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£nt/emans Magazine 

Volume CCXCVI. 





E^iUd ly SYLVANUS URBAN, Gentitman 






Adi'cnrurfr, An, of the SntCf^nrh Coniary : Hi* Honw Then, and 


AthCBi under the Frarkt Hy WiU-Uii Miixkr, M,A- 
BMbetor. The. By Sm^biv Hts^KUm^OK .... 
Birtls, Character in. Uy the Rev. W. J. Ward 
Bk)«-Sloc)cin;, The, Th* Historic Outcry a^Eaitwi, B/ \\ 
DOfiUSR IlAlillTS . , , 

.Bneaid-Acrc Spring^rimc. isy Harom) \Vili> 

fittcklB^huncnirie Vtllaffe, An 0\6^ ftnd ii« Nclghbourins HasiLet. 

By L Gt0I»'££lKv£XlXC .... 
Cbncterin liiM*. By the Kev. \V. J- Ward 
XtiAbrd Hamson. By Edith Grav Wteeelv-r[C}it 
C^simonpiarr B(«b, An Eighteen th^Century Veomnn Farmei's. 

By ARTHUft Ravkou 

CooMry B«ok, I,eavt« ftrom ftn Old. Hy Lknnmc MORISOV 
Conni Pemap's I-ove Story. Hy hA J. POstOatk. 
Copper, A H» for. HyT-E.CAvn .... 
Cvffev Bell, The. By J. CUTUOEUT llADDEN 

C«riosTi>-, A. of LiCeramre. By H- B*rtos Baker 

Coitiorm, Some Old, arid Supcnttt'oni }«e itTirnving ic County 

M«ath, lT«land. liy A. H. S1K<;[,ET0H . . . , 
Pinrrr, TTi« FMhioriAblr. By W, J, FokWAS* . , 
Ur. Jnhnwfi'* Ijnrdli^rtL By t- T, Clarkk , . . , 

Dr. Ma^ma. By P. A. Sii,lakd 

Dog Gbon, Tbc By E- M. HirrucRFORD .... 
I>mr4 and Tobaccc. By A_ M, Steven* .... 

Eittland, Open. By JOHV H\t»e 

riAuonable Dinner, the. Ily W, J. FOB^fAS 

F.>Ikkire totting^ Uy AtTHUR I, 5.Ulin\ . , , , 

Fi^nk£, Athene tindirr lh«. By WiM-IAM MitlER, M.A. 

FtavJct, ThCf ia the Morea. By WiujAit MicucK, ViJu 

from Pdson to Prison. By Ernrst E, Tavlor . 

G^to Pedasc^e, 'llie. By Enoch Scpibe 

Gin Terrw, The Reign of the. By J. MOIt^fn MACMiCWAEt 

Co»tp is tb« Sancx Oberland. ^•y R«v. W. i:r>!(^OR SVDVEV 

'Ct«« G«nn4A Liberal, A, Train in (ho Lif« of. By LtLV Wolff 

«»nr 196,39? 

Hnnmr SouU A. ByA.iBAH:i .... 

In afl'nme of Our WcAlih. By C, E. Mov»y . 

In Cwnert, By Ceorck B. U'Halloban 

Intw^twy, An Old. By R. \\. Ernest IliU. . 

Ule, The, in the Monsf^ and its Kcmatlubla Tradition*, ^f 

Harwoci> Brierlcv 

tuh^n Str«tt Cne*. By E- C, Vansittart . . , . 

KTiJghE, H«nnetta, L*dy LuxboTOugh, By Kknucv L .\ri>bw 

Lmdiord, Dr. Jote»^%. By E. 1. CLAi^i^^t , 

Learet ffccn Afk Old Cookery Book, by LbsnOX MoRisOfJ . 

irierafy L>ec«Miioe^ A Remaikible. By J. M. ATTEVBOROUaB 

Literirure, A Cano«ity ol By II. Bartok Baksr 

Loch Fiifaine, ScotcK ^y Prlaoius . 

Vwm, By KOKRTBlRKUTItS .... 

liira, TiM, Ol Lftmia. ^h Marv Bradfoad WuinKC 

Aligiaa, Ur. By P. A. Sill.ird .... 




















iv ConUnis. 

Morass, The Isle in the, and its Remarkable Traditions, By Har- 

WOOD Br1£BL£V 1&5 

Morea» The Franks in the. By William Miller, M.A. . . 47S 

Musf : A Phantasy. By Lionel Springett Goodwin . 100 

Nepiiine's Ocean Mail By Wm- AlliNgkam . , 16S 
Occupations, The Significance of. By James Svkes . ,434 
Old Buckinghamshire Village, An^ and its Neighbouring Hamlet, 


Old Inventory, An, By R. H. ERNEST HiLL 505 

Open England, By John Hvde 148 

O ver- Fatness ^ its Discomforts and Dangers. By Dr. Yorke- 

Davies 564 

Painter, A, of Shrines. By Robert Bowman . . . - 313 

Pedagogue, The Ghetto, By Enoch Scribe 209 

Phillips, John, the Geologist. By W. H, THOMPSON , > 554 

Plea, A. for Cowper. ByT, E. Cavit 607 

Prison, From, to Prison. By ERNEST E- TAYLOR . - 13a 
Proverbs: their Wil and Wisdom, Pith and Point, By John 

Stuart 458 

Reign, The, of the Gin Terror. By J. Holden Macuichael . 140 

Rossini as Humorist. By |. Cuthbert Hadden . . . .' 227 

Savonarola. By Marion I, Gray 353 

Scotch Loch Fishing, By PelaGIUS 25^ 

Shrines, A Painter ci By Robert Bowman . . . , 313 

Signiticance, The, of Occupations. By James Svkes . . 434 
Some Did Customs and Superstitions yet surviving in County 

Meath, Ireland. By A. H, Singleton |S 

Street Cries, Italian. By E. C. Vansittart 81 

Sussex Oberland, Gossip in the. By Rev, W. Connor SvdNev . 114 

" Sweet Lass of Richmond Hill." By J. Coventry PAnSON , 259 
Table Talk. By SYLVanUS URBAN : — 

Literature and the Press — A New American Macbeth — The 
Ideal Shakespearian Text-^A Bibliography of Robert 

Louis Stevenson loa 

Polonius and bis Underlings— Concerning "the Wine when it 

is Red " — Immortal Ports— Woman again as the Destroyer 306 
M.RenanontheFateof Books— Change in the Reading Public 
—What Working Men Read^-Mcn will continue to Read 
Books . y . . . .310 

Vjolin^^An Expert in Books ....... 415 

Early English Printed Books in Cambridge— Incunabula in 
Cambridge — Oxford Printing — The Alleged Oxford Press 

of 146S 518 

New Books and Old — Prose Fiction of Yesterday— Alleged 
Decay of Interest in Poetry— A Modem Poet on bis 

Predecessors 6j8 

Things that are Made at Home. By M. E. ROBINSON . . -3^5 

Tobacco and Drama. By A. M. Stevens 5&2 

Traits in the Life of a Great German Liberal. By Lily Wolff- 

sohn 3961 397 

Trees, A Vision of. By Alex. H, Japp, LL.D 539 

Valentine Grcatraks, Esq., the Famous "Touch Doctor" of the 

Seventeenth Century. By A. Peter 247 

Vision, Aj of Trees. By Alex. H, Japp, LL.D 539 

Water at Work. By F. Graham Ansell, F.C.S 14 

Watts, Isaac, as an Educationist. By Foster Watson, M.A. . 531 


fVords and their Derivations. By Rev. U D. DowiiKLl-,^.T3, > '^ 



J.VNUARV 1904. 


DOUGL^\S GREY ond 1 had been fricna* all ihrougbout 
«ctkOol and college dajv, and in the short jrcofB of hLi 
married life I had spent many a happ)- evening in hit tioii5« trt 
town, or visited thctn at >orn< prdty co-^ntry place takcci for a 
noimer holiday. 

1 vas quite ready 10 o^'n that st:ch a g^rl as Ella Grey oould 
make any fclUiiv^t life? a hundred tiiiies brighter itun u had evvi 
l>ecn bcfop;, ercn in the Jcxr old Ojtford time or when yourlt'H 
Bcnac or enjoyment i£ suppo^^ Eo be mott keen. 

rf ever there «u a love maich it waa ih:ti between Douglas Grey 
artd ElU lUranaood, ar>d the ronujice or it hung m«r all ilin »hiirt 
time lSc>' ipcnt lOfethcr. It iraa a drcndful shock to mc vrbcn I 
htard that EILk bod died at the birth oT their third child^a wife of 
only four yean' lUndiog, 

Up to :bat time liHt had been very pleannt Cor Douglaa, ,-ilthoush 
1^ had liad the aiUfortune to lose bis furenta kt an early age ; he 
had hid a good guanJiHan. u»d came inio a fair and wdMnveitetl 
fortune when lie altained hi^ iDajority. He had chosen the Bir as a 
profession, tndLbavii^ a %ti<^ nipj^Iy o( both friends and briin?, h^A 
fl pronising caiter before hiia 

t l«pe 1 wai as mucli ^ood to Dousl^' iri the aaid dap ^^bicli 
fol!owcdhi»l<m»atiT«ie couW be, but the ladnes* irorkcd into 
hiM nature ^fva jjter/f/iM liad softciiod thc &rst aspect of his lol. \U 

was a till, Tair, good- featured fellow with a very pleasant expression ; 
but the furrow of care was now stamped on his face, marking him 
apart fTom other men of his age, though it did not make him look 
exactly older, for most people took him for younger than he was. He 
was just thirty when Ella died. 

His children were sweet and intelligent as children could be. 
Altogether there was no family more likely to gain friends and excite 
sympathy, but the air of quiet reserve which had come over Douglas 
with his sorrow seemed to have been inherited in some degree by 
his children even when they were quite little. 

I wish these observatians to precede the story, because I am quite 
willing to allow that some spirits are* by nature or circumstance, or 
both combined, peculiarly susceptible to certain mysterious in- 

But it seems to me the existence of those inSuences can only be 
denied by those whose vision is so restricted by the trifles around 
them that they know of no world beyond the close, commonplace 
circle of their everj-day lives. 

Part I. 

The yellow fog was so close up against the windows that even 
the shrubs in the iron baskets outside could not be seen clearly in 
the room, but only looked like high, dark-plumed helmets pushed 
against the glass. 

The room was on the second floor of a London house. It had 
been the nursery, but the inmates had outgrown the title. They 
were respectively nine, ten, and eleven yean old 

The school-room was downstairs, and this was given over to 
ihcm for play; but it had not been anything of "play" which had 
been going on there lately. 

The spaniel dog, which had been their darling friend and com- 
panion ever since they could remember, had been taken ill three 
days before. Father was away from home. The vet had been 
sent for, and had been most kind, coming twice, a day and trying 
various remedies. The servants had been good in helping the 
children to do all that the doctor recommended, cook all along 
declaring that she would "rather wait on that poor patient creature 
than on many Christians," the latter title being synonymous with 
" human " iu her dictionary. 

Only the governess had been suspicious of hydrophobia from the 
Srst, &nd gaURntlf stuck to her conviction \n \ujt di \]ea \^*% 

Tk$ GtmtUnuifis Magasitu^ 

Lumcd h^rMI^TiTlon ng?4in to ihc dog, ftoftlf louchtng his clatk, sfUcf 
f^r irith her oihct hard. 

<^0h, look r He hrt^ hi3 tail ; he tried to wig it 1 Good dojc 
good Magic I " cried Ronald encoungingly. 

" BqI he fi>V# X\{\ his head nov ; [here, he tried tt\ and he rvjvV. 
HcfViv^doihti AttwdvG «hcn veciitneupffoailc««HM,'' AIIaod's 
tone wai full of feir jind JeBpaif. " RoniTd, do you know, bia paw* 
»re /c* cold, thriigh hp's lying right in from of ihU btg fire/* 

Roriald look up ihc bi^ Scotch shiwt and held il to Uie fire, ihco 
wappcd it Toui^d Magic's legs ; but they vere all very, very silent the 
itthiI«L l^ey b^ow the shadow of the grcAt n^yitery was coming iot<» 
the room, while puUidc the fo^t r*^ thicker, and hy three o'clock It 
wu very nearly dark, 

After A time Ellen brought up a piece ol the fticok the hod 
Fetched, and cnolr had w.imircl it in ndoepdish which wasneaxtjr full 
of the red E^ry^ Ali^n held the dish to Miik^c'» lip&, and Ronald 
held up the doggie's hcad^ But it was no uie. 

*' 1 think, dear*, it "iid be kinder not lo bother him now," »)d 
fair, good-natured Elk-n, as *he siined ihe fire ^oincwjiat vigorouily, 
consdoLift ihjit her »i^h1 won a little blurred by icara. 

Alison m the bisin on the table, And KonaSd laid theeurlyhcod 
down on the rtg agnin, stooping over io kiw oru^ of the black Ulky 
cars. None of ibc children .ipoke. 

"Shall 1 *tfly with you a bit, dcarv?" KUcn ajked kindly- 
Then Aliflon answered, a liiile huskily but quite steadily, "No^ 
iharik you. \ thint we'd rather be alone with Ma^c." 

So Ellen went do^-natair*- 

'Phe log sr^d the darknc«e met one another and blt^nded It was 
early DcrcmlMrr, ind deli day wan getting lihoTlrr ; rvrn wUhout the 
usiaUnce of London fog. The cbitdien, however, refused to have 
the gts bghlcd ; the ftidccnng firelight «ecmed most pcAcefuL "I'bcy 
b*d often (at with Magic in the ^relight before, and ha had gono 
from one lo the otlier, and licked ihdr Cices and rubbed his dear 
bead against their hands, while they hod ut talking and building 
oattlea in th« air. 

Now :hey knew thai that was n time nerer ftgain to be; they 
knew that quite as well as if tliey had been grown-u]> people- In 
books children arc made to ask, **Whai is death?* "Why ia he 
Ijtrg there if he is dead and gone away ^" but they do not atk 
such gue^ioni in real Ufc^ 

Out of tfic great mystery from which all life comes they have 
brot;V?ht ihai link with Cod's ways whie*i is cftVjcd wttxmcu &«^ 


Tht Di^ Gkosi. 5 

insiiDCt DMdc tbcn quift aad ftoiemn now. Even little 'fictb fdt 
ibfli libic Mnpc Ur like this, ulntc dnd peace^ liimt^l/ (sav« for 
tbc bcflvy breoihioe), \xxt% and Umcnudoru would be out of pUcc. 

Now And again a red cinder dropped out of tbc i^raiCi ^»d Kom^ 
timrs ihpir wjs n sbuui in ihc V]iiflrc, ns > cab was driver ilowly 
through tbc fog, and the dnrcr called lo a polkun^u ur puscr-by 
to know tbc nunW or the house. Ooce tbcrc viu a " mcvr " of a 
c«, and AJi«on csughl her brr^ih a« fthc noticed ihut Magic did not 
moirliUcEEi At the sound nhich Iiail altva/i made him bark and 
fnik so wildlr> 

'Jkih wa« to awc-strick«n that £h« wad alfnc^t afraid to think; 
poot (iillc Rtmald wh* fiarftiJly wrary, for hr hnd goi mil of bed c^ery 
boiu the night before to kc how Mapc Wiu ; but Alison wttsatroking 
tbs bUck, ulky head with unwraiyingcndt^vour to fiCOth^flAdthink- 
ing, dnsiming, woadcring at !(he dtd so. 

Waa Mo^ thinking of llacra? Did he know tlicy would do 
anjtihing to Sftvc httn ? Did mother— lliat youn^ angel xnotiicr tbcy 
hftd Dcv«r known— know anything of the trouble they were in? and 
iraold Magic-'^oft^ du^iea^f;o lo the nunc Hom^i ui nhr bad 
gODC to? Oh, if they could be fuAr auic thftt mollta couM hire 
Magic in Heaven and lake care of him there, how much caticr the 
porting would be \ 

He looked so beautiful, so glOKsy, hia cuila all tight about ihc 
neck, bot loose on his back and i^id» ; his cars so aoft a^d sUkj' ; 
hit eyci— 4lb ! tbert: wai a iitrdiigf^iim ihert. All day ihey had 
looked ao curiously blue and deep : now ihcj weic half iJiuL but 
the lida twitched ii;» now and atiairti :ind ,<ihowcd ihcm glouy and 

Then? wa* a short, shaqj sourd like a yap ; ht moved suddenly. 
The children stinted, and little '^eth apraog to her fc^L . 

Two or three quick Roaps CAffiC, The dog raised him»clf' I 

** O Ronnie : AUie \ be nearly siocd— " I 

•■ Be (luiet, 'Belli ! " Atiikoa'^i fa<^e wai while with a^miy. \ 

PooiMi^icfdl bad and Rasped aj:ain, with the white tooth of hit 
lower jaw fixod outside his Lp. 

Thia was toa math for Ronald. He threw himbdrasjde and hid 
bia face, while at llv sound of another gasp Beth gave one look, and 
Ihcili with a low cry, rushed off lo a distant corner of the room. 

On!j Alison tat on the floor and held one of the iwitching pawt 
finoly, ber face white jmd drawn, but nil her j'oung soul intent on 
abating aa fu a» she could ^harc, helping while ahc could hcljx 

"iJn htre, Ma^c— Magic / " ^e gently said. 


Tk$ GfntftmoKS Maga^w*. 

M ii the (shhful crcMur^ would (tnic \0 hi> dogftic rtttufc] 
respond oven at his IasI gasp to lore «nd csn:, Magic seemed for ^ 
Bi^cond 10 rty to M hbt cytlids. But a grcKt, though ijuiricr, gup 
^hnuk Ills Etamc. Then thtrc was silence. Roiuld <Urcd doL look 
up, 4nd 'iJcch stoo<l L>ack agftinsi Uic w^ll. 

" Ronnie \" — AUfc'i voice wai thaVtng, but she could not ctj', 
uid hpr wliisprr wm cicif thiougb ihe quid — perfect cjuiet now ; 
there w*a no hcav)- tjrcaxbing— "Roniiie> I think dc*r Migic \a 

* Oh, do— <lo ail: them lo litjh: i\\r. gujt," wuikd poor lUile 
'Beth out of the dvkncAS of hct corner. '' It's so djirk, and Tai flo 
cold \ " 

There WW a ringing at the house drjor below^ but none of ihem 
Uecdcid tU Roiuitd got upi and, kci:piiig bis huid turned av^y from 
the hcATth-iug, got the mfttch^ struck iv light, snd. climbing on x 
chair, lit the gnc. 

Thai he Mtcitxl irnd looked. 'Beth, cncuuraged by the brlgbc 
lighu wlikU hs1f4a£^cd thcoi all. canic out of her corner and >lood 
where Khc too could sec 

Aliian gcntty kid dnwri lh*f iiiff juiw and rose t<i her t^cu 

So tbcy were Hi^ndcii^ when Duugba Grc> oiiue upiuif% ;itid 
entered (he roonip 

He had just arrived— a day before he was evpeeted— and, dovn 
ill tli^< lull, Rlitrn had tuld liiin of \\\c ^iL-4it troiiblcr. 

The children looked round And mw him, but without flurpriiCt 
The great pretence which had come in bcEore hirn» the visitor Ihey 
beheld aijonjj ihem for the fini time, was a mysiery in the face of 
which nolljtiig clbL' could A[i\»:&r ^ilriLij^c. 

Bill aftei a moment little 'Bcih rushed fon?axd crying, "Ob, 
fklher, father I If you could have come before I " 

So it wu that these children fir^t beheld Dcaih. ±Liid what wcif^t 
tliat fact may have in the considcmlion of the after-events of their 
lives 1 leave it to utherH to dcfieimine. With ihHr father, 1 hold it 
true tliat every life Las iu mybtery \ alw Uut lute lUAy be such a 
link in the lives and feelings of indtriduab that the same m^atcry 
may he shared in common, where thought, a%KHion, and life hare 
been th.tred in common t03- 

Thcsc two ideas are all I mcari To put forward, and these not as 
solutions of the problem, but ai all the theory J ha^'c to advAnce on 
the subject 

Tk€ Dog Ghosi. 

Part JL 

ll TO A suokOierli tTaiin& sod the coctniry by m peace in lUc 
btfe dA)^'ght, will] 3 mnt out wcsnr&nl vliere Uie tun wu adting — 
ti ced-tingtrd amt, though iriihout the piirplc uid ctrnosoD flonea or 
the suiuct hour in leu wntlod vcaibcr 

Aknoit All the holixlaj's had b4ieD 6ne, and tli^ Grqr childtcr XmA 
been tivtng otii of doors, t^joying to tht^ full the oli dnr-hovse 
vhich didr btbcr reolod funmhcd for ttieni during the monihi of 
Aoeuat And September (be aumnncr after Magic di<d. 

Do^gbu had been oti «hon viiiis lo th«ai, having tpvjit [mrt of 
hi* watiioa sibrcod, and ihcn vuh a i;hoo(iiig pan; up nnnh. T 
had met him xxk Scotlaod, and it iru tfien that he irtvitcd mc Co 
accompany him lo th« lami hcu£« and eee hii dnldreet. 

I ao^qiCod the imitaiion, and vc craivlled logcihcr. arriving thii 
fine sumntcr evening, and luuch cnjoyios the soft counLiy atmo 
sphere, aa ve drove Erocn the Matiotv alter Uk long railivay journey, 
Tlia place wag wiihi^i t«o nilci of the <«a» and a rHre^hiog air trom 
th« ocean bf««hed onrr evrryt King, 

The children were all avaiiiog our onival ia fronl of the \o^%. 
lov, old-laahioned bouse— a white houac with redtilcd roof and Icng 
narrow viodowt vhkh gloved yellow ii\ the erenrng ligbL Ronald 
waft twinging on the gitc^ and Ali^n reposing in a csiinp chair, while 
httic *Bedi phyed with the kitten on the Uw:l 

So weoKighlfi^ht ofthem for a motneDt, and then they all ea^me 
tiftrtndn^ lo meet \\%, 

"So glad you've brought Frank wiih you !" shouted Ronald. I 
had flight them to call me b>- my ChrisliaD name. Douglas h«d 
propOMd an "Unci*" before it» but I reptidiated the tiglieit wwd 
in the Bngilhb dictionary when l)in>^ w;l« no obligation, 

** So ^ad to com^ old chap,'' i answered, a» I jumped otil and 
warmly giwt«d all throe chjldr«n. 

"Fasher! there*« ten more chiekmn hjuchcd!" cried Kltk 

" Aad more rosea blooming t " her father roplied, noting her 
rosy cheeU with aatiifeiClioru 

" \\ vHiihc nice, now )-ou\-c come," said tiir, iwect Aliaon. with 
a look so like het mother thai we let the children have all the con- 
venation to thcmsdrea for a minute. 

•* And much nicer for you than ahooting things" »^ *'^^^y ^** 
hcrld tttong theories against npor t 

"fliert'* groow in the cirl." cried Ronald, who had jumped 



T&0 GsHikmans Magazine. 

upon llic wliccU "Now, 'Betb, why ahoulcl you mind catijig ilut 
more thun chjcl(^-^l?" 

"We> clon'c cat tht; chickcnc bcrc- Mrs. BnmpCon said th:Lt 
wiinH one of htis that wc hud yortcrdaty.'* 

"She only «aid it (o aatbry you. Sktupid," aiinvt-trcd bet biotlier. 
■'^Vhat do you (upposc because of BJncktc?— you misled liim Trom 
the mn," 

"Mn. Gr^uTiiitan Kiid he dicti nf ^jnifwAr/fj^n," jiiiKwrrrd 'Rrih 
LTtly. Arid ihc mt;rry latigS viih whicli wc «U haUcd Mik 
ipton's fioinowhal umo-wotTi joke only made 'il«th wonder' 

*' Ncvci uiiuU, dear," said Alivoti, wilU the Utile motherly air 
nhich seemed to quaint a belonging to hct two years' scnionty. 
" Vet] ean eat only the cgg« if you like, and not the groufo or lli« 

We spent & happy evening, the children ninning in nnd cut while 
wc had KUppcr, and romping on tbd lawn witl^ uft flitcrwardB. Once 
I ihrcw lilt Uitl righl down the sloping bonV ati^ong the j^fxaebeny 
buahea. 'Ikth uina^ei ii, hcc gDld-bro>Tn cuf b all lOUfihcncd by 
her pl&y, her grey cye^ d^incin^ with childish merriment. 

But (Jic rcCumcd nlowly with the big bull und^r her arm, and the 
colour h«d gune oiit of litr litilr? round face. 

"Why, 'Octh. ycu arc llred !^ I exclaimed Tl»e allerttlon of 
Ihe otheri had been di^-cried for a moniont by the siflbt of Ihc (chiie 
owl, an evening visitor to whom Ihey were anidom to iniroduee 

*^No, not tired," she answered, coming oloec up to me, with a 
dreamy, raysleiioji; look in her eyes. '* Do you know?" she said, ii> 
u very Iljw, iiuft tune, ** [ thuut^lit Miigic wuii ruiiiULig aflct tlidt boll 
— 1 Ihoughi I saw him." 

Then, secinR my look of wonder, she cjcplaincd, '* MafiTC, our 
spaniel dt^, you know, who died Jut wintfT." 

" Why, yea, of courac I know," I aniaHcicd '* But how could you 
Lhink Magic waa ihcre P la there any dog Lhc him about here ? ~' 

"NOi DO} It waKn'Cmi//^ad<^, but^— - Frank, doyou thmk 
dtf^i can Imve fihtiNta, like jfcuplc ? '* 

'' Quite aa likely one fU Lhc other," I hui£lied. " What do you 
^toow about ghosi«.' purely Mru Mowbray has told you there are 
<udi [hinga." 

'^ Ronild knows; he ha:^ a bgok about them, Alftic taid I wasn't 
< read it \ bjt he read^ biih to me, and I like to hear them, though 
tn ffightcned aftcm,irds," 


Th€ Dog G&osi, 

" UTiich just sboir* what a little {OOftC you are^ and how ^tru 
cotDii to iouiginc Uiu you ttet: ei black spuiid dog when there isn't 
anyatal/ lKL]d,Ukin^ her up id m^ amis (foriKcw^tt a liille thing 
lor bcr age), aod caTi3^ng bcr off io the garOcij m^l " VouYc lirod, 
'Bett^ «crd wboa one geu tired one can fancy anytbini; ! Noy 
Ronnie, I think we'd better giiv tip itie game row, 1 ihink 'beiis 
ii only fit Toe bed.'' 

" Umd too long a day, dearie ? ~ a^kcd her bthor ; and ibcy casic 
and «at on tbe teats till the bell ntng for bed-time. Bm 'Bc4h did 
not speak of liet hncy a|;aLR. 

Tlic ne:tt monting wa* bti^lil and sunny, atul Doti^liu and I 
vti< down to an eady breakfast, bcJt Hcnald was the only one of 
the children who kept ui coropany. 

" 'Deth has b»^ ill in the ntj^hi, ariJ Ellen uid »he liad bcLIer 
hdvc ^JT^foit upMtin, BO Abie »ia^ viith her" The boy 

Douglas seemed anxious diiecUy, and went up to see tbe liiile 
iavatidt lie found her flushed and fevaiali. and our diive into t]u; 
ooualy town con^pmcd a umi to summon the doctor. 

At 6m he taid it nas a ferciith diil!, bui fe^^th chillt can 
lead to fiavG complicatiorvi. and as the duys w^nt by the doctor 
loolied more >crJou» after each visit. 

It vas a sad change from the plcauLnt time wc hod anticipated ; 
and all the while the days n^rt so bri^t and sunny, the earth «» 
bt^titiful and fuU of plea^Aut tiiiugt. Bui our lie^b wcie weighed 
down bysttchalood of care ihat 1 think we oil echoed httle Ronald's 

" 1 think It wDuJil be easier to {i%ie up and be miserable if the 
suo wouldn't shine to all Uio time." 

Two nones were in wjiiing on poor liule 'IJeth, and the other 
childf en knew she was dacgvrouily ill, and felt, 10(\ iliaiurscttfctl *ute 
oi saspcnic and vaduesa widi whkh ACiIijub ilhujsa alwa)^ jmpreaiAea 
the c^ldrcn of a &uni)y, even when they are not old cnou^^h Io share 
the day -U>dajr watching, waiting, hope and fear of ih^ elders. 

1 could not have left than, even if Douglnii h:id not said what be 
safrd the fii« night he kncn 'Betb wai &trioasly ill ; " Suy wiiTi me 
it you can, Frank ; I can't bear it alone. If there's no one c]v^ I 
than be making Abie an old woman before she's a ynung one/' 

I (bought cf his vends one cvtuing about a week afterwards 
whi:n I met Abie on ihc staira. The child's lace was whiter, and her 
eyes bad a more sttaincd look than a child of eleven should ki^ow, 
whatercT ihe cJoud ofunxhiy over the home nwy be- 


TjU G^ntUmans Afagasitu. 

■\M*ic, cottw OLiE into the gardcti/ I »aid. "It h t lovely 
cven'mg, and jou bavc boen luo umch in the house lo-clay." 

She looked w mc, «nd then looked beyond mc. The cvcnini^ 
Tighl tbone on her long, pale golden hair *nd on ihe ^vhit^ frork «he 
worr^ SItt raised li«rr li^icl ard pointed into tlie hull, (Ii;wn l>clow 
whcie 1 stood 

•' Look ! There he is. There is Mnjnc ( waiting it the door, 
lu he uwd to wait at home for u& to come out 1 " 

I IodLl-iI, atid until Ehu da/ I cannot njr whether I saw Manic- 
thing Of nothrnjt whclhCT I rtully WW » blACk spviid dog on the 
thrcfboTd^or whether I only imagTned what the ebitd de»enbed. 

At that tniiiaiit Douglii** voice called me, Irani the lunjinjj abov«v 
in i\vt huslicd vclcc ot aiipprcA^ed agony : 

" Frank, come up -come to mc. They aay the child i% dying." 

And at the hour when the rock« en the disUnt undii wer« 
unCDvcn-'d rn the bun^t ^low, tfie little tide ur'BctU'a life a\^ cbbctl 

Perhaps in the ixrtt dayn cf his great grief IJotJgbA did not notice 
how ill Aliion wai- Perhaps, knowing her tender, loving nniuFf; he 
aitriUuLcd all bcr changed appearance and altcicd manner to sorrow 
at the lo^t of thcdcdriy loved liulc ^iatcr, I had misgivtrgs 
Alsie from the very day of iiirih't^ dcAth, but I could not odd to the 
tTCublts tif my puoi friend, and fell 1 was doing the beat for all 
when I ur^cd Douicla^ to winicr abroad nvith the two children, Ho 
had ■ coufiin resident in HniKScl^, who wa^ mArrrcd rrnd had a young 
family- They would gladly tind Pongtac a^nj/^ff near ihem, snd 
it wculO be cheerful society for bimscif and hia Ijoy and girl. 

He octed on my sufKcition, and I bad btticr news of them 
At Christmas th-ii I hud dared to expert, though he wrote that 
Albon continued vtry delicate. Rarly in the new year the blovr 
camc^infiuen^and pneumonia carried her olT; »1ic was only in bed 
a few dayt, poor ciiild r but the mischief had eummcnced moniht 

On the night after I had the news of her death 1 ui alone in my 
chambers and grieved— thought— wondered. Again I seemed to 
hold in ^^y arms fhe pretty, curJy-haircd child, and saw her anxioui^ 
:r«i»tcni louk as ahe (utd mr hnw !(hc had seen rhe dog like Ma^ic 
when ahc ran after the ball. 

And then I saw the twcct, gravo face of the elder girl at she mot 
aoc on the ^tsir I lAtvm ber wondering, faT'Sceing gaze fls »>hi; pointed 
out the fonn of ihctr f^tbrul dumb friend as it appeared to her at 
that sad moment. 

Tb4 Dog Gh&sL 


Wm ihcft anything in it ^ Wm h to Ucoint; Ihc famffy om^-n ? 
W» it that becmiM they had »o fol b^hcM DcLih il apputcd ognm 
10 tbenf Was cberv imjihing in i^na^ and omcra, And fvcond 
iJ£ht? Was it tnevc finc^ oT chiMfah bniin«, vhich coming ilbitsb 
cAoscd lQ»piaurc riv>4)y the gnat cvc£:t oftlidrliulc timi? 

rA«r III. 

Tho TO^Ticig scencfi of lik will cut into the 4hadu even oomc of 
the most voul-engTO^^ng cven» a^ ihtt years go bjr ; but, alihough I, 
GCflocd to tl^vLI afici a liinc oxt Ibc sod cpi&odc& uf tii; rrlvnd^t WTe, 
Us afidn a]«a>> hod a {treat interest for me, altbnujth o:it having 
to reside abroad for some yeorc irrerented our seeing much of ono 

From the kUcra, honcvcr, which 1 received from time to lime I 
gUbcrcd that Kocnid iratt gro^nng to be Ihe prid« and delight ofhi^ 
bthcf't httut and the cenirc of a!I liis hopes. I'he boy had be«n to 
Eton and ih» to Sondhiirftl, ihough this losr, Douglas uraicv wis a 
fkldttc oa Ut pan Lo the EETC^t d«^re or RonaM*s lircn He hiniMlf 
would have been gbd il* ihc txiy had chosui a profeuion which 
would not haT* been so likdy to briT)g ftiiwte separation. 

la the jxiiJ 1999— tai jeajs aftci tlte sad cvciiCh Tet^ordtJ— 1 
returned to Enjtlind, and one of my fint visits w« to the prctly 
place Douglaa Grey had bought in Suftiex. It y*'±t to be his con^ 
hoin«v and liad been purcfia£<?d thai Konatd might have a plicc to 
whiijh to invite his fr^endf, enjoy shooting, and have all the picdsurea 
of a eountry iquire^b eiisterce nhonever he chose. 

H'h*a I iaw Ronald I ftas pleased to Iw able to own that he was 
worthy of ht« fathet^K pride in him, A fair, wcil-growrr, nice^looVing 
youns CcDov of oneand'tvccntir. lie was fond of hii profession and 
of oU outdoor excrettes, hiudy and SparUn in hieseirtreatnienT, but 
atmosi more like a <laaghier ihan a son in his aflccrionale considers* 
lion fe< his Eathe*. 

He woi a founjc felloir icit whom it tra» tmpoMihlc not to feel a 
fHong ■Uocbment, and, oi well as ttie pka&ant charm of bi« mnnner, 
then m nometinus a fjr-nway vLdnr<L^ in his PKjimticin tbdt won 
me especially lo hioi. I was sure the tiogcdy of hia childhood hod 
>onuliev marked him apnit &om the commgn run of youlh or hie 
0^ and time. 

Abmil a fortni^l after my aninl at Mourhuisl (as ihc place waa 
ealledX ho and I were alone in ihc lirounds. Dou«k* having been 
mmBiioiwI into ibe bouie to sec a visitor. 

12 The GctUUtnau's Afagaiine, ^^^^H 

II wai An auiunm ttt-ning, October, but Srie and warm for Ihe 
time of year, TIjc bi|i bcctlict wtic liutiii^ (Ic(:i^t-i c^ctj Um), mtd 
A crimson mist lay on the \\i[\% \ it was just sumct tinic, nnd vrc had 
resolved to tcmiin out liil dirk, "to bmc^ uk Tor th« vvening't 
«!<.'! It mi !i/' Ronald lakl, fof thiirt? was to bt- a Utile dmni^r party 
(noehbouFA of ihc «cnici n:xl at halfput acv-cn, 

" lliLTilLy much of A fctlivity to you, Ronald," J setid, lAughtng. 
" I tuppo&e you ncre fairly gny »r $4indhiir«t| And have boeii giving 
some ciitt^iiAiiimcnlA for celebration lately." (lie bad just been 

"Ob, yes. I'm afraid Wt rather been going \l ; but I really like 
ft best here, you Wnov, if ocie can't be in acrivL- ftervict — though 
there's chance for tlutt before longn" 

'* l9 your rcgtmcni likely to ^a out to South Africa ^" 1 asked, 
for the trai cloud was then in the air, 

" Mere Lhan likely— almost ceitain." 

"Tni afrflid your father wiU feci it dreadfully ! " 

** Oh, but it vlIJ be noihing ! " he laugh:xl. And 1, too^ wa« 
almost as much of a victim to the terrible delusion whith cost the 
country no dear. 

But bvfotc 1 could reply nay hean gave a sudden bound ; for a 
momcnr I feh atniosi like an hysterical ivoman might feel, so 
stiAJijtdy and suddenly the thing happened. 

Out of the Uttk- wood just l>clov' uh, and towaidn v/hieh the 
grounds sloped, thore bounded, without baih or ^und, a Ihfk tfomt/ 

*' Hallo ! U mujit l>e one of Mr. Steer»'s spaniels, licre, good 
fellow I 1 tfiy, hrank, he's just like our old Magic ! " 

"Oh, don't t£^urh him" l-ct him go, Ronald!" I hjiKtily cJC» 

He turned and regarded me vith the i^rcatcst astonibhincnL 

"Why, Frank \ Whni do you mean? Surely yoiVre not afraid 
of do^^s. ^Vhy, no , I rccncmbcr you ircii: ulway» so fond of then^" 

" I don't knuw what J meant," I an:»wcred, trying to lau^li off the 
cbonia of the raonieataiy supcrstiLion. " Vou'il think me hyitcricaJ, 
^nald; biit " 

A servant* coming hastily Uirotiith ihc tc^oundi, bearing a yellow 
n^lopc, caused me to break off with a strange feeling orapprehen- 

"tor you, sir. " he said to Koruld. 

Koruild opened Lbc telegram. 

" It ia as 1 thought 1 must join my retsiment : it is ordered to 

The Dog Gk&sL 


South Afrid \ Oh, Frarl \ I'm glj^ you're her* lo be Kiih the 

" Waf ikAi tbg rtcJ fir a fManfpm J " i 3i^«d rnysdi a hundred 
t*mrt in ihe w?ck^ whirh fnl1owi*d f had nn rwil T«a?on to suspect 
the Utldi sudt An i^<a had never enlercd RonELld's hc^d. 

B«t when, through thftt sad Chmtmaa, I siharcd the Uthcr't 
m^rf^tnxkw Icngingr hc^ng, fean ng for news, I cour<i not bear 
tT un not s^Jinmcd to Dim it) to think of i\ai dftrk^ silky creature 
■ppcarinf out of the autumn mtAtt that October evening, 

b might be thnt niyimaginaiion ihii^ mystery round what hod 
been a mere common rhanr?, a coincidence, who s\vd\ wy? I or\\f 
knov thftt wiicn the ncvs came that Ronsifd Grey fell In the ratal 
Attempt on Spion Kop, the first thing 1 thought of was of his 
unhappy nither, the netx g4 the " I>og Ghoit " I 

7he Gcnlleman's Magasine. 


IF v< wcte asked lo \Ay vbat is tho nio^t in^porta^it thrng in the 
worI<l, wc could hardly do brttcr thui ui/ thfti water ii. At 
all events it liu i ttood Lklm to the ^cnitioc^ for rii Natuic il playifl 
m&n/ pAfU. [ts ubiquity anJ ib utUily arc jurpruing ; it i» in ihc 
earth and in th« ^kr» it it a rnxeiaity for our daily Wjintfl at home and 
for the appUrAiionii of many of th? nrlK in our nork«hap«. It makes 
the bciuciful minbow and the mighty ocean. It docs delicate work 
foT the analyst and hard work for the engineer* and by mcana of 
water cui noble fire brigade can lU^ a \Me fire to escitngutjth a 
conflagration. Lcl us make a short study of voter. We will hi-gin 
with ft shower cf rain, and watch the water ninnina down ft cart-rut 
by the iide of a road as a tiny itream typical of a great river. It 
ruches 4llong, and in it^ turhitlcm hurry to get downhill carrlei away 
pjeecfi of btonc frnd cuts Itself a channel, until ll airivci at a more 
tranquil lUte, when it deposits ili load in a puddle. A little cx- 
p(-nment will show us thftt the water has carried dowr rrtateriak iiii 
two difTcrcnl w.iy^^ some being In Kilution aud gome in suspension. 
If wc lake a Vutlc of the r*in water, put it in a saucor aiul place it 
in the oven, il will evaporate ond leave little or nothing in the dry 
vaucef ; but if wc take wime nf thr nmiddy waitt as u goes down the 
carl-rut, and [Wt it into a glass, wc shall aouii het: the insoluble 
matter settle to the bottom, and if now we take sonic of the clear 
water and evaporate it in the saucer in the oven at before, we shall 
■if^e a fuTthcr depo<iit, liecaute, ihe water having j>asied away an timm, 
the »oUd matter it had dissolved is lef^ behind. Thi» simple e3ipcti< 
mcnt iit very inslnjctive, and enables tu to get «oaic idea of tlK Eoni 
)r material carried down by rivers to fotm sandbanks in csluatiM 
.od tci fuinish ihe ^t:^ with its great stoic of luinual^ We aU know 
ttt " dropping water wears away ?tonc," and that the action of wind 
nd ftlorm beats away hard rocks. Our litUe cxperimertt gives as an 
isight imo the proce.NS, and ciplaijis how Nature xpreadu mineral 
lod far and wide for pU^t life, both land and marine- But Natun^ 
IB another means of l>reak]ng up rocks by the action of water, and 

»^aUr <U Wmi. 



Ihit it b/ fro£l. The vit«r inainiuies iueU into Ibc pores <v.fcck3, etc 
orUic rock, Ami in liccTing io icc cxpinds uddcnly vilh grnai Torccp 
so lluti the nir&ce fif tho rock i$ disuitegnlcd tnd, wlica Uic ihAv 
coiiMSi t» citncd svajr. Wit«r can ftJw ditsoK^c gue« tc on incrc<li- 
b1« unoum, Hnd hy doing »o ii Requires. new properlJcE, i^, its 
>olTccit «ction is {rcAUy iugmcnLcd, and KubsUnccs in»oluUii^ ia pum 
mter txt then reodUy dmolrcd bf tL 'Xlie Atmospbtrc conuiiis a 
mull qttnitty of cubonic add ga«, of ammoabf juid aJ«o of niihc 
acid ; but tbi« U»i b more especially pioduced by thundet-alomis. 
The acqnisition of aubonk idd would enable ibe water to diasolvc 
fucfa bodiM u diilk, dolonito, and tton, although they woold be 
ineokibfe in pore wjitcr. dulk tn a curbonaie of limr, and it only 
feebly held In solution, being cisily dcpodted by A fall, by cxpnj^urc 
Io the ajr, &nd by he<t ; hence tlie ttAiagmitcs and aialactitca of our 
e=tventt and the tncrufiation Jrdde our tcakcltlcfi; etc., and alio the 
cnTXRi^ phenomenon of (KtrifoctJon so well siren ui ;bc fflnnous 
drippinf wdb cf Matlock Bath. Iron b taken up and deposited 
ID the Kibe my, but it tinpam a brown colour to tvhaiovf^r w may be 
4epodtcd on, and givc« a peculiar Havmir lo the wjicr, whirh is ^id 
to be ^lybcatc We CAn now understand that tivera carr? a Ur^ 
aRiomc of mineral matter into the sea, and a^ there is ro outlet for 
Uw vaicr of the occuii except «vaporaliOD, which removes Uie *r^er 
but noi thv miEter in ^aluilon, the sea musE b«come ^dually nkore 
and more den&c; and il ia JTKcrcatint to obACtte that &ea wnter 
contains more mineral matter than any other. This ib especially the 
case w*ih the Dead Sea- Thcr^ are many diflereni rjualiiirs of 
spring water, the dilleTence being due to the mineral nutter in solu- 
tion, some being medicinal as \x Epsom and Cheltenham, some 
Mlinc and '^ome i^lphcrcoui^ while one in Cornwall contains lithia, 
which \% ntoom mended as a ctJtc for gout and bimilat AlTtTlufEi^ 
Some ^pcl^1fpi are liut. ab at Bath, ar^d some are coldt while some arc 
koown aa brine and by evaporation supply us with table aalt. 'I'hese 
water* must have parsed through diflTerent geological formations in 
their juumey tlntfu^ the lurlh, und by iheir contents decUrc ibi? 
company ihcy have conscrted with. All iheae streams, little and 
great, %a^ LSdr way by the natural Iaw of gravitation into th« aea ; 
yet, ai Solomon obttenred long ages ngo, " the «ca ik not full ^' and 
'' Ljnto tbe place from wbciicc the rivers come, thither ihcy return 
i|pia>" The bent of the sun evaporaii» the ocean, the cold cf 
fpaee amdcRses the va^pour into cloud and r^tin, and «o ibr procens 
of mibiiig the solid caitli Inio the sea goes on. Who cau say bow 

tcag it writ COM.'ifUM: ? 


1 6 T/U G^niUmaris Magazim 

Wcr arc now back again with the rain, in which artimonb is du- 
(Tnlvrvl, ami jn the language ot cheniistiy audi wcirirr in iviJil lu In; 
iilkAlinc, itid iiH propcrtJcB arc very dilTcrcnt from thoic of acid ot 
nouinl wniCTf ; for insuncc* ii will disRotvc rcsinoiiH nnd oihcr 
bodi» foimcd b/ phni-i, such i* ulmin, the resoU of vpjj^tnhlc 
(Iccaj. Mfiny of ihe products of vegetable dcca/ are tci> valuable 
to ^Tving planib Tor manure. The nitric ncid mentioned abore is 
a much more powrrful lolvcnl than cither of the oiher*, for haxdljr 
nnyihtng \:zi\ tttsisi iLi atUck. Thu» by taking into partnenhip 
adtnonia (a product of oriranic dccompoaiiJon), caTbonlc actd (a 
pfoduct of aniinalreBpiralion), and mtricacid (a product of electricity), 
the rain tvnter adds inimensf.'!/ to ii« accumulaiing fiower, and on 
ranching the earth it tnakc^ ^ood use of it, for in the ashct of plants 
we 5nd ^tilica* lime, ma^csia, phoftphntes, iron, and OLher ihinf^f, 
each being delivered by the waror Jn that part of the plant where it 
h required, aomc h\ the rool, some In the sicm, and mijiiic tn the 
leaves. A good deal of the water entering the plant by the root 
evaporate* from the l^x-es into the almospht>re and reappears again 
a« THiM, buE alito a good deal \*i rcUtnc-il hy x\\c phnr lo furm by 
union with cafbon such bodies a* starch, ?iugAr, vc\\xi, cellulosev 
lif^nin, ctc», and more comtilex substances such at gum and the vanous 
juice* natural to vcgeiatinn, alT drpending upon water for their com- 
pobition. Indeed, a plant iccms lo be a acrrt of chemical laboratory 
vrbcTcin Nature works venders which astonish us and awaken the 
most i^rofoimd admiration, but ai the tame lime ba)Tle our imiutii^ 
skill. We may Mill " consider the lilies of the field. Thcjr toil not, 
neither do ihcy spin." and yet ihcy hare a ylory all theit oivn^ a most 
dcUcatc blending of cotours, a awecl pGrfume, an clcf^nt sliapc, and 
a regular habit— all inimitable. Wr^nrr, however, .ihle to follow some 
of the chemical Actions or processes going on in pknts ; for instELncc, 
ID a gcrminatirig seed we fmd storcli taking in a molecule of water 
and so becoming sugar, and we can trace medicinal virtues to certain 
patta of planu, such a^ thcinc to the leaves, quinine to the bark, 
fbubarb to the root, acid to the unripe fruit, sugar lo the ripe fruit, 
oil to the seeds, etc. There is also a large class of bodies known to 
ChemltliyafirarhnhydT^lrs'-'^hodiei whow rompnsitinn U foimd by 
analysis to be repre?>enicd by an intimate mixture of water and cnrbon, 
cr, 04 it is often culled, charcoal. Many of :he*e aubstanccs are i^ry 
important, and, jilthough diflenng greatly in general propenic!, are 
very similir in aauil composition ; for in^ttancc^ atordi i» composted 
of If molecules of cnrbon united with to of water; cane sugar, tt 
moiecvhs of cubon xtilh 1 1 molecuica of wat«r ; and gnt^ ^^VP'\ 



l8 Tkt GentUmans Afagasine. 

cc Uit. I 
natuni \ 

none the ku so because easily Apparent Snow ix &1so tce^ 
bcit^ ftcshl/ tfoicn Lhdcr no rc««iirt, it can show iu 
cryitalline form, vrry r*^il;vt nnd vrry clr^iint TtiiPi can nftm b< 
seen with llic unaided eye or wJlh a pocket mngnifxing-fibs?, and is 
well worth Audy- !t sbowa how the enowftakc con bo as li^hi u 
cidot-dcwn, hovr ii be ii bratiiifu! glisr^ing ooamle to lh« 
garden, and how it can be comjircwcd and gravr mlo ■ solid block 
of ic& Vel bow inaeical the effect of x warmirr ccmpcratuTo ! The 
beautiful crystals, which fchow no sign of their tmc o^mposttion, soon 
melt inio liquid wnter and fto drrbrit ihrmsrlv™ ; bni \ce \% not 
water, for iU proprilics nrc altogether di/Tcrcnl from waici, on which ii 
always floats^ thus forming a covering to protect the water below from 
frrcmnR to a *olid mitt. J« not thU one of Nattire^ proviiions for 
iti creaturm? Fisli Tcqinrc a liltlr afr, and jcc <x>nlainf; rone, but 
all naiural water conuim fomc« and, in rrec^lng, ttni air dissolved in 
water ia forced out, hcnco the holes in the ice. But Nature makes 
fltll another provision for a^ifltic life, Wwr when at the tempera- 
ture of 39" T. is at \xs dcnst^t, and whichever way ibe tcmperaitire 
varies the water becomes lighter, tio that in very cold weather the 
li^uidwatcr we find below the ice, especially a few feet down, ig sure 
10 be at 39t" F. ; and as wiitci fs a pnor cyinriHclor of heat, and the 
covering of Ecc presents the wind fiom turning it over, naluiatly a, 
lonjr time is required to alter i\s temperaiure, which therefore 
remain* leven degrees warmer thnn ih<* Ice abcvr? It. 

Ice and sncw have anoiher very rcmnikahic properly, which 
shows itself in winter when wc want a little water and have to go out 
and gather some snow, or i^erhaps ice, and we put it in a pail over 
the ktrehen fire. Perbapi we expect it to melr in a fe^ minuEcv, and 
we get tired of waiting m3 go away to do somethji:g, ^nd then sSi^t a 
oonsidcmble time return to find that even then some ice tcmaini, 
and the wafer ia ttill quite cold. This ia another wise provision of 
Kature. Let m fieo what It is, and also itt elTrcL On making a 
careful scientific invcstrcalion into thia phenomenon wc find that ice 
cannot melt before it has absorbed a large cfucintity of heat, far more 
than we should opeei. In fact, if we put the same weight of water 
in Lhe pail over the fire a:t we did tee, it would have lie^^umrr vrry hoi 
in lc*a time thnn it required to mck the ice. And if we had a 
thermometer we should find that the ice remains at a tempcmture 
of ja* F- until it melw, so that the fire has ro apparent effect 
upon it at first. Jn other words, the :cc cannot change itH stale or 
melt until it ha* absorbed a ^ood deal of heat ; and on the other 
band, if ve with to freeze water, we must wail palientlj while the 



IVa/tr (U mrk. 






loacs cxKUr the same EUWKint oT heat bdbrc il can riiartfce 
llit«aikdfr«e»loIJd> Tbi» heat, which ia nect^aarrloihccbingc 
staJr> ii oJIcd Utem h»t, ft^. hidden heat, bKauve i\ doc» not 
•bowTiscircn Ibe IhcTTBomrtcr. !fit vrcre nGtrorthu bi^-nt heat of 
frceang arni thi^^in^ w« tJiould Iw iiubjucl to meat fcaifuJ iiianda- 
tlonv CIO the melting of the VEni^fnow, uul also to very suddcoAiitl 
UemcncioiH fro6U. Very m^x ^utiatant^n exbifnt ihii; phcooaienon 
of loloit hcflt. bat it is rcnurkiblc ihAt water possena it 10 a Av 
gKKtvr cSei^ee than any other t>ody. Having dicoovctcd tha« ^ct, wc 
nuy goastcpfiitthn and fwyl thiit a ^itiiUr lou of he^c attends the 
chiDfc ffoot liquid wilcr to vapouf, aitd prcventfi the inn «udden 
ffom clear to fc^y weather. It also pvcvcnU tlic heat of ihc 
Q from making a drought in a dajr or tiro, and ftom raising too 
udi VA^ur &oni llic ^urfjict: of tlie ocean, and «i filling the r\t 
'With moiHurc tnorc Uun it could hold, which in the abaencc «f 
talent beat would foil upon the earth in torrenii ir>sicAd of a gentle 
raiA. In &CI, Idiert heat acis as a controller l^y intr^ucing tima 
m(o the charge, and so uiaLcs it gradoal and tul(^t:il>]o iC rot a]wny« 
pkuant And moat of u^ hAve noticed hoir the cold winter wind b 
wanned when the snow comes. We can now undcntand it *' III 
blows the Wind tSal proftLt no1>ody/' 11ic cold^ii winter wind 
ffteMs warsith from the rain \n niAking snow which is m compan* 
,tivdy warm corering for i-egcuiion. 

It also acts aivMher gcnla] parr, via. in the dew depo^ied ai night 
m the atOKB^icn^ for dew docs not ust Ttom the t^mml a% wim?; 
people aoppoae. The aif is chAr^cd with TUpour, and ihia. coming in 
contact vtth cold Zeares, blades of grass, e<a, is conden^ to liquid) 
and in liiiu-rj-in^ rt^orev 10 llie Ic^f on which ft U ilcfpoiited ihet 
warmth it icceit^ indirccilj' from the mn durmf: the diy. And 
DOW, popponng lli«co4dlo be sut^iently intense to Itccm th^ dew to 
booT-fion, ft Btfll farther quantity of warmth is imparted to the plant, 
wlncb is often thus pceiierved from bdng completely frozen, tiwugh 
ihacdettof itskavca rnay bcfroit-bttten> Thus the dew docs more 
Ihan svppdjr the plant with moiiturev but the amount of heat supplied 
r>eoa£inly «nui), arvd only able to ward olTa alight froaC. It is, 
kowevcr, noticeable that dew U only deposited on a clear, cold 
ttigbt in the ab!»ence of much wind. Clouds prevent radiation of 
h4flt fVooi the «arth'fi surface, and va mainiatn the temperature of 
the ak too high for xKs farmatiun. 

The cooliag efTect of animal pcrapiraticn '\s also due to this un^ 
expected arvJ eurioua property of water, 10 admirably called lawnt 
heat, but of which wo wiil uy no mow ui present, 



so Th$ Gentdmaiis Magazmi, 

l.ighlning* awful, muclikvoii^ lightning, i& nude by the action or 
irattry rapour, bill Eo u fiJcT»(ajl<] how, wc must pay careful aitcntion. 
Finily, wc nntt« recognific thai tho grwi sTore-houE« of eleciricity Is 
thr tAitb, f<]r this iti so, AirLd ihal lliL- uaiitith of ihc sun CAUSC« a 
Utgc qtianliiy of vratcr to be cvoporitcd from the earth and occaa 
Now, it \i dccnOQ»trabl« that watery vapour, in kanrg \ body chvg«d 
vrith rfrculdly,i:!irrit^ eleciricity a«ay with it, and if we could follow 
the vapour lUIng from ihc cauh wc ijiould kc that as it rl^cs in the 
ail \\ cool*i and in cooling it acquires the Form of dn^»t which In 
time fonr a cloud. Ii ix now obviotii that th? vaf>our does not 
occupy so much spairc as jc did on Wvmg the canh, and for our 
prcacnE explanation we may quite fnirly a^aumc that oach drop has 
iti fftparatfi charge of dectrieiiy, and the coUvctton of Ihem makes a 
ihundc^- cloud, Condenfcal&on «ti3l goc« on, anJ the %mix\\ drojH 
coalesce in such a ray that one thousand would uiuLe to form, wc 
wtU suppo^, only one. Now, we know that this one could only 
havt; a diameter equal to ten of the original dropn. Contequently 
Ihe one large drop lias the accumulated clt^ccrictEy of die origir^ 
thou^nd small dropi, whiUl it» power of holding dcctriciiy ia only 
ten limes as great, for electricity muit be only on the surface. The 
re«u]t of lhi4 is thai the tendency nf the electricity to discharge itself 
froDi the large drop \\ ju>t one hundred tiitjc» aa great aa it ti from 
the amall drops. In other worda, condensation haa increased the 
force of the thunder -cloud one hundredfold, and cf courae there ia 
HO limit to ihis process but the electric force of the cloud Fsj^reatly 
intlucnccd by its proximity to the earth and to other clouds. Some 
floabci of lightning have been known to be a mile in length, and the 
cveT'ircreasing record of disaster* from this cause gives good reason for 
dreading ilt piodigious power to do [Ili^ch)tf. It Liui^LnddDE^^uften 
wreck buitdm^f, split and strip trees, and kill animals instanlancou^y ; 
yet, with all its uuful powert, it dock a Uitlc good, for it forma the 
nitric acrid to whith we tmve preinously alluded. We have, however, 
another and itrcalcr conaotation, for it might caaily happen that dr^jKi 
of rain fallitiR from a thundercloud would discharge its electricity 
quietly and harmlessly. This would be stil) more tha cosa with 
snow, l>ee:ius<? in fici^in^ lu a jimiw-flaJce Ihe dro|> tif rain would 
incrcaae it* surface very i^Tcally, and therefore iia electrical capacity. 
HtTG, then, water ia our friend again, and is W rot a grand thought 
that tlie Creai Artifieer of the Univerae should havt.-ehoicn the rain- 
drops aa Ihe resting -place for Ilifl beautiful memorial of divine 
elcmcncy? The raindrops fall on ihc pood and on the i.-vil, and 
produce the fruitt of the earth; and ai they fall the)' tnak<^ by the 



IVa/rr at W^rk. 21 

Kid of Ihc BUfii the gloriou* rAiobovr, Wc now koov bj wh^t 
mtunl b» thi« is done- The tbir niEidrofu fefract the ligbt of ihc 
luiV And revcfti to us its wDtidErrfiil composition. Thit ume bw of 
rcJrutiOD pffodttco tbe nun^ bcttci known to UavdJcis iti ducam 

Chrmi«»7, rbemact iiMtrudivcol til ihe^d^nces, teaches ua that 
thcdcrncnt»of water, oxjgcn and hjdrogcn, arc never loir, although, 
AS we hlTC S«cn, the viter iIkI/ may be dc1:omI>01'^J to form cither 
bodies. And iomc suUc^ncrit proceti, wKti as butmng, reujiiies 
ihrm to ferm water 2gxui- A eeaxr1e«t change, but not useless, u 
fpc Kt « TtgeUblc decay, one resuLt oT which ia the ToriiLaiioii nf 
wster by oxidabon at tbe expene« cl the atmojEpheic. Even more 
wonderftil is ti that cml, iindf the prodocl of veg^ahle dec«y under 
ipcciil drcumttiDccs, produces by conibuxiion a considerable 
qointily of waieTi and thia, although one at Uau of iLn constiiuent 
pjri tuts been solidLfied for years, if not boih, is ju&t as ready and 
aUr tn talc its pn in tht^ workings of Nature to<tay as that from 
any other lourcc to form. iC may b^, wood, jcuoi, r»iii, Augar, aurtrh, 
or any other useful product Nature, then, oi all cvcoU, '* gatbcrv 
«p Uie fr^gmeotB tbat nothing be tost," and ch^iistry has shown us 
a good deal of ils secret processes ; bul just now we can only spedc 
of Iboae in which water takes a prominent pvIh Wc Rijst be 

cut to guti en the g;iand viitta in this fairyland of wonders, 
where Naturr "woirkt by weight snd nnci^Tire/' far cutstripping tlie 
■DOst ideal QUL^kian, hcie concctini', there lejcctin^ Ln&jtiic^iinal 
abocns to moke the tender bluc^bdl or the sturdy oak, the sweet 
Juke of Ibe grape c< tbe add poison of the sorrel, giving a Hims}' 
body to a ^Uyfisfa or a mar^vllout solidity to a cjcuinber, \\^\\.xe 10 
tbe alabutcf, oc shspc ^xA colour to crystollisod miuerols. A doud 
ICire* a wtkoQW shade from ihe heat of tbe summer fiun, a tivct 
gives acakn betuty to the verd^im landscape, and ice adds a bond 
10 tbe ligoun of wintex. So difTcrcnt, to cosily recognised, yel each 
Ihc rtnilt of N«iturc'a tnojcic touch on limpid water ! 

As Nature nukes so much use of water for our benelit^ we cut 
almost ol neccKity 6nd many useful places for \\ (n t!ic arts ■ an<3 
hifltory lefls us ibst Ar^imcdcs, who lived something Ike two 
thousoDd years ajco, tested the quality of tU« crown made for Hiero, 
King or Syracuse brimmening it in water and noiinj; the rffcct upon 
iU vciglit* I'bis metbod b (till in doily use in oui laboratories, and 
is known as taking the spcci5c gravity, water still being the stardard 
10 which the wtighl, bulk for bulk, of >U oihcr liquid* as well as 
wofith is rc^rrcdr Again, cbe depsjdm or vniter-clocV, (tax '^nuctA 


'Cntmnans Magazine, 




tfaou^ defective Rum:in mcani uf lumNunng timr, 4nd thai t^qiully 
nmple tbough periiaps los ancient watcr-bammcr laid in the bed of 
many & quiot old brook to enable il to force a liulc of its precious 
wai^ up a neighbouring hi\\ ore mcmoriah of a bfgonc ingenuity. 
Think* too^ of ihe oM-buJiioticd ^Atci'Vh licet, adding a sonorous 
chum 10 iomti s>lvan Kcnc, or tbc buay tufbint* at work hj t!io 
jirenide, both i^till with us &» linki viih the put, and valued fiiondr 
doing mLirh work. 

Kcxt wc come to our own da)^, wtch iti mighty- ^itcun-cngme of 
maa^ thousand horsepower depending upon vmicr, Uking but litile 
■pacei and working noi«eIes&1y lo supply pcmer en «onnc herculean 
hydinulic crono (pahapa mJlca ftir^y) to enable it to lift tons 
mere handful, or »tjpplyinj{ hard thouffh vr^tcry Micwa 1o soma 5(mI 
Vulcan cnafthing iron bars into rivets strong enough lo hold togct 
the grtnt girdeiH of a bridge ur tlie pUtes of u huge Ktnun hiK\tir 
vhich, if it coukl only burst, irould AprCAd dcrtrucEioit for and wtdc- 

Thc Hritiih supremacy of the ocean and our woitd-<vi(Jc ccm- 
mercc depend upon iHtr-int, 3% d<j ^ho our maiiuracturci. 

Water oiAdc more impression upon our ancestors ih;in we miglit 
be at llrtt aware- Let ua pc<cp into that very inccrtetmg book 
'*Word£ And PUcck/ by the Rev. Ituie Taylor, and icfltn a littta 
cijfinui hi>tory of our u^vn land- ^S'c nuy nuw be »tTrpr»ed at how 
httic ivc knew when we see the great profusion of names dotted'V 
about on tl^e nupi and beating vitncss to the presence of wator in 
certain delinilc localitres, f^. Dourwater, Etlc^^ter, and iJuriwck, 
namca which »how that uatei wua ihe chief local jtliniction, <-tnd tlioi 
aa one tribe followed onotlier ihc new-comers, not knowing the 
langunge of their in)mcdi:Lie predecetsora. thought the o^rDc the/ 
fujriil at tlie pbcc niiMningleia and J.u adtled (bt-ir uwn word ft>r 
water. Mr. Taylor givca one name, vie. Win abcck water, aa en 
instance of this reduplication being carried still funhcr^ and ao 
w^m becomt'« an hiitorian by ihowitig sorac of rhe diflerv<nt iribca 
of people wh'j have avttlcd in partieuUr placca. and aUu the order in 
^'Judi they followed each other btrongc that a history should be 
written on water \ wonderful, wonderful, wonderful water \ 









HEN the Ousa<kia ia<l llictr Vcneibfi aUic» uu down 
before CotuUolinoplc lo porlitton ihc Byoinltnc En^sbe 
among ihcmtdvestbejr paid as liitlcbctM^ OS >ay modem congrctt of 
diploinaiiaU 10 tbo docuiiie of ludunaliliu 1^ tu ibo iviaho uf the 
pcopfet wbo«? IbCc bung npgn ibcir dcciuoos. A fourth pul of the 
Greek dominiocic, oocuud^g of the CApiul, the nci^bouHng disuicU 
of bolb Eurtiftc and Asia, ard ii^vcral iitand^ among Ehem l>noi9 
and SLyroa. «aa find set A^iJc tu furin ihe uew Liilin Gii4]i[c of 
ftoauuki^ 1^ which Baldwin. Counlof FliindcrE,vaj dcct^ emperor. 
The teaiAiRing ihrcc- fourths were then divided ia ec;ua] thares 
bct«tX!n ihr Vcnirtim Rq>ublkr aiiJ the Krjnk Ciusidcra, uf mtIkhii 
the nsoflt profiiiixiit naa Boiufacc, Maiqui^ of Mo&lfcmiU the jival 
of Baldwin for the throne of Ihe Ea^t The Crc<:k province in 
Aaa anJ the island of Crete had been onguutly marked <?ul ^ hU 
aban oT ibe aput) ; but, iii u:dL-r lo be oeacct bis owu Italian potaea- 
aioi!i»» he iiuliiccd Ihe rcLuci^ni l^mpcfor to aive bim a kingdooi in 
Thcunly and Macedoma, which took il3 RUne f^nn the grcAI dry 
of Salonica^ tn exducge fur iTil- Anatic piovuices. The crcction of 
thia kiBcdoia of Soloiiici cITc^tujiIZy severed the eonncction between 
tha Empita of Kociania ^uid whai we now call continental Greece, 
«o (bit th« hiftoiy of thjit ibonOlvi^J Empire, whidi U^ted but 
fift y "^ttiw rn ytan, has litUc or m> lefciencc to oui subject. 

Booifiioc. harmg settled a dispute with the Emperor IJaldwio L 
which threatened ^o Qodcn&ine the Latin doninfon in the Levant 
at the ounc^ marched into Greece at the head of an army oT 
Crasadenin onkr lo onctt bis ^bim Lo that countt)-, which hod 
beoi included, although it wtu» ^tilL unconquered, in his share. At 
tfa^ monent of the I^tin expedition agoiniit ConsuiiiLnopte the two 
tbcmcK of HcIUe ard ihr Pdopc^nneio* Liad brtn a ptcy to anarchy. 
Inatetd of combining in ihc presence of tb< coajoioo danger which 
oienacKd the existence of tiio Bj-ian^nc Empiii?, i^c wcUiUy fAmllics 
tboftttit oidy of adi-incinjt ihcir own inicrcsti crcn aL the cxpciqa 


Tki GtniUmafCi Afagt 

oftteConffMncoL Of Um«c ^/v4ii»ufef , by brtbeaUcslukd DMtt 
mbitiiOM vu lAon Sgourdt of Nupla, sfio wu bent upon 
AJiteg out for hiaiMlf an iode pca dent pnncfpalitf in the 
nmo% «id Central Greece- Hli tflat nep m* to obuin pO MCwi o rt 
of JbfM 'f Comth vu hit next Acq^iadon, and be shoved bit 
\Mx9A of the ckncf by UindinB the Afchbnhop etf thos dij, ind 
thai huHng him [nm the raoiink of the dttdd into the abyn 
bdow. He ihca tnTcrscd the Itthmov, tnd inratcd Atbcna by 
liful and tei. The city, ivho«e wall* had fiUen into decsy, toccumbcd 
mUiout a Einifsgte ; but the Akropolb «wi (kfcoded by a tecond 
Dadppoa, the noble Afcbbbbop MocninAiosv *vho tppnicd lo the 
pttriotiwn or the Atheniinf, with wch succttt that Sgour^ h^ to 
content hinuclf with burning the unproiecicd hovtei Ijcfore the eyes 
ofthcpmion. AtTbebothcmuGfaitroDgcrGudeoriiic KidneUc, 
tbe rccidencc of the Imp^ii Oorenwr of HelUa, espitubi^ at the 
fint O-tcack, once more exemplifying the uying of Thticydides, that 
it IB ntcn, and not nils, w}uoh ciakc u diy^ At I-drii^a S^*ourd« 
jTtcl tlic fugitive Etrpcror Al^oa IIL, and received frocn him tbe 
hand of his dauj^hter in marTiaf^e. But the £L<lvaneG cA Boniface^ 
army rut »hort ihi; further oncceu of the told adrmturcr. Sgottrdi 
reaoLred to ia)iUlc LeonfdaJ, and avu't tlie inrodert on tbe duaic 
ground of 1 hcrmnpyTct. But the mere si^t of the tall Franks in 
thcrr cojiu of mait lulBcL-d to terrify the«e degenerate C^rocko, who 
Jled Co the loAy diadcl of Corinth without striking a lilow in the 
defence of their country. Boniface's iiurcli now bccaoiir a royjil 
propeca He fiM secured the Past of Thcrmopylrc bj bestowing the 
nefghboiiring ijoiiiion of Boudonitv a» a fief on Guido rallavidni, 
aiid tlit^i |iTtx.Tuc1ed touthnard. The [iihabitonts of the townt^ 
which hod w lately felt tbe tyranny of SK0tir6a, wcloomcd tbe 
foreigner ai n dclii'iL'rer. Without dlMurbinj; those munidpial iniU* 
lutiunH wliidi the Gii^ek^ b^ivi^ always apcdall): ptiz<.-<], the King of 
Salonica loit no time in diitributirig the cloaaic landa of Greece tz 
feudal ficft an^ong hit truly followers. Thua, by a sudden turn o1 
or(nne*a wlietl, to which few paralldK can be found in history 
Atlica and Dccolia vcic bestowed upon Otto dr? la Koche, a Biirgun- 
dion noble, who hod distioKviishcd himself at the siege of Conslanli- 
■iOf>l*f and bad tuccdsfully mediated in the dispute between Baldwin I. 
d Fk^mifarr. Arbeni inudir no oEt|M]sriion to llip Franks for this 
LCcvcn the heroic Archbishop uw tliat resistance would be irt 
n. It waa with a bitter pang that he beheld hia cathedral, the 
Arable Patihenon, robb^rd of its r(.-hc>t by mfrn who were hostile 
Ac orthodox iclJi^ioii and i^noranL of cldosic learning. For the 

Athens Kmier iht Franks, 




fij*t time ti»c« the cUji of SulU \ LaIid Brmy was in poucMicQ of 
Albem ; fee the Rooud conqueror hid been kind«f to tbe ud^ t 
KM of cvkiarc llum the CbHstan rranlu. Lcani^ his beloved 
church in theoccupotkm of I^n monk», Alcominttos LcA iriih a 
heavy heui the city where he k>d lived so long. After v^ndenng 
from ooe pUcc to tnotlier in ;>»rtli i>f icai, Ilc ruioUp «r£ilrd in tbe 
bkAd of K6^ ftora which he could still ucc the Attic cooaL Ako- 
ninotot bftd oekc beep disappointed with Athens ; but he had 
learned to love it as his second hoiiie, and now, tn hu Ul^nd cell, ho 
lamented the loa» oT his books and wrote of Atika a^ "a let^ond 
pidCD of UdCQ." Once, in secret, he vi:nturcd oto lo Athena ; but 
he could not endure the galling spectacle of a Roman Cotbolic 
aidibbbop of&cLaiing in what iiad oncf? been hjs own otiiiedraL 
At length ho died in cjale, ilie la^ ofa long line or heroes whoao 
nuaec are uaociited with the story of Ihe violet-crowned city. 

Central Greece was now in the po&veMion of the Fmnki. The 
onec sacted £>trici round Delphi provided a ftcf for another of 
8oDibce*s fc^ovar?, Thomas dc Stromoncourt ; and a Kmnhirhh 
tower soon to»e on the site of Amphi^u, whose vcmaoiUr name of 
Silon^ peiliapi conunemoiatcs chc king of Sdlunit^ and the niju of 
wbovc iple&dtd medijcvul costk— bulk on Hellenic foundations— still 
bear witneca to its Latin rulers, Eubn^a, though originally iocluikd 
in the Venetian thare, fell an easy prey to another odrenntrcf, 
Jac^^ues d'Avcsnei ; and then he and Otto dc k Roche followed the 
caUot Hcni£ace, who wu bent on the deMnjciioti of Sgoar^i'Bpower 
ia the PcloponnesTi*, But fiom thi* iiiJUiril fa^new of Arrororinth 
the tyrant could laagh at hij assaiUnia, and he held out there till 
Ub dcMh in 1308, bequeathing the duty of fighting the Fcanbi to 
Hiclttd Angeloc, dc«pot of Epiros, who had erected an iodepen- 
ddtt Greek principality In that motintainous Ei!gion, and held llolt 
at bis capital of Arta the banner of Greek rationality. Boniface: 
himself haul but a tTnal! share in the conquest of the Pelopor^nCKOc 
While hr was hr-tiegint^ Nauplia, the newi reached hitn ttiat the 
Greeks had risen in hia on-n kingdom and had tmnmoncd the 
Bul^aHofit 10 thdr aid. But before he quitted his ca^p heoon- 
ferred the as yet unccnc|LieTed Peloponneiof as a fid" upon one of 
b« BOOM tnuty cxxnpanioni, (>Ljillautnc de Chatnplltte, a French 
nobk^ who had taken part in the conquest of Constantinople. 

^leanwhtlc Olio do la Roche Tiad had lime 10 instal himself 
in bis doimniont, which included, beaid« Attica and Uceotia* the 
ancmt Mc^aiid, with iia coaii4 on the Saronic and Corinthian 
Cul^ and tbe former Land of the Opuntian Locrian^ tc tht^ noitti. 

26 Tk$ Gentleman's Magazine, 

Hta fint CAic wju Io tdett a tillc. aiid W cbosc llut of Sift 
d^Athitus^ or " Lord of Athene" which wax nugniGcd b)- ihc Grccia 
into thai of M^^% K^r (Miyai hL'/>), or "G«ac Ixiid." He then 
procccclcd ro orgEiniite his Suite do ih*? fcuJal &}3lcui, ju^i as Gtiy 
of Liuignan had done in Cypriuh rc^rvij^g AthcDs and Thcbca as 
hi« private domAins, and anigning the Unds of the formct Orock 
prcpiJeior* to his own followers. No (ippu^iiioii wai olTc^re^l U> 
ihcK cofiGAcaEorjr mcaaiKCs, which scarcely afTectcd the pea«ant» 
■t all Before the Fnuiluab eonqueit the free labourer had become 
ahnwt «xifnct as a dan, and ttM serfi, whom the Franks found 
culiivaiing ihe soff, |)aid the aaniE? taxA to cli«rlr new itmfiicn &a 
they hnd |xiid lo their old— with this Important dijrcTcncc, thai these 
Uxei were now expended in the counuy, irnstcad vA being aquandefed 
ai Cotisraritinople^ While ttt? fiacul coiidhiooa of life were ibua 
inijiio^ed, the Ltatlvc^ <1JU not foircll ihcir old mtinJcipal priiilcfca* 
Local judges long contmued to admini^^ccr justice cecording tc the 
Byuntine liiw, while it \\ probiUe thai more Important mitlcrs 
were drcltled by llio>iO frudal cu^tomi which hiivr bi-L-n ciishrrrMrd 
in the Cimous ** Assise" of JcrLAfiU^m. The Church quotkm was far 
more difficult, for the di^vrcncc between the two rvhgioni lomted 
an inmperaUe berner betuei^n the two nces. A Frenchman 
ncLRieti Bcr^td w^a appointed 5rbt Latin Arcliljt^hop of Aihcn^* 
and w!iG duly confirmed by Pope Innocent 111. as tucccuor of 
Akoininatos in the cathedral on the Akropolii. An army of monks 
followed in the steps of tlie tolJit-r?). Thi? FfiLnrlscans founded 
numcfous morustericSi And the fatnoua Convent of Daphne, bctwceii 
Athens and Eleusi^, wiu Ijcslowcd oe> a body of CiRtcrdani from 
the Burgundlan home of the Lord of Athens. But. Ottc soon 
iiKurred the ccrtAuie of the L^tin Lli'r);y hy hi» icfu±^ to ulluw 
donaLioiib of land to the Chufcb, and by hi* nppifOpriAtion of Greek 
ccclcsiasiLCAl property. He felt that it was enentutl to hit position 
as a conqueror in a foreign cottitfry thui only thone who could 
render bim milhat)' ^onkc >hoi:ld be entitled to roieive estates. 

£vent« in the Kingdom of Siltjnica eaused Otto dc In Roche to 
tranil^ hit; AllrgiAnre from the King to the Emperor of Komanfa. 
For Bonihce, whom wc ww hunjlug back fioui die Morc.i to 
dcfei'^d his own immediaio dommioiuij fell ni 1^07, hke the l£m[]eror 
BuTdwin I. Lef^irc him, by ihir h.tnds of the Bulga^ianc, and during 
Che miLiority of hu Lufant son, Demetrius, the old quatrcl wa^ 
revived between iho Empire and ihc Kingdom. J'he Lcmbaids of 
Salodea iniisicd that the new Emperor Henry should recognise 
tiidr daimi over all Greece, and to emphasise tiieir contention 

AliUMs umffr tie Frafii^. 



tciscd TbebcK. Id order to scttic tliis And other pcoditt^ qutttioo* 
Hmry bcld two Puliamentt o( hi« v«uito at lUv^oita (t pbee 
piolmbJj not Us from l^miAV ^^ vlikh Otio etc U Roch« au^r^dod 
ar>d jworc fcoliy to Uioo. Henry tlicu mArched to lliebct, rotcnxl 
thu city to Olto, And then proccedod to Atfatoi^ vhcro, liJ^c Another 
cmjicror, Buil U>e Bul^-»bjer, two ccncurict btft>r«^ hd wor- 
shipped ia tbc PanhcMO, cttvyv^ieTC wimiiiig hj ha kbdncn dw 
ftjmpatiiMs of tbc Greeks. Tho ficcofxl Forlianicnt at Kov^rika 
vat ocoipied tn'tb the irtilennent of th« dncputcft bc:wccQ the Fnnk 
loris uid Lbc iMn Cliuicb, jukI u contxKdat «nu isigMid by d^ 
ttprcfeaCBtiToof tbe oonSicttng peitk& Yei tbc Lat:(i Pati]A.-cb of 
CofttCftiktinople cominQCd to buri bis thtindtff agunst di« Al^ter of 
AibeoA «fatTien*T tlie Utter encroacbed on the |:TtviIrgc« of dit 
L&dn der^. Meanwhile Otto exlcndcd his doiciniona bj the 
ocqvicitioo of S|;«ur6i^ old poMettioittt Argoa &nd NaupttA, wbich 
Villebinlomrt gave bin as Itefs in rettTm for bit vtlubJc uncUDCV fa 
the ooviquat ^ thou; cities- If the Buigundan voAAt- Iiad thfL 
louA ioBagination, he muat have been !tiiTed by ihc d^oofihl that be 
now the heir of AgAmtinfion. Bui cUiucal alhj&ioTis did not 

8f3fica3 10 the Frank conqucicn; erf the ihittccnch ccrtttirp^ vho 
looked tipOD Groeoe much u wc look upon Africi. One very pnctical 
r««uU fallowed rrom the addition of Argoe ood Naiiptii to tho 
Atb«Dun Siste : Otto thus ovcd feudal ten-ice to Villri^aidouin for 
fie£» \ and ths rdaliunahEp wis eilended \if onoi^icf Prince of Aduua 
to A claim of oriTlofdakip otcr Athens and Tbcbcs- Some ycsta 
Ul«T, !Ji 1397^ tbe bst I'cttigc of dtpcndoncc upon Solonicft wfts 
swept aw>y by ihc foil of that short4ived kingdom^ the lent durable 
of all tbe Latin cicatlont in tlic Lcvanl, which auocuQibcd to 
Thoodoroi dctpot of Epiro«. Tbc victor took the titto o( empctor, 
and thus a new Ctcck cmptrc arose in Eurc^, which clTcaually 
separated the? Frank Stalot of Cmme Stom tlie Laiin Kmpire, 
aJnady lottcnng lo its till. Tbc Fruik Stales in Greece provoA 
howevtf, to be far stronger than the ephemeral ICii^dom of Saloiiica 
or the Einprc of Komana^ Oitu wu -a firm ally of ViUHiarJuuin, 
aixl numbers of his rebtirea Hocked ftom diaLint Buigutidjr to 
&cttJc in the El I>orado vvhicb he ruled. Yet twenty ycfltv of state 
in Athoia and llietx-« were enough for the 'Great LonL' In 1315 
he de^Kirted for llurgundy with hix wife and mw:^ kaving bla Grrek 
dotmnjona to bis nephew^ Guy de b Roche. 

Cui' h resKlcd during Ihc grealcr part of his reign of ncady 
forty years at Tbabes, then the mcix floim&buis town vvhich ovtie^l 


The Gentttntafis Magazine. 

his ivray. His uncte had previously give-n him half of thai city, 

while the other half had passr-d by marriiigc to n fticmbcr of rhc 

fjimnus family of Si. Otncr^ whoic ri*nic i= sliU a^iocialcJ iritli the 

Santameri to^'cr there. 1'hu3» as the residence of two Euch impor- 

Unl clans, the oM Uocotian capiiAl acmined to great celebrity ; while 

ihr contmuance of ihe itilk manufaciure there had aUraeted colonics 

of Jews and Genoese, to (lie latter of whom Guy I- gave special 

privileges both in 'I'hebes and in Athens^^ Kirmly «sLabhshed in Ihe 

eounlry, Guy was able to flevole his allention for many years to Ihe 

improivcinent of a^iLuhurc nnd the CAtcnsioti of trade, and it >vaa 

riol till ihc accession of ihc ombiiious Guillaumc do Vjllchardooin in 

ihe Morea that he was cng^ed in military enterprUe^ As his uncle 

had assisted the first Villeh:trdouin in the conquest of this priricipalky, 

50 Guy aided (he ncvr Prince in the capture of Moncmvaiia, the \tisX 

stronghold of Ihc Greeks in the Feloponnesos, wliicb surrendered in 

1248. But, not content with ihjs succe*t» Villehardouin now aimed 

at mi extension of his sn^y beyond the Ihthuiui, and ibis led to ilie 

fir*t civil war between the Franks in Greece, The occasion of Ihc 

war was the Statu of Hubcea, or Negropontc as the Krankt eiilled it' 

lliat island, afict it^ conquest by jaeqim-s d*Ave«neH, had been 

divided by Boniface of Saloiiicainto three ficfs^ which wcic bestowed 

upon the Veronese fiimily of Dolkr Carccri, and gave Ihcm the title 

of Tfrurrr^ or **lhc three tcrda." But lh<i Veneiians, to whom the 

north and south of tho island had been assigned by the paiiition 

treaty, soon established n facioiy there and acquired authority over 

the three borona. VilTchardouin, who hud married into the Dalle 

Career! family, demanded his wife's third of The tibnd and claimed 

the ovetlordshjp of Ote whole, I'lie claioi was resisted, and Vjllo- 

hardouJn summoned all hi^ vassaJs lo assi^ him in the conflict. 

Among others he united upon Guy of Athens, as holder of the fiefs 

of Naupiia and Argos, and that energetic ruler promptly repudiated 

the idea that he was boi;nd to render military service to the Prince 

of Achaia^ whoi;c n^nnifeat aim was to e^tabliah his supreme amhonty 

ever all the Frank States in the Ea?t tn fact, it w,is pretended that 

Bonitice of Sabnica had placed Athens under the sii/eraujly of the 

fiisE Prince of Achaia_ War at once began between the allied forces 

of Venice^ the tords of Lubcea, and Guy on the one hand, and 

^^L Villehardouin on the other. Defeated in Eubcea, the Prineeof Aehaia 

^V marshalled Itis forces at Nikli, near Ihc site of Tegda, and iheii 


fAinnu cbuinel between Chalcti in*! ibe mninUiul. 

%of Aehaia 

, and iheii ^ 

Kkiripffi, The H 

30 Th^ GtntUmmis Ma^axiiu^ 

BflMtt-m TT., wail n fugitirr^ Foi the jmmd tiroef hul m ■ mppUui^ 
not u £ nilcr, a Laliti emperor viAtled Tlt^a ^nd Alhcns, irhot 
liit former Tutsali gathered round bim on the old Alcrcpolia. Few 
scents in ihe lon^j hJalory of tliut venerable rock are no [>Alh«lic at 
Uu3, the hit in the brief drama of the Ldilin Empire or ConsUnti- 
ropic- Then Baldwin !cfi Aihens for the W^si, there to play the 
sorry part of an empomr in txilc. 

The c:airtun?of ConaUntinople bjr the Otrtit* «f Nlre in 1761 
had ruiliirilly strengthened the hold of Michael VIIl, upon hi» 
c*pti^-«. Aftet a long struggle, Villohardouin realised thai he hid 
no option but to accept the Greet Rmperrtr'fl term^— to cede 10 him 
the iriiportaiit forticnes of M^in^ Mibithm, Gcrakt, and Moncm* 
^■ama* and to pay him homage for the rest of the Morca which he 
was allowed 10 keep, Thc^c terms had, however, to be cubmiwed 
m the high cnurt of Uil- lMtci;% of A^haU at Kikli^ihe nme spot 
where, a few years before, Guy, who now convened the court, had 
been vummoned to appear l^efore it. T^t eorapoaidon of the 
Pafllameni had changed m Ip« than the cJrcumstaiieet of \u meet- 
ingt' yiv^i of the Achaian barons wtrre dad or in cajitivity, ind» 
as the Satic law did not obtAm in the Morca, their widows or wives 
appe&ted in their place. The Uuko of Athens addressed the Court 
In a dignil^rd and grnproii* ton^*; hiit whilo hf offi^red 10 pledge hi* 
pcnoJk^nd Duchy for) the release of the rrince> hcstron^lycppoied 
the GflSttoa of the fonr^nea to the Greek ICmperor 'Mt were 
better^^hesaid in ScriptMraJ laikguagtj "th^ioneniin should die fur 
the people— bcltcri hat ihn ?nnce should ppiish than thai we should 
Admit the Greeks into the Morea.** Guy spoke as a sutcaman, but 
lie had to yield to the featingt of the femimne assembly^ rtioved by 
s^ntimpnC rilhrr lhan*Jiy*poliry. Two nriMr» darics were wnt to 
Constantinople as honla^ei, Villchardouln was released after doing 
homage to tlie Greek Emperor, and the Uyianline troops occupied in 
1161 the coded fonre««tTt. From that moment Miiiihra lMC«no 
the centre nf Greek intiigue-'i in*the Morca, and the dcrlinc of ihe 
Frank Principality of Achaia bL^5:»n. C/uy bid down the regency, 
whidi h9 had ho loyally conducted, and soon afterwoids died, in 
136^, leaving hi^ ftcin John to nHgn ofrr hi^ Alhr'nian Duchy, 

Wc have Utile information about the internal st^lc of Athens, or 
etines, asit now bc^n to be vulgarly culled.' at this period, beyond 
■• fact that the neighbonring mon^ficty of n^phne wa? then x 
oHshlng Catbolic llnslituiion. But wc hrar much about ihr; 
EOroui foreign |)olicy of the new Duke, who did not scruple to 

* Br* ctnTUpLbnofiit 'Aff^'w I ^ Sltrabul {ram i\iT^^i><iv. 

AiAfHS under ik^ Franks, 


pnciw pimcy in the cbwic waters of the iE^an.* John Duku, s 
nalunl ton or Utcbac) J].* dccpot of £p«r09, had CJirred out tot 
hinueiran independent pctiidpniicy tn Scnithern Th<?(«a1/, and had 
nUUiUicd hii capital &t ^copatia^. Hirrc he u^ aiiarkrd by the 
tioofis of tiie Creek Emperor, .Micluel Vltt, vrbo rcs^rd^d bim u 
on inconrm^nt nvii The dcspoi managed to cscjipe to Athens, 
wberc be enlisitnl the Hympcktbies of the rd^ing fiunily, Wlllfftn^ 
brother or Duke John, mankd the despoil duuglitcr, thus marking 
the inprovcment of the relations between the two rfices in Greece^ 
and the Di:ik« himteir look the Add on beholf of hU new njUcJvc 
Wboi dw altjes airiicd tjefaic Ncopatmt, tlie loglii cif the Tar^c 
Bynnltnc force tnnde the dc-^pot's hcftrt qunil. But hia Athcniao 
protector remarked ihat they ^rere ^' many people, but few men/' and 
ihe result of the tuttVe slioved rha[ he wav TqjhL Hut victoiy v\d 
hi* Aiatcr-in-ltw'& dowry of towns incrcAtcd the pre«l3fe of the Duko^r 
who «as tbe moit powerful Latin ruler in the East. But be, too^' 
was to cscpcri^nc* the opposite txtrcmes of fortune. Shortly after 
the dcTvat of the Byzanline ho^ at Kcopntraj, he croned cnrer with 
AH vrtaj to Bvbct^ where a trcachcroua Italian kiilf;ttt, by nfune 
Licaho,tiadautdabinii(Gl<ma4iterof theUbnd withthcaidof B^ii' 
tirw KnA Catabn tToo|:6^ the titier or vhurn now appear for the tint 
thtie in Greek history. A battle wa» fougltC in the pfain cf Oreos, ia 
which Duke John was woundM :ird t^kon prieoncr. Licario eon* 
ducted his captire to Contt.inttnoplfr, ;ind ihus within a few years the 
two chief Fnnk rtilrrt of Gn^eee h«rl Iwcn enplivc* at the Greek 
Court. But Miduul WW. treated the Duke of Alherrs with more 
'teikncy than be had shown to the Prince cf Aeh^ia, TTie drcdided 
'Charle« of Anjnu, King of the Two Sidlier, to whom Baldwjn IT. 
had ceded his tiuerain tights over Ac^iata by tlie Treaty of Viterbo tQ 
rt67, was then at the wniih of his posvcx and was preparing a ncirl 
cni8ad« aigvnst CcnDtantinople. So %fichae[ winety decided to b»1 
magnaninmia, xmi relrasfd lus pri^DneT on ]>ayment of a moderate 
tanaoiii. Not long afterwards John died. H» brother Wtlliani, 
vlio auccoeded him, began hU reign by rormiiTly ndmittins the claim 
10 the onr!ovdthip of the Athenian Diichy ivhieh Charles of Anjou 
had advanced in TVtae of the Treaty c^TVitcrW lie only begged to 
be exeuMd from ROing in person to Naplea to render hon^ae?, and he 
WW ahnya BOHSy to a*atet in t^btjng against the Greek* in the 
Mores, fthboUB^ lUt poUey rrpnsrd hl« own letrilury tu the ri.-;jiiKdfr 
of the Byzuitme forces under the traitor Liorio. So friendly were 
hia reiatioDS with th< hoaie of Anjou that, on the death of Villc- 

32 The Gtntkmatts Magazine, 

hardouin, he wns Appointed \/f the suzerain Regent of Ach4iA diuins 
thf minorLty oE ViUehardouin's daughm luibellfl. Both there, as 

death TTjts dcc)>l> regretted, cspccuily as hi« Mn. Guy II., wu a 
minor at ttic tini4. 

During Giif'tt icirant'/ Athens W4A M lint governed by his 
mother, HdcriA Aiigcla, ibc daughter of the Theitili&ii Prince, so 
that the ftuciciit Greek diy ww once more under the influence of 
a Greek. But the fair widow soon man-ied her broth cr -in Uw, 
Hugh <Ic Bricniic^ ii mcuibcr of a faiujua fjtztuly Jrom Champagne, 
winch liAd altcAdy produced & Kin^ of Jcrusdcni and Ennp<;ror of 
Kom-inLa. Hugh^ who wu Count of Lecce, m Southern Italy, thus 
became regent for his sicpson until the titler cttmc of age- An 
obacivunt cuiiieinporary, the Spai^Iard hf unLancr, h:ii left xx\ account 
of the aptcndours of that ceremony, which shows the wealth and 
imporlnnce of the Duchy in tlie Xva. yean of the thirteenth eorttuiy, 
Tlie funciiuii touk t'lxce hi ihe CalJiedial at Tliclws, where all the 
preUiea and robka of the land appeared in all their slate.* Among 
them all, none was more resplendent than Bonifacio of Verona, one 
c»f the D^iHe (Tarceri of Eubtta, who wa* choicn to confer the 
tioiiour of kjiighthood upon the youni; Duke, and wlio wan magnifi- 
cently rewarded for hja «cr\icc. ''Of a uuiii," say*) ihc amaccd 
Spaniard, " that Duke of Athens was one of the noblest men in all 
the Empire of Romania after itie king, and one of tlic richeal toa" 
From Thebes Guy hastened to aeck the liand of Isabella 
Villchardoain'« fivc-ycAr-old daughter, Matilda, and t)m» by a 
matrimonial alliance to end llie vexed qtieition of ihe feudal 
dependence of Athens upon Acliaia, Mhich liad lately been revived 
by Chorlcn IT of Anjou. Ucforc he had been long on iljc llirono 
Guy was able to exttrnd bis influence in another direction, liver 
uncr the days of Duke John thf^ie lind bren a clcMe friendship 
between the CourU of Atbctia and Kcopatru, tlic scat of the 
ThcAtalian prinCM. Accordingly, when the Prince died, he left 
Guy guardian of, aixl regent for, hjit infant ion ; to that ThC8C;aly, 
alrcjidy Latiniacd lhti>ug]i ihe maniagu tunnectton ladwcrn ita 
rciKninft dynacLy and that of Athena, came yet more under Frankiah 
control But this connection involved Guy in war with the 
jimbitiou^ widow of \\\^ dc»j>ol of Kpims, who seized the oppor- 
tuiiJty to Attack the Thes^ution FrincipaliLy. Ttic Duka of Alliens at 

< When 1 TJEiiMl Thcbn ia 1901 1 could find no lruc< of lU OMlbtrti 
Aplcmlwr. u«pi the »qiure S«nttunvn tower. Of alJ Oicck ivwd», lEu Un 
nxMl lUnpiJoiLjLiDe- 




Atims under /A^ Franks, 


ODCC Icvkd a considertblc JLim^—vUcb sbows hov stfong he wa& 
M tlut peroii— and led it from Uon^A^ ih« kcoc of tbc^rcAt 
battle of 1S97, into Kpin». Thi? warlike ical or bis opponent at 
ooct solaidcO. and Guy accepted a fa^^mmbh: priu:r. A few ^ra 
bt<t h«WA* appointed Rqccnt ofAchaJa, wWc he already poncascd 
the Vil)dianlouin»' bmily Tief of Kslarruta by virmo of bc« marhagc. 
Bui hia career suik^nly clo«d; he died in 1308, and was buried 
ia ihe Cotcrcian monaftcrr of Dftpbnc, when; el Ukicophagu^ with 
A CTOs«, two lilies and two vultes c^irvcd upon it. wbich wa» 
peifaMp9 bu tomb, iTtty ^lill be leen lying outride in the coortj'SLrd.^ 
Utider Ui» rule dx Ducby hjtd icitbcd a bi^li decree uf culiun; 
and pTOipcfiiy. MuRlancr remarked tbat at the OucaJ Court* which 
WIS luiallyheU at Thebes, "juit ju good French w;ii «poken as 
bi Parit iititW* \ ci'cn tn Thctsal/ wc hear of Frcnrh'^pnking 
nobhs. und, OFing to ibc difference of icligioit, which usually iotci- 
pottcd a barrier Co auniige between ibe tr:tnki and the Uicdts, 
tbe baroosof Albrrm impoTt^il ilirir wivi^ fmni F^iiKe. Guy [I., 
as tbc son of A Greek pcincua, >pokc C^rcek a» well, and douUlc:^ 
Looked on Greece as bis nutivc l:ind. itut everywhere the Franks 
had inuoduced the)i own mode of lifEr. Thus the Duke took ^aA 
tfl a magnilkent lournimcnt on the cloMic »Qil ol the Isihiiiua at 
wkkh aU the Fforkbh ari3tocnu:>' of Greece wju preKnL Vet ihc 
revaoues of Attica ukI Bceotia were not all squandered on costly 
shows. Land which is now Wgrly iinprtHlnrnvc then yielded 
cxcclkra crops; suificicnt corn w;i5 gioirn to s^upply Eutxea, and 
tho fiowkhan^ fltate of Ihebau manufacturer is aticsttrd by the 
Tw«ncy Teliet g;tfmonu which Guy unicrcd ihcro b« a gift for Pope 
Bonlficc VIII. In fact» under IIlc huuse of la Roche the Duchy 
bftd acquired a renown and a prosperity such a^ Ibc kingdom of 
Cfeecetindef its tr\X sovereign night have envied. As the con- 
temponry Florentine chronicler, Vilkni, remarked, 'Mhi; 
lired m greoiter case and luxury in Attica than in any other land 
in the world." 

There an: Knme peculiar features of the Knnk rule in the 
Athenian Duchy wbidi aic nut found in the other Latin States of 
tbc LevaoL Tbe Duke of Athens, apart from the vexed question 
of suzerainty, to whirh wr hnvp iUndt-dT wu-* f^i more of an fllrtoluic 
monarch than h[,% nei^hriour in dit iMun^- Al liit: time of the con- 

* Bc<faocL, wTio iJicovorctf iwo urcopbcigi ihtrt in iS^n^ infitrrtrl rtom die 
eraMai^lw^lilia vfiea<ofthciii ibai tbii wu ihe tomlj at Gfif tJ {fa Grh4 
oMAbuWoV, p> 151 t*f']' I «" it f«cnlly, Bnd tlwaghi ii ■ fine pic*e of vmk. 
M< Mlkt, In^mtmcgaph on Dxphtic, double »lethei tlic tumb b iU\ oCCuv- 


Th4 GentUmatCs Alagadae* 

ilueat tboie bad bcca no prommciit IocaI fjimilJcs in Allicji, nor cfid 
anygrdU Frcncli h^uflcn rtow up to dis^pulc tUc ^upreinacy of lUc 
iJudEC. The only important cfan, ouuiUc of the dutM dyiuny, wa* 
Itut of tlic; Sl Omcr, vliicli w;ift ( tjjady uniLtril liy liirx of rel^liuristap 
Willi the U Roche. The baroru of Silorui ftnd Todk^iUji^, upon 
vrhom Boniface c<f SaTonica had cci;furr«<i (heir reipcciivc ficfsi, luil 
«nured into Li^udAi rctaiiunii wiih ilic DuLe of Aihrni vrhilf tht? 
ILmua Catholic Chu^di wu not »uotig enough In Auka to cacicUc 
Any ittronfc inAucnoc upon public afiixirrk The GmoJ] pirt uhicK iho 
Latin cleiiBy pbyeO in the Duchy amy b« exflaJn^ ^y ibc r«ct ihit 
Konmn CAihoJJi:LK[ii made no piogfcn among the <iuI>Jcl:e dfvkv, 
and by the c^tclusiTcly militnry charACter of the rclgiun^ dyna&ty. 
After ihc Cat fijvr yv^irt the C*rc«k Church waa unmolested, ind v^ 
fijid Ortrek mo(»ks linking roajd« Lp Hymctioi lo the Mona«cry of 
Kju&fliiAnI aiid keeping bees on ihfit ck^bic luuuiitjiin wiiliuui Id ur 
hindnu^c^. But the lapse of a century bad not done much to 
liinainjsh th« gulf beti^een the luo iuce<, the two leligioni^ ^^ tho 
two langaagos. The vernacular Greek Jtievtuhly ndcqued some 
Frcach cxprc»io!U from the conqueror's torque, and (he Ftarik» 
bcgAn to team the lai^uAge of tlivir far mere numerous subjcciE ; 
we even find GK-^k tti^ctiplions placed upon FruikUli Luddingt by 
the iioblcA whocfcctcd ibcm- Uut the Franks Tcntaijiud a ibrcign 
colony in the Und ; indeed, if vc were to judge from the accounts 
whicb have come down lo as, we might hi^agine thai the Grwks 
httdty ever rntcanl into their calcuUtloJiK. With a truly nritiUi 
COlMcmpt for all i^ho wt:rc not of their race, the chronidcn confijic 
tfacir attention cxclusiwly to tb« doings of the Dukai and lUeir 
reLaifvcs, Rvrn the litei^tiiic of tho H'lchfln or Athenian Coiiil 
wi« of foreign crigin. Erudite Cicrmann have detected in a phrdic 
ol one of the Uuk^s nn nilubion to Hcrodotufi ; hut the remark ia 
one of thc«c truiiimt xvhich the most illiterate might hsivo uttered, 
ADd it is unlikdy thai 'Uhc father of huiory" wa« utiidicd by the 
LAiin rutcra of Athcnit IVoubudour-^ ;vc arc loId» minittered to 
their jniellcctiial needs, but no n^iiionAl literature arobe in theandenc 
ftCatft of FtndaT an<l SophoclrK. Nor havo the Dukc-s of Athpni left 
bcbiod them buiJdingt st;cli os otit conipate with tbc feudal castles 
of the Mores, though before \\\^ rcconr^truction cf Athens under 
King Otho their nicmoriMa wcro raore numerous than now. Vntfl 
l8;S one of die most prominent monuments of tbc Akrupolis at 
Atlici^i y!\% the rrankiah tovrer, originally the keep of the ducal 
palace, which icas built above the i'ropylEca, But even thii Msloric 
cdificr has been tacriGced to the fooLish requircmenti of thai mott 




Ai^^ns under tk4 Franks. 35 

uahifttofic ^pitil vhkJi can ace no nurrit in atny MinictBfc thu s b«ct 
Hun the clAsucal Of^ Thb lover, and U)C p&bcc of vhkh it 
fenDrd a pari, pmhoibli' daicd rrotn tbc tioie of ibe \k Rocbc liniilj. 
But ibc more ioipoaing Fmikiih lictF^ir-^ of the mne petio4 Uic 
pftlan: M Thdjc*. «tt tbc work oT Nicholu Sl Oma. Ii« vaUs 
vcrv «donwd with frcscocc rsprcfiCnCuiK tbe d(»Rbty deeds of ibe 
Cnmden in PabHiine, and nxm cootd btrt bcvn fouDd witlua tt 
"IbriD Empcjoc viUi huvbokCotm.** 

Such WIS the uatc of ch« Di>diT when the last Dokc oT the 
hotucoTU Roche dkd. HU firo-cowin and ^uooenor, Walter oT 
Sricnvc, Cuuut of Lecce; «us doc in Greece ai the tkw of i^af% 
deaifa ; Uu be met wiUt no 09»pos>don frotn rival CMDpcitlori lo thr 
ifafcnc^ The dan^cn wfaieh be«ci him, and which w^re datimsd 
to cut ibuft bis cauFcr and that dT many another Fnnkfsh ootita^ 
■iOK &OGn A TOy djflcteiit cjiuttcr — llui of the drodcd ^"***»^*'^ 
vho oow attonad a dixrbivo part in th< hc^cory of the Dodiy. Wc 
hftv« ODU already icfvfred to the pn««noc of Catalan mavccoaiiet in 
ibe cml vara of Grceor, But in tlie last ycut cf Hoy TI. ihrir nam 
had icqniicd a tcmblc notoriety tbrDOgboul the Lc^jjU by tlic 
«^lcit« oT " ib« locfcy anny of the Franks in Kovano,' aa tbc 
Catalan Grand Company ctykd jttctf. This vandcrfng bond ol 
adrcnttitm^ wboM; enctsici c«uld &nd ro fnilbct scope In tbc 
qoanoli ol Scily^ bad dtered their svocda to the Gveck Enpvor, 
AAdfonkoi lit «boc« AmmIc province ver« menaced by ibr 
adnndng ponrct of tbc Twka, The F.mpctcr acrr^cd, wmj the 
Catahnt, Mndcr thcit redonbiahlo kader, Rogc de Flor, d e Ji Tc ml 
bis nbjccta Kxom the Turiu— only, bovevct, 10 dettver than 10 ibe 
wortc barbahtin oT a rccklc» and viciorioia army of ChriMJaiM. 
Ucolk to sei lid bj ^ii meant of the tkuignoof. ollio of wboM wd 
bo had availed biin»dr> Ihc Enpcror contrived the aMUakuuion of 
RoQir. but ibis act of trvacbny had thL> cJTcct of utfuriatir.f; tt« 
CatahfTt, War — a war withoui mrrcy — bmbeotnbcrvcen them and 
the Emperor, and nothinj but the lack of proviaona iodoced tbcna 
to ItafO the ittraged crmrons of tbc capial 4nd ftcek frcbh booty in 
Gneott' On tfaetr arrival in Tbnaaly thty ivooiMtiiincd :hc govifn- 
mcnt of the Grand Cooipioy upon 2 idovc democratic haBO, and 
iben this mcticy fotcc of many natiooohlM9> among which C^cn 
Torfcs ««• to bo found, marched into tho Dticbf of Athens, at the 
cipccm invitation of the neir I>(ikc. Thfr folly of this tnvication b 
o6ncHi» (0 ui ; bgt Walter, who \^ known the Caulans m Sicily 
lukd vpobc their lu|puieev *» «inbttioiu of making conqveus u die 
Tb«i«djan Princt^Uij, ar}d rr^rdcd the Giand Cocfipany a^ a 


V'-L.-- aL-: ;:; -■,..'^ V uncr utiiiSi'.rjt 11. ;ttT ihs 6,500 
i.-',-: :;,- nKTJcTii' ar:. ■ a" i:,'. TMt ;>' a^nni: i^' & ttoaih for 

i../-'rr!u:: ii:i^ -' : :-. '.r -ai:i i:'j-a^»idKr TlMt p*r vu hi^ 

,,-: :.i'. -/.ij-iTiii: iT.'.'w 'jLi;?' vati::uii:i=;. iitt i:r:Jt* of '±« Tho- 
*.:.-.' ^-;T£*. iiii: I. . J..:^^ :ei*- I-n>:r?".r ;i:i£ UK l'r^:sa c^'Epiroi, 

■J :.- M ',»Li:xi::»rr', i-I. ii^- li* tf'^x^L rim. nj; iirTt^-aries, uid be 
■I'.'tf : ..'.^:!: ::-;■ :»-. .-.'^.i :1j.o=: in t;l: :iit Tiigr^ir-.z-"t£i, tt::^^ pay, 

t> .•,'.:. :■-.■.:■. a :.; ',= :.-'",--:i3;, Tiit r-s: -.'f ihc GtvhI 

Lvi: ^ ^ ^.t vo-m :, i=;.i^ i:#t l^-jcr* *r_i:rj: f^^nbtr deUr. 

r'ly ££ ''J' Liu-. *'-■' ': :^ r*i-'- ""'i- ^^ :-iSt=.:-iiri lL. Li* IcJtKi for ihe 

LTiCtT h^s loidct^ -y. 1 -'^n-.-tr -:.;<_fi-id mt^.. t^n-rii; theiD a con- 
t;r;;tnt of tilt 3>;:iLL s i.:^-.x >-.^-;'rL i-l-iyei i:i call whUe the 
C^'^l^jitf )i'dd onS i^.ooc ?»S^>r-:".tr. »iil:: tiic C'-'i::pi-*3T had loftaJ] 
iu ^^f»:^l tajiUiins C'jr:-.^ :L* t^t-j^ ^ eirs .,■£ srmcc :a the Lei-am, 700 
J'rir.k kriJ^hts foUuwtd ;ht r^-^iird ;' Er.rr.:jc Bu: ibe Catalans, 
if it>kj>'jwn lu the tL'rr.^^^Mi.-^ .f Lr,.i:h"_y ped;^t*s, ;oa^efsed the 
i^p'jitri'j: yf uiiLiiy ;. i:r;-»;cr: ful^. ir.d k.rtw tha:, if ihey did not 
*',;.','-iT. Ujf)- mu!>: dit. On Mar^h 15. ijii, a cay memoiable in 
x].t l.;iWry of Atlitii'sj ihc mti a.TTiii.-5 met in the marshy plain of 
il.f K< jyliJsw^, Oil ttic road U.':wt:t.r. Livadia ^id Skripou uhe classic 
''^/' i,M/.tfw»^' ik'fore ibc l-attle btgan tht Catalans diverted the 
v.f.t- *s '/f llii- tivtr irito tlK' j;ret-n cornfields in front of iheir position, 
V/ <f>a< ili<; ground bcrjanic thoroughly saiuraied nith moisture. 
')!.'< wkfi' '*f Uie (kvicv which had been practised^ the Duke charged 
"'■ il.' UtJi/i of till hia c.hlvalry into what fccmed to be a firm expanse 
'A iitHi bri'l. Jfiit as soon as (he knights reached the irrigated 
KF'yiff.'J, fit*ir frofb/'K plurif^ed iiLlo the marsh, their heavy armour 
fitH^jt^tA fli'iji'l'iwn , all ihcir efforts to advance vere in vain. While 

' Wif'ff f vibfiHl liiK \M*ih-t\i-}i}, Hliidi ii nul br tivm the »tiLlmore funout 
' lt¥ ifoiiiU, I ff^ii'l >' 'i"iy ''■ iirirlcmiAnrl fhu Imttlc, ihuugh the dnininE or the 
t'ti§m\t Jjtkt liaiituli« kilt Ft'] iiiciii irf ihb ]«rt of Bccoiia. 

J6 Tfu Centkmans Afagazim, 

setvlccftbic iristruTncnt foi his purpose At first ^1 vent well be* 
Iwecn the Duke nnd hiA aUicK Waiter undertook to pay i)ic 6,500 
men of the mercenary army at The raie of about j^io ft month for 
Mtcit heavy iuiiif^d hoit»citLiri| J^^ a iiiunlh fur cadi Ii{jbt-miaul 
honcmaii. And £t i«j. for c&cb foot-soldier. The p&y vu hi^k 
And the Catalfttif^ were ^vcU raiist^ed, 110 lonj{ oit it lusted With ihdr 
kid the Atheniflii Iroopi easily vamjitisheci the forees of the TheS' 
ullan Prince and his aUieVi ihc Emperor and U^e I'riiiceiw or Epir^r 
who had in vAirt formed a national Icaruc to rcftJM Walter^ cUimi. 
The nuke abtaiin«d all that he ^^-intetl Jrom his odvcrtAricftf and he 
now thought [hftt he cautJ ilitpcine with hii nxerceiuriev, whtite \ixf, 
of which four months were now in irre^r, ncjuld have proved a 
«ociou9 dntin Upon the Ircuury of even 80 heh a SLiCe u AEhoni^ 
He flccordingiy summoned 10 ht& pretence 20d picked honepicn 
and 300 ftiot-Bo]dkT3» paid thciu ull that wa^ fiMring to thE?ni, wid 
Maigncd them lands in hia domJoioas. The real of the Gnnd 
Company he ordered to leave the Duchy without fkiriher delay. 
ThU arrogant And unjust nction Aroused the fury uf thf? CauUaoi, 
who reaolvcd ro show the Duke ihitt ihey could fight a> well Agunst 
him isfor him. On his tide Walter nuemblcd all his iMront for the 
fray, and nt^ver hud his fkudiy seen lueh a ttoblc array as ai&en^bled 
uinlcr hb leadership- FojiLccn thou&aiid men, aaiuiit; them a cou' 
tingcnt of the Duke** Creek aubjccts, obeyed his ciiU, while the 
CAtaltnA hAd only Moreover, wliilethe Company had losiall 
itK 3;Fe9t cii|>uin*( during; its nine years of se^rvicL* in the Levant, 700 
Frank kntghta followed the stnndaid of Briciine. But the CjiialAiis, 
if unknown to ilie compojcrs of knightly pcdiKrcc^ po^ctncd the 
experience of many a utrickcn field, acd knew that, if they did not 
conquer, ihey must die. On Match ij, ijii, vday memorahlt hi 
the history of jUhcns, the two armies met in the marshy pUin of 
Ihc Kephisio^T on the road t>£ivreen Livadia and Skripou (the clastic 
Orcbomenns)-^ Before the battle be^an ihe CatalAns diverted the 
waters cf the river into the green cornfldda in front of their poiiLion, 
so thAt the grotind become thoroughly iLAti:mtcd with moisture. 
UnawAro of the device which had been practifcd, the Duke charged 
at the hnar! (ffall Iiis chlvulry tniu whal i-L-emt-il tti 1h^ a firm expand 
of com butd. But AS soon utt the knights reached the irrigated 
i;fOundi their horecs plunged into the mcirsh, their hcaiy armour 
dragnfed themdov/n ;all their efTorti; to advance were in vam. While 

■ Whra I viuird (lie bftLllcAtU, uljicli \> nul U\ fium ihc ililtiiKirc fomoui 
ChvrAndA, I found it ^^My ta iinrlmtknLl ihr huiilc. rhnn^l) the drahlng oT ifce 
Coptic Lfekt Hu quitv alt«r«d moit of thin put of Bootitu 






3S Tkt G^ni/emau's Magattne} 

for Ihcir new conquctt. Their victory had been so complete xhwk 
thcff vt:t putikd theoaxlws bow 10 profit by tl- TTjty kriew 
notbing of auUIihI gryvmuiKrnt ; ycL ui a moment they lud fouud 
UtciaacUx^ Irarsromicd from nardcring toldicn of fortune into 
nuut«n of ft rich and nottriAhing StiM^ vti^h had atuined to n high 
il£greeofdTllis»tion TVi^oid as ilieit ovm rjinks Rcrcofmcnorcom- 
imnding poaitioi^, tbcy were actually reduced lo ofTct the Icfldcnhlp 
of the Company, and with it the tcmporaiy )cader»hi]i of ihe Uucfcjr, 
to one of the Iwro noble kntghti who had sutvi\-t!d tho annihUaticn 
of the Frjnk cliivairy ai tht? UiUlc uf rljc K^phuvM. DoiiifiGio d 
Vcronn dcdii^ the doubtf^il honour ; but Ro^cr l)ealaur, mho as o 
kniglit of KoufiUlon spoke CauLin, ord hacJ act«d afi lE>e bte 
Hukc^ intcnnedi'ary in tlw fir&t ntrgaliaiioiu with the Cocn]>an/, 
accciKod ibc poatf and icc^ivcd tlic Jicf of S^ilonft with Ihc hAnd of 
the *lam buton'i fvidown The Oiabr^s now dtndcd rtmong thceU' 
«etve« ihe Imda and ca4tl» of Itie Franlt aristocracy, vhtch henee* 
fuitli dJu|rpearcd front iht: htuory uf Ihc Duchy, ju^^t as the FraiiVi 
hAd occupied the cfftatcs of the Creeks more than a cciiiurv 
earlier. liut these touf^h coldierf of fortune were not ooni^mt with 
the pToptrr^' of the conquered : th<-y took ilidr wives and daughiert 
alaoh a»d, ai Muntancr ntd, mai^y a common ircrccnaTv. ^ho before 
the victory would have dwmed il an honour to hold llie w^h- 
hand l.n^in for a noble Frank ifch dame» row hrcame her Inrd and 
loaalcr. Sueli wa« the abundance of land that the CaUlana cvtn 
invited their Ti^rkisH allia; lo nettle in the country. This offtrr wai, 
however, declined, and the Turk* returned 10 A^a Miror from the 
cbfliiic soil wliich in the next centufy ivaa destined 10 fall teneoih 
ibrir Mvay, 

I'he conniuMt of Alhcni h-id naturally arouied the alama of 
'Ulgbf>Oi;rin£ .SiateSr io that the Catalani, like Rf.^publjcan bod^ In 
norerccent tlme«» frlE it prudent li> ntahli^li n prriD^ncni coiiiiectian 
itilH some powerful dynaMy. They occordinsly turricd 10 Fr^dcrtck 
II. of Aragon, King of Sicily, in whccse service they hod onginally 
been engaged bf^fijri' llieir e\'vnifal utitt^er in [he l^vam. Frederick 
accepted their proposAl that he should be o^^rlord of the Duchy, 
which wan thdieerorth t^ form an fippanogc of Ihc Sieilron house of 
An^^n, and fbrthwiih namt^ hix i^cnd son, Manfred, Duke of 
Athene. A« Manfied was a child, a VicAr^CitiinHl ivaa uppoiiited 
10 reprcficnc him in the Ditchy, and Don Bcrcne^r n>t«riol vnu 
telectcd for the pa%\. But the respective rights of the Catalans and 
the King of Sidly wtfr^? t'Tmrly Laid down in ihtf trtnty l>etire*-n 
IhCBi, foe the UJii'iuCfOiH liaul no intentiou of bixouitiiij mere hunibtc 

Bifo The GentUmans Magatine. nl^^^^^l 

"btrbtrouJ oMttc of Port of Sithnks (AthcnsX *=" «t^ kiiown w^^ 







tht cntdcn of BnrcdoiiA and Meiiirvi- CauIih thip4 •oottred Ike 
Archipcbgo; the Duchy of Naxos untl the iiJond ol Eubcea fdi 
the povcr of the Comfiany no 1c(9 ih^n the coniineiitAl DcisHboon 
of Aihcdf. On the <l«i(h of the UUit I'rincc of W^lbduin Tlieufilf, 
\\\t land «rilh u-hicli the but Frank Dukes had htd auch dose 
rcUliom, the Cituhns Annexed the lion's sh.ireof the rrinciptlhri 
so that Ihcir Slate wus tieQcefoith styled the Uuciiy of Atheiu ntxl 
Neopimt^' fn TJon Alfonso'f timo the Catalari rommunJt; 
aitaiEif^ iu fctiLih, and ftom ilie dp^ic of hi« rctircmcin it bc^i to 
decline. A4 the tint generation of rough ivorrion pused aha; 
it became apparent thftt the/ had left feo; tucceseon abte t» 
mainuin their potUion. The democniK: conatitUEion of die 
Company soon made vrajr for a feudal nystcmt nhich divided the 
Duchy oatong a number of peity tordt, and »o led to doonesEic 
qiiairda. MnnAhil^* the TLirkish pcrfl vk-^is grnrliutly beooming 
more prctui^. Even when Don A1fon»owa« Vicjj-Gencnil. Turkiati 
piralcd plundered Eubcca and the coaMs of Attica ; and «then tl^ 
'J\irka hid onC9 eatftbUihfd themsoU^ef in Europe^ and fnihde 
Adrianople ihelv ctpiul, they were nhlc to aiiack the Duchy bf 
land. Under Munid L they traversed the Pa« of ThencofiyUci 
u the Peniani had done e^^nturiet before, ftnd Roger de Lftniat 
the Viceroy at that period, dM noi scruple to make an alliance with 
tlieni t4;aitisl Itia domestic rinU and tc tcctivc iliecu wUhia tlie 
walla of Thebes. They were subsequently dinlodKcd from th&t 
■tronghold, and for a time there \7U lalk of corninoii action agotnct 
them. The Po|ir luincTioried lhL> powen iniertirvd in the Eosiem 
quetiion to hdd a con|Erc» ai Thcbn in 13731 but 110 piactical 
resulc foUovted thmr cr^nfcrcnee, owing to their muted jeoloutie*; 
In fjcr» the very noit >V3J on atMck vas made upon the CataUiu^ 
who mii^ht liaic coniGtltuted a buln-Aik agaiaat the Tuiklfeh advaoci^ 
by one of the nicnjbcD of the congress, tbc Govcrivor of Corinth, 
Neho Aedftjuoti, vho was deatttied a tittle later 10 put an end 10 
Ibeirnileai Aihens, 

The family of Acciajuoli rcacinblcd the race of modern Grcrk 
merchants rather than those mcdifcvnl barons and soldiers of fcrtune 
who had hiihmo governed the Athenian Duchy. The founder of 
ttic cbn wa» a Hiitivc of Brc^ciji, whLj riiigTatnl to F1orc:iiec and 
there ooibliihcd one of thote manufactorica of mccL for which hii 
native town is siill famous. By the end of the thirteenth century 
bit deieundants were; ouners uf one of the most ilnun^bin^ Florcn- 

43 Tkt GintkmaWs Magusinr. 

baninM *W^ 


■ Pedro ofTcred spccul privileges Ic uir GtccLi; or AlbaninM 
I wouM i«ttle ttwr«. Thi« «iu the begfnninj; or tlut Albuiun 
I colDnhaii'Jd <A Aiti«.-a und B(xo4ia vfuch had in Uicr lima n 
I awHrcd on inllucTTce on the history of Grcccc- 

■ S<Kh w the condition of tht Duchy «tion NcHo Adcbjuoli nudi 
tte final move which Tv^ had long br«n iDeJiiaifiig. The hand of the 
younf bcircftv WAS the ucutc for hi> attack. The HcT of S^lovu, 

B which hvS been created on the FninlE conqueU of Greece, Ittd 

^ posied Into ihe posv^^Jon of ihe Fbdrique famity, whoie vote 

rcpfcvnutire vu a djEiightcr. Nerio aodjftt (o bring about a 

Imanijige betwcca ibc lady of Sddona and one Of his own rclatTves ; 
bet the arbiociaey of l^th had not yet leanii to etteeoi 
ptuiocncy, so that hh wit wa» tejectnl, and thai of a 
pftnceletimaptcf erred. Kedo^ reply wis to mciTch into Attica, 
Ibll an eaaj- prey to iii^imall forceof men. The Viceroy «ai absent', 

(the King of Anigon waitnn far ofi la sucrmir hh neglected subjectf. 
Once mote, howercr, the Akrapoli^ defended by a bold Sf7;ini3h 
ai|7taiiiT held oat againit the bc^iegen. But when no hdp came, and 
Vie iiege Im<1 gene on for more than a yevr, the gaUant gamion ivas 

(forced b> ffLan^tion [o surrender, and Ncdo Acciajuoli, the coittin 
cf the Florentine bnnker, wu rcfl11y> ai he »tyied him«el( *' Lotd of 
Cotirrth and the Duchy/' Tho« in 1387 ended the rule of the 
diatans in thai clnstfc land. Alike in their mdden rise and thefr 
auciden fnlC they resembled the Franks, whom they had conquered. 
Like them, loo, the)- had struck no roots in the forct^ soil^ and they 
have lefl even fener traces iM^hind tl^etn. They did nothing for the 

tcuhureof Achons, and ihrry even lost tbeoiriy art in which ihr-y had 
excelled— that of arms. Their aumvora w«it back Ingloilously to 
Spain or Sicily, and the place, where for thrce-quartert of a century 
thc)' hud hccn the unworthy wccwiors of claatic heron and ^^es, 
kn<-« rhrn* no ninrcJ Thc purse of the hanker had conquered the 
sword of the adventurer. 
L The poWcy which Nerio I. pur,>(ued towards hn new n^ecta 
T corresponded with tlic mercantile charncter of hie family, He hid 
no feudal traditions, nor were tl^e mercenaries nhum he had paid to 
conquer the Duchy the stuff of which a new feudal hierarchy could 
he mnde. He gave no Tn^t\ to hi* foTlowem, hut c«ntra1tiied power 
in his own h-Ands, Towjjtla ihe Grrrki he was far more conciliatory 
than hJa prcdecesfkors. For the first time sificc the days of Akocni- 
natoi a Greek archbishop was permitted to reside nt Athens, not, 

; TtfoCtmUn fiinttTicv. ihff t>f Ica<]a and D? Oe«11«(DcM[GJ'nAs in Grcck|, 
the i*ltiid«f , 

44 Th€ GeniUmctn i Afagazine. 

htd been in leaicuc wtlh the Turits in ordt-r to grmiiiy \e» th«oto0ttl 
rancour ogainit ihe LAiii> cf«Tgy. V«t Nfrio contfnvjcd io ronctil 
Ibe defects of \'as i>osition by oulwud splendour. Almost bis lut 
Act iru to procure from Kins LAdi^louA of Naples, wfao cUimed to 
be Prince or Acbftio, ind therefon lo be overtoM of Athent, tbe titTe 
of T>ukt? of AihCT!( and the privilege of direct depcndencr spon the 
Crowr or Naples, Thiswaiin ):;94 ; inthe Mate yc«rNerio I. died 

As he left no Icsrtimaiti \vn^ Ner;o 1, appointed the Venetun 
Republic proiecirest of che whol^ Duch^. The city or Acheris he 
dcYiicd " (o the CbuTch of Si- Mary," i.t. the Tarthcnon, lo wbkh 
he bequeathed hit famous stud of honev, and to vibicb be ordered 
Alt ihe jeweis to be re«tored which ho had felsed foi liia own 
nuisotn. Tt wu not llkdy thai the Greckft of Aihrns would oonteni 
lo become the property of a Roman Ottholic cathodtal, and the 
Greek Archbishop, bite \a% predecessor^ accordingly Bummoned tb« 
Did of ihr Tort*, who ocxiipicd thi' Inwrr city. But the Venetian* 
were strong cnooEh to dislodge them, and for the first time the 
banner ol St. Mark floated from the Atropoli* tor the r)c»t few 
years Venice leOincd poneoion of Athene, which wjn governed 
by A rt/dui^t wha resided in the " Caslle of Setines." Dut onotlitt 
citimani had aii^n lo the heritage of Nerio. Tliat Doke b«d left 
an itlc^cimatc: ton, .Antonio, whoso mother was a Grcokr and 
whu tlicidtife enjoyed noiiir inflnrnrr with ihr rulivr popiiUllon. 
By bis ratbcr's will Antonio had received Ikcotia as his portiona 
but his ambition ^a.s not content with that patt of the L>uchy> 
He hiclcd hii* limc^ a:* \\\% fathcT bad done, and in 1403 seized the 
lowci CLiy of Athens. Once a^ain the Akropolis sustained a 
lenKthy a»ege, and it was only when the last horae find ihc lail 
nettle had been eaten by Iho Btarvjng girri^on that the /Ww/i 
fill I rendered, and i sectmO AcnnjuciU bHd ^wsy civcr the tiudeL 

l-cr a whole generation Athens enjojcd peace under Anionio'a 
able direction, Venice, in 1495. recogoiied him on condition 
that ))c held "the land, cutleS; and lown of AehenA, in niodern 
timea called Syt)iincs," jis the vnsidt of the Rcpubhc ; Florence 
made a commercial treaty with her " i^od friend and fcllow^itiscn*'* 
by which Florentine merchants were allowed !«• acce«i to all hia 
barbourf^. It was naitirjil that nndcr a nuke cf Tialtan origin many 
lutipna should come to Athens. Wc find a branch of die Medici 
ftetUed ther^ and flo far Hellenised au to have tmniiformod then 
name into the Greek equivalent, 'Jar/jnc The palace on the 
Frcpybcti, In which Antonio hHd a hriUijinl Coimi, revived ihe 
olotiGS of the la Roche domination, and the Dtikc's Italian rcUtirea 


46 Thi Gentltmans Magtmne. 

Antonio had lumcd ai bu sococaoor Neno^ the £re«t-ne|)ticv «t 
Kcrio 1. But the mtioni] put^, «boi« l«aden were the late Uuh«S 
«ndo«r and bcr relative Qinlkodcondyki; fiuhtr of the lllKoriu^ 
Uiougljt that the moment h«] Arrived to coavcrt the Ducliy IMO ■ 
Cfcck State. Cbftlkokoodybs wai accordiAgtjr »-nt to procure ill 
tUKiion of th« Sulun xx Adritoofde^ upon «f]os* dvclidoR tlw to 
of Athens Don hung. The Saltan icomed to accept Ch« moacjr 
wblcti the wily Greek o^Tcred to him. And ordered the cnrof to be 
thrown iobo ph*on. A lom^wtut limil^ attempt to obuia pOttCi- 
uon of Aibe« «id Thc3)e» on ihc p>it c/ rotittRntinf% the di^Mt 
of the Morea (tnemords tlie lajt Einpcror of CoiulaminopleX mei 
with no grcAtcr succeasn Phruteet^ the hittovMo. v» despabchcd 
by Die dc«pcc 10 oeeotiatc with Ativonio*« ttidcwr for iho cesvion of 
thow dticft in cvcluttge fur oUtci in the Mor?;i, and the Dongci 
Dudicn vM not unwitLJng to Accept these tervia. But, while ifac 
MgotiUioctE were g^nf on, the Fnnk part/ ftt AtNoi, aided byt 
teciion of the C^rccka, had inoebimed Noio IL and occupied ifae 
Akropolia. At the »a(uc tieac the Turks occupied Tliebea* and 
Ncrio to retain the Uachy aa tl^ tnbuiaiy wad ol the 
rtaced between the tvo fim of Hreek nationalUnij fvpr^ 
«trtio(i hy llic Dcapol Cotulantlne. and of the Turkiah conijuot, 
eren 4 »Lronf; man minhi haic found ilic inak of governing the 
tJuchy ditHcult. And Neiio wu not a strong man. For vome yean 
he wat oiuied from Athena by hia brother Antonio, and retixed 10 
Florence, the home of hia lacc, unul his broilK^i'i death enabled 
hist to retam, The Deipct Conataminc, the most vigoroja and 
patriotic of the Gieeks, onca again attempieU ro recover Athena for 
the national cause, iovadcd the Dudiy in the abaencv of Nerki^ 
atuerain, ihc Sulun, in the llalkana, and compelled the helplea 
Ddke to vsmAt hb homage and tribau to himtclf. Fov the 
moment a patriotic apiiit revived in Hortherji Grt^ei? ; but the great 
Turkiah victory at Vama left the Sultan free to deal with Coiutan' 
tire and hit trMcheroua vAiial The unhappy Nerio wos Ihrcalcned 
by Turk* and Greeks alike; ^ut lie those to juy tribute to the 
unbeliever lather than to Che ^hfiniAtic, aiid joined Morad IL in 
bia iftvasion of the Morea. AmQn^ the eounicrt trho thronged the 
headcjuarlert of the victorious Sutran at Thel>&, the pitiful fi^re of 
the Duke of Athtfi^a ii;vjit have L-xittr<l the hcoin of tlie Turks nnd 
ihc conipa»ion of the Fmnlu. In 145> Nerlo 11. ended his in< 
glorious rei^. 

Miieiublc ai wait the julilica) po^ilion (if Athens under Hi!t feeble 
ut CiL>m ihiapetioiJ that the ^tt iiiteteat uf Weblcinarclixolo* 


The GenlhmafCs Magazitu, 

inflmence of tbo Veneti&nSi who hjiJ occupied M^m % Tew j^an 
before^ He accordingly srnr Franco lo rule ovrr ihe Atbenluu, 
«l]o received bia nominee with accUcnacioo». Ftanco^ first ftct wu 
lo >cuc the IJiichcM and to throw her into pritoa fit McfEon. wbcn 
ibe «i» murdfred by bis orden. Concarini il once compUinod to 
tilt? Sulian or this ouiragooiis itc1» hoping ro ttoiiKt, 10 reiceire Uk 
Diii:hy hinucir, either a* Duke tm tcjciU for rmncoco. fi^it 
Mohunmcd tt. lud now captured ConsUniinople, and tbougbi it 
high lime to *«**p away the tast i^estlges of Christian nile In Greece 
aba HcAccordinjEly ordered Oinftr. ton of Tur.-Lkhan, to reduce tbc 
UucSy to a Turkish province. Evit omeni »cumcd to foresbvknr 
thu fall of Athena : a comet appoikred in th» tky, hunger r«U upon 
ihe fi-ighiencd irilialAEant^, In 1456 Omar occupied the loirei cUf ; 
\*Al Franco defended the Akropolli with the coungc of dcfpAJr. 
Not a aingle Chri'^tian ro^'cr stirred ft hand for the r«1iof Of Atheiu ; 
even the olTer to pinre ihcmielvc^ under the pmicctiDJi cf Venice 
could not induce the cautiotii Republic to aswat the bckagucred 
Alhcniana, At Inat b'ranco surrendered on condition that he ahould 
bold Thebcft, wiib Bnotla, tu v.itol of the Suhan, The rminjdpti 
privilcgcn of Lhe dty were te^pcctcd \ a body (^f ksmcuutx, m 
Anhonifs^ was allowed to ataisi the Turkish eovernor who was now 
appointed, atid many Alh«ni:in families wer« fipedillyci«inplcd froiD 
Ibe kharahch. \\\ ripilution-UiK- 

MoiuTnmetl U-, a maa of tfutc, nho spoke Crock and lioj cren 
boen dcsettbcd .ka a " PhilhcUcnc" by his Greok biograpliCTt vru 
deairoiu of pcrunn-illy vidting a city about whose past glorica ^ had 
heard inLich. In 1458, on hit ivay badt frc^ra hi> fiaropaijpi in the 
MoKA. be entered the pMjk the keys of which, ^'t? ^re significantly 
told, were handed to him by the (.-rot-k abbot ot the Monastery xA 
KjiUarioni uii Hymetttu- The flrctk p.irty had shown it« prrfrr<'nec 
lor ibcTtjrks rather than the Lfltin?, iind the conqueror ihrcwdly 
tolerated both fonni of ChriftiAn worAhip in bia newly conqucrod 
province^ But the privileged po»trion of the Ron^ian Catholic*, 
which liad bO inccu&cd the Greeks, osucd with the cuiireiuon of the 
CtChoiic cathedral into a Turki»h mosqucn The Latin Archbishop 
was allowed to ir^n^iffe hia dwindling flock till his death, but the 
ruije»tic Parthenon, wlitch had seen so many vkriSMTudes of worship, 
wa< whitewashed, and ere lon^ a tapering minaret, whose baae 
may still be traced, rote from the building which Lud been by tunu 
a heathen leriiple. a Greek cathedral, and a Latin mtnst^r. A 
Turkish gjiiison was installed on the dc5<;!craicd Akropolii^ and the 
connnandcr resided in the P&laccof the AccLajU^>U on ihe Propyhca, 


TJu GetUUmans Afagaaim, 


TIfB old thyme whicli begins 

li In oui Atroct ttlc«mc<l the ftMieu 

is « tnjc to-day 4s it vaa vhcn wrriitcn, bat it may be news to muy 
of the ^re-»cnt gcn^nlioti that at one time gcntlemeo dinM ia ibe 
liKtrnin}^ Thi^ Oiitrt in ilic rdgn of Edu'W 11. rote viih 1h« laric 
uidduicd At eleven. The '*Northiimbcrl;ind ifoutc Book " fov 151 
giv» the Otnn«r l-tour u ton. Ejiilicr ^till vu 

l^tct i diiq» diner & Dtuf, 
Souper A dnqi coie'ict i ncnf 
K>it vtvn d'ant Dcmnt* ct oouf 

as ronit a moruatic couplet of long ago, 

Wlien dinricr vra^t taken nc such early hourfl it «ns a kind of 
Icnl^e-And-fork lireakfaiit, ttic actual hrcahfiiKt being a vrry light m^ 

At \ time of (Uy vrhcn any of our leeisbion may be dicumas 
ihat ho U Prime Minist^Tj or thai he has »qnc!chod ** the other n'de * 
by a pbeuomenally eloquent oration, hf* predecessor a few hundred 
yar) sijicc waft ftiaking his way lo lite Houac. with no frienJI/ train 
or even ft (pu lamp to lighten hi* progress. Ht soon, however, 
tired in his endenvours 10 outdo the lark, and r.o the hour of 
nsi;eml>ly ha« gradually crept mio the afWmoon, nnd dmncr-tlme 
hoa oUlyiiiply kcpl paix wirh cAch change, 

I'hc Court dined at eleven from the reign of Edward IL to thai 

of Henry IV^ ; in the lifetime of Sir Thomas More, and for many 

atteivards, the fothiOTtablc hour was twelve ; In Qut'en Anne'i 

it had chflnKcd to two, and in Cowper*^ time it ^«u four, 

Oxford Univ^nfty In 1570 dined at eleven, but it moved with the 

Itni£t> and a century Ago the colleges began 10 dinL* at four and five. 

When Wellington was a living hero dinner was served at lix, and 

^ now we take* dinner at in hour when our forefathers would h^ve 

L^^U^n^ about supper. 

52 Tkt dniUmcjis Magasiar, 



'ib gc\ Sa^Qgv ccukl not conjecture^ utd vu ynwillinj to i 
{nqclre, bm hnmcdbEely seated hiraseir wiih Sir Ridiard. Tho ' 
(o&clmun WAA onjcrcd to da^c. uid they liuiricd wtlli ilw uUnott 
opcdition to Hyde Parle Comer, where ihcy slO[>ped »l % \Ki\f 
\a\em irtd ri^tired lo a pr^vat« room. 

Sir Richjird then mformcd Savage ilut he wanted to wriic x pun- 
pUlcUandwuhcdhim lo bcthcAnonnuensix. Tbcy«oono>aiiiicDOcd, 
J^irKichurddicuungindSavigewrEtinguiitildmiicrr which btd bcea 
ord<?red. war put upon the tAljle. SAfng« wu surprtied at ibe mean- ! 
rcas c>r the t-nlcrUmmcnE, and ^ficr Borne licsUnon ^^encurrd to a^^| 
for Kinci which was ftomeirlut rcluctantl]^ ordered to be brouglit^^ 
After dinner dicy ftruih^ ihi^ir piniphlel. The ta»k over, SAvAgc 
anilcfj^Mixl ihit Sir Rii^haTc) would eittter order tnorni- inne or c*U foe 
hif bill ', hut ho vf» Bui|iri»ed to Icarn that hii friend wil« without 
money, cind that ihd eipcnie of the dinner could only be liquidated 
»;>■ ihe sale f*f ihr pamphTei ih?y hnd just TTriiion. Snvage wai, 
tliereiorc, obti^^cd to go and qITci thci: new prui)Lti;uon t^ saIcv tnd 
after some diOicuIiy he obiained Ivo f;\]ineaA for it Sir Richud 
then returned home with his companion, having onty retired ttiotj 
<]ay to avoid hi* rrcdirf*rs, and wntleri Ihe p.iinphlei to cover 
expenses of the day. 

.'ilic eonvLvial clubs of oar dccp-dnnking ancestors arc hoppil 
but the naen of the prevent day seem to have mberited 

^^etiie for a good dinr^er, ai ii evidrnced by tlie fact that ihe' 
member) of ft multitude of asiocIaLions, Ic&mcd And unlcarocdi, 
regard the arnual dinner as the mnfil enjoyal>le of their meetin^i 
Every EnglLshmin who dLttiogdihei himself, ii doe* noJ nuti 
whether in hib Mudy or \t\ hU Louiitry'b service ctbovhcret 'kx\y 
\eiy well that the petvalty he hu s^ooncr or later to pay for hi« fETcat- 
ncis i> to eat a dlnjier of ever lo many courses provided for him by 
hiiadmirvrs. In numerous cane* the poor fetlow only half crnjoyi 
tiie meal, hc<au.*ic nil the time he is thinking of the speech concealed 
ia the pocket of hiit drtrjti coat 

The diiromfort of such a gue*l cannot be greater timn that of a 
rlcric nanied TestA, «ho bcLMiiLe Sccrctiry of Ijliii 1^'iiers to Pope 
I'iutt VU, The story ^vns lold ly C^rdiiial \Viscinaii. Ir his youUi 

^TmIr mi Atucbed to the nundalurc at PariE, and f^ained the diccni 
of tdenlKIc men. Among tht^in was BtifTon, who one day luked 
him to dinncTp On entering the dratfing-room he found himself 
unexpectedly in a company eomposcd of the roost eminent naiuiftljatff 
and machematici^ns of Thais. He was somewhat c\'ennrc-d, though, 


Tkt Fashionable DinntK j^ 


flan«itd, br this fltlcaCioa, when suddenly a thought MroclL him 
«b*ch ponlfwl hu joy ind bic ipfMtit^ It w» ?nday, a day on 
whith Ronuui Caihcilici do nor eat l!»h, to remind tlitm that oo 
thai day Ovut'i fi<4h vaa torn t>>- ihc :iaib whidi hcM llim lo the 
Cfoss, Testa knew that hts attention to or ncR^ect of (bis rule wduU 
be mnowty ol>«erTC<3. What should he do? Hcvr should he 
"■"*y to play or dabUe with rorbiddr;ii iiirau in a^ lo arrivr ai the 
tod cd' the ntcAl hnnjcry but unobserved and, what waa more^ 
awpBicd? Hie doon of the dining^rooEii were thrown open, but 
K> unhappy vas he ai hfs own putptcxing lituuiion that he did rot 
tiotk« the table till vnillcd by bu hoit'a addtc&t to Im gucata. 
"Mcssieor^ ouyoord'hai <sX vcitdrcdi, ct il Taut robscrrcr," He 
then law that, evidently m compliment to him, the gentlemcrn 
iiMucali&l& b^ to conHnc their obsLTVAtions that da/exclu3i;'dy to 
aq^iaiie animal*, and his joy ami o^ctiie returned u t^ulckly a^ they 
had Sown. 

A iBore unp!c^L«ani Fridiy experience befell Senator Reuonleo, 
nephew of Tope Ocnicin XIIL He wu on a vf&it of compliment 
to Ffcderick of IVussia, and was invited lo dinner, but ncthin^ 
wa« proiHded that he could eat, Tht King vatclied, a»d prc^^cd 
him with diKh ^nM" dii^h, lill ihc SrnnTor, srrlng his ro;'Al bof^i ap- 
pftpcntly dutrc«sed, mrormcd him of ihc cau»c of hi* rcfuul The 
Kin; onfered an^iiig at hofid to bo got ready, when proenLly a 
royal rtpau of mcngr* £t/t ^x\ brought in. His fidelity to con- 
«ckocc hid been purposely put to the tctt. 

If yod want to know whether a man ai a true Briton cr not, take 
bin BO A foreign land and keep your eye upon him ai Chriatmas 
flfipniachei^ If he be a renegadr, you n^ll notice no chnnge in his 
mode ol Ufing; btt if he be not a rcnc^dc* you vrill ob»cne tliat 
h€ wiB, GO far as his stirroundings allow, dmc on CliriMmas T>xy juEt 
as if be were at borne. Though ihc heat be ^^A-cllcnn^ he will 
ladle bb bbiing puddin^^ and roA^t her^i and if he ttr in icy 
tegiotv, reindeer wUl do circry bit as well as beef. 

After the expericnee in the Arctic region* of the cicw of the 
Fax, commarded by Capnin ^f'CI■nlOc1c, it can hardly b<.- 
doabCed that an Eng^lialiman^:! jollity in vinv of axv exini t;oud dinner 
b toQKtfaing lik« second nature. The temperature wa» nearly eighty 
4q[reeft below frccaing-pomt, a ^ercc nortli-wciter liowled through 
ihe tigging, bringing with it cloudM of snowdrift, y^A the crew sit 
maiily at the »hipS tables o\\ December js- Neither beef nor 
puddinf: had Q plaec there, bui tlic lillic they had was spread out «> 
annirthcly chat they ihnon deeeiv<-d thcm^eHcH intn believing there 

54 TIte GentUmatis Magazine, 

was plenty. Bad as their case was, it was not so aggravating as that 
of many of the British soMiere in the Crimean war of 1854. Od 
Christmas Day they knew that thoughtful friends at home had sent 

out an abundance of good thiiigs for their dinner, still no one 
seemed to know exactly where these had been stored, and so poor 
Tommy got none* 

An Englishman who at any time of the year was oRered the flesh 
of rat, cat, dog, or horse, would possibly beat a hasty and indignant 
retreat. Therefore we cannot but admire the heroism of the man 
who not merely suITercd such indignities, but made them the 
foundation for one of the most amusing books ever written. He 
describes himself as "The Besieged Resident," and was a corre^ 
spondcnt of one of the I^ndon dailies during the Franco- Prussian 
war. He confesses that horse did not quite suit him, and that his 
favourite joint was donkey. *' The flesh of this obstinate quadruped," 
he says, " is delicious, in colour like mutton, Grm and savoury." This 
v'as during the siege of Paris, and he tells us that it was an induce- 
ment for him to go out to dinner when it was known that there would 
be donkey at table; just as one might say to one's self at home, "Since 
there is to be venison, though Jones's parties are stupid, I shall go." 
He was fond of rats for breakfast, and he relates that a friend who 
one dny breakfasted with him, "after some hesitation, allowed me 
to help him to a leg, and after it was as anxious for more as a 
terrier." As Christmas Day came n^ar, the possession of any pro- 
visions was the surest way of popularity. ^'One fortunate Briton 
has got ten pounds of camel, and has invited about twenty of his 
countrymen to aid him in devouring this singukit substitute for 
turkey; another gives himself airs because he has some potted 
turkey, which is solemnly to be consumed spread on bread." 

The poverty of those besieged English residents contrasts 
sh;Lrply with the Christmas pies of a hundred year^ ago. For 
instance, one was shipped from Berwick to l^ndon having a circum- 
ferencc of nine feet. It required two men to bring it to table, 
where it was placed in a case with four wheels, by means of which it 
was passed from one guest to another. Pies of this sort were usually 
spiced so that they would keep for weeks, and were placed on a side- 
table for aU comers to cut and come again. 

Few men of social habits there are who have not at one time or 
other fixed in their minds, as they thought, a smart saying which 
they resolved to keep for So-and-So's party, but which somehow could 
not be fired off successfully when the opportunity arrived* Possibly 
this was the experience of M. Lalande when he dined at the house 

TJke FaskimabU Dinner, 




<A Rccvnkf, die Unkcr. He wis Kcaicd Ictnccn Uic cdcbntcil 
bCftuEy, Madunc R^camicr, in4 AUJiimc iJc SUcI, cqttAfiy dutli* 
gobhol fo« bcr wit, thoqgh noi for good look*. Wjifatng to ay 
wo tthin g AC'^ciblc lo die bdic&, die uironomcr czclafmed, " Hon 
happy 1 am to be thus placed between nit ind bcjiuij*'' "Yc«, 
M. 1 flhndcj" soKiutically tcpli^ Madamv do Stact, "and vithoul 
poaacxdng cither." 

When Lord Suir wij aoibdN«^do: x\\ Holland two Kcncniions 
ago he gave frcqocnE cntcrtAJnmcnU, to which the fordffn Mmisters 
were conftoiutf invited, not esccpcing ttw AmbaRsidor of Fnncc, 
wkh wliucie jiaUun ui; were tiiL-ci on the puim uf Winking. In 
rctunt the Abb^ dc Vjllc, the French Ambassador, aa c<^ndiantJy 
iimtcd the English and j\u£lriaii arobosfOdotE upc-n the like 
octvionfi. The Abb£ was a nun of vivacity :in(I fond of punning. 
A^ceabljr to hb humour, he one d;iy iiropoatd a heaUh bi these 
tcnns ; " The Rising Son, my Master/' alluding to the dcriei: and 
moito of l-ouis XIV., which waft ippUodcd by the whole company. 
It oiu^ then lo lb? Boron dc RdKbach** lum to gii« a rwL$c, and 
bc^to Gottotenancc the Abh^, |;ropOM:d "TlicMoon." in aimpfi' 
mcnt to ^c £m press Qact^n, which was greatly applauded. Tho 
mmibencame to the Eartof Scairjon whom oil ejcv were fastened ; 
tut dial nobkcHui, whu^ pre^encu of inmd rurldoin foiMxtk him, 
propoKd die health of hl^ oioAtcr, King Williaiu. by the rtamc of 
Joobua, the oon of Nun, who mode the san and moon stand stil!. 

