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GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE. 



JULY— DECEMBER, 1858. 



GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE 



HISTOEICAL REVIEW. 

By SYLVANUS URBAN, GENT. 



tZO^ja. 



MDCCCLTIII. 
JXJLY TO DECEMBER inclubxve. 

UEIXa VOLUME V. OF A NEW SEItlES, 
AND THE TWO-HUNDRED-AND-FIFTH SINCE THE COMMENCEMENT. 



{.5 5-) 




I, N 1> N : 

JOHN HENRY ato JAMES PARKER. 

1S58. 



N 



THE 



GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE. 



JULY— DECEMBER, 1858. 



THE 

GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE 

HISTOJIICAL REYIfW. 

JULY, 1,8$S. 



COjNTBJSTTS. 

PAGB 
mNOR CO|aUSBFpin>SNCE^Error in Kr. Liiard'B life of King Edward— Remarkable 

Ezeeutira at 17inBroMtsr--£di9ttiid CorU ahd'bifl Mce :.'., 2 

The AizDM, Atmoor, and lUBfitary Hnges of the Fpurteepl^ Century 3 

Sketch of the I4fe of Walter fl&Merton 20 

AnnalB of WincUkMr , 26 

MicheWsHistpiy.qf France..*.. , ,,,,., , ,..,•*.... 30 

Chamhen* Annals Of Scotland C.......... 84 

Sleepy K%l^t|ha4€y^Dg Duncap, and; th^ Danes 42 

ANTIQUARIAN WnBARCEES.-- Society of Antiqnarica, M.; General Aiehiteotaral 
Congreeaat Oxford, 49; Leioestersh^ Architeeinral andJlzchisologioal fiodeties, 61 ; 
Noinisaiatia Boetety — Mutilation and Destruetipn of Chuich Mopraments, 62 ; 
DiaeoT^ of a ^^onoan Yiary Column, 64; Pilgrima* eigna: reetifloation— Roonaa 
Leadeii Mis— Anglo-Saxon Antiquities ..»....,.....:« ^ 

COERESPpNI^SMCI! OP STLYANUS URBAN.— Remarks on the 'Barly History of St. 
Alba^'jS snd. its Historians, 66 ; The Bayeux Tapestry, 66 ; Addison's supposed 
Portiatt^;,...^..',..i..:., , .....', 71 

HISTORICAL AND Mt8C£LLANE0^» REYIEWS-The Voice of Christian I4fe fn Song, 
71 ; XT. RohB's libraries, 72 ; Preface to the Sixt^ Edition of " Tom Brown's School- 
Dayt*'-^-Jile sod Tiihee of Frederie Perthfe8,*78 ; Martin's lUustrated Edition of Ifilten 
— Dvir oo ^ Indiaik RebeUion— Choice Votes fhnr *('Note»iind Qneties?'— PMfbssor 
Buc]BnaaNi,*N«tv«l History of Oraspes^-rGairdntr's Lecturss-^Cetflm'^ Catalogue of 
Reynolda* Portraits— Additional facts ooaceming Pope'tf'AhcesIrt, 7!|; Taylor's Geo- 
logieal ptPfnilttet— Smart's Introduction to Grammar^Luvrs and ^nieitoeof Wkist— 
North's Tradesmeii's Token^-rHuntingford'a Toice of the Las^ Prophet-^flMee: a 
Poem-T-Marriage : a Poem-rArden's Cure of SoukH^^Pamphlefts* 1^\ Periodieals 7^ 

THE MONTHLY INTELLIGENCER 7$ 

Promotions and Preferments t 79 

BIRTHS 80 

* 

MARRIAGES 81 

OBITU ART— with Menudrs of the Earl of BanAirly, 84 ; Sir Henry Fitaherbert, Bart— 
Brig.-Gen. the Hon. Adrian Hope» 85 ; Capt. Sir William Peel, K.aB., 86 ; M. L. A. Pr6- 
▼ost,87; John O'Connell, Esq 88 

CLxmaT DxoBAsii> 88 

DxATHS, arranged in Chronological Order 89 

RsgLrtrar-General's Return of Mortality in the Metropolis— Marketo, 95; Meteorologieal 

Diary— Daily Price of Stocks 96 



Bt STLVANT7S UEBAN, Gskt. 



MINOR CORRESPONDENCE. 



ERROR m MR. LUARD'S EDITION 
OP THE ANGLO-NORMAN METRI- 
CAL LIFE OF KING EDWARD. 

Me. Ueban, — In the curious passage of 
this poem, printed in your last number, 
giving an account of the church at West- 
minster, the last line contains an error, 
the importance of correcting which will 
be seen at once by your architectural 
readers. Mr. Luard has split one word 
into two, and printed the line thus, — 
£ les offlcines en tur. 

which he translates, "And the offices in 
the tower" It should be, — 
£ les officines entur. 

And the translation should be, " And the 
offices round it," (the church). Two cir- 
cumstances should have protected the 
editor against this mistake. In the first 
place, I think no architectural antiquary 
could cite an instance where the offices oif 
a monastery were placed in the tower of 
the church, or, indeed, in any other tower ; 
and secondly, no Frenchman or Anglo- 
Norman could, I think, have written such 
a phrase as he prints, as it would not have 
been grammatical or consistent with the 
correct phraseology of the language. I 
speak on the supposition that you quote 

frrectly the text and the translation from 
r. Luard's book, which I have not seen. 

T. W. 

REMARKABLE EXECUTION AT 
WORCESTER. 

Mb. UEBAy, — The laxity of our prison 
discipline has in former days been so ex- 
treme, that it is not safe to discredit any 
statement regarding gaol life on the 
ground of its improbability ; yet the story 
told in your Minor Correspondence for this 
month is so very unlikely to be a true 
history, that one is tempted to pass it by 
without examination. Can your corre- 
spondent furnish the date, or about the 
date, when the conviction or execution took 
place ? In times so recent as those when 
"the father of the present governor of 
Worcester Gaol was governor there," it is 
probable that printed calendars of the 
cases to be tried at each assizes were issued, 
and if so, it is almost certain that copies 
exist in the custody of the present gover- 
nor, with the sentences marked to each 
case in manuscript. 

The newspaper that circulated most 
largely in Worcester and its neighbour- 
hood at that time would certainly contain 
a notice of so uncommon a circumstance ; 
a file most likely exists in the British 



Museum Library, perhaps in the city of 
Worcester itself. It is most unlikely that 
the Gentleman's Magazine would re- 
cord an event of this kind; do you, Mr. 
Urban remember making a note of it ? 

Several stories bearing a great likeness 
to the one under discussion have appeared 
in" Notes and Queries," but the evidence 
in each case is not satisfactory. One ac- 
count makes the scene to have laid at 
Winchester,^the victim to have been a 
Hampshire man, — the crime, sheep- 
stealing. In another, the locality is 
Durham, and a servant-girl is the heroine, 
who had been found guilty of administer- 
ing poison ■ ; this vernon of the story is 
embellished with several horrible details 
relating to the execution, that make it 
still more unlikely to be true. The legend 
is not even confined to England ; a Spanish 
version occurs in the Rev. Fredrick Mey- 
rick's " Practical Working of the Church 
in Spain," p. 64, with only such an amount 
of variation as is necessary to adapt it to 
the supposed manners and customs of that 
land. — I am, &c., Edwasd Peaoook. 

The Manor, Bottesford, near Brigg. 

EDMUND CURLL and his ANCESTRY. 

In Curll's « History of the Stage," 1741, 
he speaks of a son of one of the^MM^ gentle- 
men in England as being his near relatUnK 
This assertion has given rise to some en- 
quiry of late, and has been treated as mere 
empty boasting on the part of this most 
unprincipled of publishers. I am inclined 
to think, however, that he really did claim 
relationship with the family of Dr. Walter 
Curll, "Bishop of Winchester, and Lord 
Almoner to Charles I. ;" that prelate's life 
being the third on his list of Biogpraphical 
publications, in his Catalogue for 1726-7. 
If such is not the case, the coincidence is 
rather curious. At even an earlier period, 
some members, at least, of the Curll family, 
had probably attained a respectable posi- 
tion ; for in the list of counfel practising 
at the bar in the time of James I., we find 
the name of "E. Curie." See Foss's 
" Judges of England," vi. 36. The bishop, 
it should be added, died in poor circum- 
stances, in 1647, having sufiered greatly 
during the civil war. The collector of 
Fopiani will find a large amount of infor> 
mation as to editions of Pope*s letters 
and works, by Curll and others, in the 
Monthly Registers of Books appended to 
the Gentleilan's MAaAZiKs for 1785 
and 1736. 

* Notes and Queries, voL iv. pp. 191, S85. 



THE 



GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE 



AND 



HISTORICAL REVIEW. 



THE AEMS, AEMOXJR AND MILITARY USAGES 
OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY, 

(ConHnuedfivm p. 592.) 

The splinted armour formed of strips of metal overlaid 
by velvet, with rivets to hold them together, the gilded 
heads of the rivets forming a decoration on the surface of 
the velvet, is most satisfactorily illustrated by the real 
defence of this kind found by Dr. Heftier in the old castle 
of Tannenberg, and carefully described and pictured by him 
in his tract, JDze Burg Tannenberg und ihre Amgrabungen ^. 
The outward appearance of such a defence is shewn in oiir 
woodcut, No. 10. As this kind of armour is probably the 
same as the cotes a plates mentioned in writings of the 
period, we must refer to the next heading for further illus- 
tration of the subject. 

Splinted armour is not unfrequently named in the Ro- 
mances of the fourteenth century. In " Eichard Coer de 
Lion" we^have, — 

" Now speke we of Bichard our kyng, 
Hou he cam to batayle with his gyng : 
He was armyd in splentes off steel." — -p. 196. 

And xne Eomance of Guy of Warwick tells us that the 
armour of Colbrand, both for the body and legs, was of 
this structure. His hauberk was formed of — 



tt 



— thick splints of steel, 

Thick y-joined strong and well. 
« « « « « 

Hosen he had also well y- wrought, 
Other than splintes was it nought." 



^ A copy will be found in the British Museum. 



4 Arms, Armour, and Military Usages [July, 

Plate armour, whether made of metal or other rigid sub- 
stance, comes gradually into use as the century advances ; 
till, at its close, the old fabric of chain-mail is seen only at 
the skirt and at the neck. Perhaps isolated examples of 
the plate gorget and of the tassets of plate may be found in 
this age, but it is not till the fifteenth century that, by the 
general adoption of these pieces, the knight becomes entirely 
encased in plate armour. 

The body-defence of plate is variously named in docu- 
ments of this time, — ^* unes plates," " plates d'acier," ^' la 
plate d'acier," "la piece et les plates," "cote a plates," 
*' poitrine d'acier," " breastplate," " pair of plates," " pair 
of plates large." As we have already noted, the " coat of 
plates" seems to be no other than the armour of splints 
having a textile facing with studs. An entry in the 
Comptes de Pargenterie of Etienne de la Fontaine, in 1352, 
throws clear light on the subject: — " Pour faire et forger 
la gamison de deux paires de plates, dont les unes sent 
couvertes de veluyau asure, et les autres de veluyau vert 
ouvre de broderie ; pour les ij. paires, six milliers de clo, 
dont les trois milliers sont au croissant, et les autres sont 
roons dorez*." We have here the exact materials for a 
garment like that found at Tannenberg and noticed above. 
In the same book of accounts (of La Fontaine) we find, for 
the service of Monsieur le Dauphin, " une piece et aune et 
demie de cendal vermeil, des fors, en grainne, pour faire 
cotes a plates et gamir gardebras," &c. Again : " pour une 
aune et demie de zatony, a faire une cote a plates, vi. 
escus ^." We thus find that not only velvet, but silk and 
satin were employed for the facings of these armours. 
Other documents of the period contain similar entries. 
The Inventory of Louis Hutin in 1316 has — " Unes plates 
neuves couvertes de samit vermeil." 

The defence of " steel plates" is mentioned in (Hkvelier's 
Chronicle of Duguesclin : — 

" Ces escus & leurs cos, ces hauberts endossez, 
Bonnes plates d'acier, et de glaives assez." — Vers 5,925. 

The defence of "plates" is sometimes combined with 



' Comptes de VArgenterie des Eois de France au XIV*. si^le, par M, Dooet 
d'Arcq, p. 128. ^ Ibid., p. 142. 



1868.] 



of the Fourteenth Century. 



" la piece d'acier ;" probably a pectoral. Thus Froissart, 
in describing the feat of arms between Tristan de Royes 
and Miles de Windsor in 1382, tells us that their lances 
" percerent la piece d'acier, les plates, et toutes les armures 
jusques en chair \" This "piece d'acier'' seems to be 
portrayed in our woodcuts, Nos. 15 and 16. 

In the Inventory of Stores in the Castle of Dover in 
1361 occurs, — "i. brustplate pur Justes""." The same 
document gives us ihe pair of plates, — " vi. paire de plates 
febles, dount iiij. de nulle value ""." They are named, how- 
ever, as early as 1322 : the Inventory of the Effects of 
Humphrey de Bohun has, — "i. peire des plates covertes 
de vert velvet **." In the Inventories of the Exchequer in 
1330, among the armour of Roger, Earl of March, found 
in Nottingham Castle, are mentioned " un peire de plates 
couvertz d'un drap d'or: une peire des plates covertz de 
rouge samyt^." For the duel between William Douglas 
and Thomas de Erskyn, " pairs of plates" were provided 
on both sides: "unum par de platis" and "unum par de 
plates" are the terms used in the instruments preserved 
by Rymer \ 

It is Chaucer who mentions the pair of plates large. In 
the Koightes Tale, — 

" Som wol ben armed in an haburgoun, 
In a bright brest plat, and a gypoun ; 
And som wold have a peyre of plates large." — Line 2,121. 

These "plates large" appear in our woodcuts, Nos. 10 
and 24, dated 1369 and 1393. See also Hefiier's engravings, 
46, 22, 125 and 156, of the years 1360, 1383, 1387 and 
1394. Though concealed by the surcoat, a similar defence 
may be inferred from the globose form of the breast-armour 
of the Black Prince. See woodcut. No. 2 (vol. cciv. p. 11), 
and compare Stothard's profile view of the effigy. 

Defences in which longitudinal strips appear, are of 
this century. These strips are placed contiguously, on 
the arms or legs: they sometimes form a mere ridge on 
the surface of a smooth armour, as in this example, the 



» VoL ii. p. 194. 

* Archseol. Journal, vol. xi. p. 884. 

" Ibid. 

** Ibid., vol. ii. p. 349. 



p VoL iii. p. 165. 

<i New Feeders, iii. 838 and 840, AJ). 
1367 and 1868. 



Arms, Armour, and Military Usages 



[July, 



monumental statue of Conrad von Seinsheim, 1369, at 
Schweinfurt. 

A similar instance is the effigy 
of Heinrich von Seinsheim, 1360, 
figured hy 'RefD.eT,(Trachten, pt. 
ii. pi. 46). In botli these sculp- 
tures the strip-work is found on 
the arms and legs. Sometimes 
the strips are much broader than 
in these specimens, and they are 
then fastened to three or more 
straps, and thus bound round 
the leg. The effigy of Hart- 
mann von Kroneberg, 1372, in 
the castle chapel of Kroneberg, 
here given from Hefiier's work, 
affords a good example of this 
contrivance ; and a second is 
furnished by the statue of Sir 
Guy Bryan at Tewkesbury, en- 
graved in Stothard's " Monu- 
ments." The manner of form- 
ing this strip-armour is very 
exactly described in the Toumey- 
book of Eene d'Anjou (of the 
nest century). In Brabant, 
Flanders, Eaynault, and other 
countries towards Germany, he 
says, they have a different mode of arming for the tourney. 
They put on a '* demy-pourpoint" of cloth, over that a gar- 
ment quilted with cotton, " sur quoy ila arment les avant- 
bras et les gardebras'' de cuir boully, sur lequel cuir 
bouilly y a de mentis bostons cinq ou six, de la grosseur 
d^uttff doy, et collez dessus, qui vont tout an long du bras 
jusques aux jointes'." Though the material is not here 
mentioned, it can scarcely be doubted that strips placed 
over leather to strengthen it, would be of metal. Occa- 
sionally the strips are laid upon defences of chain-mail ; 
being &stened to the mail by thongs, which, passing 
through holes in the plate, are tied on the outside. The 




' The fore-arm and oppcr-u 



• Ptge 8, ed. ChunpolUon 



1868.] t^the Fourteenth Centvry. 




Anns, Arnumr, and MiHlary Usages 



[July, 



effigy of Gottfried, Graf von Arensberg, 1370, engraved 
by Heftier (pi. 59), has armour of this kind. 

Studded annour is found during this century, particularly 
the second half of it. Examples occur in our engravings, 
Nob. 7 (vol. cciv. p. 590), 10, 13, 15, 16, 20, 31, 36 and 42. 
The brass of WiUiam de Aldeburgh, 1360, here given, oflFers 




1858.] of ike Fourteenth Century. 9 

a variety, in the studs being quatrefoil instead of round. 
The brass of Sir Miles Stapelton, 1364, figured by Stothard 
(pi. 68), has both cuissards and surcoat covered with studs. 
We must again call attention to the very curious relic 
found in the old castle of Tannenberg, illustrating as it 
does the construction of one of the varieties of studded 
armour (see p. 3). 

Defences in which strips and studs are mixed, appear in 
a few monuments of this century. A good example is 
oflfered by the effigy of Giinther von Schwarzburg, king 
of the Eomans, 1349, engraved at vol. cciv. p. 4. The brass 
of " Thomas Cheyne, Armiger," here figured, exhibits a 
similar equipment: its date is 1368. And a further illus- 
tration is afforded by the brass in Cobham Church, Kent, 
of Sir John Cobham, 1354. The construction of this 
armour has been variously interpreted. By some it has 
been thought that the ribs were of cuir-bouilli, and the 
remainder of quilted work strengthened with studs. Others 
have considered the strips to represent metal, while the 
interstitial portion was of studded cloth or leather. Perhaps 
beneath the studs were small scales of metal, as in the 
existing brigandine jackets of a later period. 

The so-called Banded-mail is found very commonly firom 
the beginning to near the close of the century. It is 
frequent in the illuminations of the Meliadus manuscript, 
Add. MS. 12,228, written about 1360 ; a volume curiously 
abundant in illustrations of knightly equipment and usages. 
A series of examples, from an early to a late period in this 
age, will be found in our engravings numbered 4 (vol. cciv. 
p. 130), 5 (ib., p. 465), 6 (ib., p. 589), 17, 22, 23, 25, 34, 42, 
47, 49 and 50. 

Having glanced at the materials and structure of the 
armours of the fourteenth century, we will now proceed 
to examine the various parts of the knightly equipment. 
Before entering upon this scrutiny, it may be as well to 
note generally that the horseman's body-armour at this 
time was essentially composed of four defences, worn one 
over the other : the quilted gambeson, a hauberk of chain- 
mail, a corset of plate- work, and a second quilted garment. 
This last pourpoint either formed the heraldic surcoat 
itself, as in the example of that of the Black Prince at 
Canterbury ; or it became a supplementary garment ; having, 

Gbot. Mao. Vol. CCV. c 



10 Arms, Armour, and Military Usages [July, 

in this case, a fifth garb added in the shape of a snrcoat of 
some light material. The evidences of this large supply 
of military vestments cannot be deduced from any single 
monument, because the garments, overlying one another, 
do not permit us to see their succession. But from a com- 
parison of scattered testimonies, we arrive at the fact. The 
undercoat of quilting is seen, in many examples : among 
others, in those forming our illustrations, Nos. 7 (vol. cciv. 
p. 590), 9 (ib., p. 592), 19 and 27. That a complete hauberk 
of chain-mail was (in some cases, at least) worn underneath 
an arming of '^ plates," is shewn by the account of Froissart, 
where a knight, while taking off his armour, hears of an 
attack by the French, and hastens to join in the fray clad 
in his hauberk only: — ^^ Messire Gautier Huet ouit ces 
nouvelles ainsi que on lui dechaussoit ses chausses d'acier, 
et etoit ja desarme a moitie; il eut si grand coite, et si 
fretilleusement monta a cheval, qu'il n'etoit vetu que d^une 
seule cotte de fer^ et n'eut mie loisir de prendre ses plates ; 
mais, la targe au col et la lance au poing, s'en vint en eel 
etat a Pescarmouche ^" The pourpoint interposed between 
the iron armour and the surcoat is seen in the illustration. 
No. 19 ; and other examples are furnished by Stothard's 
plates 55, 59, 60 and 66. This quadruple arming is clearly 
marked in the well-known passage of Chaucer's * ^ Tale of 
Sir Thopas ;" where we have the two quilted garments, the 
haubergeon (of chain-mail), and the '^hauberk of plate." 
The knight, we are told, put on — 

*' Next his shert an haketon. 
And over that an habergeon, 
For percing" of his herte ; 
" And over that a fin hauberk, 
Was all y wrought of Jewes werk, 

Ful strong it was of plate ; 
And over that his cote-armoure, 
As white as is the lily floure, 
In which he wold debate.'* — Verse 24, seq^, 

A passage of "Eichard Coer- de-Lion" affords a similar 
illustration : — 

*' Suche a stroke the knight hvm lente, 
That Richard's feet out of hia styropes wente, 
For plate, ne for acketton, 
For hauberk, ne for gambeson, 



» Vol. i. p. 681. ■ Defending. 



1858.] of the Fourteenth Century. 11 

Suche a stroke he had none ore. 

That dydde hym halfe so moche sore." — Page 18. 

The Gambeson in this, as in the preceding century, was 
of two kinds : that worn beneath the iron coat, and that 
forming of itself the armour of the soldier. The first is 
seen in our illustrations, Nos. 7 (vol. cciv. p. 590), 9 (ib., 
p. 592), 19 and 27 ; and again in the brass of Septvans, 1306, 
(Waller, pt. 9), in the effigy of De Bohun (Hollis, pt. 4), in 
the brass of Wenemaer (Archaeol. Journal, vii. 287), and in 
that of D'Aubemoun, 1327 (Stothard, pi. 60). In all these 
examples it appears underlying the armour, at the skirt. 
It is seen at the neck of the figure in the effigy of the 
Count d'Etampes at St. Denis (Shaw's '^ Dresses and Deco- 
rations"), and in that of Louis, Comte d'Evreux (Guilhermy's 
" Monuments of Saint-Denis," p. 260). It is in view at the 
arm in our engravings, Nos. 9 (vol. cciv. p. 592) and 27 ; 
and again in Stothard's 61st plate ; in the effigy of a " Prince 
inconnu," figured by Guilhermy (p. 253) ; and in a seal of 
Edward the Third. We have seen, from a preceding 
passage of Chaucer, that this garment was sometimes called 
the haketon or acton. The Roman de Gaydon describes it by 
this name : — 

** Sor Tauqueton, qui d*or fu pointurez, 
Vesti I'auberc, qui fut fort et serrez." 

And again : — 

" Sor I'auqueton vesti Tauberc jazeran." 

Cuvelier, in the Chronicle of Duguesclin, uses the same 
word : — 

** Escu et haubergon lui fu oultre persans, 
Et Tauqueton ausi, qui fu de bouquerans." — Vol. i.p. 170. 

Froissart calls it the "flottemel." Under 1385, he tells us 
that a knight was struck by a dart '^par telle maniere que 
le fer lui per^a ses plates, et sa cotte de mailles, et un 
flotemel empU de soie retorBe'^?'^ In 1388, the Duke of 
Guerles repairs to the Image of Our Lady of Nimeguen, — 
^^011 il avoit grand' fiance; et la, devant P hotel, en la 
chapelle, se desarma de toutes pieces, et se mit en pur 
son flottemel, et donna toutes ses armures a P image, en 
la remerciant et regraciant de la belle joumee qu' il 
avoit cue ^.^ 

» Vol. ii. p. 473. y Ibid., p. 711. 



12 Arms, Armour, and Military Usages [July, 

The gambeson, fonning alone the armour of the com- 
batant, was the garment of the infantry ; for these, going 
on foot, were altogether unable to sustain the burthen of 
the quadruple annament of the knights, even if their means 
could have supplied it. Under the name of haketon^ it is 
assigned to the troops of Eobert Bruce by a Statute of 
Arms of his reign : — ^^ Quilibet habeat, in defensione regni, 
unura sufl&cientem actonem, unum basinetum, et chirothe- 
cas de guerra," &c. In the Wardrobe Account of wages 
paid for the expedition against the Scots in 1322^ we 
have: — "De com. Suff., Willelmo de Ey shall et Henrico 
Peer, centenariis, pro vadiis suis et ccxL peditum, cum 
akton et bacinet," &c. And Walsingham has : — " Indutus 
autem fuit Episcopus quadam armatura quam Aketon vul- 
gariter appellamus." 

The "Arming Doublet," or "Doublet of Fence," of 
which we read at this time, appears to be the same gar- 
ment as the gambeson. It is named in a will of 1400 : — 
" Item, lego Willielmo Legat unam viridem togam, cum 
uno dublet de fens." (York Wills, p. 257.) In the Astley 
manuscript, printed in the Archaeological JoumaP, the 
instructions for the " fighte on foote" name the doublet as 
the first garment to be donned by the champion, and the 
very curious miniature illustrating the subject* shews us 
tliat the skirt and the sides of this garment were formed of 
chain-mail. It is no doubt this doublet with gussets and 
skirt of mail which is often seen in the monuments of the 
time underlying the defence of plate, and which has fre- 
quently been looked upon as a complete hauberk of iron. 
The Astley MS. is, indeed, of the fifteenth century, but 
may be fairly accepted as an illustration of the period now 
under consideration. In the Paston Letters (i. 40) we 
have " a gown of russette and doblette of velvet mayled." 
In the Comptes de Vargenterie of Etienne do la Fontaine, we 
find, for use of the Dauphin in 1352, "trois aunes de 
camoquas blanc et vermeil, des larges, baillees audit armeu- 
Tier pour faire ij. doubles a arraer. Pour tout xxiv. escus." 
(p. 144.) 

The "Jack of Defence" bore much resemblance to the 
garments named above. It appears to have been of four 
kinds : it was a quilted coat ; or it was pourpointed of 

« Vol. iv. p. 234. * Ibid., p. 226. 



1858.] of the Fourteenth Century . 13 

leather and canvas in many folds ; or it was formed of mail ; 
or of small plates, like the brigandine armour. It was occa- 
sionally covered with velvet : — " Item, do et lego Petro 
Mawley, filio meo, unum jak defencionis, opertnm nigro 
velveto." (York Wills, p. 150, a.d. 1391.) In the memorial 
for the armament of the Francs- Archers, cited by Daniel 
{Mil. fran. i. 242), we read : — '^ Et leur faiilt desdits Jacques 
de trentes toiles ou de vingt-cinq, et ung cuir de cerf a tout 
le moins. Et si sent de trente, et ung cuir de cerf, ils sent 
des bons. Et fault que les manches soient fortes comme le 
corps, reserve le cuir." The quilted jack was sometimes 
stuffed with silk. Thus, in the Chronicle of Duguesclin : — 

" II fut bien armez de ce qu*il luy failli, 
S'ot une jacque moult fort, de bonne sole empli." 

In Capell's " Prolusions" (Edw. III. i. 2) are mentioned 
"jacks of gymold mail." And Florio renders " Gidcco^ a 
jacke of maile ^." Walsingham mentions the jack as a gar- 
ment of defence : — " quod mille loricas vel tunicas, quas 
vidgo jackes vocant, redemerit de manibus creditorum." 
(p. 239, ad ann. 1379.) 

The Hauberk of chain-mail is worn throughout this 
century; not, however, as the principal defence, which 
it formed in the preceding age, but as a sub-armour. 
Gradually it suffered -wcroachment from the plate fabrics,^ 
till at length, about the middle of the second half of the 
century, it is scarcely to be seen in the effigies of the time ; 
though still, as we have mentioned at p. 10, occasionally 
worn beneath the new-fashioned plate-armour. The hau- 
berk is of two kinds — the long-sleeved and the short- 
sleeved. The first is found in our illustrations, Nos. 3 
(vol. cciv. p. 16), 7 (ib., p. 590), 14, 15, 16 and 41, ranging 
from about 1320 to the close of the century. Additional 
examples may be seen in the effigy of De Valence, 1323 
(Stothard, pi. 48), that of Septvans, c. 1325 (Waller, pt. 9), 
of Staunton, 1326 (Stothard, pi. 50), and of Louis of Ba- 
varia, 1347 (Hefiier, pi. 15). This last shews the continuous 
glove of chain-mail, drawn over the hand. The similar 
glove is seen, hanging loose from the wrist, in the illustra- 

^ See also the note of Mr. Way in the quilted and covered with leather, fustian 

Promptorium Parvidorum, voce Jakke of or canvas, over thick plates of yron that 

Defence; where also we have, from Lily's were sewed to y* same.*' 
" Euphues and his England," — *' jackes 



14 Arms, Armoury and Military Usages [July, 

tion, ISTo. 7 (vol. cciv. p. 590); and again in the effigies of 
Eudolf von Thierstein, 1318 (Hefner, pi. 41), of Septvans, 
1325 (Waller, pt. 9), of Charles d'Etampes, 1336 (Shaw's 
"Dresses"), and of an unknown personage among the 
monuments at Saint-Denis (Guilhermy, p. 253). The short- 
sleeved hauberk occurs in our engravings, Nos. 9 (vol. cciv. 
p. 592), 19, 23 and 27, dating from 1325 to about 1340. 
Other examples are offered by the seal of John, king of 
Poland, 1331 (Sydenham Collection), the effigy of Oliver 
Ingham, 1343 (Stothard, pi. 66), the brass of Wenemaer, 
(Archaeol. Journal, vii. 287), the Giffard brass, 1348 (Trans, 
of Essex ArchsBol. Society, vol. i.), the statue of the Graf 
von Orlamiinde, c. 1360 (Hefner, pi. 146), a seal of King 
Edward III., and the seal of Eobert II., king of Scotland, 
1371 (Laing's ^* Scottish Seals," p. 8). In some of these 
monuments the sleeve hangs loose over the elbow ; in 
others it is attached to the elbow by means of a lace and 
roundel. 

Usually the hauberk of this century terminates at the 
neck, as in the figures of our engravings, Nos. 7 (vol. cciv. 
p. 590), 15, 27 and 36 : see also Hefner's plates 31, 125 and 
156, the brass of Wenemaer, mentioned above, and the 
figure of Bernabo Visconti, engraved in vol. xviii. of the 
^rchaologia. The continuous coif is found in the effigy of 
Eudolf von Thierstein, 1318 (Heftier, pi. 41): it is there 
represented as drawn over the head. It is shewn as re- 
moved from the head and lying upon the shoulders in the 
Septvans brass, c. 1325 (Waller, pt. 9), in the effigies at 
Saint-Denis, 1319 and 1320 (Guilhermy, pp. 260 and 253), 
and in the statue of the Comte d'Etampes, 1336 (Shaw's 
" Dresses and Decorations"). At the skirt, the hauberk 
usually tenninates in a straight line; but sometimes it is 
made to descend in a point in front, as in our illustrations, 
Nos. 19, 9 (vol. cciv. p. 592), and 16, dated 1325, 1340 and 
1360 ^ 

Though, in the second half of the fourteenth century, 
the chain-mail hauberk was rapidly disappearing under 
repeated layers of plate-armour, there are yet some ex- 
amples of knightly equipment at this time in which the 
old fashion is retained with a pertinacity not easily recon- 

* See also the effigies of John of Elthain and Sir John de Tfield, c. 1834 (Stot- 
hard, pi. 55 and 59). 



1858.] o/ the Fourteenth Century. 15 

cilable with the love of novelty commonly inflaencing the 
martial toilet. Compare, for instance, the efBgy of HiigUn 
von Schoeneek, 1374 (Hefner, pi. 22), that of Ulricli Land- 
schaden, 1369, from his tomb at Neckareteinach, near 
Heidelberg, here given, and the fine sculpture of Eudolf 
von Sachsenhausen, 1370, figured by Heftier, pi. 133. 




From the passage of Chaucer already quoted '', we have 
seen that the word hauberk sometimes implied a defence 
" of plate." 

The Haubergeon is occasionally mentioned during this 
century. In the Inventory of Louis Hutin, in 1316, 
occur: *'Un haubergon d'acier a manicles: Item, ij. autres 
haubergons de Lombardie." The manicles probably meant 
attached gloves. The Inventory of the effects of Humphrey 



Arms, Armour, and Military Vaaget 



[July, 




1858.] 



of the Fourteenth Century. 




Qnrr. Mie. Voi. CCV, 



18 Arms, Armour, and Military Usages [July, 

de Bohun, in 1322, names " un hauberjoun qe est apele 
Bolioun, et i. peire des plates covertes de vert velvet®," &c. 
Bolioun appears to mean, of the manufacture of Bologna ; 
as, in the preceding extract, we have haubergeons of 
Lombardy ; Italy being early celebrated for the fabrication 
of armour. In the Will of Eleanor Bohun, Duchess of 
Gloucester, in 1399, occurs : — " Un habergeon ove un crois 
de latoun merchie sur le pis encontre le cuer, quele feust 
a mon seignour son* piere." (Koyal Wills, p. 181.) This 
custom, of placing some sacred symbol on that part of the 
armour which covered the heart, continued throughout the 
next two centuries : and, indeed, till the disuse of armour 
altogether. In the sixteenth century, breastplates are not 
unfrequently found having an elaborate en^aving of the 
Crucifixion in this place. 

The haubergeon is mentioned by Chaucer in several 
passages. In the Prologue to the Canterbury Tales we 
are told of the Knight, that 

" Of fastyan he wered a gepoun, 
AUe bysmoterud with his haburgeoun." — Line 75. 

In the " Knight's Tale" of the Tournament we leam that, 
among the companions of Palamon, — 

" Som wol ben armed in an haburgoun, 
In a bright brest plate and a gypoun." — Line 2,121. 

The Knight, in the " Tale of Sir Thopas," wore 

" Next his schert an aketonn, 
And over that an haberjoun." — Page 318, 

To which last, as we have seen, was added a defence of 
plate ^ 

Among the Stores of the Castle of Dover in 1361, we 
find '' habrejons et autres hemous de mailed" 

Such armour for the breast as in the writings of the pe- 
riod is described under the name plate or plates, has been 
already pretty fully examined *" ; for, in a subject somewhat 
perplexed, it seemed not desirable to add to the difficulty 
by producing the evidences in two separate places. Ex- 
amples of the larger breastplate will be found in our wood- 
cuts, Nos. 10 and 24 ; while of the smaller kind (the piece 
d^acier\ illustrations are given in the figures annexed, from 

*" Archffiol. Journal, ii. 349. ' Archseol. Journal, xi. 384. 

' Ante, p. 10. ^ See p. 4. 



185&] of the Fourteenth Century . 19 

Bamberg Cathedral, date about 1370. The under-arming 
appears to be of splints rivetted together and covered 
with cloth or velvet; a defence already examined and 
described ^ 

Other armours for protection of the breast and throat, 
named or depicted in this age, are the cors or corset, the 
cuirass, the pizaine and the gorget. 

The Inventory of Louis Rutin in 1316 mentions "ij. 
cors d'acier ;" that of Humphrey Bohun in 1322, " i. corset 
de fer ;" that of the Earl of March in 1330, " vi. corsetz de 
feer." In what, if in anything, these differed from the 
breastplates already examined, does not appear. A deed 
of this time, cited by Ducange, has : — " Armaturas etiam 
in dictis galeis infra scriptas habebant, scilicet, in qualibet 
ipsarum, Curacias cxxx., Gorgalia cxxx." The pizaine or 
pusane took its name from the French pis^ the breast ; 
itself derived from pectus. The word was applied to horse- 
armour as well as to that of the knight. In the Account 
of Expenses of John of Brabant in 1292, edited by Mr. 
Burtt for the Camden Society, the purchase is recorded of 
strong silk, " ad cooperiendas iiij. paria hernesii, cum sellis, 
cristis, testeris, piceris et aliis de armatura Ducis Brabantie" 
(p. 14). The Inventory of Louis X. in 1316 includes " iij. 
coleretes pizaines de jazeran d'acier." The ^^ Komance of 
Eichard Coer-de-Lion" tells us that the king, encountering 
an antagonist, — 

" Bare away halfe his schelde, 
Hys pusen therewith gan gon, 
And also his brandellet bon." 

In the ^^ Adventures of Arthur at the Tamewathelan," 
published by the Camden Society, a knight pierces his 
adversary 

** through ventaylle and pusane." — Stanza 45. 

• 

In the Armory of Winchester College, as appears by an 
inventory taken in the beginning of the fifteenth century, 
there were, among other defences, "vii. brestplates cum 
iiij. pusiones ^." 



{To be continued.) 



> Ante, p. 3. ^ ArchsoL Journal, voL viii. p. 87. 



20 [July, 

SKETCH OF THE LIFE OF WALTER DE MERTON, 

P0T7NDEB OF MERTON COLLEGB, OXPOBD. 

CHAPTER I. 

THE EABLT LIFE, UP TO THE FOUNDATION OF THE COLLEGE. 

[The following sketch has been compiled by the Rev. E. Hobhouse, Fellow of 
Merton, from manuscript biographies in the possession of his college, chiefly 
those of Dr. Francis Astrey and Mr. Joseph Kilner. Some of the papers of the 
latter diligent antiquary are in print in an unpublished volume, entitled, " School 
of Pythagoras." This volume is valuable, as giving many of the original docu- 
ments of the college in exteyiso. 

Walter de Merton is called throughout, the ' Founder,' as having been known 
and honoured in that relation by the present compiler, as well as his predeces- 
sors in Merton researches. 

The works of Kilner referred to in the notes are his MS. biography, and his 
transcripts of documents in the college muniment-room or exchequer.^ 

The earliest documentary evidence extant connects the founder 
of Merton College, through property and through blood, with the 
town of Basingstoke. In that town certainly lay the inheritance 
of his mother and of her numerous kindred, the Heriards", Olivers, 
Fitz-aces; and there, probably, her son grew up, amongst those 
neighbours who, in their still extant conveyances, delight to call 
the rising clericns by such affectionate titles as dilectum socium et 
amicum. No surname is ever attached to the father, whose Chris- 
tian name was William. We have, therefore, no ground for sup- 
posing that he had any tie with Merton as a birthplace or resi- 
dence. And out of what connection the name of de Merton^ by 
which his son is invariably described, arose, whether through birth, 
or education at the priory ^ does not now appear. 

Merton % I know not on what certain evidence, is always stated 
to have been the birthplace of Walter. All that is certain is, 
that his name was acquired from the priory; — see in his statutes, 
1624, § 19 : — *' Domui insuper de Merton, a quft nomen sortiun- 
tur, grati semper sint et eam, utpote bujus operis adjutricem 
studeant adiuvare." 

1237-8. The first document relating to the founder gives an 
unusual insight into the family history. It is a Close Roll of the 
22nd Henry III., {in dorso m. 14, et inde liabet cartam regis,) 
entitled, "Inquisltio de Terris Walteri de Merton in Manerio** de 
Basingstoke,^' and describes an inquiry held, it appears, at his in- 
stance, in consequence of his being overcharged by the king's bailiff. 

• Heriard is a village near Basingstoke. Edmond de Heriard, I find, was Prior of 
Merton in 1296. See Dugd ile's MoncLsticon. A Heriard was one of the King's Justicei 
under Kings Richard and John. See Madox, ** Bar. Ang./' 238. 

^ A priory of Austin Canons founded circa 1125 by Henry I. and Gilbert Xorman. 
Hugh de Biisxng was Prior 1231-8, probably a Hampshire neighbour of the founder's. 
He was followed by Gilbert de Ashe, another Hampshire name. Merton, Maiden, 
and Chessington are adjoining villages in Surrey, near Kingston. 

< Wtdter had kindred settled in the neighbourhood of Merton, e.g., Peter de Codyn* 
ton, through whose patronage he became Rector of Codynton. 

' A manor in manu regii. 



1858.] Sketch of the Life of Walter de Merton. 21 

The jury present, that Walter's property consists of one virgate and 
a-half, and ten acres of land, and two tenants ; the whole subject to 
10s. 4d., payable to the manor of Basingstoke : that it was given 
by John Fitz-ace to his niece Cristina till her uncle's death, when 
it fell into the king's hands, and was given by him to William, 
(a cousin of Richard de Heriet,) who married Cristina : and that 
William and Cristina demised it to Walter, their son and heir, 
(then called clericusy but with no preferment.) They present also, 
that Walter had acquired some small parcels of property from Ro- 
bertas de Basinges% Walter fil. Alexandri, and Rob. de Waltham, 

The king remits all demands, and fixes his future payments for all 
his property within the manor at 15s. per annum, pro omni servitio. 

Walter is here styled clericus, but without any specified pre- 
ferment. He had probably addicted himself to the study of law in 
London, and w-as earning both money and influence by the exer- 
cise of his talents in that profession. For in the conveyance of Rob. 
de Waltham, mentioned in the Inquisition, it is bargained, that 
Walter, besides paying 50s., is to place the seller " cum quadam 
summa pecuniae in aliquo servitio vel ad aliquod officium addiscen- 
dum apud London aut alibi," before the feast of All Saints, 25th 
Hen. III., (Nov. 1, 1240). 

With regard to his education nothing certain is known. He is 
said to have studied firstly at the Priory of Merton, and then at 
Oxford ; and both are more than probable. Ingram (" Memorials of 
Oxford,'* vol. i. p. 3) asserts the tradition that he was an inmate of 
Mauger Hall, now the Cross Inn, in the Cornmarket. 

To return to certainty. His parents were both buried at Basing- 
stoke, in the parish church of St. Michael. Cristina died first, 
and it was probably in the recent grief for her loss that he pro- 
ceeded to devote the house ^ which he inherited from her to the 
charitable purpose of a hospital «, **ad sustentationem pauperum 
Christi transeuntium," " pro salute animse nieae, et laudabilis con- 
versationis mulieris Cristinse matris meae, de consensu et voluntate 
Domini et patris mei." 

The exact date of this deed of endowment does not appear, but it 
seems to have been very shortly superseded by a second, conse- 
quent upon the death of his father. They are both witnessed by 
exactly the same persons and in the same order ; in both the founder 
is called simply clericus, and I hence infer that they are very near 
each other in time. 

The second deed conveys a somewhat larger endowment than 
the first ^ ; it adds the whole tenementum, or holding, late William 
Cok's, to his house, which, in consequence of the first deed, had 

* The conveyance of these small pnrcels are in the Merton exchequer, with several 
others, all undated. See transcripts in Kilner's Appendix. 
. ' " Mansum quod quandam Will* le Cok tenuit de antecessorihus meis." 

'His dedication is, ** Deo et gloriosffi Yirgini Mari® genetrici stub, et venerabili 
Patrono meo S. Joanni Bapt." 

^ It also adds, "pro salute Reverendi Dni mei, Dfii Henrici Regis." Does this 
imply the enjoyment of the royal patronage ? 



22 Sketch of the Ltfe of Walter de Merton, [July, 

been known as Mansum 8* Joannis, It was to embrace a larger 
scope of charity, — the support of ministers of the altar, '^ ad egesta- 
tem et imbecillitatem vergentium," as well as of the poor travellers. 
The brethren of the hospital were to hold of him and his heirs, 
tanquam patroni, in pure alms ; subject only to the maintenance of 
two wax lights at St. Mary^s altar in Basingstoke Church, which 
lights his parents had habitually offered there. 

There is no mention of a chapel attached to the hospital. Indeed, 
the institution must have been on the very humblest scale, com- 
mencing with no endowment but that of a single house, and de- 
pendent on the voluntary services of brethren, and on the alms of 
the neighbours. But it seems to have become at once an object of 
general regard amongst his fellow-townsmen, for the deeds about 
this time are numerous which convey small parcels of land to the 
brethren and sisters of St. John. We may presume that the dona- 
tions of other than real property were still more frequent. 

To continue the history of this hospital. The founder did not 
spare his growing interest in high quarters to advance his cherished 
undertaking. In the 37th Hen. III., June 25, 1253, the king at 
Suwick (qy. Southwick) grants to the master and brethren to have 
a chantry in the hospital chapel; and July 8, 1253, the founder 
got a confirmation of his last endowment from the king at Ports- 
mouth. In 1262 (July 8), the king at Canterbury, surrounded by 
his chief statesmen, in a deed commencing with an inflated pream- 
ble on the duty of keeping the clergy from poverty, makes the 
hospital of St. John a royal foundation for the support of needy 
clergy, "et pauperum ibidem infirmantium.** The fruits of this 
royal patronage were the enjoyment of a free chapel and freedom 
from all secular service. The founder is here styled clericus, and 
famiUaris noster, and also canonicus Wellensis, 

In 1268, the freedom of the chapel, of its services and oblations, 
was secured by the highest ecclesiastical authority. The deed of 
Cardinal Ottobon, the papal legate, securing this freedom, is in good 
preservation in the exchequer, in duplicate, with perfect seal. 

The future history of this hospital belongs rather to that of the 
college than of the founder of Merton. We must now return to 
his personal history. 

By the Inquisition above named we learn that the founder was 
in holy orders in 1238. In 1249, in a grant of free- warren within 
the demesne lands of Maiden, adjoining the parish of Merton, he 
is styled by the king clericus nosteVy which probably means either 
that he was a chaplain, or that he practised in the king^s courts. 
He must by this time either have had good preferment, or the 
more profitable employment* of a canonist, or both, as he declares 

* See Begigtmm Ant Brevium, in Bibl. Cotton, f. 199. Walter is mentioned at 
Prothonotarium CanceUctrus, in which capacity he framed some nseftil writs. The 
fees of this office were considerable ; e. g. Anno I<>. Joanms, one mark of gold for 
the Chancellor, one silver for the Vice-Chancellor, one silver for the Prothonotuy. See 
Kilner, p. 14. 



1858.] Sketch of the Life of Walter de Merton. 23 

that he acquired these lands by his own industry, (Stat. Coll. 
Mert., cap. i.) 

He certainly obtained preferment'' from Nicholas de Famham 
(his countryman), Bishop of Durham 1241 — 1248; but as we have 
evidence of his treating for the lands of Maiden, &c., as early as 
24 Hen. III., 1240, he must have found other means of making his 
industry profitable. 

The documents relating to his acquisition of the Surrey estates. 
Maiden, Farleigh, Chessington, (and later), Thorncroft and Leather- 
head, are very complete, and they shew the complicated dealings, 
which the feudal tenure made necessary for the conveyance of 
land, especially of such as was to be placed in mortmain. 

The advowson of Maiden with Chessington was granted to him 
by the Priory of Merton ; that of Farleigh, by the Priory of 
Tortington, Sussex. 

1254. In 1254 or 5 we have evidence of his being Chancellor, 
or holding some office that gave him at a distance the reputation of 
being Chancellor. It is derived from letters^ from the Bishops of 
St. Andrew's and Glasgow in behalf of Nicholas Corbet, the king 
of Scots' kinsman, a Scotch suitor in Chancery, in which Walter is 
called Cancellarius Regis, As he was prothonotary (see supra), he 
might, by the Scotch bishops, have been mistaken for the superior 
officer; perhaps he held the office for a very short time, for in 
1256, in a grant from the king of some land at Basingstoke, he is 
styled simply clericus noster. 

In 1257 he appears as witness to a charter, in company with 
others of the king's council. 

In 1258™, May 6, he was certainly entrusted with the great seal, 
and left by the king, when he withdrew himself from London, to 
settle with the pope's legate the grant of the kingdom of Sicily 
from the pope to Edmund, Earl of Lancaster, the king's son, and to 
set the seal to any letters or powers relating thereto. 

In 1259**, June 15, the king presented him to the prebend of 
Can tier's, or Kentish Town, in St. Paul's (sede vacante) : this was 
soon after exchanged for that of Holywell, now called Finsbury, in 
the same Church. 

^ The rectory of Sedgefield, co. of Durham, he held till his death. See his will, 
wherein he disposed of the profits of that rectory accruing after his consecration. He 
also bequeathed to the poor of Staindrop, co. of Durham, twenty marks, and likewise 
to the poor of other places where he held preferment, with l>equests to monks at New- 
castle and Hartlepool. He recounts this bishop amongst other benefactors for whose 
flouls his first college at Maiden was meant to intercede. Of Nicholas Famham's 
learning, see A. Wood's " Annals," 1229. 

^ Rymer's Faedera, torn. i. p. 570, transcribed by Kilner, App. No. IV. p. 64. Henry 
Wengham succeeded W. de Kilkenny in the chancellorship on the eve of Epiphany, 
d9th Hen. III., Jan. 5, 1255. Pat. Rolls, m. 15. 

" Cal. Rol. Pat. 42nd Hen. III. " Sept«. Maii, morabatur Hen. de Wengham London* 
infirmus, et sigillum remansit penes Dnum Wm. de Merton." See Chron. T. Wikes, 
p. 55. 

■ In the 44th Hen. III., 1259 — 60, two Chancery records occur, issued " de ordina- 
tione Walteri de Merton."— PtyiMw** Coll., p. 96, translated by Kilner. 



24 Sketch of the Life of Walter de Merton. [July, 

On July 4 he was collated by the Bishop of Exeter to a prebend 
in that church. 

In 1260 he was Chancellor, but was soon removed by the 
barons; but in 1261®, while the Court kept Whitsuntide at Win- 
chester, the king restored him, (as Matthew of Westminster de- 
clares, inconsulto baronagiOy) with cccc.p marks per annum ; and in 
1269, Jan. 29, he is joined with Philip Basset, the Chief- Justice, and 
Robert Walerand, to treat with three deputies of the disaffected 
barons, and to report to Richard, king of the Romans, the king's 
brother, as referee of the disputed points ^. Both these names are 
of great interest to the sons of Merton ; the first as a great patron 
of the founder, and the second as the husband of the pious Ela 
Comitissa, to whom they owe one of their oldest benefactions, 
the manor of Thorncroft, in Leatherhead. See Wood's " Hist, and 
Antiq.," lib. ii. pp. 85-6. 

His preferments still continued to grow, for the king, who was sore 
pressed for money, (as appears by a letter, translated from Tower 
Rolls, of Sept. 12, 1262,) had no mode of paying him so ready'. 
He presented him in this year to the church of Preston in Ander- 
ness, Lancashire, and to the prebend of Yatesbury, in Sarum. 

The king was now in France, and in a very forlorn plight. His 
Chancellor, whom he left in England, must consequently have had 
the chief burden of a troubled and ill-governed kingdom lying upon 
him. There is a letter from John Mansel, the king's secretary, 
written from Paris in 1262, in which he speaks of the king being 
at Rheims, with very few of his own people about him, and bent on 
making a progress through Burgundy. He begs for the Chancellor's 
commands, and a report on the state of the kingdom, (Rymer's 
F(Bd,, i. 752.) From hence we learn that the king was not only 
absent, but ignorant of his kingdom's affairs, and that even his 
secretary was looking to the Chancellor at home for commands. 
It was probably during this trying period that the Chancellor's 
character most fully shone forth, and that he earned the high 
opinion which, it is plain, the whole of the royal family entertained 
of him, — witness the fact of their all contributing in some way to 
the foundation of his college. 

In 1263 the Bishop of Worcester (Cantilupe) wrote to him, 
begging him to persuade the king to accept the barons' terms ; in 
which entreaty he probably succeeded, as a short peace ensued. In 



^ Prynne gives two letters addressed to Walter de Merton as Chancellor, 45th Hen. 
III., translated by Kilner. 

P Liberate Rolls, 45th Hen. III., ad susteniaiionem tui et Cancellaria nostra, 
A.D. 1261. T. Wikes : — ** Ann. Dns W". de Merton factus est custos regii sigilli." 
^ The letter of Richard, king of the Romans, declaring the failure of thia reference^ 
is given by Rymer, torn. i. pp. 738, 9 ; Kilner, p. 132. 

' The prof^ise bestowal of Church patronasre was the common mode of rewarding the 
clerical servants of the crown ; witness John Mansel, the king's principal favourite, 
who is said to have had the largest Church revenues of any dignitary less than a bishop 
in any age. (Kilner.) He was Lord Keeper in 1247, and again in 1249. (Beatson.) 
3 



1858.] Annals of Windsor, 25 

the same year he had the more difficult task laid upon him of pro- 
curing money for Robert de Nevill, whom the king had placed in 
command in the counties beyond Trent, (Rymer, i. p. 772,) to 
hold them against the rebels. Later in this year, (Sept. 18,) the 
king retired again from England, and left the seal in the keeping 
of Nicolas de Ely, from whom the barons had before obtained it. 
Perhaps this was a toward dispensation for our founder, who was 
less prominent as an object of attack in the riots which ensued in 
Lent, 1264, in London and elsewhere, and in which his prebendal 
house at Finsbury was plundered. This violence produced a letter 
from the king to the mayor of London, enjoining him forthwith to 
rescue the late Cliancellor's property. 

His release from office gave him leisure for other thoughts and 
other business, more in keeping with his sacred character. The 
king, being in this interval wholly under the power of the barons, 
obtained from them letters of safeguard protecting the ex-Chan- 
cellor while keeping residence at his various preferments. This 
was a service of no slight danger, as it involved travelling from 
Durham to Lancashire, Exeter, Salisbury, and St. Paul's. This 
letter" was of course in the king's name, but de Consilio Baronumy 
which shews in whose power he was. Nevertheless, we may sup- 
pose that he gladly obtained any measure of safety for his faithful 
servant; and certainly the founder's beneficiaries owe a deb.t of 
gratitude for the repose thus obtained, which he employed in ripen- 
ing his plans for the foundation of the house on the manor of 
Maiden, and in drawing up statutes for its regulation. This Or- 
dinafio is dated in 1264, but has no month assigned to it. In the 
statutes of 1270 it is spoken of as having been executed tempore 
turbationis Anc/licB, but as the baronial war went on unappeased 
through the whole of that year and the following, until the battle of 
Evesham, Aug. 4, it is beyond our power to give any exacter date. 



ANIMALS OF WII^DSOR*. 

One of the authors of this volume having, from his residence in Windsor 
in the year 1845, directed his attention to some improvements and altera- 
tions in the roads and approaches to the town and castle of Windsor, his 
notice became naturally turned to an investigation of its earlier history and 
former condition. The two volumes before us are the result of the combined 
labour of himself and Mr. Davis, and they have not spared any pains to 
render their undertaking full and complete. The work, for the most part, 
allots a chapter to each monarch's reign, — a simple method of proceeding, 
both easier to the compilers and more readily accessible to those in quest 
of information relating to a particular object or period — one tending to keep 

■ Pat. 48th Hen. 111. m. 9, printed in Prynne's Records, vol. ii. p. 1006. 
• ** Annals of Windsor ; beinej a History of the Casile and Town. By Robert Richard 
Tighe, £sq., and James Edward Davis, Esq." 2 vols. Svo. (London : LoiigmaDS.) 

Gbitt. Mao. Vol. CCV. k 



26 Annals of Windsor. [July> 

each subject distinct ; and as a result, we have here before us a very clear 
historical outline of the chief building in Great Britain. 

There does not appear any sufficient reason why Windsor was originally 
fixed upon as a royal fortress. It had not any previous connexion with 
Roman or Anglo-Saxon occupation. The Romans may have placed a small 
colony a few miles to the north-west, but they never formed a settlement 
at Windsor itself. Nor does it appear ever to have been a situation chosen 
for their residence by any of the Anglo-Saxon kings. It was not, indeed, 
a place of any note until the time of Edward the Confessor: he was the 
first person who kept his court here. Probably from this fact, if not from 
the existence of a royal forest where he might enjoy the pleasures of the 
chase, or from both circumstances united, William the Conqueror was in- 
duced to build a castle at Windsor. Yet there is nothing in its natural 
position that would have influenced its choice as peculiarly well adapted for 
a fortress, and the Conqueror must have selected it as a residence from one 
or both of the preceding causes. The building is one of the few mentioned 
as having been erected before he made the great survey of the kingdom. 
It is needless to add, that not a single vestige of this work exists at present ; 
though mills at Eton and Clewer mentioned in Domesday, and named in this 
same record, still exist on the same spot where they stood eight hundred 
years ago. 

It is the castle at Windsor, more than all its other associations, that has 
made the place so memorable in English annals ; and we shall consequently 
give a brief account of its earlier history. No great amount of credulity is 
taxed when we state that the Conqueror's castle was most probably similar 
to the type of Norman fortresses erected elsewhere, such as Falaise, Caen, 
Domfront, and Vire, in the North of France, and the White Tower, Guild- 
ford, Rochester, &c., in England, consisting simply of a large square keep 
and encircling curtain- walls. This plan was imitated in various places up 
to the end of the reign of Henry II., when the square or polygonal keep 
became rounded, or variouslv modified in its outline. 

The Conqueror resided in the castle in 1070. It was already used as a 
state prison by Riifus in 1095. In the reign of Henry I. a chapel was 
built, and dedicated to the Confessor, and it may be presumed that other 
works were carried out, but no entries respecting them have been preserved 
amongst the few official accounts of the reign. Nothing seems to have been 
done by Stephen. The taste of his successor, Ilenry II., was much turned 
towards military architecture. He caused large outlays to be made upon 
Pridgenorth, Clarendon, Shrewsbury, Dover (which he entirely built), Berk- 
hampstead, Hereford, the Peak, Scarborough, Orford, Bogis, Nottingham, 
&c. Windsor was not forgotten. From the 10th to the 29th year nearly 
^600 were expended in works, which was equivalent to nearly the whole 
cost of Dover, and more than it took to build some of the preceding castles 
entirely. Henry HI. added largely to the castle, not only by the erection 
of many new buildings, but, in accordance with the great love he had for 
the arts, by greatly enriching the chambers with gilding and other decora- 
tions. A search through the Clause and Liberate Rolls of this reign, or, in 
a more accessible form, through Mr. Parker's " History of Domestic Archi- 
tecture,'* and Eastlake*s *' History of Materials for OiUPainting,'* shew how 
much this monarch did to advance the arts of architecture, sculpture, and 
painting. It is true that no conspicuous remains e.xist to mark the success 
of his own patronage, but the eftects of the stimulus he imparted are per- 
petually evident in the works created during the reigns of Edward I. and II., 



1858.] Annals of IFindsor. 27 

a period of half-a-century, or rather more, when the arts rose to the greatest 
height of perfection they have ever attained in this countiy. 

The general reader would only be perplexed if we tried to point out the 
exact spots where these earlier works were carried on. So complete, indeed, 
has been the progress of destruction, that scarcely a fragment of this period 
has been left to tell any architectural history. Where there originally 
existed so much that was grand and imposing, so much exhibiting the 
highest efforts of English artists, it is doubly to be lamented that nearly all 
should have been swept away that emanated from the Plantagenets. 

During the reign of that victorious and noble-hearted monarch, Edward I., 
Windsor Castle was little frequented by the court. In the commencement 
of his reign his thoughts were fully occupied by the state of affairs in 
Grascony ; and though he was brought up at Windsor, though he held here 
a splendid tournament, the armourers* and tailoi*8* bills for which will be 
a lasting antiquarian curiosity ; though he granted a charter for the first 
time to the borough, and, after some delay, allowed it to return burgesses 
to parliament — he never followed the example of his ancestors by keeping 
his Christmas here. His virtuous and beloved queen shewed her partiality 
for it by residing here on several occasions. Here she gave birth to three 
of her children. 

Whilst King John was here perpetually, we trace his son Edward but 
seldom, and Edward II. also but rarely, though he kept his Christmas here 
in the years 1308,1312, and 1314; which the editors of the "Annals'* 
would have found in the attestations of the Patent Rolls of the reign. 

In looking into the vestiges of ancient Windsor, we have, however, still 
the satisfaction of beholding a good deal that was built by King Edward III. 
In 1343 he had held a great assembly at Windsor of knights and esquires, 
in imitation of the round table of King Arth\u*, out of which originated, 
four or five years afterwards, the institution of the Order of the Garter. 
Nearly contemporaneously, he founded the college of St. George ; and these 
two foundations '' necessarily required additional accommodation within the 
walls of the castle for the residence of the custos, canons, and other officers 
of the college, and the periodical accommodation and entertainment of the 
guests attending the feasts and ceremonies of the order." As very fre- 
quently happens when people are in doubt or difficulty what to do in 
enlarging, building, or beautifying their own residence, they catch the hint 
or suggestion of a friend how to set about it, so it happened with King Ed- 
ward III., who, being straitened for want of room to extend his buildings, 
took advantage of a suggestion offered him by the kings of France and of 
Scotland, who were prisoners together at Windsor during part of the years 
1356-7, and induced him to extend the castle eastward of the keep : — 

*' The two higher wardg," say our authors, quoting Stowe, ** were builded by Eilward 
III. certainly, and upon occasion, as is reported, of liis victory against the French king 
John, and the king of Scots, David, both of them prisoners at one- time in the old 
castle of Windsor, as is said ; where Ijeing visited by the king, or riding together with 
him, or walking together in that ground where the two wards be now, as a parcel of hia 
park, the strangers commending the situation, and judging the castle to have been 
better built in that place than where it was, as being on higher ground, and more open 
to see and to be seen afar off, the king approved their sayings, adding pleasantly, that 
it should so be, and that he would bring his castle thither ; that is to say, enliirge it so 
far with two other ward.*, the charges whereof should be borne with their two ransoms, 
as after it came to pass.'' 

On the opinion given in this veiy remarkable anecdote very few people 
would differ. It was probably much better than would be obtained from 
a professional architectat the present day, and it had, moreover, the ad- 



28 Annals of JTindsor. [July> 

vantage Ihat the adviser of the Crown had to pay, instead of receiving, a fee 
for the communication of his ideas. 

We now come to an important period in the architectural history of 
Windsor. Very extensive operations were carried on from the year 1349 
to 1374; the greater part, however, were executed between 1359 and the 
latter year. In the year 1356 William of Wykeham was appointed sur- 
veyor of the king's works at the castle. When he was called in the 
castle consisted of two bailys, namely, the western and the keep. The 
eastern baily was the one sugsjested by the imprisoned kings, and upon 
this Wykeham's talents were displayed. On the buildings of this portion 
of the castle as many as 360 masons were employed, at a charge for the 
last seven years of Wykeham's superintendence of £3,802, or near £50,000 
at the present value of money. Undoubtedly some few fragments still 
remain belonging to the period when these works were executed, but they 
are of not much importance, nor could they be viewed without considerable 
difficulty. We therefore refer our more curious readers to the account of 
them written by Professor Cockerell in the Proceedings of the Archaeological 
Institute at Winchester, and to another paper on the same subject, written 
by Mr. Blore, in the Archaeological Journal for 1845. The subject, how- 
ever, is capable of being followed much further by referring to the original 
Expence Rolls, which are better worth consulting than either of these 
accurate observers, or than the imperfect extracts given in Calendars. We 
had certainly expected to find some new sources of information opened to 
us concerning this interesting period of architecture. And if any Calendar 
of the miscellenous documents of the Exchequer had been printed, we 
can hardly doubt at least this index would have attracted the well- 
directed labours of the authors of the " Annals of Windsor.** Of all archi- 
tecural styles, or transition from one style to another, the change from the 
Decorated to the Perpendicular is that most needing explanation and most 
deserving enquiry. Every new fact gleaned in this department is of 
value, and every entry connecting architecture with the master mind of 
W^illiam of Wykeham throws new radiance over a name that will be always 
held in the highest honour and affection by Englishmen. 

To pursue the architectural history of Windsor Castle after the days of 
Wykeham would be to follow a phantom ; it would only be tracing through 
successive stages what was, during the reigns of the Plantagenets, a truly 
august pile, and right worthy of a royal residence, till we observe it de- 
based, mutilated, and destroyed. Yet there was one addition made by 
Queen Elizabeth that has materially added to the accommodation and 
general dignity of Windsor Castle. It is to this queen that the castle is 
indebted for the terrace — one of its striking and magnificent features. 
Previously to its construction, there appears to have been merely a wooden 
railing to keep up the bank. This old fence is represented in Hoefuayle's 
view, published about 1575, which forms one of the numerous and most 
interesting illustrations of the volumes under notice. During seven years 
at this period as much as £7,800 were expended by Elizabeth in various 
works, and of this sum as much as £1,800 was laid out in the formation 
of the terrace. Of all the architectural undertakings for two centuries 
before her, or two centuries later than her reign, this was the most suc- 
cessful. 

After this reign very little was done to the castle until the time of 
George IV., who conceived the idea of repairing and greatly enlarging it 
for his residence. Eight commissioners were appointed to carry the works 
into effect, not one of whom seem to have possessed the slightest knowledge 



1858.] Annals of Windsor, 29 

of architecture ; and they were still more unfortunate in falling into the 
hands of a builder who was equally unacquainted with the principles or 
proportions of Gothic. He made a plan to suit the sum he considered at 
his disposal, but it soon appeared that the £150,000 voted by Parliament 
were utterly inadequate for the completion of his design. In his evidence 
before a committee, it was stated by the architect that the commissioners 
never further sanctioned any general plan. The necessity for works be- 
came more apparent to him as he advanced ; roofs and floors were found 
rotten, foundations insecure ; instead of a repair, everything was required to 
be done afresh, and as a necessary consequence, further grants were re- 
quired, so that in asking for it in 1828, it was stated that as much as 
£445,000 had been expended in four years, and £244,500 more were 
required to be provided to complete the undertaking. Other grants were 
made by Parliament, and previous to the year 1 830, for building, as much 
as £527,600 had been expended, and £267,000 for furnishing, or a total in 
the six years of £794,500. 

With this enormous outlay, it might have been supposed everything 
would have been accomplished that the most avaricious architect could 
have designed. But how little are people aware that this outlay was only 
preparatory to a fixed annual charge, which ultimately raised the outlay 
during the reign of William IV. to the sum of one million one hundred and 
eighty-four thousand one hundred and seventy pounds. As far as the 
purchase of property adjacent to the royal domains is concerned, the 
acquisition may have been essential, and have been judiciously made, but 
the taste that directed the buildings is much more questionable. No 
opportunities for the display of skill and genius could have been more 
favourable than those offered to Wyatville ; hut utterly unacquainted with 
the undulating and expansive spirit of military architecture, without an 
idea of what contributed to picturesqueness of efl^ect or grandeur in com- 
position, formal, shallow, untrue to his mingled styles, cramped, flat, and 
spiritless, he has encumbered the noblest site in England with a pile en- 
tirely destitute of feudal or military magnificence, and, it may be added, 
scarce worthy of the residence of her Majesty Queen Victoria. The mil- 
lion that was lavished away in the reign of George IV. did nothing for 
art or architecture ; it advanced neither. And now a higher feeling for 
both begins to be more generally diff'used, they see the defects that dis- 
grace a former age, and grow acutely desirous of seeing them amended. 
The nation begins to see that, after all, it is more for the glory of the 
country at large than it can possibly be for the honour of the inmates, that 
Windsor Castle should be made the noblest edifice in Great Britain. 

As everything centres in the castle, we have left ourselves but little 
space to notice other portions in the ** Annals of Windsor.'* Yet we can- 
not close the volumes without mentioning the clear and satisfactory man- 
ner in which its contents have been arranged and written. The matter 
is very miscellaneous, yet each subject is kept distinct. On the history of 
Eton College and St. George's Chapel it is particularly full, and no doubt 
these portions will form popular parts of the history. The extracts from the 
corporation documents are replete with local interest, and the work itself 
will form a valuable addition to English topography. 



30 [July, 



MICHELET'S HISTORY OF FRANCE*. 

This new volume of M. Michelet's great work carries on the history 
through thirty-three years — from the surrender of Rochelle, in 1628, until 
the death of Mazarin. During fourteen of those years, RicheUeu was the 
central figure in the state. His influence was felt everywhere, both at 
Lome and abroad, and in all events, both great and small; so that no 
national transaction of the time can be recorded adequately without a 
special reference to him. M. Michelet has, in fact, designated this portion 
of his history by the great statesman's name. How appropriately he has 
BO designated it, will be acknowledged by those who make themselves 
acquainted with the complicated matters which are chronicled in the first 
sixteen chapters of the volume now before us. 

One of the most conspicuous circumstances of the history is the strong, 
unceasing antagonism against which the minister had to contend. Inde- 
pendently of foreign enemies, whom, it must be owned, his policy sufli- 
ciently provoked, he had to guard himself at all times with unsleeping 
vigilance against domestic treachery and hatred. The king himself dis- 
liked, but could not do without, Richelieu ; the two queens — the mother 
and the wife of Louis — were bound to the interests of Spain, and never 
weary of intrigues to bafile, or betray, or bring to shame the minister 
whose genius baulked their schemes. The king's brother, Gaston of Or- 
leans, and many of the nobles of the land, were plotting against him at 
every opportunity ; and even his own trusted agent — the subtle Capuchin, 
Joseph — was sometimes a traitor to the master whom he would have liked 
to supersede. The meanness and the profligacy of many of these persons 
in high places, and the crimes by which they attempted to effect their dis- 
honourable purposes, caused them more than once to fall into the very pit 
which they had made ready for the Cardinal. There was a memorable ex- 
ample of this discomfiture on that day of dupes ^ as it was called, on which 
Gaston and the queens found, in the moment of their fancied triumph over 
him, that the minister was more secure than ever in his strength, and 
had possessed himself of such proofs of their treason, that there was 
nothing better left for them to do than to sue to him for mercy, and en- 
deavour to obtain it by giving evidence against each other. A few years 
afterwards, the queen, Ann of Austria, was more completely humbled to 
the dust before him, and only escaped on this occasion the disgrace and 
punishment she merited by a new artifice in wickedness, which gave, in due 
time, a dauphin to the wondering realm. It was a common consequence of 
the machinations which were made against him, thus to increase his power 
whilst the plotters were abased. More than once a dread example was 
afibrded by the execution of offenders who had been deemed too high in 
rank for such a fate. Richelieu appears, in fact, to have been determined to 
" bear, like the Turk, no brother near the throne ;*' his will was always 
fixed, stern, and indomitable ; and, whilst he was always liberal to those 
who served him well, he swept from his path with inflexible severity all 
who dared to strive against him, or to thwart him in his course. Amongst 
his enemies at home, disgrace and exile was the ordinary lot of those who 



• Histoire d^ France au dix septihme Steele, Richelieu et La Fronde. Par 
J. Michelet." (Paris : Chamerot.) 



1858.] Michelti^s History of France. 31 

escaped death. His foreign enemies were sorely enough maltreated by- 
means of his alliances and wars. 

On one of these alliances M. Michelet dwells at considerable length, and 
with a detail which is far from adding to the glory of the French statesman. 
According to that detail, there was some dishonesty on Richelieu's part — 
some secret unfairness of dealing — in the circumstances of that league by 
which the Swedish hero, Gustavus Adolphus, was subsidized by France in 
his memorable compaign against the empire. The Cardinal, it would seem, 
had never calculated on victories like those of Leipsic and Lutzen ; never 
contemplated so ** enormous a preponderance of the Protestant party'* as 
the first of those successes made. But he was not slow to profit by the 
unexpected opportunity. M. Michelet represents him as gathering the 
harvest which Gustavus had prepared — as getting possession, by a juggle, 
of the conquests bought by Swedish blood. As an example of this 
trickery, the historian tells us, that when the Swedes had beaten the 
Spaniards in the archbishopric of Treves, and believed that they had 
taken Coblentz, they saw floating over the fortress, where it had been 
placed by the Archbishop's own hand, the flag of the French garrison. 

Through all the dangers which he was exposed to from the hostility of 
his persevering enemies, and all the fluctuations of his fortune in the wars, 
Hichelieu kept faithful to his aim of lowering the power of Austria and 
Spain, and extending and securing that of the nation which his iron will 
ruled. It was the fixed predominance of this object in his mind that 
enabled him on his death-bed to make this noble answer to the recom- 
mendation to forgive his enemies : — " 1 have had none but the enemies of 
the state." M. Michelet himself adopts this plea in defence of what seemed 
cruellest in the statesman's measures : — ** He seldom granted a pardon," 
says the historian, '* but he would have pardoned only at the cost of 
France." He tells us, morever, that the large number of persons who 
were condemned to death during the continuance of Kichelieu's rule, were 
not the less guilty because they were ill-judged ; and he adds, that the 
greater part of them were traitors, who were surrendering their country 
to foreign enemies. 

One kindly deed, which M. Michelet has recorded, presents the reader 
with a pleasant contrast to the sternness of the great minister's ordinary 
mood. As an author, he had the littleness to be jealous of Corneille ; and, 
as a politician, had been hurt by the appearance of the Ot J at the very 
time of his reverses ; but when the poet afterwards was sick and sore at 
heart with a love which was made hopeless by the high condition of the 
feir one it was fixed on, Richelieu gave his all-powerful interposition with 
the lady's father, and gained for the dramatist the bride he had despaired 
of winning. But it was a sad and strange fortune for one who was capable 
of this kindness, to have his own life so cast that he was regarded every- 
where with fear and hate, and that his death was felt as a deliverance, at 
which both friends and enemies breathed freely. Others, however, in all 
probability, were far more to blame than he was for the dread and odium he 
was held in. In spite of his intrigues, and weaknesses, and crimes, his 
subtle machinations, and the unyielding sternness of his despotism, there 
was nothing selfish or ignoble in the objects which he had most at heart ; 
and in this aspect he stands at an immeasurable elevation above those 
public enemies with whom " his life was one long war." 

Louis XIII. outlived Richelieu less than six months, yet within that in- 
terval the measures had been taken which made Anne of Austria regent 



32 MicheleVs History of France. [July, 

during the minority of the new king. The victory of Rocroy — a victory, 
by the wav, which M. Michelet attributes more to the experienced judg- 
ment of Gassion and Sirot than to the impetuous valour of the young Duke 
d'Enghien, to whom the glory of it has been wont to be assigned — opened, 
with an appropriate triumph, the brilliant reign that was beginning. But 
** this great good fortune/' the historian tells us, *' caused two misfortunes : 
it created an insatiable and insupportable hero, mounted upon stilts and ready 
to kill everybody on the least ground of pride or interest ; and it did honour 
to the accession of Mazarin, consecrated the king of knaves." The full de- 
velopment of these misfortunes is found in tlie history of the Fronde. 

The influence, or rather the authority, of Mazarin was not long in mani- 
festing itself. Within four months from the death of Louis XIII. he ob- 
tained from the reluctant queen the order for the arrest of Beaufort and 
some of his friends, whose crime was a conspiracy against himself. This 
was the first public act of a supreme power in the government which, sus- 
tained by the victories of Conde, and by a financial policy which ruinously 
forestalled supplies, continued with unexampled dexterity during five years 
to bid defiance to the national contempt and indignation. Neither the hero 
nor the minister finds much favour in the sight of M. Michelet. Allowance 
being made for the favourable circumstances under which he always fought, 
for the fine armies he commanded, and for the able generals who served 
under him, the merits of the great Conde seem to be not unfairly repre- 
sented as inferior to those of commanders like Mercv and Turenne ; whilst 
the statesmanship of the great Mazarin is resolved into something little 
nobler than the crafty stratagems of a scamp who perils recklessly the 
enormous stakes of other people and puts the winnings into his own pocket. 

At the end of five years the growing discontent at Mazarin*s administra- 
tion, which was felt by parliament and people, found ample manifestation 
in the conflicts of the Fronde. M. Michelet's account of this memorable 
revolt is executed in his best manner. Bv a few eflfective touches he makes 
the reader acquainted with each of the striking scenes and conspicuous actors 
in it, — with the selfish, reckless, and short-sighted obstinacy of the queen- 
regent, who was only restrained from an act of savage murder by a well- 
timed suggestion of the nearness with which Mazarin was approaching 
Straflford's fate; — with the consummate craft and cowardice of Mazarin 
himself, whose measures were a maze of intervolved intrigues, in the pro- 
secution of which all common obligations of morality and honour, and all 
common distinctions between friend and enemy, were disregarded; — with 
the unbounded self-conceit and profligacy of the coadjutor, whose aims were 
to obtain for himself the government of Paris and a cardinal's hat; — with 
the overweening arrogance, and cruelty, and grasping temper of the head- 
strong Conde, alike unprincipled and double-faced, and, in common with 
most of those whom he opposed or acted with, only earnest in reality when 
his own interests were at stake in the event;— and with the unobtrusive 
goodness, and austerity, and courage of Broussel, at whose arrest the peo- 
ple rose in arms against the court, and, by the attitude which was given to 
them by their twelve hundred barricades made in twelve hours, won from 
the furious queen an order for the worthy councillor's release. The bril- 
liant pages in which the historian sets before the reader both these person- 
ages, and the occasions, whether of war or peace, in which they bore a 
signal part, are written with an eloquence, and grace, and strength which 
are quite as characteristic of M. Michelet's peculiar genius as his ardour in 
historical investigation and his conscientious fidelity to historical truth. In 
4 



1858.] Michelefs History of France. 33 

spite, however, of these high qualities in the narrator, the perusal of a large 
portion of the narration now before us is almost as painful as it is instruc- 
tive. Much as we may find to disapprove of in the character of Richelieu, 
there was much also to respect and stand in awe of; but, with the com- 
mencement of the new reign, all redeeming virtues vanish from the govern- 
ment, and we see the well-being of millions entrusted to the keeping of a 
courtly circle of noble persons, male and female, whose morals, in our own 
age and country, would justly doom them to the treadmill or the hulks. 
Under the despotic rule of these titled courtezans and rogues, it is no wonder 
that the poor were found contending against dogs for the carrion that was 
cast into the sewers. 

The meanness and the wickedness of these illustrious persons were pretty 
equal in intensity, although their objects differed widely. But, as we might 
imagine from his ampler opportunities, the greatest gainer of them all was 
Mazarin. In the most perilous season of the national distress, he kept, as 
If. Michelet informs us, the affairs of France entirely subordinate to the 
advancement of his own family and the creation of his own enormous for- 
tune — the most monstrous one that ever minister had made. He made his 
brother viceroy of Catalonia, and he gave a splendid portion to each of his 
seven nieces. His death was said to be an edifying one : — M. Michelet 
assures us that it was at least consistent with his life, since he lived and 
died eheatmg. 

From Mazarin's administration, and the revolt against it, one good thing 
would seem to have proceeded. In the deepest misery of the nation its 
gaiety was not extinguished ; and M. Michelet attributes to ih^Mazarinades, 
in which that gaiety evinced itself, the origin of the French language in its 
modem fluidity, and purity, and ease. It is seen in the Memoirs of De Retz, 
in the Provincial Letters, and in Tartuffe, all of which were written early 
in the latter half of the seventeenth century. " The Frond6," M. Michelet 
tells us, " has produced this language : this language has produced Voltaire, 
the gigantic journalist : and Voltaire has produced the Press and modem 
joornalism." 

The reign of Louis XIV., the model reign of absolute monarchs, will 
form the subject of that forthcoming volume of M. Michelet' s noble history 
which is announced as already in the press. In the present volume, amidst 
the machinations of the Fronde, the foreign and domestic wars, and the 
final triumph of the crafty Mazarin, the historian tells us little concerning 
the young king beyond the circumstances of his birth, and his early initia- 
tion into the vices which were rife amongst those who guided and sur- 
rounded him. Often and ably as the history of that reign has been nar- 
rated, it will unquestionably come with new attractions from the pen of a 
writer whose profound historical researches have neither dulled the bril- 
liancy of his imagination nor chilled the ardour of his feeling for the masses 
of bis fellow-countrvmen. 



Gent. Mag. Xqu CC^^ 



34 [July, 



DOMESTIC ANNALS OF SCOTLAND*. 

This work, which Mr. Chambers has evidently compiled at the expense 
of much labour and very extensive research, purports to be a chronicle of 
domestic matters in Scotland from the Beformation downwards ; his great 
object being, as he says, disregarding as much ns possible the history of 
political transactions and personages, to detail the *' domestic annals'' of his 
country, or, in other words, the series of occurrences which lie beneath the 
region of history, the effects of passion, superstition, and ignorance upon the 
multitude, the extraordinary natural events which disturbed their tranquillity, 
the calamities which affected their well-being, the enactments of false 
political economy by which that well-being was checked, and, generally, 
** those things which enable us to see how our forefathers thought, felt, 
and suffered ; and how, on the whole, ordinary life looked in their days." 

His book, in all probability, beyond the limits of the country whose 
annals it recounts, partly from a certain sameness which pervades its pages, 
and partly from the harshness of the language in which much of its narra- 
tive is detailed, will hardly gain popularity as a work of surpassing in* 
terest. Instructive, however, whether in the hands of the astronomer, the 
meteorologist, the naturalist, or the political economist, it cannot fail in a 
high degree to be ; and the student of human nature, when he has toiled 
through the hundreds of recitals of ignorance, blood-thirstiness, superstition, 
fraud, hypocrisy, and fanaticism, with which its pages — those of the first 
volume more particularly— abound, cannot but be surprised to find that a 
people now so elevated in the scale of civilization should have been im- 
mersed in the depths of such deplorable savagery little more than a couple 
of centuries ago. 

With the frightful details of murders, burnings, tortures, rapine, and 
violence, which, combined with the intolerance and arrogance of the 
dominant ecclesiastical party, and the meanness, pedantry, and pusilla- 
nimity of the British Solomon, form little short of the whole contents of the 
first volume, we shall forbear to trouble our readers, as much, perhaps, for 
our own comfort as theirs ; our extracts, though still in some instances of 
a sombre hue, shall be wholly confined to the more varied and more amusing 
narrative of the second. For the authorities which Mr. Chambers quotes 
we must beg leave to refer to the volume itself. 

Cursorily remarking that May 26, 1625, is mentioned (p. 3) as the date 
of the first patent conferring the dignity of a baronet of Nova Scotia, and 
that at this period the now busy city of Paisley was only a village (p. 7) 
surrounding the ruins of an ancient abbey, we light upon a somewhat 
curious story (p. 20) about a couple of runaway debtors, perched upon the 
Bass Rock in the Frith of Forth : — 

" Qeorge Lander of the Bass, and bis mother, ' Dame Isobel Hepburn, Lady Baas,' 
were at this time (Dec. 1628) in embarrassed circamstanoes, 'standing at the hom^ tit 
the instance of divers of their creditors.' Nevertheless, as was complained of them, 
' they peaceably bmik and enjoy some of their rents, and remain within the Craiff of 
the Bass, so to elude justice and exccation of the law.' A Scotch laird and his mouier 
holding out against creditors in a tower on that inaccessible sea-rock, fbrma rather a 

* *' Domestic Annals of ScotUuid, from the Reformation to the Revdfattaon. Bv Robert 
Chamben, F.R.S.E.,4i8.A. Sc, &c In two volumes." (Edinbncgh and London : W. 
and R Chambers.) 

^ Jvdicially ordered to pay their debts by " letters of homing." 



1858.] Domestic Annals of Scotland. 85 

striking picture to the imaginatioii. Bat debt even then had its power of exorcising 
romance. The Lords of Council issued a proclamation, threatening George Lander and 
his mother with the highest pains if they did not submit to the laws. A friend then 
came forward and represented to the lords ' the hard and desolate estate' of the two 
rebels, and obtained a protection enabling them to come to Edinburgh to make arrange- 
ments for the settlement of their affiurs." 

Certain moral offences, or supposed offences, rather, seem to have been 

punished in a way very effectually preventing a second commission : — 

" The case of John Weir, ' in Clenochdylle/ who had married the rdict of his grand- 
nncle, and thus been guilty of ' incest,' was under the consideration of the Privy 
Council. Weir had been three years under excommunication for this crime, which the 
Council deemed ' fit to procure the wrath and displeasure of God to the whole nation.' 
The king's advocate was now ordered to proceed, and Weir was actually tried on the 
25th of April (1629), found guilty, and sentenced to be beheaded at the cross of 
Edinburgh. After snfTering a twelvemonth's imprisonment under this sentence, he 
became a subject for the special mercy of the king, and was only banished the island 
for life. .' . . One of the most remarkable of a large dass of cases of this kind, was that 
of Alexander Blair, a tailor in Currie, who had married his first wife* a half 'brother's 
daiughter. For this offence he was condemned (Sept. 9, 1680} to lose his head." — (^, 28.) 

And yet so intent were these learned and conscientious divines and legis- 
lators upon straining at gnats and swallowing camels, that, upon the self- 
same day on which Alexander Blair was condemned to lose bis head, one 
William Lachlane was adjudged to banishment for life, and no more, for 
unmitigated bigamy. 

Out of hundreds of cases of witchcraft, warlocks, and sorcery, which in 
most Instances ended with the purifying mercies of fire and faggot, we 
select the following, as mere ordinary samples, and no more ; content to 
leave this rather extensive topic of Mr. Chambers's work to those who are 
possessed of more patience and somewhat less susceptibility of indignation 
than ourselves : — 

" In 1629, Isabel Touug, spouse to George Smith, portioner in East Bams, in Had- 
dingtonshire, was burnt for witchcraft. She had been accused of both inflicting and 
curing diseases; and it appears that she and her husband had sent to the Laird of Lee 
to borrow his cwring-stone for their cattle, which had the 'averbing-ilL* This is in- 
teresting as an early reference to the well-known Lee Fenny, which is yet preserved in 
the family of Lochhart of Lee, being an ancient precious stone or amulet, set in a 
silver penny. It is related that I^dy Lee declined to lend the stone, but gave flagons 
of water in which the penny had been steeped. This water, being drunk by the cattle, 
was believed to have effected their cure." — (p. 31.) 

" The warlock, Alexander Hamilton, was tried Jan. 22, 1630, when it came out that 
he had begun his wicked career in consequence of meeting the devil in the form of a 
black man on Kipgston Hills, in Haddingtonshire. Being engaged to serve the 
fiend, he was instructed to raise him by bating the ground thrice with a flr-stick, 
and crying, 'Rise up, foul thief!' He had consequently had him up several times for 
eonsultation ; sometimes in the shape of a dog or cat, sometimes in that of a crow. 
By diabolic aid, he had caused a mill full of com, belonging to Provost Cockbum, to 
be burned, merely by taking three stalks from the provost's stacks, and burning them 
on the Garleton Hills. He had been at many witch-meetings where the enemy of man 
was present. This wretched man was sentenced to be worried at a stake and bwjted. 
On the Srd July, 1630, the Council took order in the case of Alie Nisbet, midwife, of 
Hilton, and also in that of John Keill, John Smith, and Katherine Wilson, ' concerning 
their practice of witchcraft.' Kisbet was accused of curing a woman by taking a paU 
with hot water and bathing the patient's legs. This may appear as a very natural and 
proper kind of treatment ; but there was an addition : she put her fingers into the 
water, and ran three times round the bed widdershins ! or contrary to the direction of 
the ton, crying, ' The bones to the fire, and the soul to the devil !' thereby putting the 
^sease upon another woman, who died in twenty-four hours. Nisbet also had put 
some enchanted water under the threshold, for the injury of a servant-girl against whom 
she had a spite, and who, passing over it, was bewitched, an<flBl instantly. She was 
• worried and burnt.' "—(pp. 33, 34.) 



^6 Domestic Annals of Scotland. [ Jul Jy 

For a story, too, about a demon, who insisted upon talking in nothing 
but the best Latin, we refer the reader to pp. 43, 44, of the volume. 

In the usual spirit of interference and intolerance, characteristic of the 

age, creed, and country, — 

"the Town Council of Edinburgh forbade (April, 1631) the wearing of plaids by 
women in the streets, under pain of corporal punishment. The plaid was the Scottish 
mantilla, and, serving to hide the face, was supposed to afford a protection to immodest 
conduct. A few years later (1636) the council found that women were still addicted 
to the use of the plaid, or went about with their skirts over their heads, ' so that the 
same is now become the ordinary habit of all women within the city, to the general 
imputation of their sex, matrons not being able to be discerned trora. loose-living 
women, to their own dishonour and scandal of the city.' For these faults heavy fines 
were announced." — (p. 54.) 

As mantillas were deemed immodest, and therefore subjected to fines, the 
marvellous modesty of the female head-gear of the present day would« of 
course, have been greatly to the hearts* content of the sapidm Town 
Council, and duly honoured with a premium accordingly. 

We are next attracted by a curious passage about an early political 
reformer, and the singular encouragement he met with for his patriotic 
aspirations : — 

" George Nicol, the son of a tailor in Edinburgh, under an unlucky zeal for the 
public good, resolved to expose some malpractices of the Scottish rulers which bad 
fallen under his attention, or which he believed to exist. Being in London, he pre- 
sented to the King some information against the Chancellor, the Earls of Morton and 
Stratheme, the Lord Traquair, the Lord Advocate, &c., for mismanagement of the 
treasury. These officers were summoned to London to meet the charges brought 
against them, when it soon appeared that Nicol had advanced what he could not prove. 
He was returned to Scotland under the power of the men whom he had accused, and 
was a^udged by the Privy Council guilty of leating-makingt and to stand at the entry 
of the session-house for an hour, and two hours at the Cross, with a paper on his head 
bearing, ' Here stands Mr.^ George Nicol, who is tried, found, and declared to be a false 
calumnious liar/ and thereafter to ' receive six stripes on his naked biick by the hand of 
the hangman, and then to be led back to the Tolbooth with his shoulders still exposed.' 
He ' met with much compassion from the promiscuous beholders, who generally be- 
lieved he suffered wrongfully.* He was afterwards deported to Flanders." — (p. 62.) 

Here, too, we have an early member of the genus Cross or Womb- 
well : — 

" Licence was given (July, 1633) to one Edward Gh^ham to have the keeping of a 
camel belonging to the King, and to take the animal throughout the kingdom that it 
might be shewn to the people, ' by tuck of drum or sound of trumpet, from time to 
time, without trouble or let,' he and his servants engaging to behave themselves 
modestly, and not exhibit the camel on the * Sabbath-day.' " — \^. 69.) 

The prevailing spirit of cant or fanaticism — ^it is hard to say which— 
seems to have been imported even into matters matrimonial ; as evidenced 
by the following edifying narrative : — 

" A specimen of religious courtship of this age is given by Mr. John Livingstone in 
his Memoirs. The lady was daughter to Bartholomew Fleming, merchant in Edin- 
burgh. ' When I went a visit to Ireland in February, 1634, Mr. Blair propounded to 
me that marriage. I had seen her before, several times, in Scotland, and heard the 
testimony of mauy of her gracious disposition, yet I was for nine months seeking, as I 
could, direction from God about that business ; during which time I did not offer to 
speak to her, who, I believe, had not heard anything of the matter, only for want of 
clearness in my mind, although I was twice or thrice in the house, and saw her fre- 
quently at communions and public meetings ; and it is like I might have been longer 
in such darkness, except the Lord had presented me an occasion of our conferring 
together : for in November, 1634, when I was going to the Friday meeting at Ancrum, I 

^Wote the unctuous politeness of iha Hitter, 



1858.] Domestic Annals of Scotland. 37 

met with her and some othen going thither, and propomided to them by the way to confer 
upon a text whereupon I was to preach the day after at Ancrum ; wherein I found her 
conference so judicious and spiritual, that I took that for some answer to my prayer to 
have my mind cleared, and blamed myself that I had not before taken occasion to 
confer with her. Four or five days after, I propounded the matter to her and desired 
her to think upon it ; and after a week or two I went to her mother's house, and 
being alone with her, desiring her answer, I went to prayer, and urged her to pray, 
which at last she did; and in that time I got abundance of clearness that it was the 
ZordTs mind that I should marry her, and then propounded the matter more fully to 
her mother. And although I was fully cleared, I may truly say it was above a monUi 
before I got marriage affection to her, although she was, for personal endowments, 
beyond many of her equals ; and I got it not till I obtained it by prayer. But there- 
alter 1 had a great difficulty to moderate it." — (pp. 79, 80.) 

From this union, says Mr. Chambers, proceeded a family which has made 
a distinguished figure in the United States of America. It is only to be 
hoped tl^ the members of it have less crack-brained notions upon matri- 
mony thtS their ancestor, or, at all events, are more careful of committing 
them to paper. 

The year 1635 is memorable as the epoch of the establishment of a 
regular letter-post in Scotland. Some interesting particulars will be found 
relative to this subject, and the necessities which gave rise to its institution, 
in p. 85 of the present volume. 

The manatus is a member of the herbivorous cetacea which haunts the 
mouths of rivers in the hottest parts of the Atlantic ocean, and Mr. Cham- 
bers is of opinion that it is just possible that a stray individual of this 
genus may have found its way to the coast of Scotland, more especially as 
it was the summer season, (June, 1 635) : — 

" There was seen in the water of Don a monster-like beast, having the head like to 
ane great mastiff dog or swine, and hands, arms, and paps like to a man. The paps 
seemed to be white. It had hair on the head, and the hinder parte, seen sometimes 
above the water, seemed dubbish, short-legged, and short-footed, with ane tail. This 
monster was seen swimming bodily above the water, about 10 hours in the morning, 
and continued all day visible, swimming above and below the bridge without any fear. 
The town's-people of both Aberdeens came out in great multitudes to see this monster. 
Some threw stones ; some shot guns and pistols ; and the salmon fishers rowed cables 
with nets to catch it, but all in vain. It never shrinked nor feared, but would duck 
onder the water, snorting and bullering, terrible to the hearers and beholders. It re- 
mained two days, and was seen no more." — (p. 88.) 

That the manatus is the genuine merman or mermaid of the ignorant 
there seems to be little room for doubt ; indeed one author, Mr. Chambers 
observes, refers to the animal above described as a mermaid. 

For the narrative of the crimes and fate of Patrick Macgregor, the 
catteran, better known as Gilderoy, or the Red Lad (pp. 96, 97), we are 
unable to afford space; but must content ourselves with referring the 
reader to Mr. Chambers' volume, and to vol. i. b. 3 of Bishop Percy's 
Heliques, where an earlier version of the song will be found than that men- 
tioned by Mr. Chambers as the composition of Lady Wardlaw. From the 
date of his death (1636), it is quite clear that Gilderoy was not a contem- 
porary of Mary Queen of Scots, and it is just as unlikely that he ever had 
the opportunity of easing Oliver Cromwell of his purse ; stories, as Percy 
observes, (without seeming to know when he really did live,) based upon no 
better authority than Grub-street. 

The following extract (p. 1 15), on the subject of omens, is curious. It is 
the Great Civil War, be it remembered, that, to the eyes of superstition and 
active imagination, is thus casting its shadows before I'^M^ 

** On the hill of Edit, in Aberdeenshire, famous for its ancient Tortification called the 
&rmkyn of Echt, there was heard, almost every night all this winter (1637, 8), a 



38 Domestic Annah of Scotland. [July^ 

prodigious beating of drams, supposed to foretell the bloody dvil wars which soon after 
ensued. The parade of retiring of guards, their tattoos, their reveilles, and marches, 
were all heard distinctly by multitudes of people. ' Ear-witnesses, soldiers of credit, 
have told me,' says Gordon of Rothiemay, 'that when the parade was beating, they 
could discern when the drummer walked towards them, or when he turned about, as 
the fashion is for drummers to walk to and again upon the head or front of a company 
drawn up. At such times, also, they could distinguish the marches of several nations ; 
and the iirst marches that were heard there were the Scottish March ; afterwards, the 
Irish March was heard; then the English March. But before these noises ceased, 
those who had been trained up much of their lives abroad in the German wars, affirmed 
that they could perfectly, by their hearing, discern the marches upon the drum of 
several foreign nations of Europe — such as the French, Dutch, Danish, &c. These 
drums were so constantly heard, that all the country people next adjacent were there- 
with accustomed; and sometimes these drummers were heard off that hill, in places 
two or three miles distant. Some people in the night, travelling near by the Loch of 
Skene, within three miles of that hill, were frighted with the loud noise of drams, 
struck hard by them, which did convoy them along the way, but saw nothing; as I had 
it often from such as heard these noises, from the Laird of Skene and his lady, from 
the Laird of Echt, and my own wife then living in Skene, almost immediately after the 
people thus terrified had come and told it. Some gentlemen of known integrity and 
truth affirmed that, near these places, they heard as perfect shot of cannon g^ off as 
ever they heard at the battle of Nordlingen, where themselves some years before had 
been present." 

Other stories to a similar effect, but even more marvellous, are to be 
found in pp. 146, 7, 8. 

The 28th of February, 1638, is memorable as the day upon which com- 
menced at Edinburgh the signing of that National Covenant for the " pre* 
servation of the Presbyterian model,** which was destined for years to 
exercise so strong an influence upon the fortunes of Scotland, for good or 
ill. About this time, too, " Mr. Andrew Cant" first appears upon the 
scene (p. 120), a turbulent Presbyterian divine, and a dealer, probably, in a 
large way, in the commodity which has ever since been known by his curt 
cognomen. 

In pp. 136, 138, we are introduced to some of the iconoclastic proceed- 
ings of Mr. Cant and his fanatic fellow-vandals : — 

" At the command of a Committee of the General Assembly, some memorials of the 
ancient worship, hitherto surviving in Aberdeen, were removed. In Machar Kirk they 
' ordained our blessed Lord Jesus Christ his arms to be hewen out of the front of the 
pulpit, and to take down the portrait of our blessed Virgin Mary, and her dear son 
inby Jesus in her arms, that had stood since the up-putting thereof, in curious work, 
under the sill-ring at the west end of the tower whereon the great steeple stands. Be- 
sides, where there was ane crucifix set in glassen windows, this he [the Master of 
Forbes] caused pull out in honest men's houses. He caused one maison strike out 
Christ's arms in hewen wark on ilk end of Bishop Oarin Dunbar's tomb, and siclike 
chisel out the name of Jesus, drawn cypherwise I. U.S. out of the timber wall on the 
foreside of Machar aile, anent the consistory door. The crucifix on the Old Town 
Cross dung down ; the crucifix on the New Town Cross closed up, being loath to break 
the stone ; the crucifix on the west end of St. Nicholas' Kirk in New Aberdeen dung 
down, whilk was never troubled before.' 

" At the command of the minister of the parish, accompanied by several gentlemen 
of the Covenanting party, the timber-screen of Elgin Cathedral, which had outlived the 
Keformation, was cast down. ' On the west side was painted in excellent colonrs, ilia- 
minate with stars of g^ld, the Crucifixion of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. This 
piece was so excellently done, that the colours and stars never faded nor evanished, but 
Keepit hale and sound, as they were at the beginning, notwithstanding this college or 
canonry kirk wanted the roof since the Reformation, and no hale window thendn to 
save the same from storm, snow, sleet, nor weet ; whilk myself saw. On the other 
side of tins wall, tovMods the east, was drawn the Day of Judgment. — It was said this 
minister caused bri^P^me to his house the timber thereof, and bum the same for serv- 
ing his kitchen and other uses ; but ilk night the fire went out wherein it was burnt, 
and could not be holden in to kiiuUc the morning fire, as use is ; whereat the servants 



1858.] Domestic Annah of Scotland. 39 

and others marvelled, and therenpon the minister left off any farther to bring in or 
bum any more of that timber in his house. This was marked and spread through 
Elgin, and credibly reported to myself.' " 

In pp. 156, 7, we have a sketch of the views of the dominant party as to 
the requirements of true religion : — 

"Of the ecclesiastical discipline of this period, and its bearing upon the habits of the 
people, we get a good idea from the Presbytery Record of Strathbogie. The whole 
moral energy of the country appears as concentrated in an effort to fix a certain code of 
theological views, including a rig^d observance of the Sabbath, the suppression of witch- 
craft, the maintenance of a serious style of manners, and the extirpation of popery. A 
committee of the presbytery made periodical visits to the several parishes, called the 
minister and chief parishioners before them, and examined the parties separately as to 
each other's spiritual condition and religious practice. For example, at Rhynie, the 
minister, Henry Ross, being removed, the elders were sworn and interrogated as to his 
efficiency. They ' all in ane voice deposed that concerning his literature he was very 
weak, and gave them little or no comfort in his ministry ; but, as concerning his life, 
he was mended, and was blameless now in his conversation.' To be absent any con- 
siderable number of times from church was punishable ; and if the parishioner proved 
contumacious, he was liable to be excommunicated — a doom inferring a loss of all civU 
rights, and a complete separation from human converse. To refuse to take the Cove- 
nant, or to have any doings with the loyalist Huntley, brought men into similar 
troubles. Irregularities between the sexes, and even quarrelling and scolding, had to 
be expiated in sackcloth before the congregation. Drunkenness and swearing were 
also censured. In dealing with these offences, an unsparing inquisition into domestic 
and family matters was used, and no rank, age, or sex seems to have afforded the sub- 
ject any protection. As specimens of religious offences, — a gentleman was prosecuted 
for bringing home a millstone on a Sunday ; another for gathering gooseberries in 
time of sermon. It was found regarding Patrick Wilson, that he had sat up with a 
company drinking till after cockcrow, consuming, in all, eleven pints — that is, about 
two dozen quart bottles — of ale ; he had struck a man, and railed in his drink at 
several gentlemen of the parish. The brethren ordained Patrick to stand in sackcloth 
two Sabbaths, and pay four merks penalty." 

The pathetic story of Bessie Bell and Mary Gray (pp. 166, 7), unfor- 
tunately too long for insertion here, we commend to our readers as one of 
the most interesting passages in the book. 

To the fall of the year 1648 is to be traced the origin of the term Whigy 
as applied to a well-known party in the state. It was at this period, when 
the news arrived of the Duke of Hamilton's defeat, that the Marquis of 
Argyle and his party headed the Whigs* Raid (or Whiggamores* inroad), 
upon the march of the southron fanatics to Edinburgh. According to 
Burnet, the name Whiggamore was given to the people of the south-wes- 
tern counties, from the word Whiggan, which they used in driving their 
horses. This alleged origin, however, of the name we are inclined to look 
upon as very doubtful. 

Passing the murder of the Marquis of Huntley by the remorseless Argyle 
and his sanctimonious supporters (pp. 176, 9), our attention is arrested by 
•ome striking sketches of these frightful times : — 

•'The diarist John Nicoll mentions, under February, 1650, that 'Much fWset and 
cheatmg was detected at tins time by the Lords of Session ; for the whilk there was 
daily bulging, scourging, nailing of lugs [ears] and binding of people to the Tron, and 
bormff of toi^es; so that it was ane fatal year for false notars and witnesses, as daily 
oqpenenoe did witness.' Nicoll enumerates many of the offenders. One was John 
iMmrnm of Leith, who had taken a leading part in causing a house, left by one who died 
of the plague, to come by a false service to one who had no claim to it. ' He was 
faronght to the Tron betwixt eleven and twelve before noon, and fast bound thereto, 
with ane paper on his head declaring his fault. His tongue wudrawn out with ane 
torkes [pincers] by the common lumgman, and laid on ane VKle buird — and run 
tbrongfa with ane net iron or bodkin.' Another delinquent was Thomas Hunter, a 



40 Domestic Annals of Scotland, [July, 

writer, guilty of perjury ; for which he was declared incapable of ' agenting ony busi- 
ness within the house and college of justice/ William Blair, ' messer/ was hanged 
' for sundry falsets committed by him in his calling/ " 

Writing again, towards the close of 1651, Nicoll gives (p. 212) a "most 
unflattering picture" of the moral condition of the country ; — 

" ' Under beavin/ he says, ' there was not greater falset, oppression, division, hatred, 
pride, malice, and envy, nor was at this time, and diverse and sundry years before (ever 
since the subscribing the Covenant), every man seeking himself and his own ends, even 
under a cloak of piety, whilk did cover much knavery/ He adds : ' Much of the ministry, 
also, could not purge themselves of their vices of pride, avarice, and cruelty ; where 
they maligned, they were divided in their judgments and opinions, and made their pul- 
pits to speak one agninst another. Great care they had of their augmentations, and 
Reek pennies, never before beard of but within this few years. Pride and cruelty, one 
against another, much abounded : little charity or mercy to restore the weak, was to 
be fotmd among them. This 1 observe, not out of malice to the ministry, but to record 
the truth, for all offended, from the prince to the beggar.' " 

Well may we exclaim, with St. Bernard, " It is not for us here to say, 'Like 
priest like people,' for the people are not so bad as the priests." 

The sea-girt castle of Dunottar was now almost the only place of strength 
in Scotland that was enabled to resist the English arms. Its small garrisoa 
was under the command of George Ogilvie, of Barras, whose anxiety to main- 
tain his post was increased by the reflection that to his care had been con- 
signed the regalia of the kingdom — the crown, sceptre, and sword of state. 
The story of their ultimate preservation (pp. 213, 4) is sufficiently curious 
to deserve quotation : — 

" For many months, Ogilvie and his little garrison had defied the English forces ; but 
now it was likely that he could not hold out much longer. The Earl Marischal had 
been taken with the Committee of Estates, and shipped off to London as prisoner. He 
contrived, however, to send by a private hand the key of the closet in which the regalia 
lay, to bis mother, the Dowager Countess, who, by the advice of her son, opened a com- 
munication with Mr. James Grainger, minister of Kineff, a person in whom the family re- 
posed great faith, with a view to lus assisting in conveying away the precious ' honours.' 
The minister and his wife. Christian Fletcher, entered heartily into the wishes of the 
Countess. Mrs. Grainger, by permission of the English commander, visiting the wife 
of the governor of the castle, received from that lady, but without the knowledge of 
her husband, the crown into her lap. The sceptre and sword, wrapped up in a bundle 
of hards or lint, were placed on the back of a female attendant. When Mrs. Grainger 
and her maid returned through the beleaguering camp, it appeared as if she were taking 
away some lint to be spun for Mrs. Ogilvie. So far fVom suspecting any trick, the Eng- 
lish officer on duty is said to have helped Mrs. (Grainger upon her horse. The casua 
was rendered three months afterwards, when great was the rage of the English on find- 
ing that the regalia were gone. It was adroitly given out that they had been carried 
beyond sea by Sir John Keith, and handed to King Charles at Paris. In reality, on 
reaching the manse of Kineff, Mrs. Grainger had delivered the crown, sceptre, and 
sword to her husband, who took the earUest opportunity of burying them under the 
floor of his church, imparting the secret of tlieir concealment to no one but the 
Countess Marischal. To the credit of the worthy miniHter and his wife, they preserved 
their secret inviolato till the Restoration, eight years afterwards, when ' the honours' 
were exhumed, and replaced under proper custody. An order of the Scottish Fnrlia- 
ment, dated January 11, 1661, rewiurded Mrs. Grainger with 2,000 merks, and George 
Ogplvie was created a lMux)net." 

Omitting the interesting but oYer-long story of the gallant Wogan 
(pp. 223, 4), we come to the once famous history (pp. 228 — 232) of the 
'* Devil of Glenluer/' a literary spirit who, amongst other accomplishments, 
professed to speak eood Latin ; the following extract from which (p. 230) 
will shew that tbOToctrines of spirit-rapping and of arms floating in mid 
air are anything but novelties, the story dating so far back as 1654. 
5 



1858.] Dmnestic Annah of Scotland. 41 

" After a great deal of the like talk with the unseen tormentor, ending with a de- 
claration from him that he was an evil spirit come from the bottomless pit to vex this 
hoose, and that Satan was his father, there appeared a naked hand, and an arm from 
the elbow down, benting upon the floor till the house did shake agftin. This the minister 
attested, and also that he heard the voice, saying, ' Saw you that P It was not my 
hand — it was my father's; my hand is more black in the loof [palm]."' 

About June, 1654, seems to have been the time, Mr. Chambers says 
(p. 227), when the word Tory^ in its political sense, was introduced intp 
our island. Being first assigned to a set of predatory outlaws in Ireland^ 
it became, naturally enough, transferred to a number of irregular soldiers 
connected with the insurgent army of the Eail of Glencairn in Scotland, 
who ^' lay in holes and other private places," and robbed and spoiled all 
who fell into their hands. 

In p. 245 we have an early morceau on newspapers, viewed as a ma^s- 
terial and municipal luxury : — 



«( 



The mapstrates of Glasgow, feeling the need for 'a diurnal,' i.e. aewspaper, « 
hixnry hitherto little known in Scotland, ' appoint John Fleming to write to his man 
who lies at London,' to cause one to be sent for the town's use. Whether John Fle^ 
ming's man, from the fact of his fyin^f at London, is to be presumed as himself Qpni^ected 
with the public press, may be left to the consideration of the reader." 

Lying at London, in connexion with a newspaper, is by no meanf #n 
uncommon avocation even at the present day. 

" The Dead Alive" we would give as the title of our next extract :— 

" At tlus time the pubUc received a great surprise in the sudden reappearance of 
Lord Belbaven, who was understood to have been dead £or the last six years and upwards. 
At the forfeiture of the Hamilton family under the English tyranny. Lord Belhaven 
found himself engaged as security to the creditors of that house for a much larger sum 
than he could pay ; in consequence whereof he fell upon an extraordinary expedient. 
He took a journey to England, and when he had passed Solway Sands he caused his 
servant to come back to his wife with his cloak and hat, and had it given out that he 
and his horse bad sunk in the quicksands and were drowned. None were privy to the 
secret but his lady and the servant. The report passed everywhere as authentic, and 
to make it more plausible, his lady and chiklren went into mourning for two years. 
Passing into England, Lord Belhaven put on a mean suit of apparel, hired himself to 
he a gardiner, and worked at this humble employment during the whole time of his 
absence, no one knowing this but his lady. The Duchess of Hamilton having at length 
come to a composition with her creditors, his Lordship returned to Scotland, and resumed 
hia rank, to the admiration of many." — (pp. 249, 250.) 

'' MifiB Biffin outdone*' would be the title of our next :—" 

*'Niooll states himself to have seen this day (Sept. 24th, 1660) a youth of sixteen, a 
native of Aberdeen, who, having been bom without power in his arms, 'eit^r to eat or 
drink, or do any other thing for himself or others, ' Almighty God^ who ip able tp dp 
all things gave him power to supply all these duties with the toes of hts feet, and to 
write in singular good, legible, and current write, and that with such haste as any oom- 
aoon notar is in use to do. Yea, further, with his toes he put on h'S clothes, kamed hii 
head, made his writing-pens, and threaded a needle, in such short time and space 83 
any other person whomsoever was able to do with his hands.* " — (p. 253.) 

'Whate%'er may be said or thought of the loyalty or disloyalty of the 
Scottish people, the fish of the Scottish seas and the swans of the Scottish 
lakes would seem to have been loyal in the extreme. No sooner had 
Charles II. been restored to the throne, than the seas, which had been 
barren for years before, became so wonderfully prolific that in some places 
the people ^* were in a condition to dung the land with soles ;" and from 
the Mercurius Caledonius we further learn, — 

** that on the 1st of January, 1661, the swans, which used to dwell on Linlithgow 
I^>ch, and which had deserted th«r haunt at the time of the king'a departoxte from 

GiWT. Mao. Vol. CCV. q 



42 Sleepy Nightshade, King Duncan, and the Danes. [July, 

Scotland, did now grace his return by reappearing in a large flock upon the lake. There 
was also a small fish called the Ckerry of the Tay^ a kind of whiting, which returned 
from a voluntary exile along with the king." — (p. 267.) 

On the 8th of January, 1661, appeared the first number of the first news« 
paper attempted in Scotland. It was a small weekly sheet, intituled " Mer^ 
curius Caledonius : comprising the Affairs now in Agitation in Scotland, 
with a Survey of Foreign Intelligence." The editor waa Thomas Sydserf, 
or Saint Serf, son of a former bishop of Galloway, who was soon after pro- 
moted to the see of Orkney. 

With an early announcement from the columns of the JSfercurius Cote" 
donius of a primitive foot-race, we must bring our extracts to a coaclu« 
sion. We there find notice duly given of — 

" a foot-race to be run by 12 brewster wives, all of them in a condition which makes 
violent exertion unsuitable to the female frame, ' from tlie Thicket Bum [probably 
Figgat Bum] to the top of Arthur's Seat, for a groaning? cheese of one hundred pound 
weight, and a budgcU of Dunkeld aqua vita and rumpkin of Hrunswick Mnm for the 
second, set down by the Dutch midwife. I'he next day, sixteen fish-wives to trot from 
Musselburgh to the Cannon-cross for twelve pair ot lamb's harrigals." — (p. 273.) 

In taking our leave of Mr. Chambers*8 laborious and diversified compila- 
tion, our only care must be not to omit expressing somewhat of surprise 
that among his thousand tales and narratives of the startling and the hor- 
rible, he has omitted to include the curious story of Alexander (better knowa 
as Sawney) Bean and his cannibal family. In interest it may certainly vie 
with most of his extracts, and its truthfulness, we believe we are quite cor- 
rect in saying, has never been made matter of dispute. 



SLEEPY NIGHTSHADE, KING DUNCAN, AND THE DANES. 

In the reign of Duncan, king of Scotland, subsequently murdered by 
Macbeth, the Norwegians under Sueno, or Sweyn, brother of Canute, one 
of England*s Danish kings, are reported by the Scottish historians to 
have invaded Scotland, and to have laid siege to Perth, which the Scots 
were on the point of 8un*endering. While a treaty was in progress, 
the King of Scotland offered to supply the besiegers with provisions, of 
which they were in great want. The following is Buchanan's version of 
this mythic story : — 

"The Scots . . . told the Norwegians, that whilst the conditions of peace were pro« 
poundine and settling, their king would send abundance of provisions into their camp, 
as knnwmg that they were not overstocked with victualling fur the army. That gift 
waa acceptable to the Norwegians, not so much on account of the Scots' bounty, or 
their own penury, as that they thought it was a ngn that their spirits were cowed, quite 
•pent and broken. Whereupon a great quantity of bread and wine was sent them ; 
both wine pressed out of the grape, and also strong drink made of harley-mdU, mixed 
with the juice of a poisonous herb, abundance of which grows in Scotland, called aleepjf 
mgkUhade : the stalk of it is above two feet long, and in its upper part spreads into 
branches ; the leaves are broadi^b, acuminated at the extremities, and faintly g^een. 
The berries are large, and of a blick colour when they are ripe, which proceed out of 
the stalk under the bottom of the leaves ; their taste is sweetish, and almost insipid ; it 
hath a very small seed, as little as the grains of a fig. The virtue of the fruit, root, 
and especially of the seed, is aoporiferoM, and they will make men mad if taken in too 
great qoantities. With this herb all the provisions were infected, and they who 
carried it, to prevent all suspicion of fraud, tasted of it before, and invited the Danes 



1858.] Sleepy Nightshade, King Duncan, and the Danes, 48 

td drink huge dranghtB of it. Sweyn himgelf, in token of good-will, did the same, 
according to the custom of his nation. But Duncan, knowing that the force of the 
potion would reach to their very vitals, whilst they were asleep, had in great filence 
admitted Macbeth with his forces into the city, by a gate which was farthest off from 
the enemy's camp ; and understanding by his spies that the enemy wns fast asleep, and 
full of wine, he sent Bunqno before, who well knew all the avenues both of that place 
and of the enemies' camp, with the grater part of the army, placing the rest in 
ambush. He entering their camp, . , . slew the sleeping Danes, the king escaping with 
difficulty." 

Thas far Buchanan. 

The following is Bellenden's account of the same transaction : — 

" Incontinent the Scots took (tuk) the juice of Mekilwort berijs, and mengit (mixed) 
it in yair (their) wyne, aill, and breid, and send ye samen in gret qnantite to yair 
ennymes. Sweno and his army rejoicing in thys fouth (store) of vittallis, began to 
wauoht (quaff, or swig) on their maner, and to have experience quha micht in garge 
yair wambe (stomach) with maist voracite qnhil at last ye venom of yir (these) beryls 
was skalit (dispersed or diffused) throw all partis of their bodyis. Throw quhilk thay 
war resolvit in ane deidly sleip. Yan Duncane send to Macbeth," Ac, — (Book xii. c. 2.) 

Hector Boethius, whose history is translated rather freely by Bellenden, 
gives the pharmaceutical name of this deadly plant. His relation is as 
follows : — 

" Interea vinum et oerevisiam Solatro amentiali (herbaest in gentis qusntitatis, 
aeinos principio virides, ac mox ubi matumerint purpureos, et ad nigredinem vergentes 
habens ad canlem enatoe et sub fol«is latentes seseque quasi retrahentes vimque sopo- 
riferam aut in amentiam agendi si affiitim sumpseris habentes magna ubertate in Scotia 
proveniens) miscent ac in exerdtum magno studio apertis partis convehunt. . . ." — 
(Lib. xii.) 

Holinshed*s relation differs in no material point from the versions of the 
before-mentioned veracious historians: — 

"The Scots hereupon take the jnyce of mekilwort beries and mixed the same in 
theyr ale and bread, sending it thus spiced and confectioned in g^eat abundanoe unto 
their enimies. 

" They r^oysing that they had got meate nnd drinke sufficient to satisfie theyr 
bellies, fell to eating and drinking after such greedy wise, that it seemed they strove 
who might devoure and swallow up most, till the operation of the berries spred in such 
sort through all parts of their bodies that they were in the end brought into a fast 
dead slope, that in maner it was impossible to awake them."^(yol. i. 242.) 

The age in which these historians lived and laboured was more distin- 
guished for invention than for judgment. They did not trouble themselves 
with the vexatious customs of this generation, such as sifting evidence, 
balancing probabilities, and the like. They appear to have implicit faith 
in the marvellous, if not in the supernatural. But that celebrated living 
critics, authors, and botanists should in this time of general scepticism 
quote and give currency to such childish fables, is a proof that we are not 
BO faithless a race as some admirers of the olden time insinuate. The 
question was put a week or two since by one of the credulous to the editor 
of the " Gardener's Chronicle," what was hebenon^ the plant which supplied 
the leprous distilment wherewith the majesty of Denmark was, on the 
authority of Shakespeare, reduced to a poor gliost. The querist hinted 
that it might be henbane, but the learned Ekiitor negatived this almost 
universally accepted opinion, and pronounced in favour of atropa bella- 
donna, or sleepy nightshade, quoting at the same time, in corroboration of 
his opinion, Buchanan's account of the poisoning of the Danes, as narrated 
in the respective histories above quoted. 

In reference to the same subject, a correspondent of the Phytologist, a 



44 Sleepp Nightshade, King Duncan^ and the Danes. [July, 

bdtafiieal journal, hints that the question is not a scientific one, and that its 
sohition would be of no practical advantage to science. This may be true ; 
yet science is able to deal with the probabilities of the narrative, and to 
shew that the Btory is as fictitious as the stories contained in the '* Arabian 
Nights/* or as the Kinder and Hammarchen of the Germans. 

Geoaraphical hotany is a new science, or at least an only recently inves- 
tigated branch of the general science of botany. Its object is to ascertain 
the distribution or the range of plants, both horizontal and vertical. 

By this science we learn that the airopa belladona, deadly or sleepy 
nightsiiade, is not a Scottish plant. It occurs but rarely in the centre and 
8outh of England, and does not extend further north than to the 55® of 
north latitude, or barely to the Scottish border. 

The correspondent above alluded to states that it is only seen here and 
there in the vicinity of ruined monastic establishments, near old palaces and 
castles. It is mentioned as a plant of Fife in Sibbalt's history of that 
county, but as one of the rariores, Buchanan states that it occurs pas- 
sim^ or is as plentiful as the field-thistle. This is not the case. But even 
if it Were, the berries are but rarely produced, and only on strong and well- 
established plants ; and even granting this, the berries are only found at a 
certain season. Assuming the truth of the occurrence, it is just as feasible 
that the Scots possessed narcotic materials, prepared frum non-indigenous 
8ul)stances, as that they had wine with which their juices were mixed. 
The vine is no more a native production of Scotland than the nightshade 
is, and vines are as scarce in Scotland as black swans or white crows. 

But the real truth is that there was no poisoning at all, nor, indeed, any 
enemy to poison. Fardon, who lived only a couple of centuries after the 
tittle of Duncan and Macbeth, gives no account of any invasion of the Danes 
during this reign, nor does he mention the rebellion of the island clans. 
Consequently there is negative evidence that the whole story is a fiction, — 
a mere poetic embellishment; and the juice of the deadly nightshade might 
do about as well for poisoning the Danes as it did for the Danes' king, 
Hamlet's noble father : — 



« 



Pictoribufl atqne poetis 



Qnidlibet audeodi lemper fait sequa potestas." 

The Chronicle of Melrose, and the historian John Major, are equally 
silent on this subject. 

It is, however, mentioned by a late antiquarian. Chalmers, in his Ckils- 
donia, not only ignores, but refutes the entire story ; adding, that there are 
a thousand historical blunders in Stevens's Introduction to Shakspeare's 
" Macbeth." 

This learned authority says, in a note {Caledonia^ vol. i. p. 404), — "There 
tvas no invasion of Fife by Sueno, the Norwegian king, at that period. 
'Shakspeare and Holinshed were misled by the- Scottish historians, who 
confounded times and petsonages.*' "The Norwegian banners may have 
flouted the sky in Fife during the preceding reign. 

In the text the learned author writes, — " Fiction represents this short 
period (Duncan's reign) as disturbed by some rebellion, and as afflicted by 
some depredations of the Danes." 

In page 411, vol. i., we are told — " There was not in the reign of Dun- 
can any revolt in the western isles. Neither is it probable, though it be 
possible, that Sueno, the king of Norway, landed an army in Fife during 
that reign ; as he appears to have been much otherwise occupied, and to 
have died in 1035." In support of this opinion, and to refute the com- 



1858.] Sleepy Nightshadey King Duncan^ and the Danes. 



45 



mentators on Shakspeare, especially Stevens, he cites Langebek*s Scriptores 
and Lacombe's Chron. de VHistoire du Nord. 

From what has been above stated and quoted, it appears that there is 
just as much truth in the historic relation of* the poisoning of the Danes by 
the deadly nightshade, or by any other plant, as there is in the story of the 
three black crows : — 

" Black crowg have been thrown up, three, two, and one. 
And now I find all come at last to none," 

The learned in antique lore, and the learned in the names, nature, distribu- 
tion, and qualities of herbs, may rest contented, and save themselves further 
trouble about the question. Most readers have heard of the story of the 
fish in the pail of water, by which the Merry Monarch puzzled the scien- 
tific pundits of the Royal Society ; a story which conveys a lesson pregnant 
with wisdom to even the wise men of modern times. 



THE BARON OP BURPORD.— ORIGIN OF " HUMBUG.* 



The Saron of Burford.— In Burford 
Church, near Tenbory, is the painting of 
a corpse in a shroud, measuring 7 ft. 8 in. 
long, supposed to represent Edmund Corn- 
wall, fHrniluirly known in the district as 
** the strong baron," and of whom, from 
his extraordinary stature and muscular 
powers, many strange traditions still exist 
in the neighbourhood. From Hnbington's 
aoccunt of him he seems to have been an 
•dmir»ble Crichton in his way. He died 
1585. There was formerly in the pos* 
session of a Rev. Mr. Wood, of Tenbury, a 
walking-staff, sa'd to have belonged to 
this celebrated baron : — " It is 5 ft. long; 
the head, which is of iron, continues about 
2 ft. down the four sides, which is square 
for that length; the remaining part is 
round, and the bottom is shod with iron. 
It bears his initials, and the head is in- 
inscribed, "In my defence, God me de- 
fend !" On one side of the staff is a flat 
bo(^ as if for the purpose of being at- 
tached to his girdle. Its weight was 
8 lbs." What has become of this extraor- 
dinary piece of furniture P 

Origin of the word Humbug, — The 

r rent age of this cant but expressive word 
inyolved in the greatest obscurity. The 
carl est instance in which I have met with 
it is in Fieldin^r's " Amelia," published in 
1751. Going back, however, to a century 
earlier, the same word, as it appears to 
me, is met with in another form. In a 
rare but very looje book, called the "Loves 
of Hero and Leander," a copy of which is 
in my posses iun, printed anonymously in 
1677, we find these lines : — 

" Enough, quoth Hero, say no more,— 
Sum-bug^ quoth he, 'twas known of yore." 

This edition of the work is not mentioned 
by I/owndes; but in that of 1658, which 



i* noticed by him, and a copy of which is 
to be found in the British Museum, the 
word, if I recollect aright, is printed 
mum-budgt erroneously, perhaps. It seems 
to me not at all improbable that the word 
was originally compounded of mum, ex- 
pressive of sUence, and bugg, a ghost or 
goblin ; a mum-bug thus meaning a device 
to frij^ten another into silence. Mum, as 
an interjection enjoining silence, seems to 
have been represented in Chaucer's time 
by the word clum, as that appears to ba 
the meaning in " The Millere^s Tale,*' U. 
3,637—40 :— 

" They seten stille wel a forlong way : 
Now, Pater Noster, * clum,' quod Nicholay, 
And 'clum,' quod Jon, and 'clum,' quod 
Ali80un." 

But query whether "mum" is not the 
correct riding ? Though the other word 
is universally adopted, the MS. may 
possibly have originally been wrongly de- 
ciphered. In Harsnet's "Declaration of 
Egregious Popish Impostures," 1603, (as 
quoted in " Notes and Queries" for Aug. 1. 
1857,) there is the passage, "All must be 
mum : Clum, quoth the Carpenter, dum 
quoth the Carpenttr's Wiw, and clum 
quoth the Friar,'* — in allusion, no doubt, 
to the above passage of Chaucer. 

Another posuble, but more unlikely, 
origin of the word humbug may be found 
in the Persian kumbuct, a term of abuse 
signifying ill-fated or soiTy wretch. If 
so, it may possibly have been introduced 
by some of our foreign travellers in the 
time of James I., in whose reign, it is 
eaid, the word chouse originated, from an 
impostor who gained admission at court 
under the assumed guise of a chiaoue, or 
Turkish envoy. Can any of your readers 
give the full particulars of this last story ? 
— with the authorities, if poaiible. 



46 [July, 



ANTIQUARIAN RESEARCHES. 

SOCIETY OF ANTIQTJAEIES. 

May 20. Joseph Hunter, Esq., V.-P., in the Chair. 

Mr. John Thomas JefFcock and the Right Hon. T. H. Sotheron-Escourt, 
M.P., were elected Fellows. 

The Eev. Thomas Hugo exhibited an ancient bone skate, found recently 
near Finsbury. Examples of these skates are not uncommon ; they are 
supposed to be of the same kind as thd^e used by the youth of London, 
described by Fitz-Stephen. 

The Director read the conclusion of Lord Coningsby's "History of 
Political Parties in the Reign of Queen Anne," communicated by Sir 
Henry Ellis, from the Lansdowne MS. in the British Museum. 

The Society adjourned over the Whitsun holidays. 

June 3. Joseph Hunter, Esq., V.-P., in the Chair. 

Mr. Charles Frederick Angell and Mr. Eardley Gideon Culling Eardley 
were elected Fellows. 

