we under- 
stand it, out of the question. 

Again, from the evidence at our disposal it is possible to form a 
r&irly accurate idea of what the stage was like, and how it was arranged 
at the period we are considering. The orchestra, consisting of 
trumpets, hautboys, lutes, viols, &c., sat in a gallery at one side of 
the stage, which was separated from the auditorium, not as now by 
footlights, but by a row of palings. Before the performance began 
the stage was hidden from the audience by a curtain which waa 
drawn back after the overture or the third "sounding," as it is called 
in the stage directions. At the back of the stage, which was hung 
with curtains, was a balcony or raised platform called the upper stage* 
which appears to have had curtains of its own,' so that it could be 
used or not as the action required. When a lover had to appear on 
a balcony, a serving maid at an upper window, or the governor of a 
kbesi^ed town on the battlements, it was on this platform they would 
rseen. If this be borne in mind it will sometimes make clear a 
pungc in an old play which might otherwise be obscure : for instance, 
'n Marlowe's "Massacre of Paris," scene vl, the scene continues 
below whilst the Admiral is discovered in bed (on the upper stage) ; 
as is shown by the stage direction, " the body of the Admiral is 
thrown down." Here, however, as in many other cases, the use of 
the upper stage is not clearly indicated in the stage directions and 
has to be assumed by the reader. 

It seems likely that when a play within a play had to be repre- 
sented, the lower stage would be used for it, and the characters of the 
main play would occupy the upper stage. This view at any rate is 
borne out by the old play of " The Taming of a Shrew ! " ' If this 
was the case the arrangement of the stage would be just the reverse 
of that depicted in the famous picture of " Hamlet at the Play" in 
the National Gallery ; but whether the player king and queen would 
have turned their backs to the audience in the body of the house so 
as to face Hamlet, Ophelia, and the rest on the upper stage; or 
have turned their backs to the upper stage so as to face the audience 
we have no means of deciding : anyway either the actors in the play 
within a play, or the spectators of it, must have assumed a somewhat 
unnatural po!>ition. When a tragedy was to be enacted the stage 
was hung with black, as is clearly shown by the following quotation 

* (^ Munngcr'f Smfcrvr 9/ tlu £asi, *' the cuitaiiu dfawa abore." 

• C/. Sfanish Tragtdx, act. vt. where Jcronimo speaks of ihc King and his 
tnio, who arc lo witness the pUy within a play, pusiiig into ibc gallery. 

XI 



292 



Tke Gentlentatis Magazine. 



from the Induction of the Tragedy, " A Warning for Fair 

Women " — 

The stage U hang with black, and 1 perceive 
The ftuditon prepared for tragedy. 

Or again by the line in "The Rape of Lucrece," where night is 
described as "Black Stage for Tragedies and Murders felL" In 
passing we may note that this custom is a further proof that scenery 
in the modern sense could not have been employed. 

Sometimes additional curtains called "traverses" were hung 
across the middle of the stage when for any reason it was desired to 
make it shallower, these, like the others, being drawn to and fro 
from the side, and not let down from the roof. For instance, in 
Peele's " Edward I." there is a stage direction, " The Queen's tent 
opens, and she is discovered in bed," which would no doubt be 
managed by screening off part of the stage with traverses and drawing 
them back at the required moment. 

The absence of scenery sometimes induced playwrights to take 
liberties which would not be possible on a stage arranged according 
to modern methods. There is a curious instance in Dekkcr and 
Webster's " Famous History of Sir Thomas Wyat" Lady Jarw Grey 
and her husband determine to remove to the Tower of London ; a 
stage direction says they are to " pass round the stage." ' After this 
Guilford speaks in words which imply tliat the procession has 
reached the gateway of the Tower. It would seem likely that a 
procession round the stage was understood to imply a change of 
scen^ wliich would of course be inconceivable if painted scenery 
were used. 

If the frontispiece of Kirfcman's " DrolU" (1672) represents the 
appearance of a stage as it was in the earlier part of the seventeenth 
century, we should conclude that the entrances and exits were 
usually made from the back, which, as the tiring-room was behind 
the stage, is extremely likely. The stage directions enable us to be 
certain that more than one entrance was used ; ^vf- i" Rowley's "All's 
Lost by Lust" we read (Sig, H 2) "Enter Roderique again at 
another door." 

How many entrances there were is a harder matter to decide; 
for in some cases the stage directions (as in the one just quoted) 
seem to imply several doors, in other cases only two } for instance, 
in " The Hog has I-ost his Pearl " we read that one of the characters 
" passing over the stage knocks at the other door," and again in 
" Jaclt Drum's Entertainment " there is a direction *' enter Pasquil 

' See DckkCf '• ^mwd/zV IVoris fTcanon's leoiintl, icA. iil. p. 306^ 



R 



The Staging of Plays 300 Years Ago, 293 

at one door, his page at the other." Perhaps the true explanation 
may be that there were usually three entrances, one through the 
middle of the curtains hung at the back of the stage, and one at 
eadi end of the same curtains ; possibly in some playhouses the 
tiring-room may have been so close behind the curtain that it would 
have been inconvenient to have the curtains opened for the entrance 
and exit of the performers,^ in which case the side entrances only 
vould be employed. In the absence of direct evidence we must 
rest content with conjecture. It is quite clear, howe\"er, that 
in 00 case can entrances have been nude from the side of the 
stagey as nowadays, since it was wholly open to the view of the 
audience. 

The usual covering for the floor of the stage appears to bare 
been rushes ; although on the occasion on which the Globe Theatre 
was burnt down, in 1613, the stage was covered with noalting, as we 
learn from a letter of Sir Henry Wotion in which the c%'ent ia 
described. " The play," he writes, *' was set forth with extraordinary 
circumstances of pomp and majesty, even to the matting of the 
stage." 

One of the most interesting features of the arrangement of the 
stage at this period was the admission of the spectators to sit on the 
stage itself ; a practice which brou^jht money into the exchequer of 
the theatre, but caused endless annoyance to the dramatists and 
actors. There are numerous allusions to this custom in the plays 
of the day, but the fullest and most interesting account of it is to be 
found in Dekkcr's "Gul's Hornbook," wherein he sarcastically gives 
advice to a yoimg gallant how to demean himself whilst -occupying a 
seat upon the stage. From this advice it is not hard to deduce how 
many young fops actually did behave on the stage. They would 
enter just before tlu play commenced and call loudly for a stool, the 
price of which would vary from sixpence to a shilling ; they would 
light their pipe and begin talking to any of their acquaintance wbo 
happened 10 be on the stage, generally behaving in such a manner 
as to attract the attention of the whole audience. During the per- 
formance they would make audible comments on the play or the 
acting, even addressing remarks to the performers, or if they had 
nothing better to do would take up one of the rushes from the floor 
to pick their teeth with. Sometimes they would carry this careless 

' In the ftootispiecc to Klikman's Dr^ts, lOIuded to ftlwve, % chamctcr \% 
peeping through the middle of the cun^UDs, XmX to such i way u not to let th« 
audience tee tbroagh the Aperture. Thb pUte h tcpcoduoeil u the frontispiece 
to Heywood's Ptaft m the Afcmuud Sciics. 



■■ to Hey wood's 




294 



The GentlemaiCs Magazine. 



behaviour to such an extent as seriously to interrupt the performance 
and cause the "groundlings " (/>. the occupiers of the pit) to hoot 
and hiss at them. Perhaps Dekker may have heightened the 
colouring somewhat for purposes of satire, but his picture is no 
doubt substantially accurate. 

To pass from the stage to the performers on it, the moat striking 
difference to be noted is surely the pb}-ing of women's parts by boys ; 
a tradition unbroken in Hngland, as far as wc know, until 1629, when 
a company of French actresses ventured to appear in London, but 
met with a reception the reverse of favourable ; for an age by no means 
prudish in more respects held it indelicate for women to appear oi> 
the stage. Prj-nne, in his " Histrioraastix," speaks of these actresses 
as " Frenchwomen or rather monsters," and proceeds to characterise 
their attempt to act on a public stage as " impudent, shameful, un- 
womanish, graceless, if not more than whorish.'* But then the same 
doughty old Puritan regarded the impersonation of women's parts 
by men in femate attire as "sinfiil, yea abominable unto Christians." 
More reliable testimony to the feeling against the appearance 
of women as actresses is afforded by the fact that the French- 
women referred to above were hooted off the stage by the 
audience. 

Not impossibly accident as much as design originally caused the 
employment of boys to play women's parts in England. The direct 
precursors of the theatrical companies of Elizabeth's day were 
undoubtedly the little bands of strolling players who wandered up 
and down the country giving performances in the halls of noble- 
men's houses or the inn yards of market tonus ; such, for instance, 
as the players in " Hamlet." Nor are we surprised to find that these 
strolling companies consisted wholly of males, as the life they led 
must have been a rather rough one : for them the acting of women's 
parts by boys or young men was a necessity ; the thing having 
become a custom, it was quite naturally continued when companies 
settled in London. There it was turned to account in another way, 
for we leani that bo>*s were apprenticed to well-known players, and 
they would learn the art of acting by performing as women until they 
were old enough to take the men's parts. Two important conse- 
quences of this custom were the comparative paucity of female 
characters in the plays of the period, and the fondness evinced by 
Shakespeare and his contemporaries for making their heroines don 
the doublet and hose, as Imogen, Rosalind, Viola, and many 
others do. 

It may be worth nolu^ one or two othef facts with regard to thc^ 



The Staging of Plays 300 Years Ago. 295 

companies of strolling players mentioned above, as the traditions 
established among them seem to have aOccted the stage in various 
ways until the closing of the theatres at the time of the Great 
Rebellion. In the first place, each little company consisting of but 
few players (in ** Hamlet " we have " four or five players," in the old 
comedy of "The Taming of a Shrew " we have t^'O players and a 
boy), the practice of dotibling or trebling parts must have arisen ; 
and of the continuance of this practice we have abundant evidence. 
To " The Fair Maid of the Exchange " we find a table pre6xed 
showing " how eleven may easily act this comedy," though it contains 
Ltwenty characters, "officers" counting as one. Still later, in the 
rqoarto editions of the Duchess of Malfi we find "The Doctor," 
" Cariola," and " Officers " all assigned to one actor, R, Pallant. In 
the second place the members of these travelling companies must 
liave grown accustomed to acting with very slight assistance from 
mechanical appliance, since they either carried their dresses and 
properties in packs on their backs, or in a waggon behind which 
they tramped on foot, as Dekker taunts Ben Jonson with having 
done. Cf. *'Saliromastix": "Thou hast forgot how thou amblest {in 
a leather pilch) by a play-wagon in the high way, and took'st mad 
Jcronimo's part." 

The waggon of course could be used as a stage, and if like the 
P** pageants " (/>. play-waggons) used in the old miracle plays it had 
Iwo storeys, the lower to serve as a green room, the upper as stage,, 
it is easy to see how it came about that the use of trap-doors was 
common in the Elizabethan theatres, which we know to have been 
the case from stage directions in various plays implying their use, 
t.g. " a golden head rises " in Dekkcr's " If it be not Good." 

The exact manner in which the actors dressed for their paita 
cannot perhaps be determined, but it is certain that considerable 
sums of money were expended on costumes. Gosson (in 1577) in 
his "School of Abu.se" inveighs against the "costly apparell" worn 
on the stage; while Pr)'nne, in his "Htstriomastix," some half a 
century later, makes a similar complaint. Tn one case we learn from 
Henslowe's Diary iTiat as much as ^m^ was paid for a single cloak, 
which, if the entry be correct, is a ver)* high figure, considering the 
value of money 300 years ago. No doubt the same costumes would 
be used over and over again in different plays, and would become 
old and stale, but when new ihey certainly appear to have been 
costly. In the inventory of the apparel belonging to the Admiral's 
men in 1598 there are some interesting items, a few of which may 
be quoted : " Item, a cloak trimmed with copper lace and red 



296 



The Geniie?nafCs Magctsine. 



velvet breeches," for Tamburlane ; " item, five satia doublets laid 
with gold lace," for Heniy V. ; *' item, a cloak with gold buttons." 
From these items it would seem that magnificence rather than 
historical propriety was aimed at True that in the city pageant 
entitled " Britannia's Honour " we read of one of the characters 
being arrayed in "a rich Roman antique habit," but then we do not 
know what ideas the men of James I.'s day had about " a rich Koman 
antique habit." We know for certain that in the eighteenth century 
historical accuracy was not thought of in stage dresses, and may 
fairly assume the same to have been the case a hundred years earlier. 

No doubt an endeavour would be made to make the dresses 
distinctive, kings and nobles being more richly clothed than others, 
while it seems likely that certain more or less conventional pro* 
pcrties served to indicate the nature of the character represented ; 
e.g. in the " Spanish Tragedy " we find " a Turkish cap, a black 
moustachio, and a falchion " set down as part of the costume 
required by the person who was to represent a Turkish prince in the 
play within the play. Generally speaking, we may conclude that 
wlialever the i>eriod represented in a play may hare been, the actors 
were dressed in the costume of their own day. 

On the other hand periwigs, which were not commonly used at 
the period, were worn by actors, and in some cases vizards or masks, 
as the following passage from "A Midsummer-Night's Dream' 
testifies : — 

F'uu : Let not me plajr ■ woman 1 I have a Lcard coming. 
Botiem : That's all one ; jou ihall play it in a maslc. 

The prologue was usually spoken by one wcariiig a large black 
velvet ciaik, though the origin of the custom seems unknown. 

The stage crowds of the period were very different from those of 
(he present day ; in some old plays we find such stage directions as 
the following : " Enter soldiers, as many as you can," with which 
we may compare Shakespeare's apology in " Henry V." for atlcmpling 
to represent the battle of .^incourt " with four or five most vile and 
ragged foils." This was due partly to the exigencies of the case, for 
the short runs made elaborate rehearsals impossible, and small 
stages could not be overcrowded (especially as spectators sat on 
Uiem) ; partly also to the general method of the day, which strove 
on the stage rather to suggest to the imagination than to represent 
to the eye. 

In many trays the performance must have been more spontaneous 
than at present, for the down was permitted to extemporise, as we 



The Staging of Plays 300 Years Ago. 



learn from Hamlet's injunction to the players: "Let your clowns 
speak no more than is set down for them." This licence was sotne- 
' times carried so far that the clowns would actually crack jokes with 
aembers of the audience. Nor was this liberty of extemporising 
confined to the clowns. Sometimes wc find in an old text an 
invitmg, "&c," or a stage direction such as the following from 
Heywood's " Edward IV." : "Jockie is led to whipping over the stage, 
speaking some words, but of no importance." 

The prompter, or " book-holder/' as he was then called, is 
referred to as if he were a regular official of the theatre, together 
I the ** tire-man," who presumably had charge of the theatrical 
ardrobc. 
The stage appears to have been lighted by a pair of larger 
^chandeliers hanging from the roof, though, as in some of the 
beatres only the stage itself was roofed in, daylight may to some 
extent have been relied upon, since the performances were alwa>'8 
given in the afternoon. 

One more characteristic of the theatre of three hundred years ago 
remains to be noticed, the jig. From a passage in "The Hog has 
I-ost his Pearl " it appears that a jig was in rhyme, for two lines from 
a jig supposed to be written by one of the characters in that play 
k«re quoted in it. It was sung ^ by the clown at the end of the 
performance and was accompanied, perliaps, with music and dancing 
— certainly with antics of various kinds. The general tenor of jigs 
may be gatlicred from the fact that Shakespeare couples together 
"a jig " and "a tale of bawdry," while Dckker speaks of "a r»sty 
bawdy jig." Probably the jig was to all intents and purposes the 
topical song of the day. That the audiences of the period enjoyed 
jigs immediately after a soul-stirring tragedy is but one more instance 
of the difference between their point of view and ours, of which 
numerous otiier examples have been given already. If their taste 
was simpler and cruder, the conditions under which plays were 
produced must at any rate have served to make the actors ready 
and resourceful, the spectators imaginative and alert. 

ERIC REDE BirCKLCV. 




■Cf. 7^4 Hog^ has iMt kit PuwJi "A jig whose tune with Ibe Bstaral 
LvhlUle of a c&imiui shall be more niTiihing to your eus than a whole coocert of 
irbcrs." 



298 



The Gentkmatis Magazine. 



ODDS AND ENDS IN POMPEIL 



I PURPOSE, in this short sketch, to pick out the little nuggets 
of common everyday life from the glittering mine of learning 
confined between the covers of Professor Mau's splendid book, 
" Pompeii : its Life and Art." 

I spread these little nuggets before the reader for half an hour's 
pastime, and feel convinced that he will then b^, borrow, or buy 
the book itself, and study its 501 pages, every one of which is 
interesting. 

Never, I think, has the situation and landscape of Pompeii been 
placed so clearly and concisely before a reader as by Professor Maa 
in the book before us. The beautiful walled city on its gentle 
elevation, taking the shape of the ridge of ancient lava on which it 
was built at the foot of Vesuvius, and overlooking the plain of the 
river Samo, which river, then much wider and deeper than it is now, 
flowed not far from the city gate, so that a small port was formed 
on its banks, and became the depot of all the small towns of the 
district, and even of some on the more distant parts of Campania 
FeUx, 

Professor Mau notices the curious fact that Acerra, at the oilier 
side of Vesuvius, to which the port of Naples lay much nearer, yet 
used by preference that of Pompeii, Perhaps the reason may have 
been a stretch of brackish marshes lying between Accrra and Naples 
at that period, which may have rendered traffic diflSrult. 

I*rofcssor Mau's book is the result of twenty-five years' study 
carried on with real devotion and enthusiasm, and all who have already 
seen Pompeii, or intend going thither, should study it diligently. 

Pompeii was surrounded by the country houses of weaUhy 
Romans, and a curious incident leads one to infer that the Imperial 
family possessed a villa there, for we read that Drusus, the young son 
of the Emperor Qaudius, was choked to death at Pompeii by a fig 
which he bad thrown up in the air and caught in his mouth, a feat 
which one often can see performed by a Neapolitan street-boy now* 
adays. 



Odds and Ends in Pamfeiu 



299 



The everyday public life of Pompeii was concentrated in the 
Fonun, the business centre of the city. Here idlers and gossips 
loitered and chatted, here tradesmen met and settled points of 
difference, and young people pursued their romantic adventures. 

Imagine the public square of a modern Italian city provided 
with inviting colonnades affording protection from rain or sun, and 
the life of the place concentrated therein, and you can form an idea 

Lof the ceaseless bustle and variety of scenes that took place daily in 

I the Pompeian Forum. In front of the equestrian statues, dealers of 
every kind and description took up their posts ; warm food was 
ladled out from caldrons ; women sold fruit and vegetables, men 
the bread fresh from the bakers ; and tinkers mended old pots and 
At another side sat the public scribes— like those still to be 

'^seen under the arcade of the opera-house at Naples— writing letters 
for peasant women ; a group of citizens tested the wine in the bottles 
they held in their hands. Persons of leisure strolled about ; bc^ars 
held out imploring hands ; children played at hide-and-seek amongst 
the columns. A naughty boy, mounted on the back of a school- 
fellow, received a flogging for some misdeed, the master standing by 
to see that the slave employed applied the lash properly. On 
certain days processions passed in great solemnity, and, at the 
lime before the amphitheatre was built, games and gladiatorial 
combats also took place in the Forum. Then the upper storey of 
the colonnade was reserved for the giver of the games, his friends, 
and the paying public, while the lower portion was free to the 

Fpopulacc, But no vehicle might enter the Forum, and by this 
regulation her preeminence over the provincial cities in this matter 
was presened to Rome. 

All around this busy market-place of Pompeii were public offices, 
law courts, and special markets. In the Macellum, at the northwest 
comer of the Forum, there was a colonnade, under the roof of which 
fish that had been sold were scaled, and the scales thrown into a 

[basin. A street to the north of the MaceUum had rows of shops» 
where were exposed for sale figs, chestnuts, plums, grapes, fruit 
preserved in gbss vessels, lentils, corn and cakes of all kinds. The 

[Counters for fish and meat were sloped, so that the fish might be 
sprinkled, and thecouniers washed, while the water ran off. Sheep, 
lambs, and kids were sold alive in the market, purchasers preferring 
a victim that might be offered a sacrifice to the household gods 
before being used as food. The wall-paintings in the Mmelium 
plainly show the purpose of the building. There are pictures of all 
kinds of trade and industry. In the room reser\'cd for the sale of 



300 



The GeitiUman s Magazine, 



meat and fish there is the personification of the river Samo, the 
coast, and surrounding country, suggesting that in this room might 
be obtained the products of the sea, the river, and the land. 

Pompeii indeed enjoyed a large source of income from its fertile 
soiL PUny, Professor Mau reminds us, makes frequent mention of 
the Pompcian wine, but adds ttiat indulgence in it caused a headache 
which tasted till noon the following day. Tlut tlie Pompeians were 
extensive market-gardeners is proved by the fact that even many 
private e&iatcs had vegetable gardens attached to the house 

The business streets in Pompeii can even now be distinguished 
at a glance from those in the less frequented quarters, the latter 
being bordered by the blank walls of houses, broken only by the 
bouse doors, while the former are lined with shops open to the street 
in all their width, at night being closed by wooden shutters. The 
door-keepers in private houses were frequently cobblers, as is very 
often tlie case now in Naples. This is proved by the tools found 
and some inscriptions on the walls. 

At the time of the destruction of Pompeii, soap, a Gallic invention, 
was only just bcgtmiing to come into use. As most of the garments 
worn were of wool, they were sent out of the house to be cleansed, 
and the trade of fuller n-os relatively important Then, too, as now, 
woollen clothes were bleached with sulphur fumes. 

Wine shops were numerous, and were often at the same time 
eating-houses, with some accommodation for the night. They had 
names such as "The Elephant Inn," and the guesu scratched 
remarks on the walls ; one runs, apparently written by an affectionate 
husband : " Here slept Vibius Kestitutus ail by himself, his heart 
filled with longings for his Urbana." The charges were low, for 
owing to the universal custom of private hospitality, these places of 
entertainment were only resorted to by the lowest classes, and tended 
to become the haunt of the vicious. 

It seems probable that driving was forbidden in the streets of 
Pompeii, people using litters ; in the widest streets, where are the 
stepping stones for wet weather, the waggons could pass, the wheels 
rolling in the spaces between, and the horses being loosely attached 
to the wings by means of a yoke, which gave the animals freedom of 
movement. 

An sorts of games had the keenest interest for Pompeians; 
I'heir amphitheatre is the oldest known to us from either literary or 
monumental sources. Numberless notices painted or scratched on 
the walls relate to such sport. Terms of endearment were lavished 
Dpon gladiators in such inscriptions. In one, CeUdus is colled "the 



Odds and Ends tn PompeiL 



30" 



maidens* sigh," and '* the glory of girls," while one Crescens is styled 
" lord o' lasses," and " the darlings* doctor." Ever^'one knows that 
with the Romans the public baths were on indispensable part of 
daily life, and the baths of Pompeii stood in no way behind those 
of greater dties in motley and tumultuous variety of scene. 

Professor Mau gives us a quotation from "Seneca " in illustration 
of what went on in such places : — 

•' I am living near a bath," writes the philosopher ; "sounds are 
heard on all sides. Just imagine for yourself every conceivable 
kind of noise that can offend the ear. The men of more sturdy 
muscle go through their exercises and swing their hands, heavily 
weighed with lead. I hear their groans when they strain themselves, 
or the whistling of laboured breath when they breathe out after 
having held in. If one U rather lazy, he has himself rubbed 
with ointment, and I hear the blows of the hands slapping his 
shoulders, the sound varj-ing as the massagist strikes with flat or 
hollow palm. If a ball-player begins to play and count his throws, 
it's all up for the time being. Meanwhile there is a sudden brawl as 
a thief is caught, or there is someone in the bath who loves to hear 
the sound of his own voice, and the bathers plunge into the 
swimming-bath with loud splashing. Thc?e noises, however, are not 
without some resemblance of excuse, but the hair-plucker from time 
to time raises his shrill voice in order to attract attention, and is 
very still himself when he is forcing cries of pain from someone else 
from whose armpils he plucks the hairs. And over all the din 
you hear the cries of those who are selling cakes, sausages, and 
sweetmeats." 

It is a curious fact that the aqueduct, furnishing water not only 
to Pompeii but also to the Naples of that time, brought it from the 
mountains near Avellino, following substantially the same route 
which, since the year 1S85, has led to Naples the excellently pure 
water now enjoyed by that city and suburbs. 

Turning now to private dwellings we are informed that the 
Pompeian house can be traced for about four hundred years. The 
earlier form consisted of a single series of apartments ; a central room, 
the atrium, with smaller chambers opening into it, and a garden at 
the back. The arrangements contemplated much spending of time 
in the open air, and protection against heat, not cold, was most 
regarded. The Pomprians seemed excessively sensitive to heat, but 
bore cold with great patience. In the houses of later date and 
greater development there were usually two dining rooms, one for 
summer, the other for winter or bad weather. In many bouses the 



302 



Tiie Gentleman s Afagazhu, 



front door opened directly on the street causeway ; and where there 
were vestibules they were generally more modest than those in Rome. 
Doors were fastened with bohs, and crossbars across the wings. 
In the earliest times the hearth stood in the atrium, a hole in the 
roof serving as chimney. There the household gathered at meal- 
times; there they worked and rested from their labours. In such an 
atrium, Professor Mau reminds us, Lucretia sat with her maids 
spinning late at night, when her husband entered unexpectedly with 
his friends; and in such a room in his Sabine \'illa, Horace loved to 
dine and converse with his rustic neighbours. 

A table in the atrium, with vessels of brass, remained much 
longer in use at Pompeii than in Rome, and symbolised the more 
ancient hearth with its cooking utensils. Probably this table was 
Uial on which the dishes were washed up, for frequently a statuette, 
throwing a jet of water into a marble basin, stood in front of it. 
Wide counters or sideboards, which could be folded back^ stood 
between the pibsters. The children, even of the Imperial family, 
sat on low stools at a table of their own, placed on the open side of 
the large table, for the couches of the diners at this stood only on 
three of its sides. 

In the kitchen, fuel was kept in a hollow place under the 
masonry hearth, just as it is now in most South Italian houses. A 
baking-oven near the hearth, too small for bread, was evidently 
intended for pastry. A small hole above the hearth carried off the 
smoke of the fire, which was made on the top. 

Store-rooms were a common convenience in the Pompcian 
houses, as is seen by the traces of shelves fastened to the walls; and 
a few of the houses were provided with cellars. Wall-paintings show 
that the young girls of families were well educated, for one fresco 
represents girls writing, wliile another shows a young woman 
painting, two maidens watching her with great interest, and a 
Cupid holding the unfinished picture at which she is working. 

Most of the good houses had double doors at the entrance, one 
of which was probably set open during the day, as in houses of the 
present period. In many dwellings, the rooms not required for 
household purposes were utilised as shops or small separate resi* 
dcnces, and no doubt afforded an important source of income to the 
owner, just as now, in the old-fa.shioncd great houses of Naples, the 
ground-fioor is let out in shops or separate smalt apartments in the 
interior of the courtyard. 

Generally the rich inliabitants of Pompeii possessed farmhouses 
in the neighbourhood, a suite of rooms over tlie domestic apartments 
of the tenants being reserved for the use of the owner. 



Odds and Ends in Pompeiu 



303 



Not o!ic bed ha* been found in the s!ecping-rooms of Pompeii, 
for, as they were usually made of wood, they have crumbled away ; 
and in only one of all the dining-rooms were sufficient remains of 
; the couches found to reconstruct them in the models now in the 
[ifaplcs Museum. A curious proof that many children in Pompeii 
I vnere brought up by hand, is the fact that feeding-bottles (often mis- 
taken for lamps) made of tena-cotta, were found, on which the 
figure of a thriving child is seen, or that of a mother suckling an 
infant. 

Professor Mau gives his readers a splendid idea of the beauty of 
ft Pompeian house on entering it : "As one stepped across the 
mosaic border at the end of the faucts (or corridor) a beautiful visla 
opened out before the eyes. From the aperture of the implunum 
a diffused light was spread through the atrium, brilliant with its rich 
colouring. At the rear, the lofty entrance of the tablinum attracted 
the visitor by its stately dignity. Now the portieres are drawn aside, 
and beyond the large window of the tablinum the columns of the 
first peristjle are seen. The shrubs and flowers of the garden arc 
bright with sunshine, and fragrant odours axe wafted through the 
house \ in the midst, a slender fountain-jet rises in the air and falls 
with a pleasant murmur to the ear. If the vegetation was not too 
luxuriant one might look into the exedra. on the farther side of the 
colonnade, and even catch glimpses of the trees and bushes in the 
garden of the second peristyle." 

It would occupy too large a space here to give an idea of the 
interesting matter in Professor Mau's book rebting to the tombs of 
Pompeii, but we may mention tliat, besides the famous "Street of 
Tombs," there were at least two cemeteries for the poor at different 
sides of the city. Notwithstanding the religious feeling of the 
ancieuts with r^aid to their dead, notices of a semi-public character 
were often painted in bright red upon the walls of tombs, and one 
ridiculous incongruity is met with in an advertisement about a stolen 
horse painted on a tomb in the outskirts of Pompeii. It runs as 
follows: "If anybody lost a mare with a small pack-saddle on 
November 35, let him come and sec Quintus Decius Ililarus (a freed 
man) on the estate of the Mamii, this side of the bridge over the 
Sarno." 

A most notable feature of Pompeii is the innumerable inscrip- 
tions, ranging from commemorative tablets put up at public expense^ 
to the scribblings on the plastered walls. 

There are more than six thousand, and they give an insight into 
the life of the city and its people unequalled in the world. The 



304 



The Gentleman's Magazine. 



most important are the election notices, of which there are about 
sLxteen hundred. In these the names of more than a hundred 
candidates appear. The recommendations arc often very simple ; 
merely the name of the candidate, with the brief addition, " a good 
man," or, " worthy of public office." One candidate is affirmed to 
be "a youth of singular modesty"; and another is recommended 
on the plea that " he will be the watch-dog of the treasur>'." 

Sometimes a recommendation is used against an office-seeker 
with telling effect : " The meek thieves request the election of Vatia as 
Kdile." 

Another notice runs : "His little sweetheart is working for the 
election of Claudius as duumvir;" which goes to prove that the 
Pompeian wonnsn were then as active perhaps as the ladies of the 
Primrose League now. 

Inscriptions relating to gladiatorial combats were of course 
plenteous, and also advertisements of lost articles, such as : "A 
copper-pot has been taken from this shop. "Whoever brings it back 
will receive 65 sesterces." 

At least one-half of the entire inscriptions are the graffits or 
scratchings, a habit accounted for by the temptation to use the 
sharp-pointed stylus on the polished stucco of the walls or pillars. 

Such scratchings are of all kinds : names, catchwords from 
poems, amatory couplets, rough sketches, such as the profile of a 
face, or a ship. Skits are frequent. An ardent Pompeian writes : 
" Down with the Nocerians ! " and an adversary, '• Good luck to the 
Nocerians ! " 

Many scratchings are greetings to friends, and one is just the 
reverse : " Sanius to Cornelius : Go, hang yourself ! " A very naive 
greeting is to a friend who has died : " Pyrrhus to his chum Chias : 
I'm sorry to hear tliat you are dead, and so, good-bye." 

The theme of love is most prominent in prose and verse, the 
latter commonly the elegiac disHeh. One scribbler gives his Opinion 
of love as follows: "He who has never been in love is no 
gentleman." 

A lover writes : " Health to you, Victoria, and wherever you are 
may you sneeze sweetly ! " Another sap : " Cestilia, Queen of the 
Pompeians, sweet soul, greeting to you I " A rejected suitor, in four 
lines of irregular verse, purposes to vent his anger on tlic goddess of 
]Love herself : " All lovers come I I purpose to break the ribs of 
Venus, and to smash the small of her back mih clubs ; if she con 
bore a hole in my tender heart, why can I not break her bead with a 
cudgd?" 



