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Full text of "The Gentleman's magazine"

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r 



THE 



GENTLEMAN'S MAOAZINB. 

JULY— DECEMBER, 1861. 



THE 



GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE 



AND 



HISTORICAL EEVIEW. 

By SYLVANUS URBAN, Gent. 



M DCCC LXI. 

JULY TO DECEMBER inclusive. 

BEING VOLUME XL OP A NEW SERIES. 

AKD THE TWO-HUNDRED-AND-ELEVENTH SINCE THE OOMMRKCEMEJ<T. 




•T. lUttff'B tiATB, CLKJUiMlWm.b« 

nrs BsaioiQiDi or catb, the fouxueh op the omtruDiJiV** haoakxi, 17M. 
(fn in runiTT atatc, tvit*, IB56,} 



LONDON: 

JOHN HENRY and JAMES PARKER. 

1861. 



1 54«9(> 



PBIIfTIl) RT MMBIUI. PARXBB, OOBNMARKBT, OXFORD. 



PREFACE. 



Contrary to the usual faahion of Sylvakus Urban in present- 
ing a new volume for the acceptance of hia readers, he would on 
this occasion rather speak of the future than of the past. 

Though we studiously avoid the expression of party views, and 
therefore seldom allude to home politics, one measure of the last 
iSeasion of Parliament has the appearance of ao affecting our position 
that a few wordB on it will naturally be expected by our readers. 
We know that, in' general, the}' are not of the class which expected 
wonders from the repeal of the paper duty, and so feel no surprise 
to find tho price of our publication the same as before. The dif- 
ference to our Publisher is, as he assures us, far less than might 
be expected, but any benefit arising from it he is quite ready to 
give to our readers, and ho has therefore placed additional space 
at our disposal, which we trust will enable us to treat with suf- 
ficient fulness aU the various matters that may be fairly looked for 
in the oldest Magazine in existence, and one which has ever been 
a means of intercommunication for the educated classes. 

This little matt€% as wo trust, satisfactorily disposed of, we may 
turn to what our talented contributors have enabled us to accom- 
plish in the volimie iiow completed. First in importance we may 
fairly pkce some valuable papers on Mosaics, which may be said, 
without fear of contradiction, to give a better view of the subject 
(one of much interest in this day of ornamental building) than has 
hitherto appeared in any periodical Then we have treated the 
recondito subject of Cuneiform Inscriptions in a manner that we 
hope will commend itself as satisfactory ; we have recorded the re- 
markable discover)' of Runes in Orkney, and hope soon to give an 
authorized interpretation of them to the world, We have chroni- 



^ML ikt V n/ uju iitkf^ of almcMt ererr cxiatiiig ArcbscJoeical Si> 
€wCf y mil we sre wflfing to do the Hme br any nev Societies that 
mtff he fermed. We hare lerieved in a candid s{Krit all the more 
hKf0'MUaat woAm on cobjectB at history and biography that have 
jeeeaitly appeared^ and hare venUired on estimates of the labours 
iHike iA the liogncfhen of the Archbishops of Canterbory and of 
fliodem Admindi. Our Correspondence has been full, and Tarioas, 
tad m many cases authenticated by well-known names. In Uke 
flHomer we hare recorded the lives and characters of all persons 
of n«4e recently deceased^ Ae matmalw in most cases being the 
eoiktril«tions of suriring friends. Thns we have still that friendly 
eo-cfieration which we have so long enjoyed, and which for a very 
lengthened period to come will we trust justify our motto» 

« jr FLXTMIBUS UWUIW 



LIST OF ENGRAVINGS. 



PAOV 

The Jerusalem Chamber 5 

Plan of the Abbot's Hoxiae (now the Deanery) and adjoining 

Bmldings . , , ib. 

Plan of the Precincts of Westminster Abbey, from a Map of 

London of the time of Queen Elizabeth 10 

Plan of the Jewel-house, with the groining of the Basement , 12 
View of the Principal Chamber in the Basement of the Jewel- 
house, k.3. 1377-80 13 

Smaller Room in the Basement of the Jewel-house . . .14 
Ancient 8 word found at Holme -Mil, Torkshire . • • .18 

Inscription to Bt. Sadwm . 42 

Cross at Carew, (two figures) 44 

Incised Stones from Penally, near Tenby , . • . , 45 

Encaustic TUe from Gloucester Catbedriil 66 

OXTORB : — 

Phin of the Castle, reduced from King's Plan published in 1796 108 
The Well-room, A,D. 1174 ,....,. 109 
Bird's-eye Yiew of the Castle in the time of Queen Elizabeth, 

from Aga8*s Map 110 

The Tower now remaining, as seen from the Mill Stream • ,112 
Booardo from the north and south in 1770, reduced from the en- 
gravings by Malchair 114 

Bastion of the City Wall 115 

Sculpture over the Doorway of the Lady-chapel . . ,116 

RaUingson's Plan for the Fortification of Oxford, temp. Chas. I. . 117 

Mosaics t — 

Mosaic from the tomb of Gallia Placidaj Kavenna, a,d. 450 {plate) 222 
Plan of the Basilica of D'Jomilah ...... 224 

Mosaics at St, Sabina, Rome » 226 

Mosaics in the Baptistery at Ravenna * . , . , ib, 
MomdcB over an altar in the apse of St.Yitalis, Ravenna, A.n. 547 230, 23 1 
Mosaics from the Chancel of StVitalis, Ravenna, a.d, 547 , 232 

Mosaic on the Domical Vault of the Baptistery at Ravenna, a.b. 553 233 
Mosaics from the Nave of the Church of 8t ApoUinaiis within the 

walls of Ravenna 234, 235 

Mosaics in the Cbapel of St. Zeno, in the Church of St. Praxedcs, 
A.n. 810 348 



71U LIST OF E3(ORA\1^GS. 

rAoi 

ICiiaic Pivement (Opua Alexindrinimi) at St.Gement, Borne, 

i.D. 1200 plate ^ 462 

Interior of the Abbey Church of Martonara, at Palenno, 

A.D. IlliJ— 1139 464 

Inflcrlptioa in Mosaic in the Pavement of the Church of Murano, 

at Venice 465 

Specimen of Pattern Mosaic from St. Mark's, Venice, circa 1150 467 

Portion of Mosaic in the Church of the Nativity, at Bethlehem, 

A.D. 1169 469 

Inscripdcn in Mosaic in the Church of the Nativity, at Bethle- 
hem, A.D. 1169 1^. 

Tribune, or Apse, St. Clement's, Eome, c. 1250 . . .470 

Choir of the Church of St. Clement, Rome .... i^. 

Bronze Marmite, from Caudebec-lcs-Elbeuf 254 

Marmite and Bronze Chandelier, found at Loges, near Fecamp . 256 

GraTcstone from York^ Fourteenth Century 423 

The Rock of Bisutdn 486 

The Sculptures on the Rook of Bisutun ..... »5. 
Objects found in a Christian Grave of the Middle Ages, at Etaples, 

in 1861 489 

Marmite, size of the original 546 

I^orth-west Bay of Chancel, St. Mary's, Stone .... 586 

Bosses of Foliage in the SpandriL$» Stone 588 

Font, Cathedral of St. Sorvulus 594 

Capitab from the Cathedral of Parvnzo, Istria« jl.d. 523 — 526 {plate) ib. 
Western Facade and Ground-plan of Church, Island of St. Catherine, 

Istria 595 

Oronnd-plan of the Cathedral at Tola, Istria .... 596 

Bebenico Cathedral 598 

Two 8cribe«i from the Awrrian Sculptures * % • • ^^^ 

A Btjrltti, found by Mr. LoVtueu at Wurka t^. 



THE 

GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE 

AND 

HISTORICAL REVIEW^ 

JULY, 1861. 



CONTENTS. 

MINOE CORRESPONDENCE.- Archacolo^oal Institute of Great Britain and Ireland.— 

Kent Arcbeological Society.— Origin of *' Triforium."— Erratum 2 

The Jernaalem Chamber, 3; The Abbot of Westminster's House, 8; Modern 

Buildings, 11 ; The Jewel-house 12 

The Sieges of Pontefract Castle 15 

Ancient Sword(with an Engraving) 18 

From the Tyne to the Tweed 19 

Cornish Tours 27 

Bibliography of Normandy 28 

Runic Inscriptions 29 

The Priory Church, Brecon 80 

Restoration of Damick Tower 82 

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.— WillB and Inventorie*, temp, Elizabeth 83 

Discovery of Ancient Graves in Deemess, Orkney 87 

ANTIQUARIAN AND LITERARY INTELLIGENCER.— Society of Antiquaries of London 
—The Oxford Architectural ana Historical Society, 38 ; Archtnolof^cal Institute, 53 ; 
British ArchflcologriciU Associution, 55 ; Numismatic Society, 57 ; London and Middle- 
sex and Surrey ArchsDological Societies, 59 ; Cambridge Architectuial Society, Gl ; 
Lelcestershhre Architectural and Archsological Society, 62 ; Society of Autiquaries* 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne 64 

CORRESPONDENCE OF SYLVAN US URBAN.— Cabalistic Lore, 66; A ReUc of the Great 
Rebellion, 67 ; ** Curator Agrorum," 69 ; Dean Goodwin of Christ Church, Oxford — 
Charges at tlie College of Arms— Ueraldic Query 70 

THE NOTE-BOOK OP 8YLVANU8 URBAN 71 

HISTORICAL AND MISCELLANEOUS REVIEWS.— Hope's EngUsh Cathedral of the Nine- 
teenth Century, 72; Knudeen'^ Slesciakse Provindsial-e/terretninfferflA; The Twelve 
Churches; or. Tracings along the Watling Street — The Comprehensive History of 
India— Flowering Plants of Great Britain 76 

APPOINTMENTS. PREFERMENTS, AND PROMOTIONS 77 

BIRTHS 77 

MARRIAGES 79 

OBITUARY.— Coant Cavour, 83; Prince Michael Gortacbakoff, 86: Vice- Admiral Sir R. S. 
Dundaa, K.C.B. — The Boron de Forrester, 87; Vice- Admiral Moorsom, 88; Miss 
Currer, 89; Rev. John Stevens Henslow, M.A., F.L.S., &c., 90; Major Charles 
Naamyth 92 

CLERGY DECEASED 92 

DEATHS ARRANGED IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER 94 

Bcgiatrar-General'a Return of Mortality and Births in the Metropolis — Markets, 99; 

Meteorological Diary— Daily Price of Stocks 100 



By STLVANUS TEBAN, Gent. 



irrSOR COBXESPOTDESiZE. 









turn Ihadkm.jrc^ 



Tirie ivfmvMi nMniim^ 9*11 *i« h«lct it 
9SIH, ;in#f ^vwwInHifi^ TiMwiav, Jnly 30th. 

Ml :«». )'2 V/4/v4r. Vcm Mmtmm m the 
^fw*f t«f fiif-^hoiif ^ tlM TnuniiKf CoIlcgB. 

rtrx'omfcf ^h'xM. Annttftl Tmnw at tke 

7*A*f f*/^, y«r/y 2J>.- - P^X4$iir«imi. 
fy«M#«iM Hf<(^/>rf y Mw» ^.iithMlral» awl tiM 

hv tlv* fr/^t^sf at. fhrt Wivi^Tim. 

filing fty, Jwfy %K 9n\\ choral aeryiee 
fn fhA ^AthMfal. If, la ^pi^M that A 
^mr^m «r»n M ^MK^h^ /m th« Ofcaaiaa 
hy ^hA f//f4 thnh49p t^ (HtfftA. 

M'lntlttft, July 2if. MMitin^a of g«c- 
f^ffh*. Kt^nrtnffTt in t-h* Aftwnfrtni* KvfiO' 

Tntntlntf, July t^l Anriftal M'<at{iig far 
fA#iri}vfrf|( MfA AnmiffI M^porrf a, f/^ ttniF #ik<c- 
fl/rfi /rf npw ffiAffifjAfu, Mfi/f M/Ji#»r ^ma)n«<aa. 
An h'iMtrn'ufU will |rrolmM/ tm «rraaKa<l 
for fli*» Affi*rtUf(m. 

Ihh fifllowinK VttMtmhfUn am pfyi|K»Mi<1f 

«»nmf'tfrl, Marhoirn, llarna^'k, Wftt#T- 

tnie, WNn«f«rfr|, hw\ VnnUir, InHiifUng 

§^^f^^tn\ rufnarkatili* i«intn|itiia of vhurcli 



Acu Tbomey. Czowiami AJixy. ftftkzrk* 
SertfaboRmi^ ixtmizniv and W^- joderadft ; 

WarmiBgiaaiw ^b.: sui. if pBKEuabla!^ 



EEfT ABOLEOLOGICAL 30CTETT. 

Tn Anmal Mwcm^ will b* liakl aft 
■aidifioiw, an Joij Si. awi AnguaK 1. 

OaiGDT OF -TBIFQWUM.* 

Xb> CebaSv— Any %hft wkkk eaa be 
ftfanank opiHi liie arigm of Ae word 
^triforinm'* uroat be w tikum e. A nvwas 
same which ban aome rcaembhoee to il 
in eoatpoaitioa is ■* MiforiHim. " * Tint 
ipaa (jnxU candon Krrlwiain & FWtri 
Serobeaberiensem ) Bif9riettm Tocatnr, 
quod noa linpiA GaIIica» 'aate fGrtam' 
dkimoa." (Manaaticoa AngCeanam, Snd. 
Edit, 1682, p. S76 a.) - Qai ncn Aazlic^ 
dkitnr Biforieta qnod Latine Bgnificat 
atOe portam:* (CarU regia Wmelmi, lb. 
p. 381 a.) The word ia» therefore, of the 
aame period aa " triforiom^" which ia firat 
oaed bj Gerraae, speaking of Canterbury 
CatbedraL I am, Ac, 

MiOKzvzis £. a Walootx» MJL 

ERRATUM. 

Page 679, in the memoir of Mr. John 
Taylearo, for 1,100 guineas read 100 
gnineaa. 

The Ungih of our Meports of Societies 
obliges us to postpone several Beviews 
and Obituaries which are in type. 



THE 



(i^utleman'fj Jltirpzin^ 



AMD 



niSTORICAL REVIEW. 



THE JERUSALEM CHAMBERv 

Ttte Jerusalem Chamber now existing was built shortly after tbe year 
1362. by Nicholas Litlyngton, abbot of Westminster Few details of his 
life and good works have been committed to the press; but among the 
Cottonian Manupcripts is a very interesting" record, in wbicb many of his 
benefaclians are enumerated, and an opportunity la thereby afforded us of 
entering in a measure into the peculiarities, and in estinmting the excel- 
lences of his character. A short resume of these will not unfitly introduce 
the hifitory and description af an edifice with which his honoured name is 
indissolubly associated. 

Nicholas Litlyngton was Prior of Westminster at the time of Abbot 
Simon de Langham's elevation to the see of Ely, and was thereupon 
elected abbot in April, 1362. He had greatly benefited the bouse while he 
was simply one of the brethren, especially by procuring the custody of ibe 
temporalities during three vacancies. On his advancement to the chief 
place of government in his monastery^ he shewed himself a most careful 
and judicious defender of its rights, and an unwearied improver of its pos- 
iessions. It appears that a great etorm of wind had just then made havoc 
of the manor-houses and other buildings, but within three years he rebuilt 
them, and left them in better order than they were before. The abbot's 
house, from tbe foundation, was among bis new buildings, with the west 
und south sides of the cloister, the houses of the bailiff, infirmarer, sacrist 
■nd oetlarer, a great malt-house with a tower, a water-mill and the dam^ 
with stone walls, and a stone enclosure of the garden of the infirmary. In 
tbese works he was much assisted by the funds left by his predecessor. 
He also gave a mitre of the value of a hundred raarcks, a pastoral staff of 
the value of 15/*, a great missal for the high altar, and two silver-gilt 
ehalices. Also other books of the Divine Offices to the chapel of the abbot 
mud house of the infirmary ; and to bis own chapel, vestments and otber 
sacerdotal ornaments, chalices, censer, incense -pyx, bell, basin, and a pyx 



* A pnper by tbe Bev. Thomas Hogti, M^ , F.B.A., kc, read in the Jerauileni 
Oiambrr, at the Meeting of the LoDduii and Middlest'i Arcboxjlogical Sx;iety, Oct. 25, 
1800. See Gent. Jlxo., Jsa 1861, p* m. 



i T7te Jerusalem Chamber. [Ju'Vi 

•/ ». '.*r '/.\^.. H«r also ffave to the convent for their use in the refectory, 
••Ar«^ ty, *#•: "i.'ytXfA and nowhere else, 48 dishes and 2 chargers, and 
U% >'A.V:..»r^ of ^ilvcrr, of the wcij^ht of 104 Ihs. To the same brethren 
*.'^ *',T •}.«: rui-'rricordia house, and nowhrre else. 24 dishes, 12 saltcellars, 
»": 2 '.Kir^j'rr- of ••ilver of 10 lbs., weiirhin^ 40 lbs., and two books of 
'/.f'/r.i*i ,r.i! ffjark'rd X and L. Also to his successors in the abbacy he gave 
2\ 'i. »?.«•», 12 "alt cellars, and 4 chargers of silver of the weight of 64 lbs. ; 
2 '.;••/ jafH ittf wiijo, of the weight of 8 lbs. ; one silver cup with a water- 
j // '/f 'j.v«;r gilt, value lOOs. ; 12 silver plates, of 12 lbs. weight; 2 bat<ii:s, 
».*S 2 'MhU-.T.'yy^H of hilvcr, of 10 Ibs. weight; and 2 silver basins for 
]A/uUtnf*, of 7 lbs. wffi^ht. The grant was dated at Westminster, 9lh 
M^y. i.'J7H. \u nrttirn for these benefactions it was ordered by the con - 
^« ?.♦ ihti* ;iO«:r hJM d«'r:r;aHc he should daily be remembered by them in their 
^tii*** ufit-r dirin'rr and hupper, and at mass, together with the souls of the 
f:tt'M<»I di'.jfUfiftd. ile difrd on the vigil of St. Andrew the Apostle, ad. 
l«'}'tC, ^nd wa*i hijri«:d within the entrance before the altar of St. Blase, 
ut.'iif Si ihiiihW. hjab, decently adorned, that bore a long epitaph which is 
if. '.Ml l»y Hpoihty ill thij MS. from which these details are taken**. 

Atit'ftur till! rooMiM of the abbot's house, already mentioned, was the room 
f iill'd till- .|t-f ijMiileiit ('haniher. It abuts at a right angle on the southern- 
»»'»«■.» of ih«- t'.vo towiTN whirh adjoin the great western entrance to the nave 
•#( ih«- !ilib«y, }iiif| in thirly-*.ix fd'ct long and eighteen wide. It has two 
in'nU Ml p'»iiitii| wirid'fWM on the west, and on the north a large square win- 
d'#-v, diiid<<l by I'i'WKil innllionN, histwern which are inserted among the white 
<l>iiiinfii rifiiir v<-iy iiiirirHtiiig N|)(>(:iin<MiH of ancient glass. The chamber 
(<iiif(id lilhi-i I hi' wiilifiiiiwiii^ nioni to the abbot's hall, to which it is con- 
lij/ii'*iif,iii I |f.i. wiiH itHi'Hri (JurHt<!n llnll for the constant influx of strangers 
VtUn I'lijif^i'il ihf |/,iMid rthlinrM hctspilulily. Some imagine it to have been 
II. I iiltlfiii n I liiipi'l, liiil liH piiNitiiui inilitates against the accuracy of such 
II hii)ipi»hitiiin. It wiiN nut tlh' fn-Ni tiinr that u chuniber of a similar name 
•■hipli'd I'llhci on iliif hHtne nr a nci^Oibouring spot. 

Tint fiiihi'nl hihtfirifal rrfiMrnn* to this rlinmbor is probably in the 
nri-iMinl III lliH doulh nf llfuiy IV., in thr Contiuuaiio HiatoritB Croyhnd- 
PHuiii, wlnrn it in miiit llml tin* Kin^,', ril>ing upon a deceptive prophecy, 
|inf|Niwd to Mcl out fill ihi' Iliily Ciiy ol .Irrusnlrm : but, fulling into mortal 
iiii'liiitM, diifil Hi WihtiiiiiihiiM, ill II rrilain clmnibor called of old time 
JtfiiiaiNliini, Niiil Nil fiillllli'tl lliK \tiiii pifilirliiin*'. Kabyun. one of the most 
valualiln iif iHir ntd Kiiiiiliiih I'lininii |i<iM, Kivrn us a very curious and minute 
•isrituiil of ihU iiileii'fliii}( riiiiiitihiitiii'o. ||i* w reooiding the events of 
Uld fiuiili'i'iilh \vn\ ill IIiki^'b mikii, and tliun drsoribos its sudden 
UrmiiKiliiiii. 

'* 111 lliu ,>iiiii, mid UiMli iIh^ <iI Mil- iiitiiilji mI Niiu'iiilti'r. Hiuii ^rrut ooum-il hoMon.it 

^ M^ I'liH I liiMil \ lUl.n lt:i, il.ln. iM. 

• A*0i. 4h^I .>.!. l»/.i»h..ii lithi, iiuii. i. p 4ini. 



1861.] 



m« Jerusalem Chancer. 



:: 




TbQ Jerusalem Chamber. 




PIao of Lho Abbet> FTouae. now the Deanery (B), the BchrsTitrs Hall (A)- 
and £itch«Q (C>, asd the JerusaJom Chamber (B). 



QlEVT. NAa. Voim CCXL 



JM. 



6 Tke Jenuakm Chamber. U^» 

theWluteFrknofLoBdoB^bjfhewliidi ttwwsmoiig oilier tldBgieoiidBdcdtlHit»te 
the Khig'f gTMt jooniej, that b« istoKled Ibr to tiJLe in Tiil^ 
of our Lor4 eeiiain gsQcTi of wv ihoakl be made, and other tmi t ejeu ee cooceii u ng 
the MHDe joomej. Whereopoo all heetj and poMUeqieed ww made; hot after the 
ISeaat of ChriatemmMe, while he waa making hit prayen at S. EdwardPf dirine^ to take 
there faia leare, and to apeed him npoo hia joomej, he heeame ao b^ that woA aa 
were about him feared that he would hare ^ed r^t there. Wherefore they for hia 
eomlbrt bare him into the abbofa plaee and lodged him in a duunber, and there npoo 
a pallet laid him before the fire, where he laid in great agony a certain of time. At 
length, when he waa eomen to himaelf^ not knowing where he wa% he freyned [aaked] 
of aach aa tiien were aboot him, what plaee that waa ; the wluch ahowed to him that 
H belonged nnto the Abbot of Weatminater, and for he fdt himaelf to n^ he eom- 
manded to ask if that chamber had any ipeeial name, whereonto it waa anawered that 
H was named Jerualem. Then laid the King^ 'Loring be to tiie Father of UeaTen ; 
far now I know that I ihall die in thia diamber, acoor^ng to the prophecy of me 
before laid, that I thoold die in Jeroaalem.' And ao after he made himadf ready and 
^Hedihortly after 1" 

The account of what maj be considered the most interesting occurrence 
connected with this chamber would hardlj be considered complete without 
some reference to the scene of our great dramatist, although it varies from 
the authentic narrative, in his play of ** Henry lY." The dying King in- 
qoireSi as though half-expectant of the answer, — 
^ Doth any name particular belong 
Unto the lodging where I firat did swoon P^ 

The Earl of Warwick answers :^ 

•"Tn called Jemialem, my noble lord." 

And the King replies : — 

" Laud be to Qod ! Even there my life most end. 
It hath been prophesied to me many yean^ 
I should not die bat in Jemsalem ; 
Which vainly I supposed the Holy Land. 
Bot bear me to that chamber; there 111 lie; 
In that Jemsalem shall Harry die */' 

There is an ancient tradition that Edward V, was bom in this room, and 
baptized here shortly after his birth by the Abbot of Westminster, 

We have no mention of any use made of the chamber for a long time 
subsequent to this occurrence. In the year 1624, John Williams, Bishop 
of Lincoln and Dean of Westminster, entertained the French ambassador 
here with great splendour and at considerable cost. And it b probable 
that the architectural peculiarities of the room, as we now see them, which 
are of the period of James I., the alterations in the fireplace, before which, 
according to the chronicler already quoted, the couch of the dying King 
was laid, the ceiling, and the armorial bearing^ in the north window, were 
the work of this dignitary. In March, 1640-1, an assistant or sub-com- 
mittee of about twenty individuals, partly Episcopal and partly Presby- 

Fabyan's Chronicle, ed. 1569, pp. 888, 889. 
• Second Part of" Henry IV.," Act iv. so. 4. 



186L] 



Jerusalem Chamber, 



r leriaD, was appointed to prepare mattera for the cogniBance of ibe superior 
' committee, established to examine into ** innovations in matters of religion/' 
The afore- mentioned Bishop Williams was chosen to preside over both 
.Assemblies, and the sub-committee held for awhile its meetings in this 
chamber. The violent behaviour of the Presbyteiian faction in the House 
of Commons wholly prevented any good that might have resulted from 
tbese deliberations, and the sittings were soon and abryptly terminated. 
In later times the chamber 1ms been used for the custody of the regalia 
during the night before a coronation. The abbots were the official keepers 
of these insignia of royalty, a privilege which is thus in some degree ex- 
ercised by their modern representatives. The room is also u&ed for the 
rittings of Convocation, and for the meetings of the Dean and Chapter. 

Tlie painted glass in the north window is much more ancient than any 
portion of tlie edifice in which it now finds a place. There was probably 
a Jerupalem Chamber in this church as erected by Henry IIL, for the 
** Continaator" already quoted speaks of one so called "ah aniiquo ;^^ and 
these may have been among its ornamental accessories. The costume of 
the figures bears out this supposition. The first Jerusalem Chamber was, 
a» 1 suppose, furnished with decorations from subjects in the Gospe! nar- 
rative painted upon its walls, and hence obtained its characteristic title. 
And by means of these and other adornments the windows themselves 
were made to harmonize with the rest of the structure, and to play their 
lj>art in the general design. The subjects of the painted glass are : — 1. The 
Slaughter of the Innocents. 2. The Stoning of St. Stephen. 3. The Last 
Judgment. 4. The Descent of the Holy Ghost. 5, The Ascension. 6. St, 
Peter Walking on the Sea. 7. The Beheading of St. John the Baptist, 
8* A mutilated shield of later execution, bearing the arme of Bishop 
Williams, the arms of the see of Lincoln, and those of the deanery of 
_ Westminster. All these are more or less patched, and the heads of the 
Bven Scriptural eubjects are filled up with blue glass of tlje period of 
James I. Many of the figures have also received sundry renovations 
within the last few years. The tapestry is of the time of Henry VIIL, 
with the exception of one piece, which is of the period of the first James, 
ad is very similar to the well-known examples in the Great Hall at 
lampton Court Palace. The portrait of Richard IL, now suspended on 
the south wall, is one of the most interesting of its class. It was formerly 
in the choir, where it seems to have been in danger from coming in too 
close a contiguity with the backs and heads of divers Lord Chancellors and 
otJters who occupied the stall behind which it was placed. Dart's descrip* 
tion of it in its then condition is valuable, as it was written before the 
renovations to which it has since been subjected ; — 

*' On the south aide of the choir, by the polpifc/' he say*, " \% an ancient painting 
of that anhappy beatitiful prince, Riclmrd ij., fitting in a chair of gold, dneraed in 
m vc'tt of groan Aow«rod with ilowers of gold and tbe ioitukl lettorfl of his nauie, haviag 



T/ie Abbot of Westmintter's Houte. 



[Jtdj 



on sboei of gold powdered with pearK tlie whole robed hi crtoiion Imcd witb craioav 
and the sbouldera tpread vritb tbe sanae, fmiened under % ooUm of gold ; tb« p«ii«l 
plastered and gilt witb several croiaes and flowen of gdd t m b t w od. Tbe laigtb of 
tbe picture ifl 6 foot and 11 incbes, and tbe breadtb 3 Ibot 7 inctaei*/' 

Such is the famous Jerusalem Chamber, of which it may be uid, great 
aa the commendation Is, that for historical associationB and artistic acces- 
sories it is second in interest only to the venerable Abbey wiUi which it 
has been so long and so intimately connected* 



THE ABBOT OF WEST^fTNSTER'S HOUSE. 

[The following extract from the Patent Rolls, communicated to u» 
Mr, Corner, although of somewhat later date, forms an appropriate con- 
clusion to our sketch of the history of the Abbey buiiding-s.] 

By letters patent of J.in. 20, 32 Henry VIIL, whereby the King en- 
dowed his newly erected see of Westminster with manors, lands, tenements, 
and advowsons in EsseXi Berks.» Yorkshire, Backs., Gloucestershiref Herts., 
Hunts., Lincolnshire, and Northamptonshire; he als^o granted to Thomas% 
Bishop of Westminster, and his successors for ever •*, all the site and circuit 
of the mansion-house and dwelling commonly called "Cheynygats*,** 
wherein William [Boston or Benson], late abbot of the late monastery of 
WeslminsteTi inhabited, together with all buildings, houses, and ground 
within the said site, &c.^ with the gardens and orchards thereto adjoining : in 
which said site or circuit is a certain tower, situate and being at the entrance 
of the said dwelling ^ ; which said tower contains in length, from the east end 
abutting on the cloister of the said late monastery to the west end abutting 



* Vol. i. p. 62. 

* Tbomas Thirleby, the first and only Bishop of Wettminster ; consecrated Dee. 1% 
1540, translated to Norwich 1550, and to Ely 1554. 

* He had, however, no auocesftors, and after the Abolition of tbe binhopric of West- 
minster, the bishop*! palace, or abtKit's hou«e, waa divided, a part only being assigned 
to tbe deanery : tluB consisted of tbe eastern wing, with a room over rhe west walk of 
tbe doiater. The abbot'A ball and kitcben, wbicb fonned the west wing of the bonse, 
were aiiBtgned to tbe use of tbe scbolnra of tbe King's School, founded by Queen Elixii* 
betb in 1560, 

Tlie building at the north side of the ablxit's court, in which was tbe solar, opper 
diainber, or withdniwlng>room of tbe abbot's hotis^, c»lle t the Jerusalem Chiimber« 
(sec p. 81») WBA o^^signed to tbe ttse of tbe Convocation of tbe Clergy, a porpota 
for which it is very inadeqaote. 

On April 17, 16^10, Convocation met in Ht'nry the Vlfth's chapol, (Lathbufy^ 
MiH, qf Cofi^.t p. 221,) and ngnin in 1700, though the Archbishop had fixed the 
JeroBolem Cbamber for the pliico of meeting, {Ibid., p. 285). 

A limilAr story to Umt d' the death of Henry IV. in " Jerugalem/' ia related of 
Pope Hylvester III, In the EHhffium Iliwtorianimt vol. i. pp, 256, 257. 

< Bo called from the jiractiee of tiling a chain ocroiM the gate which fbrtned th« 
entmnee to the cloiMteii*, 

■* The groiniHl vnuU of the btuM^ment of this tower Is still perfect, and has itoall 

rings in lt> according to tho cn«tom in cnfttles of the same period, (the end of 
ronricentb century,) fur tlic purp)«e of pouring boiling water on the headi of 
aataitaiits; thu« shewing thul the prmncts of the abbey were fortified. 



1861.] 



The Abbot of IVestminster^s House. 



upon the **Elnies*^," by e&timation 67 feet; and in breadth at the west 
'end, from the north side to the south Bide, by estimation 24 feet 2 inches : 
and another building and house, with a garden and ground adjoining, con- 
taining by estimation, from the aforesaid tower to the church of the said 
late monastery, in width, at the east end abutting an the cloister of the 
gaid late monastery, 124 feet; and in width, at the we«t end abutting 
towards the house of the poor, called *' The Kyng's Almoshouse '." 170 
feet; and in length, on the north side abutting on the church of the said 
late monastery and upon the King's street called **The Brode Sentwarye'/* 
258 feet, and on the south aide abatting oa ** The Elmes,** 239 feet. And 
also the fourth part of all the great cloister of the said late monastery^ wnth 
the buildings situate and being above the same, which said fourth part is 
contiguous and next adjoining to the same mansion-house and dwelling 
in Westminster aforesaid: and ail that building and house called **The 
Calbege''** and *' The Blackestole^^ there, which contains in length, from 
the north end abutting on the aforesaid tower, to the south end abutting 
on the tower called **The Blackstole Tower'," hy estimation 88 feet : and 

* -The Elms/' now called Dean's Yard. 
' •* The Almonry wvm on the aoath-east side of the Broad Sanctaary, and wm divided 

a(o the Great Almoary, which coiiipri*ed two parta, con§istiii|e: of two oblongs {lor- 

KyoTiB pimdlcl to the TtJthill 8treet«, and connected hy a uflrrow lane, the entran(.'fl 

from Dean's Yard; and the Little Almonry^ running southwards at the end 

the Great Almonry. At the lower end was St. Anna's Clnipel, which in 1576 

la used as a storehouae by St. Mar^ret^a Parinh ; opposite to it were almshousefl 

andcd by the Lady Margaret, muther of King Henry Vll., for poor women. To 

the north of the Almonry, and on the south side of the gate-houftc, was an almshouse 

founded by Henry VIL* for thirte^'n poor men.'* — {JFalcottg Weatmituierj pp. ttU, 

273, 278. 280.V Dart, in hig '• Westminster AbUy," p. m, nioiilions ihwt the iJukc of 

■Bomerset pnlled up " the orchard" of the convent ; the site b commemorated in the 

Plpresent Opchard- street. 

f Now calletl " 1 ho Broad Sanctunry." 

* Cslbege ? from calU, a *c<jif,* or *cowlp' nnd hege, 'big j* worda given by Mr. HaUi- 
^^irelL Docange says that colttbtHm, (v. Cahthnmt) from which our word * cowl* ia dd- 

rived, is " cticuUns ille srve superhnmeraitj qjo indmintur servient!* iid legem in Aug* 
*i;" and HoiioriiiB defiuG^ cohbitim " cncullata vestas/' it was the proper dreaa of 
monk, "file euggeution receives some likelihood from the name of the adjacent 
I Black Stolftow^. 

Cnrioiut or per«M)nul names of domestic huildingt, Ac. — In illujtnition of the word 

" ^9, may be mentioned the following:—'* Uic {scil. Johannei Ipstokc) dnm enet 

Ittlcmofinarina ftcit alttim aniiiicinm in foro vidfli<r'et Gar^Jfes/' — Ahp. de Burton, 

f{Mon, AmffHc, p. 274, 2nd E<lit.) (Item dedit h Beikouse orchard,) OV. 1430-2: 

•• luceptum fiiit optii lapideum fontia in ft>ro jmtii U Qarrettt** — Ihid,, p. 275. 

At St. Ednmnd*a Bury, Kiehard of Colchester, sacristanp •• Fecit novam aniam q\i» 

f dicitnr Spane ad recreatioiiem converitus/' — lUd^t p. aOl. Dominiis de Newport, 

uinBtMi of Bury, "Maguam c^impanam in majori caropanario quce dicitm^ Neiv^port 

m fecit.*'— /Jiff. 

1506. In the inventory of Halee Owen Abbey, we find theae entries: — " In the 

' C«i/«^f, UL mattrass, ^. ; in the OMtre in the Steward ehiimbrt^ a fedir hede» Ac; 

in Botnlph*s chambre, a ftdyer bcde, &c,^ — Naah'a Worcestershire^ vol. ii., App, 

p. ixii. h. There b a Callif Court in the Isle of TJianet, {H(uted*» Kent, vol. iv. 

Lp. 360); Caleys Landa, and Callis Court, in Kent (IftUt, 204', 708), and a Caleys at 

I^Oakham. Yorlc-?trt»et, Westminit-er, was formerly culled ** Petit L aleyu/* from being 

I re»id«nce of the woolstapler*. A derivation of CiUH» has been made from caleetum, 

"'•OMiiewfty/— M. W. 

* Tbwre is still a tower over the entruticc iuto Little Deau^a Yard, which may have 



10 



The Abbot of Westmituta's House. 



[July, 




all buildings, land, and ground being within the aforesaid edifices called 
**The Calbege" and "The Blackstole" on the north part, and the build- 
ings and houses called " The Frayter Misericorde ^," and the great con- 
ventual kitchen called the great Convent Kitchen ^, on the east part. And 
also all that other great stone tower in Westminster aforesaid, situate and 
being in a certain place commonly called '* The Oxehall ^ :" and the houses 
and buildings there being and situate there between the great ditch called 

A Ahhey Church. 

B jAtl%ngion*M Bell Tow«r, 

G doiiter. 

D 8t. MargareVa Church. 

E Tnoer, over the entrance to Little 

Dean'i Yard. 
F Granary and Brewhoueee. 

Oatehouee. 
H Broad Sanctuary. 

1 Gate to Palace Yard. 
K Almonry. 
L Orchard. 
M Stream of water. 

PJan of the Precincte of Westminster Abbey, from a Map of London 
of the time of Queen Elizabeth. 

the Milldam on the south part, and the aforesaid bam on the north part : 
and all other buildings, houses, gardens, land, and ground there situate, lying 
and being between the said bam and between the said houses and building^ 
on the west part, and the said great tower called " The Long Oranarye ■" 

been the Blackstole tower ; in this case the calbege would have stood between it and 
the porter's gateway-tower, and the building vrhiai occupies that pomtion retains its 
ancient walls. The king's wardrobe in the reign of Edward VI. was kept in the 
massive jewel-tower, now at the end of the college mews, having been g^ven to King 
Edward III. with a small close, by the abbot in 1377.— M. W. 

^ The monks' hall in a monastery, in which the brethren eat and drank the miteri* 
eord, an indulgence or extra-allowance over and above the regulation-fare, by per* 
mission of the abbot. It was distinct from the common refectory. 

* This was at the west end of the great hall or refectory, between it and the present 
porter's lodge. 

"> " The oxehall, which is mentioned in connection with the great bam and the mill* 
dam, was no doubt the stable for stalling the oxen in the outer or base court of the 
abbey. A parish of the name of Oxenhidl (before Domesday Survey, Horsenhall), and 
another called Oxinton, or Oxendon, *from the number of oxen kept there,' are men- 
tioned in Atkyns' ' Gloucestershire,' pp. 811, 812 : there is another place of the same 
name in Northamptonshure ; and a place called Oxenhall, or Oxneyfield, occurs in 
Baine's ' Durham,' iii. 897, in which the tenant was bound to carry to the bishop 
'wine with a wain of four oxen.' Oxinhale occurs among the estates of the Uospi* 
tallers." (Camd. Soe. Pttbl., p. 80.)— M. W. 

" lu June, 1815, opposite to the house now occupied by Dr.Cureton, considerable 
portions of the gpranary, built c 1380, which had been used as the scholars' dormitory, 
were discovered ; at right angles ran the brewhouse and the bakehouse, llie g^ranary, 
elevated on a substructure, had a large central tower and a line of fine windows in two 
stories. A view is given in " Qent. Mag.," Sept., 1815, pi. i. p. 201. The foundations 
of the present dormitory #ere kid " 7. Kal. Mali, mdcgxxu.'^ The Uirge double gate- 



1861.] 



Modem BuUdinfft. 



n 



on the eaat part, and between the buildings and houses called *' The Bme* 
boose" and *' The Backehouse*' of the said late monafitery on the north 
part, and the aforesaid great ditch called '* The Milldam** on the south part. 



MODERN BUILDINGS. 

lAM House was in 1 708 the residence of Lord Ashbumham. 
Me portions remain in it which were built by Inigo Jones, and 
were illustrated by Sir J. Soane. In 1712 the Cottonian Library was re- 
hilber to a gallery within the King's library, and adjoining the 
cloister. In the disastrous fire of 1731, a large number of MSS, 
were removed to *' the large boarding-house opposite/* and Dr. Friend 
naed to relate with glee that Dr. Bentley, the King's librarian, sallied out 
in hia night-slitrt and a flowing wig with the Alexandrian MS. under his 
arm. Camden the Antiquary lodged in ** the Gkte-house near the Queen's 
Scholars* chambers.'* The •* Terrace** was begun after the year 1815. 

The Sanctuary Church is described in Archwoht^ia^ I 35, and Entick*s 
'^ Mjiitland's London/* ii. 1343. Near its site the present Guildhall was 
built in 1805, on the foundations of the old belfrj*- tower. (Widroore, p. 11.) 
Tlie old Guildhall stood on the west side of King-street, about fifty feet to 
the south of Great George-street; an ancient painting representing it, — 
perhaps the gift of a Duke of Northumberlaud, — was transferred to the 
walls of the present Sessions- ho use. 

At the entrance of the Little Sanctuary, in the early part of the last 
century, a groined cellar was discovered near some remains of a stone 
gateway ; it was probably a portion of the house of the porter. The 
entjiuice-gate from the Sanctuary into King'Street was removed before the 
year 1 708. The gate-house with its double gates at the west entrance of 
the Abbey, was built by W. de Warfield, cellarer, in the reign of EUiward 
m. ; on the east side was the Bishop of London's prison for clerks con- 
vict ; and over the south gate leading into Dean's Yard was the prison for 
debtors and State criminals. Dr. Johnson longed to see its demolition, as 
it waa ** a disgrace to the present magnificence of the capital, and a con- 
tinual nuisance to neighbours and passengers/* In 1776 it was destroyed* 

The names of Vine-street and Bowling- street recall the vineyard and 
bowling-alley of the monastery. In the overseers' books of St. Mar- 
garet*8 for the year 1565, "the Vyne garden** and the **Myll next to 
Bowtoig Alley"* are duly rated. The site of Black Dog Alley was Abbot 
0aiion*0 garden ; and the Hostelry garden extended over the ground 
wbich lay betvreen the bowling-green and the river bank. In the re- 

haom whkh tiood At the eDtrance of Tuihill-street ia drawn in <* Gent. Mag.," March, 
1836L A Cheyney Court ib attached to* the Ckwa of the Deanery lit Wipche«t«r, wid 
!• Mid to flerive its name from the oak {cMne) under which the Episcopal Court 
was held.— M. W. 




The JemeUhoute. 

gister-book of the treasiirer of the Abbej, this entry oeciirt under the 
year 1733; — '* Hostry Gardens, with the houses thereupon built, Bent, 
102, 13^. 4J.^ and four capons or 13 fihiUings." Great College-street was 
long called the *^ Dead Wall/* owing to the houses fronting the wall of 
the infirmary garden built by Abbot Litlington. — M* W. 



THE JEWEL^HOUSE. 



!^^ 



iff i 



rmm-T — 



Flan of the Jewel- to oupe, vith the groinliQd of the bna'jnjeut 

Few persons are aware that the King's Jewel-hoaae, built in the time 
of Richard IL, is still standing. The walla are perfect, even to the parapets, 
and the original doonvays remain, their heads being of the form called the 
shouldered arch, so much used in domestic work throughout the Middle 
Ages, from the twelfth century to the fifteenth. The interior haa been 
entirely altered to 6t it up for & Public Record -office, and it is still the 
depository of the records of the House of Lords. A modern vault has 
been introduced over the first-floor room* probably as a security against 
fire, this room having had originally a wooden ceiling ; but fortunately, 
the ground rooms having long been used for a kitchen and offices, and 
being below the level of the present street, have been preperved intact, 
with their original groined vaults, with moulded ribs and carved bosses, 
evidently a part of the same work as the cloister* and other vaulted aub- 
structures of Abbot Litlington. 

This tower is situated to the south of the chapter-house, and at the 

back of the houses in Old Palace Yard : the entrance being through a Oo- 

vermnent-office, admittance is commonly refused, but the antiquary who 

wisheii to explore these remains may do so by e^Kplaining that Uie part 

1 



4 



1861.] 



TTie Jewel-house. 



18 



fishes to Bee is the basiement or kitchen occupied by Mrs, Mncentt the 
housekeeper, and that he does not wish to go into the Record tower itself; 
which there is nothiog for him to see, so far as the architecture is con^- 
eeraed* all redtiges of antiquity having there been carefully destroyed* 



r\' tbis fnncipal t J.'xrjbr-r ia tli© BaaoindDt of the Jewel-bouflO, a.d. 1377— fin. 



The following extracts from Widmore give the history of this building, or 
at least the purchase of the ground, and there is no doubt that it was built 
or rebuilt immediately. 

From Widmor/i Enquiry, d^c, ^a^ 1743* 
" In the hiat ye&r of King Edward IIL, in exchange wan mode bfitwecn that prince 
md the convent; the King bad from them a part, either of a tower wbieb was after- 
ward the King's J©wel-boa<ie, and ia at present the ParUament- office, or elie th« 
[ground on which thia building standa: I have givea the authority for thia because 
' Ihere may be nonie doubt as to the meaning of the writer ; but the pliiee is so 
partienlarlf described, that I think there can be no question concerning that. Tlie 
cbarch had no lands in return for thia, but only, wbich yet might possibly be as agree* 
able to them, a Heenoe t<> purchase in mortmain forty pounda a year." 
GwT- yu&. Vol. CCXI . c 



14 



7&f 



limhtM 



Mn. 



^mttm 



IWiiOtflfl 



Ttt^k 




1861.] 



15 



THE SIEGES OF PO^TEFRACT CASTLE*. 

We regret that we cannot speak as favourably of the last volume issoed 
by the Sartees Society as we have been able to do of most of its predecea* 
ors* One of its constituent parts is an admirable appendage to Bugdale'a 
* Visitation of Yorkshire," and is its redeeniing feature ; but we must confess 
we wonid rather have had it by itself* We see little in the life of either 
the Nonjuring dean or the Nonconformist justice to repay perusal, and we 
[•bould leave the book unnoticed but for its second article. In this Mr, 
[Dyer Longstaffe has edited the quaint narrative of Nathan Drake, the 
" •* Gentleman Volunteer,*' with his usual ability. This minute and curious 
record of a siege in the seventeenth century has hitherto been only known 
through the medium of a very inaccurate rhmni by Booth royd, in his 
History of Pontefract, but Mr. LongstaflTe has now printed it entire from 
the original MS., which is in the possession of the Drake family, and he 
has added^ from a variety of sources, all requisite illustration, including a 
carious bird's-eye view of the CasUe and town at the time of the third and 
most famous siege. The diarist was not present in that gallant stand of a 
single fortress against the victorious Parliamentarians, but Mr. Longfitaffe, 
► jnstlyjeeling that his book would be incomplete without, has supplied an ac- 
count, which is mainly drawn from the Autobiography of Thomas Panlden, 
one of the party which captured and killed Rain sbo rough, the Parliamentarian 
colonel, and who was therefore excepted from mercy on the surrender of the 
Castle. He, however, made his escape on the followmg night, and if our 
readers* Bympathiesi like ours, are with the besieged and not with the 
besiegers, they will read with some interest what he wrote more than half 
a century afterwards : — 

{ myself followed the fortune of Kii^g Cbarlea in his exile, and was sent into 

[ £iigl«nd on several occasions, for bis Mnjcssty's service. I was onci} betmyed, and 

brought before Cromwell; btii I denied my name, and nothing could be proved against 

However, h© sent me to the Gate-bouie in Westminster, fVom whence I niad© my 

escape, with oar old friend Jack Cowpcr, by throwing salt and pepper into ths 

J Keqter'a eyesj which, I think, has made me love salt the better ever einoe; as you, 

tend all niy frienda, know I do, with whom I have eaten many a hnahei 

*• I went Again beyond sea, and, upon King Charles II.'s restoration, returned into 
England, aecompamed with niy old eonipanioo, loyalty, and with the usual (^mpanion 
[ of that, poverty. Ilie first ncTer quitted me; the other, by the favour and bounty of 
the Duke of Buckingham, was made tolerable. 

" And having now survived most of my old acquaintance, and, as I verily believe, all 
who liad any part in the foregoing story, being in the 7Sth year of my agef—perbaps it 



• •* MSaoellanea of the Sortees Society." (Vol. ixxvil of the Socicty'i Publicationa.) 
1* Ths Worki and Letters of Dennis Granville, l>J>.y Dean of Durham. 2. Nathan 
■ Bnike^a •TounuU of tbo First and Svcond Sieges of Pontefract Castle. 9, A brief 
' oif Mr. JuaLice Rokeby. 



Tie &yer ^ Fmi^rmii CmtOt. [Jvlf^ 




tnded froB a Imaur Sartea wohmtty m tktt dxnjXAT t MAfiAxan for 

Xvt> or uxrer una cxtnclz iLtsinc' t^c Bgltt-keflBtBdbmB oftlK qbc pnty« 
and tiK Mngrr i uM ak aM B ind bubuttj of t^ otber, vi3 pir a €nr idea of 
tbfr iMttiaLitT of Xalban Drake, and we aait tbamk Mr. Locigilafc ior baT- 
ko^ nHide it anwiWFihW to is. 

Hk toim of Pcntefrvct was eapCarvd and ae^ kid to iht Onde on 
ClinBtmw.^din', 1614. The ftresgtii of tlie re«:«lBr e *iiiMi does jmC ap- 
pear, %Nlt we hare tbe names of 1$5 *^gcssikBiai iuImuUms ." iorinding 
tbree kniglrtE, twelre preacbers, and dews a kkii ca ost of tiurtWj wbo 
retired into tiie Castle, and maafiiDT assis t ed in its defence. Hie FsriiaMeiit- 
aiians made bat email progre ss in tbe ooaone of a two nMBlba' aege, and* 
at laft, on tbe iK of Mardu 1645, tbe garrison was itBttcd by Sr Ifar- 
madnke fangdaV. On bis witbdimwal tbe siege was miinafd, and tbis 
taie to more purpose, as the i^ace was obliged to suiicu d cr on tbe Slat of 
Jnlr. 



[JEprff 16.] -Tbe cbmbt buehr ftatjcd sB viae fhaa eoan^ to tbe « 
iog of the CammoBaam vpim EHt«r di^« sUtbn^ Fodvs (tbeo' Gcwcmar) had 
gxaimted protedtkn for the »nM» and oae Brovae of Wak«MU wd If it were te oar 
dnmuctiaa ve ihaDkl bsre it> bat not for oar tohmtMa. Bat tkat dsj. 1 
daj, (tbe 6tili Aprill.) wiucb vm prepared Ibr tbe bialtb cf oar »ale^ a 
lor theCbertie* of oar bodjres^ for. after aaroMad done ^att 11 of tlv^ dock tbt Gotor- 
Bor gave itz«t onmiamil that all bmb ahoald preaeaftljbe ia : 
vmiiiglj damt boU vitk horw and foot, (^^/i^.) Uml after a fittle 
orders being agreed fxpoB^ Captin Waf^unfttoa and Ciptxa Beale iiMaadfd tbe 1 
Capt. Monro vitb M Brah}aK«ar» did aally oat of SwiUmuta tnww «p iato Kortbgats. 
Capdn Hood oith 50 araaqntears aal^yed forth of the Looker gat» J^ ao op bj the 
HanlpenT bom & fell npon their treocbea. TVa thei« vat SO fciatkaiia idaatcrea 
vbereof one haolph did aeoc»d Moaioe^ii maaqofStani and tbe other haalph Gi^ 
ilaodk Tbe genUenMB veore choaea oat ftvan the 4 OdUoaelb vithia dw Cartle»TiE. : 
— Sr. Richard Hottea, IS gentlemen ockmmaaded bj Oapt. CVoft : Sr. Goatge Wiat* 
worth 10, onmaundfd bj lieaU Warde: :^. John Rciadia la <WBa»aadad bj Gi^ 
BcMoa; and Sr. Jairk CoUlar la oomnaadtd b^ Oajpl. C%lchte. Tbaa lasolaCt] 
ffarittea, (baTing r^ceired order*) cbenMlj paaiifd apca their ssrioe* oatrad ^or 
tiYochca, gave a long and strong alUmm, and i>rtani«d with honoor. Oar mnnnafaii 
alleo plaid their part« bravelit' and did goixi excvution in the Xarkit plaee and 
other plac«« in the towno. We killd in that aally :i6 OMei or omtn tooke one i 
and ^vert mntkittes and nmtwdea and dmmmea* and w« had [Sj «aa killd 4 S i 
voaadfd. and ana abt^lt 36 canmm wboivwith ia Mipi^ciacd OMild be ao leaae tbaa 100 
mm kilW."— <P^ 51 » 22.) 



18GL] 



The Sieges 6f Pontefract Castle. 



17 



J Poor Sir Gervia Guttler, tliough he escaped from this hot Bkirmi^h, died 
rof sickoess on the 25lh of June, The enemy, we see, were grievously 

wanting in common humanity to his widow, Margaret, daughter of John, 

Earl of Bridge water : — 

•• This day morning* timt worthy knight Sir G<*rviB Cottier dcpftited this life, the 
eoemy not sntfHng any freah meate ever to be brought to him uince be fell sick, onely 
one cliickm and one poore joj^nt of meat« his Ijidy broaght with hur S dales before 
he depcurted, neitber will the enemy suffer hira either to be barycd in the Cburch, or 
conveyed to b» owne bAbltaiion to take place with bis a ancestors. , , . 

{Jmme 26.] ^'This day we albo buryed that worthy knight, Sr, Janris Cuttler, who 

I ftrai oophuied tmd then tbecopbia and all wrapped up in letid, and after a funeral! 
I be WW baryed in the Cbapeell within the caatle, with 3 gallon t voltyea of uhott 
■coordin^ to the hounor of Fuch a brave aouldyer as be was : from whence his corpes 
may beooovoyed to the place of bis aunceastore (aJ1:er the seog^e) when his freindeB please. 
The enemy yett keepes the Lady within the castle and will not snfler hur to goe to 
bar ehildreu, though often sent to about it. . . , 

[June 38.] " This evning the Lady went forth of the castle, being sent for by a 
drumnie from Ourton (tfaeire governor) to goe borne if she pleased. But wben she 
came to the eoemytis first gaurd, they stript both btir and liur wayting imaid to hur 
very amock, and likewiae hur chaplin, and a tenant of hura which came downe ivith 
the cbapHn to the sally poart, to search for letters, but they had none. Tbcy cept the 
Lady and bur mayd at thelre gaurd all night till the next day at noone, and wen Id 
Dot cufier bur to goe up towne, j[for It seemea tbe Genrall came in after, and denied bar 
coming from tbe caatle),"'-(pp. 66 — 67-) 

The poor lady next auifered almost as much from a point of honour of 
the Governor — a melancholy exemplification of the horrors of civil war : — 

• ••319, Smiday. A little after noone, the enemyes Uenrall (Poyntea) sent downe the 
dy Cottier with hur wayting maid to the Barbican gat<^ againe, 'he having not had 
any meate of 24 bowers. Our Governor of the castle would not suffer hur to come 
into the castle againe, because tbey had sent for Imr out nnd given her free liberty to 
go home to bur children, therefore he thought it stood not with his honor to be so 
fooled by them, and by that meanw the pooro Lady with hur maid and hur chuplin 
■taid stjirving in tbe streetea till about IQ a clock in the night, at which time the 
•ent for hur up into the towne^ and for any thing wo heare, she sent for 2 
jm that night, and ao went away tbe next day/' — {pp, 67, 68.) 