The President exhibited a gold coin of the Emperor Theodosius, found 
recently in Kent, bearing on the reverse the legend victoria avog., the 
Emperors Theodosius and Gratianus sealed, supporting between them 
a globe ; Victory behind them, with wings outspread. 

The Secretary, in a short note on this type, remarked that it was 
imitated in Saxon times, on very rude gold coins found in England, and 
on a unique penny of Ciolwulf ; but here the figure of Victory, whose statues 
were, we are told, long respected by the early Christians, probably repre- 
sents the third personage of the Trinity. 

Mr. William Michael Wylib exhibited drawings, executed by Mr. 
B. Wilmer, Local Secretary for Normandy, of several relics discovered in 
a Merovingian tomb near Beauvais in the year 1845. The tomb was of 
stone, and contained a sword and a spear, with the ornamental portions of 
a sheath enamelled and set with coloured glass. 

Mr. W. Pettit Griffith communicated a note on the identification 
of the north postern of the Priory of St. John of Jerusalem, Clerkenwell, 
accompanied by a plan shewing its situation. 

The Secretary then read a communication by himself, entitled " Furca 
et Fossa : A Review of certain modes of Capital Punishment in the Middle 
Ages." Among the manorial rights enumerated in some of our earlier 
charters are those of Furca et Fossa, or gallows and pit, — two modes 
of capital punishment, of which the former obtains to this day, while the 
latter appears to have been abolished, or to have fallen into disuse, several 
centuries ago. Ducange records the hanging of a woman at Limoges in 
the year 1414, and in the year 1449 a woman was hung at Paris, where 
the novelty of this mode of execution brought together a large concourse 
of people, especially of females. By the laws of ^tbilberht, women con- 
victed of theft were precipitated from the cliflP, or submerged ; and a 
woman was thus drowned at London-bridge for sorcery, {Cod, Dip. jXni. 
Sax,, No. DXCI.) Coke, in his third ** Institute," says, " Furca remains, 
but Fossa is abolished ;" but he affords us no clue to the time when the 
change took place, which was probably about the middle of the fifteenth 



1858 J Society of Antiquaries, 47 

century. In every country where the Teutonic race obtained a permanent 
footing, the punishment of drowning prevailed in many places up to a 
comparatively late period ; but the reason of its discontinuance remains 
unexplained. It is supposed that Edward the Fourth's charier to the Cinque 
Ports, granting to them, among other privileges, the right of Furca, led 
to the disuse of drowning, which had long been practised in those towns. 
At Sandwich, criminals were buried alive at a place called '* Thieves* 
Down ;" at Dover they were precipitated from the cliff called " Sharp- 
ness.*' And this is supposed to be the Infalistatio of Half de Hengham^ 
glossed by the learned Selden, in his Notes on the Summa Parva of that 
Judge. Those who neglected their sea-walls were apprehended and staked 
alive in the breach, a punishment similar to that inflicted by the ancient 
Frisians on the criminal convicted of sacrilege, who was condemned to mu- 
tilation and death on the sea-shore. It is probable that the taunt with which 
Harold*s mother was met by the Norman Conqueror had reference to this 
ancient mode of punishment. All Europe regarded Harold as a sacrilegious 
criminal, and his burial on the sea-shore, ** quod accessus maris operire 
solety^ was the last act of indignity they could offer to his mangled re- 
mains, the taunt expressing all the bitterness inspired by a recent conflict 
and a bard-won victory. Many remarkable instances were cited of the 
punishment of drowning in various cities of the Continent. An account 
was also given, from the Transactions of the Society of Northern Anti- 
quaries, of the discovery of the body of a woman who had been buried 
alive after the manner of the ancient Germans, as described by Tacitus in 
his Oermania, 

June 10. OcTAVius Morgan, Esq., V.-P., in the Chair. 

Mr. William Reece and Mr. George G. Gilbert Heard were elected 
Fellows. 

The Rev. T. Hugo exhibited a large collection of pilgrims' signs in lead, 
obtained during excavations in the year 1856 for the formation of a dock 
at Dowgate, on the north bank of the Thames. In a communication read 
by himself to the meeting. Mr. Hugo described the various types, many of 
which bore allusion to Saint Thomas of Canterbury. 

Mr. Morgan, V.-P., exhibited a carved cocoa-nut, handsomelv mounted 
as a tankard in silver-gilt, in honour of John Maurice, Prince of Nassau- 
Siegen. The cocoa-nut is carved on four sides, on one of which is the 
portrait of the Prince in armour, with the motto, " qva patbt orbis." 

Mr. George Chapman exhibited a metal casket, enamelled with the 
arms of Valence, Angoulesme, England, Holland, Brabant, and Brittany. 

Mr. A. F. Carbinoton communicated to the Society remarks on Trial 
by Battle, in which he reviewed the origin of the practice from the earliest 
historical notices to its abrogation in the present century. 

June 17. Joseph Hunter, Esq., V.-P., in the Chair. 

The Rev. Thomas Hugo exhibited examples of modem forgeries of 
pilgrims' signs, to which he had alluded at the previous meeting. 

Mr. OcTAVius Morgan, V.-P., exhibited a girdle, or baldric, of the 
fifteenth century, of Italian workmanship. The belt is formed of a band 
of crimson and gold velvet ribbon, and has been studded throughout its 
entire length with niello, in the form of six-lobed roses of silver-gilt, en- 
riched with filagree- work and enamel, alternating with smaller ornaments of 
similar work made with holes to receive the tongue of the buckle. It bears 



48 Antiquarian Researches. [July* 

rn escutcheon with a coat of arms formed in niello and gold, apparently 
Sable, three bends or, with the letters l b on either side. Beneath this me- 
dallion are two portraits in niello, one of a gentleman with long hair and 
wearing a cap, and the other of a lady with her hair closely confined within 
a caul of network. 

Mr. Charles Spencer Percival exhibited tracings of five water-marka 
on the paper of an ancient manuscript on Canon Law preserved in the 
library of Trinity Hall, Cambridge. 

Mr. E. C. Ireland exhibited a photograph of the front view of a carv- 
ing in box-wood, of the latter half of the fifteenth century, preserved in the 
Museum at Kirkleatham, Yorkshire. The carving represents the legend 
of St. George and the Dragon, and is the same work alluded to in Graves' 
History of Cleveland, 4to., Carlisle, 1808, p. 393. It is about 13 inches 
high by 7 inches broad at the base. 

Mr. W. S. Fitch exhibited, through Mr. Joseph Jackson Howard, an 
original seal of Hugh, prior of Aumerle, and eighteen sulphur casts of seals 
of various kinds, all from charters relating to Dodenash Priory. 

The Secretary, by permission of Mr. Henry H. Young, of Leamington 
Spa, exhibited a leaden cross, inscribed with the following formula: on 
one side, anno . ab . incahnacione dni mcxxxti ; on the other, obiit . 

CLARiciA II. NON . N0VEBBI8 . HOBA . TEBCIA. This object was found 
at Angers a few years since. 

The Director exhibited, by permission of Arthur Trollope, Esq., several 
iron weapons of the Anglo-Saxon period, lately discovered in the bed of 
the river Witham, in Lincolnshire. Among them is an example of the 
barbed javelin, somewhat resembling the angon^ in very perfect preser- 
vation. 

Mr. C. D. E. FoRTNUM exhibited some fragments of Roman pottery 
and bricks found at Brockley Hill, Middlesex. 

Mr. Stephen Stone communicated a journal of excavations and re- 
searches made under his direction and superintendence at Yelford, Stanton 
Harcourt, and Standlake, during the past winter. This communication was 
illustrated by a plan of the Anglo-Saxon cemetery at Yelford, and a 
model of numerous pits discovered at Standlake, in the immediate vicinity 
of the cemetery in that neighbourhood described by Mr. Stone in the 
present session. See Archceologia, vol. xxxvii. p. 363. The expense of 
the excavations had been very liberally defrayed by Dr. Wilson, President 
of Trinity College. 

Mr. E. G. Squieb, Hon. F.S.A., exhibited four drawings of objects 
of aboriginal American art, in gold, found six feet below the surface of 
the ground in excavating for the railway about nine miles inland from the 
citv of Panama. 

Mr. J. R. Daniel Ttssen exhibited a sword, several daggers, and 
some spurs, found in the bed of the river at Hackney. One of the spurs 
is remarkable for the length of its neck, which measures 12^ inches. 

Mr. RiCHABD Almace himself read selections from a number of letters 
and other documents of the Stanhope family in the latter half of the 
sixteenth century. 

Notice was then given of the adjournment of the Society to Thursday, 
November 18. 



6 



1858.] 



49 



GENERAL ARCHITECTURAL CONGRESS. 

OxposD during the past month has been unusually gay, for apart from 
the large numbers who are, year by year, attracted by the Commemora- 
tion, the previous week saw a very large influx of visitors to join in the 
General Archttectttral Congress. The idea that the time was come 
for a general assembling of the various Architectural Societies which 
during the last fifteen years had sprung up in all parts of the country, 
had been long entertained, and Wednesday, June 9, was fixed upon as the 
day for carrying the design into execution. It is, after all, simply what our 
neighbours the French have long been accustomed to ; each year at Paris 
delegates from the different provincial Societies attend to report progress. 

The Meeting at Oxford, we hope, is but the inauguration of a series, 
and as far as can be judged from the large attendance, and the satisfac- 
tory manner in which the proceedings went off, there is no reason to doubt 
of their success. The following report of the proceedings we have no doubt 
will prove of interest to the readers of the Gentleman's Magazine. 



FIBST day's FBOCEEDINOS. 

Wednefday, June 9. — At two o'clock, 
F.K., a general preliminary meeting was 
held in the Society's Rooms, in Holywell- 
Btreet. In the absence of the Vice-Chancel- 
lor, the President of the Society, the chair 
was taken by the Very Rev. the Dean of 
Christ Church, who opened the Congress 
with a short but int^esting and appropri- 
ate address. 

" The object of the Congress he believed 
to be to enable architectural students, and 
those who take any interest in our great 
revival of Gothic art, to compare old works 
with modem works, and to ascertain how 
&r we had been guided in the erection of 
OUT own buildings by the principles of 
truth and reality with which our fathers 
had been inspired; and this consideration 
led him to another point — the choice of 
Oxford for the Congress. He thought it 
the most appropriate place that could have 
been chosen, for here could be seen, side 
by side, some of the noblest works of an- 
tiquity, and some of the best and most 
■tnking efforts of the men of our own 
time. Moreover, Oxford gave birth to 
the first of our architectural societies; 
the babe, indeed, was still in its infancy, 
for it had existed only twenty years ; yet 
it had done good work, and borne good 
fruit. Twenty years ago little or nothing 
was known of Gothic architecture ; now, 
by the means of this society, and those 
other numerous societies which have grown 

S[> along with it in almost every part of 
ngland, the knowledge of true princi- 
ples in art and architecture has become as 
widely diffused as ignorance of them was 

Gkjjt. Mag. Vol. CCV. 



at that time general. Those societieflihave 
responded to our invitation, and united to 
meet us to-day, and we have not a little 
to shew them. To-morrow the buildings 
of the University — the finest and most 
closely connected buildings in the king- 
dom — will be shewn; on the following 
day an excursion will be made to such 
churches in the neighbourhood as were 
deemed most worthy of inspection; on 
this, the first afternoon, the new Oxford 
Museum will be exhibited — a building in 
every way remarkable as one of the great- 
est works of modern times, but especially 
remarkable as a bold example of the ap- 
plication of true Gothic principles to secu- 
lar purposes. There had been much dissent 
at first about the style. Many persons 
were of opinion that the Gothic styles were 
inappropriate and intractable ; but preju- 
dice had gradually melted away, and peo- 
ple were beginning to learn that, when 
properly treated, the adaptability of Gothic 
architecture is infinite, and that no other 
style whatever can, like it, be employed 
for every purpose. The Dean also called 
attention to the fact that the nineteenth 
century material — iron — had been largely 
employed in the New Museum. Iron is 
gradually superseding wood in a very large 
part of the construction of buildings, &c. : 
we have iron roofs, iron frames for floors, 
and — at least in the merchant service — 
more iron ships than wooden ones. He 
was sorry to be obliged to admit that the 
iron roof of the New Museum was not at 
the present moment in a satisfactory stage, 
in consequence of some miscalrulation of 
the weight to be supported by the groups 
of iron shafts ; but he had no doubt that 



50 



Antiquarian Researches. 



[July, 



by the zeal and energy of the architect 
and artist employed, every obstacle would 
be speedily overcome, and the work brought 
to a successful issue. The Dean concluded 
by saying that he believed only one more 
duty remained for him to perform, which 
was to welcome the visitors in the name of 
the Oxford Architectural Society." 

The Rev. Thomas James (one of the 
Honorary Secretaries of the Northamp- 
tonshire Architectural Society) rose to re- 
turn thanks on behalf of the members of 
his own society who were present, and of 
those other societies who had sent their 
representatives to the Congress. It gave 
him great pleasure to be present on such 
an occasion, and he knew that he might 
say the same on behalf of all his fellow- 
guests. The Oxford Architectural Society 
was the first in the field — it might be 
called the mother of all the societies ; and 
it was surely a good thing for the mother 
and the children thus to meet together in 
this noble University and exchange kindly 
greetings. For his own society, he could 
say that it had, indeed, done gi'eat work ; 
not a year passed in which plans for the 
restoration or rebuilding of old churches, 
and the erection of new churches, were 
not laid before their committee for their 
approval. Neither had the activity of 
church restorers abated, — it had increased 
rather, and was still increasing. He beg- 
ged to conclude by ofiering his warmest 
thanks to the Oxford Architectural So- 
ciety for enabling fellow-workers in the 
cause of Gothic architecture to meet one 
another for the purposes of mutual im- 
provement, and, he was sure, to the com- 
mon gratification of all. 

Mr. E. A. Freeman (of Trinity College, 
one of the Examiners in the School of 
Law and Modern History) wished to say 
a few words about restoration. He always 
had been, and still was, very much afraid 
of the word, which had been, in his ex- 
perience, applied to proceedings which, in 
nine cases out of ten, would have been 
far more appropriately called "destruc- 
tion." The rage for church restoring had 
done more to destroy and efface from this 
country the glorious examples of our me- 
dieval styles than all the neglect and in- 
difference of the last century. As far as 
old churches were concerned, ho was con- 
vinced that neglect was the best restorer. 
When a church had been neglected for 
several hundred years, it could be judici- 
ously and properly repaired, and all the 
' andent features preserved ; but if it had 
been restored — that is, in all probability, 
all but pulled down and badly copied — it 
was over with it. He hoped, however. 



that the great rage for such unscrupulous 
methods of renovating our old churches 
was going out, and being rapidly super- 
seded by an intelligent and conservative 
spirit, jealously guarding from dilapida- 
tion and destruction alike the venerable 
monuments bequeathed to us by our an- 
cestors. 

Sir Henry Dryden, Bart., next spoke. 
He quite agreed with the remarks which 
had fallen from Mr. Freeman, and espe- 
cially with his sentiments on the subject 
of restoration. For himself he could tes« 
tify to the amount of mischief which had 
been done in his own immediate neigh- 
bourhood by the great passion for restora- 
tion which had of late years possessed all 
who were well disposed to the Church. 
The great fault, in his opinion, had been 
the superabundance of funds. If so much 
money had not been forthcoming, so much 
mischief could not have been done. One 
of his friends, who had just spoken, had 
bothered a five-pound note out of him for 
the restoration of Thedding worth Church, 
and he would take good care that he should 
not get any more. He believed, however, 
that that was a very good restoration — 
real restoration, not destruction. After 
some very amusing remarks on the cheap 
and nasty way in which new churches were 
continually seated, and are often pewed, 
alluding in particular to one church of his 
acquaintance which had been pewed with 
green elm, and accompanying his remarks 
by some telling illustrations of the peculiar 
"whacking noise" by which it was an- 
nounced that Mr. A. or Mr. B. had ven- 
tured to sit down, the worthy baronet 
branched off into a discourse on organs, 
which, however, he was requested by the 
chairman to postpone till the evening, 
when a discussion of the subject was 
planned to take place. 

After some further remarks on kindred 
subjects, by the Rev. George Ayliffe Poole, 
late Honorary Secretary of the North- 
amptonshire Architectural Society, and 
Mr. Matthew Holbeche Bloxam, the well- 
known author of " Bloxam's Gbthic Archi- 
tecture," 

The meeting broke up, and proceeded 
at once, under the guidance of Mr. John 
Henry Parker, to inspect Wadham College. 
After spending some minutes in the hall, 
which is a vtry fine example, they pro- 
ceeded into the Fellows' Garden, and in- 
spected the chapel, a remarkable speci- 
men of the revival of Gothic architecture 
in the time of James I. They then, by 
the kind permission of the Kev. the 
Warden, proceeded through his beautiful 
private gardens into the Parks, where the 



1858.] 



General Architectural Congress. 



51 



OXPOBD NEW MFSXTTM 

is in course of erection. The party pro- 
ceeded around the upper corridor into the 
great lecture-room, where the Dean of 
Christ Church resumed the chur ; and call- 
ed upon Dr.Adand (to whose zeal and 
industry the Museum is so largely indebted 
that its very existence, and the fact that it 
is b^ng erected in the Gothic style, may 
be almost said to be due to him) to give 
the members of the Congress some account 
of the origin and rise of the scheme and 
the purposes of the building itself. The 
lecture^ which was extremely interesting, 
and very well delivered, was illustrated by 
a series of boldly executed elevations of 
portions of the builcUng, and a good block 
plan. 

Dr.Acland commenced his remarks by 
saying that in this nineteenth century, 
when it often happens that a boy knows 
more of the great principles of the natural 
world and his own formation than was 
known by a man but a very little while 
ago, it was absolutely necessary that every- 
thing should be done to extend the know- 
ledge of the wonders of creation, so far 
as the Creator has willed to open them 
up to man : — hence the Oxford Museum. 
In this building every facility would be 
oflfered to the student of the world, and of 
man. The very pillars around the corridors 
would teach geology; the iron foliage of the 
spandrels of the roof would teach botany ; 
and he hoped that the capitals and the cor- 
bels, which now are left in massive blocks, 
would one day exhibit a complete series of 
our Flora and our Fauna. All the building 
was intended to teach some great lesson, 
not only in art and architecture, but also 
in the Ulustrations afforded by the several 
parts of the purposes to which the whole 
is devoted. And not only this, but it had 
been determined that the central area, 
which had been covered with a glass roof, 
and was intended to contain the collections 
of specimens, should be surrounded by 
statues of great scientific men, from Aris- 
totle downwards: several of these had 
been given by the queen, and were on the 
ground; others, he had no doubt, would 
come in by degrees, till every corbel should 
have its figure. As to the decoration of 
the buildii^, he had said already that 
much of what was intended to be carved- 
work had been for the present left in 
block ; he believed that it was far better 
that a little should now be done well, than 
that much should be done badly; and 
that the complete ornamentation of the 
structure should be left to the g^dual 
work of posterity. 

Our limits preclude the possibility of 



doing justice to Dr. Acland's admirable 
lecture, which occupied about an hour in 
the delivery, but the following short ac- 
count of the objects of the Museum will 
explain the substance of it*. 

"The visitor will best appreciate the 
building by learning the purposes for 
which it has been erected. A brief his- 
torical sketch wiU explain this. 

" In the branches of human knowledge 
which chiefly occupied the learned world 
before this century, Oxford was pre-emi- 
nent. This century ushered in new studies. 
The material world began to be as sedu- 
lously investigated as formerly the domain 
of mental or linguistic science had been. 
For the new sciences Oxford had no ade- 
quate appliances. Though Boyle had 
flourished here, and Ashmole had made 
here the flrst Museum in England, all 
could not be created at once. The Dun- 
cans improved the Ashmolcau Museum ; 
Kidd lectured; Buckland made a great 
and valuable Geological collection; and 
Dr.Acland, who succeeded Kidd in the 
small school at Christ Church, raised that 
establishment to a working educational 
institution, constructed on the most com- 
plete Physiological model, that of John 
Hunter. 

" But these establishments were remote 
from each other, and were each far too 
small. It was thought better to unite the 
collections which illustrate the several cog- 
nate natural sciences into one great whole ; 
and to combine with the collections ade- 
quate work-rooms, dissecting-rooms, and 
laboratories, in which the students can be 
practically taught to work for themselves 
in their several subjects. This great scheme 
was pressed on in 1848 by Professors 
Daubeny, Acland, and "Walker, with 
Messrs. Hill, Greswell, and others, and 
gradually found favour. At length, after 
a public competition, the present building 
was accepted by Convocation. 

" These few words have explained the 
nature of the edifice. To study efficiently 
the natural world, four appliances are ne- 
cessary, and these must be in immediate 
proximity to each other. 

'* 1. Collections illustrative of each natu- 
ral science. 

"2. Lecture-rooms. 
"3. Work-rooms, laboratories, and dis- 
secting-rooms, both for professors and stu- 
dents of each department. 

4. A Scientific Library to furnish the 



« 



*■ We have extracted this from the new edition " 
of the *< Hand-book for Visitors to Oxford/' Just 
published by the Messrs. Parker, one of the moet 
oeaatifol and complete Ouide-booka we have ever 
seen, of which we hope to give a farther aocount 
shortly. 



52 



Antiquarian Researches. 



[July, 



literature of Natural History in all its 
branches. 

" This great design is here undertaken. 
The general laws of the nniverse find their 
explanation in the Mathematical, Astro- 
nomical, and Experimental Physics de- 
partments; the structure of our planet 
is examined and described by Geology, 
Mineralogy, and Chemistry; the life of 
our globe by the Physiological, Anato- 
mical, Zoological sciences; and the diseases 
by the rooms devoted to Medicine. The 
RaHcliffe Trustees will probably ere long 
fill the splendid libraries with the treasures 
of scientific books which they have col- 
lected : and to these Mr. Hope, the muni- 
ficent donor of a rare Entomological col- 
lection, will add no small contribution. 

" The collections are to be arranged in 
the court ; round which are corridors 
on two fioors : out of these corridors are 
entrances either to the court or the rooms 
of the several departments; and beyond 
these rooms, and outside the main build- 
ings, are outer uncovered courts and de- 
tached buildings for noxious or noisy che- 
mical, mechanical, and anatomical work. 

" This very elegant and extensive range 
of building is in the early Gothic style of 
the thirteenth ct^ntury, and was built in 
1856 — 58 by Sir Thomas Dcane,his son, and 
Mr. Woodward, at the expense of the Uni- 
versity. The contract was nearly £30,000 
for the building only. The fir»t portion 
which catches the eye on turning the 
corner of the wall of Wadham garden is 
the chemical laboratory, with its lofty 
octagonal roof and four tall chimneys, in 
the style of the Glastonbury kitchen. To 
the east of this is the keepv ys house, and 
to the north is the main building, which 
fronts to the west, and lias a gateway- 
tower in the centre. The stair- turrets at 
the angles are particularly graceful. The 
two ranges of pointed windows of two 
lights, with marble shafts and sculptured 
capitals, have a very fine efi^ect. Beyond 
the main building to the north-east is 
the anatomical court and department. 
The entrance to the whole serits of build- 
ings is under the gateway tower : passing 
through an archway with a groined stone 
vault, we find ourselves in a quadrangle 
lurrounded by a double set of cloisters, or 
corridors. The court itself is covered in 
with a roof of woud and glass, resting on 
slender iron pillars, with capitals of varied 
foliage, executed in iron. The shafrs of 
the cloister, as well as those of the win- 
dows, are of different varieties of stone, 
illa<ttj'ating the principal geological forma- 
tions of the British Islands, from granite 
vp to the most recent formations. Pro- 
bably no series exists equal in beauty to 



that of the Cornish granites in the upper 
corridor. 

" On each of the pillars there is a corbel. 
These will support, as they are contributed, 
statues of the most eminent discoverers 
and promoters of Natural Science, from 
Aristotle, the first classified, down to the 
most recent, but deceased, philosophers of 
our age. Her Majesty Queen Victoria 
graciously gave five, including Bacon, 
(Jalileo, and Newton. The undergradu- 
ates of Oxford gave Aristotle and Cuvier. 
Thirty -two are reqiiired to complete the 
series. Besides this application of the 
architecture to the subjects for which it 
is used, it may be remarked, that it ia 
proposeil to carve a series illustrative of 
various Faunas and Floras, existing ot ex- 
tinct, on the many corbels, capit;ils, and 
bosses. These also are presented by various 
friends of the University." 

Dr. Acland concluded his most interest- 
ing discourse by reading the following 
very valuable letter from Mr. Ruskin, a 
gentleman who may be allowed to have 
his say about the Museum, as he has him- 
self liberally contributed to its extra em- 
bellishment. 

*' My Dear Acland,— I have been very anzious, 
since I last heard from you, respecting the pro- 

f'ess of the works at the Museum, as I thought 
coald trace in vour expressions sonM doubt of 
an entirely satisiactory issue. 

** Entirely satisfactorily very few issues are or 
can be ; and when the enterprise, as in this in- 
stance, involves the development of many new 
and progressive principles, we must always be 

Srepared for a due measure of disappointment — 
ue partly to human weakness, and partly to 
what the ancients would have called mte—and 
we may, perhaps, most wisely call the Law of 
Trial, which forbids any great good being usually 
accomplished without vanoas compensations and 
deductions, probably not a little humiliating. 

" Perhaps in writing to you what seems to me 
to be the bearing of matters respecting your 
Museum, I may be answering a few of the doubts 
of others, as well as fears of your own. 

**I am quite sure that when you first used 
your influence to advocate the claims of a Gothic 
desifoi, vou did so under the conviction, shared 
by all the seriously purposed defenders of the 
Gothic style, that the essence and power of 
Gothic, properly so called, lay in itn adaptabilitv 
to all need ; in that perfect and unlimited flexi- 
bility which would enable the architect to pro- 
vide all that was required in the simplest and 
most convenient way ; and to give you the best 
offices, the best lecture-rooms, laboratories, and 
museums which cunld be provided with the sum 
of money at his disposal. 

*'8o mr as the architect has failed in doing 
this ; so far as you And yourself, with the other 
professors, in any wise inconvenienced by forms 
of architecture ; so far as pillars or piers come in 
your way when you have to point, or vaults in 
the way of your voice when you have to speak, 
or muluons in the wav of your Ught when vou 
want to see ;— Just so far the architect has fiJled 
in expressing his own principles, or those of pure 
Ooihic art. I do not suppose thtA such failure 
has taken place to any considerable extent ; bat 
so far an it has taken place it cannot in Justice be 
laid to the aoore of the style, since precedent has 
shewn 8i:Aciently that very uncomfortable and 



1858.] 



General Architectural Congress. 



53 



useless rooms miKy be provided in all other styles 
•B w^l as in Gothic ; and I think if, in a building 
arranged for many objects of various kinds, at a 
time when the practice of architecture has been 
•omewhat confuted by the inventions of modem 
soienoe, and is hardly yet organised completely 
yritti respect to the new means at his disposal ; 
it under such circumstances and with somewhat 
limited funds vou have yet obtained a building 
In all main points properly fulfilling its require- 
ments, you have, I think, as much as could be 
hoped from the adoption of any style whatsoever. 
**But I am much more anxious about the 
Aeeora^n of the building; for I fear that it 
will be hurried in completion, and that, partly 
tn haste and partly in mistimed ec nomy, a great 
opportxmity will oe lost of advancing the best 
interes' of architectural (and in that of all other) 
arts. For the principles of Gothic decoration, in 
themselves as simple and beautiful as those of 
Gothic construction, are far less understood, as 
yet, by the English public, and it is little likely 
that any effective measures can be t iken to carry 
them out. Tou know as well as I what those 
principles are : yet it may be convenient to you 
ti^t I should here state them briefly as I accept 
them myself, and have reason to suppose they 
are accepted by the principal promoters of the 
Gothic revival. • 

'* I. The first principle of Gothic decoration is 
that a given quantity of good art will be more 
generally useful when exhibited on a large scale, 
and forming part of a connected s\stem, than 
when it is ranall and separated. That is to say, 
a piece of sculpture or painting of a certam 
allowed merit will be more useful when seen on 
the front of a building, or at the end of a room, 
and, therefore, by many persons, than if it be so 
small as to be only capable of being seen by one 
or two at a time; and it will be more useful 
when so combined with other work as to produce 
that kind of impres^on usually termed ' sublime* 
— as it is felt on looking at any great series of 
fixed paLnthigs, or at the front of a cathedral— 
thui if it be so separated as to excite only a 
•pedal wonder or admiration, such as we feel for 
ft Jewel in a cabinet. 

**The paintings by Mussonier in the French 
Exhibition of this year were bought, I believe, 
before the Exhibition opened, for 250 guineas 
each. Tbey each represented one figure, about 
6 inches high — one, a student reading ; the other, 
a courtier standing in a dress-coat. Neither of 
these paintings conveyed any information, or 
produced any emotion whatever, except that of 
•orprise at their minute and dextrous execution. 
They will be placed by their possessors on the 
walls of small private apartments, where they 
will probably once or twice a week form the sub- 
ject of five minutes' conversation while people 
drink their ooffee after dinner. The sum ex- 
jiended on these toys would be amply sufficient 
to cover a large building with noble frescoes, 
appealing to every passer by, and representing 
a large portion of the history of any given )>eriod. 
But the general tendency of the European patrons 
of art is to grudge all sums spent in a way thus 
calculated to confer benefit on the public, and to 
grudge none for minute treasures of which the 
principal advantage is that a lock and key can 
alnays render them invisible. 

** I have no hesitation in saying that an in- 

anisitive selfishness, rejoicing somewhat even in 
lie sensation of possessing what can not be seen 
liy others, is of the root of this art-patronage. 
It is, of course, coupled with a sense of sectirer 
investment in what may be easily protected and 
easily earned from place to place ; and also with 
a vulgar delight in the minute curiosities of pro- 
ductive art, rather than in the exercise of inven- 
tive genius, or the expression of great facts or 
emotions. 

** The first aim of the Gothic Revivalists is to 
ooimteract, as far as possible, this feeling ia all 



Its three grounds. We desire (A) to make art 
large and publicly beneficial, instead of small and 
privately engrossed or secluded ; (B) to make 
art fixed instead of portable, associating it with 
local character and historical memory ; (C) to 
make art expressive instead of curious, valuable 
for its suggestions and teachings, more than tor 
the mode of its manufacture. 

"II. The second jjreat principle of the Gothic 
Revivalists is that all art employed in decoration 
should be informative, conveying truthful state- 
ments about natural facts, if it conveys any 
statement. It may sometimes merely compose 
its decorations of mosaics, chequers, bosses, or 
other meaningless ornaments : but if it r« pre- 
sents organic form (and in all important places 
it «ct7/ repres nt it), it will give that form truth- 
fully, with as much resemblance to nature as the 
necessary treatment of the piece of ornament ia 
question will admit of. 

*'Thi8 principle is more disputed than the 
first among the Gothic Revivalists themselves. 
I, however, hold it simply and entirely, believing 
that ornamentation is always, ceteris paribua, 
most valuable and beautiful when it is founded 
on the most extended knowledge of natural 
forms, and continually conveys such knowledge 
to the spectator. 

"III. The third great principle of the Gothic 
revival is that all architectural ornamentation 
should be executed by the men who design it, 
and should be of various degrees of excellence, 
admitting, and therefore exciting, the intelligent 
co-operation of various classes of workmen ; and 
that a great public edifice should be, in sculpture 
and painting, somewhat the same as a great 
chorus in music, in which, while, perhaps, there 
may be only one or two voices perfectly trained, 
and of perfect sweetness (the re^t being m various 
degrees weaker and less cultivated), yet all being 
ruled in harmony, and each sustaining a part 
consistent with its strength, the body of souxid is 
sublime, in spite of individual weaknesses. 

"The Museum at Oxford was, I know, in- 
tended by its designer to exhibit in its decoration 
the workmg of these three principles : but in the 
very fact of its doing so it becomes exposed to 
chances of occasional failure, or even to serious 
discomfitures, such as would not at all have 
attended the adoption of an established mode of 
modern work. It is easy to carve capitals on 
models known for four thousand years, and im- 
possible to fail in the application of mechanical 
methods and formalised rules. But it is not 
possible to appeal vigorously to new canons of 
judgment without the chance of giving offence ; 
nor to summon into service the various phases 
of human temper and intelUgenee, without oo- 
casionally finding the tempers rough and the 
intelligence feeble. Tour Oxford Museum is, I 
believe, the second building in this country which 
has had its ornamentation, in any telling parts, 
trusted to the invention of the workman : the 
result is highly satisfactory, the two projecting 
windows at the extremities being as beautiful in 
effect as anything I know in civil Gothic : but 
far more may be accomplished for the building if 
the completion of its carving be not hastened ; 
many men of high artistic power might be 
brought to take an interest in it, and various 
lessons and suggestions given to the workmen 
which would materially advantage the final 
decoration of leading features : no very great 
Gothic building, so far as I know, was ever yet 
completed without some of this wise deliberation 
and fruitful patience. 

" I was in hopes from the beginning that the 
sculpture might have been rendered typically 
illustrative of the English Flora : how far this 
idea ban been as yet carried out I do not know ; 
but I know that it cannot be properly carried 
ouf without a careful examination of the avail- 
able character of the principal genera, soch as 
architects have not hitherto undertaken. The 



54 



Antiquarian Researches. 



[July, 



proposal which I heard advanced the other day, 
of adding a bold entrance-porch to the fapade, 
appeared to me every way full of advantage, 
the blanknesB of the facade having been, to my 
mind, tram the first, toe only serious fault in 
the design. If a subscription were opened for 
the purpose of erecting one, I should think there 
were few persons interested in modem art who 
would not be glad to join in forwarding such an 
object. 

** I think I could answer for some portions of 
the design being superintended by the best of 
our modern sciUptors and painters; and I be- 
lieve that, if so superintended, the porch might 
and would become the crowning beauty of the 
building, and make all the difference between its 
being only a satisfactory and meritorious work, 
or a most lovely and impressive one. [Dr. 
Acland— Nevertheless, we are not to have the 
porch, after all.] 

" The interior decoration is a matter of much 
greater difficulty ; perhaps yon will allow me to 
defer the few words I have to say about it till I 
have time for another letter : which, however, I 
hope to find speedily. 

** Believe me, my dear Acland, 
"ever affectionately yours, 

"J. RUSKIN." 

Dr. Acland concluded his speech by giv- 
ing an account of a curious effort to carve 
two capitals originally, which had been 
made by two brothers, in the garden be- 
hind his own house,— one of whom fuled 
utterly, while the other succeeded won- 
derfully, and he then proceeded to shew 
the Museum to the members of the Con- 
gress, who were extremely gratified by 
their Inspection of the building, and were 
unanimous in their approval of its several 
parts, and of its general effect as a whole. 

The evening meeting commenced at 
eight o'clock, when the chair was taken by 
£. A. Freeman, Esq., and the proceedings 
were commenced by the reading of some 
valuable remarks on Photography by the 
Junior Proctor, in which he called at- 
tention to the beautiftil series of Oxford 
views, which were laid before the Con- 
gress by the kindness of Messrs. Shrimp- 
ton, and referred to them as a proof that 
the eye of the artist plays an indispensable 
part in the practice of photography. 

In describing the waxed paper process, 
he gave an outline of the proceedings, and 
then stated some of the chief points which 
give it the advantage over other pro- 
cesses, as applied to architectural purposes. 

The Rev. John Baron followed, and ex- 
hibited two Scudamore organs, of the sim- 
plest kind — viz., the " Douglas" and " St. 
Cecilia" patterns, engraved and described 
in his book, insisting upon some of the 
chief principles observed in the construc- 
tion of village organs. 

The organs were not exhibited as models, 
but as pioneering efforts, beginning at the 
beginning, he sud, towards improvement 
where much improvement was needed; 
for the sake of calling general attention 
to the subject, and obtaining corrections 
and further development of the principles. 



Sir Henry Dryden, Bart., having pro- 
posed and carried a vote of thanks to the 
youthful player, (who managed to execute 
the pieces standing on one leg on this oc- 
casion, and working the bellows with the 
other, in consequence of the difficulty of 
arranging a convenient seat on the part of 
the platform which he occupied,) expressed 
a general agreement in the principles in- 
sisted on by Mr. Baron. Nevertheless, he 
protested against the plan being called a 
new discovery or invention, and alleged 
that the organs were not particularly 
cheap in respect of other organs, because 
their contents were so much less. The 
chief novelty of Mr. Baron's plan seemed 
to be the proposing to be content with 
such a little organ. He questioned the 
wisdom of an entire abolition of the case, 
although he granted that it should be 
open enough to transmit the sound with- 
out undue obstruction. 

After a few words in reply from Mr. 
Baron, and some remarks from Mr. Wil- 
liam White, architect, of London, the meet- 
ing was dissolved. 

Second Day's Pbooeedikob. 

Thursday, June 10. — The members of 
the Congress assembled in full fbrce at an 
early hour in the Society's Booms, Holy- 
well. At eleven o'clock, punctually, they 
started, under the escort of Mr. J. H. 
Parker, and proceeded to examine the col- 
leges and other objects of interest in the 
University. 

They began with New College, where 
their attention was called to the city 
walls, rebuilt by Wykeham, and kept in 
repair by the College: the bastions and 
parapet, with the alure behind it, afford a 
good illustration of the defences of a town 
or castle in the fourteenth oentury. St. 
Peter's Church, with its picturesque tur- 
rets, as seen from New College garden; 
the College buildings, which, although 
raised a story, are still perfect, and a good 
example of the new style of college intro- 
duced by Wykeham; the chapel, with 
the founder's crozier, and the picturesque 
cloister, were duly inspected^ The party 
then proceeded to the Academical Theatre, 
where a short lecture was given on the 
public buildings of the University, the 
Clarendon, built by Hawksmoor ; the Ash- 
molean Museum, built by Wren; the 
Schools and Bodleian Library, by Sir Tho- 
mas Bodley; and the Divinity School, 
built by public subscription in the fif- 
teenth century, and the arms of the bene- 
&ctors still form the ornaments of the 
beautify fiftn-tracenr vault. Archbishop 
Kemp was the chief benefiictOTi his arms 



1858.] 



General Architectural Congress, 



55 



are repeated several times. They then 
proceeded through the Bodleian Library 
and Picture-gallery, and the Eadcliffe 
Library, built by Gibbs ; round the out- 
side of the Library, from which a splen- 
did panoramic view of the whole of Oxford 
is obtained, and as each building came 
snccessively in view, it was named, and its 
history given in a few words. Thence, 
through St. Mary's Church, and down the 
High-street, to Magdalen College, through 
the chapel and the cloisters to the grove ; 
then to Merton College, by the meadow, 
through the three quadrangles, and into 
the chapel, the history of each building 
being mentioned, and any peculiar features 
pointed out, especially the treasury, with 
its ashlar stone roof of the thirteenth cen- 
tury, and the beautiful choir of Walter de 
Herton. 

Then to Corpus, entering by the meadow 
gate, and passing out by the principal 
entrance under the tower, in which are 
the " founder's chambers," or rather, the 
lodgings of the Head of the college, as at 
Magdalen, Balliol, and originally in all 
the early colleges. Thence to AU Souls', 
where, after inspecting the chapel and the 
library, and hearing their history, the 
party partook of a handsome luncheon, 
provided in the college hall by the Hon. 
F. Lygon, M.P., a Fellow of the college, 
after which a few short speeches were 
made by Mr. Lygon, Mr. Gteorge Gil- 
bert Scott, Archdeacon Thorp, Professor 
Donaldson, and Mr. J. H. Parker. 

After luncheon the party proceeded to 
inspect Christ Church, where they were 
met by the Dean, who accompanied them 
to the Cathedral, the Chapter-house, and 
the HalL They then proceeded to the new 
Goi^c Debating-room of the Union So- 
ciety, built by Mr. Woodward, one of the ar- 
chitects of the New Museum, and which is 
being decorated in the interior by some of 
the principal painters of the pre-Raphaelite 
schooL Thence to the Martyrs' Memorial 
and Balliol College, entering by the new 
gateway in Mr. Salvin's building, and 
passing through the garden into the 
chapeC just completed by Mr. Butterfield 
in the present fasliionable style, with 
many features borrowed from the Gothic 
■tyle of Lombardy: the general feeling 
seemed to be that, although very hand- 
some, it is not quite satisfactory. It was 
mentioned that the chapel is built partly 
as a memorial to the late Dr. Jenkins, as 
recorded by an inscription on the screen. 
Then to Exeter College, where the ele- 
gant new library, in the early Gk)thic style, 
and the magnificent chapel, by Mr. 
Scott, now approaching completion, were 
much admired. Then to see the old 



painted glass in Lincoln College Chapel, 
and the new window in Jesus CoUt'ge 
Chapel, and finishing with St. Michael's 
Church and its Saxon tower ; a few other 
colleges and churches being omitted for 
want of time. 

In the evening a convertaxione was held 
in the Society's Rooms, commencing at 
half-past eight o'clock. At a little after 
nine, when the company were assembled, 
the Vice-chancellor ascended the plat- 
form and addressed the meeting. He 
cordially thanked the Society for his 
election to the office of President, and 
expressed --his regret that on the pre- 
vious day urgent business had made it 
quite impossible for him to take his place 
in the chair. He then called on Mr. 
E. A. Skidmore, of Coventry, to give 
%>me account of the beautifnl works in 
brass and iron which he had brought for 
exhibition. 

Mr. Skidmore, whose most interesting 
and useful speech was listened to with 
marked approbation throughout, called at- 
tention chiefly to two great leading facts 
in the present state of the production of 
works in brass, iron, &c. : — 1, that wonder- 
ful improvements had been made of late 
years, and works executed which had not 
been rivalled for many recent centuries; 
2, that notwithstanding this, we had not 
yet attained to the marvellous skill shewn 
by our forefathers. Works in niello had 
been executed ages ago which we could not 
execute now ; elaborate ornamentations of 
metal- work had been brought to perfec- 
tion then which no forge in the British 
Empire could elaborate now; and Mr. 
Skidmore amused the company by draw- 
ing the conclusion that we, civilised beings 
as we think ourselves, are shamefully in- 
ferior to our painted forefathers — not to 
be compared for a moment to the old Picts 
and Scandinavians. 

Mr. Hart, of Wych-street, Strand, briefly 
directed attention to the beautiful collec- 
tion of his works which was exhibited in 
the room, and said that it always had 
been, and should be, his aim — as he be- 
lieved that perfection in his art was still 
far ahead — to press earnestly on in the en- 
deavour to attain to it. He expressed the 
great pleasure that it gave him to contri- 
bute to the beautiful exhibition of ancient 
and modern metal -work which he saw be- 
fore him, and to assist, as far as in him |^ 
lay, the objects of the General Congress. 

After a few words from Mr. Street, the 
Diocesan Architect, who confirmed much 
of what Mr. Skidmore had said. 

The President announced that Lord 
Dungannon, who was on the platform, 
would propose a resolution. 



56 



Antiquarian Researches. 



[July, 



Vlsoount Dungannon, who was loudly 
cheered, rose to offer, in hU own name, 
and in the name of the other guests of 
the Oxford Architectural Society, his sin- 
cere thanks to the members of the Society 
for their kindness in receiving them, and 
provicUng for them such an edifying and 
admirable entertainment. The noble lord 
spoke with much feeling and affection of 
his Uiiiveroity. He had matriculated at 
Christ Cliurch forty years ago, and from 
that time to this had loved Oxford with 
no common love. He often visited Oxford ; 
but, however often, he always felt it to be 
one of the greatest privileges and pleasures 
of his life to do so. On this occasion it 
added much to his pleasure that he came 
on the invitation of a Society which had 
done so much to restore true tastes and 
feelings on the important subject of ecckP 
siastical architecture, and had thus, in its 
own line, done much to promote the honour 
and service of Almighty God. He begged 
to conclude by agrain expressing, what he 
felt he might do in the name of all present, 
the thanks of t he strangers for the hospi- 
tality and kindness shewn to them by the 
Oxford Architectural Society. 

The Senior Secretarv then read a letter 
from the Bishop of Oxford, expressing his 
regret that he was not able to attend the 
Congress. 

Mr. J. H. Parker was then called upon 
to say a few words relating to the excur- 
fion which it was arranged shou'd take 
place on the morrow. He confined his 
remarks chiefly to the reasons why that 
route had been marked out, comprehend- 
ing, as it did, examples of all the periods 
of English mediaeval architecture. He 
ftlso alluded to the advantages which he 
thought would be derived from the insti- 
tution of such meetings as the present, so 
that those from different parts of the 
country might have an opportunity of 
studying ancient examples, and comparing 
them with thoso in their immediate neigh- 
bourhood. 

The Hon. Frederick Lygon, to whom 
the plan of the present Congress was 
mostly due, called attention to the col- 
lection of metal-work which was exhi- 
bited in the room, and which had been 
collected and arranged through the exer- 
tions of the Junior Secretary and the Li- 
brarian. The Junior Secretary referred 
^ to the kindness with which the requests 
of the Society had been received, and the 
&cilitie8 which had been given by the 
authorities of the colleges towards the 
formation of that exhibition which they 
■aw that evening; and, considering the 
very great value of the plate which was 
exhibited, he felt that it was no small 
7 



matter to ask the various colleges to allow 
it to be removed out of their possession. 

Mr. Baron again favoured the Society 
with a few words about the Scudamore 
organ, and introduced some specimens of 
music exhibiting its power, which were 
very fairly executed by the young man 
who attended for the purpose. There 
were also remarks made by Professor Do- 
naldson and others in the course of the 
evening. 

Amont? the objects exhibited, those which 
occupied the most prominent position were 
four beautiful spandrels intended for the 
New Museum, designed and executed by 
Mr. Skidmore, of Coventry. By the same 
exhibitor were also two very beautiful 
gas standards, upwards of ten feet high, 
which threw a brilliant light upon the 
large collection of plate spread over a sort 
of raised dais which stood near them. 
There were also many other splendid spe- 
cimens of modern metal-work by Mr. 
Skidmore ; as also a very large collection 
from Messrs. Hart and Son, and smaller 
collections from Mr. Singer, Frome, and 
Mr. Payne, of Oxford. 

Many of the other objects exhibited 
were of considerable interest, e, g. : — 

No8. 53—58. A grace-cup— ancient vase— the 
" ^ntcr"— gold grace-cup, 22 inches high— two 
ancient gold salt-cellars, respectively 10 and \5k 
inches high— and three cocoa-nut cups, chased 
with gold. All exhibited by the Warden and Fel- 
lows of New College. 

Nos. 59—64. The city mace— coronatinn enp 

S'ven to the city of Oxford by Charles II., 22 
ches high - grace-cup presented to the d^ of 
Oxford by ihe lion. Peregrine Bertie— gold cup 
presente<l to the city of Oxford by Charles XI.-*- 
two small silver maces — large nlver tankard. 
Exhibited by the kindness of the Corporation of 
the city of Oxford. 

Nos. 65—68. Silver grace-onp, 16 inohes high, 
104 in diameter— cider-bowl— German cup, latter 
part of fourteenth century— Founder's cop, Uxe 
upper part ancien\ the lower part added at a 
later period. Exhibited by the Warden and Pel* 
lows of Wadham College. 

Nos. 69 — 73. Gold restoration cup, (CharlM 
II.)— silver-gilt cup presented by Dr. Johnson to 
Magdulen College, 18 inches high, 8^ in diameter 
—gold salver presented by the Emperor Nicholas 
to Dr. Routh, late President of Ma^tdalen College 
—silver cup presented to Magdalen College by 
Lord Abingdon, 1763— Jewelled gold graee-eap. 
Exhibited by the Fellows of Mag^len College. 

No. 79. Iron band which bound Cranmer to 
the stake. Exhibited by Mr. Bennet, UniverKity 
College. For an account of this curious relio, 
■ee Gkmt. Mao., vol. cctii. p. 61. 

Nos. 85, 86. Very ancient cup and bowl, cocoa- 
nut mounted in gold— Oriel College Founder's 
cup, fourteenth century. Exhibited by the Pro- 
vost and Fellows of Oriel College. 

Nos. 87—90. Corpus ChrlsU College Founder's 
salt-cellar, firteenth cemury, jewelled— silver- 
gilt salt-cellar— gold cup— silver-grilt cnp. Exhi- 
bited by the President and Fellows 01 Corpus 
Christi College. 

Nos. 91—97. Two-handled cup and coTpr, 1684, 
— tankard, 1684— pepper-box, 1708— silver-gilt 
tankard, 1685— two-handled cnp and cover, 1684 
•—standard oup and cover, 1768— a stirrup whick 



1858.] 



General Architectural Congresi. 



57 



belonged to Queen Elizabeth, the founder of the 
Collefre. Exhibited bjthePrineipQl and Felloirg 
of Jesus College. 

Noit. 98—110. A gold chatelaine, sixteenth 
century— gold watch and chain, seventeenth cen- 
tury—enamels, sixteoith century— enameled re- 
liquary box— spoon, fifteenth century — spoon, 
seTenteenth century— spoon, temp. Queen Anne, 
1705, ftc, &c. Exhibited by Mr. James Parker. 

No. 111. A fine key of iron chest, fifteenth 
oentury. Exhibited by the Kev. £. Marshall. 

Noe. 113^116. A series of casts illustrative of 
Celtic metal-work.- Also 119. 120. Casts of the 
Htmterston brooch— shrine of 6t. Patrick's hand. 
Aria of Laohteen, casts of three sacred hand- 
bella. Exhibited by J. O. Westwood, esq. 

No8. 1 17, 1 18. Andent fourteenth-century pro- 
eetsional cross— handle of door fk-om the house at 
Adderbory Sn the poeeesaion of the mother of 8ir 
T. Pope. Exhibited by C. Faulkner, esq., Ded- 
dington. 

Nos. 121—126. Four cards of baronial seals, 
eighth to sixteenth century— two cards of episco- 
pal seals, seventh to sixteenth century — five 
cards of conventual seals, Saxon to sixteenth 
century— four cards of corporate seals, thir* 
teesth to sixteenth century— facsimile of the 
matrix for the seal of South wick Priory, Hants, 
circa 1250— impression of the seal of William de 
Wyekham, from the muniments of New College, 
and impressions of two private seals of William 
de Wyekham, from the muniments of Winches- 
ter College. Exhibited by Mr. Robert Ready, 
of Lowestoft. 

Nos. 128 - 156. A large oollectioa of silver of the 
sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centu- 
ries, including silver-gilt inkf>tand, 1556— silver 
tray. 1699— silver-mounted black Jack, (belonged 
to Oliver Cromwell)— silver salver, 1554— silver 
tea-ohest, 1642— silver crucifix, 1728— coffee-pot, 
1724— paten, 1575— silver-grilt cocoa-nut tankard, 
1548— silver paten, 1668— silver-gilt chalice, 1575 
—silver-gilt tankard, 1564— silver and crystal 
pyx, from Prior-park, 1551. Exhibited by Mr. 
Wells, Oxford. 

No. 157. A silver crucifix, twelfth century. 
Exhibited by the Rev. W. W. Shirley, Wadham 
CdiKge. 

Nos. 159, 160. Ancient gold-mounted horn, 
presented by Queen Philippa — ancient silver 
trumpet. Exhibited by the Provost and Fellows 
of Queen's College. 

The collection, as will be seen, was not 
only one of CTeat value, bat great interest 
also ; as it 18 seldom that occasion offers, 
or means are at hand, for bringing toge- 
ther so many beautiful specimens of me- 
disBfVal art. We are happy also to be able 
to add that, thanks to the precautions 
taken, not one single article was either lost 
or damaged : the greater part of the most 
valuable property having been returned 
to the owners the same night, although it 
was close upon 12 o'clock by the time the 
visitors had departed. 

THIBD DAY'S PSOCBSDIKGS. 

On this day, as announced by the pro- 
spectus, the excursion took place. The 
party, which was very numerous, visited — 

1. Forest Hill Church, an extremely 
picturesque and interesting little church, 
which has been carefully restored and en- 
larged under the direction of Mr. Scott. 
The party were met by the Vicar, the 
Bev. C. F. Wyatt, who kindly pointed 

Gekt. Mao. Vol. CCV. 



out the site of the house where Milton's 
wife re^sidcd, and shewed them the curious 
piece of ancient tapestry belonging to the 
church, which was examined by M. P. 
Michel, the author of a learned work on 
the Fabrics of the Middle Ages, and pro- 
nounced to be English work of the time of 
Henry VIII. 

2. ^Tieatley, where the new church, 
by Mr. Street, was much admired and 
commended for its extremelv good taste, 
and the manner in which all needless ex- 
pense bas been avoided, so that the result 
is a very effective and very cheap village 
church. 

S. Cuddesdon. The parish church was 
first examined, and a concise lecture given 
upon it, pointing out its peculiar features, 
id that these illustrate in a remark- 
le degree the way in which our vil- 
je churches were enlarged from time to 
time. Originally a cruciform church, of 
the twelfth century, in the latest Norman 
style; then two narrow aisles added in 
the early part of the thirteenth; these 
agfun enlarged, and the walls raised to 
double their original height, at the end 
of the same century ; the chancel rebuilt 
in the fifteenth, with arches in the side 
waUs, as if for the addition of aisles, but 
not necessarily so ; and the central tower 
partly rebuilt in the eighteenth, in conse- 
quence of the wooden spire being burnt, — 
a very usual history, but not often to be so 
clearly made out. — Then to the Bishop's 
palace and its beautiful chapel, with 
painted glass windows, the work of dif- 
ferent artists, as specimens fbr the use of 
the diocese. Complaints were made that 
the glass rendered the chapel too dark; 
and Mr. Parker remarked that the old Eng- 
lish painted glass has a great deal more 
white in it than any of the modem work, 
which is generally copied f^m fbreigu 
glass, without allowing for the difference 
of climate : in the south of France and 
in Italy the great object is to shut out the 
light and heat of the sun as much as pos- 
sible. — Then to the college, where a very 
appropriate luncheon of bread and cheese, 
with salad and beer, was provided im- 
promptu by the students, which all agreed 
was most acceptable, and more suitable for 
the occasion than the most sumptuous re- 
past would have been. 

4. Great Miltao. A fine church, with 
portions of all styles. It has been very 
carefully and conscientiously restored by 
Mr. Scott, and some of the original Nor- 
man work brought to view which had long 
been concealed by plaster. There is a veiy 
rich Early English doorway on the nortn 
side, and other parts, of the thirteenth 
oentury; but the most conspicuous and 



58 



Antiquarian Researches. 



[July, 




handsome parts are of the fourteenth, es- 
pecially the south usle, a very rich chapel 
of the time of Edward III., with fine win- 
dows and buttresses; the tower has been 
rebuilt at the west end, in the fifteenth 
century; there was originally a central 
tower, probably part of the Norman church. 
The east window has nearly a flat arch, 
but is nevertheless good work of the four- 
teenth century ; there is a small window 
over the chancel-arch, which shews that 
the roof of the chancel must always have 
been low. 

5. Great Haseley. Another fine church, 
of mixed styles, llie chancel is a remark- 
ably good example of the best period, the 
time of Edward I., with a magnificent east 
window, long concealed from sight by a 
plaster ceiling, but restored to view by Hj^ 
Oxford Society in its early days, when Hi 
the boxes were also removed, and open 
seats introduced. The rest of the church 
is of difierent periods, from the end of 
the twelth to the fifteenth century, each 
of which was pointed out on the spot, but 
can hardly be made intelligible without 
engpravings. 

6. Dorchester. This magnificent abbey- 
church is too well known to need much 
description. The party spent above an 
hour in examining it, under the direction 
of Mr. Parker, who pointed out the more 
remarkable features, and mentioned their 
probable dates and peculiarities. This 
church, like the others, was originally 
built in the twelfth century, and portions 
of the original work remam. There was 
a church here in the Saxon times, but it 
was probably of wood, or, at all events, 
none of it now remfuns. The nave, or 
parish church, is the oldest part; the 
choir of the monks was rebuUt in the 
time of Edward 1., and lengthened about 
a century afterwards. In the eastern bay 
is the very curious Jesse window, and the 
equally curious Sedilia, glazed at the back, 
b^eved to be quite unique. The remark- 
able double east window has had the head 
restored by Mr. Bntterfield, and the roof 
heightened; the funds for these restorations 
were raised by the Oxford Society ; unfor- 
tunately, much remains to be done, as the 
church is as large as many cathedrals. 
Two beautiftd chapels were added on the 
south side in the early §srt of the four- 
teenth century ; the tower removed to the 
west end, or rebuilt, in the fifteenth. The 
two semicircular arches on the east side of 
the chancel-arch, although much modern- 
ised and all the mouldings cut away, were 
shewn by Mr. Donaldson to have been ori- 
gnnally the Norman transept-arches. On 
the north side of the nave was the cloister, 
with two doorways at the east end of it. 



one good Norman work, opening into the 
north transept, or aisle of the monks' choir, 
the other of the fifteenth century, leading 
to the roodloft. An appeal was made on 
behalf of the parish for the repair of the 
north aisle, and about five pounds were 
collected on the spot. The party then 
partook of a plain dinner, in a tent, in the 
vicar's close, under the shade of the church. 
A few short and appropriate speeches were 
made. Some then went to see the Roman 
Catholic chapel, built by Pugin, others to 
see the Roman earthworks. At six o'clock 
they reassembled, and proceeded to 

7. Clifton Hampden, a small church, 
most picturesquely situated on the cliff, 
overhanging a reach of the Thames. The 
church was originally a poor one, but has 
been much improvea by Mr. Scott. The 
efiigy of the late Mr. Gibbs, in thorough 
medisBval style, was much admired. 

The party then proceeded through Nune- 
ham-park to the gardens, which were kindly 
thrown open to them by Mr. Harcourt, and 
after a stroll in these beautiful d^ardens, in 
the cool of the evening, returned to Oxford, 
stopping only to see Littlemore church, 
which was lighted up for them by the in- 
cumbent, the Rev. G. W. Huntingford, 
who g^ve an account of it. The party 
reached Oxford soon after nine, p.m., hav- 
ing kept their time punctually through- 
out the day. 

FouBTH Day's Pboceedincw. 

Saturday, June 12. — The Twentieth 
Annual Meeting of the Oxfobd Abohi- 
TSCTUBAL Society was held in the So- 
dety's Rooms at 12, A.K., when, after some 
preliminary business, the following Annual 
Report was read by the Senior Secretary: — 

"Your Committee have now to lay befbre 
you their Twentieth Annual Report ; and 
they feel that they cannot do better than 
congratulate the Society agun, as they 
did last year, on its present position and on 
its future prospects. It must not be ex- 
pected that we should have the same 
amount of work to do now as we had in 
our earlier days. We must not expect 
that the public will exhibit now the same 
amount of interest in our proceedings and 
in our teachings as they cUd when there 
was scarcely another Architectural Society 
in the field, when the lessons which we 
had to teach had been learned but by 
few, and when hundreds were eager to 
attain a knowledge of facts and principles 
which are now familiar to thousands. And, 
indeed, the mother may naturally expect 
to be idlowed to rest awhile, when she can 
look around upon the goodly band of her 
children, who have spread themselves over 
ber once wide field of action, and have 



1858.] 



General Architectural Congress. 



59 



penetrated into distant nooks and corners 
which she had never herself reached. And 
there cannot he a more fitting occasion 
for calling attention to this than the pre- 
sent, when she has gathered those sons 
and daughters around her, to ask them 
how they fare» and to shew that her old 
affection for them is as fervent and as 
strong now in her old age as it was at the 
moment when she gave them hirth. 

'* To return to the individual concerns of 
this the mother Society. Last year your 
Committee were ahle to congratulate you 
on a very Uu^e accession to our numbers ; 
the number of our meetings was doubled, 
and at aknost every meeting several new 
members joined us. The influx this year 
has certidnly not been so great, but it will 
bear comparison with that of many recent 
years, and the average of this year and 
last has been above our usual average for 
some time past. Tour Ck)mmittee have, 
therefore, to report that the prosperity of 
the Society in this respect has not failed; 
while, at the same time, they would 
gtrongly urge upon its members the ne- 
cessity of making continual exertions to 
bring the claims of the Society before the 
junior members of the University, in order 
that in each annual report for the time to 
come they may have to congratulate the 
Sodety on the increased and increasing 
prosperity which it ought to enjoy, and 
the popuhurity which it ought to maintain. 

"The appeal which your Committee made 
in the year 1856 to the life members of 
the Society for an annual subscription of 
ten shillings, to assist them in defraying 
the necessarily large expenses involveid in 
their continuing to keep up their present 
large room, and to preserve in good repair 
and order its valuable contents, was at- 
tended in its success with the most valua- 
ble results. They feel that they must 
continue to make this appeal, at least for 
the present year, and they do so — as they 
said last year — in the hope that, while 
residents in the University continue to 
afford to the Society the support which it 
is fairly entitled to claim from them, those 
who have long ago removed to distant 
places will not be forgetful of a Society, 
their former connection with which they 
must, without doubt, often think of with 
pleasure. 

"Several papers of considerable value 
and interest have been read in the past 
year, and lectures delivered, and for these 
your Conmiittee tender their best thanks 
to their respective authors. 

" Your Committee have received but few 
applicaticms for advice or assistance; nei- 
ther are they surprised or discouraged by 
this. The work which in former days waa 



well, but of necessity, to some extent, im- 
perfectly done by the Oxford Society, is 
now done much better, and much more 
effectually, by the various diocesan socie- 
ties. The smallness of the Special Build- 
ing Fund, which was opened a few years 
ago with the intention of enabling your 
Committee to make small grants to such 
works of church restoration and church 
bulling as might deserve to meet with 
their approval, has limited their liberality 
in this direction, only one very small gprant 
having been made to the enlargement of 
the suburban church of Sxmimertown. 

" Tour Committee have also to acknow- 
ledge, with many thanks to the various 
donors, several gifts of drawings, &c., 
which have been made from time to time. 
Especially would they desire on this OC' 
casion, in welcoming Archdeacon Thorp, 
the esteemed President, from its founda- 
tion, of the Cambridge Camden (now the 
Ecclesiolo^cal Society), for the kind re- 
membrance which he has given us to-day 
in the lithographs of his beautiful chancel 
at Kemerton, wluch lie upon the table. 
They w(^d siso thank Sir Gardner Wil- 
kinson, who, unable himself to join the 
Congress, sent us several of his valuable 
publications. 

" In their last report your Committee di- 
rected your attention to the fact that in 
the great competition of architects, set on 
foot by Sir Benjamin Hall, for the proposed 
new Home and Foreign Offices at West- 
minster, the first premium had been be- 
stowed upon a design of the nondescript 
style, commonly called by us 'ClassicaL' 
This they considered a retrograde step, 
especially when a comparison of the suc- 
cessful design with Mr. Scott's noble con- 
ception, and the admirable drawings of an- 
other distinguished member of this Society, 
Mr. G. E. Street, could inspire no other 
feelings than those of regret and sorrow 
that there should be any danger of West- 
minster being spoiled by the erection of 
an incongruous building ; while our great 
revival would be slighted and ignored by 
the rejection of designs, either of which 
would have been considered by every man 
of taste and true artistic feeling thoroughly 
adapted to the wants of the Government 
Offices, and thoroughly in place beside 
Westminster B|^u», Westminster Hall, 
and our granfls English church, West- 
minster Abbey. Your Sodety petitioned t 
the authorities, for the sake of our northern 
architecture, and for the sake of the men 
who have toiled hard to shut out a foreign 
style by shewing us what our own national 
style was and is in all its power of adapta- 
tion, and strength, and beauty, to recon- 
sider the verdict of the umpires which they 



60 



Antiquarian Researches. 



[July, 



had accepted. And now your Commiitee 
feel that they can heartUy congratulate 
you on the fact that with the scheme itself 
has fallen to the ground and failed utterly 
this grand attempt to undo, as far as pos- 
sible, the hard work of twenty years ; for 
the evil of postponing the erection of suit- 
able Offices for the Home and Foreign 
Departments can be remedied any day, and 
more safely next year than this, as tRste 
and knowledge advance, and . prejudices 
vanish; whereas the evils which would 
have come upon this country (as far, at 
least, as its art and its architecture arc 
concerned), had theij* erection been com- 
menced this year, would have been irre- 
mediable. 

" In our own University there seems to 
be no danger (If we may be allowed to be 
only reasonably sangnine in our estimate 
of the signs of the times) of any such in« 
congruons erections as the buildings of the 
Taj? lor Institute being ever again mtruded 
among its noble and time-honoured ex- 
amples of our great English styles. Your 
Committee would especially call •ttention 
to the fact that the boldest step that has 
ever been attempted in England in the 
way of restoring our old secular architec- 
ture, has been made at this very time here 
in Oxford, and with the most complete 
success. Of all the ideas that could have 
been started in the question of secular 
architecture, the most bold and daring 
of all is that which we have started and 
nearly brought to its successful issue here 
— the adaptation of the old English archi- 
tecture to the rooms and laboratories and 
museums of physicians and chemists, and 
anatomists and mineralogists. Your Com- 
mittee congratulate you with feelings of 
exultation and most natural pride on the 
fact that now has nearly been brought to 
completion in this our University, the 
noblest and greatest — not, indeed, the 
largest, but the purest and truest secular 
building of modem times — the Oxford 
University Museum. On the present oc- 
casion they content themselves with stat- 
ing, in a broad and general way, their 
entire approbation of the manner in which 
its eminent architects have executed the 
high task committed to them, and their 
gratitude to those archi^||t for this their 
great vindication of t||PiEarly Gothic 
style. 

" Your Committee reserve till next year, 
when these buildings will be in all essen- 
tial points complet^ that full and careful 
description of them which the Society has 
a right to ask for, and which is demanded 
by their importance. 

'* The works at Exeter College proceed 
with unabated vigour and uninterrupted 



success, under the masterly superintend- 
ence of Mr. Gilbert Scott. The library is 
justly admired as a most perfect work. 
The Rector's new house is equally suc- 
cessful, but will not be seen to advantage, 
or duly appreciated, until the poor woooen 
buildings by which it is encumbered shall 
have been removed : this will be done in 
the course of the present year. The de- 
tailed account of the new chapel must also 
be postponed till our next annual meeting, 
when, in all probability, it will be finished. 
It is sufficient to remark now, that it pro- 
mises not to sustain but to add materially 
to Mr. Scotfs great reputation : while it 
will, undoubtedly, be no mean rival of the 
beautiful chapels of Wykeham and Wayn- 
flete, and the stately choir of Walter de 
Merton. 

" The new chapel at Balliol College de- 
serves high praise, and is worthy of its 
architect, Mr. Butterfield. 

" The new Debating-room of the Oxford 
Union Society is by the architects of the 
New Museum, and is worthy of the origi- 
nality and skill to which here, in Oxford, 
at all events, they may safely assert their 
claim. 

" YonrCommittee rejoiceto hear that the 
long dilapidated and too much neglected 
University church, St. Mary's, is to be im- 
mediately restored, and they congratulate 
the Society on the fact that the work has 
been intrusted to Mr. Scott. 

" Of works in the city and its neighbour- 
hood little has been done during &e past 
Year ; some restorations have been effected 
m Holywell Church, where good poly- 
chrome, chiefly the work of amateurs; may 
be seen. At Iffley, Mr. Buckler has re- 
stored the beautiful west front ; and the 
large circular window, which be has open- 
ed, has been filled with stained glass by 
Hardman. 

" A chancel, in good taste, has been added 
to Suramertown Church by Mr. Street. 

"Mr. Buckeridge has designed and car- 
ried out a small school-room at Holywell^ 
which is well adapted to the purposes of 
its erection. The same architect is about 
to effect a judicious enlargement and re- 
storation of Woolvercott Church. 

" In conclusion, your Committee would 
refer to the General Architectural Con- 
gress, which has been held at the end of 
this the twentieth year of our Society's 
existence, and which has met — thanks to 
the kindness and zeal of our friends — with 
a success which the most sanguine among 
us scarcely dared to hope for. We invited 
all those, our daughter societies^ to which 
reference has already been made, and they 
have cordially responded to our invitation, 



1858.] Leicestershire Architectural and ArchcBological Society. 61 



aztd materially helped us to attain cmr 
great success. 

" The 'admirable description which our 
moat esfceemed member. Dr. Aclaod, gave 
ns of the Mnsemn ; the sight of the btiild- 
mg itself; ^e inspection of the grand 
fbatores ot the colleges and ehnrches of 
Otfbrd, new and dd; the pleasant and 
profitable evening spent in this room on 
Thursday night; amidst the glories of 
andent and modem works in the precious 
metals, and in our nineteenth century 
materials of brass and iron ; the healthy 
imd edifying dghts and scenes of yester- 
day, when we visited nearly a dozen old 
English churches in old English villages, 
to say nothing of the meeting of old 
friends witii old faces, and old places, will, 
we ^fust, long live* in the memory of all 
who took part in the toils and pleasures 
of the Oxfbrd General Congress, and be 
the leamest of future success in our work, 
and of other similar meetings here and 
elsewhere, hallowed by the same high as- 
aociations, and by the same strong tie, 
which has bound us all together, of bro- 
therly love." 

After some remarks from Mr. E. A. 
Freeman (who was in the chair), 

Mr. H. O. Westwood (of the Taylor 



Institute) rose to express a hope that the 
day was not far distant when in this Uni- 
versity, as elsewhere, there might be a 
Professor of Architecture. 

Archdeacon Thorp, in a long speech, 
expressed his delight with all that he had 
seen, and the great pleasure which he had 
felt in joining the General Congress. 

The Chairman proposed, and it was 
carried with aoclunation, that Bishop 
Potter, of Pennsylvania, who was present, 
be elected a Patron of the Society. 

The Bishop of Pennsylvania returned 
thanks. 

The Rev. R. H. odrington proposed a 
vote of thanks to Dr. Barrow, the Princi- 
pal of St. Edmund Hall, and late Presi- 
dent of the Society: and to the Vice- 
Chancellor and the Dean of Christ Church 
for their kind assistance on tho oocaaon 
of the present Congress. 

The Junior Secretary proposed a vote 
of thanks to Heads of Houses and others 
who had lent their plate on the occasion 
of the conversazione, > 

Aiter some remarks from Mr. Parker, 
and the distinguished French antiqaary, 
M. Francisque-Midiel, the Chairman dis- 
solved the Congress. 



LEICESTERSHIEE ARCHITECTURAL AND ARCH^OLOGICAL 

SOCIETY. 



April 25* A meeting of the Society was 
held at the Town-hall, W. P. Herrick, Esq., 
in the chair. 

Mr. Herrick exhibited two spear-heads, 
two celts, and an armlet, all of bronze, 
recently discovered by some workmen em- 
ployied by him in cutting a drive through 
the encampment on Beacon-hill on Cham- 
wood Forest. The soil of a space mea- 
■uring about six feet by three, where all 
the articles excepting the last were found, 
appeared to be different to the ground ad- 
joining. Some of this had therefore been 
sent by Mr. Herrick to Dr. Bernays, of St. 
Mary's Hospital, Paddiugton, to be ana- 
lysed. Dr. Bernays discovered it to con- 
tain bone, pottery of well-burnt clay, and 
wood charcoaL The spear-heads were 
nearlv alike, of the shape which has been 
callea " inyrtle-leaf," with round sockets 
(without rings) for the wooden shafts to 
ait into^ the sockets going some way into 
the blade of the head. One of the celts, 
about three inches long, was of an unusual 
description, being gouge-shaped, with a 
socket receiving a handle. This kind of 
celt LB of more common occurrence in Ire- 
land than in England. (Four Irish speci- 



mens are engraved in the Archsedtc^cal 
Journal, vol. iv. p. 335.) The armlet, which 
is unornamented, was found perhaps fifty 
yards from the other articles, and outside 
the encampment. These articles, according 
to recent classification, would be assigned 
to the Celtic period, i. e., to the inhabitants 
of England previous to their being subju- 
gated by the Romans. The latter usu^y 
selected low and flat situations for their 
encampments, trusting to their own mili- 
tary skill for security, while the Britons 
availed .themselves of naturallv fortified 
positions, such as the Beacon-hiU. 

It was observed respecting the brass of 
King Etheldred at Wimborne, Dorsetshire, 
of which a rubbing was exhibited at the 
last meeting^Hi^the demi-figure of the 
saint is assigj^^BManning's List of Mon- 
umental Br^Kj^o about the year 1450, 
and in Simpson's List to about 144(^, 
while the inscription wa^ thought to be Of 
the second half of the seventeenth century. 
During the restoration (so called) of Wini- 
borne Minster last year, another older 
inscription belonging to this figure was 
somewhere discovered. It is not unlikely 
that this latter plate may have been re- 



62 



Antiquarian Retearehes. 



[July, 



moved when the Puritans were in power, 
during the Great Rebellion ; and not being 
forthcoming after the Restoration, the pre- 
sent inscription was substituted for it. 
Leland, in Henry YIII.'s time, thus speaks 
of this monument : — "King Etheldrede was 
byried by her, [S. Cuthberga, on the north 
side of the f^esbytery,] whos Tumbe was 
lateUf repairidf and a Marble Stone ther 
layid with an image of a King in a Plate 
of Brasse with the inscription : — In hoc loco 
quieacit corpus S. JStheldredi, regis West- 
saxonum, martyris, qui Ao. JDi, 827, 13 die 
Apr, per manus Danorwn Paganorwn oc- 
cubuit" — Itinerary f voL III., fol. 55. 

Mr. T. Neyinson laid upon the table, as 
illustrative of Mr. Wing's essay read at the 
February meeting, the large engravings 
of Hawton Church, Nottinghamshire, pub- 
lished by the Cambridge Camden Society. 
He also mentioned that during recent re- 
pairs at Leicester Castle some remains of 
its ancient Norman hall had been brought 
to light. Originally it was a large apart- 
ment, with aisles formed by two rows of 
oak pillars supporting the roof, five on 
each side, thirty feet high and twenty-two 
inches square, with carved capitals. One 
onlv of these now remains entire. The 
halls of Oakham Castle, (engraved in Tur- 
ner's Domestic Architecture, vol. i.) and of 



Winchester, were of similar formation, bat 
with stone pillars. 

Mr. James Thompson read some obser- 
vations on Roman Ldcester, particularly 
with reference to the outline of its walls. 
He held that there was originally a wes- 
tern wall, parallel with the eastern wall; and 
that a space was left between the Jewry 
wall and the river, in the same way as it 
York and Chester there was a wall on the 
river side of the encampment, under simi- 
lar circumstances. In answer to an en- 
quiry from the Chairman, Mr. Thompson 
stated it was his intention, on a future 
occasion, to follow out the consequences 
involved in the establishment of this 
position. 

Mr. Gresley produced a c(^y of a rare 
tract, with the following title-page: — 
'* A Sermon preached at Ashby-de-Ja-Zouch 
in the Countie of Leicester : at the Fune- 
rall of the truly noble and vertaous Lady 
Elizabeth Stanley, one of the daughters 
and co-heirs of the Right Honourable Fer- 
dinand late Earle of Derby, and late wife 
to Henrie Earle of Huntingdon, the fifth 
Earle of that Familie. The 9 of February, 
Anno Dom. 1633. By T, F.->XiOndon. 
Printedby W.T.andT.P., and are to be 
sold by Matthew Simmons at his shop, at 
the Golden Lyon in Duck-lane. 1685.'' 



»f 



KTMI8MATIC SOCIETY. 



May 20. W. S. W. Vaux, Esq., Presi- 
dent, m the Chair. 

Mr. Bovne exhibited an unpublished 
shilling of Henry VIIL, struck at the 
Bristol mint, at the time when William 
Sharrington was chief officer there. Ghroats, 
half-groats, and pennies of the Bristol mint 



are well known, but no shilling has hitherto 
been described in any of the works on the 
English coinage. 

Dr. Loewe exhibited a silver Turkish 
coin, which he supposed to have been 
struck during the short usurpation of 
power by Mustapha IV., in AJ>. 1806. 



MUTILATION AND DESTRUCTION OF CHURCH MONUMENTS. 



A YEBT remarkable instance of inten- 
tional defiicement of a monumental in- 
scription has recently been brought to 
light during researches connected with 
thid great Shrewsbury Pemge case. It 
appears that in conse^|B of evidence 
afforded by Nash's HlH^Bbf Worcester- 
shire, and by a MS. intne possession of 
Lord Lyttelton, the monument of Sir 
John Tidbot in Bromsgrove Church had 
to be examined. One inscription, as g^ven 
by Nash, was easily recognised; but the 
other was wanting ; and in courts of law 
printed and manuscript inscriptions are 
not admisttble as evid^ce. Although no 



signs of this particular inscription were 
then evident, its publication by Nash in- 
duced a very close inspection ; and at last, 
under a coat of paint, traces of letters 
were found. The paint was then removed, 
and fnrther traces were discovered ; but it 
would appear that the House of Lords did 
not feel satisfied in receiving the evidence 
of the remaining portions of the inscrip- 
tion ; and some of the qounsel on behidf 
of Earl Talbot went so far as to deny the 
possibility of the inscription being read. 
Sir F. Kellv more than once boldly as- 
serted, in his peculiar manner, that it 
oould not be read; and the counsel for 



1858.] Mutilation and Destruction of Church Monuments, 63 



other parties to the soit seemed also to 
suspect the possihility of the letters heing 
deaphered. None of them, however, ap- 
pear to have suspected that the mscrip- 
tion had been intentionally destroyed, or 
defaced rather, because it is well known 
that so many of our church monuments 
ftre exposed to all sorts of injuries, that 
the de&cement of an inscription three 
hundred years old would be nothing un- 
common. We gather, however, frgm Mr. 
Boach Smith's letter in the "Morning 
Po«t"^ of the 20th ult., that the said in- 
scription had been mutilated " in a man- 
ner so careftdly, and with such labour and 
painstaking, that those who perpetrated 
the sacrilegious deed believed they had 
removed the inscription for ever from 
mortal eyes." From its peculiar position 
upon the altar-tomb it seems clear it 
ooold never have been injured by acci- 
dent ; and both Mr. Roach Smith and Mr. 
Waller* agree in protesting against the 
■opposition that any accident could pos- 
nbly have chisseled off the letters in high 
rtUrf, under a ledge or cornice; and yet 
up to the last we see the lawyers fighting 
■gainst this conclusive evidence, and the 
Solidtor-Qeneral in summing up declaring 
that ** it had been suggested that the in- 
scription upon the tomb had been wilfully 
obliterated ; but he did not think the evi- 
dence bore out that suggestion !" Sugges- 
tion! why it is a downright assertion 
made by two persons who have devoted 
their lives to the study of ancient monu- 
ments; and now all who visit the monu- 
ment are convinced that for some im- 
proper object the mutilation was made, 
probably a long time since. Mr. Roach 
Smith makes no observation on the par- 
ticular drcumstances in which this cUs- 
pated inscription is made applicable; he 
dtes the case merely as an instance of the 
insecurity of our church monuments; and 
in the same spirit his remarks are fol- 
lowed by a narration of several instances 
of vandalism, which we transcribe from 
the "Morning Post" of the 25th ult. :— 



u 



cc 



To the JSditor of the Morning Post, 

Sm, — Referring to the letter of Mr. 
C. Boadi Smith, published in your journal 
of the 19th inst., relative to the deface- 
ment of the inscription upon the Talbot 



• The inscription as read by these gentlemen, 
without any material discrepancy, is as fol- 
lows: — 

The Ladye Marguret hys 
fyrst wyfe l>are to hvm 
iu. sonnes and flye daughters. 
And Ladye Elizabeth hys 
aeconde wyfe bare foure sonnes 
and foure daugh[ters]. 



monument in Bromsgrove Church, and 
the destruction of monuments in other 
churches, having been for many years a 
collector of sepulchral inscriptions, I can 
fully confirm the latter portion of his 
statement. Not only have many inscrip- 
tions mentioned in Salmon's History of 
Essex been subsequently destroyed, but 
others recorded in the much later his- 
tories of that county by Muihnan and Og- 
borne, and some transcribed by my own 
hand within the last twenty-five years, do 
not now exist. 

" My attention was first more especially 
called to the necessity for preserving tran- 
scripts of sepulchral inscriptions by wit- 
nessing the destruction and removal of 
monuments during the restoration of Leigh 
Church, in Essex, some twenty years since. 
On that occasion, a mural tablet in memory 
of one of England's most distinguisbed ad- 
mirals — ^Adi]dral Nicholas Haddock — was 
destroyed, to say the least, by the most 
gross and culpable negligence; nor did 
the parish authorities consider themselves 
under any moral or legal obligation to re- 
store the monxunent thus destroyed by 
their own ignorant and clumsy workmen. 
Three other mortuary memorials, with 
arms and inscriptions emblazoned upon 
oak panel, were removed from the church. 
One of these was in memory of a Captain 
Rogers, who greatly distingpiished himself 
during the Dutch wars; the others, from 
the armorial bearings, probably comme- 
morated a branch of the family of Hare, 
baronets, of Stowbardolph-hall, in Norfolk. 
For a long time these were stowed away 
in a lumber-room at the parsonage ; about 
ten years since they were lying upon the 
floor of the vestry, and from that day to 
the present they have not been restored 
to the walls of the church. Other in- 
scriptions, now missing, were probably de- 
stroyed at the same time. Subsequently 
to this, the churchwardens, before proceed- 
ing to another act of demolition, thought 
it more prudent to proceed by public ad- 
vertisement of their intentions; but ex- 
hibiting, at the same time, most extra- 
ordinary ignorance, called upon the de- 
scendants of one family to repair the 
tomb constructed by another, with whom 
they had not t^^ remotest connection. 
No informatioaBbpUed could convince 
the churchwai^ProP their absurdity, or 
divert them from their object ; and another 
tomb, of some local historical interest, with 
two inscriptions in Latin and English, was 
removed. 

" In the adjoining parish of Prittlewell, 
about forty years ago, one of the church- 
wardens appropriated a number of sepul- 
chral slabs from the interior of the church 



61> 



Antiquarian Researches. 



[July, 



for the purpose of paving his court-yard ; 
and only very recently, by the encroach- 
ment of a railn^ay upon the property, they 
were removed, when I counted as many as 
nine, and there were probably others which 
I did not see. 

"A few years since, while engaged in 
a genealogical investigation, I went into 
Stepney churchyard for the purpose of 
verifying a transcript with the original 
slab, when, to my surprise, the fine un- 
mutilated blue ledger, within the short 
space of a month, had disappeared. I im- 
mediately applied to the rector, the Kev. 
Mr. Lee, respecting it, when I found the 
churchwardens had very coolly ordered it 
to be taken up for the purpose of paving 
the interior of the edifice, without, as far 
as I could learn, the least enquiry whether 
it were in accordance with the wishes of 
tke descendants that the stone should be 
removed firom over the remains of their 
ancestors, and placed for better preserva- 
tion inside the church. 

" At Bowers Gifibrd, in Essex, the 
churchwardens (there being at the time 
a resident rector) presented a gentleman, 
who owned an estate in the parish, with 
a most magnificent (though mutilated) 
monumental effigy, in brass, of Sir John 
Gifiard, who died in 1348. Diu'ing the 
space of tea years I made every enquiry 
to ascertain what had become of this 
monument, which I knew, from Salmon's 
History of Essex, had formerly existed in 
the church, and found one person who 
had actually seen it. In this instance its 
removal was no doubt the means of its 
preservation, for it would probably have 
been sold for old brass if the gentleman 
in question had not accepted it; and he 
immediately restored it upon application. 

" That monumental brasses should now 
and then be stolen or sold by avaricious 
sextons for old metal is, perhaps, not very 
remarkable^ especially as they are often 
found lying detached from their slabs, no- 
body in the parish feeling interest enough 
to expend a few shillings in rcfixing them. 
Within the last few weeks, a friend of 
mine has purchased in London a braas, 
with inscription in black letter, recording 
a bequest, by the person commemorated, 
of certain charities to the parish. He bas 
discovered that it beloM^to a church in 
Norfolk, to which he^jjpout to restore 
it, in the hope that it may be more se- 
curely preserved for the future. 

" I have here noticed but a few of the 
cases of this kind which have come under 
my notice, in corroboration of Mr. Roach 
Smith's remarks ; were it necessary 1 could 
greatly extend them. 

" Persons are almost invariably aocus- 
8 



tomed to attribute the destruction of 
church monuments to the Puritans ; they 
have truly quite enough to answer for in 
that respect, but from considerable ex- 
perience, after having visited a large num- 
ber of churches, it is my firm conviction 
that a far greater number of monuments 
have been mutilated and destroyed during 
the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, 
than in the period of the Great Kebellion. 
It is also commonly supposed Uiat church- 
wardenli are the guardians and conservators 
of the ecclesiastical monuments; no doubt 
they ought to be, but experience shews 
tiiat they are more frequently the spolia- 
tors. — I am. Sir, your obedient servant. 



« 



May 21, 1858. 



<i 



K. 



if 



Discovery of a Soman Viary Cbtemn.-— 
In a recent number of the BnUetin Motm* 
mental, M. L. Rostan announces his dis- 
covery of a Roman viary column at St. 
Maximin (Var). It is called eolonne mil' 
Uaire; but it is obviously a memorial of 
the reparatimi of the gr«Eit military road 
(the Via AttreUa) upon the side of which 
it lay ; and which at that spot is still to 
be distinguished, nearly twenty-five feet 
wide. 

The column is upwards of seven feet 
high, and about two feet in diameter. It 
is inscribed : — 

TI . CLAttDIVS . DBV8I . P . 
CABSAB . ATG . GEBH . 
PONT . MAI . 

TBIB . POT . lU . COS . m . 

IXP . y . P . P . BEPBCIT. 

The Via Jurelia, supposed to have been 
made by Caius Aurelius Cotta, led from 
Rome, by Tuscia or Etruria, and the Ma- 
ritime Alps, to Aries. In this route, as 
given in the Itinerary of Antoninus, occurs 
either at or near St. Maximin, where this 
inscription was found, the station Tegu- 
lata, which some antiquaries have asserted 
is represented by the modem St. Maximin ; 
but others have disputed its claims upon 
topographical grounds, and upon its dis- 
tance fVom the course of the Via jturelia. 
It is probable that M. Roeton's interesting 
discovery will be of importance as regards 
the settlement of this disputed point. At 
all events, it is a valuable addition to the 
materials collected by M. de Caumont, 
through the Bulletin Monumental, for a 
better understanding of the top<)graphy of 
Roman Gaul, which is very defective. The 
proprietor of the land upon which the 
column was found has placed it at the dis- 
posal of the mayor of St. Maximin. 



1858.] 



Pilgrims^ Signs, ^c. 



65 



Pilgrims* signs : rectification. — The 
mediaeval leaden cr^undia noticed in the 
Gentleman's Magazine for March, have 
not been correctly understood by the Ar- 
chsBological Association (see p. 649, ante). 
These curious little objects bear no resem- 
blance whatever to pilgrims* signs, ex- 
cept as regards the material in which they 
are made; and any person intending to 
pass off imitations, as they are erroneously 
asserted to be, would have provided him- 
self with examples of veritable sign€tcula, 
of which there are a great number in the 
British Museum, chiefly discovered upon 
the banks of the Thames. Several have 
been, from time to time, engraved in the 
Gentlemak's Magazine; and many plates 
and woodcuts, of the most important va- 
rieties, are given in the Collectanea An- 
tiqua, in which (if we remember rightly) 
they were first made known to the archeeo- 
logical public. Some of these signs are 
of exceedingly good workmanship, as, for 
instance, that of St. Fiacre ; and all are 
either so marked by inscriptions or reli- 
gious emblems, as to leave no doubt of 
their class and character in the minds of 
any one to whom they are at all familiar. 
At the same time, they are as distinct as 
possible from the leaden badges and figures 
referred to in our number for March, 
which at the same time appear to be per- 
fectly genuine, — not as pilgrims* signs, but, 
as we have before stated, as chUdren's 
playthings, which, four hundred years after 
they had been fabricated to amuse an in- 
fantine generation, have served to puzzle 
and mislead grave men, and the members 
of an archseological society. Mr. East- 
wood, of 2, City-terrace, City-road, the 
owner of these mediaBval crepundia, will 
be happy to shew them, and to affurd 
information respecting their discovery. 

Roman Leaden Seals. — Mr. Rolfe has 
recently procured from that great store- 
house of Rutupine antiquities, Rich- 
borough, two remarkable and rare ad- 
ditions to his former collections. They 
are leaden seals or bullas of the Emperor 
Constantine, through which a string has 



passed in the maimer of the papal bulls 
and other seals of the middle ages with 
which the antiquary is conversant. The 
one side is flat, the other convex; upon 
the former side is a portrait of the em- 
peror, laureated, in high relief, and 
around, — 

00N8TANTINVS P . AVO. 

The lettering and the bust remind us 
of the coins of the emperor; but there 
are peculiarities which shew that the 
matrix of the seals was cut especially for 
the purpose. 

The only engraved examples of similar 
seals are those in pi. xxxii. vol. xi. of the 
Collectanea Antiqua, which are chiefly 
from Brough, in Westmoreland. Two were 
found at Felixstowe. There are only a 
very few in the British Museum, and a 
ievf in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, 
the latter of which came also from 
Brough; but they never excited the in- 
terest they deserved, if, indeed, their real 
origin was detected. Mr. Rolfe, we hear, 
has signified his intention to add these in- 
teresting acquisitions to the Richborough 
collection in Mr. Mayer's museum. 

Anglo-Saxon Antiquities. — During re- 
pairs of the high road leading from Wye 
to Dover, at the foot of the hill about a 
mile from Wye, a grave was laid open 
containing the skeleton of a man, with the 
umbo of a shield, a sword, a glass drink- 
ing -cup, and some smaller objects. The 
Rev. L. B. Larking lost no time in ob- 
taining the remains for the Kent Archseo- 
logical Society; and, on their part, be 
liberally rewarded the finder. Now, how- 
ever, it is reported the lord of the manor 
puts in a claim ! Very recently the So- 
ciety of Antiquaries obtained some similar 
remains from the West of England ; and 
they also were ordered to surrender by a 
lord of the manor. In both cases the 
fragile objects were procured solely for 
scientific purposes ; and it is to be hoped 
that lords of manors will rather aid than 
obstruct the progress of antiquarian and 
historical researches. 



Gent. Mag. Vol. CCV. 



66 



[July, 



CORRESPONDENCE OF SYLVANUS URBAN. 



REMARKS ON THE EARLY HISTORY OF ST. ALBAN'S AND ITS 

HISTORIANS. 



Me. Urban, — The projected establish- 
ment of a new diocese, to be carved out of 
London and Rochester, and called the see 
of St. Alban's, together ^vith the restora- 
tion of the abbey church for a cathedral, 
call for some remarks on the claim of this 
ancient seat of learning to the honour to 
be conferred on it 

The monastery of St. Alban's having 
been one ©f the first founded in England, 
naturally became a place of much im- 
portance ; and under the frugal adminis- 
tration of the Benedictine monks, the 
lands of the abbey soon increased in value, 
and several of its abbots were amongst 
the most accomplished scholars of their 
day. For it was the glory of St. Bene- 
dict's reform to have substituted bodily 
labour for the supine indolence of Orit ntal 
asceticism ; and by this means the Bene- 
dictines became the pioneers of civiliza- 
tion in Europe, at once performing the 
offices of religion and instruction to a 
rude people, while they reduced the land 
to cultivation ; having beeu, as M. Guizot 
has shewn, — whom no one will accuse of 
too great partiality to Romanism, — the 
great clearers of land in Europe : — 

" A colony, a little swarm of monks, settled in 
places nearly uncultivated, often in the midst of 
a pagan population,— in Germany, for example, 
or in Brittany ; there, at once missionaries and 
labourers, they accomplished their double ser- 
vice through peril and fatigue." 

Nor were they less energetic in the 
erection of churches and cells, by which a 
permanent improvement in the condition 
of the people was effected, and the founda- 
tion laid for the after development of 
the resources of the country : for it should 
always be recollecte<l th.it the monasteries 
were the only schools in tlie middle ages 
where agriculture, horticulture, architec- 
ture, and the other domestic sciences were 
studied and brought to any degree of 
perfection. 

In the time of Ablfc Eadmer, about 
the end of the tenth century, diligent 
search being made amongst the ruins of 
the old Roman city Vtrulam for mati rials 
wherewith to rebuild the abbev church of 
St. Alban, a number of books and ri»lls were 
discovered hidden in a crevice of the wall 
of an old palace, and amongst them was a 
book of singular beauty and finish, written 



in letters of gold, and bound in oaken 
boards, fastened with silk. This volume 
was in an unknown tongue, (probably 
Celtic, the language of the ancient inhabi- 
tants of Verulam); but at length an old 
monk, by name IJnwona, succeeded in de- 
ciphering it, and found that it contained 
the life and passion of St. Alban ; which, 
being translated into Latin, was ever after 
held in high estimation by the monks. 
The other works, being found to relate to 
the heathen worship of the former inhabi- 
tants of Verulam, were committed to the 
flames, as were also the urns, vases, altars, 
vessels of glass, coins, and other remains 
which were turned up by the workmen 
whilst seeking for materials to rebuild the 
church. 

This account, although implicitly be- 
lieved by the ancient historians, must be 
received with some reservation by us, as 
the subsequent mysterious disappearance 
of the volume would lead to the inference 
that the original had never existed, and 
that the professed Latin translation was 
probably a pious fraud of the monks : but 
tradition, although not to be blindly fol- 
lowed, often expresses the ingenuous feel- 
ing of the age, and in this instance accounts 
for the general destruction of Roman re- 
mains in England, as remnants of the 
ancient heathendom. 

Although so remorseless in the destruc- 
tion of antiquities, the monks of the middle 
ages were not indifferent to the study of 
ancient learning ; and it is principally to 
these foundations that we owe the works 
of the classic writers which have been 
handed down to us. So early as the time 
of Abbot Paul, who succeeded to the mitre 
of St. Alban's in July, 1077, a Scriptorium 
was establishfd for enriching the library 
of the abbey with copies of valuable works, 
and was endowed by Robert, a Norman 
knight, with two parts of the tithe of his 
demesne at Hatfield, together with the 
tithes of Redburn, which were appro- 
priated for ever to the advancement of 
the cause of learning. Thus we see that 
the work of transcription was not per- 
formed by the monks in the ordinary 
course of their daily duties, but was a 
special avocation to be provided for by 
funds sot apart for that purpose. 



1858.] 



Correspondence of Sylvanus Urban, 



6: 



Tliis institution of a Scriptorium ex- 
plains the cause why many of the monastic 
hbrariea were so rich in MSS., and also 
accounts for the extraordinary interpola- 
tions and anachronisms which occur in 
ancient writings; for it not unfrequently 
happened that several persons were oc- 
cupied at the same time in making tran- 
scripts of different authors, the abbot read- 
ing out of two or three books, passages 
alternately, while his amanuenses wrote 
to his dictation ; and in several instances 
we have the history of MSS. still existing, 
e.g., MS. Cotton Nero, D. vii„ which was 
formerly in the library of St. Alban*s, where 
it was seen by Leland before the dissolu- 
tion of the monasteries. The compiler of 
this volume, which contains a list of the 
royal benefactors to the monastery from 
the time of Offa to King Richard II., fol- 
lowed by notices of the popes from whom 
privileges had been obtained, and short 
memoirs of the different abbots, from 
Willegod to Abbot Ramryge, was Thomas 
Walsingham, the historian, who finished 
his task in 1380. The transcriber of it 
was William de Wyliim j the illustrator, 
for it is filled in almost every page with 
portraits, was one Alan Strayler : — 

** Allanus Strayler circa depictionem prtcsentis 
libri plarimum laboravit, et tres solidos et 
quatuor deuiuios sibi debitos pro coloribus con- 
donavit. 
Nomen pictoris Alanus Strailer habetur 
Qui, sine fine, choria ccclestibus associetur." 
— fol. 108. 

It is only in a few instances that we 
find evidence of a MS. having been pre- 
pared or emended for transcription, as that 
of Wendover was by Matthew Paris ; who, 
instead of making his alterations whilst 
dictating to his amanuensis, appears to 
have emended an ancient copy of Wen- 
dover*s Chronicle, which he afterwards 
presented to St. Alban's Abbey; thus shew- 
ing that he had no intention of appro- 
priating the labours of another to himself, 
although he had embodied the greater 
part of that work in his own. Indeed, it 
was a frequent practice with the monkish 
historians, instead of continuing a chronicle 
of acknowledged celebrity, to embody it, 
with some slight alterations and additions, 
in a work of their own, having no other 
object in so doing than of supplying their 
monastery wi^h a more modern copy, bring- 
ing the narrative of events down to their 
own period. It is on this account that 
the writers of the later period are of 
comparatively little value, except for 
contemporary events, or when by any 
casualty the original works from which 
they have copied may have been lost. 
Thus in the case of Wendover, only one 
perfect MS. (Douce ?07) is now extant, 



while there are many copies of Matthew 
Paris and Matthew of Westminster, his 
continuators and copyists. What may 
have led to the great renown of Matthew 
Paris as an historian it is difficult to say, 
considering, as Mr. Coxe has justly ob- 
served, " that whenever he deviates from 
the text of Wendover, his alterations are, 
for the most part, to a more bald and in- 
elegant reading ;" but certain it is, that 
while Matthew Paris was renowned and 
quoted throughout the literary world, if 
we may use such an expression for the 
middle ages, Wendover, the original com- 
piler of the magnificent chronicle knovni 
as the first of the great chronicles of St. 
Alban's, was almost forgotten, if we ex- 
cept the mention made of him in a MS. 
chartulary of St. Alban's Abbey, written 
at the close of the fifteenth century, where 
he is described as ** the man to whom the 
historians of England owe nearly all which 
they have," before Mr. Coxe edited his 
edition for the English Historical Society, 
in 1841. 

While the Historia Minor, the real pro- 
duction of Matthew Paris, has never been 
considered worth printing, only a specimen 
being given by Wats, and a few extracts 
by Coxe, — who thus alludes to it in his 
introduction to Wendover : "The different 
style of language used in relating the 
same events as are recorded in the greater 
chronicle, the additional matter also with 
which it is supplied, would have made it 
necessary to print volumes in order to 
render a collation at all perfect. It does, 
indeed, seem extraordinary that such a 
collation should never have been made; 
still more so, perhaps, that the work itself 
never should have been printed, being, as 
it is, so entirely throughout the original 
work of Matthew Paris, and existing, at 
the present day, in the original hand- 
writ ing of its ingenious and learned com- 
piler;'* — the other works of Matthew 
Paris, including his histories of the two 
Offas, kings of Mercia, and his lives of the 
three-and-twenty abbots of St. Alban's, 
are printed in the folio edition of his 
works, edited by Wats, in 1640. 

The next in order of the St Alban's 
chroniclers is William de Rishanger, whose 
historical writings have been much neg- 
lected, although he occupied an important 
position as historiographer to Henry III. 
and Edward I., whose eventful reigns he 
has chronicled with admirable fidehty and 
minuteness, ever keeping clear of the two 
extremes into- which the monkish histo- 
rians were apt to fall, ecclesiastical pre- 
judice against all measures of reform, 
which they were pleased to term innova- 
tions, and a servile flattery of the reign- 



68 



Correspondence of Sylvanus Urban. 



[July, 



ing monarch; indeed, in some instances 
Bisbanger's affection for the popular cause 
is so manifest as to make us doubt wbetber 
he were not a partisan, as most of the 
contemporary historians were, of the fa- 
mous Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, 
in speaking of whose death he thus ex- 
presses himself: — 

" Comes autem LeioestriflD cnm 8« cngrnovisset 
▼itam transitoriam mutare in ceternam, con- 
gratulabatur ; gratis ad locum martini pro- 
peravit ut cognoscerent omnes, quod non invi- 
tus, non compulsus pateretur. Exemplo edoctus 
frloriosi ArchipresuUs Cantuariee et Martiris 
Thome, itaque in prima acie ut liberius agonem 
8uum domino commendaret ultro se intromisit ; 
roox a comite GloTemise proseoutus dum fugere 
contempsit; solus ab omnibus preecipue im- 
pctitur, capitur, neci traditur morte probrosa, 
post capitis obcisionem pedem ejus detrunca- 
Terunt, unde quondam pronosticum eyenit in 
ipso lemporis articulo sol obscuratus est et tenebrsB 
factce sunt super terram quasi dimidioB horic 
spatio unde nonnuUi miraculi exemplum et pro 
Justicia pugnaverunt et in eodem loco animos 
deo reddiderunt." 

We must not, however, draw too hasty 
a conclusion, for it certainly would appear 
strange that the historiographer royal 
should be accused of too great partiality 
to the rebels; and, a little further on in the 
book, Rishanger expressly declares himself 
free from any partisanship : — 

*' Non ergo alicui si haec integre scribo adula- 
tionis sen indignacionis surrepat suspicio, nihil 
enim dabitur grratisB ; sed sola reritas historias 
sine 'ullo fuco mendacii posterorum producetur 
notitisB." 

In criticising the labours of Rishanger, 
there is one point more especially deserv- 
ing of observation — the paramount im- 
portance he attaches to the origin and 
progress of the dispute between Henry 
III. and his barons; which, as forming a 
leading feature in the history of the de- 
velopment of constitutional liberty, must 



be considered highly favourable to his 
character as an historian by every student 
of English history. Besides devoting no 
small part of his two chronicles to the 
history of the baronial wars, Rishanger 
has left a separate treatise, entitled, Nar- 
ratio de duohus JBellis apud Lewis et 
Evesham inter Regem Anglice et JBarones 
suoSy which has lately been published for 
the Camden Society ; but, instead of this 
being an argument against the publication 
of the remainder of Rishanger*s works, 
it ought to be a strong incentive to ac- 
celerate the completion of this valuable 
set of histories : we should then have the 
whole of the St. Alban's chronicles in print : 
for Wendover, the original chronicler, to 
whose work all the subsequent histories 
are continuations, has been well edited by 
Mr.Coxe for the English Historical Society, 
and Matthew Paris has appeared under a 
variety of forms ; but the most complete 
edition of his works is probably that by 
Wats, published in 1640, in folio, contain- 
ing the whole of his writings, except the 
Historia Minor. It is also deserving of 
notice, that although Rishanger has been 
overlooked, his two contiuuators, John de 
Trokelowe and Henry de Blaneforde, 
were published so early as 1729, by Hearne. 
In making the preceding remarks, I have 
carefully refrained from offering any ob- 
servations on the valuable history (chiefly 
ecclesiastical) of Abbot Eadmer, the friend 
of Archbishop Anselm, edited by Selden 
in 1622, or on the works of Thomas 
WaJsyngham, the historian, edited in 
1603 ; because, although members of the 
monastery of St. Alban's, their works 
were not included in the monastic regis- 
ters known as the Oreat Chronicles of 
St. Alban's. W. D. H. 



THE BAYEUX TAPESTRY. 



Mb. Urban. — All particulars relating 
to the Bayeux tapestry are so interesting 
to the English public, that you will excuse 
my bringing to your notice two facts 
which seem unknown even to the Rev. 
John CoUingwood Bruce, the last writer, 
if I am not mistaken, who undertook to 
elucidate that invaluable memorial of the 
past. 

From the time of its discovery, it was 
invariably ascribed to some Matilda, who 
was, of course, identified with the queen 
of the Conqueror. ** L'opinion commune 
^ Bayeux," says Father Montfaucon, " est 
que ce fat la reine Mathilde, femme de 
Ouillaume le Conqu^rant, qui la fit faire. 
Cette opinion, qui passe pour une tradition 



dans le pays, n'a rien que de fort vrai- 
semblable." However, some writers con- 
tend that this princess took no part in 
this work, and ascribe it to another. My 
late friend, TAbb^ de la Rue, in an elabo- 
rate paper printed in the Archeeologia, 
vol. xvii. pp. 85 — 109, supports the opinion 
that the tapestry was prepared at the 
command of Matilda, daughter of Henry 
I., King of England, and wife of Henry V , 
Emperor of Germany. Lord Lyttelton 
{" The History of theLife of King Henry 
II.," third edition, 1769, 8vo., vol. i. 
p. 353), and Hume ("History of England," 
vol. i., note F), entertained similar views. 
Now which of these opinions must we 
follow? Neither of them, I think. Thepo- 



1858.] 



TJie Bayeux Tapestry, 



69 



pular tradition on which the two systems 
are founded is of no value ; for the people, 
w^ho so easily foi^et political events, could 
not keep up the memory of a piece of furni- 
ture, which they had only a few occasions 
to see very imperfectly. Does anybody 
object to the first part of my statement ? 
I will answer that, for instance, at Bor- 
deaux, where I live, and in the surround- 
ing country, there is not the least recollec- 
tion of the English, who ruled so long 
over Guienne. Go to Coutras, to the very 
spot whereon our Henri IV. fought a 
famous battle, and you will find no peasant 
acquainted even with the name of the 
king who wished for the country-people a 
boiled chicken on Sundays. I could afford 
a thousand instances of such oblivion, even 
of more recent events. 

At the same time, the people ascribed 
to a single individual the monuments of 
the same kind — the Roman camps to Caesar, 
the causeways to Queen Brunehault, &c. 
The Druidic dolmens were accounted for as 
being Gargantua's chairs, and the Roman 
amphitheatres, such as those of Toledo, 
Bordeaux, and Poitiers, were termed PaZai* 
Oalienne, Palacios de la Galiana, and 
ascribed to Charlemagne, represented in 
the old romances of chivalry as the hus- 
band of Galiana, the daughter of Galafre, 
kin^ of Spain. In one of thera, which I 
published in my younger days, at the late 
Mr. Pickering's, we read that King Hugon, 
of Constantinople, had a rich blanket made 
by Matilda, a very gentle fairy, who gave 
it to him : — 

** Li cuvertures fud bons qne Maseuz uverat, 
Une ffie mult gcnte que li reis dunat. 
Melz en vaut li conreiz del tresor laamiral*." 

This seems to prove that the Matilda 
of the Bayeux tapestry is a mythic 
character. 

The second fact I promised to you will, 
to a certain extent, shake the story built 
on this long-embroidered chronicle, as 
M. Licquet terms it. It is, that it was 
not an unique copy. In an inventory of 
the furniture of the Dukes of Burgundy, 
drawn up in the year 1420, we find " Ung 
grand tapiz de haulte lice, sanz or, de 
I'istoire du Due Guillaume de Normandie, 
comment il conquist Engleterre''.'* Now, 
as it is certain that the Bayeux tapestry 
was, at the time, preserved in the cathe- 
dral church of that town, there were at 
least in existence two copies of the same 
work, and supposing that they were 
similar, which was the original ? 

Before bidding adieu to this topic, 1 



must say that I do not pretend to have 
stated anything new. I have alrea<iy 
pointed out the two passages as above in 
one of my books * ; but, as it might be 
expected, it was overlooked : I hope it will 
not be so in the Gentleman's Magazine,' 

The Gentleman's Magazine I It re* 
minds me that in the last number I read 
a veiT able paper on the Lives of Edward 
the Confessor, edited by Henry Richards 
Luard, M.A., Fellow of Trinity College* 
Cambridge. I have the greatest pleasure 
in saying that generally I concur in the 
praise given to this scholar; but 1 am 
afraid the reviewer went too far when lie 
said that the reader perusing the descrip- 
tion of the new church at Westminster, 
with Mr. Luard's literal translation an- 
nexed, might almost imagine that it is the 
present edifice* being described. Let u» 
examine the text and translation of the 
passage quoted, pp. 637, 638. 

V. 3. "A fnndement 1^ e parfund." IS 
(wide) is forgotten in the translation, 
which must be, "with foundation wide and 
deep," Mr. Luard seems not to have un- 
derstood the true meaning of o in this 
instance, as well as in v. 6, p. 638, where 
it is wrongly joined to the word estoires ; 
and his translation ought to have been 
" with storie**,'* as in the following verse 
a mestrie was expressed by ** wiih skill." 

But all this is nothing in comparison of 
the translation of tho last verse. The old 
trauvhe says that the refectory and dor- 
mitory and the offices were round the 
cloister : — 

" Refaitur e le dortur 
£ leg oiiicines entur." 

Mr. Luard, seeing en tur in the manu- 
script, thought a lower was spoken of, and 
translated accordingly; when tur meant 
here " turn." Such a mistake spoils the 
picture which the reviewer so positively 
promised us. 

He praises " Mr. Luard's ably compiled 
Glossary." I have no doubt, before I 
glance at it, that it was drawn up with mas- 
terly skill ; but, unfortunately, among the 
examples selected, I see two mistakes. 
The first is the word mairem, which never 
existed in old French, unless we read 
mairein (mod. Fr. merrain), which really 
means " timber." The second is the in- 
finitive toldre, which I suppose was coined 
by the learned compiler. We had the pre- 
terite plural told/rent, and the future toU 



■ Travels of Charlema^e, p. IR, v. 430. 
•» Lea Dues de Bourgoffne, par M. le Cointe de 
Laborde, II" part, t. if. p. 277, No. 4277. 



« Recherches sur le Commeree, la Fabriention 
fit V Usage dcs itofes de soie, des draps d'or et 
d'argent, en Occident, pendant le moyen-dge. 
Vol. ii. p. 77, note 3. (Paris, 1854, 4to.) 

•» The description was written at least a cen- 
tury before the present edifice wa« built. 



70 



Correspondence of Sylvanus Urban. 



[July, 



dra, toudra ; but tlie infinitive was tolir 
(tollere). 

" Ck>Tertement e sens noisir 
Lur quident JA le pui tolir;" 

** Ci serra jH.li reis en vers Rou traltur, 
Qu^il li toldra sun frere e sa terre e 8*onar'.*' 

** Ne Tos toudra plein p6 donurs." 
** TofM/ro-nM-en la seignoiie^." 

It seems fair for me to add that, if in 
this case there is any mistake, it was com- 
mitted before Mr. Luard, by French lexi- 
cographers, as the Benedictine monks, edi- 
tors of Da Gauge's Glossary, and by his 
continuator, D. Carpentier'. 

I hope the learned gentleman whose 
able publication suggested these remarks 
to me, will not be offended by them. In 
the middle ages, which he knows so well, 
very often French knights crossed over to 
take part in tournaments, and if they 
struck hard, it was because they had to 
deal with strong opponents. On nefrappe 
fort que 8ur lesforU* — But revetwiM d nos 
moutons; or rather, to the tapestries made 
with their wool. 

Of these productions of the textile art, 
the most valuable, it is scarcely worth 
while to say it, are those on which are re- 
corded facts of contemporaneous history, — 
chiefly when they exhibit, at the same time, 
good design and able workmanship. These 
last qualities shine with the utmost bril- 
liancy in a tapestry which I saw lately in 
Magdalen College, Oxford, and I have little 
doubt, although one must be very cautious 
in such explanations'', that it refers to some 
point of English story in the fifteenth cen- 
tury, perhaps, as asserted by a local tradi- 
tion, to the marriage of King Henry VI I.'s 
eldest son. Prince Arthur, with Catherine of 
Arragon, which took place November 14, 
1501. For the country in which these 
hangings were manufactured, everything 
leads me to believe that it was Flanders — 
fEur-famed for this kind of work, and where, 
from all parts of Europe, the best painters 



* Chronique des dues de Normandie, par Be« 
Dott, vol.!. p. 281, T.3690. 

t Ibid., p. 106, arg. 

ff lhid.y p. 92, T. 307. 

k i6»d., p.96, T.423. 

> OloMarium media et ir\finuB Latinitatit, 
Didot's edition, vol. vi. p. 600, 601, V». Tollere; 
and ToL vii. p. 818, col. 2, Y«. Toldre. 

^ In 1784, " A constant reader of the Obntls- 
mam's Maoazimb, and a well-wisher to Antiqua- 
rians,*' as he terms himself, having recommended 
to Mr. Urban's inspectioa a large piece of old 
tapestrv that hanged in tbe shop of a broker in 
Harp-alley, London, the learned gentleman of 
8t. John*s-gate gave a description of the tapestrv 
above referred to, and shewed that it represented, 
not the triumphant entry into London of one of 
the English kings, perhaps of Henry VII. after 
the baitle of Boeworth, but the hititory of Haman 
and Mordecai, expressed in the habits, &o. of the 
fifteenth or sixteenth century. ( See Gxnt. Mao., 
vol. liv. pp. 268. 269.; 



sent their cartoons to be executed. When 
I consider with attention the style of the 
Magdalen College tapestry, I feel inclined 
to ascribe it, if not to Holbein, bom in 
1498, at least to a first-rate artist of the 
same school. But to study it profitably, 
not only in an artistic point of view, but on 
account of historical likenesses, and of cos- 
tumes, it should be necessary to have 
accurate photographs of all the tapestry, 
if the owners of this treasure do not in- 
tend to publish it immediately in colours 
as it is. In England, where the love of 
antiquity is so much spread. Tapestries 
have been long neglected, while on the 
Continent hangings of an inferior interest 
have given rise to extensive and costly 
publications. Of such works in Britain I 
am not aware ' ; and perhaps it would 
not be altogether impossible to make a 
textile history of England, if such tapes- 
tries as the "tapiz de Tystoire messire 
Bertran du Guesclin, fait k or en divers 
lieux," preserved in the treasury of the 
Dukes of Burgundy, and "la tappicerie de 
Tistoiro de Fremigny," which was kept iu 
1501 at Blois, in the hall where sate the 
King of Prance", were recovered. In 
such a set, beginning with the Bayeux 
tapestry, and continued with that at St. 
Mary's Hall, Coventry", that of Magdalen 
College, Oxford, although, like the hitter, 
comparatively modem, should not be the 
least conspicuous. — I am, &c., 

Fbancisque-Michel, F.S.A. L. & Sc, 

Professor at the Faculty of Letters of Bordeaux, 
Correspondent of the Institute of France, &c. 

Oxford, June 19, 185a 



' The only published historical tapestry which 
I know of. is the very curious one which was 
formerly in the House of Lords, and which re- 
presented the defeat of the invincible armada 
under Queen Elizabeth, in 1588. It was engraved 
by John Pine, in 1739, in three folio sheets. In 
1802, J. Carter, in the Gentlem am's Maoazink, 
vol. Ixxii. part Ist, p. 294, col. 1, informed his 
friends "who are zealous in the study of anti- 
quity, though their names are not registered as 
professed antiquaries, and the publick," that the 
famous Upestnes late in the Prince's and Paint- 
ed Chambers. Westminster, were about to be 
published by him. We do not know whether he 
carried his plans into execution. 

■ Recherehea $ur le Commerce . . . dee itoffet 
de aoie, &c., vol. ii. p. 393, 398. 

■ See the Gbmtlkm am's Maoaziivk, vol. lix., for 
the year MDcoLxx XIX., p. 991, col. 1, 11S4, col. 2; 
vol.lx. p. 233, col. 2; vol. Ixiii. p. 813, col 1,2. 
— In the first of these places referred to, Obsxh- 
VATO& very Justly remarks, relating to the Co- 
ventry tapestry, that *' a copy f^m this piece 
would make a good plate." It was described at 
length in the "History and Antiquities of the 
City of Coventry," pnolished by RoUason and 
Reader, 12mo. pp. 187—191. 

In other places of the Gxntlkm am*s Maqa- 
zwx (voU liv. p. 743, col. 1 ; Ixix. pp. 661, 662, 
and Ixx. pp. 423-^25, 712, col. 2), there is a de- 
scription of a tapestry formerly in the Painted 
Chamber, Westminster, which related to the 



1858.] 



Historical and Miscellaneous Reviews, 



71 



ADDISON'S SUPPOSED PORTRAIT. 



Mb. Urban, — The mystery which in- 
volves the presence of Sir Andrew Foun- 
taine's portrait at Holland-house is not 
likely to he solved, except on the pre- 
somption of an interchange of pictures 
between that gentleman and Sir S. Fox. 
The Countess of Warwick, after the death 
of her son in 1721, went to reside in Ad- 
dison's house at Bilton : in 1726 Mr. Mor- 
rice, son-in-law of Bishop Atterbury, and 
later, Mr. Shippen, resided at Holland- 
house, which in 1748 was untenanted, and 
in decay. About 1762 Henry Fox pur- 
chased the estate, and restored the build- 
ings and park j probably then it was that 
the portrait of Sir A. Fountaine was hung 
upon the renovated walls. 

1 may add to my former notes of Sir 
Andrew, that he was educated at Christ- 
church, Oxford, under the accomplished 
Dean Aldrich, whose taste in music, art, 
and architecture, we may well believe, in 
no slight degree influenced the mind of 
his pupil. In l701 he went with Lord 
Macclesfield on his embassy to the Electress 
Sophia; and in 1707, with Thomas, Lord 
Pembroke, and Lord Lieut, of Ireland, he 
passed over to Dublin, where he introduced 
Swift to that nobleman. Pope, also, an early 
friend, but afterwards, attaching himself 
to Lady Suffolk in preference to Queen 
Caroline, an enemy, has immortalized him 
by his satirical and unjust aspersions : — 



" Annius, crafty seer, with ebon wand 

And well-dissembled emerald on his hand, 
False as his gems and cankered as his coins." 

DuNciAD, IV. S47— 9. 

His correspondence with Cosmo de Me- 
dici is still in existence. He was an ex- 
cellent Anglo-Saxon scholar, and in Hickes' 
Thesaurus Septentrionalis is a treatise 
by his hand on Anglo-Saxon and Anglo- 
Danish coins. And this is the man of 
whom Lord Macaulay says, "His image, 
skilfully graven, is in Poets' Corner j it re- 
presents him as we conceive him, clad in 
his dressing gown, and freed from his 
wig :" the handsome Englishman to whom 
Leibnitz pays this high compliment, " Not 
to speak of your wit, your good looks, oe 
rather your beauty, remains engraved in 
the ladies' imagination, and makes as 
much noise at court as your learning 
does among savans who have had the 
advantage of your acquaintance :" a very 
different description from the Saturnine 
features to which Addison makes claim. 
His coat of arms, with supporters, appears 
in the list of subscribers to Dart's Can- 
terbury, 1724, immediately after the 
bishops, and at the head of the laymen ; 
he was at the time Vice-Chamberlain to 
the Princess of Wales. 

Curious to add, there is a family which 
bears the name of Fountaine- Addison. 
I am, &c., 
Mackenzib Walcott. 



HISTORICAL AND MISCELLAJS^EOUS REVIEWS. 



The Voice of Christian Life in Song, 
(Nisbets), is an account of hymns and 



siege of Troy, and a conjecture concerning this 
old record, "where every object," says An A&t- 
IST, " could delight and inform the mind in 
wbich way our forefathers displayed themselves 
in the fair face of the day, in the fourteenth or 
fifteenth centuries." 

Among the collections relating to British 
toi>ography, bequeathed lo the Bodleian Library 
in the year 1799, by the late Richard Gough, 
Esq., there are three large portions of the ta- 
pestry maps which formerly lined the hall at 
Weston, in Warwickshire, the seat of William 
Sheldon, Esq., in the reign of Henry YIII., who 
first introduced tapestry-weaving into England, 
of which those three large maps were the earliest 
specimen. These fragments contain a section 
of the centre of the kingdom, including the coun- 
ties of Hereford, Salop, Stafford, Worcester, 
Warwick, Gloucester, and Oxford, with the 
north part of Berks. Two of them are eight 
yards by one and a quarter ; the third smaller. 
These should not be neglected. 



hymn -writers from the earliest times down 
to the end of the eighteenth century. The 
author does not appear to have been a 
very extensive reader, or to have given 
much previous consideration to the sub- 
ject ; but the work is, perhaps, none the 
less valuable on this account, because the 
conclusion he arrives at is the same as that 
of others who have investigated the. sub- 
ject more deeply, namely, that the Chris- 
tian Church possesses the materials for a 
hymnal suited for every purpose, private 
and congregational. 

There is no lack of hymn-books in the 
Church of England ; we have seen a list of 
nearly seven hundred different collections, 
but none of them come up to the standard 
required to make a fitting companion to 
our incomparable Book of Common Prayer. 
Two of the most recent and most popidar, 
that of the S. P. C. E., also that of Mr. 



fro 



Historical and 3IisceUaneous Reviews. 



[July, 



Kemble, ignore the ancient hymns of the 
Church altogether — an omission the more 
inexcusable on account of the very beauti- 
ful English renderings which Mr. Chand- 
ler, Mr. Cop^nd, and others have given. 
We regret to see that the author of this 
volume has not availed herself of the 
labours of former translators, but has given 
firesh translations, bald and unmusical, and 
which, although generally faithful, fail to 
convey the beauties of the originals. The 
first verse of the well-known hymn Dies 
Ira, for instance, is thus translated : — 

" Lo, the Day of Wrath, the Day, 
Earth and Heaven melt away, 
David and the Sybil say." 

A translation which will instantly call to 

mind the immeasurable superiority of Dr. 

irons' :— 

" Day of wrath ! O day of moaming ! 
See ! once more the Cross retuniing — 
Heaven and earth in ashes burning." 

We rejoice to see attention drawn to 
these ancient treasures, because the more 
they become known, the better will they 
be appreciated. The author does not ap- 
pear to be so well acquainted with our 
English hymn writers of the seventeenth 
century as with the late ones, many 
beautiful compositions being omitted. O^ 
the influence of the Wesleyan hymn-book 
upon the methodists, she thus writes : — 

" Those hymns are now sung in collieries 
and copper-mines. How many has their hea- 
venly music strengthened to meet death 
in the dark coal-pit ! on how many dying 
hearts have they come back, as from a 
mother's lips, on the battle-field! beside 
how many death-beds have they been 
chanted by trembling voices, and listened 
to with joy unspeakable ! how many have 
they supplied with prayer and praise, from 
the first thrill of spiritual fear to the last 
rapture of heavenly hope! They echo 
along the Cornish moors as the Christian 
miner is borne to his last resting-place ; 
they cheer with heavenly messages the 
bondage of slavery ; they have been the 
first words of thanksgiving on the lips 
the liberated negro; they have given 
courage to brave men and to sufl*ering 
wom^n; they have been a liturgy engraven 
on the hearts of the poor ; they have borne 
the name of Jesus far and wide, and have 
helped to write it deep on countless 
hearts." 



Mb. Bohu's LiBiLiBiss. 

Two additions have recently been made 
to the new historical series, of which the 
volume for this month is by far the most 
important. Diary and Correspondence of 
Samuel Pepys,F,E,S., Secretary to the Ad' 
9 



miralty in the Meigns of Charles II, and 
James II With Life and Notes by Richard, 
Lord Beatbeooke. 6th Edit. 4vols.l2mo. 
(Bohn.) — In our last number it was our 
fortune to supply our readers with a brief 
memoir of Richard, Lord Braybrooke, from 
the able pen of one who knew him well, and 
we have now to announce the most lasting 
monument to his memory in the shape of 
a sixth edition of the work by which he 
is chiefly known to the public. This edi- 
tion is a reprint of the fourth, in a neat 
and convenient form, with numerous good 
portraits, in which the likenesses are care- 
fully preserved. In liis preface to the 
fourth edition Lord Braybrooke had said, 
** The memoirs of Samuel Pepys, and the 
history of his short-hand diary, have been 
so long well known to the literary world, 
that the fourth edition of the work can 
hardly require any formal or lengthened 
introduction." After this, nothing more 
remains to be said, but to recommend 
those who are not already possessed of 
this most amusing book to lose no time 
in procuring it, now that it is placed 
within the reach of all. 

The other addition to this department is 
Mr. Jesse's Memoirs of the Pretenders and 
their Adherents, illustrated with half-a- 
dozen portraits. Mr. Jesse has a peculiar 
manner of his own of bringing in anec- 
dote upon anecdote, fact upon fact, each 
and every one apparently isolated, yet all 
bearing upon one point, so that while any 
one may read this volume as a collection 
of entertaining anecdotes, he may, at the 
same time, master all the leading events 
connected with the fortunes of both Pre- 
tenders and their followers. 

To the Illustrated Libraryy the ad- 
ditions are, The Parables of Frederick 
Adolphus Krumacher, with forty illus- 
trations on wood, by the brothers Dalziel. 
These fables, which have been so exceedingly 
popular in Germany, are not so well-known 
here in their collective form, yet one by 
one they have made their appearance in 
most of the religious periodicals, and well 
deserve the patronage they have received. 
There is a quiet religious tone about them, 
and an air of simplicity, that renders the 
moral almost as interesting to children as 
the fable itself. Rose*s translation of 
Ariosto's Orlando Furioso, volume I., has 
also been added. Prefixed, is a memoir of 
the translator, by Charles Townsend, from 
which we learn that he died in 1843, hav- 
ing reached the age of 68. This trans- 
lation is generally admitted to be the best 
that has appeared, and in this popular 
form will go far towards making the read- 
ing public as familiar with Ariosto as 



1858.] Pr^ace to Sixth Edition of Tom Brown^s School-Days. 73 



they can ever hope to become by means of 
a translation. 

Fosteriana is the only recent addition 
to the Standard Library ; it is edited 
Mr. Bohn, and consists of scraps and de- 
tached extracts from John Foster's minor 
reviews and writings. Those who are ac- 
qnainted with this author will doubtless 
r^ard this as a valuable companion to his 
larger and better-known essays. 

A second part of Lowndes' Bibliogra- 
pher's Manual has also been issued. Con- 
sidering the real value of this work, and 
the vast amount of information it contains, 
and the labour that Mr. Bohn has already 
bestowed upon it, it is perhaps hardly 
generous to cavil at the deficiencies most 
book-readers will observe. They are nume- 
rous, too numerous, and should have been 
remedied; but whether the public could 
have been depended upon to support a 
better and necessarily more expensive work, 
we are unable to judge. One thing there 
can be no mistake about, and that is, 
that a good bibli(^raphy of British litera- 
ture is required. 



Preface to the Sixth Edition of " Tom 
Brovjn*8 School-Days" — In issuing this 
preface separately, Mr. Hughes has honestly 
and fearlessly thrown down the gauntlet, 
and challenged the critics and detractors 
of his remarkable book. We admire his 
courage and self-confidence, and we cheer- 
fully bear our testimony to the merit of 
his book on the whole, but on the parti- 
cular point on which he asks for a verdict, 
we are bound to say honestly that we 
must agree with the general voice in 
giving it against him. The first part of 
his book, relating to his really boyish 
days, is admirable and inimitable, because 
perfectly true to nature; but the latter 
part, in which the boy is passing into the 
man, is by no means equal to the former. 
There is a great deal too much of ser- 
monizing, which is not natural at that 
age; it is an attempt to take an unfair 
advantage of his readers, and preach to 
them when they are not expecting a ser- 
mon, and are not prepared for it ; and the 
consequence is, that the greater part of 
his readers avenge themselves by quietly 
skipping the sermon. We have heard 
much sdso from old Rugbeians of his in- 
justice to old Rugby before the time of 
Arnold, and of the arrogant conceit which 
seems to be one of the features of the 
Arnold school. There is much truth in 
the observation of F. D. in the letter 
printed in this preface. Excellent as the 
system and practice of our public schools 
are for the generality of boys, there are 
many for whom they are not at all suitable. 