Odds and Ends in Pomptii, 



305 



Of a man-flirt is written : " Restitutus has many times deceived 
nuny girls." A swetit instance of marital and family affection is 
seen in the graffiti of a lonely wife addressed to an absent husband 
and other relations : " Hirti Psacas at all times and In all places 
sends heartiest greetings to Gaius Hortilius Conops, her husband 
and guide and gentle adviser, and to her sister Diodata, her brother 
FominatusandherCeler; and she sends a greeting to her Primigenia 
too." 

One Pompeian counts the steps as he walked up and down the 
colonnade at the side of his garden for exercise. He records 640 
paces for ten times back and forth. An advent of young pigs or 
puppies is noticed: "On October 17, Puteolana had a Utter con- 
sisting of 3 males and 2 females." 

Children scratched on the walls the alphabet they were learning, 
and quotations from Virgil and also an echo of lessons at school. 
Sometimes a maxim is found recorded, as "The smallest evil, if 
neglectedf will reach the greatest proportions." 

Many inscriptions on amphorae are found at Pompeii, generally 
with a pen in black ink, but sometimes painted in red or white. 
Wiiies were often designated by characteristic names. One brand is 
called "frenzy wine," another "white drink," a third "breakfast- 
drink " \ probably this amphorae contained a kind of mead made by 
mixing honey with wine, which was drunk at the first meat of the 
day. The words for olives, beans, meal, honey and lentils are found 
on the amphorae in which they were kept. 

A large number of vessels contained the fish-sauces of which the 
ancients were so fond, and were labelled with their names, "^erum 
blossom," a kind of fish jelly, or "tunny-jelly, blossom brand." 
'* Muria,"a favourite kind, was apparently a sort of pickle. 

I cannot close this sketch in a better manner than by quoting part 
of chapter fifty-eight, the "conclusion" of Professor Mau's beautiftii 
book, which points out the significance of the Pompeian culture : — 

" The situation of Pompeii was unfavourable to the growth of an 
indigenous culture. Founded by Samrutes, a primitive folk, it lay 
in the overlapping edges of two great zones of influence, <jreek 
and Roman. It was a small town, which never rose to the dignity 
even of a provincial capital. It was a seaport, which, through 
marine traffic, kept in touch with other cities, esp>ecially those of the 
east, from which fashions of art, religion, and life travelled easily 
westwards. . . . The literature which tliey (the Pompeians) read, as 
we team from quotations scratched upon the walls, consisted of the 
Greek and Roman writers of their own or previous peri6ds ; not a 
VOL ccxci. NO. 3049. Y 



306 



The Gentlentan*s Magazine, 



single line of an Oscan drama or poem has been found Their art 
was a ruproduclion uf designs and masterpieces produced elsewhere 
— at first under Hellenistic, later under Roman influence— on a 
scale commensurate with the limited resources of the place. 
Finally the countless appliances of everyday life, from the fixed 
furniture of the atrium to articles of toilet, were not rare and costly 
objects such as were seen in the wealthy houses of Rome or 
Alexandria, but those of the commoner sort everywhere in use. 
Any one of fifty cities might bave been overwhelmed in the place of 
Pompeii, and the results, as far as our knowledge of the ancient 
culture in its larger aspects is concerned, would not have been 
essentially diiTerent. 

"The representative rather than exceptional character of the 
remains at Pompeii make them of less or greater value, according as 
we look at them from different points of view. If we are seeking 
for the most perfect examples of ancient art, for masterpieces of the 
famous artists, we do not find them. Many of the Pompeian 
paintings appeal to modern taste ; yet it would be as unfair to 
judge of the merits of ancient painting from the specimens which 
are worked into the decorative designs of Pompeian walls, as it 
would be to base an estimate of the value of modern art upon 
chromos and wallpapers. ... No large city, fortunately for its 
inhabitants, was visited by such a disaster as that whicli befell the 
Campanian town ; and the wealth of artistic types at Pompeii bears 
witness to the universality of art in the Greco-Roman world. 

"Since these remains arc so broadly typical, they are invaluable 
for the interpretation of the civilisation of which they formed a part. 
They shed light on countless passages of Greek and Roman writers. 
Literature, however, ordinarily records only that which is exceptional 
or striking, while here we find the surroundings of life as a whole, 
tbe humblest details being presented to the eye. 

" Pompeii, as no other source outside the pages of classical 
authors, helps us to understand the ancient man." 

LILY WOI.FPSOHK. 



3p: 



AT LYME REGIS. 



PERSUASIOarS benine faannts ihny 
nunc <dd wrid p te iium , Ljme, for bm; 
I trod dij quunl tfntJlA cnl to-^iy. 
Yet KDOwn of jore ibey seen to bc^ 

I "*'*'"' the Hig^ Street^ steep uxliiK^ 

Yon ancient Inn's astir tCHtey, 
Sa WahcT Etiot^ bones fine 

And cmiide obstruct the my. 

The Inn^ awake with laoquejs grand, 
Tbe landlord waits with wckoming smile ; 

Sir Wahcr scorns th' obsequious band, 
And will not deign to staj awhfle. 

Fair &ces watch, from latticed pane, 

The curricle remount the hill, 
But Aiuie lodis seaward, and doth chain 

To her sweet self my wandering will. 

Now in the street her pensive shade 
With Captain Wentworth flitteth by ; 

Though fair Louisa, wilful maid, 
Contrives to charm his sailor's eye. 

A youth in mourning follows slow, 
With downcast look and absent mind ; 

I smile at Benwick's crushing woe, 
Swift consolation he shall find. 

Of ancient make their gay attire, 
The men's high stocks, the ladies' curli ; 

But youth with wonted life and fire 
His flag o'er lip and cheek unfurls. 




They heed me not, for what am I ? 

A shadow vaguu of years to come ; 
To the new Cobb they laughing fly. 

While I must follow, wistful, dumb. 

They jesting climb the Cobb's steep side, 

Louisa, ripe for girlish freak, 
I dread the ill that must betide, 

AVould warn them bade, but cannot speak. 

Again I haunt the quaint old street ; 

A figure slight, with hazel eyes. 
Steps lightly, — no man turns to greet 

Our witty Jane, or " Welcome " cries, 

Romantic maids, or wits of Lyme 
Who find belles-lettrti a constant lure. 

Would never deign lo turn a rhyme. 
To this fair guest, with eyes demure. 

Yet hath she made Lyme Regis town 
For many a modem pilgrim famed. 

Through fair " Persuasion's*^ just renown, 
Her English classic, aptly named. 

On Cobb, in street, Jane's U>'ing face 
Seems still to smile, nor men forget 

Her sweet Anne Eliot's pensive smile, 
Whose fancied haunts allure us yet 

MAUDE PROWER. 







309 



TABLE TALK, 



Modern Corruption op Language. 

I DARE not attempt fully to ilhiatrate my quarrel with modem 
corruptions of language. There are a few men 1 know who 
would bring everything to the standard of convenience, and would 
seriously commend the ase of a language such as Volapiilc. For 
them I do not write. The climax of ignorance Is surely reached 
when we find a society describing itself on its formation as 
Ornithological, and announcing its purpose as being to improve the 
breed of dogs t^that of bad taste is approached when men write that 
" it goes without saying," as is daily done. A mistake which dates 
from early days is to be found in some old writers of established repu- 
tation, and is constantly employed by men who should know better, 
in using the phrase " from whence." " Whence," of course, involves 
the " from." If a man does not see the absurdity of such a phrase, I 
can only counsel him to extend his heresy, and try the effect of " to 
thither " — one utterance being as defensible as the other. These are, 
[ adroit, ca.ses of grave mistake. To deal with lighter matters: 
Why should men now talk of " bye-paths " ? What signification do 
they attach to these ? " Bye " has in England no justifiable existence 
except in the salutation, "Goodbye." A "bye" at cricket even is 
not defensible. It is a meritorious act on the part of our London 
County Council to shame our Parliament and our railway companies 
by substituting by-law for bye-law. On some of these points I liave 
previously dwelt But nothing can be done with the public until a 
thing ts hammered into its head. In this case we need the 
" damnable iteration " with which FaEstafT rebuked Prince Hal. In 
the volume of Daniel, from which I have recently quoted, bypath 
is, of course, correctly spelt. By-paths, by-gone, and by-words are 
all rightly spelt in Shakespeare. 

Current Errors. 



T will perhaps be regarded as pedantic to ask people to substitute 



• tiro " for " tyro," yet they ought so to do. *' Tiro " is in the 



Latin a recruit, or young soldier. Still more hopeless is It to ask 





3IO 



The GeniUmans Magazine. 



them to write "rime " instead of " rhyme/' the latter mistake being, 
as it seems, deftnttely established in the language. Yet all philo- 
logists know " rhyme " to be founded on a mistaken association with 
** rhythm." I turn to " rime," in the first popular dictiooiry which 
is accessible, the *' Student's English Dictionary," by Ogilvie and 
Annandale, and find under " rime " the explanation, " The more 
correct spelling of rhyme." Daniel, whom I have before quoted, 
writes "ryme." The first use of the word by Shakespeare is in 
" Two Gentlemen of Verona." Here, in the supposedly authoritative 
edition of Wright and Clark, " The Cambridge Shakespeare," I find 

Some lore of yoais hath writ lo you in rhyme, 

accompanied by no comments. In the First Folio the word is spelt 
"rime," a fact the editors complacently ignore. In every other 
case in which I have consulted the fir^t folio it reads " rime," and 
the modern editor substitutes " rhyme." Milton, in the first edition 
of " Paradise Lost," has 

Things unattenipicd yet in Prose or Rhime, 

which I may incidentally mention is a translation or paraphrase of 

Arioslo's 

Cosa noa delta in prosa mai ai In rima. 

Where the best scholars fail in reforming a heresy I, of course, 
despair of success, and the matter is not, after all, of supreme impor- 
tance. " Rhodomontade " is a simitar mistake which is of frequent 
occurrence. The real form is, of course, " Rodomontade," being 
descriptive of the vapourings of Rodomonte, a brave but boastful 
leader of the Saracens in the " Orlando Furioso." Who, in this 
case, first brought in the superftuous " h " I know not It can 
scarcely be due to some confused association with Rhodes or 
Rhododendron. I may mention again, as a curious instance of the 
misquotation now almost universal, that HazHtt, in Bohn's edition of 
his works, is made lo speak of '* Primroses that come before the 
swallow dares," instead of " daffodils " in one of the best-known 
passages in Shakespeare. 



St.\lk Quotations. 

ONE of the results of the general dissemination of half-know- 
ledge is thai the scholar should be provided with, or should 
himself provide, an almost entire stock of new quotations. Manj of 



Tabk Talk. 



3»i 



our most fiuniliar quotations, in spite of their beftuty and appropriate- 
ness, are woro threadbare, and there is an inexhaustible supply in 
the mines that ha?e already been quarried. One might surely be 
supposed to have heard by now the last of the statement that the 
English "take their pleasures sadly," fathered on Froissart, but not 
to be found in that writer. People should for very shame cease to 
misapply cut botv, the meaning of which is quite different from that 
ordinarily assigned it, and "of that Uk," which is wrong nine times 
out often when used. I would fein, however, stop quotations of great 
beauty when they have become vulgarised. Surely 

A thing of bcftuty Is a joy for ever 

has been employed often enough. " Cons^picuous by his absence,** 
which few know to be practically translated from Tacitus, is scarcely 
to be regarded as a quotation. It is used ad nauseam^ but may be 
accepted as a current locution convenient in its way. Still fewer 
know that we are indebted to Tacitus for " They make a solitude and 
call it peace," and the reproach of " forsaking the setting sun and 
turning to the rising." These quotations cannot be said to have been 
%-ulgariscd. Sheridan supplies a batch of quotations that ore almost, 
but not quite, too familiar. The same may be said of Tennymn, 
though, perhaps, as regards conversation rather than writing. Few 
can say "Come into the garden" without adding "^[aud." A man 
would scarcely dare, in these later days, to draw again the picture of 
an institution 

With prudes for proctors, dowtgeis for deam, 
And sweet giil-gi&duAtes in tbeir goldea hair. 

Or repeat, except in joke, concerning a too long-winded orator — 

For men may come and men vuy go. 
But I gu on fat cvcj. 



and 



A well ■graced actor. 

Beauty when uDadomed adorned tlie most. 

Age cannot witbei her, nor cusumi iiale 
Her infiuTe variety- 



must be taken as representative of scores of things that can never be 
forgotten, but have served their purpose. I know one writer into 
whose compositions the lines concerning the teacup times of hood 
and hoop, or while the patch was worn, intrude as regularly as King 
Charles the First mtruded into Mr. Dick's Memorial — ^which last is 
itself an illustration that has done good service, and might be put 
on the retired list. 



312 



The Gentleman s Mc^azifu. 



Nbw Quotations. 

IF I do not attempt to give many new quotations, it is becauie 
such are inexhaustible. I could supply thousands as good as 
any in use and not perceptibly impoverish the stock. The 
•' Festus" of my old friend Philip James Bailey, of whose death two 
score years ago — though he is still happily alive— I recently read 
■with amazement, would alone furnish scores of sentences pithy or 
poetical, and quite worthy to take rank as gnomes. Shakespeare 
has not yet been half used. All can people Windsor with sights and 
sounds of " sweet Anne Page " j yet who ever thinks of Launce's name- 
less sister, who is " as white as a lily and as small as a wand," surely 
the very picture of sweet English maidenhood ? Beaumont and 
Fletcher are never quoted, yel I could draw theocc passages of 
tenderness and beauty unrivalled except in Shakespeare. Think, for 
instance, of the girl who, dressed as a page, has followed her lover to 
the wars, and finds his sword directed against her throat. A second 
Viola, she is willing to accept death at the hands of her lover, and 
says, encouraging him to kill her — 

Strike, 'tis not b. Ufc, 

'Us but a piece of childhood thrown away. 

I think, but am not sure, that it is Suckling who makes a lover 
declare, concerning his mistress— 

H« face L» like tlie milky vay i' the kky, 
A meeting of gealle lighu wtthoal a name— 



surely an exquisite comparison, 
inexhaustible. 



But the subject, as 1 said, is 



SVt.VANUS URBAN, 



THE 



GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE. 

October 1901. 



SOME EXPERIMENTS IVITH JANE, 



By M. A. CuRTois. 

I CAME across Jane some years ago. It was at the lime when 
experiments were being tried with her. 
A young friend of mine, who knows the ins and outs of London, 
had discovered Jane in a London lodging-house, left there as a 
legacy from many former landladies, though how she had originally 
ot there no one knew. The present landlady, who had only recently 
smc into possession, was anxious to get rid of this child of the 
premises, being ambitious, and having set up a more showy servant, 
of a smart though distinctly dubious appearance. My friend, who 
might be an eminent philanthropist if she would take her philan- 
thropy less by fits and starts, became interested in this forlorn 
Jane of uncertain age, with a white compressed face, dark eyes, and 
a mop of hair — hair which left the beholder with the perplexed 
impression not only that it nc\xr had been but that it never could 
be brushed. The landlady, who had her own ideas, was only loo 
anxious to make the best of Jane. She gave us to understand that 
though outwardly unpresentable the girl had a treasure of mora! 
worth within. "Aii would never have anything to say to the lads, 
ma^am," she asserted. "You needn't be afraid, there's no lightness 
about Jane ! " Our after-impressions did not quite bear out this 
evidence, but on the whole I still agree to it. It was not lightness 
ihat was Jane's chief characteristic, what impressed me most was an 
appalling sincerity. 

This became evident to me in the explosion that marked the 
end of the first experiment, an experiment that had begun delusively 

VOU CCXCI. HO. 20S<X Z 



J 



314 



TJi€ Gentleman s Magazine, 



with the smoothest prospect of success. My friend had an acquain- 
tance who was a seamstress in a London street, composed of small 
bouses exactly like each other, all apparently murmuring, " Poor, but 
Respectable." The seamstress in question certainly was respectable 
{by the way, she did not give the same character to the street), a 
widow of about fifty, with a grown-up son, and a house kept as neat 
as the traditional new pin. The understanding n-as that she was to 
train Jane in the ways of virtue ; while Jane, boarded by my friend's 
money, was to assist her in the housework. As for the son, he was 
a young builder, away all day, and it was to be hoped that he would 
not fall in love mth Jane. The bargain was struck — Jane did not 
seem otherwise than acquiescent — she was removed to the widow's, 
and at first all went well 

That hardly expresses it. The widow was enthusiastic. We 
heard nothing at first but the most lavish praises of Jane, so lavish 
indeed that if Mrs. Smith had not been transparently sincere we 
might have a little suspected her exactness. The girl had seemed to 
us silent, frightened, dull, a compressed creature from whom nothing 
could be extracted— perhaps, as the landlady had told us, " she was 
daft wi' gentlefolk," a race with whom possibly she had no previous 
acquaintance. When we saw her during her first days at Mrs. 
Smith's she was still silent as she had been before ; but her silence 
struck us as of a different character— it seemed now like a mute 
reception of impressions. Mrs. Smith assured us that she was 
" hintcreated in hevcrythink " ; and that her son, who was " a good- 
living young man, thought well on her ^ — a statement which she 
hastened to qualify by the news that he was keeping company with 
the daughter of a grocer. We departed after congralulaiing Jane 
on her good beliaviour, felicitations to which she gave no response 
whatever. Mrs. Smith accompanied us to the door herself, that she 
might again express her gratitude for our having provided her with 
Jane. 

And then I 

Only three da>-s later, on a Sunday afternoon, when wc were takJitg 
afternoon tea in delicious leisure, there arrived the young builder 
in such tremendous agitation that it was a long time before we could 
understand his talc That same evening wc went again to Mrs. 
Smith to condole with her on a catastrophe, 

AVhat had hapjiened ? There had been no thunder in the 
air. Jane had been good and docile at '* Meeting " on Saturday ; 
and, Sunday morning being wet, had spent il with Mrs. Smith in 
tidying every nook and corner of tlic house. £vcr^ thing was peaceful 



Some Esperimetds wiik Jmme, 315 

iftfr Ifwt ^*"'*4f*y ^"w ' ; die youpg b cil dersat witli Ins p^ic m tlie 
dean kitdien, iridic bis m ot her ttwfc hermp widift book of mnaiis 
on her kne^ fipom irindi die infmiVri to tend to her son and Jane. 
Tbey had Kaicdy obsovcd the afa c ncc of the Inter from the nxm 
when thej wete roosed \fj a tenible commntinn Clike citses and 
w3d beastly* was Mis. Smidi'seqaeanaaX and with one accad they 
nuhedapstaiis to the attic The s^fat which tibey cuc uuut eie d was 
not short of honor. 

How shall I describe it? The fuiuihu ewasall "unshed ibont* 
(I keep 00 &]lii% bade 00 His. Smith's e na e sMou s);. It was ill 
over the fioor; it was polled, broken, knocked aboot; tfte bed- 
dothesand imiue aa e s woe torn off the bed. And there in the 
midst stood Jane in a white finy, ** a grapplin' with her hands,* and 
tean rollii^ down her diedcs. The ootborst wfaidi followed was 
the first infimatp acquaintance with the inmost Jane with wiiidi her 
hosts had been faTooicd. 

" I won't stay 'ere," cried Jane " I 'ate yer 'oose. I won't be 
put upon wT yer nasty nigglin' ways. I want to be untidy and 
dirtyl" 

" An' wi' that," said Mrs. Smith, "she ups wi* the mattress an' 
beddothes, an* she 'eaps *em cm the bed, an' there she gits into 'em, 
just as she was. An' if youll believe me, ma'am, she lies there now. 
If youll j^ up an' look at 'er yoall see 'er there ! " 

My friend discreetly refused to encounter Jane, evidently suffer- 
ing from acute hysteria. She consoled Mrs. Smith, who had a weak 
b«ut and was agitated, and left her, promising to come back on the 
morrow. The next day came, but the situation bad not improved. 
Jane had remained in her disordered bed, perfectly passive, but re- 
fusing to be disturbed, and presenting nothing to view but her mop 
of hair. Mrs. Smith was excited and wailing for a policeman, that 
she might turn " the monster " from the house. In fact, as her heart 
was really subject to attacks, the position of afifairs was full of danger. 
But my friend is a lady of infinite resource, and packed Jane off to 
a new home that very day. 

"You see, dear," she told me, during a few minutes' conference 
which we held together in Mrs. Smith's front parlour, " it was perhaps 
too neat a place for the poor child, who has been kept at an unnatural 
pitch of virtue. I have an idea I " 

And though I was sceptical, the idea when revealed did not 
sound entirdy hopdess. My friend's establishment has generally a 
few odd memb^ who hold indefinite positions among the rest 
Among these ^vas a girl who had been brought up from the country 

za 



3i6 



The Genikman^s Magazine. 



to be trained, and was returning to her home before proceeding to a 
"place," The said home was a lonely cottage in the midst of fields, 
tenanted by a laige family, at once disorderly and respectable. The 
mother would be glad of a "help," and it seemed Hkely that Ja tie 
would be permitted (with limits) to be both dirty and untidy. 
Besides, the country allows many opportunities — it is always possible 
there to retire into a lane and make mud-pies. So Jane was in- 
formed by Mrs. Smith of her new prospects, and preparations for her 
departure were set on foot at once. 

Of course my friend interviewed her before she went, and told 
her that she was a wicked girl, to whom a last chance was being 
given. Jane received this news with her usual silent manner, as if 
she had entirely withdrawn into herself. But to Mrs. Smith, who 
followed up the exhortation with many remarks of a much more 
graphic nature, she wore a different countenance — one of white-faced 
silent injury, as of one who has been /;// upon till she can endure 
no more. I have no doubt this was really her view of the position. 
She went off with her bundle, and we saw no more of her. But we 
felt with misgivings that we had not heard the last of Jane. 



Nor had we, indeed, although some months elapsed before we 
were favoured witli any further news. AVe had separated, had each 
been in various places, and were at length in the autumn again 
together and in Ix)ndon. One evening, when our husbands were 
away and we were alone, we were told that " a poor woman " wished 
to see my friend. This visitor proved to be the Mrs. Ronald who 
had undertaken the second experiment with Jane. 

I remember that in the interval which elapsed before she appeared 
we looked at each other with foreboding in our faces, wondering with- 
out words what the news would be. When Mrs. Ronald entered 
with care written on her brow we realised that the news would not 
be good. She came in, so rural in her country shawl and bonnet 
that she seemed to bring with her the autumn stubble-fields. Stand- 
ing before us, she at once entered on complaint. " She did not 
know if she could do with Jane — Jane was so ///*fA." 

So high ! We remembered that Mrs. Smith had said, "Jane was 
the lowest creature as she ever see " ; and although accustomed to 
experiences we found our breath taken by this difference of position. 
But when Mra. Ronald was seated, and bad been revived with coffee, 
the details she gave went far to confirm her statement. It appeared 
that we had only imperfectly realised tlie amazing versatility of Jane. 
"When she first come," said Mrs. Ronald, " ahe was quiet-like, 



S»mt Escperummis wiik J^ 



^^7 



and seaned to be fwrndfim' . * (We ii ■! ■■Imid ifart fflndki eu ) 
"Bac nowsiie'ic began to t^ sfae tsSs cmyut what* i tH fe n.nn! 

bcTc be betwzx' l.annnn an* t* comilzT. She tdfcs oT aodHf faoK . 

in, Smitb, an* of bcr «aj% an' of parties, aa^ Haac-^dta^ wf thit 

sort o' tfainf;. Bat 1 doo^ saf die's not a good girl, for dkc t^s as 

:thatMfs.Smkfaalia}i«attto Meedn'an'faadsnTcn. Sbe 

t sucn a ntss m tt tliat vcrfe wyui to bbvb pn^os v BBJgblL 

An' sbe says sbe wooldnt atty if it wasn't for the duces in the 

winter, an' that sbeH go to 'cm in white imwhriing an' bbe 

Inbboos.- 

Herc was amfiisioo ! My friend immediately e v c J Tc d that innate 
depravity was begi nni ng to appear in Jane. I tbot^fat dificrcntly 
(we had long ago decided that she was to be pr a ft i ralj and I psydio- 
logical). It iras crident, indeed, to me tbat this child of London 
followed her impulses ss sunply as a saiage or an animal ; but I saw 
no proof of any worse depravi^tban ibeonaccotmtable perrerseness 
of a child. A wish rose in mc to see ber at the Tillage dances, in 
the company of the young beker who admired her ; and it so 
h:^ipened that this careless thought was able to bring about its own 
futnlmenL For I mentioned it to my friend, it excited her curiosity, 
and sbe arranged that at Christmas we should go down into the 
country. 

We were in sore trouble that winter, both of us, and I think that 
made my impressions all the sharper \ though it left my friend, 
whose perplexities were deeper, in a despondency that allowed little 
observation. Anyway, I have no \ision clearer cut ilun tliat of the 
village schoolroom on the night of the Christmas dance — seen again 
by mc after many years of absence, during which I had known little 
of English villages. I can sec it now — the bare rooms with their 
Qnre of gas, the garlands of tissue roses, the big fires, the village 
fiddlers, the jovial assembly— and Jane in the midst of it, obviously 
on the brink of a third experiment. Sbe was not in "white 
mushcling " (probably for want of funds) ; she was in the Sunday dress 
that .Mrs. Smith had made, bare, black, unomnmcntcd, and already 
a good deal worn, but she had tied her hair with a blue ribbon. 
With surprise I saw that she was not unattraclii-e ; she was older, 
and her slight figure had gained a certain clfgance, though her 
white compressed face, dark eyes, and mop of hair were as much Jane 
as they had ever been. The young village baker fluttered round her 
with attentions ; so did others of the swains, but she was distinctly 
high with them, though her manner was that of imiiaticnco rather 
than of principle, as if she had no fancy for promiscuoui courtship* 



3i8 



The Gentleman's Magazine* 



She greeted my friend and myself with a shy grace, which seemed (o 
speak confidence and gratitude. We were interested . . . but we 
had no time to pursue impressions, for the next day, on sudden 
summons, we left the village. We parted ; the waves of a great 
trouble closed upon mc, and for a long time I thought no more ot 
Jane, 

Then I heard the rest. Not long after the Christmas dance Jane 
had become the wife of the village baker ; and for a time was a most 
submissive helpmate, "as if she were taking things in,'* said my 
informant The hapless baker could have had no previous know- 
ledge of the way of Jane in each experiment of life — that is, of 
receptivity followed by revolt. Consequently, when the latter came 
it found him unprepared— a quiet man, mildly jocular with customers, 
unprovided with weapons for impromptu warfare. His Jane developed 
wilful to a quite extraordinary extent, neglected duties, was in and 
out of the house all day ; and though she was never, said my infor- 
mant, " either extravagant or bad" was as impish, and contrary, and 
capricious as a child. The quiet baker had his own means of resent- 
ment ; if he could not control Jane he could treat her with severity. 
There came a night when she fled out weeping into the village, 
and found compassionate people to pity her and take her in. She 
seemed quiet and sad, and they respected her as a martyr— while the 
baker returned without regret to single life. 

Here, then, the story might have ended for a time, but an un- 
expected development occurred. Before the protectors of Jane had 
found reason to change their tune, an event happened which upset 
all calculations. News arrived that the baker was dangerously ill, 
and Jane at once flew back to her husband's home, where she nursed 
him during his brief sickness with agonised devoUon. He seems to 
have been sensible of this affection, but was too ill to alter the will 
that he had made in his first anger — a will which left all he owned 
absolutely to his mother. The old lady, who only knew this after 
bis death, was not disposed to be ungenerous ; but Jane, never mer- 
cenary, refused to touch a penny. As a reward for this unselfishness, 
and for her devoted nursing, her mother<in-law took her back to her 
own home in the nearest town. 

i should like to have known more of this mother of Jane's 
husband, for she seems to have been a remarkable old woman— not 
least proved so by the capacity she showed for understanding and 
dealing with her daughter- in -law. She appears to have realised that 
during a period of grief Jane would be everything that was tractable 
and submissive, but that with reviving energy &l]c would again becoma 



Some Experiments with Jane. 



319 



impossible ; that the simplest course, therefore, was to get her manied 
as soon as might be. The young foundrynien had begun to flutter 
about Jane even in these days of eariy widowhood ; but I fancy that 
the astute old mother-in-law had no sort of wish to have her daughter 
established near her — near enough to be sought whenever Jane 
required a refuge. Circumstances were favourable. A travelling 
circus came to the town to spend the spring, and Jane was intio- 
duced by a friend to the manager. He admired her exceedingly ; 
before the spring was over they were married, and in the early 
summer they left the place. The old lady assisted the whole business 
generously, and parted from Jane — probably with great relief. 

So closed the talc. It must be owned that I shook my head. 
I fancied that Jane had in her only too much of the caravan. I 
told myself— not without some relief on my own part— that I was 
not likely to hear of her again. But in that head-shake there "v^ 
ignorance and prejudice. The course of time was to make this 
clear to me. Once more— thJs time in an unexpected interview — I 
had an opportunity of observing the development of Jane. 

That was two years later, on an autumn evening, when I sat 
alone in lodgings in a provincial town, musing on many things, to 
which the unfamiliar room, my temporary resting-place, gave a 
setting of its own. Among other pieces of information provided 
by the servant, I had been told that there was a circus in the town, 
but nothing in me responded 10 the news. Even the subsequent 
announcement that a young woman wished to see me was not 
enough to recall an old acquaintance. The young woman, how- 
ever, after entering modestly, stood still in the midst of the room, 
and announced herself. 

" Please, ma'am, I'm Jane." 

1 sprang forward immediately. Here then once more was the 
result of experiments. 

In what had they resulted ? When I was sufficiently composed 
to be able to take stock of my visitor I became aware of alteration, 
though there was not enough to dispel the sense of a familiar 
presence, Jane was slight, while-faced, dark-eyed as of old ; and 
on the whole quietly dressed, though she bad now a professional 
appearance— and moreover the look of a professional on tour, the 
indefinable aspect of the unstationary. The skirt of her dress wag 
of some simple dark stulT and untrimmed, but her jacket, though 
also dark, had some gold twist on it, and her mop had developed 
into a formidable hang beneath a black straw bonnet with red roses 
under its brim. I mention these details because they produced the 





Tk^ Geniiefnan's Magazine* 

pression— a desire for soberness softened by adoramenl. 

,er was charming, simple, modeslj confident, with a more 

lour than of oM. As if I had been her teacher, she was 

assure me that she had in nd wise forg^otten old 

jsban' is a good man^ ma^anii he really is \ and I goes to 
en we stay over Sunday. And I speak to the others, and 
lot to be pigs an^ 'eathen, or they'll get caught up sharp 
i day. I allays say my prayers^ you may bet I do t An' 
nt to leave my 'usban* now the litlle baby's come." 

own that the last sentence was somewhat staggering to 
lad been rejoicing in Jane's simple piety. But on reflec- 
isidered that its honesty lent weight to the other sUte- 

had made. Whatever may be thought of her phraseolog)', 
>f the lodging-house at least was candid. 
e add that my inquiries (for 1 did make inquiries) resulted 
ling good impressions. I was told that Jane's husband 
;hy man, though with a temper somewhat worn by profes- 
tion j that he was satisfied with the dignity of his wife 
:ie boys," and altogether fond of Jans and proud of her. 
1 once been between them a time of "awkwardness"; 



_^II 



MOUND-MAKING BIRDS. 