Tbe ready wit of our ancetiors, ft thua apL>ean] was not !fo 
polieety caprcs&ed u it would liuve htxxx iiad ihcy lived in die 
prtscnt eeBtuty»and that circumsUncc may excuse the Scotchman 
who figures in the following story. At an cnCeitoinment given by 
Lord Kedy ther«? wa^ pr^tent Mr. A. B., a Scotch advocate, a man 
of CODndesable humour, accompanied by great formatitj of maimers. 
After dinner hia Lordship, who was fond of miULC, a^kcd Mr. A. If. 
to lin^ but he absolutely refused lo comply wiih tht^ prpfisin^t 
■olicitation nol only uf Loid Kelly. Ltit uf all t3i(.' company. At 
length his Lordahip told him tlial he should not escape; lie must 
Citho' nng a con^ letl a fiiory, or drink a pint bumpu. Mr, A. B , 
bring an aUtemioui moo, chose rather to tell n «nTy thiiii Incui 
the forfciL "One day." wid be "a ibicf in the couck of hi* 
roatMk aw the door of a church inviiinE;]y open. He walked in, 
tMiAlag tlut even there he mighi lay hold cf ^omeitiln^ useful 
Ibving secured the pulpit cloih, he wa* rctnraling* when, lo \ he 
found the door >hut. After some consideration, ho adopted the 
oolyr OMiit of e&cape Ic^t, namely, to let himself down by the bell- 




S6 Tkt CentkmatCs Mcgasinr, 

rope. The bctl or courvc r»ng, the people irerc olAonc^, and 
HiieTwu Uiken jiut an he re«chvd the ground Wh«n thc)' 
during him awiijr he looked up nnd cniphanciUy addreued 1^ 
Im?]I, ua 1 now addrc» yoi;i Lordshii>, * Had it not been*' aaid he, 
Tor your long tooguc And your empty KcmI 1 tud made my 

Ai firivate dmncn wc hive «11 mi-t ihe nun who docs most of lite 
UJktnic, and it msi!^ be some conM>lition to know ihAt Uie ipecics hu 
CKWtcd from compaT^tiveEy anciunt itia^t, and to wc ;tre not the only 
toflbrtrf . A KnighT of Florence, whov Ijiv^e of talking was a Goia>- 
mon theme of UmcnUiion iniong hit fiicndK, met at dinner a party 
of brother patnciani. Ai soon a» dinner wu over he began telbng 
a ttory, ard leemed u If be lA-ould never have done with it ' m 
lell yoD," uid one of the pnrty, inlmuptin^ him, '* whoever lold you 
thb Btory, Sir Knight* did not tcLI you the whole of iu" " *io»^_ 
could that baP" asked the knight; "1 know every word of ^"^^1 
'*No, sir/' rejotnrti the KprAkrr^ " he did noi tcU ymi^ 1 am njre,^^ 
the end of it" The ooaipnny laughed, and the ntory-te]ler, con* 
founded with the rebuke, mode an abrupt termination of hia dis* 

tcunlon. ^^ 

Wlh all our riilij^htr^nnipnt, there ore eerinin niprrsEitiont ttul^H 
linger around the dinncr^Lible, ruch aa thirteen of a company, or ' 
anyone oveiiummg the saU, being unlucky. It would be hurd lo 
uaice all of them to thdr ntitce, bin it is n^^enod on eiceTtent 
aMlhoriiy cha; die Kupcisiition as Id the »U origiiuCcd in a picCVfe 
of the Lord'A Supper by Loonordoda Vtnei in which Juda* lieaiiot^; 
is repretented a« o^Fcrlvirring the salt. ^H 

Atriving laic ftir dinner was ciitlrnf ly a more frin)i[<Tni ofTenor in ^^ 
ihc olden times than it is now. 1'hc Marquia of i\bercom, to give ft 
lesKO'i in punctuality, invited a t:irgc pnrty to dinner at 5ve proeiedy. 
^Vhen tli;a huur <::itiir? Iiii Lcrdship found himself stiendcd by % ^J 
single gentleman ; he, however, Ml down to dinner and partook of ^^| 
the first course. About sia other gutsls began to drop in. Hia ^ 
Lordship wa* ut dinner No apology was made, "i'hey seated 
t1icrrL>(etve» in awkward faiJnon, Tonking at thrir watrhrSt end took 
dinner. The atJU u^ore polite part of the aaiembly arrired about^^ 
seven, and instead of dinner were «ervccl with Iini. ^| 

In tho*e tliyi the cook waK a pnilicnc woman, whereof now a :htf 
preaide» over die kitclicn — the place in which the di^he:^ he hns 
" composed " and given fanciful namea to are got rcody^ U wc are 
to gire credit to old nuthoririec, the panrycooks of former cinaet ^M 
:d ingenuity. wbklLlhe f 4^1 certainty do not, and probabff .^H 

Tie /^zfiionadU Dtnntr. 


DOt ffivc txq sign oU At Rmu cntcrtaSnmcnls it wai not unuAual 
exhiUi acastle n»de of peutry, with gau*. drAvbridgc*, UicilMiteiim 
miu3 portcuUoc^ On the Uiiilcmenu w«r« plnnud {pins made cf 
kex or bcniodc, xilt ; thc>e puis vgm diar^d wHh cxinpowdcr and 
Kgulir tRvim latd, so that u miny of them mij^ht be dtkchargod at 
once a* was wi^b^d. TTi^ castlt wai placed it one end of a uble, 
andal the Oltw cixl wax a fJii^i^ made aIs^i uf iiusir^. with mms, 
sa&s, flags, Ahd vtrc^m^rat and guns with gunpowder ocid trains^ the 
same as in t!>e cairTe. In the middle of Hie table u-oi pUccd a Oj^ 
made of p3Ur, tn^t lx:IIow and 6Ilcd vlrh red wine. A hroad arrow 
«nia stock in the »dc of the tug. Near it wac pUccd iwo pics 
node of coarse pane ; on« was filied vjtK live riog>(, and ihc other 
with live banfe All being thiw prepared, a lady *a« persuaded to 
draw the anov out, on whicli ihc ted wine issued fioni die stag's 
aide, like blood out of a wound. Nc?it the guna on one AJdc of the 
ostle irot by lifting the Lrain di^hargcd against the ihip, and 
ihit suack tta^ quickly Tcturnnt tiy a liEi>ad3(ide fiout Ehe vetneL 
Tbc aalvcnon which the ca&tk and ship rested vi<tg then tvnicd 
votind, and ibe rc^maining guns of both c^iRcharged. llic tvro great 
|Het mil rennined untoucher^ whtm, curiosity or entreaty iralueirig 
Aiomconc lo talac the lid of une, the froga jumped out, to Ute a»tuac- 
Aeet or disnkay of the ^n^caia; on the lid of the oihci pic being 
laised, out flew the birdie Amid the eonfuijci^ whiiili foUo^red, 
a lAnquet in a/i adjtnning room was announced aa ready and upon 

Of covne oer ancestors took dinner early, and if we were lo 
rcTcn to p^iry cattle^ and mrmtc warfare we should lia^v \fs revert 
alto to C3jly hovri- Betides, oor i^rcat modern bdies arc lery 
likely of opinion tbat there i« already cnoi:tgh warfare in the kitchen 
vhan the thrj la behind txme without bringing it inEo the dining- 

W. J, POaMAH. 

Tie GeniieniOH^s 


SUPERSTITEONS nuy be likened 10 noiuoua wo6d« And turic- 
Itfu TTtliJ flovfers growing on ihc hankR of I^bc, twhich ihow 
inicrcstni in whjil the coiiriryjiroplr call "ould indent ccorkfl" 
would do well to gAlher and prcicrrc boforo they ate awept ftwiy 
bf ihu str&im aind buried in tbe tfuler^ of oblivion. Jt U here pto- 
|HMed to dcAl with «Dmc customs and KUpcistliiona tliat were eiia&t 
iwiaity ycin ngo in ilut part of Mcttti thai lies rottli of ihe BTock- 
watcr, a Hvcr which* rising; in Lou^h Ramor, genctaUy eoilcd 
VlrginU Lakt, in courty Caran, ilowg throng fertile piaditt on 
which ¥ii« ht'tiU of thcrp and rattle frcd, joins the Hoynr ai XsiTati, 
and, aicTfnl in ti, Aows onwud to the su. At Hnl M«aih would 
not strike one A« 4 place m which supentition would find ft pernu- 
nent home. The natives are, as a rule, wcU-tO'do ; while to thoiQ 
who cojisidLir mountains, roc1t(^ ind Lakes cucntia.! to romance, the 
scenery migbt be found commonpUcc and tame Bui aupentition 
llie« hardi and quite a4 many lrace± of tt afo to be Tound in the 
cottages and vilk^a whirh are «caiicrcd throtigh this grorJi, luxuriant 
dutTict as among the rocks and Ukcs of C&van or MoaAghan, itj 
n«Lghbouri on the north, 

[t wat not until I began to ccllcci thcw eld sloriesthat ] reaU«ed 
how many there were- In this usk I received nurch valuable belli 
from the diapcniary doctor, him^lf a bit of an ontiqitafian ; ffom 
some natives of the tillage, ftitd] quite lately, from my prcsc:nt cook, a 
conniy Mnih w^m.-in. Many of th«e old lalct hmt come down to 
us from Tcry ancient limes; for il mu&t be remembered that the [rish 
m a composite race, be^nning with the Iranian, or Persian, migration 
in the mof»t remote period of Iri^h hisioT>; and continuing ihrou^ 
an admixture of Baviue, Cell, and Norse, down lo the Erglish and 
Scotch of later times. 

Curiously enough^ the Celtic strain seems always to have beeo 



Tkt GenlUmatis JUagasin^. 




pitient and Ihe tire while the i«one is being mftde or Oftftiii 
fcdkflc) of the charm l> Tott- 

Foi ffUoo^Mng-cou^li the chI1<3 It pitted ibrcc times vouvA { 
M un<5ei and over) ui us. For mumpaB bone's bridle ii pu 
tbe tmaLel. who U then driven 10 the pbcc nhera hofM4 iire gcnr- 
wfticrcd, nnd injiclc lo drink ; while for kvollcn glnnda, cijicd in 
!Aih " ihc l.£ck]>ji.'' there 11 but one ctire. An ass's bridle is put on 
the child, vhich \& then lalccn to the pigstye^ And driven three limets 
round inside ii, rqieaiing ^ 


which lidng roughly huerprcted mpans "Pig, tome aj>d iaIcc dvij 
ti^ckiu; Lc4^):>Ji, go away wiih pig.*^ My inforrntnl, ft woittftn of 
ntxMtt Torty. tcll^ mc that rh'? dl^tinctlf rctncmbcrx tbis hArini; 
been done Co lier si-hen *he w^i> a cluJJ, though ih< doe» no( itwU 
led nlieihcr the cbirni proii^ cdkaciou^ or notn 

The bchcf in tlic ctil cyo, or bcinjt ''overlooked," U univertil- 
Tbe chArni AgAmit it w to ^H ^t ptocc ot lome garment belongii^ U> 
the pertoEi wtirj is itipposcd lo b^vc an i.n'i1 «yf, and bum It nnder 
hiA or her nc»c* when Ihc power to hurm will be r^cutralised. 
"Overlooking" ia generally emplo)^ 10 toiie the mdk bon one 
cov and gfvf it 10 unoibcr. A story 1^ lold of a lAriYier'a wife wbo 
had a cow that wa> celebrated fat aod wide for die wondcrfol 
quantity of milk %hc gavc^ f^uddcnly the supply stopped, A wise 
woman who v^ coniuUcd s^id Ch^it h rich but rouerl)- neighbour 
had taken thi; milk fton^ the woman'fj <:t>w and ^ivcn \\ to hu own. 
She advised th^t a piece of the man'^i coat Ahould be procured and 
bumtt ftrid the aihes tied tip in a red rag ond liiait-ned to tbe cow^ 
rail ; ihiK w;Lt Accordingly done, and tlie cow's milk immcdiatd|r 
returned to bcr again. 

Not long ago a woman hvcd in the village who was always scat 
for in charm tlie rnilk if the buttrr would not rom<-. It 1^ said that 
nhc u^ed to walk three tinier rtjund the chuni, mullcrin)t some 
lEicantaiion, whiL:h alic would nc^'cr reveal to anyone, and the secret 
of whicli died with her. 

Of all channsj thar of *' biiryjtig the sheaf" h the most f^endiahljr 
iLiali^nAnt, and hav been the occaaion ofmoTCthnn one tragedy, h 
it usually a woman who woikg the charm "* on " (that is with intent 
to Injury |>crhapi kill) anyone who hafi ofTunded her pavt forgiveoesa. 
A biiiuilc of straw is piocured, and in each joint of every straw a [lin 
is insetted. The hh^ h tl^n ^' wakod *' like a corp^ and buried in 



Old Cusionss atut Sufiersfi/ufns in Cc, Mcath. 61 

Uw ground As cacb joint io tbc ^ib^ u pocrccd wjlli a piii, »o will 

md AS it rou and decays m the ground, »o will ibe EinibiUinii 
vkdiii &U 4Dd wuic awAy, until, u the lul ftlrair cnimblc^ [o Aiam^ ' 
he or abc dntf oT a ffiT^l^Joua complaint which no doclor car 
diignos^ or cur^ 

ll b titJicvn] that animab kce? appaniian« ihir anr invisible tO' 
Ibc buoMn eye, I know A road on nhich at ortc lime nn drovLT 
vould liAlt hi« cattle >t night whco ifni'clling to or Trom 4k f^. If 
one &ho<ild do «> onknowingly^ hit ditl« were sure I0 ttimpcdc, %nd 
\aA l<j be MXi|^t fur at luii^ tluUocc^ ilic ii;:xi mornin|£. Hltat, 
Uicy wvrc wppoftcd to MC I ncvci could d^^icovcr ; no^Kxiy »ocine<f ' 
to know ; but ibe EicI renuined- Whether with li new gcreraLion of 
drovrn thJft belief siill exists I cannot ui/, liui there 11 no doubt 
thit JLt one time tbc " Cro»s-Road ^' was looked on by drovcn with 
gRAl diif^vour. 

Not £ar from tbv village itftodt an old house in which k patcbed- 
up hole in (lie wall ^o«-a " the place where ihe devil wtin throuj;1i/' 
The atcvT gOG* tb«t Aboot the end or ihc ciglticcnih ccntiLry the 
tben owner of the house b*d the re^FUtfltion of berng very hoipiuble, 
arrd xd cnurra^ing all «»mcfs rght royally. He and his gucsu 
V0^ in the haUl of ^ittine up rtry Utc At cardi :ind pbying for 
facttTT slakes. Que nigltl a knock waa licard at tl)^: door, And a 
ttanger, ftcaring a long ctoak, asked for admittance. He ivas m:ide 
WclcOBKBnd invited (o join ihc^mc, which be did, and "von all 
beibrc hioL" So remark^lc was bis luck that ore of the paHy 
became cuipicioui, and, under pretext of picking up ^ card which h6 
bad porpouly dropped, he lookcil undf^r the? \->iXA<^ a.rid lav a cloven 
boof api>cating beneath the folds of the lon^;, heavy cloak Vfhidi the 
visitor had refused to take cff when he ftrrtvcd. An alarm waa 
imnicdtaiely raked, and the ftinngcr m:ide for tbc door. It wfls 
locked, bat be lukrd ii o[>rn, kn<K:king down u piece of tlie wall jit 
tbc ttme tia». '' He look the money vjth him," taid the norrittor 
of tho improbable etory, ^and neither it nor himRclf wu ever ncen 

A Btird lak ctjtnn from Moybologuci t>eftr Moynalty. In 
an angle between two roads lies an old churchyard which has 
b«<o dosed for many year*. On the opposite side of one of those 
roads cundta ruined cotuge, the windows ard doom of which buve 
been tdicn outar^d carried away. One nighl, as nrj old man wm 
vctuming home from the ncifthbouring vilbge, he saw with wtoniih- 
meat that Uie deserted house was brillianily lighted up. He looked 

6l Tke GfHiUnsans Magazine, 

in $X ODc of the windows, uul »w » 6r« bUcing oa (h« 
a Uf;e« ooonpanr of rorn tiwl wcxn^n lining roiEtuJ a uUe, eulng 
■fid drbiking of the best of good cheer- 11c entered, but no ooc 
took Uw tlightett no6c« of hin\ so be ibou^hl he would go to the 
lire uid get i light foe hi* pipe. A« h« stooped dowtt to tik^ op & 
piece of lurf^ a wooun fitting at the end of the table Kxid to bin in 
a low vcac«, "^ If they olTer you pfiytbing to ote^ PatMry deor, don^ 
be oiler takoig iL" Th« oU DtJin ircfnedbtcly wen! aw^y, and go4 
Aft quickly JW he could ; but when be poocd ihc rumblcdown 
;c Ki the iDomnig, the doon and wrndowt were a^ain out of tl^ 

no signs wcrt to be teen of the fertivilfoa of the night bcfoc' 

Second only to tbdr dread of the fuptmatura] power Ihey believe 
priestA to pofi^cn is the fear they have of ** man-leppcra." A 
nnn-lqipcr U a haimlcaa animal enough— it is a spcdcs of newt ifasx 
b found in fvampi or boggy ground ; but the country- people Grvily 
believe ibai the unwary bring who <lign a trpnrh, or oven wtDfs put 
any place wheic nun-lcppcf* do congregate, and docs not ko-p his 
mcnith Sraily cloved^ u in tTmninent danger of one of them jucnpjng 
down his thioat and taking up a pcrmaneni midence inside hioL 
Whatevn he cat« or drinks will go to noiinsh the unwricooM visiier 
fltbisezpenic. For this terrible disaster there ii, fortnnatety, a cure. 
It is well known that $aJtandwMer U a pcic^E chirm agnintt ihkigi 
trvil, and the man or woman, girl or hoy, who hni been nnrortunste 
enough to KWftllow a raan-lcppcr must get a targe mugful of a twtjmg 
solution of aalt-ardwalcr. carry it to the place where " the baste" 
lint look possession of lodgings where hit presence was not dcsirvdt 
and. holding hi*i head well oiTt the spot, drink off tlie contents 
of Ihc nnjg, if porwblc at a diaughL The man-Ieppcr will not. 
remain! "1 

The dread i\va the priwi will turn anyone who has offended hiia 
BilO a cow, a pig, oi a rat, i» i\q\ now sa unireraal u it vtau lonK 
ycsiis ago ; still it is a foot thai s>cvcfa] of the pncfrtA who woe for- 
bidden to interfere in the last election for KortH McAth did infl jcnce 
it through the womL-n, whon^ ihey niad^.' to Hc-!ieve thai if their 
htxibinds did n^nt vote for their candidate their next child would he 
born with a vroodcn IcR- 

Some twenty years ago a young man who had diApleasud ^e 
prieaL flf^d to Livcrpcxil, uherr htf Tt^mjiini^l fur tcvcmt ycai^, Aftci 
he had, as he thought, uivcri his RCT'crcncc'a aoK^r ti^c to mbsidc, 

■ Tbii Wtty mij hnvt »td« conncaLoa with lh« belief (Jul «i Nr^cmbc* £vf, 
Ibf CcUic Tuht nr^fTHiAAifT tb? dead roiDfl em of their ct«Te9 lodn/icc wiili tbc 
F>HDiGr1y no pcsMnt wvuld wc li> be oat uf doois on Not<cnibcr 

Old Cusl^ms and Su^rsiitimis in Co. Mtatk, 63 

he icIuiikU hameL Gfmt wm his ntqniie vh^n, inttcad of 
vckoming bun biclc hb fiends begui rc^liiif; him under H% collar 
and 0hirt-«l<tt«e. He «kcd Ebc mcamns of this strange c^onduci, 

OAd ihey crplurwd thai Firhcr loW Ui^m iha he had chAtiecd 

lum iiun a JUh, thxt be bjul twum nway down tht- river, And thM 
thc7 were fccUcg wbcLiier anj of the sciZc« remained. 

After I had been Eotd this sEory listed one oFthcmaidMrrfuiif, 
who, ha^irtg been educated in a convent scbool, wa* looked on u an 
au-botity vn inttltctn conncclcd wilh the CHurch^ vrhciht-r ibc really 
bdiered that the pncit3 bad the power to tmnifojm pi^ople into 
ittutll. Miggie put on hci mott unctiliM look^ and in a ftclcnn 

^^^one lude iqily r 

^^1 "Ve9^ mm, they undoiibledl> have the power, but they vety 

^^HnueJjr gmkub tt> 

^^P "Cm fou teU me an instunce of their having done so?" I 

' a%k«d. 

Higgle Ihougbt for a lew niom<ntH, then said ; " 1 do not know 
offinmuneeof a pricat having chan^c<l a mnn into a iat» or Any 
other unnul, but T do know a iiory which tt jTcrfect!)- tnie," 

liaggic, Uit cin be »ccn, was fond of wcllchoscn langitagei and 
at xa$ request told her talc oa follows ; 

" Tbm was once a priest, ard he wac a very holy mait^ and had 
gmt power One day a man who didn^i belitve in orything cama 
to the Preabytery, and told the piicA that if he «ould show him 
what he eould do he would become a good Catholic and believe in 
bim and reli^on. Then the priest wcnc into anotht^r room and 
pnjrd very eamottty. Bud when he came hack 1^ took hia ^tick 
and drew a rir.j; <m\ the floor, and imcncdiatcly fire burst up through 
the boards and a little devil wa« (fitting in the middle of the 
flame*. . . ." 

fe" Htnr did Jic gel rid|of ibc^dcvil ? " I flsked. 
'^Wcll, mi«, It fiiai he vtoald net go away at all, so the pncst 
lo go bad: 10 th« other room and pray siitl mote earnestly 
ire be would leave thsi." 

Maggie bcUevc^ji all so implicitty that I did not like to hurt her 
fe<JiaSa by shoving my seepticiaui ; neither did 1 inquifc whether 
the maa for whoM cdification^thr prrformnnce bud liccn got up wn^ 
eoctvetEed and bei.^i»e a good Catholic by this manifestation of 
n^ionattiral power. The vtory is inatrucilvc aa showing the amount 
of credulity that ii ingrained in the minds of the peaunti, even tlic 
&itly wdl-cducaied'ctaas. 

Tboae lIvLt die a fkiklU d<ath and have not Lived their full time 


Th4 GentUmans Magazine. 

oil etriti cinnol ^c^U bul mu»t wandci About until the period originally 
allotted to ihcm han expired. It is oloo said that nil those around 
A de;itbf>cd muat maiutiirt a profoand iilencpf f:»r. if a cry i* 
uiltretl, tilt S[]irit, instead t»f fscaiiiiig through the window, which is 
Ijuqxfficly left opcri for it, ^jII rcti^m lo the body it has just left, and 
which will then '*hflvt to die oil over again." 

Old woraen stiH buy wflrts ftcm tho^e afllicted with them. A 
li^itfiieniiy xs generally the ^iiin paid ; It i» rulibcd on ihc wnrt, then 
wrapped in x piece of paper and dropped at the nearest acss-roAds. 
U 11 not quite clcAr whether the Under gels the wart as wcU m the 
hairpenny, bui il i* said ihot ir di^ppeaTs In a %<?ry few d;iyf. 

Crirwin^ hcna irc supposed to be unlucky, in wliat way I have 
never been «b1c to discover ; but I heard of a woman who had 1 
ben that Bew up on her kitchen drc&ser, elnppcd her wingi± three 
times <^rT>ffwI, nnd fell down dead. In due course of timer a tvKter 
came from America to the woman, announcing the death of her sod 
on the ve»y day, some declare at the very hour, ae the hen crowed and 
fell down dead. 

The power of wilchcs to ttaiLafoim ihem^elve^ into arLimals 
appears to be common to many countries, A wonmn told mc ihtl 
" a boy she knew " was going to the Jteld to drive home hie cow to 
he milked. A \ he came near the cow, which was lying donn, he 
saw a h^ie btftidc her. drinking lier milk. He h^d his gun with him 
(it was before the days of gun licenses), and iifcd at Uic 
hare, which ran away as soon as she saw him. He traced her to a 
cottage, and, emering, s;iw the old woman to whom i^ belonged 
sitting by the fire, Uc asked vhcther she had .*een a hare; she 
rcphed ihac she had notj and ordered him to leave the house. 
Thinking that she was hiding the hare under her dress, he lifted up 
the end Q'f her skirt, and found that she was siiilinj with her fool in 
a wooden pail which wat half full of blood, 

I have heard a Mory almost identically the wme in Devonshire 
wl]<;n: it was ai implicitly believed as this one is here. 

Drumconrathi the little vjlEage in which mo?t of tny informaiion on 
the subject of Mc.ith superstition? was obiained, lies at the foot of a 
fteep, though not very high hill, surmounted by a " rarh/" Or old fori ; 
heacc its name, Drum-conrath (the hill with a rath). Antiquarbnst 
differ OS to the uses fcT which these old raihs were intended, biit the 
subject is too wide and too much dLq>uted lu be dwelt on here. 
The country-people believe thai they were niaJe by the Danes to 
cuno^l ihcir Ireasurcs; and that when ih«e wcie buried the 
chicfuin to whom lliey belonged gave Uicna in charge of one of hta 


Old Customs and SupcntidoHs in Co, AMtaik 65 



fctaiti«n; nuliiig Uini sircar % sofctnn OAih ID guard thetn ^thl^lly 
in life or death* He was then slain, la order lo niaiir t|uzir Rurc 
ihaHie ivould r^ bctmy the cccrct of Lhc hidden treasure to aayoiie u 
and thenfare Ihf tacrifire nfiomc living &nJmfll — *'a Ufc Tor a Jifc*^ 
— iBQst be oiadc before tJie mUi coiplEireT Itrmii a itod of a railx wbich 
b regarded u uctcd iciTOund. fiui cr«n then be is nol safe \ for 
some calamdt; ii sure Co cvertako the mortal who would lay a 
sarrilfgiouft hand 011 the trramrc that u giurdod by the dead- 

On the opposlc side of the vilUge, in the pounds of iho 
RCtoiy, ia ai>otbcr, and lower hill, also crowned by a rath. Thiai 
mh b planted wilb trecf, under which thr rjiirii-4 u^cd C:> dance olH 
Uuou^h tlie long suaioier ni^UCK, urtil a rocmrr re«:ii>r nf ihr parldr 
pot an oid tto:ic haptisiiLal font, which had been removed from a 
rataed church, on the top of the raih ^'and bariRhcd the fairJcs«*i 
The font hat been tlken away, and pet in a T^t^t*t luitable |>lacc bjrJ 
the church, dooi, but llic mi:iry liltlr folk are no iimie <tceTi cUndng] 
by aioooli>^ undcf the thorn buahcs on the rsih. 

TlitTi; appear to be two kinds of fairies in IrcLand. The Sidh 
wonoinuvd SheeX uippoted to tie clrtctnclrf^i from the Tiuiha TMj 
CAmnn, a race vluch inhabited Ireland at a very early pciiud of itdn 
biflory. The fiaaihce belon;;« to this family, which ts also abin to 
die Peris of Persia. I have only heard one tUe of iht Sidh, which 
shall be given later, 'inhere are, hcwevL^r, vt^ry frw j)easanti who do 
DO^beUevc \\\ the LcprcchaunK called in the aoutH Lurigndsun«|i 
and m HcatE^ Cankeni|;h«. Few that, if they bitvc not seen themj 
ibevnseltes, do not know others who have passed by th4?m [ate inl 
tbe etenin^ ot at caily mornings fitting on a bank b> the ro;idside, 
inctidin( their clolhcs WLth renl nccdlct and thread, and vriih tiny 
thimbles on their fingen. All night long they ride about on '* boa- 
ihoona " (the headi of ragweed), or dnnce with the lady fairies nndcr , 
the thorn bwbo in tbe moonli^t; and if the pataerby pretends ^ 
not to see them, but snatches back at one of ihet;« \\\\\*i moo, he 
sny sticcccd fn catching him, and can ihcn make hicn reveal (he 
srbciubools of the Rold whidi ii i» believed they have secreted in 

their undcrgronnd sbodes. The late fudge H of Dublin 

po««««od the coat of a Leprechaun, uhich he said had been given 
him by a man vho had r.tiight one in this way. It Is deficribed aa 
woven \T\ one piece cut of a kind of green gra»»-lawn of a goasamcr- 
kkc tcjture. 

" And why wouldn't I believe in \\ ? " hit H<^nour would say in 
leply to incredulm:.^ riirr.iiinnert. "Haven't I had it in my own 
bud over and o^xr again ? *' j 

f 01* ccxcvu ICO. 3077. V ^L 

Tht Gfnikmani Magatine^ 

TbcK hRlc people 4rc lurro!c» cnot^h ; iiiU the c^niry 
oie cmTul not to offend ibtm. Th«re it a cotUgo by the ratdtidt 
ihmigli vhftcli, it i« aid, die btrici luted to paa cveiy fine oighL in 
fimuiMr, on ihcir wax to ibcir rcvcb taiider ft ctump of old iborn 
butbos on 1h« mv^in of ■ bog n«v1jr a mile «vAy ; find on do 
accourit would (be dwclkn in thai cotage that the doom ai n^ght, 
bui die br&itli mi tfguUtly swcpL and ibc kiuhnt ^^ludScd ap^" 
l»L the liiik people should ii»l kbcir dochcs or shoes nhilc putiof 
Uuougb it 

II \% ime Ehai they ocGuioimUy uke a fiuicy u> ■ jnrtimiuly 
prtttr. bcflJttiy child, and oxny il oJT, Icavicig one uf tbcir own in ita 
pkcc* It id believed ilut tf Uic weakly child \% bilhcd in a ttrooft 
4v>coctioR of foiglovc roou, if It it a chmgcrltng it will go ftwjiy, and 
the oiothcr will get bcr ovn tuby bock again. I heard of this harb^ 
bcMi done ^tb dtc roult that the iuppoKd ^Jry cbild (fiod. 

K bvt wa£ not told lA-hcthcf the mother bad her own baby raaiond 

Vio \m- 

K One i>r our hoiUK;fi:aida told nc how het brotlicr nw a Dumbcf 

Bef Gonkotighs one ntght. I repeal her story a« neotly at poaiblt 

Bin her own word« i 

H "N(\ mins, I never aercn any of them myiclC but my brothet did 
one night, a» he irid some oibci ho^a front the vilUge wat eoning 
hon^e ffom tho fair of Slana They waa all walking togeLbar in tht 
middle of ibc mod, and when tlicy crumi^d Ydlowfbrd Bridge an 
came to the footpalh the^r ke]H en in the ian;c way. <They bad 
drink taken.) Wi-ll, when they got lo the low wall bc«idc the rite 

^ ihcy law something strange on the fooipaih, and lU etopped to 
look ni it. The monn wa* shining very bright ; still thc7 c^mld xnA 
Ke di»tina1y» but thouKbi wb^t they were looking At was like a row 
oE tl oner pott with them big white Jlowera in thom like what ia 
\\\ the con^crratory." 

"Ariim miea. do you mean?" f aiJtt.^. 

**YftSi miss, them'a what 1 mean ; and they eould Moa of 

make out what oo earth the prdener would pLii th? ttowcr-poti out 

Iha road far at that time of night. 5ti my brothrr Kiid he would gp 

and look ot them closer, and be croftsed the road to the footpath, and 

what did h«sec but a row of litilo men filing on tho tk^nbwith their 

b>ieks agiuntt the wall Thry hfid high pcakc<l c^in on ihcir heads 

and green coats ; and when ht; got. near ibccn tliey all loukcd up and 

made fac« and laughed at him," 

" ftTjai did your brotbet do ? " 

"ffe Juat croned back to the oiher\ and, tayvhe, 'Ccanc away^ 




lat ia 

Old Customs and SupersiUhns jh O, Mtaik. 67 


^Vftf bttde, iMt vh«n be ctmc bome be loM va all about it 
' " I think thcf roust livr? in the wood," «h« continued medicatiTdy, 

** far aooUtcr xCvj^U alt ray Cuhcr vrth cDOung hcrnie^ br hr&rd a grcM 
abontsnc sbd lauebing in ibc field oppooiic Ihe Soutb Araiuc Gate. 
At fint ha thought it mtut be tome of ih« urvarts at the bo«i« 
hiving a Ut of fun, and lie got up u[i iht.- illtch to look at l1i<in over 
the hedge ; and i«bat \f^ it but a lot of liLile nicn :iJ)d wonen 
nmrno^ about, and chasing one inothar, «ci«acDLng iHth Uv^n^ 
amS baviflg tbe grander ftin at all. Re «ald It vu the pfcttiea 
algbt ever he n«n, and hid brhind a trrr tn look at ih^nt. It wu 
Mtf ckvcD o'clock when he got home, a;>d wc «&» all wocidcrii^ 
vhot kept him so ble. Ho ^id he could lia\« bUyed there all 
ndgli% but vis afraid «omc of ;hem would %c*c bioi, and you know 
Ihcy don't like to be wilcbcd.'^ 

A Tew day» ago [ voa lAlkio^ to a woaian who comes lion 
coanty Mealh, and aaked hef whether the had ever aeen a Gan- 
kcna^. Sh« luid ihat sbf hcrNdf had never done to, bat told me 
ibcM two »tonc3^ which ^hc iMUrcd mc were pcrfoctly true. 

Some yoan ago her lather waii reloming borne from the vilbge 
buoiM evening in May. THe road vaa a hilly one, with high banki 
ttodfled wilh pn'miOfc^ and hawthomn, ind itkc bush<9 on the lopt 
of the bank», tn full lower, Uc wilked along, blinking cf nothing 
at al^ uauil he readied the bottom of a hill where a httte snean)» 
eio«sed bf a low bridge^ runs orcr the road. Theie hb attentioo 
na aniuted by a v^uiid » of someone tap-Up-t^ppirit!: under tbc 
bfidgCi and, looking down, he saw a little C^tnkenagti ntting bcsiiic 
ihe ftrcam mending hiii fthoesL Fired by the detire to pocteu the 
gold whkh ihey uiy itie Gankcna^hi will give to those who have 
ibc courage to aik foi it, he got down fdutiou&ly over the bridge, 
went up cio«e to hvm, and said m a stern tore of voic«, " Show mc 
■hate your money is." The Gankeiu^h, however, wa« not a bit 
alisid, bot baked bim fui) in the lace^ at the same time making kucIi 
citraoedinarf grisnacca that the man waa t^ultc disconcerted and 
tmned away bia head. When he looked again the Ckuikenagh had 

The other itory wa» of a woman who was going Lo mlllt ber cow 
in a field cloac to the high-road. 1 he fietd was a larj^ one, and aa 
she waa cTOanng it she ttmclc ber foot agiin«t something hard. She ' 
ato|]ped, aod found that it wdJi a ciock of gold. She looked 
OMtkiualy lOund ; rto one wu near, but ihc saw a calf gotng up to 
b«r€ov,avideoily with the intention of rucking it. Div^xl^d bctweeit 

F 1 

68 The Cenikmatis Magazine, 

tier uiiicly to secure the ^otd, «nd at the lamc lime to diive 
the calf, she hentaEcd \ but th^ olf ^incd the day. Throvii^ 
thecrock a "spajird" tttiich shf had brought with her to ti« the 
coVi hiiHl Iqp lo^cther mrli^n il uaa lacing milLtd, she hiMd^cd lo 
drive the c&lf to the f«tthctt comer of the field, 4Rd thcr tcrttinicd 
to where flhc hod left the trcoiure : but it v>'M nowhere to be Ken. 
The frolic h;id bin in a fiinow between two ridges, »nd 4he had 


inc frolic n;i(i i;im >n it r^now oeiween iwo nugea, ana *nc ruw^i 
■ thrown icr "apaiicd" over it lo marlc tJic epot ; but & siinilj^^| 
vponccl, n^iidc cf twisted hay, lay jlctori crcty furrow in the Rdi^^ 


&ad, ficarch as ihe vould, ^he never found the crock of gold. 

It il belitfved by many of ihe con ri[ry> people that from fitven) 

of ibe hilU near Savaii ;(ubtermneAn pJisM£es» pAssinf; uiidcr Ihc 

rivCTi Boyncand Blnclcwaitf, communioite ^ith Tori, the andeiu 

Toy&I midenc^ of thv Ard Rif^h^n or Head King) cif IreUnJ. It 

nuAl be iciucubcrcd thai McatEt, oniii^ to its rich pasturage, and 

tiie many cnonEutencs which spr&nfE up t^^cr Christianity had b«tfi 

oiflAbtished, wa* a favouriie hunting-groiwid for the Danec and 

Norw-'mtii, who c*nie in warch cf plundt-r; therefore ihtrr may hate 

bceri something to jiii« rise lo the tr<idition. One such imdcr- 

ground posuAg^; ei--rt:iiiily did etist undei Belsaw Hill, and wu only 

cloved M the befjinmng of \\\t \\k%\ 'cntDry jn eoiiaeqitence of SO 

□isny bhecpand CAttIc having '*gon^ asUiiy" down it an J bccri lodL 

Some twenty or thirty ycarr: ago> when the railnt&y line from 

Navan to Kingicourl was b«ing made, a young man entplojed at 

Jhewurk w^f fn the lia1>ir of hlrvping in the gone covert on the 

me of iht: Hill of BeUikw, th«^ nij^htn bcinfc worm and hia work cloac 

4t hand- One morning he w^ .-^wakened nt daybreak by a sound u 

of the uaniping of n^atiy hortnos, and, looking up. he saw a troop of 

hurseiiLcii defile hlowly down the valley, the lays of the liMiig sun 

aparktinK on their opcar-heods, on their glittering hdmcts, and on 

the silver trappingi of thetr sieeda. Stlcnily the warrion rode on 

till tbvy came to Ihe ( loKed-up entrance to the subterraiieaii ;ju?aa{^ 

tXht kader struck the iitoncr^ with the point of his lance, and one l>y 

Mt they dioppear^d ffom sighi. 

f As thii story is a household word \z\ thr? neighbourhood it is not 
out of place ir thi» collcctionH It i» pos&j'LIt^ [hat the man may 
have heard some old legend of the Tuatha l)f Panann, thai sccui- 
mythicat race that Inhabited Ireland in the earlit^stages of its history, 
dnd which was conquered by ihc Milcsiars. The Tuaiha IH Dviann 
were famed for their brt^:d of horses, ** Fiery steeds, shod with tiUer 
and with bridle* of gold, and no slave might ride tlicm." Lady 
. Wilder in herdeiighifol '* Ancient Legends of Ireland/' thiis describes 

JO The G^HtUmans Magasin^, 


THIS \t ft!) Dpianii pnriRh bctweet) the tr«ittcm moors. Krooi 
our hilfy eyrio wc n^e on ihcr one Imnd the gmt purpU 
of Dulmoor, snd on the other haod the ncArrr brovn 
itagtO ft« Cornieh gmniEc p^iks of Row Tor ^d Brsjvm 

Uy. Tile cool moor atr fl.nd the wirdi from the »ca flood oqr 
inmimrfablc and wc]I»w(ic<!cd va-Ucy* and hilia. 

Al the botlom of the garden, in a %raaX\ ^totc of iim, a columned 
thJL4«i u ft tooim t hatched fivmmer-hooAo mjid<> of fir ]o^h The 
lower branches of ihc trp« arc for the most pari covccvd wHth a 
ragged Ki<^y oiots llut aecrm to have destroyed thdi Kic ; hut (he 
higher nrc an impcncimblc grcon tcTu^ for the birds. There J 
make my bo^vinR acf^ujvintincc with certain thy fc-athcrcd friends 
whci, hul fi>r thdr pariialiiy for thrir homp^ iroiiM drjiy mr the 
pHviltK* of knowing ihcm aa intimately aa I do. Tbcy arc an ill- 
Auoric^d set of ctti/prt«, and have queer viKiiors now And Iben. 
CommonpUrF? t^nongh, too, in moil wn;i, lint in nnc not ; for to 
InoA a bird by aiglit and to knuw it by character are t«p entirely 
dilTercnt thingv. 

The UrA family are ordlnarywood pigeonc; Thevdcurtcd noct, 
in whiLh llicy lut^ctssfull) larrd thi( ycar'i young, is Ktill in 
its p1«oc. n ricUc of Atickt h^h ovcthcad. But liaten (o thdr sweiet 
|)OTVU^veiie«. They are an early couple, were homo at eleven 
Uil> memirkg and again at air. 

"Trfw two COOB, Taffy ; take two cooa^ T*ffy ; take two cooa." 
A longdiavn-ouE, mo«t liquid, mo^t awcct, and alnt»E wailJng 
entreaty, perpetuoUy rej>etttfd. But I am not a WrUHman or a 
eow rhicf, lluJU^ih 1 feel t!i(-» naiionahty arnl |>rofcf<s]on are gtcirjficd 
for evermon;. Sl';> birds jicncnlly, but not in the home-coming ; 

they dMh Hp wich n rtv-ii awccp ot wings that i» audible for a 
oond or *o hefow ihey arrivp, and only oc<-Aiionally rc«t 

mcrt on an outoide tree before proceeding \o the dcn^c shelter 

tho middle or the grovc^ The proud, priMty curve cf head and- 

k above the rather heavy body \% always to be notiftd ^ 


Charmier in Birds. 


admiratbn. A« n mle^ tbej* have not much objection lo rat's 
ii«lk>iiK soAly aboiit midernq^h ilMm wtultit ili^y jtrv guTgltng out 
ibesr liquid eoCrcfttici. Ji » impooiiblc <ix*ciljr lo locitc them in 
ihcir <IenE« gr«cn-Und ; but ;Lt abtiut dcven o'dodCi trx, and in the 
eadf (Uvrn oboul four A,u. (hey ma/ gcnvrally be found at honi«, 
Tbqr are the onAtocracr of ilic little colonr* pUcid And (entity but 
tomevkAt «xclu8ire towards stronger. And «o it c&mc lo pa«« thfllj 
llttdiD^ tbc (hadoin of CT«niDg gcncntly bnoughi anoiber »liadoff 
intotbc wood, tbc; rrmovi^ their domicilt; to an aik ^rovc on the 
lar Siide oi a neighbouring (ii;1d> whence thoy cooed until IaIc in the 
tvening. Bu: when ono awoke in lh« grey morning light, one could 
h«ir thctn a^itt in thcfr old hAimt«, 

There vere, boivcTcr, oihc: and less reepedable inhaViUnti of 
Ithe fiiovc It w diJ&cuIi to tnakc up one's mind whether the 
magpie wof thief or policenun. H« partook of IxHh chnnctttrs, 
HU bdg i3»lle, arched in with thocn roof, waa my riMlileam<}ng%t 
chc bare hranches. ^^cn I fim iDad« the family's aequainUncc, « 
coupk of lively descendant! ficcompan^cd ihcm, and w^rrc being fed 
perpetnaliy on the near bushes find licld^. They w»c about the 
giwe at all hours of the day, and foraged for tbemxlvct In their 
parcrtb' abieoce. In the vcr>" early dawn llic>' pcranibulaicd the 
gaidcn, and chattered h^lovi the vindou't, 6ut departed ax the iiut 
sign of life in die hou&e. One day ;i riflt^ went ofT with a amall 
oackt and Mis. Mag hung head downmida by one foot fTom a 
fatanch. She iros an old bird. T he feathers around her b^k w«to 
ffiw and fttubby^and her general plumage dilapidated- The younger 
Urda were mcntly on holiday af^er thai ; hut IIlc ihlcf poIit-'Cuian na.% 
noialCT than ever His note» were like a cbltcr of brobcn pUtc^ 
and he chaltered perpetually^ You could Always hear \\xm half a 
mile odl He uinially came honnc abnm eight oV^oclc, flying to a 
tadghboQring hedge, whrrc ^^^. scolded loudly, "Afu you there 
ttjE><n ? Get oul of it. will you ? Tm coming home- Oct out of it, 
I n)-. Gel o«i this Riinuie-'' He vu absolutdy xliimerf?^^, and 
exceedingly vJHapemiive, Then wiih a loud nutcry he llcw first to 
one udc of the gnA« and iIjcu to unott^cr, and reconnoitred llw 
vnulioc^KoldinKftll the white H he eonnidered mfitcem uii«fAc< 
loiy. be then made for hi* farouHte branch balfwjiy up nns pAirticulai 
tree, where after a Uitle more noise he wuulJ go to ^lccp about ten 
feet ftimx tbc gro^ind. He spctdily (bund oul that the summer- 
house wae haunted, and kept a fcroctouK, waiy eye on it. Ori c^ne 
partievlar evening he diclnalj saw the ^hoit. ond dicn his conduct 
»a* abominable. He hid been examining the situation Irom a tree 


The GitttiimnKS Magazine. 


^k|j3K to tbc liouAc, and with bis black brady cj^ca and alumni; bkck 
^Wtlk he look«J like %n old gcnifcmaft niih a vety tttge uoie ond ft 
vwy big white shin. from, IflitJy frcm :i (liTincr-pany, Hcwnily be 
fcukpcctcd ^omcihinj^, and then be bcni double on iHc htarKliand 
pecicd aav^LficIy into the gloom. Hia lorguaee, whco he discorotd 
lh« tnjlh, vrai unfit lo rcptai, 0;« of th* wood he bounced, and 
on Sk nci^1ibourtn(> iron fcncv he cursed till the :^kic» scemt^d 10 
cradc. lie wu not a very diKonsolatc widower, for about ibrw 

»days aEler hti tirsl wife's decea&e he apjji^red at mghlfdJ with t 
new one. Sho was a very fjtiiei pcrnon, nnd Alwny^i carue hotoe 
quilf: ndsck'«^y a few minutes al\cr her lord and muier. He 
on hii old perch, and ahc istxl on one an inch or tvo higher, I>Q| 
facing in another direction, and lo il^y kept guard all nighu 1 an 

tconi'iifcrrd hi^ was a moisl disrrpiif-ihlf old sroiiiKlrrlT who kr[ii *'vtt 
com|Mny, I3uC there vrcte more formidable inaraudcTs than he \w 
Ihat quiet grove at tiin«e, Th« night wu fnel eoning on, 
the thadowi; m the wr^od wrrr drr[>, when two \iiiiior« arrived wj 
« hcttvy flapping of wings. It wa,^ pa^-l nlnt-, and ihc b;it* wtPt] 
Abroad. " Augh ! augh ! " naa said in the trte-lops loiidly, with « 

• mighty ctrpha&is on the guttural '*A cold night for ihia time ol 
the year, Thcir^i a diMil imcU birorath- Augh T aiigh 

hi a matter of t^cU ^ dt:ad mole wait lying eloic by. The n;an in 
the ambuieade scarcely dared to brtathe, hoptng, aa it proved in 
Tiio, lo CKcapc detrrtion. A flap und a flop, and a GpHghtly hop 
ftjrwatd afLei alighlicif^. They liad come to the ground- T^en llie 
dead »ti]]nc»a of suspicion. Not a motion, net n sound. Up to a 
low branch one flew, and peered in(o the darknt^ss of the numiner' 
houte, A hlark mHk\, a Qmit black lieak (hat srrmcd to shine in 
the darkne^i fiercely glittering eyes- They were gone as they came. 
>Vitb a gre.1t and rapid flapping they swirled away into the night 
Ravcm } I had nut believed ihc^re were any in the county. I 
found out my mibtakc after in that re^peet, and aJ«o in respect of 
other and (I had thought) almost ^anibhed biTds. 

Thcic were no other denizeriH of that wood of an ariatocntic 

But there were plenty of ihe smaller fry. A couple of 

tAhiflg (^ut not in company) would come alon^ the giavel path 

^ to onc'& feet, l^hey pecked here and there, and between 

nould <:aijt an occasional tidclctng glance at one. There wu 

tdy no bu^picioii in Lt« but thcie seemed to be a little wordrr- 

<* to what one was doing. 'I'hcy ktpl later hour* than I 

; and were al-«i;t till the halfhoui after eight was nearly 

The till were tarhertiiriier birds, bin not much- The greater 


CkaracUp* in Binis. 

Ihc leu »«c perfectly amicable logeihrr, and frequented mainly 
Hcbeo-covercd bmnchcn. ficm vhich the loiuliU would hanf> 
downwvdft in a roosi delightful Auhj^a 'Hicy hftd a gcncr^ 
al^ nriled arxi untidy Rppearanc^, lik« sa untomb^d schoolboy. 
To man's pi^cncc they were pctfcalr indi^crcnl, 1'hriJBhes and 
Uukbirds, none of whon Mfctned actually to sleep in the wood, 
«#>i eonstam viuiorv at nightfalL The thniah ia a qtiL«t and 
dl^oifted gcnilrinnn ; ihr hbcihfTt^ a loud and riouy ;il4Tm-l»1L 

If Otfte reckoned up the crcaiUTCS that crept in the grass Atid 
faU«n lir oeedle«^ the moths that slept ctt, the tmnlu of the li«c«, 
ftZMl the other living things ihai came and w^nf, whAi % vt^ih and 
dlTcnky of life iherc wa» in \\\M tiny j^ovc ! ^Vhcn the grcui stars 
came out and trembled in the ftkici, and the goatsucker in the 
adjoining hedge began his inevtuble monotonous burr, (bar always 
founded like a ghoiily niowing'machine in ihe ^allry bcncaih, the 
€Oau»onpkce fii planlation of the dn>tinic became a home of 
nifttcfy and totcian life. It had its savour of hllle tragedies and 
comediet, and reflected ia liny tmU of the glory of God. 

W, J. WAftlX 

74 Tht GeuiUmads Mu^itme, 


IT is but 1tttl« tha ve know concttning the caHy historj of hcHs. 
Like the harp, the bell is certainly pfchistoric in its origin; 
and ihe records of alf nations which are accessible fumisb proof of 
its having been used for one purpose or another. In the book of 
KxtAut v<i Rod a descripiron of the priest's dress at the celebration 
of the high sacrifice. He ins lo wear a "golden bell and pome* 
granate upon the hem of his robe round about"; and this was 
evidenlly not intended lo be a mere ornament, for we read that "it 
&ha]l be upon Aaron to minister, and his sound shall be heard when 
ho g'Hilh inlo the holy place," The bells of the Bible seem, how- 
ever, 10 have been incapable of being arranged in such a way as to 
produce (he consecutive sounds of a musical scale, and were doubt- 
less in many cas« nothing more than mere accoutrements. 

Jlut the history of bells is not contemplated here- As an old 
writ'.T on the subject once remarked, we are accustomed lo hear the 
Ik;II >ij>cak for itself Trom youth to age its music is sent forth 
through crowded streets, or floats with sweetest melody above the 
qui'-'t Hc-lds, It gives a tongue to ttmej which would otherwise pass 
over our heads as silently as the clouds, and lends a warning to its 
|>erpaual flight. It is the voice of rejoicing at festivals, at 
<:hri?iieninga, at marriages, and of mourning at the departure of the 
dead. From every church tower it summons the faithful to the 
eianctuary, and when life is over faithful and unfaithful alike r^ 
within its sound. The tone of the bell comes, therefore, to be 
fraught with memorial associations, and wc know what a throng of 
mental images of the past can be aroused by its melody. *'I 
don't know," said the late Sir Sufford Northcote, "that one 
could choose any of man's inventions which has more various 
and touching associations than a bell» and certainly church bells 
must laku a leading [>lacc in the great poem that might be written 
on them." The great poem has still to be written, but the poets 
have, nevertheless, long since taken the bell lo their heart, and 
have cast around the dust^begrimcd, cobwebbed, old belfry, a 
species of romance which is almost fu/^wn>. Did not Longfellov 



find in Bnig«« the groundwork of perhaps the most fanciful of bis 
short poems* And do kc not >now Edgar AlUn Poc u much by 
iboac vitcluDi: TCisc* vn *' TLc BdU *" a* by Uic lUven iti^clf? Wc 
aD knoff, loo* of Father Pront'j* vcracs crn Lhc "The BcWs of 
STuadon," ibowing how well he loved lo listen to iheir miitic ; and 
Run) ha\c etpnssed a hk«- pl^iA^un^ wh^;^ aft«T lonj^ahttnrefrnnt 
homCi they bftre hciird ^giln tbc wdcomc aound of Uieir Jiiii>« 
nUage betl^ bringing to tbdr reeoJIection the varyinR oetnorics of 
bygone 4a^ 

Thcl^end which i» told of lhc l.imcnck bella ncv«i fHils to 
BtniGe a chord m the s3FTi]pttthelic hearts The «lory}coct that this 
fine peaJ w» origliuJIj can by an Iialbn monk and placed in the 
PionMtaffy with which !ic wa.s <x>n[ii.*('iciV In counc of time he Icfl lhc 
monutery, but, in order that he mij^bt still litten to the licll^ he 
HKOd hie home fai the neighbourhood, Hit pleasure wju to be short- 
lived, for icme poliLiCftl ironblet brought About lhc disminion of the 
motmitlxsyt nnd t)ie bclb were removed he Lhetw rot where. For 
maj yeen he wendered through Europe, arririrg at Imt in Ireland ; 
«Dd whSe tbei^, on the lii'cr SJmnnon, the silvery ch^mc of lhc 
IJtncrick bclb CAine fUnlirtg lowariH hifiii The nomndic monk at 
oocc ncofnncd tbc tones of his lon^latl bclf^ and died while 
opnssiig his pkftmre at h^^ring them again. 

The poems and wxfig^ which haw gloriAed the ctiKlrnrc of bcUa 
Are to tc found in most modcra bngimgc^ fcr in spite of the natuTst 
nglinesa of bells, viewed simply as hcUs* thi;re seemi to have been 
for agei past some Mild fa^cinaticin about Ihcw timc^ionoured objectK 
wbich hu cxeTcifcd Ihe ^cniiLi of lhc poet. 

There was a touch of udncas about the lilJo of Dr. Otivor 
WeMell Holmes' laft volume of verse "Ucfore ihe CuTfew." Ko 
year* can tire the wakcfdl h*ari of the port : hr longi; to know the 
wondcr« that Ttmc has still lo >how ; what ship will rcAdi the Arctic 

e; what lessons Science: vt^aits to reveal ; what t^tnons are Utt to 
what poeons OlK yet lo sing. Stjrcly it is not bedtime yci T 

Khvl Mothn Euth we l*ytt w 9tl{ 
Ha pkuiat ttcric* Mill to tcU 
BcSxc wv bear the cmfcw bcU. 

Ves! hot the nigh: winds blow, the start «♦ out ; the nurse, long 
wattog, iaonibentyatbst,wlth hand of ice and rhrek <«f snuw, and 

In wtiiriod NhiuTr^h iwect lepowi 

Our lijw itdtl munnur, er« Ukj cIov, 


Tiu GentUmans Magazime. 

Ii it the *' curf«w of the setting »un " tbjit votrndB Co the «>r, and 
the right t« afxJitt 10 bo uKh^rtd m bjr a runenT knci. Lire It etJQ 
svcct, ihc hcAvcru vc ^lill Ciur though the lidds ate broim «nd die 
voodA Art- btirr ; but Uic bell has lolled, aivd the jojr* of the 
MUB< be left for younger h«trtl. 

It 11 filmosl 05 futhelic «« that Uu Ument of tbc poet for 
auTumnnl i-ariihing of the ** birds of «ong.* 

In many A ijuict country toii';i ihc sound of the oirfew l>ell 
now conning to ihc li:cd cily worker, bringLEiR with it i kind 
toothmg inStience and holy chariu that are u Utile peculiAi to tbft, 
bcUs h'.- ha^ Il'(1 behind him aa aro (be bbe skie« of Italy to the land 
of ro£» and wcattcr ficlici. It wa^ not of the curfew that Dickcfii 
wrote in "Little Uorrit," no doubi undei a perronol infliction: 
'Haddenihg hells of all dt^grc-rs »nd dissorflnce, sharp and flat, 
craclcd and clear, fati and alov, niadc the brick and monar echoes 
faideoe*. In every thoroughfare, up evt^ aljcy and down ainioit ercry 
turnings lome doleftil bell was throbbing, jorkmg, rolhn^, aa if the 
|ilasiuE were in ihc town, and tbc di:^ cans were going round." Wft; 
get anajr from ail th^t when wc exchange tbccity for the alccpyhotloir, 
and ilio evening b^U itt then aa weJcome to ua aa were ever the belU 
of Shandon to ihe ear of lather ProuT. The infTuencc of its nwDov 
music Ja wholly serene and wholly gbdnomc, IJkc the influence of the 
tXtn sd in the face of Ehc night, like the soothing ripple of the river 
in the cunttiine, disposing to thougbu not altogether of the hfe that 
noH ii. 

It ia a pJcUy word, wiili music in it, this curfew. Ita cl)nvo- 
logy take^ us far awxiy back to the time when the €ouvn fiti bdl 
was rung a« ;i ^j^nat for the SatOD<i Xm cov«r ih<;tr Hrev to retire to 
rest Thus wchavc the pool of "The Seaaona" reminding us that 
oaranceaio«» *'fthiv>inKwretchc\" at the ctJifew sound, '* dejected 
«unk into tlieir aordid bcdi." Such a ronuntie inttituCion ns that o 
Ihe curfew wa^ indeed lx»iind lo LtpjxnJ lo ihf; imagination of tlie 
,poci. MiUoii makes it au clcmcat tn the caliu suirouadliiga in bifl 

0\, cm a pill of ruiiig ground, 
I b«r the br-uCr (jrfew toanil, 

Swlncine ninw with lulleQ rou. 

nd Longfellow, amid " the glare of Troatailantic nennen 




TAc Curfew Bell. 7j 

the cidlwwing shadoira of antiquity ha\T rot y«t fitUen^™ 

Dcvcnbcloi to picture an otd-wotUl c^Tnlkle : 

T*# curltw h#|| 
It ti<|2tABing lo IclL 

And >vt ipin, the cbng of tlip Village BlacktniithK hammer ipeaks 
to him. ftx h lu» been anggcttcd llmi of Tubal Cuin ilid lo Juhal, 

LlJrt iht Hilon linking the i-illii^ Sell 
Wbn Iht etenirtf luii i> low. 

Grif^i opening liwj m the " EJegy ''^" Th« ctirf«w rolli the kiiell of 
lOffinc di/ *" — iv too fatnilLu fbf quoUiion ; and to also u the song 
cfTott) Hootc'i CuiaUuLn voyagturs^ when tbcy tell u 

Osr voico keep tunc and out oats k*rp ilcne t 
■ame poH*s apo(;roph« to 

Tluv rvfcloj Itfltt ! ihnv crming l«lli t 
II4V rujif A Utf thoir murf Ictli ! 

When bat I bnu-^ LJicir kvcJiIjij* tliimc. 

Wvth UK modems it u of course more « mttter of Acnttmcnl ihnii 
\ti service this ripfing of the ctttfcw. But in other lUys, when it 
was ihecuRcm 10 phceihe firc in a hole fn Uie middk- of th6, 
floor midn in opening in iIlc rnof, i^ie rrgubtion wfis probably 9M 
Qfcful M any that could hnre t>ccn dcvbcd to prevent the dc:itruction 
ol property- 'fhe abtoluU' ptolnbllTon of fire ju^d lij^ht after the 
tolling of the hH) vai; ahnlinhrt) a^ rarly as ihe lime of Henry I,, 
but the curtom continued to he ob^^cTTed for it^ original purpose 
mttry eenttrhes after that d^ite. In Dundee the tovrn'a boUman uaed 

10 rtcdve extra pay for the ciTra dutj- ; nnd in 1590 the miinicL- 
pilily nllowcd him 10 W? " CL^hc j>cnnLC3 yearly '* u|)oil all who had 
"aoe firc-housc inlhio the burgh" — the " firc-housc" meaning of 
coune^ a honte v^th a fireplace. 

In the Perth Kirk SeKion rrrcord* of tj^ Niird llalmain in 
spcciHily ordained to ring the cutfcw t>e11 at eight o'clock iii the 
crenins; and in the town*?* records of 1657 there is '*an Act- 
tequiting obedience to the ringing of the bell few putting ouL firca."' 

11 Dcvrnt that in ifuS Ihr Town CounrJl of tlie fail: City Itad paucd 


78 Tk€ CtntUniaHi Magasiut^ 


nn ordiiunoc prohibiting the people beiog out Afl«r ton at nfj[bt 
The people paid no liMd to this enact ni^-it, nnd dscuspd th«mfeh«t 
00 iLl- ground ih&l ihcy did not know ihc hour To nkoct thb 
excuse »t wu ordered thai one of the Inrnc bdU be mnfl; cixrry nigla 
%X ten, "that none pretend ignorance." And so has the ringing 
nued, atiliougTi probably ihe hour \\^^ since IxMrii clanged. 
Curfew Kow, one of the bnck stfecta of Perth, itfLditioiiaUf 
Its rmnic from the loci tbat Eome old Livcninfc bell wu hung 

one oTiis structures \ and, altliougS ibere is no biftoricil et^dcncc 
to xuppuit tijib ttiidiuon, the iiunic coiiKiJtuiE^ a plcaj^iii^ Unit vltb u 
paat that had somcihinE more of romance than tbeac worryingt 
hurrying, bilious daj"* of our vaunted t^rcnlitiEh century. 

Some of the antiquaries contL'nd iliat the ciirfev came in nith 
Williann ihc Coni^ucTOr. Rut the '*covcr-firc belt" wm ccrtau^ 
known in Fraticc, Spain, Italy, and probably other couiitrici of 
Europe before ilae Conqueror'* time. Alfred the Great, for etample, 
u known 10 bare uidained diat all the iJibabiuiUs tX Oxford should, 
at the rinpnje of the curfew at Carfj.x, coi-cr up ihcir llrcs and go lo 
bed ; wbicti custom, a> an CJxford historun telU us, " is obsoved to 
tbii dfly, and tli« bell a^ CQnsia;u!y rrn^s at eij^hi li Great Tom toIU 
l^t nine." In Vienna, the inhabJtanla vere requintd to put out tlieir 
And han^ up Uintcmrt at thdr doors vhen the bdl nng ; and At 

Yorlcshire cily of Ripon the ctirfi^w-hom was blown, as it stiJI is, 
every oiglit at nuic o'clock. On die wliulc* 1 think we niay reason- 
ably coHclude that what William did was iJmply to revive or 
cODtiDuc a custom uhich had been esti^bltshed iung before his day. 
The rcgubtion may liflve bwn Indirtrctly iCTvi<:<able in ke(.-|nng the 
people wiiluii ilielr Iiouscb and ihtis procniing iitgbt Ura^lu o;i the 
streets; but there is certainly no hiUorical warniit for the popuUr 
tJtdition dial its main design wj^is to prcvcnT [he English from 
aMemblinic in secret to plan schE:ine« of rcbrllion a^ain«t llitrir 
Komnvi Lords. There was undouljtcdly a very prscticft) purpoio 
underlying it. In tboM far-away limei the danger of lire was »o 
constant tliai extraordinary safeguaidn wtru enjoined against iL 
The old city of London ordinance* kIiow 11^ thai between Whitsuntide 
and St, Bftrtholonie*, when a scarcity of water miftht be expected, tvcry 

uschoider was required to keep \ supply in front of his door in 

dineas for eiu<^rucndcs- Ottiei cipedienlH were iracrl^^d to for 

same puq^osc, but not one of these had the iiwccC simplicity of 
e curfew. 

On (his jioinC I sliould like To quote from a n^ent writer ok b;-LlK| 
e Rev, G, S. Tyack- Mr. Tjack wuica ; " Tiit tuilcw bell, already 


The Gentleman s Magaune. 

Iiut on Ihc eve \>t CbristnuLS, A»xXRMon, and other occosiani; when 
soirc special service it lo be huld. 

Id Ehe low fen districts about Ely and the Cambridge flats, the 
curfew » even now mo«t tinrful to iTie traveller as he trudges 
thraugh the marahy mists, which, while obscuring ihc tights of the 
di&tant city, act as favourable coiitiuctors, nccording ta Professor 
T)TidAl]r tf) ihr inmd of betls. In this eonnection it ii; interesifng 
Lq note that al Walthatn- in- the -Wolds a graleful farmer, wUo wa5 
loat in the snow nnd found his way home by the sound of the 
CUif^Wi l<?ft ^ Md lo endow a ftve o'doct beH for all time It 
would be tedious to memion the namt^s [>f plnccs where ihe curfew 
bcli ^tiU continues to be rung. Mr. Syrc Cuming, in a paper read 
before the British Archxolocical Society, gives a Xi&\ of nearly forty 
towns and village* in which the ctistom survives, and to this numbef 
wriLci5 in NffUi and Quotes hflvc added bomc fifty more places- 
One of the most recent revivals was at Slratford-on Avon, where the 
S*nte be!] is now used that was tolled at Shakespeare's funeraL 

For many a ceniory the curfew bell has been rung iri the andent 
eity of Sdndwich, the old Cinque Port of Kent, The Church of SL 
Peter had brought the custom down to modern times, but some 
years ago adverse fortune threatened to extinguish the honoured 
lelic oi' a b/gorK' a^^e. According to the local newspaper, relailuna 
were somewhat strained between the rector and the sexton of St 
Peter's ; and as the fcind from which the sexton was paid i^'as 
claimed by the church ward ens, the sextou found himself in the 
dilemma of having a time-honoured office willioui any salary. When 
bu ic-clecdan was mooted al the Vcalry, he made a complaint that 
he would have to toll the evening bell for nothing. He inquired if, 
in Ihe t'vent tif his giving up the ?e*ti>n'^ ofUce, the rector would 
h«vc power lo prevent him from carrying out his duties as ringer of 
the curfew, but no one could satisfy him. Thus do the sordid and 
ihe senjimcntal jain bands 1 In some corners of ihe country the 
cid cu^lom LA dying oul , and it may be chat ere long the soothing 
tones of the curfew, spreading their charm over the happiness of the 
quiet English home, wiLI be heard no more in the land. It will 
certainly lie a pit)^ 

J. CU7RBE:KT haddkn. 






^C^/t'ETE i tmtri mtnml, St ve/tk la wsfra storta ' ("Wiiie 
u <|QVfi jtnu ctuComs, if you WAnt your hiitiory ''), Mid hXacbu 
velU, th« grait hiftorian ; and iDd<^ nutiiin^ «o nuUcei lu kncnr 
people Ai to uudy their special hnbiu and ctuioms. 

The itrcci crio of itinerant vcodori uc more or Icm common 
CTC17 oounUy, ibOLigti gi^culiir to each, and perlULpa none trc >ol 
duACtcrCfiic u those dF southern luly, ^nd this Tor vnriom; reflsoiia» 
!□ 9 wano climate A Urgcr poTtlon of d-iily life is lived out of doon, 
and mftny more avocntion! arc carried on in the streets than «x>u1d 
be possible in ih« north ; thus in large towni hice Rome and 
N4ple^ especially in ilic more crowded parts fnfijijenied by Ili« 
tower aod aii<idlc closa ftmilics ivbcrc no acrvant is kepU the houac- 
laSc docs bcf doily ilomestic «hoppirig from her doorritep or idndow, 
buying aD the leqoires [n the ny of fniit, vegeubleit, fnh, eggi^ 
pouhiy» and checAC from itinerant vccidoib. wlioscpiiuiAiooaie always 
iowo^ than dioae of tbc shop^ owinjc to the fact that ihcy have no 
not to pay, and act as diatrtbutcra of inferior or stale commodities. 
Aod not onlycflnshe^upply The needs of the conrniL^bdrLatdq^nment, 
but«hc can have her ki^ivei or Acia^on giouiid. crockery, umbrcllAa, 
bootaaikdshocsmendod^ can buy hroomf, coarse kiDehcn and hoii:^: 
boldetithcnmre, ind ^tiufTtfordorhirig ; can tell empty boitt^tot old 
ngs-^in a word, tarr)- un tlie tiidinary hiuinBs of life vjthuoi U^iv- 
log ber own door. In the aluma this marketix^ 14 further simplified, 
for the puidifttcr who lives on the fifth or sixth floor of a crowded 
lerncment mcrtly Idwct* a Ijoskct ai the t-nd of a cord, scn^ms out 
ber needs, which arc placed in the boakeu io»pccicd when dmwn up 
and, if approved of< down come the coppers, all swiRly and dtiily 
aecoropUshed, though accompanied by much shouting and ge«ticula 

In aoutbcm cltmatca vc^etablca and fruit are inucli mere 
abundant, and ll^ians o( the lower claaies rarely eat meal more 
than oDcc or twice a week. On the olber hand, vegetables. 

roK, tfrJTtTA jr^ JC77. ( 

is Th€ Gtnilenmsis Magazine. 

CRKS, and Cuiiiacicoua diriics ore conmaicd in great qaanlJti«5. Thb 
b partly the TtsxkM or Lh« climai«, nhkh vould not permit or the 
conminiption oTuiinul forxl to llic catcnl indulged in by die BfitUi 
aitiatn or workniAn, p^nly oiving to the simpler U-ttcs and move 
fnigtl Imt ju of the people themaelves. That Ihey are gftioen by Ibeit 
moderaiioQ there l£ no doubr, u hu been proved ti/ the rndunaice 
of TulUn nftirvice. who ore abk to hold out for bour> in the conHncd 
almr»phcre which U unAvojtUble when bonng foe mitira^ tunnels, 
where their British or German compnnionii quietly col bqne. And 
what appUcs to ft^od AppUci aIso to drink : the ilincnnl vfitcr rondoi 
h Spain and loily drives ft tbrivmf: trade, for where the northern 
worknun will go in for hli gbsi of bcor or spirtEi, the ftouthemer 
will tAke his kfinorude, iced wAtet, orsweeicned/Afv>d(rrjil s^nip)m 
prcTcrencG even lo the light wine of the counhr ;ardlothchorour'of 
the raee rt must he conceded thai jrtt-mperance it hh'jI a comnfron 
i4cc fn Iraly, butfln aoddcni, Linfrrrqtjrnr among meti^ almoft unheard 
of anionn womca 

K^bpccidllr during the tpring and summer month?, throu^oul the 
length and breadth of the land, the cit^ air Te>ound« whh the criea 
of itincfarit rcndor^ many of ihcm tr4dilk>jia], and handed doKa 
tbrou|^ gcncratiors. Fitrd, the great Sidlfan student of folkloTC, 
ns«erta thiit th<Me in vogue at I'llcnno at Uic pretent day ofe 
unaliered from irhai t)iey w«re a hundred yeon ago, ihough, with 
Hthe vivid itua^inalion and qukkncH of repartee pecullat to the 
naiion, pccticjJ and apt addiitons are coruEiantly mode on ibe spur 
of (he moment., do p<o])Ie knowing better ihin the Italiana bov to 
ofr<*r tlieir war^t in the most ailiactivi.* form. Kach art uf words it 
iftUdg or chanted lo a tpecial tttnttisn^t (melody). Some of these arc 
very mustMJ ; moat of them reseirble a lament, with lonft-dravn-out 
nottc, the vorda bdng contracted, brolci^n up, nnd ao indeHniiely 
prolonged as to ktae tbeouelvo in a hiTKl of uail, Others aic v^rjr 
short, ringing ont cheerily through crowded mart and lane. Soon 
after d4«n, the fint will fall on )x>ut ear, to he rapJdljr auocecdnd by 
oiho-rs, and v> varktl that after n Ahile one drawiia anothor, illl haUt 
hardcjift one to the babel of sound. It it trying both to ncnca and 

During the hot hoiir^of the day they eeaie entirely. And in the 
n and fvenin^i another set Cake up the chant— Iht^ fwivnvira^ 
a water fcthr, and vendors of mdom, %trawbcfTica, and suclvlikc 
triOfS pleasantly suggentive of seeming coobeac b the hot, bumir^ 
■trncnphric of a fouthem summery tboi^gh even in thtr depth of 
mnrmhrreisnolackof cries, but ofadilTciciK kinU. Tlicnitaaboi 

Italian Street Cries, 


d»otnx)l3h baked apples, hot rolb, «nd dtmnut puddoig; that 
fa&wkd* dtspcfiSb. 

SottK of these iiincr«m nwrchmts hare a donkey cait, bul gene- 
nlly the good* are dUpbijrd nrt a h:ind<srt or btirov, on a tm or 

10 boaket^ and some, nicb aj Ihe scUcn of onions, b&nis ^'^^ ilring^ 
over their arms and abouLder*. A ccrlain amount of time 13 always 
lottt tn borptining and ctufTcrrirtft hut ihc came vould uke place in a 
ihop, for ID Italy no one etci ex|jecls critbcr lo get or pay ihe prioe 
aaked* the Eastern cuMom of long preamble and bcaiinz dowci {ire- 
Tailing m Hill brce, and rendered the more puultng to the; Tieur-<xmcr 
hy the ur-ivmal trndcncry of mrh low-c^^<s v*^dnrs 10 employ the 
nMoeyTakicsof thepastinprcrcrencctothose of tbc present— /«iak»v 

/^^ /'D'*^ ^^1 intlcad of j^^ or Jira. 

Id Sicily, street crici go by the rnme of oB&irnfiMfs, and Piirf 
giro the fbHoning x% peculiar to th;iC Ufand, amoiif; tbote nhich are 
traditio&&r, And have ^rie on unaUcrcd for over a hundred ycsrt: 
gallic and orion« arc cold in tieocit to the cry of " j1 irisvfirdi "a 
triua ttggki' Ora ttsifi, cu m tt^mnu r aggMf* ("TTim; soldi 
the iicaa of s>rlic 1 Kow sec, who tr^nta garlic?**) 

Bajr tw%i flppeftr early in winter to the accompAnirticnt of " CId 
r kt^vfam^imHa'a^Jthvru:" (** How leafy b the bay I hawt"^ 
^'IftfmdtiddidtKirr^^totSt Cki Mdi^enri t^ruc^u/i! CemW 
\juma ^ Jkt^/m'jti rr^^fienS f Vr^Mtuti mtimmt\ ntantim'/" ("I have 
neb twMl brooooli 1 ^Vhat firic broccoli 1 I liavcth^mastwcHiEaa 
ap|i3es1 Rroccoli! bvJcctiftil biskebfut I") announaf ttieajtunui 
and winter caits piled mih broccoli- 

The T0«7^(ihcd water melon, ^th its ebony accds and brilliant 
greici md, h oflered ai '* /<i /" A^j'ti mtst f ducif Vampi difaocu 
mi jtitanmn t^U ! Va faggAiit cA* ^ nissu ! lo r' rt vtruiM a frwa f 
Jiiit$K f»mm tv/vKKn f ha/^}" (" I hAvcihcm red and »woet ! Flames 
of ftrc tbe>- caat at m# ! Watch a« I cut this red one ! I wilt nell 
ihpm to you or trial t 1 hnvr thrm n» red as ftrr ! ") 

Ttx! umc cut in Ttliren and aoM reUil ; " Mti vtru ntsnt ^ I un 

jkroMT mOMf, tflw; f fi hti 'ti/a^I" {*' Rot this orit i« truly red 1 

11 coHU a jmn« [fartblng] ■ fjlicc f One lun risri ahiI another u=t» I 
For the sum of ooe j!ritrrf> yotj can tat, driok, and wash ycur face ? ") 

Earthenvrare pots Tull of boiled bcftT;i< arc bairked tn lanes and 
■llejfl by women who s^U ihem hy numlK^ t "* AfMf, nuwdit/^ i 

in vintM fmi^t^u^i Cm At Mftt t At timnlMa vi H tHrtnki f> 
gmtt^a$i/ir 3M' ^(f«liddi f t^9giifttit44i I " f ' Soft, soft for o' 

M a 


Tk€ GiftiUmans Jlfa^asrtte, 

vomtti ! 1 !iait: them €ooLr4 fot old women 1 \^ram> Tor three 
tfficntics 1 I Hat-c boiled them for /ou in irtilk and acmoUiu ! Fine. 
fiOf% cooked beoru: 3 ") 

Tomaioe^. Inown ^^pcmi^&ri, orgold^^n apples, art^ vaunted 
lhu»; " Ctf i' ^/dri^iiifrtiifu ) C^j j/M/f'ivi/i Ji/ufisiiuid ! Puma 
dOMrit Mi haju n/isi i Stt sintiU /aiiattrvj ^i/ tddt J m' iddi t 
J^u a lu^iriewtdut su* nisri t " ("\VbohnaiomAkeconfeTvc? What 
a morning lo make sauce F Here ihc!y arc 1 ht^re ihcy arc ! 11a 
^acaelllhcm? Down to the sm^tUcsi they arc red"), ^ 

•* C&mn mssa r' ova wnnh ! Ccmu fussiru 'n/urnaft vkrtnu, 
hotsi vi li Stir^ni^i H/titirL Ottti^i faudt finti, lirUi 1 Ch' ^ Ui/a 
yuunn' Itniiru f thi anrn ihtja, f" {"They *ic lil^c yolksof t^i^ji ! 
They become like baked onc^i ! In thU mctncnt 1 h^vc Ukcn them 
off the fire, theie hot chestnvia ! How ^ood ihty are uhtin thuy 
ftre hot 1 tthaE a flceiiE they liav^- [ ") docs not at iIil- Ursi nioinent 
lad one 10 opcct the fAmilinr ro«t chcitnui, ivhilc *' 1 have those 
of lli« priest ! " ('* lUju chMt d' '« /rm//^ ! ") would i^ad oiie to 
txpccc £tol«Q goodu ifiitead of biiuply HK^oning chcfttnutd wtiich havi^ 
6r4t been boiled and ihcn put into ihc oven. The following \& 
|-[vcD as the origin of this curiou.n appciktion : 

A Neapolitan priest, who liad a gr^\ "veakn^^e (or ro£L£t cbe£(nutS| 
used every day, on going out, to charge his serTsnt not (o for^ei to 
tunc them lejidy rousted for his dinner. One day, in a fit of absence 
of mind, ithc put the chestnuts into vralcr and began to boil them 
instead of baking ttiem in the oven. VVlien they were halfcoolcedr 
however, she suddenly rcmembcTt>d her orders, and, not knowing 
how to repair if ic blunder* she trj^ti»fcrred them to the oven, half-boiled 
nathey were. When hcrmaslcrtastcd them, findiny them belter than 
usual, he inquirtfd iho rc^son^ .tnd gave orders that thcnccforih Ilib 
chestnuts should he boik-d before being baked, so chestnuts of ihla 
Vind go by the name of " the pric*i'a chcslnuti," 

"C"^ ^'dda y^r/i^M! Rntfula H ri&iu}" ("What beautiful 
date* T V^ltc-s lo make a pn^sent ol ! ") 

"■ Cu aaia, olifft nffr>Erri ru^ fd'a f Z' er^ja if ^ttfiitii/u i I Lu fntn 
:nfud*^iva !" ("WhowantB to salt fresh olives ? who wants to 

? Ie is the herb of appeiiic i Mliat a tcntjr of olives t") 

" Pirn ^iiri f s{ manela e ii vwi! Pi'nt duft'h J (uvtsi^u^hi'atiu 
^nt 'a vitiotz^ vieru 1 '* (" Pears like butter— one cats and drinks 
thera I Truly ihcy mcl: in your motilh I ") serveto attract atienlion 
to the various goods the erief* have to offer. 

^ RcTcninc to the bitdl «f maktog a »afi drinj putc oruuc? <(thii Ml fot 
inatcr lac. 




S6 Tk4 Gentkmans Maga-im. 

S^iw rt^inii ^m^i feirfagttlii } Artt/ti^ i€dfit /im^rU J fumt/^ tfiM 
MUi" (''Oranges ftoci I^alcfmol oh ! *hnt orangr^l Il]ic« Tor tWD 
Ktldl Tlicyaic gitcn avra). thcw oTODgcs ! Onngci,citroiUi Icnorts [ 
b(^ Gn« ihcy ofcT'} nith iu ibouund van;iUcm,b one of themoM 
frequent crieflj m th« ^'ciidor puthes i lundcan heaped up «ith tha 
golden fruiL A few dA)» agg J hoULl a qiuini addkioa nude on the 
tpui of the moment. N<:Ar the nilway AUUion A rcmuluxMy hacd- 
ftomc youcg /^.v/oy/ffb^ had ^uttoocd himvdf nuhabackct of onuigca 
which he sdvf^nitcd A« fEjllcwi: '^ tA£ forte^i/i ! fuanio s&ma bti 
fK*/ififfriifj[iuVi I hic^mem^!^ {'* Sec vrhftt oranges t wbA« bcaidifu] 
ooDses ! oA bcAUtiiuL u ntywll 1 '^ vhilc, on the oihcr huid, ft noto 
of Jiooy wu atmck by a wrinkled, tooth1e», old hjg ivbom I once 
hcud oung ihc vicnc words : ^' ^ t^p&rt^ptiiil vedtle ^yania iiMH» 
Jtf!i&'iV ^f.^/ ^.nw irw/"— only rvoUy bo&iUiful onnges contra&tcd 
ftti^ngely vilh her oglincst I 

hciticA, gatdeji itrjLnbcinci, niimdcA d sliftvbcrtic* J*^ 

Chf £am&/GU,amaroiiI'^ ^" Anicholcct^ artirhokci t who mncx oni- 
choku ? \WUraui choke Ihcy arc, Wtut to]i kIiooL dJtiiihokca ! ") 

**J^T-^a^4a, Acpta Wftf$a *' " ThJi n a most mu&icAl cty, gene- 
nlly linging oul, in i boy'fi high clou voice, froEn i can drawn by a 
(lonkciy, btlcn vEith cratoi full of rush-rovrrixl ll;i?(ki GUcd with vc:i\vT 
from A mineral spring three milca out of Rome. It is slighUy 
tfjotkling, and considcicd io valuable Tor its mcdKiiml pKopcrLic* 
Ihut Iheic U *caf«ly a Roman hoiiteholij in which k is noi dninlc 
all Ihrou^^h the Ai^drg and KUiiJiiicf. Kadi iiLoiniti^ llic ciiijiLy Haak^. 
cc^linjE one sMi>, arc exchanged for full onc«. The itmcrunt watci' 
folkr, a ptouant «ight en a ^uJtr,' summer's day, ls generally anitcd 
in A Kpoltrju Hncn hiiit, uilli -i l^ir^^c- &iraw hat^ In one; hand hr? 
€irri« hi« supply of water in a pictjrcjiius copper ^rvctit^ wlxich has 
bocn poIUhed till it Rhinci like bumithed gold j in the other hAi^d, a 
round Iray, wiih wd« and handle, (Uvtd*^d inio comparlmcnt* luch 
holding 1 luniblcrv «Lnd. liiichcd on one aide, a iray vjth lemons and 
sugar. Hia ery ialh on the hot air wnh a cooling sound : " /f^v**!?, 
e^tna /rvstn. O cAt gr/^% o ihe i:tii> I Ac^na Jrtsca eatnt la wtv / 
ihi btv€ /reddOy & thi ifcvt t CAt vuoi &trt I I^dJat frtddei ! " 
^MVaicr. froh watet ! Cool, how cool it b! Watc^raacoldaaanowl 
tJtil who will dnnk it cold ^ wlw viU drink? Cold I cold! *\ 

Then there ii the arr^ima (knife-^ii^idcr), who litmply dwells on 
hH Ljwn Tu&tiic in 4 plainiliv, iDiii^drawn cry ni liu |U4^X'^ along, 
pushing hia wlieel befori: him i " Anvtin^t ar-nr-fino, ar^rc-tt—ma!" 

Italian Sirrri Critt, 



"Rie umbrelU tDcichant, &m^//a^ who nJ«o ircnds pbtcs and 

("^Tbc umbidk lutndcf ! Oh ! who hja plaice juid cllsfaa to 

Tbe buyer ofcJd cloEh/s, wlthauck flung over hit ludc, «ho 
mngS out: "iP^^ vaJua r ('*01d c1oihr-»!") ; the tu^arff, who 
seQs bfoonu of CTCry dcicriptioo ; the man wilh caa^/int (cst^oi 
cfaMftsX Cftcb told an a tiny nuh bcuktft, or of n'caUa (curd node ot 
thc^M' loiDc), w4iid] W brought In sltafgbt Aom ih« Cftmp'i^^ ctti a 
bed of ^ecn uum Icavca. 

*' jitMHf/, M^mmf, calte t rafuiinej died scidi ai /m J " (** Come, 
mother, nod:ing« and socks, ten soMI the pair ! "] 

^dr^M^t^ Mit^ttuMl unut d i&mfianrJU f ("ChcrrJci, fine 
chcrnd 1 vrithoui the gosapl*') ii-t. the not uncommosi wormy 
inhabitant o( thii Iniit) %\\t a good idtidi of vliai qj«intaeit and 
nritQrUe ready 10 Jmereit the willing student of the life of th? 
souibcm populace, And. in the cud, announce the seasons merely by 
the advent of some special ctJI. The '^ -Jcyaui AceUra " \% the signal 
of tpnfngh^ng at the door, wtiermelontinnounee summer, " V/fW" 
(olives) auiamn, and " RurttSa " or *' Calitt, itxldf* (roa^i ehi^frirui<() 
tdl of «intcr, each foUoAing the other in dtjc coune, ttfk nc cIkIc 
round the year, ju>d ttiddenly aiA^e to find ihAt l^ndvc mooos ha^'c 
passed tinee last ve heard that ery. 


Tk€ GiniUmans Afofosin^, 


VER the door of the house in which Bomconc whom we 
hts once lived— na^, prihap* has onljr \Uyrd» if may be, % 

01 *o— llicrc liang fcff us alwaj» ihc apcclal I'^uion flo«cit of 
Bicmory And Kicicd as^ociatit^n^ It is like tio oihvr bouhe to us, 
tlicugh to the ciiiut [(jL«&cT-by it may closely rcurmble many othvf. 
To us it is ever a Ihing ,i|>ATt 

As [ write [here riics before my mitid'Tt eye a white comer house 
in A London street. 1 have never b^n inside ic ; 1 hove but poued 
and n^pused It, morning by mommg, during a winfcr of d«-pressioii 
and aJixicty. Yet» each morning 4i3 1 drew ticat the houte* up tho 
lonjE noisy Atrcct> sometimes cEi»hrouded in a dcnic enveloping 
jdlow fog, tlie whole ainioiphcr^ lifted for me, and the ihoughis 
crowdiril inltj njy mitid of anoihcr wintiM, ycar» ago, when the some- 
one 1 Loved l^d ii«^ in that white corner house, d^y in, day out, 

nuny mcntlis. flien for me the present day street and Jts 
Iwlidiil^ CSftx, lis jWHirnfFrrs, its street cri<% faded away, 
and WCK not; for I hcftfd, in fancy, olhcr foot«tq}« 
passing aton^ 1 saw, in &ncy, another figure, another face ; and at 
cnCf die dingy pat«mcnt was imnsfonued ; tliere wa^ poetry in the 
BiTt the ground was »cied ^lound lo me- For what ground cAn be 
more sacred tlian diat whereon the feel of those wc aire Ibr have 
and rupikfiaed in daily liief 

So, 100, ihe house in which some hero of his couniiy, »ome great 
man who hen mndc hizi tin^c wi.icr, more cnlij^htened, \yPA pauoj 
hm childhood, boylioodf or at any rate some epoch making months of 
hi? life, \% sacred, or at any rate thmld be sacred, to hiii rmiion. It 
should 1^ cared foi, prchcrveJ, and guard'.iJ as one of that nation's 
>»oM chcriEihcd pOiac»ioiia— the home where all the heroism, all the 

BiTt the 

^H more \ 

Am Adrtniurcf of the SudemtA Ceniury, 89 


ccierjisifig tlKM^u be^m, u ti v«»», 10 live, vt^oxe, hjiTC Uior bdng 
HI tbe boy wlio wu presently to becnmr th^* girateu manuThii 
Ibc rescuer of his counlry in her hour of peril, the leader of a 
loriom hope, the diaDOvercr or uncartlier of the world's hidden 
Iravun^ tbe ■dvmrurer whoAc iJarfng \cnitires riiouTd ibriilJ the 
cm of p»t, prcwnt, future. 

Tbc :id%^iturcr f ^M)Al does nol his ntmt call forth in on^ 
mind's vryr ? lit? b the world's «ocne-pftinter, vho flings hi« colourt' 
rojaltjr on if^c rjni^ vid vriih no rug^Nrd hjind ; be ^\t^ ilir vorkt 
bcr r<«tt of menu] colour, the glow of her excitements, the 
cxhibntkig fltghtt of her iniaginalton. We «rc drAim to him »s 
chilipfn w^H-'n wt plcid " fnrndrenttim "in Any Marytluitlttohrlold 
to us ; «c htDkcT ^cr him ia men ind women vhea in ctir pETusuc 
experience or adventurp Aixhrd aerou ihc dun-oolotfred cflnns 
OUT lirea, and we riK to iHe occuiim In \l%c lunginfj «e feet to tike 
np the pMnt-bniah of our imaeination «od totich up the pictured 
f^tfodttction for others in glowing colourt where ihc actual episode 
Imliiot brigbteneddieefleciitufncieiidyl TheneirJof thradvenmrcr 
b in oxry 3^ He b ll;c Hhutialor of the otherwise dull diu ic« of 
Ao cnpire; 

Sir Wjiher Rjtli^h wiu > f^rtvx duvafitr in the record of 
»d*tnturre3. Hr iluiri! mudi ;ind wai disofipoiiitcd much. This 
xc«r 1 mode AD expedition to the old-world ^ccnca where the sioiy 
of bi» life began. Fir away from the haunlK of men, tvinote, 
■cqncrtered flr>d lonely, tn n shcherwl Itttle Devonshire rall^, lies 
tbe picturcsqoe ok) manor- liuuac ^lierc he was bom, IId}'C« Baiton 
\yf name. When 1 drove over with a friend lo sec j(« wc only 
ionnd It with diRictiUy, the reftfion bring ihat until we ftehudly 
iCKbed it t!ie hoiiic wa& eumpletdy Uiddt^n fiuiii nighL in a steep 
boilow, Ihkkly wooded and shut in all round. To us it hcid 
MtOMxl a loiiger drive than we flntieiparcd ', but pcrbApi \H^ 
ini doe to the fact that our vehicle of eonveyincf wa.« a rough 
country cart (quite an jolling n the laoverbiil Irish car '), wid 
the pony between it?t iJiafu waa iirpo^ible to tocse beyond (he 
moct well-coiuidcrtd and wdatc of trot*. We drove from N«:nton 
Pof^bTibrd— *iin ideal little Devonshire village, which we had mode 
OUT bfadeioaftcrs from which to tAkc radintinK expeditions— and the 
ftconcry through whkh we paaM^d wat to perfect ihflc we fnrpivc ihe 
pony brfort iM hte ilow and lajy progrewion. 

The racadowi rwc hi^hall round Hflycs Barton, while through 
the lalley, pivlkig joftly. stiolis, in a leiffuttly fa*bion, a " " 



90 Th€ GintUmatCs Mogazim^. 

rivulet, fchimnjc 'ike lir[uid molto ^ih^r in Ihe )erc4Au|;ttil tuntfuiM. 
At A Midden lum in Uuf Unv ili« rainou« liute rarmhousr lay before 
u:t ; \\\K. vcr>' quintcsw^nct' of pc^e> iJiOcstTttcliblc, )mino>«bbcb 
seemed to Itraod over it ibil aummei af^cmcon. i w^Llkcd down 
little Uopc to ih« garden Jmd leitnc over tho gjtt«. 

In such a presence \\ wcnis an ibtdcilcly impcxiiJvc n 
ihu one should be quid and pavivc to take ic all m : the feeling of 
p&it nccnea^ cC past prenncGi^ ol put mcnul atmoKpher^s. ** ^^ ^ fitf 
iffif/ ^iMv" LSI :i ten for aTI limr, for all kinds of sural aoEodaticicuL 
Likcvhitcu it \n impcroth^ ncoc«tity to " ukc olTtbc ihoc3"of ouf 
conventional, worLdlr individualities— lo empty ourvc)\x4 und be 
timply raceptvG. Out of ihAC quiet, Rmoic fArmhotitc had come 
one fk the famouii voice* of hi* day ; out of tktt sleepy hollow but 
a nUAC that should be familiar to oil age« di linglisb niUii 

A ^iiai^ht [uih, chec-JiPTinl by Khadciwv^ led ifp ihrough the old 
gAEdcn v> the liou&c, and on ciibci lide of w wem old-fAsbionod 
^owcis and fajit-trct:3, iho wbolt; Uaiiked by venertbtc red valb. la 
thU gRrdcn, however, be^idcc its oun bolongirgs, A niodcrn clcmvat 
hod Jmruded in tlic *lia[>c of a hibty nclUfed pooy, who bod ptsbcd 
forvArd the gate nnd made his way on I0 the bcd^i where be pro- 
OMdcd to eikt bia iill, luxuriou^lyn From the opc^n door in the 
hctiee opposite ctn^Tgcd ih<^ Agurc of an old dame, who proccecM 
to jctlicuUte exdtci^y lo in& I gaibercd the inipoit of the «sni 
to be the dcaircd exodu* of the pony, and ^o I houily insiatcd On his 
tuniLnt^ tail ami yoing out "by ihe tanitj' gaie ''whence be eunelo." 
She tbe-n olTercd 10 give idc tome infonoaiion with regard to the 
house. She assured mc tliat the bedroom on the left \^xh the oi» 
in which Sir Walkr Katf^h had been bom, and thai over the poteh 
WJL« where, in l.itcr yi^jtri, he had smoked. This last I believed to 
be more or lesi an unju.^ti liable cfToit of the inia^ijuUioi^ 
therefore 1 took it vrith salt 

Oui»ido ilw gardeit arc meadow*, a little bridf^e over the rivulet; 
and, farthei Away, the "bills standing rumid alxful " dolhed ni(h 
wood*. The liLdc pond beside the tree*, whidi ^liodowed pnit of 
the mvadow adjoining the housct must often have been lUlicd m bf 
the boy Kal^gh in hi* chtMhood days. No 00c was fishing in It 
when I slxw it, but a cocnjMTiy uf duckn^ \^\\\^ were rummji{;in|£ con- 
tentedly with their beaki under ibc bitlc bridge. „ 

The name Hay^K Barton is doubtlusa derived from the Anglo- I 
Saxon hiiga. a hedyc, which i^at criminally nscd to mran a plot of 
nd cjl^lu^ wiLb linli^ea. iiartati^ or ^r/im, in tluu 



Tk^ GenfUmans Magasine. 

Ricbnid C<tiunC, inctrof Kom llLndkigb in 1673, vu born and Imd. 
llistoliim U1AI we are indebted Icr A|Mmhbook, k«peby hi>n,orftU 
tbf ftems of inierpit, accoimli ofhov rron^y^ vrrrc dluribmcd xmong 
the poor, &c. O jV ik omnts ! Flow full oF ickI life would |)4Rih 
ftcr^ounU become for each succeeding gencmtionof porisbioncra I 
II0V clowly would the dcJid binds or the I'lit clasp the living hiitdt 
of Ih^ ?re*tfnr in lyntpaihit-s, in ci^fuiwehcnsioin, in commuwiy of 
reeling 1 The present vicat of £aftt Dudlcigh, the Rev. W. R. Green 
(to whom I nm indebted for very much kind help and tnfomution), 
nras ofTered j£^3oo if he would sell the *bo\'e book to iomc j'^niedntn 
dcttccndtnt'^ of RiobATd Conant, but he refused, and ra the book if 
the properly of the pamhto-d^y- The vtcaj of EwR Budleigh whom 
Air Green succeeded wah accu«tomr.'d to drtnk from a black bottle 
DTI thr:- aTtur. fii refresh hlmn-tr, before goCng inio the {tulpit, and hu 
:n known to n^ for i pockcl-knife from tbc congrejcAtion in the 
Iddle of a Celebration* Ncvcrthdess he was rej^arded at East 
Eodldgh A«a High Chufchman ! 

I gjve «onic L]uctJLlion» hrrr- from Richard Caiiant'i p:^h book^ 
to which Mr. Green Tcry kindly allowed me aeecat. U atatcailt 
puipo»e thuv : 

"A bookv bought April 4ih, >374i for ye entring of Parish 
Accounts, for gift mony, that il may be seen from yeu to year tiow 
it » dutnbuted. .... 

'* ifi;7. The Poorer Stock in thLs rnri^h Is ihut made tip ; t4$* 
of Bartlel's mon/, 4^. ; of Gondman Crosse's mony, ^iS; ol M* 
Drmke") mony, ^18. Ir all X29* 

"OF Ibis mony Mr Duke of Oltcrion bath had ^7^. ever since 
Tnldtiimmcr late pflfi at yp tntere^t of five per ccnr., which will be 
paid at ye ycar^ end- Tlionin£ Bedford haih one pound upuii bond, 
and the other jo is now paid m by ye nidow, Rcbcckah KJiot, unto 
yc churchwardens. The lorf paid in now at Eatter by ye widow, 
Kebcckah Eliot, wa« put info M* Htikv? band ai inidsumeier follow- 
ifig upor iniercHt together with yc a?*^, before rricniiorcd 

"There in nowai this time in ye hand of Thomav Bcdfordof this 
jwriiih of Cmn«?'» mony jQi. 

"Mcry gathLTcd upon a fjjiiii^djy, Koi'. 1^ 4J- 1/ 3/ 

" ME, Evans his IcRflcy (ai Icxit n» much as can bcc ftoitcn) i< 
now paid. w'r. 7A lod. .... There haih been in ME, Dufcc^ 
hand of yc poore*s mony ever tinee Midnimmer 1679 ye «imme of 
thirty five pounds at ye intcrtat of Ave pounds per cent, , - < • 

"Memorandum ye mc Wotton's ^\\i mony, being s^. lo bee paid 
fn bmd at CbrJstide, \% now behmdc for 3 yeare : fii. Chrittide yS 


An AA'CKiurer of ih€ Sixiunfi C€niur}\ 93 

and Ointtick 79. and ChrUtide t6So. Some cciin« rnu^l bcc 
taken foi nxovcry of iL" 

** iG8t. Mr. Wotion':! Cl\i mony, which b now oocie to jo/ Icjr 
ycut uTCan, it proQ:i]Ked to bcc paid in brc»4 by 'Iliomaa 
lowd of Sftltnloo. Aitd ihc |uz i*Jiiunt^^ tave pccmiiFKl tn ^irc Mm 
lodL K> help him io piying ihoc arrcflis in yc litter end of yc ncU 

Rkh»rd Conant was turanl ojl of fifs liiing At ihc Rciiorfttion, 

bttr VAS rc-uiAKMIcd by the Corcntntcrs. *' Duriog the Orcai 
in the WctI of 154V ^y^ '^^- Brtuhlicld in hij *' Church 
of AH Saiou, East Bud>«i^h," '* ihc scei^e of the rebellion was in tudi 
ckwe provvity to Cut Dudld^ thM vvc Ait fuU^ wuiraitml in 
bdicting vooie of iu puiihioncn mmld be found among the rebel 
ranki^ to &nd x death in the great ftlaughter on ^V'oodhQiy Coramoo 
on August |. Walter Ralegh (the faiher oT Sir ^^'aJte^ Ral^j^li) wa<i ai 
S. Mary Glut. Jind thioush miircproentationi of an old vonoaa 
«M talEcn up by the rcbeLa, and on tn^o cccaiiona bad a narrow 
eseftpeofhif life/' 

Neai East Dudldgh i> the quftint old nianor-housc of Colatoik 
Raks^ vhctc, 50 tnditioii hath it, Walter Ralqtb was baptised. 
Th« churcb regit^er dates back from 1673, and an old account 
describes the hou^ ihui : 

" Here b a \^ty ancient liousc (Place Court) with oratory. It 
11V fovtncrly the rciidctice of the Deans of Exeter.^ 

Place Court >taadi back in one of tbc^ delightful, overgrown, 
disorderiy kitchen flow«7-sirden^^ — a vcriuUc shriiliLevy. The old 
house «u scntincBcd by an orcmhadowmg Scotch Gr, which »tood 
ngbl before the porch. Hie aiternoon on which I taw llacc Court 
■ flood of sleepy sunlight lay aver L^vtrrything : ov^rt itie gables and 
Ultictd wii>Jow^ ; over llie broad oaien dcoi standing Lkvitiui^ly 
open \ ovv the unevenly paved garden path, laced irregularly with 
ihadovs of the bu^het en either side- Over all brooded a Sabbath 
Utllnertft Jiid ilje htec^iicat of alniosphc:c> ; U was ss if before ooc*s 
cyca stood some fairy pslace in an enchanted land ; and ono 
ino^rMd if one were to walk along th« checkered path into the cool 
duk lull, one would break the cobwebs of Tioic atrcichcd over 
Mjme idyU of a past day ; some picttirc would meet one's eye of 
monks at theif onions in the old oratory over the enttancehall. 
Some sound, fwni, but arrcltlng by n^aunn of in fallini; sa stcangcly 
00 tnockra eara, wouU thrill them t}iroagki and through, of 
cnaccoilOincd maai 01 requiem : prayers fi^ the dcid fy the dead- 
It it not known f^ ccrtim if the baptism of Walt»?f Ralcgb did 


Gintltmans Magasine. 

rciIlyUkc pbcc here \ nor, if fucb were indeed (he UAe, In wlitcb 
room; but presumably it would have been in the old oratory, if 

T,«aviiig Colftion lUlcj^h, it \% but A little dtslvKe to the ndjoir> 
mf vi1!a£c of Otlerton (Otritona, Otritonc), which ii staled at the 
tide of Domesday to hfl\« thittj^'thxee KkltoQakerf. '^SAlt," Dr. 
BruahfirM liayt, " wqa nuidr; on Oiler estuary ffom the time of Domes- 
day down lo comparali«ljr recent lime. Ottcrton Piiory w» idenii- 
fied with itft <ttily manuriciure." Oilerton Church (St. Michael^ 
\% Early English, and nnnd^ on the brink of rhp r>vi?rhanging red dUT 
nhich onre on n diiy had a river beneath ii, when HLidEcij^h wh& a 
harbour And ahipi cannc up to it from Sidcnouth^ 'J'hcrc is but its 
bed left now, and [hat \w% long bei?n unoccupied and empty f 

Leland in 1530-^0 d^-^crihet Oiif^ton thus: "Otcnon a pTity 
flschur Town stAJideth on the Eitt side of the llavcr, about s mSe 
Trom Olcnnouth, Le»e then an hunderith Veres sins ShJppcs usid 
this Havf^n, but Si U now dene barrfd. Stim couUe thii Hatch 
Budcky H^vcn of RuduU-y Town. It was nUo caultcd Saltan 
Haven. "^ Dr. BrushBcld tncritions in his book that in \\\^ there is 
on Account of the suppre&eed ' A!ier> Priories, including, amongst 
oth^n, iho Priory of Oirrlon, othcrwE-^c called the Priory of Oteryn^ 
ton, in the county of I>cvon, to the Alien Abliey of St, Michael in 
Periculo Maria belonRJnjc/' "The manor ol Budieigh, »s belonging to 
Ottertoo PrEory, was now transferred 10 Syon MonaHery/' (In 1415 
Henry V. foiniilt'd in I^-lowonh, Middlaei, a conreni of Brid^tines, 
g^fkig it the name of Syon.) 

"The suppression of the Engliih monasteric* in 1539 brought to 
a final conclusion the ccclMiflsrlcal history of Syon , , . and 
the oiAnoTft of Ottertoii and Budkigh, with all their rights and 
privileges and royaliie** and ihe patronage of three Church livingn, 
were In 1540 purchased by Richard fluke for ^1,717 ^r. a/ He 
acquired 5,400 ocm. Tn the year 1 1 79 this tnanor and all the local 
properly of the Dckc family wat sold for ^go,ooo." 

Today Ottcrton ts a picturetque white "cob" village <&kcfc 
mentions thnt fbrmcrly it wai red Randstonf), wirh a son ofConiinentif 
AJX about ii, which is hard to dc^ribe, but ibc imprciaion x% ea^y to 
mlisc when there. On leaving the station one turni sharp to the 
right on entering the vLM^ige *ireet before rcoching the "apreadlng 
chealnur" Irccs which Unc one side of the village, and up a little 
bill stands the church, and beside it is the site of the old Pn'ory— 
OTz^innljy for four monks and dating from the Norman Conquest ; 

almshouse now standi in ia place. One of the old women 


Att Atkmtimrfr g/ ike Sixteenth Cenimy. 95 


living y^txt loU me Ihit » nndergtound psua^c kd from onr of th« 
cottigcs in ihevcoetbdo* ri^ht u[> to the old Priory: "Trom th^ 
lover n>Al of hotucA," she exf^bJiMd T It woa discoTcrcd b^r 'cd<Icnt 
bct)^, the ioid, bat hid been closed np igab, as lbs oatlei could, 
not be found. Slie bid been, slie lold mc. Tot Lliiily yean an ii 
of ibe aliBibowcs. ^ ! biint for the new thinjcA," abc Mid^ shakti 
her bcftd, "1 Ifte tKe old: but the new m^kec foi labour," ih« 
Added, hnnioroasfy end ;i Iril^ vatgudy. There H meniion naael« bj 
Sir Wahet Kilegh of Ottcnoo in the oov ramoii* MKogreph leltcTr 
which n^ diicoTcred by ftccidcot kniooff *oaie old paper* and 
lenvft which veie about to be dettroyod it Great Torrhgtrpn in 
iKAA, amt hore the enduneinem. "SjrWtlicr R3vteiirfr« !-ener lO; 
my G'* KV^ Father." E pT« Ihc kllcf as Mr. Aubrey hai tranKril 

^^"^^ Dakev — I wrote to Mr, Pndeaux 10 move yoti for the 
tiiMctuoc of Hayes (Hares Daiton)* a fjumc ^omclimc in my futhc^^ 
poncttion. I wtll most vnllingl}' give whatsoever in your conscience 
you iballdeeme It worthy and irat any time you sball havo eccailori 
to ntw me you slull Hud wm: a tlunkful frien'l to )ou ind yourt. 

" I 4m rcsoUxd, if 1 cjnnot entreat you, to build at Colliton, bu[ 
for ihe natunll dicpc^iticm I have to that place, being borne in that 
hiHise, J had ratht^r 3t«ie myself ificie thm aii>body eh ; I lAtce my 
leave rca£c to coucilcrvanc all )XJUr couttcaics 10 ibc utter oT my 

YouT i^ery vfltifrg frfend In all 1 iblll be able, 

WAj^Titit Ralkcii. 
"Cotut xKvrof July 1584." 

t>r. Brttibiidd's tmwTtption of the aboie letter girc* Ljcsfdo 
Ihoc added icatciKc* ; 

*' 1 bive dealt w** Mr. Sprtntc for niebe things as he halbe alt 
Collkon and ther abounv and hu lallL junbed loee ti> dep* w^ the 
moety of Oleitowne (Oticrton) onto yo>v i:i constdcniion of bayca 
aeoordingc to the valew, 4tid yow shaU noi find me in Oi neighbace 
onio yow hero after.** 

A very bmtliar si^t in Wulict RaJcgh'j days must hare been tlie 
Stmday laarkeU, of wWcb a goodly nurobev «eero, curiooily wougli, to 
have been originiHy started byieligious hoiivs, with ihcohjwi of at- 
iractiog ptigrimi to theii *hmic5 &c,, aad;dri^Tinga revenue from the 
booths setup in their victnlLr, Or. Bm^Held is my auihortiy for tlie 
above, and h= deckrcfl that in old records there are accounts of :hc 
BOrket-pUce bein^ in sotne intT;inci-s the cburt:l)y»rd. and some- 

96 The Gentkmani Magazine. ^^k 

time* even ilw churth. He givei. as an in*Li»cc, ihi* entry in the 
rcgiau^m of Sl Lawinicc'a Chuicli, Reading : " 1490, It itc &1 ibe 
foyer for \ ilondms in the church porch iiij''." 

From old rcf ordt in ihc seventeenth century come* the following \ 

" Budlt^gb i* a *m;in inarkt't Ttmnif w""'* in auncient tyracs was kept 

(jii die SoiLdaj Slid tiowc on yc Monday." 

• * ■ - ^ . - 

"Bodl«y ... a place where iherc U a fii't^jin MarkeC, in former 
limt-s irreligiouiily ki^pl on the Sunday, . , , it \% now kept on 
Monday," This wot after Sunday fairs had been stopped by ihe 
Sc^ions, thus : "Older 10 restrayne marketis on the S^bbaoth at 
"EssX BudTey. - . Wee doe at this open Sessions order thjit from 
hcncefoiili (he sard laarkclts on ihc Sabolb diics sholbc vtt^ilic 
forborne and ?uppr>:ssed/' and that whoever sold '' victuaLb ot other 
frares (1) whatsoever th;i11 be brought by the constables before ihe 
J(]!^ticc of the Peace," 

Six years before Ralegh wrote the letter given on a preceding 
page, negotiating with Mr. Duke regarding hi& return Eo his child- 
hood's home, the grim sptclre orthose tlays, whkh devastJLed wJiole 
villogcSn was " walkiug in ihc daiktieas " aiid destroying in the noon- 
day, here OS elsewhere, nil over the country, Ncwlon Popplefordi ft 
village c1o£e to Otterton, was, a& it is called, "shut up for the plague,^ 
and, as was the pTai:t]C(^ then, all communication with neighbouring 
nllages was utterly and entirely cut olT. Thus runs the entry con- 
cerning IhtT tragedy of 1578 : '*n payed to the poore peoplo of 
NcwEcn Popleforde v^hen they were shoute u^p for tiie plauge 
xnvj' viij""- 

Ntar East Budlcigh there is a field between the road and cliff 
called '^ Ucadman's Buriei." There wer« four or five separate 
gate enli3i]ces from ihe road. Dr Brushli<?rd says the plots are 
divided by low moundsr al>out one foot in height, of untilletl i^round. 
When plou^ibed a brge number of human bones wert found in a 
dip of the ground not far froni the cliFT. Tt is believed in the 
neiKlibourhocxJ thai the victims of the plague in 1578 were buried 

Oltcry Si. Mtry, some miles farther away from the sea, boasi* a 
himxentwr ihir !>i;i[ion in which KaleghissHid tohavelivedfcir a time; 
but, if 30, were he to sec it ti>-day, 1 fed convinced he would tlunk it 
modcrnisedandaltcrcdoutof all recognition, so cmincntiy brought i>p 
to date i* ill outward presentment Were he to loot oppnsilej perhaps 
h(* wtmld feel mort at home, for there, intleed, is a roiv of charming 
old cctlagCB in a picturesque slate of disrepair, and looking as if the 


^n AAtcnfurtr of ike Sixic^niA C^jUury. pj 

■)faics6»y of a hundred jreon back or 50 hod but jjvt i^lcj^pcd out or 
tbcQU Tbc Otter flom a few paces bclov tbcsc bous^ broadly 
and ck»1^, pott an old dc^^latclooking, disused nilJ by the 

Tbc lli^h Slrcct u bui!c on ming ground, and right a.1 tbc top 
Madi tbc splendid old minticr diurch, and b^ its lych-gate arc the 
neoiains of wdi-worn Hocks. ^Ve h.itl a tl^anc* here which doca 
not &11 to tbc loE of all fti^huccra whom ihc Tcr^cr »bcpbcrih. We 
wctc aUovcd, a^r dxie applicaiion of ihc ihumb^crcw of pcnuuior, 
10 go tip into one of the pri<fsi's choiobcn, o( vhlcli there arc three 
hi Ollci>' Sc Muy. Karrow vuidiu^ !>toi)e hUU% kud u^r to it. and tn 
the centre of tbc room] wcfound a 5nc old binck onk ublc, which waa 
mod in old days as an altar. The contents or thjil room would 
Intc made the priest to whom il us^ formerly to belong hold up 
(bootlj hands of d'tsnuy, could be have relumed and 5Con the 
incvercnt jwnbk of odds and ends— bnjshc!^, ppts and pons and 
cant, vhicb verc tlitovrn here and iliere, fa duiiy confusion, alj over 
tl^ flcXH-, the ublc, and the chairs In the church Ibclf llicrc used 
ic be lix htgb altare, one in each confessional 

Tbc TCgiilcra d:Ltc back 10 iGo^, but the fint mention of a 
ebtsrcb bei« occun in a ii<on\ of Bi&hap Broncteonibe rn i?6o. 
Eftr since the ucnlectous, arartciouA handa of Elcory VIII, set 
UKOHClvca to ^pidiing and sIcalinK" amont; church holdings and 
pOMOtioni^ Ottery Sl Mary ChUTch has b*^tn in the bands of a 
corpoTiilon. and tbis body of iiianagen will uot on a^iyaocount aJloir 
the old books in the ParriAc to be cxAmincd. Why not no one ceo 
understand. Beyond the church sunds a fine old red brick building, 
in «h>efa h the •*CooTcntion " room where Cromweirs iccne of ex- 
ajpcnUion occurred, wlien, not bctn^ able to persuade the inhabit- 
ants of Oticry Sl Mary to give him men and money, be became 
excessively irite, and in revenge ordered his soldiers to go at oneo 
to the diurch upjuisilL- and dotroy all ilic ornaments, ntalu;iry, S;o., 
Ihercin- Satan found plenty more miachtef for them to do. once they 
were set on to the work of the "destroying angel," and they finichcd 
up by complcidy vrtckinR two fine ol<I organs. ^Vhen «e were in 
tbccburchjanliti(ijabtea^(^mO(3n,and beyond the hi^h garden walls 
of the old house a distant band was pb^tnf;, and the music stolo 
over to OCT ears, (pving just the emotional louch that was needed to 
qdcken one's senseti into keener reali^tiun of tlic old dead sccnaa 
tbfttt many long decades of years ago, bad pliycd auch havoc in the 
grand di minste? and its precincts. 

voa. ccaciL ito tc77 



Tke G<rUiematis Magasins^ 


Not riJiny mtli^ :ivmy on t!in uiA'Tout src th^c<^ plicn wLJch 
most have been wclMtnown b^unL<i of Rilcgh— Sid mouth, 
L«dnun l]ay» and JUudlcigh Solturton, the lft£t mentioned being 
diluted iho nL'ArcfC lo W^f^^ Bnnon nnd Dndlirigh. Tho w^ilk to 
Sidtnoutb from IluJIcigb over the hill co/crcd villi woodt ii aji 
otpcricncc to be rcmembcrud or imjigincd, but no description can 
hope to put It before the mlnd'c eyo ai it H in roAJity. Xbe boaches 
of Budleigh SnUerion and .Sidmr^uih arc; rjiiitc distinct in character* 
The pcbblcxi of the former arc quaittite, nmooth, Urge and o^, and 
tire said to have come ori;;inaILy Irom thi* coasLA cr Normaody and 
Brittany. Those ai SIdcnouth arc much smiilcr and of qmtA 
different %hz% and thipcs. 

The sea close inshore at Sidmoutli was haunted b/ Clocks of 
laughing gulls each limo w* ircrc there j ii tt was fine, cilin witfther 
Ihey 1*1 close together, c:cjmprair«IIy, on the lop of ihc miier, tumJD^ 
first this my and then tliat with caiy grace, dipping their heads fox 
a ftray mouthlul avery moment or ts, for att iho world like some 
bfthlonabte lady in her cAniage boiving fim to thie ijd« and then 
the oiher. E^tcr en in the aAt:tnoon, if the sea tuxned a dull, 
leaden hue, and a sudden squall swept ue> over it» the t^uIU scatEcrcdr 
and from the shcro they looked eaaciJy, as ihoy aai cowcnng on the 
wavei, like the white srraps of paper of a lorn-up lcti« flung here 
and thcfc in a crooked line acnj» the wAtcr. We msdc oui way to 
lAdiarn lliy b/ n^canR of the typical Dci'onshirc lane : oa it couRUy- 
woraan d<:«:ribed it to us, "a rugged Devonshire lone." At we 
turned the la^t hill ut a sharp l>cnd to the right, a sudden flash of 
Uue TC\talcd the bay far down below ; and as we descended the 
ttoep craggy path that leads precipitately down to the shore, the 
steely tfrey-blue glsnr of the bcAch mci cut eyes in Mvld contrast. 

5iajmjig the lea for some y^irdi oui was the vivid red glow ffooi 
the clilTs which shut in the bay. Curiously shaped, rujtged dilfs 
they are too : here a huge rock ; there a green slope covered with 
furgi ; and farther on» shnling down on to thi: bench, a cutting of 
red sandstone, like the sliccd^ipcn coke of a giant Kow and aj^in 
^n our cars came tha ahrill scream of some eeabird darting out of 
A crevice fn the clilT; it rnust be a grarid ^pot for sea-birds' nests fn 
the eiarly pait of the year. At the fafthcr ci^d of the bay we clam- 
bered over slippery seaweed and wcl, slimy rock, litoally covered 
i;?ith Sies, yvltow shells, striped shells, jetlyfisb and shrimps. As 
■nri* rounded ihe corner of the bity wc camt' upon the solitary rock 
that gircs to the bay its dl^linsitishing character, standing out bj 
itselt a huge hub through its centra Creeping ihioygh the hole wc 


GcniliiTtans Ma^asme^ 



LVRIC Apollo \ liflt£icr ApoUo! 
5|>ccd, ind the fail white feet &b;il1 fullow : 
Througl) tlio diamond sproy of the founuiiu pas^ 
By the leaping fprinjit in the lowUnd gnti; 
And tlie wtmila anU lilb of ih^ gfccu lighl hi!ls 
And the i>ipifig bir<J», and the peeping flowcn 
Filled uith the tof^ fiwe«t dew that filU 
The l!>in({ \k\z as the nine l)ul stills 
The vTccpirg hc^a in the fleeting hours ; 
Over hill, along meadow, and into the hoUow, 
Bring thy nuiden*, O Apollo 1 

■Take harp find luic and oaten reed. 
Rejoice the Earth viih long; 
Thioc eailh, (hi? people iherttir, who bleed 
As a \Q\ti blecdi whoic love iii bug 
Apart, whose tovcr is brave and aironf;/ 
h Apnllo, Apollo. 
,ftd the wng (jflule and brlc and nwallow 
Rose from a bower by Pindua* fount 
What m(»rtat could dt.'fne 
The nmr^'r^lluui melody that did mouDt^ 
ruling the hyaline 
EtCTt^al, >'ct rtoaling over the bower 
Renilrcnt with mightier power? 
Tlie MuatV sun^ then ccaurd, ihrair grrw i^ill; 
And gleeful Enrth was glad and irad that hoar 
It hoard Kutcrpi;'* voice and knc^t Apollo's akill. 

Cruwiicd with palm and lauref, 'mid the light 
Of tfctnulou* wingii, 
Bnne of Pyrsncctnij 

Lrj^lil Lh;it3iti{;« 

, Muia h a^^Uanfas/.'"' -^ ' "' Voi 

Uoto antweriiig \\^i of laughing lovc«» 

And man^/ raf^d iiing« of »3crcd doiv^i 

And pigeons taking flight, 

llic Klus«s fang agiin unto the listening Eartli, 

Ard whilnruc wrjit ihf piiy .it \lx dearth 

Of irtinc Ant) »irrct speech, and joy's brief part : 

Vea, MelpQcncDC sair^ ud took it unlo hcut. 

Then sang the Earth lo the choir abotc : 
" ionise to the «eed of Mnemosyne, mother 
Of wnlace^ and givrr of tyric l<nr. 
And pcaiK to Apollo, brother ! " 


^^ T N liotnr TC^pcrts litcotiirr and ihc pr^^i^ 1i.ivp liing l)(?cn in- 

X sc^panblc. The most iJj»li[i£ui&hDJ men of the lirtt iulfor the 
paatcctituiy, from ^fac^nky to Lamb and Dickens, ii-cre all to some 
extern ]ournAlisi% and ibcrc arc few living men of Mg}>cst vnunencc, 
from Mr, John Morlcy dowiiwaftls, who liavc not rcccivr^d a rc- 
cognbable porUon of their iraining in the nc^apapci.i. A record 
cf the nAincs of those vho arc the prmcipal «uppott of modem 
jotjrnali^iii wuuld iiidudc must to whom tht; HorlU fnoki up 
Hilh sdmiration, and the acparalion between the tivo ^reat In- 
Aitiitions— though Jc may hav^ begun, and though its progtcss 
may be traceable— -haa not yti led to the insUtutionof wliat majr 
bo called proceedings for divorce. The literary irkHiicnce of the 
dAil/paper it none the Ic*s wnnirft ; o nowspajKr ia no Icnjcer regarded 
Qft an arbiter of «tyh: ; and it is onl/ in the ease of half a dc^en lead- 
ing itt'iiojiini]!! tliaL the ciajLi^^eineiU exacls the *>eivice^ of the best 
talenE in the market or at Its dijpoaal* None uill pretend tliat 
the Tiffits of to-day cxcretaca the same influence ai did thai of a 
gcneraiTon ago, in the days of the Mowbray Motri*c*, Dclanes, and 
I^asent) ; and tlicrc a no olticr newspaper tliat app>roxi mates to the 
influence of the 7iv;fj,h\ mc aay, iti the time of Cobdcn, When 
wo sinlc bctow the first tliyhi of joumaHim, and come to a lower 
class of [writKlicalMj the dlKjihy of ignorance im llie p;Lit of wrjicri, 
cdtl0T5^ and those ^-cncially In authority U beyond conception or 
belief, ^Verc the very mtldc«t form of elementary cxatninaiion indis- 
pensable lo iimctiet as a journaliiT, not one lithe of those by whom 
we arc matuun^lly taught or cdificd uould be able to pa»a. This 
ia the more to be regretted, ainee the payment for conulbutions tiow 
customary, though fai from cxtravaganir is princely beside what it 
has brrn in the ;klsI. 

A Ntfw Ahubicw "^^ACnK■^l." 

A CURIOUS proof of the futility of hu:nan aspiration and effort 
^'\ is furnished tia In the oppearanee of the latest edition of 
Shakc«pearcs;l/(j^^f/i*- Thirlyycaisago Dr. Horace HooBard Kurncss; 
a brilliant aiid sound Amcrlum schdar, issued from riiitadclphiA the 

' • * I w ' . - i<| - ■ 



Tttbh TaiL 


'fblume cf a ncv Viriorum edition cf ShiVcipe^rc U^ih llie 
of hit foibcii Ur. (ihcn ^fEp) Fumcid ha<J bcca fOT »oiac lime 
capged in prtpaniJon for bia u&le, uid tlic yar 1873, irbich 
ttiCQots^ the ^[>cimiice of the tot volume, Retm^ and Ju!»f, eav 
ftho thai of tlic Kcund MiKMh. Since thru ten pbyit ami cl^'cn 
voUiflMs have been Added to the lUt — JJam/^t wuh iho cnotmoui 
nttia of ca^am and camiDcnt ha« become cncra&tcd upon it, 
OCCOpyitig to itself Iwo ToTumes. Frtnn the fint it wu obtious that 
one nun CTMild ndtpQutbljf^^drrytLiiinaidsocolo^sit an undcruking. 
What M vinaAl]jrA£cncnLtJort hAS been occupied with thcprcp&ration 
■nd publication of % do£«n plays o' between a third And a tcunh of 
Shs)tcspeATe*4 dnmatic producL A nrw wocker now enters the fidd 
in the person of Mr. ilcrace Hotrard Fumc^i jui>^ a itoit of tbe 
origiiMtiOr of tho Iftbour. The dclif^ht in the prospect of Accelerated 
pcogreci to which thi« Accc^ion gircs birth u handicAppcd b^ thfi 
bcc ibat llkc Jlr&t biboiir of the recruit is dcrotrt], not lo xhvi i»u^ of 
tkcvmaltcr, butco the rcvbionofwhAChAi gone bcrotc. Mr. Furncs&'s 
fiBt eoatiibulioa to the u&k in w^ich hifi lather and hit giAndfathci 
bdtre CAken purT cootisn of A new and rrrvfRcd editfoo of Afa^StiJiA 
1l Bccais protMLbIc tJiat oilier pTajrs, indudmg FTamh!^ wlU ha>c to 
undergo sinnlar rcccnMon, and thai thi- completion of the work vtU., 
be T^cnened by our grandchildren ntber than our duidien. 


Ths Tt>eal Sii.^v£sP£AitiA?r Text* 

NOT until con«{d«T3b1e progmt bad been made niih 
Varionin Shalespcaic vj4 the fact, ignored of :iT[ 
tioui cdiJoi^t vttxi Dycc and CJatIc and WriRht, gra-npcd by 
Fumes^ that the baBi& of a text intended for schoE^irs muit be found 
in the /lr*t folio, which must be ngorou*1y folIowcJ, aftt^rations of 
the subte^ucnt folios ind £U(:gefttioiu of subsequent cdiuon^ being 
relegated to fooirotes. A tnodernised text is ficceptable for the 
geoenl reader, advamngfous even, lince \\\% pemsat of cbe plays 
ihoold not be disturl>cd by doubts as to the figniflriilion of a ^ord. 
It is, morecrer, tree to lay that the orthoKraphy and punctuation of 
the 6rrt folio are capricious, and due at tiinev to the ignorance or 
fancy of a compositor This Ii nof, hoircver, invariably the case, 
since I could point to caacs iffhc:tcin a &j«tccua[ic spelling has 
been neglected and a modem ofthoRraphic heresy carefully and 
fjtiematicany introduced and maintained. It it bappy that thd 
discovery to which 1 allude has been made- There inu&r, however, 

• rbJMdpUiA : J. B. Li|!j<lA(Olt Company. ^ 


Th4 GttUkmans M^ga^n^ 


he irouming ovn the fArt thnt icvi^nl i>kjn had been usued before 
the pctfcct method nu E^apcd- In llifi cuf of the icvitcd 
^L-Kinth the nt-w crilicism of a quarter of a fcniury has been 
m^v:sligftied imd litcd, In the notable gain of the cditioti. Mcan- 
lioiC!, 1 advise scliolua who lia^'c yx to wAa Tot a perrect text to 
rc-id irt aceepicd cditioii, such aa.BAy, Uycc, by theli^hl of tlKBootli 
faoiEmtlc teprini of the firtt folio. That is a plan I hnvc ftdoptcd for 
jfan ptut tvith rCMiUs that are invariably succenTuL The reprint in 
<liKstion Is £tt once cheaper aiid more htndy than ttac larger faesimikt 
VOliunci which cinnot eoKiIy be ccnsullcd wHfaout a stand 

A BiALiOGiuricy or Rohirt Loiris Sttvexson. 

A^TONG Kienry det^opmenta in tbii country muu be nunibcred 
the recent ^Towth !n bibliographies of authors. A& ree^rdfi 
th<*c vrc liavc hitherto ranked behind othct eountricSi eiotably 
Fianee, in which the btl)Ii<^raphy of Voltaire by Gcofgei Bengeteo 
(In two vulanics), iliat (if He^tif de la Br^iiime by l^ibliophili: Jacoti, 
and ihoae of MoU^re, Corntillc, and oiher writers, luvc long been 
priced by collcctcn and scholars. IJooka quite so amijitious at these 
are not yet eommon in This country, in which none the less ^ great 
iuipTO^eriient hai been vtitneued in recent daya. If T iluw atieJiUon 
to the lotcat EngUih trork of tlus kJnd It Is bcCAuic it marks it 
ftutber advance The Btbfw^rixphy ef ihi Wofki dJ Rt^rt Louis 
SfntfiioH, by Cul^iEiel W, F. Pritlcaut, <!.S-I-/ i% a model \i\ its way, 
and conveys much information with ic^ard to titlepagc*. originaJ 
conditions of appeflrance^andainular matters with which the compiler 
of sueh 1l^'0^k£ !ia<f not been accustomed lo concern himself. So far 
as icgarja ihc vmksi wiitien \rf SteveniMiii hiinsi^lf, it is, I bellci'C, 
complete ; and tliou^L it docs not profess to give ia the Appendix the 
mass of Inographical and critical comment which ha« appeared in 
ma^aiinc and neftsp3i>cr, it supplies from the ColoncF* owtt collec- 
tions A3 n^ucb niaKcr as will satisfy ilie oidindt}' appetilc. It it In 
editions itich a$ are issued by Messrs. Clmtco k Windus, and ctpe- 
_rially in the finep.-iper edition in which I'tr^nihu! /^iw^« lias 
lA appeared— lo be followed, I hope, hy Tnnt/s wi/A a Donkty 
And many other works— that the reader of Uatc will dclecialc. No 
daintier or more desirable works arc eosity to be conc&ved, With 
regard to the first editions and to ephemera for which the book'lover 
bunts the caulo;ue% tlic nevr biblioi;raphy is an ideal (luidc 

■ Lo&^efl J Tjank IJtJlid^ : New Vt.;» ; Ottrlct Suil»ici% Sonfc 


Februarv 1904, 

JSv G- S. Movnr, 

AT ibe time of hi» htA riunugc John Evans hod been do- 
penicly. uncomproiiiiiinKly ptwr. Poor not with that poverty 
vbich i> eivr seeking to ape affluence nor yet wiih a poverty wbicli 
mccssiutes ccuckn and unrdendng toil CcrLainly not with the 
Ultcr; for Jobn Ewis had catrcmely little to do, aiid would have 
be«n glad of ttie chance of any r<guUr Aort cf cttiptoymeiic, hovevcr 
badly ^Id and howfVl^r arduous. Wiih all hia fuiiltf the m^n waa 
not by luium a loafet, alibouKh circttniManccji liad ulmiwi com- 
pdkd him to lead the \\{^ of auch a cue ; not of the tribe cf iho»e 
content ro lounge outside a pubbc-hou^e door until some frcalc of 
fortune (ball bring a few pciioe ihcir way. He not only couM, btJt 
radoubtedly would, vrork if the opportunity came. For aH tliat, lib 
pcrerty remained of the hung^, out-At<lbowB description ; to- 
morrow'* food always a burning question, and a wjUAri- hicaI 
practkally a ibing tioLnov-n. 

Yrt, m spnte of thij condition of affairti John Evana, like many 
aootber man before and <\Tvt^ that date, cam? tu tlic erroneout 
concliialon that what w,v« rnoM^b for one was &ufiicicnt for two. 
Wonc, he managed to plead hia cause *o remarkably «d! and uuh 
such eloquenc* that he actually pcnuadcd Claia inio believing the 

If equality aunds for anything in tnarriace, then assuredly they 
were a n«U-matchcd couple; for she had nothing, at he had ooihtng, 
and it *ecried more than probable ibeir manied Ufc would won be 

Tk9 GintltmAn's Magazitu. 

diuotvTfl al the ealtH of "llie lioiist" Pcrliaju tlic JidvunUgi; by 
ft trifle on ihc mnr'» Aide, for hil cxenions aloac brought in ihc tiny 
income on which they Ijvcd, sn ificomc ihnt x-^rttd ftom week io 
wt-cV according to the t^rmjjoraty cmploynieni ht wai able to obainn 
Bc)ond tluE n^Cfij^Tc •tum tlicy each po»e3)cd llic dollies in ithJch 
Uicy stood, a fryinj^-pan, und a tittered n^ aiJlcd by courtcay IL 
blanker. Thae thing* were ibdr %o\< ft>rtunc, their only property; 
and John Evans' ri»mi4;i were tbeir sole proaiitcta. 

How it hud come to pAct that John Evans should have been 
Ab!c to »ink fto low a« to ^cer that cuiie or dii^treu «fl« not knov^n ; 
for thai particulfir secret be withheld from every on^, even frotn hf^ 
WLr& Communicative as the man could be, ncvci once did an in- 
cautious vrord betray ft ^liiTipse of th<; pint, and to the end of his 
life the eurutn of silence was dmvTi across the Hrsc few yean of hi% 
manhood- Hut tt cfss cbvjoua he hod been declined, hy cdueution 
4kt leoAt, for better things; that he h^ slipped downhill in^icad of 
tTftvehJng Alorg the llnr^ m^irkrd mil hy hh hirth, 

CUrs, on tlic (fthci band, bad nu nkjslciid in her tifc. The fjl^Ii 
dtviEliter of an tmpovcribticd cler|;yTnan, alie had been ditvcn into 
the iTOiId It ATI enrly ^ge and forced to take lier place in the labour 
m.trkct. As rrsidcni gmernen to suwlry hDii«rhold:« of unruly 
cbildrcn she had drifted from one pUcc to Another^ gelting cvcty 
year ft little more di^hesTtcnod Then her hoatili broke dotrn 
■liogethct, find when thc^ found herself an orphan, face lo face nith 
iha[ grimmut of grim tealilJcSi van t, her h>t remnant of courage 
and hope dledawfty. Two allernatjvcti loomed belori: her— the river, 
and the «treeli. She chnse the river, and made a paiheticaDy fmile 
attempt to (^scai* ffoni x wuild ihul did not ri-ciuirp hrr service*. U 
vhas John Evana* &rin that caught her, liik voice that finally soott-cd 
her feftPi fts, buUcving hcTKlf in the dotchot d a law ^t-hich decrees 
death by sian^llnn initead of the more mcrriful one by drowning, 
Tihc struggled wildly to cacipc ; and frum tl^t moment hht vroid 
became her dttight. Indeed, after having undertaken the rcAponsi^ 
bility of her further sojourn rn thit earth, ii teemed only natural he 
fthoutd ftt least aElcmpt the Herculean Ui^k of rendLrring hrr pathmty 
toTenbly free from bricn 

It iO happened ihat juit at that time John Evans had an ooctipa- 
tion which brought in ihc magnirieent sum of nine ihiUingi a week, 
Eveiy (lay, vci or Gnt', he oilghl be %tzi\ atruUing sluwly Along 
Piccadihy, attired in a couple of boards mscribcd '^ Her Toy " Uhe 
new piece at — ^^ Tlieaire) and acutely conscious of the irony 
of the fitEuation. This perfect compfchcnaion did not increase his 

/« alt Time of emr IVta/lh. 


pertoiut cOcnCod, and bis AttcnCiOD wu eterat]]/ on the ^i tm to 
(fel«ct ihi4 lAmc com^bension fn ihc po&icrt'L)'. Siill, nin« ibhillings 
«a& not to be obEAinedtnaiay olbcr way, and he wu fofCinJ lociiduic 
the »ttuation A3 bcAi he miKht. The question of vhAt con^litutcv t 
good income it I^t^^j 1 matter of comparitoTi. People xccutlomed 
10 n cou{rle of (lundml ft yt^r laiigtiie a tbouuiid pouruls to be tin- 
told tichc^ So, 100, siftcT literally nolhinic At all Jor acvcf^l wcckt — 
during vhich he would have been puuled Co explain how he existed 
— Jolin Eraju tegaided ihose nine shiliingt ns ^noujb to marry 
Ofi; forE^LUog a]wa>'s L^iat ihc cmplojmci^t imglti comu lo au end 
at any momcntf and most ccrtunly ivould not Icftd to utything 
more remimeraih^ 

I.ove is noi a monopoly of ihf ujip^t or more pnwperous classy. 
and during the f<»0 years oT ihcir married Ufc nothing could exceed 
the mutual devMbn of this Binnf-clymet, sEr^n^i^IymAied couple. 
His adomion lafgeL/ partook of ih^t avre n-hirh a man feels for a 
really good woman ; ftnd it wat peihap» due to hci influence that 
ba sank no lower alter ^c drilled into his life* But the qutrttion of 
bdtrv ftcUcenoe w&g an uphill flghi from tho vtry f^rst '. a long gfind- 
[ng stru^le a^iin^t the demon of hunger And cold ; nnd d>c iciull 
of the combal wis a foregone conduuon, John Evans;, tiardy in 
build and inured to fcuffering, survived the sirens cf thoso dAys ; 
CUra ditxl wilhin four years "f thrir (fftddmg d.iy. Dlntl for shrrr 
bck cf (iropcr food and wiimth, died sinnply because tbey were too 
poor to obtam the nocesiariett whieb might have &avcd her; and 
fiue^ in bi(tpr mockery, ordained thai from the moment of his wife'* 
death ]d^i\ Et^ns aliould set hii fool on th^t Lnddei vrhich leads lo 

Cbm wns dying, thi« much he Vncw, chat day v hen he tush cd 
into ihe s!rc«5 in order 10 beg— or slftil, M need be— the money 
which should render easier tboae laat painful hours ; money to 
purehoac a coap of bring lo waim the icy garret in vhiehshc la/, 
and 10 procure tome sort of noiirithment for hi« beloved wife^ Food 
had not paned her pale lipK for more hours tlian he cared or dared 
to icracmbcr 

As John £\'ans turned into one of the great thoroughfare* he 
fmrd a cry ol alarm raised, and saw a drivcrle^K baiuoin speeding 
tlong at « pace which was not only dangcrou* to its own &(eiy but 
aUo to the ftaftty of everything in the vicinity. The elderly fiira 
intide was incapable of saving himself from a situation whitli every 
isomrnt Im:iea«-d in peril; for the slack reins were in dflng« of 
beooAUAg entangled with the liorftos (cet, in which CMC noihi' 

\ a 


ti8 TA€ G^x/Z^rnan's Ma^azint. 



could avert KOmc lort or caUitropbe. The^e things Jolin Evant 
took mat 3 gldiux' — iiLiioiLcU ihrm as il vtviv ; und nilh [li^L tii< 
MinclivcKHK oTactioi) which \^ iKc inalienable biriliriKht of ever/ 
Ivn^listhniAn he HunR himteJf on the hor^c u it dithcd put v/hurc 
tic iiood. Kor levcrAl moments it appearnt uncertain wlioititrr or no 
be could succeed iu making itood his hold 4nd compelling tlic 
WimiJ to a nldnditill \ but al^er being fin>gg«d a little ^ay Along the 

d it b©cani(^ evidfnr he vns winning ihc victory, and in a com- 
ipacaiivcly short lime he tud managed lo reduce the trcmbl'iig hone 
to quietude. Ihe elderly fare (who promptly icmmbled out in 
mueh and uridigniflcd hattc) revealed him«clf ti ^ well-known City 
DiAgnatc of niLicli influence and even grcmcr pompousnrss. The 
terms in vhich he thanked the man who had possibly utvcd his life 
irere described by the reportere na heartfelt ; it ii certain lliat they 
Wetc well chosen and, im all ihr shnck, well delivered. 

Not oric of iSc reporters, however, failed tocomment more oi leu 
idvenely on the preset^er's extraordinary manner i and one went so 
braaioprophcfya fuicre in which gallaniry would run hand in hand 
with meicenaiy moiivc^ John Etans kIocxI the pntiseii fairly wet!, 
but hii hnjcc&Td eyes eternally searched the other man's face to see 
if a tip cf some sort ^«ai liMy to be forthcoming ; and vhen thii 
diily made its ;kppe-arnnrC| Ingriber with nn injunciinn to rail Liport 
the magnate at a certiiin hour the follo^ring afternoon, he fairly 
»naichei the «oin from ibc outstrotchcd lianiJ and LIcU away without 
so much Ai muxmunng an audible •■ Thank you \ " 

Dat, of course, the reporters veic nut Act^uamted with Cbn't 

Fivo minutes later, well Indcn with comrorta (for the tip had 
been suliKianiinl), John Kvnrs niched into ihc a:iic be called 
" home" — to find Cbra lying there de^d- 

Something broke and whirled madly in John Evans's brain ; he 
laughed until he cried, then laughed again. But from tliat day he 
ncdthtf laughed tior cric^. 

In the eniirfic of ten years hr h,id become a wcll-iO'do man ; at 
cihI of fifteen he believed he had ^t last managed to forget lus 
Fife's deathbed. 

So long a« that rvcolleetion remained with him, so long had he 
remained fiitbfitl to her meniory ; Ijut when lie inm^incd the colours 
had beg^n to fade from the Ivtunting picture it occurted lo his 
mind i\m he w;^^, as men go, stilt lu the prime of life, and that he 

/* all Timt of <mr Wtahh. 



probably hod many y««rs of tire before him. Alio thtt ihcrc were 
worse tilings to do tlun to perpetuate the nc« of lucceuful m<ti- 
Wiih these ccimidenrion^ in his h^d, h* accordingly proposed to 
and wM Accepted by MIm M«bcl Lumu only k\\M of ^a uiiAit;:::ri^ 
fa] bomstcr. Well to-do young Udics scorned John EvAna, with no 
pH IlillOiyt although llicy^ idniitc^ liis singular bete of rnmily v^« 
GDtMj \vk hi« fiivour ; bu: Miss MaU-1 Lun;i iras cl«ci<Jedly 
pconilctti AAd the pmpcct of a rich suitor v&i dai/iirg m the 

John Evans bad but one condilion to cnolce when hfi marned 
ai;atn, but >t wji:* tnic 1o which he &tc«idfA^y odiicieil, nutwith^ 
sun>ding the oiiEUinerLs of I^nn p'fn. He rcfiucd to ntftkc nny 
■ettknents, or to allow the future ^-ife any mont-y ofher ovtn. 

" 1 pn-ftT to fed she biu« asi mc for evcryrhmg;" he e^pTained, 
"ftnd after my death I have every reason to bdicvc she will be 
asiplf nlstel ntth the contents of my wiU." 

K[d pTOCpective faiher-in4aw did nor dAre to argit« the point too 
tons: be thandifutly accepted the lich suiioi as a diicct giTt ficm 
Heaven, and bade his dauf^htcr do the ^^xtic 

To this view of the caie ibe wi* quite inclined, at first; but 
after tho (int fi>w niomhs of ibrir wedded life h^d come and ^one 
>bc bcg;ui to ci;pcricncc jEravc doubta a« to ihe vaJuc of the 
heavenly gift. Their lirst di[fcrGn(?e of opinion, for itislaiice, hod 
not ci^ly been an onpleafani Mn^tlon, but it had somebotr left a 
naaty laate in the mouth. John "wiA different from what the had 
expected ; and thm new knowledge was not entirely m his favour. 
Indeed* nth«r the revervo. He had developed vaiious unaccount- 
able litile hablis, liEtle eccentricities that worried Ixr mii^d. It vat, 
«hc told het father, a» thou{;h watching the gntduAl evolubon of a 
tattle into a frog— and she had only w:ehed to inarT>- the tadpole 1 

Had there been anyrhing in hrr own conduct on which to base 
RxJ) A theory she would have imagined he suspected her of ftomc 
fault; but a;; she kne^r herself bbmclesH the pu^Ic only increased 
in magnitude. From betn^ lUghUy que^ at the Ume of ihcrr 
marriaoe <hef father had made a habit of invnriahly terming it 
eccentrjcX his bchanour slowly became still more <iucer as time 
vent en. By dcj^rcei he slowly vvoK'cd hiniKcU' into something yet 
more unreasonable, more dictatorial, and— simngcst freak of all — 
more nigj^dly. But only tcvards his wife was thi^ attitude of 
intolcfiLncc dispbycd- At charity's call he would freely nnhuiion 
hi* pockets ; no beggar ei'^r left the door as hungry as he cann.-. and 
orphans weft well provided for whcnercr tbey wcie brought to his 



Tht GentUmatCs Afagasind. 

nolico- His liberality Vh'U ft byvord amotig hU flcqiuiintinc^^ an^ 
hi« *r,ik pnniulily lowartls any tbiUl who luj Visi lioib [u.rrnis wjut 
^o well known ab to render hirn the object of relentless begging on 
Ihe part cf every oq>hiLn^c i^ England, Vcl m the £icc of this 
lilwmliiy \\^ gridgMl every pt-rny liiv wife spcnl, aiid constinily 
icmonatratcd with her for what he w*a plcxied to c*ll cxtmvaguit 
expenditure on her part. And to (uch on extent did this peculiarity 
grow that toon each rr«sh requiremeni \vas the »ignal for a domestic 


His wire could not comprehend such mcftninglcsa conduct 
Otben might hav« imagined his public chftnty wat an cstentatiout 
display of a virttie he did not In rrality po«sc»; bm, 9a th^ wa« icvll 
awjLTC this love of giving waj natural to ihc man and not in any ^^ay 
affected, Ihepu^^le rcmamcd unsolved. 

She knew very link Jibout hi* «iit1/ days, save ihe mere fitct he 
had bcGii exlrcLMcly poor and tlvit hi^ fiiM wire bad died o{ slic^r 
sUiTttion; the little details of the paf^t were a scaled book, and 
tlidr secrets were IcKrkcd in the breast of Ihe man vho had luEfcr^ 
ihc things of wliich ihey told. Not once did ahe connect this old 
tale with hU prcscnl unsaii^faetory conduct. Why, indeed, should 
she do so? But by dCRrecv »hc c.iti);ht hcmulf wondL-ring whether 
the frrvi Krire hod been tubjecicd to the i%\i\c treatnient as toon as 
the honey Mio&n witi ciTtr^if ibt^y lud had a lioneyEuuun at all— or 
trhcthcr the unkno^vn Clara had enjoyed more Iwppincss with John 
Evani poor than Khebcrschdid with John EvanK pro^peroiifii Qi 
course he lud not hern in a ^losiiion to d«?ny things En the other 
woman from sheer m*licc ! She knew just enough of her husband^ 
putto realise that many and many a limi: he had had lo stare stanni- 
tlonouiofeounr-^nance. I3ui »hr niked ln^neU whether, if the two 
viivcs liad changed phctrn, ahc would have furcd bcll4?r than ahe did 
under present eircum^tarcc?^ Had he always been hard on Clara p 
Had he visited Iri^Ln); crrori^ of judgment v^iUi unmerciful pnni&hmoi P 
Or had his onginal imali stuck (}f tendc^rneii and fttrbcraranc^ Ifcen 
cnhauited before he made licr {Mabcr&) acquabtancc? What vas 

Yet the explaaarion was not far to teek. 

When Julin Krans married for th<; second time he made one 
great miitakc ; namely, he fulcd to take into account the abnorsnally 
ttnaciouf memory he po&scssed. To iromo men thifi AcrC of memory 
is a blessing ; to oilieis it cum^^i ai a ciir^^. It wok the latter to 
John Rvans, The second mania^e levivcd ftvlingi long dormort, 
brought back recollection^; of the unhapp>' i^ast u nothing else 

In all Tim of our IVtaUh. 

cocid hjiTc done \ until at IcngiE sn overwhdmiJig tido <A ftffcction 
for C&TAi — cot MftbcL — swept crrcr bi3 f4;thrul hcirl and toolc com- 
plete posKssion of it- There wu no room Icr Anyone else: no 
IJUlc comer v:ican1 where tho i^oond wile might creep in and 
ibclicc Iienelf agam^t the ^tomi. N'o^ she stood outside*, alGne, 
itobledt ind ocpoK^ lo the full ruty of the bl^t ; axid slovly the 
taapM darkened the donneilic sky until no glimmer of healthy 
light remiined- 

MibcVi pretence raised Uic poor pale ghost of bygone years ; 
SDd the spirit of the past looVod terribly de3o]atc vrhca »c>en io the 
rieh light of present wealth. That old picture — the picture of ft 
woman lying dcad^ono: f;idrd ;tnd supp(}sed1y foTgotlen, flung 
itseir out m reneoed colouring and brilliancy. Forgotten ? Could 
ioch ft thing GX'cr be forgoncn t Fool Ihnt he had been to imagine 
ic CO deeply buried a« to be incapable of rrtunrctinn ! For the love 
be hid deemed buried for evct began to ttir aficnh in Iiis licarL. 
It put fonb ahy^ Eentaiivc firgcra ; and he did not shrink back tn 
borror fiom the touch of the dead, but rather welcomed it »iih open 

From tbb state of menul unrest tt was only x step furtbei to 
ttg>rd XUbcl aa an inlcriopcr, An alien. She became &n intruder 
vho «ai In hi« Ocod wifr't chatr and asiumrd righit that wrre CTara^s 
alone And if CUia couU not lake up the burde:n of those rights, 
surely no other woman must sloal them from her. These thoughts 
crept little by little into hi« mind. At fim he thrsink from them, 
not daring to f;jrc the queiiian^ they invtilred ; but ilowly, djy by 
day, be admitted them to hia bouily con»Jcr3Ljoi\ until they grevr 
to be the sotc things worth contempLition. In tvhat momcr^t of 
tnfiantty had he given this person the right to u^urp — yraij that was 
the rtsnrti lerni, usurp — the place of ihe hoxiouitd dead? And a» 
the word int^nily cro«ac-d hia fevered mind, a smaU thrill of cxciie- 
iMnt cfrpt dovm hit baelc^whyr ho could not imagine. But the 
wnni delightc*! him; he a'pr-iied it several times over, pleos^ 
u isa arxull child with a new \^^. Of course, that was it 1 He 
niust have been madi WgII* he was sane again now, and able 
to rodise the comequent^ei of paf^t folly ; OTily it appeared he was 
called upon to bear severe and unmE^Hied punitbuienl for ib&l 

John Enuit watched his wife narrowly Irom under hit sh^iggy 
c]rebr<vwi. What? Shediinjd to «it her fill, and CUira had often 
known vhat it was to be huiigiy ; dared to dreais in sofl nument ar>d 
warAi fjrg, while Claia had been clothed in raa;a and shivered with 



Thi Gtnikmans Mag&zmt~ 

coU ; dircd to Uufh, to ubm bcncl( vluk Oaii, ba Uottwd^ 
CUfi, hid esrpcncfkced bewtbccsk Kid wdtorm^X Thit 
bMwten the two tiliuiK«t Wldifamd lilBi bcTOod tndttnao^ 
TIm sooafi be fldorcd bftd dWd m tnUrr poverty : luin^ ind ID' 
(ULrftcludlGppedawKyfroiiia vofid Uuthftdnockiiovtibcrvorlik, 
titf loving h«ui B« itto^gk ba «M pot permluod lo im Omti 
«i« he ihcrdbfc to cndm iht iiontiap of a firi «ba^ if bodt^ 
before hcv mvnogc it lout bid r>c*cr cxmsc Uce to bee wiib tbc 
eiilig «l hMlooui pottttr ? He recollected thai pitiul death-bed, and 
Commted h ilwpljr with hi* promt wifc'i tuiunuvi ciUictice. 
Uabdhid prc4pacd oq the niiiu or anotba bfc— that U how he 
itg wt fc d the mittcr, 

Wbf could not the miiioMble h>ppcr\ and the dead rcturo to 
Ufli} ThU Ibonghi wu tnt the prelutle to yet amtber tttgc in tba, 
pin dnBi of tfie ntn'i ouier Elfc. To oboin % moaaeot^ respite 
from the moital luflcrin^ he bcgui lo cheat hiinsetf wiih ctrange and 
AuKiiu) hehefi^ knowing a1! the while they were but delu^Jonn that 
vould pfdcntly be ihaicered Tbc aoit//9w/^ ofa woman's tkirt 
pajting down the pasuj^c he vould tcU hiintelf wu Clara's prcJtcnce ; 
for it wu ail a hiJeuus mistake, and the had ncrer dJcd bu:, 
iruCead, bad lired lo enjoy the proapcriiy of hi« middle age. Of 
40WK i1 i*tt« Omt^t foot^ll he heard, noir paumK It^htlroTCfhcad ; 
be could not pouibly molce a mist:3kc in tucb a miiicr, forr he wocid 
TDCognute her ktep amongEt a tboimnd trtlien. No cibcr woman in 
the world bad bo dainty a tread, and. . . . Hush T she was coming 
downitain Bgain. Ah ! jping out, no doubt ; ind was first of ill 
coming ro the iiutly in order lo wV him to accom^nny her. But he 
mu»t rcfuM her thia once. Tbetc w^ busincu to do : he could not 
afford Eo idle wiih her, dclii;htful and lcmt>tinjE 05 the occupation 
might teem. However, to cotn^nuie for her di^ppointnicni lie 
would give licr A li-kndsoijR- trheqvic, uiid Ltd hrr rcIicvtrtlMr [it-ctMtlica 
of the poor in their ncighbouihoodn She was so pitiful, yet so wise \ 
■he wu nire to spend the money (o the btst idi/inuigc Those old 
} cars of agony and slmgglc had rot been fruU1c:«8» \{\.^\ all ; and 
CUm, once poor herself, would iindcrstftnd how to help those who 
aow tolled AJ she once toiled, focted a« sho once fasied. Those 

Ible dayi. . . . Ugh I truly, a nightmare f 

Then the Hlf'ps would pnusc otilsidc the door, ihc handle would 
gcnlly turn— and Mabd timidly enEcr the room 1 

The dream was over. And as the pendulum s^^ng back from 
Ancytofacti Jt>hri Evin\ wotild unJcrgo an insrani** agony* For 
i oioment his little world rocked about him, and, sKong as he was. 