We learn that the garrieon were light-hearted and enjoyed their jokes, 
" One William Wether/' a daring soldier who seems to have been foremoat 
in every aally, is duly entered aUa$ Belwethery and is more often mentioned 
by that name than by his own. They delighted in hoaxing the enemy, aa 
in the following instance, which occurs under date of the 1 2th of May : — 

^Thia night, about 9 a clock, our gentlemen and aouldyers being merily dtspoacd, 
did dnnke whole beallthea (of the New well water) to the King and all hia good 
freindet, pledging one another with mich liallowcs and ahoutes, as this enemy, wondring 
wbftfc dmld be the caune of such sudden joy, took an allarum, drew out nil tbcire 
bona into the feild and dobled all their gaurdea (which pleased us well), and then, 
our iMpioo betog beat, every man to his gaurdes or to hia bed/'-^p« S7.) 



Our diarist dao relates with great glee a hoax of a "^t^ry practical de- 




18 Tike Sieges ofPotUefiraet Castle. [July* 

BcriptioD, which the governor of the neighbonnng royal poet of Sandal 
played on his opponents : — 

** TbiB day there cmme newes from Bonevant (the goremor of Sandoll Castle) that at 
8 severall sallyeB they bad killd 42 men, and taken abont 60 priaonen^ whereof one 
was a captin. The paasage of this bosines was after this manner. Sir John Saivell 
with his hipocriticall and trecherons rebells beat their drummos to praien, and being 
singing of psalmes before sermond, Captin Bonevant caused his drommes to beat to 
praiers, so that they thonght they was secore, but our men after they had dedi c ated 
themselves unto Gk>d, with upright hartes and religious praiers, in breefe manner : 2b 
Arme9, and fell upon them." — (pp. 25, 26.) 

The soldiers also readily risked their lives, not only in going oat to get in 
grass for the cattle, but to rob the orchards, and they brought in such store 
of apples that " they sold them amongst the women for four, five, or aix 
a penny, or sometimes more if they be little ones/' 

These forays, however, soon came to an end, and the Parliamentarians 
possessed the ancient stronghold ; but, warned by the daring enterprise of 
Morris, they in a very few years after beat it to the ground* 



ANCIENT SWORD. 

The sword of which a representation is annexed was 
found on the 5th June last, at Holme-hill, near Biarket 
Weighton, in the east riding of Yorkshire, on the property 
of Henry Stourton, Esq. It was discovered about sixteen 
inches beneath the surface, at a spot near the church, under 
a sycamore tree, where the earth exhibited traces of having 
been formerly disturbed. The blade is much corroded, but 
its form has been well preserved, and it looks as if it had 
done good service in its day. The length, hilt and blade, 
is three feet three inches, and the weight is three pounds 
nine ounces. 

The weapon may be with confidence ascribed to the 
time of Henry V. or VI. The form of the hilt is an utt« 
failing criterion, as may be readily seen by a comparison of 
the plates in Hewitt's Arms and Armour with our engrav* 
ing; for the drawing from which the latter has been 
accurately copied, we are indebted to the pencil of the 
Hon. Mrs. Stourton. We particularly refer to Plate 77 of 
the above-named work, where may be seen a brass of a 
£night of the Cuttes family, circa 1440, from Arkesdon 
Church, Essex, which exhibits the warrior armed with a 
HJi^&*Y^rkJSm. weapon as nearly like this as possible. 



S|.J 



^1 



FROH THE TYKE TO THE TWEED. 

A QI7ABTEE of a mtlleDQium has elapsed since Sir Bobert Carey, in dd* 
iance of aa order from the Privy Council, hastily left London, and gal- 
loped with all speed to Edinburgh, to bear to King James the news of the 
death of Queen Elizabeth. Me proclaimed the King on his road at Mor- 
peth and at Alnwick ; and, notwithstanding a delay of some hours, occa* 
iioned by a perilous fall from his horse, reached Holyrood three days after 
the death of the Queen. •' I was quickly let in." says he, •* and carried up 
to the Ring's chamber. I kneeled by him, and saluted him by his title of 
England, Scotland, France, and Ireland," 

In no part of the kingdom was this accession more fruttful in its conse- 
quences than in that which we are about to Burvey — the country lying 
between the two great northern streams, the Tyne and the Tweed. Until 
the UDton of the two kingdoms by this event* this large tract had been the 
constant scene of invasion, reprisal, battle, fire and plunder. To ride three 
miles, or more, on English ground, was the choicest feat a Scottish knight 
could perform in honour of his lady-love* Thus, when the French queen, 
Anne of Brittany, sent her glove as a token to King James's great- grand« 
^ther, she accompanied the gift with no other condition than that he 
should ride so many miles upon English land for her sake. On the other 
hand, the English entertained similar convictions with regard to hunting 
end trespassing oo Scottish ground : — a three days' hunt of Scottish deer 
led to other tragedies as woeful as that depicted in the immortal ballad of 
** Chevy Chase/' Castles were fired, monasteries plundered, villages razed, 
crop!! destroyed, with a vigour that generation transmitted to generation 

Impaired. This state of general ineectirity called for corresponding pre* 
emutiona in the construction of strongholds : hence the mediseval architec- 
ture of this district presents a certain strongly -marked expression of resist- 
ance. The castles of the nobles were built either on the roost impregnable 
lites. or actu&lly across the ver)' path of the invader* The knights or 
minor nobles resided in pele-towers — massive edifices that consisted, for 
the most part, of three chambers one above the other ; the lower floor, 
Tanlted crypt- wise, for the reception and safe keeping of cattle, those 
ftbove forming the living and sleeping accommodation of the owners. The 
etergy in out-lying villages, remote from protection, frequently occupied 
towers of a similar character, and in times of danger literally » as well as 
SgUTfttively, sheltered their flocks. In other instances the church- towers 
WCTt embattled, and arranged to accommodate the neighbouring inhabits 
inti in seasons of apprehension or attack. Of these the churches of 
Ancrolt and Long Houghton still afford noticeable cxfimples, Another 
daiitf of dwelling for small proprietors was that furnished by has I el houses. 



ryvsMkliHrf. [Wy, 




j£'At fuvci. 7iiiib£ snjlHDe 

acme mc ^or & vipv u ibt Jii^fc 

iraiL 

iuic 

oT 

4«MDr£ {H«ii£ )ir km. sue & rnmiyniio^ 
SAL liuc r««:lhr Aiiwiii, bmidiuis cf 

nrinniMM: ifuhr jgga>. ^ip^gi^ flgmMWilify 

IT. Thr imi^ui; ^ il iii^«« 
nnx I. aunst. nr tunsMiHii*^. ^ )^ h«ti|: itt" & |?)0«^ «i 

atimr j u hhdu i obl jftsta: ir Hw nuiMfnvMis **K,sjt«*i^»tj!^ Vljl- ihc mr. 




1861.] 



From the Tyne to the Tweed. 



M 



the iron murcb of Cromwell into Scollaod* and the disttirbancea occasioned 
by the claimB of Ihe Pretender, peace, in a national sense, has prevailed 
ever since. It was, however, scarcely possible that a race that for gene- 
rations beyond count had existed by warfare could, nnexeeptiooably and 
without a transitional period, resort to the arts of peace for a livelihood ; 
accordingly a further evil arose in the form of marauders, known as moss* 
troopers. ** Belted Will Howard*' in the preceding reign appears to have 
executed as many as sixty-eight freebooters ; but, undeterred by this se- 
Tcrity, these folbwed up the old pursuits of cattle^stealing and general 
plunder with an intensity that forbidden practices so often calls forth. 
Hence very secure residences remained a necessity for a much longer 
period* and a traditionary regard for the style of building tliat presented 
this requisite in the greatest degree lingered in the land after the need had 
ceased. This sentiment has not been extended to the ancient buildings 
themselves. Of thirty.seven castles that were inhabited by the principal 
nobles in 1460, not more than a fourth are standing — save in ivied ruine. 
the foriaUcium there is scarcely a larger proportion in existence : 
ftnd thec^ have often been used for the meanest purposes. When a farm- 
house has been required, the fortlet of the locality has been apportioned 
for the use of cattle, and a new square block of a house, with a square 
door and square windows, built for the farmer. In other instances these 
towers, from having been debased from their original character by, per- 
baps, the addition of a red tile roof, or the supcrstruction of additional 
atones, have quite lost their identity, A remarkable case in point may be 
noticed. The parson age *ho use at Shilbotell affording very inadequate 
accommodation, and being in a very dilapidated state, was recently brought 
under the notice of a competent authority, for the purpose of procuring its 
judicious enlargement and repair. Externally it appeared to consist of 
two small houses, of unequal ages, the one built againgt the other, on the 
surface of a sohd rock; but a certain mannerism about the masonry of the 
horuse that was in the better repair of the two, with indications of ancient 
window-openings, invited minute examination. The interior contained two 
apartments only — one above the other ; the lower^ vaulted as in times 
past; the upper^ lighted with deeply recessed splayed windows, alTording a 
wide prospect, beyond the church and shelving country, of sea and shore. 
Here, then, under cover of a red pan-tiled roof, was unwittingly preserved 
the forgotten fortlet — mentioned frequently in Edwardian records as the 
** turns de Shilbotell/' At Beadnel a similar discovery has been made ; 
though from having been incorporated with the buildings of & small inn, 
the remains in thb case are not so distinctive ; but a barrel-vaulted cham- 
ber, with rude oven and boiler, presents a vivid realization of the rough 
accommodation such homes afforded. 

In the middle of the last century a remarkable architectural vitality 
Tibrated through the country. This originated in the remodeUiDg of 
OUTT. Mao. Vol* CCXI. b 



22 From the Tfne to the Tweed. [July, 

Alnwick Casde by Hugh, first Dake of Northumberland. Not only were 
such othor andent castles, as were habitable, modelled after this example, 
bat, as in the case of Twisell Castle, new ones were commenced, and 
houses and cottages followed in the mode. The tourist would be troubled^ 
but for this explanation, to account for the pretentious pointed-headed 
sash-windows, so abundantly to be met with. To follow this fashion the 
small mullioned windows of many churches were removed, and the same 
description of sashes inserted : many chancels were dressed in the new 
garb, parsonage-houses rejoiced in the same treatment, as did all new 
buildings generally. New bridges were thrown over the Tvne, the Tees, 
and the Breamish. The decorative arts were not overlooked. Although 
in some of the Gothic castles, as at Ford, a sham portcullis ornamented 
the peaceful picture gallery, and, as at Alnwick, highly ornate arched 
doorways opened only upon cupboards, much real progress was made. In 
1770 the largest looking-glass that had ever been seen in England (measur- 
ing 9 ft. 5 in. by 5 ft. 7 in.) was placed in the drawing-room of Alnwick 
Castle ; and about the same period the chancel of Stannington Church was 
furnished by Sir M. W. Ridley with stained glass. After a time this rage 
died out, the public taste took other directions, and no general move- 
ment again occurred until the first lame attempts that introduced the 
genuine revival of the last few years. 

This revival was ushered in here, as elsewhere, with the production of 
some very wiry Gothic churches. They were coeval with the interest 
awakened for mediieval art that found expression in the formation of the 
Society of Antiquaries at Newcastle ; and that was very materially diffused 
by the publication of a first-class history of Northumberland, by the 
Bev. John Hodgson. Step by step advances have been made; mature 
study has so quickened perception that the crude efforts of twenty years 
ago are now allowed to be, even by their authors, very nearly akin to 
scarecrows, compared to the standard of to-day. 

Foremost among the restorations of ancient buUdings stand two of the 
castles of the Duke of Northumberland, Alnwick and W'arkworth. At 
Alnwick, the work of the last century has been removed, and, while the 
exterior has been treated in the me<li»val style, the interior has been con- 
verted into a traijsemhIaHCf of an Italian paUce. Rich and rare as are the 
decorations — the marbles, the mosaics, the carvings — they are exotics, and 
in that li^ht pertain not to the present sketch. At Warkworth we take up 
the unity of our subject. Here only a portion of the edifice has been 
plactxl in the n^stort^r's hand*. A suite of chamber*, in the south-west 
front o( the keep, lias been rc.invcstoil» as near as may be, with the details 
with which the ancient Percies were familiar, on which the Douglases 
looked, and whi^h Shukesjnare depicte<l on his page; the remaining three- 
fourths of the donjon are still open to the sky, and an antique setting is 
retained for this mediseval relic in the fra\*ed cortain-waUs an i rent towers 



I 



186 L] Fronh the Ttjne to the Tweed. 23 

around. At ihe foot of the steep bank, on which the castle is reared, 
flows the Coquet, apparently engaged in a never-ceasiog attempt to carry 
away its shadows in ripples. 

The same stream laves the hermitage which iospired the strains of 
Bishop Percy — a cell hewn out of Ihe rock, in the fourteenth century, con- 
taining two small chambers and a chapel, vaulted and groined, enriched 
with rude sculpture and an altar- tomb, and tinged with the pale green 
colour that poets would impute to Time, but which in reality tells of — 
damp. Modem antiquaries overturn the theory of Bishop Percy, set forth 
Ja his '* Iteliques of Ancient Poetry,'* and shew that the fejiude effigy on 
*Hift tomb represents no less a personage than ilary Plantpgeaet, grand- 
daughter of Henry III. 

Further on, the Coquet passes a new and handsome Catholic chapel at 
FeltoD, and then, making a sudden bend, winds round a deep green nool;, on 
which stands Briukbum Priory church. In this most shadowy of dells, 
where the flow of the river, varied with sparkling bursts over uptuitied 
atcmesi, seems to be positive melody, the Northumbrian fairies are supposed 
to he buried. The beautiful church of the priory, deserted since the dissolution 
of raonasteriesi, is in course of restoration. The enduring workmanship of 
the Early English masonry left little needful* save roof and woodwork ; 
Although the domestic buildings, \nthin which a succession of Black 
Caaons spent their dream-like lives for four centuries, have qaite disap- 
peared. The south-west angle of the nave contained a staircase leading 
to the passage under the great west window^ but the turret itself had 
fallen, leaving but a few of the steps visible. Unfortunately, the purpose 
of this stair was not recognised, and the angle and the passages through 
the piers of the west window were built up of solid masonry. How the 
triforium is to be attained is now a mystery. New high-pitched roofs 
have been put on, but the same want of true archsoological feeling is again 
apparent ; the design, of poor ship-tirober-Iike construction, has been re- 
peated over nave, transepts, chancel, and sacrarium, without the slightest 
difference or enrichment, presenting the appearance of having been made 
by machinery to cover a given space. 

That there is still danger to be dreaded when ancient buildings are 
approached we have another proof in the treatment lately suffered by the 
Abbey church at Hexham. In this beauliful siracture, founded in Saxoa 
times by Wilfred, the first Bishop of Hexham, in such magnificence 
that there was nothing to compare to it on this side of the Alps; where 
the Venenible Bede was invested with the order of priesthood, and which 
was subsequently destroyed by the Panes, rebuilt in the Early Enghsh 
period, and then burnt by the Scots, in which conflagration the nave was 
utterly consumed ; repaited in the age when the Perpendicular style pre- 
vailed, and eulurged by adding a Ludy-chapel at the cast end, —an en* 
lircly new re-arrangcment hai? just been ftFecicd with most unsatisfactory 



24 Firmm At Tjfm ta im FwodL 7^7r 



iLJiuta, JkAer dbe nmnhiiatinn it *iie luwe, die cxmrnsL jviuisi '^nn •soci' 
nnm. .n ±e 3n<c uuumcs. snuuted imc jf sanaega jmt item^ wita. due 
additton if •^** '« r^ Uuiv-«2tBiiei xneatiaiietL Ths ■nfr'*ii ™iwT*fi ritjltny 
into a. ^vsy dilaiiictatBct acadiiiaiu ax ammgcnBic -^ram mmOB m !iie laot 
ccuui / tD IBB uiie JLboer chiMii'Ji niMifBit : bhe csumca 'j£ whicn. was 
accaniixx^hr ictea op 'with. gBtlprfa avi iiuingiit 3i omviiie M^tMiimHiwiariitit 
In :be fee gn r reninracian* ■*■*— ^ .if Demarinc the znilcces ailns'^dier. ami 
the Httu^9 to die TtBomastBi, 3aw an unnifsuB ^Rwamc sacs, die auBuni 
iiaa leen Tacked fbil it ekw «k iiPTghp^. ewy maoBBt amrs . c uiu^wL 
-lyitf'imrimg' * h^ Ladv-<3UHKi* iWQ mediaTaL ^uitMs^ and i ^iasnn qtubcdiiL 
and die *viioie aanecr aiade at niadBii. aa auaime. Sven '.he '.ja wn i jak 
stalls 3>r die 'Smana Texe apraated, and ire now «t in. ^ntinniC disr 
book-^KuuTia. s^ ^fmt^ die waila of die aiaieai Uba ofitor ^li '* r't* Binlder* 
rec ad r :»iled attention gd a. aiecs oar FFftritiaii i vamdaiiBn ^^vordiv of rW 
Dnnea dieBueivea. A. iuigs 'mttine waa made dnnu^ die wiude lenedt 
oiadie tmuHpta cbr die pnrpfiie it laTin^ duwo an ar-annn : wmidx cue 
tin^ fiiUr ax feei. deep. IJl) fietf loiig; and sz oeet wide, tob ine dirann. 
a larer it' cofina-— die hnnai 'it xenaatxaii& ^^ir waa diia ail : wnac die 
fpade caat m — mismenta of ^kpitfnBa. dcuOa. pomtBK ^li otafin^ te.. — 
a moQidenn^ mil, waa atted into die uhuiunyaRt : and. die auMirain 
atoated in due fldabnaiia niartEr waa iScmBvd in with omnustune^ oudexn. 
and anrimt aome 'if diem leme' if >K]nmBL i nHiiiiaL 

On HJoiy Ldand dis rfrmaina it Litutimine P^-iorr •drarch. aacred tn dm 
menMary' iif 3t. Cntiitierf. die diicuiiuptuiie ami poadninunia tmimiear <m£ 
Dnrtiam CathrrtraL haae jkemae amfered. Tben waa ane «]t die difaa of 
die rower ip'iiiiiiiu^ if dnv maBiiw Timnan ediuia. which* hi^ up in die 
air. ^^nmA die waila. Thia •* hnDcuie* rain" waa die ^nne to woidi 
vtHOv an scnaoioenad ailsnmaes wsaa made : sentie aoii smpie aiika ra-- 
joiced in its ftcm, vi^uiiiua, jec wititai. meianonaiy mtiineab The recant 
cepaira ^|f|iT' tn have ijuii aimoat <giHiined. m a repedtiaQ if diia tavuiuibB 
and vpsil*knawa reatnre. with dna diifenence. diat die spunuua inawnip 
arck haa been dmiwn awr die eaac wail of die shancei* and, bein^ wxth-^ 
ant tracexy <ir jamiia tn oniduce x ;^*atrtiii antJimi. renuana x oseanin^fnik 



4iiq4rt' nt anv of the pnncipnL ODwm^ or appraauh a wnr^uie ^Uasie, and. 
it win be a ram snsepiian ht whiixn ekw onarka at maaona* tmiia atn not 
mibie. Ifany* many mBnioiia are haiiding : many are nawiy buiit: and 
mora bnPB been enianped. Af Gieawick and Saatneid nnmaifnxs iif a verr 
artiatic mder are m *xmnm <i£ '■rectian : at EaHincram 'Jiie 'it* the seats of 
Lord Bavenairorth. die aocnrnpiiahed President of die Newvaade >u\nt:cv 
of Afftiqnariea, ^reat impmvementa ire bem^ carried oat : ac Ijiacgtsrscmw 
there are tRmafonnatioiia: and Wailingtnn* die aeat at Sir W. £r«vvtlhui« 
1% oodrr the forterin^ ^nidncB of Xr. Ruaiyiu aeeumui^ arrangements 
i diat wiiL attcact umidL oninatv and oonunent. Ntswgaade 



186L] 



From the Tyne to ike Tweed. 



25 



itself can boast of streets, buildiog-s, and shops, in some quarters of tbe 
town worthy of a metropolis of the north ; and both banks of the Tync are 
fringed with mansion-houses and villas for the wealthy merchant-lords of the 
district On the banks of the Alne, at Lesbury, where Miss Porter visited 
the eccentric vicar, detected as the original of Miss Barney's *' Belmont,'* 
new schools and cottages are promising a model vilkgej at AlnmouLh the de- 
serted granaries, now useless by reason of tbe inroads of the niilway system 
upon the trade of the port, are being, one by one, converted into marine 
dwelling-houses : in one instance, by a few touches to tbe windows and 
doors, and addition of a bell-cot, a disused granary does good service as 
a temporary church. 

The condition of the labourers* cottages is also receiving becoming 
attention: there are slill hundreds and hundreds of them which consist 
but of four bare walls covered with a thatched roof, in which even tbe 
windows and fire-places must be furnished by the poor tenant. In thet^e 
miserable abodes wooden partitions are put up, in which are contained box 
beds, somewhat similar in principle to berths on hoard ship : on one side 
of this double- purposed arrangement resides the whole family, on the other 
side lives the cow. Where the nature of the tenant's employment is not agri- 
cultural, and he, therefore, does not keep a cow, the same division is made 
for tbe reception of tbe winter's consumption of polatoea ; or, in the, 
bappily few, cases in which neither garden nor allotment is possessed, for 
the safe keeping of the coals* But the example set by the Duke of North- 
umberland has brought forth abundant fruit : enormous sums have been 
expended not only in building, but in improving existing tenements. The 
Percy cottages, known at a glance by tbe crescent on the doors, are now, 
with scarcely an exception, worthy of imitation : Earl Grey^s cottages at 
Howick are so replete with accommodation as to include iron bedstead* 
among the fixtures : a set of four experimental cottages have been built 
for the Earl of Tankerville, at Doddington, with small dairy, scullery, and 
coal-boose attached, for the sum of £221 ; at Bock, at Hedgeley, at 
Craster and Hoddam new cottages are also asaisting in raising tbe standard 
of requirements to be furnished by landlords. 

At Kyloe and Beadnel, at Chatton, Belford, Howick, and elsewhere, the 
tinartistic and unecclesiasttcal work of the last century— aiming at nothing 
more than securing a safe, snug, stone box for a church— has been divested 
of its sqaare, tmsigbtly outlines ; and, with help of a new chancel, or 
tower, or porch, and due attention to detail, brought into something like 
conventual beauty. The Venerable R, C. Coxe, Archdeacon of Lindis- 
fame, brought tbe state of the material fabrics in his archdeaeonry very 
graphically before his ckrg)% in his last visitation — an example that might 
be followed with very beneficial results. Such reports not only indicate 
the condition of ecclesiastical edifices in populous districts, but shew the 
State of tb4»se that are in inaccessible districts, yet equully worthy of pre- 



26 From the Tyne to the Tweed. [July, 

servation, and of equal importance in their respective localities : they are 
also the medium of bringing into notice praiseworthy efforts that might 
otherwise escape notice. Thus we learn that in the outlying parishes of 
Otterbourne, Etal, Alwinton, and Holystone there are new churches in 
very correct taste : at Chevington and Acklington new churches are build- 
ing : and six others are about to be founded in populous districts on the 
Tyne by the Duke of Northumberland. The venerable churches at Nor- 
ham, Ford, Rock, Embleton, Warkworth, Hartbum, Chillingham, Bam- 
borough, Doddington, Elsdon^ and Morpeth have been zealously rescued 
from decay, in as many careful restorations. Merton College is responsible 
for the condition of the chancels of Fonteland and Embleton churches, 
both of which are, curiously, in a very unsatisfactory state. 

By this slight sketch it will be seen that, although there is yet much to be 
done; although there are many, many churches still tottering on their 
foundations, as at Alnham, Bothal, Ingram, Eothbury, Edlingham, Mitford, 
and Widdrington; and many interesting remains of ancient buildings 
fading from the landscape, — witness the castles of Norham, Etal, Dun- 
stanborough, Eglingham, Crawley Pele-tower, the Hospital of St. John at 
Chibbum, &c., — the revival of an appreciation of our national architecture 
has taken firm hold on the English border. Thirty years ago the one 
architect of Newcastle knew of no other: the census of 1851 shewed 
thirty-seven established in Northumberland : and, for the last ten years, 
we may add a proportionate increase. A northern architectural association, 
whose meetings are appropriately held in the Norman keep of the fine old 
castle at Newcastle, is of two years' standing ; and will doubtless aid in 
focussing as well as distributing much useful information. 

Our remarks being confined to modern progress we have not sketched 
the antiquities of more remote periods with which the county abounds : 
but to many minds the great Roman wall and Roman remains will present 
histories and studies of still greater interest. At Bremenium the exhumed 
Roman station is a new mine for antiquaries : and the nearly obliterated 
Roman roads recently traced by Mr. M^Lauchlan are also a great gain. 
Then, the very numerous ancient British camps on the bleak hill-tops, 
with the occasional discovery of cists and implements, open out the con- 
templation of a still more distant period : and, as a crowning puzzle, in 
the paucity of information concerning them and in the intricacy of inter- 
pretation, there are the inscribed rocks scattered in the neighbourhood of 
the Camps. The writing on the wall of Belshazzar's palace was not more 
difficult to decipher than are the mystic circles dispersed over these un- 
hewn stones. Several theories have been advanced concerning them : 
one affirms they represent plans of camps ; another that they record astro- 
nomical calculations ; a third, that they define the site of ancient games or 
rites ; but the antiquary who is able satisfactorily to read these hierogly- 
phics may safely reckon on an imperishable fame. Nor have we dwelt 



1861.] From the Tyne to the Tweed. 27 

upon the great mineral wealth, the marvellous coal-trade, of this historic 
district, nor upon its natural productions. In the Tweed the king of 
fishes, the salmon, holds his court ; the smaller streams twinkle with trout : 
on Cheviot-top the golden eagle, yet flaps his wings : the heathery moors, 
green, and gold, and purple with moss, and furze, and harehells, ahound 
with game: and a breed of wild cattle graze in Chillingham Park. 
Where could a summer's holiday be more pleasantly spent than under the 
shadow of the Cheviots, where the Percies fought, where Defoe came 
botanizing, and Sir Walter Scott loitered to drink goats' milk, — where 
there is no dou&ne, and the passport system vexeth not ? 



CORNISH TOURS. 



Most people, we believe, have read and relished Mr. Walter Wliite's 
" Londoner's Walk to the Land's End." They have found in it the acute 
remarks of a scholar and a gentleman, and many pleasant descriptions of 
what he saw and heard. But Mr. White laboured under the disadvantage 
of being himself a stranger in the region that he treats of, and therefore 
he is but an indifferent guide. We have seen two books, one recently 
published, and the other of older date ', which will far better answer the pur- 
pose of any one who may be tempted to spend his annual holiday in the far 
West. They are both by residents in the district, and each may be fairly 
said to exhaust its subject. Mr. Johns treats of the southern promontory 
of Cornwall, and dedicates his pretty little volume to the Prince of Wales. 
He divide's his country into five districts, each sufficient to occupy a day, 
and describes every object with that minuteness which only the resident 
can pretend to ; and being a good draughtsman, he presents us with a 
large number of very nice small engravings, which are chiefly botanical, 
and are so well done, that the merest tyro could hardly fail to recognise 
the various rare plants depicted. ** A Day at Sea" is a novelty in guide- 
books, but Mr. Johns makes it a very agreeable one ; and an Appendix on 
Geology, accompanied by a neat map, completes a very useful work, 
which has beside the recommendation of being printed in a convenient 
pocket size. 

Mr. Blight goes farther westward, his patriotic intention being to shew 
that " the district has something more to recommend it than the mere charm 
of its name — * the Land's End.' " This point he very satisfactorily esta- 
blishes, and he has so much to tell, that were we to begin to make extracts, 
we should not know where to end. We must therefore content ourselves 
with saying that his work, as might be expected from the author of the 
" Ancient Crosses and other Antiquities of Cornwall," is of a very high 
character. It has many spirited though rather rough engravings, and a 
geological map, and whether used as a guide-book on the Cornish coast, 
or read by the home fireside in winter, will answer every expectation of 
even the most exacting reader. 

• "A Weftk at the Lizard." By the Kev. C. A. Johns. (Christian Knowledgre 
Society. 1848.) "A Week at the Land's End." Ly J. T. Blight. (Longmans. 1861.) 



28 [July, 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF NOBHANLY*. 

All those who have been acquainted with Normandy during the last 
forty years, or with the books relating to Normandy published during the 
same interval, are acquainted with the name of M. Edward Fr^re, for so 
many years the chief bookseller of Rouen, and indeed of the whole pro- 
vince. His retirement from business in favour of his son-in-law, M. Le 
Brument, was a matter of regret to many, for however estimable the 
younger man might be, M. Fr^re could not transfer his knowledge and ex- 
perience with his stock-in-trade. We are therefore glad to see that he has 
been enjoying a green old age, and occupying himself most usefully, in- 
stead of spending his time in idleness, as too many are tempted to do when 
they retire from active trade. The work before us is the result of his 
experience and his diligence, and is highly creditable to him. From its 
nature it hardly admits of being reviewed, — who can review a catalogue ? 
We can only call attention to it, and recommend it as a fit companion 
to Brunet and Ebert, and Lowndes and Watt. 

The Introduction, however, is of a readable character, and here M. Frere 
has brought his learning and research to bear in a remarkable manner. 
The account of books, and libraries, and places of education before the in- 
vention of printing, is very curious and interesting, and contains little known 
particulars. The following subjects noticed will give some idea of the 
great value of this part of the work, and its interesting nature to English 
readers, in connection with our own history :— 

*' A.D. 833. Abbey of Fontenelle, Normandy. A tower for the preservation of the 
library of the monasteiy was built in this year by the Abbot Ang^lde, or Ans^gise. 
— From the Chronicon FofUanelleiue, printed by D'Acbery in his Spioile^um, t. ii. 
1723. 

*' Eleventh century. Schools fouided in every part of Normandy, and warmly sup- 
ported by Doke Bichard II., who collected the most eminent men as teachers, inclading 
even some Armenians and Greeks. 

"1001. Tbe Abbey of Fecamp refonnded by William of Dijon, and its school organ- 
ised on a new footing. It soon became celebrated, and tbe same plan was followed by 
many others. Among the scholars educated at this school were Maurille (or Malgerius), 
archbishop of Bouen; Bemi, bishop of Lincoln, a very learned man; Turold, abbot of 

* "Manuel du Bibliographe Normand, ou Dictionnaire bibliographique et historique, 
contenant ; 1" ^Indication des Ouvrages relatifs k la Normandie, depuis Torigine de 
rimprimerie jusqu'^ nos jours; 2° Des Notes biographiques, critiques et litt^raires 
sur les ^crivains Normands, sur les auteurs de publications se rattachant k la Nor- 
mandie, et sur diverses notability de cette province; 3<* Des Becherches sur THistoire 
de rimprimerie en Normandie. Par £donard Fr^ Membre de I'Acad^mie des 
Sciences, Belles-Lettres et Arts de Bouen, des Sod^t^ des Antiquaires de Norman- 
die^ de Londres, Ac. 2 vols., royal Svo. (Bonen : A. Le Bnunent Oxford : Parkers./' 
3 



1861.] 



Bibliography of Normano 



S9 



Makoeflbctry uneler WiliUm I,, aftervrarda biflhop of Poterboroagb ; Herbert, bbbop of 
IUnj»ej in 1087, of Thetford 1091» and transfeired the tee to Norwich. A rich 
Ubrmry warn ttit«ched to the nbbey of Fecamp; QmGty*fivo MSS. which belonged to 
it ire still preserved in the library of Rouen, 

" KKJ9. The school of Bfic, founded in that monastery by Lanfranc^ who Imd studied 
law lutd the helle^-UHret at Pavta and Bologna. The reputation of his public lectures 
beouii0 BO great that the masters of other celebrated schools came to him as pnpilj. 
He «nts asBisted by Auaelm, who became bis snceeasor in IQ70, wlien Lan franc waa 
mudtt ArchbLihop of Canterbury, firat as master of the school of Bee, and afterwards as 
archbishop in 1093 1 hut after living a nnrol>er of years in England, lie returned to live 
%t his abbey of Bee.' Quudulph, Amulf, aud Emulf, bishops of Rochester, were also 
BcbolAn of Bec; Tlieobald and Richard, archbishops of Canterbury; Henry, abbot of 
Battle Abbey ; Richard, abbot of Ely ; Paul, ablyjt of St. Albania ; and Eadmcr. 

*• In the twelfth century the monks of Bec possessed two hundred MSS., and 
boiTowcd other copies for the purpose of collating them, and obtaitting more correct 
texts. 

** In tb« eleventh and twelfth centuries the monastery of St. Evrool was celebrated 
for iln ealigrsphy. and a large number of books were written or transcrilied there. 
Orderic Vital, the historian, was n monk of St. Evroul; JoflVid, ahlxtt of Croyland, 
wm edttoated at St. Evnralt uid established a school at Cottenbatu. near Ciiuibridgo, 
ttitist«d by four of bis colleag^ei educated in the same monastery. "Hiey taught all the 
•denoca except theology, and the school soon became so important that it gave rise to 
the Univeraity of Cambridge. 

'* The Bchooli eatabliithed in connoctton with the cathedrals and abbeys were the 
otigiii ol the Universities. The caligraphists and miniature painters of Normandy were 
cdebrttcd. The famous Book of Hours presented by Cbarles VL of Franca to the 
DnchesB of Burgundy was executed at Bayeux, and cost a sum equal to £200 of our 
niotiey* 

"In the thirteenth century it is reckoned that there were about tO.OOO copyists in 
France, who all worked on parebment or vellum. Paper waa not introduced before 1 30(X 

" In the fifteenth century literary studies were almost driven out of Frauce by the 
civil wars.** 



RTjyiC IXSCEIPTIOJSrS, 



PaoFEsaoR George Stephens, of Cheapinghaven, proposes to piiblhh 
this autumn n work of rare interest. It is entitled The Old-Northern 
Kunic Inscnptions of Scandinavia arid England, and will contain about 
seventy fac-similes, beside all the necessary apparatus of tables of Runic 
Atphabets, Glos&ary, kc, as well as introductory remarks, and a transln- 
lion of every known inacription, whether on carved stones, crosses, jewels, 
bmcteates, or other objects. These inscriptions exhibit our Northern 
mother tongue in its oldest form, ranging from the third to the tenth 
century, when the fresh series of Scandinavian Runes may be said to com- 
mence. The volume will be a handsome 4to., elegantly printed on fine 
paper, and the price is named at £1 Is. Those who wish to encourage 
ll*e author in his laborious and most valuable undertaking, will do well to 
forfrard their names at once to Mr. John Russell Smith, the bookseller, of 
8oho.0C)uare, London. 

Gzarx. M^o* You COXL B 



-f^ 'W. 



30 [July, 



THE PRIORY CHURCH, BRECON. 
We have been requested to bring before our readers the following report 
of G. G. Scott, Esq., the architect under whose superintendence the 
restoration of the Priory Church at Brecon is intended to be carried out : — 

" To the Committee for the restoration of the Priory Church at Brecon. 

" My Lords and Geutlemen, 

"In compliance with your request I beg to make a brief report to you on the 
interesting work you have taken in hand. 

" It is somewhat remarkable that, simple and stem as the character is of the 
humbler ecclesiastical structures of South Wales as compared with those of many 
other parts of the kingdom, and comparatively limited as must have been the 
resources even of those of a higher order, the architecture of those of the latter 
class is not only as perfect and refined as that of parallel structures in the more 
wealthy parts of the island, but one may almost imagine that even greater care 
and study were devoted to them, as if to compensate for their scale being somewhat 
less and their number more limited. 

"Thus, in the cathedral of the diocese, while the exterior retains the sternness 
of effect which pervades the smaller churches, the interior contains some of the 
very finest specimens of the transition from Romanesque to Early Pointed which 
can anywhere be found. Again, in the cathedral of Llandaff (now being so 
admirably restored) the internal architecture ranks among the very finest of the 
Early Pointed period. The same is the case at Tintem, Neath, Margam, Haver- 
fordwest, and in many other instances, and it is so in a marked degree with the 
church now under consideration, where, stern and massive as is the external form, 
and moderate as is the amount even of internal ornament, the quality of the archi* 
tecture is as good, as well studied, and as refined as could be found in any building 
of its period in this, or, perhaps, in any other country. 

" I trouble you with these remarks for the purpose of shewing that in under- 
taking the restoration of the Priory Church of Brecon you are preserving and 
perpetuating a work of a high order of architectural merit, and one in every way 
worthy of all the care which can be bestowed upon it. 

" I am not well acquainted with the history of the church. It is said, I believe, 
to have been rebuilt soon after the Norman Conquest, but I have found in it no 
traces of work (the font alone excepted) of a date earlier than the thirteenth 
century. 

"The eastern portions, including the chancel, the transepts, and the central 
tower, are (some subsequent alterations excepted) of one date, and the result of 
one effort. They are of the early style of Pointed architecture, but in its more 
advanced form, dating, perhaps, from 1220 to 1230. 

" The chancel, which is of four bays in length, is a noble specimen of the style 
of the period. It was intended to be vaulted, but it is probable that this part of 
its desigu was never carried out beyond the erection of the vaulting-shafts and 
springers. The side bays contained fine triplets, and the east end a window of 
five lancet lights, all remarkable for their great internal depth. The first bay on 
either side contained richly moulded openings into the side chapeb, and the 



1861.] 



T%e Priory Churchy Brecon. 



31 



soli 

^fori 
- 
Mat 



rcmnms hare recently been discovefed of the sedilja and triple pfsciiia, all on 
rather a lar^e scale. 

** On either side of the chancel have been two smidl chapels, vaulted — or mtended 
to be so — like the chancel, of>eiiiug into each transept. These hi*ve in each case 
been sltered. Thost! on the nortli were, during the fourteenth century, thrown 
togt-ther «nd lengthened, so as to fonn one lar^ chapel, greatly to the detrimctit 
q{ the dcaigu, while on the other side one chapel has disapfieared, and the other 
in some de^ce altered and a vestry added (of rather \m early dute) 
its caste m end. 

*'The nave, with it* aisles, is of the fourteenth century^ and is simple and 
dignified in its character, while the massive tower rising in the midst assumes on 
A grander scale the same stem and fortress-like aspect which characterizes the 

laller towers throughout South Wales. 

"The present condition of the interior of this noble structure is tnelancboly in 
cxtTenic. Though its dimensions are by no means such as to cause incon- 
Tcniencc from using it in its integrity, the nave alone is made use of for Divin© 
Service* the whole of the eastern portions being partitioned off by an euormous 
glajBcd screen. The most beautiful hidf of the church — thus placed without the 
pole — is left in a state of deplorable desolation, lltippily, the structure itself — so 
fftr at lenst as concerns its walls — is sound and substantiaL T[ie good old builders, 
though hardly, we can suppose, foreseeing the disresjiect to which iheir work 
would for a time be subjected, nevertheless practically provided against it by the 
aolidily and good construction of the stonework, so that wo bave not any very 
fornudflble constructive repairs to undertake. 

'^This b in every way a very fortunate circumstance, The great object of 

itoration, so far as relates to the architecture of a building, is eoH^^ermition. In 
ftotoring an ancient church we do not wish to smarten it up and make it look like 
a new one ; on the contrary, wft wish to hand it down to future generations aa a 
genuine work of ancient art ; not only made worthy of its sacred uses, but pre- 
aenrcd as a rerliablc and trustworthy production of the art of the age in which it 
WM erected. The less then of new work we have to insert the better. AVe should 
seek to avoid all conjectural work of our own, and to confine ourselves strictly to 
tlie conservative restoration of the eidsting bnildbg, or of wbat it may clearly be 
proved to hnve been. 

** Thus mterniilly, the leading operations would i>e as follows : — To cleanse from 
whitewash nil the stone dressings, repairing such parts as are seriously damaged, 
but preserving all leamants which may be discovered of ancient colouring, whether 
on stonework tr plaster ; to re-pave the floor, retuining the ancient nionuiiieutal 
stcnes, but laying them hollow ufion a bed of concrete so as to put an end to their 
tniicrublc darnpncss, and generally to put the whole into a perfect state of repair. 

*' In the chancel I would take one step beyond the restoration of wbat now 
exists, or, perhaps, has eitisted, — 1 mean the completion of the stone vaulting, 
lihout which Lilf the beauty of the origliiid design is lo^t. 

The north chapel will demand more structural restoration than most parts, 
mnch IIS its windows have lost their inullions and tracery. These may pretty 
safely be restored from those of the aisles of the nave, with which the east win- 
dow of this chapel agrees. It may be askeJ why we s!»ouId not restore this chapel 
to il4 orjgiufd fiirm ? As a matter of taste, I would most gladly do this, but when 
it is cou&idrrcd (hat the alteration was made as early a* the fouriceoth century and 
ki cucval With ttic nave of the church, and, on the other haud, that the original 



82 The Priory Church, Bream* [J«l7» 

design of the cbi4)els is not quite certain, I think it will be'igreed that we should 
be going beyond what is proper if we were to attempt it. I must^ however, ooofeaB 
that I am perplexed as to what to do with the roof which now coYen foor entire 
windows of the chanoeL 

''One of the transept roofs is, I believe, is such a state of decay as will require 
either extensive reparation or renewal I should deaire, if possible, to restore 
both of these roofs to their original pitch. 

*' The upper stage of the sower is a great deal cracked, owing to the maloon- 
struction of the roof, which has no tie whatever. A considerable amount of 
reparation will be consequently demanded both to the walls and roof. 

''The floors of the tower will also want reparation ; and an oak ceiling must be 
placed under that which is visible from the church. 

"Externally, the walls demand a certain amount of reparation and pointing. 
The foundations must be examined, drained, and underpinned where necessary. 

"The glazing generally must be renewed. 

"Finally, the interior must be prepared for use by proper fittings and the present 
glazed screen removed. 

"The cost, so far as applies to the transept tower and chancel aisle, I estimate 
at About £2,000. 

" I have the honour to remain, my Lords and Gentlemen, 

" Your very obedient servant, 

"Geo. Gilbbbt Scott." 



Restoration of Daknick Tower. — Some eighteen months ago the idea of 
restoring this old tower to something like its former appearance, and rendering it 
habitable, occurred to Mr. John Heiten, of Edinburgh, the proprietor. Meeting with 
a suitable tenant, in Mr. Murray, of Newcastle, means [were at once taken for its 
restoration. Assisted by the antiquarian and artistic judgment of Mr. Currie, the 
work has now been accomplished, and this fine old Border tower is open to visitors, 
who may in it see as good a specimen of the old pele-house, or laird's dwdling of 
300 years ago, as is to be found in Scotland. Among other restorations we maj 
notice the fitting up of the Heiton crest in the east wall — ^the bull's head sur- 
mounting a shield bearing two stars. The interior contains four large square 
apartments, one above the other, some of which have been re-floored, the walls 
plastered, and all put in thorough repair. Two of the rooms are adorned with 
sculptures corresponding with the mediaeval character of the building. The original 
ancient doors and locks are still m use ; the former studded strongly with great 
iron nails, and the latter of prodigious size and strength. One of the most pleasing 
views of the vale of "fair Melrose" is obtained from the battlements of the 
tower, which overlook the "old abbaye," the windings of the Tweed, the triple 
Eildons, and the whole valley^ north and south. — Border Advertiser. 



186L] 



88 



(©riQUial ©otiimriiw* 



yraXS a^d INYENTOEIES. cork, temp, ELIZAEETH. 

n. 

WILL or HENRY BROWNE, or KINSALE, proved Sept. 15. 15S2. 
In Dei nomine Amen. Ego» Hen'RICVs Biiowne de Kinsall, mercator, licet 
■ corpore, sanuB tanicti nicntc, ineum testamentutii condo ; corameudo aaiiuatn 
Deo patri ommpoteuti, totiquc curitE ccleatia ciEiiii, corpuatjiie meum sepe^ 
lieaduiu in ecclesia Sancti Multosi de Keusall ■, ia loco timjorum. Imprimis coa- 
itituo filium Patriciuui ^ meum heredem, cui lego mesauagium mere mansionia, 
cieU'^raque oinnia, et hcredibus raaaculia legittime procreatis, rem' gerraaoo meo 
Joantii ct b. m. rem' filio mco Andreae et li, m. rem' rectis heredibiu. Item lego 
Elioc Morajne uxori meac, predictum measuagium cum omnibus redditibus, et 
etiam o?cs, vacciis, caballos, grana mea, et niea bona mobilia, durante viU sun, 
(tamdiu vidua remanscrit). Item conimitto dict4c uxori mcBP, ct gcmiano meo 
JohaDQi, viginti libras couvertendos in meliorea quos potertmt usus^ ita quod quod* 
cunque per ebdomadam lucrabuotur ex dicta summa pecuniar, distribueot secundum 
eorum diseretioncm, ad susti^utatioDem pau|>erum, qiiabbct licbdoniada, durante 
vita illoruro, et volo diclam sumuiam reraancrc rectia heredibus meia, ad prcdictum 
Uftum in pcrpctuum; volo ijisuper quod Superior Villee de KinaaU'" et Vicuriua 

* The monament of the Br<iwne family itill remains in the churchyard of KiusRie. 
It ia an dtar-tomh, railed in ; on the top is a large Hag det'ortitcd with an elaborately 
sculptured croai flor^% which occupiea the entire centre j the itiscriptitm, in Gotbic 
letters, runs round the bordure of the flag, aod is slightly uiutiljit^fd ; the following 
part In legible : " Hie jacent . . . Iftudabilis . . ♦ Andreas Browne et Henricns Browme 
fiUiis ejus ct superior olim huju» opidl is , . . obtit Sei>, 1587 ille lG6i." The will of 
Andn^w wa« proved at Cork Jan. 16, 1565; it ig preserved ELinoug the " Browne MSS,*' 

^ Patrick Browne of Kinsalc. burgess, died 162f> ; he miirried Margaret -, by 

whom he had three sons; (1.) Rkbard, a burgess of Kinside j (2,) Harry; (3.) Andrew, 

Richard's will is dat«d 1658» proved 1660 ; he nnirried llrsulii , iind left three 

iOtiii (L) John, who inherited, by hia father's will, the half plongh land of W. Michoh- 
town, in the Uberties of Kimale; (2.) Andrew; (3.) Richard i and two daughters, 
Catherine and Margaret* Kich&rd names his coujiinB, Patrick, Dominick^ and Viden- 
tine; (Orig. Wills, Cork): thiji last waa a name in the family of Browne, Lord Kcn- 
inare. The Browuo family is now represented by the Rev. Richard h\ Webh, M.A.^ 
Rector of Dunderrow, diocese of Cork, who hm kindly entrusted the writer with 
H valuable colUetion of the muniments of tliat family; these records date from 
11 Henry V., and will be referred to in illustrating these Wilk as the " Browne MSS,'* 

* The town was (until the pa&sing of the Iri^h Muuicipnl Act, 3 and 4 V^ic. 
cbftp* 108) governed by a Sovereign, with a number of burgess<*» who formed a common 

King Edwiird III* grouted it a charter in 1333. The Insignia of this ancient 
ation were sold by nuctioo at Kinsale, ou Muy 6, 1861 : they consisted of u mace, 
nonteth, and Lidle. The mace, weight 79it oz.» is of the usuiil form, and decomted with 
the arms of George IL and those of the town. The monteth, weight 36 o«., iu a very 
plolii ves&el with the following iuicriptions :— ** The gift of Tbomns Browne to the Cor- 
pomatlon of Kinaale, thrice Sovereign of the same, who departed Lhitt life y" tenth day 



w -'m 



->v. •.'•■ri.rr . -e r.i-. a i-^-: i.-.-i:ir .:i ..: .:e.--.e' :■; ■. 1^ -.i :p»irr?s. I".t!n lec^- Ai-irt* 
il.f. -:»■:'.. i.»:fu-.-iJ"j: i . I'-.a v.'.ir -.-.. ']'::i: -".r-. =::i x2..i::;:. ; li'i N:o:i'-L4-jatte, et 
iai:.T. :-.i*.i.i; -.f^-i ■.-. M/.i - ::. :: It pa .-.■?!_ '^r. !:i.i;' tcit r::,. 'j-i^.i^'. I-fini Jciiisiii 

l'f'.:i\ I-t.-i?:-. >' r..^i;i::.. -,r-.-l.:v:s -.cr:ia ii-r-p t...je Ii; X!_=;u-. I'.'tVA fix xe« 
4 .Jin. I ^1! 1^.-. Oeaer^^ "1!.;^ T.f*T 1../. El'*::aK t,.x. T.e:c v T-irras. Leritia 
7. 'i..'ir;'»d. G^tni-'jiufi ..*^'P .^f i.- j^r.^iC i":" T.:ir?'Li. T-t .. 1..;h : ere EL-.'ie i':Li-.3i tini 

▼. r,rira», •*' i" .'..Jn::: if .--t 7:1 •.r^^-rKj'.^r'.. *::»!:» T.arrai. I'-tn: Jitiaml R;i5sell 

*:hi : .••.i, ;*M-!T.i^. i:e-ri t-^l*: ■;:'.•: :'»r.':arrc in:'!r!'-.r.s ^enal:^ll eccit!sLK car:csiAlis, 

U*:lL -.? OE.VETT CREAL'GEE. prgtzd MiJica 5. :.;^i. 

r.; -r.i» ria^TiC '■.t' '>><i A.r.ftn. I, GiNETT Creatgi-e of Cjrci??. viddowe, bein^ 
irv.'r: .n icir.v %nri ^t* ;,*!rfftor r^T:eri.';rince, !o aidke xy lasr w;X I bequeath 
my K.'i> 'o A..iii-^:it:.ft ^j'-ji. inii TiJ vA-j 'o '-.e hiirT:»ti -nrl'i'.ia. Clinste Church, 
rjor'^xft f .f%iT<; Vj T.7 a'-':':f^:'v*, J .iu. Cr*iar.rhe. xj dTTi;lll:i:i-hoi:*t, imi all the 
rj»r':^r<:f:i:ft f :a-:% xi-j \f:r-Xit I'vir.icr-oedii t::-! t.j oes: cad6:Te. oce sheete, with 
aii 'aMftM. v/.ris, *v.0:r''.. i.-.ii :.:♦=; larr.^err, T>a 1^ mj cask*, and orher trmhre 
hr,ii!i,jM.;ft It .:Tt;. f-r:... I nMV.;-: CL->--r-ia ^Vi>,er Vj *a:.: J':L:n. to tiud her meatc, 
^rr.nJ:.-. \,\(\ ou.a:;:fts "...i ii.t: r.^rrj. Lerr* '.o *a:.i 'rii:ia:i;!i a silver cupp. a pair 
r,f .i;i...;..".!is *. .V.7 '.i.riii ■,»nr-^ ■-.•:: id -^.'.'a a cadd'.we, a sl:i.'ece, foore bussella of 
r.r«:A: ..ur'i; a *'-..i.-:f:.l ,:' r.ar.trr. ir.d ::.7 hca* o::esr. I:e?.; :») said Cbrist-n and 
.\fa.-rir':fr. }." li.ift. 1.1 1.7 oe'.ri^r "lo -.e er. lallj -ilTideii ce:Tii:L* tlieai, aLso 10 said 
.\r.».-i'"i.-':t. ■ ..c TT'-arfts*. "'«:-.-:« .'.an I :-.i7p. 1 ryair** of traprer*. aiy seccnd beste bedd, 
a '^:a\iu,'x% -1 ir.f;r:r.>, f.'*rft ri'..-^r!»:: j cf -.ari, :.AA:e a bi^jscLl t-ji carley, a bnuaett or 
^ar v.!:, ■*«': .lij -.f.nMv.i chl-s:. hem to J^.iia N^isiie a iirisse pjui that lackethe 
01 If: .»:'/. I.*'^:*i I '':'i^'5 3 J"- ^iisseus of '-.ari to 'he «yi voun^ chvLdrea tkic mj two 
^;i ..':.*■■■,■"! ..-*'.'■; '-.r L;'r/.i N:i.-^:: : aii'i I'*;:!: j VV :titcr. IreiiL lo i:.7 tw*) dan ijhters, 
f.;i:u.-r.:.ft lii'i E.J ., 'l.fie p^iciia of w':;ea:, a;id the two wjorse bedds I have. 
f:r... "■> H-iii*. C t: :iKr:.ift .i.y r,rsr r.:i or breyd, a:.d ri.j ci.ate of broade cioallie. and 
to .ii..l Kl/a o-ij ''/..•:r r'.u or hr*:y«l, and my pLike coate wi h new slyves. Item 

of ht''.-*-:\v.*ir, Ar.no I^oir.in': K5f>, »'a!i» -icae OS;" "The Tf-r't of Hu^h Percivall, 
Rriv^r -i'jTu^ t.j th« ^'.^rvi-jrition of Kirwile, Jan. y lo. 16o2. These two jil^J bein^ 
aiitli^l ^..tf -t.ir-r :ir.d *ix ou'.irtrs by tLi»i L'orp«jratinii. Thcma^ Lac»y, Ksq^ Sovereign, 
l<'.. y- '.y, 171 i" Ti..: la':Ir, weitfLt I«.'i ..z., U thus m.-writol :— " The «irt of WILiam 
P:.r . 7'^ ■ •:' i * : .i; f :or; orrxr !■ a i r K \ n -a le. « >:t. .bt r y " J>' =», 1 7 17. M i*' \V Ulium liul len 
>«,v'. 'l\J\A <'.'\Ti A-irt j.iti:r'-»l wL^n Lin". Lniaitr wra.4 .>.:v=', 1726." Tne iLuce was 
P'j.-f:.ji"7ti -r.' t.,,> iL^v. l.r. N-.li-.'an. '-'-.rk : the mouteth by Mr. Heard, late M.P. for 
tii,; ?,«.r .,i.;^-j ; .i..,l •.:.,- l.uil.r l*y Mr. <.'r .mer of K;:;aaie. 