Gejtt. Mag. Vol. CCV. 



We have heard sad stories, some of which 
we know to be only too true, of most 
barbarous savage cruelty being tolerated, 
and of amiable, clever, well-disposed boys, 
but of timid and sensitive temperament, 
being worried and bullied even to death ; 
and no ingenuity can make us believe 
that when the system is allowed to be 
carried to this excess, it can be right. 

The new system established at Radley 
has, perhaps, hardly yet had a fair trial. 
It has many obvious advantages, and 
seems in many respects better suited for 
the sons of gentlemen who are wished to 
be brought up as gentlemen, than the 
coarse, vulgar slang, the roughness and 
brutality of Westminster or Winchester. 
ITiose who have been brought up imder 
the old system will of course abuse the 
new one, and be honestly prejudiced against 
it, on the ground that it is calculated to 
make the boys milk-sops ; but this remains 
to be proved; hitherto we have not ob- 
served any symptoms of it. We cannot 
see that allowing each boy a separate bed- 
room, or cell, to sleep in unmolested, is 
more likely to make him a milk-sop than 
putting him into the same bed-room with 
twenty other boys, two or three of whom 
are notorious bullies, who will allow him 
no peace, and will treat him as their slave. 
Nor can we see that a poor innocent child, 
fresh from home, is likely to turn out the 
better man, or even the more hardy boy, 
from the certainty of ha\dng something 
thrown at his head if he dares to kneel 
down to say his prayers, as he has always 
been accustomed to do. We trust that the 
authorities of our public schools will read 
and carefully digest " Tom Brown's School- 
Days," and will see whether judicious re- 
form may not be introduced without de- 
stroying the manly independence of our 
boys; especially whether the long rooms, 
or galleries, may not be converted into 
decent dormitories by introducing wooden 
partitions between the beds, after the 
fashion of the medieval dormitories, as has 
been adopted at Radley. This would itself 
cure some of the worst evils of the old sys- 
tem, and we believe that the number of boys 
who sleep in the same space is very nearly 
the same, excepting when they are dis- 
gracefully crowded, as is still sometimes 
the case to an extent which would not be 
tolerated in our workhouses or gaols. 



The Life and Times of Frederick 
Perthes, Crown 8vo., 464 pp. (Edin- 
burgh: Constable.) — This fourth edition, 
in a cheaper and moie condensed form, 
may reasonably be ex^^ected to have a still 
larger circulation than its predecessors 



7h 



Historical and Miscellaneous Reviews. 



[July, 



have had, for although abridged, all that 
is of general interest* is retained, and the 
book is bronght within the reach of a far 
wider circle than before. The character 
of Perthes and a sketch of his life we 
brought before our readers when the work 
first appeared, and it is unnecessary here 
to repeat an eulogium upon it. Anyone 
who wishra to be acquainted with the his- 
tory and literature of Germany for the 
last sixty years must read this book : and 
many more will be interested in the per- 
sonal character of a religious man, and a 
man of extraordinary energy and persever- 
ance, who exercised considerable influence 
by dint of his upright character in a time 
of general laxity of morals and indifference 
in religion. Perthes passed through a 
fiery ordeal unscathed, and has left behind 
him a name which will long be regarded 
with respect and admiration. 

MiltoiCa Parcuiise Lost ; with Hhutra- 
Uons hy John Martin, Imp.4to. (London: 
H. Washboume and Co.) — Martin's ge- 
nius was of no common order. In search 
of objects for his pencil he travelled beyond 
the tracks of ordhiary mortals, and entered 
those precincts which are closed to all but 
the very few who, like himself, could gaze 
on the things unseen, and photograph the 
spiritual. Such did John Martin when he 
sketched the Pandemonium, of which an 
engraving is given in the first number of 
this new edition of Milton. Martin is less 
felicitous in his terrestrial scenes. Eden 
and the Temptation, the subject of the 
second plate, was too commonplace for 
him ; it afforded no scope for an imagina- 
tion which delighted itself most in events 
combining the supernatural with the real, 
and of which some other scenes in Milton 
gave an opportunity for the display. 

An accompanying advertisement informs 
us that the first edition of this work was 
published at twenty guineas, and that the 
new one, on the largest paper, containing 
the same plates, which appear almost equal 
to the early impressions, will be sold at 
one-seventh of the original price. Un- 
questionably it is the best illustrated edi- 
tion of the poet ever published. 

The Indian SebelUan ; iis Causes and 
jReaults. By the Rev. Albxaitdib Duff, 
D.D. (Nisbet and Co.)— Dr. Duff, it ap- 
pears, addressed a series of letters to the 
*' Edinburgh Witness," detailing the pro- 
gress of the rebellion, and the means taken 
to suppress it, interweaved with comments 
of his own. These letters are now re- 
printed, and are valuable, inasmuch as 
they contain many sage opinions respect- 
ing the Englbh rule over that country ; — 



Dr. Duff, from his long residence there, 
being no mean authority. 

Choice Notes from "Notes and Queries.** 
(Bell and Daldy.) — A " selection of curious 
articles" is by no means a new idea, for 
even so early as 1732 two volumes of ex- 
tracts from our then contemporary, "Fog^s 
Journal," made their appearance, and in 
later times the Rev. John Walker pub- 
lished four volumes of selections from a 
more illustrious work ; and now the wor- 
thy editor of that useful receptscle for 
pleasant gossip, "Notes and Queries," is 
busily engaged in extracting the wheat 
from the chaff, which he proposes to bring 
before the world in the shiq)e of ** Choice 
Notes." The first volume is ready ; it 
contains a large number of the best histo- 
rical notes that have appeared, and will be 
followed by others on folk-lere, biography, 
<&c., which, if as well selected and as inter- 
esting as the present, cannot fail to be 
successfril. 



IJhe Natural History of British Pasture 
Grasses. By Jahes Buckhan. (Ciren- 
cester : Bailey.) — Professor Buckman in 
this little volume has condensed a large 
body of valuable information respecting 
the various grasses, their cultivation, dis- 
eases, and produce. It is thoroughly prac- 
tical, and b, we are glad to see, published 
in a cheap form. 

On Medicine and Medical JBducation : 
Three Lectures bv W. T. Oaibdneb, M.D. 
(Edinburgh: Sutherland and Enox.) — The 
first of these Lectures, delivered to the 
students of the Medical School of Edin- 
burgh in 1856, contains some very salu- 
tary advice on the studies to be pur- 
sued, and on the medical profession ge- 
nerally ; as also do the other two — ** On 
the Medical Art considered in connection 
with Popular Education," and " On Medi- 
cine as an Art." 



A Catalogue of the Portraits painted 
by Sir Joshua Beynolds. By William 
Cotton, Esq. (Longmans.) — Intended as 
a supplement to his life of that artist. Mr. 
Cotton a]>pears to have taken great pains 
in the compilation of this catalogue, which 
will be of great service to collectors, and 
to admirers of Sir Joshua. 



Pope : Additional Facts concerning his 
Maternal Ancestry. By Robsbt Davies, 
F.8.A. (Russell Smith.) — Prompted by 
Mr. Hunter's tract on the descent and 
&mily relations of Pope, Mr. Davies ex- 
amined the records of the Corporation 



1858.] Geological I>ifficuliies of the Age Theory, ^c. 



75 



of York, and has discovered some fiirther 
traces of Pope's fkmily in that city, which 
will be of interest to such persons as are 
well up in Pope's personal lustory. 

OeologicalDifficulUea of the Age Theory, 
By AnDiiEW Tatlob. (Edinburgh : Len- 
drum.) — Is in answer to Mr. Peter Bayne, 
who has writtaa some work in defence of 
Hugh Miller's "Testimony of the Rocks." 

An Introduction to Cframmar on its 
true Basis. By B. H. Smaet. (Long- 
mans.) — Mr. Smart, in this little work, has 
taken some trouble to put together some 
thoughts which very few people will care 
to read. To the teacher it will impart 
nothing new, and the style and manner 
will place it beyond the groi^ of the 
learner. 



twenty four-line stanzas, of which the first 

will serve as a specimen : — 

" Peace I white-robed daughter of the sky, 
Descend with downy, dewy wings. 
To the vexed nations now dniw nigh— 
Thy presence brightest blessings brings.*' 



The Laws and Practice of Whist, by 
CcELBBS, (Hardwicke,) has reached a third 
edition, and bids fair to become the stand- 
ard authority, vice Hoyle superannuated. 

Tradesmen's Tokens issued in Leices- 
tershire in the Seventeenth Century, by 
Thomas Nobth, reprinted from the 
Leicestershire Archseological Society's 
Transactions, will not CMily be useful to 
local collectors, but the Introduction 
contains information of a more general 
character. 



Marriage: a Seligious Poem, By a 
Trinity College Prizeman. (Hatcharda.) — 
A little brochure called into existence by 
the marriage of the Princess Royal. 

The Cure of Souls, by the Rev. Geo. 
Ahden, (Oxford : J. H. and J. Parker,) 
— is one of those useful manuals which 
the increased activity of the Church in 
the present day has called into eustence. 
It is intended as a companion work to 
the same author's, " Breviates from Holy 
Scripture," and contains the Offices for the 
Visitation and Communion of the Sick, 
with various admonitions, prayers, passa- 
ges of Holy Scripture, &c., and may be 
used either by the clergyman or by the 
sick person, or by both jointly. 



The Voice of the Last Prophet : A "Prac- 
tical Interpretation of the Apocalypse, 
By the Rev. Edward Huntingpord, 
D.C.L. (Skeffington). — Our space does 
not permit us to indulge in apocalyptic 
discussion, even if our taste impelled us — 
which, by the way, it does not ; we must 
therefore content ourselves with announc- 
ing the present addition to the books on 
the subject. One thing we may observe, 
namely, that while Dr. Huntingford is very 
eloquent about Rome, Protestantism, and 
other matters relating to a portion of 
Europe, the East appears to be overlooked 
afanost entirely. Would he have us believe 
that the " Voice of the Last Prophet " is 
not intended to affect four-fifths of the 
human race? Like many others, Dr. 
Huntingford appears to have limited his 
observation to too small a sphere. 



Feace : a Poem, By P. Bolinobboee 
RiBBANS, LL.D. (London : Hall, Virtue, 
and Co.)— This volume, elegantly printed 
on cardboard, bound in bright blue doth, 
with an engraving of I^dseer's well- 
known picture, " Peace," contains exactly 



Pamphlets. 

We have received a List of Books 
printed in England prior to the year 1600, 
in the Library of the Society of the King's 
Inn, Dublin, By W. Haio, the Librarian. 
As may be supposed, this list contains 
the titles of many works well known to 
collectors of early printed books, and of 
some also that are rare. The example set 
by the " Society of the King's Inns" is a 
good one, and we should like to see it 
followed by other corporations. The 
following work, for instance, is one that no 
person would ever dream of looking for in 
Dublin : — 

'* Hereafter ensueth the ancient seuerall 
customes of the seuerall manners of Steb- 
bunhuth, (Stepney,) and Hackney, within 
the county of Middlesex, which were pe- 
rused, viewed, and approved by the lorde 
of the saide mannors, and by all the copl- 
hold tennants of the saide suerall mannors, 
many yeeres past, and which customes bee 
nowe againe newlie and fnllie considered 
off, ratified, allowed, and approued by the 
right honourable Henry lowle Wentworth, 
lord^ of the saide seuerall manners, as in 
the seuerall articles and agreements her e 
after following are expressed, the tenth 
day of Nouember 1587, &c." 

Naval Bank, as expressed by its present 
Titles, a Naval Wrong, and a National 
Injury, by Navaxis, (Hamiltons,) is a 
plea for a fresh classification of naval 
rank, so as to place both services on a 
par. 



76 



2%« Monthly IrUelligencer. 



[July, 



7^e Teaching of the Anglican Divines 
of the Time of James I and Charles I. on 
the Doctrine of the Holy Eucharist, by 
the Rev. H. C. Gkoves, (J. H. and Jas. 
Parker,) is intended to shew, by means 
of extracts, that the principal divines of 
the periods mentioned did not hold such 
high views as they have been represented 
to do both by Mr, Keble and by Dr. 
Pusey. 

TJte English Episcopate, By the Rev. 
Mackenzie E. C. Walcot. — The first 
part only of this work has appeared, con- 
taining the Diocese of London : it is in- 
tended to comprise memoirs of all the 
bishops who have filled the various British 
and colonial sees. 

The Character and Place of Wickliffe 
as a Reformer. Ry Herbert Cowell. 
(J. H. and Jas. Parker). — An essay which 
gained the Stanhope Prize for 1857; 
gained, we imagine, rather from the ab- 
sence of active competition than on ac- 
count of intrinsic merit. 



Some Observations on the Laity in 
Church Synods, (Exeter: Cliflbrd,) are 
addressed to members of the Church of 
England, advocating the admission of the 
laity — a privilege which Church members 
possess in America, and which will pro- 
bally be conceded to them here, whenever 
Convocation itself is remodelled. 

Hie Money-Bag, (Oakey.) — A monthly 
magazine introducing questions of finance, 
banking, and other money matters, is a 
sign of the times shewing that these ab- 
struse questions are being taken up by a 
larger number of persons than heretofore. 

The Englishwoman's Journal is pub- 
lished by an association of ladies banded 
together for the purpose; is intended to 
support women's rights, exhibit women's 
capabilities, and raise the general tone of 
women's aspirations. 

The Geologist. (Simpkin and Co.) — 
A popular monthly magazine of Geology, 
appears to be ably conducted, and likely 
to popularize this interesting science. 



AND 

HISTORICAL REVIEW OF 

Foreign News, Domestic Occurrences, and Notes of the Month, 



MatL 

China. — An imperial edict has been is- 
sued degrading Governor Yeh for not 
taking measures to control and soothe 
the Europeans, and appointing Kwang 
Tung in his place. 

France. — The Revenue for the year is 
estimated at £70,929,128. 

Mats. 

Tlie Queen of Portugal, late the Prin- 
cess Stephanie of Hohenzollem, having 
been married by proxy to the King of 
Portugal, is now in this country, on the 
way to her new home, and during her stay 
here has been a guest of the Queen's. 

Mat 10. 
The Duke of Wellington's TbmJ.— Mr. 
E. J. Treflfry, of Fowey, Cornwall, publishes 
the following aocoont : " The g^reat Duke's 
nrcophaguB, now in St Paul's, was wrought 
and polished by steam-power in the parish 
of Luxulyan, in this county, in the field 
in which the huge ' boulder' stone of por- 
phyry, weighing upwards of seventy tons, 



nearly the whole of it above the surface of 
the ground, had been standing for ages. 
It is not a figure of speech, but a fact, that 
the Continent had been searched in vain 
for a sepulchral stone sufiicicntly grand 
for a sarcophagus that should contain the 
mortal remains of the great Duke. That 
stone was at last found in Cornwall, and 
the whole of the work was executed by 
workmen in the employ of the Treff^ry 
estate, whose representatives were en- 
trusted with the matter throughout. The 
cost of this unparalleled tomb was 1,100/." 

2%0 New Matrimonial and Divorce 
Court sat this day for the first time, the 
judges being Lord Campbell, Lord Chief 
Baron Pollock, and the Judge Ordinary, 
Sir Creaswell Cresswell. Five decrees of 
divorce were pronounced. 

Mat 20. 

London Brewers. — ^The old-established 
firm of Calvert and Co., of Upper Thames- 
street, have found it necessary to call their 
creditort together and ask for time to 



1858.] 



The Monthly Intelligencer. 



77 



pay their debts, amounting to £1,485,000 ; 
the assets are considerably larger, and 
among other things they return 359 public- 
houses of which they have the freeholds 
or hold leases, every one of which was 
bound to take no other than Messrs Cal- 
vert's porter. 

Mat 29. 

JReHorcUion Service* — The Dean and 
Chapter of Canterbury having decided 
that the service to commemorate the 
Nativity and Restoration of Charles II. 
should no longer be observed, the service 
was of the ordinary character, and no 
reference made to the festival formerly 
observed. 

June 1. 

Prince Albert, who is now on a visit to 
Germany, is said whilst at Cobui^ to have 
signed the document by which he made 
over his hereditary rights to the Duchy of 
Coburg to his second son. The reigning 
Duke of Saxe-Coburg has no children, and 
Prince Albert, who is the nearest agnate, 
is detained by his position in England. 
As there would be some inconvenience in 
the Prince of Wales, who will be King 
of England, being reigning Duke of Saxe- 
Coburg and Gotha, the second son has 
been selected. The young Prince is shortly 
expected at Berlin, and will remain some 
time in Germany, to prepare himself for 
his position as a German prince. Prince 
Albert has had a long interview with the 
King of Prussia. 

The Great Shrewsbury Case. — The judg- 
ment of the House of Lords was this day 
delivered in favour of Earl Talbot, but 
from its great length we are compelled to 
defer our summary till next month. 

June 9. 

National Society. — At a meeting of this 
Society, presided over by his Grace the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, it was seated 
that 1,672,445 children were receiving 
education in Church schools in England 
and Wales, and that the receipts from 
subscriptions, endowments, and children's 
pence amounted to £682,475. 

June 11. 

The Adelphi Theatre is now in course 
of demolition; a new and more splendid 
theatre will ) e created on the old site. 
Astley's, the Olympic, and Covent-garden 
have also been rebuilt within the last few 
years. 

Naples. — In consequence of the urgent 
demands of the British Government, the 
King of Naples has delivered the "Cagliari" 
over to the English representative, nnd 
has awarded £3,000 to the two English 
engineers. Park and Watt, who wore on 



board at the date of the illegal seizure. 
The vessel and crew have been restored 
to the Sardinians, who will claim, and 
probably receive, some compensation for 
the detention. 

A Commission De Lunatico Inquirendo 
has been sitting to test the date when Sir 
Henry Meux, bart., became of unsound 
mind. Sir Henry is the senior partner in 
a large brewery, which had been so profit- 
able, that, in addition to keeping a very 
liberal establishment, he had succeeded 
in raising the value of his estate from 
£200,000 to nearly £600,000. Two years 
ago he married a young lady of nineteen, 
the daughter of Lord Ernest Bruce, and 
by her had one son. First he made a will 
bequeathing a large annuity to his wife 
in case she survived him, and by a codicil 
increased this ; and further, in the event 
of his son's death, left the whole of his 
fortune to his wife unconditionally. That 
Sir Henry was hopelessly insane no one 
could deny, but as to the date when he 
became so the jury, after a nine days' in- 
vestigation, could come to no decision, and 
broke up without giving a verdict. 

June 12. 

America. — News has arrived that con- 
siderable excitement prevailed in the 
United States in consequence of the alleged 
breach of the right of visit exercised by 
officers of .British ships in the American 
waters. The charges have not been proved, 
and the English government has disavowed 
any intention to depart from the course of 
procedure which has for so many years 
given satisfaction to both countries. 

June 13. 

Birmingham. — Her Majesty having 
graciously signified her assent to the pro- 
position that she should open the people's 
park at Aston, made her entry into this 
smoky town amidst the plaudits of seve- 
ral hundred thousand mechanics and 
others, who made holiday for the pur- 
pose. The Queen left London the pre- 
ceding day, and honoured Lord Leigh's 
residence, Stoneleigh Abbey, by sleeping 
there ; and after driving from the Abbey 
to Kenilworth, took the rail, and arrived 
at Birmingham about twelve. 

From the station her Majesty drove in 
procession through streets gay with flow- 
ers and reverberating with shouts, to the 
Town-hall. The interior of this handsome 
building had been adorned without stint 
of expense, and looked as beautiful as 
velvets, and gold, and flowers and green 
leaves could make it. The galleries were 
fUlcd with ladies and the principal in- 



78 



The Monthly IrUeUigencer. 



[July, 



habitants. A throne had been erected 
on a dais under the organ-gallery : around 
this throne gathered the Mayor and Cor- 
poration, the Queen's suite and the county 
magnates. Here she received an address 
from the Corporation ; to which her Ma- 
jesty replied, — 

"I have received with pleasure your 
loyal and dutiful address, expressing your 
sincere and devoted affection to my person 
and my throne. 

" It is most gratifying to me to have the 
opportunity of visiting this ancient and en- 
terprising town, the centre of so much of 
our manufacturing industry ; and I trust 
you may long remain in the fhll enjoyment 
of that liberty and security without which 
even industry itself must faj\ to reap its 
appropriate reward. 

** I denre you will convey to the vast 
community wnich you represent my sin- 
cere thanks for their cordial welcome, as- 
suring them at the same time of the plea- 
sure I have derived from witnessing the 
great and increasing prosperity of Bir- 
mingham and its neighbourhood." 

A^ address was also presented to the 
Prince Consort; and he having replied, 
the Queen performed the next ceremony, 
when Mr. John Ratcliff, the mayor, having 
knelt before her, he rose at her command 
/S»r John Ratcliff. 

On leaving the Town-hall, the Queen 
drove to Aston-park, two miles and a half 
distant. The eortSge passed again through 
walls of people, and under bright banners 
and festoons. On entering Aston-road, 
" some 40,000 little children of both sexes, 
belonging to the schools of all denomina- 
tions of Christians, and also to those of 
the Jews, lined the road for some distance 
on both sides, and as her M^esty passed, 
lang a hymn. 

The Queen drove through Aston-park 
to the Hall by k well-timbered avenue 
three-quarters of a mile in length, flanked 
by galleries holding 6,000 persons. Aston- 
hall once belonged to the Holte family, 
and through the female line descended to 
Mr. Charles Holte Bracebridge. The 
Holtes were stout Royalists in the great 
struggle between Charles and his Parlia- 
ment, and in 1642 Charles rested at 
Aston-haU while his army was on its 
way from Shrewsbury to relieve Banbuiy 
Castle. The room in which he slept in 
1642 was Queen Victoria's boudoir in 
1858. The day after Charles quitted 
Aston-hall the Birmingham men laid siege 
to it and took it. The standard rent in 
twain by a cannon-shot is still preserved. 
Some time since Aston-hall and park were 
in the market. The Corporation of Bir- 
mingham desired to buy them for the 



town, but the purchase-money, £40,000, 
proved too large for their means. In this 
emergency, the working men and some 
employers, aided by richer persons, formed 
a committee to raise the sum (now, by 
the sale of a part, reduced to £36,000) 
required for the purchase. They have 
r^sed the greater part — the working men 
subscribing **a very large proportion." 
The management is in the hands of a 
committee. The park is for a playg^und ; 
the hall a place of exhilntion of manu- 
factures. It was the purchase that the 
Queen was there to open. 

After showing herself on the terrace to 
the eager crowd below, the Queen re- 
turned into the hall, and went thence by 
special train, from a station opened at 
Aston, to Stoneleigh Abbey. 

From Stoneleigh, the Queen proceeded 
next day through Leamington to War- 
wick. The good folks of Le&mington had 
made their town gay, emulous of Birming- 
ham. The Queen drove straight to War- 
wick Castle, where she was duly enter- 
tertiuned by the Earl of Warwick. After 
a stay of three hours in this grand old 
remnant of ancient days, her Majesty went 
into Warwick town. Here the Corpora- 
tion presented an address. Shaking hands 
with Lord Leigh and Lord Warwick, the 
Queen and Prince Consort entered the 
train and bade adieu to fair Warwickshire. 

JUHB 16. 

France, — General Espinasse, whose ad- 
ministration of the interior had given 
umbrage to the patient and enduring peo- 
ple of France, has been removed from 
bis post. One of his most recent acts was 
a semi-command to the difRerent charitable 
institutions to sell their landed property 
and invest the proceeds in the funds, 
which would produce a larger income 
than land I 

The house where Sir Istuu! Newton was 
hornt situated at an inconsiderable village 
called Woolsthorp, has recently been pur- 
chased by Miss Charlwood, of Grantham. 
It is to be pulled down, and a scientific 
college erected on its site. 

Juin 

Mr, Justice Coleridge^ who for twenty- 
three years has adorned the bench, this 
day took his leava An appropriate ad- 
dress was delivered by the Attorney-Gene- 
ral, and feelinglv responded to by his Lord- 
ship. Few judges have g^ed a higher 
chiuracter on the bench than Sir John 
Coleridge, and few men are more generally 
esteemed either in public or in private life. 
That he may long ei^joy the leisure he has 
10 richly earned is the denre of every one. 



1858.] 



Promotions, Preferments, 8fC. 



79 



His successor, Mr. Hugh Hill, was called 
to the bar in 1841. He went the Northern 
Circuit, where he obtained considerable 
practice. His appointment, says the " Law 
Times,'* is made quite independent of po- 
litical considerations. He has never been 
in Parliament, but *' has devoted his life 
to ills profession, in which he has risen to 
a very high place as a sound and sensible 
lawyer." He is much esteemed in the 
profession, and his promotion has given 
general satisfiM^on in Westminster-halL 

jTTins 24. 

India, — The latest accounts are not 
altogether satisfactory; the mutiny is 
crushed, but not extinct ; and although no 
lai^ bodies of insui^ents are able to 
muster in any one spot, masses of them are 
to be found in so many directions that it is 
difficult to reach them. The following 
telegraphic intelligence has just been re- 
ceived: — 

Shahjehanpore was relieved on the 11th 
of May by Brigadier Jones. 

Ludcnow was threatened, in Qeneral 
Hope Grant's absence southward, by 
25,000 men under the Beegum. On the 
15tb, Sir Colin Campbell, leaving a strong 
force under General Walpole, marched for 
Futtyghur, where he was on the 18th. 

A skirmish is reported with the enemy 
under the Moolvie. 6,000cavalryand 5,000 
infantry lay between the Commander-in- 
Chief and Mohundy. On the arrival of 



reinforcements, expected next day, the 
enemy was to be driven Arom Mohundy. 

Campbell had crossed the Ganges. 

The heat was intense, and the troops at 
Lucknow unhealthy. The garrison was 
reduced to 2,000 inAntry. 

Khan Bahadoor and Nena Sahib had 
attacked Gen. Jones's position at Shahje- 
hanpore, but were repulsed, with the loss 
of Foster, aide-de-camp. 

Omer Singh had crossed the Ganges, 
and menaced the Bombay route from Mly- 
ghur. Jugdespore had been occupied by 
General Lugard on the 9th; the rebels 
fled to the jungle, and General Lugard 
joined Colonel Colfield's force. On the 
1 3th, Colonel Lightfoot, who had been left 
at Jugdespore, was attacked, and firing 
could be heard. The General intended 
moving back on Jugdespore. 

On the 14th Sir Hugh Rose was at 
Etwolh, three coss f^om Calpee. The 
enemy was in position in his front, and 
had been joined by the Nabob of Benda. 
The attack was expected to take place on 
the following day. The rebels had made 
a bridge for escape across the Jumna. 

A conspiracy had been discovered in a 
wing of the 4th Native Infantry in the 
Punjaub. The conspirators wcqb hanged, 
and the wing at once marched to Jul* 
lundur. 

The Rajah of Shunda, in Nagpore, on 
the Hyderabad frontier, had broken into 
open rebellion. 



PROMOTIONS, PREFERMENTS, &c. 



Gazrtb PaKrxsxKTTS, ftc. 

May 29. Hngh Hill, esq., Q.C., to be a Puisne 
Judge of the Queen's Bench. 

May 31. Harry Maxwell In^lis, esq., to be one 
of the Ordinary Clerks of Session, Scotland. 

June 3. Mr. William Girod to be Police Magis- 
trate for the Cityand Parish of Kingston, Jamaica. 

Mr. Godfrey Hastings Kenner to be Ck>llector 
of Customs, riTer Gkonbia. 

June 5. Lord Stanley to be H. M. Commissioner 
for the AffEdrs of India. 

The Right Hon. Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton, 
bart., to be one of the Principal Secretaries of 
State (Colonial). 

James Robertson, esq., W.S., to be Crown Agent 
tor Scotland.' 

June 10, C. Elliott, esq., M.D., to be Principal 
Medical Officer, Ceylon. 

Edward John Esn^les^ esq., Co be Registrar of 
Population and Property, Guiana. 



Charles Grey Howiell Davis, esq., to be Stipen- 
diary Magistrate, Guiana. 

June 11. The Queen conferred the honour of 
knighthood upon Wm. Rae, eso., M.D., Inspector 
of Hospitals and Fleets, and James Prior, esq.. 
Deputy Inspector of Fleets. 

June 15. The Queen conferred the honour of 
knighthood upon John Ratchif, esa., of Wydd- 
rington, in the county of Warwick, Major of 
Birmingham. 

June 16. The Hon. Richard Biokerton Pemell 
Lyons to be Ambassador to Tuscany. 

June 18. Robert Baker, esq., to be Inspector of 
Factories. 

June 21. Col. the Hon. Augustas Fred. Liddell 
to be one of the Grooms in Waiting. 

Member returned to serve in JParUameni, 
Limerick C^fy.^James Spaight, eeq. 



80 



Births. 



[July, 



BIRTHS. 



May 16. At Constantia-ter., Shcerness, the 
irife of Henry CaUaway, esq., R.N., a son. 

May 17. At Thornham Vicarage, Kent, the 
wife of the Rev. Edward Kaye Burney, a son. 

May 18. At Cambridge-sq., Uyde-park, Lon- 
don, the wife of Spencer Follett, esq., a dau. 

At Winchester, the wife of T. J. Heathcote, 
esq., a son. 

May 19. Lady Margaret Leveson Gower, a 
8on. 

At Greenhouse-court, near Stroud, Gloucester- 
shire, the wife of Thos. M. Croome, esq., a dau. 

May 20. At Orleigh-court, the wife of Capt. 
Audley Mervyn Archdale, a son. 

At Shirley, near Southampton, the wife of 
Carlton C. Michell, esq., a dau. 

May 21. At Fairley-cottage, Isle of Wight, 
the wife of Roscow C. Shedden, esq., a son. 

At Ashintully Castle, Perthshire, Mrs. Ruther- 
ford Aytoun, a dau. 

At Glocester-pl., Portman-sq., the wife of C. 
Browning, esq., a dau. 

May 22. At Shottesbrooke-park, Berks, the 
wife of George H. Haslewood, estj., a dau. 

At Newport, Barnstaple, the wife of the Rev. 
Joseph Gifford, M.A., a dau. 

At Cheltenham, at the residence of her fa- 
ther, Adm. Carter, C.B., the wife of Augustus 
Henry King, esq., Cupt. Royal Horse Artillery, 
a son. 

May 23. At Tynefield-housc, Penrith, Cum- 
berland, Mrs. Rimington, a son. 

hAdy Harriett Vernon, a son. 

At Bath, the wife bf Capt. Brenton von Donop, 
Boyal Navy, a dau. 

At Salisbury, the wife of G. R. Tatum, esq., a 
dau. 

May 24. At Petworth, the wife of Richard 
Blagden, esq., a son. 

At Forest-hill, the wife of Dr. G. Grayling, a 
son. 

At Kilbum - house, Stirlingshire, Mrs. Black- 
bum, a son. 

At his residence, Dudley, Worcestershire, the 
wife of Francis H. Boott, esq., a dati. 

At Sydenham, the wife of W. A. Hubbuck, esq., 
a son. 

May 25. At Plpnouth, the wife of Commander 
George Bell Wilhams, a son. 

At Wyndcllffe-house, Brixton-rise, Mrs. Henry 
Batchelor, a dau. 

May 26. At Denblgh-st., Pimlico, the wife of 
James Cook Evans, esq., barrister-at-law, a dau. 

At Manningham-halU the wife of Sam. Cunliflfe 
Lister, esq., a dau. 

At Greystoke Castle, Cumberland, Mrs. How- 
ard, a dau. 

The Ladv Louisa Douglas Pennnnt, a dau. 

At Lansaowne-road, Kensington-pk., the Hon. 
Mrs. W. Knox Wigram, a dau. 

The wife of Miles Lockhart, esq., Ardsheal, 
Argvll, a son. 

May 27. At Sedgeford-hall, Lynn, Norfolk, 
the wife of John de Cuurcy Hamilton, esq., a 
son. 

At Thetford, Norfolk, the wife of the Rev. J. 
R. Malor, M.A., a dau. 

At Tresillian-house, Newljm, the wife of R. G. 
Bennet, esq., a dau. 

At Edinburgh, the wife of Robert Ualdane, 
esq., a son. 

At Stratford-cottage, near Stroud, the wife of 
Joseph Watts HalleweU, esq., a dau. 

At the Vicarage, Worth Matravers, the wife of 
the Rev. F. F. Tracey, a son. 

May 28. At Beaufort-house, Cheltenham, the 
wife of the Rev. Percival Sandilands, a dau. 

The wife of the Rev. T. E. Espin, M.A., Pro- 
fessor of llieology. Queen's College, BirmlDghom, 
and Rector of Hadleigb, Essex, a sou. 

10 



May 29. At Tythegston - court, Glamorgan- 
shire, Mrs. Lord, a dau. 

At Nairn, N.B., the wife of R. B. E. Macleod, 
esq., of Cadboll, a son and heir. 

The wife of Frederick Hyde, esq , of Brick- 
house, Hawarden, a dau. 

At Plymouth, the wife of C. T. Bewes, esq., a 
dau. 

May. 30. Mrs. Taylor, of Wargrave, Berks, 
and Portlethen, Kincardineshire, a son. 

At Charton Musgrove Rectory, the wife of the 
Rev. C. M. Leir, a son. 

At the Manor-house, Chiswick, the wife of 
Harrington Tuke, M.D., a son. 

At Chapel-house, Worthing, the wife of W. M. 
Bridger, esq., a dau. 

At Rutland-gate, the wife of Hugh F. L. Astley, 
a dau. 

May 31. At Thorndon, the Lady Petre, a son. 

At the Rectory, M orchard Bishop, the wife of 
G. Churchill Bartholomew, esq., H.M. 10th Foot, 
a son. 

At East Sheen, Surrey, the wife of Capt. Ley- 
cestcr Penrhyn, Ist Royal Suriey Militia, a dau. 

At Wolford Vicarage, Warwickshire, the wife 
of the Rev. G. Domvile Wheeler, a son. 

At Woolwich, the wife of Major W. H. R. 
Simpson, R.A., twins, son and daughter. 

At Cadogan-place, Belgrave-sq., the wife of B. 
W. Jones, esq., a dau. 

Ju?ie 1. In Sioane-street, London, Viscountess 
Bury, a son. 

At Wakes Colne Rectory, Essex, the Hon. 
Mrs. Francis Grimston. a dau. 

At the re^ddence of her father, the Attorney- 
General, Mrs. Bromley, a dau. 

June 2. At Notton, Lady Awdry, a son. 

At Stoke Hamond, Bucks, the Lady Jidia 
Bouwens, a son. 

The Hon. Mrs. Portman, a son. 

At Oakley-sq., the wife of Major Rellairs, a dau. 

At Woodham, Mortimer-pl., the wife of J. Oxley 
Parker, esq., a son. 

At Upper Montagu-st., Montagu-sq., the Hon. 
Mrs. John Bere^ford, a son. 

June 3. At Ryre wood-house, Worcestershire, 
the wife of E. V.Wheeler, esq., a son. 

At Durham-house, Chelsea, the wife of the 
Rev. John Wilson, D.D., a son. 

At Tunbridge Wells, the wife of Major R. 
Wilberforce Bird, a son. 

At Chcsham-pl., Belprave-sq., London, the 
wife of Andrew Lawrie, esq., a dau. 

At the Grove, Hampton-wick, Middlesex, the 
wife of Capt. W. M. Cochrane, a dau. 

June 4. Lady A. Paget, a dau. 

At Fitzroy-terrace, Regent's-park, London, the 
wife of Col. Edward BidiAilph, a dau. 

June 5. At Bitton Hill-house, West Teign- 
mouth, the wife of W. R. Hall Jordan, esq., 
solicitor, a son. 

At Hyde-park-gardens, the wife of Thomas 
Dent, esq., a dau. 

At Louth, Lincolnshire, the wife of the Rev. 
Arthur Robert Pennington, M.A., Vicar of Ut- 
terby, a son. 

June 6. At Butleigh-court, Glastonbury, the 
wife of R. Neville Grenville, esq., a son. 

At Edwinsford, the scat of her father, the wife 
of Sir James Drummond, hart., of Hawthomden, 
a son. 

At Momingside, the Lady Alex. Russell, a son. 

At Cranham -lodge, Essex, the wife of the Rev. 
Arthur F. H. Scholefield, a son 

At Regent-^., London, the wife of R. A. 
Ogilvie, a son. 

At Normanton-houHe, near Derby, the wife of 
Richard Sale, esq., a dau. 

Junel. At ShacklewcU, Mrs. Geofl^y St. 
Aubyn, twin sons. 



1858.] 



Birt/is, — Marriages. 



81 



At Le Chiteau de Zouafques, France, the wife 
of Capt. Mortimer H. Rodney, R.N., a dau. 

JuHe%. At Valley-field, near Lynn, the wife 
of Somerville Arthur Gumey, a son. 

June 9. At Radnor-Tilla, Exeter, the wife of the 
Rev. A. L. Mitchell, Christ Church, Southemhay, 
a dau., being their eighteenth child, all living. 

At Lee-road, Blackheath, the wife of Frederick 
J. Turner, esq., barrister-at-law, a dau. 

At Belle Vue-house, Halesowen, Worcester- 
shire, the wife of Edward Gem, esq., a son. 

At Bow, Mrs. Butterworth, a dan. 

June 10. At Snail-farm, in the parish of Lang- 
ton, the wife of Capt. Henry Farquharson, a 
■on. 

At Crescent, Plymouth, (the residence of her 
father, Gen. Dunstervillc,) the wife of Lieut. 
J. R. Henderson, Bombay Artillery, Adjutant 
and Quartermaster, Aden, a son. 

At Harewood-sq., the wife of William Clowes, 
esq., a dau. 

At Suf ton-court, Herefordshire, the wife of 
Thomas Evans, esq., a dau. 

June 11. At Betshanger, the wife of the Rev. 
B. F. W^. Molcsworth, a son. 

At Rutland-gate, the wife of J. Farrer, esq., 
late Capt. 1st Life Guards, a son. 

At Romansleigh Rectory, North Devon, the 
wife of the Rev. John Hamilton Bond, Rector, 
a son. 

June 12. At Manor-park, Streatham, the wife 
of Augustus Bradbury, esq., a dau. 



At Thomford Rectory, Dorsetshire, the wife of 
the Rev. R. V. Blathwayt, a dau. 

June 13. At Freshford, near Bath, the wife of 
Lieut.«Col. Tounghusband, Bombay Army, As- 
sistant A4j.-Gen., Kurrachee, a son. 

At Berr.^i lands, Surbiton-hill, the wife of Francis 
Adams, esq., a bo^r and girl. 

June 14. At Windsor, the Hon. Mrs. George 
Cadogan, a dau. (stillborn). 

At Drayton-villa, Leamington, the wife of Col. 
W^m. Henry Vicars, a son. 

At Wigston-hall, near Leicester, (he wife of 
the Rev. J. S. Padley, M.A., a son. 

June 15. At Whitley Beaumont, the wife of 
Henry Frederick Beaumont, esq., a dau. (stilU 
bom). 

At the Dowager Lady Wenlock's, Berkeley-sq , 
the Hon. Mrs. James Stuart Wortley, a dau. 

At Hafod, Caernarvonshire, the wife of J. P. 
Hamer, eeq., a son and heir. 

At Bayswater, the wife of Lieut.-Col. G. W. G. 
Bnstow, a dau. 

June 16. At Gloucester-terr., Hyde- park, the 
wife of Hall Plunier, esq., a son. 

At St. George's-road, Eccleston-sq., the wife of 
the Rev. Theodore A. Walrcmd, a son. 

June 17. At Eaton-pl., the wife of C. Darby 
Griffith, esq., M.P., a son. 

At Bimbeck-house, Weston-super-Mare, the 
wife of Wm. J. Bowyer, esq., a son. 

June 18. AtCleveland-sq., Hyde-park, the wife 
of Robert Orford Buckley, esq., a dau. 



MARRIAGES. 



April 7. At Umballa, Lieut. John Skynner 
Walters, of ihe 1st Bengal Fusiliers, to Sophia, 
dau. of the late Major Fred. Lloyd, of the Bengal 
Army, and niece of the late Sir William Lloyd, 
of Llanderden, near Conway. 

April 15. At Womboume, Staffordsh., Francis, 
youngest son of the late Capt. Thomas Huakisson, 
K.N., to Emily Mary, second dau. of the late 
Thomas Lovatt, esq., of Wolverhampton. 

April 17. At Peshawur, Henry Richmond 
Brownlow, esq., Bengal Artillery, to Jane, fourth 
dau. of Sir Thomas Blaikie, knt, Aberdeen. 

April 22. At St. George's, Hanover-sq., James 
Erskine Terry, esq., R.N., to Mary Wilkins, 
widow of the late Harvey Lonsdale Elmes, esq., 
architect. 

May 13. At Whitwick, John Potter, esq., of 
Talbot-house, Leicestershire, to Eliza Jane, only 
dan. of Geo. Knight, esq., of St. Martin's, Chi- 
chester. 

May 15. At Corney, near Ravenglass, Mr. H. 
W. Mackereth, eldest son of the Rev. George 
Mackereth, Vicar of Bilton, to Annie, eldest dau. 
of the late Edmund Tyson, esq., of Tumans, 
Booth, Cumberland. 

At Broadwater, A. D. De La Tour, esq., only 
aoD. of A. D. De La Tour, esq., of Milford, Hants^ 
to Maud, widow of Thomas Legh, esq. 

May 16. At Nantes, Henri S^ton, esq., of 
Moscow, Russia, to Mary, third dau. of the late 
John Bluett, esq., of Haygrass-house, Somerset. 

May 17. At Molash, William, eldest son of 
Mr. John Amos, of W'ye, to Sarah, only dau. 
of Joseph Videan, esq., Withering-court, Molash, 
Kent. 

May 18. At Dagenham, Charles Upward, esq., 
of Carllon-ruad, Maida-vale, to Fanny, fourth 
dau. of John Greenhill, esq., of Leytonstone, 
Essex. 

At Our Lady's Church, St. John's- wood, Thos. 
Shepard, esq., of Northampton, to Katherine 
Mary Boshell, of Upper Westbourne-terr., Hyde- 
park, dau. of the late W. Boshell, esq., of Dublin. 

At Clapham, Samuel Sandison, esq., to Anna 

Gext. Mao. Vol. CCV. 



Algehr, dau. of the late Alexander Smith, esq., 
New Park-road, Clapham-park. 

May 19. At St. Mary's, Bryanstone-sq., Lon- 
don, Lieut -Col. James Graham, eldest son of the 
late Gen. Graham, Governor of Stirling Castle, to 
Isabella Louisa, dau. of the late Gen. Widker, 
R.A. 

At Lanreath, Cornwall, Frank Bradshaw, esq., 
of Abshot-house, Hants, to Emmeline, second 
dau. of the Rev. Richard BuUer. 

At Christ Church, Dunoon, the Rev. John Er- 
skine, M.A., of St. Clement'f), Bristol, to Amelia, 
eldest dau. of Erskine Beveridge, esq.. Priory- 
house, Dunfermline. 

At St. Andrew's, Montpelier, Cheltenham, the 
Rev. W. F. Purches, Curate of Tickenhall, Derby, 
to Frances, youngest dau. of the late Robert 
Williams, esq., of Aberbran, Bieoonshire. 

At St. Pancras, Arthur Butler, youngest son of 
the Rev. J. P. Malleson, of Brighton, to Barak 
Elizabeth, only child of the late Peter Dorward, 
eso., of Brechin, N.B. 

May 20. At Guernsey, Loids de Schmid, esq., 
eldest son of Chevalier de Schmid, Florence, 
Chamberlain to the Grand Duke of Tuscany, and 
grandson of William Spence, esq., F.R.8., Lon- 
don, to Eliza Anne Rochfort, second dau. of 
Lieut. -Col. William Cowper Rochfort, West- 
meath, Ireland. 

At Hawes, Joseph Morris, esq., of Ashfield- 
villa. Upper Tulse-hill, London, to Susanna, only 
dau. of the late Christopher Metcalfe, esq., of 
ilawes. 

At the British Consulate, Colonie, and on the 
20th inst. at the English Church In the palace of 
H.R.H. the Prince of Prussia, Coblentz-on-the- 
Rhine, Theodore Loids von Klenck, late of the 
Royal Hanoverian Leib Regiment, to Williamina 
Smrreff, third dan. of the bite James MacEwen, 
esq., of South-lodge, Stirling. 

At St Mary's, Nottingham, Joseph Henry, 
only son of Henry Bugg, esq., of Spalding, Lin- 
colnshire, to Fanny, youngest dan. of the late 
John Taylor, esq., of the Park, Nottingham. 



82 



Marriages. 



[July, 



At St. Oeorge% HanoTer-«q., C. T. Wickham, 
esq., of Winchester, to Eliza, only dau. of Capt. 
Joachim, R.N. 

At St. Manrlebone, T. Lance, esq., to Eveline 
Anne, dau. ofthe Vicomte de la Belinayc. 

At St. Mary's, Hastings, J. H. Mathewi<, esq., 
of Lincoln's-inn, and of the Middle Temple, bar- 
rister, to Marianne, dau. of the Rev. Thomas 
Godfrey, late Vicar of Melton Mowbray. 

At St. James's, Dover, the Rev. Calvei-t R. 
Jones, of Heathfield, Glamorganshire, to Portia 
Jane, only dau. of Edward James Smith, esq., 
of the Bengal Civil Service, and of Waterloo- 
crescent, London. 

May 22. Senor Don Jos6 Ramon Montt, At- 
tach^ i la Legation du Chili, en France, and 
nephew of tbe President of Chili, to Caroline, 
younger dau. of Athur Flower, esq., of the Man- 
sions, Highbury New-park, Stoke Newington, 
Londtm. 

At St. James's, Piccadilly, John Dugdale Ast- 
lev, Lieut.-CoL Scots Fusilier Guards, to Eleanor 
Blanche Mary, only child of Thomas George 
Corbett, esq., of Elsham, Lincolnshire, and Darn- 
hall, Cheshire, and the late Lady Mary Corbett. 

At St. Mary's, Windermere, Frederick Foaker, 
esq., to Helen Augusta, widow of C. E. HoldH- 
worth, esq., of Wakefield. 

May 24. At Chelsea, Alexander M'Naughton, 
eldest son of the Rev. Allan M'Naughton, D.D., 
Minister of Lesmahagow, N.6., to Anna Fraser, 
second dau. ofthe Rev. D. M. Sinclair, of Wombo, 
New South Wales. 

May 25. At Newbold-upon-Avon, the Rev. 
William Ridding, eon of the Rev. C. H. Ridding. 
Vicar of Andover, to Caroline Selina, second 
dau. of Charles M. Caldecott, esq., of Holbrook 
Orange, Warwickshire. 

At York, the Rev. James William Massie, 
LL.D., of Upper Clapton, Middlesex, to Mary, 
dau. of the late J. Tindall, esq., and relict of the 
late Rev. George Balderston Kidd, of Sor- 
borough. 

At St. John's, Richmond, Surrey, the Rev. 
James Tillard Bonner, Rector of Dembleby, 
Lincolnshire, to Katharine Anne, younger dau. 
of the late Richard Goodwin, esq., of France, 
Blandford, Dorsetshire. 

At St. James's, Clapham, John Edward Martin, 
librarian ofthe Inner Temple, to Ellen, jounger 
dau. of the late Thomas Compere Bosworth, esq., 
of Clapham-rise. 

At St. Michael's, Stockwell. the Rev. Henry 
Thompson, Incumbent of Stockwell Chapel, Sur- 
rey, to Emilv Cooper, eldest surviving dau. of 
tbe late William Jones, esq., of tbe Religious 
Tract Societv. 

John Bardoe Bowes Elliott, esq., Capt. 43rd 
Light Infantry, to Mary, eldest surviving dan. 
of James Cornet, esq., late of the Hon. East 
India Company's Bengal Medical Service. 

At West Boldon, the Rev. Edward Good, Chap- 
lain R.N., to Eleanor Emerson Hardman, eldest 
dau. of the late J. C. Hardman, esq., of Gates- 
head. 

At St. John's, Paddington, George, second son 
of Edw. BuUdey, esq., of Holly-grove, Ashford, 
Middlesex, to Catheiine, dau. of the late Joshua 
Blackbnme, esq , of Brock well-hall, near Dul- 
wich, Surrey. 

May 26. At Masbrough, Frederick Edwards, 
esq., of Moorgitte-grove, Rotherham, solicitor, 
to Sirah Elizabeth, dan. of George Brown, esq., 
of Forge-house, Rotherham. 

May 27. At Heddington, the Rev. John Charles 
Thring, Curate of Overton and Frfleld, to Lvdl* 
Eliza Dyer, younger dau. of Capt. Meremtb, 
B.N., of Hedoingt^-house. 

At Edinburgh, Bryden Monteith, esq.. Liber- 
ton Tower Mains, to Margaret Tait, youngest 
dan. of Andrew Tait, esq., Edinburgh. 

At Plymouth, Mr. Geo. Whitefleld, of H.M.8. 
*' Brunswick," to Charlotte Jane, only dau. of 
the late Capt. Langmaid, of Fowey. 

In CUnegam, the Rev. Richard Brent Neville, 



to Susan, fourth dau. of the Rev. J. T. Medlycott, 
of Rocketta Castle, Waterford. 

At Nottingham, James Winterbottom Lewis, 
esq., of Park-terrace, to Eliza Bertha, youngest 
dau. of John Thorpe, esq., of Mount Vernon, 
Nottingham. 

At St. Luke's, Old-st., Hugh Owen, esq., of 
the Board of Trade, to Emma, youngest dau. of 
the late William Saunders, esq., of Southampton. 

At Woiburn, the Rev. Tnomas Foulkes, mis- 
sionary from Tinnevelly, South India, to Mary 
Anne, eldest dau. of the Rev. F. B. Ashley, Vicar 
of Wooburn, Bucks. 

At St. James's, Westminster, John R. Tilten, 
esq., of Rome, to Caroline, younifest dau. of the 
late John StebMns, esq., of New York. 

At New St. Pancras, George, only son of Geo. 
Locket, esq., of Acton-place, Campden-town, to 
Mary, eldest dau. of John Cooper, esq., of Grove- 
house, Finchlcy. 

At North Rode, Cheshire, Wra. Ormond, of 
Swindon, Wilts, eldest son of Wm. Ormond, esq., 
of Wantage, Berks, to Gcorgina Mary, eldest 
dau. of the late John Lamprey, esq., of March- 
wood, Hants. 

At St. James's, Piccadilly, London, Henry Sar- 
gent, esq., eldest son of the Rev. Abraham 
Sargent, Rector of Derrvgrath, county Tipperary, 
to Jane Harriett, only aau. of Sir Benjn. Morris, 
Deputy Lieut, of Waterford. 

At Camberwell, Frederick Thomas Dubois, esq., 
of Derby, solicitor, to Charlotte Ellen, second 
surviving dau. of the late John Baptist Stent, 
esq., R.N. 

At Bromham, Wilts, John Jacob Hurst, of 
Hammersmith, to Louisa, only child of the late 
Alfred Davis, esq., of Bromham. 

At Rastatt, Baden, first at the Protestant, and 
afterwards at the Roman Catholic Church, Lieut. 
Horina, of the Austrian Infantry, to Elizabeth 
Ingram, dau. of the late William Radnor, esq., of 
Heme Bay, Kent. 

At St. Mary Magdalen, Peckham, Charles Gay- 
ton, R.N., to Elizabeth, youngest dau. of the late 
H. W. Hawkins, esq., of Lombard-et. 

At St. James's, Dover, Baron Guillaume Marie 
Egbert de Slain D'Allenstein, of Brussels, in Bel- 

Jium, to Miss Alice Sophia Carden Jones, of St. 
ames's, Dover. 

At Bremen, Alfred James, eldest son of John 
James Siordet, esq., of Clapham-common, to 
Arabella Josephine, eldest dan. of George Ga- 
bain, esq., of Bremen. 

May 31. At All Saint^ Knightsbridge, Lient.- 
Col. Edw. Money, Turkish Service, to Georgina, 
dau. of G. F. Russell, esq., late of Miltown-park, 
Dublin. 

June 1. At Wimbledon, the Lord Henry 
Thynne, to the Lady Ulrica SLMaur, second 
dau. of tbe Duke of Somerset. 

In St. Peter's, Dublin, Captahi John H. L. 
Kerr, 26th Regt., M.N.I., second son of the Rev. 
John Kerr, Rector of Kilkirrin, co. Galway, to 
Matilda Marianne Clara, only dau. of Robt 
Todd Hustan, esq., M.D., Hannor-house, Carlow. 

At St. Mary's, Bryanstone-sq., the Rev. Chas. 
E. Bowlby, Rector of Stanwick, to Sophia Louisa, 
fifth dan. of the late Rev. J. Sargeaunt, Stan- 
wick Rectory. 

At St. Paul's, Knightobridge, WoUaston Frank, 
eldest son of the late Rev. W. W. Pym, Vicar of 
Willian, Herta. to Augusta Sarah, eldest dau. of 
the late Rev. John Lynes, of To<dey-park, Leices- 
tershire. 

At Hnnton. Hants, Charles Robey Roberts, 
esq., of Cliflbrd-villa, Winchester, to Emma 
Sarah : and, at the same time and place, Henry 
W. Bailey, eaq^of Sharhind Hursley, to Augusta, 
danghters of Robert Titter, esq., of Hunton, in 
the county of Hants. 

At North Petherton, Daniel Horton, esq., of 
Bath, to Julia Jane, dau. of R. Carter, esq., 
Impins-house, North Petherton. 

At Crordon, George Anson, eldest son of John 
Anson wheaUer, esq., of the Waldron^ Croy- 



1858.] 



Marriages, 



83 



don, and Mark-lane, London, to Annie, TonngeAt 
daa. of Evan Jones, esq., Marshal of the Court 
of Admiralty. 

At Landport, the Rer. Hngh Wyndham, son 
of the late Wadham Wyndham, esq., to Catherine 
Brouncker, yoimgest dau. of the late Francis 
Sharp, esq., of the Great Salterns, near Ports- 
mouth. 

At St. Peter's, Walthamstow, Essex, the Rev. 
T. W. Sharpe, M.A . late Scholar of Trinity 
College, and Fellow of Christ's College. Cambridge, 
one of her Majesty's Inspectors of Schools, to 
Maria Blandina, only dau. of R. Helme, esq., of 
the Forest, Walthamstow. 

At Cheltenham, George L. Blenkins, Surgeon- 
Major, Grenadier Guards, to Louisa Harriet, dau. 
of Lt.-Gen. Swiney, of Sandford-pl., Cheltenham. 

At All Souls*, Langham-place, Wadham Locke 
Sutton, esq., youngest son of the late Robei-t 
Sutton, esq., of Rossway, Herts, to Louisa Ann, 
only dau. of the Rev. W. Ludlow, Vicar of Kir- 
ton, Lincoln, Prebendary of Kerswell, Devon, and 
Sinddau. of the late Lieut.-Gen.Dickinson, Col. 
mmandant of Royal Artillery. 

At St. George's, Canterbury, Arthur, son of 
John Whitehead, esq., Barngett, Maidstone, to 
Sophie, yoimgest dau. of the late W. Philpot, 
esq., of Canterbury. 

AtMarylebone, MajorEdwardNewdigate, Rifle 
Brigade, to Annie, second dau. of the Rev. Thos. 
and LadV Caroline Gamier. 

June 2. At Rathaspeck, the Earl of Granard, 
M.P., Lord-Lieut, of the county of Leitrim, to 
Jane Coloough, yoimgest dau. of the late H. K. 
Grogan Morgan, esq., formerly M.P. for the 
county of Wexford, and Lady Esmonde, of 
Johnstown-castle. 

At St. John's, Upper Holloway, Wm. Hudson, 
esq., of Queenhithe, to Bessie, second dau. of the 
late Charles Gibbs, esq., of Piccadilly. 

At St. Alkmuml's, Derby, Joseph Paget, esq., 
of Stu^m-wood, Derbyshire, to Helen Elizabeth, 
eldest dau. of the Rev. £. H. Abney, Vicar of 
St. Alkmund's, and Rural Dean of Derby. 

At Frensham, Mi^or G. W. Bligh, 60ih Royal 
Rifles, youngest son of the late Adm. Bligh, C.B., 
to Jane, second dau. of G. A. Moultrie, esq., of 
Aston-hall, Shropshire, and Sandrock, Farnham, 
Surrey. 

At St. Peter's, Pimlico, Lieut. -Col. Arthur 
Egerton, of the Grenadier Guards, and brother 
of the Earl of Ellesmere, to Miss Ellen Smith, 
third dau. of Martin Tucker Smith, esq., M.P. 
for Wycombe. 

At Nethergate, Dundee, Robert Fleming, esq., 
merchant, Dundee, to Helen Scott, only dau. of 
James Watt, esq., of Denmiln. 

At St. George's, Bloomsbury, London, R. Aus- 
tin Herbert, esq., 2nd Dragoons (Scots Greys), 
to Marv Ann Yeoville, dau. of the late Heniy 
Botfleld Thomason, and grand-dau. of the late 
Sir Edward Thomason, of Warwick. 

At Aberdeen, James Clerk Maxwell, M.A., 
Professor of Natural Philosophy in Marischal 
CoUe^, to Katherine Mary, youngest dau. of 
Principal Dewar, of Marischal CoUejge. 

At St. James's, Piccadilly, Capt. John F. Ber- 
thon, of the 18th Regt. of Bombay N. L, to Anna 
Maria, eldest daiL of the Hev. R. M. Bonnor, 
Yicar of Ruabon and Hon. Canon of St. Asaph. 

At Christ Church, Forest-hill, George John, 
•Idest son of George Hazledine, esq., of Forest- 
hill, to Harriot Laura, eldest dau. of Robert 
Borras, esq. 

June 3. At St. Mary Magdalen, St. Leonard's, 
James Mill Walker, esq., of Petistree, Suffolk, 
M^or in the Suffolk Militia Artillery, to Caroline 
Mary, youngest dau. of the late CoL Tilden 
Pattenson, of Ibomden, Kent. 

At St. George's, Hanover-sq., Henry Bain- 
bridge, eldest son of Henry Browning, esq., of 
Grosvenor-st, and Ampton-hull, Suffolk, to 
Elizabeth, only dau. of Cbarlcs Gonne, esq., of 
Warley-lodge, Essex. 



At Walcot, Bath, John Ed. Pattenson, esq., 
formerly of Melmerby-hall, Cumberland, to 
Emma, widow of Wilson Cryer, esq., M.D., of 
Clifton, late of Bradford, Yorkshire. 

At Cheltenham, Robert Clark Paul, esq., of 
Teiburv, to Rosa Fleming, dau. of Robert Fisher, 
e^q., of Chetwynd-lodgc, Shropshire, and relict 
of the late Wm. Washboume, esq., of Chetvrynd- 
house. 

At Cheltenham, the Rev. Eustace Rogers Con- 
der, M.A., of Longfleet, Poole, Dorset, to Mary 
Batten, eldest dau. of Jn. Brend Winterbotham, 
esq., of Clarence-sq., Cheltenham. 

At Hove, Brighton, Henry Bycrley, second 
surviving son of the late Dr. Anthony Todd 
Thomson, and her Majesty's Advocate for Cey- 
lon, to Santa, eldest dau. of the Count de Beau- 
mont. 

At All Souls', Langham-pl., Frederic Chatfield, 
son of Samuel G. Smith, esq., of Sacomb-pk., 
Herts, to Harriet Maud, youngest dau. of Francis 
Pvm, esq., and the late Lady Jane Pym, of the 
Hasells. Beds. 

At St. Paul's, Starcross, Devon, Mr. Henry D. 
Thomas, of Exeter, to Mary Jane, dan. of John 
Dewdney, esq , Staplake-house, Starcross. 

At Bushbury, Staffordshire, the Rev. Daniel 
Rowland Williams, to Mary Elizabeth, third dan. 
of the late John Tarratt, esq., of Moseley-hall, 
Staffordshire. 

At the Queen's Hotel, Glasgow, George M. 
Sandilands, esq., of Penang, to Jane Frances 
Charlotte, only surviving dau. of Lieut.-Col. 
Charles Gordon, Madras Army. 

At Binstead, Hants, Henry, only son of Henry 
Wheeler, esq., of Mill-court, Hampshire, to Ellen, 
second dau. of the late James LangHsh, esq., of 
Wyck. 

At St George's, Bloomsbury, James Smith 
Parker, only son of William Parker, esq., of 
Freeland, Iffley, near Oxford, to Fanny Jane, 
eldest dau. of the late William Henry Summers, 
esq. 

June 5. At St. Mary's, Penzance, Walter J. H. 
Stevenson, esq., Bombay Artillery, to Charlotte 
Anna, eldest dau. of Leonard R. Wlllan, esq., 
M.D., and niece to the Right Hon. Sir Lawrence 
Peel, late Chief Justice of Bengal. 

At St. Pancras, Edward Pitt Bisshopp, eldest 
son of the Rev. Robert C. Smith, Rector of Cowley, 
Gloucestershire, to Adele Wallace, only dan. of 
Walpole de St. Croix, esq., of Highgate. 

June 8. At St. George's, Hanover-sq., George 
Campbell, esq., only brother of Sir Archibald 
Campbell, hart., of Garscube, Dumbartonshire, 
to Margaret, eldest dau. of Sir Edward Borough, 
hart. 

At Hillmarton, the Rev. Francis Housemavne 
Du Boulay, Rector of Heddington, Wilts, to AdeU 
Fisher, dau. of the late Ven. Archdeacon Fisher. 

At Pucklechurch, the Rev. Charles Baring 
Coney, Rfctor of St. Aldate's, Gloucester, to 
Blanche, eldest dau. of the Rev. T. B. Coney, 
Vicarof Pucklechurch, and Hon. Canon of Brist(M. 

At Christ Church, Hyde-pk., Capt. Henry 
White Hitchins. of the Madras Engineers, eldest 
son of Major-Gen. Hitehins, to Alice Wynn Tyler, 
third dau. of William Harding^e Tyler, esq., late 
of the Bengal Civil Service. 

At Westmeon. Hants, William Stratton Aslet, 
esq., Major in the Royal Marines, to Ellery Ann, 
younger dau. of the late Richard Heaviside, esq., 
Ist Dragoon Guards. 

At St. George's, Hanover-sq., the Rev. Henry 
Walker, Vicar of Ludham, to Lydia, eldest dau. 
of the late Ven. John Banks Holling worth, D.D., 
Archdeacon of Huntingdon. 

June 9. At Cockermouth, Cumberland, in the 
Friends' Meeting-house, James Bell, esq., of 
Devonshirc-pl., Marylebone, London, to Mary 
Ann, only dau. of Jerenuah Spencer, esq., of 
South-lodge, Cockermouth. 

At St. Giles', Colches'er,Lieut.-Col. John Alfred 
Street, C.B., Commandant of the 2nd Battalion 



84 



Marriages. — Obituary. 



[July, 



at Colchester Camp, to Sophia Baker« dau. of 
the Rev. James John Holroyd, Whitehall, Col- 
chester, and Rector of Ahberton, Essex. 

At Rivenhall, William Poole, esq., of Shingle- 
hall, Sawbridgeworth, Herts, to Sarah Dixon, 
eldest dau. of the late Thos. Legerton, esq., of 
Wearish-hall, Takely. and niece of Henry Dixon, 
esq., of Dorwards-ball, Rivenhall. 

At Bridgetown, Totnes, Thomas, second son of 
the late William Lomas, esq., of Rose-hall, Ed- 
monton, Middlesex, to Sasannah Isabella Pomc- 
roy, youngest dau. of the Rev. James Shore. M. A. 

At Bishop's Tawton, Barnstaple, Bouchier Mer- 
vyn Marshall, esq., of Blagdon, to Elizabeth Geor- 
giana, eldest dau. of the Rev. J. Durand Baker, 
vicar of Bishop's Tawton. 

▲t St Luke's, Chelsea, Charles Edwards Ennis 
Yivian, esq., of the Inner Temple, son of the late 
J. E. Vivian, esq., of Plene-house, Stirling, to 
Emma Fitz Gerald, eldest dau. of the Rev. G. F. 
Galaber, M.A., Incumbent of St Mark's, South- 
wark. 

At Ashton-under-Lyne, William Henry Cromp- 
ton, Capt. in H.M.'s 2nd Battalion 11th Regt. of 
Foot, eldest son of J. S Crompton, esa., of Sion- 
hill, Yorkshire, to Frances Elizabeth, dau. of 
John Dalton, esq., of Slemingford-park, in the 
same county. 

June 10. At Christian Malford, Wilts, Frederick, 
eldest son of William Williams, esq., of Tregul- 
low-house, Cornwall, and Hin ton -court, Devon- 
shire, to Mary, youngest dau. of the Rev. R. Y. 
Law. 

At Carrington, near Nottingham, the Rev. W. 
Campbell, U. A., Emm. Coll., Cambridge, to Fanny, 
eldest dau. of James Page, esq., of Mount Vernon, 
Nottingham. 

At St. Gabriel's, Pimlico, the Rev. W. Edensor 
Littlewood, B.A., Curate of St. John's Church, 
Wakefield, to Letitla, third dau. of Thos. Thorn- 
ton, esq., Gloucester-street, South Belgravia. 

At St. George's, Hanover-sq., John Joseph 
Wright, esq., of Slalev, Northumberland, eldest 
eon of Joseph John Wright, esq., of Sunderland, 
to Margaret, only surviving duu. of the late John 
RobM)n, esq., of the Bailey, Durham. 

At Cheltenham, Cadwallader Edwards, esq., 
Capt. King's (Own) Light Infantry Militiu, to 
Oeorgina Margaret Gordon Gregory, eldest dau. 
of Lieut.-Col. Gregory. 

At Brighton, J. Moir Macqneen, esq., second 
son of the late Col. Macqueen, Madras Army, to 
Mary, only dau. of the late Edward Raynes, esq., 
of Belmont, Easthothly, Sussex. 

At Heidelberg, Ellis Tamall, esq., of Philadel- 
phia, to Margaret Ann, dau. of Daniel Harrison, 
esq., late of Elmhurst, Upton, Essex, and of 
IJverpool. 

At Prestbury, Gloucestershire, the Rev. E. J. 
Owen, second son of E. H. Owen, of the Lodge, 
near Ludlow, to Mary Anne, youngest dau. of 



Major-Gen. Taylor, of Prestbury-lodge, and Col. 
of the 59th Foot. 

June 12. At St. Gabriel's, Pimlico, John Brad- 
ford Cherriman, esq., M.A., Professor of Natural 
Philosophy, University College, Toronto, to Julia, 
youngest dau. of E. Malone, esq., of Plymouth. 

At St. John's, Paddington, John Lee, esq., 
eldest son of John Lee, M.D., Ashbourn, Derby- 
shire, to Fanny, widow of Charles Frith, esq., 
barrister-at-law, and dau. of the late Capt G. H. 
Phillips, of her Majesty's 13th Light Dragoons. 

June 15. At Woodland, near Ashburton, the 
Rev. Francis Hole, Vicar of Broadhempston, to 
Mary Brooking, only dau. of Brooking Soady, 
esq., of Gurrington-house, near Ashburton. 

At Edinburgh, Ord Graham Campbell, esq., 
son of the late Archibald Graham Campbell, esq., 
of Shirvan, to Jeanette Ritchie, only surviving 
dau. of William Wallace, esq., of Busbie and 
Cloncaird. 

At Tenby, F. Le Gros Clark, es(i., of Spring- 
gardens, and Lee, Kent, to Henrietta, younger 
dau. of Capt. H. A. Drummond, H.E.I.C.S. 

At St. George's, Hanover-sq., Capt Henry 
Caldwell, R.N., C.B., to Mary Eleanor, youngest 
dau. of W. E. L. Bulwer, esq , of Heyden-hall, 
Norfolk. 

At St. Mary's, Banbury. James Cockburn, 
second son of Broome Pinniger, esq.. Newbury, 
Berks, to Mary Jane, eldest dau. or Shearman 
Chesterman, esq., of Banbury, Oxon. 

June 17. At Eltham, Kent, Henry Haines, 
esq.. Pool-house, Astley, Worcestershire, to 
Eleanor Jackson, second dau. of Thos. Jackson, 
esq., Eltham-park, Kent. 

At Christ Church, Ramsgate, Robert Mont- 

gomerie, youngest son of Boyd Miller, eso., of 
ollier's-wood, Merton, Surrey, to Mary Jane, 
second dau. of Robert Ranking, esq., the Vale, 
Simsgate. 

At Cheltenham, the Rev. Arthur Townley 
Parker, of Royle, M.A., and Incumbent of 
Burnley, in the co. of Lancaster, to Catherine 
Susan, dau. of the late John Wilson, esq., of 
Barton-under-Needwood, in the co. of Stafford. 

At St. Stephen's, Westbome-park, Paddington, 
William Dawson Winckworth, eso., of Bath, to 
Emma Martha, only surviving dau. of F. J. 
Wilson, esq., of Hereford-road North, Bays- 
water. 

At St. George's, Everton, the Rev. Richard 
Vincent Sheldon, Incumb. of Hoylake, Cheshire, 
to Matilda Elizabeth, eldest dau. of the late 
Robert Ledson, esq., of Liverpool. 

At St George's, Liverpool, Alexander Young, 
of Meabum-lodge, Brixton, to Mary, dau. of 
James Adam, esq., of Dudlow-house, near Liver- 
pool 

Capt. J. Borlase Maunsell, to Mary Isabella, 
Viscoimtess Hood. 



OBITUARY. 



Thb Eabl of Rakpvblt. 

Jlfc^ 19. .At Dungannoii'park, Tyrone, 
aged 42, the Right Hon. Thomas, 2nd Earl 
of Ranfurly. 

The Earl only sncceeded to the title on 
the decease of hU father on the 2l8t of 
last March. The deceased, Thomas Knox, 
Earl of Ranfurly, Visconnt Northland, and 
Baron Welles, all of Dangannon, county 
Tyrone, in the peerage of Ireland, and 
Baron Ranfurly of Ramphorlic, county 



Renfrew, in that of the United Kingdom, 
was son of Thomas^ second earl, by Juliana, 
daughter of the late Hon. and Most Rev. 
William Stuart, Archbishop of Armagh, 
and was bom November 13, 1816. He 
married in 1848 Miss Rimington, daughter 
of Mr. James Rimington, of Bromhead-hall, 
Yorkshire, by whom he leaves a youth- 
fUl family. The late Earl was for several 
years a member of the House of Commons, 
having represented Dung^non in that 
assembly from June, 18§8, to January 



1858.] Sir H. Fitzherbert, Bart.— The Hon. Adrian Hope. 85 



1851. The late peer was a Conservative 
in politics, like his brother the Hon. 
William Stuart Knox, M.P. The eldest 
son of the late Earl, Thomns Granville 
Henry Stuart, Viscount Northland, born 
in 1849, succeeds to the family honours 
and estates. 



Sib Hbnbt Fitzhebbeet, Babt. 

June 1. At Tissington Hall, Derbyshire, 
aged 74, Sir Henry Fitzherbert, Bart. 

Sir Henry, who was born on the 4th of 
August, 1783, was the descendant of a 
very ancient family, which was founded by 
one of the companions of William the 
Norman, whose name appears in the roll 
of Battle Abbey. The Tissington property 
came into the family through the marriage 
of Nicholas Fitzherbert, of Upton, by 
Cicely, his wife, daughter of Robert Frau- 
ds, ^sq., of Foremark. This Nicholas was 
succeeded, in 1696, by his nephew William, 
a barrister of some eminence, and Recorder 
of Derby, where he mostly resided. He 
married Rachael, daughter and heiress of 
Thomas Bagshaw, Esq., of Bakewell, by 
whom he had, amongst others, a son and 
successor, William, M.P., who married 
Mary, eldest daughter of Littleton Poyntz 
Meynell, Esq., of Bradley, Derbyshire, by 
whom he had issue four sons and two 
daughters. The fourth son, Alleyne, was 
created a peer by the title of Lord St. 
Helen's, in 1791 ; but, dying unmarried in 
1839, the title became extinct. Selinn, 
the eldest daughter, married, in 1784, 
Henry Gaily Knight, Esq., of Langold, 
who died on the 6th of April, 1808, in the 
56th year of his age. His wife died on 
the 2nd of January, 1823, in the 7 1st year 
of her age, leaving an only son, the late 
Henry Gaily Knight, Esq., M.P., of Fir- 
beck, &C. On the demise of Mr. Fitz- 
herbert, he was succeeded by his son 
William, also of Tissington Hall, who was 
created a baronet on the 10th of Decem- 
ber, 1783. He married, on the 14th of 
October, 1777, Sarah, only daughter of 
William Perrin, Esq., of the Island of 
Jamaica, by whom (who died in 1795) he 
had two surviving sons, Sir William, who 
was Recorder of the borough of Derby, and 
died 30th July, 1791, and was succeeded 
by his eldest son. Sir Anthony Perrin, bom 
2 1st July, 1779, and died unmarried on 
the 2nd of April, 1798, when the title and 
estates devolved upon the present deceased 
as the third baronet, who married, on the 
27th of December, 1805, Agnes, second 
daughter of the late Rev. William Beres- 
ford, by whom he had issue five sons and 
five daughters. Selina, the eldest daugh- 
ter, married, on the 12th of August, 18^0, 



Francis Wright, Esq., of Lenton Hall, 
Nottinghamshire. At the death of Mr. 
Gaily Knight, on the 9th February, 1846, 
he bequeathed the estates at Kirton and 
Warsop to the late baronet, which came 
into his possession on the death of Mrs. 
Knight a few years afterwards. Sir Henry 
is succeeded in the title and estates by the 
present Sir William Fitzherbert, who was 
born on the 3rd of June, 1808, and married, 
February 28th, 1836, Anne, second daugh- 
ter of Sir Reynold Abell Alleyne, Bart., of 
the Island of Barbados, by whom he had 
issue. 



Bbio.-Gsk. the Hon. Adbian Hope. 

^pril 14. Brigadier-General the Hon. 
Adrian Hope, C.B., of the 93rd High- 
landers, who was killed in the attack on 
the fort at Rowas. 

He was one of the most gallant, able, 
and popular of the young officers whom 
the warfare in the Crimea and in India 
has brought into prominence : and among 
the 93rd Highlanders, and those with 
whom he served, his loss will be deplored 
as would a domestic bereavement. Colonel 
Hope was the youngest brother of the late 
Earl of Hopetoun, and uncle of the present 
peer; he was born in 1821, and entered 
the army as second Lieutenant 60th Rifles 
in 1838. With the second battalion of that 
regiment he served as captain through the 
Kaffir campaign of 1851-2-3, and received 
the brevet-rank of major for his services. 
On the formation of the army for the 
Eastern expedition in 1854, Major Hope 
was appointed Brigade-major to the High- 
land brigade, then commanded by Sir Colin 
CampbeU, and in that capacity served at 
the Alma and the other operations up to 
the month of April, 1855, when his pro- 
motion to regimental majority in the 6bth 
compelled him to relinquish his staff ap- 
pointment, but in a few months afterwards 
he rejoined the army in the field as second 
Lieutenant-Colonel of the 93rd. But his 
desire for active service was frustrated by 
the termination of the war, and the return 
of the army from the Crimea, when Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Hope was placed on half- 
pay. On the 93rd being ordered to China, 
he was re-appointed to the regiment, and 
with it sailed to its eventual destination 
in India, where he was almost immediately 
placed in command of a brigade, consisting 
of the 53rd, 93rd, and a corps of the Pun- 
jaub Rifles, which he led to the relief of 
Lucknow and the subsequent re-advance 
to that place in a manner that gained him 
the warmest approval of its chief. Colonel 
Hope's death was caused by a shot from a 
Sepoy, who fired at him, from a distance 



86 



Obituary. — Capt. Sir William Peel, K,C,B. [July, 



of about twenty yards, as he was out 
reconnoitring. 

Capt. Sib William Pebl, K.C.B. 

April 27. At Cawnpore, aged 33, Capt. 
Sir Wm. Peel, of the "Shannon," and com- 
inancler of the Naval Brigade serving in 
the Bengal Presidency. He was severely 
wounded whilst under Sir Colin Campbell 
at the capture of Lucknow, bub his death 
was occasioned by smallpox. Capt. Sir 
William Peel was third son of the late 
Sir Robert Peel, and was bom on the 2nd 
of November, 1824. He entered the navy 
as midshipman on board the " Princess 
Chariotte," Capt. A. Fanshawc, flag of 
Admiral Sir Robert Stopford, in April, 
1838, and took part in the bombardment 
of St. Jean d'Acre ; from the " Princess 
Charlotte** he was removed to the " Mon- 
arch," and afterwards to the " Cambrian," 
Capt. Chads, in which ship he served in 
the China seas. In 1844 he passed his 
examination in such a brilliant manner 
that he called forth the warm eulogiums 
of Sir Thomas Hastings and Sir Charles 
Napier, and was forthwith promoted to 
the rank of Lieutenant. In May of that 
year he was appointed to the *' Winches- 
ter,'* 50 guns, on the Cape of Good Hope 
station, and shortly after removed to the 
•* Cormorant" steam-sloop, in the Pacific, 
and subsequently to the " Thalia," 42, on 
the same station. Sir William was pro- 
moted to the rank of Commander, June 27, 
1846, and was appointed to the command 
of the " Daring," on the North American 
and West India stations. He held several 
minor commands until tlie outbreak of 
the late war with Russia. He was captain 
of the << Diamond," 28, in the Black Sea 
fleet, and distinguished himself greatly 
with the Naval Brigade in the Crimea. 
Capt. Peel was compelled, from wounds 
and over-exertion, to return to his native 
country before the fall of Sevastopol ; but 
at the commencement of the differences 
with China in 1856 he was appointed to 
the command of the "Shannon," 51, screw 
frigate, ordered on the China station. 
Captain Peel had scarcely reached the 
Chinese waters before he was ordered bv 
the Ambassador, the Earl of Elgin, with 
spare troops to Calcutta to afford assistance 
in the suppression of the mutiny of the 
BengHl army. Since the " Shannon" an- 
chored in the Hooghly, Sir William Peel's 
exertions with his brave crew have been 
unremitting in carrying out the views of 
the Govemor-GeneraL He made, with 
his men, a most rapid progress to Alla- 
habad and Cawnpore, and was severely 
wounded at the capture of Lucknow, under 



Sir Colin Campbell. Capt. Sir William 
Peel was made a Companion of the Order 
of the Bath for his services in the Crimea, 
and for his recent services in India was 
nominated a Knight Commander. He was 
also an officer of the Legion of Honour of 
France, and of the Imperial Order of the 
Medjidie, and had received the Sardinian 
war-medal. He was the favourite son of 
his illustrious father. It is related that, 
in speaking of his son after the war on the 
coast of Syria, Sir R)bert Peel should 
have said, " I am indeed proud of my 
sailor son. If he have the opportunity, I 
feel certain he will follow the heroic career 
of one he seeks to emulate — Nelson." 

The following tribute to his memory is 
published in a " Gazette Extraordinary," 
dated Governor-General's Residence, Alla- 
habad, Friday, April 30 : — 



«( 



Home Department, Allahahad, April 80. 

"It is the melancholy duty of the Right 
Hon. the Governor-General to announce 
the death of that most distinguished 
officer, Capt. Sir William Peel, K.C.B., 
late in command of her Majesty's ship 
" Shannon," and of the Naval Brigade in 
the North-Westem Provinces. 

" Sir William Peel died at Cawnpore on 
the 27th instant, of smallpox. He hnd 
been wounded at the commencement of 
the last advance upon Lucknow, but had 
nearly recovered from the wound, and 
was on his way to Calcutta when struck 
by the disease which has brought his 
honourable career to an early close. 

"Sir William Peel's services in the 
fleld during the last seven months are 
well kno^ni in India and in England; 
but it is not so well known how great the 
value of his presence and example hai 
been, wherever, during this eventful 
period, his duty has led him. 

" The loss of his daring but thoughtflil 
courage, joined with eminent abilities, is 
a very heavy one to the country ; but it 
is not more to be deplored than the loss 
of the influence which bis earnest charac- 
ter, admirable temper, and gentle, kindly 
bearin(( exercised over all within his reach, 
an influence which was exerted unceas- 
ingly for the public g^ood, and of which 
the Governor -General believes that it may 
with truth be said that there is not a man 
of any rank or profession who, having 
been associated with Sir William Peel in 
these times of anxiety and danger, lias 
not felt and acknowledge it. 

By order of the Right Hon. the 

" Governor General of India. 
G. P. EDMOKBToys, Secretary to the 

Government of India, with the 

Governor-General." 



« 



«« 



1858.] 



Obituary. — M. L. A, Prevost. 



87 



M. L. A. Prevost. 

AprU 25. At Great Russell Street, 
filoomsbury, aged 61, Louis Augustin 
Provost, a remarkable linguist. 

M. Provost was bom at Troyes in 
Champagne, on the 6 tb of June, 1796. He 
was son of a French functionary of the 
town of Arcy, and when a boy, eye-witness 
of the celebrated battle which took pluce 
in the vidnity. After the fiill of Arcy to 
the arms of the allies, be went to Paris, 
nnd Buf sequently studied at a college in 
Versailles. Little is known of the rest of 
his career in France, which does not ap- 
pear to have been in any way remarkable. 

In the year 1823, he entered the family 
of Ottley, subsequently Keeper of the 
Prints in the British Museum, in the ca- 
pacity of tutor. He accompanied the 
family on their return to England, and 
devoted his time to giving lessons in 
French and other European languages. 
In 1825 he married an English woman, 
by whom he had an only child, a son, who 
embraced the military career, and after 
serving in various regiments in India and 
elsewhere, perished amidst the light ca- 
valry, in the fatal but glorious charge at 
Balaclava. M. Provost never entirely 
recovered the shock which this loss gave 
him, and his health, never otherwise than 
delicate, slowly gave way, notwithstanding 
all attempts made to reinvigorate or re- 
store it. The knowledge of languages 
that he possessed, in a greater or less de- 
gree, is said to have amounted to forty, 
comprising the principal parent or stem 
tongues of the East and West. In 1843, 
owing to his attainments in the Chinese 
language, he was appointed by the Trus- 
tees of the British Museum to a place in 
the library, and undertook the task of 
cataloguing the numerous and valuable 
collection of Chinese books in that Insti- 
tution. His knowledge of Chinese be<. ame 
by this means more matured, and in the 
course of the performance of his duties, he 
had read a considerable portion of Chinese 
literature^ and obtained an intimate ac- 
quaintance with the characters, so that he 
rarely saw a character of which he did not 
know either the pronunciation or the 
meaning. Besides Chinese, he had also 
studied the Mongol, Mancha, and Japa- 
nese; and possessed some, although not 
an extensive, knowledge of these lan- 
guages. He likewise had an acquaintance 
with the equally difficult tongues, the 
Arabic and Armenian, besides being pro- 
ficient in Hebrew, Chaldee, Syriac and 
other Semitic dialects. With the ordinary 
classical lang^uages and their dialectical 
forms existing in Western Europe, he was 



familiar, while he had studied the Celtic 
dialects, and could read, although not 
fluently, Gaelic, Welsh, Irish and Basque. 
Various branches of the Scandinavian and 
Sclavonic tongues, including Russian, 
Illyrian, Wallaichian, were not unknown 
to him, but it must be premised that of 
many of the more obscure dialects he knew 
little beyond the alphabets, and could 
only read them by intense application, and 
ci coups d£ dictionnaire. His passion for 
languages was intense, his mode of ac- 
quiring them peculiar. One of his fa- 
vourite means was to read through the 
entire words of a dictionary, studying their 
analogies, and thus endeavouring to im- 
press them on his memory. At other times 
he would begin the study of a language, 
as yet new to him, by commencing with 
some of the Bibles in the numerous tongues 
and languages published by the Bible and 
other Societies. His great aim was, how- 
ever, like that of Mezzof'anti, rather to in- 
terpret the languages than avail himself of 
the rich stores of knowledge which their 
keys unlock to the human understanding. 
Each language thus became an intellec- 
tual problem which he felt the greatest 
desire to solve, and there were few or 
none which he could not interpret, when 
leisure and opportunity were afforded him. 
Tliis, of course, appUes to languages as 
written, for his power of speaking foreign 
tongues was by no means remarkable. 
Still he must be regarded as a remarkable 
linguist, wheu the varied extent of his ac- 
quirements is borne in mind, and the im- 
mense amount of memory required to 
master such a number of words, and the 
elements of so many intricate grammatical 
constructions. The principal study and 
task of his life, to which his other pur- 
suits were only extraneous or incidental, 
Wiis the btudy of Chinese, and he rendered 
valuable assistance to the Museum by his 
labours in the catalogue of Chinese books. 
This involved considerable time and trouble, 
as comparatively little in this direction has 
as yet been accomplished in Europe, and 
the Chinese library of the Museum, en- 
riched by the spoils of war or the purchase 
of numerous works, had become the most 
important in Europe, after that of Paris. 
The trouble hivolved in reading prefaces, 
dedications, the contents of works, and in 
seeking collateral information as to the 
names of authors, and the age in which 
they flourished, rendered the compilation 
of a Chinese catalogue a heavy task. M. 
Provost was not an author ; his natural dif- 
fidence and modesty combined to prevent 
his launching into print, nor has he left 
any MSS. behind him to attest the extent 
of his studies in these various branches. 



88 



John O'Connell, Esq. — Clergy Deceased. 



[July, 



except his official written labours. The 
record of his acquirements will therefore 
be chiefly perpetuated by the recollec- 
tions of his friends. His excellent qunlities 
endeared him to them, and he was followed 
to his grave in the cemetery at Highgate 
by a mourning cortegh of friends and 
colleagues, by whom a memorial to his de- 
parted worth and talents is about to be 
raised. 



John (yCoKNEix, Esq. 

May 24. At Dublin, suddenly, Mr. 
John O'Connell, Barrister-at-Law. 

He was the third of the eight sons of 
the illustrious agitator and liberator, the 
late Daniel O'Connell, and was born about 
the year 1810. He was called to the Irish 
bar at the King's-inn, Dublin, but never 
followed the active duties of his profession 
to any great extent. Being early intro- 
duced by his father into the whirl of poli- 
tical agitation, he entered Parliament in 
December, 1832, as M.P. for Youghall, 
which he represented down to the general 
election of July and Anpfust, 1837, when 
he was returned for Athlone without op- 
position. In the summer of 1841 he was 
chosen for Kilkenny, in the place of the 
late Mr. Joseph Hume, who exchanged 
that constituency for Middlesex. The good 
people of Kilkenny again returned him 
as their representative at the general elec- 
tion of 1847 — on both occasions without a 
contest. On the last-named occasion he 
was elected for Limerick as well, and chose 
to sit for that constituency ; but he ac- 
cepted the Chiltem Hundreds in August, 
1851, during the outcry against the Papal 
aggression, in order to make a seat for thQ 
prettent Duke of Norfolk, then Earl of 
Arundel and Surrey, whose father had 
given him notice to quit the representa- 
tion of the ducal borough of ArundeL 
Having remained out of Parliament about 
a year, or a little more, Mr. John O'Connell 
was chosen in December, 1853, as M.P. for 
Cloiimel, upon the death of Mr. Cecil 
J. Lawless, a son of Lord Cloncurry. He 
Anally retired from parliamentary life in 
February last year, a short time before the 
general election, on being appointed by 
Lord Carlisle to the Clerkship of the Ha- 
naper Office, one of the snuggest and best- 
paid posts in the Qovenunent patronage. 
Mr. O'Connell was known in the literary 
world as the editor of the "Life and 
Speeches" of his illustrious JEather, and 
also as the author of two volames of 
*' Parliamentary Recollections and Expe- 
riences." — Law Titmet. 

11 



CLERGY DECEASED. 

April 2. At the Field Hospital, Lucknow, 
aged 37, the Rev. Hyacinth Kirtcan, Fellow of 
King's College, Cambridge, B.A. 1843, M.A. 1846, 
Chaplain H.E.I.C.S., son of the late P. Kirwan, 
esq., of Cregg, oo. Galway, Ireland. 

Mau 10. At Boulogne-sur-Mer, the Rev. Ri- 
chard Watson, LL.B. (1818), Trinity College, 
Cambridfre, Prebendary of Wells (1815) and of 
Llandaff (1813), youngest son of the Rt. Rev. 
Richard Watson, D.D., formerly Lord Biehup of 
Llandaff. 

May 17. At the Vicarage, aged 86, the Rev. 
William Fisher, B.A. 1847,. M.A. 1850, Gonville 
and Caius College, Cambridge, V. of Hartlip- 
next-Sittingbourne (1852), Kent. 

May 19. Aged 80, the Rer. William Barber, 
B.A. 1800, M.A. 1803, St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, V. of Duffleld (1819», and P. C. of Quam- 
don (1802), Derbyshire. 

Mav 22. The Rev. Joseph Watkins Barnes, 
B.A. 1828, M.A. 1831, hitc Fellow of Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambiidge, V. of Kendal (1843), Westmore- 
land. 

At Johnstown-glebe, co. Kilkenny, Ireland, 
aifed 58, the Rev. /. W. Despard, Rector of Fer- 
tagh. 

May 23. At Upper George-street, Bryanstone- 
square, aged 71, the Rev. Francis Geach Cross- 
man. 

Aged 24, the Rev. William Dawson Legh. 

May 24. At Dublin, aged 61, the Rev. Stephen 
Radcliff, Rector of Killmoon, oo. Meath. 

At Lattenbury-hill, aged 62, the Rev. Harvey 
James Sperling, R. of Papworth St. Agnes (1821), 
Cambridgeshire and Himts, B.A. 1818, M.A. 
1821, Trinty College, Cambridge. 

May 25. Aged 68, the Rev. Thomas Bailey 
Wright, B A. 1813, M.A. 1816, St. Peter's Col- 
lege, Cambridge, V. of Wrangle (1826), Lincoln- 
shire. 

At Stanley-house, Holyhead, aged 80, the Rev. 
William liartwell Jones, B.A. 1849, M.A. 1852, 
R. of Llandow (1852), Glamorganshire. 

May 27. Aged 56, the Rev. George Perry, 
B.A. 1831, M.A. 1834, Trinitv Colleige, Cam- 
bridge, V. of Shudy-Camps (1838), Cambridge- 
shire, second surviving son of the late John 
Perry, esq., Moor-hall, Esi^ex. 

At 12, Connaught-square, Hyde-park, the Rev. 
Charles Goodrich, B.A. 1819, M.A. 1822, Christ's 
Coll., Cambridge, R. of Bittcring 1 1833), Norfolk. 

May 30. At Bognor, aged 44, the Rev. Francis 
Town Attree, P.C. of Middleton-by-Wirk»worth 
(1855), Derbyshire. 

At the Rectory, the Rev. Richard Keats, B.A. 
1813, Kxeter College, Oxford, V. of Northflect 
(1834 , Kent. 

At Primley-hill. Paignton, aged 74, the Rev. F. 
Belfield. 

At the Rector)', thi* Rev. Henry Hodgson, M.A ., 
R. of Debden (1850), Essex. 

May 31. At Yettninster, Dorsetthire, of scarlet 
fever, the Rev. John SuncUtary, third surviv- 
ing son of Thomas Sanctuary, esq., of Springfield, 
Horsham. 

June 1. Suddenly, while on a visit at Shandy- 
ball, the Rev. John Smith, of Mallow, V. of 
Bridgetown, dio. Cork. 

June 4. Aged 72, the Rev. Robinson Shuttle- 
worth Barton, B.D. 1842, St. John's College, 
Cambridge, R. of Heysham (1858), Lancashire. 

June 6. At Margaretting Vicarage, aged 83, 
the Rev. William Jttse, B.A. 1798, Trinity Col- 
lege, Oxford, M.A. Magdalen College, Cambridge, 
V. of Margaretting (1827), Essex, and of Pehiall, 
(1811), Stafford j^hlrf. 

Jmne 9. At Klllargue-glcbe, aged 60, the Rev. 
George Hindes, M.A., V. of Killarguc. 

June 11. At the Vicarage, age i 81, the Rev. 
George Pickering, B.A. 1800, Jesus College, Cam- 
bridge, V. of Mack worth (1802), Derbyshire. 

Jttne 13. Aged 55, the Rev. James Penford 



1858.] 



Clergy Deceased. — Obituary. 



89 



M. A., of Tunbridge Wells, late V. of Thorley, Isle 
of Wight. 

June 15. At Exeter, aged 66, the Rev. John 
Baker, LL.B. 1826, Trinity HaU, Cambridge, re- 
tired Chaplain of the R.N. 

The Rev. 0. L. Collins, M.A., P.C. of Ossett 
(1828), Yorkshire. 

At Seaton-hall, Bootle, aged 32, the Rev. Miles 
Ponaonby Knubley, LL.B. 1851, Magdalen Col- 
lege, Cambridge, C. of Plumbland, Westmore- 
land. 



May 81. At Beigate, Surrey, aged 75, the Rev. 
H. B. Jeula, late minister ot Maize-hill Chapel, 
Greenwich. 

June 16. At his residence, 30, Myddleton-sq.. 
London, aged 79, Jabez Bunting, D.D. He had 
been fifty 'nine years in the Wesleyan ministry, 
and occupied all the most prominent positions in 
the connexion, and had been described as the 
Hercules of modem Methodism. He was a na- 
tive of Manchester, and had earned his high po- 
sition in the ranks of his sect by the force of 
natural talent and assiduous self-cultivation. He 
was educated by Dr. Percival, of Manchester, 
and numbered among his early religious friends 
Dr. Adam Clarke and Dr. Coke. He was a man 
of business views and habits, a good dibater, a 
clever preacher, and one thoroughly aware of the 
political as well as religious bearings of the large 
and influential body to which he was attached. 
As a preacher, his reputation stootl high. 

Lately, at Rochdale, the Rev. James Wilkin- 
son, forty years minister of the Unitarian Chapel, 
Clover-«treet, Rochdale. 



DEATHS. 

ABBANGEP IN CHRONOLOGIC AX ORDER. 

Feb. 5. At Sandridge, near Melbourne, Vic- 
toria, George Edward Rough ton, son of the late 
William Roughton, esq., ot Kettering. 

March 4. Killed in action, aged 21, Lieut. 
Percy Charles Smyth, of her Majesty's 97th 
Regt., youngest son of the late Henry Mitchell 
Smyth, esq., of Castle Widenham, county of 
Cork, nephew of the late Richard Smyth, esq., 
of Ballynatray, andofCol. Smyth, C.B., formerly 
of the I6th Lancers. The 97th composed part of 
Brigadier Franks' Division, which had a series 
of brilliant successes on the march from Benares 
to Lucknow. 

March 13. Aged 55, at Port Elizabeth, Cape 
of Good Hope, John Hughes Bevil, esq., of Cape- 
town, and lormerlv of Kennington. 

March 14. At the siege of Lucknow, aged 33. 
Capt. Lionel Gomez Da Costa, 58th B.N. I., second 
in command of the Feru/epore Regt. 

March 17. Killed at Lucknow, aged 29, Capt. 
Augtistus J. Clerke, Royal Engineers, eldest son 
of Major-Gen. St. John Clcrke, K.H., Col. of the 
75th Regt. 

March 19. In the Dilkoosha, aged 20. Lovick 
Emilius Cooper, Ensign 2nd Battalion Rifile Bri- 
gade, eldest son of Lovick Cooper, Vicar of Em- 
pingham, county of Rutland. 

At Hydrabad, Scinde, Emma, wife of Capt. 
Robert Maxwell Johnstone, H.E.I.C.S. 

March 20. At St. Thomas, W.I., aged 21, Wm. 
Maxwell, 4th officer in the Royal West India 
Mail Steam Packet Company, third son of J. G. 
Maxwell, esq., of Oaklands, Devon. 

March 21. Killed at Lucknow, aged 35, Capt. 
Frederick Wale, son of the late General Sir 
Charles Wale, K.C.B., 33rd Regt. 

March 29. Of cholera, at fialasore, Bengal, 
aged 23, Mary Anne, wife of Alfred A. Mantell, 
M.D., H.E.I.C.S., and only dau. of the late Lieut. 
Edward Nicholas Kendall, Royal Navy. 

Aprtl\. Aged 22, Capt. Evelyn Bazalgette, 
95th Regt., son of Col. Bazalgette, of D >raet-8q.. 



Regent's-park, London, and formerly Deputy- 
Quarterma-ter-Gen. in Nova Scotia. Capt. Ba- 
zalgette served the whole campaig^n in Bulgaria, 
and was severely wounded in the battle of the 
Alma, when carrying the regimental colours, 
which he retained until the regiment rallied 
around it. On his recovery lie rejoined his regi- 
ment in the Crimea. He afterwards proceeded 
to India, and having served at the capture of 
Kotah on the 30th of march, was killed whilst on 
duty, by the explosion of a magazine fired by the 
rebels. 

On board the " Southampton" S.8., on passage 
from Bombay, Lieut. Frederick Keys, 11th Regt. 
Bombay N.I. 

April 5. At Benares, Edward Dangerfleld, late 
Lieut, of the 1st Madras Fusiliers. 

April 6. At Azimghur, aged 27, Capt. Wilson 
Henry Jones, 13th P.A. Light Infantry, third son 
of Wilson Jones, esq., Harr sheath, Flintshire. 

At Lucknow, aged 21, William George Haw- 
trey Bankes, Comet 7th Hussars, and third 
surviving son of the late Right Hon. George 
Bankes. 

April 7. At Calcutta, aged 61, Henry Pidding- 
ton, esq., Coroner, also Curator of the Asiatic 
Museum of Geology, and President of the Marine 
Courts ; he was the second son of the late Mr. 
James Piddington, of Uckfield. 

April 14. At Kotah, aged 21, Lieut. Charles 
Hancock, of the Bombay Engineers, second son 
of Major-Gen. Hancock, of the Bombay Army. 

April 15. Killed before Rooheea, in Oude, 
aged 22, Alfred Jennings Bramly, Lieut. 42nd 
Regt., son of the Rev. T. J. Bramly, of Tun- 
bridge Wells. 

April 16. At Belize, Honduras, aged 18, 
Edward William Ravensworth Everard, midship- 
man of H.M.S. *• Leopard," eldest.son of the Rev. 
Salisbury Everard. 

April 17. Lieut C. W. Havelock, of the Goorka 
Regiment, nephew to the late Major-General 
Havelock. He belonged to Sir E. Lugard's 
column, which marched to the support of Azim- 
ghur some short time ago. It appears that on 
marching out of Jatmpore, a large body of rebels 
were on the qui vire to attack Sir Edward In the 
roar on his approach to Azimghur. This caused 
the Colonel to alter his pi ns, and compelled him, 
before proceeding further, to disperse this body, 
and while hunting up these fellows poor Lieut. 
Havelock was shot from a hut in an obscure 
village. Havelock was at Goruckpore and Azim- 
ghur at the time of the mutiny of the I2th Ir- 
regulars, of which he was adjutant. Subse- 
quently he went up as a volunteer with his 
uncle, and has been before Luckn<'W ever since. 
His lemains were brought into Jaunpore and 
buried there.— J9cM« Gazette, April 17. 

April 18. At Ilowrah, Calcutta, aged 86, Capt. 
Charles Hawes Keighly, B.N.I. , third son of the 
late Thomas Keighly, esq. 

April 19. At Azimghur, Edward Frederick 
Venables, esq., son of the late L. J. Venables, 
esq., barrister-at-law, of Liverpool, and of Wood- 
hill, in the county of Shropshire. 

April 22. Killed in action, at Nugeenah, Ro- 
bilcund, aged 24, Lieut. Fre^ierick Campbell 
Gostling, of the 5th Bengal Calvary, on duty 
with the Moultanee Horse, eldest son of W. F. 
Gostling, of Palace-gardens. 

April 2^. At Madras, aged 26, Charles Fiddey, 
Jun., Assistant-Superintendent in the Resident 
Engineer's office, Madras Railway, the younger 
son of Charles Fiddey, esq., of the Inner Tem- 
ple. 

April 25. At Azimghur, of small-pox, Walter 
Freeling, Dep. Assist.-Commlssary Gen. Hon. 
E.I.C.S., second son of the late Sir G. Henry 
Freeling, bart., of Connaught-place West. 

April 2^ Suddenly at Berlin, aged 56, Prof. 
Johannes Miiller, the physiologist, one of the 
most celebrated members of the University of 
Berlin. 



Gent. Mag. Vol. CCV. 



90 



Obituary. 



[July, 



May 2. At Dublin, Emma, wife of George 
Webber Breton, esq., of Spring-park, in the 
county of Longford, and dau. of the late William 
Butler, esq., of the noble family of Ormond, and 
grand-dau. of the late Lord Massey. 

May 3. At Toronto, aged 77, the Hon. Christo- 
pher widmer, M.D. 

May 6. At his residence, John-st., Bedford- 
row, aged 62, Charles George Bannister, esq. 

At Kirkstall-lodg^, Clapham-park, aged 82, 
Robert Cottle, esq. 

At Hanwell, Middlesex, Mary, wife of the 
Rev. J. A. Emerton, D.D., and sister of the late 
Sir Clement Wolseley, hart., of Mount Wolseley, 
county of Carlow, Irt^land. 

At Woolwich, aged 14, Albert Octavius, the 
sixth but third surviving son of the Rev. W. 
Quarterman. 

At Haverfordwest, aged 26, Sarah Anne Bowen, 
eldest dau. of the late George Bowen, esq., of 
LNyngwair, in the county of Pembroke. 

May 7. In Paris, Ann Eliza, wife of Eugene 
Casimir Le Breton, Otn. in the Imperial Army of 
France, Member of the French Deputies, and 
Grand Officer of the Legion of Honour | 

At his residence, Chester-terr., Regent's-park, 
aged 80, Richard Clemson Bamett, esq. 

Aged 81, James Richards, esq., of Dumbleton, 
in tbe county of Gloucester. 

At Malton, aged 83, William Preston, esq., late 
of Burythorpe-house. 

May 8. At St. Marychurch, near Torquay, 
aged 59, Frances, second dau. of Wm. Wynne, 
esq., of Mold. 

At Nice, Sardinia, aged 57, Charlotte Mary, 
wife of Henry Tyser, esq., of Leamington, War- 
wickshire, and relict of Thos. BouUbee Parkyns, 
esq., of Ruddington-manor, Notts. 

At Egginton-hall, Burton-nn-Trent, aged 2, 
Florence Gertrude, only child of Sir Henry 
Every, hart. 

At St. Marychurch, near Torquay, aged 59, 
Frances, second dau. of the late William Wynne, 
esq., of Mold. 

At Sealy Ham, aged 74, William Tucker Ed- 
wardes, esq., senior magistrate of the county of 
Pembroke. 

May 9. Aged 64, Thomas Nicks, esq., of Ex- 
mouth. 

At Everton, Liverpool, Tryphosa, relict of Ed- 
ward Lister, esq. 

At St. George^s-pl., Canterbury, aged 87, Mrs. 
Elizabeth Groves. 

At Bowdon, Margarette, wife of Thomaa Hig- 
lon, esq., solicitor, Manchester, and eldest dau. 
of Samuel Barton, esq., F.R.C.S. 

At Shomoliffe Camp, of pleurisy, James Bell, 
esq., younger, of Rnterkine, Ayrshire, Capt. 4th 
BattaUon Rifle Brigade. 

May 10. At Fowey, aged 70, Capt. John 
Rowett. 

At Paris, aged 79, Chaa. Wise, esq., late of 
Maidstone, Kent. 

At the residence of her son-in-law, the Rev. D. 
J. Harrison, Tottenham, aged 69, Mary, relict of 
George Parsons, esq., surgeon. 

At Winterbrook, near Wallingford, Berks, 
aged 64, John Joseph AUnatt, esq. 

Aged 43, Sarah, wife of A. B. Cook, esq., of 
Oxford-sq., Hyde-park. 

May 11. At South-camp, Aldershot, aged 24, 
JameM Dunbar Tovey Thomas, Lieut, of tbe Louth 
Militia, second sonof CoL Chas. Thynne Thomas, 
late of the Bengal Army. 

In Paris, Impasse des Acacias, aged 65, Elisa- 
beth, wife of Reuben Bridges, eauestrian, and 
dau. of the Rev. Clement Watta, Rector of Egre- 
mont, Irton. and Drigg, Cumberland, and nieoe 
of the late Sir John Barr Walsh, bart. 

At Wax Chandlers' -hull, aged 63, Mark Henry 
Gregory, esq., for many years clerk to the Wax 
Chandlers' Comt>any. 

At Brighton, Emma Jane, wife of Capt. Henry 
Maxwell. 

May 12. In Bedford-place, Newport, Isle of 



Wight, aged 90, James White Bas^ett, esq.i 
brother of the late Sir Richard Bassett. 

At Moor-end, the seat of his uncle, C. F. Gregoe 
Colmore, ^esq., aged 21, Lieut. Francis Henry 
Burlton Bennett, 43rd Bengal Light Infantry. 

At Tunbridge-Wells, aged 23, Ellen, wife of 
Joseph Dowson, esq., of Dulwich - hill - house, 
Surrey. 

At victoria-sq., Clifton, Mary, wife of Francis 
James Nug6e, es<j., of Upper wimpole-st. 

At Cotham, Bristol, Rawdon Briggs, esq., late 
of Wakefield. 

May 13. At Picton-pl., Carmarthen, aged 59, 
Frances, wife of the Rev. D'Archard Williams, 
Chancellor of the Diocese of St. David's. 

At Kilbride, Maryanne, relict of George Rous 
Keogh, esq., D.L., and dau. of the late Gen. Sir 
Tho<). Molyneaux, bart. 

At the Free Church Manse, Westruther, Ber- 
wickshire, Charles Grace, esq., M.D., late of 
Cupar-Fife. 

At Cote-Durdham-down, Clifton, flged21, Emily 
Ewerretta, eldest dau. of Major Rich. Salisbury 
Simpson, Bengal Army. 

At her residence. Grand - parade, Brighton, 
aged 90, Ann, relict of James Dempster, esq., 
sen., of Mitcham. Surrey. 

At Furze - coppice, Sevemake Forest, Wilts, 
aged 34, wife of the Rev. T. L. Kingsbury, In- • 
cumbont of Sevemake, and youngest dau. of the 
late William Bro<lie Gurney, esq. 

At West Claremont-st., Edinburgh, aged 72, 
Randal William Macdonnell, son of the late Col. 
James and Lady Elizabeth Callandar, of Craig- 
forth and Ardkinglas. 

At Eaton-place-south, Anna Dora, wife of Jas. 
Pattison Currie, esq. 

At her residence Northchurch, Herts, Louisa 
Ann, widow of Archibald Campbell, esq., of 
Lochnell-house, Argyleshire, N.B., having sur- 
vived a favourite daughter only four months. 

May 15. Mary, relict of Edward Boyer, esq., 
of Brooklands, county Lancaster. 

In London, of bronchitis, aged 53, Robert Her- 
cules, second son of the late Sir Robert Lang- 
rishe, bart., of Knoctopher, county Kilkenny. 

At her residence. East Acton, aged 65, Mary, 
widow of the late John Nortb, esq., and younger 
dau. of the late John Henry Delamnin, esq. 

May 16. Aged 49, Emma, wife of John Parke, 
esq., of Liverpool, and sister to Stephen Holmes, 
esq.. Prospect-house, Brampton, near Chester- 
field. 

Aged 41, George, fifth son of the late Rer. 
Daniel Bovs, of Benenden, Kent. 

Aged 26, Martha Jane Freer, eldest dau. of 
Richard Freer, esq., of Kugeley, Staffordshire. 

May 18. At Haigh-terr., Kmgstown, Dublin, 
aged 43, Wm. Tanner, esq., of Kennett, Wilts, 
only son of the late W. Tanner, esq., of Black- 
lands-house, Wiltshire. 

At the house of his son-in-law, T. Plowman, 
esq.. North Curry, Somersetshire, aged 84, Jacob 
Barrett, esq. 

At Elm-lodge, Spring-grove, Hounslow, aged 
28, George Halliday, esq., brother of Thomas 
Halliday, esq., of Braxted-hall, Essex. 

At Not ton-lodge, aged 20, Kenrick Wither, son 
of Henry Ooddard Awdry, esq. 

At Belbroughton, aged 71, Sophia, relict of 
Francis Bufford, esq., of Prescot-house, Stour- 
bridge. 

At Bryndu, Bronllvs, Wales, James Byron, 
esq., late Capt. H.M.V 8th Regt. of Foot, and 
eldest surviving son of the late Rear-Admiral 
Byron. C.B. 

At Claremont-teir., aged 92, John Stainton, 

In rst Jamee'sHMi., Bath, aged 89, Mrs. Ellen 
P(^ard. 

May 19. At Academy-lane, Montrose, Mrs. 
Flora Maclcod, dau. of the late Capt. Alexander 
Macleod, Vatten, Skve, and relic of John John- 
ston, esq., S.S.C., Edinburgh. 

On board the '*Oanges," Bombay, aged 26, Lieut. 



1858.] 



Obituary. 



91 



At Armagh. Mr. James Simms, for twenty 
years editor of the " Northern Whig." 

At the Field, Stroud, aged 40, Susan Auther, 
Becond dau. of William Bentley Cartwright, esq. 

Agred 71, Samuel Freeman, esq., of Brler>lodge, 
Southowram, near Halifax. 

Onlboard the "Ganges," Bombay, aged 26, 
Edward Wolley, 51 st Light Infantry, fourth son 
of the Rev. John Wolley, of Beeston, Notting- 
hamshire. 

May 20. At Ely, aged 65, Sarah, wife of John 
Hall, esq. 

At Warwick-house, Cheltenham, Martha Eliza- 
beth Anne, wife of G. F. Hewson, esq., M.D., 
and dau. of the late Kev. S. J. Otway, of Port- 
land-pl., Leamington. 

In the Close, Lichfield, aged 30, Edward H. 
Bickersteth, youngest son of the late Yen. G. 
Hodson, Archdeacon of Stafford. 

At New College, Oxford, aged 20, Geo. Tucker, 
son of the Kev. Andrew Tucker. 

At Rochester, North America, William Marter, 
M.R.C.S., only son of William Marter, esq., of 
Knockholt, near Sevenoakf*, Kent. 

At Kilkenny, Ireland, Margaret Steuart, wife 
of the Rev. Robert Hawksworth S. Rogers, and 
eldest dau. of the late Capt. William Fitch Arnold, 
of Little Missenden-abbey, Bucks. 

Aged 66, Richard Wilson, esq., of Maida-hill, 
Edgeware-road, and Ranskill, Notts. 

At St. Sebastian's, Spain, Margaret, wife of 
Albert De Chaveau, French Con^'ul at Passages, 
and dau. of the late Henry Playford, esq., of 
North Repps, Norfolk. 

At Grappenhall, Heyes, Cheshire, aged 51, 
Alicia, wife of Thomas Parr, esq. 

May 21. At the Royal Hospital, Chelsea, Capt. 
Augustine Fitzgerald Evuns (half-pay) -37 Regt., 
one of tbe Capts. of Invalids of that establish- 
ment, who served throughout the Peninsular 
war. and was awarded a medal with nine clasp.<*. 

At Harwood-hall, Upminster, Essex, aged 80, 
Philip Z. Cox, esq., formerly of the Light Dra- 
goons, a magistrate and deputy-lieut. for the 
oountv of Essex. 

At his residence, Fitzroy-sq., aged 78, William 
Joy, esq., of Patemoster-i ow ; and on the 7th ul'., 
aged 3 vears and 9 months, Mary Augusta, grand- 
dan, o/the abo^e. 

At WooUey-pk., aged 67,Bartholomew Wrough- 
ton, esq. 

At the Grove, Clapham-common, Major Henry 
T.Stephen, H.E.I.C.S. 

Mav 22. From mcasols, superveninpr on h'r 
ladyship's confinement, ag> d 28, Lady Margaret 
Leveson Cower, wife of the Hon. Leveson Gower, 
brother of the Earl of Granville. Lady Margaret 
was second dau. of the late Marquis of North- 
ampton, and was married in 1853. 

In London, aged 51. John Manwaring Paine, 
esq., of Famham, Surrey. The charitable insti- 
tutions of Farnham have lost in him a munificent 
contributor, and every good work had his ready 
support. In the enlargement and restoration 
of Farnham Church he took a most lively interest, 
bestowing three magnificent painted windows, 
which, with contributions, woiild fall little short 
of £3,000. 

At Painswick, Gloucestershire, ag^d 74, Henry 
Clapton Barnard, Col. Bengal Army. 

At his residence, Aigburt^vale, Liverpool, John 
Francis Goodwin, esq. 

May 23. Accidentally drowned, Capt. Fisher, 
R.N., who formerly resided in Bath, and for 
many years filled the situation of Superintendent 
of the BrivStol police-force. 

At Skipton-bridge, aged 80, Elizabeth, last sur- 
viving dau. of the Rev. Heneage Elsley, of Mount 
St. John, Yorkshire. 

At Tunbridge Wells, aged 35, Julia, wife of Mr. 
W. Strode, of St. Martin's-le-Grand, dau. of the 
late J. S. Winstanl< y, esq. of Paternoster-row. 

A t Loughborough, in St. Miiry's convent, Laura 
Elizabeth, youngest dau. of Thomas Riddell, esq., 
of Felton-park, Northumberland. 



At Pelham-cresc., Brompton, aged 24, Emma 
Matilda, wife of Edward Montague Burrell, and 
youngest dau. of Joseph Delevante. esq. 

May 24, at Kingstown, Dublin, John O'Connell, 
esq., son of the late Daniel (VConnell, esq., M.P. 

At Somerset-st, Portman-sq., aged 81, Augusta 
Sophia, relict of George Hicks, esq., barrister, of 
Lincoln's-inn. 

At Sidmouth, aged 47, Theodore Hands Mo- 
gridge, esq., M.D., of Arcop-house. 

At Wesibourne-terrace, Hyde -park, Letitia, 
wife of Joseph Maynard, esq. 

At Teovil, aged 69, Thomas Binford, esq. The 
deceased was an old re^ident of the town, and 
filled the ofiice of Portreeve at the time of the 
opening of the Yeovil branch of the Bristol and 
Exeter Railway. 

At Lansdowne-terrace, Kensington-park, Eliza, 
wife of Henry Bamet, esc^. 

At Totne.<<, Devon, William Gill, esq. 

May 25. At Sheen Parsonage. S:affordshire, 
Maria, widow of the Rev. Dr. Mill, Canon of 
Ely, and Regius Professor of Hebrew in the 
University of Cambridge. 

At Oxford, suddenly, whilst on a visit to his 
brother, Alwyn Monro, second son of William R. 
Bayey, esq., of Cotford-house, near Sidmouth. 

At Glover's-lodge, Red-hill, Reigate, aged 47, 
Frances Ann, second dau. of the lute Lieut. -Col. 
Utterton, of Heath-lodge, Croydon, Sur. ey. 

At Maidencome, in the parish of Stokeinteign- 
head, ag^ed 94, Jane, relict of E. Blackaller, esq. 

At his residence, Woodhouse-lane, Letds, aged 
71, John Sykes, esq. 

At Sheerwater-house, Byfleet. Surrey, aged 60, 
John William Jodrell, esq , of Yeardsly. 

May 26. At Dorset-st., Mancbester-sq., aged 
47, Joseph Pollock, esq., late Judge of the County 
Court at Liverpool, and eldest son of the late 
Edward Pollock, esq., barristet -at-law, and who 
practised previously for many years as a barrister 
on the Northern Circuit. 

At Russell-villas, Richmond-hill, Surrey, aged 
71, Mury, wife of Joseph Rutland, esq., and eldest 
dau. of the late Mr. William Meggy, of Chelms- 
ford. 

At Torquay, Sidney Bazalgette, esq., of Morti- 
mer-lodge, Berks. 

At Lower Summerland-place, at an advanced 
age, Elizabeth, relict of the Rev. Charles John 
Sm^'th, Rector of Great Fakenham, Suffulk, and 
\icar of Catton, Norfolk. 

At Albert-villas, Broxboume, Herts, aged 71, 
Mary Margaret, relict of the late James Sharp, 
esq., of Blackheath, and Tooley-st., Southwark. 

May 27. Suddenly, at his residence, Plumstead- 
common, Mr. Samuel Bird Cook, Master R.N., 
many years in command of H.M.'s steamer 
'' Black Eagle," and late Superintendent of 
shipping in the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich. 

At Romsey, aged 74, Anne, wife of Josiah 
Geor^se, esq., of Romsey. 

At the residence of his mother, Torrington- 
sq., aged 34, George Radley, esq., of South- 
ampton. 

At Hanover-lodge, Kensington-pk., Mary Hay, 
wile of George Lewis Way, esq., late Major 29th 
Regt. 

At Torquay, aged 26, Mary Lilias, youngest 
dau. of the late James Davidson, esq., or Ruchill, 
near Glasgow. 

At his residence, Rutland-sq., Dublin, Sir 
Henry Meredith, one of the Ecclesiastical Com- 
missioners for Ireland. 

May 28. At his residence, the Grove, Bridport, 
aged 71, James Templer, esq. 

At his residence, Milau-terrace, Battersea, aged 
63, Capt. Alexander Shairp, R.N. 

At Bagborough-house, Somerset, aged 78, 
Francis Popham, esq. 

At Dromenagh, Iver, Bucks, at the residence 
of her nephew, Edward Tompson, esq., aged 
93, Mrs. Jane Smith, late of Croom's-hill, Green- 
wich, Kent. 

May 39. At Cheltenham, aged 75, Ann Harvey, 



m 



Obituary, 



[July, 



relict of Major-Gen. T. W. Taylor, late Lieut.- 
Govemor Royal Military College, and of Ogwell- 
house. 

At Harwich, aged 73, Mr. John Peel, of Golden- 
sq., London, and Huyling Island, Hants, and 
late of Cockermouth, Cumberland. 

At King'8-road, Brighton, aged 28. Jeannette, 
"wife of Solomon Schloss, esq., of Woburn-sq., 
London, and eldest dau. ' of the lale Lewis 
Raphael, esq. 

At Queen's-gardens, Hyde-park, Helen, widow 
of the Rev. R. L. Townsend, Vicar of All Saints', 
Wandsworth. 

At Wimbleton, Elizabeth Primrose, widow 
of the Idte George Augustus Pollen, esq., of 
of Bookham, Surrey. 

Aged 33, William Henry Vernon Beauchamp, 
eldest son of the Rev. H. W. J. Beauchamp, of 
Monks Risborough, Bucks. 

May 30. Aged 77, Mary Judith, wife of the 
Rev. Henry Fellowes, Vicar of Sidbury. 

At Great Chart Rectory, Kent, of bronchitis, 
aged 2 ytars and 3 months, Gertrude Rose, 
youngest child of the Hon. W. W. Addington. 

At Winchester, aged 84, Mrs. Goldsmith, relict 
of Mr. Goldsmith, apparitor to the Bishop of 
Winchester. 

Lady Harriet Grant Suttie. Her ladyship was 
7th d lu. of the late Earl of Wemyss, and married, 
3rd September, 1829, Sir George Grant Suttie, 
bart., oy whom her ladyship leaves a large 
family. 

At Truro, aged 39, Judiih, fourth dau. of the 
late Rev. Wm. Moore, of Fahnouth. 

Aged 42, Capt. W. Neil, of Devon and Bul'.er 
Mine, near Tavistock. 

At Nannau, aged 81, the Dow. Lady Vaughan. 

At Nice, aged 39, Harriet Anne Horwood, 
eldest dau. of the late Edward Horwood, esq., 
of the Manor-house, Weston lurville, Bucks. 

Elizabeth Margaret, wife of George James 
Wigley, esq., of Dolayron, Aberayron, Camigan- 
shire. 

At his residence, Richmond-hill, Surrey, aged 
81, James Piggott, esq. 

At Rider's Wells, near Lewes, Sussex, ago'^ 69, 
Michael Walford Boyle, esq., formerly of Chr liiis- 
ford. 

Of paralycis, aged 53, Samu(*l Nowell, epq., of 
Cam^bridge- villas, Richmond-hill, and Lo.»er 
Belgrave-place, Pimlico. 

At Brompton, aged 78, Maria Rebecca Davison, 
(formerly Miss Duncan, of the Theatres Royal 
Drury-lane, Covent-garden, and Haymarket,) 
relict of James Davtson, esq., whom she survived 
10 weelu. 

At her residence, Pultcney-street, Bath, Doro- 
thea Frances, relict of George Haynes, esq., of 
Trieste. 

Aged 23, John Francis Bohn, second son of 
Mr. James Bohn, of Lyndhurst- grove, Camber- 
well. 

At Rodney-terrace, Cheltenham, aged 74, 
Catherine, wife of Thomas Charlton Speer, M.D., 
of Dublin. 

At Mountfleld-house, Harrow-road {the resi- 
dence of H. R. Abraham, esq., his son-in-law), 
aged 84, John Litchfield, esq. 

At Vine-cottage, Turpolnt, Cornwall, aged 30, 
George Frederick, third son of Isaac Couch, e.«q. 

Aged 79, Capt. John Fynes Turnpenny, for 
many years Professor of Classics and Hihtory at 
the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. 

At Lochee, aged 92, George Ross, esq. 

Mny 31. At Caerleon, Monmouthshire, Thos. 
Fothcrgill, tsq. 

At Furnborough Rectory, Hants, Jane B., wife 
of the Rev. John H. Clayton. 

At Hangleton, near Shoreham, John Hard wick, 
esq., of Hangleton. 

In London, Charlotte, wife of C. C. Henderson, 
esq., of Halliford, Middlesex. 

At St. John's-wood, aged 59, Jukes Coulson, 
esq., late of Dorsct-sq. 

At his brother's rMidenoe, PittviU«-lswn, Chel- 



tenham, Augustas Hailes, esq., formerly of the 
Royal Marines. 

At his residence, Clapham-rise, aged 29, Richd. 
Russell, esq. 

At his residence, Russell-sq., and late of Tulles 
Wells, Sussex, aged 81, Thomas Ellis, esq. 

Aged 35, Maria Elizabeth, wife of Henry Vivers, 
esq., of Hereford, and third dau. of Col. Gwynne, 
of Monachty, Cardiganshire. 

At Brighton, aged 51, Thomas Bull, esq., M.D., 
formerly of Finsbury-pquare. 

Acacia-road, St. John's-wood, Mary Anne, wife 
of Andrew Edgar, esq., barrister-at-law. 

At his residence. Linden-grove, Notting-hill, 
aged 64, George Grindle, esq. 

At Tunbridge-wells, aged 36, Helen, wife of 
the Rev. Frederick C. All free. 

Lately. Kellin, Landscape Painter.— Wears 
informed of the death, at Samer, near Boulogne- 
sur-Mer, of the eminent French painter, Kellin, 
one of the best pu])ilB of Roqueplan and Benning- 
ton. This artist was often admired at the exhi- 
bitions of Paris, and Of the most important towns 
of France. The finest epoch of Kellin's reputa- 
tion was under the reign of King Louis Phi- 
lippe, who bought many of his wuter colours, 
especially views of royal residences. Kellin, in 
spite of his age, still worked very much, and 
several of his pictures were exhibited at the 
last exhibition of Lyons. He was named mem- 
ber of the "Societe Libre des Beanx Arts" in 
1S57.- Builder. 

At Pau, aged 84, the Baroness Bemadotte, 
widow of the brother of the late King of Sweden. 
She leaves one son. Baron Oscar Bemadotte. 

June 1. At Menheniott, at an advanced age. 
Captain R. Vivian. 

At Berkeley-villa, Montpelier, Clifton, very 
suddenly, aged 28, Charles Augustin, only son 
of Thomas Powell, esq. 

At Epping, Mary, widow of William Yarring- 
ton, esq., of SwaflTham. 

At his residence, Evesham, Worcestershire, 
aged 59, Thomas Nelson Foster, esq., Justice of 
the Peace. 

At Prince's-place, Duke-street, St. James's, 
Commander John Thomas Paulson, R.N. 

June 2, in Limekiln-st., Dover, aged 75, Thos. 
Birch, esq., one of her Majesty's Justices of the 
Peace, and Mayor of the Borough. Mr. Birch 
rose from a very humble position in life to the 
highest dignity it was in the power of his fel- 
low-townsmen to bestow. He was thrice elected 
mayor of Dover. 

At Bath, aped 96, Mrs. Mary Evans, relict of 
John Evans, esq , of the Byletts, in the county 
of Hereford. 

At Ryton, aged 84, Isabella, widow of Anthony 
Humble, esq., of Prudhoe-housc, Northumber- 
land. 

At Ovington-sq., Brompton, aged 88, John 
Terrence O'Brien, esq. 

At his residence, Twyford, near Winchester, 
aged 43, H. Young, esq. 

At his residence. New Mills, near Stockport, 
aged 78, Richd. Bennett, esq. 

Aged 37, Elizabeth Maria, wife of John Living- 
ston Jay, esq., of the Royal Hospital, Greenwich, 
and niece or the late Lieut.-Col. J. B. Gardner, 
H.M.'s 1st Life-Guards. 

In Porchester-sq., aged 21, John Charles, eldest 
son of CharlcH Gwillim Jones, esq., of Porches- 
ter-souare and Gray's Inn. 
' At his residence, Wood-st, Woolwich, aged 68, 
Col. Rowland, late Royal Artillery. 

At Park-terrace. Highbury, aged 70, Richard 
King, esq., of Llo> d's. 

June 8. At his residence, Charles-place, Ply- 
mouth, Lieut.-Col. George I.rOvell Spinluff. 

At Sible Hedingham, Essex, aged 49, Charlotte 
Henrietta, dau. of the late Rear-Adra. George 
Fowke. 

In Londoni aged 75, Anne, widow of Jeremiah 
Ives, esq., of St. Catherine's-hill, Norwich. 

At Newm arket-terr., Elizabtth, wUe of the 



1858.] 



OfllTUAKY. 



93 



Rev. Thomas Qnmey. Rector of All Saints with 
SL Julian, Norwich. 