In ali Tim4 cf our W^^lik. 



he fell diiir with i»in- Vet on ibe irorrov he would so lormcnl 
htan«elf b second licac; aikI ihc fierce ahcek^ cf icalis&tion ncra 
deiernd bim from irnlulgini; his overwrought bimin villi the cnl/ 
form of rcWef lie could l^nd ai hind toea^e in an^tilsh. 

liOCcr on he bc^n to suspect M^bcl of dating to [jlIj Chra f 
Not content with taking her place and adopting her name, the 
uiurpei miui needs plij- ihc woman »he robbed ! 'Uw utier bck c-f 
hum&aily, of decent feeling, in the deed shocked and apjialled hfm 
bcT04id expression. At last her true nature stood reveftled in all \V% 
bMcnesa, and he knew her for what ehe was wonh. Women could 
be cilloos, he kn^w ; bni this last irsull to Clan overleaped c\'ery 
bound of civil iutJQm 

And the litcJe gods oF fazc mocked as they noted the fire mixture 
<A fidelity and madness in the man. The blow that h^d not f3ll«ii 
thine years 2go W£5 surely filling now ; it needed hut a puah to send 
John Evans ovet ibc precipice. 

But he was cunning. He did not tell bov he hated her. Ho 
ooly WAiehed, and perred, and gmdged, Wwk by wt^k they drifted 
apait ; and vhibc he hid the Cicat Dctcrmi nation ffom her, she rc- 
maaned quiic unsuspicious of personal danger, although kccrly aEivc 
to the diccomfon of % uniatioii she could not undemand. It was 
a race between the awakening vX her fcv? and the futninicnt of hb 
terrible purpose. 

TbcjbrcuKbt bim hometodien There had been an accident, 
they C3iplained ; and, for the Kcond time tn his life, John Evans had 
played a noble port. 

In this, his hour of sore need, she forgiivc the wrctchcil past, the 
misery of her mflrricd life; and no one could ha\c been more 
tender, more a»sLduou« In her attentions. For tvi^niy four houn bhe 
watched by his bedside, reding to learo (he room during the tittle 
apan cf life that remained to him. 

Just Ixfore he dii^d a hcilf-initant of clouded ccnscioustteftS 
returned to the weary brain, and he made an eflrrt to sEretch out hi* 
hind. Ilia wife took it gently in het own and pressed it, a aign of 
mutual foTsiveness lor htunon shortcomires. A smile of peace atol« 
orer hit face. 

"CUrar he whispered And then he died. 



TAi GenlletMatCt Magazuu. 


TO all, we suppose, but the most superficial observer of the signs of 
ibetimcsilmusT ha\e been patent Ehac borne scencf)' and home 
35socuitio]i» luve of Ute years b^cn vrknc^^ting a ino^t tcmarkabte 
reaction ii\ their faroui. It b gratifying to note that your thorough- 
gmng glohe'troitcr is rot now in such a violent hutry a^ he once 
was to ru^h off and explore the Khinc before he had seen tlie Avon 
or the AVyc The Alpine Club can still boast, ^c believe, of ila 
mcmberf^ but there ia less ignorance amofig them than formerly of 
our Dvn mountains, hilU, and valleys. The Grampians and the 
OchillSt moreover fi^iti quite as nxaijy ardent voUii« as Mont 
lilonc or the Maticrhom ; and yet wc arc stiongty disposed to 
question in all seriousness whether, is Tom Hughcfi said more than 
half ft centurj ago, the stay-at-home rambTet sees as much as he ought 
to 4CC of the many gems which stud the Home Counties ; whether, 
forexample, a r^ion so comparatively easy ot access as what we have 
tttlttjred to odl the Sussex Oberland is even so much at known of those 
who love (o frequent the Ic^ visited legions of thccr own country 
with «yei thot aec and car* that hear. Despite the fact that \X is 
difliant ffotn the Great Babel no more than forty mUef, many a lover 
cf the pIctUTCS^juc would, we have no doubl, readily con firss his 
ignorance of its whcreaboutit and Hould probably be most agreeably 
■urpriEed lo find how soon hn might find himself at hberiy to 
roam at will throtjgh as vrild and luTiuriant a woodland district as 
hcftrt could with for, and to drink in those beauties which Nature so 
Uvishly spreads around^ if man will but be content to Ic&vc hei to 
her own wild luxuriance, 

Ah thai is necc^Miry fw him ivhocssaj'5lr:>rcvdtn thiscartlil^pata- 
diac is to quit ihc Ciowborough station, on the Drt^hion and Tunbiid^ 
WclU br:tnch of the South Coast line of railway. Thence, turning 
nharp to the right through Jarvis Biook, a |>]cA5arTt sttol) will conduct 
him to the ancJi^nt village of Rotht^rtield, orie of those hauni« of 
ancient peace Mill unsullied by Time's rude hand where llic toiler 


Gossip in ihe Sussex Ohsrland. 


from Lor>doa m:Lf rcalT^ fcol himself " Tat from the nciaddiitg crovd," 
in A iijioe vjing vith some of ihc i^wrctr^ undn ihe broad canopy 
of h^cn for licbncu., fertility, aj^cI «mpi]cil)\ 

Seeing that OUT ^oftsip wilt be scuonod wi'ih plcnlyof AntiquiTUii 
Jore» cul W frocn al! kinds of *Oiirc«Ss "c shall remtn<J our pElgrim tbat 
Ih^ pioftprrt cinmn];tiL(ltd by l!ic gcnilc a%cent up which hr midgei 
fomDft put and pdo^cl of tlic wide forest vrluch lb« Romtnt knew 
u Atidendflv^hich cloEhcd, and ttJIl, under the rianics of St. LconArd**^ 
Hlgne, find Ashdown forciU, continues to fblUc; no tnconsiderabM 
portinnof Ihclirccif dovnsof Suiucx,arcgionwhidi mKoiruin [imn, 
to an eT«n pcatcr eatcnt than now* i^ab emphatically one 

ftlU oi miti^ B lovely broMl, 
T*U ttttti cmn u-bonni *nd gioiiuad Rowflrt in fbcki. 

Aft sAcr tp rolled away, and nothing occurred to ruffle the 
hanoQiiy of tbo iccnc. The tcaiom in ihclr chun[<e ucrc allowed lo 
pass " uDfrepc, unlionouicd. and unhung/ fui lUe poetic facuUy had 
Dot become expressive in nun. Literature Siid no cxisEcnec- Nor 
had the rud« Biiion any mich viiion$ like thote his twenticth^cnlury 
posterity enjoy, a^ atiircc! 

]q woITi Bkio Ttrt, 
IfriQ lonrint vrilili ^ bud \^ down la ntt 
On the iMTc rock, or tlmmB^ a [eif)r taMtf 
L«okvd C» Ui cyn w«re cloKd, 

"But tltrctigh all those pastoral cunturics and Wyllic scenes three 
nughty genii had been alunibenng, unseen, lanlcnown, under the soft 
landscape. They were charcoal, Etcam, and froiL At length the 
Spirit of Progroa touchei) tlirm ^fXxxS^f wirh hrr wand, and Jmme* 
tnediaCcly tbr)r awoke to do sreat ihinga. The moaters of the world, 
vhoahrsT* knew a good thing when they ftaw it, easily recognised the 
>a1iieof theore embedded tn the ironnonc beds whirh fonn the tx%\ 
ridge, the highest part of which is Crtivfionjugh, awA ihry had esta- 
bliilied weeks in the neighbourhood as eaily a* 541 in the reigns ^f 
NerOk Veqiamn^ and Diodelun, pottery- And eoine having been 
found among extensive cinder t>cdt at Mareslield. In Ebe centurlca 
wluch followed the iron industry advanced by leaps and bounds* 
Ai «Ar)y if tbc reign of Edward I. iron was smelted in St, Leonard's 
For«s<,atid the Crown flubse^ucnilyaequiicd pOTAesilon of the wnrks. 
It b reoiaikablr ItJ note how inJelibly the ifon furnaces seem 
to have left ihemsdves impressed in the local nomenclature. The 
hammer ponds occasional] ]r lo be met with lervtr, tn t^triking contrut 
lo tbeif modem forlorn aipect, to remind ih« beholder of that 
inceMftnt noiic whicli, a* the learned anlkiuary. WiUiam Camden, 


Tii C^H/Umans Magaztne, 

as9f:rl£ m his dafs "night and dAj echoed Jill over the ncIghboLT- 
hood, when the mcidr^irs were converted into bkcs Jwd pooU 
to lurn millt, lo move bammer^, lo work iron.' Lamb«rbum 
furni^hrd the- Iron for ihc txilu^tr^Jii^ which suiioiind St. Piul's 
C&lhcdrnl, and it ffiu the furnaces or Buxtcd which ciul the fi»t 
Eriglish iron cannon^ o fact perpeiuated in « sorry but irtU-known 
local coupti^i running : 

M*>(cr lluGjtcEi and \\i\ nun folin, 
T^ir^tlJcl ru; the lint can^rHif- 

This w)tt!iy. TUTfili Hogectt* or Hogge as he is somciimcs styled, 
flourished in tho reign of UlulT King HaI, And the comrnodious 
dwelling. house which he tenanted while in the flcih, appropriAtely 
ite!ii£Ti4t«! Moi* H(iU3i^ with a hog, hia icbua or niint-Jcvice, 
otnamcnung the lintel of the door, is yet to bo *ecn. Traces of his 
r«nowncd foundry, too, exist hard by the parish ehjrch, and tho 
local rieerrtne Mill pcjinis with pride al Howiiaijrnc to the ancient 
baninicr posit ^ huge trunk of iron mcaatiring rinc and a half feet 
fn height. It i> amuting to nofc the contemporary dismay with, 
which the rapid development of the Sussex iron industry was by the* 
"unco giaid," in aotne quartets, regarded, Wiicacrei ^IjooIc (heli 
heiula, and false prophets like Archbisliop Parker were not slow in 
^'opinin8"that the "plague,'' as he called it, would Gnalty "breed 
much grudge and deiulaLiun," an opinion, niit unlike otheis which 
have beci^ recently promul^Aied in the »an:hc <:iuartcr, both clergy 
and latiy mdily agreed by eoinmon consent to ^out. Iron oRcrcd 
only IOC templing a TtL'Id for Kpeeutation, and "ihe hndtrd InErrest" 
thou]£hc ihai they vrould try thcii luck like the rest. Hence it 
was that ihc Pclhanwh the Montaftucs, the Sydneynv the Sackville*, 
tho Djicrci, yea, even the Fcrcyt and the Howards, were found 
ainktng Uirir otpitdj in lliiii tafe and paying euncecn. Thuh tlic 
nbole district hereabouts, by reason of Its proatmity to the rich 
Aahbumham beds of ironKEonc, became a veritable empoHuna of 
ironmorigery, of erdn:inc? mid andirtiiiit in panicuE^ir^ 

\Vc may ob^eivc tn /'OiStint thai the bcricb of Sussex andironi, 
which were fabricated of almost every imaRinoble pattern, mngea 
from the fifteenth ccniury to the eiglucenth. They deteriotated 
Bftdly ai liiiiF went on, like niuit guCHl things, but row iiiid A^m In 
old farmhouses you will »ec genuine specimens of thcAc \cnciablc 
and pietuic«<;ue articles of furniture retaining the poAition they 
have held for ecnturiet. ^Vhen Lower wrote, a act eiriated at an ina . 

Cpssip in tis Sussex OUr/and. 


near Ooittwrough, omuncntcd nitt) ibe eaiblcmi oT tbc SEitiili*^ or 
Eifricr'i occispAtion. Somciimct tbcir makers cmbos»cd then with 
lh< ajtQ$ of ilHf f:»t)iJi<fi for whom they vrcrc cav.. 

In ihc liinc cif Hli/^bctTi several Siiaac* fujnillr^ Kiel he^onno 
emidicd by the iron mJiDuracturc, ftncj a^aumcd the rank of gcf^try. 
lr«ti lad '* boomed," u our couunt acra» Ihc Aclaniic Edy, and 
nuKi meceafiiTIf toa Bui it was at ihcf «^iprt]ie of ihi; county 
timber. As early u 1575 a declaration «u laid bcfuue the Privy 
CoQocd complftininf; loudly of the vut conmmption oT oak in 
Sussex, among other couniiet^ *' Decay of timber " wu kid itt the 
<kxjn of the irooiviaaten ; and no wonder, if It be true that sbe 
Funucc ftt Luobcrhunr, for cramplc, wbieh, it irould uxm^ th one of 
tbe Itrgcfit in ihe county, consumed every yur as many as 100,000 
cordit or vodtL Slitl the forces comlnucrd to flourisb. 

UuriAg the acvcntcenlh cci^tury the Suiacx lion trade reached its 
Kreateil hciftht, and families not a few eonilnued to enrich them- 
setvei by the alchemy of transmuting iron into geld But the con< 
laoiptioti of wtjcMl wrjUt oa «c hive mdtcjilcc!, icrribli!, and rrndrtcd 
the prtMlitctioo of iron more cxpcrsi^'C than in tliosc locdlitiea ^hcre 
coal minet lay in cIom prosttmiiy to the iron ore. Tbi«fact iJti- 
matcly led 10 ihe decline of ihe tnduMry in Suinl'V, whkb tlowly but 
turely pA rid of the ironworks, and once more rct^ncd '\\x puiocal 
diaraaer* And did the airy footed iayz and elret, with whom the 
gnurefnl fincy of the Bard cif Avon pcopldi (lie forrst and woodland, 
sikd inu^jed oi "leioiciiig to bear the solemn curfcvr/' that they 
migbc bc£in their ^mbob and revels by iho pale moonbeam on the 
gnusy downA or tn the k-ofy gbdcs, crip merrily back again ? It 
may have been so, Michael D^j^ytcn. Slukt?]H:arcs i3}a%trioiis con- 
tcmporaryt Brmly bclie^'ed Ifut ihL^ charcoai -burners had banished 
tbe presence of the loir " daughters of the vcatd," as ho tenna them, 
and Id " Pdyotbion " he paiheiioiKy oxicrti that the wood nymphs 
and aylphfi pcKciring the advent of an "lro:i Age" stcihhjl/ 

Fonvxk Ihrlf ctwfn>- boic^n ftM wni^frcd ^r t\inad, 
EipcU'd Ubrir ^uiTt mtt uid |iUcc4 of jtborle. 

Bc tKat a« it may hive been, ibe huge gToving furnaces, tike the 

' InhabUonts of Canaan, " by little and Itttlc " were albwod to cxpi/e. 

and the clank of the ponderous hammcn no longer re-echoed 

ifafough Ihc fore^ glades. Ihc last loce of tmuttyfjiceJ charcoal- 

burners, like Othello, perceiving "ticcir occup>ation gone," ttitncd 



iiS The GffUUnutn's Magasitu* 

tbeir aiicDlion to smuKgGa^ aod luodrcd pui^uks, A^hbumhAin 
VM, wc bcUcvc, one of the laA pUcet in the countf where in iron- 
ttuui«T re%id^, and i»h«r« forget gave efaplo/onent to tlie counlry 
folk. But ti mou not ho ToigoUca ilwl ;he iiontionc \\ asabuDdant 
4J ever, and that there are <or were) thcoc who ding to the bopc tW, 
if coftl thouM ei'er b« dbcover^ in Any i^ery cortf iderable quantities 
in Sussex«smoUIng operations miy be n-vit^ed; to whtcb bope itl ve 
h^vc to uy i«» ^^irV innrfl / 

This digTcuLon has, of coune^ led ua very Dtr awiy from Roibcr- 
field, but it should wrre to hHght^n the contnm hetireeti the 
Rothcrfjcldof lhc"iron"ftg4; and the Roiherfidd of lodaf^ We 
ate quale free to admit tlut Rotheriicld U by no mcona oo picturesque 
U ftOOM of the Sutcex villaget whicli nestle amongit lovely fccncry 
on Ihe grpy tc-uhc* of i!ic HnwrK, and cast ih^rEr spell over %W 
who vide them. But it i», happily, innocent of the iiriutiDg up-lo- 
tfoto "additions" which .nrc invadmg £0 many of our "Sweet 
AiibuTTis" in ihwe dclintiu* diy« of iinivcrwl Jerry -budding, end 
thus gradually n>bbing Uicm of tltal Ihutoughly i^d-wc^ld chAr^ictvr 
vhicb, in our eyes at least, coitttituceB their greatoit chimi. Such 
" adJiuont "■ arc, wc thinks altogether om rf fUcc ao^ong forc&ct of 
Oflk and binrh <-uid among upUmI ^ind hiUMdf? jurncrj-, 1,iri inch 
spots 01 thcac be for ever SJicrt^ to the sunny homeslcod and tc the 
I^ctuftsque formhouac, wjth >u quaint gables and >ls deep dvk roof 
of Honhim iilc«. 

Ily eIic erudite Lower the n^unc of Koihcrficld is dcriixd frooi 
two ^\nglO'Sa»on words* Koiherantfold and Kcdrefold, due tc tbc 
fact thai iha river Kother, the chief wati?rshcd in this port of 
EnglariJ, laken iu ri^ in thr cellar nf one of rhr tnttiigr^. In thia 
peaceful tctrcic, in the dayi of the Urctwalda, lircd a dougliiy Savon 
"dux/or "ehitft*in,"rcjoicmg in th« ninie ol JJertoolduA. Once 
he feli eery ill, ftnd the loctl Galcni had the candour to confess thac 
noLhin^ cuiild be done for hini. Somebody, however, auggcatcJ a 
trip tc the n^onattery of St. Hcnys and Si. Ekuthcrius, near Paris. 
which enjoyed a widetprcad rcptiiatjon for cure* and faitti-hcaling. 
Thiiher he hieLl biin, and. lUe buiic^i of ecriaiii auinta having liern 
lulled lo hia ofHicted body, he woxc-d well, and returned home, tothe 
Ulonbhment of hie kjth and kin, no le«t than to thai of his tenantiy. 
In graritudc for so astoni^iing a cure it vas hul meet thai Betioaldus 
ahould turn his iliuughts to chutth building, mid deposit the few 
relics nhidi he had brought back with him undci the foundations 
of A church which he erected in honour of St, Denys m 793, 

By 4II acrounts Sl Deiiys mu*il liate been a. tnuvd Cm Vns \\iahai. 


for local mdjilon sim tsttrts, on vhai ^ihorHy ve hai'e never b««ti 
Able to discover^ thM 

St. Denyt h^l hit tioJ cut ufT; 
He did noi cue Ear thtt : 
Hv lonk it vfi| '^H ramcd il 
Two milot wiihoiAt s bit 

— A vcrr remarkable achievcmcot, il must be cdndidly coarcascd, 
€¥«n for day? when mtwt, boih u^alc and feimle, were conspicuoiw 
Tdt tclirving the tn*>!ioTony of ihcir fasis and vlgiU by cxperimcntt 
in AaiEnal magncliicn and fcjits of Ifgcrdcmuin. 

Rotherfield Churcb occupica an exalted po&ition, and 11 coo- 
Kqumtly, OA the Merry Moiurdi s^iJ of Harrow with fix Kpirry 
czowDed bJI, " A visiljlc Chui^h." It xi Aoitby of mcniion thai k 
poiSOiKI «bal you will seldom bcc in Sastcxi n.irneiy, jin cmtotkd 
tover Earmounicd by a shingled spire. SediliiL and piscina :t\%Q 
ciut in ibe cluEiccl, together with a cbuitry, nhich w^is oitce ourned 
by ibo KcvUkfli On the oralis, among other vc&tige^ of old time 
punting, concealed by vhiicw^i^}!, ire a representation of tho 
uwtyrdoon ufSc. Lawrence and aume rt;ali&tic iUuMniCiofiii uTccttoin 
poioU of ChiUtun cschatoloj:/ assigned to pre- Re for mat Ion txmci. 
Tmces of moiuflic bujldings have been d[R<:overcd in the viilogc, but 
are dtftliciite of any very special fentun~£ of inleresi; dchLT for the 
biMotiati or tbe aj^tiiiu^cy. Noi should we fof^ct tli^ it aacd 10 be 
said, tftd ITG believe b sometimes sllll t^idi thai the women of 
Roberfield are taller than thoie of any neighbouring villa^e^, and 
thai they are also endowed with an additicmal pan of riba-^a meriy 
concdt tniJy. 

An inCcrcfiting rcUc of the nov remote '' iron a^e/' when I^c-thcr- 
ficld WHS a vtry clifTerent pL-jce from whal it is row, h;is survtved in 
Ihc ^idpe of an ancient luan^^i houac Lucalty called " \VuIUie\" or 
"Welches,^ frOD3 the name of iti first Icnantt. \x\ tbc time of 
Edward III. a family nacvcd Fcrmor, r>attves of Picardy, settled in 
RoUkcHiekla and in cuur^e of titiii? miiuA^trd wL'.ilLb u*t iiumnastrfs. 
Heniy of the ilk, probably a« ibc ksuIe ofhis known f^mi attachment 
to tbe houic of l-ianovcr, waa ereated a baronet in tbe reign of 
C^^orge 1^ and expended some pait of Ui^ riches ia amelioralin^ the 
MtjLfcry of the people vrba served bicn, Both the Fernior school 
aT>d the parish church of Crowborou^h were budt and endowed by 
bflcn, and bU iDUnifiocnee further extended it«cLf 10 private benefac- 
tions on a large uale. 

Jt 15 to Crow borough, some two miles diMant, that ve will nc>w, 
^/cwJx^Mvc, weodoar irxy. l'2usc, AS jTrtl gcoily a^cend^ t^o* ilA 


The Gtnthmans Magazine. 

then xo loolt around you, and you will be amply rowftrded Say 
ai your peril tliai the cx:*niivc views yon mmmani) nrc lo be 
surpttiicd in the Souib of En^Unct- The Icumcd in place nornctrck- 
tuTc aucrl that Crowbof ough signifies the place of crowA, thcac dutdty 
manuders having in former dayt lenAnicd m huge (locks the tall 
ticcsof ihcBwcQii, whcnrc ihcy «lcicendcd topcckamonif thcivccl 
and wholcsoruc piulurc^ below \ some of wJj:ch, Ly the way, actually 
furni&hed th« Hour thai wxt uljli&cd by Cttj-tter in making the 
bride-eakc of our moKt Gfaeiout Sovrrelgn \A(iy» Queen Viciorii, a 
fact of which Crow boroughians arc justly proud. Until ihc beginning 
of thir eighl^nih ecnt^iry Crowborough lormed an integral portion of 
Roihcrf^eld, where even yet all *octry meetings arc required to lake 
pUcc, and hus liiit liltlcvi&ited by the outer world. One impediment 
to communicatjcn must have alwaj^a chimed in the condition of the 
roadft, at any rate in the winter Bca*on. The mire tnuit have l>ocn 
the p[*i^ur of ihr? whole county in Cuiuline and (loitgian time*, 
EvcT>' iravclki cried ahame upon it, aa wc know Trom only loo many 
incidcrlAl refercncca in the pages of contemporary liicraturc. To u« 
it hw alw.ays been a perfect marvel how the r^itive* contrived to get 
about at all; and yet wc know that ihcy did, and when the itun 
industry was in ita heyday the amount of vehicular trafiic muat have 
been very considerable in t^ trarij^pcn of goods from place to 

We arc by ro means prepared to say that to \xry mucb improvc- 
motit h&K token place in Sutscs highways and byways in the two 
hundred years or more whieh have e1a[Hed lince the iron indu»ry 
died out There art? dlfTimUiei with the soil \ tlic atone near at hand 
ia by no meant of the bcM suited for road makin;; purposca, and 
what noutd be suitable costs much to bring from a distance, and 
tbeicfore in tlic Subaci Obertand ilie viittor in wtt wc4lher U undci 
the nccc^Aity of "walking cifcuiiia[>cclly-" JlcncCi loo^ the justidca- 
tjon of a dcrieal friend who cautioned us on a rcoenl ^isit to the 
locality not to lose ounelves in the mud, of nhldi ihere waa, we must 
candidly confc!i3, aoinc danger. 

Dr. John Burton, an antiquary of no small note in his gcncraiion, 
in the erudite pages of that very intercsTin]! book of his called 
•■ Iter Surrien:*e el SuiwuSensc/' dcelarcd that the nmj had, by sotzjc 
mysterious proccu inoculated ihc rustic population of his day, and 
was largely responsible for the boorithnvA which diaracterised no 
inconsiderable portion of iho^e he m^t We will quote his iptitiimi 
ver^ lest wc ftbould expose ourselves to a charge of exaggeration-^ 
**ATmiscTO$ mcu/tov simpljcesquc poit^tcbatuttv ittu "va ^tK^^vvSA 




Gt^sstp m the Sussex O&eriand. 


atque Georgici* uoic^ T^natoc, rooribuc cE inttituiis, pcrindc jic 
CppcribM. nj^icx)^; turn <Ii«ciplin3o ocadenicse turn urbinitr^tum 
vciCiAruiD Lcndlrtc&sium proisiiji tudcS'" Wcarcqailc nurcthai ih^ 
^ nspccCabic " pomioin or society rcstdcstt in ihcSusacx OI>erLmiI oo 
longer nctit mch i chmci^r ; but wi± irc not so aure timt th« " lower 
0f<ten**arc not cliarjictetisc^d b/ much of the prinitlive ^tfv.'i/rv. 

Put ii dovn, if you like, to ihc credit of the CDoibined \n* 
Bu«nc«i of Lhe frvd, the hilb, the bog», and iKc forcdi«. stiTI 
there it is» and ih^ r\iMH:iiy vhicli f nd« an ineKh^uttibtc thcmo 
for mcrriincnt in the ai&ht of a silk hat oi the ^irangt^T from l^ndoa 
if yet rnnjunt. Neither the Kermor charity school nor the Board 
•cbool bu entirely succeeded in dissipating that " fidelity to en- 
vironmeni^ of which some profess themsch« so enam^^iured; 
tnd in former d:ip won for their proi^cniior* the icrm of 
"Wfldiilien" in other p»m of the county. We do not know of 
any tcene heiirr fiired for an ovprnrmughi brain to rest upon than 
the fine prospect which is commanded on a bright clcai day ffotu 
tbc crest of CJrcwboroijgb IJeacon. It is thnt landscape to which 1h« 
den liand vid bcilc bru&h of a Copley Fielding would abne ba 
capahle of doiitg an)lhii]g like ftde(]uate jtuiioc. Taking yoLir sLind 
here, you are at an altitude of 776 feet above the su-lcvcl, and on 
tbe fifth htgh4«t point in the county. Should the day be very bright 
and dear, jou will liave ro need of tlu: |jdeicia{K^ to rnnble you 10 
diACCm the >ca at Eaatboumc, some tvv^rnty miles ofT C/AJing «ouLh^ 
the boundary of your horiion it formed by the range of the South- 
down Hills, while on ihe ri^jht you are overlooking Aihdonn Forest 
in the direction of Hampshire. Oei tbc left, caAtvntrd, lies Ticebuist, 
in Kent, while in a north-westerly dircctioti a portion of Surrey 
prcMMt itself- It ifi, in thort, one rost region of cnpfic and vood 
mibowering on sandy knulK whence, " bu^om lii^b in lu^i^ trrcs," 
many jl village churdv with its ahingled aptrc pccpa out. Gintinuing 
your walk you «ill reach another romanEic spot, known as The 
Wanen. Here a itone slab let into tlic tuff marks ilie 5poi where 
indayi of 701c the beacon-firci vrcrc lighted to herald the inland 
teittcns of the approach of the in%-ader, and to ^\^ the sLiarin to 
Other counties. Vast quflrtiiie* of fuel ^xrc *tock<'d in the viciniiy 
Cut imoiedntc use, aiiO ic v^u here, when the Iniirtciblc Armada was 
sighted in if^, tli*t a vvamin;; tbre ^^-a!t kindled. 

Other resoarkable features of Tho Warren are the %-asl cinder- 

bed!^ indieaiing i?ic cxic[n 10 whlrh ihc charcoa]-biumer» In iho 

pftlmy days of the iron industry plied their tacntitc odlHn^m 4a 

t/Kriaifjr of this nQpr peaceful icxrzil, 

JIM- cc.rcij: Aa ao^$, . 

TAf GtniltmafCs Magasine, 

Kyou havcflny mind to follow the downi, W€ wiU promise you 
abundance of gnc^eTuI, untpoilt Engliih bn:3£CApc, with Aljnii^ pcf- 
fuiiK;^ hatl lliat ipiciou^ric^a utiicli ii iiiu^Ll)' ^hHXuk'U with ^ry 
hcighlA. There arc chartninjc k^acIci and ihickcEs, and how one coay 
lose hii ya.y in i stricUy liniiied ipac« iit a tbing they wjU demoiutiaLv 
«xodl6nt1>' HcU if Lhc rambler irlll uixJc-rukc lo (a[\ in wliti ilierlr 
hiimoar. Tot here the Und is innocent of County CounciU aod 
Bumbludom. Human Arro^noe do«« not thrcatvn you on sign 
boards with uW Rorcs of flctiiioiu Ihrcsits of pains And pcna1ti>rs and 
hciCi AK you look around joil, yoii g^l an excellent oi>jccc -lesson in 
all Ihat external mauifcitatiori of N^iiuro ^hlch oui grcAt i^nridfixtherB 
b ihcir grandiloquent moods were wont to Icrm " smiling/' and many 
ft pertinent iDu^tntion of vtut Ben Jonaon meant when he Mid, 

It U ftlmoft ft trubm to uy that Nature when left to hciKlf change* 
but little, ihou^h ihc iig« roll on. TniCj the beauly of wiUnesa v\d 
dcvolfttcDGM la broken by ^]imp?ici of culiivalcd fiolda u:d the smoke 
of uiueeQ bomoMeads among the trees, but the sticAms mill lloi* on 
» of yore^ loxing ihcmKch-es in the wood?;, cfldying round and round 
in llie deep d^rl piiaon-pooU of their onii iiLLkLiigt and dtcQ 
cxftpinK over shallows and ledges of rolled pebbles, left dry in the 
summeT, and on which the lunlighl rests and the shadows of the 
becchcA play, bul in y/\nici cliafed by the torrenr. 

Wc very muchqueiiion whether the woodlnndUcatintatcdarighl, 
or it* true worili ever known, until some favourite retreai i( levelled 
to the gTound, nnd the ihnii^hdrfit mc ifuWy forcr.'J to feel tlie void 
ftnd the irreparabtc KOMof bbnkncs* whi^h remain. Amid these 
scenes the Jmagination is tiimukitcd, and li« who can appreciaio 
that subtle Kpirit which di^nngniAhcfi »;nmr of out griMtrst hards— 
Shates^iciLTc's peculiarly jo>ful gUJtw:** and deep melancholy, and 
that of Shelley ftnd Keats and M'ordtLwarth^ to uhoni the forest 

like a iIiHln 
Or map fif iTie whrCf world ; Ihmghtu link Ijjr link 
tntrr ihrtugh *»« and ey**i|>li(, \^itii *uch glmm 
Of oil thingi ihiL AL lut in Uu I duj^k 

— muu (uunt the Sua«^eK Oberland. 

In (he long woodland aitlcf sctllci that depth of shade not lo 
be depicted by any puncil, and that colouring whicli no canvat can 
retain, a* the sunlight pierces through the green web of Icaret, and 
^jogsi, AS h sc<St a c/orn of gold round caich iie^ \3i»u\u 


G0tit& in tki SussAT Oi€rh9nf^ 


A» yo\x thread yoaf wiy <ach path seems to c^ooc bcKind you, 
thutting you out with its silent doorways from alJ not«c ftnd turmoil, 
vhileifae fioft green light r&IU ever^^lim reccct and doq^ens cacb 
palUrcd ^c, ftnd the giauy I^Qcr &cc^& to be pa\-«d wiili the; golden 
no^aic of the i;unlt£hL 

Hen;, ftsoo^hurc else, the winds which blowopfrom the C^nncT, 
only iveniy^fivc miles df^tani, strain and lOTtufit the fdneuy boiighi; 
of the oftka. Change » perpetually golug on. Every thowcr and 
gLeun of sunshine ttii::^ the trees with colour, from the subduodtonca 
of April ind May, ihroug?! ihe detp green of Jun*, to i lie rusietrcd 
of AUluma Wiijit vroiidci tluti &uch iccncb h&vc Mippllcd a theme 
for some of the finest Bights of the local bard! The soughing of tbo 
wJnd through tho pines on a boi&ttjrouv morning in May i^ould 
iuiBce lo lum the moat pro&aic soul into sometliing of a poet for ilio 

^lect it was that these pastoral scenes and sylvan shades should 
hn% been selected, In the late autumn of t8$5, as a )a«i retreat for 
a vaieUldinarUn wlio^r imcriL' and Uuic ihi: world will Jiut uilliii^jly 
Id die^ Heed it be said tb;it we refer to Rich;ird Jcifcdci? As all 
the ttorld now knows, he was one to whom the birds and beasts, the 
fieldt and hedgerowf, revelled \\\v\t choitti^i socTcts, for whom ibe 
plint^world wu inspLicd with conacioLisr^c:^, and upon wbo&c 
rc^poruii^ ima{(inaiion (be skies, the rcph^Tn, and thu ivaten played 
at upon an ,1Colian harp. Unlike the proiafc waggoner, Peter 
Belt, to «!]om 

A pfirariae Ly the riv«rV Lrim 

A yellow p(imto« wm lo hiuij 

^^L And it aw iKftliJniE mucv, 

tottim, ON (o the fake Tlard, 

The mtonsi Somr thai Unirt odljM give 
Thovcha thiit dio pftcD lie loo deep for lc>o. 

Througboat life JeS^eries paid untwerving homage; to Nature, and 
uaod ill the resources cf simplo doiiticncc lo inspire a love of her 
iDCthoda \fx th« bteut of that particular section of the reading public 
10 vhich be specialty addressed himselt 

Jellericv ^irly delighted in blue ^klcs and viM^la cloud«. Gifted 
with the skill of an enchanter, xy one eminent critic of hl^ works Im^ 
otwcrved, he tron-'^ports his readers into the midst cf a green English 
btkdKape, where the twallcws are skinnining tlie cornfields and the 
buttnflics are Duticring amon^ ihc wild f^owt^rs, vkhere the cbajRu^clv 
if <hin>ins frcm the cxj^ading oak-tree Icai-ca and \hc «aU:I \\ 

1^2 i 


Tk4 CentUmmt Ma^uru. 

El'ng in the fi»n«htnc T( \s mrtancholy xo ihink that Jt 
eon»picuou« mciits vcnl so »ignal!y unrecognised in hi* Ufctimc. 
Wc have (lol thc! l<^!it duubt Ihat wbiic Ibis rtcbse wia ati^in^ and 
■ tvproducmg vitti siloiosE pliolograpbic Tninutenen the phjrstod 
atprcts of llic coiiniry and ihc chjiracic ra of ihc couuir/ people, just 
at lifetime vhcn ihc townrt deemed to hciTc fucuswd upon tiiem* 
selves the national liU*, none of hia nL^ighUouis, beyond jMrhapB tht 
pMftnan wh<5 brought him his diiJIy budget or Icrtcrt, were cvef k> 
much as contCLOU) i^f liis c^iitcnce, «o true it i5 that ihc world if 
content to live on in ignorance of its bt^it and truest men. 

Jo fc'v in our generation has it been given tc quicken otif 
appreciation of e:itcrnal Kature. the wiElingne»a to learn from her, to 
put confidence in her tcnchini;^, (o enable them to be«»nc ihc 
ioheKted poflsosiion cl atl rui^n, and to form a new iind wider basie 
Tor thnt cffortle*i* perceplion, with all \x% rmotional aymhese*, in 
which lic3 the vccrel of ihc poetical TepTesciitaCiou of hci moods. 
None hare ever entered deeper than he into the spint of IhcK 
1n«pinn£ Uot* of ClougU : 

Swcel b die tcvc which NiUnrE brines 

Our mcddlini- ln[c!lcci mluhcipn the hidden ntmi of iltlnffi. 

Cmvff fcirlh »i[^ hi*, and ht\T\^ ni[h j^n 

A h»rt tint 4jil;lLe4 huO rcecivcL 

A^'hut a kindred spirit Wordaworth would have reeogniied t 
poor Richard Jcffcrics had they been acqnainicd, and what inl 
ing conventions they wouEd ha\c hid in thai lowly herniitnge, happily 
sttll emitting, called the "Downa^*' where he wrote ^evcmi papers 
deecriptivo of the ftccnca around him, riotably *'The Hours of 
Springs" ihr Ixil which he tiddly penned, sirknrm ol>!ijjing htm lO 
employ the services of an anianuenais i '* 'f'hc (Tountry Sund.iy/* ia 
which KoIheificZd ftcenct and people are limned ; " My Old Village,' 
"Swallow Timr," *' Buclihurtr Park," " Jtitl before Winter; 
" Collage Idea*;' " April Gossip," " The nnie ^^X V«r/' and '* Mined 
I>Ay» of May and December ! " It wa» at the " Down«," too, that 

iposcd the very pl^^ing v-erjca entitled ''My Chaifineh," W. 

quile Mire tlial that uxLellent divine, the KciTrend Cilhrrt 

ite, aj moining by mornitjy he goxcd forth from the study 
windows o£ his fiequcsttred teclury of Selbornc among the chdilky 
downs of H:impshiie, never longed for the blat advent of spring 
more ardently than this firvid imprcfiMonLst Tor him llic spring 
twj as Ormu;Td in the Persian mytholoiiy, " the light- and lifc- 
Jn one cf bis prose \dy\U \w ^e\\\ %s ^dX ^ \^k«n% ^ohiri* 


Gtusifi m iA^ Stissix Oi^rland. 




ffi^nch t tons wlnl^ AS ihit of 1SS5-S6, but at Uit, wh^^ they 

ccaiM vail no lortgcr, with lotc stronc in ihcii ItlUc be^ifU. Mrtmgcr 

than the vrinto', the Iftrlu ouig hif;h tip agiiirsl ihc grey cloud over 

tbtf rro«T-bound earib " and he longed for wings ihat he might «cflf 

op with ihciM. A* he ucpifonh Oil liis soliuiy midday t^ii]iE4:rs 

ground CroH^borcuKh, he tclli ti^ il wiu n joy 10 hin^ 10 note die- 

ftitl; ind lovingly diy by day tb« sccd-leavcs on the mounds in the 

ihellerfd phce« thai come &o tsrly, ihe puxhing up of the young 

gmt tbc succulent dandcllor, the coliAfoot oii the heavy thick 

dodfl* the trodd<ti chidcveed dutpi»d at the foot of the gAto-post, 

*' » common ind itmll, yet so dear to me." " Every blade of gnus 

was miiie," he toniiiiucs ; " ihcy weit all my ycl^ I loved ihcm alL" 

Bui bis djtyfl were ahead/ numbered. Disease bad |EOt the upper 

hind, and be knew it. ^Vll through that keen and dreary winter of 

1SS5-&6 — we well rLMi>enibffr ivlui it wai Innirat districts— his gentle 

ipcrit horered betweeo Lfe&nd death in that lonclyllltlc cottage, and 

MWiHime*, a% he tells us in ''The Hours of Sprinj-," he really 

doubled whr-Hher tht \'oit*es of returning spring would ever again fall 

upon hia car. Tbc privilege was. bowcxtr, not to be denied, tod il 

waa "ritb a joy *rK:ipfc»*iblc that the poor sufferer a» he ky on hia 

cooeb heard the blithesome malm of the rapturous thrush in the 

adjoialrg hed^F and " the ^wur^brttr wind rushing over the young 

grau." Unhappily, the time was toon to come when it was " only 

thfouxb 1^ window-pare that he eould see the brlc high up agamac 

the grey cloud and hear hi* long/' " How hnpp/," he Jhi?n wrnr, 

"the lrcc« mu&t be 10 hear the song of the hiids again in the 

brocicbe* ! " Yet in hii cyca to the rery laat Nature ww " alwaya 

beautiful, everything beauiifuL" ^ 

Very little change has passed over the scene since the month oT 
August, iSSTi when the poor woid-artisl wai laid quietly to teat in 
Broadwoter churchyard. Men have eome and gone, your " modem 
<Jwe31lng«,"youT" bungalows,** and yotirviltas sending in iHrir fittu 
patk-Hke ^^to\xo^\'* hitvc i^pning up hkc »o niajty mnishroom!^ on the 
aiecp asocni which lead* up to Ctowbcrough Town from Jarvia 
Brook, and poinibly the scholani in the Fermor school may have 
bad tOTiie ''additioHiil &ubje<'t\" kindly addtd L-y "My Loid* of 
the Coniimilcc of Council" to the mtftcry and buidcn of ihcir live*- 
XuC much remair;;, for Dame Nature, as one has uid, ic able to 
b^hion many a gcrteraikm from the snme mould, and he who nhnulO 
attentitrly look for tbcm will st^cand hear the «me iweei'* rural 
ligbta and sounds " which Jcifericft loved so well and whort 



The Gentleman's Magattne^ 

he bos analj'scd vJlb such 

mptenuus influence upon raanLliid 
micrcacopic CArc- 

Amofig the npidly pcrliLhinj pertoiul recolleciioiis cf Croir- 
boTQugh folk ir« Thrue ci>:inccEi.'il with smiig'^ing. Not thnt there 
are aoy ilcnii^a i^ow livJiig who look pift In tbc busincM ^ but they 
know ftU About it, fcr \or\^ flflcr the great (tor huge quiiuitilics of 
lace, Kilkt, splriEs, and toW'CO conlir^uctl to be tecrL-lIy tanJed on 
lbs Susiicx ^jLouit! ni Brighton, Woflhhi^ Eastbourne^ and other 
spots, borne thence inland \yf icanj^s of the most crtUous, desperate 
ruffians, who were loeally known as " Owlere," One sucii rkotoriout 
" TCpository " fot deposjttng contraband merchandise was Crow- 
bo^ugh VVarien, and at Icisi halfa do«cn well known apots in the 
imtnediac^ vicmicy, the dense heithcr and undergrowth oiTt^nng 
tiorlviUed advantages for the concealment of tubs barrels^ chestfit 
and au»k& The Isolated coLia^cs ;ind alehouses harboured kcp of 
rufo and brondy bencaih ihc hauth or in the ^tables and outhouKi^ 
urIoni?lycop*Le Adjacent^ Old inhabiiams of Crowborough can recall 
ihe time when, at a wetl-knc>wn louil becrlioux'-, dill xtsudtrg, and 
trnmrn n\ the " Crcm and Gate^" " boitlcd moonshine " in xmugglii 
wu-lfliiee— ihttt U to itay, ipiriis of ihe fin«t quality— could alwayibo 
procured for the asking. Utspcraie ircountcrs between the rcwru* 
oCliccra and the smugglers occurred on ihc Conhnaon and In Lhc 
Warren. One local filory tclU how two detpcmdoe^ known as 
Ciippa and CSnger, fougbt with an <;KCiseniari whom they had 
encountered, nnd go) ofT unscathed, A second rclatci how n^nother, 
known aa "Duke" Read, by reason of his arUtocratic presence, 
fotight hand to hand viiEi the oHiocrv of llie law, white hi& cowardly 
camjKtnioTiti iu ftvir and trcmblinj;, hnd mrrcalrd ihrm*irlvci in the 
bruahwood. And how on Another ocr^^ion the same nun outwitted A 
<loxon revenue olhcero, who had dj^tgui^ed themselves and attended 
local fair for the cxprrw purpose cf laying the rascal by the heels. 

Childicn and woiiirn ^^rre AppicriLiircd to every rn mi (Joaiion of 
this nefanous bu^inca^ and long after the contrabandist, ai legit' 
lation innocently imtig^ned, had been " &::otdied " by the law, cork- 
cealcd flilk rxisird in otitis fthc way corners of the neigh bouihood. 
Within the memory of persons who arc still livijig lhc Uwlcisness 

f the population wan r.udi aa almost to execed bchcf in these more 

rotaic days. 
There is a tradition ihal when f^ord Mvcfpool w^5 living at 

iMted ?ark he h:id occaiign to attend a veairy meeting at Rothcr* 

idL During the proceedings an animated ditpuie arofte becw«eii 
lTH and some local blockhead. From words the pair before long 

Gossip in ih Suss€X Oherland. 


cutie td blowt, and Lord Lii^rpool'G amaxemort miy be imagined 
at Tccviving fiom ibc bmvny fi%i of hii anKtiluiC a blow by which he 
wu thrawQ flflt on hu btck to the ground, Stnngc 1o sa^, the Eul 
declined 10 ptoiecuie iits usftiUnt, ftnd stibflequenUy for some 
o&eicptAinrd rrnon maflr hrm hi^ jpmrkrrprr, " r^tnorarn nnd 
bcaihcnisb " arc the adjectives which Sir Henry J-'crmot in hb lut will 
And testsraent uses to destgnau the IocaI peattfntry in hia day» and 
the iocidmt to which we hne nrrerrrd poirts to the txct ihfit lh«y 
racfitcd the ume chvacter long after bia name and fame had pA5&cd 
Into the region of ancient htstory* It redounds to his lasting 
honour that whca the fpiriuial pA&to» of Rothctfield were content 
la live utterly rcgatdld* of the iheqi who inhaliital the hcighrs of 
Crewborcu^h, he should h^vQ tried witli rough but genuine 
tympith)^ lo told them- Neglectful beyond mcaiurc as the eountrj 
panon tm ai ihit time of the tpiritual incsmts of hit fori«h:oncr^ 
he could always be dcpcrdrd uEvn fbt canmvmg at the Dpcratiortn 
cf the " ftec-tiwlert," as ilie atnugglers were termed in the elegant 
cupHcmiBtic diction aiTecIcd in polito circles, and wx% someEimes 
cvrn, in his c^ipaciiy of jurtirc? nf the penre, caliwi iipc^n hj x 
delinquent lo pay for ^' that last tub of brandy." in order to enable 
bim to di»cbarse tba fine levied upon him by their haTdhconed 
" worships" Tor ons^glnig. 1,ocal tradinon aisrrts thai tome of the 
landed ficnity hsd a finger in the smuggling |);e, and invested the 
prooeoda in stocks and s Wcs. 

Though the very miKCs seem now to be rent and dissipated by 
inatemi cmliAitionr adiuneing with stcim'Cngines and char-jk-banc!^ 
you may still meet with that mood of mind, characteristic of a 
pecuhaf itage of intellectual dc^'dopment, in whicfa cupcrslttionj 
once terrible continue to be half believed, and ro fumUh an element 
of ptaurcsqueneu and poetry to ibc thinking and feeling of the 
people. Cocthc. wc all know, was in time to catch the last glcamJ 
of ibi« popular poetry of the wonderful, oa it began to diuppear 
from ibc old forc^ti of dghiecnih'teniury Germany, Thf^ '' Erl 
Ki^nig," with his floHing white locks, which the scientist have 
long identified with the mtsu of evcnin^^ and hiA daughter, who has 
been identified with tht grey willow shivering in the twilight, 
are perfect aamplc^ of tlie legendary figure:! which once opprcs^d 
the ioul with awci but have aincc become not only piccure^ue but 
pDtiicBL Sit Walter Scoit, wc have somewhere read, recommended 
that in order lo make (he " Ed Kuntg " and ^mtlaf pieces 
idcquabdy Bcmfic they should be fcad by the lighi of a long wiclc 
candle in a fiolilary room about midnight- It wi\l tbxttfc)m 




occ^on no tuiprise to any to be told that the Sussex OberUod to 
l\us hour ibounds in good folk. Th«r€ are 4iiJI iii the Sdswk 
Obcrkfid thoftc who believe In witchcraft &nd the second siglii, tn 
black ftnd vHite bdics, in sbosta uid fairic^t once locally called 
*' riumees " though their number iit, of courae, rapidly diminishing 
sa the Ineviutble result of thcosiab1ishTncn( of Honid ^hools and 
of ihc wclUmcfliit but only too often dLsutrou« attempts to "elevate 
the Rujsci-" Wc icmcmbcr bcinfl accompanied in one of our 
nrabJe* by a great strapping, but remarkably intelligent )^ung 
fellow, vbo itt ihe fnnocj^ncc of his heart gravely related for our 
c^dtljcation a ^boat sEory the Lnlri^ic imf^robability of which, vrUilc 
it stnick us very forcibly durtjig the narration, wc wcutd not for all 
frewcte worth have dared openly to controvert in the minviese detaiL 
MimJfiil of that sound advice which ihc Rev. J. Colter Egcrion,' 
lector cF llurwosh, who knew and understood the Sussex binds so 
well, tenders to the " cliiel " among th^m " taking notes," we listened 
In rr«p?ctfu1 silence, nnd were rewarded by heaiing how "lots on 
cat " — f>. the country folk— had seen " it '^ — i.e^ the headless spectre 
of aome departed worthy ; we almost forget whether it were that of 
Sir Henry Fcrmor or a local smuggler. 

Jack o' Latitcrn and kindred phenomena have, we fear, mucli to 
answer for in regard to the eUims to sec and tell of things iiivisiblc 
to Rioital tight] but it is really amazing to find the vitality with 
which STiper*tilions of all sorts flourish in this congenial soil. 

This is specially Ijuc in regard to witches, at any rate among 
the really bucohc section of the community. As far as we can Icam* 
however, tlie witches were mostly not of the spiteful order, but 
addicted to footing it merrily on the gr»rnswa.rd of the Beacon Hill 
when their neighbours had retired to roost, and to the customary 
orthodox pranks. 

One or two legends we tell on the authorily of Mr. Boyc Firmin, 
who, with commendable diligence, has collected them at first hand 
and written ihcm down- Know, ihen, thai once upon a time, in the 
adjoining hamlet of Dnddleswell, there resided an ancient dame who 
could at will ai&ume the form of any Least of the field oi fowl of the 
air in los ilme than it would take you to ny Jack Robinton* On 
one occasion some local Nimrod chanced to start a hare on an 
adjacent farm. After an exciting chase for a few miles, it wat 
observed that ihe poor hare doubled luck to Duddfeswell, and with 
Ibc pack close at his h«li made alTiiteht for Dame Carson's c^Liagc. 

* See KU «iy intrr«rting bonV, Smrsjr FeTl: amt St/ur.t H'j/j, tdlifd by 

Gossip in fhi Sussex Overland, ijg 

Hounding mts the garden gAtc, it jumped through a window, anil 
^lappcvcd from vie* Just fts tlw foremcMC bouoU gra^d iu back. 
■'jUi, my boyt," utd jk voice In upulchral AC<^ms pbinty jiudibk lo 
the bunliman, "you ain'l gni mr yrt." It was lh<^ voice of ihc witch 
fts she CAclunscd the hue akin for the trappings of humanliind. 

Df Uaoie Nev«, another otd li3g who tcn&ni^d a ho\eI in Crovv- 
borou^h ind pbgitcd her neighbour* wiih indigesiion, itecplessneis, 
and goodncas knowi hoir many oilier dl^ofdcrSk ^n ci]uall> dcliglil- 
fitl I^Eend i^ cvrrtnL Conceiving a gmdgc against a ncv neigh- 
bour, the na«y old vroman bewitcfied the cre^m vhich the good 
luMBewife vas rilnly mdcavoufin;^ lo churn iiilu l^uttrr^ Vrutn 
ciHj mom till roon the |iroccs3 was continued, but vithout ftny 
svail. Pretcotly her <on eame in from workj and, leeirg what «■** 
tfie nuiter, popped the (loler in the f^rc, and in hit moihi?r's absence 
plunged it smiffbtmhy into the creAm. What followed we arc 
tec|uired lo believt wu a hus not ttnhke a cupprcacd teream, and 
foon the buiier came f Pressed hard by hi« mother to evptain Lioiv 
it mu that be had succeeded where &be bad &o bignallj fnilet^. the 
fzood boy preserved a diietccl ^iilencc. Noon wore on, and the 
clodhopper, ha%-ing fmiahed bit dinner, returned to uoifc. On the 
roijd he met the viieh. " Get m& a poultice," she Tiawled ; " my leg ii 
burnt." Bui as the bo/ could not relieve her, he toM her to caH at 
his mother't cottage for relief in the shape of l:ird and a bitndisge. 
Returning hone in the evening, the sharp-witted yolel told the 
secret of the butler. "It was all Dame Neve's doinB»" uld he; 
'* sbc hod bewitched it. I met her ta 1 vent out, and won Aiire that 
■be bid to do with it^ When she said her leg was burnt I 
l«fvitwa*i \\\c hut puber wut had done it." In a cottage which 
yet exist* on Crowborough Common another witch and her daughter 
«t^e. Jt wai: observed that a neighbour bORan to aicken, and her 
husband, tfred of ccntJjUing the village doctor and concoctin;^ herbs 
ai^d »iinple«i trudged off one fine morning to Tunbridge ^V'elU a 
few milca distant, to consult a certain wt£ard who had a ^t<sx 
name in thoK ports as a " 5ndcr " and " tmellcr " of witches, and in 
eon nteracting their little playful ways. In rciponie to the very graphic 
description of the erib with which bis visitor's spouse wasafllictcd, the 
witcb finder desired to know whether he would be able to recognise 
any Cfowborcmgh *itch if he saw a representation oT her. ^ Ve»/' 
replied the yokel : whi^reupon ihr wLtch-ftntlei niixed some cheiitieal 
prcparmtlon in a cup, upon which he next poured a liquid, and when 
the businecs of fiuing and hissing was c^er desired his visitor to 
inspect die sediment ar the bottom. This be ptoceedcir^ 10 ^i %^*^ 



The Gtnikmatis Alagazine* 

pntetidy evcblm^ " I 9m h«r ; \H Witch Killfclr. She \\ the one 
Kho tonnc:it» my wife;" and ofT went ihc bind, fumUhcd niih full 
imtructions how to am:st the prof^rcas of the maladies under %'hkh 
hij; belter half was lAbourirg. At Cronbovough, ne clsevhcro, im- 
j>lJdt cjfdencc vbs placed in the vul^r delusion ihnt ro whch 
could die u»tc!i« some pcnon WAt present into which ht^ spirit eould 
enierond periwtuatc het vice and %-trtues. The reader will, thete* 
fore, not be surprised w Icam ihit in her U^t illnrsm Wiich Ki^hcJc 
waa very disquieted. Ilet daughter, into whom her spiiJl, in pro- 
spect of the speedy diuoluiion ol it And the body which it plainly 
foresaw, canieitly desired lo entcf^ wat abtetit from ihc room, Thie 
circumtlAncc wik noticed by the neighbours, who contrived lh:it 
before the old eroitiire passed liei^ce her dau^^hler should be present. 
Aa ft rauU the witch became c^ltn *nd prcccntly ccaiwd to struggle. 
The rrport vrnc fcrth lh;it hrt ipiril h;id cnicrni ihe daughtrr, who 
ihiis became & wiich, not, we will hope, of the inalignvit, but of 
Ihc bcncficcrit, Che *' bewitching" Ofd<i7 o( those who succeed in 
getting A handsome hmhand with a fnmtnc cqunlty h.-indsomc- 

Wherc wilchca Sourished it was but meet lliat wise men should 
flourish^ and it ia therefore graLifyinR to find that the wiichct 
were not allowed to monopolize the cuttcm of Crotrborough and to 
have! it all ihcir own way. A iliarp cotnpetiiion w:u uflcrcd in ihc 
perton of an Mtrologcr, who ^^^a consulted from far and near, not only 

Whco pcwicr pni> diit stnr. 
And linen tlLinlc toil of Ihc v«/t 

but in those afTaiis of the heart which, it would sccrn^ occasion quite 
as much mental disquietude to the Deling and L'orydons who &hroud 
thirmsrh'c* in ntrA cnvcun txr from ibe hiny haunts of mm n ihey 
do to the Moyfaii beauty at the end of her lirst ^ season." 

AWrologer Avoty— for such was his name— boa«ed a "genteel " 
fiifnri/^ mnch like the palmlsli of Regent Street and Bond Stfcct, 
and by adtcjitly ad-^pting his charges to ihe r*nk rrf Uh visitiirs, and 
■oMng that moitt diiScult of problems how to become all things to 
tU men, amaescd considerable wealth, and, as the fairy-tales say, 
lived hrtppy and rontcnird lo the rnd of hi" days. Well it wni» for 
lus peace of mind, pcrhAps, and still more for his pocket, that he did 
not surviiY to witntsu the extent to whKh Uic levelling tendenoea of 
modern life and thought have ponetrated Crowborough as ihey hav« 
elsewhere. Peace to hin martfi t But here we must cxinclude^ 
Ifsvinfj much that wc had intended to nay unsaid, for our article U 
■lf«ady too long. Before vt do so. however, let us, for iho infor- 

Ccssip in tks Sussex Ode^faud, 


QUtion oFaII wlioarcnolawjLic nf it, &nd for aUvthomit iu]rconcenit 
procUim tho fact that Crowborougb i» x growing health resort A 
idvct fev, like ihc vervnnt of Et^sh^ hiv<o hid their ey^ o[>ondd to 
iu ButnifijM atlmctiunx BnghtoniAna in pnnicuUtr have ticmmt^ 
cckunoiucd of ifa breezy hti^htsH la such A rc^on no tcaaork of the 
yMreuikckiuchana^ expected cjruncvpccud Likc» wnhthcMfl, 
you con ahvays find tome compenutiun for what ii ubufnt^ provided 
you look foi it. Even the blackncu of the ApproAcliing wintei b 
tcmpcrcdbyihcmddy (intswhich linger ii^ the heiiherind the bracken, 
■ct oK by the searlct of the tunung whoTHebtfrry teavei, *'hile thfi 
.KKUi-weAterly galta iiidkc thciii^ves half weleome \yf the brin^ 
-vhUTs nhich they vt»ii up with ihcm from the Channd, And thca 
Ihc tkjes an: alwayt with you— thoiic insular skies of oun, pcrhipo 
Icnious of Jieir liesuifew, buc nevertheless fui; of aofi suiprwe* when 
'they condescend to display ihcin»cl«-es. The chutf^ng mtrcbca of 
HRimhinc and »U>rm, to Any nothing of the fiuntcu which are to be 
vitoetfed from ibc Beacon crest, viU teach one far better tlun u/ 
tt yoiii critical wi»eacrc« in tbtar por-ilcKJim lunies h<>w true lo 
Nature wu the vtiion of T\imcr and of Con^ubJc. In bric( vo 
may ftiy that the Stitsex Obcrkind i* no report cither for those who 
take Tank nmon^ the ordrr trrovituot or ^mong thote who 
*i*^*^'* cnjoyinif iheoucWcA chicHy with the Cockney dciighu 
pgotidid br tho Brighton Trent.'' £ut to all who &re fond of 
Mcfaewing U pxjytax' intimtt and are disposed cordially to echo 
Cowper, wlien he avcn tlutt 

They ]4V« ib« country, itod none cIk. vho Mck| 
For Ihdr ovin >lkCi Un kilcnce ind iu atiade. 

ft »o)otin) there may cordiaily be recommended 

Tk€ GtntUmans Magazine, 


DURING Il)« Commonwealth and Proicctoratc, 'oMtti ihera vray 
so grcAl B dAhh(n){ of men's mindi in the maitct of rcH^on, 
and following upon the Rc^iLoriLtion, big with promiso of religious 
toleraiioin never lo h^ porformcd until iho coming of the lYincti of 
Orange, mjtny folk were imprUuni^d in ftnil dunE"3ni^ oftrndmo 
dying ihcic, bccfLiisc they were not contcnl to worship u tfac liw 

Of iho« wh^ thu« luffcrcd, the Qualcra were ihe worn olt 
From 1650 to 1660 there were 5,175 of thcra arretted and im- 
prisoned, and in one year alone 1,000 perions were in durance at the 
same time ; whtUt, nhen King CharlL^ft came to hie own ag;;iin, the- 
fimt TWO and a half ye^ri of hU reign, which should havp chronicled 
the fulfilmciit of the prominCA midc from Breda, saw no leM than 
3,o64t Quakefs h.iLed to prison by hia jervants. 

In this general pc«cciiiion George Fox bore pcjhaps more than 
hi?t fcharc. He was Icn limes imprisoned, for a total jicriod of alxJUl 
KveD years, representing one tuxth of his public life- This, however, 
ivoa not ]o«t tttne (any more thin in the cose of his contemporary, 
John Rimyaii, who wrote "Pilgrim's Progress" in Bedford Gflol), for 
from each cf the ccll» Fox wn* thni«l into proceeded ei^iMleaAcr 
cpmk to hia followcra, and the cruel surroundings of an l^nglish 
prinom of thai date did not ^t\ct him frotn formulating piniia for ihc 
progress and organisation of the teligiouii itodcty he had unwittingly 
colled into being. 

But the tilth of Fox's prison ce11s» their openness to the weather, 
llie di^eaip* whirh mndr ihrm [hrir hnmc, rnrnMnril with The cruel- 
lies of his keeper^ all left a. deep mark upnn the c-rigtnally robunt 
frame of the one nme shepherd lad : so that upon Kja walking out of 
Scirbr^ough Caj;t[e a free man the fart that his hody wi^ broken l*y 
Ibc ilgourti and inhumanilieA of hii confincmentt ihould be tcmem- 
hertd along with thL' soldier's testimony to his character : '' tie b as 
niif OS a tree and si puro oi a bell, for we could never move him." 

Fr$m Prisma io Prison. 


George Fox^ Am ronaidt-rDblc ilctenlion nas In the Hou«e of 
CorrcctioA, uid bki in the gAol, &t Derby, in 1650. The k\\m^ 
agsintt him dpp«jm to have been bluphem/T but^ from the fict that 
opportunincs of csoipe were pv(?n hlo], 11 muld hardly have t>j;cn 
f<-[iou»Jy preucd. Ffooa tliu prison he ^JrcsAcd a brj^c- nuiiiWr of 
letters to hts judRcs and othcn, including the men " n-ho uacd to 
ringthcbelUidihcstccplC'houtie.'' Inthe£fih<f efpeciAllyemphii^ized 
f u» dc«Irc thftl judgct should rL<considcr Oio plan of" putt mg men to 
death for entitle And money and imall mittcr* ^" should *' take heed 
of revrord^ or gifts, for they blind ibe eyes of the wite ; " and that 
Ihcy ^hntild notice how hurtful n. thirig it was that prisoner* should 
-be 50 long in gaol» " shovring hon they learned MJukcdficss one of 
~Moth«r in talking of Ihcir bad dced£." In this iray he used th« 
'WpvritiKM! so hurtful to himself Eoadvocate n^forms which the present 
daybfts not yet tccn cniircly earned out (HcAih foi lolibeiy wai 
not Jtboliiticd until 1S61.) 

It atnnol esespe notice, in reading of ihia im prison mcni, tvhat 
ft Knaiblble Influence the Quaker eterted upon his gOEirds. '*Kovi 
the lecper of the prison, being a high profeii^or* va^ ^tcaily enraged 
«|pin«l me^ vid :qK»ke very wickedly of mc ; bvl It picued the Lord 
ene cUjto ttrike him 10 that he woe . . . under great lerron of 
ttind. And as T was walking in my chamber I heard a doleful 
noiae ; ftnd sundins sliU 1 beard him say lo hb wife : ' Wife, 1 have 
seen the day of judgment, and I saw Ceorsc there and I vioa ofraii 
of liim. because 1 had done him 10 mucTi wrong, and vpoken 10' 
much a^taiial him to the Knini&ien and professora,and to the Jubtici^ 
Aodintaremtand alehouM^' - . . After ihi« jntheevenlnfihccamc 
up iolo my chamber . - . and he d&ired that he mighl lodge with 
mc* ... So I stiflcrcd \\\\i\ ii:> lodge wLifi mc ; and ihun lie told nie 
all hia bdut, and said he bcUeved what 1 had said of the ciuc faith 
and bx^ to be true." 

But the moit MriWng Tniimnny to Fot*8 magnetic perscniility 
tin in tlie fact that wbcti a band of soldiers vraa being funxiL-d m 
Derby for kt^tcc under the Common weal Eh —the Scots had now 
been defeated at Woreeaier, Cromwtirs **erowning mercy'— the 
CoEnmisaiont^n nould have made llie Quaker c^pt:itn ov<t lher:E, 
and the s^lJUrs cried they ivould have none but him. When he 
refusod the cffer ihcy replied that '^they oflered it in love and 
kindne^At to mc becauie of my virtue ; and such like flattering word* 
llicy utod-" 

After much scrrice lo the north country. Fox one day (in the 
year which ss^yr the a»embJin^ of the Barcbonca ?uliam^iv.1 anv\^ 


34 The CiHtUmans Magazim. 

^In tb« city of Cftitialc, where he «u handsomdy received by tlic 

Uaptut^ who vrerc os a rule not ovcrlovti^ tc tho Quakers. H« 

proceeded to the Market Cross, there to deliver a pbin addreift 

against unfair ckalitig, '\\\ «piiu of the thrcaU of the magi^;aicb' 

wives that if he come ihUhcr they would pluck the hair off hi« head. 

The Fifit iJajr foUowing be went rrto ihc " EtccplC'housc " (probably 

the CBlheclml). There ihc ixjwcr of the l-ortl vjs »Hch that the 

people trembled and «hook, and they thous^^^ ^^ steeple-house 

»hool& And now about iho pre^chcrr st licrco «lorm began to lage — 

on (he nnr hard ihc in agist rair*' wivr-* and rtrtain nidt? pcnp^o 

the city, with staves aiiil atoui^-a, and on the other the soldicii and 

riendly people— «o that die Governor had to «cod a file or Ivo of 

ItidEtMon Inxo the bulldlnfi to appease the tumult. The utnal 

int wai iimcil tlic next day, and after cia mi nation the pitachcr 

committed to prison, %a a "blai[>hctncr, heretic, and seducer." 

When the flSBiMfl cnme round all the talk ivu that the pritcvwf was 

^■In hr Tmnf:^ ; a;id " WilFcy I jw^nj," the hi^li shenfT, said he vtnuld 

^HilmaeU ^uacd Foji 10 hia execution. The feeling a^nat hitn and 

^■jbt public fear were so inicnjtc tliat three muiikcLeers were set 

■^^ gUDid the pnsaner — cue at his tlonr, another at ihc »lair-po*t, and 

a third at the street cntE^uce. l^ieats and f;icat Udiea esine lo icc 

the man who they said was lo die* Until the trial he was put down 

irlo a dungeon amongst the tno»*-itoopcr*^ thieve*, and im^rdcrtn. 

■^A filihy, nasty place it was, where men and women wen; pttt 

logetha in a very tineivil manner , , . and the prisonen oo lousy 

that one woman was almott eaten to death with Ijcc." The gAolesfl 

^urcrc both monsters of criieUy. One tim^ when the under-gooler 

^Otrmtk the (niioncr, Fox bioke out into sung, which mode him rage 

Ihc more. '* Then he fetched a fiddler . . . and k1 him lo play, 

thinking to vex me thereby; btit vhile he played 1 waa moved in 

tlie cv(^il:Lstiii^ ixnrci of tlic lAiTd God \\i iting; aind my voice 

drowned ihc lioisc of the fjddl^ and struck and confounded 

cm , , ," 

In the li*t day* of this year (1653) Cromwdl bcc^ktnc Lord 

Protcctur cif llie ConinionweuUli, hut although lioilcd by Afilton^ 

the first of the Nonconformiats^ ojs tlie "father of bis country," 

measure of relief emanated from the new Uovemmcnt It is 

true (hat in 1654 Gcui^e 1-ox had a great diKUu;:'on about religion 

with Oomwcll, who "ai 1 spoke would scrctal times uy it wu vcty 

£O0d And it ^-as truth. And ai \ was turning to go away he catcbed 

mc by the hand and with tears in his ej'ci s-iid : 'Come again lo 

y boubc j for if thou and I ffeic but an h^wr of ft d-ty t'lj^-ther 


Pri^m PriscH io Prison, 


ivc ihould bo iKArcr one to the other/ adding that be wiaiicd cne pO 
more iU \hkn he did to bit own soul.* 

NcvcTLhrlcss xhc very rient j^^ar uw Fok agiiQ a prf«oner, and 
this ii how it ciEne about He and Edw.ud Ftj^ot Hcrc lEavcUiag 
in Cornwall I''ox hud given out a 'Mjttic paper," lo be «ont to the 
ft^nrn parishes fti Ijjid's End, And, this having ccnie into the hAndt 
of a Majw CocIjt, imuuciiwis were issMcd ih^t a party of hursc 
should ixkc the tivo prcAchcr* in chugc. Joumc)ifig to Bodmin, 
they met I3eib0rough (one oF Cromwell's new major-^cncraU), 
Tlw pntonen wouUl probibly }avc been there ixtd then liberiTed 
tltfoogh UiG kind ofHc^^ of a fiicndly ciptAifi, but tlicy [iksit^icd on 
theniselTes speaking with the (lener^i, and it is not improbii>lc that 
Fox'i untritnmed reproof nent a long wny towards dett^rmining the 
gicat man to vend ihe pfi-toncrs on to Launcc&ton. Here ihcy were 
tried bcfofc Lord Chief Justice Glynn, with the result tiiat Vox k«s 
AMdjfl3 $A S(/.j*nLl 10 bt'pui into prison pcftdinB payment This 
vu€n JantiAiy tj, 1^5^, and he vat rtol libcmced uncti September t$ 
of the aine year 

Now, the ^oler bad l)oen a thief and was burnt both in band 
and iboald«r, oi hod be^n ttiQ under-gooler ; and the wives of both 
h^d been bumi in the b.'tnd. This In sotnc measure c:iplains the 
frishLful treatment accorded to Fox and his companion so 5oon as 
ihete bad decided to cease tlte weekly paytnt^nt they had been 
making, of jt. apiece for their horsex, anfJ ;/, for tbrmscU'cs (the 
boc^cs they hitd sent away into ihc country). They were put doHn 
into DoomMlalc, a pkcc some la feet sqmre, fio nc7J£ome that 
il irta commonly observed that few who wcni in ever «me ot« again 
in health, and there sutTetcd licalinent of tju baibaious and im- 
ctvitiscd a nMure to be set down in thia place. The people of the 
l^wn shovred tli^^ir fnvndUness in voriout way», but were discouraged 
by the gaotrr* who atTUAlly frrDsecucrd a pt\ forbringingaliiilen^caT. 
Ittc prisoner} issued ^ericrai appeals, find at la&t an inquiry was 
ordered by the Protector, Then the local Justice* look alann, 
bigan to look Lnio the mancr, and things were for the future better 

It hod been to]d the Protector that the surest way (o spread 
Quakerism in the west country was to keep Geof^ Fox shut up in 
Lannoeston Castle, and so Si provLHJ ; f^r mo-iiy of the (own cime to 
beO}n*1nccd»and "p[ofcsaor3''aiid people of all aorts and conditions 
tnode considerable journeys in order that they mightcom^rse with the 
prfaoncrfl^ Some of these fileo — to vie, Judge Haggct'« wife, of 
Bristol, and Etizabctti Trelawncy, of Plymouth <a baiooctN daughter)— 


Th€ GtrttUmani Magazine. 

loined thciDMlvcs to the Qtalecrs. Nor wcr^ the; without offcr» of 
help. ^'Thomt lj3wer," aftcrwirdt Focc't »on-in-ltir, " cxni« lo viut 
us, and tifrcTri! [ittiuinty, which vrertfmed, acccptio^ ncreftbd^u ):ic 
lore;" &n4 About tlic umc time, in Lonkm. Hunpkrcjr NonoQ 
v'cni to OUrci CrtMnwe^T u^d offered him»«If body for body to tk in 
Doom«(Jal^ in Foi*i MfriJ; vrhL-reil ihe ProEfrcior tun>«l to liit 
CojjiiJl ttiih ilic question, " Wntch of you irould doiO much fc4 nac 
if I ncre in the »ni« condition ? ** . ' 

cruel gaoler wu hJinscZf &oon after cut in:o the gic)1, tncArcciatnl !■ 
DoomMblc, locked in ir^ns And bcAt<fi, bclnf " bad by his aucoeuOT 
to remember huv Ji« bid Abuted iho» good men whom he had « 
vrkkedly, vjthDui any ojiuk, out iuto tbe 0A»(y dungeon." 

In the cnifthiy September storms of 1658, the I^rd PratcctcCj 
liikd piMcd Attny. lii» %or\ had ctOMed the pubhc ^tagc, and ni 
ChAf lei 1 1. WAS ft^Aied on his fother^fi throne. Yet siill the Quaken^j 
mIio hid never loved the Regicldei were hunted ind intpfiwricO. 

Fox was at Swarthmocw Hati m tht; year of the Ketiontion, 
FntncU Hov^gill (ono of the early martyn of QuAkthum) and 
ThonfiAK Cunii bciii^ wiih him. For the fourth tiTtir Fox wai 
arretted and was token acro»therie)d3 to Uh^cnrton, where a guard of 
.filLcen or iL>tc«n m«ii was tet lo watch hJm in the con(taU«t houaa^ 
for fcar he "•' ihfrnld gn np the chimney,*' Thenrc tw w« led tO ft 
grcjit water called tha Carter Fordi and over the wide and dariKeious 
undit. to Lancaster. For twenty weeks he was imprijioned in the 
common gaol there, p.iTi of the itme in the " nailr Hocsc." Libera- 
tion came in thi> insiAttcc tliujugh tho courage of Mirgjiret Fell (who 
tia^elled to London on his behalf and spoke with the King^ aod the 
conardice of Justice Fo^ter^ who refuAed to np^iear Ag^iinsc hiA 
prliOiMr in LciniloTi. wbichcr tlit: cttic lud bet-ii removed. The 
IndidBkent eliarx^ Fox witik Mckin^ to embroil the natto;i in blood 
and raiae a new war, whereupon the prisoner strctche^d out his hands 
■nd exclaimed, '* I am as innocL-nl xi a child eoncerninft the char^ 
I' ftfld W« ncvet learned any war pobturc»." In dcscntiin^ their 
arrival in London George Fox «iys that multitudes of people wo^re 
gatlwred togeihef at Charing Crost to Kec tho burning ol ibe bowel* 
if iO>ne of the old Kiiig'4 judges who liad been hangE^d, drawn, and 
lUiuten d^ 

touting over a then imprtjonmcnt at Leicester in t66a (here 
le gaoler would come with hin riuarccnuff to beat the 4juakei% 
M Kaa nlu^yi prcvf^nk'E^ by hi» I>ig maMiff), wc come to Another, 
pd ft longer, incarceration at Lancaster. 

From Pfison fo Priam, 


It wu ID i663t uid minj nonhcm Justices {xmoti^ tbctn being 
Colonel Kiikb}". ind Dariifl Fleming of Rydal H«U) were g>ih«j«<t 
at HljUici llall lo cxsi^ccit mcuufn Toi ibc ^uppreulun nf lb* 
Qnikcn. Into the midst of ihc lions «-jJkcd tbc knib, George Fox, 
wgU knowing thnt a irarmnt hnd been Li&ued Tor bit apprcbcnaoru 
He nofl ftrrcstetli di-ir^cd with compUcit/ in the "^asvAty Wood 
FWd" *n<I, Ibli lailing, Kid ibc oath tendered to bim by a Rr^nion 
Cklliolk Justice, for vhoin and hM coruligioniits ihc Arx was 
or%Ecu1]y framrd and vbn had himKcIf refused the oxih. On giv'ing 
bb nwd to dppc«r at the foriScomiji^ usii:es, Geo[|;e Toi «a« 
allowed to return to ^ivarihmoor, which he left Co appear at X^ui- 
CMTer on /aiicjtry 1 1, 1664. Many other QujUcert were imprisoned 
in ihe town on a similar charge— men " who lud iterved th<* 
Emjs in bia wan < - > ond had luBcrcd ctcat hardships, nith the 
lou of much blood, for him, and h:xd itwiyd Afx^d faithful to 
him (rom Qr*l to last, and had nci-cr received any pay for their 

It would wco^ to dctiil the evcnli of the ihrec Irials Fox nndcr- 
«rci)t at L^nca^Ier, During the whole of the period he v-u kept la 
clwe prison. Maf|;atii Fell U-ing also in the same building undcjr 
Lbe un^e cbarGC of tcfuih^s; ihc Oath of Allegunce, 

Tao Itiir^s stai^d out in ccnncciton with Ihis imch»onnient^ 
fiftt, the «uccc9« with which Foic pointed out errofH in the buc- 
cesaiTe indictmeiitii ; and, iet^Diidly, the wretched condition of the 
cdb he «-aa put inEo. " Upon my complaint of the budiicu of my 
prison," he wnt^ "some of the Justices went up lo^ec it; but when 
Ihey came thry durtt hardly go \\\ the floor »a* no hod and iho 
place ao open 10 Hind and nin. Some that came up said, ' Sure ii 
was a iahcs-honn%' " letter on he wa« removed from this apofEmcnt, 
but hardly to hii adv:ini::ge, ftir in the *^ cover" he ni:>w oceupird 
"the MwAeor ibc other piiioncri caiiie up io thick thut 1 nmTd hardly 
•ee the candle (then it burned - . . It laincd in upon my bed, and 
nuuy times when I went to stop out the rain in the cold winter 
season, my ihitt wan li wet i\ much of the rain thai came in npon 
me ... I waa 10 starved in cold and rain that my body wai 
greatly swelled" llic end of the whole businc&a «aa that both 
Foi and Margaret Fell were recorded at "ptcmumred persons/ 
albdr, in the Uticir oiao ^i leOKt, the &eEi:L-nt:e du^.n nui ap[icar 
to bare been carried out 

It was now /^ril of tC65-^thc year of the Tlapc. In London 
Cor iwxt men the day trauM stirt «iih a viiJt to the Tower, in order 
to inspect tbc weekly "bill" of dc^Ltl^ whilst the night n^uld be 

»ci. eeicvi, xa jo;*. l 


J 38 Tkt CfHf/fwan's MagaHne. 

brc^cn tn» by the drcttd tollinjc of the brIU for dc4tbi ^r^■^ h-uiiiU. 
No doubt, frightened foOc fifing into the counltx bn>iig^it ilic n«^wt 
lo 1.4ncaitrrr whoc the Justioct* bring of opinion ttttt Fo^'s tl<:1cTi- 
tion thcrt wu doing tbcm lurm, hid jau ^ An ordcf to irin^rcr 
hino to Scarborough. The lint oagc of the pnsioncr and \m guardt 
ttn« to Bentham. For wii «> w^ thit be couVl hdnlly Eii h» 
h(;fHc^ ^id suffered rnncb ^KOiDrort bf ibc Ktiou of a youtli, 
Hunter, who *' would corae bdiiad uid ^ve ihc bone a lAib with 
hit vhipi stnd nialce him dci|> and Wp . - , th^n he would cone 
and look m« in Lh^ bee ftfid ujr. * How du ynu do, Mr. Fox ?' . , , 
llic U?rd cut him off Mon after." At Uil Sc»rboroufEh Cullc, Kt 
on a lordly bcighl between the norUi uid fiouth biv-i, cimc into sij^ht. 
At fint ih€ priMn« wa* not uiikindlj traated, but he w« 4f»cn 
put inlo an opcii room, iiilo vhJcH ihc rtin cinic; &nd mh^c the 
fire ttnokod aboininabl:r- He paid 50^ to have the rocvn flct to 
rights, bui wasthen cnnifcmed 10 ft wone one, where «u neither 
chimn^ nor tut bcaith ; the ttAierdine uvct l)itf bcd^ and rsn aluut 
Ihcroom, AOihaihe"vurAinto>kim it up with a phltcr;" juid, his 
dotbci being perpetually wet, hif body became benumbed niih cold 
and his fingefs twclled. 

Many viiilor>— noble ladies and genllemcn, pricsla and coninion 
lolk-atmelo sec the prisoner, ■nho.'rC £i(ne was great throughout 
the counity, but to Frit-nda be wait he vayt, at a mm buHed alive : 
wlirfi any Fiitrnd (and there were five ' Monihty Meeting' in Voik* 
fthirc by thii limck CAmc Into the Caslle about buaincfts, "if he but 
looked towardi me they would rage ;il him.'' At Vam, xhts governor, 
Sii }. Cro&^land, being touched by troublr, s\\(^Vr 10 R^uiic ManK 
<who had abcady proved himself nrricnd in need) about hiiptboitcr, 
and on order for release, dated Sej^tcmbcr, 1666, «^s aent dotrn. 
The governor dcrWricd a present, proffered in return for the dviJlty 
and kiridn»ft Utlctty ihown by him^ and afterwards if the Mayor 
vcnx for »u1dicrE to break up rricnds* Meetings, though he onight 
ostensibly respond, he would ptitotely give ttiem cliarge not to 

This iTO* the k»l imprisonment George Fox auJTeredi (arc the 

fomleen moniha of inlerrupted duranceat ^^'orecsle:r, which began in 

the i^ihyiMr of Chnirles 11/* reiyn and ended in the 15th- On this 

occa.iio.i he waa j*iLimcying vith \\\s wif^: — for he had now been 

naariicd for fouj i^cnm lo Ihc widow of Jt.tdgc Fdl^from I-endon 

nonhwaids wiih the imeniion of once more seeing his dying moiher, 

when hr wat cnsi into Worcester Gaol for *ontrjiv*ning the Con. 

wcnticle Act The chargCi however, uliiiuatL-ly became the tiMjal one 


From Prison to Pris^u 


of i«fu»l 10 take the Oath of AUcGiuc^ And & tcal«ncc of pre- 
luuniro fo1lowT<] as a malifr or course. 

During his imprisonment here the gaDlfr* son ofltrcdfo be hound 
for him, and manrvUitoct found a new purpose in life o^lhey listened 
to the buming wordfl or the pti&oner whom they hid come, in mere 
cadosJiy, lo sec 

The mu&e of tnic rdigJEm haa oftentimes been heitct setrrd m 
the pritron thiin \i\ the pulpit- Doubtlen il w^ so in this cose. 
Heroic mfTcring sUmped l-'ox'a impassioned utterance with % ne>* 
nicaning, i^ ihut mf<n vho came m ciin^ rrUimiHl tn hlc^ut ; his 
cnTorced detcntiork»t whilst they cmharrANtcd the d:Lily pro^n of 
tho Society he founded, gave opportunity for the formation of a 
cctken:>c cf prjvcTTtmcol of fir more Imponance lo it and lo England 
than jiny tem^xiniry aid could hntc ttcen ; nnci the persecuted prisoner 
forgot the ciTjcl And unjust nature of his trcaEmcnt na this led him 
to beoome less dependent upon himself and raised him neu^ to 
Iho Master he sen-rd- 



Tfu Ccndtmans Mo^tmn^. 


THH cnm[urativdy hi|;h aUndard of teruperance in cur drinUof , 
cii!(loms vctiLch ihc (orial cilgcnrirs of ihf lime htrt 
tMi|>o»cd ufion the btUcT -educated i^cciion of the comrtmnify- m\\ 
«c may iidtXy hofw, be eventually attAincd by the moic tccklcu 
ikfid lc» thrifty portion of the prolctafy^ so tint the tibric of soact/ 
miy at kasi, by \\\is oar mo^t ociiriblr arbiuvonicnt, preseni, 
aL ffM vsqut ad maith n coniiMcnt whole TJn)c wa& when it wit 
the oEhcr way About, and "at dniok ft» 4i lord " woi equitably pr^ 
verbijil— when, whatpvcr eTam|>1f Ibcro wa? jo folio* wo* pri^eniod 
by the fifciii innjority of the indufctriojs cUs^ts whow vtll-carncd 
And IftYoijritc bcvcrafic wan ''honest*— and sotnetimcsifffhonett— ale; 
for until the year 1 713 the vice of gi;i-dnnking vas m prcro;^ci%-c of 
tfie rkh/ and had iiot bcgon to oust the popular Uiic for iL« 
raliuiul bcvaa^c ; and btsndy and mm *crc equally mihonc the 
mch oT the masses, the foniicr b^ttk% heavily tftxcd a^ an import 
Trom Fmnce, anil the Iftlier bHng a protected colonial prod^a from 
Jamaica. But no* druntn-nncts haJ lx:<^me mj prt'inU-m th^ii, on 
January ici, lyalS^ the College of Phyiicians nude a teproctitatfoii 
cn the subject 10 the Houte of Commons through Dr. Friend, 
one of ili Kellowi nod mcmbfr for T^onceiton, Ffelding compu:eid 
100,000 pcnon!* in l,ondon to be living on drink a1o:iL>. S'w g:ilh)rm 
cf spirits per head of the population per a^num is on estimate for 
tiu* period^ againvt one galloti at present." The Kmuggling cf 
Hollands gir and N^tntci brandy grew a[ucr throtigh ihc enormous 
duty of io/, per salmon which was pbcc^l on iho« apiritti. The 
Jekyll Clin Tun, in lactj merely luniftrred the tioftic from the 
licenitd retaflen 10 the smngglerA. In tlie ttnn^etl of 17J3, famaen 
iti fctirral parts of K^nt wae obliged to ofci higher wagf^i, although 

iG prkCG of %Tx\n wa? low, end could hardly %c\ any h^ndi on ikWy 
|tcrm% a itate of afTairs which vra« atirjlntted " 10 the great numbers 

rho employed ihemselres in sniu^flng at jog th«^ coatt." > 

' l>r. Crrighlcm*! iHii. of F.fidttui^t in fitifA^a, i£94i ^1. d. p, Cj, 
' CtntStmarfs Magoiiirt, Soft, t^^, p. 49a- 

Tk€ Rtigm of tht Gin Terror. 


Immcfiitcljr bcTcre the puting irt 1736 of iho Cm Act (Georsfi 
ll-csj), the object of shidi was to prevent ihcicUilin^of spfrltoom 
Uquon in 1cs3 qLJintitica thAn two gallons, there ncre, id the limitt 
of Wcttmirwtcr, the Towtf, and Fintbury diTisionf, «xdualre of 
Tujndon ujtd Siiathvitk, tio firMrr llun 7,044 hnDsrt nnil fthop« irhcre 
Gcoera via publicly »otd t;y ^cUli^ bc»idci whil iru priioccl/ 
sold in gartets, ccDirv, and back toomii.' 1'hc Ticc u»c, by the 
pcpula^v, of urtoved gin led to dmiilenncfu ^luung them hrroming 
a ragtD^ vice, and the public place* (vbcic it waa otjtoincd btcimc 
Ihc KCJic} cf unapcikabk debaucheries. Not only ncrc the people 
invited by poii>ied advenls^menti 10 b« drank for a penny and deid 
druni for twopciicr, bui ofK'ii the debauchees never left the itraw 
bodfl, in the celUn albdcd 10, alive, to ^hich they baJ bccft ciriied 
Such paragraphs u the<e irere of coafi:tnl occurrence in ihc ncws- 
shnis of the time : " P'ridiy, a butther rear Gny'i Inn Ijine, went 
with a wntchman belonging to St Andfcw's pAii^h, to a (icncva 
^lOpi tad dranlc to (hat evccu^ thaE he drcpt down dead* and the 
intdunon ncrjt hontc and hang'd himf^elf" > ** On Sunday Evcningi 
two Men dnnk Gi^neva for a Wjger of a Crown at a Bmndy'Shnp 
near Rcdcnua Street, in Southwark ; ihe WiEiner drank lliree QuiMs 
ukt«8lktfdolT pretty veil, but died next Momiiii;."' 

Meanwhile thin "free rrade" in Geneva n^gravriTcd alarmingly 
the abrady mtolcrablc conditions under whicli what wi^re known ai 
"night cellars" in the City and West End were conducted, and 
owing to the urgent representation* of ciEl:fcnE of repute fcvcr^ 
Aldermen of the City of Londtin agreed to m«ri wetkly^ in eider to 
ailpprcM " »cverftl Nii;lii-Hou»c*, Ntght-Cellan, and other discrderl; 
Hotncc, th^t arc lately opcn'd in the City, and to punith and pau 
away to the tJicir pro^nT Se|tleriieni!t, Rogue*, idle Vagabonds. A:c'' ■ 
"Sereral of llic Nei^bbourb in md jicar Cui^a-Cuurt, Qiaring-Cro^A, 
haviAjc mode ft Complaint, and £ivcn an Informniion upon Oaih 
a^bit a Man and hi* Wife for krepmg a very disorderly Nlght- 
&1Iar, and haibourJiiK and ciitcrULining of reputed Thievci, Pick- 
pockets and other di&fo1uie «nd wiakcd rcr^ons, whctvby they arc 
IrGqucntlydiiiturb'tl in the Night-time by Noisec, Outcries of Murdtf, 
kc^ a wsmnl vai grnnied a[jiLi;iit the Min :ind his Wife who keep 
iSrJt uid Ni^hl^CvlUr, by Justice IUjI:on and »it oihci of his 
Majesty's Justices of the Peace for Wcrtminster, And the »id 

' J. SalnonV C'ilrvMfffvq/ m^trum, 1747, vaL U., p. JI7. 

• Cntk Stettt Jf^rm^, June %t, 1735. 
■ St./amuj'j ^vuiiA/ A>/, Majr 8, 1736' 

* i^fdhM tfrni/ip/ /Vf/, June I7i 17}X^ 



7i# C^niUmaiis MagasiM, 

a <lifiordcr1r Ni^hMIou^ in \hax Street, Covcm Gardes, 10 tticgrcot 
Annoy^oe ind DUturbancc of that Keighbourhood. Sctttal MIe 
and di^rderly Kdlovs anil rcpairJ Thlocs ttnil Pickpockcis., who 
nightly inf»i ibc »lrccU about Charing Croii, Temple Bar, And the 
Stand, trcK also liy the toid Juiticed committed to Tothill-l-'^cld& 
Bridcv(;ll t;i hard labour, scicral of wliont were Ujkcn Jtbout Oner 
o'C]tJ(.k oil Sjiiuidjjr MorEimg, quAircllixiK in n Drajidy-Shop \xy 
Mcftnaid Court, near Charing Oxm, amongtt whom was a noted 
liuh B:igpipcr, atid Midnight BuKy." ■ 

The Act did not come into operation undl Mkl'adaiAft. 
Phjiicians, apolheoiric^ surecons, and chcmittA wac permicicd the 
VM of s|]irilv OT other tpiriluo^ li^uore in the prvpurabon of 
medlclnn for the nek, laoie^ nnd ''diMempcr'd " only.* The 
dLatiUcci in aocriJ pUccs diAContinucd Iheir I)«We, deeming \\ not 
worth IhciT whtic to toku out a hcenccv although they had stronji 
hop» that at the ntxt 4itHng of Parliament the Ac-l would be cither 
repealed 01 aini;i:LdH.-d* But the more rtipecLiblc? |)ort)on of the 
ncivBpapci prcu wAi in favour of th? muRurc. The well-inrorinod 
'*SL James* lt^'ening I'oit " of May S, 1 736, aid : "'tis not doubted 
but the Ute Act or PArliamcnt^ dcsignc-d 10 ivsirain the eKccssKc 
driaking of spttttuoua Uquois, will have the happy cfTcct proposed, 
iJdoc it coivline« the retajtins thow pcmicioufl LiE^iEora Hclely to 
Portont keeping Victualling Hou^et, Inn*, Coffee-HouiM, Ale- 
ttous^s. and Dnndy-ShopSj and exercise nn Trade vrlulevcr. 
Selling any Quantity under two Gallons \% dcem'id rcuilin^ and a 
D«ty after the rate of t^s. per Gallon is payable thereon- Ihe 
persons who retail must crtter themselves in the ExcUe Oflice, pay 

* SI. Javiti'i Jivfuin^ />;/, Mijr X, 1736. The <'dLiUcnperNJ " ■lludn) 10 
hff* *cr<, prol*Wy, often thoi* whs wnc luHVrinc from the c^c^iicf a (t^bcvvch, 
AEid thcii Aii|'Iii:4l:uEL Eu \ltt chfiuLil wu tvt '*A hiii of \\ie l]iI|; llmt luJ LnlUd 
Uicin," i\n lilt 4(rri] wu, M a\\ ocMi In ilc kc^ciiIfciLtli caiiuty, ^net^My undri- 

••-.,. For die coiiiiicti rnllRt;. 
And ih« Dqtf himvlf, I dat^* rdi ay divrappet'd, 

But kindj and in ht« tottf rin([ cluiir curo^iung." 

Tbiu. oUo, ShlrtcY in Jils ingi-comedj' of 7'*/ Cra^f/H/ Sei^^at^ 1655 : 

c/fir. My lord, bf'igonc. 

It^. Howl I 

Lfi^ Ndt with wiut. I 

Ti4 ReigH 0/ iAa Gin Ttrr&r, 


So/> down for z licence, and rcncir it yearly, and be licaiacd more- 
orcT b; tvo or more Juxticc-i. Th.<t selling Liquors oanBtUkin 
the Streets, on X Wbuelbarrov, or Stand in the Field, ftfid in Bohcb 
oa the Water, \% mtircly firohibiicd, jis i« l^kevd^ itie giving them 
away to Servant, ^, by Chandlers ftnd other Shop«, or the p^^ying 
any pari of Worktncn't Labour in thue Liquors*" ' 

Alihough lh« Aei moderuicd for a brief btcrral the flood of 
Intempennce, It wan v^y f^r from being stayed thereby, and rose 
a^Ain tottdida the middle of the ciKbtccnth ceniUTy* which hod been 
more or l^sscuncd wilh this Jibusc; «ince 172^ vrhen the vice of f;in' 
drinkire hzA ceaoed to be a privilege <A the rich, to an abrmiiif; 
et;cot III July, iTJ^> >t ^^^ LouJiiuied ih^i (hto^iIc bad 
been ccn^icicd on the Cin Act within lew ihun two jcaia, and 
this in London alone, Or thete, nearly 5,000 had been eonvteted en 
(lie ^100 [w.-naliy, and 3,000 h^d paid ^11 each to cuctibc ihdr 
bcio| Krt to DridcvcU—^ll within the Bills of Mortality.^ In the 
moanlime tuny were the evasioni of the lav. In on« inatanccv a 
mere lad \a described a« being cominlued 10 Bridewell by Thomiu 
ISxigxdt Ci<q>. only a monib after ihc Act took places '* for acllirg 
Gin in jtmall Quantities in S. Ciearge's KieldSj contrary to the Jaio 
Statute n^Ain^t ^piricuoua Liquors."* On the other hand, maisy 
dioillers forHwk the trade aa unproli table, and '*smcr the Gin Act 
took pbcc, tliere has been a gnater DcmnUid for old Cloatha in Rag* 
fair, by poor PtopI^ than haa been ktiown for several yean paaL" * 
Btri '• Jekyir* Gin A<n," aA it waii called, from having been promoted 
by that pbilanthropic lawyer, afTordcd but a brief rc»p(tc and its 
provuioos were promptly disregarded by the clandestine dealings of 
tile " brandy-ihops" and by lundry chennieis and apothecaries, who, 
howercr, zs it hixi been obscivcd, w<?c justified in Hclling gin 
medicinally, and the door was thus opened to their venality by 
the eenimon people remevnb<;ring that it wa* a remedy for both the 
"worms' ami the "gripes," Infornier* against this surrepiitioui 
ncUiod of obtaining tlje spirit arose, and pa^^iapha ^ucb aa ihc 
following were of frequent occurrence tn the new^jhccis of ihe 
time: "On Thurwiay Night ^rah GrcRcn and Hannah Wayman 
were comjnilted to New Priv^n by Anthony Clumberliin, Ev). ; on 
the Oaihs of William Hanning, one of the Headt>orou£bj of 5l 
Giles's m tbe Fidda, and Bartholomcv Bird, For raising Mijb^ about 
them, by cr)-ing out fhai they were Informers, and rescuing out of 
tbcLi Custody EitubctU Pitee* who vraa their Prisoner, Inrviniulioa 

St. J9mi/i Evtmtkg PtsU M»y «, 1 736. 
Si^J^Mtt'i £iviwv Dntt Oct. at, 1736. 

1 Kaltnon, p. 517- 

144 ^*' Cen/Amffn's Maga^sis. 1 

bcinjc mode against her for fcllir^ Spirituous Liqucra in kaa 
QtiantJlk'4 than iwo Gallotii^ vrithout being duly licensed thereto 
Xff two Justices of the Pcicc, acirordJiTg to the Statute.*' ' "On 
Monday Ijut, »crcra1 People were tried at the Sculotia At GuiM- 
ball, Tor iiuulting sonic rercon:! wbo Sud informed aj;ainftt tJic 
Retailcn of Gm in Duke's riace, ntid wcic found guHfy. Cn'd 
And impTi«>ned foi the same ; nind vere all told thjit» \( tlio&c who 
were insulted bAd died (as in son>e Costs h.t^ liappcnc:d), they KouTd 
aiU have been tried for murder/'' "On Thursdiv, one Si ket^ belong- 
ing to the Seccnd Reyimcrjl of (Juartls, went lo itr. Smfll/ii, a 
CbytnisI, in Broad Street, Camiby Markets and Uiijircd to have a 
CordiEkl for the Gripes, which was accordingly prepared sind delii^ered 
to him ; then he wem to Justice \farEet*s and infomied ngainst the 
Kiid Chymist for reloiltng SpitlruotJ^ Lic^uor.s, but he appealing and 
proving it was a Cordial, and not Gin, as the Informer liad swom, 
Mr. Smith was dismUsed ; but the Informer fell into the Hands of 
the Mob, who pelted him, and drngg'd him thru' several Horse- 
Tonds, Channcb, clc, so iliat it's thought he cannot recover the 
Treatment he met with." ' On the 14th of October, 1736, Robert 
Kirkpatrick, surgeon and apothecary, rn TurnEnill Street, and John 
Thomas, chenusl nt Slioreditchj were fined ;f^ioo enth, on informa- 
tions, for retailing spirituous hqaors contrary to the intent and 
meaning of tho Act.* 

But in spite of aU thls,the results were riotsand a daily augmented 
dandcstine tiafiic The contumption of Britisb spliiis had been, in 
1727, three amd a half million gallons ^'^^ i^ ^ 7S5 nearly five and a 
half; t>y 1743 It waB senr^ million one hundred and Kixty-two thou- 
sand-^ The inflnential" Daily Advertiser "of March 3, 1743, thought 
fit to write as follows : '■ It is wish'd and hoped for hy all good 
People, that the Committees cf Parish Workhouses within and about 
thi« great City, will toon apply to Parliament for such a Duty to be 
laid on Uic Still-Head, as will prevent the common and oituvagant 
Use of Spirituous Liquors, in order to pre j?cr\'e ihc Lives and Constitu- 
tions cf Men^ Women, and Children, and once more to create the 
Uv of Bread, Meut, and Beer, and all other Entailer in order to 
create Bircngth and a healthful Const icution, for the Benefit of King 
And Country, and which will greatly promote the landed Interest, 
put a »top to the daily Increase of Por^ in every Pariih, and be 
a Mean» to prevent more and greater Evils than Ton^-ue can well 

' St./tmtr't Sfmm£ /^, Kov^ 34, li^rc i?J4. 

' /«i-. D«- 6, IJ37, • /^iJ., Feb. $, 1738* 

' IfoQc't 7tt/i Hef*. p. SS9- * TitllV* Serial £ft^anti,y<A,^. p, 136. 


The Reign of ike Gin Ttnvr. 


Evprcsf.* Tn 1743 ilie^Iutyvuibrupcly dropped to t^- fcr gillor ; 
by 175I1 vhen the maximum vas ruchcd, ibc consumption was 
itfooohooo g^ona. ard the number of gin-ahop* within th< Billi of 
Monalitf was S4id to be i;,ooo. Of il^ue, 1,700 were «uppreisBed 

in 11 s^^ 

Other BLblcifu^ coiuistcd in supplying the " HenH mih fury 
fratjgfat " ia ft moi« or kas dtBguiacd form. One Gordon, a punch- 
tellrr in the Strand, snd one of ihe only three who took cut Iho 
ncGOvuy 50^1 Licence, aoM a drink which he cilled "SangtEre" 
(f M^C•Jfris)t vrhich «r&s o^tccsiblir made of sLroii|* Nradcira, wine. 
•■ hob " wa* ftJioihcr fandful name for a dfsm of which " Geneva *' 
Wit pmliJity 40 ingrcditnl, ai ** Btih " w;i!i an old jJang ttrrm for 
Ihftt ifviriL Ths ToUowing relate) to the influence ot the Act upon 
tiic use of gin ; 

A THACEoy, Bj TiWOTllV ScAUOV, 0FR31; Foif, K*^. 

5n3t tiAit thou noi uf UMiptitJon read i 

Reut ota Tyiuif tra Itli Mlmlck '^1ron^, 

Ry Arirjfc 4nd Crudty cntou'M. 

Rii]« wirh *n Iron l^od mi bunuM I,«nilt 

O|;>li:o* t];e Vii lu«us. aa J ilic nv\Ay bum : 

Raise fruiQ tbc DLingliElJii Mi»frt«[itji, kIiihc SchjIi 

Wrf fi^rm'd for Mischief, arvl whrF^ innifr Hire 

Or«>ial vu good, moAt 'em ^t Toolk df fdwV^ 

llftkl ihcAi HUE read of DcsobtLon dire, 

Of fcoltiuji MiiiJti*. fcuitlifj^d Vr7 Liw 1 

Of Judgf*. who hniT wr Ihtir SunU lo SiiTp, 

And Inlfei7^'il m the UIchxJ fif Innoeence f 

JlaiE ihou not coo, of a thim Sc-natc rMd» 

A tivun tVufcc(oi »nd bit SUadJi^; TfiWpSk 

l\h!ch ualn^d wiih blgod ihc l-nce of Ubcrty, 

And (trnvf lh« bfAiUftmt Gi^dr^* frrtm nijT lift ^ 

^'cT if«r?« tiKh lll« d«serre iho luma of Wot, 

X^'hcn Milh the Lcm of t>ulipg CIN compirSi.* 

Drams with other names* dc^igtici] rtxth A ricw to ciidc tlic Act, 
were ftold io the brandy shopc of High Holbom, St Gilcs*^, Tothill 
Street, Rosemary Lane, Shoreditcb, the Mint, KcntSTreec, and in 
olhcr imls, juid were calkd "Tow Row," '*Cuckdd'H Cuiufoft," 
"Pirlumcnt Gin." '' M*kc Shift," '*Thc Imi Shift;' "The Udiea"' 
Dehghu" "Tho Balk," "King Theodore of Corwca," «Chol[ck 

» A/cvtfrr £wmt^ /^j/. Ociober », iyj6< 

14^ 7he Gimi lemon's A/a^a^iM* 

ud Gdpc M*aU3»," &C., &c. *'Tbcr vritc Tiom Brbtul," uyi 
tbe "5l Umo'i Evcninjc PoaU" "ilutt Mr. ThcmaA Andrews, 
DiitilJct ED Back Street, bu found out a particular Liquor to ftiJ|kplf 
iIk Los* of Geneva, handy, unl Rum by the lale Airi ; tHery go 
£u M 10 UU tti. UuL ii tinxcds citbcr of thooc Liquon for tbc 
fttitucion; and itcaU'd ^ Mtftv I/tveH/itm fmttd ^t in 7'infi v^i 
seems to anvwi^r Uic Tille, by iht; Curiosity and Tryil of Ihou^ wl 
lidve ticcn lofl^'jrg for tucb a cooiforublc Rctucdi j ibc Pricey too^ 
i« upon a Vta with Geneva, &c., 4oId 4/. per Oallon, or Tbree H4tf- 
penoe the Quartern, or Nogln." * 

The **\uLdc Mocum for Malivorm^ *' B.^or<^s a lypcal filinij 
of Ibc frcqucntcn of an corty ''fin houic" ijcforc the culmiiatini 
point of tbe Tint reiihctlre cix had bcea rtached It «is inJ 
*" IJncoln'a Inn, Tl^^^l^ Side," Jiml three clubs a day verehekltbere^ 
at 7 tn the morning, t^ dlE noon, and 9 oi nigliL 'Tcn'tRoyftl 
Gin * sold here was «l;iled to cure tbe gout sooner than tbc Anodyne 
Necklace. This is quite cre<]ible,tiiice the Anodyne Necktaoe 
tn eighlcentti-ccniury fi.iud which corrcspoi^dvd closely to the mora 
modern " vlcctnc belt/' But tbe cIam of froqncotcra of tbu Uvcrn 
it of fomc interest: 

iWa WG to the rcd-hm Gcticvit Clubi 

Whrte VoDihi ftic taui-hl Lq Rrad uid Wjit« uid Dutce ; 

Lcunlnf offtU Kjindigvii wiihjn Ibe Cfuwn- 
tldi Glawo ]'<D. with vinnoui M11. Judc 
KlaWfCbtbU'inBillieift04ioctor TwAtl 
Rn(h SnvuiU tf> ih« liun*d Sir Kdwinl Nonht^i 

thry fmh Quarumi draw, 
To i|Q4nd) rhc ThirvE oniatkocyf oiific Idw, 
'Hoopi irtiofDa iwo SuUunnt uf Middle Teni|i1e, 
TbeMaMCf «nd(beBUii, glvegivxt ramfiK 
I K«t bvt ihn Qjiur. art li^twiw lo Irt mn, 

l^ With n«l tjp* here A dnriLine poweifil Gilii* 

^^Bl According to an advertisement in tlie '* Daily Adverttscr ^ of 
^^B[lll7 10^ I74t» Henry Fcnwick sold ftl the "Angel and SiiU" ia 
^^^Somentct Street, ncir Wbilcchapel Bats, " Strong- Proof Ctn at 
I 1/. 10^. a Gallon^ tingle Gin at is. td., Krc:idi Brnndy md Jamaica 

I Bum at 6j> Cd.^ Spirits of Wtuc at 4/. f>d.^ and Brandy SliruU at 

' Dfopfnlwr tr, 1736. 

' Tht ftdi Mtntnfir M>dlw»rmf, [ml U,, ^ 4t 

Th4 Riign of ths Gin Terror^ 


4X. U,in no ksi Quantity tluiD tvo Gallotis, and only for n»dy 
Uonor." In the year 1733, when the Mint in Soutbfrulc, which 
liad long been ft SAHciuary for insolvent debtors, was aiipproifted, a 
mrinK ^imrrttinn might lure; l>ccti \rrn wrnding ir4 way through 
the atrccls of the old borough to Gnildlbrd. It w*u, however, not of 
Booh an honounbli} GharaciE^r A3 the piJi^Ttfnage whoae conver»tion 
<lellghu %a in the p^%o% of Chaucer, and ceriatnly the latter did not 
Inchldc ■* a Dnna leading an Ass loidtxl with frtriicva, to wJppoit 
Ibe Spirits of the Lndie) on the Journey-" *' On Tuciday,^' say^ one 
nccDQiU, "Msie Thouunds of the Mmten wtni out oE the Land oT 
Bondife, n\m thcr Mint, to he ciarvd nt 1U0 Qnxrxrr Scw'ons a| 
GttiUfoffd, according to the hCe Act of rirliamcnl ; the Rood w«a 
crowded with thein, insomueh that they look'd like one of tlie 
kvifb Trib<« £oing out of Kgypt, the Cai^lcade corr^istcd of 

Lvnniv Citta, .nod Woggoni, besides NuinbcrK on Ilofics, Aracs, 
and on Koot ; the DmvrvT of the two f^htin^ Cock» vnt seen to lead 
«n A0 kaded with Gencn, 10 support the Spnits of the Ladies upon 
llie Jonrney : Ti* nJd, Hrvml Heathen BniliffK lay In Ainbut- 
cjide in Ditches upon th;; Roid, 10 sutpricc »omc of them, if ponlble, 
on the^r Mofchi if they should &tra^;[e Trcm the main Kody ; but 
ihey proeeeded with w much Order and Disdpline, thai ihey did 
not lose a Man upoii ihi£ Eipcdiiion." ' 

Pope fllltidoa to the dciiructivc mHic in gin in his '* £pil<^e lo 
•Ihc Sitifrt," written in ijjS, and says that gin had almost dcttroyed 
the Irjwnt rank of thr ^Kcipl<? before it tcitrained : 

Thu <jJI« (h« Chnfch to dc|Mee*f« air tin, 
Aad horli iJl« ibnnder of the lawi on gia.* 

' 7jU iVtM^/M'wJ, July >0, ir^J- * Dlalcfue L 130^ 

J48 T^ CitUkmaHS Afagastne. 


OSE of llic nio»t uUurin^ coiiccpLiojis of En^nd in ilie olden 
lime b (he notion of SLt\ open Jind omctlcu counujr. We 
vary the period of our choice according to the extent a^ aocuncy 
of our hiiioncil tnowltvl^e, Init rcatlj? cwr^lKjtly jjifted tv-jih 
imagination has Ilia Sjlvsn Af>;c. h may be ia Anglo^Sftxon da)** 
And EU) EnRltnd which U n lilcnc wilderness, «rith ft dim ox-cr- 
hftng^ng mill, the face of the counii}- covered vith treeic, and here 
and ihcrc a IJ^ iimngy piuch of rnoraiA, wiib Gurth and Wjimha 
hcfdins «winc in the thidtect. Or perhaps it is m the LiEe and 
merry Middle Agei, ^ith forcH t^ladei, Jind ladt and losLset frolicking 
Lndi~r thr grron*«)d tree, a time when rt>ii»ance and myitcry kept 
nicn^& [nind» hghl £nd ciipcciant, ind piety CJ^ntrivcd to live iri ^ood 
fellowship with a host of opposite atuibutei the days of RobiA 
Hood find Maid Marian, of Friar Turk and Bishop GotiaEh, Or 
inayl>c vrc arc fMCin&tcd by the <x)nipAriion of UMlay witli the dajr 
before yctlcrday— Ihe rapid march of the huilder and the thickening 
of the crowd. What vondtrmenc there is, for Instance, in the 
ref1<iciion that a century and a liaK ago Kt^icrt Street wai the 
]:4unt of the woodcock (Nhjest of bird,<i). and the neighbourhood of 
Conduit Street a stn;teh Ol mcadOA kind drained by a nil of pun> 
water; while Lincathire, now heaving and throbbing fiom end to 
end with tlkestrrnjous movcmrni q\ millions of loikn, waa then aa 
•tient and cmpiy oa Galw-ay or Kerry I 

And what to^n dweller doei not continually aigh for the freedom 
of the country ? and who i% theie living in the cnuntry that haa not 
r<equcnc1y vlahed for the wider boundaries of the backwooda and 
prairie? This cravinj^ is about the most ori^inai portion of our 
nature, a fragmert 04 old aa the dnya when wffron *nd woad were 
ih^ MTtotial fa^thion, and cavtrs and grLxn boughs the latest thlrig £n 
homci and habitat Ions, 

In vcf}' truih our country hat, owing to its proj^pcrity, shrunk 
into a small and stifling area. It 1% a l^d of boundaries^ There 
js no gelling away from the eternal and offidoua fence, with ita 


Opfn England. 


suggestion of apprcpriition. Thfi public spicci which 
liATC b«cn phl1ftnt!ir3piCA]1y provided, and mrr wliicli nrr luturioudy 
pAudc in oui leisure houre. tc^cthcr nilh ilII other public ri^bu nl 
vair, numerous thouf;h the/ majr bc^ ^i^ly ^^rrc to indicate how 
denie we aiv in number, and Iww inlficiAl we are forced to be. 

No doubt the Tenc^ u wc knon it, is & coiupar&tivcly modctn 
jnveniion ; a» a (ortiBcftllon it it nearly ac old m ihc humctft race* 
Man teimed, caily tnougti, !o fente out ihc wi-iihtr with a house 
tiid the ni^LUj MJtJt a nai; ; And when he Ix^i^u tu cutiu-atc phntK, 
be WB3 forced to protect the qjot^ cuhivaicd Ofcairmc the ta^^agca 
ofuiiiiuls. The rest letnaintd % public right When I'cd ling and 
BilNag anived \\\ B^it^in ffojii ttic Saxon ^hi^rCi llxey iicUli^d down 
iJongiidc of each other (taking care to leave a broad tfiLcivcntng 
space), and Agreed a line of demarcation. They took precautions 

the protection of tlicir oils an<] ryc^, bur, likf? Abraham and \M^ 
ley were too amicably disposed to evc-n cojucatplatc a {|i)ttrre1 
orcr a mere <)uc»llon of grasing land. By>and'by, Pcdlui^ton and 
Billmgham were conttlmted parishes by the mon^ Tht^orc, the 
imagiiury line «ni;:lc by the i«o paiikri^tw being adopicd as iho 
idriaion between ihc two places. Hereafter we are to undcn^tand 
Ihoi the principle of inEcr prochial boundary must bo respected, 
inannnch as the rcdlrngt and BilUngt have multiplied, and their 
and berdii a^ wirll, and oidrily conduct no* dem^indi that 
:h liunily should keep more strJctlyniEliin \\s ovrn township limitt. 
But Kiihin the '' mark " there weie no division* or dittincricnf) lava 
[ttnlf in the amhJe ficld. 

This lou^e and indefuiile arrangement generally prevailed till 
[ion^ alter the CunqutAt William might parcel out the parishes 
«mnng hiit fjx^ounces, he might grant the manors of Pedlingion 
and Billirj^am lo aliens ; but the devceiHlanis of Pedlzng and 
tilling, toother tritb their cattk, were exactly in Ihc same poaitlon 

the ground game— they hvod rn the land, and noticing but 
ciierminaiion courd cfl'acc thai pcMcion. What actually did occur 
not be rccapiiuhlcd further than to renuik that mancnal 
I did, m course uf ticnc, bccomo valuable through coniiscaiiors 
uftd lAgeniout lenet upon the panes and labour of the occupiers. 
The main thing to remcnil*er ii tliat for soinctbriij; like twn hnndrM 
years after the Conquest the lord acquired linrdly anything, in a 
^kGjdi^ed way, by nrtue of the fence. 

In the days of Robin Hood a mitller might journey acro«« 
country from Bcmick lo Dcalj and fioin Lm^ieln bo tlic Wel^h 

50 Tfu CtnilefHatis Magazint, 


■ fDBTchca* ihrou^h open bifid, without let or biniTranc^. Yet such & 
f auie or thinj^s did not by any mcnnv imply chat agriculture n^it 
undeveloped hnglnnd ai thai limc mppnnrd iu pnjnrlaiitin vhollf 
on ttoftic products, hc^iJcs cxporiini; n very subislAntial residue. 
English sbccp were famous throu^out Europe, and Iheif wool 
vai priied by ihe Flemish At^d Walloon wmvi^n: aa the hr«i raw 
materitl pnxtirablc- Agriculture fra» all but a vniveml occu* 
pation. Trccholdcr, cop)'ho!cl<n xnJ cotugcr dch haii a TjcM or 
« luttov loircwhcrc, upoti which he eould put his foot and «3y, 
■'Thr rfop liirrc is mine cucluiivrly/' Over nnd ahove thi,^ (niwl 
pcrlMp a iklle mcadowlmd in the richer ahirea) tlie whole country 

•Btill by open. 
It \% usual to Tustume thnt the rc<peeiive rtghifi of lord and tenant 
vr^rr LmifoTir nxid dcruiHc. So Tar as the rcscrvntioi) of rent service 

• and pt/ment in kind vaa conocn}ed. this very lilccly ivos the cok^ 
But notioai regardfoon»ikQtspaicur»gt» Such vftsimpoMible; Ami 
theruTorc iin^ ihe rirrnmijtanri^ it vt\% »%y for an Aggnndisiiig 
lord or an encruadiin^ itiiant 10 bci^cfit conbidcrably at the expense 
of others. There appear to hav^e been at lca.«t three methods of 
gracing: (i) an unrestricted freedom for lord and tenant ililco 10 tnm 
■LocV on the pariih common ; ( j) a right for lord and tenant alikr lo 
turn on a fiicJ majiiinxtm of stock in proportion to ih* urea of tlie 
enclosed liinds oi c*ch— called 1 ''itinted" pasture ; {j) a "stinted'' 
right fur ttie tenanii over the Hhale ik-mi^inc* ihr lord^t right being 
only stinted over llie common cktse and champaign country, and not 
over tho outwoods* tnooni, and heaths. 1-or the purpose of carrying out 
whichever of these arrangcmenis wa* in vngtic, a bnjward or pounder 
wa>: ajipinfitud at the Cmiri Baron, and hia duty it aas co w.nirh the 
land and prevent agftrefiion by occupiers 'of adjoining manors, or 
trespass or ovcntoclting by the tenants themiiclvef. 'I'ho pounder 
is Gclll in many places appuiutcd, 

Tlie defects of all thoc varjoua Ei>'itGm»aTC obnimj^ and wcne no 
doubt painfully ftpparenc It? th:; political ceonomuits of the period. 
But how to imprtA'c upon iht^m without curtailing tho Aindamtrtal 
principle of the public right 10 the use of ihi; land wan a pfvihlem. 
Some of the devices of mcdin:val agriruhurists show chi: the oier* 
reaching instinct wat at powerful then ni; it is now. Uccupietv 
^irere (ki thtr jilert to take advunt:ij;r of each other, and the whole 

ly were ready to squcue the lord if an oppoitunity arose One 

llustiation of the rcAncd cunning of the Middle Ages we cannot 

?Ip leferring to^ heoiuse it in no delicioin. The prime endoitvour 

those days im^a to !>cc-urc all ihc dting ptji^ible for the arable 


Open JiK^/aftd. 


partdi, and mainly on thU account tl^C ancierU custom of ^thenng 
iKe ciiitt! from the coinmon, and foMing ihcm in llic rickyaid or 
hofnetii-dLd croft during ihc niiC^^ "ajv ^cpl up. One contemporary 
writer howc%cr, point; out that folded entile utiually lie throughout 
the night, thereby diccking the Action of tht^ hovch : :ind so he 
ttcomiDCtidft the cartful fflrmcr to gently exercise his arintj^l^ louiid 
the p<n in tbe mominfE before he drives thera alietd. A frequent 
Ribjcct of contention i*aa ihe inorcdi«honetl triclcof vealthy tenantt 
on nnmtricied piiiurc^ of lummg on an overwhelming tiock in 
>pnii|^ aud then trading them off when the ktau nas done, to lie 
detriment of the i^H^fide all the year lound tenaniA, who vfctc 
mxiotts for the gr»& to b&i thfongh the ^Ason. 

The i^ricviiKcs between loid .ind lenaoi were etjually uoii^ 
tnd the $tfttuic of Mcrioiv parted i" 1135 for the relief of the foTincT, 
mrkt the firtt conce«Mort 10 the principk of the E^nce, It recites 
that ''the gnf^E men of En^Und" had, from ilmc 10 lime, made 
auch and such perriom frecholdeTs, and these persons, hating a 
ckim ovef the tr^te bndti, prevented their Jordslroni makiof; 'Uhdr 
proEit of the reiidoe of thdr miinor^, 3; of u^^teif woods, And 
pastures." The prcamhle derUrw that the tenants h*J fetifficlfnt 
pftsLure, ^'dn mu^h as bclongeth to their tenement^/' hut, ngt content 
with thai, uscrted their right* c^et the whole commonable property 
within the manor. We arc not awari^ of any record of the evidence 
UjJOn vrhicli the icnants ha-^cd ihcir contention, but It «ou1d pro- 
bably be on nothint; lesn than the hitherto unquahfied and ancient 
custom which wis auiied fn il^ e^rUer ponion of thl4 attJete. On 
the trthcr hand, X\\t: Undowrter* Fould, no donbt, ptead tlij\f ihe 
grftnts from the Conqueror had modified the old um^c, And tluit the 
rents and serriccs rendered to them were constructive admlnion of 
their present cUimK. 

The difficulty of deciding in fatour of the lords mu^t h.tve Ijecn 
fCrc*t| And yet one is bound 10 admit ihat the exir^tint^ indcfiEtitc and 
wasteful *)'item of eiploiimg the country vai equally serious^ Th« 
5CAiuie of ^fcr1on, in the rough and ready way of the period^ e^dt 
the controversy by hAnding the whole mAiiet over to the justice* of 
the peace. In caa^ where landlord and tenants could not ngrce^ 
the jmtices were empowered to decide what common righti were 
sulTicie&t fot the latter; and, subject thereto, the lofd was at Lbrtly to 
deal with the remainder oa he thought fit 

The ofieraiion of the new Aci slow and gradual The CApital 
value of the best Und In the ihirtcemh century wai only from five 
toeljEht ihilijngt per acre, and thccon oT fcncirg— W, *av, (caT^CTitft. 


52 The Gtntkmans Ma^atinc, 

M 6xf per mao— checked tbe force of ibe iiiiiuie. Some ftdvuuagv 
im taken of it, m i» evidenced by ihc bet that duiing tbc ocxt fiftjT' 
jriin th« old diugrociDC[>u took a ncv turn, the teeunt* defying 
the a«;irds of ibe ju&licrt xcid dcxnoliihlng ibc frncd. Ttie Scanm 
of Wcstnui^ter 0^65) eoftctcd thil if ftuch mongdoen vcrc not 
iAdidod bj tbc inbabtuuiu of the tdjoining tovns, tfae l»tter vcrc to 
pi^ for the duuAge done; 

The period iumedbtelj sulaequcnt to the Refarautian Ik marked 
bjr n rcvimi of the £pi>!ication of ihc itAtvic- The monks, x^ antici- 
pcilioA of the comijig dltendowtneni, hjid fo« upiwdt of a c«ntuty 
tjcen granting long teaiei to Uj agriculturitu at lov rents, eoupM 
irith A premium paid dova. The iw tciunt^ looking at tbingswiiti 
a wholly comtncrcicd eye, rcco^nUcd that enciotcd Land vrad worth m 
loutlwenty-fivc per cent more thin land held in cocnmonH The new 
oumcts Mere c^tuolly luercinLtlc In ihcil Ideas, and the ie%ul[ Hon that 
fof n xavkz the power* of the Stiitatc of Merlon were briakly applied. 

Other couics were lending towards change. At the country grew 
\n oamtnercial itnporcancc the cmftsmen tncn^a^t^d in number and 
di^MKiatcd thccn»elTea from ihc culiivation cf the lOtl, and the 
evc-rvniicniiig c1a»<age between agriculture ar^d tmde affected the 
ilatut ol hrA\\, Tlic cncloturei of thir AflWHih and uxteentb 
centurieih though incort^idcrablc by comparison with whaitook place 
Aftonmdi^ auised a feeling of popukr uneasiness. I'he abioluie 
vesting of com fnoa land in individunk converted land imoflnur- 
ketable commodjty. The commercial cbs»ri» were rvady buyers. 
"0«nci''and "occupier," "bu^er*' and'* seller" were now terms 
in constant use, and had acquired a hard, precise, individualistic 
iDCARing. The Statute of Metton waa an enclosing enactment only 
insTieiipttLve way. It was to a much grc-aiei cxieiil a Lulm^k of 
protection to the yeoman sgainst the Urge proprietor. Thccotli^trr, 
whcAc mean d<;grce had hiiheno excluded him from formal recogni- 
tion, and whose rights liad been left 10 the good-natured toleration 
of bia Utters wa^ at this cniic;il )uncturc looked after tnd proieded 
hf common con&eni- In the sixteenth century lome of his privikget 
were confirmed by statute, and the handsome srlpulations made for 
tlie niiiiritciuncc of his cow put the rnodcm ibicc-acrc sclienie of 
&lr. ChAnil:'crlAin completely in Ihc sJ^adc. 

The golden prosperity of Elir-ibeiha rtign increased rhc importance 
Bf the merchant cbs\ and Ijnd wns bought and tdd at contimially 
BCtCBaLng pricci- The founders of new fanitjlJea were men of new 
idcar Ilie power of tht; purine had enabled tlicm to acquire Jin 
Mtrable interest In freeholds, which was then the main outward 

OpcH £ng/anJ, 


iign of gentility. And King Jnme^ viih n noUbIc appreciation of 
the batmen instinct, eotnplcicd ihcir consolidation by the crcnCJon 
ol UuoDctcicfi— for £ con^dcTAlion. But the prospect of their broad 
hEmhiAndiincIrrw[XJit!i lying ntrgU-cted and Alnuat x'aluek^napiJrutcd 
strodj^ly to the ilirifiy cntcrpri;ic of tlic new ordcf, and in Enun>- & 
minor poorer And influence, judiciously Applied, enabled the new lords 
to nuke irrangemenis vith the lentr folk- Encloivirei by mutual 
comott were Common enough duiin^ tJic seventeenth century, and 
one of the v^od deeds of the Lcnj; JVliunent was the disAfToK^iting 
of Ur^e tracts of royal preserves in various parts c1 the eouniiy. 

Stil), the poor moii'i inieit^tt were ddl lost sfgbt of, ilihiiu^h 
aomcwfattt interfered ytwh. Gabriel Platter, ^'nting about the middle 
of Um Mvcnteentli ccntuTy, advocates cndosurei because, he Eays ^n 
acre enclosed \% bciEer Chan four arret in common ; Imt he reeogritcs 
the old bdi<f that the ute of land ib the biitliright uf ill, by adding 
ihat no conninoH should <rt^t be endowed without leaving a cow's 
groSA for every cottage. 

The wide rrtearch und vivid pen of T^crd M.icanby have 
famished an inimiubte ^clcb of England in 1685, juit a goici^ton 
before the diiwn of a nt-w epoch in the hiAtorr of the Fence. On 
the stole of ngriciiUurc he ciy* :~ 

"Tbc arable land and poatufc bnd were not supposed by the 
best political liruhineticians of that jj^c to amonnt to n^uch more 
Ihia luLf Ibo aren of the kingdom. The remainder was believed to 
ronnst of moor, forc^^t, and fen. The?se? rompniaiionA am strongly 
confrmed by the rood books and maps of the levcnlecntb ccntur)-, 
t'fcm theie books and n:aps it i^^ clear that many rouiea uhich now 
pus through an cndtc^s succesdon of orchards, comHelds, hayfieldf, 
and bcanficlds t^^cn ran ttjrough nothitig but heaih, swamp. And 
narren. ... At Enfield, hardly out of &igbt of the >niokc t>( ibe 
capital, sn4 a region of five-and IvenEy ntilcft in circumk'rvnoe, 
whidl cmiaincd only ibree haunts and ^urccly tLTVf encto^d Ijelds/' 

And in a foot-note, commenting on the " Itincroriuni An^tlx* 
{i$75) of John Ogdby. lh« oofetnogrepher royal, be remarks :— * 

"In^mecf hit maps the rcodK throtigb endowed c^iunliy are 
marked by lini^ am) the roads dimngh un^ndo^cd country by dot^ 
The proportion of unencloKd cotjntry, vrbicb if cultivaied must 
hivt been vrHi^hcdly cultivated, scem« to liavo been very great 
FVom Ahingrlou lo Gloucc^^trr, for examplif, a di^iAnro of forty ocj 
fifty mJlc&, tlicrc was not asinglc enclosure, and scarcely one cndouiro^ 
between Uih^^leswade and Lincoln/' 

It mu re5«rved for the Undowneri of ibe tight«l\lh etuVirf \ft 


Tht G4ntUmaiis Magasttu, 

alU^r ttib %\3iL^ of things, «n(l in vi^oruLJily cxrrjr to Jt ou^ii[>1etion tli 
fhdironrirn; of ihc counlry. Even iKc rowt coiiwTviti\c «cic liwd' 
of th« exAipcr^ting rcttricltDn« which by upon the cultivation of the 
Comn»i>n field nntl the graiing of Th*? wu^e hnd. The progren 
B whclc nunur (ciw4Lid« newer methoU^ of f^imng naa hindered 
tli9 thickhcJidcd prejudice of perhaps a single coI^lnol^holdcT• 
Tlieiifnc noA ripe for a new mode cf ptoccdutv. 

To-day it is dfrdtit-ity nnd tramway* which arc i!ie piini:i|«1 
objeeh of piiiite Bill Icgiilation \ A\ii\n^ ihc lul cenmry it tru 
railwa>« »nd gaSn Throujthoui the eighteenth century the Houses 
of r^rliafurnT were busily m^agi-d in pawing privnte Enctaiure Aeti, 
The Kqxtf t of the Bwid of Aj^ilculLurc on EucloAUict in i8c6 ^ovi 
thai, from the tcp^n ol Anne to the year 1805, a.j^i such Aets hid^ 
been posted f(>r England alone, and dormg the nevt forty yean the 
numEvr a:u htnuj^ht up tu intiit? ih^n ftiur llioiuandn aflTecltng Ivn 
thousand flqiiarc RiiZu of common. Besides iliCK privaic Acts, 
numerous Arr^LEigcmcnU wc;re mftdc without rccoun;c to pAtliiment, 
of whidi therein no pulilicrecord^a/idtheic, ooa moderate rompuu- 
lion, Imng up the toul area to practically oncfouitii ihc auifAcc of 
the country* 

In addition to the efforts of private BiU legisUdon, the Goverfi* 
menta uf die cighlcvnth ccikCuiy irac moving, iu s gcikctal nay. In 
the uruc direction. By n public statute cf 1756 ic ia recited thotr 
owins to the Kaicity of wood, it «a4 ncce^iary (o Import foreign 
timber; and It vas enacted lliat £iriy onn^ of waste uoods A.r^\ 
pAiturca ininht, with the nucnt of the mcjor pan of the persona 
navLnff ri^ht of pnKturaj;^, make enclosurca For the f^cwlh and] 
preien^tion of Untber and underu-ood. An aut-mpt was ako 
in 1773 ti>milJgati:byBt&lutc the iciiiiciicjr]:^ placed upon c;iIiiiaLor 
cf common ^dds by overruling the bickvraTd minority. This 
provtde^ thnl a majority of Ihrve fcurllis of the cuUi^^ton tni^^ht 
deddea^ to the order and methnd of cuki^-aiiuii and iiLinag^TnenF, 
for A JUed period not Eo cicccd >ix ycu«. 

There ia no doubt that allotment and enclosure were popular not 
only with Lindowner*» but alwj among tenam* and the eiecrorai« 
generally. But tlicie wat one giuit cLua which bttlcily fell tlicy 
were bcinK deprived of their rights— ihcst wcic the eoEiajtcii- Not 
being hold«r« of ancient enclosed land, no ^lare of the spoil fell to 
them. The immcnLoiijd custi^m of ccriturita wait bm^hcxl away by 
the stronger lidCi and tbouuinds of peuanta ceased lo have a direct 
[Interest m the soil. The cow which pastured on the common had te 
It irttS the »me with tt>e privilege of gleaning in the coumcB 

O^H Englan^f. 155 

Arabic, DOW aUottH in icTcnlljr. So, a^In, in rcgari to the outwoods 
ftnd iQt^orliuid : there had heretofore been liberly to £0 there iji Ihe 
autumn to gatther (irew90d >nd cut turl II teemed as though hatf 
thr IiitIlIiuikI uf llie Ulxjurcr lud di<^j4>t!arc.^. 

Such drastic chftn^ bred keen dlAconEcnF, but ihc mtittciinga of 
ft dosfi which bad no irdght at the hustings were ditrcgarded b/ the 
pttctiod folk vho benefited by (he new ocder of thing*. Vet the- 
fBllkdoCtbc iMlion was around, if only in an acadcTnlc scnaCi 10 the 
tc:fue* irtnilvcd by the alteration of a^culturml conditions The 
imting* of Ihe la*t quarter of the eighteenth century oipecblly are a 
bulk}- evidence ihai LoiJi aides were well represented in the field of 
controrcTiT, Ii woj dleRcd that enclosures vould, by imposing 
hArdsihipt upon Wui cottager, cause the population to decriMie ; tliAt 
ihey would tend to (urn much illlage into pultun?, md cauie the price 
ol'covntotoup ; thiitihe cotintry would be rendered Tcu convenient 
for tnivdlini; and s^port^ On tho other hand, it vciu nHct^cd that 
more corn wovitd be grown, bccncse pan of the enclosed common 
would be tuined into arabte, and the extra laboui Ijirolvcd in cultivating 
jl vpouM more than make up to the labourer for hin lcs3> and so cause 
Ihft popubtfon to increase niher than dinriinish; that ogrictilturo 
genenlly would benefit, tnasmuch as the old wattcfitl methods of 
tilLing the common field compelled cccuplct^ to keep more hon»cs 
than were necessary, an argument supported by the assertion thatan 
abnormal quantity of heans had a!w:»y^ h^cw gro^vii. It waj, never* 
tbdcM, a content widi all the odds on one side. A i^w pcttona 
might hai'c hod an uneasy rccotiection that Kct'n NoHblk rebellion 
hod* eenturks before, been occasioned by a iirtiLTT griex'snce, but th« 
[lolitica! aud social enviranincni of ih<: eighteenth century wuaU 
a^inst vncdiEcral comparisons. It was admitted by both sides that 
cndofiure had given a stimalus to intelligent husbandry. J'anning, 
Indeed, berime a fiid- "The fermiinr tribe," ii.iid Young in 177*1 
" u new made up of all iank>, from a duke to an apprcnlioc" It 
tra» an agriculiuroj renascence. The popular nnind was stirred by 
the possibility of an EngT;and riTaJling in productiveness the multi- 
cropped arable laud of Kul>lropic8] Europe. Tt is dl^^iU to 
conceive this countrya cabbagelcn, potatolc^, carrottess land. Vet 
ia the da^-s ol our great^randfitheri such was mainly the case; 
whai arc now ordirary field crops werr then as rare to the eye as tho 
yam or pineapple aie to-d^y. Tbc old methods hod hitcd ihclr 
time, and thi^ change, thoiigh sererc and unwelcome to a good many, 
wai nec«4tafy and inevitable. The parcelling out of the Englbh 
pcglrfc bad prng/r^sed wirfJ on towards compleitott \x^ \Va ewR- 


156 Tht GtntUniarii Magazine, 

mcnccmcnt of the rinctccntb century, when the beialed Act Gf i3oi 
17U pitted Co codify the common form chuses usually Lnserte<J in 
private Bills. 

A generation Uler, fjiriiuiig bad developed into a comtncrdal 
punuit, utd Uic fjirmer wore kid ftloves and drank diampagne. 
He wu lometbing of a chemitt nnd something of %\\ -tiutomUt. He 
prortiml a crafi 01 inyitcry — lay, ll waa % profculoii, foi u thcic 
were gentkPncD^jpctthcatncs %o there were K^^ttcmen farmers. 
Their land «u &g much slock m Cnttt>, Liougtit or laired in the 
market, of & cftialoifued yardage and qualiiy. Tii tE)c luf^nltmc 
EngUiid had entirety ccA^ed to be a pul^tie floor. It had become a 
piopric:ary nrticle. 'llie [;reat black moor which formerly ttfeichcd 
from tthire 10 (hire, and va» a l>ound1e£s unknown to the rustic 
provincia], h^d been mcs&ufcd 10 a ritccly, and apptjitioncd between 
BroiYD, jonca. and Xobinson tjkc so much carpel or sticking plLsCcr. 
The wild animals and bird^ u'hich lived in its fasini^ssei were 
now Ukf^wisf; vefiied in Drown, Jones, and Robinson, and [he 
fmtpads and poachers hobgoblins and fairies, who lud made it 
tlicir lurking place, had bcconie trespassers on the sole rights of 
the s-ime gcmlemen. The ro:id which lay between two walls was 
the public shan% and whoever deviated from its liard surface was a 

The hard fact of the Fence became in time a wound to public 
sentimenL Our pconomic intelligence breathes a blessing on ihKe 
who mode tAro blades of £ra^ to grow In ihe pUce of one, and 
caused the wilderness to smile wiih an abundance of cabbage and 
clover ; but the mere animal and uiuutored put of us, ■' licking the 
chops of mt-mory," sigh* for ihe old *bys when Naiare iicid fuller 
Kwuy, and heaih and pUiii vrc;c not laced and interlaced will) partition 

Heic and there a space escaped the dividing h<ind, perhaps 
tbroutkh Uck of enterpiise, probably in consequence of local disputes* 
It was left onreniUscd and untendcd. The adjacent land was 
clothed in com and ^rctnciy, while ibc common or green remained 
year afiei year in the same fdthy raiment of gorsc and ragwort and 
nettles, h was a Lazarus at the gate of respectability, defiling it« 
nei^hbouTS with \\& crop of ihisiTes find dandelion, and in its turn 
suljJecTed ro every ignoble use. Uiil all the Awhile the villages found 
about were becoming townsi a.nd fresh townn were coming into exist' 
encc. Streeti took the place of ficld^i, and Lhe meadowE and pa&tures 
were overlaid wUh brirtsand moitnr. But the bit of disr<'[>utable 


Open England, 


C00iD)<»i remained ; and aI1hoU];;h it ^rcw more sqtulid cuid dirty it 
WK bleoed bj Ihe crowds of youngrtcr* whu swarnK^d ui;cn it and 
buUt thcLf pUy-hou&ca ainoiig iu rubbish bcAps. By>and<by llift 
munidpal fftlben extended their pitrona^c to ir. and crucl«d pains 
andp«naliiei on iho^e who ihou!d foul ii n-ith IJtr«T. Its pfogre^ in 
popular tympathyconiinued unnl tO'dny it rankhliighrrin e»lin>-incn 
tban ilie public p^rV, Its boundanc« arc jealously guarded against 
cnCTOschmcnt, ;ind its enclosure so hcdf;«d fi^iih re^trktioni aj to 
imit? ^1 nrarlj- imjw*&sible for ^uch an tvt?m to happ4?n. It is chief 
among Unda, the rmduvous of tbe couniTj'sidc- Children of ;dl 
aj^ assemble therefor rccrcationanddiveraiont and golf ind cnckel^ 
WrVf r and tip-raf , pfilnting 3rd boianising, lounging and saunicrinp, 
pecnicking and svtccth«^anmg, lueall benefited and usiitcd by Ibc 
cosmopotfUn common* 


Tie Geniiematfs M^azini. 


IN ItOfveir* "Liroof Johnion,*' w« road, under iJat« 1766: ■«! 
tciurn«d to London in Febroiry, and found Dr. Joh^taoii in 
& good houtc :n Johnxon't Court, Vied Street, in nhidi he had 
occoinmodAted Miu WJIianu \t\ on apartment on tlic ground floor, 
«]>11o Mr Lcvcit occupied hifi poRC in the garret : his liiLithful Fnnk 
VTLt Still Attcmlin^ uprm tiioi/' 

To thi4 Abode Jolmnon had removed from Ub diJimbeis ui 
Inner Temple Ijh^g, nnd U i^OLjld Appear that in Johtuoi^'s Co«rt 
he formally commrncf^d hoii«<rlEecpin{i for the Brtt time tince th4 
deith of hj> wife. When wc know how Mtvercly be mfTercd from 
the shock of thiLt grctt bereavement, wc can feci no surprito that he 
ghouTd long have appc:LR:d indifferrnt to hoaachold arrangement, 
lk>!tA'rl), vinitiiig him in Ixwwt Teniplr T^ne on Ma/ 7^, ^l^i, 
ai)'5: " It mtttt be confcftacd that his apurtmcntt ^nd fumiEurc, and 
morning drca*, were nullicicntly imcouih," 

So much ha J ihit jtecmmg rotiicnipt for the c^mninxnrts 
come lu be te^^i<Icd as u piri of JoliciMm's character, that the 
Alteration manifcslcd in his new establishment excited general 
surpti«e. Thit feeling ii omuiingly illuitrated by two pooiageA in 

Jrt April, 177,^ Boswcll icccrd^ thai, " lo my fircat Aurprbc, he 
tckcd me to dine with him on EoMr Day/' 

"I hail gmtificd my curiosity much in dining uirh Jean-Jicqne* 
Rouncau ivhilc he lived in llic wilda gf Ncjfcliiltcl [ had Mt great 
A cuiiofiity to dine with I^r. Samuel Jcihnson in tlw du^lcy reccs« of A 
court in lleet Street. I suppoied we &hodd scarce!/ hai'C knivM 
and fuiK aad only some iitrA]t|j<^', uncouth, ill-drt^td di^h ; but I 
ind everything in very good ordcrn'' 

"As A dinner here was corrsidercd ofl a singular phenomenon. 
Id OS I wa* ftequcnily hitcrrogarrd on the Kubjoct. my readers may 
rrhap be denroui la knovr nut bill of fare, FooEc, T temcmhcr, in 

aon to Fmncis, the negro, wai witling to suppose that our rcpait 

Dr. JoMnsom's Landlord. 


trts ^^k Imth. But tbe Tact wu that vr« h«d a v«ry good «oup, t 
bdM leg uf Lamb and ipin&ch, > veal pie. and a rice pudding/' 

"Oa Saturday, May 13 (1775)* 1 breakfasted vcth bim b; in- 
vitation, accompanied by Mr Andrew Croabie, a Scotcb advocate, 
wbom be liud accii ai Edinburgh, and ibc Hon. CoIodcI (uov 
Gcacral) Slopford, brctbcr to Lord Courtcvn^ wbo vros doirous of 
being inlrodtjced to him. Hii tea, and rolU and butter, and vbolo 
brt^akriit ap[)arirus, wert- all in tucb deconjin* ^nd hi& hc-baviotir 
vtoa io courieou&t that Colonel Stopford ira> quite aurptucd, and 
vTOodcrcd at hU harirft heard so much uiid of Jobnw>n'ft sloTcnbncst 
and Toufihoeii."' 

In JolimoEt'k Court tbc Doctoc pcu&cd tcii ^ tbc aiort inicrcit- 
\t% jcaia of hit life ; net wiiiing mu^h, but conrcraing with great 
vivaols '"^ e:ctiibmag the prowess of tbe intellectual gladiator. 
Here he coottnued 10 bold hia morriing levers attcnd'^d by dis* 
liEi^Ukabcd men of letters. Ii woa ftbile iciidcnt bcic tliac he bod 
hit roffioua ondicncc of the Kinft From Johnson's Court he set 
forth it) Auguii, 1773, on his memorable ''Journey to the Western 
ItlaiuU/* in lb<? fxiuru- of vhicb be huciormudy des^riljed himself, 
in uiower to a Scottish laird. s& *' Johnson of that iih \ " 

The fccbngs wjtb nhich liosir^ll r^arded the doctor's removal 
from Johnson'^ Cotin are touchingly exprewed in the following 
jia»:iji4;e i '" I felt a foolibh regret that be h^d left a cauit whidi buro 
hb tumc, but it wa? not foolish to be affected with some tenderness 
of rogatd for a place in which 1 had teen him a great deal, front 
■hence 1 had often isiu-^0 a betltr xt\A a happier man thnn when I 
ncnt in, ai^d which had often appeared to my imagination, uhile I 
tfod iu pa^'CI^cnt, in the solemn darkness of the night, (0 be eacted 
to wisdom and pieiv/' 

I'o all true J^jhuMinun^ the w>metinie dwdbii^ nf the grv^at 
Doctor poMcis as much fascjnjilion as tbcy did for UoawclL Wc 
delight to tnco bis footsteps throughout the metropolis, and togoia 
with aJfectionate interest on those spots which have been rendered 
ncinoiaUc by his sojouni; although most of the hoiixcf which 
abdtered him have dibapp^ored. Even in \\i% fivotirite Meet Street, 
the hou&es in which ho dwelt for a qtianer of a century ha\% oil been 
swr^ away^ Or>e wha now miefx ihr liliynitlhlnr ^^sage silll 
inown oa Johnton'a Court will find no trace of the No. 7 irhcie 
Ibtt Doctor hved from i7&$ to 177$. Inner Temple Lane hae lofln 
vaniihed, and the houtc in Bolt Coun in whjcb Jobnion died vu-' 
token down in the beginning of the lost century. No better initanee 


Tb£ CtN/UmaMS Magazine. 


of "duitilcM fame" could be ci1«<i than itic CicC lliat Uic memory 
cf tU« great writer clingi io tenicioubly to a Iboroughfatc tn «hicb 
no lincc of his forraiT habiLiTion rr-mairH. TTii* U tnd«cd a 
"id; nunncnium acre pcicnniuK." 

'I'hc atmoiphcre of the entire quirtcr u, in tbe words of 
BMwell, *' impregDAied with the JohnBOnUn »ih«r.' 

Ii happens alto tl^it tlic c^ual uaocbcion of the runics of cenain 
pcnons, in Ihc ordinary relations of life, with tbot of a grcni min 
often endows tbera ttith a Came which ihtrir own effons could ne^er 
havp obtained. To be the bndlord cr ndUdy of An iltuurioti^ 
tenant constitutes a title to immoitality. Who could for^t "Gold- 
smith^ Hostesj," Mr*. Marj^ret Fleminj;? 

Of Johnson'} numerous Undlordfi, ibe lumes of two only, the 
fint and [he \aAi — N(r. Norriii, ihtr KiaymakeT, of Ei«ier Strvvt, and] 
Mr. Allen, Ihc ptioicr, of Bolt Coati^havc been iiatided doirn.' 
One cther^ whose name U remembered for certain penoaal reasons, 
has mitted hi» beit chance of immortality through being omitted 
from iht: page^ of DositvlL 

A tong'fo^otten pamphlet, printed by Henry Pace* 56 High' 
Streel, Borough, in the year ol t^iace 17S4, »?tR forth at Icnj^ib 1h« 
'^Will of Richard Russell, Eiq., Ute of Bermonditfy, in theCoimiyof 
Surrey," to whicli h jij>pciidcd a bloj^r^plijiial sketch of ilic testator 
by Sir Joseph Mairbcy, Bart,, M,P., one of the ciEccuton. 

Mr. Richard Russell, ownur of the four houses numt>crcd f, 8; 
9, and 10^ in John«on*>i Court, was a wealthy member of the CorpO' 
miion of Woolataplcrs. which haa hod ita bod-quarters in ai^d around 
Bcrmondiey Street for several centaricfl. In hU "l-ondon," Mr. 
Cbarlea Knight says: "!n a street called Rusidl Street, inteneet- 
ing Bcrcuoiijoey Street^ the lar^e ^arcUuu?trs tif Llicse wiKjUupIt'nt 
maybe iccn in ercat numbers — tiers of ware- or store-rooms^ with 
cranes over them ; waggons in the juird beneath ; hu^e baLei Itlled 
with wool, some arriving, and others dqarting— Eh«u^ are the 
appearances which a wool waichousc prtfcnts." 