' S'*:\' •■ U';rr ii nuk/' si'i:ui:r-d at :ae head of a snia!! lay near the old head of 
A'l'fii.jlti. A.inHcv^ ' n.K dark Larbjnr of rlio ?p«.ckled tnjut.* 

• Tlx^'^a •ima.»!.:j,M! iror.."4 on t-ach =iile of the hearth werv sometimes made of 
w/y*:!-:, ^f ni»:t-I or i^iir, anl of vcrj- larg;; dimeniioiis. iHalliwell.i 



186L] inils and Inventories, Cork, tttmp, Elisabeth. 

to James Creatjglie a Flan(iers booide cloathe, and a busyn of peoter. Item to 
Richiirde Ponche a fync to we 11, and witU John ouge Colnian a lytle brasse pan. 

iNViiNiHjRiK. — F}Tste, fyve silver apownes, two strings of jt-weUs or crosses, 
foure candles tycks of brasse, one pype of oaten maltc, and a biissell of barlej 
m»ltc, a morter of brasse, two brasscn basyns, two blacke mantells, one stone of 
woolc and i^o a in ale pounds of newe bat rye. 

WILL or ELLYNE NY* CONNYLY, phoved Jan. I, 1581. 
Lk the name of God Anien. 1, Ellyne ny CoKKYtT, do make my last will; 
my bodie to be buried in Christ Church, I appoint Thomas Connyly and William 
Karoej my heirs and executors, to have my house and all that is owing to tne, 
exioept as follows i to my sounes daughter, Mnrgaret fitz David, two brasen pannes 
asd a pipe of barley; rem* to said Thouias. Also to ny Ellice my coat aud 
smock, aud a pipe of barley, betwixt herself and Juan ny^ Mahowny ; also to 
MiLTgaret Heroano a newe while mantellj and to Catherine Tirry my table- 
cloaihcs. Teste Domino Donuldo Doiuiti saeerdotc ecclesize parochialis sauctze 
Trimlalia* 

WILL OF DANYELL CONWEY, paov^D Oct. 8. 157L 
In Dei nomine Amen. I, Dan yell Con we y, although siek of body whole of 
mynde, do make my last will, my body to be buryed in Kylkre'. I make my 
brother Conogher my executor. I befjueth to Bonogh mac Dermod a goblet of 
syivcr parcel gyll, wcyug xvi. ownchcs aud a quarter, which goblet ys in the ha»ds 
of Joim Skyddy fytz Anthony of Corck in pltdge for xx.*., said Donogh paying 
same, and to the church for my buriall other xi.*. Item to same Donogh my 
crosbowc and one of my daggers. To my uiothcr and my brother ComeU aevea 
platters, iv. poryngers of newe pewter, and syx candylealicks of brass, to be equally 
devydcd betwixt f hem twain. To my mother a payer of hossc, my great coale and 
my cap casse. To my brother Cornell a clocke, and a brodc clothe that I left with 
William Casy all lyned, a dublet of canvas, a sliyrtt, my sword and dagger, two 
d gones, a crosbowe and a dagger. To my nephewe, John Conwey, all my 
kya towileSj and do komit kepyng of same to brother Cornell during the 
nonage of said Jolin. To Ellyne, daughter to my brother John lute dcccsscd, my 
s malic chest. To my brother John oi^ Donovvgh my blcwe cott and my feltt. 
Item luy cassockc of blacke wyrsted to Sir ^ Owyn fyla Tlioms, prcst. Item I re- 
lease my tcrme of yercs to my apprentycc John Tyrell, and do wyll my brother to 

f iVy U used before a woman*! name, and has the same aigtiifieation as Mac before 
tbftt of a man. 

• Tlje Fraoriscan Abbey of Kilcrca lie* about eleven mile* we««t of Cork ; it was 
founded, according to Wure, in 1465, by Corniac Lord Miiakery, who was huned 
ih<*re m 141} K being wounded at Cirri gnaiDuck : it is the finest mm in the county. 

* In the middle ages ** Dominus" began to be applied to cUrgy lowisr than lords 
bi«lK)pB ami lords abbotg, and wa« first u«ed to monks of lb© regular Ordtrs, more 
Cfprrmlly thcwe who were members of a cathedral chapter; in process of time the title 
wiw given tu all pariftli prit'stsj and thc^se in English were always addressed as **Sir.*' 
In old Latin deeds D, \b placed before the nan>e of a priest, unless he he a Master of 
Arts (Mug.), or n king's or hiehop's chapkrn (Csipellanns). In Chancer the pr.eats are 
*'&tf«t/' nrnl nfler the Hefonnntiim the phrase was kept up, down to Spenaer'a and even 
?11 «jme. The great mouHstic wTitera are constantly dp»ign«tcd as ** Dom. 
14 HI," Ac. The mcaiung of •♦ Doattinus" in Uniferaltioi is well known* 






36 Original Document*. U^^Jf 

delyrer bym his indenture. Item I owe John Sanders, of the cjtye of Brisiowe 
in Ingland, the some of xx«., which EUyne Conwey, alias Morris, is to pay, aoeordiiig 
to coTenant made before William Galwey of Kynahall, Alderman, and othen, i 
what tyme I was content to rcceyve at her and others requests the indenter of 
John l^rrell, two hargobusshes, the carpenters' twoles, the pewter and candyktyka, 
a chest, a crosbowe, a goblet then in pledge of ixi. from said John, with the aatit- 
faction of said Sanders, &c. 

Present, John Tyrrell, Johanne Oge mother to the testator, John m^ Donogh, 
Cornell oge, brother to testator. 

WILL OF NICHOLAS FAGGAN, proved March 26, 1578. 

In the name of God Amen. I, Nichola.8 Faggan of Corcke, merchant, do 
make my last will, my body to be buried in Christ Church ^ I appointe my 
doughters, Annstas and An, my executors ; my brother John and my brother-in- 
law Nicholas Gouldc tutors over my children, committing all to my wife Catbmne 
Gouldc, cliardging her to be careful of my children and answer my debts. God 
have mercy on me. Amen. 

Inventor IE.— One grcate brase pann, price xxx«. ; foure smale pannes, U. ; one 
bruinge pann, xxx«. ; an aquavitu pott, xxx«. ; xii. platters of pwter, viiii. ; foure 
poitcl potts and ii. quarte potts, ym. ; ix. pwter trensures, m. ; vi. porragers of 
pwtor, xii//. ; one feather and three flocke bedds, xvi«. ; iii. paire of sheets, viff. ; 
foure chests, xx». ; one diaper table clothe and two olde Irish table dothes, 
xiilr. ivf/. ; a duxeii table napkines, xvid. ; two olde hande twalls, iyd. ; foure cad^ 
dowes, XM. ; xviii. cowe hides, iv/t. ; xxxii. stones of tallowe, xxxiif. ; one stone 
aniseeds, iv«. ; xvi. stcmcs of French iron, xxviiix. ; ii. bolts of canvas, xxs.i 
a duxcn gr)lde skintirs, ii«. ; ii. pifics malt, xm. ; one barrell of wheat, iv«. ; a drower 
with her apparell, xU. ; a cuborde, iii«. ; a duzcn sculls, xm. ; ii. carpetts, xs, ; 
a black pinke gowne fused with budg \ iv/<. ; an other pinke gowne fased with 
datnanke, ii/i. xiii«. ivd. ; unotliur black gowne, xxxj. ; a black saten dublett, U., 
given by the widdowe to John Ooul fits Edmunde ; a red taffita dublett, xxxs. ; 
a iN;ire of liomien, xviii#., given also by her to Stephen Miaghe, brother-in-law to 
testator. Debts : Hir Donoghc M*". Cartie, Knt., oweth me xxi/t. ; — Coursey, 
vi/i. ; M^ Morrish Kierry, Barron of Licksnawe, vii/t. 

WUJi OP EDMONDE FITZ NICHOLAS als FRANKAGHE, proved 

March 9, 1580. 
In the name of God Amen. I, Eduonde pitz NicnoLAS, sumamed Frankaqhe, 
do make my last will, my body shal be buried in Peters Church in Corck. I leave 

' The monument of Nicholas Fnggan is still to bo seen in Christ Church-yard, 
Cork. All that remains of tho inscription is — 

" Ilic jacot Nicolaus Fagan Baliv* Cor 

• • • • • 

CiitrrinA (loull ({uonim animabus propicict Dens 
Amen. Piitor Noster." 

In tlio centre is a crom Henry with bmneheii, round which is a serpent entwined; be- 
neath Adam iind Kve : Kvo receives tho fruit fVom a human figure in tho branches. 

^ The dri^fliiiNl skin or fkir of lambs. Bndgo Bachelors, a company of men cloathed 
in lonf( gowns, lined with lumbt' f\ir, who accompany the Lord Mayor during the time 
and solemnity of his inauguration. (Bailey). 
4 



1861.] Wills and JnverUories, Cork, temp, Elizabeth. 



sr 



inj wife the just hidfe of all my goods, thother halfe to Ilicharde Walshe of Corck^ 
mercliant, executor of this my will, who shall remember my poor brother Ked* 
inonde, my nyce Ellen fitz Bicharde, my soa Dermods daughter, and mine one base 
daugbter Jobaoe, with some porcion of my gooda< 

Ijn'EifTOBiB.^ — A pair of beads of silver, a silver ciipp, and a jfreat cross of 
silver, in the custody of Piers oage m*'. Masbine. Item in the keeping of said 
Piers, twentie and one greate silver buttons^ ^nd certain EmoJIe silver buttons, and 
tea shillings olde holface. Item in the custody of Patrick Bluett of Youghell, 
ft bygg bniinge paan and two smalle panns, certein spitts or broches, with their 
books or brigons, all of yron, a gredeme or rostinge yron, and three donge forks 
with ccrtcin other ^i^^ as said Piers can tell. Item with Ednionde Barrett xxv, 
my Iks kyne, viii< ploughs, garraiis, a smale panHj ii flagon, a brandyron, a ploughing 
yron. Item I leave xx. shcepe. Item with David titz James of Bnllynacory, two 
caodlesiiGks of brasse. Item the heire^ of Burdenstoue owe me two oxen. Item 
Dermod m^ Don ell m*^, William, oweth me tliree yocalfe kync, to be paid at 
St. Patrick's nowc next to come, for the which I payd said Dermod certain swyn, 
to his contentaciott. 



D!SCO\^RT 0? AwcrexT Gravus in Dberniss, Obknry.— a new hill farm in 
Deemess having been lately taken on lease by Mr. John Delday, farmer there, he 
Has been actively bringing it under cultivation. In the course of his operations, 
he has discovered beneath the surface of the soil numerous traces of ancient build- 
ings, and remains of stone vessels similar to those which are often found in the 
** broughs" Off large round towers. The writer examined some of these relics ; be 
saw also a stone so deeply notched at one end that when the other, whicb is very 
thick, is fixed in the ground, it forms a strong stake. It was of a wedge shape, 
tbe notches being at the thin end, and the thick end having been evidently in- 
tended to be inserted in the ground. Similar atones have been frequrntly found 
in the broughs, and in the neighbourhood of their ruins. In some cases the 
notches or grooves had been much worn by a rope or other fastening. These ruins 
in Deerneas are on the slope of a low hill ; and on its summit are two " barrows" 
Of grave mounds. The tenant of the farm has been carrying away the clay from 
one of those to another part of his farm. This led to the discovery that the barrow 
contained several kists or graves of various sii^, in whicb were quantities of bumi 
bones; and two rudely fashioned clay urns, also containing burnt bones, were 
found outside the kists. One of these was removed nearly whole, but was after- 
wards broken by a boy ; the other was too fragile to be lifted, but was measured 
by the writer in its original position in the clay. It was 17 inches deep. 12 inches 
Hide at the mouth, and fi inches at the bottom, and its average thickness was 
ibovc fivc-dghths of an inch, — Northern Entigfu 




OwfT, Mio. Voi. CCXI. 



.ML. 



'^r^— 



38 [July, 

2[tttiqaanan attH I^iterarg Stttentgettrm 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF LONDON. 

Ownro to an accidental circumstance our usual report from the Society 
of Antiquaries has not come to hand. 

THE OXFORD ARCHITECTURAL AND HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

FlBST MeETIXO, EilSTEB TbBM. 

May 8. The Rev. the Master op Uxiyersitt College, President, in 
the chair. 

It was announced that Mr. H. W. Challis, of Merton College, had been 
elected Secretary in the room of Mr. £. S. Grindle. resigned. 

The following gentlemen were elected Members of the Society : — 

Rev. C. Hamphrey Cholmeley, M.A., Magdalen College. 

Rer. H Kamsden Bramlej, M.A, Magdalen College. 

A. T. Barton, Esq., Corpus College. 

John E. Field, Esq., Worcester College. 

Charles Bigg, Esq., Corpus College. 

E. Chapman, Esq., Merton College. 

H. W. Moore, Esq., Merton College. 

Professor Goldwin Smith then delivered an interesting lecture, npon the 
"Different Views of the Character of Cardinal Pole." 



The following brief account of his re- specific charges which had been 

marks has been supplied for the Report against Pole ; the charge of misbehavioor 

bj the Lecturer : — towards the King in the question of the 

He read a passage from Burnet as giv- divorce, of wluch, it was submitted, there 

ing the ordinary view of Pole's character, was no proof; the charge of attacking th6 

and referred to Mr. Froude as giving the King in the book De Umiats Ecdeaim^ 

other view. He observed that Mr. Froude's which was met by evidence shewing that 

determination to clear the character of the same view of the King^s goyemment 

Henry the Eighth involved the ncces- was taken by impartial witnesses; the 

sity of condemning all those with whom charge of shrinking from personal danger, 

Henry the Eighth had come into collision. which was met by evidence proving that 

He remarked that in estimating any Pole, while taking part against the King, 

character of these times two things must was in imminent danger of assanination; 

be taken into account. Allegiance, espe- the charge of extravagant jknaticira, 

cially the allegiance of Churchmen, was which was met by evidence shewing that 

divided between the Pope and the King ; Pole belonged, like Contarini, to the mo- 

and the world had not yet learned the derate party in the Church; and the 

doctrine of toleration. The first remark charge of persecution, which was met by 

l>ore on the charge of treason made evidence from Foxe and others, shewing 

against Pole, the second on the charge that Pole, though partly responsible in 

of persecution. his official capacity for the peisecationi^ 

The Lecturer then proceeded to some had personally taken the side of humanity. 



1 861 .] The Oxford Architectural and JJistorical Societtf. 89 



The Lecturer etmcluded by recommending 
the period for study, as one of wbich tin ini- 
piirtiiil history *tiH reuiiiined to he written. 
He pointed to the espfictal interest attach- 
ing! to the modeimie party in the Church 
to which Pole belcmi^ed, and which had en- 
deavoured to bring ftbout reform without 
A breiich of the unity of Chrintendom. 

The P&SSIPXKT returned the thunks of 
the Sodeiy to Profesaor Goldwin Smith, 
Mill mttde some remarks retspectiug^ Pole's 
book Ih l/miaie Eccletia^ 

PBOTBsaoft STASf Lii said thflt Mr< Froude 
was out of England, or he would no doubt 
reply. He c^ertaiuly must be allowed the 
merit of eaodour, beottuse li aoemji thut 



he himself has supplied most of the docu- 
ments which have been used against him. 
The account of the moderate party, he 
addcHi, WHS certainly a moi^t interesting 
one, and well deserving of study ; and it 
would be curious to observe bow those 
moderate views which Pole held, paased 
off into those which he adopted on his re- 
turn to England, 

The Masteb dp Baixiol CoLLEOsmade 
some remarks respecting the Euro^wan 
view of Pole's character as a practical 
reformer, which were followed by some 
obaervations from the Principal of New 
Inir Bjj^ and the PaEsmsNTi after 
which the Meeting was adjoumed^ 



Second Mfettko, Easter Tkbm. 

Ma^ 15, The Iiev» the Mastes of TJkiveksitt College, President, in 

the chair. 

A letter was read from the Incumbent of Dorchester respecting the 

renewed exertions w^hich are beings made to continue the work of restura- 

I tioQ there. 

■ The following gentlemen were elected Members of the Society : — 

1 The Hon. A. J. lU Atihou, Ch. Ch, 

^^r K. M. Gawue, Esq., Cii. Ch. 

^^V Bev. W. Ciittmber»i, M.A , Worcester College. 

^^B Rev. J. E. T. Riggers, M.A., Magdalen UalK 

^^B Kev. J. BoBworth, D.D,, Cb. Ch., Professor of Anglo-Sajcon. 

Professor Westwood then called the attention of the meeting to a large 
number of very careful rubbings from the curious early crosses and inBcrlp- 
tions which occur in Wales. These he had brought to illustrate the remarks 
he had to make upon the early Christian Monuments of Wales contrasted 
with (hose of the Catacombs of RumCf of which an account hud been given 
at a previous meeting by the Rev. J. W. Burgon. 

The following abstract of the remiirks the grentcr part of the country. There is 



^^^1 



been kindly supplied to the Society 
the Lecturer :^ — 
Of course^ in number and importance 
the inscriptious of Wales will not bear 
a comparison with thofco of Rome, but still 
they ore very valuable in throwing light 
upon a subject of great impurtance and 
interest, namely, the introduction of ChriS' 
iianity into Britain. 

The existence of a Church in Britain 

vious to the arrival of St. Augustine is 

[mitti'd Oft all hands, and there is little 

bt that the British Church still main- 

tAtoed ita separate existence in Wule* 

Uiiii/ ut\.-f St. Augustine had RomahUed 




another point to he remarked, and one 
which is distinctly recorded, that the Bri' 
tish Church was aaaimilated to the Church 
of the * i^eots,* i.e. Irish, and very diQer- 
ent from the Church of Rome: the con- 
troversies which took plnce shew at once 
that important points of difference existtd 
between them, 

llie Lecturer had, at much lalx^urt 
sought out the stones which remain as 
recortls of those times, some of which seem 
not to hnve l)ee[i toucljed since tlie days 
they were pot np. Mr. Burgon In his 
locture lijwl idreiidy pointed out the pecu- 
Uaritit^ of the iusci'iptiona in the CatA'* 



40 



JnlijMari&m and LUermnf hitdSgemeer. 



[July. 



hcA M to fionrate and paleo- 
dwK IB Waiti diftr exeee^n^ 
both M to the one aad the other from 
tboM IB Pot, j«t of eonne there were 
ItniBeiie for ■eay yeew in Walee. Thkia 
a enfttcr diAeoh to ezpleiii. Theii,agaiB, 
there is aot a angle indica ti on of Chrieti- 
anitj to be met with npon one of the 
hnndredi of Roman tombetonei in Britain, 
ahh oagfa the Romans occopied this eoan- 
trj lor 400 jeaia. Either all the Chris- 
tian efidcnees hare been dcstrojed, or 
there were no Christians amongst the 
Roman eolonists, or else tbey inscribed no 
Christian deoMnt npon their tombstones. 
The Britirii eertainly copied the BomaB 
character of writing, for no Bardic writ- 
ings are found, all inscriptions bdng 
in Roman letters; instead, however, of 
being inscribed in the Roman nutic 
capitals, (employed to such a great ex- 
tent in the Catacomb inscriptioDs^ that 
the writer only reodlected one amongst 
all those exhibited by Mr. Borgon which 
was not in soch character!,) the earliest 
British and Romano-British inscriptions 
were written in ordinary Roman capitals, 
olten of a rery debased form. [To con- 
trast with this the Lecturer exhibited two 
Roman inscriptions fonnd in Wales. In 
the one from Tomen y Mar, now in Miss 
Roberts' garden at Maentwrog, the let- 
ters P and B were of the most elegant 
Roman capital form, as now nsed in print- 
ing, whilst on another stone at the same 
place the word fkbpitua is written in 
tall narrow capitals, not macb unlike the 
rustic Roman letters.] At a later period 
even the debased Roman capitals were re- 
jected in favour of the Anglo-Saxon or 
Irish minuscule characters, of which there 
are no instances in the Catacombs ; indeed, 
scarcely a single minuscule letter of any 
kind is ever found in Roman inscriptions. 
Again, not only was an early influence 
from Rome evident in the form of the 
letters themselves in the early inscriptions 
in Wales, but we find the Latin Innguage 
constantly endeavoured to be adopted in 
these monuments*: generally, however, 

• The only early monoment written in the 
Welsh language la the famooa stone of St. Cad- 
van, of whioh a mbhiog was exhibited. This 



the LaAinityis as d s b ase d as ^a eharao- 
teiB in which it is written. M oteovar, it 
naoM endntthat inmost iMtaneaa ^a 
prevalent taste for the emplojmeot of a 
language probably regarded as SBp e tha to 
their own indoeed these early Christians 
to giro a Iiatiniwd form to their aamea 
when i ns cribed on their tombstooas 

There are only two or three eari j in- 
scribed stones in Sootland, hot otte of 
these is especially of high importaaee 
as an historical example; the gcna- 
ral abeenee of dates npon these monm- 
ments being one of the great diiBeoltieB 
in determining the histofj of thcM cnrioaa 



The Scotch stone in question is known 
by the name of the Cat-stone, and was 
fonnd a fow miles to the west of Edin- 
burgh. It is inscribed to the memory of 
Wecta, the great-grandfather of Hei^;ist 
and Horsa,as follows: ur [h]oc t[it]- 
inTLO jac[b]t tkta »[iijt8] Tier .... 
Both these names are recorded in the 
Saxon Chronicle, where, under the year 
449, we read, " Hengist and Horsa were 
the tons of Wihtgils, WihtgiU son of 
Witta, WiHaoi JFecta^WeeU of Woden t 
from this Woden sprang all our royal 
fomilies, and those of the South- Hum- 
brians also." We may infer therefore that 
this inscription is to be dated about the 
beginning of the filth century. The let- 
ters of this inscription are decidedly Ro- 
man capitals, though somewhat debased 
in thdr form, and several of the letters 
are ooi^joined, as b usual in the early in- 
scriptions. This stone, therefore, both as 
to the formula and form of the letters, 
afibrds an excellent medium of comparison 
with the subsequently described stones of 
Wales. 

It is very unusual to find stones in- 
scribed only with the single name of the 
person commemorated. Such, however, 
is the case in the " Gurmarc" inscription 
at Pen Arthur, near St. David's, as well 
as in the gravestone inscribed Fabobst, 
a warrior recorded by Nennius, still exist- 
ing in the churchyard of Towyn ; also in 

has all the four sides inscribed,— the inseriptton 
being considered the earliest known specimen of 
the language of the Prineipality ta existence. 



The Oxford Architectural and Historical Society. 41 



iUe griiv«toac of ** BaJtNccr/' wbicli, 
ftlibotigh onminentcd with a beautiful in- 
terlMwd cmw» had been diitcovered by Mr. 
Waitwood used as a coping-stone of the 
cburcbyxrd waII of Ba^lun, near Neath. 

PaiUm[Me8t iiucriptions are of vei^ rare 
i»coiirrcuce. Such u. botrerer, the cttaa 
with th« Port Talbot stofie ; one side of 
which h^ni a truly Roman iiiicriptioti to 
the £mperor. imp. maxikIko t5TlCT0 
^VGUB, — whilst the reverse was at a gnb- 
■eqnent period inscribed Eto Jaoit can- 
TTT8tT8 PAT«B FAULi^TUB, evidently in- 
tended for the father of Panltnuj, a name 
wtiM ooiutantly occurs in early Welsh 
1 1 altbough according to the usual 
\ it ii the 90Q who is coatmemorated, 
bef« both names are written in the nomi- 
itaiivii ctute. The peculiarity of the muue 
cf the deeeiued person being often written 
in the gefutive case was alluded to. It 
ham indeed beet) tup|>o«ed by one writer 
to prove that the names really ended 
in t; but more genersdly it lA considered 
to imply the omission of the word cof' 
jnw. Thus the stone which, before it had 
been carefully read, led to much di&cussiou, 
hiTing been supposed to be dedicated to 
Jove, is inscribed in the genitive form 
— AiHiLixi TOTiBAOi: this stone 11 now 
foatoved to Pool -pork, Clocaenog. So also 
we have skterini fili sbveri on a atone 
fonnerly standing at LUui Nuwydh, Caer- 
marthen, but now moved to Tra'^fs Miiwr. 
So mlao In the Uaeu Madoo inseriptiou 
we hiTe the fomnula dzbtao — filits 

ju^L 10 lAcrr, aud in the Lknfechjm 

stone still more correctly TEiKACATra ic 

lAOlT VII^rrB If AGL4GNI. 

Another ioficription. In which the gene* 
alogjr it especially set forth, occurs on a 
ftofie on the Hflrgaui mouutaiu in Gla« 
morgUDshirCi as follow s i 4* Boi>voo — 

UlC ^ACtT Fluids CATOTI8IENI FBON'£PU3 

BTEBJtAXl TKOOMAT — , whlch the lecturer 
read, ■* In the name of Jesus Christ. The 
body of Hodvoc lies here, the ton of Cato- 
tisimos^ the great-grandson of Eternalus 
VedoBievus.** It baa indeed been suggested 
that Bodvoo was the son of Catotus and 
graiidRon of Sirnus, and that the two last 
words of the inscription were iu tended 
for the ** etemalis domus,'* which occurs* 



although very rarely* in Roman inscrip- 
tions; but as tlie word Kturuus occurs on 
sevenil stonea ae % proper name, und aa 
we have such names as Vendunmgli, Mr* 
Westwood considered the former to be 
the correct reading of the inscription. It 
is to ha ol)flerved that the name of Bodvoe 
IB found upon certain early gold British 
coins, whii-h have been considered coeval 
with those of Cunobehnos. It is of ooorse 
only a conjecture that the stone records 
the ooiner of these piece*. 

The usual formula of the early Welsh 
inscriptions is simply HIC jacet a filius B. 
The termination * in pace/ derived from the 
Jewish inscriptions and of such oooitaot 
occurrence in the Catacombs, nowhere oc- 
curs in Wales, Tlie total absence of any 
indication of a datt\ the omission of the 
age of the deceased, and of the numea of 
the person or purs^jns by whom the gniTe 
wes erected, are all distinctive chorfkctera, 
proving the want of a comuion origin of 
the Roman and British formultD ; we min 
also the tender expressions and epithets fio 
common in the Catacombs. 

The Lkngad wolftdr inscription in Angle- 
sea aflbrds an early instance of pompom 
epithets as rare as it is abrard : catajcakus 
SEX BAFncirnsranrs oFOfATiBiMirs om- 
nium RBGFrM. Tlie paliDOgraphic cha- 
racter of this inscription is very unHke 
any of thoee previously referred to, which 
lire debased Roman capitals, this being in 
the rude minuscule letters formed between 
the rounded uneial and cursive forms in 
which almost all the oldest Irish and 
Anglo-Saxon manuscripts are written, and 
of which no examples occur in the Cata- 
comb inscriptiuns. 

The next inscription, from Lhmfihangel 
Cwm Du, CATACUs mo jacit fujvs 
TBOBUNAOUS, atfurds an instance in which 
even the father's njune is given in the 
nominative case, and in which the forms 
of the Roman capital letters become more 
debeaed, the o bmng squajre and the & Eoi- 
nuecole shaped. 

The monogram of the name of the Sa- 
viour, formed of the Qroek letters XPi 
conjoined, which is of such constant 
occurrence in the Catucorobs, occurs, to 
the knowledge of the Leeturer, only once 




4^ AmtifmmMm mmd LUawry ImUiaptmeer. [J^7» 

jL 'ViuiSL TG0oa. ft Am* jmuL-j irisxii ws. ^^azt of tae iT bijmWB iiHul|AkMii in 

xomattam:. Txk umucniiL 3* ;uh:«ti as Wkitt 7K<:cid oljv xtat imo^^ «f the d^ 

'zut JM9ML of tut 3MC3Cax. zi-c lA^n; ooMMid ubc iiiss .if ii» iisiicr. viikoBt any 

j» "Liii iiaii£n» £r.«-fni.r '..ATLiicaL vtix :f i^ior > i^tii. ie« sKfecA visk ft croM^ 

viiuK soinifr v« icf K imLHikr. S3l;u* <r ccsaaiaflCUiL aaA ■■DfCzBCt of 

iMrrucj.iu mziiiii-: Zajtt ir :4»i.:r ^air'*2_ Tie Boer:* tt^mt ^Hmt f 

MT-.m. Hirm-- rtrrtrr_iir fJUitr !•: li* ti.cKC ':*art :e* ;c Uae '. 

tefr-mi »^ .if .i-liii.rTit .r -. ij« wJt ;c vLJfS iriiir Iv^yauck* 

sttfcnuauk. Ir.irr irsatutst hs\ rM-.r^ec 3. crrnsf 73. scaAxnaz* .if ta* uawk tvpe at 

jM sxvz^m-juf' iuKT^Iuec «w:iii&. im iuk jl. ftai viiek from tbe tfyia 

±z ZjtsT-rT^ ji ft c. Sit ^Hrr"uH£ KU cf ?A« JRsen eia bis^x b» jftur thaa tke 

fiiana<^ j Tzwiiuia ai "luic iccisJca:^ szae IUb^vt T3 irC bear* 

J WZJZXM, M^'fZi CEJCJT ^Ti r'KTS g 

zZ'iTirATrr xjLf: zi^=^ is ri.~K>:aj as. .-csasis'ul cr-aa. C«e 

.raj- n.j-"^ i=ii i«o Siftaart iOLzij 

in. ziMt " ■— .. g-m -jc ;^ LTLTnL :c IJa&- i^AJT':arrs i^ £obi& ct^ctajik 

mttwn. VdiT iJK 'un.'ji&.iu :f :a« pftzrm Tbi^ Cirvciftr c&ArafC^r :f jb^ of that 

L&riU-J .§ a . - - Lfc -TT IT F!"A ii i*raa* ;f loie 

iok iaias via atiarr^i- sz Jx'ui&zizj. I; ai ^c b« naai amTAirm 

SAlVRNINV/ii 





nz»Ji FATSOQ nxm AX^r^im k:c iar tb« jeers* x?< .hi thi* aitsivS* cf tbe 

pArL£5Ts Lftcn cuLTJA ?^33niiSEKT} ATvie fts t&«f ti.^. t&«» S3^ sai&tf Grs- 

IQTI. XAic is As^^Sax.^ !itr€tvr» VcASh ?be 

Ia uw B^dii Pma Aaoa Bear Tnvs- <3<caiL At i;« t2« \ftt«rs v«t« cvur* 

frnvdii WIS nad PORTv* ec ly ttk^xo 1a- Jifrwi :o S? H«rtr«w. wbica jpak ftisn t^ 

err Zt:x>j xltA^T"! fstt. Hi* cwatnc- scene Sjisa: piiofd <£riRvi« icara. T^ 

tina -yf ^hn -wrri, •Jbr-.^ianoa *a ?<;izsark- .^dIt iastasci? :2« Li>vcarvr «aa act^tuint^ 

aoie, sie x bcine 5.nitiii hy thie riosdcd wi»a •!! which th«> IL'miia 5.^rrzi;t!a*^ lU^^ii- 

iCniLft if ua x . •-sizssixi^ two bnacaei exis " wai ^wd. *:» « Tvnr x:xch :3;*£:«d 

. Go dto I aoir iJia tf;p. Li tht; P«ii «tuiw a£ Hen E<iwv»^ As^^KMva^ :i wbxk 

t w« aa.Tc a larca ormamanral only nurs « t . . . ~ ^ ? 

i visiui a didie, har- ar« ApripfMrahhg> 



1861.] Tfic Oxford ArcMteclural and ITisforical Saciety. 43 



lljft name given to the tomb Itself, or to 
the ooromeinorfttive stone, deserves notice. 
Tbui, wbilst in ^neral an upright fitone 
bean tlie fimple *' hie jneitp" iti notne rare 
iniit^inrcs we rend '* hie in ttunolo jncit," 
and **in hoe tnroola** In the liiinfi* 
hftngel y IVaethaa inscription we tind 
•• H, c«t sepulchmm " &c. ; In the Carau- 
sios Inscription " — jactt in hoc congeries 
lf»pidnm;'* in the Bronweg stone " — crejiit 
hunc kpidein;" whiUt in the Uter in- 
»|wTe "Hec est crux criati 
fcrit— ." 

A ramurlmble pecoliority, first pointed 
out bjf the Lecturer some years n(3^, dis- 
tiDgaisbes these Welsh inscriptions from 
tbow of Cornwall, the Isle of Mnn, Ctmi* 
berland, and Scotland, und aaalmiUitee 
them to many of the early Irish inscrip- 
tkna. In some of the Wclah inscription* 
the edg« of the stone appears to be notched 
invgolarly; but this is not accidental, 
■tnce^ 00 cxatnitrmg the stone carefully, it 
will be fmind that these marks were made 
with a purpose j and on clostrr ejiamination 
it has been foand that in their various 
Arrangemetit they form an alphabet, to 
which the name of Ogham has been ap- 
plied, and to the ejiplanation of which Ilr* 
Graves has devoted a great degree of at- 
t«nti(m< In Wales, however, a bilingual 
stone has been fortunately found, at the 
eburrb of St. Dogmad, near Cardigan, 
The Latin runs thn^— «aobani riu cr- 
jroTAMi, The Oghnm translation and cha- 
racters on the e*lge arc ideiiHcally the 
same, with one cjtoeption, and that a very 
natural oiie,^ — ^inst«^ad of FiLr we find the 
Oiltic equivaleot Kaqi, (= Mac : Weliih, 

The Lhm Vaughan stone, TREyjLCATra 
IC ^ACiT FiLiUs KAGLAOKi, ako beats an 
liinn murginal inicriptioti, which rom- 

uven TRJCNACATLO. The Trallong in- 
scription, which reaik cfxocrnki filivb 
cn'KooitKt HJC lACiT, ha* Ogham charac- 
ter*, the commenceroimt of which is to be 
read cvkacef. This itnue, which cannot be 
Ut«r than the Hftb or sixth century, bears 
a Greek cro«s within a circle, nccompiinied 
by a long «tein running down the centre 
of the stone. 

At a si^muwhat later period these stones 



1)ecame fnr more ornate in their cbitracter. 
The two beautiful crosaes, of which draw- 
ings of the full sixe (13 or 14 feet high) 
were exhibited at the end of the room, 
shew great beauty of worlimanahip j but 
unfortunately the tnscrjptiong, although in 
finr preiCrvation, are not to be deciphered, 
consisting in one case (thut at Nov* rn) of 
initiah; the other (Carew) has a regular 
inaeription, hitherio undeciphered, [see 
next page]. 

There are two peculiaritie« to be men- 
tioned respecting the ornnmenU of the 
Welsh crosses and ornamental stones. We 
never find In Wnles the pattern formed of 
several spiral lines converging to a point, 
which IB so comoion In Ireland ; nor do we 
ever, «econd]j, find reprt^eiitntiona of ani- 
mabi, which are alao very common features 
in the Irish and Scotch crosisea. The pat- 
terns consijit chictly of the ribbon pattern, 
most elaborately interlaced, or of a Chineae- 
like pattern, fonuetl of diajjronal or straight 
lines, which seem rather to be the bars of 
separation between ribbons bent at right 
angles or obriquiJy. Unlike the Iri*h 
and Scotch crosne*, also, the Welsh ones 
Hcurcely ever be-ar representations of the 
human figure, whiUt the greater namber 
of them are inecribed, thus remarkably 
differing from the Irish and Scotch ones. 
It is also to Ik? noticed that the orna- 
mente«l crosses are divided into compurt- 
ments, and exactly the same arrangement 
Is found in Uie great initial illuminated let- 
ters of the most chborute of the Irish and 
Anglo-Saxon M8S. (specimens of which 
were ejthibited), especially from the Gospels 
of Lindisfame, long preserved in the ca- 
thedral of Durlnim, and the Gospels of 
Mac Regal, in the Rush worth MSS.at the 
Bodleian Library, from which it was quite 
evident that both clauses of productiom 
had been executed under the direction of 
the same artista and at the same period. 
When it is remembered that the Lindis- 
fa:ne Oospelii were written not later than 
A.D. 721, the importance of this observa- 
tion will be evident. 

Some of the ornamental stmiea in the 
south of Wale» arc of the most elaborate 
anil bottatifkil character. Rnbbings of the 
proat wlv!<l-aroMi, and the croitsof Eitdamn 



186L] Tht Oxford Architectural and IRsiorical Society. 45 



mi MArgam, the cross of Howelt at Llan- 
twifc, St. 8iKii8on*i criw* at the lutter 
plikoe^ inscribed with the historic names of 
St. Samsou, Iltyd, SamacI, and Ebi§ar, 
and the eUborntcly omflmentcd cross of 
Eiodoti. were erUibited, ag w«U as of the 
two smuU stones at Penally, of whieh 
H^iirw «re given, the inscription upon one 




ifbonc* frcca Pun-k^ij. 



T nr.y. 



of whioh it to be read, heo rht crttx 

QITAM JTOlFICayiT SLAIL DOMKC . . , .» tllO 
letters being: of the Hibemo-Saxon mintis- 
cnle form. The two kinds of oniAiiient 
mhoTw doMTibed will also be here noticfMU 

TliB miyority of the early Webb stones, 
as we have seen, bear Latinized names, and 
inscriptions intended to l>e in tbc Ijatin 
language. Scarcely a single instance, how. 
svtr^ 11 known of thciroccurTence otherwise 
tliati In % debased form. A few additional 
of this were given : thus at Cefn 
'lob* Anglesea, we reud, Sen Jk errs 

mo JACIT CUM MTTLTmrDIWEM 

kTuni^ probiibly couimemorativc of 
G t jf T ^f kG. Vol. CC\ I . 




the massacre of the iuhabitanta of a ns 
ligiOQS bouse. At Margam a small whocl- 
cross is inscribed iNoinMEi>tBUMi oarx 

CEITDI PBOPABABIT GRFTNE PUO AlfKA 
AJIKST, evidently to be read, "In nomino 
dei anmmi crucem cristi preparavit grutne 
pro aniraa ejus/' So, agnin, the very 
iK^utlful wheel-erofl® at Lh^ntwit, erected 
by Howell for bis father Rees, is inscTihed, 
ty NoirrNE m i-atuis kt spEBjsTra 
sxNTOt [spiaixra bancti] anc cbuceh 

aOTELT FROPEBABIT TKO ANIMA B£S 
PATaES BUS, 

It will be recollected tlmt Mr, Bnrgon 
exhibited a rubbing of a single female 
figure from the CHtaoonih*^, in which tho 
arms ai*e uplifted and the hands ont- 
strctched^ an altitude which has ordi- 
narily been considered to he that of prayer 
in these eiirly naonumeDts, In the Welsh 
stones we have two or three similar in- 
staniu?s» of which rubhings were exhibited. 
In one of these the figure is nearly of life 
size, and occuth in tbu grocmils of GnoU 
Castle, near Neath* Another, of gmnllcr 
size, accompsLnied by two Greek crosses 
and interlaced ribbon ornaments, bai been 
found at Llanfrynaeh, near Brecon. 

Tlve only representation of the Cruci- 
fixion with which the Lecturer was ac- 
quainted is found rudely delineated on & 
stone ot Llangan, Giamorgnnshire. The 
figure is very distorted and grotestiue, and 
similar to some in Ireland, having the 
sponge and spcar-bcarers at the sides of 
the cross. 

Of figures of a secular character, of 
wliicb the crosses of Ireland, the Isle of Miin, 
and Si'othHid exhibit so many instances, 
there is scjircely a single instance in 
Wales. The most remarkable is that of 
the warrior 'hriamail* at Llnndeviiitog, 
near Brecon : bore a rude figure of the de- 
ceased is represented standing erect, each 
hand holding a club. The stone is snr* 
mounted wilh a beantifully ornameDted 
Latin cross, and the sides with interlaced 
ribbon pntternst the name itself, preceded 
by a tt being inscribed beneath the figure. 
Another very interesting Bione on Caldy 
Island bears a large ornamented Latin 
cross at the top» l^neatb which we read, 
"£t Singno crucis in illam flugsi rogo 



46 



Antiquarian and Literary tntetUgencer. 



[July, 



omnibus ammnlftntibns ibi dxorent pro 
anima Cataoconi/' The lait-mentioned 
stone, and others hi^cating the doctrine 
of prayers for the dead, are all written in 
the peculiar Hibero-Saxon mintltoule cha- 
racters of the eighth and ninth oenturies; 
they are, moreover, confined ix) the iouth 
of Wales. This may, in feet, be regarded 
as the only peculiarity Exhibited by these 
stones as to the religiobs doctrines of the 
early Welsh ChristiaiM, beyond the evi- 
dent adoration of the MOes itself; (of #ldch 
numerous instances occur in the figures of 
the sacred emblem singly, sometimes twice 
or thrice, represented osti the same stone,) 
and the acknowledgmettt of the !l^i4llity 
upon Howelt's cross above^menttionied* 

In contusion, it may be Remarked, that 
although the early Welsh Christians 
adopted the letters of Rome, as well •• 
the Latin lang^uage itself, fbr the inscrip- 
tions on their tombstones, We find both 
debased in their character. The phrase- 
ology employed on the monuments Is 
unlike that of the Catacomb ihioriptions, 
the ornamental details of the Welsh stones 
are nowhere met with in early Italian 
remains, and the Christian doctrines set 
forth on them are only such as cottld have 
been learned from Rome at a period pre- 
ceding the mission of St. Augustine. In 
this point of view the stones of Wales 
merit especial attention, as affording un- 
suspected evidence of the truth of the 
early history of the British Church. 

The President asked if the inscribed 
stones which had been exhibited were 
found in any one particular part of Wale% 
and whether in churchyards or not ? 

In reply, the Lecturer stated that they 
were found in all parts of Wales, but 



more numerously in the South than in the 
North ; that their position was by no means 
confined to churchyards, but they were 
scattered sometimes in the wildest parts 
of the country, difficult of access. 

The Sbniob Pboctob differed from Mr. 
Westwood OS to the dates of the inscrip- 
tions ; he considered that the identificatdon 
from a mere resemblance of the name in- 
scribed to that of an historical personage 
rather hasty, e. g. the monument to Bod- 
voc was probably of an earlier date to any 
with a cross of the kind found on it. He 
threw doubts also on the stone to Carau- 
sius, and the name of Paulinus was so fre- 
quently repeated that it was dangerous to 
identify from that alone. He also asked 
what the fathers of Hengist and Horsa 
could have been doing in Scotland ? The 
Segrams stone, he remarked, contained a 
Celtic word, 3fac, in modem Welsh it is 
Mapt which nuses a suspidon that the in- 
scriber of the stone was no Welshman. 

The LiBBABiAN suggested that the cross 
referred to might have been added at a 
later date, and mentioned the instances 
in Brittany, where the misnonaries had 
carved crosses on the Menhirs. 

Pbofkssob Ooldwik Sioth referred 
to the stone with the name of Caraunus in- 
scribed upon it. If it was a monumental 
inscription it could scarcely be that of the 
Emperor Carausius, who was slain, if he 
remembered rightly, near London. He 
also asked some questions respecting the 
connection between the workmanship on 
Irish and Welsh crosses. 

After some remarks from the Pbbsident 
on the ornamental character of the stones, 
the meeting was adjourned. 



FnisT Meeting, Tkinitt Tbbm. 

May 22. The Rev. the Master ot Uniteksitt College, President, 
in the chair. 

The following gentlemen were elected Members of the Society : — 

The Hon. A. Legge, Ch. Ch. — R. S. Cobbett, Esq., Pembroke College. — Ralph 
Blakelock, Esq., Lincoln College. — Rev. J. P. Tweed, M.A., Kxeter College. — Luke 
Rivington, Esq., Magdalen College. — J. T. Berwick, Esq., Queen's College. 

Mr. J. H Parker read a paper " On the Renmins of the City Walls and 
Fortifications of Oxford," which we are obliged to defer until next month. 



1861;] The Oxford Architectural and Hktorioal Society. 47 



A5injAX Mketiko, 1861. 

The Annual Meeting of tlie Society was held on Tuesday, June 4, at 
the Music Room, Holywell, the Rev. the Mabtib OF Univehsitit 
CoLLSGE, President, in the chair. 

Tbe room was adorned witli a large collection of fine architectural photo- 
graphs, chiefly lent for the occasion hy the Architectural Photographi<^ 
Association. 

The President, in opening the proceedings, referred to the general pros- 
perous condition of the Society^ and then called upon the Secretary, Mr. 
lie Strange, to read tbe 

ANNUAL REPORT. 

" The past year has been one of the most eventful to the Society since ita 
commencement. 

*' In 1859 tbe Society completed the 2l6t year of its existence. Although 
the state of its funds at that time, and the egtimation io which it was still 
held, seemed such as to warrant its members in believing that ite strength 
snd vigour was in no way impaired, still those who had watched it from 
its birth, through the years of its infancy, till it legally came of age, could 
not but feel anxious for its future welfare. 

** The event, perhaps, which more than any other hastened the crisis 
which was then impending, was the expiration of the lease of the rooms of 
the Society, and although during 18o9 the Committee were anxioua to 
teize on any opportunity for obtaining a place uf safety where the valuable 
collection of casts, mod(c;ls» seals, brasses, draw^ings, aad books which, 
during the many years of its existence, the Society had accumulated, might 
be deposited, still 1860 came upon them before they had been successful 
Tbe University had, however, signified their willingness to accept the collec- 
tion and prevent its being scattered, provided that they could find amongst 
their several buildings any room which they could conveniently spare. 

"As a temporary place of safety, an unoccupied room over the Clarendon 

Building was provided, in which the collection was placed^ but the room 

was totally unfit for lectures ; the library, from want of space, waa 

jcfidered useless ; aad after the expenses on moving from the old rooms 

iimd been met, tbe Society found itself in a most unenviable position as to 

/ts funds, 

** It was exactly at this time last year that a general meeting was called, 
«i the state of the Society freely canvassed. There were those present 
lO, surveying the past history of the Society, considered that it had done 
i"rark, and that the taste for architectural studies was not sufficiently 
^cjded to support a Society of the kind. Various suggestions were 
i^« but eventually the one put forth by the Committee, with some slight 
J# fie^lioftp was adopted. 



"^i 



48 



Antiquarian and Literary Intetligencer. 



[JttfP 



** Tlie substance of the changes was, that Kistory ihould be added tol 
Archilecture as ooe of the objects of the Society, ttud thai it (should hence- 
forth be called the Architectural and Historical Society ; that the mib«Gnp«l 
tion for residents ehould be reduced to 10s, instead of one guinea, tba ^ 
sum previously paid, and that 5s. should be fixed as the i?uiu lu be paidl 
non-resident members* 

" The foUowiiig Term found the Society again in working ordcr» and 1 
Committee have no slight reason to congratulate themselves that their eX* j 
pectations as to the results of those changes have been fully realized. 

" We have, during the past year, held nine meetings, eatcluaivc of the! 
present Annual Meeting of the Society, and your Committee will now pro-l 
eeed to lay before you a short analysis of the papers read and the subjects] 
diacui^sed on those occasions. We may divide them into two classes:^ 
first, those which are both Architectural and Historical; and secondly, those 
which are purely Historical To subjects belonging to the first of these 
we have devoted seven of our meetings, and in these we shall find that 
sometimes it is Architecture and sometimes History which predominates s 
of the second class we have had two papers. 

" The first meeting of the Society aa newly constituted was appropriately 
occupied with a discussion, opened by Mr* J. H. Parker, * On the Coot^ 
nection of History with Architecture,' which shewed in a concise and clear' 
manner how the character of each century was stamped on its architecture, 
and how much the style of the latter depended on the influence of externa 
circumstances. At the next meeting Mr. Parker delivered a lecture * Oa 
the Comparative Progress of Architecture in England and France during 
the Middle Ages, with especial reference to the History of the Times/ in 
which he shewed how much closer a connection than is now generally ^ 
supposed existed at that time between the two countries, and how mucii 
the friendly intercourse between the nations had to do with the almost" 
similar and simultaneous development of Archilecture on each side of 
tiiG Channel. 

*' At the »ui>»«:'quent meeting there were two papers read, which may 

sftld to have been devoted to Architectural, or rather to Antiquarian research*] 

♦?, 28, l«00,) by the Kev» J. W. Burgon, who offered somd 

' ^-naarks on a series of rubbings, suspended round the rooraJ 

1 made from inscriptions ou the marble and stone slabs 

e« of tJie early Christians in the Catacombs of Home,] 

jU'odcd that the custom of burying in underground vaulti 

h origin, and waa probably a national custom introduced 

rtn to Christianity settled there. The second 
j'>d, llie Hope Professor of Zoology, who exJ 
coUcction of rubbings, which be had made with grea 
r 1 ' . jirly Christian monuments of Walea 
_ ^led to him by Mr. Burgon's rubbiofl 



1861,] The Oxford Architectural and Historical Society. 4Q 



we 



from the Catacombs, and there were many points of resemblance between 
them. 

*" On February 19 of the present year, Profeasor Goldwin Smith discussed 
* Several Subjects for Inquiry connected with the History of the Univer- 
sity and Colleges/ but the lecture was, in fact, a lucid and tutercstin^ 
summary of the History of the University, which he divided into four 
phases, extending from the traditionary foundation by Alfred down to the 
commencement of the present century* 

•'The paper with which we were favoured at our last meeting, by 
Mr. J, H. Parker, comprehended both the subjects which our Society has 
in view. He traced and illustrated, with several plims and views, the 
remains of the city walls and fortifications of Oxford, — not only those which 
existed in the civil commotions under Stephen, and in the times of 
Henry III., but also the earthworks erected in the times of the Rebellion^ 
when King Charles foitified the city against the Parliament. 

** The last paper of this class was by the Librarian, ' On Walter de Merton 
as Chancellorp Founder and Architect ;' who, he said, was the first to con- 
ceive the idea of the collegiate system, and to whom we owe a debt of 
gratitude, not only for his munificence in founding Mertoni but for his 
skill in architectural design, since he was one of the first to introduce the 
Decorated st) le. The Lecturer tben traced the principal incidents both of 
De Merlon's public and private life, shewing how to him and the three 
other Chancellors, Wykeham, Waynflete, and Wolsey, Oxford owes the 
foundation, perfection, and extension of a system which has placed her 
University in the foremost rank among similar institutions in Europe, as 
well as her finest arcliitectural monuments. 

*^* Of these seven papers the first is devoted to the discussion of Architecture 

well as History, In the second, by Mr. Parker, the former predominates. 
Architectural remains form the basis of the papers of Mr. Burgon and Mr, 
Westwood. Professor Goldwin Smithes History of the University threw 
much light on the same subject. Mr* Parker's lecture on the Walls of 
Oxford is illustrated by the remains which exist around us ; and, finally, the 
Librarian brought before us Walter de Merton in the character of Archi- 
tect as well as of Chancellor and Founder. 

" On the other hand, we have devoted two evenings to the consideration of 
purely historical points. The first paper of this class read before us was 
by the Rev, W. Shirley, * On some Questions connected with the Chancel- 

rship of Uecket/ in which he shewed that we owe him a lasting debt of 
;nititude for permanent and beneficial traces -left by him, (I) in the office 
Chancellor, (2) in the constitution of our Courts of Justice, (3) in the 
thftracter of the Common Law. 

**0n the 8th of May, Professor Goldwin Smith offered before the Society 

imc valuable remarks, ' On the Different Views of the Character of Cardinal 
shewing how the history of those times latt^ly published by Kr. 



,ML 



WwMde wiM Wudj tc lead oois to fern x £L« f^riiMfit if tae pob&c and 
priTite c&anecer 'sf mat difiia2<xi:aLed stz^esnao. 

** Willie £^y aiimitringy tocRCors. toat dfte work ct die iodetj is mov two- 
Mdy— tiuit it dccft not zrie Esc^-iided attenticii Co ArciiiKliBe. a> w lor- 
■Krij the caae* tae CcmmrOBt aeiaeie tbat tise^ aaT« in tha wnin fis^ered 
ifae vQXix^siik of tiiac itiidT, fcr whick tfce Sccictr w^s flnenalr fomded, 
Ardutftetore \j .'rieff, aa a ftodr, wms net «ffifiiVar to ninm a SocietT in 
a pr/iitioii to Cf^mmaad z^nenl rsspect and esteem : and tnej beiiere that 
ifce outine H..aCof7 with that itads^ ban been the chief «avz> olT pnai i liiig' 
litt 9ocset7 from diatol^Jboa. And Bmas tkaiL this, they bcueire that at tbe 
ffcaeot tine the katorieal view of the ardutectare of dm cconcnr b of the 
Iw^hett unportance, when we oieeC with so many instaiwti of the mtrodoe- 
tioo cf frjni^ dtmmB aiuier die idea that the architectnre oa the Con- 
tinent proTidea examplea which are entirdT wanting ia England. The 
hi^>ncal view will ahew how die ardutectare of the countrr alwara 
adapted itself — and thai with the greatest saccca — to tka reqairements of 
the titaea ; and it m only br paying doee attention, not oaly to mcdieral 
plana and design^ bat to the caxues which gare rise to thapi. that we eao 
hope ao thorooghly to anderstand the national style of thii countrr as to 
regain lor it tiie lore and admiration which it once enjoyed. 

^Tune was when all architectaral works going on in the kM[doni poa- 
s essad so great intarest far the members of this Society that i| was cus- 
toaury to refer to them in the Annaal Report. By degrees we )tvnt to 
regard only those which were in progress in our immediate neighboariiood ; 
and of late yf:ars we have paid little attention to any work beyooA the 
boundaries of this city. 

^ Since our last Keport there is indeed little to mendon» as the space is 
somewhat circumiicribed, and great works — such as Kxeter Chapel, Balliol 
Chapel, and the 2<iew Museum — may well precede a pause. However, it is 
not entirely so: a new library has been built at University College, to 
receive the statues of the great Lord Qdon and his brother Lord Stowdl, 
the most distinguished members of the College in the early part of the 
present century. The building has been entrusted to Mr. Scott, and your 
Committee have every reason to congratulate that College on their choice, 
the building possessing every advantage, combined with simplidty and 
bcaaty of design. 