AMONG the cnrioos snd icmzdoUe bets of bird Ii£e nooe 
probably aic more stzikii^ and Mqgg e uit e duo those ooo- 
nccted with the inognd-bondffn of Anslnlia, and of the Ifnlnrra^ 
Nicobor, and some other places. Mr. Gould in lus great woii: on 
the "Birdsof Anstxafia*hasgTTenafii0andinostintere9tii^accoant 
of die Ldpoa oerHnttt, the srinirifir name of one species of these 
roound-bml£ng birds there. The mocmd-bDildit^ ii^ of course, a 
sabstitnte for nest-biuldii% — so great and radical a cfaai^ that only 
great and ladical cbaz^es in conditioo and drcumstances could in any 
m^ aixount for it Lapoa o all a t a^ at immeose labour and pains, 
manages to scratdi together a vast mound composed of mould, dust, 
and vegetable matter, till it is yards square. Into the Tcry middle 
of this, at an exact and unifonn depth, the bird deposits ber ^gs^ 
sometimes four, sometime wxxt, and lays them at set distances from 
each other, as though they were the outside ends of the spokes of a 
wheeL Having deposited the eggs, the parent takes no further 
trouble about them ; and, Then hatched, the young ones, unaided, 
push their way through the mass till they find themselves free. Some 
say that the parents seek for them then and tend and feed them, but 
others say not 

Mr. Gould has given full descriptions of these birds and their 
habits, both in his text (v. 78) and in the introduction to his "Birds 
of Australia" (page buiii), where drawings of the mound-nest are also 
presented — one of them, a nest in section, showing the exact position 
of the eggs. He tells us that the shells of the eggs of the Leipoa 
oceUata are so very fine and brittle that they can scarcely be touched 
without their breaking— that certainly they cannot be handled freely 
—and that very probably, if they had continued to be brooded, the 
species would have so suffered that ultimate extinction would have 
resulted through this breaking of eggs. But it is very easy in such 
cases to mistake an effect for a cause— it may just as well be that the 
eggs have become so very fine and brittle because of the long- 



$22 



The Gentiemans Magazine* 



continued habit of hatching them by heat of decaying v^etable 
rnaitcr as anjrthing else. Anyway, they could not well be brooded 
now, for it is essential that in this process the eggs must by the 
sitting bird be frequently turned o\*er, so tha.t ihey may get at all 
parts as near as may be equal heat from her body, and this these ^gs 
could not stand. TIic bird, again, takes care not lo put the eggs 
close together as in a nest, for a good reason, because if they were so 
they would not receive full heat at the surfaces where they touched 
each other; therefore they are put invariably at certain equal dis- 
tances apart They are, in fact, as said already, placed as at the ends 

of spokes of a wheel— thus, if there are four, ■ I • ; if there are eight, 

^^ , If instinct alone tanght this at first to a bird that had hitherto 

been nest-building, then that is what Mr. Darwin would have called 
a "strange," a "surprising," even a " wonderful " instinct. In the 
mound the heat is equalised all over the needful area, or reaches a 
very near approach to this, through the adult bird in building distri- 
buting equally in it the v^ctablc matter ; so that, in short, you have 
this two-sided problem : either (i) of eggs too brittle for brooding 
and exposure in an open nest, or (2) eggs having become so because 
for ages the birds have exposed them to the mound heat instead of 
brooding them — which is it ? It is quite clear, on the face of it, 
Ihat these birds could not originally have been mound-builders — 
that their mound-building is itself a proof of a process of dtffercntia- 
tion, which has not even yet exhausted the marks that must be made 
upon them. If wc see in the coot that, because of more lengthened 
habit in water than has been the case of the water-hen, it has got per- 
'Ceptibly more webbed feet than its congener, then we may be certain 
that the same powers which have, because of due reasons or causes, 
produced the marginal webbing of the coot's feet, growing broader of 
course with time, will come in play if we wait long enough, and the 
same process will make itself evident in the watcrben also. 



II. 

The point is yet more decisively forced upon us if we extend ooir 
suncy, and include a comparison of these Lcipoa oceUata with other 
mound-building birds in Australia and elsewhere claiscd as 
Af<g>ipodh\ which, if they do not exhibit some of the nice disccm- 
ments and exquisite arts of the oceUata in certain respects, yet build 



Mimmd'Makimg Birds, 



323 



mounds and shav mere noticeably still the mslced and 
effects of persistent habit on stiuctnre ; far tbesr mode of 
'throwing dust, eai^ and lesres into a heap by the action of the feeC 
from behind— that is, by the bead of the bud turned from the potnt 
at which it aims at throwto^ the i«at«^aU — has so der eto ped the 
land muscles of the Ccet that theieDcnbcts in all tbegnx^aie 
atively large. The task in some cases is an immeikse ocke, and moat 
occupy a long time. Mi. Saville Kent ^xaks of AoBtnlian mound- 
its as much as fifteen feet hi^andsa^ feet ia iPii i iiii fL intfr.aiMi 
• gives a very striking diawii^ of ooe.' 
The Mtffapodius twwuthis — or, in tbe ofdioaxy language of the 
colonists, jangle fowl— was first carefully obscrred by Gilbert, who 
could not for a time bclicre that birds could be hatched in a vast heap 
VtS earth and fermenting Tegetable matter twenty feet in circum* 
'ference at the base, and at least fire Ceet in height in the centre ; this 
the more thai, in his idea, the heap veiy often could receive little or 
I beat from tbe sun, it " being so eovel<^)ed in thick foliage and 
; as to preclude the possibility of the sun's rays reaching iL" 
The eggs, be was told, were deposited at niglit and a/ inUroah of 
Stviral days. 

Mr. Gilbert tells that even after be had tried to malce obser- 
vations at one place he was still sceptical about what be had 
been lold till he went to Knockers' Bay, and near it found ample 
'opportunities of verifying the reports. When he went there, he saj-s i 
" I was still sceptical as to the probability of these young birds 
ascending from so great a depth, as the natives represented, and my 
suspicions seemed to be confirmed by my being unable to induce 
the native in this instance to search for the eggs, bis excuse being 
that it would be of no use as he saw no traces of the old birds having 
been recently there." But be himself mounted the heap ; and after 
some search and scratching off of the earth, *' 1 found a young bird 
in a hole about two feet deep," and this encouraged him to search 
and observe further, with the result that all he had been told by the 
natives was fully confirmed. Two ^gs were at another tumulus 
taken from a deptli of six feet, and this, in connection with the fact 
of finding a young bird within two feet of the top, suggested the 
idea of the steps or stages in the ascent upwards out of the heap as ^ 
mentioned above. "Tbe composition of the mound," he saya^' 
"appears to influence the colouring of a ihin epidermis with which 
the shells are covered and which readily chips off, the shells really 
being a pure white; those deposited in black soil arc always of Jt 
* Halmraiist in AuUrQlia^ p. 97. 



324 



The Gentleman s Magazine, 



dark reddish brown ; those from the sandy hilloclcs near the beach 
ore of a dirty ycMowish white ; they differ a good deal in size, but in 
form all assimilate, both ends btiing equal. They are three inches 
and five lines long by two inches and three lines broad." 

The form of the eggs thus entirely differs from those ot Lfipoa 
oce/hta^ which are thin at one end, and this end uniformly placed 
downwards in the heap. 

Several of the megapods of Australia favour the sea-coast and 
the ranges lying near to it {as wc shall sec do Me^apodius \Vaiia(d 
in Gilolo, Ternate, and Bouru), whereas tlie Leipoa oceUata are 
inbnd in West Australia, South Australia, and tlie western parts of 
New South ^Valcs, the teipoa being notably dispersed over all parts 
of the Murray Scrub, in South Australia. Broinowskt writes, evidently 
giving results of later closer obser\'ations : 

" When the eggs are about to be laid the vegetable matter is 
thrown in, the eggs are placed in a vertical position with the small 
end downwards, and. again differing from the megapods, invariably 
in a circle, with about three inches between each. . . . Eight eggs 
have been found in one nest, but the natives state that sometimes 
more than that number arc deposited." Sir G. Grey was of 
opinion that sometimes two circles of eggs were laid on different 
levels, and as to temperature of ihe heaps he wrote : " The tempera- 
ture of the nests I have examined has alwa)*s been warm ; not so 
much so, however, as I should have thought necessary for batching 
eggs." 

We are told by one good authority that the mound of Leipoa 
octUata resembles a big ant-heap ; and that there indeed ants are 
generally very numerous, as in an ant hill— a guess being hazarded 
that they are a very attractive morsel for the young birds when they 
hatch— the small creatures, though completely fledged, making their 
way out of the heap— some feet in depth— not at one big effort, but 
by steps and stages, with rests between where they need nourish- 
ment and find it largely in the ants and ants' eggs. 

Sir George Grey thus wrote to Mr. Gould about the mound birds 
he had observed in Australia : 

"There is only one male and one female to each mound ; thejr 
repair an old mound, and do not build a new one; both assist in 
Bcratching the sand to the nest The female commences laying 
about the beginning of September, or when the spear grass begins 
to shoot. Both sexes approach the nest together when the female 
is about to lay, and they take an equal sliare in the labour of cover- 
ing and uncovering the mound. . . . From the commcnccmcf»t of 



Mound-Making Birds, 



325 



building until the last e^s are batched four moons elftpse [this 
would give a very long period of time before the eggs were hatched]. 
The young one scratches its way out alone, the motlier does not 
assist it. . . . l*he mother, who is feeding in the scrub in the 
vicinity, hears it call and runs to it She then takes care of the 
young one as a European hen does of its chicks. When the young 
arc all hatched the mother is accompanied by eight or ten young ones, 
who remain with her till they are more than half grown. The male 
bird does not accompany them." ^ 

Sir George Grey thus further described the Leipoa oceUata ; 

" The eyes of the living bird are of bright, light hazel ; its Itgs 
and feet dark brown ; while the bare parts of the head and face arc 
<tf a very delicate and clear blue. The gizzard is very bugc and 
muscular, the inner coats peculiarly horny and hard. Its food 
consists chiefly of insects such as Fhaimidit and a species of Cim<x\ 
it also feeds on the seeds of various shrubs. ... It possesses tlie 
power of running with extraordinary rapidity ; it roosts at night on 
trees, and never flies if it can axoid so doing.' 

The brush turkey (7'a//r^a/(W Latkami) is classed among the true 
megapods— a large gregarious, rasorial bird about the size of a 
turkey, black and brown above and silvery helow. One mark of all 
the mt^apods, as said already, is their relatively laige feet, with the 
toes on a level as in the American curassows, which latter indeed 
the megapods represent in Australia. The birds inhabit brush and 
scrub, and some of them favour the beaches near to the sea-cooiL 
Some are only about the size of common fowl and are of sombre 
colour. 

As we write, wc read that large supplies of brush turkeys of 
Australia are now in London and other large English towns, and are 
to be seen hanging at poulterers' windows. The Sunday TeUgraph 
of .^pril 30, 1899, on this cried out ; " What a fantasy of strange, 
novel commerce it is that this antipodean poultry of the scrub 
should be captured by Queensland blacks, iced by Brisbane Germans, 
and shipped over by Sydney and Melbourne merchants, to make a 
stew or ragoflt in Piccadilly or Pimlico ! " But the natural history 
of the Sunday Telegraph writer was less exact than his (acts, for be 
spoke as though the brush turkey made its mound completely of 
vegetation, whereas, as wc shall sec, the important fact is the pro- 
portion of vegetation that is year by year let in among the sand and 
rubbish at the exact point and depth for giving the due amount of 
heat for incubation \ 



• Gould's HamtMk, ti. 165. 



> /M£ ii. 160. 



326 



TIte Gentleman's MagazUte. 



The "New Ccnmry Dictionary" has this: "Scrub-lurkcy, a 
Migapod or mound bird (see Megapod), and quotes this from a well- 
known author as instance: " Look at this immense mound, a scrub- 
turkeys nest, thirty or forty lay their eggs in it." 

We are told that J/c^/Of//«i comprises all the Afe^afioiiina except 
Jxipoa ocellaia. This is given as commonly named the Mallee-hen — 
native pheasant of Australia. IMpoa ouUata, the same as raallcc- 
bird. Professor Alfred Newton is given as authority for this entry ; 
" Mallce-hcn (or bird) : Leipoa ocellata^ a bird of the family Afega- 
podida (see Leipoa). Also called native pheasant by English in 
Australia," 



IIL 



What is somewhat surprising is that while one authority tells us 
that the Leipoa otdiata belongs to the Megapodida^ another says in 
effect that, though it really is a megapod, it is excepted Gear it is 
that some confusion must exist somewhere, for while the Ldpoa 
cceliatii^ described both by Gould (quoting from Sir George Grey) 
and Broinowski, is classified as a pure mound-builder— in some 
respects a truer and more systematic niound-builder than any other — 
yet it does differ materially from the other megapods, so far as we 
can learn, in the form of its eggs, its systematic way of placing them 
in the heap, thin end downwards, and in other points. Still more 
important and still more confusing, we find that the Mallee-hens, \-ery 
carefully described by the Hon. D. W. Carnegie in *' Spinifex and 
Sai»d," are classed &i Leipoa oceiiala, uith no proper record anywhere 
else that we know of their most distinguishing peculiarities. The 
Mallec-hens* nests are thus described by Mr. Camcgte : 

" These nests arc hollowed out in the sand to a depth of perhaps 
two and a half feet, conical sliapcd, with a mouth some ^ihree feet 
in diameter; the sand from the centre is scraped up into'a ring round 
ihc mouth. Several birds help in this operation, and when finished 
lay their eggs on a layer of leaves at the bottom ; they then filfin the 
hole to tlie surface with small twigs and more leaves. Presumably 
the eggs arc hatched by .ipontanoous henl, the green [twigs and 
IcavLS producing a slightly moist warmth, similar to tliatjof the bird's 
feathers. I have seen numbers of these nesl^ never with eggs in, 
but often with the shells from recently-hatched , birds lying obout, 
How the little ones force their way through the sticks I do not 




I 



I 



Mound- Making Birds, 



237 



understand, bat Warri (a native) and many others who have found 
the eggs assure me that ihey do sa" * 

In reply to a letter of mine asking more particularly about the 
habits of these birds, Mr. Carnegie was so kind as to write : 

" I never saw but one mallee-hen, they are extremely shy. Their 
ncsls aic frequently met with (usually old ones) in the interior, 
cither ID nutlec or mulga {Acacia arteura) scrub, and always take this 
form; 



fe 



*m4*a, 




yr//hr 



have no-er seen the inside material reach a higher level than 
the top of the ring of sand which, scraped from inside, surrounds 
the mouth of the hollow (the nest), yet in describing the habits of 
the mound birds (as distinct from the brush turkey of Queensland, 
&c) Lydckker says they make a pyramid- shaped heap of vegetation, 
sticks, &c, sometimes equal to several cardoads. Can there be 
cmoiher species of mound bird in Western Australia which has been 
wrongly called Lctpoa (KeUata ? " 

And assuredly, so far as 1 can sec, Mr. Carnegie's query is not 
without warrant The birds described by Gould, Broinowski, and 
others under the scientific name of Leipoa ocdhta are in habit, 
particularly of nesting wholly different from these Mallec-fowls or 
•' native pheasants " of the central desert of Western Australia. Some 
distinguishing or differentiating term for cleamp5s is most distinctly 
wanted to tell us at once whether the birds described as pure mound- 
builders by Gould and Broinowski arc meant, or the hole-digging, 
collcclive-laying or nesting birds of the desert, so well described by 
Mr.Camegie. In the caseof most of the Australian mound-builders, 
only one pair of birds use the mound, but with regard to one variety 
there is doubt; in some cases, it is clear that they arc thus far 
collective also. The Mallee-bcns, it would appear, are uniformly 
collective. 

And in another letter, in reply to one of mine, Mr. Carnegie says : 

'* There seems certainly some confusion about the mound birds and 

the Zfx/Jtw— possibly the Leipoa of the interior, being unable to get 

together sufficient v^etation for its 'incubator,* has perforce to 

' Spimiftx and Sami, p. iSi. 



328 



The Gentleman s Magazine* 



make use of the sand. You sec, having only once seen the bird (I 
could not now describe it), and never having found a nest with eggs 
I am unable to say much with authority." 

Good friends of mine, Mr. and Mrs. Peggs, have kindly sent me 
a copy of the "Guide to the Museum of Western Australia" at 
Perth, and there I find the Mallee-fowt (native pheasant or gnou) 
put down as the only " Lcipoa ocellata (Old.)," and only representa- 
tive of the sub-order, PcrisUro^oties of the order GalUn.t, with these 
remarks : 

'• One of the mound -building birds, A number of ihem associate 
and scmtcb out a hollow in the ground from six to eight inches deep 
and two feet across. They then collect leaves and other vegetable 
matter, in which they lay eggs ; they next cover with sand, making 
a mound from two to four feet high and about twelve feet in diameter. 
The; heat arising from the decomposition of the deca}-ing v^etable 
matter is sufficient to hatch the eggs. The young are born fledged 
and able to take care of themselves." 

From this account it is clear that these Mallee-hens of Western 
Australia both dig a hole in the sand and raise a mound and are 
collective. In some cases, however, as described by Mr. Carnegie, 
the birds in the desert, having but little vegetation to fill up the hole, 
do not have material to raise a mound, or scarcely a perceptible one. 

"The Guide to Western Australian Museum" (p. 17) says: 
" There is a vast field for observers who take a delight in natural 
history to note the life-history of its remarkable fauna. With regard 
to the birds, for instance, accurate information is required as to their 
breeding time, their nests, the number of broods reared during the 
season, their food, if and when the>* migrate, &c." 

And to this list should now be added observation and classifica- 
tion of the mound builders {Leipoa oaUaia) and their peculiar 
habits — whether hole-digging, or truly mound building, or something, 
realty between the two \ and whether they are solitary in pairs in the 
mounds or collective. It is clear that there are birds classed under 
the common desii;nalIon of Leipoa Oiellata which come properly 
under each of llicse habits or tendencies — observation, distinction, 
and classification are therefore greatly needed. 

These Mallee-hens are thus on tlie same footing as the variety m 
the Malay Archipelago, which dig holes and nest in them, and pro- 
bably from the same cause, though we are not so systematically told 
about the collective habit in that case. 

I am convinced that birds can judge the exact amount of heat 
necessary to ensure incubation ; that our own dabchick owes a good 





Motad-MmiiMg Birds. 329 

deal of itf freedom fioa aktHig dan 

deoon n wiug vepetiUe Mtia ctf 

withirtudi alio die C8p are o6ai< 

nests uuoogb **'^*iV"* or * 

will sic but linle in Ae 

will show not > Bute in t mriuu and nrfer oaca a» 1 

bodies the joong XmdoL, wfaea tkcy can^ fr^oM iIk icsce aanfs ays. 

Oneproofof wlMtweha»e«idistobefoaEadi» AecwBMiBrsrang 

Gilbert White; and anoChcr oettooifB :ke fciSovxsf: 

" Andrew Kni^ tdb of a binl wak^ sanagbc^tSier 9SSC span 
a foidng-faoate; ceased to viot it dzm; the d^, v^ea &e seae cf 
the hoose was soffioent to i a uilaae t&e ggp^ bwc aiwyt geaoRsed lo 
sit opon thecgp at nigfat when tbe tesipeaese c<^:^ avaie ieS.* 

And an this will beip as the bcscrtt> Todenrar^ «5at n tr» 
foUow. 



IV. 

So^ in the voy sauume and faacca of s£ws« Bb>v:3>i^/£:i&i|( 
birds we have eiidenc e that tbej v^s* <o:e rj^se-lc^^^^ twdt^ 
thoDgb now dK7 have ceased to be «3v aad in t£:«=r fotS )»ve 
dereloped certain poweis that taaiJjz t&ms v> «<x3^ ar^ t^jriyv earth 
in a truly wondeifbl manner for bcrdi of :hc=r va^ TUk ima^tm*' 
sized feet, iriiidi are as nmscnSar and ttPMii as tixy »^ tig, mx€ of 
course coouncmoiated in the rtrj isust c/ these moond-tnildcn ; 
it is Mega^odU—^bat is, of the great ft«t 

Dr. A. Rnsid Wallace gires the folknring description of the 
Megapel or moand-mafcerr of die Moloocas : 

^'TSxt Megapodims fbnns innneme moonds, (Men six or eight feet 
high and twenty or thirty feet in diameter, which they are enatrfed to 
do wi± compoiatire ease by means of their large feet, with wbicli 
they can giasp and throw badcwards a quantity of materiat In th^ 
centre of this OKmnd, at a depth of two or three feet, the eggs an^ 
deposited, and are hatched by d>e gentle heat produced by the fer. 
mentation of the v^etable matter of the mound. When I first s^i^ 
these moonds in the Island of Lombocic I could hardly believe th^ 
they were made by such small birds, but I afterwards met with the^^ 
frequently, and have once or twice come upon the birds engaged |^ 
making them. They run a few steps backwards, grasping a qu^^^ 
Uty of looae material in one foot, and throw it a long way behi^^ 
them. When once properly buried the eggs seem to be no in<>j^ 

vot. ccxcL Ma aoja A A 



330 



The Geniiemans Magasitu, 



cared for, the young birds working their way up through the rubbish, 
and running off at once to the forest. They come out of the egg 
covered with thick downy feathers, and have no tail, although the 
wings arc fully developed." ^ 

In the Malay Archipelago there ftrc allied species which place 
their eggs in holes in the ground, leaving thsm to be hatched by the 
sun alone. Wx, Darwin's idea is that it is in no way strange birds 
should liave lost the instinct of incubation where the sun heat is so 
strong ; and he speculates that if such birds were to stray into colder 
regions, natural selection would favour those who hit on choosing a 
larger proportion of vegetable matter, of which, of course, he holds 
they could know nothing of its giving rise to fermenting heat* 

Cuming's mound bird {Megapodim Cumingi) is found in Labuan, 
but is more common on the islets of Kuruman, where its nests' are 
met with in mounds of earth three to four feet En height and twelve 
feet in circumference. 

Dr. Russcl Wallace himself thus describes his discovery of the 
new Me^apodius : 

" I was so fortunate as to discover a new species [Megapodius 
Wafhcei), which inhabits Gilolo, Temate, and Bouru— the hand- 
somest bird of the genus, being richly banded with reddish-brown 
on the back and wings, and it differs from the other species in its 



' Malay Arch. i>. 398. 

> ThU U aDotlicr insuncc ia whidi Mr. DarwiD, lo gain twhst he lUnks con- 
sisteiicy in his theory, surrenders all to thanct. For if these birds liave no cotloa 
or knowledge of tbe use of fermenting vegetniion in aiding in the halclmtg of 
^(*5, what ia it but chance? Those that merely hafptrudlo have more vegeta- 
tion than another would surnve, even though id all other liaccuble tiailA they 
were not the fittest ; and how, I would ask — and I venture to press the qocfticn 
— does this tally with the Kcnnng wondrous wise remark that it is not to i-c 
wondered at that these birds should have given up the unnecessary work of nest- 
building where sun heat was so strong ? Here he credits them (alas ! unfoundedly) 
with full knowledge alike of effects of sun heat and of ncst-buttding, and with 
Btiiking the nice balance as between them for practical purposes. Surely birds 
that could do the one could do the other ; if they can so exactly estimate sun 
beat, they also could Ciitimate fermenting heat 1 But Darwin draws nice du> 
tincUoni. And, besides, Mr. Daiwin and his folluwers have still to answer the 
question why 10 many other birds, apparently with f]uite as good brains, continue 
■mid this gresLt son heat to build :hc most elaborate of all nests, thus wasting 
alike ticae, Ulenl» and bbour. Ttten if the cluunces of survival of the fittest are* 
as on his theory they are, enhanced by this expedient of moiting to lun b«d, 
why is it that the species which have not rnoited to it In prcdiely tlic some cir- 
cumstances Hurvtve and itKieasc even beyond the average of these mound^bnilding 
btnU? 

* Burbidge, Tk* Gaixtm aftke Stut, p. 123. 



Mound-Making Birds, 



331 



habils. It frequents the forests of the interior, but comes down to 
the sea-beach to deposit its eggs, but instead of making a mound or 
merely scratching a hole to receive them, it burrows into the sand to 
a depth of about three feet obliquely downivards, and deposits its eggs 
St the bottom. It then loosely covers up the mouth of the hole, and is 
said by the natives to obliterate and di::guise its own footmarks leading 
to and from the hole by making many other tracts and scratches in the 
neighbourhood. It lays its eggs only at night, and at Houru a bird 
was caught early one morning as it was coming out of its hole, in 
which several eggs were found. All these birds seem to be semi* 
Docturoa], for their loud wailing cries may be constantly heard late 
at night and long before daybreak in the morning. The eggs are all 
of a Tusty red colour, and very Urge for the size of the bird, being 
generally tliree and three and a quarter inches long by two and two 
and a quarter wide ; they arc %-cry good eating, and are much sought 
after by the natives." ^ 

Mr. A. O. Hume quotes Mr. Davison, who says he has seen a 
great many mounds of the Mtgiipodius Nieobariensh in Nicobar ; 

" The mounds, composed of dried leaves, slicks, &c., mbced with 
earth, were small compared with others near the sea-coast, not being 
above three feet high and about twelve or fourteen in circumference; 
those built near the coast are composed chiefly of sand mixed with 
rubbish, and vary very much in size, but average about five feet 
high and thirty feet in circumference; but I have met with one 
exceptionally large one on the island of Trinkut which must have 
been at least eight feet high and quite sixty feet in circumfer- 
ence. . . . 

" Ofl" this mound I shot a mcgapod which had evidently just 
laid an egg. I dissected it, and from a careful examination it would 
seem that the eggs are laid at long intcnals apart, for the largest egg 
in the ovary was only about the size of a brge pea, and the next in 
size about as big as a small pea. These mounds are also used by 
reptiles, for out of one I dug, besides the megapod's eggs, about a 
dozen eggs of some large li/iird. I made careful inquiries among 
the natives about these birds, and from them I learnt that they 
usually get four or five eggs from a mound, but sometimes they get 
OS many as ten ; they all assert that only one pair of birds are con- 
cerned in the making of a mound, and that they only work at night. 
When newly made the mounds (so I was informed) are small, but 
are gradually enbrged by the birds. . . . The eggs are usually buried 
froui three and a half to four feet deep, and bow the young 
1 Ma^Ay Artk. p. 39I 

A Aa 



33* 



The Gentleman s Magazine, 



manage to extricate themselves seems a mysterj*. . . . The sarface 
soil of the mounds only is dry; at about a foot from the surface the 
sand feels slightly damp and cold, but as the depth increases the 
sand gets damper but at the same time increases in varnith. ... It 
appeared to me that the birds 6nt collected a heap of leaves, cocoa- 
nuts, and other vegetable matter, and then scraped together sand, 
vtrhich they threw over the heap, this sand consisting mainly of finely 
triturated coral and shells. I was told that the birds scrape away the 
covering sand-layer, lay in new vegetable matter, and cover in again 
with sand. I am by no means sure that only one pair of birds use 
the heap, and the Nicobarese explained, as I understood, that though 
one pair begin the mound, they and all their progeny keep on using 
it and adding to it for years. . . . 

"The eggs are excessively elongated ovals, and vary a good deal 
in size and shape, being more like turtles' eggs than birds'. When 
first laid they arc of a uniform ruddy pink, as we know from having 
obtained one before the bird had time even to bury it; as the chicken 
develops within the egg becomes a bufly stone colour, and when near 
about hatching it is a very pale yellowish brown. The whole colour- 
ing matter is contained in an excessively thin clialky flake, which is 
easily scraped off, leaving a pure white chalky shell below ; this outer 
coat seems to have a great tendency to flake off in spots, specks, and 
even large blotches as the chickens developed withiiu The average 
of egg measurement is 3'25 by s'o;." ' 

Here, then, we see that even among the true Me^apodiiy those 
near the sea caist, where probably vegetation of the suitable kind is 
less plentiful, the birds more and more come to depend on the sand, 
which, being mixed largely with lime, would materially aid in the 
keeping up of heat, whereas in such situations as ensure plenty 
of the vegetation demanded heat enough is derived from it in 
decomposition without direct aid of the sun, which, in fact, \% 
excluded by the thickness of foliage there. Here, then, in the sea- 
coast Mcgapodii we have really the connecting link between them 
and the Leipoa of the desert, where, fitting vegetation being scarce, 
the birds have come by the most natural process to depend moit 
upon the sand 



V. 

Mr. Grant Allen, in one of the articles which appeared in the 
Strand Afa^asine for 1899 under the title " In Nature's Workshop," 
* Birds tflnJi^t U). 450-45>> 




^Sound' Making Birds. 



Ill 



spoke of the mound birds as though they were confined to Austnlia, 
vhich sftmiJ to give some support to his notion that here we had 
an earlier form of bird which had "not advanced beyond the 
alligator level" io laying its e^s in the sand, to be hatched by 
the heat of the sun. Kir. Grant Allen there overlooked the very 
important fact that mound birds are not by any means confined 
to Australia. They are found in the Malay Archipelago, in the 
Moluccas, in Labuan, Kuruman, Gilolo, Tcmatc, and Bouru, and in 
the Nicobar Islands. And one very definite fact, which goes right 
in the face at once of Mr. Grant Allen's easy, bold, and one-sided 
theory, and Mr. Darwin's attribution of the whole business Io 
brightness of sunlight, is that certain of the mound birds have their 
mounds in places where the foliage is so dense that no ray of sun 
can reach or sun heat enter. The original idea of the crocodile 
was simply to hatch by heat of sunlight in the sand close to where 
it was ; the idea of retiring into dense woods, and there making the 
mound, never having occurred or could possibly hare occurred to 
him. We find mound birds building mounds in or at all stages 
from absolute dependence on fermenting heat without aid of sun 
to dependence wholly, or almost wholly, on sun's heat in the sand. 
Some of the birds even proceed from places inland to the sea-shore 
— a great distance — to deposit eggs, where they have the advantage 
of the greater sun heat, and where little or no vegetation of the 
sort needed by them is to be found. Mr. Darwin's idea that it is 
"no way strange bird^ should liavc lost the instinct of incubation 
where the sun heat is so strong" applies to ihem, but certainly it 
does not in any way apply to the mound birds which build their 
mounds in the centre of dense forests where the foliage is so close 
that no ray of sunlight can penetrate to the mound— abundantly 
proving that in their case the "crocodile ievci" of Mr. Grant Allen 
will in no way apply. Certain of the nightjars of India, as Miss 
Cockbum tells us, lay their eggs on a rocky platform very much 
exposed to the lun, and do not need closely to brood them, just as 
the dabchick ii' the nest is open to the sun will scarcely sit on it 
when the sun is shining, affording an admirable analogy with his 
crocodile^ which left the spot in the sand where the egg was buried 
all day, but came and squatted flat on the spot at night to supply 
beat from its body when the stm was not shining. And yet I am 
sure Mr. Giant Allen would not have said that the Indian nightjar 
and our own dabchick exhibit direct crocodilian inheritances there. 
In trutli, with regard to the mound birds both Mr. Darwin, the 
maste:, with his dogma Uiat it is "no way strange birds should have 



334 



The GentUma^s Magazine, 



losf the habit of inaihation where the sun keat is so stron^^ and Mr. 
Grant Allen, the disciple, with his mound birds on "the crocodile 
level," were both simply guilty of the all too easy process of 
generalising from too narrow a basis of particulars. This is a 
logical (or illogical) process to which Mr Grant Allen was so prone 
that one cannot look at his books or articles anywhere without 
token of it For example, in the same paper in the Strand 
Magazine as we liave ab-cady dealt with we have this laid down as 
an absolute principle : 

"The habit of handing over the care of the young to the female 
alone belongs to llie higher order of vertebrates — in other words, Is 
of later origin." 

And then at another part Mr. Grant Allen, by implication, puts 
before us the kangaroo as thoui;h it were a very old or early form 
preserved only in Australia — whose fauna is so valuable to the 
student for this reason ; and then on the next page tells us tliat it is 
the female kangaroo that is pouched, and therefore, according to 
his general principle, it belongs to the " higher order of vertebrates 
— of later origin " ! 