Ku^sdJ t>lreLH, now ptrhajH more appropriately called ''Tanner 
Sireeti" btit wbi^h horc the former appellation for more than 4 
iiy, owed iti lUdic lu tbt: Mr. Russell in<iue3tion, Hi^qualitief 
be best chELTieteriKcd by two phrases ^catly in vojfuc amot^ 
lit eon tempo rariea. In his personal chamctcr Mr. Russell was 
m *'ori^iru)l," and in hi« buiire^^ rapacity a ^'notable" man. 
Fohnfon had \aw^ abandoned c»3Ay'HiiunK at the period of bccom- 
ng thii genilt man's tenant ; ochcnvise, wc can feci no lioubt that 
Jie Doaor, who rrlbbed an origtiuil, would have left a character- 

Dr. J^huiiKS Landlord. 


•k«tch of Mr. RtKsell equil Co bk wiiEy prcsentaEions of Ne^biry, 
ihc (m1flUh«T, u "Jock Whirler; &n<J of Colson ibc inathi^maiician 



In Sir Jo**ph N[awbcj'» biogf3[»hica] skckh, which first 
Appeared In the " Gftiilcmon's Mag;iziiie" for November, 17S4, eve 
have a gnphic picture of an dghlccnth-o^nttiTy mcrcluiil . lutniiilious 
ond C3G&ct in business, wary in hU inon<.-ULry transactions, bmldirs up 
% fonvnc by the ncady acciimiiliiion of imall gains ; a "warm" 
mon, responsible, wcU<ontidcrcrl, ptibltr-splritcd, A local magnair-, 
dvcUint; in a substantial house in £Icrmon<bc]r Street, vnth it-i old 
oak- parcel ling and v:iinfteoicd roomB, with his man anJ Iwo ihokJ- 
tcn^nis "plemy, Lut no wdiu^ 1 " iraii the r^ilc in his wcU-ordrred 
cstibluhmccil. A ooan cfweightamongnt his brother wool meichants, 
great at mde^ din new at the famed '^WoolpacfeTiii«m,'' h^ rendered 
ihcm good servire on occ-n^ion by discounting ihe bills of tho« 
" neighbours of nrhom he had a good opinion (nnd [hey were noi a 
fcTr)." For this purpose, he kept a runrine account of j{^io»ooo 4t 
his banter's, "As an inhabitant of a large pamh, and as a Com- 
missiioneT of the Pavemenlfi and Sewers, he always opponcd ihc 
impropci capcndicurc of public money, and was cicr ready to pay 
■ny sum on such occAKions out of his own pocket, rather th&n put 
the pflri«H or coTnmis%ion to the least charge It was very nmch 
owing to h:m thai the bUei (!ommi?ss]onrr5 introduced the present 
practice of paying for their own dinners at all the public nxectingsv" 

Jnall thift wesc« nothing but those scber and sterling ciuatities 
which Dstinlly ^\x\ for men the rcspeet of iheir fello W'ci I i/en*. But 
peculiarities of icmpci often obscure the lustre of virtt;cs. Sic 
Joaeph Mavbcy tells us that Mr Russell " had a cynical turri, which 
led him frequently to oppo^ ihc scniiotents of others, and that 
rendered him m a degree unpopuht." 

Like Charles Lamb's " Elia," be "agwcd doubtful sayinp, and 
leaped unequivocal hatred." 

**Thcac who knew him best,* rays hi* biographer, "irere not 
diiigustcd mith his characieit which, though odd, blunt, and singtilart 
va*» sotnctixncs thought cnEcrtainingi ^r^^ al'ivays honest-" 

The ion of thrifty, carcrul, mcihodical pfltems, Ktchard Russell 
was, as Sir Joseph telU us, "bred to an economy bonlcring on 
pajsimonyJ' These worthy people had, in true cighlcctith'Ccntury 
fashion, stnveo to bring up their son 'Mn tfiu vay h« should go,'' 
laying down sniet rules of cor^duct, enTon^ing ihHr lemons by ihose 
homely pioverbs and quaint a[?ophibegms in which uur ancestors 
abcunddd Hut their son, although fully impreuod with th^ 



TAg Genileman's Mt 

ncccntj of indaslTy and tsaidutty \xk txuiiiecA, ftnd vitfa t puticuUrff 
keen c)e lo tbij ituin chamcc, vu not cORtcnt vith tbe humdnjm 
life vhirh hii patcntt and nuny of hit nrighboon «rcrc Accuftronwd 

It If trud that Bcrmondscy was not then ibe fxircmely proAic 
quarter it ha£ fiDCC bccomc> It (ill) rctxin«d nuiif feusro* Of 
pKiiluf interest. Ai the wlieIicmi citrcmlir of Betniondiej Street, 
il3df one of the oldest thoroughidici in South London, verc to be 
wen Runy rem^nft of tlut famous abbey wtiich bftd b^en foe Mirefal 
centuries ihr " WriWitimiitet of SfKith I^ndon.* 

The North Gate, lescmbling that of St. John at Ckrkai«dl, 
reiumod toiact in Richard RusmJI's day \ the West Gate atill 
cxifUd, but in a more ruinous conditioin. A br^ portion of the 
alibrjF walK and of ihe rioble matinian tilled Bctmondscy Hcuic, 
in which the gn:iU EaiL of Siiaact died, ifcrc iiill to be Kcn, and 
antiqoariei loi^ to viftit the spot, and to oiuse amidst the scvne« d 
departed ^ndetir Rirhard Ruvo^ll, himwif a lover of aniiquiii^ 
miut hare felt cqaal pride and jilcujie in the aaaocialions ol hb 
n4li^« ponah. But to a nun of ctpanati« Icmpcrairent iho society 
of the pbce vmuld have appeared far too i:taid and formaL Th9 
only place where anj amuKiiicnt was provided for the pariahioncrs 
litis the Bennoiidftcy Spa, where an cnlcfpnung anisic Mr. Kc^^ 
attempted, «ilh but panuil succeis, to eatablkh a son of mEnot 
VAuihaU, inlh coiiceru and p^rrolechnlc displays ; adding to its 
Other attractions a picture galCcty adorned with the prodocdons of 
hi I pencil 

Richard RiismII longed to participate in other tccnes and| 
tberefotc. "purchased a Rcntei's share of Drury Lane Tlajhousc* 
to gratify bit loie of theairicul exhibitions which, in winter, bO 
almost ronvflnrly »Ttcndcd/' 

Mm, SiddoEM wft» the goddoa of his idolati)', aa the follovitt^ 
extract from a tetter inserted by Sir Joseph shows : 

" I went to sec the two last Acts of ' Vcni« Preierved,' in which 
she look her kave for [he Season in Betvidera; found tlic House 
ciuttc full : many had gone away for wuit of Room, but I put xo^'j 
bead dose to the btage iJot, where 1 very diiitincity heard her; 
th!^ I think, 11 anoihr-T Proof of her great Merit, and show; how 
very arti<:uUtL- ^hc hi>eAk& ; to Ik: li&trd \x\ such a Situation by such 
liars as mine: indeed, (he House was very stiCl ; all attentive to 
hear, only when she called forth the highest Plaudits ; However, tny 
Situ^uion ihiis b^lLHl but a f«^w Mintiits foi a Genllenmn came fromJ 
the back Seal of the Bon, and went away, and I look hia Place, anU 

Dr. JohnscH^s LaudJorJ^ 


tltQs tAW> s» well 9A boudi the complcalctt FciforniAnc^, and tfao 
best TYagcdiaa, I thtnli, of my Time, altho' I baTC not forsotten 
Mm Cibber, trho fi^ a grcui Favouriic or Mine/' 

Althni^h Kuiiv:!r« nkrjitbn had hczn " tianrrar nfid con- 
fiiKd, even for n tradesman," hii rotural irttclligencc Jtnd spiiit of 
inquiry enabled him to overcome this dcbciency. and he cultivated 
ft tJAte for reading, bcirg *Mn particular an admirer of poccical 

We know, on ihe auihoritT of ColdamiUi, that in those day« 
" pictorcflt l;utBt Slukespcare, amd the musical glfusei " vrere polite 
4iTeT%inTu anrf rojji« of faihionabk convmation ; and wc nrralso 
nnrc that prctc[)3lons to oOfinotMeurahip verc then deemed as 
«Moci4l to the chincter of ^ man of culture as a dabbling in 
tcknoeukd familiariiy wiih the "clopcfi" are new. Mr Richard 
RuncH «u not behind hU contcmpcimrirs in this important rcxpcct, 
lie studied uitiquitic:!, architecture, jxiinling, sculpture, and left «i 
valuable collection of Acarcts book& and rare prima, lie became ft 
Fellow of iho Soricly of Anijquaricc^ and sn high did hU imellcciuil 
unb^ion >oar thai, at the time of his dcAth« be ivas a candidate for 
Ibc Fellowship of the Ro^al Society, 

Id 17S1 ho made his appearance as an author, publishing a 
tnctcntJElcsd: "War with the Smw« ; ot. Free Thought* on Snuff- 
TUsing: by a I'rtend Co Female I3cauty." In this, Sir Joseph 
Mftwbey say* 1 " He has attempted a dissuasive against tho practice 
of takii^KnuiraKTinwhr>1noTnr, sWr^nty, and jionicuUrly ostnjurious 
(o fen:kale beauty, of n'hicH he was always a great admErcr." 

Et b Mimal to suppoGo that Mr^ RusodI would have forwarded 
■ prcuntsilon copy to hi« rormcr tenant, new residing in Bulc 
Court, and the pi<)uancy qF the uiaiter would have regaled Johnson 
as much as Jonas Hanway's famous ''Euay on Tea,** the uac of 
wivch lUnvay deprecated on the same grounds, x% ** injurious to 
Ccnule beauty." 

Cut, contpkuousas Richard I^unell had been Id various way?, 
he was dcstired to make more nutsc in leaving tho world than he 
had ever done whilsi IJvmg. Thi( wax oving 10 the citrsordinary 
provivuns of his will, to whit^h alone he owes a place lu local history; 
bejn^ menboncd in Manning and Bray's " History of Surrey " and 
Tbombury aod Wilford's »' Old and New London." 

Although a native of, and hfetong resident in Bermondsey, he 
directed that his interment should talcc place in the Parish Church 
of St. John, Hocsdydovm at night, thai ;— 


A^, Tk4 CiuiUmatis Magazine^ 

[w^n thf* agM of Twtniy.oiid and TliKty, t» requifod 10 nippor 
my Piitl, bind ilut ihcy be drc^cd in btstck Silk or Velvet, According 
!o Xha Scfuon of thi; Year, but all alike ; and th;iE thcy be apf»rdM 

—^vrUh silk ScAiv^ r«vom% arid Gloves '^^^ wl^^lcuvr olh^ Trophic) 

Hpiy Evccutors shall ihink proper. 


" And 1 *lso (Iciire thai Four young Women, Spinsien, dienml in 

lECk do wail on chc Fdl-Bcircr^ and tlut^ whci> the Body shall 
■mvc at the Church («a£e, and from thence to the pUcc vrhere the 
Body fthall reti during the »w\ice in tlic Church, ih«y suew fiowen 
beTorc the Pall-Bt^ari-r^," 

Mr. Russell ordered bi« executors lo p«y each of (he fAir pall- 
bcofcr^ jC%^> ^'^d to each maiden itrewing flowerfi j6^o, thctc 
paycwtitt " not !o be conndered as part of the funural cicpcnset'' 

He fufther desired tliai the sum of ;^a,ooD should be expanded 
on <L Rionumenli to be erected in St. ]*>M^ Church ; tnd, in order 
that no dignity might be wanting to ihi< memorial— 

"Tile fut!h(fr suru of On« Hundred I'ounJfi 1 gh-e lo Doctor 
Bamucl Johnson, now or late of Bok Court, Fleet Strccl* London, 
upon condition he writes an Epitaph to be inscribed on my Mid 

Tliii bequeit was subttcqututly rcvuked ii: a ciijicilr llw name of 
the "Reverend John Grose, now of Bctltnal Green," being sub' 
ciituied for that of Dr. Johnson. Ulih TCference to Ilii» circumi tAiK« 
Sir Joii'ph Mawbey say*^ — 

" He was a great admirer of Df- Samuel Johnson, who Iiad 

■ formerly been his Icimnt. 

H "So Fat from entertaining > wiiih tlut tuch Ef^taph should be 
BfulsKjmC) he knew cnougli uf Dr. JohnaiUi to be cLjnviLiccd that lio 
V viaa lc»s likely than any other man to flatter the dead or the livinK. 
I That he aftenvardB changed the bequeft in favour of the Rev. Mr. 
vCrofte mi^ht, ^nd probably did, arise from the hirimn state of Dr 

■ Johnson^ health, and from a desire of paying % tcstimon)' to the 
Ftalent and ingenuity of a wonhy young clergyman, vhoretidcd many 

years near Inm, and with whom he had lived on lermc of grat 
Jnlimai^ and fiiciul^liip/* 

Mt. Ru^uell bequeathed the entire remainder of his fortune to 

B|C!h«TitAblef6undattons—w^j^3,oootoiheMagdalcn Hospital, j^3,ooo 

Klo the Small-Pox Hospital, ;£"j,ooo to ih*? Lying-in Hotpital, and all 

^the rcsidu<^ after the payment of a few Icgacin, to tLie Aaytum for 

Female Children. 

The provisiont of the will being niad« known caused a gnat 



Dr, fokutOHs Landhrd^ 


of imfeEVOUrnblc comotcrit ; the people of DcimoiidMy were 
0^nd«d by Ihc wlcciion of the Church of St. John, Honclyiiown, 
xs hih 1^1 miinij-j>lflcp. In [^rt-fi-rtfiK^ to that of his iiaitvir (xkrish ; 
mod ihcy vetc also «candali«;d b> the omissign from Uic will of all 
ncntion of hb own rcbtions* Local jt^^lou^ies were aroui^, nxitt^ril 
teKiisi outraged, and strong r^tenctnent e^cited^ ILver^-tZnn^ 
(lecrimcniAl to ihe icpuUilon of the drccued wait raked up, and the 
csprcs^on of genera] mdignationswdlcd ioto i chorus of ceAsurc 
Aod reprobotioo, Tbt; \\qv% of the >ppro:tching funeni, vith all itt 
flr^br (XTvmoiiict, sprrfid fiir And wide, fiihng the IJ£ht'f]n)(eie>(J 
gentry and lovers of disorder vrith joyful anticipatioOp One of the 
diui» of the will £how«d that ttie t«sUEor hod not left the probabiUiy 
of lbi> oui of hi« cakubiionft - — 

*' And ] device that a proper nuiitbei of people be employed to 
Attend with lights, and to keep good order and deeorum, And more 
espeeiilly to prevent the Pall-Bearers and their attendants, and 
oilieri, ffoti being inrommfx5«l.'* 

Sir Joseph Mjwbcy then describes the finjj scene : 

" The fuT)cral proce^ion proeecded without ibc least obstacle or 
oucragt till it eame to the Churchyard, where, and in the Church 
lue)( a suTpriaiitg multitudL- of lioih scies, and all af^e«, u-ai 
juocnbled. Tlic sirtguUrity of ten virgins attending the functal of 
an old bachelor, ai pali-bearer* and ^irewers of flowen, and their 
dreiws^ excited The ruriosity nf ihr Town in gcncoL A jirodigious 
crowd vos o»enibled* and in it, it is believed, was cver^' picbptjcLci 
in London. 'I^hc» la^iE pUced themselves xn the Church and 
Churchyard ; they let the htJica follow the corpse without much 
interruption, but t^cTore thf mooirneis and attf ndanls could get out 
of diar ooacbea thc^ clo^d in, prevented the^ Utter fiom following 
itamediaiely after the Indies, and plundered atcnoAt every well dressed 
penoo around them. The coofuAian in theChurch arcKe princfpntly 
from the immense number of spectators; and it would certainly 
have existed il the corp«« of the most popular character had bcea' 
carried for in(enn?nt, in a manner cr]U:i1Ey pompous and novel.' 

Mr- Ridiatd Russell had deiiretl. in tbe bitguagt- of Sjt Thomas 
Urowne, to be " splendid in asSc*, and pompous \.x% the grave/' Lui 
tiB CKLTiitOfs tonlf \\ Upon them to disrt^arJ some of hts injxtnctionf. 
TIsc pm^ioird manumeni wa» never crcictL-d, and we read it> "Old 
and New London " that ** the Executors are said to have conudcreJ 
& payment which they made to tho Rev, Mr. Meters for a pain1mf( 
of the patron Saint of the Church over the altar, ^ an equivalent 


dntUman's Ma^azim. 

& jQ|C|lb Hftwbcr, Blul, or DoUcyK Suircf. irhoic pamphlet 
ItMly qiK>te<l, was descrbed by NUcnul^iy in hn "Ksia^ 
on Johnson "m'* ft foolish Member of PaHiamrni, .11 whnsrspMrrhc* 
ftnd vihoKc pigijlics Ihc wiu of Ttrixikcs't nctc, ^y ycArs ago, in tbc 
hitbit of laugbing most unmerciful If-" 

It is ilwayi nece&iary 10 beai lA mind Lord Macaulay'« lo^w of 
buTk'WilUL' (Jcscripiion, In Wrighi'i '*Caricaiuio Hisiory of ihc 
Gcoigci " allusions trc ma^c to Sir Joseph's hobbies, and in Gilni]'« 
"Ancient Concert" ih« baronet is whtbited, amongst other nota- 
tdlhics of ihe d.iy, ai pcribrn^ing in the prcseoce of the King Bi:t» 
whaicvcrf Sir JoM:]ih*% pcr^iilbriiict may hivt; been, it is Lnipnt.MUe 
not to respect the loyalty with which he vindicated the n^emory of 
hift deceased friend, " whose filings," he s&id, *' lui'o been exagge* 
midi, nnc] whnsc good qualilict have bcv^n «<.mlc in ^rnrr^il ntiusc-" 

He altribttlca Ruasdl's dcairc for a costly monutncnl to his 
great fondnei« (or cculpluror arid irith regard to the bequest* 10 
inKtiiutton« %ayt : 

''These several charitable foijndations vere esubluhcf^ in a 
particular manner, for alienating the ditstre^cs of the most helpless 
and Jimmlitu part of the creation, and, as he had been \ man of soni4 
gallanlry in the earlier ptt of his life, tn;iy irc not charitably support 
that be intcntlcd making Tcliibution to the U.\t sex by donations 
in (heir favour nicM Kbcr^I and unconiTnon? Ho exerted himself 
mucli in hix lifetime In the c«iablishmmt of a very uitcful charity 
— 'tl>e Swrcy Di9[jcrj*ar)\ of which at the lime of hii death he vaa 
one of ihc (satronFi and Ifj which he has given jf 500 by will." 

In his letiei 10 "Sylvamw Urlian/' accompanying the Memoir, 
Sr Jotit^jh sajs ; 

** 1 should ill dcscFTc the f;ood opinion that gentleman always 
entertained of roe if I could suffer to past uncontradicted iho 
t^ri(fii<i fnise and ciiaggerated iiccouiits uf hfa c^iuriicm and eonduct 
viith which the public prints have been filled for aome vrecks pcut ; 
and I, therefore, transmit to ]fou the following character, originaUy 
drawn up by m<? for ilie ' St. JamL's's Ciironielp/ in which I hare 
inserted iiotliijig but ^^hal I hclicvc to t>c Uitc, and that belief is 
founded eiihcr oi^ rny OK'n per&onal knowledge or aiithorltica 
I am pcr^jadcd 1 can rely on/' 

Th«c exprr<i-(ian!( aie amply justified by rhe cardour wish which 
llie iianative is written, and which coinmLiriicalc? the impression 
th4t Sir Joseph Mawbcy nas essentially a gentlemar>, snd the revcr»Q 
of a fool. 

Wc tel that, u one of Johnaon'i bndlordii Richard Russell 

Dr, Jokmetis Lamdiord. 


wai itc leu deicrvirg o( mention than Norrii the (tftymnlECT and 
Allen ykxt pniilcr, tiod it Is rcmfiikable th&t no allunon to him 
occurs in Boiwcll. Wc have no doubt loM « C^aI deal IhTOUfch 
BocwctVs absence from London at the time of RtisicU't dciath, nx, 
from itie biograplicr's tovi- uT iitsbl'Ma^in^, he utmld hardly liave 
mused ixich A apccuck oa the iroobiaplcr'a fcinctaU It vroald ftlso 
be mou micicsiing t9 know what vcrc the rcUtioni bctvccn 
Joliamn and Ihi* eccentric Undlord, »ith whom he muit haiT 
had more than biulnesa cominunkalioii. Trcni JohoMin's love of 
mofuutcric* wc should expect that he could not have been indif' 
lierenttotbc indent Abbey- Wc can picture him walking down 
Bcmiond.wy Sirrct in company with Ru^pII, and pnsiine bi-'cieuih 
UttI North G&lc, through which Ilcnry the Second, with HccIecI in 
bk tnin, hid nddcn, and through which Catherine of Valott and 
Bllabeih Woodiillc^ Queens of England, had parted to their l,-i%t 

The GiKtktnaKs Maganne, 


FROM Uic eorlictt period of fluthentk histor}' uitors ha^-e 
souglit a akc«n» of commumcAiioTi with the 1t>vcd on» «t 
home vhcn danger thrcatcnciJ. A wooticn waicrtifiht barrel cotv 
Ufning a k^ltrr, or U'tten, w&a probjibly the f^ntt of NcpCuji«'« m^ll 
drrk'r* ^'icross sk lom-Iy wa.. fd Frhnjiti); 149J. Chiit[opher 
Ci>luKnbus, ill Vw cutioua canvclt nasi almost overcome by A Mvigc 
storm not far from Maiduira, and, desirout of onsunng to pcbi^rtty x 
brief r^ord of \\\% dlscovorie*, he n^loaed one wlihb a prepared 
Ixu-fc) and »cnt ihc mcsicn^r ndrift Althougli ilic menage wju 
nrittcrt on a »hcc;t of parchment which wu wrapped in a utoxcd 
clotti, and the kIioIc embedded in a cake of wax, tliis famout tote* 
ttiiinrr of Nepttinir'ii mAJI tiai> n^viT tiorn nr-cn K^iice, Irt AiigliM, 
184S, CnpUin Dird, R.M., of ItM.S. " Invcatisatgr," despatched A 
cuk containing a ^^Titten m«4eage, vhich wa^ five weeks later picked 
up by a whatcship and the paper forwnrdrd lo ihe Admiralty. To 
Sept t'dk lie r, 1S491 Hiiolhci uhalci^hip fi>und a snM txitlle drifting 
about at sea ccnUiimng signed dooumcnti from Sir John I'lanklin- 
Unfortunately t they boredaCcof Ji.ine 30, 1S45, only a few w^jeksafur 
th^ InTrrpid Arrtic pxplofcr hul rcirlrd «in hw biitl <]tirxt. Mr, Jamr^ 
Cordon Dennett, of the ''New York IJcndd." aoit cut the liitic 
yocbt "Jeanneitc" by vv^iy of Uehring Strail lo make ex]>iom6oiic 
under the gallant He l-ong, of the United Stales Navy, Sho» how- 
ever, got ffist in the grip of the rclcntlcn ice on 3(.-pteinbcr 7, 1879, 
only ten daya after enEcting the Arctic Sea, and remained till crushed 
onjur^e u, 18S1. Before abandoning the "Jeanneuc," Commander 
I>> Long «cved up an ttrcount of hrr dismal drift tn a p]e«*e of 
rubber, placed the package inside a barrel, and sent away the 

inger. AM handa reached thu New Siberia iKtandii by the aid 
E.JbBUf ftT^d «]cd|;>^ii, iind (h<^nr? procL-edc^d for the I^rrn dclia, 

boat hai not boen heaf d of ain^ ; a second, in dutr^ of Chief 
[incer Melville, managed to regain civihsat^on ; and the third, 
trder Dc I-ong himudf, iflet arriving ai Ihe ri^ndczvoua, lo« all but 

of her occupants fium starvation and irxpoiurcv The batrd 


Nepttmes 0£€an Mail, 


aosengtr r^iiled in ttt minfoa ; although, in 1&&4, portionc ol the 
filt>ng!cof ihr ^'Jcanncilr ** were found ncftf JuliarihiAb, ntcrnlnnd^ 
and thm mdicascd to NAnwn a possible route for the "Frun." 
Adntral Markham^ c^'o^ c4igor !o acquire fiTnilum/ with Arctic 
lUvi^Aiion in hJK cJitlir-r >Tflt\ which he afirrwirdt turned to good 
account as an explorer, made an advcnlurOLS trip in the liny 
**Isbiorn'' to Now ZcmLJa in 1879. Al Silver Bay he etumtled 
OV«ra gUubonlehaJf hidden on thebi^ach h/fioit sird smnll uonei. 
SurprJsul AC Uncting it rarcfuUy corked, Adniirat MarVhnm broke the 
scat Inaidc was a strip of very dirty paper, on which was scribbled 
tn Norwegian the following Etgond : '' Stopped here for sport in the 
cccsmer- ' OtmianU ' lo-day. Shot hrrc four rcindnrr. August 9th, 
1891.* HiFcc men had signed this document, fated 10 remain 
undisturbed for eight yean. Andr6^ vhodisappcaicd while »ccking 
10 reach the North Pole ir> a big balloon, is said 10 hnvc taken wiih 
hfm meia! fLulcs of form ftltc^ in withstand ice pressure ; and the 
world his the mebncholy satisfaction of knowing that one of these 
■ufnbcrs of Neptune's ocean mail lA reported to have been found 
innly f^xed In dri/t ice at Humvik, on the nonh-esui r^n of 

Bottles «oon became rcRGlar memben of No pitinc's ocean mail 
becuue they are inexpensive, handy, and tctiable. Moreover, 
Mamen perceiii-ed that thcw botrte mrssmger* might be utili^i'd in 
<lc(«rminingthc diiccuon of soa luifACCctirrcnts ; and Ncptunc'i ocean 
ciail developed into a recognised institution. Of late years the 
United Stattt Hydrographic Office at Washington h-ia iitsucd several 
most intercMing lopplcuienis to its larjnthly "IMut Chail of the 
Notth Atlantic," Ktling forth recent bottle drifts, togclhcr with clear 
ftnd concise explanations, Mr. H. C. Russdl FR.S,, of Melbourne 
ObSCTvaiory, hAsaUomadca derailed study of the drifts of members 
of Neptune's ocean mail in the Southern Otcan. 

InhobiianU of the Westmanna Islands, when unable to com- 
municate with passing vessels owing lo the hoisEeroui eombinotion 
of Neptune and jf^olus, endeavour to get in touch with the outside 
world by mcaDS of the bottle post A letttf m {dft^d inside an 
empty bottle, tojcclher v^-ith a sraaQ ccrin or a cake of tobacco 10 ensure 
tlw Hnder's ^e^^ices, which is th^n wcnrrly scaM and thrown into 
the s<a at tlic \tii.ox utailable pan of the coast Consequent on 
tile sTen^e drifi of the Ka surface these nees«n(ore f^ncrally come 
aobore on the ooaat of Iceland, often landing at or near the imall 
town or EyrOTbakte, on the south-wcrt of the island. In July* 
1890^ some pjuacnger) on the steamship "Magnetic," making a 


T^ Centtiman's Ma^aiite. 

photcgnpbic cxctimton from ScoiUnd to IctlAnJ and back, fault 
tonHivhftt BJmibr experience. When thr fMp vat m tight of tli« 

ccnuining a cjird aiu! a Ictirr. Tn January. 1891, ttiU m^tjbcngt^r 
irat picked up by ft steamer anchcrcd M llic LolToclcn hbnd>,haTin£ 
(lrilt«<J atxnit nine hundred mtlct in tix monthig ftnd > hair. U'eii- 
in&nna fiilk Ate n4>1 h]r any mc^int thr nnly lanrty i-Jjindrrs kIio 
Ukc AdvADUgc of S*q3tun<:*a occnn mail In June, 1S95, for 
eitkmp]«, & tin canisEcf v^li found on the tsland of BurrA» wcet ci 
tbc f^ctlondt, whir.h cr^ntamcd fotir Irirrrt for GlfP^w, three for 
Harrit, and two for Kn^Und, togctttcr wiih full poitiigc» and m 
notadaEcd St. RiEdn, N\B.| March 1, tZ<t$, signed Kindlay Gillies 
rtqumirg ch^ fndcr to fonmrd thi* letters, a£ chcy rdaicd 10 
imponont business mftUeraw Ttio disUficc from St Kilda to 
Shetland is ihrcc hundred miles, and the nr>c»cngcr vas three and & 
half monthly eovcrinp the diManct On Junuary t, 1891, a letter 
Tor a London Uidy wni put irtn a gciauVm, which mu ctortnl, 
iodalcd, tarred, and thrown into the »ca at St. Kilda, after tlie unuol 
manner^ in the hope that the mcinen^r ^ould toon teach the 
Scotdi foait. For iwo yeiri it flosucd abcui, and I'vcrtually vnt 
found by a fishcniian on the Coa»t of Nontay. Itciiig unuhlc: lo 
rend En];;li:ih, the finder kept the rrlutvc for two more ycarf* and 
then, Ddling lU, he confviied 10 a prieil and handed it to hie <atc- 
Fiom thc^jrk'M !l [ijk^cdto the BiiitiliCL^nsul, Iht-ncv; lo FVlinUurgh, 
and finally reached the 1.idy for nhom Jt vrab Intended in AiiguM* 

18951 i^^ ^^^^ f^^^ ^^^ ^ ^^^^ ^'^^^ being «ent awjiy. On tho 
■cnt^hore at Loufcr Biir^as; an the ire*t ride of r^ttiR^ m January, 
t&8y. a \in hoi fa^teried to a flukt wi» found liy ihu Depot/ 
KocciTcr of Wrcet. t'pgn brcaliin;: open the box four IctCcrt Trere 
discovered, addret«ed to different pertoni^ and bcancig iht dM« 
32Dd Jar^ujry, i^$% Si. Kilda. This member of NepluncV omn 
mail must have leisurely iraTcracd ihc dij^taneeat the mte of about 
hflU a mil<; An hour, in August, iS^ there nns picked up at 
IJccrnr-ss Orknty. a tin xti&t^l In the *hape of a top^ pun:ed red, 
MUted al>flve a eommofi coik. and neatly ^^ut up in t^el^uiH. Fainted 
in white -irourtd the vp;)cr pait naa the legend* "A mciss^c from 
God inttdc. Kindly o^ien." Itmde u-a« an Internattonal Gotp«l 
card, bearing on one yldc the Jlagi of Icvelvc nations, and or^ iho 
other side a tcjtt from Jo^n ui. 18 in the *iiiac lan£uagc«. Tlieic 
was aUo a booklet or eight jiagc^ entitled ^* He v^aa drovtned ; I irafl 

On ^latch 1, ifttf, one of the old Eaat Tndiacnm, the " Kent,'" 

Nepiuns's (kean A/aiA 



caught Gre «li!!e cnstSng the Bay of B\%e±y, and ill on boctnl 
were milifn mcsuurtblc di^UDCc of ct^miiy. Major McGregor. 
hither of the well known " Rob Roy " McGregor, inih whom ctnoe 
voyiiges vere an irrc^iibte [UssJon, happened CO be a passenger and 
bcihauglil him of Neptune's octniEi mail- With the nin^ of ibe 
a&fCcli of dcXLth BappinR ominously in close prD^mit/ the gallant 
Major McGregor Ciilmly vroie Ihc follovio^ pothetie mes^c, 
placed II Insfde an available boiilc, and seni hii itiL'Sit^ngi^r adrtA :— ' 
*The Mp *T^c Kent,' Host Indiainan, is on fire. Elifabclii, 
Joanna, and njsclf oomrail our spirits mto tho lund« of our blcsficd 
Kcdeemcr. His grace enables us [o be c^utce compo&ed in the 
awful pTO«]pecc of eicrnily. D- W. H. McGrcgoi, i»t M&rch, 18^5, 
Bay of Biscay.'' FortirnatGly for Ihcm a little brig, ilw " Cambtia,*' 
drrvcn out or her eourte^ with My Corniah mirren on board, hove in 
tigbl )u4t In lime to rescue 547 of itie passengers and cr^w from ibu 
bamifis East Indiam^. Ninety met deaih cither by burnirtg or by 
drowning. Nearly two years had elapsed, and Major MeGiqjor had 
ftiumed (o Ills home in Scotland, when the note wasreiitrned 
to him from Barbados ithcrc it had been found on Lbc beach by 
a bather on September jo, 1836, A melancholy mc»aij3ie reached 
EngUnd from the ill fated Bteamfihip "London/' Hcrr eapt^n, 
John Buhun Marttn, with unconquercd souT, although knowing fu]! 
well that he>2i Any ratc> would ncrcr again gocc upon the white 
cKflfi of Albion, prewn-ed a bold front till the x^etael took him down 
10 a waj*ty grav«. Shortly brforc his final adire** to the erew, 
" Roy», you way ay your praycTTk" a tetilc mciL»£e woj despatched 
byapancngcr who proved bimsdf not lea9 mlrepid than the captain* 
In March, iS&G, thb mcsscn^ Trom the loi'od and l<^t wa«! picked 
Ujj on BfLghton beach by Mr. C U Elliott, of Trinity College. 
CamhridEC. Il contained a torn envelope, on which wa:» written in 
pencil: ^'JafiUAry 11. On beard the 'London/ \Vc are JuU 
going down. No chance of »fcry. rtf^ii« f^fvc ihi^ to Avonia 
Jonca^ Surrey Theatre Gu^I;i\'U5 \"augban iSrookc" Vhe wrilct, the 
famoua actcr of the early sihtics, went down vrith the ship while 
r^ignedly watching the boaiit ]c5i\c, well aware that there were r>ot 
^^K iutfLcienl boitf to cop^ wiih the lifcMvint; requircmcnla. " M'omeii 
^V and children first ^ is always the cfy that appeals most fordbly to Uk 
W heart of everyone to whom English ts the natiw language. Upon 

I the receipt of ihw message frcm ihe dead. Mis. Bfouke, vhtmtt stage 

I ftttiK WM Atonia Jones, recogni&cd the handwriting as thai oflicr 

I htjftband, who had saLIcd in tb« ** London " to cany out an Atidnlion 

I lOtlf. 

L : 


Th$ Gffr/Uman*s A/agatfttf. 

In November, iSftS, a bottle nics^n;;cr c^m^ niihorc in Dniidge 
Baj from a eailinjc ihip vrhich, by a cuHout coincidence was actuftU^ 
posted at Lloyds on lliul umcr day aa mbainit 'Hic mcun^ ran M 
followj : "Buquc *Cunncria/ May 9. Should thb be pick<Kl tip 

p lca»c tdl aXl my fri<nd« thai the treatment 1 am recciting it avful^ 

^bnd all tht? crew s^y uc sliall neit^r re^h pun, l)i? ship U making «o 
"much TAicr ^Vclt€II1^/, apprentice," Tbi» vciiel IcA llie Tync on 
Apnl ^*>, 188S, bound for Valpamiso, ami, apart from thli message, 
no QCvrt of her has vver bwn received, txtepi ihii she woi upokcn 
about miles iionhea^l of Ope Uata when forty -tvc days out 
In 1891 a boulc metaengcr irom a b^K :;ailing »hip of Lir^rpool 
noa round llie message it conuined was u foUons: "Ship 
' Buckingham/ 34th November, i8<;o. Captain kilk'J byacoolic on 
II October at 12,30, oTT the ShciUnd IiJandx- Slilp at present olT 
BcrmudflA, fortyiivc days From Dundee, bound for Nctf York, AU 
well If found, forward 10 Fted Seaborne, West Street, Newport, 
Pctnbrtjkc, SoJili ^^'alc^" Tbi& note eveivtually ri^nclied tlie vevel** 
o»iiet\ and ihcy certified tlut the har^d^itinj; wu iliai of OQc who 
was an appretitice at the time on bo;ud the " Buclcingham i " the 
facts rebied were*at§o absolutely irue. 

A aieaiLi^liip, tlic " Pclicjn," soiled on October ts, iSy?, froin 

Taconuit Pu^^ct Sound, for 'i'aku, China, and, nothing mor« 

having been ficftrd of her, she was potted at Lloyd't as misting in 

lebrtiaiy, tSijSL Her chief officer, Mi. W. J. PaUenun, ftrh I'hted 

atliispromoiton to the '^Pelican ; " but his wife isrqiortcd to have 

had a presentiment of troublous times. She Ehercfom prcvaiied 

upon Mr. Patieraon to promiHe her rhar •iliouTd any icrious accident 

occur tn the vsuti be would at once take advantage of Neptune's 

ocoui mail and actid her a menage by bottle muscnj^cTp )n Jun^ 

1899, twenty monthv after the '* Pelican " set out to roee: her U-ie^ a 

bottle containing n me&wige frcim Mr. Pa[tCT?ion s^as actually picked 

up by the AnicJican schooner "ilcrman" nt Portaec Day, AUaka^ 

The hasty note, written en a iiheet of ihe Northern Taeific Stenmthip 

CciDpany*5 paper, read ai follows: "S-S. 'Pelican/ LaL 50* N. 

Long- 175° W- The ship is sinki^ig. Wc are leaving her in frail 

boHt^, nca»e report U3. \V, J. P;itteriOn, Chjci Ofliccr," The ship's 

' accents at "Jacoma compared the handwriting of Ehia me»ftge with 

that of documents signed by Mr. Paticr&on at their ofl^cr, and found 

them 10 be identical nilijieiit :Knrch vai made in the ticmity of 

the bottle mcasenger'ii landing, but no trace, either of the steamei 

or of her boats, could be discovered. On February 9, 1900, how- 

r, a second bottle niessengcr tiuiicd up at Ukomok FslaDd, about 

Nipiunis Osean Mail 



live hundred miles from the poaitJon given as tltat where ihc rcssd 
foundered^ In OcEobcr^ 1999, Mr R^ MftCtKon, &wncr of the 
btrque "Cessner" of Mariehamn, CAprain Jonionr which tefl 
Aiiltfcrp on Jirijary j6, 1899, foi Sapclo, Gcori;ipi, received ihroiigh 
Ihc Rusnion CorsuUiCt from thu Board of Tradc^ ^ ccmmunication 
ttaiing thjE on ApHI sf a boulc wns found near BUhop Rock con- 
umli^ ihc following mctta^c ; ^Shi|i 'Gcunvr/ of MAnehamn, wjli 
hnt in the Atkntic on i2Ch Fcbnur)', 1S99. GrcdinR^ to AaUnd 
and taj betrottied. She lives in Salto'ikt and we >haU meet at the 
gatte oT heaven wjth ihp TUdormcT. Otc«i myparcftts and titter, 
and wc aho shall mcci n^ili God in hcatcn. It i« »o hArd to jiurt, 
very hanL J. 'V. Holmbcrg, Second McUl-h" ihc owncfi wctc 
nvarc thnt a second mt^ named Jchn Theodor Holmberg shipped 
m the ■*G«sncr"on Otiobci 8, 1S98, 

Captain A. Simpson, of the Aberdeen ^Vhite Star Line ttcumship 
" Moravian," ttadii^g between London and Austr^li^, has had a varied 
rqvriencc with hntlle messengers, evrending over a long spncs of 
yecTO ll It hj$ practice lo present ever; £ndcr of a bottle messen- 
ger i«&t adrfrt bf himwiihacopyof rroude's"0;eani;"andbchas 
had about aoo returned, from every part of the world, A hun^oro^ 
Velter from Captain Simpson wiih rcspcci tn his botde mt^sjL^ei 
appeared in iS3(> in the columns of '' Ally Sloptr ; " " Ueor AHy," 
wrote Cftptnin Siinpson, ■* I herewith enclose a spoclnicn copy of one 
of yuur watcli cciuponCi which has been re(jubTly furwarded to yoii 
every day at noon in an ' Un^rcettntd ' buttle (contents citracEcd 
of courMj, duly sealed, with tho ahlp's position and date* . . . I'h^e 
!««•!«. in the ordinary eoitrsc of the cunenis, should lie landed on 
sonve pott of the knovEi or unkncwti nxjild. . . ^ Vou may hear uny 
day of your coupons turning up, and when the French cut the canal, 
and let ihc traten of the AtUniie flood the Sahara^ yon n^xy 
r«ceite a kurpri^e, r\en from TimbucTou," 

Ifl AogttM, r87a, if we may accept the published report as 
MCuraK^ a dismasted derelict ^-essel, the " ClcnuK-or?/' was fallen in 
w^ih by the schooner " I^ncastcr " in mid-Atlantic Cnpiain Martin, 
of ibe latter vt%se?, Inwrred a btiat and IxMrdcd ihc strarigcr. Six 
skeletons were found about her decks, but not a scmp of food. 
An open Bible Uy on the cabin table, &c« downnarda, logetho- witb 
a rcstilver having two chambirn loadjrd, and a boiilc con lain ing a 
acrap of paper on which wa> written : "Jesus, guide this lo some 
helper. Merciful God, don't let us pcribh/' The eapiatn's body 
was found in H% berth, and he had apparently been too weak 10 
acnd this bottle messenger adiift Several leUcrs were Kiattcrod 


The Gtnllemans Magazine. 


g^bwlnHlMil^ bed, one cf ^hich was oddrcsoed to '* fkor K«te " 
' T t^ ^H aMgl^ and signod '' Rebate C Hut." Ilw? tK>di«« v«re 
reverently conkmt tied to ihc dtxp aod ihc vchcI kfl to her $oliuty 
drJA- Hctufc for one moment tho terrible tful oT ft shipmulcr ihu« 
situated. Dnf aJttff day the de^pniring men would have scanned 
Iht! horiEon for a |a&&ing ^iLI; gniduilly the tlTcch of «t>mukm 
provod too powciful for the toflon ; ftnd crcncuallf the mulcr kIodc 
remained (o ^^'atc:Il(or that help which cime loo late. In March, 
tSSj, vfhen about foo milc^ft from 1'olnt dc Calk, the aieunihip 
"A^hton " came up *iih \ r^ft, ciodc oui of bamboo cone, vbicJi 
tiOTcupon itthcdcAdbody of amanandtwobooVs. One of Uic crew 
iiccurcd the books by the aid of A boathook^ ind oo opening then 
tbi: o^ntentit Ap[N!Ari.'d lo be tit forih in Hindtist^iiL Soon aftc^ 
vsrdAibclindcr dc\«1opciJ diolcnuc iymptom»i to the books vcrc 
at once thrown overboard. Shortly there was publiithcd on in- 
tereiting short story of rhe s^a from ihc Hicilo pen of Mr. CUrk 
RuAfcU based upOD ihis citrioua specimen of Neptune's occin matl. 
Noi'clnts of reinttc have, quite naturaltVi turned the bottle mcsKnger 
to tome account ttht^n idling t;a of thi^ thmgt vhcrtof wc know tfaej 
vrro not ind could not be so. The Ulc Sir Waller 1Vsant« in 
" Tlic CaptJiin's Room," iclU a delightful story with icspcct to 
the picking up of ft bottle mcfscngcr by a eountry crafE on bet way 
from Caloiitta to Moulmcin. A &lendf?r roll of (apcf, tiiKl round 
with « yjKCXi ribbon, contained the infotm.ition that the sttAmship 
'^Philippine,* Captain Rex Armiger, woi hofd and fast on ft 
merebant-matring rock, in dire di&trcss. Ne^leti to relate, thfft 
incsugc> flddre&icd to his liwccihc^rt, lod to the repatriation of 
Captain Annigcx* despite tfje fact chat the gco^aphic^l poiition 
indicaud vae at l«aet open Lo doubt. Enocti Ardcn ir the loul* 
tlhrlng reciiM would pmlxibly have liad leu miflerfng, >nd 
Robinwn Crusoe might hare robbed miLlionii of rn^llsb lads cf 
MO/mf hoiirs' delight, liad they tKlhou^hc them to take advuito^ 
of NeptLine'i oceiin matl Even the deniun^ of the doep iO^ la 
thb MEvice, if all ne read be tiuc. \\\ rcbruary, 1 897, some flffi* 
cttfcn at finckici Elanir»hirc were nitpnued by the appeoionce of a 
Ktedfiod icmuriiclc bottle inside a hugQ codliah tlicy had opened, A 
^BUBUgc it tonuineil nci jij> fnllnwc ; "SrhrKincr ' L'lKsio ' foundered 
^Bishty-ftix inilcs ofT Dunnct lle^d. God help u» \ J. C1cm«f, Ghent, 

^K Anonymous Icttcn occasionally ptLSf through the post in ihift 
^Hpsmtiy, ftnd hooiea by boille mr^tertgcn; seem lo afTord amuse- 
^■Knt Vi pcnoru f^uitc vnmmdful of the poia caused theteltf to 

Neptune's Oi^an Mail. 



^d rclAiLve» of thoM ccncemed. Some yc^n t^ there vu 
feiutid A boiilo cloii! to the entrance of the river Mersey which g«TQ 
rbe to coTiGidcriblc anxiety. It coniAined \ cucumsuntial ^jccoude 
of tbc fcmndcREig of the steamship " Great Britain," with the loss of 
■U ber puseng«rft ai^4 crew. Fortun^teZy the " Great Urium *" wa» 
•pokcn & few days later, And the report thereof Allayed the teir* or 
ihotcM homc^ The oitcrof a subnuiitial reived faikJ todij^lote 
the sender of thia inseiiHhte m«ss3ge. Ulico H.M.S. " AuiontA " 
disappeared daring a pftoagfl actoii the Att&ntic a fticnilar hoaxing 
bolllc rneucnger was picked up at alxiul ihr* vimr ^poi- In April, 
189c, a bottle icfldied the Coraiih coaat containing a mesioge 
purporting to come ftom • New York banker who h&d been t 
pssien^ceron the wi^lUknowr) A:Unt1c linet "Erin," vhich had<llfl- 
ftppcarerd loiuc lugriEhs ptc-viou»1y. 

Only a tmall pcrccjiuge of the members of Kepturtc'« ocean 
tnail fulli) their altoited taalc. Barnacles gather on thecn, heavy leas 
sina^ (hem on niaiimg the \^\\^ vrhere locks abound, and i^orne 
rcmAU) unnoticed on a loacly beach remote from the bU5y haunts of 
men. I'ubUc attention having beerv called to Neptune's ocean 
mii] by the work of the United Stare* Hydrograpbic Office, the 
DeuUGhe ScvAiiitc. <uid the Auitnlian authomic^ the future will 
proboA^Iy indicate a larger meed of j^ucccisi jn dchvt^ry, notwith- 
standing the many and various causes conspiring together to hinder 
the mrwcmgnrw Mr. Clrmmi VVragg<?» of B(^ Nevis famr, when a 
paueoger 00 board the sailing ship '^ Hctpcnii/' between Australia 
aod Kngland, in i^7U» du&patched 150 botllo me^engcrs. Only 
half a doxcn were ever heard of again, 

Ri'garded as indicators of ocean currents, the membeis of 
NepciiiMr'a ocean mail hare helped to determine the gtncrj.! dri^ of 
the «ea furface, as alM) the doae connection betueen winJs and 
cunentt- The Hereditary Prince of Monaco, in his pchr "1,'Hiron- 
ddlct* f'pcnt much time and money in attempting to determine the 
surfoice drift ol the North AtUnUc Ocean by the aid of ocean mes- 
Ungcrs. He cmpl<jyed metallic spheres, toirels, and bottles in t aS5, 
bottles only in t£S6. anJ glass Hoais in iSS?, Ftijni the PrinceV cx- 
penmcnts it i^ concluded that the currents in the Bay of Biscay are 
not whatearher inqmrcrs have k'd us to beheve, App.'^rertly the 
messengers of Nrpcune's occxn mail dcsp:i(chcd by the Prince 
prove that the waters of the Gulf Stream cxlcniion split at Ushant. 
One portion proceeds up the Knghah Channel ; while th« remainior 
enters the Bay of Biscay, trat-eU souihward, idtirdng iha cooitt of 
Fihuccv and fin^li an ouUel to th? wcstwaid by following the north 



Tkc Genileman's JS/agaxinr, 

<4 Spiin. Further cxpcntncnii with boule nca»«ni£cn vctud^ 
by Lictitcfumt llaulretur, French N^ty, confirm itis vieir. North of 
the Aforu the cuter^ tea mtriicc drift 4lije to ibcprcniltngwuidUMl 
xhc Gulf SccuD 8prad4 out b the (orm of ft fan, ao tbftt bottt« 
tMMCngers Kiit off tnjiihcrc in the vicinity of the Aiorct mojcomo 
to land at aeny pobi b«iire«r) Ope Kmbterrc iikI Norwajr*! North 
Cape. As a tulc, boUlc niciicn^cts In tlic North Atlanik uavd from 
weal Lo ooAt in the higher Utimdcai from north to M>uih bctvcco the 
panllcl of Finkt«tre and the Trope of Oinccr, from ds: to wot in 
the iropi(3, and frum -nuuth lu nuith mi the Ktf^ticm ucfe of the 
oocan* The Ijilradoi current cominic down ijuhorc of the Gulf 
Slnun, and ihc ^liTt of higher latiiudei from Newfoimdland to 
Norway, frequently hinOer bottle m*-Mcmgert from compledng the 
wliolt^ cirdc of the AtUnllc^ A botltc ffoia tlie American ship 
" I^X MenCdguc," thrown ovciboftrd "uh a mc«uj£c nhcn eight 
miles north-east of Atcention, on October 15, iSio, wis f>ickeid up 
on the wc^t e<w<t of Cucmaey on Auguu 6, tSii- A bottle 
RtCBciii;cr from the '*St Enoch " deapitchcd on July %o, 1S9J1 iihc& 
in S" N-, 14*" W,, trojt drifted westward pitt th<: West India HLind^ 
and eventually fi>ui]d a rc^iing-placc in iht; Shrtlondii, afcct a Journey 
of 7jGoo miles. On July ii, iS^i, w1i3c at the eninnce xq the 
Strait of Ucllc Uk in ihc steamship *'Samifl," Ihnt *?cll known 
author, Mr J^ E. Muddock, »«ni away on ordinal)' «octa-mEfr bottle 
canutiiinga niL-^aa^c. It wu picked up on itic coant of Noiway, 
485 dayA Utcr, after a drift of 4,000 niilo to tl;e north'WCU* A 
boulc messenger sent oiT by JJr. C Mcl,ein from Piddoek HjU, 
Mamrhuselts, on Srjnembcr r, tSSj^wMneit heard of u baring Iieen 
found on the bent'ti near San Fercxuido, Spairi, on February 3^ tSya. 
Another n}cn)bcr of Ncptunc^s ocean mail came aahorc en August 
9, 1S95, at IfittshaU, Denmark, and the mestage was foTwardcd to the 
Cuttomi aulhoritie* at Lcrwi^^k. It hail been sent by a Sheilandcr, 
a jiasiengcron board the steamship "lake Ontario," when in 54^ N., 
46° W,. on August 31, 1893, and had occupied two ycvs in covering 
^,000 mite*- 

Buttle uiea^n^t^ra m tbt^ South Atlantic, setting uut within five 
ca of the equator, generally pasa north-wcat of Cape Sl Roquc 
d onwards into the North Atlaniie. If despatched from a more 
n laiiltidc tlicy will uxDully cotne aihore on the east coast of 
itJth Aiciorlca. Still further k^uUb, on the southern aide of the 
th Atlantic anti cyclonic wind system, bottle tncsacn^ers travel to 
eastward. Mn;, A. W. VV^m, wife of Captain Warn, of the 

AUdi intoested in occaa 

Mo " Ri 


/k^ifiuKei Ocfan Mail 


ftcquenllfr tends offJioitle meiitngfrs. One deipiitlitd by 

Wim on Augiut i7» i3<A ^i^ ^i" ^-- ' S^'* ^> "^^ ^ mc^^Agc 
mddtcacd to the United 5taic4 HTdrografyhcr »t WflilimgtODv 
eventually arrived ai tti deslinalioii. It w;is foui^d on May 9, t^99i 
on tbi; Qiiccinland naxsi^ lulfn^iy iMftvrcen Bibbunc ;tnd Muiy* 
bortjugh p 411U the UniLcU SiAtcA Hydfcgrapbct, in icqitalnting Mt), 
IVArnofthc fact, took occuion to express his apprecuiion of hcf 
co-opention in the irnresiigatfon of cctnn currenrs. Or* June 18, 
1 89^^, the captain of tJic " Loid Ripon," then in 51^ S„ 54* W,, 
sent oT & member of Ncptunc'« ocean m&U conuiriii^ x mciu^e 
Addrc«wd to Mr. Riusell, F.R5., of S)'dncy Obcervatoty, On 
March lA, i399> this Tne>fcstfngi?r turned ttp at Cape Vuib, in the 
extreme noith of Australia, having btxn two ycirs ind nine nionilii 
iKftkingA journey of 9,563 mile^ AnoEhCf iwnt olf from the ship 
"J. II- Lubken"on February 5, iS<j?, in 4" S-» S6' W., niched 
QuotnslanJ, in 15° 44' S., J45* ^7' B., on Si-ptcinbcr $c, iS9«, 
tbtlAtir<iniirij;iui ctcoUcntC^iampTc of the westerly drifk of the KJitiur- 
boc catucd by the easterly wind of the South P^eific area of high 
tarDnietef. A bottle- drift chart ifisued by Mr. Ruaetl ahown tb;it 
•eitfiJ tent Awiy )lI different dAlc» over Oic arcA con^pn'sed by lines 
Joining Amstcfdun I^and, Kcrguelen, and the Cro^eu, all reached Ui« 

either at New Zealand or AuMrnlia. On the northi^rn ^tdeof 
UiC South Indian Ocon, nuny bottles sent ofT bctirccn 10° 3. and 
■o'S., from ICO* So^Kh, came ashore on the eaU eoatt of Africa. 
Many other i nuances might be? given of iheiucres^ftj) voTkc^tmedoiit 
by Ne^luiiL-*! ocean irinil ; but buffjcient hA-s been wrLitcn to show 
that mcuascs of this nicare arc both usciu) and intereiting. 


T^ Gsntiimans MngaiiHi. 


t— Uocsi MrtKft. 

^HC iDOUic doci DOC pliij a rcrj digQlGcd pftii in modern 
timet' He i> cliKtificd as v^rmta, treated tiniAKj to pouon 
more or It-u virulent, or to the tcnd^ mcrd^fi vt various kindf of 
Uaps laid to cAich litrrL If lie h^b ^nyibiiiif lo pride bimivlf upon^ 
Jt 1$ merely tbc [act ihAt maidurvantsit and often their mistreasOi 
regard him with d terror worthy of a larj^er bc^t ; and that many 
perrioM!! \erji ciib^ solely for tho t>urii04e of wiigtti^ war a^init him. 
Uut in this matter the world h» <icpftftcd from Ita iiicient traditions. 
The pof4iron of the mou»e in mytholo^ ift a very tioporUnl oi>e, 
and one on which the LiUle creature might stiU reject with pride. A 
i.flpecbl hiiik; uf Apollo, as iDciiiioiicd hy Hosier, w-u Apollo 
SininthettB, which means ** lotd of iKc miec i " and we often 5nd tho 
tnoufte given at the symbol of tlie god. Somctimct Apollo ia 
rfprc*icntcd wiih ihc mouw fn hi* hand ; mere ofrtn the aninial i* 
at hi^i Cert. The connection Apparently \x& birth in Asia Minor, 
oot in Creocc \ and it i* pneiic^ly certain that the idea hod iu riM 
in totemitm. The very n^mc Sminiheuc wu applied to different 
looiliiic*. juil J3 in Tculunic lands wc find uijjiy pbu^ bearing the 
alTii of Wolf or Kavcn. /l*]tiani spc^lcinic of HamaxittiA in the 
'"Troad," i^fti "In the tempte of Apolto Sminthcti« mice aro 
I nouriflht.'d, and food [a ofTcred to them ax thtf jnjhlie eipenti! ; and 
white mlccdwcl] beneath tbediar." But .lE this very lime tlic cukua 
of the motite mutt have tjcen in iti decline; it vaii> as vc aeci 
[ttlready lubordinated 10 anthropomorphic ideas, Apollo tras now 
ic god ; the iiiouie had become merely hiii atlenilinL At a |Kriod 
\i earlier the n^ouse itself nou Id have been the divinity*. Many of the 
[oiaic re^utaiions Bi;aimitceiiAinbeatt9!a«bdngtindGir (vcrevimply 
effort to vombat linj^rring Iraecrt of [oEemism — ihai longlived 
fvcrence for tpccial creatures as beir^g tribal or family anecston. 
other unclean cxcrpin^ things the Israelitef vere fotbidt^en 
te thQ wou^e. Id Babylon the mouse had bcco eaefi cere^ 

Folkhre Joiimgs. 


ownkUy \ but this doM iwc qidte ptore that it Kii ^Qrahipped ; 
though the fS^ng of a be&&i was often i feuuTe of d««iijing tMemiitm -• 
pcQccss. It dcc« poiap[>cATVBhcthcTmou!;c worship was orij(i rial ly 
Sernidc or Aiyan ; po«iibty U wai both. We certainly find it in 
itie AryAn nny;hs of India, Rudra, lliu thundrr gud, a kind of 
Jlindu Apolio^ wu a ?ipcctA] pation of the inou«; ; *' Thy animal is 
tlie mouse, O Rudm I " ftiyft one of the Vcdas. The ihrcw mout^ 
wa» won^hipped in E6>pt. Diffctenl iicrrirt h»ve been invented to 
accouitt for early reverence for ihc luoubc — btorics of how anuies 
were iflvfd by mice KoawitiK the bowsitinRs of their encmici, and 
•imilAT traditiodfj vliich inn/ hire had x tUgbt lubEtraium of fact; 
but the worship of this and other cieaiurcfs whuin we now c^uiilenitl 
b far more easily explained by ihc loicmisiic theory. SptaVrnjc of 
the early rcnit^>fi!i, Circiliuo lay-i that there wok not an anioial, 
howerer vile and filthy, that they did not wonhi^') a« \ god- Thb 
W2I5 before the CMuin^ of the Incos, nho, nbeti they conq ucied the 
country, did not so much endea%x)or to do away wlthall the older 
wpenlilioiis as lo embrace and pen^ide them wiihtheic own tiiperior 
»un vonhip, Chrittiitinity did niudi the »ine m oar own land \ in fact^ 
U could do nothiDf else. Egyptian and Hellenic m)tho]o£ici trould 
liave &ced the nme necessiiy. J he supemitious notions, degraded 
U fhey were, formed ki inh<-rcri n pa.ri of iTic people that thi;y 
could not be eradicated by Any h^ny process ; it nu fix easier to 
adopt them and give them the veneer of a loftier faith. 'I^hc mouse 
nyth must ba^'e been adopted after this fashion, and made a part of 
religions whose general leiidcncic:^ were far more philosophic Th« 
oqlh did not die, but throve and became again fttal duHng 
the tliddie Age^ By some meiiis the mouse became a symbol of 
the human soul, MV fnd thh idea in the legend of Hii^hop 
ilatto and bis Moii^c Toner on ihe Rhine , but the story iuelf, at 
applied to the Bitbopt b fictitious, thotigb the Bishop himseU ie not. 
It vai ptobabTy a spite against the Church that caused the tale (0 
be attached to thi^ and other clcr^men- It is reblcd of ^ Sniu 
nobleman that during a famine, linding the presence of numerous 
clamouring poor a naisanoe, he invited these to gather in a great 
bom, to vhich he set fire. While the nir wis ringing with their 
cilcs, he ciclainicd mcirilj', "Hcir how the rau and mice are 
squealing 1" Shortly a/:cr he was assailed by a swatm of mice; 
and to escape from theie he took up his residence in a castle situated 
In the inidit of !*^Vu Comtancc- Hither the mice pursued htm, and 
pasted not till they had gnawed all the flesh f^om bis boa-:a. It b 


l80 Thi CentkmuHS Magaitn^. 

lid that incfii of his cullc msy &till be accii in the botli:uii of !li£ 
kkc, I'hc iimc Ulc is told i:i many diilcrcnt vtrsioni anJ of icAny 
ditfcrtnt lofahtiof- In one catc the rats came in behalf of Sl 

KGifinent, iiiJ wuiLcd vir»^i.'Ancc on a imi wbo haJ wrOTigrd ihit 
mint ; aind ii; tbb bounce the doomed mui had acliulty ftujperxkd 
bu bed from the ceiling in order to filacc himself cut or ftAcb of 
Eli« hua^ ftirarmi. AntKht^r lakxiX with whom the mouie u 
a»ociaicd b Sl Geimiile, the patroncu of soub vbcn tliey lira 
dqnrt from the body; and, tagReMiveljf enough, her symbol ia % 
nnoii»e. The Temomc Holder vrho performed ihe tame offnx for 
th« &ouE& of n-ometi in Nort^ mythology, is also rej^n^mCed u 
lending ;lii irmy 0/ mice. It U evident th«t, both here uid iii 
Cbrittun art, «('« hAve the moutc %% x type of (he soul. Simibrly 
there \a the iior)j of tlie Piper of HAinellti and rhr; ratv ilut Mloved 
hii ptpiiig. Mj. Buing'Gould evcfi ihiitkf thA^l the »ying, "rait 
desert a Inllmg bouse '* (or a sinhing ship), hftd its orij^n in thii old 
mythkil connection wiih the lotil ; nnd h^ alio thinks that such 
lalea &£ that of Bishop Hatto may have rETtjcmaictI in the oM p>g>n 
pmcticc of human sAcrif ce> If % country were (nfintcd by mice or 
tats, it would have tallied «PLth hcithen notions to make a taeti^co 
to the rtit ddty. Under emctly biniilar circumttanecs wr find that 
U^e rhilistincs " mjidL- Avt: i^uldcn mice as an oRcring lo tlic Loid." 
Some of those who rcmcfubcr the days when ma;pc lanterns were A 
novelty, recollect that a popular slide used to represent a mouse 
JMuing from the mouth of a sleeping man, ^x\A foing into it o^'ain. 
Whatcrt^r may have been ihc on^in cf this conception at a 
humorous representation for enterloinmentT the idea ii a very ancient 
one. A Black Forest legend tella of a miller who by donn to sleep. 
During his slumber a serviini noticed a mouse run out of his mouth. 
He drove the little crcmurc away, but by doing so was unconsciously 
preventing his moiter's spirit from returning to his t>ody ; the miller 
therefore rover nvakcd. According to another similar legend, the 
mouse wart probably jcoinfc in i^earch of drink ; for a Bobemiin tale 
iclls of a labourer fullinf^ asleep while: his comrades went in search 
of a drinking- well. While he continued t1«>?plng a white moDte 
ran out cf hia mouth, went 10 the %^m% and diank, and then 
returned and entered the sleeper a^^m. A ThurinRiaii story refcrj 
^k a servant girl. White silting with «ome eompaniofis she fell 
^Bdecp. Picsentty they noticed a red mouae creep front her mouth 
^^d [vn out of the window^ One of tUcm immediately tried to 
Tou^e the slumbering; Rirl, but failed to do so ; they then carried 
away, probably 10 lay her on her bed. Before long the mouse 

FoiAUn J^iiiitgs* 


reiumed, and appfared lo be seeking dcspertitcfy for the girU Not 
aucceoding ia finding her, it dijiappcflred ; aad the girl died. It is 
pOMibIc thai »omc dim memories of this idea of the momc being 
Ihe soul of nun or wonun ma^ he at the; toot of th« df>^«d of mice 
whkb we (ind in pcrJtons athernise courageous enough. But the 
^ccfld of the liulc creature h^3 aunivcd the reverence (ong paid to 
it 5oin<lime« it U recnincd 1^ boy^ as a pet ; more often it >« 
Mctifieed to the gods of the donie»iie hnrtft. If we now seek tt> 
find a type of the »oul in the animal cieaiitrn, wc ore noL hkcly to 
select the naousc. 

IL— Water SriRiTS- 

Every mythology of which we have miy record has an abundtwt 
supply oi talci about waier-spfites, nhether of the ma or of river* 
sitd Ukes. Wc r)i,<ed not go lo f^rcccc for »iorie« of «ircn» and 
nand^i bicr European in>-thc!ogy can ^ii-c us equally intereitin;; 
uid kas liLmiliar infiiaoces. Tlio mermaid ha» been «ulfact«ntty dealt 
with ; the has struet the fancy of poet* and romancers to bo great 
an Client an \o have become alnolulcly convcmional. But Teutonic, 
Celtic^ and Slavic mytha csn tell u^ of stranger creatures still — of 
neekat) and kelpies and Cndinea and «ilis. Water in itself was 
vorehipped of old time, and the imagination of man gave it in- 
babitanti of striking and varied charaetcristic», ChriAtlanity found 
this propensity ao deeply rooted that it could only gLve a faint 
Christian colour to ihc supcntitfon ; the well already sacred became 
the holy Kcll, the saint's wed. Sacrifices ncrc actually offered to 
rivers in the darker ages, and there can be no dcubl that these 
saoriftcei were fometimeft human beings. The spirit of the water$r 
vhotercT ii» nature or iu name, was suppo^d to lure men to de* 
ttrvetion ; no pcnon was accidencally drowned triihout it being 
thought that Itie wati!r sprit*; tiad dragged or lur^ him down. '1 he 
idea lingrr» in the otd couplet ihut dirgi? to the river Dart i 

kjver of l>4ft, Riwr nf D»n, 

and o^er riven have similar tradilJonf . SoEnetimes the woter-Mptrit 
ja like the genuine mermaid ; more often ahc ia a beautiful uromoji, 
without the unaltractive h&h^ appendage, but with the long hjilr and 
the comb. Such m these are ;he Russian fWjJi^V— lovely ghls whh 
garlanded hair, bilhing or sunning themselves by lakcaide and river. 
The Polei call them wili$, the Scriianii vilu ; and with tlicir beauty 
duylui«men mto the deep, Sometimes they become wedded \o 

The GatiUf tan's A/^ast'tu^ 

If, like xhc mcmiaUl of faaJUdJorr. braring children and tli/litff 
^y until Aomcthing ranmds them of ihcir natcrhQinc or ihc 
husband docs somclhing ihat corapcU Ihcif rolurti. Nci nuny of 
ttie vitcrspritcK icck to become dnmcGiicaied in thU fathion ; it 
duj luvc their caithly lovcn, it is usually only to bcf^uilc ihcm lo 
thdr dcnth. llicy allure Ihcm wiih beautiful bingin^-, or wiib 

» playing on irild sii^nge imtmmmt*; they wcnvi? ru^hci autd ud^e 
ronrtd the feci uf ballien, so u Ufr hold them ilown in the vmioty 
cn^btacc. In Norw.iy there is a spirit ramod the /ssmrim, which 
layKit&ftf out asa^ instructor in o^utic; lucri^cofc white he goat 
niuvt be given to htm. If iXxa ucnfice \% fat and plcnscji hit), tajv 
Orin^nir *' the foaiegrim dutchti hold of iho pbycr'A right bund, nnd 
guides it up and down till the blood (tftrts out of iho fingertips; 
lhc;n the pupil ic pcrfc-ct in his art, and c:in play «o thai the trMt 
shall cliijii:r- and tuircnb in titcir f^ll fttand iXxlX* Fruit %j\d. brtwl 
uicd to be thrown into the river Piemcl on one day ycAvty, Imuioc 
<Mi that day the water nix voft tuppoted to claim itt victim — hlc« thu 
river Doil ; and il U wild that tlii: livtT Saalc cbimn a vkiim erery 
B'Wdlpurgis Night. On ihAl night peoi^e uvcd to ivoid going ncsu the 
fiver. When the bodies of drowned men in Sweden could not bo 
Kcovercd, it was thought that lh'_7 had been eamod lo the home of 
Ihen^a-nife- Usually iheac t|HriU arc rqjrc^aited o^t dixmied lo 

Ipcrdidon, but as longing for Mlvation, which they art Mrnictimes 
able to TQCdvo at human hands. The Norte fosfogrim use<l lo 
4leniand turh a boon in rtlurn for r^oeliing the fiddle, ^fatihew 
Arnold has giren us one rernon of a l^c which hoji suM-ivcd in 
many different fomu. A variant of the tale lelb bow two boys, 
playing by the side of a stream, saw a nix or neck with a harp in hii 
handC' Th<7 said, *'Wby do yuu ait and play hea*? Von \r\niir 
Hthat you <^an never be saved." Weeping biitcrly, ihe nc<"Jt ilircw 
' away hia harp and disappeared in the waves. Koturring to thctr 
homr., ihe boyi told iheli futht^r, who was x pticu, what had 
happened to ihcm. The faibcT iaid, " Voia have dtmc wrorjg !o tlii* 
poor neck. C3o back and comfort him, and tell htm that he may be 
B;nved>" So the boys returned to the river^ and found the n«ch wail- 
fii^ cm its lunki- 'Jlicy taid, "Do rot cry v\ |ioor neck; father 
»ys that your Redecn»cr liveth also. * With joy the neck took up 
Ktib l^ip '■^in* ai^d played beautifully upon it till laic into the night. 
KSotncttmet the i^ix was supposed to take the shape of a fcal, and lo 
Bvempt children to lide upon irs back; it would tlicii plunge with 
them into the wavoi. Smaller, and perhaps more atiractivc, waters 
maidens iretc represented u sitting upon the lea\«« <A water-lilioa. 

Fclklon Joitiugx 


The fioi'hot^ or wnicT'liull, \% a rrry differfrt craluiip ; in Tculonk 
bid it n Asud Ui&i be ma? aonictiincs be caugbt Md himcssed to 
theplou^, but he is A difl^cult hca^t to nirtriAgCL Most Scottish 
hJcci Kive thdr Iraditioti or ft waieibull. In a conTerthiion 
icconlcd by Campbelt we liait ihc following : '* My Tathcr'a brother 
Tai ft hctd, and he iios hordinc ttt the ctid of that loch, ftrd he »v 
the vatcr bull coming oul of the iratcr ; he was dote to him. He 
mu ui Dgly beast, not much more than the sive of a -ttirk, roti^h 
uid bhc'grcy*" In oiK Highland tcgerd & »«tcr-bull uvea a ^rl 
from beioi: etiricd off by ii rejected lorer. The iraicrhot^ and 
kelpJe are alto familiar fancies in Cchic Scotland- So drcumslanibl 
were olit ftlaiitv uf v-:ilci- horses ihat h is said [qiorUnirri visiiinf^ the 
Hifblanda have actually gone in cbo^ of them. Campbell bclicrcd 
the mjth to be a sum\'fil of some imaginary waier-god. The Isle of 
Manhat alio its watrr-bulls and wjierbof>es, very similAr to those 
of SeoUand Waldron lelU w-^ ihat a ncijchbcur of hi^, whose ftdd^ 
wcfc mvch visited by a water bull| ^thered his men tof;cthcr and 
hurted m[o the water ; and Train filvw similar aceounu. Bui the 
gcnoirie wilri'lca^t cf supci&titbn seems to luvc liccn able to 
aasttmc any shape at will. I'crhapt the^c bcx^U do not exactly 
come under the heodirg cf water sprites. 

There arc will sutiivifig charms and spclh against the power of 
ftater-spdHts, One such is a NorwcKim vcise, to be quoted against 
the nia ; it embodies the superstition that steel \\ a proof against 
«vU «piriti : 

Nicki nicV, n»Jlc b w«1cf I 

Thv Vjf^n Mary Okl^ »tHl In lT)< iMFfr i 

Tliiiti linlt, I fie** 

Itaihcts thought li ft Bafcguard lo a»e such charms as tlui^ 
n&tcrspritcs were ^mctimc-i kindly ard ready to b»tow gifia. 
Stories of women havin|{ tx^n summoned to act aa midwivea to 
ap^rituat bein^ are not uncommon in foTllore; and ire find in 
Lttthei's" Table Talk*' a story of a midwife being fetdied tu attend 
a nia in the livcr Mulda. She received no injtiry from ^cr descent 
fctlow the waiCT. Somettmcs it is aaserted that the death of the 
IniBUin being who is lurnl into the viler by & nfi Is nr» due to tho 
cialeTOlcncc of that sprite \ it x% merely the aoeiden: of hucun exist* 
cneeihat it cannot survive below water, and tlie rivcr-spnlc com- 
poasionarcly \3^.<:^ the souls of drowned men to hU home- In 

rScftndiRavian mythology the goddcst Rln was said to receive the 
nulsof drowned per^on^, drawing them to her in a net. A mote 
niriocu Teutonic fancy irlla of a vrater-spihi ^eepinf^ tUe muU q( 


i84 Tk0 Geniltman's MagaziM, 

drowned persons " in poU turned up^e down ; " b peasant 
arrives, who tips these pols over, and the souls all escape. The 
strnnge cries that supemitious imagination sometimes hears at night 
are supposed to come from nixes, and they are held to foretell death 
by drowning. So, too, in North Cornwall weird cries are heard 
around the river Gannel from some spirit that haunts that desolate 
coast; and country-folk dreaded to pass that dreary ford when these 
cries could be heard— even though they were but the voices of 

ARTHtm t- SALtlOH, 



HATFIELD CUACE. not «ry Uv from DoncAStcr, Is ccrUlnly 
one of llic most intere=tmg big " bits " of Votkshitc. King 
Edwin, Urn first Chri^linn king of NorihumbrU. had a summer 
jubcc hcie; hue, loo, lie was sliin in battle by Penda and 
C^dvp-allk, I'rioce Hatfield, brother la Edward the BlAck PrincCi 
wa« bom in Ihe parish in 1336 ; and twenty ycflH Inttfr Edw;trd 
Balliol was having fine ?sport on ihc fo)'al chacc — \\\c T.irgr^t one in 
En£lar>d, cont^ning witbio its limits about j&OiCoo icrcs of bnd, 
wotcr^ common, fcn^ And moia:^^ Etidicss progrfi&im^ of pleasure 
wore prepaietJ for Htnry Vllf. on thistuyal dotniiin For h jodrcd^ 
of yi^rs kings *uid Iticir nublea liuntcd iu »Uigs ailO hliids. The 
Imppcr, the viper-cat chcr, and the fowler found unhmiicd sport. 
Up to A comparaiivcEy recent d;itc the bittern and the aix>cet 
IrtqucntedtheCiiacB ; imon^s oihtm "common viaiiojs being iheiulT, 
re<vc, rcdihink, and godwiL To-day the low buab of couon-gnw, 
ticeet gsilei iunde^, andromeda, whortleberry, bracken, and ling 
present* a beautiful ground picture, as absorbing in its way as the 
brecty Enuuniiin «ni kW. 

Three miles, aa the plover diesi fioiithcnfitof Hatfield Church 
Ihcic is ail arable oa^is of about sixty acm slightly raisnd above the 
maifthy IcvH of HatfiddMoor, According to a nirvi^y ukcnin 1607 
thb island of Lindholme contained 'MvtgIvg trees, all cakt.'^ Ai 
that time* and for two centuries after CcmcliuK Vetmuyd^n had 
connplctfd \\\% Herculean drainage scheme^ Lindholmc was Actually 
ipoic diflicult of accent? than the stormy Elclmdca. anJ the [nartlics 
by^bichicwiis atirroundcd were Ic^s trodUcn iliun ibciliilLm^ sands of 
Arabia. Evao in the time of a great drought a dry surface of mos« 
veaild nnt iofrc^queinly conceal a deep pit uf %wanip, wlicrc the 
adrenturcr. in spite of his tradiiional yardlong bog ihoe^ vrould 
immediately sink up lo hL<i wabL Iri the linrie of a gr^t t^ood 
Lindholmc wiis a«:c*sibltr by boat ; wlivn (he niorats wai 
inacadamiaed by King Tioal cominunicAtion vitb it uencrally 


Tm4 GeHtUmans Magazine. 

IjccniRc po«^iblc ^n foot Some \dtx of ihc d-inj£ci lu[l:ing arouii<] 
ihese mxrshcs vrtU he gathered from the hxX that tbcy i^ould rise and 
fall sccorr^ing to ilie preuure or the four or five rivets a« iney poured 
into the Ixrvds, And Hotted Along oc [>cicolAicd bci^cidi- 

Al o»c time the bcU of roonin nbich cncoEnpaxscd LmdliQlnic 
mcftittrcd Rficen mile* in circumrerence. In & tense il ivai lh« 
imioljte holy iaUnd — a rrfujjc for hcimitA from, it ii supposed, (he 
\hah century to the lime of VennujrderL All 5on» of wild »tones are 
drcublttl abou: a ct^rtain iVJlLiAm do I.indholnic, who doea the most 
ridiculoiu And coniradinory things I h;ivr hrJiM him rbinscd ai a 
Saxon " hero,*' ihoujf h it in ufcr to make him conic HTjiorjineouK virh 
Henry Vt» U is ioipo^Mble lo %vtz him a character, for while local 
po(Pifi have whitewashed it, irulition-moii^rr« have blAckwashrd itj 
and fii^tn ua a g^ant lieimil ahsoluld/ l^arrtn crieli^ioua feeling— a 
aott of Proapcro ot Paracclaus, endowed with pon-cra aupcrnatural 
and in league with infernal tpiriU. In (he benighted ages^ and 
aniong KUpcr\tiLioiLK folk of the ninr^eenih centui)-, it mut iuppoccd 
tl'4At oil »piriiH in tangible forjii, who cculd be Tundlrd, tethered, 
and oven told, lurked in noi^wme mar«hc«£Tid fcn&. If ballad be 
true, the iJevJI uW to lived in thu world on very familur icrma 
with \x> inhaiiiianU, Did not Rl Dunstan grusp hi&noM- wilb x pair 
of red-hot tongfl } Did not Merlin Luther (linf; an inLsiaj^d at hi:t 
head? Beli;tt vanished from the ^ccne when tlie era of much 
writingj priming, anil reading xel in. I harr^ bowcviT, mmn acroKS 
couniE) folk who regard the name of WiUiain de lindbolme with 
K\jpcr«taiou8 dread. Unhappily for the author who would haro ill 
illtivtriout penonages m. cle.irly dcHned at a tlatu^^ De Lindholme \% 
a trinity of persons with thrrc difleTL-nt iieltings- I l^nd him allud»l 
to at ft human devil by the AupcrAtiEioua country folk, as a good 
liermit by De la l^ryme (the local hifttQiian)^ and by the hird-huadcd 
liUets of the soil ax ihe clever ttin of a farmet who lived a *e7y 
nutural life at Lindholme with \ua father and mother. 

Here is a tangled akcin of tiadition scarcely worth the tiouhlo of 
trying to dUenEang]e. The roRianci«t makei William dc t-indholmc 
a compuatively tnodf^rn man — a M>n of the squirt; of LinthitaiLe; 
in fact— lovinp one Leila Vcntagcr. and losing her. World aick 
ani world-haling, he repiiiB him to a witdi, and gets an imroducttOO 

the wicked spirits, who punue him to LindEiolir.e, where he 

'Otc»hi»dayftto wotk-s of evil. One Walter Grcavei, of llajicy HaII 
Garthf who h^d set out to ace his sweetheart, Jenny Scott, of Barnby 
Dun, lo^t bk way on ihc bndmirkle« W4S(c, btic cvcniiialty got to 
Liudbdme^Godknowihow^wliere he was detained bythcoocuptnti 


Tk€ Isk in ik* Morass. 


WiUunD* For date «c arc %\\tx^ the yc» i435> Williatn wa« 
ailircd in 1 trapper's conttnodilin, of vttich thvr belt ivns worn oui- 
Bi)r Kiid llie fuT ncil Ili the: skin- The tunic n^*^ bc«n rogctlicr 
wiih the »Uong nnd of rufllKs, so vxrc his uoudcn, ind both bound 
to his body witb vogcuble thong«. In his girdio -v^tt iiuck a 
fnfmidiblr knife, ;i hook, anil an atr. He ivoro cm hk head ei h^iiy 
cap of polecat bkins, utd hiti ciaticd liair And bcarJ i^cn: of grcit 
Ici^tb. The rootiQclst ftayt iliai ^vi^cn De l.indliolmc^ Cnt. last, 
a»d only love inu wedded 10 :innthcr, tlic Kippy bride and brldo- 
groom found itic^r way to liis cd) for Ills bteuing, upon vrhidi 
ocoaion be gave both bride and groom & "j^tirmp cup," which he 
had poisoned. On ihcir depanurc he felt 10 utterly mfectublQ that 
he dr»iik the nrmaindct uf Iht- jirauiiiuu!! jioliun t'l its dfigs ^'^■='' 
vbtch he dcKended ideo ihc grave wUdi he liad previously tu^idt;, 
and puBed ^ huj^e coJfin-covcr of txxivt< down upon it- Tttc bride 
And bridfgroom l>OEh died that ni^lu. Suipituin being din*ctt'd to 
tbc tcnaiK uf Litiilholoic;, a hired a&m«sjci wau in qucit of liim, but 
WiBiom could not b« found. 

To nay mind thfi U mo&tly rubblith, and I crinnot do belter ih^n 
•el >{;3ifi9Lt it tfii? version of Abrultitu Jl- k Prytmr, F-R.S., the old 
anti<tuai> of Dutth citiaction, who wrote a history of EUiHcld. and 
who held the pCTpetoal curacy of Thome. He pum Wiltum deUnd- 
holme before us in Ji very estimable light, and (triie^ a tlescriptive 
pucin or iliirty Ilik^. In the Ge?<tle>iaiv's MACA^j:<f. for January, 
1 74 7 1 there appeared ar> article on l.indholnic b^' George Stovin.J.P., 
of Crovle, accoinpanied vith an engraving of thcr ^vcst proipcct of a 
*'flud-boufid" or liaiber^fraiofcl cell, arul th« poem intTiiioticd b/ 
Dc La IVyrne. It aecfli» that ia 17J7, nbouE a hundred )»!» after 
Vermuydcn had diaincd the IxvcIk, Samuel ^^'clIey, then Rector of 
Epwonh, and the uid George Stovin, found th^ir nny to IJndhohn* 
oil fool, aHciirards confcsung that the nioiau, e^en under tiiipror«d 
condvlioci, wai crossed only with serious dlilicuhy, attended by 
danger. They found tfaii stud-bound cell 10 have a raised space at 
the taex *nd, on which stood a hcivn *ionc altar, while below ilxens 
A cdlar c«t out of aand, pcbbica, and alluvial deposit, shelving 
that ut annof theicaonccreachcdthiK tpol. To the ^'tivelve Irec?^ 
all oaks," of 1607 had come birchen, ald^n, willo^v and gorte-bushe^ 
wild Uiiky, oal^ and |Ha^- A tveU four or fitc >ard3 deep \^\ 
fouixl— a well of the purest *prinfi waur, although the wiitcr of tl»c 
aurToundingiiK>ra»w-.u quite eoff1^^coloure4I. Attbev^-eatendof the 
tmildLitg were found a beaten piece of copper, a peck of hemp^eetl, 
a too4h, aod, bcacath a flat freefone »lab SJ feci In lo^s^h, tlic ^ktiHi 

1 35 Th£ Ggniknmns Magazim, 

tbigh, ahin-bonc^ &n<l »omc vcrtcbrjc of a male skclcU>n. ^Vc sccia 
lo hav€ proof h<^re afTordcd Ehai Lindholmc vru nt cne time the 
nbodc of a lolitnty indhidual wlio.likc Sl RuIjciI of Kiiare*l>orou^^, 
buried himicif in the cncbavtrc cf hb c:;ll. Tradition tap ihat 
WilliAin <Jc Ltndliotmc prepared hU own sepuichrc, and U^ dovm in 
li when in sorrowful moods. There may, of counte, be i good dul 
cf iruth in chii, jnd u ia ptohiblc Uial ciEhcr lie: or some otlicr 
rccluae bxiricd htmsclf hf jcfklng down a wocii prop which sup- 
portod the huge gnrextone mentioned in a leaning pociiion, ihus 
being bnth hi« own gnvEi3i};gr:i iirut «'ilun^ 

A Lceda veetly newspaper published in citfaorUiauy romaiKc, 
cntilkd "The Magical UutchmAn/' during the Ust tl^roc moi^ths of 
tSg6. It dcjilc cntir^fy wiih iliis pirt of the world, one of the 
Mippo^ many redu»o cf Lhidholmc pbpng an impoit«nt part 
therein* There Uatvundant scope for the novelist in thia part of 
the country, tiut the itoveli«t*s methodi ^rt «c o^en to be depreoUcd 
l}iat it U duii^cmua to Inciti; Tiltii to deal wit}i louU hUtoiy und 
leifcnd. ^^']1cn I was it I^indiiolmc la^t year soqic very tupcraliiious 
old folk had found nhcltcr from the world there. The r;Lro- bat lilt 
could read hb Bibb.", though not a ntwijaper or ;i lelte^r His 
cqu&lly flupentitious ton pioncacd mc aU round the littk cilaCc cf 
eLl>oui Bixty acre*- Mr. \Vri;;ht (squarson and M,P, of laridholnic T) 
hjd a hundrt^d ph^^^nfTi ^nd a score or niort* or young guinea-fou-l, 
nnd ihU young nun had ch^gc of dicm. The Hall— a fairly hand* 
0Oinc iaim— covers the >ik of the stiid'bound dwelling found by 
WcfiJep ftnd Scovin in 1717. There are numerous outhuildinga. In 
cmc «ijfly plat'C a rifpulsive- looting diaractcr tXX beside a hot fire ; 
him I !<( down at ihe calf-doctor. Wc went up M}iiir creaking 
ntalrs to a lofty j^nuiirj', vt-here my cicerone ntounied a wood bin, 
and brought down fi round b^ket contJiJning lh« ^x^ebnc and 
thighbones of a m^n of <iiiitc ordinary si/c, Tlieir history ii t?a- 
dltiotial, but I very much question that We>lcy and Stovii^ would 
\<%r^ an> jart ol ihHr interesting find* behind them. The 7k^\\ 
wbich had burn foimd at the same lime, ev4.-ntud]y rt^chfrd u 
M&nchcMer mu?LCuin— 90 it ii, at kaM, sijd ^ but I ulkcd mtli a iiia;i 
who invrred Itioi he had had "Uilly Lindum's" skull on his own 
head, like a U« wiih hrr "poirimol?" batbet, and he rcprest^ntcd 
the skull as being three qu^ricm of aj) inch t!utfc. 1 jivked ihe 
fann'bariif!*! ten, How wat 1 to knon Ihit thcic ncrc A^'illfam*! owli 
bones? when 1 received proof of it in ihew lenn< : ** About ten 
ircars h^rJt my bmllicr and his mate wcic sleeping \\\ ihc gariL't Iht-ri? 
'jrondcf'j the Window— ace ?— Jind ha>ing bcToic tlic> wenl lo bed 

Tke IsU in the JIfcrass. 


one nicht itpiicfully kiclctd ilicse bones out into th;; aUblcynrd. ft 
Rbofti o( «ime sort came to plague 'cm for iL T" news was ii ilicy 
hwl 10 gel Ei|3 lh?rc fin' ihm ain' piir tuck Bitly*^ bonce J' thrlr plac^e, 
TTicy were scared out'n thcii *nu, but I can tell yo'i they «x:ic gbd 
to be ob«d]ent-hk« for once/' 

Aootber tradftion lyiyfi that William di? Lindho5me actually lived 
yttih hJK parents oti the island, and thai when they died he did nt^t 
flit frotn the paternal rooflree, but itiyed on there as a farmcrr and & 
bachelor. Orcold locnl ming, wbicLi ] h^va recently heard from 
living M^ b, '■ liiidhnlmc has no cparrowt," Whrn William wii a 
lad hfa father and mother went one day to Wroot fis»t (9htill held 
on July n), Ir&ving him at home to keep away «f>ar-rows from lb* 
ripening rrojiii. How iheue parents got from I.mdholme to Wroot 
jiaoti lEic momis Iq^dary lore docs not tcti ua. William found 
the duty imposed on him by Ear too tome, ao he drove alt (he 
i^rrowB into hU father's bair, ind placed a hci^y harrow against 
ihc dtjnr. Thpn <ifr lie dec:anji»ed to Wro[>i, where be plunytnl 
headlong into tbe revelries that were going on- In the evening of 
that diy Wiltiam^s father, on ^oing 10 the bam^ vow afitoniiJied to 
find a grear nttmbfT of Rparrowi lying d«id and four or fiw raor<? 
who)c fcjllicrs had become ai wliitc as snow from fright. When set 
ftt liberty they led their tincnpturcd cnmpanions away from IJnd- 
holme, and none (save a white bird the si»e of a 4parro«, making 
lis apjiearjiict riut oftcnei Uian once a yciu) lias sintc bczn seen 

] Icnow of no tillicr story in Yorkshire than the " Lindholmc has 
no sparrowic " «Eary. Btit I ari not going to doul>t for a moment 
that llieie is the ekmeni of truth in it. The appaicnt reason nby 
Lttidbolme IkLS no fiparrowa (jind ] have myself Looked in vain for 
tbem there) k because they have not tbougbt it worth their nb&le 

tmin^ !Hi fill acrosi tiic bioad moor to jLtiacIc one fatnglc graoary I 

Here 3tre no brown sparrovra, but the formbniliiTa »on declares 
that on two different occaiion* he has leen a white sparrow. Any- 
thing that look« like a white sparrow is an evil omirti. Tn iSqo be 
bad a ahot a1 one, and brought it down. Ulicn he went to pick it 
up, it toolc to win;;, and was no more seer^- One of hi« oolabcurer* 
who 4aw ib« deed done eri»?d (Xit : " Noo thoo's decan tt t Holin' 
» whiLe bo'd oalways mccans miscbicrJ' All the servant* on the farm 

declared that bird to have been possessed of Well, ic was 

■Dmdiow the devtl in di&guise, and m appearance portended a 
demh ot a dtaaaier among the squire's cattTr, 

Two or three upright tall atones esiiitcd near Lindholme, 


Tk$ Genifeman*s Mffjasins, 

probobly 9,1 |>cin1cn to the track luiding acrosK the tnorus to Wrool 
vilUg?. I cannot te^Il M \\ity ik Uie tame fttortet usually aUud«d to 
01 the Thumb Stone and Liitic Fmgcr Stonc» whicli arc said to hare 
been brouKht by Williun dc I^rtdholmc from a diauni pariib al one 
and the ^fttnc lime on hk right tliumb and left Httic 5ngCT. Tlio 
trodUion— a »cn»tltfM itiing— hw been romed in order to natggerote 
De Lrndfiolmc'^ supposed giCAt slrengih. Lot us girc Sim cicdk 
for iKing more sensible than 10 waste hb time anj mrcnKih in 
" lugging" about bouldvK 10 no earthly purpc4v\ Some %Xf theiA 
ictnnci were his skiuica, und llr4l hff uicd lu hurl ilicni at llie poor 
ftparrovm when they came to Meal his grainv Dut here thin^t do not 
tall/- Jl hfu bccotnc the custom for writers never lo {^o near ibo 
place they vrile aboul, anj prjcticc falw: ccotiomy Lj cojiyh^* ihdr 
prcdCL^cstora' nji^laKcs over and over affLin. Nowadays itic one 
knovn ^tonc tx LindhoTmc* on the weil srdc of the Hall, \i not 
panicuUrly big 10 look at, Although ii may be deeply Embedded. It 
bean Ktiiie mucb-cScfaced chUcI maiks (?) of a ''buncb o' Cvt^,"* 
Elsewhere wc l<:am tliat thi* s!onc was hurled fiom Wroot {one and 
ahaU mile to tl)c soutli] by the devil when William had riten 
agalnit him. The lecontl— Ihc rctaliativc^slonc is at Wioou 
K'illiainhimseirUndcd it ihcre from \m own csUtc, inLcoding to 
make an end of the molieioui one ; but« of course, niihout luccced- 
Ing. It is said of (he U'leot sionc ihnt ten horses iv«rc on?e brought 
10 move ii from \is plnce> sntl iliat lite hoTAcs died ftficf the ^mining 
attempt ! Ai a matter of facit there arc scvcnl of Ihcac stonca on 
the borden c( the moon, and, at the reader may have a1r»dy «u»- 
pccccd, they arc nothing mnrc ih^m ice-borne emilicSi 

It \t laid by chosc who cughi to bnov better that the pi» acrovi 
tlio hog from tvliit is now Undholmc Hati 10 the Mt>or Drjiin 
(vhirh !(rp.iTr!ir« ihe unrroblm^ from che unreclafmaibTe) vi) 
lUitcd by the devil himself, aX \\\c imtig^ition of ^'Rilly liiidnm." 
It it not only vtty disrciptoiful to pcrveit the charming; name 
WillLiin dc l.mdholme inro \\x\piX "l!i!ly Lindum/' but it is a 
gratUTtoiw piece of busincM lo kcq» drsiggmg id ihc devil when theru 
ia not the Icojt need of him. Others, however, euphcmislicaUy 
subslirut^ pixies, vrich Ihdr »padc$ and thovels; and I, for one^ 
incline 10 tlic i^xies. Tradition- monger*, who liave clearly not been 
on Ihe fpot at all, tell us on bad authority diat this road fram ihe 
Hall to the bridge i» a limestone roadi nnd th^ts, unnecessarily 
cncumboing themielvet with an inexplicable difhculiy, they must 
account for the limestone (where there is actually nothing but sand) 
through the agency of wme aujKtttatura] power aUubutcd to the 


T^ hie jm the Aforuss. 


pactKJo hcnnLL He muat, they aay, tu^'c brought it from a ^Ucq 
nnr Doncutrt, but hav^ i^oi the teast noiion how. 

It seem* that Witliim the; " ?icjuirc," t>jid u tir was wanted 
occ4LSE0tui11y to go to H&tficid Church, three miles anuy ; but siting 
ftCTOU the mornts w« ^ fc«rfT)lly jurloua undertaking, and, nlt^oitgh 
he atteni[)tcd 10 tmikc a iwomilr (ihr tiL%k wm Hcrculrjn or 
Uljsiiui) by bc<IdLns tlic mont» tot & foundation wltb tons of ling 
and vhin, intending nnrrwarda to fill ii up with «indstonc gro^tl. 
the wilM*, *hich were alway* insidiously meandering on beneath, 
»vallowed it ii() v> completely as to inakt tlie work uUogelltrr futiltr- 
Anyhow, one Tair Eummcr Sunday, alter a parchinjE drought, he set 
off from hii stud-bound dwelling to reach ElacAcId Chnrc^h on mule- 
back, ami prc»cntly bej^an lo oornpl^iin bitterly tu the king of the 
plxks 4or, a) some do ^)r, to Uie devil, to whom he bad " aoTd Hm- 
Mlf") that he coutd not have eomc vorl of a road made for hia use, 
That potcrnt pixic'king, it scrms, sent him on hii way, ot^imng him 
that if he did n^t luuk Wk fiom bis mult the road wuitld be com- 
plete ind pcrfcin all the wity across the morass hy the time he 
returned from service Wiliium wni dchghicd at this prospect, and 
ifXjjravd hii ttuinks^ rfF*t(r(iTly \\it licaid a. great noise^ as oTa gong 
of labouicn bent on accomf^li^btng much work wiihin a given limc- 
And here his euiio^ity seem^ to bavfi prevailed; he looked to the 
rear, Lo \ a multitude of Uliputian jKxies, vanishing into the ling 
mih their liaiiMike:\ iihuvels, And fipaUcs, As neiLht^r lUiml lioc 
coax would hrinj^ them ouc again to resuiiie thctr >vork, J>c Lind- 
holme vrcnt on bit way cursing, and the road remained unftnitihcd 
until good, stron^^ nensiblt luen cut ihe Moor Hratn uround the 
moRUs Aiiicu, tticn, 10 the theory that the toad i» of lini'Taione, 
got from nobody knoH't vrbi^re and b^ nohod/ knows whac mcfLns. 
It is conBtnicted from limestone dug cut cf a hillock adjtjininjj the 
tum-ULtlifn ix>iLige. 

U''itliani, having acc|uired a ceitatn 1rlck» rciolvcd lo pky it off 
upon one of his cncorjieA— a godly m^^n, who wanted to be at Thorne. 
Dt; LicKUiolme bet the price of his soul that he could make a road 
u faat ai bb "good lilcnd '* galloped, provided that he dtd not mm 
hii inquisiEivc bead. So the godly man, well content, mounted and 
trotted off- When he became aware of an unearthly commohun at 
Kia tcaf Luiii.<^iLy ^u. ibc heiiet uf tjiutiun , he boiiavcd bkc the 
mi-'^ided l.nst'a wife. To hitn it wati a mere viitior of H>ing p^at, 
gtavvt, and stones, with a caco-dsmon in the midst of hundreds of 
little pbJef in red Jackeu. "God sjieed your noble work 1" he 
OEclalmcd in liia eDthuAiasm. Whereupon the a&onied pixies 


TA4 GenikmMS Afagaitne. 

imiiKdatdy lifted him olT lib bone And bore bin) ten fathoms under. 
d^G mom8& D« LiiidlioI:nc, in the cMX^^tcmoD^ gui>c Uu^hcd ft 
loud Uufih of djfTJiion- rertons not disposed lo lend crt<Ju)iiy to 
thu «o(y vrae pujriTol lo an unfiniihc'd siofif causeway which ran 
for ibout tbc Icngtli of a furlong Towards Ti^dworth Aiid Tliotne. In 
ftll pTobftbility It ^li a kind of cinibulitory midc hy tome contcm- 
pUdve rccluie, and nidcncA iti^d io c^st thai at one time it Had 
bern planied on buih »idt^ with troet, 

Oa the wcAt bide of Undho^me Hoosc, Either aflcM than 
dtbfiUblc boitldcriiionc firevi^nEly ntcniJonedt » Iho rrry 
from which Ihe I.indholme eremite^ a)v) Samuel \Ve*!ey and George 
Stovin, dr^ink. Abraluni de U Prymc, m hia iiovm. describes it u 
four or five yArdi^ deep, and eonuininf^ tbc dc^rc*! spring wAter, 
ciitl^ovgH ilie water of ihtf surrounding moiasiwati^utttf cofTec-coloured, 
A pump linow ftflfixed. The phe^i^anikeCLMrr luiving ixtrieJ with 
him fmm home a itimbler, enabled oie 10 get % i;ood draiight On 
the Hair* souili tide we trod the anchorites' lilla^^ where \Vc*ley 
andScoviiibaw bailey, oaia, and peat growiiijj in KidurO HnwU^aic'* 

!lARWO0r> EaiEKLCV, 


MAN farmer:s commonplace 


I HAVE in my pouctsion a couple of Ulkrcd »nd lioiMtuj 
voluma of a commonpUcc book or tcrapbook compiled bf 
two— pOMfbly by throe — gcrKMiIoni of a r;4niil]F of >'eotaen rarmersia 
SuMCX Li) Uic cifluccnth century. Aloitft villi thcai \\ a tliin lon^- 
quart04tilcbcd book, ifi irh^ch, jn singularly dear irtd bcautif^ul hand- 
writing, are wrUieo a compktc copy of Matthew Priof'a " Turtle and 
Spinoff," aiid — in anoihor bin c^iujlly gExil hafid — some veTsea 
docnpiivG ofliieoaoiiEhs, signed ''Mu.%anjm Amicuf/' 1759. and an 
crndated «atire, eniitled "Arbitrxry Pcvrcr, or Pride Tnumplunt," 
iigned "Amintdah ^feanwc^l'* Tlie two volumes of commonplace 
books arc in »n)^l qiuHo, and were originally rtik^d as account 
liooks, Lhouf^h tbc ruling bos faded. Thvir 5nt f>o£s&uor wai 
probably a parish overseer; and he aeems to have begun to 
one of them for his parUh mcnioranda, ak two or three leaves have 
been ctit cut, and the Ic&f Ehat non^ bcgina the book cortains t^o 
cnbki of the removal of a pauper from the overseer's pari<(h, fir^t to 
one parish, and Ihen to another. The fomncr entry is tJMcd 1716, 
aikd the lauer \% undated. 

It IS uncertain through hoir many handfl Ifaefie commonplace 
bxiki paued. The nunuscript eniries and the printi;d cuttings sre 
of various dales from ibe middle of the cii^htcentli cenlt;ry until a 
couple of decade:! in the nineteenth. The RTcaEer number belong 
10 the etKhieenth century. On ilie covr^r of one of the vottimei 

written "James , r7<io.'* I omit ihcsiitnamp. This man 

born in ijtTr and lircd until nearly the end of the century, marryiz^ 
in the forties, and begetting thiriLTrn children, ihe date " 17&0" 
may, or msy not, m«in that the book ihcn first came Into iho writer's 
pOMSinon. The compilaTion of the book wis cerUunly begun before 
that At^ either by Jacnea himscLf, or by his father, or h:s wife^s 

[94 7'h GentkmmCs Magashtf, 



BlitfierH Tbe longquArto manuscript accompanying tbe roimn 

V boftnlbe nftmeof "Thorruu , ij^Va »on of Jamci^ bora in 

tTSt. PerhftpsihcrnmcsircTc school ncrci»» of the two efd«tt 
boja in ibc fainili-. The |aiish overseer vho ouidc the pauper 
removal entry in 1716 may 1^^^ been ciihcr Jamefi's father or bii 

ImWt father, ftnd may also baw posted 4omc of ihc eirlieii cuttinci 
ind vrillcn some of tlie catlicGt ettracis in the hcxtki. Thr borll 
CHIDC into cny posicui'^n from Jamcs'i yourigc&t mo, who no* bom 
Jn 1770, ard irho has wfitteti in one of them, "Joseph » *>>• 
book, gtvcn hy Jimrs , July 39, 1784. Hie nomen pono : C^uta 
Kbrum perdcrc no!o- 

llitti the ccnlral fi^re amon^ Xhe compilers of these doctimenli 
it the Jame* bom in 1717, who married in the "forties," and brought 
tip a Urge ^mily on his 01m inherited htx^ Wh:u kind of a man 
he w^, and what his homestead wu IJVc, 1 eon tolerahly iktll 
imagine, partly ^ the ajd of the commonplace booki, partly by the 
nidfif nhal I know of alhem of his dn» vho remained yeom&n 
Cirmcts within my onn memory, and paitty from Cimity mdjiion. 
He kept most of hit family around him ; but his youngest >on ld% 
home rarfy in life hrcauic he objected to **go vdth thenaggOM.' 
nil? immeciiiiic nurvivors cif men in n^glihouHnij iwrishe*, belonging 

■ to the MiDC cla» as the old yeoman, bad become when I krKw them 
WlHMOfiooaihrougboat the di^rici for their ecccninciiy. They dul 
Bnot ehange wiib iht- limes, Th^t »ct-eral of thrm dfcd a^cd ectihaica , 

■ IS due probulily to ibtr fact Ibat their tcnall and dimJni&hing |3roper>^H 
' ties did not yield an income ixillieicnt to enable Ihcmi in tho ^^ 

altered eonditinn« of life in vhich ihryfrnind themvehre«, 10 vip^ort 
a fiimily as rnmroTTahly n their fafbrrn had dorie, IVtEiain the ftici 

tthat tber clunfi to thetr few ancestral acres when moft of their elasa 
hod cold them 10 big i^ndholderf indicate* that they vert 
ituM turner and more ronscn<aiJve in ibrir hahtrt and lasiei than 
their neigblKtvin. They j^rcfcrrcd a cclil»tc i^^uhtion and inde- 

Ipendonco, even d pmchcd, to sinking down into starving small 
lenantt 0* hired laboorcrt They Joft land to be sold by their htiHi 
■nd some nf thrm lef) Tittle liimpit of monry^ \Jkc the rrompilen 
of the commonplace books, they were ahrc«d and exceptionally 
intelbgeni men lor their time^ and their vhrewdnfas, knowledge of 
Iciter*, ant3 rrrrnuiriiy, would have made (hem ennEpicoOiiu Agurca 
in tbe pa^es ofa Goldsmilh vr an earlier Dkkcnv 

Tl^e prtncipHil hero of our eommonpiiice books, whoso ftm 

>ttcnt hy his name long after his children had sold it, could afTord 

beget a large faaiiiy, and luid lei^ture and intdtci:! enough to 





w4i( Eighdttnth-Ceniufy Commonplace JJ&^i, 195 

[ioiuubinsclfftnd h^j sons &nil daughter bf mnlcmg mongfiCfipt 
f> MC ti pt» from the bookit, jxaniaitirly the poems, of ihe day, and t^ 
laknig imilciliuliiKiua cuUin^ Croiu cotilc^iiiJOEajy iiu^uuiic^ nod 
isevspftpcn, How Ihc nui^^uincs drilled inif> ihc obfcurc vilb^c in 
tHiich he lived it ]« impoxtible 10 Kty, They vrere mott pTobobl/ 
odd numlirttf tnlimriw- thtf coniplotc ^Ib wuuM \ia\^ btfcn pre* 
ierred The wiiitco cxccrpu would ^cncrolly be made from bofr 
rowed bocks, '{"be name of a ^^oolmuEcr belonging to an 
KLfOtning %ilb£e appc?an Kt the baf^k c>r one or the scnps; it 
would be ftl bu scltool that ihc youngci njciLibcrs of the faJnH/ 
lc»mt to write u> wcUi and pcrhap« from him aUo thoy acquired Ihc 
ability 1o quote «cnps of Latin. But mott of tht^ bctt vritEen and 
acb(4ar1y entries must, according to ihdr tlsite^ have been 
by the father, before the children were old enough to mai;c 

ITw impreuion produced upon the mmd of anyone who studies 
old cii|]unori{iUce book* is that liiLy rrprc^ent the iiidour 
lion of a hovischold, the mcmbcia of which eagerly appro- 
priated and intcUigcntly imimibted any stray literature that omc in 
their way- News or the outer irorld reached them only loo ipartrtgty, 
be rude eomfona of country life were nerei wanting in that home ; 
bat money ^vas not too plcnttful, and book^ - beyond a certain imili 
ntsmbei — had to be borrowed if aeen at all. What btenture iliey 
td get wah boKcvcr, keenly apprtciakd. Nuntbcn of the 
"Royal Magacinc," the "London M^annc," the "Town and 
County Mafpuine,*' and the "Universal Magaiine," often cimc in 
their way» and W4?re pdlaged wholesale, halfadoren {la^es bdng 
.fiow and then inacrtod in the scrap books in a batch. Theae pagca 
gcjieraily full oS tong poecnsr cither idecccd ot original Th« 
agaztne readers of th,iL age had a keen appetite for not very 
iUJant verse. A few of thcac cjtcerpted lea\X'& contain aonga fict 
to minic; Ajf. "The Indolent Swain, £ct lo music by M. Mcac^" 
Dkl our yeoman houiehold m-e this muiie only vocally, or had 
sone iEH*inbcr of the lamily a violin— they would call it a fiddk^— 'Or 
ponibly a spinel? V^iicca most of (hem would have, and un- 
^-doubl^dly used them in singing i^lcct by the hrccide^ The 6rc£ide 
luch a family wotild nevr^r be unpeopled ; but chere would alao 
room for nci);hbLiuis, who would liad uicb an Intelligciii and 
Kcnial household act/active There would be pjpes and home- 
brewed aie; and much tallc, and wit and baaiour^^om«ttm«i 
broftdt and generally homely, but keen and hon^L 

Th^ocmgfMpcf^ chJctly cut from wcic ihe "Po\iUc M,>tt^^iMa'' 

196 Tk6 Gtnthmans Magastne. 

O^oodfall'f paper, in which "Junius" published hi> letter*^, 
**Whuchall BvcDjng Poat," the ^'London Jounul" {\i «arly as 
1744), ihc" Kentish Wcrkly Pott," 1 he ■'CanitfbtJiy Jorainft],"And 
ihc- " Lcwcs Journal," Some of llie cutllngv arc from ii^tpers tliAt 
canaot bo Identified. In ihe cxccrptti, from both maga^nca ind 
ncvtpapcn, Kcnilmcnt ajnd Kitlfc arc the prrvaJling motives. The 
Mlirc is mnic rjfri]ucnil/ pclitir^l, fomctimc?i Micut, and soinctima 
directed a^m^t fuch persons as ore nuspected of bcinK asore wnc- 
lina>oaiout than uintly. A tone c^f Uuidy l^rLnklmbn mdcpendcnce 
of c^nion nini thmngh ihr nhnlr nf thi' IktoUs. Uui while there 'vi 
no pamde of ctiurch-b^^ii^g or of intimacy with the parson, there is 
notliifi^ ndicAll^ ineoiuifitcnt nith cith«f. Amonj the cxcerptt oro 
«uch tiyiAnK nji Addison'f, and niAtiy oihcr pieces of n re1igLou« cha* 
nct^. Merc instruction dues net wrm lo liave bceti ^inied at »u 
muchasthcgratincition ofacnLimcnt and of a taatcfcr the hunoii 
ouj; and ^tirical. The age of the "useful tno^ledgc" ]itcntur« 
liad not yM dawn«I. Il wu ihc |icnod when the ni:irs[uprr hod 
recenlly absorbed tlie bcpatntc politick ^icct, and the modem 
leading micle had not ^et been developed out of such letter* oa 
those of "Jcniui," who mix iheti enlivening the columns of U'ocd- 
fall's [Miper. 

In Cfttimatirg the mtellectuaJ and moral lone of tbcac common- 
place booka, it mutt be taken into account that the locality in which 
tli<^ fkiuily tuul |iv<.h1 fui uI l^j.11 bervcral gifnt^Taliuti^k vas coirtpan- 
tivcly isolated- The ncarat eonsidcrabic lown was some mllca 
distant Roods in the eightecmh century were notoriously bad; 
and SuMei roadH enjoyed a !i|wc!i»l notorii^ty for rhcir b.tdnr^f- A 
hi|;h-roa(l to London liin itirouj^h a pu^>uluLi^ pitiUli not far ofT; but 
that parish hoa noted throuj^hout the counErysidc for ihc satirical 
character of \lt inhabtlontiL It ia not probable th:ii any influence of 
an elevating or rclit-ious tone would ftlrcr thence imo the nt^lgh- 
bouring parishci. ^^'hat culture there wax was not strai-ijcly line* 
lured with a high toned Tcligiosiry. The ^nujy that compiled the 
cominonpbcc book« was ^" none of ir^ gentrrationi, a cunvjiieuously 
pictntic one. AVhat ihe acncral character of the riiwl clergy of 
that Dg« was is well knonn ; and it often happened that such a 
household as that of our yeoman farmer did more credit to the 
Church than the pareon himself did. " An honest nuri'ii the nobleac 
work of Gftd" rcprcscnia probably the highest apintual level to 
which most of i\\t ccatiered population in that ditcr.ct had for soma 
lime fttlainM, That part of the country does not appear to have 
been much oJTectcd by the rcligiot;^ agil&tioos of either the bcveis* 


An Eighitenik-Ctniury Commmplace Boot, rg? 

tccnth or (he eighteenth century, A Puriiao siiruster vas cjdc^cd 
frooj n pamh chtimh tcvcnl milca amy in i6;»; bui Puriianbm 
nude DO deep impcc^aiou tbcrc al ihal umc. Th« MciliodtsC 
rc»ivil tli4 no* pcnciratc ihtwc wilda unill artw Wt^lcy wa» <Jtf«l ; 
Wcslcyli rounds in faci» louche*! aniy a few placn tn the county, 
and Id) ibe dittncC we at« inicr^tcd in quite iininflucrLCed. Thus 
rcUgiotu jndinacr)ii£ni w4S undisturbed ; and vhat irldlcctuat 
i» readied the people vould bu of a si^cuUr chandcr. There 
is, therefore, no reason lo doubt dial our yconian hoinirHnld owfd 
what apucial ciillurc It ina> [ia^< poMCUcd to iti cmn native tncr^t^L 
vsjOOr, aldecl bf the nci^bourhood of a good schoolmaster, and to 
mil Ccw books, migajinci, and nevspapen as It could get hold of. 
tt is possible that *M>in« civilizing influence may have leaked out 
liOtii die great hou%c in ihc parish brlon^inf! to the I'clhams, in 
whow hands the manorial H(;bts had been since the dayt of 
"Henry IV., ind a ci^LLiterat branch of which fintiily then, or cer* 
taiuty licit lun^ beftyic* ic^ided ihcrCi 

One naliirally looka (irtt. in such common place booht fu: these, 
for Tcfercnoe* to the public event* of the time. How far wure ihe 
dwe^en in thii (lui-ofihe way village tn raf>port^\W\ what was^c^iri^ on 
in lownft and citica. in Courts xv\^ PATliamcnta, at home and abroad ? 
Tbe American dUticuliyudiatmctly mentioned only once- It nnay 
ha« had noffe alicniion gtven to it oHglnally, lui nnrortun^Icly 
iiLUky cif the cuiiii^gs have been I05L This one mention is xw % 
cvtiit^K from the ** Canterbury Journal," over the sifTuiture of "A 
Kcntith CardeneTT" who tayi : 

"So, Mn Priiiici, otir Minitlry have Llcli^d upadu&tin America; 
^ml how ixi it may spread, and how many may be smothered in it 
fcclioffc It falU, no mortal cui U\\. 11 ihote who raiu-d it were to b« 
choaked by '\\, 'twould be a merry to this nation and the colonics* 
I wonder what our Ministry ihtnk; perhaps they thmk mcn'« live* 
arc of iko more value Uian the lives cf gnats and buticrnics ; and, if 
Mt should be theU idea, U if probably drawn IVom ihemsdves, who 
■re tlii^in^^nti and pmnttJ f^uttrr/i^f. 

", . , Til ihoac MiniMcrial butlcHli^, who feed on the fruits of 
ptibtie indiMiry, that produce to many de^Irtictive tahrfiUars ; ih^ 
bavc almost devoured the rerdurc of thlB land, ar>d say, 'Uis not 
Cfwugh,'" ic, 

WilkcM figures frenucnily in these bookd. The yeontan bnoacr'a 
Mlitude towardi the people*! cham^on was evidently a synpatlMio 
one, though he could enjoy the fun on both sides. In some pages 
cf A magaainc (die nooke of nhich is cut ofT) 1= ^ namtivc of ^^'iIlte«^ 



Th€ GtniUmani Maf^a^ifU. 

oircrf, together with Kis iddf ea to h« coofititutDta in ifM An" 
engrnrnl [Hirtmit of Wilkrs cjngintU^ mixcunpinkd ihcdK poB*^ '"*^ 
it has (iinppcorcd. From the " Unircrsal Magulne ' Ux Narember 
1 763 w cut an abstract of the Rev. Mr, RidgcU'e *^ Narrative of a 
Scandaloufl, Obcccnc, And excels tnglf Profane Libel, entitled 'An 
Enay on Woman.'" II10 notorioua Kidedl (whcna Mi. Lecky, iii 
faifl "HiflEory," crroncouatf calls KiUidgo) got posuriaon of a copy 
of the " Euaj on Woman " from k joumeynnan printer, and handed 
it 10 Land Man:]i, tbrough nhotn it reacbcti llie C^ovcnmietiL While 
ihc work was stiU under the con^idcnition of ibc Miitisier*, Kldgdt 
pubtifiticd hit pamphlet, a large portion of which was at once copied 
fnio Ihc '*Univ(?nal Magatin^." 

Ooc ricwsptipcr culling contaiiu an ode oo llic lint anrnvctsary 
or the fatal nol of May 10, ^76$, occaatoncd by the iotpruoDflicnl of 
Wilket, and known lU the ''Matucre in St Ccorge*i Fldda." 
Ancill:cT, bearing the hcudii^i^ "Hie Injured Pklrial's Complainl,' 
(1VCS ail acToatic on John WilVcs, liy ft " Young Lady of Quality," 
On lli« other hand, our yeoman Otrmcr prostcrvcs tcvcral rhynitng 
bin[>oun& upon Wi]ke*i*!( frirndi when they publicly icfined to rar 
tnouminiE for the Klnj^'a sifter, who died in May, 1768. Here U 

AIm \ Khrnd W ^ thy Miie'» roriom, 

No more on fate rct]^ ■ 

The TMwo'i pUin, )\j^ii fricnJi K^OIl^ nrxium, 
Thcj ana?: mownuis buy. 

Tarson Hnme (urce better known a« nornc-Tooke, antboir of 
"Thi: Diversions of Parley"), when he fell out wiih Wilkcfi and hii 
patty, VAA the mbjea of min^ ^rigry dialribcs. Wo haic here a 
long poem in^icrilx-d to him, entiEled " The Prngresi of Ajioitasy ; ' 
and when he turned from ihe Church to the Bar the "UTiit^ll 
Evening VotV* (1773) attacked him thua: 

ltnm« «■ pri^l long Uifd In vain, 
IVUh All Ihc wicb«liAi of Coin, 

Ikn ftoi iuc««!iiip Ijy \ht Church, 
lie (pft K*JiBifiTi m rfn; lurcfi. 
I'lut he h^ Ljiw mjght hio, £.c.* 

The "Public Advertiser" puUIabcd the follotring "On the 
DupuEe between Junius and the ]Uv» Mr, ilonic ; " 

When VTilkd lh« Ulllc <]«!■ cri>uni], 
Uom iboD]« athft»l antl Uio iIk |>nAuiJ ; 

ylK Eighittuih-'CaUury Commonplace Book, i^ 

Vet tttion 1 mij^tirr tviD fu 
Comr« farth «l anfr tA cla*f fht vu 
The TanqokhM pridt begina anew. 
And* Conqiiei'd, la i conqa^ii^i Lwk 
Tlic iJiojd Guludi Ibui of Cub 
A Tunnn frU to Dh^'r vnth ; 
WhUc ihai one Utvid afl^r flU 
Sbrark (nmblipi; fiarn (Eat Imnd of Stnl. 

Ajd echo of the ttreetatlAcIc upon Lord North by Wilkes't friendfl 
in 173 1 15 10 be hcifiJ in some? *' Versos writ^tn over l^rd North's 
Door " (<;m from the '* Wbiiebail Evcniin; Poal ">. Here uc loinc 
of the ttoxuM : 

O f w«tch«} \\ otii fate ! 

WbiL diDgtik <Jo «c nm t 
Wc tniul hf wkk«i lo be fifar, 

And if wc'n jmt— ><iidDi\*. 

Tls ihu cur S — ^n krcpt tiU ^f oiiJ* 

And maka itic jieuiqij grokt : 
To Scalr^hmcn he ^l^^J^e^I \\\rt nroul, 

Tc Turin kU Ihc ilatc 

Lord HolTantt, on ihc (X)riin«ry, Gnds favour. The following 
finOi "On pUcine Lord l!olland'i B^>t in my Library," Are cut 
from the "Public Aclvcni^t"(i770 = 

Tbii linlc IhbuU to hU nune, 

Oa whidi not wulib iiicEidi. not fame, 

Etrry will iipuJC'-HbtLsi IlolUod^a mia4 

Shall laiifr a *«Rt )nj Lo finil 

CJnc QTiltfuL li«ut umong nunklnd. 

*M SuictmanS Advice I0 liii Dependents," fjom ihe *'Ointef- 
jbocir Joumil,** u in the spiti: of nuin/ other acnipa preserved In 
ibcM booki : 

Whafnvr ^^ think, hn n» riM] LhiAk It too | 
And Hlbai we Lidt ihne ycu cnuil mind nad do ; 
Vflul VIC atfitu), t]*ny, cjniincnJ, 01 blimc, 
BcHei-'d or ruji, ytc you min uy Ihf Mine ■ 
If wfi mutl 1h*t Lbcr block Rvrn'ft whi(«i. 
Von nvM MfTft^ «im1 iwev eIijlj wrun^ 11 righli 
1a the auoc bnvihi ftppUuLliii^ uf aIjuk. 
la Cburcli or Suic, your dciaiion's «ar«. 

AlihcgcQcalctccnonof t774fony-fivc *'fhw and independent" 
voters vLcnl in a body ftuin ihe jun^li of ClilTc^ to Cliichesccr 10 voic 
foi the pcoplc^s condiiluc. I'hc *' Levres Journal '' f ubli^hed a Ioi 


714* CcnilcmafCs Magaiinf. 

rhyming eulogy of ih«e " Forty Hvc Cliffitrt." »nd cf ccutse ibit 
eulogy b imong our ctjtiings. These Cllffiics aic 

Scorn to be IcO in ulkf n btjioKi, 
The ddpM of MinJiirn lari kittp. 

Froia tb« ** Kentieb GaaetCC " ^te tova *■ A N«vor biling Kemcdy 

Xbce. Tyburiij tup^Ia(c« my ni«W i— 
Come* wilh ihy rar, lh> K«ich. ihjf noow. 

And rlnqLirfiE Iuran|;i]ii)( ; 
And do^ dnr Tybuni) priUtc< da. 

Oae elDiiuiu iccuc or l]Wi;;iuG ' ^ 

TTie distrc^t of ihe times, consequent upan ihe watvity and 
hif^h price of ft^od, is rcfi^Tml to in iiuny of Uie cuttmga and mwj* 
tctipl c:(ccrpU. "A Song" haa a number of £tanA« of tbil 
chAract«r : 

Yc Lofdtof ihe CouTt iTtd gittt DotH of the Oty. 
On th* p>or people't wantj «rvi duUTt«« ulie fAiy t 

Aud vlicn for ihc ^ooA of Ehc n^iuti yuu Lifit[« 
Conuivc itiAE Lhc pi>;ir mnf luv? vxuctlilnj lu OL 

A ai:LQU«cri^t excerpt fiom il^« " Canlcrbury Journal," l»eariiig 
Ihe *lgnaijr>; "Agrcstrs," and dated Sandwich, June lo, 1780, gives 
following " Moral and Judicinl Causes of \\\c pic&cot CoiuuiO' 
fotia," Ard quotca Fiovcrbs xiv. 34 ; 

Contempt «( lawi» boUi humjia *nd divifio \ 
Unbouodtd luit and Bacchui* druakcn >h(lae ; 
UobHdl'd pikuJuii, ]u\iiry and vice, 
T^il liii fi:>r ruin. t\ ir aiivnl ii4 H«> ; 
Hud-h«ffM awiw, «nd injmtLU' piw, 
TK4t Giipea (he helplcki tnd d<:fici ihv Law ; 
The porifp of pride, ihc spkrn of bwlcia pow'f, 
Aiubilloii's rnvy ind its iLlr^i^ <if morr; 
Kfllfflnn"* utttt-a. \.hv half nrtill r««tnipt> 
The p^oi'c opprv^UJA and thftit tnock'ft complaint^ 
Th»e Aie ihc ^rinict th&i mirk doifu^ticoi'fi line, 
And, unKExnud, iSriimn, kIU be cJiincl 

This i* doggerel ; but the writer was in eflmest. The rompiler 
A31 preserved scveial vigorotifi atl.icks njion the ext'essivc drnm- 
drinking of tbnt pcnod. He also Ukcs the trouble to copy oul 
some versus on Lotteries, ending thus: 

In JolteTJea 'tit the sinie 11 "lit in phy, 

The knavtf's the vulrurc, and llw fo&rilhu prty. 

To incrlion one tnoi« cuiung of a pnlilical clwracter. Thrrc Is, 
in prcscr "A Picture of Europe fortni, by A Sutc PAintcr/' &ch 

An Ei^t^€n!k*CffHiury Commonplace Book. 201 
9Utc in Emopc » !n:iiiincd up m a 9huit ^otograph^ t give three 

**GreAt Britiin, — On her knees. The Cabinet Council pliyiag 
■t badi-gvrnmon A SecicUty nf State ?iingeing tlic icd rmp At b 
caikdle. Nq>:unc supporting the throne wii)i hijf bcid ofT" 

■* Ireluid^Barefooted, Singing tbe Irish ho^?!."' 

''Holland While all the other nationfi or Kurope are lAinking 
of diking morcf, tlic DttUh ate making it with all euie and 
czpedit^on poMiblc," 

In tho tvE; uid inid<lle decades of the eighteenth century 
innctiUtinn win ^% murh a bone of contention as vaccination is now ; 
Hid our ycomiui farmer brirgs against it, *s the anti vaccinators now 
do flgBtnsl vaccinaJionj the charge that it is profitable chiefly to those 
who make money by it. Twice does he himtdf cry his skill in 
vene (not rery luccc&afully it muftt be admitted)* ^r\^ signs Kia 
dfusiocis with his auniAme spelt bnckwards. He alao gives a 
newipaper cuttbg (1769) in which a Mr, Sutlon advertises that 
" S^Jttun Hc;ii«e''(preiuniatbly in l^rnlun) b open for inoculaliuti, 
And that p«ticnti arc there received "upon the general lerais of 
twentyj ten, and five gumcii^ all necesiaricj included, tea e^cppied." 

Th^ nionumen!al Leplssieied heid-drui worn by ladies at ttiai 
tine KCEoa to have been aa obnoaiou« to plain minds as the 
'* music halt hai'^ has nnce been to ihcatre-ftoen. The writer ol 
tome v^ertei in tbe ^'CsmieTbury Joumil " come* to the concluiion 

Ti WM but ihe fagHiLt of a hnd, 
Witli br*tac warn invi^ ouf- 

Tht literary critics of a hundred and thirty yeara o^ wct^ hke 
the critics of our day, themtclvcK critidsed, A wricer in the 
*' Lewca J4junial " ventureii to publi^iti the foUotrijig address '* To ilie 
Hcdcfn Critics:" 

Otclo of andmt liflao, ve know, 

Wan prafiiabLf f«liavt i 
Th«y EDad* lb* fifiM of G«nJDl gloWr 

And Mtvcd iDiUaii of b«Uo«>, 

Bai yt, my luKmniHcklni; itri, 

Whal ire y« but <xUagui&h«ii 
Of iDod«rt^ vlt'i <Jini lBp«r ? 

Arhyioinfi satimt in thc"Londoo Magasinc" Ot^S) contrasts 
ft com* wttli hit vicar, to the advantage of the rormcr^ Tbe who!'' 

VOL OCBtVl. MX ao76. p 


309 Tks G^niiepfmns Afagasitu^ 

eSttiion is copied into ooe of the*e voluiBCt. Thit givos tlie gbi of 
the wihott^ The irkw 

^^^^^^^ VILi ^«« U» Wine l« B Minple, ^^^^J 

^^^^^^^ Tq iWbbc vlw bul bt: 4QiJ iny. ^^^^H 

W In culling the above apccim^ia from tlicK uuoed old ae^l^H 

booki 1 hftvc aimed At ihowinR how the c«flr dcaidc* of Gtor^ 
llL't reign fmrrored ihem»lrc« in the miod of on intelligent ukd 
ahicwd yeuriinJi fui»i-i lly'u^g in an ubacuri? vilU^^cr. Tluu ftnocv 
WAS not. pcrhofss, an flvcfs^c umplc cf men of hia cUu ; but, 
though be majhave be«n mtetl«ctuallj superior to the Average, it 
may be justly oAumed chai among the men of hisaodal position there 
were many who ircrc like him. It U ouy> in our MlfjcniukHtOo 
Qvet Ihc modem apreod of knowledge^ to und«r latLnute tlte in 
tclligencc of thp *gHculmra1 population of the eighteenth cenimj. 
With fever t>ooVt and ncv»papcis llian wc hare lo-djiy, they 
probably valued roorc highly what they had, aj\6 acquired a habit of 
thinking for ihemsrlvet and an originality nf character noc too cofr 
spicuout among nt. now. They ccitalnly potseased a itutdj 
irdepenJencc t^f spirit ; and, ifthoy verecompftralivelyhelpIe«$i they 
were not iifraid to speak ool, 'lliere was in ihcm not a liitLe of 
ihftt which ran make a " Ixjld prasaniry ^ ihelt "country"* pride,"* 

T7ic»c Krap-booki are by no means filled solely with political 
■atire and complaints of the cvilneaa of the titncs. B^^ mMEi, 
moral teflcctions, (ketches of country life, abound. There are 
iranslaiiona from Horace aiLd Ovid, wliole poems nriucn out from 
auihori of Luting repute (<^f. Swift's *" Babble" and Nathaniel 
Cotton^s ^' Fable of the Bee, thu ,^t, and th* Sparrow"), and othtr 
pieces that do credit io t?^ compiler's taste. Among the epigrams 
U one ■* By a Scholar of I larrow ; " 

Ti> ichool «r, ligcinf, onv by rmc rcpaU-*^ 
No rrowd, Bt ikt*ioat, whii thiil finf get tture t 
Um, when Kh^wJ'i don^, ivhat diitrng <Jo wt Mt f 
Such ia H Briton^ lovf of librny 1 1 

Naturally, there is a collection ^of epitaphs from netghbouhng 
villagefs copied apparently in the early wventier The following are^ 
perhapT, the xmariest i 

ThU life K lllte unio a wlnrcr'i dty : 
SudLC only break ih«iir (Mt and v> ttwy : 
Others luy dinnti and 6epti% FuU fc4 j 
The tmceni ihec IjuI «iip ud goti e« L^. 
The blLin cup ihit dralli |^v« mv 
U panni; muml la cumr lu Ihcv- 


Aft Mig&tS4n4k'C€niury ComiHimpkue Bcifk, 303 

These quotations wilt suffice to suggesl to the rtJuSer ham thcold 
Tcomin lived ami thou|;ht. More than cnc generation — I know 
oot bow nwny gtneraliont— of Ihis family have long Ijun tinder the 
ihadow o( the bUlOfiial yew ticc thai still fiouriaties in the viiUge 
cbiarchrvdn The pvish cin no longer be de«cribed as ftn obKtitc 
one- The nineteenth century his invaded it. Modem Uste has 
discpvera^ that thff once quiet valley and the pleasant hills around 
■t Arc picturesque. Little fcmaina of wliat cut old fneods kncvr, 
fxeepl the church and its ^aveyafd, tome ancleni coltajKes, some 
lingering but £ut dying^out IrAdiiion&t j^nd these old sciap-books, 



The GintUmam's Afaga^tu. 


I CREEP o'« the face of Ewth 
With footfrtcpa iTcmuloiB «nd 
Uncfimin, as one who i^cckK 
His yixj in an unlcTKiwn land ; 

And men Aiid women, wcuuiecl 
Wth kbour and with dittrcu. 
Art sirong AC&in, >mi1« orc« more, 
At touch of my aon rr^pi&, 

1 bound with a Epringing itep, 
Fooling a glecTuI mcftsiirc j 
In merry mischievous trick 
I i&ke a mighty pleaffure, 

A plague un I, %xy people, 
Bui mmn il htil half; ihr whil^ 
They scold, they atiflc a tajgh*- 
Tb«y ^wn, tX\cy »mothet a »milc 

] sweep ahead with a Kttida 
Of fi*n:e mmultuous foite^ 
Tossing a&idc llitf reeitraiiiti 
That would sock to bar my course. 

The goodly Fruit* of the Earth 
I, ftpendthnft, wirte on my way, 
And from itv choicer flowers 
1 LuftJully Mue ax prey. 

Tk€ WtKd. 



I more along wttb a jtep 
TSfnperAlc yet. wf>Tidroufi utrotig. 
And wirh my going travels 
A blesung 1117 path iJoog, 

Mine it thi« laUiur of (jfe : 
In the regioni where I blow. 
Prosperous the miU-whc«l grin^t ; 
SaTc, ipeedy, ships conie and go^ 

C«oc 13 th« gloo of boyhood, 
C^De IB yoiilh'« pASiionAU reign, 
Gon^ inaiurity*s Ulxmr ; 
I Am A Uaby agjun> 

I cmf> o*cr ihc face of E«th 
With fooutepfi tremuloui and 

UTicertflin, as one who ipcki 
Hk way lo an Ljnknown land 

a- KLTOFt FATKR50ff. 


TiU GcH/Uman's Afaga7rH4> 



OUR dranuait taiaor is onci: more on ihu war-pAik SUitlod 
At the otiUry he caused whca m a mood of light-hcutcd 
ignorance, he tuppfessed J/pfia Vtxnna — one of the pur»l and 
moat idyllic piece<i of modem times — he ha« for a whili? latii low. 
Almoct the oi3l> Action tiaccable to him in recent timca ha» bc«u 
the probibtCion extended to Mr. Cedl Raleigh, the author of 7Ju 
Fiood-tiiif^ against dealing in an^ fashion with the mtiter oC, 
rqfimental ''Eagging," This even must nol* like the prex^oi 
otfcncc, be Ascribed to literary ineptitude- An action sxich u this 
fpriRg^ from no meddlefiomoness on the part of eubordLiute 
officials, but may be vofdy ascribed lo arch-flLinkeydom — ir fact, 
to my lofd Polonium hiaisclf- As, almost alone among ruaclionaiies^ 
Polonium is wholly irrc^ponsibLe, vre ^boll knov no more concemir^ 
th« matter. In regud to the suppre&aon, by the Reider <A 
Plays, of /rt Cittk i^&rtix of Signor Gabriel*? d'Annunaio, there is 
not n>uch to be said. Interpreted as it has been by Signora Duae 
or by Madame Bernhardt, ih« work has be«n accepted without 
difticijUy in most European capitals, I can, howey^r, on ty fight 
the E]i£itter on guiciaJ lines, and prute^t against the diama being 
subjected to &ny form of ccneuie vhich docs not apply to other 
forms of literature. £ai Cittk M*>rta is, in fact, a detestable play — all 
the more hateful since the writer hat not the cuuragc to deal boldly 
with the subject he choOBta. There arc in il virtually but four 
character^ and one woman is the subject and the victim of two 
pftAsions — one ndultcrous, the other incestuous. Siich a subject may 
well be Icfl alone ; and 1 cannot express regret that* for any cause 
whatever, it la not to be set before the London public, Signor 
<J*Annun2[o is a poeL That much i^ unquestionable. His imogina^ 
lion is, however, undisciplined -, and among the things against which 
he revolts are accepted notions of moral cleanliness- Quund-mitHt^ 
il is to be widied that the cen&or, as an anachronism and an offence, 
would learn the leseon of self-effacement. 

T<U>U Talk. 



ACONTROVERSV m which ! cannot Im feci a certain Jorerest 
rag«d mitdty, 1o use a HilwmicUm, ft fcv veeks ftgo in Lhe 
Air^ ^ar/. This mu a!( in the; Age At which pnft «iti^ may be^ 
be drank- I waa astounded to find mtn irha cbimcd to be experts 
ttjinj thni nt> vmiogc earlier than 1847 existed in London c^lbn. 
Brought up in Yorkshire in the early half of tht; Im century* I was, 
so to BpCdJc, wCAncd on port wine. I bircly escaped mctling the 
thrcc-bottle men, and ihe f&nie of iheir heroic exploits wdi in every 
mouth- A knoTFlcdgc of port wine was, however, indiapeu sable to 
the youth iwhu suughl idmiaiion 10 "good mrn's feasts," and jnung 
beauty itsctf could talk ^bout bcesving or bouquet, and even spin 
Illicitly the liUt drop^ of a gcblet s^prmofMium. \ could 
'pRBorudly recQgnUe the "stink'' of iSao port when it hud been 
decanted in a wuiu looiu and hud not been tasLcd^ ojid I have 
dmnk— nith no special gusto, 1 must own— ihi: wines of the ante 
ptnultuuabe cenlur}'. With my arrivAl in London in 1S69 my 
fipponunilies of drinking old port diminUhed and finally dirappeared, 
but the grcai wine^ of i3iq (the king of all), LS34, 1340, iSfs, 
iS44f iU47» i^Si (vhich 1 laid down in my oirn cellar), and i86j, 
have an received my homage. After that year oihen may fpeak- 
If any of my fiiends po^ess still a bottle of tS^o I wi^li, for the 
sake of reviving old aiemoHc& and testing the worth of lingering 
upcTfttitions, as well as for pergonal delectation, he would Ut me 
SBcitt at iu dioentombmetit- A {nxnl many of them passes iS^ 
wine»-^but there were many 18543. there is (or vraa) but one idia 

Iuuortal Forts. 

,N£ thing Qoay be said with con6dcQCc- A strong line port 
viB last vtrtiuJly unimpaired for half a century. How long 
it win improve I cannot undertake to say : i8ao port wai (till in 
^vrieciiun in [S64, when 1 U^tl tasted it, To <iuoic an exttaviiguit 
culofy of a Tudot dramatiit, written, of coufK, concerning loaic- 
Ihing else than port :— 

Thu ftfy l«ea <ti mch million* of nitff4 
Eicfctl ibf nine of ctbtrL 

In order to tnainiain its perfeciior), howeverp port wine must be 
tMmled neither less nor more than three years al^cr vintage. A 
heresy previil'rd in Portugal, and extended to this eounirj-, of keeping 
a vine in wood for Piny yeart and making up the leakage or shrink 


Tk4 G^ntUmatCi Magazim. 

•lEC bj the ftc<iucnt ii^troduction of new wiivc. K pro<e» mdi w 
tfatt is titftl to the character of a wine : tS^ wi« ipwUlly vubjeci to 
tt» omngr% which U ihe ciine why I uy ''there ire Buny i8j4»." 
Secure one that »rta bottled in iSj7. »nd y«u hire whjit Lyljr the 
cuphuivt calJs *' nectar from [uno'i dAirr " a beverage that mtxhi 
tcfttpt the god Lyx-ut, ever youngs to " dsDCe upon the nuier't bfim." 
The other s(i-(:allr<l wine is r«wpnniiljle fur ihe hcreiy i,-oiiceriving 
"Uwny pott," oo which our novdisU^ibc feanlc n-jtclistiespcdilly 
—^Alc. T«wry port is 1o gcniimc port what the bronxing leaf of 
October Is to the verdiirous growth of May. Take it who wilt, i 
beaker of tlie genuine port still lealiies the <teicfiptJoi> of KeaU — 

Vnrh ItfaJM bubblri win1cjn(» ir Thr hrlm 
Ackd jniiplv-ibiliiM mourh, 

CHANGE hnii comi^ over feniiritiiL' fi&bions in hfjdt?car. antl 
thftatgrel—n^ith which, r^Brd]es«r>f every dicUU; of humanity^ 
beauty wa* nccuitomed lo deck hertelf~is now repudlaiMt or left to 
the middle-aged ^tvi llie dowd)^ I ob&crvc keenly these iltJiif;^ and 
I hAvc not for %\m. months past seen that <lecoKttion (T) on ihe liead 
ofanywonun whom I could comeientiouflEy credit with leci than 
Any years, llie (.iungt,* thil has Ixfen made, however \% in no 
leipect an iinprovcracni, And involves no tardy recognLtion on the 
part of women of the claims of mercy or humanity. In place 
of the plume torn from one poor bird whoie nuptial adornment 
a.itd lure it *as, buuly — vtil) lulheriiig^ to hct bloodthirsty tastes — 
ornaments her hat with the corp^e^ of from four to eight bullfinchea; 
Thifl proceeding, by which at the abrine of female vanity and lack of 
poerry and una^Enation llw live* of the preltie&t fnmatet of our grove* 

HWrificod. IcatCB but one further atcp to be i^kcn. I comnicnd to 
bM-elaughterere that they should take to woxrinK the corpses 

rrsIbrrA«t^H \\ Ik rru^ ihai. moved by «i>me quAlnt and un- 
expected inllueace of sentiment, the ichooiboy, perhaps the most 
dettructve of crwturM. will &parc \\\<s robin. Compared to wom^n 
when ber^t on aeicurtl conque*[, and engaged in what Mr. Bernard 
Shaw regards w( her cong^^tiial laik of tucking llie male of her own 
apecies, the boy is, however, a merciful and a soulful bdng. 



March 1904. 


By EffOCK ScusK. 

HE is m mild'tcnipCTCd Kcntlcman of studious loolu, and u scil! 
too young I0 be called middle- Aged. He wcaraavuil of 
forfTCTiltonai cuF. wtEfi a riorcitrTg coat and h IjowIft, c^icccpt en tho 
Sftbbuh, when fic sporu the orthodox ffock^coat a.[id &ilk Iiat ; but 
hifl Ka»*iftn origin ii; not disj^iscd by IhU AssuinptioQ of an English* 
num"* dre«. Hii st^ht lUck beard ii umrimTned ; hit n^kti« u 
awry ; ami tie buLtoui button of bis waiAtcoat lia^ rrver yet brf^n 
introduced to iti ho!c, not because of hii p^h. for ihftt i& slim, bui 
oning 10 on habitual indifference* to aiiianne£& of attire bred of a 
philcAophic mood- He La generjilly wmpt in thou^hE and waEkt 
with a ni&uufc^ pur, his haw directed le a point above tlw dittasti 
honaon ; a beavenlj outlook thai often impenl^ his pcrsQjial safety, 
for the «umbling-t>locki at \\\% feet rrmnin unwen until th«y ait 
fell- TI1C uAual objcci of hit ccgiutions ia the precise Engl(«b 
rendering of a Hebrew if<?rd er phraic, mot in the course of hi* 
diltj l«Hona, and his features pretcnt a mosi pathetic specticle until 
he hu Airiied at a taiisfoctory solution of lus philalogjcal puule. 
Thc only other matter thai can equally pluii^ hb mind into Uie 
dt^thaof perpJex3ty, i« lh« anitety lest some lucrative pu])l] should 
Ivm his tumble semmuiy, nr lut homt? heuUiEiiig ji^tiron should 
finaDy resolve to entrust his offspring to a rival tutor. 

Mendel Hirach is one of the iniellcctual lumfnarics of hi» 
diurict, and is alway* snyc of being *' called up" to the readzn^^ of 
the Uw on the Sftljbalh. when the warden, aided by his Injsty acom, 

V04, OC3CCVL »0- 3079^ Q 

a to 

Tk4 Gmi/cmaH's Afagas$M$^ 

Hic IkuaUc cannot espy anybody else in llic Syoa^ogae llidy to 
respond vith A Hch ^-otive offering. ** If wt cannot have jc?J'/(cnoncT] 
let iu At least ha^« Tonh (Ivjajning)," Eoli1o<]ULS«s th« disposer or 
i^crreniottbl privUcgirs, and ht' whippets 10 the " m^iu- of cantU- 
laiioii"— " McndcW the HcUromcd-'' 

*' Anse, Rth M«ndd ben Bim I " cntrft the cantillatot, and then 
Tortb meets Torflh, 

Mendel feels that he is llic cynovuic of nil tyrv^ md tlut his 
dcporttnent before the ucred «croU will affect his earthly fortune. 
GithennK a bandful ot hit sJlken ^jj^^ (priytng sh&wl) he touehe^ 
the firtl word of ihc st^ciioT\ allotted to Kiin and transfer} the hallowed 
Mi(!3ui.' iuch to Ills ljp&. Tlicn, fervently gripping tlic handles of the 
KKAi, he reciter the blessing with clear and eareful enunciation and 
with Uriet conformity 10 the laws of nr7ir/and mii'ra. Thii adherence 
to ih^ prinriplc?i of acctnluaiion hr dettivs a dbiinction, wliich 
cnnoUcs him above all the i>ihct mcmbcis of the community ihftt 
have an otHcial connection with the Hebrew language, such as the 
pssior, the precentor, and enpecially the snufTy, grey-bearded JtfMr^ 
who is ignorant of EngliaK and leaches entirely by ineoiis of Yiddish. 
Moreover, Ihese indi^iduaU, :^hen utlcnrtg the buntdiction, close 
their eyes and sluUce and sway their bodies vehemently, while he 
shows his intellectual njpeiioiity by remaining rigid during ihe 
ceremony. Before Icaviny the reading-desk McnUel shakes hands 
vriih the fforden and exchanges compliment wiih him, and then, 
descending from the daii, he walks to\m6 to the pew of dignity, to 
pay a similar liibuit.' to oilier ofHccrs of ihe Synagogue. He nill 
tell you that he is an unrclcniing foe to All corvenlion, but the 
emission of a handfihukc may cost him five GhillingE a week (his 
fee for tuition at the Ircaaurcr'a house), and with a]| htv loyalty to 
ptincipICi lie prefer* lo wcrifice its interests rather thaii his own 
CBpital. In this world, he argui-s, tliij mamti^nance of an ideal is 
potsihic only for the millionaire and the hermit. But he ■<• merely 
a humbk crcdiurc who has to earn his living, and lie must therefore 
icgofd the practical affairs of life from the same material standpoint 
as his leis pliilosopliic bretlift-n. 

He objtx:Ls to being called *' Mc:nde1if the Mclammed" In the 
fiiK placCi Mendele bespeaks a patronising familiarity, which he 
indignantly i^coms. And, secondly, tht^ designation Melammed 
plaoei Itim in the same category as the narrow-minded, grirzled 
[uetiat who W only Viddijih hi his medium of m^&trudLon, and 
who, in hia opinion, ii radically oppoacd to the spirit d the age. 
He callsi bimielf a teacher, pure and simple, who has a scienlilrc 

Th€ Ch^Uo Pedag^guc^ 


tjii the Hcfacew Unguagc diid imporla i. Lnovlcdgc (jT it lo ^c 
idea ia Anf^lo-jcwry by the sole pmcticiibtc channel— tbc 
[tenacular. The Rcbbe, he complains, oven brings his profcBEJcn 
ito disrepute, for hi« English corcb'giqnisK do rtoi disciimmtue 
the two cUsBcs and lump ibem both together in their 
laoitTft iDdictoicnt, ihdl they foMcr ignomncc and aupvr- 
ftition by truulating an unknown Ungriage iriifi cm uninielligibU 
jvgon. Mendel, in the ticplh of hb haul, docn not agree that 
Vtddtib b 21 )Argcn, fot lie knows Lta historic or^n» and hjis a deep 
]n for \\% hfcnturc, %nd ih>^ pocu and oov^ligta who delj^bied 
]routh havp a ptn^nnb] chatrn for him even in hii manbood^ 
''Gordon, AbnunowiiHch, PctC£. LineCiki I" he exekimB, hn ejes 
[^Mmin^ wittk cnthiuiasm; '*ycs, they atc men of cnliji^htcnoicht, 
thdr woiira are in lirrraty Viddlth. But :h^ jjibbcrfsh of the 
:bbe — u that also of «omc vatueP Besides, even if it wesc not ko 
eocmc and dcbucd, wbai then ? \Ve aic in England now and bivc 
to teach ihc boyti in a language that they can undcrsUnd," 

There was a timr when Mendel was unabk l« cxprwiK himself GO 
'4ileuly, and wliai, indeed, he w(>tjid not venture to utter n aii^le 
word in En^iUi, kxt bis mispronuncuLlion ahould nuke him \ 
mockery uniu hi« hd-rcrr^ Thai wa* when he ftrtt arrived in this 
eoLinlry, twelire yeara ago. Since then he ba^ made jimfrrul-s for \{\\ 
early rctiocnc<i for he hiu acquiicd con^tdcnble euc in speaking 
and povcMct a rich and varied vocabulary. Indeed, it most be 
oatifevied, Jiltliough Iit3 jiride niuy thus Tut hurt, thai be luvei to hear 
himsdr speak, and he is wont to cxpaiiale on any subject tliat cuay 
be broached with the most exhaustive thoroughncs!. AconvcTution 
withbimgeni^rally ta|>su, after |}ie fini ten miruies, into a monologue 
nhJcb he can niaintain willi unfla^m^ energy fur a full hour, 
*lop|MnfC only for a nod of as~rcot or a monosyllabic query or to lig^t 
a. fre»h cigarette, when he ruiha on again with renewed impetus 
aJoog his aiguuicniative track. In auulh, lie tiav much to lay, ftir 
his roxdlng bai been wide, rangiiig Oom llie Talmud and ita 
fanumeimble oCTshoots and iienerul Jcwiiih literature to lliu ^icat 
wriieis of Ru^iu, France, and Germany. The exact e«cnt and 
depth of lu& knonlrd^c will always remain a luptery, even to the 
Savant, who \% one of ihc few whom Mcfidcl avoids ; but be ricvcr 
ti^to inpresft by hjs readine^ to criticise any work of European 
imiiOTLancev whetlu-r m the n^ni of biKLory, jiliLlosuphy^ ihealci^, or 
UUa*kiirtSy ctpccially if it hA« the sitghtcal beating on wbat present* 
dftf publicists style the Jcwiab Question. To this problem be baa 
devoted yean of study, and, as he is a native of the Und which 


211 The G€n(Umms Magarinw. 


igfft% birth to it, he conoiiiort himself cftpsUo of ttkijig a wide ukd 
phPocophic view of tbe quetiion, uu) detivtring u profouod and 
prHecl EoIuliorL 

\Vbcn Mendel (irxl began lo \tM^ ho had perfceoe ta we 
Vidduh, but be at oocc applied himnir i«aiduouily to gain a itork. 
mg k&oitledQe of English, whidi be had alueady uodied at bona 
granuiMlically In a Ruuian BtaauaL He proceeded to leam the 
ttaiulation of the Hcliti:w Bihk Ironi a tocond-hftad cop^r of the 
authorived venlon. «hicli he made hii pocket compaiuoii aad 
drrvtiiirvil At every nical. He found tlic enlerprni? rather ■ "—■HMfcg 
at tint ; but tbcrc arc Umits to tho Blbtioil rocftbukr;, and bcfoea 
Long he was ihle to ttan»b£e the original text with a doac approxiinft- 
tion to Ihe English rendering. So lor^g v% he nifflcred firotn lioguisdc 
hniititio[^» he ihrjvctj \v\ his callfng, for his Ignoranoe of Hsm w- 
tiacLilar, which the fonaiici amtjnK hi« brethren sUijcDatiscd as ff^k 
or heathcni»h. was a gtiirant^'e of unimpeachabte piety. But ai 
soon a& hu announced ibat Ik.- intended leadiing in Rnglith, blf 
fortLinci were ihorn of chcii norcfltc ^lory- Hia private academy, 
which had hitherto tieeo aa a garden for the cultivation of rtgbieottf 
docmru-\ mi> suddenly uansformed into d hotbed of bere«y in die 
mind* of his patron^ and many of them reaolved to remove their 
budding tdons crc ihcy vrcrc bti^hccd by the air of comiptiofL In 
iftin did Meodel remonnr»i«^ und point out the fiitiljty of ***^i iy 
thr rhildren in a language in which they did not thjnlr, if ihej ihougbt 
^ and which they would have no oocaaion to use in af^-ltfe. 
fctban wcrt obdurate " No 1 ' Uiey d«ciir«d» "thou wilt oot 
Mduct our bny« from the pth of fnkh- Athy hovr can one give to 
tindentsnd itie ToraJi \i\p^'UhV* They lauglied him away. 