*' Mr. Scott has studied the history of the Architecture of his country, and 
baa ipantered not only the forms, but the principles, of medieval designs 
also ; .and it is from this cause, probably, that his works have been so sue- 
cesAfuJ tliat at the present moment the Committee have been told that the 
restfiration or building of no less than eleven cathedrals are entrusted to 
bia sole charge. 

"0/tbe new charch in St. Giles's your Committee could not approve when 
the doigps were laid before them. They reserve a final judgment till the 



5!»] I%e Os^rd Architectural and Historical Society, 

work is finished ; but as far as it has gone the building appeara decidedly 
otherwise than English in character ; and against the introduction of foreign 
details for the sakt of novelty, instead of carefully developing the sljles 
which we have so Exquisitely represented in oor own country, this Society 
has constantly protested. 

" The introduction of a new painted window into the cathedral of Christ 
Church has called forth several remarks. As to the details of the design, 
all will agree, probably, that it merits great praise ; hut as a whole, consider- 
ing its position, and the nature of the material with which the artist has had 
to deal, exceptions may fairly be taken to a general verdict in its favour* 

**To return to matters connected more directly with our own Society. 

"Among the officers but few changes hiive been made. Our President, 
Treasurer, and Librarian continue the same as last year, Mr. E. 8, Grindle, 
of Queen's College, one of your Secretaries, was, we regret to state, com- 
pelled to resign on account of his health ; and Mr* H, W. Challis, of 
Merton College, has been elected in his room. Five of the late Committee 
retired in regular rotation, and the following gentlemen have succeeded 
them : — 

Tbo EeT* P. 0. Medd. M,A., of tiniversity College,— The Rev. W, W. Shirley, M.A.. 
of Wadhntn Collegro, — The Rev* the Rector of Linroln Collef^e, — E. W. Urquhiirt, Esq., 
of Btilliol College, — nnd W, J. Guiither» Esq., of Que<*ti*d College. 

"The Committee cannot close their Report without congratulating the 
Society on the very large number of new and influential names which they 
have been able to add to their list during the past year. It is in great 
measure owing to this fact that we were able last Term to issue with our 
Report such a satisfactory balance-sheet of the receipts and expenditure of 
the year. Our accounts^ including our liabilities, at the commencement 
of the October Term, shewed a deficit of more than £t50. We had, there- 
fore, great satisfaction in being able to shew last Term that by donations 
from former members, by renewed subscriptions from life- members, and 
the payment of several arrears, in addition to the subscriptions received 
from new memhers^^-of whom upwards of fifty have been added to our list 
in the course of the year,— the whole of our liabilities have been met, 
leaving a fair balance in hand. Our expenses have been considerably 
reduced by the kindness of the Curator of the Ash mole an Museum in 
permitting us to hold our meetings there ; and should such permission be 
continued to us, and the amount of subscriptions keep up to their present 
average, we shall hope to have funds in hand, and be able further to 
extend the influence of the Society, whether by more frequent meetings or 
by further enlargement of the Reports of our proceedings." 

The adoption of the Report wns movod befbre them. Not tl^e least encouraging 

by the Hasteb or fiiXUOL Collkoe. subject referred to in the Report, was 

He Hud thai he sincerely ooTLgratnlated that which related to the state of their 

the Society upon the very BaliBfactory fhnds. The pr(>8perity of every Society 

; which the Committee hod hud depondixl vit)' ruatcridly upon the state 




52 



Antiquarian and Literary Intelligeneer. 



[July. 



of its finances, and it was therefore with 
mnch pleasure that he heard so great 
an improvement had taken place in that 
department daring: the past year. He was 
of opinion that during the year the So- 
ciety had to a certain extent changed its 
ground of operation, hut the transition 
from Architecture to History was an easy 
one, — indeed a natural one ; and he con- 
gratulated the Society on the manner in 
which they had been ahic to combine 
both. It had been said that Architec- 
tural Societies had done their work, and 
there was nothing left for them to do ; he 
did not think, however, this was the case. 
He was anxious to bear testimony to the 
immense amount of good which these so- 
cieties had accomplished throughout the 
kingdom during the last twenty years; 
but he also thought that there was still 
much to be done. He thought, too, that 
combining historical with their architec- 
tural studies would in no way interfere 
with the work of the Society. He would 
refer especially to one field of work which 
he thought was still open: hitherto the 
efibrts of the Architectural Societies had 
been directed towards the improvement of 
ecclesiastical buildings only; he thought 
they might do much by turning their at- 
tention to domestic buildings, and he be- 
lieved that the time would soon arrive 
when it would be as impossible to hear 
nonsense talked on the subject of do- 
mestic architecture, as it is now almost 
impoteible, thanks to these societies, to 
bear nonsense talked by educated men 
about church architi'cture. 

Professor Stan let then rose, and ex- 
presBed the gratification which he felt in 
seconding the Keport. He was sorry his 
namerous duties had prevented him from 
giving that time and attention to the So- 
ciety which he would wish to have done; 
but he hoped next Term to be able to be 
more often present at their meetings. 

The Pbesidsxt then made some re- 
marks upon the phn which the state of 
their funds had permitted them to adopt, 
namely, the issue, at the end of each 
Term, of a Report of their proceedings. 
He also drew attention to the great debt 



of gratitude which they owed to the kind- 
ness of the Curator of the Ashmolean 
Museum for permitting them to hold 
meetings in that building. 

The adoption of the Report was then 
unanimously carried. 

The President said he had next to call 
upon Professor Goldwin Smith for his 
lecture upon " Some Points connected with 
the History of Ireland." 

The I^ecturer touched first on the phy- 
sical character of Ireland, its physical re- 
lations to Great Britain, and the infloence 
of these circumstances on its history. He 
then proceeded to treat of some points 
connected with the state and character- 
istics of Irish civilization previous to the 
Conquest, to describe the early manifes- 
tations of the national character in various 
departments, and to trace the connexion 
between its primitive peculiarities and 
those which it exhibits in the present day, 
shewing, in the course of this inqoiry, 
that, upon a just view of history, great 
allowance must be made for some of the 
reputed vices and infirmities of the people. 
He next described the circumstances which 
led to the Conquest, the Conquest itself, 
the causes which occanoned its incom- 
pleteness, and the evils of which its in- 
completeness was the source. The sabee- 
quent course of Irish history, political and 
ecclesiastical, was then followed through 
the period of the early Pale, the Tudor 
and Stuart era, the great rebellion of 
16-U, the civil war in the time of James 
the Second, and the concluding rebellion 
of 1798, down to the Union and the pass- 
ing of Roman Catholic Emancipation. « 

A vote of thanks was passed to the Pro- 
fessor for his interesting lecture. Owing 
to the lateness of the hour at which the 
lecture was concluded, there was Mttle 
time for calling attention to the beautiful 
collection of photographs. A vote of thanks 
to the Architectural Photographic Asso- 
ciation for their kindness having been 
passtNl, the meeting was brought to a 
ch">se. 

Several persons, however, remained for 
some time afterwards to inspect the 
photographs. 



6 



1^61.] 



53 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE. 



ttnd 



Jiifitf 7, Lord Tiloot db Malahide, 
Presidentt iu the chair. 

The formation of distinct clnssified col- 
l44CiioiL9» tti the meeting of the Itistitutfi 
in aUi^mutf? months, for the apccifil illiii- 

lion of 80IJ1V interesting suhjtict of iji- 

ligation connected mth ancient arts 
Ibid manners, has grtiitly coutrihuted to 
the grntificntion of the nutneront vifiiton 
by whom those etiUections hiive been 
viewed. On the piesunt occasion, being 
the fourth of these ep«dal exhibitiouB 
fbrmed during ilna yenr^ the flohjwt pro* 
potod waa the exempli ticiition of Glyptic 
Art, mid u very rich disphiy of eumeim und 
iuUigIio», of antique nnd cinque cento 
work, with stune choice specimens of later 
tiiut% snch US the fine productions of 
Kslnicei or otber modern artiste, wna 
brought together. Lord TiJbot, in open- 
ing the proce-edings, oflfered some obicrvti- 
lions on the gn^t vaIug of the relics of 
glyptic ttrt in connestion i*'ith uniny de- 
pnrtuTicnl* of nrdiEco logical entjniry; 
their lujf^rtauce as evidence regarding 
the hi»tor)^ ot the arts, tioJ altfo the man* 
ner», religion, nnd histury of ttntitinity, 
bud poasibly never been sniKcieutly H[)pre- 
cintcd, owing to the want of fHcilitiea 
of acccM to Any eitontive aeriea of geing; 
even at the Itrltijab Moaetim the precious 
glyptic roliwtiou* there preserved were 
only available under very special restric- 
tions, for Ally purpose of public inatruction- 
On the present oeca^ion a collection nn- 
cqunlled probably in extent und value waa 
fur the first time placed before the archiD- 
logifrt through the liberality of the poe- 
M!9orsof the uio«t precious gem:^ preserved 
in this ctmntry. During tiie htst seflsionj 
tlie Duke of MarllMiroug!i had with moat 
gmtifying klndne-ss pjopo»4?d, i»» the event 
of any aerief of glyptic art being formed, 
to cut nut to the luntitute the Arundel 
and the Ik'nstmrough collections, now pro- 
iKTViXl «t iilcnheiiu IViuce. lii» Gi ace's 
girtierous example httd Iwcn fotlowed by 
the Duke of Devonihiro, who had not 
only went tor exhibitioa the large coUec- 
tiun whicli for come time hud been ehewn 
nt tlie Keiiiungtoii MuM*um» but h;id al^ 
iiKxr* MAb. VuL. CCXl. 



permitted the precious jowelfl to he exhi- 
bited prepared for the Conntees GrunviDe 
on occafion of the coronation oi' the Em- 
peror of Russia. The Duke of Hauiilton, 
with other noble and tiwteful [x>Sicssors of 
antique gtms, hud, moreover, enriched 
this unique excmplitication of ancient art. 

Previously, however, to entering upon 
the special subject of the evening. Lord 
Talbot de Malahide invited the Ra-v. J. L. 
Petit, who had recently returned from % 
continental tonr in quest of eertiiin re- 
nmrl{able architectural examples in various 
parts of Euro|)e, to give the results of hiB 
investigation fl, ilhistmtcd hy his nduiirable 
drawings displayed on this oc<tision. Mr, 
Petit then gave a diticour^M} replete with 
interesting details regtirding churches of 
circohir form, of which a few remarkable 
Hpecimens exist iu this country. He ad- 
verted to the occurrence of this form of 
strncturc from the earliest aged of Cluri«- 
tian archittctwe, sometimes attached to 
large clmrchoi, ss at Alx in I^venee, and 
at Frojus, and njsed as baptisteries ; some- 
times insulate<), fu S.Costtiizii at Rome; 
in some cases, as in Enghind, wholly in- 
dependent. Almost every continental 
specimen is supposed by popular tradition 
to liave been a Pagan temple. Mr. Petit 
explained the different types of these pic* 
turesque and inttTesting strurtnres, more 
or less complicated in plan, and described 
the examples sht^wn in the series of 
drawings exhibited, namely, the eutious 
chiirchejs at Altenfurt, Grassc in Provence, 
Albenga, Moutm^our, Peyrolles; Aix-la- 
Giapelle, and Nimegnen. He referred to 
the observations of Mr. Ferguss ^u iu elu- 
ddntitin of the curions tjuestiouB connected 
with the eccle&iufftical examples of this 
class, of which the mo^t remarkable are 
known to the jircliitectural etuil en t through 
the useful HanUbtxik produced hy Mr. 
Murray, 

At the close of Mr. Petit 's interesting 
lecture, which will Hpj>eiir in the forth- 
coming Journal of the Institute, the sub- 
ject of glyptic art, selected for eapeuiAl 
consideration on the occasion, was brought 
before the meeting by Mr. Edmund Watcr- 



-tr 1^; 






54 



Antiquarian and Literary InteUigenetr. 



[July, 



ton, F.S.A., wlio prococdtHl to pivp an r1»1o 
di«sfit.ilion on the attractive section of an- 
cient iivA nie«lia'val art, to whicli the ex- 
qnsi:i' thtcftf^tothici, formed hy him with 
^eat taste and judgtm-nt, has of late 
prcatly cimtrihutotl to draw X\w. attention 
of antiipiaries. Mr. Waterton alhided ]>ar- 
ticul::r'y to the vahie of jrlyptie art as j)re- 
»entin»f j»rol»ahly the proatest jHrfeetion 
of exeeution, and illnj.trativo in an eminent 
desrree of the history inid artistic genius 
of aneii-nt time.«». The ehiims and interest 
of the Mihjeel, he oh>erveil, had lieen well 
set forth hy a recent writer, Mr. King, 
wh<»se l)eautiful work on ancient gems is 
full of interesting research and vaUiahlc 
information rehiting to the diminutive 
masterpieces of antique skill, which have 
presiTViMl in durahle characters the images 
and attributes of ancient mythology, and 
the features, conditions, and actions of the 
mo-t illustrious jjcrsons in all times. In- 
de- d from the evidence which gems prc- 
s«iit in so attractive a form, history, 
mythology, and allegory have derived 
veritications and elucidations of the great- 
est value, which have heen faithfully and 
expressivi'ly re«vrd«Hl \\\to\\ the iniixTish- 
ahle gem, whilst the greater works of the 
scu'ptor, the architect, and the painter 
have bi'en swept into ohlivion. Mr.Water- 
t<m adverteil to the principal collections 
of gems, from the dactifHuthera of Mithri- 
dsites, Julius Ciesar, and Marcellns ; — the 
apprtciation of such treasures in metlin>vnl 
times, as instanced by the collections of 
Petrarch, Lorenzo de Meilici, and some 
of the most eminent patrons of art and 
literoturo in the middle ages. The en- 
graving of gems presents one of the most 
faiteretting features in the history of the 
TVTival of tlie arts in Italy ; the ta^tc 
nfudlj iprvad, and was extcndi>d to our 
eoQntry, ai shewn by the tasteful col- 
Ifletion fbrmecl by the Karl of Arundel, 
eariy in theserent^nth century, which the 
Society, through the lih»^rality of its nohlo 
powtfssor, liad now the gnititlcation to 
contcmphtte. Another of the richi*st pri- 
vate cabinets of that early ]H'ritHl, fonmnl 
by a wealthy patrician of Nuremhurg, and 
known at tlie Ihtiun rolUvtion, was \\W\ 
bronght before tlie Institute by the kind- 



ness of the present possessor, the Rev. G. 
Khodcs. 

Mr. Waterton proceeded to give a 
sketch of the history and progress of the 
art among the Egyptians, the Assyrians, 
Etruscans, (ireeks, and Romans, and 
]N)inted out examples in the extensive 
series which the archaeologist had now the 
advantage of examining, through the kind- 
ness of numerous collectors, who had 
favourably recognised the value of such 
serial exhihiticms as the Institnt^ had 
proposed to form for the gratification of 
their friends. Of every class and period 
the rich assemblage of gems now brought 
t'>gether presented exampl(» in great jjcr- 
fection. The glyptic art was revived in a 
remarkable degree in Italy as esrly as the 
fifteenth century. It was liberally en- 
couraged by the Medici, and other distin- 
guished ])romoters of the arts of desigiL 
Tlie works of the eminent masters of a 
later period were not unknown in Eng- 
land ; |K)rtraits of Queen Elizabeth, attri- 
buted to the inimitable Viccntino, occur 
in the Royal Collection at Windsor, and 
also among the gems txhibiied by the 
Duke of Devonshire. Artists of no slight 
note occur in later times, and our own 
c«)untry has pnHiuced some worthy of 
mention, although surpassed by the ac- 
complisluHl mnexiri of Italy. The revival 
of a higher stylo of artistic taste and skill, 
not unworthy of comparison with that of 
the best periods, may be anticipated, Mr. 
Waterton observed, from the efforts of his 
gifted friend, Luigi Saulini, whose pro- 
ductions are of the highest promise. Mr. 
Waterton concluded his interesting re- 
m:irks by pointing out the rarest and 
most characteristic specimens in the series 
displayed with u degree of liberaliry un- 
priH:e<lented on any former occasion. 

Lord Talbot expres<ed his high sense of 
the favour and generous confidence shewn 
toward the Institute by the noble pos- 
sessiirs of the treasures now entrusted to 
them. The collection, more especially, 
presiTviHl at Hlenheim Palace, and which 
the Duke of Marlborough might justly 
n^ganl as one of the most precious pos- 
sessions of his stately inheritance, must 
be regarded with sinj^ular interest, as a 



186L] 



British Jrchdsoloffical Assocmtion, 



55 



tnonQmcBt of the Uste and discernment 
of one of the most dUtingiusheil pHinjiu 
of &rt in our coyntry, the greut Earl of 
ArondeL Lord Talbot propotied an appro- 
priate exprMMOQ of thanks to the Duko 
of Marlborongh, and the other generous 
ezhibiton on this oocAsion. 

AiDong the precioui gems eikibited, 
the cclcbnited Prann coU«etiou, «tiWe- 
quently in poaaessiou of Madame Mcrtcns, 
Soluiriuiti»en« occupied a foremost pontion, 
■a exempli fying the characteristic types 
of ancient art, the works of the moat 
auktoaut artists of antiquity. It haa been 
■Bgllliillted with great judgment^ by the 
present poescasor, Mr. Hhodes» whose cabi- 
net oontmna nearly 4,000 gema. A small 
collection of clioice antique examples was 
lent by the Duke of Hamilton i alao two 
precious jewels, tlie crystal eross found in 
the toiub of the slater of Richard Cmur- 
dc-LioQ, Jimn, wife of William IL, King 
of Sidly ; and a gorgeous pendant jewel 
aet with diamonds, euelosiiig a portrait of 
James L, by Uilliard, one of his flm^st 
works. Kumerons other valuable gems 
wore ciliiWted by Mr. C, S. Hale, Mr. 
Beroaford IIo[}e, Monsieur Fould, Hignor 
Cmtetlani^ Sir John Boileau, Burt., Mr. 
Octavius Morgan, M J'., Mr, Henderson, 
Messrs. Huut and ICoskell, Mr. Stunrt, 
Mr. Qarrard, Mr. Eobinson, the Hev. J, 
Beck. Mr. Carruthera, and otbt^r col- 
lectors. 

The cxhibitiofi oontinoed open to the 



members, and friends invited by them, 
until Wednesday, June 12, and nearly 
5,000 vuit^rs availed themselvod of the 
opportunity of inspecting so remarkable 
a collection. On the evening of Jutie 8« 
H,R.H. the Prince Consort, with Prince 
Louis of Hesse, attended by Lieut-Col* 
the Hon. D. de Uos, honour*?d the Insti- 
tute with II visit;, and was pleased to »g- 
nity the desire thut certain preciouii gems 
In pQss««sion of her Majesty, at Windsor 
Castle, should be entrusted to the Insti- 
tute, of which H,R.1L is the Patron, 
litis highly valuable acceasion to the col- 
Icctiou was accordingly dispkycd during 
the three last days of the exhibition. It 
con»i»ted of nearly three liundred gems, 
amonf^t which is a very large and rc> 
markahle Roman cameo; probably of Con- 
Stan tine the Younger. Of dnque cento 
productions the cameo portraits of Henry 
VIIL, Edward VI, que^n Elizabeth, 
Mary Queen of Scots, Lndy Jane Grey, 
Philip IL, Louis XII. of Fmiioe, and 
othiT fine works, which mey be attributed 
to Vtcentino, or Coldord, attracted much 
attention. 

At the euHuing meeting, on Juty 5» 
A disofjorse on Ancient Goldsmith's Work, 
from the curliest piTiodii, will be delivered 
by Stgnor Caiit^'lliiiui. of Home, who bus 
recently read a memoir of great interest 
on iliat aubjoct before the Institute of 
France. 



BRITISH ARCHiEOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION, 



Ma^n. T. J, Pkttigrew, Esq., F.R.S,, 
F.S,A^ V,-P., in the chair. 

T!i© Kev. John James^ M.A., of Aving- 
ton Rectory, Berkshire was elected am 
Associate. 

Dr. Palmer, of Kewbtxry, made a com- 
aictttiou relative to the discovery of 
LBotnsn villa at Stanmore Farm, near 
Kast Ilsley* Berks, and transmitted the an- 
tiquities thencse obtoined. Hiey were found 
Bccidifutally by some labourers digging 
chalk, by the fall of the Bnperincumb<?nt 
•oil dt«plsying portions of broken pottery. 
A fiorliou of w»ll 7 ft. in length, built of 
large flint stones well ceuieuted together, 



was also brought into view, and a careful 
search (of whicli the particulars were de- 
tailed) produced a portion of bronze re- 
sembling a stylus^ some bits of irun, nnd 
some nwils. The princiiml object i» a vase 
6 J inches iu height, with nn open- work 
design of some elegauceaud only found iii 
the pottery obtained from the Rhine, which 
is directed to be engraved. There were 
various tiles for roofing and other purposes, 
a bronxc gpeur4icad of goud form, and an 
iron arrow-head with a hole in the centre. 
Mr. A. S. Bell, of Scarborough, gave 
information of the discovery of a large 
doHum or amphora, fished up in the trawl- 



56 



Antiquarian and Literary Intelligencer, 



[July, 



ing.net of tbe smack " Vigilant" of Hull, 
at the back of tbe Goodwin Sands. It was 
covered with sea* weed, oyster and massel 
shells, and a coating of corallines, the 
greater part of which has been removed. 
It is 5 ft. 9 in. high, and 2 ft. 6 in. in 
circumference, and capable of holding 
Bxteen gallons. The bottom is round, 
and it has two handles. 

The Rev. Mr. Ridgway exhibited a 
French casting in brass, representing a 
crucifixion, but of whom is uncertain. 
Tbe figure is bound to a knotted cross 
with cords, is bearded and nearly nude. 
He is surrounded by a group of male and 
female figures clothed in Asiatic garb. 
Hr. Ridgway also exhibited a beautiful 
carving in wood of the Crucifixion of 
tbe Saviour, executed in the Nether- 
lands in the early part of the seventeenth 
century. 

Mr. Syer Cuming exhibited an interest- 
ing disc, a fac-simile, in gutta pcrcha, of 
tbe brazen field of a Limoges enamel of the 
twelfth century, discovered at Thomholm 
in Yorkshire. 

Mr. John Moore, of West Coker in Soraer- 
■etshire, forwarded the remits of a digging 
jnade by some labourers in a field, by which 
an ancient British interment was brought 
to light in April last. Ashes, charcoal, 
and a variety of comminuted bones, consti- 
tuting a large mass, all pronounced by Mr. 
and Dr. W. V. Pettigrew to be human, 
and n<»t having been burnt; portions of 
rode, unbaked pottery, flint arrow-heads, 
and celts were also found, rendering the 
di-covery one of interest, and worthy of 
bnire printed in the Jiumal. 

Mr. Jvbn Barrow. F.R.S., exbibitod the 
driimiTe (.fa rtone known as the Fardle 
t^foc, mhicb it was said is to be deposited 
in :hi British Museum. It formtnl a sup- 
p t: for tbe rinz yoteX of a sIksI in the 
court -yard of Fardle Manor-lK>ue*\ near 
Ivy IlridiTf, Snnib iVvon. It is 4 ft. high 
aTid nK.rt- taaii t»in. thick, and has \\\mm\ 
i: cbanttverti not t-asily read. It was re- 
Ifrr-ti lor |mrtit'uiar examination. 

Tiit rfujjiinder of ibf eveniiijr was tvcu- 
puii iii liii rfau:n^ of a paptT by ibe Kov. 
Mr. KidgtKay. c ving an acei>nnt of Ca^vr- 
^lam iu Oxlurdsiiire:, and correcting s^nne 



errors pubUshed by topographers of this 
locality. The paper will be printed. 

June 12. T. J. Pettiossw, Esq., 
F.R.S., F.S.A., V.-P., in the chwr. 

George Goldsmith, Esq., of Belgnrave- 
road, Joseph George, Esq., of Goldsmiths' 
Hall, and Alfred George Sharp, E^., of 
Westbourne-park-villas, were elected As- 
sociates. 

Presents were received from the Smith- 
sonian Institution, the Archeological In- 
stitute, &c. 

Mr. Bateman, of Golgrave, sent a draw- 
ing of a bronze sword and the supposed 
ornament from its scabbard, found, to- 
gether with another sword and some hu- 
man bones, at Ebbcrston in Yorkshire. 
Mr. Bateman stated it to difier from all 
other specimens in his museum, and re- 
ferred it to the most recent bronze period. 
In regard to the scabbard ornament, 
Mr. Cuming stated that only one perfect 
scabbard of a bronze sword is known, and 
that is in the Copenhagen Museum: se- 
veral portions presumed to be the metal 
mountings, ferule, &c., have been dis- 
covered in Ireland. Of ferules, three dis- 
tinct types are distinguished, and Mr. 
Bateman's belongs to one of these. It is 
the only instance discovered in England. 

Mr. Cuming exhibited a portion of an 
olla, found at Colchester, resembling in 
pattern and texture that exhibited from 
Berkshire at the former meeting. It is 
of fine terra-cotta, almost equal to the 
Samian ware, and is a product from the 
potteries of the Rhine. 

y\T. Sobultye exhibited eleven Hunga- 
rian and Polish silver coins, the earliest 
being of the fourteenth century. They 
were used for ornaments, having a loop 
for suspension. 

Mr. W. H. Forroan exhibited a fine 
ci>lUvtion of knives and forks of Italian, 
French, German, and English manuftic- 
tun\ the handles of which were variously 
enamoUctl, and some with fine carvings of 
ivory. He also exhibited an ivory carving 
of the olevonth centurk', apparently repre- 
senting King Saul, attended by his cup- 
IveariT. whilst David, accompanied by an 
attendant, is playing before him on a 



18GL] 



itmi9matic Societt^, 



rp, Mf. Forman also produced several 
llier iutifreHtiug autiqoitlos referred for 
Aitiirc description, tog:ethor with three 
large ftpeeliiiens of inuminationa ifhich 
had bclori«|ed to a work of St. Augn.«tinCt 
(jjrubiibly a French tnin«lfition of the De 
dm tale I/ei). The dru wings in gold and 
coloars were of the most exquisite descrip- 
UOTi, and worthy of particalar detniU 

Dr. KeDdric'k sent various antiquities 
fouDd at Wilderspool, the presumed site 
of Condnte. They consisted of many spe- 
cimens of pottery, Beveral of Samian ware, 
A mortanuin« ^., iron naib, per torn ted 
tile, and, of n late pel io^l, ii tine hunting- 
knife, with carved handle illustraiive of 
the chii^. There wens alao two gutta 
.^rcha iuiprcs§ions from tho ivory bucka 
^ rairrors of the time of Edward L The 
Inrgeit specimen represented au incident 
in the siege of the Chateau d* Amour. A 

klve or scythe blade w«is also exhibited, 
od in Lincohi£hire, 

Dr, Wilkins exhibited an ancient Bri- 
tish coin found in the Isle of Purl>eck. It 
ftppetiTi to be A new type« and will be 
figured. 

Mr. Bell sent a drawing of the large 
dolinm or amphora, capable of holding 

Ktc«n gallona, fished up at the Goodwin 

C. Ainslie exhibited tome large 



Bpeciraens of pottery b<?ariTig the nanica 
of the pottenit found upon excavating be- 
hind the Chiiklliall, 

Mr. Dundafl exhibited a Mohammedan 
pendant of silver, with biigbt tlowers on 
a niello 6eld. It held a etniipass to mark 
the direction to Mecca. It had also held 
B relic 

Mr, E. Roberta exhibited a presnraed 
autograph of Shakespearei found in a book 
belonging to Mr. Hird. 

Mr, T. Wright exhibited a cnrion* bronze 
instrximent just found at Wroxeter. It 
ha£ the appearance of a aaw, but is the 
segment of a circle entirely now to anti- 
quaries, and the general opinion in regard 
to it wiuf Umt it had been used aa a 
currycomb or scraper. 

The Upv. Mr. Kell pent a large collec- 
tion of tiles* found at Net ley Abbey, toge- 
ther with photof^rHijbs by Mr. Addison of 
the parts recently excavnted *, but iis these 
opcrationK are being continued, the read- 
ing of Mr. IvcU's paper was deferred until 
they should be completed. 

The Chairman ndjourned the meeting 
over until November, and announced tiiiit 
the Congress in DevouBhire vvnuhi aflsem- 
blo in Exeter on the 19th of August, and 
would be presided over by SSir Slailnrd 
Northcote, Dart., C.B., M.P., &c. The 
pnjgramuie is nearly completed. 



JSUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 



f 28. W, S» W. Vaux, Esq., Presi^ 
tnt, in the chair. 

The Uigbt Hon, the Earl of Ennis- 
killen^ Lieut. -Gt?n. Fox, and the Rev. C. 
T* Wcatberley, wtre elected members. 

Mr. Sim of Edinburgh commnnieatetl 
Boroe remarks on •* the Lee Penny," which 
in well knoMTi as being " the Tidijsinan*" 
from which Sir Walter Scott took the 
title of one of hi» novels. It consists of a 
itone of a dark-red colour, triangttlar in 
Aspe* and inserted into a silver coin. 
UitiV»rtunatcl3\ however, for the tmdition 
which a^iv^ns this talisman to the days of 
the Cra«ide«, the coin of which the setting 
is formed mppear* to be a gnwit of Ed- 
ward I V%, of the London mint. 

Dr. Friedliiuder of BerUa communi- 



cated an account of a coin of Flelike, the 
ancient Ionic capital of Aclmia, It is* of 
brass, bearing on the obverse the bead of 
PosL'idon, possibly Hdikonlos, encircled 
by waves, and oti the reverse a tridt^nt 
between two dolphins, the whole sur- 
rounded by a Itturol- wreath. The legend 
on the obverse is BAlji. This is the first 
coin that has been attributed to Uelike^ 
which town was destroyed by an earth- 
quake B.C. 373, the coin having been 
struck probably but a short time before 
that event. 

Mr. Webster communicated a paper on 
some nnpahllslied Roman coins, inrluding 
coins of Vespufti.an, Domitian, Hadrian, 
Cams, Caritma* and other emperors, the 
most remarkable being a medullion of 



68 



Antiquarian and Literary Intelligencer. 



[July, 



Antoninus Pins in bronze, with SylvanoB 
■Unding beneath a tree on the reverse. 

Mr. Madden ^ve an account of "an 
aureus of Licinius the First/' lately 
brought from the East by Mr. George 
Madeay, and of extreme rarity, but one 
other being known, which is in the Vienna 
collection. It bears on the obverse the 
full-faced bust of Licinius the First, with 
the legend Liciyrrs ato ob dv filii syi ; 
and on the reverse, Jupiter seated on an 
estrade, inscribed sic x. sic xx., wiih the 
l(^nd lOTi C0N8. Licixi AVG. The ex- 
ergual mark s.ai.AH.B shew a it to have 
been coined at Antioch. The British Mu- 
seum possesses the full-faced aureus of 
Licinius the Second, with the same re- 
verse, excepting the exergual letters, which 
destgUHte the mint of Nicoraedia. The let- 
ters OB D T have been variously explained, 
as ** OB Decennrtlia Vota," **0B l>u^>liccm 
Mctoriam," &c., but none of these exjila- 
natious are satisfactory. M. de Salis sug- 
gests OB Diem V. (Quintum scilicet Nata- 
lem) as a more probable interpretation. 

Mr. Bergne communicited an account 
of a hoard of coins recently discovered at 
Uounslow. They are all groiu with one 
exception, a half- groat of the London 
mint of Edward IV. The tot:il number 
of pieces found was 376, of which b6 are 
coins of Charles the Bold, Duke of Bur- 
gundy. The renLaiLdcr are English, and 
may be thus arranged : — 

nenry V. or VL Ciln- \L\sA 2 

£d«urd I V.'s Snd eouuTe Lor.'lon . . IS3 

„ Vork 32 

,. » Bristol . . 4 

„ Norwich. . 3 

, „ - CoT-nrrr. . I 

^ „ D*b-^i . . 1 

n w» % ftoa: . Lccii:zi . . I 

Bkbanlin. ... ^ . . 19 

Btiiry VII. % 1« wia-vpt! Op«a cr-jwn . 12 

„ ., 2a-i i'.ijU-j^ Ar.ji .'i cr^wa . 33 

CbarLn tac Bold, Doke ci ^^Tzz^ij Iki^^ 

IL-T S< 

3:« 

The ^oins ire mjuih ''.xMizi^d, and pre- 
sent no {*ir.x''JiT^ '-jf acv'cl'.y, hit ih^ L-Mrd 
H of :nc«»r»sic m pr'>v:ni; the Ojrrectr.ew of 
the anribufiiAn off ehn ^<vzu of H^scry with 
tb* open ervm-x b« Hi^nry VI l^ ami thuw' 
ia^ the eelacWt ^mportiriH* of th« imna 



of the different mints in cirenlation at one 
time. It is also curious to obeenre bow 
quickly the English coinage at that time 
disaiJ|>earcd fhnu circulation, asy setting 
aside the two Calais groats, none of the 
coins are earlier than 1464^ or later than 
1302. It is in fact probable that the 
latest of the coins are sereral years parlicr 
than that date, as but one mint mark is to 
be found upon them. 

Mr. Evans read a paper on a legionary 
coin of Carnusius, in which he shewed that 
the legend on the coin exhibited by Mr. 
Warren of Ix worth* must have been in all 
probability LEO I. anir., Legio Prioim Mi- 
ncrvia. In proof of this be referred to 
Roach Smith's Colfect. Aniiqua, voL ir. 
pi. XXX. 5, and vol. v. pi. xvii. 8; the 
latter l)eitig a coin in the late Mr. Rolfe's 
collection, which has now passed into Mr. 
Evans's hands. It was suggested that the 
ram was assumed as the symbol of this 
first Minervian legion, because the con- 
stellation Aries was frtcred to Minerva, and 
was also the first of the signs of the lodiac, 
as this was the first of the Roman legions. 
It was the custom among the Romans to 
have several legions, each known by the 
same numbt-r, but distinguished by dif- 
ferent appellations. Of the fint legion 
there were the Macriana, the Adjntrix, 
the Augusta, and the Italica, beside the 
Minervia. This latter was first constituted 
by Domitian in Lower Germany, and ap- 
pears on the coins of Severus and Uallie* 
nus» and p*w»iMy those of Aure<das, be- 
side these of Carausiu^ so that its history 
can be traced for upwards of 200 yean. 

Mr. Madden contributed a paper, ** On 
the Three Valentinians»" in which be stated 
that Eckhel, Mionnet, and Akerman re- 
corded that the coins of Valentiman II., 
excepting when spedally marked by the epi- 
thet iT^ior, and thote of Valentinian III., 
when this latter was not calkd FLiddins, 
were not able to be di<rtingu:«hed from 
tk'»e of ValentiiJan I., and showtd that 
by a carerul comparison these coins can be 
separated; that in many imms^ in ct^nse- 
quencv of the mint letters, c-.iu5 that had 
been aligned to the elder Valennnian 

• See GaxT. Ma«., toL ccx. p. Mft. 



1861.] London and Middx. and Surrey Archteol, Societies. 59 



■$' 



cotild not but belong to Uie son, and tlint 
the reverseit of the wins of Volenti niiiii 1 1 L 
to resembled the reverses of the corns of 
tbn timp* thnt U wnt iinpossible to mis- 
take ibem. Vttletitininn I, wmia stout, full- 
fhMrerl Winn, (*' orjms ejn§ tacertosum et 
vbIi dimj,*'^-tum. MarcelL xxx. 9) ; while 
the Mill WAS only tbur or five y< nrs of oge 
on bt0 father*! death, mid died when % 
little more tbMi twenty ; and that iu con* 
lequonee it wu euy to dittingnish be- 
tween % man and a youth. A list of the 
coinH of Vulentiuian II. followed, and some 
imnrk* on the mint-marks found in the 
M on these coins, tr. (Treviri), id. (Lug. 
disnnm, Lyont). aq. (Aquiti'ift), all Acoom- 
[Nuiied bjp cov* (Con^iintinjo monetic) in 



the exer^H^ ; also on ti toin with the uiint- 
mark com. alonet and ositlgued to Ark^i. 
Oonstautina wu* the nttme given to Arle» 
by Constantine when he built a new town 
on the opposite side of the Rhone, and the 
attribution of a coin of Fansta with the 
mint-mark oonbt. to Aries, which oonld 
not he of Constantinople, becatuie Funstii 
died before Bysatitium was founded, is due 
to the Ittte Mr. Barrell of Smyrna. Mr. 
Mndden g^avo an account of many more 
mint- mar ka. and in concltiRion stat^jd that 
the eiplaniition of §onie of them was hy- 
pothetical, thonph decidedly probabk', re- 
ferring to hts forthcoming; work on '* Koman 
NumtHinaties." in which be had fnlly 
treated this interesting subject. 



LONDON AND MIDDLESEX AND SUKKEY ARCHJSOLOQICAL 

SOCIETIES. 



Maff 21, CeiBLES Bailt, Eaq., in 
the chair. 

Edward BmW Jupp» ESsi}*, F.S.A., gx- 

bibited a coloured litho^rapbie proof of 
the gniQtof arms by William IlawkcHlowe, 
ClarencieuXj to the Carpenteri' Company, 
doted November 24, 6 Edw, IV. The 
M*mf arc thna de«crilie<l in the grant: 
••A fe\de siluer, a cheveron fable grayled, 
ly compas of the «ame." Thei«e arms 
were con finned t*j the Company by TliomiiJi 
H.-nolt, October 28, 22 Henry vi i L The 
fine Will of HawkeelowG ie appended to 
tbe original grant. 

Sir Jobn Mn^rove ei^hlbitcd the mace 
of Bronddtreet Ward. This mace, which 
M of silver 'gilt, is In height 1 fl< llf 
in. J on the bead, which is sunnounted 
by an artdied crown, are emljossed the 
E(>yHj arma, aliio tbe rose, barp, tbintla, 
and llenr-du-b's, all crowned. The (ol- 
lowing iiiaeriptions are on the handle : — 

*'The giiift of Mr. Mathew Forstcr, 
An** 1635, to the Ward of Broad-street^ 
i^Xontl u.'* 

'The \Vor»hipfal Jobn Cowan, Eflq., 
Jdenuan, Thomas Corney, E«q., De- 
puty," 

••Repaired and regilt 1860. the RigUt 

.John MusgTOve, LordMHVor, Tliomas 

oroey, £»q^t Deputy, H. H, toUins, 




amn of the dty cf London are 



engraved on tbe flat extremity of the 
handle. 

Alderman Hale exhibited the mace of 
Ci>leman-fttr< ct Wartl, which is also *itlver' 
gtlt« and is in height i^ ft. 3 in. The head 
IB punnounted by an open crown, us-dcr 
which are represente<l the Royal arms, 
8UpI>orters and motto j tbe rtJse, flcur- 
dt^-lia, harp and thistle, cTuwned, are 
cmhoflsed round the bowL Inscriptions 
on handle:- — 

" Wm. Hunger, Esq., elected Alderman 
18^45, Uml Minor 1851." 

"■ Warren S Hal-, EiK|., elected Alder- 
man 1856, Sheriff 1858." 

Mr. Sachs exhibited teveml examplea of 
impressed leather bindings ; alao two leavcfl 
of an illuminated Missal of the fuorteenth 
century. 

Joseph J. Howard, Efiq., F.S.A., eT- 
hibited, by permission of Thomas Hart, 
Esq», of Reigate, the follow iiiny seals : — 

I. The se&l of laabellaj Coitntesi of 
Warren, affixed to an ondated grant c*f 
landfi, &c., to Richard de Combes and bia 
bcirs. The date of this deed may be at* 
signed to tbe middle of iho twelftb cen- 
tury. 

Iwaljel, Conntcaa of Warren, was the 
wife of Uaineline, natural son of Gtoffry 
Plautagenet, Earl of Anjuii. She died 
July 13, 11U*J, and was buried in tbe 



60 



Antiquarian and Literary InteUigencer. 



[July. 



chaptiT- bouse, Lewes, 'flie Coimte8s is 
represeiitiHl on the senl holding in one 
hand a hawk, the nsual symbol of nobility 
and greiitness, and in the other bund a 
sprig, probably the broom, allusive to her 
bubband'8 uuiuo, Plant ugenot. 

2. The Beid of John de Warennc, ap- 
pended to a cluirter of Iand.s dated 38 
Henry I. On the seal is the figure of Karl 
Wartune, clad in mail, his horse armed 
for war, its housings covercil witli the 
Warenne arms **chi'quy ;" on the left arm of 
the Earl is a shield charged with the same 
arms, and in his right is a drawn sword. 
On the reverse of the seal is a Itirge shield 
"chequy," surrounded by the legend SIGIL- 

LTM lOIIAHlB COMITIS WAKEXNIA. 

3. Fragment of the seal of John Mow- 
bray, Duke of Norfolk, Karl Marshal, Ijord 
of Mowbray, Segrave, and Gower, affixed 
to R deed eontirming to John Tymperley a 
messuage called Flauncheford, in the parish 
of " Reygate," datetl July 4, 24 Hen. VI. 
On the sliield in the cciitre arc the Hro- 
tberton arms, (surmount«d by the crest. 
On a chaiNMU turned up, ermine, a lion 
■tatant,) having on the right a shield 
charged with the Warren arms, and on 
the left tlie Mowbray lion. Above the 
Warren anns is an ostrich feather, this 
c-'guizauce having been granted to I'homas 
Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, by Richard 11. 
The autograph of John Duke of Norfolk, 
(which is of great rarity,) is written under 
the fold of the deed. 

4. Seal and autograph of John Lord 
Runell, K.O., Lord High Admiral of 
England, appended to a deed dated 32 
HenyVIlL 

He wiB the ion of James Russell by 
Mat his wife, daughter and lieiress of 
Janet Wyae^ Giq., and grandson of Sir 
John RuMell, Knt., Speaker of the House 
of Oommona in the second and tenth years 
of the reign of Henry VI. 

John Rniaell was ercatod Lord Russell 
of Cheyn^a, March 9, 1538-U, and in the 
'*''^1<'*^S jear, ou the dissolution of the 
BMHUtfteiie^ he obtuned a grant of the 
ilto of the Abbey of Tavistock. A(\er 

■» MoaHion of Edward VI. he hai a 
ll of tlM mooaiteiy of Wobum« and 
flMted Earl of BcdfunL He died 
1 



March 15, 15&1. Tlie arms on the seal 
are : 1st, Quarterly, 1 and 4, A lion ram- 
pant, on a chief 8 escallo(iM ; 2 and 3, A 
tower and vane; 2nd, Three fishes han- 
rient, (Hiring); 3rd, A griffin segreant 
between 3 crosses crosi^let fitchee, for Frox- 
more ; 1th, (Wyse), Three chevrons ermine; 
in dexter chief a civscent. 

H. W. Sass, Kwj., exliihited a key, the 
pro]>erty of the Rev. James Bei-k, found 
under the ruins of the House of Lords 
after its destruction by fire, Oct. 17, 183^k 
It originally belonged to the lock on the 
door of the vaults annually searched on 
Nov. 4 since the Guniwwdcr Plot. 

Joseph Wilkinson, Ksq., communicated 
a paper on the discovery of an Anglo- 
Saxon Ci'mctory near Barrington, Cam- 
bridgeshire. Mr. Wilkinson remarked that 
this cemetery was first brought to light 
during the process of ditching for land 
drainage, when the labourers, digging a 
trench at a depth of al>out 20 in., cut 
across several skeletons, and met with 
fragments of pottery, &c. The cemetery 
is situated on a slightly rising slope in a 
field of eleven acres, which has been known 
for the last 200 years (as shewn by maps 
of that dat«) as Kdix-hill Hole. It is 
the proi)erty of Capt. Bendyshe, of Bar- 
rington. Mr. Wilkinson stated that he 
had opened about thirty graves, and that 
as a rule the skeletons were found w*itli 
the feet to the north-oast, generally 
straight. Tliey are nearly all in a won- 
derful state of preservation, which may 
be accounted for by the nature of the soil 
on which they were placed bi'ing a dry 
white clay. Tlio bodies were laid on the 
clay, but not covered with it, the average 
depth being about 20 in. Mr. Wilkinson 
described the contents of the various 
graves, and exhibited many objects found 
in them. 

Thomas Wells, Esq., Lay Rector of Cob- 
ham Church, Kent, exhibited three hel- 
mets from that church. One of them, of 
the time of Kdwanl V., l>oro the crest of a 
bearded figure, probably intended for a 
Saracim's head. 

John Faulkner, Km[., exhibited six vo- 
lumes of "the Gregory Collection,** re- 
lating to the Cloihworkcrs' ComiNUiy. 



^Mibri^e Architectural Society. 



61 



The series, wbich p-xt«nd8 to fotirU^en vo- 
lames, contains fae>«iinilles of the various 
charters and grmnts Ut the Conipauj ] do- 
ficnptions of the Ccnnpan^'a etittitifa, me- 
moTAodA rehiting to the old luid new hsdU^ 
piftte, A:^. and biographical ac«oanta of 
lord muyor^t uldGtitieu, and other rncni* 
bers of the Cloth work era* Company, iHub- 
trattid hy autographs, portraits^ original 
drawings, Slc, lliis coUection ii now the 
property <fcf the Cbth workers' Company. 

Dr* Bell made sotue remarks on sevvral 
Runic staves exhibited at a previous meet- 
ing. "These staves," Dr. Bell observed, 
'* mig:ht be considered a s|ieciefl of ulmii- 
nack, there being markfl on them indi- 
cating the Sundays, and the days of the 
week," Ac, 

The Rev. Thos, Hugo, F.S.A., exhibited 
a volume entitled " The Life of Dr. San* 



deraon, hit*? Bishop of Lincoln, written 
by Isfiiik Walton/^ printed in Lundon by 
Richard Miirriott in 1(378, on the title of 
which is thi» inucriptioti ; — 

" tor my mn Birch 

Iz. W." (Iz«ak Walton.) 

Mr, Hogo Abo exhibited an early copy 
of the Gospels, tetnp. tenth century, and 
on illuminiited book of Hours of the fif- 
teenth century. 

The Dean and Cliapter of St. Paul's ex- 
hibited the two following inanascnpte 
from the Cftthidrnl Library, vix. 1. " .\n 
Inventory o( OrnuineutJ and other things 
relating to Divine Service belonging to 
St, Paul's Cathedral, a.d. 1295 j" 2. ** A 
Book of Rules and Ui-guhvtions for the 
Canons of St. Paulas, a.d. 1183," (erro- 
neously Ottered *' Chartulariuin/*) 



CAMBRIDGE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 



Ma^ 20. The excuraion took place. A 
ty of about seventeen started with coach 
and ftmr from the '* Eagle," at 10 nan., 
■od drove over to Huutingdtm, taking 
Long SUmton, Overj Swavesey, anil Fen 
Stanton on the way. At Long Stant n 
they stayed and examined both the small 
and intereflting church of St. Mielioel, 
its larger neighboor of All Saints. 
Over is a very interesting specimen of 
modem rcst^^ration, which has huen well 
carried out by the pre«ent energetic vicar. 
At Swavcsey the party were invited by 
Mrs. Long to view the Old Manor house, 
which has many very intereating portions 
remaining; and by her hospitality they 
were refreshed for their journey. The 
church at Swavesey is &ne and large, but 
in very poor condition. Fen Stuiiton has 
hnd the nave lately restored in good taste, 
but the chancel looks very meagre, being 
a fine shell with good windows and very 
poor Attings. It is to be hoped that in 
iitne it may l>e made to agree better with 
the body of the church. At Huntingdoti 
the party viiiited All Siunts' Church, which 
has lately been restored, or rather par- 
tially restored, under the superintendence 
of Mr. Scott. Chairs ore Introduced here 
throughotit, with go<:»d e licet and great 
GiKT. Macs, Vou CCXI. 



convenience, but much remains to be done 
to the church before the restoratiuu cau 
be considered complete. After dinner at 
the *' Crown " the party returned to Cnm- 
briJge, arriving soon aller seven in the 
evening. 

Jfav 30. The Rev. O. WiLLUMa, 
Kin g*s College, in the chair. 

The Rev. J. W. Beamont, Trinity Col- 
lege, read a paper on the Conventual 
Church of Mount Sinai, Hie convent 
dates its formation from the Emperor 
Justinian. The present buildings form 
a square, eaich side of which is one hundred 
yards long. The church is a little olf the 
diagonal towards the northern wnlL Its 
form is, externally, rectangular. It con- 
tains four poTtiouH — the ordiiiiiry tiarthex, 
na(», and hieron, and an opinhieron be- 
hind the hieron, whertMn ia the tradi- 
tional site of the burning biish. The 
narthex is a dark corridor, preceding the 
entrance to the UAm. The naos is di- 
vided into aisles bf two rows, of six pillars 
each, two mof^ being added and enclosed 
within the hicron. The pillars ore of gra- 
nite, whitewashed, their capitjils palm-leaf 
and other Egyptian types, the height 
twelve feet. Wooden screens of lattice- 
X 



62 



Antiqwman and lAterary bUdUgauer, 



[Jaly, 



work lerre to divide the centre and nde 
aiflet; the ordinary gallerj for women 
orer the nartbex ia wanting. The hieron 
teminatet in an apae, aroond which ran 
three stone benofaei» oorreeponding to the 
•eatf cH the bithop and pretbyten in 
ordinary baailicai. On the arch of tri- 
nmpb is a mosaic of the Transfiguration, 
in honoor of which the convent is dedi- 
cated. On either side of this are portraits 
In mosaic — that on the left of Justinian, 
•haggy and unintelligrent ; on the right of 
Theodora, effeminate and sencnal. These 
portraits are, probably, contemporary. The 
length from the apse to the nartbex is 
108 ft., and the breadth of the nave 30 ft. 
From the piers round arches spring, and 
support the roof, which is, internally, fiat ; 
externally, pyramidal. Over the arches 
are plain clerestory windows. The chapel 
of the Burning Bush is said to have been 
founded by Helena ; but the present struc- 



ture la not protended to readi any remote 
antiquity. The altar is reported to cover 
the nte of the burning bush : the east end 
ia square: you are required to take off 
your shoes on entering. Tbe eonvent con- 
tains thirty-five monks^ seven of whom 
are priesta, one a deacon, and the rest lay 
brothers. They are under the charge of 
a Hegoumenoa, Militius, who formerly 
studied in Athens ; he has held hia present 
post four years. A constant interdiange 
of inmates is maintained between the con- 
vent on Mount Sinai and its branch in 
Cairo, where the Archbishop of Sinai 
uaually reaides. It ia the intention of the 
present Archbishop to rebuild the monas- 
tery on Mount Sinai, so aa to fit it for the 
residence of a hundred monks. It would 
be well if, in his improvement, he included 
a school for the monks, and for the chil- 
dren of their dependant servants in the 
neighbourhood. 



LEICE8TER8HIEE ARCHITECTURAL AND ARCH^OLOGICAL 

SOCIETY. 



May 26. The Rev. Robxbt Bubhabt, 
M.A., in the chair. 

The Kev. Ernest Tower exhibited a 
sword fVom Bosworth Field, and some 
portions of encaustic tiles from Shenton 
Church, bearing heraldic devices, one 
being apparently — Jjozengy, or and gules — 
the arms anciently borne by Creon of 
Freeston or Burton Croun, co. Lincoln, 
whose descendant, William Lord Vaux, 
the second son of Petronel de Creon, 
married Eleanor, daughter of William 
Lord Ferrart, temp, Heu. III. According 
to Domesday, Henry do Ferrariis hold 
lands at Shenton when the general Survey 
was taken. A Nuremberg token of the 
ordinary character was also found lately 
iu Shenton Church. 

Mr. James Thompson tlien read a paper 
on the " Ilerrick Portraits in the Town- 
liall, lioicester." In the chamber in which 
the Town (Council of Lviocstor usually 
meets are lUNpondod two ancient ]X)rlraits. 
They bang on each side of the Mayor's 
chair, and above the bench on which, in 
old times, the Aldennen were wont to sit, 
ranged to the right and left of the chief 
magistrate. 



That on the left hand is evidently the 
portrait of a man far advanced in years, 
and of grave and venerable aspect. His 
head is bald and covered with a close- 
fitting skull-cap, though his visage is still 
ruddy. In the upper right-hand comer 
of the picture is painted a shield, on 
which is blazoned the coat armorial of 
Heyrick, quartered with that of Bond, of 
Ward End, in the county of Warwick. 
In the upper left-hand comer of the 
picture are these lines : — 

** His picture whom 70a here see 
When he is dead and rotten, 
By this shall remembered be. 
When he shall be forgotten." 

The portrait is that of Alderman Robert 
Heyrick, who died in the reign of James 
the First 

The other portrait has something of 
the same style of feature, but is that of 
a much younger man. Ho wears on the 
little finger of his right hand a signet - 
ring, on which is engraved the shield of 
Bond, of Ward End, distinctly visible. 
In the upper right-hand comer are pidnted 
the armorial bearings of the Goldsmitlis' 
Company. In the upper left-hand comer 



186L] Leicestershire Architectural and Archceological Society. 6S 



i* the coat of arm* of the Bond famDy. 

On the k'ft'ltand side of tbe head are the 

'ataiU Mke 30:" on the right 

, «-l*i» 1591/' 

This portrait his genenilly been de- 

Bcribed n» that of a citizen and goldiimitb 

of I«ondon named Bond; hut Mr. John 

Ouuj^h NlcboU, afber a close inspection of 

I btdj conjecture that the picture 

nta WiHiam Herri ck, the yoirag- 

hrother of Alderman Robert He^rick. 