The idea of fermenting heat surely never occurred to the simple- 
minded crocodile : that is the essential clement of the mound birds \ 
for in the cases of birds that now depend wholly or almost wholly 
on (he sand wc have a case where diflercntiation has come by 
experience^by absence of such vegetation as is demanded, and at 
first enforced deposition in the sand. In most cases even there we 
find attempts at procuring vegetation, though it may be in very small 
quantities, just enough to justify the genera! deliverance that " the 
heat of the sun and the fermenting mound hatch them out bet\reen 
them." The nice perception shown by many of these birds of the 
proportion of vegetation needed, the clearing away of the decayed 
vegetadon each year, and the renewal of the exact quantity and 
kind wanted, most assuredly show us something much, much above 
Mr. Grant Allen's facile " crocodile level." And, moreover, who ever 
heard of crocodiles resorting to community breeding?— a rather 
important clement in the matter — though, of course, this may look to 
those who never heard of mound birds before "so very scientific, 
you know ; so very scientific '* I To my idea, in the dabthick you 
have a bird which is at this moment showing a tendency to depend 
more and more on sun heat in hatching, allied with fermenting 
beat of decaying vegetation, even in our own stmlcss climate I 




Mound-Making Birds, 



I 




VI. 



The observation of Mr. Da\ison, quoted by Mr. Hume, about 
the MagapoJii of Nicobar, to the effect that on dissection of one 
of the birds he found eridence that the eggs axe laid at long 
intervals apart from each other, suggests two considerations about 
the origin of this habit : (t) if this same fact were attested about 
the whole class of mound-builders, it would lead to an inquiry as to 
the proportions of the sexes ; and (2) as to the possibility of the 
tnound-buUditig being really a thing resorted to on account of the tax 
that vould be laid throughout the whole season upon the females. 
Had we but more close and thorough observation^ it might be found 
that much the same motives or necessities that led to the mound- 
building have led the cuckoo to parasitism in circumslances that 
were not favourable to mound-building or were more favourable to 
parasitism. The great sensitiveness and sudden modification of the 
sexual parts is now more and more recognised as one of ihe most 
determining elements in mailers of this kind. Danvin at last fully 
awakened to it, but only at last and too late for full application of 
the idea to his facts. Prof. Semper and Van Beneden are fully alive 
to it; so is Prof. Ray Lankestcr, as he finely exhibits it in his work 
on *' Degeneracy," and more especially in his admirable and most 
compact "Longevity." This I throw out merely as a suggestion 
towards a theory of these wonderful birds ; and what is wanted are 
observations very careful and complete in every pari of the areas 
occupied by them on these points : (i) proportion of the sexes, 
(2) internals between layings of eggs ; and (3) exact dates of com- 
menoing the insertion of eggs into the mound and the cei>sation of 
such. 

Here another remarkable thing is suggested, of which neither 
Mr. Grant Allen nor any other writer I am aware of has as yet 
taken the least note. This is the wonderful memory and skill 
demanded probably on the part of all these mound-building birds, 
but certainly on the part of the mound-building Ltipoa ocellata^ in 
carr^-ing so clearly in their minds the exact position in which former 
^gs — very brittle eggs too — have been inserted in the heap ; if laid, 
as we are told they are laid, in these exact positions, tliin end down- 
ward, and this more particularly if they are deposited at considerable 
intervals of lime, four or eight generally exactly as at the ends of 
the spc^es of a wheel. This element certainly was not and could 
not have been at all in Mr. Grant Allen's mind when he set it down 



336 



The Gentleman s Magazine* 



that in the mound-building birds withoui exception you had 
nothing " beyond the alligator level" 



vn. 

Now, this raound-building habit of these birds cannot, in our 
idoOt be explained by anything in the nature of instinct purely. 
There is not only, in the case of many of these mounds^ the 
process of scraping and gathering together the materials demanded, 
but the perception of measure — the realising of a necessary 
proportion of undecayed v^etable matter to give in fermentation 
just the required amount of heal to produce the desired re5ult 
Too much would burn, too little would addle the eggs, not hatch 
them. These birds have, in fact, anticipated invention, and h.ivc 
produced an incubator, which, if it is not so neat and sctentihc as 
those to be seen in some shop-windows in R^ent Street, is perhaps 
yet more unerring. You cannot conceive that this has from the first 
been the form of nest these birds have had ; but it is the result 
of some change or of danger threatening the individual and the 
species which, if we exactly knew it, would enable us clearly to 
judge where now we can but generally guess. And in the 
case of others of the class there is the knowledge of heat producing 
power in sand or lime ; and, necessarily, a liming of the depositioQ 
of eggs to it. 

In using this nest, then, they have proceeded to oust another 
form of nest, and thus to cross and to crush out an original 
instinct; and this has proceeded so far that hereditary habit has 
come in so to supplement reason that it looks like instinct, but it 
is not. And further, if there is anything in this, how, ag.iin, account 
for these birds fixing exactly the right depth in the heap to secure 
for the eggs — very delicate and brittle as they are, in some cases at 
all events — equal heat all round, which in ordinary processes of 
brooding is secured by the very mechanical resource of the sitting 
bird turning over the eggs. Surely instinct, in the ordinary sense of 
it, could never in the outset have taught that. And, more important 
still, how did the young birds come to learn the direction in which 
to work out of the heap for deliverance, since to hatch the eggs 
equal heat was demanded all round, and therefore they could not be 
guided by instinctive tendency to work towards the greater beat ; and 
could get but little aid from the sun's rays in such rases 05 that 
already described, where the mound was so enclosed by foliage that 
no ray of sun could reach it? 



Mmmd^MmM^ BiH^ ^37 



Yin. 



AmJIi^ VCrjr IHpOrtlM pOHS : nC9C 3Mu BBS be 3 

f e ciielf tfaetiwcifeefe far wprraftfr sioer fanaediia] 
locfa that <ltytc of feiHCMifiDB sd 
and tfka to opeme far a space of t=ae ! 
toaceitaiD poinC, viA ccjad beas, act — uriwug tooi 
off too mndi, as odier bb^ ^u p l &cil 10 Ac 
beyood die moelf irij^ifd la sost cbes oi ae 
seeds or plants can was fiv the Trgng aea^ and 
re&esfaed finan ootside IB asmr vans. 

Yet fl'W*^*^*' point : if tbese xajimd^setfs ai^ 
tcpancd and mended 19 7'car z iter jcar aad aic coDBCti n uj nsc^ 
i^at anioe p ei t e p < i o n of n i tasuie ia tibe p i o;w>i o n of vegetable 
matter is drmandfd ia the yoo^p oce to woA in luiiwij and hit 
the exact mean in dat nutter ! It is dear tfait in some case^ at 
all ereats, coflc Lll t isji to a certain cxttnt oomes in; andtii^ only 
adds to tlie maircl of die wbofe matter. 

Unless for a complete &itfa in the power of dke jom^ to voric 
their way through a Cev feet of eaxlh mienii^y up wa i J s l o w a i d s the 
light (where heat, which nsoaCjr betokens p res e nce of hgfat, is abso- 
lutely equal all roood), the whole inrention, resource^ labour, and 
pain of the adolt birds woold of course go for noa^— the species 
would be extinct Now, if the ** instincts " of the parmts are wooder- 
fol, certainfy the " instincts "of the yooi^ are nune wonderful still. 



IX. 

Here you hare the problem not only of an " instinct" detennin- 
ing a bird to buHd, instead of a nest proper, a vast incubator, using 
the most common materials as also the most recondite natural 
forces to aid it — forces of fermentation, namely, which have but 
recently come to be scientifically understood— along with exact per- 
ception of the proportion of vegetable matter necessary to produce the 
precise amount of heat essential to secure the end desired, and these 
again exactly calculated in relation to heat of sun and sand and lime 
in other cases— and not only so, but this labour of the old birds is for 
success completely dependent on a power— you may call it, if yoa 
like, an " instinct " — in the young corresponding to, and, bo to say, 
exactly synchronising with that of the parent. Instinct may account 



338 



Tke GenlUvians Magazine. 



for much — the primary instinct in a young bird is to fly from a nesti 
not to cleave a way through some feet of fenneniing earth-heap; 
and to answer the question, how the young of the mound-builders 
do it, *' by instinct, of course," is not to us, at all events, satisfactory, 
since the mere general term " instinct " covers really nothing definite 
or clear. 

Mr. Darwin, when he suggests that these birds have lost the 
instinct of incubation because the sun's heat is there equal to that 
work, overlooks the fact that large numbers of birds there still build 
very elaborate nests, and some reason is demanded from him why in 
especial just these birds elected or were elected to this work, and so 
to waste their labour ; and, next, he has to face the fact that a long 
course of trial and experiment of many kinds would be necessary if 
in the transition the birds were assumed, as he decisively assumes 
them, to be ignorant of Icares as possible fermenting and beating 
elements even while definitely using them for this purpose. Nor do 
we think "evolution " quite covers the facts, nor "natural selection," 
nor "survival of the fittest." These really in the end only emphasise 
the problem here, and render it persistent instead of solving it, by 
clapping easily a term on it and then leaving it there— very much 
indeed as at least some of the mound- building birds do by tliese 
young of theirs, which still have at due time, however, to make their 
way through some feet of soil to the light of day. To tell one that 
all tills is cxplnitied as though by magic with certain general phrases, 
such as " evolution," *' natural selection," &c., &c., does not satisfy 
me, because, for one thing, I see distinct movement of individual 
perception and energy— acts of reason, no less. 

The phrases now so much in vogue and so often used, without 
real perception of their ultimate bearings, no more finally express 
the ultimate facts of nature than former pluascs did : they are, at 
the very best, but working hypotheses, subject to correction and 
qualification at all sides, so that we may make some real progress, 
and not follow slavishly in old grooves that, when mistaken for 
something more than they really arc — tentative formulas more 
strictly and immediately in aid of classification for the man thai 
made them — but too literally and truly lead to nowliere. 

ALEX. H. JAPP- 



jjy 



THE AMATEUR PEDIGREE- 
MONGER. 

SIR WALTER BESANT, in his "BcTOod die Dreams of 
Avarice,* says : "The £uiuly history should be presexred. 
Happy is the &mi1y that has a history, good, bad, or indiffereDt 
The noUe deeds of oar ancestors are an incentive to thdr descen- 
danta^ thcar bad acts a warning." 

The average Englishman knows nothing <tf his £unily, and perhaps 
cares less ; he may possibly know his grandfathei's father's name, 
bat more probably not He fiuodes the {Hesent is all-safficien^ and 
takes no heed of the past, pieferring to be " a descendant rather than 
an ancestfv " — that is, he would ratlur wear the tall hat and starched 
odlar of to-day than bear the hdmet and the breast- piece of yester- 
day. With Napoleon the English pater£amilias is apt to exclaim, *' I 
am the founder of my family." The stress of present-day life leaves 
little time for the study of the past, and so he goes on his way for- 
getful of the book open before him. The pedigree, too, is often put 
in the same cat^ory as that in which Ikfacaulay's " History of 
Ei^land " was placed by Lord Wolseley when suggesting additions 
to Sir John Lubbock's list of the Best Hundred Books. The late 
Commander-in-Chief put poor Macaulay under the heading Fiction. 
Many people look upon pedigrees with the same suspicion. 

The rich man, on the contrary, though he may care as little for 
the past as his poorer neighbour, not seldom pretends to take an 
interest in his newly found ancestors ; for nowadays it is the fashion 
for a man, as soon as he has filled his pockets by emptying otha 
people's, to obtain from the nearest genealogist a more or less 
authentic pedigree. 

Thus of late years has sprung up a class of men who, for a 
consideration, will supply the would-be aristocrat with a pedigree, 
not always authentic, as we have seen in the Shipway case. 

This pedigree may be either " noble " or otherwise, according to 
the desire of the buyer. The " otherwise" pedigree probably costs 



340 



The GcntUmans Magazine. 



more time and money in the preparation, but it is not necessarily 
more authentic, though there is no doubt that it is the more honest of 
the two. 

Now, let us suppose that Sir Joseph Tompkins, the newly-made 
baronet, desires a " noble " descent The Tompkins family itself is 
by no means noble. Tompkins, the father, was a builder, who made 
a considerable sum of money, and Tompkins, the grandfather, was a 
grocer who waited, ready-aproned, behind his own counter; Tompkins, 
the baronet, made his fortune tn railway contracting. Sir Joseph's 
memory goes back to the time when his grandfather, the grocer, was 
about to retire from business; he remembers the unsavoury little 
shop just o£f Holbom, and he ponders on the meaning of the surname 
Tompkins. "No; better not dig too deeply into the Tompkins 
family histor)'," he sa)*s to the genealogist, " but all the same, I will 
have a noble pedigree," The paid genealogist sets to work, and 
produces the required article, and a few weeks later a framed parch- 
ment is hanging up in Sir Joseph's Hbrary^for the great man has a 
library of many coloured bindings — on the top of which are the 
magic words Edward III., King of England, and at the bottom, in 
large capitals, Sir Joseph Tompkins, first baronet. 

How then is it done ? Is Sir Jus:jph really a descendant of 
Ro>'al Edward, and thus a distant cousin of His Majesty, who has 
seen fit, as the Fountain of Honour, to endow the Tompkins family 
once more with hereditary honours ? Undoubtedly. Sir Joseph, 
like other mortals, has had a father and mother, they in their turn 
have had parents, and it is no very difficult matter to find the 
sixteen great-great-grandparcnts of Sir Joseph — though it is quite 
another thing to prove the sixteen quartcrings which would show to the 
world Sir Joseph's unblemished gentility. Strange if there should 
not bo among these honoured sixteen one or more good names, and 
by a good name I mean one belonging to a known county family, 
barring the Smiths, who are sure to figure largely. Very well then. 
Here we find among his great-great grandparents the name of 
Sinclair. The genealogist follows this out, and, hey presto I tracing 
back through several females, he finally comes to Edinird III., and 
Jie can continue the pedigree to Adam if he will go to Hatfield and 
study the chart exhibited there. Sir Joseph is well satisfied, he lias 
paid his money and taken his choice. 

But I do not wisli to deal with this branch of the genealogist's 
art, but with another and far more interesting one. It is easy 
enough to pay someone else to trace a pedigree, but let us do it for 
ourselves and so reap our own harvest, not like Sir Joseph going in 



Tk$ Amaienr Pfdigrtc-Mongcr. 




(bra special -noWc* desccni. but, havbg put oor pride in our 
pocket, taking things as they come. 

There is nothing more hunuliating to oor preconcci\-ed ideas 
than to find that after aU we arc not connected with that noble and 
wealthy family of the same name— whose anns. be it whispered, we 
have usurped— but arc descended from S(>and-So the cobbler, 
instead. Yes, in our inrestigations we shall meet all kinds of people, 
from peer to pauper, from prince to peasant. 

If a man be really desirous of knowing his family history he must 
not start with the idea that genealogy is merely a rich man's dodge 
pour passer U temps. It is a study, just as boUny or any other 
subject, and requires considerable preparation, if one is inclined to 
enter deeply into it. There are level-headed persons who wiU 
doubtless deny this. " W^hat is required in order to make out a 
pedigree," they will exclaim, " but pens, ink, paper, and a few old 
books and musty-fusiy documents ? " We shall see. In the first 
place, one must have a considerable knowledge of history, for with- 
out tliat one w<mld be lost in a maze of dates conveying no meaning, 
A knowledge of the English language is also essential, for a fc-w 
hundred years ago English was very different from what it is now, 
A nodding acquaintance with French and Latin, especially with 
that delightful and surprising variety known as monkish Latin, 19 
also an advantage. Granted these preliminary requirements, and 
added thereto an ability to read the various styles of writing in use 
at different periods, and a love of the romantic, anyone with sufficient 
leisure can make out a passable pedigree. Money is required in 
only too many cases, for there are certain fixed fees charged by the 
clergy and others in charge of documents which will doubtless make 
the poor man "cry off" at the start ; but provided he knows how to 
reduce these charges by a suaviterin mcdo and generous application 
of persuasive powers, he may yet do much at little cost. 

The first and most obvious way of commencing a pedigree is by 
interviewing all the members of the family one can find, especially 
those who spring from earlier generations, and thus gathering 
together all the information they can impart. 

Tradition often runs strongly in families, and should on no 
account be overlooked, for in tradition often lie the means of 
gathering up the different links and finally welding them together in 
one harmonious whole. The tradition patiently followed out often 
forms the due to a fact which can be pro^-ed by documentary 
evidence. 

Great care must be taken to collect all old letters and other 



342 



The Ccnilemans Magazine, 



papers, and if ihe owners will not part with them a copy should be j 
made and kept. Many old people have scorei; of letters which they 
sooner or later tear up, thus destroying what can never be replaced. I 
These old letters, apart from the romantic interest attaching to the 
loves and sorrows of bygone generations, often contain much in- 
formation valuable to the genealogist. The interest attached to the | 
deeds of the prodigal son in a far-off land is added to when he ! 
happens to mention his meeting with hitherto unknown cousins. 

Ha\'ing thus obtained a preliminary sketch of the family, care 
should be taken to trace out houses formerly owned or inhabited by 
members of the family, and application made to inspect title-deeds, 
leases, &c. This is a very difficult matter, for if the present owners 
of the property happen to imagine that their right to have, hold, and 
keep is assailed they will never be induced to allow their deeds to be 
inspected. 

Visits should be made to churchyards so that notes may be made 
of inscriptions on graves, and once inside the churchyard apphcaiion 
should be made to the clergy for permission to inspect the registers 
— perhaps the most important means of obtaining proof of descent. 
The clergy are authorised to make a charge of sixpence for cadi year, 
either of births, morrif^es, or deaths, examined, and to charge a fee 
of two shillings and sixpence for every authenticated extract taken ; 
and here the pinch is felt by the poor man. There are some clergy 
who will have the last drop of blood — happily they are few in 
number— and thus, if one were searching, say, through a hundred 
years, or e%'en through the smallest register, one would be compelled 
to pay the large sum of seven pounds ten shillings for work which 
could possibly be done in a couple of hours. But providing he is 
not scented as a professional genealogist he may be able to get o^-er 
this difficulty by offering to give a small sum to a local charity— on 
offer which many vicars will accept. The novice should here note 
that for purposes of literary or historical investigation the vicar is 
forbidden by law to charge any fees whatever, but it Is very difficult 
to say where the dividing line between purely personal and historical 
research can be drawn. But this depends on the pedigree-monger. 
"Literary research" covets a multitude of sins. Very few kmilies 
are of sufficient importance lo warrant the searcher to demand an 
historical investigation. As a general rule, however, it is safe to ay 
that an investigator making inquiries about a person who has been 
dead for 200 years, and whose name appears in some recognised 
dictionary of biography, may demand exemption from fees. Literary 
tcsearch, I take it, may be made when the object is to publish a 




Th6 Amateur Pedigree- Monger, 



343 



book about any family or place, either privately or by subscription. 
I may here remark that since 1836 all records of births, marriages, 
and deaths are kept at Somerset House. 

Another great source of information is the large collections of 
wills scattered about all over the country. Here the searcher must 
necessarily have a long puree, for the fees charged at different places 
soon run away with money, and in such confusion arc the wills 
kept that it is sometimes weeks before the right one is forthcoming. 
Wills naturally contain much valuable informaiioi), and though 
as proofs of birth or age they are of no value, yet the information 
they contain will alwa)'S be of service in tracing out a family. Often 
relations arc named who but for this brief mention would never 
have been discovered. Since the year 1858 every will proved in 
England has been deposited at Somerset House, where the fee for 
consulting each one (free, however, to historical or literary students) 
is one shilling, but before this time wills were proved at the nearest 
ecclesiastical court and were deposited in llie care of the clergy. 
There were many of these courts, and thus in almost every cathedral 
dty and large town w'dl be found large collections of wills. The 
bishop of each diocese or his deputy had the right of receiving the 
wills and seeing to their administration, and the "Aill once proved was 
only too often placed away in some lumber room in the cathedral 
to be forgotten and left to decay. 

These records having been carefully searched, there should be 
no difficulty in continuing the pedigree into historical times, and for 
this purpose a different class of records would have to be consulted. 

Of these a vast amount is collected at the Public Record Office, 
where the fees are all on a graduated scale, and very moderate. The 
chief of these records are the Rotuli Hundredorum, Parliamentary 
Writs, and Inquisitiones Post Mortem, but the number is legion. 
Many of these papers have Ijeen jirinted by the Government, and 
can be consulted at the British Museum. In addition to these early 
records there ts an immense accumulation of law papers, chancery 
piccccdings and the like, which is of great value to the 
genealogist. 

The most valuable collection at the British Museum is the Harlcian 
MSS., many of which have been printed by the Harleian Sodcly; 
this collection contains the Heralds' Visitations. Id the sixteenth 
century the rise of commerce and the long civil wars which had 
caused the extinction of many of our noble families gave birth to a 
new class, the great upper middle class, and as the members of this 
class became more and more wealthy they naturally gradually 



344 



The Gentleman s Magazine, 



became the rivals of the now nearly extinct nobiUly and gentry. 
Many of this new gentry, owing to the decline of chivalry and the 
consequent disuse of heraldf}', took this opportunity of usurping 
what did not strictly belong to them, by assuming various arms and 
devices, until then only borne by the nobility, or, at any rate, by the 
great families of the realm. Not all of these, however, assumed 
arms ; some, for a consideration, obtained a grant from the lawful 
heralds, who Btill existed as representatives of llie royal power, 
notably from Sir William Camden, Garter King-at-Arms, who has 
many sins to answer for. 

The older nobility at first viewed with disdain this usurpation of 
their ancient privileges, but as the middle class grew stronger and 
stronger and the common people were unable to distinguish between 
the upstart and the noble, the)* gradually roused themselvs, applied 
to the Sovereign, and put the law in motion. It was then the 
Heralds paid those famous visitations to the seats of the gentry, 
primarily for the purpose of gathering together particulars of their 
descent, but also with the view of eliminating from the lists of 
gentry those persons who had unlawfully assumed arms to which 
they had no right. The distinction of a gentleman was that he 
should be the owner of a coat-of-arms granted to him or his ancestor 
by the Sovereign. 

The Heralds carried out their visitations in a very strict manner, 
and anyone who was unable to produce the original patent of arms, or 
proof of their use for many generations, was struck off the roll, and 
if he persisted in still using arms was heavily fined. To this day 
these visitations are the most important documents relating to the 
gentry of England, and anyone who is able to prove a male descent 
from one of the families named in these records is entitled to the 
appellation of esquire, be he gentleman or ploughboy. 

Miscellaneous sources of information are many. Amongst tbem 
are the lists of boys attending schools. Many ancient grammar 
schools possess these lists, extending back for several hundred years, 
and they generally contain the names of the boy's father and mothur, 
his age and place of abode. 

Then there are the local records kept by the corporations of 
various towns, the lists of burgesses, voters, mayors, &c 

It will thus be seen that there is no lack of available material 
ready to hand in England, but in Ireland and Scotland the record* 
are perhaps more scanty. Scotland, however, has one class of valu* 
able records which England docs not possess, the brieves of 
succession, which give a complete history of all properties, however 



The Amateur Pedigree-Monger. 345 

small or large. These are almost complete from 1603, but many 
exist before that date. 

Here, then, is ample work for the amateur pedigree-monger, work 
which increases in interest the deeper he dips into it. It is far more 
satisfactory to trace our own descent step by step than to leave the 
work to others, and it should always be borne in mind that the man 
with a knowledge of the past holds the future in the palm of his 
band. 

r. EVAKS LEWIN. 



VOL. ccxci. HO. ao^o. g g 



346 



The Gentleman s Magazine, 



JEKVLLIANA, 



BEFORE offering to the public a few (many never published 
before) bons-motSy witty writings, and his own epitome and 
reflections on a life more successful than most, and spent amongst 
the cleverest and best society of his day, I will refer to the origin of 
the Jekyll family, taken from MSS. of Mr. Jekyll. 

*'JckyII Island, in North America, was named by General 
Oglethorpe after Sir Joseph Jekyll (Master of the Rolls). The 
name, I believe, is Saxon, and still is to be met with in some 
parts of Germany. There is a river Jekil in Anatolia, which enters 
the south of the Black Sea in the Bay of Sansoun. To the ' Mirror 
of Justice' is prefixed an imprimatur signed ' Jekel.' The family is 
traced to Bocking, in Essex. In 1812, Garter King at Arms, on 
deducing her pedigree, by desire of my second cousin, Miss Ann 
Barbara Wrighte, collected descents of the Jekyll family, which are 
consequently now in the old College of Heralds. 

"My paternal great-grandfather was J. (John) Jekyll, D.D., 
brother of Sir Joseph Jekyll. My paternal grandfather was a nephew 
of Sir Joseph Jekyll, Master of the Rolls ; he was for some years 
resident at Boston, in the American Province of Mass»±usetts Bayi 
as Collector of Customs, and purchased an estate about thirty miles 
from that city, and named it 'Stowc,' from Stoxve, in Buckingham' 
shire, which had, I believe as far back as the reign of Edward VI., 
come into the Temple family by a marriage with an heiress named 
Milliccnt Jekyll Vidt the pedigree in this volume, whereby it 
appears that the Temple and Palmerston fomilics descended from 
this woman- 

" This paternal grandfather (John) had several children, all bom 
in Boston : Jolm, Thomas, Joseph, Blacket, Edward (my father), 
Hannah (married to William Rye, M.D., of Culworth, Northampiun- 
shire), and Mary, who married — Hicks, Esq., of America. 

"John succeeded his father in office, and left issue. His eldcxt 
son, the Rev. John JekyU, LL.D^ died rrecentor of St. Djivids, 
and left three sons and three daughters. Thomas became blind t 



JefylUoMo. 347 

thesmaU-pox oo his tnrds. Sir Joiqib faad wppeutA to bare 
adopted lum as his bdr, but finally only left him an anmntj. He 
was a man of cniditiaii, and oollcctgd a not inooosidcnble Hfamy; 
be mtt fbU of wit and cfaeerfiilaeas. I freqaented him nmcfa wfaeo 
I was a boj at acbool, and he died looo a6cr I bad been pbced at 
the Unirenitj. 

FttCK Trifle - MSGoeac 
*•»■ «5S4 I J«fcyO 

s SviB SpcaoCT Anrtwy OusoOtj 



r| 
olthe 



i^hm TTilliiw ; Miilfn ITiimii^liiii 



Jane Yaiacr « Sir WiOini Tcv^ J Jm* 

AllonKT' 
Gcaml 



Hcaqr, t/itd PilawnbMi. 

"Joseph reoeifcd, by the bequest of Sir J. Jekyll, the estate of 
DaDingtoD, near Northampton; he married Lady Ami Montagu, 
one of die four sisters of the last Earl of Halifax, and left issue one 
daughter, married to George Wrigbte, Esq., of Gayhurst, Bucks. 
Anne Barbara Wrig^te, dfc<^yd 1830, and unmarried, was the only 
issoe of the last-mentiooed marriage. 

"■Blacket died Rector of Dalliogton, tmmarried. Edward, my 
bthe^ went early into the Kavy under the protection of Sir Peter 
Warren, who commanded a squadron in America. He signalised 
himself by bravery and conducUln the aifair of MattKcwt and 
Lestock, Sir Hugh FaiQ^^^H||te accused their captain of 
cowardice, who, on a cO^^^^^MMjf^justke. My father 
was a favourite of ji|fii^^^^^^^^^^^^K free tca^tt to his 
u a nad^^^^^^^^^^^^^^Britb the 

iacuired the ioM ^^^^^^^^^^^^T ^^*'* 

capture of Goi^ ^^^p ^^^^^^^rxlcrus JiiiuatJgB 

and courage 

' Smollett's 

HaTannah, 

restoration, at I 

his suite, and 




348 



The Gentleman s Magazine, 



money I have heard him say he gained more by the freight of his 
hiend Lord Albemarle's treasure than by the spoils of the enemy. 
The climate of the West Indies injured his constitution. I heard 
Tx)rd Keppel tell him on his deathbed that their own habits of 
abstemiousness from strong wines in those stations had been 
detrimental, and tlut persons less temperate had prcser\'ed their 
health. He died at little more than fifty years of age of dropsy, 
and within a few weeks of his promotion as Admiral I was with 
him in his last moments. He spoke with calmness and resignation, 
and on some subjects even with pleasantry. I remember his saying 
he had faced death so often that its approach now was no novelty." 

Sir Joseph Jekyll married a sister of the Lord Chancellor Somers, 
and died without issue. In right of his wife he possessed real 
property in Herts and Reigat^ which on his death devolved to her 
family, and finally to the present Lord Somers. The residue of his 
personal property he devised to the sinking fund for the payment of 
the National Debt. As this singular though patriotic example had 
no imitators during a long lapse of years, the L^isUture at two 
different periods restored it to be distributed among his then 
numerous next of kin. Sir Joseph Jekyll's mother's maiden name 
was Tryphena Sandars, daughter of Colonel Thomas Sandars, of 
Ireton, Derbyshire. Her father bad been Colonel of the Horse in 
Cromwell's army. She first of all married a Mr. Richard Hill, by 
whom she had one son. By her second marriage, with John Jekyll, 
she had two sons— Sir Joseph Jekyll, Master of the Rolls, and the 
Kev. John Jekyll, D-D. Her son by her first marriage, Mr. Hill, 
became secretary to his distinguished half-brother, Sir Joseph Jekyll. 

We will now turn to Mr. Joseph Jekyll's Hiumi of his life, now 
in possession of his eldest grandson, Edward Jekyll, Esq., of 
Higbam Bury, Beds. : 

REMINISCENCES BY JOSEPH JEKYLL, 

"A.D. 1750, — My father. Captain Edward Jekyll, commanded 
the Happy^ sloop of war, on the Milford Station, and at the bouse 
of Captain Edwards, at Tenby, first saw my mother, the widow of 
John Williams, of Perthowel. Her maiden name was Walter.' 

*' 1752. — My father married her. My uncle Joseph died. He 
had married Lady Anne Montagu, sister of the last Earl of Halifax. 
They had a daughter only. 

"They lived at Dallington, an estate left him by Sir Joseph 
JekylL" 

■ She wu dansbco or Tbomu Walter, of KilliveTj co. Ctfuurlhen. 



Jekyllmna, 



349 



Tbis Joseph was the eldest brother of Captain Edward Jekyll. 
Dallington is in Northamptonshire, and vras a portion of the estates 
of Sir Joseph Jekyll, his uncle, Master of the Rolls. This only 
daughter, Anne, married Mr. George Wrighte, of Gayhurst,* 
Buckinghamshire. 

" '7S3i January 23.— I was born at Haverfordwest 

" I754'— My only sister bom there likewise.' 

" *75S- — ^1 family left Wales to live in London. 

" 1757.— I had the smallpox in the natural way." 

He means he was not inoculated, a practice introduced by Lady 
Mary Wortley Montagu from Turkey, cirta a.d. 1731. 

" '759- — ^^y father appointed to command the Ripon, 

*' 1 762. — My fallier sailed in an expedition against the Havannah." 

This expedition was against the Spaniards, to strike a blow at 
their West Indian commerce, and many ships stationed in the West 
Indies. Nineteen ships sailed under General Lord Albemarle and 
Admiral Pocock. The conquest was complete ; thirteen ships taken 
and five destroyed, and money and valuables to near j^3t00o,ooo 
sterling looted. 

*' I was placed at Soho School. 

" 1766. — I was placed at Westminster School 

"1771. — My father appointed to the Egmont. I was sent to 
Christchurch, Oxford. Dr. Chclsum my tutor. 

" 1774. — The residue of Sir J. Jekyll's persona) property restored 
to the family by Act of Parliament." 

AfUr the death of I^dy Jekyll, who survived him. Sir Joseph 
directed ;^20,ooo India Stock to be given to the Commissioners of 
the National Debt as a sinking fund, upon which Lord Mansfield 
remarked that " he might as well have attempted to stop the middle 
aich of Blackfriars Bridge with his full-bottomed wig!" This 
the Government appears to have perceived, and hence restitution of 
a portion to the family. 

" 1774.— Took degree of B.A. 

"1775. — Began taking notes in Westminster Hall. Went to 
filois to learn French.' 

•• 1776.— My father died." 

^777- — (M.A. degree.) 

1778. — (Mr. Jekyll was called to the Bar on May 30.) 