Robert William Ralston, esq., of Glenellrigg. 

At Hare hope, Northumberland, Anne Seymour 
Conway, widow of O^win A. B. Cresswell, esq., 
and dau. of Sir William Gordon Gumming, bart., 
of Altyre. 

At Turianno-terr., Kentish-town, aged 62, Wm. 
Noulton Brayne, esq. 

At Putney-heath, Surrey, Edward Moxon, esq. 

At Tudor-house, Richmond, aged 9, Gordon de 
Malapert Thuitlier, son of Major U. L. Thuillier, 
of the Bengal Artillery. 

At Sunbury, Middlesex, aged 54, Francis Bim- 
ker, surgeon. 

June 4. At Wareham, aged 81, Edward Dean, 
esq. The deceased had been connected Mith the 
Corporation of Wareham for upwards of thirty 
Tears, and had been three times Mayor ot titat 
Dorough. 

At Chesham-pl., the Hon. Mrs. Richard Ca- 
rendish. 

At Penjerrick, near Falmouth, aged 72, Maria, 
wife of Robert Were Fox. 

At Weston-8uper-Mare, aged 57, Henry John 
Mant, esq., of the city of Bath, and of Box, Wilt- 
shire. 

At £aton-pl., west, Thomas Jones Howel, esq., 
late of Prinknnsh-pk., Gloucestershire. 

At the residence of her brother, Swiss-villa, 
Gloacest«r-road, Regent's-pk., aged 67, Eliza- 
beth, sLsier of Richard WilLson, esq., of Willson's 
Wharf, Soathwark. 

At Wciod-green, Tottenham, aged 69, Jane 
Anne Warner, widow of John Gray, esq., of 
Holly-lodge, Han well, and New-rd., Filzroy- 
square. 

At Cleveland-house, Brixton -hill, Surrey, aged 
69, Edwin Horatio Day, esq. 

At Chatham, Caroline Munster Lady Hardinge, 
wife of Henry T. Jones, esq., and relict of Sir 
Richard Hardinge, bart. 

At Clapham, aged 68, Capt. Richard Heaviside, 
formerly of Versailles. 

June 5. In Burlington-st., Bath, aged 78, Gen. 
Walter Powell, Royal Marines. 

At Middle Hendon, aged 33, Mary Lucy, wife 
of the Rev. George Smart, M.A., and eldest dau. 
of the late Lawrence Jopson Marshall, esq., of 
Upper Clapton, Middlesex. 

At West Colinton Bank, Colinton, John Smith, 
esq. 

Aged 66, Elizabeth, wife of John Fowler, esq , 
of Wadslev-hall, near Sheffield, and mother of 
John Fowler, esq., C.E., Queen-sq.-pl., West- 
xntTtster. 

At Northumberland-avenue, Kingstown, near 
Dublin, Charlotte Emma, youngest dau. of Daniel 
Desmond, esq. 

At Cadogran-ter., aged 51, William Ben well, 
formerly of Bath wick-hill, Bath. 

Mary Ann, relict of Samuel Freeman, esq., of 
Brier-lodge, Southowram, near Hnlif^x. 

At Hastings, aged 80, Frances Forde, esq. 

Aged 43, Elizabeth Frances, relict of Mr. Wil- 
liam White, of Tolworth-court, Surrey. 

At his residence, Ranelagh-road, Riithmines, 
Dublin, Gcorue Chapman, esq., for many years 
connected with the War Department, Dublin, 
and late Military Storekeeper at Hongkong. 

June 6. In £dward-st., Bath, aged 82, Mr. 
James Pocock. 

At George-sq., Edinburgh, Miss Helen Russell 
Dymock, only dau. of the late William Dymock, 
esq., W.S. 

Ai Maida*hill, Mary, relict of James Brougham, 
esq., of Stobsirs, in the county of Westmorland. 

At her residence, Sydenham, Kent, aged 77, 
Ann, widow of the late Bennet Odell, esq 

At Eastbourne, Sussex, aged 26, Klias Leith, 
third son of the late Aufirustus Hubbard La 
Furgue, esq., of Husband's Bosworth. 

In Clifford-st , Catharine Sarah, dau. of the late 
Augustus Eliott Fuller, esq., of Rosehill, Sussex. 

At Bentley-house, Tarm, Fanny, third dau. of 



the late S. T. Scroope, esq., of Danby-hall, York- 
shire. R.I.P. 

At Millpurt, Isle of Cumbrae, N.B., aged 90, 
the Hon. Janet ScmpiU. 

At Highgate, London, Jane, wife of Richard 
Medcalf, esq., solicitor, North Shields. 

At her brother's houses Woburn-pl , Rtassell- 
sq., Louisa Emily, younger dau. of the late 
Joseph Puilen, esq. 

At Grove-pl., Brixton-road, aged 73, Capt. 
Robert Bates Mathews, R.N., late of BraooB- 
dale, Norwich. 

June 7. At Jersey, aged 32, Charles George 
Br< die, late 25th Rext. B.N.I., and Capt. in the 
Turkish Contingent during the last war. 

At Burton Rectory, Pembrokeshire, Mary Ca- 
tharine, relict of the Rev. John Brigstocke, and 
dau. of the late Sir William and Lady Sarah 
Champion de Crespigny. 

At her i csidence, Hiil's-court, Exeter, aged 78, 
Miss Kingdon. 

At Oakham, aged 86, William Ades, esq., late 
Clerk of the Peace for the county of Rutland. 

At Albion- villas, Dalston, aged 62, Agxes At- 
kinson, sixth dau. of the late Thos. and Frances 
Atkinson, of Thomship, Westmoreland. 

At Shady-cottage, Jersey, Mary Eliza Wal- 
bridite, wife of William Pullum Cornish, esq., 
of Norrington-house, Dorf^et. 

At Effingham-pl., Ramsgate, aged 73, Eliza- 
b th Chudleigh Lampard, youngest dau. of the 
late C ipt. Thomas Norwood of Broadstairs. » 

Suddenly, aged 61, Clayton Bailey Savage, esq., 
Noreliinds, Kilkenny. 

At Highfleld-house, Hants, aged 78, Louisa 
Fisher, dau. of John Fisher, esq., of Malt- 
shanger, Hants. 

June 8. At Gloucester, aged 70, Selina, wife 
of the Rev. S. R. Maitland, D.D. 

At her hduse at Hillam, at an advanced age, 
Mrs. Ringrose, widow of Joseph Ringr se, esq., 
formerly of Haddlesey Manor-house, near Selby, 
and unly dau. of the late Mr. John Hall, of 
Hillam. Slie was for many years a consistent 
and highly respected member of the W^esleyan 
Society. 

At Hertford, aged 77, Michael Gibbs, esq., late'" 
Alderman of London. 

At Charlton, Kent, aged 23, Thomas Henry 
Currie, esq., surgeon, eldest surviving son of the 
Rev. Thomas Currie, Rector of Bridgham, and 
Vicar of Roudham, in the county of Norfolk. 

At Oxford, at the house (f her brother-in-law, 
the Rev. Dr. Bandinel, aged 62, Susannah, second 
dau. of John Phillips, esq., late of Colham, 
Berks. 

At his residence. Green-vale, Glossop, aged 62, 
John Hegginbottom, Gent. 

Fanny Anne, wife of the Rev. Augustus F. 
Bellman, Vicar of Moulton, Norfolk, and second 
dau. of the late Charles Compton Parish, evq. 

Mr. Commissioner Stevenson, of the Bank- 
ruptcy Court, was on his way ftom his residence, 
in New Brighton, to Liverpool, in the quarter- 
before-tcn boat, when he was suddenly observed 
to fall down. Several of the pas-sengrers immedi- 
ately rushed to his assistance, but it was foi nd 
that life was wholly extinct. The deceased 
gentleman had presided in the Liverpool Bank- 
ruptcy Court for the last ten years, having suc- 
ceeded Mr. Serjeant Ludlow, and during his oc- 
cup ition of the office, was remarkable for his ex- 
treme urbanity and courtesy, as well as for the 
ability with which he discharged his duties. Mr. 
Stevenson was app inted to the office by Lord 
Lyndhurst, when that nobleman held the seals 
as Lord Chancellor. 

Jnne 9. At High-st., Poole, aged 76, John 
Durant, esq. 

Accidentally killed on the Bristol and Exeter 
Railway, aged 67, John Dewdney, esq., of Stap- 
lake-house, Starcross. 

At her son's. Romford-lodge, Romford, Essex, 
aged 80, Eliz.ibeth, widow of William Redman, 
esq., solicitor, Bath. 



94, 



Obituary. 



[July, 



At his residence, in Princess-st., Leicester, 
aged 75, Richard Rawson, Gent., much respect- 
ed. Mr Rawson was the last Mayor under the 
(dd municipal system. 

At the residence of Col. Askwith, Waltham- 
abhey, Essex, aged 90, Mrs. Subbrina Browning. 

At Medomsley-hall, aged S3, Jane, wife of the 
Kev. E. J . Midgley. 

In St. George's, Norwich, aged 79, John Bate- 
man, esq. 

At Queen-sq., Bloomsbury, aged 70, Sarah, 
relict of George Dudley, esq., of Clonmel, co. 
Tipperary, Ireland. R.l.P. 

At Ostend, Belgium, a^ 75, Richard St. 
Amour, esq., formerly of Punlco. 

Jwte 10. At Percy-lodge, Kensington, aged 
63, Benjamin Morley, esq., late of Short-hill, 
Nottingham, eldest surviving son of the late 
Richai-d Morley, esq., of Snainton, near Notting- 
ham. 

At Langley-priory, liCicestershire, aged 83, 
John Shakespear, esq., late Proiessor of Oriental 
Languaires at Addiscombe. 

At Eggleston, ared 76, George Benson, esq. 

Of fever, at Edinburgh, aged 31, Stephen 
Merris Mills, esq., of Elstone, Wilts. 

In Heresford-st., Wal worth-road, London, a?ed 
43, R. C. Bowring, esq., formerly editor of the 
Bali/ax Courier. 

At North Cove-hall, near Becclcs, aged 30, 
Georgina Mary, widow of Alfred Impey, esq., 
M.D., of Great Yarmouth. 

At his residence, Warwick Villas, Addison-rd., 
Ki nsington, W., suddenly, of disease of the 
heart, aged 70, Robert Scott, esq., late Madras 
Medical Service. 

At Orsett Rectory, Es^ex, Anna Elizabeth, 
second dau. of the Rev. James Blomfield. I 

At Buxton, suddenly, Caroline, widow of 
"Wm. Matthews, esq., and dau of the late John 
Hodndon Durand, esq. 

Aged 68, Charles James Smith, eso., solicitor, 
King's Arms-yard, Coleman-Rt., London. 

June 11. At Colne-house. Cromer, aged 46, Sir 
Edward North Buxton, hart., the respected re- 
presentative of East Norfolk. The deceased 
Baronet had been subject to an attack of infl<tm- 
Ynation of the lungs, and only arrived in the 
spring of this year, intolerable health, from Nice, 
where be had passed the preceding winter. Not 
feeling so well. Sir Edward obtained leave uf ab- 
sence for a fortnight from his Parliamentary 
duties, but was taken worse Mwn after his arrival 
at home. Sir Edward North Buxton was the 
eldest son of Sir Thomas Powell Buxton, the first 
Baronet, by the fifth dau. of the late John 
Gumey, esq., of Earlam-hall, near Norwich. He 
was bom at Earlam, 1812, and married, in 1836, 
the second dau. of Samuel Gumey, es()., of Uam- 
house, Essex, and succeeded to the title on the 
death of his father in 1845. Sir Edward repre- 
sented South Essex in Parliament from 1847 to 
1852 ; and, in 1857, was returned as Member for 
East Norfolk, with General Windham, without 
opposition. The late Baronet is succeeded in the 
title by his son, Thomas Powell, bom in 1837. 

At Harewood-grov**, aged 48, Ellen, wife of the 
Rev. John Marshall, Head Master of the Darling- 
ton Grammar School. 

Aged 57, Jane, wife of Leonard Coolfe, esq., of 
the Terrace-house, Richmond. Yorkshire. 

At Bath, aged 69, Robert Dolman Battelle. esq., 
eldest son of the late Robert Battelle, esq., of 
Quarndon. 

At Durham, in Clayputh, aged 43, Nicholas 
Oliver, esq.; and on Uie 15th, aged 14 days, 
Charles Robinson Nicholas, his son. 

At Guildford, Surrey, aged 76, John Bicknell, 
esq. 

At the Bank-hotise, Neath, aged 68, George 
Evans Aubrey, esq. 

At his residence, Besborough-st., aged 47, Geo. 
Kennet Pollock, >«cond son of the late Sir David 
Pollock, Lord Chief Justice of Bombay. 



At his residence, Russell-st, Reading, aged 67, 
Major Henry Astier, who served 20 years in 
India in the 62nd Queen's Regiment. 

At Southborough, near Tunbridge- Wells, aged 
84, Nicholas Francis Norton, formerlv of Kings- 
ton, Jamaica, and of Keppel-st., I^ndon. 

At his residence, Southampton-st., Strand, very 
suddi nlv. aged 55, Mr. Edward Jenkins. 

June 12. At Kensington Gravel-pits, aged 84, 
William Horsley, Mus. Bac, Oxon. 

Aged 7, Godfrey Hunieerford, youngest son of 
Sir W. Hcathcote, hart., MP. 

At St Leonard's, aged 60, Margaret Mary Dan- 
son, wife of Thomas Heath Fam worth, esq., 
and eldest dau. of the late Thomas Danson, esq., 
of George-st., Hampstead-road. 

In Connaught-sq., aged 70, John Sturges, esq. 

At Maidstone, aged 32, Sherard Freeman 
Statham, F.U.C.S., Surtreon, Great Northern 
Hospital, King's-cross, late Assistant-Surgeon 
University CoUeere Hospital. 

June 13. At Budlcigh Salterton, aged 74, Mary, 
wife of the Rev. Thonsas Tudball. 

Drowned, whilst bathing in the Thames, near 
Staines-lock, aged 25, William John Lewis, esq., 
of the Office of the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies, and eldest son of the Inte George Lewis, 
esq., late Secretary to her Majesty's Master of 
the Horse. 

At his residence, Clifton, near Bristol, aged 80, 
Gen. Sir Thomas Hawker, Col. of the 6th Dra- 
goon Guards, (Carabineers.) 

At Bright's-terrace, Plumstead, "Woolwich, 
aged 65, Anne Maria, wife of Capt. Jones, Royal 
Engineers. 

Aged 63, B. C. Pierce Seaman, esq., of Upper 
Gower-st., Bedford-sq., and of Rotherby and 
Hoby, Leicestershire. 

June 14. At Luvenham Rectory, Suffolk, aged 
70, John Dillon Croker, esq., father of the Rector. 

Aged 63, Lord Justice Clerk Hope. His lord- 
ship, when finishiiig a letter to a relative, about 
seven o'clock, was seized with paralysis, and 
never rallied from the attack, expiring about 
half-past eleven. He passed for the bar in 1816. 
and was elevated to the presidency of the second 
division of the Court of Session in 1844. 

At the Curragh Camp, Kildare, aged 28, Wm. 
Henry Phipps, esq., Assistant Surgeon of the 
2nd Battalion of the Coldstream Guards. 

At Dunster-castle, Somersetshire, aged 74, 
Margaret Fownes Luttrell. 

At Finedon, in the co. of Northampton, aged 
78, Esther i'aul, sister of the late Rev. Samuel 
Woodfield Paul, Vicar of Finedon. 

At her brother's house, Ebury-st., Pimlico. 
Fannv, wife of Godfrey Robert Lee, esq., and 
only dan. of the late Samuel Petrie. esq. 

At Chalcot- villas, Haverstock-hill, aged 42, 
Mary, m ife of H. E. Jaggars, esq. 
r At the Rectory-house, Nuffield, Oxon, aged 49, 
Jane, vife of the Rev. W. T. Hopkins, M.A., 
Rector of that parish. 

At Trafalgar-terrace, Mortimer-road, Kings- 
land, aged 57, Herbert Chawner, esq. 

At Torquay-villa, Freemantle, Southampton, 
aged 74, Richard Collins, esq., Mas^ r R N.: 

June 15. At Tre^ince, near Truro, aged 73, 
Mr. Michael Williams, M.P. for West Cornwall. 
The deceasi'd was the eldest surviving son of the 
late John Williams, esq., of Scorrier-house, Corn- 
wall, and was born in 1785. He was High Sheriff 
of Glamorgan in 1839, was a Magistrate and 
Deputy Lieut, of Cornwall, a Deputy Warden of 
the Stannaries, and, in addition to his extensive 
engagements in mining, be was a banker at 
Truro, Falmouth, and Redruth. 

At Woodcote, Warwickshire, Harriet, aged 52, 
wife of Henry Christopher Wise, esq. 

At North Repps-hall, Cromer, Richcnda, wife 
of Capt. Hamond, and sister of the late Sir £dw. 
N. Buxton, hart. 

At Stone, Isle of Oxney, aged 81, Humphry 
W^ickham, esq. 



1858.] 



Obituary. 



95 



At the boiue of his brother-in-law, Henry 
Jnbb, esq., of Hansworth, near Sheffield, aged 
63, Charles Milne, esq., of Cliffhill, near Halifax, 
Yorkshire. 

In Pans, M. Ary Scheffer, the celebrated 
painter. 

At Kenilworth, aged 63, Frederick Russell, 
esq. 

At Clyffe Pypard Vicarage, aged 82, Harriet, 
widow of John Sherwood, esq., late of Castle-hiU, 
Reading. 

At St. Leonard's-on-Sea, aged 48, Sarah, widow 
of Henry B. Benyon, esq., of Roundhay-lodge, 
near Leeds. 

At Camden-villa, Bayswater, aged 73, Anne, 
widow of Stepben Vertue, esq., of Queen-sq. 
Wertminster. 

June 16. At Clifton-road east, St. John's-wood, 
London, Caroline, wife of Charles John Plomtre, 
esq. 

At Worksop, Notts, aged 80, Robert Watkins, 
esq., formerly of Arundel and Worthing, and 
late of Osnabiirgh-st., Regent's-park, London. 

Aged 66, James Christopher Royston, esq., of 
Alexander-terrace, Wratboume-park, Padding- 



ton, and also of Codnor-park, in the oo. of 
Derby. 

At Winchester, Miss Sophia Nevill, youngest 
dau. of the late W. Nevill, esq., and sister of 
Capt. Nevill, R.N., and J.P. for the c«»unty of 
Southampton and the ciU of Winchester. 

At his residence, Sackville-st., Piccadilly, of 
apoplexy, aged 45, John Snow, M.D., 

At her residence, Tottenham-green, Middlesex, 
aged 73, Catherine, dan. of the late Benjamin 
Webb. 

June 17. At Brompton, Thomas Robert Charles 
Dimsdale, eldest and only surviving son of the 
Hon. Baron Dim<-dale, of Camfleld, Hertford- 
shire. 

At the Grove, Teignmouth, aged 70, Fiancis 
Reed, esq., late Capt. in the King's Dragoon 
Guards. 

At Boiighton-place, Kent, aged 57, Sarah, 
wife of Robert Cuninghame Taylor, esq. 

At Stonehaven, John Forbes, esq., ship-owner. 

At Southwold, aged 68, Francis Wilson Ellis, 
Commander R.N., brother of Lieut.-Gen. Eliis, 
C.B., Royal Marines Light Infantry. 



TABLE OF MORTALITY W THE DISTRICTS OP LONDON. 
(From the Returns issued by the Begistrtxr- General,) 







Deaths Registered 


• 




Births Registered. 

1 


Week ending 
Saturday, 


H § « 


1^' 


5| 


If 




si 

42 
32 
30 
38 


1 


1 




^ 


May 29 . 

June 5 . 

12 . 

„ 19 . 


565 
575 
522 
600 


171 
163 
158 
143 


163 
160 
127 
186 


165 
157 
126 
193 


1106 

1087 

963 

1160 


904 
765 
854 
729 


788 
780 
772 
752 


1692 
1545 
1626 
1481 



PRICE OP CORN. 



Average ^ Wheat, 
of Six > *. d. 
Weeks. J 44 6 

Week ending 1 



Barley. 
s. d. 
33 7 



Oats. 
s. d. 
26 2 



Rye. 
s, d. 
32 



Beans. 
s, d, 
41 11 



Peas. 

9. d. 
43 



June 19. 1 43 10 I 30 7 | 26 10 | 26 | 42 5 | 43 



PRICE OP HAY AND STRAW AT SMITHFIELD, Jxtkb 21. 
Hay, 21. 10*. to U, 0*.— Straw, 1^. 5*. to 1^. 10*.— Clover, 3^. 10*. to U, 0». 

NEW METROPOLITAN CATTLE-MARKET. 
To sink the Of^— per stone of 81bs. 



Beef 3*. lOd. to 4*. Ad. 

Mutton 4*. Orf. to 4*. Qd, 

Lamb 5*. 8(i. to 6*. 8d. 

Veal ...3*. lOd. to4». \0d. 



Head of Cattle at Market, JmrB 21. 

Beasts 3,788 

Sheep 28,390 

Calves 499 



Pork 2*. 8<i.to3*. %d. f Pigs 

COAL-MARKET, June 21. 
Best Wallsend, per ton, 13*. ^. to 16*. 6i. Other sorts, 12*. Od. to 14*. Qd. 

TALLOW, per cwt.— Town Tallow 60*. Od. Petersburgh Y. C, 62*. 6<i. 



480 



METEOKOLOQICAL DIARY, by H. GOULD, late W. CART. 181, 8te*bd. 

IVom Maj) 2i to Jmit 28, titeluiive. 



Tharmouieter. 


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11 








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in. 


















iBsvy rain 










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w 


57 


47 


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9 


70 


70 


flfi 


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do. do. do. 


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67 


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10 




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75 


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73 


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71 










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DAILY PRICE OF STOCKS. 





co^i.. 


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c™t' 


Bank 


=. 


El. Billl. 
£1,000. 


Bond'. 
«1,<»0. 


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85 
26 
27 
28 

29 


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96 
961 
9&J 
96 
961 
96 
961 
961 
96 
9& 
95 
95 
9S 
95 
96 
96 


2221 
222 
219 
2191 
221 
219 
220 
221 
2191 
221 


221 
222 


S8pm. 

37 pm! 
36 pin. 
35 pn,. 
35 pin. 
SSpni. 

35 pm. 

36 pm. 
36 pm. 
82 pB. 
35 pm. 
82 pm. 


24 pm. 

22 pm. 

23 pn,. 


1011 


224 
234 
223 
2231 
222 
221 












J.l 


17 pm. 




3 


21pm. 
18 pm. 


101 
lOOJ 

10O| 
lOOj 








219 
221 
221 
2191 
221 




17 pm. 






222 
222 












17 pm. 


lOOi 






.hut. 








86 pm. 
36 pm. 
36 pm. 
82 pm. 
82 ^m. 




lOOi 
101 






221 
221 
221 
221 






















101 








21 pm. 
















Mp": 

86 pm; 


16 pm. 




21 
23 
23 










221 
221 




21pm. 



















THE 

GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE 



AND 



HISTORICAL REVIEW. 

AUGUST, 1858. 



CONTENTS. 

PAOB 
MINOR CORRESPONDENCE-PilgTims* Sigrns— Execution at Worcester— Hymnology— 
Who was Constance de Mowbray?— Dei Waticn of the word "FoUy," as applied to 
Localities 98 

The Arms, Annoiir, and Military Usages of the Fourteenth Century 99 

SketchoftheLifeof Walter deMerton, Chapter II 115 

England Under the Normans 120 

Forster's Essays 127 

The Geraldines 186 

Missionary Adventures, in Texas and ^Mexico 1^ 

ANTIQUARIAN RESEARCHES— British Archaeolo^cal Association— London and Mid- 
dlesex ArchfiBological Society, 150 ; Kilkenny and South East of Ireland ArchiBological 
Society, 155 ; Leicestershire Architectural and ArchfiBological Society, 156 ; Discovery 
of a Roman Cemetery at Barentin, 157 ; Proposal for the Collection of Authentic Copies 
of Monumental Inscriptions 168 

CORRESPONDENCE OF SYLVANUS URBAN.— Coats of Arms In Essex Churches, No. 
VIII., 159 ; Bordeaux Armour, 160 ; Mr. Luard's Lives of St. Edward, 161 ; The old 
Norman Langruage, 162; Modem Vandalism, 163; Destruction and Mutilation of 
Monumental Remains, 164 ; The Shrewsbury Peerage 166 

HISTORICAL AND MISCELLANEOUS REVIEWS.— PauU's Geechiohte von England, 
166; Cureton's Syriac Gospels, 169; Aytoun's Ballads of Scotland, 171; Prinsep*8 
Indian Antiquities, 172 ; Neale's History of the Jansenist Church of Holland, 173 ; 
Smith's History of Wesleyan Methodism— Rowan's Brief Memorials of Trinity College, 
Dublin, 174 ; Memoirs and Letters of the late Thomas Seddon, 175 ; Le Chevalier de 
Chatelain's Contes de Cantorbery— Our Home Islands— New Dictionary of Quotations 
—Macbride's' Lectures on the Acts, &c.— Jewitt's AntennsB 177 

THE MONTHLY INTELLIGENCER 178 

Promotions and Preferments 183 

BIRTHS 183 

MARRIAGES 184 

OBITUARY— with Memoirs of the Earl of GlengaU— Gen. Sir Thos. Hawker, K.C.B., 189 ; 
Sir Edward N. Buxton, bt., 190 : Rt. Hon. W.»YatC8 Peel— Gen. Penny, C.B., 191 ; 
Lord Justice Clerk— Michael Williams, Esq., M.P., 192 ;-Ja8. Templar, Esq., 194; Ro- 
bert Brown, F.R.S., 195 ; John Shakespear, Bsq., 197 ;' John Samuel Brown, Esq., 198 ; 
Mr. Turner, of Thrushgrove 199 

ClXKOT DKCXASXD , 199 

Dkaths, arranged in Chronological Order 200 

Registrar-General's Return of Mortality in the Metropolis— Markets, 207 ; Meteorological 

Diary— Daily Price of Stocks 208 



By STLVANUS UEBAN, Gent. 



MINOR CORRESPONDENCE. 



PILGRIMS' SIGNS. 

Mb. Urban, — My attention has just 
been called to an article in the Gentle- 
man's Magazine of the month, entith'd, 
** Pilgrims* Signs : Rectifiv'ation," in which 
the writer charges the British ArchaBolo- 
gical Association with misunderstanding 
the real character of the objects referred 
to. On behalf of the Association, and in 
the cause of truth, I beg to state that we 
are perfectly innocent of the crime im- 
puted to us. We have never thought 
them "Pilgrims' Signs," but they have 
bi en so designated by the persons who 
have offered them for sale to various mem- 
bers and non-members of the Association, 
and upon them, and them only, rests the 
responsibility of the title which the writer 
most justly condemns. Having given pub- 
licity to this most groundless attack upon 
a learned body, I trust your love of justice 
and fair play will induce you to give a 
place in your valuable Magazine to this 
unequivocal denial of the charge made by 
your anonymous correspondent.— I am,&c., 

H. Sybb Ctming, Hon. Sec. B.A.A. 

EXECUTION AT WORCESTER. 

Mb. Ubban,— Should this be in time 
for the August number of your excellent 
Magazine, please st ite, in answer to Mr. 
Edward Peacock, that I have made en- 
quiry respecting the case of " Remarkable 
Execution at Worcester," and the result 
has confirmed the accuracy of his suppo- 
sition, the present governor of Worcester 
gaol knowing nothing of any such case of 
deferred execution, although he has heard 
a floating story to that effect It is pro- 
bably one of a class to which may be 
assi<;n<'d the legend — belonging to perhaps 
a hundred places in England — about some 
traveller being benighted, and in danger 
of losing his life (by falling into a river, 
or wandering over an extensive heath in 
the darkness of the night), until the sound 
of some well-known bells caught his ear, 
and directed his footstep ; in gratitude for 
which he built a new tower, or did some 
other act of benevolence^ — I am, &c. 

J. NOAKI. 

JTorcesier, Julif 23, 1858. 



HYMNOLOGY. 

Mr. Ubbak, — In the Gentleman's 
Magazine for the present month there 
is a review of "The Voice of Christian 
Life in Song," and the reviewer, speaking 
of some collections of hymns which "ignore 
the ancient hymns of the Church alto- 
gether,** adds, " an omission the more in- 
excusable on account of the very bcautifxil 
English renderings which Mr. Chandler, 
Mr. Copeland, and others have given." 
Will you or the reviewer do me the favour 
to tell me whether these translations have 
been published in a separate form, and 
where they are to be met with. I am 
engaged with a brother clergyman in the 
attempt to compile a hymn-book, such as 
shall be a " fitting companion to our in- 
comparable Book of Common Prayer," 
and it is our desire not to overlook any 
source from which suitable hymns may be 
obtained, and most especially to obtain 
the best translations of the ancient hymns. 

Yours, &c., 

July 15, 1858. R. J. 

[Chandler's Hymns of the Church are 
published by Messrs. John W. Parker and 
Son, West Strand, and Mr. Copeland's 
" Hymns for the Week and for the 
Season," by Messrs. J. H. and J. Parker.] 

WHO WAS CONSTANCE DE 
MOWBRAY ? 

Mb. Ubban, — Can you give me any in- 
formation about Constance de Mjwbray, 
who lived temp. William I., and was 
founder of the de Mowbray fiunily ? and 
who was Gundreda, and Nigel di Albini ? 

Yours, &c.. Old Man. 

DERIVATION OF THE WORD " FOLLY ' 
AS APPLIED TO LOCALITIES. 

Mb. Urban, — Can you inform me the 
derivation of Folly ? I see in China a 
sort of Martello tower is there called a 
folly, — the Dutch folly ; and in Cleveland, 
North Riding of Yorkshire, there are two 
shepherds* cottages, one called Sir Thomas 

J 's folly, and the other Squire B *s 

folly ; they are square turreted built forts. 
These follies have no reference to folly, or 
foolish, of coune. — I am, &c. 

Ebor. 



GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE 



HISTORICAL REVIEW. 



THE ARMS, ARMOITR AND MILITARY USAGES 
OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. 

(CoidiBuedfntm p. 19.) 

The Gorget (as distinct from the Camail of chain-mail, 
which belongs rather to the hel- 
met than the body-armour) is of 
two kinds : scale-work and plate. 
The scale gorget appears in a 
miniature from Sloane M8., No. 
346, fol. 3, here engraved; and 
again in our woodcut, No. 42, 
Both examples are of about the 
year 1330'. The plate gorget 
appears in the Hastings brass at 
Elsing, Norfolk, 1347. It is 
worn by the central figure (Cot- 
man, vol. i. pi. iX and by one 
of the lateral effigies, as here 
engraved (No.18). 
It is found also on . 
the monument of 
Aymer de Va- 
lence, 1323 (Sto- 
thard, pl. 49), 

The body-ar- 
mour below the .. ,„ 
«"■" waist (in con- ^°- ''" 
tinuation of the breastplate) appears to have been of chain- 
mail, or of metal strips covered with cloth or velvet. The 
former arrangement is very clearly shewn in He&er's 

■ Compnra the Tevkeabtu-y glAas-p>intingi>, figured b; Caiter. 





Amu, Armour, and Military Usages 



[Aug. 



plates 125 and 156, where the knights do not wear eur- 
coats. The latter is exhibited in our woodcut, No. 10, and 
the construction of the defence described at p. 4. 

The upper Pourpoint, interposed between the hauberk 
and surcoat, is seen in the brass of De Creke, c. 1325 
(woodcut, No. 1 9). It occurs also in that of D'Aubemoun, 
1327, in the effigies of John of Eltham, 1334, and of Sir 
John Ifield (all three figured by Stothard) ; and again, in 
the Pembridge monument (Hollis, pt. 5), the last two of 
similar date to the sculpture of John of Eltham. The 
garment appears to have been of a rich character : its 
colour is brilliant in the painted monuments (as that of 
Ingham; Stothard, pi. 66): gold roundels or rosettes 
stud the surface, and its border, cut into escallops and 
trefoils, is ornamented with a fringe. It does not seem 
to have been in favour among the German knights : the 
extensive series of monuments given by Hefiier is without 
a single example. 

Last of his body-garments, the knight donned the 
Surcoat, "We may consider this in relation 
to its form, its material, and its decoration. 
The form changed greatly as the century 
rolled on. But these changes do not appear 
to have been merely the caprice of fashion : 
they resulted from the altered tactics of the 
time. When, in the early part of the cen- 
tury, the knights and men-at-arms descended 
from their coursers to fight on foot, the long 
surooats of the old fashion were found to be 
a serious impediment to their free action. 
The garment, therefore, underwent a clip- riffs; 
ping in front, which produced the Uneven lljw^ 
Surcoat here seen (woodcut. No. 19). The '^. S 
date of this monument is about 1330. The 
garment half curtailed, the evil was but 
half remedied. A second application of the 
shears brought the surcoat to this stat« 
(No. 20). The example is ofthe year 1347. 
The full skirt, a necessity of the long dress, 
had now no meaning : it was therefore wT^^^^"™'" 
abandoned, and the garment became the ' ko. i9. 
short, tight surcoat, familiar to us in the effigy of the 



1858.] 



ofth£ Fmtrteentk Century. 




103 Armt, Armour, and Military Utage* [Aug. 




1858.] 



of the Fourleenih Century, 



Black Prince and many monuments of the second half of 
the century. The brass here given (No. 21) affords a 
good example of the new fashion. A few inBtances, how- 
ever, occur in which the short surcoat has the lower part 
made full, as we shall presently see. 

Though the general course of the feshion was in the 
direction indicated sbove, it by no means follows that ex- 
amples may not be found of these several garments beyond 
the limits there assigned to them. Such exceptional cases 
are of frequent occurrence in all kinds of ancient monu- 
ments and form the chief difficulty of the archeeologist. 
Froissart affords a case strikingly in point. In 1369, a 
time when the short surcoat was firmly established as the 
knightly garb of the day, he tells xw that Sir John Chandos 
went forth to the fight in a " grand vetement qui M bat- 
toit jusques a terre, armoye de son armoirie." There had 
been a recent fall of sleet, the way was slippery, and the 
knight, becoming entangled in his long surcoat, made a 
stumble, which gave the opportunity 
to an antagonist to deal him his death- 
blow : — " Or faisoit a ce matin xm petit 
reslet : si etoit la voie mouillee ; si 
que, en passant, il s'entortilla en son 
parement, qui etoit sur le plus long, 
tant que un petit il trebucha : et veci \ 
un coup qui vint sur lui"," &c. 

Examples of the long surcoat are seen 
in the figure given at p. 1 04, from Eoy. 
MS. 20, A, ij., fol. 4, representing "King , 
Arthur;" in the seal of Edward III., 
1327 ; in our engraving, No, 27, a.d. 
1335; in the effigies of Du Bois, 
1311 (Stothard, pi. 57); of Louis d'Ev- 
reux, 1319 (Guilhermy, p. 260); of De 
Yalence and Whatton, 1323 and 1326 
(Stothard, pi. 48 and 52); and of Charles i 
d'Etampcs, 1336 (Shaw's "Dresses"). 

The Uneven Sxireoat, shewn in our | 
woodcut, No. 19, is again found in the 
br^s at Minster, Isle of Sheppey, here ^°- ^^ 

engraved (No. 23) ; in the effigy of Bohun, Earl of Hereford, 




Arm*, Armour, and Military Usaffet [Au| 




1 858.] of the Fourteenth Century, 1 05 

(figured by HoUis, and of which there is a model in the 
oydenham Collection) ; in that of Albert von Hohenlohe 
(Heftier, pi. 87) ; in the monuments of D'Aubemoun, 1327, 
John of Eltham, 1334, Sir John Ifield, c. 1334, Ingham, 
1343 (all given by Stothard) ; and in the statue of a knight 
of the Pembridge family, engraved by Hollis, pt. 5. 

The Short Surcoat with full skirts is seen in the illus- 
trations, Nos. 20 and 36, two figures from the Hastings 
brass at Elsyng, 1347 ; in the statue of Louis of Bavaria, 
1347 (Hefner, pi. 15); in the Giffard brass, 1348 (Trans, 
of Essex Archseol. Society, vol. i.); i^ tte figure of Giin- 
ther von Schwarzburg, 1349 (vol. cciv. p. 4); and in the 
knightly brass at Wimbish, Essex, 1350 (Waller, pt. 6). 

The Short, tight Surcoat occurs in the sculpture of De 
Kerdeston, 1337 (Stothard, pi. 63); in the Ash Church 
figure, c. 1337 (Stothard, pi. 61); in the effigies forming 
our numbers 9 (vol. cciv. p. 592), 12 and 13, 1340, 1360 
and 1368 ; in that of the Black Prince (vol. cciv. p. 11) ; and 
others among our engravings, continuing the series to the 
end of the century. The name oijnpon is often applied by 
antiquaries to this form of the surcoat, as distinctive from 
others ; but the jupon appears as a military garment long 
before the short surcoat is found in knightly monuments. 
It occurs among the Armour of Louis Hutin in 1316, and 
even then it is '^an old one :" — " Item, un vieil jupel des 
armes de France, a fleurs broudees." In 1322 it appears 
in the Bohun Inventory : — '' j. peire des plates, ij. gipeaux, 
ij. cotes darmes le Counte*'," &c. A particular advantage 
of the tight surcoat we learn from King Eene's Tourney- 
book: — ^^elle doit estre sans plis par le corps, adfin que 
on congnoisse mieux de quoy sent les armes." 

Nearly all the surcoats described above are without 
sleeves. But in the second half of the century the sleeve 
begins to appear ; at first, very modestly, but towards the 
close of the period, of very preposterous dimensions. Our 
woodcuts, Nos. 1 (vol. cciv. p. 4), 14, 15 and 16, the first 
of 1349, the remainder of 1369, afford examples of the 
small sleeve, scarcely more than an epaulette. In our 
engravings, Nos. 11 and 50, it has increased in length, 
but not passed the bounds of comeliness or convenience. 



° ArchaBol. Joamal, ii. 349. 
Gent. Mao. Vol. CCV. 



106 Arms, Armour, and Military Usages [A^^g- 

Compare the efl&gy of Sachsenhausen, 1370 (Heftier, pi. 
133), that of Duguesclin, 1380 (Guilhenny, p. 1 70), the last 
Great Seal of Edward III., and the statuette of St. George 
at Dijon, c. 1380 {Archceologia^ xxv. 672). The long, fall 
sleeve is seen in the efl&gy figured by Heftier, pi. 36, a.d. 
1401 ; in the seal of John, Duke of Burgundy, c. 1404 
(Wailly, ii. 362); and in the miniatures of the ^^Deposi- 
tion of Kichard II." [Archceologia^ vol xx.) 

Besides the usual forms of surcoat already examined, 
there appear during the course of the century several va- 
rieties which it is necessary to notice, but of which the 
examples are few. One of these is seen in the effigy at 
Alvechurch, Worcestershire, c. 1360 (Stothard, pi. 71), 
where the garment is tight as far as the waist, but ter- 
minates in a skirt falling in a multitude of folds as low as 
the knees. Another variety is found in our woodcut, vol. 
cciv. p. 690, date about 1340 : here the surcoat, long be- 
hind, is outcut in ftront in the form of an arch. In the efl&gy 
of Weikhard Frosch, 1378 (Heftier, pi. 49), and the statue 
of St. George at Dijon [ArchoBohgia^ xxv. 672), the lacing 
of the jupon is continued so as to join the front to the 
hinder portion. The surcoats of Italian soldiers in the 
curious carvings in bone, forming the sides of a casket in 
the collection at Goodrich Court, are made of a long strip 
of cloth, having a hole in the centre, through which the 
soldier thrusts his head. 

In a few examples of the end of the century the breast- 
plate is worn above the coat ; and in this case the coat has 
long, full sleeves. The statue of Conrad von Bickenbach, 
1393, here given, aflfords an instance. And a similar is 
offered by the eflSgy engraved in Heftier's work, pi. 156, 
A.D. 1394. 

The surcoat was fastened by lacing, buttoning or buck- 
ling. The lacing was sometimes in front, sometimes be- 
hind, sometimes at the side, llie front lacing is seen in 
our woodcut. No. 49, c. 1350 ; in the " Eomance of Melia- 
dus," Add. MS. 12,228, fol. 213 ; and in the eflfigies figured 
by Heftier, plates 22 and 106, dated 1374 and 1407. The 
side lacing is found in the figure of De Creke, c. 1330 
(woodcut 19) ; in the efl&gies engraved by Stothard, plates 
61, 63 and 94, of the years 1337 and 1389; and in the 
curious statue of a knight of the Hillary family at 



1858.] of the Fourteenth Century. 




Arms, Armour, and Mililary Usages 



[Aug. 



Walsall ", c. 1375. The manner of putting on these side- 
lacing garments is strikingly shewn in a miniatm-e of the 
Meliadus manuscript mentioned above, and here engraved. 




An example of the surcoat lacing behind is afforded by the 
relic suspended over the tomb of the Black Prince (en- 
graved in Stothard's Monuments and Labarte'e Handbook, 
English edition). The buttoned surcoat appears in our 
woodcut, No. 14, date 1369; on folio 213 of the "Eoman 
du roi Meliadus ;" in the effigy of Duguesclin (buttoned 
at the throat only) ; and in that of a knight figured by 
Hefner, pi. 35, a.d. 1401. In the sculptures at Alve- 
church and Dijon, named above, there is a mixture of the 
two modes. The buckled surcoat occurs in the monument 
of a Dynham, at King's CarsweU, Devonshire, given by 
Lysone in his history of that county. 

The materials of the surcoats were usually the rich stuffs 
of this time, in favour alike for the battle-field and the 
service of the altar. Samit, camocas, cendal, satin, velvet, 
cyclaton, cloth-of-gold and costly furs are among those 
most commonly named or represented". The surcoat of 
Sir John Chtrndos was of samit silk, "armoye de son 



* Kow ID printe poueoiaii in that terUli, Me the Comptatdt FJryenUrie of 
town. Etieime de la FoDtains^ edited by H. 

r For the relaliTe vtlnm of these nu- Dooet d'Arcq, p. 334. 



1858.] of the Fourteenth Century. 109 

armoirie, d'un blanc samit a deux pels aguises de gueules*'." 
In the Chronicle of Duguesclin we read that Henri de 
Transtamare 

** Devant sa bataille venoit sur un ga8coii, 
Armez et haubergiez, couvert du siglaton." — ^Vol. ii. p. 96. 

Among the armour of Louis X. is a quilted sureoat of 
white cendal : — '^ Item, une cote gamboisee, de cendal 
blanc." The velvet jupon of the Black Prince at Canter- 
bury is also a gamboised (or quilted) garment. Among the 
armour of Roger Mortimer, Earl of March, appears " une 
cote pour les joustes, de rouge velvet, ove une frette d'ar- 
gent ove papillons des armes de Mortemer^" Cloth-of- 
gold, as the material of a sureoat, occurs in the Accounts 
of Etienne de la Fontaine in 1352 : — " Pour un drap d'or et 
de soye, a faire un seurcot a parer pour ledit seingneur 
(le Dauphin), bailie audit armeurier^ Iv. escus *." Surcoats 
lined with fur are seen in the statue of the King of the 
Eomans, 1349 (vol. cciv. p. 4), and in the curious glass- 
painting figurea by Hefaer, pi. 37. From Chaucer we 
learn that the knight did not disdain a humbler material 
for the exigencies of adventurous travel : — 

" Oi fusty an he wered a gepoun — 
For he was late comen from his viage." — Line 75. 

The chief enrichment of the military sureoat was by 
heraldic devices, expressed in elaborate embroidery. The 
skirt was cut into various fanciful borders ; escallops, tre- 
foils, crosses, leaf-forms and many other figures. Occa- 
sionally fringes were added, and the armorial devices were 
surrounded by rich diaperiug. The fringed sureoat is 
seen in the brasses of De Bures and Fitzralph, both of the 
first quarter of the century (engraved in Boutell's " Monu- 
mental Brasses"); and in our woodcut, No. 9 (vol. cciv. 
p. 592), c. 1340. The indented and escalloped borders are 
both found in our No. 7 (vol. cciv. p. 590), c. 1340, and 
the latter pattern in Nos. 2 (vol. cciv. p. 11), 10, 12, 13, 
15, 16, 21, 26, 2S, 31, 33, 39 and 43; ranging from 
1360 to 1400. The trefoil figure occurs in Hefner's 59th 
plate, A.D. 1370, and in the effigy at Atherington, Devon 
(Stothard, pi. 100), c. 1380. The leaf form appears in our 

fl Froissart, i. 601. ' Kalend. and Inv. of the Exchequer, iii. 165. • Page 144. 



110 Arms, Armour, and Military Usages [Aug. 

woodcuts, Nos. 11, 32 and 37, of the dates 1372, 1400 and 
1401. Compare the effigies of Littlebury, 1360, and Mon- 
tacute, 1389 (Stothard, pi. 76 and 94), and that of Sach- 
senhausen, 1370 (Heftier, pi. 133). In the statue of 
Hohenlohe, 1319 (Heftier, pi. 87), the border ornament 
takes the form of a cross. The armoried surcoat occurs 
throughout the century. Early examples appear on the 
Great Seal of Eobert Bruce, 1306 (Laing's Scottish Seals, 
p 6), and the effigy of Du Bois, 1311 (Stothard, pi. 67). 
Other instances are aflforded by our woodcuts, Nos. 34, 20, 
86, 12, 11, 2 (vol. cciv. p. 11) and 26 ; dating firom about 
1330 to 1400. 

It is singular that on monumental brasses the heraldic 
bearings of the " coat of arms" are very rarely expressed. 
Among the few instances that occur is the one here given ; 
the memorial of Sir George Felbrigge, 1400, at Playford, 
Suffolk. Occasionally the surcoat is powdered with the 
heraldic design, as in our woodcut. No. 1 (vol. cciv. p. 4), 
A.D. 1349, and in the figure given by Hemer, pi. 133, a.d. 
1370. The effigy of an Italian knight (woodcut, No. 27), 
dated 1336, offers a curious diversity, in presenting a band 
of escutcheons passing across the breast. Among the monu- 
ments in which the field of the heraldic device is enriched 
by diapering, may be named those figured by Stothard, the 
statues of Du Bois, c. 1380, and Sir Guy Bryan, 1391. 

The mode of forming the armorial surcoat is shewn 
by the relic suspended over the tomb of the Black Prince 
at Canterbury, the only example of this ancient time 
that has come down to us. The basis of the garment 
is fine buckram, which is quilted in vertical stripes to 
the thickness of three-quarters of an inch: the facing 
is velvet, now faded to a pale yellowish brown; and 
the lions and fleurs-de-lis are expressed by an embroidery 
of gold thread. In form the surcoat is short, like that of 
the effigy (woodcut, No. 2, vol. cciv. p. 11): it has short 
sleeves, heraldically decorated, and is fastened by lacing 
behind. This most curious relic is admirably figured by 
Stothard at the end of his description of the statue of the 
Black Prince. Purther light is thrown on the decorative 
process in use for the enriched surcoat of this time by the 
Accounts of Etienne de la Fontaine in 1352. A " tunicle'^ 
for the Dauphin is there found, made of yellow velvet. 



1858.] of the Fourleenth Century. 



r\ 


jgi 


/^K 


M 


T\l A 


ly 


H p 


1 

f 


1 1 


■1 




^pi 


^^^"^^^^^^ — _ 1 


BIT OmiM fi bnagc. 


No. 26. 



112 Arms, Armour ^ and Military Usages [Aug. 

with fine red velvet for the heraldic ornaments, and having 
borders of pearls round the figures of fleurs-de-lis which 
formed part of the decorations: — "Pour ii. aunes de vel- 
luyau jaune, pour faire une tunicle, xii. escus. Pour iii. 
aunes de veluyau vermeil, fin, a armoier la tunicle, &c. 
Pour ii. onces xv. esterllins de perles, a pourfiller les 
fieurs de liz de la tunicle: c. sols parisis Ponce, xiii^ 
XV'. parisis \" 

The arm -defences of the fourteenth century are very 
various, especially during the first half of the period. And 
this variety is the more perplexing to the student, from the 
fact that the same monument sometimes offers different 
arrangements, which ordinarily would be taken to imply 
a sequence of inventions. Thus, in the tomb-sculptures 
of Aymer de Valence in Westminster Abbey, 1323, we 
have three distinct armings, one figure having a sleeve 
entirely of chain-mail, and another an arm-defence of com- 
plete plate (Stothard, plates 48 and 49). Again, while we 
find the brachieres of plate at the period named above, we 
meet with them of mail and plate mixed, as late as 1397 
(woodcut, No. 29). And in monuments of a very advanced 
time we even see the sleeves made of chain-mail alone, as 
in our woodcuts, Nos. 14, 15 and 16, of 13G9; and the 
statue of Hiiglin von Schoneck, 1374 (Hefner, pi. 22). 

Among the examples of mixed fabrics, some are of chain- 
mail partially covered with plate, as in our woodcuts, Nos. 
36, 1 1 , 39 and 29, and the Gorleston brass, c. 1325 (Stothard, 
pi. 51), the effigy of Lord Bumell, 1382 (BoutelPs '' Brasses 
and Slabs," p. 54), and the statue of Heinrich von Erbach, 
1387 (Hefoer, pi. 125). Some have wide mail sleeves 
with discs and scale-work (woodcut. No. 23); some, chain- 
mail sleeves with discs and plate (woodcut, No. 19, and 
Stothard, pi. 60) : others have the chain- work sleeve with 
plate and pourpointing (woodcut. No. 27) ; others, again, the 
chain-sleeve with discs and pourpoint only (woodcut. No. 9 
(vol. cciv. p. 592), and Hefaer, pi. 146); while a sixth 
variety exhibits the mail sleeve overlying a vambrace of 
plate and surmounted by an epaulette of scale-work (Hef- 
ner, pi. 87). Further diversities are the following: — 
studded armour placed over chain-mail (see woodcut. No. 1 , 
vol. cciv. p. 4) ; mail-sleeves having strips of metal laced 
on the upper side (Heftier, pi. 59); vambraces of plate, 

» Page 143. 



1858.] of the Fourteenth Century. 




GBNr. Uaq. Vol. CCV. 



Hi Arms, Armour, i^c. [Aug. 

with rerebraces of banded-mail (woodcut, No. 5, vol. cciv. 
p. 465) ; plate rerebraces, with the fore-arm of pourpoin- 
terie (Stothard, pi. 61); and brassards of plate, with a 
short sleeve of chain-mail (Stothard, pi. 66). To record all 
the varieties of combination would fill a volume — and a 
very dull one. 

Arm-defences of plate alone, appear about 1325, but do 
not become general till the second half of the century. 
Early examples are offered by the statue of De Bohun 
(HoUis, pt. 4) and the bas-relief of De Valence (Stothard, 
pi. 49). See also the Pembridge figure, c. 1330 (HoUis, 
pt. 5); that of Ifield, c. 1335 (Stothard, pi. 59); of the 
Count of Alenfon, 1346 (Guilhermy, p. 278); and our 
woodcuts, Nos. 12, 13, 2 (vol. cciv. p. 11), 21, 33 and 26, 
of the years 1360, 1368, 1376, 1380, 1393 and 1400. 

On examining the various monuments cited above, it will 
have been remarked that the shoulder, the elbow, and the 
hand have especial defences : to these it is necessary that 
the archaeological student should pay some little attention. 

The epaulettes are chiefly discs, or articulated, or single 
triangular plates. The discs appear from about 1320 to 
1350, taking the forms of plain roundels, rosettes, shells 
or lion masks. They are sometimes shewn as fastened 
with a lace, but generally the mode of attachment is not 
disclosed. All the varieties of disc will be found in the 
following monuments: — De Valence, 1323 (Stothard, pi. 
49); Fitzralph, 1325 (WaUer, pt. 13); the figure from 
Sloane MS., 346 (our woodcut. No. 17); Daubemoun, 
1327 (Boutell, p. 41); De Creke and Northwood, c. 1330 
(woodcuts, Nos. 19 and 23); Ifield, 1334 (Stothard, pi. 
59); the statue of an Italian knight, 1335, here given; 
the effigy at Sandwich, c. 1340 (woodcut, No. 9, vol. cciv. 
p. 592); Ingham, 1343 (Stothard, pi. 66); Giffard^ 1348 
(Trans, of Essex Archeeol. Soc, vol. i.); Orlamiinde, 1360, 
and Sachsenhausen, 1370 (Heftier, pis. 146 and 133). 

The knightly statue atClehongre, Herefordshire, c. 1330, 
offers a curious variety in the arrangement of the disc, 
which is there placed in front of the arm, while at the 
back of the shoulder is fixed an ailette (Hollis, pt. 5). 

(7b be continued.) 

" This cariom bnun shews the shell form of epaulette. 



1858.] 115 



SKETCH OF THE LIFE OF WALTER DE MERTON, 

FOXnn>EB OF MBBTOK COLLBOl, OXFORD. 

CHAPTER IL 

THE FOUNDATION OF HIS COLLEOB. 

These facts are certain with regard to the foundation of the 
college. 

1. That the charter of incorporation with the first body of 
statutes was obtained in 1264. (In Rot. Cartar. 48th Henry III., 
m. 2.) 

2. That this foundation was the development of a previous one 
of unknown date. 

8. That the Society was established in the manor of Maiden, 
but in connection with the University of Oxford. 

The Charter Roll is to be found in the Charter Rolls of 48th 
Henry III., m. 2. It is much to be noted as the first incorporation 
of any body of persons for purposes,of study in this kingdom, and 
as the first effV)rt to raise the condition of the secular clergy by 
bringing them into close connection with an academical course of 
study. 

But it was not the primary form which the founder's intentions 
had taken. 

There is a document existing amongst the Maiden title-deeds 
containing an assignation of that manor, with Chessington and 
Farley, for the sustentation of John de la Clythe and seven other 
nepotes, all recited by name, who were called "scolares in scolis 
degentes,'' stated to be living under an ordinatio approved by the 
king, by the feudal lord, and by the Bishop of Winchester and his 
chapter. This assignation bears no date, and there is some difii- 
cnlty in fixing one, for the only personage mentioned is the Bishop 
of Winchester^ designated only by the initial "J,'' and this initial 
ties the document to some date posterior to Oct. 18, 1262, when 
John of Exeter was nominated by the pope to that see, after a 
vacancy of two years, owing to a disputed election upon the death 
of Aymer de Lusignan. 

But that a settlement of the estates upon certain scholares, and 
that an ordinatio for this purpose existed somewhat earlier, we 
learn from a charter of Richard, Earl of Gloucester *, May 7, 1262, 
empowering the founder to assign his manor to the priory of 
Merton, or other religious house, for the sustenance of " clcrici in 
scolis degentes,^' according to the founder's ordinatio, or any 
future one he should think fit to establish. 

It was to be expected that the founder's intention revealed by this 

' Printed by Kilner, p. 61. 



116 Sketch of the Life of Walter de Merton, [Aug. 

charter, of vesting his estates in a religions house as a trustee for his 
scholastic design, would have manifested itself in the deed of as- 
signation, were that deed a posterior document. But if the dates 

given by Le Neve, relating to the appointment of Bishop J. 

of Winchester, are correct, the Earl's charter must have been 
executed in the month of May preceding the Bishop's consecration, 
which, on the authority of the Chronicon Dovorensey is placed by 
Le Neve a little before Michaelmas. 

The only conclusion to which we can come is, that the founder 
had in his mind the project of vesting his estates in the hands of 
an existing religious corporation ; that he took powers from his 
feudal lord for that purpose ^ ; that for some reason or other he did 
not execute this project, and that he contented himself with assign- 
ing the manors to his nephews under an ordijiance sanctioned by 
such authority in Church and State as he could procure ^ 

The description of the founder, quondam CancellariuSy is the next 
chronological help to which we must turn ^. Several letters addressed 
to the founder as Chancellor, in 1262 and 1263, are still extant, 
which leave little doubt that he held the oflSce continuously up to 
June 29, 1263, when Bishop (Cantilupe) of Worcester wrote be- 
seeching him to induce the king to try the effect of mediation for 
the pacification of the barons. 

In September following we know that the great seal had, by the 
resolution of the barons, devolved upon Nicolas, Archdeacon of Ely, 
for the term ^ of the king's absence from England, 

Somewhere then about this period, September, 1263, the quondam 
Cancellarius must be supposed to have published his deed of assign- 
ment to his nephews, so soon to be superseded by the charter of in- 
corporation obtained in the course of the ensuing year. 

Assuming then that the power acquired for the De Clares to 
convey the Maiden estate to religious houses was never acted upon, 
the document (which I assign to 1263, circa Sept.) gives us the 
earliest stage of the founder's benevolent intentions. It presents to 
us a family arrangement, placing eight of his nephews, under a 
warden and chaplams, in his manor-house, with a lifelong provision ; 
entitling them " scolares in scolis degentes ;" and tying them to a 
life of study and of rule, for they were to forfeit their places should 
they disregard the ordinatio, or commit any serious offence. 

•» These powers he did not previously possess. The earlier conveyances from the 
mesne lords, de Watevile and Codynton, and the confirmations by the chief lord, the 
Earl of Qloucester, bar the right of assigning '* Judrois et domibus religiosis." 

* The instramen> looks very much like one published in a manonal court. The 
names of the witnesses seem local and humble. 

^ From John Mansell, 46th Heury III., no month ; the Bishop of Exeter, 47th 
Henry III., feast of St. Gregory, probably March 12, 1262-8 ; Bishop of Worcester, 
June 29, 1263; Lord Neville, no month. See R>mer, t. i. pp. 752, 758, 768, 772. 

*■ The king left Westminster with intent to cross the sea, Sept. 18. By an order, 
Dec 18, the barons decreed that the seal should continue in Nicolas de Ely^s hands as 
long as the king remained abroad. Rymer's FobcL, torn. i. p. 775 ; Anglia Sacra, voL 
Lp.49& 



1858.] Sketch of the Life of Walter de Merton. 117 

This assignment, it should be remarked, though it lacked the 
force of incorporation, was intended to be perpetual in its benefits 
to the recipients. The vacancies were to be filled up by consan- 
auinei, or others, the nomination of whom the founder reserved to 
himself. But as a legal disposition of property, the founder could 
hardly have regarded it as final. Indeed, it is not easy to see in 
whom the legal estate at that time was vested ; and as the ordinatio ' 
is lost, we can get no light from that document, which probably 
would have given some indirect information. 

Some security for sustaining the assignment of the property in 
its charitable purposes was, no doubt, secured from the powerful 
patronage under which it was eflfected. Besides the approval of 
the monarch and of the diocesan given to the ordinatio, the founder 
was able to secure the patronage of the Earls of Gloucester, which 
implied some effective lay power for keeping the beneficiaries to an 
observance of their duties. 

We find Earl Richard commending the institution to the pro- 
tection of his successors, " suae defensionis clypeo perpetuo contu- 
endam -/' adding, " Qui etiam (i. e. his successors) supra ipsos ad 
quos dicta maneria ex ordinatione supra dicta devenerunt, liberum 
et plenam habeant potestatem ipsos compellandi per potestatem se- 
cularem ad observationem ordinationis supradictse.^^ 

The latter power is dropped in the charter of his son Gilbert in 
1264, when the revised ordinatio had placed the patronage in the 
diocesan, and, by virtue of its force as a royal charter, recognised 
by the highest civil authority, the exercise of his ordinary and 
visitatorial jurisdiction. 

The charter of 1264, it must now be noticed, did not create the 
first body of " Scolares de Merton.^' It created the first incorporated 
body. It gave a fixity and legal security to a previous disposition 
of property. It was a development of an earlier idea, and a 
development that was soon to advance farther, viz., by the strength- 
ening of its academical tie, which was rapidly becoming a cord 
strong enough to draw the whole institution into a local connection 
with Oxford in addition to the educational relation which it had in 
its most rudimentary state. 

With regard to that relation, it is, I fear, impossible at the pre- 
sent day, in our ignorance of the University system on the one 
hand, and the details of the Merton ordinatio on the other, to gain 
much by speculation. 

I entertain no doubt that the phrases, "in scolis degentes/* 
"clericorum in studio degentium," are synonyms, and imply a con- 
nection with an University course of study, for the former phrase is 
continued as the current and formal title of the Fellows after their 

' I regret to find that no copy of this ordinatio exists in the archives of the see or 
the chapter of Winchester. No episcopal register is extant earlier than Jolrn de Pon- 
tiasara's episcopate, 1282, and there are no capitular documents relating to Merton ex* 
cept those which affect patronage of livings. 



118 Sketch of the Life of Walter de Merton. [Aug. 

sole place of residence had become fixed at Oxford ; and studium is 
used in the statutes of 1264 as the equivalent of University ; — 
" Oxonise, aut alibi, ubi studium viget generale " which phrase is 
again varied and explained in the confirmation of 1274 by " Ox- 
onice ubi Universitas viget studentium." 

The opinion, held by at least one learned man, that in scolis 
degere meant nothing more than the pursuit of a studious life, 
I cannot reconcile with any of these expressions, and I would 
appeal farther to an auxiliary clause in the charter of 1262 in 
favour of scholcB meaning a recognised local school of learning : — 
** Clericoruin in scolis degentium, et se studio in eisdem salubriter 
applicantium ;^' and also to the statutes of 1270, which inflict the 
penalty of "Amotio" on the Fellows, "si praeter necessitates 
domus extra scolas egerint ^" 

I conceive, then, that from the very first the nepotes were housed 
chiefly in Oxford in some existing hall, or in some house hired by 
their uncle, and placed under a licensed Master of Arts for their 
exclusive use, and that the Warden's main charge was the manage* 
ment of the estate and application of the revenues. This view of 
his office is the only one given by the assignment : — " Deputati pro 
conservatione sustentationis praedictse et rerum et possessionum 
suarum." A similar one is presented by the statutes, 1264, where 
the " administratio rerum et possessionum" is the duty specially 
laid on the Warden ; and " Talem studeant nominare qui melior et 
fidelior in administratione rerum et negotiorum dictse domus haberi 
poterit,'* is the charge given to the electors to the wardenship. 

Not until the concentration of the constituent branches of the 
institution under one domestic government in Oxford were the 
higher qualifications of the statutes of 1270 required : — "Virtam in 
spiritalihus quam in temporalibus circumspectus." 

And if I am right in the above view of the condition of the 
original scholars, it will be found to resemble very closely that of 
other small bodies already existing of " clerici in scolis degentes,** 
whose maintenance was provided for by trusts vested in existing 
corporations. 

Such a trust, we find, was created by Alan Basset, and vested in 
the priory of Bicester ; see A. Wood, Annals, 1243. Such, pro- 
bably, were some of the earliest provisions for scholars in Cam- 
bridge, the exhibitions vested in the priory of Barnwell**. Very 
similar, too, was the trust vested in the University of Oxford by 
William of Durham's bequest, 1249, for the maintenance of four 
masters ; and very similar likewise was the earliest condition of the 
Balliol Fellowships, which were merely exhibitions maintaining 



' Compare the first Balliol Statutes, 1282 : — " Scolas exerceant et studio intendant 
secundum Statuta Universitatis Oxoniec." 

^ From a bequest of 200 marks left by Bishop Kilkenny, of Ely. Dugd., Mon. The 
connection of these bequests with masses does not militate against their academical 
character. All eleemosynary dispositions of the day were firamt- d with a view to secure 
a return to the donor in aaUUem anima. 



1858.] Sketch of the Life of Walter de Merton. 119 

students until the completion of the course of study in kxXji 
under the management of procuratoresy who represented the 
founder in the administration of the funds. 

And perhaps a still closer similarity existed in the halls sup- 
ported in Oxford by the religious bodies for the purpose of training 
their younger members " in scolis Oxoniae." The best example of 
this mode of academical provision is to be sought in Gloucester 
Hall, on the site of which, or not far off, the Benedictine Abbey of 
Winchcombe had a "generale studium" for their novices before 
1175, when it is mentioned as part of their property in a papal 
bull. (Vid. Dugdale's Man., ii. 854-6.) 

In 1253 the present site was purchased by a benefactor for thef 
benefit of Gloucester Abbey, and in 1291, at a general chapter 
of the Benedictine Order, the hall was adopted as a nursery of 
students for the whole Order, to be supported by contributions from 
the richer abbeys. 

In this condition it seems to have remained till the Dissolution. 
I conceive, then, that the relation of the scholars of Merton to 
the University before the final concentration of all the members of 
the body in Oxford, must be gathered from comparisons with 
those institutions which already existed for the maintenance of 
" scolares in scolis degentes," to which the founder was in some 
degree indebted for his model. 

But I conceive that he had, at least as early as 1264, the more 
complete ideal in his mind, and one exclusively of his own concep- 
tion, viz., that of an incorporated body of secular students, endowed 
with all the attributes of the great Corporations of Regulars — self- 
support, self-government, self-replenishment, settled locally in con- 
nection with a great seat of study, acquiring a share of that influence 
in the University which the establishment of powerful monasteries 
within its bounds had almost monopolized in the hands of the 
Regulars, and wielding that influence for the benefit of the Church 
in the advancement of the secular clergy, who, for lack of support 
and encouragement in the Universities, were sadly decayed ia 
learning. 

In the following chapter I must endeavour to examine the docu^ 
mentary matter which exhibits the founder's mind in the further 
advancement of his institution to its ultimate form, realizing, as I 
Conceive, the complete ideal. 



Deed of AssioNMEirr befebrei) to p. 19. (Endobseb ik lateb HAin>.) 

'' Carta Walteri de Merton^ facta Scolaribus de Merton j et hec prima 

de Meandon et de Ffarlee. 

" Omnibus Cristi fidelibus ad quos presens scriptum pervenerit : Waltems 
de Merton, illustris domini H. regis Anglise quondam cancellarius, eternam 
in Domino salutem. Ad omnium vestrum notitiam volo pervenire, quod 
ego tam aactoritate michi a prefato domino meo rege attribata, necnon 



120 England under the Normans^ [Aug. 

potestat^ michi a capitalibus dominis feodi concessa, qaam ratione juris 
quod michi competit in meis maneriis de Maldon, Chessendone, Farle, 
assignavi, dimisi, et concessi predicta maneria cum omnibus pertinentiis 
eorundem, ad susteatationem Johannis de la Clythe, Will, et Rogeri, fratrum 
ipsius, Eoberti fil. Gilberti de Ewell, Philippi fratris sui, Thomse de 
Wortynge, Walteri fil. Bicardi Ulvet, Walteri de Portesmue, nepotum 
meorum, in scholis degentium, secundum ordinationem inde per me factam, 
necnon a prefato domino rege, et domino I. Wintoniens. episcopo, loci 
diocesano, et ejus capitulo, approbatam. Ita quoque quod mihi liceat quam- 
cunque voluero scolares alios insimiliter de meis consanguineis vel aliis 
nominare et assignare qui sustentationem suam inde habeant secundum 
formam ordinationis prsedictae usque ad numerum in eadem contentum, quam 
sustentationem prsedictis nepotibus meis in scolis degentibus ad totam vitam 
ipsorum cum pleno Dominio maneriorum predictorum observari volo : nisi 
aliter et uberius sibi provideatur aut in culpa fuerint quare dicta sustenta- 
tione debeant privari ; et similiter aliis meis consanguineis qui ad dictam 
sustentationem fuerint admissi. Salvis quoad alia omnia conditionibus in 
supra dicta ordinatione contentis quam etiam ordinationem corrigere mutare 
et meliorari mihi si expedire videatur pleno jure licebit. 

'* Salvis etiam michi asiamentis domorum maneriorum ipsorum cum ibi 
declinare et moram facere voluero, una cum furagio et focalibus et aliis ad 
sustentationem familiae mese necessariis quatenus res ipsa rationabiliter 
sufficere potent^ prout dictam sustentationem nepotum meorum et aliorum 
in scolis degentium et ministrorum altaris Christi secundum formam dictas 
ordinationis commorantium in maneriis predictis necnon et custodis dictis 
scolaribus pro conservati6ne sustentationis predictse et rerum ac possessio- 
num suarum deputati seu deinceps deputandi. In hujus autem rei Testi- 
monium prsesenti Scripti sigillum meum apponi feci. His testibus W^. de 
Brademere, Joh. de Horton, Joh6 de Arcubus, Philippe le juvene, Hamon 
de Planat, Brian de Maldon, Will, de Gardiner et aliis. '^ 

Seal wholly gone— No date. 



ENGLAND UNDER THE NORMANS*. 

Some time since, in noticing Dr. Lappenberg's '* History of England under 
the Norman Kings/* we pointed out as one of its most valuable features 
its lucid account of the feudal system, which we considered likely to increase 
the legal lore of the professional man, as well as to inform and interest the 
mere student. We added, '' Equally useful, too, to the inquirer into our 
early institutions, is the purview given of *• Domesday Book */ and here, with- 
out he necessity of having recourse to the ponderous and costly folios of 
Kel am and Ellis, he may gain an exact knowledge, as far as any certain 
knowledge is now attainable, of the relative positions occupied by tenants 
in capitej mesne tenants^ commendati, socmen, coliberH, gebtiras, villani, 
coscets, cotarii, radchenietriy radmannu hordarii, and others ^.'^ 

We were not aware, when writing thus, that an author was then em- 

* " England under the Norman Oocapation. By James F. Morgan, MX" (Williams 
and Korgate, Edinburgh and London). 
^ Gbkt. Mao., May, 1857, p. 520* 
3 



1858.] England under the Normans. 121 

ployed on ** a careful perusal of the record called * Domesday/ " and that 
the result of his laborious examination was about to be presented to us in 
the unpretending shape of a small octavo of some 200 pages only. Such, 
however, was the fact, and right glad are we to be able to say that the little 
work gives all the information that can be desired on the topics enumerated 
above, as well as on a variety of others. It is, indeed, a most remarkable 
example of painstaking compression of knowledge, and must, when once 
known, become absolutely indispensable as a key to unlock the vast stores 
that lie hidden from the ordinary reader in the oft-mentioned, if not oft- 
consulted, tome of " Domesday." 

The author, in furnishing a new Index to '* Domesday," evidently pre- 
supposes in his reader a perfect acquaintance with that document, and, 
studying compression above all things, he cites its different parts as " G. D.," 
" L. D.," and " Supp.," remarking, '* It will be understood that G. D. 
stands for * Great Domesday,* and L. D. for * Little Domesday ;' Supp. 
denotes the ' Supplementary Volume,' containing Exon Domesday, 
Inquisitio Eliensis, Liber Winton, and Boldon Book." There seem to 
be no perplexing abbreviations in the passages extracted, but the letters 
' T. E. E.,' • T. R. W.,' which mean in the time of King Edward, or 
King William. His book, however, we hope will fall into the hands of 
many whose knowledge of *' the glorious old monument " is not so exact 
as his own ; and for the sake of such it may be useful to extract a brief 
notice of its formation and contents from another source ^. 

" A.D. 1085. At his court at Gloacester, held at Christmas, a general sturey of 
the land is ordered by the king [William I.] ' So very narrowly indeed,' says the 
Saxon Chronicle, ' did he commission them to trace it out, that there was not one single 
bide nor a yard of land (quarter acre), nay, moreover, (it is shameful to tell, though 
he thought it no shame to do it,) not even an ox, nor a cow, nor a swine, was there 
left that was not set down. And all the recorded particulars were afterwards brought 
to him;' at Winchester, at the Easter of the year 1086. 

" These recorded particulars have come down to us in the ofben-cited record termed 
the Domesday Book, or the Book of Winchester. The dispatch with which this survey 
was executed is remarkable'. Persons called the king's justiciaries were appointed, of 
whom the names of four have been preserved, viz., Remigius, bishop of Lincoln, Walter 
Giffard, Henry de Ferers, and Adam, brother of Eudo the royal steward, who either in 
person or by deputy visited the greater part of the country «, and from the oaths of the 
sheriff, the lord of each manor, the priest of each church, the reeve of each hundred, 
and the bailiff and six villeins of each vill, obtained the particulars of the name of the 
place, who held it in the time of King Edward, who was the present holder, its extent, 
the number of tenants of each class, bond and free, the homages of each manor, the 
extent of wood, meadow, and pasture, the mills and ponds, the gross value in King 
Edward's time, and, which gives a key to the whole, whether any advanee could be 
made in the value ; an expectation, however, doomed to disappointment, as the great 
majority of places are returned as of less value now than formerly, the natural oonse- 
quenoe of the mal-administration of the conquerors'. These particulars, which are 
found in an existing inquisition into property in Cambridgeshire and Hertfordshire, do 
not bear out the complaint of the Saxon Chronicle as to the cattle ; but it is pro- 

« "Annals of England," vol. i. pp. 198—201. 

' " Some historians say that it was begun in 1080 or 1083, but from internal evidence 
furnished by allusions in the record to public events of which the date is well established, 
it appears that they are mistaken." 

* " Neither Northumberland, Cumberland, Westmoreland, nor Dorham, appear in the 
return, — ^for which various causes have been assigned; the most probable bdng that 
they were then in the hands of the Scots." 

' " The lands in the king's hands are more highly rated than before, and the rents 
exacted from the burghs greatly increased, but the estates in the possession of his 
subjects are generally reduced in value." 

Ghtt. Mao. Vol. CCV. b 



122 England undei* the Normans. [Aug. 

bable that the officials often exceeded their instractions, and inquired more minately 
than they had been directed to do. When completed, these inquisitions were sent to 
Wincheiiter, and being there digested, were entered in the book now preserved in the 
Chapter-house at Westminster, but formerly carried about with the king and the great 
seal, and termed indiff rently the ' Book of Winchester,' from the place of its compila- 
tion, and ' Domesday Book,' either from a profane parallel instituted between its deci* 
sions and those of the d'ty of doom, or judgment, or more probably from its bein^« 
while at Winchester, deposited in a chapel or vault of the cathedral, called Domua Dei, 

" This most remarkable document is written on vellum, and forms two volumes of 
unequal size, — one being a folio of 382 pnges, in a small hand ; the other a quarto of 
450 pages, in a larger one. The first volume [' G. D.'] commences with an entry of all 
the above particulars as regards the county of ' Ghent,' and the shires are arranged in 
series running from east to west, and one fVom west to east, though their limits do not 
always agree with the modem divisions, and sometimes — for the sake, apparently, of 
bringing all the property of some great landholder together — a portion of one county 
is described in another. Commencing with Kent, the survey proceeds along the coast 
(but including Berkshire) to Cornwall ; then, starting from Middlesex, proceeds through 
Hertford, Bucks, Oxford, Gloucester, and Worcester, to Hereford; the third series 
begins with Cambridge, and embraces Huntingdon, Bedford, Northampton, Leicester, 
Warwick, Stafford, and Salop ; and the fourth, Chester, Derby, part of Lancashire, 
Yorkshire, and Lincoln. The second volume [* L. D.'] is occupied only with the three 
counties of Essex, Suffolk, and Norfolk ; and besides the same matters as in the first, has 
lists of ' invasions,' as they are termed, or of lands possessed without a title from the 
king, 

" The number of tenants in capite entered in the first volume is 510, in the second, 
162' ; but several of these are the same persons ; the number of under-tenants is about 
8,000, the great majority of whom, or their ancestors, had held the same lands in Saxon 
times, though then as principals." 

So much for the original " Domesday." The contents of the supple- 
mentary volume are of a very similar nature, though in part relating to a 
later period, the Boldon Book being of the twelfth century, and the Ely 
Book of the thirteenth. Any work that attempts to treat of such a vast 
variety of subjects as *' Domesday" contains, in the moderate limits to 
which our author has confined himself, must, of course, be essentially one 
of mere reference, and present little for citation. Mr. Morgan, however, 
opens with a sketch of the " Domesday Book and the Conqueror's Policy," 
a portion of which we transcribe, as a fair specimen of his style. 

" The battle of Hastings was looked upon as a settlement of all the estates in Eng- 
land, not even excepting the estates of the Church. No man could hold an acre by an 
ante-Norman title. All were obliged to seek the king and to buy their lands, aud it 
might happen to an unfortunate thune, after his arrival at court, to find himself unable 
to outbid a Norman competitor, or to find that a Norman had already obtained a royal 
grant. In either case the Englishman's only resource, short of migration, would be to 
take the land as a farm of the Norman, of Osbem D'Arcy, or Ilbert de Lacy ; or even 
to become manent, adscriptus glebse, or a villein, where he had been tenant. As we 
read in the Buckinghamshire ' Dom^day,' ' Ailric holds four hydes of William Fitzans* 
culf . . . The same held it in the time of King Edward, and now holds at farm 
of William graviUr et miserabiliter,' (Q. D. 148 b.) Although there may be no other 
English groan in ' Domesday,' the case of Ailric was not peculiar : for example, ' Lewin 
holds of the Earl Bvre in Hertfordshure. This land the same Lewin held of King 
Edward, and he could sell it. He now holds it at farm of the Earl' (G. D. 186 b.) 
These passages are illustrations of Bracton's remark, that there were in the Conquest 
freemi n who held their tenements fVeely by free services or by free customs, who, after 
they had been ousted by more powerful men, took back the same tenements to be held 
in villenage (Co. Litt. 116 b.) Some, who were rather fortunate, secured the freehold 
of a corner of their land. Canterton, in the New Forest, belonged to King William 
according to ' Domesday ;' Chenna held it of King Edward, and was in it at the time 
of the florvey. Chenna's share was worth four shillings a year and the King's worth 

' *' Ezdnsive of eodesiastical corporations, which bring the total ap to about 1400.** 



1858.] England under the Normans. 123 

sixteen shillings (G. D. 50 b.) Godewin has half a hyde in the manor which is called 
Bagiol of the Kins^ in charity. He is the same who formerly held the whole manor 
on the day that Bang Edward was alive and was dead (Supp. 180). 

" The forfeited lands were not assigned to the Normans indiscriminately. In g^e- 
ral, an English lordship was handed over, compact and entire, to a new proprietor. In 
this manner Alestan, of Boscumb, was succeeded in Wilts, Somerset and Bedfordshire 
by Williann IVEu, who succeeded other chiefs in other counties ; Merlesuain, by Ralph 
Paganel in Devon, Somerset, Gloucester, York, and Lincolnshire ; and as it was Wil- 
liam's original policy to appear to reign as the lawful heir of King Edward, so every 
Norman baron affected to be the representative of an English thane, whom he called 
his 'antecessor,' which, of course, does not mean progenitor. Thus Earl, or King, 
Harold, is called the ancestor of William de Warren (G. D. 877). Chardford in 
Hampshire is called Hugh de Port's fee by inheritance from his ancestor (G. D. 44 b.) 
Berenger Giffard held a hyde and a half in Dorsetshire, which the ancestor of Berenger 
farmed of him (Supp. 21). Now and then the Norman's connection with his antecessor 
was less like usurpation. Robert D'Oyley married tlie daughter of Wigot, and so be- 
came tenant of her father's honour or barony of Walling^ord, which passed in the life- 
time of Robert to his daughter's husband. A man loved a certain woman, living on a 
farm of thirty acres, at Pickeuham, in Norfolk, and married her, and afterwards held 
the land without the King's grant and without livery (L. D. 232). A youniif man 
named Itichard married the widow of the sheriff of Gloucester, and so became a landed 
gentleman (G. D. 167). By decrees, and under various circumstances, the substitution 
of the Norman in the place of the Saxon, or Danish, aristocracy was accomplished. 
The small proprietors were, not unfrequently, expelled or reduced to villenage ; but 
the villeins or farmers remained undisturbed, excepting in parts of the country which 
had been ravaged or afforested. 

" It is no part of our plan to review the Norman Conquest. The reader knows in 
what manner the Conqueror set all England under his hand — 

" and how he set mootings, 
and how he set hustings, 
and how he set sdren, (shires) 
and made frith of deoren." 

(3 Layamon 286, 287). 

" A frith is a warren or preserve, like Aldington Frith, in Kent, Duffield Frith, in 
Derbyshire. We have the same expression in the ' Saxon Chronicle :' ' The King set 
many deer-friths.' If lands were afforested the peasants were removed, or placed under 
ibrett-law. Entries of waste land may be supposed to denote the extirpation of the 
peasantry. A marginal note in ' Exon Domesday ' informs us that Thurlestone, Portle- 
moath. West Allington, and other manors on the south coast of Devonshire, had been 
wasted by the Irish (per IrlcMdos homines ^ Supp. 301) ; the damage done in Hereford- 
shire by Grifin and Blein of Wales is likewise noted in its place (G. D. 181) ; and the 
whole waste of Cheshire, Staffordshire, and other counties bordering on Wales, ought 
not to be charged against the Conqueror ; but it seems impossible to make too much 
of lus cruel devastation of Northumbria. There was much wasted land in Derbyshire, 
and more in Nottinghamshire than in Lincolnshire. A place in Warwickshire had been 
wasted by the King's army (G. D. 239) ; and the wasting of Ryecote and Chesterton, 
in Oxfordshire, may have been due to an army passing through those places towards 
Staffordshire. In like manner we may attempt to account for waste lands in Sussex 
and Somersetshire ; but some lands were waste through the neglect of their owners, 
and in some cases vcuta means that the land was void, (vcuma, G. D. 11 b) not that it 
was unproductive." 

The work consists of eight chapters more, devoted to (2) The Measure- 
ment of Land ; (3) Money, Rent, and Agricultural Affairs ; (4) The Hall, 
the Church, and the Peasantry ; (5) The Freehold Tenantry ; (6) Boroughs 
and Cities ; (7) Hundreds, Wapentakes, and Shires ; (8) Titles, Offices, 
and Surnames ; and (9) some closing remarks on the Extinction of Yil- 
lenage. In all these the author's views are expressed in the fewest possible 
words, and each assertion is supported by citations from '* Domesday," 
with illustrations from every likely and many unlikely sources. The 
" Saxon Chronicle" is of course adduced, together with a formidable array 
of later chroniclers, intermixed with " Fleta," and the Laws of the Confes- 



1^4 England under the Normans. [Aug. 

Bor, and charters from the " Monasticon ;" but, to shew that his reading 
has not -been exclusively black-lettered, the " Agricultural Reports,*' 
"Hone's Every-day Book," the "Quarterly Review," the "Pictorial 
History of England," the " Athenaeum," and " Notes and Queries," are, 
inter alia, laid under contribution, and the result is a book whose chief 
fault is the very unusual one now-a-days of not being long enough. 

We feel half inclined to confine ourselves to an expression of our gene- 
ral concurrence in the author's views ^, for he has so evidently laboured to 
bring them before the public at the least possible cost of its time and purse, 
that there would be a manifest unfairness in giving such a summary of 
them as might stand in the stead of the book itself to even a single reader. 
In what we have to say, therefore, we rather propose to whet than to satisfy 
curiosity. 

The question of the measurement of land is discussed at some length, 
the result appearing to be that the customary acres (many of which are 
enumerated) usually contain as many poles as the statute acre, but that the 
pole varies so much that any exact reduction of the hyde to modern mea- 
sure is impossible. 

As regards rent, we find that the annual value of the hyde was about 
208., which was paid either in coin or produce (or both) by the free 
tenants, but by the bondmen in produce and services. The market value 
of land, however, is not easily determinable, as] exchange was far more 
frequent than sale, and when sale took place, there was commonly a 
reservation of some rights or privileges, which of course affected the price. 

The fourth and fifth chapters we especially recommend, as giving pre- 
cisely the needful information regarding the various classes of the commu- 
nity. All that is really known about the thanes, the lagemen, the socmen, 
and free tenants on the one hand, and the various classes of bondmen and 
bondwomen on the other, is here most clearly stated, but it is done in a 
manner of which a summary could give but an unsatisfactory idea, and it 
would not mend the matter to cite a passage or two forcibly detached from 
the context. We prefer, therefore, passing on to Chapter VI., on Boroughs 
and Cities, where we find many curious particulars of the growth of vil- 
lages into towns, from the settlement of handicraftsmen among the agricul- 
turists, who were soon allowed to redeem their predial labour by a money 
payment, the first great step in their enfranchisement. 

At the time of the survey there were evidently great inequalities in the 
condition of burgesses. Some are spoken of as liable to servile work, 
while others are mounted men, who go on the king's service within a cer- 
tain district, or form his body-guard when he comes among them. 

As the oldest systematic account of our country, " Domesday " is of 
course invaluable ; but still no one can consult it without disappointment, 
unless he keeps steadily in view the purpose for which it was compiled. 
It was not meant to furnish topographical information, but to serve the 
ends of the Exchequer, and when facts bearing on the revenue were col- 
lected, its end was accomplished. If this is once forgotten, its omissions 

h We say generally, as we think that in some few instances he has arrived at con- 
dnsions that need reconsideration ; e.g., " There were fonr Africans at Clive, in 
Gloacestershire, on a manor belonging to Worcester Cathedral (G. D. 165). It is 
more likely that they were Moors than that they were Negroes." The words in the 
original are " Afrns" and " Afri," and though Rndder, in his county history, translates 
them " Moors," Eelham and Ellis dissent. The real meaning most probably is ** cart- 
horses," or perhaps " plough cattle," as in the Templar inventories. See Qevt. Mao., 
May, 1858. 



1858.] England under the Normans, 125 

will appear remarkable. The burgesses of towns and cities, who represent 
so much money for the king's service, are all duly recorded, but we have 
very much less than we should wish to have about the places themselves. 
We see, generally, that the towns had decayed under the Norman rule, 
except the southern seaports, that were necessary to keep up the commu- 
nication between their old and their new country, corresponding roughly 
with the Cinque Ports of later times. From reasons that it is vain now 
to attempt to penetrate, certain districts seem to have enjoyed a partial or 
total freedom from taxation, and are consequently left unnoticed ; for all 
information that did not bear directly on the sums to be raised appears to 
have been systematically disregarded. Consequently, " Domesday," as 
Mr. Morgan remarks, " gives no adequate notion of the relative rank, or 
aggregate population, of the cities and boroughs. It seems unlikely that 
Exeter, which had over 300 houses, can have been more populous than 
Bristol, which is barely noticed in the record." Two greater cities than 
either, — viz., the ancient and the modern capital of England, — are, to the 
grief of the topographer, " a blank in the ' Domesday Book,' " but our author 
contrives to produce from other sources pleasant pictures of Winchester and 
London soon after the survey, for portions only of which we can find room. 

" We have two ancient descriptions of Winchester, one made by direction of Henry 
I., with reference to his own time and to the reign of Edward the Confessor : the other 
taken by the Bishop of Winchester in the year 1148. The second appears to be an 
account of every house ; the first is but a partial survey, containing only the tenements 
belonging to the king and his barons. The following are the names of the streets of 
Winchester mentioned in the first Record : — Suithelinga-street, Bredenestret, Scower- 
tenestret, Alwarenestret, Flesmangerestret (now St.Peter's), Wenegenestret (now Middle 
Brook-street), Tannerestrete (Lower Brook-street), Bucchestrete (Busket-lane), Calpe- 
stret (now St. Thomas'), Gk)ldestret (now Southgate-street), and Oere-street. In the 
second record, Sildewortenestrete (Shul worth, now Upper Brook-street), Colobrochestret, 
and Menstre-stret (Great or Little Minster), are mentioned in addition to those already 
noticed. The High-street of Winchester, as it lies now between East-gate and West- 
gate, must have been nearly the same street in extent and direction eight hundred 
years ago. In it were two Knighten Guildhalls in the time of King Edward, both on 
the north side of the street, one towards East-gate and the other not far from West- 
gate (Supp. 531, 533). The site of the Knighten Guild of London, founded by Edgar 
and suppressed by Henry I., is now known as Portsoken-ward (Stow 46, 47). There 
may have been such a guild at Wallingford, where King Edward had fifteen acres, in 
which the Huscarles resided (G. D. 56). The bishop's survey of Winchester notices 
a third hall, in Colebrook -street, called hantacheuesle, where the Prud' hommes of Win- 
chester were accustomed to drink their guild : this street is not entered in the King's 
survey, apparently because it contained no houses belonging to the crown ; all, or nearly 
all, being held under the abbess of Winchester. Between the two Knighten Guildhalls 
in High-street was the King's Bailey, where thieves were placed in prison ; and still 
on the same side of the way was a place called Domus Godebiete, described in the 
Bishop's inquest and the King's as being liable to no charge or duty. From the 
opposite side of the street twelve burgage tenements had been removed to make room 
for the King's palace, which occupied the area now called the Square (2 Milner 104). 
King Edward had 63 burgesses in High-street. 

" The dwellings were, probably like houses in London at the same period, built all 
of timber and covered with thatch of straw or reed (Stow, 31). Some who paid rent 
for shops in Winchester had their dwelling-houses free. Bents were generally paid in 
money ; it is stated, however, that two capons were reserved from a piece of land ; and 
from other tenements a pound of pepper, or half a pound of pepper, or a number of 
horse-shoes."— (pp. 162—168.) 

The picture of London and its neighbourhood must be our last extract : — 

" We may fancy the old houses, with irregular stalls and shops erected in their firont, 
as at Winchester : stalls unconnected with houses, like the shambles or benches in the 
abbatob: at York (G. D. 298), would be likely to become middle rows. No more than 



126 England under the Normans, [Aug. 

one chorch in London, excepting St. Paul's, is noticed in Domesday, and that one ap- 
pears to be Allhallows Barking (L. D. 18. 1 Mon. 438, 442). Bow Church was built 
on arches of stone in the time of the Conqueror (Stow, 95); and there was a collegiate 
church before the Conquest at St. Martin's (115), where the Oeneral Poet Office is nowr. 
St. Paul's cross, in the eastern part of the churchyard, towards Cheapside, indicated 
the forum of old London, where the folkmotes of the city were held in the thirteenth 

century The eastern side of London, without Aldgate, used to be 

defended by the Guild of Knights in Portsoken Ward ; but there appears to have been 
a castle in this quarter more ancient than the Tower of London. Whoever looked into 
London in the time of the second William must have seen many buildings in progress : 
works at the Tower, works at St. Paul's, and works at London bridge. 

" Beyond the bridge stood the Minster of Southwark (Q. D. 82), since called St. 
Mary Overie's ; and at Bermondsey there was the new and fair church (Q. D. 80) 
founded by Alwyn Child, a citizen of London : also at Bermondsey the Earl of 
Mortain's palace, the only suburban or country residence expressly mentioned in 
Domesday, excepting Sheii£f Edward of Salisbury's excellent house at Wilcote, near 
Marlborough (G. D. 69.) 

" To the west of London ' in the town wherein the church of St. Peter is seated' 
(G. D. 128) the Abbey held thirteen hydes and a half : in the same town Bainiard 
held three hydes under the abbey, perhaps including Baynard's watering, now Bays- 
water. In the same direction was the manor of Eye, belonging to Godfrey de 
Manneville : it had been held, before the Conquest, by a ward of Queen Edith, Herald 
the son of Earl Ralph (G. D. 129 b.). Tothill belonged to the Canons of St. Paul's 
(G. D. 128). Tyburn to the Abbey of Barking (G. D. 128 b.). At Holborn the King 
had two cottagers returning per annum twenty pence to the Sheriff (G. D. 127). The 
great western road leading from Holborn may be the ' wide here street' mentioned in 
Edgar's grant to Westminster (1 Mon. 291). The same document notices the old 
wooden church of St. Andrew above London fen, or the valley of the Fleet. . . . 

"Nomansland, a field near the site of the Charterhouse (Stow, 161), seems to be 
mentioned in Domesday (G. D. 127). Smithfield appears not in the record. The 
cultivated lands at Hoxton, Isling^n, and Pancras, diiefly belonged to the canons of 
St. Paul's. 

" Eastward of London lay the Bishop's great manor of Stepney. Among the tenants 
at this place under the Bishop were the noted Ralph Flambard, and Aluric Chacepul— 
the catchpoll of London (G. D. 127, 127 b.). The Bishopsgate of London is mentioned 
in Domesday ; there the canons had ten cottagers with nine acres (G. D. 128). Some 
of the pretty suburban gardens, noticed by Fitzstephen, were in this direction, ez« 
tending from the Bishopsgate road to Lolesworth or Spitalfleld (6. Mon. 624)."— (pp. 
170—174.) 

The succeeding chapter (VIL) on territorial divisions, will probably 
appear of more interest to the professed antiquary than to the general 
reader; but we beg to hint to the latter that in it he may find many 
acute remarks on ancient and modem names of places, and some curioui 
particulars of the origin of the enclaves^ or detached portions of one shire 
locally situated in another, that give so complicated an appearance to our 
county maps. 

*' Titles, offices, and surnames'' are treated of in Chap. VIIL, and must 
interest all. Stalre, Child, Huscarle, Stirman, Latimer, and many more 
titles, are satisfactorily explained ; surnames are shewn to be earlier than 
the Normans, though we rather incline to call nicknames such odd-sounding 
matters as Alwin Deule (devil ?), Edmer atule (the glutton), and Brictmar 
bubba^; despite the assertion of a former annotator, that few English 
families can find their ancestors in Domesday, we are presented with a 
goodly list of names that strongly resemble those of living members of the 
aristocracy ; and more humble families are satisfactorily shewn to be still 
located where their ancestors were eight centuries ago. 

* In the Winchester volume of the Proceedings of the Arclusological Institute ( 1 S45 ) 
will be found a very interesting paper. On the Names, Surnames, and Nicknames of 
the Anglo-Saxons, from the pen of the late J. M. Kemble. 



1858.] Forster^s Essays. 127 

Some sensible remarks on the Extinction of Villenage close the volume, 
the gist of which may be best conveyed by the author's own summary 
in the table of contents :— 

" It is sabmitted that the class now called Statesmen, Teomen, and Gentlemen, may 
be derived from the Saxon thanes who became dependent in consequence of the Norman 
Conqaest — that villenage may have been, in a great measure, extinguished by the 
practice of converting arable lands into pastures, which began b^ore the beginning of 
the sixteenth century, and continued after the end of it." 

It is said that the reviewer can never conclude even a laudatory notice 
without some mark of censure ; and perhaps we lay ourselves open to the 
charge, when we call attention to the rather numerous typographical errors 
by which Mr. Morgan's book is disfigured. It is true, that we see it wa« 
printed at Leipzig, but that does not reconcile us to those hitherto un- 
known English monarchs, "Henry 11" and "Edward 11," — to the mis- 
spelt words, "jointenants," " tendeny," "silvan," — or to the substitution 
of " evident by" for " evidently." We, however, only point out these 
oversights that they may be corrected in the new edition that we feel 
assured will soon be required of a work which must become a handbook 
to the large and increasing class of earnest inquirers into history, who do 
not agree with the dogma of David Hume and his followers, that England 
sprang into being as a civilized community under the iron hand of WUliam 
the Norman. 



FORSTER'S ESSAYS »• 



Mb. Eorstbr*s Essays belong in part to the large and rapidly increas- 
ing family of republished contributions to reviews and magazines ; and, 
although the latest-bom, they are undoubtedly amongst the most vigorous 
and worthiest specimens of that flourishing race. Five of the seven Essays 
come under this class, being amended and enlarged editions of articles 
which appeared in the first instance in the Edinburgh or Quarterly Re- 
view ; whilst two only — " The Plantagenets and the Tudors," and " The 
Grand Remonstrance" — are published for the first time in the volumes 
now before us. 

Of the republished Essays four are biographical, and they well deserve 
the wider circulation which will be given to them in their present form. 
Dwelling on the lives and works of four distinguished writers who have 
been in different ways, either in their own generation or subsequently, dis- 
paraged in the world's esteem, they go through the evidence again, and 
widely alter, where they do not wholly reverse, the judgments which have 
been hitherto too readily and too commonly received as just. In these 
briefer biographies Mr. Forster has, in fact, performed for De Foe, and 
Steele, and Churchill, and Foote, the same generous service which he has 
performed elsewhere, with so delightful an efifect, for Goldsmith. With a 
wide and general sympathy with whatever is manly and right in morals and 
literature, be questions both the men and their works, and — without heed- 
ing the misrepresentations of ignorance, or prejudice, or party-malice — fear- 
lessly gives the answers he has got from them. He sets himself against 
the fashions of depreciation and neglect, and strives to put the subjects of 



• (« 



Historical and Biographical Essays. By John Forster. In Two Volumes." 
(London : John Murray.) 



128 Forster^s Essays. [Aug. 

his biographies in possession of all the honest fame of which they have 
been wrongfully deprived. And the ability which Mr, Forster has brought 
to the execution of this task is quite as admirable as his purpose. He gives 
proof of a very complete knowledge of the times in which his heroes seve- 
rally lived, and of practised skill in using that knowledge so as to produce 
the most interesting and impressive effect ; he argues moot- points in morals 
and in criticism ably ; he is always liberal and manly in feeling ; and he 
writes in a clear, free, nervous style, careless in appearance, yet always 
correct and appropriate, and often picturesque and eloquent in an eminent 
degree. 

In spite of a striking difference between the four subjects of Mr. Fors- 
ter*s biographies in all the elements of intellectual and moral character, the 
one circumstance of a troubled lot was common to them all. Something 
untoward there was in the fortunes of each of them to make a not insigni- 
ficant set-off against the gratifications which his genius brought him. One, 
the bravest and most virtuous, was calumniated, scorned, imprisoned, pil- 
loried, and more than once reduced from competence to want; another, the 
most loveable, suffered grievously from his short-coming in those qualities 
which should have been the ballast of his tenderness, and taste, and wit ; a 
third, the proudest and most impassioned, was made wretched by ** the 
tale which angry conscience tells ;" and the last, the gayest and most 
worldly, and, to his contemporaries, most terrible, lived to writhe under the 
agony inflicted by a slanderous charge. 

The Essay on De Foe does ample justice to one of England's genuine 
worthies. The frank, fearless, resolute nature which no selfish interests 
could warp, the invincible energy in thinking and in doing, the stern and 
steadfast independence in an age of truckling and timeserving, the clear 
and vigorous sense, the fertility of imagination, and the unequalled faculty 
of investing fiction with the voice and aspect of reality, stand out in visible 
relief in Mr. Forster's eloquent account of the life and writings of thii true- 
hearted and true-born Englishman, Throughout the whole time of his 
participation in public affairs, from his bearing arms under Monmouth until 
his apoplectic seizure, De Foe's own conduct came up to the high standard 
he had fixed for him who would serve his fellow-countrymen faithfully in 
critical times. " He must be one," he tells us, ** that, searching into the 
depths of truth, dare speak her aloud in the most dangerous times ; that 
fears no face, courts no favour, is subject to no interest, bigoted to no 
party, and will be a hypocrite for no gain." He left it to posterity to de- 
cide on his own claims to these qualities, and the decision is almost unani- 
mous in his favour. He is, says Mr. Forster, " our only famous politician 
and man of letters who represented, in its inflexible constancy, sturdy, dog- 
ged resolution, unwearied perseverance, and obstinate contempt of danger 
and of tyranny— the great middle-class English character." 

It was, however, after the close of this political career, by which he 
earned the gratitude of those who are now enjoying rights for which he 
toiled and suffered, that De Foe entered with the spirit and the strength of 
an unworn mind on the composition of that series of fictitious histories 
which have retained to this day an undiminished popularity, and are likely 
still to retain it as long as the language they are written in continues to be 
read. He was in his fifty-eighth year when ** Robinson Crusoe" was pub- 
lished, and in nine years from the date of that publication he had given ten 
other works of fiction to the world. Throughout the whole of these writ- 
ings, differing as they did from one another in degrees of merit, and in 
4 



1 858.] Forster's Essays. 1 29 

characters, and in plots, there was the common excellence of unexampled 
fertility in the imagination of adventures and events, and of amazing art in 
investing these creations of the imagination with an air of authenticity and 
truth. Two, however, in this marvellous series of productions, " Rohinson 
Crusoe," and the " Journal of the Plague Year," much surpass the rest. 
The passage in which Mr. Forster speaks of these works is, though brief, 
discriminative, just, and eloquent. "No human work," he tells us, ** has 
afforded such great delight*' as the first ; and he designates the second as 
" one of the noblest prose epics in the language." " These," he adds, 
** are the master- pieces of De Foe. These are the works wherein his power 
is at the highest, and which place him not less among the practical bene- 
factors than among the great writers of our race." 

De Foe's strangely checkered life closed at last in sorrow. The miscon- 
duct of a son inflicted a wound which proved deeper and more incurable 
than that of prison, pillory, or poverty. '* Nothing but this has conquered 
or could conquer me," was the exclamation wrung from him in that crown- 
ing bitterness of his sorely-tried yet well-spent life. In his seventy-first 
year, says Mr. Forster, '* he had somehow found his way back to London, 
to die in that parish of St. Giles's, Cripplegate, wherein he was born ; and, 
as long as the famous old city should live, to live in the memory and admi- 
ration of her citizens." 

The Essay on Sir Richard Steele commences with a vindication of that 
charming writer from the *' contemptuous depreciation" of him in Lord 
Macaulay's article on the Life and Writings of Addison. Half the essay 
is employed in doing battle with the great critic and historian in this just 
cause. The result of this endeavour is honourable to Mr. Forster's skill 
and zeal. By a strong array of facts and inferences he proves that the dis- 
paragement has no adequate foundation; that Steele, in truth, was neither 
dependent on his more celebrated friend, nor despised by him ; but was 
really ** the sprightly father of the Enghsh essay, writing at the first even 
as he wrote to the last ; out of a true and honest heart sympathizing with 
all things good and true ; already master of his design in beginning it, and 
able to stand and move without help of any kind, if the need should be." 
But, along with this sound and successful argument in defence of the dis- 
credited essayist, Mr. Forster joins many passages of eloquent comment 
on the character of Steele's genius, which make his vindication more unan- 
swerable, whilst they make his essay more delightful. He writes evidently 
under the impulse of a hearty love of Steele's attractive qualities — the 
qualities which charmed contemporary wits, and beaux, and beauties — the 
grace, and brilliancy, and kindness of nature, " the wit, pathos, and philo- 
sophy," which keep his writings to this day amongst the most agreeable of 
those that have come down to us from that gifted age. By one eminent 
critic of our own time, the late Mr. Hazlitt, in '* The Round Table," Steele 
is indeed preferred to Addison as " a less artificial and more original 
writer;" and the " Tatler," as the most accomplished and agreeable rfall 
the periodical essayistSy is preferred to the " Spectator." Mr. Forster, how- 
ever, even in the earnestness of his advocacy of Steek*s high claims, stops 
far short of this extreme conclusion. He gives the honour that is due to 
the less fortunate of the distinguished friends without abating anything 
from the other's well-earned fame. 

There is, unhappily, no doubt that Steele's life was not by any means 
as exemplary as his writings. But Mr. Forster protests against that " in- 
quisition, far worse than Torqaemada's," which the world enforces against 

Gekt. Mao. Vol. CCV. s 



130 For sterns Essays. \A^Z* 

those whose wit and genius have instructed and amused it, and, in a kind 
and wise spirit, abstains from putting the ruthless machinery in force 
against Steele. His life was, we are told, in spite of all his failings, " the 
life of a disinterested politician and patriot, of a tender husband, of an 
attached father, of a scholar, a wit, a man of genius, a gentleman." His 
kindness of heart, too, kept with him through all worldly changes to the 
last. Amidst the ills which brought him to his end, his children were his 
chief delight and care, and he made himself as much their play-fellow as 
their tutor. The last thing which Mr. Forster has to tell of him was cha- 
racteristic of his disposition throughout all his previous years of life — "he 
would be carried out in a summer*s evening, where the country lads and 
lasses were at their rural sports, and with his pencil give an order on his 
agent for a new gown to the best dancer.'* 

Lord Byron* s " comet of a season " comes next in order amongst 
Mr. Forster's Biographical Essays. The Essay on Charles Churchill is a 
free, bold, and vigorous dissertation on a satirist who was himself free, 
bold, and vigorous, to a wonderful degree ; but whose writings have never- 
theless fallen somehow into undeserved neglect, and ceased to form a part 
of the literature which an English student feels bound to be acquainted 
with. Churchill was, indeed, a true poet as well as a witty, daring, and 
impetuous satirist, and Mr. Forster, by judicious comment and quotation, 
makes evident the genuineness of his inspiration in the one capacity, and 
the severity and strength of his invective in the other. His subjects, which 
were probably a help to him at the time in obtaining his unexampled popu- 
larity, have wanted interest to subsequent readers, and have been in that 
respect an impediment to his fame ; but, when all abatement has been 
made on this account, and on account also of his habitual carelessness of 
nice elaboration, it may still be asked, in Cowper's language, *' where shall 
we find in any of those authors who finish their works with the exactness 
of a Flemish pencil, those bold and daring strokes of fancy, those numbers 
so hazardously ventured upon and so happily "finished, the matter so com- 
pressed and yet so clear, and the colouring so sparingly laid on and yet 
with such a beautiful efifect ?" 

Cowper could not help regretting that Churchill had died so soon, and 
the regret was both a kind and well-founded one. The poet certainly, and 
in all probability the man too, must have benefited largely by a longer 
span of life. His character was one that warranted the hope of better 
things. Sunk as he was in evil ways, there was nothing mean or hypo- 
critical in his nature— even his vices were all open, manlike, and defiant; 
and he never silenced conscience, though he sinned against it. One of the 
first uses which he made of the abundance that his writings brought him, 
was to pay in full the creditors who had before received a composition, and 
one of his last acts was to dictate what Mr. Forster calls ** a brief, just 
will." Between these events there was an interval of something more than 
three years, in which enough of genuine goodness is recorded of him to 
justify the conclusion that '' his vices were not so great as his virtues." 

" Samuel Foote " is the longest and most amusing, and, in point of 
literary workmanship, probably the best of Mr. Forster' s Biographical 
Essays, but it is at the same time the least interesting. The wit, and dra- 
matist, and actor, excellent as he was undoubtedly in each of these capa- 
cities, does not command our sympathies by the exercise of any moral 
equivalent for the stem and brave virtue of De Foe, the sweetness of nature 
of Steele, or the strong impulsive feelings which urged Churchill to his 



1858.] Forstei'* 8 Essays. 131 

Bins and his remorse. His manner of life co-operated with his keen and ever- 
ready wit in confounding the distinction between the theatre and the world, 
and making both to him a stage on which he played his brilliant part. 

Mr. Forster describes the subject of his essay as "an Englishman as 
eccentric, humorous, and satirical as any this nation has bred," and he 
supplies, out of the materials which the sayings, writings, and adventures 
of this humourist present to him, an abundant feast of wit and entertain- 
ment. In respect, indeed, to Footers peculiar range of intellect, the 
Essayist's exposition of his powers and his prowess is complete. His words 
that wound like swords were keen and finely tempered as ever wit forged, 
and always ready at his need. Of this, the evidence is too full to leave an 
opportunity for doubt. But it is hardly less clear that the "bitterness of 
sarcasm and ridicule" was often used unsparingly for mischief or for gain ; 
that he used the gianfs strength habitually like a giant ; and that any 
purpose of doing good by means of individual pain, was the exception not 
the rule in the satirist's designs, and, even when present, held at best a 
very subordinate place amongst the motives which determined Footers 
course. The unwarrantable lengths of derision to which his wit and 
mimicry sometimes ventured in his public exhibitions, had probably no 
loftier purpose than that of building up again, by profitably pandering to 
a wide-spread taste for disparagement, the fortune which had been more 
than once ruined by improvidence. Whether we impute the unscrupulous 
ridicule to this cause, or to a motive of pleasure in inflicting pain, the con- 
clusion will not be favourable to Footers character, nor at all conducive to 
the belief that his admirable brilliancy of genius was mated with a moral 
nature of commensurate worth. 

In the choice of subjects for his three Historical Essays, Mr. Forster has 
determined happily. To those who seek instruction as well as amusement 
in history, no record of the past is more acceptable than that which chroni- 
cles the conflicts, — whether brief, and fiery, and final, like battles where a 
nation's independence is at stake, or protracted painfully through years of 
tumultuous eflfort and suspense, — in which the liberties, and with them 
the general well-being of a people, are made inalienable in their race for 
ever. Of this kind of interest — this interest in the memorable contests by 
which our own public rights were wrested from the grasp of tyranny and se- 
cured to us — Mr. Forster's three Essays command an abundant share. The 
skilful use which he has made of his attractive materials, and especially 
the animation of his narrative and the striking picturesqueness of his repre- 
sentations of important scenes, adds to the interest of his subject that 
interest of another kind which belongs to the cunning workmanship of a 
master's hand. 

The Essay on " The Debates on the Grand Remonstrance," is, in every 
sense, a noteworthy contribution to our historic literature. The freshness 
of the knowledge it communicates, the vast importance of the Remonstrance 
itself, the unequalled fierceness of the debates by which it was at last 
carried, the constancy, and zeal, and courage of the great men by whom it 
was successfully advocated, and the fulness and remarkable ability of Mr. 
Forster's narrative of all the proceedings incidental to it in the House of 
Commons, combine together to give to this portion of the author's volumes 
a degree of interest and value which is possessed by very few historical 
essays, of no greater length, in the language. 

It is chiefly from the rude and blotted manuscript of Sir Simonds 
d'Ewes's journal that Mr. Forster has collected his information concerning 
the debates on that Remonstrance, which he describes as " the most au-. 



132 Forster^s Essays. [Aug. 

thentic statement ever put forth of the wrongs endured by all classes of the 
English people, during the first fifteen years of the reign of Charles the 
First ; and, for that reason, the most complete justification upon record of 
the Great Rebellion." Naturally enough, a measure of this consequence was 
met with the most determined opposition by those who were disposed to 
see no rights acknowledged in the nation but the divine right of a misr 
guided king. The first rough draft of the Remonstrance, of which, in itf 
perfected state, Mr. Forster has given an elaborate abstract, was submitted 
for discussion by the House on the 8th of November, 1641, and the last 
debate on it was on the 20th of the following month. During these sii^ 
weeks the strange state paper came formally under consideration thirteen 
times in all, but matters incidental to it pretty completely occupied th^ 
Commons in the intervening time. The chiefs of the two great parties in 
the nation were thoroughly aware of what the Remonstrance boded, and 
thoroughly in earnest in endeavouring to avoid defeat. At the very com- 
mencement of the proceedings, the king's urgent communication to his 
secretary was, "you must needs speak with such of my servants that you 
may best trust, in my name, that by all means possible this declaration 
may be stopped f^ and Cromwell is said to have declared to Falkland that, 
if his party had been beaten on the last vote, '* he and many other honest 
men he knew would have sold all they had the next morning, and never have 
seen England more.'' With this strength of feeling dominant in the 
adverse leaders, it is no wonder that the debates should have been, as the 
result of Mr. Forster's painstaking labour on the d'Ewes manuscripts hat 
now made known, stern and fierce beyond example in an English Parlia- 
ment. We might imagine, without help from the eloquent description in 
the Essay, scenes as stormy as that which the claim of the defeated 
courtiers to a right to protest against the decision of the House gave ris^ 
to, when hats were waved, and sword- scabbards clanked upon the ground, 
and nothing probably but the tact and self-control of Mr. Hampden saved 
the old chapel* s floor from being stained with blood. Throughout the 
whole of the discussions on the Remonstrance itself, and on the questions 
of right of protest and of printing, the battle was fought out with passionate 
earnestness on every point to the last; the king's party, under Hyde, 
yielding nothing to their adversaries whilst the possibility of prolonging a 
resistance that was desperate remained. But, on every point, that party 
was defeated : defeated, not by the accidents or arts to which the issue has 
been dishonestly attributed, but by the just and reasonable character of the 
Remonstrance, and the declaration and the defence of outraged public rights 
that was involved in it ; by the necessity that men felt there was for a 
resolute unflinching stand against the strides of arbitrary power ; and by 
the high wisdom and heroic courage of the statesmen who stood, pre-emi- 
nent, on the popular side. To these the praise is justly due with which 
Mr. Forster closes his Essay : — 

" The leaden of the Long Parliament," he says, " have hnd their reward in the 
remembrance and gratitude of their deacendanta ; and it will bode ill to the free insti- 
tutions of England when honour ceases t.o be paid to the men whom Bishop Warburton 
truly characterized as the band of greatest geniuses for government that the world ever 
saw leagued together in one common cause." 

Mr. Forster's admirable analysis, both of the Grand Remonstrance itself, 
and the debates which it gave rise to, is, without question, a contribution 
of inestimable value to the history of the English Revolution in its first 
period. The Essay has also the great merit of sweeping away a mass of 
ignorant or designed misrepresentations which have been more or 1 



1858.] Forster's Essays. 183 

accredited from the days of Clarendon, with whom they originated, and of 
setting in a strong light the patient virtue of the nation which submitted 
for so long a time to the oppressive and unconstitutional proceedings of the 
king. And it gives, moreover, a few delightful glimpses of the ways and 
manners of the age ; and, above all, a description of the old Hall at West- 
minster, and the adjoining Chapel of St. Stephen, which sets them before 
the reader as they stood two hundred years ago : — the noble old hall, 
under the roof of which, " whatever the business in progress might be 
within the courts adjoining or in the chapel beyond, might be beard the old 
city cry of what d'ye lack ?'* addressed to the passers-by whom business 
called there ; and the chapel, where, on either side of the Speaker^s great 
chair, there '* sat, puritan and courtier, the pick and choice of the gentle- 
men of England ; with bearded faces close-cut and stern, or here and there 
more gaily trimmed with peak and ruff; faces for the most part worn with 
anxious thoughts and fears, heavy with toil, weary with responsibility and 
care, often with long imprisonment ; there they sat, in their steeple hats 
and Spanish cloaks, with swords and bands, by birth, by wealth, by talents, 
the first assembly of the world.*' 

The second of the Historical Essays — " The Plantagenets and the Tudors" 
— has its true character described in the explanatory title of " A Sketch of 
Constitutional Histoiy." It is a rapid comprehensive survey of the pro* 
gress of the nation from the state in which the second Henry found it to that 
in which Elizabeth left it — a progress made for the most part amidst many 
obstacles and much severe oppression, yet never quite arrested, and, 
oftenest, strongly marked when contemplated from the new points of ob- 
servation which are from time to time presented in the course of centuries. 
In his clear and cautious summary of the establishment of public rights, 
Mr. Forster exhibits more than once, with happiest effect, the misrule of 
the oppressor becoming itself, by the spirit of resistance it aroused, a 
source of wide-spread good. Thus, after telling us how, in the shameful 
reign of John, every new fine levied on an old domain, or every new toll 
on an old bridge or highway, helped to bring together the interests of the 
lord of the manor, and the baron, and the farmer, and the citizen, he goes 
on to tell us, in a passage which affords a fair example of his clear and 
forcible manner, — 

" There is not an English freeman living in this nineteenth century who may not 
trace in some degree a portion of the liberty he enjoys to the day when King John did 
his best to lay his country at the feet of a foreign priest, and make every one of her 
children as much a slave as himself. From that day the grand confederacy against 
the king took its really formidable, because now unwavering shape ; and what was best 
in England joined and strengthened it. The concentration of its purposes was mainly 
the work of Stephen de Langton, and forms his claim to eternal memory. Rome never 
elad in her purple a man of nobler nature, or one who more resolutely, when he left the 
councils of the Vatican, seemed to have left behind him also whatever might impinge 
npon his obligations as an Englishman. No name stands upon our records worthier of 
national honour. In an unlettered age he had cultivated with success, not alone the 
highest learning, but the accomplishments and graces of literature ; and, at a time ap- 
parently the most unfavourable to the growth of freedom, he impelled existing discon- 
tents, which but for him m-ght have wasted in casual conflict, to the establishment of 
that deep and broad distinction between a free and a despotic monarchy, of which our 
history, through all the varying fortunes and disasters that awaited it, never afterwards 
lost the trace. Even while he personally controlled the treacherous violence of the king, 
he gave steady direction to the still wavering designs of the barons ; and among the 
securities obtained on the first day of Ronnymede for due observance of the instrument 
which the king was to be called upon to sign, probably none inspired greater confidence 
than that which consigned for a certain specified time to Langton's custody the Tower 
and the defences of London. This and other guarantees conceded, the various heads 



134 Forster^s Essays, [Aug. 

oi grievance and proposed means of redress were one by one discussed ; and the docu- 
ment in which they were reduced to legal shape having been formally admitted by 
the sovereign, on the fourth day from the opening of the conference, Friday the 19th 
of June, 1215, there was unrolled, read out aloud, and subscribed by John, the formal 
instrument which at last embodied, in fifty- seven chapters, the completed demands of 
the confederacy, and is immortalized in history as the Great Charter." 

After carrying down his sketch of constitutional history to the close of 
the reign of the last and greatest of the Tudors, and specifying on his way 
the events most memorable in the growth of popular rights, and the persons 
most conspicuous in promoting or retarding their development, Mr. Forster 
concludes his Essay with a brief account of the deplorable enormities which 
disgraced the English court under the rule of the first James. Seldom, 
probably, before were folly, cruelty, and grossness so blended in a crowned 
head ; seldom, certainly, had any great nation been before despotically 
ruled by anything so hateful and contemptible : — 

** Daily, iVom morning until evening, in the chase, the bear-garden, or the cock-pit. 
and iVom evening until nigbt in gross sensual pleasures, the court passed its life; and 
to what extent such life took precedence of every other, may be partly measured by the 
fact that the fee of the master of the cocks exceeded the united salaries of two Seore' 
taries of State" 

These, however, would seem almost excusable amusements when con- 
trasted with the barbarous and besotted bigotry of him in whom the syco- 
phant saw united king and priest. But, even under a rule as shameful and 
tyrannical as his, the arrest of free institutions was only temporary, and the 
reaction which came years afterwards — though fierce, and in the end bloody 
— was complete. 

The last of Mr. Forster's Historical Essays — " The Civil Wars and Oliver 
Cromwell '* — was published in the first instance in the *' Edinburgh Re- 
view," and, in spite of the additions which have since been made to it, it 
still bears the character of a review. A severe measure of justice is meted 
out to Mr. Bankes's " Story of Corfe Castle ;" and M. Guizot and his works 
on Cromwell, — from which Mr. Forster's own conclusions differ widely,— 
are treated with the consideration which is so eminently due to the philo- 
sophical historian. His view of Cromwell seems, it is said, — 

" to be the view too exclusively of a statesman and a man of the world, of one who has 
lived too near to revolutions, and suffered from them too much, always to see them in 
their right proportions, to measure them patiently by their own laws, or to adjust them 
fairly to their settled meaning and ultimate design. But there is nothing in it which 
is petty or ui\just, nothing that is unworthy of a high, clear intellect." 

Mr. Forster's own view of the great Protector appears to approach very 
closely to that which Mr. Carlyle's labours have rendered general amongst 
unbiassed Englishmen — the view which represents the great soldier and 
great statesman as having been also a great and eminently good man. 
The closing sentences of the Essay, whilst they suggest this conclusion, 
are full of beauty and significance. Afler dwelling on the honourable 
mention, in the register of burials, of that eldest son whose memory was 
in Cromwell's heart on his own deathbed, Mr. Forster says ; — 

" This tribute to the youth who passed so early away, uncouthly expressed at it is, 
takes a deep and mournful significance from the words which lingered last on the 
dying lips of his heroic father. If heaven had but spared all that gentle and noble 
promise which represented once the eldest son and successor of Cromwell's name, the 
sceptre then falling might have found a hand to grasp and sustain it, and the history 
of England taken quite another course. The sad and sorry substitute— is it not 
writte^ in M. Guizot's narrative of the Protectorate of Richard Cromwell ?" 



1858.] 135 



THE GERALDINES*. 

The pride of ancestry, a pride that so often prompts to " deeds of high 
emprize," in the field of politics or of warfare, has taken another and a 
somewhat unwonted direction for once ; and the cynical aristocrat of Straw- 
berry-hill, were he still in the flesh, would have had to add one more to his 
list of "Noble Authors" in the person of the eldest son of Ireland's only 
Duke. The Marquis of Kildare has written and published the history of 
his family from a remote period, and ably has he executed his task. 

Task, however, it can hardly be called, for so wholly a labour of love has 
the noble author made this patient and diversified investigation of the his- 
tory of his ancestors, that it was absolutely his original intention to let the 
world at large know nothing whatever about it, but to confine the results of 
his researches to the favoured owners of five-and-twenty copies of his com- 
pilation ; such being the intended limit and ne plus ultra of the work. 
Fortunately, however, others seem to have been able to form a better esti- 
mate of the value of his labours than the writer himself ; and, thanks to the 
urgent intercession of numerous persons of rank and literary research, not 
only has his Lordship foregone his original resolution, but two editions of 
the work have already made their appearance since the original issue of the 
select twenty-five copies in the latter half of last year. 

In these memoirs of a Norman family, planted no less than seven hun- 
dred years ago on Irish soil, and the members of which — whatever their 
other short-comings— have in no instance consigned themselves to a life of 
indolence or luxurious repose, the antiquarian and the historical reader will 
alike find much to attract; while in no instance, we feel ourselves justified 
in saying, will he incur the risk of being ofi'ended with offensive displays of 
aristocratic arrogance, or any attempt on the part of the writer to hide or pal- 
liate the faults or eccentricities of his forefathers. The stories of the " Great 
Earl," and his treasons against the Seventh Henry ; of the fair Geraldine, 
and Surrey's chivalrous but unrequited love ; of the youthful Earl Thomas, 
who, with his five uncles, expiated his treason at Tyburn-tree; of the 
widowed Baroness Ofialy, who so gallantly defended her little castle against 
the Catholic rufiSans of 1 642 ; and of many others besides — whom for want 
of an index to the book we cannot at this moment call to mind — have each 
their own peculiar charm, and cannot fail to recommend this handsome 
volume alike to the fair lady's boudoir and the book-shelves of the student. 

His Lordship starts, we observe, with giving a sort of semi-currency to 
the story, no older we suspect than the end of the fifteenth century, that 
the Geraldines are sprung from the same stock as the Gherardini, a baronial 
family of Florence, the earliest known member of which, Rainerio, was living 
in that state a.d. 910. Otho, the founder of the Geraldine family, who 
passed into England before the Conqueror, and who is also admitted by his 
Lordship to have been the founder of the family of Windsor as well, is con- 
sidered by him to have been possibly fourth in descent from the Florentine 
Bainerio. But, on the other hand, the Windsor family, if we are not greatly 
mistaken, claim their descent, through this same Otho, (or, more properly. 
Other,) from Ohtere, the famous Vi-king, who made numerous voyages to 



• " The Earls of Kildare and their Ancestors, from 1057 to 1773. By the Marquis 
of Kildare. Tlurd Edition." (Dublin : Hodges, Smith, and Co.) 



136 The Geraldines, [Aug. 

the coasts of the extreme North, and whose descendants afterwards settled 
in Normandy. 

The Gherardini story we are inclined to look upon as no more than a 
Florentine invention, for complimentary purposes, of a comparatively 
modern date, and the belief in it — if the Marquis of Kildare really does be- 
lieve it — we regard as a mentis ffratissimus error ; the only error, in fact, 
that has occurred to us in a pretty careful examination of his book. 

The ancestor to whom, through his son Maurice, in all probability the 
Geraldines are indebted for their name, was Gerald, the grandson of Otho, 
the companion of the Conqueror. This warrior, who was sent in command 
of the English forces against the Welsh, with less good taste perhaps than 
political discretion, married Nesta, a Welsh princess, the cast-off mistress 
of Henry I., by whom she had become the mother of one of the most cele- 
brated politicians and warriors of his day, Bobert of Gloucester, that endur. 
ing thorn in Stephen's side. To Gerald, Nesta is said to have borne four 
children ; but from the following story, it would seem doubtful whether the 
course of love — true or not — ran altogether smooth with him : — 

" At Christmas, 1108, Cadwf^an ap Bloddyn, Prince of Cardigan, having invited the 
neighbouring chieftains to a feast at Dyvet, it was mentioned, in the coarse of the 
entertainment, that Nesta was the most beantifnl woman in Wales ; this excited the 
curiosity of Owen, the son of Cadwgan, who resolved to see her. Under the pretence 
of a friendly visit (she being his cousin), he obtained admittance with his attendants 
into Pembroke Castle. Finding ber more beautiful than he expected, he became deeply 
enamoured, and determined to carry her off. In the middle of the night he set fire to 
the castle, and with his followers surrounded the room where Gerald and Nesta were. 
Gerald, awakened by the noise, was about to ascertain the cause, when his wife, sus- 
pecting some treason, persuaded him to make his escape by letting himself down by a 
rope. Owen soon broke open the door, and not ** finding Gerald, seized his wife and 
two of his sons, and carried them off into Powys, leaving the castle in flames. Whether 
Nesta yielded to htm from choice or force is uncertain, but at her request he soon after 
sent back the boys to Gerald."' 

Whether Gerald eventually recovered his wife or not, the writer does 
not inform us ; but be that as it may, the unfortunate husband eventually 
received his death-wound while in pursuit of this Welsh edition of youn^^ 
Tarquin, Owen ap Cadwgan. Angareth, the youngest child of Gerald and 
Nesta, became the mother, by William de Barry, of the amusing but cre- 
dulous historian, Giraldus Cambrensis. 

Maurice, the eldest son of Gerald, accompanied Strongbow on his Irish 
expedition, and in his person, as the reward of his wisdom and his prowess, 
the Geraldines gained at once a footing and a fortune in Ireland. Strong- 
bow granted him the barony of Offaly, (or King's County, in other words) ; 
in virtue of which his son Gerald sat as a baron in Parliament in 1205. 
Gerald is said to have held the office also of Lord Justice of Ireland. 
Maurice, the eldest son of this Gerald, introduced the Franciscans and 
Dominicans into Ireland ; the former in 1215, the noble author says, but 
we very much question his correctness as to this date. From the following 
story, Maurice was a man of marvellous sensitiveness, it would appear : — 

" In 1232 Maurice built the Franciscan Abbey of Yotighal. Of its origin there is the 
following tradition : — On the eve of some festival the workmen, who were digging the 
foundation of a castle which the Baron was about to build, asked him for money to 
drink his health. He desired his son to give it to them ; but instead of doing so^ he 
reproved them. The Baron was «o grieved when he heard of it, that, on the spot where 
the castle was to have been built, he erected the monastery. It was afterwards called 
the ' South Abbey/ but there are now no traces of it remaining." 

*> N.B. It was not Gerald that he had come to look jfbr. 



1858.] The Geraldines. 137 

DrinJc-ye r-liealth-y eW -honour^ done into the very best Erse, if not too 
long a name, would certainly have been as appropriate. 