Mendel >aw the bcnchci in his ichool grow barer each wedk- 
His pocket gradually became lifter and almoin ihmleaed to 
become fji^tti : but Xw. h;ut only bi<i tiwti tTKxith tu provide for la 
days, and the consciouincia of a just caudc aoftcni tnd 
Viremni the hardest cruet. But hi^ did not xv%X content with the 
QOHlolatkiD of philosophy. H<! tappfnl :i higher trmium of aociecy, 
nid fEJund precious ore in thick laycib. He iiicervieweJ half-a-dono 
pillan of the SyniLftOKuc, men who prided thcmsdvcs on Ibcit En^Mi 
speeches ai committee meeting nr^d who were blcKtod with eoat^ 
witti the n-<iif1l Lliul \vi% bciicbe» were Tilled onoe morr, snd lUa 
schoolroom again resounded with juvenile clamour. The fiiat fev 
wueki of inttruction in the new medium were rather diatre^oj* as 
hii errors of prt-nuncjation tickled hia cli4cjp!e«, and the lesson nat 
oAcii intejjupted until the raisundeisUadiii|} wu c]csuc:d tip. Bat 

Tit Gkeito Pedagogue. 

ihe pupitc suon became Ikmiliar tvith t1i«ir master^ acceot, and 
Mcndd. ubucrving witii Juj-ous heart thai the) wctc quick to citch 
his mcuitiig, felt ibat hi« conquest cF Ihc English language vros almost 
complete. Henceforth be avoided speaking the Jewfah-Gemian 
dialed exct-pl wilh bii landUdy, who AvefTt-d tliflt her (li^hcA ljy Jiriy 
Other lUunc than tbctr ortginAl Yiddish irould rot tuic as twccL tic 
repudiated the designation of Matamraed, with its euggestion oi 
obsolete meihod, musty piciy^ craven cringing, iniellectitfll dirkness, 
and DtiQiberless otiiei evll^ ajid he winced whenever that title was 
bestowed upon hiai. Just as bitterly was he opposed to calling his 
school a CMttUr^ with all the hideous associations of the hailowed 
bOTcl where he had received his own early education in n Riuriftn 
lomlct, gnmc and mildew, stulTincss and gloom, and the space as 
cnmped as the idcfla that tilled l1- He desiired to be known in hjiui« 
Bfl Mr. Mendel Htrich, leacher of Hebrew, and he had cards printed 
to that elTccL He b^d sbcd his Ghetto skin, 3u he dct;larcd 

The curriculum of Mr. Hrrsch's academy ia comprehensive &nd 

gnduaied, mounting by vinous stages from the alphabet to the 

MisluuL At Ar^t b« locik the beginners' clo^s himself^ but when 

tiic aedicrs of Icaintng increased be engaged a >cutlv of Atudioua 

l^ptOdivitiCft to rdicn-c him of thi£ task and imtiate innocent infants 

tuf Jtw Into the mystcni^ of Hebrew raiding. For the Jewish child 

\% inuoduceid to tlie tiatoric lan^uo^e of hb people at the same age 

«bcn he 15 (ind taken to an demeniory school) with the result that 

Ua Vila, applied timultaneoucly to the acquisition of two alphabetic 

ayilems, arc prcmaturt'ly ^liar])«ned. Mendd himKcIf — for we must 

crer return w our fit« love even in names — pcnonoily conducts the 

mt of the course. As Roon as a child can read faultleasly, a con- 

lamatlon that \\ quickened by incidental praclice m praying thrw 

a day, he Ia tauglit the opening chapters of Genesis And his 

nuad makes fitful ^^ropings after the beginning of all things. The 

traiMlniron of the Pentai^uch portion by portion, according to the 

ritual division of the Hynagogue, is slowly proceeded with and 

attended by constant revision, and when the moment b conndered 

rip* the budding schohir ia introduced to the charraed aide of 

Raaht. Thii b a promotion which he eagerly lookg forward tn, for 

^to rend the curious rabbinical lic^ipt of the mcdi-cvol commentator 

^iMtokeaa a superiGrlty, on the strcogib of which be con lord it over 

hii lt«i advanced fellow -puptia, Bctldet, his father will never rc«t 

^content uniil he has reached that inEclleciual »uinnif(, as in his 

^opinion ChMmctk K Pentateuch ) without Koshi it as ta^tcles^ as meat 

wiibovi salt. Indeed, that fond parent attacbet the value of an 


Th4 GentUman's Alagasins. 

iittpifcd iitlcfincc lo tlic wriiing* of the dcvcinh<xntury Rjbbi of 
Troyca, Solomon ben Itaiic, an u8«B«n«nt Xhax. uapeb the reflectiaa 
thilt, fik^ gold and sitvor .ind othrr prcrious tl^i^g^i t'l^ ia», loo, muM 
be weighed by a Troy vtuidud. l^ogtcu in thi« bnmdi of education 
i> nthcr alow, m tbo icnpt is roid of vonc1i> but though po>nl)e«St 
the oomrn^niaff Is full of wiitdom, and on the SAbbaih the Cubcr 
^vunincs bnw luuch nf ihli the yoking hcipcftjl hax asiiBiilAtcd, 

Menders mind is of « gramnutic^l casi, and he li^vca to pbujt 
Hebren roots in th*^ tender noddies of hJ4 ichobrs. Thifi i« fljiother 
respect in which hr JthoWB hit pnc-rmincTice, for the notions of the 
ivcnigc Rcbbc ftbout the seven conjjgations arc ai drm n* thoiBc of 
the nTSge about the S«vci^ Wi^ Men. When the pai)il bos 
mrtfwd ihe Dve boo1t% of Moves he croEset the Jordan with 
JcAhua and enters tt^e Promised I juid of the lionks of thr Fropheta. 
His joumcy tlirough thiA ronton is sfiiooih «nd plcuant, as long 
as it is peopled with kings and battles ftnd enlivened by foroanuc 
fldrauiircs; but when anas the cataraebi nf ]saiAh>; doijLietiee aio 
rdclied, lua heart fircirs hc^vy and hia way becomes slow and 
Uborious- Once a werk, however, ho can give vent to more joyous 
feelings and sing like a hrk, when he t,ike* his turn wilh (he retl of 
the iKjy* in aniillaliHi^ tlie Stiira or the current ]Mjnif]n of the 
Pttntatciieh, trying to outvie them in luatineas of otlenuice and 
cUbormenets oT muticU tlooritb. And then follows the «pecUied 
ftcciion from tbr Ptupheti, «ung to a slower and sweeter snd 
quainter air, redolent of Oriental cUmci, wjth mote trilla and 
quavers and burets of creicendo and alternate An;Lichce of pianisatno 
and fbrtltaimo, in which Mendel't voice, too, is fain to mingle suid 
tlie aAt:rcd indody. l^hui! harmaniom cancentit, UUihely 

^loin^ir^ the cheerful aspccL of religion, arc varied, however. 1^ 
pariodioil lcsson« thai reveal its graver s^de, when Mendel dii- 
tnbutes copies of an abridged version of the M*ifikam Anttk, a 
iiUtocnLh'Ctnltiry conipcndiain of ritual liiw and cuilimT nppcftainiDg 
to daily life, and ^howa his pupib the way in wliJch thoy should gCK 
Mendel himnelf does not rigidly conform to the precepts of this 
;tu1hority, and be foresees that (he innormt snnls hrfc^rr him will be 
still more Ux In the days to come, Dut the [mrcnt^i insist that the 
subject should ba taught, and he teaches il. salving his conscience 
with the thought that no expression of pergonal opinion is nccenary 
or ever called fur, as the mediaeval manual raisa no doubts and 
baAct its prescriptions on the 4is»imed acceptance of timvemal Jewry, 
It IS only the highest dais who are thus favoured with an insight 
into ihb wundroua jsiultiplictty of rcligioui; law^, whkh atiesid the 


Tiu GhsUo Pedagogiu: 


Jew like a faithful guard from Ibe mon^cni he opens hi^ eyes in ihe 
morning till llie Hiomcm he close* ihcm agam in lilccp ai night, 
rt>Ui^ifig hira dilit:cnily thioujchoul ilic daj-, and day after day, frcmn 
prayer to meal and me^ to work, and iht^a To praj^er and mc^tl and 
wofk s^in^ ir ^ corwuni cycle, mrying in their fiinriion ok ihc 
Sttbbath approach^, with its wric-nL' and iranquil b1cwiig of n:poae> 
or when fait or fcaM dcnundi a more cxactinj^ or mor« exalting 
cbfigation ; acccntipviyiiig him throuf^ joy and sorrow, in thfongand 
solitude, home and Syna^ue, and never leaving him until bb 
Makci prodaimii his tcl^^c and summcni^ him hcnce^ Some of (he 
bojB have a pmiaical internal m this b^aon, Jor tliey will soon be 
compleEing lliHr thiflecnfh year, wh*?n ihey graduaic in life a* Bar- 
Mitivnh (Son of die ConuTumdmcnl) and arc tiencclbrth entitled tO 
be punished for their own sins, to the rdicf of their carc-ladcn 
EiUier^^ For a month before rliac eventful day they mu^t A<m 
phylacteries at their morning prayers, and continue to dt* mj cvei 
after, and the digest giro a eooaplete set of detailed instructions, 
how 10 buid thetn on ann and head, what to do shkould Iho tacred 
case move or the leather straps biirsr, how to place ttiem in their 
b*g when done witb, and nuuibcHcss other directions- In tbb aamc 
cb», too, Hebrew writing is taiight, both the squftrc and cnraivc 
etyk£, and exercises are done in elcmetitary composiiion. Although 
rncuiy of Mendel's boys ate sharp and sludious, and genptally lenmin 
with him tmtil they arc about fourteen, «cty fen of them attain the 
utema^ goal of hia curriculum and enter the portals of the Mistina. 
fiaK if he has even one pupil with whom he can read the fitstchapter 
of the first ttoctatc of thi:: first order of that stupendous and muUi- 
fthoua code, he ia content 

Mendel's tchool consists of a Urge and airy room, furnished with 
scvrral dr^ks and henchcs, a hlaclclsoafd and eaitel, and !t tier of 
shdvc9 laden with well worn books of various dcsciipticna. Above 
the DianteZpiece han^ a card of monumental proportions diaplaying 
in bold square letters the names of the «mging accents with their 
figna, and on the walN difie we reading csrds for beginners and a 
tablet simpIi^Hng the vowel-?>ystcm^ to all of tvhich Mettdei pumts 
with ptide aa hia own handiwork. There are alao acme faded prints 
of departed tcholan; in l^n^irl, who seem to look down upon the 
VCC31C ^m thdr mural height with profound approval Mendeli 
own d«sk, in which he kt«pc his rep^ter^ chalk, and other odds and 
tnds» betides the bdiipeniabEe ferule, is a simple affair with a sloping 
lop; il ia unaccompainied by any chair, for he always stands when 
teaching- lie olio UKS the adjoining apartment, his utting-room^ 

^ll6 Tk€ GtfUiemans Afsgtmtm. 

Tor the adnnccd cktt, which ik raibor cmftB, is ho it not* tt 
here, And&chuigcof ainiu>|jhtTrvadW a few hours in the botKlioci- 
roofii with Its fluning giscs b a vrckomc boon. 

The lira »choLLr« lo urivc ate chubby miicfi of Irvc Kunnen«n, 
who mr honie from the? demerinfy school for a hcirricd tra, «nd 
then checdiiily ftend ihm wiy ui iheti Hebrew lesaoo, like mtjikhne 
tiudcotsUftvdJiriiE frotn oncplacaofleuningtouioilwr. ThooUicn 
begin lo u»etnblc tbonly afEcf in groiJps k4 two uid three, and by 
dx o'clock ibe Ii<iu3c of Mendel Hirsch ii like « hive liumcninit wilb 
a sirtHD of voiccft, giving fonb soMchoa cf Mcrcd )oT« to (he uavitdog 
pUiCf-by in the KtrccL Not until the hocr of ei^it ho* struck, atid 
often not till Uler.ii there Any rign ofthe dinitnutionoftbiactudkMM 
but^U and when it hu rmaily ccd^ed Mendel ha« lobctakoUmarif 
to ccrUin vrcU todo families to give iiutruclion in norc oMly 4<M% 

^ to \ctA e&fnc«t pupJJiL 

y Mended a& oiAy Iiav-^ bcea queued, tbuu^ no alluNon baa been 
made lo the fnct. it marricxi, and he hM ihrce children. He hgid no 
fOiming for l)i« connubial state, but it nas thnxt apon him by Ihfi 
QuchinAtionfi of a nwriinuriial i^cnt in league with hU caninnkefoia 
laDdUdy. irbo luiJ no sympathy with hit odifylns vocation and 
objected to the ahnckin)£-aa the called It —or ht» Ckedfrd macalft 

H Her o«n foiir scapegraces— diamondi of cbUdrcn, in her estimation 

™ — he foceivcd m lialf-pTi^ie, a reduction which wci^TicU witli ber for 
iove time bcTorc she at 1««t «^rccd with her eoucicocc to k4 her 
ledger depart, ifciides, :■ bachelor in the C^factto is in cbject of 
acom and ridicule? and li^hi piteem, and ihuugh Memid was uitcrly 
indiJcrent to that opinion and regarded hiinKlf as inicUccttiaUy 
eniancij>aied, yet he va& dependent on iKc K<>^vill of bit bfetiuto, 
nhjcli could not mlwflys be reiam<.'d if he continued fnaieleM, So 
he niAnicd a Luideji of honourable i>cdiarcCi the ^■^^'^■^u^'^lA 
of a tarnoas Rabbi in Wcitcm Riuiia and author of many con>- 
meniajic&, who brought him a Btock of homely tinua and couniel 
with her nuxlcAt dowry, and he hsA ntrver ie|»enied the atepi Thdr 
courting, for want of lime and »pacc (for Mcodct was busy in the 
evening, and no convenient drawing room lay ai tticir dispoajil), woa 
pottjxj^ictl until after iheir marringe, and ih^ii tlie brjdigioom taught 
bis bcluv^-d tiiidi: the clcmvLiU of English ^[amuuu, with the evnr 
Active verb Ar /cnr, 

Mendel hai a gr^t deal of leiture dohng the day, which ho 

n employs in literary L^fbrts. These are of a very humble nature, 

d ate not directed to the ocquintion of renown. He h an ca* 

igly painstaking wnter, and Im firftt grcot production, a speech 

Tk€ GkciiQ P€dilfOgU€. 


to be delivered by a fAvoatiie pocdt on his Sof'-Mitnnh^ occiq^ad 
him tcvcrd weeks, and «u d>cn wbtniltcd to * friend vi^ % college 
(nuAing to be corrected and fpven ft linul poUth. Since then be 
Itts naule consldemblc frnprovemem, as he practises ai^stduciu^ly, 
nodeflng his tt)4e on thj^t of Macaaluy, Vfhobc c»uy» Arc one of 
his chiefeat delights. 'Ilw disDcming critic may perhaps tmcc the 
infiiwiic« of the dl^nguUtied lustcnui tn «ome <A Mendel's recent 
epotlcs to ihe Jewish pn^ss on the n«gliN:t of retigiouK edacatioo in 
AjiglO'Jcmy. By for his moat impoitdiit ichit^vcmcnt i.n a lecture 
oo "'lh« Scieniilic Study oi Hebrew among th« Jews/' which he 
ddivered be-forr a Local wcicty of yourig men who met for the smdj 
of Jewbh history and Lilcrfttuic. The Rev. Leon Sappcislonci B.A.. 
who occupied the chair, culoii^sod the address a^ a mAstcrpicce of 
erudition, and a report of the proc^^ings, which duly appcAred ir 
the folLowing number of the " Jewish Record," forms one of Men- 
del's ODOst treasured po»»c3sions. Mcndd » also a fluent vcnito 
in Hebrew, «md was one of the contributors to the late UunctiBed 
"Ha&hofar" Of his rt?markat>le inipTomptu povcis in HebrCTr 
cratcty ii would be impossible to give an adequate ciKiccption, for 
ther baffle description. He has held vast audiences spell bound by 
the wondrout rapidity of his eltjqucnce ji/id hia learned allusions;, 
Al>d the ca^e with which he renders any modern notion in tbc 
langugc of tbc prophets can hardly be surpassed cvea by the 

Mf^el is ofa sodflble and afable dtsposiiion, and is i wekunic 
guest at every bouse ^ ihough, since bis mairmge, his visits v> oLlicn 
bavo become rather few, and arc generally made in the interc»ts of 
hi« proFc«t)on, He t« mtich sought after at Bar-MiftvaA brcakfast- 
panios wlicre his speeches are lisiened to with lapt attention and 
creeled at their close with deafening applause^ Ovct hia populaxity 
there u£e<j to hover a dark cloud of Guspicioci that liis orthodoxy was 
nnt nhogeihcr unNcmiKhedi by riMSon of his rare appearances in 
the Synagogue and his fondness Jbr philosopbicAl discussion. Thai 
^Oud has happily now been dispelled, as the causes for il^ gathering 
have alnioit cea&ed Mendel ndl loves, and wih always love, to 
indulge in metapliyaical %[ieciLlA[irirt, but hf nov confines his heiclical 
diacourse to the privacy of hiA hearth. On a Friday night, when the 
yotmger members oi tlie ^mily hav** gone lo bed, be will entertain 
you wilh many an iiilrresiing theory CDncrrning the world xtid man, 
and many an entrancing <:<;avcTsation on llic persecutions of his 
people and tbo ultimate dcstmics of UratI, so Itut time will seem 
to fly and you feci in the prcicnce of a modem mogici-in. 


Tki GtnlUnutn's Magasine, 

HIk libmry is noL cxtenaitCt but it givci TtulGcicnt indi<3iLioR ur 
his studious tastes and of his breadth of miiid^ A mcdijcvaJ €tliical 
ItcatLM is fi neighbour of Stuart Mill'i '* \J^^ Shaheq>cii/c's works 
ire lupponcd by the '*Shulchsn Aruch," Mijnioiudet^ ''Gnidr to 
the Pi!rp1cxcd " rata covers with % volume on the Higlicc Crilicistn. 
ftnd l^>arfvin and Draper keep company with a Hebrew trjoislacion 
of Qnutt's *'HI«cory of ihe Jews'* and AbnmovitAch's hiicorical 
poem of "Judcl"in Viddiish. Then ihwe arc gr&niriAf« and dic- 
tionaries )[Atorc jostling oj^oinst Heine nnd VolUirc. and nciir by 
arc a mouldy vcjiume of ieracn&, Whiiton's ** JosejAtiSt" and haJf-a- 
doroi back numbers of the '' Fomightl/ Review/' These books 
do iioL lie idle on ihdr shelve-i, bui ftic in consUiit ubc, for Mendel 
is an avid reader; and as you survey their chantctcr and eonlem' 
plxte the moil himself, you mu^e and reflect tbat his utlents soar 
above ihc level of his vocation, ai^ ihat^ like an embodimcail of his 
people's £ttc, his rrstlcss aouI beats against its cramping cage, and 
would hence aikd away to som^ halcyon rcaUn o( ebenial bliss. 



WHILE engaged sonM time elnce in tuminj; o7cr ihc contents; 
or a ch<^«t or old Tamily boolcs which \\^A Iaf» untouched 
in ftn ancient RuilArnhbirr: cotmiry house for Ewo gt-riv^rar ions, the 
initcr came upon a :itout old tome whoac titlc-pojtc had A vutfcicntly 
bicfnating look to induce him to «et the di^cov^ry on on« vide for 
later intpixtkon- '* Inteiaiing LcIIlts of Popr- Ormf n[ X IV, fGan> 
BUncUi) " r*n Ihc inscription, over a medallion ponrdi of ihc PonliiT 
ind tbo djLt« £777- Th« lamilur \m,tt^ of a Pope to his private 
friend*flren kind of reading thai is aoi often to be met with, and 
the wHtrr kh t!i:3t all llic dusty toih of overluuling iIi<t cIteM bad 
l)ccn veil ^pttid by the gain of v\z\\ n curiosity. The letters ircre 
found to number over twohundre(J,nnd the tiTA cursory* «XAinlnation 
of them was moiigh lo show that ihcy were composilion:^ of genuine 
literary chAirti and interett« and noE merely the dry professional com- 
muniCiLions ol u theologijin. A fuller reftdin^ fulEillr^d jlII the 
Afticipci lions of thi? love at Tirst ^igbi, Tlic leitn's aic addr^^ed to 
«)1 cUvcs of prroplc — from monks lo society Ures jrid Prolc^tint 
detgymfn— and seem, in Ihoir libi^rjilicy of sentimtnt, their chccrful- 
r<ss ^d vivacity of temperament, and their htgh tone of culture, to 
breathe the spirit rstiher of a scholarly and iirban^ Englitih biishop of 
the period than of a Pontifex Maxicnus. ^ol having been aimre 
that any coIl«ction of tlie letters of the grcatoi; anti most iiUereiJting 
of modem Popee was cxuni, the writer hfld immediate recourse to 
the "CncyclopicdiA Briiannica," wiih ihe obJc<:t of learning, if possible, 
something About the estimation in which they bad been bcld. The 
itaietneni wai there found — disappoint in gly brief, but aufRcient to 
make the volume prifed more highly — thai " Gnnganelli's corrcspon- 
iJcttCc i> much adjiiired for ila elegance and urbanityi" 

A preface to tbc volume by the editor, a ccttain M^ <r<iraccroIi» 
gIVMtn account of the munner in whicb he acquired it* conientt* 
and a communication from Ganganell! himself, acknowledging ihcir 
ftothcntidty, but modcAtlydccUriRi; thdr ur^worthinesa of the honour 

Tiu GenthjtuuCi Magazine. 

of ptiblicaiion. H. Canccioli iteo m^ritioni; thjit «ome peoplt bad 
4|Lic«ioncd tlic {^mineroH uf lb*? foluuic ; though, \\c acklx ligbtly^ 
ihis «as oiOy lutuial, accing tliut it wu a po^thamoui work. Aiid thu 
"pr«]ud&cci p^rt; Kpiirit, cr pcnonoJ interest genoralJ/ lc«U people 10 
contradict »i>d deny w^ut they lUv igfiorgint of." But thb geneni 
ataiteriKdU fuUowiiie is ii Uoca Clement's Ictlu, b »udi j^ ta leave 
no imprcnion on the mind of a reader that there u anythtni; sus- 
piciouf nbout the book, \i any sutpicion had been aroused ir tbc 
prpHtii writfT, tlicf stultrciLent in Lh« *'KncydopjnIiA ItriUinnica" would 
certainly have rtmoccd it For the brief space of a few weeks he 
chcHahod fondly the belief that he wns the possessor of a Rename 
volume of Poocifical authorship, uniil oiie day. poisessed by a great 
liierury rurio^iy to know something aix>iJl tfie M. Caraccioli lo 
whom the world seemed lo be indebted for the Ictten, after IcokinR 
in x^n through leveral Kaglifch biogmphioil workt, he reported to 
ihc great mid-nlncltt^nih-cemiiry "Biographic Universellc" of Dr. 
Hucicr, To his no amall 5iiTptiie and disHippotEitmciU h< foufid it 
4htfe aiatcd, under thehcad •■ Caracdoii," that the much-prjtcd letters 
were ihe worfc of that writer himself Further acaminationof French 
biogiaphi^ dtctiodaiifrs has proved since tliat the letten were Dcvcr 
accepted by critics on the Conlimcnt aa genuine, and have always 
beeo r^rdedas the itigeDicius forgenes of their pretended editor. 
Thete has :ipp:)r^ntly rcrer been T^^y sei exposure or plain circum- 
Sisntia] piouf of iht^ii jpuriou^nesa — At least, a wide examination of 
works of reference of all dut^d hus discovered no allusjon Co any. In 
a notice of CaraccioLi in the great '' Biogmphie Univetselle " of tSi j it 
ia iitated thai, though C^raccioll protested to the lost t!uit be wai 
only tbc translatoi of tUcletlera from the Italian, tbcy were universally 
regarded ju spurious, ard all other accounts of C.;(raccioli give the 
ome testimony. No modem proof of their authenticity, on which 
the utaEcuicnt In the " Encyclopccdia BriLannica " mi^hl be supposed lo 
have beoi bosod, seems vvcr to have been advanced ; Lind the writer 
In tbat workj having probai>ly, like the present wrjier, discovered a 
copy of Caroccioiri phu^ble |iroductiona, witiiout having lus sus- 
picions arouaed by the pre£xcc» or his cuiioaiiy by the name of the 
supposed editor, may be enjoying iniaginajy literary communingB 
with the mind of Clement to this day. 

A little critical study of the Irtlcis themselves by anyone who 
has had his Tiugpiciona atouscd must dispose him, in the ab^eiicc of 
the least proof of thevi genuineness, to accept the common view 

Kg ibcm. Less thfln half of them :ire itddrewcd lo definite 
ndinduals, Ihc others being iniciibed only with the initial 
j^ ^ A 




A HePtarka&U Literary Chilian. tu 

loiten of the aiq)poee(I rccipienta or wrth viguc gisnerj^l uldnasttj 
mtt u *■ To n Moult of Ihc Fnuictscan Order " or " To An Engliati- 
Ldord" Fuither, i1 is noteworthy that is tho dAE» of iho IcIEc^a 
coiTve nea;i;r to 1775, thi; yvax of their iiubUf^aiinn^ vhcn most of 
tho pcnona «ddra&fel, tf ilic Icltcri had been cenuine, woulj 
ccrtunJy have been living, the definite nanicfl almost enlircly dU- 
ippesrin favour of the grnf^ral riAcripHors, Oni? nsiluralJy iofen 
that tlie brGJcirt^-oflTof the correspdixlcncc irith the people namedi 
«aiOCcaiionc<lby thcirdcaih^, ajid a strong «uapicion arisen ihat none 
but pcopk di^ when thL- letters were published are addrtueiE tjpcnl; 
bf name — which, of courar, is what one would cipnrt m caw Of a 
litccary fraud. A acarch through the fifty volumes of the " Biogriptiic 
UDi^«»cllc " — the richosi storehouse of obscure eighteenth ccnLury 
biognpKjr — strilcin^ly ronl^rms this suspicion. Of ih? forty pvoplei 
mddrvued by nonic iweli-c were UiatioguisJied enough to have gained 
notice in thai work. Ail ihcte vrere» in Coct, dc^d before the >^r 
of pabll^tion, Cftraccioli to hh preface alleges that he copie<i a 
iatjs^ numbei nf the kiten — those addressed to two It^-lian pTrUi« 
«bo were bb friends— ai Florence tn ihe yeaf 1 7^> froni the oH^inals 
sbown hira by the refipicota tbcni»lves. It ic this section of the 
correcpondencc, he tdU u^ that the Pop* confeiie^ to haviiig written 
in a letlct addrc»eil to him personally. The (etiet is quoted aai 

Sir,— The 1ett«n which ha\'e been coinmunicate<l to you at 
Flonnoe were written in hastr, and hy no means deserve the honouj 
you are Inclined to confer oti ihcm by a publication, 1 nioai 
eamcAtly beg of you therefore not 10 give ihcm to the public Uliat 
I bart written can hSTr no other tncrJt than candour and truth. I 
am not ihe less obliged to you. and shall nlwayf AcLnowledge the 
affection you have &hown for me. I sliall seek every opportunity of 
tefttilying my gratitudo and proving to you with frhat esteem I 
declare my*elf 

VoLir iinccrc humbtc servant, 

U Caroival GAKO.^^fu.L;. 

In a supplenient containing a number of Clomertt^ spiscidiea 
made in secret conatttoriee, which nuj^y or may not be genuine, there 
areif!ew letters to Loui^ XV. and !hr Princds Iklarie Ijdueiic of 
France- l^uis, h is significant, died in 1775, and Marie Louiac 
niaiod into the seclusion of a CarmeUte nunnery several years before 
Iba apptfffance of the letters, Everx' circuniKtanor, in fact, thut c*-ao 
fal kDOWn rtvardlng the appcaxance of the concs^tiiJc^iu 


^■beem M to faD in vltb the h^-poiho^If: that th^ rnmpcttitionf 
^Blw vroik of M. Ou^ccioli himscir thai c&nriction of tlici r spufioaanea 
follow mInuMt inevitably- 

Loids Aitiolnc C^ncdoli vos bom at Pinv fn 1 7 j i . He belonged 
tc a nobtc family uF NcApntiUn orijpn, aiul enjoyed ihe thle of 
Mftn[uii- TbcTc i« not tbe ieut a fri<fn improbability, ciriAing from 

■th« pcnooftlity of the mio Umsdf, of his having bci-n tbe author oT 
Iftif leiiers, tor hii duractcrt Ihc nKturc of hix ulrnti^ and hk cireer 
Alt point 10 the caj^ pcwiibilitr of it. After nxciving bii firsi cdoct- 
lion AC MoDR he entered, in 1730, the Congregstion of th« Ovtttoqr, 
tboiigb not Apparently with tbr object of taking orden. He ftocRit 
to hi»T lud \ml such a rcstlcas, unfiiccd temperament u bis move 
r&moLis eonccsnporajy, BcrturdTH St. Pietrc, whose catty caiver— and, 
todt^txl, whole genetAl eharactcr— his own rtrKtmblcs cloMlj, On 
leaving the Omiory he liavellcd ^W over Western Euiopc, gutng fiirt 
to Italy, where a lively dispotition and brilliant eonvcnAtiorul poircr 
^ned him the acc[uaiocnKe of Ikmedlei XIV., gement Xll [., Cardi- 
nal Gan^ni:lli (the fitture PopeX ^^ ' numb^ of other Cnrdinala. 
I.caving Italy, be tiavdled into Germany and Tolai^tl, Hbcrc, like Si- 
l^ienci be became for a time ^ttled, obtaining the tutor«hip of the 
children of Frinct- Rcwski, gc-neraU in -chief of the army. At tbo 
«inie tiuie he ciilcicd the Tolixb fumy hinkicir. and through dw 
rnncc's influence tccun^d the oommiSAion or a colonel. Hia military 
earccr, however^ Iflcc Si. PJerrc**, waa not of loi^ dumtion. On the 
rtc<ri]rren<* jf the Polish RooUilicm in 1768 he lori hia ruik and 
Iiii appoiniflicnt, and returned to Vaus with the object of living \>y 
literatuie. He \try soon acquired literary reputation and succosa. 
Hb pen was cxnaordinirily prolific, producing work after work in 
raiiid suceeiaton on almost «Ttiy kind of subject — iiicLiipbysical 
treati«cs, biographic^ \\or\g aiid ajiort;, Ititrts r/^/^i/ftv^ k^ly 
sentiincnial stories, and t^ernl volmnct of '* ConveraaiiciiH avec soi* 
mftmci" a kind of inoml cwaya of umilor general chaiactcr 10 
Johnioa'B "Rambler" ond '^ Idler," which provcdoatoniahinjtlT popu- 
lar- O^vt forty books hav*r li^cn enumerated of his authorship, inchid- 
fng long " I.ivea" of J07>epb 11. of Ci^nuiny and of Pope Canganelli- 
Jn bu lalcr years he suffered severely from the French Revoluuon, 

lugh for a time he enjoyed o. pension fronn the Convention. He 
in great pcvcity at the beginning of the nineteenth ceotuiy, 

tving, it i% uid, oiily eighty franea behind him. 

The Life of Clement appeared in 1774, and the letters fallowed 

a kind of suppK-mcnt, ^Vhile at the Court of Beneditl XIV. 
Clcmrnt Xiiln, and in fret^utuit intercourse wiih GanganeUI, 

ris TAt Gent/eman's Magazine. 

A RtnutriaiU LiUrary Deception. 333 


Cviodoli must, of cour^^ have become vcU acquAinlcd with the 
futiirc Pope'i chancier and private friendship!. It Ku been gencnlly 
asMTlMl itml Lc \s very suci^cssful tn making Lbc IcUitm ^xt^ with 
the Pope's (cmpcramcnt And general Mntimcnt& He itccnu, in 
facti CO have GOncCiitraCcd oU his abilities on the; work of making his 
hbricuions phuMblc. Hia prrvious writings — compOKMl, most of 
them, in the hwic aCGCssii&tcd by po»c«y— liad bcco very unequ^ 
&nd none of thon worthy of his tgU litenry powers. All ht£ beat 
thoQ^ and feeling went to mike the mitfet of hU lettcn, And all 
his literaiy cnftsmansbjp was exerted oli ihirir slyle, Thr rc-tuU wu 
thftl tbcir cuperioiity 10 everything else he had wriitcn was ao 
marked that Uioie who favoured thdr genuinene^ pointed trmmph- 
antlj to iliia fact as a sfrorg at^umtrnt Fswards ihai rnnduiiion' 
NoluE^Uy several of (he letters dcAl with the j^itatioi^ for llic aboli* 
tton of the Jcsuiit, Ihc great xclion for the ^iccomplichmcm of which 
tti« pootilcate of Gang^nelll will ever be chiefly fimous- It wu 
1I1C common belief, at the time Cuaccioli wtgte, ttut Gftn^iclU W4U( 
elected Pope only through his having entered into a private a^reo- 
vntnt to nboli^ the order with the Cardinjilj rcprcfcnting tho 
CAtbolie soveroigns. Csraccioli, in cunfornifiy with this genentl 
penu&iion of the Pope's hostility to the Jesuits c^cn before the 
ofbeiol cxattun;ttion into the charges igiinst themr tdces core to 
repru^nt hioo ns fAvouring the doTrnnd^ of ihe Caiholic lovefeigos 
duruig hia cardinalAtc, and even then advocAting the sacrifio: uf the 
society fof the sake of expedi«neyand the peace of the Churchn No 
doubt the loCtart did a gre^t deal to strengthen thie popular belief, 
whidi scdns to r»t on no evidence whalcver, though \{ lus been 
encouraged by the Jeutita thcmsetve^. 

But while there i« no doubt th&i Fopo Clement wu a man 
exceptional lihcrLlityand modemncss of splri: for a Roman CudiiUlt' 
■bo had been moat of his life a monk, o;ie cani^ot help doubting 
whether CARLecioli, in hju etforts to produce jl literary work of ^r 
higher distinction than any of his own acknowledged writings, has 
DOC nude the tone of tiituinity, librrality, Jind citUure a little 100 
prooouikoed in hia fabrications. And the feeling bccomtv only 
stronger a^r reading »ueh an undoubted Cletnentine work as the 
BuB fo* the Jubilee of 1770. He represents Clement a* being a 
scomci of the schoUsiic theology, a man who icgftrds rrotc:>uiits 
with the Eftme brotherly feeling ftnd warm esteem that a ttroctd 
Engliib Churchmin might feci towards a Lutheran or Con^vga- 
tlonsSsl'and, in «hort,x<i a. I>|>c of divine for examples of which one 
would go to the cultured circles of cightccntli-cvncury Paris nthcr 


T&€ Gtnii^mams Af^asine. 

Ih«n to 1^ni& It \% hard to ihlnV that Gsnginelli, aJucjttcd in ft 
nKMUstcry and suTTOLindctj &U his life by monka and ccdc»ift«llc<t 
WM imhu^ with quite so much of the tpirit of the AbWi of Iho 
Ppritmn mlont. But Ihutigh ihu lino mne of cultun? posubly 
Icucna the mcfit of the leilcrs u f&brkatioiu. it nukes thecn a f«d 
ind fihiiible conEribiTtion to Utemton;. In bet, few coHcetiona of 
iMtanit gentime or apoc^ryphal, make pleasanter rcftdin^ ct«y and 
H gnr:Trn1 as the]r anf in iityle ; nttund, vivadoui, uid imf^iltngty gucid* 
humouicd in aentJmcnC ; 4nd cverywhef« expreanng a fine ta>t« t& 
literature, " un^f philo^ojihic douce et une monxle loUnuite." Ttvom- 
thudfdl vith religion breathe the K[)irii of iherefinedarul tTilighiened 
, piety oT a F^nelon, and are quite mihout any unpleaiaant traocaof 
»CAnt »uch ut one would find in the work of a vulgar and punljr 
lATy-mindcd concoctur of a diitingut«hed churchman^ lettCf^.* 
%rsny kind iif htnhnc^ flupcratitioiv or fanalid&ni. The fcjllowtng 
cxamfile will give an indication of the genera! character of the cor- 

Tg thf PnlaU Crmti. 


■ but] 

Hv Loitn,—! have just now be«n to ttt yoor good old fn«n4 
Bottari^ ard frmnd bim, ah nbutl, immersed in the deepeit and 
moct intcre«ting attidies. lie panned from that to a picturesque 
COnvenAtioci whieh delighted me eKce«atveIy ; for he ^/<yt% rvot spenlci 
but paints. He is wnrrntinut and Af^urarivE?, and never fails perfeeily 
chtncietite the Ijnokx and jirtiplc he dmcriticH- M'c hsid a good 
«f dbeourae About the Koman artiquiiica and the variety of our 
libntici, which, though not all of equal excellence, form itnadmlraUe 
ccllortion, TVo wdl-inftirmed Knt^li^hmi-n sharrd in our cvwivrnta- 
ttor, and »pokc so >3 to demand attention^ They arc a people "bo 
travel to advantage, proEiting by whatever they uq, They sajd 
to take the liub&tanec of things, while the French are content with 
the auTfacc But I leave you to decide whether, for commnn^c with 
tnankind, it i^ beltor to be qupcrficial and agreeable, or profound uud 
gloomy. Cajdinal Rrntivnglio luJd that " we ihoutd %ee an Ed^^* 
nrmn whrn wr want to think, and a Frcnrhman when wr want to 
cortTcrsc." I open my cell to both one and the other with the 
gTeatet>t pleasure, confessmg lo you always that the Frencli vn^acity 
aomeihing very aitniCtive tn me- One loves to meet hia own 

and >'ou know thai I ani ndtbcr alow nor silent. 
You should have received the; book which Father Maiioleni oT 
Oratory ^nt you. Vou mil find it both interesting and 
ited- Meihinks I see you plunged into thi^work^wiihwu 


able Co tcir yourself front it. The rctiicd man hin leal ptraiurcn 
which nupftaa all the joys oX the worid. But, hush ^ that is a secret 
cf the Mutiioufi nbich &hotiId not be divulged. 

I havr ihc hof*(Hif to be, *;c. 

It is ttid iluLl Ihc Appearance of the cotrcspoiidence in English 
crated gixftt uitomKhmcnt in this eouniry, nhcr« the i<lui or a Pope 
v^ or f ours4^ ihai of ji narrow ;ind prejudiced man «Ofne cennirici 
beluml wid upposwl lo coiitenipomiy ihougtn anJ firt^ling, A vnlume 
«l kticra 00! IcM polished and cultured than thoie of Gray w;is 
sepided, eoming &r>m luch a fiouTec, as a tnurnph for the modem 
vpkrl iodctfdH Moirover, tlie leitern made it appcit ihat che Pope 
cnkiiAlncd a special fondncM foi l)ie heretical Englifth iicoplc 4fid 
the English gcniu^ '^profound and gloomy" aa he regarded iht-m. 
and bliihj^ and vivHtiouB as vras hi>£ own dTipotilion, How eheerful 
thiH wii patnlcd mji)' be sliowii b/ Mch a paauige aw Ihc follttwing, 
(apposed to have beer written by G^nttuiclli Lo a Roman prelate 
when he wa« (illtng, of ah positions, that of an oJ^einl of the Holy 
liKluiiiitJon :— 

V^cn you oomc 10 see mc I will show you my r**fleetiona upoit a 
cue in vhidi yeu uc interested. There are of all kindi in the 
HoJy Olfia^— ftome 10 make u* lauyh, and otbert to male us cry j 
but dont Ik* afraid, T ^hnll not rmd rif the mebnchcLy kind to you^ 
The great ail in being veil with society l> to serve everyone accord' 
inf^ to theii tastc^ Gaiety is the tnic ntedicine for the atudicus ; the 
mind and beait ^ouid be dilated ^vbcn w haa been eoQUacted by 
obstinate loiL Bto^Miming i» at necc^Mry 10 ihr humar mind a^ 10 
trtca, to make ic recover iU verdure and flourish ; but there arc 
people, Uke rose-trees without Howera, who prtrtcrt nolhirs to your 
view but bark and prictrles, Wh^n I nieci such 1 cEo not «peakc a 
word, but pats by a» quick aa I possibly cau, for fear of bciog stun^. 
Gaiety retards old age. 'there is always u reviving &»hncss which 
aocompanicfi gaiety, instciid of the pale vrinklcft thai are the produce 
of cares. Dtrnniict XIV, would not enjoy such good health if he 
were not always gay. He lays down his pen to give utterance to 
aome ^^HS ntaU,, and reaumes it without ever being fatigued. You are 
in the rigbt to graft ihe Italian gaiety upw thr French — it h the way 
to live lo a hunijied. That you may do so I sincerely wish ; for ] am, 
more than 1 can tell, 


Your moA humbTe^ &c. 

TOU CCECVt. no, 2079. K 


The Gtntitmani AfagaxifU, 

Tb« ftuthof or ttiifi recipe foir long lifi^ though be did not rMch 
the ife of ■ hsndred, did acluBilly, in spite of «11 the; anxirtin and 
Iardslnp» of hb dtcqucrcd ctfecit ovcrpuft tho limit of fooncoTft. 
ClcEncnt, whOMgeiititl disposition CftraccioH no doubt h^rtcOTTCCtly 
rcpreccntt, icadicd only liisay-nine ; but hU Utt iUnctt vaa of so 
rayilmiius and terrJbk a clurucln (Jiot then: Ims ulauy^ been a 
strong BtiBpicion th«t be died bypoison— AatcHAcc to the rcacntmcnt 
of the order he hjid Abolished. 

Whclhtf Canccioli's niotivt in publishing his coinpovitiotu as 
CICDientXIV/»«uofii uiacciwry kind, oi only ft pcrvcrK dc«ii« \o 
ACcorapliah i brtlliftnt deception, it \% now too late to discover, tn 
any case, it may bv said to hi« credit thut he voltiniortly resigned A 
creruiin advance of literary repuution by not puttini^ bia nxitint to the 
HOrksnd entitling it '' Jmat^inary Letters,'' for he mint have been 
consaoLiB of the hifth merit of his fabrLOitionfl after all the labour be 
had spent upon them. He wai not— like tb*: nuthor of tlie Rowtey 
pocDiS] i*>i iiniUJicc — 211 unkiiuHiL dUlhui vliu foiicrd thai \m pro 
ductioni would not attract attention or ^-un him fante im]e» he 
attrihuted tliem to tome more distinguiEthed person than himself. 
He was already an extrcmefy popular amhor zirvl 3 ninn of noU: to 
Fronch society when he composed the letters^ A» sjcb a m&a 
■vould probably huvc made as much by publishing the lettcm oA hto 
own, or spending the lome pains on atiothr^r work of a diflercnt 
charactfT a.s by a ilcct-piioii, (he second of (be moiivni meoiioned 
aecniA more likely to have determined hb conduct. Pcrhapo, if this 
was sOf he reasoned to himiicif that it was not an ill^linialc: proceed- 
ing to purchase ihe graiiilcfttion of mere pereonal vaniiy at the cott 
of ii heavy weight of the "solid pudding" of intitawd hlerary 

He certainly had the pleasure of seeing the success of his plot. 
But if, aa is posaibie, he tlunighl that his lilrrary fame whs strong 
enough lo live nilhout the help of ihc work he rcnt»unced hr wa* 
completely deluded, miiierer httle ah»rt? of that " brief afterlife in 
others' bnaih* so mucfi coveted by nuthors has faUirn to him it 
cnlrtely the lesLilt of the discovery of the real connection between 
hb nund and the letters. 


Rossmr AS humorist. 

ROSSIMI wi* <hc Charl« I^mb of music The g^od stores 
told of him WEiuH fiU a vnlumr^ and I wnnd^ ih8t no writer 
Ibu thou^ of brining tbem tosetbcr under one cover. Supi 
Tc niilE« a moctesi beginning now, 

AikI Brtt tet me dncribe iht! compose :u he appeared to come 
ol \m friendv M&datnf Arditi> Ihe infc of the vrtcnin conductor, 
llltdy dcccft&«dt Kayi he was " the qiiecrcstlooWing otd tliiag " sh^ 
•v«t (dw- "wch 31 (luaint. ungninly figure; R»ch siiarp. piercirg 
CTH ; Kuch >t rLVfttiuuSt quick numnur witii it all^ IT^itAlly h^ was 
clad in a roy ab&bby loose abcoting'jftckct, and woic a conspicuously 
il-Attini; and uglf cdourod wig. 1^c wig vaa a grtat fcatura 
^gnor Arditi hid nn^ rrnderud him a sli^ ictviee^ and calHn^ en 
him one aflcmooTi, Ron-iini irju effusive in hb ndtenuril i>mnk«. H« 
»c« AEU^oua to prove his sr^titude in a mateml nunner, and 
glancing round the room he caught sight of hiii «igi, '■ \ am mrry, 
Ardiii," hi! cxcUiim^d, " that I tannut give yoa u.n uctuul proof of my 
^liUide. but if you >rou1d like to po&acu one of my wigs, you can 
lake ajty colour that you fancj' would mil you." Of course Aidit) 
nercT wore a wig : that was ihe joke. 

RocaJni vaa aomething of an eptcurc, and Hevcral of thi? scnrics 
eoniKCted with his name have more or lest bearinit on the pleasures 
of the iflble. He had a faitidiowi palate^ and declared that h4 could 
cooh ria; IJrttcr l!vam anyone \vt Vnew. " Maeiiro," %atd wjmennp 
10 bin), " do ycu rcmcmbct thai famous dinner given you in Milan, 
when they served a gigantic macaroni pie ? Well, I wu •catttl iwrt 
jOu" " Indeed r' re|iUe<1 RotKini ; **I nrnicmbei the niBCirom 
perfectly, hut I £ttil to n-cugniw; yoii/' On anulhcr oocaaioDt at a 
dinner in Parii at wluch he was observed to remain ntleni and 
absorbed, a banlwr who was on any bul friendly lermi with him 
.pancd SHTOurte« — a favourite dish uf Rtmlni'i — lo the Udyon his 
light* attyin& " E tiaie already cdilen u many of tbcsc savouries aa 
Saoaioii alaw P^ittiitines." **¥«&, and with ibe same weapon," 
dryly recocted Ro«3ini. It is only right to cay, however, that Rowoi 


aiS Thf Gsntif man's Magaun^, ^ 

mu»t luvc borrowcid tlu< wJtiidsm. In ttic once populdit " £lcgftxit 
fijctracts " one may rcfid it in the following form ? 

JdtdlCi cuing rotten chrow, liid a^i ■ 

^V <■! vow." Slid Ro^. ■■vjQudo, I 

or couru Rostlni ra not ^vivfi fn «^ftI nuy be ctIM qxcarcatn' 
form, Adcdphc Cr^micux pivc n sLini|Kiioas breakfast psrty In 
honoar of Meyerbeer, to which cntenoinmcnt he m\itcd the loxc&ing 
Riusioal cntic* and tompoaftra ol thai <^y ^fiaembled \n xhm F>wjch 
cnpiuJ. Anioog*! Cri^iricux's guests w« Rowini, who occupied a 
|ilao^ of honour nc^l to the wife of hii^ hoHt. but rcfuttedt one after 
another, iJl the <]ainLEcii oQcri-Hl to htm in »vecc«?^ion. Midomc 
Crtaieux noiicetl \m unA-avciing abatinerice vhh cquaJ furprise sind 
rcgrd, and prcstmtlj' asked htm whcihti he wzw unwell, -is he appcai«i 
lo have 8uddcn3jr lusl sji appcEiti: which, as ahc undtri^ood, wa* 
usually no less vigorous than lively. "That ifi tnie, fry dcftr 
madamc," replied Rossini, *'but 1 rarely cat hreakfut, nor an I 
dc:|iart Tiont tb4t rule Lo-d^iy, Although should ;i;iythiiig g^ wron^ 
with t<>n)orroR night's representation Meyerbeer m\\ believe to the 
day of h^a death thai my rciu^l to fmrtako of tliis fcaat brought him 
bad luck. The iHKition I now cjccupy nc ycur ubic ttminds nic of 
on odd Gipt-iicEiCi; that l>cfeU nic lOtnc yearn a^o m a provincial town 
of Italy. A poriormancc of the * Barber' wai> being given in my 
special honour in the load Ibcatre. WTtilc th«: overture wu in rsU 
ya\x\^ I noticed 4i huge iTuri[ict in the orchesini, inaiiifciily blown 
with reinaihabTc force and continuity by a iiicmbi-r of ihe band ; but 
not a sound in the least akin to the tones mvariably produced by- 
thai insiniuiunt could t h«^ar. Ai iltt^ duHe of the performance 1 
inlcivicwcd the t:ondut:toii and ej>kcd hini to explain the purpose of 
the noJaekit. trumpet, which, 1 eonfc^sed^ wa-'; in unusual orchestra] 
addition. He answered : * MnrsTro, in ihis town th*^rt i,t not a liWng 
«ou] who can |>Uy the trumpet; tl^creforc I specially engaged an 
aniA to hold oiic up to hiA lips, binding him by an oath not to bloiv 
into It, for it looks well to have a mimpel in an operatic orchetira.' 
Madame, t Am like rhnf man with the- ErumtK:!. 1 muy r^ot eai, but 
I look hvcU al youi btcakfasL table.'' And so he dS<i, no doubt, being 
nearly aa fat as I-ahtaff himnclf. 

RosKini WHS oficn ^^iven to chincierisiic n-marks and nharp 
criticisms concerning iHher com^xfecr*. Ht fc^>ok.c his mind ficcly 
about cvcrrbody* tad never cared whether he g^ve offence or not. 

Rossini as Hnmorisi. 


StiUt wl»1 he laid wu cnostly taken u \ good jokd, especially by 
llw»e "tokncw him, Thr* Mnc^ro seldom WL^nr to the opera mr 
10 Ally pUcc of BJnuKincnl, but he could tiol ic&Jat the tempLttion 
of bearing one of Wagner's works, li was '^Tonnhiiuscr." AUvc- 
vardt, uh«n asked to give his opinion of Ehe opera, he uid : " h U 
too iitiporurt and loo ekbor^te a work 10 t>c Judged af^rr a ungic 
hcarinKi bm 90 £ftr aj( I am concerned £ shall not giyc it a steoond." 
RMunijVKlcwd. hada!udeoQtvin[>tfor the hero of Ba)Teuth. Some* 
bodjr once handf^ him s smrr of one of WagntA laTCTi production*, 
And prttcRtly remarked that he iris holding the niuaic tip»idc dovin. 
" Well," rvphcd Kobsim, ^' 1 have already read it the other way, and 
am nying this, a« I really o<n make nothing of fu" I have )uit 
nmiioncr] Meyi^rl>eci. Rr^hsini, meeting him orir day, rtj>lir?(l, \n 
utfwcT to in inquiry c^n the ttubjcct, that hia daya were nearly 
numbered, aa he muvi soon raccumb to an alarming catalogue of 
ir^ladie^, whirfi hr glibly imfolilrd to thr Trudy f-jir of MrycrU^er 
And to the uttci oAloniahmcnt of a friend Rossini had vHlh him at 
Ui« timtt. ARer Meyerbet^r's departure the friend rvmonainitod 
with Rossini for hw levity and mendaciousnesa. " Welt," replied 
Roosini, *'it \^ every^^ man's ^uiy to cnntrilnite to the peju:t: and 
comfort di hi» fellow-man, and you knov nothing would d^^light 
Ueyerbeer more, or a/Tord him more fully thU peace and comfort, 
than to hnflr of rny early deeease.^ Df Anbcr, tlie etninenc French 
oocnposer, he had no exalted opinion. '^ Vou kfiow what pretty 
dSDoe tufKS he has always written," waa hia retnaih to a friond one 
day ; the fact being, of eounic, that Auber never wrote? any fiance 

With amateur coropoacrt and mediocre muaiciona generally ho 
bad no patience whatever. Some of hia beft etorieft arc lold in con- 
nection with lhi« cIaas a few dayiL after Mcyrrbecr'a dtJilh a 
yoting admirer of bis called upon the composer of *^* Williaro Tell " 
with on clefH^ whtch he had wntti^n in honour of hi9 idol^ " ^V'ell," 
nid Ko4sini, after hearing the comijosiijon played ovcTj '*if you 
really want my honcti opinion, 1 llunk it would have 1>cen better if 
you had dtod and Meyerbevr had wnEten the ele^-." A budding 
compocef onc« accompanied the manuscript of his latent composition 
with a 5tillti>n, hoping, of murM*, ro havr a leLtctr piuirting the work. 
The letter aune, but all it said was; ''Thank*! 1 like tbc chccac 
vety much." Not a word abotit the manuichpt t 

Prince foniatowtki* the compowr of the i>opubr "Yeoman's 
Weddiog SoLiji," had written tvu opens, and wonted v^-iy much to 
have Roaaint'i opinion as to which of the two be should chooce for 


Thi Gtnilcman^s Mag^oiitu. 

produainn in pulilic Rr>nini ftxight thy aX ihr nuitrf far a long 
liotc, but Poniatow^kl'i tmportunity ii Icn^b prcTulcd. HigUf * 
chucd It having ^ned hiii point, he occompuijod Rosaoi hon&j 
The ttimpofCf settled hiniic^f in hii easy ch*if with hu feet on 
AUOtbci, liid plaCGCl ^ huge: Iwidann lumOltcrcliicf over hi« cyt^ 
IMnifttoirski took his Knt at th« piuio aiid worked jivray luMiJy for 
an hour or to. When, ulmoitt exhautied and bath«ti in pertpiraDoo^J 
he wfti about to commvncr his socrifid opera, Ros^iri ^ivok^ Trom a 
dofC into which he hnd fAUcnt and touched htm lightly on the 
iihottldei 50 ML to am^-pt his progress. "Now, my fncitd, 1 can 
odTise yoti/' he laid sleepily; "hive the other one performed.'' A 
Vindted }c>kc Aaa Lric:d on LImL The Uucr had just pU>'Gd one ol 
hti so^itLcd " symphonic poetut ** to Rotsini. " I prefer Ibc other," 
sdd Hoftfini Ucorkically. LitJt nattir^y ifiquired vhkch "othar" 
'* The chacw \w H^ydn** ' Crcjiiinn ' '* was (be wiihcring reply, 

Rossint'i vitticiims, indeed, bubbled foTth at all times ^nd under 
pU circumttances. On one occfUttion a i^cndcaun coJlcd upon hiro 
CO enlist hi« aid in procuring for him an engagement at th« Opera. 
He vvu a drummer, and bad taken the preiTAution to bring hj» Inaf ru* 
ment RoaBioi aiitd he would hear him "ptay,'' and it w decided 
that he should show off m the overture to*' Setniramide." Now, the 
\trf firsi bar of thi* n^-enurc ronCfliriK a trtmofo for the* drum, and 
when ihEn Il-k! tjtcii pcribimed ihe i»layei icmarkcd : *' Now I have 
a resi of seventy -eight bars; tUesc of courve 1 will skip." This was 
too good a chance to be lost, *' Oh, no/' &aid the compoeer ; " t>y 
all neariB count the scventy-eighj bars ; 1 j>articulaHy wish tn hear 
thosc-^ Thiit stoo^ reminds mc of the answer given by mi idcnirer 
of the German sehool of music to the question, ''What points crf 
con[>parisoTi ean be fonnd between Rocsini and Napoleon ? " " None," 
wai the reply, "eACcpt it be that in Ihc n^it^c which thc> made in 
Europe ihey vcrc both fond of employing ihc drum-" 

Roiszni'if tthiniafcaliiy extended even ro bis birthday. Having 
Iven bum un February ^9, \\\ leap year^ he had of t'liurve Ji birthday 
only once in four ytrara, nnd vtbcn lie *va* 4cvcnly-two he facetiously ' 
invited his friends to celebrate bis eighteenth birtttday ! Thu late 
Sir Arthur Sullivan mode his acquaintance in Paris, One morning 
when Sullivan called to see him be found him trybigovor a small 
piece of music just as be entered- '* What is ihat ? " asked Sullivan. 
"It's my dog's birthdjiy,*' be replied very scriouslyj *'and 1 write 
a littte piece for him cvoy year/' All hi* life he liad a dread of 
the rumber thJrLcco, as well aa of Fridayit. He never wnuld invite 
more Ehan twelve guests to dinner, and when once he had fourteen 

/icssirti OJ HumorisL 


heoMlfl sure of aii "ondcistudjr'* who trould, At a momcni^ iKKicv. 
bftTG been ready lo ccmc thould otk );uot hive mjfvxi- -And, 
tteugh thu wiA A doubh wpemiiiorv he died on Ffitiiy, Nowm 
her I J. 

(X miscdbncous anecdotes there ore <iiute a number. Wlien 
Rottini wxi onct' rchcaniing one of hik opervt an tt BmiJl tboftlrt in 
Itslf, he noficcd Eh^i the horrt W23 ^vAy« out fA t-une, " Who te 
tlui |jUyin)r the horn In «uch an unlioly way ^ ^' he demindcd. ** It 
i« 1." BJud a tremulous voitx. " Ah, it is you, ia it ? U'df, go right 
home" It waA htE father ? Like Runkinr Koasini wa^ opposi^d to 
nulvayiL When th«c were instituted he had registered a vow \\^i 
hfiiTOLld never adopt a means of locomotloa to little suggestive oT 
tft and »o entirely at toriancc with naturi^ In thb connection a 
good «lory IK told by Mr. Kuhe, the vrdl-knou-n Bn^hloo TDUticiin. 
About the middle of the sixtie:« Mr, Kuhe toolc hiH family to 
Kiaajngefi- One day, to the ^urpr^sc of the prome^adcrs, a huge 
tnnwIJing carriage mu leen apfirooching, heavily [aden witli luggage. 
TIiU mnrrrllouK equipage ccmijiined a very stout old geni^eman iriTh 
a resoatkably fiiic hcid, l>y whose side wss an eldcily kdy, while the 
coachmaff'a seat waa shored by a wki de <kambft. In those days« 
fOad travcLling being already considered an eccentric mode of prE> 
greanoiif much ^^.^I'liUtion wak .voiii^ed as to thr ktrntily nf ihi:: 
OCCvptnU. The old gentleman pro^^ to be iionc other than 
Rofi^iu, tSe immcrtal eomposer ol "ilie IJarber of S«v>lle" and 

Rouini nva^A prixligious xnufTcr. Aod thereby hangi viothei 
tile. Lhiriiig a pause at one of the rehearsals of " William Tell ** he 
croAwd the atji^e up to a spot from which he could cpcalc lo Nfr. 
Brod, the cclebralnl rit>oe-ptttyerj ptDfcaor of the Parity Ccinu^rvatoire, 
vfaom hcaddnct^vd with, "Mr. Brod, hare you your snuff-box with 
yon?" -Yes, Mawtra" "'Hieo give me a jrinch." Th« pinch 
duly laken, hi? rnnimiird - " Mr. Rrod> in ihe intmdMCtion to fiiirh 
■od aucb an air there occun a^i V which you pby s^iorp \ 1 shnuld 
jvefcr it natural/if you please With regard to the Fahorpk ntv<m3tH 
tatirvuitiet pas ; nom frtn/Hfrt^HS snqytn tU M pMor af//furs." When 
ihia siiectloEc was rdated lo Bc;rlicn^ he jinnpcd up fmm his chair, 
OodaimiAK, *' Cfji fouJr^anl J'f^fln'f." There arc many stone* con- 
nected with '■ Williim TelL' It was always loo long, and even in 
Paris 1O09I alict it« production the iiatiuf^oent brfpui to perform 
only one act at a time *' I hope you won't be annoyed." said live 
manager on« morning to Ro«sini, " but to-night we propose to pct- 
/onn the teeund ad." *' What, rhe whole of it?" axked Ri^^sim in 


Ths Gentleman's Magasine. 

reply. Like a good many othcT operas, " William Tell " has front 
time to time suffered from the feu of continental sovereigns to 
place before the public anything which may glori^ revoludon. At 
Berlin, for example, in i S30, the King Frederick-WilUam III. 
would not allow the opera to be represented until the scene had 
been changed to the Tyrol. William Tell then became the Tyrolean 
patriot, Andreas Hofer, who led the resistance to the armies of 
ILonaparte ; Walter was converted into Josef Spechbacher, and 
(jessler became the wicked Luzziol, Marshal of France. Monarchs 
are not quite so particular nowadays. 





Slid LMniA, *'heTc, up^m tliU floor ffcUTi 
And polo my »tcpk upi^n ihric Ibw'ra ion loiigh, 
Whit Aaiuf choQ tty or do orchunn mouKh 
To dull Ihtf nicf nnwnihmuv n( my home ' 

Tluit fjiici aptiiLB i;biiiiol LicaUic Ifcli^w 
tn bunuui ikica uid live/' 

THH poco known as *^ Uiinia " bdongs to the wcorid period of 
K«&u'b career, l^io the britf qvarrer of % century which 
fomned the «pan of hi» canhly loi was crowded matDfial cuDUgh for 
tbc ihreeaccrc rcir« And ten of in ordinat)' life. Some ctiHcs have 
flpeiwn of him in ptiytng totieft aid haTing failed in bit endeavours ; 
but wheii «r remember thai before the flgc of rwenty-flve he hwl 
quAliflo^ hJmiiclf fot ihc Tucdioil piofE;»ion, pft^^cd through oil the 
fret and fever ol \ paisionQte tovt^ and made a bnve fight with 
Vttinnf and dise^e, wc ean onl^ wonder ai the richneti^and iho 
tfCtcnt of his poetic legacy. 

But the splc^ndour of his poemti, and the amrwllcu^ Advance 
•bowTi in the second period of a career vhich might well hivo 
SMfucd Ion brief :o bt; ma^ed hy nuy devebpmeni ai all, ore cint 
the roost interesting conaideration.^i in die study of Keats. There 
It one thought, one i4<>ndcr, which suipaeMS evary oilitr, and whieh 
will never cease to aroute the interest of schobn, Hr^w w:ib it ihAt 
this young poet, toLiUy tgnDrojit nf Greece and llie Cjreek tanguagc, 
sl'.outd have turned to Orcck legend* and ideas ab to a natural 

To write of u cuiJtilry wiihnuc luving «cim it is u feat whidi has 
been accomplished by many, to write of a people without having 
miitd with them i« alio a frequent achievement ; t>ut the wonder in 
Keotfi cuf is not \\six \\c should have written of <>re«ce, tmi tliat 
Im abouJd have wiiitcti aa with "the nice icniembiancc of my 
hwnc"; not thxi Citxk subjects and CrceVc;Vka:cftc\fi:i%^<y£^^;x(j«^ 


Thi GentUmaus Magazifu^ 

Mk pnrms, but that lui ijoems should reproduce the atmosphere af 
Greek ZiTe. 

What wu tiicrc in his parentage, hia educntiofli cr his surrourtd' 
jnp to accotint for thit pTienomenon ^ 

Hiii piui::ntagc is wi?l1 ktiown : his faihcr b<!giii life afl ail o^itlera 
bis mcthcT WJU the dauKhlcr of a liTcry-^ublc keeper ; honest, 
IntdTigcnt, energetic people both of tEit^m, ApparentTy, but hardly 
likely ti> have the i>owi*r of "opt'niiig magit: c-.iiifirn^nrK '* uui of a 
hard and cnmmonpljbcc Life, Hla education ytJ^ bcttci than niJ^ht 
have bccQ expected, and hb friendship with the t^t\ of his school 
muter, ChAfloj; Cowdcn Clarke. hiJ a Ixtiin^ t'fi*?ct upon him ; but, 
at flf^crn hr trns lakc^n ftuiD 3<:liuul juid JipixeJiti^etl to a auj^coo- 

As for Ua aurroundinip, hia childhood nu spent in the City 
RowJ^and as soon &« he left school he i^tudicd medicine for four 
y<M m Edmonton ; the jo/ of Tipeniny powder* and congenial 
fricndshipA wKicli marked hib return to London wu all too brtcf^' 
and the rcmoininf; fears of hin life were tortured by continual 
ftniggle and unrest 0^ heart and brai;ij until the foreign travel of 
which he had so often dreamed carried him to hi« lost reuing- 

Where, then, nlialL we tind the aolution of the problem i It hes 
In the fact thnt Keais wa^ himself a Creek. 

PUto tclb nt in \\\% " Re^blic'^ ikit men are bom, some nhb 
golden, some wiih silver, and some with iron <>r copper souls, and 
that as tiie children dd not always follow cheir parents* a gotdcn- 
soiilmi son ^>om of a copper-sonled father i& lo be raised simorg the 
luleri* In the Siimc way, ihe nAtioniltt/ of men is not always 
ffetermmcd by the particular race Jrom which they spring; a witd 
glpay tpirit \h Bometime* born from paieniage of the dulleii 
respectabilicy ; the moat insular solidarity may produce a nature 
charaaerisod by French eoiety and grace ; the self-contained energy 
of a We«tcm ttocLt tx-^a.^ throw oft' a prodticE characterised by ail the 
outworn bnguor of the Kasi. 

Keats deacrved the sneer of Blackwood in so far that, to ^11 
outward seeming^ he ivas a cockney bom and bred ; but yet he 
was no more a Londoner than 

Fnir H^nni^a, cniMiri'it ntUi fralben, fluitcflaif light* * 

He went through the medical cour^ at Guy's UoKpital and poAted 
the liceniiMe examination of Apothecaries' Mall; but lie was no 
moreafHjbcr English dtin-n than wiu hia own Etidymlon, rapt by 
an tmooottal love from ^11 poasibijity of earthly content. 

Th4 Lave of Lamia. 


But though Kcau was thus bnni a Greek, hu deck aou! miul 
haiYc pined ard died of sLirvAticn if it hjd not received some 
Bueten^oe. Li needed support and dcvcLopmcni, in atRto^phcre 
In whfch il might unfold itsrif, a light and a miuic thiii should woo 
ii into iiong. Whcic w&s this :Ltino5phcrc this sualcrunce, to be 
found? He had never set h^s foot on cb:i3ic ooili but Brovnlng 
tetk US hcv 

The Iftltnd hftldbid ■eA-cr«itun honti 

and Keats, though an alien and on exflc, was dcsEitrcd to find bis 
own wtty home- 
In 1^15, his frii^nd Covdcn Clnrhe, who hod already kindled 
his latent love of poctiy wiih S|}cil£c:t'i( " raczie Qu^t^nq" did him 
ihc LuestinuLble acmce of introducing him to Chapnun's translation 
cf Honi«T. 'i'he effeet was wdden and complete. Apotlo't *' rcalma 
of gold ° had long been Ikmi1i;4r to him, huT one kirgdom had brcn 
for hinv until now, an undi^overcd countiy : 

OltidaUfV\Ae Hpfthtt hod 1 becA Told 

Thai dc«p-bicw'i Jlom*'? wUd u hitdciDMnci 

Vet 4id I ito-ft brcaiKc iit fun Hr«Btf 

Tin I liunl ClmimiiLj; Jtpnk nit load und bold : 

Then rdi I like vtrae varclief nf the iklr» 

Whea 1 Dew plA!)ci fwimt into hi* k^, 

Qt like Giom Cortci whth with Mgk o^ti 

He 4Luf4 at the PjLdlie— »rjd all bis men 

Lock'il ui ou^h DlhcTT w£th h wilJ hicnntte — 

Silrni. upon a peil in OiTtm. 

But it was not fTOm bookt fl!one ih^t Kcat« wai to draw hia 
UKi{)riaiiua Every rrwicr of '*ChikIc Harold" fcniemU^m tliC 
burning hoc* in which B)Ton condenona Lord Elgin's '^violaiion" of 
tbe iKaiuica o\ Athena, 

Who. uTsll (he |iluni3f;nriii <]f >UJi fiuic 

On fi^jfh, ivht-rt l^l[» hngrTTfJ \ol\y to "Ar^, 

The Ldtftt nJic v1 htr tncivnl rri^ ; 

Tbe LnF, ihe wont, dull i|ioilR, who MU he 7 

Blub, QJcduot^i ivch illy kdi <«uM b< 1 

EagLukd, I jcry be iru nu cbiltl of LbiLi^— 

TI7 fr«««lKfni n«n phoaM k|aic whtl once «aA Avt ; 

Y«E disy could violaM each uuddedaB *l^nt, 

Asd leu Lhoc aliar* oVi ilie long nluelaat brine 

Culd Uibc bcut, (kii Ctcoce* lb»l 1guI« un vbcc* 
Ko( feet* a« Jinai a'« the Juii they loved ; 

DulJ La ihc tj* ttmL vlll not vh<cp ta >«a 

Thy 4«ilt> ilffKcd, ibj nicddTimG Wuioas KVOVtfl 

Br BriUftli IniiiLla. whith ii liul Ijca bcfaoved 

To gnurl Ihou rtlia ncV r lu lie rHMRiL 

Cunt be ihe hoot wh«n fram their ii1« tbey rov*d, 

And ooM ikc>in thy lupin* bd«on eor«4» 

And tnttcbM ihf Uttiokiiv eod* to iiuttbtin cUma dbbcn^L 

0ut. hoTCver k^nlr *c coay nhAic Byron's indtgnaiion, it b 
vcaucdf posNl>Jv to inxinuin it, or tt any mte to maintain it «Q' 
modijled. when wr thirik of the Elgin iniirb1e« in conneaton wirh 
Kc«t«, Tlicir glory ARil ilicii wonder brought he lelb vfv a ditfy 
pun About hi3 heart : to him they were not ia«niiiuuc »tonc9 ; they 
voRfriendipulbatinguith the tame Lire th«t burned in hit own bMUt, 
an<l he haiM ibnti oj. x man i ;iirir<l JLwa> ffoni his nativf^ land in hb 
youth vrould bail the »ighE of Ui^ fdJuw-counuyiiicn, They were to 
him a key with which lo unlock the mysiccious cravings oC hii aoi4 
the ini«q)retiuion of ihoM hope« and ideAi which had perplexMt 
his mind from his uiLicst lnji)'hLxxl, TI^c "unhiiuj rnuuc** that 
brcAllicd from tiiOK !M:ulp(urcd pipci and \yT^ had for him oil the 
tK«Knest of flcngi learned ind lov^ ai a mother's knee ; the treei, 
(ho towns, 

I The fotnt bmnehe Mnd the frodilfv i«f«d,- 

all vtfr dmr to him, dmr and rimilUr as «rCTcfi of childhood Jong 
loit, ni>it with \ay reviMtcd, 

Kdt'Ar Allan I'oe'b " Song to Helen " show« ua Aoraetbii^ of the 
jiune tnipimiion, though noi dmwn Irom the vxtae (ouf<«: 

HeUri, Ihy haul/ u to m* 

Ljlif theac Nleoui bnrhj of jdRi 
ThAt jpoily o'tr ik pctfumM ma 

Thv wcMy. ttaywofn vindrrcr liore 
T^ hit OHin nmivr ihor*. 

On <I|ipani« sai long u\>nL to roaiii, 
Thybyoc^mh hai'. ihy cbbuc ftc<» 
Tliy Nftiul Kii> have lijuuc^ii nic hi/iiic 

Afifl <>!' gr«n4r<ir fhai wvt Kocne, 

toi In yon MlUnT wLnflim-tiic^iv 

Wtm *ra(ue-liL« I act iHh «T*nd, 
The Blial* Ump vithln l}ty hand j 

Ab 1 t^vychc, from ihe rceioni tthjcti 
Aie livly'iand I 

Tk£ Lav€ of Lamia. 


This lyric i* ooqubilvly bdUiltfot, and when wl' rtmtmbcr that 
Poe wa* oi>ly fourtrtn when ii was wnticn, iu brtiuiy ts nothing 
flhcrtof marYcUoui. Rut Pur did mifntni hisc^rlyiiinimi-tr^ wherros 
Kcatt dev(1op^(! surely and steadily throu^out his biicf c4rccT» 
frbile Ms unswerving dovotion (o Hc^uEjr gnve ai continuity to work 
thai might oibcrwiic hftvc hff-n fngmtiimry *nd ditcuwivr, 

MoM of ciur great iivcIb havir dcdicAled tlicatadvm to vomc 
spedal obJ«ct of nof^hip And wciidcr. " The soul— nothing clac is 
vorth study t * wan Browning'* Cfy ; " Nature^ that never did bctny 
the hrart that lovird t»crT" wai \Viirdsworib'& ; Frct:d*jm wju the 
guiding tur of Shdky; Truth wju the pcail of grc&l price to Milton; 
bttt Kvflts vaa tb« dovotdc of Bcnuty. 'M hAve loved tho pnncipio 
of Beauty In all ttnngt," he wrote thortly before hi« deafh^ and in 
OQC of his Icttcti be says : " WUh a gtcBt pocL the sense of Bckuty 
oreicomCfl every other considcraLion, or, rathcf. obliterates all other 
eossidcntions.'' Thit idea runic through ihc whole of hi£ poetry, 
from the relcbntlud riial line of " Kndyinion," 
A Thing of Ixauty it 4 joy for 

to the summing up of his philcsophy in the *' Ode to a Gfccian 

Bcaiily is Trulh -. Tniih, Baui)' -. Uib in lU 
Vc kno* tm c^nli, upJ jaU jk ocrd ic kaav. 

But this devotion u> Beauty must not be XAtn lo imply, as il has 
been by auinc; critics, thai. Keats had nu moral sense. Beauty, or 
ffarmonyt wu the Creek idea of^oodnc^ Jind virtue ; and 10 Keats. 
AX to the typical Groek, Love, Truth, Libert}, and the l^ivinc; Nature 
itself alt appt^ared under this guise, and wore this radiarif form. 

A criticiam which is betier jusrificd ie that which avcis LhaL the 
pod's love of Beauty was not chorai^tcri^ed by ChcsolfreatnLint, the 
sense of 6lnef« and proportion, which is to be found in the ftsesi 
Gnrek wiiifr?!. It in quite iiuc dial Keats loved to revel in images 
of perfect forms, of glowing graces and glorious riches; he llogera 
cn^er his descriptiocts as though he loved the very uste of the nordfl 
upon his tongue ; he hi^apt up ihe Irt^iure^ of his fancy, nul c^ircful, 
like E^x; to bring 

TsiEe kft« Uil« upheUl Bilh kimHint drangr, 

but flin^ng all bin fair UvAxa tieforc us al onot with prod%al 

TaVe. for in^taTKC, the description of Neptune's palaoe in 
*■ Endyrmon," 

l}8 The GentUmaH's jVagantte, 

<' Bthc^Ld, Ubo\^, lU p&kcc of bi> pride I 
God Sc|j(ueit\ paluct 1 " Wiib nvife« wen Mid 
TiMy ihrvlrUrrd on Eovinli that bhehtflolng m 
At vvery onward «*p proud dom« uoh 
In |>ospKt> dLiLinonJ glcftjni Bod {oUn flovi 

Of «aib«t 'uAkiui ihcii hco^levdllQCi 

loyoui. mikI muny u i|i« Tcavfn in Spnn(- 

Ekh epal domea wert koi, on hijfc upheld 
Df JB^Kf piUnn. tciili>; thioui^h Oidr ahAflx 
A Uuafa of nnJ. Co|Mi>ia «xindEi<dnuKtU 
Bieh (avf [Innk ; inri dotptt dtink mnn n«u 
For vhAi poor moitcU fngmokl ap, u rutt 
A» nwlilc w tlwrc bTWi, lo the vut 
Of «ne lUr |»Uce. th«t br« far luvpua'd 
SfOa Bnr cnminoa tiDlk, th«r (tid«n rtim^ 
M^mphk, ofsd titbylon, uid Kinaip«h. 

Or tho vfthod vinoni th»t moct Endymion'c <^e in his fiiiy 


ThnMfh oivw, tnd ptlMca of moHM ot*. 
Cold dMM Mild ayitHl wftU «nd hnqaoi>»f«or, 
Bbdt pollfthcd pcirtic«« af jLwful iJmhJc, 
Audi i( Ihe Iftit, A dUiiioAJ balukUvdr, 
L^dini; trar pn«f «fld m«j^ihrvn«, 
Splnl (hroLJ£^ ruj£jto.1c«< ifwpliold, %nA rhcfio? 
BCicteUtigMrMa avoid, then pi^inco'a 
Bnccmow chwM^ wb«rff, dl (Mm ud lou, 
3ttCBin* iuU«ranaa tax iheii innitc bad* ; 
Then hdgkiened)iiit flinve thf lilvcry hnda 
Of ■ ihoound fmnt^iis h thpl he »uM dath 
The w«1«n ulch hU ipTAr i hqi oc ilif ipliLfih) 
Done hfpllf^ly. lho!>* spwuimc oi»timniin»e 
.SaJilffn u pnpliT't hrieht, and ^rt Ici mdoi* 
Hli diftmoEul puh wtlh Trctwork itreamJr^ Tound 
Alikf, Bl^d diLulJni; cool, ftnd with a Hondi 
(Uply, like dolpEain luoinlc*. when twett iliclU 
Welcome the flmiof TlwrU, 

Thtrt ftrc many passage* such a» these, not only in Ihe early but 
Alio in the kier poeim, and there i< much in Ihem thut is open to 
criticuni. The diief dcfctt tjf lli« cdcbmiwl "Quarteily Rcvlcnv * 
vticle w&o Tiol that it accused Keats of faults, but iKiL it did not 
acc:udo l^im of Ihc right faultR: superubundAtit images fiittclfit 
doomed to dtc^y Uy their ovn nper^eM, |»hraa(^ ovccloadcd vitfa 
g\owm% coloun, marred the pctfcclion of hb art, and might well have 
been cattigaied Gut tb««« U'At% are itie Taultc of youth, and ihty 

re no more thtn ih»! the poet's young brair wm seething with,^ 

The L&v€ of Lamia. 


Images nnd id«a& ; h^ himself ysas UiWy «)nsc[OUH of them, and k3s 
not dow to ftpplf hi» mind to their correctlou. *' There is bui oi:« 
WAf for Tce,^ h« wrttea to Hie friend Rcyt^olds;; "the road lic^throufth 
ftpplicari<m, sitidy, ind thought, I will pui^ue it, ind ita that end 
jitirpcvac fclirif]^ for *a.\\u^ ycju^-'^ 

To contraA "Endyniion" with "Hyperion" or "LAAiift" It 
lo nalice how much Ke^iu had already accomplished in the ^ort 
dme givei^ 10 him. Thr optfoing linrt \A " Hyjiteritin " liave all Uie 
KTCrily ftnd jciiccncc of the tnic cLusical spirit. 

Deep in ihr Bbtdy Mdneu of 1 mlc 

Fir nnkm fTfim iTiA hwllhy >ir«iEh fkf mAin, 

Hit bom the liery onon, iiral rve'i oha (Ear, 

SM ifcy-hftiT'd Sftlunt qiuvt u a m«ec, 

Still kfl ihc lilcim louiu) iibpiit tiif liijt ; 

FoitaC fin facm hunc about hU hcul 

Likt clood on clotirf. No nir 0/ air wtu thtir. 

Not v> much Lfv u on ft >amsiiFr'i 4^)^ 

RoU not CDC lichi *c<d Jrai;! Ilic futhcred ttiAsoa 

Bdt wliffv thr ik>J laf fdU tlioic Jul if toc. 

Uy rwrni of tiit Inllen divinity 

SpraAdinc > ^ud« ■ the Ntuiid Viid her n«dH 

[^cnM ho cutcl fii)|;c« cluci to her lipn- 

I( is evident, iherdbre, that the later poeni!, xrt^ not tiit ujorc; 
videiy rcfld " Mndymion/' should betaken as vUtiitiatve cf Kcata^s 
geniui; but, fine as the fragmCDt of '* Hyperion" undoubtedly is, 
these » one impcmilix rca^jn vhicfi points 10 " I^mla *" as the key 
irficrcvrith 10 unlcck tH(: ^lecrcts of his lire and work. 

No Jiui estimate iA Keats can be formed without fl;iving full 
consideraiTon to the luvc which t^lori^cd, hut at the <ianie rime 
coosumcd, hit life, ^^'hcthet Fanny Drawite was wotthy uf the 
pusiODiLte devotion which he lavished upon her is a qucation Uul 
has often bt'en debat«S. The genenii Terdict seems to be that she 
m» A beautiful but commonplitx girl, attracled by ihe warmth of 
the poet^i bean, but incapable of undcrttandinE the rare qiulit/ of 
his mind- 

An answri to tttit Acciisation hat. bren vtxsAi: by Miss Perriru, 
the daughter of Miss Drawnc^ great friend, ^ho, writing to 1I10 
editor of tbu '' Literary World," alter the appearance of an arttcio' 
bf MiSi Tynan on *' KeAt^'s HeroincV ij* vrhich Miw Br;iwnc if 
vpoken of as commoripbccr, f^ys -. *' Voii remark that this h hard on 
Faony, It ia more than hard; it is not true Misa ilrawne ivas my 
notber't great Irier^d, and I know her well op to th« lime J waa 


The Gin(l€9Hafis Magazine, 

^Lbmt fifteen, when ibc left Bn^Und. She w» n very striking 

^^p^fied vrotnin ; fAJr^ very [xUc, with bright (3afk vycK fittd llgM 

^■tirovn hair ; vny drfrr ;iiid mnit Ivfllbnl in ^ocim. I remcnbcTj 

^" my Tnoihci ^ymg fJie nas a roost Icrdy ^rl* but that slic Lost oll'l 

her bc&utiful colour in >ii illncu slie h&d after her engigeiliMU wUb 

Keau was broken olT — ' ibat mfld boy Keftts/ They «pcike of htm 

then, 1 bopc yiiLi will furiEii-c my iroubluig you with this letter \ 

I but there art «o Tcv who knew bcr, and I did not tiku to hear her n 
Kraif, iberr can be little Uciubc, was a wild anil iivw0|{ lover, 
but we mutt remember tlut he hini^lf m^ei do accusations a4;jLiiii«t 
FAnny Btnwnc^ U was no want of apprcuitJon on h^ part, no 
coAd xnd «tighting treatmrnt, Ihnt drove htm 


1, .— 


tbiv til* (kprln Oif ivfmtnl «>d dwpair. 


ir hts health Eud bcai j^ood &iid hia finances m a saxiaraclory tiaie« 
*o that ho cotitd hAvff married hor and settled down in a home of 
hi! own, be nnight have ^id wiih Tenny&on, ''The peace of Cod 
oune \vi\Ki my life when I siood «ith Jiei before the altat.'^ The 
ttf Ul dittrac^lLon j« not far to seek : the r&Migca of diseue 
ilnadj aflbcted htm in t)ody and mind, hii work was begtniilag 
to be nn effort ti> him, his piuipucti were jfloamy, and the more he 
lotcd tbe more 4|;oniAing waa th<; conviction that he should never he 
united with the object of his ^oraiion. 

[ Ifl ihete drcumilftncei It ii noi to be wondered ai that the 
auSjer-t iA ^^ I^oniia ** iiliould appeal strongly to bis unagLuation. Tbe 
L^rniot or woman-aerpent, \9, a faniili&r Agoro in Greek mythology. 
and a belief in her pow^nt of fiuciiution over the tona of men via 
widely spftad : 

Not ■ d>op of hvr \Attfti wm Kqrud, 

Uvi the HM fii4<!< like & ufi, tvvrvE ■Oman I 

The dctiHa of the pAttleulat Rtory selected by Keats sppeAT to 
have been uien from Burton, who in his "Anatomy of Melancholy ' 
qiioicc the " De Vila Apullpmi" uf PhilcwtmtuK. Thit life wm 
wriiicfi About two hundred years after the di^ach of Apolloniui; at 
the request Of tbe Empress Jaiia, \\^x hu&band ?>evcrus having 
ngirded the philmqopher wiih grciat veneration. The tocalliMl 
Life ^' itt of a very mythical character ; tmt this; much u certainly 
thfLt Apollonius wai a man of much wisdom Mid sreat r^MSa* 
on, whr^ bnd many pupiU uj^iler hi£ care^ Among ihe«e is said to 
vc brcn a yuung ttuio of the name of Mdiif^uE Ly^iiiu^whc^ 

Tlu L&V€ of Lamia. 


"going bctnixl Cenchtew and Corinth," mel with \ t^mia, or 
rl in Lbe djoguifis of a 1>oullful vomjin, who made fuii prt)iniaca& 
10 hfiiK and fto bocvilftd him of his drscrctton that he ngrco^ to marry 
her> and made a great vrrdding fcA&i, in wTiirh among ocIict giie«ts 
came Vts \i\^iXzi Apollonius- The philcimpbcT, undac/'lcd t>y her 
bciuty or by the richness or her dwcHinj^ looked stcodily upon her 
and ditcovered her to bo a I JtinJa, And the Ihingi by which b(i« was 
Rorraumled mere illusions. The wonun-»vfpen1, seeing her true 
uninMk«3 in hi* eyes, wept and cnircatcd his mercy j but 
Apollonius denouncing; ber ^temly^ she and all that she had vanished 
away and lerr the nrihappy lover diRcontolate^ 

SiKh Is the story whleh Kcatt has embodied in t1il8 |}ocui, and 
we read it vc CAnnoc but think cf that fierce^ siranjcc pduuion 
rhich wa* d»tined to destroy the frail fabric of bit Itfe, The 
aerpeni was glorious in Iter faul fascination : 

She V'U ft gordtAD tliLpe of diuUng haC| 
Vcimllion spotic^i goldrn, gtctil, vid bluci 
Striprd tike \ ubn, fi^Llcd |jk< » i«rl« 
Eyed ]£li« % ptflfivk and ftll <Triin«oD lurr'd ; 
Aj)d full of tiK'cr moonfl, i>\\» u the brHlhM, 
Diswivid. Of tiri|;hiir ihvnc. qr inlftirnftLhcd 
Tlirir luittcv with llic i^tLKmiicr [a);e»tti<r^ 
£11 nunU^w-iiJctl. [oui^'d wjih miscild, 
Sh* leemod tr nncc «iinr ppnanrt^ri lady Hlf 
Soni« d«mon*i miiirmi^ or ifH* iifmr>fi's ult 
Upon her cmil ihe wore 1 uimnuh Bif 
Sif^akled wiih »Urt(, Like Au^ilnc'i uir. 

The light of ihe serpent in her woman'* ftwm conquerc Lyciu» 
instantly and entirely ; 

S«« hij ey« \,%A drunk licr licauty up, 

Lcftviiij DO drup 111 rhc bcwtMcrinf cup, 

AodttiUlhc tujr ttftsfult— uHlc r.c, «fiiuU 

l-st aha tboiiliL vnnijJi ere his Up lul pdd 

T>iw *ikinili'Mi, Thill b*tBn tn a/1«* ; 

1I«r »fl 1»~>k (TCming coy, tfieuw bifl<haLa Ai> surer 

LnT? tbcc ftlnnc E Ixwk Kick r Aii t Goddess, >c« 

Whither my eyes cjn cva rum friJin thcc t 

Fot pily cl" uuT ihli Hid he«i lelic— 

In similar accents K«ata, in his own person, tells Fanny Brawnc 
that he had written himicU her vasul immediately he saw her; 
and in a later letter he uys ; " Vou have absorbed me. t hat'L- a 
scniaLion aI the present moment aa though I were dissolving — I 
should be exquiutHy mtt^mble without the hope of soon seeing 

VOL. CCXLTl. Nl>. Vft*^' \ 


7h€ Genitematis Mag^>i€, 

yoiL i »h<tuld be nfnid lo wpAnte tnyMlf far fron you. Vou 
haiT mrlshrd mr avt;ty by a povrrr T ranivil nrnd ; Htnl yn 1 notJid 
re»ift tjll I Mw you, and even lince E btvi: wcii fou T ha%'c 
endeavoured often ' to rcisoft a£*inM the roabons of my love/ I can 
<lo that no Riorc — ih* pain would bo loo groL My love is &ell^h. 
I omnof limitie withoui you/' 

The lon^ng lo Torse the Link of absolute union, a longing which 
Btovning in hi» "Tvro in the Cannpagm" tc!!); iu can »ovcr be 
fUA)lcd hy ctny hiinuiTi hi^su-iv, t^ cvpr»trH hy Kfutt both in hii> own 
Toio? and in the voice of Lycius. To Finny Dfairnc lie cries : 

V*^ur*Ielf— yoar «ul— in pity ^r* vm all, 

WllKhold no Atoai'i Atom or 1 die. 
Of liiitH- OP. |>r<1u|A> youE wrc^cbcd Ihnll, 

Fijr4ir(. in the iiiiHi tiflillc niiKry, 
iJfe't ptirpoBH— the fflUEr at rhe minil 
Losing i\\ guM - and my ftmbilian blmd. 

So L^cias cntrcAU hh love : 

Mj- utter plwwE, boili af vnr jind mora I 
While 1 »iD lUkvlntf hu* ty (ill luj he*n 

WL(h iIpt^p^ cnmwiii bM ■ dnuN« tmniC t 
Hcfit (a enUn^la. iraminiil up, and uftr* 

Vnur liOiil In mint And bilriiiriOi you LhctE, 
Uke the «wetT ictni In ate uiibudilfO lofcc. 

Surrounded by a gay and <lxujelkng throng, Lyciufl wu slill flb*, 
aorbed in hie beloved one, %xi thai he 

Scarce AW in ill tha iDom aavdicr Atcc. 

a description which reminds ua of the letter written shottly afier- 
wfttdi to Fanny Bravnc - '* Upon my fioul, I can think of nothing 
dw. * . . 1 cannot exiiiC wiLhout yvtyx. I am fcrg^tful oTeveryihtn^ 
but se^ns you again — my life NOcmB to stop there— I see no further. 
You have absorbed me," 

But love fuch as this, enthralling and fascinaiing a.i it may bu, 
brings its own suffL'ting in lis train, and tlic allegory of L&inia WAh lo 
he only too well Ijomc out in the life of the poci. Heart-stmck and 
loai, Lyciijs was eondeimned to wnteh the i^adual fading of the fair 
being whom he loved : 

*' IjlitiU I " he BhrieW^d i 9ivl (|pt^ill{ but the dinek 
With it* md «oha did the "ilonca broaW, 
■' Oeeoiic, fuul dicviii t ^' !tc ciicul, ^uiiik: ■uA'O 
In Uic IriJr'k fitr. where now nu uu[c vcUi 

Tks Lctff of Lamia, 

W«ad«fei OA birtptced ustplM : no soft bloott 
Hitf«d (hf check \ no puoloa to illafiKi 
The dccii'rnfbici] vkiur .-^^T wit LJIi^liI • 
iwnla, fK> longer Tilr, Tb^rr iftt a de*d]y vliite. 


Even so vAntalxii Ki^au^ b/ighi drcjiniA of the future- Tbe loi'c 
ivbicfa bftd seized upon him with such rcfiii;tlc£Ji force wu nvvcr to 
ftod ils eirilily cloxr, jiFid u the proipect gTsdnally faded his 
u^ish bc<&hK wclhiij^lk inlolcrablc- To bis friend Brown he 
writer ; " The pcc^iiJAMori Ihixt I &hoM sec her no more will kill me — 
Icinbeor to die ; I cannot bear to leave her. O Cod 1 Godl Godl 
Ex'tiyilnni; 1 have in hi>- trunks that rrmird-s me of her goes throiigh 
roc Ukc a sjxrar, Thcxe is tjothing iii the woild of miTicienl mtercsi 
lo divert me frooa her fct a moment. This was the <^£€ when I wafl 
in England ; 1 eannol recolletl without shuddering ihc time Ihflt I 
ma A pruoQcr ai Hunt's, and uitcd to keep my cye& lixed on 
Hampsti^fld All day^ I Jim afraid to write to her ; lo receive A letter 
&om hci, 10 lee her hiindwrJtmg would break my heart : throu^ 
the vbole of niy illnesa tbiii fever baa ncrer ceased wearing mc out" 
And a^io ; "The thought of Icawng her U beyond everytbmi; 
bomblc— the fcnse of durkne^ coming over me^ 1 eternally tco 
her A^re ttemaTly vanishing.'* 

Il Quy (>eibap5 be &tia!rtfng the allegory too far to uy that in 
tbe part played by ApolEonius some allusion vr^^y be traced to the 
vamings of K«dU'« friend*- Yei it it certain thnt Ihry felt the 
giavoi anxiety wht'n Lhey Itamt ihe st^lc cf litA ftvling^ not !iu 
niDCh from any distrust of Miis Brawnc a?; irom a natural doubt 
wbetber h» Fmil being cquM «und the mtcnie itrxin of Auch Art 
ufasorbing pitsbn, Dilkt'i comment is wtt] kiujwn : "It is quite 
m »Uled thing between John Keats ;kiid Mis^ lliaivnc. God help 
them ! It^ a bad thing for them. The mother sxyi» »hc cannot 
fvtvent it, and her only hope is tt will go oft He doii*t like anyone 
to look al hci or ipeak to her." 

Keau wa3 dear to bis friends, both for bis own sake and for 
tbe ttke cf hijt splendid geniua^ and it vas not to be wonder«^d at 
thai Ihty regrtflled seeing him fftll uiidei the sway of lliis builiak 
aiVeclion, even as Apollonius mourned at the sight of bb £xvouritc 
pupil in the power ol th« Lamja : 

Ftom <v<iy ill 
Of lift Imt« I pnirfved tbre la thU day, 
Aad diall I v« ifaM nudt ■ seipent'i prey? 


Tlu GetUiemans Magas^, 

B Apoll^niu^ in hf^ voil rcf^ird LrciUK but ht r^cuetl him ^th 

H TV mpUiii^i cfc, 

^L LIkv 1 ttur|) upcMi. «ent ili(ati(h her uticrlj. 

^^^^^K Ai hrr vr«k hani! O'Xild tnjr mrgLniO^ IBQi 

^^^^K Molianfd hitn (o be tileitl ; vainly fio* 

^^^H ■■ A «rfpeni I " cohoed be \ no locnct aid, 

^^^^^P Thin ariTh 1 fHE[httii1 irrrflm «hp v^nuhnl ; 

^^^^^1 And X.7riu<* Ann« wcrt «in|A)r uf delLghl. 

^^^^1 Aa pw hu Itmldi of Ufc, fiauk lIiai hiuc nijt^C' 

^^^^H On ihe fal(b unidi Itt Uy \ Lli fiiendt cutw igond--* 

^^^^^ Ai^ Id iti DWiUft robr rhv hnvy hody wound. 

In the Aunc way, the n;paration of Keats From thcwonum he 
loved w« a Wow Ihai hastened his end He fofwd hJmtelf to 
Ci][>m:i]1 \u tile Juurfit;/ to luljr, kiicwlng that tt vr&& Lis unly chJUlce 
of life, but knowfr^ aIao that it wax a ccfUin rmui to death. " 1 
viih for death every diy and nighc to dehver m« [n»n these poiw," 
ti<? irrilF.*! [u his friend Brown, "nnd thr^ti 1 wish death avayr for 
dc4ilh would dcstr^ty even llio^e piiinK» which arc bctXCf ikui DOlhlfiK. 
l^nd and EH^fl, tpcolcnets and dccUne arc great separators, but dcnth 
h the greiT divorcer for wrx. ^Vhcn The parg of this thought hat 
[ia&<«d llirough niy mind 1 ma> uy the bittemts» of dr^th i^ |ku^. 
1 think, for my sake, you would hu a friend to Mits Brairnc when I 
am dead. You think she hu many faulty hut for my sake think 
■he has not one." 

These pathetic word* of the dying poet should surely screen 
the eaeooory of the one he loved from blinien it ts doubtless trae 
that Uie did not appiecUie him ai his full worth, but he valued her 
Inve the more because it was ^vcn to him an i man and oot as % 
poet. " 1 have Diet some women," he exclaims indignantly, " ivlio^ 
1 really rhink, would like to he married to a poem and given 
by a noTcL" 

The fault did not lie in her, but in himscIC As the whole 
Kftf* music and myMerr was iyt him aummed up in the song of 
-TtighTing^ile, no thnt ptintiplr of Ruuty which hrhad to long toti 
And woishipped was to hiui embodied in the peraon of Fknny 

,wnc. Hi« love foi her was not the r^atuml und ordinary love of 

nan for the wofnon of hiA choice ; ii was a desperate attempt lo 

i^iBsp the tniuicabutiible. to Ditbum the unf;ithnniabk-, to wrd the 

£nitc vrilh the infinite, and compass the whole scaIc of ciiMcncc in 



'rk€ Lcvt of l^amia. 


Ciw ftmil individiulity- It was UitU «oodor that «och ui &tUinpt 

If Kcdt5 Ij&d t'Offcsifcd that di.-%tdcrAluiii i>f the ancients — a 
aotiiid mind in CL «ound bodf — he mi^hi have come :>omcwh&t nearer 
to achievCfMnt* but in Ihac cue be would never hive aspjrfd. It 
vu the wrid stnu'n of gi^nliis in hiA naturv, irid iht? UcrnL ^erds of 
^'diKHK in hi:: conitiiution, whEcti together %^vz hlith to the craving 
pusio«i of his heart and brain. He lived and loved ''not wis«]y, 
but too wcU/* fliiiijirig reckleijly aW tluit he had into the fire, sa 
thiL the fl«mcs burnt up ever bilglitcr aind brii^lilcr, until, egthftusted 
by tbcir own intensity, they nank into darkness and death. Hb love 
wt% to him a veritable Lmia, und, devoutly u he wor^ipped, he 
jm icbdied AgaJnM the ch«rui that bound him : 

Wlukt oui I do to drive Aviy 

RciDfmbmncu frnm noy trtft? for di07 b*Te MOD 

Aye* btK 411 huui Kgu, qiy brillidut Qaccc I 

Touch lio* a raemorr. O uy, lave. »?■, 

What [ ran (in ro kill ir ani he frrv 

In my oM liberly ? 

How ih>l] I do 

To get utcw 

Tbo^if moulitd feathers uid w mouni cinu mart 

Aluvff, tbovc 

Hie reub of tluitatAG Love, 

Aad noiko hiA c^wcr lowly *HJ« I lov) 

The divine essence of Beauty is not to be grasped by uiOTtal 
,fftcn ; earth's ficvcTi aie too tough, its fioor of cUy loo poor and 
)ld, to dull the *'nice vememtirAnce of cele^al joys," Those who 
have beard 

niHt bcsj the penalty of 6ndmg tUlle sveelness in morUl miisic- 

Wkh njch A TinU:rc as his, no oihrr falc n^Ls ixissible for Kcftt^ 
tbao tliai vrhkb overtook him ; and yet, if he had hid a nature IcKt 
delicately strung, he would r)ot have b«cn tbo poet of our vrondcf 
and our love. 

Finoi Bpiril> cvtuiot bret^c below 
In hiiman ikiei Mid lire. 

But though Wii. lifo was eonsuRied it was not wasted. All that 
he hjd he gave ungrudgingly, tiuhe^tatingly, and two rewirdt be 
von in bis brief Life that the lon^cut span baa atiU IcA aome men 

246 The Genileman's Magazins^ 

lacking — a womui's love and an undying fame 1 Why should we 
weep /or Adonais ? 

Ht tiBj outKducd the shadow of oar aighL 
Eavy and c&lumDy and hate uid paJn, 
And that unr«« which acQ miKall delight, 
Can touch him aol and lortuie not again. 
From ihe conlagiDn or the woitd's slaw itain 
He La secure ; and now can dcvr moum 
A heart grown cold, a head grown grey, in T«in — 
Nctr, when the ipiriiV tdf fau ceased (o bora. 
With ttpukless aihea load an unlamcDted um. 




IX tbese djiys of faith -healing, Christi^ui science, Ircalinent by 
mioiage; and utlitfr tnethods of proc^rJTig rr^lief frOTn |uiin and 
ill-licitlth. it is railicf curious to (utn b-ick to ih« cuica stated Co have 
been dicctcd by a moat estimable gentleman who lived in (he days 
of Chailei It. and vho had the dUtmciir^n of being presented to 
thai niujiajcli fioiii ihe reno*rn he obialiicd by ihe marvelluua ^\li 
he possessed of fittoking petsonfi vrith hia hand and thereby coring 
thcna of viuioiw disorders, Mr. GwiiTaks lived in an age of no 
greater credulity than the prcsenl, and he hnd tu iror^tirnd, niorecverr 
with the reputation obtained by scvcml falic profcMor^ of simitar 
pOTcrs; but nhiTc he did not succeed in every case thai he operated 
on, there ftcem?*, fioin Ihc evideiire fhown, no refi^n to doubt Ihai 
he did produce in nuiucioLi« in«l4ince» an improve nieiit in Lhc patient 
Itnd a complete recovery ffom many scrioui ailmcnti. The GteatrAks 
ftfiily owned property near Matlock, in Derbyshire, where a district 
was caJled by thoir rmtnc, which is fipch in a variety of vay^ the 
mode adopted io ilx present instance bcms that u^ed by Valentine 
Grcatralu in legal documents seen by the writer. The subject of the 
present brief memoir wa» boni on Kebrtiary 14 (a dale that accounts 
for \i\s Chn^tiaji [bioic) in the year 16^8 ', h[& piLR:iit!i were living at 
their KAt known aa AiTanc, in the co. Wnierford* They were 
perioniE cf good position and meana in Ireland, and their ton 
Vakrrtinc- ilirou^hout his life waa ri-£atded as a mo^t wcithy gentle- 
maoi and ertjoycd the advantages of easy circvmstanco. The 
tioubiou« daya cf the Rebellion of 1641 caused Vattfotme Creaitaks, 
when a boy, to be aent to bia uncle In England tn be educated, hU 
uiullici, wliLtwudd^u^lUci of Sir Edwafd Harris, Justice of thcKingV 
Bench, having, when left a widow, placed him in hi» earlier yea/s at 
Uw «ebool at Licmore. U« later fought in the civil wars on the *]d« 
of the ParlUment, and rciumed n^b^cqaently to AiTane, took up the 

The Genileman't Afagasint, 

^Batics or A mftgiftrate m hi» county, and «a« nude « Ot^ of the 
^^etce at itK Kestomtion. It vlU thus be ooeti that a qui«t coumtY 
' gewleoifln, luippy In hH liumxinriing^ ami Siorial Hrclc, had no 
temptation to change bit lot unlc«« for sonic alrcng reason- Hcw' 
CTCi, in the story of bis life, whiten by himMtf, he gires aa account 
vltb ereat emphatis of tthat made him inipoae on himself a ftiang* 
and laborigua ia;Kk, " About i66f,*' he nys, " 1 had an impuiae or 
atrangc pcntiuion in my own tnind (of nhich I am not able to fire 
A mtiontl accovnl to another) which did very frequmtly suggeat U> 
me tliat ihwe ass beacowcd on me the gifi nf niHng 'Tlir Kin^ 
Evik/ " lie xuooocdcd >a well, it i> *uted, in hii attempt that sood 
after ho fell himvcif ^ compelled " to oin: other diseaaca, and befotv 
long bis residence iraa besieged by crowds or people froEn all pana 
of Ireland, and many (n^m I^n^Kiml, for thr jHiijHite of bcin^ 
"otroaltcd." The proccvi Adi:>ptrd bj Mr. Oteatraks w&t t^ atioko 
or touch the part oflected and where woil pain vai fdt, and gradually 
woTk down to the liands or feet, whi^n it i» fvlatcd in many infftanos 
the ]>utient would extjericnce inxCiinL relief, and would lometkncsa 
onat a loud cry on obtaining it In the year 166G Mt. Giotnk* 
«aa invited lo underuke a Journey to Ir^gland by l^rd Conwiy, 
StcreEary tr> the Kin)^ for ihc purpcmr^ of trymg his power for the 
benefit of Lady Conway, who luflercd firca^ly from headache ; and 
although hia eiforla in this instance wt^re not mccenafal, it broughl 
bla name into more public notice, and even crieated a wish on ihe 
part of Chidn 11, to vcc a man whn clamicd to poSKSa the gift of | 
healing;. Mr. f ^reutmlGs went lo Londoti« KK>k lodgings in LincoLnIr 
Inn Fields and litayed lotno montht in the metropolit. During thia 
time hr rrceivE^d u Ui^e nmnlycr nf p<Tiu>n« afllictnl with ^arioua 
diaordcn. and a groat many curca were ccrtilled to by aomc of tbo 
moaieminei^t ihykiciauB and clergynien ol iht? dxy, among whom may 
be mentioned Dt, John Wjlkins, Bishop of Ch^^itrr, Sir Jolm GodoA- 
phhl, the lion- Rolwrt Boyle, uid many nthci^^ of note and rcnowii. 
In Ireland Mr, Groatnka bad met with unbelu^vcra in hiB power, and 
the BL!kho|t [tf Licmore had beait aaked 10 iniL-rdlct hit pracdccs aa 
"mv^uiiii^ of tit^cTijmani^^ ; but in l.ondon he not onfy had to 
contend with douhicria more numerous tnjt was \ source of amuao- 
icnt 10 ihc gay oourtien ol Chadeis \i., and ^ras turned into 
lie by the witty St, Eirrcmond. Howci^er, he quLcdy held h^ 
U and wrote a lonj£ " Defence," in wbldi he gave a TuU account 
his life and doings and the cjru» he had accompU^cd. H« 
[ic:Lie<{ tliit 'Mettcf'* to Mr. Boyle, who was & dUtinjfiiivhcd 
lyakiai, wii:i one uf the ori^nal memtxTf of the Royal Siiciety, and 

VaUniins Grwtrukst Bsq^ 


A »n or tbc Eftrl or Cotk, M Mr. GreutrokA ricvcr took any fbc or 
reward from the pcrvooK ha curod, there could be no question u to 
the hcnni]^ of liu moctvcs ind belief md Iheiv have rcmitined 
smreral ii^^urda fium dininti^rei^teil jicoplc it^altfyjn^ ll^ he yaic; up 
leilurc and fjcrjoruj comforL in his cffcns to cLllcvJAtc the auflfcnngs 
of mojildxid 10 Isr as lay in hifl pourer. Writing in May 1666, he 
menliona ibat "the King's doclt-ra (for l\\& c-tHilinnaEion of ihtrir 
Uifcaiica' bcLkf) acuI th^cc out of the hospital lo mc en cruu:lic», 
aod blc*M4 be God they all vcnL home wclli to ihc admiration of 
an people, as w«1t ts the doctoral' A irmn nanted Anthony Nichol- 
KHi^ who bad spcni mote tluui « hE4mIrcd pounds utt iiicdica-l udvioe 
without JivAil, became cured under Mr. Cn^trakA trc^tmccn, und 
the "$trtakcr'j '' renown hod spread to such xix extent that when 
retumiDg to Tri^land he was a^kol to stop at Wori^sler, and was 
there hindsomdT cnicruiincd, ihc expend bc'mg defrayed by the 
ciliien::, mivny of whom professed to h^ve fotand rcLef from ihcir 

Li aevcrd of the ncwspjipcis of the time, a.iid in diaiics and leitcrf 
of the period, there ore refcrcrcea mode to Mr. Ureatraki and hia 
humime ivork, atid some eye-witntfises give accounU of the crcv/ds 
who flocked after hin», whether at his own house or in Dublin, 
Qonmel, or other places, where cures were carried out in the pre- 
sence of worthy bdieu and gentlemen, who had no pos&ihle object 
11 reporting fncis other than what ih/ry had seen, Thr "Toueh 
Doctor,* as he wu called, is described a« " a proper lar^c m^n, vcr/ 
picaiant in conveisation. His hand was large, heavy, and ^ft, and 
in UtmOk t4 tweet flowers came from it/' while Gvet>T meniont 
that "he had a remarkable cciunienaiice, which denotes something 
caetraordinary." Valentine Greatraks made many Usting fricndshipa 
doriDg hia sojourn in England, and kept op a eonslAnt correspoti- 
dtnce with mnny nntahlir personages in Lftndon, one of the most 
rCRuAable being Sir r^tjmondbuiy Godfrey, whose death in connec- 
t:OD wEtli the Titus Oai<s conspiracy became and remains one of the 
myiceries of the reign of Chartea It. A number oi these leEters 
wiittcn to ^'the stroaker," as he wis aJTcctionatcly termed, are still 
extant, and bear fuU tcitimony to the c:itccm and respect he in- 
spired and ri^tamed, while the accounts they contain of important 
cverils happening al tEic time, and the allu&ions made to prominent 
penons, make them Ycry interesting leadings Mr GreatTaks would 
appear to hzive led a quiet hiippy life when residing on his estate 
known as Aflane in the county of Waterford ; and as he was able 
in the Ccutt of Claims to prove his rights to certain landa forfeited 



Tlu GenikmoM^s Magazine, 

danns tb« Rebdlion, he had ample means, and was free to devote 
his time uid strange minculous power to the good of his rellow-men, 
which be appears to have dooe mosi willingly. He married, first, 
Ruth, daughtu of Sir AViUiam Godolphin^ Knight, who was brother 
to the perhaps better known Sir John Godolphin, Judge of ihe 
Admira^Ty in the Commonwealth, and, later, Judge -Advocate in the 
reipi of the Kti^. He had two sons and one daughter. This lady 
died in 1675, and some years after Mr Greatiais married the widow 
of Mr Rotherlkam. of Camolin, county Wexford, to wbom^ when in 
November i6Sj he passed away» he left, among many other gifts of 
tDoney ami goods, taking good care of all who belonged to or had 
scnvd him. "ten broad pieces ctf gold and the tankard which she 
brought wiih her/* 

A. P£TER. 



THi^ theory of holiday making » very difTcrent before and filler 
a mAn\ fortierh jc^r. Be/ore that ilrne ^ holid;ky meAiu 
prodigal expenditure of cncigy, hud riding, walking fual^ ll>iii^ oii 
bicycles OS f«r 1^ is fiotfttbk duriog ccnfttion of work to the ends of 
lh« earth. Afkr thai age, rc£t, euclVil paEtimec, outdoor pumiiu 
which mmimiw fftiiguCiBTC dear 1o n mftn. In ixirticular, gnrdcnLrig 
should be mcntiorcd. Golf \% itn cxAn:ip]c of aII that rccfcatiuii 
implies lo ft vexagcnariiin. It means oiodcratc cxcrci^ fioc and 
cheerful comvrsc with Ukc'tnindcH golf inaniftc». It oflfcit a mnn 
that moderate amount of chaacc and friendly ciiiuldtioii tvludi 
sweetens the hcstloved ounuscmcnts oE tifc, A garden i» never so 
ddi^tftil OS when a man pa«s«?s liis hiilf ■ century or (according to the 
Dean of RochcMcr's }okt-) \% himself an octo-geraniLtni. Tb«e if 
cicn a subtle Bisdom in lyin^ upon one*a back upon the sliinglc. 
soothed by its gentle murmur, thinking upon nothing and throwing 
pebbles Irto th^ waves: 

Tun tomn^ dukn dsi^B(|ae ia noaCihat iimbrx. 

As 1 general rule, all amusenrmnts stiited to the etdf^ly should eoatalif' 
a fftir spice of activity 3w;Ll]oncd up in an ot^e^tn of rcsf. uvcii of 
mdolcnce ; a mar's working day^ have more or less passed away. 
His physical powers demand abundance of t^uict 'I'he much dosircd 
"ftmy winks" of age is not an indulgence so much as a necessity 

Sccich loch fishing may be mentioned as on excellent ainuwr- 
menC for the elderly. It is an eiictise for permitting a man to lie 
lUlov and absorb suniihine, while at the same time; if he chooses, 
he may trifle with the oa;s or his rod and line. A man can lake 
wife and family with htm if he likes fishing with ladies (only M he 
wishds tc catch fiah, should he be ruled by us, he will not do so), and 
a consiani tucces^oo of beautiful scenery passes before his eyes as 
tbc gillie lOVTH on in a monotonoua and sTccp-provoktng maniic.?. No 
Uk is thus levied upon an elderly man's energies, whether mental or 
bodily. Above aJI, Let no man be so unwise as lo suffer business 

^1 The Gcni/emans Afa^azxne, 

lettun ux) a wbote crop of cares to bv taii nortbvird aAcr bin. 
ThU b ibioluicljr lo defeat tlic WrHrficcnl vurk of tbe goddc&i 

HoK nun; and chirminK are the loctu wluch ri^c before the 
mind's eyv of the man who Iovm CalnloRia nem and wild I Each 
of them, to bb r&ACr. posKsaes charactcrbtici of in ovru Auynl 
dicplap rta bore bonha running Gp to a itiighEy company of moun- 
latln*, whereof Suilven towers in apparent majetfy, ei^en oveitoppii^ 
Ben More blm^Jr. Tuiumcl. pcfbapa the moit »Tncily bcautiTiil of 
■I the ^oeht of Centrol Seollancl ; Ericht, dour and <kHc-1ooki«|:, 
bill in whose vaat depthi lurk moncteta if only they cad be cau^ ; 
Shin, wkh eicuUcnt inAJt and water enough 10 uibl^ the moBt eager 
apott»mani such arc »omc of the Icadinjc chancteriB^ica of a few 
Northern lochii all more of leu noted for the sport that they j-ield. 
5hi<-1 is another lengthy tod prolific loch, let tri a ric^ fwt&uragt of 
ttiouiiiaina. Qthcia ini^ht chilly be iiafiicd. but t^ie abuTe idectiuii 
competes beauty a» wcH as lish, for 11 may be prenincd ihjtt a lodi 
which enchanti the eye idtli inoomparahle tandtcape potcenea one 
of the Arsi reqiiiiilcv for a plouani holiday. 

Ii \% tivc that th<;4e lochs will each take at the Icaai two dayj (o 
•coch them from any of the Midland dUtiictf, but, to our mind, a 
•vifE and comfortable ralTway Journey formi ihe iniiinl pan of A 
holiday. It luusi be reincmb<:rT.'J, liuwcvcf, ilijii Iax) da>b'coiLUnuoiis 
Havel in vih ttainri shakei up an cldcfty man's system a %ao^ deal, 
and had belter be avoided if po«tible. At any nite^ in t'ertfaihire 
and the Lowkiidsgood fishing and plenty of Loclu will t>e found, 
buti after all, there b noLhinjc tfkc the dear nir and keen nonhetn 
brceiea of Sutherland, if a man oan aJTord two days, or, better Mill* 
tbTte, in which to reach It. A day or two, (1 may be ftuggmied. can 
be apcnt very plci^ntly uli the way to the Nonh at Perth or 
Edinburgh- M for nothing cUc, they con be act apart for purchaa- 
ing rod* and flics, of which no true fishtrtnan ever has enough. 

For ihtne who do not yei know Suiherbind no book gives a 
more charming account of thb lovcty- shire than "A Scaaon ill 

thorland'* (by T S. Edwards Mobs; Micmillan, iSSS), «hlltt 
IWanderingv by the T^rhi; and StrrarTis of A«sync " ^Hickv, Jame^ 
ISS)i if ^^ fi'^i (><^cik to treat the an|>ltnic of ihc diatricl, is still 
to the fisherman, ^t John wrote apeciaUy of deer stalking 

Si»th<:rliirid, aivd, like all hia: works, this b now a rate and 

ible treaiise^ Naturally Mr. Lyall's book on Scoich Ashing 

id shooting will be in c^cry apottaman'a hinda. If A general 

Lise on Scotch fislung be required, po more excellent mnual 

S€^ch Loch Fishing. 


be rfcontmcndcd Ihan J- Colqithoun't '*Thc Moot and the Loch " 
(Bbckvood. i$8o). 

bhjtili a KA'loch in ATgyll&bin*, i>, we hvt^ BUggcetcd. another 
d^hghtful di»ritt in whkh to Kfiilf- Ac(%ss is rusily nhiAinrrI up 
this long !cx:b,&hut in b^daik tocksond lnicl9 of iir-uec:s luonUigup 
on cither side to dc>cr forcsU. Al ils edge arc shallows 1ct^ant4:<l bj 
mimic rores» ftndihe pale wnurr-violet {tfotteueiajfalutrris) ind dcpEha 
which might hold wlrnon ^nAftrox nf huge jiroportiona and fabulcm* 
strength. In 4Utumn plcniy uf scu-trout run up tlic titct Shjcl. From 
Boame Prince Cb&rbc'a monumont in Glon^nnan, tX one end of the 
lorh, toCuile Thiorin at the mher, ftrrnumrrouspUorsof imenesito 
the gcologisL juid the ajli&l 03 well o^ the di earner- The lucb itaclf 
id r&ther A Ijitc one, which renders it a boon to men who cinnot takt 
their holidAy in June. Thii i«, however, to cur mind, ihc month of 
monihi far a holiday- If it h«K a diudv«nuige, it la llutt you with 
for & »eeond holiday bcfort the summer ends- 

When tha locality for a holiday is once setitod, the moit 
itnportint pnioE jd^crwurdu is tn find Jtgood giHie. Thm; or fmir 
lounge round every Piahin^ inn duiiiifs the season. 'Hiey have Tefc 
the she«p on the hills, or it may be the plough-tjul, And, nJtiiuu^h 
alvays cice^ingly dvil And obliging^ mott of thctc Arc noc born 
Sithemicn. Tliey cannot tji^kkly (if at all) hie out the rjtjiptlirni 
which tlic momcTLt so often dcn^Ands in CLOf^in);. Mjina^c to find 
tb« tjue angler, the panicul^ Donald or Stuart who is the shArpesC 
of the litllc company. It is genenHy an eaiy matter to fmd m\X the 
tnic apoinsmoa uid naturalist from an interview, where you lounge 
with hrrn looking from the bridge and smokiiig many ci^rcltcA, or, 
better «iil, you rccogmsc him from iheeiiperi^iceof a previtius seaion, 
When n gillie once bnowi a pleajunt considerate master. He; will be 
iFcry anxioun to ahow sport He will vratcb his master'R tnood\ 
rcmun ftitent when his "gcnttffroui" is thinking, and is not afnJd of 
talking at the proper time, to amtiist? his marter. Occsisionally he will 
idl & legend or two which are o^cn well worth gathering up In the 
notebook when he la not Lcoltiog. If you mu^t put up with the 
ordinary gillie, lev him earn' mat nnd Lunch and li^hing things, but 
be sure that ytju take at]<l keep cnmimind. It dors not ^n^wvr to Irt 
bun row you about where he thinkB good. 

Al Ibr the pcu^ which ought to be nto«l carefully fished in every 
loch, it it not the open kvrh (vhtch i% probably of grcAC depth and 
doca not therefore fumisli many bottoui boiia to trout}, but the line 
where the gravelly or rocky ed^ breaks down suddenly into Ehe 
deptlii. There the fish invariably lie on the look-out for food. 

^HUiothvT bint to Iw bome in mind it thtt oB gilbci and kndWdt 
^™liold a* \)\rr first aftklr of ihcir pi^caiorill crv«d "thit no fa*h crer 
liscs in the U>ch till 9 a-m. and noc:r rises After 7 f.u. Tii or> 
niAnner of uic. sir ; the fuih'lJ no be feeding after 7.* Of coarse 
giLliai Lik« 1 coi3)foTtibte tin?flk1«bt and iupp«f» &nd theso boun bG«t 
fuil the lundUdy^s noiitjiiR of fncali. Evim when ibe lodi ts 
dimpled over with rivu in ntrnmci crernng* tbc^iUict vovr " ihejr 
uv only playing, tir ; lh«y^ no risuig to fl/ whateOiar.* AlmoM all 
boitRict^, it should br romcmberet^ win hunch out into deep wiicr 
unlc«* tikcy h&vc a Kruiblc^ ddcnniocvl mji^trr. 

As for equipment, thu lorgtly dcpcoLli on a mnti's fiuicici* For 
fly-IUhingiomeUMSl«n'fooi8ingl«4unded rod, otbert prefer a long 
doublr-hsitdcd one. Tbc pt»l rrquisfii^ Id hH 1 loch-fisbcr't tnehle 
ii extreme strength. I'cw incidenu arc more provoking thto to 
lioll » «bo1« diy lA'ttbout a (tngl» ■' rogg" :ind la th« flveoing to 

*Btrik« & good ii^fi ^wbiVh may lir a Inge flilmon), ind then to be at 
once biolLcn because the line bad been put aviy fUmp ntieo lui 
utied a f-car ot two ogo^ Regard not cxpcnK, therefore, in proiiriirtfE 
younelf u'lth all rtirnirp ucklcoribebcst. llie landing-net ii;tju«Ito 
be larf^eaiid Mronj(. A galTis a useful addition. Sevcr^ "angeU* 
and "pha/itoms'* will ;t1so be needed. These should r>oi be too 
snaall- Many ihirk thnt these artificial luret do more execution Ouui 
liiv or natural battv. It '\% not alwayf «&<y to procvie tbe latler, tsd 
"fiddling" for thenn wanes jigooddsit of valuable time rn the best 
part of Hie day. The fisherman will re<|uire two trolling rod», with 
lAckle for each, and hU favounte 0y-rod^ Let him take North plenty 
of big loch fliev of gaiidy t-tilooring, eip^v^ially ''wa&pc" and 
"Zuluft." Trout in Scotch lochs Arc peculiarly fond of yellow flica. 

Should the holiday maker set his heart on catching a firox^ let 

him 6n!t provide himnHf with a n^v^-failing stock of paiimce, 

together with n well filled pui>c- To iroll for these crcnturct often 

l^roicfl a tedious undertaking ; by good hap a "^ run *" being obtained 

oncti in two day< ot thereabouts and perhaps being lost in x couple 

of minutes after »1L No fiih is so " dour," so nuapidoi-H, cir for its 

sin- »o strong. I'he most cunning angler cannot undcr^Und its 

sttange moods. It is apparently, loo, the inofttiu«piaousoF fish, and 

Hpn a day wh?ch seems the prrfeniijn of a fljthlng iny, with soft grey 

^Bbow«r4 aii<l warm lempciature* it is i>flen impouibte to obtain a 

rtouch, Wc have kno^vn a /rnM^-fanaiic rowed abouE 011 the BAnsv 

loch for a fonnight day after day by two gilUct and the ratutis were 

tncH-i ditapiioinling^ Agaiti, we remember a perfect dnflcsattrnwling 

trbo caughi a 13 lb. fcroa as »oon as be had taken his place fn the 

S<&i£& Lo£k Fishing. 


booi on IdOcb Kannoch, pcrhapi ihc beat Scotch loch for this kind 
of fitb, And in consequtncc the loch in which they arc most 5hy> 
ThCTf II! * gT"-at flmnnm of lurk in taking /*^/i5i. There arc no 
»pccijil rulci for this kind of fiiliLng OkCcpt that of cout^ the line 
must ftlva^^ be kcpi Uut, ihc <?nd or the rod up (in ordcf that itj 
•tMUgth miy tell upon ih^ fish). ;inJ ih? quirry mutt he prwenied 
at 8ny «M(t fron) runnini; under Ihc boat. In a great sheet ofTitci^ 
rcnric[nl>f;r. ihtrc U no new! to hurry. It is better to sipcnd nn 
quarter ol ar^ hour on the capture of a good fis;h than run the rislL^ 

In btc autumn pike will often yield ofccllcnt »porl m Scotch 
lochB, and in ttuch great reservoirs of waicr their presence often 
accounts for very Urge trout being taken. The small oni?« arft 
killed off by the pik& Consequently, he ja not an enemy eo \\\h kind 
who should introduce pik'- into such locha, as ■ man would be were 
ho lo place pike in the Test or Monnow, On a cold bright ^^"^ pike 
frequently take an ^*anget," never caring how batttrpd il i^and a 
man may catch sevcml heavy Hsh during the day. A pike gag will 
be Found very useful vhen the fish \% inside the boat, and it is mer- 
dful to hAve a '* priest " on board lo put the ptke out of fit ngonJcflL 
la tome sea-lochs it is qujLC possible that a ulinOEi may lie taken 
wIiIIg nonainally trclling for pdce. Indeed, the apparent chance 
which is connetitd with loch-fiahing, together with the re*!, the 
lunsliine^ and the fiiie mounlAin air. addt a btroii^ mflu(?tii.-t? to ihf; 
reJ^Tfcaatingofihcholiday-makcrH When a " phantom " or "angel * 
or fttiong tackle is first cominitted to an unknown loch the intoreet 
iseirrenie, and everything ihaf the an^lfr hook* (saw the "Kingdom 
of Scoilai»d ") formt a pleaaant cjtcitcnient. 

The hshcnnan will frequently approach come b^uiiful valley 
running down the hill into the loch as the gillie fows ahead slowly 


NjUvifi wilh her ptiiJiUi BiifJ weeds u!(J flowen 

and he speedily Grda here a quiet corric» fringed with flr« and lit 
up with purple hcuihcr, in Mhich to Iftnd for lunch and a quiet half' 
hour. Th«gillii^< meanwhile Rccurcs his boat with the painter and 
fjuickly secludes himself aiming ibc whins and tufts of fxjg myrtle, 
smoking his pipe almost K'forc he has finished his sand»iL:bea. 
Hi« tnftfttor then botanisef , looka for oyster-catcher's nests, or follows 
up fail particular hobby. After ]unchei>n ht will l^nd ihjit the fish 
do not rise eagerly until the )un begins tt> sink orci tlie billi, so he 
need not hurry over tus philo^phic mcditalion^H OfEcntimc^i the 


Tks CeniUnian^s Magazine. 

ginie will take him to A neighbouring wAterfjill, to a *' v^^ethHed fort," 
Of periups lo some old mm with tnuliti^ns dingtng to it as itikk as 
the mof» and wild ro^cs wbkli mAmEc il. Thcti; Irtllc Tt»iis form a 
vclcornc chAnpc to limbs sti5cncd by the boat. 

During the Afternoon t)onaId will MsuredJy turn the convortation 
from ihc grmi fi^hmnrn with whnm he has worl(f*d \rt unmc gable 
cf A fuinMcfld, or pcrbapi a dull tqujifc house dimly seen on a 
disUmi mountain. A tnifiic «ory connoclcd wilh thcie ia never 
forgotten, snd lo long as his muter nods and says "yes" and 
"indeed" at xhr. Hght iJmc, ii procfrrh to nn interminable Imgrh, 

"Yell be minding Mr. Robertion« air. of AuMttoony, him as 
v%soutwj*(he King in India? Wcel,sir^hcii«ed to live up in those 
woods and he vntoi yinx an mtr/u percon. Many n the day he voulil 
fush bete un the Sawbaths, while the leddica mAybt would ditvc 
down, a' »ilk ftnd rnk-lal-sto McJfaL Hcmarricd Kcnncd)''»»L«tcrfniC 
Pitlochry, juid MiiS Kemitdy and anitheT halftister lived wi' them- 
Tlic^y ?cLy tbHl cvcr]r [ji^lii a miK^Lle bU^k buond wi' eyc^ an big as 
red SAuccn nn round the hoitie nri* lemUc howlirgSn Oj^c ni^ht 
Miti Jane Kennedy ventured out and never aune b;icL So ooi 
g^inf^H Mr Rolieruon, and ihen Mi*8 Kenntrdy, cht- b;»lf»(i*tTer t was 
talking of, and Mrs, Robcrison and aiblins ihe buLlci went after 
them, but they Mky the dog then ceased barking and ihcy never, 
none of them, ever came back or wat se«n agai&, but there wai a 
gey and strong Bmcll of sulphur, Vc1L mind it, sir, in the papera ^ 
They »Aid Ihc dog led them to the DciTs Landing en the loch out 
yondef, and they Billed ofT m i lighCninj; flo^h. The minister 
doubled it wa» for fnshing on the Sawhath, and, douce mor That he 
\% he onue ^palce lo Miss Jane, who .ippe;ired as a puT])k' bQgle on 
Auid HflUowc^en/' &c. 

" Havers " of ihin Und bL'cr^me amusing ai such a time and tueh 
A liruAtian, and form no inrtmsiderable portion of the charm attached 
10 the lonj; la^y afternoon. 

These recitals irc often broken by the pebble I^pTnc^ oJT one or 
the linea irolScd from the Mem, Up leap* the anglrr also, and, it 
may be hoped, kilb the coveted fiih, a krox. And then evening 
dn«w£ on apace. 

And CAInrlj' Onm ihe bSm etemti blue 
(ITuil drm «wcci linrcbcll odour] cftinci tli< icu 
WhJdi cTcning ^fun. 

Tne wnveleB on ihc loch tubmd« und girls' voices Trom the 
lermcc bdov Lbu bi^ ht^uitc opposite inviU; Ihn AKberman to see 

S£Ot€h Lmk Fishing, 257 

three or four ladies, hailcsa m ibc lustrous cvcmniE, enter ft «Jiftllop 
uid pufth d(T from the gilded nilingt. Then one charmi the 
tmpreisiojiAble ^llie till he ^topft rowing md murniura, '* Aye. ihM'a 
booay E " by breaking out in a rich mellow voice before the iLstcntng 
mounuins : 

MiltnttjMa, thft >VM fnikine tho elder- floit^or «rin*i 
And yh»\ briogi fh« lAird Pt cic a Itkt tunc? 

Slic pal ^bcf npnn »nJ cm lici litk irijiwn, 
Ilcr iDuidi wi' reJ ribfioai und i^iuxl awa duurn. 

lh« fisherman himsdr is not altogether msennUe 10 the 

But here » the Ifindingslage (not the Deil's T), and mft«tcr and 
leap to the giassy niargm, pull the boat up a little way from the 
WKtcr And go up to the inn w^ih a fair bag of fish and a graait stock 
of contented tnjoyment. After dinner comes i stroll in the gorgeous 
tw^lighl. and then sleep renjorsclessly cUiirs its victim ci-en from 
the btest novel Such arc some of the quiet joys which loch fi&hiiig 
ponesses for its votaries. When such simple plciiaurcs arc at band, 
wbj wek luly or Cairo among a motley cri>w<l provided with 
coupons for every sighl, while ev^y hour of each d;iy is mapped 
OLit Ibr a man, lectures and sermons being thrown in ? These arc 
doubtless ^od in their place, but to out mind a holiday, if JC iDCAns 
anything, me.vns test and the bow relaxed- We always look with 
awe upon th^ hij^hly con&ciertious clergy who spf:nd gieat pjut of 
their long vacation in the schooU at Oxford and Cambnd;;c, but 
always carefully avoid going there ourselves. 

It 14 worth while adding a few words on the capture cX fircx 
vriHen by that excellent angler, Mr. J. Colquhoun, to the '^ Field" 
paper in iSfto. He deemed Loch Rannoch by far the best loch in 
which to take this 6sh, but the/^riM- has of late years, he says, been 
rer>dt!rcd lamentably shy by being pricked and harassed with sjioons 
ard ether aidficia] baits- Loch Awe is another ejiccllent loch for 
the predatory /tfn>x The largest he has known caught in it since 
bis cuty tithing dayv w^ 3 little over >< lbs. in weight- On I,och 
Rannoch duriiij; thr- same time he rem^mhcrcd one of 23 lb»-, one 
of II lbt.i and a third of about xo lbs. "Although f^roxti from 
3 to 6 lbs. are sometimes hooked with a iraut Jl)," he continues, 
" T never knew a Urge one so taken, and the only vorified heavy 
firffX Landed with fly wai caught in the second pool of the river 
Awe with a large salmon Hy^ It proved a Ijcauty of 17 lbs<" 
AngUrc wit) seo by those words of one well skilled in pjscatonal 

VOL. ccacvi. :<0h 3079* t 


The Genilimatis Ma^iziiu, 

matters how smaU would be their chance of capturing a good_/^r(7jt7 
with a fly. The " Cardinal Fly," a crimson monstrosity, is, however, 
recommended for Loch Laggan- We never raised a ferax widi it. 
Others may have more luck. One more hint — when the angler has 
covered himself with glory by taking Sififvx which is anything above 
a dozen pounds, let him not be so misguided as to attempt to eat it. 
It ought lo be stuffed, and, like Mr. Briggs's salmon, put in a glass 
case to stand in his hall above his " favourite spotted hunter.'' 





On Rkhmand HiU Ui«f« Htci i lut 
More brighl th±ft M*y-iUj ijiom, 

A rove fliLbout a thonu 

ThU las v> EiQE. wlih imllo v> nrcct^ 

Hat vop tny r^ijhl piwi will j 
rd cr<:>wiu mi^ lo cdl her mini;, 

SiTMt Lau of Richmond I lUl ! 

V'e sq^yn iiur tluL bui Ilw ftir 

And wKDUm tliiougfj \he kiqvci 
Ohj wbltpH tA my chinning Mfj 

I'd die for her I [□««. 

ll<i« happy will (he ihephird b« 

Whci ctUi EhU nyiDph hit cwn I 
Ob, nijiy !if r chuicc be fucd uiJ nic 1 

Mine's filed on her alone. 

TUr loll u ncoi, with nnLle bo ivce1| 

Has von in^ right gocd wkll * 

IM eirmtiA rcw£n lo c^l her mmcg 

SwDci Uw ^ RiubtiivijJ Hill 1 

THE history of this charming ballad, " The Lass of RichrccDd 
Hill" — of tlie fair ludy in whose praise it was wiitU'ii, of 
the luthonhjp of the well-known vcrsca* and of the romantic drciiai- 
•tinces mtToundirig them—has laid/ fonned an attvactivc Bub}«ct of 
OQOIruveny. in spile, however, of alt coniraversial qur^ittanit con- 
BMted irith tbc song haring beeii long time Kttlcd, the heresy tliat 
"tho Lafli" WM asftod&icd with Richmond, S*irrtyt has agiun been 
refivcd by one of our leading comic journals; and recenily we 
rctd the fbhowing in a vrdVkDQwn London evening duly paper : 
C«nrrJBht, U.S.A., by \\k Auihon' AAOcbdoa. 



Tk€ dnthmatis MagasiM, 



'■\Vbow« 'ih<f Loift* of Richniond Hid ? Theodore Hook's 
fjuher wc ihe t»l1ad to iiiu:sic, aiid ihc grcjl En)'1i«h tcrior, Indrdon, 
■as the fifst to sing it in Vauxhitll Gjjdcna in 17&9. Leigh Hunt 
iDflistcd ihat the onginal L^u of Richmond Hill v-ju L^y Sarah 
Lennox. The Rev. 'i'homas Maurirc Darnijifncd she was Mm 
Cropp. Sir Jowi^i BnmngCoii nvju pa«i|ivc ihftt Mfs,. Jaosoii was 
inicndcdf utd I'Ord Stourton, on ibe •ttrcnglh of the lines, ^ t'd 
crowns resign to caH her mine,' srgu«d thai »he could hare been no 
Other than Mr, Utiherbert, whom George IV, morj^anatically 

It is appair«nt, therefore, that lh« individuality of the fllr original, 
and That of the author of ilif word^ of \\^M song, ar« lo the world 
in scncral wrapped ahout with aomc of the cerements oT the old 

Thcfact of there being two Richmonda in the field of conjee- 
tUlC is fe^iionAibtc fst some of the imaginings which h^vc t>een 
•Uovred to run riot- The aon^ and the subject of it hare been 
associated with the loves of the Georges ; and, in addilioii to the 
suggestion referred 10 above connecting \\ wUh Mrs Fit^heibert. 11 
was also su^ested ihal the heroine wu^ noni; ctliiei llian the 
ICyitcriou^ Hannah Lighlfoot, the fair Quakeress who, under the 
legift, itissmd* cf George HL, then Prince of Wales, £0 suddenly and 
mysteriou^Jy disappeared. 

Fair as may hare been both Lady Sarah Lennox «nd the young 
Quakeress, the objects of this princely admiration, they could httve 
been no fairer ^afi the real object of the song — the charming 
Frances TAnson, of Hill House, Riclimor^d, Yark?jhin', daughter of 
the rich auomcy of Bedford Row, BloomsbuT>, snd who aUo owned 
the above residence ai Richmond, in the county of broad acres. 

That she was '*vcry fair among women" we have it oa the 
lestiniony of ihoac wlio knew her in hei youLh and beauty, and her 
lover, Ihc author of the words of the song, although not of priACcly 
tank, wai a mm who made a name in his day. 

L Leonard MJicNflHy, the Irish bzuTisier, was her devoted admirer, 
and bad written nlmo^t innumerable songs for Vdujthall, be^idci a 
comic opera entitled " Robin Hood," which is said to have made ft 
great bit ai Coveni Garden, ard figured the year a^rr with Burke, 
Gibbon, Burn*, and Shcndan, in a sort of "men of the lime" 


^'Swe^i Lass of Ruhmond HitC 261 

Xo l«et v^ knriwn and di^lingut^hc^ in Me <3ny wat Jamoft 
HocA, ihc compoicr of the acng, and father or tlie ccLclratcd 
Thcodoie Hook, Amd also grandfather of Walter F&rquhar Uook, 
the Ute D«An of Chichester ar>d for many y»r« Vicar of Leeds, 
tnd lUthor nf the ** lives nf rhe Archbishops of Canicfhury," 

Jamtrs Hook was musical director Tot nearly fifty yean at 
VauxhiLll Gardens (1773-18=0), then in the Iaei days of its glory- 

\% tajd thai during thnt iinic he wrote the mu^ic fci r>o less than 
hundred itid forty clramaiic pieces, and composed over two 
d Bonfta. Of these, how few survive ! 

The " Lass of Richmond Hill " is one of the«e, and of the songt 
and of the author and c^jmixner, we cannot do better than quote 
the words of oac who has written on the subject, and whote 
ctilicism is, wc think, fair and pcr«picuou«. 

After quoting from Tom Moore'* diary, "Lord Holland much 
aimuH^ nt my uying how much I used to look up to this Ij^onari] 
MacN .'' aflcr a brilliant dinner at Holland House, our author (as 
yet jnpubh&bdAl) goe« on lo say : 

"When p boy who 'lisptrd in nombera,' Mcore had envied 
MftcHally the autlioi^Lp of some of hh songs. As in ihc caso of 
trcflter men— Fielding and Smollett for instance— MacNaKy's vcjici" 
were inferior to his really ad miiable prose, but the beit of them 
were emooih and sprightly, *The Lass of Richmond Hill,' (hough 
tbc 7<3]c surviving oAapnng of a prolilic rausc^ scarcely does fill] 
Juatice to a genuine lyrical talent, despita the special inspiration 
which we may pnesume to have ccc^vioned the welUknown vertes. 
They are not devoid, however, of the characterise energy and 
mcllidttotisreas of the atithor'a efFii^ions, and their sentiment, still 
pleaim^ and unuLually natural for a time iihen even Vaujchall 
ciprrsed itself m term« of (in«el dassirism, must have contributed 
10 the original poptilanty of the song. Dut It is undoubtedly to the 
familiar air alone that the ballad owes its preservation for more than 
% century. In Hook's brtght and lucid melody tho words arc 
enshrined like a fly in nnilii^r 

'* For the most part they {Hook's son^s) were merely »on|9 of x 
Vatudioll Moaon, perhaps a \'auxha!l n\^\ ; but tt^o at least of the 
two thousand have a,chieved a hou<<rhold immoriahry. Even these 
srtf a remarkable eunif k of the flcKibility of the composer's talent. 
'Within a Mile of Edinburf^h Town' is a briTlinnt inrention, 
imsiMibly Scotch in ilfl character, as 'The \^^ of Richmond Hid' 

So much ht the atifhonhJp and compo^twn tiT \!nt vsr^. \aS» 


Th4 GensUmaH^s Magashu, 

1% now itirfk afuo lo th« tta oljjocl of Lconud MacHillr^ love and 

kFimnoci I'Amon in% bom «E Lcjbum m Wen»kydiic^ ud 
ftvcd at HiU Houac, Richaioixl, in llie couiit| of Yori^ ibe reudoQCC 
of ha fiLtho— « flrK: cH muuion, dcioilxid 4> *' quunUy pk^tuxi^^ 
wi;b fcrmil garttcnc and brood tora^cA. and vtondiac lijgh ovtr Ibe 

■ I1er£iUicr, Wallkm TAnson. ma abo bofn (041} U Leybum. 
BEdDC«t«d at Richmond Cfmiuiuv Scbool, he was dcMtoed for tbc 
Vl<L*> >nd gained the love ind ««ttem of Min Hutcbinson, tko oftly 

daughiCT of Ralph llntchinKOn of the old mcinnon. It is aid that 

ahc had auny mkors ; but Wilbam TAiuoa vru the fatourcd one, 

and to bim tho gave ber hjuiid, ftrd tbejr wer« nurdftd at Banurd 

Cutl^ m 1761, the hridrgmom tuiring ju&t MtAinrd his tw^ntfetb 

^^rtiu. ilis> Hulchinton was a coosicicnblo bcJrow fo? a coaoif 

^Bown, and at the time oT theit matriag^ it tf recorded in Sy tvarnu 

KUrban'a notkea in die " Gcnil^mftn'* Mag&iine" of that date ibat 

FHItt Hutchinson brought her hushand jf lo^ooa At ths molfaer of 

tbc "Lau" Milt Hutchif]M>n mdividmili)- has a tpcciaj intcTtsl to 

uti, an<i the postcinon of «uch a fortune no iloubt had iti influ«ikce 

in inducing her fikTher, Wfllbnt TAriAon, whcti quilr a joung man, 

And J, few y 1^3, indeed, afici the mania|cc, Coicraovcfiom RIchnond, 

_ rcUinint; Hill H<?usc at the same time as a country roidcocc^ and 

■ he became, in the wortU of the " Gentleman's MjigAzioe," " for many 
^fanan an emint^nt auornfy In ihc Court of King's Bench," and ^ben 
^mdicdal Bedford Row, Bloomsbutj, he had bceomc wcajlhyand 

bad Ihecfititoc or Cot^ove, Notts, and u=%<enHn Yorkthire, inchidtiig 

fills property i( Hill Kotj«4?, Rkhmondu 
Re!^n3in^ Die hiiituiy of the fjniiily of the Ricboioiidabln 
rAnsonSi wc arc indebted for ihc foUowiiig to one of the laniily, 

»W;iiain Andrenr lAnson, K'^\., rR.C-S., ^e., of NencasLlC'On'lYne 
and Denton Hall, Narthumbt^rland, who \% directly de*cended from 
the "ccnuiCDt attorney " of Bedford Row, and who has tbeadditional 
dittinction of being great ncpbcv of the *' (.us." W9 quota fnam 
tho M$& which he has kindly pUecd in our bimdi. 

"The family of thr Riehmomliphifc VAnnims is tnurcd to Tudiw 

tiDcav The peculiar form of ibe name is remarkable amc^n^ English 

inymicc, and Icnds support to a iugge&tion thic tc dctivct from 

ftuh fitiftdtfS, At any rate, thcr<j vnE a John TAnfion, capain in 

King'i nary, in thcday« ofitt first fcnii-organiicd existence, when 

'Great Harry' rode ihc bcm- 'l"he captain's «>n, James ['Anson, 

in Kichmondshire in tl^a first half of thd stxtecnth ccntuty. 

Sweet Lass of Ruhnond Ifitt^ 


but tbe K«ncnrions next tticccMiqg w«e mfrchants in London, 
wUb Ibc English p^Moo for land. Bryan rAfison, bom in 15S;, 
achieved botb«><:ia] iuid tcmtonil position, for he hdd brOAdnunora 
m fiuc^nj^hinuturi^ uxl uurntxl Ann L««, ol tfe^onstidd, grand' 
niccc of Sif Henry Lee. knight. The hfir of ihh marriage was 
Sir Bryui I' Anson, one of the knighu vhom Jiuncs L m/tj be sud 
to hftvt is^r^j/^i with the occoladc. Of the knighi'A three sons, 
Sir HenT)' ww a fellow of All Souk* in 16S1. . , , A tecond, Sir 
Bryan ['Ar»on, became a merchant in Cadi/, anfl marri^ Donnn. 
Bcntiix Rico— licts which enable u» 10 undcntti^d how very moch 
of a real type vafi (he CuEiliani$cd Enf^Iifihrnan satirised in the 
' Don I^cgo.' otlierwiw Srr John Kotmal, of Wycherley'a comedy, 
' The Cenilcman's Danring-Ma&ter/ . . . The third brother, 
Wiibam TAnMA, reverted to V^k»hire, and married M sister cf 
Sit UAnnaduke Wyville of Cootubie Burton," 

'\A »on of this marriage In^ed at I^->'bufn, and here another 
^VHUim I'j\iison was bom about the troublous times of the \Vliig 
Revolution oF \f>%%> iie married Frances Biimcird of Po[ica,^icr,ai»d 
had & large family, of which the etdefit ton vit the father of the 
TWicablc' Lass of Richmond Hill,'" 

The Qryon TAnson above mentioned who married Ann Lccof 
BcMOQtfidd, tn addition to his purchase of Che manon of Bsfscl 
bury in Rucks, bc^cantc owner of those of Scinhjs and AJil 
Lcgtfs in NoTtha mpton shire ; wils fined for ShcnlT and AldcroaBn'] 
of London, and became High Sheriff of the county of Bucks, Ho 
hid five soni and five daughien of whom The names ar? recorded, 
beiides others who died young or iinmarrictl. His third soRj Brjaa 
(father of the Cadiz merchant, not the brother, a^ stated incorrectly 
ycK the above record), after being knighted by King Jimea L, haxl a 
uarrant for lioronet fnnm King CKirlrs \. during ihr^ Civil War, :ind 
allerlhc battle of Worccucr. which was fought September 3, 1651. 
Charlea, his son, escape to i^rance after sundry sdveniures at 
Bo«c<ibel nnd elsewhere, sailing from Brighlhelmctnnc, Ocrobcr 15, 
ifj^i, and *" iheicby liangs n talc'^ Soon afici his ariital in Pant! 
Qiarlet IL wrote a letter 10 Sir Hrya^i in the following terms : 

"Sir Brian VAnton, — The mar([ucs you have alwayt given of 
your aJTcttion and fidelity to the Crown since the beginning of Thcie 
Ttfoubles, gives meeentue Confidence of the continuance ol the wmo 
m tbe future : of w*^ I have likewise bin lu^surcd by your Sonne Dr. 
I'Anson, who va a person >^ I esteem very well of, I write thiit lo let 
lowsoc niuchsnd to assure >ou)'whA:socrci mu<i,ucsof ^voc| 


064 Th4 Gw^tKKt^ Magasine^ ^^^^H 

lurebmmnfcrfedbynijrFMhirrutKinrDurMlf^nrjDUTcannr, eithvra 
fnpoint of honor E>r adv^nugc, shall bee n^&dc food 107^0 by me«u4 
M>on At it «hAll plixxu God to '«tCore mo to Iho power of doing tt, 
and tbal ycu ihaU fArther find tipon ill ocuxiioni ihiE 1 Am enjiy 

Y^ Assured Fncnd 

Ckaklcs el* 
"S' Bn4ii I'Anson. 