The He) rick family were on^iiially land- 

at Qreat Strettou, hut they re- 

red to Hottghton'on-the-HtU in tbe 

arlier part of the fiftoenth century, 

Hi' here Robert Eyrick poaaeased an estate 

in the yeftr 1450. Kb son, Thomaa, re- 

to Leicoftcr, where he became a 

, inhabitant. He was chosen town 

■mberkin, and died in 1517. UU aona 

Kickuhks and John both hecatne Mayora 

of Leiceiiter. The former was the father 

of Itabert Herrick, the "English Ana* 

i/' and the ktter waa the father of 

obert and Wiltiam, the mibjects of the 

traits in question. Robert, who was 

hrice Mayor of Leicester, died in 1618, 

I 78 ; but William attiuned to greater 

rdiatinction : — 

' Early in Ufe he had amassed consider- 
kAble weidth, for he purchased the estate 
I Besomanor from tbe agents of Rohert, 
1 of Easen, in 159&, when be wiu<i only 
l(i year older than be is setii to be iu his 
portrait* In another year the new pro- 
prietor ot Beauman«>r roarritd Jtwiu May, 
d»nght«r of litchard Muv, K>(|., a citizen 
Lof London, and sister of t^ir Himiphrey 
l-lfay. Knight, once chancellor of the Duchy 
lof Lancaster. H«? now renew ed his con- 
|iicctiun with his native tov^n, and bt^ame 
enrolled on the list ol frt^ernea, giving to 
the Mayor * in kinilne:^s ' twt he silver 
spoons, with the cinquef il upon the knobs 
of them, instead of the usual fte of lOs, 
Shortly afterwards, in the year 1601, Mr. 
Herrick was elected one of the hurgessc» 
in iWliatuent, with Mr. Belgrave, ot Bel- 
grave, and remained in that position until 
litht? dfoCHSc of Qui'cn Elizabeth, in March, 
16i)3, In that year i^ir Henry i^kipwith 
and Sir Henry Beaumont, of Gracedien, 
Wire elected to represent I^icester in 
Parliame t. In the early part of the 
year H>u5, William Herrick wa» kuigbted 
by King Jamee, and he was a second time 
returned meini>er tur Leicester, in the 



place of 8ir Henry Beaumont, w*ho de- 
ceased in the month of October of the 
same year. At this time also he was ap' 
pointed to an office in the royal jewel- 
house, having for one of his coadjutors 
lleorgo Heriot, the 'jingling Gtordit* ' 
with whom Scott has rendered us delight- 
fully familiar in his ' Fortunes of >»igel,' 
who ijVB* the contemporary, and in some 
sort the rival, of Sir William Herrick j 
who himself must have seen as much of 
the eccentric and petlantic monarch oa 
Heriot did in his frequent interconrae 
with royalty. The owner of Be^nmanor 
waa now as frnjuently a resident in the 
metropolis as in tbe country, for he vvaa 
appointed a Teller of the Exchec|uer alxtnt 
the same date as that under review ; and 
in this capacity, as in that of the great 
capitalist and court banker of the age, 
whose money was lent alike to the king, 
the noble, the peeress, and the commoner, 
he cannot help but have been constantly 
employed. 

" In the year 1602, the worthy knight 
waa a third time elected member for Lei- 
cester, with Sir Richard M orison, Knight, 
Master of the Ordnance, In the letter to 
Mr. Pares, the Mayor, (still txtunt,) in 
which he returns thanks, he characteris- 
tically writes: * It is a sentence in the 
Gospt'l that there were ten lepers cleansed, 
hut there was only one that returned to 
give thanks. I wish I may he that one j 
for of all vices 1 would not be counted 
nngrat*?fuL I acknowledge your love to 
me in chtsosing me your burgefis ; and, I 
s|)eak it with truth, never any did with 
better alacrity attend tlnit service than 
myself did.* 

**On Sir William's retirement from 
Parliament, he scenis to have trf>ught the 
tranquil enjoyments of a country life in 
his mansion, surround* d by the noble oaks 
of C barn wood Forest. There he dwelt 
until the year of his decease in 1653, aged 
91, surrouudt'd by his children's children'i 
children i iis his venerable mother, Mary 
Eyrick, wi*s when, at the age of 97, sha 
died in 1611, having seen hefi^re her 
depart ur»» one hundred and forty -two of 
ht'V descendants. 

"It is here worthy of mention that 
since the decease of Sir William Herrick, 
the estate at Beanraanor has passed in 
regular succession thruugh the hands of 
five other William Herri eks, who*e united 
ages yield an average to each ot 76 years ; 
the pr«»nt proprietor (Wm, Perry Her- 
rick, Efcj.l being the seventh link in the 
genealogical chain, and enjoying the pros- 
pect of a longevity ec|Uftl to that of any of 
his forefathtrs. The late William Her* 



&i 



Antiquarian and Literary Intelligencer. 



[July, 



rick, RmIm of ThiirniHiiton, tho \t»t male 
rcpri M'litHiivn in the direct lino of Aldcr- 
niiin KolMjrt jlerrick, died, at a good old 
af((', a fi'W >earH a^i." 

Afivr H votfi of thnnkH for Mr. Thoinp- 
■ou'h paiNir, eightiH'n new nienibcrri were 



elected, and it was resolved that the gene- 
ral meeting should be held this year at 
Lutterworth, the Rev. A. Pownall, Hector 
of South Kilworth, being requested to 
act as secretary to a local committee for 
carrying out the arrangements. 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUAUIE 
JuHf* 5. Joiiif Fenwick, Esq., V.-P., 
in the chair. 

Among other donations, tho members 
were gnitititHl by u large incroanc to their 
stores in the shape of 101 volumes, which 
had been placed on thoir table by the 
family of tlie late Thomns Hell, Es({., 
each volume In^iring the inscription, — 
"This volume, with 1(K) others, from the 
''llionias Hell Library,* is presented to 
tho S<H'ii'ty of Anti(iuaries of Newcastle- 
nixin-Tyne, as a memorial of the late 
ct>llector*s interest in the Scxriety fr«)m 
its foundation to his death.'* Tho collec- 
tion is in a great mimsuro of a manuscript 
character, the labour of Mr. Hell himself, 
and comprises matter illustrative of almost 
every brandi of Nowciistle and Northern 
topography and domestic history-. The 
collections illnstrative of the Town Moor 
and the parish of St. John are peculiarly 
minnto and interesting. 

Mr. White exhibit4>d two poems by Ho- 
bort Hums, in the hand^iTiting of the 
poet. Uoih have been printed — one 
being a *< Monody on Maria H..*' and the 
other entitled "Conntry I^ASsie,** comprised 
in his songs; and they wore examined 
irith mnch interest. Mr. Wliite then read 
• paptf* in which, beside some carious 
tpMolations on his personal ap]iearanoe 
fbnnded on his hand-writing, he defended 
tb« poet ft\nn the charges of idleness and 
pnffigacy that hare been made against 
hiuDU Uo said : — 

** Bams has himnelf furnished the best 
re|4y to his detractors in the quantity of 
verw be pnbli«ht^l both in p^H^ms and 
Sh^ngs, and the namerous loiter* he «n^e 
ft\nn the cvmmoncement of hi« anthonhip 
down to tlie close of his life, and that was 
compriiwd in the brief ci^orse of onlv abi-'ut 
t<ii TMn. Dmrinjr tlut p-.-riod ho h^d 
tbo KoBDev of a &rm, trn at MiiMcioI 
•nd aftennidf ax El^uuid. to occupy hi* 
•UMtMB; vUW as :be Utt«r pLftce,' aatl 



S, NEWCASTLE-UPON.TYXE. 

also at Dumfries, he had the responsible 
duties of an excise officer to perfonn over 
several parishes. This he accomplished to 
the approval of the higher authorities, for 
his accounts were kept in such excellent 
order that old Maxwell of Terraughty, a 
rigid and determined magistrate, is known 
to have said : — * Hring me Hums*s books. 
It always does mo good to see them : they 
shew that a warm, kind-hearted man may 
be a diligent and honest officer.' It was, 
therefore, only in his leisure hours that he 
could apply himself to original compnei- 
tion, and wlion we examine what he pro- 
duced by bulk alone, apart from the pith 
and spirit he infuFCil into whatever he 
wrote, we feel justified in saying that no 
dissolute man could have accomplished such 
an amount of labour, for the pen must have 
been scarcely ever out of his hand." 

Mr. Long^ffe then read the following 
notes on some rubbings from the Saxon 
cross at Winston : — 

"Mr. H. M. Scarth, of 15, Bathwick- 
hill, ftith, having called the etlitor's at- 
tention to the head of a Saxon cross at 
Winston, and sent some rough sketches 
of it, and facilities having since been kiutily 
aflfonled by the Rector for rubbings of its 
two sides, 'they are now submitted to the 
S^wety. Tlie stone, which was lying loose 
in the churchyanl, has boon placed for 
safety in the entrance-hall of the rectory- 
house. 

" Independently of the interest of its 
ornaments, which are of a character un- 
nsnal in this part of the country, its oc- 
currence at Winston is toi¥>graphically 
important. It proves beyond all question 
the early existeni.'o of Christian worship 
at the place. Wlnj^ton as a name does 
not occur until iuuiuxliaioly af:er the Con- 
quest : but U"»th Ivf.'n* and afterwanis we 
have among tho is>«so**ion» of the »oo of 
Durham tho name of Hoa«.*liflo, which, 
whether it W idontiosl with a still oarii. r 
lltvlif or not. d^x* not. for historioal 
rx\a.sMis. soom to hare btvn Clffo. :n York- 
shire, or. for similar roaAMis. and from tlse 
c^^n:omix'»raT^- ivcurrtnuv of Acloia fc^r Ay- 
cliflV\ to have boon tho Uitor plstv. The 
maniv<bi>u90 of Winston MatK»r. and $«>:i.e 



1861.] Society of Antiquaries, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 



65 



part of the demesne UqcIbp are written 
Hetgliley, and pronounced Hikelcy ; nnd 
flth Winston, or this j^art of it, UeaclilTe 
\ probably to be identitiefl. 
" Tbe fragment U part of tbe tranflverae 
bar of an npriglit cross, witb a border of 
^ beads probably in Imitation of the jewels 
pa craciform ornaments of (;old. On one 
mde Is a drculnr centrepiece, also bended, 
Iftnd tbc appetirance of a etag^fannt — two 
js, a dog, and perhat>4 « *pear4iciul 
) tkHiig the objects visible. Tht* et%e«, wh'u'h 
|«re not shewn here, present very rctle 
Iknotwork. On tbe other side we have in 
Itlie centre a singnbir group, whieh may 
the thought to resolve itself into a figme 
f fecliidng on a harrow or gridiron ; if tbe 
I latter, St. Lawrence is probably indicated. 
iThe effigy on a seal, from a brass matrix 
[|n tbe bands of Mr. Abbott, of I>Arliugton« 
Fviarked 'SAVjrcTE lavuknc, b pruductd 
iJcir oompariion. Near him is a bunch of 
"be conventional grapes so common on 
l^ibcse croflsos, and thought to refer t^ the 
rTVtie Vino, and at each end is a nicho 
with a 6gnre, Of one only tbe bead is 
left ; the other is perfect, and seema to be 
, praying to a ftmall cross of St. Andrew, 
lirhich it curiously indaed ou tbe border 
f tbe niche. 
•It is a coincidence, possibly nothing 
that the chnrch is dedicated to 
f St. Andrew, The bsU on which it stands 
to have been Bliding away on the 
K(tontb side, as the appearance of a priest's 
I door ia above the present leveL Tbe church 
[lias recently undergone tnuch rcpniring 
[ and alteration, llic original portions hft, 
i ! . vails of the chancel and the 

[jpiterf u hk'h open into tht' s*«uth 

» and Oi;. , ... .V j1 the nave, are plain work 
of the secund half of tbe twelfth century. 
The piscina is more ornate- It is a tre- 
ilbiled niche, the cnsps knobbed, and the 
I chamfered moulding ornamented with pel- 
|]eUi or nutmeg ornamenta. Ttie wefitern 
I buy of the nave is marked off by the 
western pier being of double thickness. 
The bellVy was very plain. It had two 
bells in Edward the Sixth's time. A pic- 
tnreMoe turret haa now supplanted it. 
Ttk6 font has rude sculpture round its 
I bowl, iK>6aibly copied in conipar«tivt4y 
I late tim<» from a medley of Nonnnn and 
val originals. There are tabulous 
, foliage, and window-trocery. 
•'In the south wall of tlie diaucel is 
' built in a slab of the thirteenth cen- 
with the tooth « ornament on its 
ifered edges. The editor had only 
i to secure a roagh sketch of the lower 
i of the crooB and its attendant mart- 
land award. 



** There are tome small brasson, of which 
rubbings tire prwluced. A alab at the 
east end of the south aiale bears the marks 
of A civiUan*i» effigy^ with an iuscription to 
Richard Mason, 1532, on a brass label. 
In the ebaficel is an earlier label of braav 
engraved by an ignorant or careless work- 
man, to John I'urllea, chaplain, 1498. 
These in«cription§ are very loosely printed 
in the county histories. The chaplain pro- 
bably nfEciftted at the little cbap4.4 situate 
near Ueighley Hall, of which the last ro- 
malns bad been removed before Snrteess' 
ptiblication. He reports that the follow- 
ing brass, which now lies near tbe pulpit 
in tbe nave, had been lately discovered in 
an old lumber-chpflt in Winston Church, 
There are peculiarities in its engraving 
not notioeii by the historian. The legend 
is in small capitals : — * Here lieth the b<:>dy 
of M— r«f— ary Dowtbwhet, tlaughler of 
George Scroope, Esquire, and wife of 3lr, 
John Dowtbwhet of Westholme, who in 
childbed died tbe xxviii dav of Noveniber, 
1606.* The titles of Mr.' and Mrs, had 
been interlined, and the M of Maiy m«de 
to do double doty, 

"The inscription laid down by the lust 
of the Dowthwaites, which Surteea saw on 
a coarse stone in the flwr of the navtv and 
which in fact now lies between the nave 
and south aisle in a broken state, is only 
re[>i'ated in order to note the injuricH it 
has suffered in removing the ceiling of tbe 
nave for tbe substitution of an open roof 
of stained deal, Tli© monument is in- 
teresting from the impression it seems to 
bave made, beyond anything else in the 
chureb, on llie gentle mind of our t^ipo- 
gnipber. Tbe pith of it is now nii^ing, 
or bidden from view, and is supplied in 
brackets : — [* Hero was bnrjed th*^] Body 
of John Dowthwaite» of Westljolrae, (Jen- 
tleman, wlio dyed September [Ifi, 1680, 
aged 80 ye:irs. Here lyeth the body of 
John Dowthwnite, btflgmndson, who dyed 
June 11, 1707, aged 23 yeara, 5 months, 
and 16 days, Bon of Barnard Dowthwaite, 
of Weatholme, Oentlt-man, now] livting, 
the lust Heir Msde of ye Familye, owneis 
of Westholme atove 200 years,* 

*• Of Ktirniird himself, who was buried 
Jan. 5, 1714, ultitmut mwntm, no monu- 
mental memorial (says Surte<») is left. 
There is Bumetbing plainly and coarsely 
touching in tbe epitaph eriumerutiug tho 
yctirsi, weeks, and dayi of his only cbikrs 
existence ; soniething speaking even in 
bumble life of extinguiahed hope, and of 
a damp, mildewed feeling of the total ex- 
tinction of the race of respetitable yeo- 
manry who had 'been owners of West* 
holme above 200 years.' " 



66 



Tafy, 



Coirr^ponlirurr oC SiilUamii^ SSrbatu 



[^CofrejtpoftdenU are rtquiiied to append thifir Addre*ktf4^ not, vnlf^Jt aijreeahU, J^ 
pubUc*ition, but in order ihai a coptf of the GEttThSUAV's yiAQkZJUX oont^imit^ 
their CommumetUiotu ma^ he/orirarded lo them J} 

CABALISTIC LORB. 

Ma, Ubbak, — I beg to send you a drawing of an encaustic tile froui 
Glouceeter Cathedral. It ie to be seen at the foot of the pubeellia, on the 
eouth side of where the hijrh altnr stood* 



iS>pe 



** The cross of Clii 



I Cmt [Christ] me spede [speod] amc [wncii]." = 



The cross is once written and twice represented on this tile. The ar- 
rangement IS singular, the letters on the first line being sunk, on the second 
raised, on the third ssutik, on the foiirlh and fifth raised. I conceive tlial 
the cross pat^c does dui)* here as an abbreviation over **ame," as a crown 
did frequontly during the latter half of the fifleenth century, I think Iho 
date uf the I lie may b« of the fourteenth century. The light are the raised 



1861.] 



A Relic of the Great Rebellion. 



67 



portions, the dark the reTerse. May not this legend be considered cabal- 
istic or talismanic, as a charm against the evil eye or the like ? 

In connexion with this subject I may mention, that in the Cathedral 
library is a small book of fiernions that belonged lo the old abbey of 
St. Peter*8. At the end, on a fly-leaf, verso side, is read, in a later hand 
than the body of the book, a charra for naan and beast : — 

** Write this verse bothe for 
man and beaste write 
for a maue uppon ch&m 
for A beaste aj»peD. 

•!« LeK» 4* f^Jrtis t|t deninet ■{• q'otiioet i^ 
write tbi^ verse botlie for 
iwine and dogge w^rit^* 
for swine upon appelk & 
for doggt app6 cbese and 
for a borse uppon n erugte 
of breode and so tlint tbe 
croMM doe standi right one 
under an other as they duo 
here, 

i|i Tna i{i nsire 4* frarc •§• nare ift 
•I* Qua 4< rare •{■ prare •{* ^^^ 4*''* 
3% 20, 1861. J. D.T.N. 



A KELIC OF THE GREAT REBELLION. 
M&. Urban, — The following verses were written either in Ihe latter 
art of the great civil war or during the Commonwealth rule, Tbe former 
^^mipposition 18 the more probubte, as there is no allusion to the death of the 
King; a matter which would scarcely hai'e been parsed over in silence 
had the poem been written after thai event. It exists^ as far as I have 
been able to discover, in but one copy, which is in the British Museum^ 
(Lutlerell Ballads, vol. ii, p. 45). No place, date, oi: printer's name is 
given J it wag probably privately printed and distributed ; at the lime of its 
issue such a document would, if discovered, have brought all persons con- 
cerned into serious trouble. It is worth a column in the Gentlemai^'s 
[aoazike m a memorial of the civil war^ and of the feelings of the 
Episcopalians during a period of severe trial and suffering. 

I am, kc. An Antiquary* 

To a tortuous and Judicious Lady^ who (Jbr (he exercise of her Devotion) built 
a Clf^aa, therein to aecurc the mo§t Sacred Boohe of COMMON Pit A YE R from 
ihe ^iew and moiefice of (he Enemies (hereof (he Sec(artes arid Schismattt^ues of 
this Kingdome, Written by a most Orthodox, Moderate, and Judiciout Divine^ 
a banished Minister of this miserable Kinffdome. 

SniCE it hath pleased our wise and new born state 
The Common- Prayer- Book t* cicoinnmnicale ; 



68 Correspondence of Sylvanus Urban. [J«ly» 

To tame it out of all, as if it were 

Some grand Mab'gnant or aome Cavalier : 

Since in our Churches 'tis by them forbid 

To say such prayers as our Fathers did : 

So that God's House must now be call'd no more 

The House 0/ Prayer, so ever call'd before : 

As if those Christians were resolv'd to use 

That House as bad as ever did the Jews ; 

Since that of Christ, may now of Prayer be said. 

It toanU a place whereon to lay its head, 

I cannot choose but think it was your care. 

To build your Closet for distressed Prayer ; 

"Which here in mourning clad presents itselfe 

Begging some little comer on your shelfe ; 

For sure 'tis banish'd from all publique view. 

There be none dare it entertain but you. 

How times and men are chang'd 1 who would have thought 

T' have seen the Service Book thus set at naught ? 

A book worth Gold, if rightly understood ; 

Compos'd by Martyrs, sealed with their blood : 

Once bum'd by Papists, merely for this cause. 

It was repugnant to their Popish Lawes. 

Now by our Zelots 'tis condemn'd to die. 

Because (forsooth) 'tis full of Popery. 

And thus we see the Golden meane defy'd, 

And how ('twixt two extreames) 'tis omcify'd. 

But 'tis no matter; we see stranger things : 
£ings must be Subjects now, and Subjects Kings. 
The meaner sort of men have all the power. 
The upper end is now beneath the lower ; 
The head below the feet ; they'll wear the Crown : 
Who would not think the world's tum'd upside down. 
Learning must now give place to Ignorance, 
So must a Statute to an Ordinance ; 
Keligion to Prophanenesse and Vainglory ; 
The Common Prayer-Book to the Directory. 
All things are out of order and, I feare. 
Are like to be till we are as we were : 
Till Bishops do retum to end the stir 
'Twixt th' Independent and the Presbyter. 
Till Kings be Kings, and till we (wished) see 
The Church enjoy her ancient Liturgie. 
^ Till Loyalty be had in more regard. 
And till Rebellion hath its just reward. 

And that these things may be we'll not despaire. 

All this and more may be obtain'd by prayer. 



1861.] 



69 



"CURATOR AGRORUM." 



Mr. Ubbak, — I made tome time since 
a note on a panage in Mr. Wright's 
book entitled " The Celt, the Roman, and 
the Saxon," and sent it to a literary 
fi-iend, who advised me to submit it to 
the correspondents of your Magazine. 
The following is the pasMge^ and sub- 
joined is the note : — 

'*A monumaiit found at Wrozeter 
(Urieoiunm) mentions an office the exact 
character of which seems to be doubtful* 
thouf^h the curator agrorum, or agra» 
rius, may have been overseer, or baili^ of 
the town-landa. The monument consists 
of a tablet in three columns, or compart- 
ments: that in the middle contains an 
Inscription to the officer ; the one on the 
kil has an inscription to the wife; the 
other is blank, and it has either been left 
80 for a son, or has become erased. The 
central inscription is : — 

D. M. To the Qodfl of the shades, 

DXTCCT Deucctts 

t. T. AM. XT. liTcd flileen (?) yesrs. 

CTR. Ao. He was overseer of the lands 

aA TKB. of Trebonius. (?) 

" The nimiber of years is not perhaps 
correctly read from the stone, which seems 
to be in a bad condition. The other in- 
scription is : — 

n. M. To the Gods of the shades, 

YLAciDA Placida 

' AN. LT. lived fifty-five years, 

cva. AO. Of the o? erseer of the lands 

cox. lA. she was the wife 
XXX. thirty years." 

I doubt much if the above inscriptions 
are correctly rendered. I have not so 
much experience in matters of this kind 
as Mr. Wright has, but it seems to me 
very probable that the abbreviations otb. 
▲o. have been misunderstood. We do not 
know of any such office as that of" curator 
agrorum," neither do we know of the prac- 
tice in Roman colonies of appointing lada 
of fifteen years of age to any office what- 
ever. We ought then to hesitate before 
we adopt an interpretation based upon 
the existence of an imaginary function, 
especially if we can find in British monu- 
ments of the same era as those under con- 
dderatioD the key to the fhll solution of 
our apparent difficulty. The following 

QsvT. Mao. Vol. CCXI. 



inscriptions, figured in Mr. Wright's own 
book, will, I think, answer the required 
purpose: — 

"dm rvL. ivuAMvs " To the Gods of the 
shadei*, Julias Jali- 
anus, 
MIL LEO n Avo sTxr A soldier of the second 
legion, the Augus- 
tan, served 
XVIII AHMOR XL cighteeu years, aged 

forty, 
Hic smrs X8T is laid here, 

cvKA AQKNTS bj the car» 

AXAMOA ^ Amanda 

coMivoE.»» his wife."-(p. 820.) 

If we compare this inscription with the 
two given above, we shall find a perfect 
agreement in the collocation of the three : 
the position, for example, of CYB. ao. in 
the former corresponding to that of OVBA 
AOBNTB in the latter. There can scarcely, 
then, be any doubt but that OTB Aa is 
an abbreviation of OTBA Aai3rTB, and not 
of curator agrorum, or agrariut* In the 
central inscription the last word BA tbb 
is probably either a mistranscription or an 
original misinscription for fatbb, for the 
Greek P and the Roman P being alike, were 
in transliteration frequently ponfounded. 
The vacant space between ba and tbb 
would not, even if so occurriimr on the 
tablet itself, be any valid objection, unoe 
in many of our old and even modem ex- 
amples of letter-cutting similar faults are 
met with. 

The abbreviations ctb. ao. ba tbb in 
the first inscription would thus = eura 
agentepatre, and OTB. AO. OOir. ia. in the 
second = ciira agemte eoujuge — junciu, 
where juncta refers to Placida. I beg to 
obeerve here, for the sake of the uninitiated, 
that conjux in inscriptions of this kind 
means, according to the context, either 
huthand or wife. This tablet then was, 
in my humble opinion, set up to com- 
memorate, by the inscription in the central 
compartment, — a very suitable place, — the 
death of a son aged fifteen years, and by 
that on the left side that of a wife, aged 
fifty -five years, and " married thirty." The 
father's name is omitted in both inscrip- 
tions because the vacant space on the 

K 



70 



Correspondence of Sylvanus Urban. 



[July, 



right was to have that name. This read- 
ing, if correct, will abolish the office of 
curator a^orum, and eject from Uriconium 
not only Trebonius himielf, bat even hit 
UndB, and teach nt that the true inter- 
pretation is the following : — 

No. 1. 

To the Ooda of the shades, 

Deaocus, 

lired fifteen years. 



Sy the oare 
of his father. 



No. 2. 
To the Gods of the shades, 
Placida, 
(lired) flfty-flTe years. 

by the care 

of her husband. Bfairied 
thirty years. 
It will be observed that the fbrnralu 
JUc §itus ett is omitted in the two inscrip- 
tions; but this is by no means nnosoaL 
Its place would be that indicated by the 
dotted lines. — I am, &c., 

J. CfBwixn Cbowx, 
(i^een*9 CoUege, Oalmmf, 



DEAN GOODWIN, OP CHRIST CHURCH, OXFORD. 



Mb. Urbav. — Can you inform me where 
an account of the family of William Good- 
win, Dean of Christ Church, Oxford, 
1611, can be seen, as I wish to ascertain 
if l*rinco, in his "Worthies of Devon," 
1701, is not in error, as he there states, in 
his "Life of Bishop Prideaux," that he 
married for his first wife, Mary, the 
daughter of that celebrated martyr in 
Queen Mary's days. Dr. Rowland Taylor, 
and afler her death, secondly, Mary, the 
daughter of Sir Thoma% Reynell, of West 
Ogwoll From a tablet or brass still pre- 
scrviHi in St. Michael's Church, Oxford, it 
appears thift Bishop Pridcaux's wife (first?) 
was the daughter of William Goodwin, and 
her arms are on the brass of his tomb. I 



wish, therefore, to ascertain these qnea- 
tions: — 

1st, If he married three times; if not» 
was hii first wife, Anna Goodwin's mo- 
ther, the celebrated Dr. Rowland Taylor's 
daughter? 

2ndly, If he had any duldren by his 
second wife ? 

Srdly, Are any descendants (male or 
female) of him now living ? if not» when 
did they become extinct P 

Any information or references to Dr. 
Rowland Taylor's family, or the Goodwin 
fiunily, to clear these pmnts up, will oblige 
Tours truly, 

Gbobob Pbidxaux. 

PlymouO, June \ 1861. 



CHARGES AT THE 
Mr. Urban,— Mr. Hewitt, at p. 681 of 
your last Number, speaks of the " present 
proliibitory charges*' made by the College 
of Arms. It is only an act of common 
justice to OMturc him that be is under a 
miaapprohension. I speak from my own ex- 
perience of the courtesy of Mr. Courthope 
when inspecting the "treasures" there, 
and my knowledge that Sir Charles Young 



COLLEGE OF ARMa 
and the other heralds have nerer levied a 
fee on a literary person who has frankly 
and succinctly explained his purpose, and 
shewn that he was in search of purely 
antiquarian information. I confidently 
invite your correspondent to make the 
proof himselC I am, ic^ 

MaolSNUb £. G. Waloott, M.A. 



HERALDIC QUERY. 



Mb, Ubbax.— To what family do the 
following anns belong ? — 

**Two lions paftcant counter-passant, 
within eiffht cresc«:nt« in orle ; the upper 
lion to the dc xter. l>e»t : a pelican in 
her nest, vulning, and feeding her young. 
Motto : OvsrtI tmlmert tiHmt" 



They occur on a red oom^an seal, (in 
the possession of a watdunaker,) which 
would be valuable to any member of the 
family to whom the armorial bearings 
rightly belong. 

C.J. 



ISeL] 71 



C]^£ mu^^ocik ot ^elbaitttij Withnn. 



[^Ufider this iitle are coUeeted brief notes of matters of current antiquarian interest 
which do not appear to demand more formal treatment, Stlyanus Ubban invites 
the kind co-operation of his Friends, who may thus preserve a record of many things 
that would otherwise pass away J] 



9t. Martin's, Leicester. — ^Tlie tower of this church has now been taken down 
as far as the bottom of the clock face. That portion which is of Norman architec- 
ture is found to be in a very dangerous state, the mortar being quite decayed, and 
most of the stones readily dislodged by the hand. Fragments of coffins, corbels, 
and other pieces of carved stone have been frequently met with, built in the wall. 
While taking -down the south-western angle of the tower, the workmen discovered 
an almost perfect monument, consisting of an oblong block of stone, on which is 
carved the representation of some person — who, by his tonsure, is evidently an 
ecclesiastic — lying in a coffin. The head of the figure lies under a Gothic canopy, 
and the body is represented as being covered by a coffin-lid, on which is carved 
a cross, surrounded by an inscription in Lombardic characters. One hand pro- 
trudes from under the lid, and holds a book or tablet on which are some illegible 
letters, but the feet, which should be seen at the bottom of the monument, have 
been broken oflf. The carving is very much worn, and had probably been exposed 
to the action of the weather before being built into the tower, but the inscription 
is le»s damaged, and will probably be ere loug wholly or in part deciphered. The 
date of the monument seems to be the earlier part of the thirteenth century. 

Gheetset Abbey. — The site of the abbey, of which no remains exist above 
ground, was sold by auction recently, and purchased by Mr. T. R. Bartrop, one of 
the Honorary Secretaries of the Surrey Archaeological Society. It is stated to be 
his intention, during the present year, to have the grouud thoroughly excavated. 
In 1855 it was partly examined, and a splendid set of encaustic tiles discovered, 
which are now in the South Kensington Museum. 

The Sculptured Stone at Miovie. — One of those interesting monuments of 
pre-historic Scotland, which have of late engaged the attention of antiquaries, has 
just been discovered in the old churchyard of Migvie. It had lain half-buried in 
the ruins of a burial-aisle, unobserved, till Mr. Smith, schoolmaster, detected the 
carvings on its partly exposed surface ; he had it excavated and exposed to public 
view, and it now stands set up in the churchyard. It is a rough block of ap- 
parently unhewn granite, standing some six feet above the ground, and sculptured 
on both sides. On one side is the conventionally ornamented cross, peculiar to 
that class of sculptures, supported on each side by a pair of the symbolical figures 
of, as yet, unknown meaning ; below these, and underneath the arms of the cross, 
is the almost effaced representation of a horse, and an implement like a p:iir of 
spring-headed shears. The other side of the stone, which is very rough and 
nneven, bears the figure of a single mounted horseman. We believe the stone 
has been drawn for the Spalding Club, and will form a plate in their new volume 
of sculptured stones preparing for publication. — Aberdeen Free Press, 



72 



[July, 



HISTORICAL AND MISCELLANEOUS REVIEWS. 



The Enfflhh Cathedral of the mne- 
teenih Centmry, By A. J. B. Bbbxstobd 
Hope, M.A., D.C.L. With lllastrations. 
8vo., 282 pp. (London: Moiray.)— Thii 
▼olume 18 a development of the lecture 
which Mr. Hope delivered to the Archi- 
tectural Congress at Cambridge hut year, 
and which we considered at the time more 
■enstble and practical than we should have 
expected, nor do we see any reason to 
think differently of it in this more de- 
veloped form. The name of Mr. Beres- 
ford Hope is associated in the mind of the 
public in general with the wild fandcs 
and vagaries of the Cambridge Camden 
Society in its eiirly days; but this is 
really an ui\just prejudice at the present 
time, and one to be regretted, as it is 
a material drawback to the utility of 
a r»ally able man. Tvienty years have 
elapsed tinoe those daiys, during which 
he has had ample time, by coming in 
contact with the world of actual life, to 
mould his opinions into a more practical 
form, without losing his active zeal and 
benevolence. His language, however, still 
savours too much of his early views, which 
we are sorry for, as a great impecRment 
to his power of doing good. 

The plans, ideas, and suggestions thrown 
out in this work are, on the whole, sensible, 
practical, and uscfiil, agreeing, to a great 
extent, with those of the Cathedral Com- 
missioners, and where different, the reasons 
fbr differing are sound. The work is quite as 
much to be recommended on S(x>ial, moral, 
and religions grounds, as on architectural ; 
indeed, we should say more so ; we should 
be inclined to differ on some minor points 
of taste snd history, but when we can 
eordially approve and agree in the main 
points it is better not to pick holes in 
details. The volume is profusely illus- 
trated by woodcuts b<.^rrowed ftom the 
" Ecch*fiologist** and from .Mr. Fergusson*s 
** Handbook," which grently assist in mak- 
ing the author's architectural views more 
clew and intelUgible. He unfortonatelj 



adheres to his prejudices agtunst the Early 
English and the Perpendicular styles of 
Gothic architecture, and is almost as 
bigoted as Mr. Ruskin in fiivour of every- 
thing foreign, in preference to those fea- 
tures which are peculiarly English. This 
we consider a matter gpi'eatly to be re- 
gretted, and a mistake in every way, as 
a matter of history, of taste, and of prac- 
tice. It is creditable to Mr. Hope's 
honesty that while he still avows his 
dislike to the genuine Early English style, 
— the earliest development of a pure 
Gothic style in Rurope, and which appears 
to us the natural starting-point for any 
improvement or development to meet the 
wants of the age, in preference to the 
later style recommended by Mr. Ho{>e 
under the absurd and unmeaning name 
of" Middle Point* d,"— he still cannot help 
acknowledging the merits of Mr. Rjiphael 
Brandon's Irvingite Church in Gordon- 
square. These matters of architectiind 
taste are, however, quite secondary, nnd 
though they are blemishes likely to im- 
pede the general adoption of his views, 
they really may fairly be passed over as 
immateriaL I1ie wants of our teeming 
population are paramount to eveiything 
else ; and the manner in which a revival 
of the old cathedral system may be made 
to mt^t those wants are the really im- 
ptirtant pnrts of tliis work. 

It is evident from many passages that 
Mr. Hope really wishes to be^ and intends 
to be, English and popular in his views, and 
is not at all aware how moeh his vision 
has been coloured and his views distort«d 
by his early training. The natural frank- 
ness, honesty, and candour of his own mind 
will gradually dispel those mists, as they 
have already done to a g^reat extent, and 
there is so much that is good and true iu 
his present work, that ire can cordially 
recommend its careful perusal. Tliese 
few preliminary remarks are not written 
in any unfriendly spirit, and we will now 
enable our readert to judge for them. 



The EnglUh Cathedral of ihe Nineteenth Century. 



?3 



irlvǤ by A few extnicte, ifgretting only 
At our spAce does not permit ub to make 
thwm more namerous : — 

••Nod<7n*^* 'T' "Htrli of what I bare to 
gjiT» I mil ' the mere fltiid^iit 

of trai^crj > i tigi tf> be tntvdiing 

ont of the t>'*'fml : while at other times 
1 timy be set down as dwfllitii! t*JO strotmly 
kpn techrijfjil and miit^rial consideratinns 

I by the professed 'fociolojjist.' But I do 
ot nrldma tbeie pogt^ exclusively to the 

chltect oit to the *odologiRt, but to all 

who fSeel mtercfrted in making up 

niiDdB, dther for artistic or social 

^ wbethtiT more cathedrals arc rentiy 

^irant«d for the religiona adranta^* of the 

||tieop1«i. urid if so, how theie cathedmla 

OAd best be provided. 

- It rou«t not. however, be supposed, 
r IjetrHuse the point of view from which 

II f«kc my sreneml survey stunds mtht^r 
'^thin the limitd of the architectural 

rgroundf thiit I connidtT this the more im- 
[|Hirr«nt aspect of the matter« aa if the 
I Di^y existed for the raiment and not the 
'tkinneut for the body/* — (p, 3.) 

'* Westminster Abbey is a qoast'Cathe* 
dml of tbi< thirteenth, and St. Paul's an 
Actual one of the seventeenth century, 
^Wbile th»' idoft which I prop^^s** to ilevt-lope 
fli that of the English CVitbedrul of the 
lliiiicteettth Century. In adopting this 
t^tlc, I desire that every word in It should 
taken in an nbsalnle iind exclusivQ 
The building and the institution 
! to be a Cittheitral as disitinct from »nd 
iiOppoaed to a parish church and its or- 

Eniaatiufi ; they are to be English — 
ijiih, that is l>oth nationally and ec- 
" aiastically — as distinct from and op- 
ItoosM to foreign; and, last but not lcai»t, 
\wfy are tt> he of the nineteenth century, 
m distinct from and opposed to one of 
any carber age." — (p. 5.) 

** 'Hie remedy, I need hardly say, I see 

in the exteiiBion of that co-operative 

i»" ""^ "^hich is best and most briefly 

I IS the ciithedra! system. In 

:v : tt<* iidoption in England, such 

as Kngk«iid i« in the present century, I 

mm not projNjsing a leap in the dark, or 

^fM^gf-st'tng the trial of an experiment 

ilieu to thf nntional cliarattrr and the 

nt condition of the English Church, 

|J9 true thnt no new rothednil has been 

in BngUnd or Wales for the use 

fof our communion within this century* 

"But in that great England l>eyond the 

the Hritish Colonies, where the 

iChnrcb has had to constitute it.nelf in 

Very jmrticnlar, withrmt the muUiHal 

limotiigc ol being 'eftaldisbi-d/ the ca- 



thedral system has been, within the last 
quarter of a century, evolved out of no- 
thing OS the foundation of the great cre- 
ative work. The leader, 1 should add, in 
the movement, lK>th tn date and onward* 
neiB, was, as I shall have occasion to shew, 
that energetic prelate, Bishop Dantel Wil- 
son of CaUnitta.'*— <pp, 19, 20.) 

"The interual root of the cathedral ii 
a topic which will rfH]uire a more oarefnl 
cnnnidt-'ration. I do not for one instant 
ht'sitrtte to swy thut the principal roofs 
must all be groined or coved in stone or 
brick or wood. Stone is of course gene- 
rally the best* though Mr. Le Stntnge 
haB taught us to what good u»e wood 
may be put in the magnificent legend 
which he is inscribing npon the now 
Cijvvd roof of Ely nave in lieu of that 
quaint suecessino of rafters with which 
it was formi'rly spanned, Tlie open- 
timbered roofs of England undoubtedly 
posse-8 a pictutxisqueuess of their qwo.** — 
(p. 221) 

** Indeed, etmnge to say, a perfectly flat 
ceiling, if properly docoriited, like tbi» one 
which has long exis^ted at Peterborough, 
aud that which Mr liurges and Air. Pointer 
have cleverly re-ammged at WiUtham, 
wears more of the cnthedml a^tct than 
the most flaboriitc open roof which Nor- 
folk or SomeraeLshire could produce." — 
(p. 225.) 

** As to the roof, it would be intolerablo 
to think of framing the roof of a Dew 
cathedral with any other pilch except a 
high one. But if taste and cotiveiiienco 
alike in onr climate order the high pitch, 
natural prudence equally enjoins that the 
mfety of the chtirch shall not be put out 
to pawn with the carelessness of the arti- 
Eiuis by the use of wooden framing when 
iron can be adnptx^d. The roof of Llinrtrea 
Cathedral was burnt off ah lut a qunrter 
of a Ct?ntui7 since, and the clmrch ituelf 
had a narrow escape. In consequence, the 
architect who anperSntonded the repairs 
had the good Ronse to make his new roof 
of iron, M, Zwirner is doing the same at 
Cologne; and I have, 1 own, very httla 
sympathy nith the antiquarian ism which 
would venture to risk the stability of soch 
buildings for the sake of seeing a revival 
of those vast complications of timber* work 
wbirh were undoubtedly very clever, but 
which Wire never intended to be seen, and 
for which we are able to substituto a nm- 
terial which is lighter, more doxible, more 
powerful, cheaper, and tijore indestruc- 
tible." -^p. 2i« ) 

** llie Commission was perhaps wise in 
avoiiUng any proposition to incur the 
double expense of pbnting the prelate 



7i 



Mitcellaneous Reviews. 



[JuTy. 



and rcurinjf the chnrch. But, happily 
f zompt «« I am from official obligations, 
I dare to orge the claums of Liverpool, 
Bradford, and Birmingham, ai not inferior 
to those of Sonthwell and St. Alhans. The 
responsibility of sati^ying those claims is 
not for me to falfll. If I point oat the 
want, and, at the same time, cootribnte 
some idess towards making it good, I 
venture to hope that I sliall not have 
•ubscribed a contemptible contribution to- 
wards the woriL ; for in England, so wealthy, 
to energetic, and so munificent as it is, the 
knowledge of a want, and the knowledge 
of how that want may be re i^oved, is a 
•ore incitement for aeal and liberality to 
eoinc forwani with the material remedy." 
— (p^ 269. 270.) 

**lf we cannot, from political or other 
difficulties, build cathedirals where they 
aiv most wanted, nam^y, in oar large 
towns, we can at least build ooUegiate 
churrhea, and to their constitution as well 
as their construction most of what I have 
been saying will be strictly applicable, 
while indue time these may become, what 
they ought to have been from the first, 
CMtWnOa. Of coarse, when I talk of 
a collegiate church, I do not imply the 
neciMsity, though I should prefer the fsre- 
senop, of a charter or of an Act of Par- 
fiasMSt. St. Peter's, Leeds, for example^ 
i«f for an prstftical paT|WH«, a eoUegiate 
chuTV^ although its staff are denonunaud 
Tioar and euratet.'*— <p. 272.) 



pre are indebted to an estevsned Cor- 
Rispandent at Copenha^^vsi for the ibUow- 
ing notice of a valuable woric that wiU 
probably be new to moit of o«r readeni.] 

S Ui 9'if kM Prorimdiiat - efterrgimimfier, 
Udgivne m£ Fb, KjcrnssXic. Medlem af den 
Kgl ApprilatS/«Rnrt for Hertngd^mmK 
SemjT. (Flcnsbct^, 1S5S-1SI61. »ro.) 

Iii;hei by F. Kxnt&X3R, MemKr <i the 
Kpyal Oi«it <f Aitpeal for ti»e Dndhy of 
5;Wwrtg. (^o. Pasts L— %!,) 

Wx bare km^ ben ^^ar^Mts t<o bnng 
t^us work bnf^vei^ nrtwe cif ^mr lyiadflrs. 
boi prafttveA wsBlang iio w« wb<ftber H 
wciud d'tc an {uktIt dflat.b or wocld bncvnae 
aa «fiteblbtbAd arras ffv- the IHnish dudiy 
<if Smrt^ Jutboid. Af h ba» u.-vv reat^Mtd 
1«^ s vSlnmr and s-hiiK. and i» daihr lie- 
fvmvin^ 'Kf<3«r k3ir>«nx. the tsaae has -come 
f<nr a «hart nntacv at n» ■ftctBient^ They 
mte ttt ttcmnt vmaeA ; and wiulr anDe are 



of little interest to forragners, others are 
highly important. 

The papers comprised are as foUow : — 

I. (pp. 1—40), A notice, short but bril- 
liant, by Dr.Grimur Thomsen, the Ice- 
landic scholar, of Professor Allen's masterly 
two-volume work on the History of the 
Danish Language in this duchy. With 
two coloured langnage-maps. 

IL (pp. 41—58, and voL ii. pp. 47— 64% 
An historical and statistical account of 
the great lunatic asylum in the town of 
Slesvig, from 1854 to 1859, oommimicated 
by the Danish Ministry. 

IIL (pp. 59 — 84), An examination, by 
the Rev. J. Koch, of the plains of Middle 
Slesrig, and of the manners and custotis 
of their inhabitants. His oondusion is, — 
"In everything essential, in everythhig 
characteristic of the nationality of a peo- 
ple, these Middle-Slesvigers entirdy re- 
semble th«r brethren across the Eon- 
geaa and the Belt, — in (act, have nothing 
which can be called a q)edal Slesvig pe- 
culiarity." 

IV. (pp. 85—96; 1G9-188). The ad- 
ventures of a Flensborg crew in the Adri- 
atic and Sakmo in the year 1817. 

V. fpp. 97—121), A remarkable sta- 
tistical sketch, by Lanrids Skan, (Lord 
lieutenant.) of the nnjntf cxMnpulKny 
Common F^ Insoranee Company for 
Sooth Jutland and Hoktrin, hvm which 
the former duchy has never yet been al- 
lowed to break loose. In fixir-two years 
South Jutland has paid to HoVre^n 
l,5diX«S4 doDars, and caihr nKnved 
7,114 doQaia. 

VI. (pp. 122—140), DicwaBMDts «m- 
nedcd wiih the bMBzaam in the ruver- 
iBtT of Eici iHmanin^ ADen^s wuri^ 

VIL (ifi. 141-108). Xotaoe of Hurxib 
Gji^iaiiiiiiii IB t^sxtMBOAi. fliev«nteanh, 
synd «ixg%it«Bit^ eeBtoriea, liHr t^ Con- 
rdrtn*. C~ Msoncvs. Cwrtsgjis ibseiit vary 
cioricvas dctaik. e>fiecsa% as %6 tiie rarhr 
timefw 

VIIL (tjv. 1<»— ISrV. On tiie F^a* al 
S^!nde^ Bramit Mnsii. by Laenvir Eiureil- 
bsrdi. OanMrra^^nr cfthe Jlcnrkl JUnstrum 
of XcvtihcrB A»ti^iiaf» xd nfudvir^. 
Whik a foldii^piULtie of illufttrulanniv. 

Wlafl PBDnaaEB^ il<irniilaiu.unii jck* to 



esviff Provincial Tntelliffence. 



75 



iuly. Sotitli Brvop »nd the near -Ifi tig 
I Are to Scnndtnftviii. Tho ituiiquity 
attmbcr, nn<i valtie and lieauty of the 

rirticlcs Ibund there jn notuetbing most 
extr«urdutmy, Tliey are corpfully dug for 
St tbtt expeuae of the province, and de* 
poiital In the musenm of its capital city— 
Hencborg. Oii^^ng- to the f«7rtunate cir- 

(^eumstiince that coins have been found side 
by Bid© with the other reiiiainB, it has 
htain pi)e«ible to fix a proximate date for 
lUia wholti class of objects, namely, tbo 

[loeotid or third oenturj after Christ. la 
most instances their style is Roman, direct 
or indirect. They consist chictly of «wordi*, 

I iword-sbetithB, axes, knees, shieldM, bow^s, 

ftrrtms, bnckles, &e., of bronze and wood. 
8till something baa been detected of iron ; 
-^ bhide-fragnient» two ring-brinies, ring- 
mail similar in form to that of the thir- 
teenth century, five axea, fragments of 
bor^'-hamesB, and Bome smaller thjnga. 
Silver also oocon^ specially for ornament* 
atioD of twords and buckles. Leathern 
bolts have been found, and also round or 
wooden bucUers, set and strcngth- 

I'^ed with bronze and silver. One of the 
many central bronze Bbield-bosties bears 
inscribed upon it the letters ** ael aeu- 
airuB,*' and has thus been made in Italy, 
or at least has been in the possessioii of 
•ome Roman soldier of that name* An- 
other, smaller, bears Old Northern Hnnefi, 
Qsmilly called Anglo-Saxon, but which are 

^ccrmmon to the whole North— England 
nd Scandinavia,— and are very much 

' older than the spedfic Scamdinavian Ru-> 
nic alphnbet, which has also fewer letters. 
n»«« iuscription is on the side fastened to 
the wood* It has not before been read, 
ui we have deciphered it, and we shall 
of it at largo on another occasion. 
It is in the oldest Old- English or Old- 
Teat- Danish, (which two dialects about 
1,600 y«an ago were almost identical,) 
and sioplj atmcmnoes the name of ita 

There U also a rofund copper brcost- 
pUt«5, overliyd with a plate of silver oroa* 
men ted with nine small female beads, 
type of the Medusa, and other decorationa. 
I^Mciid-picc^ were also found; onci a 
ncnt of a helm, of Roman workman- 



ship ; another, a kind of rich silver coro» 
net, is brtrbarian. Bitrnt urnH, elegant 
wood I n cnpH and spoone^ a couple of 
breeks, (breeches,) fibula^ neckhices, and 
rings of gold J mostly stretched and cutf^r 
ring-money, Roman coins from Trajan to 
Coinmodiis, and other things, are wvll 
worthy of a visit to Flciiftlwrg. Mr. E«- 
gelhardt will be happy to explain them. 
We ourselves have twice examined them 
in his company. He speaks English, na 
do several of his friends. Since this de- 
scription was printed, other and most 
valuable discoveries have been made, and 
they will go on increasing every year. 
The peculiar antiseptic and tanning pro- 
perties of the moss- water have preserved 
these remains to a wonderful degree. 

IX. (pp. 18a— 215), On the attempU 
of Germany to grasp and annex the 
Duchy of Limburg, by Dr. O. Thomseu^ 

X. (pp. 216—230), The Crituinal Sta- 
tistic* of the Ihichy in 1857, by Kit^rulf. 

XI. (pp. 231-258, 3G5-382,and vol. 
n. pp. 120 — 144), On tbe Influence of 
foreign Laws on the Jurisprudence of 
South Jutland down to the middle of the 
ihiriecntb century, by the Chancery 
Councillor C, Juel. This ts highly inter- 
esting. The learned author shews that 
South Jutland bos borrowed nothing 
either from the German, or the noman* 
or the Canon Lawj but is independ- 
ently Scandinavian-- while it has several 
most striking coinddenoes and agree- 
ments in detull with the old legal tra* 
dittuns and iutstitutes of Enghind, Some 
of tlieiie points are worked out with a 
master hand. 

XII. (pp. 259— 2S4'), Docoraenfci con- 
nected with the dialects and antiquities 
of the duchy. 

Xin. (pp.2S5— 291),On "The Slesvig 
Groblet" and the medal struck to com- 
memorate the Peace of Frederickshorgp 
July S, 1720. With three Pistes, 

XIV, (pp. 292—326), The Ufe and ex- 
ploits of Kruse, a Flensborg popular hero 
in the last war against the Gkrmana. 
Excellently and feelingly writben by the 
Rev. Fr. Graae, and full of interest. 

XV. (pp. 327—361), On the district of 
Angle and its people. Contains many 



76 



Miscellaneous Reviews. 



r.T"ly. 



curious details respecting this Angle of 
our o'd borne. 

t\l, (vol ii. pp. 1—46), North-Priwc 
in its relation to Danish. By Con-rector 
C. Manicus. Well worthy of perusal by 
our philologists. 

XVII. (pp. 65—119). Terrier of the 
West Haderslev Bailiwick, 1690. Valu- 
able for local and personal names and 
olden taxation. 

XVIII. (pp. 146-205), Contributions 
towards the phynical history of the West 
Coast of Slesvig. By C. Fogh. TreaU 
especially of storm-laws and the great 
dikes. 

XIX. (pp. 206—212). The wiU and 
testament of Christian the Fif^h, lately 
discoyered in the Royal Danish Chrono- 
logical Collection, Cheapinghaven. and 
published, at the King's command, by 
Professor Worsaae. We here see that 
Danish Denmark to the Eider, as separate 
from the Oerman lands, was two hundred 
years ago firmly insisted on by the reign- 
ing King of Denmark, and solemnly re- 
commended to his successors. 

XX. (pp. 213, 214). The last census in 
the dochy of South Jutland. The final 
resolU are:- Faoiilies, 1860, 84.072. 
Population, 1845, 365,426 ; 1855, 
895,860; 1860,409,907. 

This ontline, we trust, will be sufficient 
to draw attention to a valuable reper- 
toriBm of history and antiquities. 

Tke Twelwe Ckwrehet; or, Traeinffs 
mUmg iheWailimg Street. By the Authoress 
of "The Bed Rose." (Rivingtons.)— This 
thin octavo makes no very noticeable ad- 
dition to our knowledge of Edgware, and 
Elstnf, and Stanmure, Harrow, Hadley, 



or Totteridffc ; but it is adorned by pcvoml 
very fair lithographs of these and some 
neighbouring churches, and we trust it 
will meet a sufficiently favourable recep- 
tion to answer tlie end proposed — viz. to 
assist the fund now being raised for a new 
organ for the church of St. Alban*s. the 
noblest structure within the district which 
the authoress has undertaken to illustrate. 



Ute Comprehensive Eutory of India, 
(Blackie and Co..) is proceeding steadily 
and satisfactorily towards its conclusion. 
The parts now before us embrace the period 
fh)m 1794 to 1819. To the fulness and fair- 
Dcfls of the narrative, generally speaking, 
we have no exception to take; but we think 
that justice is not done to the chivalrous 
Gillespie, in the account of the assault on 
Kalunga. If our readers will turn to our 
own pages a few years back**, they will 
probably be of the same opinion. 



Flowering Plants of Qreat Britain, 
— ^The Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge are publishing a work in 
shilling parts, under this title, whirh by 
its handsome coloured plates seems well 
calculated to lead many to pursue the 
fascinating study of botany. The work 
is arranged on the Natural ^stem, and 
the writer has taken much pains to render 
each detail intelHgible; and he has also 
called to his aid legendary lore and old 
poetic association. Thus he has produced 
a work which deserves a wide pq)ularity, 
and will attain it, if carried out in the 
manner that it has been begun. 

i» See ** An Indian Mutiny, and He who quelled 
it," GxiiT. Mao., Nov. 1857. p. &37. 



18610 



77 



APPOOTMENTS, PEEFERMENTS, AND PROMOTIONS. 



T%0 d^tei ttre thott tyf ike OaxeHe m ipkich the Appointtnent or Meturn appeared. 



CiTit, Naval, amu Milttabt. 

Jf0jr3U Miw TlctoriA Alex&ndrinA Stuart- 
Wortlef, to b« one of the Maidi of Honour in 
Ordiatrf to Her Mftjeity, In the room of the Hon. 
IfJirj BultMl, TCftigncd. 