The Baron in his latter days retired into the monastery which he had 
thus built, and, having assumed the habit of the Order, died there in 1257. 
From Matthew Paris we learn that he was " a stout soldier, and facetious 
withal." As to his son and successor, Maurice, the third Baron of Offaly, 
the only thing worthy of remark is, that he married a great-granddaughter 
of Fair Rosamond Clifford, and thiough-her gained a considerable ac- 
cession of territory on Irish soil. 

Thomas Fitz Maurice, the father of John, first Earl of Kildare, founded 
the Franciscan Abbey at Castledermot, the ruins of which are still to be 
seen ; as also the Trinitarian Abbey at Adare, for the redemption of Chris- 
tian captives from the Moors; the monks of which wore red and blue 
crosses on their breasts. This abbey he built at the persuasion of Dunbar, 
Earl of March, who was a patron of the Order, which had redeemed two of 
his servants from captivity. The abbey is now the Roman Catholic Chapel 
of Adare. 

Under the head of Thomas Fitz Maurice, the noble author treats us with 
some curious heraldic information. First, as to the present mid- African- 
looking motto of the Leinster family, " Crom-a-boo -^ — 

" The ancient war-cry of the Geraldines of Kildare >va8 * Crom-a-boo/ and that of 
the Desmond branch ' ;Sbanet-a-boo.' ' Abd/ or ' Abo/ an exclamation of defiance, was 
the usual termination of the war-cries in Ireland, and was added to the distinctive 
watchword of each tribe. Crom (Croom) and Shanet (Shanid) were two castles, about 
sixteen miles apart, in the county of Limerick, the ruins of which still remain. They 
belonged to the two principal branches of the Geraldines, and being on the borders of 
the (yBriens* country, and the constant object of attack, * Crom-a-boo,' or * Shanet-a- 
boo,* was shouted in opposition to the * Lamblaider-a-boo,' * the strong hand to victory,* 
of the O'Briens. In 1495, the Act of 10 Henry VII., c. 20, was pas^ *to abolish the 
words Crom-a-boo and Butler-a-boo/ " 

The following, too, are mentioned as traditions in connexion with the 
origin of the monkey being the crest of the Offaly Geraldines : — 

" John Fitz Thomas, afterwards Earl of Kildare, then an infant, was in the castle of 
Woodstock, near Athy, when there was an alarm of fire. In the confusion that 
ensued the child was forgotten, and when the servants returned to search for him, the 
room in which he lay was found in ruins. Soon after, a strange noise was heard on 
one of the towers, and on looking up they saw an ape, which was usually kept chained, 
carefully holding the child in his arms. The Earl afterwards, in gratitude for his pre- 
servation, adopted a monkey for his crest and supporters, and some of his descendfmts, 
in memory of it, took the additional motto of ' Non immemor beneficii.' Another tra- 
dition is, that Thomas Fitz Maurice was only nine months old when bis father and 
grandfather were slain at the battle of Callan, m 1261. The child was at Tralee, and 
on his attendants rushing out alarmed at the intelligence, he was left alone in his 
cradle, when a tame baboon, or ape, took him up in his arms, and ran with him to the 
top of the tower of the neighboiu*ing abbey. After carrying him round the battle- 
ments and exhibiting him to the frightened spectators, he brought the infant back to 
its cradle in safety. Thomas was, in consequence, snmamed ' iji Appagh,' (in Irish,) 
meaning ' Simiacus,' or <' ' the Ape.' When Dean Swift was writing ' Gulliver's Travels,' 
he had quarreUed with the Earl of Kildare, and in order to vex him, introduced into 
his story the part in which his hero is carried off and fed by the Brobdignagian ape/' 

If the preserver was really an ape, the heralds have been over-generous 
to him, for in their ignorance of natural history they have given him a 
rather remarkably long '^ caudal appendage." 

About the year 1293, the first Earl of Ealdare became greatly at vari- 

« Query,"Of the Ape?" 
GiNT. Mao. Vol. CCV. t 



138 The Geraldines. [Aug. 

ance with William de Vesci, Lord of Kildare, a baron much esteemed by 
Edward I., owing, in all probability, to the contiguity of their estates in 
Kildare. De Vesci, who was then Lord Justice of Ireland, openly asserted 
that John Fitz Thomas was the cause of the existing disturbances, and that 
he was " in private quarrels as fierce as a lyon, but in public injuries as 
raeeke as a lambe." This being a fair specimen of what we may call " a 
very pretty quarrel" in the olden times, we should really be depriving our 
readers of some amusement, did we not follow up the narrative : — 

" This havmg been reported to the Baron, he, in the presence of the Lords of the 
Conncil, replied : * You would gladly charge me with treason, that by shedding my 
bloud, and by catching my lands into yoar douches, that but so neere upon your lands 
of Kildare, you might make your sonne a proper gentleman/ ' A gentleman,' quoth 
the Lord Justice, 'thou bold baron, I tell thee, the Vesci's were gentlemen before the 
Geraldines were Barons of Offaly, yea, and before that Welsh bankrupt, thyne ances- 
tour (he meant Sir Maurice Fitz Giralde), fcthercd his nest in Leinster,' and then 
accused him of being * a supporter of thieves and upholder of tray tours.' * As for my 
ancestor,' replied the Baron, ' whom you terme a bankrupt, how riche or how poore he 
was upon his repayre to Ireland, I purpose not at this time to debate, yet this much 
I may boldly say, that he came hither rs a byer, not a beggar. He bought his enemie's 
lands by spending his bloud. But you, lurking like a spider in his copweb to entrappe 
flies, endeavour to beg subjects' livings wrongfully by despoyling them of their lives. 
I, John Fitz Thomas, Baron of Offaly, doe tell thee, William Vesci, that I am noe 
traitor, noe felon, but that thou art the only battress, by which the King's enemies are 
supported.* He then appealed to the King, who summoned them both to England — 
some say that they went of their own accord. In the King's presence, De Vesci accused 
the Baron of encouraging rebellion ; and Offaly having, in return, accused the Justiciary 
of corruption, saying that while the nobility were excluded from his presence, ' an 
Irish cow could at all times have access to him,' and that a cow, a horse, a hawk, a 
silver bell, were the real causes of the disturbances, ended thus, — ' But so much as our ' 
mutual complaints stand upon the one his Yea, and the other his Nay, and that you 
would be taken for a champion, and I am known to be no coward, let ns, in God's 
name, leave lieing for varlets, bearding for ruffians, facing for crakers, chatting for 
twattlers, scolding for callets, hooking for scriveners, pleading for lawyers, and let us 
try with the dint of swords, as become martial men to do, our mutual quarrels. Where- 
fore, to justify that I am a true subject, and that thou, Vesci, art an arch-traitor to God 
and to my King, here in the presence of his Highness, I challenge the combat." 

The result was, that the challenge being accepted by De Vesci, the King 
fixed the day for the combat ; but De Vesci, before the appointed time, 
fled to France : upon which the King declared Offaly innocent, and added, — 
" Albeit De Vesci has conveyed his person into France, yet he has left his 
lands behind him in Ireland," and granted them to the Baron forthwith. 

In January, 1347, Maurice, the fourth Earl of Kildare, was summoned to 
be ready in London by the ensuing Easter to go abroad with the King, with 
thirty men-at-arms and forty hobellers ; the Treasurer of Ireland being 
directed to pay for their passage and their reasonable expenses. The Earl, 
in consequence, accompanied Edward III. to France, and was present at 
the siege of Calais, where, for his gallant conduct as leader of the Irish 
division, he was knighted by the King. 

Gerald, the eighth Earl of Kildare, called by the Irish " Geroit More," 
or the " Great," seems to have played an important part in the history of 
his day. His story is probably the most interesting portion of the book, 
and to it we shall confine our remaining extracts. Though he had proved 
a firm adherent of the House of York, he was continued, on the acces- 
sion of Henry VII., in the office which he had held during the previous 
reigns, of Lord Deputy of Ireland. His loyalty, however, was destined to 
be put to the test ere long : — 

" At this time Edward, Earl of Warwick, son of George, Duke of Clarence, and the 



1858.] The Geraldines. 1^9 

last ^ male Plantagenet, was a prisoner in the Tower of London. Early iu 14i86, a 
report was spread that he had made his escape. In 1487, Lamhert Simiiel, who repre- 
sented himself to he the young prince, landed in Dnhlin, with several English nohle- 
men, and a force of 2,000 German troops, sent hy the Dnchess of Burgundy. The Earl 
of Kildare at once acknowledged him as the real heir to the throne, and his example 
was followed hy almost the whole of the Pale. It is remarkable that the Irish annalists 
also have always considered him as the true Earl of Warwick. He was procl^med 
king by the title of Edward YI., and on Whitsunday was taken to. the Cathedral of 
Christ Church, where, in the presence of the Lord Deputy, the Chancellor, and many 
nobles and chiefs of the realm, after his title had been set forth in a sermon, preached 
by the Bishop of Meath, the ceremony of coronation was performed with much so- 
lemnity, a crown borrowed from the statue of the Virgin, in St Mary's Church, near 
' Dame Gkte,' being placed on his head. He was then carried from the cathecbral to 
the castle, on the shoulders of a gigantic man, called 'Great Darcy of Flatten.' 
A Parliament was then summoned, which passed several acts; and the invasion of 
England being resolved on, the Earl of Kildare and other great lords raised a large 
force of Irish and Anglo- Irish, which, with the Germans, was placed under the com- 
mand of the Earl of Lincoln, the son of John de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk. The Chan- 
cellor, Thomas Fitz Gerald, resigned his office, in order to accompany the expedition. 
They sailed from Dublin, in June, 1487, and landing at Foudrey in Lancashire, marched 
into Yorkshire, and thence to Stoke, in Nottinghamshire, where meeting King Henry's 
forces, a battle ensued, in which they were defeated, the Earl of Lincoln and Thomas 
Fitz Gerald being slain, and Simnel taken prisoner." 

So great, however, was the influence of the Earl of Kildare, that he not 
only obtained his pardon, but was also retained in his office of Chief Go- 
vemor of Ireland. It was in the same year (1488) that the Earl led an 
army into the territory of Moy-Cashel, in Westmeath, and there " demo- 
lished the castle of Bille-ratha (Balrath) upon the sons of Murtragh Mac- 
geoghegan, after having brought ordnance against it." This, the noble 
author informs us, is the first mention of the use of cannon in Ireland. In 
this year, too, as we learn from Ware's Annals, — 

" for a great rarity were sent to the Earl of Kildare six hand-gpms out of Germany, 
which his guard, during the time they stood sentry, bore before his habitation, stand- 
ing in the great hall at the entrance to his house, or quarters, at lliomas Court." 

These hand-guns we can hardly agree with his Lordship in calling ** mus- 
kets," 

In 1489, in order to put an end, if possible, to the bickerings and jea- 
lousies that existed between them, the King summoned all the lords of 
Ireland to the court at Greenwich ; a summons which, with the exception 
of the Earl of Desmond and Lord Kerry, they all obeyed : — 

} ** The King received them very graciously, and, among other things, said to those lords 
who bad supported Simnel, that ' they would at last crown apes*, should he be long ab- 
sent.' He then confirmed to them his full pardon, and went, accompanied by them, in so- 
lemn procession to the church ; after which he entertidned them at a splendid buiquet, 
where he caused Simnel to wait upon them as butler, and at last dismissed them with 
marks of favour and confidence." 

The Earl, one would suppose, would find plenty to do at home, without 
plotting any further against the reigning sovereign. In 1491, " a great war 
arose between Con O'Neill and Hugh Roe O'Donnell;" whereupon they 
were summoned before the Lord Justice, who inefiectually tried to reconcile 
them. The feud arose in consequence of O^Neill's demand — "Send me 

tribute, or else ," and O'DonnelFs equally laconic answer — '* I owe 

you no tribute, and if ." And yet plot he did, or at all events got the 

^ What does the Dake of Buckingham say to this ? 
* A sly hit at Kildare's crest, not improbably. 



140 The Geraldines. [Aug. 

credit, or rather discredit, of it ; for in 1 492 he was removed from his office 
of Lord Deputy, " being suspected" of conspiring against the King. 

Immediately upon being thus relieved of his office, he found an opportu- 
nity of entering into a bloody quarrel, on his own account, with the But- 
lers and their supporters. Ultimately, Sir James of Ormonde, with the 
O'Briens and other allies, encamped in the vicinity of Dublin ; whereupon 
the Earl agreed to hold a conference with him, the circumstances' attend- 
ing which are thus described by Stanihurst, as quoted by our author : — 

" Kildare appoynted the meeting to bee at St. Patrick his Churche ; where as they 
were ripping up one to the other their mutual quarrels, rather resenting the damage 
they sustained, than acknowledging the injuries they offered, the citizens and Ormonde 
bis army fell at somme Jarre, for the oppression and exaction with which the souldiem 
surcharged them. With whom, as part of the citizens hickered, so a round knot of 
archers rusht into the church, meaning to have murthered Ormond, as the captain and 
bel-weather of al these lawlesse rabble. The Earl of Ormond (Sir James) suspecting 
that he had been betrayed, fled to the chapitre-house, put too the dore, sparring it with 
might and mayne. The citizens in their rage, imagining that every post in the churche 
had been one of the souldiers, shot habhe or nahbe at random up to the roode-lofb and 
to the chancell, leaving some of their arrows sticking in the image. Kildare pursuing 
Ormond to the chapitre-house dore, undertooke, on his honour, that he should recdve 
no villanie. Whereupon the recluse, craving his lordship's hand to assure him his life, 
^here was a clefl in the cbapitrc-house dore pierced in a trice, to the end both the Earls 
should have shaken hands and hee reconciled. But Ormonde, surmising that this drift 
was intended for some further treacherie, that if he would stretche out his hand it had 
been per case chopped off, refused that proffer, until Kildare stretched in his hand to 
him, and so the dore was opened, they both embraced, the storm appeased, and all their 
quarrells for the presente rather discontinued than ended." 

In consequence of the outrage committed on this occasion by the citizens, 
in shooting their arrows in the church, a legate was sent from Rome, who 
onlv absolved them from the sentence of excommunication, which had been 
pronounced against them, on condition that in future '* the Maior of Dublin 
should go barefoot through the citie, in open procession before the sacra- 
ment, on Corpus Christi day; which penitent satisfaction was after, in 
every such procession, duly accomplished." The door in which the hole 
was cut, the noble author informs us, is still preserved in St. Patrick's 
Cathedral, Dublin. 

Shortly afler this the Earl and his adherents were attainted by Act of 
Parliament, a proceeding which of course greatly reduced his power and 
influence. After several skirmishes with Plunket of Rathmore, in which 
he was defeated, he had the good fortune to slay his gallant foe ; after 
which, as a chronicler tells us, he was again *' followed by numbers." The 
Bishop of Meath, his aider and abettor in the matter of SimneFs conspiracy, 
seems next to have incurred his resentment : — 

'* The Earl was also at enmity with his former friend, the Bishop of Meath ; and one 
day chased him into a church, to which he had fied for sanctuary. The Earl ordered 
him to come out, and on his refiisal, entered sword in hand, and going to where he was 
kneeling in the chancel, swore ' by St. Bride, ' (his usual oath,) were it not he knew his 
prince would be offended with him, he could find it in his heart to lay his sword on his 
shaven crown." 

Soon after this the Earl was arrested and sent over to England by 
order of the Deputy ; and after a confinement of two years in the Tower of 
London, was ultimately brought before the King (Henry VII.) in council : — 

' It is singular how closely this story agrees in almost every particular, even to the 
wounding of the image, with the account given by William of Malmesbury of the 
combat between the monks and the military retainers of the Norman abbot, Turstin, 
in the Church of Glastonbury. 



1858.] The Geraldines. 141 



** Upon being here accused, among other acts of violence, of having forced the Bishop 
of Meath from the sanctuary, he said, ' He was not sufficiently learned to make answer 
to such weighty matters. The Bishop was a learned man, and so was not he, and there- 
fore might easily outdo him in argument.' The King then said, < He might choose a 
counsellor.' The Earl replied, ' I doubt I shall not have that good fellow that I would 
choose.* The King assured him he should, and added that ' it concerned to get counsell 
that was very good, as he doubted his cause was very bad.' The Earl replied, * I will 
choose the very best in England.' * And who is that ?' asked the King. * Marry, the 
King himself/ quoth the Earl, ' and by St. Bride I will choose no other.' At this the 
King laughed, and turning to the council, said, ' A wiser man might have chosen worse.' 
The Earl was then accused of having burnt the cathedral of Cashel, in consequence of a 
feud with the archbishop, and many witnesses were present to prove the fact ; but, con- 
trary to their expectation, he not only confessed it, but exclaimed, ' By my troth I 
would never have done it, but I thought the bishop was in it.' The archbishop being 
present, and one of the busiest of the accusers, the King laughed heartily, and was so 
favourably impressed by the bluntness and frankness of the Earl, that on the Bishop of 
Meath exclaiming, * AU Ireland cannot rule this man !' he at once replied, ' Then he 
shall rule idl Ireland.' O'Hanlon, with whom the Earl was accused of conspiracy to 
assassinate Sir E. Poynings, was also present, and cleared him on oath from the charge." 

The Earl was restored to his honours and estates, and appointed Lord 
Deputy, by letters patent, dated the 6th of August, 1 496. The astute King, 
however, thought it as well to take the precaution of retaining his eldest son 
Gerald as an hostage for his good behaviour. The Earl, however, seems 
to have gained wisdom by experience, for in 1497, Perkin Warbeck, being 
obliged to leave Scotland, landed at Cork ; whereupon, so far was he from 
receiving encouragement from the Lord Deputy, that he, with his Irish 
allies, narrowly escaped being taken prisoner by him. 

In the year 1503 the volume called " The Earl of Kildare's Red Book " 
was compiled for the Earl. It contains copies of grants, title-deeds, and 
other documents belonging to him, and is now in the Duke of Leinster's 
possession. 

Among the Gherardini papers, the noble author tells us, is to be found 
the following letter, written by the "Great Earl" in 1507. There was 
nothing, in all probability, beyond the accidental similarity between the 
names that prompted the initiatory correspondence referred to in it. The 
vagueness, too, of its address is worth remark : — 

** To be ^ven to all the family of the Gherardini, noble in fame and virtue, dwelling 
in Florence, our beloved brethren in Florence. Gerald, Earl of Kildare, Lord Deputy 
of the kingdom of Ireland, sends greeting to all the family of the Gherar^ni dwelling 
in Florence. Most grateful to us have been your letters to us, most illustrious men. 
From them we have learned to know the fervour of the fraternal love that you bear to 
your own blood. But in order to increase your joy still more, I will briefly inform you 
of the state of your relations in these parts. Know, then, that my predecessors and 
ancestors passed from France into England, and having remained there for some time, 
they, in the year 1140 (1170), arrived in this island of Ireland, and by their swords 
obtained great possessions, and achieved gpreat feats of arms; and up to the present 
day they havo increased and multiplied into many branches and families, insomuch 
that I, by the grace of God, possess by hereditary right the earldom, and am Earl of 
Kildare, holding diverse castles and manors, and by the liberality of our Most Serene 
Lord the King of England, I am now his Deputy in the whole of Ireland, during the 
pleasure of his Majesty, an honour frequently obtained heretofore by my father and my 
predecessors. There is also a relation of ours in these parts called the Earl of Desmond, 
under whose lordship there are one hundred miles, in length, of country. Our house 
has increased beyond measure, in a multitude of barons, knights, and noble persons, 
holding many possessions, and having under their command many persons. We are 
most desirous to know the deeds of our ancestors, so that if you have in your possession 
any history, we request you to communicate it to us. We wish to know the origin of 
our house, and their numbers, and the names of your ancestors ; whether they are any 
of them settled in France, and who of our family inhabit the Roman territory : I also 



142 Missionary Adventures in Texas and Mexico. [Aug. 

wish to know the transactions of the present tune, for it gives me great joy always to 
hear of our house. If there is anything that we can procure for you through our 
labour and industry, or anything that you have not got, such as hawks, falcons, norsesy 
or dogs for the chase, I beg you will inform me of it, as I shall in every possible way 
endeavour to obey your wishes. Ck>d be with you, and do you love us in return. From 
our Castle of Castledermot, 27th day of May, 1507. Gerald." 

It was this correspondence no doubt, perhaps this very letter, that sug- 
gested to Ariosto his mention of the earls of Kildare and Desmond in his 
Orlando Furioso : — 

" Or guarda gl' Ibcrnesl appreso il piano : 
Sono due equadre ; e il conte di Childera 
Mena la prima ; e il conte di Desmonda 
Da fieri monti ha tratta la seconda." — Canto x. stanza 86. 

In 1513 the Earl marched against Lemyvannan, or O'Carroll's Castle, now 
Leap Castle, in the King's County ; but while he was watering his horse in the 
river Greese, at Kilkea, he was shot by one of the O'Mores of Leix. In con- 
sequence of this wound he moved slowly by Athy to Kildare, where, after 
lingering a few days, he died on the 3rd of September. His body was 
carried to Dublin, and buried before the high altar of his chapel in Christ 
Church Cathedral, the site of which is now occupied by more modern 
buildings connected with the edifice. 

At this point, the end of the Middle Ages, and the supposed discovery 
by the '* Great Earl" of his long lost kinsmen of Florence, we must take 
our leave of the Geraldines. At the expense of considerable labour and 
very patient research, their noble biographer has produced a pleasing and 
useful work. We hope that he will again give us an opportunity, ere long, 
of welcoming him upon a field on which his labours have so auspiciously 
commenced. 



MISSIONARY ADVEJSTiniES IN TEXAS AOT) MEXICO*. 

It was in 1835 that, by its victory over the Mexicans on the banks of 
the San Jacinto, Texas achieved its independence of the Mexican Republic ; 
and it was exactly ten years afterwards that it surrendered this indepen- 
dence to the United States. In 1846 a disagreement arose between the 
United States and Mexico respecting the Texian boundary, which had 
been fixed according to the decision of General Houston so as to include 
Santa F^, the extensive trade of which city rendered it a very important 
situation. Owing to their weakness, however, during the days of their 
republic, and the distractions on their southern frontiers, the Texian 
government had never been in a condition to take actual possession of this 
part of their territory ; and it had consequently remained under the domi- 
nion of the Mexicans, who subjected the American traders to much annoy- 
ance. But after Texas became incorporated with the United States, mea- 
sures were speedily begun to set this matter right : a war was proclaimed 
against Mexico, which continued for two years. 

During these two years a young French priest was quietly preparing 

* "Missionary Adventures in Texas and Mexico. A. Personal Karrative of Six 
Years* Sojourn in those Regions. By the Abb6 Domeneeh. Translated firom the 
French under the Author's Superintondence.*' (London : Longmans.) 



1858.] Missionary Adventures in Texas and Mexico. 143 

himself at the college of St. Louis, in the Missouri state, for missionary 

work in Texas ; and by the time the war was ended, he was ready to begin 

his labours. Emmanuel Domenech was at this time in his twenty-third 

year. When, in 1845, the Bishop of Texas had visited France for the 

purpose of procuring recruits for the missionary cause in his diocese, this 

youth had eagerly offered himself. It was no tempting prospect which the 

reverend father held out to those who enlisted in the sacred service : — 

** Yon will not always," he frankly told them, "have wherewith to satisfy the calls 
of hunger and thirst. Toar jonmeyings will be incessant, through a conntiy as yet 
bat little known, and boundless in its extent. You will pass nights on the damp 
ground, and entire days exposed to a burning sun. Perils of every kind you will en- 
counter, which will try your courage and energy at every step." 

But this discouraging picture had no effect in restraining the young 
priest's ardour ; perhaps it only increased it : at any rate, on the 20th of 
March, 1846, he embarked at Havre for New Orleans. Here he arrived 
in May, and afler a short stay ascended the Mississippi to St. Louis to 
finish his ecclesiastical studies, and otherwise fit himself, in his own words, 
" for the apostolic life of the missions;'* preparations which occupied him 
for two years. At the end of this time he returned to New Orleans, 
proceeded thence to Galveston, and then departed for San Antonio, in the 
interior of Texas, where he was regularly ordained. His first missionary 
charge was shared with a colleague, the Abbe Dubuis. It extended over 
the settlements of the north-western boundary of Texas, its chief point 
being Castroville, a miserable collection of huts, ycleped prospectively a 
toton^ thirty miles east of San Antonio. It was only the German Catholics 
of the region, and the Irish soldiers in the American service, with whom 
the two priests were concerned ; but the labour and the suffering were 
sufficiently heavy. At Castroville the people were very poor, and but 
little disposed, at first, to afford to their spiritual guides even the small 
assistance in temporal things that lay within their power. Consequently, 
as these guides were almost entirely dependent for the supply of all physi- 
cal wants upon the offerings of their fiock, they were in a deplorable state 
of destitution. At one time the Abbe Dubuis was forty-eight hours with- 
out tasting food at all ; sometimes the friends were compelled to feed on 
literal carrion ; at others they were reduced to the necessity of begging 
from door to door for a little meal ; and once the Abb^ Dubuis was forced 
to make an appeal to his parishioners from the altar. A few fresh vegeta- 
bles were a treat to them ; and fricassees of fattened cats were delicacies 
for choice occasions. For a long time they had but one cassock between 
them, " so that whilst one said mass, the other walked about in his shirt- 
sleeves." Our author may well comment upon the imperfect conception 
entertained of the amount of trial and privation suffered by the Catholic 
missionary priest He has no help from the government or the Church ; 
for everything, even up to the building of churches and schools, he has to 
find means for himself. The aid afforded by the Society for the Propaga- 
tion of the Faith is very slender, the resources of the Society being entirely 
inadequate to the necessities of the missions. From its establishment in 
1822 until 1846, its whole receipts had only been thirty millions of francs; 
whilst the English Bible Society had, in the course of a very few years, 
disbursed more than three times that sum. The Protestant missionary, if 
he has dangers to encounter and hardships to endure, is at least sure of 
support and assistance ; the Catholic missionary, on the contrary, in addi- 
tion to the trials peculiar to his situation, is burdened with the thousand 
cares and miseries of extreme poverty : — 



144 Misfnonary Adventures in Texas and Mexico. [Aug. 

*' What efforts of management and industry/' exclaims our author, from his own 
bitter experience, " what obstacles to surmount, what miseries to undergo, in these 
solitudes, in order to support life, to establish a church and a school, and secure a pros- 
perous fiiture to the mission \" 

The building of a church was one of the most darling projects of the 
young Abb^ and his colleague. The church at Castroville was a wretched 
wooden hut, which could not accommodate nearly half the congregation. 
A more commodious edifice was, in fact, '' a thing of real necessity ;*' 
but, like many another of the friends' real necessities, it was more pressing 
than easy to supply. They determined, however, to make the effort. 
Domenech made out plans and estimates ; and, moreover, took upon him- 
self the more difficult task of collecting the indispensable funds. As a pre- 
liminary towards the carrying out of this latter purpose, it was necessary 
for him to make a journey to New Orleans : his flock at Castroville were 
too poor, if they had been ever so willing, to help him. The journey was 
a long one, and would expose him, in all probability, to almost every kind 
of peril and hardship. Great part of the way lay through regions in which, 
if the unhappy traveller escaped being scalped by the Indians or torn in 
pieces by the wild beasts, he was most likely to die of hunger or thirst. 
However, our missionary was in the service of God ; and resigning himself 
into His hands, he set forth, and reached his destination in safety. The 
collection, chiefly raised amongst the merchants of New Orleans and 
the planters along the banks of the Mississippi, began satisfactorily, 
and would probably have produced a sum amply sufficient for its object, 
had it not been abruptly cut short ; by an urgent letter from his colleague, 
Domenech was suddenly recalled to Castroville, where the cholera had 
broken out, for the second time since the two priests' residence there, with 
fatal fury. Our author commenced his return. At Victoria, a town on 
the Colorado, he was detained for two days on his journey by the death of 
the priest, a young man only a year or two older than himself. There is a 
touching pathos in the few sentences in which the young Abb^ describes 
his feelings by the death-bed of his brother-missionary, perishing so young, 
so far away from his friends and country : — 

" Contemplating this youthful victim of Christian charity," he says, " my heart was 
ready to break; I fell upon my knees and wept, for I could not pray." .... " Oh!*' 
he continues, " who shall tell of all that passes in the heart of a young missionary, 
from the day he receives bis mother's parting kiss to the day he heaves his last ngh 
in distant solitude ! On my knees, at the foot of that bed whereon the lifeless corpse 
was stretched, that life of devotedness, of labour, fatigue, and trial, unfolded itself be- 
fore me as a vast and gloomy panorama, and all ended in death — sudden, unexpected, 
and solitary. Notwithstanding the sad end of my poor friend, I envied his lot ; in hii 
case there were no doubts about the future, for he died in the midst of labour. 
Then, reflecting on myself, I bethought me of my shattered constitution and lost 
strength. I was not so old as Father Fitzgerald, but yet I was quite spent." 

As soon as his friend was laid in the grave he hastened on. The return 
to Castroville was not accomplished so happily as had been the journey 
thence to New Orleans. Father Domenech was accompanied by a young 
French gentleman, whose gaiety and good-humour served, in some measure, 
he says, to make the route more tolerable ; but there are certain points 
of discomfort at which it is not to be beguiled. On leaving Victoria, the 
travellers had provisions only for three days, whilst it would be seven 
before they could reach San Antonio : to add to their dissatisfaction, the 
weather was stormy, with incessant rain, which made the ground so heavy 
that it was difficult to make any progress at all. All these miseries they 
6 



1858.] Missionary Adventures in Texas and Mexico, 145 

put reasonably composed faces on ; but at length, on the sixth day from 
their departure from Victoria, their misfortunes seemed to reach a height 
at which patience stopped. The rain had fallen with little intermission all 
day, the roads were completely inundated, and the cleasings in the woods 
turned to Is^es. Their position was becoming every moment worse, when, 
to cap it iJl, they were overtaken by the sudden night of the tropics. It 
was impossible to proceed, and they were compelled to bl^ouae in the 
midst of the water. This was wretched enough ; but they had scarcely 
settled themselves in their wet quarters, when a frightful tempest arose 
around them : the wind blew a hurricane, sweeping forest and plain, and 
the lightning flashed, and the thunder roared uninterruptedly. Meanwhile 
our poor priest wa& in a pitiable plight, the cold,^ and damp, and fatigue 
having brought on fever. He could not sleep, of course, and it would 
appear must have got a little delirious : on no other supposition can he 
account for the resolve he now took o£ continuing bis journey. He tried 
to prevail upon his companion to proceed also, but the latter refusing, he 
saddled bis horse,, and departed alone. The tempest continued to rage as 
fiercely as ever,, and the dawn was yet far off. It was not long before he 
had lost tlie beaten path, and had to- pursue a random course, sometimes 
through waves of mud and water, and sometimes over prairie-land of which 
the long grass switched his face. Ere long his troubles multiplied :^- 

** It appeared to me that my horse was listening to something ; he pricked up his 
ears, and became uneasy and restive ; he snorted violently ; and at last reared, and 
refused to advance.. I was unable to distinguish any object in the dark, and still I 
was satisfied that the poor animal was not thrown into this state of terror without 
some cause. I drew one of my pistols from the holster, and struck my spurs into the 
horse to urge him forward. A ftightful' mewing then was heard, and two phosphoric 
lights blazed at twenty paces from me : the mystery was at onoe solved, it was a tiger 
or panther, or^ perchance, a number of these animals whieh surrounded me, for my 
head reeled so that I faneied that burning eye-ball» were fixed on me from every side. 
I had but a brace of pistols,, and to wound one of these animals would, have hem at- 
tended with too much danger, to kill it would be impossible, owing to the darkness and 
the unsteadiness of my aim ; I therefbre discharged my pistol in the air. My horse, 
maddened with terror, became quite unmanageable, and started off at full speed. I- kept 
well in my saddle.. The panthers slunk away to a short distanee at the rep«Mrt of the 
pistol, but they soon returned to within a £bw feet of the route. From alLthis I con- 
cluded, whilst galloping along, that their dens had been, inundated, and that I was In 
danger every instant of tumbling into some creek. Ilie croaking of frogs, which was 
becoming more distinct as I proceeded, left no doubt on my mind as to the fact. In a 
few minutes I beard the splashing of water about the horse's legs, and I felt the cold 
seizmg first my feet, and then running up my limbs at every stride. At last the horse 
sank in the water up to the breast, stopped suddenly, and after that, neither words^ 
nor blows, nor spurs,, affected him in the least. He seemed changed into marble. 

** I waited an iastant, until a flash of lightning shewed me whene I was.. By its 
rapid light I saw before me a lake formed by the rains. No weeds fioated on its 
surface, whidi proved- to me that it was so deep that it would be sheer madness to 
attempt to cross it during the night. I accordingly retraced my steps, but not daring 
to rctarn to the woods^ on account €»f the wild beasts, I dismounted, and leaning mj 
back against a tree,, with the wAter up to my. knees, and holding my pistols in my 
hand, I faced the panthers, which had agun returned. I was resolved to sell my life 
as dearly as possible; however, the panthers contented themselves with making a 
drcuit around me, without approaching too near. Their howling all the time waa 
most appalling. My poor horse was so terror-stricken that, although he was not'tiec^ 
Is remained motionless by my side the whole night. The electric fiuid fell with a 
Ireadful crash, within fifteen yards of me. It formed, as it were,^ a shower of sparks, 
hich set fire to the scanty herbage of the forest. The confiagration spread; I feared, 
_ji instant, that it would dislodge me from my position, and then roast me. Fortunately 
r the nun came to my aid, and extinguished it." 

Fortunately, too, the dawn presently came also. He was able to 

Gent. Mao. Vol. CCV. u 




14G Missionary Adventures in Texas and Mexico. [Aug. 

rejoin his friend, and they reached San Antonio on the evening of the 
same day. 

At Christmas, the church at Castroville was actually begun. The 
building of this church is one of the most curious and striking instances 
of determined perseverance that we remember ever to have heard of. 
That two men should, in the space of three months, erect a large and 
handsome church, almost entirely by their own unassisted labour, sounds 
fabulous; but, nevertheless, so it was. The amount of the interrupted 
subscnption proving greatly unequal to the work proposed, the two friends 
resolved to compensate for the deficiency by their own extra exertions. 
They considered no tasks above or below them. They cut and sawed the 
trees which were to supply them with wood, and fetched the stone from 
the quarry. This latter was a particularly laborious and tedious business. 
The building was to be chiefly composed of stone, and, of course, great 
quantities of it were required. Such a thing as a pulley or a lever was not 
to be had in the colony ; and, consequently, the large blocks necessary for 
their purposes had to be moved by main force. They used to take their 
cart to the quarry, and draw it as close as possible to the largest masses of 
stone. Then they deprived it of its wheels, thus bringing it on a level 
with the burden it was to receive. Wooden rollers were next placed under 
the stones, and they were rolled into the cart. This done, the two priests, 
with their united strength, proceeded to raise one of the axles of the cart 
and place a support beneath it ; then they did the same with the other ; 
then a second support was placed under the first axle ; and this operation 
was repeated until the cart was at a sufficient height from the ground for 
them to replace the wheels. In raising the walls of their structure they 
were obliged to get a little assistance ; but when the skeleton was made, 
they could again manage pretty much for themselves. The greater part of 
the roofing and windows they completed with their own hands ; the deco- 
rations being the sole work of our author, who confesses that he was not 
nearly so clever in the heavy-work department as his indefatigable col- 
league, which reverend ecclesiastic, attired in a red flannel shirt and blue 
cotton pantaloons, and spattered with mortar from head to foot, used, it 
would seem, to do the work of a dozen ordinary labourers. 

At length on Easter-day, 1850, the new church was opened for the cele- 
bration of mass. Everybody who saw it was astonished at the success 
which had been attained by the missionaries ; and their example had the 
good effect of proving to their flock that it would be quite possible for them 
to provide themselves with more comfortable dwellings than the wretched 
huts they had hitherto been contented with. But such a labour as this 
accomplished by the two devoted priests, was not to be achieved without 
cost. By the time the work was complete, the workmen's exhaustion was 
complete too, " We spat hlood^^^ says poor Emmanuel, in one brief, 
pathetic sentence. He himself, being the less hardy of the two, was re- 
duced to the very brink of the grave by the combined aflSictions of acute 
rheumatism, tormenting cough, and constantly-recurring fainting fits. In 
these circumstances, and as the only hope of repairing the mischief done 
them, they made up their minds to return, to seek repose in their own 
country. And so ends the first part of the Abba's volume. 

Not the least interesting portion of this first part of his volume is that 
relating to the Indians. These people are still very numerous and very 
formidable, especially in the north and west of Texas, and are the source 
of continued alarm to the colonists. The tribe of the Comanches is the largest 



1858.] Missionary Adventures in Texas and Mexico, 147 

and mostBavage : it is said to boast no less than forty thousand warriors. 
These warriors are men of gigantic stature and imposing appearance : a noted 
chief of the tribe, who died of cholera in 1 849, is described by our author 
as a very Titan, weighing above twenty-tJiree stone, without being at all 
corpulent. At San Saba, about 150 mSes north of San Antonio, are silver 
mines, worked by the Comanches. San Saba was once a Spanish mission, 
and the Franciscans had erected a church there for the Indians ; but during 
the Mexican war of independence, the Comanches burned the church and 
murdered the missionaries. The Comanches worship the sun and light. 
Not very distant from San Saba is the Peak, where they assemble to per- 
form their religious rites, smoking through the handles of their axes, — puff- 
ing one puff upward to the sun, and one downwards to the earth,— and 
singing their monotonous chant. The religion of the Indians varies ac- 
cording to their tribes. Father Domenech expresses his belief that the 
Lipans have at some time been acquainted with the principles of Christi- 
anity ; their religion, he says, bears unmistakeable evidence of such deri- 
vation. The Lipans are a comparatively small tribe, and much less 
formidable than the Comanches, being robbers rather than murderers. In 
the early days of the colony at Castroville they would now and then pay 
harmless visits to it ; and on one occasion, when high mass was being cele- 
brated, a party of sixty Lipans came to the chapel, and appeared highly 
delighted with the solemn music. As another instance of Lipan love of 
music, our author tells a beautiful story : — 

" One of the Lipan chiefs named Castro, was far from being a person of savage cha- 
racter. He had a daughter of singular beauty, who died soon after completing her 
eighteenth year. During her illness she was taken to the house ci the finmder of the 
colony, where she heard some airs played on the piano. Bewilderment at first seized 
her, and she listened with open mouth and a wild expression of eye to the melody. She 
tiien eiuunined the wood of the instrument with her hand, viewed it above, vndemeath, 
and OB all sides, then gave way to alternate fits of laughter and tears. Never did musio 
prodooe such an effect ; every note seemed to electrify her, and act like magic on her 
nerv«B^ while it worked in her the deepest emotions." 

The tribes of the Apaches and the Navajos chiefly inhabit New Mexico, 
but they sometimes come into Texas upon hunting excursions : the Wakos 
and the Delawares are inconsiderable tribes. 

The Indian tribes are nomadic, but they sometimes continue for a period 
of years in the same place. A Lipan encampment existed for a long time 
near Castroville. It is when they are thus stationary that they manufacw 
ture their knives and arrows, and prepare the skins of the beasts they 
bring home from their hunting excursions. 

The second part of our author's ** Narrative" has less excitement than the 
first ; but its sketches of American and Mexican character are as charming, 
in a different way, as the dashing adventure of the eai*lier journey. M. le 
Abb^*s second station was on the Rio Grande, the western boundary 
of Texas. The people under his charge were now chiefly Mexican, for 
though the territory belonged to the United States^ a large part of the 
popidation — a very large part of the Catholic population — ^was still Mexi- 
can. The vices he had to combat were not, as in his first mission, those of 
roguery and drunkenness.; ignorance, and superstition, and indifference, 
and imnoorality were the enemies he had now to assail. In temporal con- 
cems he was much better off than heretofore. The people about him were 
in easier circumstances than his former flock, and were generous and cour- 
teous. On the other hand, the extent of his mission — three hundred miles 



148 Missionary AdverUures in Texas and Mexico. [Aug. 

up the river — made his labour very hyingf.and he had no longer the sup- 
port and assistance of his indefatigable and affectionate fellow-labourer at 
Castroville. 

We shall be able to give but Uttle time to the concluding pages of the 
Abb^*s book ; so we counsel the curious to repair to the fountain-head, 
assuring thera that they cannot occupy a few hours more satisfactorily to 
themselves. Our author's place of residence, in the intervals of his various 
peregrinations, was at Brownsville, a pleasant city on the banks of the Rio 
Grande, almost directly opposite the Mexican town of Matamoros. Mata- 
moros figures a good deal in his story. It was so near Brownsville, 
that he could visit it frequently ; and after its siege by General Oarvajal 
and his followers, in the insurrectionary war of the cotton monopoly, 
he was in constant attendance upon the Catholic prisoners who were 
confined within it. He was, in fact, a true and devoted friend to these 
unfortunate men, leaving no means untried to efiect their release, and, 
when that was hopeless, bringing to their aid all the comfort his religion 
offered. Brownsville was a good example of a Texian frontier town, in 
the queer and heterogeneous specimens of human nature to be everywhere 
seen amongst its inhabitants. Our readers may, perhaps, be interested in 
the portraits of a Brownsville doctor and a Brownsville pastor: — 

" The doctor most in vogue in Brownsville was a Yankee, who, in the time of the 
Mexican war, had to perforin the amputation of a leg. He knew not how to «et about 
the matter, neither had he any surgical instruments, wherefore he got a butcher's saw, 
and with horrible skill began to saw the leg as he would a fa^t of wood, though he 
had never even assisted at an amputation. The patient expired in the middle of ik&M 
torturing operation. When Brownsville was founded, this doctor thought it demrable 
to become porter — a lucrative, but tiresome occupation; but he soon reitomied to pestle 
and mortar. He killed so many, aud so quickly too, that he had again to renounce 
his profession ; and yet by force of intrigue and audacity, he got himself named repre- 
sentative to the Congress of Austin. The session at an end, he returns to BrownsviUe» 
and, unable to vanquish his fatal penchant for lus early occupation, he becomes doctor 
again, after eonning over eome treatises on medicine. His therapeutic aoquirementt 
were of such an order, that for a woman who died of consumption he prescribed a 
strong dose of sulphuric acid, ' in order to bum the tubercles.' " 

The pastor*s forms a capital companion- picture. A certain minister of 
the city had three daughters, who, to use our author's naive expression, 
'* for years past were of an age to be married :" — 

" The minister seeing no one propose for their hand, determined to wait no longer in 
the matter of their settlement in the world. With this view he put in execution an 
idea essentially American. One Sunday he preached on the subject of marriage, am- 
plifying the text in (Genesis, ' Increase and multiply.' He proclaimed to his audience 
that this was a divine precept and not a counsel. He descanted with eloquence and 
warmth on the bliss of the hymeneal state, and ended his sermon by ofiering his three 
daughters, with three thousand dollars of fortune for each, to whomsoever would 
espouse them. He added that he would receive the names of the candidates after ser- 
vice ; and that his choice would fall on those who could Aimish the surest guarantee 
of moral character." 

As a fit finish to the scene, a wag of an Irishman present forthwith 
bawled out a request that his name might be put downer tvjo. 

Our Abb^ soon became attached to his Mexican fiock. Tbeir gentle- 
ness and courteousness were qualities that could not fail to win his 
afiection. But he found them frivolous, and without any principles of 
morality or religion. This was particularly the case in the more remote 
districts of his cure. In some of the ranchos he visited, the people had 
not seen a minister of religion for many years. Before the Mexican war 
of independence, the Spanish priests used occasionally to visit them ; but 



1858.] Missionary Adventures in Texas and Meosico. 149 

since that time they had been left without religious instruction of any 
kind ; and whatever knowledge they might have had, had been forgotten ; 
their sole notion of religion was a few forms of worship. As a natural 
consequence, their morality declined. They were very docile, however, to 
the teachings of their new missionary ; and at some of the ranchos he was 
beset with entreaties to take up a permanent residence. Some of the de- 
scriptions he has given us of his services in these distant ranchos, — when, 
with an altar erected under the shade of a tree, and the rancheros in their 
brilliant costumes kneeling around him in profound attention, he opened 
the beautiful truths of the religion of Christ, — are peculiarly affecting. 

But his continued labours soon began again to tell upon his health. It 
quite gave way, and he sank into a state of debility which made him 
unable to persevere in his good work. Once more he returned to France ; 
and it is from his retirement in his native country, that, an old man already 
at thirty-three, irretrievably shattered in constitution, and hopeless of 
farther active usefulness, he has sent forth this noble exposition of mis- 
sionary life. 

In fact, as an exposition of missionary life, we know of scarcely another 
book that will bear to be placed beside the one before us. The missionary 
appears to us here in a higher light than that in which most of us have 
been wont to consider him. He is no longer the travelling preacher going 
out to gain converts to a set of doctrines ; he goes out to prove by its 
effects in himself, in the devotedness, the long- suffering, the gentleness, 
the love of his own life, the power and beauty of the fidth of which he 
is the apostle. He does not need to heap evidence upon evidence of the 
truth and importance of his religion : the most convincing evidence is that 
he is willing to suffer so much for its sake : — 

" What have yon done to be sent here V* was the question with which oar author 
was assailed upon his arrival at Brownsville. 

"No one has sent me ; I have come of my own accord." 

" What ! you have not been obliged to quit France for some grave reasons ?" 

" For no reason in life, except to instruct you.'' 

" Then you have come as soldiers go to war, for advancement, and to become a 
biihop ?" 

'< It is the laft of my thoughts." 

The people cannot comprehend at first how a man will sacrifice and 
endure so much for no obvious reward ; but gradually they begin to be 
convinced that the principles that prompt to such sacrifice and endurance 
must be of more worth than their own crude superstitions. We are not to 
suppose, however, that the missionary is sustained by any peculiar spi- 
ritual support which makes his physical sufferings easy to be borne, and 
his holiness of life involuntary. His faith is subject to the same ebbs and 
flows as that of other mortals, he has the same weaknesses to struggle 
against, the same earthly yearnings to assert their claims within his heart. 
There are times when the scenes of his self-imposed exile witness fierce 
heart-confiicts and burning tears. Home, kindred, country,— 4ie has left 
them, not because they are less to him than to other men, but because the 
cross of Christ is more. And, doubtless, whatever may be his trials, 
inward or outward, the assurance is never far off, — " Every one that hath 
forsaken houses, or brethren, "or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or 
children, or lands, for My Name's sake, shall receive a hundredfold, and 
shall inherit everlasting life." 



150 



[Aug. 



ANTIQUARIAN RESEARCHES. 



BRITISH ARCHAEOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION. 



June 9. John Lee, LL.D., F.R.S., 
V.-P., in the Chair. 

Mr. Pettigrew laid before the meeting, 
on the part of Mr. Walter Hawkins, an 
oak panel, engraved in outline, the incised 
lines being filled up with threads of brass, 
giving one of the tbree representations of 
the vision of Henry L, in which the mo- 
narch is threatened by armed warriors. 
The work is of the twelfth century, and 
Mr. Pettigrew gave references to various 
chronicles, detailing the particulars re- 
garding it. Mrs. White laid before the 
Association a highly curious carving in 
bone, representing the nimbed figure of 
our Saviour seated on a rainbow. It is 
of the twelfth century, and was exhumed 
in the garden of the rectory of Leckhamp- 
stead, Bucks., the site of an ancient con- 
vent. Mr. C. Ainslie exhibited two Bri- 
tish coins, reported to have been found in 
St. James* Park. Mrs. Prest sent a fine 
paalstab, ploughed up in a field in Cundall 
Manor, in the North Riding of York. It 
measured seven inches in length, and tbree 
across the cutting edge. Mr. Baskcomb 
exhibited a ^mmel-ring, consisting of 
three gold circlets moving on a rivet 
which passes through them at the back. 
It was of the time of James I., and was 
ploughed up at Chiselhurst. Mr. W. H. 
Forman exhibited a fine series of steel 
spurs, of the fifteenth and sixteenth cen- 
turies. The earliest was a small pair of 
the reign of Henry V., or commencement 



of his successor. Of the early part of the 
reign of Henry VIII. was a very fine 
pair with lai^e rowels, having seven spear- 
shaped points set in long stems. In the 
collection was a pair of unique spurt, with 
straight shanks, engraved with leaves and 
cross hatchings, having two strught slits in 
each limb for the straps, and five stems 
curving upwards for the rowels, each of 
which was formed of eight spokes, each 
furnished with an eight-pointed stimnlns 
moving in it. It was regarded as of the 
fifteenth century. Mr. Ecroyd Smith 
transmitted some notes to accompany a 
collection of antiquities obtained from the 
Cheshire shore. They consisted of pri- 
meval instruments in flint, skulls of the 
Bos Primogenius, Roman fibulas, — nine of 
which were heart-shaped, others cmci* 
formed, several were enamelled, — ring 
brooches, bronze finger-rings, and varkms 
mediffival antiquities, all of which were 
consigned to Mr. Syer Cuming for dassi* 
fication and description. Mr. Cumiag ex- 
hibited various forgeries of matrioes of 
medi»val seals, and read notes upon them. 
Mr. Vere Irving concluded the reacUng 
of his paper on the " Ancient Earthworks 
and Fortifications of Norfi^lk," and the 
session terminated. The Assoeiadon was 
adjourned with the announcement of the 
Annual Congress to be held this year at 
Salisbury, under the presidency of the 
Marquis of Ailesbury. 



LONDON AND MIDDLESEX AECHJEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



Juhf 8. A general meeting of the mem- 
bers and friends of the London and Mid- 
dlesex ArchsBological Society was held in 
Myddleton-hall, Islington, George God- 
win, Esq., F.S.A., in the Chair. 

The Chairman, amongst other prelimi- 
narv remarks, said he felt that Islington 
itself afforded an ample field for the re- 
searches of 'the archffiologist. He would 
be very glad if the members of the Society 
would Ailly investigate the records of the 
antiquities of Islington : and with the re- 
sults of that investigation before them, 
they would see that there was a large 
field of most interesting things to be 
treated of. He had seen a most enter- 
taining work on the subject, entitled 
" Perambulations in Islington," which ho 



recommended to the attention of the 
members. 

Mr. H. W. Sass, the secretary, then 
read the minutes of the last general meet^ 
ing, which were confirmed. 

Mr. Deputy Lott, F.S.A., then read a 
paper on "Sur Richard Whityng^n," of 
which the following is an abstract : — 

Having been requested by the perish 
authorities of Islington, some years since, 
to write an inscription to be placed upon 
the renewal of the celebrated Whitting- 
ton's Qtone, upon the ascent of Hishgate- 
hill, I have considered that upon the visit 
of the London and Middlesex Archseolo- 
gical Society to the merrie town of Is- 
lington, some account of the eminent mer- 
chimt, whose dvic career this stone com- 



1858.] London and Middlesex Archaoloffical Society. 



153 



the posthomons benevolence of one of 
those charitable men with whom our city 
has ever abounded. 

In the year 1419, during Sir Richard's 
third mayoralty, he entertained Henry of 
Agincourt, and his bride, Catherine of 
France. It is stated that never before 
did a merchant display such magnificence 
as was then exhibited in the Guildhall: 
whether the account of precious stones 
to reflect the light of the chandeliers, 
choicest fish, exquisite birds, delicate meats, 
choirs of beautiful females, wine conduits, 
rare confections, and precious metals, be 
at all constrained, is problematical. Surely, 
cried the amazed King, "Never had a 
prince such a subject. Even the fires are 
filled with perfumes." 

" If your Highness," said Sir Richard, 
"inhibit me not, I will make these fires 
still more grateful. As he ceased speak- 
ing, and the King nodding, acquiesced, he 
drew forth a packet of bonds, and advanc- 
ing to the fire, resumed, ' Thus do I acquit 
your Highness of a debt of £60,000.* " 

This large sum of money had been bor- 
rowed by the King to pay his army en- 
gaged in the prosecution of the war against 
France. Some years after, when the king- 
dom was threatened with invasion by 
France and Scotland, Sir Richard was one 
of those merchants who surrendered a 
tenth of tbeir property to the State, and 
for his patriotic conduct on this occasion, 
which found the usurper deserted by the 
nobles of the land, he was created a knight. 
Some time afterwards he was sent, in com- 
pany with the Archbishop of York, as a 
commissioner to the Earl of Northumber- 
land, then in arms against the govern- 
ment, to endeavour to conciliate him ; and 
although he failed in his object, Henry 
was so pleased with the Archbishop's re- 
port of his integrity and prudence, that, 
as some say, he ofiered to raise him to the 
peerage. Sir Richard, however, declined 
the honour, althcugh the following year, 
1406, he suffered himself to be a second 
time elected Lord Mayor of London. 
During this mayoralty the Earl of North- 
umberland made such a head, that 
Henry was obliged to take the field, and 
Sir Richard Whittington subscribed 1,000/. 
towards equipping his troops. 

At this time, by his public spirit, another 
great City improvement was effected, in 
the building of the Stocks' Market ; and 
two years after, whilst actively employed 
iu the performance of his duties, he at- 
tended a great council held at Whitefriars, 
where preparations were considered for the 
King's journey to the Holy Land, an ex- 
pedition prevented by the death of the 
King. 

Gent. Mao. Vol. CCV. 



During Whittington's civic career oc- 
curred one of those outbreaks between the 
King and the Corporation, originating in 
a quarrel between a journeyman baker and 
a servant of the Bishop of Salisbury. It 
eventuated in the degradation from office 
of the Mayor and Sherifis, the appointment 
of seventeen Aldermen by the Crown, and 
a fine of 3,000 marks. Submission, how- 
ever, and payment of the fine, put all to 
rights. The City liberties were restored, 
the king and citizens reconciled, and, as 
usual, a splendid entertainment wound up 
the quarrel. They were mulcted, how- 
ever, in an additional fine of 10,000/., 
which, perhaps, led them to concur in the 
deposition of King Richard. 

The year followuig the expiration of 
Whittington's first mayoralty was preg- 
nant with great events to London and 
England — the deposition of King Richard 
II., and the ascent to the throne of Henry 
IV., a measure in which the citizens con- 
airred. 

As Alderman of the Ward of Vintry, he 
took an active part in each popular mea- 
sure. In 1389 he superintended the fes- 
ti\nties of a masked tournament in Smith- 
field, lately the scene of a rebel tumult. 
"Those who came in the King's party," 
says Fabian, " had their armour and ap- 
parel garnished with white harts, that had 
crowns of gold about their necks. Twenty- 
four thus apparelled led the horses of the 
same number of ladies by chuns of gold. 
The jousts continued four days, in the pre- 
sence of the King, the Queen, and the 
whole Court, his Majesty himself giving 
proofs of his skill and dexterity. During 
the whole time open house was kept, at 
the King's expense, at the Bishop of Lon- 
don's palace, for the entertainment of all 
persons of distinction. 



>» 



WhUyngton*s Will. — There is still in 
the possession of the Mercers* Company 
the original ordinances of Richard Whi- 
tyngton's charity, headed by " A curious 
illumination, representing," says Pennant, 
"Whittington lying on his death-bed, a 
very lean, consumed, meagre body; and 
his three executors, with a priest and 
divers others, standing by bis bedside." 
The document opens : — " To all true people 
of Cryste that shall se or here the things 
contained in these present letters. John 
Co ventre, Jenkin Carpenter, and WUliam 
Grove, exeketers of the worthie and notabil 
merchaunt, Richard Whityngton, late 
citizen and mercer of the City of London, 
and sometime Mayre of the said citie, 
sendinge greetyng in the Lord God ever- 
lastynge." It concludes thus : " In wit- 
ness we have put to otu: seeles, gyven at 



152 



Antiquarian Researches, 



[Aug. 



June 8, 1397, 20 Rich. II. (Lib. H.,) p. 314.— 
*' Writ fk-om the KinfCt appointing Richard Whi- 
tyngton, Mayor and Eschoetor, in place of Adam 
Bamme, late Mayor and E«choBtor, *viam uni- 
yerse camis sit ingreBsus.' fBamme died 6th 
June: Chron. of London, (Nicholas), p. 81]. 
Richard, by the Grace of God King of England 
and France, and Lord of Ireland.— Know ye that 
whereas Adam Bamme, late Mayor of our City 
of London, and an Eschoetor in the same City, 
hath gone the way of all flesh,— We, willing to 
proyide for the wholesome goyemment and happy 
rule of the said City, and our people of the same, 
until the accustomed day for the election of Mayor 
of the aforesaid City as to us belongeth, to pro- 
yide, with the assent and adyice of our council, 
haye constituted our beloyed Richard Whityng- 
ton, whose fidelity and circumspection hath been 
reported to us. Mayor of the aforesaid City, and 
our Eschoetor in the same City, granting and 
committing to the same Richard hereby full 
and sufficient authority and power, our afore- 
said City and our people of the same and others 
to the same resortmg, to rule and goyem, and to 
do all and singular things which to the aforesaid 
office, and the good rule and wholesome goyem- 
ment of the same City belongs, according to the 
laws and customs in the aforesaid City, justly 
and reasonably to be used, made, executed, and 
exercised, until the day on which the Mayor of 
the said City should be elected and take the 
Mayoralty and the oath of office, as the manner 
is ; and we command the Aldermen, Sheriffs, 
and other ministers of the aforesaid City, and 
all and singular our faithful sublects of the same 
City, to observe the directions of the same Richard, 
as Mayor of the said City, in all which to the rule 
and goyemment of the same pertains, to be [co- 
mutentes] and obedient. In testimony whereof, 
we haye caused these our letters to be made pa- 
tent. Witness myself at Westminster, the 8th 
day of June, in the twentieth year of our reign." 

Election of Whityngton as Mayor, 8 Henry lY., 
Oct. 13, 1406. {Lib. /., p. 54.]— "On the day 
of this election, the Mayor, John Woodcock, 
caused a Mass of the Holy Ghost to be celebrated 
in the Guildhall • chapel before going to the 
election. 

" Richard Whitjmgton was chosen Mayor for 
the year ensuing, and, at the reauest of the Com- 
moners, an ordinance was made by the Mayor 
and Aldermen that a similar Mass should be 
celebrated in future years on the day of election 
of Mayor." 

The entire entry is curious, and is 

printed at length in the Report of the 

Committee on the election of Aldermen, 

1834, p. 9. 

Election as M.P., 4 Henry V., 1416.—" Writ 
f^om the King, dated at Sandwich, 3rd Sept., 
4 Henry v., for the election of four citizens to 
be at a Parliament to be holden at Westminster, 
the 13th of October follow ing. By virtue whereof 
Richard Whityngton and Thomas Knolle, Alder- 
men, John Femey and Robert Whityngham, 
commoners, citizens of London, were elected to 
be at the said Parliament."— 2^. /., /o^ 172 b, 

Maitland, who professes to give, in his 

History of London, vol. ii. p. 1196, a 

complete list of the members for the City, 

makes no mention of the above. 

Election as Mayor, 7 Henry Y., Oct 13, 1419. 
— " Die Veneris, on the feast of St. Edward the 
King and Confessor, in the 7th year of the reign 
of King Henry V., after the Conquest, after Mass 
of the Holy Ohoet, Ac, in the presence of Com- 
missioner Seyenoll, Mayor, John Barton, Re- 
corder, Richard Whitington, Thomas Knolle, 
Richard Mirlawe, Robert Chichele, William Wal- 
deme, William Crowmer, Thomas Famoner, 

7 



Nicholas Wotton, Henry Barton, Thomas Alan, 
John Michel, John Gedney, Thomas Pyke, wm. 
Chichele, John Penne, William Norton, John 
Raynewell, John Pemeys, Ralph Barton, Robert 
Wvdington, John Standelf, Alderman, and Robert 
Whitingham, and John Boteler, Sheriffs, and aa 
immense commonalty of citizens of the said 
City, summoned to Guildhall, London, for roaUnff 
the election of Mayor for the year ensuing ot 
their common assent, consent, and will, Richard 
Whitington was elected Mayor for the year en- 
suing, &c., and afterwards, on the feast of the 
Apostles Simeon and Jude, of the Onildhidl 
aforesaid, was sworn, &c., and on the morroir 
of the same feast, before the Barons of the ^- 
chequer of our Lord the King at Westminster, 
was presented, admitted, and accepted, ftc."— 
Lib. /., p. 238, b. 

Sept. 21, 1422, 1 Henry VI. {Lib, JT.. p. 1.)— 
" Whityngton present at the election oi 

William Estfcld, mercer gheriflh." 
John Tatersall, draper J °"«"*»' 

St. Simeon and St. Jude, Oct. 13, 1423, 1 Henry 
VI. {Lib. jr., p. 1.)—" Whityngton preoent at 
the election of William Waldem, Maytv." 

The above appear to have been the last 
recorded occasions on which he was pre- 
sent at any civic assembly. 

He died some time between the last of 
the above dates and March following; 
his will, made Sept. 5, 1421, being proved 
in the Hustings on the Monday after the 
feast of St. Perpetna and Felicitas, March 
7, 1423. No other will of his is to be 
found on the Hustings Bolls, nor any will 
of any one of the same name, nor of his 
father-in-law, Fitzwarren. 

In a small court leading out of Ghmb- 
street, called Sweedeu's-passage, was a 
building traditionally said to be the ren- 
dence of Sir Richard Whittington in the 
reign of Edward IV., and of Sir Thomas 
Gresham in that of Elizabeth. It was a 
curious building, and with its projecting 
staircase was pulled down in March, 180C 
and three small houses occupy the site. 

Having traced the municipal career of 
Sir Richard Whittington, I must now id- 
lude to his acts of benevolence and utility. 
Of the latter, he rebuilt the church of Si. 
Michael Royal in the City, and founded 
therein a college; in 26 Henry VIII. 
benefactions valued at no more than 
£20 Is. 8d. per annum. The property 
must have much increased in value. The 
college was dissolved bv Edward VI., bat 
the almshouses remained. The almshouses^ 
still under the direction of the Mercers' 
Company, were, about thirty-five years 
ago, removed firom the dose neighbonr- 
hood of College-hill to the vic&ty of 
Highgate, and there reconstructed od an 
eminence beside the Archway-tumpike — 
twenty-eight in number — inhabitants all 
women, under fifty-five on admisrion : 
each person has 128. per week from ^e 
charity. They are very pretty edifices of 
the Elizabethan order — beautiful retreats 
for our poorer sisU'rs, and monuments of 



1858.] London and Middlesex^ Archaoloffical Society, 



153 



the posthumous henevolence of one of 
those charitable men with whom our city 
has ever abounded. 

In the year 1419, during Sir Richard's 
third mayoralty, he entertained Henry of 
Agincourt, and his bride, Catherine of 
France. It is stated that never before 
did a merchant display such magnificence 
as was then exhibited in the Guildhall: 
whether the account of precious stones 
to reflect the light of the chandeliers, 
choicest fish, exquisite birds, delicate meats, 
choirs of beautiful females, wine conduits, 
rare confections, and precious metals, be 
at all constrained, is problematical. Surely, 
cried the amazed King, "Never had a 
prince such a subject. Even the fires are 
filled with perfumes." 

** If your Highness," said Sir Richard, 
" inhibit me not, I will make these fires 
still more grateftil. As he ceased speak- 
ing, and the King nodding, acquiesced, he 
drew forth a packet of bonds, and advanc- 
ing to the fire, resumed, * Thus do I acquit 
your Highness of a debt of £60,000.' " 

This large sum of money had been bor- 
rowed by the King to pay his army en- 
gaged in the prosecution of the war against 
France. Some years after, when the king- 
dom was threatened with invasion by 
France and Scotland, Sir Richard was one 
of those merchants who surrendered a 
tenth of tbeir property to the State, and 
for his patriotic conduct on this occasion, 
which found the usurper deserted by the 
nobles of the land, he was created a knight. 
Some time afterwards he was sent, in com- 
pany with the Archbishop of York, as a 
commissioner to the Earl of Northumber- 
land, then in arms against the govern- 
ment, to endeavour to conciliate him ; and 
although he failed in his object, Henry 
was so pleased with the Archbishop's re- 
port of his integrity and prudence, that, 
as some say, he ofiered to raise him to the 
peerage. Sir Richard, however, declined 
the honour, althcugh the following year, 
1406, he suffered himself to be a second 
time elected Lord Mayor of London. 
During this mayoralty the Earl of North- 
umberland made such a head, that 
Henry was obliged to take the field, and 
Sir Richard Whittington subscribed 1,UU0/. 
towards equipping his troops. 

At this time, by his public spirit, another 
great City improvement was efiected, in 
the building of the Stocks' Market ; and 
two years after, whilst actively employed 
iu the performance of his duties, he at- 
tended a great council held at Whitefriars, 
where preparations were considered for the 
King's journey to the Holy Land, an ex- 
pedition prevented by the death of the 
King. 

Gent. Mao. Vol. CCV. 



During Whittington's civic career oc- 
curred one of those outbreaks between the 
King and the Corporation, originating in 
a quarrel between a journeyman baker and 
a servant of the Bishop of Salisbury. It 
eventuated in the degradation from office 
of the Mayor and Sherifis, the appointment 
of seventeen Aldermen by the Crown, and 
a fine of 3,000 marks. Submission, how- 
ever, and payment of the fine, put all to 
rights. The City liberties were restored, 
the king and citizens reconciled, and, as 
usual, a splendid entertainment wound up 
the quarrel. They were mulcted, how- 
ever, in an additional fine of 10,000/.^ 
which, perhaps, led them to concur in the 
deposition of King Richard. 

The year following the expiration of 
Whittington's first mayoralty was preg- 
nant with great events to London and 
England — the deposition of King Richard 
II., and the ascent to the throne of Henry 
IV., a measure in which the citizens con- 
curred. 

As Alderman of the Ward of Vintry, he 
took an active pnrt in each popular mea- 
sure. In 1389 he superintended the fes- 
ti\nties of a masked tournament in Smith- 
field, lately the scene of a rebel tumult. 
"Those who came in the King's party," 
says Fabian, " had tbeir armour and ap- 
parel garnislied with white harts, that had 
crowns of gold about their necks. Twenty- 
four thus apparelled led the horses of the 
same immber of ladies by chains of gold. 
The jousts continued four days, in the pre- 
sence of the King, the Queen, and the 
wbole Court, his Majesty himself giving 
proofs of his skill and dexterity. During 
the whole time open house was kept, at 
the King's expense, at the Bishop of Lon- 
don's palace, for the entertainment of all 
persons of distinction 



tf 



WhUyngtorCs Will, — There is still in 
the possession of the Mercers' Company 
the original ordinances of Richard Whi- 
tyngton's charity, headed by " A curious 
illumination, representing," says Pennant, 
"Whittington lying on his death-bed, a 
very lean, consumed, meagre body; and 
his three executors, with a priest and 
divers others, standing by his bedside." 
The document opens : — " To all true people 
of Cryste that shall se or here the things 
contained in these present letters. John 
Co ventre, Jenkin Carpenter, and William 
Grove, exeketcrs of the worthie and notabil 
merchaunt, Richard Whityngton, late 
citizen and mercer of the City of London, 
and sometime Mayre of the said citie, 
sendinge greetyng in the Lord God ever- 
lastynge." It concludes thus : " In wit- 
ness we have put to our seeles, gyven at 



154 



Antiquarian Researches, 



[Aug. 



London, the xxj. dale of Decembre, in the 
yere of our Lord God, 1424." 

The citizens, particularly the merchants, 
long kept the anniversary of Whitting- 
ton's death with particular respect. Among 
the returns of charities in the 2nd of 
Edward VI., is the following from the 
Mercers' Company : — " Paid yearly for 
the obitte of Master Whityngton for spicest 
brede, with spices, and whyte bread and 
butter, xl*. and \u}d. For pears, apples, 
pyckells, chese, ale, and wine, and the 
butler's fee, with other things, 28^. and 
Sd. For wax and ringing of bells, 2». 
To the poor men for to oifer, ISd. To the 
Lord Maier of London, 6*. Sd. To the 
three warders of the Mercers, 3Z., and to 
the rent warders, 40*. To the clerk of 
the mercer, 6*. Sd., and as for priests and 
clerk es we never paid none." 

The popular Legend of Whittington 
and his Cat. — I now come to the celebrated 
portion of the history of Whittington, 
namely, in comiexion with that respectable 
and useful domestic animal the cat, with- 
out which our menage at home seems 
hardly complete ; but 1 regret to have to 
demolish the celebrity of poor Puss in 
connexion with Sir Richard Whittington ; 
for historical research shews that he was 
not of poor origin, neither did he owe any 
of his riches to the prowess of the tiger's 
miniature. 

The Clerk of the Mercers* Company has 
in his apartment at Mercers' Hall a por- 
trait on canvas of a man about sixty years 
of age in a fine livery-gown and black cap 
of the time of Henry VI IL, such as Yeo- 
men of the Guard now wear. The figure 
reaches about half the lencfth of the arms 
from the shoulders ; on the left hand of 
the figure is a black and white cat, whose 
right ear reaches up to the band or broad 
turning-down of the skirt of the figure; 
on the left-hand ui>per corner of the canvas 
is printed "R. Whittington. 1536." Xei- 
thcr Grafton nor Holinshed say anything 
of the legendary history of Sir Richard 
Whittington; but it must have been current 
in the reign of Elizabeth ; for in the first 
scene of Beaumont and Fletcher's " Knight 
of the Burning Pestle," (1613), the citizen 
says to the prologue, " Why could you not 
be contented as well as others with the 
legend of \Miittuigton ?" The word " le- 
gend" in this place would seem to indicate 
the story of the cat. Cats, as we know, 
fetched a high price in America when it 
was first colonized by the Spaniards. Two 
cats, we arc told, were taken out, as a 
speculation, to Cuyaba, where there was 
a plague of rats, and they were sold for a 
pound of gold. Their first kittens fetched 
each thirty pieces of eight, the next gene- 



ration not more than twenty, and the 
price gradually fell, as the colony became 
stocked with these. The elder Almagro 
is said to have given 600 pieces of eight 
to the person who presented him with the 
first cat which was brought from South 
America. 

In an interesting work, entitled, ** Po- 
pular Music of the Olden 'lime; Illustra- 
tion of the National Music of England," 
by W. Chappell, F.S.A., is the following: 
— "ITie earliest notice of *Turn again, 
Whittington,' as a tune, if a mere change 
of bells may come under that denomination, 
is in Shirley's 'Constant Maid/ act li. 
scene 2, 1640, where the niece says, — 

' Fuith, how many churches do you mean to 

build 
Before you die ? Six bells in every steeple, 
And let them all po to the City tune, 
Turn apiiin, Whittington— who they say. 
Grew rich, and let his land out for nine Uvee 
Cause all came in by a cat.' 

A ballad was entered at Stationers' Hall 
a few months later, then a drama on 
the same subject." The following ex- 
tracts are from the registers of the Com- 
pany : on February 8, 1604, to Thomas 
Pavior: — "The History of Richard Whi- 
tyngton, of his low birthe, his great for- 
tune, as that was played by the Prince's 
servants ;" and on July 6, 1605, to John 
Wright, a ballad called, " The wondrous 
life and memorable death of Sir Richard 
Wliityngton, now some time Lord Mayor 
of the Honourable City of London," and 
is contained in Johnson's "Crowne Gar- 
land of Golden Roses," 1612. 

Whittington*s Stone. — The Geihxb- 
man's Magazine has many accounts of 
this stone. In September, 1824, it is 
stated that a stone, at the foot of High- 
gate-hill, was supposed to have been placed 
there by Whittington, on the spot where 
he heard lk)w bells. It had a pavement 
round it, about eighteen feet in circum- 
ference. From an old engraving of it, it 
appears that it was a small obelisk, or 
pyramid, standing on a square base, and 
surmounted by a cross, apparently of iron. 
This stone remained until 1795, when one 
S., who was parish officer of Islington^ 
had it removed and sawn in two, and 
placed the halves on each side of Queen's 
Head-lane, in the I^wer-street, Islington. 
The pavement he converted to his own 
use, and with it paved the yard of the 
Blue Last public- house, (now the Marl- 
borough Heail,) Ishngton. The parish- 
ioners expressed great dissatisfaction ; and* 
to make some amends, Mr. Fincl, the 
mason, was employed to place another 
stone in its stead, and on which was 
marked " Whittingtou's Stone." Some 
land, it is stated, lying on the left hand 



1858.] Kilkenny and South-East of Ireland Archceol. Soc. 155 



side in ascending the hill, and probaMy 
jnst behind the stone, is held on the tenure 
of keeping the stone in repair, and on its 
removal a new one was immediately placed 
there, of smaller dimensions, though it 
was never known by whom. 

"WTiittington's stone was replaced in the 
year 1795, by Mr. Charles Wilkinson, of 
17, Highbury-place, and Mr. Horace Muck- 
ton, of Highbury-terrace. It remained 
until 1821, when another was put, and 
which was replaced in 185 1 by the present 
stone. The disappearance of the stone in 
1821 caused a great stir, and several letters 
appeared in the Gentleman's Magazine 
on the said subject. 

The "Times" paper of September 12, 
1854, gives the following account of the 
inscription: — "A plain stone, about two 
feet high, is now erected there, which has 
chiselled on it the following brief history 
of Whityngton's life. 

" ' Whitynnton Stone. Sir R. Whityng- 
ton, thrice Lord Mayor of London. 



*1397. R5chard2nd, 
1406, Henry 4th. 
1420, Ilenrv 5ih. 
Sheriff 1595.' " 

Tlie Rev. Thomas Hugo then read a 
most elaborate paper on "Mediaeval Pil- 
grimages and their Memorials," in which 
he dealt largely in the "Canterbury Tales," 
alleged to have been the work of Geofirey 
Chaucer, and in the course of the reading 
introduced a collection of " Pilgrim Signs" 
— in the shape of ancient coins — supposed 
to have been worn around the necks of 
pilgrims on their return from the scene 
of their pilgrimages. 

Professor Tennant read a paper on the 
" Crown Jewels in the Tower of liondon," 
referring especially to the crown of Vic- 
toria, in which he gave a most minute de- 
scription of its manufacture, the precious 
materials of which it is composed, and the 
cost of its production. 

A vote of thanks to the Chair closed the 
proceedings. 



KILKElS'Iinr AJ^D SOUTH-EAST OF IRELAND ARCHJEOLOGICAL 

SOCIETY. 



At the meeting of this Society, July 8, 
Barry Delany, Esq., M.D., in the Chair, 
The Rev. James Graves, Hon. Sec, stated 
that he had received a letter from the pri- 
vate secretary of the Lord- Lieutenant, 
conveying the gratifying intelligence that 
his Excellency " had much pleasure at ac- 
ceding to the request " of the Hon. Sec., 
that he should become a member and pa- 
tron of the Society. His Excellency was 
therefore elected a patron of the Society 
in the room of the late Lord-Lieutenant, 
the Earl of Carlisle. 

Several new members having then been 
proposed and elected, the Secretary laid 
jn the table a number of books and pam- 
phlets, presents from individuals and kin- 
dred Societies. 

Photographs of Clonmel, Sfc. — Dr. 
Hemphill, of Clonmel, presented to the 
Society four numbers of his admirable 
photographic record of the antiquities 
and scenery of Clonmel, Ca^hel, Lismore, 
Holy -cross, &c., &c. These faithful and 
beautiful records excited the admirat'on 
of the members present, who expressed a 
hope that Dr. Hemphill would receive 
ample encouragement to continue this 
most interesting series. 

The Hon. Secretary "said that, having 
communicated to Captain Alcock, ot Wil- 
ton, the failure of Lord Templemore's 
agent, Mr. Knox, to carry out his engage- 
ment relative to the repair of Dunbrody 



Abbey, he (Mr. Graves) had been directed 
by Captain Alcock to send back to him the 
ancient seal connected with Dunbrody, 
which Mr. Knox had asked for as an 
equivalent for Lord Templemore's pro- 
posed expenditure, and which Captain A. 
had at once, in the most liberal manner, 
consented to give. Mr. Alcock said, "I 
am sorry that Lord Templemore delays 
tire required repairs to those beautiful 
ruins." 

Amongst the antiquities exhibited was 
a bronze thumb-ring of large size ; it bore 
the letter "W." crowned, and appeared 
from its workmanship to belong to the 
fourteenth century. The ring was sent 
for exhibition by Richard I>ong, Esq., 
M.D., Arthurstown, county of Wexford. 
It was given to him by an old lady. Miss 
Myra Devereux, whose ancestor received 
it from the last abbot of Dunbrody Abbey, 
who also was a Devereux. 

The Rev. James Graves said that Mr. 
Le Hunte, of Artramont, near Wexford, 
had shewn him an impression of a bronze 
ring with a similar device — a crowned 
" W." The only difference in the make 
of the rings was, that that described by 
Mr. Le Hunte was corded or twisted dia- 
gonally across the hoop, whilst the cords 
or ridges ran parallel with the hoop in 
Dr. Long's ring. It was a curious coin- 
cidi nee that a rinj* found near Wexford 
(as was the case with the ring alluded to 



156 



Antiquariai Researches. 



[Aug. 



by Mr. Le Hunte) and this old family relic 
should bear the same device. Perhaps it 
bore some allusion to the initial letter of 
the town or county of Wexford. 

The Secretary then submitted to the 
meeting the following communications and 
papers : — 

On an ancient memorial cross in the 
churchyard of Collardstown, near Bally- 
more Eustace, county of Kildare, illus- 
trated by rubbings: by Sir Erasmus D. 
Borrowes. 

On a rare variety of Irish " ring-money," 
preserved in his collection : by Alexander 
ColviUe Welsh, Esq. 



On a sepulchral cist discovered at Ti- 
moffue, Queen's County : by Mr. Darnel 
O'Byme. 

On the topographical collections rela- 
tive to the county of Louth, preserved 
amongst the Ordnance papers in the li- 
brary of the Royal Irish Academy : by 
the Rev. P. O'Hanlon. 

A biography of Florence McCarthy, the 
head of that tribe, temp. Elizabeth and 
James I. : by Daniel McCarthy, Esq. 

The usual vote of thanks having been 
passed to the donors and exhibitors, the 
meeting adjourned to the first Wednesday 
in September. 



LEICESTEHSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL AND ARCH^OLOGICAL 

SOCIETY. 



At the meeting, June 28, the Rev. R. 
Burnaby in the Chair, Mr. Thompson ex- 
hibited a drawing, by Mr. H. Goddard, of 
the hall of Leicester Castle, as it appeared 
previously to the alterations effected in 
1821, when its original appearance was 
entirely destroyed; together with a ground 
plan and details of several portions of it. 

Mr. Woodcock exhibited casts, in cop- 
per, of the great seal of King Edward the 
Confessor, the inscription on which is, 
"SiGiLLVM Eadwakdi Anglorvm Ba- 
BILEI." The word Basilei instead of 
Regis is an interestina: indiciition of the 
knowledge and use of the Greek language 
among the Anglo-Saxons. Humphrey, in 
his book on Common Prayer, states tliat 
King Athelstane's Psalter contains the 
earliest existing copy of the Nicene Creed, 
and that it is in Greek, but written in 
Saxon characters. The knowledge of 
Greek among the Anglo-Saxons points to 
the connection between the early Church 
of England and the Ea.stern Church. It 
shews that the Latin language had not 
then that exclusive possession which it 
certainly obtained in England between 
the Norman Conquest and the revival of 
learning. The fact that Christianity was 
introduced originally from the Eastern 
Church, through Gaul, and that the 
usages of the East (as, for instance, the 
time of keeping Easter) pi-evaUtd in Eng- 
land until the Conquest, and among tlie 
Anglo-Saxons even after, is well-known. 
The knowledge, therefore, of the Greek 
among the Anglo-Saxons, and of the Latin 
exclusively among the Normans, is im- 
portant. The Norman Conquest brought 
Rome, and the language of Rome, in a 
way to England, which St. Augustine's 
mission had failed to do, although the suc- 
cession of the clergy of the previous East- 



ern Church of England had been super- 
seded by the Western missionaries. 

Mr. Neal exhibited an angel of the 34th 
year of Henry VIII., the peculiarity of 
which consists in an annulet or gun-hole 
on the side of the ship on the reverse. — 
(Folkes, pi. vi., fig 6.) 

Mr. Gresley produced rubbings of the 
brass of St. Ethelred in Wimborne Min- 
ster, and of the inscription belonging to 
it mentioned at the last meeting as hav- 
ing been discovered during the restoration 
of the church last year, which is as fol- 
ows: — 

IN HOC LOCO ftVIESCIT C0RPV8 SAKCTI ETHEL)tSDX 
RKQIS WEST-SAXOKVM MARTTRIS, 
QVT ANNO DOMINI 872 : 23 DIB APRILI8 PKR 
M ANVS DACORVM PAOANORVM OCCVBVIT. 

This inscription is upon a plate measuring 
10 i by 3 inchtjs. It differs from the in- 
scription now in the church in having no 
contractions, and also having the date 872 
instead of 873; the latter, according to 
Hutchin><, being a wrong one. Leland 
says the date when he visited Wimborne 
(temp. Hen. VIII.) was 827; "evidently 
a misprint," says Hutchins, for 872 ; 
which shews that it was the inscription 
recently discovered, if either of them, 
which Leland saw. But although evi- 
dently more ancient than the present in- 
scription, the one discovered has the ap- 
pearance of being of the commencement 
of the seventeenth rather than of the six- 
teenth century. 

Mr. Gresley also exhibited some anti- 
quities discovered last year in the Minster 
and Stow Pools at Lichfield, which have 
been let dry in order to the latter being 
formed into a reservoir for the toMTi of 
Walsall. They are now in the possession 
of C. Gresley, Esq. 



1858.] 



Antiquarian Researches, 



157 



DISCOVERY AND EXAMINATION OF A ROMAN CEMETERY, BELONGING TO THE 
UPPER EMPIRE PERIOD, AT BARENTIN, (ARRONDISSEMENT DE ROUEN.) 



DuEiNG the early part of Inst year some 
workmen, employed in grubbing the wood 
of Torterelle, discovered a number of an- 
cient vessels. The greater part of these 
were broken by their digging tools, and 
the few that escaped were collected by 
M. Lame, of Bondeville, the owner of the 
property. Notice of this discovery ap- 
peared in the journals of Rouen and Fe- 
camp, and the Abb^ Cochet lost no time in 
examining the vessels in question, which 
he found to be of Roman pottery of the 
Upper Empire, and indicative of a ceme- 
tery of the early Christian period. 

On obtaining the permission of M. Lame, 
which was moat politely conceded, and a 
grant of money from the Prefet de la 
Seine Infirieure, the Abbe Cochet visited 
Barentin early last June, and the results 
of his first research are briefly summed up 
in the following notes. 

The space of ground examined by M. 
Cochet is about 30 metres long, by 10 
broad=about 97 feet by 32 in English 
measure. In this strip no less than 88 
sepulchral groups were found, which con- 
sisted of 230 vessels, either of earthen- 
ware or glass. Among these were 13 
dolia, or very large earthenware vessels, 
used by the (jallo-Romans for sepulchral 
purposes since the days of the elder Pliny. 
These cremation-tombs of Barentin may 
be divided into two classes — those of note, 
and ordinary ones. These latter, as a rule, 
were composed of three vessels: that 
which contained the burnt remains of the 
deceased; an empty jar for holding the 
liquor for offerings; and another black gob- 
let-shaped vessel, destined for libations. The 
tombs of persons of note consisted of a do- 
^'«m,the vast interior of which contained se- 
yeral vessels; or else a group of four or five 
vessels deposited in the earth in a casing 
of wood, tiles, or flints. These groups, 
which certainly afford most interest, usually 
contained a glass urn, filled with burnt 
bones, and enclosed in an earthenware 
vessel, an earthen jar for the offerings, a 
red saucer, and a vessel of black pottery. 
Frequently, too, a drinking-glass was found 
by, or above the head, or else a glass 
pbial for per^mes or scents. 

The forms of these vessels were very 
elegant, like all other products of the 
Upper Empire, but unfortunately very few 
—only 15 out of 130 — could be removed 
whole, owing to the roots and stones with 
which the site of these thickets was filled. 
These vessels, deposited near the surface, 
had been long ago broken by the pressure 



of the soil, and the rolling of carts. The 
greater part, too, were found purposely sur- 
rounded by blocks of flint, or beneath the 
roots of oaks, which rendered their re- 
moval difficult. 

The cemetery of Barentin, like the other 
cremation interments of the Upper Em- 
pire, furnished but few reliqiies in metal. 
M. Cochet, however, noticed some iron 
nails both inside the vessels and scattered 
around them. In the former case, these 
belonged to the wooden frame on which 
the body was burned; in the latter, to 
the chests in which the vessels were placed 
when committed to the earth. 

There was also collected a fibula of 
bronze inlaid with enamel, a ring of a size 
adapted for the finger of a young person, 
and a small iron bell, which was lying in 
one of the vessels. It is just such a bell as 
those which are hung round the necks of 
animals. Similar ones occurred in 1845 in 
tlie Roman cemetery of Neuville-le-PoUet, 
and in 1851 at Bois des Loges, near 
Etretat. Lastly, at the bottom of a glass 
urn, filled with burnt bones, two large 
brass coins were discovered. One of these 
is entirely defaced, but on the other we 
could read the name of Antoninus Pius, 
(138—161). This brass had been de- 
posited while quite new, and was per- 
fectly unrubbed. It agrees with the date 
of the pottery and the practice of cre- 
mation, and affords a date of the second 
century of our era to this cemetery, which 
may have originated in the first century, 
and probably did not exist longer than 
the end of the third. It is somewhat 
remarkable that all the examples of cre- 
mation in our cemeteries have afforded 
coins of either Adrian, Trajan, Antoninus 
Pius, or Marcus Aurelius. 

Another interment, which was the rich- 
est we met with here, afforded a square 
plate of bronze, of the use of which we 
are not aware, and a circular miiTor of 
bronze, tinned, and pierced round with 
holes, for the purpose of attaching some 
ornamental border. This relique was un- 
fortunately broken by the country-people, 
who ransacked the interment during the 
absence of the workmen. 

Among the results of this research must 
be given the mark of the potter, Liberius, 
found on the bottom of a red cup; and 
two marks of glass-makers, observed on 
two square urns. One of these is an M 
with concentric circles round it ; the other 
is a Greek cross •{•. A similar mark oc- 
curred on a glass urn found at Luneray in 



158 



Antiquarian Researches. 



[Aug. 



1827, and now preserved in the Dieppe 
Library. 

The cemetery of Torterelle, though it has 
produced but few objects fitted to adorn a 
museum, is not the less precious a mine 
for archaeology, and an important point 
for ancient geography. The number of 
vessels of all sorts destroyed by the work- 
men in 1857 is estimated at not less than 
2,000. In fact, 50 arcs (= almost IJ acre) 
were then cleared; and if this space be 
compared with that of the present year, it 
will be seen that there is probably no ex- 
aggeration in the above estimate. Nor is 
the spot exhausted, and M. Cochet has 
not yet made out its extent. It is then 
to be hoped that science may yet hence 
derive further revelations. 

It will perhaps be asked, where the 



cemetery of Torterelle is situate ? to what 
period it belongs ? and to what establish- 
ment it was attached? This cemetery, 
then, lies at the eastern extremity of Ba- 
rentin, just where this commune joins 
Pavilly, and Pissy-Povil. It is in a lonely 
valley, on the slope of a hill, like most an- 
cient cemeteries, and abuts on the Havre 
railway. Its date must necessarily be re- 
ferred to the first three centuries of our 
era, but it is not so easy to determine to 
what establishment it may have belonged. 
It may, however, very probably have been 
attached to the manor of Catillon, in which 
it is enclosed. The name of Catillon ifl 
very ancient, and it was probably here 
that the powerful Gallo- Roman family re- 
sided, whose burial-place we have jost 
discovered. 



PROPOSAL FOR THE COLLECTION OF AUTHENTIC COPIES OF MONU- 
MENTAL INSCRIPTIONS. 



The Society of Antiquaries of London, 
not having been successful in inducing the 
government to take measures for arresting 
the destruction of funeral monuments, &c., 
desires to provide a partial remedy by esta- 
blishing a registry of all properly -authen- 
ticated copies of inscriptions; and with 
this view propose to collect such copies in 
the following manner, viz. — 

To receive all copies of monumental in- 
scriptions, authenticated to the satisfac- 
tion of the Committee appointed by the 
Society for thi;* purpose, which may be 
sent to them free of expense. 

Rubbings, photographs, engravings, 
etchings, and lithographs will be received 
as copies. Written copies should be in a 
clear and legible handwriting, and upon 
foolscap of the ordinary size. The paper 
should be written on one side only, and 
with a clear space between each inscrip- 
tion. It is indispensable that it should 
appear on the copy whether it be derived 
from the original monument, or from any 
transcript or other source. 

Such copies, and all rubbings, photo- 
graphs, &c., of monuments and monu- 
mental inscriptions, will be kept in the 
apartments of the Society in Somerset- 
house, London, or some other suitable 
place of deposit, and will be arranged and 
indexed. 

It is hoped that eventually arrange- 
ments may be made for rendering the 
index and inscriptions accessible to the 
public generally. 

The Society of Antiquaries invite the 
oo-operation, not only of all their mem- 
bers, but of all possessors of rubbings. 



photographs, or other copies of monu- 
mental inscriptions, or drawings, &c., of 
monuments. It is obvious that the valne 
of such a collection will mainly depend 
upon its extent and accuracy. 

Copies and communications upon this 
subject should be addressed to " The Soci- 
ety of Antiquaries, Somerset-house, Lon- 
don," and it will be convenient if the 
subject of the communication be indicate4 
by the word *' Inscriptions " written on 
the envelope. Information respecting cu- 
rious or valuable inscriptions, especially 
•if in any state of decay or danger, will be 
thankfully received. 

The Society desire to receive in like 
manner copies of inscriptions, Ac., in 
churchyards as well as in churches : and 
will be particularly gratified to receive 
copies of epitaphs wherever they may ex- 
ist, whether on the Continent or in any of 
our Colonies, relating to British families. 

Copies of inscriptions will be the more 
valuable when accompanied by sketches, 
rubbings, or descriptions of any armorial 
bearings on the monument, and also by 
particulars as to the precise part of the 
church or churchyard in which they may 
be found. 

Communications respecting existing col- 
lections of inscriptions, of annotated copies 
of Weever's " Funeral Monuments," Le 
Neve's Monumenta Anglicana, or other 
works of similar character, or of any county 
histories in which manuscript copies of 
such records are preserved, are also invited 
by the Society, who desire to form a gene- 
ral index of Monumental Inscriptions. 



1858.] 



159 



CORRESPONDENCE OP SYLVANUS URBAN. 



COATS OF ARMS IN ESSEX CHURCHES. 

No. VIII. 
Claveeino Hundred. — No. I. 



Clavering. — Berden, 



Clavering, — ^A large and interesting Per- 
pendicular church, with rich screen-work, 
roofs, and seats ; also many monuments to 
the Barlee family, who were seated here 
for several generations. In a window of 
the north aisle are the arms of William 
JBarlee, of the Middle Temple, Esq., 1683 : 
— Erm., 3 hars wavy sah. Crest, a boar's 
head couped or, in the mouth flames 
proper. 

The two following coats of arms were to 
be seen in the clerestory windows during 
the last century, they have since disap- 
peared. 1. " Scutum Radulphi Orey, miles 
cnjus ai*e ppVietur Deus;" arg., a bend 
vert, cottized gu. 2. Langley, paly of six 
arg. vert. ; imp., FfoXy per pale sab. vert, 
a cross potent arg. 

Anns on the monuments. 

I. A brass in the nave with four shields 
to Ursula f daughter of Sylvester Danvers, 
of Dauntesy, co. Wilts (by Elizabeth his 
wife, daughter of Sir John Mordaunt, 
Knt.,) and wife of TJiomas Welhore, of 
Pondes, in Clavering, Gent. ; she died Dec. 
26, 1591. 

1. Welbare, Arg., a fess between 2 boars 
pass sab., armed or; imp. Danvers, 
quarterly of 19—5, 5, 5, 4. 

1. Danvers, Gu., chev. between 3 
mullets pierced or. 

2. Danvers, ancient erm., on bend gu. 
3 martlets or. 

3. Popham, Gu., 2 bars or, on chief 
of last 2 stags' heads cabossed of 
the field. 

4. Stradliny, Paly of 6, arg. az., on 
bend gu. 3 cinquefoils or. 

5. A chevron. 

6. 3 crosses pat^, 2, 1, a file of 

3 points. 

7. A fess between 3 crosslets. 

8. A chevron between 3 cres- 

cenU. 

9. Cheeky, a fess. 

10. 3 chevrons. 

11. Cheeky. 

12. Daintesy, Per pale, or sab., 3 bars 

ncbuly connterchanged. 
13. A chief indented. 



14. 
15. 



3 doves, 2, 1, a chief. 

A bend, over all a file of 3 



points. 

16. On a cross five martlets. 

17. Cheeky, a chief erm., a file of 

5 points. 

18. A fret. 

19. Pretty. 

Crest, a boar's head couped sab., pierced 
by a spear in pale or, embrued gu. 

2. Quarterly 1. Danvers; 2. Danvers, 
ancient ; 3. Stradling ; 4. Daintesy ; 
imp. 1, 4, Courtenay, Or, 3 torteaux, 

2, 1, file of 3 points az., besanty; 2, 

3, Redvers, Or, lion ramp. az. 

3. Welbore, imp. 1, 4, Bradbury, Sab., a 
chevron erm. between 3 buckles arg. ; 
2, 3, Bockhill, Arg., a chevron be- 
tween 3 chess-rooks sab. 

4. Quarterly, 1, 4, Bradbury; 2, 3, 
Bockhill ; imp. Banson, Arg., a 
chevron between 3 goats' heads 
erased sab. attired or. 

II. A monument with efiigies near the 
chancel-arch to William Bar he, Esq., 
1619, and Elizabeth his wife, daughter 
and coheir of John Serle, Gent,, of Bark- 
way ; also his son, John Barlee, Esq., and 
Mary his wife, daughter of John Haynes, 
Esq., of Old Hall, 1633. Five shields of 
arms: — 

1. Barlee, Quarterly of 18—6, 6, 6, with 
crest as before. 

1. Barlee. 

2. Lammay, Or, a water bouget sab., 
border of last, besanty. 

3. Moyhill, Arg., on a cross az. 5 
roses or. 

4. Bellhouse, Arg., 3 lions ramp, gu., 
2,1. 

5. Paghall, Arg., a fess sab. between 
3 cre^icents gu. 

6. Walden, Sab., 2 bars, and in chief 
3 cinquefoils arg. 

7. Breton, Az., 2 chevronels between 
3 mullets or, 2, 1. 

8. Norwood, Erm., a cross eng. gn. 

9. Geredot, Gu., 3 crescents arg., 
2,1. 

10. Serle, Per pale, or, sab. 



ICO 



Correspondence of Sylvanus Urban. 



[Aug. 



11. Barry of 8, or, gn. 

12. Az., 3 cinquefoilfl erminois, 



2,1. 



13. Az., 3 escallops or, 2, 1. 

14. Quarterly per fess indented, 

or az. 
15. Paly of four, or, az., on fess 

gu. 3 mullets arg. 

16. Quarterly, gu., or, a bend arg. 

17. Arg., a fess between 3 boars pass, 
sab. 

18. Vert, a chevron between 3 roses 
arg. 

2 and 3. Each Barlee only. 

4. Bar lee, imp. Serle, Per pale, or, sab. 

5. Barlee, imp. Haynes. 

III. A monument to Margaret, daugh- 
ter of George Oliver, Esq., of Great Wil- 
braham, co. Cambs., and first wife of 
Haynes Barlee, Esq., 1653. 

Barlee, Quarterly of 18, as before, with 
crest. 

IV. A monument to Mary, daughter of 
Edmund Turner, Oent., of Walden, and 
second wife of Haynes Barlee, Esq., 1658. 
Barlee only, imp. Turner, Az., on a fess eiig. 
between 2 mill-rbinds or a lion pass, gu., 
and two crests, 1. Barlee; 2. Turner, 
A lion pass, guard gu. 

V. A monument to Haynes Barlee, 
Esq., 1696, and Mary his third wife, 
daughter of William Biddlesden, Esq.; 
Barlee and crest, imp. Biddlesden, Arg., 
a chevron between 3 crosslets fitch^« sab. 

VI. A monument to John Stephenson, 
of Hnuxton, CO. Cambs., Esq., and Anne 
his wife, daughter and coheir of Henry 
Patten, Oent., of Claviring, 1741. Ste- 
phenson, Gu., on bend arg. 3 leopards* 
faces vert ; surtout. Patten, Az., a quatre- 
foil or between 3 cresceuts arg. Crest, a 
leopard's ht ad erasid reguard. vert. 

VII. A flat stone to Bichard Godfrey, 
Oent., 1699 ; a wreath with four hawks' 
bells. 

VIII. A flat stone to William Jekyll, 



Gent,, 1711, A fess between 3 hinds trip- 
pant. Crest, a horse's head conped, maned, 
and bridled. 

IX. A flat stone to William Benson, 
Esq., 1677, Arg., on chevron between 3 
goats' heads erased sab. attired or, 3 es- 
callops of the field ; imp. Groves, Erm., on 
chevron eng. gu. 3 escallops arg. Crest, 
a goat's head erased. 

X. Two flat stones to members of the 
Benson family, each with the arms and 
crest of Benson, 

XI. Three flat stones in the churchyard* 
each with the arms of Martin, Paly of 
six, or az., on chief gn., 3 martlets or. 
Crest, a mountain cat pass, proper. 

On a hatchment, Arg., 3 bars gu., in 
chief 3 trefoils slipt sab.; a border az., 
sem^ of mullets arg. ; impaling Or, a fess 
eng. vert between a lion pass, in chief go. 
and three torteaux in base, 2, 1. Crest, 
an arm embowed in armour, in band pro- 
per a star of six rays or. 

Berden. — An interesting little church, 
cruciform, without aisles, and a western 
tower. In the chancel are some curlons 
early Decorated remains. 

1. On an altar-tomb in the chancel are 
brasses to Thomas Thompson, Esq , and 
Anne his wife, 1607, with these arms on 
two brass shields : — 

1. Thompson, Per fess, arg., sab., a fess 
embattled counter-embattled be- 
tween 3 falcons close, all counter- 
changed. 

2. Aldersaye, Gu., on a bend between 
two cinquefoils arg. 3 lions' fiices 
sab. 

2. On a large monument agunst the 
east wall of the chancel to Thomat 
Aldersaye, Esq., of Bunbury, co. 
Chester, 1598, the arms and crest 
of Aldersaye only, 

J. H. Spesliko. 

Wicken Bonant Rectory, 
June 30, 1858. 



BORDEAUX ARMOUR. 



Mb. Ueban, — The reading of the papers 
published in the Gentleman's Magazine 
on the "Arms, Armour, and Military 
Usages of the Fourteenth Century," af- 
forded me the greatest pleasure, inasmuch 
as Sir Samuel Rnsh Meyrick's " Critical 
Inquiry" on the same topic is very far 
from being satisfiuitory. With his omis- 
sions it wonld be easy to fill a volume. 
Let us confine ourselves to an account of 
the arms manufactured at Bordeaux, so 
long under the English dominion, and 
which in old times supplied its masters. 



In 1358, the Infante Don Luis, brother to 
King Carlos II., caused workmen to come 
from the capital of Guienne to mannfacture 
arms and armour % a fact which throws 
light on a Close Roll of the 54th year of 
Henry III., quoted by Sir Samuel Meyrick, 
vol i. p. 150. Near the same time, that 
is to say, at the end of the thirteenth cen- 

* Yanguas y Miranda, Dieeionario de Antigut 
dadet del Reino de Havarra, vol. i. pp. 59, 67* 
There is marked the price of a suit of armour of 
a Nararreae knight in 1378 : a Bordeaux sword 
is charged one florin. 



1858.] Bordeaux Armour. — Luard^s Lives of St. Edward. 161 



tnry, an Arabian writer mentioned with 
praise the swords of Bordeaux '». 

In 1367, the Black Prince, having es- 
poused the cause of Don Pedro the Cruel, 
King of Castile, prepared for war by 
ordering a great quantity of arms to be 
made at Bordeaux : — 

" AdoDqes veissez A Burdeux 
Forgrer espies et coteaux, 
Cotes de ferre et bocjiiettes, 
Glcyyes, baches et gantilettcs*." 

The readers of Froissart's " Chronicles" 
hit very frequently upon mention of 
arms of the Bordeaux manufactory. Thus 
the good Canon of Chimay exhibits the 
actors in the combat of Thirty armed 
with short swords of this description, 
"roides et aigues*;" and the Lord of 
Berkeley fighting with a Bordeaux sword, 
** bonne et legere et roide assez •." He 
speaks of sharpened spears of Bordeaux 
iron'; of wide Bordeaux irons, shnrp, 
biting, and cutting as a razor; and of 
swords forged in this town, " dont le tail- 
lant estoit n aspre et si dur que plus ne 
pouvoitf." At last, Cuvelier gives to an 
esquire such a one "qui moult chier H 



cousta**." At the same epoch there was in 
Navarre one Perrin de Bordeaux, " maestro 
de facer cainonesV To complete the 
enumeration of the arms manufactured at 
Bordeaux, we must refer to the mention 
of such daggers in a curious ballad by 
Eustache Deschamps, De la Maledicion 
sur cents qui requierent cl faire Armei\ 
published by the late M. Crapelet, and 
to the portrait of a knight in an old Pro- 
ven 9al romance, who is represented wear- 
ing "escu qui est de Bordel^" 

What became of this manufactory I 
cannot tell at present, but it is not ^to- 
gether impossible that some information 
on the subject may be preserved in the 
Arehive* dSpturiementale*, or in the town 
muniment-room. On the other side, some 
other notices must occur in the old Eng- 
lish records. It would be desirable to 
maike all of them known, in order to 
enable some one to increase the historical 
light we possess on the arms, armour, and 
military usages of the feurteenth century. 
I am, &c. 

FSANCISQITE-MlCHEL. 



MR. LUARD'S LIVES OF ST. EDWARD. 



Mb. Ubbak, — My attention has been 
called to a letter of M. Michel in the Gsn- 
TLXKAir'B Magazine for this month, in 
which certain passages in the translation 
and glossary of the recently published 
French "Life of Edward the Confessor" 
are pointed out as incorrect. Your sense 
of justice will, I feel confident, allow me 
to say a few words in reply. 

That there are errors in my book I can 

b Ibn-Sayd, quoted by Makkari, MS. of tbe Im- 
perial libraiT at Paris, A. F. No. 704, fol. 566. 
Cf. GioaraphU tPAhouIfida, traduite par M. 
Belnaud. Paris, Imp. Nat 1848. 4to., toI. iL Ut 
part, p. 807. 

• *<The Black Prince: aa HiKtorical Poem, 
written in French, by Chandos Herald : witb a 
Trantlation and Notes by the Rev. Henry Octa. 
Tins Coxe. Printed for the Roxburghe Club. 
London: W. Nicol, Shakespeare Press, 1842." 
4to., p. 160, y. 2,356. 

' £e» Ckroniquet de Sire Jean Frousart, VLr. i, 

Krt iL ann. 1351, chap. vii. ; edit, of the Panth. 
tt.^ vol. L p. 294, col. 2. Thomas Johnes, vol. 
i. p. 374, note, of the 4to. edition of his transia- 
ti<m of Sir John Froissart's Chronicles, expresses 
his surprise that his author, " who in general is 
so Tery minute in relating every transaction, 
should have omitted an aocount of this extraor- 
dinary engagement." The fact is, that such aa 
account is to be found in a manuscript made use 
of by the late M. Bachon, the last editor of 
Froissart. 

• Ibid., chap, xliii. ann. 1356, p. 352, col. S. 

f Ibid., liv. lii. chap. xx. ann. 1385, vol. ii. p. 
429, col. 2. 

s LiT. ii. chap. t. ann. 1377 (toI. ii. p. 5. col. 1) ; 
chap. Hx. ann. 1886, p. 567, col. 2. Cf. chap. xiv. 
ann. 1388, p. 405, col. 1. 

GBinr. Mag. Vol. CCV. 



readily believe — and most thankful shall 

I be if any one, competent to the task, 

will point them out, especially if it be 

done in a kind spirit. The concluding 

sentence of my preface, I think, sufficiently 

expresses my feelings on this point. But 

M. Michel has evidently not seen the book 

itself, and thus manages to misrepresent 

the editor in more than one instance. Nor 

do I think that the attack comes with a 

very good grace from one who has tried 

his own hand (not at translating, but) at 

editing a small portion of this veir poem 

with such very ill success as M. Michel, 

who, in the short extract he has given in 

his Chroniques Anglo- Nomundet, vol. i. 

(Rouen, 1836,) has made thirteen mistakes 

in the course of 127 lines ! As to what he 

or his readers could have thought the 

meaning of — 

** Si pur esalairdr mon efero," (p. 119, 1. 4,) 

(1. 4,514 in my edition,) to be, I cannot 
even conjecture. But to come to my own 
supposed blunders. M. Michel finds fault 
with two words in my glossary — tnairem 

^ Chroniqve de Berirand du €hie$elinf pub- 
lished in the Colleetion de Doeumentt inidite sur 
PHietoire de France, v. 6,017 ; vol. i. p. 322. 

i Dice, de An$. del Reino de Jfavarra, voL U 
p. 68. 

k Poisiee morales et kistoriques, &o. A Paris^ 
1832. 8to. pp. 132, 133. 

' Qirardde Rossilhn, p. 345, lig. 8. Cf. p. 346, 
lig. 9. 



162 



Correspondence of Sylvanus Urban. 



[Aug. 



and told/re. The latter, he says, was coined 
by the learned compiler •, and kindly tells 
me that tolir is the true infinitive. Had 
M. Michel looked into my book itself, he 
would have found that I have given two 
other forms for mairem, viz. mariem and 
marten^ all of which occur in the poem; and 
that tolir is also in its place in the glos- 
sary. Why I have inserted mairem is for 
a reason which M. Michel once thought 
satisfactory ; namely, " because I found it 
in the MS." (which now lies before me). 
(See the Qlossarial Index, p. 144, to 
" Charlemagne, an Anglo-Norman poem," 
published by Francisque MicheL London : 
1836.) And he may find several other 
forms of this word if he will look into 
Du Gauge's Lexicon under the word ma- 
ieria. As to toldre, I really am surprised 
at M. Midiel's ignorance ; had he opened 
Roquefort's Olossairef he might have found 
the following instance of this word : — 

*< Je puis eonfesser et asoldre 
Ce ne me puet nolz Prelas toldre.'* 

Bonuin de la Bote, 11,487. 

And it is given by Burguy, Henschel, and, 
I believe, all the compilers of dictionaries 
of this language. I have given all the 
forms of the infinitive from which tenses 
are derived which occur in the poem — tol- 
dre and toler, as well as tolir. 

As to the two passages in which I am 
accused of mistranslating, I readily con- 



fess my mistake in the word entur, which 
means "around," (a word also in the 
glossary) ; but M. Michel manages to blon- 
der even worse than I have done, (mine is 
at least a possible version), when he sayi 
that tur ^ here meant " turn." As to the 
other, — 

" A fundement le e parfand,*' 
though the translation given by M. Mi- 
chel is specious at first sight, I doubt very 
much whether it is the true one. M. Mi- 
chel, perhaps, is not aware that e may be a 
form of est, though I believe not a com- 
mon one. Another instance may be seen 
in the poem by referring to the glossary. 

One word in conclusion. The character 
of an editor's work in such a book as mine 
can be determined only by those who take 
the trouble of reading it carefully through. 
If any one will do this, (in the way, for 
instance, of your reviewer in the Jane 
number, to whom I am indebted for seve- 
ral suggestions which will be of great 
value if ever an opportunity ofiers of mak- 
ing use of them,) I shall most gladly re- 
ceive his verdict. And* to use the words 
of Dr. Maitland, nostri meUoris uiroque, 
even " if the matter is to be decided by a 
casual dip, it should at least be made in 
the author's own work." — I am, Ac, 

H. R. LUABD. 
Trinittf College, Cambridge, 
July 9, 1858. 



THE OLD NORMAN LANGUAGE. 



Mb. Ubbak, — The old Norman lan- 
guage is almost forgotten, remembered 
only in our old dictionaries, and in our 
law French dictionaries, but it is spoken 
in our Channel Islands, and in the re- 
mainder of the old duchy of Normandy, in 
more or less purity, but is fkst falling into 
disuse before the prevailing English and 
French. 

I wrote the following, which was kindly 
inserted in the "Comet" and "Star" 
Guernsey papers, in March last : in this 
I was assisted by Mens. Metivier, of 
Guernsey, and I was glad to find that he 
had published on the old Norman lan- 
guage as spoken in Guernsey. 

The following is what I wrote : — 

**OLD NORMAN LANGUAGE. 

"To THB EoiTom or thr Cox kt.— The lan- 
guage of ancient and loyal members of the Bri* 

• He adds, that if there be any mintake, « it 
was eommitted before Mr. Luard by French 
lexicographers." One must of coarse make 
all allowances for a foreigner writing our lan- 
guage; but the above is a most cimous use 
of the word " coin," as he himself allows that 
leWrs is to be found in maay books before mine 
appeared. 



tish Crown, the Channel Islands, is vmlnsVe in 
many respects, as it is the relic of the old Normaft 
language, which is still preserved in its purity t& 
some retired districts ; but the language of these 
is intermixed with the old and modem English, 
and with that odd mixture of that patois of many 
countries. Lingua Franco, adopted by the sea- 
faring men and the fishermen (French and Eng- 
lish) in the Channel Islands. Is there not a set 
of antiquaries who would form a committee to 
collect this singular language, while it ean be 
collected, for it is fast wearing away? This is a 
hint which we hope will be taken by our anti- 
quaries. Perhaps the excellent baiUfra of Jersey 
and Guernsey would be presidents, and with the 
dean and clergy, and the attorney and scrfieitor* 
general, would form a committee on this oc- 
casion. 

•'J.J.W. 
** Stoke Jfncinffton, London, 
" March 15. •» 

Mons. Metivier's book is a cnrioos vo* 
lame : it is in 12mo. ; the fbllowing is iti 
title : — " Primes Guemeeuses par on Ckta- 
lan. Ex dialecto vide hnmanarum remm 
inoonstantiam et colligi antiqnatam 
que venerare. Londres: Simpkin, 
shall, et Cie. Gnemsey : £. Barbet" The 
price is 6s. 6d., withoat the poetege. 

^ I see another of your oorrespondents has 
pointed this out, and tranalaled it eoneotty. 



1858.] The Old Norman Language. — Modem Vandalism. 168 



It is oompOBed of a number of narratives 
in the lang^oage ; thej are strongly illns- 
trative of the manners and customs of the 
people : and to this is added many curious 
and quaint engravings worthy of atten- 
tion. There is also a Glossary of fifty 
pages. 

We give an English translation of one 
of these narratives and engravings, trans- 
lated by a fiur Norman lady : — 

"THE LAMENTATIONS OF DAMABI8. 

** Oh what a noise in Fountain-street, 
Oh what lamentations I hear I 
Whether we*re silent or complain, 
They'll soon destroy our nest of rats. 
Berenty years I've nestled close 
In my ola blessed dark garret : 
It's all over— they're threatened me, 
And its all owing to the States. 

'* Where can I go, I and my fleas, 
My cat, and the rest of my goods T 
They most indeed have hearts of stone, 
To torn as oat of onr doors. 
My poor old neighboors, cost what may, 
The poor most sabmit to the rich. 
Happy we*d be if we were all 
In Mr. Dorand's garden-ground. 

*< Death stares as really in the fkce ; 
Bat rightly said Mr. Crepin, 
Life is onW a pilarrimage. 
And oars u nearly at its end. 



Ood knows that since I leam'd to walk, 
It's seldom I're had a good feast ; 
Of good and bad I've had my share : 
May paradise be our rest. 

*' Oh I if oar forefathers could look down 
From on high, and see the course of life I 
Nothing will remain : stone on stone, 
Slate and wainscot, all must go. 
Wicked they are, and to he who spurs them 

on: 
I would with pleasure him give them. 
Must not we — with anger I cough — 
Bewail our Jerusalem f 

*< 'Tis said, Pride goes before a ftdl,— 
Tes, and we're made to feel it ; 
Be pleased or not, 'tis all the same. 
Gentlemen, you'd have your lesson 
To a poor old creature like me : 
Draw out mv poor neck ; 
Where I could, fh)m the third story— 
With my neighbours speak and shake hands. 

** Father and mother have lived here, 
Eaten their soup, and kept their houses 
And multiplied their progeny ; 
In this my blessed old comer 
Mr aunt Anne kept her Christmas-ert, 
Woere I played when I was a child. 
Tou chase away that poor old thing. 
At least as if it were net foremost. 



** Stoke yeuTinffton, 
"June 28. 1858." 



«*J.J.W. 



MODERN VANDALISM. 



Mb. Ubbait, — A recent peerage case 
has drawn attention to the fact, sometimes 
denied and frequently forgotten, that the 
memorials of tbe dead are of value to 
others as well as the antiquary and county- 
historian. It has also heen, indirectly, the 
means of exposing some very flagrant cases 
of mutilation and destruction. Mr. C. B. 
Smith and the writer in the "Morning 
Post" who signs his letter K. deserve the 
thanks, not of antiquaries only, but of all 
who inherit the gentle blood of England 
for their exposure of these modern Van- 
dals, who 



"Basing the characters of our renown. 

Defacing monuments 

Undoing all, as all had never been." 

I believe, and I think I could prove, 
that the fanatics of the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries did less harm in the 
wmy of destroying sepulchral memorials 
thtti their very un£&natical successors of 
the (Georgian era and the church re- 
storers of our own day. Manuscript col- 
lectioDS of church notes and our earlier 
topographical writers demonstrate that 
when Pm^tanism ceased to be dominant 
in England, there existed in many a church 
complete series of sepulchral memorials 
which have now quite passed away, or are 
but represented by a few mutilated frag- 
ments. That the destruction of these re- 
cords is still going on is too well Imown to 



require proof; the best way to hinder this 
sacrilege is to make as public as possible 
all cases that come beneath notice. There 
are few of your readers who could not add 
to the list K. has given. 

Probably the least evil method of dis- 
posing of an old stone is to bury it undor 
the flooring. This has been done in recent 
restorations very frequently. I have been 
told by the mason who laid the floor, that 
the chancel of the church of Frodingham 
(co. Lincoln) was entirely paved with 
monumental slabs, many, to use his own 
words, "so old fashioned, that the read- 
ing was in black letters like an old Bible :" 
all these, excepting one, were buried be- 
neath a new stone floor. At Bottesflrd, 
near Brigg, in the same county, about the 
year 18*i6, a singing-gallery was erected 
in the north transept, and slabs were re- 
moved from various parts of the church 
for the supports to rest upon. Some of 
these are believed to be very old. A steel 
helmet was at the same time taken away 
by some person, by whom is not known. 

When the present chnrch at Graying- 
ham, near Kirton-in-Lindsey, was built, 
some time during the latter part of the 
last century, it seems that every memorial 
of ancient times was swept away. The 
present building does not occupy so much 
ground as its predecessor, so that probably 
Uie chancel floor is yet to be found und^ 



16^ 



Correspondence of Sylvantcs Urban. 



[Aug. 



the green turf of the churchyard. In 
digging a grave where the old chancel 
stood, a slab in memory of one of the 
Flackneys was found ; much mutilated, it 
is true, but still legible. I was told by an 
inhabitant of the Tillage that portions of 
other stones were partially laid bare. 

When the old chapter-house at Durham * 
was destroyed, several inscriptions were 
found relating to the early priors ; these 
were all buried under the new floor, not 
even copies being taken ^. Within the 
last three or four years the authorities of 
the same cathedral have mutilated one of 
the finest pieces of monumental sculpture 
under their care, by cutting a groove and 
inserting glass therein to prevent a draught 
in the choir. 

Sepulchral effigies are so frequently re- 
moved from their proper resting-places 
and used as garden ornaments, that no 
one is surprised to find them in such situ- 
ations. Many cases occur to me. There 
was, for instance, in the year 1858, a stone 
figure, with the hands raised in prayer, to 
be seen in the yard of the Mechanics' In- 
stitute at Beverley. About the same time 
I remember seeing in a garden at Win- 
terton (co. Lincoln) two effigpes, a male 
and a female, used to support a sun-dial. 
There is a very large figure in military 
costume in the coi^ outside the Scar- 
borough Museum ; and about ten years 
ago there was to be seen a mutilated 
knightly figure walled in the front of a 
house in Pontefract. I do not remember 
the name of the street — it was somewhere 
near the castle. 

We are in the habit of thinking that to 
whatever danger ecclesiastical antiquities 
are exposed in the present day, at least 
Puritan iconoclasm has passed away for 
ever. It is not entirely so, however. I 



know a gentleman who only hindered the 
curate of an adjoining parish from remor- 
ing the gable crosses fh>m the church in 
wMch he officiated, by threatening him 
with legal proceedings ; and I have myself 
seen cases where the destruction of eccle- 
siastical remains has seemed to proceed 
not entirely from ignorance. The fidlow- 
ing anecdote is somewhat to the purpose. 
At Roxby (co. Lincoln) there is in the 
south aisle a low arch of the kind called a 
founder's arch, and in this formerly rested 
a very fine stone effigy of a priest. A 
meddling churchwarden some years ago 
removed this figure from its proper place 
into the chancel within the railings. It 
was not, however, destined to remain long 
there, for some of the principal inhabi- 
tants complained that their feelings were 
wounded by kneeling before a graven 
image when they received communion ; in 
consequence, the effigy was cast into a dark 
comer of the bell-house. I saw it there 
about four months ago, and cross-ques- 
tioned the clerk about it. He said that 
Old Sampson (this is the popular name it 
seems) was an idolatrous image, and if it 
were left to him " he should br«ik the thing 
with a stone hammer, and fling the bits into 
the street ; but he reckoned if he did so 
he should get wrong. Qreat people set 
store by such things now. It wasn't so 
when he was young." I cautioned him to 
do nothing of the kind, but should not be 
surprised, if ever I visit that church again* 
to find that Old Sampson has disappeared. 
I have heard that the Council of the 
Society of Antiquaries have under oonsi- 
deration a scheme for collecting copies of 
monumental inscriptions. Of its nature I 
know nothing. The matter is one of press* 
ing necessity — some fragment periahee 
daily. K. P. D. E., P.8.A. 



DESTRUCTION AND MUTILATION OP MONUMENTAL REBfAINS. 



Mb. Ubbav, — ^As you have been pleased 
in your article on the " Destruction and 
Mutilation of Monuments in Churches," to 
reprint the letter which I addressed to the 
editor of the " Morning Post" on that sub- 
ject, I beg leave to send you a copy of the 
inscription from the brass plate abstracted 
from South Walsham Church, Norfolk, 
and not long since purchased by a friend 
of mine in Loudon. I had not seen it at 
the time I wrote the letter, and made a 
slight mistake in stating that it was en- 



• For an account of this wicked sacrilege, see 
John Carter's letters in the Okvtlkiiah's Maoa- 

«KK. 

^ Life of Sorteee, p. 357, Surtees Soc Edition. 



g^ved in Old English. It is in Roman 
capitals, as follows : — 

*'HBBE BEBTETH THE BODY OF WILLX 
POLLABD, WHO BT HIS WILL AITD TBSTA- 
KENT OAYE TO THIS OHITBOH OF 8T. LAW- 
BENCB X", AND TO THE OTHEB OF OUB 
LADY V", AKD TO THE WHOLE TOWHE OF 
SOUTH WALSHAM XlM, TO YE TSB OF THB 
POOBB FOB EYEB : ALSO TO THE TOWKB OF 
WOOD . . . 8TWICK y^^ AND TO BALI- 
HOUSE tK he died OOT. 10, 1606. 
" POSUIT SI irXOB AMOBI8 BBGO." 

It seems obvious that this plate is lesal 
evidence of the foundation of the charities 
recorded upon it, but whether they are 
still in exirtenoo I am not aware. It m 



1858.] 



The Shrewsbury Peerage. 



165 



conjectured to have been stolen as far back 
as the year 1827. 

I will take this opportunity of mention- 
ing that I have great reason to fear that 
the tomb of the venerable historian and 
antiquary, the Rev. John Strype, has been 
destroyed not very long since. Mrs. Og- 
bome states, in her " History of Essex," 
(1814), that his monument, dated 1737, 
was upon the floor of the chancel of Law 
Leyton Church. Many of the monuments 
and sepulchral slabs have lately been 
removed from their original positions — 
probably unavoidably— and I b<jlieve that 
several are lost, induding that of John 
Strype. Having made, in company with 
a fnend, a careful inspection of the whole 



interior of the edifice, we were unable to 
find the latter, though 1 should be glad to 
learn that we have overlooked it, as its 
destruction would be not merely a dis- 
grace to the parish, and to the county of 
Essex, but a national disgrace. There is 
a small stone in the wall of the south 
entrance, inscribed, 

JOHK STBIPE, 
VICAB, 

1696. 

But this is not a mortuary memorial, 
neither is it that referred to by Mrs. Og- 
borne. — I am, &c. K. 

Jvly 14, 1858. 



THE SHREWSBURY PEERAGE. 

DEFACEMENT 07 MOlTUlfSNTAL INSOBIPTIONS. 



Ms. XJbbav, — Finding myself alluded 
to in your last in reference to the evidence 
given before the Committee of the House 
of Lords on the Shrewsbury Peerage Case, 
perhaps a few words on the subject from 
me will not be out of place. I was cer- 
tainly surprised to find that my evidence 
touching the wilful defiMsement of the in- 
scription on the BromsgTOve monument 
was considered by the Solicitor-General as 
only a suggestion. The only suggestion 
that fell from me was the manner in which 
the erasure was effected. I never for a 
moment doubted, nor did I conceive a 
doubt possible, that it was otherwise than 
intentional. If not a wilful erasure for a 
particular end, what other hypothesis more 
satisfactorily accounts for its present con- 
dition ? I have heard no suggestion what- 
ever to account for the inscription being 
reduced to a level with the surface. The 
inscription in Latin on the upper verge of 
the monument is fiir more exposed to the 
accident of time, yet it is quite perfect, 
shewing only a few bruises, which do not 
in the least affect its legibility. The Eng- 
lish inscription, the subject of so much in- 
terest, is in a most protected situation, yet 
it cannot be read without the study of 
many hours, even by those familiar with 
the characters, and experienced in deci- 
phering such memorials. Several letters 
are altogether obliterated, and not a single 
character would be legible but for the 
acddental preservation of an obscure out- 
line, the last relic of the relievo. Let any 
one who has seen the Bromsgrove monu- 
ment, and believes that the ii\jury is not 
the work of design, state how it was re- 
duced to its present condition. The ques- 
tion is interesting enough to be thoroughly 
nfted. 



In two visits to Bromsgrove I passed 
altogether as much as three days over the 
monument. Besides deciphering the in- 
scription, I took an impression of it, which 
to my mind presented conclusive evidence 
not only of wilful erasure, but of the 
means by which it was effected. These 
means were certainly such, or very similar, 
to what I suggested to the Committee. 
The surface has such marks as would be 
made by abrasion caused by fHction of a 
harder and rougher material than ala- 
baster. Sandstone was most likely to have 
been used ; it would be most effective, and 
any mason knows the process. 

The question derives great importance 
in connection with the preservation of our 
monuments. I believe none but those who 
have n^e these memorials their study 
have the slightest conception of the whole- 
sale destruction that has taken place f^om 
various causes. Ko farther back than the 
last coronation, a large portion of the brass 
of John Bishop of S^isbury was stolen out 
of Edward the Confessor's Chapel, and I 
believe never noticed at all until I called 
attention to it. Even the conservators, if 
one can so call them, the vergers, were 
not all acquainted with the fact until I 
pointed it out : one told me he never should 
have noticed it. This in the Abbey itself, 
the shrine of our kings. Who destroyed 
the beautiful canopy over the alabaster 
monument of John of Eltham ? Not the 
Puritans. It is engraved in Dart's His- 
tory. In fact, I quite concur with one of 
your correspondents, that more destruc- 
tion has been done during the eighteenth 
century than by the fanatics of the seven- 
teenth. I could soon swell the list already 
given of monuments injured and destroyed, 
if need be. Perhaps, however, one might 



166 



Historical and Miscellaneous Reviews. 



[Aug, 



allude, before ooiicliidmg,to the destruction 
of a church, monuments and all, at Quaren- 
don, Bucks. It would be an instructive 
lesson to some persons to pay it a visit, 
and moralize over the fragments of ala- 
baster that strew the desolated chancel. 
I would state in condudon, that Mr. 



Roach Smith*s transcript quite agreed with 
mine, excepting that I supplied some slight 
additions that had escaped him. — I am, Ac, 

J. G. Waixeb. 

68, BoUover-tireet, Portland-place, 
July 13, 1858. 



HISTORICAL AN^D MISCELLANEOUS REVIEWS. 



Oeschichte von JEnglamd, ByKEiNHOU) 
Pauli. Vol. V. (Gotha: Perthes).— Of 
the valuable series of Histories now in 
course of publication by Perthes at Gotha, 
the " History of England" seems to be the 
most detail^ and perhaps, on the whole, 
the best. The first two volumes, by Lap- 
penberg, included a very thorough account 
of the Anglo-Saxon period and of the early 
Norman kings : they have been translated 
by Thorpe, and are, or ought to be, in 
general use. When Lappenberg found it 
impossible to proceed with the work on 
account of failing health, Pauli (favourably 
known in England by his " Life of Alfred 
the Great") undertook to continue it, and 
he has already carried the work down to 
the death of Henry VII. We hope the 
whole will be translated, partly from its 
intrinsic merit, and partly because the 
author is enabled to take a more impartial 
view than seems hitherto to have been 
possible for any English writer. The his- 
tory of our country has this advantage 
over that of other European states, that 
it possesses an epic unity in itself, like that 
of Rome in ancient times: the develop- 
ment of the constitution and the progpress 
of the nation have been continuous and 
unbroken, whilst abroad the old free Teu- 
tonic constitutions everywhere began to 
perish at an early epoch, and wars of the 
deadliest nature recurred so often as to 
make progress, for long periods, impossible. 
But this advantage carries with it at least 
one disadvantage, — that our historians are 
too much interested, even in the early 
parts of the narrative, to write of them 
£Eurly. In politics and religion we take 
up the parties of the Middle Ages, and 
make their cause our own ; we do not feel 
that " Hecuba is nothing to the player." 
Further, these writers naturally take a 
merely insular view of our history, they 
do not connect it sufficiently with the his- 
tory of the Continent; the medieval view 
of Christendom, as forming one gp^at 
whole, has become faint. And yet the 
facts made known of late years all tend to 
correct this error. The revived study of 
architecture has shewn the simultaneity 



of the changes in Gothic, here and on the 
Continent, to have been of a wonderful 
nature, almost to be reckoned more by 
months than by years. And again, com- 
parative philology has shewn that the 
popular idea of the Norman Conquert 
having caused the destruction of the 
Anglo-Saxon language, and introduced 
a mixed tongue, half English and half 
French, was erroneous. Had Harold been 
the victor at Hastings, the Saxons would 
have gone through much the same oyde 
of change, though perhaps not quite to 
the same extent : the analogy of the con- 
temporary changes in the dialects of Ger- 
many and the Netherlands proves it. 
The revolts of the Jacquerie and pea- 
santry, the growth of the early feeling 
against the Papacy, the influence of the 
Papacy itself, these and manv other points 
shew a remarkable paralldism between 
our own and foreign history. A (German 
is of course not so one-sided, and Dr. Fbuli 
has had, besides, the advantage of a long 
acquuntance with England, and been able 
to study carefully the documentary souroee 
of the history in the British Museum and 
Record Office. 