' Now Ihc property of J. W. Cariile, D.L., J. P. 
JttUice Wrighte 

■ Eliubcih ; th( nasmcd — Lodcwood, Esq. 
' He went io March 1775. 



IVurt reboih by Locd 



350 



The Gentleman's Magazine, 



" 1784.— On the General Election, attended Mr. Popham at 
Taunton, &c Became acquainted with the Prince of Wales. Pitt, 
too, at Brighton, on bad terms with the Prince. I often rode and 
dined with him, and the Prince attemately. Had known Pitt 
intimately before. 

"1787. — Offered seat at Calnc' by Lord Lansdovne, and 
accepted it. First attack of gout at thirty-four. 

"1790. — Elected F.R.S.' Went to Normandy and France. 
Received by Mirabeau. Made F.S.A.' 

" 1791-3. — Visited France. 

"1793. — Wot declared with France* by Mr. Pitt 

" 1794. — Rode «,3oo miles this year. Spoke frequently in 
Parliament. Bought my Chambers by Lincoln's Inn for ^£^500. 
.Member of Inner Temple. Great increase of circuit business/ 

" 1798. — First acquaintance with MissSloane. Nelson's victory."* 

"1801. — Proposed marriage to Miss Sloane. August i8th,^ 
married Miss Sloane. Took a house in Spring Gardens." * 

Anna Maria Sloane was the only daughter of Colonel Hans 
Sloane, of South Stoneham, and Paultons, Hants. Her mother's 
maiden name n'as Elizabeth Fuller, only daughter of John and 
Elizabeth Fuller, of Rose Hill, Sussex. Besides Anna Maria, there 
was a son, William Sloane Stanley, who married, in 1806, Lady 
Gertrude Howard, daughter of the fifth Earl of Carlisle. With 
Miss Sloane Mr. Jekyll acquired a large fortune, and, what was 
better, a most loving, congenial partner. 

" 1802, September 23rd. — My son Joseph bom. 

" 1804, February 6th. — Edward bom, my second son. 

" The Prince of Wales named me Solicitor. Gibbs did not 
resign. 

" 1805, Jantiarj' 28th. — Was appointed same." (He was also made 
King's Counsel, and Commissioner of Lunacy.) 

" On Circuit Wrote the ' Teais of the Cruets.' Elected Bencher 
of Inner Temple. 

" 1806.— Mr. Pitt died. 

" The Prince wished me to be Attorney-General ; but Yarrow 
made instead. 

" 1 80S. — My wife's health much declined. I was much at home. 

* Tbb seal be held from August to. 1787. to Febnuiy 23, 1S16. 

' June 3, 1790. • December 16, 1790. • Against the Repablic. 

* His practice was on the Wcstcia Circuit, and la the Ccmn of King's Dcach. 

* The Baltic of the Nile. 

* Manled at Sootb Slooeham. Hants August tS, tSoi. ■ No. tz. 



Jekylliana, 



351 



Sunday, Norember 6, my wife died. November 12 she was 
deposited in the vault of St. Martin's Church. December 25 ; A 
Christinas Day of grief and wretchedness." 

In another MS. Mr. Jelcyll says bis lA-ife was " buried in the 
north-east recess of the vault under the Church of Saint MartinVin- 
the-Fieldson Saturday, November 12, 180S, aged 35 years." 

Mr. Jekyll has left a most pathetic account of the gradual fading 
away from ill-health of his wife, and his efforts to avert it, too sacred 
to be placed here, but in possession of his eldest grandson. This 
proves that the most clever lawyer, brilliant wit, and inimitable 
raconteur of his time, acknowledged by all as a man of the world, 
had a true and hearty affection for his wife and the joys of happy 
domesticity. After her death he became the most devoted of fathers. 
To supply, in a manner, a mother's surveillance and care, he looked 
out for a lady -housekeeper and superintendent for the children, and 
in 1S09 we find this entry: ** Mrs. Bird has agreed to live with nte 
in order to take care of my two boys." 

" 181 1.— rut Joseph to Westminster School Mr. Hill died 
April 38 ; left me and my heirs the Wargrave Estate after his 
widow's demise." 

Mr. Joseph Hill was Cowper's friend and benefactor. "The 
honest man close-buttoned to the chin, broadcloth without, and a 
warm heart within." His reason for leaving thus Wargrave (or 
Wargrove, as it was often spelt then) Hill, Berks, Is thus accounted 
for by Mr. Jekyll : *' Sir Joseph Jckyll's, Master of the Rolls', mother 
was a widow Hill; she had a son by her former marriage who became 
secretary to his half-brother when Master of the Rolls. He was 
grandfather to Joseph Hill, of Wargrave Hill, who, having no nearer 
relationship, left the property to self and heirs." 

Mr. Hill was 77 when he died. He had two sisters, Theodosia 
and Frances, but they had recently predeceased hira under very 
sad circumstances. Their description by Miss Mitford,' in her 
" IJtcrary Recollections,'* is so striking that 1 insert it. She 
says : '* In early youth I was well acquainted with two old ladies, 
Mrs. Theodosia and Frances Hill, sisters to the 'Joe Hill,* the 
(avourite and constant friend, who figures so frequently in Cowper's 
correspondence. These excellent persons lived at Reading,* and 
were conspicuous through the town for their peculiarities of dress 
and appearance. Shortest and smallest of women, they adhered to 
the costume of fifty years before, and were nwer seen without the 



' MUs Mitrortl, bora 1749. died 1855. 

* In Friw Sueet, I7 two ktten I bare of theirs. 



V'id4 note farther co. 



35« 



The Gentleman s Alagazine, 



high-Iappeted caps, the enormous hoops, brocaded gowns, ruffleVt 
aprons, and furbelows of our grandmothers. They tottered along upon 
high-heeled shoes and flirted fans emblazoned with the history of 
Paraela. NcvcrthclL'ss, such was the respect commanded by their 
thorough genlihty, their benevolence, and their courtesy, that the 
very boys in the streets forgot to laugh at women so blameless and 
eo kind. 

"An old housekeeper who had been their waiting maid for half 
a lifetime, partook of their popularity. Their brother and his wife 
inhabited a beautiful place ' in the neighbourhood (afterwards 
bequeathed to the wiggish wit, Joseph Jekyil), and until the sisters 
approached the age of 80 nothing could be smoother than the 
current of their calm and virtuous lives. At that period, Mrs. 
Theodosia, the cider, sank into imbecility, and Mrs. Frances, a 
woman of considerable ability and feeling, broke all at once into 
incurable madness. Both were pronounced to be harmless, and were 
left in their own house with two or three female servants who had 
lived with them so long. For a considerable time no change took 
place ; but one cold winter's day their faithful nurse left her younger 
charge, Frances, sitting quietly by the parlour fire, and bad not gone 
many minutes before she was recalled by sudden screams, and found 
the poor manbc enveloped in flames. It is supposed that she had 
held her cambric handkerchief to air within the fireguard, and had 
thus ignited her apron and other parts of her dress. The old servant, 
with true womanly courage, caught her in her arms, and was so fear- 
fully burnt in the vain endeavour to extinguish the flames, that she 
expired even before her mistress, who lingered many days in dreadful 
agony, but without return of recollection. The surviving sister, 
happily unconscious of the catastrophe, died at last of mere old age. 
This tragedy occurred not many years after the death of Cowper." 

Now Cowpcr died April 25, 1800, and in the first letter 1 possess 
of the two sisters, written on July 14, iSoo, and signed "Th. and F. 
Hill," they say, writing to Mrs. Hill, their sister-in-law: 'MVc feel 
very much inclined to accept your obliging invitation, the more so as 
we fear the additional cares our dear brother will be involved in by 
the death of bis truly good friend will prevent his settling soon at 
Wargrave." This is evidently alluding to the death of Cowper. The 
second letter is dated January 20, 1805, in the same writing, and is 
most sprightly and cleverly written, so that misfortune bad not then 
marked them for her own, and therefore the tragedy of their ettd 
must have only recently taken place before the death of their brother. 
' Wttfcmve Hill. 



Jekylliana. 



353 



These letters were found with some of Mr. Hill's, Mrs. Tickell's 
(Mrs. Hill's sister), and a few others — oddly enough one from the 
writer's ancestress, Mrs. Jane Robinson, mother of the second and 
third Barons Rokeby — in the roof of Wargravc Hill, in 1856. 

Mr. Crabb Robinson, who was clerk to Mr. Joseph Hill, says, in 
his " Recollections," that " he had a general law practice, but was 
steward to several noblemen. All that I had to do was to copy 
letters, make schedules of deeds, and keep accounts." 

To return to Mr. Jekyll's notes : 

" 1813. — Lived much in general society." 

A letter to Mr. Rogers the poet will show how grateful Mr. 
Jekyll was for any kindness to his children : 

"My dear Rogers, — Among many others, no characteristic 
of your disposition is more prominent than that of kindness to 
children. 

" 1 thank you a thousand times for your continued kindness to 
mine. 

"The poor little fellows write me a letter of gratitude to you for 
Monday night's amusement 

" Here am I in the midst of tumult, and heat, and contention, 
but not so occupied as to be insensible of your remembrance of me. 

" Yours most truly, 
"Exeter Assizes, "Joseph Jeicvll. 

"Aug. 6, 1814." 

** 1814. — At the Fete of Guildhall to the two Sovereigns on 
Peace* 

"iSig. — Sworn into Mastership in Chancery by death of 
Master Morris." 

Lord Eldon, then I-ord Chancellor, had doubts as to the 
suitability of Jekyll for a Mastership in Chancery, and the Prince 
Regent, with whom Jekyll was a great favourite, is said to have 
forced his way into I.ord Eldon's bedchamber in Bedford Square, 
and, seating himself on the bed, exclaimed, " How I do pity Lady 
Eldon ; she will never see you again, for here I remain till you make 
Jekyll a Master in Chancery ! " 

"June 18, 1815,— The day of the Battle of Waterloo.^ I was 
dining at Mr. Bochm's with the Prince Regent, lx)rd and Lady 
Castlereagh, and Lord and Lady Maryborough, when the despatch 
waa brought us by all the Ministers. The Prince Regent was 
singularly affected by the details of the killed." 



■ The Emperor of Rustia and King of Pms»a. 



■ June 18. 



354 



The GentleTHan's Magazine, 



1816. — Mr. JeVyll became Treasurer of the Temple, Of 
year he says : "Sold my chambers for^r.ooo ; gave j^^soo for then 
Resigned my office as Attorney-General. Vacated my seat 
Parliament (Calne). Joseph (his eldest son) very HI. July 19: Carried 
a motion to repair and beautify the Temple Hall. November i 
Mr. Smirke ^ finished the Temple Hall." 

" Mrs. Tickel! died." 

Mrs. Tickell, the sister of Mrs. Hill, of Wargrave Hill, was the 
widow of the Rev. John Tickell, Rector of Gawslhorp, Cheshire^ 
and East Mersey, Essex, who resided at Wargrave, and was tutor 
to Lord Barrymore and other young men of quality. He. 
in iSoo. 

*' 1817.— Princess Charlotte died." 

1818. — Mr. Jekyll had a cruise in Mr. Baring's yacht They 
visited Weymouth and Lulworth Castle." Spent one night in 
Swanage Bay, and from there visited Corfe Castle, and Mr. Bankcs, 
the owner, at his other seat at King's Weston. 

"1821. — Joseph entered Christ Church, Oxford.* Visited Mrs. 
Hill on our way. May 18 : Joseph admitted at Inner Temple; keg 
term. 

" August 7.— The Queen's death.* 

" i8aa.— Had an apoplectic fit coming home from AVhite's. Blc 
by Freeman profusely, a stupor of 17 hours. 

" May 8. — Edward (his second son) went to Oxford Resigne 
my office, but resignation not admitted till Dccumber 4, i8»j 
Pension arranged. 

"1823, July 10. — Edward received his commission in 86fl 
Regiment. I paid ^^450 for it. Gazetted on iQlh. 

"October 11. — ^Joseph's coming of age kept at Paultons." 

Joseph's real birthday was on September 33. Paultons was 
seat of Colonel Sloanc Stanley, brother-in-law to Mr. Jekyll, whose 
wife, l.ady Gertrude, was Jekyll's great friend, and with whom he 
kept up a lively correspondence, which has been published by 
Hon. Algernon Burke in 1894. 

Mr. Jekyll is said to have been "more than usually fortuiiatc tn 
his sons." Both Joseph and Edward possessed in a great degree 
their father's wit and vivacity. Joseph was strikingly handsome — 
dark hair, marked eyebrows, and blue eyes, and was so beautiful & 

' He was ihe •ichilect. ' The scat of the Weld finnily. Dorset «.IiiTr. 

* Joscf^ look M.A. degree, wu made F.R.S., and leccived a djfdo ma in 
meilicine. 

* The anfortUDrnte couort of G«or|e IV. 



Jekylliana 



355 



child that bis portrait was taken representing him seated on an 
upturned wheelbarrow outside a cottage door, one finger uplifted, 
a dog by his side, and a cat approaching. This print, coloured and 
uncoloured, is sltll sold in London, and under it is engraved " A 
son of Mr. JekylL" A cheaper engraving of the same is occasionally 
met with, called " Papa's Pet" 

Joseph Jckyll, jun., had an intense love of chemistry, and was 
one of the first disciples and patients of Dr. Hahnemann, the Father 
of Homoeopathy. Of this system old Jekyll observes : " Dr. Quin 
a disciple of Hahnemann. Dr. Wolff, of Dresden, sent Joe a box 
of globules ; each phial had i,ooo in it, 300,000 in all, in 1833." 
Dr. Hahnemann's writing was as minute as his globules ! 

** October 30.— Edward departed to Armagh to join his r^ment. 

" December 4. — Dined with his Majesty. 

" 1824, May ao. — The Athenaeum (Club) founded. Committee 
met at my house." 

Mr. Jekyll was the prime promoter of this now celebrated 
Club. 

"July 2.— Joseph airived ; rowed from Oxford." 

His father is amused at liis costume ; in one of his letters he 
says: "Joseph rows in a hint shirt on the Tliamcs !" What would 
the old gentleman have thought of the coats, &c, of many colours 
worn by our rowing men now ! 

" July 28. — Embarked mth Joseph at the Tower in a steamboat 
to Calais. Took eleven hours. 

"August 17.— Chamounix. Joseph ascended Mount Blanc. 

*' October 22. — Returned to London, much benefited by tour 
in France^ Switzerland, and the Italian Lakes. 

"October 26. — Joseph elected to the Athenaeum. 

October 11.— Mrs. Sarah Hill, widow, died at Wargrave Hill, 
so Mr. Jckyll now came into full possession of that beautiful 
property left to him by Mr. Hill. Of his positive hatred of country 
life we shall soon mention. His next entry is : 

"December 15.— Wargrave plate and books sent to town. 

" 1825. — }x;ased Wargrave Hill to Mr. Hussey, having sold the 
old furniture there. 

" 1826, November 20.— Joseph began to reside in the Temple. 

"1827, January 5. — The Duke of York' died, aolh: At 
Funeral. 

"April 28.— Dined with the King. 

"July 9. — Joseph three days at Margate with Flint." 
* Sceottd soQ of Geor^ IIL 



356 



The GenilemaiCs Magazine. 



This was Sir Charles William Flint, Resident Sccretar>' of the 
Irish Office, He had been in the Foreign Office, had acted Secretary 
to Mr. Wickhnm in Switzerland, &c., and afterwards as confidential 
assistant to Mr. Canning. In 1798, from his great knowledge of 
French, Lord Grenville suggested his appointment as Superintendent 
of Aliens, in which position he became intimately acquainted with 
the Duo de Bourbon. Sir Charles was of an old Scotch family 
seated in Clackmannanshire, and married Anna Maria Seton, fourth 
daughter of Daniel Seton, Governor of Surat. Joseph Jekyll, jun., 
eventually married in December 1S37, their only daughter, Anna 
Louisa Flint. Mrs. Joseph Jekyll, jun., after her husband's death, 
which occurred in i84r, married secondly the Hon. Spencer 
Dudley Montagu, youngest son of the fourth Baron Rokeby, and 
became mother of the writer of these pages. 

" 1839. — Joseph decided to leave the Templeu 

*' March 26. — Dined with the King. 

"July 25. — To the Royal Lodge, Windsor. The King gave me 
a snuff-box. There till August 7." 

This snuflf-box is of gold, with a beautifully executed mosaic 
picture of poultry let into the lid. 

The following is a copy of a letter of Mr. Jekyll's to his sou 
describing his nsit : 

"My dear Feixow,— A letter from Edward tells mc that it is 
possible you may not leave home on Tuesday ; if so, this letter will 
catch you, and inform you I am well. 

"The King's kindness to me is such, that I cannot yet Icam oa 
what day I am to depart, as he says he is sure the visit does me 
good. I never saw him in better health and spirits. We drive out 
in a mass of pony phaetons, dine cariy, and drive out again In the 
evening. We dine alternately at the Lodge, at the Fishing Temple, 
and in the Turkish Tents, and go on the water. A small and qutct 
*par^. Lord and Lady Conyngham and their two charming 
daughters, Lord Strathaven, the husband of one of ihem, and Lord 
Albert Conyngham, and now and then the Duke of Cumberland, 
join us for a day or two from London. 

"If this reaches you, tell the servants I will write for my horses 
as soon as I can fix a day. 

" Pray write lo me continually from Southampton, Jersey, Sk. — 
in short, wherever you can. It will be ray only pleasure. 

•• Your affectionate father, 

"JOSEPU jEJtyu- 

** Royal Lodge : Siutdmy, Aogost 2, 1839." 



Jtkylliana. 



357 



* 



b 



" 1830, June s6. — Death of the King, 

•• i8j4, March 13.— Joseph's M.A. degree, Oxford. 

" June 5.— Made F.R.S. 

" 1836, Jan. 38.— Death of Lord Stowell, aged 90. 

"July 25. — Marriage of Edward." 

Edwird married Julia, daughter of Charles Kammersley, Esq., 
ihe weU-Iuiown banker, by whom be had four sons and two daughters. 

Here ends the paper of "Reminiscences," but one, entitled 
" Digress," shows the varied and eminent society Mr. Jckyli fre- 
qoented. He says : " From the circumstances of my life, education 
at a public school and a university, a profession of the law, and 
drcuits, and habits of general intercourse for which my constitutional 
viracity fitted me, I have had a very eminent acquaintance, and have 
also enjoyed a real intimacy with many noted persons. In early 
life a school friendship with the son of Barnard, Dean of Derry, led 
me into his father's circle — Sir Joshua Reynolds, Garrick, Coleman, 
and E. Burke. Dr. Johnson and Goldsmith I never knew. At Bath 
I first formed an intimacy with Mr. Wilkes, which continued to his 
death, and, through Lord Sheffield, with Gibbon. At the Bar, I was 
closely connected in friendship with Lords Redesdale, Erskine, 
Ellenborough, Sir S. Romilly, Mr. Bond. 

" In France, with Mirabeau, Talleyrand, and Sidyis. 

" In Parliament with Lords Lansdowne, Holland, D. North ; 
Fitzpatrick, Pitt, Fox, Sheridan, Richardson, Whitbread, Windham, 
Tiemey, Mackintosh, Brougham. With literary and philosophical 
men : Sir J. Bankes, Sir H, Davy, Sir H. Englefield, Ljsons, 
Murphy, G. Coleman, senior and junior, Boswell, Lord Byron, 
Rogers, Dumont, Dr. Ivernois, Bentham, Nares, Tickell, Osgoode. 

" With the stage : Smith, Henderson, Mrs. Abington, J. Kemble, 
Mrs. Siddons. 

" His Majesty George IV. honoured me with uniform kindness 
all my life, and was the best friend I ever had. The Duke and 
Duchess of York admitted me to intimacy and kindness." 

Mr. Jekyll sums up his autobiographical data with this re- 
flection : 

** How short is the biography of a professional man I Educated 
at Westminster School and Christchurch, I travelled, and was called 
to the Bar, and progressively Solicitor and Attorney to the Prince, 
a King's Counsel, Bencher of the Inner Temple, and, finally, % 
Master of Chancery. A Member of the House of Commons for 
lucceasive Parliaments; married, had issue two sons. IJfe has 
therefore been dinded into five periods: ist, School, college, and 



358 



The Gentleman's Magazine, 



foreign travel ; indly, Profession, the world and its pleasures, Parlia- 
ment, politics; jrdly, Matrimony and domestic comforts j 4thly, 
Office, the world of society ; Sthly, Retirement." 

Mr. Jekyll states he was deaf at sixty-five years of age. He had 
many attacks of gout, and at least two or three apoplectic seizures. 
He has left a curious paper coraparing the diflerent advice in medi- 
cine and surgical treatment recommended him by the principal 
medical men of the period. So varied are they in treatment that 
they probably suggested the following epigram : 

A single doclor like a scitUcr plies* 
The patical lingers, and by Inches dies ; 
But two physicians like a pair of oats, 
Convey him quickly to the StygUn shures. 

Another epigram on Dr. Letsom, then a well-known doctor : 

When folks arc sick and scad for me, 
I purges, bleeds, and sweats ihcm. 
If after that they choose to die 
What's that to me ? I Lctsom. 

A chemist of the name of Stringer was annoyed with Mr. Jekyll 
for pronouncing bis name with the g soft. This irritated Jekyll, and 
he said : " Sir, at that rate you must pronounce Ginger in the same 
manner; you must follow the same pronunciation in both instances ; 
either you are Stringer and Ginger (with the g's hard), or Stringer 
and Ginger (with the g's soft)." 

Of all legacies that could be the most inappropriate to such a 
lover of London was that of Mr. Joseph Hill's bequest of the 
AVargravc Hill property. Mr. Jekyll was in that respect of the same 
opinion as Charles Lamb as to the delights of the London streete; 
but with the former this was intensified by his intense love of 
society, and that society of the cleverest and wittiest. 

In 1833 he writes to his sister>in-law, Lady Gertrude Sloane 
Stanley, that " the miseries of life in the country have been fairly 
classed by themselves as— blowing weather ; no fish in the market j 
newspaper not arriving ; window broken in bedroom, glazier fire 
miles off; surgeon eight miles off; a hunting family circle j opera 
eighty miles off; bores on a fortnight's visit, witli a desire to be 
shown the lions in your neighbourhooii ; a rainy day ; last volume 
of your favourite novel in tlie paws of an old lady, who checkmates 
at words of five syllables." 

In another letter of December 16, 1S24, just after coming into 
the Wargrave property, he again writes : '* I don't envy you the 
amusement of selling a house, or repairing a houses or rummaging 



papers. I, too, am bored with removing pktc and pictures from 
Waigraxc Hill, and preparing the place for letting it, as you know 
my detestation of the country, and my opinion that every day spent 
there is a day given to the grave before one's decease," 

He also said that if he was compelled to live in the country he 
would have the approach to the house paved, like the London 
streets, and hire a hackney coach to drive up and down, to look like 
Ix)odon. Though Mr. Hill liked playing the country gentleman for 
a few weeks in the summer at Wargrave, he built the house in a 
complete Ixindon style, with an area under it ; and, as he disliked 
the smell of cooking, he constructed no inner staircase to the base- 
ment storey, and the unfortunate ser^'ants had to carry the dinner 
up and down a very steep stone staircase, which ascended from the 
area into the drive, and in at the front door. This might be 
bearable in summer weather, but was absolutely impossible in frost ; 
and when Mr. Hussey took the house on lease a very awkward 
staircase was constructed inside the house from the offices. Mr. 
Jekyll used to say, for nine months of the year London was the best 
place to live in, and he knew no other better for the remaining three ! 
Later in life he boasts of not leaving London more ihan six months 
during five years. The following paper is his advice to country 
gentlemen : — 

*^JNTERESTJNG TO COUNTRY GENTLEMEN. 

" Mr. Jekyll having witnessed with regret country gentlemen of the 
utmost respectability reduced in their country houses to the dulness 
of the domestic circle, and thereby frequently induced to attempt 
suicide in the fall of the year, or, what is still more melanikol)\ 
driven to invite to their tables those ancient and well-known families, 
the Tags, Rags, the Bobtails, and the Bores, and having observed 
the facility with which the public is supplied with job-horses from 
London and with books from circulating libraries, be has opened an 
office in London for the purpose of furnishing country houses with 
a regular succession of company and guests on the most moderate 
terms. An annual subscriber of thirty guineas will be supplied with 
four guests a wetk, to be changed at the will of the country gentleman ; 
an annual subscriber of fifteen guineas will be supplied with two 
guests, to be changed once a fortnight ; a non- subscriber within 
Iwcnty-fivc miles of Loudon may be furnished with guests by the 
day or the week, upon being answerable for brcikage on the 
road. 

"Mr. Jekyll's catalogue contains an elegant assortment of 6i; 



360 



The Gentlemaiis Magazine, 



guests, ainongst whom may be found 3 Irish peers, 7 Scotch peers^ 

13 poor baronets, 6 yellow admirals, ig major-generals on half-pay, 

who narrate the entire Spanish war, the Dowager-Countess of Cork, 

and 37 fussing dowagers, 314 old maids on annuities, and several 

unbeneficed clerg)-men who play the Hddle ; deaf and dumb people, 

sportsmen, and gentlemen who describe Paris and Fonthill, may be 

had at half-price. They can all play at cards, and generally with 

success of partners, and they have no objection to play in a morning 

during rain. 

" The guests to be fed by the country gentleman as in the 1 

of jobs, and claret to be produced if Scotch and Irish peers are 

required. If any guest is disapproved of, Mr. Jekyll desires the 

country gentleman subscriber will mark * Bore ' against his name \n 

the catalogue, or chalk it on his back when he leaves the house, and 

his phcc shall be supplied by the return of the stagecoach. 

" Society Office, Spring Gardens, 
•' a5th October, 182a." 

In 1818 be had written to his sister-in-law, Lady Gertrude Sloane 
Stanley {vid« "Letters to Her," edited by the Hon. Algemoq 
£urke) : 

" The system of poisoning the guests who infest country houses 
I do not disapprove of, as, generally speaking, these animals invade 
any hole or comer where they see an opening, and, by their talent at 
borings know how to make them. AU I object to is killing them 
like Fulonius, 'behind the anas,' because then, as Hamlet says, you 
may * nose them in the lobby.' " 

Another hit at country Life is contained in the following amusiog 
letter to his friend, Rivcrsdale Grenfell : 

" My dear RiVERSDALE, — As you are unwell, and must therefore 
be out of spirits, and as I am often out of spirits without being un- 
well, I propose to you the following plan, which will no doubt meet 
your approbation. You know it was the custom of Eastern nations 
whenever they were afflicted with any calamity, instead of dissipaiinfl 
their minds wiih operas, plays, balls, routs, &c., to shut tbcmselv< 
up in a Palace of Tears and give a full vent lo llieir griefs. Th 
you will find abundantly confirmed in the * Arabian Nights.' I hav*' 
determined to follow their example, and with your assistance hope 
lo pass as uncomfortable and melancholy a spring as any poor devit 
in the 'worfd. 

*' For this purpose I have bought an estate in the Fens of Lincoln 



" rfii 



Jtkylliana. 




I 



thirc ; it is situated in the most marshy part, where the insalubrity of 
the air is justly famous. It is, in short, the very antipodes of the 
Temple of Hygeia. Nowhere within fifty miles can a single healthy 
lace be met with, thanks to the malaria and the equally destructive 
effects of the numerous country doctors. The house is a Maison 
Carrie of black and sombre brick, faced at the comers with slone ; 
it is aUo somewhat out of repair, the whole appearance so lugubrious 
that at the first view I dubbed it Hyp Hall I have taken consider- 
able pains in laying out the grounds. Formal yew hedges give a 
dismal effect to the walks which is perfectly charming, and I have 
given strict directions to the gardeners to plant nothing in my 
parterre except deadly nightsliade, love lies bleeding, hemlock, 
henbane, and other gloomy and death-bearing plants. The long 
walk is terminated by a straight and stagnant canal, at the side of 
which I have judiciously placed a hat, thereby producing a pretty 
effect of suicide. The company you will find assembled will, I 
Ijust, ensure our comfort. I have so selected it that I do not think 
we can be disturbed by a single moment of hilarity. 

*' It consists of two unsuccessful lawyers, three bankrupt stock- 
jobbers, an author whose tragedy has been lately damned, four county 
members who voted on the wrong side of Reform, and six elderly 
^insters who have only just relinquished all hopes of matrimony, 
and are still doubting whether they shall betake tliemselves to cards, 
blueism, or the bottle. I intend that we should pass the day in the 
following manner : Rise late, as that ensures a certain fiow of bad 
spirits for the rest of the day. After breakfast I propose an airing ia 
carnages, so constructed as to resemble as near as possible hearses. 
The inter\'al between retnrn, and dinner, should be passed over some 
dull book, such as Hallam's ' Middle Ages,' Southey's poems, or 
most of the modern novels. The dinner will consist of everything 
indigestible in or out of season, for reasons too obvious to mention, 
and here I cannot help disclosing a contrivance of which I take the 
entire credit to myself. It is this : if at any time during dinner the 
slightest approach to a smile should appear on the visages of my 
guests, or any one of them should betray the least symptom of 
vivacity, I have directed my butler to give him or her thus offending, 
15 grains of ipecacuanha in his next gloss of wine ; tliis, by produc- 
ing a slight nausea, instantly reduces him to a proper standard of 
gravity. The only spirituous drink I admit is Blue Ruin, and the 
only wine Lachrima Christi. After our repast each promotes the 
coDviviality of the evening by on accoimt of his misfortunes. Should 
any person prefer a game of cuds, I propose ' Commerce,' as it 
VOL, ccxci. NO. josa c c 



362 



The Gentleman s Magazine, 



invariably puts one in mind of the necessity of dying — a perfect 
Memento Mori. Dice I also permit, shaking the bones being as 
nearly allied to a skeleton, not to mention that we have all dedicated 
ourselves to the * Dice Manibus,' We conclude the miseries, instead 
of the pleasures of the evening, by wishing one another a bad night, 
and each rejoices himself with the delicious prospect of a nightmare. 
" I can only press my invitation by assuring you that nothing shall 
be spared to ensure your uncomfurts, and thus as Byron has said, 
'Sorrow is knowledge/ you shall return the most miserable and 
wisest of imaginable mortals." 

So little did any charms of rural life appeal to Jekyll, that he 
even boasted of Joseph, his eldest son, having a hereditary love of a 
metropolis "and thinks rustication has no vitality, and could not 
be revived by the Humane Society." No doubt much of Mr. Jekyll's 
dislike of the country was caused by the dulness of the ordinary 
country gentleman ^unable to see a joke, much more to reciprocate 
with another. This Prince of Wits and professional diner-out 
required the emulatory scintillations from other clever men to draw 
him out, like a remark he made on the meeting of a Lady SUeJt, 
Tom Steele's daughter-in-law, and Lady I^iint, both staying at 
Chantilly, and both remarkable for beauty, that " the meeting of 
two such ladies musi have supplied them with sparks enough I " 

On the subject of dinners he remarks: "On the worst sort of 
dinner " — " A dinner of unacquainted creditors made to repay the 
various Rosencrantzs and Guildenstems, to whom a dinner is 
respectively owed." 

" A dinner of those who live much together. 

"A dinner of inferiors. 

"A dinner of relations only. 

" A dinner of country neighbours come to town." 

The best sort of dinners : 

"A tUe-h-titt with an intimate. 

"A dinner of four or six clever men well acquainted." 



ANALYSIS OF DINNERS. 

Eighteen Miseries of Large Dikners. 

1. Famine, or loss of appetite from a late anccrtaia hour. 

2. Waiting for the last guest. 

3. Want of attendants. 

4. A place near the door, with the wind E.N.G. 



Jefyliiana, 



3^3 



5. Shyness and dulness of your two unknown neighbours. 

6. Cuving a popular dish, while your 6sh grows cold. 

7. Impatience of tired servants, to deprive you oi your plate. 

8. Dead silences. 

9. Conversation in chorus. 
•-' zo. Incredible narrations. 

iz. Talk firom the morning paper. 