^Fiom Pari*, December 28, 1651." d 

A copy of a droit of n baronet's patent to Sir Brrtn wu 
lately found amon^ the pip«ri of ih« Earl i^f Huntioftdofi, wttich i« 
too long to give here in defail, but set* fiJrtli : "* To oil to vtion 
Ui«m; pidcnti maiy come or concctnc. ^rrtcling : 

' ^Vhc^cafl the Kinfcc our late Royal Father of bleited Memoty, 
bocn fpradouslf pl^i^ in contideriiion of »ver^ good uid 
iblc Siffvicea pciforainl witb hiui l>y uur Tfuity ind wetl- 
belovcd S' Bryin TAmod K"* to grtnt him a Special Wamnt . •. . 
for the expediting umo him Hik Mflje«ty'A Letters Potent lor the 
dignity of ft Baronet, which by reason of the bte trouble hare noc 
been parsed, , . , Know therefore that VVc, taking into tenojs 
considcraiion hi4 mid msiny lonpi coiutanl, and faithful ktviccs 
, > . . doby thete presents give, grant, confer and confirm unto him 
the Mid 5* ^jyMi I'An.son R'*' \}i Abliliy Ixtlgcr in the Com, nf 
Nonha . > . the A^d title and dimity of Baronet of our Kingdom 
of Englnnd i - > ' and our will and pleuurc \% that this our pr^^ent 
gnnt tmdcr our Royal Signature and PHry Seal have in all thingi 
the umc pDivcr, force and virtue u our Letters r4Ccnt undrr the 
Great tieale of England to the effect tjnii! they be expedited to htm, 
which for vratit of convenience arc not pasi^ at this prGseni 
time. ^ . - 

" Given at the Lourrc b PAH&tbe6thda)rorMaj, i6sajinlhc4th 
yeare of our Rcij^ne." 

It has twen meniioned that Henry, aon of the above Sir Bfyan, 
wasa Fellow of Alt SouU'Colicge, Oxon, and be naaalsoaDoaorof 
Civil Lan ; and it adda to thia episode in the family hiatory to quote 
a lottci vritten by his son, Sir Thomnit FAnson, addrcssod to Sir 
' Witliam Dugdule, and iLtted M;ty jnl, t^S j, vrhirh i« prncrved in tbf 
family arehives. He wrote tbua quaintly : 

^' Sir,^ — 1 have been in WarwiclcthirE^ where 1 have been infonned 
tbat you are ofJ^n pleaied to reap tip thr Ashe? of my Ancecton 
(vit*) my grnridrjithcr S' BrjaD I'Anson and my F*lhf!f S' Hany 
(who were persons of Honor and Qvtalilk & Ktvcd tbeln: Kio^: and 

" Street Lass of Rukmmd HillT j6s 

Country iriih grc-it lojraliir 4 intcgritic to their u(ter luinc they both 
tKingc hanuhcd with Ihcire Kingc from the beginnmgc of y btc 
IroubLei until hi^ Maj^" happy retftMation) and ni^ver tclt th«ire 
Prince y whole time of hanishment suflTering thcm^rtvCT to bft 
tcinicrt out of aU A: imbmdng theire nmfoituntA and miM'jics n*>^ 
joyful hartcs cauM twaa Id serve iheire Kinge— Now. Sir, tis well 
known my grinclfath^r sacriliced ^4,000 P, nnn. wholly for his 
MaJ^ [whonk God preserve) he bringing the Kingi? ai 00c time 
jC^ojoqo iri tcady money to Oxon & on. Rcgimcni of 11or»c nil 
ttUKd And paid out of his own Hstatc; auid many other liifEnaU 
f^vidt 10 longe to mencon here, for w*^* «* s'vjris hi* Ma]'"' fii Own 
gave him a warrant for n Qarr* v^ luiiJ (wsscd immcdiftlcty ihen had 
It no4 bccti for y laid trouble* ... in thott there U nevcf a Bor^ 
in Bngloiid bu loe much to ihow for being ^ Bir* at mytwlfc. . . . 
My Te-qiie«tt to you Is that for the future yo^ would stand tny friend 
caihcr th^n my cncmic seeing I never dcKived oihcrwiaei but will 
upon nil occAsiono show that 1 am truly 

*'Vour nioit humble Servant 
^ " perpcLutUy to command 

^ ''T. I'Aksow-" 

The above record may appear to be a long digression from th» 
peraonAl history of rrince^ I'Anson of Riehmond HiU, but \t m 
intended that> M an introduction to her collatcndi, it ahould ahov 
the fcind of stock from which she came. 

Bom on October 17, 1766. the only daughter of Willtam, th^ 
wealthy attorney, as rcirountcd previously, the has been described os 
indeed very b^utifiil, u tall and ^ocftil blonde, with brown hair, 
blue ^es, and an eaqutsitc completion. 

In ibe marriage fr^L^tc^ of St Gcorge'i, HanovE-r Square, for the 
year of grace 1787 there is the following cntiy : 

"Jan, 16. I^xonard MacNallyand 

trances rAnsoo." 

The father of Leonard MacNally was a Catholrc, who aequired 
considerable built properly, but was denounced under the Penal 
L*ws ai a PapJMt, and strppcd of it- The ancestors of MacNally 
poccesied ihecasileand lands of Rahobeth, ash itated on the tomb- 
stone fit Donnybrrtok. 

The boy was Isrought up a ProtesUnt, and of hi» modier, 
Mrs- MacNiSly, O'Kicfe wrote aa "one of the finest persons of a 
wosra/i J ewr (air; fafj, fulj, and maieauc. \-tOT\iii YAr\v^ ^^i 


366 The GmiUman's Afagcuia^ 

much undenired, tut had & hindtcnie, cxpreviw co«quiiuic« 
fin* i|Kukliii( (Urk era. . . - Tboagti uiKkt middle sUtufCt tie « ia 
of poircriijl frame, fijul a fire couDieivmor> and bis keen bUck c>c 
ipitUed with hooaour and couugc-" 

In apiic of his undoubted j^cnioE and pIIict uttnctive qutUdoi. 
tiona, tndition haa it that irhcn he Uid siege to Che hout of UiM 
FhiDcei I'Ahmii At Bedford Row the |«teni^ infloence wu uMd 
against ihc match. Sir ]o«tit]a BAtiingcon m)^ thai tho fiU lady 
h»d bcTKlT Kimc turn for vcnificAtion, ukI if »o die vovld Ic 
probably the move BUftceptible to Ibe Atmctire quahtiea of htt 

It wai under theic cimimslanccfl thnt Fraooci I'Anson to 
ninicAtcdrorispoceM ilill House, which bj this lime KmI goim 
into the Umily by the death of Ralph Hutchinson, Mn. rAnson'i 
fitber. It vas thither that Lc^nofd MacKally Addreued Itit lut 
apffCJLl.andirherct one morning in the autunmof 1786, Mbs rAmon 
K^ieived a oopy of the now famoui vcnc? wUic^h prc^icc this alOffy. 

The father, we are told, »tUl refused hi» conEcnt \ but Sir Josbua 
Barrlngton iccordt that " skt tonid tuti trsiii ikit, amd n/mrted Au 
jfimMf." And wc know thai the liappy pair were eventually numcd 
<m Jonuery 16, 17$;, at St. Ccct>ic*>, Hanover Squofe,ajtd, we laty 
asniroc, with the sinction of the parent* of the brides 

After iht'ii mamagc; thi^y nfniained some yoAti in Lovidoii, and be 
beetmc a politician of &omc importance a&d dramatist of distinction, 
and in 17S9 James Hook, » wc have already related, set ''The 
Lmm of Richmond Hill" to mutic which hat been described ai 
*'As blithe and dear oa a blackbird's siong," and "Incledon, the 
ineompatabic balkd singer, waa ftin^inc it i^ cnthuaiattic Vamhall 
OOvda in Ixindon at the time when the mob wjit tt^fming tl^e 
BaMille in Pnrit." 

It h not known po^tively when the MocNallys IcTt I^ndon foi 
Dublin, but we Ic^im that their two dau^ter», Frances and EUabcEh, 
wcTf? Iiorn in England, and we have it on record that I^'onard 
MacNally was back in Dublin lieforc 1 J93, at which Lime he woa an 
ardcnc advocate of religious e>qii&l]ty and pohtical rcrono* He was 
an OTt^inal rocmbcr of the Unitod Irish Society, which ura» by no 
mcnn!! s rrhcllioLi>; org'ini«aiJ(in, and ihc ipkC whirli the new member 
would be required to lake before adtninion would be as foUova : 

" J, Leonard MacNalI)% in the prevence of God, do pledge Oky^ 
fidf 10 my country that 1 wiil use my abilidce and infloenot in tbe 
attainmrni nf nn ,idcctU3te rrprricntallwi of the IHiih Nation in 
Parliament, and as a mearu of ahiolutG and iBitnediate atlaiomcDt 



**Sw$ee Lots of Rukmond HUtr 267 

of ihu chief good of IrcUnd I vrili endeavour a« vnucb as in me 
lii^ in my abilfly (0 forwud a brotherhood of afTn^tion, jirt identity 
of interests, \ cominuniori of rigbUi and a union of power imong 
liiibauiK^f ail rclj^ioiis perfu^jona, vilhoui wbicU «xvry rcfOTRi m 
Fftribin«ni imwi be paniil, not nniion:il, inadcqiiate m the wanes, 
dduUTCtOthc willies, uid insuflidenl for the freedom and bappincit 
of this countT>-." 

Thm remarkable declfiration of tbc membera of the United Iri&h 
Sodcfy indicats ihe qiiAlity nf EtfnrNall/jc ]>oUticAj COitudencc, und 
wc find him er^gAged as one of the counKi for thccclebnied Nappcr 
Tandy, in his Aciron for fjil&G ioipniionmcol against Lord X<^V 
cnorland, And in November of tho «am« year he publifhed some 
rebellious verse* ii ihe " Nonbern Star." ihc organ of the United 
Irishoicn, aiid ;t was in vindication of thai body that he invited 
Sir Joshua Bitmi^ton to meet hnn ai i^ine paces m Fhumx P^rk. 

Sfr JOHhua"* o:*-n account cf this ecTebrarcd duel is recorded in 
inomiuble >tylc in hii " RccoITectionL" He records that hi* baU 
■ippeared to haw hit tlie tmclde tA M^LcNally's suspendcra {^igi^itr 

"gallcw»")i aiici that hit lecODd inhumanly exclajnied: " By , 

Mac« you are the only loguc T (tvlt knew wai^ saved by ihcgallowa?" 
Sir Jo«bua AAys of hirntclf : '*0n returning home 1 fourd I had not 
got off <iuite io well ai I bad thought Tb« &kitt of my coat ms 
peffixAicd on both itdeA, and a scratch Just enongh to br&tk the 
Akiti Ziud LAkcrn plA«x on both my tUi^ha I " 

A^r this MacKally became nlmoit a popukir idok, holdic^l 
brief with Curran for the defence of nearly every great Suie 
Uixl, and nas regA/ded, ii li !>a)d, "a:* second only to Curran him- 
Klf in bia fcados patriotism and forcmic eloqacncCp'' At this 
time his bouse in Dominic Street, Dublin, waft a tcenc of Laviih 

A Iclici of hia is proovcd. addics^ed to hia brother- 1 n-ltw, 
tenant Ralph TAnson, at that time of H.M.5. '' Vesuvius," and 
ime in tbc Kituinti Navy, in which he tiays : 

"Your promotion giv« one infinite miifactioji, and I doubt 
not but your spirit and conduct will ultimately raiae you to the &nt 
line of your profesuon, and Ibat wc may yet sahitc you AdmirvL . « . 
*ni« prospect you hould out of vintinji u« here 1 thAll coiitinoally 
bolLiowith miHt anxiout hotic, and yi>ijr !ki*(tei and I have very 
often indeed wished for your society. . . . Yoa will meet a kind 
ion and every attention within cur power to render Ireland 
ble . . . and when wc get you amongst us if your heart be 
diMngascd, if no *b1ack-cycd Susan' has laid hold of your aifec- 


68 Tks Gfniiematis Aft^asimt, 

tiotii, Kho Vnon\ T aay, hov tr« mighl ft«tid you hom^ a B 

IcoupM to an Hiberrian len Ihouund potmdci '. . , . 
•■ Your sisE*f is, 1 hop^, in gooi hcaUh And spiHtt She i« mach 
Bdmired, and, iivbai i> still more plc&sinK to mc, in much rcipccicd- 
Uy reUlioiitt love her mo«l sincerely, and if they <li<l &oE, I should 
bftte them ftom my betrt. Seven yc«rft hive no* nciily cUpted 
■ince our man'uge, and ihoiigh wc *iavc ^xpeTir-ncr<l some srvew 
nibft, I cm »y Tor her, u I c^n Aincetdy say for myself, there has 

■ not been a moment ol repentance/' 
The nouoe of ihe denih of Mn. MacN'ally, "The Luu of 
Richmond HElt,"apparslnthc''G<:ntleinan'i Ma^T^nc " of October 

Attet iSoo NtacNaUy received a reg:ular pension from the 
Government of jC%oo a year, and was %1«o pnfd the ^m ot j^ff.Soo 
for liis compiktion, "The In&h Jo&tice of ihc rcncc.'* 

*' 11)C end of this niranKc circcr came aI U«t " (to quote from tfkc 
*Tiier to wbom we have already referred), "and waw in keeping with 
tliif man's e>iraoriJinar}'doubk-'mindedi)e£8.*' He bad been brought 
vp a Prototai^l and alwaj-i profcMcd that rclitioii. 

On February 13, iSao, I'aUier Smitli, of Townscnd Street 
Chapel, was summoned in hnste to *' The CounceEtor^" house, and 
was mel by Mrs. MacNally, a daugbtcr of the Reverend Roliert 
BdHcworth, whom her husband had lakers to wife in tSoOi about fir* 
years after [be dcatti of hti fini v-ife. She told the priest thai 

■ MscNally was now asleep and must not be dlsitirbed ; bur her owtl' 
' son (by MacNally) came downstairs and rou^My bade hismothct let 

Fither Smith enter. ** When the priest c-^me 10 the bedside," ssiyr 
K tlie namti^«; *' tEie tick msn cm^'ed 10 be recei^<d Jnto tbe Cath^lc 
B Church- The la!([ «toTcmn rites men: Admlnislered, anil witliin 

■ «tt hour thereafter [,eonar<l MacNalJy vas dead." Thus ended 

■ solemnly, and almoit dramsticnllyf a chequered but Ijrilliaot c:(rccr, 
m and he was burled in llonnybrDok churthyurd, near 10 the grave of 
I Poctor Madden, the htMorian of llv United fri^bmen. Of bliq 
■' it has bctn vritrcn : 

I " MacNatly muRt tje allowed by hiK harshCKt cen^r to have had' 
I tile (niality (if valmir, which giics for samrlhinft I" the Iwttrr side of 
I D man's account, however deeply he may stand the devil's debtor on 
B the other tide. His remarkable coum^, his en'usivo ccnvivality, hit 
B profound di»imulat]OT), were equally genuine dementi of lh« came 
B nttnijrdinaty diantcicr. Judgment upon ibis man is not to be 
m stcndlled out in tlie staring black and while of tbe crude monUsL 
B It demands the; targe canvas^ the subtle bruih, ihe full ^aMte." , 



^f "Swti Lass of Ruknmd HiiC S69 

Tb« references in the foregoing to M&cNalL;'& " eiLU^oi diiiary 
double-mindcdattt** uid "profoLind ttisoimulaiion " were doubtlcaa 
prompted by the suppOAiiion iliat hr^ had been m receipt from tba., 
Govcn>mcal of occasionAl rcmionnccs as an '^infomicr^' uniil he was' 
rcguUHy peraioned. 

In ct^nclu^ion, it ti^jmainft only to malce shori relcjrence to the 
other members of Ihe family of William TAnsnii, ilir ■•wealthy 
Bllomcy of Bedford Row, \\\ the i»risti of St, Aiidrcw't^ HoIt>OTJlt 
Solicitor of the Court of King's Bench/' of which Innccd, his only 
<UughteT, was the youngest member. 

He died at his rcddence, Coigrove Place, \t\ the parish of Cot- 
groic, CO. Notiinghnm, on Octobci aG, rSoo, and i^as buried at 
CotE">ve. His eldest son, VVilliun, « brother of the L^aG, vu 
aitomey-at'lAw of the Court of King's Bench and Common Pleas 
at Wr^imin^ier, and couiiciHor-ai-law for ihe 5[atc of Rhode fslflnd. 
U.S.A. ft b also on record that he was at one time ensign in the 
WettniiDSter Rc^imeat ct M^ddlv^ex Militia. He wan the author of 
*■ The Stranger in America,'" " Edward Fit* Vorke." and other works, 
And died Mardi ij, 1819, and wa» biirJE^d at St Mary\ Islinglon. 
lie married Mario, daughter cf Thomai Walker of London, artd of 
Wiahaw Hall, co. Warwicki who aooo after the death of her firrt 
hni^bnnd took to herself a second in the pptson of Mr. Ridley 

'ihe only son of Witham TAnson of Islington w^s the \o\t 
William Andrew I'Anson, of Arthur's Hill, Newcaatle-on-Tyne^ 
M.RCS. England and L.S.A., who died April 4, i8;2, and whose 
second and younger son, Williim Andrew TAnson, of Wcstgalc Hill 
Hotim and of Demon Hall, co, Northumberland, MR.C.S. England 
and L,R,C.P. Edinburgh, continues his late father's professional 
pnctJci; in the meirtj^Kjli-i of the north at the prescni day, his elder 
brother, Thomas rAnson, M^R.C^S., of Wcslgatc Hill Hou^ having 
di«d in iS8[, leaving a son (Wilham Andrew "the Third,'* bom 
tS67), besides a younger son, Thotnas Charles, and three daughterir, 
by bia vifc F-iiMbcth, daughter of Goorge Young, Esf^uirc, of Qoldon 
Houac, CO. Uurham- 

Amongu the collateral branches of this Notlh-countty liamily tt 
tray he a n^atier of tntereu to the general reader to mention the 
I'Anjojis of Malton, whose tiai^ting .^tables there are so well known 
to tlic patron? of the Turf, more particularly as one member, the 
late William I'Anton, diacinguished himself as a winner of the Disrby, 
which 4iab1es cou1<] not be in better hands Eo-day lh:3n in thorw 
of Milca and Robot I'Aiuion. The " coUaieials " include oUo th« 

Th£ GtKikman's Mqg9£ine^ 

T'AnftOcu of D^iUn^on, deKVfuM IHrewii;^ IVnm fhc Cftpftln ft) 
of the liiDc or *' BluJT Kin^ IIa11»* who ^unikc Lo D^iliiijton ibout 
yctr iToo, aim) are de&cendcd from John rAnaoncfLcybunvco^ Y< 
who auTTJaJ Anc« H(i<Uon, daughter of Atthur Hudson of 
in Kildtfick, CO. York. The hue Chulcs I'Ainon, who vu >U] 
oS DftrfinsDoQ ftnd senior potrtncr in ihe firm of Chadca I'Aiuon, Soc^j 
ft Conapjknyp eogioeers And mJtrfty ptim Dmnulwrtumi, «nd «bo' 
died In t8&4, wm grtrAi-grctit-grwidfton of ih« Jotin above nAmed, 
hin imtncdiAtc proscnitoni hftTing csUUlfhcd And C«rTtcd on tbo 
rrtiinulacturi^ or linen goods un the b^nkt of the river Skcny: until 
the c^ubltthmcnt of ntilways introduced a oompeiiEion with other 
loCBlitic«> which wu the doom of ihut indu»lry at Darlington. 

Aithou^h thti Dariington branch, of which the writer of thb 
nadM l« ono, were moat of them memben of the Society of Fri^ndi^ 
thJa was tint Linivo-rtillj the case, as one of them wai a Congrcga* 
tioraJiAt, and v%% responsible largely for the (mi Independent cbtpd 
boilt in Union Street, Darlington, 

It may bo inii^n'Ming also to the general reader to know that 
Hill House, Richmond, paisfd incoihf.^ handi of Sir Ra1]ii Mit- 
banker whoie dauglrlcr, Lady Bttuu. was lUo cdcliraled bj a laore 
famous poet thin I^conard MacNally^ The house ii. wc bcUctc 
now the property of the HorL of Zetland. 

J. COVKMiaV l'A»30)t- 

a? I 



E Kliiifuient i>r Mr. Cliflbrd HariisoJi from jJuUic life forts 
>hadowod (he sorrovrftil fare nbich has lately overtaken n 
brillUni pcTftonality- The pubUc — efpecialty thil section ot it which 
trfqoenied ihc Sipinw*y Hall Tteiuls wiih undimmed cmhumatm 
yc*i by yc*r — knew itwlf dcpiJvcd of an ftJiogeihcr unique cxpeiience, 
b thing never lo he rcplnccd- For no workwu ever more irktinuUciy 
ttcprcutve of a dominant individuiUity. At every point it wui 
Titalistxl by the peculLir genius of Uie man. If It was nuLtlc, Itis 
Ihouehl tf»naccndc<i ibe uiteraace; if a light or familUr ihcaie 
&ci)Dired A neiv signiiicarcc, hk dramatic sense was in port rccpcnnfibk 
for the imrrpreiation, which wju in iift mm eomplL^icd by hi« eon< 
smnciate oiubi&il ^\{K. It vm tbc unioii of these chuact^riatia EhaL 
gave iLs jniquG chirftcicr 1o bis work: other rccttcn ihcfc wiU 
doubtless be of ecjual force and insight; folloven, perhain, and 
JDiittiors uf bi» ;;wn ^vculiai ailistiy; bul acnong them all, ihere 
•kail watcdy be found another in whonn the gift« of the myatic, artist, 
•ad niwcion blond in so reniRrkable u degree. It wo^ the perfect 
nttnrmbiesii — tncvitflblcncs*, one mtghi almost cull ii-*of his per- 
lonility that struck mciibcn I first made \a% acquaintance seven 
y«arfl aga Whether upon iho platform of Sleinway Hall, or in 
hsi own houas, cr out ol doors, he was estcniially the suime- In 
^Vrdinaiy oonvpTfationr cnrli urdl-knovn and dramatic habit of speech 
itself k oould bardly be called mannerism, for it was free 
ftom any hint of artificiality ; but it did in a n^csisute render him 
dlninct ind unusLial, n n^^tili to which his pcr^l unrmbnrrufcd 
eourtciy contributed '\\\ m\ jl^c when bcauliful in^tincm oie rare 

Conversation viih him, especially when in argument it touched 
4abMliblft grourd, naa in the highest degree irimtThting- Ac tuch 
tiiBC^ llie hahhnfil rr^cne that fenceil abuui ilie saneiuaiy irf his 
hmer life and thought voi apt to break awny ft little ; and Gcat< 
■tonally he wtiuld "score a poin" with an eager, almost boyiBfa» 
ImpHtiosiiy. Hut at no time were the v;%eritieit of Itrnitatitin and 
KKninc nbandoneiJ. Iii> AaliiCf for ail its ieennea^, "ka^ ^^Kn& 



73 Th€ GtntUmatis Magazins, 

cniol ; & >cnw of proponlon aiid the vise unity of a (rcat intdli- 
gcncc modctaEcd all his words. Everything About him bore the 
unpreitf of diKif>lin« And controt. 

On uccoAioi), liowcvcr, a cr-rlain <;u»ii)1 and ^rftcious Immouf 

rould clothe the umplc»t naion with a chAnn of its own. One 

afternoon, & gift of flowers was brought to hiin in hift Londoo borne. 

K(^ vr;u poitlculafl/ fond of flowers, and n|>eciu]fy of the "vfld 

rwiha" aiuong theiu. In taiing thcoa from their bAikett be 

detected a little ant rttnnin;* aimlessly in and out of the foliage ; and 

guarding the insect viili one luind, he toid lofUyt "Here It Ap«r«Ott 

ctinte up frooi th« counuy. ^Vhal should be done for it, do you 


H And it wail not until after mature delibcratiDn that the moct 
Bsuitoblc rciting place— ouUide in % pot on the venncUh — was iinally 

H But 1: wik£ pre-eminently hiA attitude towArda ihectcrnal probkiu 
of religion and philosophy that made all intercoanc with CliCTotd 
Hnrits(-iri 10 frtntful '^Behbtdp tht dreamer c^meth," vhk no doobl 
the flpokcn and ynapokcn thought of the many to nhom bii 
mystici«m dij not appeal. But a careTul comparison of hii attitude 
with thii of the liviTt extreme votaries of whiit he called '^eman* 
cip;Licd spiiituLtl ibou^bt" biotigliL iutii uioapicuous relief Hat od- 
_ miia1>k baUncG-Ihc inlc^Icctual "aophroaync" Aochoroctcmiic of 
Hhis mind and chonctcr. Ho was too delicate i humonst ev«rlo 
run into rxiremrt; and although he rcjeaed all datira to schoUr' 
ihip, his MiJe culliviitjon kc^t bim in toudi ttith all that is txKai 
mluoble in the undent or the modem world. A lotler written in tho 
of '99 is particularly intereiiiing, referring to the recent publi- 
in of hi* ** Notes on the Margin*." 

"\ can indeed have no belter pleasure than to luiovr of the 

uuvciing thought of thoughtful mind«. \Vhca 1 pubhahed the 

NoEe*>" 1 Inew iJie book nould reocivo but Kant ooiioc : dlenco 

ftjui Tcjectivn is the fate of audi Avriiing, invariably- Biit I hare had 

many cxprc^ions oi~ »)'mpathy and undcntandingT aome of which 

liavc greatly pleased mc ; and now this article of youn ploaMfl ia# 

more than oil. Yon will rradity understand thai my pagiee do not 

Lgrcfttly Adtisfy the piofcascd ' occultist ' or * theosopbiftt>' w they do 

[sot go taf enough lor thvm, while they go too ^ for the ordi- 

render T ] am glftd that you think there are ouch dininct 

ignt ir ouf day ot a ^et tcvaTda fiiirilual and myotic ihought. and 

\Q intelligent acceptance of ancient wisdom. To inc one of ihe 

lOttt beautiful eigns o\ the times is the decroosiDg dogmatism and 

Clifford Harrison. 


pdnrtcing mioD oi science' 1 s^mclimoA «ond«r if the word for 
which the wcrtd seems to be vniting wil) not be spoken by Science — 
lu ill ui»n uiunJahmail ! It a aure to tomt; frx;m tlie ' Bctlilcli^iu ' 
BDOtt dc^piKxl Dt^d leant rc^rdcd by the religious world t Bvcn 
now the fjuriK of science mm to mc as radiant with hope as the 
*txiitb«'cif any ctted- If Sdenoe will oii'y— ts she will surely — 
free hcncif from hci tcmpution to dogma (dogin:^ as hud and ciucl 
a* uny church's creed), she will rise 10 knowledge which wc cam yci 
only dimly apprehend. Do you not Ih Ink so? . , '' 

Aiitjtlicr It-itrr curtains a dtljoitc ctiLjcism of fl contcimxiniry 
wriier who. \n his judgment, "went loo far." 

" 1 do no4 mpiclf find his essays so fruilful and fuggctth-c a« the 
critics led me to ftupiiose. The deeper ihmights are simply the ever 
yoBac truths of m>'sticLsni dealt with Uam the modem [>oint oi view. 
1 did not find iiiy new discovery in Ihem. And occaxionally the 
'infinite' becomes tiie 'indefinite/ and the ^mystic* the *raisly-' 
^is my le^id for tiue inystjL-isiEu mikes uie greitUy dishlte; For 
OS Kingsley said yean agt}, ^thcsc mystLca^rcdcspcmtely pnctic&l 
people.' . , ." 

WJth obacurily of utterance or style he had no sympathy. " Mrs. 

always oppicsaea rat,*' he wrote on another occaiion. "in spite 

cf her clcvetrcts and diami. 1 loci a tittle ba^cd by her ccntcious 
' superiority/ and by the obscurity of hei style-" 

This deairc fuc the simple and iulellijjible permeaieiH all bis 
irwt Save for an cccaaional " dark aaying," oi flight of fancy, his 
•' m}iticftl " writing, like hi* talk, was niaikcd by n lucidity and 
common ^ense which went far lo augment its influence. *' To forget 
what Is m visions cf nhai might and may be. is clearly a grave 
oustakc. all the more serious from its frequency." 

Thus he had written in the *• Notes on the Mar^irs.* It was a 
mistake from which his s^nse of proportion lidd bim back. 
Between the two fatal extremcj associated with mysticism— the self- 
imnihiUtion of ihc£a^tcm,ardthesctr<a5&crtionofthe Westernmind 
— he struck i balance in his own personality- Froni the ferlite error 
clbcitlisyslcins^thcdeiJiCBtioQofall human thouaht and the invent- 
ing it with divine authonly— he was a^io preserved by a disciplined 
tntctligenoe ; although, in common with all mystic^ hcgave [ntiiflion 
the mo« honouicil jibce in ihf. histtiry of mind. It was* I believe, 
his enthusiasm for tbc idea of unity that ^as responsiUe for his 
intellectual bifts towards m^siiciKm. He deftircd for the world a 
common basis whereon all the antagonistic line* of thought might rest. 
He saw in mysticism the in^itlicnnj^ of aU the kn^mV^ ^ \«^ 

you <vxcvT. Kc aof^ U 


Tk€ G^ntUman^s MagaitHs. 


a%ts ; Uie consocntlon ofcfedunUt beliefs \ the doir devdopinent 
or ft trve spiHiual apprthenaioii cf oil imthr all rcvektioAt All tbougbL 
[I waf scarcely CO be cilkd a cr««d, bumucb at it pecogBiscd no 
Iisfuad&mcnulciRtAin:!t« wcref^w ; bui chief amongibem 
btlcts trcLt the bdicf in the powt^r of the hutuan spirit to acqiurt 
greater powers and to achieve gr«alcr conquest! than fiocna pottibia 
lo tljc majority of men, Such a belief r* ever more intiinatd/ 
Ataocutcd with piactioc thaii vriih theory. 



Attd ht cUtme^ for hi» boltef th^ ii kept pace with the pi 
davdopmcflt of the reason in manbn4--lhat ii vn% cs««ntiallf s' 
^rotf Lh, net lo he tmpoieiil from without, but drvelopcd from within ; 
thAt ita 0ue}]:<Aions fuinhlicd the bcftt--though not ncccsurilf the 
rknal^-intcrpretAtion o^ Ihc myttciiea of life ; bringing us "* torching 
that mti-rcd our thought-nimoipherc with the light and cnei^of 
the HJiuhioe." 

This ia not the place— nor have I the ftutbority— to folknr out 
the apparciit mult of thetc ronviaioTiE in hi« method of dallf II 
But one; thing ut le^iNt wju [}hTi»L]a — mu^^t luve b<rcti ohnotM— cicn^ 
to the most casual objcrrer. I lacan, the con<iucst of the spirit om 
the phyiicxi dAsabiliti«« and adverse circtJcnstancM oi tifo^ Coova^; 
and endumrce ere t^flrntima brought out by suffering; a ebccrfulj 
Krcniiy not infreijueEitly accoiDpioiica the most cheeriest fote; 
evecy one is familiar vtth the influence of a strong will and 
tieinperaincm in overcoming pain and sorrow. But m toolEtng 
arrosc the la«l ynir« of Ml Harriuin'K puhtic Ufr, one is hm 
udmit that the "conquest "of that strong spirit wai caceptionaL TO' 
onderftUind it at all, cr^c iiimply bad to admit the action oj eaceptional 
powers, acquired throu£;h Long habits of sclf-di&cipline. 

Those who enjoyed the privile|fc of his friendship can bat 
testify 10 the rare influence which his persorudity inspired j but that 
influence will not be limited to them. It reached far and 
among his hdrcr*. Few probably who listened to the wor 
mtiiic which was perhaps the highest expression of his unoommoa> 

, were insensitive to its deep, weird buauty. That those subtle 
bannonics should have patted into dlence beyond recall «e«iiif io 
me of us A loss un&pealable. 

It were of course impouiblc not Eo regret that a life so briUi^Dt 
in promise and achievement should prematurely have poased 

Clifford Harrison, 


ftwtf. But hit work rcroaim— a pure uid beautiful ffiemory ; and 
hit wTilten vord \t\\ 1 itiink, never loC9 its interest for iho foi?, 
thciitgh it will no( 4p|iral In (h? many. 

Among ihc circle of hU friends inU icquabuncc^ consciouB « 
dc^vation, there will probably be ninny v/ho vriEl recall tKc vcnet 
ctf his own ** PoEi'boy '^ ; words vrhich, I c&iinot doubi, would most 
ncmnitcly express his inmofi dL-airc a/^d reeling. 

t would «iy lu Ihcsc who love mc-^ 

** r>o nciL nii>uni lor nio. 
Cad fergvC i or el«c, retncnber 

When \ii well with ibcc." 
■ • • ■ ■ 

Lff I mnvnbrftnoc img i mad siucuid 

Sudtoi hcf uwu Ltan aconujtc i 
Lrt hr^ ^ing ii arg rhiC po^I^lxry 

On lliU bji^rbt Majrmomirg. 

"* LSitca ] HG remember vm, 

Because the c1»y Is bilght ] 
Jjkifn t we iffBienibei you, 

BeouM our harU uc light I 

"Ypu who maJetiui live* ihe iHighltTi 

TlVe the Ime we~K ^vln^ ! 
By Iha lt>^-e vc give j'ou tUJ, 

SliJl W4 koovr yoLi'ic living 1" 


The CcnU^matis Ata^azitu, 





ON in ouivard'bound iram, onco 3K>u bAve Id^ RicfcmuuworUi 
behind you, tncrylhlng tM^titifu.1 in a ihing af ilv; prcceott 
from tbe mcadova bcaidc the nil, And the eUslcning ccreuiv 
biiorsoctinjc them, to tbe disUnt moor ^nd wood-cbd hilL 

The eye noEi^ with « l?«n lenie of relief, after the effbru of tbfi 
dicBp modern nuM>n which Iiave dciaced ifae Kind tbe first put of 
your journey, ibc way in which Niiur^, with fatf initt'a crc. Uyi oit 
her colours : here, the dt*aint gleam of nd from thjtt paich of 
riover adjtnning the woods ; thcrr, % pictUTraque orducd on a sofrljr 
rounded niopc. iu trees knobbly, ttunted, gDarled, ilottcd about 
irrtguUriy, and undcrncAlh tbcm An ca^er crowd of vcorrying beiH 
tnd chkleeni with an eye 10 the main ehnnee of what cotUd Ynt 
picked up ljy the alert beak \ fxow, ilie dclioiie blue of a forget-me- 
not on this nc^ar bajilc. Hu^q^catmK £orac enlightening forf;ct oie cot of 
ft memory from the pi£t, shining up unexpectedly in the mind 
which IK hrclgcd ^troun^l with 4 ihouuini] diin-<:o1ourrd commonptioe 
rouEino of the present- 
Then, later, the train ^wccpa through A royal blaic of yellow 
from a clump uf marigoIcW at it slow=i down at Chalfont Koad. 

Junt beyond the aUtion we saw a field of winter oau slandln^ in 
flanting stackA, and HUgg<:M'ng hatr all '* roughed up'' the wronf 
way ; the stacks of two dchcaie shades cl [;rey»h olive grucn, Ughl 
Rbove, dark bclnw^ and bumishni with a dull siecly light. 

Beyond was a strcEch of delicate uffron coloufi spiinUcd daimilj 
pon a far reach of velvet meadow Und, 

The count rj* man opposite me In Ihc C3.aiage remarked thitthc 

lewon vhicb 1 admired so much vrai t-xcecdjogly difficult I0 

icate among the crops, that it will wait a jesir after bloomuig 

d tbenr when one conl^dcntCy hopes that it has died out effectually 


An Old BHckinghamskirt Vtltagt. syy 

viH app;^ ta Hiring one! vigorous ju ever ir Ibc suc<«edin^ 

On the whcat-ficld yhkh b^ &1oi)gftidc he pointed out to me the 
"ccuch," or coucb grawK, which comet iip in pittche* here and there 
— jiateliPt ibnt nrvrr fail lu jifrvrm ihc tjpgrowili of ihe wheat. 
Fuither on atiU> and we wcio puaini; the »weep of gnuoland and the 
dip of valley vhtch IIo« between the ndlwiir &nd Liule MtBaendeitp. 
Ltitic Mifisendea lies cosily in the boi^om of the hilf«, the woodl 
growing dcsd/ above-, a dark broffn iietd ^ihowing in strong contrast 
below, with the stlTci gksim of ^ hkc In middle distLocc. 

Further still, (he glitter of a shallow pool, with «ctntilUting 
shaftx of sunlight puling nil of cr it, greenish plaints growing thick on 
one &ide of its bank ind a skimming water bizd above Evexynheie 
— over everything— ivas flung a glorious wc&lth of colour, dung 
royallf, lavishly, unstinrbgly. 

Purple of scibious, rose pint of valf^rian, scarlet of poppy ; whFle 
every now and then the rarer crimson of foxglove showed up At the 
border of a wood^ 

Away nn the left could be seen the grey brown roofs of the 
vDUge of Grtat hli^endcn, clusLering together in the valley nestling 
under the shadow of the ChillemsH 

Then presently, beyond The sialion, came rows of respectable 
uiilitanan vpgctiblcs, in thdr conventional suid dull-coloured dreij, 
while, behind them, by a wide meadow of red-brown Indka wheat, 
badcod by a hary wood shimmering m a blaco of heat— • streak of 
ninfoin binding it all round like a fair tiTkrn ribbon. Htgh abovtt 
&U,oci£ Qurk»l the 5lnught snnve of a hankt and now and f^in th6 
heavy flight of a company of magpies. 

It wsfl all a iianafigured radiance of d^^ling embroidery of 
colcnira : vivid gr*?fn. vivid yellow, vivii red, (icarcely a "crumbling 
pagetat " a» Drydcn said of old of anolbcr ?;ccnc, but a very quickly 
&diag one all the same. 

Ml^ Great Missenden eome« Wendover, 

Just before one rc^chc^ the fitilc' nation there oome* in sight on 
right the rounded shoulders of wliai ctumi evidently have been 
■n old Britisb encampment, ber^idc which poffics the line of thcfincicnt 
Xoman Icknield, which ran through Buckinghauiikhire to Berkshira 

LipMruuib. in lila '* Hisloiy and Aniiqujlio^ ijf But. king hatnsh ire," 
ttyv that unquestionably Wendover was once a BriLt»h trackway. 

It is not uncil one ha£ left the station two or three minutes 
behind one, that, turning a sharp corner In the road, one gets one's 
first gUmpKT of the village of Wendover. 


The G€ntl€niatis M^uxme. 

And cn^£ first glimpe and IiDpresBfon of it la UAdeciably a 
striking one. 

The vHUgc u built od « s^^c slope, juid is m»dc up of old 
gabled black- timbered cotugct, vHth laltic^d dormer windows and 
deep euwt: ^ere irc nuMd pu£bwajr» on dih^ «ide th^; «tm% 
edged irith tlopo of ffiau» while in Ihc bu di-<(U4icc itand protec;- 
lagly, ahelteringly, the Chittem Hills, covered witb radjaat blue 
forest— hero in deep shadow, there cheqocned viih briHiuii tuiw 

Oi^ some of the doomayn of the cotlagos hung |>car-trces, 
heavy with fruit ; ovtr others, irailing rtec*. 

Everywhere brooded * lieep peacr; cvp.Tywhcrc an air of pfO- 
apcriiy ^ccmr^ to reign, Tlic whole iccne made a VLYid* undying 
pktLire in one'a memory. At the foot of the High Slrcot— which 
gives A son of effector havirig been built in two parts — Ibcreba 
fine uld red brick house (Bosworth House) which has a cnrioii* 
pointed mouldirg under the roof, tunning dbng the whole front- 

Lchnd describes Wendovcr thus: 'A pretty Through-layie 
Towne havingc n streets well builded with Tymbre. There is a 
Causey made almost through lo passe bclwijit Alesbury and \U t:Is 
the wiiy io wett tyme as in a lowe Sti^e Cbyc wirre tcdiout and ill to 
paue. The Townleii Sclfe of Wendover siandeih partly upon the 
N,R. ClifTf* of Chihenic Hillcs. The Residewc and NAV, Parte 
stuidcth in the KooCcs of the IliUcA. l^^ool^c as the Countrye of 
the VaIc of Alesbury for the moi^l port is cleanc banvn of Wood, 
and is Champalne ; «oe is all the Chtlterne well wooded, and full of 

Wcodovcr in Domesday isurvcy is rocordcd as Uie King's Manor, 
ratod At A 4 hidcK. 

"'ntcrc was lend for 26 ploughii. In the demcsnr there were 
three. There were i6 villeins and 6 bgrdars having 17 ploughs^ 
There were two raille of lof. rant.*' <Wendover today bouts of one 
old watermill) 

"Paiturc for llirec Icams, and ao*, overplus wood for a,ooo 

" Altogether it was estimated at ^3!^ annual rent in legally as- 
luiycd UHiney,'' 

Ej- a charter of doubtful dale In ilie rcigr of King John, King 
Stephen icems to have exchanged the manor of Wcndovcr lo Hugh 
de Gurney, or Gurnace. la 1316 Ihe King gave Wendovor to 
William dif Pcdues, OF Fiennes, and in iit^ William de Cantlltipf 

An Old BtuMnghnmshin Viila£4^ ly^ 

obtBDcd all tbc lands which then ncrc in the hand of hii »oq Hugh 
6^ Gtimey. 

]n the BUibytMF of John's rrign, Wcndovcr had bcenenumcmM 
Among the Und« of the Normans, at late belonging to Robcit de 
Tibcvdl, Of Turbarvillc 

" Henry Brudenetl, or Amenham, died seised of bndi in W«nd< 
over, vhkh \xe directed inffr a/ia lo be &o1d lo ml&e tnoney, lo be 
dUUibutcd for his aoul, the soula of Edmund hu brolbcr. juid 
AJioe bi9 Wife, and of his father and mother." 

Kiog Henry VIL gnttited m 1491 the borough of Wcndov^r and 
Lotdship or Muior of Wcitdovu Fort^is u Eliuibeth. (Atiglcs- 
Sttxon '* foron " signified *' before," and in iti cri^injil &<:nsc " beyond * 
— cofuequcntly Wendover l-'orenfl was a kind of outer parisli, 
Wendover Dean U a small bnmlet in the i^ear neighbourhood, and 
paa of otd in po»sanon of tlic Dine?.) 

"In 1544 the Kin|(, by Patent (to Henry Bmdaliaw, to whom 
he had Utdy granted the Rectory in consideration of jC^^^ -f- J^X 
assigned a meiadoiv uiUcd Caaite Dktih meade; a elc&e ^if jinstum 
caillcd Spittle Pond, a piece of land of 5 acres in the Bury Ikld, a 
clOiQ Gftllcd WgU Head Croftf arable land calted Fowslov Doviu^ 
another piece oilled Otebill ... a croft called Shallorlc-WEke . , . 
a lQ4Ld of wood for fowcll, yearly to be talicn out of tbe wood growing 
upon Backcomb , , , parcel of the latJ; monjutcry of Grcstt Misien* . 
d«n-* ^ 

I cortHttccd ft miiler coming Along in hiic rart (who very kindly 
gave mc a "li^" aloni; the country knc) about the wbercaboutL 
of all these loc&l «|k>u, tut he did not know iJie n&mci or 


He told me that the mill stream iokc in Well Head Croft, and 
that it vaa a few yards Ijcyond the old Kectory. 

**Qu«n Elizabttb by Leitert Pattnt diled November aj, 1561,- 
reciting the dcciiie of Henry Vlll, to John Wyre of two water milta 
in IVendovcr. one a brctt mill, snd tl;c other an ovcr^hotl mill** 
There it to-day a quaint old water mill >tar;dLng bnck from the road, 
whicti I phoiograplioU. 

"In 166& OrdiTcd that any of ihc uihabitani* of W«ndover 
Forcnfi ^hl\\ have ficc accc&s unto tlic Caj^c and Stocked witliia ibo'i 
Burrowc of Wendovcr, and to putt their prisoner; into the m-id Cl0H 
01 Stoclu as olten as they b;i\e occasion «oe 10 do, without any lettj 
or Wndemnce of ihe inhabitants of Wendoter Burrove, uppoo paine 
for any that shall hinder them. , , ." But now fov many a long year 

iSo Th€ GtniUmafis Maga^nt. 


■tbc inbAbJuntB ef ^Vcnd^rcr F^cns have no mere 'Tree accc» '* lo 
Htboft old bubdrilics for they liiv« long ago vtimh^d fiom sight 
H Nc^u WrniloiTt, a tnilr :ini! ;> lutf ^vay, is thr n1<) I»i«uc, calM 
Vthc Hale, Uut uKd lo betting to Dr, Jobn Cold, itic ^moiis Xkm 

cf SI VvxVt. 

Dr Colct w:l« a naiiw of WeodovieT, and )ia« been of bto jous 

rocognbcd a^ one uf ilie ttnat men of hut tby, and hk clcu^ifhicd 
Knew iittcrpTCUtionft tA old dodrinc* lod eraHUADy to mocfa fir- 

teaching chsingc of Iboughi- 

Hc biiitt, birr in hu lifr, A hertnitagr at Shcfc In Surrey, md 
H there be ditxi cf swr-uing licknni, SqJtcmbcr t6, 1547. 
" Tlic ^lonoi of Martyn* w« fonnoHy pan of Ibc poucasions of 

the Dormefc Tb« farlif^i ^>Vi\ which has been djvcorercd for a 

tnarkrl and IHif at Wendovrr wiu by rhflxcr of Ivd^ard III. tO Sk 

John dc JklolynH, of Slokc Togt^. '* The original Chirlcr rcprtsantl 
■ thift hi^ to havff btftn hoUkn on Si. lUmabu Dayp" 

Wmdover inan ancicnr rurti dfurKry. **In Kcnry VI1L reigK 

Ihc Monastery or Pnoiy of ihc Blessed Virgin (/ St Mary Omy 

tin Soutbrrork enumcraled . . . Lbc 1-ann cl the Rector) of W<nd- 
" In 1553 the King granted an urn; of land called Uiinpland cum' 
pcit in occupation of William Colct klvch to moiniain a light in the 
church. Alio the roods of ojuble for mainteiuncc of a light tbcrt 
bibeod. To Ihem and to the heirs ind aisigna ... for ever in fret 
soccage" (old A.^ for frei* eierci^c of judicial power], "of the 
manor of EaA Greenwich by fealty only." 

I made many inquiries of the Rector, who has been tbittf'Six 
yesn In the pariitb, and iearched the Chnrrh Rcgl«rert, but nowhere 
could 1 obtain any further infornjalion a> to how long ago ibc bf^ht 
hod been discontinued. 

There Is the same mention of maioteoanee of a light in iho 
church at Stoke Mandc^illc in an old record, but iheie a^n 1 ccM 

(only come 10 the i4me conclusion, that the light of that lug^tttive 
oM custom must hiw- deed out long nnce, probably in that lime e( 
much repre^tion, the English Reformation. 
Another nuticc tur^s ihu& En a iccoEd of ihc bcventccntli century; 
'* In House of Commons May 17, 1643, ilwaaotdercd» on humble 
petition of Lhc Parishioners of Wendovcr, UiaC Mr. Carter, Mf. 
VaJcntire, Mr. Bi^^-erlyt Mr, Criemlon, Mr. Spuraiow, Mr BbkveH, 
Mr S<--nnait and Mr. Woolfiil, Ortbodux Divu;es> being beneficed 
bKn in the same county, alle preacher* and of good convemtion who 
uo vriibng thereunto, sbiU have Liberty, freely and without tny inttt^ ^J 

An Old Bfuiinf^hamskirt Viifagt. 381 

niptiont to Mt up ami Icttp » lecture every l^iondar weekly in the 
»kid pvish cburch of Wendov'cr." 

H*rc again. *'T(wIfly hit no mori* lo s^f 10 yretciday " snd sone 
noUble '' interruption," of wlut kind no one pcrhjtps will rvcr know, 
must hare occurred at vome d4Ue« also unknown, to prevent 
"preachers of good con\<ereaiJon*' from keeping up die Thuwfay 
evening IcctuTr. 

Kcsu the churdi is 4 Iatjec n)C4kdow called " ^VitchAll ** meadow, 
about which there BliU hangfl a curious old tradition quoted in 
" Note* and Queries," and the Rertor told me that many of the old 
iiilubjutriu have retailed the same story lo him. 
\ AccordinK lo ihb tradition, the church ^'wa.';to hare been placed 
On a field idjoinmg the town, ind there the building wai begun, 
but the laterals were all uirried away in thtr ni^bl by wiichri, and 
dcpOMtcd where ttxe church now viands/' 

Apparently the punishment threatened on a «iffr)bottrd I noticed 
in Wendover, the diiy I wa* Iheie, was noi effectual wtih the moverA 
dmrch materials- 

" Persona rcmovelng Giavel, Sand, or other MateiiAlfl from ihtt 
Highways will be prosecuted." 

There seemed a coi'crt slight intended for treapucs^rc on 
Another signpost which itood in a cetuin meadow cluac b/ the 
church, and encouragement for Ibc humble mushroooi ! 

"Tre£pa£9ej3 wilt b« pTOSCciitcd- — Mui^hrooms cultivated" 
I Beside the aid watcrmitl \% a prclty Ijit uf landieape : a dump of 
white initlows, and a ihrce-comered apace full of jrcllow iit&q;ucr]Ce». 
Just there the niillMrcam spreads into three; two clear, limpid, brown 
nll«,and one s^fi velvety green and panially drfc^d up, while over 
thr Uiilt^ weir the «oftc^ muatcnl patter of water fell with 4 gcntte 
rhythm on onc'« ear. 

Hie chtircli tiaeir wv restored soon after the present Rector took 
rl^argr of the parish, and \& in heauiifut order. I1 is a church of fin§ 
|;«<jpoTtion, and is exceedingly prettily sdtuatcd. 

Ihe registers date back to 1600, and there are some curious 
trica among them. These were some among the bitriaU : 

^AffT dftt. January 30, 1678. Edvjird King, Gcncial Trooper/' 

*'Aff- d4t> Jan. 21. Alice, the daughter of John Davcy, Chair< 

^p " Aff. <Ul ffet 8. William, the son of Wlljam Gurdcn, Trooper, 


" March 31. Rote, the wife oT Matthew CKargo, day labourer." 
" JOMph. th« ton of tfancis WclU, Shoomaker." 


j8a Tiu GeniUmans M^gasiM. 

'<AfIi<Uvii. July lo, 16S0. Thomu CoJUndridge^ Huifctad' 


"Nov, 33. Tboouft, the son of Thorou ydlovt, PattJn- 

I " idft?. Aug. 18. Eliabclfa, daughltT ^Villiam Meide, PocuH* 




Tlwn follow other entries of burUdi of ihoeiuJc^n, mno spell 
"tboonakcT" ft4 above, others " ihoooiiiAker." and one vooders 
wliclhcr ii y> u tlic « L»h to coiphuUc tbc f&ct of cxu^ akilJ in the sliois 
vukci which led to cucb gross ovcrfccdti^ of the irord with " o's." 

Then o^n comtfs : 

'•Tboroai Uar^all, Jun'» wollen -draper." 

'•Nov- aj. iGSo, WilliAm, Free CWcr." <Quci7. i«h« « * 

'* j\nrt« Gnyslod:, of HMirich pftrish, by Btntier.'* 
L At [he bottom uf muMf [u^cs jirc iht- irords^ "Seen and Atlav^J 
by us.'' ftiid three r&mcs si^cd. 

In An old rc);t!itcT in the vestry 1 found the following notloev 
dftced 167S, in bl^ck letter t 

"Carolill. Rcgi*. 
An Act for BitryinK in ^Vollcn. 

*'Whtfwiia Act made in ihc iS^ year of Hn Ma|»atiefi »f^i« 
now entitled for Burying in WoUpn only wis inwndcd for th« Icsmd- 
Ing the JmportAtion of Linen from bcyocicl the Sca. and the eo' 
cotiagesient of the ^^'oiien And Paper manufactures tt tbu Kingdoia 
h^ the SMOG been observed, but id R«epva there was not sufEcient 
Remedy thereby giiten for tlie discovciy or prosecution of olIenceA 
against ihc uid l^aw, the same hath hitherto r^ot hid the effect 
thereby intended," and goes on to iay that nothing made oe 
*' mlngM «1th flax, hemp, silk, hair, gold, or sUver, or any other 
thing nhitbioevcr tbAn what u naade of Sheep's wooll oncly '* should 
be uKd;* 

This » intcresiiiig irhen one remembers that in :6S9 tbewooUen 
nmnutictjre was so much looked U[)on at tkf chief induttrj of 
EiigUtid that all othcis were sacrificed to u. Peo^jle had begun to 
toanufiacturc other mntcriah, but at that rime, v^hci\cvcr their interests 
nn counitr to the woollen Tmde, it wok eonaidercd by the Govetn- 
eni iis the moit eeonomical course to punsue, to destroy them 
thlcAnly. It sccniH iitcvtUiblc tliat In all agr?i, ard in oil humin 
Airs, there should be ik br^c numbeT of people in authority who 
nnot see beyond to-day; so hopelBssly shomighied are ttwy to 
bat the future u preparint^ for the progrets of the cotintry. 



An Old Brnkinghamskire Village. 383 

Fin Wendovcr Church is m very cunou« old bra»s of Clurka W% 
time, «faidi the prcMrnt Rector told mu Su found, when tbe church 
wu being reftloredT in the belf^, .*ind had brought it inro the bod/of 
the diurch. 

Away 10 the north of Wendovcr is Sto3cc Mandcvillc 
Stoke M^ndoviHu wxi one of the manon of the Bithop of Lincoln 
At the time of Iht" Norman Survey, 

Lcbiid Aa)« tlut "Bicilcn yr^s onginalLy a chapel of caise to 
Aylesbury, and its itvcnuca were annexed (o that prebend in 
Lincoln CiEhedral by Richard firavcscnd, Btthop^ witii the chapelt 
of QuatciidtJi], Butkhmcl. and StnkR Mandcvillc by juicnt in u&li 
« • • uid fmhcr by Honry VllL in 1524 to Longland, Bbhop of 
Lincoln, Stoke Mandcvdlc voi only a daughter church to liierlon. 
TJie Aylftibuiy Hundred is formed by union of three ;Lncient 
huadreda. Elcibcrlc, KiKbeige, and Stanc, and »till letaina fcrmally 
the appcllalion of the Three Hundreds of Aylcabvi)-. . . • Elcaberic 
conEained ^/^m/, called now Atton-CUnton, Bieiton or Burton, with 
Bucklanil or Brotart^ xmiin Broughtun, Hulcolt and 5Mifj, since 
aJTed Stoke Ma^iJevillc'* 

At Stoke Mando'illo one can tbe better «c« the tiro sptJt« of the 
hiUi, fnppDicd to hflvc been the Britiith £^mp, with the fowe covered 
willi woods IjiuB between, and dnmiw of darlc groining furre lying 
thick upon ilic slope. 

The whole effect cf the hilla seen from the oation U most 
piclnre«i|urr eiperi-illy whi'n sern on inch ;in rmnlionai, ini(JijUive 
afternoon a» ibc one on which I was there, when the succcwlve gleams 
ot^ sunshine were clinnbing the slope swiftly in and out ofthc furie 
btubesi, unti], having reiched ilie summit, they suddenly vanished, 
ksvlng all beneaib uncertain in outline, sombre and mysterious- 

At Stoke Mandcvillc arc a number of Itne old bams, and some 
Utberciting old collages, particularly one called Yew Tree Form, 
wtoe a qu&intly cut yew tree almost vhicldn llie huuic from llie 

The vicarage looks new, and is not attmctivo from the outside- 
Some Utile distance from the village, standing, at an old record 
aaysv ''hi a luw, watery meadow^'* is the old church, now pricucally 
^K a nin. The " watery" meadow is charming, wiih a little stream 
^V iMindering Ihicugh it, sentinelled by rtishfs, and much frecjuented 
by wh(!!aiearc. Scnnce is never held in the church now, but in ■ 
IKH little building ncaTer lo the station. A Uliouring maB of ithom 
I aakcd a few questions told me that twenty years a^ t actTLCt 
WD held in it onoe a year, but that now it w«f too much dilapidated 


ri4 Gfmikm^E Mtk 

tp t far wdi pwpdiiL AmUmt OMMTMBi, -rto 

Dd^obM dK v^Efctof fan ^m U^ 
loTAmKn vlif dM cfcwck ^loM l»vc been pvcn vpto 

IL- Be oidj k«OT tf« fact dMi b itf b^ (Ind on dit 

UiOMoUnccmkofStcftvMiodcTaklhm oecn tfcetttij 

*Iz) i5$^tbeKiDgpa&b-t]iot,*LtoSETE<!wudBr^,KnL,}ohii 
ThonKoo, Attd Jolia DnCv. «ac lod a fatf &atm of bod sad one 
of acKlow in S i n fc wMBifM , the oxspMioa of iht cfanA- 
CO ifae miaccance «f a Ui^ In ifae cbvch for cw." 

Toe fccora pniOB: 

"To die Mid Edrd, John, and John, and the bdn umI AuipN 
ef f TboraAocitad J, IHnby for r*«r, of tiM muiorof Kta Gfeeo- 
wich, bf faaky onij in frw wrtagr.' 

Boe igluv u I n*d bdbrc, one cmn find oo tr»c« cf tbe dADe 
tbo diflf lisbc in tbe diatch p% fffii *■*" tf ^ w ri i n t f 

"Bf «k fBdoKon^ April !«, 1649, Ed«ttd Wld^ of Elev- 
botouth, ycc:siun^ conveyed ^£540 CO Hmry Biblwn, ol WaliDfi In 
tbeparbh of Aylciborr . , . putof muodkouieof SioJic IdaodcvSl^ 
MxA 0D« bttjr of v«si cod, of a tiled bam tad covboose bdonsbift 
totbeiamc; and vr^-cnlcloeeciiid picccfl of anble land ia Sioke 
Ifanderillc in Lhc icoutv of <^1y Baitbwonh, vidov* 

II1C cbnrcb xi ikdkated to St Mary, and it stand* about three 
Ibrioogi eoatb of ibe village. In tbe nwlb wall, Uptcomb mcntiona 
there ia a pbdna taider a bncte arth, and an ahav lomb of Moo^ 
above the ()£:urc« on which ii inutcn in Rocnan capUali : 

Cnall dcuL by BioTtol fcbacm 
tUAibkw tMtQDfoy icndciBibMf 
Whereof Hvy Tlioau uid Donthy* 
Witliia thk pTft«c ih«tr bodid ^ye, 
Vut Cad vhich nf vcr ihm d^vAv«d, 
TUt dnUh Id tbcm it crrAiei fijiiri 
Inciuulnge Cber Joy FrerinE rh«ii from |uynf> 
O rXvDthye my bletied GuWe. 
Which Ivi^ly lp*(«J «ad flya], nyldc, 
Tbou well my tenth crcQ Gud'i twiic dioyctf. 
On Oooil Frijity »I nijhl my ]:>oT1 depUd, 
Adew my iumtv, and mijil UuehfWicd, 
My hiriy with xhytit 1 <inue tlioutd l/c» 

Ht|idriB through Chrlit He uj]| prnvjdf, 
For my Soul* w" thyrv* to fct*"»tn V> ibfdt. 

j4m Oid Buckinghtmshirt Viil^i. 285 


Ad^ I yonT Fftiher Edmund UrudcneUi 
tTftiill Ihc RcsunccIJcn wiih ihH will diTcU 
An J -it's a Jew my iwiclc Luuba Lhicci 
Until! in llc&vcn I alull you oec 
Such it my lupt of Rjdurd my Soco. 

fn 1*76," SO runsihc record, *' a fine of mesnu^cs, landiand 
lenis, in Siokc Maundcwyl^ granted by Witllam Ccve^ of Sloke, cUrik, 
to Master RogErr Gcvc, of the ^m^ for life." 

Ttio Kdniund Brudencll isenlii^ned above died veiled of the 
dfli^or of Newbuiy in Slokc ManduvillL' jMimh, havmg by bis tcitQ' 
moit (of i^'S) hrriiKMihed nn Jinniial rctii of irn mafk:< out of tbe 
iDftnor for a clupbin to pra]^ foi his noul and llii: »0Lil of Alice his 
wife, for thirty ycom. It doct not appuar why be would only need 
[>r8)fr« for Ihac fixod oumber of years. 

Another record uys dmt " King Jcphn having cichanged part of 
lUsbcrsc ... for certain lands iii Stoke MuidevUk ; one moieiy of 
the manor wu held in ijt^a by Wdlinm de Ktrkeby, who died aei»ed 
of it in thai year. . . . The site of i!ie lardj* among ihe hilJs and 
woods is near Prcatwood Common, betrrccn Misscndcn and 
lUmpdcn, on the left-hand side . . - near Kigncd! on the north 
and Honour End Karen en the south, being An insulated portion of 
Stolic MandeviTle [jafi^b, and by a memorable circum»unrc con* 
■reeled vith English history, as the land assca^ed for ship montjy 
irhdn in p<K£esKzon of the irairiot Hampden ; giving rise to the trial 
vhirh brought Mr Hampden into great celebrity, and wa.^ ultirnaiel/ 
productive of such iinporULnL consc^uencca to ttie King and thfl 
nation, aa vrcll oa to Hampden hlmsell' 

As we icit the station on out lionieward jotiniey a wedding party 
vaj being sent oET amid ^hcwcra of confetti — with the Rash in the 
pan of ibe suddea, hasljly strock^up jest ; with the lingering elasp cf 
tmnds that. perh;t|i), had ktn ulcrse, the one in the dtlier's, in the old 
life that WX& done with ; with the farewell mo»gc of old friendship 
in the eycE that ilic lips could not trust themselves to uy* 

llic guard signalled, the train morcd out of the station, the 
showers of confetti wcif flu jig hastily and Uughingly, and we had 
our Ust on the pkafiant old village amon^ the hifLs. 


Tkt G$ntUman*s Magtmn$, 


IN the quifi HkI« /churchyard at Wtlion-ooThjunw there i> an 
jnnuflced griTe wheron He Ihc remains of oil ihot wu mofUl 
of WillJAm Maginn. Tbc career of this great mi and ^cboUr tntl 

»bnL]unt au^rattur mu very rcmarkAble. "D^ior Magitin of 
'Frater'*,'" us be <Amt to be iintvcrrttillf known, vis bom on 
1x\y 19. I7^3f in Dcaii SLrtx-I* Curk- Hifi fallier, John Mogini^ 
WM a sdioobttattcr, and it was in hi& ttca<icn^Y that younj Ma^qo's 
edncadon waa tegua. So xapid was hts progreu in bis itudies, xikI 
Buch a genlm for learning did be exhibitn tlut at tb« early age of ten 
^TCtrs he iras entered in Trinity College, Dublin, >rhcre he took bJa 
B.A. d«{;Tecin i3ii. It is obvicpUK that the youth tffaoooialdUkd 
bi!£ B .iV. ^^reo tvhen only eighteen mu%t have been a lad of 
ufict>:iknjoii paita, aa indeed Mij^Iun wa:t. His college counc over, 
ijurir^ which he had the advantOijic of haping tbc letvncd Dr. Kyle. 
anerwardE Provo»l of Trinity, and subcequently Bbhop of Cork, at 
hlft tutor, M&^inn tctunicil hame and acted as clasucal lL<acli«^ \ix 
his father'* »choo1i meanwhile punuing his sFudka for ibc dctrree of 
LL,D., which wa» conferred upon him by Trinity College^ Dublin, 
in 181O, He was ihe firw who ever r^eelved this degree 40 )oung. 

On his fathc-i'}! dc^, thiec years previously, young Ma^nn, to the 

pstomahment of hid aasociatos, vbo eouLd not reconcile hi« character 

with that of a ichoo[mfister, tindottook the condua of the academy, 

10 which there came \iw\i\\s ffprn diitant paj [s whither the faicc of 

hii scholoi^ip bad sprud. Kor ten ycara he continued m\ thia Ufl- 

congenial vork, relieving the tet^um of leaching by writing Ifgbt 

, iatlrlcal sfcptchra fcT the Inral pupcn:. His geniuf, however, sought 

^^ better omlel, and ire soon And him contributing to Williaua 

^■vdan's " Literary^ Gazette " and to *' Bentley's Miscellany ; ^' but he 

^bund the R^edium ciiaetly njited for the exercise of ^& mandlout 

^ffts ill the pag« of "* Blackwood** Edinburgh Magauiie-/' tii vhicli 

be ntExde his tim appearance, in the number for June v%i% with a 

coiiQnuftiion of Coleridge's beautiful poem, " Chriatabel f " hi« 

Seconal appearance in dial luogaiiiK wu In the number for 



Difcisfr Ma^M, 


November of the nrcc ytstu, with a Tcmukable cind eitccllent Latin 
tra^tabtLon of '" Chevy Chaw." AfKt betng a contnljiitrtT lo " Btack- 
Vood " for some iTme frnm Cork, and wwirying of ihi^ Tuonornny of A 
tWfhrr'a life, be went lo l^inburgh in May, 1820, and mUoduccd 
hioifelf personaity and in a chonctciistically humorous foahion 
to Williatn Blackwood* whotc gucit ItQ Tcmained for (Ik wtckt, 
^11x1139 which time he tcrcUcd in ilic Mcfciy <^f Professor John 
WilMB {^Chfistopher North"), John Gibion Lockhnrt, Gillies, 
HimiUon, and other hceiary Qotahrhties. Blackwood declared him- 
■df "delighted with his wild Irish a.»i«ian%" whose ^ociiil *^^a1lTi«i, 
COlUtinitiondil gftjcly, cunv[V]:il [jli^uaiiLryi anJ flow of coiivtaidtlon, 
at once learned and witty, were such n* could not fail to render him 
a &TOuntG in cultured cin^cs. Here is a penpictare of him at thii 

"AU were liAtciung 10 ^oincoric who sa.i in the cniddlc of a 
ffoup* A low-KAted man, short n\ ataturc, wa.^ uttcritijc pl^^a^ntries 
and tcaiieriDg wiEtkitms about him wiih the circlets glee of his 
coun'r). Hill ailiuuUliuii vis i]i]]j«lcil Liy a fstLillcr, yd tlit: 
Kntcnccflhcstammcrcd forlh were bnllmnt rcp<.utccn, uttered without 
tharpnest, and edged rather with humour than with laCire. Hii 
COQncenAnee wav niihf^r agn^^abk than itriViTig ; ill exprefs-ion 
sweet rather than bti^ht. The gicy hajr coming ttr^kight over his 
Ibrchend k^tc a tin^ukr appearance to a face still bearing the 
flttribtiies of youth. He was iMrty or ihcre^bouti ; but hfs 
tl^ou^hiful brow, hb haix, and the palcncsa of his compleaion, gave 
him many of ihc attribtitcs of age. His oonvemtion was careless 
aod otThond, and but for the impediment of epeech would Imvn had 
the fiiarm of a rich comedy. His choice of words was 4uch as I 
bare mrtly met with in any of my contcmporancv/' 

John Wilion Croker, writing to a fncnd, thutt describes him : — 
'*On the few occisions of my having ihe pleasure of being in his 
society, his conversation wxs very lively and original — a lingular 
Biuturc of cluatcal erudition and Irish fur. There wjj a jiood deal 
of wic, and still more of dwllery, and certainly no defideocy of what 
b called conviviality and animal spirits, licniembcranone occasion 
harii^ hcwd from wme common fhcnd, that he »cemcd to bttj 
thfowtng awcLy a ^teai deal of talent on «omc ephemeral productions. 
I took the liberty of advising him to direct hii great powers to some 
more permanent ol>jecta, and he told mc tJ^at he cootcmplated some 
leriout work, I think on the Greek drama, but of this I am not quito 
»urc. It mt(^ht Eiave been the Greek orator*. 1 had a high opinion 
of bis power to illustrate ciiher." 


Tiu GintUntan's Magazine, 

Three jcflra laicr he mftn-icd i lad/ named Cltcn Bullen, 
dcftcribed by JerdAo rs an extclEcnt vrooian, and finding the iocome 
rrom the Khool inadequate to sti^pott a vlfc. be severed liii ri>n< 
nectioo with it ^j^d ^irocccdcd to London, rcfolrcd to dcrotc himfclf 
to lilcTftture, He soon became intimate with Theodore Hook (a 
kindred ■p«rit), and wrote for the "John Bui!,* i poiicical journal, 
vhidi WAA soon abandoned &E a hc^vy Ioas. A faimtUr faic awaited 
the ** London Literary Journal, " with which Moginn wai as;^ociaccd, 
ako in conjunction with Theodore Hook. fvUgmn'^ fjLCile p«n had 
atmcied tU« notice of John Murrny, and htr found cinp1oym«-nt on 
the ** Quaitcrly T^cvich." All thb time, hoMcvci, he wa» a continiial 
contribuEor to " Blackwood," »cnrcc a number c>f ishich did not 
contain one or more ^irliclcs Eront htm, and in its pages he, with 
Wii«on, originated the celebrated " Noctes AinLrosianse," a very 
large nharc of which was all his writtog, as wai alio the fanioiii 
Greek motto with its exceedingly free tranalation ; 

Th» u « dutidi by viae uM PhocyLtlnp 

An AndfUf whQ wruitf crjhbrd Gi«k in *n trtly dayt \ 

Bui £a*fjte ihai wkik ihuusiint thdr tifpft," 
Ati rciTPlJtBt f\\\f r^^hr >it4nyoJd erck ^ns, 
Aod a Ttiy fi( aiotto to put to our NoctaL 

Readers of " Faihcr Prout " know how that worthy dcli|Ltcd to turn 
(ome of Moore's melodies into FrenchT Latin, and (>teck ver»e, and 
then playfully accuse their author of pkigiarism ! Maginn, in th« 
chai^acier of the lcarn<^d Dr. PanUemus Pulyglctc, pcifojiiicd similar 
feats with equal skill and dexterity. H« tmnslfitcd Conning^t 
"Needy KnifcgHndcr" into both Greek and Latin; George 
Withei's "The Shepherd's Resolution," Wallet's "Rose," Henry 
Fhillipa'a admirable dJIty " Wooiaa," Gcu Jorson*s "Take, oh. 
cake those Lips away/' and a host of othen, into excellent Latm 
verw. Here is a verse from hi* Latin iranshtion of "The glasses 
sparkle on the boarcl,^ which he humoroti&ly assigned to an Alcarc 
poet, one '^ C^csiui Bassu^ " : 

Th( stusscs cparklp on the boardi 

The ^ne U rul>y brigiit ; 
The fcigti ifi pLcisuic is fCitotcili 

OfcttSi.- and ^y Jeli^hc. 
Tt^t ilDjr li done, thf night's nur own, 

Tli«n*]irt ui f»it ihv muI j 
Should liny ptln oi ctM rcmuDr 

Why. Jevwu It Lq Ihc UrwL 

Doctor Ma^mt. 


En podi m^sis romprnili l« mlcsni ; 
Vmi rrfnlg^T piirfiiirplil Cf^Wit • 
Rrgtianl vutuputM, famlqu* 

InvltiiE Tjiha: '. not tu i jX^iii did ; 
JrnUilcwniii'' nunt' £fnium mrrv, 
MergVniOt CT Ciif^r vd Bin 

Vr h«lhut It WA« traceable to tiic Attraction whicl^ th« «[iarkle of 

glaucs hnd for hitn ur nol it is not now «ity 10 determine^ buc 
'certun IE is that m the tcginmng of the ycjn iSjo ht tjiiATiclIcd 
with \ia frtcnd HtAckwood, and the iniitti^cy which had grown And 
laiWd liuring ten ycirs wai inicmiptcd. There was no ii^icrrupiionr 
however, to hfaginn's literary IjibDUCi, foi be worked m hard is ever, 
if not harder. 

Ata maga^inowriicr hU like hat never tx^en seen. Htb fertility 
ftnd varje^ were mirtbflUMihlc ; nnthing amc amis^ to him. So 
richly stored was his mind and »o ready hit pen, that he could with* 
out eflbrt write ariicles of sound, carncBl, wcUruajoncd criiicism, 
political anirTes and pATodics, poems and translations. He alwayt 
appeared msater of every subject, recondite or familiar, and yet, 
According to an eyewitnc£«. " he scldotn mote except io companyt 
and generally in the midst of tumult. In the middle of a &«ntenc9 
he would relieve the str^iin of ihoughl \yy throwinu him^Hf Iwrk in 
hia chair and telling a humorous atoiy, then, while hi^ compjtnion« 
were convulsed with laughter, he voald suddenly break oIT >n his 
talk and resume tis pen." Goethe, it wotild teem, wai right wh^n ho 
aoid, '* Rapid change tiam ^liousncss to triflings from K^mjuiihy to 
indiffercoce, from joy to grief, mml lie at the foundation of the Iii^ih 

One of hiK jovial companions was a briefness harri^icr and man 

about town named llLgh Froscr, and to bim Moginn proposed, after 

his quarrel nitb Blackwood, th.-it they should ha\^ a mogoiine of 

their own, Fraser waa quite agreeabEc, and they both made a 

■election from their |Hpcrs^ wllh which they ftlW thdr jjoclet^ and 

allied forth to Hnd a publ^bcr, (^oing dovrn Regent Street, the 

noAie tnstt ever No. 315 attncidd Maginn, who foid 10 bis 

companion, ^'Here's a namesake* of ymtm., Krawr; let'itry bim," 

Tlicy entered, and submitted Uieir propoaol, which tRia adopted 

without hcaiution ; and in February i3jo appeared the first 

noinber of " Frascr'a Magazine for Town and Country/ Toaayttut 

» Jr tntrhf rhi^ of Mr. /injcs Kriter, puVbbhcT, lli^H Vtwc^XswfJa«. 
rat, ccxcvi, wa 2079. ■», 



it wju oiie of the must icnuxk^-ble and iilnctivc iiugiuiac$ ihil ever 
appealed tA lurdly io CAAjCfcrfltc. The tn\ four numben ircr«, 
nvaj\y ill from Msginn't pen ; but he voon gathczx^ vound him flucfa 
a briiUnt band ihat the &me of the nutgimne liccmoe atmcnt world- 
widc. With iiuch coniiibuton ju Magiitn, "Kalhcr Prout," Cole- 
rid^ Cvlylc!, Souihcy, ''Birry Com^vUll/ Edward Irving, Lock^ 
ban, Thackeny, Th^odone Hook, Hogg, Goh, and Crofton Crokcr, 
nothing ftii:! wanting that Kcniun Dfid talent cixuld provide In 
addition, tticK«ru Daniel MacliAc, nhcnc incomparahle pencil waa 
ncvtr more happily employed Ihjw in depicting ihc " ^taacnans;'*, 
the orijpnAL sketches, it m&j he nLrniioticd, are in thu Forcter^ 
Collection in the South Kcotiiigion Musoiin, and are (with ha 
magE»Ac«nt frctcoct in the Houtea of Parli^tnient] comkltved Ui; 
fiiMA productiomL For each of these poitraiu Magliiti inoi9 
sketch, into which he put some uf hu muii hnftiam and pungent 
writing ; but aa his native modesly would not pcnait hioi to write 
about hiniBcIf, the following, which accompaniod his pofimit, «94 
I vrillpn by hiK cloae and coiiaianl fncnd, John Gihion Ixickhan t 

" This citraordioa/y apcjcimen of the icaI ori|[i(ul Pkctniciaii 
breed ii now, wo ate credibly informed, in the thirty-i^venih year 
of hifl a^e ; but though ISurnt and Bjron worked Ihemselvea o«t bf 
that tLiae, the Dociur u Luiiiulcitxt to be Mill in the ful] povonun t£ 
many of hia faculties. His lockt, indocdi arc aiS^cry, but lie wcai^ 
on the whole, a juvenile aspect ralhev than othcrwiK. Our «nitt 
has catighl with rnguhr felicity th^^eaiyH ^oodhnmoarai mfinrJka/ama 
otiWis learned and libellous countenance. Ili^h CImtch and State 
ductrinca aboutd bo iciioualy adopted and nuinfojly nuuntainod* 
Whiga, Papiita, lUdiola, whatever comei under the diagnsihig 
category of Lit^tuli^tn. sliijiild be ciptned^ iiutuhed, sla1>hi?d> cnicl- 
fiod. impakd, driLwn and quartered— in c^iiay, disquisition, review, 
romance ballad, iquib, pasquinade, and opigram ; in Greckp in 
Hebrew, in Latfn, in Imh, in Italian, in English, and In alang, but 
no inleifcrence with the cnim pursuiu of the achoLir or the graceful 
amenitica of the icenllcmanp Take things eaiy alter acvcn o'clock : 
from that hour till two in the morning be your own man ; from two 
ren br your uwn ^ifc^ inaii ; fruui len Io acien again be the nan 
tbc publiCi Carf^dUm, Leave no moment absolutely idle, and 
I0et no scHRc, however grc^c, of iupcriority to influence youf 
luci and demeanour- Be a Beniley if you can, bnt umit the 
lity; rival P^iit» cadicwing aJ] pouipoiJiyi outlmguJM old 
:hi,and yet be a man of the woild ; emulate Swift in satire, 
It vi^iT not one squeeze of his sm/a tttdi^mati^ to «as your own 

Doctor Maginn. 


I!« ftud do all this, nnd ihe Doctor will nn longer b« 

'* Whether shining A pi<coci(>u^ gem in Trinity Collc|^ DoMin,Qr 

Ivminatiit;^ the young ide^s of tht Corkers, or suautiamg the pcver 

>/id glory of 'WackwootJ,' or now co-editing the grand, unrivalled, 

I fiaunch^ sturdy organ cif orthodoxy, ihc ^StaodArd ' (wn uy [lotliing 

of 4 <a^ua] contribution lo 'RcGma'),' ibc redoubled Etinj^ and 

Adjutant Sir Morgan O'Uohcrty* hju always been, ti^ atid trv«r will 

foviftl, ulwi (he iiimfilr-bcanj^dr "^^ r-Arrlrfit, and ihr Utnig- 
Tb/ro/ Dat^rt Long may ho continue at once the itai of onr 
I, our philosophy, and our dialectics, And^ irv hie own immorUl 
^ ijOQg m^y hk voice be he^ in the land, nov pouring out a rieh 
^ IIckhI of bciiamctcfi. And iioiv d^eciing Uic fevtire cinJe with the 
hcirty, jolly, soutsiirring chant which he indited in the day of his 

Drink to mfi only ^m ■ jag, and t wiTl plirdgc in nine. 

So Gil my i;W wiih wtualcy pnocb, &nd ni tiot vk fix wioe." 

A Tmridy, hundy. liiin<<y, m* cliridy, 
KolUf king jig uf an Iiiilimui T 



'lliose tketchea, known as the "(Jallcry of JlluBtnou* Litcnry 
ChftnLnen," cri^aird i\\\\\.\^ a lensaiion as thry app*-Af ed, Tor Mftgilin*> 
StrOAlIc personalities, tinited to Madi»e^*l piaoriaj maalciy, TofuieO a 
combination pcrfeetlr unique ; «ad what makes i1 all the more 
nmiTkable is, that Maginn wrote ihcm in Fnser^ back parlour, 
*'ovct/' it is staird, "such supplies of lit^ijor as would totally 
tncftpodlatc all Qthcr men from work/' It wai under similar con- 
ditioni that he wrote hii celebrated review or the novel ** Berkeley 
Canle," whk-h involved him in a duel wi:h its auihor, but, happily, 
DO blood H^As shed- It icned to »how, hgwcver* thfti, no maaer 
vfiftt the cionaequence* to bim^ir, he had the courage of hi^ 

" In [he bowl," 9A he said hinw^lf, ** !« nought sweet oblivion of 
ail woe"; and that such a brilliant genius and profound achoUr 
should have done such great injuitice to \\x& maivellout intellect b 
all the more lo be regreiied when we regard the rxrellence of hi* 
aerkniii woik. Hii " Hi>LUt-iic Ballads" prove him to ha^e boci^ tt 
Kboliasi of worth, and hb les^-kDOWO **Luciarnc ComedieLtos " 
(fcproductionv of LucUnI " DiaJo^o« " in the form of blAnlc-verve 
CQfnedica). published in idj9, but unfoiluoaicly irrecoverably lofC, 

■ /^dur'j jVmwteft ' 111* WW lA/wrrr. 


Tie GtKtUman's Magatinf. 

vcrc urmiftak«blc masterpieces. He hid projccEed a tr^rulAlion of 
the "Iliad "and " Odyi«c}-," und, indeed, had made »omv piogresA 
with the firM book ; but li vra.s tlirawn ss^de^ and do niort' was hL-ard 
or Kca cf it. so tmpos&iblc bad uist^ncd application become to 
him. Ht« SholicipCAre papers ore almost all excellent, that on 
" 1-ady Macbeth " tipecially b^ing full of fine thoughct relicitoudy 
(?X|]ruuc(l He disjjlayi^J a Mjrjjrisir;|£ range of mdm^^ in crificiMflg 
the "Euay on the Lcarnins of Shaliopcdtrc,' that cxtiaordinaiy 
Jiuni^ bf old Fanner, Master of Hmmanuel CoUe^, upon v'hwe 
"peddling pedantr)' "and "fii beaded and scornful bIockh<.*aclJL[n " 
be pouted a full uicasurc of hu cooLcmpu 

Another proof of Maginn's great literary powers is the fact that 
immedijieJy on the newt of Byron'i deilh reachm;; Hrgland, John 
Murray Heledcii bhn to prcparir an J edit Uit? poet's iiieniotrsjuurnit^ 
aud Icttenr a labour thai irt^uld have been in eveiy icapcct woithy 
of MoKinn ; but when he came to examine the matcriab that hud been 
placed In hii hands, he found that betides the nature of much of it, 
the desuuction of ihi; Autobio^Mphy bad cauit-d trio i^reat a bcuni; 
«o> after consul cation vTLth Murray, be relumed aU io bini, a:id, a» irc 
know, it WHS Thomas Mocie who eventually gave to the world the 
biography which hat never quite £atUGed it 

Whcii John Murray was ft>oU!»b cnuugh 10 start a newsiiapcr. " The 
Repicacntativc,'* Maginn acted for a lime aa Paris ccrrcspondcnti but 
having developed Lntemptiraic habits he ^ya^ recflHed to London, ard 
appointed editor at a ^lary of ^^700 a year. The enterprise wos not 
a auL^ccii^rul one for Murray, nho fuuiid at the end ofm tiKaub^ that 
he bad lOAt about ^lo.eoo. In conjunction with Dr Stanley Lees 
Gitfiird (father of the present Lord Haleburj-), Maginn was joint 
editor of the "Standard " on its foundation in i8»5, but with hia 
eharacicriatic tcstlessness he severed his connection with it afier a 
ahon period' So far as he had any settled political opinions, they 
were supposed to be Tory, as indeed his connection with tbe 
journals mentioned would testify ; but hear what be said himself on 
Ibia point ; 

■' My politics— what then ? I sm, eatemSUy at least, > I'o'y ^ 
i0uir QMlranit^ because my father and my grandfather (ar^d I rflnnat 
trace my genealogy any higher) were so before me, Desidcs, E thiuk 
every gentleman should be a Tory ; there is an cflsiness, a suavity of 
mind, engendeied by Toryism, which il iu vain for you 10 expect 
from fretful VVhiggrryo; bawling Radicitli!jiTi, and such should be a 
strong distinaive feature in every gentlcEiian's character. . , - Tut I 
Lave dtrticd my tingcn with iuki you say, and daubed other peoplc^s 


D^hr Maginn, 


Acei vith them. I admit lL My pen h&s been guiltjr or various 
polidcal/rux rfV(/FT/, bur, let mc whispu if, on ^/^ aide^H Dont 
start; it i« not wf>nh while My Tory {juiTzet I Am siupecred of; 
t^fitiieJt I »f, for I am not Auch a goose u to \cX thcni be ^nf 
more Uiin mere matlera ol Guepicion -, but of qiiJu^s agaitLst Tories 
1 &m no mora thought guilty than 1 am of petty larceiiy. Yet tuch 
It the c*se. I write with no ill-fccling ; public men or pcc-ple who 
thrust themselves before the public iri any way 1 ju&t look upon «8 
phantoms of th« ioiaginaiion, ^a things to throw o^ commoitplnccs 
about. . , . In point of fact, men of aense think not of such Ihingt, 
and miDgle freely in society as if they never occuried- Why, then, 
should I be mpposed to ha^^e any feeling whaccvct, whether of anger 
or pleasure, about thc-m } " 

Hisraciliiy inihisrc«pect enabkd him to write for the "Age*' 
wheo edited by the rather nctorioui C- M» Westmacoilt and later for 
the "True Sun," a '^ixiwlbg Kadicxl" orgun ; but eorviii.tcncy in 
the «nse of bj?ing lied down :o one particular set of vieips was a 
virtue to wbicli Mjiginn laid no claim. He always ^pukc out wliat 
he had in his mind to ^ay, and oaid it in the ndest manner. Having 
tnadc friends with BUckwoodin 1S54, he reappeared in the ** Ebony," 
an he facetiously calit^d ir. 

"The great superiority/' he wrote, "of • Blackwood's Magoiine 
over all olhcn of our time is that one can bo ailowcd to speak one's 
mind there. There was never yet one word of f^enuine, ursophistU 
catcd truth in the ' Edinburi;li,' tfic 'Quarterly,' or, indeed^ in any 
other of the pcrlodiads—in relation, 1 mean, to anything that can 
b« called opinion or centimcnL All ia conventional mystification, 
except in ' Ehony/ the jewtl, alrnie. Ifere aloneean a man tell vmack 
out that he ja A Tory, an Oran^-ciuan, a judical, a Catholic, any- 
thing he pleases 10 be, to the buckbonc No necessity for conciliatory 
mindng and paring away of cre't own intellect. I love whiskey 
punch ; 1 say so, I admire WHid-iwurih and * Dun Juan ' ; 1 say *o^ 
Southey is a humbug ; well, let it be said distinctly. Tom Campbell 
is in his dotage ; why conceal a /d^ like thi^ ? 1 scorn all paltering 
with the public; T hale jill shuffling, equivocatj n^ trick, ^tuflf, 
nonsense 1 wntc in ' Blackmiod ' because there Morgan O'Doherty ^ 
cart be Morgan O'Doherty. If 1 wrote in the 'Quarterly' I Khould 
be bothered (partly u4th, and partly without, being conscious of it) 
with a luKiipt-Einf;, Liiiding, fettering, nullifytag sort of notion that I 
must moke myKlf,/n7 /^m/tira, a bit of a Gidbrd; and so ofovctf- 
thlng die.** 

^ This nu hb fivouiit« pCA-DiKie. 



The Gentleman i Magastm. 

While be continued to tllDminaTe the J»gn of "' Fnser " with hk 
{taiua iiMXttt after niojilh, he kt-pt ttkc t^-tdcrs of "Bl^wood** 
COm-ulKd mh Liuf^lcT with "A Sloty without « Tail,'' "Bot> 
Bjrke'i Duel niih Eniign Bmdf af the 43th" (which u nol orlf 
oiw of iht racEe^i FHsh mories tfier writiirn, but is a inaM^rrpiect- of 
humoioui ticiion), and vuioui oih«j conUlbutioDi, tmoDte^t vrlijch 
mcneion mufti be mode of the ^'TobiAfl Corrcfpondcncc," « remark- 
Abljr clerer production, urh:cli he wrote in a garret in Wych Sueet 
(London) In 1837, whrre hv wu.4 hiding; from bailiflTB* to such a past 
bad hH finaDcial afTairi oomc In U he assures U4 will be found k4 
forth ^m hia own experience " thv whole art and myitery of edrting 
a cewtpiiper/' lliere can be no que^^on biit that his eitpi>rlertee 
was lv*(h Urgp and varied eno^jgh :n (ivinlify hjir to insEiuct others 
to their pro^E- The pity of it wju thai it brought him neither richer 
nor vi^om ; he vaa what the Germani call unvGrsit^ig, and he 
Uvea for all nmr in Thsclrerfly'i •* P^-ndennU'' a^ CTiptftln Sh^ndon, 
"tbc learned and thnflleu, the wUtyand uiini^e,'^ 

Sjhaitcr^d liesEth novr necesiitaied the dissolution of numerous 
Iftcrary cngflgemcniSt »nd frei^uent irmprisonmenU for debt eulmiruLted 
in hi^ having to invoke! the aid of the Bankiuptty Couit— 'in the 
bcginniugofihe year 164 J< I1i:i liberty thu^restorod, berctiredto the 
pretty litlte rural vilbge of Wahon on- rhain«-s, wheTe>intheconipany 
of hU wife and hift two dauj^htcrfi, hk rcmdning dnys verc pstsed. 
HIk affection ft>r hiv daughters is liappily expreued in a few veises, of 
VrHich I give one ; 

KnU to me la ton^e and dalv 

llnve you Iwpn, iwecl pcu of mine I 
Lrrn({ m h*atih, mil jny» mil bnniyi 

May rt ht ymu lot ie ihine ? 
And At loAt when, Gck] cumrjuuK^bi;, 

E bill)] IcAvc r^u l^t^ Itlilnd) 
Miy I fiHl» with «Oiil npaniling, 

1 Hhall Imtc yoLi |jtiod uid kimi 1 

When the distress into which he bad f«lT<m became known, one 
of the firti to come to his flssistai^ef «a« Thackeray,* who, with 
charactrrt^tic generosity, Rave him a few hundred poundii. The 
Tory parly, for whom he had fearlessly worked with his pen for a 
qi3art«r of a century, seemed strangely oblii^oui ol hie needs; but 

• It wa< MahoTLy (" Ftthor Piwt ") who ioiroJuced Thacke/aj to Mk^inii. 
Hie intjodiiclion hxik pUct mi llic "CKrwn" Tdvcra, Vincg^ YmcI, rhiiry 
L*ac, Thuhcr«x, whs fikrO him fW hb vlt iiul Eood fnlini:. \t\\s a^ how 
Ma^nn read Homrf to him, ujtA poln^rd oui lii»mic* thai hv h»rf nfr«r perceived, 
itid ■' brtand me over," hr v!di, ■*^|^re^ wtttt Hnm?r tPriy rtiy," 

Doctor Meginn. 

not 10 vm the man «ho«c pchcy Maginn h:id equally foricsalr 
Luatlcd ; Sir Koti«n ]>rl hid, in 1S40, when a lubscripiion vas 
tianed to uxitt Xta^inn, ^ub^cribivl jC^^^t with Ji ^.tlpulAtlon fctr 
Matey du 10 hb LkciiiK i^c iJonor, Now, whc^r he IcArncd how ud 
wu hu pli|;hlt he >cnl oi similar mm. No ncnsd is there to mc^ntLon 
iKtt John Gibson LocLhari bcrricnd^ him, %% lilfcwisc did to 
«fxaltM 1 perfonagfl u the King of H^novfr^ who had !^}mpuih) for 
the misTortuncA of the imprudent ({cnius. Broken as he was, he iitill 
tctAme^d much cf his old ch^erfulncffi, and, thougb no longer able 
10 write, he dictated to his daughter some anicle* for mAgafinc snd 
newx]ia{icr. C^onKumptioti, liowevcr, wa& rapidly aliortcning hb 
darsi Afld ihc end came on AtajEust 34, iS^^^ 

Here WG >cc "tho troj^cdy or imprudent geniui, itrxigghng for 
jvart wtch jialtT)' prciintary difTicullit^s At Ijui t^inkirif^ cliilled, 
cihaiistcd. and fruitless, like a vS^iM Klac^hlcted by piiu." 

It WM A Bad doK 10 a career that might have been productive of 
something truly great, for with lii* ^ast learning and hi* marvetloni 
tntctleciiuJ pi\^ ilierc waa no noik that would have been beyoiid 
hia connpau. But he wu utlcrlr devoid of ambition ; thai Inst 
in£rmiiy of noble mind}^ troubled him not x\ oil ; his wide knowledge 
and cTiensJvc Itaming cf>*t hJrn no ertbrt ; he ac<)Utred both a* e;tiify 
Its hb mother itm^uc and used Ihcm as easily and aa lightly. Thr 
(emptaticni to which he waA cxpo^d in the literary and Bohemian 
eircLc* into which be wu ko early introduced, combined wiib ht< 
convivial pmrliTiiir-* and fnndnrM Far social relauttoii, werr morr 
than his ch^rocki was proof a^nfit, and cvcniuaUy woikcd 10 his 
undoing. " To acorn delight* and Jive laborious days " was never a 
part of his w^fd, but cmpbfltically rhe contrary ; nvyd tf with Gay 
be held that " life is a jest," he at least made tia sharcn in much of 
bia mirtht and bis laughter was always fiood, hone«t, hearty laughter, 
that left no pain behind iL '*Many worse, heEter few than bright, 
brokrn Xf.igirn,'' declared Lockhan as he saw him laid in his grave, 
and dierc^ with no stone to mark the place, " be rests amorg the 

The Gtnikmafis AfagAzinc^ 



Pakt I. Lovtv Eauiikrc^l 

^HB ttniinlACCocci of Louis Bsmbcr^itr Mt tbrovn Icgcthtt 
in ftn irifornial nunncr, and there i« great dum in tbcif 
ducttmvr ancl iinaflccird ntylr. 

In this paper I ptcipov:toiliim Chc crcAin of ihciuiW^pcnonal 
•odiJ eipcricnccst &i>d to dwell chiclly on hii description of tltc 
RiU))< [nl«f€slir>g pcrsoru with whom be came In conucL 

He wrote bis "Memoirs" with many minruption^, somettincfl 
At Berlin during nrc leisure momenta; wmctimcs jU fntciblcn. 
A cheerful view of life, complete absence of prejudice, ic'cflt camcsl- 
ress, true sympathf foT mAnkfnd, deep love of his country And of 
bbeny, wc the chafJiclcristic* of his iittcfAnccs. 

BunberKcr's cblldhcod wot poMed ai a time when the vrorld mu 
At peace, and only the short July revolution in Tuit of 1830, when 
y^Ml boy was aeven yars old, and later tbat of Poland, disturbed ibc 
t3^\\\ of tEic political itmotphere on the ContincnL ThL-re wrrQ ni> 
nilvap at tEmt time, and scarcely tho beginnings of stcoinbOAt 

Thcf© was [icacc. loo, in the rdlgloua world. The tchool at 
faycncc to whidi the boy U>uU went had a Roman Caibolic 
cbatactcr, but there was ro trace of enmity between the scbolan of 

P different confenton?^ 
Tjmi« olleni liclped hia Roman Catholic bchoolfdlow^, when they 
made their list for confcaiion. to seek for more lina wherewith to fUl 
_it ( for tlie more they had to confess, the prouder they wen. When 
^Bht adult l.ouis wrote his recolleclionK, there «till rang in his eare 
^Hie appeal of a Khuolfcllow ; " Eh 1 BambE^rger^ can't yon remind mc 

^^1 ' From '* EiiDiiciuacvi) wu Luilwli; BoiaUr^." cOiLcd by ?««] Kalbn ; 
^■BblhJhH by It«lm«r. B«tln< 



Traiis in t&^ Li/4 of a Gnat Gerrmm Liberal, 257 

tlw youths in Mftyance were roused b^ ihcir being oakcd to help in 
nuking lint for the vroundcd. Ixiuis one day rushed into \\\% 
iHoihcr's room juyfiilly with the news ihat Gt-neml nTeliifsrh 54aKn!. 
kJir.iki IihiJ died <A chokn, iEid immcdiAtcly rcmvcd > box on the 
etr M A reniindcr tbit one ought not to rejoice at ft death, even thu 
cf 1 Rimian officer 

Togctherr Hith hix coinpanionSf Louis loved to nt^ the drilling 
of tfac I^russiAii reeniit» gAni»oned £t ^tay<:nec, but he felt highly 
indignant %X the manner in which the young otl^cera treated their 
men, l^y oontrut ihe Auatrian oflicfrs were kind and easygoing. 

At Louii* Achool— 'tc give an ides of the reading nuitter^-* 
the higher cU«»e< ircnt through KJopatock's " Messiah " and 'Hedged 

l^uU* mn«tr-r had a Flench sif^tct-^n-law, who laught the hny to 
read the " Hetirtadc " and the " Memoirs " of Victor H«go'i father ; 
and ilto to liat« Hudson L0W9, whoj she said, had poieoned 
Napoleon T, 

Laicf on the boy becjurte interested in the O'Conndl nptaiioji* 
and in tlie ParUamcnlary stixigglc in France. 

Bedeefa "Song of the Rhine." and Alfred de Mussel's response 
tD UuE poem, foreshadowed the possibility of war, and ihc building 
Df fortifications toeiucd 10 confirm the apprchcniiiijn. 

In 1841 Bamberger went to the Univcr^Jty oi Gie«scn, and pa£^ 
three terms in " that horrid little rest" He had an inrtodueticn to 
HortU CanUie, under whosr j^'tiidAncc tnt^merism uiul clairvoyance 
woe cxunined and rcjciitcd, philosophy studied, and disputes in 
law and property earned on with wich vehemence that the siudenit, 
during iheir wallti, cuuld he ht^nl ahouJing bng before they wore 
Keri. After one &ucli dlipjtc Louis wju sciud wi:b spitting of 
blood, but a fellow student comforted him by the remark^ "What 
dce« it matter whether you die sooner cr later i Time is oo^ng in 
itself ; it ia only a jwint of view 1 ** 

Al iluE lime Jacob Moleschott was Louis' felJcv student, lie 
helped loconftrm the young man's miecestin philosophy and teience, 
Darwin wis not yet talked of, but at ihe students' debating dub 
the question nf aut gtn^raHo a^uwera ojtf omte vivum ex cvo used to 
be eagerly discussed. 

'JTie light reading of the student* eonsisted of the works of 
Eugtne Sue. Duraae, and Batnc, by whom the young men were 

In 1844 Louis Bamberger went to Cottingen to prep>are for his 



Th€ GmiUmant Magasim. 

cnminotion- Tl wu llie culdeit winter Iw had ever cxpeoeooecl. 
lit An<I A Tricr^d ahul ihcniKlvci up in tbcir wirm room, and wotkod 
frocn 7 km. lo noon, and ^x\tt itotn 3 to 8 p.m. Mer ihAt hour 

^ they vpcni the;ir cvrningi in music and ■musing Thetatuic; 

^ Al the end of the term LouU putcd hbi dAminatioxi succeattfully, 
but w&a flo hlilt; cliicd that when a friend called on htm, \\t 
landlady, oprmnH the daor, told the visitor (h»l Mr BombcTScrtnuvt 
<x:rlainty have been plucked, for he hiul come home quidL/ and taid 
nothing;, Louti had pauod in lav, and bcf;An legal practice at the 
Couit of Appeal in Mayenee, where, aa waa the rule, he wxa 
eoiployed for dx months 

tin the Bpring of 184; he puscd his Govemmcnt exuntmLon 
«rith «uccc»K, but coiild not hope for an offlcml i^poiotmcnt, a& u> 
Hctsen, ihen and latef, no Jew cotild be employed in cli« ftvrvic* of 
the Stale, 
■ Beaidca this, Louta waa much more inclined to study than to 
Bpncliie. He waa especially interested in political economy, which at 
V thai tiinp hflxl the ctianti of 1 ne^w brunch of Kience; amd he ako 
COOtinucd hi« ptiiloiophic^ »tudie». 

■ At the end e^f February he went to visit aorii« friends at 
H4?id(rll)(Tg, untl one ciny he heard his n&me called outside the 
wiriduw. Luukiiig uui, he kiw x feilow>iownMmin, whu cried, " Only 

^thmk ! P^A 11 in revolution, and Louis Philippe haa fled I " 
LpOub wa& nmch e^idied, for he wa$ full of a ptirely adcA] 
enthuoiaam for republicanism. 

Shortly after, he went \o Stmaaborg aa ntcmbcr of a deputation 
of siudenia. On proceeding tiext day to Carlaruhe, they learned, on 
ajipruJtc'lnng Itm tciwn, Ihut a iKrlilir^l agitation had hnjkrfi out 
The following day, Louia returned to Maycncc, where he attendod 
many political meetings, and wm wttncsK of the lorchhght prO' 
ecsiions and oihcr fcxdvtiiei held there on Mirch ^ Hffl 
feelings, he Telaies^ were divided between delight in the newly won 
Freedom and intercHt in a young ^rl whom he look care of in lh« 

Ry thia lime Bamberger had lumrd to jonrnAlism, and an 
Aitide In the "Matnj:cr Zcitung** pt^blitbcd on March 10 and 

Pled "'ITie French Re%'olulioB and the Feeliti>i in Germany,' 
cted gnpnt Attention, Hie suhsciltic-nt writings showed a gradual 
gc in hit ojiiniors- 
'rcvioua to the opening of the Fnnkfort Parliament^ mnj 
icnl meetings took place, and the Democrats hired a spa«ioui 
In an hotel. ''Here," wrttaa Loula. "wai eiecred a pla 

Traiis in tki Li/e of a Gnai German Litiral 399 

IMintcd block, red, uid Rold, and the new men matiG speeches, 
Robert B>um and others, 1 thcughc, spoke fur too contidciitly of the 
ftinir?. I had had no intention of taking nn acEEve pJiri in the pro. 
CGcdirq;!, for I wss quite unkfiown ^ but «oLnething the orators laid 
fuddcnly roused my spirit of eontradiction, and before I could 
M&0Ct I wu on mjr l^gB. I don't remember vhut I imd, but £1 wu 
ocrtAinly violent in characier, and i.-MctCe(l the ^iteniJon of tlie 
moctipj;. Quite unu«cd 10 public ipeaking, and full of fiery 
conviction, a feeling came over me which ) can only compare to a 
homing pjiin which flashed through my ufhole body When [ left 
the pUtfcrm, a fnend froni ^Uycnee. who had been sUudiiiij clo&c 
by. cned out in astoniiibmcni, ' U it you? I did not teccgnisc yoti J ' 
BO much had e3cciteinent and exenion iranifigured my feacurct " 

This w^ BamJtrryr-r"* fir^l public speech. "Oic second time he 
spoke wuat a public dinrcr He leJIs i» that he trembled with 
odnmeiil, but that it never huppen<;d art«rwd«- He obMrv«i 
that ihr rrfllr^l mornent In pLihlir ovaiory U ihnt brforrcrini mincing. 
Once the li'>t vroida arc uttered, all diujcTccAblc fccliji^ i« overcome. 
Without a certain ncceleraled circulation of the blood no really 
<«neA speech cin be delivered, eapiiciaEly ^n Parliament Pleading 
before a court of law, he dcda/es, or s]]4.'aking iX a public mct^iing, 
has no pcrila to be compared with the rocks ahead in the Tcirlia- 
cieotary ocean. He reonarks that be never succeeded ^n speaking 
from his carefully prepared notes. After the flr^i ff^ir sentences he 
loat his paiiencc, and fori^ol to look at them. Therefore: cvcv oAcr 
be contented himself with writing down, without order, a ivvr dates 
amd ideoa. He fiaed nothing in his mind beforehand e*«rpt Ibc 
beginning and end of hlfr speech, for he conitideicd it importnnt to 
be aa calm aa pouiblc at thoxe particular momenta, eapocially if the 
speech were likely to be long, " Oratorical prudence,*" he observes, 
"demaods that the peroration, so importnm, should be Icfi n% liitlr 
aa po&ublc 10 the Hponlaneous impulse of an otethcatcd brain ajid 
ftcigucd body. IntcTveniBg motncnta may offer endless hmdrancea 
to preconceived uttennoea, btit with a liule tact the orator can 
eaatTy slide again irio the prefixed €0[ncluiion. 

''Speaking in the open air," continues our authov^ "is not ao 
difiic«lt to a man niLh a weak voice oa might bf? thought. The pure 
aJT lUUi:^ the lunp ia an advantage far outweighing ibr rortvcntrnoe 
of an enck^M-d ^iHlI:^ where the air is inniubly corrupted" 

At an advanced age Bamberger was able to speak with comfort, 
and mak« hinaself heard, in tho open air, even, aa onoe happened, in 
the midst of a anowstorm. 


Tkt GcniUtnatis MagaztM, 

By April 16, tS^S, Loult dLs<»>vered that he lud become popuhr 
in Maxcdcc, jiiicI cuiif[:uti tlut the fact did htm i^ood. Hi« ^JcUght 
in spciking and writing, jind wiuicuing Uie victory of bis opiaioni^ 
ifDS B« lively lu hit xcnftc cf pcraonid ^uccctf, Prom that lime he 
was regardtrd u thj: principal KprcficntACivc of the pany kA freedom. 

Hti> bjiir Ik-lu^ of u ml tinge, he mu nlcknaninl " the rod Bam- 
berger." and being ftUo piile and thin, it wjl» %%\^ thM his cxUcmc 
rcpublic^niETti was only the rcsuli of a sickly physique which could 
nol lonjj tnduftv People frequently jjmphcsiud that be would dje 

On May $ he ocascd to contribute to the "Munzcr Zcitung* 
Al Ibis lime women were admitted to political mcQUrgs, and they 
proi'cd boih uteftil and ornaR^cniAh Mayencc was eelebrxicd for 
beautiful women, and a btgc CQnli;)gcT]t bcciuie cnihuxiutic »up* 
porters of the lepublioxn piuty- They appo^red at meetings in 
hutnd«onie toiieiiesT ^"^^ ^^ ^be Bame itmc thoir gfcat camestne&c 
^vp dignity to the assembly. 

Excitement in Nfayence reached its beighl on May 1, nhen fighls 
took pIfLce, and tho result was tliat the garrison was strengthened by 
an Austrio-li^lLtn regiment Louts tisd long h:id doubts <!£ Eo the 
success of tiie whole movement, and wrote in that sense 10 the 
newspapers* Still, during the summer he and his friends strorc to 
propagate the movement in the next province. On Sepiember \% 
he heard ihai a rci'oli had broken oui at Frankfort, and on his way 
Lbcic was met by a friend w]io tdd him that a writ was out for bis 
arrcsL He therefore turned back, and renewed hb contributions to 
the " Mainzer Zeilung/' 

Not long nfltr be was sent to Br^rlin 10 report on the sitlingii of 
llic Democmlic Congress. He had tiever btfcn in Jicdlii, and four:d 
the city ''empty and gloomy,'* The sense of an approaching cau- 
Atrophe weighed on the spirits of the people. He describes Uic 
%^olenl dEtmtea held at the Congress, and the priiicL]»tl perspiiages 
prc»ent^ on hifi return to Maycnee he wrote five Jong articles on this 
tot&lly fruitless fttfoir. 

On Nov(?mber 1, the official notice of the cvKOtlon of Rol>crt 
Blum struck hurtor to Lhcheaits of ihe Democrats. Never bad Louis 
seen men so bitterly surprised ftnd downcast; ihcy would not bche^c 
it pos^ble. Bamberger was often :^ked whxE would hare become of 
Blum had he outlived that stormy cjwjdi, and \\\ this connection 
relates a convcisatii^u he liad on iht^ matter ntth Bismarck much 
later. It was at Vcrsaiilea, when Laakcr and party were opposing 
the far-reacbtng special Hghts it wai proposed to accord to the 

Traits in the Life of a Gr4at German Liberal. 301 

southcfn Suics, and espccull/ to B^v^a, Ir the piojeacd con- 
uitubon of the Ckrmaii Empin^. BambcrfEcr h&d undciUken to 
MgotiaEtobotiretnhiti Purlamentary friends; And BitinciTck. ^'OnthAt 
diy/' hr TclalPt, "BismatTik was miitb ctctlcd by ihis ^jposiiinn, 
tbc soul of which he knew was L^ukcr. ' If Roben Blum were alive 
nov/ cxdaJmod the great Chanccilor, 'most ceruinly ho iiv>u]d be 
far mor© moderate Ihon l-atkcr/ " 

At (hccn^ cr 1S48, lUmhergcr, in ti Icuding Ankles alluded 10 a 
RuAio^Frcnch olluince, and from the yeai 1849 there ate numcrcuj 
quotations in ttie book before us from hia jouriulLiiic aitidet, ubich 
iliow the anentpti to rsublUh a German Empire, hi? onn illusions 
with rc!gard to tbc movement, and the definite rcrusal of Frederick 

Bambereer mentions th« quarrtJt which then and ev«r af^ 
broke ou[ in the German Liberal party, an<l which ?i((>tain, as be 
rcniatkfl, the continual noa-«occcss of the l.!bcrA!& 

In May 1^49 what was called tbc Gctnun Revolution reached 
die Ktage of " gallaptnf; consumpiion," and on the i ith of th:ic month 
Bamberger publi^eU \\\s laM JLtftcle, ft report of ibrr ^Tcai lureling 
bdd two day« prcTioiisSy, at which he had presided. A few days 
later he heard that, with several otheri, he hod been indicted for 
high treafion. 

In iht? nent pa^es Louis rtrlales the story of hb fti^it JLfid only 
love It WAS A bcAutiful cousin who captivated hi^ affection?i, but 
not under the luual drccimttancei of a child- intimacy. Her parents 
were pmctte:illy sepajUed, and llte mother, 1x>uEa' mati'rnal aunt, 
fired it) Maycncc^ irhUe the father lived at Alicy with ihcir only 
child, A daughter. There was «omc mystery at>out the arran^nvrnt, 
and the dihcr wns regardwl in ihe fnmily as "a kind of wicktd 
magidan-" So it wax only when the girl waa fotiitecn year» old that 
Louis first saw her, on the occauon of accompany in f; hia aunt Bo 
A1i«y to attempt a teconciliation between husband and wife. 

Two years lalcr^ when Loui* was itudying in Heidelberg, he 
heard that Mu> ISchiiont (:lui waa licr iiamc) had been Knt lo 
bot^rd At a f^umhouAc rear Mannheim, and he took the opportunity 
of renewing Ibe ac<iuaiiitanec. Re found her tmiiiformed from a 
thin Irtrlt! child to a tall blooming girl with woiidcrTul eyes. He Tdl 
in love with her, and frequently repeated hi» visits. He proposed 
and was accepted, but eight years potsed before they were married ; 
aght years of struggle with luuassing circumstances, L[ider whjeh the 
young gill snFTered severely, tossed as &he was bcHt'ocii lather and 
mother. " Our Ulcmry friends," remarks Louis, '' to whom my wife 


Tie GinlUmans AfagdsiM. 

bier cm «tif»cribal inimy t!piKrjdrt of her exHy liTi^ urged ber lo write 
her story ; b^v it vraa pftocd in tbe iniMntbk tbodc of a poor 
pcMUit-nutkiin, in a rooA th^rcd in winict vith (t goat." 

HcinidTile Louit wai working hard, and in the intcrv»1i of his 
toil lie corre»i>o(idcd icgubrlj wttb lus Iwlroibed, de&cntiuif{ his 
shftre in ^itk:ft1 cvcnta, «omcunic» in deep de^oodcncfr »obic- 
timcs tn the intoxication of tuccMA. 

In Novf^mlM^r 1S49 Miss Bdmom came to Htjence, and the 
pair p<ui»e<! a happ; three months, mijiini; politics and lorfr-making. 
Then the douK^tcr ftgoin left her mother and returned to her 
fAthct, and now began a series of moit meUncholy letters, written, 
iin FjJuis' side, al deid uf niglit after Uie day'i haul woit 

A long aqjaialion ensued when Louis went 10 London at the 
end of the year. He had paitted the prcvioun fiummer in Swiucr^ 
knd, where he m<rt with an old Heidelberg fellow bCudent, a coloncf 
10 Lht'Swiu army. Tu hiiu Lowii* tonfcKacd bis embarraaaed cir- 
cucnstanecs, and followed hia adviee to ^o and seltLc near him at 
Zurich- Louia took a modest lodging in the outT^kirts of the town, 
and thr lovely mountain and lake scenery, leen for the fir^ Itme, 
seemed to soothe and console him. Dutinj^ hia Life tlictc he learned 
what hunger was, but afterwards loolccd back with envy at the 
experiences of ihAt youthful period He accompanied the painter 
Kau^nuin and others on a lour in the moumains, and proved him- 
self an ardent cUmber, bis light weight and great activity generally 
cartying him far in advance of bis companions. Hx^s novelty 
of ifccnc and rlirnate made him forget aU pa^tl ctoubles and 
future cArca> and he was very happy. He met ou the tuur many 
German fugitives, one of whom said that he possessed only a sinj^ 
aock, which he changed every few hour^ from one loot to the other. 

Aftcrwiirdfi, LouJ& scllM in Hcneva wjih hi& fnend Siu, and 
there nui^dc the acquaintance of the Russia;) author, Alexander 
Herten ; be who brought up his children to be atheistv, but when h:a 
daughters arrived at a marriageable age ca.uscd them tc be in^tiucteJ 
in religion I7 a Protestant parson, in order ibat they might meet 
with no difhcuitics should they enter mio matriiuGny, One o( the 
younger girU being asked by the pjirion whether she had ever beard 
of Jesus Chmi. an5Wi::red, but meaning no irreverence, "Oh, yes; 
papa lays that Jaus vraa a gentleman," These girls and theii 
brother turned out well ani were much respected. 

Through hia Iriend, Moriti Hartmann* Lotiis became acquainted 
with ibc faintly of Prince Nicholas Tmbeiikoy, whnse daughter, 
flinccas Catbeiine, u very iott^re^ong, warmbLaru^ti girl, l^tcr on, 




Trmis jW ii« Li/i o/a Gnat Gertnan Liberai 303 

fts Priac«^ Olo% chwcd Bfmufck at iZk titce «tien he isd 
Napoleon JIJ. %t BiinitL There then commenced on ^'ele^mf 
lUiUiiori between llic ulfcady ddccl/ di|JomAE and the lively young 
woman, which was contLnttcd aftcmrds tt raiit. Loai» aIao k^< 10 
kno^ George H env eg li. whose poems, ""Gtfidicbti; cm« Lebcndigcn/' 
filled him «iih jidm)ni<ior\, Herwegh was & very eleganif limdsoine 
miut, BTlh ihc snuUcsI hands and fccL 

While in Geneva Lcuis conceived the idea of ecnigriting to 
Aractica, but his meeting hit old friend jiiid rdacion, H. B. Oppen- 
beimev, altered hUdectsTun for ihc^ prcicnr. He went with him Lo 
Bern. &nd met there a Dumber of intcrcsiing men, fimong whom 
Carl Vogt reigned siiprecne. As ihe summer dtev to tui end Louis 
mg:iin determined to go to Aoicriai, but receivmg tL« offer <jf a 
»lust>un in London fiom hJi youngst brother, and EngUnd being 
on Ihc road to America, he decided to accept it. 

He htd lomc trouble about a pa^^port, and woJ cbliged to take 
a rnundjibixjt route through Finnce. being forbidden at B^mn^on to 
go KM rorif. At Benn^on be hod on amusing inicrview with the 
pnlecti who, looking at liiia from head to loot, ei^daimed: "Vous 
ivei done rcnvrrt^ det jtouvrmcmcnis?" " Alas I Monsieur le 
Prtffet," replied Loub, '^ uiifoitunalcly not :(i]nidcnlly f" 

Tbe route through r&ri» being declared iicpoewble. Louia went 
wa Cbalons and St. Qucntin, whence he took the t^il to Calaic 
There he wm hcispiubly cnreruin«l li)-« ncwty nude French frierd» 
and for the 6r?^t dmc in his life made ucquiiintAncc wiih the 
" coffllortAblCi honKl/ appoorancc of an open fircpUcc/' 

Aft reading for the journey LouU took with hfm the workic of 
Butiat. whom he Itemed lo kive, and of whom he ^i\ys that, though 
modern poblicELl cconomwli shru^; ihctr ahouldtts at ^^lo "shallow 
mail," Basiiat pofM^sed more Eense and wit than a doj:en modern 
haughty c;vpoiieiiTS of locial politicrt, who ride Llie liigh hor^^e csf 
Mniimcntal ethics. 

Louis cro«Ac4 the Channel and took up hia abode irith his 
brother at lodgingi; ovrr an uphoUterer'^s Khop in Oin;ibuTgh Street, 
Re^fenl'a Fiuk. Tlieir landlord wis very uneasy at hia ricw lodger's 
hairy hp* antS chin, for beorda and moustaches were then rec&rdod 
ia London with abhonenc^. 

A frimd of Louts once tuok a4;inc! refuge*^ to Lire fooi&a 4lt his 
cvn lodging!^ but ihc landlord refused, snyinK he had none ctrpty. 
Knowing that thia waa not true, hi:* lodger a*;kcxj the muon of bis 
refutoL "Oh T" repliwi the lanUluid, ''I likcJicJcan fiice!' 

AnujM^ ihe lerugcd in Londoiit Bamberger liXcd Loub Bluic 

The Gentttmans MagaiM. 


ihc bcM- ""He looked like a bojr. vriih roeydKckt vid sTiiooth 
bb<± hiir, A prettr but oomk figur^ and ai tbc came tiiDC tolcniA 
and cflnwsL" An enrt opponite wu Ledra-RolBn, " * big tutelf 
am, «!»>, BUyini* m E/i^Und onl^ a few ««eka, unm^diatdyr wrote 
ft voloninaoa book cntiilcd * Dc U decadence de fAnglctcne ' ! * 

Of Hszdiu, vbom Ike a1«o met in London, Loqu Bamberger sayt 
that ODly bjr ibe fijc of bU briUbnl qpca rinl the »inalJ fnil-tooking 
patriot bctcajr hb loimgix cneigj. 

LoM waa preaetu at a loog discnMOA on the rcrotationlftliig of 
Itdf. The vbole plan was rcadf io Mauini*( mind ; even the con- 
fia ca ti op of ccdcuasrical progimjr was fmrrseen^ Maziini itnEirt^su^d 
Low QDOflt buounUyt and vliefi the bttcr went to [kluium Mjuiioi 
gave biai many ktten of iutroductiotu 

In lea intinure drcuraUaDcc* tbc figures of FrcHigrath, Kinke^ 
Cari Uant, at>d otber refugcot arc aeen in the pugca of these tccoT* 
lectiooa. And hoc i« iiMCctcd a tittle anecdote *' One dar," Louis 
■date^ *'I ftent In Madame Tiuuaud'fi intcndirg to see the cele- 
bnied Cbupber of Horrors At the tkkrt ol^cc 1 wai turpnted to 
find tbc >fao« doacd, and uVcd tbc itAAon. ' Oh ! ' was the answer, 
*ywi know that tbe Qtic<n ntolhcr died ycstctdiy. and in convequencc 
an the paivoikft are to be put into mounting- Wbilc ibis i% done, 
tbc diov B ckttttL' As 1 had nnl much liking for sighC-sedng,* 
coodttdo Banberfcr, '* I went aw«j and nei-cr rclnnicd'' 

On thi> other hand, he vtu fond of visiting the coarls ol tair 
and tbe Hoiiw of CammonK, wht-ro he once heard a long speech hj 
Cobden, whoee wuiplc. tntnatJanrnt oralory aOerded him extreme 
pleasure- He loved, too. to ulk vith the workiirg classes^ and one 
day an omnibuc-dfi^<er, complaining ol the high Uxcsy aske^d bim 
whether he ilao did not think them exoeuive. 

Uaoibcr^r tcplicd that he waa a foreigner, and did not Ted ihe 

" Oh, tit," remontimted the driver, *' ho^v can you say that ? Do 
you net ply ihp (akc* in trvcrythiti^ you buy ? " And Bjunbcrgct felt 
ashamed of bla book learned politic* by comparison «iih tbe polmcai 
matuHty of the Jehu. 

instead of luming to the practice of law. Loui^ had accepted a 
post in the liankinghouiie of Bbdiofr^hcuti. and fclalc:> lomcivhat of 
its hrstor)"' 

The heads of i\\t Grm n-cre \ja/^ uncles, tbc son« of his grand' 
mother, vho had lost her husband in the plague ri:dlowing ihe 
diaabtrous retreat of ilie gmnde armU in 1S13. The widortcd 
»tber» Madame BisehoH^iidin, brou^hl up bet ftvc dtiJdten 

Traiis in ikt Life of a Grtai German LiheraL 305 

frith p&imrch»l s^xitity- Her viae aftyinga verc lon^f quoted in the 
fuDtly. It w» chuacti^ri^io of her thit she was » convinced uF 
her nriAU'mfll h^u, th«t fthc AKcmptod 10 «xerci»e unllnilied con* 
iTol over even her nuLrricd adJ long 5ini:c indcficiidcfit ^oo?4. The 
«ldes<| Ihc hcAil of the larj^e b^nkut^ IjLumcst, Itircd 11^ AmaEcrdam. 
Ufl dMenuined 10 fiend hi« oon to HarLs 10 ftntfth hit educauon, 
HoOtiOfling this inirntion to hu mother, nhc declared herself entirely 
Ofyo w d to it. And said that if it were peraiitcd in, ihc foibode bcr 
»on ever to see her Agitin. NeverthuEi.'Si, thu boy ir^« fient to Pati^ 
but aII Attcmpu cf Ihr fnlhi^r ti> rrcnnriic his mrithrr were fruitlcM. 
She Irvcij on for liEtecn reoTK, and when oci her dfiath>bcd >Eil] refuted 
to allow h^r son, who was in the next room, to "itt \\ti. She tre^rcd 
a daughter who had diu^tkcycd Licr in lilie manner, and, in her wiJ, 
fotbadic that daughter to wen mourning for her- In &pite of thi« 
harshness, Madame Bi»:hoffahcim uaodtoshed tcara oter sentimental 
romance^ but when ihc read the Memoirs of Las Cuas and the 
dncription of St. Helena, ilie rcTuiied to he uil^j^nnl, und only said, 
"It Mrred Napoleon right V She waa a Acii-jaciificing ucthcr> 
and was venerated by her children, 

The tiofy «f the firni of BtschofTKhcim, Goldjrhniidt, St 
Arigdoi it told by our auilinr, and we nui>' ^tAXt »uuic puticuUi^ 
Avigdof WIS the »on in-law of Sir Isaac Lyon GoldschiKiidc and 
had been tiken into the ftrcn to plea^ that gentleman, but wait 
pretty Mtou pulinrly diami^cd, foi li^ i^iovirJ tu Lc lUdic uf a gny 
cavalier than a banker ; the one brilliant point in his life w:l« a djcl 
ho had with Cavour 'aX Nice, which refiulted hannleoly. At that 
time Ca\-ouT waa a journaJitii. 

Avigtlor met Loui» Napoleon ^vhcn the latter fled to London 
from Ham, and Uter on made u»c of ihia circumstance, during ibe 
Thifd Empire, to obtain the olfke of ambassador to Parit from tha 
Republic uf Sun M&riiKs with iW title of Duke of Ac<jua, but he 
failed to diMin|[ttiflh him&cir in diplomacy. 

Louis desetibei how he toiled in ilie London bank from 9 hM, 
to 9 P.M. He enjoyed lite Sunday'ii Icihurr, and employed \\ in 
literary work, coniributiniE utictea to a German p«pcr published in 
Paris- In 1850 he accepted an o9er to join a brother wlio had 
undcflaken the direction of the Antwerp branch. On the way 
thither he met hib betrothed at Oflcnd, and as butli LX)uId now 
look forward to noar union, it vnu a very happy meetin^. 

Loui«' firit experience of going " on <rhtt7gc " at Antwerp 

a very diugreea hie impri^asion on him, end both then and afterwards 
vou ccxcvi. «/>, 3079. y 


7*4/ GfniUman's Afagastn$^ 


ke onU never rccoodlc hinuctf to tic shoutioci tumult, md 

cf tIbeMClM. 

hb Ikfs OBidtvit of a pigeoD-poct, for the <by of 
«M only imt bqpaniDS to dsvu. Th« To^ lo Tr^^iocni 
in the Nctbabndi woe ^le ptgccns' grcAtot ectetnica, but ilua was 
compc ftu rtd bj the tact th4t only a £e« fimu emplofcd the pigtOQ- 
p(Mi« and thfrffoR Kad the priorii^ of news Ju« at thii tiaiff 
Rmter^ tcWgn|iiac Bgdiy vmt opt^icd, and iu atorr is told. Thii 
aemce cooftamwed oq Uiwcb 15, 1651, on wbncfa da/ the fmt diroct 
were mdi to Berlin and VjieocuL 

Ae|<ttV be ipnM U Antwerp, frooi iSjo Eo ]85>, 
tolMTtbMBtheCbCuriatofbaSlife. llcfrU Imiljlj IjCKlfJiAt lli« 

apficDtc, ftnd cipcrictKxd stnngc atlacki of dcbititr- Hb bctfotfacd 
ate led a vrffcfaed lile with h«t Either at AU«y. vyl was quite out 
«f hfalrti Hietr carTe«pondcncc rvprrued lh«ir mb^ry. '* During 
ihe Gourw of KIT Ufc,*n»Mrlw finrobcifcr in (bJa conne>ctioUp "I 
haw becooie cnore and more coovinced that cheerfulness b one 01 
the grettett Ucninf^ end I now find ii difficult, while r^admg the 
fiUL letttf^ to realise the mdonchol^ of thoie djiy«." 

Hii acpcricix« in London and Antwerp ooimnccd Louis tbit he 
bad no t^«M for bot ineg , and he disliked it Mpecially when it 
abmrbed hb liuie to ai tu Itave no leasorc for intellCT^tual wofk. At 
Antwerp be tived the life of a student with limitcJ mr-ui^ His 
Mginc^ wnh evuaa luch aa tight and Cue, only cost him 2$ francs 
A OMAth. ''Life here means work,*" he wrote to Miis Belmont; 
*'from9 to % oiflktv frocn j to 4 o^ 'Oiadge; then dirnrr, and oAice 
aca^n ^om 6 to S or 9 o'clock- I fcaf «U this wiU rcKuU ti> ahoit 
IcUen. ^^'hat ddi^htful idling by comparison is a learned pro- 
itniOQ I But do not pity your faithful busineiv man 

" Louia." 

In iSst, Bambtfgec went to RoCtcniAm to csiablisb a branch 
house. It was a very modest begir^ning. His maierrut uncJc lent 
him a Kmall cApitflln xid lii^i faibrr »lurLMj fn the new it'dliirt- tt> ibe 
limttfld eatcnt of 5tOoo Kuildcra. The houoe of B:flchoff»heim also 
tookaomepft^. and the firm of Louis A. Ham berg4.'t & Co-wascreated. 
lU reprcwnuiive had to take a furnished Wgirig of a very modest 
kind. He had a lirdioom, parlouf, and office on tbc Ar«t atoty of 
a house, and the cnlruicc to ihe ot^^ was ibroueh iKe ^hop of a 
bairdretaer on the ([roLind Aoor- In this way Louii Bantbergcr made 
hii entry irto iti ftauit fittam^. His lenae of the comic won the 
Tictoty over the mediocrity of Llic siluaLioiL He had juiil anivcd in 
his apotiment and was sitting on tu£ unpacked trunk. Then the clock 


rtais im H4 Life o/q Grtai German Littrui. 307 

of m neighbouring chiircfa chimed the hour of throe, tod Amilftr 
cbicn«!i ever aftrr avakcrni.ij ihc TeelingK of that clay. 

BantbcfKCT look a ffrcal intacst 111 Hi^lbiid, mi] in fhc xpirii of 
its inbdbttant£- The total ftcporttion cxistirg between Jcw» and 
Christuo* HTftf ver]^ di5a^re«al)1« to tiJm, Hi» stay in f;ngUnd And 
BdgfKPI bad causal him 10 forgn the locbl fii^^ning of confrttionil 
diCVrcrico. Still there wm no Iricc in Hollfljid of utcliaUcd, 4iid 
iko ctivy, for there were many rich Christian* ind many poor Jcw^in 
the land. Nor roukl rhp tepamtion be attribute 10 vulgarrty in th« 
Jews; Tor though the Gcrnkafk^Poliifi contingent wi>t on a vrry Iobt 
itencof educmtion, the I'ortuguc^ Jcwa were highly cuhurcd imd 
did h£:inour 10 ihetr noble names. Hie tep«iation wu the more 
5(rikdn)^ be<:fltise the Dutch Uiv ^vc not only «N]Lt!il ri^hu. bm Jecri 
COttld aUo 6It civil and RiiliiAry posCi of impoiiAncc, The Minislef 
of Jutticewaut a Jew, ind there were many JcniBho^ccr^in thoanttf* 
The explanation of ihc difftrtnce lay in ihe cKifcmc pieiy of «adi 
pviyj ?rote«tarta and Jc«rA ircic w coiiitJlctcly idemlfird wfih 
dieir own rdiKiotis convictioni^ thai it *ccaicd quite natural to 
OOttfine iht^intelves 10 their several oam^ji. But the word ««ft- 
Umiifsm had not been invented. 

Louts' lErratcst comfon at all times was literature, He reckons 
his rc^drng of Gutfkow't nine volume*, ^* Die Riltcr vofn Gcist." to 
hare been one of the mo^i deli^hEliil employments of hie leisure at 
tbb lime. " Boukt," Tic renxatli», " cannot make a nian hsppy, Lut 
tbcy can and do jcivc bim niany happy hours and days." 

He look great pleasure in tlie Dutch picture galleries and 
COnCeru, and fully apprccUled the pro;1iaf chjtrm of the Dutch 
•cenciT* He wasdelifihted above all with a river trip is a TrrJb- 
ukkiL Having gone to Maestricht on buaine^t, he took a ^cy to 
gotoLiaUich by river "Thecniicc Rliding alone on the itnoctb 
walcr in the peaceful land^capr," he say>, '* luid a wL^iKiei fully 
toothinjc efTccL Eiicept the small crew and myMJfj no one was on 
boatd but a (icrman workmann I had an interetiing hook to read. 
Ai every village itie driver of the hoTM- vhich disced us stopped 10 
dlink actinapp?, and I vai sorry when we reached LLJltJch-" 

BatnbcrxeT now be^n to make prepoiationt for bis wedding, and 
look a tmall house. He impaiied hia Inicnrlon of tmrnediaie 
marriage tu hi^ future fathcr-tn-law. though ^onvini:cd that he would 
receive a denial, which was actually the eaae. hut aa Mtas Belmont 
was of age, her father's oonient was not legally neccuaiy. However, 
the foiera liad stil) to wail three months for the completion of 
Fortoalitiea, Mr. Bclmoni gnvc bia only child no dowry but a cune. 


T^ GeniUmait's Afagazine. 

Ai Btmberpw wfli in exile, there were also dMicu1ti«4 on Uui 
ftCGOont, biK 5im11j, on May 5, tSji, the urOfltng touk place nrrj 
qnidly at Rotterdam, in the proencc of a vcty fen Mends Ji^id 

BcmhtffgFT^ new hiipptrtets w^i Inrmsed by nevt vhich »sie 
from hJ3 brother in Tant on the foftovrjr^ Juljr 8, He «U oCTered 
ui advanla^cout ciliution in the branch frrin in the Krcr«h capitnL 
Hethowod the letter lo hit youngwifr, remafking (liat the oHi^i must 
be coniidcrcd- 

''There i» nothing; to con»idcr." >he cried ; '* we ttiu«t »ciic Void 
of it AC once 1" 

^e wSR defighted M th? pronpeci of fl chjingA from Molbtnd, a 
country she diiJiked- By Ihe middle of August evctyihing vjit 
settled, but tbere was Itiil aome trotible rn procuring a passport for 
ih« political rcfugM; Finally it wa^ n)»i»g>xl by inltuembl ^ienda 
that nambetj^tr ahoutd ^o tu hifit tisti^nitihly »£ nn »l!irijiE tnvsst^^ 
bctrir^ deapAtchea [irhich eonaiatcd of a mock parcel confairing a 
brick) to Cenctol KaTct, the then Dutch Ambas^dor ftt FarU. 

ULS woLrrsouv. 



If love were a Jream Lliar is ovt-r uid gone 
yS'htn the sleeper awake? from hiri ^Iccp, 
O wil oii^ht l^e rosy blu&h of ilie ibwo 
Be min'd willi tears, und |ja!e ind «twi 
The Torl<l Dii^ht weep ! 

More wd than a bird in it« coven bnro^ 
A moa»-^ix)wii gnve, a ktugnunt iiErcam, 
Tliii world would bo, uid we ihould wear 
Tlie tbonis thic bind the brovs cfeaid 
If loi^ wen « dnun ! 

ftOHSRT MiiKvnrK 



Tk€ Gentleman s Mtigazim. 


H. Kkka^ oh ms Katb of Uookb. 

•■ \^ RNKST RF-NAN siid wic cTcninj in 4 conTrrution tmong 
\f Fiicnds: * Kittf yein bcnoe oo one will open a book.'" 
Ttu»«Mouiiding1>' peuinriUticustniOQ lukc froBiatkinicLeon ''The 
Evoluikm of Conlrmporarf Ficndi !,itrralurr,* sent ro :hc /w-/- 
mikify /feviffw by tn/ biillunt friend Octave UxAonct to wbmc cor>- 
tributions to "coiil«tnporary Ffcnch Utaotura" I 1uv« coora ihu 
once dmtrn the aiwndon of m^ rridcn. Thr view conujned la 
Uu9 utlcniDce docs not win M. Uorinc** ^ttiurj oocciAaac^ 
Cfcou^ be ititGS tkit A fcvr fAr-accing mindsi induding EdtDOmd de 
Goitcourt, were »blc on hearing the cxprewon to enu&»« th« 
■mount of truih conuincd in "ihh hint ai lo the future.* He 
(M. L'£iAnc)Add9 the »ttteaiciit% in part coiTobor&tJve, th&i the book 
in i-rA&ct " i« pftsfting ihrougb in ftcittt emit, ' And ihAt " liieatutc^ 
loo, i« dying/ I yield in few in my admirsiion tot the ^rctt rriiw 
AnJ pliilotoK^i^ whose poathumoua honourat like those he received 
during his Lilciime, have been the CWM of iCAny ho«tilc oiAmresta- 
tions^ and [ recognise the v»luc ol to much vdhc&ion u it ftiraiihed 
by M. Uumnp- T decline, liowervrr, to Accept thi; KiAtesimi in 
Anything like iu full lense, or to be fiightcncd hy ihe proipect held 
out. Kenan's utt«rAnce belon^v to li^^S. "HAd we but vorki 
enough Jind time," lo qoote Andrew MarvcH, v»d In Addition the 
opp;»'tunily to institute a comparison, I would bet (excuKC the 
l>hrAK) (hat in j^^ft— thAl ii* tt the cIcM of the period ntuood— there 
wtll \k far more bookv opened than there were at the time when 
RenAii a^ke^ I Am not myiclf dealing spedally with Fnincr, bltt 
I should not mind being limited to that ccuntry, conccrnijig which 
Reoin and M, Uaanne naturally know jnfiriitoly more than caytolC 

C>iani;r i> tiis Ruping Pu»lic. 

THI^RE (e flome justiAcaticm for the fcv that a i^ery large 
innion of n^cnS rrdding will be di^etied from books to 
periodical A movement to some extent in that diicctlon ha> been 
^cKsfor c«ntunca. Tbo hue« folioa which were ihc ddight 

TabU Tatk. 


«f ibc Rci»dssaiK)0 vcholnr ^vc way to qaartos. which in Ihcir Cum 
vcre Abandoned Tor ocuvot And duodenmo«, ind fio on, until wc 
teach the tuiiiiiitp lilllc VQlumc* such as the Vir^nihHt Putriiquf 
<A Stevcnaon, mentioned prcviotisly. which c^n be slipped into the 
pocket of ore b«nt on «mble or (ravel, mthouc forming any perccp 
tible addition to the weight to be carried- Such, moreoverj ti ihe 
pcrfcdbn to which typogntphf hu attained ttuit 1 ]xK>k «uch as 1 
mention b legible— more legible, indeed, than oihcn thiiot it? >ite. 
Siip«nny edttiors of nowU which may be read ind thtovn away, a& 
BiionAporte used to ihrow away ihe volumes he read on hk jouTney* 
vaA sometiincs cut open with his finger^ fmd their admirer*, who, of 
cmitse, are scarcely to tie regirded as genuine book lovers ; and there 
fs a large— perhaps an increasing — cJass which for nilvay rtadin^ 
will ticrer go beyond a trivial paper such as, hontsco rtfrrtm, the 
A«* '^* Thote, however, who purchase ih«e things have not 
iou^ly entered into the category of readers. At thdr be«t Eb^y 
arr descendants of the sqiiirea whoac libraries u«ed to con^i<[ of t 
Bible, a iMaiiae on fanKcry, and a Bct of ihc Hafiag CaUndur, 
Reviews, qtuuterly or monthly, hav« a place in literature, and strive a 
^iitlnct porpoAe, though the scholar will not be cortcni with such, 
e^iccpt in the caac of matten of temporary inlcren or wriicia nf 
•ubordinatc ranlc. There wm nev^r, surdy, a cuttivaEed man who 
would accept %% adequate to his requiremenl* K review article oa 
Shakeipcire, Bacon, or any maatez of Lhout^jL 

WfTAT Wowtmo Mew Hkad. 

FEW men belonging lo the operative classes r^fld booVi; and 
such as do, choose ratherworksofs^lid and pncticsd infomia- 
tion than the masterpieces of literature. 1 gave once to the ruoa 
ttciiiible, urell- informed, and \vs ^\epf way inistworthy workman I ever 
^■ipluyed. an edition of Shakespeare in several volume* — it was one 
od" Knight's oditions, which at that time stood welliniccneralcatima' 
tion — and am bound to say xhxi my giifi evoked no diiplay vhatev^ 
«if lyatitude. This ha^ alvfjiys ]»een so, an<l ihcre is no lalltng-off^ 
in recent years—raihcr the re*«3e. At the wme time, there aM 
wonder^l cxccptionB to the rule in woriting<1Ufl readen. The 
nftn bett acquainted wiih Tudot litcntttin? I have ever met wa* at 
^>cie time a private soldier, and is now in a station not far lupciior. 
It b mentioned that one of the officer of the regiment in which 
Coleridge was at one time a soldier found him studying ^^chyluj 
— in the original In like fashion an oflicci In a Wctl India 
r^ioicni miihr have found one under his command studying 
Chapman or MAntoa> Such caseK are naturally few, but that I 

312 The CeniUtnaKS Magazine. 

mcniion is not unique. The Other diy i r«ador of toy« in ibe 
orcct wju itadii^ Il^^/ts Anmnal^ ajid, whjt I thtnk ^ more 
nraiaiVAblc, the coachnuin on a ptivitc cirmjtc drawn ui> in the 
street wa« dtwp in the ttudy of Tennytcw- 

Mrn will corcTmuK 10 Ri^ah Books, 

ITHTSK, lIicLi, llic fcai that men will dther In thirtj-ievcn ycajs, 
vrbkh la about the span left of tbe ^fty yc&n incntionc<l by 
Rerun, or in any period whatcrvcr, ceue to read books may b« dit- 
tuistecl ai vtstociAiy. Not cv«ii i T^vohilion in modcM nf ihoughf, 
s|)ccdi, and Mudy» vreic one conceivable, could, I thifik, woik 
9uch a change- Invention may pouibly dry up a£ icgatda pure 
fiction— il $eem» alrtady to be doing so as f<!gatds the highest 
class of dmma— «nd the taste for novels may be impaired or lost. 
There wiU never be a time, however, when the schoUr will cease to 
read the OJytSfy ot tho ^^ineidy or give up the pocket edition of 
Horaee, TAcilus, or ti may he even Luctan, though I am not sure 
that a pccket edition of the lait-namrfl writer riiMs- I am ccnlining 
mytelf to the ClAssicSt but I might just as veil eile the Diane 
Ccmtify ; Panta^nttJ; ffamitr ; or Aia!ant<i in Cni^6n. TTie iiJigo 
loJTer, it ts scea is widu, Tli*nr arr nowahumlrrdrradrntof Hant* 
where a generation ago there vrai but one. Editions of favourite 
vmters multiply, and the purchasers of these will sopply a fotr pei- 
centoge of readers, fn difmi^iing the subject 1 vtll v^-nture to 
quote lines abotJt bookfi from the Eldtr Brelher of Bcaunioni and 
Hcichcrr, act u scene a, Ihoic alicady familiar with them will 
pardon their repetition. Rebuked for his tovc of books Charles^ 
the cidei brolher, says x 

Give Die leave 
To enjcy rnytfM'. that pUte tti«t doD* roirlain 
My 1)dolit» Ehf (v«t companlDDt, it Eo ap 
A |j:1otI«u» couie, when houi^ I o.Hivci*e 
With di« oMhik^ hiuJ philmnjtibcn ; 
And s'licctJintv tax vnricT^, I n^qfrr 
Witli kmK* and vrnprron, nnd weigh ibeir Oftmud* I 

UqIc a sulci Meounl, ai;d in my /.uicy 

Debcc their iU>pbcc<] staiuu. Cjiti I \hr-n 

Part Willi meh mnilaiit plcuatH. t4embm» 

UficcrtAJD vnattin ? Jia, be it youf ciltc 

T* ■Bpncru ymii bc4p of wuIeH ; it sJiitl t>c oiinc 

To jjiocAie in knowledge, l^U ihcr*', fcir my ntiMly ! 

If this be a herc:iy, there aie thtwe who will mofntain it in face 
pcs»inistic prediction, 



ArvtiL 1904. 



TN a f^-away corner of ibe Government of Viatka. iri North- 
ejulern Russia, v^ht^rc snow lies full firvfrft momh^ BOil in llie 
nuh of 1 fortnight gives pbce lo the full greenery of spring -, where 
the four torrid morich& of suninaer give so sharply to tlic winter 
thnr rtray blossoms of laiL'-floweHng plants arc folded hcneatb lh« 
»wift-coniittg snow, to Iiloom Again \^ji one brief hour in the; Urit 
beam of the f^llowia^ spring before fmjilly shrivdlin^ to decays 
whcT^ Vie moves far removed from thi- rush of (lie worM, and 
where human pasiioiis stir and are shown in all tljeir i:ruda 
prinal cotoLirs. unknowing of the softer ^-andpcrhapamorcdangcrout 
— shades and half-^tones of civilisation ; here, on the edge ol a bare 
and crumbling ravine, worn through the red Mndy day by rush of 
mcUing snoH}, ^itatfglc? tlic village of Oosi Ltnka. 

1 he \Q\f out-of-plumb gables of its vcfllhtr-wom wooden housca 
abut on etcher side of the long widt- itri^i whic^ run« parallel 10 the 
raYine. At Its upper end ^taiid the Uettci bouKa of the village — 
tbougb, indeed. a11 arc poor enough ; and here, tct back from the 
roadway and filling the Ux end of a square, is tlie great church— 
looking immeoiety out of proportion to the lixtle village around ii, 
its whilcwaJihed walU and gtecn-painlcd dome forming a Undnurk 
for many miLs around- Lower down, the Ktreet dimini^hci into a 
mere track leading into the ravine lEsrlf, where the huts are of ibe 

3t4 Th^ GiHtUmams Magatine. 

very fioorni tj-pr, bcitig Injilt moitljT of louilc nfid d>j, though 
wiihco^t juiy Appciiuicc of squalor. 

At one of ibc com«n formed by the Ktr««t And the *quArc «>a 
the one paint^ houtc of thi^ viilagt^—ihc bouic of Phtlemort Nibec- 
lilc^, lUtJlat vriridtjvr fellies vac t'^uitci] in iitripehur Uueuid while, 
and in tbc little gable whceh in thijt iiuuinee fronted :hc sqiurc— a 
rude bftrbuic dc»ign io blue and onuigc bad been Drgun but never 
ccmpleted- The floor ot the hou§e wa« raised Aome five feef from 
the tcTcl cr tlic \\.vc<x by a loOKly built tConc founditi^n, tnd w 
tcftCtkcd bj A ibfMt Highi of Mairs set adeivays to the waiL I'hc houw 
vuatmAll om% ind cnnisined only two roomi^oner the kitchen 
and grncnl looiii. opening ImiEicdkiely fioin like vfiand^i at the 
top of the step* ; the othcf^uscd b>- Nakcctitch 04 Awork-room and 
»liMf>iiig-roonn com bin c<l— opening oiit of tlie former. 

S^vt the time— oner in cmy rbrc? or fonr wcclct — nhen be took 
hb wucA io the meichant in 5hoomrin»k, about thirty mi!e« 8Wiy. 
Nakeebteh spent ntMrly all hJs time in this btter room, bending over 
llM tmooth wooden pands upoii which he pnimcd ihe mienniflabltf 
liUCCcstlon of uintly hcadi, the luming out of which Ijyso many 
dc»cn> a year formt-d bis dull daily rouiine Trom January to Ueocmbci. 
The work had long stDfrc ccAtcd to give him ihat esolCAtion of mind 
which one m^ght think it wniiM irnd to give ; it had herome to bxm 
ft mere morhanical thing, the chief tntcrcit in which Iny in the 
tiumbcr produced- Vtare ago he hod realised his enlLre inabtliiy 1o 
paim in reality the gforicuR heads of his imag^ring^ ; and ncv the 
memory of thr lon^i vtAr. of failures ofti^n scrvrd m (jniet^n the tnany 
f^t£ of reillettncu which came (o him through sheer iFtadnc&s ol liib 
work and ite noirrow timiifl. 

The Ifghi nf a Uip winter afternoon wan beginning to fade an 
Philfmon hrnt pyt-r hi* work. As the colours brgan to \osv their 
diitincincwwiih the dym^ Jay, he looked up, a/id with a deep 
breath slowly put aside hit bruthet. Having vrvnged them c^re 
fully in the litiltf ^m>x whrre he kcpi hi^ few painting maicrbU, he 
rose, itrctchcd himsrlf, and went into ihe other room in i carch of 
[CA. The old nomar) who did hit cooking, and who waited upon 
Mm gtnemJly, had gone out, bur ihp «amovar, with the Uitlc while 
icapoi [kprrhrd upfin the lop of \\, Mill Mood tijjon the lahlr. fir 
felt it and found it was almost ccid Removing the icApot, he 
peered down imo the inside cylinder. Not a «park nait to be seen 
among the haircoiL^umn] aticliK of chnrcoil T Turning to the ttove 
with the inicniion of getting a Ui-c coal to lekiiidle [Jitfrn, lie found 
th?re only the greywhiie a^h of a Jong sinceexpired 5rc. He ainick 


j4 f^inier oj SAritirs. 


one or two lulphuroiia •smelling mmch«, and dropped then <»« by 
one »moi^fi ilic diucoal in the c>]inr]cr; bm i)ic> orl/ flicl;ofed 
«nd went oul ia thcif ovn ^mokc So. rcsigiicdly rcpkaithLiii: Lhc 
teapot from tht^ Icikeu-jinn ^amomj he poured o\iZ a g^fLfit of straw- 
calonia] teu^ aiiU aiuuJ ax he drank it, tijuking oui of the vindow 
■cro«» the square &nd down the atrcct. 

He W2A ft pi^c-faccd rtiAn of nervous thinness. A nuor htd 
probablf ncvfrr touched his face» for lhc h^ir on hU ch««k waft liltle 
more tlwi All ifidefiJtJtc line of diuen down, ^puiatcd frttm ihp ^ar 
by n bare jpace so while .md soft aa to look almt^t babytah, lli» 
beard was better, though stiU tcomy; but hii nnouiuche, of a 
diricc;r ihiik thJii the rcai of Iiii hair, curved over hh moirrh in 
two itiiclt swecrlne curvci. Thou^th rctaiiung tt»e higii jccordion- 
pleated boots of the peotant, bti did not wear lhc p^aant'^ distinctiyc 
prb, bm was :itiiml in ih^^ thm \<mm^ jacket and wafxtcofti aj Afieeitfd 
by the townbftitk of Shooiniiiiiik. 