This fifth volume contains the history 
of the fifteenth century, the tranntion 
period from the middle ages to modem 
history ; a troubled time, and one pecnliarly 
perplexing to the historian, as all trann- 
tion periods are. The acuteness and power 
of historical judgment, which has done so 
much to elucidate the fortunes of Greece 
and Rome, have been rarely applied to 
modem history, more rarely still to that 
of England; and no part of it requires 
a writer possessing the power of criticising 
evidence more than the fifteenth oentnrj. 
It is a century of problems for the en- 
quirer: Horace Walpole*s doubts as to 
Richard III. are but a specimen of what 
recurs throughout. Was Richard II. mur- 
dered, or did he escape from prison ? Why 
did the Percies rebel against Henry IV . ? 
Why did Warwick quit the cause of York 
for that of Lancaster ? Was either Lam- 
bert Simnel or Perkin Warbeck related to 
Edward IV. ? These and other questions 



1858.] 



Geschichte von England. 



167 



have not been thoroughly cleared up by 
investigation as yet, and some of them, 
perhaps, never will. The fifteenth century 
was a period of transition in almost every 
respect : the i^e of chivalry comes to an 
end, and what have been called "the 
times of policy" begin. Froissart, the 
historian of chivalry, suddenly breaks off 
his narrative with the death of Richard 
II., — " How Richard died, and by what 
means, I could not tell when I wrote this 
chronicle ;" and his last words are a lament 
over the fall of " that noble House of Ed- 
ward III." Gothic architecture passes 
into the Itist stage of the Perpendicular 
period. The Latin chronicles cease, and 
English narratives, though of a somewhat 
rude kind, begin to appear. Tlie war of 
principles, both in politics and religion, 
begins. The hierarchy, indeed, win their 
last victory in the suppression of the Lol- 
lards; but printing, gunpowder, the dis- 
covery of America, the revival of the Greek 
language, awake a spirit of enterprise and 
enquiry which nothing can keep under any 
longer. The dictatorship of Rome, highly 
beneficial during the early part of the 
middle ages, draws to its natural conclu- 
sion with the growth of strong nation- 
alities everywhere; the man begins to 
throw off the leading-strings, so useful to 
the child. War is no longer the encounter 
of knights who have taken the vows of 
chival^, sanctioned by the Church; neither 
mailed knight, nor the famed English 
archery can stajid before the new artillery. 
80, again, the mysteries performed under 
direction of the Church begin to be disused, 
and the germs of the Elizabethan drama 
begin to appear. In a summary of some 
forty pages at the end of the volume our 
author luis given a very interesting sketch 
of the times, the quotations in the notes 
being espedally striking, shewing the na- 
ture of the period, in each case, as being 
one of transition. It has been remarked 
of it that its writers shew themselves 
quite unconscious of the coming revolu- 
tion in the next age, and it is still more 
curious that they are not well acquainted 
with the character of the past history; 
that, m fact, the middle ages had forgotten 
what they themselves once were ; the for- 
getftdnets of old ag^ had come upon them 
befbre by thdr death. 

What may be called the popular no- 
tion of English history began with the 
Elizabethan chroniclers, and many of 
them were consequently embalmed in 
never-dying poetry by Shakespeare, and 
they are of course repeated by our histo« 
nans down to Hume inclusively. In fact, 
Hume WB8 unable to resist a good story, 
and many are the myths which he has 



made household words among us. The 
great sceptic appeart to have the power 
of swallowing everything wonderful in 
history. Who does not know how Edgar 
extirpated the wolves through England, 
though they are known to have been hot 
uncommon down to Elizabeth's time. And 
all about Edgar and Elfrida, though Wil- 
liam of Malmesbury tells us that these 
stories came out of ballads, and were not 
historical, (" infamias quas post dicam raa- 
gis resperserunt cantilence**) And how 
Edward the First massacred the Welsh 
bards; which veracious fact, unknown to 
any contemporary writer, rests on the 
history of a Welsh family, written several 
centuries afterwards. It is hardly credi- 
ble that any one should state such an event 
as a fact, with no other reference in its 
support except " Sir J. Wynne, p. 15." If 
we compare Dr. Pauli's history with that 
of Hume, we shall see at once the great 
advance made during this century in his- 
torical tact and discrimination. All the 
details in the former are both fuller and 
far more correct : thus, as to the cause 
why the Percies revolted against Henry 
the Fourth, Hume confounds the Earl 
of March (who was a child and a pri- 
soner at Windsor) with his uncle. Sir 
Edmund Mortimer, and thinks the King 
had no right to prevent the Percies from 
allowing Douglas and other eminent Scot- 
tish prisoners to ransom themselves, 
though this was a common practice with 
Edward the Third. Pauli shews, from 
the proceedings of the Privy Council, that 
Henry was deeply in debt to the Percies 
for their services on the Marches, and 
shewed little intention of discharging any 
of his obligations : this, and the refUsal to 
let them ransom Mortimer, seem the chief 
causes. In the discussion of the charges 
against Richard IL before Parliament, 
Hurae devotes a couple of pages to a 
speech of Merks, Bisliop of Carlisle, in 
favour of the King. The speech is a dis- 
course on passive obedience, composed by 
Hayward in the time of James the First, 
and is of for less value than any of the 
fictitious speeches in Livy ; but Hume has 
added many further touches to it ! It is 
unfortunately not true that Henry the 
Fifth shewed magnanimity to Judge Gas- 
coigne, for he cUsmissed him from office 
at once on his accession ; and it unfortn* 
nately is true that Henry tarnished his 
fame by his cruelty in hanging his prison- 
ers before Montereau, in order to make 
the governor surrender the place, just aa 
the Black Prince stained the close of his 
Hfe by the massacre of Limoges. The 
Scotch historian, of course, gives the 
former story, but does not mention thesQ 



168 



Historical and Miscellaneous Reviews. 



[Aug. 



two facts. We willingly allow that fic- 
^ tion is pleasanter than history. After 
all, we are sorry not to believe that 
Eleanor sucked the poison from the 
wound of Edward the First, though it 
may come only from some Castilian bal- 
lad ; and history attributes a partial cure 
to the physicians, and says the wound 
broke out again after his return. Hume, 
in fact, never examines critically into the 
sources of the history, and there is reason 
to doubt whether he had read some of the 
authors whom he quotes. Nothing shews 
more clearly than this the great supe- 
riority of Gibbon over the Scotch writers 
of the time : the few pages which Gibbon 
gives to the history of the Saxons are in- 
comparably more valuable than Hume's 
third of a volume. Gibbon once had the 
idea of drawing up a critical account of 
the authorities which he had used for his 
history, and his not having done so is a 
great loss to us. Pauli has done this very 
carefully for English history. An appen- 
dix of twenty-five pages to this volume 
discusses the authorities for the fifteenth 
century, whether histories or documents. 
Some of the points examined are very 
curious; for instance, as to the genuine- 
ness of the " History of Edward V. and 
Richard III." attributed to Sir Thomas 
More. Hume examined no documentary 
evidence ; and his carelessness, as to valu- 
able authorities, is provoking. Thus he 
only gives, in a note, a short account of 
the autobiography of James II., of the 
second-hand adaptation of which Macau- 
lay has made such use, while the original 
has perished. 

Further, Pauli in stating the facts com- 
prehends the ideas of the times, whereas 
Hume g^ves us nothing but eighteenth- 
century reflections on the conduct of kings 
and priests, and has no notion either of 
the English constitution, or of the influ- 
ence of the ideas of the "Holy Roman 
empire" and the unity of the Church. 
He could not have comprehended how any 
English chronicler should go on dating by 
the years of the German emperor, ** sem- 
per Augustus," down to the end of King 
John's reign, — "from this time forward 
our annotation shall be after the reign of 
the kings of England, for the empire in a 
manner ceased here." Lord John Russell's 
speech at Bristol on the study of history 
stated Hume's errors (crimes against his- 
torical truths is the more correct name) 
very well. What can be siud of a writer 
who asserts that the constitution of Eng- 
land in the middle ages " resembled that 
of Turkey ?" Madame de Suel's pointed 
remark hit the exact truth : " It was not 
9 



liberty, but despotism, that was a neir 
thing in Europe." 

Our English labourers in the good causey 
however, have made the way smooth, and 
Pauli is much indebted to Lingard, Sharon 
Turner, Sir H. Nicolas, Sir H. Ellis, and 
others ; and we fancy he has made good use 
of Knight's "Pictorial History of Eng- 
land," by Cnuk and Macfarlane, in not a 
few places. He has not been able, how- 
ever, to use the recent publications of the 
revived Record Commission, which add 
several curious statements to what was 
known before. One of them gives as * 
genuine Anglo-Saxon view of Godwin and 
Harold versus Edward the Confessor. Our 
ordinary history, being taken firom har- 
monized sources, speaks of Edward for- 
giving Earl Godwin; the new aooonnt 
spealu of Godwin forgiving Edward, 
and compares the former to David and 
the latter to Saul ! Another gives a ca- 
rious notice of Henry the Fourth's death- 
bed, which would have told well in Ftoli : 
" At his death, as was reported of fall tad 
men, certain lords stored (L e. urg^) his 
confessor, friar John Tille, Doctor of Di* 
vinity, that he should induce the King to 
repent him and do penance in special for 
three things : one for the death of King 
Richard ; the other for the death of Arch- 
bishop Scrope; the third for the wrong 
title of the crown. And his answer was 
this: for the two first points I wrote 
unto the pope the very truth of my oou- 
science ; and he sent me a bull with abso- 
lution, and penance assigned which I had 
fulfilled. And as to the third point, it is 
hard to set remedy ; for my children wiU 
not suffer that the regalie go ont of our 
lineage." 

Our author complains in his prefoce of 
the archives and documents in Londoa 
being all brought together and rearrangedt 
as for a long time this will cause oonfonon 
in the references, and difficulty in finding 
any particular document. It is a pity to 
lose the " old reference, as it were hallowed 
by time, ' ex Turri Londinensi,' used ever 
since the days of Selden and Prynne; Day» 
further, since Leland and Camden, by ul 
enquirers into the sources of English his- 
tory." He does not seem to like the plan 
of the new publications of the Record 
Commission being brought out by separate 
editors without any weU-arxanged general 
plan. But we think the objection will 
not prove much of a practical diiBcalty» 
and are glad to get the documents ss we 
can. The letter of the Bkdc Prince from 
fiordeaux, and many letters of kings and 
statesmen never yet used by any historian* 
will be no slight gain to our knowledge of 



1858.] 



Cureton^s Syriac Gospels. 



169 



what is the real history of £ng1and ; and if 
Dr. Panli does not himself translate his 
work, we trust Mr. Thorpe, or some one 
else, will do so, and incorporate any fresh 
material that may be discovered. 



Setnams of a very ancient Recension of 
the Goepels in Syriac, hitherto unknown 
in "Europe, Discovered, Edited, and Trans- 
lated by William Ctbeton, D.D., F.R.S., 
Hon. D.D. of the University of Halle, &c.. 
Chaplain in Ordinary to the Queen, Hector 
of St. Margaret's, and Canon of Westmin- 
ster. (London: John Murray. 4to. Pre- 
^e, xcv. pp. ; Translation, 87 pp. ; Syriac 
text, 157 pp.) — ^The treasures whieh Dr. 
Tattam brought from the Nitrian Lake 
are of a very peculiar kind. The MSS. 
themselves are of a very great antiquity, 
and they have already restored to ns 
one lost treatise of a celebrated author. 
The Theophania of Eusebius, after being 
lost to the world for about fourteen cen- 
turies, reappeared in a foreign dress, and 
although its value is comparatively small, 
it is still a very remarkable instance of the 
manner in which lost treasures may be 
found, and gives us hopes that treatises of 
more value may hereafter oome to light. 
With regard to the testimony of Syriac 
translations to the genuineness of the re- 
mains of antiquity which we possess at 
present, there arise several questions to 
the solution of which a better acquaintance 
with these MSS. is absolutely necessary. 
By degrees we shall become more familiar 
with the manner in which Syriac trans- 
lators treat the authors whom they trans- 
late, whether they abridge them or curtail 
them, and whether they are accurate in 
their translation of those passages which 
they do not abridge. Until we know 
aomething in regard to these points, the 
testimony of Syriac translations will al- 
ways remain in a kind of literary quaran- 
tine. And we are disposed to lay much 
fltresa upon this enquiry, for, on the whole, 
cor impression is by no means favourable 
to these translations. There are certainly 
among those which we have already exa- 
mined grounds for great caution. There 
is a SOTt of laxity about the rendering 
which seems to indicate a habit of mind 
entirely alien firom critical accuracy. Every 
new publication, therefore, of Syriac works, 
presents a double advantage. Besides its 
own intrinsic value, it enables us to judge 
better of the nature of the literature to 
which it belongs. For this reason, we 
hail the appearance of every new Syriac 
publication with deep interest; and we 
now inrooeed to g^ve some account of the 
present volume. 

Gbnt. Mag. Vol. CCV. 



In the first place, it is a splendid volume, 
as far as outward appearances are concerned 
— a large quarto, splendidly, though not 
very accurately printed. The type, founded, 
we believe, by Dr. Cureton's directions, 
(either for this or for a former work,) is 
admirable, and forms an excellent intro- 
duction to the reading of the earlier Syriac 
MSS., as it imitates the form of the let- 
ters in which they are written. In Syriae 
MSS. of a later date the square forms be- 
g^n to supersede the rounded letters, while 
at a still lati>r date a round and flowing 
form re-appears, but with a very different 
form of letter. The square form may be 
seen in one of Adler's plates, (republished 
in Tychsen's Elementale i^iriaeum,) in 
which a facsimile of a page of the Jeru- 
salem version of the New Testament is 
engraved. The later and more flowing 
form is seen to perfection in the splendid 
MS. of Abidfarage, in the Bodleian Library : 
that resembles rather more nearly the 
usual form of Syriac type ; but perhaps the 
Roman types used in Assemani's Bihlio- 
theca Oriintalis exhibit a closer confor- 
mity to the Oxford MS., and others of the 
same age. 

The volume consists of the Syriac text 
of portions of the Gospels, a translation 
of these fragments, and a preface ex- 
tending to 95 pages, and comprising a 
considerable number of critical remarks 
upon the text — both the Syriac text and 
the Greek text — which it is supposed to 
represent. 

The MS. itself was brought from the 
Nitrian Lake, and when Dr. Cureton exa- 
mined it he found that it was a perfect 
copy of the four Gospels, but that it was 
made up from three difierent MSS., all of 
considerable antiquity, with certain leaves 
inserted to fill up IcicumB, One of these 
ancient MSS. appeared of far greater an- 
tiquity than the others. It was, in fsLCt, 
the principal MS., and portions had been 
taken from the other MSS. to supply its 
deficiencies. This principal MS. was of 
the fifth century, and it had been written 
without any marks of the Canons of Am- 
mcnius or any other divisions. The other 
MSS. were of the sixth and seventh centu- 
ries, and contained references to the Canons 
of Ammonius, &o., at the bottom of each 
page. 

Dr. Cureton very properly separated 
these MSS., and placing the oldest portion, 
consisting of about 80 leaves, (to which 
two pages have subsequently been added,) 
he threw the remainder into a supple- 
mentary volume. These two volumes are 
bound in russia, and form 14,451 and 
14,451 • of the Add. MSS. of the British 
Museum* That marked 14,451* oontaina 



170 



Miscellaneous Eeviews. 



[Aug. 



the remains of the ancient MS. of the fifth 
century. 

Dr.Cureton has printed some chrono- 
logical notices found in the volume. They 
are as follow : — 

" Glory to the Father, and to the Son, and to 
the Holy Ghost, for ever and ever. Amen. In 
the year 1533 of the Greeks (a.d. 1221), the books 
belonging to the convent of the Church of Dei- 
para of the Syrians were repaired, in the days of 
the presidency of the Count our lord John, and 
Basil, the head of the convent, and our lord Joseph 
the steward. May God in his mercy grant to 
them and to all the brethren a good reward. 
Those with whom he has cummunioated in word 
or in deed, may God spare them, and the dead 
belonging to tnem, through the prayers of the 
mother of God, and of all the saints continually 1 
Amen. Whoso readeth in this book, let hun 
pray for the sinner who wrote this." 

This inscription is found on the last 
leaf of the book, which also contains some 
verses of St. Luke's Gospel in the same 
hand. We suppose Dr. Cureton means 
that these verses were written to supply 
a deficiency existing at that time. 

On the first page of the leaf of the 
volume (14, 451*,) the following inscrip- 
tion occurs in a more ancient band : — 

*'Thi8 book belonged to the Monk Habibai% 
who presented it to the holy convent of the 
Church of Deipara, belonging to the Syrians in 
the desert of Soete. Mav God, abounding in 
mercies and compassion, for the sake of whose 
glorious name he set apart and gave this spiri- 
tual treasure, forgive his sins, and pardon his 
deficiencies, and numb(>r him among his own 
elect in the day of the resurrection of his friends, 
through the prayers of all the circle of the saints. 
Amen. Amen, 

" Son of the living God, at the hour of Thy 
Judgment spare the sinner who wrote this !'* 

This is all that we learn from the in- 
scriptions in the volume of its own history. 
All besides must be gathered from the 
character in which the MS. is written, 
and the other marks of antiquity which 
it exhibits. It is probably of the fifth 
century. A facsimile is given of a por- 
tion of St. Luke. The r^ulers of Syriac 
will recognise at once the great antiquity 
of the character. Tliey may compare it 
with the facsimile given in Adler's Exami- 
nation of the Syriac versions, tab. i., where 
a specimen is given of a MS , the in- 
scription of which states it to have been 
finished A.D. 548 ; while a later inscription 
testifies that it was bound again in the 
convent of the Deipara, in the desert of 
Scete, A.D. 1081. Our readers will re- 
mark that these two MSS., one of which 
is in the Vatican and the other in the 
British Museum, both came from the 
same desert and from the same convent. 
The first was brought, no doubt, by As- 



• Habih, we rather believe, not Habibai, 
This was remarked to us by a learned foreigner 
before we had seen the MS. 



semani, to Rome, the other by Archdeaoon 
Tattam, to London. 

We have now fully described the vo- 
lume, and we may be expected to say a 
few words as to its critical importance. 
We deem its testimony in regard to the 
original text of the Ne ^ Testament to be 
utterly insignificant, although Dr. Core- 
ton most strangL'Iy fancies that in St. 
Matthew the MS. was translated from 
an Aramaic original ! We are persuaded 
that this supposed Aramaic original never 
existed, and we see nothing whatever in 
the few feeble proofs on which Dr. Cureton 
rests his belief, The examination of the 
text followed by this MS. shews that, 
like the versions executed in Syria, it ap* 
pears to have many peculiarities, which 
are found in the older Latin versions and 
in the Codex Beza. 

The MS. appears to us to indicate either 
a Peshito with variations, or a versioa 
which is in great measure the same as 
that which the Peshito, as now printed, 
exhibits, but in a different stage. We 
mean to say, that the same version is 
the basis of this and of the Peshito, hot 
that this MS. exhibits a text of that 
version which had not received the cor- 
rections which are incorporated in the 
Peshito, although perhaps the transcribe 
may have made some of his own. The 
variations which it exhibits from the text 
of the Peshito are very numerous, e.g. in 
the first chapter of St. Matthew a care- 
ful collation indicates no less than thirty- 
nine variations, some of them very trifling, 
but others rather important: sometimes 
a mere copwZa, or the conjunction dokM, 
is omitted. These are very trifling changesi 
but sometimes the whole expression is 
varied ; as, for instance, in Matth. L, where 
** he lived purely with her" is substitated 
for " he knew her not." We mention this 
as an instance of one class of variations 
which we find in this MS. from the Pe- 
shita We find also that it fi^uently 
uses a different form of the same Syriae 
word, and occasionally, without any great 
change in the word, alters the torn of 
the sentence. Now all these peculiarities 
render the MS. valuable to any Syriae 
student who desires to know intimately 
the history of the Peshito version. It 
seems to stand somewhat in the same 
relation to the Peshito as the BishopiT 
Bible does to our authorized translatioii, 
though the variations between the Syriae 
translations are usually not so g^reat as in 
the English. 

We have now given an aoooont of this 
MS., which will sufficiently shew its im- 
portance to Syriac scholan, and on this 
account we are happy to offer our thankg 



1858.] 



The Ballads of Scotland. 



171 



to Dr. Careton for the assistance which 
the publication of this volume affords to 
sach stucUes. We regret that he has 
mixed up with his notes a variety of 
questions regarding the original text of 
the Greek New Testament. We have 
no hesitation in expressing our opinion 
that its testimony on this subject is of 
no manner of real importance, and we 
feel sure that, if Dr. Cureton spends more 
time and labour in attempting to esta- 
blish any claim of this sort on the part 
of the MS. he has now edited, his labour 
must necessarily end in disappointment. 

The Ballads of Scotland. Edited by 
Wm. Edhondbtottne Aytoun, D.C.L., 
Author of ** Lays of the Scottish Cava- 
liers." 2 vols, post 8vo. (Blackwood and 
Sons.) — When we consider the value 
of the early Scottish ballad-poetry, and 
the rarity of the collections, we can but 
welcome the appearance of the two little 
volumes which now lie before us: they 
are nicely printed, rather cheap, and ad- 
dressed to the general reader, who will 
find in them both instruction and plea- 
sure, and to the scholar, but we fear 
that he will not be equally satisfied. 

In an Introduction, which does not oc- 
cupy fewer than eighty pages, the editor 
begins by making an apology for not 
having attempted in any way to restore 
the text of his ballads, and as a voucher 
produces Motherwell's authority, which, 
in such a matter, must undeniably be re- 
garded as of weight. We are not far 
m>m adopting Dr.Aytonu's views; but 
if he does not ^ve more than one version 
of the same ballad, and if, in most in- 
stances, it is nearly impossible to record 
the various readings, why did he not 
point ont the collections in which the 
game ballad has been printed? Suppose 
that " Hugh of Lincoln" were followed by 
Boch indications as "Percy's Collection, 
Lond., 1823, voL i. p. 153; Gilchrist's, 
YoL i p. 210; Jamieson's, vol. i. p. 139; 
Finkertou's, voL L p. 76 ; Motherwell's, 
p. 61; Egerton Brydges' Bestituia, vol. 
1. p. ZSl" or that at the end of the ar- 
gument to " Hynde Horn," it was men- 
tioned that this ballad was printed by 
Cromek, voL ii. pp. 204 — 210, by Kin- 
loch, pp. 136 — 144i, by Motherwell, pp 35 
— 43» by Bnchan, voL ii. pp. 268—270, 
nobody would regard it as a pedantic 
luxury. And some readers would have 
been glad to know that on the subject 
of the former ballad a monograph was 
published in France % and that the latter 



* HugueM dsIAneoln, reeusil de halladet anglo' 
mormande et ieostoiae* relatives au meurtre de eet 



is fully illustrated by a large book printed 
in the same counti^, but at the expense 
and for the use of the Bannatyne Club, 
of Edinburgh \ 

P. xix.. Dr. Aytoun very judiciously re- 
marks that in almost every country of 
Europe the remains of the old national 
poetry have been carefully brought to- 
gether and consolidated; and he quotes, 
though very superficially, the Spanish, 
German, Danish, and Swedish collections. 
"I am given to understand," he says, 
" that the old Sclavonic poetry has been 
preserved and edited with equal care; 
but of that 1 cannot speak from my own 
knowledge," &c. The confession is a 
very candid one; but surely he might 
without much trouble have learned some- 
thing about the Servian piesme collected 
by Vuk Stephanovitch Karadshitch, and 
translated into German by Talvi, (i.e. 
Therese Albertine Louise von Jacobs) 
now Mrs. Robinson, the author of the 
" Historical View of the Lang^ges and 
Literature of the Slavic Nations," pub- 
lished at New York in 1840. Dr. Aytoun 
may be forgiven for not mentioning the 
minstrelsy of the Basque border, printed 
last year at Bordeaux ' ; but hardly for 
omitting the Barzas-Breiz, or the popu- 
lar songs of Britain, already twice pre- 
sented to the public by M. Hersart de la 
Villemarqu^. 

From p. xxi. Dr. Aytoun sketches the 
literary history of the Scottish ballad- 
poetry, too briefly to save the curious 
reader from having recourse to Eduard 
Fiedler's work ' ; and after having named 
most editors of the efinsions of the Scot- 
tish musa pedestria, he speaks of John 
Barbour, of Andrew of Winton, and of 
Henry the Minstrel, commonly called 
" Blind Harry." Every one knows, and 
Dr. Aytoun does not fail to quote, the 
passage where John Mair says that the 
old rhymer, whose famous poem of " Wal- 
lace" long enjoyed a high deg^ree of popu- 
larity in Scotland, had founded it on 
popular stories ' ; but he does not venture 



enfant ^ eomtnis par les Jutfs enucc lt. (Paris 
et Londres, 1834. Svo.) 

b Horn et Bimenhildf recueil de ee qui rette 
des polmea relatifs h leura aventures, composSs en 
franfoiSt en anglois et en icossoie^ &c (Paris, 
1845. 4to.) 

e Volkilieder der Serben. (Halle and Leipzig, 
1835. 2 vols. 8vo.) Already, in 1827, had Dr. 
Bowrin? translated most of these songs, and he 
published them that year in one volume, 12mo., 
imder the Servian title of Narodne Srpske 
Piesme. 

^ Le Pays Basque^ aa population, sa langue, 
sea manure, sa litUraiure et aa tnusique, I vol., 
8vo. 

• Geachiehte der volkathUmlichen Scottischen 
Liederdichtung. (Zerbst, 1846, 8va) 

' Johann. Major, de Oeatia Scotorum, p. 160; 



172 



Miscellaneous Reviews. 



[Aug. 



to assert that they were also most pro- 
bably in rhyme, similar to those which, 
according to an old manuscript of Fordun, 
had been composed on the same hero both 
in Scotland and in France'. They were 
undoubtedly ballads, the recovery of 
which would be of the greatest value, as 
well as of "certane dispitfiill and sclan- 
darus ballates," complained of by Henry 
VIII., and mentioned in a letter directed 
by his nephew, James V. of Scotland, to 
Robert Holgate, bishop of Llandaff, and 
president of the North parts of England ''. 

Having reached the time of King James 
I., the learned Professor speaks at length 
of the literary attainments of this prince ; 
but he does not say a single word on his 
musical skill, which is mentioned in very 
high terms by Tassoni *, nor does he after- 
wards seem to be aware of the existence 
of Edward Barry's thesis, Sur Us Vicis- 
ntudef et let Transformaiioru du cycle 
populaire de Robin Hood '', a very valu- 
able tract, in which he would have found 
-a gfreat deal of information on this subject. 

Such remarks, if prolonged, might be 
tedious, and the editor of the " Ballads of 
Scotland" might object that he did not 
intend to write a learned work ; but if so, 
why did he quote at length so many en- 
tries relating to the Scotch minstrels of 
the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries ? 
Certainly we will not complain of his 
liberality in this reject, and as a proof 
of our sincerity, we will point out to him 
the " deux hommes, joueurs de guitemes, 
du pays d'Escosse, qui vont par pais por- 
tans nouvelles de la destruction d^ 'l\ircs," 
who visited the court of Charles, duke of 
Orleans '. 

Of the old Scotch minstrels, the most 
celebrated is certainly Thomas the Rhymer, 
the hero of a ballad republished by Prof. 
Aytoun, vol. L p. 26. To ascertain who 
this Thomas was, much has been done by 
Sir Walter Scott ; but nobody thought of 
identifying him with Thomas Citharlst, 
mentioned 1809, in a roll of Robert I. of 
Scotland, which Prof. Aytoun ought to 
know, as Gilbert de Aytoun is named a 



David Irvine, The Lives of the Scottish Poets^ &c., 
vol. i. p. 840. (Edinburgh, 1810. 8 to.) 

I Scotiehronieon, ed. Walt. Ooodall, lib. xi. 
cap. XXXV. vol. ii. p. 176, note ; Tytler, Hietory 
of Scotland^ vol. L p. 165. 

k Cotton. MS., Culigula, B. L folio 298. 

1 ** Noi ancorA possiamo oonnumerar tri nostri 
Jacopo, r^ di Seoda, che non par eose aacre com- 
pose in canto, nii troT^ da ae st^sao ana nuova 
musica lamentevole e meata, differente da tutte 
Taltre.'* JHeei Libri di Fentieri diversi^ &c., 
lib. X. cap. 23, p. 664 of the Venet. ed. 1627, 4io. 

k Paris, 1832, 8vo. 

1 Louie et Charles iT OrUans^ ftc., par Aim6 
Champoliion-Figeac, vol. i. p. 881. (Paris, 1844. 
8vo.) 



little below ■». Nor did the editor of the 
*' Ballads of Scotland" think of suggesting 
that ** Kemp Owain," the hero of a very 
singular ballad printed vol. ii. p. 179 — 
181, might possibly be the " Owain Miles^ 
of an old poem so ably edited by Mr. 
David Laing", and forming part of a collec- 
tion of ditties pertaining to this pilgrim 
to St. Patrick's purgatory. 

We could have enlarged these remarks ; 
but as Dr. Aytoun considers as "some- 
what onerous" the task which he under- 
took of editing the " Ballads of Scotland," 
it would not be fair to shew that his book 
is not elaborate enough. As it is, it deserves 
praise, and will be sufficient for readers 
who desire no more than an enter tuning 
work and general information; although, 
unlike Ferdinand Wolf's Flor y primanera 
de Romances, it is not framed upon such 
principles of philology and sound emdi- 
tion as we and many more could have de- 
sired. 



Essays on Indian Antiquities, Historic, 
Numismatic, and PaUeontographic, oftkB 
late James Prinsep, F.R.S., Secretary to 
the Asiatic Society of Bengal ; to which 
are added his useful Tables illustrative of 
Indian History, Chronology, Modem Coin- 
ages, Weights, Measures, Sfc, Edited, with 
Notes and additional matter, by Edwabd 
Thomas, late of the Bengal Civil Service, 
In 2 vols. (London: John Murray.)^ 
Merely to go through these two handsome 
volumes, and to give anything like an in* 
telligiblo notion of their contents, woold 
occupy half a magazine, but we are un- 
able to devote so much space to them, and 
besides, fear that if we did so, the patience 
of our readers would be exhausted before 
they had got through two pages ; we shall 
therefore, under these circumstances, con- 
tent ourselves by giving some indicatioa 
of their contents, and leave it to others 
more deeply interested in Oriental stu- 
dies to ^g deeper into the mine thus 
opened. 

Mr. James Prinsep, we are informed in 
the memoir prefixed, was the son of Alder- 
man Prinsep, an eminent East India mer- 
chant, who sat in Parliament for some 
years for the borough of Queenboroogh ; 
and being intended for the profession of 
an architect, was at the age of fifteen 
placed under the late Mr. Pugin, but owing 
to the failure of his eyes*ght, this design 
was abandoned. He next studied chemis- 
try, and after spending some time in the 



"> W. Robertaon, ** An Index ... of many 
Records of Cbarters," Ac., p. 7, Noe. 65, 70. 
(Edinburgb, 1798. 4to.) 

■ Edinburgh, 1887, 12mo. 



1858.] 



Essays on Indian Antiquities. 



173 



AflBay^office of the Royal Mint, was ap- 
appointed assistant to the Assay Master of 
the Calcutta Mint, from which post he 
soon rose to be Abbaj Master of the Be- 
nares Mint, and eventually to be Assay 
Master at Calcutta, a post which he re- 
tained up to the period of his decease in 
1840. During his second residence ab 
Calcutta, Mr. Prinsep became connected 
with the Royal Asiatic Society. He had 
long been connected with a publication 
called " Gleanings in Scienoe," which after 
awhile merged in the " Journal of the Asi- 
atic Society." In conducting the new 
journal he was led to devote much time 
and attention to the study of Indian an- 
tiquities generally, but more especially to 
the older coinage of the Peninsula. An- 
other snlject to which he also paid much 
attention was the inscriptions on the 
pillars of Delhi and Allahabad, inscrip- 
tions that had defied the ingenuity of Sir 
W. Jones, but which he deciphered and 
found to oontiun edicts of the date of the 
third century, B.C. 

The first volume consists of essays on 
Pernan, Bactrian, Hindu, Ceylonese, and 
other Eastern coins, extracted from the 
" Asiatic Journal," illustrated with a large 
number oi clearly executed engravings. 
The second volume, also very copiously il- 
lustrated, commences with an essay upon 
the application of the early Bhilsa alpha- 
bet to the Buddhist group of coins — coins 
that had remained sealed until the dis- 
covery of the alphabet by Mr. Prinsep. 
Next we have some dissertations upon the 
Bactrian and other alphabets, followed by 
a descriptive coin catalogue. 

The second part of the volume is occu- 
pied with the " Useful Tables," which ex- 
tend to more than three hundred pages. 
The first are connected with the monetary 
systems of the East, describing the value, 
weight, and assay, of various ancient and 
mo&m coins, with tables of assay, pro- 
duce, and exchange and of British Indian 
weights and measures; next, Indian chro- 
nological tables, some of which we may 
recommend to almanac makers and com- 
pilers of dictionaries of dates for transfer 
to their pages ; and, lastly, some genealo- 
gical tables dating from a period long be- 
fore the creation of the world down to the 
present time, and includes not only vari- 
ous dynasties of Hindostan, but also those 
of the Celestial Empire, Thibet, Japan, 
Tartary, Persia^ and many other less known 
countries. 

Like many other laborious works, the 
two volumes contain scarcely a passage 
that we can transfer to our own pages, but 
we cannot conclude this notice without 
expressing our admiration of Mr. Prin- 



sep's industry, a quality possessed to the 
same extent by but few Anglo-Indians. 

A History of the so-called Jansenist 
Church of Holland ; with a Sketch of its 
earlier Annals, and some Account of the 
Brothers of the Common Life, By the Rev. 
J. Mason Kealb. (Oxford : J. H. and 
Jas. Parker.) — Considering the similarity 
in many points between the two Churches, 
it is surprising how little is known by 
English Churchmen respecting the history 
of the Jansenist Church in Holland. A 
Church having all the elements of a true 
succession, protesting against the errors of 
Rome, continuing to our day, and perse- 
cuted withal as it has been, it has, not- 
withstanding, excited less interest than 
most of those contemptible sects holding 
doctrines repulsive to all believers in the 
truth of revelation. We are therefore 
under some obligation to Mr. Neale for 
drawing attention to this body, and should 
have been under greater obligation still 
if he had taken the trouble to compile his 
History in the ordinary form, instead of 
printing his essays on the subject and call- 
ing the collection " History." 

The first essay brings before us St. Vin- 
cent de Paul, one of those noble-hearted 
men who rose superior to the influence 
surrounding them in the Romish Church, 
and performed deeds worthy of apostolic 
times. Associated with him was the Abb^ 
de St. Cyran, who was considered the 
great heresiarch of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. St. Cyran first attacked the doc- 
trines of the Jesuits in his Petrus Aurelius 
— a work which immediately became po- 
pular, and was placed in the hands of all 
the principal ecclesiastics in France. St. 
Cyran, however, pud the penalty of his 
temerity by lingering for seven years in a 
prison, from which he was only released to 
die in 1643. The views thus promulgated 
did not die with St. Cyran : he had con- 
tracted a friendship with Corneous Jansen, 
Bishop of Ypres, a native of Holland, who 
defended the early doctrines of grace, as 
expounded by St. Augustine in the g^reat 
work with which both names are asso- 
ciated, the Augustinus, No sooner had 
this work appeared than it excited the 
most violent opposition ; Pope Urban con- 
demned, and the Society of Jesus endea- 
voured to suppress it, but their efibrts were 
unsuccessful. 

Utrecht eventually became the head- 
quarters of the Jansenists, and to that see 
there has been a constant succession of 
archbishops, as narrated in this volume ; 
John Van Santeen, the fourteenth, has 
only died within the last few weeks. He 
had abjured the title of Jansenist, and 



174 



Miscellaneotis Reviews, 



[Aug. 



sought reconciliation with Rome, but was 
unsuccessfuL At some future time Mr. 
Neale appears to think the union will be 
completed, and the so-called Jansenist 
Church will then cease to exist : — 

** A Concordat [between Rome and Holland,] 
bad been concluded in 1827, but was not ratified 
till tbe accession of William II. in 1841. In 1847 
the mission of Holland, under the presidence of 
Monsignor Ferrieri, contained four Ticariates- 
Apostolic.— Holland, Bois-le-duc, Limburg, and 
Breda, with five bishops, all in partibus, 5 semi- 
naries, 1,094 churches and chapels, 1,539 priests, 
1,171,910 Catholics. The total strength of every 
sect of Protestantism amounted but to 1,854,515. 
The Calvinism of Holland, with its Orthodoxo- 
Orthodox, Schottians, Liberals, Pietists,— to say 
nothing of its Yoetians and Koallenbruggians, its 
Lutheranism, its RemonstrnntiBm. its Menno- 
nism,— all are alike doomed [by Mr. Neale]. It 
needs no prophetic power to foretell that the 
commencement of the next century will see 
Holland a Roman Catholic country.'* 

And yet, according to Mr, Neale's own 
showing by tables in this volume, the 
baptisms in the Jansenist communion are 
just as numerous now as they were a cen- 
tury ago. That Romanism has increased 
in the meantime we are not disposed to 
deny, but it by no means follows that all 
other sects will be extinguished, or that 
Romanism itself may not receive another 
blow. 



History of Wesleyan Methodism, Vol, 
I. : Wesley and his Times. Vol, II, : The 
Middle Aye, By Geobgr Smith, LL.D., 
F.S.A., &c. (Longmans). — It has always 
been a matter of regret that the history 
of the Novatians and other early dissenten 
should only have come down to us in the 
writings of their opponents ; which, even 
if they were intended to be impartial, have 
given such a tinge to their descriptions, 
that we fear the parties in question would 
scarcely recognise themselves. If the his- 
tory of Wesleyan IVfethodism had been 
written by a Baptist, or even by a Church- 
man, how different an appearance would 
it present to the history of the same deno- 
mination written by one of its own body. 
We therefore rejoice to see a work such 
as that now before us, written by a scholar 
and a gentleman, who belongs to the Me- 
thodist society ; and, although we can by 
no means admit the justice of many of the 
conclusions he arrives at, we are generally 
disposed to admit the truth of his asser- 
tions. So much has been written against 
this denomination, that we are glad to 
hear from their own advocate what can 
be said in their favour; for whether for 
good or for evil, Methodism has had vast 
influence upon the ecclesiastical history of 
this country. 

llie first volume commences with a sur- 
vey of the religious state of England pre- 



vious to the time of Wesley, and is on the 
whole fairly drawn, except that tbe author 
falls into the too common mistake of de- 
nying spirituality of religion to any of the 
clergy of the early part of the eighteenth 
century. The state of religion previous to 
1730 was miserable in the extreme, qnite 
sufficient to provoke to good works all who, 
like the Wesleys and Whitefields, saw tbe 
disease. The first society was formed at 
Oxford, and besides the three persons 
mentioned, included several others, of 
whom Hervey (author of the "Medita- 
tions") was one. These men early ac- 
quired the name of Methodists from their 
behaviour and proceedings, and from the 
time of their setting out up to the period 
of their deaths never turned back from 
their good work. 

John Wesley soon began to exhibit some 
so-called irregularities, such as preaching 
in the open air to colliers and others, who 
lived in a state allied to heathenism, under 
clergymen who cared nothing about them, 
but who accused Wesley of uncanonical 
conduct in ministering to them. Before 
many years, no church was open to him 
to exercise his ministry in ; diapels were 
therefore erected, and men set apart to 
minister in them. Next, Wesley ordained 
some ministers for America, and proceeded 
from one irregular act to another up to 
the time of his death, in 1791, all the 
while considering himself a dutiful minis- 
ter of the established Church, and warn- 
ing his people against dissent! At the 
time of Wesley's death the connexion 
numbered 511 preachers and 12(^288 
members. 

The second volume commences with the 
death of John Wesley, and is brooglit 
down to 1815, when the number of mem- 
bers had increased to 442,077, and have 
gone on increasing almost unintermptedly 
up to the present time. The work did 
not go on smoothly, many irruptions took 
place, but its numbers increased. There 
was something in the system which suited 
the popular mind, especially amongst the 
poorer classes ; from them the larger 
number of converts were made. Why 
they sought the Wesleyan chapel in 
preference to their own parish chnrdi 
we must leave others to say, bat that 
they did so to a very large extent is un- 
deniable. 

A third volume, in completion of the 
work, is promised by Dr. Smith, if his 
health permit him to bring it out. 

Brief Memorials of the Case and Con- 
duct of Trinity Colleye, Dublin, 1686— 
1690. By the Yen. Abthub BuiianiHiSflBT 
BowAV. (Dablin: Hodges and Smith.)— 



1858.] 



Memoir and Letters of Thomas Seddon. 



175 



The Venerable Archdeacon of Ardfert 
truly states that while the conflict of 
Magdalen College with James II., and 
also that of Cambridge University in re- 
sisting the same arbitrary authority, are 
well known, the facts concerning the op- 
position of Trinity College, Dublin, to the 
dispensing power assumed by James, are 
overlooked. They were in themselves as 
important as the corresponding transac- 
tions in England, but were more quietly 
managed, and excited little interest out 
of Dublin. 

As early as October, 1686, an order ar- 
rived to admit one Arthur Greene to an 
Irish lectureship, an office as it turned out, 
which did not exist. 

In the January following the society 
craved permission to send away 4,000 oz. 
of college plate, valued at 5s> per ounce, to 
London, to be disposed of, and the amount 
invested in land. Lord Clarendon, the 
Lord Lieutenant then, on the eve of his 
departure gave the necessary license for 
its transportation duty free, and on the 
7th of Feb. it was shipped, but Tyrcon- 
neU arrived on the 12th, and immediately 
seized it, although eventually it appears 
to have been restored. 

No time was lost in attempting to in- 
fringe the college statutes, for on the 13 th 
of Feb. one Bernard Doyle presented a 
letter bearing the sign manual, command- 
ing the fellows to admit him to the first 
fellowship vacant, dispensing with the 
necessity for his taking any oaths but 
that ** of a fellow only." This oath was 
tendered him, and he refused to take it, 
for it contained the passages which were 
unpalatable to a Romanist, and appears to 
have been unknown to the king. The 
Provost waited on the Lord-Deputy next 
day, and informed him why Doyle could 
not be admitted, adding the informa- 
tion that he wanted learning, and had 
two bastard children. The king was thus 
again foiled, and the vacant fellowship 
filled up by the election of Mr. Arthur 
Blennerhasset, the ancestor of the author 
of this hands'ime little volume. 

Dr. Rowan has done good service by thus 
tracing out the events of the time, for books 
of this class, unimportant as they may ap- 
pear to some, are to the historian what 
the rivulets are to the larger stream, sup- 
plying facts and illustrations from sources 
where none but those located near and well 
acquainted with them could labour with 
advantage. 



Memoir and Letters of the Ictte Thomas 
Seddon, Artist. By his Brother. (Nis- 
bet and Co.) — The editor of this Memoir 



sets out by expressing a conviction that 
many who take up the volume will be 
tempted to lay it down again in disap- 
pointment at not finding " more dazzling 
traits of genius" in the person who is the 
subject of it. We are not amongst the 
number of these ; nor amongst the num- 
ber of those who look upon bi(^raphy as 
only valuable as a revelation of the inner 
life and development of great genius. 'Hie 
record of a quiet undistinguished life is 
often the richest in beautiful and profit- 
able lessons ; and we must say that if Mr. 
Seddon's biography had disclosed much 
fewer traits of genius than it does, we 
should still have prized it as the history 
of an amiable, earnest, large-hearted, and 
sincere Christian. Mr. Seddon's genius, 
however, was sufficient to give his life a 
value on that ground too; and we hail 
this excellent little volume with singular 
satisfaction for the proof it will fm*nish 
to his young fellow-labourers in a profes- 
sion pecularly beset with temptations, 
that it is quite possible to be, at the same 
time, a g(X)d artist and a pure and reli- 
gious man. 

Thomas Seddon was bom in the city of 
London, upon the 28th of August, 1821, 
From his earliest years he evinced his 
love for art, although he had reached his 
thirtieth year before circumstances per- 
mitted him to follow it as a profession. 
It was before this time that he conceived 
the plan, and was mainly instrumental in 
the establishment of a drawing-school for 
working men, which should fill the place 
the government Schools of Design still 
left unsupplied. Our brief space will not 
permit us to enter upon the particular 
merits of this institution, nor to do more 
than baldly mention Mr. Seddon's strenu- 
ous labours in its behalf. It was to bis 
exertions in forwarding the Exhibition 
connected with it that he owed the serious 
illness which was the means of giving per- 
mHuent strength and vitality to his reli- 
gious principles. 

It was on his recovery from this illness 
that Mr. Seddon commenced his regular 
artistic career, — a career which vras not 
destined to be a very prosperous one. His 
labours were unceasing, and conscientious 
in the extreme, but, although he was 
spared the acuto sufiering of very crush- 
ing discouragements, he was rewarded by 
no marked successes: it was fortunato 
that, for him, the recompense of his toil 
was found in the toil itself. In 1851 he 
exhibited in the Royal Academy Exhihi- 
tion, his picture of " Penelope," — a careful 
work, painted with elaborato attention to 
detaiL In 1853 he left England to ac- 
company lufl friend Holman Hunt to the 



176 



Miscellaneous Reviews. 



[Aug. 



East In the new field of duty opened to 
him he rejoiced with all the fervour of 
his intensely artistic temperament. After 
nearly a year-and-a-half's indefatigable 
work in Egypt and in the Holy Land, he 
returned to England, and took rooms in 
Bemers-street for the exhibition of his 
Oriental sketches and pictures. The ex- 
hibition met with very fair success ; and, 
upon the stren(2:th of his rising reputation, 
he married. This was in the early sum- 
mer of 1855. In the spring of 1856 he 
again privately exhibited his works; and 
in the autumn of the same year he set 
forth upon his second journey to the East, 
leaving his wife and an infant child be- 
hind him. This journey was in a manner 
forced upon him as indispensable to re- 
plenish his supplies of eastern scenery and 
coslumes: it was undertaken for no per- 
sonal g^tification; in fact, to a warmly 
affectionate nature like his, a more bitter 
trial could scarcely be than thus to exile 
himself from all he most loved. It was, 
however, in " a spirit of hopefulness, tem- 
pered with Christian resignation to what- 
ever God might allot," his biographer tells 
us, that " he went on his way." In less 
than two months from the time he took 
his solitary departure, a head-stone in the 
English burying-ground at Cairo was 
erected to mark the last resting-place of 
"Thorras Seddon, Artist." 

We have barely indicated the outline 
of Mr. Seddon's life. We can only hope 
that our readers will get the little work 
for themselves. Putting out of the ques- 
tion all its other recommendations, it is a 
particularly readable book : the extracts 
from Mr. Seddon's letters from the East 
are quite charming, from their graphic 
ease of description and lively humour. 

Mr. Seddon's most noted picture — Jeru- 
salem — was purchased after his death by 
the Committee of « The Seddon Subscrip- 
tion Fund," and presented to the National 
Gallery. Our readers will remember it on 
the walls of Marlborough House. 



Contet de Cantorhery traduiU envers 
Francais de Geoffrey Chaucer. Par Le 
Chstalieb db Chatelain. (London: 
Basil Montagu Pickering). Fables Nou- 
velles. Par Le Chevalisb de Chate- 
lain. (Londres: Whittaker and Co). 
— Without quite agreeing with the Che- 
valier de Chatelain in his opinion that 
" nothing can give an exact idea of the 
charms of a poet but the very langpiage of 
which this poet has made use %" we admit 



* " Le trtdaotear est de Topinion de ceux qui 
pensent que rien nepent donner one id6e exacte 

10 



that the example of his own translationB 
from Chaucer is well calculated to g^ve 
countenance to that belief. The reader 
who depends on these translations will 
get, we are afraid, a very inexnct and in- 
adequate idea of the old poet's charms. 
The poetry will be hardly better recog- 
nised in this modem French version than 
the poet himself would be if he were sud- 
denly to appear amongst us in a modem 
French dress. And the disguise, in both 
cases, would be pretty much of the same 
character — consisting mainly of petty or- 
naments and prettinesses, in plaice of the 
sweet natural simplicity and strength of 
Chaucer and his writings. 

In the first couplet of the poem there is 
an example of the manner in which the 
fine suggestive speech of the poet is habi- 
tually diluted and disfigured in the Che- 
valier de Chatelain's version. Chaucer's 
lines are, — 

*' When that Aprille with his schowres swoote 
The drought of Marche hath peroed to the 
roote." 

which the Chevalier renders thus — 

" Lorsque \ejeune Avril a de sa doueet %artMa 
Humacto le cantr see de Mart, le dieu dee 
armes." 

Here, in place of the charming natural 
image of the sweet showers of April piere^ 
ing the thirst of March to the root, we are 
treated to what the translator probably 
thinks the more charming — certainly the 
more eminently French — sentiment of the 
soft tears of young April moistening ike 
dry heart of Mars, the god of arms ! 
Obviously enough, the writer who could 
perpetrate this funny transformation 
might be likely enough to believe that 
an exact idea of the charms of a poet can 
be given only in his own language. 

We have no space to multiply examples 
of this kind of maltreatment of the '* Can- 
terbury Tales." In a multitude of in- 
stances in which we have compared the 
version with the original, the tenemental 
heroics of the Chevalier de Chatelain are 
quite as grand, and the caricature of 
Chaucer's simplidty quite as intolerable. 
We regret that our friends on the other 
side of the Channel should get their idea 
of the venerable father of English poetry 
from this immoderately firee version of his 
greatest work. 

As far as we can venture to express 
an opinion on versification in a ibrmgn 
tongue, that of the Chevalier de C^te- 
Iain's " Fables" is very creditable to his 
skill in the management of metre. The 



des charmes d*an po^te qua la langne mtms de 
huineUe oe poMe s'eet aerrL**— X« ChetaHer de 
Chatelain, 



1858.] 



Our Home lalands, Sfc 



177 



fiction, also, is often lively and interest- 
ing, and often insinuates the moral in a 
very agreeable manner. We wish the in- 
defatigable author would exercise his in- 
vention more frequently in maiking new 
Fables than in mis -translating Chaucer. 

Our Home Islands: their Productive 
Industry, By the Rev. Thomas Milnee. 
(Religious Tract Society). — This is an 
exceedingly well-w^ritten little volume, 
containing a vast fund of information 
respecting the products of this country. 
Mr. Milner appears to have learned the 
art of squeezing an octavo volume into an 
eighteens without destroying its interest. 

A New Dictionary of Quotations. 
(London : Shaw). — This belongs to that 
very useful class of publications which are 
intended not only to save trouble, but also 
to serve as a kind of royal road to learn- 
ing. By means of this work any penny- 
a-liner can interlard his articles with quo- 
tations from the Greek, Latin, French, 
Italian, or Qermnn, as readily as Ephraim 
Jenkinson brought forward his whole stock 
of learning to the dismay of poor Doctor 
Primrose. But further, this book will be 
useful to the many thousands of readers 
who are sorely puzzled when they come 
across a learned quotation, for on turning 
to the passage they will find it very well 
and fully translated. It contains not 
only the ordinary quotations and sayings, 
but many modern passages that are in 
common use. 



lecture* on the Acts of the Apostles, and 
on the Epistles, By John David Mac- 
BBIDE, D.C.L. (Oxford : J. H. and Jas. 
Parker.) — Dr. Macbride informs us in his 
preface that these lectures are intended as a 
sequel to his preceding volume upon the 
jHatessaron, and were prepared for the 
purpose of qualifying the students of Mag- 
dalen Hall for the " beneficial and intelli- 



gent study of commentaries and treatises 
of theology." For such a purpose they 
are eminently useful, and present a strik- 
ing contrast to many of the so-called In- 
troductions to the Study of Theology, in 
which the student speedily becomes in- 
volved in a mass of doctrinal speculations, 
instead of learning the first principles of 
religion. In this volume the author con- 
tents himself with shewing what is the 
gist of each book of the New Testament 
after the Gospels, narrating the varions 
events in their order, and bringing to bear 
upon each the resources of a well-stored 
mind. Thus the nature of the assemblage 
which listened to St. Peter's Pentecostal 
sermon is said to be something like the 
motley crowd of Moslems who proceed to 
the tomb of the Prophet gathered toge- 
ther from every part of the globe, and 
who assemble at Mecca for the twofold 
purpose of devotion and commerce. Fof 
family reading the volume is one that will 
be found extremely well adapted. 



Antenna : Poems hy Llswellykit Jbw- 
ITT, F.S.A., &c., &c. (London: Longpmans). 
— We regret that our notice of this little 
volume has been long delayed by the acci- 
dent of our copy of it having been mis- 
placed. Inundated as we sometimes are 
with verse, true poetry is so scarce that a 
delicate specimen of it ought to have been 
attended to with more care. And Mr. 
Jewitt's efiusions — though delicate and 
unpretending — are, in their very essence, 
poetry. They have the genuine mintage- 
stamp of poetic genius on them. The truths 
which his muse gives utterance to are 
always beautified by imagination and 
warmed by pure and earnest feeling. The 
versification is not at all unworthy of the 
thoughts^ and fancies, and affections which 
it expresses ; it is pure, and accurate, and 
sweet — the becoming voice of truth and 
beauty. Some of the smaller pieces, es- 
peciaUy, have an irresistible charm. 



Gent. Mag. Vol. CCV. 



▲ a 



178 



[Aug. 



Cte MonWn UnttlliQtnctt, 

AND 

HISTORICAL REVIEW OF 

Ibreign NewSy Domestic Occurrences, and Notes of tJie Month. 



JtJNE 21. 

The Chreat Shrewsbury Case, — Their 
lordships sat as a committee for privileges 
for the purpose of considering the claim of 
Lord Tulhot to the earldom of Shrews- 
bury. The hearing of this claim occupied 
several days during the last and the pre- 
sent session, and the counsel on behalf of 
the Crown having summed up the case on 
the 21st of May, the further consideration 
WAS acyoumed until this morning, when 
their lordships delivered their opinions. 
Lord Cranworth, in giving his opinion, 
■aid that this was the claim of Earl Talbot 
to the earldom of Shrewsbury, and to es- 
tablish that claim he had to prove that he 
was the nearest male heir to the first earl, 
who was created Earl of Shrewsbury in 
1442. From the first earl the title de- 
scended in succession from father to son 
down to the seventh earl, and from him it 
passed to his brother, the eighth earL 
The title then passed through Sir Gilbert 
of Grafton, the brother of the third earl, 
to George, the ninth earl, and from him 
to his nephew John, the tenth earl, in 
whose line it continued down to Charles, 
the twelfth earl, who was created a duke. 
The earldom passed from Charles, who 
died without issue, to Gilbert, the thir- 
teenth earl, who was a Catholic priest, 
and from him to the descendants of his 
brother George, in whose line it continued 
down to the death of Bertram Arthur, 
who died without issue male in 1850. Lord 
Talbot then claimed the title and dignity. 
Very large estates were secured to the 
title by the Act of Settlement of 1719. 
The late earl, considering that he had a 
right to dispose of those estates, had made 
the infant son of the Duke of Norfolk his 
devisee, and the Duke of Norfolk had 
therefore been permitted by the House to 
appear in opposition to the claim. Their 
lordfhips, however, were not called upon 
to decide as to whom the estates belonged 
to, but they had simply to sny whether in 
their opinion Lord Talbot had made out 
his claim to the title. In order to do that 
he must shew that he was a descendant 
from the first earl through males only, 
and then that there were no nearer male 
heirs to the first earl than himself. A 



doubt had been raised as to whether the 
late earl himself was rightfully in pos- 
session, but that and several similar ob- 
jections had been satisfactorily answered, 
and it had been admitted by the opposi- 
tion that no question arose down to the 
extinction of the second branch of the 
family terminated by the death of Ber- 
tram Arthur, the late earl. In order to 
meet the objection that Earl Talbot was 
not legitimately descended irom the first 
earl, a great deal of evidence had been 
put in, and the chief points he had to es- 
tablish were that Charles, the Lord Chan- 
cellor, was the legitimate son of William^ 
the bishop of Salisbury, and that the Bi- 
shop was the son of William of Whitting- 
ton, third son of Sherrington of Radge, oy 
his second marriage. Some difficulty had 
been created with respect to the absence 
of the registers of the marriage of the Bi- 
shop, and of the birth of the Chancellor, 
but the proceedings in Chancery, as well 
as other evidence which had been pro- 
duced, clearly established the legitimacy 
of that individual. The Bishop was also 
proved to have occupied his proper place 
in the pedigree as the son of William of 
Whittington, and the descent of the claim- 
ant from Sherrington of Rudge was thos 
established. The benefactor's pedigree 
which had been put in by Lord Tidbot 
supported this view, and that pedigree^ 
although it was proved to omit sereral 
persons, yet was not proved to contain the 
names of any persons which were not en- 
titled to appear there. By vailons inqni- 
sitions and wills it had been proved that 
Sherrington of Rudge was the grandson 
of Sir John of Albrighton, the son of Sir 
Gilbert of Grafton, whose father was John, 
the second earl, and thus the claimant had 
made out his claim to the title, provided 
there were no nearer male heirs than him- 
self. Then the question arose as to whe- 
ther the claimant had satisfactorily made 
out that all such persons as might come 
between him and the title were dead. The 
evidence relied upon by the claimant in 
support of this proposition consisted ot 
the benefactor's pedigree, the deed of set- 
tlement of the Duke, made in 1700, the 
deed of settlement of Sir John of Laoock. 
made in 1683, and the recital of the Aet 



1858.] 



The Monthly Intelligencer. 



179 



of 1719. From these docmnents it would 
appear that all the sons of Sherrington of 
Rud^e hy his first marriage, as well as 
his two elder sons t>y his second marringe, 
with their issne, were dead in 1719. With 
retard to the death without issue male 
of Sherrington the son of Thomas, the 
youngest son of Sherrington of Rudge, 
some douhts had existed at first, hut 
they had been cleared away, and, in his 
(Lord Cranworth's) opinion, the Bishop 
in 1719 was the nearest male heir of 
Sherrington of Rudge. The Duke of 
Shrewsbury died in 1717 without issue, 
and Gilbert, his cousin, became the thir- 
teenth earl, who, being a Catholic, joined 
in an Act of Parliament to secure the es- 
tates to the title, for at that time the Pro- 
testant next of kin of a Catholic land- 
owner might claim and enjoy the pro- 
perty. In the recital to that Act the 
bishop of Salisbury was stated to be the 
next in succession after Sir John of Long- 
ford. The petition for the Act hav- 
ing been handed to the judges, they re- 
ported that the Bishop and the other per- 
sons mentioned in the petition were the 
only persons interested. The question of 
the Bishop's right to succeed to the title 
after Sir John of Longford was raised, 
but the House did not think it necessary 
to go into that question, and passed the 
bill, being of opinion that it would be quite 
time enough to decide the Bishop's right 
whenever either he or his descendants 
might chum the title. The claimant hav- 
ing thus established the fact that he was 
the nearest heir male of Sir John of Al- 
brighton, the only other question which 
arose was with respect to the children 
mentioned upon Sir John of Albrighton's 
tomb in Bromsgrove church. The inscrip- 
tion upon that monument stated that Sir 
John had three sons by his first mar- 
riage, two of whom were unaccounted 
for by the claimant. He (Lord Cran- 
worth) was of opinion that these children 
died in infancy, which would account for 
their not being mentioned in any of the 
documents relating to that period. The 
will of Sir John himself bore out this pro- 
position, for he evidently desired to leave 
something to every member of his family, 
and he made no mention of those sons. 
He (Lord Cran worth) was therefore of 
opinion that the claimant had made out 
that he was the nearest male descendant 
of the first earl, and was therefore en- 
titled to the title and dignity of Earl of 
Shrewsbury. Lord St. Leonard's, in con- 
curring with his noble and learned friend 
(Lord Cranworth), said,'that few cases had 
deserved, and few had received, more de- 
liberation, attention^ and patience, tlum 



the present, for not only was the title to 
the oldest earldom in England involved, 
but lar$^e estates were annexed to that 
title, and their lordships indirectly had to 
decide to whom that property belonged. 
Under those circumstances the Duke of 
Norfolk had been allowed, after some con- 
sideration, to appear and oppose Lord 
Talbot's claim. The exortions of the op- 
posing parties in producing evidence had 
been most useful to their lordships, inas- 
much as by no other means could they 
have been put so thoroughly into pos- 
session of the facts as they were now. 
The present case was diflTerent from those 
which usually came before the House, be- 
cause no person appeared now to claim 
the title in opposition to L'Ord Talbot. It 
had, indeed, been stated that Lord Talbot 
of Malahide, a member of their lord-hip's 
House, and a Major Talbot, were entitled 
to the earldom before the claimant, but 
Lord Talbot of Malahide had come forward 
and stated that he had no such clium, as be 
was a descendant from a branch dating 
earlier than the first Earl of Shrewsbury. 
Major Talbot, who had at first appeared by 
counsel, had since withdrawn, thus leaving 
no claimant of the title in opposition to 
Lord Talbot. The noble and learned lord 
then went through the case, and comment- 
ed upon the evidence, and finally expressed 
his conviction that the claimant was en- 
titled to the title of Earl of Shrewsbury. 
Lord Brougham and Lord Wensleydale 
concurred. Lord Redesdale having put 
the question to the committee whether 
the claimant had made out his title to the 
Earldom of Shrewsbury, the motion was 
unanimously carried in the affirmative. 

July 5. 

The " Niagara" and " Gorgon" returned 
to Queenstown from their cruise in the 
Atlantic. The attempt to submerge the 
electric wire for the Atlantic telegraph 
had failed. Three days after the squad- 
ron had been at sea, they encountered a 
heavy gale that blew for nine days, and 
finally compelled the four ships composing 
the squadron to part company. The other 
ship, the "Agamemnon" did not return 
till a week later, having been nearly 
wrecked. The following graphic account 
of the scene on board has appeared in the 
papers: — 

"The 'Agamemnon* was obliged to 
scud before the wind for thirty -six hours ; 
her coals got adrift, and a coil of the cable 
shifted, so that hsr captain for some time 
entertained serious apprehensions for her 
safety, and from the immense strain her 
waterways were forced open, and one of 
her ports was broken. Two of her sailors 



180 



The Monthly Intelligencer. 



[Aug. 



were severely injured, and one of the ma- 
rines lost his reason from fright. Yet 
such was the consummate skill, good sea- 
manship, and intrepidity of her com- 
mander. Captain Priddie, that he was 
enabled to bring her to her appointed 
rendezvous, lat. 52" 2f long. 33" 18'. The 
'Niagara' rode out the storm gallantly, 
having only carried away her jib-boom and 
one wing of her figure-head, the great 
American eagle." The cable was first 
spliced on the 26th June. " After having 
paid out two and a half miles each, owing 
to an acddent on board the 'Niagara,' 
the cable parted. The ships having again 
met, the splice was made good, and they 
commenced to give out the cable a second 
time; but after they had each paid out 
forty miles it was reported that the cur- 
rent was broken, and no communication 
oould be made between the ships. Unfor- 
tunately, in this instance, the breakage 
must have occurred at the bottom, as the 
electricians, from the fine calculations which 
their sensitive instruments allow them to 
make, were able to declare such to have 
been the fact, even before the vessels came 
together again. Having cast off this loss, 
they met for the third time, and recovered 
the connexion of the cable on the 28th. 
-They then started afresh, and the * Nia- 
gara ' having paid out over a hundred and 
fifty miles of cable, all on board entertained 
the most sanguine anticipations of success, 
when the fatal announcement was made on 
Tuesday, the 29th, at 9 p.m., that the elec- 
tric current had ceased to flow." 

The " Agamemnon " " strained and la- 
boured under her heavy burden as if she 
were breaking up, and the massive beanos 
under her upper -deck coil cracked and 
snapped with a noise resembling that of 
smali artillery, almost drowning the hide- 
ous roar of the wind as it moaned and 
howled through the rigging, jerking and 
straining the little storm-sails as though 
it meant to tear them from the yards. 
Those in the improvised cabins on the 
main-deck had little sleep that night, for 
the upper-deck planks above them were 
working themselves free, as sailors say, 
and, beyond a doubt, they were infinitely 
more free than easy, for they groaned 
under the pressure of the coil with a 
dreftdful uproar, and availed themselves 
of the opportunity to let in a little light, 
with a good deal of water, at every roll. 
The sea, too, kept striking with dull, 
heavy violence against the vessel's bows, 
forcing its way through hawse-holes and 
ill-closed ports with a heavy slush, and 
thence, hissing and winding aft, it roused 
the occupants of the cabins aforesaid to a 
.knowledge that their floors were under 



water, and that the flotsam and jetsam 
noises they heard beneath, were only 
caused by their outfit for the voyage 
taking a cruise of its own in some five or 
six inches of dirty bilge. Such was Sun- 
day night, and such was a fair average of 
all the nights throughout the week, vary- 
ing only from bad to worse. Daybreak 
on Monday ushered in as fierce a gale aa 
ever swept over the Atlantic." 

"On the 15th the ' Agamemnon' took 
to violent pitching, plunging steadily into 
the trough of the se i, as if she meant to 
break her back and lay the Atlantic cable 
in a heap. This change in her motion 
strained and taxed every inch of timber 
near the coils to the very utmost. It was 
curious to see how they worked and bent, 
as the ' Agamemnon' went at every tlnng 
she met head first. One time she pitched 
so heavily as to break one of the main 
beams of the lower deck, which had to be 
shored with screwjacks forthwith." On 
the 19th the weather looked better, but 
appearances proved deceitful. " At about 
half-past ten o'clock three or four gigantic 
waves were seen approaching the ship, 
coming heavily and slowly on through the 
mist nearer and nearer, rolling on Uke 
hills of green water, with a crown of 
foam that seemed to double their height. 
The 'Agamemnon* rose heavily to the 
first, and then went down quickly into 
the deep trough of the sea, falling over ac 
she did so, so as almost to capsixe com- 
pletely on the port side. There was a 
fearful crashing as she lay over this way, 
for everything broke adrift, whether e^ 
cured or not, and the uproar and confu- 
sion were terrific for a minute ; then back 
she came again on the starboard beam in 
the same manner, only quicker, and still 
deeper than before. Again there was the 
same noise and crashing, and the officers 
in the ward room, who knew the danger 
of the ship, struggled to their feet and 
opened the door leading to the main dec^. 
Here, for an instant, the scene almost de- 
fies description. Amid loud shouts and 
efforts to save themselves, a confused mass 
of sailors, boys, and marines, with deck 
buckets, ropes, ladders, and everything 
that could get loose, and which had fallen 
back again to the port side, were being 
hurled again in a mass across the ship to 
starboard. Dimly, and only for an in- 
stant, could this be seen, with groups of 
men clinging to the beams with all their 
might, with a mass of water, which had 
forced its way in through ports and decks, 
surging about ; and then, with a tremen- 
dous crash, as the ship fell still deeper 
over, the ooals stowed on the main deok 
broke loose, and, smaslung everything be- 



1858,] 



The Monthly Intelligencer, 



181 



fore them, went over among the rest to 
leeward. The coal-dust hid everything 
on the main deck in an instant, but the 
crashing could still be heard going on in 
all directions, as the lumps and sacks of 
coal, with stanchions, ladders, and mess- 
tins, went leaping about the decks, pour- 
ing down the hatchways, and crashing 
through the glass skylights into the en- 
gine-room below. 

*' Still it wns not done, and, surging 
again over another tremendous wave, the 
' Agamemnon' dropped dovvrii still more to 
port, and the coals on the starboard side 
of the lower deck gave way also, and 
carried everything before them." One 
marine was buried under them. " Another 
marine on the lower deck endeavoured to 
save himself by catching hold of what 
seemed a ledge in the planks, but, unfor- 
tunately, it was only caused by the beams 
straining apart, and, of course, as the 
' Agamemnon' righted they closed again, 
and crushed his fingers flat. . . . The con- 
dition of the masts, too, at this time was a 
source of much anxiety both to Captain 
Preedy and Mr. Moriarty, the master. 
The heavy rolling had strained and slack- 
ened the wire shrouds to such an extent 
that they had become perfectly useless as 
supports. The lower masts bent visibly 
at every roll, and once or twice it seemed 
as if they must go by the board. Un- 
fortunately, nothing whatever could be 
done to relieve this strain by sending 
down any of the upper spars, since it was 
only her masts which prevented the ship 
rolling still more and quicker, and so every 
one knew that if once they were carried 
away it might soon be all over with the 
ship, as then the deck coil could not help 
going after them. So there was nothing 
for it but to watch in anxious silence the 
way they bent and strained, and trust in 
Providence for the result ... Of all on 
board, none had ever seen a fiercer or more 
dangerous sea than raged throughout that 
night and the following morning, tossing 
the ' Agamemnon' from side to side like a 
mere plaything among the waters. The 
weather was thick and dark. Sleeping 
was impossible that night on board the 
' Agamemnon :' even those in cots were 
thrown out, from their striking against 
the vessel's side as she pitched. 

The berths of wood fixed athwartships 
in the cabins on the main deck had worked 
to pieces, chairs and tables were broken, 
chests of drawers capsized, and a little 
surf was running over the floors of the 
cabins themselves, pouring miniature seas 
into portmanteaus, and breaking over 
carpet-bags of clean linen. Fast as it 
flowed off by the scuppers, it came in faster 



by the hawseholes and ports, while the 
beams and knees strained with a doleful 
noise, as if it was impossible they could 
hold together much longer; and on the 
whole it was as miserable and even anxious 
a night as ever was passed on board any 
line-of-battle-ship in her Majesty's service. 
Captain Preedy never left the poop all 
night, though it was hard work to remaid 
there, even holding on to the poop-rail 
with both hands." — The next day matters 
were worse. " Three or four hours mor^ 
and the vessel had borne all which she 
could bear with safety ; the masts were 
rapidly getting worse, the deck coil worked 
more and more with each tremendous 
plunge, and even if both these held, it was 
evident that the ship itself would soon 
strain to pieces if the weather continued 
so. The sea, forcing its way through ports 
and hawseholes, had accumulated on the 
lower deck to such an extent that it flood- 
ed the stokehole, so that the men could 
scarcely remain at their posts. Everything 
went smashing and rolling about. One 
plunge put all the electric^d instruments 
hors de combat at a blow, and staved some 
barrels of strong solution of sulphate of 
copper, which went cruising about, turning 
all it touched to a light pea-green. By- 
and-by she began to ship seas. Water 
came down the ventilators near the funnel 
into the engine-room. Then a tremendous 
sea struck her forward, and drenched those 
on deck, leaving them up to their knees 
in water, and the least vei'sed on board 
could see that things were fast going to 
the bad, unless a change took place either 
in the weather or the condition of the 
ship. 

A little after ten o'clock on Monday 
the 21st, the aspect of affidrs was so 
alarming that Captain Preedy resolved 
at all risks to try wearing the ship round 
on the other tack. It was hard enough 
to make the words of command audible, 
but to execute them seemed almost im- 
possible. The ship's head went round 
enough to leave her broadside on to the 
seas, and then for a time it seemed as if 
nothing could be done. All the rolls 
which she had ever given on the previous 
day seemed mere trifles compared with 
her performances then. Of more than 
200 men on deck, at least 150 were 
thrown down, falling over from side to 
side in heaps; while others, holding on 
to ropes, swung to and fro with every 
heave. It really seemed as if the last 
hour of the stout ship had come, and to 
this minute it seems almost miraculous 
that her masts held on. Each time she 
fell over her main chains went deep under 
water. The lower decks were flooded; 



182 



The Monthly Intelligencer. 



[Aug. 



those above coald hear by the fearrul 
crashing, audible amid the hoarse roar of 
the storm, that the coals had got loose 
again below, and had broken into the 
engine-room, and were carrying all be- 
fore them. 

'* During these rolls the main-deck coil 
shifted over to such a degree as quite to 
envelope four men, who, sitting on the 
top, were trying to wedge it down with 
beams. One of them was so much jammed 
by the mass which came over him that he 
was seriously contused, and had to be re- 
moved to the sick-bay, making up the sick- 
list to forty-five, of which ten were from 
injuries caused by the rolling of the ship, 
and very many of the rest from continual 
fatigue and exposure during the gale. 
Once round on the starboard tack, and it 
was seen in an instant that the ship was in 
no degree relieved by the change. Another 
heavy sea struck her forward, sweeping 
clean over the forepart of the vessel, and 
carrying away the woodwork and plat- 
forms which had been placed there round 
the machinery for under-running. This 
and a few more plunges were quite suffi* 
cieiit to settle the matter, and at last, re- 
luctantly. Captain Preedy succumbed to 
the storm he could neither conquer nor 
contend against." He therefore ran be- 
fore the sea. The next day the tempest 
abated, and the ship beat up for the ren- 
dezvous. 

July 17. 

Turkey. — Very painful news has arrived 
from the Red Sea and from Candia. In 
both places there have been massacres of 
Christians. 

Jeddah is a port on the Read Sea inha- 
bited by a fanatical population, and the 
place of landing for Mecca pilg^ms. On 
the 15th June the people suddenly rose 
and massacred all the Chrbtians they 
could lay hands on. First they attacked 
the English Consul, Mr. Page, hacked 
him to pieces, plundered his house, and 
tore down his flag. Next they assailed 
M. Eveilard, the French ConsuL Here 
they met with resistance. The Consul 
was killed, but his wife slew the assassin. 
Her daughter and servants fought despe- 
rately, and although wounded, the former 
escaped into the house of the Turkbh 
Lieutenant. No fewer than forty-five 
persons were slain. The next morning 
some Greeks swam off to the " Cyclops," 
a British war-steamer, and told the hor- 
rible tale. Captain Pullen sent in two 
armed boats, but the people stoned them, 
and their crews had to fire volleys and 
withdraw. The crew of the "Cyclops" 



volunteered to storm the town, but the 
Governor said that if a shot were fired 
all the Christians who had been saved 
and sheltered would be sacrificed. Five 
days elapsed, and then Namik Pasha ap- 
peared with 800 men from Mecca. He 
restored order in some degree. The crew 
of the " Cyclops" landed with French and 
English colours, and, assisted by a g^oard 
of Turkish infantry, buried the slain with 
military honours. On the 23rd the *' Cy- 
clops" returned to Suez with twenty -three 
fHigitives, the renmants of the Christiana 
at Jeddah. 

July 23. 

India, — ^Telegraphic despatches from 
Calcutta to the 19th and Madras to the 
25th of June have come to hand. 

The chief event reported is one of g^ri^t 
importance. 

'* Gwalior was recaptured from the re* 
bels on the 19th of June. The cavalry 
and artillery were in pursuit of the enemy. 
The Ranee of Jhansi is reported to be 
killed. Scindia left Agra on the Idth of 
June, to join the Central India field-foroe 
on its way to Gwalior. 

'* Oude continued disturbed. In Rohil- 
cund all is tranquil" — Another despatch 
says that " the forces under Sir H. Roae 
have retaken Gwalior, after a severe fight 
of four hours on the 20th of June." 

July 24. 

Ca/pe of Oood Hope. — Advices from 
Cape Town to the 9th of June have been 
received. Sir George Grey prorogoed the 
Parliament on the 5th. In his speech ha 
congratulated them on their laboon to 
promote education, encourage the stream 
of European immigration, provide means 
for continuing and maintaining the great 
lines of internal communication, and to 
improve the ports of the country. He 
thanked them for liberal supplies. Thia 
is the last session of the first Cape Parlia- 
ment, and Sir George Grey emphatically 
bore testimony to the zeal, wisdom, mode- 
ration, and efficient exertions of its mem- 
bers. This " first Parliament of the Cape 
of Good Hope will have established lasting 
claims upon the gratitude of the ooontry.*' 

July 26. 

Baron Rothschild, who has for several 
years been returned by the City of Lon- 
don as one of its members, but owing to 
his inability to take the oaths "on the 
true faith of a Christian," has not been 
able to sit and vote in the House, this day 
took the oath in the new form, and waa 
regularly admitted to all the privilegea of 
of a member. 



1858.] Promotions y Preferments, ^c— -Births. 



183 



PROMOTIONS, PREFERMENTS, &c. 



June 21. Col. the Hon. Aug. Fred. Liddell to 
be one of H.M.'s Grooms in Waiting* in Ordinary. 

June 24. To be a Knight of the Garter, His 
Most Faithful Mi^esty, Pedro Y., King of Por- 
tugal and the Algarves. 

Jw/y 1. Col. Francis Hugh George Seymour 
to be Equerry in Ordinary to H.M. 

Col. the Hon. Arthur Edward Hardinge to be 
Equerry to H.R.H. the Prince Consort 

Ilob. Baker, esq., to be Inspector of Factories. 

James William Cusaok, esq., to be Surgeon in 
Ordinary to H.M. in Ireland. 

Oldham Barlow, esq., to be Private Secretary 
to the Postmasier-General. 

Charles Alison, esq., to be Envoy Extraordi- 
nary and Minister Plenipotentiary at Teheran. 

Julif 6. Sir Hugh Henry Rose, K.C.B., to be 
G.C.B. 

His Highness Maharajah Jung Bahadoor Koon- 
war Rarrajee to be an Honorary G.C.B. 

July 9. Dr. Andrew Smith, late Director-Gen- 
eral Army Medical Department, to be a K.C.B. 

John Inglia, esq., to be H.M's Justice-Clerk, 
Scotland. 



Chas. Baillie, Esq., to be Solicitor-General of 
Scotland. 

Julj/ 16. Alexander Hutchinson Lawrence, 
esq., Bengal Civil Service, to be a baronet. 

Major General Sir James Outram, G.C.B., to 
be Lieutenant-General. 

July 17. Richard Comwell Legh, esq., to be 
Auditor-General, Malta. 

The Right Hon. Dr. Lushington to be Dean of 
the Arches. 

Dr. Travers Twiss to be Chancellor of the Dio- 
cese of London. 

Mr. Alexander to be Director-General of the 
Army Medical Department. 

C. H. C. Plowden, esq., to be Assistant-Seore- 
tary to the Board of ControL 

Members returned to serve in Parliament, 

Norfolk^ East Division.— The Hon. Wenman 
Clarence Walpole Clark. 
Cornwall^ ^(ur.— John St Aubyn, esq. 
Statnford,—8ii Stafford Henry Northoote, bt. 



BIRTHS. 



May 16. At Madras, the wife of John Van 
Agnew, esq., a son. 

June 14. At Bonn, the wife of Charles Pitt 
Pynsent esq., a son. 

June 15. At Long Sutton Vicarage, Somerset, 
the wife of the Rev. J. Kenning Fowler, a son. 

June 16. At Shrub's-hill, Lyndhurst, the Lady 
Margaret Lushington, a dau. 

At Stubbing- court, near Chesterfield, the wife 
of T. H. Pedley, esq., a son. 

At the Vicarage, Great Clacton, the wife of the 
Bev. H. N. Bishop, a son. 

June 17. The Countess Bemstorff, a son. 

At Stanmore-park, Mrs. St. Leger Glyn, a dau. 

At the Lawn, Whitchurch, the wife of T. R. 
Oreig, esq., a dau. 

At Dummer*houae, Hants, the wife of the Rev. 
James A. Williams, a son. 

At Bay's-hill-lawn, Cheltenham, the wife of 
Lieut.-Col. Shubrick, 5th Regt. M.N.I., a dau. 

June 18. At BrookhiU-hall, near Alfreton, the 
wife of Charles Seely, jun., esq., a dau. 

At Bedford-park, Croydon, Mrs. George A. 
Lloyd, a son. 

At EUerker-house, Richmond, Surrey, Mrs. P. 
Brames Hall, a dau. 

June 19. The wife of Mi^* Reginald Knatch- 
bnll, a son. 

At the Abbey. Celbridge, the wife of C. Lang- 
dale, esq., a dau. 

June 20. At Hanover-square, London, the 
Viscountess Hardinge, a son. 

At Greenfield-house, Newbridge, Monmouth- 
shire, the wife of John Salvage, esq., a son. 

The wife of Edward Hamilton Hoskins, esq., 
of Fanhams'-hall, near Ware, Herts, a son. 

At Berkeley-sq., the wife of John Martin, esq., 
M.P., a son. 

June 22. At Green Oaks, Edgbaston, War- 
wickshire, the wife of Jas. Watson, esq., a son. 

At Welwyn Rectory, Lady Boothby, a son. 

At Queen's-gardens, Hyde-park, the wife of 
William How, esq., a son. 

At Darcy Lever Hall. Bolton-le-Moors, the wife 
of the Rev. Edward Boiling, a son. 

At Treaford-lodge, Cheltenham, the wife of 
Joseph Archer, esq., a dan. 



JuneTZ. At North-hall, Preston, Candover, 
Hants, the wife of Hugh Ward Saunders, esq., 
a son. 

At Godmanstone Rectory, Dorset, the wife of 
the Rev. Frederick A. Baker, a son. 

June 24. The wife of William Peter Jolliffe, 
esq., barrister-at-law, a dau. 

June 25. At Wensley Rectory, the Hon. Mrs. 
T. Orde Powlett, a dau. 

In Stanhope-st., Hyde-park-gardens, the wife 
of Col. Edward Warde, Royal Artillery, a son. 

June 26. At Westboume-lodge, the wife of 
the Rev. F. Manners Stopford, a son. 

At Gloucester-sq., Hyde-park-gardens, London, 
the wife of the Lord Bishop of Ripon, a son. 

At Elmfield-lodge, Southall, Lady Cooke, a dau. 

At Upper Wimpole-st., the wife of William 
Major Cooke, esq., a dau. 

At the Priory, West Moulaey, the wife of Wm. 
Mcmro Ross, esq., a son. 

At Earn-bank, Bridge of Earn, the Hon. Mrs. 
Rollo, a dau. 

June 27. At St. Andrews, the wife of John 
Ogilvy, esq., of Inshewan, a dau. 

In Cambridge-st, Hyde-park-eq., the wife of 
George E. Adams, cwq., barrister-«t-law, a dau. 

At Melcombe-place, Dorset-eq., London, the 
wife of George Bonghton Htmie, esq., a son. 

At Westmill Rectory, Herts, the wife of the 
Rev. J. A. Ewing, a dau. 

At Ainslie-place, Edinburgh, the Countess of 
KIntore, a dau. 

At Hyde-park-sq., the wife of Capt. Starkie 
Bence, of Kentwell-hall, Suffolk, a dau. 

At Seend-house. Wilts, the wife of Henry 
Wyndham, esg., of Boundhill, Somerset, a son. 

The Hon. Mrs. Ashley Ponsonby, of Rutland- 
gate, a dau. 

At Hingham, Norfolk, the wife of Chas. Craw- 
shey, esq., a dau. 

June 28. At Holne-park, Deron, the wife of 
Henry B. T. Wrey, esq., a son. 

At Coggeshall, the wife of the Ber. E. L. 
Cutts, a son. 

June 29. At the Parsonage, St. Oilee-in-the- 
Wood, the wife of the Bar. Hen. Vyvyaa Robin- 
son, a dau. 



184 



Births. — Marriages. 



[Aug. 



At the Rectory, Hollesley, the wife of the Rev. 
Richard W. W. Cobbold, a son. 

At Winche8ter-8t., Eccleston-sq., the wife of 
Wm. Campbell Annesley, esq., a son. 

June 30. At Efford-manor, near Plymonth, 
the wife of Henry Lopes, esq., barrister>at-law, 
a dau. 

At Woodland-villa, Bath, the wife of Col. S. S. 
Trevor, a dau. 

Lately. Mrs. Polhill Turner, of Howbury- 
hall. Bedfordshire, a son and heir. 

July 1. At Harewood, the wife of H. R. Tre- 
lawncy, esq., a son. 

The wife of Capt. Childers Thompson, a son. 

At Wimbledon-park, Mrs. John Pennington, 
a dau. 

At Santa Cruz, Madeira, the wife of W. Amot 
Stewart, esq., of Wester Clon, Perthshire, a son. 

July 2. At Banchory-lodge, Kincardineshire, 
the wife of Lieut.-Col. Burnet Ramsay, a dau. 

At Sidmouth, the wife of Col. Harvey Mercer, 
a son. 

July 3. At Watford, Northamptonshire, Lady 
Henley, a son. 

At Kirtlintrton-park, Oxfordshire, Mrs. Charles 
Cholmondelev, a son. 

July 4. The Duchess of Marlborough, a son. 

The Viscountess Nevill, a dau. 

At the Admiralty-house, Sheemess, the wife 
of Comm. Harvey, K.N., a son. 

At Kensington-gore, the wife of Hugh Ham- 
mersley, esq., a son. 

At Sands, in the co. of Durham, the wife of 
Mark Ord, esq., a dau. 

July 5. At Papplewick-hall, Notts, the wife 
of H, F. Walter, esq., a dau. 

At Billacombe, Plymstock, the wife of Migor 
H. J. Frampton, a dau. 

At the Rectory, North Petherton, Somerset, 
the wife of T. Palfrey Broadmead, esq., a dau. 

July 6. At Pepper-hall, Yorkshire, the wife 
of William Frederick Webb, esq., a dau. 

At Baihwick, the wife of Lieut.-Col. Grove, 
a son. 

At Roupell-park, Streatham-hiU, Mrs. John 
Monteflore, a son. 

At Mortimer-hill, near Reading, Berks, the 
wife of Sir Paul Hunter, bart., a son. 

At Upper Seymour-st., the wife of Col. Ooul- 
bum, of Betchworth-house, Surrey, a son. 

July 7. At Leinster-gardens, Hyde-park, the 
wife of George Bamet, esq., a son. 

July 8. At the Oaks, Woodmansteme, Surrey, 
the wife of F. Qilliat Smith, e«q., a son. 

At Fordwich-house, near Canterbury, the wife 
of Capt. C. J. Cox, of twins, a son and dau. 

At York, the wife of W. Pemberton Heeketh, 
esq., 18th Hussars, a dan. 

July 9. At Upper Merrion-«t., Dublin, the 
wife of the Hon. Robert Handcock, a son. 

The wife of the Rev. Arthur M. Hoare, Rector 
of Calboume. Isle of Wight, a dau. 

At Naish-houae, Somenetshire, the wife of 
Capt. Pilgrim, a dan. 

July 10. At the Lawn, Teignmouth, Lady Hag- 



gerston, widow of Sir John Haggerston, bart.. of 
Ellingham, in the coimty of Northumberland, a 
dau. 

At Edinburgh, the wife of A. Kincaid Macken- 
zie, esq., a son. 

At Canonbury-sq., Islington, the wife of Joaeph 
Thomas Cooper. F.R.A.S., a dau. 

At Topcroft Rectory, Norfolk, the wife of the 
Rev. Henry Mayers, a son. 

July 11. At Wemvss-castle, Mrs. Erakine 
Wemyss of Wemyss, a son and heir. 

Mrs. Le Gresley, of St. Ouen's, wife of Capt. I<e 
Gresley, of the ** Canopus," of Jersey, three daua. 

The wife of the Rev. F. Spurrell, Rector of 
Faulkbourne, Essex, a dau. 

At Rutland-gate, the wife of Gwyn Elger, esq., 
barrister-at-law, a son. 

J<*ly 12, at Runnymead-villa, lUxacombe, the 
wife of F. W. Pjrm, esq., a son. 

At Bellefleld-house, Paraon's-green, Middlesex, 
the wife of Henry B. Sheridan, esq., M.P., a dau. 

At the residence of her father-in-law, Den- 
mark-hill, Surrey, the wife of Arthur Charles 
Rhodes, esq., a son. 

July 13. At Chesham-st., Belgrave-aq., the 
residence of her mother. Viscountess Dungar- 
van, the Lady Mary Hope Vere, a son and heir. 

At Eton College, the wife of the Rev. Wm. 
Lane Hardisty, a son. 

At Chester-sq., Belgravia, the wife of Ralph 
Ludlow Lopes, esq., barri»ter-at-law, a dau. 

At Ainslie-place, Edinburgh, the Hon. Mra. 
Lewis Grant, a dau. 

At Shrubhurst, Oxted, Surrey, the wife of 
Lieut.-Col. Burdett, Coldstream Guards, a dau. 

July 14. At Clay-hill, Enfield, Bfrs. Algernon 
Attwood, twin daus. 

At Tillington Rectory, Fetworth, Sussex, the 
wire of the Rev. George Ridsdale, Vicar of South 
Crcake, Fakenham, Norfolk, a son. 

July 15. At Thurloe-sq.^ Brompton, the wife 
of Frederic Andrew Inderwick, esq., barrister-at- 
law, a son. 

At Westbourne-terr.-road, the wife of C Ha- 
milton Onflow, a son. 

July 16. The wife of Sir Courtenay Honywood, 
twin sons. 

At Montague-sq., the wife of Edward Holland, 
esq., M.P., a son. 

At Bellevue-villas, Seven Sisters'-road, Hollo- 
way, the wife of Frederick Robins, esq., a dan. 

At Downshire-hill, Haropstead. the wife of 
Francis Rowden, esq., of Lincolu's-inn, barriaUv* 
at-law, a dau. 

July 17. At Putney, the Hon. Mrs. Erakine, 
of Dryburgh, a son. 

At Albury-house, St. John*8-wood-park, the 
wife of Philip E. Blakeway, esq., a dau. 

July 18. The wife of Col. Henry Atwell Lake^ 
C.B., aide-de-camp to the Queen, a son. 

At Wihnington-hall, Kent, Mrs. WiUm. Coder. 
a son. 

July 23. At Bottesford-manor, near Brigt^ 
Lincolnshire, the wife of Edward Peaooek, esq., 
a son. 



MARRIAGES. 



Jan, 19. At Plains-honae. Turakina, Charles 
George Hewson, M.D., of Otaki, eldest son of 
Admiral Hewson, Topsham, Devonshire, to Amelia 
Harris, third dau. of Mr. George Beamish, late 
of the county of Cork, Ireland. 

Feb. 8. At St. James*8, Paddington. John Dun- 
stan, esq.. Governor of Chester Qtstle, to Emily 
Catherine, dan. of Cipriani Potter, esq., of In- 
Temess-ter., Bajvwater. 

Feb. 10. At Christohurch, New Zealand, Ar- 
thur Charles Knight, esq., youngest son of the 
Rev. W. Knight, Rector of Steventon, Hants, to 

U 



Caroline, only dan. of the late Rer. T. Edward 
Hankinson, M.A. 

March 16. At Sydney, Alfred Delves, yonnnst 
son of the late Rev. Sir Henry Delves Broochton, 
bart., of Brongbton-hall, Staffordshire, sna Dod- 
dington-park, Cheshire, to Clemenoe, vonngest 
dau. of the late C. L. D. Fettorini, M.D., of 
Sydney. 

March 30. At Adelaide, South AnstraHa, Ed- 
dowes John, youngest son of Uie late Hcniy 
Wilson, esq., of Kensington, to Charlotte Martha, 
only chUd of James O. Howard, esq., of A del aid e . 



1858.] 



Marriages. 



185 



March 31. At Pleasant Creek, Mount Ararat, 
Victoria, John 3. Fisher, esq., of Lincoln, to 
Eleanor, second dan. of the late Gilbert McCabe, 
esq., and widow of Thomas Barber Johnson, esq., 
of Calcutta, and Gracechurch-^t., city, London. 

April 10. At Sydney, Charles Haynes, second 
son of the late Rev. E. Barlce, of Worlingworth, 
to Amy Louisa, second dan. of the late Benjamin 
Laurence, esq., of London. 

May 15. At Bermuda, Lieut Hugh McXcile 
Dyer, Commanding H.M.'s gun-baats, " Nettle" 
and ** Onyx," son of Capt. Dyer, R.N., to Mari- 
anne Elizabeth, dau. of the late Wm. Cole Loggin, 
esq., of Woolfardesworthy. 

iiny 20. At Barbadoes, Capt. Dugald Stewart 
Miller, 67th Regt., D.A., Quarter Master-Gen., 
eldest son of Dr. Miller, of Exeter, to Elizabeth, 
third dau. of Sir Bowcher Clark, Knigbt, Chief 
Justice of that island. 

June 3. At Montreal, W. Barrett, M.B., Staff- 
Surgeon, to Mary Anne E. Molson, second dau. 
of Thomas Molson, esq., of Montreal, Canada. 

June 9. At the cathedral, Fredericton, New 
Brunswick, Mr. G. Montgomery Campbell, Fi 1- 
low of Magdalene College, Cambridge, to Sophia 
Storie, dau. of John Simcoe Saimders, esq., 
Legislative Councillor. 

June 10. At Chris' ian-Malford, Wilts, Fred. 
Martin, eldest son of William Williams, esq , of 
Tregullow, Cornwall, and Heanton-court, Devon, 
to Mary, youngest dau. of the Bev. R. Y. Law, 
Rector of Christian-Malford. 

June 15. At Montreal, Robert Miller, esq., to 
Marianne, eldest dau. of Col. Savage, Royal 
Artillery, and grand-dau. of the late Major-Gen. 
Sir John Boscawen Savage, K.C.B. anU K.C.H. 

At Warrington, Alfred Thomas, esq., of Nor- 
ton-lodge, Cheshire, to Mary, youngest dau. of 
the laie James Davies, esq. 

At All Souls', Langham-place, Morgran Jones, 
esq., of Pen-y-lan, Cardiganshire, lo Sarah Fran- 
ces, youngest dau. of Rees Goving Thomas, esq., 
of Llanon und I»iCoed, Caermnrthenshire. 

At Cheltenham, the Rev. George James Corser, 
B.A., of Daventrv, Northamptonsbirc, to Mary 
Hannah, only child of Allen Norris, esq., Bury- 
house, Lancashire. 

At St Mark's, Rosherville, Thomas Sutton 
T^all, esq., Pajrmaster R.N., to Mary Foster, 
eldest dau. of Simon Howard, esq., late of 
Black walL 

June 16. At Kingskerswell, the Kev. Edward 
Steere, LL.D., curate of Skegness, Lincolnstiire, 
to Mary Bridget, eldest dau. of the late Henry 
Langford Brown, esq., of Barton-hall, Torquay. 

At Belbrou^hton, Worcestershire, the Rev. 
Robert Sow bridge Baker, only son of Robert 
Baker, esq., of West Hay, Somerset to Mary 
Katherine, only dau. of Charles Noel, esq., of 
Bell-hall, Worcestershire. 

At St. John's, Paddington, Henry Bathurst of 
Faversham, Kent, solicitor, to Martha Cope, 
youngest dau. of the late Philip Thoreau, ei<q., 
of Upper Gloucester-pL, and formerly of the 
Island of Jersey. 

At Sudbury, the Rev. W. Sparrow Simpson, 
M.A., Rector of St. Matthew, Friday-st , with St 
Peter, Chea, London, to Sarah Crosse Ransom, 
only dau. of the late Robert Ransom, esq., of 
Sudbury, Suffolk. 

At St. Mary -a t-the- walls, Colchester, J. W. 
Lovell, esq.. Major Royal Engineers, of Alver- 
stoke, Hants, to Catherine S., dau. of the late 
Major Brock, St. Mary's ten*., Colchester. 

At Tunstead, Rosscndale, John Whitakt r, esq., 
of Broud Clough, Rosm ndale, and Glanjrrafon- 
hall, Salop, to Elixabeth Ann, eldest dau. of R. 
Munn, esq., of Heath-field, Roesendale, and 
Lockerbie-house, Dumfries. 

At Broomfield, Somerset, the Rev. Geo Fitz- 
Clarcnce Slade, Fellow of All Souls', Oxford, 
youngest son of Sir John Slade, Bart., to Eleanor 
Frances, eldest dau. of Henry Warre. 

At St. Mary's Colchester, Major Lovell, C.B., 
Boyal Engineers, to Catherine bchreiber, young- 

Gent. Mao. Vol. CCV. 



est dau. of the late George Brock, etq.| of Col« 
Chester. 

At Edinburgh, Richard Turner, esq., of Tun« 
bridge Wells, Kent to Anne Augusta, youngest 
dan. of the late James Hare, jun., esq., M.D., of 
Calder-hall, Mid-Lothian. 

June 17. At Leamington, Dashwood Watts 
Ricketts, esq., late Secretwry to Council at Mauri- 
tius, to Fanny Gertrude, eldest dau. of Thomas 
Thomson, esq., M.D., formerly of Stratford-on- 
Avon. 

At Wendover, George Henry Watts, esq., of 
Thatcham, Berks, to Sarah Watson, eldest dau. 
of Cul. J. Graham, H.E.I.C.S., and grand-dau. of 
Gen. Sir James Watson, K.C.B., of Wendover- 
hou!^. 

At the cathedral, Worcester, the Rev. Edmund 
Verdon Amery, M.A., of Eyam, Derbvi-hire, 
Fecond son of John Amerv, esq., of Stourbridge, 
to Fanny, fourth dau. of the late Clifton Win- 
trlngham Loscombe, esq. of Stanmore, Middlesex. 

At, Christ Church, Quinton, the Rev. James 
Balfour Pattison, of St. Helen's, Lancashire, to 
Emily Montgomery, dau. of T. H. Watson, esq., 
Ferry-hill, Quinton. 

At Devonport, William Y. Dent, esq., of the 
War Department Woolwich, to Emma Tolland, 
dau. of Capt. Harry Lord Richards, Royal Navy. 

At Edinburgh, George CoUey, esq., of Fow- 
berry-tower. Nori humberland, to Jane Arundell 
St. Aubyn, elder dau. of ttie late William Wood- 
cock, e!«q. 

At Didsbury, the Rev. Oldfield R. Prescot, In- 
cumbent of St John's, Dukinfield, to Helen, se- 
cond dau. of G. Withington, esq., of Parkfleld, 
Didsbury, Lancashire. 

At Ramsiate, Lieut. Robert Barclay Cay, 
R,N., son of R B. Cay, solicitor. Vale, Ramsga e, 
to Augusta De I'Hoste Ranking, dau. of Robert 
Ranking, esq., of the Vale, Ramsgate, late of 
Hastings. 

At St. George's, Hanover-s<j., Francis Jones, 
younger son of Charles Heseliine, esq., late col- 
lector of H.M.'s Customs, Bermuda, to Annie 
Frances, elder dau. of James Goren, esq., of 
Bavswater. 

June 18. At St. George's, Hanover-sq., the 
Rev. John Harvey Ranking, Fellow Commoner, 
B.A., curate (>f St. Mary's, Birkenhead, to Julia 
Louisa, third dau. of the late John Geo. Crickett, 
esq., of Doctors' Commons. 

June 19. At St. George's, Hanover-sq., the 
Lord Nigel Kennedy, brother of the Marquis of 
Ailsa, to Catherine Anne, dau. of the lato Major 
James Frere May. 

In Dui lin. Major G. Cornwall, 93rd High- 
landers, to Augusta Annie, second dau. of the 
late Brigadier Wilson, 64th Regt. 

June 22. At Portsmouth, I lent. George 8. 
Nares, Royal Navy, to Mary, eldest dau , and at 
the same time, Francis Meade Eastment esq., of 
Drayton, Somerset to Kate, second dan., of wm. 
Grant esq., banker, Portsmouth. 

At Trinity cliurch, Marvlebone, the R*v. T. H. 
J. I'yrwhitt M.A., student of Christ Church, Ox- 
ford, to Elisa Ann Spencer, dau. of Spencer 
Stanhope, esq., and Lady Elizabeth Stanhope, of 
Canon-hall. 

At Kingston, Portsea, Hant^ Lieut Edward 
B. H. Franklin, of H.M.8. " Curacca," only son 
of Capt Franklin, R.N., to Harriet Holland, only 
dau. of Capt M. M. Wroot, R.N. 

At St. Andrew's, Holbom, the Rev. Edmttnd 
Snowden, M.A., to Alice Ann, eldest dau. of the 
Rev. J. T. Toogood, M.A., Rector of St. Andrew's, 
Holbom. 

At Nedeing, Major Edward Collyer Munns, late 
of the 74th Highlanders, to Lydia, eldest dan. 
of the Rev. W. Edge, Rector of Nedging and 
Naughton. 

At Paddington, Reginald, eldest surviving son 
of Arthur Kelly, e-q., of Kelly, Devon, to Janet 
Maitland, fifth dan. of Henry Wilson, esq., of 
Stowlangtoft. 

At St. James's, Westbonne-teiTaoe, ttie B«t. 

Bb 



186 



Marriaffes, 



[Aug. 



Henry V. Pickering*, Incumbent of AshfleH, to 
Kmily Harvey, fourth dau. of the lute Major 
Henry H>txwell Wainright, of H.M.'s47th Regt., 
and of Ash-lodge. 

At Lymppfleld, Surrey, William Maunder, se- 
cond Hon of George Hich ock, esq , of St. Paul's 
Cfaurchyard, I^ndon, to Margaret Ellen, second 
duu. of Kichard Lane, es^., of Lympsfield. 

June 23, at Clapham, Sir William Forbes, bart, 
of Fintray-house, and (>aigevar-ca8tle, Aberdeen, 
to Caroline Louisa, only dau. of Sir Cnas. Forbes, 
b irt., of Newe and Edinglassie, Aberdeenshire, 
and Broom- Wood, Surrey. 

At St. James's, Piccaililly, Thomas, second son 
of C. T. Tower, esq., of Weald-hall, Essex, to 
Sarah Anne, eldest dau. of Francis Baird, esq., 
of Rutland-giite. 

At Willow, Sir Henry Vemey, bart., M.P., of 
Claydon-house, Bucks, to Frances Parthenope, 
eldest dau. of Willmm Edward Nightingale, esq., 
of Embly, Hants, and Lee Hurst, Derbyshire. 

At I'entraeih, North Wales, the Rev. G. F. H. 
Foxton, Incumbent of Fosque. Kincardineshire, 
to Clara, eldest dau., and the Rev. G. R. Gilling, 
B.A. Wadham College, Oxford, to Ellen Mary, 
fourth duu., of the Rev. J. Roberts, Rector of 
Llan!>adwin, Anglesey. 

At Manchester, Robert Blakemore Perkin, of 
Pembri;lge-villa8, Bayswater, elde!>t son of Robert 
J. Thornton Perkin, e&q., of Jersey, to Marv Alice, 
eldest duu. of John Knowlcs, esq., of Trofford 
Bunk-house, Old Trafford. 

June 24. At Clifton, Charles Thomas Hudson, 
esq., M.A., Head Master of the Grammar-school, 
Bristol, to Louisa Maria Foot, second dau. of the 
late Freelove Hammond, esq., Clifton. 

At Guernsey, the Rev. Samuel Cosway, M.A., 
"Vicar of Chute, Wiltshire, to Harriet, eldest dau. 
of John Le Marchant, esq., of Melrose, Guernsey. 

At S:. Peter s, Euton-sq., London, Viscount 
Vaughan, elde-t son of the Earl of Lisburne. to 
Gertrutie Laura, third dwu., and Geori^e Onslow 
Newton, es(]., of Croxton-park, Cambridgeshire, 
to Florence Cecilia, second dau., of Kdwyn Bur- 
naby, esq., of Baggrave-hull, Leicestershire. 

At St. Alai y Magdalen's, St. Leonard's-on-Sea, 
Vandeleur B. Crake, esq , son of W Crake, esq., 
of 10, Stanhope-st., Hyde-park-gardens, and 
Hastings Su«»sex. to Mary Bedinfiel 1 Delves, 
only child of the Rev W. Delves, Rector of Cats- 
field, Sussex, by his second wife, Mary Susan 
Bedinfleld. 

At Holy Trinity, Westboume-ter., Benjamin 
Bousfleid Swan, of St. John's College, Cambridge, 
and of the Inner Temple, barns- er-ut-law, young- 
est son of the late Graves Chamney Swan, esq., 
of Newto n-park, co. Dublin, barrister-at-law, 
to Laura, y«>ungest dau. of W. Lycett, esq., of 
Delamere-ter., Hyde-park. 

At St. Peter's, Thornbury, James Grace, esq., 
of Thornbury, second son of the late Thomas 
Grace, esq., of Culverton, Bucks, to Matilda, 
second surviving dau. of the late John Evans 
Tarrant, esq., of Alscot-lodge, Prince's Risbo- 
rouv:h. Bucks. 

At the Roman Catholic chapel, St. John's Wood, 
John Reginald Talbot, e-^., of Rhode-hill, near 
Lyme Re>ris, eldest son of the late Adm. the Hon. 
Sir John Talbot, G.C.U., to Sarah Eliza, daiL of 
the late Rev. David Jones, Rector of Panteague 
and Tredunnock, Monmouthsiiirc. 

At Westminster, William only son of William 
Burchell, esq., of 42. Upper Harley-st., to Adelaide 
Maria, third dau. of Joseph Carter Wood, esq., 
of Westminster. 

At Brompton, the Rev. John Davi I Macbride 
Crofts, M.A., of Worcester College, Oxford, Mas- 
ter of the Endowed Grammar School of New land, 
Gloucestershire, to Jar.e Britton, elder dau. of 
John Dowell, esq., Yatton, Somerset. 

A' Upton-cum-Chnlvey, Bucks, George Martin 
Hughes, esq., of Oak-villas, Ildverstock-rtill, 
Hampstead, to Catherine, second dau. of Ralph 
Wilcoxon, esq., late of Dulwich, Surrey. 

At St. Mary's, Windermere, the Hon. Albert 



Yelverton Bingham, son of the late and brother 
of the present Lord Clanmorris, to Caroline, 
youngest dau. of James Begbie, M.D , of Edin- 
burgh, Physician in Ordinary to the Queen in 
Scotland. 

At Siadhampton, the Rev. Jackson Taylor, 
M.A., of Oriel College, Oxford, to Julia, only 
dau. of the Rev. W. Parker Perrv, M.A., incum- 
bent of Chislehampton-with-Stadhampton, Oxon. 

June 26. At St. Bride's, Fleet-st., William, 
youngest son of Henry Hammond, esq., solicitor, 
of Fumival's-inn and Finchley, to Jane Amy, 
youngec^t dau. of Benjamin Dolomore, esq., of 
Finchley. 

At Wymering, Hants, Frederick Pelbam, Com- 
mander R.N., youngest son of the late Adm. 
Warren, of East-court, to Annie Charlotte, eldest 
dau. of the late Capt. Sir Henry Blackwood, 
hart., R.N. 

At S'lndridge, Kent, the Rev. John Worthing- 
tou Bliss, second son of the Hon. Mr. Justice 
Bliss, Senior Judge of the Supreme Cturt of the 
Province of Nova Scotia, to Maria, youngest dan. 
of the Rev. Henry Lindsay, Rector of Sundridge. 

June 27. At St. Martin-m-tbe-Fields, Charles 
Steel, esq , Capt. 17th Lancers, eldest son of 
Major-Gen. Sir Scudamore Winde Steel, K C.B., 
to Anna Caroline, third dau. of the Rev. Sir John 
Page Wood, bart., of Rivenhall-pl., E-sex. 

June 28. At Higher Broughton, ManuheKter, 
John James Barton, esq., A.B., to Mi^8 Ellen 
Coleman; and LociihaTt Wilson, esq., eldest son 
of the late Canon Wilson, of the Manchester 
Cathedral, to Miss Annie Coleman. 

At St. George's, Hanover-sq., James Bell, esq., 
of the Inland Revenue, to Ellen, second dan. 
of William Reece, esq., late of Flintshire, and 
grand-dau. of the late John Reece, esq., of 
Brecton-park. Cheshire. 

At St. James's, Paddington, the Rev. William 
H. Trendeil, Assistant Minister of Christ Chapel, 
Maida-hill, London, to Henrietta Catherine Emily, 
dau. of the late Rev. William W. Pym, Rector of 
Willian, Herts. 

At Glasgow, James S. Scott, esq.,' to Rebecca 
Parsons, only child of the Rev. G. Wardlaw, of 
Helensburgh. 

June 29. At Stowmarket, John G. Saunders, 
Curate of Stowmarket, only surviving son of the 
late T. Saunders, eso., F.S.A., Solicitor and Con- 
troller of the City of London, and Deputy Lieut, 
for the county of Midd.esex, to Sophie De Mont- 
fort, eldest dau. of the Rev. A. G. H. HolUngs- 
worth, M.A., Vicar of Stowmarket. 

At St. Mary Church, the Rev. J. Russell Jack- 
son, of Elm, Cambridgeshire, to Charlotte, onW 
duu. of William Metcalfe, esq., of Woodleigh 
Vale, St. Mary Ctiurch. 

At Broadwater, John Fortescue, e^q., eldest 
son of the late Rev. P. D. Foulks, Vicar of Sheb- 
bear, to Eleanor, dau. of Mrs. White, Worthing, 
Sussex. 

At Richmond. Surrey, William James Boddy, 
of Holdgate-terr., York, to Elizabeth Bannerman 
Emilie, eldest dau. of John Frederick Edward 
Mori ice Smith, Record Keeper of H.M.'s Court 
of Probate, Doctors' Commons. 

At Woolwich, J. R. Christie, eso., F.R.S., to 
Emily, dau. of Dr. Bridgman, of Woolwich- 
common. 

At Hoddesdon, Herts, Reginald, second son of 
the Rev. J. P. Roberts. Rector of Eustergate, 
Su-sex, to Sarah, dau. of W. Haselwood, esq., of 
Burfords. Hoddesdon. 

June 90. At St. Paul's, Knight sbridge, the 
Rev. William Wyld, Rector of Woodborougb, 
Wilts, to Elizabeth, eldest dau. of the late Hon. 
and Rev. Frederick Pleyde.l Bouverie, Rector of 
Pewsey. 

At Long Melford, Suffolk, the Rev. OctaTios 
Hammond, son of the late Charles Hammond, 
esq., of Newmarket, to Maria Elizabeth, only 
dau. of the Rev. Banks Robinson, Vicar of Little 
Waldingfteld. 

At St George's, Hanorer-sq., Mi^or John 81. . 



1858.] 



Marriages, 



187 



Ledger, late of the 14th Light Dragoc^ns, to Har- 
riet, relict of Sir E. 8. Gooch, hart. 

At Kirk Braddan, Dougla.o, Isle of Man, Dr. 
Richmo d H. Tucker, of Rodney-st., Liverpool, 
to Elizabeth Mary England, eldest d^iu. of John 
Gruham, esq., late of Newry, co. Down. 

At Cheltenham, the Rev. John Fowler, Head 
Master of the Grammar Sciiool, Lincoln, to 
Martha, dau. of the late W. H. Bodley, esq., 
M.D., Merton-house, Brighton. 

At Pendlebury, Edward, youngest son of Wil- 
liam Sharp, esq., of Linden-ball, near Lancaster, 
to Sarah Catherine, only surviving dau. of James 
Aspinall Turner, esq., M.P., of Pendlebury-house, 
near Manchester. 

At Ashpringttin, William Hogg, esq., of Wood- 
house, Lapford, Devon, to Elizabeth Hooper, 
only dau. of the late G. Mallet, esq., of Bow. 

At St. Mary Abboit's, Kensington, Edward 
Wingfleld Shaw, Commander R.N., third son of 
the Rt. Hon. Frederick Shaw, to Louisa Arabella, 
eldest dau. of his Excellency Col. Hill, Governor 
of Sierra Leone. 

At Cann St. Rumbold's, Dorset, the Rev. Ed- 
ward Bristow Phillips Wynne, Rector of South 
Shoebury, Essex, to Annie, second ddu. of the 
Rev. Joseph Parker, Rector of Cann. 

At Perth, by the Rev. H. H. Franklin, B.A., 
William Hartley, esq., Kersie-bank, Suuth Alloa, 
to Mary Mitchell, eldest dau. of John Conning, 
eso., banker, Penh. 

Lately. At Cheltenham, Mnjor N. Steevens, 
late 88tli Connaught Rangers, son of Lieut.-Col. 
Steevens, formerly of H.M.'s 20th Regt., lo Annie 
Egan, ocdy child of C. Corley, esq., Cheltenham. 

At Bryngwyn, Henry David Ricardo, esq., of 
Hyde, Minchmhampton, to Ellen, dau. of the 
Ven. Archdeacon Crawley. 

July 1. At St. George**, Hanover-sq., Sir Ar- 
chibald Islav Campbell, barr., to Lady Agnes 
Grosvenor, dau. of the Marquis of Westminster. 

At St. George's, Hanuver-sq., the Rev. William 
Whewfll, D.D., Master of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, to Evurina Frances, eldest dau. of Francis 
Ellis, esq., and widow cf Sir Gilbert Affleck, 
bart., Dal ham-hall, Suffolk. 

At fiideford, William Weekes, esq., of Wille- 
•trewe, Tavistock, to Georgina, eldest dau. of 
Harry Arthur Harvie, esq., of Bideford, solicitor. 

At Modbury, Capt. Charles L. Barnard, R.M. A., 
aon of Admiral E. Barnard, Emma-place, Stone- 
house, to Mary Anne Juliana Edwards, only dau. 
of Capt. Edwards, R.N., Ludbrooke-house, and 
granddau. of the late John Edwards, of Worting- 
nouse, Hants. 

At Castle Carey, John Alers Hankev, esq., 
Jun., son of J. A. Hankey, esq., of Wcstbourne- 
terrace, to Charlotte Honrieita, youngext dau. of 
the Rev. R. J. Meade, Vicar of Castle Cary. 

At Grange, Lancashire, the Rev. Gilbert E. 
Smith, B. A., Curate of Abberley, Worcestershire, 
to Mary Jane, eldest dau. of the late Richard 
Arkwi ight, esq., of Preston. 

At West Tarring, Sussex, the Rev. H. S.White, 
Vicar of Tunstead, to Edith Frances, eldest dau. 
of the Rev. J. W. Warter, Vicar of We!«t Tarring. 

At St. John's, Oxford-sq., Henry R. Stewart, 
Lieut. R.N., to Anne Mary Legh, onlv child of 
Cbarles Hc^hton, esq., of Connaught-terrace, 
Hyde-park. 

At St. Mary's, Bryanstone-sq., Tayler Lam- 
bard Mayne, esq., Capt. 8th Hussars, to Mary 
Mnrguret Charlotte, dau. of Col. Foster, Deputy- 
Adjutant-General. 

At Pensax, Worcestershire, the Rev. H. Harris, 
B.D., Fellow and Tutor of Magdalen College, 
Oxford, and Rector of Winterbome Basset, Wilts, 
to Elinor Marian, youngest dau. of the late 
J. H. Whitmore Jones, esq., of Chastleton-house, 
Oxfordshire. 

July 2. At the Royal Bavarian Chapel, War- 
wick -st., Charles M. Berington, esq., of Little 
Malvern, Worcestershire, to Ellen M. Balfe, dau. 
of the late James Balfe, esq., of Runnymede, co. 
Roscommon. 
, July 3. At Wanstead, Alexander JaiTery, esq., 



of Park-crescent, Stirling, to Georgiana Mary 
Ann, eldest dau. of John Robinson, Cann-half, 
Wanstead, Essex. 

At St. Paul's, Knightfbridge, the Rev. William 
Westall, M.A., Domestic Cuaplain to the Earl ot 
Fife, and late Curate of St. Paul's, Knightsbridgej 
tc Selina Emma, youngest dau. of the late Wm. 
Hawksley, esq., of Lowndes-st., Belgrave-sq. 

July 6. At Clifton, Jacob Frederick, youngest 
son of the I ite Charles Mogg, ecq.. M.D.. of Far- 
rington Gurney. Somerset, to Lucy Reynold, 
se ond dau. of John Grant Wilson, esq., of Rich- 
mond-terrace, Clifton, Gloucesteriihire. 

At Kensington, William Davenport Bromley, 
eldest son of the Rev. Walter Davenport Brom- 
ley, of Wo-'ton-hall, Staffordfhire, and Baginton, 
Warwickshire, to Augustus Elizabeth Campbell, 
eldest dau. of the late Mr. Campbell, of, Islav. 

At Burwell, the Rev. John Durell Durell, of 
Barton Stacey, Hampshire, to Florence Arabella, 
third dau. of Matthew Henry Lister, esq., of 
Burwell-park. Lincolnshire. 

At Folke, William Newman, esq., of Crovdon, 
son of Edwin Newman, esq., of Yeovil, to iBdith 
Sarah, dau. of W. F. AUford, J. P., of Sherborne. 

At Bamingham, the Rev. W. C. Green, Fellow 
of King's College, Cambridge, second son of the 
Rev. G. R. Green, Fellow of Eton College, and 
Rector of Evei don, Northamptonshire, to Eliza- 
beth Mortimer, dau. of Thomas Fison, esq., of 
Bamingham, Suffolk. 

At Chesterfield, the Rev. Stanlev Leathes, M.A., 
of Jesus College, Cambridge, to "Matilda, young- 
est dau. of the late Rev. J. M. Butt, MA., Vicar 
of East Garston, Bucks, and Rector of Odding- 
ley, WorceHtcrshire. 

At St. Georve's, Hanover-square, S. Summer 
Hutchinson, esq., of Richmond-pl., Dublin, and 
Rickets-town, co. Carlow, Ireland, to Matilda 
Jane, eldest surviving dun. of the Rev. Charles 
Collins, M.A., Vic 'r of Faversham. 

At Holy Trinity, Westminster, the Rev. Bradley 
Abbot, B. A., Incumbent of Christ Church, Clap- 
ham, to Isabella Anna, only dau. of the late 
Robert Horncll, cpq, Uni m-road, Clapham. 

At St. George's, Hanover-sq., M jor George 
Skipwith, D6pot Battalion, Jersey, to Margaret 
Jemima, only dau. of the late David Boyd, esq., 
Surgeon-General, Madras Army. 

In the Chapel-royal, Dublin-castle, John E. 
Seveme, esq., of Thenrord-house, Northampton- 
shire, and Wallop-Lall, Shropshire, to Katherine 
Florence Morgan, yotmgest dau. of the Very 
Rev. H. U. Tighe, Dean of Ardagh. 

At Osgathorpe, Leicestershire, George, young- 
est son of the late Jonathan Parsons, esq., of 
Douro-place, Kensington, to Isabella Blythe, 
third dau. of the late Rev. John Dodd, formerly 
of Eton, Bucks. 

July 7. At St. George's, Littleport, W. N. 
Sabeiton, esq., eldest son of Thomas Sakerton, 
esq.. Witcham, to Elizabeth Ann, eldest dau. of 
the lute John Little, esq., of Littleport. 

At Horsham, Richard Norris Bower, esq., of 
Doughty-st., M ecklen burgh -sq., youngest son 
of the late Thomas Woolsencroft Bowtr, esq., 
of Winchester College, to Helena Caioline, dau. 
of Lieut.-Col. John Woodford, late of the Rifle 
Brigade, Inspector of Constabulary for the north- 
em district of the kingdom. 

At St. George's, Hsinover-sq., Augustus G. 
Ogilvy, esq., eldest son of George Ogilvy, esq., 
of The Cove, Dumfriesshire, to Mary Harriet, 
only child of the late John Cronyn, ef q , of 
Newtown. 

At Cranboume, near Windsor, the Rev. Charles 
Forster Garratt, M.A., Incumbent t,f Little Tew, 
Oxon, and youngest son of John Garratt, esq., of 
Bishopscourt, Devon, and Clevemont, Chelten- 
ham, to Ellen, eldest dau. of the late John K. 
Gilliat, esq., of Fem-hill, Berks. 

July 8. At St. James's. Piccadilly, Earl Spen- 
cer, to Miss Charlotte Seymour, third dau. of 
Lady Augusta Seymour and the late Mr. Fred. 
Charles William Seymour, and grand-dau. of the 
Marquis of Bristol. 



188 



Marriages. 



[Aug. 



Willoughby Hurt Sitwell, esq., of Femey-hall, 
Shropshire, to Eliza Harriet, dau. of Richard 
Barton Phillip:ion, esq., of Dunston-house, Staf- 
fordshire. 

At Banwell, the Rev. John Augustus Tatman, 
Winscnmbe-hill, Somersetshire, to Anna Victoria 
Blachley, youngest dau. of the Rev. William 
Hamilton Turner, Vicar of Banwell, and grand- 
dau. of the la«e Dean of Norwich. 

At Bayford, H-rts, James UoUoway, esq., of 
Stanhoe, Norfolk, to Ida, widow of H. N. Bur- 
TOtighes, esq., R.N.. of Burlinjrton-hall, Norfolk, 
and youngest dau. of the late Henry Fynes-Clin- 
ton, esq., of Welwyn, Herts. 

At Cheltenham, Capt. George Thomas Gough, 
12th Royal Lancers, to Mary Charlotte Stanley, 
eldest dau. of Stanley Clarke, esq., of Cottcswold- 
house, Cheltenham . 

At Trinity Church, St Marylebone, the Rev. 
Henry William Parry Richards, Vicar of Ii»le- 
worth, youngest son of William Parry Richards, 
es(r, of Park-crescent, to Jessie Margaret, dau. 
of reter Earle, eso., also of Park -crescent. 

Julv 10. At the Bavarian Roman Catholic 
ch'ipei, Warwick-st., Golden-sq., London, Lord 
Norreys, eldest son of the Earl of Abingdon, to 
Miss Townley, dau. of Mr. Charles and Lady 
Caroline Townley. 

At Oakley, Bedfordshire, Mr. M. Richards, of 
Norland-cottage, Stoke, to Elizabeth Peacock, 
niece of the late John Palmer, esq., of Golding- 
ton-hall, near Bedford. 

At i unbridge Wells, T. Keohan, esq., to Mar- 
garet, widow of Joseph Hawe^, esq , of Upper 
C apcon, and youngest dau. of tlie late William 
Ostle, esq., of Stepney. 

Juljf 13. At S'. Mary's, Bryanston-sq., Henry 
Adair, Capt. R.M.A., youngent son of the late 
Major-Gen. Adair, C B., to Elizabeth, youngest 
dau. of the late Wm. Naylor, esq., of North wicb, 
Cheshire. 

At Cranbome, Dorset, Robert Cotton Money, 
esq., of the 2nd Bfngal Grenadiers, to Selina 
MLiry, eldest dau. of William Douglas, esq., of 
Cranbome-lodge, and late of the Madras Civil 
Service. 

At Dunsford, the Rev. Joseph Were, M.A., to 
Caroline Maria, second dau. of the late Sub-dean 
Stephens. 

At Iffley, the Rev. W. Tuckwell, Fellow of 
Mew College, Oxford, to Rosa, dau. of Cupt. 
Strong, H.E.I.C.S., of Iffley, Oxon. 

At St. George's, Bloomsburv, Capt. George 
Benny, 73rd Regt., to Mary fellen, only child 
of William Wilson, esq., St Ilelier, Jersey. 

At St. Mary's, Stoke Newington, H. MauU, 
esq., of Lewisham, to Eliza, third dau. of H. B. 
Co A ell, esq., Islington. 

At St. Dunstan, Stepney, Thomas King, of St. 
Ives, Huntingdonshire, and second s >n of the late 
Thos. King, of Somersham, to Anne, widow of 
T. G. PeatUng, of St. Ives, and second dau. of 
Capt. Rawling, of Arbour-sq., London. 

At Edinburgh, Hugh Mosman, esq., younger, 
of Auolityfardle, Lan<irkshire, to HcKn Barbara, 
only surviving dau. of the lae Alexander Chan- 
cellor, e"0., of Shieldhill, L markshire. 

At Holbeach, Ambrose Blithe Vise, surgeon, 
third son of Edward Blithe Vise, esq., to Louisa, 
eldest dau. of the late Fredk. Adolphus Harris- 
eon, esq., of the former place. 

/»/v 14. At Astbury, Sir Charles Watkin 
Shaker^ey, bart., of Somerf<*rd-pk., Chrshire, 
to Oeorgiana, Harriott, eldest dau. of Ge<>rge 
Holland Ackers, esq., of Moreton-hall, in the 
tame county. 

At St. Magnus, London-bridge, the Rev. An- 
drew Johnson, Curate of St. Clement, Eastcheap, 
to Mai y, second dan. of the lUv. A. McCaul, D.D., 
Prebendary of St. PauPs, &o. 

At Caton, Lancanhire, the Rev. John Tinson 
"Wrenford. Incumbent of St. Paul's, Newport, 
Vonmoutnahire, to Harriett Anne, eldest dau. 



of John Ednaondson, esq., of Grassyard-hall, 
near Lancaster. 

At Lingfleld, Thomas J. Page, of Upper Clap- 
ton, to Emma, eldest dau. of John Turner Kelsey, 
esq., of Batnors-hall, Lingfleld. 

At St. Mary's, Woolwich, Richard Pidcock, 
esq., of Church-hill, Woolwich, to Emma, eldest 
dau. of George Hudson, esq., of Brewer-st, 
Woolwich. 

At Walton, William Orford, esq., B.A., of 
Christ's College, Cambridge, and solicitor, of 
Cheetham-hill, near Manchester, to Eliza, eldest 
dau. of Jose Marques Braga, esq., of Newbie-ter., 
Walton Breck, near Liverpool. 

The Rev. Thomas Rawlinson, to Isabella Eliza- 
beth, onlv dau. of the Rev. Charles Alexander, 
Rector of Drumcree, in the diocese of Armagh, 
Ireland. 

July 15. At Brentingby, Edwin, younger son 
of James Hudson, eso., of Southfleldit-pl., Lei- 
cester, to Jane, fourth dau. of the late JohA 
Clarke, esq., of New Parks, near L«>icester. 