12. Common events quoted as singular. 

13. Account of last summer's tour to Paris or Rome. 
Z4. Praises by the host of his own wine and cookery. 
Z5. Disputations without reasonings. 

16 Ditto verified by acts. 

Z7. A walk through snow to your carriage. 

x8. Indigestion, and contrition for the irreparable loss of four 
hours 1 

To No. 2 of this list may be quoted that when a dinner was 
given to Sir William Scott on his being made Lord Stowell, for some 
reason he was very late, and the guests all impatient ; on his being 
axmounced, Jekyll said : " Well, I am sure we are all very glad to see 
the late Sir William Scott appear ! " 

The fdlowing comic bill of fare is very amusing. Some of the 
dishes I have made out, and I would fain be enlightened upon others. 
It must be remembered that at the period we are writing about most 
of the dinner, with the exception of the dessert, was placed on the 
table at the same time : 

"The Bill of Fare for a Dinner. 



Roasted Furrows. 

A Dutch Prbce 
in a Pudding. 



isi Course, 

Melancholy Soup, 

with Crooked Sarah. 

Pride reversed 
in a Pie. 



Bullets midressed. 
A Blockhead hashed. 



The Legs of a 
Comcutter 
boiled with Diamond weights. 



Divine Part of 
a Man boiled. 



2Hd Course, 
Venus' Guides. 



The first Temptation 
in a Small Wind, 
cc a 



3^4 



Tht GeniiematCs Magantu, 



Part of the 
Zodiac buttered. 



Rove Jack. 

The Grand Seignior's 

Dommions Larded. 



The Dessert. 



An unruly Member, 
garnished with 
perpetual motion. 



The Loss of a Wife, 
and the Gain of a Husband 
in Jelly. 
The Reward Some Hundreds 

of a Soldier. and Thousands, 

Cows* Provender, with 

Half Gooseberries. 
Busybodies. Couples. 

Sorrowful Apples, 
garnished with Bold Wives. 
A Bottle of Hill top. (MounUin) 

A Bottle of Bag. (Sack) 

A Bottle of Tarbay. (Port) 

A Soldier's Habitation in 

War, with a Girl in it. (Tent, with a toast in it.)" 

Of these comical names I can only make out " A Dutch Prince 
in a Pudding," Orange Pudding ; " A Blockhead hashed " of course 
is CalTs Head hashed ; " Divine Part of Man," Boiled Sole ; " The 
First Temptation in a Small Wind," Apple Souffle ; " The Grand 
Seignior's Dominions larded," Larded Turkey; "An Unnily 
Member," fire, Tongue and Brains ; " Part of the Zodiac," &c, is 
Buttered Crab, an old-fashioned dish. " Busybodies," Medlars, and 
"Couples," Pears; "Sorrowful Apples," Pine Apples; but "Bald 
Wives " is beyond me, and must be left to the reader to determine. 

U^en Pitt taxed, in 1805, salt and vinegar, Mr. Jekyll wrote the 
following : 

THE TEARS OF THE CRUETS. ON TAXING SALT AND 
VINEGAR. 

Two sullcy Salt-C«UaLis contrived to mett, 
A pcTuive pcppci-boic ia Downing SUect, 
And there convened In factious curuultatlon 
The motley emeu or AdminutimtiQiu 
Old Melville'* mustard-pot refused to come, 
HaegU, and trotters, kept him well at home, 
rUl'i pecrish vincg&r made no delay, 
Nor the smooth tuteleis oil of Castlece^h ; 



JefyUuma. 365 

Tbe sngu castiv WUbcribcee sappHed, 

Aad pceadwd like Follax at his Castor^ ade. 

Mudi Salt complained, and Vin^ar dq>loced 

Tlw tax that forced them from the pauper's board ; 

Madi caised the comitij gentlemen, whose bags 

Shnmk at the taxing of the Farmer's nag% 

Who left poor Vinegar like mmom, and malt. 

To share the grierances endured hf Salt, 

Not Attic Salt, for Billy Hit, they knew. 

Had not an ounce crf'that ^oo^ al bis crew. 

Cursed old George Roa^ irtio stated from his Cook, 

How little Salt his Hampshire Baoxi took. 

Salt to his porridge George had got before, 

Nor cared what sufiiani^ public porridge bare 1 

■* What honest humble sauce can long enjoy 

*■ This &ir security (cried gloomy Soy) ; ** 

Catchup, perchance, may 'scape the luckless hour. 

So many mushrooms now have place and power. 

Finance's pettifogging pickling plan, 

May strike at onions, and excise cayeime ; 

While stamped and annual licence must be got. 

For all who relish garlic, and chalot. 

Poor Barto Valle, melancholy Bu^css I 

>^ctims of IHtt, and Huskisson, and Sturges, 

Ah, look not sour, for Pitt, serene and pladd* 

May tax sour looks, that universal add I 

Ah, drop no teats, for Billy won't relax. 

And tears are Salt, and liable to tax t 

So wailed the cruets till the meeting dosed. 

This rest^ntion Salt at length proposed : — 

That Vinegar and he should jointly sport 

A new sance piquante for the <* Truth Report** 

Mumm was a species of fat ale, brewed from wheat and bitter 
herbs, unknown to the present generation. Twining was then the 
great tea merchant of the day. Mr. Jekyll wrote on him : 

It seems as if Nature had planned 

That names should with callings agree. 

Thus Twining the tea man who lives in the Strand, 

Would be fVining if robbed of his Tea. 

On receiving from Lady Flint a quarter of a small pig, a fiftvourite 
dish of his, he replies thus : 

"It surprises me to discover that a generous enemy and a 
generous friend are the same thing, as they both give quarter 1 

" Yours thankfully, 

" Pygmalion." 

Lord Chief Justice Kenyon, whose parsimony was well known, 
livedinalargegloomy bouse in Lincoln's Inn Fields. Of this bouse 



366 



The Centlvtiafis MagaEine, 



JelcyH observed that, all the year round, it b ** Lent in the kitchen 
and Passion week in the parlour." At this some one said that, though 
the fire was dull in the kitchen grale« the spits were bright. ** It is 
quite irrelevant," said Jekyll, " to talk about spits, for nothing turns 
on them." On the same Lord buying a second-hand suit of clothes, 
and finding a pocket-handkerchief left in a pocket, Jekyll declared it 
was the very first he ever had. 

To a Welsh Judge notorious for his great greed of office and his 
Kant of personal cleanliness, complaining to Jekyll as to his being 
neglected, the latter said in his most amiable tones : ** My dear sir, 
you have asked the Minister for almost everything, why don't you 
ask him for a piece of soap and a nailbrush? " An attorney named 
Else, rather diminutive in his slature, and not particularly respectable 
in his character, once met Jekyll. "Sir," said he, "I hear you have 
called me a pettifogging scoundrel ? Have you done so, sir ? " 
" Sir," said Jekyll, with a look of contempt, '* I never said you were 
a pettifogger, or a scoundrel, but I said you were ' little Else.' " 

In 1843, during a waltz at a ball at Hatfield House, Lord 
Grimston— afterwards Earl of Verulara— clumsily upset the aged 
Marchioness of Salisbury, upon which Jekyll wrote the following 
upon a leaf in his pocket-book : 

ConsCTvalives of Ihtiield Honse 

Were surely hArum-scanim, 
What could leforining Whigs tlo worse 

Than knocking down old Sanun? 

This is said to have been one of the earliest instances of the use 
of the word " Conservative." 

And now these few remaining scraps of Jekyll's wit draw to an 
end, and I wind up with his lines on the two Hcr\-eys : the writer 
of the ** Meditations " and the inventor of *' Harvey's Sauce:" 

THE TWO HERVEVS. 

Two Hervcys had il tnulual wi&h 

To thine in sejxirate stations. 
So one invented "Sauce Toe fish," 

The othct '• MeditalioDSi." 
Thus each his pungent povtcr applied 

To «d the dead and d>-ing, 
This relishes a Sole when &ied, 

That savu a Soul fioni frying. 

Mr. Jekyll died on March 8, 1837, in his eighty-fourth year. 

KUILV J. CtltfSNSOM. . 



ITAUAN CRADLE-SONGS. 



T 



HE giaries of 



I 
I 

P 



I 



et hure ftded; oo the hilluips cjpresscs 
iund oat agiisisc tbe ttiU goldea Ay, taD and itn^ l&e 
tapering spires ; olive grores dummer, a sea of silver in the eremng 
breeze ; sosae fknren give out a sweeter fzagranoe io the ooder air, 
while others — snch as the morning glories creepn^ op ^^perptia — 
dose their petab; and seem to go to sleep ; from amot^ the trees 
come sufc i wi tte iiu^ and rastlbgs, telliiig of modter-faicds gathering 
their nestHogs ooder their wings ; even the pilK^ shriJl notes grow 
more subdued, as daylight rapidly declines, Tor in Southern lands 
there is oo long lingering twilight as in tbe North, no prolonged 
after-glow ; darkness Calls suddenly, succeeding the brilliance in the 
West without warning, diO[^ing swiftly like a curtain orer alL With 
the darkness the silence comes, and soon a great peace, a brooding 
stillness envelops the land. But gradually, throughout its length 
and breadth, from stately palaces and bwly cottage homes, there rises 
in the night a strangely sweet sound, a rocking of cradles and 
women's voices singing tender lullabies. All sleep, but mothers 
wake everywhere at their posts ; from the burning shores of Sicily 
to the snowy mountains of Piedmont, the air vibrates with the 
beautiful melodies of the ninne-nanne^ the cradle songs of Italy, 
handed down from generation to generation, dating so far back ihat 
their origin is lost in tbe mists of antiquity. All the poetry of the 
race, all the pent-up love of mothers' hearts for ages past, alt their 
patience, endurance, self-abnegation, and devotion arc contained in 
these songs; everything that is best and sweetest in human life lies 
10 these cadences ; to study them is to study the heart of the people 
itself, its religion, its hopes, ambitions, and renunciation. Many of 
them are not to be found in print, and can only be culled from the 
1^ of the singers ; eacli province, each district, e\'cry dialect has its 
own special renderings ; the broad lines are more or less alike, the 
differences lying chiefly in minor characteristics ; the melodies too 
resemble each other— slow, sof^ with long drawn out notes, and 
pathetic ritorndli. 




368 



The Geniletnan*s Magazine. 



Having collected many of these ninrunanne From different 
sources, I venture to think a few specimens may interest English- 
women, for the mother-heart is the same all the world over: north 
and south, east and west, llie mothers of all lands will feel their 
hearts vibrate with that supreme touch of nature which makes all 
the world akin — in the mother's love and yearning which rings out 
in every note of these Italian lullabies. 

Even in Dante's time these songs went by the name of ninm- 
nanne: thus in the " Purgatorio " (Canto XXIII.) he speaks of: 
" Colui che mo si consola con lunna " (" He who is now hushed 
with lullabies"), and Jacopo dj Todi has the beautiful lines: 
*' Cullava il bambino, E con santc parole Ninruva tl suo amor fino " 
("She rocked the babe, and with holy words, sang her precious Io**e 
to sleep "). The word was probably derived from the Latin naem'a, 
naenium facere, or perhaps from a still older Oriental root, since m 
Japan tlicse songs arc termed nennt to the present day. In some 
parts of Italy, however, the words mnno and n<ntta arc used 
instead of " brother" and "sister," as in the Abruzzi, while in Venice 
ttanna is the endearing term often employed by a lover towards 
his "sweetheart"; hence the term ninnananna has become cor- 
rupted, and is sometimes applied to ordinary love songs. 

It has been touchingly said that cradles resemble nests in every 
clime, from the hanging cradles of wickerwork and sacks of savage 
lands to those of our own country. Kalmucks tine theirs with feltt 
Indians with moss, Virginians with soft cotton, just as birds line 
theirs with down; the princess lays her babe in an ivory gilt ciacUe^ 
richly chased and inlaid, shaded by curtains of priceless lace ; the 
4ontadina in a wicker basket padded with homespun \ but the love 
which prepares these frail nests is the same. 

Among the Italian peasants the cradle is generally low, of wood 
or wicker, with rough rockers, tied to the bedpost or to the back of 
a chair ; the mother rocks it by the cord which secures iL What is 
more touching or sweeter than the picture of a mother singing to 
hush her babe to sleep } In Calabria she holds the child in her 
arms, rocking herself backwards and forwards on a low chair with a 
quick even mm-ement. The slow soft song and regular motion 
generally succeed in soothing and putting to sleep even those chil- 
dren who are not sleepy. So accustomed to this do Italian babies 
become that tliey cannot sleep unless they are rocked and sung \/K 
and ihty themselves when only a few months old will break into % 
cantilena^ a little murmur, if by chance they grow sleepy wben 
mother or grandmother happens to be absent. 



Italian Cradle-Songs. 



369 



In most of these songs, the mother promises her cliild beautiful 
gifts : toys, dolls, woolly lambs, all that goes to make up the joy of 
infantile minds, like the Japanese mother who sings : "Where is 
mother going ? Far away over the mountains ; what shall she bring 
her darling ? The drum /«//>, the trumpet of bambu ! " The poorest 
singer weaves tales of palaces, silken garments, strings of pearl for 
her balie: nothing is too impossible, too extravagant for those who 
will never be more than lowly " sons of the soil." Or she will wish 
her child may some day become a lawyer, general, bishop, or pope ! 
a famous man like Napoleon, or a rich landed proprietor with a 
bouse all marble and gold, and a lovely wife I Every tontadina 
knows how to embroider and improvise as she goes on singing. It 
is a strange fact that few of these cradle-songs are addressed directly 
10 girls; they are generally applicable to boys, whose future glory 
and renown will make the proud mother happy. No epithets are 
too tender, no metaphors too exaggerated to be applied to the child, - 
who is addressed in turn as : "Flower of pomegranate, sugar, sweet 
rose, lily, jessamine blossom, &c." 

I have prefened to give the songs in their native dialect ; to 
attempt an artistic translation of the often beautiful original is 
impossible, and I have accordingly limited m)-self to rendering the 
meaning roughly, but literally. 

Miss Busk, in her " Folk-songs of Italy," gives the following 
Venetian nana : 



7a nana, fiutolia de Ll MAdona, 
Fa nniu, anetna mU, Le mi le 
Tardo. 

F« nana, (Mgnoleto de to tiona, 
£ de to Dooo bel pomelo iguardo, 

Del 10 caro papji speranza tiona, 
Mio gensamin, t. xegio gagurdo 1 

Fk nau ooresin fra nu vegundo 

I^ eiser de San Marco qd lomo 
scuJo. 



Lullaby, child of th« Madonna, 
Lullaby, roy little soul, I am here to 

watch OTcr thee. 
Lullaby, piae cone of thy grand- 
moth ei, 
And of thy £Tvid£ithcr fair ruddy 

apple. 
Best hope of lliy dear fjther, 
My jc&sainine, my beaatifol lily I 
LulUhy, dear little heart, now, so thU 

in time to come 
Thoa mayst be a buckler o( St. Mark. 



This is an instance of a nhma-nanna which is really a clnld's song. 
The allusions arc all so locally characteristic that it is vain to attempt 
a rhyming version of it I will first give a literal translation and 
then explain the allusions : 

Fantoiin — dear little one ; a favourite term of endearment 
Pignoielo, — All over Italy the almonds of the pine cone arc the 
bildren's delight ; the huge fruit is cheap enough. Placed before 



370 



The GentUmans Magazine, 



the fire, or in the sun, it Is a ple^nre to see them burst and pour 
out their treasure. The song implies that the grandmother b sure 
to bring one when she comes to see the child, and the mother calls 
the child by the name of the thing it loves. 

Pomelo sguardo.Sguardo is dialectic for "ruddy." It will be 
observed that in this beautiful lullaby each epithet Is appropriate to 
its special use. The local patriotism breaks forth at the end, and we 
see the sentiments of which the people's character is formed. 

A beautiful example in Venetian dialect is quoted by D. G. 
Bemoni in a pamphlet on folksongs taken down from the lips of the 
people themselves : 



Fkmc U nauie, e ni-na-na de longu, 
Sent i to Dceti e fame un sono longo ; 
Ua sono longo de tuta la note, 
Dio te d^^ alegrena c bona soite ; 
'Na bona soUe, c 'na bona fottuna ; 
La mamma cbe t*a &to x^a lacuiu \ 
La K^ a la cuna, la canta e scozza. 
Sine che no ti donni, no la te lassa. ; 
Se per torlc, el mio ben, me lonUt* 

nasse 
Lasnria Iddto chc la guardia te fiusc. 



Steep, a m-Da-na, a nice long sleep. 

Close thine cjrcs and fa\\ asleep. 

A sleep to last the whole night long i 

God give thee joy and good luck. 

Good luck and good foctune ; 

The mothet who bore thee is by thy 

cradle t 
She** bjr thy cradle to rocJc and to ring, 
Till tbou steep'st, she'll not dcseit thee} 
To God's guiud she »itl leave thee 
Should Fate call her hence. 



This recalls a Danish lullaby, in which the mother sings : "Sleep 
quietly tike a little bird between the leaves, like a flower in the 
shade ; Thy Heavenly Father comes and says to thcc : * I watch 
beside the beds of little children with my holy Angels.' " 

Cannot we imagine how such words, sung in dim-Ut chambers, 
would produce a sense of security, of outspread, sheltering wings on 
the childish mind, and so lull it to sleep ? 

Of another kind are the Sardinian cradle-songSj of which Egidio 
Bellorini gives the following examples : 



Ciutu pUxinau non m moija mmai, 
Mozua n morjat una bitelledda, 
Ca sa biteUa non Ua nunicammus ; 
E 1 8U pixzinna no llu cum.indatnmu5 
£ hi mandammui in goi e in gd. 
Qutu pizzinnu non si moija mmal 1 

Dami so numu, bellilta, bellJIta, 
Dami su manu e ItorramU' a ddare, 
Chi t'app'a ddare conu bntir 'e »eda, 
Una bestir 'e scda, 'e teda biaUu i 
X^toii io mano, bellitta, bcIUlta, 



May this baby never die 1 
Rather kilt the Ibwing calf. 
Since we can it£ flesh devout ; 
But the child we must command, 
And on errands constant send. 
May this baliy never die 1 

Give me thy hand, pretty, prettyt 
Reach it me yet once again ; 
In silken aitiie will I clothe thee. 
In fiUk that's blue ai the Aj. 
Reach ovt khy famd, pretty, pretty 1 



Italian Cradk-Songs, 



3? I 



p 



\ 



Dura, dun, dnru, Ik 1 
Fin b'^ im biau isU, 
Pira b'iil i s» cruun ; 
A echic « ikIc k funi 
Su camba le &t a txcare, 
A cchjc b'it ■ intrare 
Sena Usseiuia mia. 
Pun, dora, flun, Ik 1 



Duni, dnra, dura, Ua I 
Tbcrc's a pear in my vineyard, 
Tbere'i a pcai in the couii, 
Who seeks it to steal 
His leg he will break ; 
My leave he must seek 
\Vbodar«s walk round about there. 
Dun, dura, dura, lu I 



Should ihe child continue restless, turning and tossing, or plain- 
lively CTj'ing, the mother alters her song ; the tones of her voice are 
lowered, and the melody grows crooning, rescmtiliiig the sound of 
rustling, fluttering wings, the murmur of streams, the splashing of 
fountains, such as in the long-drawn a-hvb^ vovif, a/a^, hh, ab, 
cb, b, peculiar to Sicilbn lullabies, and which the eminent folklorist, 
Giuseppe Pitr£, explains thus: ^A/ab, a kind of song used by 
nurses to put babies to sleep ; nanna, Latin : /al/us nuiridum vox ; 
iaih became corrupted into AiA&, and this further into a/^, ailab" 
The Greeks, who inhabited the southern part of the island, were 
wont to call the dawn ftitc, instead of qwc, and the women used to 
sing, "Sleep, my babe, till dawn (<i«c)." 

I ara indebted to Pitr^'s exhaustive collection of folk-songs for 
the following examples of Sicilian ninnc-nannc : 



Ch' i beddu, me (if>hiu, ch' h bcddu, 

c^' k beddu 1 
Avtssi r ati, fo'ra un ac^Ueddu. 
£ vicoi, suouou, c vitru pigliatillo, 
Tieoilu quiuta nio, pcd tomamiUu, 

E a-u-e. ; 



A-h*)6, beddn h me figghia t 
La so &uduiza h come lu gigghiu ; 
A-U-16, beddru ^ lu unmu 
Cv* ti la misi, 1* ODcili Ib'n ; 
E li la mi&i )u capfMlIaoii, 
La stola, 'coddru, c lu libbru a li 
mann. 

A-la-16, lu santu tunau, 
Lu pairiDeddrti I& mma eantau 
E U eantau a 1' artan tnajiigiuri ; 
Dormi uu figghiu eon In Sienuri. 



Lovely, lovely U my son I 

Possessed be IxJt wings 

An angel he'd make. 

Come, ilccp, come bear him away. 

Then restore him later to me. 

E aU-^ I 
(Peculiar to Girgenli.) 

A-U-16, my son is a lieaaty t 
Ills &ce is like a lily ; 
His name t$ a charm t 
The angeU bestowed it : 
The priest gave his blessing. 
With bell, book, and stule. 
(rcculiax to Alcamo.) 

A-la-ln, the Sanctns has rang, 
The priest at the allar 
The Mats doth intone ; 
Sleep, baby, sleep with the Lord. 



The "Sanctus" here applies to the ecclesiastical hour of 1 1.30 a.m^ 
which, in the High Mass, is the moment wheo the " Holy, Holy, 
Holy " is sung. 



372 



The GeniUmatts Magazine. 



Ed a>U>l&, bedJra vcntuia, 

Chiuj I'ucchiueri, heddn, ch' h ura ; 

Figghiu, ^ ura di durmiri ; 

Sunnuuu all* oochi t' havi a vinniri. 

Ed 8-la-l6, la beoi nmatu 

*Uq voli dunniri t' on i amUtu. 

Ed a-lB-I6, lu beni meu, 

Ponni sm ligghUi (li quaDtu vol 

Iddni, 
Havi a dunniri &tu plcciliddru. 
Havi a dunniri 'usln' a dotnant. 
'Nsina chi so'nanu li campani, 
, £ ticampani di mcniujormi, 
T)onni sni &gghiu pi tuttu lu jomu ; 
Ed a la.t6 I 



A-la-l&, good fortune awah thee, 

Sliul closely thine cyelid^i and &luitibet; 

'Tis the hour of repose, 

And sleep must seal up thine eyes. 

A-la-16, my heart's own beloved 

Will Dot sleep unless sang to * 

A-la-16, my iweetcst of treasures. 

Sleep wrap tlice as long as I would) 

As long OS I would and God wills ; 

A-la<l6, this baby must slumber. 

Till the church bells In-tnotTow« 

At mid-day with clamour. 

The country-side fill ; 

May sleep thee thus visil, A-la-16. 



It would seem here that the mother claims no small thing ; pro- 
bably she has to accomplish household tasks, for she bids the child 
sleep til! the next day at noon. Throughout Italy the church bells 
ring out at mid-day, whence the interval alluded to is long, and 
means eighteen hours' sleep ! 



Si la mamma lu saprisn, 
D* ont 'i fasci U mitlissi ; 
Si U mamnw lu sapia, 
D* cm *i 6isci li miiliiA j 
E a-)a v6 I 



If mother but knew bow, 

In golden bands sbeM swathe ihee I 

If mother but Itncw how. 

In golden hose she'd clothe thee I 

E a-lA-v6 ! 

<rcca1iar to Marsala.) 



Similar is a ninna-nanna from the Abruzzi : 



G se la oonna lo sapesse 
In bsce d' oro t' infasccria. 
In ctHnooU d' oro li mittiria ; 
Dormi, caro figliu mio ! 



If granny but knew how. 
In golden bands she'd swathe thee, 
In a golden cradle lay ihec ; 
Steep, treasure, sleep I 



This again resembles a Hungarian cradle-song: "Sleep, I would 
thy cradle were of roses, thy robe woven from the rainbow ; that the 
morning breeze should rock thee, lily hands alone should touch thee, 
and bulternies fan thee witli their golden wings." 

An old I^tiii cradle-song, dating back nearly 2,i>oo years,' 
begins : 

Docmi, coi et mcu-s thronus ! Siertiani fxnum vtalis, 
raviroentum hyacinihis ct procscpe Uliis. 

There is a cheerful, yet soothing, ring about this Corsican 
lullaby : 



Kicmt, ninnl, ninna, nanna, 
Kinni. ninni, ninnl, nolal 
Aligrczo di la mamma. 
Addurmcntali, Sgghinolo I 



Hush-a-by, hu ha-k^r I 
Sieejrily no<lj 
Mother's owti joy. 
Sleep, pretty, sleep I 




Italian CradU-Songs, 



373 



The HtUe one contiDumg restless, the song moans through the 
deepening silence of the night : sweet, 6exiblc, with long-drawn 
cadences, harmonious refrains, now gay and trilling, now soft and 
flow. As the mother herself grows sleepy, the words become dreamy : 
itrange associations of ideas, phantasies and rhymes bom of long 
watching, invocations of saints, >Udonnas, and spirits all inter- 
mingled, and the poor weary mother finally is driven to appeal per- 
sonally to the long-desired slumber. The following instances are 
from the Abruizesc of Antonio dc Nino : 



Fitd b ntona, fitti U oaana. 
Fittj la nanna. core di nuunma, 
E se galle non cantasse, 
Mesiaootte non xooasse, 
Tvtia U notle staiia co' U ; 
Domti, caxo figlio mie. 

O Saoone, Suonnr chi de qua passaste, 
De Uu ninnille mi« m' adduouuiaaste ; 
U* addomanoastc chi cosa faccva ; 
r Vt rapose ch' addonni' se voleva. 

Suoaae, Suoane, che vieji de lu moote, 
Che *na paiiucda d' ore d^gllfc 'nfroDte, 
E diglie 'ofronte, ma no' gli Hi' lu 

luaie : 
E piedrille e nllu sa 'ccuniare ; 
£ cUgH^ 'cifronte e ni glie &' la bui. 
E piocirille de la maromii sua. 
E piccirille e graiine s' ha da B, 
Pe', tare gli servU}' alia nuunm^L t 
\ alU mammi, e allu patri sie 
\ pdccirUle e non se vo adduitnire. 



Drow-slly hum, drowsily hum, 
Mother's own darling I 
Yield thee to sleep, 
She watches be&tde thee. 
Heedless of cockcrov, 
Ok midnight alEium. 

Slumber, sweet Slumber, 
Who passest thb way 
And seekest for news of my son, 
Go in peace, be sleepeth anon. 

Sleep, Sleep, that comest from the 

mountains, 
With a golden ball provided, 
Smite him gently on the brow. 
Harm him notr for he is tiny ; 
Smite him on the brow but Ughtly, 
Sparc him to hi-s mother's love. 
Spare him for the future years to come. 
Yean of help to her and father too ; 
He's little now and weakly, 
Send him golden strength In slumber. 



The two following instances are 

O simo, o $6ao, de qua panava, 
E che de ito putelo domandava ; 
£1 domandaTa, cosa cb' el focera, 
E mi go dito che dormir Tolcn. 
O B6no, o tbno, o s6no ingannttore, 
Inganame tto fio per do tre ore. 
Per do Ue ore, per do tre moment]. 

Sperana. mia, spctanca mia de cuna 1 
\Xa mama chc t' ha tatto sc consuma, 
La se coDsumi, e sc va consumando 
£ sto putelo la ghc vt. contflodo. 



Venetian : 

Sleep, Sleep, that hover'st round. 
Looking fot this baby boy ; 
Sleep. I call thee once again, 
Come hither, sweet deceiver ; 
X^re him on to rest 
For hours, by two or thre« I 
Fur moments, by two or lhre« ! 

Hope of my heart, in thy cradle re- 
posing. 

Spue her who bore thee and brought 
ihce to life j 

Tired out and weary she »U I7 thy 
cradle, 

To sing thee to steep counts rtoUiing 
too wearing. 



•'3r4 



Tkt Gentleman s Magazine, 



Docs not an echo of the tired mother's longing for rest break 
through these songs, ever tempered by patient, self-forgetful love ? 
SometimeSi especially in the case of older children being sung to 
sleep, the song takes the form of a legend or carol. The following, 
borrowed from Guastalla, is an instance, and, as Miss Busk says, 
forms "A Holy Family picture in four Unes," These little Sicilian 
songs go by the name of razztumdda : 

Sweet Mary «u wuhing j 

Joseph was hanciog oui the clothe* 

to dry i 
Jesus w&s atrctcluDg Himself oo the 

ground, 
Foff M Ilia Mother willed. 



Monuza la\'ava, 
Giuseppe srinoia, 

Gesii si sUricaTa, 
Ca minna vulia. 



From Pitr^'s Sicilian folk -songs r 



txk Signinizzd, <)uann' tddu jucan 
Saliddu a' nagnunieddu a mintU } 
Tutti ! pizEuddi *i lignu ca truvan 
Tatti *□ forma di cnici li mintia. 



Our Lord when He played here below 
In a corner was ofien enseooced, 
All the pieces of wood lying handy 
Into mystical crosses arranging. 



Venetian, given by D. G. Bernoni : — 



Antoleto che vicn dal paradiso, 
Me savaressi Inaegn&r qualche norela 7 
" Una dona che ii nome Maria Itela, 
In testa porta ana gentil corona, 
In dosso porta on mania cclesttno, 
Ne le so santo Lrarn un bel bambino, 
La lo tien cussl caro e cussl xtrcto 
Che no U pol piii cavarselo dal peto ; 
L' i tanto bel e tanlo grazioseto 
Che par nomc el ac ciama; Gcsb 
bcoedcuo." 



Angel ^r, who com'st from Paradise, 

Canst (hoa give me any news? 

*'I saw Mary, Mother fair. 

On her bead she wean a lorcly crown. 

On bei shoulders bangc a mantle blue ; 

In her arms a Babe reposes, 

Held so close and wamj 

She feais to lo&c him odc« for all f 

His beauty is so sweet and mild, 

Tu the Blessed Jesus Child." 



Another and most beautiful form of mnna-rtanna is that sung at 
the Midnight Mass on Christmas Eve in Sicily, specially in the pro- 
vinces of Catania and Messina. In spite of snow and cold, muddy 
roads and frozen pools, the warm shelter of home is deserted, and 
the churches are crowded with devout worshippers. Mothers' hearts 
beat faster as they think of their own babies sleeping peacefully at 
home in their cradles, while they sing cradle-songs in honour of the 
Child Jesus. The following example is given by Carmelo Grassi in 
an lulian folk-lore review ; so peculiar are the words that no excuse 
is needed for giving the song in full : 

I. Maria Vlrgini onnacannu i. The Virgin thus to Jesos did sing. 

A Gcsucxu &ggbtu so*. When cndlcd, she soothed Him 

G didaccuui cantacDu : to rest : 

• Dormi, figghtu, c A oho« •• Steep, my son, sleep, 

FJk la obJ>, Gcsotiu figgfaiu 1 Sleep, Jesa, my Son, 

Sleep, Jesa, my Son 1 



^^^^^^^^^r Italian Cradle-Songs, 375 ^| 


^M % Chi sta beddi sti nusciddi 1 


X HvK perlect Thy form 1 ^^^^| 


^1 Ch' i amurnsn sla buccucxa 1 


How sweet is Thy mouth 1 ^^^^H 


H Chi su' biuodi iti capiddi 1 


How golden 7*hine hair, ^^^^H 


H Qiunt* h bedda sU focciiBM 1 


How beauteous Tby dee ( ^^^^H 


H Lu min cori pri tia spinna ; 


My hcanbcau are Thioe» ^^^^| 


H Fi lo 6li&, Euniui la oiniu 1 


Slcqi, oh 1 sleep sooa I ^^^^| 


^^^ft 3- Fi^luu, bctldu e picciridda, 


3. Son, still so youthful and ^r, ^^^^H 


^^^V Di stu cori ardcnti sctamma, 


Light of my heart ^^^^^| 


Vcraracnli send friddu : 


Thou scemcst too chill, ^^^^H 


Vcni, abbriziati a la mammi. 