The outbok firom the window wn» somewhat dreary. The snow 
was trodden into x dirt)- grey colour, and great moundG of ii were 
pitd in front Cif the housrs. 1'hmigli on\y the nearer of ihct^ 
cojM now t>c 3ccn, Thilctuon knew than dll to be npccklcd and 
blotched with black xad brown stains, making them dicaiily un- 
sightly- The brown &1ed^e-lrack winding duwn the centre nf (he 
street lo&t iuclfin the du^L A little way Uiuk from tlic ^tIect, a 
ihm Btrc&k of t>1ac »noke from the village bath houK loac vcnic^ly 
i^nd the shining yellow of the sky, and a couple of ligureft with 
lowelaamd bunches nf tvl^n in Lhclr bands, crossing the street ju*it 
on tile edge of the duak* reminded him that to-morrow was the 
fim day of ibe Carnival, and that the hath-hout^ would be busy 
tO'day. Ah < perhapf thai was whert^ Saftha h^ gone. He lookuj 
acio>3 to the priest's hou*c opposite- The priest \v,i* the only oiic 
in the viUagc w!io posseted a bath house of his own, and 5osh^ 
wta a gwat friend of U^iana, the priest's housekeeper, and thus 
enjoyed the privilegr of going each week with her to the baib, and 
ni htTirg a long and perspiring gossip around the samovar aftcr- 

Philemon had had hi it bdlh yettt^rihiy in Shoomrinik- He 
gtncnlly managed to find time for that on hia \iu^ to the town, 
as he preferred to baih« ev«n in the pf etcnc« of strangers nuher tb£tn 
With hu fdlow-Tillagrrs. whu kept up a constant round nf chalT ^nd 
jokcf about him the whole ttmc 

Away in a confer of the field beyond the church a yellow 
flicker of light cold ihat itome one was lighting the smithy Ore. The 


T'he GtHtteman's Magazine. 

vilUgf tmith ant3 wheelwright had, one mf^ming Ust wirtor, been 
found drad nnd Troicn on Ihe inonr outside the vilUge, aiMl now the 
Vilbgen did Ihcir own smjUj-nt>tk. Tlie flkfccr Incietwd to i 
spftrkling bliuse, around which l^ilcmon could diKcm some Uuee 
or four young fdlows at work. Their It^rw ahourcd bUck againtt 
the ftrr; and he coald ni«kc out that they w«tc fiuing new in» 
runners lo a littler tobogganing aledgc in rcadinc4?i far io-ir>09ii>ii'i 
•potts* I'hilenu)n went to the Ubie and poured out another j^Ust 
^ ijOl Reuiming 10 the vindov, he nood wntching the dirk 

His breaib mjidc ItlUe ninning irideiecnt penLusulu of mbt 
upon the gbn, and from time 10 time he idlf drew hii fingen 
across the hlui, while bis th»iight« inom] a^ idly «nd ai valnlj- 
a> did his iingers- He fell to wondering hot* it was that he 
dtiri'tod to from ottbcr men, how 11 wis ibal h« could ncrer feel 
at cnsr Jimnng his fpltnwi, Evrn on s rhild he had never really 
enjoyed playing with other children — not that he could not vttjoy 
sportd ; 110, he knew thai to-tnonow, when he heard the 
c ring with shout* and Uughler from the tobogganing alope, 
he would feel a t^ull aching envy of it nil — a udncsA atmoU akin to 
ahaoic that he oould not be like the othen in their rollicking en)o)'' 
ment of the day. It must be his own fault, ho rappoted ; yet, when 
In past holidjiy limrs his !j>nging for companionship hnd sniccTintei 
urged him fiom the house to )<nn thcnii they had never seemed to 
treat him a» they treated CAch oihcr ; thoy wore « brotherhood, 
be one alone and npan. Whatever he did, he did Jl somebow 
unlike nuy of thi^ rui, and it H;ih sure to Le turned to biughlcr 
and become tlie source of jokci against himself. And he coulJ 
re\^r banUr joke for joke in the cafly bughjng way thAt other* 
did- Onreor twice, when he aitcmplrd it, hii wnnJs in *piic 
of himself had seemed unkind, and h^d cut far deeper ihan tlir^ 
were intended to do. There was Big Peotra, the Siar^pSaU son, 
one of the group nnw by the smithy fire, who he knew disliked him 
to this rhy, because tiwj ycirs agij, at the marriage of Nieoli 
Ivanitch's Darya, he hai, af^cr bearing Pcotri'a diaflall the evening, 
retorted to him aerosa the breath of the room thnt his body grew 
more rapidly than his brains. The laughter of rhc gu«K was at 
once turned against Pcotra, and a phrase had Lcen act gcing 
which had not yet died; and Peoira had never forgiven btrn. 
Well, fooner or latfr, he would find an opportunity to do him tome 
ittle Ktvice thar would hdp to put things right agaia 

The street had now grown quite dark- T)ie stars had come 

A PainUr of ShrtHis. 


<Mt, ind the amlihy Arc cauacd the an^^cs o( the dxuicl to Aland 
out ia boli relict From the pric^r^ yard^Ec Acrot? tltc tquarc 
<^KkC ft ^^e. It tvu S^uba returning from her tuth ind goaip. 

"Oi ! cji ! I'lulcanjn Nakc^tilch," ^Jit cxcbiinrd us she vuicrcd 
the room, "why do you «und there nil In the bUck dorkncM ? 
OnUd you not have lighted the lamp?" 

"T did not r»;tijre ii,^' rrCuriie<l Philemon, ptititng down his 
ciDptjrghua and returning to hi^ work-roon)« Siuha naddling after 
him «ith the Ump. 

As ihe fitted the Utile oily bluegk^s cislcm ifilo il£ ^VDC 
AUSpeiiUed fioiu \\\^ tow c^ilin^, sUc said, '^ [Jturui 1\?mtvti4 liu» 
Afkcd me to go ftcfos^ to cat blctnU a.nd Hnli with licr lo-uicrrow 
flighL 1 thought perhaps I might go. E\^ry one goes &oinewhef« 
to» morrow." 

•^Why aliould you not go?" relumed Philemon ; "! shall not 
need you." 

"Yes, but J haw been so many tl;cncs to drink lea «ith 
Uliana Ivanovno, nnd I rlimight I would hkc lo ju>Ig her to come 
and cat hktmt with n:e during thb M&ifynUsa — ooly we hare no 

" But fish can be boiight \ If you wish you can tatc Lofka and 
drive inio Shuoinrituk ti/inorruw und buy yourself ^umc: utviacc- 
Hcrc arc two roubles ; %\slix early oi the shops will be cloacd. 
Then itiVTte Vliana and :iny other friends you wish. With a 
boitic of vodka^ bittmt, and caviare und tea, you should enjoy 

" CavittK I ' gofipcd Sa^ha— she had perhnps twisted it Iwtce in 
Ker life — '*eaviarcl Spiiuthe^ ifmrffiit ^Thank you, chank you), 
l^ilemon Nakcetitch. Thin indeed vrjl) be a good holiday. But 
yo«? Are you not going anywhere to monow ?" 

''Ko, ] shall remain at t^ome." Then, as an Aftcr-thought| he 
added, tvhiirr ^irett^ndrng to 3eait:h for sonKfthin^ among his painltn^; 
materials, " Or I may pcrhips go to look on at the sporu." 

'* Whfit : " excbinicd Stuha, looting at him in uirprise. " Where 
will you gft?" 

•^ Terlups to the sjjotls." 

"Ob !" returned the old woman aa she waddled out of the 

So ihe next evening SitthtL vfcni to cat littitU whh the prlest'i 
houaekecper \ and Philemon aat slonc in his roorn, fitfully tnaking a 
stock of cigarctieft. I^hia he did by rubbing a few handfuU of dry 
lobacGo over the end of a bundle of empty p.iper iube«, and Ihen, 


Tk4 G^ntUman's 




ttltKfig CAC^ tube nqMntcty. mnminK tbe lotucco bomc by fDeanA 
of ft IktUc ro«iukd MicIe. and dnithing il oiT by the inMrtJon ol a 
5fared of coiTon wool. Ae each cigxrciic wa^ flntthcd, h wu: odidcd 
DO ll)c lootic h<Mp on the (oIjIc^ until xht pile amtaio^ ttme two 
hundred or more Tbc amoltins of thcac cigvttics »^ OOC ^ 
Phitemon'« two Itixun^ ard during the day's wort: he got throu^ 
A Urga Dunbvr of them. 

At InsW wJtb a »gh, Pbil«nioo air^gbtcncd bb bent tfaotildciv 
ukd bgbDed the cigarutiv lout nude, idly breaking ihe niAich into 
btUe piccM ailenvardfc bctvccn bit thm p^nt-ttnincd fiigtn. Hif 
tMOiBigi generally trcrc occupied in ouilinins ujion ibe woodcii 
Mod:* tbc work he wis to paint upon tbc morrow^ To-nJght he could 
not aettie to the work, llwru vo,% a holiday focling in the ait ; and, 
though the itrcei wai silent and dcwrtc^, vwry window in lh< 
rtllogi; ibrd it!i btUe ray uf Ij^ht out upon the !triciH\aiid PhilconOQ 
biinsclf to be the onJy one in all tbc vtlUtc^ who tat alone. 

He had been to look on ut tbcr sports in the art«inoon, but 
been made to feel, or at any rate had M\, ^uiIe uut of touch with It 
all The Fun and lii^ht hearted laughter vtrc not for him. Even his 
approach to the t;round had not been auty, for oil the way down the 
street he had been in full view of the merryrnolwre congregated ar 
the bottom, and bad Icnuwn tlMt ihey were caninieixLuig upoii ln& 
coming ; and a« be had drawn iicuicr he bad tocn the qucationuig 
looka of one to the other. If he cot^Ld have boen planted down m 
Ihe midst of ihem all, it wc^uld have bc^en e^^tej; bm this alow 
approach aloin: juud^r hitn M:If<(;itL:)i:iau-% and uncomfuiULblci Then 
he hod cfletcd 1o dra^c Maaha GavreclovnaS empty tlcd^e up the 
hill for her ; witb a laugh she had accepted h:s offer, but when he 
had got (wO'diiiJ^ of i};e way up the slope hiH foot h^d ilipjied, and 
the sledge, awinging round, had come In contact with one descending 
contaming B^ Feotn and his Jianrit ; and J'votra had eompbined 
loud]}' of his awkwatdnua, and Lhr^re had brrn b genenil taugb st 
his expcmc. He nbn had tiicd to laugh, in spile of his flush of 
annoyance : but the incident had lipoilt the afternoon for tiini, and 
shortly afiervards he had edged out of the crowd, glad to g^t back 
in the house a^ain. 

The woik-room where he sit was of fair sixe, wLth plenty of rootvi 
10 tnove about in. for in addition to the stool and bench in Tronr of 
th^ vi^ndow where hta painted it coniatned only 3 small table and a 
couple of chiits, a cupboafd* with a row of shelves at one side of it 
holding his painting mote riafft, and a medley of odds and cnda; a 
row of *m«Il oh\nng rrar*s of vnnous tijies containing hi* stock of 




A Patnitr 0/ Shrines. 


voodcn panck. and, in ibe corner of Ihc rooni furlhc»t from ihc 
bcTwli, Ji small inirklp Ijed. It was in roiinectioii with this Intlcr 
thit rbilcmoD had biA oihcr luxury, in the pai»:j)(on of a costly rug 
which he hod bought about ihr«« y«arA previously from &omo Baah 
IcRTTS in McniAlin^lt, and which he used a*i a covorlrt. It v«% of 
vivid CGdojrs, m broid even stripes of or«ngc and t^lLic, and often 
during tbt day he vrcmld pause in his pointing 10 look across at it, 
SofnctnneS] indeed, it would «o di^rract and disturb Kim in his wotlt 
ihftt hr would ri^e and cover it with the undrr and plainrr rtig. Tl 
■asw however, in the evening, when he hid lime to rest Gram hu 
ivotk, that he got hi& chief delight from lE^ He would th«n iomt- 
limM sit for hoiiT* silenily lf>oking a: il, and, tdly dreaming, hrromr 
almuBt unconscious llmt he saw it. The vivid Ktri|>es loit theit dis' 
tfnctiMas aa thuir acntuous pow^ crept oixr hitn* urd, drinking in the 
foiotional ocLttment of thtrif colour, hiv imAginAiion opc-rcd for 
him the ponihilittM of fhe world, and hr would ihroh with drvaims 
ofhappineu and delight. The dull roxn ftded. and the panda. 
with their niinilMr done and their number yet to do, were for^oUeo* 
For Mm, too, wa$ «uccett Mid bappHiCM ponlble, Th^ Chriti Face 
of his dr^Ams was painted, and irjcn bowed in wiir^hjp l>efore it. 
H^ name was honoured, and he wa.^ ihc cherished one of some fait 
nreet woman. IVtth welcoincng arrtiii she would meet him, and her 
ansKrring eyes would took up 10 love 10 his own — the love that 
would leid him higher. The fjinic of his painting would ring 
through the land, and loKethcr they would bring brightness into Uie 
Itvceof the lov]y and comfort those who sorrowed- There would 
be no raoriT WL-Arincss for him, for her carc^w^ wotild cvci await 
him> They would ricvcr more be pfticcd — their days would be dap 
of joy, and their world a world of warmth and colour and love. 
Tlien whh a t^ran hp would awakr to llnd himself shivering, and he 
would get up and pace ihc fioor unlil he got him*<:lf in hind once 
more. He rardy, however, let himself drift so far as this. Such 
or^ef of colour were not good For biH work next day. So now he 
took his dt'ligiit at rarer intervals ; though each evening hr found 
In the bands of rich cnr^ and bUic a nepcnthinc power 10 auua^ 
th« dttlnecs of th« day, 

Trynighr Phricmon ftli (ndewtihahly lonely, The fining and 
merry-makiiig goiiig on in Ihc villdgc iiilcnsified his own iaobition. 
I'he tight from the lamp, which Sasba had lighted before going otit, 
reached but dimly into the comenof Ihe room, and led themgout- 
sadc its circle. He row and arranged its foldi agaitisi the wall ») 
that they fihone in the lighu Then he «a1 down by the tabic, with 


Tfi€ GiuiUnmus Afagaziw, 

hU licfld upon hU hmd, and savc himself op to tKe po«ct vhidi the 
colODit lk«]d lor kitn. 

It w ilkf r inid[iisbt when Suhi returned Her «t«ps 'ilmyi 
more tif l-is lottcring, irere now more unccnain thiui ever, and as 
iIk put her lK4d in at the door of the room ut odocr of vodla 
posMKl in before her, Phllenion wis Hill lUling b}' the cible vftb 
his head upon till hujid. 

The lon|; seven weeks' t&sX which folTowed the Cimival catnc 
to to end. ind on the following Easter tnoming rhilemon received 
flcneflsajEc from Lydia hanovn^i nc the IJig House, asking him to 
go wp there at once. Her broihcre, home from Moicov, had 
hfC'Ught fneTM^K, nrd iKc)' wcic amngii^g to \\xv^ a sfiec^ltf or 
eomodiella. pcifornied on the t«o foElovrtniz nights, and it nas 
n«c«aary to have an otd drop-scene repaired, fhilcmon rcmem- 
befed the canvas well. NicoU UricfT, hi* aid mastei in Slioomriiuk^ 
hftdpftintedit about eighteen ^eau^ before. It rcprc»cnlcd R grey- 
bearded Itoyar, dressed in the barbaric f;p1endour of the past, 
surrounded by his hoiiKthold, welroming ihe prieai m hi^ huuse on 
Eftltci uionmij^ 

In response to the message, Phikmori al once sd out for the 
house, which stood about a coMpte of verst; from the village. In 
itrc ilttyA of thp serfs, [van Ivanilch, its (jwncf, had iieen lord of the 
Lind for many vemU around; now, however, largely owing to ihe 
4il^cu]ty the Slav naftiTC ^nds in accora modal ing it»clf CO alietcd 
cireumfltaneet, his possessions had shrunk, and land had been sold 
to meet \\\c yuirly expfiidiiuri', until only a vesiJge of former 
dominion rcnuincd. and Ivan Jvanitch found himself a compara' 
lively poor man, thou^fh i^iil] louked up to by the vilLagert, and 
called by them ■ //myiffc,* or Maiier. 

Philemon found the canvas which he was reqi^iicd to repair 
hanging at the ond ct the hall whore the little stage was erected. 
Ab he glanced at it, he rcmfmbered how he had admired the 
dmring when it uas being dene, antl how lie Iiad envJed old 
Nicoli hi-^ power, Dui Ihc colours hxd never pleased him. They 
were crude and jorring ; and the dust and fading of eighteen years 
hid failed to soften them. A hole some ten inches in dbtneler 
had been rai-oWen through the centre of the Boyai's robe; new 
e&nvu had been patched over ihiSi and Philemon was required 10 
paint it in harmony with iho re«i of the robe- li would lake him 
perhaps an hour lo do, and Ik at once set to work upon ii. 


j4 Paini^r c/ SAritt^s. 


H< haul goi mor« ihAti half ib« space covered when he puscd. 
The whole colouiing nf ihc robe wa* wrong ; it ouftiii lo have been 
at rich purple, whercu it w^u a janing green. Honr it wtiuld be 
improved if it were ^intcd purple I J'hilccion hesiuiod ft mcmeni; 
thrn, cVTining hit pn!<-«r, be qiicckly miicd the colour he wantrtl, 
and begut at the top or ific tobc^ 

The work, however, took him longer than he hod anticipated, and 
when hi% dinT^er in)- was brought in the robe wu only half t^overed. 
Ami it w.ts another Two hours before ihc work was completed, ihc 
%oittcnrt\g of Ihc nenr colour to ihc old requiring much care and 
pMiet)c«. The robe vras now changed Trotn green to purple, 
hringLAg A harmony into the whole whJch the plcurre had before 
cntiiicly bcked rbilcmon looked at hfm work and wz^ siiisficd, 
BuCt M he begin io put hi» brushes logdhcr, it cccuircd to him 
th«t wh.1t he might ihink an impro\«meot might b« 10 others the 
tirry rcvcrv^ xiu\ ihal il was a c«n»dmb1e liberty he liarl tiken in 
nuking so great a change, Lydia Ivanovna liad met hicn in the 
monalfig when tiQ came, and had Bbcvp'n him ^hat wi^ wanted to be 
don*?, Hlui if she i^tfc lo be angry now? No, he oould not 
inia^rc her argry* >1ie vas to sncet and gracious. Why, she must 
have been bom the very year this drcp-scL-nc wa* painted! He 
wvft mth Nicoli UncfT at the time, nnd ^efncnlbcr(^d the event r^uit^ 
veil At he* %tc}od thinking and fearing, the door Rl the far cn^ of 
Ihc room opened, and Lydia Iranovna and her father coicc in. Ad 
ihej Ctmc hand in hand up the room, Philemon went on collecting 
bb bnHheA, dreading to look up. 

"Why, Nakrciiich," he heaid Tvnn Ivanltcb exclaim, *'whai 
htrfi you done to the picture ? I remember Ihe thing very well. )t 
oicd to be A poor affair— and now it looka — oh, it looks quite 

"Oh, Papoo^hka * TTe ha« Altered the Bajfti'i robe irom grtcn 
to purple, and it locks ju:.t bLUutiful," he heard Lydia Iwiovna rejoin. 
In rorprisedt delighted tones ; and he looked up and met her p1rn«ed 

"Ya" »hc continued, ^*you ho^'C chanfted it to purple, Oh, rl 
Ubeeiutifui I Whatever made you think of i^ Fhitemon^" 

"The green was ftU wrong," he replied, flushing. 

"That may be," put in Ivan Ivaititch, *^ but if I had looked 
at the thing far a hundred ycar« J could never have tvid what was 
wrongwith it, It ha< net lAen you Icng to find ouL Why, Nakec- 
titcb, you are an artist, Vou ought to be in Moscow I '^ 

Thco li-an h^nitch was called away. 

Th( Gtnffcma^s Magasiiu. 

"U'hM any father M)r« \t quite inic,^ ni4 Lydia Lvj 
*' You ought to go to Moscow, Fbieamn. Voa xet indeed ui 

" No^" he rqilicd, wiih dgifncaat «yc«. thotiflji bi> hcaTt trembled 
with pkftsur« ; " I ciuinol draw, I CAn only colour-" 

"But the vr\y in which }-ou ha** improved lhi« fdciure it 

h wu svcct to rcceirc pnUe from one so bcMitiluU Her 
d«1icate femininity nude htm duah hot and go cold in rapid «c- 
i|nmt!e ; Vx'i hftrds ir^nblrd, :md he waa Afraid to meet her eyes. 
Hi- longed Lo get ffom the loonit though her prcsG[»« gave him 
keen plcaniic 

*' Vou have never been to Moscow, Philemon ? " 
" No." 

" Vou should «o, cTcn if oiilf to sec the ^cturc Rflllctf uid ihc 
charchoa. Oh, ihe churches 1 'Hie paintings ih*re are l^oaulihil. 
Ifivrljr '" Shr damped hrr hanfl"* Eogeihrr and raisfd ihcir to her 
brciuc ui her cnthuhiasni. 

The painting tnatcrmU wcri; now packed, and I'hitcmoD stood in 
A hciiuting wjiy with hii little Icfiihcr-hound box in hit hand- 
It secerned uiigradou^ fur hlni to go, Itaving her a1on<^ in ihc ([rt^i 
empty roont — alone with the pjcmte. llcvevcr, the lumcd to Vim 
ftnd held out her handn '' Vou rnust see Moscow tome dfty," tho 
said- " And thank )'ou so much for what ygu have done" 

TluL night Philcmun ihiiughl mudi nii what had hccu »id to 
him, Why should he nol »cc Moscow ? Elc Imd oflcii lonced lo 
do so. And she had said hew heautiiuL the ptcttircs and churches 
were; and wtuit shr— hrrsrif so loicly— said was btf^uitful miiKl he 
l>caiitifu1 indeed \ Why should he not »uiit to'motrou' ? He had 
worked hard all during the fast, and had a tiitic store of money by 
hincu And thit was a holiday week, and holi'tiayt were jtwayt his 
most lonely titne, The ;uuint>' ""ulU Ui? a I'jnj; one— three whole 
days «t least -but he did not mind (hat, for two ol tiio»e dayt 
would be pused on the Volga— Mother Volga, which he had never 

Vcs ! He would start in the morning i 

^ PainUr of Skrm4s. 



The firjjl Icii dfl>^ that rhncmon *pcnl In Mosc<iw wcic Tiill of 
Dcw scn£ationi- lie ^w the Kremlin, and paused day aFicr day rc>r 
ftitbo}€v<«k among its holy Tnemorw. He srood in Ehe Churcfa 
of ibc AssunipiLon, aw<-'StrJt:VL<-n JiinidM JU blajc of jrwcis and hi^ 
cagGT cfct ached with the pdcturcs und mouic^ 1 [c nw the golden 
dOiMioniie fa^acc fl^h and bam Itt ihc midday iun, and, vrhen 
ihc cnn had scl. vaicht^d ihf:m shine, n,( vlih a light of ihrir own, in 
the pale evening sky. His imogirution was stirred by the wondci of 
tbclong vii&taof kmp-lit streeiG stretching; away into the April nigbt; 
and b« vuidered those ^treetii, thrtlL^d uith thv my»teiy ol a gtvat 

Toward! ihc end of hie second week fell a mint's day, And 
Ftvilemon aECtndt^ ^L^rvice -Lt the Church oF the Annunciation, Ho 
had decid<^ ihai Tie x^yjsr \ca\c Mom^ow ihat evrnin^^ He had 
bad ten happy, wonderful days ; and the beauty of the service that 
moroing would, be feLt, be a fitting cIom to it alL 

On coming out, he wandered afiout the strci*li; for a while, qitiedy 
Cfljoying the wjumth and >UTi«hine. Hndm^ hiniNeU, alKjut noon, 
noar one of the ntimcroua Uttlc pleasure gardecw that arc dotted here 
and (here around the city, he entered and aic hii; limple dinner at 
ittC|)vn-nir rc^auranl, Hr- \vh \\\^. ^t^cn hy :i difUbreiU giie from 
that by which he entered , und after vmlking about for an hour cr 
more he turned out of the main street, which he had been following, 
into one running aL right angles lo it, which he thmighi wouM lead 
back to the centre of itie cicy. The houses in tltis street sto^d 
fiuah with the roadway, and he had passed down it sonie httlc way^ 
when at t lower wijidow on the oppo^jie sid^ he saw a woman sitting. 
She seemed to he occupied wiili some nL^edlcwnrk, and x^it dtne tu 
the window w if to catch the light. A.* hi* eye* met hen sU smiled 
and nodded to him. Philemon paused, feeling certain that he Lnew 
no one in Moscow. She roae from her Beat and Cood in the full 
light of the window, &till sntiling 4n J nnddiiig. She ap|iearcd 1o have 
ft bandsorae facc> with heavy masie? of hajr falling loo««1y lapon ber 
fthoulders. Ho croued the tonA^ ^nd a« he did to the figure l^ 
the vindow ; as the kerb wat: rrarhrd thr diinr of the licufie opened, 
ftud ihc Stood wUh Huuciing nbbons, a bright patch of colour 
ftCftiiiM the dusk of the parage. I^ilemon entcredi ftnd the doo( 
doMd behind him. 

About m!dn)ghl, a week later, Philemon landed at the wbaifM 


Tkc Ccnlleman 

Shonmnn^, ani], (luuiiig li^nlc L^c uflcr« of & couple of dic^y 
driven, tct ovt lo walk ilic chirty vcntt UlcIc to Oost Links. As he 
poMcd through Che town hif wore bis cap pulled over hiB bfow^ u Ef 
to hitle ^rne ili&ftgnremeta of Mhicb he was uhamcc), though the 
Mrccta verc tilcnt and deserted, nnd there was not a soul to sec 
him, llic t»oft spring night woa full oF scent, mnd in the twilight 
sky a thin bright moon gleamed, Just copping the line of weeping 
bfrclits ihai fringed ihc T>»dw.iy for some twenty *Trsii bcjrood the 
tOTO, Br the time I'tiiEcmon bad pa»cd the loat of Ihese^ and had 
mounted the cieat of ictne unduUting ground, th^ sun r&». He 
left the nn^wsy and «4t down to red amon^ some high thick 
g.-aas, The rt-tl sun-ray» finished his face;, And when be remcn^ 
his capt they i^vc an angrier look lo a htlf-closcd kat which 
elftotecl aerofti hi^ brow, By degrees b^ dreopcd into a rt^inlng 
[lOkition, then turnlitg upon his che&C, he biiricd his C&cc in his 
cap, and, as he bad not slept for more than seventy hours, vrofi soon 

The jangling belb of a rapidly driven fraiJfa, going tovrords 
Shoonuinak, routed him from hh steep, h tmd Lecn his dm sleep 
tincc leaving Moscow, aiid thus il vfus his first experience of waking 
from happy unconsciousness to meet hts present misery. He glanced 
at the sun, ;md knew h must he ,iL<mt eight o'ctort, and tliat thcm- 
forc he had slept for nearly six hours. Rq^laclng his cap, and 
pulling IE down over his brow^ he uUercd a low moon. Away to- 
n.-irds Oo&t Liril:a he could discern ^ long siring of carts moving on 
the white roudway ; Imving watched tlicin for n M'hile, he saw that 
they were ^oin^' in ilic direciJoii of the village, &o that about £io hour 
ago they must ha^'c pa&^ed the spot where he Uy. Perhapfl there 
were some nmongsr the drivers who kriew him. He wondered 
whether they had noiiecd him or not If they had. and he liad been 
tying wicb his face csipowd, word of his return and of his red brow 
would now soon be inOostLinka. Well, after all, wbatdid it matter P 
Il was only a small ihiog compared wiih the greater, and <ouId 
barely idd a pfing to his present acif- abasia mcnt During hia 
homeward journey, he hod tried ro keep from thinking ; though he 
T.ither encouraged than oiheiwisc the dumb reproach which held 
him. And oh, how he hated himself t He magLuficiJ his humiliation 
until he felt it to be such that when on the boat he heard talk of 
cholera rapidly advancing up the ^'olga^ lie had wi&hed that he 
might be one of its fiint victims, so that he could have done wtlh 
it all. 

Now he was once more among the famibar fields — with the 

A Paluter of SJinnrs^ 


tunlight mil artnUMf, amd the frin^ of pines on the hill vbich he 
kntw from every point on his contianr journey* to ShoomHnsk. 
T^icy were ^tiU ihc umc, but he was <iLfl!creni^ In hh i^U^haW' 
mcnt he seemed a ttain upon the sunlight, and to toirt the very 
bn:c^ ii it p;ii«<l owr him. Oh, 10 have cared for such 1 cfcaiurc 
(rvcn for A djy :— for he liad cared for her. Bui \ien h^id been the 
fuft vomAn'a Anna to carcu hiro, and her words had beeo so 
mA! Then the hsr screaming Fury of her face agnin rose before 
Wffi- He drew his knees up 10 hi^ chin and looked around with 
a drawn, wcAjy face. Oh, that he could be again as he liad 
been that la;:! morning at chureh ! The longing brought a clioking 
into his thro^i, and hv turned over and pressed his face into the 

It was almost noon when he drew near Oost Linka. lie took a 
by-patb which brou^t bim in tM;!iind the church, and io to hia door, 
wSthoui the necessity of pfissfng up the iraln SEreeL Sasha wat out, 
but the door slood cipcn and he passed into his work-iooin. He 
looked around, expecting to sec it altered in some way, and almost 
felt surprised that it was Ju&t a> he had left iL And the quiet 
lameness of iIlc room reproached hlm^ It had t>eeLi conurrl [o go 
on in iis unchanged existence ; and during those hideous three days 
the sun had shone into it» and it had drowsed ofT into the duak of 
evening, and waked again in the morning to a new day; while 

After a while Sasha came in, and welcomed him wiih loudroiecd 
ctclamAtions. As she spread his, she told him how, on the 
morning he Icf^ Lydia Ivinornu had Ciilled to a:ik him up to the 
I3ijC House to watch the tlieatriealE, and on hearing that he had left 
lot Moscow she had t>een siirpr^^ed and glad, and had hoped he 
would enjoy the visit, but said she was mtv he wtiuld do so. She 
had come into his work room, and Sa^ha had shown her some icon$ 
that were r^ady to be uken to Shoomnnsk ; but she did not appear 
10 be 50 intciestcd in them, Sasha though!, a* she had been in the 
nXHD itself, for she had stood looking around it fur quite three or 
four minuter- Philemon Ustened in silence Co all the old woman 
had 10 say, then, when she was gone, he took the icons from the 
bench and thmst them into a dwn-er, 

A month pasted; during which Philemon did not touch a 
brush. He merely existed, eating little and rarely leaving his roou), 
but pssing day al^er day sitting by the itove or stretched upon his 

Then Sasha reported thai she needed tea and Hour, and that 


Tk4 GcniUnuini Magmna, 


th«y h^ no me*t in ihe boui^ So Pbltmwn took from tfi« dnwf 
ihc icofu which hiJ lirm shown tu Lydia Ii3rM>via and cknpaic^hcd 
theiD to Shooakriruh. 

AiKttbor fortnight paned in the »mc way ; when on« momiH-, 
At he pOBed through th^ outer room, he noticed Saiha i^eoUy 
cijini; by ttic Ubic. What wu ihe nialt^ ) he askcil, Alu[rpla^ in 
front of her- Wittioul look>n£ ufk, the old woman bcKan to M>b 
Jiloud. *' The metier T O Philemon Nulceeifrch T" she jerked ecft 
In broken sobs — "O J*hilcinon Nakcetiuh, may Cod be mcrcKul 
to us T There ift no bile oT food in this hou-ic ; And you that used 
to woik cTcn in the holidajv hwt not lifi«l i bruih tinoe you oimc 
back from Moscow f O Philemon Naltw^ruch, wPist hai come over 
you?" And Sa.^ha broke into a wajI nfici the mnnner of her kind 
when in trouble- 

Pi:ik-mon went into hie room and drew oui the dmwer where his 
mnnfy was kei^L A rouhW and fifty kopecks were t^\ thsi remftJned. 
With this he returned to the outer room. 

■■SasliA,*'he Kaid, *^ [ nhAll never pnirt again. I shall never pafnt 
Another iron, Af^cr a while I wiM ^ci work m the fcldft. So— per> 

1ia|w -'^ he hcwUtcd a mcjment^ for ihc old woman had Iweii hla 

sole companion for nuny ycnrf—'* perhaps you will be better e]*e- 
vhere thaji with me. See. this is all thai remains ^ but the fifty 
kopecki are enough for mc.^ He placed the rouble bc*ide her on 
the table. "Vou can take Lofkiii for ) »hall be gorrg no more 
to Shoomrinftlt. Sell her for what you can ; *he is a good more, 
and shoiild bring eighteen or twenty roubles in the town- Wiih 
LTue iliai slioultl keep you far a year, anil thcn*-irell, a year it 
a lone lii^c," 

But Sft«ha had iitopped her weeping, 

"That will I noT do, Philem^in Nakeetttcli," she replied, with 
wrinkled. Alern set chin. " I have Icoked after you for GfCe^n^ 
and you have been « kind master to me, and now— before Cod I triR 
not kave you^ Phitemoii Nakeetitch- 1 am an old woman ard eat 
biJi liiile> and the bit of black hri-ad and it:i thai I rtiniri^ wiih a 
tOAiG of Jit-H^f ^ on odd d^ys. L'liAna will fnd fcrmc ; there is enough 
comes from the prieAt's^ table to do that and he never miss it^ a^nd 
M» Icing as my eyes can see and my bone« beir me I will stay wUh 


Making no reply, Philemon went back to hia room and closed the 
r behind him. An hour tAter he was tittfng at his bench with a 
cl propped in the old painting position before him. 

A Pffintfr of Shriues. 



Bat vhcn Ihc duck came the paiKl waa ttill untouched. During 
the aftemcxin he had heard Suha comt^ into the room, biEt, on f«c~mg 
hiio at Ilia Urnch, ihc tud wftty closed the tiiy^ji and ^uoeavay again 
without a word ^ And naw the thought of her di».ippointmcni vhcn 
ihe should flad that no work hid been done?, added 10 the wcarine^ 
vith which he looked at the vacant bloi:k. But he !(hranlc from hi* 
work and dare noi painu 1lie voik vhtch hia haud had done befovt 
in «uch 1 mcnotoEioui, mechanical way, that which had been to him 
a iimple ortbrt of pnticnre, a nic?TC dTudg^ry of numben, had now 
become a ucTcd thing ihai only ihc pure ml^ht do. And brtwctfii 
him and the Head of Headr. that h\^ imaf^jnatton alrovc to auc 
came that wonmn'ti face. When he took the chalk in hia hand, and 
triifd to foKC hiriiidf to work, that fat-e watched Kim, ind Ehat voicrt- 
atajrcd his hand. When he closed his eyes, that ticc of fury, aa »hc 
staggered towardi him that Uat afternoon, was «iil] above him. And 
in that presence, how dired ht attempt to paint the facet of saint; ? 

HiileiiitJn liaU ci;Aiicd tu make any iiiuiiti over what had hiL|i' 
pcncd He had broitf[ht him.'^clft humbly nnd nich a dull ahamc, 
to aoofipt hit Life as he had mad^ it, Dut now a spirit of rc^tstanco 
caune over him. Why would this drrvil'!i face not leave him ? Had 
it been lan^blc, ho could have tciicd iu round threat, and tiavc 
fiunft it fronn the room. For six long weeks it had never left liim, 
and it! subtle haunting now roused him 10 rebellion^ 

DiuL ^liTOudcd the room. He I06c a;id hunji^dly lit lite lamp ; 
tcturrting to his stool, he look up a pencil. His mouth waa shut, 
andthequiv«rtnginuGcleftofhJscl:eek< held his 1«eth strained together. 
M'tth ueady hand he began to draw. Towards midnij^hl he rested 
from his work and stretched himself upon ihc bed. The first glini 
of sunshine coming ihroui^h the window next mominj? found him st 
work- All Ax-^ he painted eagerly and without 1 bn^ak, Sire when, 
his brow g^own damp with the fervour of his woik, he iiauaeJ tu 
throw hock hi:i hair or draw ht^ open hand actosa liia forehead. 
Laic in the afternoon he ihrev down his bruftbei^ cvcued the room, 
and with his back to his bench stood looking down into the empty 
«covC' Then he turned, and icron the breadth of the room viewed 
hia work. Hii face shone with a tenee of triumph and power ; and 
he knew thai r€Afi had he painicd ak he had paJnied ihai day. The 
bead upoi> ibc panel seemed to live and ^rain from its letttag. It 
was the face of the harlot \ 

Two days paiSied ; during which the cense of power that had 
come with the binding down of ihe face lo the wooden block served 
Philemon well. The haunting thin^ that h&d followed wherever he 


TAe C^H//f»iaHs Afagaztue, 

moved wu ao longer there, II ho.^ his prisoner no^ '. He could 
movo it about x% he wished .ind plAc>? it wl^cre he pleased. He coutJ 
cover it up or hide \\ avraj in a drA^Kcr^ He cOUld strike k wiib hit 
luod, or leave it lidplcM upon the bench. 

On tho ftftomtxin of the thinl dij', Lydia Lvanovnn imd hec father 
drove into ilir v][iiirr- and M[]|>|>ril nr liU di»r. At fho)r cmcrcd btt 
room Iran lonHch paused and uttcrE:^! on cxchmillon of KUfptJic. 
•' Good Cod ! Nalcceiitch, what n Icnible face f " he cried, poinlins 
lo the panel. ** It il your tirork ? " 

" Vo," aniwcreil Plulcmoi), IrcaibUng. 

*' Hoir ever came you lo dtj it ^ I would net have frueh a tiling 
in my room for norldii ; or, on second thought^ ye« indeed 1 would. 
My God f h's a wonder ! 1 mu«t bu^ li." 

" ft ia not f'jf «aW uld Philcmoi^, wilh downcast cycA. 

'* Oh, nonsense ! " Ivan IvAnitcli impatiently retorted. '* Von do 
not piini A thin^ like thai for the mere pk^Aiiire of keeping it. Of 
course yoti will »cll it/^ 

'^ Vou tiujr liavc it if you wt»h> but I cannot take money for il/ 
I'hilumon ^Ltiswered in a low votce^ 

"Not "o. Togi/c it is loo much I Name your price, man?'* 

**■ h hu no price." 

'* Well, if you persist, then, 1 will accept it as n gift. Whatever 
do you call it*' 

Philemon w^s ai>out to answer that it had no lume, but he sud- 
denly cluingcd his mind. "Vou ma/ call it 'Eugene/" he said» 
scarcely above his breath. 

Ivan Iviiniidi ltH>kwl sliarply at him for a moment. " Well," he 
aaid. '* if that haa been painted juet fioiu your imag illation, you are 
iL wonder t I will send \i to Moscow. A thing like that will become 

Lydia Ivanovna tilood jiilenily by hei falhc('s *ide- After her 
fimlooknt the face, ahc had kept her eyes on the ground, only raising 
them once or twice to glance momeniarlly nt ilnr panel as if fasci- 
nated by it Her fulhei now held it in Itii h^nds, " Wliat do yuu 
think of it. Lccda? " he said, tumins it toward* her, 

"It is wonderful! But I— I don't hke it," the TCpUed. Then, 
turning to Philemon, she continued : '• How yon^ who have painted 
iht heads of saints — and— of Jrius " — heic she pau&cd to cro» her' 
idf—'^ could have imagined a thing so Icrriblc, I do not know." She 
went over to bini snd placed her hand upon his arm. " Don't paint 
snyiHing like that again/' «hc «.-ild iioftly. " And my fiEher came to- 
day to aak you to paint an icon for his club in Moscow." 

A Painitr of SMfjts. 


" Vcs, yc*, IhAC is jo," pal in Ivan Ivaniidi. '* I luvc pron]i3<d 
to pr«cnl an icon to my dut> ; and I thought I would Jci you paint 
iL Yoa matt do nomcthlng good, Naket-'Litch." 

"I am Sony, but I cannol do it foi you." replltd Plnlcmon in x 
low, trembling voice. " I aHaII do no inore pamting." 

" \\l):kt ! Vou me&n you are going in give up \coi\ pjunting ? " 
ewd^Lirtied Kan Ivaniich. 

"TTuE"— Philemon pointed for a momem Ic tJje panel— ''is 
the lost thing I shall paint." 

•* Why, NaVeeiiioh, you art a fool T' Iran Ivaniu:h retorted angrily. 
" You hflYe jiisi painlcd a tiling wbicb might be wo«h a foTtune tt> 
you ; *n<i you will not setl ii, yoj give it to mc I Then when I order 
jrou to paint an icon, an icon which will be taker to Moscow, 
jfou say you arc gdng lo gixn up paintinj- f Why, nrnn, you ate 
& fool ! ^Vhai are you goiog 10 do, then? Arc you going to 

" ! will get worlt In the fielda^" am wered PhilemoiL 

•"Wyikinthf field*!'" mimicked Ivan Ivanilch. *'WiliyiJaar 
vriU you not paint thi« icon for me? " 

* I cannot," antVp*«rcd Philciaon distr^^fuUy, 

■•TliL-n come alorg,<Ia. Il is no ust nasiing time over a 
tooL" Axkd Ivan Ivanitcb marched from the room ; and Lydia 
I«U)ama, to whom the vrhotc short ficcne had bten a bewildehng 
surprise, sorrowftilly followed him. 


Etily upon the following morning Philemon act out to get work 
tn the fields. M the hay harvest was in full fttting, he knew he 
would hai'e ro difficulTy in getting engaged ; bi^l he shrank from 
tlie auipri^c and talk ihat would be caused by bis olfamg his 
services in Oo«t Linka. It would he easier, he thought, to make 
bis first attempt further away. So be walked to a village some 
aia veists dJsl:\[it, wher;% ah he had surmisod^ he was at once eii> 

For the first few houre of the morning the delicious sweetness 
of the grass os il fell in curved ridgea at the sweep of his scythe 
cudc him fotgeC the hardne^ of the labour. But by nooji his back 
and head ached ; he trembled in every limb, and felt rick and Riddy 
ton the heat of the sun. However, be dfltgently kept his scythe 
swinging all through ihi? Tilaiing afternoon, until, towards evening, 
ac tie pain or his aching body wu added the tornKnt of clouds of 

vot- ceievr. so. 308a a k 



330 Ti€ GmiUmatt's Afqgustw^ ^ 

moiqeiioci, which rapidly iicnunc n romim xo Uh anacciucocned 
ikin. At Icngib, in despair, he laid down his scythe utterly cxhauMol 
and di&LfCSscd ; though hta comp&nioiu, he knew, vould go od 
working with c«Jc for a coiipU of houn or fnon. He «i«fied to 
nuke DO excuigt In thp grinning farcK around him. Hi; simply 
tt&ted the EKt« that thii wu his lim day of work of this kti'kd, aad 
hi* muKlei wero not so hard as thein. He would r«it for ihc nvht, 
snd would noakc a better «tan nctt oioming. So btddir^ then aU 
good-oiglitt he left thc^ Geld. 

A> be drcv nc&T to Oo«t Li[ika and can» down Ihe pith behind 
the church, the fititterit^g of something nhitii on bat i«randab made 
him p«nw En ueady hiii ^yre, and he \aw ihAi }.yd\si Ivanovna ax 
lliere tulking to tome one — ptobahXy bOAlLa— widiu] the doorwa/i He 
felt she bad conae about the icon, In hi« prevenl aching wcaritxaa 
hU tnt impulfl^ wa( to where hs was until she had gc»e ; btit 
the ihoTighi of hctw ungutiEiiis it would he ta keep her waiiing — 5he, 
who was oln^p. in her dainty frcndiy way, so gracioun to him— tnadc 
Mm hurry on. 

She hdd out her hand to him with a smile :i£ he c^me up the 
stair, but the smile quickly faded aa she ruse (xom her seaL 

'* [ have come to sny»" she uid^ "thai my father has decided to 
le^re lot Moscow i^cxt week. He it much concerned about the 
cholera being so near to ui ; and he i« still very angry At your refuaal 
Eo doihb icon foi him- It wa^ indeed, only aha cimch pleading 
that he allowed me to coinc to right to ask you a^^ain abaut it I 
said 1 was sure thai you would not refute mc You win pninl this 
icon for him ? Will you noi, VUihtuonf " 

"i laid last night— ihai— I— could not," be answered in a 
baiting way. 

*■ Ves, yes, I know ; but you will do rhis one, even if it ia to bn 
your last ? " she ur^jL^d 

^*'rhtrc ace hundreds of others who can paim n far better ihan 1 
could ever hope to do " 

"That IS just what my father tiays. But I— I want you to 
paint il, Philemon,'' she said, looking pleadingly into hi* ftiCoL 
"Philemon !" 

He stood neri'ousW tw«img his hand* upon ihp wooden hund- 
lall. Uer wish seemed ilniosl lo make it possible- When ihc came 
U> him, pleading in her sweet voict, how could he refuse^ It 
seemed that there could be no wrong in doing ^rhai she — with her 
pure heart — wished htm tn clo, 

Agaii> he* race came : *' Philemon, you will futnt thU icon?" 

yf Painter of Shrines. 


He turned lo her «1onty. "Vc*, tell Ivan lTani|i:ti that I wJl 
p*ml it." 

Philemon did not go to the haj^dds next day. lie lud ^tren 
bitword tlut he would, if possible, twve the kor rrodj' for Ivnn 
IvHflheti 10 tike wilh Hm to Moscow. Hr rose nwt morning :ic the 
tivHig^t ni^t bcgiii to brighten into ckwii, and, with Jt sense aLmoift 
of elation, he 5ckctcd ihti Iv^cs: of his panebn Lydift iTnnovna^a 
wiah ind pleidjng had urangely coincided with an trresistblc desire, 
which hut grown wtiliin tiiiii duiiiig the liutt day, to \t^x the power 
that he now FcU he possessed, the power to paint the Divine Face a» 
tie Icr^w it in his dreams and Ion gmg*— some a^irg iar diS^crcnt from 
IbU which he had ^pent hix life in muLiiplying in ceaieles^ routine 
upon endless ^id», a shining FftCC of Mcrc>', of undcisUndtng 
•yropothf, and pity- 
He fdt full dk a rtrange Tiew strength. He was no longt'r an 
pottntui ; the iiaiiow liiiiih of hJb erafi tcW him no mon-, 
And with the p&inting of the vom&na ttco— with the knowledge of 
what had gti'cn that foee its cojLrtc brutality— had come the greateE 
kno»lfM3gt of how :i liuman face mighi l>e given a pcrfecinew that 
man, with hi« feeble Jin^iuingB, would call divtJie. The power of 
inspiration was upon him. 

He worked until the dutk of Ehe fummer evenings then resie<t 
for ihc two hours of twiliKhl whith ttiade the night, and towards tlw 
evening of the second day )\\% work, save for a few hut touches, woj 

During the day there had been <?onsferration m the ^lag«. 
Cholera had shown itself, and in two houses in the street had dono 
its work with hideous rapidity. The vilUgen cam*; home early from 
the fields, and stood about in groups with white bewildered face*. 
Ijit^r oamea i:latu:ringof many boof^ and the dust and noise of 
wheel?*, and the rapid beat of tr&ikit bells. It was Ivan Ivan- 
itcli and hiE houttthold starting out for Moscow. The leading 
pt(9fcik<t stopped at the corner of the u^iiare, and Philetnon saw that 
IL contained Lytiia Ivonovna and hci father^ Hic latiei ali^thlcd 
and c*me bustling into the room with red perspiririK face. 

"Se«, Naieetitch," he cried, " wc go at onco to Shoomriiuk, ai>d 
vill lalte to-morrow's boAi for Mnsicxiw. 1 Mjppoti! you bave hardly 

got " Ivan Ivaniich sto;^d avddcnly a^ he saw the icon 

resting agaiiut a woodw block on the bench. He went o^'irr to it, 
and, ifier a first gbnee, ptiT hi« hee-lx tngetlier in nijlittry fashion, 
and 3toi)d I^^otet it witli Ijowcd bead, crosttOg binuelf repeatedly. 
Thai he went to the window and flung it open. 

A A 9 i 

332 The GftUUfnans Magazine. ^B 

" Lrtda." he calW, "romc hcie/' ^ 

Philemon saw her throw back ihc heavy IcJiihcr Apron of ihc 
carriBfic and spring lo the ground. She was drc^iscd for the journey 
In « hood aod long fawn-coloured covering cloak of camel's- Imir, 
vhirh, at i^hc hurried Jnio the room, fluttered open and showed het 
white dreu tcncath- 

" Look ! " Boid Ivtn Ivanitcfa. 

She apprcftc)ied ihe icon ; and ib^Mi, with ihc same Instinct that 
hid EQOVcd bcT father, knell wilh IkuvciI hcid» aiid made ihi^ sign of 
the ciosf. For a nioment no one ftpotcc. 'Ilicn rhilcmon broke 
th& silence, saying that the icon voi not yot finished. 

"Then you must yourwlf bring ft to Moicow?" Tv^n Ivaritch 
aid deciMt'ely, 

'^ I cannot do that," replied Philemon gently: "snother hour^ 
«ork vill finish it, and I will bring it to Shoomrinik in the morning 
In lime for yon in take It with you." 

■'But you mu^t come on ^ith us to Moscow," Iv^n Ivanilch 
persisted. " This will moke your name there I Beeidcs, in another 
ireek Oo*t I.fnka will be rotten with cholera 1 " 

"No, I caimot come to Moscow; hut you sludl have It in lime 
foi the boat to-morrow/' said Philemon again- 

" As you please, thc^ti, as you p1i:jise." But there was more 
of disiippoinimenE thnn of anger in Tvan tvanhch's voice, 

Lydia Ivanoina's words were few, "Philemon/' she said, "l 
thiak it is almost more beiuLiful than anything I have etcr seen." 

He watched them drive away \ then the repression of weeks gave 
way. He flung bis arms aloft, and fdl on his fciiees by his tdl- 
wom stool, crying in a voice, through the $adnc55 of which rang a 
note of triumph : •' Let the past be pa&t. Through the face of the 
harlot have I come to paint tlic Face of God,'* 

Alter a while teats fell from henefltli hia closed lids, atid broke 
in glistening atredts upon his scanty beard. He knelt until the 
dusk bega.n to creep into the room. Then he arose and bathed 
hli &ce and hands, and dressed htmM'ir in his tteat clothes, in 
readiness to fmlah his work when the short twilight had passed. 
There were only a few touches needed to complete it ; and while the 
Kun was cool next morning the panel waa ready packed for ihe 
journey in a light wooden crate. But the paint ^-as still wet, and 
the dust and heal of the road :vou)d be great, Philemon heii- 
talcd a momcni, then he look his treasured rug from off the bed, 
and, folding ii k-ngthwuyi, wrapped it round and round ihi- critte. 
At he did to, tlie orange and blue of tlie stripes seemed to waver 


— - raav 

A Pamisr of Shrines. 


before bin cye« uid to tun togethec &[i<l become blutred. With the 
CtatC opon bis knees lie ut down, wtrt with a sudden drenching; 
pcrvfuralion, Sasha brought bin a gbui of 1«fl, and be <;iiickly 
rccovenxl hUuKctr. As be dn>\-e out of tbc foid, tht? ciM woman 
stood on the steps nodding to bun. She called aomctbing; tftcr biao, 
but he did not Ciitch her word«. 

On pfvuing the ^fti^jiVrV bouse bwtrr dovn the *tr(;et, the door 
opCTied andlhe .S/irpjAt'j wjfe omc rushing out, w:tnm^&iiditr[(i;gmj{ 
bcr bsrids. Slic fluDg hcndf on ibc road>ra]r, causing Pbilcmon to 
puU tip ibarply to avoid paK!<ing over her. 

Hi" ijuessed the nitaning uf it 

The day iru evidently going to be ve^ hot Tbc birds, &fter 
tbtn morning twitter, had gone to ret: a^ain. 'rb« whjtc dustf road 
eoobl be leen for miles away, rhik'cnofi fdt he ooiild drive only 
alowly Ibu morning ; and it trak him nearly t*rc> bouis lo rc^di the 
point vihere tbc vecpin^ birches bcgan^ Frc^nity he j^ve a sud- 
den ibarp scream — suppressed almoit before it vu uttered He 
Ax^ipcd the reins, and tbc iii^xi moment Uy iiuivcririt; aiul fiybiing 
in the boEtom of tbc platyankix, Tbe poi^y. focling iisclf ficc, stopped 
And then edged avay into the sbnde of the trccfi ind began nibbling 
the thin drygnss. After 3 vkbilt? Philemon looked up and slowly 
niaed hiouetf tc the scat. U\th a kind on eJtbci fade of the 
fhJJwd^ he bcid blmaclf in a sitting position, with feet stretched 
out, srd hii head sunk between hh shoulders. The pressure of the 
cr&teAl bi» iid^ imiindeil bim ihaL it bad lo be in Shoouiriii&k 
before ilie boat left. If only &onie one would come along tbc 
rotd, peibaps they would Uke it for bitn ; but be could not think 
rcry clearly. His lips were beginning to crack with thiisit. Then 
bii knees were tvinrul^iivcly dia^ii upwards, ^[id his head fell btck. 

The road bj' deserted all through the tt^rrid day> Towattlseven 
ing came the beat of slow marching feet, and a^inst tbe setting sun, 
over a rise in the road, came a squsd of soldiers going towards 
Sboooorinsk. Tbcywcic reluming from an outlyin;^ vilUgc, where 
the pcflssnts, unable to get medicsl h^lp for their sEricken village^ 
had been roused from their patient sheepbfce suffering, and In 
panic, Ijelievingtiiat the docton ibeni^hca Itad brought lliis scomge 
and were now leaving Ihcm in sport to tbcir Cate^ had turned 
noiovt ; and tbe soldiers hod been d^patcbcd to shoct tht;ni llto 

"Halt!** alcd the sergeant in command, when his men had 
approached towiihin a doscn yards of tbe fhi^onka. ''Heie*s 
another of them, sure enough!" 


The GttUUman's Mogtaing. 

The pon)p looked ap for a oioaacni, thco vcm on ngun quMy 
Edrding. Over (he titck of the jtfat^tmJka hung a lK*id &cc^ with 
wmiolEing cyo fiicd upcm ihc aening luit. An the poo/ moved in 
to gnuin^ the head (wung hclplculy Erom adc to iad« -, uhI alnodj 
two gitai bdack £ies hid t«TClod upon it. 

Tlitr scTj^eanl onliTuiJ l<vo of Wi% men to £U] utM, iminictnig Aiem 
to take char^ or ibc Ihing, and convc; It to the ccpe tc ry shed al 

Allowing the reii of ihe iqudd <u pa» otii of dght, the two 
men fol!oi*cU witli the //(i/>v«*a, ouc at each »ide of tlie pony^ 

" ] letf. Cola," uid one of the cacn, al^r looking over hit shoulder, 
"he h holding lomelhing in hi* arm* t '• 

** He luny hold wliai he liltc* far inc." rciumrd ilic othcj. " I 
only wish Uavrediich had becti burmni; before he tet mc (his job lo 
do.* And, with ^ growl, he unslung from hi» belt a imall coil of 
tope, and put one end of it ihrou|-h llie ui^c-'iin|Ef» ;/ ihe liridle ; 
tbuj. by bnn^ng the tvo ends lo^hcr aft^in, he and hi« compuuon 
couid match en in frotit wtth another thirty feet or bo placed tjct-Evccn 
them anii ihr h<?l|ilrss thing Ltrhintl. 

Aa they came in right of Shoomrinivk a deep rut In the read garc 
An exitn jolt to the n^heeU. The Hnt speaker at^in looked over h}% 

*' Why, CoU, it at an icon lie it holding ! " 

So il wu- Philetnoo nuM have torn the crate open, for he had 
^cd with the tniage of God convulsively datped to hu breast. 







ABRIDGE u cne of lliose few common things which nan 
does not Always u«c in An unhoedmg w&y merely bccAUM thcf 
art things of pliin aimI evtrydAjr utility. Moat of us^ pfigmg over a 
fariilge, feel an tmaccotinublr de^irr; to t]iick«ii our ^uuie, yea, lo 
linger, even on London Bridge. Oa such a tite Macaulay make* 
hu anticipAtcd AAtipodertn sol iloqui»e— when a broken Nclson*« 
Colcmn would hiive been more convenient, or th« ruiiu of lh« 

In llic oountrj Uicfc arc few more delightful spots to rc*t or 
JU thAti (omc unfrcquemed bridge. In tlic i^o^li1 Down 
councfy. where *n much stil3 linger* which chcwhere has pm«d 
away fov cvct, whcic Lcil itic threat hUck OKcn. whcic ^JU Ktill 
•ound oa threahing Doors, nnd wh<tf< Aon arc called by namc4 
which " Doine«day Book " records, th«re are many »nci«nE bridges, 
some cronting ciuok^d stn^^zjth, suiu? biidgin^ tirooks ihai h;ivc 
ooi lime lo become river* before they minj^ with theulE i«icr» 
of ihc Anin, the Adur, or the Ouie. Few of Ihees bridge* are 
beautiful as archii^cural works, though most are let tn plouani 
places and ovenliatlow no unlovely ^ireania. One I wo( of itpanx 
a riiw flowing through a vailey where, long liaic ago, a mightier 
waUrreajved its channel through the chalk hiUit to the tea, Ne^ by 
on ih« summit L^f ibt: Duwtiia vrLndmill whirls ils liy nu mcam ufrnt 
sails; on the water a loliuiy bo&t lies moored: while acro>4 the 
river comcG the pioo&nnt music of the &heep-bcll8, wAtt«d bya thyme- 
teattiod sotiih-west wind, a wind n& soft and Kcntuoui u thjtt whkh 
Solonion evoked when be sang, ''Come, O thou south wirui vid 
fatow thoti weat, and breathe upon my garden, thai the scent thereof 
tuy cutflow." 

Rill it U more than k« 5ur tumiundingi, more than iu own ouc- 
lincv which raikc the beauty of a bridge It has a beauty wtiich ii 
indt^pcndcor of tbc^> a mysterious charm which it (hares with a 
fliw primitive ihtn^ made to ministef to man'a primordial wojiu A 
plough, a boal, a windmill, a bridge, each was Jashioned by man's 


TA4 dntUmafti Magazim. 


bflin wmI hAnd in some prchirtonc lime, and with thcvc be nudc 
the cttitli, tbe air, the water tubterrient to hit wanttL It cin 
waictly bftTf vicapcd the notice of such an have the scdng eje thxt 
Ihe radest plough or tioau "indmill of bridge has a ccrmin ttiong, 
not quite accountable, demcot of bout; in iL The plough and 
Ihe boat, whoic ongint aire io«t in the tniats of antiquity, att not 
only 1^11 of the 1m«tof h^uty in thdr strT]i!ti]rc, btx ihry nho 
IhiDW the very clcmcnli in mhich ihcy niove mio tines of beauty. 
llkOM of tho way or a boat through the ^^'atcr, the uoduUtuig lines 
of its iwdl^ftrc well known as beautiful movement The pbuj^h, 
thocigh noH-aday* \\ rnavp* ittai^^htly to ib fufrow-cntl, is even yrl 
DM destiEu;c of beauty of niotion : while tn ancient agriculture the 
funows of its selion^ fiwcpt onward ^m a furrOK-foot a3 ali^hily 
curved OS the enUtsts of an antique? column 10 a furrow-hcfld 
wlikli diverged more dcciiiivcly lo'vacda tlie other ude, farming 
furrowa like the long "s'i" of our gmndparcnts" caligraphy. The 
windmill, though in origin is not so remote ai that of ihc plough, 
la yet of great aniiquiiy, in the ^%a\ iT not {n the weit, ami at leat: 
minister^ M a nuppkxncnl lo the plough, to a primitive ^lajit of marv 
kind- The beauty of a windmill is composite, and lici portly m il» 
ciroimRtanccE ; in the evervaiying changes of tight and (^d« about 
Ji, as ic stands a dark masi silhouetted ag^Jn^t ilit? cx'cning sky, or 
gleams white upon the background of some dark bank of cloudn a 
beauty in the subtle curves and planes of the surfaces of its sails. 
Hence windmills have always formed favourite subjects for the 
paintei's art, who ha^e, however, indulged ihemsdves very ofttn in 
an emggcration of eccentricity, in the ouUlnCfi of the sails io 
particular, so that wc are sometimes confronted in a picture with a 
representation of something as much like some gigantic and Titanic 
arachnid ^ a mill. 

The beauty of a bridge, too, is very much concerned with its 
circumstances, and, except in lownsandciries. is far frotn beirg builr 
into its aichitecture. In the coui^tr)', nature play« a prcdontinani 
part ; and a bridge, for instance, onccmpa&scd with trees and 
encased in ivy, is proof Against merely architectural ctiiiciiui. but 
there is, as it were, a generic beauty about bridges, ai with other 
prirmijve aehieremems of nian over nature and ciicumsEancc ; for 
a> the ploi»gh an<l the mil] minister tohitn by enabling him to draw 
sustenance from the earth, so the boat and the bridge subserve hii 
need of irRnsii at his will from one place to anoihei over ihc 
opposing and dividing element of water- 
When the lir^t bridge wat built is a queation too obviotifily 

The Bridge. 




unansucriible to lie a^kt-J. Without doubt, natUTC wa« iu orcliiUct ; 
Ik matcri.ll mmc nee fallen fdidioualy bn'tlgtiig some btook. In 
UopicA) countries ihcslriLndsor]uxumEilcieq>crs, flung by thcfoxc 
Of forest growth fcom tree to tree across some strcom, may have 
nggesred the principle of ihe suspension brMge, ^hich, irtd^od, in 
« njd(? fonn bis existed In the Ea^i fionk very early times In 
China, in tbcprovince of Yunnan, Is enc to which the date of 65 A.i>k 
b attigned A fabulous age \% a.uachcd by the nMivei to one (n 
ThitxfL Tb(."Sc siispensian bndgts \rcre inad*^ nf mpe? or chain* 
»upportme bamboo or other woodcu beams as road« jy. 

From the same mysterious Eai: medieval misaionanw brought 
bock ttorie« of grent bridgo ; of one in China, extending from one 
mountain tu anotlitrr, with a span of more than seven hundred feci, 
and of an equal height, WImiovr the nature of those bu[U by 
primiitte man, bridges soon came lo Iw regarded as of 9Ueh great 
impc^rtaiice iliat, ^^lien we come lo historic limes »c find ihem 
invcAlcd with a secu-sacrcd character^ aa a result of which, to 
pHcstt were committed iheir conalniclion and control, religious 
einblem& embellished them, and chapch were meorponicd in ihcTr 
Tery sErticturc. It is needles to iem;trk upoti llie part which 
biidget have pla)'ed '.n the progress cf mankind, upon thdr value 
DS means cf interccmmumcatiou, of eommcK^e, and all that makes 
fbi proapcriiy and peace- History tui» lunny iii?iUjices of itie ira* 
pcrlftnt r^U they have takca in mnny a fierce bAttk in ancient and 
modem war. Historic or not, the tale of hov HoraCiuit kept the 
bridge will be totd from ^L^neraiion to gf^nerailon; and Lhe siury 
of the bToody biidge of jVrcolc. And of Lodi, will be ever memorable 
in the records oE Napoleon's extraordinary career. Little lets 
known, and hardly loss sanj^iitnary a scene of oorntat, is lliai jpot 
Ui tlic sublime sunoundinj^s of the St GoLliard Fas* wlicre ibe 
Devil's Bridge a^^an.^ the river Acoss* Twice within one month 
did ;i 6erce encounter take place here between the Au^trians under 
Suw^rrour and Ihr French^ in one cf which an arch of the cnuse- 
way lo ihc bridge wa^ blown up, with 3Corc» of combatants upon it. 
As wc have noted before that many bridges owe ibcir origin to 
ecclMiastical architect, it is not itirpriiing to find that this cekhmied 
Dcvil'i Bridge affords another inilance of thit ; the lower arch, no» 
superseded, being the original structure^ built by Abbot Gerard, of 
£inftedeln. In iiiS. 

Rtmotc oa \\ the origin of bridges xn thr Fai^t, there arc no 
tcccfds or remains by which we can a.iiign to tho^e of I^uropc a 
comaponding antiquity. In Greece they were rare, and fUch 


Tht GtniUnums MagasiHt. 

andciit uiicb aa icrotfji inuit m ftll pfoUUBlj be cicilked to the 
RomAniv Unable, it \s l>clie^^d, to turn ah arch, the Greek bridfit- 
butlden ajdopied the conirivaAcc of overlapping cconetv 

Bui the tComans w(!f4f thi^ gmi builden of ih« bridges tA 
jmliquLiy, aikd thuic U turccl/ a Bmopciii couniiy which Uu rim 
•OflM subctuiwl rcmuns of thctr skill in such cdiBcaiioi). Cttur 
auJta mentloo of many briilg«« in his ComoQChUhes, dffcUing with 
pardonable pride upon the dcuils of the grcai vrooden bridge which 
io ten dA>s he thrc« acrou tbe brawl ind npid RFinc. Kor wcrt 
tho " batbarions " aUogethCT ignorant of bridge^buiUIir^i for, frmi 
ihe same tour^«, v« learrt that vhen Csesai, In his campaign sgojnst 
lliQ Bel^, Hrrivtrd ftC ihc A^ona, he found il olnrad/ »pd[Uicd by 
% bridge. Rome iuclf boosted many bridges, ftnd their coiutruction 
and control were eommilled ic the prie^is, b«nc« coIImI ''pontt- 
fiPCT." Th^ Poei4 Siih^tcin^ the oldest of the bridgn in the Eternal 
City, *r>s oiiginolly biiilt of wood, but rcconflnicicd wilh «tone by 
fliEaJlius l^pidui. Trajan tta^ a great bridge huildo* aod even 
spaiEinfd the difficiiLi Itanubc with one more iliui thr««^qiurtvr« 
of a mile long, its wooden roadwsf, tixiy feet bro;id, borne upon 
twenty piers cf sEont:. Not cnmindfut of \i\% gcdi^ one at IcAjt of 
bit bridges, that of Alcantarvi, had a s<uiUiim oi chap«l upon iL 

riuting their Inng r«:cupation of Rritain rhc Romans lnit]t nijiny 
bridges herct and not a few of tliose now in u^ eontjiin Ronton 
work in some pJirt or other of their structure. Such w-u found to 
be [he efl£« in an old bhdge ftCroBS the Adur, at Braaib«r, ir Esunex, 
u tiridge ('titled '*vctLts pons " as far back ais the elevcnTh century. 
Here the red roortai (made so with pounded tiles} and the lower 
courses kid in biiuminoua cement indicated with eertainty the 
Roman origin of this bridgo^ 

In Ihe uld Otd Bridge al Tjincastc^r, and in one acrnsit \\\n 
Tcign in Devonshire (dutcovcrcd in 1814), the aame appM;araJiecs 
have been observed- The hnc highways, which made; communi- 
GUion easy for their ]e^ion^ l^etAt^-n the variojs «isfra whirli 
secured the Romatn hold over ihi^ counEry, must ha\v crossed many 
rivers \ imd though some of thom were pused by paved fords — as 
in the tittle tidal Ritch, at Qynde, in Sussex, and eUewhere— yet 
moiii must haver brf^n home on bridges, 

AeconJing t<j Dt. Stukelcy, no fewer llian four Reman vi<t passed 
in various directions through Lcwcs, all converging to cross the Ouae 
by the bridge 1>etw?r?n that andent town and the little village of CltlTe. 

In those and succeeding tlme^ Ihcr fifwei the Inidgui the gieatej 
thflLT relative importance to the eommunity ; and to build or even 

Tiu Bridge, 


repair one was a merhorioufl net- Sach volatiui; Mtt vere mpplft- 
nicinieii, undi^r the Sixon tpfrimc, tiy thr Uabililf imposed upoiii 
buidowncts of contiibuting to the canslruction aad iniintcnjmcc o{- 
bridges- Numberless Saxon charten and vilU afford insUnc«0 of 
Inndt granE^d or dcmjicd ttilh Ehc phrase, "free rrani all rrgxl 
tribute or senice sxve ihc building of bridges, the cioDstruai*>n of 
ca£tks, and ihc going forth with thu host/' From thn " trinoda nticc*- 
ritu" not even ecclesiastics or religious coq>ontioii> vtte exempt 
unlcw by Npetial chiricr Bnitlp Abbey^ privileged as it wis a^Kive 
tU fcllojvs. iras freed by Heiiry I. from contributing to the ccfl* 
fltruction c)f Londmi Bridge; while Croyland Abbey wo-t granted 
exemption by the same aionarch from bridge-vvork in general. 

SupplemcnUry to this pii^^atc and legal concern for bridges, an 
order of Efospitallcrs nu formed in the t«telAh century 10 &3si»t 
ttavellen by bui^tlmg brtdgea and receiving stranger in houf^s buill 
on ihc hnnk« nf rfvpn. Noi cnly tvptp bridgeii objects nf all this care 
on the pan of ihosc in active life , equaf ^oliciliidc wa; oficn ahonti 
by ihose about to '\\i%\ for ever aJl mun^unc matters and cross with 
O>jiron % more windmg water than any lublunaiy strcAtn- Thus in 
U3fl^ JoAnc, l-ady Burgavcnnj, left by will a ton*idcrJ>le sum of 
money for the repairs of *'fouIw4yc* and fabd bruggcs'' — which 
was her Bcnbe's way of wriiing "loul ways and f^^eble bndgw." 
Others were not coment with prwtmrjnem bcnrniolcnces, but in the 
lime of ihcii inoital life benefited the community by building 
brid^ef. The famous *'Auld Urig o' Doun/' said to havo been buUl 
U great co»t by iwo maiden Ladies in the thjneenib century^ fe one 
instance of this. Another is sifordcd by the building of a bn'dge 
across ihc Rothcr by Robert dc St. Martin in Ihc twelfth century, 
Ihefeby giving a new name to tht^ l^inlct, and to the well-known 
Abbey of Robertsbrldge which he afterwan^s erected there. To the 
monks, the aitj^ts, the aichiicct's the fanners of those times is due, 
no doubt, tbc building of many bridgei- One of these waa the 
TemariiAble oneorched bridge which spanned ihe mountain torrent 
of Mynach, rushing down a deep ravine in Cardiga.n^hiIC, which 
w» built by ihc Cistercians of the neighbouring moaaaicry of 
Hafod at the end of the twelfth cenltar); iind whicli continued 
in uie Tintll 1750. More than iwo hundred ytxn e:irlirr, olhcrr* 
of the religious hud erected :hjit celebrated structure, the triangular 
bridge at Croyland. It b first referred to, «r m/f/nttf, in a charter 
of Kins Edred, in the year 948, wherein he hegin* the dcscfipHoH- 
of thclxiuTid^TJi'Sof the " island" of Ooyland/'a pontcdeCroyLwid 


T^4 CtntUman's Ma^azins. 

Tbc foundation cbftrtcr <A this tncicni abbcjr* fr^^nlcd by Ethel* 
tiftid in ih< ycfii 7 iC, mentions a^ao 09 4i boundary m^k " Lh« bridge 
of Cro^Und," but irhcihcr ihc lamc u the triangular on^ it unceruin 
— ^nd iinjiiolublc. However thU ma; be, ihi^i uiEingukr bridge uf 
Croylutd ia wortliy of some notice- It con&iatft of Ihrcc *rchc« i\uv^ 
•^WdiaUnil^ from each other ^^ iihin the ciKumfcr^nce of a ciidki 
thdr bafe« popularly, Lui r-trontously, iup|KJseil tu be each in a 
dificrcnt county. Time archca meet in ihc middle, find bcncatb 
th«CD ifi ti)D confiuencc of the ns'ers WcUnnd And Nctij twelve feet, at 
low w&tcr, below the apex of the jurtcticn of the archei. On the 
stiuih-ire%t Milr: ia a utone ima^, ^luiuti^tly cuiijectuicd to rcpmenU 
Kthclbftld, St. Gjthlac, Henry l\., vitti the addition, by Lbc coanmoa 
IbUi of Oliver Cromwell The ascent to thi:; bridge i« so itccp and 
fttqspcd t!iai it is imjmssable by carts or carrJagei. Il would almott 
appisar n^ Lbougli tian&it itjs quite a lecondaiy purpose ^ilb Ujc 
bulldcn, and that it is in part a symbolic structure^ an emblem of 
the Trinity^ the Three In Ont-, 

SomcwIwI similar In plan to this bridge is the " pont sons poreil," 
buill about 1751 on the road between Si, Omcr and Calais, ovei 
the meeting of four canals. It is In the form of a large dome pierced 
by four ciradar arrhcs snd supported by four largo abutrif^nti. 

Unlike the bridgCi of the Romans, carried on round Arcbcs^ ^ 
those of medi££VEil times were very commonly borne on pointed 
atcheft. Sometimes round, pointed, and segmental fbims may be 
sc^ei^ In the nic^de of one and the same bridge, such :t% ihai at 
llcyford, inOxfordahirCn Possibly tbtsc dilTtring archei in the same 
bridge ir&y indicate separate periods cf coi^^t ruction, rebuilding, or 
repair. The bridge of Nnmi was singularly unsym metrical, cv^ry 
arch beijig unequal. On another, at Ambruis, tlie roadway was not 
level, but undulated over every arch and interval As an^hes differed, 
so did para|iet«. On small bridges over narrovr streams, the parapet 
ijf ancient bridges geneiall^ alopri upward to the :i.pci of an obtuse 
angle in the centre ; on modem brides the parapet is usually a 
segment of o circle. Bridges of Renaissance date or the later 
Georgian period oflen have parspets of open batuslradtng, the part 
above the pirr,s alone being solid masoniy. St. Mttry's Oiidgc in 
Derby is a good specimen of this. The piers of mo^t of the bridges 
fo those timef, 04 well oa in after fl|^ci:, were usually \' -shaped up to 
a %\\oxi distance above fiuod-waier height, with the obvious object of 
dividing and diminishing the force of the do^nflowlng water, the 
V-shape being repeated on the lee side of the piers for the take of 
»yninietiy. This form ax^ tart of ihe pier wa( often carried up tO 

Tke Bridge. 


th« |wap«c, an amn^ment not only pleasing 1o the eye. but Aho 
on? of «omc maleiial benefit tJ} those pa>isit)g over tlieic Liridges, 
lunow aj they generally were. For ihese anguUr projections from 
the roadway formed " wyde pLiccs for the retyr« of passcrfitra " ir 
case of pie4s or obyrociion. The tiver Amr, a( SlopliamJn Sussex, 
is ctossed by 4 bridge of ibis dc^criplion, it very picturctquc T>tniciurc 
of seven uno^tjftl arche*. of tlie a^c of Edward IL, having been 
built in 1309 10 supplement or supersede a p»e-diBting ferr^- or ford, 
or, whal is probnbic, n cnmbinjiiEtsn of thir tvo. The prohahility of 
thb bci;ig the case U suggested by the fsct that the bridge w&i built 
closQ to 7. ^pot called I^sto\*tfr Ferry, whiL^h belonged to a certain riian 
fiaircd John attc Ford, Indeed, this is nothing remarkablr, siirh 
bemg a not unusuaJ combination of circumstances. Intbc nature of 
things, A ford would be the first and stmpk-st mca.ns of cro&SJnga 
fiver, a fi^rr^- being a subsequi^m rmprovement, or a necessity where 
« stieant was too deep or its current loo rapid to bt fordablc with 
safely, or at olL How often— and bow late in lustor>— bridges 
superseded fords may be judged ffom the frequent occurrence of 
the suffi* '*ford" in the tinime^ of rivcrsiLle lowtii and villages, 
where the bridges ^rc solid facts, while ihc fords ha\^ faded Cieii 
from memoTy, although once of liuffictent imporCflnee to give, or 
jiarticipate in giving, name to the places. In some casei, as at 
Heyford, in Oifordslnrc, we can dul*.* with soiac i^robabilily the 
period of supersession of Ibc ford by the bridge, for \x\ certain 
modicval doccjm^ntt of thai place we tind it called *^ HeyfoTd'ad- 
potiTem" abriTpily after the year 1175,^11 previous mentions being 

Dunngall the successive periods of bridge- buildirg the semi ^cocred 
nattireof these scriLclures was maintained as in Lhe days of the Roman 
" pontiftces." On almost every ancient bndge of Any impoLUncc 
there vas a chapel, while those quite rural and remote bore a 
erucilix or cross, or ibe figure of Eome saint or revered |)enonage, 
on some ^inrt or other of ibeir siniciure. CsMlelon Bow Bridge 
over tbc Ejk> in Voik^birc (in cvi^tcncc until a fciv years ri|:o), had 
k niche for Kome lacrcd image above the centr<e of its round arch, 
snder iJie ape* of its obtuse-angled parapet. At Stirling If we may 
judj^e froin its thiitcenlh-ccntuiy teal, tbere was a rood erected on 
iu brid^. 

So too in the neighbourhood of bridges, fords, and ferries, folk 
ficie wont to erect crosses t'^iat ihose about lo pa*»«, or having passetl, 
tltttiood okigbt put up prayci against the perils of ibc piU^ge, or 
proflcr praises for a safe crossing, *^ Qaersoc^'er a cross standctb 

2A2 7*^ Gtniieman's Afagazisu. \ 

tlier^ ifi KnUtion of pa>-i»v'* Oir«r a litUe brook tbu runs inte ib« 
f^t^HSdi Rildi fiear fuki oiice a nracb laigei »tn»ni 4^n the priudpile 
t cipiuiKd in ihc Jinuaiy number of ** Lonj^mAiu' Ua^Axuic")^ 
(btrc \^ A bridge «hcrc aTorctiate wi^ a ford, and the bue of a croai 
ihAi oacc Uood iJmeby now ]jm m thr g:irOen of > cottage hard by. 
King Edrrd's diaitei to Crojland Abbey (Jatcd ^) afTcmla 
another inaUncc of a cross near a river, bridge or foni, vhcrcii^ 
dcscnbing ccrUm bound^tic^ wc find the word^ "vbore the 
Aicndyke faQi inlo ih<^ Miralrrrcif WeLUnd on die norlli side of the 
stone aou erected tliere by Tuikciel," the abbot- 

lo plaoc of ac«Ka, more secular fymbols were »o<nctuii«t affixed 
to bridgea, a* in Danby Dak, where the coat of amti of ihe Hcvilka 
of Raby decorates iwo bridges (TtMKJng the Ealc Soineiiin*^ the 
homsof catiJcivGrcai&icd tobrtd^ ; atHomcaallc^mLijicolnftbiie, 
thU, [ belict^e, may be leen to day ; cb^vhcrc this praclicc it a mere 
mctnory, or Tcmflins onljr in a Tianic. Thi* v% ihe ca*e at Beran 
Dridge in Sumcx, over a ihhaU vtrcom paaairij; iriLo the Ouac; wbosc 
name is but a cortuption of (he word '* Bccvc-hom," aa [ have accn 
ii RpeU in a charter of ^VikUam, Earl of Warenne, tc the pnory of 
St. PAiicn^ «it SouihovcT, in the ihirtecnih ceniury. 

Ks to chApcla on bridges the iu^Unccs aic quite tiumcicus. The 
long pLCturerKtue brtdg<; of SwLirkcstontj^ ever vrhich miii the road 
bdvrcwiDort^and Melbourne, once had a cfaapeL en it. In Suasea, 
on the bridge of BramLicrrni^ssmjLt^H-" Anin, &lood a chapel dcidicaied 
to Sl Tcler, If a scd may be admitted aa evidence, il would appear 
that at Robert£brid^ in ?)ua&ea, a large ecdcaioatical bailding ^lood 
u|Mm [lie bridgr Iherr, whHc through iH pomted ixhei flowed a 
atream wHnfic waves were might)' And rjjjcd horriblj. Mifat pru- 
bably, however, the old seal merely embodies a play upon the word* 
and upon the eon^rrcnce theie of an abbey, and a bridge, com- 
luemoradnH the donur. On the bridge of \>'4|[e(i?ld i^ a chapel 
containing bcauuful eculpturea of the time of Edward III, At 
proitvich there va« a chapel on the bridge, and through the midat 
of it passed the roadwaj ; the reading-desk and pufpit being on one 
side, the part for the congTcgation on the othei. The first stone 
London Bridge had both a ehapel and a vault on it, and therein 
urat fitly laid tc test the body of ita builder, Peter, curate of Si. 
Mai>' Colcclnircli, On it, toe, as on mo« town bridges, sccuTsr 
buildings arose. At either end there was in general a gate, n. turret, 
or guard house, while along the length of the bridge, housca, ahopi, 
ftiid booih» wcrt: t-n^cied. Even on the small bridge of I^^ewea thoro 
were houses and other buildings in the thirteenth i-cntury, ^ ehft 


Tk€ Bridge. 


win of Henry, vic^f (A the nc^hbouring Ringmci, teMifias \ whereon 
he mcnttcniL " ihn houscifi and tencmcntc upon the bridge of Lewti 
whirh 1 hold of the l^rii Amhbisliu}) ijf Caiilerbui)." ^ Fwim ihi% 
I09, it is poraiaaiblc p«ihapft to ^aume ihat one of the archl^hiopt 
wab tho builder of this bridge- 
As late » the cightccntli century we leam from Ga]e'« '^Tour* 
lliat "the great stone bridge " of Briaioi wxs " w trowdcU on both 
sidcswithhouseaostlmt of London." A simiUr crowding of buildings 
on a bridge i% instftnc^ed by the cvtebntod RJalto^ one oJ the five 
hundrrd bridges of ^'imicr, Biiili by Mirhacl AngrJci, on a de- 
peoftcd bold ar«h itcarly one hundred frcE in npan, it bore two rows 
rl ihopfl» <ltvLdtnf^ it into three fitrceiK* and, in the palmy daya or the 
d:y, must have Ijeern a pbce oF considerable JRiporianri* a scene of 
life and animation. In i!iq preseitt time ot ruili and buriy, it ift 
di^cull to piciuru OLir modern hridges in towns and dlics under tllc 
%«fy diifercnt u^iccti; of th«ir mediu;val pn:fiatypes and predeceuors, 
wben reltgtouit wrricea, qoiiLincicial trHJi^octtQiia, ^re(rlin)C!b jukI fkre- 
vclbiVid liU the ckily I'nretcoutsc of man triih mAn took place on 
fuch limited Areas, oniid&t the pi^Mge of cans and cattle, wa^fucn 
and waiDL 

But bridges were noi xlvayi the scenes of peaceful doJnp web 
» tbcso; for sks the current running undc^r them would rowftnd 
Agftin be in the full ru*h of flood and sJorm. so the iiream of Biaji* 
life, Kldom clcai but oJXcn turbid, ^laMing over thcnu would tun red 
viUi blood, tfc, and the sword ; and nuny a b4ttl« h^ raged fiercely 
about WKnt hitherto uncelobmtod bridge spanning tome pcacelU 
)tran, such ^A at ihr afurcsiid l^di, oji the I^int^niiait plain ; 
or Cvopredy^ criming ChcrweU^^i pkcid stroant Some long- Forgotten 
conbot hcu Idt its niemt'iitoe? at the lltite bridge of Greath^cn in 
Sqiwx, bo*lt by Sir Hrnry Tregnz in th? timet oF Rdwnrd 11. For, 
two hundred yean aflcr the ercnt, c^tnnon-ballv were fouod embedded 
there nhcn a trench for the lound^ions ol & ptopoaed enUr^'ement 
«a* beir>g dug — meiren1oe« of the attempt made 10 deiiiroy it in the 
CitiJ War, whrn M'all^i wjh maTchlng Id bsicgc Arundel OlsLIc 

Hvcn when not the v\\^ of actual combel, grim scenes, with Dcatii 
afl the chief actor, have lalcon phce on bridge*, 

ll vns frnm the hlfk bridd^ nmr MiKtrrtcnrin-LeJcesirinhln!, thnt 
tllc burnt bones of Wyclif were thrown itito the liver Svtift^ flbcl^ 
ML A Thyicing chronicler relates^ 

*< Ouie ckiKir Ki oprn H^ pftrc 
Aad Lieni tX hi* bonU, ndt chukic ihey fave^' 

* Cfirftf AntipM, Afchigpiwopal Lflmiy, l^mb«ilt 

J 44 '^^^ CtnihmaHS 

A nedsKiil faistofUn <]e«crLbe« th« deuh by dro^-ning o£ a 
wonan, iccuMd of wJtcbcraft, at Lcndoii Biid^c in v70t doubUc^s 
one EBcrc dpher m the sum cf sumilof judicUl murdcn xi that spoL 
The grim aModations of the " Bridge cf Sighi " in Venice ft/e orily 
too vcU l-iH>wii. Rjingt'd in ^ha^dy io«'s rdHrK' ticad« hive hung 
L^ Kuzci ou the bi&toric Biicl^c of London^ unong tlicoi the iioble 
head of William WAllftce. 

An ancient and a ch«iucrcd rtcord, and on« iinguUrly aisod;ited 
H'ith junic, ditnatcr, And dcnlh, ta that of l>andon Bnil|^e. Ai vc-ry 
aiAAy pointA it loucha the history of the city ; at sotr\c the annuls 
of the notion. How many bridges there have bran at this important 
crowing of the Thames cannot he umicd with c«eiinty. The 6H* 
coreryi at one of it» numerous rcbujldingi, of Komc piers of masonry 
laid in a Utummoui cement similar 10 that used by the Romaiu ^ 
Mcma to indkate the probability thai the " pontiJioihty '' — to u^ ■ 
a (ifteefith-ccnuiry word — of ihat eupnair pef'ple ^vas ai work there. 
TTie firtt bridge of vhich there is a definite rccorJ ta one ij£ ibc year 
^yS; yet the drowning of the witch before mentioned implies an 
<aftkr one The presen<!e of houses, booths, and other vooden 
blrjcturcs on biidges Ehenisdves buill of ihai inflamniabto nialiTial 
su^cit^ the probability of a auccession of destruciJve fiics. Indeed, 
one of the great fires which luve at \-anous periods devastated the 
<jtyof London leeTus to have originated at the Bridge ; a chroniclec 
lecording of the year 1135, "TliisycarRi, Paul's church of tendon 
vraa burnt by a ^rc which, starting at London Bridge. cMcndcd 10 
Iht church of Sl Clement Danes." Such occurrences no doubt 
enforced the deaimbtllty of building to impOTtani an ediHcc as 
JfOndon Bridge of stone, a toik which naa i]ridL-rl;iken in the 
beginning of the Ihirtcenlh century by Peter, curate of Sl. Mary 
Colechurch, He died in 1J05, three yean before the completion of 
ni« liridge* and was buried in the ciypt whidi ocmpied one of the 
picr^. uiider the chapel dedicated to St- Thomas wlitch he bad 
■erected thereon. In the ihori ipace of three yein after its completion, 
fine again It tacked thccilyund its bridge. For in izii there was 
"ft fierce fxtc in Sathwark, and it burnt the church of St, Matj' there, 
uid ihc bridge with iti chapel, and the grealeat part of the city." ^ 
FOBtibly this is the occasion referred 10 by another mediarval 
chroni(^liir« with ainpltfied details, though he phcex it in the year 
nil. Hcsayf, "In the summer of thUycar an extraordinary and 
sad accident happened in London. For the south part of the city 
and the church of ihc bie^*ed Marj-, of the canons of Souihwarl^ 




Tkg Bridgt. 


viKl^nly taking Cine, a v«ry gnat numbttT of |:>«optG crtMsed Uit 
bridg«^, cilh<rr to Aid in ciitinguishing ihe fire or to view the speciicle. 
All AtOiic:e, tlicbuudi wind blowings Lhr? Jiortliern [i4rt(urilii^cjty)wji£ 
«ciccdi and ihc people, wishing to rccro^ ihc bridge, wc:c prcvcrlcd 
by the firc- And wbilc they were thus hindered, the oilier paftof 
llir brid^L' LLho took Ttrc Thu«, ptar^ed birlweeri two Jires^ they 
crowded u|K>n one anijiherj cxiwct'ing nothing lui drith- And 
Ihcu ihcy £0 reckle&^ily crowdt^d into some boftts vhicti wore coming 
to their :ts>£[&tLLr>cf that Tho craft were tipict and ihey a[l perished^ 
Such a gri^t los£ of life took place that three thouaaiid people aic 
aaid to have perished.'^ ■ 

Thm [ll-omeried bridge eon*i*ttfd of a icries of pointed arcbci^ 
widi a dr<iwt>ridgc in ihtr niiddli^ to factliiatr ihe pasaa^e of masiod 
rcMcIs. At cither end wa4 a forttticd gatc^ray, occupied b> 
the "eiiftiodcs" of the bridge or their depuiies. These verc, by 
ancient (ruitom, appotnied 1^ the citi/ens; but after the battle of 
Evcihain tbe Kiug gave the custody uf ibe bridije lo the Queen^ 
probably sfiil bcnrinK ^" mind (as at the battle of Lewes, when so 
vchemenUy purtuing the Londoners) the intuit oITercd to his mother 
whrti passing in her twr^e lindi^r ihc bridge sewral jcara before- 
Removing the "cuatodcK'' of the citixenf, she placed hti own 
officials there, vrho for nearly six yeir« collected ^* the profit of rents 
and landii cf the said bridge," and probably the lolls tr>o. but mean- 
wliile ncgloclcd to make the norcssary repairs. The daru&^c cod* 
tcquezitly expected to rciult having bci;n represented to the quocii« 
«he resigned the custody of the bridge to the citiienij, who thereupon 
appointed their two ^ardianA, "^icii[ Bolebai." Thi^i vn.; very 
much lo ibctr advaiUagc, aa they were now in a poatlion to carry our 
again the by Uiv pos^d in ia5o,by which the "cueiodeft"of the 
bndge should ''have, take, or claim nothing from the shipping or 
mi*c of [he citijena pas&lng ' pet medium poniia/ aa they did frnm 
foreigncri. to the c*tcni of twelve pence for each vcmcL" Henco- 
forth the city controlled i:c bridge and succe^irc bridges, taking 
ton^ receiving rent!!* making rcrpairs^ on occasions even decorating 
ii with tapcstrica. A graphic dcacription of London Bridge is 
appended to a mip by Norden, published in the wrentcenth eeiv 
tijry; "This fiirnous bridge in adorrred wiih sumptuous buildings, 
and maldie and beautiful houses qu ciihcr ^idc, iiiLabiteil by wealthy 
cltiteni, and furr^iihod with all manner of trades, comparable in its 
Mife to a liltLc cttie, whose buitdingt are so artificially contrived and 
«o firmly combined as it -leeTneth more than an ordinary suecte, for 


The GentUmatis Magazine. 

it is as one continual vaute or roofe, except certain void ptaces, re- 
served from buildings, for the reijre of passengers from ihe danger 
of Carres, carts, and droves of cattle usually passing that way. The 
vautes, seherSt and places, in the bowells as it were, of the same 
bridge are many and admirable, which arte cannot discover to the 
outward view." 

Among "all manner of trades " carried on here that of printing 
may be mentioned, a press being at work thereon as late as 1703- 

More than a hundred years after Norden, Pennant describes the 
street on London Bridge as *' noisome, dark, and dangerous," Now 
the worst we can say of it is that its trafRc is sadly trammelled by 
the transition stale in which it now is, but from which we trust it will 
emerge a itruclure artistically amplified to meet the needs and 
augment the appearance of the great city in which it is so important 
an edifice, 





VERY age hw had iu liletury affectations, Th« romances of 
chivalry. Mrac. dc Scuil^ry's rumans ik iangve hiifftt\r, [he 
Euphuista, the Prfcicu&ca, tht otctaphysical pocu, the Naturalists, 
have niAdc food for UughCer iind gatire to Hucceedinjj generations ; 
but none of ihesecver reached the depths of baihcs to whicE) (he 
DcUa Cruscan school of versifiers deiccnded lo tlie eighlui/ntli cen- 
tury. Except [Q the literary student the fi;ry names of ihc«c 
poeUstcr^ ore now almost urtknoim ; and yet they vxoTctfi^ en 
jntluence xjpon (he imaginative litcraiiiru of thdr lime, and long 
aftcrAardA, that not even the gciiiu?^ of Waltrr Scott could resiM- 

The cull was initialed amoii^ a httle English colony in Florence, 
In 17S5. I^y ibAl gashing matron vrho having just recently, much 
to ihc disgust of Dr, Sikmud Jiihnson ind other old frieruK, 
exchanged the prosAic oftmc of Thmlc for the more cuphui«iic 
Ciocii, thought U advisable to retire for a time with her hiuband 
to his native land Thrre, in the city of Uanir, (he lady nnd two 
senliiiiertAl gcnlLenicn named Pdirsonb mil Grcatljcid foundtd a 
routuAl ^dmirauon society, which they nnmcd the Ocio^, the piin- 
eipal object of ttliich was to scribble panegyrict on each other for 
private circulation. Bui i-sjwndi rig variiiy pirM?ntTy iw]uired a 
wider Circle of adulatGrs, and the Oiioai started a masnzinc> " The 
Hiscdlony Arno," A titl< that wiu afMrward» changed to "TIm 
Florence Miscoltany." 

Ju&i ahout this lime there arrived in the 1'uMJir city a Mr. 
Jatnes Merry, a man of good family and connections, who had tried 
both the Bar and (he arm^, and, tiring of both, was now an idler in 
(he gay capiia-ls of Rurape. fJkc Sir Benjamin Barkbfte, Mr 
Merry had " a vciry pretty taste for poetry/ and a4>on after he caiue 
to Horence joined the logrolhng fraiemily presided ever by Hn. 
PtOCD. He was also dieted a member of the famouv Af^adfmiti 
delia Crtiiira, which had been ealablished two ccnturio previously 
for the punfieation of the Italian language, and it v,as under the 
P«n'iuLme of " Delia Cruaca " that he contributed to the " tlorcnec 

9 »i 


34S TMi GtntUman's Magazim. 

MuceUanX'* A Khoat ftory in venc, of which one couplet mirrivc* 
m Lh« csrioihiet of buhot, wherein Ihc appdtnlion 

Upon Blvt WBwd bit hwrl, 

niii«d him lo high eminence in the clique Dui by-and-liy llie 
dacM«ry of his loinewhai scandalous A'in:f<>« with the Codntcat 
Cowper shocked lUo susceptiliititifi of the OzlMi, and brought 
abottt bis expuUioii from (hcli Micictj. After rcicn^ing himsdrbya 
Bicffdlcn lampoon upc^n hb vrbilom ftssociaid, Mr. Merry quitted 
Florence and returned U> London, where his fame a^ a poet had 
already preceded him. 

U1tnt<sciilimcnlit1J«m wu rampoiu in the iiit und litculure of 
Europe at this period, and more especially of I^nj;lAnd, in the 
p4ctiir«i of Angelica Kaufmann and her school, in Lhe pkyfi and 
novrKoif Hugh Kirllry. Rirhard Ciimhrrlanrl, Holrrofi, Mrt Opie, 
Mr^. Inchbald, and their fbllivwing, and fome copies of the "' Floicrice 
Mivcellany " having l^ound thdr way to Xxrndon. the epLdemJc broke 
out badly in the pag« of " The World." a journal somevrhat on the 
tinea of llic ptcseiit'day society (uijinit, ihoiii^h nn^ch tirnngn in 
scand^tl-mongcringiiliaidcpanmcntbcin^ir^tlKhandsof Ehenotoriojs 
tibelWr, John VVilLiamSt beiler known as " Antony PaiquLn/' while 
Mrs. Robfn«on, ihe unfoniinaie " Perdita/" under ihe signature of 
*' t^ujni M irb/' and a Mr, Adncy, who suited himself '* Mil YeJida," 
conlnUuttd wild t'roiics in \\\\^ Oiioai strain. 

Immediately after Mcrr/s return to Eogland^ in 17^7, a poem 
e^nlillrsl •TheAdipH and Rtcall of IjTie." tigned *' DHl* f:riii5i:a," 
appeared in ''The World,'* frnm which I wilt quote ci^ht lines . 

Go, i<llc Voy f I qui! ihy pdw't, 

Thy ci.iucli iifnuny * iliuto miJ HowV, 

Thy t4unt^nf> txiw. Ehinc ■troihs ktrn, 

Th« r<i(irO turpritaC, the ropivih \mft. 
The tcnd<T vmilc, thr ihnllmc Inr, 
lliTf 1*0* tiy |An|^> r»u jijy* \v% mc. 
1 hr* tbff wdU frr I am frrt 

Thia lucubration immediately brouglit forth a gushing r^spome 
fnnn an iinknciwii Uidy, who ai^^neti hcr^pilf " Anna M-itild^ '^ ; 

Oh nay, uti tt^y, lliy (^ tpctO check. 
H(M yrt ijccnd ihr flying drcW, 

Hot tnoi Ebc ntiionV pk«u» Ukv 


Curtcsiiy of tJUraiurt. 


A bliu (A cxquiiti* «Ad ehuce. 
A r«icE »a dflu to potuh'4 Utfe 
Aa (fcjtl ihy lyf« wucclly f^iA|Cf| 
A* iIal ihcjr fetl wh«d D«IU Criucm unE>. 

imj&gF of a lyrp flinging -i ft^sl in simply luvrly ! 
In the inlroduaiuii tcj lii^ lAplunjiu ic()ly UdU CrUSCi ^id \ " 1 
raid the hK^uti^l lines ehc vriotc, and without ming friMn the l^ble, 
ai Mhu!:h t was fticting, answered llicru-" It wu ;i chjiracicmiic uf 
Uiuv:liool ihat the writers alwa>-s dabbed ijfTthcii luctilmitions undue 
the JAftpiration of the moment 

UJl, icitc AGttin thy ^oHcn quill. 
And oriih in [u^ni rry h«om ihrLlI ■ 
VVkth niKf^k: ivuch cuEilofc ny hcari, 
And Ifjd ih< Lui of p&icuon »Ur1. 
Thy ^iililca ijulll A;iullo gsvc — 
Hn-nchM Axti in Wiyht Arno** v*v€. 
Ifome on ihe vapour of ■ tigb, 
It felJ rr^m Cnpid^ bamith'd *i"gi 
.\i f^nratlf tie dro» ih( Citrine 

Thru' 1 lehfllLiiii:! Ifcieen hQin« 
Thmc hid till then defy'd hii pnw'i> 
And tftoiu b«ii ibto* OBoh dead hour. 

The lady responded in &lr&ii» yet more r^pturoui ; 

Who fforn a wLtd^msi of unt 
Ciuut HOf^ la vhrr* tht^ low ^ini^ik mni, 
Tht«^ ipdicfl with tipid tnnuf'^ glow. 
Or iDcrk wlicrc luQ liic ■i[;iAdrjp |£iuvir»> 
Oil lay. ihy 1cin4; ijulck decUie— 
An Ehon 1 nn of urch or oir. 
OleMiii tVKd / 

Agim the gentltman : 

I know ihee wc3l, m?huit)R|; nuid i 
Vvt muk'il Ilin in ihc iiibn^ £ImI«. 
I'vdf^n thH on the tunimji'i height. 
l>e vnct lhc« in ibc itotmi of ri^bi ; 
I'ire vivit'd tbcc on ihr viM bcuh run 
To GJtn upou the ?ct;ii|: wn. 

1 «til] iccfti A ccupTr man- gcm^ before T proceed to ihe cata- 
>pbc : 

Y«, t *ill \'tov* r^ui I tlr^rrc my fit*. 
\V«fl Utm for aDguisfi Lnd vu TorrD^d 63f hatt t 
Widi Biub tiHUbccu^tfii WW will biAtbc u> AJgb. 
Thii ^yyt[it> f mr?4 J\nli iliirik If mrji^y 


7kt Gtniitman i Magazins. 

0«Mh.>ct«Tt <kcr«c7 «y ■•ddcoiac bcMB 

CMaw Ibt ii'ttrtmiw icnay aoik ; 

Bbi Irvtl I nnlu boa f«ku> axunoin run. 

A«d vkti by ibU!» Ikkk 0Mn obtcore th« tan ! " 

Did ih« heroic* of Toon Tbuoib and Hancftmunoi and Ueneial 
Bambuiw go beyond th»? And il vu thought 1o be mbiiroe by 
oni greu-pmndmolhen ! 

Thb bcdhaiiie contspoodeooc wv ctiricd on lor ■ couple of 
yctn^ dvteg which cbtwriivK not only ni>vcr mcc, bet were etcn 
ignonutt of cacli oihcv^ identity. At but» riEhtrr by omidrnt or x^v 
pointncnt, ihcv l«o reriubk pletcmbta ounc laoe Iq Cace, tnd the 
''cndiantiai; OHld' timed oM to be a cooietjr matron of forty-au 
vumfflMf^ olio, akboagh erotic in buigoage^ vns a ^>ldow of iin> 
Llcmiilirf] trixituiioxu ^' Aiuia Mazilda ** «t>ia the well-kntiwn dram^- 
tiff. Mn. Coirky, the Mihor of "The Belled StraJsgem/' pkycd 
•ome y«ftn ago by Sir He^iry Jr\ing ai the Lyeeum, ;ind other 
COmeAu, though now fur^oiten, tamuus in their <1a/ ;V(? miy 
[Bctitre Mf- Mcny^ monifiailiDn a^ he thought of The ouLntgeoui 
l!t)inmcry that he hod addressed to fat, f&jr, forty - and odd ! The 
■bcimlity of the lituAticm Ls un^rpassible. 

One moTff mjiiurt^ eni'tlcd '^The Iniervit^wr/ in which the dwil- 
lusionUcd lovei vrntei ; 

.\jui art Ihod, thefi, aIai, Ule nu^ 
Oftprinc cf iriiJ roontlilj ? 
Uiu: lulhlnh TiiiieS mdc tijuch cfWv 
Bitb lovit/ f«iurf"naTylngEiaCf > 
And miui tow I 4a n'ifa l^pt fom incline » 
And «'iW UiDK eye* fotUnt (o tliiM f 

The reit is tileitce. 

But ia the iQeajiwhtlc \\i\s c^mordiiiAry correspondence \md 
excited the emulation of a <rholc bind of pocEoneta, to «hoin " Delia 
Cnifld'uaA ir modern |»jrhmte " (fir maMer." Futcmost among 
his devotees ifu " Laura Mitia.'' ^ 

' Tho kud tlory uf M»iy KuMrwoQ, lA thiby, thonah it is one of the muiii 
nolcdln lhc<'jbtfMiy«ff ff'«jii(i/fujfiof thr 0£hlci:ii[h «ntury, irmynot bf known 

10 wm« TCftden. Maniod when liUU moic IhPA k child c« a ia&c«tJy Ad^nlarcrt 
*li« went on ihc lUfic. wJw«, diicfly *)ii acc^uni ol lici boujiy, ih* m»i!c »onw 
auivtiim^ ainl miftcird ihc AtdccK htncy o1 GcoT^EC of WaIci, ilien ■ youth. 

11 *as pri3lut]|y l>ii firhi diiUHir C-THrMj' iihfltninn*H ly h^r mpJ lotffi, *!* tomr 
rime ■ftrnnrxlj oontrarrrd « chiU. s\\tx biouffhr on rhvumfltic fevers ^y whi^h ^b? 
ToU (1m ue tfl hcE Uinb*. Mn KvliiAHn ihen icck up tlu pea, wr^Lc kvehI 

j^ Curiosiiy of Liferaiurt. 35! 

O th'^a »!» whom luptfiot ir»r»h*i »Hied, 
Tb^ oeantv/B b«&9ui Lnd the Muks' pride. 

ahr iwoie. And ** DftlU rniKra " piled P^lion upon OifiA in rrtpnnw 

to bci ftdulatioa He 

BM 1I1C htrmnr lLfi1itnJn£i fly 
Ifl liquU! peril fiom ihy qpp. 

Afxl when those eyes rc-fttEed to open and gaie upon him he bunt 
forth in this Kii^g Canihyaea vein : 

CoftjUTc up dmon* from (he main, 
Slorqu upon ^torrm indicunt he*p, 
Bid ixan howl jiod qqelik wcrp, 
Til] Th.- C*f<rnr blnsh in vt 
l!nw horiihlo Mn MOfId c*n b# : 
Whilt I svill glory la blLi|7l>eni«, 
And intk? (he jof > of h«1l my theme- 

I have no ^pacc for arj csitracts from " Lauia Maiia,'* bui ft few 
<l<uched ttn«A vrill give seme idea of her slylc \ 

flin^ o'er hit eye (he i^iUhViiTieiy tmr. 

And oVr my hi* the £c>trliii|> htimout roll. 
And gflury rcphyr^ fluHeriiig *'« the plu^n, 
On tnilighl't (room diop their filmy Tnir, 
^liLlf lir's nocturnal gbov:. m poly ^liroud, 
GUitfct with e''f ly kl'^" ''"i^ tlaud ta clcnid, 

TTiwe extraordinary productions were scathingly taiiriaed by 
Giflford in ''The Baviad'antl '' The Marvmd/' and m lliat cuiioos 
boot, "The Pursuita of Litcrftiure/' but ihc tcjiding public ircrc 
npiurous over them, I have before me a xoiume of " I'h? Poetical 
WorliA of v\\v laie Mrs. Mary Rohmjion," arid the lin^l fifty-su p(ige« 
arc occupied by c^LtuvA^^fii eulogies upon the "genius ^ of lhi« lady, 
written by alt sortn of people, well known, and even renowned in their 
day. Among the latter is— Samuel Taylor Coleridge ^ In a poem 
of seventy odd lines, supposed to have been inspired while he 
wai tcpo^^inic upon Skiddaw, he thus addic3sc£ the genius of the 
nKHintain \ 

Kay, bai tliov Joel not kn»w hn micht, 
The pnioiu cf her ^oul hcnv ttrocii; ! 
Bui many a >ltitiigcr la nt; iLCLEhl 
Ibih iQQg 10 niF hn migic son^. 

Tiov»!f. Twixtf ihTM pliT^ 'rid thr«< i'>1iTin»<ir t«r^, wht^h frfR tppFAtcd in 
Tftrioui puHicatinntr a^n^ Ltufi Mitii, Sippha, Jiilift. Daphn^T Edv^ Loiaul 
ll*r iTifinoini wf;tr«n by licrvlf, m very saree Iwck, ue Bnuvnt reading* 

353 Thi G^nttema^s Magazine, 

ScndlQc forth Ui ecMMy 

If} iV diviikMi vtkdfv 

And hnet 1 koov W aOD] b (bO, 

5lic b, « kn^ Ac wJUft lo be, 

Ii nuf be mcntioncdi 4n /iiji^Jt/, th«l Mr% Robinson had irriticn 
t v««y finblng odo upon CoWrid^'s " inC»nt tMi," ftud lAOlher upon 
the poet hjiTTitfir Is ih«rc mtj connection between the ivo poema ? 
The >k:klf !«nt]men<ii] hcfonnea of the Minm* Pre», *rbo /icvef 
ak. dr&nk, of slept, nnd always exprMted their fcchnRT hjr harp for 
luic) and son^ and KjueeMd their co1ourU«ft forms even into the 
Wattflcy ivnvls were all (he diiktren uT the Delln Cri^acan bchool. 
ivfakb flourubcd io ibc dayi iihciT Gjtod, SbcUcy. Kclu» Words vonU, 
and Coleric^ mtc pourmg fcrth poetry that can «carcety be paial- 
ieled in the Utentun* cf rhe worid, uid certainly hid more acSniiren 
among its cooicmiiOfanc^ lliui tliu^ ma^ni&LL'nt ^ejiiii^c^ could 
claJni. Indrcd, ii wotar^t until *' Ja^ic Eyre' rii^hicdltic idcfromils 
proprieties thai the waxdoU heroine received her death blow, Bui 
bfie died !urd, iind now :Lind Hgain she wju revivified in the noveb of 
the Biiddlc and even later Vjcioitin period, and— she might, under 
puriun tnducnccsi be Ch'cn a^in rctuirectcd. 





TO intist uf us, pt-rhapa, fiirakmo Sivotiaiobi is Ifu {nmi1i«r as aik 
lu£Tonc&] pcnon than a£ d character in Gcxngc Blloi'a 
" Jtomolo." We tee limi there first fiom the oiit&ide point of view, 
wbicb hts (he advantage of showing hins in his propi^ envLfonmerit 
in bosutiful* sialely Kiorence, with ils quick-wtlUxi, pleasiire-loving 
ifihabit&nla, imoiicJitcd with the new learning of (he Rciuiasance, 
and demoralised by its paAinism- The FTCtesUnt KeforniaiiOD wa.s 
uLiD in (Tie future, ind of (he andeni Catholir faith nol much was 
left bcyoiiU the outer {garment Ljf ^upcr^iition in irhich iu true life 
had been Atifled. Eten the pfltrioii»m of Florence w^ft alniwt 
swiUowed up by pjfiy spirit. And so, among Ihc noblct, ardm, 
poets, and philosopher* of the Medi<:eaii court, amung politkianK, 
each airirJnft secretly if not opcrily for (he ag^randii^ment of himself 
or of his p^rty, among ftiniplc, credulous pejiftints and noifty aniens 
itwiys eager En ukc a side in x quarrel and caring little which, 
SavcnajoU btAnd^ forlli Calm ^nd strong, lo do tuttUc ainslc-handod 
Lor ju&iicc, purity, urd lovc- 

It \% thus 1^ X tiern preacher of righteousness ih;ii George Eliot 
mlroducc^ him. But lo gel into sympathy with him, tt> recognise 
our common humanity in him, wc muat i;c baclc to the scanty 
»«ord£ of his early \\U. He waft unfortunale in his e^rly bio- 
grapher*, whether ihcy 'vetc fncnd* or enemie* Hi^ cnemiet 
inaligned him tin^cuipuloubly ; his friends were chi^> oionks. wbooe 
lincecc veneration for his memory wai; Mrongly tinf^cd wiih sjpcr- 
«tition, and in their dedre lo honour their master tliey overshot 
Ihe mart Ijy crcnlhing him too plctttifully *ilh miraculous gifix. 
Hence, while for tno centuries lifter his dcsth hia fume was K^cnt, in 
tlio luthlcfis mat<;riaLism of the eighteenth century be was consigned 
Eo oblivion In the nineu-en(h ctrntury the Inlanceof Judgnieni aa 
to the luiddic ages li^btL-d it&cU, and nuin]' biogr^ic* appCMCd to 
keep his mcuiury >ibv«, l^hc bc4t is considered to be that of VilLin, 


Tki GemtUman $ Mag^astM. 

hb couBliyman. 7*h]« vriler't ptinMikiEt^ researches and hb uircerc 
devtrctogiv^atnie repmenUtion of h» heroAreAbondantly evident, 
and though he has not escaped chiicim, w« cannM go fir wrong tn 
uUng him as ^ti auihomy. 

Savoiurola'ft irothcr wa5 a Bne fvocnar whom the soil all his 
liFe long rGgard^d vpith affcclionaEe r^ver^tior, aj hi^ l^crt testify^ 
Of Hill fAihrrr vckunw Tintc, biiihii j^nflfaihmFa,(a man of note ii^ hii 
day, as court phpiciati to the Duke of Sslc ai Ferrari. The famity 
wished young Ctrolaico lo follow hia gnndfEUh^i profc^iion, 
iuid. aa a prelitniiiary to the study of modictnv, th< old physician 
in«truafd his grtndton in :hr p^il^l;^phy of Arii;roilr and of 
ThOQiaa Aquinas. Philo^phy fAxirulcd the >out1i, but tic had no 
leaning to bia intended Tocation, and, nqd^ctinj; hi$ medical «tudic4, 
he spent Ml tiaae £n Kadlrig the claftucs, in music, dmwini;, and ivno' 

Oncc^ and once only, is he said lo batx been la court. Tt>r 
duk« and liit rctinoo might enjoy luxurioutt revoU and tplrndLd 
pageant! while the dungeons underncaih ihc banqueting haTI ircrc 
GUcd with ho[n:lc»i pnsoncn, Ujt Girolamn was not made ihat w^y, 
and ho refused ever to gi3 Uiek- lib 6rst gljmpacs uE the world 
filled him with gricfi «rhich he expressed >e) a poem C4llod *'The 
Ruin dT the Wiwld." 

Iii» y^njth was Ttad and lonely, cjioept pcih;ipj fo( a little while 
when ho seemed to seo before him a poMiibility of happJne?^- A 
gill f>plonginj; loan eiilcd Florcniine family came to <iiny in Fcrraia, 
arnl Savunarol^i fell in love with her. Btii whm he vrimift'd to 
l>fov>osc to hcT, he fcceivcd the haughty answct that a Stroui might 
not stoop to an ^ulliance with a S-ivonaroJa. He wfta ac»t yet tifcntyi 
but be seems never to hnve drcAmi of love a^in- 

Fcirarii was absorbed in the cxtravagjinE Teitivities wbTcli sn c«' 
eilcd his (Jidignalion, nnd in his londircas he tuincd more and more 
towards religion, and finally reso]v<?d to beeome a monk. To leave 
Ijome cost him a haid slrug^lc wliicli ladled a whole year. iJe dared 
not tell his mother tliat he niu going, but one day he took his lute 
and sang to it so sad an air that she eicbJmed, "O my 5on, thi& is 
a token of wpflralton." He ^aid nothing, but neji day, whilcthi* 
family were out attending the festival of St George^ CiroUmo 
fled to Bolof^na and entered a iJomtnican monastery. 1'he first 
ihing he did there wns to write an afTectionate lettei to his father 
giving bis rea:ions for the step he had taken. He bndc hts 
fAlhcr lotrft for aome papeia he had left Jn his window. Here was 
found a Ireaiibe called ''Contempt of the \Vorld," bewailing the 



wickedness of Italy And the ineviubl« punishment ibat vould ov«r- 
Uk« her. 

in Bobgna he stayed Mven yean, observing diligently the nileft 
ol hifi ordM And teaching philosophy to the novice;^ He found 
KunepoKi^? in the monAstrty. hm noi ^11 ThcssittsfAOlion h^expecr^d, 
aa is shown by his writing anuthLT pot^in cntillctl ''Tht Rdn of ihc 
Church. " For (he ChuKh was at that limt hardly lc» corrupt Ihan 
thr re«l or the vrorld, and the popes were the wont of all. 

In 1481 SavonartjU fii^r weni :o St. Mark's, ihc convent for ev^ 
auociated irlth hi» name, (This was ten yean before the date of 
the opening- chapter of " Romcla/'] In all Morcncc tficre is no more 
fascinating spot than this convent^ now turned Into a thow place, it 
\% tru^t ^^^ veiy Itttic altered since I'tA ATtgdico find Savonarola 
lived in It. Fra Angclico'a faded frescoes stiJl adom the walUof 
c«l] and cloister, and Ihe visitor to 5avoaaiola*a cell, with hia 
pnnnut on iht wall and his desk :ind cnidBx ^landing iherr, Bnda 
it hard to reilise thAt four centuries luve pasted tincc he occu- 
pied ^i. The red roofed bujldings wiih their frescoed cioi«terti 
rtjn round three sides of a squar^ and in the centre ie ibc convent 

The beauty of the diy and of hii convenl, ihcn lately rebuilt and 
decorated, cliarmed Savonarola at first, but he soon ww moch to 
grieve him in the scepticism, Hippanry, and immoralicy of Florrnre 
The once free republic was then ruled by Lorenzo dc' Medici, a 
clfiver politician, a patron o( art and literature, and himself no nneati 
scholar. Btit he employed his wit in writing rmmor^ ftonga, hia 
political astuteness in i^r^indiKing hiinKcIf and cmdaving Fl^rence- 
llc amused the people with pageants and endeavoured to conciliate 
the nobility now with intellectual treats and now with low revelry. 
With such an atmo^pheie, Ir i^ small wonder that Aavnnarola\ Antl 
semaona in Florence bitcly gained an audienccn The Florcnlinea 
caved onlyfor ttyle, clauica] allusion^i and irttt^Uectual quips, Savo 
tiiioh cued little foi anything in comparison with fatth and virtue, 
and ill hts sermons quoted no lx>ok but the niblen For the time 
liega^^ up preaching and returned to teaching the novices 

Soon after ih\^ Blill an unknown monk, he was ±^nt to attend 
a chapter at Rc:{ig>o Several distinguished laymen were pretenT, 
aniong thcin ttic famuu^ Pico dclb MirandoU, jtHawardA a devoted 
friend of Savonafola'a. Both had a genuine love of virtue, btit ^ere 
rcwmbUncc ends. Pico *aB only nmeteen, but wi* said to have 
iludied twenty iwo languages, and lo have bad at Ica^i a superficial 
acquaintance with ail the IvaiDing of the time. Christian aDd pa^an. 


The GfHfUman's Jlfagasim. 

HevasolM^med Tor hit eloquence, hi« «ociit g(ftt,i»dhii Touthfol 
bpwjty SavonftroU vtds home (en yon his MraiOf, his nunnvn 
were uikpolished, h\t 5(cc wu higgud, fisirovcd with rho^i^ht, and 
muked by thai Bolenin cdtrnesttiess approiching to s^-vrtty which 
«« ««c In M« poffirftltl. He look no |mr that day in the dogmatical 
dieaitaiona, bul u soon as ihe qucnion wu one of morals be sliowcd 
trtsol OKLnncf of tnofi he wu, vpcalrin^ with a force and enthusiosn 
which impreteed aU hi« hMren md «on Pico'i adiairation. The 
young favourite returned lo Lorenzo's court and (poke of this mon- 
dcrful ftiar, and later, whco hj» owi) philgioi^T<^^l dicoric^ had got 
hrm into dif^c^tiltics ^ith the Church, he remembered SavonArola, and 
U was through his influence that at 1»reiiio's deflirr tlic friar was 
recalled lo Florence* In the mcaniimc he hid been preaching in 
amallcf towns and viUa)^^ whcfc the nmplcr folk better appreciated 
ttimr and his faniu wa^ t)«ginntiig to spreads 

In 1490, then, he name hark tn Florenf^c li> slay, and the c^ief 
events ef hii tifc, the steaJy growth of his influence, and its rapid 

Ikie to the brtlcr end are all crowded into the ei^ht years ttut 
follow. Kor two yeart more Lorenro'* ttrong hand ruled the city, 
and tlien the turmoil bq^an. 


'J'o read SavonarolA*t life ii to see him ai poet, philoiopher, 
pfilitirtan, mor;il reformer, theologian^ wint, ard martyT. It wns the 
blending of all thuc In his charictci which iiiAdc him the imirjue 
liguro he was, which mode bim such a power xn t'lorctKC and m all 
Italy, and which marked him out for a martyr's end. For before all 
and ihmugh all he was a moral reformer, and the world Juit then 
did not want lo be rcfornied. He aimed simply at brinEuiit [i>cn 
10 l«isd punr hves in ch;LnIy lowardt one another And in fojih 
Icjwardii God liui thit Aitn he purnird in a wny dicUl?d on the 
one hand by hi* own strong and cotiiplex pcrsoiwlity and on the 
other by the It^mpcr and circnmslanccs of ihc people lio had lo 
deal with. Afid so lot the last tix yean of hi:i life especially ihe 
ilory of SavonirorA '\% the hUtory of Florence* and it \s only by 
knowint; the latter that we can see how it oLmc to psas that tbc 
rnonk who bef^nn by making sermons ended by making history. 

After ln<E return to Florcnre he preached at l^r«t in the convent 
garden ^undcr a i^l: iicc whith still e-xist-H) to ^he fiioi^ only, but 
grsdually his audience increased; he had to more to the adfoiniiic 




church, and f^nsilly io \ht CiiHednl where ho preac:h«d (ivith 
intn-.n'aK of liilmrp) Utx ihr rrs: nf hj» lifr. At ]jii»t he had found 
hn voc4Liori, and ihc one weapon Mitb which he fcughl wis forged. 
For ftlthcugh Sdvonarola became a p{:>litical forcc^ hit wa& ru^ver 
■een ix\ any |KjEilica1 u?tritiL)]y> nor did lie Uke jjoil ifi arty ininguc. 

Wh&t kind of acrmoiis then did he preach } Coherence of plan, 
unfiy n{ Hiyli% he had ti^l- He vat a lx>m cniEor, v\a\ a Irsiincd on^. 
By ihe sheer Torce of hi* intense iiionl cimviciioii, hy the inKpimtlon 
cif his own unfalieriii); fdiih, tie drove liis words home. The pmpio 
huniE on hia hpa and woe oTtcn moved to lean. But that «ns not 
what he vrinted, and ofbcn he «adly reproached them with h^m^ 
laoic e^^ter lo hiiten tfaiD to nbey- Many parages of hlft irrrnons 
viwre he inculc^Lcs lofty inoittlity, or expounds the gtmt tniths (if 
ChnstiAnity, would be appreciated in Scotch churchee todayn But 
thcTT ncrc oihcr elernents in hi* pn-arhmg which perhaps were more 
altmctifc'e to the uiaha of liii Horenliiii; hcarijs. !i plea?^ Ihosp 
wtio lacked the means for a luxurious JiJc to hear the vices ol the 
rich denounced, and that in plain language- And when the 
pmK^hei's waniings mi^hl l>e made tu Imve a poliiital te4Lnng, the 
intciest grew. For the Florentines, as SitTOiiaiok found tv bis 
diFappoin intent, were more inclined to pohtict than to nligion. 
Thiii in at least one explaruuioti of the weaving of politics with 
rvhgior which diaiACtcn'ficd hia subsequent prca^jhing. He was 
thtowing bis rebgioua teaching into ft pchtical fonn when he pro- 
cbiincd Christ as King of Florence. Bnt vhite he preached 
political fr^^eduin aa a nie^^nh to n^oinl cefotmauon, ihe FlonmtineK 
trarupoflcd means and cnd^ and could only \>c persuaded to u reform 
of mani^er^ m a inean« to political greaineu, W« niusi tliut take 
account of the moleriul he had to work witli. 

There wa& anothci eleLiciit x\\ hi» preaching lo which niodern 
eU9 Lire strange, and towards which it is difficult to put ouraehca 
into the sympathetic attitude in vrhich aJone, )f at all, wc e^ui 
(indentand il This element wa« bis prophecies and biv vihionc 
We must remember that wc are not dealing with a wcAk visionaij. 
Of with a aomnambuLLKt bke Kra i^iWvBLrOf hut with :i man of powerful 
intellect. In support of thia staicmeru nc have hjs phrloteophici] 
writings and his political wori(. In philosophy lie is akin to 
Campanclla, another Uominicon whOM^ name is hettcv known, and 
hcfc a* in religion he ia one of the precuraor^ of the new epoch 
vticn men began to «hak^ theinxlvca free of tradition, whether 
good or bod. and to think h'cshly (or ihemsclves. His wiKlotn and 
wsll-boJanccd judgijient are evident too m his politjca} opinions. 

3j8 Tkt GtntUman's Magazttu, ^ 

Xht plan or govcmiucin forme^l on his mggcstiont wu adervaftli 
ddtn:ucd tu luve been thu bcil Florence ever hAd. AUo. in 
fricrcnce to hi» vmc>n«, we muil remember the time whcft he livedo 
jLid iliat it would h»vc been even more itnnge in ihc 6rcc«ntb 
ccnmry eu find ^ monk Lutirrty free from lup^ntitton ih;in it u 
t0 find 4 ujuii cf ACUtc iniclligcncc Arid totid luunin^ believing 
ihftl he ociiLilly uw visions. And be undoubtedly uid what he 
hiBivelf believed when lie diimed to luv« vc«n vi^onsftiul b^rd 

h is OS connected iriih hii prophecies that these visions hivc 
their hi^oricttl importmice, for niM*s inmdt «tl over luJy Tcre 
ftUcd with them. His prophecies were cf two kind*. Som* irere 
TounJnl on ^cneiJil tiuths*»f idigion aiidof moriliij.tu on ScHplurr 
texts, snd Arc merely ihc reasonings of common Mnw front ilie 
general to tlie parttcuUr. On these he liid most ttms. Others 
were foijndrcl nn wbal be belic\«d ro lie special Divine revelations, 
iLnd he seems not always to have malnUmed these ivjth cqu^l cun- 
lidcncc. He was 4:Afciul lo deduce oil his teaching from the Bibl^ 
bill bis method of interpretation was such as to allow him to gel out 
or jny text five dilTerent meaning- Tlieri: vrsK thr liti^nl, the 
ipiritual, the allct^orical, ihc moral, and the anagoi^ical inlerpreiHtioii. 
In this way there w^ hardly my fancy for whLcb be coald not 
And Scripiuml supiioii- Add tu this hi^ strong poetic imagirwiion, 
which made It iiatufiil to htm tci tliiiik ^iid speak \i\ allegories^ 
and the fantastic imagery of uomc of his d^scout^cs is largely ac^ 
counted for. 

However arrived ai, his most imf^ortflm and oft repented pro- 
pbede.n were certainly conl^rmcd by cvrn]*^. Art eiily »i whrn he 
w£i4 preaching in the country town:t he had foiniuUkd bia tluee 
celebrated "coneluaionH"; (i) Ihai the chuich wilt be scourged ; 
{i) TXvxi it will be apeedily reKcnemiuJ : {3] Thni ;ill iht% will come 
10 pass quickly. A bttle btcr he published atrcKicI a vision of a 
hand in the *ky holding a sword upon which thc*e words were 
written; '*Gladiufi nomini super lorim ciio ci vclociier." Tbe 
Ihiec conclusions and this vision became known thiuughout Italy, 
and were afterwards held to have foreslmdowed the French invo^Lon, 
He also pretJicted the death of Lorenio. of the Pope, and of the King 
of Naples, all of which shuitly took pUtie, 

Then begun a time of confusion for Italy. Iimoccnt VIIL wdi 
succeeded hy the infamous Alexander V(. Lorenzo was succeeded 
in norciicc (in i4yj, the yc-Ar in which " Romola " opens) by hit son 
Picio. who inherited his father's love of pleasure wiLliuut uuy of bis 





^Tcai qujLtitici, ind proved ctu^^c iiicftpable of g^iifcniiiift. He was 
soon put lo the lesi- J'he Uukc of Milan, to f'uTther his own schemes, 
mvir«f4lCh;Lrie«yiIL of France Eo insiide Italy ant) ieltlGlhe4jUUT«L« 
of Uie vaiious sUiLe^ 

It vriu September. 1494- SavonaroU vaa lecturing d^ly to large 
crowds on the buiJdi^ig of the irk. On thii aisi Florence waa 
lliruwn into sudden agitation hy the news ihat a I-Ycrfich army was 
cominjg down fruni the Alpa. AJI floclccd to the Dudiho Eo bcii tbc 
preochcr who hod predicted iwo ycar^ before (hat a scourge was 
coming, ind ihal ± new Cjnis would murcb through Itaij, Now that 
bib #o(ii^ lud cumi: Uucr* j|l luokcil lu hiui fui advice. Tlir wnniii 
be hpd airired 41 in ihc counc of his c)C|XJ£JiLon were these : " Be* 
hold, 1 bring a Hood of waters upon Ihc earth/' He announced Ihia 
Xtsx in such A iiii^lity x-oice ilLir all hiv lieart^rx In^mbled. HeKCcmed 
lo be the only m;in in the cily who wu not afraid, and all looked to 
him for counsel, 

Pieroprowd a broken reed ir) ilii? etnergtney. He Rrti incerwed 
llitr King of FMncc, and Ehcn went out to tiiiii and Lascly MjiretiilerrU 
ercrythiiift The Florentinci were inrariatcd. rcfavcd to receive Piero 
again, and broughl out their %iva^ Hvi daily ni sermoTi lime they 
thronged Eu the Duonio. Savonarola told (hem lliat tlit scciir^^e luJ 
eume upon them foi thcii lins, and bode them repent, Jind this wiUi 
«iich fcr^oui ihai he woji cvhauatcd Tor day^ atlcr, But he calmed 
thetn, and kept them from riot and bloodshed while the cjty was 
without 4 rulcf- 

ficro on bid rclum wa:^ c^tpelled, ind the cilixcn» arranged a 
depnlaEiori, of whom ^vonarola text one, to treat with Charles. 
The nilipran^tiauadont nrrived before Savonarola; ClkarltfH refused 
to see Ilicni^ Kut for the man who had predicted hin cominj; And 
compaied him to Cynu, he hod a profound respect Savonarola 
told him that be was indeed the initruinem of Cod, but that for thai 
very reiisoti he i^ugLl lo he iner;:irul. Charlci obeyed, and entered 
the ciiy pmccably. A trcMy waa signed, bul ihc kJn^ and hi» army 
made no hutc to relieve l-lorence of tbeir prcjiencc^ Aj;niii Saro- 
nafola came to the rescue and persuaded (Iluule^ to (irEiLeed 011 hit 

Cbarles having departed, the next thing was to provide Florence 
with a |;ovcrniDent. The chief men of the criy m^ day aftct 
day. lliere were pra^xnak and di&ciusion^ but no deciaioiis, 
Savonarola abuaioed from polilics and preached on charity totfac 
poor, But gradiuilly, as he saw the need of a guiding Toicej he 
btg;Ln 10 lay down |[eneTal prineiples of good government, to 



j6o The Cenikman^s Mogmxtm. 

dcrclfrea popular govenimem to be bett «uil«d lor Hor«ncc, uid 
fiiuUy to fiiggm cbr fovmaiion of a Gnnd CourHI .in itie \>Dedafi 
plin. HU ftiiviccvru uLcn. VVIchiTi a ^riii tbc Gowmmmt had 
been »cttlcd to ihc gcoctml SAIisliictEoo, and aumy lefocms cti ried 


SttvoniroU wa« ikiw at tl^ hciftbt of hit p^tvcr, BttI the voti 
on which hiK bcflit wu sfrt WAi hirdly U^un lie thovrvd rK> 
ouluiinn of mind, bm, on the coiiUaiyp «a« freMly dcpicwcd be- 
onse or the wickcdneu of ihc people He bcftan 1o prophesy 
danger And «tlT<^rigj and for himftcli" a violent d4:AUi. The moral 
Rfomaiion of Florence wii a more difficult and <i:]ngrr(iUG «orl 
thxn iu poUtJcil refurmatioiu And now ttal iDiuuiiem flaiigcr ^»d 
been a^vrled frons the republic, lurty spiht revii«d. 'J'hrev r«C' 
\\<\VKS, At Ic^l were prominent, and ivo of chcie had no lov« for 
Savucuuota. Thai; were itie i^^f^ «bo were unly «4iitiiig lor ui 
opportiuiily to bring back Picro dc* Medici ; the Amtt^iaii (or 
" GDAddcBicd," as they were cjitled), vrho wished for an orUcooatic 
fonn of ifoverniiifiit ; Aiid the fdlowi^n of SivonnfoLi, eallesd in 
detJaJon the T^'df ir^ru' or sntveUeti At ihcSignory oi cliic^ iua^* 
iniies held offiee for two months only at a time, the bahncc of 
partiet wju liable to eonauru cJuLti^e, whfch by- aind by mtide 
Savonarola's podtion very pro^ious. 

In I^jil 149'' he preached a course of senrons which hid ft 
womderful motaJ effect on the city. " llie Ctirutinn life," he laid, 
"eonsl«nh not in cercmonieij but in the practice of goodrta*, i.e. 
of compiiaaioii And inerL^y, ^^icic-fntr declare thuu uniu a\\ tlmi 
ihua is the goodness of man made knovrn ; namely, by KClQg 
whether he share thit which he hath with uihew, and cKjJccially 
with ihe poor And in thi4 conki^tiih ihc ChriiiEUin rcligioi^, which 
is founded on Invc and charily/ Thcae word^ arc ihc keynote of 
much of his preochini^ A mftr^clloiJH chaii^c was vlUelcd '%a 
Floranct. Women threw uidc their Rnery und dreised plainly, 
riotous youths bccminc K>bcT and dcmuiCp ^ind hyuina weie %un^ in 
the slrccii instead of Lorcnroa liccnlioui song*. Many new 
ccnvertia joined tlie Tuscan congregation of the Dotniniconf, of 
which St. Mark'n was the hesd. 

Soon an event happened which proved that the l^ugnuni, thco 
in the asccndtftcy, w«rc leody for other work bctudcs churchi^oing. 
King ChorTes appnoocbed Florence on hifi return journey, bringing 
PiciD dc* Medici with hlTJi. Tbc Kovcmaienl and the cilijn;pi 





pr«par«d most rigorauMy Icr defence, but *pin it vat SJivonafoUV 
inniicnce ovcf ihc king ihar frailly avrrt«I the ^r\f,r^. 

^Viih the tiial departuri; i>f ihc Trciicb ftom lu!y a new danger 
ttir«aE«fied Florence and the Frtor who had guided bcr coun!M;ls. 
A ItAgue had been Ibrnied (o driv« out t!ie t>ench, which MoTeno«v 
paving liJitdc a ucaiy willi Charles, had refused lo join, ^Vhcn Tin 
had gone, ihc allies tKrcalcncd Florence. They wctc jeftlout of her 
iiidep«nd«iice, but, fcrtunatvly for her, th«y v-ere tqutlly jeaJotu of 
cnt another, Ai for ihe Pope, who jTso hid jojned the league, be 
oovelcd the Florcuiine territory foi ucie cf IjU tons Aiid ihu wjis 
the real cause of hin enmity to Savonarola, Tor Savon^iroln vns 
recognbdd «■ the h^d of the f^opulor pany who hatvd the Medici 
and ^&m teague. 

And now bcgar the long and painful &injgg1c between the Popet 
backed up by mthtuy alEianccs and by all the Kpiritualand leinporal 
pmrert of tlie Hoty See, and a sinale friar deserted at lui by ill 
Lai iwt> m [hiec friends. Sucli a ilruggle could end bui in «ne 

Alexander fint deipAichcd a crafty brief couched in pious and 
Hatiering lenm, tnviTinf^ SavoniroTji fo come to confer wirli btm 
in Rome where lie "should be welcomed wiib loviii{;- kindness." 
Everyone knew thai tht Pope's *" lovinjikmdncsa" fni|^hi be Irana- 
lated ** murder." Savonarola replied with djgniiy and humility, 
adiniJwIetlKing ihr dmy of «bcdit'nce, but uicusing himself fmm 
coming to Rome at that time, aa he could ill be 3|jarcd from 
Flortnce and was ju^i recovering from gctIoua tllnoaa. He was 
indeed loo weak to preach, arnl *rnt Fra l^menteo lo taJtc hia 
pboc in the Cachcdc^l. The ncKl brief wan dircidiiilly hmtilc, 
ordering the Prior to aubmii himscK to the VicAr-gcncral of 
Lombotdy and (O dc^iiit from preochinf} on pain of ciccommunj' 
cation. Only a short linic before, the Fojie had granted in Si. 
Haili'i the privilege cf bcin^ independent of any orden save tuch 
u came direct fr^m RorncH Savonarola now thereToire expoetuUted, 
and defended himself from all ihc charges pr^crred againflt hira. 
The I'ope appcAfcd to br conciliated, tftcd llaEtcty once more, but 
irwated that he ahould not preach. 

Tbt Prior obeyed, and it was during this period of enforced- 
mimre that hr iw^aniiird the r^^forni of the dnldnrn, nimlng fl 
dangerous and riotout Carriival cosiom into a religious eci<anorLiaL 
trom bencelorth ihc children were jjnong his constant hearcn. and 
he had a platform erected for them in Ihe Duomo 

Ry this lime «ome earnest -minded |}rjiioCb arid| rbiifchiner) 

vou CCXCVI. no- s<«o. CC 


Tkfi G^nfUman's Ma^stne. 

ihrougliout £unj|jc were bcgiouliig U) titiiik of a Gaicial Cutmdl 
of the Chiitch BA the only mctns of nnng it from tbe di«scmc<ful 
l^3pe whoM iniquities were filling aX\ Chhttcndoni niih honor- 
This «u the unly hope for S^tvonaToU'ri caute al^io, and he wu 
lltudy corresponding witU ChJLrlcs VIIL of Fr&rKi; on the auhject 

Meanwhile Ihc Pope had sent some oT his sermons to a Icomcd 
Ushop Tor crii]<^L«m, and r«ceivml ihe following reply : " Most Holy 
Fflthc-T, ihtB fridi uys nolhir^ that is not wim 2nd honest: he 
spctks 3yi;iL;n«l vimony and Against the corruption or the prieslhool 
which in tnilh U vt:rygTeftt: he resp(^:U the dogmas and the 
authority cf the chutch t whcrefoTo T would tather seek to make 
him my fficnd, c\\-i\, if it wcic rjccdful, by olTv^rin^ Jic cantiurv 
purple." And SaronaroU woi really offered a (Ardindra hat on' 
condition that be would ehaogc the tone of hii preaching. In 
great indfgnaifor he replied lu the mff«b«nger '. " Come to my next 
Kinjon and you ^hall hcai my reply Eo Rome." 

From this time he began Eo eiplam hin cvn po»ilion and to 
defend himself And his doctrines in ih« pulpit- He cirod little for 
hin life, lull he Ewlfcvtd ihjiL his iiicKcncc in Floience was necessaiy 
lo ihe continuance of reform, and that the Pope, in seeking to 
remove him by death or otherwise, was doin^ a moral wrong which 
he had a right to resist Hence thfr rhargc against him which 
Gi'orgc Eliot at any rale suggests,' that he made his own cause 
the cause of God. He justified his cpposition tc> the ro[>c by 
saying: "The Tope may not give me any commands opposed lo 
charity or rnntrary to ihi? Goipel/' Ai; to the raidinar*! hau be 
declared that *' death, a catmson hat reddened with blood." was 
all hia desire. 

A consiiitory tA fourteen iheologiant summoned to condemn 
hit doctrines retumcd to lUc Pope the curious ^TidJci (hat Savo- 
narola had been the cause of i^icro de' Medici's misfbrtunci^ — 
another proof tliAt Alexander's grievance was politteil, n<>E theolo- 

The events of 14^6 in Florence read like one of Livy's chapters 
of disaster in the early days cf Rome, and show Savonarola once 
mow as the iaviour of the Republic simply by force of the confi- 
dcnoc! he inspired- An uiuuccc&sful war with Pi^ hid luipoveriahed 
the city and was still [;oin^ on ; e. bad ncoson drove the fammc- 
stricken peasants into the tiwii, .ind pbgue broke out m the over- 
CfowdedstTL\.'iA ; Picro Capponi, one of the ben and hraveit crtisens, 
died ; ihe I'lAns endeavoured to cut off the; (xjrii supplies. The 



altiefi Bummon«l th* Emptfor Mixirnilian 10 join ihem agunsi 
Florence, And (lie Pope dccUicd war against her. Th« cttircas 
ifrcrc in misery nnd despair, bul the Armbbiati tcjoiccd, blaracd ihc 
government] and uiidi ^' Sue how ihe friu hA£ <lcccivcd UR 1 " 

The Signory, nol ktiowiixg wlial lo dij, c-Eitrcalnl Savanaroln ro 
preach, wbjch he accordingly did. Rebuking the people for gam- 
bling blasphemy, And «o on, he told them calaTniiy wa» ccttiin if 
thcf did roi mfnd rheir ways. If, on tht* oilirr hand, thry wciuld 
fcpent. put aside the idcd uf <hiin^ig tfu: |;uvcriiinfnt, lend to il 
without usury, Ik; united, do nil that w^ hun>an1y pcwible and truM 
in God. then tie feared nothing, imd would go before ttie*n, crueilix 
in hand- 

Thc people were comforted and encouraged, but tlie Airabbietti 
nocked' A va^t procession was formed io escort an invade of thq 
Midonra into th*.- dty. Thr crowd wrat met by .i tneascnger with 
an ulivc-brincb b^aiiti^ the joyful news Ihal a violent wind liad 
blown tfray the Venetian ships and driven some of the com sbips 
to land with %\x hundred men on board- The multitude were over- 
joyed und dctJar I'd ^ "The Friar's setmotis liavc saved u* aijiiin." 
This iiKident shows tia what sort of icasoning the conmioti ibik of 
Florence were capable cJ, fmd prcp;LTC]( us to find them fickle in 
Iheir allt^^anoe. 

Afler all, ihc relief wts small and Itmporary. Savtuiarula btule 
the p<:ot>lc be tiiunkful, but K)U|;bE to modtfrnle their extravagant 
joy- However, very soon things took a Ckvourable turn -, disisteri at 
UA juid dLssenaioEih in camp scattered the aiUies, and Florence wai 

The Pope's wrAth raged as before, but while the popular p^irty 
was in the a^endency in Klor^nce Savonarola wai [tft aloitf. His 
friend Francesco X'alori wAit made gdnfalonicr. He wat a biavc and 
generous but an impetuous man, and introduced a Uw which turn^ 
out ill for hiA |>irty' This was a regulation admitting citizens to the 
greater Council at the age of tweniy-four insieail of thirty. By tbia 
means a »ct of turbulent youths belonging to the Anmbbiati pu^ 
obtained seats on the Council, and the inevitable reacttcn against 
Savonarola's reionus began. The change had been too fudden and 
IDO violent xo Uit. Tht^e were naturally many juung u>en who 
preferred the licenttoua gaiety of former daya> and tome of these 
formed themselvot mio an artncd bard led by Dolfo Spiru, a de 
praved youth. They took no pains to conceal thdr hatred of Savo- 

The Carnival that year wa» celebrated by the Bonfire of Vamtics 



The GeniUmans Atagazine. 

tecttedat Icp^bf Coocge Bitot in "RooMta^" SlitfaggOiU ttuit 
icbUj valoihlc bonks ;tnd work« of nrt wrtr. ^tVinvynA^ litJt Vtllsri 
»Ilow« bo* caailjr SDcb & auconcefiliDU roigbt luvc iriKfi, and fct 
how itfilikcfy it tt Oui SaTOMtok «ouM hav« allowed it li was his 
Mend Fm DocDCfitico indeed who vnngcd the thing, and pocsibtj^ 
Sevoiuroh^ kHowCfs ewTgofed llietr nuutcr in uol ctf that nort. 
Bat SftvooaroU huDAcIf w no cocoaj to literaturt or to ajt. Among 
hii fticndi vcrv the artiflU Lac* dallft Robl^ Cronaca, Lotenao di 
Oedif and Micbelangchi ; and in hk oonveor he had cnabliahed a 
idioot of pajnttng. Aa rc^rdi Uteraiure, he? raiwd fund* to Ijuy tai 
the coovcDi the Gnc hbrary collected by Lorcnao dc' Medio, lest it 
•hould b« lo«l to th< ciij. 


In HQ? an Mteoapt vat made to btm% bi^k E^cro de* Modki. 
•nd, Coded though it was, it «tn«d to aggra^-ate pantj sirif?. So(i>e 
oT the kadiiig ciiixciu «eic known 10 be sicciet rHentla of Pirff», 
and A coi»mE»»ioa wu appointed to &nd om who wctc catKcmcd in 
the plot. 

Mejij«hi]e xht Anabbiati returned 10 power, ard Dollb Spini 
ami hi» band pursued ibetr course urichocked. Thc>' intt^mipEnl 
Savonaiola's tcrtnoos, insulted him in many va.i^^ and even attempted 
to fiwtder him in Eb^ Dtiomo^ But hi« followers brai-elf delcrdcd 
him and eacofied him back \<i ihe convem. 

And now die Pope came forward a^ain, and Lbi« lirnc he eicoom- 
Gounicaled the Prior- Savonarola did not regard the crcomcDiOUct- 
tiovi as valid. Bat though he was great-iDmded enough 10 diregard 
it, the maM of ibe people could not riM abovv their iupenttitiou« 
cevercncc for the bric^ of a pop& Thus a pretext was given for 
oppoung Savonarola and with him hit leforma, and licencu and 
immorality s^in broke loose in (he Hty. 5>3voF(aroJa^ Jnendfi 
exerted ihcniiclvca to get the eKoramunication jcnjovcd. aijd 
when he bicnsell hbird Ihat the Popa was oivrcomo wjth grief at 
the murder of his eldest ion by hie younger brother, he wrote 
a IcECer of sympathy very remarkable as being addressed to so 
cruel an enemy. The l*opc was sotlcncd for a Hme, but soon 
returned to bis usiual scandalout life smd lo hie hatred ol Savona- 

The plague now appealed once more, and $avonaniU was 
ofTered an a>rlum in various country houses. He rcfuicd to leave 
his poaEf but acctpted the hoapitality for come of hU younger 



TtwM caxn^the ItlbI and conijeninatioii of !hc fire cltuwns who 
b«i ukcn |MLil ID the Mcditxan ploU of which George EUci bt> 
poade Ao much. 1^1% before, Snvonarob had given his opinion 
thit ciiitem who tried to hting bock a lytant des«r\'v<^ deiEh. Jn 
ihe procnl in»i«ncc he gave no opinion, but remaEited In hi« «iudy 
correcting the »hccti of a. book he was wriiing- 

Any one r4:i;ulmg VDlar^i book and taking all ib« circumBioncea 
inro aci-MurU, wHI probaliW fM t1iai ht c^juld not havt mittfered 
even if he had wished. In icjidiJif; " Ruiuck" wc aic uiadc tij look 
at the cose from Ehc point ciF vicvr of an intcniwly interested pcrsoRi 
the god>dau^ht(Tr of Bcrnirdo dd Nero, Legally he probably 
d«^rvixt death, but from Komola'^ point <tf view the ciDndemiution 
of a vcncr«blc and uprifhl n^an because of his political Ic&nijies nskt 
m dime. She believui Sat^^jnarola could pre^'crt that cnmc And 
rill rot. Her (xilh in the fmr rs d»lroy^d for the time, and th« 
hlhctic (cadL'i feels ^ he elopes ibc diaptcf, dm S^LvonaroU is 
lIIct luon than he ihouRht him. BuL the scene i» not historic^ 
and it i« not tair to look ai SAvonarola through Romola'* eye^. As 
a pAychological fitjdy, George Klioi's Savonarcli \h evimnety 
ioteicating, bul ire must remember that her minute diagnosif of hb 
Jntefnal struggles i^ purely hypothetieo), both in this case and in the 
case of his Atlilude towards the ordeal by fire. 

To return lo history, net^uimuo^Ls with llic Pope were bitU pending 
find the Prior remained &hut up in his con^^nt en^n^cd In vrtting* 
Hifl incndi alto wrote on hi:; behalf, but nothing av;iiled- So in 
the be^JDning of 149S he returned 10 his pulpit ind !th[)wed liy word 
and deed huw little ralue he attached to ihe Pupc'^ excomnjumt^- 
boo, tcfeninj; to him as "& broken tool," which stili further incensed 
llum. Vtt nonh<T<' does Savoniicla exhibit towards any one il trace 
«if [torumul rnruily; il wa the ?»]«'« cvJI life tlul stirred up his 
liehtcoui itidignaiioo, 

llic Carnival was once more the occasion of great excitement of 
which he was the centre. The Piagnoni again made a ** bonfire of 
nnities," but this ^me not withoat opposition. That Savonirola 
himxif w&s ^CAtly excited was shown by the extraordinary nay in 
which he concluded hj.n lost carnival acfvicc, praying that lC bis 
words were i>or sincere he might be vtruck dead on the spot. 

From this jienod the p\o\ thickens And he is Idi more and more 
The pathi^) oi his life Vies gicntly in hb lonclioes*. He had 
many odmirersi many pattisonSf and not a few disciples, but his 
Mends were few, and among them noi one was capable of tlKiroughly 
idint: hiiD. Fra DomcnJco's very aal aud devoitOQ 

366 Tlu GtniUffums Magatuu. 

biftiflKd OA the itmgtd^. M for thr ^\\\tt:t\% (^mlly, ihry weiv 
lOOn to ibo« tfacii fickkncu aiid iogtililudcu The Pope threitcficil 
to p«t the cjty inidtr «□ interdict unle» SavocutroU ireFe givco up 
to htm, tad pitiful irc the ugumcnti hroaghi fonrtrd bj ikose 
vbo feared tbr <maicqttciK« of an inierdici iin ilie ctEj^ omnmMce. 
"RcmcDibcr," said one, *^tlut the city of Troy •roi burnt dsxotigh 
itt TCfuttl to g>iY up Ho]«&/' > iitall;r the St^iMry forUde S>«v9oarolt 
to pffscb, and no definite inswrr was gtvcA to the Pope: 

$aTOfi4itjU*s kul hope ttas the piotxaed Genenl Council He 
wiotc letters t9 ftctoad Etiropctn prinocft, «nd wu about to dcspfttdi 
thccn wbm 1 me»s«nger beonng l«(l«n on the umt tubject ««c 
robbed, uid ibe kticn fell inco Ihr handi of the Pope, who ihut 
beorae mttue of Sji^xxuioU*! dc^ni, 

Immedikidy ttfltr ibirt came th<.- simT^e afJ'tir of the Qrdati fy 
J'iff A certain Frn Fronceflco iCUckod Stvonarab in hU L«nl«ti 
ftcrmom tnd cbaLllriiged lum to prove hh 6w:ltxnc!i Uy the onJcil 
by ffC The Prior look no notice of lliitt, hut t'nt Dcmcutco took 
Vp the chftUcngG on hit; nustcr't bcJulf. SavortJirota dtd not ca 
oounge the fooliUt idea, but, once siaried, the matter could om 
be flopped. Fra Doaiciuco fell Ub hiJiiout vr«s ai ^takc, nnd the 
Friui'a cncncdci cncounL^cd the champion on the other side, who 
was by 110 meins eager to be tiken at his word. The ntultjtude 
ciaiied a miracle^ and rvtn the Signoiy not only permitted the 
challenge to go on. but ^-ttttl Urge sums iii constiuciing the re- 
quisite pile of eombuftiiblcfl in tbo piauip Thou%<tnd» assembled 
10 &ee the miracle, or the murder, whichever the &pt:<nj^le nnght 
mm aiii to be, and when, in contcqtienot of a succcuit^n of d^'lay^ 
aud excusea on the pari of Fra Fraavcsco and hi» paity, the nhole 
«by passed without uif fpecttcle at all, the people, drsappou^tcd 
find angry, blamed SavoimrolL He had eneiniei erkough to direct 
the pD|m1iir fury against hio^ and even the Pia^notii, nhu lud beeu 
confident that then proplicE could and vvould perform a mir3c:lc, 
irere diaappoii^tcd. 