At Sydenham, Kent, Edmund Gillmg Maynard, 
esq., of Chesterfield, to Ann, eldest d<iXL of the 
late John Ge!l, esq., of Dover. 

At Gorlestone, Suffolk. Shelford Claike Bid- 
well, esq., of Thetforl, to Theophila Anne, eldest 
dau. of the late Rev. T. W. Salmon, M.A., of 
Hopton. 

At St. George's, Bloom«bury, Geo. Francis, esq., 
of Ceylon, to Caroline Susanna, duu. of the lata 
Wm. riancis, esq., of Reigate, Surrey. 

At Wymering, near Portsmoutii, Capt. John 
Brecon (Town Major), of Portsmouth, to Mary 
Gawen Boycott, youngest dau. of the late Samp- 
son Boycott, esq , of Wellingtoi, Salop, and niece 
of John Martin, esq., of Wymering-house. 

At Bishop wearmouth, George, younger son of 
Joseph Gilstrap, esq., Newark-upon-Trent, Notts, 
to Jane Catherine, only child of the late John 
Fothergill, esq., Bishopwearmouth, Durham. 

A I Hewisflcid, Gloucentershire, Frederick Mac- 
donald Birch, esq., Lieut. Bengal Army, eldest 
son of Major-Gen. Birch, C.B., to Elizabeth Emily 
Louisa, only dau. of the late James Mellis, eflq.» 
of the Bengal Civil Service. 

At Ham, Surrey, Francis H. R. W^ilbraham, 
youngest son of Randle Wilbraham, esq., of Rode- 
hall, Cheshire, to Elizabeth Mury, dan. of the 
late John Barnard, esq., of Park-gate, Ham- 
common. 

At St. Matthew's, Brixton-hill, Frcflerick Da- 
maresq Ross, esq., surgeon, Guildford, eldest 
surviving son of the late Lieut.-Col. Alexander 
Ross, of the Madras Engineens to Melissa Au- 
gusta, youngest dau. of the late James McLach- 
lan, esq., of Brixton-hill, Surrey. 

At Christ Church, St. Marylebone. the Rer. 
Wm. Scarlett Vale, eldest son of the late William 
Vale, esq , of Mathom-court, Worcestershire, to 
Charlotte, only child of the late Major Cruzton, 
Bengal Horse Artillery. 

At Norton Malton, Wm. Walker, esq., of EUgfa 
Mowthorpe, son of the late John Walker, e«q.» 
Highfield-hou'-e, Notts, to Ellen Sophia, youngest 
dau. of the late Henry Prejton, esq., of Norton- 
cottage. 

At Huddeisfleld, Hermann Gerhard Hegeler* 
esq., of Bremen, North Germany, to Annie Maria, 
eldest dau. of Richard Henry Rhodes, esq., Had- 
dersfield. 

J'lly 16. At Trinity Church, Marylebone, Lord 
Radstock, to Susan Charlotte, youngest dan. of 
John Hales Calcraft, esq., M.P., and Lady Caro- 
line Ca craft. 

July 17. At Kings Wear, Devon, Arthur 061- 
Tille Saunders, late of Capetown, to Elizab th 
Ann, eldest dau. of John Crowden, esq.. Falcon- 
square, London. 

July 19. At St. Mary's, Stoke Newington, 
Edward, third son of James Muzie, esq., of Grove- 
Tillas, Highbury, to Marv Hannah, eldest dan. of 
James Hartley, esq., of Walthamstow. 



1858.] 



189 



OBITUARY. 



Ths Eabl op Glenoall. 

June 22. At Cowes, in the Isle of Wight, 
suddenly, the Earl of Glengall. 

The decea?»ed Richard Butler, Earl of 
Glengall, Viscount and Baron Caher, co. 
Tipperary, in the peerage of Ireland, was 
only son of Richard, tirst earl, by his mar- 
riage with Emily, youngest daughter of 
Mr. John Jefferyes. He was bom May 
29, 1794, and married, Feb. 23, 1834, 
Margaret Laurettn, yotmgest daughter 
and co-heir of the lute Mr. William Mel- 
lish, the great army contractor. By his 
countess, who survives him, he leaves issue 
two daughters. Lady Margaret, born in 
November, 1834; and Lady Matilda, bom 
in October, 1836. In default of jnale 
issue we believe the earldom becomes ex- 
tinct. The late earl succeeded to the 
family honours on the death of his father, 
in January, 1819, and has been an Irish 
representative peer since 1830. Tlie late 
peer had been for many years colonel of 
the Tipperary Militia. The families of the 
Marquis and Marchioness of Donegal, Mr. 
and Lady Charlotte Talbot, Mr. and Lady 
Emily Penuefather, Lord and Lady Hai riet 
Ashley, &c., are placed in mourning by the 
moumtul event. The deceased earl was 
the author of the popular farce of **'lhe 
Irish Tutor," and other dramatic works 
of respectable talent, and of late years 
has contributed several political essays to 
the columns of the Conservative press of 
more than average ability. Tlie earl's 
ancestors were a branch of the noble house 
of Ormonde, springing from the third earl. 
By his demise a vacancy occurs among the 
Lrish representative peers in parliament. 



and secon^lly, in 1838, to the eldest daugh- 
ter of the late William Wowiley, Ei*q., 
and wiiiow of the Hon. Frederick Noel, 
who survives him. 



Gen. Sib Thomas Hawker, K.C.H. 

Ju%9 13. At his residence in Lans- 
downe-place, Clifton, aged 81, General Sir 
Thomas Hawker, K.C.H. 

He was born in 1777, entered the army 
in 1795, served in North Holland in the 
campaign of 1799, and in the Mediterra- 
nean and Spain from 1805 to the conclu- 
sion of the war. From 1822 to 1826 he 
held a command in the East Indies ; and 
again, from 1830 to 1836, in the Madras 
Presidency. In 1839 he was appointed 
to the Colonelcy of the 6th Dragoon 
Guards (Carabineers), and attained the 
rank of full General in 1854. The de- 
ooitsed was twice married, — first in 1818, 
to a daughter of James Harrison, Esq. ; 



Admibal Sib Chables Ogle. 

June 16. At Tunbridge Wells, aged 88, 
Sir Charles Ogle, Bart., Admiral of the 
Fleet. 

Sir Charles was the eldest son of Sir 
Chaloner Ogle, wlio was created a baronet 
for his naval services, and who, like his 
deceased son, died the senior admiral in 
the British navy, and Hester, daughter 
and co-heir of ttie Rev. Dr. Thomas, Bi- 
shop of Winchester. He was bom May 
the 24th, 1772, and when about 13 years 
old he entered the navy on board the 
"Adventure," 44. In September, 1791, 
he was made mids'iipman of the "Aleide," 
74 ; and after he had obtained the rank of 
lieutenant in 1793, he eventually joined 
the " Boyne," 98. During the proximate 
operations against the French West India 
Islands, he commanded a boat at the cap- 
ture, under a heavy fire of Jgreat guns and 
muske ry, of two schooners lying at anchor 
with others near Maran, Martinique, and 
otherwise distinguished himself; he as- 
sisted at the taking of Pigeon Island, and 
was intrusted with the command of a party 
of seamen landed at Point Ne^ro to co- 
operate with the army, and remained on 
shore until after the surrender of Fort 
Bourbon. At the siege of Guadaloupe he 
again commanded a division of seamen, 
and greatly distinguisheil himself by his 
gallant conduct at the storming of Fort 
Fleur d'Epee. In May, 1794, he was ap- 
pointed acting-captain of the "Assurance^" 
44. After seeing some service on the 
Jamaica station, he again repaired to 
the Mediterranean, where he successively 
commanded the " Meleager" and " Grey- 
hound," each of 32 g^uns. In the latter 
ship he effected the capture of a Genoese 
privateer of ten guns; also of a Spanish 
armed polacca, and of other vessels. In 
the " Egyptienne" he served during the 
Egyptian campaign, and for his eminent 
services on that occasion he obtained the 
Turkish gold med^l. From April. 1805, 
to September, 1816, the gallant Admiral 
was continuously employed afloat, chiefly 
in the Channel and home stations. In 
April, 1827, Sir Charles was appointed 
Commander-in-Chief of the Ncn'th Ame- 
rican station, which he held a Utile over 



190 



Obituary. — Sir Edward North Buxton, Bart. [Aug. 



three yean, and in September, 1845, was 
selected as Commander-in-Chief at Ports- 
mouth — a command he held for the cus- 
tomary period. His commissions bore date 
as follows : — Lieutenant, Nov^^mber 14, 
1793; Commander, May 21, 1794; Cap- 
tain, January 11, 1796; Rear-Admiral, 
Au>?ust 12, 1819; Vice-Admiral, July 22, 
1830; and Admiral, November 23, 1841. 
On the demise of Admiral Thomas Le 
Marchant Gosselin, Sir Charles became 
senior adminil, and r>n the 8th of De- 
cember last he was appoint^'d Admiral of 
the Fleet. By the Admiral's death a ge- 
neral promotion among the flag offirers 
will ensue. Sir Charles Ogle took deep 
interest in, and was a muniflceut con- 
tributor to, the different charitable insti- 
tutions connected with the naval service, 
and the venerable Admiral had been for 
many years past President of the Royal 
Naval Benevolent Society. The deceased 
baronet had been thrice married — first, in 
April, 1802, to Charlotte, sister of Vis- 
count Gage and Admiral Sir William Hall 
Gage, G.C.H.; secondly, in Sepfeinber, 
1820, to Lef.tia, daughter of Sir William 
Burroughs, who died in 1832 ; and thirdly, 
in April, 1834, to Lady Thorold, relict of 
Sir John H. Thorold, aud daughter of Mr. 
G. Cary, of Tit AbVy, Devon. His eldest 
son by his first marriage, Mr. Chaloiter 
Ogle, formerly in the army, succeeds to 
the baronetcy. 



Sib Edwabd Nobth Buxton, Babt. 

June 11. Aged 45, Sir Edward North 
Buxton, second Baronet, son of Sir Tho- 
mas Fowell Buxton. 

Sir Edward was bom at Earlham, in 
Norfolk, 1812, and was the eldest son of 
that great philanthropist whose name is 
for eviT associated with the emancipation 
of the Africam negro. He succeed* d to 
the baronetcy on his father's death in 
1845, and in 1847 he was elected as re- 
presentative for the agricultural district 
of South Essex, even when the Protec- 
tioniiit controversy raged most fiercely. 
On that occasion he declared himself to 
be a sincere Churchman, but by family ties 
closely connected with Dissenters, and in 
favour of all measures of gradual reform. 
No one could ever allege that he prac- 
tised any artifice to gain a vote, and his 
conduct in the House of Commons was, 
according to his avowed principles, up- 
right and irreproachable. But in the 
fervour of the election of 1852, when the 
cry was " Derby, Disraeli, and down with 
democracy," he lost his seat, aud with 
characteristic equanimity once more re- 
tired into the walks of private usefulness. 



But a place in Parliament was not neces- 
sary for the exercise of his active benevo- 
lence. In the generous use of his own 
ample means, in his never-tiring zeal for 
the promotion of city missions at home, 
and missions to the heathen abroad, he 
strove to use the talents intrusted to his 
c re as a faithful steward of Jesus Christ. 
Never was there a really good cause, 
which had for its object the promotion of 
the Gospel either at home or abroad, 
which did not find in Sir Edward Buxton 
a munificent but unostentatious sup- 
porter. It was always plain that his mo- 
tives were actuated by that divine impulse 
from on high which teaches us to " love 
Him because He first loved us/' There 
was no morbid shrinking from publicity, 
but it was always plain that a detiire for 
notoriety was alien to his feelings. In 
1855 he was obliged to go abroad with 
his family on account of his health, and 
he spent the winters of 1856 aud of 1857 
chiefly at Nice. 

His visit to Piedmont will long be re- 
membered, and more particularly on ac- 
count of the healing and beneficent in- 
fineiice which he exercised in calming 
down that unseemly strife which had 
divided the Italian from the Vaudois 
Evangelists. Sir Edward, with his usual 
sagacity, quiekly saw that it was no case 
for parti zanship ; that there was room 
enough for both to expatiate over the 
vast field of Italian missions ; but that it 
was vain to attempt to confine the vola- 
tile spirits of Italians just escaped out of 
Rome within the limits of a Presbyterian 
synod, lie became the ardent friend of 
both, and whilst he was beloved by the 
pious pastors and misMonaries belonging 
to the ancient Waldensian Church, he 
exerted himself, as a leading member of 
the Nice Evangelical Committi'e, also to 
avail himself of those zealous Italians who 
are associated in Piedmont and Genoa 
with De Sanctis and Mazzarella. In this 
good work he persevered, and he deemed 
it so important that the true character of 
the Italians should be clearly known, that 
he took a journey from Cromer last Sep- 
tember, purposely to state his views to 
the Conference assembled at Berlin. 

He was in Nice when the dissolution 
of Parliament, last year, was announced. 
One morning the telegram conveyed to 
him the unlooked-for inquiry, whether he 
would stand for East Norfolk. A second 
telegram answered that he was standing, 
and very speedily he was informed that 
he had been returned, with General Wind- 
ham, without opposition. 

Sir Edt^ard married, in 1836, his cousin, 
the second daughter of the late Samnel 



1858.] Right Hon. W. Yates Peel.— General Penny, C.B. 191 



GarnGy, Esq., of Ham -house. He has left 
his amiable wife and a numerous family to 
deplore their loss. His eldest son at- 
tained his majority last January. As tlie 
representative of such ancestors, he suc- 
ceeds to a rich heritage, both of fame and 
of expectations. 

His last surviving sister, Richenda, wife 
of Philip Hamond, Esq., died two days 
subsequently, at North Repps-hall, Cro- 
mer, and they were interred together at 
Overstrand church; the funeral of Sir 
Edward, which had been fixed for an 
earlier day, having been postponed till 
that day, in consequence of the death of 
his sister. 



The Right Hon. William Yates Peel. 

June 1. At Bngingtim Hall, Warwick- 
shire, the Right Hon. Wdlijun Vates Peel, 
eldest brother of the late Sir Robert Peel. 

The right hon. gentleman was second 
son of the first baronet by his first wife, 
daughter of Mr. Will am Yates, of Hury, 
and he w is bom in 1789, at Chamber Hall, 
Bury. He marritd, June 17, 1819, Lady 
Jane Eliza Moore, second daughter of 
Steplien. second Earl of Mountcasliel. and 
Lady Margaret, eldest daughter of Robert, 
second Earl of Kingston ; by whom, who 
died in September, 1847, he had a nume- 
rous family. The deceased was for a long 
series of years a member of the House of 
Commons. After completing his studies 
at Harrow School he removed to St. John's 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated 
B.A. in 1812, and M.A. in 1815, and after- 
wards in June, 1816, was called to the bar 
at Lincoln's-Inn. In the following year 
be was returned to Parliament tor the 
borough of Bossiny, but only represented 
that constituency a few months, for in 
1818 he was chosen member for his father's 
borough of Tamworth, which he sat for 
continuously up to 1830. He was then 
elected for Yarmouth, Isle of Wight. In 
1831 he was returned to the House of 
Commons, in conjunction with the late 
Right Hon. Henry Goulbum, for the 
University of Cambridge, defeating Vis- 
count Palmerston and the present Duke 
of Devonshire, then Mr. William Caven- 
dish. In 1835 he was again elected for 
Tamworth, which he continued to repre- 
sent up to the general election in 1837. 
From that time up to 1847 he remained 
out of Parliament, when he was again 
returned for Tamworth. That year he 
had the misfortune to lose his wife, to 
whom he was devotedly attached, and her 
death so affected him, that, mentally, he 
was unable to attend to any public duties. 
He consequently resigned bis seat in the 



House of Commons, and has since led a 
secluded life. 

Mr. Peel had held several official ap- 
pointments, having been made a Com- 
missioner of the Board of Control in 1826, 
Under Secretary of State for the Home 
Department in 1828, a Lord of the Trea- 
sury in 1830, and again held the same 
office in 1834 to April in the succeeding 
year. He held the same Conservative 
politics as his distinguished brother. Sir 
Robert Peel, and was a willing supporter 
of that eminent statesman's free-trade 
policy. 

Genebal Penny, C.B. 

May 4. Killed by grape-shot, near 
Bare Uy, aged about 67, Brigadier-General 
Nicholas Penny, C.B., ot the Bengal army, 
the general who succeeded Sir Archdale 
Wilson, Bart., in the command of the 
British forces at Delhi. 

He was the son of Robert Penny, Esq., 
and went to India in 1806. Having passed 
an excellent examination in Persian and 
Hindostanee, he was gazetted to an en- 
signcy in the Bengal army in the Feb- 
ruary of the following year. He obtained 
his Lieutenancy Dec. 19, 1812. We find 
bin serving in the war in Nepaul in 1814, 
1815, and 1816, as well as in the Mah- 
ratta war of 1816 and the following year. 
In 1818 he distinguished himself at Gurra 
Eotah. In 1825 we find him acting as 
Deputy-Quarter- Master-General with the 
forces near Agra, and taking part in the 
siege of Bhurtpore. In the following year 
he was nominated Major of Brigade, and 
appointed to the command of the Mutrat 
and Agra frontier. In 1828 he received 
the appointment of Deputy-Assistant-Ad- 
jutant-General, with the command of the 
Dinapore Division, from which he was 
shortly jifterwards removed to the Presi- 
dency at the express order of the Gover- 
nor General, Lord H. Bentinck. In No- 
vember, 1837, we find him directed to 
take charge of the department of the 
Adjutant-General, and in 1841 he was 
transferred to the command of the Nus- 
seree Battalion, for the efficient drill and 
discipline of which he was frequently 
thanked by his superiors. He also act«d 
for some time as Assistant- Adjutant- Ge- 
neral at Biirrackpore. 

In the Sutlej campaigns he commanded 
at first the 12th Brigade of the 5th Di- 
vi:ition, and subsequently the 2nd Ini«ntry 
Brigade, on the breaking up of the 12th. 
He was present at Aliwal in the thickest 
of the fight, and was mentioned in the 
following terms by Sir Harry Smith, ia 
his despatch addressed to the Governor- 



192 Lord Justice Clerk of Scotland.— M. Williams, Esq. [Aug, 



General, dated Aliwal, Jan. 30tb, 1846 :— 
" Tlie intrepid little Ghoorkas of the Nus- 
seree and Sirmoor Battalions in bravery 
and obedience can be exc»^eded by none. I 
much regret that I had no brigade to give 
to Brigadier Penny, who is in orders for 
one. 1 can only say that when he gets 
his brigade, if he only leads it as he did 
his gallant band of Ghoorkas, it will be 
inferior to none." He was again engaged 
at Sobraon, where be was wounded, and 
Sir Hugh Gongh, on this occasion, recom- 
mended him '* in the most earnest manner 
to the Governor-General, for the manner 
in which he and his troop had overcome 
the most formidable opposition." In tlie 
following September we find him appointed 
to the command of a brigade, composed of 
her Majesty's 53rd Foot, the Nussereo 
Battalii>n, and two howitzers. At Chilian- 
wallah, where he was engaged as a bri.a- 
dier, he had another opportunity of gain- 
ing distinction, for though his brigade was 
held in reserve, he was enabled to support 
the advance of General Sir VV. R. Gilbert, 
and to carry a village, which was the key 
of the enemy's position, by "a most spi- 
rited attack, executed in a brilliant style." 
It should be added here, that Sir W. Gil- 
bert, in his despatch alter the battle, drew 
attention to Brigadii-r Penn>*8 services « n 
this occasion in teruis of unqualified praise. 
Brigadier Penny received the medal for 
Aliwal and Sobraon, and was further re- 
warded by being gazetted a C.B. in the 
following June. He was also made an 
honorary aide-de-camp to the Governor- 
General. 

In February, 1849, he was removed 
from the 6th to the 3rd, and subsequently 
to the 2nd Brigade of Infantry of the 
army in the Punjaub, from which he was 
again tnmsferred to the command of the 
2iid European Regiment. In 184S we find 
him commanding u division of infantry in 
the Punjaub, and in the following year in 
command of the troops at Lahore. In 
1851 he was appointed to the Brigade 
Staff, and posted to the district of Rohil- 
cund. He was subsequently removed to 
Umballah in 1852, appointed to command 
the Jallundur field force, to which, later 
in the same year, was added the command 
of the Sirhund Division. In 1853 he was 
transferred to the Sindh Saugur district, 
and in 1854 to Sealcote. About the same 
time he attained the rank cf Maj<>r-Ge- 
neral. In May, 1855, he was appointed 
to the temporary divisional staff of the 
army, and posted to the Cawnpore Divi- 
sion. He subsequently held the command 
of the Meerut Division, and eventually the 
chief command of the army at Delhi de- 
T<d?ed upon him, as stated above. 
12 



Toe Loed Justice Clbek op Scx)tijl5D. 

June 14. At his residence, Edinhurgh, 
from a sudden attack of paralysis, aged 
63, the Riglit Hon. John Hope, the Lord 
Justice Clerk of Scothind. 

The deceased judge was the eldest son 
of the late Right Hon. Charles Hope, 
sometime Presid* nt of the Court of Ses- 
sion in Scotland, by Charlotte, second 
d.iughter of John second Earl of Hope- 
toun, and sister of the third Earl. He 
passed for the Scottish bar in 1816, and 
having been for Fome time previously 
Dean of the Faculty of Advocates, he was 
elevated to the Presidency of the Second 
Division of the Court of Session in 1844. 
He was marrietl, we believe, to a Miss 
Irving. He was sworn a member of Her 
Majesty's Privy Council on the occasion 
of his elevation to the Bench. He also 
held for several years the post of an offi- 
cial custodian of the Scottish regalia. 
The death of Judge Hope was singularly 
sudden ; he was seized with paralysis 
whilst sitting in his own library, engaged 
in writing a letter to a relative between 7 
and 8 o'clock in the evening, and he expired 
soon after 11. The late Judge's death makes 
the second vacancy which has happened 
on the Scottish bench within the last three 
months, the other being caused by the 
death of Lord Hand\si«ie. A third ex- 
Scottish judge also has died during that 
time in the person of the late Lord Dun- 
fermline, sometime Lord Chief Baron of 
Scotland. 



Michael Williams, Esq., M.P. 

June 15. At Tr evince, aged 73, Michael 
Williams, Esq., of Trevince, Scorrier-hoase, 
and Carhays-castle, Cornwall, M.P. for tlie 
western division of that county, the senior 
Deputy-Lieutenant of the county, Deputy- 
Warden of the Stannaries, &c. 

Michael Williams was foom Jnne 8, 
1785, at Bumeoose-house, near Tmro, the 
son of John Williams, Esq., (and Catha- 
rine Harvey his wife,) of Scorrier-hoose^ 
near Trnro, a gentleman of great enter- 
prise in connection with the mines and 
commerce of his native county. 

His landed property was larg^ being 
the owner of Carhays-castle and estate 
rear St. Austle; also the mansion of 
Lanertli, and estate at St. Keverne, and 
his father's property, Scorrier-honse, &&, 
in Cornwall, Gnaton-hall and estate in the 
parish of Newton Ferrers, Holbeton, Ac, 
in Devonshire, and other property in Gla- 
morganshire, of which he was High Sheriff 
in 1839. 

He married Elizabeth, daughter of 
Richard Eales, Esq., of Eastcbn^ near 



1858.] 



Michael Williams, Esq., M.P. 



193 



Dawlish, who was for upwards of fifty 
years Clerk of the Peace for the county of 
Devon ; by whom he leaves — his eldest 
son, John Michael, married to Elizabeth, 
daughter of Stephen Davey, Esq., of 
Bochym, (niece to Richard Davey, M.P. 
for West Cornwall ;) Michael Henry, mar- 
ried to Catherine, daughter of Richard 
Almack, Esq., of Melford, Suffolk; and 
other issue. 

The following account of Mr. Michael 
Williams is, in substance, from the " West 
Briton," published in the county which 
he represented, and where he was best 
known : — 

We have the melancholy task of record- 
ing the death of u gentleman who occupied 
so large a space in public notice, at once 
so usefully to others and honourably to 
himself, that in his native county there is 
not a man who would be more generally 
or dee]>ly lamented. For more than half 
a century he has been connected with the 
leading interests of Cornwall. To his skill 
and enterprise most of the mines in the 
Gwennap district are indebted for the 
successful results to which they have been 
conducted. In the metal- market, the large 
transactions of his house in our great 
staple products, copper and tin, have long 
given him the most distinguished place. 
We owe much to his personal influence in 
reviving the flagging energies of the pro- 
moters of the Cornwall railway, and bring- 
ing that important undertaking to the eve 
of completion. And apart from the en- 
gagements in which his personal interests 
were concerned, he had for the last four 
years represented the West Division of 
Cornwall in the House of Commons, and 
given his support to every great liberal 
measure which has been mooted in Parlia- 
ment within that period. 

Although his political opinions were at 
all times frankly avowed, Mr. Michael 
Williams took no very prominent part in 
local politics until the memorable contest 
at the election in 1831. For a long time 
previously the county had been reduced 
almost to the condition of a pocket- 
borough. A few aristocratic families go- 
verned the representation as completely ai 
if it were part of their rent-rolls. But 
the excitement produced by the Reform 
Bill roused the ancient spirit of Cornwall 
from its slumbers, and it was resolved to 
return two liberal members or neither. 
The old aristocratic party was represented 
by Lord Valletort and Sir Richard Vy vyan, 
the liberals by Sir Charles Lemon and 
Mr. Pendarves. Into this contest Mr. 
Williams threw all his energies, and they 
who remember his exertions on that occa- 
sion will readily allow that to no single 

Gent. Mag. Vol. CCV. 



supporter was the Reform cause more in- 
debted. The result was a triumphant one. 
At the close of the fifth day the Tories 
struck tiieir colours, the numbers at the 
close being — for Pendarves, 1819; Lemon, 
1804; Vyvyan, 901; Valletort, 801. 

One of the most memorable circum- 
stances in Mr. Williams's life was his being 
presented, about five years ago,' with a 
piece of plate and his bust, as testimonies 
of public esteem. This mark of respect 
originated in a proposal at a meeting of 
the adventurers in the united mines to 
request his acceptance of some mark of 
their gratitude for the influence he had 
exerted in saving those mines from being 
abandoned at a time when such a disaster 
seemed all but certain. This project, 
however, soon passed beyond its original 
limits, and took the form of a general 
testimony of personal respect. As such it 
was responded to so promptly, and to so 
great an extent, that we remember no 
similar occasion on which a Cornish-man 
has been so highly honoured. Although 
no single subscription was allowed to ex- 
ceed five shillings, the contributions rapidly 
swelled to six hundred pounds. The tes- 
timonial was presented at a meeting of 
his friends at the Town-hall, Redruth, in 
June, 1858. It consisted of a candelabrum, 
of chaste and appropriate design, with an 
inscription expressive of his merits;- and 
a bust, executed with great artistical 
skill, by our distinguished countryman, 
Burnard. 

On the demise of Mr. Pendarves, in 
1854, a vacancy occurred in the represen- 
tation of the West Division. The public 
voice at once named Mr. Michael WUliams 
as his successor. The acknowledgment 
of his fitness for the post wrs so general 
that no other candidate was for a moment 
placed in competition with him; and 
many who differed with him on political 
grounds volunteered their support on ac- 
count of his peculiar qualifications for the 
office. At the general election last year 
he was again returned, as a matter of 
course, and had Providence granted him a 
longer term of life the electors of West 
Cornwall would, without doubt, have con- 
tinued to place him in the same honour- 
able position. 

Mr. Williams possessed a clear and pene- 
trating intellect, but of the kind which 
gathers knowledge more rapidly from 
quick observation of men and things than 
from books or study. Like most distin- 
guished men, his character included some 
apparent contradictions. He was naturally 
of a warm and impetuous temper, yet no 
one could display a cooler or more com- 
prehensive jadgment. With a mind trained 



194 



Obituary. — James Templer, Esq., M.P, 



[Aug, 



to business, and deeply absorbed in its 
pursuits, he could turn aside at any time 
to his trees and flowers with as much zest 
as if their culture were the main business 
of his life. Engaged in commercial affairs 
on a scale which tends generally to close- 
ness and reserve, he was remarkably open 
and communicative. Without the facility 
of fluently addressing a numerous assembly, 
there was yet no man in Cornwall whose 
presence in such an assembly bore with it 
more weight or authority. It has been 
well said that a clever man is, in reality, 
three or four men instead of one ; and he 
was an ilhistnition of the truth of this 
saying. In his capacious mind and varied 
tastes were the materials from which 
might be formed a country gentleman, 
devoted to his flelds and his gardens, — a 
man of business, engaged in commerciid 
enterprise,— and the active manager of 
local and public interests. 

Yet it is but a vanishing fame which 
rests merely upon commercial or political 
eminence. The qualities by which Mr. 
Michael Williams will be longest remem- 
bered are those which were entirely per- 
sonal, and which none but those who knew 
him can appreciable. In the most charac- 
teristic traits there is a fugitive essence 
which no words can grasp. There are 
feelings which transpire only in looks, and 
tone«, and manner, — interpreters only to 
the eye or the ear. It is on such personal 
and undeflnable qualities that we shall 
oftenest linger in our recollections of Mr. 
Williams. His manly flgure and expres- 
sive countenance, his quick apprehension 
and penetrative sagacity, his social spright- 
liness and elegant and cordial hospitality, 
— it is by such personal traits that his name 
and image will most distinctly survive. 
While penning this imperfect tribute to 
his mtmory we realize so vividly his living 
presence, that it seems difficult to imagine 
that so much active energy is stilled in the 
silence of death, — that one who but yester- 
day flllcd so large a space in the puMic 
eye is to-day mouldering in the dust. But 
he is gone ! and his flight is another of 
the monitory lessons, ever recurring, to 
remind us that 

" The glorieR of our earthly state 
Are shadows, not substantial things." 

. Yet for generations to come his name 
will be quoted as one of the most remark- 
able Cornish-men of his times. Not merely 
as the bold and skilful architect of his own 
colossal fortunes, but for his promotion of 
mining enterprise, the scope he opened in 
various directions to industrial energy, and 
the powerfiil and generous influence he 
exertel upon our public interests, his name 
will long reflect honoor upon the country 



which produced him, and the race firom 
which he sprang. 

James Temple b, Esq., op Beidpobt, 
Dorset. 

The decense of this gentleman, wha 
was generally known and respected in 
the West of England, took place on the 
28th of May last. The deceased, who was 
one of a numerous family, was born at 
Alphington, Devon, on the 7th of January, 
1787. He was destined for the profession 
of the law, and served his articles with 
Mr. Luxinore of Okehampton. Mr. Tem- 
pler afterwards studied tor some time la 
London, where he became an exact and 
accomplished lawyer, and formed nume- 
rous friends, some of whom subsequently 
rose to distinguished eminence in the pro- 
fession. An advantageous opening now 
ofliered at Bridport, and Mr. Templer 
(who had recently been united to a Miss 
Lethbridge, a native of Cornwall,) settled 
in that town, where he continued to prac- 
tise until his death. Mr. Templer, how- 
ever, speedily took a leading position in 
the county generally. His abilities and 
sound sense secured him a large business 
connection ; and these qualities were united 
with a liberality, a high sense of honour, 
and a cultivated and reflned taste, which 
procured him in many instances the warm- 
est personal attachment. It is impossible 
indeed to overrate the position which may 
be occupied by a country solicitor in large 
practice, where the mind and character 
are not narrowed by professional interests. 
The very opportunities which in unprin- 
cipled hands may be employed for pecu- 
lation, become, when the practitioner is a 
man of integrity and firm sense, most 
powerful instruments for good. With the 
poor and uneducated he is constantly 
brought into contact; and these be has 
the opportunity of befriending in a thou- 
sand ways, protecting them equally from 
the designs of the sharpers of whom they 
form the legitimate prey, and from the 
consequences of their own wilfulness and 
incapacity. No less usefnl is the solicitor 
of high stamp to persons of a superior 
class. There is no interest or family oc- 
currence, even of the most delicate nature, 
on which his assistance may not be re- 
quired. When business of this kind is 
transacted with probity and skill, the 
confidential adviser quickly comes to be 
looked upon as a friend, and has the op- 
portunity of exerting a most considerable 
influence; — many a man will do for his 
solicitor what he would not even have 
listened to with patience from his clerical 
adviser. We have ventured on this brief 
digression, because it emphatically illus- 



1858.] 



Obituaey. — Robert Brown, Esq., F.R.S. 



195 



trates the value of Mr. Templar's pro- 
fessional character. During the many 
years he was in practice, no single sus- 
picion of a sordid or disingenuous act ever 
crossed his path. An intelligent and acute 
lawyer, an able speaker, and a thorough 
man of business, his services were in gene- 
ral request ; while of the numerous clients 
with whom he was thus brought in con- 
tact, there were few who failed to speak 
of him with the estet»m and regard of a 
personal friend, and none by whom his 
name was ever associated with dishonour. 
The general esteem thus enjoyed by 
Mr. Templer was the more remarkable, 
as he was a keen politician, and that too 
at a time and place wliere party spirit 
ran very high. Mr. Templer e!»poused 
the Tory side in politics ; and during tlie 
earlier portions of his career many of the 
successes of the party in the county and 
neighbouring boroughs were attributable 
to his energy and personnl influence. Mr. 
Templer, however, was a Tory rather of 
the school of Pitt than of Lord Eldon. 
He lived to see many shades of change 
in the opinions even of those who re- 
mained in the same ranks with himself; 
and to several of these, such as the aboli- 
tion of the corn - laws, the progress of 
legal and sanitary reform, and others, he 
subscribed with a full sense of their 
value. In other respects, however, Mr. 
Templer retained his political principles 
consistently until the clnse of life; at 
the same time, his opinions were never 
maintained at the sacrifice of courtesy 
and good feeling towards those who dif- 
fered from him. In other respects, the 
present sketch must be left incomplete. 
Few indeed of those who associated with 
Mr. Templer could fail to admire his 
singular unselfishness, and the genial 
warmth and kindness of a nature in- 
capable of judging even the faults of 
other men harshly, and upon which not 
one of the corroding influences of life 
seemed ever to have passed. To a still 
interior circle Ijelonged the knowledge 
of other qualities. A disciplined temper 
and affections, a fervent but humble piety, 
marked Mr. Teinpler's declining years, 
and formed the springs of the Cliristian 
hope which animated a more than usually 
tranquil death-bed. But these private 
and domestic traits are without the pro- 
vince of the present memoir. Mr. Tem- 
pler's death occurred at the somewhat 
advanced age of 71, and found liim in 
the full possession of his faculties. The 
remains of the deceased were attended 
to the place of interment, which was at 
a considerable distance, by a large con- 
course of the gentry and others of Brid- 



port and the neighbourhood, who formed 
a procession on foot in advance of the 
corpse. The principal sliops of the town 
were also partially closed throughout the 
day. 



RoBBET Brown, Esq., F.R.S. 

June 10. At his residence in Soho, 
aged 84, Robert Bi-own, Esq., D.C.L., 
F.R.S., formerly President of the Linnaean 
Society, Keeper of the Botanical Collec- 
tions in the British Museum ; a man de- 
signated by his friend Baron Humboldt, 
** Botanicorum facile princeps.** 

Mr. Brown— or, as he wus always styled 
in scientific works, Robert Brown — was 
the son of a Scottish Episcopalian clergy- 
man, and was bom at Montrose, on the 
21st of December, 1773. His academical 
education was acquired first at Maiischal 
Collegre, Aberdeen, and subsequently at 
the University of Edinburgh, where he 
completed his medical studies in 1795, 
and iu the same year accompanied a Scot- 
tish fencible regiment, in the double capa- 
city of ensign and assistant-S'irgeon, to 
Ireland. Towards the end of lust century 
we find him residing at Edinburgh, where 
he published his first scientific paper on 
the " Asclepiadese," in the Transactions of 
the Weruerian Society. On the 20th of 
November, 1798, he was electctl an Asso- 
ciate of the Linnaean Society of London, 
and in 1801 we behold him attached as 
naturalist to H.M.S. "Investigator," 
under the command of Captain Flinders, 
and destined for a survey of the coast of 
Australia. The " Investigator** left Eng- 
land in July, and in December made Cape 
Leu win, on the south-east coast of Aus- 
tralia, where she commenced her survey- 
ing operations, and Robert Brown his in- 
vestigation into the flora of a country with 
which his name will ever be associated. 
The expedition surveyed the eastern ex- 
trt-mity of Bass's Strait, and then sailed 
for Port Jackson, where it arrived on the 
9th of May, 1802. Having refitted there, 
the vessel set off again on the 22nd of 
July, steering northerly, and exploring 
Northumberland and Cumberland Islands, 
and some dangerous coral reefs ; still con- 
tinuing the northerly course, she made 
Torres Strait, and surveyed the Gulf of 
Carpentaria. It was here that the " In- 
vestigator" was found to be rotten, and 
that it was desirable to retuiii to some 
port. Nevertheless, the spirited com- 
mander paid in her a visit to Timor, and 
then made his way in his leaky bark to 
Cape I^uvvin, passed through Bass's Strait 
a second time, and safely reached Port 
Jacktfon^n the 9th of June, 1808, when 



196 



Obituary. — Robert Brown, Esq., F.R.S. 



[Aug. 



the " Investigator" was condemned as un- 
seaworthy. Flinders, it is well known, 
made his way to England as best he could, 
but was taken prisoner by the French, and 
was for some time in captivity, although 
Napoleon had granted a free pass to his 
expedition. Fortunately, Mr. Brown es- 
caped this unpleasant adventure, as he had 
remained behind in New South W.des, 
and did not return to England till the end 
of 1806, bringing with him nearly four 
thousand species of plants, a lurge portion 
of which were entirely new to science. 

On his return to England he became li- 
brarian to the Linnsean Socj«'ty of Loudon, 
at that time located in Gerrard-street, 
Soho, and a few years later (1810), on the 
death of Dr. Dryander, he received the 
charge of the library and collections of 
Sir Joseph Banks, in whom he found a 
liberal patron. Both situations he held 
until the death of Sir Joseph, in 1820, 
who in the most generous manner pro- 
vided for his proUge^ by leaving him a 
pension of betweeti 200/. and 300/. a-year, 
a life-interest in his library and herbarium 
(bequeathed to the British Museum), and 
the lease of the house in Soho-square, in 
which he died, and which was for nearly 
thirty years partly occupied and rented by 
the Linneean Society. Hi-* appointment as 
keeper of the Banksian Collection at the 
British Museum followed as a matter of 
course, and he therefore gave up his post 
as librarian to the Linntean Society, but 
he kept up his intimate connection with 
that learned body : in 1822 he became a 
fellow (that honour not having been ac- 
cessible to him as long as he received an 
emolument from the Society) ; in 1823 he 
appears on the council ; in 1828 as one of 
the vice-presidents; and in 18 i9 he suc- 
ceeded the Bishop of Norwich as presi- 
dent, which office he held until Mr. Bell's 
election, in May, 1853, — still retaining, 
however, the office of vice-president. 

Brown's writings are not bulky volumes. 
With two exceptions, they are independent 
memoirs printed either in the transactions 
of societies or in the appenilix to narra- 
tives of scientific expeditions. Fortunately 
for science, the scattered papers have, up 
to the year 1834, been carefully collected 
by the late Dr. Nees von Esenbeck, the 
president of the Imperial Leop.-Carol. 
Academy of Oermany, I'orming five octavo 
volumes, and bearing the title *' Robert 
Brown's Vermischte Schriften" and it is 
especially by means of this valuable col- 
lection that Kobert Brown's early con- 
tinental reputation was secured, for the 
form in which these memoirs were pub- 
lished made them rather inaccessible to 
the general scientific public It is much 



to be regretted that this publication bat 
not been continued up to the latest date, 
and it would be the best monument that 
could be erected to the memory of this 
illustrious botanist to publish a complete 
collection of his memoirs in this country, 
and in the original text. 

The first publication which issued from 
his pen after hb return to England was 
the first volume of Frodomus Fl<ir<B Novm 
HoUandicB et LisuIcb Van Diemen, which 
appeared in 1810. Beginning with the 
ferns, it extends to the natural order 
OoodenqvuB . Unfortunately, this valuable 
work was never completed. A critic in the 
" Edinburgh Review " had made rather 
free remarks on the classicality of its La- 
tin, at which the author took offence, and 
reclaimed the volume ; so that it has be- 
come rather a rare work, and is generally 
only known through Dr. Nees von Esen- 
beck's reprint in the Vermischte Schrifteni, 
However, in 1830 he seemed to think 
better of his production, and issued a sup- 
plement, the only one that ever appeared. 
His second great work, Flantce Javaniem 
rariores, was published in conjunction 
with Dr. Horsfield and Mr. J. J. Bennett, 
and was completed within the years 1888 
— 52. Of his other principal publications 
we can only undcrtalEe to give the head- 
ings ; but they will be sufficient to shew 
the universality of his botanical knowledge; 
viz. : " Observations on the Herbarium ccd- 
lected by Prof. Christian Smith in Tnckey's 
Expedition on the Congo ;" " ChlorU Mel- 
villeana; being Plants collected on Melville 
Island in Capt. E. Parry's Expedition;" 
** Characters and Description of Kingia ;** 
a genua named after the late Capt. Ph. 
King; ''Observations on Plants collected 
in Denham and Clapperton's Expedi- 
tion to Central Africa;" "Qeneral Re- 
marks, Geographical and Statistical, on 
the Botany of Terra Australis;" "On 
Proteaceee;" "Microscopical Observations 
on Pollen;" "Botanical Appendix to 
Capt. Strut's Expedition to Central Aus- 
tralia;" "Observations on Organs and 
Mode of Fecundation in Orchidese and 
Asclepiadese ; " " On the Fructification 
of Mosses;" "On Woodsia, a Oenns of 
Ferns;" "On Composit»;" "On some 
Remarkable Deviations from the nsnal 
Structure of Seeds and Fruits;" "Cha- 
racter and Description of Lyellia;" "Re- 
marks on Leptostomum and Buxbanmia;" 
"Account of the Genus Rafflcsia;" and 
" On an undescribed Fossil Fruit — Triplos- 
porite," the last-named being that with 
which he concluded his sdentific laboors : 
it was published in the Transactions of 
the Linnsean Society in 1851. His writ- 
ings, when oompared with those of maoj 



1858.] 



Obitdakt. — John Shakespear, Esq. 



197 



of his contemporaries, are not very nume- 
rous; but they have, nevertheless, exer- 
cised a lasting influence on botanical 
science ; and no man had ever less reason 
to regret anythim? he had written at the 
commencement of his career than Robert 
Brown. That he possessed a most won- 
derfully rich store of knowledge is a fact 
that becomes evident by perusing his pa- 
pers ; and it will ever be a source of the 
deepest regret that he has not published 
more of those accumulated treasures, all 
of which were irrecoverably lost to science, 
when, on the morning of the 10th of 
June, the cold hnnd of death laid their 
possessor low for ever. 

Robert Brown was as early as 1810 
elected a Fellow of the Royal Society ; he 
was a Member of the Institute of France ; 
and, under the cognomen " Ray," a Mem- 
ber of the Imperial L.-C. Academy of 
Germany; he was besides enrolled an 
honorary member in the list of most of 
the minor societies in all parts of the old 
and new world; the University of Oxford 
conferred upon him, in 1832, the honorary 
degree of D.C.L. ; and he received from 
the King of Prussia the decoration of the 
highest Prussian civil order, pour le 
mirite, of which Humboldt is the chan- 
cellor. 

We gladly endorse what has been said 
of his private character by a distinguished 
contemporary : " lliose who were admitted 
to the privil^e of his intimacy, and who 
knew him as a man, will beur unanimous 
testimony to the unvarying simplicity, 
truthfulness, and benevolence of his cha- 
racter. With an appearance of shyness 
and reserve in the presence of strangers, 
he combined an open-heartedness in rela- 
tion to his familiar friends, and a fund of 
agreeable humour, never bitter or caustic, 
but always appropriate to the occasion, 
the outpourings of which it was delightful 
to witness. But what distinguished him 
above all other traits was the singular 
uprightness of his judgment, which ren- 
dered him on all difficult occasions an in- 
valuable counsellor to those who had the 
privilege of seeking his advice. How pro- 
foundly these admirable qualities had en- 
deared him to the hearts of his friends was 
onmistakeably manifested by the sympa- 
thetic tenderness with which his last hours 
were watched and soothed. With his fa- 
culties unclouded to the last, he died on 
the 10th instant, surrounded by his col- 
lections, in the room which had formerly 
been the library of Sir Joseph Banks. ' It 
was in the year 1810,' says one of his dis- 
tinguished friends, who contributed greatly 
to relieve the sufferings of his last illnessi, 
' that I first became acquainted with Mr. 



Brown, within three feet of the same place, 
in the same room, where I saw him so 
nearly drawing his last breath three days 
ago. He was the same simple-minded, 
kind-hearted man in November, 1810, as 
he was in June, 1858, — nothing changed 
but as time changes us all.' " 



John Shakespeab, Esq. 

Mr. Shakespear was an extraordinary 
man in many respects, and his recent 
public act of doing honour to the birth- 
place of the Bard of Avon alone entitles 
him to public gratitude. Mr. Shakespear 
was in the eighty-fifth year of his age 
when he died. When young he was con- 
nected as a teacher of languages with an 
educational establishment at Marlow, and 
afi^^erwards was transferred to Addiscombe 
College, and for a number of years filled 
the office of Professor of Oriental languages 
in that institution, till 1852, when he va- 
cated his position. During his connection 
with Addiscombe College he published 
several Oriental works, through the Messrs. 
Allen, of Leadenhall-street, and from these 
works reaped a much larger reward than 
ordinarily falls to the lot even of the most 
gifted authors. Mr. Shakespear's publi- 
cations consist of an " English and Hin- 
dustani Dictionary," royal 4to. ; a " Gram- 
mar of the Hindustani Language;" an 
" Introduction to the Hindustani Lan- 
guage," royal 8vo.; and "Selections in 
Hindustani," in 2 vols. These works may 
be ranked only among the class of com- 
piled publications, but they evidence much 
labour and considerable research, and for 
many years, although published at very 
high prices, were freely sold to parties 
studying the Hindustani language. Some 
curious stories are told as to Mr. Shake- 
spear's carefulness, if not penuriousness, in 
money matters; and this passion for the 
accumulation of wealth, with the snccesa- 
All issue of his works, enabled him to 
leave behind him at his death upwards of 
a quarter of a million of money. His 
death took place on the 10th of June, at 
Langley Priory, near Loughborough, Lei- 
cestershire, a large estate which he pur- 
chased some years ago for £70,000. Hii 
library he has bequeathed to Professor 
Bowles, of Addiscombe College, with other 
property. Mr. Shakespear's connection 
with the Shakespeare house at Stratford- 
upon-Avon may be told in a few words. 
That national property was bought, in 
1847, by public auction, for £3,000, by 
the Shakespearian Club, out of a fund ob- 
tained by public subscription, and was con- 
veyed to Viscount Morpeth, (the present 
Sari of Carlisle), Thomas Amj&k, Esq. 



198 



Obituary. — John Samuel Browne, Esq, 



[Au 



Zf 



(since dead), J. P. Collier, Esq., and Dr. 
Thomas Thomson. In May, 1856, the 
London soliiitor of Mr. John Shakcspear 
wrote to the parties residing at Stratford- 
upon-Avon, who were interested in the 
preservation of Shaket^peare's birthplace, 
that his client was desirous of doing ho- 
nour to the cherished place where the poet 
first drew breath; and soon afterwards 
Mr. Shakespear himself visited Stratford, 
and inspected the property. On his re- 
turn to London, a long correspondence 
took place between his solicitor and Mr. 
Hunt, town-clerk of S ratford-upon-Avon, 
on the subject, and ultimately he signified 
the intention of Mr. Shakespear to give to 
trustees £2,500, for the purpose of pur- 
chasing and taking down the buildings 
adjoining the birthplace of Shakespeare, so 
as to effect a perfect isolation, to prevent 
risk from fire, and then of restoring the 
house to the state in which it is repre- 
sented in an old engraving (a copy of which 
is in the British Mu»«eum), and as it is 
supposed to have been at the birth of the 
poet. The deed of trust was innnediately 
executed by Mr. Shakespear, transferring 
the £2,500 into the names of nine trus- 
tees, who have since purchased the houses 
on each side of the birthphice, and adopted 
other measiu'es in conformity with Mr. 
Shakespear's wishes. lie never professed to 
be related to the great bard, but thought 
it probable that he was descended from a 
branch of the family. He was very par- 
ticular in spelling his own name in the 
way we have given it, without the final e, 
whilst he always wrote that of the poet 
thus: " Shakspeare." — /SA^<?W Daily 
Telegraph. 

John Samuel Browne, Esq. 

June 6. At his residence at Walworth, 
Surrey, in his 76th year, John Samuel 
Browne, Esq. 

He was the eldest son of John Browne, 
Esq., A.R.A., the eminent landscape en- 
graver, (a memoir of whom appeared in 
the Gentleman's Magazine, Dec. 1801, 
p. 1149, and also a recent notice in the 
October number of 1851, p. 390,) and 
g^ndfion of the Rev. John Browne, Rector 
of Booton, in the county of Norfolk. 

Mr. Browne was born in St. Saviour's, 
Southwark, on the 15th Sept. 1782, and 
received his education at the Mansion- 
house Academy, Camberwell, at that time 
conducted by the Rev. Tliomas Rutledge, 
D.D. Here he attained such a proficiency 
in arithmetic, that he stood first in his 
class, and few at his age could be found 
to compare with him. This branch of 
learning after v\ ards proved essentially ser- 



viceable to him, whilst he himself was 
always ready generously to impart it to 
others, some of whom were destmed to fill 
important positions in life. His father, 
with a view of bringing him up to his own 
profession, placed him when young under 
the care of the late Mr. Samuel Porter, an 
architectural engraver of establisbed merit, 
to learn drawing and enj^^raving, at which 
he made considerable progress. He dili- 
gently applied himself to this work till 
the decease of his father, which happened 
in 1801, at which period, as is well known, 
the fine arts began to decline, more from 
the want of high patronage than of native 
skill. Hereupon Mr. Browne, possessing 
a friend in the person of Sir William 
Bensloy, Bart., a Director of the East India 
Company, (uhose brother, Thomas Bens- 
ley, Esq., of Holt, CO. Norfolk, was Mr. 
Browne's great uncle,) was appointed by 
him to a clerkship in the East India House, 
where he early became acquainted with 
the lt\te Thomas Fisher, Esq., the Searcher 
of the Records, with whom he formed a 
lasting friendship. 

Mr. Browne, in his leisure hours, still 
cultivated his taste for architectural draw- 
ing, and has lefc a portfolio containing a 
number of carefully executed copies, as 
also a fcM' of his own designs in Indian 
ink, principally of mansions and ecclesias- 
tical structures. He was considered by 
competent judges particularly clever in 
drawing the human figure, of which be 
has also left some fine specimens. As an 
engraver he only executed one print, viz., 
a view of the house of Edward I'heed, Esq., 
at Hilton, Hunts; but had not his pur- 
suits taken an opposite direction, there is 
very little doubt he would have excelled 
in this branch of the fine arts, the same 
finished style of his father being apparent 
in what he attempted. 

Through his intimacy ^^itb Mr. Fisher 
he acquired a taste for antiquities, and 
was introduced by the lattx^r to many 
eminent men of his day in that path of 
study. 

In 1812 he published a Catalogue of 
Bishoiis, containing the succession of arch- 
bishops and bishops of the provinces of 
Canterbury and York from the Revolu- 
tion of 1688 down to the above year, 
(F. C. and J. Rivington,) reviewed in the 
Gentleman's Magazine, April, 1812, p. 
357. In manuscript he continued this 
compilation to a very recent period, in- 
cluding the East Indian and colonial sees. 

Mr. Browne kept a journal, recording 
events of a public nature, commencing with 
the y^ 1800, to the close of 1849, and 
consisting of four closely-written volumes^ 
with a separate index of names to enclu * 



1858.] Mr, Turner of Thrushgrove, — Clergy Deceased, 



199 



In foniKr years he was an occasional 
contributor to the Gentleman's Maga- 
zine, and also to the "Morning Herald." 
He was gifted with a remarkably reten- 
tive memory, his friends bein/ constantly 
in the habit of appealing to him to decide 
whenever dates were called in question. 
He was well acquainted with Scripture 
history, and for nearly fifty years of his 
life had kept a text or reference-book of 
all sermons he had heard preached, w ith 
the name of the preacher, which he con- 
sidered a great help to the memory. 

Mr. Browne, who was an evangelical 
Churchman, possessed an amiability of 
temper, combined with a steadiness and 
"uprightness of purpose, that made his ac- 
quaintance a pleasure to all who sought 
it ; although gifted with an active mind, 
his bodily ailments, extending back to a 
considerable time of his life, had been 
great. 

He kept up a close intimacy for thirty 
years with the late Rev. William Hol- 
well Carr, of Devonshire-place, Maryle- 
bone, to whom he was distantly related. 
It was during this period the latter made 
his purchases of those historical paintings 
that formed his valuable collection, and 
wiiich he munificently bequeathed to the 
nat'on. 

He had two brothers, viz. George, re- 
cently retired from the same service after 
a period of fifty years, — he was the head 
of the Audit Department, — and Thomas, 
who in early life went to Java under the 
auspices of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, 
where he afterwards settled as a mer- 
chant, and has ever since remained, being 
now the oldest English resident in that 
island. 

In 1810, he married Catharine, third 
daughter of Jonathan Garnham, Gent., 
of Finsbury, Middlesex, by whom he had 
two sous and tliree danglitets, viz. John 
Jonathan, an Ensign in the 16th Regt. 
Bombay N.I., who died at Baroda in 
1831, William George, Catharine Eliza- 
beth, Frances Ann, married to Edward, 
fourth son of James Miller, Esq., late of 
H.M.'s Treasury, and Eleanor Susanna. 

Mr. Browne's remains were interred in 
the family grave at Norwood Cemetery, 
on the 12th following. 



The result was a universal outcry for par- 
liamentary reform, and public meetings 
became the 'Tder of the day. The leading 
men determined on holding a great public 
meeting in the Green, but the magisterial 
dignitaries of the time refused the use of 
the park for such a purpose, and other 
spaces being denied, Mr. Turner offered 
the privilege of a field attached to his 
property of Thrushgrove, and here, in 
1816, the fir>t large out-door meeting in 
favour of parliamentary reform took place, 
upwards of 23,000 people being present. 
Mr. Turner now became a marked man, 
and shortly after this the Lord Advocate 
M*Conochy issued a warrant for his ap- 
prehension on a charge of high treason. 
He and several oth< rs were taken up and 
confined in Bridewell for some time, but 
the chaise being groundless, all were re- 
stored to their friends. The proceedings 
gave a great notoriety to Mr. Turner's 
name, and he now corresponded with the 
leading Reformers of the day, the late Lord 
Archibald Hamilton, Major Cartwright, 
Mr. Joseph Hume, and other celebrities 
of that stamp being among his friends. 
The ever memorable 1830 found Mr. 
Turner a zealous and active partisan in 
the good old cause. During that most 
exciting period between the advent of 
the "three glorious days" and the pass- 
ing of the Reform Bill, he was a most 
active organizer of the political associa- 
tions which those times called into ex- 
istence, and was the chairman of the 
Glasgow Political Union." 



Mb. Turner of Thrushgeote. 

The "Glasgow Herald" records the 
death of Mr. Turner of Thrushgrove, aged 
ninety. In early life he was the friend of 
Palmer, Muir, and Gerrald. " At the con- 
clusion of the French war in 1815, great 
discontent prevailed throughout the coun- 
try, particularly in the west of Scotland. 



CLERGY DECEASED. 

June 7. By his own hand, at Castleknock Glebe, 
aged 50, the Rev. William Digby Sadleir, D.D., 
Senior Fellow of Trinity College, Dablin. The 
deceased was elder son of the late Provost Sad- 
leir. He had been in a depressed state of mind 
for some time in reference to religioas matters, 
and the jury found a verdict of "Temporary In- 
sanity." 

June 15. Aged 31, the Rev. TJiomtu Poynder 
Garrelt, B A. 1854, St. Peter's College, Cam- 
bridge, C. of Tain worth. 

June 18. At Edenderry, the Rev. A, N. Bre- 
din^ R. of Clonsait and Ballynakill. 

June 20. At Llandrinio Recturv, aged 74, the 
Rev. John Ruasellt Rector of Llandrinio. 

June 21. Aged 89, the Rev. Henry Pearson, 
LL.B., Vicar of P^e^tbu^v, Cheshire, and formerly 
Vicar of Norton, Derbyshire. 

June 23. Ag^d 67, the Rev. George Richard 
BoiHsier, B.A. 1828, Magdalene College, Cam- 
bridge, of Oukfleld, Penshurst, Kent. 

At the Rectory, aged 63, the Rev. Samuel Har^ 
topp Knappt B.A. 1820, M.A 1827, Merton Col- 
lege, Oxford, R. of Letchworth (1831), Herts. 

June 21. In Prince's-sq., St. George's East, 
London, the Rev. Thomas Tenison Cuffe^ P.O. of 
St, Matthew's Chapel, Pell-street, St. George's 
East (1856), London. 

June 28. At Islington, age : 66, the Rev. Henry 
Cole, D.D. fB.D. 18-18), Clare College, Cambridge, 
Sunday Evening Lecturer of St. Mary Somerset, 



200 



Obituabt. 



[Aug. 



Upper Thames-street, London, and Translator of 
Select Works of Martin Luther and Calvin. 

June 29. At the Rectory, aged 80, the Rev. 
George Botcnena, R. of Rokeby (1825), Yorkshire. 

Lately. On board the Prince of Wales, on his 
passage home from Calcutta, the Rev. Arthur 
Mamtltont B.A., son of the late Sir Frederic 
Hamilton, bart., Silverton-biU, Lanarkshire. 

July 3. At 4, Oxford-sq., Hyde-park, aged 38, 
the Riev. Joseph Love Alleynej LL.B. 1850, Mag> 
dalene College, Cambridge, formerly Curate of 
Exhall, Warwickshire. 

July^. At Mossley-hill, Liverpool, aged 71, 
the Rev. Edward Wilson, P.O. of Buglawton 
(1842), Cheshire, and formerly for many years 
Master of the Free Grammar School, Congleton. 
. July 5. At Southampton, aged S7, the Rev. 
Nicholas James Moody, B.A. 1843, M.A. 1856, 
Oriel College, Oxford, R. of St. Clement's, Ox- 
ford, and Domestic Chaplain tu the Earl of 
Gainsborough. 

Julfi 6. At the Observatory, Armagh, the Rev. 
Thomas Allgood Robinson, Rockcorry, Clogher, 
eldest son of the Rev. Thomas Romney Robinson, 
D.D. 

July 10. At Bampton, aged 89, the Rev. John 
Penson, Vicar of Brize Norton, near Witney. 

July 12. The Rev. William Okes, Rector of 
Wheatacrc, All Saints, Norfolk, with Mutford 
and Barnby, Suffolk, formerly fellow of Gonville 
and Caius College. Cambridge. 

July 17. The Rev. John Pengree, M.A., Vicar 
of Enderby. 

July 19. At 47, Westboume-terrace, a^d 61, 
the Rev. W. Lewis, for twenty years Vicar of 
Abbot's Langley, Herts. 

June 21. At Whit worth, near Rochdale, aged 
60, the Rev. Richard Robinson, for twenty-five 
years pastor of tiie Independent Congregation at 
witham, Essex, and previously of Cratfield, Suf- 
folk. 

July 11. At Glasgow, aged 67. the Rev. Gavin 
Struthirs, D.D., senior minister of the United 
Presbyterian Church, Anderston. 

DEATHS. 

ABBAKGSD IK OHBONOLOGICAL OBDEB. 

Jan. 24. At Adelaide, South Australia, Robert 
Honyman, esq., eldest and only surviving son of 
the late Adm. Robert Honyman. 

Feb. 22. At Cheltenham, T. W. Creaser, esq., 
son of the late T. Crraser, esq., of Bath, and 
nephew of Robt. Smith, of Dnuneree-house, 
"Westmeath. 

April 1. Bv explosion of a magazine after 
the capture of the city of Kotah, aged 33, Cai>t. 
Robert Bainbrigge, 23rd Regt. Bombay Light 
Infantry, Brigade Major in the RiUpootana Field 
Force, and second son of Col. Bainbrigge, of 
Guernsey. 

April S. At Melbourne, Victoria, aged 35, 
John Maund, M.D., Physician to the Melbonme 
Lying-in Hospital, and Medical Jtuiat to the Su- 
preme Court of Victoria. 

Aprils. At Sydney, N.8.W., suddenly, of 
disease in the heart, aged 34, William Bltrnt, 
third son of the late James Field, esq., of Mon- 
tagu-st., Russell-sq. 

Amril 9. At Cawnpore, aged 22, Lieut John 
Little, 20th Regt., third son of John Little, esq., 
Stewart's-town, Tyrone.; 

April 15. At Baroda, Lient. Chas. GreenhiU 
Anderson, son of James v\nderson, esq., Bridge 
End, Brechin. 

April 21. At Azimghur, of dysentery, Lieut. 
J. Brooke O'l/Oghlin, her Majesty's S4th Regt., 
eldest son of James O'Loghlin, esq., M.D. 

April SO. At Meean Meer, near Lahore, aged 
24, Capt Philip Geo. Coney, 7th Royal Fusiliers, 
youngest son of J. J. Coney, esq., of Braywick- 
grove, Maidenhead, Berks. 

May 4. In the AlMcan Steam Company's ahip 

13 



" Candace," of which he was the commaxider, 
ag^d 33, James Howard Rolt, es^. 

May 7. At Earl's-terr., Kensington, aged 79, 
Rebecca, relict of John Lloyd, esq. 

EUzabeth Cecilia, wife of D. J. Brenneis, eeq., 
Henrietta-st., Cavendish-sq. 

Aged 71. Mr. William Eames, of Marlborongfa- 
road, Chelsea, late of China-hall, Rotherhithe. 

May 8. At Ahmedabad, Gujerat, aged 36, 
Lieut.-Col. Leslie Skynner, H.M.'s 89th Regt., 
youngest surviving son of the late Rob. Skynner, 
esq., of .M ortimer>st., Cavendish-sq. 

At Maugalore, the wife of Maj. C. W. Hodgson, 
16th Regt. Madras Native Infantry. 

At Hope-under-Dinmore, aged 61, Mary, relict 
of the Rev. R. Lockey. 

At the Park, Nottingham, Adolphos Marx, 
esq. 

At Somerset-pl, Glasgow, John Ewing, esq. 

May 9. Aged 80, Mary, widow of W. Hen- 
shall, esq., of Cloudesley<terr., Islington. 

At his lodKings, Capt. J. D. Ellis, half-pay offi- 
cer of the 81 St Regt., and for a considerable time 
a resident in Green-park-buildings, Bath. 

May 10. At her residence, York-buildingt, 
Regent's-park, aged 80, Clarissa Isabella, last 
surviving dan. of the late John Ramsden, esq., 
of the Arthur, Monmotithshire. 

May 11. At his residence, Marlborongb-pl., 
St. John*s-w<)od, aged 43, Thomas Davies, esq. 

Aged 65, David Newnes Henriqnes, Dimcan- 
ter., Islington. 

May 15. At Lucknow, Capt. Wm. Fred. Fors- 
ter, 18ih Regt., aide-de-camp to his Excellency 
the Commander-in-Chief, only surviving son of 
Col. Forster, Deputy-AdJ. -General. 

Benjamin McTurk, esq., of Hull. 

At Heathfleld, Dundee, aged 16, Caroline W. 
Neish, eldest dau. of James Neish, eaq., of the 
Laws, Forfarshire. 

At Greenwich, aged 81, Martha, wife of St^hea 
Clark, esq. 

May 16. At the residence of George Eraser, 
esq., Porto Nova, South Arcot, Madras Pre«i- 
dency, aged 40, Wm. Henry Davids, esq., Aaaia- 
tant-Surgeon H.E.I.C.S., son of the late Wm, 
Joseph Davids, esq., late of Crayford, Kent. 

At St. Heller's, Jersey, Frances Jane, widow of 
Capt. W. A. McKenzie, Deputy-Commisaary- 
Gen., Madras Army, and dan. of the late CharlM 
Buchan, esq., of Meadow-place, Edinburgh. 

May 17. At the Stevens - house, Broadway, 
New York, by shooting himself through the 
heart with a pistol, Henry William Herbert, 
extensively known throughout the United Statee 
and Great Britain as an author of celebrity, and, 
more especially for his works on sportsmanship 
under the nam de plume of ** Frank Forreater.'* 
Though over 50 years of age, he recently married 
a young lady of 20, from whom be was separated 
a few weeks after marriage. He left sevenl 
letters, from which it would appear that domeatlo 
differences led to the commission of the raah aet. 
The **New York Herald" gives the following 
biographical notice of the unfortunate gentle- 
man :— " Mr. Herbert was a descendent, on his 
father's side, from the noble houses of Pembroke 
and Percy, and was the eldest son of the eminent 
Dean of Manchester, Uie Honourable and Very 
Reverend WilUam Herbert, celebrated both ae n 
literary man and a liberal politician. He wae 
bom in London, April 7, 1807, being at the time 
of his death over 51 years of age. He entered 
Eton College when thirteen years of age, and 
graduated at Caius College, Cambridge, at the 
age of twenty-two. Owing to some cause, not 
fuUy known, but variou«ly ascribed to family 
dimcultiea and pecuniary reverses, he left Eng- 
land to try hlB fortune in the United SUt^ 
where he arrived in December, 1831. His liberal 
education and proficiency as a Greek scholar en- 
abled him soon to procure the situation of a Greek 
professor in the large classical academy of Mr. 
Huddard. where be officiated for eight yeara. 
Hia claaaica] scholarship, hia wide range of in- 



1858.] 



Obitoary. 



201 



formatioa, both . theoretical and practical, in 
every department of literature, and his extra- 
ordinary capacity for literary labour, could not 
remain dormant all this time, and during nearly 
the whole poiod of his tutorship he was engaged 
on literary works of various descriptions." It 
then gives a list of Mr. Herbert^s hterary pro- 
ductions, which are numerous. 

May 18. At Westmarden, aged 84, Hannah 
Btilwell ; and on the 4th inst., aged 86, Richard 
Stilwell. They had been married 64 years. 

At his residence. Priory-grove, West Bromp- 
ton, aged 26, Henry, eldest surviving son of 
Charles Henry Phillips, esq., of Trafalgar-sq., 
Brompton. 

At Brunswick-pl., Begent's-park, aged 63, 
Elizabeth WiUson, relict of A. Thompson, esq., 
of Edinburgh. 

May 19. At Madras, of diarrhoea, aged 24, 
Lieut. Hy. Cherry, 42nd M.N.I., youngest son 
of the late Alex. Inglis Cherry, esq., of M.C.S. 

May 21. At his residence, the Lydiates, near 
Ludlow, aged 68, John Rose Hall, esq. 

At Scarsdale-villas, Kensington, aged 53, Mr. 
Thomas Camell, of Sevenoaks. 

May 22. At Brock-sU, Bath, aged 89, Juliana, 
widow of the Bev. John Watson Beadon, late 
Rector of Christian Malford, Wnts. 

Aged 70, Thomas Spiity, esq., of the Hill-house, 
Buttsbury, Billericay, and of Bowers Gifford, 
Essex. 

May 25. At Lucknow, of fever, ^ed 24, Lieut. 
Wm. Hargood, 1st Madras Fusiliers, aide-de- 
camp to tbe late Sir Henry Havelock and Sir 
James Outram, eldest son of Reiu- Admiral Har- 
good, beloved by both officers and men of hia 
regiment. He was with General Neill when the 
mutiny broke out at Benares ; with the advance 
column from Allahabad, under Major Renaud; 
and in every battle fought and operation per- 
formed under the late Sur Henry Havelock and 
Sir James Outram, his horse being killed under 
him at the last attack on the Moosa Bagh. Sir 
James Outram, in his Division Order, dated 
Lucknow, 26th Sept., 1857, after referring to the 
gallantry of various officers and regiments, says, 
<* And finally, that of the 78th Highlanders, who 
led the advance on the Residencjr, headed by 
their brave commander. Colonel Stisted, accom- 
panied by the gallant Lieut. Hargood, aide-de- 
camp to General Havelock.*' He had also been 
mentioned five times in public despatches, and 
received the thanks of the Governor-General in 
Council. 

At Wandsworth, aged 103, John Ewing, who 
was bom 16th October, 1754, at Carron-shore, 
parish of Larbert, Stirling. He had been for- 
merly sergeant in the Foot Guards, and had 
served in the Walcberen expedition and Penin- 
sular campaigns, and was pensioned previously 
to the battle of Waterloo. He possessed remark- 
able physical strength, and retained his mental 
Ikoulties to the last. 

May 26. At Tittenhanger, Herts, aged 95, Eliz., 
Dowager Countess of Hardwicke. She was dau. 
of the fifth Earl of Balcarres, aunt of the present 
Earl of Crawford and Balcarres, and mother of 
the Countess of Mexborough, Countess Dowager 
Caledon, Countess Dowager Somers, and Lady 
Stuart de Bothsay. her ladyship's four sons 
having all died before the late earl, who was 
succeeded by the present lord, his cephew. 

At Edinburgh, aged SO, Com. A. M. Brook, 
R.N. 

At South-bank, R^ent's-park, aged 39, Louisa, 
wife of William Alexander Blake, Minister of 
Shouldham-et. Chapel, Bryanston-sq., and Secre- 
tary of the Soldiers' Friend Society. 

Aged 27, Charles Frederick Giesler, esq., 
Fnlham. 

May 27 . In Paris, aged 70, Wm. Thos. Toone, 
esq., of Ightfield-lodge, Whitchurch, Salop, and 
of I<htfield-house, Marylebone-rd., London, for- 
merly of the Bengal Civil Service. 

At his residence, Redcliffe-parade, Bristol, 

Gent. Mag. Vol. CCV. 



aged 66, Joseph Eaton, an active and benevolent 
member of the Society of Friends. 

May 28. At Avranches, in Normandv, Barbara, 
fourth surviving dau. of tbe late Col. James Low- 
ther, of the county of Westmoreland. 

At the Vicarage, Eaton Socon, Beds, Mary 
Emma, wife of the Rev. S. G. Fawcett, M.A. 

May 29. At Ballindoch, Perth, Cecilia, young- 
est dau. of the late C. Hay, esq., of Ballindoch. 

At Spring-hill, co. Londonderry, aged 66, 
William Lenox-Ckmyngham, esq. 

At Silliers, Worcestershire, aged 64, Francis 
Hajrwood, esq., of Edge-lane-hall, LiverpouL 

At Solbys, Hadleigh, Essex, aged 68, Ann, 
wife of Jonathan Wood, esq. 

MavSO. At Sutton Bonnington, aged 58, 
Jonatinan Burton, esq. The deceased was a man 
who had ri»en from the ranks, and had attained 
to a state of affluence and independence by his 
own perseverance and industry. When 13 years 
of age be enlisted into the army, and was for 
some time quartered In Ireland. After being in 
the army about four years he saved enough 
money to purchase his discharge and return to 
Nottingham. He there worked as a labourer, 
and also at a stocking frame. He and his bro- 
ther, conjointly, nuinaged to raise money enough 
to purchase a lace machine, and the trade being 
then a very profitable one, he soon succeeded in 
increasing his business and Improving his posi- 
tion. Some years ago he purchased an estate at 
Sutton Bonnington, at which place he took up 
his residence. So succeesfiil had he been In 
business that he Is said to have amassed a for- 
tune considerably exceeding £100,000. 

Lately. At Tranmere, aged 43, Thomas Pearoe, 
the famed Shropshire giant. The deceased, who 
was one of the tallest and stoutest men In the 
country, had, for upwards of thirty years, at 
wakes and fairs, exhibited himself as a giant, 
and shewn bis powers as a firsVclass pugilist. 
Latterly he had suffered from dropsy. The body, 
which was ordered by the coroner to be Imme- 
diately interred, was laid out in the caravan, 
whilst the members of the company, including 
the wife of the deceased, were performing In an 
adjoining tent. 

At Ghysee, near Kurrachee,. East Indies, aged 
20, Sidney Hen. Swaffleld, Lkut. In H.M.'s 5Ut 
Light Infantry, son of Robert H. Swaffleld, esq., 
of Westdown-lodge, near Weymouth, Dorset. 

M. Havas, one ot the oldest and be«t known 

ionmalists of Paris. He oecupied a position the 
Ike of which is unknown on the English news- 
paper press — he supplied foreign news and foreign 
telegraph despatches to all the Paris and most of 
the Frenob provincial pafiers— the same news and 
the same drapatches serving for all. Receiving a 
subvention from the government, he took care to 
modify, as far as possible, the dally foreign news, 
so as to suit its policv ; and the oonsequenee was 
that the French pubUo never have had any other 
than a most Imperfect Idea of the real state of 
things in foreign countries.— Xi^erary OazetU, 

June 1. At his residence, Folkington-pl., Sus- 
sex, aged 91, Thos. Sheppard, esq. He settled in 
Sussex upon purchasing the property of the late 
C. Harrison, esq., and built the present mansion, 
which forms a picturesque object from the Lewea 
and Hastings Railway. He was a great supporter 
of the agruultural shows at Hallsham, and of 
the Southdown hunt. For many vears he repre« 
sented Frome in Parliament, ana distinguished 
himself for the consistency with which he main* 
tained his principles of conservative progress. 

June 2, At Brighton, aged 46, Miss Anne 
Yamold Ward, of Amwell-st., Claremont-sq. 

At Jersey, Anne, wife of LieuL-Col. Malton. 

Jm^e 5. Drowned off Gibraltar, aged 21, Ar« 
thur Wm. Lewis Browne, mate of H.M.S. " Ra- 
eoon,** second son of the Rev. R. Lewis Browne, 
Vicar of Westboume, Sussex. 

June 6. At Nelson-et., Great George^., Iiver« 
pool, aged 83, John Dove, esq., of Inverkeithing, 
late of H.M. Customs of Dundee. 

Dd 






• •• 






•_• 



202 



Obituary. 



[Aug. 



June 7. At Home-lodge, Bathampton, Alexa 
Grant Kerr, second dau. of the late Rev. Richard 
Hall Kerr, D.D., Senior Chaplain of Fort St. 
George, Madras. 

June 11. At Arlston, near Wellington, Salop, 
Cnrolina, relict of Lieut.-Col. Hooper, of the 
87th Regt. 

June 12. At Thorpland-lodge, Norfolk, aged 
84, Lydia, relict of William Hall, eaq. 

Aged 77, Mr. Geo. Crompton, formerly cashier 
to Mr. Yates, of Blackburn, and son of the late 
Mr. Samuel Crompton, of the Hall-in-the-Wood, 
near Bolton, who, in 1775, invented the mule for 
spinninf? cotton, which bas proved of such incal- 
culable advantage to this manufacturing kingdom. 

At Holyhead, aged 63, Michael Law, esq., of 
Great Denmark-st., Dublin. 

June 13. At Sorel, Canada, aged 22, Wm. Her- 
bert John Disbrowe, of WaltoU'hall, Derbyshire, 
Lieut. 17th Regt., and aide-de-camp to Lieut.- 
Gen. Sir William Eyre, K.C.B., and only sur- 
viving son of the late Sir Edward Cromwell Dis- 
browe, G.C.B. 

Aged 70, James Hughes, esq., of Glan Rheidol, 
near Aberystwith. 

June 14. At Flint-house, Holcombe, Somerset, 
aged 61, Robt. A. Green, esq. 

Aged 66, Peter Parker, esq., late of Andover. 

June 15. At Bath, aged 56, the Hon. Arthur 
Thellusson, youngest and last surviving son of 
the late Lord Rendlesham. The deceased was 
bom in 1801, and married in \%'16 Caroline Ann 
Maria, second dau. of the late Sir Christopher 
Bethel Codrington, bt, and the Hon. Harriet 
Foley, by whom he leaves an only son and two 
daughters. The deceased gentleman was heir 
presumptive of the family barony. In connexion 
with the death of this gentleman, it may be men- 
tioned that the great "Thellusson Will Case" 
was appointed for hearing in the House of Lords 
OB the following Monday. 

At GarthmeiUan, near Dolgelley, the residence 
of his SO& (the Yen. Archd. White, Rector of 
Dolgdley.) aged 87, Wm. White, esq., formerly 
of Olasinf^yn, near Bangor. Carnarvonshire. 

At Teignmouth, the residence of her son-in- 
law, Rear-Adm. Crawford, aged 85, Sybella, relict 
of the Rev. James Mockler, Rector and Vicar of 
Castle Hyde, diocese of Cloyne, in which he was 
Rural Dean for 30 years. 

At Hajselbrook, Kimmage-road, co. Dublin, 
Elizabeth Anne, the wife of the Right Hon. 
Madere Brady. 

At Kirriemuir, aged 67, Duncan M'Pher- 
wm, efq. 

At Weybridge, Surrey, aged 62, Eleanor, widow 
of Ctenu'Swetenham, esq., of Somerford Booths, 
Cheshire. 

At Park-lodge, Cambridge, Ann, wife of Hen. 
Hendngton Harris, esq., solicitor. 

June 16 At Cheltenham, aged 87, Sarah Mar- 
garet, relict of Hugh Parkin, esq., of Skirsgill, 
in the eounty of Cumberland. 

At Hiitfleld Broad Oak. aged 67, Thos. Cooke, 
esq., surgeon. Royal Navy. 

At Weaton-eotiage, aged 74, Margaret, eldest 
dan. of the late Cadwallader Coker, esa., and 
widow of John Thruston, esq., of Mark^ Weston- 
hall, Suffolk. 

At Pau, Fyren6e8, Valeria, Baroness d'Eisen- 
deoker, dau. of the late Thomas Forster, esq., 
of the Grove, Buckinghamshire, and of Elim, 
Jamaica. 

At Cheltenham, aged S4, MaJ.-Gen. W. Brett. 

Aged 34, Capt J. Palsford, of Porlock. 

At his residenoe, Warwick-villas, Addison- 
road, Kensington, W., suddenly, of disease of 
the heart, aged 70, Robert Scott, esq., late Ma- 
dras Medical Service. 

At Welton Vicarage, near Daventry, aged 15, 
Mary Esther, second dau. of the Rev. D. Dar- 
nell, Vicar of Welton. 

At Ardflheal, Argyll, aged 6, Charles Stewart 
Loekbart, eldest eon of Mues Lockhart, esq. 

At her residenoe, Llpsonj near Plymoath, aged 



80, Elizabeth, widow of Thomas Geo. Shortland, 
esq.. Commissioner of H.M.'s Dockyard, Port 
Royal, Jamaica. 

June 17. At Dorset-aq., London, ft-om a severe 
accident, aged 75, Frances Mary, widow of John 
English, esq., of Bath, and mother of the Coro- 
ner for that city. She was a lady of considerable 
literary attainments, and only a short time pre- 
vious to her death had published a work of some 
merit, entitled " The Tudors and the Stuarts." 
At Blackheath, aged 101, Mrs. Ann Mill ward. 
At Meon Stoke, Hants, aged 81, J. Weston, esq. 
At Paradise-pl., Hackney, aged 86, Robert 
Brown, esq. 

At Marlborough-pl., St. John's-wood, aged 77, 
ElizalM'th, relict of John Evans, esq., formerly 
of Callingwood, in the county of Stafford. 

At his residence, Ampton-pl., Gray's-inn-road, 
aged 73, Moees Monteflore, esq. 

At Paris, aged 32, Robert Sherlock Woodall, 
eldest son of the late R. S. Woodall, esq,, of Ard- 
wick, Lancashire. 

At Southwold, Commander Francis W. Ellis, 
R.N. He was midshipman of the ** Cruiser" at 
the capture of several privateers, and assisted in 
cutting out expeditions on the coasts of Franoe 
and Holland in 1804 ; he was in command of a 
tender to the ** Cruiser," actively employed 
against the enemy's flotillas in the Great Belt, 
and in the defence of the Island of Romsoe, 
for which he received the thanks of the Com- 
mander-in-Chief; and in 1809 served again in 
the *' Cruiser." at the capture of the Danish 18- 
gun brig *< Tusit," and 16-gun brig " Christian- 
burg." He was lieutenant of Uie " Revenre." 
serving on the coast of Catalonia, and assisted in 
cutting out a French privateer at Salamos in 
1813. He accepted the retirement under order 
in council of 1830, on 28th May, 1855. 

At Leamington, Mrs. Rumsden, relict of John 
Rumsden, esq., of Whitwell-pl., near HalUiaz. 

June 18. At Bishopwearmouth, aged 90, Mar- 
garet, last surviving dau. of Mr. Jonn Harvey, 
surgeon, Sunderland, and author of "The Lay 
of the Minstrel's Daughter," "Raymond die 
Percy," and several minor poems. 

At Clifton, Sydney Warburton, eldest dan. of 
the late George Warburton, esq. 

At her residence, Colston Fort-house, Kingt- 
down, Bristol, Mrs. Carden, relict of WiUiaui 
Garden, esq. 

At his residence, Belmont, Michael CSolUn, 
esq., of Hastings. 

June 19. At the residence of his brother-in- 
law, Greenhill, Bamet, Herts, aged 42, Malor 
Sutherland G. G. Orr, late commanding the Srd 
Regt. of Hyderabad Cavalry. 

Aged 25, Henry M. Witt, esq., of Chelsea. He 
destroyed himself by takUig nicotine, and was 
found dead in the water-closet of the Uoseam 
of Gcoloffy, Jermyn-st. 

At Staleybridge, aged 71, John Jones, the Welsh 
Poet. His poems had been recently coUeoted and 
published in a neat volume, under the sa spio e s 
of Mr. W. Fairbaim, F.R.S., of Manchester. 

At Cambridge, Elizabeth, wife of the Bev. John 
L. F. Russell, BLA., many years Curate of the 
parishes of Great and Little Eversden, Cambs. 

At his residence. Hill-court, Worcestershire, 
aged 71, William Henry Rickett^ esq., a Magis- 
trate and Deputy-Lieut, of that county. 

At Fort George, Guernsey, aged 17, Emily 
Eliza, eldest dau. of Col. Bui^nuum, B.E. 

At her residence. Elm -cottage, Redboom, 
Herts, aged 83, Mary Basil, relict of the Ber. 
Thomas Pugh. 

At Devonshire-pl., Seven Sisters'-road, Upper 
Holloway, Mary, wife of the Bev. John Twy- 
croea, A.M. 

June 20. At Chudleigh, aged 67, G. Flood, esq. 

At Warmiston Conunon, aged 101, Jn. Payne. 

At Conock-house, Wilu, Jane Ann, wife of 
William Carter, esq. 

At Uttoxeter. aged 62, Charles Yere Webb 
BedMtt, esq., MUdtor. 



1858.] 



Obituary. 



203 



At Orchard-house, Gilsland, aged 70, George 
Shadforth, esq., late of Newcastle. 

At Harrojfate, Margaret, wi'e of Jonathan 
Roddam, esq., New -house, Weardale. 

At Crakehall-Tilla, Park-eide, Wimbledon- 
common, aged 54, Ann, wife of Geo. Sadler, esq. 

At North Charlotte-8t., Edinburgh, Robert 
Howden, esq., W.S. 

At the Grove, Camberwell, aged 78, Edward 
Bean, esq. 

June 21. At Crewkeme, aged 71, Jos. Wills, 
esq., who for more than forty years practised as 
a surgeon in that town. 

At Sbelton Rectory, Norfolk, Sarah Ann, wife 
of the Rev. J. Curteis, Rector of Sbelton, and 
last surviving dau. of the late Jas. G. Bloom, 
esq., of Wells-next-the-Sea. 

At Sherwood-hall, Mansfield, aged 88, Rebekah, 
widow of Wm. Wilson, esq , of Nottingham. 

At Northampton, aged 49, Alderman Thomas 
Phipps. 

At Carlisle Fort, county Cork, of fever, aged 
19, Ensign Ottiwell Wood, H.M.'s 14th Foot, 
youngest son of the Rev. Rich. Wood, Woodhall- 
park, Wensleydale, Yorkshire. 

At Arlingtun-villa, Durdham Down, Clifton, 
aged 8, Samuel Pigott, youuRest son of the late 
Sir Henry Piers, hart., of Tristernaugh-abbey, 
ca Westmeath. 

June 22. At Boston, aged 46, Thos. Fricker, 
esq., Alderman of the borough, editor and pro- 
prietor of the " Lincolnshire Herald," and one 
of her Ms^esty's coroners for the county. 

At the residence of his son-in-law. Dr. Bay- 
ford, Upper Bedford-pl., Russell-sq., London, 
aged 77, Robert Ballard, esq., of Cumberland- 
pi., Southampton. 

At Calne, aged 100, Elizabeth Haynes. 

At HoUymount, co. Mayo, drowned whilst 
bathing, aged 23, George Codrington, sixth son 
of the late Wm. Codrington, esq., of Wroughton, 
WUts. 

At Norfolk-sq., Brighton, aged 83, Capt. Joseph 
Triscott, Royal Marines, of Richmond, Surrey. 

At his residence, St. John's-road, Brixton, 
Surrey, aged 73, Geo. Rawlinson, esq., of Cheap- 
side, London, silk merchant. 

At Westboume-ter., Hyde-park, Philip Gard- 
ner, es^. 

At his residence, Oxford-sq., Hyde-park, aged 
82, Robt. Gear, esq. 

At the Shrubb^, near Kidderminster, aged 
69, John Lea, esq. 

At her residence. Spa-buildings, Cheltenham, 
aced 75, Margaret, dau. of John Dunne, esq., 
Il.C., formerly of Dublin. 

At Southsea, Harriet, wife of Major G. P. Val- 
iancy, and fifth dau. of the late Sir Geo. Garrett. 

June 23. At Exmouth, aged 61, Major Alex. 
Augustus Younge, of the late St. Helena Regt., 
E.I.C.S., secon<l son of the late Col. William 
Younge, of the 3rd Madras Light Cavalry. 

At Heme Kay, aged 71, John Yiney, esq., of 
Woodland«, Upper Ciapton, and Comhili, London. 

At Stratford-upon-Avon, aged 28, Mr. William 
Cheshire, a printer, who with his father worked 
in the oldest printing establishment in Stratford 
nearly to the day of his death. By nature an 
enthusiast in the study of botanv, his heart and 
■oul were among tbe plants and flowers of the 
fleld ; not a wood, coppice, hedgerow, brook, or 
river, but he visited. 

At La BeUe Vue, Hennebon, France, aged 51, 
William Spencer Spawforth, esq. 

At Brighton, aged 66, SHrah Frances, only sur- 
viving dau. of William Robert PhiUimore, esq., 
and the Hon. Sarah Henley Phillimore, formerly 
of Kendall's-hall, HerU. 

At Chapel-pl., Upper Edmonton, aged 49, 
Richard Brealy, esq. 

At Abercromby-terr., Liverpool, aged 60, Fi- 
nella Elizabeth, widow of John Angus, esq., 
CommissioneTof the Court of Requests, Calcutta. 

At Rye-lane, Peckham, aged 41, William Hen- 
dry, esq. 



At Leicester, aged 47, Marv, wife of Capt. 
Knight, of Glen Parva Manor, Leicestershiie. 

At Beaumont-st., Oxford, aged 78, Sarah, relict 
of Henry Ward, esq. 

At Brighton, aged 43, J. H. Branfoot, MD. 

At his residence, the Muhlberg, near Frankfort- 
on-the-Maine, aged 80, John Philip Kessiex, e q. 

June 24. Aged 23, John Weston Raymond 
late of Trinity College, Cambridge, and only son 
of James Raymond, esq., of Hildersham-hall, 
Cambs. 

At the residence of his sister-in-law, St. James's- 
sq., Notting-hill, aged 31, Wm. Gibson Rendle, 
only son of the late John William Rendle, of 
Plymouth. 

At Smith*s-place, Edinburgh, aged 76, John 
Raimes, esq. 

At her son's residence, Mount-st.-crescent, 
Dablin, Catharine Penelope, wife of the Hon. 
Henry Montague Browne, Dean of Lismore. 

At Great Yarmouth, aged 63, Thomas Fore- 
man, esq. 

At her brother's, W. H. Bessey, esq., Great 
Yarmouth, aged 64, Harriet, wife of John Hyl- 
ton, esq., of Felmngham. 

At Bellevue-h:>u6e, Kilmarnock, aged 79, Thos. 
Greenshields, esq. 

Elizabeth, relict of F. F. Seekamp, esq., for- 
merly of Ipswich, Suffolk. 

Aged 68, Richard Hicks, esq, of Newgate- 
market, and Clapbam-rise, for 27 years t^'e re- 
spected Deputy of Castle Baynard Ward, London. 

At Boulogne-sur-Mer, and formerly of Lower 
Brook-8t., Grosvenor-sq., aged 82, Peter Fred. 
Robinson, ei^q. 

At Clapham, Annie, wife of Charles Plank, 
esq., Assistant-Surgeon Hon. E. I. Company's 
Service, Cawnpore. 

June 25. On board the R. Y.S. schooner " Al- 
ca," off Falmouth, Charles Francis Scott, esq., 
of Kensington-gardens-ter., Hyde-park. 

In Park -place, Leeds. Elizabeth Martha, second 
dau. of the late Robert Harrison, esq., of Moor- 
Aller ton -house, near Leeds. 

At Harrogate, aged 35, Fanny, wife of Andrew 
Wauchope, esq., of Niddrie, N.B., eldest dau. of 
Henry Lloyd, esq., of Farrenrory, co. Tipperary. 

At Billingford, Mary, the last surviving dau. 
of the late Francis Dra^e, gent. 

At Stelling-hall^ged 75, Sarah, widow of John 
HodgHon, esq., of Elswick, Nurthumberland. 

At his residence, Holbom, aged 57, William 
Henry Kearney, esq., member of the New Society 
of Pamters in Water Colours. 

June 26. At Marine-parade, Brighton, aged 
64, John Evans Beale, Fellow of the Royal Col- 
lege of Surgeons of England, of Plaistow, Essex. 

Aged 85, Mrs. Mary Notley, of Regent's-park- 
ter., Glocester-gate. 

At Ryde, Isle of Wight, aged 52, Hen. Phen6, 
esq. 

Aged 76, Ellen, wife of Thomas Taylor, esq., 
Overton-hall, Miilpas. 

At A^hwick, Gloucestershire, aged 40, Catha- 
rina Mary, the wife of John Orred. esq. 

At Hereford, aged 86, Miss Alicia Wballey. 

June 27. At Lord Sherborne's, Gloucester- 
shire, aged 41, the Lady Dunsany. 

Aged 68, William Chambers, esq., of Limea- 
villas, Lewisham, and late of Maddox-st. 

At Bromley College, Miss Catharine Spencer 
Atkyns, eldest dau. of the late James Atkyns, 
esq., of Sleepe-hall, Huntingdonshire. 

At the Vicarage, Penrith, Elizabeth, wife of 
the Rev. S. J. Butler, Vicar of Penrith, Cumber- 
land. 

At his residence. Queen Ann-st., Cavendish- 
sq., London, uged 71, Archibald Campbell, esq., 
late of the Bengal Civil Service. 

At Brighton, aged 59, Emma Elizabeth, wife 
of Henry Diaper, esq., of St. Michaers-terr., 
Pimlico. 

At Twickenham, aged 30, Catherine, wife of 
the Rev. G. S. Ingram, and dau. of the late 
Archibald Brown, esq., merchant, Glasgow. 



204 



Obituary. 



[Aug. 



Thomas Pope, esa., JennTn«st. 

Augusta, seeond oau. of T. F. Beale, of Begent- 
st, and Olocester-place, Hyde-park. 

June 28. At the residence of her son-in-law, 
Mr. Edward Boxnilly, Stratton-st , Piccadilly, 
aged 89, Mrs. Maroet, widow of Dr. Marcet, and 
well known for her " Conyersations on Chemis- 
try," *' Coaversations on Political Economy." 
and other elementary works on scientific sub- 
jects, as well as for her ** Stories for yery little 
Children," »» Mary's Grammar," &c. 

At Totton, near Southampton, aged 56, James 
Blair Preston, esq., Physician-General of the 
Madras Army. 

Suddenly, of disease of the heart, Harriet, wife 
of Francis Canning Hill, esq., of Westboume- 
park-crescent, Bayswater. 

At Folkestone, aged 72, John Nicholas Sibeth, 
esq., of Heme-hill, Surrey, and of Lime-st, city. 

At BouIogne-sur-Mer, Christopher Hyacinth 
Cheeyers, esq., seeond son of the late Hyacinth 
Cheeyers, esq., of Killyar, co. Galway, Ireland. 
E.I.P. 

At Clifton-ter., Winchester, aged 71, L. Lips- 
comb, esq. 

At Belper, Frances, wife of Henry Lomas, esq., 
surgeon. 

Jutie 29. At his residence, Wellinsrton-place, 
Deal, aged 72, Thomas Jager, esq.. Commander 
Jl.N. 

G. James L., third son of the Hon. J. C. 
Dundas. 

At Craigmakerran-cottage, Perthshire, Peter 
Young, esq. 

At Little Bedwyn, Wilts, aged 53, John Brown 
White, esq. 

At Mold, aged 28, Mary Anne, wife of Edward 
Thompson, esq. 

At Stoke Hamond, Bucks, Ollyer Edmund, 
infant son of the Rey. Theodore and the Lady 
Julia Bouwens. 

At Preston, Lancashire, Henrietta, wife of the 
Rey. John Clay. 

At his residence, St. John*s-wood, suddenly, of 
apoplexy, aged 68. William Stroud, M.D. 

At Lanwysck-yilla, Llangattoek, Breoonshire, 
aged 87, George Hotchkis, esq. 

At Blankney, in the county of Lincoln, aged 
43, Caroline Horatia Chaplin, widow of Henry 
Chaplin, Vicar of Ryhall, county of Rutland. 

In Albert-st., Landport, aged 82, MaJ. Gilbert 
Langdon, Rojral Marines. 

June 30. At Brighton, aged 67, Sir Thomas 
William Blomefleld, bart Sir Thoma*^ was born 
March 4, 1791, and married, Noy. 11, 1819, Salome, 
dau. of Mr. Sam. Kekewieh, of Peamorc, Deyon. 
He succeeded to the baronetcy on the death of 
his father. Gen. Sir Thomas Blomefleld, who re- 
ceiyed the dignity for his seryices as commander 
of the Artillery at Copenhagen in 1807, in August, 
1824. The deceased is succeeded in the baronetcy 
by his son, the Rey. Thomas Eardley Wilmo^ 
bom in 1820, and married first in 1844 to Miss 
Maitland, third dau. of the late Gen. Sir Peregrine 
Maitland, and niece of the Duke of Richmond ; 
and secondly, in 1853, to the eldest dau. of the 
Rey. J. D'Arcy J. Preston. 

At Weston-in-Gordano, Somerset, aged 26, 
Anne, wife of the Rey. R. W. Hautenyille. 

At Mount Galpiae, Dartmouth, aged 82, W. L. 
Hockin, esq. 

At Longbridge, aged 68, Henry Turyille, esq. 
E.LP. 

At his residence, Terrace-bouse, Polygon, 
Southampton, aged 73, John Homblow Turner, 
esq., formerly or Clapham-Common, Surrey. 

At St. Leonard's-eourt, near Glocester, Mary 
Anne, widow of John Armstrong, esq. 

At Compton-terrace, Islington, aged 26, Mr. 
Edward Leachman, of Ockbrook, Derby. 

At Walsal, aged 36, Ann Wells, wife of Mr. 
Frank James, and eldest dau. of the late T. Wells 
Inirram, esq., of Birmingham. 

July 1. At his seat, Whiteway, near Chad- 
leigh, aged 51, Montague Edmund Newcombe 



Parker, eso ., who for many years represented the 
southern diyisiou of this county in parliament. 

At Wood-end, near Matlock, aged 58, Charles 
Milhes, esq. 

At Scarborough, William Charles Chaytor, esq., 
of Durham, Registrar to the Dean and Chapter or 
Durham, and second son of the late Lient.*>CoL 
Henry Chaytor, of the 1st Regt. of Foot^uards. 

At West Cowes, Isle of Wight, aged 55, William 
John Forster, esq , of Tynemouth, Northumber- 
Uuad, nephew of the late Lord Eldon. 

At the Vicarage, Marr, near Doncaster, aged 
76, Emma Jane, wife of the Rey. J. Watson, Vicar. 

At Onslow-sq., Brompton, aged 7, Walter Gill- 
bert, son of Major -Gen. G^rge Warren. 

At St. Leonard's, aged 60, James G. L. Trimbey, 
esq., of Binfield-lodge. Berkshire. 

At his father's r^dence, Priory-st., Chelten- 
ham, aged 28, John James Lloyd Williams, Oapt. 
in H.M.'s 73rd Regt. 

At Bath, Harriett Matilda, widow of Capt. 
William Thomas, H.M.'s 48th Regt. 

At Lower Streatham, Anne Elizabath, reHct of 
James Norris, esq., of Spencer-lodge^ Wand** 
worth-eommon. 

At Holloway, Louisa, wife of John Pullen, esq., 
of St. Switbin*s-lane, and late of Powis^ptaM, 
Bloomsbury, solicitor. 

Aged 24, Jane, sixth dan. of John Edward 
Terry, esq., of the Oroye, Sydenham, Kent. 

July 2. After a short illness, in London, VU* 
eountess Falkland. Her ladyship was the yonng^ 
CRt of the fiye daus. of the late King WDUam Iv., 
by Mrs. Jordan, and was bom Noy. 5, 1808. She 
msrried, Dec. 27, 1830, Visct. Falkland, by whom 
her ladyship had issue, an only son, Cipt. the 
Hon. Lucius William Cary, bora Noy. 24. 1831. 
Lady Falkland was possessed of considerable 
literary talent, and her last work, " Chow-chow," 
has been only a few months before the public. 

At Blandford St. Mary, Dorsetshire, ttom the 
elTects of a broken thigh, aged 66, Adni. George 
Frederick Byyes, R.N., C.B. 

At Kingstown, Ireland, the infant dan. of Sir 
Frederick and Lady Fowke. 

At Lexden, Essex, aged 64, John Chaplin, eeq., 
one of her Majesty's Justices of the Peace for 
the Borough of Colchester. 

At South Clerk-st., Edinburgh, Thomaa Hen- 
derson, esq., M.D., late of the H.E.I.C.S. 

At Biarritz, Bayonne, aged 35, W. Arery 
Bushnell, esq., husband of the lady known as 
Miss Catherine Hayes. 

At Queen's-gardens, Hyde-park, aged 59, Fred- 
erick Cutler, esq., youngest son of the Rey. John 
Cutler, formerly Head Master of the King's 
School, Sherborne. 

At Hallcraiff, Mrs. Anne Robertson Conningw 
hame, of Auchinharyie, relict of Col. Alexander 
Robertson, of Hallcraig. 

At Lawford-house, Essex, aged 53, Tbomee 
Nunn, esq., a member of the firm of Meaen. 
Nunn and Co.. bankers, of Manningtree, and for 
many years tne respected master of the Eaeex 
and Suffolk fox-hounds, haying snoeeeded hie 
uncle, Carrington Nunn, esq. 

Aged 26, Stephen Cody, esq., merchant, Tooley- 
St, son of Patrick Cody, esq., Dunganrin, oo. 
Waterford. 

July 3. Within a few days of the age of 88, 
Jacob Wilson, esq., of Alsten-honse. 

At Bath-yale, near Congleton, agrd 62, CSiarles 
Vaudrey, esq., one of her MMjesty*8 Justioes of 
the Peace for the borough of Congleton. 

At Cork, John Webb, esq., of Castletown Roche, 
near Mallow, Ireland. 

Aged 63, William James Reynolds, esq., of St. 
George's-square, Pimlioo. 

At Carlton Gardens, aged 11 montixs, Mary 
Sarah, dau. of Viscount Ooderich. 

At Meynell Langley, Derbyshire, aged S9, God- 
frey Mejmell, esq. 

At Stoke Holy Cross, aged 46, William Moore, 
esq. 

Aged 68, Oapt John Elsdon. 



1858.] 



Obituaby. 



205 



At Worksop, aged 8, the Hon. Frederick Orde 
Powlett, third son of Lord Bolton. 

At Mount Clement's, Harrow-weald, aged 59, 
Edward Layton, esq. 

At bis residence, Gloucester-terrace, Regent's- 
park, aged 83, Israel Bamed, esq. 

At the Rectory, Leckhampton, near Chelten- 
ham, aged 63, Joseph Stanton, esq., late Capt. in, 
the East India Company's Marine Service. 

At Bargaly, John Mackie, esq., late M.P. for 
the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright. 

At Harleston, aged 82, Harriott, widow of Thos. 
Etheridge, esq. 

Aged 59, Miss Elizabeth Catherine Ward, late 
of Baker-st., Portman-sq., eldest dau. and last 
sunriTing child of the late Joseph Ward, esq., for- 
merly of Bedford-sq. 

Robert Cassidy, esq., Monsterevan, co. Kildare, 
Ireland. 

July 4. At Heme Bay, aged 77, Capt. Edward 
McOrath, late Paymaster of the 86th Biegt. (Royal 
County Down). 

At Anglesea, Hants, Georgiana Elixabeth, 
youngest dau. of the late Rev. S. Kilderbee, D.D., 
of Great Glemham, Suffolk. 

At the residence of her son-in-law. Upper Bed- 
ford-pl., Russell-sq., London, aged 86, Catharine, 
relict of Samuel Turner, esq., of Sheffield, and 
fourth dau. of the late Dr. William Greene, of 
Thundercliffe-grange, near Ecclesfleld. 

At Woodford, Essex, aged 69, Elizabeth, widow 
of the Rev. Jolm Bunce. 

Aged 71, John Friend, esq., of Brooksend, Isle 
of Thanet. 

At Rodney-place, Cheltenham, aged 72, Arnold 
Thompson, esq. 

At Montpellier-crescent, Brighton, aged 27, 
George St. George, esq., lieut. 25th Bombay 
Native Infantry. 

At his residence, Nelson-sq., Blackfriars, aged 
74, Robert Mathers, esq., upwards of 55 years in 
the Bank of England, and many years principal 
of the Chancery-office. 

At St Peter's-equare, Hammersmith, aged 41, 
Jane, wife of W. R. Beck, of Regent-et. 

At St. Germain's-place, Blaokheath, aged 55, 
Mr. Cbarles Odell, of the firm of R. S. Cox and 
Co., St. Paul's-churchyard. 

Aged 64, Stubbs Wight wick, esq., of Bloxwich, 
in the county of Stafford, and late of Cheltenham, 
Magistrate and Deputy-Iieut. 

At Broadward, near Leominster, aged 28, 
Francis J. Edwards, esq. 

At Rivington-hall, near Bolton, aged 73, Robt. 
Andrews, esq., of Little Lever and Rivington, a 
Depnty-Iieut., and for many years an active 
magistrate for Lancashire. 

At Boulogne-sur-Mer, aged 81, Eliza Peters 
Washington, relict of Thomas John Parker, esq., 
formerly of the Royal-crescent, Bath. 

At the house of her brother-in-law, Lovell 
Reeve, esq., Hutton, near Brentwood, Essex, 
Miss Sarah Reeve. 

July 5. At an advanced age, William Harson 
Bayly, esq., merchant, Harson-villa, Stonehouse. 

Aged 7, Earl Oower, eldest son of the Marquis 
and Marchioness of Stefford. 

At Upton-place, West Ham, aged 83, Sarah, 
widow of Thomas Sharp, esa., late of Newgate-st. 

At Bruges, aged 44, Richard Brome Bebary, 
esq., of Weston-in-Arden, Warwickshire. 

Aged 53, William Wilson, esq., of Brookfleld- 
eottage, Mitcham, Surrey. 

At Ruthven-house, near Perth, Donald Sinclair 
M'Lagan, esq., of Glenquoich. 

July 6. Drowned by the upsetting of a plea- 
«ure-boat, near Ryde, Major George Hamilton, 
late of H. M.'s 10th Regt. 

At Esplanade. Plymouth, aged 65, Joseph Stock, 
esq., of Bourn Brook Hall, Worcestershire. 

At Hackney-terr., London, aged 80, Robert 
Knox, esq., formerly of Scarborough. 

At Studiey, Warwickshire, aged 34, Anne Jane, 
wife of A. A. Morrall, esq. 
. At Osgodby-hall, soddflnly, of apoplexy, aged 



24, Pelsant Henry, second son of G. P. Dawson, 
esq. of Osgodby-hall, n^^ar Selby. 

At Brockton-cour^ Shropshire, Martha Ann, 
wife of William H. Cooke, esq., of the Inner- 
Temple and Wimpole-st., London. 

At Emmotland, aged 73, the widow of Richard 
Harrison, esq. 

At CasUe-terr., Kentish-town, aged 89, Lucy 
Gunning, wife of Thos. Wyatt Gunning, esq., 
barrist er-at-law. 

At Boulston, Pembrokeshire, aged 29, Frederick 
Ackland, esq., C.E., third son of the Ute Rofa«rt 
Innes Ackland, esq., of Boulston. 

At Gosport, aged 68, Lydia, widow of Jos^h 
Goodevp, esq. 

At Blalnbloddie, Carmarthenshire, aged 61, 
John Walter Winfleld, esq. 

At Sydney-cottage, Reading, Berks, aged 75, 
William Corbett, esq., late of Somerset-honee. 

July 7. At her residence, Stoke Damerel, 
Lucy Ann, widow of Capt. A. Blennerhasset^ 
of Monkstown, near Dublin, ancL^aetiond dau. 
of the late Major-Gen. Robert DougilM, formerly 
Adjutant-Gen. of the Forces in the West Indies. 

At Sussex-gardens, Hyde-park, Isabel, wife of 
Montague Dettmarr, esq., Capt. H.M.'s 3rd Light 
Dragoons, of Beech-lodge, Marlow, and youngest 
dan. of the late John Gore, esq., of Harts Wood- 
ford. 

Aged 85, Eliza, the widow of John Saint, esq., 
of Groombridge-plaoe, Kent. 

At South Auddey-st., London, Godfrey Alan, 
youngest son of Lord and Lady Macdonald. 

At Durham-place, Chelsea, John H. SporreU, 
esq., late of the Admiralty. 

At his residence, George-street, aged 63, W. 
Welsh, esq., surgeon. 

At Welhng, Kent, Charles Dix, esq., M.A., of 
Caius College, Cambridge. 

At New Park-road, Stockwell, aged 17, Geor- 
gina Eliza Kalherine, eldest dau. of Alexander 
Finlay, esq. 

James George, esq., of Gotham, BristoL The 
deceased, who was formerly a member of the 
Town Council, and, in 1837, served the office of 
Mayor, was a magistrate of the city, a director 
or member of several public companies, and an 
efficient coadjutor in Uie management of many 
of the local charities. 

At the Abbey, Burton-on-Trent, Robert Thome- 
will, esq. 

Aged 74, Sarah, the wife of the Rev. Thos. 
Hartwell Home, B.D., Prebendary of St. Paul's 
Cathedral, London. 

At Worthing, Sussex, aged 54, Sophia, relict 
of Joseph Harper, esq., of Wyndham-place, 
Bryanston-sq., and of Browston-hall, near Tar- 
mouth. 

Aged 74, Eleanor Eliza, widow of the Rev. C. 
Taylor, D.D., Chancelloz of the Diocese of Here- 
ford. 

At Queen's-road, Peckham, aged 82, Bei^amin 
R. Aston, esq. 

In Gloster-cresoent north, Hyde-park, Edward 
Punier, esq., late of Calcutta. 

Suddenly, at Lambley Rectory, Notts, aged 48, 
Emma, wife of the Rev. Halsted E. C. Cobden, 
only remaining dau. of Sir George and Lady 
Carroll. 

At Ovington-terrace, Brompton, aged 68, S. 
Francis, esq., late of the Commissariat Depart- 
ment of H. M.'s Treasury. 

At Guemsev, G. W. RoUnson, esq.. Captain 
H. M.'s 86th Regiment. 

July 8. At his reridence, Sussex-lodge, Addi- 
son-road. Kensington, aged 59, W. Barber, esq. 

At Dawlish, aged 74, Ann Frederick, second 
dau. of the late Richard Baylay, esq., of Stoke. 

At Harefleld, Hants, the seat of his son-in-law, 
Sir Edward Butler, Arthur Bailey, eso. 

At Morpeth, aged 75, Henry Horsfall, esq. 

Elizabeth, wife of Charles Mountford Burnett, 
esq., M.D., West Brook-house, Alton. 

At South Shields, aged 91, Mr. John Clengh, 
one of the oldest shipowners in the port, and for 



206 



Obituary. 



[Aug. 



many yean an actiTe member of the eoimnitteea 
of aifferent insurance associations at South 
Shields. 

At Woodthorpe, aged 78, Mary, widow of Geo. 
Phillipps, esq., of Daybrooke, Nottinghamshire. 

At Gateshead, aged 78, Margaret, wido «^ of Capt 
Atkinson, R.N. 

At Southend, Essex, afted 70, William Henry 
Ktog, esq., formerly Collector of H.M.'s Customs, 
at Leigh. 

At Leeds, Kent, aged 58, Mary, wife of Thomas 
Mackintosh, esq., of Quadalupe-y-Calvo, Mexico. 

July 9. At Chudleigh, aged 82, Henry Hol- 
man Mugg, esq. 

AtMollington Par8onage,Oxon, aged 31, Martha 
Parr, wife of the Rev. T. H. Tait, and dau. of 
Robert Parsons, esq., of Petersfleld, Hants. 

At Geneva, Margaret, yoimgest dau. of Robert 
Eglinton, esq., of Dunoon-castle, Dunoon, Ar- 
gyleshire. 

At Corsham, Aaron Little, esq., surgeon. 

At Edinburgh, aged 73, Major-General John 
MitcheU. 

At his residence, Luton, Bedfordshire, Joshua 
Ferraby, third son of the Rev. John Ferraby, 
Vicar of Welford. 

At Leamington, aged 70, Christian, widow of 
John Machen, esq., of Glasgow. 

At Hamsteels, aged 88, Mrs. Barbara Byerly, 
relict of Ralph Bverly, esq., of Lancaster. 

Aged 72, Joseph Young, esq., of Sydney-lodge, 
Beading, Berks. 

At the Vicarage, Ugborough, Devonshire, aged 
23, Maria Charlotte May, eldest child of the Rev. 
John May. 

At Silchester, aged 73, Henry Newnham, esq. 

July 10. At Devizes, aged 59, Elizabeth, relict 
of Capt. Dewell, R.H.A., late of Monk's-park, 
WUis. 

At Hull, aged 75, Margaret, wife of Joseph 
Ayre, esq., M.D. 

Aged 69, Elizabeth, third dau. of the late John 
Stevens Creed, esq., Burv St. Edmund's. 

At Llanbadoc, near Usk, Monmouthshire, aged 
75, Augusta Maria Nicholl, widow of William 
NichoU, esq.. M.D., of Ryde, Isle of Wight. 

At Harold's-cross, near Dublin, aged 86, James 
Bht>n, esq. 

At the house of her son-in-law, Caroline-place, 
Mecklenburg-sq., aged 64, Martha, relict of Ed- 
mund Miles, esq., formerly of Kingston, Jamaica, 
and of Lloyd's, London. 

July 11. At Sandwich, very suddenly, aged 
45, Jonn S. Hooper, esq.. Manager of the National 
Provincial Bank, Sandwich. 

At Low Leyton, Essex, aged 46, John Brad- 
stock, esq. 

At Belle-vue-terraee, Whitby, aged 73, John 
Schofleld, esq., shipowner. 

At his rendence, Portland-sq., aged 69, Wm. 
White Ridlev, esq., merchant, of Plymouth. 

At Dolheiod, Carmarthenshire, aged 75, J. R. 
Lewes Llovd, esq. 

At Castieshange, oo. Roscommon, aged 80, 
Edward Mitchell, esq. 

At Kensington, aged 50, Thomas Carington 
Campbell, esq. 

At Killsborough, oo. Kilkenny, Ireland, aged 
85, William George Turner, esq., late of the 35th 
K. O. B. 

July 12. At his residence, Crescent, Plymouth, 
aged 70, Major-Oen. J. H. Dunsterville, Col. of 
the 1st Grenadier Regiment, Bombay Native In- 
fantry. Gen. Dunsterville entered the H.E.I.C. 
service in the year 1805, was present at the battle 
or Kirkee, in which he served as a volunteer, on 
the staff of Gen. Burr, and was afterwards en- 
gaged in the pursuit of the Peishwa Bajee Row, 
under Gen. Sir L. Smith. He also served for 
many years on the staff, and eventually became 
Commlisary-Qen. of the Bombay Army, which 
appointment he held until he left India, in 1847. 

At Lejrton-housa, Essex, aged 14, Eliza Stanley, 
•eeond dau. of Thomas Morris, esq., of Abbots- 
fueld, Tavistock, Devon. 



At Southampton, of a lingering decline, aged 
24, Jane, youngest dau. of '^ce- Adm. Sir Henry 
and Lady Pnncott. 

At Booking, aged 62, Emily Georgiana, widow 
of Robert Rolfe, esq. 

At Westboume, Liskeard, aged 70, Peter Glubb, 
esq. 

At Somerset-place, Stoke, aged 75, Mrs. Strong, 
widow of Lieut. Strong, R.N., of East Stcne- 
house. 

Elizabeth, wife of R. Mullings, esq., of Ciren- 
cester, and eldest dau. of the late Rev. C. Tud- 
way, Vicar of Chiseldon, Wilts. 

At St. Stephen's Par^nage, Tunbridge, Miry 
Dorothea, wife of the Rev. William Owen. 

Age 75, Adriao Ribeiro Neves, esq., late of Lis- 
bon. B.I.P. 

At Sussex-terrace, Winchester, aged 56, Thomaa 
Alsop Dearman. 

At Ryde, Isle of Wight, Katherine Theresa, 
only surviving dau. of Sir F. C. Knowles, hart., 
of Lovel-hill, Berks. 

At Edinburgh, aged 55, Mary, wife of G. R. 
Elkington, esq., of Northfield, near Birmingham. 

July 13. At Leytonstone, Essex, aged 65, 
Jane, wife of Henry Bear, esq. 

At Southtown, Great Yarmouth, (at the resi- 
dence of her son, the Rev. Mark Waters), aged 
84, Mrs. Waters. 

Aged 57, Mary, wife of Edward Nason, eeq., 
surgeon, Nuneaton. 

At Merton, Surrey, Mary, wife of Edward 
White, esq., of Great Marlborough-st. 

At Portland-cottage, Leamington, Frances, 
wife of Abraham Alexander, esq. 

At Clifton-wood-hou^e, Bristol, aged 34, Her- 
bert Francis Mackworlh, esq.. Government In- 
spector of Mines. 

At Brighton, Harriet Amelia, wife of N. Ed- 
wards Vaughan, esq., of Rheola, Glamorganshire. 

At Bennett-st.. Bath, aged 79, Mary, eldest 
dau. of Lock Rolunson, esq., late of Chaolington, 
Oxon. 

At Kirk Michael, Scotland, aged 31, William 
E. Lowes, esq., of South wick-place, London. 

Aged 62, Martha, relict of Richard Bucking- 
ham, esq., of the Grove, Stratford, Essex. 

At her residence, Glocester-road, Regent*s- 

Eark, Ann, widow of John David Towse, esq., 
tie of Fishmonger's-hall, London. 

At his residence. North-house, Tewkesbury, 
aged 54, Anthony Sproule, esq. 

July 14. Aged 77, Atkinson Morley, eeq., of 
Old Burlington-st. 

At his residence, Pamasse-place, Jersey, aged 
38, Willis Allarston Benson, esq., son of Thomas 
Benson, esq., London. 

In Great Russell-st , Bloomsbury, aged 83, 
George John Child, esq. 

At his residence. Upper Tooting, Surrey, aged 
55, Richard Shillingford, esq. 

At Boxmoor-house, Hemel Hempstead, Hert- 
fordshire, Mary Anne Theresa, only surviving 
dau. of Thomas Davis, esq. 

At his residence, Clougha-cottage, Quenimore, 
near Lancaster, aged 75, John Simpsoni eeq., of 
St. Thomas*-sq., Hackney, one of her Maiestj's 
Justices of the Peace for the county of Middlesex. 

At Regent-sq., St. Pancras, Miss Margaret 
Susanna Du Croz. 

At Woodcroft, Cuckfield, Sussex, aged 17, 
Amelia, youngest dau. of the late George Knott, 
esq., of Bohun-lodge, East Bamet, Herts. 

July 15. At South -St., Park-lane, London, 
aged 61, the Countess of Cardigan, dau. of the 
late Adm. John R. D. ToUemache. She married 
first Mr. C. F. C. A. J. Johnstone, but that mar- 
riage was dissolved in 1826. On the 10th of June, 
the same year, she married the Earl of Cardigan, 
(then Lord Brudenell.) 

At the Chateau de Nothax, Destelbergen, near 
Ghent, Belgium, of malignant scarlet fever, aged 
48, leaving a young family of eleven surviving 
children, Mai^faret, wife of James Greenflek^ 
eeq., of Brynderwen, near Uak, Monmouthshire, 



1858.] 



Obituary. 



207 



and second dan. of Sir Joseph Bailey, bart., M.P. 
for the county of Brecon. 

At Church Langton Rectory, aged 37, Anne, 
only dau. of the late Rev. Thomas Hanbary. 

At Sieights-hall, near Whitby, aged 30. Frances 
Jane, fifth dau. of the late John Beatty West, 
esq., of Mount Anville, near Dublin, and several 
years M.P. for the city of Dublin. 

At hin residence, Moor-green, South Stoneham, 
aged 75, John Pocock, esq. 

At Destebbergen, near Ghent, Margaret, wife 
of James Greenfield, esq., of Brynderwen, Mon- 
mouthshire, and second dau. of Sir Joseph Bai- 
ley, hart., M.P. 

At his residence, the Court -lodge, Cuxton, 
aged 70, Mr. William Pye. 

At Chelsea, William, youngest son of James 
Peet, esq., of Derby. 

Aged 9, Charles Malet, eldest son of Capt. Wm. 
Southey, Deputy Collector, Jerruch, Scinde. 

At Norton-cottage, Freshwater, Isle of Wight, 
aged 87, Sally, widow of Wm. Michell, esq. 

Julv 16. At tus residence. Stone-cottage, St. 
Peter\ Thanet, aged 61, Charles Allnutt, esq. 

At his house in Ravensdowne, Berwick-on- 
Tweed, aged 59, John Cunninghame, esq. 



At Kensington, Sophia, wife of Francis W. T. 
Hanunond, esq. 

Aged 16, Clarence, second son of H. M. Walton, 
esq., of Richmond, Surrey. 

At Manor-cottage, East India>road, the resi- 
dence of her son-in-law, Mr. J. S. Anhton, aged 
75, Mrs. A. M. £. Smith, relict of Giles Smith, 
esq., of Hristol. 

July 17. At Woodford, Essex, aged 80, Frances, 
relict of John Wood, esq., of Wdlthamstow, and 
dau. of the late Rey. Edmund Heysham, Rector 
of Little Munden, Herts. 

At Albemarle-st., aged 41, Thomas Coutts 
Loch, esq., of the Civil Service, Bengal. 

Jtt/y 18. Aged 10 months, Charles Hugh 
Watkm, youngest child of Mr. and Lady Annora 
Williams Wynn. 

Aged 67, Hannah Phipps, wife of Wat 'Vniliam 
Tyler, esq., of HoUoway-plaee, HoUoway. 

Aged 78, Mr. Lyon Solomon, of Union - st., 
Borough. 

At High-st., Camden-town, Effie, youngest 
dau. of Mr. John Dalziel. 

July 19. Of diphtheria, aged 14, Sarah Jane 
Nora, only dau. Of Mr. R. D. Rea, of St. George's* 
road, Southwark. 



TABLE OF MORTALITY IN THE DISTRICTS OF LONDON. 
(Drom the Betums issued by the JReffistrar-OenercU.) 







Deaths Registered. 




BirthR Registered. 


Week ending 
Saturday, 


Under 

20 years 

of Age. 


20 and 
under 40. 


40 and 
under 60. 


60 and 
under 80. 


37 
41 

39 


i 


i 1 


1 


1 


June 26 . 
July 3 . 

„ 10 . 

„ 17 . 


600 
673 

677 


132 
175 

125 


145 
183 

160 


174 
169 

172 


1092 
1241 

1173 


823 

828 

788 


839 
775 

796 


1662 
1603 

1584 



PRICE OF CORN. 



Average ^ Wheat, 
of Six > 9, d. 
Weeks, j 43 9 



Barley. 

9, d, 
31 



Oats. 
9, d. 
26 2 



Rye. 
9, d, 
30 11 



Beans. 

9, d, 
42 7 



Peas. 

9, d. 
43 4 



^a^^^} 463|304 I 26 6 |30 8 [438 |446 

PRICE OF HAY AND STRAW AT SMITHFIELD, July 19. 
Hay, 8^. 16#. to 3^. 18*.— Straw. IL 14». to 11. 18#.— Oover, 4d, 16#. to 61. 6#. 

NEW METROPOLITAN CATTLE-MARKET. 
To sink the Offid — per stone of 81bs. 



Beef 3*. ed.io4a. Od. 

Mutton 4f. Od,to^. 4d. 

Lamb 4f. Bd.to69. 4d. 

Veal 4f. Orf. to4f. 4d. 

Pork 3#. 8rf. to4ff. 4d. 



Head of Cattle at Market, July 19. 

Beasts 4,602 

Sheep 23,900 

Calves 742 

Kgs 860 



COAL-MARKET, July 19. 
Best Wallsend, per ton, 139. Qd. to 17«. Sd. Other sorts, 12s. Od. to 14#. 6d. 



TALLOW, per cwt.— Town TaUow, 60*. Od. Petersburgh Y. C, 49t. 6rf. 



METEOEOLOGICAL DIAHY, bt e. GOULD, Ute W. GARY. 181, StEAMD. 
JVom Jhm 24 to Julg 23, * 





It»t>r. 








If 


1 






Weather. 


%3 


Ij 


1 


¥ 




Weather. " 


Jnnp 


=- 


■> 


=> 






June 





o 


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24 










rail 


H 


f.t 


60 


M 






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w» 


30. 2? 


do. 


10 












Wt 






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30. 0! 




11 












27 




(M 


Rl 


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do.oloady 


12 


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74 


fi« 


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do. 


28 




711 


BO 


SO. Of 




l» 




71 


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29. 9t 




2fl 




Bfi 




30. 0! 


do. do. 


14 


Rl> 


77 




29 9f 


BIT 


80 






fiH 


30. 1( 




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74 


84 


7S 


29. 91 


T.hy.ni.tUt 






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30. o: 


■«.\i do. 


i« 


71 


7« 


fiS 


29. 7! 








K» 


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29, « 


do. do. rain 


17 




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fiB 


H9. 9f 


do. 






60 


59 


30. OS 


;loudy 


IH 


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heavy nu air 










30. IC 




14 


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29. 74 




m 
















t« 


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29. 71 


d.liy.n..tli.lt. 


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da 






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72 


ftH 


29. 91 


nun,cl0Dd7 


** 






W* 






23 


64 


74 


60 


S9. 69 





DAILY PRICE OF STOCKS. 



End 

Joir. 


a per 


CEnt. 


£ 


S^. 


Slock, 


Ei. Billi. 
jGl.iHM. 


l^na>. 


Ei.B<Bdi 

\. Sl.dOO. 




,hut. 


96 

s 

96 
95 
96 
95i 
96 
95 
95 
95 
96 
96 
96 
95 
96 
95 
95 
96 
95 
96 
96 

m 

96 
£Wt 
96* 


96i 
951 
96 
95i 
951 
96i 
961 
961 
951 
96 
96 
96 
95 
95 
96 
95 
96 
95 
95 
95 
96 
96i 
96J 
96i 
961 
961 


220 
2221 


shut. 


36 pm. 




lOli 


25 
26 


17 pm. 

17 pm. 
16 pm. 






34 pm. 

36 pm. 

31 P 


101 
101 




220 
2211 
220] 
222 
2201 
222 
2201 
222 
222 
222 
222 
222 




29 
SO 
J.l 

i 


















15 pm. 








80 pm. 
Wpm. 












6 






20 pm. 




»5i 
95* 
951 
95} 
B6t 
95 
96) 
95 

95 
95 
96 
95 
96 

se 




81pm. 

34pni. 
34 pm. 
33 pm. 


loii 


7 
8 
9 
10 
12 
18 
14 
IS 
16 
17 
19 
EC 
81 
S2 

sa 


221 


19 pm. 


219 
221 
218 
221 


20 pm. 




82 pm. 

32 pm. 

33 pm. 
33 pm. 
86 pm. 






221 
222 
233 
223 
224 
2221 
224 
225 
226 
226 


16 pm. 




218 
218 


16 pm. 
15 pm. 


lOOl 


219 


37 pm. 
Mpm! 




looi 












19 pm. 
19 pm. 




217 


35 pm. 


, 



THE 

GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE 

AND 

HISTORICAL REVIEW. 

SEPTEMBER, 1858. 



• 



CONTENTS. 

PA as 

MINOR CORRESPONDENCE. — Burke's Opinion of Cherbourg— Family of Strode of 

CO. Somerset— Arms— Nigel de Albini 210 

The Arms, Armour, and Military Usages of the Fourteenth Century 211 

Documents Illustrative of the Sketch of Walter de Merton's Life 228 

Cherbourg, in connexion with English History 234 

Marie-Antoinette 289 

The First Newspaper on Vancouver's Island 246 

The History of King Arthur 246 

ANTIQUARIAN RESEARCHES.— British Archaeological Association, 251 ; ArchsBological 
Institute, 277; Surrey Archeeological Society, 290; Sussex ArcbsDological Society, 
2&i ; Historical and Archeeological Societies of Germany and Switzerland 298 

CORRESPONDENCE OF SYLVANUS URBAN.— Descendants of the Stuarts 299 

HIbTORICAL AND MISCELLANEOUS REVIEWS.— Ferguson's English Surnames, and 
their place in the Teutonic Family, 300; Bedford's Blazon of Episcopacy — Cooke's 
Power of the Priesthood in Absolution, and a few remarks on Confession, with an Ap- 
pendix containing Quotations from the most eminent English Divines — Caird's Ser- 
mons— Yard's Sermons on our relation to the Holy Trinity and to the Church of God 
—** Dull Sermons" 301 

Promotions and Preferments 802 

BIRTHS 802 

MARRIAGES 804 

OBITUARY— with Memoirs of the Marquis of Queensberry— Sir Charles Abney Hastings, 
Bart., 809 ; lientenant-General Sir C. F. Smith, K.C.B.— Colonel John Gordon, of 
Cluny, 310; Anthony King Newman, Esq 8ll 

Clxkot nxcxAszD 811 

Dkaths, arrange in Chronological Order 812 

Registrar-General's Return of Mortality in the Metropolis— Markets, 319 ; Meteorological 

Diary— Daily Price of Stocks 320 



By STLVANUS UEBAN, Gekt. 