Jime A. Sir Georgo Grcf » S.G.6. (now Qorer* 
nor of the colony of tlie Cape of Good Hopc}f to 
be Ailininiatnitoir of the colony of Nev Zettlflnd. 

ftm/Aih Ttujoiu FltKger«ld CftUAffban, esq. 
(Ohief Mnflftnte of the colcHif of Hongkon§r]i 
•e be AdmlnUtnttor of the GoTernment of the 
eo1oR7 of Labuiio during the absence of the 
Govemor. 

Henry Amrattui Cowper, eaq,, now It.M.^s 
Soasul Mt Perniimbaco» to be U.M/» Conni] at 
Porto Etoo. 

CSeor^ Bsmucl Lennon'Hont, esq., now H.M.'s 
Oooaal it Porto Bloch to be H.M/b Connil at 
FinwmbiioQ. 

Spefluer Bt.Jobn, esq., now H.M/a Coniul- 
) OeMTftl to tbe ItLand of Borneo, to be H.M.'s 
fSeiUQl^enerftl to the Republic of UivytL 

Mr. George Wortmann, upprovfid of on Conffol 
»t Olbraikar for H.R.IL the Grtmd Duke of 

Jumg y* G«orgf Benvcnuto Malhew, esq., now 

Becretiry to H.M.'a legation to the Mexican 

BcpiOblle, to bo H.M/e Chargi d* Affaires and 

I OooMil-Oencral to the Repabtie of OuAtemahii 

{ jnaanifun, Ooati Rica, Hondnru, and Salvador. 

ScacKr Maorkki Moeatto, approved of o-t Consul 
•t JJttwr^fKil for the Republic of the Equator. 

Jwm4 11, Robert t^tuart^esq., nowBritiKbTJce* 
06aan\ tU Voio, to he H.M.'k Connil in Albania. 

Jmne H. The Most NoUc Edward Adotphos, 



Duke of SomcrMt ; Rear-Admlral tbe Hon, Sir 
Frederick William Grey^ KX.B. *, Capt, Chorlea 
Eden, C.B., Copt. Charles Frederick, Capt, the 
Hon. JaH, Robert Drommond, C.R*, and Bamuel 
Wbitbread* e«q,, to 1>e H.M.'a CommiasioneTa 
for executing tlie office of Lord Higb Admtrul 
of the United KLngdom of Gre&t Britain and 
Ireland. 

June la. Lord DafTerin and Claneboye, tbe 
British Member ol the late European CommiBMnn 
in Ryria, to be an OnUuary Member of the OtU 
Diriflioa of the Second C1af», or Knlgbta Com- 
mander«, of the Mont Hon. O^ler of the Bath. 

William Swan Field, esq,, to be Collector of 
Customs, Principal Controller of H.M.'sCuiitonia 
and NaTi(ration Laws, and Rogi^trar of Shipping 
for the colony of the Ctipe of Good Hope. 

FranclB Bertrand pinney to be Sub-CoUcelor 
and Controller of H.M/s Customs and Naviga- 
tion LuwH, and Registrar of tibipping at Port 
EUstabetli, Cape of Good Hope, 

Thomas C» Taylor, esq-» to be H,M/t Tice- 
Consul at Abbcokuta< 

Mr. Edwd. Lcaren worth, approTOd of oa Consul 
at Sydney, New Sooth Wales, for the United 
States of America. 

The Commnndcr Joan Clemen te do Las CasaS| 
approved of as Consul at Lirerpool for the Re- 
public of Venezuela. 

MsHBift »»rt?»xMn to wsti m Pahuamktt. 
Mnff 51. Cotintf^ o/ FHH(,-~Thc Hon, Eichfttd 
De Aquila Grosvenor, in the room of the lion. 
Ttios. Edward Mostyn Lloyd Moetyn, dccMued. 



BIRTHS. 



1 



Mmreh Id. At Boreflly, Tndia, the wife of Capt 
: If onloeh MoLeod, '12nd Royctl Oighlandera, a 

n sad heir. 

Aprd%, At Champ de Mars, Mauritius, the 
Wife of Dr. Gordon, C.B.. Deputy-Inspcctor-Gen. 
of IIospiuK * dan. 

Mny 1. At Meerut, the wite of the Rct, W. 
Bornr Coleo, s son. 

Jfey 11. At BorbadoA, the wife of O. Graham, 
f«R., I«t B«tt. 21«t FtisiJiers, a Mm. 

Maf }7. At Bnmghton Grongei the wife of 
Varifiediike TaTasour, esq., a boo. 

jr«y 2t, At Stockholm, the wife of Edwin Cor- 
kett, esq., ILB.M/s SecreUrj-of Legation, a son. 

JT^ir 33. At Quaea'a-gate-ganiens, South Kca- 
QjEMT. Mao. Vol. CCXL 



tlngton, the wife of M. E. Grant Duff, esq., M.P.i 
a son. 

At C(t non-house, Wingham, the wife of Cbartea 
John Plumptre, eaq., a dau. 

At Cfctterlck-hall, Withington, the wile of 
WUliara SUngsby, eiMi,, a diiu. 

At Circneetter, tlie v ife of Professor Buckman, 
a dflu. 

At En ye, near Penryn, the wife of Lieut. 
Henry Rogers, a poo. 

May 2i. At SUr-bill, Rocboeter, the wife of 
Lleut.*CoL Stewart, 2nd Depot BatUlioa, a eon. 

At Kew, the wife of Mujor A. Martin, com- 
mondiag H.U/a &3rd Bengia KaUve lofontxy, % 
dau. 




3irths. 



tJn'y. 



At "Biom^dSlt Tiorking, iht wif« of the B#t« W. 
B. Jgjw, • ten. 

May 35. At Famhun-pftrBonair^, Sulfolk* the 
wUbofthe EcT. F. A. Johnson, a dan. 

At Fenoof , «>. Cork, the wife of Cipt Thoi*- 
tOD, ISth liifbt Tnfantiy, « foa. 

At Bri^t CnmberUiu!, tlio wife of tbe R«t<. 
John W. W. Pease J, ft dfto. 

At CUftou, the wife of Otpt. Alan Gardner, 

la Leinvter-temwe, the vife ol the Eer, J, B. 
WhitiBf, M Ji., a dfto. 

At Sotttbend, Bmx, tbe vUie of Lteat -Cot. W. 
B. AltkwB* Bombar Artillery, « mm, 

Jr«yi6. At Tonghun, Surrey, tbe wife of Copt 
HAtry M ftnhoU, OCh Boyal I^mecti, a dun* 

Ifof S7. At Eraaeaster Eectorji tbe wUbof tlie 
Eer. O. Sadler, a son. 

At Pnrkhonit^ lale of Wlfrht, the wife of Capt 
W. C, Jii*tiec« 5 th Depot Battalioo, twin daua. 

AtMamhnll Hectorf, Donet, the wile of the 
BtT* Bobcn Bmee Kemiard, a dan. 

The wife ol GapL Barley, 8rd Wcit ludia Begt., 
■ dan. 

At Sootlisert Rcetory, Korfolk, the irife of the 
BeT. Jolm Foontaliie, a aoa. 

M»]f S8. In Eaathoanie'terraee, the wife of 
CKpL Maiiiiidale, Soyal Enfrineen, a ton. 

At Lordlnftoo, the wife of C»pt Geoffrey 
Pbipiw Hornby, « dau. 

At the Worce^er Dfoeeau TraiiiiiLg C^!e««, 
Saliley, sear Btrmlag-ham, &g wife of the Bev. 
WOUam Gover, a daa. 

At WOaenlowe^ Derhy, Mra. J. L. Davenport, 
sioii. 

At DftTtrord T!cara|re, Kent, the wife of the 
Ber. George John Bloinfleld, twin daoa. 

jr«yS9. At the Britialk Lesation, Oarisrohe, 
Ike Bon. Mrs. Eden, i «M. 

At Bo«logne-e«r-Mer. the wife of Beai'-Adm. 
BatSkOTD, a aon. 

In Smth wick -place, Hyde-|iark, Un. Henry 
Hyateu Kennedy, a dao. 

At WlndmiU-hm, Stuaejc^ the wife of H, M. 
CoTtela, ewi., a dan. 

At Oxford, the wtfe of the Ber, Walter Wad- 
dlngtoa Shirley, a dan. 

At Hefadon, BrroDahlre, the wife of the Rot, 
Walter Bnlkiek, of Hefnidon, and Faulkboum- 
bnU, FnewT, a bob and heir, 

JfaySO. At lUuidolph-houee, the Hon. Mra. 
aeiOD, a dan. 

At ILaiitie>Til]e, Ooemaoy, the mitt of the Rev. 
BaTfUaiid De BaonnaraSf B e tte r of BC. PettT'e, 
HertlMtaptea, a aon. 

At Qoeen^e-tcmee, Sovtkaitt, 1^ wilieof Lfent. 
& P. Towneeid, B.N., of Btrll^e«ty*i yaoht, 
nam). 

At DemiMi-hoiue, Oxfordattlre, the wife of the 
Ber. Walter 6nej4T< e dan* 

At Nfwfhnrph, 1«lc of Wlirtit, the wife of the 
Ber. Alfred Cooper, U,A., a dan. 

ATrry M, Ai r^'ii r n^.liJc*. CmlfnDAehSi, the 
Hi" iin. 

A h^m^ TorkAhire, the 

vlte nr crvcwi ;] \> . tiojr ic^ et>q., F,Q.ILS., a aon 
•adh«lc. 



At SoQthaea, the wife of Capt. Bow«f , Boynl 
Nery, a dnn. 

At 8LJamea'», Hampetiead-rMid, the wife of 
the Rer. J. P. Waldo, a dan. 

In ForcheKter^., Hyde-park, (the TeeldiiiM of 
ber fkther, E. T. Hooper, eaq., JLV^) the wife of 
the BeT. F. J. RawUna, a aofi. 

At Bladcheatli, the wife of Capt. B, MUIar, of 
the Military Tnxin» a dau. 

At Cnthorpe llMtory. Leiceetsnihlrow ttie wifb 
of the BeT. H. HarpCT, a eon. 

JvHf 1. At OrerbnTy-Conrt. Woroeatenblre^ 
the LAdy CAtberino Berkeley, a dan. 

At Bowling, the wife of N. Ungbee D*Aetli» 
esq., a hod. 

In Charlton-toad. Malda-Tole, the wllb of 
Capt. C. W, Moore, 3Td M. E. BegU, a ion. 

At Tnnitead \1carag«, Honrkb, the wlCi Of 
the RcT, Herb^Tt S, While, a aon. 

Jvn* 3. At Edinbnrf b, the wile of CoL B* F» 
Crawford, Royal ArtiUery, a aon. 

In Cbeaham-plaise, the wlfb of Georfe Dongtaa 
Pennant, e«q., a dan. 

At Cbiswiek, Qabrietle, VIoomte»e de Torre 
Bella, wife of Bmad Manaen Oordon, caq^ 
a dan. 

At Branntton, Nortbamptonahfre, thewifoof 
LieQt.-CoL Lownde«, a dan. 

In Vemon-pUce, the wife of Geo. F. AaaeU. 
CM}., of the Royal Mint, e«q., a dan. 

In Norfolk-et,, Park-lane, the wife of Cnpt, 
Artbnr dimming, R.K., of H.M.8. ** Kmenld,** 
ndau. 

jHn4t 3. At Banatead, Surrey, the wife of Col. 
Lysona, C,B., a »on. 

The wife Of M^Jor L. Hook, Oeyloo Bifle BegU, 
adan> 

Ai Melk^iaiB, WUtahire, the wife of Oapi. O. 
A. F. Hervey, a eon. 

At 81. John'a Parwonapc, Woktng, the Wifc «if 
the ReT. Charles Marion, a don. 

Juar 4. In Charlee^treei, Derkeley-eq., Mnu 
George Cavcndioh Bentlnok, a dan. 

At St. John'ft-wood, tbe wife of Oipt. Anaoa, 
B.N., a dan. 

At Kidlingto&,;Oxan, the wits of the Ber. T. 
Whitehead, a son. 

At her fa(hor*a mldenoe, I^ampoirl Beeiory, 
the wife of UeaL-iGol. Longden, Royal ArtJUery« 
a dan. 

At Holywell, eo. SUgo, Mr*. C. H, Olwsyi 
a iOD. 

At PittTUle-hooee, Cbeltenhaxn, tbe wtfe of 
William Fraser MeUooell, esq., YX>, Bcflgnl 
Qvil Service, a dan. 

At Bntlaad-gate, Mn. Charles Webster, n eon 
andbeir^ 

Jmv ft. At Aotmt Rectory, tbe wife of tbe Rev. 
Bdwiurtl F^rry, a son. 

At ninton-lodfre, Huivt, tbe wlf^ of Llent. Gi 
W, Oiegorie, R»K., a mm. 

At the Reetorr, LiiUe Glemham, Sntolk, the 
mitt of tbe Rer. VL H. K^t. a d«u. 

At Iupwortb Rectory, the wife of the Btr. 
Arandell St. John MUdmav, a dan, 

JuM* Cu M A«ti-1i»U, GlaraorgnaabSfVi tbe wilb 
of IJamUtoa BoilUe, ee^., a e«u 



1861.] 



Births. — Marriages^ 



At tfalw Vleifag«, Tiiusloo, the vifs of the 
Kpv. R. Twyford MlUs, a son. 

/mmt 7. At Aadlnjrton-^.. Sent, the wifo of 
J. Wtag&tld gtntlard, Mq., n mo. 

Is GercUnd-cq., Hrcl«-parl(, the wifo of Wm. 
IL Brodhtmt, c«i., ficngal CiTil Strricc, a daa. 

Jun€ 8. Ib Glouoester-tcirace^ Ilydc-pork- 
VVdcni, Itie wife of HqtII Story-Mukcljiie, esq,, 

AtGf«At Mlnakd«& Al»bef , Mrs. G. CarrixigtoDf 
»iofi. 

In aArendaQ'Pu^eiu, MaidA-MU, tb« wife of 
tli» E«T. H. O. nendervQiii a son. 

Al tittle Addlnftom Kortlmmptoiuihira, the 
wU^ of tll9 EcT. Adolphos Doodle, a dau. 

JUHf 9. At SU Jobu'B-wood, the wife of Major 
B» G. Xsw ranee, G.B,, HLUtary Secretary tu Iho 
Puajatib Government, a d«a« 

At tilt Hall, Wem, &dop, the wife of Henry 
Corbctt^ c*<i., a dau. 

At Wi^ilwicb, the wife of Joinct Salinon. c«q., 
R.N., Deputj-lnKpcctur-Gcncrftl of Uottpitiiia &t 
Woolwich, A dAQ. 

•/'Mfiff 10. At St L(»onArd*t*aoart, Gloneestw, 
(lllarQitdeboe of her father, tlic Hon. J.H.Knox,} 
Kh« CSotmlett Zepp«Un, « dwi. 

At fleaford, StiMex, the wife of Francia Ricbard 
Totbel, esq., J.P,, a datt. 

At Cktvertoo, Bock*, the wife of the Ber* T. 
K. J. Lauflrharne, a dotu. 

At Cb»thAm» the wife of Mi^ or Cbaj-lefl Elg«e, 

BSOB. 

■TiNM U. At Glenmora, the Hon. Urs. Style, 
A son. 

At Eton College, the wife of the BeY. George 
Bichard Dnpula, a poa. 

In Norfolk-ereietiDt, the wife of Pabooo Da 
Pre Ormfelti eeq.i a eon. 

The wife of Capt. Ocorgt Towew Hillianl, 
J^th RcKt. Madrae N.I., a dau. 

At Brighion, the wife of the Rev. John Or- 
mond, Vkor of Great Kitnblu, n oon. 

June U. At fieetton-hall, l<orfolk, Lady Pres- 
ton, a kuu 



At Brooniwood, Surrey, (the reddenee of her 
father, Sir Cha». Forbct, bart,, of Ncwe.) Ijidy 
Forbe*, the wife of Sir Wm* Forbes, hart*, of 
Fin tray and Crai^'ievar, a dau. 

At Southampton, the vrifo of the Rev, Trajion 
Foller, ChalTington Itcctory, SuMex, a ion. 

June 13. At Birr Barracks, Ireland, tho Hon* 
Mn. Somerset Ward, a dan. 

In Che»ter-st.i BelgTAii^e-fiq.» the wife of J. R. 
Homrraj, esq,, PenllTn-eastlOf GLuuuri^QJiahijrei 
A Aon ani] heir. 

In Dnke-iitt., Manchester>*q., the wife of John 
Walter Bhercr, cnq., Bengra! Civil Service^ a boh,. 

June 14. At l^rinoea-g^utc, the Lady Ulrioa 
Thyime, a son. 

At Eton Colleg«, the wife of the Rov. John 
Eyre Tonge, a dan. 

In Upper Berkcley-«t, W., the wife of M. C. 
Uvrttina Swabey, c«q,, D.C.L., a Mm, 

At Blackheatbr the wife of Capt. G. A. ttolatcd, 
R.N., a Aon. 

At the residenee of hi» father, {J. H. Crawford, 
tfq., Brighton,) the wife of J« A. Crawford, esq.i 
Bengal ClvO Serrfeet • ^^- 

June 15. At Co«#rrove-prtory, Northomptoa- 
ahiie, the wife of FraneiH Thurshy, eaq., a ma. 

In Hereford-rottd-Dortb, Westboamc-frrovc, 
the wife ot the Rev, A, Seaton, Rector of Oilton, 
a dun. 

Jnne 10. In Eaton-«q., the Hon. Mrs. Moiityn, 
A son. 

June IT. At Bedforda, Bioex, the Hon. Mra. 
H. W. PetrekAMon. 

At Sydenham, the wtfe of Oeoirge B, WataoQ* 
Major Bengal Enginccn, ii dau, 

jMHt IB. At Scdiceford Vicarage, King's Lynn» 
Norfolk, the wife of the Bev^ J . Ambrose Ogle, 
A son. 

In Princc's-terr., S,W,, the wife of the ReT» 
Edward Lnwson, of LongMrst'^hall, Northomber- 
land, a dau. 

Jnnt 19. The wife of tbe Rev. Edward ManA* 
field* of Highom, near iiloaccsler, a &on. 



MARRIAGES. 



March 2S. At Williainatown, Victoria, Austra- 
lia, the Hon. George Fredorle Verdon, M.L.A., 
Colonial Treasurer, to Annie, swKxnd dan. of John 
AmstRNif, esq,, aoUdior, of Melbonine. 

Jf«wA M. At ShAnghai, CbiaA, Charles Trea- 
mat JoiM^ iaq., Q.lL's Acting Ylce-Coxunl at 
ttiaglial, to ialinA Fanny Johmton. 

AptU 4. At Uoradabad, WUIIaih Dlnwiddie 
Hogf, D,-A,-C.-Gcueral, Lieut. H,M.'a Indian 
Anny, to Emily, eldest dan. of the Rev, T. W. 
BliAW, Chapbdn. 

At at. Kilda, MolbonniA, Yiotoria, AustralU, 
the Hon. John R. Bailey, late Oommisiionor of 
Trade and Customs, and foatinASler-Gen. of Uie 
LXilony, to Jane, third dan. of WUliam Bidnaford, 
c«]., of WlLley, Surrey. 

ji|>/t/ 9. Al S>i]iiott*s-bay, Cspe of Good Hope, 



CapU Algernon F. R. do Ilorwy, of H.M.R* 
**■ Brisk/' to Caroline Aiigusta,only dan^of Capt. 
Andrew Drew, R.N. 

April 10. At Calcutta, John P. Wysc, Lieut. 
H.M.'e »4th Kegt., to the only dau, of the kto 
Bcv, Arthur Oiialow, 

Aprii 10. At Ahmed abad, Arthur Boaanqnet, 
esq., Bombay Civil Service, eldent son of A. II* 
Boaanquei, esq,, 0«ilge, Herts, to iMibella Ma- 
tilda, eldest dau. of Major A, Crawford, Asiia* 
tant^AdjutAnt-Gen , N.D. of the BombAy Army. 

Jtprii Ifi. At Agra, Fltxroy Stephen, seq., 3rd 
Battalion Rifle Brigade, to Ftanees Harriet, 
second dau, of Charles Kane Sivewrlght, eaq.« 
Burntiiilancl, Flf{.>FibLre. 

Jf rty 1 . At tbe Cathcdml, Bombay, Morrke Kin f 
Msn, i»sq., of Hilslead, Kent, and of tbe Gown* 



80 



Marriages, 



roent Telegraphie Beptrtiocfit, Tndorr, to X&ne 
Smiurt, tceond dAtt. of the lAte If ajor Jaj&m W. 
H. Walch, of H.M.»» Mth RegU 

ITfjy 21. The Rer. Cbaa* W. Btmeit Cltite^ 
M.A*, Inettmbcnt of Fenn^ Stratford, to Miry, 
third ilau. of the Aer. Tbonut Fjm WilUaBtMNSy 
JatQifibt^t of LitUe Briekhill, Backs. 

At Limpoe. Kent. Edwtrd John BrtMoc, caq^ 
H.M/t 14th Befft., only toaiof Jm. BilMne, Mq,, 
BoMe*hoQio, ToilaiDore, to EntAa Boph^ 
yoanfrcr datL of the EeT« Edwin Bina, Tlctr off 
the parish. 

At Miirtham, KorfoOc, Tbootu N. Yxmmt^m, 
«M|.. of iTbrt&t Chtirch-pult, Ipswich, to Bl>ach« 
Editho, j-aim^cst dau. of the Bev. Oeorge Pesna^ 
yibOiT of Martham. 

If ay 23. At EDfleld, the Err. CUadt Bohb- 
-qaet, Incumbent of St. OByth, Eaeex, •eeond loa 
of Samuel Bo»nqact, «8q.» of DfafMtav-eacirt, 
Monmootli. to Amelia ELeimor, yoongwt dao. of 
Capt. C. 1. BotAHquet, R.N., of Wildwood, En- 
fltkL 

At Biiry, Luteulhire, Halcf WUkie, esq^ Cipt, 
H.M.*a 29th Eegt., etdeH «ni of E. C Halea 
ivnkie, Mq,, of Chiitotl-ooort, Kent, to Eleanor, 
youngf St dao. of Wbu Walker, esq., of Lairk-hlUf 
near Bory, Lancaahtre, and of Sununerfleld, 
Itowdn, ChCBhire. 

WiUiani Lucas, esq,, Depntj-lnapeetor-Oen. 
"or HoffpitalB, to MargMWt, dan, of Robert Kerr« 
eaq[^ of Crinkitoa-ball, Ooran, Glasgow. 

May 33. At StunftMrd-hOl, J. C. Iamb, eaq., of 
Eyton-hoqje, oo* Dnrham, to Iiabella Aodenon* 
weood dan. of the late P, Hatchiaan, caq,, 
H.E.I.C.5., aad niece to the lole Col. eir Alex. 
Anderson, EX.B, 

At Holy THnltyt Upper Chelaea, the B«f>. 
EeynoIdA Hole, Yicar of CaQnton^ Xotti, to 
Catoline, eldest dan. of the late John Fkaacklbi, 
esq., of Gonalitoiu 

Jfoy tl. At St. MargaretX WMtmliutir, tbt 
)Ut. Frederick Jamea Ahbot, ChapUtn to the 
Fiorcea, to Harriett, only datu of WQIUm B<^crf , 
t«q^Jito^,olJainei-atreet, Bnrkhiyhawi-tato^ nd 
Df&blgh-honae, Haalcnere. 

Jfoyta. AtAUSatnta*, PaddlagtofB, fhft B«r. 
Thoxapflon FhiUipt, M.A., Incumbent of Holme 
Edrn, nc&r Carlialc, to EUjea Catherine, feoaod 
Anxi, of Gtm. Sir James Wallace Sieigh, K.C.B*« 
Cot. of the 0th Lancera. 

At Bri^rhton, nurleaEdmnnd Webber, e#q^ of 
tai Ccrpe of Boyil EaglBeer«, to the Hon. Alice 
Aogqata Gertrude Bn&bitry-Tney, Ibttrth d«L 
ofLordSiideley. 

Al Credtlon, the Ber. Saekrille George Greos- 
v«m InrBBihewt oT 9t. Loke^a, ppahnry, Devon, 
to Snsh AflMb yovigMit dci. of the kte /oho 
Sove BWBCti, caq., of fiandwiIL, Tkiwviu 

JTsf 39. At Delamerw, Ch««hlre, the MJrr* Renry 
llartyn Sanders, H.A., IncnmbeBt of Skldby, 
Tertcahire, to fOlsA Ann. eldcM daa. of the Ber, 
W« Dtrwla PM. Baetor of Dtlonere, %w\ frauds 
dan. of the lato Mr fUehard rietotur. hart., li^C 

At ftolterdacii, f Wrw Chailea Jssui. aaaond son 
ef P* T. M, Phbthry, aaq^of ftoCtacrdaill, to Ctlcil 
Tovtsir, dan, of the late Sir 7. U, Tutef,hift. 

At Kfsby, Eosn Utfli, m|., to BIkttMta 



Jane, dan* of the tiit T. EA 

and gnaddan, of tJie Into M^armau 1 

OB. 

Jfey aa At Ktoneriey, the To 
Wetr White, Arehdeaeoa of 
to Emily Katheriae, ddaM dan. o# iht teto ] 
EkhJUda, eaq^ of Ch aajit o th . Mt 
fonneriy member of PailiaaBeBt lor d 

At thft Cathedral, Eipon, the Eer. . 
ealf^ Inenmbent of Kkypanley, t 
Anne EmQy Qoode, dao. of tbt Very Be«. Ite 
Deanof Eipon. 

At Paria, EnR^oe de CaatiDoBdc BaUfMCM^ 
of the Imperial Onard, secvod son of ite tai* 
Bttron De Cantillan d« BaUyhifme, to Omm^Mk^ 
only dan. of the late Adolphos Cbttiii If atny ^si 
Lady Murray, of Aideti^y.bary, Ilfirfiln<hftlnL 

Jmu 1. At Acton, Frederick, sen of i^ Inio 
Wm. Hedfer, caq., of Southwark, Swrey, Iim^» 
tieut. of the eo., to Eikn Marin, yoo^v As. off 
the Into Ear. Jamea Dumo, K^A., riM | .| ^ ^ 
the Boyal Hospiul, Haalar. 

At Market Easen, lineolnahire, Aftknr Edw, 
Tumour, caq., M.D., of Denbigh* Korth Wales, 
son of the late Hon. and Eer. Adolphos Angnatoa 
Tamoor, to Prsaeea Hdcn, yoongest dam. Of tho 
late Hon. and Ear. Edward John Tnmoar. 

At HoTe, Soasex, Capl. Dalby, Boyal Moteoi 
Ii.1., to Belea Lyttleton, dau, of J. E Basatttp 
esq., of Bmnawick-^i., BrlghCcai. 

At Weadcn, BaflTon Waldeo, the Ber. Chaxlea 
Baker Hnalawood, MJk., ehaplntai E^%, tUDov 
of Durham CTntveedty, toSttaatath AMna, iUmI 
dan. of the late Gapt. Eodney Shmuum, RJf. 

J\ma 4. At How Chple, Herefordshire. Bc»- 
phrey Fraoda Mildmay, esq., M^., to &; belli 
Harriet, dan. of George CBTe, eaq., M J>. 

At Ingateatone, Thos. J. Eyra, eiq., of Uppers 
eonrt, co. KDkeiuiy. to the Lady Milted. 

At St Mary'*, Woolwich, O. Kap^ Taylor, 
•aq., Cairt. E.A., to Adela, you9g«it dott. of Gen. 
Coryton. 

At Holy Trinity, Brompton, A. PoOoHc, mm 
of Jaa. Hrnry, esq., H.D., Prmifham hiniit 
Scaeombe, Liverpool, to Sarah Hdcan, tea. «f 
the late Major-Gtii. Rcody, lianacrtp HsiL 
Govemor of the Isle of Man. 

At Kirkleatham, Torkshlre, the Eer. Heaiy 
Smith, Yicar of Eaaton Maodit, Northampton- 
ahire, aon of the Into Ber. Dr. Simith^ Driui of 
Chrlsl Gh«eh« Oxfbrd, to Eliaa CAtherlnc^ \ 
dan. of ttM Into Colonel Porbea 
of th9 Gid Iblt, Ekkleatham. 

At Malkenn, Bombay, Gear^e^ eeeend son af 
John Geo. Hamilton, eaq., Baftoa-hovar, Argyll, 
ahire, to Annie, dan. of Mi^or Shaw, BJi.^ 
Bombay Pmlltera. 

Jmm4 d. At Taletta, Malta, Geonn Wnhtt 
CiKkborn, yoimg<*r of that flk, lieM. fSad Bayil 
nigiibndcTs, SOD of the late Sir WIDIao Sar^ 
Asld &. Goekbum, bart., to Emily Sarah, onl^ 
dan. «f Ihd Ee^. John aengfa, ChapUOn to the 
Oofer ww t, Malto. 

At Holy TrtBlty, Br om ptan, the Eer. MnMAgv 
P. P, Otfanrn, fteetar of Eniwncch Bfiisrtianut 
LotaMteniblrf, to Catbermc Barken, efdiot dao* 
of Jqha Manfalt, eaq ^ of Kibwottk Bareovl, 



4 



i 



1861.] 



Marriages. 



At Trinity Chtireb, St- MnTjlebone, the ReT, 
(OihtIc* £. Donnc^ B.A., »on of W. Bodbum 
onne, e#q., of MAttuhttU, Norfolk, & Dcpaty- 
IXicQl. of that cotrnt^f to Mildred, dan. of th« 
|lit« J. Mttcbpll Kemlile, esq., M.A. 

At 8t,M*ry't, Oiefter, Frederick Ford, nq^ 
Mt/i 89rd Heirt^ to Oaroline Anne TheodoaU, 
Ipeooad djia. of J. Hiimiltoii UoU, etq., ind grond* 
IttM. of the lAte MaJor-OeoerAl HalL 

At !%t. Slephen's, rnddinfftOD, Lieot. Geo. Winh- 
Itwunw WtlUom*, 44tli Rcirt. M.N.L, to Maiy, 
■ •rcond dau. of Uvat-Col. BUxrtt Into of the 
{ lladrvs Army, 

At Ayleibory, tbe Rer. Basil WUUmos, Senior 
t Pellow and Dc&b of Si. John*! College^, Cambrid^, 
|ftnd Viear of Holme-aa^fi^ldiag-Moor, Yurk* 
bire, toOitbcxine Mary, dan. of th« late William 
rjobo Wood, esq., of the Thnipp, Stroud, Qlouoes- 
llenhire. 

At Antoof, Cornwall, Edward WUll*, esq., 

1.IL Ilgllt ^fkntry, to Mn^ry Lamprey, only 

lam. of Ikio lite Ui^or Jno. Tudor Tucker, H.M. 

At et, Oeofie's, Hanover-ni*, Itea Roiymond 

^Barker, cim|m of the Crofts, Pnlrford, Gloucester- 

, to ElLeabetJi Pukner, dan. of the tale Wm. 

At, e^q., and relict of Col. Black, of the 

At St, GUes', CamberweU, William Robert, 
•ecood wan of the late Jobn T- I'urwU, c?q., 
|£athmlne«, Dublin, to Catherine Clementina, 
I only dan. of the late Jolm A. Napier, eaq., H.M/i 
^MOBo, Ceylon. 
Imm%. At St. Panl*i, Knigbtftbndge, Mark 
Bset^ell, OcwtiiDflnder R,N., ton of the 
r. Horace and Lady Caroline PechcU, to Ellen 
lilorlo, yoanf«at dau. of C. Derby, esq., and 
^ to 8ir Samuel Fludyer, bart. 
At the Catholic Church, Cbelteuhnm, WiUiain, 
[iixth eon of the late Sir Edward Mostyn, hart., 
[to dementina, fourth datt. of the late Edmund 
\ Jemtngbam, esq. 

At Qae«!nstown, Capt. Duneon McNeill, Scots 

Greyo, tbird son of the late Capt. Alex. McNeill, 

[^dfOolwuay, to Fanny Charlotte Emma, second 

, of Boor-Adm. Charles and the Hon. Char- 

riottc Oeorgiaaa Talbot. 

At Munken Iladley, John Fkillipp, only von 

of J.Thomaa,esq<f of BletAoe Monnr, Bedford- 

, ie^ Julia Paulina, oldest dao. of tho late 

MlUVl Flasket. K.C.M.G. 

At B>Khw)ek, fiath^ Anhnr Gay Elkinffton, 

• FiulUeT Guard/i, to L6oncine EllKabetb 

, only child of Capt. WUUam F&n»oDs, 

oftbeMancitliii. 

At ClirUt Chorch, Tonttall, the Rct. Thomas 

Hose, Ctirato of Darpenden, Hert*., to 

IflBBiy, only oblld of the late Tbomon Goodfeilow, 

■^fOfTimstaU* 

At Christ Cbureh, Folkestone, the Rev. William 

LBeory Cnrpcndalc, eldest son of ibe bite Itev. 

turmiam Cacpeodole, Reetor of Lilton, Donet, 

, PtipetuBi Corate of Wlneonton, Soraerset, 

I KAtboriiie Julia EUen, dan. of the late Henry 

I ivjt esq., Q.C., of Ilurtbam-porti, Wilts, 

find Madame Chanumca, of Mycntcough-hall, 

fX^neasldre. 

At N«lher*Brongbton, Ldoettenldre, Robert 



O. Law Ogilby, cfq., of Sussex -pL, Refcnt**-pk,, 
to Marianne, eldest dau. of the Rev. John Noble, 
Ecctor of Netber-Brou^hton. 

At Brooke, Benjamin Trmplc, eldest son of 
Benjamin Cotton, esq., of Afton-bouM*, Fmh-' 
water, to Frances Anne, second dau. of Charles 
Beely, esq., of Brooke-house, Isle of Wi^bt, and 
neigbinKton, Lincoln. 

June 7. At Wakefleld, Edirard Wildn, eeq.y 
R.N., to Jane Sutton, fifth dau. of Edw. Nowers, 
esq., DoTer. 

June 10. At St. Georgc*a, IIanover'-sq.| and 
after vards at the chapel of the Russian Kmbassy, 
Count Nicolas RostoTtxoH', Aide-de-Camp to Hia 
Imperial Majesty the Emperor of RniMa, to 
Itiryi <^eat dau. of Dr. Bridgmon, Woolwich- 
ootmnoQ^ 

At Cambridg«», the Rot, Arthur Wolfe, M.A., 
Fellow and Tutor of Clare College, to Louisa 
Moripr, younger dau. of tho Rct. Alex. J, D. 
D'OrwT, B.D,, of Corpus Christi College. 

At Cliiaon, Arthur Uavics Berringtoo, esq., of 
Pant-y -Goitre, Momnoothshire, to Ada, dau. of 
the late John Lane, esq., of Leyton Grange, 

KSW53C. 

junt y. At rppcrby, Carlisle. B«>ar-Adm. 
rennell, of RfiTen»ide, neur Carlisle, to Frances 
Elizabeth, eldest dau. of F. Colrldge Hutchinscim, 
esq., M.D., of the Cottage, Brloco, nrnr Carlinle. 

At StGcorge'^, Hanoycr-nq., Rlcliard IJuifh 
Stothcrd, esq., Capt. R.E., ton of MaJor>Qcn. 
Stotherd, R,E., to Caroline Frances, dau. of 
Thomas Wood, e«q., Neashira-liouse, Darlington. 

At »t, Mary*s, Cheltcnh.im, Thoiufui Hojtbnrgh 
Polwhele, esq., M.A., only son of Major-Gen. 
Thomas Polwbcle, and nephew of Ueut.-CoL 
Rlehard Graves Polwhele, of Polwhele, Cornwall, 
to Fanny, only ehlld of the late Thomas Come, 
esq,, and granddau. of the late JFoeeph Come, 
esq., F.R.S., kct of Pen^unre, Comwall- 

At St. Mary's, West Brompton, Alfred Ooold, 
esq,, of Southfeo, Hants, son of Cspt. Goold, 
R.N., of Clarenee-«q., Gosport, to Ellen Harriet, 
only dau. of Wm. Tate, esq., of Hercford-iq., 
Old Brompton. 

At St. John's, Lowestoft, Fred. Aston Oakes, 
lato 3rd Dragoon OuartJn, third son of Henry 
James Ookes, esq., of Nowton-eourt, to ElleA 
Francee^ third dou. of the Rct. Ilcrirey Astua 
Adomsoa Oakoe, Rector of Now ton. 

At Trinity Church, Marrlebone, the Rer. Wm. 
Philip Btnmg Blnghtni, M..\t, Incumbent of 
West Pinehbcck, LtncoUiBhire, to Alicia French, 
•econd stirnTtnff dau. of the late Major Henry 
Maxwell Wainright, of H.M/s 47tb Regt. 

Jum 11 At Christ Church, Bsiyswater, the 
Rev. Henry Carmlehoel Grant, third ion of the 
lute Rev. Chos. Grant, Vicar of West Barnbam, 
Norfolk, to L«oniaa, third dau. of the late John 
Border, esq. 

Tho Rev, Frederick W. Shannon, Reetor of 
Qnarrington with tJild Klcaronl, Llncohii^hlre, to 
Catherine Emma, fourth dau. of D. L. Manthorp, 
esq., of Thorp. 

At Donoy brook. Major Jobn Mookenoie Lyle, 
S&tb Reft., to Be^&ie, dau. of tbe late Bev. Chua. 
Heary Oeorf e, GlaaDevin, Dublin. 



8S 



Marriaget. 



u^i 



AX Holy Trtelty, Micktcpate, York, tlu ReT. 
H. S, Ilild]mrd» Rector of I^flus, to OclAria, 
Toangrest dna. of Wmiam Bichiu-dioa, etq*, of 
Micklogate, 

June 13. At TayntoiQf Glo^oeftersti., Capt. A. 
O. Onflow, 97th Rofft,, elde«t ton of lUelurd 
Foley Onslow, eiq., Oxenball, GlotiiiDStenhlre, to 
Mar7, fifth daa. of the Ute Sir John Owen, bart, 
M.P., Lord-Ltettt, of the ooonty of PembrokA. 

At Eridfltowe. Benjunin Oroame Sftdler, eaq., 
of Bf Ifiut, f otmge«t eon of the Utc Michael Thom^ 
Sddler, esq.* M.P., F.R.S., to Catherine Hftrriet, 
cMcflit d«u. of Wm. Pdcei c»q,, of Bezihall. co. 
Hereford. 

At Nether WinofamdoOt Backs, Jo9eph Nftpler 
nigrtn** *^'* ^^ New-flq., Lineoln's-inn, b«i^ 
rlgter-At>law, to SophJa £Uut»eth, youngest duo. 
of Thos. Tyrlzighaiii Bcma.rd. esq., If, P. 

At Milchiim. Korrolk. Robert DeLftfo«Ae Shield, 
BUTgcoti, of nungerford, Berl», to Mary £«8ter, 
eldest data, of the kte B«r. Wm. WilliAma, Aector 
of Stokesay, Salop, 

At Hoddesdcni, Donat John Hotte, elder wn of 
the bte Renr^Adm, 0'Briea« of Ycw^iooao, Hod* 
desdoti, to Martha Shepherd, ieeoad dan. of the 
Ber, R. W. Moricei Incumbent of Hoddettdan. 

At Northatlcrtoii, Herbert Lowe Campbell, 
«9q., Capt« in H.M/s Bengal Anny« to Emily 
Goorginnaj widow of Wm. Alexander Uickeyp 
esq., Capt. and second in eommand of the t&th 
Irregular Cavalry, Bengal, 

At FoUcotone, the Ber. Cloudealey Hughea 
D'Aeth, 8on of Vice-Adm. Hughe* D'Aeth, of 
Enovlton-courtt Kent, to Charlotte BobbcU, dan, 
of the late Rer. Henry Warburtoo, Hector of 
Siblc Heduigham, Ea«ex. 

At Walcot Chorcb, Bath, George Bakewell, 
eldest son of D. C. Dewhurst, esq., of Beech- 
wood, Cheahirc, to FrftJieec Adamlaa Lucy, dan* 
of the Rot. W. H. O. Siann, formerly Vicar of 
Bawdon, Choabire. 

At St M&rylebone, Wm. Henry Besant, esq., 
late Fellow of St. John** College, Cambridge, to 
Margaret Elixabtth, dan. of tbe Rot. Robert 
WillU, Jacluonian Profesanr in the tJniTenity of 
Cambridge, of York-terr., Reteiit*»-p«rk. 

At the Rectory, Maiden -Newtoo, Domt^Lleat^ 
Col. Juhn A. Digby, to Diana AlieU, elde«t dau, 
of the Hon. and Rer. WUliom H. Soott, Beotor of 
MaideU'Newtoii, &c. 

JuH» 15. At St. George**, Hanover-aq., the 
Right Hon. Wm. Hutt, M.P., of Glbaide, Pay* 
maater^Gen. and Vlee*rTe.^d<^t of the Board of 
Trade, to Fanny Anne June Uughca, dau. of the 



Hon. Sir F^ancl« and Lady (HaabopO^ Sl4 
of the ^rt of Harringtoii. 

At Penxanoe, the Rer. Arthur Holmeii, Fal- 
low and Leeturvr of 0t. John^i College, Oan<- 
bridge, to Elemnor, leocmd dau. of L*. R. Wlllmt 
M.D^ of the Bam« UniYendty, and niece of f^ 
Right Hon. Sir Lawrenoe Peel, lali Gbdtf lutiee 
of Bengal, 

At St. Mary'a, Maz7leboii% Heazy Gilpin, c*q«p^ 
B.Btf., to Ifju-garet Ghriatiaiuta, only daa. of 
Chas. EctUL, eaq., of Oloaocater'pl.. Portm«n-«|« 

At Hammeruuith, Robert Charles Cdrrington^ 
eaq., of the Admiralty, Whitehall, to liarah J«n«p 
seoood daiL of Ebenecer D. Pcwtreaa, taq^ Ibr- 
merly of BuJfWkv New York. 

At Rawreth, Encx^ the Ber. J. C* Whiter 
Rector, to Fraaoes Ellen, youngeat dan. «f lh* 
late Joaeph Furrier 8miUi, eiq., of AahAmI, Kent. 

/«4fi< 18. At St. Qeorge'a, Haaover-sq., Lord 
Felbam, eldest ion of the Earl of Chi«he«ter, to 
EUxabcth Mary, dau. of the Hon, Sir JohA 
Duncan Bltgh, K.C.B. 

At Kew, the Rcr. Dacres OUvier, eecood aoQ 
of Lt.-Col. OUYler, of th« Manor-houae, Potteniei, 
Wilta, to Emma Selina Eden, fourth dau< of the 
Lord Bishop of Moray and Boes* 

At North Cray, Nevile, third aon of Sir John 
W. Lubbock, bort., of High Elmi. Famborough, 
Kent, to Harriet Charlotte, •ecoiu) dau. of Wcaterni 
Wood, esq., of North Cny-plaoe, in the aamo 
ooonty. 

AJt St. Mary Abbotta, Kenaington, the B«r. 
Henry Eve, Rector of South Ockendon, Eiaex, 
to Elixa, widow of Mr. B. Hannen. of Brixton. 

At Ilore, Robert William Piper, e«q., (late 
Cipt. of the 46th Regt.), only wm of Lieut.^Geii. 
Piper, Royal Engineers, to Mary Anne, eldest 
daa< of Charles VaiLmoc, esq., of West-street, 
Brighton. 

At Leiociter, the Rev. Arthur Muraell, of Man- 
chester, to Liaide, younger dau. of John Thomp- 
Bon, esq., Laneaster-'plaoe, Leioester, 

Jitne 10. At St. MartiB*s, BIrmiogbara, the Ber. 
Fred. Spencer Dole, M.A., Tiinity College, Cam- 
bridge, Incnmbeot of St. Luke's, Birmingham, to 
EUjnbetb, seoond dau, of the Bev. John C. Miller, 
D.D., Honorary Canon of Woroeater, and Rector 
of Bt. Martin% Birmingham. 

JuHt 20. At Danbury, Eaaez, George Goooh 
Clowes. Major 8th Hussars, youngeH soii of Lt*> 
CoL Clowes, late 3rd Dragoons, of Broughton 
Old Hall, Lancashire, to aoaao Caroline Wlgram, 
eldest dau. of the Lord Bishop of Rochester. 



i 




1861.] 



83 



#i)ituar|>. 



f 



l^Mdaiiveg or Jhimdt tvpplyintf Memoirs are reqnetUd to append iheir Addresseit, t» 
ortkr thai a Cop^ of the Gektlemait's Maqazjkr containitig t/tar Communication 
ma^ b§ forwarded to themS\ 



N 



Couirr Qlxottsl. 

Jame 6L At Tarin, aged 50, Count 
Ctmillo Ben so di Cavour, the Premier of 
the new kingdom of Italy. 

The deceased wa& born at TtiriD, Auf^nst 
10, 1810. He was a younger son of a 
noble hoQse, long settled in tbe neiglibour- 
ing town of Chieri, which clnima the donbt* 
fill honour of an illegitimate descent from 
• duko of Saroy. His father, wbo in eaid 
to bav^e been a man of great ahillties, at- 
tiiched himself to the French interest, in 
tbe time of the former kin gdt>iij of Itnlj, 
and his child had for godmother the Prin- 
re«s Borgbcie, the tuiter of Napoleon. 
Yonng Cavonr waa educated for the Rrmy, 
bnt at tbe age of twenty, when he hnd only 
reached the ran!c of HeuteniLnt of engi- 
Mers, he quitted the profefi&ionj and for 
ilie next twelve yean he reaided prin* 
dpally in England, and wmi deeply en- 
gaged in tbe study of j^^lltieiil and eco- 
nomical science i for the like purpose he 
also Tisited France atul SwitzerUnd, Ito- 
turning to Turin in 1842, with bis pohtical 
principles formed, and hi a fa to re career 
sket<;htid out, he, in conjnnctioo with hla 
^end, the welUknown Count Cesare Balbo, 
trtabliibed a first'eUsB political dnily news* 
fwper, li SiaorgimentQ. Count Santa Rosa 
al«o, and tbe Cberalier C^rlo Buoucom* 
pagni, joined It ai eotinboraiettrt. This 
jotimal became, under Cavour's guidance 
sod diligent co-operation, one of the moat 
inftaeotial organs of the middle classes. 
Daring tbe stormy period which followed 
tbe oBBsion of tbe constitution by tbe 
King, Count Carour redoubled bis exer- 
tions* During that unfortunate afcruggle, 
which ended at Novara, — when tbe ene- 
mies of Austria were almost equally ene- 
mies of eacb other, and accusations of 
were but too weU founded,^ 




Cavtnir took what Liberal writers celled 
a "Conservative** course. He was ad- 
verse, for instance, to a second straggle 
after the Salnsoo armistice. But at kst 
Kovara having destroyed tbe hopes of 
Charles Albert and of the freedom of Italy 
for the time, the Count Btruek out a new 
policy — a poli cy of com promise. H e fonn ed 
a party which stood between Reaction 
and Revolution — though it had elemetitt 
in it akin to each — and his success in doing 
tbis was what first gave him real position 
as a statesman. In 1843 he entered the 
Chamberis as raember for the first electoral 
college of Turin, and both as deputy and 
journalist upheld and advocated the Con- 
Btitutional party. From this time forwartl, 
no important question was diacnssed in 
which the influence of Count Ciivour did 
not turn the scak. He hud tbe foundation 
of bis subsequent ix»puhmty principsdly 
by bis speech in favour of tbe Siccurdi 
Bill for tbe abolition of clerical jurisdic- 
tion. In 1850 his ablUty and weight met 
tboir necessary recognition. He joiiied 
tbe Cabinet, and his adminiat rati ve powers 
were immediately shewn by the way 
in which the various departments were 
worked. He found tbcHe in a very buck- 
ward and imperfect condition, and the 
improvements that he elfected were little 
abort of marvellous. This Piirliauient wat 
prorogued from July to November, 1852, 
and Cavour* profiting by the recess, again 
vieitcd England, He turned the time to 
good account, in forwarding the interests 
of his country and openiug up his views 
to statesmen. In November, a mmisterial 
crisis arose, and Cavour was lent for by 
the King. 

From tbis period may be dated a new 
era in Italian history. The "unification 
of Italy" was tbe professed object of all 



84 



Obitcart. — Count Cavour. 



[July. 



Count Carour*! exertions, and to fttiaia 
thia and* which of coura^^ included the 
aggrandixement of Sardinia, he porsncd 
% Goone of policy which cannot be justified 
in all ita part% even by its apparent fluccoia. 
Tbongh Sardinia bad no imaginable cfloae 
of qnarrel with Eaisia, he formed an al- 
liance with England and France, and tent 
ft contingent to the Crimea, which did 
credit to the mUitarj abUitica of its leader, 
Gencfftl J>ella Marmora. This waa the 
fint itept bat a ^eat one, to tlie admisaioa 
of Sitrdinia aniong tbe Great Powers. Be> 
fore, however, it could produce any resnlt, 
iti projector woa for a time out of office, 
lu April, 1855, in conaequenoe of tbe op- 
position offered by the bishops to the law 
for the diaAoIution of convents, the entire 
miniatrj tendered its resignation^ since it 
was reiolved not to enter into fresh negoti- 
ations with the Papal See. Tliis occurred 
at tbe very time when the Sardiniau Ex^ 
peditlonary Corpi waa preparing to set 
sail for tbe Crimea. Placed thus in diffi- 
culty, the King charged General Durando 
with the formation of a new cabinet; but 
the steps which he took led to nothing, so 
that on the 31 at of May, 1855, Count 
Cavour was again definitely entrtifted with 
the belm of the State. Then bcf^an tbe 
propaganda of ConBtiiutionaliHm in right 
earnest. Cavour was regarded by the 
patriots of the whole Peninsula as tbe 
only possible man — tbe only hope of Italy. 
The Crimean war over, he aocompanied 
King Yiotor to Paris and London, and in 
both places received ovations that shew<^ 
what was thought and expected of him. 
Ho took an active part in the Congress of 
PMs> and there brought the Italian qnes- 
taon before Europe in an official form. 
Hii power and genius were now very 
generally acknowledged. Austria hated 
him as the enemy of her Italian rule, and 
the Papal See as tbe enemy of tbe political 
power of tbe Cburch. On the other hand, 
he p^ofi^ed by the reai^tion in fjivour of 
monarchical government which liad fal- 
lowed m\ the Pevolution and on the 
eatabligbuicnt of the Second Einprre,'— for 
this fortified bim against the Ile|iul)lienttf, 
and enabled him to give a wonarehicol 
direetirm to tbe anti^ Austrian feeling of 
10 



Italy. In this couutry he was especially 
popular, as the chief supporter of oomll- 
tutional government on the Continent 
Tbe Paris Congress broke up, having 
heard from Cavour a good deal not easily 
to be forgot, but leaving everything im- 
changed as regarded Italy. He, bowe^^er, 
was not the man to rest quiet under tbe 
disappointment. He bad shewn that Sar- 
dinia could 1>e of service to England and 
France united, and now he resolved to 
secure tiie aid of France against the 
Austrians in Italy. 

When two such astute politicians as tbd 
Emperor Xapoleon and Cavour are mixed 
np in a transaction, it must be hard to say 
which is the instrament and which tha 
master. In 1858, the baths of Plom- 
blares were visited by tbe Emperor, and 
Cavour was his guest, and then it was 
that matrimonial and other engagementa 
were entered into, which hound Franco 
and Sardinia to a common policy. On 
the 2Aih of Jannary, 1859, the Monii^ur 
announced that ** the mutuiil interests of 
France and Sardinia have influenced the 
two sovereigns to draw more closely the 
bonds between them by means of a family 
alliiinoe. For a year past negodatioiift 
have been going on with a view to this, 
but on account of tbe prineess's age, it 
was necessary to defer till now tbe mo* 
ment of tbe nuptijUs." On the 23rd 
of Janoary, General ISMg ii IMnce Na- 
poleon's proxy, went through the oaremooy 
of betrothal, and as early as the 90th» 
the marriage was aolemniaed with great 
pomp at Turin. On the 25th of MMr<t1t 
the Sardinian Premier anived at Paris^ 
at the invitation of the French Empeiror* 
where he did not omit anything which 
might he necessary to secure the intt-reats 
of bis country, whether the ultimate de* 
cision in that influential quarter should be 
for peace or war with Austria. On the 
12th of April, the Sardinian Chamber 
voted a credit of 803,115 francs for the 
fortifications of AlcssanUrta. which .\ustHa 
at least regarded as a menace* Eleven 
daj» aflerwards. Count Buors ultimatnm 
was pn>sented at Tnrin. On the 2(ith^ 
tbe three daya* gimce allowed to Sardinia 
by Austfhi having eipired« Count Cavour 



i 

I 
I 



P -"^MF' 



'^^SL 




1861,] 



Obituary.— Cfrttn/ Cavour. 



85 



rejected the ultimatam : wisely sayinc 
Dothinir of the " provodttians " that hud 
procetHled from Sttrdinirt backed by Frniice, 
he threw upon Auj.tfta the whole re»pon- 
Bibility of the war It Wis not, bowefer, 
ttntil the 29th thtit the AustriMifl Actually 
CKMMd the Ticinrj!, thtilr movement having 
beoi arrested at the eU'venth hoar hy 
a hum ontDooeesfal attempt at negocmtkm 
on tlic port of Lord MaJine^bury, The 
brief dAmpiiigii of aerenty days witneased 
the two noj^uary battloi of Mugeota 
and Solferiuu, but the pettoe of VtliafTtinca 
dnappointed Cavour'd hopea, and be relired 
fWnn olBo«. Ue was coon recAllecL and be 
tbm fiOtitnTed, hy the treaty of Zuricb, 
to pot m new reading on Vilbifranca. Lotii- 
bardyi MiiTondered by Anstriii to France, 
WW tnuioferred to Sardinia, tbo Duchies 
and the I^egatioos were " annexed," d la 
Americaimi, and Satoy and Nice were " re- 
annextKl to France," as the avowed price 
nf the Emperor Napoleon's snp^iort in tiiD 
fprmation of the Italian kingflotn — or at 
)eait bia onned neatrality. At the a«me 
tioBie a mere soldier was, probably half 
oneaotctoiaaly, working oat the deaignt of 
the itateamaii. Garibaldi landed in Sicily, 
and toon drove out the BoMrbons. His 
expedition was fitted out in the Sardinian 
ports, but aU knowledge of it was officially 
denied. When, however, it soooeeded 
ahnoet beyond expectation, and King 
FtBtids wai obliged to leave Naples^ 
"iecepted the situation," and 
to appropriate the op^il* 
ftdnction of Gaela by the SardinUn 
and tbe defeat of the Papa! troops 
vader De la Moridere, caai*ed Vletor Em- 
manuel to be received aa king, d^/aclo at 
laait, of aU Italy, except Vanioe and 
ft femiMJit at the PhiJal State*. These 
•stvpfeioiia, boweveri were quite enou|(h 
lo BMT tbe whole deaga so Tat as Count 
Cavrmr hiuitelf was eoncevi^eil, and he 
died with his great purpose unaccomplinh- 
ed. If tbe itatemi'nts current rcsficcting 
hia habits ore c^rrwt, it is only a wonder 
that hr llv ed io long. He wa s of a f » 11 habit 
of body, and so neglectful of health that 
he mude one inordinate and luxunoue 
meid M*rve for the whole day. quietly aa- 
•uring hi« physician that be " could not 
axMT.MAe. Vol. CX:XI 



Ftands was 
^^1i» fwlnction 



spare time for more." When be at Inst 
fell ill, be was treated according to the 
Sangrado method wbidi stiU prevails in 
Italy, tboQgb abandoned in most other 
civilized coontriea, and was literally bled 
to death. 