Come, hug tighter Thy Mother, ^^^^H 


Tu tl scarfu a lu miu pcttie ; 


Her heart ts so warm ; ^^^^H 


Vk la ob6, ligghlu dilcitu 1 


Sleep, my Son, sleep 1 ^^^^| 


4* Qtuntu appiro a paruri 


4. Whensliepherds came seeking ^^^H 


Dl ri^lu ti pastun 


Their gifts lo display, ^^^^| 


Tottu a tia lu vogghiu dui 


They offered Thee all ^^^H 


Cu cliivi afTettu « vera amuri. 


With true lure and devotion | ^^^^^| 


Donni danca, dormi tu, 


Sleep, erer sleep sweetly, ^^^^H 


Fi la oh6, figghiu Gesii I 


JesuSf my Soa 1 ^^^H 


5. Tu pri amuti t*ai 'ncarnntu 


5. To flesh Thou dost turn ^^^H 


Di Li pozzi piccaturi, 


In pure love for sinners, ^^^^H 


E cu tutta y omu 'ngratu 


Vet man ungrateful and vile ^^^^H 


MaiKu chianct li so' cmtri ; 


His sios doth ignore, ^^^^H 


Iddi sctalaDU, e tu pati. 


With mockery bold and pen-erae, ^^| 


Chi su' 'ngiuti, cbi su' 'ngrati ! 


Ungrateful rcmatu, ^H 


6. Ma, figghiiuzu* Dun c' i nenii 


6. Butf Son of my love, heed it not 1 ^^^H 


Si noo thianci 1' omu 'ogratu. 


Graceless man no tears may aflbrd, ^^^^| 


L* niatnixza sulameoli 


Thy Mother's fund pity doth mark ^^^^| 


OiropaiUd lu to suta ; 


Thy deep, true abasement on earth % ^^| 


Tu pri 1* autri citiDcir6. 


She weeps when othen no caose ^H 


T^ la ob6. fanimi la ob6 1 


can perceive. ^^| 




Sleep, calmly sleep t ^^^^| 


7. Figghin cam e nicareddu, 


7. Son beloTcd and revered, ^^^^| 


Ora domi senza afbimu, 


Sleep, &ce front torment or fear ; ^^| 


Firchi appressu, o figghiu beddu, 


In days soon to come ^^^^| 


li dulari toi sanannu. 


Thy sufferings draw nigh j ^^^^^| 


Si patiri divi tonlu ; 


Tis Thy lot to endure ^^^^^| 


F^ la oh&, fi^liiuzzu lanlu t 


Sleep, Holy One, sleep 1 ^^^^| 


8. Chi tunnentii ohim^ 1 chi guai 


S. Oh! torments and woei vUl b« ^^^H 


SintiK), chi gran martiri 


mine ^H 


Quannu un joniu mi dirai : 


or martyrdom, all but the death, ^^| 


" Matri raia, vaju a muriie [ '* 


What day Thy lips do proclaim : ^H 


Oh 1 memuna dulenii ! 


■ Mother mine, my death is at ^H 


FJk la oh6, figghiu 'onucentl ! 


hand.* ^^^1 


^^B 


In anguUh I murmtir a prayer, ^^^^H 


^^" 


Sleep, Innocent, sleep t ^^^^| 


H 9. Di r amid lot chiii cari 


9k Friends thoaght so inie and devoted, ^H 


H Satai, Ggghiu, abbaQOimatii, 


My Son, will deaeit Tbee apace, ^H 





■ 37^ Tkt CcniUman's Afagazitu. ^^H 


^^^_ £ viooutQ CQ dintri 


And gnup sordid gold ^^^^H 


^^^fe Da on tnfuni sccUeratu. 


As the piice of Thy tif«. ^^^^H 


^^^H O figghiuzrut com' aj a fiui 7 


How wilt Thou it beoi ? ^^^H 


^^^P Tk U ohb, nun ci pinzaxL 


Sleep DOW, ever sleep I ^^B 


^^^H 10. Figghiubeddu, figghiii amata, 


10. Son holy, beloved, and iroe* ^H 


^^^B Aviiai pi troppi amoii 


Know'st Thou the poiu that await V| 


^^H 'Ntn la casa di PUata 


Thcc 


^^^1 Tanti e tanti batittiuri ; 


When Pilate's dark linnr Thou diaU ^^ 


^^^B Ta r avr6 tia sta mio petta 1 


cross? ^1 


^^^1 Fi la oh&, figghiu dilctin. 


Scourgiogs serere and vnoonnted ^H 




M7SOUI (o'.arlli. ^H 




Sleep, loved one, sleep I ^H 


^^H ■'• Figghiu cara e graudni» 


] I. Son moit graceful and dear, ^H 


^^^1 Sfuititnato ventTDcoti 1 


Then, most truly forsalien and lone ; 


^^^B 1m tu capu gloriusu 


When thorns a rough diadem malce ^^ 


^^^1 FniTiri spini pungenti ; 


As round Thy gruvd brow ^H 


^^H Chi diadema dultmuo 1 


They dunei and prick as a cromi ^H 


^^H Ti ta ohbt figghiu pietan 1 


Sleep, lone one, sleep I ^H 


■ 13. Pri to aSanna e mia iviotarai 


13. To Thy cost and my woe ^^k 


^L Manu e pedi loi virrati 


Thiee naib shall transfix Thee ; ^^ 


^^H Po' satanna io cnci dura 


Feet and bands so ncred and dear 


^^K Da tri chiora trapusati. 


To a bard cross must be strained. 


^^^1 Oh 1 chi aflannu sictir^ 1 


What heartbreak then will be 


^^^1 Fk la oh6, &in(ni U oh6 1 


mine 1 ^^ 




But, steep, now sleep 1 ^^B 


^^^H 13. Pirchi rinnci, D figghia dud? 


13. Why weepest Thou thus, my sweet 


^^H Via, diccUlu a U matnuza t 


Son? 


^^H Funini scntiri sa Tod, 


Come, tell Thloe own Alotber the 


^^^B Fa parrari la. buccucia. 


cause; ^^ 


^^^B Pirchi tagilmi e aigghiuzzu ? 


Let her bear ihc loTcd voice, ^^k 


^^^^^^ F^ la ob6( 6gghiu Gcsuzcu I 


Wiih Thy mouth do but speak, ^^ 




Why dream of tears and deep sobs ? 




Steep soundly, Son, sleep 1 ^B 


^^H 14 A mia lassa lacriniari 


S4. Let roe weep and lament, ^H 


^^^1 Chi scuntenti a)u a vidiri 


Sad and desolate must I heboid ^H 


^^^H A tin, figghiu, cuodaimari. 


Others condemn Tbee. my Soo j ^^ 


^^^1 £ vidiiti muriri. 


Powerless, helpless watch Thee 


^^^B Tb pinzannucd m' acconi. 


expire; 


^^^B Figghiu motUi figghiu mora 1 


My bean bursu with sorrow and 




waibng \ ^^ 




My Son dead, ah t dead 1 ^^k 


^^^^^^ 15, Di p-jt fflurtu, casu r)u I 


15. Then, when Thou*rt dead, ^| 


^^^B Sari V ahnu to eustatn, 


They'll pierce Thy white side-^^^H 


^^^fl Cu duliui e afiEuinu uuu, 


Id pain and in grief I behold j^^^^B 


^^^B Da 'oa landa tnpasato. 


The dread lance they employ |!^^^H 


^^^H Pi on fammi uD suooiccddu, 


But now, slumber on yet for a 1 


^^^^^^ 7k la oh6, figghiuxsu bcdda 1 


while, ^H 




Sleep, belored Soo, sleep t ^^B 



3£. ~ SCK. ] 




0:Ha2 ae T^oae svsSa aid »^ * 

Tim ■■"! jj^ s '^T- 3z ^w _ 




Step, Joe : srAl : deep : 

1& S SEB nsr pi h f-r'T, ^ Her rwrm svss fc^iafja A teC 
DoppB tmsex ^-i '!—-■<: ; A^r lazs hnv bccK Aed ; 

li «» ■c itefii cisc aoK poanE, Ha sjn tax wo wtaxr, 

GA c^mmoM. a p'— ■"■■'. T^ev-x« datisf apao^ 

GiL la ic^is « ■A--«-rr'-rf»»-r, 3C^ ZTT 5oa tieqx, 

O aw DiB. %^aaBB bbci. Mj God, yet vrf Stmt 

1^ (% d «^ on dnKsda 19. Ssm Iw^zATbeeadetp, 

Vqa dnaa s' nrr?n dad. I ler :boae svccs eres m npae^ 

CbsT vn jantz. arz a n£H Bet one diik iaj I slaQ vBftA 

OuBMi s* ocda ss 'as trati * Thoat rnficls m demth, 

Dami m, dn pn Bs'ianCa Ob m crass wi:h agooy fall ! 

L' oedd abbnodum di cluaaiL I Sleep =av tSu: nqr teus fredf 

may fiow." 

As die txanscriber of this soag tniiy savs, it is a unique specimen, 
blending the poetiy of iinsHfish love, which weeps for others who 
cannot we^ for themselTes, with the dramatic mental forecast of the 
Mother who, watching the eyes of the Christ child close in natural 
refreshii^ slumber, sees in this act of nature that daj of gloom and 
agony foreshadowed when she will see those same loved eyes close 
on the Cross. 

But the last echoes of tender voices singing grow fainter and fainter 
and finally die away into silence ; little birds in their nests, covered 
by their mothers' wings, babies in their cradles, flowers among the 
leaves, all sleep. Night, the great healer and restorer, spn»ds its 
shadows over tired nature, and the patient singers lie down to rest 
lulled by their own melodies, for God Himself "givcth His beloved 
sleep." 

B. C. VANSITTART. 



Tco. ccxci. Na ao50b D D 



578 



The Gentleman s Magazine, 



IRONY AND SOME SYNONYMS. 



"A 



DAM'S lirst task was giving names to natural appearances ; 



Carlyle impresses on us the value of having a name for a thing, and 
a thing for a name. And it is not waste labour to make a modest 
attempt now and again to clear our ideas about certain methods of 
expression, of which we have named one at the head of this paper. 
The de6nitions have doubtless been done before; but they are 
hidden away in unknown places. Appeal to the dictionary is some- 
times undigni&ed, sometimes difficult, sometimes disappointing. 
Words— especially of the kind we are dealing with — are always 
drifting from their moorings, and, unless ihcy arc forced oo our 
attention, we find ourselves bewildered by a cliallenge to distinguish 
between wit and humour, irony and sarcasm, satire, cynicism, 
burlesque, paradox, and the rest. Or, if no one is so ill-maimered as 
to challenge, we submit to producing the first that comes, when the 
conversational game obviously requires us to play one, not without 
the uneasy doubt of the half- instructed whist-player deciding to 
discard from clubs rather than diamonds. 

Irony b our subject j but tlie others of our list are so often not 
merely confused in thought, but combined in practice, with it or 
each other, and they so well illustrate its change of meaning, that a 
few words about some of them will not be out of place. 

Wit and humour are a pair constantly found haod-and-gtove in 
reviews and publishers* circulars ; whether the association seri'es 
merely as a sort of intensive reduplication, or is to be taken as a 
recognition that they ore two and not one, is less clear. At any 
rate they are nowadays separate, when we choose to remember the 
feet Many a great wit has exercised his wits on the definition of 
wit. The passage in Sydney Smith is classical, and from his time 
the word may be said to have been confined to " the discovery of 
any relation of iWcas exciting pure surprise." Noting by the way that 
it has travelled some distance from its original meaning of knowledge 
or understanding, we observe as more important for the imoicdiatc 



Irony and some Synonyms. 

contrast that the operation of wit is purely intellectual ; the feelings 
are left alone; the light is 'Mry." So far is this from being the 
case with humour that the feelings arc here both the subject and the 
medium ; and we shall have no bad defmition of humour if, 
adapting the old framework, we call it the discovery of any relation 
xili feelings which excite surprise mingled with emotion. The essence 
of those pas&agcs lo which we feel least doubt about giving the 
epithet "humorous" lies in the detection in unexpected places of 
the touch of nature which makes us kin. " The Luck of Roaring 
Cfunp," with its softhearted rufEan, gives as clear and well-known 
an instance as can be asked. But the unexpected place is as often 
as not our own heart, in which we have revealed to us by some 
sympathetic touch of a master feelings of which we had not realised 
the existence for ourselves. The history of the word humour, 
though we have not space to enlarge upon it here, is essential to an 
understanding of its meaning. From the four humours of mediaeval 
psychology — sanguine, phlegmatic, choleric, melancholy — whose 
proportions determined the temperament, came the Shakespearean 
and Jonsonian use to express the oddities of action resulting from 
out-of-the-way combinations of these four elements ; the further 
step since taken has been to transfer the word to the faculty of 
observing and recording these oddities. And this history will justify 
us in excluding from humour (as is beginning lo be done in practice) 
what is merely ridiculous — American exaggerative absurdities, for 
instance — and in insisting on emotion as a necessary constituent. 
The humourist, then, unlike the wit, is concerned with feelings, 
and not ideas, and he surveys them through the moist light of 
sympathy. 

Besides the gradual change, wc said, in the value of words (a 
knowledge of which is sometimes a help and sometimes a hindrance) 
confusion also results when different forms are combined. " How 
cynical ! " " How satirical I " " How sarcastic ! " It is pure chance 
for the most part, which epithet we select, generally because we do 
not trouble to choose the right and reject the wrong, but sometimes, 
h may be, because each of the three is equally applicable. He is 
cynical who tears off life's metaphorical garments, its decencies, 
whether they be hypocritical or modest; he intends to be down- 
right and call a spade a spade ; but so hard of attainment is the 
Aristotelian mean that he is seldom content without prefixing a dis- 
courteous epithet. One form which downrightncss takes is of two 
possible motives always to impute the worse, to suppose that after 
all these ages of discipline the primitive instincts are still the only 

D Da 



38o 



The Gentleman s Magazine, 



ones which operate. Cynicism b^an with the Serpent, who affected 
to lay bare the mean hidden motive for the prohibition of apple* 
eating, and at the same time exalted the knowledge of good and evil 
ahove the avoidance of evil-doing. And it is the man who takes this 
attitude that we mean by the cynic, when we take the trouble to 
mean anytliing definite. Now the sarcastic man is only one who 
performs the adult equivalent of making a face at you ; he uses 
words, whether home truths or covert insinuations or topsy-turvy 
description, as instruments of torture. The satirist is one whose 
trade it is to select and bring into prominence the weak points of a 
person's or a people's character with a view to their amendment. It 
will be seen that these three, essentially distinct, are capable of com- 
bination ; and irony is a favourite vehicle for all of them. A small 
boy under correction for libel from a Cyrano-like senior says, amid 
hia tears : " No, Nose^ I won't call you Nose again (as long as I can 
keep out of the sight of it) ; you're too sensitive to be laughed at by 
Jones minor ; " and so manages to combine them all. The ingemin- 
ation of Nose gratifies the sarcastic impulse ; the substitution of 
"you're so sensitive" for "you hit so liard" is ironical; dread of 
Jones minor instead of maintenance of discipline as the motive for 
the chastisement is cynical ; and the satirical purpose of the whole is 
to persuade people who cannot mend their appearance to take 
comment on it kindly. 

We may now proceed to irony, which, while used for all sorts of 
purposes, is in itself a form of exclusive dealing. The Greek inventors 
of the name meant by the ironic man one whose words or acts gave 
too low an impression of his abilities or resources. .\ristotle's 
" magnanimous man " was habitually ironical in this sense, because it 
was beneath his dignity to insist, before the common herd, upon his 
rights. For Demosthenes the Athenians were "ironical " when they 
would not make up their mind to a spirited foreign policy. The 
classic example, however, Plato's Socrates, though earlier in date, 
comes nearer to our own idea. Socrates was ironic primarily in 
virtue of his profession of ignorance; but so extensive and pcculiai- 
was the use which he made of this profession, with a view to decoying 
his interlocutors into unlooked-for conclusions, leading them whither 
they would not, that irony might be taken to connote a good deal 
more than the self-depreciation which it denoted. The developments 
which irony has undergone, in reaching its modem sense, are three. 
The misrepresentation made is not necessarily concerned with a 
man's self; it is not necessarily a mtnimisingl; it postulates an 
audience of which part is admitted to the secret, while pan is not. 



Irony and some Synonyms, 381 

It was this latter point to which we referred when we used the phrase 
"exclusive dealing." The modem professor of irony is no more a 
ptqralar character than was Socrates, just because of this exclusive- 
ness. **An ironic man with his sly stillness and ambuscading ways, 
more especially an ironic young man, of whom it is less expected, 
may be viewed as a pest to society," apologises the creator of 
** Teufdsdrockh." And what wonder? He is much worse than the 
man who talks in a foreign language amid an uneducated company. 
French we can pay no heed to, knowing that it is hopeless ; but as 
fot irony, we can set a surface meaning on the words, which yet we 
know is not the meaning they bear to the initiated few. The man 
whose every speech implies "he that hath cars to hear, let him hear," 
will never be popular with those whose ears are only for hearing and 
not for understanding. On the other hand, none is more sought by 
those who can, or even think they can, interpret. We have said 
that the ironical must have someone to taste his irony with him : he 
goes forth disguised like Haroun Alraschid ; but the faithful vizier 
must be at hand, knowin^^ he only, what manner of man his lord is. 
Some few there may be who from much self>communing have come 
to have a sort of alter ego within them, whose appreciation satisfies 
them without external audience ; but, roughly speaking, irony is the 
use of words intended to bear one meaning to the mass of the 
audience and another to the elect 

Dramatic irony and the irony of fate, though kind space forbids 
ns to be didactic at length upon them, are only particular cases. In 
the first, the whole audience are the elect who are in the author's 
secret ; the dramatis persona are the outsiders who have no ears to 
hear. When fate is ironical it plays (with its sly ambuscading ways) 
some jade's trick with the hour and the man which comes with no 
suiprise, but a reminiscent familiarity, to the elect who have grasped 
the theory of probabilities and know that it is the unexpected that 
happens. 

H. W. FOWLER. 



38» 



The Gentleman s Magazine, 



REGICIDE IN THE NINETEENTH 
CENTURY. 



AFTER surveying the result of the many rcgicidal acts of the 
past century, the maxim Rx nihih nihil fit is more con- 
vincing than ever. For the " Nihilists," who arc responsible for 
nine-tenths of the crimes in question, have been instrumental in 
producing nothing save individual death. They have not revolu- 
tionised the various monarcliical systems, nor have they contributed 
to the advancement of the lower classes. The ruler of a common- 
wealth is no more secure from their attack than is the absolute 
monarch, and, in consequence, they can never gain common support, 
without which their "cause" is hopeless. "Nihilism" — or, by 
another name, " Anarchy " — while remaining dormant in England, 
has left an almost consecutive scar across the historj' of the Continent 
during the nineteenth century. Had there been police administra- 
tors of the ability of Cardinal Richelieu, perhaps this would not 
be the case. He it was who instituted systematic espionage) 
carrying it to a degree of perfection never since attained. His 
methods, it is true, resembled those of Khadamanthus, the fabled 
judge of hell, who, according to the translation arrived at by that 
able Iaw)cr, Sir Kdward Coke, " first punished, then heard, and lastly 
extorted confession." Notwithstanding this comparison, Cardinal 
Richelieu was, while sometimes resorting to crude means, usually the 
embodiment oS finesse. Indeed, had he, or his equal, been in office, 
the crimes about to be recorded would not in all probability have 
been committed. 

According to Pope Grcgoo' XIII., who reformed the Calendar in 
1582, the nineteenth century commenced with the first day of 
January, rSoi. It was the first century to open in England on the 
system of the Pope's reckoning, for, until 1752, Parliament recog- 
nised the old style, and regarded the new style as being part and parcel 
of a papistic movement. 1 hrough the Earl of Chesterfield, assisted by 
the Earl of Macclesfield and Mr. Bradley, the change was effected. 
Hence, the crime to bead tliis list must be that which ended the life, 
MuTch 3$t J 801, of Paul I., autocratic Emperor of All the Russios. 
Th'a oionarch was iespo&s\bV<^ \^\ vancAU vhims nf dress, which 



Regicidi in the Nineteenth Century. 383 



I 



I 
I 



were enforced, and which were objectionable alike (o his courtiers 
and to his subjects of lesser degree. Other petty tyrannies were 
exercised, with the result that, after being soruly goaded, some 
members of the Court entourage took the law into their own hands, 
strangling the Emperor in his bedchamber. He vas, it is said, 
given an opportunity to abdicate, but this he refused. The Tinus^ 
London, April 15, 1801, reported the Emperor's death in extremely 
quaint language, mentioning the malady which had had the " honotut'* 
of removing the august autocrat. 

One of the many blots on the escutcheon of Napoleon I. is dis- 
covered in the brutal murder of the Due d'Enghicn, last Prince of 
the illustrious House of Cond^. By order of Napoleon, the Duke 
was arrested on German territory, on March 14, 1804, on a 
trumped-up charge of conspiracy. Six days later, having been 
convcj'cd to the Chateau of Vinccnncs, situated on the outskirts of 
Paris, the unfortunate nobleman was shot. His riddled remmns 
were interred in the fosse where the assassination had been enacted. 
So perished a scion of the old aristocracy, by as much injustice as 
did many of the victims of the " Reign of Terror," In some respects 
the deed bears semblance to the murder of the Due de Guise, at the 
Chiteau of Blois, December 23, 1588. In the Guise case, however, 
there was no plea of justification on the part of Henry III., who 
eimply ordered an unvarnished aims, without adding a hypo- 
critical charge against his victim. 

Sixteen years elapsed before another great assassination took 
place— the assassination of Charies Ferdinand, Due de Bern, 
younger son of Charles X. During the evening of February 13, 
iSjo, this prince, while leaving the theatre with his wife, Marie 
Caroline of Naple";, was stabbed by a fanatical Bonapartist. This 
criminal, by name Louvel, declared at his trial that he H*as anxious 
to cxterminaie the whole House of Bourbon. The Due de Berri 
left a posthumous son, Henry Charles Ferdinand Dieudonn^, Due 
de Bordeaux, commonly known as the Comte de Chambord. By 
Ihe Legitimists this son was recognised as Henry V., and lo establish 
the title his mother, the Duchess of Berri, in June 1833, org.ini5ed 
ft weak and futile insurrection in La Vendue. As a result the 
Duchess took refuge at Nantes. She was discovered, subse- 
quently being sent as a prisoner to Blaye, where, on May io» 
she was deHvered of a daughter, which effectually cut short her 
political aspirations. It would appear that she had privately 
manied one Palli, described as an Italian count, and to him sh^ 
was conducted in due course. 



384 



The GentUvtaits Magazine, 



Another Bourbon was the subject of the next serious rcgicidal 
attack, coming after an interval of a decade and a half. Louis 
Philippe, King of the French, after experiencing several minor 
attempts on his life, was nearly murdered, July 38, 1S35. The day 
was one of the three appointed to commemorate the revolution of 
183a The King was, with three of his sons, taking part in a 
procession, and while riding along the Boulevards a violent explo- 
sion issued from a window overlooking the line of route. Happily, 
the King himself and the Princes escaped uninjured, though 
fourteen people were killed outright and forty others wounded. 
On investigation the discharge was discovered to have come from a 
machine constructed of twenty-four musket barrels, laid horizontally 
on a single frame, and so adjusted as to be raised or lowered 
according to the angle required. The touch-holes communicated 
by means of a train of gunpowder, and consequently all the barrels 
could be discharged simultaneously. The window behind which 
this deadly contrivance was placed stood open, but Persian blinds, 
not opened until the moment of discharge, screened it from the 
pubUc gaze. It is probable that, owing to some delay in removing 
the blinds, the life of Louis Philippe was saved. He had hardly 
passed when the explosion occurred, actually wounding the horse he 
rode. The man who was guilty of the outrage, a Corsican named 
Fieschi, was seized and subsequently guillotined. Three more 
attempts were made on the life of the same monarch. One, by the 
discharge of a walking-stick gun into his carriage, June 25, 1836; 
another, at Fontainebleau, in April 1846 ; while the third and Gnal 
act of the kind may be recorded as having happened when the 
King was standing on the balcony of the Tuileries one day in June 
1846. 

Isabella II., Queen of Spain, who abdicated, June 35, 1870, \n 
favour of her son, was the subject of an attack, February », 1852, 
while proceeding to church to ofler thanks for the delivery of a 
daughter — Marie Isabclle, who married in 1868 the Comtc de 
Girgenti, Prince de Bourbon-Deux-Siciles. The Queen's assailant, 
a Franciscan friar, prostrated himself as if to make a petition ; 
suddenly springing forward, however, he inflicted a blow with a 
knife on his unsuspicious victim. The criminal was soon afterwardt 
executed by means of the garrote, an iron collar lightened until 
strangulation ensues. The attempted assassination of Queen 
Isabella possesses features which are identical with several of 
those demonstrated In the case of Henry III., King of France, 
who was done to death, at St. Cloud, on August r, 1589. The 




I 
I 

I 
I 

I 



I 



Rtgiadt in the Nimttcnik Ceniury, 385 



awaflanl of King Henry was a friar— ^ D nnrintfan nuned Jacques 
Cl^cneDt — who feigned a desire lo make a feHtwrn. ConrraHf^ 
a knife up his sleeve, the «™^ ifiproadcd tbe King, umncdiatdy 
spriitging forwaxd and irMt^ng x would to which tbe sovcre^ 
succumbed the foUowiag day. Tbe similarity of tbe two cases » 
obvious, tboogh in ibe case of Queen Isabdfai tbe vound inflicted 
did not prove fataL King Heniy, it may be ipcnfionfd, was the 
bsi rfrpresentalire of the Royal House of Valois. 

Eight years before Victor Emmamiel, Duke ot Saroy, King of 
Sardinia, mounted the Throne of United Italy, be was atta<:ked by 
an assassin, but received no personal injory. Less fortunate, how- 
ever, was the Duke of Parma and Lucca, Kii^ of Etruria, who was 
assassinaled, March 27, 1854, while passing through one of the 
thoroughfares of his capital. 

Napoleon IIL, Emperor of the French, who had spent years of 
exile in London, ar>d had even been a special constable during the 
Chartist riots, was nearly assassinated, when at his zenith, by means 
of grenades. A certain group of malcontents, anarchically inclined, 
matured a plot for the " removal " of the Emperor. The leading 
con^irator, one Ot^ini, an Italian, obtained the explosives from 
Birmingham, and on January 14, 1S5S, the plot was put into execution. 
Tbe grenades, or small bomb-shells, were thrown, but without doing 
the Emperor any harm. Nevertheless, a number of the populace 
met destruction. Tliis, In conjunction with the fact that tbe shells 
were manuiactured in England, caused very strained relations to 
arise between the two countries. Indeed, the Emperor received 
addresses from militar)- officers, breathing a spirit of keen antagonism, 
towards the British Government, and this sentiment was echoed 
throughout France. Diplomacy and common sense, however, came 
to the rescue, and war was averted. When the time came for 
Napoleon III. to lose his Throne and become a refugee, he sought 
England as his haven of rest, dying at Chislehutst, January 9, 1873. 

Briefly passing over the murder of Prince Danilo of Montenegro^ 
in August, i860, and that of President Lincoln, in April, 1865, we 
come to the crime which cut short the life of Ferdinand Maximilian 
Joseph Hapsburg, Count of Hapsburg, Prince of Hungary, Bohemia, 
and Lorraine, Archduke of Austria, and Emperor of Mexico. There 
are individuals who, for tbe sake of argument, contend that this 
unfortunate monarch — brother of the Emperor of Austria— was 
legally executed on the just verdict arrived at by a duly accredited 
court-martial So far as the court-nurtial is concerned, it could 
not have been legitimate, for the adequate reason that it wis held by 



386 



The Gentleman s Magaziau, 



outlaws — men vrho had revolted against the established autborltj. 
Thererorc the shooting of the Emperor, at Querfitaro, on June 19, 
1867, may be constituted as a crime according to law. 

Within a year another assassination was committed. The sufferer 
in this case was Michael Obrenovitch, Prince of Servia, who was 
murdered at Topshider Park, near Belgrade, June 10, 1868. The 
stKcessora of this Prince, styled Hereditary Kings since March 6v 
1882, hare distinguished themselves in divers disreputable ways, and, 
in consequence, space cannot here be found for further mention of 
the House or its representatives. At the expiration of an entt^aeie of 
nearly eight years, the Sultan of Turkey was assassinated. The 
method by which he met his death was not generally known until 
some years later, when information was forthcoming to the effect 
that he had been slabbed by a pair of scissors. It was alleged that 
certain nobles of his Court were responsible for the deed. 

March 13, t88i, was the date which signalled the decease of 
Alexander II., Emperor of Russia, sometimes entitled the "Libe- 
rator." The latter qualification was derived through the offices of 
the Emperor in relation to the liberation of the serfs. While dn^-ing 
in St. Petersburg, explosives were hurled at the monarch, but he 
alighted from his vehicle with a cry of exultation, for he had escaped 
injury. A moment had not passed when he was struck in the lower 
part of the body, presumably by a bomb-shell, with the result that he 
died from the injuries almost immediately. In July. 188 1, President 
Garfield was shot, by one Guitcau, at a railway terminus in 
Washington. The spot where the President fell is, or was, marked 
by a small metal star inserted in the flooring. 

The ruler of another Commonwealth also died by the assassin's 
hand ; on this occasion the French Republic lost her first citizen. 
President Camot, a man of some merit, was stabbed by Caesar Santo, 
at Lyons, June 24, 1894. He succumbed the same night. His successor 
in office, the late President Faurc, might be said to be noted for the 
measures he adopted to minimise the risk of assassination. It is within 
the writer's knowledge that President Faute, on visiting the theatres of 
Paris, used to employ a doublccordon of gendarmes from the entrance- 
door of the playhouse to bis carriage. On taking his departure he 
would salute the onlookers, glance furtively from side to side, then 
actually run the distance separating him from the waiting carriage. 
Such conduct is^ however, preferable to laxity of prudence, of which 
the following case is an excellent example ; it occurred in Italy some 
years ago. One evening, a certain Comte K. chanced to occupy & 
box in the principal theatre of one of the large towixa. On the occa* 




Regicide in. the NineUentk Century. 387 



sion in question, members of the Royal Family were expected to lend 
their patronage to the perforaiance, and it so liappened that the 
Count's box was adjacent lo the one reserved for ihem. Presently 
the Cotxnt detected a peculiar sound, as opposed to the clamour of 
the audience. He decided to make an investigation in the vidoity 
whence the sound appeared to come. On urgent representation, he 
gained admittance to the Royal box. A minute afterwards he 
made a hasty exit, carrying in his hands a mechanical bomb» which 
was " ticking " after the manner of a clock. It had been arranged 
to explode at a given time, but through the presence of mind of the 
Count a grive catastrophe was averted. The sequel to the discovery 
was left to the police. 

To return to the more direct subject, the death, by violence, 01 
the Shah of Persia on May t, 1896, forms the next case on 
the list In matters Oriental it is often di6Bcult to separate the 
true from the perjured evidence, and the deed under consideration 
affords no exception to this rule. There is e\'cr the quasi-official 
version and the opposing rumour. The former is usually a senti- 
mental concoction, while the latter, if not always plausible, is moce 
likely to be true. Therefore, the more or less official statement, 
to the effect that the Shah was the victim of a mere fanatic, 
should not be accepted, while the report that the crime was perpe- 
trated at the instigation of the monarch's immediate family may, at 
least, be given fractional credence. It is a problem, however, which 
canrK>t be solved, for the "evidence " is unsubstantial, and one con- 
jecture may be no more commensurate with the truth than another. 