The next day wa« Palm Sunday. Savonarola picjched a short 
nndiad sc-rnion in llie morning, decUrliig he w« nilUng to suffer 
death for the good of Wa flock. In the evening the Pisignoni 
^oing to vefpcre were pelted with Mone« by the ^mbbmii. The 
tumult irurrcaced, and the cry aiote, " To St. Mirk'a, fixe irk hand,' 
The mob itished tg the consent and besieged iL There were aims 
in the place, A»d ug^mil the Prfbr's orders the mcnks and a few 
oihet IHends df-fended it bravely for hour«. Savonarola begged 
the friars to by down their Jinns, led them to the tihraiy, and bftde 



ihem ft loiiching farcwcJI, Oriir-rs bad now tome from ihc Sl^rwry 

IlhAt the Prior. Fra Docncnic^ aod Fra Si Ive^stro should girc them- 
isic\y& up into iV\*:\t hand*i, t-m Sitvc^ttro was not (o he found. 
The oih<^r iwo wcic WI iway tn thi? I\ihri* ihroirj/,h Ihc jeers and 
Insults of the crowd- The followinti da; l^ra Siircitro, who bftd 
hidden himsdf« was bctnyed and given upi 
The story of Savonarola'^ trial it a very palnftil and peipladng 
one. It was conduct'^ with hardly a shcrvr of JubcIgc, Ant by tlie 
■n^ftrates and afCcrwardK by the Popc^s coinnkitsioncrs. All his 
confessions were made under cuiuisitu torture said to produce 
detiriuri. His only aufcgrsfili confession was <Ie*iroyed nt o! n» 
^^ U4C In proving his guill. Wluii le ^a]d when tortuitd wa^ altirred 
^V find garbled by a notary employed for the purpose And after aII., 
the oniy point on which he '\% even reported to have ^ven way waii 
as to wheihtrr Im prophets liad really lure n inspired. His htsilth 
^^ 1iad long been enfeebled by the Mnijn of his arduous lifcv hi* ncEVea 
^H were bigtily ^runf;, and ir, when deliriouit with pain, he contradicted 
^1 himxlf, can we wonder P h it no proof that he wa^ not sincere; 
^f tlie ino&t that \\ can prove is tlmt lie wa^ one of those pc^^uci^ vfio, 
though ihcy can Look d<a(h in the face without a ircmort are unable 
^_ to endure prolonged bodily torture. 

^H As for \hic other^ Kra l^jinenico constantly h^^Id to his faitli in 

^H SavuDMula and in uU his piuphcclcs uhilc Fra SiUcstro ^^urificcd 
^» " bolh his mnsi^r ind hin own dignity" (myi Villan) in [he vain 

attempt to save his own lifiB. 
^K Between Hts L^rsi and second inal Savonarola was left alone 
^H in hii cclU He employed his lime in writing cApositioni of the 
^^k fiftieth and of the thirtieth pulmi. These wen: widely read ax iho 
^^ time and were repuhii^hed by f.uiher in 1514. Tlie lasi thing hCj 
wioie watt a '*Rulc foi Viituoua living" for his gaulei, who cainal 
to regard him with the greatest veneration and had begged luni for 
^_ this^ft 

^B The ^niencL- was given hy the Popt-*s commitKlonenaftera third 
^^K^j^ which was never nude puUit:, Their inslructionii Hom Rome 
^^PiMN "to put Savonarola to death c\«n were he a second John th« 
Baptist." The three friars were executed in the Piajia> In the pre' 
senee of a great concourse of fiecple, on May 53, 1498. The 
story of the course and calmncas with whiith they met tlicir death 
haa often been told and need not be repealled here. 

Suvonarola has been daitned by Luther and others j5 a Protectant 

before the Rcfonimtton. But his position wa^ a very difTcfCiit one 

^K ffOiD Luther's, except in the one point of resistance to the Pop& 

The (leni/eman'i Magimne. 

He n«v«r prai««iecl Against ftny <]oginA of the Konun Uitirch, but 
only tgifnti the «4ck«dnesH of ihose wbo refused lo MguUtc their 
liTc^ tiy Lh[- principW thry profc9^-d Luihor Marred fvom the A^mr 
poini, indigiulion at the corrupt liro of the clcr^, but to hici 
wrong tMltef app«aic-<l to be at the root of wcox\% Iwiii^, nnd ao he 
ftmck Anlghi for th<?ology. Luther law [leoplt- dinging lo dry 
hiuks of f^lh aikI lo ccrciaoni^b vhich liad becouie uiitwaiDuig, a^id 
bulcncd 1o sweep thc^c -iwjiy t^tiL the spirit of idi^on mighit be 
■et free. Savonnroli'« iir£ifprut;vc liou] wm unfettered by ^xtcnulB, 
hj xjinboI« and aHegonei- H« sav no obstruction in them ; thoy 
ircK a Mgnificaiii Ungudi^e in whicli he rnul aI li^hi xhv spirituaJ 
meanings It may be that the difference of the Cciitian and of the 
Italian tcmperflmenl oeeounts in sot^c ncodurc foi" the ditfcrcnce 
betwiwn him and fjitha. In ™*en:iaU ihey were at ont But when 
Luther came, Europe iru ready fur rcfoim, and princes and people 
folloved wh<« he led. Pcrhapfi the lonely martyj of Florcocc, after 
«llr did fooietbfng to pr^re hif wiy. 




WHAT 8lT£Df;<.' histories arc involved in ihw wards whSdi [msb 
dailjf from our moath», in which wc perceive only the 
laeana of communicaimg our ihought* Trom one \<^ another \ The 
WTf wtjfd dtfii^ Im lis hifiEoTy. Ti propt^rly meanf 10 dmw water 
fri>lll i river, and by iitctciiymy to trace words to their aouite, 
Robbes, inclccd, atscrtu that '*wf»rd» arc wiw nicn*3C0UnEcn, tl)cydo 
btil reckon by ihem ; but tht-y Birf? the morvy of fooU/' Still, a wise 
man wiU eK;iiviiie his uiuni;/ irid kmiw the vulue ur the critni which 
he USC9, Johnson nya ihHl " wotda are the daughltis uf cmth, and 
things ntc the sons of heovcn," Yet it is our duty^ nn well at a high 
inlellecEiial pleasure^, io make some Hi'qujiinTJincc with ihi^te, and 
discover, if we can, why Ihc words wliidi wc eiut»]uy hjid at one 
time a diflereol meaning from what they now have, or even involve 
several difterenl meanings at the prei^eEil day. Take, for inKiarcc^ 
fffttnt in its ordinary and religious usr, idi^Jton a nt^r\ and trrb, 
wedutr in luathemalic!! ^id ruedL<:ine» ftud many oihen^ Trench well 
dMCnbe«langOl^cafl**foftsilhiAOty,"andini;DnGCfl the word frark^ 
straightforward, candid. J^hnarr in Inte I^rin tncftni; "fTn*^," ca a 
Frank, one of those Oemiun Iribc* who oct^upicd Caul, rind were 
distinRuiahcd fronrt ihc conqiicrcd race, as well as from the deg^enerate 
Romani:, by their iove of frcedona and gencrf>tis indepcndencc- 
Hencr frank canic Irj signify one who j>oasr3?inl tbi' diilinifUiEhing 
chaiactcHsiica of the Franks- Cf. use <si franchUt. >bry word* 
cocnraonly uEcd in out language are taken from the names of 
persons historial fir firiTitioiTE. Take, for instanoe, the nonn hntcr 
Tsa bully, BUtd tin; verb ia fcfAv^'^to pky the bully. Ai Swift tty* : 

I>3n Ckdoc «iid« h«r (h j«r dirvctoi 
ThiHl >Lc otif-St t2<t iho *nT«il« Titetci. 

TM« aonti is the nam* of th« great Trojan Itero £n the *' Iliad," the' 
frmouaebanipioiiag^si thcGree^sundrTAfnmeninonand Achilles. 
It fcems rather hard that the bravCi modc^ and leoderhe^Tied 


Tfu Gtntkmans Magatint. 

\ KlAI 

HeciOf should come lo repfcsem the bdusteriiig bullf. more In kwp* 
ing nth Aia^ or Ttwraitch But pralxlijr wr may ^wihc tbit ta 
the licctitc of the plifviighti, who caggMfatcd \hc chu^iclrristict of 
the hercx-s t>«qut«thod to then in Gndt and Romui LH^murcL No 
oRc fimHiir vith ihc Ivauliful scene of the pan&ng brfwnn HccDor 
and Afidiofnachc could (vppoic ic poiaiblc that the tudcnos of the 
bully fortncd an element [it bb character. 

Another cxihoui ixpreMion a lo /*/bAt/t^/r, which meani to nake 
love or cociuet with a woman, wichout iny " inientiojis'' ^^ <^<^ 
phiaie ia. Thickeraf in " Esmond " i4r>» ** '^>* "<* quertion ot 
lighing in J pkilondefif^ between a nobleman ot his Grace's age and 
m ^irl vho hath Utile of tliai sortnett in her nature " 1i is iiwd la 
« derivative tenses lo Mini mentalise or to ullc nuwkishlj. AsSharp 
OQ Robert llTOwniiifE U)s, " hr vrai c»cnlia]ly mttnty m all mpccu, 
•O manly that many Irail bouIh of cither wx pktIandtnJ aboui his 
oTct-rahuMneftt-" PhHandcT xi a Tnitrhmftn whn 1i^r» in rhr 
" Orlando Kurioao " of the Italian poet ArioElo. There we are told 
that Gibrirut, wife of Argco, Baron of Serbia, took a fancy to himi 
which, like Hipj>olytuSj he trcaift^ w;ih iiegl^i. She denounced 
htro to hcT huitjaixJt and PhLUndei \\iA tn languish In a dnngron. 
At laat Gabrina set bicn free lo fight against a faithless knight^ who 
proved bo be her husband, and was kitleJ. Thereupon she married 
her champion, but pretently, growing weary of him^ removod him b^ 
pojacn. Hen: again Philander hardly dcsciveis Lo reprcsenE che 
" f:ay doccivcf " or the inconstant lover \ but he figures an such in 
the old playt ; t,^. in Bedumont and Fletcher's " L-aws of Candy.'* 

Tjke, again, annlher eipres«nn, fodGmantadt, impiyi ng bUister or 
ouira^eoUb bra^tng^ Thislusi ii& raiwn dilrt froni anuthi^r character 
in "Arloato," Kodomonte <litc;rally ^'onc who rolls mountains," from 
rotttre and monrts)^ So we spea-k of Ji Hohadil Trnm ihe swaggering 
ICemlenian deacrilied hy *'tare Ben "'in ^'F.veiy Maci in his Humour," 
Sicoilarly. ^raj:x^(A^ja, a boastful fellow, rcprcscnt* Bra^adochio, a 
bragging character found in Spenser's *^ Faerie Que*?ne." W* are aII 
familiar with the word mni/iHift^ meaning one who is fudJled wiih 
diink and ik tearfully affectionate. IJui how few realise thai it is 
derived ffom the penitent saini^ Mary Magdalene, whom artists hare 
represenced with eyesswollen from weeping 1 This iironunciation of 
the name is itiU pr«erved by :he colleges -nl Oifurd and CanibritJge. 

Another irttecestiiig word h rriausoUum, meanins generally a 
oaagnilioent tomb. ThUderiv«a its lumefrom the su pet b sepulchral 
monument erencd by Arremii la in honourof her huaband, Mausoliis, 
KiAg of Caxia in j5? llc 

H^ords and tAeir Detwathns, 




CKCun bisiorr aupj^a us vitb yet atiothct void in phiUppk^ 
mconinft an jir|>a>isior)i^d apcccti or invective, Like ooc cf the Iwtlve 
speeches in which Dctnosihciics dijnourccd I'ftjiip, king of MjiC«lonj 
«k tlic diFfmy uTGirece. 

Ficnch novcliatj» arc particubTly partial to the word /ertmidJ, 
mcdjung 1 lAmcntation, from the book of Lamrfritations, which 
beirs the name of the pfophet J«emiah. 

During Ihc RuaaiQ-Turki&h war of 1S77 ihc name of Jmgo wsk 
applied to the Conv;n'ativ&s mho urged Diirocli to su[)poiC the 
Turkfi. Thr ntme ol course allud«e to ih« btnoua song beginning 
" We don't warn 10 fight, bui, hjr Jingo, if we do/' Ax. (McCarthy 
Mys ^'The Jinf^s of London, like the bc^us of FUnderi^ 
Acccpied the word of contumely as a title of honour "i. Some 
«vpbin this word as = Gingou', a contraction for St Oingulpbus; 
othds as Lwing the Basque Jinkoa = God. WUcn sonic article fs 
described as tJrurnmagcm wc mean &omc worthlea^ and cheap 
imitation of the genuine thing, because cJicap mMRlhc tfork or 
Jewdlery is largely « up] itied If} the: inarkL<t« hy Birmingham, vhich 
was once called Brumwicham. Miu Thackcuy rcomrka: ^*In 
Ihoo d&ys one is i(* used to sham and imitation and Bmrnmc^gfrn^ 
that when by chance one conies in the real thing il iit hard to 
believe in it/' 

[ Wliat unfortunate Irish landlord is unacquainted with the nc- 
lahouE systenn of loycettt\^, when he is pbced, u it wcr^» under an 
intcrdici L> ihe I^nd tx--a^ur, and otheia are furliiddc^n lo have any 
dcalini^s with him? Thi:i derives its na&ic from Captain Bc>cotth 
who was the tirat notable viciirn, in \%S^. 

Many a ihtnty auhjeei known how rofre«hing a glnis of grog i> 
after a hard day's ivork. But fc^* nic avaie that it gel» iu name 
from the worthy Admiral Vernon (1745), i\ho first acrvcd a mixture 
of rum and water u> hifi men on boards He wati popularly known 
■t Old Grog on account i\t i\yt^ grffgram coat which he wore in rtiugh 
weather. Orogmii. of ttjurae. is c*iuivaleiil to grt/j ^rarn. Ptacd 
tpcaks of "Go<£sips in ^icf and grogram clad," a coanc iluff 
formerly manufjLcmrcd from i;itk and mohair. 

Few rret|ueiiters of Whitcleys' are ignorant of the meamng of 
miJ!inery, and tnfiy poisibly ^grec with the dictum of Conway that 
"A peer is an arcident of birth, but a great milliner ts a g*il Irom 
above," Vet not many of theni could fell us that MiMm \% respon- 
iible for the name, Mrherc hati and bonnets and tn'otminics were 6nt 
brought to perfection. 

We all object to the Jtypttftitt In the ordinary len^ one who 


Tht Ctntfetttan's Ma^atiiti. 

ftccordiAg to Cbftoocr, "hklcCh to shew htm such «a h« is, mtid 
ibe«<Cki him to $%em such u h« a not" But in iu or^uui mqi« 
ll ^m^y meflfit an /uMr, su itat Uic bypoctitc it only oavig a poft. 

Bacbelof and ^inrnkr an: ^equuttly joined at the hjmttiet] 
ftlUr, GU whftt b & bachelor? Some tell os that it is dcnved 
&OBQ the old Fnmcb hathtlitr ^ a Ud, or frotn Aiu thft^tttr-^ «>. a 
lover knight ; whilrin borbanni* I^in )\e^\%At^s>cx\\^y%batca!amrtMi. 

£ataUtvms=m iuatet, frofn /on«i a dialectic variety of Tacca. 
Ft vttek^ The Spaniah (ovm it toakilkr, vhJch mcdma a pratei, 
or hobblcr (ikot ftactchtig to the inferior sex \)^ with which wc nuy 
ccni|Kire thtf Canibri^EC tcm Wrant^lrr, cnring lu ihc ilii^iuuitiaivi 
ODOO held tL taking oTdcereo* 

Aft lo s^nitir, the exprcuion impLict tha: a inarri^gcabJe young 
woanan hai cmplnyrd hcrv^lf in tpii^ning hvr wedding outfit ; whilo 
A^icd the QtrA\ collrrl the wficncn uf hi« family thr '^ f^pindl^ side/ 
oa nn youn^ woman va^ deemed fti lo fnany till alic hod spun a vet 
of body^ tabic, and bod hnen. 

Wife it from ih» Anglu-SaKon U"/ (roia ntv^fl^ io ticmble. fufii a« 
vontfLn^rrf/vr-iff -, ihou^h »ome conaed. it with weavr, and ixippriw 
tlut the ippmncr hu developed tnto a wctvcx- Ct Cu*. nvf^. 

One of the most curious wordti m our language \& Uie word idht. 
Iu tlie Greek, ftuin wliidi it is takm, it signlAr^ (>) >^ private as 
OppOfcd loa puUlic 01 oflidal perAon<w> Jeremy Taylor says that 
'^ humility is a duty in great onca a« wdl as in tdiots/' ihi^ use bcir^ 
row (ibiul^c) ; (j) A Uyinan, or ur»(5rofe4MAnfll person ; (j) an 
igrioiaiu tniui ; ^ (4) an imbctiltr, iii which sense the; Grerkv d^i not 
iKttj it, and which is now the currcnl ^iiifniricaiion. 

In day!& gone by Udia added to their attractions by vrearing 
ftirf^tmtn on their gowna.' This &Lrrtigi^ word KccniB at f\nx ^ighl an 
En^linh conip^'und ; but in rt-allEy it p3t^ 1>^ ^^ ^1)^ FrcjiLh/tf^^ib 
(which means a pleated tlounce), Gcr./a/M. 

The word s^j^hanJ ban a remirkabJe history. When we use 
tlw tcriij wr tiittin a ttcivilc Oalierct 01 ^MiatiLc- Bui ihih is \cty 
diAcrcTiE fiom its original icniie. In iincicnt Greece, in the district 
of Attica, there grew a number of MOtcd fig uee*, the fruit of which 
It wa* forbidden to touch or expoii. The person* who gav? iu- 
furoiaiion againxi ihtne who imribt^re^^ in tUia respect were c;t1kd 

* C(. Knaxidtbuil un i Qx, xili. 13 : *' Tliiriei noi umlerstiMK) oftliffu whoare 
I1UI idu^ uad and«bLvnd na ctFwr than ihrif mnflivr I'tnsiie," 

* a. Loniehtlow : 

"Thftr rcbct vccc of crimson iLlk. with r^^t 
Of UII1 «ad p4aic4Liu*tFv and furtnluws." 

Wards awrf iieir D^rivatwns. 



fig'Show^n" (v)N?op1iattts) ; Iwice to oSd Engtish il i» lucd aa 

Coleridge describes the tycoplunt Aa ''a wretch who flatten the 
prcvjtllinj; pirly by inlc-rnimfi againsl his nen;tibt>ura» under pretence 
that tbey are eiportert of proliibkicd figf and Hinciet." 

We ofttn apjily the word ^itrnftf^rnttliik in tbe st*i»e cf trappLiigt 
or bdoneji^s- Hctcn Jick^on :»poik?i of "«l! t!ic p&raphcmaliA of 
an invftUdT" such as pillows^ !kc^ But v^ho would mapoct UiaI it ia 
a Greek word meinmg" beside* tlie dowry," and signifie« xM that a 
bride iHings beyond hei dowy and is nd subject to ber huKbund's 

COfllf o1 ? 

The dnma U a subject wtiidi ii^ieT»u mort people in i(* two 
fbrmt or tr^edy jind comedy. Bui 1 am afraid rhenr are nnt many 
who uivt:)(ig^le ibeiroiigii). 7Vi^£*^^' literally mcana "a goat-song," 
cither because a goat wu the pme, in incient Greece^ given Co the 
meeenTuI play, ot else be«ti5e ihe *ctora were clothed in goatskins 
to repre«cnL salyi^ Then t\ came to mean a fatal event invdving 
tnournful mddcnU- Cf- Bamc : " Here was the tragedy of living on, 
more mournful ihan the tn^edy K\\i\\ Y\\\%.'* 

As lo ffiiuf^t \l MriclTy ri^oirw "a revel-song/ or "a village* 
«Dng," with which the village bu^fborery began at the SicittAn Megaro. 
befOK- EpLCharmua gave tI an arliiftic form- A later development b 
the " Divine Comedy," of which I owHl obwrvcn - " Dmte lellt tw 
that he called hia poem a comedy bccauw it had a fortunate 

Women of toslt arc niiurally averse to drew wJiith it /au\ify, i^. 
tataelosly ihuwy jri'I gaudy. Bui this cxpreuion once enjoyed a 
1c3« ignoble signification, a> it meant simply finery of varioua kinda 
bouftht «t the Tjiir of SL Audrey, cr Ethi!ldreda, 

Men like Socrates and Scnera, who ate indifTcrent Jo pleatiire or 
I^iId, are described aa,5Aua, A Stoic (Ok- /4>a=n porch) litemlly 
signi&ca one who taught under a porch or colonnade, becauac Zcno, 
fotisder of the svct (b.c. 344-^60), give lecturei in ihe f:Ltnous 
Golowude :ri Athtrn^, whii'h VA^ ^djrrK-d with frrscoFa of the battle 
Haf&lbon by ihc pencil of Poly^notus- 

The cppo«itc sect of Ejncureans derived their title from the 
pbilottophcT Epicurus (E-C. ^^i-ryo), who«r rthicat theory was that 
pleaauiL' <:t>iisLLtLiicd the highest happiness, Hfs high viewy of 
[deaffiTCi hoiwcvcr. have with us det;entrated, and an epicurean is 
one who is addicted to the pleasures of the table. Cf- Lyitcn : 
*■ Though a Nijfmiin v^ t\o{ gluttfjnous, he was cjiicutcan." 

The word ktnAiJist cairiea us back to the tc^on of Qit^mv \t%«Ev^. 

The CcMf/^fnoH's lifagasim. 


Wi(b ui theveib muos lo torment hy ptcscnting ^m^thing lo eicitc 
dMir«, but yet keeping it out of mach- It iigni(i«s prop«r)r to tt*ftt 
llk« Tjtnialvs. This v>r\ of Z<ui, a4 a punUhmenc for revealing hit 
fatbcr^ KccrctSi ma plangrd m liidca op to hit clidn in wxta* 
with IcKiouft fniiU tuiging ibo%-c his hcftd, both of which eluded 
htm when he desif^d to drink qx eit. 

All ^ond trriUrn t?ndt«v<mr to aruid soJedsmi, Lt, the nciUtion of 
purity of Klyle by ibc contnvcnlion of gramimticd n)l». The word 
means the mode of speech adopted by the Athenian rolorti«tfl of 
SoB, a town of CiliciJi, ^n^ong whom the Altie dialect undcricvnt 

Aoiothcv town gives us the origin of thfi name iy^arih, by which 
wo descnbe one who it volupluowi or Klf-irtdnl^cnt^ A Sybarite 
wu an Inhfltbiunt of Sybaris, a Greek city of Southern Italy noted 
for it» luKury, and destroyed by the Crotoniatca &.C. 510. 

Tlie word lunujiVi also W an interotiog history. A sect 
bttHog thta name (from (he Arabic has^mhin, or huhiah eatera) waa 
founded in rcrsia in the yc^r 1090, whose head wai: called the Old 
Man of the Mountain (i>. Muunt T^icban^jrt, U> which they migraLcd). 
Uo Knt forth bia emiaMUics for decda of blood, who becumc fcrmid- 
ftble during the Cruftodcs, irEpired by their drinh of heirp called 
hftshish. Hence wc >ipply it to thoie who kill ireachrroListy nnd 

As to mt^ndfr {^Xo wind oboiil\ vc will let Miirk Twnin expkin 
it- " \Vc speak of mea/i/fffing sireams, and lind x ne* interest in a 
ccimmon word when wc discovd Ib4t the crooked river Meander^ 
in yonder valley, gave it lo our diciitrtTary." The Maiandros wai a 
river in Phryijia, in Asia MLnor. 

Mos» fpiirl people hflve -in insrinettve objection io.igi:l who 
h deM:iiU:d as ^.hoiikn, Mim AuMen myn tu one of thrse: "Vou 
arc grown too big a i;irl to play the hoidcn," />. a romping, ill-bred 
girl." Bui Milton calls a lout or clownish fellow a *' hoyden." It 
comes from the I5iitr:h heydtn (su ihal the form fnAiitn i* tluAL^i 
10 the source]=a clowui&h person, and i^ even connected with 
heathen, which many of these young bdiee would hardly admit as 
applicahlt tuthemM-lves^ Howi^vcr, heathen strir tly mii-ans a dweller 
on the lieMli, ur luirret* open country. In process of time, while 
Chrititmnity became ilrong in the cities, the country people clung to 
their fAl»e god, and hence heathen came to signify an unbeliever. 
Sblitailya/ci/frn originally w&s only a enuniTymnn, from Latin JW^mj, 


* Mui Hoydtn ia OLV of tKc cUrut«i» ia V^Dbnigh'* /f4U^ 

W^rtls and ihtir DerivaiioKS* 


The Qpitbtt umitffiJ, applii^d to a biirometer, in which (ho Air 
pittmre is cchltnted viihtiui ihr uuf of fluid, is prob^bEy unique in 
bcin^ tJcrivcd frcm the luixicin Greek (wUicb. however, is connecied 
with an anacnt Greek word), vie. ntr-tm = water, the 4:1 being 
privfttj^'e, while ihe last lhr« itiUn (in aneroid) signify form. 

Thr word turtnudgton i« an instflf^ct- of a curious ccjntraciior, i.e. 
com merchAnt, mcAninK one who kepi the price of corn up Lhrougb 
ftvance ; vthcncc it eoTnet to denote aji avoriciout fellow, 

On/TT^/wrr = ahotniaker, JigAirij hardly pr#«en(9 an obvious 
fffi^iiial- Cordvtain wii& «t kind of Spanish leather used m the 
Middle Ages lor bootsn lti«denvcd from Cordova, a town m Spab> 
Cr. Spenser : " Tlie giidtn baskins of cosily cordwaio,** 

The word Oioikittard, which wc use to dcnolc a low, co&tse 
fellow, ha? an historical, iF nol a diatinguUhcd descent Miss Strick- 
land telhusthat the sculliontand inferior servants of the Knglish Court 
were clad in Mo^k, and in royal and either prijyivsies ihey would 
uaiuially Imvc charge of :hc pot& and [:an2 » whence Ihe name of 
biftck -guard wfis applied to thc&e men. 

The word land \\x^ degeneisted from iis orjginil sense, a£ it only 
meaot oru? who btrlongfxl 10 the pr<>L)(c, in coniTudistineiron to thc! 
ctlltixred clergy. By an ^Ms^y transition it cantc to signify ignvrant^ 
And then vicious (c1. " lewd lellows of ihe boier sort "). The word' 
U formed from Anglo-Saxon Umvfdr or tfi>d ^ the people^ Cf. 
iay =:: iiui^ fiODi Gjcck h\fu pcoplc. 

Gouipi^ denounced fromourpuEpLtsabanunmitifiplcdevil, But 
9xe we aware how high and responsible a function thegOHipformcrly 
fulfilled? Ctiaucer writes the word "godHb^*'and the Iranmtianal 
kfO^ WW godlip ; afterwards, by assimilation, Roariip. Sfb in Scotch 
Tnww related. Thii^ tiic word meana onff related in (^od's service, 
/*. a sponsor Davies informs us that "at the cluistening of 
Cc?[Jrge Duke of Clarcnccj who was born in the Casllc of Dublin, he 
tnadc both tlie Earl of Kildarc and the Larl of Ormond hia goaiipj.'* 
Alas \ how are the mighty fi^llcn ! It now tLigoi^es one vtho 
runs abouL t<.]ling idk- ni^ws, or the idli? La]k it»clf To ute the 
knguage of Drydcn, "The common chat of jcostips when ihcy 

A very curious expression i^ t/ruMgani^ by which we understand 
mn aUj«ive, n^my woztiAn, or a shrew. In Shtkcspcsre'i time it whs 
applied even to anenj as Uouglas is called '4hat termafiani Sooi " 
(*■ I HenrylV." V. 4). The dtritarion i* unredain. TheddKrench 
form is tertiaj^ntt coming from the I^lin, and meaning /Arue-itm/iAr^ 
mg. Otkc;s Tcgaid il as a Pcrsiait term, u. Tir- Magun (a Md^u lord). 

^j6 Tk€ GtntUmMs Jtfa^astne. 

Tcrnttgam wn% r ^v e y e w t^ in FrmchmnviccfiMa ^ly wonhippcd 
by itic 8va<:«>u cr MahoramtdjtrM. ar>d ^)po*ted in the old OMnHty 
pbys «a tutbaLcnl wd ot A hinou.5 icmpcr, From Out long carte rn 
robei nhtch he wore xhe epithet nuy perhapc h«vr fix«d ic«e1fo«i 
Hnmci] ; Chaucer, Spenacr, SlkdlttaiJcut f* Hamlet,* iii. »), &c, 
mcntior blm. Btaumoiil and Mctchcr In " Kinic arxi No Kbiii * 
>i]rt "Thia ivould nuke a nint ««cttT Mke a soldier, and n soldier 
like Tcrr:i:ig4ri.' 

N(> dijnuicr b more base ibut tlk^t of one whu /amdert to tbe 
low doiirea or vlcca of others. The verb n derived (torn PuKluvaa 
the 'IVojan chioTbui^ who procured ChrysciE forTroiltu^ Cf. SbJiJte' 
iLpntrr't "Trdhis and Cro^idit," iii. 7. Cluticr.i ha^ abo tmted 
the iubjtct in a weU-known poem. 

UrtTj youfig maxt would do well to have a "ptide, philotophce, 
and fHond " in the ihape of a mentor. Matthew Arnold, i n one of hin 
r-Asiyx, tays,, "SheUey boned tt> bra mentor's deciaiuu, aiikI {pi¥e op 
Eiu Iriab campftiira" Mentof la celcbrattd m Homer and FcmIoh 
HA the friend and teacher of TelecnnchuA. 

A iffftfariam \f»c.e may ^ye metu] loaifa-cipuinor a demagogue 
though birdly agreeable In a drawin^'room. The adjective i* 
derived from Stenior^ the fomous horald in the Tro))u war. whose 
voice WAS as loud » that of fifty mon. 

We arr all familiar wUh tlic lii^eMftr purtmit of Edunn) Gibbon, 
pre;5iu:d to bn worL> i but all may not be .iwjtre tlui the name was 
dcrivod ftom M, Siihouottc, who w^a MiEti&tcr of Froancer in Fnuiee 
in the year 17591 >^ who curtatled the public cxpen«cs so much 
thil fiii iiaujc was avi>licd lo tilings lliai wtre eiccssivcly <:bea|ih and 
so to thki profile drnwin^;:! in black cardboard 01 paper. 

Officers have a tlron^ objection to a colonel who proves lo tw a 
mtiriimt, i.t. ;i[i over-strict dibtiplirijiriao. The name fs derived from 
Coluuel Martii)cL A FTcncli officer, appointed by Louvuis as srmy 
inspector under J,ouis XIV., who was noted for his ^ict r^ula- 

Abigail (Htb.=siny tthcr** joy) vs corn tantly used aaciiuivalent la 
a lady'* niaid <cf. I.^lton'j " Caxtona " : " I'hc woman w*a dft^iscd 
with n cLUiei ncaLnv^ iluic Mcmcd to stamp her profession as that of 
an ^i^i/"). '*Thtf Scorfvful Lady"* nf Rcaumom and Mctcher 
appears to have given currency to the name in tliis Miiic. 

The ifoffy (or Ary/y) is a well-known And uKcful odjurict of the 
dinner-lat'lt, J hsve seen a denvAlion whifh connects it wiih the 
Fnictb dit'aa/f^a towel, and a t.ti^^Hntf\ ihjti if may be conn«^ed 
with i'l, ftrfft and L. ft/si< Bat my fnend the late Colonel DH>yly, 

Words and tkcir Derivations. 


lold me Ihat it was an inveollon of ft rcliLivc of his, and hence got 
ks rtAmc Origmally the wine-glass had only a %iem, niihoni n foot 
to rcit upon- When emptied it w^is turned upside down, which 
ttained the mahogany. So Mr. D Oj'ly invcnied a square piece of 
Unen to preveni the bad rwulr. And hence ihe nnm& 

The hiator/ of DUi word duRce is strange. Icing derived from ihc 
rcBQwned schoolman Duns Sojtns, of ihc thirtccnih ccniurj-, who, no 
fu Irom being a "duU-witud person," was named "the tuUIe 
dE)nor'^ on nrcount of hi« sf^hobstir IcamiEig, and tt'hom M.isccr 
looker styles *'tbc wittieal of the school -diHncs." A member of 
Fnncitcan order, he wa^ a sLiunch supporter of the old, us 
opposed 10 rhp new, learning. When un appeal was madcio hi«. 
ftuthofity \y§ mcmUys tjf ihc Church, ihe |iarty of rrfcmi, 
ridiculing those who objcclcd to Hcbrcrr, Gr^ck, and l^tin^ would 
Ibe them a« Dun5n]en,or Dunies. Hciic^^^ ^/v/fv came to mctn 

^mroMtf/. Ii cenaini/ sccrn* n hard fa:c for the iltu^trious 
^jchokfltic theologian. 

Some old gt-nllemen enjoy llitir glass of wp^j ol rJijht without 
thanking the iru^entor. Colonel Ncgu?, who flourished in the days 
of Queen Anno, and who «us as great a Ticnefactor as ''Old Grog." 

A hridttV€H\nxvi^ with it unpleasant idcaa of vaj^antsand other 
misdemeanants undergoing cotrectkon. But the hou^e in Bridge 
Street, Bhf^kfriar*, derives ifs r^ame from the wrrll of Sr. Bride; Of 
Bridget, over ^v^hkh a hospital was built- 

Aiylum denotes at tht^ preicnt day a place of refuge for orphant, 
itbe blind, insane, &c. It is derived from two Greek word* tignif^- 
'fng without nghi of ^-^/ure, i.e. a plnrc of Kifriy, siidi as the famous 
aaylum C3t4tb!iihcd by Romulus on the Capitolinc ilill at Rome. 

Most of iw are familiar wUh the great thoroughfare called 
Piccadilly; but how few aic ,iware that ii obtained its rame from 
tbc high collars or ruffs, called piccadil:^ worn in the scic^ntccrilU 
century I 

Navvy, I L)etieve, is the only word in our language in which tw& 

ODfne together. It is reall)' a eoniraclion of nai'igafor, because 
who were employed formerly in river or anal navigaiion 
^mbhcd the mort capable men for working on the railways. 

Bedlam is a namt commonly given to a madhouse^ Pope says 
"All Bedlam, oi Parna^u^, is let ouL" II oflginally mrjint rlw 
ho^pitalof St. Mary of BilhUium. in London, which was subfcquentlf 
converted into a hoiipiUI for lunatics. 

The elegant brougham and light stanhope derive their name4 
respectively from Lord Brougham and Mr> Stanhope, fur whom Ihey 

roi.. ccxevL xo- ao*x jj ij 

3^8 Tki GentUman^s MttgaztKg. 

W« fim biult.* NMkmy b piotMbI J compounded of haiktd-mtti^ '^'- 
ft bone hxdly used ; thuni^i others deri re it rmm ihff Dutch Auriirx = 
hick« ADc! rrrxfr —nig. Ilcncc 1TC set ihc ftbbrciLLLcd fonn, Aevl, a 
won 'Out hofw. 

TIm rainproof matkintath denvet its lumc from MAckintOdh, \\% 
Tnvrnwif, jtjst ax th-^ nM fii*tiorn"il lialf-lioot ollcil n ^hcktr was 
cAlleil after Field- Mi rshal von BiucScr, flnd the high boot, which 
dkplAced the jack-boot, vax styled x Wellington afUr the hero of 
Waterloo^ vlto iniToducwS it into the amtjr, 

Frnm [Mrl> Sjuoti times ve tccclvc ihe word jvtistti/ (A3* wees 
Atffl, which properly means "be in hcahh,"and was a greeting ; 
then it camo lo mom what in thdr opinion promoted hcaJth, vu, a 
drink nude of ale, w!nc, applet sugar, &€. ; and, lutty, the foti^-al at 
which tlus wit<lranV. Cf. Longfellow's '* Nonnan Baron " ; 

Jn ihf hill thif terr onj nvul 

IjMT on he tctttii to u!le; il In the icnte of welcome ; 

WuMil (at thfr kingly Knnga^ 
Been and cndl«d in a mhngci ; 

thotigh possibly it may mean festive drinlnng in honour cf the 

Husband comes from the Anglo-Saxon, and slgnifirt hoinse-maKet 
{htts-k-h^*** connected with W«E=to dwell; d, Notw. ^m^= 
fanner), IE hx« been suggested that Mtt&tnefman is equi^'alenL to 
AviAiffi//mi?JV, meaning a working farnitr, Wc mij^hl eompaie/WhSit- 
nMflp (tiifUmnH^ Sec 

/d/-^ {A. S. /lAr) is connected with a Sanekrit root i(^ichc= _ 
lo feed or nonmh, aa he is the siipporter of the family ; while I 
maortrr (A, S, modor) Is coniieclcd wJlh a Sanskrit tool=to produce. 
Su the internal hycr cf the pcnrl oyster is colled " mother of pearl " 
because it prodoees pearl. I 

Daughitr^ according to Maa Muller, ii connected W\\}\ a SajiHkiit ' 
root rfftA=to milk, duhilar being Sanskrit for daughter, The word, 
thercrore. points to the poatoral and nomadic life of th^ Ar>-an tiines, 
when our forelathcrs Uved in ;hcir Asbiic »bodc% and when the 
daughter had charge of the cows. 

Son is from the A-5. svnu^ 

Dandy.— 1^^ woni is derived ftom Fr» dandin—x ninny. O 
ycshadetof KashandBrummell \ Moli^re in hispN-iy of ''George* 
Dandin" Tepccacnla him aa a henpecked husband, «1io marriea 
^ So (Ic- hantomeibb Merited fKHAl:s]iivemorr Mr. Ilinmni. 


Wifrds and tk^ir Derivations. 


Above hifi poatior, lives with his wife's ^mlly, and hu uiyiliing but 
hftlcyon day«. 

Ar^sy. — This mCAnfi a merchant venel with a rich frcij^ht 
The derivation is uitcertaln. Some connect it wiTh ihe ttifp •' Argo," 
which v/ei It in i)ue$t of Ihc Golden Fleece of Cokhi* ; othcib wiiJi 
/iapfjc, s. port-tovTJi of Dalmalio, from vphich the vc^cli uilcd. Cf' 
Longfdiotf, ^'^elfrycfBragCfi" — "Ixonvbardand Venetian merchintt 
with d^p- laden ATgosies." 

BotAniod names arc sometimes bard to ciplain : bat many of 
oitr ganicn ftowcr« arc c;iUed aAer f*moii5 botanists, nho introducc<J 
them, as the ifime!t<x w:i8 brought from Japan by the Jesuit Camel 
u\ ilic eighteenth tentury, the tiahlia from Mexico by a Swede 
called Dckhl ; vrhilc the gardenia vro^ adhd after Dr Garden, an 
American^ the /u<rAsia from the German Kuchs, Uiv/j'a from the 
botanist Lobcl> NastHrtium, on the other hand, is ^eritred from 
«<Utf/ and torfuSt because its pungent smell makes the fws< fwisf! 
The fan;}' bears a name equivalent lo that oi the " immorteilc," 
derived from ihe Greet tithaiMitos, through Ficnrh tt>n<iisi/. 

The history oF t!ie wcrd presftge is rcmaikahle. We mean by vi 
nuthority or aKcndcncy based on past achjevemcnts. But L. 
frasfigium means a delu&icn, and in ihe plural jugglers' tricks ! 
Whal would the iiplinldf^rs of oui nalionol firrslige in the ey« of 
Europe say to thii? The association of the idcu sccma somcwhai 
etnngc Was it that the acts of Ji-gttdemain won the performer a 
reputation whirh ii nas impcrtant for him to maimain ? The 
French preserve die original meaning of magic, cnchaatmcnl, &c. 

In bt!d<im ite seem to fmd a satire cr)'sulliscd in a word. The 
"betttlifol Lady *' lus suddenly merged into a hideous old hig- Cf- 
Cowper^ "Tmnsl. Fh:»id Horace": 

The bcld&mc ihoolc her poliifd hcnd 
A« the prrustfd my pAlm. 

By the way, how ingeniously ungallanl were our forbears in coining 
s«ch appellations for old ladies, hovvcrei unpleasant they mi|;bt 
b^ u Aag, harridan, and fr^nt T The last word is connected with 
^VWd^ Af. 8 low moiining sotind, and so crcne explains ilsclf. 

Bvticn<tr has ois odd a Kiund a$ it hnn a histoiy. The Caiib* 
used to vmoltc and dry ihdr meal en a wooden frame called 
ft ^uftam, or hMam. The buccaneer, therefore, was one who dried 
Aesb In ihi<j manner after hunnrg. The first butcanecis, in ibe 
MUM cf pirates and fircc^ooiora, were ibc Ficoch, who hod followed 

' a Vwanwdin, Ac. 


jSo Tk€ Gintkmans Magazine. 

tbelr peaceful avocdtion onlil the Spani^ «uthcitulc3 in HUpjtnioAa 
put A itop t9 thciT huDcinp They coo>cqii«M)r turned opon the 
Sp^inania or America, who were cxpo«t^ 10 thcM foebooicn from 
Fruiceand England dorin^j tJie trveniMnih and ci'shieenih centoriet. 

rA iiuEi who liu been drinking **doc wi»eVr» but too wcD,'* is 
i^in nftuiicM shnitto be ■'holf-scu over.*' The Dllndon tecmi 
obvJODfi enough ; but a more recondite evphoiiion hu been 
■ugpstHi, rf. I>j[ch eJj^en- £/)^^ = oversea beer, wfakh meant 

tStiODf beer exported frcni ihJs country to HolUuid. 
To^sy-tHTVy \% % curioos contraction for '* lop nde t'other way,** 
Cf- Shakespeare, '' l Hen. IV. " it, i : ^'Turn ii tup*y Xsirvy down," 
WUfy-nilfy = will he, iiill he (iwjV = i>ol will)» i»»itii i-c /(f/rj, 
Tbe rAwrf is the -i^ord's bouK** (GL kymkc, Scot Wrk). 
vbik Ffv ^j^^isf comes from utksia. Tht nave U %o caXitd because 
ix rescmbln an invL.'Tled blup (L. nirvh\ white the a/v^i iire, as it 
weic, the win^s (Fi. atk, L. tf/<i}. The r^anteJ owes Ita iiame to 
_ the bet that this p&rt was cnctoKd with hitiuSt or & screen with 
^ buie^work (U fanaJfi). The court of CAajwry and it> president. 
t!)r: Ckatceihr, dcrlic their names similarly from the crota-bon 

►tunounding the scat of indgment 
CatiA/ifJe wia a coiutable who^ with an m»tniment tike a shep^ 
fwrd^i cToot^ foriDcrly raiight criminals hy ihe //i// (d*^^**) or hevl- 
TUc Mim^iii^ff =s hound btttSi^, yix-i an undcr-bAtllfT bound to thQ 
shenlTby sccuriiitSn The thfrifi/t^i tbe thirtruvc; in Old Enflish 
tkxFftvf, or governor, from A. S. /^i^'li = governor of rtenatd. The 
last word is pt operljr ?? m//d> gaardiati^ fmm A. S, Sfigrward, from 
tfigu = a sty or stall 

MiAlaken et^-mologiea are not uncommon in cur langna^e. \ 
famous one ii Amenta. Columbus discovered South America in 
i.ig8. He died in 150*^. AftcrhJni Amerigo Vespucci, of Florenee^ 
sailed ihithcr. examined the coaal of Veoe^jcU, relumed to Spain in 
1500, and published a work in which he claimed the mentor having 
discovered Srmih Amcric:*, and from him the name was nnju^ttly 
given to the New World. 

Again, the inrkfy waj erroncouitly :iup]]o^cd 10 have ccmc from 
Turkey, whereas \x nas introduced into 1-uiope Irom Mexico in the 
sixteenth ecnniry. The French fnmginrd 11 mm? from TndiR> and 
so called it dinJi, i.<.. poxktd'/ndt. So the gipsy, or gvpfj, w« 
(upposud to have migmtcd trom Egypt to Europe about 1417, whcrcu 
they appear lo hivve i^ine from India, their language containing a 
mixture of Persian* Arnieniui, Slavonic, and i)thr*r diulects. 

Macaulny ha» obtcrred that one may spend a pleasant hour \tL 

Words and iAeir Derivaiions. 


looking orer Dr. Johnson'* English dictionaiy, Thert we frtqucnily 
discolor the great lettcogi^plicrS prediTcclions and aniipAlhies. Tuk?:, 
for cstamplc, the yt^rH ^nuontr, which he defines as "a slflvc of 
Elate hired by a clipend to ob^y hi^ master." A [icnsion meant 
lilcnilly a Kaghing (^Affff), henct? a paymcnf, since the old copper 
money of tl:c Komans. as Paulua infanns us, was weighed, not 
counted out. On pension Johnson remarks: '^In Enfilor^d it j* 
gencmUy imdi^rstood lo mean pay given to a state hireling for 
IrcawEi to hjs country/' And thix notwithstanding the fact ihai he 
hJmKlf received a jxnsion without any stipulation. Take agjiin bid 
de«cnption of the word aats -. **A grain, whicfi tn En|!Liiui is gene- 
rally given «o horee-s, but in Scotknd supports ihc people,"* We can 
uuagJnc BoswcU's indignation! 

Again, his original dcliniiion of i^nvj^ wA^ '^Ahateful tax levied 
upon commoditits, and adjudpcd noi by the common judges of 
|itopcily. but wretches hiicd by ihosc to whom excise h paid.'* 
Thia be subiscquently altcrtd. The description of network ii 
thoroughly Johnsonese, *' Anything reticulated or decussated, at equal 
diEUnce^ with iniersiicci hL-twcen the intersections " 1 

Of Tory he says : *' One who adhcies to the anciert o:instiliLlion 
of the State and the Apostolical hierarchy of the Church of England ; 
opposed to a Whig," 

He <]ri^inally defined pastern ns the in« of a horec, instrfid of 
the pojl of the foot between the fetlock and the hoof. ^Vhcn a lad/ 
asked him bow he made this mistake, he answered: "Ignorance, 
midam, pure ignorance.^ Simibrly he confused the nautical terms 
Iccwatd and ivifidw^rd. But ihcae aie only spet:ks in the sun, and 
we must remember that even worthy Homer nods at times. 

We use the word salnry in the sense of pay for profestional and 
UtL-rary work. But its ftrsl connotation, as Pliny tells us, wax money 
given to soldiers to buy W/ (safj^ to which purpose, in course of 
time, a was no more restricted tlian pin money isrow to the purchase 
of jMns. Augustus was ihe firsi to gke salarie? to govemon of 
provinces and military ofBccrs, in order to make ihcm dependent 
upon himself. 

SifT^cn U a contraction for Mmr^M, which we lind tued by old 
authors, or those who adopt ancient forms ; t-^- Sir W, Scott. It is 
dcrired from the Greek, and properly means one who w^rki with 
tlw J^nd (^heirottr^s).^ 

Serjfaftf, 1>oth in mititiry and legal parlance, comet from 
urvfcn[l^^QVC who serves. 

* Cf. Fr. fMirmxitm. 

Tkt Gtmi&mmis M^fttae. 


ai he MMlMMd npavn ife pcnoo of ite 
is mog lAd in faom ned b Of adMci al bv. 

«^^toft«Di4«Wcli%BMtavirtacMttaofcfa. It on^iBr 
ov vbo ««§ ft #*imI (r^vf) III c o roMwi viib looiber ; hence 
OMVtelbviOQltMOppoiilt nds of a rncr, and coolcadi fiv ib 
Ml, ftt dM Ceab nd GoM&t « either Mfe or Ibe BlHW. 

£Vinth« lottcof • ditld » ipOtMy «choolbe3V itang, Bvt4 
a fauHO in e vora vbkIi ooee not oowe nodv imf rawgoty, ^te 
I j ab y j ^ .thooih the co « yoo <a t|>iit«ei< both rieafcjoal»>oe^ 

JOhNvt bdi« the <K%i«l form, 

/brKr/0wnsne»)«eglcr^ trick- Adtfim\in*<TheDnnnMr," 
Kjn^ "ir dno bait aoj hoai»-pocut tridct lo }^ym\i^K»xm^ dm I 
aol doilDOv?- Tilotapii, I befcetf^ fttppoecd it wu » cog ^ p ti ea 
ti hoe at e9ff¥t ttom Ibe Latto Uiai. Heoca <m get Utt TOfr 
lo Aonu, //. to deceive bj uicki. 

SiBikHx, Mm^t to patnlbllr fr«i|ac<U ia dtt bagoace oT Ihc 
ralfar, iaiaid 10 beacontniCftOB or "brow Ledr/ <CX Ficnch 
iam4 I) So wa lu*e the e^prespoa gads^t^ i.t, God% booh^ 
irii; (bo nailt on ihc croa*; iMnMEvcGoir* woufxls; Ari^iC>isGod'« 
flctfL* A lot objectionable contmciion it the faauStr ^pyoAhft^ 

Pts. Cod be wkh jon. So Fr odUrw, It. addi^, &:& ^H 

Ttiedcrindon of tmpk \\ tincertain; while TroUope evpWitf IlA^ 
meanrnjc; "A uifL-banla ba tnob. A paruite b a snoK Tbc nmi 
vtlio aJlowB the maiJiood thai n in htm to be aired by a coronet it a 
■nob. Tlie aaan wtko wcnliipi mere wealth is a toob." Thac^efl^ 
Citb George E V. a si;ob because he asiitincd to tie xhf: gnaint gentlfr 
man in Europe, while hit acti did not corrcapond with sod). 
iVw i^/*' hfl* tx*en suggcatcd u a dcf ivition ; a« wc aay, " vitbout 
aranhing in tijs pocket"! but this is untrue. Another u thntits 
un&ii/tt, not nobtc 1 Compare Jtfnfrr= without cue. 5ijuvim, oA 
the olhcf hand, properly sifcriticsftn ccclciiutical benefice wMm f 
the car^ or c^^ oE Acvlv ; «o that a tlnccarc \x^ one sorue onay be 
laid tu iv ifivrr. For lliia uae tjf ir, cf. ftobpT, r>- «obn«ifl=sr<c^4rj, 
not dnmkcn. 

ihmikfxp Ifl said to be a contractton fur tm/ti in tht /«/, /«. for 
_the pur|>CMC of clnwing lots ps to one^pQcfdon in a race, &c. ; lliottgb 

*■ Codi'i bflm " b ADolhu fonn of iht enih. 

IVonis and /Jiirir D^rivaO&m. 


CttAmhcft rcf?n i: (o a mclh^d oT s«tUing & bargain, or oxcIunM 
»ch |i2ily puiEing his hand wiib maiiey in it into x c;ip, 

^'t'movffwiji, ftbbfcvimlcd into mn^y, teptt^MfDli llie Ljit. n<»i 
4VuM^f (jvwi^n/vj), one not In hL^ right mind. 

Zany ii from St. Ziiftm. a conEraction of Ciovaitit:^o\\s\, It 
properly ricans a merry -jVndtcw, wliidi hiier derive* in eti»teiic<^ it 
is supposed, from one Andrew Boofdc, a faccticua ph)-iicuii in the 
time of Henry VIIL 

Ladies no longer indulge in the Jas^\ which wi* a wig made of 
Jtruy y*ni ; but ThacUiaj, in " Tbc KidclcburyV' wys " Lady KL 
«<flrs A ^nt and, I raakc no doubt, a cotnplctc jaMy." 

The word passiott is interesting from an ethical point of view, 
lu primitive wnsc is iufffHng. (Cf. IJtany, "Ey Thy Cross and 

Bon"^). By an ea^^ Irari^iiion It caniL- to signify .xny emotion 
fifitch acts upon the mind, such ns anger, love, soirow, &c We 
Kpeilc of tJw teodLT pas^iufi, :l passion for war, lucre, -tc. But when 

say "be flew into a pat^Ion," we icatrict it to an^er, rage, oe fuiy. 
A poaiionatc man, thcncforc, h not a frtrong man doing somcthiOK 10 
another, but be Ii acttcilly a feeble man curTering under the un- 
govCTjialik' impulse of his irascible emotioni. 

In BuLlcr'i '* Iludibcas,'* i, 3. 14, nc read : 

And faavibi; rQuled tha whok troops 

Tliis is the Trench £oq d ^«//^t '"■'■ ^ <^c<l; with a crest* 
to gamecocks crowing after a victory, with elevated crcftt 
By the way. the eipic^ion "a coclc^and-boll «tory," meanEng on« 
that is incredible, 13 ^id to represent " a ^W9^d and ^v/Jy atory," 
while some refer it lo the -lisopic fable- 
It ia usual tD dncribe as a i^knry one who has bc^^n born v^Ehin 
the ftound of Bow bella. It vt^ origiually ippiicd by country people 
to those who lived in the luxurious city C&cagnt, or CV»^^tfJ~^*w, the land 
of cookery (Lat, ^o^uo) ; though oihere derive it from A. S, -'Vg=egg, 
ftxid cektn=Qt cocks, /,fr, a fabulous place of plenty, lAibber><l. 
For last cf. Carlylc's "Sartor": "Though a whole cckslial Lubber* 
land were the price of Apoiiasy." 

The words a1:40ve selected will, I ihink^ ad^uately prove what a 
wealth of history, arccdotc> and instruction ia embedded in oiar 
BBglisih lan^agc, and how well it repays all those who choose to 
delve in thw inexluusiible mine. ITie theologian, the moralitt, and 
dia phlhNopher will find therein matter for de«-p mi.-(3iuiion and 
iride-rctcliiiiK instruction. The rit^incas of our lanjEuage, built up 


The Cenilemans Magazine. 

as it is from so many dements — Anglo-Saion, French, Gennan, Latin, 
Greek, and even Aiabic — makes it more interesting and fruitful than 
probably .iny ovher in the world. Such study teaches us to value 
our words, and not to regard them as mere counters for daily use, 
for, as the Wise Man lells us, " the words of ihe wLse are as goads, 
and as nails fastened by the masters of assemblies/' In the hands 
of the poet they become pictures full of life and harmony, reflections 
of ihe bounteous Nature ^hich encircles us, familiar, and yet preg- 
nant with deepest thought, when 

Eright'^yed Fancy, lioverinf' o'tr. 

Scatters from her piclvircd um 

Thoughts thai breathe and words ihal bum. 




THERE are certain old-vortd instfncrs fn human nalvre Uiat gi\« 
a pociic^iE bigiiiriiLaiice lo the ttmplcM acLa oftljuly Mi^. It is 
ir viftuc cf these ihal wc find so great a chAnn in the wcrd " home 
made," although it i^ employed, a« a rule, with rererence to the mo^t 
cominonplace aaU-iliirH Ity which we make up the round of our 
caiatcncCH Ifit If used Jii coiinccticrn with an^fthtnt; less Li^mnion- 
place, indeed, Ihaa eatmg and drinking, it loses iis charm. When 
we tail of home-made fLrniture, or clothes, or int<:banLcal con- 
lrivj[]res, (he familiaf vord \\^s none? of llic swretnt^s whtch, let ua 
be as lofty as vc like, vc cannot help finding in it wbcit it \% tJ^cd 
with reference to $uch things as t-read and scones and preserves and 
wines- Mort other home-made anicles have ai» awkward ot slip- 
aliod look. But these frail cakes and eranescent wines ha^e a 
pteaeing qu^ly which be not all due to the fact thai we know what 
Is in ibem^ A s«nTiment aiiar^hes to ihnn which we do nor fare 
to explain, and wfuch may be irnitiunal, but v% not unreaM>nabIe: 
There is more tntirc^t in thici^ which are made specially for us 
Ihin then? is in things which are made in commtTcbl indttcnminare 
quAntilLU, and aie paid for straight airay in hard cash. The h'^inc- 
madc faie is much more nicely adjusted lo our needs than the 
factory-made catablcs- 

U> feel ihis imiiunal di^light in \\mvi% that are made at home 
more keenly in thcac days tlun wc did in the b>gonc limes. VVc are 
letting our individualJiy pa merged in the swell and surge of the 
burrying city life of the day, and wi- need the juTticubri^tn^; 
pidurr^quc touches that the crafts of domcsiic life put into the 
{Uidy dramas wc arc all enacting, to make u^ feel that wc hare on 
individuatiiy worth cuUivaiing. There is, therefore, something 
peculiarly aaiisfytng in what vu made in accnrdaciLe with the 
IhouKhiful phn of tbc houi^'wifc who determines with realoaa 
intereu the needful conditions of our lives. At this cntical tinci 
too, we are in considerable danger of letting dome^\\t titi?\ cjl SSa^ 


T6£ CfHtUfnans Magaztu^* 

Bbifividmlbing ton Ijccomc old-fifhloDcti Fvcfi tbr homp wnti* 

Houm a not so ktrorfi 44 il »aa. The notd;» of tli« daj, nbkh 

' Dodoubtodlx <U)pby^ its true fcaitires^ in spite ol mon^r distortions 

■ad cacgtntlons, rontpLCUOUSly n«£l«cc the love of home, whicb 

twu oni? rif the IcjtHnj mo(j^ir& of llto firlion-wriicra cf ihc? grcsktnt 
i^OTcl proJucing period of the nineteen ih century. W'c have 
joumeyed fnr cnovtgh Trom home now 10 ditcuts caoper^Ltve 

»houtckccj>tng with serioii« intent, and e^'en lo live in lioccit and 
fiatv Thc^ changes luie partly been >Tri>i]ghC, no doubt, by the 
icbclliotjfl and di40t>1igiiig Bttv^nt m&id. of trhom wc speak oowUxa 
with so much disapproval. But it i« also true that the mittressa 
hftve not quitt; tlic same love of botnc ivhicli tliey lidd. Vet Ihoie 
wlio love home the jLO$t do ntjl regret this turn in tbc tJdo 

fwonoeo's ^ffiiirc; In the end it wiU mean better iriAragcmcnt m 
homes nnd Icn frititon in the doing of the many littb; acts irbidi 
ctm^iLulc thcit liiblory und pECimulc their h4:ullb- Oui wlvc» arc 
«jid have been damcsric bun^lcra rather than domestic oftbtt* 
P^hapi we ihall vlah tbem in the future to give us belter homG- 

tmnde ihmgs of a!] ^ozXa than thr^y have ^iven ut^ and tben we ihall 
round the boriion of vroiQcn's lives to the full limniii ctrclc. Aod 
expect some of thcra to enjoy to the utmost the duiica and rewards 

I of public and profe^iiomd life, and only some to be thoroughly 
trained domestic sciential!! and artist*. Then, doubtlt^H^ we shall 
have many of those thingi for bck of which Emerton «a!d tb^ii oui 
bouselceeping did not hijld men sacred* 
That ^od food vill l>e among the benefit that will help to tDal;« 
our days peaceful and i»ri>grc»ive wc are nul ;ishjjni^d tu liupe, for 
in thisagc wc Havc '*no tcorn of common tUn^s,'* Partly, mayb^ 
because our tvomen have 0. more he:iUhy tniining than wc ui^d to 
give thetn, we have long ago reL'Ovcred from the eiglitet-nth-ccntufy 
diecaAc of alTccUtioii, whlch^ ns LowcU tenutrkcd, turned a bout, in 
the language of £ome unh;3ppy poct» iiilo 

TIk Uiinlng Jnihcir diar cricu«d tlie limit, 


and coffee into 

Tlic fni^rBn; julcc ^ Mochi'a berry brown. 

Thus ll is that we olh fmd few more cbamiing passages in 
Washington Irving than thai which describes *^ the ample charms of 
a grnuini? Dutch country ita-uble in the sumptuous iimo of autumn. 
Such beapcU-up platters of i:^1ci^ of vvioua and almciAt indcscnb* 
■ able kindi, known only 10 experienced Dulch housewives I Tbcro 

T/ttncs tkai ar£ madt at Home, 


w» the doughty dotighnat, ihc tcndcfcr oly kock. And the Cfisp And 
cmmblmg cniller; sn^eet cakes And short cakcf, ginger cakc» and 
honey cakos. And then rherc were ipple pics and peach pie^ 
bc^dcs slices of bim acid smoked beef; And. moicovcr^ ddccuble 
dishes dF prcsen-ed plums and peAChes and pe^ir^ and quinces ; not 
to mention botted Klud and roasted chickens, togoCher~vi:idi bovik of 
mi^k And cicani, jttl inlngted Itiggbdy pigglcdy, irith the moiheTly 
teapot ^Elding up its douda of t-apotii froca the midiL HcftfM 
ble» the mAf k T * 

George Eliot, who idmirei ihrffty housekeeping so much and 
was to capable a houieke^:pcr herself* is anolhcr wiiicf *ho has 
given us many a pleasant glimpse into the mysteries of honDc-nude 
things. These pictures were, of course, rcmini^encct of the early 
life which tAught her so many honii^ sccrrts that won.^ wtirth knowing 
&nd brojght her into corjtact with so many domestic {{enia.%et- The 
bomely details whicli the :rAinij)g of her chtldhood enabled her to 
bring into her narr^ive do not dis6gurc brr work, bcwiusc th^y are 
U> intimAlety associated with iho5c scntimentA that make np the best 
part of out lives, i'hus, when she Bpcaks ol '^*u(^h vanoja and 
iQgges^vo iccnit su of plum-cakes in the ov^n and jellies In the hot 
state;'* wcdo not feci that shr is latkiog inastiain naudileasdignified 
than thAt of the fumous passage in which she bnngs to our rcmem- 
bnnoe "the lunshine and the graj^s in the far-off years, which stiU 
live in us and rmn^form our perception into love." 

When they discussed things made at home George CUot and 
Wiflhington Irving vrerc surely not fat from writing poeiiy> althoi^h 
flity were only talking about cakes and fruits and preserves- TMs 
pociry we are nowAdays in a position to enjoy to the fuIL We can 
quile well appreciate the wish to liave home^made bread which 
Carlyle expressed to his wife, as some people think ro unreasonably. 
The dffiirr was not mere caprice on the piifi of the phi1o»op(ux 
There arc some kinds of food which remind us of the nectar and 
•mbrcsia of the gods. Such, for example, arc the fruit pUicked from 
ih* tree the history of which we know, the blarkhcrry jam with the 
iiagtance of [he autumn wooda b it, the bread kneaded by ouc own 
wifCt the cakes baked on our own licarth. In these casca the 
conunoR is not commonplace. 

Ttui food prepared away from home m^y be mere food. Some 
people think it is better food because the large firms that make and 
JcD it nowadays command greater resources than Are wiihtn the 
reach of tlie individual, and are able to use up-to date apparatus for 
the making and dL^lriblJtion of it But it is all manufactured for 


Th4 GtntUman's Afagazim, 

profit, and tt tvprou^nts th« Icut po^bV* value thai »n be gfven for 
tbe nioiwy 11 Tetdick. It b nmde in lli« dcvcr, thup wAjr iihLh keen 
CotBpctitton hm ncccnrtAlcdi 2nd h» the cncchoniral finUh irhicH 
nuj hide nuiny o dishonest flaw. Things made M home ore 
pfepiJLfcd on n more genrrout pbfi. 7*hera is no loe^iuicu In ihctr 
making, ru gia^jiiikg &Lmt, &nd 110 busy iDdifTercncc Sofelj il is net 
ft mere fisey thui Ihooe injcrcdienu; of our food whieh give os siost 
pleiutire ore put into it by people oi our own household. 

Thil wc ruy have «ucli vromrn pf nklEI atx^ui us al Iwcnc i» A 
aofttlcr for wfiich wc should caic in these ehi:np days. Our home 
lire in the old icfi&e ift breaking up, ai^d the qucfttJOD is, Can vo 
prevent things from tnkirg ihii dircciinn, a.nd, if wc can, iroukl it be 
veil for us tn dn Ml ? Since t}ic nionied women do not like bousckeep' 
ingsafnttchatttbcydid.ard the tcMlion of the acrranu ibr«sieitt to 
mm middlC'elAfis women into drudges and higherclan women into 
emplnyrnt tjfa surt tjf foreign il;i\L- laUmir^ would it not he better for 
ussJI to j^o and live in liOlcU? Probably the most sensible an&ver 
which could be given ii that servants' work ought to be orgitniwd 
into a muni<:i|Mil servkt, ilie condirions of which would be reg^ilated 
in socordsncc w:ih economic hiwa» ao th^i it would be brought 
into tine with other occupsticns to which different cIuka of people 
Bre devoting their energies at the pre^ejit time. Servants voold 
then he contented, independtnt, capabk', stid wvll-paid wiembcts of 
the community. The work of their employers, too, ought to be a 
life career for which a special training is gittn and lo which spedal 
privileges aecrue. The toils of our households would then be 
wrouglilon a sdt-mirir plan. TTiey would be many— ihough probably 
fewer ihar they now art.'— bul \hcy would be done speedily and *kil- 
fully and easily. Then we should enjoy home made viands, and 
know ihaf they werr not prepared at tht cost of much moiling and 
fu^ and o1d-nnaidisl-inc!S3, uiid sacrifice of culture on tlie part uf ei [her 
mistress or servant* 

There would be many other things to enjoy as well in a tJiought- 
ftjlly planned house, with good uppolntmenis, which was governed by 
a thoroughly trained housekeeper ; but among them ihc good ihirg* 
of the table would not be contemptible. 


K- v.. itOmNSOK. 



THERE are^ perhap^i manf people who would be disposed t& 
reckon cookery booki among the bi&iia a^fS/Zii— hooks which 
«jc no books ; but it is worthy of notice that in Charles Lambs list 
of such ihcy do not appear. And, indeed* he who wrote wich bo 
fnuch feeling, almost lenderness, about tho^ savoury dUh« which 
his ioul loved would scarcely be likely to Include these inanuuls iif 
the gAstroromicaitwithPAleyS^* Moril Philosophy "and chcasboarda 
bound and lettered ai Ehe back. An old cookery bock is. indeed, 
quite fascinatirg readings The more modem s;>ecim€r»s are apt to 
be prosauc ; wc cannot rid oursclrei of the icnsc of ihcir icvcrdy 
practical purpose. But when it has grown old and venerable with 
ycflrs ii ?iAK a disllnct charm^ for with ius^shtsnce wccin conjure 
Up quaint pictuies of the domestic life of ihe past The background 
may \x supplied by such old houBes at hjive escaped the devutalinq 
hand of the rcstoner, and by those cighicenth-ceniury chairs and 
tables wliich a credulous |iiiblic is willing lo believe that it can' 
purdiue in unlimiicd quantities in Tottenham Court Road ; but J 
cookery book will do lomething to breaMie a life into these sur 
TCundJngH, And will bnng befor*^ ua a vi&ton of ihc old'laAhJoned 
housekeeper in all her manctlous compktenm. 

And in this constructire spirit let U£ Uke up the "Art ol 
Cookery" or the great Mf^. Glasse, a book that in The elghieentb 
century was 3 classic in it« way, and was Mated by some— »uch ivaa^ 
ihe respect in which it was held— to be the work not of Mi* GloMe 
atolltbutof Dr Hill; which gave occasion 10 Johtiion to remark 
■how tntich better the subject of cookery may be iTe^tfd by a 
phllosophet," and diet '' women cannot make a good book," ct'cn ou 
iucfa A peculiarly feminine .-subject as cookery. 

\\ is a battered volufne, clothed in that ambiguous unlettered 
calf that gives no cine to the conlcrtls, and may conceal anjthing 
fjom a collection of sermons to a Latin gnvmrnar. Our fotcrailien 
Mem to have delighted in such bindings. But when once we have 


Thi GHtdemaris 

pcnfoaied thb oLoauing veil vc &nd B cliftiactcritlic froniispieoE 
with tbii legend uodcnxA^ : 

TLe r^ wbtf^ Wbe Mdofc ooowHi oat BqcJe^ 
And tbc9cv oiracUoBi prn Btf nnfiM Coalrt 

Widi QMkot Vkadtfau b«f T^bk CtonA'dt 

Ifld In Ihe iUintration (cookcrr, it 9Ccm%, w«s not contidcTal Jtu 
vmwocthjF fobfcct for Uw fine trU) the Fail ift depicted in a mob- 
Cipcijchteen indiefl hif;h, giving, as prccotbcd, her viilten directions 
to tbc^ pmdent OOoAr, whn «Unft« b^, in nn infrHcir and tenU»«pedG§ 
of nioli-cap and bucXIcd fthoc^ dcmarely to receive tbcQL TUi 
"frugal clle^ncc^ia much tiuialed oo, and tbeautboren (wc will 
oam&o that the w>c not Ut< Hill) dilatet irith a rnie iutibf 
f niligiaih 'T upon ihc rumvA^stncc o^ Fn-ncb rrx;)u. Tli^jviU tike, 
■ays ibc^ the encnce or a ham for ^tice for a linglc di&h ; a 
proewdHiei farced, vhich is almost X'itellrao in splendouf. At 
evidence of bet own economtcarmind there are on« or two delight- 
ful deccjitioni which ihc tcctjmmciidv '* If jou hare bet one 
phcftsant, ond want Iwo in a d^^ take a large Fall'gTOwn (bvl. 
Keep tbe bead in» and truss it juat as }'0U do a phecuant ; brd inih 
bacon, but don'i lard tbc rowl;7and nobody vitl Inoiv ii/' And 
■gain ; *' At the time of the yeai when house lamb is tctj deftr lake 
the bind qnaitcr of a targe pig ; take ofl~ the skin and lout it, and it 
win cat like lamb with mirt sauce, or^wiih salljid, or S^rtUe orange." 
She has much to say nitb regard to pig ; which meant, a^ in the 
idem riiis$icv4 on the subject, not mere pork, but sucking-pig, Tiicrc 
19, however, a lack of tendcm«s in her trcatmeiH. " Take a fat pjg^ 
cut off his head, sWi and iruxc him up " ; the crude vigorousncB of 
Uicac directions is almoat alarming'. Fig ^~as cvidenTlyai favDuHte 
difth in those days, if we mny judge from the mullifariouA ways of 
drctsing il, or, in tbebook'i more vivid rnanner of exprcHion, "hrvi,'' 
'* Now joa are to obscive," we ire tuld, there arc ''several way* of 
making sauce forn pig. Some don't love any sage in the pig, only a 
crust of bread ; . . . come love bread sauce in a bason j some love 
a few eurranu boiled In tt, a glasR of wine and a Lltl^ sugaLX." 
Again, certaiu epicures would tolerule no detruciion from the majr^lic 
ai^arancG of the ammal : for wc read thai '^lomc love" (how that 
" love " would havcappcalcd lo £lia \) '* a pig brought whole to tjible^" 
But there is, after alt, but litiJe scope for what ia faseiriating in 
diaacitatiora upon mere routing and boiling. These nre but the 
groundwork cf the cubntrr art, for which a ^ci^ gcniua a 



Liav^s from an Old Cook4$y B&ok. 391 

unnccc»ury. There i^ hovcvcr, t rcfincniGnt in ihe dirtciion to use 
00 iron pant for boilmg gretnB or roots, " for Ihcy i^rc not proper ; 
but let (hem be cropper, brsss, or siher." The titchen in o!d- 
juhiojicd houses IS still rcsplctiJcnt wjtli iu rovn of potislied copper 
pots fttid pan* ; but the \-is(on of a cook boiling her caLbo^u in a 
silver poE is somcthiDg more magnificent than iht modem eye b 
mecuftiomod ro ; and one cannot biti woncI«?r iboi (he palstlc iffhich 
could be induced to mistake fov! for pbca^iatit a^id "pig** for lAmb 
should yet be able to detect the Havcur of an iron pot in the 

Intbccbaptei iDlttulcd "OfPycs" iberc h inoreforinterest, and 
wc^rc reduced lo the confession thai the Art or inuUng "pjrca*^ U 
one that maic have Lamentably deteriorated. We read of a " Sbrop- 
shire pye" which coniufncd, aa pieces of re&iitance, two rabbits and 
Iwo pounds of porkt but which had nmong ita acccuorirs cocJc^ 
combs, oysters, nutmcgt^ artichokes, and half a pirn of red win& 
For '* A »ery fine *«eet Iamb or veal pye " we are to tak«v among 
ttfaef tbinga, carnUcd citron, orango and kmon peel, r^iains and 
cvnanU ; arid to odd when it comes cut of the ovco a "caudk * 
nude of a pint of vhite wine and the yolks of three c^gs, flarovred 
with lemon juice and sugar. A " Devonshire squab pye" apportntly 
coi&iilicid of iliixJ pippins and " mutton aieaka cui from ttie T<wn " 
in alternate laycn, 

Btjt the nuoat noble dish is a Yorkshire Christmas pie, for which 
are to bone, by way of j»ub*ilraiuii>, a tuikej; u ^uo!«:, a fowl, and 
a pinndjfe ; but tbii is not all. The receipt goca on lo speak of a 
haro and '*voodcock«, more game, and what sort of wildfowl you 
can get." Truly there ih need for the direction that the lid mutt be 
a •■ wry thick one " and the oust well baked Chrinlnuu Eire 
suggeata mtncc pica, which have, it iicems, oJtcxcd but little ; but n^e 
5nd among the season's deUcacies no trace of our plum<pudding, l>ut 
omly the mote ancient "plumb jx>riidgr," such as Sir Roger do 
Coverley's DiAsenling viaitor Ate of so picntifkilly as W convince the 
good knight that Queen .'Vnne's v\ct against Occasional Conformity was 
having its effect. Perhapn the receipt is wonh jjuciiing cniiro; but 
it 11 not Mich as to make Ji deplore ihc dj^()|>cararite uf the dish : 
"Take a kg and ahin of beef, put to them eight gallons of n'ater, and 
boil them till they are very tender, and when the broth 14 strong 
strain it out ; wipe the j>ot ami put in the broch again ; then tl£o& 
m penny loaves tlun, cut off the top and bottom, put some of the 
r to il, co^cr it t!p. *nd lei it fttand a quarter of an hour ; bcwl it 
strain it, and then put it into your pot. Let it boil a qturtcr (rf 

391 Tk4 GcnfUmans Magaiimt. 

«n bout, then put Li five poinds of camnU, ddui, vubod and 
|nck«d ; Ut tbcm boil a liltlc^ and put in fi^« pouiKb oT nuim of 
lli« ftun. UoHL-d, nnd two pounclM or pmenv ^nd let Ibcm boil liU 
Uicy swell ; iliui put In thKcniuAilcn of «ft outxc of oucc, half in 
ounce of cloves, two i^ulinGgs., 9\\ of Ihcm bfftt fnc, ^d mU it with 
4 lilUc liquor, cokl, and put thc-m in a i^cry Utile wtille, aad ca1:c olf 
the {loi ; \Xitx\ put m ibrcc pouriilh of sugai, a liulc 6^1, a qturt of 
ttcit, A qu^rt cf claret, atkd the juice of two or tbrcc LcaKKUL" 

But the old fiubioncd cookery was not content to Attain a pon- 
derous magnirioence ; my are apt to i^lctutv a mer« tuooes^on of 
enormous jt^ntA. baicatU whtcli i!k "mahoj^ny'' might not un- 
rcaAOoablr groan, and to recall that monotonous mtnu which aotiaficd 
Pc^'t Balaam in hia leal amUttioui da/t, when 

On» toiid tfih hEi vMkdar nnl afTard^ 
An Added ptfdj^Pf •rioimdMd ih« Lotd^ 

But vh'e read of a " marinated fow)/' beneath whose ilun arc injcrUd 
a i«al sweetbread, an nnchovy, and a few mu«hroom^, with tp«ces 
and Icsnon-ped aud yolk of egg ; bolides xrhidi *^ what oy^iora ytm 
plcoae " nra to b« etuflcd into the bodn and the brca?t larded with 
bacon: trulyBn elaborate confection I fn a simpler mode of cooking 
chicl'cns, for whidi a silver or [lewler (IihIi vt. to hr uAcd, there U 
nicidy a Ltllc niacc b? way of flaixiuring ; but thin, v? arc told, U 
'*a *cry pretty d»sh for a sick pctKni^ or for a lying-in lady. For 
clian^ it is better than btiiier, and the sauce is very agreeable and 

There is a whole chapter on made diihca, «ucb as the most 
fanuuiically minded cook of modern days need not deapi^ic* We 
do not call them *' made diaJiea " now, nor do our mrrttr; designate 
their choicest dcUcaclcA by such names as '^Snipes in u surEout,** oe^H 
** Pigeons tfansmogiified": which last "will cat evcecdinx jzood and^H 
nice, and will >-ield sauce enough of a »-«> JigretaSlt rdifih." Bm, tki 
anyrate, the cigliteunih century was not a lime when altcrratcsirlolni 
and Itga of mutton composed the houiekeepwr'i ideal. The bill of 
fare was varied enough, as th*? moiulily liM will ceMify, li may 
somewhat shock our ideas of propriety to learn lliai uur anrcsiors 
were occustcinK^ to cat. la July, *' young partridgca. pheasant*, and 
wild ducks called flappers or moullcre " ; but tha catalogue of Mice 
i» still more amazMig, That for the Mid&vmmer quarter, beginning 
wich ^^lufbots and Trout^," ijicltide§ "grig, shaHlins, glour, tene«, 
doTphm3> Hying fi«h, ihecphc^ toliis botli land and sea, stttrgi.-on« 
scale, and cbubb." I'erhaps some of lhe»e by other names maf 

Lioi'ts from an Old CooAity licok. 

«ncn 3« swet^t ro \\\t modern f^picure, but the Billtngi^ic of our 
dayi kiiourn them not. 

But the on of cookery had a lighter %tA more fartutic tide. 
Theve was not only the kitchen, bTJt the flill-room, that mysterious ^\ 
region sacr^ tn the preparation of the UJctc trivial ildicaden, ihc ^, 
very rrif^rics of rood. The name Aurtivcs, but it \% merely in&me; - 
the good housevife no longer includes distilling and iti kindred ArtA 
among her accompli shmerti. A hundred and fifty ypnrs ago thing* 
were diffefenU and in the pro[x:t seaion she was bustlf cnj^eJ in 
gaihcfing fnd preparing Iho^e various strange plants and fiowcrt 
which constituted ihe raw maierinl of those syrups and wine* and 
convenes and wilcra uhlcb wt!ri: the pridt: *A hf^r hciait and Ihc 
foundation of her renown. The "Rambler" tells of a visitor to a 
country house, an admimbly ordered country hous^ who found tho 
floor of his bedroom covered with sieves of leaves and flowers, 
which before the process of disUlling hid lo be dried, and to ihat end 
were placed in the sucst-chambcr, bccAuse '' no ether room so eon- 
Teniently received the rising sun/' And, indeed, the receipts of the 
period presuppose a knowledgir of bolany at which ihi^ housekeeper 
of our day «ouId stand aghast. A receipt for Qjfrc of these "waten" 
— imcdidnal water, it \s true— cont:uns?ome sixtykindsof rooUand 
fiower^c and seed?^ among them suCh things a< tiiaiflrnhair^ origany, 
wiatci aavouTjv colt's fool, siwfrase, moihcrwort and sentory. The 
commoner mgrcdicnts of coitrsc are there: mini, ruc^ poppies* 
lennc), and *o forth j so if thl; was the water which the Ktmblei^ 
hosts were shout to di^^if], it is not Rurpriving thai ilie bcsi bedroom 
floor was thicc parti filled with the material?. A curious contpound 
it " Hysterical water," for which we ire directed to take betony, roota 
or lovagf, seeds of wild jiatsnips, " mistletoe of the oak," myrtle, and 
a few other things* and, finally, a "quarter of a pound of dried miUe- 
pcd»." 'I'he preliminary licrba are not allogetlicr entouro^ing ; but 
"dried mill^ped?" present still fewer aitraeiions as sn article or diet; 
perlups thdr flavour was in Kome d<%rec obliierated by "three 
quarts of mugwort water and two quarls of brandy " which were to 
be added. The compound is to &iand for eight days, and then be 
distilled, and wine pints of [he invaluable product dra wit off, swc^^tened, 
ftnd bottled up for use. 

There were many such waters as these, but perhaps the moat 
inviting Is "Black cherry water" The irgrcdients of this include, 
besides Els eponymous black cherries, rosemary, bahn, marigoTd 
Bowers, and dried violets. A distilEotion of red rosebuds has also \ 
picturesque found ; but mo«t of the waters— treade w%^,nv\\k Wutti^ 

394 *^^ Gcniktfuttis Af<^asiH€, 



valnvt nter, ODil the r«f t— «OQu!n i iiinU>r roandnkn of ttnogB 
and oninrdiing hcffae. True, there b ycMnQr aovc nofe potnn 
aD|;rcdiccLi— French brtfidy &» ■ ml^ or Onarj viae. For "Stt^ 
h«»it wai«r" the 6r»t neccmry b a Rigfi heut covoed viA 

** IUiatebt''lo «Uch u« ftddcd, aoHMi^ oih<T iriia^ nWBHUy 
smet cotrjocuiv kmon ftnd ooofc ped, hcrtihoni mod 
Some of ihc*c prquniions ircre obvioadf ■'**^*^"V bat «■ to dw 
otben the nodon nkid b iomvltfi it % lov. To wtat papott 
vere they with 10 oucfa kbov nnde «ad botUed ? CKd ov pctt- 
gE«f>diD04bcn ifit£nd Uicin to plcaae their friends or poiaoii their 
CDcnitt withal? Were they to be baaded ro«ad m ddicicies nd 
sepedi] milks of Etvour, or wttt thif deogaad to am itnage 
oboolele ailmeatih Eke the npo«ts» Iron wbkh aU penraos of goiml 
pvtt«naio» vere iccwtonted to ««ffcr ? The cookcTy hock telU ia 
not; it icoo no Nirther thin the directiocis Cbr boctiing; uid fau 
cot eoninii{>bted thr poedWUC]r of mdi lpiaarv« is ibtt of ibc 
twentieth cent&ry. 

'Ihctii is 1 rtcvt;^ for me^ vhnch i« lea mpttnoo^ Hve 
griknu of waut i&d oim of hoaey vt to bt boUtd tosetfaer, Jnd 
m littk bi^ of bmbed gingcrt cioauaon, oad lutaMg |iltted Aenin. 
Tbe mixture b to stand and cooL with cnoo^ aic jeaat put tn to 
make tt work> aiui then kept ta a vam plKo ; ** when it bath 
wtooght wefl,** the dirccooos cwdnB^ *'tufn imp ; at two months 
ion dttr drink, ii, hjvi.-ig been bctdcd a DOnth ; bat if fou keep it 
tar anub^ it mriu be betta.* 

Tli«roiioc«fttiD d<light M ifrapik too, whose lumcs u« quite 
M f lMLfc U b bud to bcfieve that sadfc cOB&xtxMu u '* S^mp of 
pCKb-UoMoqia* or "^ny of dowylHltftw<n*cm be iDCCDded 
for the icfrcshmeot of ncrt pon h« a *ntfy ^ Coomtto of faipo 
and of red fOMS too f«neai & bif W lor TbuM nuber ihsn for 
momali; ard whit are vc b> i«|i uf tt p«C«iiri«4u« a di^ » 
"CowiKp puddkic"? I« thii bit. I>c pedt or cowslipa 

Hcmi to bo JODiOwIm oivwiatepj - ^** abciod ilavoun 

of sixtircnefg»,ihroeptaiof OBMfc^i^ ^**>^**«*i't^ Hooic- 
mdc wmci «bo « McMnk in, ilw «««*» » *»oo« ihc 

IWCe— UT pfOdWdfomof * Hi W lfc Wrl ^MMIxi*^ Ci*l«*ntinj«aiMl 

pxmtmrf wliw and cowUip ««« [*c (»<i*iil> *«uis lo bi*c been 
mprded ts peculisdr suitable fat jn Uli«^ ^ lood) oticq yet 
nmrm ; bat nefa m dococtMM u taniip ^^o ^^ wmclhipg of a 
However, wt find that tocRif fiAon of juior (on« m not 
bf the sotifid of tnnup fnaec) there =s added, bcsicko 
v^sv, half a pial of bandy; to the skilled aaAJbet of bc»oe*mado 


Licvis fr&m an Old Cookery Book. 

vinet wu not above foitifyiiig bcr prcductioos, and perhaps ibo 
fiAvour of the *' turaip juice" wot t^ot predominant There is a 
pleutng oldfaahionf^d sound in & "*ack poaaei/' for the tiuking of 
which four Niplcs biacuiu &ic to be crumbled into a pint of ttvw 
milk (anothei niore Imitnous receipt says "cream,'' and Jidda the 
yolks of two eggi). and ilien, when It has boiled, n^ *re to grate in, 
some ntilmog/'&vfct'tcn lo your [xtlale,'^ and add half a pint of sack. 
SylUbuba^ too, nnd flummery arc among the dainlica deacnbodi 
the fwToer, in order Qiat it may be n^e to perft-ciion, needing the 
actual presence of ^ cow ; and there are all fOrts of things sucli as 
wc call trifles, and tipsy allocs and other frivolous vianda \ certain 
elabomU dishes, too, knovrn u "Moonshine" and '^ Hedj^c-ho^** 
which are designed not only to please the pilatc, but to "look 
pretiy in ihe middle of n tabic fur supper" 

But our cookcfy book, in spite of its expressed determination 
*'aOt to meddle in the physical way,'* cannot resist pinnj; ive> 
\, one X<A .1 qK'f ific against the plague, and ihc other for the 
of llic bile of A mad dog^ Irt time of pkguc we aie \o uifuM 
me, sago, lavender, and other herbs in while wine vinegar, with some 
•*c*mplnrc," wiih our niouihi and temples wi;h iho preparation, 

*and carry a sponge dipped in thi; &anLc, " in order lo smdl to on all 
cccftsions.*' The cure for the mad dog's bite commences with 
bleeding and the taking of a strange powder in cow'e milk, woim \ 
it then directs that the- patient "musi go into the cold hath or a 
cold sfprin^ or livcr every morning, bating, for a month," but, Ie3t 
thit vigorous treatment should appeiif too t<'rrir>'in^ we ore told 
that he may keep his head above water, and need not stay j.[i longer 
tlian halfa mliiuit' if the wjiter be very cold. Thcic is, norcovi^r, a 
" Powderforlhc heartburn" described wliichaavcun of the old-woild 
type of medicines, for a conspicuous ingredient is the "eyes and 
daws of crabs," Then, by way of ip|)endix, we find an ertremeljr 
Irencliaiil method of dealing with bedsteads with a view to clcantl- 
ncas, tm^ a few mL^ellaneouit receipts for lip lah'es and h&ir 
j^k TVuty there was a marvellous coniprelu:n«iveni?ti In the art Gf 
the old-faihioncd housekeeper. She knew not only how to couk, 
but how to brew and to bake, to make her syrups and walen. her 
preserve! aiid her essences ; she wnuM gather her herbs and prepare 
^ her ahnples, and pickle everything that was capable of being 
^1 |]ickJcd, from pork to cueumbcrt ; she would supply her medicine- 
^B cheit and the £upper< table ai her assemblie;, even her wine'CeUor, 
^ftirith the productions of her own ingenious hands. We can Imogens 



IS Jtf^i^m^^tmf. 

■ad 11^ r::i£3 ?sft:^ SgrVig, tad cicb eels he 
Tae * r«£ ' erf' ^^ ^ -i "J n d» tbDofcs ie m 

tEi ^jrctric T:n radi . - -^ ^ ^ si cood Mrs, Pri=ra>c woo b; 

' ^-ijj T?-T gcr^Ti^Tied of it 
^TTttJ^ be inl^^ :3 ber, u u 

u^errx Koi:i5c». 




Pakt II- SojoriLN i^f Pakis. 

LOUIS BAMBERGER and hib wife reached Paris 5afcl>\ and 
for a short dme &u>cd ii a Mnall hotel ^\ pension^ *' Dcs 
Trois trfchis." The plare is tlescnbtU by Louis as follows: "Th« 
IflndUdy, as is genernll^ iha rs^ wis elderly, and 1i;id seme tmces 
oTpOAt Scjuty and ihc equivalent opcrience of life There were 
\ few hohituh at the iabli d'hdls^ among wbom Ihc usual holf-pajf 
major wa^ net mJs&ing. The furniiuie^ lilcc ihc Udy and the major, 
wu worn out arid not parucularly clean. A smell of t^icid buticr 
And burnt fat met one on entering the house, and reEnaincd so 
inbmatdy connKied wiih the placii, thai to this moment whenever 
I imcll burnt fat I ihfnlr of the Hotel dcs Trois Fthrs, BtJt I 
liked the place for nil tliat. What luippy liouni v^c sficnt tlieic ! 
How we laughed ! Were 1 no! afn&rd of the IsuJatar femporti aifi 
1 lliouid be tempted to fay> nhcri I read modern sentimcnial njid 
socini noveU and dramu, that at thnt time v^r l^joked at the world 
with mote cheerful eyes, althou;^h we vrcte refugees cost out of cur 

letter on the Bamberger; look an apanment in the Pbic« 
VetidtVme. Louis did not escape IIlc attention of the police, thoui^h 
it waw only after he had been in Pnria for some lime thai he wai 
one day summoned ro appear before (he Uirecteuf dc la SCinrt^ 
Publicjut He took with him sufiicicnt credentials, ami soon 
entered into a friendly convci^tion with the Uirccteur, who a.%ked 
Bamber^r whether he would like lo we hia lictfitr. And A 
document was produced instribL-d, *' Bamberger, Louis, rhe/ de« 
bftndea qui ont ensangtantf 1e Falatitiat/* 

Bamberger's old friend, Merits Hanmann, i^as m Paris and 
lived at the tame hotel. He wis a btvLUa^iM coivfen^Vt;^c^vt^-u>& 

Th4 CfHiUman^s Magastiu. 

pdicKd foand liH invftlid couch & number of dJitioKuishcd or 
lotcreMkig p«noAi to vrbom he introthictd bis o\6 tchooUeUov. 
Htl Umn n wtu cooiplcteljr ruled b^ hJs physician, Dr. Gmbj, 
«hQ«e ildlU ftntS ccccntridtica were fully rtportcd in tin: London 
pApcn. Dr Cruby was ah HungariuL He wu fond of vi-vUcdioit 
Ho cured many <4 hit pftilent* by " si:iggesiion," and it U loU that 
be uTiVml 0:1c of hi« lAd>' poticnUi who suHcfed front cUroriic 
MTC-throM, 10 bay & buncb of SponUH firapcj crcry day at a 
pafif^W thop, take them u^ith b«r to iTie garden or the Palais 
Royal at the hour of twrivo, ai\d ai every ctroke of the clodc to 
■walliciw one gnpc wilhoul buntirt^ it Tiic lady, it is allnDod. 
was cured 

The immense variety of rarician figures which paa before ut in 
the " RecoUecdona * c^nnoi poujbl/ be done Justio: lo iri a papet 
of thia acre. Wc luti^t (jctforcc icstrict ouiadTca to what i» mod 
likely to be iolcrcsting lo EngU^ readers* 

A fltriking personage cvas Ivah TuigcnielT, the Russbn author, 
«bo often >^»ilcd Bartniaiin, and wliose hcrculea/i figure 
fCencrally pncacnt ix New V<»r banquets^ He had a noble leonine 
headf with beautiful locks like a lion's mane ; softly beaming eycj, 
and a silverloned voio;. He vcn very modest, and bis celebrity ai 
a wrilcr »as c^i^L into tjjc iliadc by ilic charm trf hi^ manner. 

Uriil bia death, Louia tclb u», Tur^cnJclT lived m the cIoACSt 
friendship »iih Pauline Garcia ViardoL l^uis heard the laEtcr sing 
in tlie nVf of '^ Orphcti* " v,'hi:n the wat forty yeflr* old, and was SO 
dctigbtud witEi licr vuiLc fijiil acUnj^ clui Iiu went to tux perfbmiancca 
of Cluck 'n opera, and enjoyed the lait as much aa the fint Fcnon- 
ally, t^ulint; Garcia made on our friend Louis an impression c( 
great [nivfer ^udi &s b*? el&e ^rnly fuund In Gcoi;ge Sanil. Both 
women xTiokcd dsarcilcs while converaidg. While Gco^c Sand 
was a true I'r^nchivcEnan, speaking only Italian besides her own 
language, Pauline Garcin, the lulUn, vat a cosmopotii-in, and 

t spoke Ftr.ncb, Ocrman. and Englisii perfectly. 
Once, at Baden, Lotiis Dambcrgcr, Moritf Haiimann, and 
TuTgcnieJT met m the street a Russian oHicer, an acquaintance of 

• Bamberger, who suddenly, then and there, went mad. It was the 
&Tde time that Louis liad evci seen an outbuist of insAnityi To 
order to pcrauadc ihc poor man to g"* to an asylum, his friends 
_ told him ih-it ihcy wanted to take him to sec a chiteaii which he 
■ ought to purchase. He Agreed, and un ch^ way was very talkative 
H and cheerful, relating incidents of his life, and from time lo tituc 


Traits in th4 Li/4 </ a Great Gtrman Libsrat. 399 

the courtyftid of the uylum be bcf^ lo hum the io/ouft air fiom 

the *' Birbcr of Scviil^" " Ecco ridente 1! sole," Bamberger says Ihat 

be C0UI4 never forget the cruel comedy of tliat moment. The In^iiie 

ynljr tired j fevs months longer. This first sight of ^ 

ttic mylum modca tcmblc impre^jicii on Louis, for itmong the 
female mmalcft he rtcognised a your^g woman whom be had known 

ft blooming gifl, and who was now a drivtlling idbt. As he 

home, oil ihc people he mci seemed to him insane. But 

\n% cornpanions commcQccii a literary converwtion, and Tunicnicff 

t>etrayed such a ipkndid memory and intimaie aequainUuice iviih 

rperiuan ItcraLure that Bamberger wa& (tuite uloDinhed. Turgenicff 

on the way a tong poem, **1)ct allcThunnhahn" from 

ling to <:^d without one mist:Uce. 

Recailtng this incident of the asylum our friend cells of an 
adjaiatior^ addressed by MaxinK Ducamp to the director ofaGcmian 
Itinaiic asylum m nhich Madame If-, who bcouoc maane in 
consequence of the outbreak oT il:e Franco-German war. was 
confmedH " Sauvci'moi, Nr^dame H./' tiled tUat urdcnt Frenchman, 
l"ei je V0U3 donne I'Atsacc ci la Lorraine !" 

Speaking of tcnsualiiy in Krance^ Bamberger observes : ''All over 
Jlhe world <^;rt^iialjiy vi (lowerfiil ai a goddi»ss but in France ll has a 
liav stamp, miAcd of love of beauty, leflned tatte, and sexual 
Eceling, with even a Icut^h of intcllcctuably. ImmorQlity in France 
is only une «ide of tlie universit and acute Mnsuousness of Lhe 
Frendi race. This dUpo^illon easily leaxJs (o excess, but he the 
lame tinic even moral and refined people feci its power. The lies 
of kindred aru much stronger m France than in (Jermony^ In 
French romancei the mother co[i&iantly plays a part. The lUtraction 
of the ' ctcinal feminine ' shows its power in Uic worship of mothers 
by iheir son*, lhat relationship being very tender in France- In three 
rtecent auiobiogruphle*, those of Rcnan^ Gounod, and Mciaionicr, 
tUi^ v^nlitncm is very unaiTc-cttUly nprcinrd. Htrw t:dd, lijctim* 
pftriscn, seems Goethe's affection for his cxecUent mother ! '* 

• Space faLb us to note here all that wc find on these subjects in 
Bie p^eii btfore \i% and also much ihat i* interesting concerning 
the practice of law in Fiance^ and the manner in which Pariaian 
Judges coald be "influenced," if not bribed. 

WewiEJ again approach the tick-bed of MorJU Hart ni an n, and 

watch the figures gaihrrrd rtiund it. Prominent is the Coir1c«;e 

d'Agoult, the friend of Lisxt and mother-indaw uf Ridiard Wagner. 

She lived separated from her husband, the then director of the 

^LBan<7uedeFraiicc. She was a MadecnoiMM^d^Vasv^*) ^xA^m 


Tk< GtnlUman s AfagaztiU, 

born at Fmnkfort in 1805. In bcf "Memoirt" fthe<ltpictiheTChild- 
huod,pa$ac^ijitlmiiuwa L^tcr.'whcD in Friiicc-.slic kept up m close 
ctxincctioci wiih Germany und the Gctmana. She vrorc ondcr the 
p«oudonym of Daniel Slcrn. Her principal work nai > history of 

the Revolution t)f 1B48. When 4hi^ ^'Sailed Hari(nn»r, shv was 
^Eicrally ^cconi;j^iicd by her two daugbtcr^ Cotimaand Hloodirc. 
Of the fcrmcr vc kno? thm &hc became the wife of the Rreat German 
compuaer; BlDndinvmarrit^da Monsieur OlEmcr. Madame d'AgouU 
WHS 4 seLf-im^iurun], commanding Koman, 

Soon after ^cttlmg in ?aris» Louis Dombcriccr procured an intro- 
duction to Hcinrich Hdne^ but, the poet being then terribly ill, 
Loui* did not renfuw to intrude upon him, which he rcgrcucd 
afterwards ; for Iil- says, '* When some cdchraicd man hflii died, one 
jl alw:cLya aony to hive nimcd nny opportunity of speaking with him." 

The most di:;tir)guishcd paintvr tn the circles Irequented by Lovit 
nasGtJsrnvc Kicard, nov better appreciated by the AOTldthanbefcffe 
his death, lie luu often been compared to the great GerniAn painic:!, 
Lenbach ; but Kicard is mote objective and discreet in his " psycho* 
logy"iha^ L€rl>Ach, Bambergei considerK bis masterpiece tobethe 
portrait of Mad.^me dc Calohne, the wife cf the founder of the 
"Remc Conlcmpotainc-" She was a Pole, a highly rcinaikablc 
woman, and the inttmate friend of Rjc^d, which is perhaps the secn:t 
of his cacching the fp'ritwe! depression of her fac& 

Ricard wak a mr:>st careful worker- He would IqII for monlhit 10 
obtain a curtain mixture of colours, and ^pokc of vermilion and 
bitumen as if ihey v^ere sacred gifts. He carefully studi^ the treat' 
ment of colours by thu old maitEers ; and would rise in ihc mii^dle 
of the night to add a touch to a picture. It w,is he who taught our 
friend "to see." 

Ricard was a handsome man, and posseted the "finest intellect** 
Louis had ever met with. Coming inlci conTaci vfith many GettiiajiSi 
Rtcard hod IcarnD the lar^uat^e, a»d toolc great pleasure in rcadinjc 
"Faust," the dedication of which he knew by heart- He lived In 
great rctiroment, and considered it a misfortune to be obliged to go 
into wdeiy. 

Fsul ChfLnavard was another artist-fricnd of our author. He 
WHS bom at [,yons in 1807, and lived to be eighty-seven )*ju» of 
age^ He looked like a Roman &enatoi, but his imposing ajipcarance 
was spoiled when he opened his lips, for be waa always hoarse, 
suffering from chrome laryngitis. Yet he was a great lolker, and 
when in sc^cic-ly no oiht-r man could get in a word. His rival In 
thia respect was the astronomer Babiaet, and when the iwo met 

Traiis in the Life of a Great German LibcraL 401 

there wu a reguhr ^ght as to nhicb should »peak. Thcif riiaids 
used to lay that x\\k man who inftud \tA% lost, and once, when 
Chanavard w:u> }^pc:iking and suddenly obUgcd to snccJW, Eic quickly 
pkcc-d hh \ut\t\ on Baliinci*^ mcmth, vrho vu titling next him, and 
hdd it there till he had finbhcd sneezing and could ^pealc again. 
Babinct, on the other hand, while talking, ivas quite oblivious of 
what wat E<iing on around him. Once, at a dinner, hla friends 
jokint^ly oHct^d him die ^mc dish thticc running, and cicti timG 
Babinct hcfpcd him^vlf copiouslr, eating the food n^eehanic^illy. and 
unconsdoui of the trick- Cha^avurd had no love of nature, and 
thought it vtiy odd that peopk liktd lo t;ike lAalks. Once a friend 
nuhed intc lua studio and railed at him for staying Indoors in such 
fplcndid we^fher. He dragged htm out, pa£t the Tuilcries into the 
ChamjK- Elys^ei, and kept crying, '*Ah! qnUl fait beaut qu'il 
Ckit beau ! " *' I could noi imagine," uLacrved Cluiiavard when 
TcUting the ireidfJit, " what there v^as to admire I ^ 

A tender friendship c&istcd between Chanavardandthccompoifl* 
Rcasini, though ihe former ua5 never satisfied with what he had 
done, and the biter was a joyous epicurean who rested on his laurets 
quite early in life, and enjoyed his own eclol>r'iy. The Authorities 
had presented Ro^ini with a villa in th^ Bojs i!i? Boulogne, which 
was decorared by Chunavoid, In wtnler Ros^In! Itvcd very near tbc 
Bflmbci^ers in the Chaussv^e d'Anlin, and they met almotl daily. 
The exceeding comfort expressed in Ro^^ini's whole figure was ntwnys 
a delight to Bamberger- Rossini looked niuie tike a Neapolitan 
comedian ihana Roman senator. His poiily thcsi naacovcred by« 
many eoloured velvet waisteoat, over which hung aihick ^old chain ; 
his face wore an ejcprewion of goodnamred irory, and be over- 
flowed with f'oti$ mofi. Tn this, howti-er. ChanfLiard was hiB match. 
Among other cclcbralcd artiste with whom Louia Bamberger 
ame in conlaci, he describes Dor£ aa an elegant little man cf no 
jmpo&in^ aspect ; and Mei'isoiirei ns an ordinary -looking bluMciiiig 
fellow with a thick-act figure, who would have been gn:a*ly surpmcd 
tould he have known that after his death WiUiam IL wouM wiro 
deep'felt condolences ro bisi widow, for the French aitihi and the 
Gciman Enipvior bod no sympathy foe each other. Mcissonicr was 
fatuiltCftUy Frcnc}), and after the ^«i hated the Germans with all bis 
hexTL Bamt>crgcr mc^niionfi that later on the great GertDati palmer, 
Men£tl, met Md%3onier tn Paris, and that it waa very futiny to 
wiinCH the interview, for the one knew do German, and the other 
no French- 
It was also after ift;! that Bambcrgw tntt vVie ^tttxVivfidmi^ 


Tie GiniUmani Ma^astne^ 

pamUr Jciri-Lcon C^r^utc.^ "G^me," he 9ij%, ^h one of the 
mo«L splendid hcroit: (ijcurci I hafc cwr men. 'Hie AUnsbine of 
Ftcncb l^^k^mtt xtaXA on hiv ftatvtes. and h« hu the ftisUbilky uid 
rclincmr^m pruper lo \.\\c most ckganl m&uf^teairf type Native 
polish Aiid a joking sclMqwccIationglfc plqu^mcy to bJA convcmrion. 
He \i «tit! a miehty hunter^ and full of j^uthlul eUHicity ait sevcfity 

A number of musJcUnK ftnd their rcUtivcs vAtxt |xiai bdbrc oar 
eye*: the ^idow of Chcrubini, ''aatilclir, ploa*ing old woman*; 
flmd the lulian musicU critic Scudo, greatly fibred because ol hit 
flevcriiy, who looked liltc an old o^ccr. Hr w^is once xi a dinnct- 
pnity given by Sambcrgef, and led the convcr^Iion. For sorae 
trilling cftuse he grew angry ^th bis host, and £cmc in&uliing 
things, lo which iiamberg^r replied moderately, wtshin^ to avoid B 
icmc The other gu&is were 5iiriiris«l at Soido'^t behaviour, a* he 
▼u known lo have good manners. He remained a litlk nhJle af^ 
the others hod left, snd when he wm gone, Mrs. Bamber^r Icid her 
biiiib.ind that he had kept her talking for some time, and hod 
exclaimed in an excited maimer. *'You sec in tne thcgicalcst and 
b«ppic3t tnun in the world I " Next day ncvs c^me thai Scudo hod 
gone mad that very night, and had been tJtkcn to a lunatic ostium. 
He never left it again. This vss the third time th^it T^iuu 
Saiiibctgcr !iad witiica^cd the oitlltre^k of in&aaity, and he ^%s nOE 
spared the tight of another bfcukdown of intellect, lo him the mojt 
tragic of all, " I was the first/' he sajB, " to pciceive that all was not 
righl vrith t^sktr's brain. But this lime it was rather a failure of 
the power of thought than absolute lunacy. It was probably the 
tardy result of a violent attack of typhoid from which l^slccr hod 
sufiVred in [S74, and of the want of proper rcit afterwards,"* 

The '* RrcoHecilons" then wander :« the subject of ihc cta^nt^ 
and our author ^isc»G»c» ii at fuU length. He remarks that, o^ an 
omtor is alvays something of an acior, he feels in 1 painlV^] manner 
any Jndircri'nce or Inaircntion on ttie part of his audience, and 
infinitely prefers aipi» of diwpprobation, A poLitiaJ iptaker, he 
s&ya, hoE for more need of a eia^ne than an aeior^ and an appropriate 
''Hear, hoar T"or *'Qtiitc nghi/' thrown in by one of hw pany ai 
the rit'ht momenlr Ih a very cncoaragirif: and impoflant things [n 
Centiany Auch encouragement 13 often neglected because of the 
" niggardhnesft of the German nature," 

Rietiitning to his musical rcmiotAcenr^ea, Bamberger lelU u« liov 
he bcc&mc acquainted with the FrciLch shaman and the t^mOK- 
* Jcaa-L^cn C6^e hu died lately. Itc wu bom in i3a4.'*L. W, 1^04. 

Tyaits iu i&€ Lift of a Cnai German LibetxtL 403 

wiarj. !n )if& time their head and prtrtot>-pe was ihe cclcrbnted 
NadttJiJ, who Has oii^inally n maaon. aud afterwanjs ii rcpuUi<aii 
deputy, and vho derived Ms mit&icAl fame from Lhc songs he 
vTote, ftct to muiic; smd t&ng. His "Deux Gcndannefi^ will 
|3Tolubty be fWTiiT rorgollcti. It dncribci Iwa Frtneh sergeinw 
marchlnt; At night along the highnay vrjili 4 rectult froni Alsace. 
The tergcints praise the military earccr, jtnd ihc recrait responds in 
broken French. As lliey maTch, diy gradually dawns and ihe song 
ceases ; the strgcaitts have falleEi ailcep ai lliey gu 

Gfrdme, the nrti^ was a patron of "Lc Chat Noifi" and took 
Bambergt^r there^ They entered a iiraatl bou«c in a narrov street, 
ai][l, possm^ through a eoiiimon drinking- room on the ground floor, 
went up sonae steps lo n room above. A white cloih was stretched 
on one of the wdls for the purpose of displaying shadow figures, to 
which recitations and songs furnished the text. Doublet tnttniit 
and pclitical &kil5 cnteTiabed Ebe 5pcct4tars while they ^cnukrcl and 
dranL Louis Bamberger fk>uiid the whole thing atupid. and remarks 
that only ihe lig;hi-hearted teniporaraenl of Frenchmen could find 
pleasure in such slippery comedy and political iieandal 

In the days of Napvlcon III. iixcjrbns Symnct were aa fomoui at 
TIiMm And Vvettc Cuilben are now. These brothers were twins 
lR3m the Low r)Tcnee5, and were well rceeived at Court. Mueh later 
(ill 1896) Bambeiger resumed hi!^ [nycho]ogtc:al study of die Parisian 
fkflniiftt at "Les Tr^tcaux dc Tabarin^" the then new atuaction. 
" All the world/' he ^ys, '^ ru&hcd to the place. It wu A room SO 
sniialt thai smoking and drinking could not be allowed ; chairs were 
doocLy act for about a hundfcd persons. The audience for the most 
port was composed of people of the higher clossea; the men appeared 
in evening dress, the ladies fn^ntn/e tttiUm. One afcer the other, 
incninUu]-coatKStep^>rdontolhesni;illp!Btfortn,nndrrdtcd pruscor 
doggerel in a sort of sing-^nrg, lo which occcmpanimcntswereplAyed 
on a wretched piano behind the &ccne<. 'J'he worst songs went 
by the name of thanton rosr ; there U no denying that It needs a 
pcculim talent for the invention, and especially for the recitation, of 
this kind of comie art Its secret lies in the admixture of refine' 
ncnl and vulgarity, or rather of eattuUtrriif.'^ It wa* quae amai^ng, 
on coming our, to frnd a row of clrgant er|i]ipages waiting in the I 
ttrceti Bamberger hjd the imprcv^ion that the Tcry footmen must 
bftve despised the laatc of their masters. " But perhaps," he adds, 
" I ovcT'eitimated the lackeys. " 

Paris had a charm for Caniberger, he confessed, which no other 
dtr possessed. Jo jfijj he had the good ionxirc VO v»\ 'fcrat, v 


Tk^ Cenikmafis Magmhe, 

vroniJcrful St. Martin's summer, tl^e weaiher twing quiU mogicallr 
bcauliful Huf Tint dri^'c In the BoIi di; Bo'jln^c on ihc tra. 
Sunday In Noircnil>irr w« a ihlrig to rctncmljcr, TTic Avctiuc dj 
Soj3 dc Goutognc did not tlicn exist. The route Wf on a rath<:r 
dirty road to the left of the Afc de Tnomphc ; but in the Bou ilMir 
ihe elegant p^^ufIlH^f5M ftod bright blue ily da^lcd ibi? ty«i. 

At that lime Ujniba^ci hu<I acliicvcd ^ ^curc poAiLion. ffehiJ 
a guanntced iiiconic of not 1ck« thin la^odo francs* year, And itiras 
tuffieient for x\\g modcnfc nc^edi of \\vi wife and himsdr, even in 

One of the clicnU of the bajik wm f^mArlinc. who was atvrays in 
GnoAcial d^tficukicA, spending more Lhin htfi really lirgc iricoine, H« 
liked lo pLiy ihej/MJtif tf/gnfur^ A pcmplete rdiiion of h!i vorks 
vraa at that ttnie publj^hL^d by iuh:9Cr]ptioia as x kind of n:itiona1 
tribute to his i;cn)u>, and the talc runs that the sul^cribc^ were 
received at the house according to the amount of their svbicrip- 
tjona : ll]0:)C wbu lud been libi^ial bcin^ Uiktn hito a room from 
the windo^v of which ihcr could sec Lamaninc walking m a 
neigh bouh lit; corridor, wltilc thoje who bad tigne<d for only ooc 
copy of the pocuis nii^lii not pLrncLr^ite funlicf thun iht? ame-roonL 
Lanjaitmc used to go to (he hai\\ to draw a pension whicli tJie 
Sultan bod ^nlcd hiai» but it ^v:ls nci-cr cleftr what services he bad 
rendered Turkey. 

Bumberger iil%a met Van lieckerci at the Ijank, who hod killed 
the Ru»^tan poet Tuscbkin In a duwl He rvu oUigcd Let leave 
Kui;aia and went to Alsace^ but after the O'v^ tiVfat SCtlJod in 
Paris, ^here he nude himself useful to Nopolcon III., and wa* c*«n 
«ni to the difTaein coum of Eurupe lo »eeU for a filling wife for 
the Emperor. 

Another figure is that of the British £latesm.'in, George Goschctif 
who Hcni to Faris to sirange the fint Egyptian loan. He wa* at 
that lime a junior partner Panibcij^cr never ww Mm agaJJi lilJ. in 
the aevontics, he met him in Bcfb'n at a dmncf gi^tn in his honour 
by Lacker. 

By degrees Ijainbcrgcr cxetcUeil a refrjining innuencc on hla 
uncle, who vas of a too optimi&lic chAricti:r, and apt to become a 
victim to pr*>jcct-m!iterH. In this connection liambctgcr tells uti 
that llisinarck, ihc farsightcd statesoian, wa» very liable to bfl 
imposed upon by spctuhiors. *'\fost aristocrat**" remark* cut 
author, "havcahking for men who entice them out of common- 
plaro business culeulationt ; and for thie reason princea and counts 
may cicn be found at 1\k haul of our colonial societies j Ar>d 

Tratis in ths Lifi of a Gnat German Li^raf. 405 

mnlLcal durlatans live cbie^y oxx the cicdulily of ibc irppcr Ten. 
lo his houM ai Var j^irt, BJsinarck kept at ihc hc^d of his afTatn a 
COnEidentuI nun who was a frantic speculator, and Bismarck believed 
in ihls man more ihurt >n the mcKt resportablc rejiresmcatii^s of the 
merchant cLus." 

Bamberger sums up ihc KSuit of his Vxfis expcricnoe as having 
uttled all hi* doubts as to the career he oughi to D<Jop! ; pTact)<al 
knowledge of the great lasks o^ life, ami daily inicrcouTSt with 
agreeable and highly cultured people of the mast varioi lurtk and 
profee&ion, prevented htm from feetmg the pro^t^ of (everyday bur>incn 
dudes. He aho at the very root of all large finflncinl operaliorti 
and European politics- Cach day the '^Momicur '*AnA other offidal 
paper? were eagerly opened in cx|icctalion of some ectefi d< iJ^Urr, 
and from peoptc "behmd the scenes" reliable reports of what wm 
being secreiJy concocted could be ol*iained. To all (his was added 
the diArm of Pansian life to a comparatively young man ; and x 
IK-ely eiTck of friends. Still Louis fell an undertone of diseomenL 
" ^f y irdinaiion fcr potirics and litemtUTc Iny apart from rht^ path 
of my WDik, and it was impossitjie to lead Jt into a new path vhile 
on Foreign 3Cth 1 did not at the time rccognbo the great advantage 
of the schooling 1 wa^ recci^-ing, and only laier, when I entered 
poliiirtjil life in Germany, did J fully estiniaic the value of all the 
disagreeable oacillalions in my oirccr ; and I often thought bov 
Eoucb moTf; content 1 should have been during my tray in Fam 
could I haire foreseen in what li^tht I should regard that i>rTirx! in 
after yaus," 

In 1859 Bamberger entered into an asTccmcrt with hh unck that 
j^ when he died, he eouM not leave his wife an incomes of 4,000 
francs per annum, the firm would guaritiicc her a pension of 3^000 
francs. At the time when this agreement w« made, Bamberger 
WHS tormented with the fancy that he had not long to lire, and would 
leave his vifc without means. Her father, to wbcm she wa^i then 
reconciled, wa& a miacrly though rich marii and on him hi» sun-in- 
lawconid nc\^r reckon- Neither would he insure his life, for he 
had come 10 the concluiion that ihe conditions of iniurance were 
highTy disadvantageous lo the insured, and thjt people ought i<ihave 
the moral courage to lay by wliat wtts necc**ftry, without pledging 
tbemficlvei to pay premiums. 

Two years later l,ouis was scarcely bctler off. He had l>een in 
Ihc Paris firm for eight years, andL during the la&t three, quite alone 
at the bead of the bank ; tut in all that time he had only saved 77,000 
ftanca. He had kept his annual expenses dovt^ \0 l\\i; \o« ^^'i^ cA 

4o6 The CcftiUmanj Magazine, 

19,000 franco slthoti^ he recciviTd miny gucita, and rcnird a siniB 
oountfy houx in tlic neighbourhood of the city ; all which goes to 
piOTc how cheap life then va«, «nd how, vith prudcnottA mull 
&mtly could live pteaianily on modcnitc mev». Hi« wife hrifMid 
him efficiently. She made n pidty interior aud vote elegant 
toilcllc}, while St the :amc lime her culture and intellectual intcroU 
vcT« equil tothOB^of any l«amed bluo-ttocktng. The modeAjof 
BAntbergi'f't position in a great hanking-hnuie u explained by the 
fact that he had nci capital invested in the Ijuainca. 

Towards tlic close of his %Wf in Paris, scvcrol ROod ycaiB tnade 
up for tbo previous eight. In iS66> vhen he decided to go back to 
Germany^ he hjul got ao far Uuit he could live wdl on the inanne 
deiived fiom his savings. 

3y this time he had obtained a keen intight into the poUtioaL and 
l!nLncia1 oflain of ihL- norld, m well as Into the »pedal tnteHeciual 
and (tcuiai life of Fiance. Du:iii£ all tliisi Uiuc lie lud ct^nlribuied 
ATticlea to the Cermon papcri, and in 1864 hia paper on " Berlin in 
Pads**' and z rtview of Eenan's " Life of Jcsue," had excited great 
aiieniion, and kept up his connection viih Nonti Getniany, The 
review called forth a letter from Ernest Rchod, which \% quoted aa 

follows ! 

■'iVrUr aSQo>cTahrc i56$. 
" Cher Monsieur,— 'Je no veut pas attcndre la fin de votre b<au 
travail pour vous dtte combien je %\xh iier dtoe compare & de leb 
maltres, et de iceevoir cct honncur de vou^. Votre tiavail fc^m bieit 
comprenclrc au public fmn^ais dei v^rit^^ qu'il ignore trop, et dont 
llgnorance le m^ne ii de gratides fautes^ Je suis e&ayf de llivenir 
d'une nation qui ne se reconnalT aunun ancftre, aueun droit, aucun 
pacte. aucuti devoir qui ftit plus de 75 ans. Ce wront dcs vnix 
grandcs et stores contme Ea votre qui te ni&neront k uno philosophic 
pItLs large. Je suis on ne peut plu^ lieuteux de vous Avoir iQV[M 
dc si bcnnes pa^eft. Cro>c^ tt iiies suntimenls les plux ^nipathi/]uef 
et Its plus d6\oiiiis. 

Speaking about the aUempt^ to reconcile the Alsatians vith their 
fate after the Frant^o-Ccrman war, Bamberger remarks that such 
ftltempts could not succeed, OTen had rhe Germans been angels 
from hcavei\ and that the chief fault lay with the German olBciala, 
who believed that prejudice might be driven out of the Alaatians by 
harsh and arrog;int ireniment, and that ihey must be (allegoncally) 
whipjicd into liiting the Gciman ruli^. Bui the fact was that ncithc 
Kvc^ty not kindness could cQ'cct Ibb. The French language mode 



Traiis in the Life of a Greai German Liberal. 407 

of thciughE, and manncn had become a habU in AUajce, and as >U 
of tlK'^c liad m^iiy siu*iriioa^ while the North German habits ^ud 
wayn had many dii^figru cable quiUties, the feeling that rciuUcd wu 
dficisire, U3d the Alutcians Vct:x\\f missed ihe wani of & share In 
French WTc and ^ovr^innicnl, "This Ua fid," rL-nmrks Bamberger, 
'* which, apart from all praise or blame, atand% on ita cwn feet, WTico 
Prince Hohenlohe Scbelhngifum," he goes or, *' became GoTcmor 
of Aliace, he spokv to mc aboui the diflkuUy of his ijiik^ 'Take 
things IS quietly as possible.' I advised him, *aJid d^ Jiot bclicvi? dmi 
Ibinxs can be changed by acts of Rovcrmncnt. No god or devil can 
make the AliHiians really content wiih their &Le. Spat? your«clf 
ind }f<ur asostants all useless worry, and lead as eiisy u life aa 
|>oi»n>1c/ I believe the prircc appreciated my advice, for he lived 
in harmony with it, and often fi^lt hnnself to be in contradiction with 
the vevere orders that came from Berlin ; but he tlierieby earned the 
gratitude of ilic province* which saw him depart with regret.'* 

Wc pass on to a dericnption of Lcsecps. Bambergt^r writes: 
"At the lime when the Panama Canat brought thousands of francs 
into his purse Le&^eps had established a truly royal household, lukI 
at mote tlian sixty ye^rs of age married a young and beautiful 
Creole, who bore him many children. The old man was ^-cry fond 
of her and thera, T can siill see him, not long bL-foft! the great 
catastrophe, riding in the Avenue du Bois dc Boulogne, with lita white 
locks waring In the br<e«, accompanied by his wife and a whole 
troop of «ons and daiighters on honiebflck, nitractbig the ga/c of the 
ndert. But even iheii a clever friend remarked to me, * Th«e 
he goea in all his gloo", hiu robust old age, and world wide celebrity ! 
But in hilt moral cliaraeter he ts ripe for prison. ' " 

Loaii Bamberger was iniimate with M, Adam wla-n ^\tt Utter*! 
friend and future wife, Juliette La Mcssine, was already separated 
from her first husband, a reputed ex-monk, Juliette still called her- 
self by his name, but wrote under the pseudonym of Juliette lumber. 
Slw was a very U-^titiful and amiable woman. Her tiQforious 
connection with Adam prevented her from cntetijig the highest 
loclct)', so that both were all the more pleased that shewa^ndmiEted 
to the tinaller circle* in which Bamberger made her arquainlance. 
Her romances were very tx)or> but Adam's [xjshion in the jinirnal' 
latic world procured for her entrance into the fcuillctona of the 
great papers. When M La Mesiine died she married Adam, and 

n opened a political iahn in their large house in the Boirlei-ard 
anmere. Juliette Adim, the mother of a very briltiant and 
iful daughter, scon collected together a circle of literary 


Tki G^ntUmatCs Magazine. 

celcbftltc^ and ihc floirer oF the Republican party, EJ^mbcigeT fell 
rer^ much at bOTni* Among them. Afcer lh« fail of the EtnpuCi 
M- Adam became Prefect of Polirc; then a membcrof iheGouvcmo^ 
menC ^ b Dtfen^ NatSaiuIc; tlicn deputy <incl senator, and <Ti«1 in 
i977< Madame Adam waa a public figure during the IVaiicc^ 
Ceniun War. Shs did ^1 she could lo keep tip the course of the 
PansUn^ during ihtr siege, going out un to tlir hnulcvardt and 
3d<lT¥siing the pcojjlc with great cnlhuiiasm. She baled the 
I^iiuns inttnacly> especially Bismarck, to whom sha said she bote 
a pcr«or^a1 enmttf. This reeling diftmbed her friendship Tor Boin- 
bergrr, wHcim the cvt-n accuvcd of luKraying Parit tu Multkr, l.<Hti« 
Bamberger bore her noemdigc for diu, as he U^oushi her conduct 
natumi to a acntimcntol womin who had coiiqiiercd for herself an 
heroic public rlh. But after that period he neirer waw her again, 
while «he^ on her jKirt^ gradually lost aII anger against hrr old fnend. 
Her salm rose lo greater glory, she founded the " Nourellc Revuc;" 
ftnd after the death of her husband entered into cto» ralations with 
Gamtk^tT^, so that It was even neporied that lie wou!d marry her. 
Slic hud really yieoi influeucc In the political world j many iffcfects 
and &ub-prcFccts wcie created in her iahrt. ■■ ]t i£ a fact«" «ay3 our 
Uithor, "that the Russian alitanee was tatlccd of in her sahn as an 
aim to be all^ined^ Madame Adam even went to Russia to help in 
iu achievcQicni, but was not received as well as she expectrd. And 
afterwardS] when the Russian fleet came to France, anj ibo during 
the visit of the Imperial pair tc ParJ% %fadame Ad^^oi wa9 of no 
flceount. Her niUiion to Huii^'ai^ abo ended in Kmoke, Her 
milmacy with GambciU had censed some time before his death, and 
bad probably nevtr been anything more than rriendly, for he had at 
that time a Haiion with another woman," 

By far the most intetestiiig lilcrajj^ lady Louis Bamberger ever 
met was George Sand- She impressed him as remarkably unalTocted, 
and at her own home appeared exactly as one knew her in her 
letters, without a trace of self-esteenu ShL* was already nged, but 
well pr&4crTcd, rather Stout, and \tri lively. She smoked cigaretlea 
constantly. The conversation turned on the Arago family, whom 
the knew very wdl- She described Emmanuel Arago, the ambas- 
Biador, and his uncle Elicnnc, the author of some vaadojUUs^ as \er$ 
unripe men» and ended her diarespcetfulobscrvaiionB with the wordtf. 
*^ Emmanutil i» live years o](], and Kiienne tliree." 

BambCTgcr ihoughi the arisiocraiic society of this tJme more 
noial than that under Louis Napoleon, who has Indeed been often 
reproached for encouraging luxury and corruption. 

Traits in th€ Lift 0J * Grtai Oetytutfi Liberal. 409 

In Another smalter PariaiSTi sahn ihe principal fi|(Ur«!i were Utli^ 
wulHcnTi M^niiL Liiizc wait the ifiodd of u ptii]aiith[0|iist and 
AMttJ!/, exceedingly LinosnuminK iLnd amiable in manner. He i*ai ft 
oiuU niELD. of about sixty yt^i^ of Ago, but UU smooiti long hfltr nu 
ttiU jrt-bliiLL. He- loukn] <;]ocr» bui iioi dibtin^uisHcil 

Henri Mahuv a \eT>' t^ll mtn, wa» equally unworldly, and Bam- 
btrger'ft uncle u«ed eo say that IJttr^ looked like* a coI>bJee sho hftd 
solJ his iinll. und Hr-nii Mjirtin UIgl* [fit^ n^tin wliu fijid tioughf it. 

Littit^, u itj veil Itnown, was the iikiccpicicr &t\d principal 
propAfcalOf of Uomte'r; philosi^phy. His teklion?! to (■crmfLn^' wctc 
■bown by hi* tran*Jaiion of Sirau^'t "Life of Jeivit," and hi* 
duActcr by liii mode of life. He occupied, with his wjfe ind 
daughter, and without any servant, a very cheap aparimcnl at one 
Old o( Pah)^ He obstinately refusetJ the order of tlie Legion 
d'Honntrur. A medical man who h^d left ofT praaice, hL> neverihe- 
IcM made an exception in favour of the poor in hi,> ncijchbouihood. 
whom he vrould attend wh^n aaked. H*j had foui;ht on Ihe 
batticadeft in the July revohition cf iHjo, when he was twenty-nine 
jWara old. l^amherger remarks :hat he tcvlt ^s^y a ntaii who gai'e 
auch an inptcs3i«>n of being a deep thinker urd noble phiknihropisL 
Hit mtldneu atid un»e1(^*hness were rf^ally touching, 

Henri ?k1ani(i whs also M;tmped with the iTt^pTe?i^ii>ii nf exceeding 
goodness. He wa* neve/ so greu: as Littr^, but he wu a celebrated 
historian. He was thoroughly romantic, and one of Ihe first 10 
^orify thr "'Cdi " in :hc national character Hts nature waa tender 
and myMicA-L 

Another personaf c was Ruffini. the author of " Doctor ArtoniOL' 
He wai n r^^fugcc of ibe Ihirtics and liv^ a long lime in England 
HiA soft, nirUndtnly eyes, nubte head, and tall (igute mxide him look 
&kc a martyr. 

Btigene Korcade waa aleo ona of thoM whom Ijam burger knew well 
He was a mazier of dclirjie irony, and his articlr^ in Ihr " Revne de* 
Deux Mondes" were ca^^cily expected, and became the talk <jf the Knur, 
He hiid on^; giv'at fauJl— iaxtnca^ and his editor u»cd to lock him up 
until he finished a promised paper. 

Once BnmliefgeT ^^wtii with hmi a Tew day* in Turin. Speaking 
of Pio Nono, Forcad^: laughingly said thai ;>copIc in Rome believed 
thai the Pope had the evil eye, and told many funny tiorie* in proof 
of hia actcrtion. Yd, aa lie talked, tie held his band under \hv table 
and made the tfgn a^nsl the evil eye, bcUcvinx ihat Bamboger 
wciutd not aee the goture. 

At the ame of cur amhur'a reiklence in Vatv^, Wi^et •^ta tuc^m 


410 The GintUmans Maganne. 

mentioned, sr»d Gounod reigned ilone m the musiui wi>fld. No 
OQC, t^j% Bamberger, ever «^g Goanod'c fton^t so cli&Tmin^/ u 
htmsclf^ Bamberger chanced to h*aT him under pcciiliar circtim- 
»Ditw«, 'Hw <^clchtitcd 1>T- Blanche kept a maium A mnU at 
PftMiy, to vrhich ncTvou!i 01 v>cr-workcd people u»cd Lu go for ft 
tnooth't rtsL S«>Ai look place, to "rhich even the patients 
(sjCTering from mtlanr.halia wrrr ndmiffpd, and thet« r^^vW «cr« 
also a favoLirilc pulimc uf artbtic and HteToiy Paris. Gounod t>ot 
isffcqucntlr suffered from aiueks of melancholri or^d oae evening 
the Bambergo* met him at Dr. BUnche'^ tnstituto. The whole 
eompany bf!ggt?il OuunoU lo jiing, and he complied, tinging & 
number oF the »ongi from ^' Fauat.'' lib personal a|)pvajAiv:4! 
(ncrcued the charm of hit »in|^nff. He hfid a beautiful Tacc and 
headi crowned with jibundAnt ^rey hair^ li stnicl; Bamber^ger that 
many mu^ic^ geniuses had th^a pcculiatiiy, 

Louis B,itnbcTg:cr alto met Sairtc^Bcuvc, at that time ncAtly iliiy 
years of age. He was the Irue pendant to Luir^, Both were 
gnipendfius workcis ] each was absorbed in hf» literary mitsion ; 
both lived in great rciircmcnt, and ytx weic on friendly terms with 
the world. They were a mixture of Benedictine montc and acniabk 

Sainie-Beuve looked like a priest, the result of his modr of Tift. 
He dwelt alone in a smaM house in the Rue du Mont Pama»c. His 
room WI6 bedroom, partour, and study in one. He was a shortf 
rather stout man, wiiK a round face and rosy eomplexiocL His 
nguisli eyes Epaikled when be welcomed hla ^e^ts. Mr. wore a 
velvet cap on his bald head The middle of his not larfc room wu 
occupied by an ioimense square writing lable, heaped with books 
and papers. The bed was in on alcuve. The walls were hidden H 
by bookcases. Sainto-Bcuve once told Bamberger that he eniicd 
him his knowledge of languages, for he himself krcw only hia own. 
tlif household ccmsisted of his secretary and three female domcoic*, 
one of whom had only one arm. 

Of Prosper M<Jrim*e, Bamberger tclU us that he looked like an 
KngUsh M,K His manner was rather cold. He was a man of the 
world, ^oing a gteat deal into society and tu ruun. fnr he wa* an 
mlimAlc friend of the Empress Eugenic and all her family. He was 
a great .ndmirer of the leaders of the dfmi-mond*^ guoh as Madame 
do Psiiva, who wa% the daughter of a Je* tailor from Mo^ow, and 
the owner of a mftgniflcent palace in the Cha nips-Ely sfe^ 

WcmuEt linger a litUeoo the figure of Madnme Caroline Jou bet t, 
with whom HambGrger farminl « friendship tiMt lasted till her dtnth. 


Traits in iks Ltfe ofa Grrai Gtrman Literal. 41 1 

&h« w&i bom in iSoj, and at Bftccn ycar« of ofio married a roan 
much older than hcnclf. She had a chomt which tlii; retiin^d untt) 
old Mgc She wa» vrry MTmll^ evrn ri>T d Fii^z^chwuaiAri. wiili tiiiy 
hands and feet of which she was proitd. She hnd rcj^uUr fcjxtcircs, 
and ftucb magnificent cyei th^ one could look ol nothing eUe, 
The exi»-eftiion or her fare wan di-ver iind !t1E^hfly malicious, At 
fiw mcciiug her. Bainbct^jer felt uncomfortaLIc, and found later that 
everyone had the «amc ^^^p[c«8E0^, Sh^^ hjid one child, a daughter, 
t>y tUfT lirtt hu«banJ, and bctnocn this dau^tof ^nd her mother, 
whi> wu uiily siitcep )'»mi uUlt^, (hert? cKiMeil a It^iidcr and clofiC 
frlcndflhip- Though both bdio wcrcuridowg whun Bafnbcriccr mode 
their acfiuoinUnc^ they Iccpt leparatc houfleholdii under one root in 
the Rue Montaigne. They neither of them cared about food, and 
coniidcrcd eating a diaagteeablc necessity, but when thc>' had guc9ta 
they took care 10 pro^de an elegant, abundant, but not luxurious 

Madame Joubtvt liad lar^e cApcritrDCe. wdi wi«r, tiighly cultuied 
and for sighted, Vci she believed fn table turning and clairvoyancd 
and WHS totally unlogical When l^iLoibtrrger first knew ber, she was 
ntrt ac all a (lublic character, but «he wji4 a type of ih«f older aiino- 
crattc jccncnxtion. Very intcrcMing was her connection with Alfred 
de Musaet, who was younger by !cn year*, Ilul according Co 
Pari^bn notions %he was Mill a gay, channing, and bcautifitl woman. 
Her rc^rd for dc Mussct wa^ a mixture of flirtation and jnotheity 
friendship. One: evening, Hht^n her i^jcft* took a fancy to give eact) 
Other nicknan:te(,8hc called de Musaec" Le prince PtioitphoredecceuT 
volant/' jind ilic- name was enthusiastically adopted. Tn retuin, ho 
dubl>ed her ma r/iarrai/rt. 

Jtambergur met the Countess Kalogia (who was adored by Mred 
dc MiJK^rtt) nt » matiti/f given hy rhc Prince and Prino.^s TritwUko*. 
The countess ^varc a bright suTnmeT toilette, nith a large straw hat 
cru&hcd inro all sorts of s^uipcs on her beautiful head and fair hair. 
She was laughing, and talking loudly, the very pictuif of a lovable 
and much^dmiicd bejiuiy. 

When dcr Mussct fell into the deplorable habit of drinking, his 
marraine nude on atlcmpl to save him. She mvtted hmi to a i«noub 
inUsview. Thuc w^ in Aiig;isi TS44. Bnt de Mussel managed to 
contradict the accusjiiona miidc jtgainst hiui* ftni] rcpicsentcd him- 
self aa ealunmiaiLd. Madiimc Joubcrt subsequently wivic to hii 
brother Paul uying that she had tieen quite reeoncjlcd to "the poor 
boy." amd that he lud written a isnnnet 10 her the ncKl <uy whicli 
Jaod moved h<i to tons. Her friendship nith him w4 peifccily 


Tht GtnlUtnatCs Ufagaxine. 

ifiCLOcciiLr but iX kui iho felt ttui sh« hftd be^n temikcn tn hua, uid 
during the lAfl fc-Arx nf ht^r life^ sfic Alunp chtngcd the mnvnvAtion 
when \\ tiHiifKTDCL) Lo kjuch (in her former friend. 

She wju also inUmatr; Mith Hcimich Hcin«, hui not in the sanoe 
d«gre«. HowovcT> «hc inspired him with one of hi« ixH^mSr for th« 
look th« Counirs^ Ka1cr^i% to tixtl hmi un hi% udt-hi-d, .ind the 
followiTig (ifiy Ilcinc vrotc the vcnca on llic ''white elephant" ui 
the '* Rom*n«TO." Heine called Madame Joul>ert "m* petit* f^" 
and her *maU foot i« ofien ineiitiotied in hi» leiten. He paid her 
^f hue visit in Janiury 1648, when he hod to be curied u|> the 
ttMAzt of her house. And no ^xincr wb» he placed on a sofa thoa ht 
wM icixed with alanning convulaions. When he to kiinssl^ 
anJ Madame Jotkbvri tcfiToachrd him for having made uich an eflcrt 
and leAvirg hit boUK, he rcpUixI ihot i\ would certainly be the bM 
time he could do «o, and that his caie wu5 hopdti». He hftd coai6» 
he »ai(3, purposely to make h« vveax that she would henceforth ^^it^\ 
bim i^tibrly, and if the refuted he would conn: and frightcii her 
■g&Ln, or course 5hc iworc, and kept her oith fahhfilUy. She 
beca^tnc hi» wafiJantt in domestic matters and in what concerTL^ 
bU wife MaihiMc* 10 whom, in spite of wime difTiciiliifs, Hdnc 
renuiincd hirti to the end of hU life MadAmc Joubcri iLftciwaid^ 
related thaE Heine, in his testament declared that \i\i, cousin CKa-flcs 
had soleninly promi»cd to lAke care cf his (Heii^«'«) widow ; hut 
Chaflr^ told Madomo Jv}Ljtii:it that it wa» jU aei in\'cniJont and done 
to touch the honour of hi* rich rcLuiciu and induce ihcoi to take 
car9 ol Mathirde. 

Through hi*i ac^quaintJinc^ with \f Adamr- Jon hen, T^uU Gambeiger 
obtained grrat insight tnio French life, and hiid itiany o| iportunitiA 
of studying the pan and the present ; the amicH regiitt and modem 
iociety ; literature, art, and politics ; all within the ccmpon of one 
sm4]1 snlctt, in the company of a hcsless who wa:« a rlo^c observer, 
and to whom the study of mankind had become a vocation. 

Our author describes the pteaeont garden room m Madame 
Joubert's summer villa Courvolant, near Marly, vherc the old servant 
Marie was on confidential terms with the guests ; and ihe coey, wann 
roomintheRuc Montoigoein winter, with the glowofitsopcn fireplace. 
His mtimocy wixh ihc hoBpiU'iblo niisircgi of these pleasani homes 
Icni a cbarm Lo ihe Lis: Ten years of his life in Paris. Huring and 
after the Fr&nco-Cennaii wur the friendsliip ccuitinued unimpnircd 
When hoKlihties commenced, Mndamc Joubcrt, her daughter, and 
^randdauj^liter went to Luumnnc, whuhei Hannhorgcr took hie wift, 
Icarin^ her with hj« old fiicnds when he returned to Ver«aillr«, 


Trails in ikt Lijc of a Grtai Gtrrnan Lihsml. 413 

They fell the K^paraiion deeply, but verc able lo corrctpond niihout 
inirmiptbn, Mrs, HambrfKef tetnaincd at Tjmiwnnp until the 
folbvrirg Mftrch. In 1^73 Bambcr^^ wclcumcil MA<];imc Joubcrt 
aiid her family bock to ^ris. but th» tinii> their Ac<]u:hinEuic« 
<K^% fjijiied on will) some ««cre4!y. Still laxcr, fon-fiipni;<l«'nce 
by tetter was conl[riUc<l antil the dcAth, tirtt cf MuLiiEtc Joubcrt, 
later 111! tbat of her daughter; while uji to 189S :l ivas conttruvd 
ttiih the old Utdy't ^nndchildierir ind in ihcti year, too, the " Reeol- 
Icctioiu" ttc liavc bcni skimming come lo an emL 

In 1863 BambLTi;cr had left Paris lo f;o to some friends and 
relAlions at Baden-Baden. He vtjls then forty yeu& ol age, but fdt 
" very young" and qiiilc n^cdy to begin a pfto nu4ft<i, for tn France 
be luud never Ikcii aiMe to gel over a feeling of strangencti Hii 
mode of thought had Always been so different from that of hi« 
Freneh friendv, >nd, beiidei, he wai cut off ftGm all artivr partid- 
pltion ill jxilitio. 

Speaking of Ehc bc];jnning of hia new life when he rctunied to 
Oermany, he ayt ; "If anyone had shown me in pcrsptctive ih« 
picture of things which three year* Utur were 10 be reaKied, and had 
told mc that the time vould eon^c when 1 should be reproaclied wilh 
ad^'ocfltinji E-Tcnch and pergonal advsmia^cH* and even with having 
a Jewish tont.-eption of things, I ihould hare thought him mad 1 " 

Heiieef[)rw2rd I»ms Bamberger wici very nciive id jwuaaliWf 
contributing lo the " K^lnischc f^citung,^ and exprcasing bis indtjc* 
nation at the crud, humiliating treatment to vhich political priionen 
or iiccuied were subjected. To thp end of hi« life h^ fdughl ugainfti 
auch honori aspractifivd in GermaJiy. His article dritcd Ociober l%. 
1865, on ihia nubjcei h fully (luoted in ihc book before u», and irny 
be read even nowad-iys as 1 ti^^fiil leston. 

We are now clo*c to ihc terminaliyii of the " Rcojllctlioiis," and 
everyone must wuh thai they had been c^iried on to the end of 
their author's life. 

In ilie iiiinmer of t8^4, tiamli^rger intended to go to Germany 
for M long stay, but hia health was £o impaired by o^xrwork ihat he 
was ordered by hiK medical man to go to St. Montt Qn the 
return ]oum^ he ^nd his wife Mayed at Interlalcen, where, in the 
Hold Juji^r^ublick, they met ^\\h i-itfiK old friends, aonong them 
LA^ker. On his return to Pans, Bamberger became abKubed in ihe 
buiineu of the bank, and hit liieruy eflbru n-ere contiderably 
fcducied. He now mw his way to rciiring from busirKM with a 
sufficiently large fortune. But ihc sharp conflictii between Bi^macek 
cod the Pruutan Chamber more and more hindered Qambcc^f^^ 


Th4 GtKiUman's Magazins. 

)n1<^tion oT rciUTnin^j ic hut fnfaerbuicJ ind enteriD^ into poUtictl 
life. The oCTtft from Bcilin wai very hopclc^ and Bam1«ri!CY 
rcni^kft^ *' ll i« itnr chATixicristic of the fundAmcnUl fcilurc of 
GoTQiAn dcvcloptncm that JatuJttriAMm u wtai lilcc a red thread 
ninomg through tii)' fifteto year** curmpondence irijh my |)o!iiical 
friends, iiiij tliJ \kih very dsy iktl thtcftd lA not biuLcn, but b 
stronKcrihcn ever. When dLnn^ the jfood I'CAKfroni t&6S to 1874 1 
happened lo canv«rtt< wuh as^ old Bcquainunoe, aCaihoLicDeinocrst 
from the Rhineknd who disdgrcnl with my enthusiasm for empire* 
he remarked, ' My dcv friend, you do not yet know the PnuniAn 
Junl:ct 1 * How often since then hxvc I rcmcmberred those words, 
atid how unhappily they have bven justified 1" 

Wiih thij^ lasl Hiumncc the ** Recollections'* suddenly coftic to 
an end, And with them perforce cur gleaJiinp fiom this highly 
laterMting sketch cf a ponion or a great man's life lod experi«iKe«. 

LILY woi^noiiM. 





\ MONG the rorms or crafE&man^ip mo^t di>sclY fOlicJ lo Art is 
^A Ihe manufacture of slrm^cd or bcivcd iiiatrumcntfi^ Violin- 
maEing is, orcouree, ^ meclMnrc^loccupiuiei) ;;in<l beacjry of dc«^£it, 
though we1oom<- when ii ti; exhibited, H not the prLinury aim or Sio 
higbot nccomph^hmcnt of the crftfumin- Symmetry of nhapc is, 
of cuitr^c, All enhancement of vnluc ftnd dcljchl ^ Jiiid though (he 
HtarpmrnE nf l,ropoUl Muxart, f^ithi^r of iht- grrBi miis&cian and 
author of the Vtr^uik tintr gramdlkktm VtoHtnekHk^'i^ Xta^ — that the 
choiee of a flddle on account of us beauty of nhupt^ and \U varnish 
i» tike the selection of a tinging bird ffv iia {^ny plumose— -yet grace of 
colour and design will always AttacT the rolli^rtor wliu \s net ako ^m 
«xp«rl. It is wimcthing mare iban a coincidence that the violins 
and violan of the beat moken are artisocAMv the lovelier works, and 
iliat (to«lcci the very best) a Stradivariij^ cf 1710 ia, flj.Uft fr-jcn its 
ton^j an nbjei:i on which the eye will lovingly tax. 0!f1rr fr*nn» of 
the initniment, populnrly kriown as \\\^ " crowd " or the " relwc.'' are 
not wanung in elegance of shape, though the raovcmcnU they exact 
from the pciformcr have no corresponding pace : while if wc go baek 
:(HI] IhTthi-r [o Ibc primitive viol wc find InsirxuMcnu with little more 
elalm 10 nbapcHncii than that rrt^nani Trying-pan, the modern 
banjo, it hat been held that violin-making vsui, to «ome extent, a 
loat art, and I have m^Aclf been under the imprcasion that the craft 
hod all but ptrahed during the la^t tenluiy. It eomttit, then, a« a 
relief and a comfort to learn that the renaisunce whtr^h drttingutshed 
tD this country the latter half of the pact ccntu^ extended to violin- 
making, and tW Addles arc to be found of mocen^ make nhicb are 
as flnc eaample« of the lulhicr'* art as iht- world has ever produced. 
ThJA Cflicouraging aiw^rtion 1 <Ierive from the Itritisk yiojin-iftaAfrs^ 
CiasUraJ and M<^rn, of the Rev. William Meredith Morria, B.A,,' 
the best and moat authoritative work on the subject of the Brilu3i 
craftsman with which I am ac(]viai:iied. ]r is nut, hkr the noble 
Anfonic Strrhtivori of Me^Mx Hilt, devoted to the glontication of 
one hidividua), or even of a iiehool ; but after a few introductory 
pages on schools of violin ma kinjz^ on wood, varntfrh. woikmansJiip^ 
the bridge, and on theories Luncctnint^ tooc. ic develops into a bio- 
^pbicaluKl critical diecionary of i-ioLir-nukrrTt, from the foundation 
of the daidcaltdtool until to^ay. Ai it deaU br^lyHith men still 

■ Challo & Windv. 



4i6 Ti^ G4Hti4m&ns Magazint. 

iMng, ftncl lujjplieti iMiliOilArt of Uie mcaaurcmcuu of inntrumcniSt J: 
II 10 some wtcri jt trade otgnn. It ranks, however. 4:1 ;i wiick ot 
rdcrcficc, with such useful compiUtiocts a* Mr. Britten's Oid C/^kt 
amd fVa^i a/uf ihtir MixMtru or Mr M. L. Solon't Srit/ Hisi^ry ^ 
Old B^Sih IWrafain,^ juU ikAucd. This b not the pUcc in whtc£ 
toattompta criticism of Iho book. 1 iray.hnwcvr?. tisir ibjit nmrly 
Qvc hundred iumc« apvcir m the iiLdci, and that the luajoriiv of 
theni arc itilt living. HAvinR no pcnorml kno«'[e<^c of modem 
work. 1 musi I^lLc on trujit ihc cminctiU)' fftfourabte catucatc Mr. 
Wcnri* puU forth, OutMd-j I-ondor. Scualard and tlit nonhem 
cour^tUs lupply most of the malun. In Votkshlrt uid l.Ar<a«tiin? 
tbey ftic abtrntunt ; Lceda sccrm 10 bftvc a AoDri»hing rciDmunity 
orf" vtf>liri -makers. 

Ax BxrvRr m Books, 

A CERI'AIK measure of Lntere^t gencmlly attcniU prii^tcly 
£^ printed book** This in Lijijccblly Irtie of privately circulated 
ffiojtrapliJa of m«n whow functions in the world have been useful 
father than bnlllant i>uch a man vra« Bcr)jamiii Franklin Stevens, 
a Life of whom, hy Mr Ocorgc ManvilLc Fcno. Iiaa jtwi bccrj j«»iied 
for private di*(tnl>uiii>n by ihe Chiswick PrmEi- Ta the average 
rtadei the narric conveys LiLtle or nothing. Within a c^ruiu ciicl^ 
Which can icarcvly be regarded as luirovr, StcTciu is rcmcmbend ^ 
an a^iduuu!t AtiO ijidcf^itigablc vorLcj. 10 whtiui the public \% more 
heavily indtft)lc»I tli^f* 11 wlicvpd, Hii rfUtion :o ibe founde