Of a man who has played so promineni 
a part in the affairs of Europpj and espe- 
cially one who e-rald at first wield the 
resources only of such a feeble state aa 
Sardinia after the battle of No vara, tb<?re 
has beeUt as might be expected, a wide 
difference of opinion. Those who think 
only of what he aceonipliMbed^ and are 
practical assertory of the maxim that " the 
end justifies the roeans," are loud in his 
praise, and seem to think the Italian aiu^e 
"all but lost*' with blm. But there are 
othera, who TevoU from both his prtnciplet 
and his Mctioiis, and naturally look mnnt at 
what be failed in doing; tboir view was 
thus stroBifly expressed by the ** Dubbn 
Mtiming News'' of the day afu?r bis 
death t^ 

** What an awful warning muirt not the 
sudden liloA" winch has prLwtrated Cavour 
be tx> the other principals and aocetworiea 
in the ssicrilegious robbery of Gixls Church ! 
Far be it from us to prrsume to point out 
tbe baud of Divine veng€*>ince in this un- 
expected visitation ; but who cnn hear of 
the sudden de&th ot a nuin who has played 
such a part, and whc*, to his very last litmr, 
filled so lai^ a Bpi«c«5 in the public mind, 
without a thrill of aw© ? The conscience 
of the Christian world wnll f»\ that such 
as this is no ordiusry deaths but one which 
iliould strike a salutary t^^rror into the 
hearts of wicked men. Hardly a week aga 
the organs of tbe revolution were tru Mpct* 
ing forth the plans Cavo<ir had in conti m- 
pbtion for oompletiniy the destruction i>f 
that sovereignty which liiis survived the 
storms and trials of a tbouiand years.'* 

We would may, that th^ real hint ry of 
the loit twelve or fifteen yeani h too little 
known as yet to allow any vv^ry sound 
opinions to be formed as to the motivea 
of tbe chief actor*, and that it would be 
well to suspend our jndgntenS especially 
on a man cut off in the midst of his labours. 

We will conclude with a pen-nnd-ink 
portrait of the deceased, from the " Loudon 
Review :"^ 

** Cavour at the period of his l»it visit 
to Eughuid wajt about five-und-lorty yean 



80 



Count Cavour. — Prince Michael Gortschakoff. U^7» 



of M(^«. He WM of middle heif^t, tnd of 
ntlu'r fall habit, with iihcnl nock at.d florid 
of>tn})li>&ion— one of tbuw nion with « ple- 
tlion f)f blcKwl, who ar« pocnliarl^ liable to 

aciit4* and inflauiniatory diMHUoik Still 

CTavonr, when he viaited Bn((Und, waa in 
the prime of life, and the i\i\\ vlgoar of 
With. If we may iketch the poKr^t of 
hiM out WM^ man, aa he lo lately ftood and 
moTod amang na, wo would lay that thia 
wan a roan of ruddy eomplrsion and nan- 
ffnintnina temperament. Hia brown hair 
iiicUnod to a«bum. He alwayi wore spee- 
taclon, which to a great extent ooi>oealed 
tbt^ eye* and much of the exprt^aion of the 
fiioe. Ilia faoe wa« aomewhat (ii\L He 
wore no mooataebe (the King, hia maater, 
had « nongh for two), bnt a brown whinker 
cH^i inned under the chin, and even then 
boctiming tinged with gray. Hin lipi were 
tki'i itiU. and were frrqoetitly oomnreMed 
in a manner indioative not only of great 
flrmnt'M tif purpoae, but of the aocrotiTe- 
neiM yih\ch cnalilt^d him to roi>e with the 
Prm>rh l^peror himw4f. Wlien he amiled, 
howi«ver, uid addreaiMid tboae about him, it 
couli be acen how couriUatory and per- 
auaHtvo the countryman of MachiaTelli 
ctmld be upon oooanon.** 



PUVCl MlCSaXL GcWTtCHaKOFV. 

Ifffjr aa At Waraaw, aged 65, Prince 
Hichael DortachakoC formerly Com- 
mander4n4,luef of the Roanan Army of 
the So^tUu and at the time of hia death 
Ikn-emor of IVOand. 

He waa the aecoDd aoo of PHnop Aln- 
aader. one of Sawarrow'a hrmT«it Gen- 
flrak, and w»a bom in 17£^ He entered 
Uw" lm|Mial amy at an «ariy agcw 
Knt int oaBe into wtSce aa an UBktr 
</ the ArdUerr of the i^uard in the 
war with TWiey in 1^3^S< dmiitg a 
part €i mhisk W ww attacifeed no the 
fftOr <t Oewnd Kiwaaowi^ He hm 
miAe hi* inA Mfwuntaaoe with the ftr- 
tiinAMM «r Si&tria, de«»ed in aAier 
yMm«a«oic the pcm^ <tfK»MBa to the 
KiW. ^IBitria Ml and DwMtBflK, w^ 
iMid ««iu^ fat 1^ <^<iAt* y i w i e adiid <« 
Im sanih «e the Balkaa. li wa» llie 
tey «f the ««?» *ci w)uah l)ortackakoi' 
te ^QOBpT 1^ asaicanMai of 
3^ Man^MTa 
a l^iwr 
^idke attBerv, nd raMHMd wtth 
the 




againat Pohmd, when he aerred for a 
fborttimeaachief of the ataff to General 
Pahlen, at the aame tune eommanding 
the ooUeetive artiUery. Perhapa artaDerj 
haa aerer peribrmed a more terrible part 
than in the battle of Oatrolenka, where 
Gortichakoff had under hia ordera 70 
guna. Ten timea the Polea nMfaed forward 
to drive the Buaaian grflnadiera into the 
Narew and atorm the bridge, and every 
thne Gortac^akoff abattered thdr attack- 
lag oolumna with gntpe and canister 
ahot. At Grochow he had, in the aame 
campaign, prevkmly rendered a aimilar 
afTvioe to hia maater; and at the laat 
atmggle for PoUah independence — that of 
Waraaw, — ^hia guna played an important, 
though leai deeiiiTe part. During the 
Polith campaign he had been promoted to 
the rank of lieutenant-general, and upoa 
the (tiagraoe of Oount Soil he waa placed 
on the general ataff of the active army. 
In IMS he became a Geoeral of ArtiUery, 
and in 1S46 waa named Military Gover- 
nor of Waraaw. He accompanied the 
R oawam upon that nuMian of intervention 
whicJi tenninated the atmggle for Hun- 
garian indepeadenoe, but aclueved no new 
diatinction on that occanoa. In 18S2 the 
IViaoe viaited London to r ef a acn t the 
Raanaa army at the fiuieral of the Duke 
oTWeUiagtoa. who had held the rank of 
a fleild-manthal in the Imperial aerrioe. 
la the caamcr of ISSS, whea the £m. 
peror of Ruana had reaolved to take poa« 
aa«MB of the Daaahiaa Prindpafitiea, 
Gtvtarihakoff wa« appointed to the ooia- 
aaaad of the army of oneafNitHn, at first 
aambariiig abovt 40Md «ea, and ai^ 
rirad at Jasay «n the lit cf July. The 
asmoe was of tbt uMSt cr£asnr ^ad 
antat ia OcadMr. Omar radn aeaft bna 
a poBte aot^ iBvlting hna to TOoeoas the 
Prark with tbt altenaAm of heiT.g 
anaebad ia hit ano^ fAMtMoi. TVe 
m«i» w^nrih iiittowed aad tbt Cximaaa 
war ai« Mii^ijfectt of haiiflST iaoa a^i[>rih we 
seed act <aitar hmt. TW TwsRttt if^taOm 
m IVilaiid hsmp apua fsariTwriaed the 
|«iV&rwidftOflrtadhaI-or»aaaM^ Of hk 
yMiaaaail ajppaawaof a venaaa ^iwBAjeuiaa 
wIm^ tvavaOei aa l^ IliBa>na(a PrinoK 
lial^U^and,*-^ 



186L] 



"^ Obituary. — The Baron de Forrester. 



kiHll, comraanJing figtipe, thin, but fltron^. 
{St» heud 111 id the upper part of hii bo<ly 
I incline forwards, but thii appeodrfl to be 
[luort* from tbc effect of castom thjui old 
iftge, for though 60 yeiin of age» be is bale 
Ipnd healthy. HU eyes, which in hi a 
>i>ping jKMitioii frequently shoot over 
\m speutiu.-lcsy have a firm ami scniti- 
liilng look I his voice ifl deep hut not 
om, and hii whole api>earance im- 
L ooe with that decttion and energy 
[nhicb pecnliarly belong to a good militiiry 



Yios-AikMiiUL Sib R. a DuNDAa^ K.C.B. 

J%m§ 8» In NeW'«tr»*et, Spring-gar- 

dena, aged 59» Vice- Admiral Sir liiehrtrd 

ntinderf Dundiie, K.C.6,, senior Nova! 

I of the Admiralty. 
The deceased was the eecortcl ton of 
■Bobert Saanden Dnodas, second Viscount 
Melville, by Anne^ daughter and co-heir 
uf Hicliard Hock-Saunder*, M.P., and l>ro- 
tll«r of Oetieral Viicount Melville^ and the 
Hon. Bobert Dundaa, Storekeeper-Geiieral 
of the Navy. He was bora at Melville 
Cit.tle^ April n, 1802. 

On leaving Harrow School, at the ago 
_ of thirteen, he entered the Roynl NiivaJ 
ollc^. and m June, 1817« fir»t went 
Iftfloiit as a votunteer on board the " 0»ny- 
Iwede," 26 gnna. Captain the Hon. Robert 
Cnvendi*b Kpencer, with whom in that 
thip, and the " Owen Olendower," 42, be 
. ierved aa roidihtpmiui on the Mcflltfrra* 
I and S<inth Americim stations. After 
k OOOddirable courae of active lervice he 
Mae A Lord of the Admiralty in 1854^ 
nd in February, 1855, he wni selected as 
rCommandep-in-Chief of the Hnltlc fle«t,in 
the room of the lut^j Admiral Sir Charles 
Xapier. In 1857 he resumed bis seat at the 
j Admiralty l!<)ard, Wbitehflll, and continued 
r attached to ibat department until hi«death, 
[In 1841 be was created Compiiuion of the 
Order of the Hath fbr bis services in Chin% 
mnd in 1856 was nominated a Knight Com- 
mander of that order of knighthood, after 
Ibe dose of the Russian war ; he also was 
• grand officer of the Legion of Honour, 
Kgnd had received the honorary degree of 
D.C.L. from the University of Oxford. 
His death occurred under painfully 



sndden circuriistrtnc*^s. He bad attended 
Divitie service, as ii»ua!, at St. Mattliew*8 
Cliupel, Spring^gardens, apparently in ex- 
celleut health, on the Sundny, and on the 
next morning descended to breakfust at 
his usual hoar. He soon after complained 
of illnefts, and left the room to lie down ; 
l^nditig no relief, medical aid was calliHi 
in, but bad only been a short time in at- 
tendance when the Admiral expired. Tins 
cuuse of death was disease of the heart. 
His commissions bore dsto as follows:^— 
Lit'Uteuant, June 18, 1821 ; Commandi-r^ 
June 23. 1823; Captain, July 17, 1824; 
Koar-Admiral, July 4, 1853; and Vice* 
Admiral J Ftibruary 24, 1858. 



The Babon de Fohbkbtt^. 

Matf 12. Drowned in the river Douro, 
by the upsetting of a boat, aged 51, 
Joseph James Forrester, Esq.* Baron de 
Forrctiter, Ac., kc 

Mr* Forrester had passed a considerable 
portion of his life us a mer<*haint in Portu- 
gid. In the ytara IS-Vt ami 18-1.5 be took 
a very active part in eiideaTQuring to ex- 
pose the abuses of the wim* trade in that 
cotintry, and publhihed several piunpblets 
on the suhject, of one of which, entitled 
" A Word or Two on Port Wine,*' there 
were many edilioni*. He also published 
in 1844 an essay on the mO(»t iipprovcd 
UKxle of making olive oil. 

He Imd previously undertaken a very 
complete and laborious survey of the river 
Douro, with a view to the improvement 
of its navigation^ This task had ot'cupied 
his attention for more than twelve years. 
In 1843 bis map was engraved in thii 
country. It is entitled **l'he Portugnci© 
Ikiiro. with so much of the rivernB can he 
made naviu^ablein Spain :*' and is an engniv- 
ing 10 ft. in length by 2 ft. 2 in. in hreadtlk 
It embraces an exact rej^resi'iitalion of 
the river Douro from aljovo Vilvestre in 
Spain, to St. Joao da Fox, (the mouth of 
the river,) on a scale of 4i in. to the Por- 
tugnese league. The adjacont country, 
to the extent of a cjoarter of a lenfjue on 
either bank, is minutely delineated, as 
well as every feature and chnracteriisHc 
of the rivcr itself. In acknowledgratut 
of this service Mr. Forrester received the 



8S 



ne Banm ie Fomater.— Vke-ddmral Motnom. [ Jolr, 



of approlMEtioo froB 
ike M iiiiieipal ClMiBber of Oporto^ the 
Agrirahsnl Society of tke Doao^ wad 
other imifipal and pnUie bo&s. Hit 
onrveyf were adoptes by the Puiiu^acM 
GofcmnMot as natioil workiy and re- 
fnzEted is FjigJand by order of the Hoow 
of CoouBoiML He «aa deett d a member 
of the Boyal Afadpmifa of liikm and 
Oporto» of tiie Royal Academy of Seieneea 
of Tarin, and of the Rqjal Gcognphical 
Socictiea of Berfin, PWria^ and Loodoo. 
He «aa decorated with theatara of Knight 
CoBunander of the ord«-n of Cfariat and 
Imbeia b Catofica, and with the croama 
of Cberalier of the orden of Noam Sen- 
hora de Concei^ao de Villa Vico^ and 
of Carioe IIL He reeeiTed from Charka 
Albert, tiie King of Sar^nia, a peenhar 
marie of penonal regard, for HaJL magim- 
Bimoaa lorereign pfaved upon the breaat 
of the Barcfti ForrMter the identical crom 
of the order of SS. Manriee and LManu 
which hi« Miqerty had worn thros^hoot 
his campaigna, •■ Oraod Master c€ that 
order. He waa farther hoDOored by the 
preaent King of Italy by election into the 
eorpa of Equestrian Knights of St. Man- 
lice; and he reeriTed from their Im|>erial 
Majesties of Roasia, Anstria, and Fnuiee^ 
and from bis Holiiiem the Pope, their gt^ 
medals of the first clam awarded to leanaed 
foreigners. 

The Great Ejdubition of 1B51 soggest. 
«d to Benjamin Oiireira, Esq., F.R.S., late 
M.P. for Maidstone, to offer a prise of £50 
for an eamy oo Portngal, partieolarly in 
connexion with mannfaetures^ wine^ and 
other prodnee, ndlroads« and free trade. 
The appeal was answered by foor candi- 
dates, one of whom was a natire of Portu- 
gal, and tbe other three Englishmen; 
and in April, 18&3, the preminm was 
awarded to Mr. Forrester. Thia essay waa 
immediately after pnt^ished, accompanied 
by^the eridenee giren by the anther before 
a select committee of the Hoose of Com- 
mons on the wine duties, which sat in May, 
1852; and it Ibrmed an octavo Tofaime, 
fhn of rery vahiable statistica on the 
r e s o nrces and commerce oi PortogaL A 
second edition was printed in 18»4. 

Mr. Forrester 1m 



\ on the O^£oe, or Tina Disease ; 
aad he hnd prk'pared fiar the prem a pro- 
ject fiar the im ps o r e m ent of the nB«tg»- 
tieo of tbe rircr Domro^ with a Tiew to 
the saring of haman Hft^ and fiscaitediBg 
the eoBTeyaace of the agricoltanl pvodaea 
of the nch bot insalated prorineeaof Lena 
aad Castile to Oporto^ in order to sapp^ 
the EnropcBB iBaricet with i 



It is a sad aad Tcry remarkable doae to 
the file of thia ardent and energetie man 
that he shooid at kst bain^ fiOJcn a victim 
to the floods of that river tor which he had 
done so mnrh, and which he had ao seal- 
oosly lalxmred to improve. HewaseomiB^ 
down the river, wben on passing a r^pid 
named the Ponto do Caehao^ the boat was 
cairied againat a rock, its side stove in, and 
it immediatrfy »inh. A man-skrrvant dtm^ 
to Mr. Forrester, and they went down 
togethi^. One woaua-servant was abo 
lost, but the remainder of tbe party, ci>n- 
sisting of three gentlemen and two ladies, 
were saved. Mr. Forrester^s body has not 
smee been recovered 

His death caused a profoond sensatkm 
both at Lisbon and Oporto^ and all the 
vesseb in port lowered their flags half- 
mast high, on receiving the distresnug 
intelligence. 

Mr. Forrester wss raised to the rank 
of Baron by the kte Qnecn ef PortngitL 
He waa deeted a Fellow of tbe Society 
of Antiqoaries of London, May 1, I$56w 
He had been for some jeers a widower, 
hot has left nx children. There is an ex- 
cellent portrait of the Baron, a Urge 
private print in lithography, by Bangniet 
of London, l»l& 



Yicm-kDXOJkX* MooBSox. 

Mag 26. In Montagn-phtfo, Bmsell- 
sqnare^ aged 68, Vice- Admiral Cdnstantine 
Richard Moorsom. 

The deceased was the eldest son of the 
late Admiral Sir RobeH Moorsom, K.C.R 
(who died in 1835), formerly Conmi*>nder- 
in-Chief at Chatham, by Eleanor, daughter 
of Thomas Scarth, Esq., of Stakesby, near 
Whitby, Yorkshire, and was bom on the 
22nd of September, 1792. He was et^a- 
CBtad at the Boyal Naval CoUege» jrh^re 



186L] Obituary, — Vice- Admiral Moorsom, — ^fis» Currer, 89 



he diatintrTiialird himeclf by gaining the 
lirftt tiicd^l Ho served at tbe itege of 
I C'Mttx iu» sigi al umttf, tn the ** Revenge/' 
^4. ttpder the late Sir C. Puget and 
Ciiinniodore i^ir H. Hothnm, He after- 
Wrtrdi) helii the p<i«t of LieuU^nont iti tbo 
••St. AH«iij"»." 61, and the " Superb/' 74, 
in tbe blockade of New Liindoo, Loo^ 
ItiUnd Souud, and New York ; and became 
Commander in 1814. He c«>ui!Datided the 
*• Fury " In the attack on Aljjfiera id 1816» 
in wliicb that vesael threw more ibell^ 
an any other of tbe veaaeli engaged. 
This re«nlt waa attained by arrangcmentB 
which Were afUrnards adopted in bomb- 
, fthipM, ty onler of tbe Admiralty. In the 
■' I*rometheui** he waa in tbe exereining 
fquadroQ, under tbe late Sir B. HaU<)ivt:ll. 
•nd in the *' Ariadne *' ho bad tbe ** lioce* 
- burse** and tbe " Helicon*' under his 
t'Ordera fur experiments in tbe Cbunnel for 
lAuiOc moatba. After having been senior 
fivKf at the Manntitis and dependeneiea, 
\ coeoeeded to the c<»wiiriand of the " An- 
^fbtraiaelia'* and of the Cnpe of Good Hope 
•^{uadroD on the death of Commodore 
!Nonr»e, He had not betD Bfitmi for luaity 
y«*ars, bnt tie became Rear • Admiral in 
1851, and Vice -Admiral in 1857. Ho 
Jed a very active life of late years in con- 
nexion with railway^^f and at the time of 
hia death he waa chairman of tbe l/ondon 
mnd North -Western line. He prcaidt'd at 
k Wbarndille meeting on the IStb of May, 
md then appeared in excellent health. 
LTbe cause of bis death, it is said, waa an 
,tion rendered neceatary in oonse- 
I of A wonnd he received in the arm 
BUUty yeaf* before. As resident director 
of ih« Chi^iter and Holyhead liiiilway 
^lia had fbnr steam-paeketg under hi^ di- 
(tiectloD at a time when the attention of 
be GoV' rnment and the public i^euerally 
rma closely directed to the improvtment 
' ateam navigation and the iulMitttution 
L for aaUiDg ships. His duties in 
I oQce led him particnlarly to consider 
•qiie>lioa,and to addreu to the BritUb 
I two papers, the effect of which 
I that tbe Steamship Ferfoimance Com- 
mittee, of which he was tbe chairman, waa 
appoin ett. Mnch of Admiral Moorsom's 
eisur^ wu& gi\ en to the study and expo- 



sition of practical naval science, and he 
was the author of several trentisea ou 
nAval tactica. Ho marrie4l, in 1822^ Mary, 
daughter of Jacob Made, Esq., of Silaby- 
ball, CO. Durhum, by wb^^m he had issue 
five sous and three daugbtera. 



Mtdd CVhueb. 

April 28. At Eahtim-hall, near Skip- 
ton-on- Craven, a^ed 76, Miss Mwry Francea 
Eichiu-djkjn Currer. 

Thia lady was descended in the male 
line from tbe family of Richardson, of 
BitTley in Craven ; and throug^li her great* 
gratidmiitber, tbe wife of Richard Iticb- 
ardson^ M.D., was tbe repreaenlative of 
tbe ancient tainily of Currer, of Kildwick, 
in tbe same district of Yorkshire. Her 
father, tbe Kvv. Henry Richardson, M.A*, 
Rector of Thorn ton- in -Crjiven, bad inar- 
ritjd, m 1783, Muri^aret Clive, only daugh- 
ter of Matthew VVikon, Esq*, of Eshion, 
by France*, duu^Ut^r of Richard Olive, 
Es^f, oi* iStych, in SbropaUirej and in 
June, 1784, on the death of his uncle, 
John Richardson Currer, Esq., unmarried, 
bad succeeded to the Kildwck estates, 
and taken the additional name of Cuirer; 
but hi.4 premature death enflued in No- 
vember uf the suiiue yi^ta, when he left an 
only and infant chid, tbe lady now de- 
ceased, born at Esbton-ball on March 3, 
1785. 

It in remarked by Mr. NiclioK in bis 
** Literary lUastrations of the Eigliteentb 
Century," aftw giving some account of 
her learned ancestors, that Miss Currer 
inherited all tbe taste of the Hicbardson 
family, ** having collected a very large and 
valuable library, and also pouesaing a fine 
collection of prints, shelhi, and fooils, in 
addition to wh it were collected by her 
great-grandfather and great -uncle." 

In 1820 she printed, privately* (W mpies 
only of) a t'atidogue of her library, which 
was compiled by Mr. HoUert Triphook, 
bmk seller, of London ; and, in 1833, an 
entirely new one waa made by Mr. C. J. 
Stewart, bookieller, of London, aud one 
hundred copies prinlei). Tbe latter la 
iiluAt rated with four beautiful local views 
by F. Mackenzie, from sketches by Mr. 



90 



JUitt Currer. — Rev. John Stevens Henslow. 



[July, 



Stewart. Of these, the two interiors of 
the Library and Drawing-room were trans- 
ferred to the "Literary Renuniscences " 
of the Rev. T. F. Dibdin, D.D. (1836), 
where we find the following remarks : — 

*' Miss Cnrrer is not a collector at the 
caprice of a day. From earliest youth her 
passion for reading and amassing books 
has been extreme; and fortunately her 
means enable her to gratify this passion 
to an extent of placing her at the head 
of all female collectors in Europe. In 
fact, as I have often remarked, this lady 
is a sort of modem Christina of the North. 
But she has been fortunate in building 
a superstructure upon a broad and splendid 
foundation. The Bierley Library, de- 
Mending with the property of her great- 
g^randfather Dr. Richardson, has enabled 
her to erect one of such splendour and ex- 
tent as to fill two rooms, whose united 
lengths (besides a bay window in each 
room of fourteen feet by twelve) are 
seventy-six feet by twenty-four feet in 
width, and sixteen in height. The first 
of these rooms, of forty feet, is the library, 
properly so called ; the second is the draw- 
ing-room, but equally devoted to books 
as the first. A third room, on a smaller 
scale, but to be fitted up with furniture 
equally hibliomaniacal, is in contemplation, 
to which a conservatory is to be attached." 

The mansion was partially rebuilt in 
1825, that portion containing the library 
being new. 

The collection was thus characterized 
in the Advertisement prefixed to the 
Catalogue : — 

" The Library has been collected solely 
with a view to utility ; yet in those works 
usually considered ornamental and curious, 
it possesses specimens of no cooimon oc- 
currence. In the Natural Sciences, To- 
pography, Antiquity, and History, it is 
more particularly rich; and the Manu- 
scripts, although not numerous, are in- 
teresting and valuable. [Amongst them 
is the Correspondence of Lord Dacre, 
Warden of the West and Middle Marches, 
fh>m June, 1523, to August, 1524.] The 
books, individually, are in the finest con- 
dition, and not a few of them in the richest 
and most tasteful bindings." 

The number of volumes was estimated 
AS fifteen thousand by Dr. Dibdin, and at 
twenty thousand in Burke's *< Seats of Great 
Britain," 1852. 
• In 1836 MiM RichardMMi Cnrrer was 



also at the expense of producing nnother 
volume, being " Extracts from the Literary 
and Scientific Correspondence of Richard 
Richardson, M.D., F.R.S., of Bicrky, 
Yorkshire," 8vo. This wa^ edited by the 
late Mr. Dawson Turner, of Yarmouth; 
being a selectiou of about one-eighth part 
of the correspondence, chiefly on botanical 
subjects^ (and filling twelve folio volumes 
of manuscript,) of Dr. Richardson, Miss 
Currer's great-grandfather. Of this pri- 
vately printed work the number was 250. 

Miss Currer was an intimate friend of 
the great bibliomaniac Richard Heber, 
who filled many houses with his books. 
It was even rumoured that they mi^ht be- 
come united by a tie more permanent than 
that of kindred pursuits in literature. 
This, however, is now a tale of times gone 
by, and Heber's treasures are long since 
dispersed. It is believed that Miss Currer 
intended her library to remain as an heir- 
loom at Eshton-hall, which, having been 
the property of her mother, is now owned 
by her half-brother Matthew Wilson, Esq. 

The surname of Currer was assumed 
in 1801 by the Rev. Danson Richsrdson 
Bonndell, M.A., the cousin -german of 
Miss Currer, being the third son of the 
Rev. William Roundell,of Gledstone, York- 
shire, by Mary Richardson, sister to the 
Rev. Henry Richardson, the father of the 
lady now deceased. He married, in 1815, 
Hannah, elder daughter of Sir William 
Foulis, Bart, and has a numerous fauiily. 



RXV. JOBUt STBVBN8 HSNBLOW, M.A.» 

F.L.8., &C. 

Jfoy 16. At his residence, the Rectory- 
house, Hitcham, Suffolk, aged 65, the Rev. 
John Stevens Henslow, M.A., F.S.A., &c. 

This distinguished naturalist and ex- 
cellent man was the son of a solicitor 
at Rochester, and grandson of Sir John 
Henslow, sometime Master of the Dock- 
yard at Chatham. He was bom Feb. 6, 
1796; and was educated at the Free 
Grammar-school, Rochester, and St. John's 
Colleg<>, Cambridge. He gradnat« d as a 
Wrangler in 1818, and became M.A. in 
1821. In 1819 he took a geological tour 
in the Isle of Wight with Professor Sedg- 
wick, daring which the idea of founding 



1861 .] Bet. John Stevens Wenilow, M.A., F.L.S., t^e. 



91 



the Cnmljriilge P!iilo«>i\bicttl Society ori* 
(('mat€»d Iwrtween them. It w«« carried 
into ciecQtion loon after their return to 
Omiliridja^t* in the autwinn of that ycsir, 
tti 182S li« WM elected Professor of Miner- 
Alogj At C»iiibridge] which canscd nmch 
13li|^4tion In the Umvertity, not coocem- 
Ing bim peraonnlly, but relative to the 
mode of eleetit:itu (8ee Cooper's Ann. ot 
Camli., ir. &:)6.) In 1823 he itiarried 
Harriet, daughter of the Rct. George 
Jenyuft, of Bottiahiiiii-ball, Cambridgeshire* 
Id 18^4 he wu ordaitiecl rteacon ntid priest. 
On Ibo de&tb of Professor T, Murtyn, 
a tliflSiinilty again arose relative to the 
^\X of appointing bis saoeesM^r ai Pro- 
of Botany, which was terminated 
hj the Crown raaking it a patent office 
in favoar of Mr. Henslow« and endowiug 
tt «)tb a nominal stipend of £200. Thii 
appointment took place in 1827. 

The Prolefisor took mui'h interest in 
contested elections for the town of 
^mbritlge as lung a« be resided there, 
J supported the Libend party. 
' prcvionsly held saooeasiTely the 
■1 curacy of St. Mary the LeM» 
\ Cjimbhflge, »nd the Rectory of Cholsey, 
he was presented in 1837 to 
f!i|jpieeUcnt Crovm living of Hitcham, 
'Mfbtk, where he settled peruiauently in 
18S9> Ho was not a party man in Church 
iit*tl«rs» bnt endeavoured, with eminent 
meoeaSi to improve a very neGrlected place, 
no that HitcbaTn is now known as a model 
pariah. He ettabUshed an excellent scliool, 
paying ftiljy half the exjiense him- 
If, and soon introduced botany into it 
I nn extra and optional study* which was 
kly taken up with enthuuosm by many 
girls, who have much bimeftted 
lie commenced a system of allot- 
nt, which, although much opposed at 
at by the furmera, has tended greatly 
t^i improve the character of the labourers 
His mk^ for allotments are eicellent, and 
ar» now adopted in many other parishea. 
I eritabUsbcd various clul«s, by which the 
people arc enabled to assist them- 
I avoid the degradation of pariah 
r iir application for private charity, in 
•m CBfca where previously they had no 
Also be formed u cricket- 



clnb, and introduced other atldetic games 
among the younger men. He was in the 
habit of taking one or more excursions 
with liis poorer parishioners in each sum* 
mer, the expense being defrayed chiefly 
by a small weekly payment made by them 
in advance. They thus visited Ipawich, 
Cambridge, Norwich, and even London, 
being conducted by the Professor, and 
visiting such things as be thought might 
interest and instruct them. But the Horti- 
cultural Society established for Lis parish 
is perhapi more generally known than 
any of the above-mentioned plana. It bos 
long held two meetings yearly on the 
Eectory lawn, with eminent mecess. At 
these shows the Professor usually ex- 
hibited A collection of interesting scien- 
tific and economic objects, and described 
some of them in short lucid addressei^ 
which he denominated lectureta. 

He was ono of the most active pro* 
moterS) and for many years the President, 
of the Ipswich Museum. 

The Professor's published works are not 
▼ery numerous, nud scime of them are 
pamphlets of only local and temporary 
interest. The following may be men- 
tioned : — " A Geolog^ical Description of 
Angbsea" (Cainb. Philos. Trans,, voL i.), 
is the foundation of our knowledge of the 
structure of that island* ** The l^inciplefl 
of Descriptive and Physiological Botany,** 
is one of the tteareiit and most philoso* 
phical treatises that we possess upon the 
elements of that science. Two editions 
of "A Catalogue of British Plants," in 
which the flora of Cambridgeshire is indi- 
cated. " An Account of Roman Antiquities 
found at Koughaiu/" in Nortolk ; a rare 
and interesting pamphlet. Essays on the 
•' Diseases of Wheat," {R. Agr. Soc. Jouru.^ 
vol. ii. and iii.) ** A Dictionary of Bot^ini- 
cal Terms.*' He also took an active part 
in Mnnnd's " Botonist,*' and in the ** Flora 
of Suffolk,*' recently published in oonjunc- 
tiou with Mr. Edmund Skeppor, of Bury 
St. Edmund's. 

In conclusion* he was an attractive and 
popular lecturer, a soccessful teacher of 
science, an admirable parochial mitiister, 
a kind'he:<rted and generooa man, and an 
earuest practical Christian. 



92 



Major Charles Nasmyth. — Clergy Deceased. [Julji 



Majob Chaslis Nasvtth. 

June 2. At Pao, Baases Pyr^n^ea, aged 
85, Charles Naamyth, Major Unattached, 
and eldest son of Robert Nasmyth, 
F.R.C.S., Edinburgh. 

The dece.ised was bom in 1826, and re- 
ceived an edacation to fit him for the 
Indian service. 

** Tn 1843 he was nominated a cade^ of 
the H.E.1.C S/s seminary at Atidiscombe, 
and in 1845 passed an examination, and 
was appuinte<l direct to the Bombay Ar- 
tillery. Having lost his health by service 
in Guzerat, he was sent, in 1853, to Eng- 
land on sick-cert 'ficate, whence he was 
rpconimended to take change of air in the 
Mediterranean. After a short stay at 
Malta he proceeded to Constmtinople, 
and thence to Omar Pasha's camp at 
ShuD-.la. From Shuinla he visited the 
Bobmdscha, after it was vacated by the 
Tnrks, supplying information to Lord 
Straford de Redcliffe regarding th«* state 
of the country. Having reach^ Silis ria 
in the month of May, ere yet the siet^e 
had commenced, he made his services 
avail ible to the garrison; and for do'ng 
so he r«>oeive<i the approbation of both the 
English and I'urkish Governments, — the 
latter aocompunied by medals for the 
campnign of the Danu>>e, siege of Silistria, 
and the Order of the Me^jidie. The hard- 
ships, privations, and anxieties of that 
period again shattered his health, and he 
wtis for.Bome Ume afterwards laid aside at 
Constantinople, having lost all his personal 
property. 

** In 1854 he was transferred from the 
East India Company's Service to the 
Royal Army, with which he served in the 
Crimea, and obtained the medal, with 
clasps, for Alma, Inkermann, and Se- 
bastoi>oL 

'* From the Crimea he was invalided on 
account of bad health, and returned to 
England. 

« He was then appointed to the Kil- 
kMiny district as an Aasistant-A^jntant- 
Oeueral ; afterwardi as Brigade-Miijor at 
the CuiTiigh; and later, Brigade-Migor 
and Dapafy-Asnitant A^jntant-Oenmd 
in DuhUn. At the Comigh his health, 
howevar, had been fhrtber damaged, and, 
not rallying in Dublin, lie was transferred 
to Aas&alia;biit disease had taken too 
■troug a hold on him, and he was inva- 
Udi-d homi* in the end of 1859, when he 
iMCbed Pfeo, in the south of France, 
where he remained until hts death. It 
will be in the reoollecti<m of our readers 
thiitbefteedom of this dty [Edinburgh] 

11 



was in the most flattering manner — after 
his gallant and successfal defence of Si- 
listria — conferred upon Major Nasmyth, 
and all mu«t lament the early removal of 
one whose professional skill and pergonal 
gallHUtry effected so eariy and important 
sucees!«e* in the Turkish campaign. 

*' It will be a ronsolation to his friends 
to know that he faced the last enemy with 
tlie same composure an«l courage which 
distiiiguiiihed his whole career, and with 
the resitf nation becoming a Christian." — 
Edinlmrgh Cowrant, 



CLERGY DECEASED. 

March 15. At Grubamstown, South AfHea, 
the Rev. John Hearytide, for many yean Colonial 
Chaplain, Mr. Heavy«ide was a native of Fins- 
thwaite, near Ulventon, and the ** UlTerston Ad- 
Tertiaer'* thus notices his deoeaae :— ** He was 
a man of superior talents, and of a highly col- 
tiyated mind. During the course of his activa 
and eventful life, he had opportunities of becom- 
iuR acquainted with some of the most eminent 
men in literature in Scotland and Germany, 
where he was for some time a resident. For the 
last thirty years of hit life he ha« been Colonial 
Chaplain of Grahamstown ; from the proximity 
of that city to the Kaffir frontier, he became con- 
rersaat with all the scenes of warfare in that 
distracted part of the Cape colony, in conikcqaence 
of the Kaffir inroads. In 1852 he was obliged to 
Tisit England from lU health. On his return 
to the ecene of his labours, the vessel in which 
be sailed was wrecked at the entrance of Algoa 
Bay ; but after two days and two nights of 
anxious suspense, he and his daughter were 
most proTidentially rescued, by another Temel. 
Mr. Hearyside had recently, after his health 
began to fidl, obtained leave of absence, with 
a view, probably, of revisiting his native land, 
which had previously proved so beneficial ; but, 
before this could be accomplished, his active and 
useful life was brought to a close, amidMt the 
deep regret of those among whom he so long 
and faithfolly Uboured.** 

April 80. At New York, aged 70, the Right 
Bev. B€t\famin TrtadwtU Onderdonk, D.D., 
Protestant Bishop of that dty. He was of an 
old Dutch &mily, and was bom at New York in 
1791. At an early age he was sent to Columbia 
College, where he graduated with some di»tine- 
tkm, and went through a thorough course of 
•oclesiaBtioal studies. In the year 1818 he was 
duly ordained a minister of the Prot*«tant Epi- 
soopal Church, and was almost immediately after 
appointed assistant minister of Trinity Church, 
of which Dr. Berrian then was and still continues 
to be the rector. During his connection with 
Trinity Dr. Onderdonk*s career was of the 
brightest cbsracter. As a man he was univer- 
sally beloved, and as a preacher his repuUtion 
was seoQod to none. Ue became in a short tima 



1861.] 



ler^j Deceagea 



«) 



% tntn <*i tueh proxntnrnee that, the ^n%l of Sotre- 
Ury tn ihe DtoevMH CanvenUon becomijjg ra- 
cbuI, lie WM advmnced ta fill tbal office; And 
wlien tlw dentiw of Dr. Hobtirt ocourrctl In t&3(», 
Dr.CliMierdoak wm dnlf coniftcrated Bisbop of 
If pw Vork. In St. John*« Ch&peU ThrouKh thp 
ftg«ncj of hU uamerous rri«nd«. the income of 
hu dioMie vat griAtlf lncr»>ed. «uid he grnve 
Qp hU eoBoeecUm with Trinltj Cbnrcb. The 
dlocMe VTM divided, Dr. Onderdonli retajninir 
Ui««M(UTn wctlon. About rourtee-n jretin after 
bift eoiLMcraiioD, in 1M4 (wu belieTe), a oireum- 
atiiliee uccuirvd wblch cnAt a cloud over hut cha- 
neter. A charire of indiscreUon in cotidi^ct 
waa |>referr»d agalnat htm. whit^h rcnUted in 
bU bdnf ladcftnitdj afiaiieiided from vpiaeopal 
fluietluna by command of tbe House of BUhopa. 
The •u»peAiaioti took place on Jin. S, 184 j, btjit 
Btiihop Onderdonk nftver made vbat can be 
called a etraf^aaioQi and a Btrong Ti^liiig was 
maniieated In hit farour bj wdnn frienda, who 
rrffarded Mm as u perjieouted man. The l>la> 
€««ao OoDvrntion, hi-ld ht New Ynrk two yeara 
agOi *d«fyte4 a petition to the General Conven* 
tioB of th* United State«, aaking that Bt«hop 
ODderdODk be fnllf rwtored to fimuUotifl. The 
petldofi waa not ftuaeearfUl^ altbougb the lower 
booae pMaed It by a large vote. Tbe Imroedlare 
oaiue of lil« deatk wks cardiac dropey, from 
whleb he bnd louff fluffcrcMt, bat the fatal i«sue 
ia belicTod to ba«'e been haatcacd bf the mental 
faclt^ment c^UAed bjr the reftiaal of the petiLlon. 

Mtty 16, Aired 59, the Rey. BUhttrd Fotry^ 
BeclOf of ^ortb C'adbary, Somerset. 

ifo!f lit. At Surbiton, Surrey, tbe Rev. TfercMce 
Ziri>»iyixtoH*t Eeolor of Big bury^ Devon. 

At bi« rnidenet, Njreolls Nymeti, near Bow, 
Kortb i»erao, aged SO, Ui« Eev. H. A . Muffhea^ 

Aged M, tbe Bct. John Prtit^n Beynot^t^ 
Bettor of Neotoa, Ib Norfolk, 

At Prieat^bottie, D^maybrook, near Dublin, 
ng«d ea, tbc BcT. S, Hunt, Rector of Virginia, 
«»» Qltaa, Ireland, and Vicar-General of the 
dtoocae of Slpbin, co, Rcwcommon« 

Jr.ty28, The Ten. Jttmtt Uiniam FnnUr, 
LL.D.f Treafurcr and Vtear^en. of limerick, 
Artbdeaeon of Agbadoe, mnd Rvclor of Agbodoo 
«Dd Tankardftown, KlUiimcy. 

Jfay M. At llttey Rectory, SiLrrey, aged 64, 
111* Hon, and Rot. Qevrgt Brodrick, Ue wua 
_bOfii Aprfl 23, 1797, and waa th« aecond ikid of 
~ f Bon. and Uoit Ker. Charles Brodrick, D,D^ 
tbbliibop of Duihell, by M»ry, dan. of the 
bt Rer. Richard Woodward, D.D,, Dinhop of 
Oe tbe death of hi* cousin, the fifth 
m llldlctoo, la IHS, bis elder brother 
Cbarlea beea<i»e Vlacotmt, and at tbe sunie time 
tbe deeemMHl and bin brotben and RUlern were 
imiied to Uia rank of a V1aeotLnt*« sons and 
daughtan by a royai warrant Tbe re?, gentle- 
L dML uamarried, and \f^ now ^mcceeded as 
> yriiiytiye to VUcount Midieton by bis 
bcr, the Hon. and Iter. W. 3. Brod- 
rick, M.A., Canon of Wella, who has a large 
family. 

GsMT. Mao. Tol. CCXL 



M/tfj 31 . At Batb» aged 5tJ, the Hon. ftnd Rev. 
Frtdcrirk Smyth Monckton. 

Suddenly, aged 33, the Rev. C, J, A. CiarkMon, 
M.A., tnoumbent of KirkUy Harems worth, near 
Richmond, Yorkabiro. lie had retired to rest 
the preceding evening in hi» uanal iitjite of health. 
Tile deeenBcd was formerly Curate of »i. Leo- 
nard'&, Molton, where be married ; Mn, Clark- 
eon, with her la fun t, wai Ttulting her relaUven at 
Malton at ttie Ume of hia d«ceaae. 

Junt 1 . At Hanadon Rdeiory, lierU, aged 46, 
the Hot, B. W. Tha€ktra$. 

At HoBtiugA, After three days* illneu, aged 7 A, 
the Uev. Jttmes Fredtrick Laietcard^ Rector of 
Perrivdle, Middleaex* 

June %, At the Recvory, Copford, Eaaea. Rged 
62, tbe Rev. Kennett Champnin llanhut second 
•on of the Ute Right Hon. 8ir John Bayjey, bart. 

JuHf 7. At the Farnonage, aged H4, tbe Rev, 
Patrick Brontif InctiuibeDt of Ilawortb, near 
Bradford. He waa the father of Charlotte. Anne, 
and EmHy Jane Broni^, tbe autburefMe^ oriprlnally 
well-known aa Currer, Acton, und Ellin BilL 
Mr. BrontL^ wa» bom In the pariah of AbcllereTgh, 
60. Down, Ireland, on March 17, 1777, Ilia 
fathei- w»s a farmer, and hud a large family, 
remarkable, it is ioid, for phytic j1 fttrength and 
personal beaaty, fiiruck by ttif earty intellectual 
aplhude of young Patrick, Mr. Tighe, the Rector 
of Dnimgooland, eent him to Engbud to be 
libemlly educated. He eni^^red St. John> CuUegc, 
Cnni 'bridge, and baring graduated, be was or> 
dnlncd, imti »ppointe«l to a roraoy in EitN?x. 
Eiirly in the present century be wai appointed 
to the incumbency of Hartinhead-oum-CUftoii, 
in the pariah of Halifax. He wan, while there, 
married to Mi^n M-iria Brnmwell, of Peoxance« 
He removed, about IS 14, with hLi wife and two 
children, to Thornton, nrar llradford, hnvlng 
been appohiicd to llic curacy there. While nt 
Thurntoo, hh children, Chirlottc^ P»trick Brnm- 
well, Krally Jane, and Anne, were born. In l»2U 
he mas appointed by the Vicar of Brudford to 
the incumbency of Iln worth. Mr. Bronte? waa 
him ••elf un author^ tmring ut dlfl'..FfoL petioda 
written and published two small volanic* of 
poems, chiefly on hamcly and rural subject*, and 
two prcMiO compO!«itionii, one a tale of Irish life, 
and the other a plea»iiig little narrative, entitled 
*' The Cotttge tn the Wood ; or, The Art of be- 
coming Rich and Uitppy." 

Junt 8. AC Kensington, aged 30, (be Bev. /««. 
Sktrrttt Buird. 

Jhw 9. At Shroton, the Rev. (?. A . Sepimer. 

Jun« 11. At the Vicarage, t^treai ley. BerkahirCi 
aged 1^1, the Rev. JamtM Itf^turi Burgtta, 

In Londun, aged 5^, the iUsv. Lov*%/ttit OttU^f, 
H.A., Rector of Richmond, Torkabire» and Oamm 
of Ripon Cathedral. 

Jun* 13. At Bawdon, Cheshire, aged 69, the 
Rev. BtMJnmin Powett^ J. P. for Lancashire, for 
31& yoKTs Incumbent of St. George's, Wtgsn. 

Juft* 14. Aged 66, tbe RtV. William Giaitttr, 
M .A., Rector of Beckley, 8uj»»ea, wroetimc Fellow 
and Tutor of Univeniiiy College, Oifofd, 

At Abbots Morton, after an UlneM of 24 boars, 
aged m^ the Rev. Thvma* Watktr^ U.A.f ^Univ. 




94 



Obitcary. 



[July. 



CtAU Owm), Fr^bcadify of the Ooargialit 
Cbureh, WolvvrbAmpKm, ud B#e(OT of Abbott 
If ortorit WoroMtmhire* 

At th« Rpcterjr, Njnpiiflfftd, OtoQec<t««tilrf. 
•ged 57, tbe BeT. CharttM TiUry, Rfeetor of 
Nfmpifteld. 

yHfti l». At TmibHd^ Wells, mgtd 43, tile 
B«r. J9Jm L^on, Inetirobcnt of Banlseii. 

Jmm0 IB. At Boulo|riie-«ar«MrT, ^uddrnlr, ttl 
diicaw of ih« licart. i^ 4i» ilie Be». flr«.«* 
iMkt rfiff*. Intmabont of Henbsm, Wftttes-cm- 
Tkuuur<. 



DEATHS. 

iforri S. Of dyfcnierr, OQ board HJil.a, 
MPm^ut," Fetanitng fl-om ladia, ■fed 35, 
Lieut. Bearr John IkiirelU too of tlfce Ber. & 
DoweU, of GoiiteJd, Evex. 

JtforrA 15. At Kcwcartle, Xew SoQtb Wateii, 
Jobn Tliomaa Bakrr, eeq,, J.F.» son of the lAte 
Robert Baker, eiq., Tomi Clerk of Xewbary . 

JfarrA 17. At WAitArt, New ZeftLuid, in mo 
tngsgccaeot with the eiietBf, afed XS, Ednaad 
ClkBrlM Macii«irbten, K.A., ]roiixiire«t aonof Skt 
EdmoMtd Muuirbtcn, bsut., co. ^intHxa. 

April 10. At Ids reiidieEkce, Uptoo^lMNiM^ An*- 
tnlind, Watefn AuatniUtk •gvd 7% Manhall 
^«acr CUfteoo, esq., F.R.5., lute SecretAry to 
tbo Cootmlidoiieni for VictualUn; R.M.'a Kjitj. 

April 1 1. At St. Paul d« Louida, Wevt Ca*«t 
of AfHea, afod 3&, Jobik WUlkm Broimt Mq., 
H.n, %!.*• Vtoe^Cooml, e lde«l Mm of tbe late J<^m 
Brown, r^^ ofGkMiecater-plAce, Portman^aq. 

April 15. At Btmxil, Fcmoek John dc Quin<«7, 
n^., U.D.tddeatBttrriTiaf MMioftlielaleThoa. 
d* ttniDevf . 

At Ootafamim^ linik-OoL FratieU RittMl], 

Apr- I ,rt WiBiain. Calcutta, ag«d 21, 

EUy, -CoL J. B. Dvniib^&A. 

J^r.. ,^. .^. ^ mbaUah, a^td X2, M^or Jobn 
AUlBAtft, I9tb Reft., TOfUBMl aoD of U>« la(« 
Adam AtUBMA, e«|., of toebocile, Nortbum- 
btrland. 

Clo bla Jflvmrf from PaUamMUatL to thf NoJl- 
gtenlaa, Aleiander Frwer Tytlcr, eaq^ lient. 
inh Btgt. H^idi^a NitiTv UAiotry, oldeM aoa 
•r ttot Ute Patrtok l>awr Teller. «ii|. 

jr«y I. At Oitrttt^, a«vd 31, CapL Arthur 
WOttua Ganii&lt. uf UM.*a Bencil EjiginttTK 
ftwmm% Mft of Wb. Oamvli. m^^ of Hat loe- 



OUrr 



A t rtirt Vk-i 



«awOtk<i«ta.«r<teln«, 
M/. 75tA lUsi.eMm 
CM ^ r OracroO, HiVtdT of 

Prr»!ti4ta. 

jy«f7. A1 MidnM, acrd 41, WlOfMB fidwrnrd 
Oicbrufh «a^., of Ube Hadna ClrQ 90nie«. 

41 DiAivnt. lt|f«rG«Bbia, AfHva, /Ton « flkQ 
INm litt ban»» 1 J»«t.-Oi»l« n&d#B. 
At Cuux, U^* ti QyMlK apvl tS, bi eof(i«#- 

U9«l. «L UM^ ** lame* Wati.** rtdait ma of 
Kil4 ««.• «f «^ Nodr, nrm. 




JVoy 9. At FiiiHeMp c» Dnbllo* otfcd 
CbartM Ropof, «^. H« wv ihc ddei* •« < 
Wm< &o|»ef , e«i' ^ ^^-^^^ *''^* "^ *^ ^''^' ^''^ ' 
Rirbiira Henry ^ ^ of Oowb^ ( 

MonughaDj, by I i of *» R*l»*< 

iod elder brtHUei- or Ntr u^tir; Roper, bat« I 
Chief Jtiitioe of Bonbaf. 
jooafOT bn&eli of tbe ftwdly of l^fd T»| 
beliif freat-graBdaofi of iha ciirbib Borofc. 
d«eeaae*t wu uartied, and ka» left U«a». 

Jfwy 1 J. AtCoowwT, NtllgiieTTk*, U«ry,< 
dan. of 9lr WlUiam DenfMO, KX.B.. Govi 
of Madna. 

Jf <V 1$, At Ctiflbid VUiji, a^ed 9>* 
widow of tb« late Goorge Dyier, ta^.. 
lortan of the UniTeralty of Cambtidfv, 
thie «inriT«d twenty ye*ri^ 

At St. Gconre'a, BermudA, Uffl 31, < 
wife of C. T. Abbott, opq^ OTTfwa mh Bc«C, 

Jftfy la. At Haylaoda, Ryde, lale of ^ 
aged 6A, CsmpbeU Lock, evq., CapL R.!C. 

ifiiy 19. At Elie, Fife«hire, i^ed 73, 1« 
Rankin, widow of tbe late nintoo Spalding. < 
M-D,, F.R.C..S*, EdiD^t "d OBatoa P " ' 
of 9L Aiidr«w'i» Jamaica. 

At Broadlkld- boose, CooiberliDd, Afid 9B, 
Ocorgv Ifenry Hewitt- Oliphant. eaq^, q l tbaft 
plftoe, AMordinff to tbe ** County 
be WW tb« ooly mo of tbe Ut« Cieociv I 
C«q., by Hary, dm- of Joba T ' 
LrniKjiburgb, and farrandHAau. and beir of 1 
Bodraon, oq.. Laird of Fanld, S,B. i 
bora in 1T93, and took tbe addltiocial aai 
ATHM of OUpbaat on aiwceodi&g i& IHl to I 
«at>tea of bla eoiuiB. Henry OUpbant, eaq. 
vaa a in«giiitrmt» and depoty-lieut for Curobi 
land, and dlaebargcd Ibo offlese of Hlg b Sb« 
of that HKinty in ia33L By Hia wifi^, Sarab, dmai 
^ tbe late Robcft Foiraaon, esq., of Barker 
Mfv^ Cumbertaad, be bAi teft iasat. He \ 
raecf«ded by bJa aoo, George Henry 
OUphaat, €«<i , B,A., of Trinity CoQegv. 
bridfft, and barricter-At4aw^ wbo w«a bom ] 
l» 17, The deceased repwoftted a bnacb of If 
bou«« of Hewitt, wbicb ia ennobled In tbe | 
of Vbcrivim LifTorrl.— Loa^lsM JSeKew. 

At Atbenn, Eliaa, Co«ntw» SaUaitia, 
dAV. of tbe Ute Sir Goorge Tiiiteb bart,, of W«i 
I— rb, Irelaad. 