The most condemnable assassination of the nineteenth century, 
and one in harmony witli no principle, was that committed by 
Luccheni, at Geneva, on September 10, 189S, in which the 
Empress of Austria was the \ictim. Elizabeth Amelia Eugenie, 
Duchess in Bavaria, married, in 1854, the Emperor Francis 
Joseph I., by whom she bad one son, the Crovm Prince Rudolph, 
who died by his own hand in 1889. Prior to her assassination, she 
had been travelling with her suite in Switzerland, and it was when 
on the point of embarking in one of the steamers which ply along 
the lake that she was attacked by Luccheni, who was armed with a 
sharpened file. It appears that this criminal possessed very ill- 
defined ideas of the political condition of Europe iit general An 
example may be cited from the result of his examination by the 
authorities. He assassinated the Emprcs.<^ he alleged, because he 
had had no opportunity of taking the life of the Due d'Orl^ans, 
whom he deemed the most eligible subject for his fanaticism. Why 



388 



Tke GentUmafis Magazine, 



a DOn-regnant Prince should have been chosen must now remain « 
mystery of the prison cell. 

The final regicide to be here outlined is that which cut short 
the career of Humbert, Duke of Savoy, King of Sardinia, Sicily, 
and United Italy. At Monza, near Milan, on July 29, 1900, 
King Humbert, after occupying the Italian Throne since January 9, 
iSyS, was shot and killed by one Bresci, another of the representa- 
tive semi insane Italians who have wrought such havoc on 
individual hfc. The deed reflects discredit on the secret scPi-ice, for 
no fewer than sixty agents were deputed to guard the King's person. 
Then, too, the municipal authorities of Monza are much to blame, 
as it required no strategy on the part nf Bresci to overcome the 
" precautions "* taken. Indeed, the official whose especial duty it was 
to maintain a strict watch over the King chanced to be, at the mo- 
ment of the attack, at some distance from the Royal carriage. The 
Premier confessed to the incompetency of the police, during one of 
the sittings of the Chamber at Rome soon afterwards. Bresci,' the 
assassin, is now incarcerated in the penal establishment of San 
Stefano. 

In concluding this brief paper, it may not be uninteresting to 
note that in England, under the Anglo-Saxon r^gimty the life of 
every man had its price. The culprit in compassing the death of a 
freeman of the lower rank could expiate his crime on payment of 300 
shillings, while the life of a lesser Thane was valued at three times 
that amount A Royal Thane's death could be compensated by a 
fee of i.aoo shillings— half the sum payable for the offence of mur- 
dering an ealdorman. The King's life also had a price, namely, 
7,200 shillings. The Statute of Treasons, which classified under 
three principal heads — conspiring regicide, levying war against the 
sovereign, and adhering to the sovereign's enemies — cases of high 
treason, was enacted during the reign of Edward III. (25 Edward 
III. st 5, c. J, 1351). Subsequent statutes have been enacted, but 
tbey have for their basis the original statute of Edward HI. 

S. BEACH CHESTER. 
' Bresci committed ■oidde id bis cell, May t2, 1901. 



SOME BYGONE HAPPENINGS IN 
A PEAKLAND TOWNSHIP. 



I 



I 



I'll tell thee what, good fellow I 

Before the friars went hence 
A bushel of the best wheit 

Was sold for fourteen pence ; 
And forty eggs a peony. 

That were both good and new. 

PcacY Ballad. 

IN a recent ntimber of this magazine there appeared a paper on 
the subject of bygone village life ' compiled from the records 
and traditions of a small township in the Peak of Derbyshire. Such 
jottings might perhaps have been appropriately noted in a more 
concise form, but the temptation to make excursions into general 
history for the sake of analogy and illustration, sometimes carried the 
writer beyond the limits of quick and easy return. The result was 
that the chronicle (which started in orthodox fashion at the beginning 
of time) had to be cut short at the end of the sixteenth century. 

Two hundred years ago the population of England was between 
five and six millions. Now it is more than five times that number. 
Al the beginning of the eighteenth century a vast proportion of the 
nggregate population lived in the villages. To-day five-sixths of the 
people live in towns, while the villages have remained slatiotiary or 
shrunk in size. In Pcakland, even though it lies on the borders of 
the teeming counties of Lancashire and Yorkshire, the ruml com* 
munilies have not increased. The ancient market town of Tideswel!, 
for instance, which possesses fair opportunities as regards railway 
accommodation and means of employment, has scarcely increased 
its count since the commencement of last centur>' ; and in a smaller 
village near by one of its inhabitants recently told the writer that 
no new houses were erected because "there wur a job for every- 
body, and when there wur one body too mony the fresh 'un cleared 
out" Under such conditions as these the communities remain 

"Furfield: a reakbod Township" [GaUUmatii Afifgau'w, March 1901). 




liBS 



^ ^— v-^^ 



390 



The Gentleman's Magazine, 



pretty much as in the Middle Ages; and manners and customs, 
the habits of thought and tlie methods of activity of the people, 
undergo hardly any change. Your son of the soil is pretty much 
what sun and rain and meat and drink make of him — a hcalUiy- 
minded creature with no obstinate questions to vex his existence^ 
and without any doubts or aspirations which his family relationships 
and social superiors cannot satisfy or solve. He has been forced to 
adopt some modern innovations, but if the pressure of circumstances 
were removed he would relapse and go out of cultivauon like an 
untitled field. 

Sometimes, however, his township becomes the theatre of exploita- 
tion, and then the energy of competition works a permanent change. 
The billy-cocked, worsted-stockinged natural man disappears or is 
transformed. The medievalist deplores his loss, the archaeologist 
regretfully recalls his habitat, and the folk-lorist lingers lovingly over 
his sayings and doings. He is ennobled by his extinction. 



Now in good truth there is much to be said in favour of serving 
the tables of the prosperous. The rapid advance of the adjacent 
township of Buxton has developed the growth of Fairfield, and we 
are now a community of nearly five thousand where, forty years ago, 
we were scarcely five hundred. Within the memory of the older 
inhabitants less than seventy dwellings accommodated us all, and no 
doubt this degree of population represented exactly what our acres 
were of themselves capable of maintaining. 

Let us picture the village as it used to be. Like many of the 
old Peakland settlements, it stands on high ground. The situation 
is bleak in winter-time, but the elevation gave it a strategical position 
as a look-out station over the low-lying basin of the Wy^ enabUng the 
forester to make an easy sur\'ey of a considerable strelch*of the royal 
forest of the Peak, besides being in close proximity to the dry and 
comparatively level farmland on the eastern side of ^e stream afore- 
said. A short chain of homesteads, a quarter of a mile long, linked 
together and surrounded with ample curtilages, comprised the village 
proper, A corresponding length of uneven highway, which started 
from the north and south road at the ford of the Wye and threaded 
a crooked course to the market town of Tideswell, was the village 
street. The homesteads were backed up to the boundary of a Urge 
unenclosed pasture, and each house had its croft running down 
to the street, which was called Hades Lane. On the occasion of the 
Royal Commemoration we abolished this singular name as a profanity 
and rechristened the thoroughfare Queen's Road, The old name 



m didpei 



Scm^ Bygone Happenings in a Ptakland Tottmskip. 391 



I 



I 



did perhaps lend itself lo unprofitable jesting, buc il was blasphemy 
of the niBdest soil, Axid did DOC, after an, mean what u said. "Hades" 
was merely a comiptioo of ** Heads," the top or extremity of the 
curtibges ; furtht;rmore, it is the name of at least one other similar 
road in Peaklaod. 

The occopiers of this little string of houses were not the roost im- 
portant residents in the townships they were only the yeomen, artisans, 
craftsmen, and labourers. The greater folk were not gregarious, but 
lived widely apart in a few granges and farmhouses which Uiy here 
and there on the outskirts. Some of the village houses stiU remain, 
aiHl the commodiousncss of these substantially built habitations, 
with their yard-thick limestone waits and roofs of gritstone shingle, 
testify to the comfortable domestic conditions of three or four 
centuries ago. Each house had its cow-shed, pig-sty, and fowl-hutch, 
and an acre or so of rick-stead or luming-out ground for storage of 
crops and cattle. These were the homesteads of Hob and Wat, and 
Tom the smith, and Jack the wright, of Will the mason, and Dick 
the tailor, owners by custom or by virtue of laws which liad 
gradually absolved them from payments and services in lieu of rent. 

The researches of Ur. Thorold Rogers have cleared away much 
misconception as to the former condition of the English peasantry. 
He has proved that the " good old times " were not, as some contend, 
a chimera bred of modern over pressure and discontent, but a '* onco 
upon a time " which really was. He has drawn a picture of village 
life wliich fairly represents the everyday nays and liabits of oui 
own Fairfield forefathers^ and he declares that the fiftecntli and the 
first quarter of the sixteenth century was tlie Golden Age of the 
Ei^lish labourer. During that period our farm-hands were earning 
fourpence a day and craftsmen si.xpcncc, while the average price of 
wheat was slightly under six shillings a quarter. Both the day's 
work and the quarter of wheat have increased in value since the 
bcigiruiing of the sixteenth century at about the same ratio. If wu 
multiply each by seven we get ts. 4^. for a day's wage and a little over 
40J. as tlie value of a quarter of wheat, which is approximately near 
enough to current prices. Out of bis wages the farm-hand has nowa- 
days to jKiy rent and rales for a cottage wliich has rarely even a 
garden belonging lo it. The mediaeval Fairlieldiic, on the other 
hand, had an ample area of meadow and pasture for cow and pig, 
commonage for sheep and fowl, and arable and garden near home 
upon which to grow his com and vegetables. His wife and family liad 
thus the opportunity of being self-supporting upon their little holding, 
which, of couriie, was pracdcally rent-free, and their maintenance 



392 



The Gentleman s Magazine, 



hardly trenched al all upon his regular earnings. His happy state 
is not a piece of mere imaRlnalion. Some of the ancient cottage 
homesteads arc tlicrc to-day, and so, as evidence of the bygone 
land proprietorship, are the unenclosed pasture and the tiny meadows 
lying contiguous to the village, apportioned into narrow strips and 
separated by lacing and interlacing limestone walls. These appro- 
priations may probably have been made in the reign of Henry VHT. 
in pursuance of a statute passed to prevent encroachments, and which 
provided that not less than eight acres should be left for each cottager. 
When wc come to the larger folk with their extensive holding.s^ 
the captains of agricultural industry — we find the process of evolu- 
tion somewhat difTerenL At the Conquest many of the Saxon franklins 
lost their land, which passed into the control of William's profegis. 
In Fairfield the demesne or unappropriated land, together with the 
manorial rights, was given to William Pevcrel. The new owner, in 
accordance with the prevalent custom, would stock the domain him- 
self and apportion it under the care of bailiffs. These stewardships 
are apparently the origin of the local farms and farm-names which 
have come down to our day — Piglor, Cowlow, Woolow, Lowfoot, 
Bailey Flatt, and so forth. As William Pcvcrel was the donee of 
130 manors in the counties of Derby and Nottingham alone, the task 
of distinguishing a particular manor, or of readily ascertaining 
within which manor a certain baitiffship lay, would be somewhat 
troublesome. It appears, however, that for the purpose of identifi- 
cation it was customary to couple the name of the manor or township 
with an enumeration of the bailifTships, thus " Fairfield with Pigtor, 
Cowlow," &c. This method survived long after the Middle Ages, 
and so recently as the seventeenth century the Commissioners of the 
Parliamentary Survey copied the same formula, without, however, any 
apparent reason, in their catalogue of the Peakland townships. The 
[X}pular general name for these bailiffships was " bangs," the etymology 
of which we are unable to explain. A meeting " of the inhabiunts 
of Fairfield and the bangs ^' was held in the vestry in 1692 ; and even 
at the present day the old people speak of the large outl)-ing farms 
as "the bongs." 

The nutnageraent of these mediaeval bailiffs was carefully super- 
▼ised by the lord himself or his deputy, and each year (generally at 
Michaelmas) the bailifl* rendered a profit>and-loss account and 
balance-sheet The statements of our Fairfield bailiffs do oot 
appear to have been preserved, out those relating to other districts 
axe a fair sample, and do not differ very much from the financial 
explanations of our present-day accountants. The receipCs aad 



Samt Bygone Happenings in a Peakland Township. 393 

apenditoxe are set focth on one side of the sheet, and apon the 
other is an tnrentoiy of stock and other assets, with their estimated 
viloe. It will thus be seen that a feudal lord might easily (if he had 
a torn for 6gures) ascertain his annual income to a nicety whenever 
hei^eased to do so; and, mweover, that the modem "limiteds,** 
with their branch establishments and shop managers, are after all no 
DCir tiun^ but only the revival of an arrangement in common vogue 
six centuries aga 

By-and-by the large buidowners found it more convenient to let 
ibtsr p r opert y at a rent The managing men disappeared from 
Pigtor and Cowlow, and their places were taken by the farmer ; and 
by divers assignments and other inevitable mutations which Time 
brings, and we mortals lose the record of, the rights of William 
Pevoel's successors vanished, and the great folk and little folk of 
Fairfield owned nearly all the township among them. 

From the middle of the seventeenth century down to the 
middle of the nineteenth, the main aspects of social and economic 
life in Fairfield remained practically unchanged. An isolated situa- 
tion in a difficult country protected us from innovation until the 
railways broke through our rocky fastness and the importa- 
tion of goods cheaply carried taught us that it was no longer 
necessary to be self-contained and self-sustaining. Consequently 
the village cbancings of 1850 are much like those of 1750 and 1650, 
and the recorded incidents and evenu of the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries were doubtless often enough re-enacted in the 
days of our fathers without outrage to the unities of period or custom. 

As already stated, the land was our mainstay. The produce of 
the forms was used in kind for the family food and clothing, and the 
surplus converted into cash at the markets of Sheffield or Bakewell 
for rent or other outgoings. The soil was too shallow and the 
summers too short for the cultivation of wheat, so oats were our 
staple crop. Pretty nearly half the enclosures must formerly have 
- been under tillage ; now, alas t there are few ploughed fields to be 
seen even from the vantage-ground of the highest "low." The 
com was used partly in sheaf as winter fodder, and the rest ground 
into meal for the household and the pigs. Some potatoes and 
turnips were raised, and the remainder of the land was under 
grass. In mediaeval times, under the rigime of the bailiffs, there 
appears to have been some outside commerce, but after the appear- 
ance of the farmer intercommunication was much more restricted. 

Whatever may be said as to the decadence of agriculture, it 

VOL. CCXCI. NO. 30Sa £ £ 



394 



The Genilemafis Magazine. 



should ever be remembered that, profitably or unprofitably, the land 
nowadays does more work than formerly. True, the fanner ha« 
ceased to grow com, but, on the other hand, the foreign grain which 
he consumes in such large and liberal quantities enables the grazier 
to do his work on a less area, while the increased richness of his 
farmyard manure forces one acre to do that which used to be done 
-by three. Before the introduction of artificial fertilisers our fore- 
'iathers simply returned to the ground a weak remnant of what had 
been taken from it, thus gradually beggaring the soil. Grain being 
an absolute necessity, the arable got a lion's share of the manure, 
and the meadows were left with little or no assistance. These were 
difficulties our Fairfield folks experienced, and they sought to over- 
come them as far as possible by economy. They utilised— for one 
thing — the refuse which nowadays flows away through the sewer- 
pipe. One of our landlord farmers at the beginning of last century 
actually employed a team in conveying night soil from Birmingham, 
sixty-six miles distant ! No wonder, then, that stock-keepers were 
able to do nothing but keep life and body together in the sbippon in 
winter-time when the pastures were done. The milking cattl^ of 
course, went dry, and beef was not procurable. It must have been 
in the dead season that Thomas Browne in the seventeenth century 
paid a visit to the neighbourhood, where, he says, the guests were fed 
upon oatcake and a ri&ad which was called mutton, but which was 
suspected to be dog. 

The meagre possibilities which presented themselves to the 
Peakland farmer were not, however, without some compensations: 
In a stationary community there is an ascertained place for each 
one, and, provided the individual eats and drinks only his quatitum 
and duly performs his allotted task, all goes well. After manure, the 
most scanty commodity was money. The former was required once 
a year, the latter twice — at the Lady Day and Michaelmas rent audits. 
After sufficient cheese had been made to pay the rent the tenant's 
anxiety was at an end. Most other pecuniary obligations were dis- 
charged after the manner of the two individuals who took in each 
other's washing. For example, ni harvest-time— a delightful but 
arduous period, which began with the hay in July and finished with 
the oats as lite as November— there was a co-operation of labour 
called " booning." At daybreak A, B, C, and D, with their helperi, 
would assemble in yl's meadow, and a long row of sweeping scythes 
would cut the grass until the sun was up. The whole party after a 
meal would then adjourn to i?'s hay field, and work the crop which 
had been mown the day before. Presently the force would go with 



Sonic Bygone Happenings tu a Peakiand Township. 395 

their carts and gather 6"s hay, and then in the cool twilight they 
would finish the day on Z^s farm, as they began it, with their scythes. 
In the same givc-and-talce fashion it was customary to get through 
most of the extra work of the township. The maintenance of the 
roads was supervised by an honorary sur\'eyor, the inhabitants 
having the option of giving labour in lieu of paying the rate. A 
small householder has told the writer tliat in the middle of last cen- 
tury his highway rate was discharged by one day's work per annum ! 
When the church was rebuilt in 1839 the cost was malcrially reduced 
by this same " booning " device ; the farmers lent horses and carts for 
the team work, hauling much of the material over a moorland road 
from Macclesfield, which is twelve miles distant The first Noncon- 
formist chapel, erected about the same tim^ was accorded the like 
privilege. 

Before turning from these primitive arrangements wc may as well 
give another curious illustration of the nicety of our financial 
I adjustments. Towards the end of Charles II. '3 reign our parson 
' was the Kev, Edward Hollinshead, a cleric exactly typical of the 
class which Macaulay has attributed to the period ; he might, indeed, 
have stood as the model of that historian. Parson Hollinshead's 
immonttity reached a climax in 16S4, when an alarmed parish, 
through its proper officer, certified that the incumbent was the father 
of Moses, a bastard child. Now, the Rev. Mr. Hollinshcad's 
conduct was no doubt very shocking, but the sudden and fervent 
anxiety of the parishioners over the advent of Moses is not without 
explanation very apparent inasmuch as Mary Hallcy, the mother, 
Itad been the lady at the vicarage for some lime previously. The 
substance of the petition, however, makes it plain that the appeal 
was not made against t)ie scandalous irregularity of this spiritual 
father, but on other and more practical grounds. Our parochial 
overseers realised that perhaps at some future period Hollinshead 
might die or leave Fairfield without providing for the maintenance 
of Moses, thus leaving him a burden on the township. What they 
wanted, therefore, was *' security to save the town harmless." The 
magistrates considered the petition reasonable and ordered Hollins- 
head to give security, and in the meantime to provide two shillings 
and sixpence per week for the lad's maintenance. Later on we shall 
have something further to say about this clergyman, but the incident 
under notice shows how carefully we anticipated even the contingency 
of the smallest expenditure. Indigent outsiders were never suffered to 
linger within our bounds long enough to obtain a settlement within 
the meaning of the Poor Laws^ and farm-servants from other towit- 

XX a 



396 



The GeiUleifuins Magazine. 



ships were hired for fifty-one weeks only, so as to avoid the qualifying 
year of residence. Our own townspeople, too, were subject to a 
good deal of grandmotherly superintendence by the wise authorities. 
Many a poor spinster who looked like eventually coming on the 
parish has met with a husband through tiic timely exertions of the 
overseer. 

In the tx>utine existence of village hfe there is little on the social 
side which is noteworthy. The old folks have an abundant store of 
tradition, but the domestic events of the poor are pretty much alike 
in every place. The learned Seldcn declares that Merrie England 
ceased to be when the fairies left off dancing and the parsons gave 
up conjuring. Perhaps it was so. In medixval times the feudal 
vassal often had for diversion a little after-hanest soldiering to do for 
the lord, or, more frequently, a holy-day spree prescribed by Mother 
Church. But though progress and improvement deprived him in 
course of time of these, his tastes continued to run in the old groove. 
Horse-play and practical jokes of the most pronounced type, though 
inferior in excitement to the exercise of quarterstaff and bill-hook, 
did something towards variegating the monotony ; and such of the 
Church festivals as remained strongly reflected the customs of the 
old order. Football at Shrovetide is a pre-I-entcn saturnalia which 
still survives — a veritable old-time tournament. The market town 
of Ashbourne is the rendezvous of the whole shire on Shrove 
Tuesday, and all day long the liall is driven up and down the quiet 
streets by the opposing forces of North CountyagainstSouthCounty. 
Nowadays even, the game is often enough literally fought for, and 
the leather seldom touches the mill-whccl without the effusion of a 
good deal of blood. Our Fairfield fellows used, of course, to meet 
in more modest numbers ; but the deadly energy of the combatants 
was not a whit less than that of the county braves. We have beaid 
old men tell with pride of ancient giants who hurled their antagonists 
over stone fences, and of mighty kickers whose hobnailed hoots 
parted their opponents right and left- Then with Piaster came 
■ *' Lifting Day," when the Resurrection was boisterously typified by the 
men seizing the women, habnab-at-a-vcnturc, and tossing them aloft, 
the women on the following day returning the complimenL On 
June 29 (St. Peter's Day) the Wakes Festival commenced, in pce- 
paration for which every woman made a point of whitewashing her 
house and cooking the best she could afford, and the village at large 
made merry pretty much after the manner described by Charles 
Kingsley in " Yeast" At Christmas-time Pcakland often lay buried 
deep in snow, llie church siogei3 and fiddlers went round the 



Sffme Bygone Happenings in a Peakiand Township. 397 

brmsteads on Christinas Ere and gave their musical salatatioo, 
tetnnuog befocc the New Year for the usaal largesse of wanned ale 
and currant bread and cheese. 

It is pleasii^ to note that, in spite of the prevident uncouthness, 
the mostcal taste of our fore£ithers was remarkably advanced. The 
fiddle was a common instrument in the homesteads ; and the mellow 
throats of our men and women, de%-eloped in the pure thin air of 
these uplands, were practised in even more complex parts than the 
psalmody of Tote and Brady. We have lying in front of us as we 
write the music book of a clarionettist who tuned his pipe in Fair- 
fidd Church 150 years ago. It is an admirable compendium of 
the popular airs of the day, but the weightier compositions in 
oratorio likewise found their way up here and were put into rehearsal 
for Church purposes. The advocate of pbin services might well be 
startled at the choral programme of the " Peace Rejoicing " service 
held in Fairfield after 1815. Without saying anything as to the 
quality of the music, it was certainly big enough to keep a hard- 
working chorus going for a whole day. 

This is perhaps not the place to introduce comparisons between 
die spiritual life of pre-Reformation and post-Rerormation times, 
and yet the parson figures too prominently to be altogether left out 
of the village chronicle. In a previous article, already alluded to, we 
tried to show how our own local church life grew and was nourished. 
But during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries rclisious vitality 
sank to a low ebb both in Fairfield and throughout the country at^ 
large. It was perhaps a natural consequence that it should be 1 
The popular remembrance of aforetime statesmen, cardinals, 
prince bishops had passed away, and the loss of prestige which the 
Church (hereby sustained aficcted the status of the smallest village 
incumbent Piety and learning in that uneducated age required 
more than to-day the support of power and dignity. The attitude 
of the layman towards the cleric of the seventeenth century 
is forcibly indicated by Macaulay. "A *young Invite,'" be says^ 
" might be had for his board, a small garret, and j^io a year ; might 
not only be the most patient of butts and of listeners ; might not 
only always be ready in fine weather for bowls and in rainy weather 
for shovel-board, but might also save the expense of a gardener or of 
a groom. Sometimes the reverend man nailed up the apricots, and 
sometimes he curried the coach-horses." He was ranked as an equal 
with the servant- women, and when he was fortunate enough to obtain 
a beneGce he generally married one. "Often," continues Macaulay, 
"it was only by toiling on his glebe, feeding swine, and by loading 



398 



The GentiemafCs Magazine, 



dung carts that he could ohtain daily bread; nor did his utmost 
exertions always prevent the bailiffs from taking his Concordance and 
inkstand in execution." 

Now Parson HolHnshead, the paramour of Marj- Halley and the 
father of Nfoses, vras just such an abject hireling. Vet his short- 
comings are hardly more conspicuous than the behaviour towards him 
of bis parishioners. It may be there had never before been any moral 
miscarriage at Fairfield parsonage; but if there had we do not think 
a pre -Reform a I ion culprit of the same degree, vested with excom- 
municating powers, would have been subjected to the treatment 
which poor HoUinshead underwent His flagrant immorality no doubt 
merited the three years' suspension which he suffered, and when he 
resumed his ministrations who, alas! would be likely to benefit by the 
precept of such a blind mouth ? But the conduct of his offended 
people manifested itself in acts which would have been brutal if 
directed against a burglar or a footpad. On several occasions he 
was Attacked in church whilst conducting divine service; his book 
snatched out of his hand and knocked about his ears ; his surpUce 
tmsted round his neck and attempts made to strangle him. And even 
while reading the Burial Service it was a common occurrence for him 
to be set upon and maltreated by ruffianly parties. Of course there 
was the civil authority, and the poor wretch did once apply to the 
maglsUates for protection, winding up his petition in this despicable 
fashion : 

And that joar woqips would lie pleased to ftugment to your petitioner for 
pension licinge tiut two shillings six pence M-cckly, which in truth will be iMit 
meo bread, be haveingc himselfe his wife and three children to nuiotaine, the 
youngest is brouglit inlo conntlsioa fits with a fright by ht» adversaries and the 
others are very weaV and poor, betngc not halic dyeled, besides want of cloalht* 
to kcepe them warm. . . . 

Unhappily HoIUnshead was not the last of our bad parsons. 
After making every allowance for a gross age and the degeneracy of 
the clergy, it does seem as though some evil genius hovered for a 
time over Fairfield parsonage. The wife of one of Hollinshead's 
successors in a fit of freniy — tradition says, a drunken passion — 
destroyed the parish registers prior to 173S. Again, in the year 
1794 we find George Frederick Cooke, the actor, drinking brandy 
and water in the Bull's Head at Fairfield in company with our 
parson. The latter, "a man of literature and abilities, with A.M. 
after his name," is described by the celebrated Urury Ijine lessee KB 
being " dirty, drunk, and foolish." The reflections of the stage player 
on this occasion are recorded in his diary : 



S0tm Bjgffme Ht^fam^ mm PtmhJMmd T^msk^ ^/^ 



I sohU ■« k^ Tv«9DE )m «3& pi^ ;--«x due sBBsuka «Udi aifMwkn 

tocoBlenfK, be a rbI, soawM teb^c aslaoout «o|i3e>9e ■ywyad nn w M. 
cqMtK iL For ne«^ 1^ I tkoacte flf oActs. DnoibeBaKss u dK MM 
levcBcrlD Diack ; -miStk dn Jifcn. i .t , dax tfaejonaer » al«vr$ atvoidci «!& 
ibiae lad ir^giJtA , ^de Ac bcia, b^c Ac csAu lot cf MoitUin-, yoAw o 
lypthy, md —y be mtraAtii »iifc honowL F>o» Ae pMwnJtewyerofifcc 
vodd it is too pnibaUc^ v«jh r^kcx «> the gea de w M a I uB«iteiqco( tliM « 
lai«aBdUAU£xk^e cf tk teks tf 1b oSce will be tlwKi loqeoMiW 
wfaife dK bocas of bB 1nakf—<m, to ^eak a ict u, tbc periods of kb vice wi 
Mf-«fllbeclazlrreMBfaa«dMd«a»etlyRkted. lOnkand bope IsMI 
BCffU sxipet boB. 

Poor Cooke «ss hszdiy & godly prophet, but tus prediction hat 
come true. TIm druDken pusoo continues ta live in local remem- 
bnuKC chiefly by reason of the oracubr SQggestiveness of his pulpit 
eshortation to " Do as I say, not as I do ** — which, by^e-bye, was as 
modest and plain in substance as the irreproachable sentiments of 
Ur. Cooke. 

This is a seamy side. Yet, afttf all, the eighteenth century is 
tmly a comparatively brief period in Fairfield church life. Panon 
HoUinshead and Parson Winterbotham were false shepherds— put in 
authority, it may be, by Jacobean or Hanoverian masters. We 
would rather think of Parson Naden, whose ideas and convictions 
ran counter to the Act of Uniformity and lost him his living; of 
scholarly Parson Ogden, his immediate predecessor; of Parson 
Mounsey, that man of many engaging oddities, who preached and 
taught and farmed his glebe in the Early Victorian days «i tjusdim 
generis. They may have been coarse and imperfect types, but in 
estimating their worthiness we have no right to measure them by a 
too modern standard. They were "vacant of the glorious quires" 
of succeeding ages ; yet we must bear in mind they were workers 
upon the lower scaffolds of that fabric from the summit of which 
we contemplate them with so much complacency. 

;0I1N IIVDK. 




THE LYRIC POETRY OF 

HUGO. 



NOVELIST, dramatist, phiicwopher, patriot— well -known under 
all these appellations, Victor Hugo was above all and 
beyond all a Poet, absolutely without equal in wealth of iroagioa- 
tion and splendour of colouring, past-masier in the wide domain 
of poetic thought. Although so much is very readily granted, 
Francois Copp^e has been accused of inordinate eulogium 1^ 
describing him as the " greatest lyric poet of all the centuries — 
among all the poets of humanity the greatest creator of consequent 
striking and magnificent imagery " ; bat few critics would care to 
dispute so wide a statement, since it would take a lifetime to compare 
the works of Goethe, Dante, Byron, and it must also be kept in 
mind that the true Hugo is not in "Les Misirables," in "Notre 
Dame," in "Cromwell," in " Hcrnani "— but in the " L^ende de» 
Slides" and "Les Contemplations." It is in his lyric poetry he 
stands without a rival for sweetness, brevity, and charm. 

It has been repeated over and over again, in various vt-ays and 
many tongues, that [x>eiry is innate — a gift of nature, independent of 
reason or cultivation, outside of all rule, an emotion rather than 
an art, and it is by this belief that all possessors of the faculty 
unconsciously governed. 

Hugo's life was centred in his genius ; creative, eminently 
original, there was no path he feared to tread, no thought too 
daring to be uttered, no subject too vast to be examined, studied, 
sifted, i'or this he ha5 been blamed, but only through ignorance 
of his one direct aim and object, to moralise, to instruct It was 
his mission — in his own words *' U se sent rtiponsabU, " '*// a chargt 
(fames^—RTi inordinate ambition possibly, but one which pmsoed 
him to his latest breath. 

The terrible events of his early life gave to his verse a forces 
ahnost a violence, which in more peaceful days it might not have 
possessed ; this was what he called /a (ordc ifairaitt. He found 
inspiration in ^^ hutts ces faiiet irtmpics <U sang^i religious con* 



The Lyric Poetry of Victor Hugo. 401 

troversies and political strife gave a vigour and vitality to his genius, 
justifying the remark that the greatest poets have appeared after 
the greatest public calamities. 

First and foremost in the battle of Romanlicism, Hugo alone 
of all the enthusiasts pursued his purpose to the vcr>' end, to beat 
own the old barriers. He ignored the usual terms of jft-flr^- classique 
juid s^nrt romantiqui^ admitting in literature, as in everything else, 
of but one distinction, that which must for ever exist between the 
good and the bad, the false and the true. To this persuasion he 
remained absolutely faithful, while his associates, as time passed on, 
found new interests and more engrossing avocations. Lamarline, De 
Vigny, De Musset became involved in politics, forsaking the old 
beliefs, but Hugo knew no compromise; poetiy for him was no 
sudden effusion, it was a profession, the business of a life. As 
Bruncti^re affirms, "the long methodical conquest, the invasion step 
by step of the entire domain." 

In defiance of ancient prejudices he constituted himself harmonist 
and architect of lyric