MINOR CORRESPONDENCE. 



BURKE'S OPINION OF CHERBOURG. 

Mr. Urban, — I trust that it may not be 
inconsistent with your views to admit "a 
note " m relation to the French alliance and 
Cherbourg, extracted from a speech of 
Mr. Burke's on the commercial treaty with 
France. Ridicuing what he apprehended 
to be Mr. Pitt's contracted views on the 
subject, and his foi^etfulness of British in- 
terests, Burke pointedly said, — "He (Mr. 
Pitt) seems to consider it as an affair of two 
little compting hoiises, and not of two great 
nations ; he seems to consider it as a con- 
tention between the sign of the Fleur-de-lia 
and the sign of the old Red Lioriy for which 
should obtain the best custom." 

'* ITie love," continued he, " that France 
bears to this country has been depicted 
in all the glowing colours of romance. Nay, 
in order to win upon our passions at the 
expense of our reason, she has been per- 
sonified, decked out in all her lilies, and 
endued with a heart incapable of infidelity, 
and a tongue that seems only at a loss to 
convey the artless language of that heart. 
She desires nothing more than to be in 
f iendship with us. She has stretched forth 
her arms to embrace iw ; nay more, she has 
s^-retched them through the sea, — witness 
Cherbourg. Curiosity may be indulged 
without danger in survejring the pyramids 
of Kgj-pt, — those monument- of human 
power for no human purpose. Would I could 
say the same of Cherbourg. We gaze at the 
works now carrying on in that harbour like 
the silly Trojans, who gazed at the wooden 
horse whose bowels teemed with their de- 
struction." 

Mr. Burke, had he been living, would 
scarcely have joined the hundred senators 
who visited Cnerbourg during the recent 
celebration of such an achievement as the 
completion of its massive and increasing 
fortincations. 



Aug. 12, 1858. 



X. A. X. 



FAMILY OF STRODE OF 
CO. SOMERSET. 

Mr. Urban, — In the absence of any really 
trustworthy history of Somerset, I know 
not how to obtain the information I desire, 
except by your kindly allowing me to " ven- 
tilate" this subject in your pages. 

Of the powerful family of Strode, the 
main branch (of which there is an ample 
pedigree in Hutchins' " Dorset") settled at 
Pamham, and there continued until recent 
times. Another branch, diverging from the 
main stem about 1450, was located at Shep- 
ton Mallet ; and a third, commencing' about 
1650 with Thomas, (second son of Robert 
de Strode of Pamham by Elizabeth Hody,) 
■ettled at Stoke-sub-Hamdon, Somerset, 
upon property derived apparently from the 
said 1 nomas's wife, 'ITieophila, sister of Sir 
John Clifton, Bart., of Barrington and Stoke. 
Of this branch I have but scanty informa- 
tion. One member of it, whose Christian 
name is illegible, was buried at Stoke, Feb. 
26, 1680; another, Joan Strode, married 



in 1622 Richard Hardy, of Sidling, in Dor- 
set. In the time of the Commonwealth the 
Stoke estate was compounded for by Joan 
Strode and George her son ; and from a 
monument in the church I find that John 
Strode died in 1725, a.c;ed 66. 

Of the Shepton branch I have fuller and 
more correct mformation than Burke (" Hist, 
of Commoners") supplies ; but I am at a loss 
to discover how the Barrington estate came 
into the possession of t/tis branch, as that 
property was pimshased by William Clifton* 
and continued in his descendants for some 
years, and naturally would have reverted to 
the issue of Thomas Strode of Stoke, and 
Tbeophila, daughter of the said William 
Clifton. • 

The Incimibent of Stoke-sub-Hamdon 
(a zealous Eintiquary) informs me that the 
name of Strode does not occur in the parish 
registers, (which, indeed, are very defec- 
tive,) nor upon any other monuments than 
those above specified. It is possible that 
this eminent family may have male repre- 
sentatives of the Stoke branch still extant, 
although the Pamham and Barrington lines 
have failed, and are now represented by Sir 
W. Oglander, Burt., and Admiral Sir Chet- 
ham-Strode, K.C.B., respectively. 

I am, &C., C. J. R. 

ARMS. 

Azure, a Chevron Counter-componSe 
Argent and Oules, 

Mb. Urban, — The above coat appears as 
the second Quartering of the arms of Jack- 
son of Ederthorpe and Hickleton, co. York, 
and was allowed by the heralds at the visita- 
tions of 1612 and 1665. It is not, however, 
now known to what family it belongs. Should 
this meet the eye of any one who is acquainted 
with it, I shall be obliged by his informing 
me. C. J. 

NIGEL DE ALBINI. 

Mr. Urban, — In reply to a query in your 
last issue, I beg to say that Nigel de Albini 
was the son of Roger de Albini, bv Amioia 
de Mowbray his wife. Ni^l haul bestowed 
upon him the estates of Robert de Mowbray, 
forfeited by him on account of his rebellion 
a^fainst William Rufus. Nigel married for 
his second wife Oundreda, daughter of 
Gerald de Gornay, by whom he left a son, 
Roger, who succeeding, through his fiitber, 
to the estates of Mowbray, assumed that 
name by command of Henry I., and became 
the founder of tlie English family of Mow- 
bray.— Yours, &c., T. North. 

P.S. I should be glad to be furnished with 
your correspondent's authority for the state- 
ment with respect to Constance de Mowbray. 

Leicester, Aug. 6, 1858. 

The lengthy reports of the proceedings of 
the Archaeological Societies compel us to 
defer our Monthly IntdUameer. a communi- 
cation respecting the allegea foiig;eries of 
Pilgrims* Signs, some articles of obituary, 
and other papers, till next month. 



THE 



GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE 



AND 



HISTORICAL REVIEW. 



THE ARMS, ARMOUR AND MILITARY USAGES 
OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. 

{Continued from p, 114.) 

The articulated epaulette appears in the second quarter 
of the century. It is found in the effigy at Ifleld, e. 1335 ; 
a transitional example, in which the jointed shoulder-cap 
is combined with the disc (Stothard, pi. 59). It is seen 
also in the Ash Church figure, c, 1337 (Stothard, pi. 62); 
and in our engravings, Nos. 36, 12, 13, 2 (vol. cciv. p. 
11), 21, 28 and 29, ranging from 1347 to the end of the 
century. 

Of the shoulder- guard formed of a single piece, a real 
example was found in the excavations of the old castle of 
Tannenberg, and is figured in the instructive volume^ 
describing these researches, by Dr. Hefuer and Dr. WolflFl 
Compare the statue of Conrad von Seinsheim, 1369 (wood- 
cut, No. 10). 

The Elbow-pieces [coudieres or coutes) are of three princi- 
pal kinds: — disc-formed, cup-formed, and articulated. These 
are combined in much variety with the other parts of the 
arm-defences. Sometimes the discs are fastened on a sleeve 
of mail, as in our woodcuts, Nos. 23, 27 and 9 (vol. cciv. p. 
592), either by laces or otherwise. Sometimes the roundels, 
thus fixed to chain-mail sleeves, are armed with spikes*, 
as in woodcut. No. 22. Sometimes they are found at the 
side of the mail sleeve instead of at the elbow, as in the 
GiflFard brass, already cited, and the brass at Ghent (Ar- 
chseol. Journal, vol. vii. p. 287). The cup-formed coudiere 
is seen in the effigy of Giinther von Schwarzburg (woodcut, 

* Die Burg Tannenberg, pi. 10, fig. L. brass of Fitzralph (Waller, pt. 13), and 
' Cc>mpare, for the spiked roundels, the onr woodcut. No. 17. 



212 ArmSy Armour, and Military Usages [Sept. 

No. 1 (vol. cciv. p. 4), and again in that of Sir Guy Bryan 
(Stothard, pi. 96). The cup elbow-guard, with disc at the 
side, is of frequent occurrence. We find it in the Bohun 
effigy (Hollis, pt. 4), in the brasses at Gorleston and Stoke 
Dabemon, c. 1325, in the statues of John of Eltham and 
De Ifleld, 1335 (all given by Stothard), and in the monu- 
ment of De Creke, 1330 (our woodcut, No. 19). The discs 
in these various examples are plain, foiled, or embossed in 
the form of lion masks. They are sometimes fixed by 
laces, sometimes the fastening is not in vieW. When the 
suits are almost entirely of plate, as in the effigy of Sir 
Humphrey Littlebury, c, 1360 (Stothard, pi. 75); our 
woodcut. No. 31, A.D. 1382; and the brass of De Grey 
here given (No. 28), the roundels are still occasionally 
found combined with the cup elbow-guards ; but it is not 
clear if, in these cases, they are distinct plates or only 
part of the cups. In its last and completest phase, the 
elbow-piece was of cup-form, having articulations above 
and below; and at the sides expansions, the object of 
which was to protect the inner bend of the arm, where the 
outcut plates of the upper and lower-arm left that part 
defended only by chain-mail. See examples in our wood- 
cuts, Nos. 12, 39, 2 (vol. cciv. p. 11), 21, 33 and 32, 
ranging from 1360 to 1400. Some exceptional modes of 
forming the elbow-defences exist, but to describe all would 
be an endless task. 

The Gauntlets of the fourteenth century exhibit a similar 
progress to the rest of the armour, beginning in chain-mail 
and ending in plate, offering as they advance various 
experimental examples in scale-work, stud-work, splint- 
work and other fabrics. In the early years of the century 
we find the old chain-mail glove of the preceding age still 
in vogue ; as in the curious sculpture of De Eyther, 1308 
(Hollis, pt. 2), in the miniature from Eoy. MS. 20, A, ii., 
about 1310 (woodcut. No. 22), and in the effigies of De 
Valence and Staunton, c. 1325 (Stothard, pi. 48 and 50). 
It occasionally appears at a later date, as in the statue of 
Louis of Bavaria, 1347 (Hefner, pi. 15). Sometimes the 
glove is of leather only, as in the monument of Du Bois, 
1311 (Stothard, pi. 57), in the Hastings brass, 1347 
(woodcut, No. 36), and in the sculpture of Orlamiinde, 
c. 1360 (Hefner, pi. 146). In the last-named example the 



of the FovrteetUh Century. 



1 


s 


iglgl 


s 


1 


A, 


1 


i 


1 Bl 


1 


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<t Rc<l»riMdOn>T>, 0.taa.bl». 1381 No. » 



214 Arms, Armour, and Military Usages [Sept. 

folds of the buff are very clearly expressed. In the second 
quarter of the century we find gauntlets in which the cuff 
is formed of scale, of splints, or of leather only. The first 
of these is seen in our woodcut, No. 17, from Sloane MS. 
346, date about 1325. It occurs also in the effigy of 
Littlebury, c. 1360 (Stothard, pi. 75). The cuff marked in 
strips occurs in the Ash Church monument, c. 1337 (Sto- 
thard, pi. 61), in the Tewkesbury effigy, c. 1350 (Stothard, 
73), and on many knightly figures in the Meliadus manu- 
script. Add. MS., 12,228. The leather cuff appears in the 
Sandwich monimient, c. 1340 (woodcut. No. 9, vol. cciv. 
p. 592), and in the statue of Blanchfront, c. 1360 (Stothard, 
pi. 71) ; the latter example having the addition of a tassel. 
About the middle of the century arose the use of plate 
gaimtlets, the fingers being articulated, the remainder of a 
broad piece or pieces. These were principally of two kinds, 
which we may call the two-part and the three-part gaunt- 
lets. The two-part consisted of the articulations for the 
fingers, and a broad plate which covered the back of the 
hand and the wrist. The three-part had the articulated 
fingers, a plate for the back of the hand, and another plate 
forming a cuff. The first sort is represented in our en- 
gravings, Nos. 12, 14, 15, 10, 11, 2 (vol. cciv. p. 11), 31 
and 24, ranging from 1360 to the end of the century. The 
broad plates of such gloves exist in one or two instances ; 
as in the Tannenberg example, found and figured by Dr. 
Hefner 5", and in the specimen preserved in the Tower 
Armories. But best of all is the relic at Canterbury, the 
pair of gaimtlets of this fashion, which once belonged to 
the Black Prince, and which still retain the interior glove 
of leather, forming a necessary part of their construction. 
These are figured in Stothard's "Monuments," but with 
less prominence than they deserve. The three-part gaunt- 
lets are shewn in our woodcuts, Nos. 1 (vol. cciv. p. 4), 
16, 29, 26, 32 and 37, dating from 1349 to 1400. A 
variety of the steel gauntlet has the cuffs articulated. 
Examples are found in the effigies of Whatton, c, 1325 
(Stothard, pi. 52); of Pembridge, 1330 (Hollis, pt. 5); of 
John of Eltham, 1334 (Stothard, pi. 55); and of Cheyne, 
1368 (woodcut, No. 13). The statue of Eltham offers a 
further novelty, in the side-plates which are affixed to the 

' Die Burg Tannenberg^ pi. 10. 



1858.] of the Fourteenth Century. 215 

Cliffs. They again appear in the monument of Ingham, 
1343 (Stothard, pi. 66). Another curious device was that 
of arming the knuckles of the gauntlets with spikes (gads 
or gadlings), by which they became weapons as well as 
defences. See our engravings, Nos. 1 (vol. cciv. p. 4), 
21 and 26. The real gauntlets of the Black Prince have 
gads on the middle of the fingers, while at the base 
of them are little figures of lions or leopards. ITie iron 
glove, as an instrument of offence, is mentioned by D'Or- 
ronville in the ''Life of Louis of Bourbon." In an en- 
counter between a champion of the French party and an 
"English Gascon" in 1375, the former threw his adversary 
on the groimd, " et se jeta sur luy, et luy leva la visiere 
en luy donnant trois coups de gantellet sur le visage *." 

Towards the close of the century appears a singular 
ornament: the last joints of the gauntlet are formed in 
imitation of the nails of the finger. See woodcuts, Nos. 28, 
26 and 37. Such gauntlets have been described as termi- 
nating at the third finger-joint ; but it is quite certain that 
the nail ornament belongs to the glove, for in the Ardeme 
monument at ELford, Staffordshire, the knight's glove lies 
by his side, and is thus fashioned. Compare the Brocas 
effigy, 1400, and other sculptures (of the next century) 
given by Stothard, where similar gauntlets are foimd*. 
Another ornament, characteristic of the close of the cen- 
tury, consists of a sort of lozenge, sometimes foliated at 
the points, the centre richly coloured, as if to represent 
enamelling ; and of these lozenges, four are placed side by 
side on the back of the hand. See our woodcuts, Nos. 26 
and 37, dating 1400 and 1401. Gauntlets of stud- work 
appear in our engraving, No. 42, from Eoy. MS. 16, G, vi., 
fol. 304, c. 1330 ; and again in plate 100 of Strutt's "Dress 
and Habits." In lieu of the inner glove of leather, this 
portion of the hand equipment was occasionally of chain- 
mail. Good examples occur in the effigies of Conrad von 
Bickenbach, 1393 (woodcut. No. 24), and of Johann von 
Wertheim, 1407 (Hefaer, pi. 106). Whalebone appears 
to have been occasionally employed in the construction of 
the military glove. Under 1382, Froissart tells us that 
certain soldiers of Bruges " etoient armes la greigneur 

* Chap, xxxiv. sixteenth century, real examples of this 

* They are indeed found as late as the time being in the Tower collection. 



216 Amu, Armour, and Military Uiage$ [Sept. 




1858.] 



of the Fourteenth Century, 



217 

partie de maillets, de houetes et de chapeaux de fer, d'hau- 
quetons et de gands de baleine*'." Velvet was also used 
in its formation. The Inventory of Louis Hutin, in 1316, 
has, " Item, uns gantelcz couvers de velveil vermeil." 
Brass as a material for the knightly gauntlet has already 
been noticed in the relic at Canterbury, suspended over 
the tomb of the Black Prince, Some further varieties of 
this defence may be found in a few monuments, but they 
are rather fanciful exceptions than types, and do not there- 
fore require a particular description. See, among others, 
the examples offered by the brass of De Cobham, 1367 
(Boutell's "Brasses of England"), the effigies of Seinsheim 
and Schoneck (Hefner, pis. 46 and 22), and the figure here 
given {No. 29), the brass of Sir John de St. Quintin, 1397, 
at Bi-ansburton, Yorkshire. In the second half of the cen- 
tury the gauntlets are often found of a highly enriched 
character. The arts of the goldsmith, the chaser and the 
enameller were employed in their adornment. A beautiful 
example of this de- 
coration is supplied 

by the monument of MZfilflnM 

Sir ITiomas Ca^vne ^ . I "t' " y, 

at Ightham, Kent ^^\^--=-'=-=--^'^'='~''™^-=-''°^ ■ '■* 

(Stothard, pi. 77). 
See also Stothard's 
plates 90 and 95. 

Ailettes — those 
curious appendages 
which, fixed to the 
shoulders, appear to 
have answered the 
purpose of a neck- 
shield — are of fre- 
quent appearance 
during the first quar- 
ter of the century, 
and are occ^ionally 

found for a few r™,= Adii. uh.io.-bj, w. i.w. ko. so. 

years beyond this limit. Examples occur in the seal of 
Thomas, Duke of Lancaster, son and heir of Edmund 
Crouchback (Select Seals in British Museum) ; in the brass 
of Septvans, 1306 (Waller, pt. 9) ; in the subject here given 

T. p. 680. 




218 Arms, Armour, and Military Usages [Sept. 

(No. 80), from Add. MS. 10,298, fol. 157, written in 1316; 
in the effigy of Thierstein, 1318 (Hefoer, pi. 41); in the 
Louterell illumination, c. 1320, figured by Carter (Fainting 
and Sculpture, pi. 14); in the Gorleston brass, c. 1325 
(Stothard, pi. 51) ; in the seal of Edward III. as Duke of 
Aquitaine, 1325 (Wailly, vol. ii. p. 372); in his seal as 
king, 1327 ; in the great seal of David II. of Scotland, 1329; 
in the Pembridge statue, c. 1330 (Hollis, pt. 5); in the 
Tewkesbury glass-paintings, c. 1330 (Carter, pis. 20 and 
21); in the seal of John, King of Poland, 1331 °; and in 
our woodcut, Ko. 34, from Eoy. MS. 16, G, vi. They are 
mentioned among the effects of Piers Gaveston in 1318: 
*^ Item, autres divers garnementz dcs armes le dit Pieres, 
ovek les alettes gamiz et frettez de perles^." And in the 
Bohun Inventory in 1322 we find : '' iiij. peire de alettes 
des armes le Counte de Hereford®." In the church of 
Maltby, Lincolnshire, is the sculptured effigy of an un- 
known knight, of the early part of this century, in which 
the ailettes are fixed at the sides of the shoulders, as in the 
example at Basle, figured by Heftier, pt. 2, pi. 41. This 
is the only instance of such an arrangement hitherto 
noticed in our own country. 

The ** Leg-harness" of the knights, like the arm defences, 
made a steady progress towards a complete equipment of 
plate ; and in the transit exhibits a similar variety of ex- 
perimental arrangements, in which the old fabrics of chain- 
mail, scale-work, pourpointerie, splints and stud-work are 
of frequent appearance. In the first quarter of the century 
the mixed fabrics are found ; in the second quarter the full 
arming of plate is attained ; and in the second half of the 
age this full arming of plate becomes general. 

The chain-mail chausses of the thirteenth century are 
frequent in the early years of this period, and of occasional 
occurrence till the middle of it. Examples are afforded by 
the effigies of Septvans, 1306 (Waller, pt. 9) ; of De Kyther, 
1308 (Hollis, pt. 2); of Du Bois, 1311 (Stothard, pi. 57); 
of Thierstein, 1318 (Heftier, pi. 41); of Staunton and 
Whatton, c. 1325 (Stothard, pis. 50 and 52); of Charles 
d'Etampes, 1336 (Guilhermy, p. 272); and our woodcut, 
No. 7 (vol. cciv. p. 590), c. 1340. Chausses of banded- 



' Casts of the last throe seals will b« ' New FoDdera, vol. iL p. 208. 

found in the Sydenham collection. ' Archsol. Joignal, voL ii. p. 849. 



1858.] of the Fourteenth Century. 219 

mail appear in our woodcuts, Nos. 4 (vol. cciv. p. 130) and 
49. Leg-harness of jacked-leather is expressly mentioned 
by Chaucer : — 

** His jambeux were of quirboily." — Tale of Sir nopas, p. 319, 

And seems to be represented in the Italian figure, c. 1335 
(woodcut, No. 27), and again in the effigy of Ingham and 
that at Tewkesbury, engraved by Stothard, pis. 66 and 73^ 

But, in order to obtain some clear understanding of the 
knightly " jambeux," it will be necessary to examine them 
in detail : the materials of them are so much mixed that 
no general description can result in anything but confusion. 
They may be divided into three parts : the chausson with 
its knee-piece (or ffenomllere), the greaves, and the soUeret 
or armed shoe. 

The knee-boss* appears to have formed part of the 
chausson ; and the manner in which, attached to a chausson 
of stud- work, it was strapped over the rest of the leg- 
armour, is excellently shewn in Stothard' s 93rd plate. See 
also, for these stmps, the figures of Littlebury and Monta- 
cute (Stothard, pis. 76 and 95). The bosses of iron fixed 
to leather chausses are mentioned in the Limburg Chro- 
nicle, under the year 1331 : — '' Then the men-at-arms wore 
hose that were made of leather in front ; also arm-defences 
of leather; and the ' Syreck,' which was quilted, with iron 
bosses [Bocklein) for the knees." The effigy of Septvans 
(Hollis, pt. 1) well shews the metal knee-piece overlying 
the quilted chausson. In our woodcuts, Nos. 20 and 36, 
it appears to be fixed on leather. The material of the 
cuissard is often seen to pass beneath the boss, terminating 
sometimes in an escallop (woodcut, No. 39), a leaf-orna- 
ment (No. 1, vol. cciv. p. 4), a dentated edge (Hefiier, 
pi. 22), or other pattern. Where the arming of complete 
plate has been attained, the genouillere has articulations 
above and below ; as in our engravings, Nos. 5 (vol. cciv, 
p. 465), 2 (vol. cciv. p. 11), 21, 33, 26 and 32. The 
statuette of St. George at Dijon shews how the under-plate 
was fastened behind by a strap**. The same monument 
affords also an example of the side-plate affixed to the 

' Compare the " quisseiix de quir boUe" the Tower of London, 
mentioned at p. 585. ^ Arch€eologia, xxv. 572. A cost of 

K " Knee-cop" is the Old-English word this curious Tittle effigy will be found ill 

always used in the ancient Inventories of the Sydenham collection. 



230 Arma, Armour, and Military Utages [Sept. 

cuiBsard, to which it is attached by strap and buckle, 
leaving the inside of the leg free 
from armour, so as not to incom- 
mode the knight in his seat on 
horseback. 

Chaussons of quilted work are 
seen in the brasses of De Bures, 
1302, Septvans, 1300, and GifFird, 
1348 ; and they are mentioned m 
the Inventory of Louis Hutm 
" Item, un cuissiaux gamboiscz," 
&e. Examples, of studded armoui, 
appear in our woodcuts, Nos 17, 
20, 30, 12, 13 and 16, ranging 
from 1325 to 1370, and in the 
brass at Horseheath, Camb., c. 
1380, here given. See also Sto- 
thard's plates, Nos. 07, 73, 75 and 
93 ; the brasses of Cheyne and 
Kncvynton (Waller, pt. 1); that 
of De Paletoot (BoutcU, p. 51); 
the figure of Edward III. on plate 
104 of Strutt's "Dress and Ha- 
bits ;" and the curious drawing 
on folio 40 of Add. MS. 15,477. 
The cuissard formed of strip-work 
is found in the effigies of Kordos- 
ton, 1337, and Bryan, 1391 (both 
engraved by Stothard). The figure 
of Scinsheira (woodcut, No. 10) 
presents a variety which seems to 
be made of leather. Compare the 
side view of this defence, given 
by Hefner in his 159th plate. In 
the curious effigy of Bickenbaeh, 

1393 (;woodcut, No. 24), chain- 

mail is the material employed. ^'" 

The Meliadus manuscript, Add. ""wui l'.m6 °as ^■".''"tmt u-T* 
MSS. 12,228, gives us several ex- No. 3i. 

amples in which banded-mail is similarly used, but the 
garment there is somewhat longer and reinforced with the 
boss. See folio 160''''. and others. A further variety is 




1858.] of the Fourteenth Century. 221 

contributed by that volume, in which a front-plate is added 
to the pieces already mentioned. See folio 104. The cuis- 
sard of chain-mail is again found in a knightly effigy in 
the cathedral of Mainz. The bosses, or knee-pieces, are 
sometimes plain, even to a late period, and sometimes en- 
riched, either with chasing or by themselves taking an 
ornamental form. Examples of the first kind will be found 
in our woodcuts, Nos. 17, 39, 2 (vol. cciv. p. 11), 21, 33 
and 26, from 1325 to the end of the century. Enriched 
specimens are seen in our woodcuts, Nos. 23, 7 (vol. 
cciv. p. 590), 1 (vol. cciv. p. 4), 25, 11 and 29, dating 
from 1330 to 1397. See also Stothard's plates, Nos. 52 
and 61, and especially the monuments of De Bures and 
Fitzralph (Waller, pt. 2 and 13). In some German exam- 
ples the knee-cop is fluted, as in our illustration. No. 1 
(vol. cciv. p. 4), A.D. 1349, and Heftier's plates, Nos. 146 
and 22, a.d. 1360 and 1374. The genouilleres^ like the 
shoulder-plates and elbow-plates, were sometimes armed 
with a spike. This is shewn by a manuscript illumination, 
of about 1340, figured by Hefner, pi. 7. A singular variety 
of the boss and its under-omamcnt is found in the brass of 
Thomas Cheyne, Esquire, 1368 (woodcut. No. 13). The 
foiled bar in the centre of the roundel is again seen on the 
brass of Sir John Cobham, 1354, at Cobham, Kent. 

The Greaves do not exhibit less variety than the other 
parts of the knightly panoply. We have already seen that 
they were sometimes formed of cuir-bouilli, and that the 
shin was sometimes protected only by chain-mail or banded- 
mail. An armour of scale-work occasionally takes place of 
these, as in the example of our engraving. No. 7 (vol. cciv. 
p. 590), and that given by Hefner, pi. 31 ; both of the 
second quarter of the century. Armour of strips (already 
described) also defends the leg at this part, as in our 
examples, Nos. 10 and 11, c, 1370 ; and again in the 22nd 
plate of Hefner and the 96th of Stothard. Shin-defences 
of strip-and-stud work occur in the effigy of Giinther von 
Schwarzburg, 1349 (woodcut. No. 1, vol. cciv. p. 4), in 
the brass of Cheyne, 1368 (woodcut. No. 13), and in the 
monument of Stapelton, 1364 (Stothard, pi. 68). Greaves 
of the classic form — ^that is, plates of metal covering the 
front of the leg — appear frequently during the first half of 
the century, and occasionally to a much later period. This 



222 Arms^ Armour, and Military Usages [Sept. 

entry in the Inventory of the Elffects of Piers Gaveston in 
1313 seems to refer to such defences : — " Item, deux peires 
de jambers de feer^ ventz et noveauz" (Rymer, ii. 203). 
In 1316 the Inventory of Louis *X. furnishes us with — 
" Item, iij. paires de greves et iij. paires de pouloins 
d^acier.^^ We have them represented in our engravings, 
Nos. 17, 27, 19, 20, 36 and 12, rangmg from 1325 to 
1360. Good examples are also afforded by the well-known 
brasses of Fitzralph and D'Aubernoun, c. 1325. The next 
step in the armourer's art was to enclose the whole leg in 
tubes of iron. Defences of this kind appear as early as 
1323, but they do not become general till about the middle 
of the century. They are represented in a bas-relief of 
the tomb of Aymer de Valence, 1323 (Stothard, pi. 49) ; in 
the Bohun monument (Hollis, pt. 4); in the Pembridge 
effigy, 1330 (Hollis, pt. 5); in the figures of John of 
Eltham and De Ifield, c. 1335 (Stothard, pis. 55 and 59); 
in the Ash Church statue, 1337 (Stothard, No. 61); and 
in our woodcuts, Nos. 5 (vol. cciv. p. 465), 2 (vol. cciv. p. 
11), 39, 21, 31, 28, 33, 29, 26, 32 and 37 ; ranging from 
1360 to the end of the century. They are usually con- 
trived to open upon hinges on the outside and to buckle on 
the inside. The Montacute effigy at Salisbury alffords an 
example of this arrangement, among many more that might 
be cited. A variety is offered in the Kerdeston statue 
(Stothard, pi. 64), where the jambard is closed by groups 
of staples, having pins pressed through them. In the figure 
of Charles de Valois at St. Denis, the inside of the greave 
is laced from top to bottom ; but this defence appears to 
represent cuir-bouilli, strengthened with strips of metal. 
There is a good drawing of the effigy in the Kerrich 
Collections, Add. MS. 6,728. Sometimes the greave was 
held tight to the under-plate of the knee-cop by means 
of a nut passed through an opening in the latter, and 
then secured by a half-turn. This is indicated in our 
woodcut, No. 33, but better shewn in Stothard's plate, 
No. 129. 

The leg-harness of the knights was often very highly 
enriched; either by chasing, as in the annexed example 
(No. 32), from Laughton Church, Lincolnshire ; or by gilded 
borders, in which enamels of various colours were set at 
intervals, as shewn by the splendid panoply of Sir Hugh 



1858.] 



of the Fourteenth Century. 



Calveley, the subject of Stothard's 98th and 99th plates. 
The greaves also of De Valois, mentioned above, are orna- 
mented with , rosettes, fillets and Jleura-de- lis arranged in 
vertical bands. 

Among the exceptional 
forms of the leg-harness, 
none is more curious than 
that of the young aspirant 
to knighthood figured in 
our woodcut, No. 50, from 
Eoy. MS., 20, B, xi. In 
this singular example plates 
are fixed upon the mail at 
the knees, at the calves, 
and at the heels. The 
statue of Arensberg (Hef- 
ner, pi. 59) has also an 
odd an-aagement : in front 
of the chausses of chain- 
mail appears a narrow strip 
of plate, invecked on both 
edges, which, passing un- 
der the spur-strap, runs on 
nearly to the end of the 
foot in a sort of tongue, 
or series of overlapping 



Not unfrequentlyfigures, 
otherwise fully armed, are 
without leg-defences of 
any of the materials we 
have examined. Their 
chausses appear to be 
merely of leather or cloth ; 
and this part of their dress, 
in the monuments of the 
time, is often represented 
as of a rich colour, most 
commonly red. Such hose 
are seen in our woodcuts, 
Nos. 7 (vol. cciv. p. 590), 
15 and 16 ; and from large 




224 ArmSy Armour ^ and Military Usages [Sept 

pictures of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries we 
learn that they had soles of leather. 

The arming of the feet passed through similar phases to 
those of the other knightly defences. In the early years 
of the century, as we have already seen, the whole leg- 
harness was often entirely of chain or of banded-mail. 
When to the half-greaves of the shin, plate-armour was 
added for the feet, this was done by continuing the greave 
itself beyond the instep in a series of articulations to the 
end of the foot, but covering only the outer half of it. Ex- 
amples of this arrangement may be seen in the brasses of 
Fitzralph (Waller, pt. 13), D'Aubemoun (Stothard, pi. 60) 
and De Creke (woodcut, No. 19), all of about 1325. Com- 
pare the figures from the Hastings brass, 1347 (woodcuts, 
Nos. 20 and 36). When the tubular jambard was adopted, 
the foot became covered completely with armour of plate ; 
the solleret of this type retaining the articulations of the 
earlier defence. See the figures of Eltham, and the knight 
at Ash Church, c. 1335 (Stothard, pis. 55 and 61), the brass 
of Knevynton (Waller, pt. 1), and our engravings, Nos. 5 
(vol. cciv. p. 465), 13, 39, 29 and 26, ranging from 1360 
to 1400. In these examples the articulations are continued 
from the instep to the point of the shoe; but in other 
cases they occupy half only of the solleret. And the place 
of this half is sometimes in the middle of the foot, some- 
times at the fore-part. Of the first kind, instances occur 
in our woodcuts, Nos. 2 (vol. cciv. p. 11), 21, 31, 33 and 
32. Of the second, specimens are found in the Pembridge 
effigy, 1330 (Hollis, pt. 5), and in those figured by Sto- 
thard, plates 63, 94 and 100. In the second half of the 
century came in the fashion of toes that were not only long 
and pointed, but curiously curved. This mode was copied 
from the ordinary shoes of the gallants of the day, which 
were named " souliers a la Polaine," the fashion having 
been imported from Poland*. Examples of the poulaine 
appear in our woodcuts, Nos. 10, 11, 2 (vol. cciv. p. 11), 



* The Continuator of Nangis notices nnius corna, in longnm aliqni, alii in ob- 

the Poulaines of the French b^nx under liquom, nt griffones habcnt retro et natn- 

the year 1365 : — " Vertes strictissimas et raliter pro unguibus gemnt, ipsi eom- 

nsqoe ad nates decurtatas deportabant, et miiniter deportabant; qaie quidem roctm 

nibilominus, qood magis monstnioram JPoulenas gallice nominabant.*' — (VoL ii. 

erat, sotnlares habcbant, in quibus rostra p. 367» ed. 1843.) 
longissima in parte anteriori ad modum 

2 



1 858.] of the Fourteenth Century. • 225 

21, 24 and 29, dating from 1369 to the end of the century. 
At the close of this age we find some monuments in which 
the soUerets are much outcut at the instep, a defence of 
chain-mail appearing at the opening. See woodcut, No. 
33, here given, and compare Nos. 26, 32 and 37. 

Scale-work and stud-work were also employed for the 
knightly soUeret. The scale-armour sometimes covered 
the whole, sometimes a part only, of the foot. The first 
arrangement is found in a figure of the De Valence monu- 
ment, 1323 (Stothard, pi. 49), in the effigies given by 
Hefiier, pis. 133 and 156, a.d. 1370 and 1394, and in our 
woodcut. No. 6 (vol. cciv. p. 589), from the brass of Sir 
William Cheyney, 1375. The second method is seen in 
the glass-paintings of Tewkesbury Abbey Church, c. 1330 
(engraved in Carter's " Sculpture and Painting" and in 
Shaw's "Dresses"), and in the statue of Littlebury, 1360 
(Stothard, pi. 75). The Sulney figure (woodcut. No. 39) 
has the front of the soUeret in strips, but the heel is cased 
in scale-armour. Shoes of stud- work occur in the effigy of 
Giinther, King of the Romans, 1349 (woodcut. No. 1, vol. 
cciv. p. 4), in that of Schonech, 1374 (Hefner, pi. 22), and in 
manuscript miniatures copied by Strutt on plate 100 of his 
"Dress and Habits." Occasionally the foot has a defence 
of chain-mail only, while the remainder of the leg is 
clothed in armour of plate, of strips, or of cuir-bouilli. See 
Hefner's plate 106, a.d. 1407, and Stothard's plate 96, 
A.D. 1391, for examples of the first two. In the subject of 
our woodcut. No. 27, the greaves appear from their orna- 
mentation to be of cuir-bouilli. A further variety is offered 
by an arrangement in which, though the legs are armed 
to the instep, the foot is clothed only in a kind of hose. 
Examples are supplied by the effigies of Erbach, Wene- 
maer, and the knight at Tewkesbury ; figured in Heftier's 
"Trachten," pi. 125, in the Archseological Journal, vol. 
vii., and in Stothard's "Monuments," pi. 73. 

The head-defences of the fourteenth century may be con- 
sidered under the two classes of Helms and Helmets. 
The Helms are of three leading types : — the " sugar-loaf,'^ 
a form subsisting from the thirteenth century ; secondly, 
the kind familiar to us from the example at Canterbury, 
the helm of the Black Prince, which may be described as 
consisting in its lower half of a cylinder, while the upper 

Gent. Mag. Vol. CCV. e g 



Amu, Armour, and Military/ Usagei [Sept. 




8.] 



of the Fourteenth Century. 



portion, commencing as a cone, terminates in a dome ; 
thirdly, the eingle-cleft, of ■which the ocularium, hitherto 
divided by a bar in the centre, consists of an aperture car- 
ried uninterruptedly 
from one temple to the 
other. 

The sugar-loaf helm 
is usually found in the 
first quarter of the cen- 
tury, though it occa- 
sionally appears at a 
later time. We have it 
in this group (No. 34) 
from Roy. MS. 16, G, 
vi., fol. 387, date about 
1330. 

It occurs again in our 
woodcut, No. 49, circa 
1340 ; and in the etfigy 

ofLandscha- 

den, 1377 

(Hefner, pi, 
I 55). A va- 
I riety of this 

typepresenta ■^-■.Lii' 

a salient an- 

'^"■''^gle in front, 

a contrivance by which the wearer would obtain greater 
freedom of breathing than in the previous headpiece. The 
example here given {No. 35) is from the monument of Sir 
William de Staunton, 1326, in the curious little church at 
Staunton in the Vale of Belvoir. 





{To be continued.) 



228 [Sept. 



DOCUMENTS ILLUSTRATIVE OF THE SKETCH OF WALTER 

DE MERTON*S LIFE. 

Instead of proceeding with the third chapter of the sketch of 
this renowned prelate's life, it is proposed to exhibit to the reader 
in this month's number three documents : — 

1. An abstract of his will, with extracts from the executors* accounts. 

2. The founder's character, as described in the Hexameters of 
Thomas Wykes, a Canon of Osney, and chronicler of his own 
times, who must frequently have seen the founder during his 
residences in Oxford with the court. 

8. A pedigree, shewing the issue of the founder's sisters, and the 
relationship to him of many of his legatees, and of several of 
the early members of the college. 

WILL OF WALTER DE MERTON. 
(Printed in extenso by Kilner, Suppl., p. 82.) 

This document is very interesting, not only from its antiquity, 
importance of the testator, and the great amount of property con- 
veyed, but from the picture which it gives of the testator's mind, 
especially of its tenderness, piety, and comprehensiveness, ex- 
hibited in his detailed consideration of the claims of his kindred, 
of his dependents, of the places whence his wealth accrued, and of 
his eleemosynary children. 

The will is found in Abp. Peckham's Register, fo. 103, 3. 

Executed at Merton, March, 1275-6. 

Codicil added, Oct., 1277. 

Final audit of executors' account, May, 1282. 

The Compotus Executorum and the Petitionea super Exeeutcrihtu are 
still extant with the will, and ore interesting documents. 

Witnesses who attached \ ^^f^^^^^^ ^^^.^ W ^l ^""J*'^/ t ^ 
their seals besides seven ^'cnLdlor 

others named ) rm. -o » ' • t^ j >t 

-^ Ine rope s nuncio, Roger de JHogenis. 

Executors. "William de Ewell ; John de Merston and Friar Thomas de 
Wnldeham (his chaplains) ; John de Catteloyn; Ralph de Riplingham; 
William Dodekin ; Ranulph, vicar of Greenwich, added by codicil. 

Councillors to the Executors^, — Bishop of Bath and Wells; John de 
Kerkeby, Justiciar 1233, Bishop of Ely 1286; Andrew de Eirkenny. 

* These probably were needed on account of the proyision in the will that the rendoe 
■hould be applied "ad salotem anims." The codicil relieved tl\e execnton of this de- 
licate dnty by giving the residae to the college. 



1858.] Documents Ulwtrative ofy Sfc. 229 

Directions about Burial. — If ho should die*» in co. Hants, to be buried 
in Basingstoke Church with his parents. If elsewhere, in Kochester 
Cathedral. 

lEQUESTS. 

1. For Masses. — To Basingstoke Church a chalice, pret. 5 mks. ; for five 
chaplains celebrating for one year in that church, or neighbouring ones, 
or at Oxford, if "idonei" not to be found on the spot, 25 J mks. 

2. At Hochester. — For five chaplains celebrating one year, 25^ mks. To 
his successor ^y his mitre, staff, and one of his rings. To his chapter, 
for purchase of some estate for celebration of an obit and a distribution 
of bread to the poor, 100 mks. To the prior, one of his palfreys and a 
silver cup. To the works of the cathedral, 10 mks. 

3. To Parishes where he held Preferment, — Poor of Stayndrop, 20 mks. 
Sedgefield, 40 mks. Hautwyse*^, 25 mks. Codington*, 20 mks. Ber- 
nyngham^, 10 mks., with lOOs. ad ornamenta ecclesice. Braunceton?, 
15 mks. Fynsbury^, 40s. Prebend, of Sarum: — Bere, 18 mks. ; 
Charminster, 1 2 mks. 

4. To Beligious Houses, — Tortington \ Sussex, 40s. Friers Minors ^ in Ox- 
ford, 25 mks. ; London, 25 mks. ; Hartlepool, 10 mks. ; Friers Preachers 
in Oxford, 10 mks. ; Newcastle-on-Tyne, 10 mks. ; the glossed Epistles 
of St. Paul to be restored to them. Nuns of St. Helen*, London, 100s. 
Nuns of Wyntneye °*, 408. 

5. His Kindred^, — His sister de Wortyng, 30 mks. 

To her unmarried daughter, to marry her, or otherwise provide neces- 
saries, 30 mks. 

His sister Edith, to buy land, or otherwise provide security, besides the 
lands he bought for her, 80 mks. 

To her eldest son, to buy land, or otherwise, 30 mks. 

To her daughter at WUton (nunnery), to provide more .fully for her 
clothing and diet in the house, 20 mks. 

•> This was evidently his bumhle wish, " si hoc inihi misericordiu Dei concedat." 

^ In the petitions, his successor, not contented with these bequests, " petit 1. capel- 
1am ? integram pret. xx. m. quam Eccl. Roff. de consuetudine debet habere a mortoo 
Epo ;" and for dilapidations of houses and stock, £60. 

Also the executors paid to the precentor, as bis right, SOs. for making a roll to carry 
through England, " memoriam obitus £pi dcfuncti." 

The Rochester accounts were very complicated, Walter's claims on the estate of hit 
predecessor, Laurence, being still unsatisfied, and several of the dignitaries being in 
debt to their bishop. 

^ Supposed to be Haltwhistle, Northumberland, in the patronage of the Bishop of 
Durham. No evidence exists, except this bequest, of the founder having held the rectory. 

* In Surrey, adjoining Maldon. Appropriated 2 Eklw. II. to Merton Priory. Walter 
de Portsmue, bis nephew, was rector at the founder's death. 

' In the deanery of Richmond, Yorkshire. Crown patronage. 

' In Lincolnshire. Will, de Ewell, his nephew, succeeded him in 1272. 

»> Prebend in St. Paul's Cathedral. 

' From whence he obtained the ndvowson of Farleigh. 

^ With these three bodies of Franciscans and the two Dominican houses he was 
brought into contact by his preferments in London and Durham and his sojoumingi 
in Oxford with the court, which must have been frequent. 

* Near Finsbury. 

"* Hartley Wintney, near Basingstoke. ^ 

" See the pedisree, and therein notice that those provided for in his foundation are 
not provided for m the will. 



236 



Documents Illustrative of 



[Sept. 



To his sister Agnes, 20 mks. 

To Alan de Portesmue, to buy lands, 60 mks. 

To Hugh Chastayn, Littlemilne Mill, 5 mks. 

To Thomas, his brother, 40 mks. 

To Thomas de la Dune «, 5 mks. 

To John Jakelin and wife, "qusB eis secretius liberentur,** 10 mks. 

To Plcscntia de London, 1 mks. 

To Hawise, her sister, 1 mks. 

To Alan de Langford and wife, 10 mks. 

To John le Coppe, 4 mks. 

To Nicolas do Theddene, and wife and boys, 30 mks. 

To John de Sandeford and wife, 100s. ' 

6. To Friends and Dependents. 



To Master Peter P de Abendon, 

(first warden), one of his palfreys 

and silver cup. 
To Master Andrew^, offic. ? silver 

cup and 40 mks. 
To John Cateloyn' (an executor), 

40 mks. 
To William Sarum, silver cup and 

5 mks. 
To Wm. Dodekin (an executor), 1 00 

mks. 
To JohndeMcrston,chaplain, 50mks. 
To Robert Fitz-Nigel* all the in- 

terest he had in his lands; and 



towards the restoring of them, 

30 mks. 
To lloger Taylard, besides the 5 

mks. life-rent-charge he had at 

Kybworth, 40 mks. 
To Will, de Mertock, 15 mks. 
To Will, de Saddeburgh^ (Sed- 

burgh), 40 mks., and remittance 

of his debt for tithes at But- 

terwyk. 
To John de Stanhope, 20 mks. 
To Peter the Clerk, 40s. 

30 mks. 
20 mks. 



To John ( ^ , „ ) 3 
ToWalterr^^^ I2 



<* Married his niece Edith. Sec Rot Claus. 2 Edw. I. m. 14. Receipt from Thomas 
for 100 marks *'de maritajpo neptis Waltero," 1273, feast of St. Lucy. She was to re- 
main in her uncle's guardianship till Easter, " de curiulitate su^'' and then to go to 
her husband's home. 

p Had he«'n in cbarj^e of the "scholares** from their earliest institution, circa 1262. 
He claims from the executors nomine propria JtlOO, for his labours and costs during 
Bevcntecn ycArs and more in the Jjord Walter's service, and in name of the college sums 
exceeding £800, which the founder had received from Eleham. Pontelund, Stilling- 
ton, Seton, and elsewhere. It would api)ear that the founder still acted as receiver of 
those estates, which lay in convenient nearness to his own agents. As Rector of Set^ge- 
field, &c., ho was still deriving a revenue from Durham, and as Bishop of Rochester be 
was obliged to have bailitfs who could easily visit Eleham, near Canterbury. The bo- 
quest of the residue was prol)ably intended to cover all this debt to his college. 

1 The same us Andrew de Kirkonny, otlen written Kilkenny, present at the Bishop's 
death. Probably his official principal. 

'' An old retainer ; claims of the executors d&4fO for sixteen years* service in various 
places, '* tam in curia regis quam extra cum opus fuit in negotiis Dni W." 

" Mtirried a niece. See Rot. Chart. 49 Henry III. m. 2. A grant to Walter of 
Robert's lands, confiscatecl by his joining the Karl of Leicester. This grant was pro- 
bably obtained by the founder as a friendly arrangement. The executors paid the 
Countess of Winchester 20 marks for harbouring Robert's wife, (no doubt at the time 
of his attainder) ; to William St. John, who married his sister, for dowry promised, 
£30 ; to the Abbess of Ambresbury, for another sister, 12 markd, promised on her bring 
veiled in that house ; and to Robert himself 100 marks, promised by the founder in 
tempore mortis. 

* This and the following name shew how he kept np his connection with the North. 

" C0CU8, 1 think, stands here for a surname. It occurs in the Basingstoke evidences. 
Peter Cocus, below, I assume to be a servant, from the amount assigiu d. 



1858.] 



the Sketch of Walter de Merton's Life. 



231 



To John de Kancia ^, 5 mks. 

To Henry de Elham, 10 mks. 

To John Hydeys, lOOs. 

To Hugh de Borstal!, 100s. 

To Adam Sauveage, 100s. 

To Williaai Prepositus* of Brom- 

legh, 408. 
To Adam dela Wytheyenbiryy, 20s. 
To Peter and John Baker, (by trade 

or surname ?) a lease at Bere. 
To Peter Marshall, 60s. 
To Philip of Dertford, 503. 
To Peter the Cook, 40s. 
To Henry the Cook, 10s. 
To Simon, 20s. 
To John the Taylor, 208. 



To William Watteso, 408. 

To Thomas Catel, 100s. 

To Adam the Palfreyman *, 40s. 

To John de Mersham, 2 mks. 

To John Makeney, 2 mks. 

To Geoffrey the Carter, 2 mks. 

To Elias Page, 40s. 

To William Wodogate, 1 mk. 

To Robert de Chetyndon, 20s. 

To Richard the Carter, 20s. 

To Walter the Carter, double stipend 
for the year of Testator's death. 

To the other carters and ploughmen 
in each manor, besides their sti- 
pend*, 58. 

Total, £16 5s. 



7. Other Friends, 



To Philip de Codinton (a kinsman), 

1 5 mks. 
To William de Grafton ^, the next 

crops of Wolveton farm, (value 

£10 15s.,) and 10 mks. 
To Gerard thci Chaplain, 5 mks. 
To Richard de Bradmere, 408. 
To William de Osemuudleye, I mk. 
To William de Haketon, 40s. 
To Richard Russel, 10 mks. 
To William the Cooke, who is at 

Osney, 1 mk. 
To Robert de Waltham, 100s. 
To Roger Bidhey, 20s. 
To William the Carter, lOs. 
To the mother of Alan of Langford, 

4 mks. 
To John de Wateidlc ^, 40 mks. 
To Thomas the Forester, SOs. 



To Richard de la Hoke, 208. 

To the daughter of Dulcia of Mai- 
den, 100s. 

To the sister of John de Farnham 
and her husband, 30 mks. 

To the mother of Walter of Ody- 
ham, a silver cup. 

To the wife of the late Peter de 
Codiuton, 40s. 

To Robert de Creuker, unless other- 
wise settled with him, 10 mks. 

To Saer do Harcourt*, 10 mks. 

To provide for two daughters of 
Lord ^ Stephen Chenduit, in mar- 
riage or otherwise, 80 mks. If 
less will do, the surplus to pro- 
vide similarly for other daughters. 

To Stephen's wife, 20 mks. 



* A Basingstoke name. 

X A name commonly given in the Bailiff's Rolb of the college to the head bailiff of 
a manor. Bromley was a chief manor of the see of Rochester. 
f See below, llie estate to be sold " in subsidium terras sanctae." 
' Palfridarius, a common word for groom. 

* On this account the executors paid 325s. to sixty-five persons on fourteen manors. 
^ He claims of executors, as "clericus cancellarisB qui fuit cum £po defmicto," 

38 uiks., laid out by the Bishop's order on the church of Blecchesworth, (near Dorking ?). 

<= All notes of connection with Osney are worth remark, as strengthening the tradition 
that the founder resided there during his academical course, and us adding to the dog- 
grel lines of Thomas Wykes, the Osney canon, the value of an eye-witness's description. 
See below, " the Osney missal to be restored." 

** Of the Watevile family, who were mesne lords of Maldon. 

* From whom he obtained the manor of Kibworth Harcourt, Leicestershire. 

' From whom, as mesne lord, he obtained the manors of Cuxham, Oxon, Chetindon, 
Bucks, and Middleton Cheney, (i. e. Chenduit,) Northants. Both these lords were, like 
a great number of the landowners at the end of Henry the Third's baronial wars, 
iu the hands of Jew money-lenders. The college still possesses the acquittances from 



282 Documents Illustrative of [Sept. 

8. To the Colleae, — To buy land in perpetuity, unless needed "pro 

defensione jurium," 1,000 mks. {solutte.) 

9. To Basingstoke Hospital. — To buy land, and no other purpose, 450 mks. 
For a chaplain perpetually celebrating there, 100 mks. 

K purchase cannot be made in four years, college to take the money, 
and pay £20 annually to hospital ; or if college decline the charge^ 
to be entrusted to some religious house. 

10. The Holy Land, — Lease of Wythenbery to be sold, and proceeds 

applied to sending some good man *'in subsidium terrae sanct», pro 
me et seipso." 

11. The JST/w^.— His best silver cupK and cover, and pair of silver dishes. 

12. Other Single Bequests. — To Lord Antony Bck**, my best ring, and 

my houses at Sarum ; or if he declines them, to my nephew Will. 

de Ewell, who shall keep them up for Antony's use whenever he 

pleases. 
To the Lord John de Kirkeby, a gold ring, a mazer cup, and silver 

cup. 
To Master Roger de Scyton, a ring, and his silver scullella for alms. 
To the Lord John de Kobham, a ring. 
To "Walter de Odyam, a silver cup and two silver scultellse. 
To Master William de Ewell, his Bible (price 4 mks.), with remainder 

to the scholars, and the mazer cup at Scdgeficld. 
Also to Will., out of the income of Sedgefield, for each year since his 

consecration, £100, and to John de la Clyve, nephew, £5, besides 

silver vessels. 
To Master Reymund, a silver cup. 
To llalph Riplyngham* (an executor), 30 mks. 
To Abbot of Osney, the missal to be restored. 
In case the estate should fail to pay all the above bequests, his sisters' 

families, his college, William Dudckyn, John and Walter Cook, were 

to have their portions in full. 
The residue to be applied "in salutem animae,*' at executors' discretion. 

Total bequeathed in money, £2,014 17s. Od. 
Articles valued .... 711 8s. 6d. 



Total . . . £2,726 5s. 6d. 



the Jews on being paid off by the founder, whose purse came to the relief of the mort- 
gagors in these two cases, as in the case of the Wateviles, mesne lords of Maiden, tha 
Leicesters, lords of Gamlingay, and the Fitz- Eustaces, lords of the Cambridge manors. 

I Prynne Records, torn. ii. p. 384. The king, by custom, claimed the piilfrey and 
cup of every bishop deceased. See Claus. Rot., 89 Hen. III., in dorso, " De Palftido 
Abbatis de Osneye." 

In Anglia Sac, i. p. 88, the archbishop is said to have right to the palfrey, cnp, seali^ 
and dogs of a bishop of Rochester, and the king only by vacancy of the archbishopric 

^ Antony and Thomas, sons of the Haron Bek, of Grimsthorp, Lincolnshire, were 
resident in a house (on the site of the college) bought by the founder in 1266 of a Jew, 
who bargained for their being allowed to remain for three years. They were receiving 
their academical e<lucation, and were probably taken as commoners into the new house 
of scholars. Antony seems to have won the founder's favour. He became Biahop 
of Durham 1283 — 1311, and Patriarch of Jerusalem. He was commonly known as the 
« Fighting Bishop." 

I Called Garderobarius in the Comp. Exec., where he claims 40i. for a horse that 
died at the funeral, and for making the inventory. 
3 



1858.] the Sketch of Walter de Merton's Life. 233 

Codicil. — Thursday before feast of SS. Simon and Jude, 1277, (on the 
eve of which feast he died.) 

The ploughs on two episcopal manors to go with the see. 

Ralph, vicar of Greenwich, added to his executors. 

Bequests to legatees deceased to go to their friends. 

Residue to the college. 

"Warden Peter de Abindon was appointed auditor, probably as repre- 
senting the college, the largest legatee, and his largest creditor. The 
executors' accounts were audited in the chapel of the chancery of St. 
Paul's, London, but not till 4 J years after the decease''. May, 1282. The 
property in both provinces, Canterbury and York, was brought to one 
account. Amongst the executors' payments worth noting occur : — 

" V. marc M'o. Martino Physico pro salario suo per multum temp, et 
pro labore suo de London usq. Solebyi, ante obitum epi. 

" V". viid. Hen. de la More Aurifabro pro confectione annulorum et 
reparacione Cyphorum." 



11. 

EXTRACTS FBOM THE CHEONICON OP THOMAS WYKES, CANOK OP 08NET, 

CONTEMPOBAEY OF THE FOUNDEK. 

"A®. 1274, Dominus Walter de Merton consecratus est in episcopum 
Roffensem ; vir magnificus et secularis sapientie admodum eruditus : hie 
semper fiiit, viris religiosis super omnia in suis negotiis promovendis, 
promptissimus adjutor et promotor. 

"Eodem anno, [anno 1277,] in vigilia apostolorum Symonis et Jude, 
obiit Walterus de Merton, episcopus Roflfensis, de cujus moribus quidam 
versificator dixit, [himself probably] : — 

" Presul Walterus Roffensis pontificali 
Culmine sincenis, virtute micans special!, 
Qui de Mertona vulgari more vocatus, 
Cujus fama bona, gestus super omnia gratus, 
Fidus in alloquio, Justus, sermone modestus, 
Cautus consilio, castus, socialis, honestus. 
Dilexit clerum, gratis tribuens alimentum : 
Pro quo Walterum benedicit turma studentnm. 
Oxonie studium per e\mi quasi plantula vernat, 
Conferat auxilium sibi Rex qui cuncta gubernat." 



III. 

THE P£I)IGEF.£. 



It has been found necessary, in deference to other matter, to postpone 
this document till next month. 

^ Still were not complete. In Madox's "Exchequer," c. 2. x. tbe Earl Marshal 
(Roger Bigot) acknowledged his debt of £60 to tbe Bishop of Rochester's executors. 
Kecogn. in Scaccario, 17 £dw. I. fin. 1289. 

1 Where ? The founder died somewhere not far from Rochester. 



Gekt. Mao. Vol. CCV. h h 



234 [Sept. 



CHERBOURG, IN COITNEXION WITH ENGLISH HISTORY. 

The remarkable event of the presence of the Queen of England at the 
formal completion of the mighty works, both of safety and of defence, that 
have so long been progressing at Cherbourg, will be duly recorded in 
sufficient detail in our Monthly Intelligencer ; and we have no intention 
of here entering upon the question, lately so hotly canvassed, whether 
these works have rendered our insular position so little secure that we must 
needs at once set about multiplying our 

" Bulwarks, and towers along the steep." 

We do not beheve this, by the bye ; but leaving those who do to enjoy 
their own opinion, we would rather invite the readers of the Gentleman's 
Magazine to go somewhat farther back than is done in the current litera- 
ture of the day, and to consider the connexion of the grim old Norman sea- 
port with our history in times when it was not the fashion to affect to fear 
an invasion. 

For this reason we do not dwell on the aspect at this day of the new 
Cronstadt, Sebastopol, and Liverpool all in one, — its Breakwater, that 
** Pyramid in the sea," but with appliances in the shape of forts and guns 
and lighthouse, such as Cheops or Cephrenes never dreamt of — the forts, 
both military and commercial, (the latter the " Lake Mceris" of the founder 
of the Empire*,) — or of the forts Pelee, and Querqueville, and Central and 
Homet, and a dozen more, of whose 3,000 guns we have heard so much ; 
nor yet of the Hotel de Ville, ascribed to William the Bastard, nor of the 
Abbey, founded by his grand-daughter the Empress Maud, nor of the village 
Chanterey, where she landed a shipwrecked fugitive ^, or even of the old 
Northmen's intrenchment at Haguedic ; we intend to confine ourselves to 
Cherbourg in its connexion with EngHsh history. 

The peninsular district called Cotentin, which is the western part of 
Normandy, projects far into the English Channel, having on its eastern side 
the bay of Calvados, which stretches to the mouth of the Seine, and on the 
west the Channel Islands. At its eastern extremity is Cape Barfleur, nearly 
opposite to the southern point of the Isle of Wight, and at its western. 
Cape de la Hague, vis-a-vis St. Alban*8 Head in Dorsetshire. About 
midway between the two capes is Cape Levi, and seven miles westward we 
find a crescent-shaped bay, with a broad level plain on the east, and a line 
of hills on the south and west, which rise into lofty cliffs as they approach 
the sea. In the hollow of this bay, which is four miles across, by two 
deep, stands Cherbourg, built, according to one tradition (like so many 
other places on both shores of the Channel,) by Julius Caesar, and there- 
fore called CcBsaris Burgus^ the transition from which to Cherbourg is easy 
enough. It is true that the churches of the neighbournig villages of 
Tollevast and Carneville are of what is ordinarily considered Roman archi- 
tecture; or at least Roman materials, but this can hardly be thought a 

• " I will reproduce at Cherbourg the wonders of Egypt. I have my Pyramid in 
the sea — I will have my Lake Moeris also." 

^ " Chantez, reyne,** was the exclamation of some pious mariner as she touched the 
shore ; she did at once " sing a song unto the Lord," and afterwards founded the abbey 
in fulfilment of her vow. 



18j8.] Cherbourg, in connexion with English History. 235 

sufficient ground for ascribing the town to the great conqueror of Gaul, 
particularly as he makes no mention in his Commentaries of having himself 
penetrated into the country of the Unelli ; he merely says that P. Crassus 
brought them and other tribes of north-western Gaul under the dominion 
of Rome ^. 

Another tradition (and we must cite such, for nothing appears to be cer- 
tainly known,) describes William the Norman, if not as the founder of 
Cherbourg, at least as the builder of its castle, and exclaiming with pride, " Le 
chastel est un cher hourg pour moi ;** hence another derivation of the name. 
Certain it is, that there was a castle there in the time of his son Henry I., 
as we read that Egbert de Belesme, the turbulent ex-earl of Shrewsbury, 
was confined in it after his seizure at Bonneville in 1112; and near a 
century later Cherbourg is mentioned as one of the places in which Arthur 
of Britanny was imprisoned. This must be the last event to be noticed in 
the time of its early connexion with England, as the whole province of 
I^ormandy was very soon after re-annexed to France by the fortunate 
Philippe Auguste. 

The historians of Barfleur, a well-known haven at the other extremity of 
the Cotentin, deny to Cherbourg the possession of a port in the middle 
ages, and it must be allowed that its name is not often met with. Yet we 
may presume that it furnished its contingent to the fleet which in 1293 
had so desperate an engagement at St. Mah^, in Britanny, with the navy 
of the Cinque Ports**, and in 1295 it is expressly mentioned as being 
sacked by the men of Yarmouth. Indeed there can be little doubt that 
it both indulged in, and suffered by, the piratical warfare that was carried 
on, in the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries, by the English on 
the one side, and the Normans, Bretons, Biscayans, and Scots on the 
other, wholly regardless whether there was a nominal peace between their 
respective countries or not. The remark of Matthew of Westminster, in 
speaking of the ravage of the coast of France in 1 294, is fully applicable 
to the whole period : — *' There was," he says, " no king regarded by the 
mariners, nor any law imposed, but whatever any one could plunder, that 
he called his own." 

In the midst of this tumultuous period, however, we find an attempt at 
least at peaceful trade, but which in itself is a strong proof of how strangely 
to our present notions war and peace were then mixed up. Louis IX. 
granted to the people of Cherbourg permission to trade with Ireland, though 
he might himself be at war with the English king ; and it is worthy of re- 
mark that a very similar grant is to be found in the charters of several of 
the Irish seaports as regards trade beyond sea ®. 

But the events of the history of Cherbourg in which England has been 
concerned have been all warlike. When Edward III. invaded France, in 
1346, he landed in the Cotentin, and the fleet that accompanied his move- 
ments sacked Cherbourg and other towns, carrying away the whole popu- 
lation. The town was thus in a state of desolation when, in 1354, King 

•^ Cses., de Bell. Gall., lib. ii. c. 34. 

•* See the story, together with the citation of Edward I. to Paris in consequence, in 
Matthew of Westminster, sub anno, 

• See Libri HibemitB, Part I. (Parliamentary Register), p. 24, for an abstract of a 
charter to Limerick, even so late as the time of Elizabeth (Nov. 16, 1576), allowing 
" liberty in time of war to traffic with foreigners and strangers, and the queen's ene- 
mies (pirates excepted), for the benefit of the city." If so jealous a government as 
that of Elizabeth could allow this, we may easily believe that it would not be objected 
to by the Plantagenets. 



5i36 Cherbourg, in connexion with English History. [Sept. 

John of France ceded it to his son-in-law, Charles the Bad, of Navarre. 
That prince, who has justly earned the epithet of one of the most detest- 
able characters in history, possessed talents equal to his wickedness, and 
he at once set about improving his acquisition. He greatly increased the 
number of its inhabitants, and he granted them extraordinary municipal 
privileges ; he re-edified the town, but, above all, he strongly fortified it, 
and he long negotiated about selling it to England, for a sum of money in 
hand, and assistance in his designs on the duchy of Britanny, and ultimately 
on the crown of France. At last the bargain was concluded, but Charles, 
treacherous himself, suspected treachery in others, and insisted that a large 
portion of the garrison should be his own Navarrese troops. 

England thus once more came into possession of Cherbourg; and the 
city of Brest was in like manner put into their hands by the duke of 
Britanny. These two cities, with Bordeaux and Calais, were now (1378) 
ahnost their sole strongholds ^ but they were so admirably situated that 
they were the keys of the great provinces of Picardy and Normandy, and 
Britanny and Guienne, and they offered an ever-ready means of access to 
the very heart of France. They were, too, strongly fortified, after the 
manner of the age, and as an almost ceaseless war was carried on under 
their walls, they are the scene of very many of those picturesque tales and 
lively incidents that render the pages of Froissart so attractive. All were, 
of course, garrisoned by the picked soldiers of the time », and these seem 
to have entertained so mean an opinion of the enemy, that while Thomas 
of Woodstock (in 1380) marched from Calais into Britanny without oppo- 
sition, his elder brother, John of Gaunt, had performed the still bolder 
exploit, seven years before, of a " military promenade'* from Calais to Bor- 
deaux, which occupied him nearly six months, during which the French 
never once ventured to dispute his passage, but contented themselves with 
hanging on his rear to cut off stragglers. It was not at all uncommon 
either for the garrisons of Brest and Cherbourg to hasten to each other's 
aid when either was pressed, and when the emergency was over, to fight 
their way back, usually laden with spoil and prisoners. 

The possession of these important fortresses, and the facility they gave 
for invasion of France whenever deemed advisable, reconciled the people 
not only to the heavy expenses of maintaining them^, but also to the 

f Each, of course, had a surrounding district, or ** march ;" which was large in the 
case of Bordeaux, but small in the others. 

> To attempt to enumerate even the chief of these would be to set down almost every 
eminent name of the fourteenth century; John of Gaunt, the Percies ("my father, 
and my uncle, and myself"), the Nevilles, Sir Walter Manny, Sir Hugh Calverley, the 
earl of Arundel, Michael de la Pole, all served in them, and as all were seaport towns, 
frequently distinguished themselves afloat as well as ashore. The dashing exploit of 
one of them. Sir lliomas Percy (afterwards earl of Worcester), is well worthy of notice 
amidst a host of prodigies of valour. He was, as admiral for the nonce, conducting a 
body of knights and men-at-arms to Britanny, when his ship was so battered by a 
storm, that he felt it necessary to throw overboard all the horses and armour and most 
of the arms to lighten the vessi'l. While in this crippled state he was assailed by a 
comparatively huge Spanish ship, but, nothing daunted, he rushed on board with those 
of his men who had weapons, and captured his opponent, which, being richly laden, by 
its sale enabled him to arm and mount his comrades even better thnn they had been 
before, and at their head he well maintained his ancient renown. 

^ The garrison of Brest, it seems, cost £1,000 a-year (" Proceedings and Ordinances 
of the Pnvy Council," vol. i. p. 13), and that of Calais nearly three times as much ; 
Cherbourg and Bordeaux could hardly be less expensive; thus we have a total of 
£8,000 per annum, which is certainly more than £100,000 now. 



1858.] Cherbourgy in connexion with English History. 237 

ravages which the French occasionally committed on the southern coast of 
England, where in the early part of the reign of Richard II. their galleys 
seem to have ranged almost at will until checked by the voluntary efforts 
of such men as the London alderman Philpot; and it was therefore with 
extreme displeasure that the nation remarked the evident wish of the king 
to give them up. It was nearly ten years after ere he could carry his in- 
tentions into effect; but as early as 1387, when Richard's favourite, the 
duke of Ireland, was put to flight by the duke of Gloucester, a letter was 
discovered from the French king which spoke of his expectation of receiv- 
ing back Cherbourg and Calais from his secret friend, though nominal 
enemy, Richard, unfortunately for himself, did not change his poHcy, he 
only " bided his time ;" and when his queen died, he at once sought the 
hand of a princess of France, being quite prepared, it would seem, to give 
up not only Cherbourg and Brest, but the Channel Islands and Calais also. 
Cherbourg he did surrender, while the marriage treaty was in progress, 
and Brest shortly after ^ The garrisons returned to England, bitterly com- 
plaining of their dismissal ; and the discontent thus occasioned, while it 
effectually prevented the cession of the other posts, encouraged the duke 
of Gloucester to recommence the intrigues, the immediate consequence of 
which was his own death in a few months, soon to be followed by the fall 
of the king and the establishment of the House of Lancaster on the throne. 
French historians are all but unanimous in ascribing Richard's unhappy 
fate to his marriage and consequent surrender of Cherbourg and Brest. 
The writer of Chronicque de la Tra'ison et Mart de Hichart Deux Roy Den- 
gleterre (published by the English Historical Society, 1846), gives an ac- 
count of the return of the garrison of Brest, which is well worth quotation 
(in the translation of Mr. Williams) : — 



« 



King Richard restored the city and castle of Brest to the duke of Britanny in 
the year thirteen hundred fourscore and sixteen ; and when the duke had received the 
said city, he turned out and dismissed all the soldiers who were therein ; and upon the 
arrival of the garrison in England, then began the divisions between the king and his 
uncle the duke of Gloucester, the earl of Arundel, and many other lords. 

" It is to be observed that King llichard held a feast at Westminster, when he de- 
clared his intention of going to Bristol. And straitway at this feast arrived the said 
soldiers who had held Brest for the king, who were received at dinner in the king's 
hall. When the dinner was over and the king had taken wine and comfits, the duke 
of Gloucester said to the king, * My lord, have you not remarked at dinner our compa- 
nions which are here ?* The king replied, * Good uncle, what companions do you mean ?* 
* My lord,' said the duke, * they are your people who are come from Brest, who have 
faithfully served you, but have been badly paid •*, and know not what to take to.' And 
the king said that they should be paid in ^11 ; and, in fact, commanded that four good 
villages near London should be given up to them, that they might there live at his 
expense until they received their due. Then replied the duke of Gloucester very 
proudly, ' Sire, you ought first to hazard your life in capturing a city from your enemies, 
by feat of arms or by force, before you think of giving up or selling any city which 
your ancestors, the kings of England, have gained or conquered.' To which the king 
answered very scornfully, * What is it that you say ?' The duke his undo then re- 

' The order for the surrender of Cherbourg is dated Oct. 27, 1396 (Rot. Franc. 20 
Ric. II.), and the royal marriage was celebrated on the 31st of the same month. The 
order for the surrender of Brest bears date April 7, 1397, but as there was some delay 
in the payment of the stipulated ransom, it was not given up until the 12th of June. 
The duke at once dismissed the English garrison, so that the scene we are about to 
describe, in the words of a contemporary, probably occurred very shortly after. 

^ This probably had been all along the case ; at least, we find in the Rolls of Par- 
liament (vol. iii. p. 88) of 4 Richard II. (1381) a complaint that the wages of the gar- 
risons of Brest, Calais, and Cherbourg were then some five months in arrcar. 



238 Cherbourg, in connexion with English History, [Sept. 

pcated what he had hefore said. Upon which the king was very wroth, and said to 
the duke, * Do you think that I am a merchant or a traitor, that I wish to sell my land ? 
By St. John Baptist, no, no ; but it is a fact that our cousin of Britanny has restored, 
and well and truly paid us the sum which our ancestors had lent him on the city of 
Brest ; and, since he has honestly paid us, it is only just he should have his pledge 
back again/ Thus began the quarrel between the king and the duke of Gloucester. 
It is true that they parted politely and with civil words, as they were bound to do ; 
but their distrust was by no means the less because they separated with civil words 
before the people ; and the mistrust continued between the king and the duke of 
Gloucester without any more disputes until a short time afterwards ; and they con- 
tinned to give each other a civil reception, but with a bad will, as iB too much the case 
with the duke and many others of the kingdom of £ngland." 

We may here close this paper, as, though Cherbourg has been seTeral 
times since connected with English affairs, it has not as yet exercised any- 
important influence on them. It was captured in 1418 along with the 
other Norman towns by Henry V., and was lost in 1450, being one of the 
last places in the province that surrendered to Charles VI. In 1692 
several of the French ships fleeing from the battle at La Hogue sought 
shelter at Cherbourg, but were burnt by the boats from the English fleet. 
Two years later the place, Hke most others on the coasts of Britanny and 
Normandy, was bombarded by Benbow, and Louis XIV. then commenced 
tlie gigantic works which have just been completed. Their progress was 
necessarily slow, and much that had been done was destroyed when the 
town was captured, just one hundred years ago (Aug. 6, 1758), by a fleet 
and land force commanded by Commodore Howe. About thirty Tessels 
and two hundred pieces of ordnance were destroyed, and twenty brass 
guns were brought to England, and triumphantly paraded through London 
to the Tower ^ The damage done was slowly repaired, and the works 
went on, both under the old Monarchy and the new Empire, and they were 
left unmolested during the long war of the French Revolution ; the whole 
French coast being blockaded, it was probably thought unnecessary to 
attack unfinished forts and sea-walls ; the forty years' peace has, as we see, 
but just sufficed to bring them to a conclusion. They are, no doubt, a 
great addition to the maritime power of Prance, but, if the worst should 
come to the worst, and an invading flotilla should sail (or rather steam) 
thence to our shores, we should not despair of the Republic — we should 
still rely on our wooden walls, and bate no jot of our belief, that 

** Tliis England never did, nor ever shall, 
Lie at the proud foot of a conqueror. 
Until she first made shipwreck of herself;" 



and such a shipwreck we do not apprehend, even in this commercial, peace* 
at>any-price nineteenth century. 



* This parade has been blamed as a piece of vain-glory on the part of the government 
of the day, but it was doubtless very acceptable to the people as a practical answer to 
the threats of invasion that had been long held out by France. 



1858.] 239 



MARIE- ANTOINETTE*. 

In his History of the French Revolution, Mr. Carlyle has pointed out 
the striking contrast between two royal progresses in Marie-Antoinette's 
life — between the progress of the " beautiful Archduchess and Dauphiness 
quitting her mother's city at the age of fifteen, towards hopes such as no 
other daughter of Eve then had," and that of the "worn, discrowned widow 
of thirty-eight, gray before her time," as, bound on a cart, she passed through 
angry and insulting crowds towards her place of execution. A fitter con- 
trast to this last procession might, we think, be found in the circumstances 
of the first entry of the Dauphin and the Dauphiness, three years after she 
had entered France, into their good city of Paris. Taken altogether, the 
day of that ceremony — on which she was dizzy with noises and joy, and 
glory — was probably the happiest as well as the most triumphant one in 
Marie-Antoinette's career. The succession of delights intoxicated her. 
The market-women brought their offerings of flowers and fruit; the 
scholars of the college of Montagu recited verses in her praise ; the arch- 
bishop welcomed her with sacred music in the old church of Notre-Dame ; 
and the people everj^where received her with enthusiastic shouts of joy. 
When she descended, leaning on her husband's arm, into the garden of the 
Tuileries, the vast multitude who filled it clapped their hands, and cast 
their hats into the air, and crowded round her with applause and blessings. 
And when, afterwards, she looked down from the gallery of the palace on 
the sea of human forms below, there was truth in the saying of the old 
Duke de Brissac — " Madam, you have there before your eyes two hundred 
thousand persons in love with you." 

A passion for popularity was the immediate, and, according to the 
authors of the volume now before us, the unavoidable consequence of the 
gratification which the Dauphiness had found in this unbounded and 
unanimous homage of the inhabitants of Paris. The beautiful illusion, we 
are told, of finding her own happiness in the love of the people, took pos- 
session of her. She began to seek the acclamations which had given her 
so much delight. Casting off the conventional decorum of her rank, she 
mingled freely with the populace, participated in their pleasures, and 
added to them by her own uncontrollable enjoyment. In the park and gardens 
of Saint-Cloud she walked amongst the sight-seeing crowd, and joined in 
their amusement; she strolled along the fair, laughing, playing, buying, 
and being overburdened with petitions ; and she stood with the multitude 
looking on the dance, and begging that her presence might not interrupt 
the joy. The effect of this condescension and these indications of a fellow- 
feeling from a princess so young and beautiful may easily be imagined. 
" What praises," say our authors, " were in all mouths, what love throughout 
the kingdom for that cherished Dauphiness, who was in this manner per- 
forming the miracle of reuniting Versailles to France !" 

Nevertheless, in spite of the rose-coloured representations of MM. de 
Goncourt, there is, even in their own pages, abundant proof that Marie- 
Antoinette soon learned to find her happiness in something very different from 
the love of the people. Whatever may have been the influence of political 

* Mitloire de Marie-Antoinette, par Edmond et Jidea de Qoncaurt. (Paris : Didot.) 



240 Marie-Antoinette, [Sept. 

convictions and well-plied party machinations in discrediting a princess of 
the house of Austria, it is obvious that her popularity was far more effec- 
tually undermined by her own misconduct than by any ministerial arts. 
Her enemies, according to the statement of MM. de Goncourt themselves, 
had been labouring unceasingly at their icork of hatred and destruction 
from the very day on which she departed from Vienna ; and yet, so fruit- 
less had their efforts been, that at the end of three years she was, as we 
have seen, welcomed in the capital of France with an enthusiasm so 
unbounded as to seem like personal love. In less than twelve months 
from the day of that memorable welcome she became, on the death of 
Louis the Fifteenth, queen of the warm-hearted people who had been so 
deeply charmed by her affability, and grace, and beauty. One of her first 
endeavours in the new station she was raised to was to obtain the recall of 
M. de Choiseul, the minister whose poHcy was most conformed to Austrian 
interests and views, and to put the reins of government in his hands. This 
attempt, and others prompted by the same political and personal attach- 
ment, served at best to strengthen animosities against her, and to help pro- 
bably in eventually earning for her that significant nickname of F Antrim 
chienne, which became afterwards the brief and terrible expression of the 
feeling into which the people's love for her had turned. The true ground 
of the hatred which grew up against her must be looked for mainly in the 
manner of her own life. Without prying too inquisitively into the truth 
of imputations which have been accredited by well-informed historians, 
and which, therefore, MM. de Goncourt should have passed by without 
notice, or have more effectually disproved, the daily round of the young 
Queen's existence, from the day that she became the mistress of Little 
Trianon, until the eve of the Revolution, however enchanting as an ideal 
of graceful luxury and indolent delight, was assuredly not calculated to 
soothe the discontent which was already ripening in the land. The costly 
decoration of her beautiful abode, which vied in splendour with the palaces of 
Eastern tales ; the expensive and unceasing, and sometimes indecorous 
amusements which prevailed there ; the company of ill-chosen favourites— of 
whom de Coigny, Vaudreuil, and the Polignacs were chief — grasping eagerly 
at rich appointments and enormous grants which inflicted new hardships on 
the overburdened people, were not means by which the popularity which 
had so much delighted her could be retained. She had made common 
cause with the oppressors of the suffering land ; and this was a grievance 
which increased in bitterness as years rolled on. 

MM. de Goncourt, in their well-written History, have spared no detail 
of the Queen's life at Trianon, and have defended her, with eloquence, at 
least, if not with success, against the charges which the manner of that life 
gave birth to. Her miniature palace and the domain that belonged to it 
were miracles of ornament, and elegance, and beauty. The etiquette of 
courts was laid aside there, and Marie-Antoinette was no longer queen 
— hardly, indeed, mistress of the house. " Her entry into a room nei- 
ther caused the ladies to leave their music or tapestry-work, nor the men 
their billiards or backgammon." Gardens, farm, and dairy, seeing cows 
milked, and fishing in the lake, gave to the Queen's distinguished guests a 
mimicry of rural life which had far more resemblance to a fairy-scene upon 
the stage than to the real existence in which tens of thousands of her 
subjects pined and groaned. Both within and without the white walls of 
the little palace there was a gaiety and an easy freedom of enjoyment- 
carried, indeed, sometimes to lengths society condemned — which were not 



1858.] Marie- Antoinette. 241 

unworthy in their exquisite grace of her whose place was at the head of 
the most brilliant Ein-opean court. What the occupations and amusements 
of this courtly circle mainly wanted was a moral purpose. There was 
nothing dignified about them, nothing noble, nothing virtuous ; nothing 
but a thin veil of elegance to hide the grossness of the self-indulgence 
which per>'aded them. If being, with its wonderful endowments, had been 
given for indulgence in our selfish pleasures solely, this mode of life at the 
Trianon would have been a perfect one ; but in a kingdom which already 
felt the evils of its misgovemment to be intderable, it could hardly fail to 
spread abroad throughout the sunny land the conviction of one of our 
English writers, that the Queen, " devoted to the licentious pleasures of a 
court, looked both from education and habit, on the homely comforts of the 
people with disgust or indifference, and regarded the distress and poverty 
which stood in the way of her dissipation with incredulity or loathing." 

There were two transactions which had in an especial degree the effect 
of exasperating the ill-feeling with which the Queen had corae in time to 
be regarded by the people. In the case of one of these, the affair of the 
diamond necklace, of which MM. de Goncourt have given a particular 
account, it is clear that Marie-Antoinette was accused and condemned by 
popular opinion, not on account of any evidence of her complicity in the 
conspiracy to defraud the jewellers, but solely qp account of an antecedent 
readiness in the minds of a vast number of her subjects to believe in any 
evil that might be surmised against her. The great guilt of the transaction 
is safely enough assigned now to the skilful roguery of the Countess de la 
Motte ; but the widespread conviction at the time of the Queen's partici- 
pation in the arrangements by which the diamonds had been got from 
Boehmer, and the clamorous rejoicings of the public at the complete ac- 
quittal of the Cardinal de Rohan, who had supposed himself to be an agent 
in the business by her Majesty's desire, told audibly enough how grievously 
the Queen, whilst still glorying in the prime and pride of her enchanting 
grace and beauty, had fallen in the love and reverence of the people, and 
failed in making their well-being the seed-bud of her own happiness. It 
was, according to MM. de Goncourt, a sort of desperate yearning to re- 
cover this affection of her subjects, by going amongst them again in the 
familiar way that had delighted them before, and again joining heartily in 
nil their holiday- amusements, that was her Majesty's real impulse in the 
purchase of Saint-Cloud. '* Did not the echo of the gardens," it is asked, 
** still preserve the acclamations of the crowd, the sound of her happiness and 
glory ?** Alas ! the hungry and ungrateful crowd, chilled and well-nigh 
crushed by the terrible extravagance of intervening years, only saw in the 
enormous cost of this new acquisition a new burden to be added to their 
woes. Even the to>vnspeople, who were compelled to accommodate those 
followers of the court whom the palace was not sufficiently large to lodge, 
were thankless enough to murmur against the Queen ; and along the high- 
road the people called out to one another, " We are going to Saint- Cloud 
to see the water-works and the Attatrian tooman.^^ 

But the last sands of that Austrian %voman*8 time of triumph were 
running down, and her trials were beginning to draw near. All her policy 
in government, all her changes of ministers, came at last to that inevitable 
meeting of the States-General which was " the beginning of the end " — 
" the true era," as it has been well called, " of the birth of the people." 
However it may have been with the aunts of Louis the Sixteenth, with his 
brothers, with one exception, and their wives, with the princes of the blood, 

Gekt. Mao. Vol. CCV. i i 



242 Marie-Antoinette, [Sept» 

with the high nobility of France, and with all the powers of Europe, who, 
according to an able but incredible chapter of MM.de Goncourt's History, 
were all, on different disreputable grounds, hostile to a lovely and imma- 
culate Queen, it is indisputable enough that, between that Queen and the 
people who were called into poHtical existence by the meeting of the 
States-General, the dominant feeling was, on her side absolute contempt, 
and on theirs an indignant sense of wrong. But, besides these anxieties 
of her queenly station, Marie-Antoinette had at the same time the bitterest 
sorrows of a mother to endure. A year before, she had lost a daughter ; 
and now she had a Dauphin dying day-by-day, his beauty and his strength 
sapped by lingering disease. Whilst the Third Estate was still struggling 
for the union of orders, the poor boy died — escaping, probably, by that 
untimely death, the worse afflictions that befell so many of his race. 

The most interesting portion of MM. de Goncourt's volume is that 
which carries on their history of the Queen from the commencement of the 
Kevolution to the period of her death. Written in a tone of enthusiastic ad- 
miration of every tiling she thought, or said, or did, and ignoring altogether 
all rights and interests but hers, it is of course of no value as a history of 
the Revolution, although it is written ably, and is richly stored with parti- 
culars both of the heroic spirit of resistance and the still more heroic 
courage in endurance whic];i dignified the last years of the Queen's strangely 
checkered life. 

The heroism of her resistance was impolitic and hurtful ; it exasperated 
where it was impossible to overcome. If the contest in its earlier stages 
had been left to Louis and his subjects to decide, there is good reason for 
the supposition that he would, by consenting to inevitable changes, have 
satisfied the people without sacrificing more than the most odious and most 
arbitrary powers of his crown. The harder spirit of the Queen lost every- 
thing by a vain and wild endeavour to avoid the least concession. " From 
the King," our authors tell us, " the Revolution may expect everything, 
hope everything." Very different was it in the case of her whom they are 
pleased to call the King's wife, and master, " Urged to the conflict," 
they say, " and to the brave defence of the rights of the throne by the care 
of the King's glory, by the exile and the outlawr}' of all those whom she 
loves, by her friendships as well as by her duties, the Queen is formidable." 
Formidable, indeed, she was, as many a tragic incident of the Revolution 
will for ever bear witness. But, whilst her rare courage and her wide- 
spread influence are admitted, what were their effects ? It was the fate of 
all her plots and enterprises to miscarry, and of all her daring to encounter 
new defeats. The Revolution which, without her rash and headstrong in- 
terference, might have ended in the establishment of a constitutional 
monarchy, over which her descendants might have ruled in peace and 
happiness, was fatal to her kingdom and her race ; and, instead ^* of 
Frenchmen being compelled to repeat before the throne of Marie-Antoi- 
nette the oath of the Hungarians before the throne of Maria-Theresa,'* 
they were only brought to utter the unmanly insults which disgraced them 
on her passage to the guillotine. She wanted the discretion which is 
valour's better half. 

When a portrait is to be made beautiful in every part, an obstinately 
ugly feature must be sometimes slurred. It is, we suppose, from this 
necessity that MM. de Goncourt, in their account of the revolutionary 
period of Marie-Antoinette's life, pass with briefest notice over occur- 
rences which were unfavourable to the Queen's character and fatally in- 



1858.] Marie- Antoinette. 24^ 

jurious to her cause, and reserve their sentiment and eloquence for the 
account of scenes and seasons in which the nobler qualities of her nature 
were most prominently shewn. Thus, the foolish and untimely mani- 
festation of the dinner given to the Body-guards and the officers of th« 
regiment of Flanders, in the magnificent theatre of the palace at Versailles, 
is dismissed in four lines and a-half, without a word about the waving 
swords, the white cockades distributed by lovely hands, the trampling 
under foot of the national cockades, or the furious charge against an ima- 
ginary foe, with which her Majesty declared herself enchanted ; whilst the 
march of the women to Versailles, an event distinctly and directly pro- 
voked by that ill-judged and intemperate orgy, is honoured with as many 
pages, in which the resolution, and the courage, and the beauty of the 
Queen are admirably well extolled. So, again, the disastrous flight to 
Varennes is scarcely glanced at ; whilst the severer measures of detention 
which were had recourse to when she was brought back to Paris, and the 
hopes aiisingfrom the seduction which her charms had exercised upon 
Barnave, are, by the eloquence of the historians, set in clear and high 
relief. It is, apparently, in their view, a fresh injustice to the Queen, that 
after these events, which made confidence impossible, her Majesty's new 
eflTorts to recover popularity should have miserably failed. 

As long as resistance to the progress of the Revolution, either by thought 
or deed, remained possible, the unyielding pride of Marie-Antoinette 
resisted it. But her resistance was of that feeble, futile kind, which aggra- 
vated the ill-feeling of her enemies without in any way obstructing their 
designs. Her opposition was seen, not felt. In the extensive correspond- 
ence which she kept up in cypher with her brother and with other influ- 
ential persons, it is clear, too, that she had not learned to understand the 
Revolution. She persisted in mistaking for the violence of a factious, mis- 
chievous minority, that which was in vei*y truth the uprising of a nation 
from long ages of misrule. 

In spite of the distrust and unavoidable dissent with which we read a 
history of Marie-Antoinette from which her grievous sins against the 
French nation are omitted, it is impossible to deny to the concluding chap- 
ters of MM. de Goncourt's work the merit of being an eloquent, afiecting 
narrative of the heavy penalty of suflering she was called upon to pay. 
From the beginning of the year 1 792 her palace ceased to be a shelter 
from the insults of the crowd, or from the unpalatable rule of that authority 
which was rising on the ruins of her own. The alarm of the 20th of June, 
and the dangers and defeat of the 10th of August, were humiliations which 
must have been as bitter to her queenly pride as they were trying to her 
womanly affections. From the last of these dates sufferings never ceased 
to thicken round her. On the 13th of August she became a discrowned 
prisoner in the Temple. On the 19th of the same month Madame de Lam- 
balle and her other attendants were removed from her, and the five royal cap- 
tives were left alone to sadden or console each other. Fifteen days after this 
afflicting separation, the sorrow-stricken group were doomed to hear the out- 
cries and rejoicings of a maddened mob who were exhibiting before the Queen's 
window the beautiful head of her dear friend, the Princess de Lamballe, with 
its fair hair stained and clotted with her life-blood. Nor did even the days 
that intervened between these more memorable sorrows pass away without 
adding to the burden of her woes. Some petty torment was incessantly 
assailing her. Municipal officers watched from morning until night in her 
apartment ; gaolers puffed the smoke of their tobacco in her face as she 



214 Marie-Antoinette. [S.pt. 

passed by them ; gunners danced around her with insulting songs in the 
gardens of the prison, where she took her little ones for exercise and air ; 
and workmen threatened her aloud with death. There was no respite from 
these small indignities, no interval of comfort or oblivion granted, before 
another huge and ominous atfliction shut out for ever from the prisoner's 
heart both hope and consolation. The parting-scene between the family 
of mourners, on the eve of the King's execution, often as it has been elo- 
quently well described, has seldom been described more touchingly than 
in the pages now before us. The little circle listening to the King's voice 
— the sobs that interrupt him — the bended forms of wife, sister, and chil- 
dren, to whom the King gives his blessing — and the little hand of the Dau- 
phin raised, whilst he is sworn to forgive those who make his father die — 
are brought, as it were, before us, in all their affecting simplicity, with a 
vividness and force which must make the memory of the sad, despairing 
group indelible. 

We pass over the account of schemes of liberation, which were chiefly 
memorable for the craft and courage which conceived them, and the 
chance which baffled them, in order to carry on the uninterrupted story of 
the Queen's crowning woes. In less than six months after the execution 
of the King, the Republic, say MM. de Goncourt, " found phce in the 
Queen's lacerated heart for a new wound, the deepest one of all." Amongst 
the imperfect solaces which had been left to her in her misery, the tending 
and the teaching of the Dauphin had been infinitely most dear. On him, 
in whose future she had never lost faith, all that was left to her of that 
witchery which had once been irresistible had been fondly lavished. But 
the Committee of Public Safety decreed that '' the son of Capet shall be 
separated from his mother," and the decree was carried out. With the 
tragic history of the brutality to which the gentle child was doomed, we 
have nothing now to do ; but the mother's agony at losing him must never 
be forgotten in a record of her prison-days. All that was defiant, dariog, 
grand in her nature, flashed forth in its intensest fury to defend her darling 
boy. With body and with soul she clung to him ; nor was it till the 
officers threatened they would kill him that she allowed them to bear off 
their prize. From that time forth, during the brief remainder of her days, 
the one occupation of the heart-broken woman was to watch for oppor- 
tunities of looking on her child. She would wait for hours for a moment's 
glance at him at the turning of a staircase, or through the cleft of a par« 
tition, as he was passing onwards for his daily walk upon the platform of 
the tower. ** Time and the world had nothing more for her than that 
moment, and that cleft through which her boy was seen." 

A month afterwards, the Conciergerie became her prison-house. It 
might, we think, admit of question whether any event which happened 
subsequently to her separation from the Dauphin has properly a place in 
the enumeration of her sufferings. Outrages, indeed, were heaped upoa 
her, but she was steeled against them by the one colossal and absorbing^ 
gi'ief. A horn-comb and a bed of straw were no hardships to a mother 
mourning for her child. In her new prison, '' she prayed, and read, and 
kept her courage ready." Some kindnesses from gentler keepers awoke 
again, for a moment's space, the hope of an escape, but the devotednees 
which planned and toiled to save her was again of no avail. On her trial 
— if trial the prodigious mockery with its predetermined end he called-— 
not even the exquisite invention of her torturers, in tutoring her child to 
hear false witness against her, bowed down, for an instant's interval, the 



1858.] 



Alarie- Antoinette. 



245 



calm, high, queenly grandeur of her bearing, or discomposed the proud 
intelligence of her defence. The issue and the sentence were already 
kn twix before the cause was heard, and the ill-fated Queen was ready for 
the end. On her way to the Place de la Revolution, she maintained, 
amidst the fiercest and the grossest insults, an unmoved composure, and but 
for a moment her face grew paler as she gazed upon the Tuileries. 

The life of Maiie-Antoinette, in whatever terms we read it. contains an 
impressive lesson on the instability of human greatness. But the lesson 
comes before us in more startling form when we set against each other the 
magnificence of her morning's dawn of grace, and beauty, and intelligence, 
when, amidst little short of the idolatry of all that was illustrious in France, 
she was welcomed as its future queen, and this item of a claim upon the 
national treasury, which MM. de Goncourt have made known: — 

** The widow Capet. For the coffin 6 livres. 

For the grave and the gravediggers 25 livres." 

To approve of this charge was the President of the Revolutionary Tri- 
bunal's last public duty in the case of Marie-Antoinette. 



THE FIRST NEWSPAPER ON VANCOUVER'S ISLAND. 



" This number of the * Victoria Gazette* 
is prepared for publication in a room more 
remarkable for extent than convenience. 
Its walls abound in crevices, through 
which the wind bears with an impartial 
equality the seeds of catarrh and bronchial 
affections to the editors, proprietors, and 
typographers. Its floor is of a shaky cha- 
racter, and each passer imparts a tr»*mu- 
tonsness to its surface which occasions the 
present writing to assume a character that 
CliampoUion, were he one of onr compo- 
sitors, would find it difficult to decipher. 
Cavities, large and small, lie in wait for 
individuals passing into and about the 
establishment, which have already resulted 
in serious shin-damage to the major part 
of its occupants. The 'editor's desk' is 
a bundle of printing paper, skilfully poised 
upon a leather trunk, vibrating with each 
movement of the writer's hand, and com- 
pelling him to double up his person in 
the act of preparing 'copy' in a man- 
ner more curious than graceful. The 
'editor's easy chair* is a Chinese trunk, 
whose top would be on a level with 
the desk, but for the brilliant idea of 
increasing the height of the latter by the 
paper-expedient alluded to. The striking 
thoughts which pervade the brain of the 
individual favoured with these facilities 
would find a much readier expression at 
the point of his pen but for the drawback 
of being compelled to reta'l copies of this 
journal, receive items of news and correct 



misdirected intruders on the point of their 
destination, simultaneously with inditing 
those remarkable conceptions. Two huge 
fire-places adorn our sanctum. These or- 
naments, having been built with a view to 
convey all the heat, as well as the smoke, 
up the chimney, are as little dangerous in 
the matter of risk of a conflagration as 
they are but slightly conducive to com- 
fort in modifying the blasts of Boreas, 
which dispute occupancy with the present 
sojourners in the establishment we are 
describing. We had dt signed supplying 
these fuel-eaters with a pile of lumber be- 
longingtothe Hudson Bay Company, stored 
in the premises, but the printers having 
occupied it in lieu of a table, we have been 
compelled to postpone indulgence in that 
(to us) economical expedient. It ia pos- 
sible, also, that the corporation in question 
might entertain some objections to the 
pro] osed use of their property, which ot» 
jections, although we consider them absurd 
in view of our necessities, we are bound to 
respect. The pleasant sounds of wood- 
sawing, nail-hammering, &c., add to the 
facilities for editorial labour, of which we 
are now in existing enjoyment ; and an 
occasional procession of Indians cheers 
and invigorates the writer by stopping 
and surrounding his locality of labour, and 
gazing upon his deeds with the expression 
of intelligence common to the physiognomy 
of the intellectual race of whicu they are 
the representatives." 



246 [Sept. 



THE HISTORY OF KING ARTHUR*. 

In the present work we recognise an old friend with a new face, and, 
everything considered, with a lace much improved. Indeed, both Mr. 
Wright and his enterprising publisher deserve no little credit for producing* 
a very readable book out of a work that, except to very enthusiastic anti- 
quarians, has long since been set down as among those that are all but un- 
readable. To explain our meaning a little more at length, Mr. "Wright's 
notes, and his valuable Introduction, combined with the typographical 
merits of these handsome little volumes, add certain charms to the *^ His- 
tory of King Arthur," which can hardly fail to recommend it to a con- 
siderable number of readers, by whom, what with its hitherto scarcity and 
expensiveness, its extravagant fictions, and its almost unintelligible lan- 
guage, it was but little appreciated, or indeed hardly known. 

The great merit of this work — the fictions of which, we must admit, are 
fully as startling as those of the "Arabian Nights' Entertainments," though 
certainly not half so graceful — consists in the fact that it gives us, as Mr. 
Wright remarks, a good comprehensive condensation of the romantic cycle 
of King Arthur and his Knights, as it first appeared in the great prose 
compilations of the latter part of the twelfth and the beginning of the 
thirteenth century, and as it retained its popularity in those compilations 
during the fifteenth ; while at the same time, whatever may be thought 
of the merit of these romances as mere literary compositions, some know- 
ledge of them is absolutely necessary for those who would form a just 
estimate of the manners, feelings, and usages of our ancestors during the 
latter half of the middle ages. 

We do not remember to have ever seen the Arthurian cycle of romances 
more ably or more popularly treated of than in the few introductory pages 
with which the learned Editor has prefaced the work ; and we shall, there- 
fore, without any further prelude or apology, take the liberty of trans- 
ferring to our own pages a portion of the information which they embody, 
with the view at once of informing our readers upon a subject that has 
hitherto attracted less attention perhaps than it deserves, and of recom- 
mending the volumes to their favourable notice. 

The groundwork of the cycle of romances which have for Ihe'r subject 
the adventures of King Arthur and his Knights, is to be found, Mr. Wright 
reminds us, in the ** History of the Britons" published by Geoffrey of 
Monmouth in 1147, his materials being derived from Brittany; which 
must, therefore, in all probability be regarded as the source of this branch 
of the mediaeval fictions. No sooner had GeofiTrey's History made its ap- 
pearance, than its wondrous stories seem to have been seized with avidity 
by the contemporary trouveres, such as Gaimar and Wace ; and at a 
somewhat later period, we find the Anglo-Saxon, Layamon, adapting it, 
in an amplified form, to verse. These alterations and variations, however, 
were the fictions of their own imagination, and the mere liberties, as Mr. 
Wright remarks, which they considered themselves authorized as poets to 
take ; while on the other hand, in the second half of the twelflh century. 



* " La Mort d'Arthure, The History of King Arthur and of the Knights of the 
Round Table. Compiled by Sir Thomas Malorv, Knt. Edited from the Text of the 
Edition of 1634. With Introduction and Notes by Thomas Wright, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., 
&c. Id Three Volumes." (London : John Russell Smith.) 



1858.] The History of Kiny Arthur. 247 

ihe story of King Arthur and his Knights presents us with a number of 
new incidents with which Geoffrey of Monmouth does not appear to have 
been acquainted, but coeval perhaps in their origin with the materials from 
which his History was framed. 

The first of these romances, composing this apparently new development 
or expansion of the story, is that of the " St. Graal," or " San Greal," a 
holy vessel^ of some description or other, which had been used by our 
Saviour at the last Supper, and which, after being preserved by Joseph of 
Arimathea, was pretended to have been brought, after many marvellous 
adventures, into the southern parts of this island. As the story has no 
immediate connection with that of King Arthur, Mr. Wright is of opinion 
that it may have been founded, in all probability, upon some mysterious 
legend imported from the East during the times of the Crusades. 

Next in date of these compilations, we have the history of the prophet 
and enchanter Merlin, composed partly*^ of Breton legends, but con- 
structed, as Mr. Wright observes, upon the foundation which had been 
already laid by Geoffrey of Monmouth. The third in the order of these 
romances is that of " Lancelot du Lac,*' which is devoted to the adventures 
of that hero, and to his amours with Queen Guenever, King Arthur's faith- 
less spouse. 

This was followed by the Queste du St, Graal, or " Search for the 
Holy Graal," which had been already commenced in the romance of 
** Lancelot," and is now conducted more especially by the Knights Perceval, 
Gawaine, Lancelot, and the son of the latter, Galaad, or Galahad, who 
finally succeeds in the object of the search. The fifth and last of these 
earlier romances was that which was more particularly known as the 
Mort Artus, or Mort (TArthurej in which Lancelot's intrigues with the 
Queen and the enmity of Gawaine*s brothers lead to the war which ends 
with Arthur's death, and so concludes the history of his Knights. 

These five romances are all written in prose, in the Anglo-Norman 
dialect, the language, in fact, of the trouveres ; and there can be no doubt, 
in Mr. Wright's opinion — and he seems to have given an earnest and en- 
lightened attention to the subject — that they were compiled by two writers 
of the reign of our Henry II., the latter half of the twelfth century ; one of 
whom names himself Robert de Borron, the other being the still more cele- 
brated Walter Mapes, whose name is more generally written " Map " in the 
manuscripts. To the first of these writers belong the Roman du St. Oraal 
and the History of Merlin, while the other three are looked upon as the 
composition of Mapes. 

At a later period, so late probably as the reign of our Henry HL, two 
other writers of the same class made their appearance, Lucas de Gast and 
Helie de Borron, said to have been a kinsman of Robert de Borron, already 
mentioned. To them we owe the first and second parts of the romance of 
" Tristan," or " Tristram," a hero till then unnamed, but who from this 
time assumes a prominent place among the Knights of the Round Table. 
For some reason or other, as Mr. Wright observes, the writers of the ro- 
mance of" Tristan" take every opportunity of blackening the character of 
Sir Gawaine, who was represented as one of the purest models of knight- 



^ Sometimes the St. Graal would seem to have been regarded as a book. The ques- 
tion is discussed at considerable length by Sismondi in the early part of his ** Litera- 
ture of the South of Europe." 

* And partly, perhaps, of Welsh. 



248 The History of King Arthur. [Sept* 

hood in the preyious romances. His good name, howeyer, we would re- 
mark, appears to have risen superior to these aspersions, for in the reign of 
Henry V. we find one of his chaplains, in the midst of a series of com- 
plimentary effusions, bordering closely upon servile adulation, addressing 
him as " Tu regale genus, urbanus ut ille Gawenus." 

To these last writers, too, we owe the " History of King Pellinore," and 
of the feud between his sons and Sir Gawaine and his brethren. 

This series of romances, from the number of manuscripts which still exist, 
would seem to have soon become highly popular, and served to form a code 
of knight-errantry, which no doubt exercised, as Mr. Wright remarks, a 
considerable influence on the feudal spirit and sentiments of the thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries. Numerous writers, too, in different languages, 
selected various incidents from these romances, or abridged the whole, and 
published them in verse, as being probably a more popular form ; this 
cycle of romance becoming thus more and more developed, and in these 
new forms assuming, as time progressed, a more important place in the 
literature of the day. In the lapse of time, however, as the forms of lan- 
guage changed, and feudal usages declined, the metrical versions gave way 
to lengthy romances in prose, which were regarded as almost the sole re- 
positories of the spirit of feudalism ; such being the state of feeling, Mr. 
Wright suggests, at the period when the art of printing became generally 
known. In the latter half of the fifteenth century, and the earlier part of 
the century following, numerous editions appeared, mostly in folio, of the 
French romances relating to the St. Graal, King Arthur and his Knights, 
and more especially the adventures of Sir Tristan, whose story had become 
the most popular of them all. 

This cycle, however, of romances seems always to have been more popa* 
lar in France than in this country. A few of them are to be found in 
manuscripts of the fifteenth century, but they are mostly unique copies, and 
it is very doubtful, Mr. Wright thinks, whether they were here in any de- 
gree of vogue : — 

" Even Caxton," be says, " who had evidently a taste for French literature, did not 
think of printing a book on this subject nntil he was pressed to do it, as he informt n^ 
by ' many noble and dyvers gentylmen of thys royame ;* and then he seems to have 
been at a loss to find any hook which woald suit his purpose, until be was helped out 
of this difficulty by Sir Thomas Malory, who had cx)mpiled a book * oute of oerteyn 
hookes of Frensshe, and reduced it into Englysshe.' All wc seem to know of Sir Thomas 
Malory is, that he tells us at the conclusion of his book that he was a knight, and that 
he completed his compilntion in the ninth year of the reign of Edward Iv., that is, in 
the course of the year 1469, or early in 1470, or more than fifteen years before Cazton 
printed it. The statement of some of the old bibliographers, that he was a Welshman^ 
is probably a mere supposition founded on the character of his book." 

As to the materials employed by Malory in his compilation, we cannot 
do better than again have recourse to the ipsissima verba of Mr. Wright :— * 

'* We have no exact information as to the method pursued by Malory in his compi- 
lation, or as to the materials he used, although it is clear that a large portion of his 
book is taken from the great prose romances of Merlin, Lancelot, Tristram, the Queste 
du St Oraal, and the Mort Artus. He has adopted throughout the unfavourable view 
of the character of Sir Gawaine, which appears to have been established in France fay 
the popularity of Tristram, although it was quite contrary to the general tone of the 
English romances. He has considerably modific d some parts of the story in the ooorae 
of abridgment, and omitted many of the most important and characteristic incideota — 
in IVistram and Lancelot especially— while he sometimes gives incidents which are not 
found related in the same way elsewhere, and which seem to shew that be made use of 
some materials which are no longer known to exist. Malory takes care to remind as 
5 



1 858.] The History of King Arthur. 249 

continually that his authorities were in the French language, by his frequent references 
to the * French book/ which references, it may be remarked, are in the greater number 
of c ises omitted in the text from which the present edition is taken. Caxlon tells us that 
he finished the printing of La Mort Darthur, as he intitules the book, in the abbey of 
Westminster, on the last day of July, 14^3. This book has now become so rare that 
only one complete copy is known, which was formerly in the Harleian library, and is 
now in that of the Earl of Jersey at Osterley Park, Middlesex. An imperfect copy, 
now in Earl Spencer's library, was purchased, as we learn from Lowndes, for the large 
sum of j^320. These, 1 believe, are the only copies of Caxtou's edition known to exist." 

Wynkyn de Worde, Caxton's successor, printed two editions of this 
work, one in 1498, the other in 1529, only a single copy of each of which 
is at present known to he in existence. William Copland also, another 
early printer, reprinted this work, under another title, in 1557 ; the same 
title being adopted by Thomas East, who printed two editions, one in folio, 
the other in quarto, and both without date. From the similarity of the 
titles, Mr. Wright considers it probable that East printed from Copland's 
edition. 

1634 appears to be the date of the next reprint; in which year the last 
of the black-letter editions was published, in three parts, in quarto, with 
three separate titles. From the fact that a certain portion of the work is 
omitted in this edition, it is evident that it was printed from a copy of the 
folio edition by East, in which a leaf in the third part was wanting. 

The next known editions were printed in 1816; one edited by Joseph 
Haslewood, and remarkable for its incorrectness ; the other forming a part 
of " Walker's British Classics," and distinguished not only for its typo- 
graphical incorrectness, but for the singular license assumed by the editor, 
or printer, in altering phrases of the original where he did not understand 
them. 

Finally, in 1817 appeared the quarto edition of the original text of 
Caxton, with the name of Robert Southey attached to it as editor. The 
text, however, is a mere reprint of Caxton, with hardly any attempt at 
editing or explanation, and is consequently useless to the general reader ; 
it is only of value to the bibliographer because, for reference, it supplies 
the place of the original, which, of course, is ail but inaccessible. 

It now remains for us to let Mr. Wright inform our readers what he has 
done for the text of Caxton in the present edition ; and with a glance at the 
quality of his illustrations, we shall conclude our notice of this meritorious 
edition of what we may call one of the very earliest of the English 
classics : — 

" It has been judged advisable to adopt for the text the latest of the old editions, 
that of 1634i; for the moment we decided on abaDdonirig Caxton, there was no reason 
wliy wo should not take that of tlie reprints which was most readable. This choice 
was made with the less scruple, as no particular philological value is attached to the 
language of Caxton's edition, which would certainly be repulsive to the moJem reader, 
while all its value as a literary monument is retained in the reprint. On the other 
hand, the orthography and phraseology of the edition of 1634, with the sprinkling of 
obsolete words, not sufficiently numerous to be embarrassing, preserves a certain 
clothing of mediseval character, which we think is one of the charms of the book. The 
edition of 1634 contains the whole text of Malory's work, and presents in general a 
verbal copy of it. . . . In the present edition 1 have carefully collated the text of 1634 
with that of Caxton, and given in the notes any variations in the latter which seem 
to be of importance, or to present any particular interest. I h ive only venturod to 
alter the later text in eases where there were evident misprints or omissions. The old 
printers, especially those of the seventeenth century, were, as it is well known, ex- 
tremely careless; and the books of that period, if not corrected by the authors, are 
generally full of printers* errors. These I have carefully corrected from the text of 
Caxton, and in general, where the blunders are self-evident, I have not thought it 
Gent. Mag. Vol. CCV. i^ k 



250 The History of King Arthur, [Sept. 

necessary to point them out. ... I have thought it advisable in a work like this, where 
the obsolete words and phrases are, after all^ not very numerous, to explain them in the 
notes. Every reader has not at hand a dictionary of obsolete English j nor, if he had, 
is it convenient, in reading a book of tliis description, to be interrupted at every page 
or two in order to trace out a word in a dictionary. I liave avoided loading the 
text with illustrative, and what may perhaps be termed historical notes, confining 
myself to what seemed almost necessary to render the perusal of the text easy and 
agreeable to a modem reader. It would not be difficult to increase notes and illas- 
trations of this description to an almost indefinite extent." 

And yet, so interesting and so full of curious information are Mr. 
Wright's notes and illustrations, that we would fain have seen them more 
numerous than they are. '* Castell Wandsbrought/* we observe, in vol. i. 
p. 38, he is inclined to identify with either the ancient camp of Vandlebary, 
near Cambridge, or Wanborough in Wiltshire. It seems, however, not 
unlikely that a more northern locality is meant ; and we would suggest 
" Castle Wandsbeck " as the spot ; such being not improbably an early 
name of Morpeth Castle, situate on the banks of the river Wansbeck, and 
the castle itself being a place of some celebrity in the days when these 
romances were compiled. A few lines further on we find mentioned '* his 
master Bleise, who dwelt in Northumberland,'* and curiously enough, 
Sanctus BlasiuSy in company with Sanctus Dionysius (St. Denis), is still 
to be seen represented on some ancient glass in the windows of Morpeth 
parish church. Mitford Castle, a place of great strength, and coeval, it 
is supposed, with the Conqueror, is also situate on the banks of the 
Wansbeck. 

In p. 59 of the same volume, the "great lady Lyle of Avelyon" Mr, 
Wright suggests as being probably an incorrect translation of la dame de 
Vyle d'Avelyon; perhaps he would have been still more happy in his 
suggestion had he said la dame Vyle, Sfc. 

The " colour of Inde," mentioned in p. 251, can hardly be anything else 
than indigo; which was known in Europe so early as the days of the 
elder Pliny. 

The name Isolde^ or Isoultf as to which there is an interesting note in 
vol, ii. p. 17, was an alias, we have reason to believe, for the better known 
name Isabella. In reference to the word surgeon^ the early use of which 
is noticed in the same and in the preceding page, Ned Ward mentions it 
as an afl^ected mode of expression of the word chirurgeon, strugglin^^ 
into fashionable usage so late even as the reign of Queen Anne. 

In vol. iii. p. 246, Mr. Wright has a note to the eflfect that a cart was 
used for conveying criminals to the gallows, and it was hence considered 
disgraceful for a gentleman to be seen in it. It was for this reason pro- 
bably that, as we have recently seen stated in a contemporary chronicle. 
Sir John Oldcastle, after his arrest at Poole, was conveyed to London " in 
a wooden cart." 

With these remarks we take our leave of a work which, thanks to the 
extensive reading and careful research of the learned editor, may be 
perused with advantage by the most learned even in the antiquarian 
world. 



1858.] 



251 



ANTIQUARIAN RESEARCHES. 

BRITISH ARCH^OLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 



The fifbeenth annual meeting of this 
Association, which was established in 1843, 
for the encouras^ement and prosecution of 
researches into the arts and monuments of 
the early and middle ages, has been held at 
Salisbury during the week ending Aug. 7. 
On Monday, Mr. J. T. Pettigrew opened 
the business of the meeting by observing 
that it was his pleasing duty, as the Vice- 
President of the i^ritish Archaeological 
Association, in the absence of the Karl of 
Albemarle, the President on the former 
occasion, to introduce to their notice the 
Most Noble the Marquis of Ailesbury. 
They would, he felt sure, agree with him 
that, in conducting researches of an anti- 
quarian nature, iu any locality, it was an 
advantage to be presided over by an en- 
lightened nobleman, whose position in the 
county could not fail to afford them many 
facilities for prosecuting those researches 
for which the British Archaeological Asso- 
ciation had been specially instituted. If 
during former years they had had occasion 
to rejoice at the reception which they had 
met with in various parts of the country, 
he was sure that those receptions had not 
excelled the kind manner in which they 
had been greeted on the present occasion, 
not only by the corporate body, but also 
by the authorities of the cathedral, and by 
the gentry and magistracy of the city. 
He could not now do more than move 
their thanks to the Noble Marquis for his 
great kindness and condescension in ho- 
nouring them with his presence, and to 
express, at the same time, on behalf of the 
members of the Association, his obligations 
to the authorities, both civil and ecclesias- 
tical, for the kind support which they had 
rendered. 

The Marquis of Ailesbury, on faking 
possession of the presidential seat, said 
that he had the honour of beings a member 
of the British Archaeological Association; 
he feared, therefore, thai ho should most 
unworthily discharge the duties of Pre- 
sident. They had doubtless selected him 
for the honour on account of his being a 
Wiltshire man, and, as far as that went — 
in the interest he took in the county, and 
in everything connected with it— he could 
fairly compete with any one in that room. 
It was impossible that he should not feel, 
in common with every one who had re- 



ceived an education, the immense advan- 
tage which Societies of this description 
had conferred upon the country, both by 
their literary productions and their his- 
torical researches. For his own part he 
looked forward with great interest to the 
several papers which were to be read during 
the Congress, and which, he was sure, 
would not only interest but instruct them. 
Having travelled more in foreign coun- 
tries than in England, he was not compe- 
tent to judge of the comparative interest 
of one county and another, but still he had 
every reason to believe that Wiltshire 
could shew signs and relics of bygone 
times of a nature which would not yield in 
point of interest to those of any other 
county in England. Having selected Salis- 
bury for a visit, he hoped they would not 
be disappointed, but that events would 
occur wliich would lead them to return to 
the county at some future time. 

The Very Rev. the Dean of Salisbury 
said he had been desired by the Bishop to 
express hisdeep regretthat urgent business, 
which could not be postponed, had pre- 
vented his attending the meeting to-day. 
His lordship had begged him, however, to 
assure the members of the Association that 
he most cordially united with the autho- 
rities of the cathedral in tendering them 
a hearty welcome to this place. The palace 
gardens would be thrown open, and the 
Bishop hoped to have the pleasure of re- 
ceiving them at the palace to-morrow even- 
ing. On the part of the Chapter, he had 
only to say that they were looking for- 
ward with great interest and pleasure to 
the promised visit to the cathedral and 
the chapter-house. He need hardly say 
that the Chapter would be most happy to 
afford every facility of access, both to the 
manuscripts in their library and to the 
ancient records in their muniment-room. 

J. T. Pettigrew, Esq., F.R.S. and F.S.A., 
Vice-President and Treasurer, then read 
the following paper on the ** Antiquities of 
Wiltshire:" — Fourteen years have now 
elapsed since the first attempt was made 
by the British Archaeological Association, 
in imitation of the example instituted by 
the antiquarians of Normandy, at Caen, to 
hold a congress for the examination and 
consideration of the antiquities of any 
given locality. Our first essay was made 



252 



Antiquarian Researches. 



[Sept. 



in September, 1844, in the county of Kent, 
and the metting was held at Canterbury. 
It was at that time deemed necessary to 
offer arguments in favour of such enquiries; 
these happily are now no longer required, 
for the results of that meeting established 
upon a firm l)asis the utihty of such assem- 
blages, and convinced those who arc scep- 
tical as to their value. Since that time, 
among other bodies, besides the Association 
and the Institute belonging to and holding 
their ordinary sittings in London, many 
loc?l societies have followed the example, 
ad thereby given to the public more gene- 
ral and more just notions of the antiquities 
of our island than had hitherto been af- 
forded. Among those branches formed for 
the prosecution of archaeological research 
stands conspicuously the Wiltshire Archse- 
ological and Natural History Society, es- 
tablished in 1854, with whse niembtTs we 
have the gratification this day of asso- 
ciating in warmest feelings of friendship. 
That a society should be established and 
flourish in this county cannot be a matter 
of surprise, for the locality presents to us a 
vast series of objects of the deepest in- 
terest, and worthy of the most serious con- 
sideration. The county too, it must be 
admitted, has been peculiarly fortunate in 
having to boast of labourers in the depart- 
ment of antiquities, who have givi-n the 
world the important results of their re- 
searches, in works which constitute no in- 
signiticimt objects in the librtiries of those 
who devote themselves to, and delight in, 
the illustraticm of antiquities and history. 
A modern poet of much merit has desig- 
nated the past as the great text-l)ook in 
which the present should con its lessons. 
Experience is the daughter of Time, and 
the ki;owledge of what in former days was 
nehieved, both in a moral and physical 
sense, cannot but be productive of good; 
while a study o' the beautiful iu art, 
whether it be api)arent in a statute or an 
ivy -covered ruin, elevates the sentiments 
and refines the taste, making men to be 
better judge-^ of the performances of their 
contempoi aries and to af)preciate the ex- 
cellencies, or to detect the faults, which 
may distinguish the erections from time to 
time springing up in their own country. 
The fraternization of the parent bodies 
with their local offspring is much to be 
desired, and should be warudy cherished ; 
mutual benefit must inevitably result. 
This we have eminently felt during our last 
congress in Somersetshire and in Norfolk. 
The respected President of the laHerbody, 
Sir J. P Hoiltan, Bart., well observed at 
the niee'ing at Norwich, that " it w;is too 
true, either from the indolence which pre- 
vailed too- generally, or from the neglect 



which was accustomed to follow familiarity, 
those who lived in the midst of interesting 
ohjects were too apt to pass them over 
without sufficient attention; and some- 
times, from a want of acquaintance with 
similar objects which existed elsewhere, 
they were unable to generalise, or to form 
such correct views, as they would do if 
they had a more enlarged knowledge ; it 
was, therefore, (he conceived.) a great ad- 
vantage to any locality to be visited by in- 
telligent gentlemen from other parts of the 
country, who, with fresh eyes and interest, 
would be able to point out many things 
which had escaped their own observation.** 
I trust the same happy consequences may 
ensue from the present occasion, and that 
by the freedom of our intercourse, the 
liberal exchange of our ideas, and the can- 
dour with which we discuss our several 
opinions, we may succeed in establishing 
friendly relations, and form and cement 
friendships as affectionately in Wiltshire 
as in Norfolk ; for such bting devoid of all 
political or other hostility, and having for 
their basis the illustration of the antiqui- 
ties and history of our country, must con- 
stitute some of the most engaging eventa 
of our existence. 

The Wiltshire Society has had the pood 
fortune to have been presided over by per- 
sons of the highest attainments and the 
most refined taste, and the discourses de- 
livered by Mr. Poulett Scrope, the Right 
Hon. Sidney Herbert, the Rev. Mr. Jack- 
son, the Rev. Prebendary Fane, and others, 
published in the "Wiltshire Magazine,** 
are valuable not only for the learning thej 
display, for the knowledge of the subjoct 
they exhibit, but also for the aid they give 
to us by pointing out the desiderata par- 
ticularly worthy of our present regard and 
attenton. In making the arrangements 
for this meetinjr we have power luUy felt 
till* value of such assistimce, and have only 
to regret that from the very limited period 
at our disposal, and from the diversity of 
engagements that press upon us on all 
sides, we are unable to devote a larger 
portion of time to their consideration. 
Glad, indeed, should we have been to 
have embracetl a survey of the whole of 
this most interesting county, — a county 
so rich that the radius of a few miles only 
can with advantage l)e undertaken by us» 
and within that range, and during the 
short period of one week, we are enabled 
to bring under examiiuiticm a variety of 
important objects in many departments of 
Antiquity and History. Herein consists 
the a' I vantage of such gatherings. Each 
individual is able to contribute his mite 
and apply his knowledge to the elucida- 
tion of the subjects under consideration. 



1858.] 



British Archceological Association, 



253 



and let it be remembered, that however 
trifling these may be esteemed to be by 
those who so cheerfully and so modestly 
on these occasions render thetn, they often 
serve to fill up and complete the links of 
the chain of evidence required to justify 
the conclusions at which we may arrive. 

In Primceval Antiquities the field open 
to us is of the most interesting character. 
Prominent in this class must bo men- 
tioned Stonehenge, — mysterious monu- 
ments maintaining the secrets of their 
origin with indomitable pertinacity, re- 
sisting the enquiries of all ages and all 
efforts satisfactorily to solve the origin of 
their erection, and the purposes to which 
they were dedicated. The traditions re- 
garding them are too obscure to assist in 
the solution of the difficulty. Well, there- 
fore, may they have been assigned by the 
unlettered and superstitious to the giants 
of old, and be even imagined to be but 
the transformation of their individual 
bodies into a material of such durability 
and imperishable nature. 

It would be foreign to my present pur- 
pose to enter upon a review of the various 
theories that have been promulgated in 
regard to those marvellous erections. Dio- 
dorus is esteemed as the first author to 
whom we can apply for information, and 
he appears to refer to them where he tells 
us that under the Bear, beyond the Celtse, 
there was an island to the north, little in- 
ferior in magnitude to Sicily, in which the 
Hyperboreans once adored Apollo as the 
supreme divinity. This worship was car- 
ried on in a circular temple, within a mag- 
nificent and consecrated grove, whence 
issued songs of praise, poured forth to the 
deity by the priests of the island, accom- 
panied by the music of their harps. The 
languige of this people, the historian says, 
was their own, but they had been visited 
by Greeks, and various offerings and gifts 
bad been made to the temple, having in- 
scriptions in the Greek language. Over 
the town and temple presided the Borca- 
da), their priests and rulers. This account 
is pre-'umed to have reference to the temple 
of Stonehenge, described by one nearly 
2,000 years since, and then given upon 
the author! ^y of a writer of a still more 
remote ant quity. Many accounts both 
of the number and arrangement of the 
stones presumed to have belonged to this 
temple, so remarkable for their several 
magnitudes, have been given. Stukeley 
made excavations in their neighbourhood 
and instituted other minute enquiries. The 
stones, he tells us, are not artificial, but 
have in all probability been brought fiom 
the Grey Wethers, on Marlhorough Downs, 
a distance from the site they occupy of 



not less than fifteen or sixteen miles. In 
their neighbourhood have been found the 
bones of animals, oxen, deer, and other 
beasts ; but no human remains have been 
discovered. These are only to be obtained 
from those circumjacent barrows, now ren- 
dered so familiar to us by the labours of 
Cunnington, Hatcher, Hoare, Duke, and 
others highly disUuguished by the re- 
searches they have made. The connexion 
of the pilliu^ of stone with the astro- 
nomical and mythological notions of the 
ancients have led most authors to con- 
nect them with oriental architecture and 
science, and hence to derive the form and 
arrangement of the druidical temple, — a 
temple not inclosed and covered over, but 
in conformity with their idea of the power 
and influence of the Deity, bounded by no 
limits, enclosed within no scanty shrine, 
but open to the heavens, realising the 
well-known and admired lines of Pope, as 
expressed in his Universal Prayer: — 

" Whose temple is all space, 
Whose altar, earth, seas, skies." 

That which has been handed down to us 
or recorded as belon^^fg to the sacerdotal 
order in Druidisin is so closely allied to 
oriental customs that we cannot be sur- 
prised at the conclusions derived from such 
considerations in regard to those monu- 
ments whicli it will be our good fortune to 
examine during this congress. To contem- 
plate those huge stones, surmounted by 
their ponderous transoms or lintels — to 
mark, in the language of Stukeley, " the 
chasms of sky between the jambs of the 
trilithons" — to see as it were a whcle 
quarry mounted in the air, and to look 
upon the rude havoc below, resembling 
" the bowels of a mountain turned inside 
out" — will be our privilege on this occa- 
sion. But, imperfect as the remains now 
are, they will yet serve to force upon us 
the conviction that they may have been 
once dedicated to the rites of a dark and 
mysterious religion. "Perha})8," says an 
enthusiastic writer on this subject, " these 
very stones have reverberated the shrieks 
of midnight sacrifices, and stood the silent 
witnesses of barbarous superstition, framed 
by priestcraft to subjugate the minds of 
simpler men to dread authority ! Pi-rhaps, 
in L' cutler power, they have listened to the 
voice of sacred truth and humble piety, 
teaching the lessons of humanity to a fierce 
and savage people; and binding the un- 
tamed children of primaeval forests by 
sacred rites, suited, and no more, to the 
objf ct of reclaiming them to civilized life 
and religion." Neither legend, nor fable, 
the oral hieroglyphics of the unlettered 
period, are to be found conveying to us 
intelligence of their erection or purpose ; 



254 



Antiquarian Researches, 



[Sept. 



yet there are those who do not think them 
biyond the limits of traditional record, if 
we would take the pains of investigating 
it. It is highly deserving of notice, that 
monuments like those of Stonehenge, which 
must have been the work of many years, 
are found either by the sea, or in districts 
but little removed from it; that they 
seem to indicate an efttablishcd worship of 
a people who arrived by sea, formed their 
settlement on the coast, and penetrated 
inland