Jfoy 11^. Sqddeoly. at Dicpwalt K.D,, agvd 1 
tbe Hon. C%«. Artbur Xante* Georgv Asii»le 
He waa bocn April r, IIUO. cad woe ib» •econd 
but #ld»«t eorriTinf aon of Artbur, yinaAt iHd 
lotb V^aeooBt ValeoUa, in tbe pecntfe of Irrlaad, 
by ElMnor. dan. of Henry O^Briini, «m|., of 
-park« No 



jr^yll. AtCnnboiw4QdgeiDo>Mti«fodfll, 
Mr*. K. Pooictaa, daa. of tbe lata Joba ttoo^laa, 
IkD., t<onl Bt«b«p of Salivbtiry. 

At HMTitTw, Mar £sc«er« Marparat. vife 
of M^lor-Qcn. P. fbddy, B JL 

At Bnien-halU Contleton, Bipfd CT, Ofbbi 
Oawfard AntPobtia, r«}. He was tb« aeeotid 
«m of tbe l»te Joba Aacrobttin, ta^*^ bf 
Anne, dan. of QSbba €knwf>ifd, fwfw m 
ll.r. I\ 




18G1.] 



Obituary. 



05 



of ntn?enhopo«gb), and younger br. thcr of Sir 

Efltnuntl ABtrcibiip*. Iwrt.. of Amesbury Abbey, 

Wills aud L I ;. near Epsom, Surrey. 

^!&« woA botTi ^'duc^tcd at Eton iind 

Ct* Jobn't Ci/ ,, , Lridjfe, whcrv be gra- 

dnated M-A. in U2\. The docwiswl gentleman, 
who rcpre*ic!tited Aldborouiirib onJ PlyiupUm be- 
tween 18l» And l»30, wnm ii Mafi^tmte iind 
Dfpnty-Liout. for Citoisliire, of whlcb county be 
ftrrvrd a» High Sbeiiff in IS54. He loiirriw!, 
flrftt, In is;?, Jauc, d»u. of the lat<^ Sir Coutta 
TYottcr. bftrt„ Mho ditnl in I82tl; and »econdly, 
la UW, Cbttriottc, daa, of Sir E, Croflon, burt., 
but ifr»« iLguin l^ft n widower in J839. Mr. An- 
trubus i» 4uecccdcd by bij* eon by bis fimt 
in«rrliig«, Mr. John Coutt^ Antrobas, who wo* 
horn in 185!»» and miUTicd, in 1S55, Fanny, second 
dxti. of C. SwvtcailiiLin, esq., of Someiford Bot»tbA* 
— XAndtm JUvine, 

At Banipftleud, aged i% Laura, nldow of Mr. 
8e«ric« Wu4c, of WoodbridgY*, SofTolk, niid Itkil 
pi».»vtviTinr Hn,|. of tbc Rpv. TboniiM Cortbcrw, of 
V Abbey, 

I ;«rctory , Norfolk, o ged B8, M&rgaii?t, 
nifc uf itie lUir. Edward John Howmon, B«ctor 

of IIC3W«U. 

I.. _ L — ^^tnync- Wilson {inf^ntloned at p. 710 
" «u the third dun. of Geori^e 

(» r«q,, of Uutton JBuivhfl, and was 

bora ID i;d4. She married, about tbe yeiu* ISOS, 
thp liiLr Hiobard Fountayne -Wilson, cpq., of 
Mrltuii-tNirk. near iKyncantvr, High Sbt-rlff of 
Yurkvblre in 1807, and momc time tcprpspntative 
tjf tbat county in Parliament, wbo«« uiolhcr was 
Uiv only Fttrvlvliie' dan. and beireM 4»f ibe Very 
Itev. Dr. Founteyne, Dean of York, by bi^ ^' 
eond wiff« Vane, only dau. of CharU'R Montugu. 
ew|r, of I'apptcwiek, whicb name hUB been ok- 
Kusncf) by her elder &on, tbc pre^t-nt Andrew 
MoQUgu, ««q., of Mvlton*pATk. --Lond»H Review. 
M>»^ 22. t^aditunty, ml Ldiubnrgh, Wm, Mm-- 
dU e*q.^ Daniab ConKnl-OenemJ for Scotland* 
At Kermoy, eo. Cork, Frances Elixabetb^ wife 
' of Uu' ac*v. Aru.nd4»l Hid. A.M,, tleclor, uud dx*u. 
of E. F. ^irattoa Reader, banker, of Handwith, 
Kent. 

At CbeHeabam, nged 5JI, Mary, relict of John 
Lontf, cw[|., of Uayloo-boUiMf, WUta. 

In iJublin, Anna Maria, witiow of Fnincla 

Jlrttw. r*q,. nf Mi)CoUup Caatle, Deputy -Lieut* 

eo. Watf'rtufd. 

Mag n. In DubUn, agel 50, Col. W. Oaratln. 

At Ore*! MaWern, aged S3. Harriet, w^dow 

. WisxmAttT KeniMKly, formerly Supcrin- 

llnir-»urgnm, Uydrabad Bubaidlary Foroc, 

iJra* Army. 

iHftftt, aged 7<t, Henry rmuton Tbomaon, 
I , M.a 

tfrtV **' 1" Si>uibwiek-eirt»c., aped fi7, Mary 
ktnna 3ktli;fitf, widow ol \\\v Her. (feu. Edward 
, fUtttuf • ' ' ' ' < -k. 

, Qfeinp*: , Snrab Cordelia, 

rtb** 1^ ■ '» ■ ' •— "ik W Wlc. 

r-bill, Torquay, Aleaander Itobert 
,M.l)., F.K.K 
ITtfy IS. At III* rc-iUb^nce, Kofbe-houw. U<>ch- 
il^l*, dgfrd lilt Cteui^n Ai'liwuitb, etiij , J.(% 



At ^t, Edmnnd'* Heclor>% SaUsbiiry, ti^d 42» 
EliKa, wife t*f tbe llev. T. H. Tgoke. 

At Church-houAc, Udimore, aged 7fl, %Ir. Thoi. 
Wickhiitn, formerly of Stone Croiicb and Asb- 
bumboni, for ftfty-six yeara one of Her Majesty's 
Yeotuen of the Guard. 

At Dulqubarran, Ayrshire, aged 79, Mary 
Butler, for mxiy years a faithful aerrant and 
friend In tbe family of the lale Sir Sam. Bomllly, 

May 26. In MonUigu-pI., Ru»>el1-iiq., uged 
08, Vice-Adm, Conatantine Itichard Moonnm. 
See OniTVART. 

At Great Yarmouth, Charlotte Francea, dan. 
of the late Rev. J. F. Browne Bohun, Rector of 
Dcbden, Suffolk. 

A I Biigbton. aged 71, James T. T. Dixon, esq , 
Commander ILN. 

At Bathwiek, aged fiO, Mita nurrietl Barry, 
dau. of the late Rev, GainR Barry, ILtctor of Lit tie 
Sodbury, Gloueeatershlre, and for upwArds of 
forty years officiating minister of Wakot St. 
S with in, Bath. 

At CUftoa, Mary Eleanor, wife of Major W. P. 
BJcbarda, Royal Artillery. 

At Dtinaebton, Invemeaa-^bire, after a brief 
illne«a, The Mackintosh. >* Though he had cun- 
iridcnibly pastn^ the alkiUed span, none who had 
recently ^een him out could have anticipatMl 
that death wa^ m near. He took a great Intereal 
in the Volunt<»«T movement^ and wa» a Uberol 
contributor to the funds of the Lucbaber, Mer- 
chanta% and Clachnieuddln Rifles. The lato 
Maukintoab waa born In Britjah North America, 
wb»re the family have considerable property, 
and W4%a partly educated at the Ro\aI Academy 
of Invemeaa. During the Americuo w«r of 1812 
b<^ eQ{H»untered seTcre losaca at tbe baudH of Uio 
Americans. He waa an excellent landlord, a 
gmwi countryman, ei4imab1e in fumlly and KOcLal 
relattnns, and a MacktntoAh to the backbone. 
Wbibt iio many of the ancient fEimilies in tbe 
county have gone down and eunk, leaving of 
land p«rb;tps only a burying-ground, the ^klack- 
intu(f>be« have been addmg to their poa«csaion». 
Tbe Mackintosh waa twice married. By hia 
ftccQind wife, a danghter of the late Macleod nf 
PaWey, he leaver xereral children. Thp eldest 
son, Alexander Eneoa, now in hiis sixteenth year, 
who aucceeda to the exlenaire entatcs In tbo 
parlahea of Invemcaa, Dores, Croy, Davlut, Moy, 
Alrle, Kingtiasic, Laggan, and Kilmonlvalg, aa 
twenty-uintb of Ifaokint^h and twenty-fourth 
Captain of Clan Chatian, is a youth of great iiro- 
miae, receiving bia edncailon in France. The 
burying-place of the family ii in the ancient 
ebapel Mttacbed to the ebureh of Petty, and tbe 
funeral took place on Monday the 3rd of June." 
Intprticut Adrn'titter. 

May 37. At Einioulh, Devon, the Hon. Mr*. 
Wellington, second duu. of George, 13th Vlseoiml 
Hereford. 

At tbe Vicarage, Harrietle, wife of the Kev. F. 
Bryans, Vicar of Backford. 

At Canterbury-, Suiuut, dau. of the lute Heitrj 
Godfrey Fnn-^ett, eatj., of lIe|ij«inKton, Kont. 

At bis nei^dcnee, Malta, uged .V1, t^dward 
Kuatchbull Hughrs DLdlett, e*q , Coituuandor 



1861,] 



Obitoaet. 



97 



MLtwItluiin, Kent, Lt.-CoL Frpderick For1>e.<» 
Brow, lute or H.M^ I2lh H«"fft- Bombay NM. 
At OnMRieret Marjr Euphemia, wife of Sir 
L^otDAs NVooUtuttJvi White, bart., of VVaUinir- 

At MafTrnit of neuralgia, whifsh suddenly 
Attack eel the b<?art, aKvd 30, Arthinirton, <»oc£>nd 
•era of ^r W. Woraluf, bart, of UuvingliHtn, 
YorlulilrQ. 

At Oudigftn, Maria EUi»beth. «Idei>t dau. of 
, Ibe late Bev. Bector Davie* Morgan, M.A., for- 
uerl; of Castle Hedingbiun, Eeaex. 

Jtifte i, Xi Harapton Bifthop, tI«reford, aged 
1\. Ann, widow of Col. Wcare, K.Q., Aldc-de- 
C*nip to the Qne«n. 

At Culdrain by nnntly, aged 71, fJtTi. Gordon, 

H.A., of Cnldntln. He was the «on of Col. Gordon, 

Of Ooyuneb^t. His futbcr wjrrwl long in the fl2nd, 

luting get bi« Hppolntmerit in it when tb^t 

I ve^imcni wm ruLftcd by tbe Mnrqnip of Uitntly. 

I Th« iidccBAQd cnCcrvd the Royal Anillcry when 

I YCty young, and aa early aa 1S06 hud attained 

» the rank of ilrst lieutenant. Be bad long 

retired from active scrricc and bad become a 

Ihriving agriciilturi*t. 

June 5. In Clarendon*terrace, Kcnuington-pk., 
•ugt^d 75, Willbm Mocllonougb, esq., tate Prin* 
eip*il of the Power of Attorney Office, Bank of 
Ungland, and flay-fcmr yean olcrk In that e*ta> 
bUabment. 

At Bromley-ocnntnoii, Kent, ElUibetb, relict 
of tbe Her. WilUajn Motierbam MeQulre, of 
Liverpool. 

Ju- «0. At Tarin, Count Carottr. SeeOsrrrAar. 

In Princct'tcrraoe^ Hyde^park, aged 40, Albert 
' John Uambroagb, e^q,, F.L.S.f F.U.S., of Stccp- 
Mll Cattle, Isle of WiRht. 

At Fincbley, EEi^t^abctti, foorlh dan. of the 
late Rev. Anthony AlUnsun, of Long Benton» 
KfNTthaniberLand. 

At St. Sidweira, Exeter^ Lieut. Macdoaiald. 
BevDaiTVAaT. 

Jmit 1. At Grey well, HanU, tbe Rlgbt Hon. 
Lady Doreheater. 

Sqddfnly, near Horftbam, aged 2S, Lawford 
▲ndrewa Ricbardion, Capt. ^th Dni|ir<[>ui) Goardj*, 
and eldrat mn of Lawford KlchanlJion, eiq., of 
EHham, Kent. 

At Kentoo. Devon, aged il, Thomas Peregrine 
Dntrtenay, e»q. 

At Belmont, Brighton, aged S3, Anna Prancea, 
wlte of DAvid Brooke Horrieion, ckj., kte of the 
Bengal Civil Service, 

At 0*bome*pl., Plfmoatb, aged 00, Johanna 
CbtlMvtoc wile of J. K. MoUtc, of U.M.'b C«7lon 
Civil Service. 

At Monleigb Rectory, South Devon, aged 74, 
Wiliiam G-mc, gentlcnian, tMrd non of the late 
Wm. Carne, gentleman, of Penzanee, Cornwall, 

/mu H. At Drigbton, aged 26, the Hon. Artbnr 

LXaywUowcinl Legfe, Llewi. R.N. Ho wa* the 

lllllhl «oil of the fonrth Earl of Dartmotith, by 

' %itg weoDd marriage wUb Fmnccii, second dau. 

of Oeoirfe, ftfth Viscount Barrington. He be* 

aaaw a mate in the Royal Navy in 1955, and re- 

oalvvd • ned«l for bis actvlafs in the Rnaaian 



At Hawombe, Devon, aged 44, Anr^e Frnnceat 
wife of Sir v\ alitr Piilk Carew, bait. Ht r lo^ly- 
ahip was the fiati. of the late Major-Oc^n. Ta>lor, 
CD., of Ogwcll-houne, Devonshire, for fome 
time Lieut.-Ooveinur of the Royal Military Col- 
lege, Sandhurst, arid was bom in 1S17. 8be 
married, Janoaiy 25, 1837, Sir Walter Palk 
Carcw, eight biironpt, of Hut^eouibe and Tiver- 
ton Ca'-tlp-, Dfvonsihire, and hus hud i^suc one 
aon, Walter Pwik, bom April 13, l»U, and two 
danghter#, Elixithc'tb Anne and Bcntrix. 

At Clifton^ aged 61, Franceft, i-el^ct of John 
Synge, esq., of GUomore Cnntle, co. WickloW| 
and eldest d»u. of the late Bir Richard Steele, 
bart., CO. Dublin. 

Aged 53, William Vernon Mitford, late Lieut.- 
CoL 9th Bcogml Cnvatry, eldest son of tbe Ute 
Bertram Jklitrord, esq., LL.D., of Ciontarf, co. 
Dublin. 

At her residence, King'n Lynn, aged 77, Mm. 
Manhy, widow of Edward Manby, esq., late of 
KingV Lynn, and of East Rndbam. 

At Chvltoiiham, ajred 8D, Margaret, reliet of 
the Rev, J Scholefield, Itector of Barton-on-Uie- 
Uratb, Wiirwitkukire. 

Charlef) Uayner Frecm»n, esq., of Upland-halt, 
near Stowmarket. 

At Kdinburgb Castle, imddonly, aged &3, iient.- 
CoL A, C. Anderaon, Fort Major, late of the Baih 
Regt. 

At Hoo, aged IDO, Mr. fJseklel Smith, a native 
of Daibuglioo. 

At 0#tend, aged 33, Richard Clancy, Ute Cnpt. 
In H.M-*ft I5th Rcgt, of Fyot, youftffcsl s-on of 
Jobn Clancy, eisq,, of Killncmanagh, co. Dublin, 
and of Uiillinluugh Dawn, co, Meatb. 

June 9, At CoJchcji,ter, aged 91, Lofe Albert 
Parry, esq., formeily of the Ordnance Depart- 
ment at Uurwlcb, 

In I>tndon, ©ged 43, Harriet, wife of the Rev. 
F. A. Mallesun. M.A., of Birkenhead. 

J$titt Ift. At Norwich, aged ?a, Elizabeth, dsu. 
of the late Rev. Pbilip WddeUoo&e, Hector of 
Bingbain. and Pn■l^enda^y of Norwich Cathedral. 

Aged 73, Catherine, witlow of Cupl. PLioeas 
Ryrie. of H.M.'s Ttith Uighlaadcrs. 

Fanny, tbe dau. of Adam Murgatroyd, manjr 
years an inbabitant of Pimlico^ nod grand-dan* 
of the lule Rov, Wm. Murgalroyd, Vicar of West 
ITiiurToek E*«*ex. 

At Rrigbton, aged 7tk, Henrietta, relict of the 
late Tbomas Lane, ««q., formerly oi Farittdtma, 
Lingiield, Surrey. 

At tbe residence of her step-son, Charles H, 
Salmon, Great Berkbamstead, Herta, aged Cg. 
Mary Ann, relict of John f^almon, Commander 
R.N,, and only dan. of the late 8amp«on Lloyd, 
banker, Lomhard-Rtreet. 

Jutti It AtM»rPHirtenoe,Cilouce8tfT-plac«, aijcd 
M, BcMJamm Phillips, e*<j., F.R.9., F.RX.H, 

Agvd6U Howard Fletcher, estj., of Spriwg-hlll- 
hoiue, WalMail, Staffordshire. 

Drowoe<J at Windcnnere, aged 48, CipL Mat- 
thew Ford, of the 2iid Lancashire MUitio. On 
that day, in company with Capt. George F. Park, 
formerly of the 55th Kegt. of lufonlry, and Capt, 
Geo. Huiuney Rawliuson, of tbe ^rd Dragoon 



98 



Obituary. 



[July, 



Guards, he put off in a yacht on Windermere. 
The weather was unfarourable, and there was a 
Btiff breeze. In the evening, opposite Stockport, 
a sudden squall caught the vessel and capsized it. 
All on board were thrown into the water. Capt. 
Bawlinson clutched the edge of the stem. Capt. 
Park was seen by his companions swimming, 
first under the mast of the vessel, which hung 
horizontally over the water, and then striking 
away towards the centre of the lake. He had not 
proceeded far when he sank. Capt. Ford said, 
••There goes poor Park." Shortly after Capt. 
Ford dropped his hold of the boat and struck out 
for the margin of the lake. He, too, sank, and 
did not rise again. In the meantime Capt. Baw- 
linson, the sole survivor, contrived to swim on 
shore, the distance beini; from 150 to 200 yards. 
The lake boatmen dragged the bottom next day 
and recovered tlie bodies of Captain Ford and 
Capt Park. 

June 12. At Muscovy-court, Trinity-sq., aged 
68, Geo. Atchinson, esq., architect. 

Suddenly, at St. John*s-wood, of disease of the 
heart, aged 60, Charlotte Sarah, dau. of the late 
Archibald Brounlie, esq., Vice-Consul at Madeira. 

At Brompton-crescent, Brompton, Charlotte, 
widow of Oliver Lang. esq. 

At Holland-house, Blackheath, aged 84, Mrs. 
Sarah Kimbcr, relict of Wm. Kimber, esq., late 
of Heslington, near York. 

June 13. At Cbilton-house, Bucks, Elizabeth 
Anne, wife of the Rev. George Chetwode. 

Emily, widow of the Rev. George J. Cubitt, 
formerly Rector of St. Thomas', Winchester. 

June 14. At his residence. South-villa, Inner 
Circle, Regent*s-pk., aged 76, George Bishop, 
esq., F.R.S. See Obitvabt. 

At Dublin, Thos. Haswell Quigley, esq., M.D., 
late of the Royal Artillery. 

At Milton-Brodie, aged 68, Henry Jos. Brodie 
Dunn, esq. 

At his residenoe, Canning-street, Liverpool, 
aged 69, Richard Brooke, esq., F.S.A. 

At Torquay, aged 64, Capt. Bruce Roxburgh, 
formerly of the 6th Bengal Cavalry. 

June 15. At Upper Holloway, Jane, relict of 
Richard Gash, esq., and niece of the late John 
Bell, esq., original proprietor of ** Bell's Weekly 
Messenger." 

At Plymouth, Jane Catherine, relict of Wm. 
Cunningham Bruce, esq., Bombay Civil Service. 

At Durham, aged 76, Honor Ejrre, of Alfied- 
st., Bath, dau. of the late Rev. Anthony Foun- 
tayne Eyre, Canon Residentiary of York. 

June 16. Aged 68, John James, esq., of the 
Shrubbery, Holyboume, Hants, formerly of the 
Admiralty, Somerset-house. 

At Tjldesley Parsonage, near Manchester, 
aged 45, Elizabeth, wife of the Rev. George 
Richards. 

At the Colosseum Hotel, Great Portland-street, 
after a long illness, aged 65, the Very Rev. Peter 
Dominick Smyth, Catholic Priest. 

At his residence, Castlc-hill, Walmer, aged 66, 



Maj.-Oen. Eaton Monins, Col. of the 8th (King's) 
Regt. He was one of the few remaining Waterloo 
officers. 

At his residence, Frant, Sussex, aged 67, Thos. 
Budgen, esq. 

At Fluder-house, King's Kerswell, Devon, 
aged 70, Lieut.-Col. Edward Mason. 

At Ewcnny Abbey, aged 70, Lieut.-Col. Tur- 
bervill, K.H., late of the 12th Regt. of Foot, a 
Magistrate and Deputy-Lieut, for the county of 
Glamoi^n. 

At Plymouth, aged 86, Anne Emma, widow of 
the Rev. Edwin M. S. Sandys, of Michaelstow, 
Cornwall, and eldest dau. of the late Rev. Robert 
Stapylton Bree, of Trintagel, Cornwall. 

June 17. At Brighton, aged 68, Lieut.-Col. 
John Jopp, late of the Bombay Engineers. 

At Lymington, Hants, aged 76, Edward Hicks, 
esq., J. P., and Chairman of the Bench. 

In Belgrave-sq., aged 74, David Baillie, esq. 

At Southsea, Hants, Margaret, widow of Louis 
Madden, esq., and only dau. of the late Rev. 
Richard Jordan, Minor Canon of Rochester 
Cathedral 

June 18. At Vichy, aged 57, Anna Maria, wife 
of Capt. Gustavus Evans, R.N., of Lansdowne- 
place, Brighton. 

At Highgate, aged 68, Ann Caroline, eldest 
dau. of the late John Cook, esq., of the same 
place, and of the Navy-offlce, Somerset-house. 

At Oval-house, Kennington-park, aged 29, Ann 
Margaret, second dau. of the late F. Devon, esq. 

June 19. In Piccadilly, aged 57, Rear- Admiral 
the Hon. John Frederick FitzGerald de Ros. 

At Bath, aged 88, Mary, widow of the Rev. 
John Hughes, Rector of North Tedworth, \\ ilts, 
and Fyfield, Hanto, and eldest dau. of the late 
Rev. Chas. Coxwell, Ablington-housc, Fairford, 
Gloucestershire. 

In George-st, Hanover-sq., Helen Hamilton 
Ranken, wife of Wm. Fergusson, esq., Professor 
of Surgery in King's College, London. 

At St. Leonard*s-on-the-Sea, aged 46, Margaret 
Mary, wife of the Rev. W. Compton-Lundie, of 
Spital-house, Spital, near Berwick-on-Tweed. 

At Wells, Somerset, aged 78, Frances Gould 
Tudway, relict of J. P. Tudway. esq., M.P. for 
WeUs. 

June 20. In Fitzroy-sq., Charles Grant, esq., 
formerly of Bombay. 

Jutte 21. At Brighton, aged 58, Rear-Admiral 
the Hon. Frederick T. Pclham, C.B. The de- 
ceased, who recently retdgned his office as one 
of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, 
was the second son of Thomas, twentieth Earl of 
Chichester, by Lady Mary Henrietta Osborne, 
eldest dau. of Francis, fifth Duke of Leeds, and 
was bom August 2, 1808. 

At Montague-house, Brook-green, Hammer- 
smith, aged 58, Daniel Tbomas Roy, esq. 

June 23. Suddenly, at Stratheden-lodge, Ken> 
sington, the Right Hon. John Lord Campbell, 
Lord Chancellor. See Obituauy. 



1861.] 



99 



TABLE OF MORTALITY AND BIRTHS IN THE DISTRICTS OF LONDON. 

{Drom the Returns issued hy the Registrar- Oeneral,) 

DEATHS REGISTERED. 



8U psunrTEiTDEirr 


Area 

in 
Statute 
Acres 


Popula- 
tion 
in 
1851. 


Deaths in Districts, &c., in the Week 
ending Saturday, 


DISTKICTS. 


May 
25. 

1861. 


June 

1, 
1861. 


June 1 June 

8, 1 15, 

1861. 1861. 




Mean Temperature 


57-6 


575 


o o 

53-3 1 60-5 




London 


78029 


2362236 


1237 


1069 


1101 ! 1121 




1-6. West Districts . 

7-11. North DistricU . 

12-19. Central Districts 

20-25. East Districts . 

26-36. South Districts . 


10786 

13533 

1938 

6230 

45542 


376427 
490396 
393256 
485522 
616635 


205 
259 
195 
251 
327 


192 
215 
164 
201 
297 


177 
231 
161 
226 
306 


175 
233 
168 
223 
322 







Deaths Registered. 


Births Registered. 


Week ending 


lif 


i! 


|S 


i! 


S is 


7l 


1 


1 


3 


Saturday, 




§1 


S| 


g| 


s| 


^ 


1 


i 


1 


May 25 . 


678 


173 


158 


183 


45 


1237 


i 892 


934 


1826 


June 1 . 


566 


137 


150 


129 


38 


1069 


972 


987 


1959 


8 . 


580 


129 


169 


178 


45 


1101 


963 


884 


1847 


„ 16 . 


626 


151 


152 


153 


39 


1121 


1017 


926 


1943 



PRICE OF CORN. 



Average ^ Wheat. Barley, 

of Six > «. d, s, d. 

Weeks, j 54 8 34 9 

Week en^gl 64 8 | 34 9 
June 16. / 



Oats. 
#. d. 
25 2 



Rye. 
s. d, 
34 1 



Beans. 
*. d, 
44 6 



Peas. 
#. d, 

40 5 



25 2 I 41 2 I 44 3 I 44 1 



PRICE OF HAY AND STRAW AT SMITHFIELD, June 20. 

Hay, 2/. 0#. to U, Os. — Straw. 1/. 10#. to 21, 0#. — Clover, 3/. 10#. to 6?. 0*. 

NEW METROPOLITAN CATTLE-MARKET. 

To sink the Offal^per stone of Slbs. 

Head of Cattle at Market, June 20. 

Beasts 1130 

Sheep 14,340 

Calves 745 

Pigs 250 



Beef 


4f. 


Ad. to 5«. 


Orf. 


Mutton 


4f. 


M. to 5«. 


2d. 


Veal 


4f. 


4<i.to5*. 


Od. 


Pork 


4f. 


M. to 5«. 


Od. 


Lamb 


hs. 


8(2. to6«. 


4d, 



COAL-MARKET, June 21. 
Beat Wallsend, per ton, 14f. Zd, to 18f . 6<i. Other sorts, 12s. 9d. to 14f . 9d, 



100 



METEOROLOGICAL DIARY, by H. GOL'LD, Ute W. CART, 181, Strakb. 
From Ma^ 24 to June 23, imelmsice. 






Thermometer. Rirom. 



p 



Weather, 



24 55 

25 56 

26 '■ 60 

27 57 

28 : 55 

29 ' 5S 
SO 61 



J.l 



61 

2 60 

3 57 



60 



6 55 

7 55 

8 52 



64 • 
67 

62 ' 

63 i 
58 

64 ' 
71 
70 
68 
60 
59 
59 
62 
56 
59 i 



^ in. 
55 30. 

52 29. 

53 ;29. 
55 30. 

52 29. 
58 !29. 
60 29. 
60 .29. 

54 29. 

53 29. 

54 29. 
53 29. 
51 29. 
53 29. 
53 29 



01 cloudy, fair 

78 do. 
81 ^air, rain 

02 do. 

99 raiu, cloudy 
91 cloady 
89 fair 

91 do.clondy,rbn 
76 rain I' 

79 cldv.hvy.shr*.' 

98 do.' ! 
9l> do. rain 
94 '•}arain,tlLrJpJ 

99 da do. cliitidy 
97 cloody, T4m ] 






Thermometer. Barom. 



£i 



June 
S 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
30 
£1 
2S 
23 



53 
5T 
61 
62 
65 

m 

SO 
GO 
GD 
63 
64 
U 
69 
67 
6S 






&9 
«7 
67 
75 
77 
73 
71 
71 
73 
70 
70 
73 
76 



" in. 

55 .29. 

54 '29. 

56 30. 

60 '30. 
63 30. 
66 30. 

62 29. 

55 ,29. 
59 130. 

61 30. 

63 30. 

63 29. 

64 29. 
64 ;29. 



Weather. 



75 , 66 :29. 
I 1 



ptfl.- 
7 i icldy. hry. rain 
77 ;hTy.rain.drfy. 

01 fair, ddy. rain 
05! do. do. 

07 do. 

02 do. 

97 do. do. 
99! da 
02 do. 

04; cloody, fair 
01 do. do. 
89,;hy.rain,th.lg. 
90::'air, ddy. rain 
81{;doudy Og.ir. 
74 'd. hy.m. thr. 



DAILY PRICE OF STOCKS. 



Jaae. 


Sper 

CVBt. 

ObbmU. 


Spa 

Oat. 

Bcdnccd. 


24 
27 

28; 


9n i 
m » 

91* f 


891 1 

m 1 

89} 
8»t 1 






29 I 9U I 

30 I 91i I 

31 : 91) 2 
J.l > 911 2 

« 1901 I 
4 i 901 I 
6 : 90 i 

6 891 90^ 

7 89i 90 

8 > 891 i 

10 891 f 

11 > 891 i 

12 814 90 

13 89} 90 

14 89i 90 

15 90 i 

17 $9i 901 

18 89} 90 

19 891 I 
90 S9i i 
SI 891 90 
22 8l>i I 



: 891 I 

m I 

89} 90 

891 i 
89* I 
891 I 
k 
I 
\ 
f 
I 
k 
k 

89* I 
891 i 
89i k 

m I 

89J i 

89* i 
89* i 



; 891 
89» 

- 891 
891 

I 891 



891 i 

891 f 

891 i 

891 J 

|891 I 

891 i 

891 1 

|89} 90 

89} 901 

1891 1 

I 891 I 

' 891 I 

: 891 1 

891 I 

89 1 

i 891 I 

, 891 1 

' 891 1 

: 89|» 1 

891 I 

' 891 I 

■ 891 1 

89* I 

8iU I 

8i>i 1 

89 1 



232 331 
232 



Ex. BillB. 
£1,000. 



India 
Stock. 



India 
Bonds. 
£1,000. 



India 
dperocnts. 



234 

232 331 
233} 34 
2321 34 



6 dia. par. I 2251 8 I 22 dia. 

6. 1 d-a. 

bdu, ; 228 : 

6 cU*. I 226 8 ' 

6di8. 



I- 



6. 2 dia. 2261 8 



232 
232 
231 
233 



3dia. 
2didL 



226 8 • 10 dia. 



231 

231 33 
2311 33 
2311 33 
231 

231 32} 
231 32} 
231 

230} 31 
230 31} 
231} 



6. 2dis. 226 8 
Shut. 



,6 dia. 4 pm. 
6 ditf. 4 pm. 
6 di». 4 pm. 
:7 dia. 3 pm. 
3 p.ii. 

7dis.par. 

par 2 pm. 

par 3 pm. 
3 pm. 
, 7di«.}«r. 



1011 I 

1011 I 

! 1011 I 

1011 I 

1011 f 

;1011 I 

, 1011 1 

25.18dia.; 1011 | 
20.15dia.981 991 
: 981 1 

971 8 
971 8 
971 8 
971 I 
971 
971 8 
971 8 



lOdiiL 
18 dia. 



"I 



18 dia.' 



98 
981 
981 
98} 
981 
981 
981 1 
981 1 
98} I 



ALFRED WHITMORK, 

Stock and Share Broker, 

19, Chaog« Alley, London. E.C. 



rauiT«» BT Hiaira. jobs* uavaT ajcd jAVia rAa&aa. 



THE 



GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE 



iLND 



niSTORICAL REYIEW. 

AUGUST, 186L 



CONTENTS. 

INOK CORRESPOMDENCE,— Britiflli A«h»ological AJso«iati<Mi,--6fitwy Ai^Jweologiciil 

Socirty,— Biforietta— Rev. Junea SUde „„.. ,„.,, Xt>2 

he MoDtiincQts in Westminster Abbey as a Museum of Scalptore ,..,,, 103 

On the City Wall* and other Fortifications of Oxford » 107 

AnglO'Suxou Charters ...........,...,.,...,,,., ,. 123 

Book's Li ve« of the ArcLbishops of Canterbury , 124 

The Dragon of the Andcnts „.*...., ..«.. ,...,.. 130 

Antique Gceob ..,...„ , 133 

The Handbook of Roman Nniniamatics 137 

OEIGiyAL DOCUMENT B,-Mi^oiial fram th^ Blthop of St. Davbl'i and otben |o Lord 

Burgbleigb ».,. 130 

Antiquarian Diflcoveriea at St. Martin'i, Leicester „.„ 141 

ANT1QUAJLUN AND LITER.\RY INTELLIGENCER Society of Antiqaaiteaor Laudati, 

143; The Oxford Archfl<?etiiral ani IIi»loricaI 8ocietr— ArchErologual ImttSinrc, lii^l ; 
Royat Institute of British Architects - Ecclp^^ioloi^ical Sonrty^ 1^; Elhnologic&l 
fiocietr, 14A; Nambtiialic Society, 1.W; London and MiddJfsex and ^urrcv Archft** 
oloficil Soeiriies, 159; Bemricksblrc NeturaliALii^ Club, 160; Kilkenny mid Soutb- 
East of IreLand ArcbiFolofri<^al Bociuty, 162 . Midltmd Countlf s Arcbnolofical AMocia- 
tion, 163; Nortbampiotiaiblre Arcbiteetnnil Society, 164; Sncietv of Northern And- 
quarfea, 171 ; Society of Antfouarles of li^ootland, 173 ; Suffolk Inttitutc of Arckvology 
and Natural History, 176 ; Yortftbire I'bllosophical Society '..,.,. 176 

COERKHPONDENCE OF 8TLVANtJ3 URBAN. — Diacovery of RtmLo Inuriptiona In 
Orkney. 179; Bifonctta and Wilta., 181 ; "Memoir of Joahoa WaUioo."— The KoTa 
Scotia Halibttfton*. .,...,... *».,..,.. 182 

THE NOTE-BOOK OF HYLVANUS UllBAN .„.. 183 

mSTORICAL AND MISCELLANEOUS REVIEWS. — Gi*laM)n'a Unedited Specimen* of 

Old-Nortbem literature, 1R8; DybeckVRune>Mnnofnent« of Sweden, IBO; Memorlala 

• of Families of the Surname of Arcber, 191 ; Lankcster'* Wild Flowen vortb NQtico— 

Citr Dtm IfoOTo— Cummuig'a Guide to the lale of Man ..,...,,... 192 

APPOINTMENTS, PREFERMENTS, AND PROMOTIONS 193 

BIATHS .......^ .„ ,r- 194 

MARKLAGES „„.. 196 

OBITUARY.— H.T.M. the SuH^m ; ^hkj; The Lord Brarbrooke, 201 ; Lord Campbell, 2M; 
Lord Abinirer— Prince Adam Czartorrakl, 300; Hiebird Blagdettf E«q., 307; Miaa 
Baker- Rev. Dr, Card well ^ 209 ; Livut'cnant Maedonald. 211 ; Mr. Jamea Brvldwood 212 

CLERGY DECEASED « 213 

DEATHS ARRANGED IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER 213 

Btir&atrar-Generara Retain of Mortality and BlrtbR in the MetropoUa — Marketa, 319; 

Metaorotogical Diary— Daily Price of Stocka 220 



By STLVANUS UBBAK, Geitt. 



inXOR CORRESPONDENCE. 



X^e^cx. — $TXTA3rrs rxus r wf w rfa kit Ni tw i t im l i t i i w H&i J h yarf i, Cbrrv- 



KSmSH AKSJDOLCIGICAL ASSO> and t^ > 

ClAllOX. to Ike OnpeitaH' 000907, viH a]» be 

l^n JboMd ]l«f«^ viO lie Wia St inatea aai Jka ul U J - 

ted Sn^MiM, Bioi^ CJC MJP^ fios- BIF0RIET1X. 

r,irxanaihn,Mia»]n|7«nrbK ri^Sa, ■Brioei ly Mr. Wdtoatt « jow 

)■«» «n Wi« aado^ to do vilii 1^^ 

Tpgq|aAaMml f.fitr o 1 ina^ iywin lHfknino««B«^aHliMter»njdfln««d 
'aCbt ^BvaiBBrR- oT .Ubbk Jkar Xo^vbbbi^ i »w^ ia>_ C CL P. 

Tte ■ ■ ■ it III wil!— o ii in i'<l5>LXiA»> KET,XILMB SJISS. 

of idir 




TEE 



d^entl email's IHirDaziiic 



AND 



HISTOKICAL REYIEW, 



THE MONinCENTS IN WESTlimSTER ABBEY AS A MUSEUM 
OE SCULPTUEE'*. 

Westminster Abbey may justly be appreciated as a museum of 
British sculpture, offering the earliest examples of the sculptor's 
art, from its erection in the thirteenth century, and continued to 
the present day. 

Although it contains some works by the hands of foreigners, yet, 
as their skill was employed in commemoration of British sovereigns 
and British worthies, the designation that it is a national collection, 
or museum of national sculpture, may fairly he accepted, because, 
although they are the productions of foreign artists, they were un- 
questionably executed in the British dominions. 

In the reign of Henrj^ II L the present edifice was begun on the 
ruins of a former erection ; every monument it now contains com- 
mences from this epoch. 

The earliest specimen of sculpture in the Abbey maybe assigned 
to the date of 1269, when Henry III. caused the erection of the 
shrine in the centre of St* Edward's chapel, to the memory of the 
Confessor. It is a frieze on the screen that separates this chapel 
from the choir, and which represents in fourteen compartments the 
principal occurrences of the Confessor's life. The figures of this 
composition are of small size, very simple in execution^ 

The first statue which demands attention is that of Henry III,, 
in this chapel, a recumbent figure cast in brass, and the earliest 
known to have been cast in England. 

On the adjoining tomb to this is placed the recumbent figure of 
Queen Eleanor, wife of Edward I. Both these statues arc reputed 
to be the works of Pietro Cavaliiii, who came here from Italy for 
the purpose. But the latter is now said to have been the pro- 
duction of a native artist, upon what grounds I have not been 
able to learn. 

Considering the extraordinary beauty of this statue of Queen 

* A paper by Henry Mogford, Esq., F.S.A., read in the Abbey Churcli, at tbc 
Mectmg of the London and Middlam ArcbiBological Society. Oct. 25, 1B60. Hets 
a«»T. Mxo, Jaa. 1861, p. 60. 



IO-l( Thf^ Monuments in H'estmiHster Abbey [Aug. 

Eleuiior, it would be gratifying to our natiooal feeliog^ or pride, if 
ic wer« «o authenticated. 

It uierit;» in the highest degree every praise ; the beauty of the 
teatures and the elegance of the hands are not surpassed, if equalled 
even, by any similar work in the Abbey. The small heads of two 
aiigeU on the canopy at the head of the fisure are replete with the 
most charming snweetness and innocence ot expression. 

The ettigies of Evhmuid Crouchback and of Aymer de Valence 
tbilow the stericy in onler of date. No record exists of the authors 
of tiicttc renmrkable monuments^ which is to be regretted, as the 
mutilateil r\*umin9 of the small statuettes, called plettrettrs, in the 
niches beneath* indicate a gnmd dignity and breadth of treatment. 

Hitherto no reci^rvl or tr«Kiition naming the authors of the nnme- 
rou:^ 6no r^rutnUMit tigures of our sovereigns or others has been 
ditft.wered. some of them wondrously enamelled^ until the name of 
Torre^iano a()(vars. He erected the magnificent tomb in the 
ci)a|.«el \}( Henrv VH.. and is the sculptor of the eifigies of that 
sovervigtx and liis wife, and \f( the figures of cherubun at the 
aug'lcs. 

\rtot!^er of Torreguiito's works is that of Margaret, Countess of 
K:chtttond« mother of Henry VII. 

Ptcsc prwluctions of Uorregiawo's skill are not of a Terr high 
on.ler of art vvittp^u^itivcly. Uhe trulition that he broke the nose 
of Michael VTt^ceto m a rtc of icitioiisy at the tnuscetident talents of 
the gr^Micst of tnodcnt sciiI^'Conk has cereal tily foundation for the 
moc : V c b V cv>i ri pari s*.' n o f i he i r respect i ve ab i I i cieij* 

r'is¥4!tg over lijc iiticnr»ov:::itc Tvnod of cime until the reim of 
Jaitio* I ^ cite ni>t iiui^cMixiiicd works of :«caiptvire iu the Abbey 
appetir Cv» ?v tliose of" NiC'MnicI 5tone. a iMt've of Exeter. Accord- 
int£ ',v* \V.itp%»Ic. -)C w*j^ :mai Vx<. ^Vi. c;iiiy wtiiie iu the King's 
^firtpioy r»io rco'unoc'tc si^fics of vivieen b'liiwbeth ami of Mary 
viuce»i of S>*iH irv u'.vv.mko.! :o hrn : .: s oerfain chat he made 
uie ttoitiiineiKs of ><»ciiber. trainee* lloi^s* aud :ae Countess of 
3iu*kttjiMam. 

Of :ic ':utii»iis 'VmIjuim-h of a 'aLcr oau'. vie most important in 
ne -^M-vs «>• *\oiii>il:ao iiKt lS^xi»nc«i. Sr'ieemaciier* is also of 
Jie ."»\»v'K u(!hHii^i luer'or .o .Jc -^w ::ixvecMrg .irt:sci^ 

'iouo»iuic 'i x'^tiiiicM *t»rs>i tfv i» :.tc V^*oev. Pie *jfOUumen& 
n ti?i 'ia^il je»x» n>» 'U'x jf ll»iivie«, ')»s 'iis< ^irvfi. and. of the 
Vus:- n \:-^v.c ii '.'vs CoiMor. . )ai *i' Sr l\*cer W.ureu iu the 
ix^m mn>^»»u» iiui 'lo oc'coi^ivxi ouo it ^ .'oiiii ^ Oiayei to ilr. 

V.I :u' ^ru'u*^ »» -u-^*: ti\»iuiimii.>. iiv »«nvi> ^£ ^tiig rrgiuly 
*iTUiit*i. kiivi !U' >^iii %il >i4i^*i>' vjitxi *' % vv.4'^ ii^»i HT^timaciou of 

'■"^e ^;-M.rl •1^*1,1- nvMiumciii, u< i > i>iii«N .-ntlcxi. ieuiands in 
uxiuir^ »i utow:!v» t.uuir *An> tx'i to >riii»>v>uvMi^^ jt :Kiaui)i»ti^ 
.xoiT 'i IK* i^* uiiK"^^ »» t\u'\ II Jiv" *»4'»i ,>i % utiuaa ^eietua 



1861.] 



as a Museum of Sculpture. 



105 



Ii is both an aesthetic question and one of higher feeling, of reli* 
gioos awe. 

Rysbrach may be well studied in the two nioniimcnis in the 
nave, at the entrance of the choir, of Sir Isaac Newton and of the 
second Earl of Stanhope, 

The statne of Shakespeare, in Poets* Corner, is a favourable 
specimen by Scheemacker. 

The names of other sculptors here comprise a series of great ex- 
tent, mostly native. A work by Grinling Gibbons, in the north 
able of the nave, is not worthy of his reputation, Quellinus and 
Oojsevox indicate a foreign origin, and Hubert le Soeur, who made 
the equestrian statue at Charing-cross of Charles L, has also a spe* 
cimen of his art in the Abbey. 

To come down to our own time, there are fine works by the 
familiar names of Bacon, Flaxman, Chantrey, Nollckens, Wesima- 
cott. Banks, and others. Of living sculptors of distin*^uiished merit 
may be cited Baily, Gibson, Calder Marshall, and several more. 

The portrait statues are doubly interesting, first, because they 
represent the features of the individuals, and secondly, the accu- 
racy of the costume of the times. The features are mostly well 
p^€^Berved, exce[>iiji^ tliose only of the Crusaders and of the Countess 
of Lancaster, in the choir, which have much suffered. Some few 
of the portrait statues are habited in the Roman costume of fonuer 
times. In future ages, nevertheless, antiquaries will be sorely 
puzzled at the fanciful envelo|ies given by the sculptors of our 
days, as exemplified in the statue of the late Sir Robert Peel, by 
Gil>8on of Rome. 

Among the sculpt*ired statues forming the decoration or exem- 
plification of the virtues of the several individuals, there will be 
seen an abundance of angels and cherubs; every virtue is personi- 
fied in marble to excess. Figures of Fame are blowing trumpets. 
In this Christian church there are statues of Minerva, Neptune, 
Hercules, with other pagan deities ; chanty children are not 
omitted; and to complete the variety, there are not wanting Ne- 
l^roes and Red Indians. There are here also a great number of 
statues and statuettes, eitlicr of attendants, children of the deceased, 
saints or other, as weepers over the tleceased. 

Nor are animals forgotten; a couple of lions by Wilton are on 
ihe monument of General Wolfe. Two magnificent specimens of 
Uiis king of animals by Flaxman, on the monument tu the menu>ry 
^'' Captain Montague, deserve the highest encomium; it is at the 
est end of the north aisle. 

The sculptures which may be considered as adjuncts to the archi- 
tecture are very numerous, and consist of a considerable number of 
saints in niches or on brackets. Of these, worthy of special notice, 
arc two statues now existing in the chapter-house, representing the 
Annunciation ; they are of a very simple and of archaic cluiracter, 
— probably their executitm dates from the erection of this part of 
the Abbey. Tliere are etpialiy in tlie upper spandrils of tlio nortfi 

OwT Mao. Vot, OCXI. 



^^^ 



]06 The Manumenii in Westminster Abbey; tfc. [Aug. 

transept angels of grand character, nearly life size. Casts have 
been lately taken of these, which may be seen to advantage where 
they are for the present placed, in the triforium, by those who are 
disposed to perambulate this part of the sacred edifice. Here will 
be found many singular and interesting sculptured corbels. 

The chapel of Henry VII. alone contains more than one hundred 
statues of saints in niches, and busts of angels on the cornice that 
runs round the chapel and part of the side aisles; the carvings to 
the seats are of great variety and excellence in execution. «>me 
of these carvings represent sacred subjects, whilst others are of 
a profane character. 

The chantry enclosing the tomb of Henr^ V. is also profuselv 
decorated with statues and statuettes in nichesi, as well as with 
bassi relievi. One is said to represent the coronation of the sove- 
reign* The whole are deeply imbued with a good feeling for 
fine art. 

To resume, and give some idea of the immense amount of the 
wealth of sculptural art herein contained, it may be briefly stated 
that the Abbey possesses sixty-two recumbent statues of life size ; 
several of these are of bronze, and have been highly gilt or richly 
enamelleil, the remains of this decoration being still visible. There 
are forty-six portrait statues, life size or colossal, six sitting and 
six kneeling portrait statues, and ninety-three busts or me£dlion 
portruts. 

Of allecorical statues, already alluded to, there are 204, and 
beyond this vast amount an almost unlimited number of bassi and 
alii-relievi corbels and spandrils richly sculptured of all epochs, 
besides the multitude of heraldic representations of lions, dogs, 
griffins, and other animals, either natural or imaginative. 

I trust it will be admitted that we possess in this magnificent 
Abbey a museum of sculpture eminently nauonal, unequalled in 
extent in any other place or country, of surpassing beauty, and of 
the highest artistic excellence. 

The study of this immense collection will afibrd intense gratifi- 
caiioiT to the historian, the antiquary, the archcologist, and the 
lover of fine an. The public feeling is becoming daily more 
awakened to the treasures we possess, and to the determination to 
preseire them to our posterity. 



107 



THE CITY WALLS AKD OTHER FOETIFICATIONS 
OF OXFORD*. 



It wm the opinio q of the late Dr. 
I&gnuD that the citj of Oxford iraa ori- 
ginally Eomaa, and waa fortified in Bo- 
man times I he supported this opinion by 
the ^roand'plan of the fortified town, 
which was a regular parallelogram, with 
an entrance in the centre of ench face, the 
regular phin of a Roman camp ; also bj 
man J Roman remainB having been found 
in the neighbourhood. This app^rs to me 
insufficient evidence, and the probability 
ia tliat the foundation ot the town is of 
later origin, Miny Roman customs were 
continued long ailer the fall of the Roman 
power, and among others this airoplc plan 
of laying out a town is likely to have 
been one. The four streets meeting in 
the centre and forming a cross, the mar- 
ket-phK» near to the middle of the town, 
with the town-hall on one side and the 
city chn^h on the other, appears to be 
only the natural plan, following, as of 
cotine, from the four gates. 

The Roman roads In the neighbour- 
hood of Oxford, so carefully described by 
the late Professor Huasey, seem also to 
disproTe the existenoe of any considerable 
town here at that period. The road from 
the Roman town of AJchester, near Bices- 
ter, to the Roman station at Dorchester, 
at about two miles and a-half to 
It of Oxford, and may be distinctly 
for a considerable distance near 
Headington, but has no deviation towards 
Oiibrd. 

On the other hand, if the town had been 
<if medieval origin the plan would have 
been different; experience had taoght the 
ineocivenienoe of the Roman plan in times 
of pMM; when there was much traffic 
the four streets meeting in the centre 
must always cause confusion at that pointy 




and the market-place was lilcely to be per* 
petually disturbed. To avoid this incon- 
venience the medieval engineers employed 
by Edward J. In Aquitainc and at Hull, 
made two gates in each face of the walls, 
and two streets running from them pa- 
rallel to each other, straight through the 
town from north to eouth, and from east 
to west, thus leaving a large space in the 
centre for the market-place entirely un- 
diaturbed, the traffic passing along the 
four sides of it, with no need for crossing 
the centre, the streets running from the 
four corners of the markct-phice to the 
four gatea, 

Oxford being built on the Romui 
plan, but having no tracea of Roman 
walls, we may fairly attribute its origin to 
a period shortly after the departure of 
the Romans. We fiud frequent mention 
of it in Anglo- Saxon history ; it appears 
to have been fortified before the time of 
the Norman Conquest, and it is said to 
have stood a siege against the Conqueror. 
But the fortifications of thoite days con- 
sisted usually of a deep trench and vallum 
of earth, with a wooden pHlisade at the 
top of it. Such fortifications continued 
in common use even in the thirteenth 
oeDtury; we find them mentioned in the 
siege of Ludlow Castle at that period, 
and in many other instances, several of 
which are cited by M, Yiollet-le'Doc^ in 
his admirable work on the '* Military Ar* 
chitecture of the Middle Agea." 

The Castlx. 
Of the Castle itself the original phui 
and extent can hardly now be made out, 
but the outer wall must have enclosed a 
much larger space than appears at fint 
sight i the New*rotd is cut right through 



* A Paper by John Henry Parker, Esq., F.SJk., read at the Meeting of the Oxford 
Archit^cturtl and Historical Society, May 22, 1861. See Gk»t. Mag., July, 1861, 



108 



The City Walk 



[Aug. 



the oater bailey, and the site of the Canal 
wharf is part of it. Tlie junction be- 
tween the City Wall and the Castle may be 
partly distinguished by the uneven ground; 



" Bullocks-lane," for instance, leads up a 
flight of steps from the New-road over the 
ancient *' Bulwarks" to George-street and 
Gloucester-green, formerly called "Broken 




Plan of th» Caatle. reduced trom Kixig'i Plau published In ITOd 



a h The Omey Bridge. A i I Towers. 

e 4^ St. Gcorge*8 Church. x The Crypt, k Staircase to the Keep. 

e The Round Tower of Henry III. (?) m The Great HalL 

/ Square Tower to protect the entrance, n The Kitchen. 

ff g Bridge ftt>in the city. o p q The Castle ditch. 



r r The Mill Stream. 

» D'Olly's Tower, 1074. 

t The Mill-dam. 

w The WelL 

y Entrance to the Staircase. 



Hayes." Here again there is more broken 
ground, probably part of the outworks of 
the Castle towards Beaumont Palace. 

There is a tradition that when the 
Empress Maud was besieged in the Castle, 
King Stephen was lodged in the F^ce 
of the Norman kings at Beaumont ; if so, 
he was in remarkably close quarters with 
the enemy ; and if we may judge by 
the experiments lately tried in France, 
under the direction of the Emperor, re- 
specting the force of the catapult, and of 
arrows and javelins in trained hands, he 
could hardly have been at a safe distance. 
Some mounds of earth are said to have 
been thrown up between the Castle and 
Beaumont Palace to protect it; these 
were afterwards called Jews' Mount, and 
Mount Pelham : there are now but ftunt 
traces of them. 



The old tower which remains of the 
Castle built by Robert I^Oily in the time 
of the Conqueror, appears by Agas's map 
to have been one of the towers in the wall 
of the inner bailey, and not the keep, as 
was formerly supposed. It is certainly 
small for a Norman keep to a castle of 
this importance, and the circumstance that 
there was originally no entrance on the 
ground floor would rather seem to indi- 
cate, the prison tower. The entrance was 
on the fint floor from the top of the wall; 
the archway cut through the wall for the 
treadmill is entirely modem; there was 
a solid wall in that part. 

Others suppose this to have been the 
belfry tower of St. George's Church, and 
it has this appearance on Agas's map. 

We have do distinct record of the 
keep, but a round tower was erected in 



and other Fortijicationi of Oa^ord. 



109 



3 19th Hciiry II L, wbicU m%\y tiavebeeu 
M a keep. Wood snys that witbui 
tlic walb of the Coitle there wero — 

•* Mimiiona for the king in time of war, 
M.id<*ii the i'unvtjiiit and charch of St. 
' ♦' ^- T - iifiBoii in which 
rn >ity had pecu- 

ri' , : . u ln« rebellious 

II by Henry IlL, iu 
his reign J and in 
tbtj twoiily-tlilrU ytitir it was also mode 
the common pool of the eoanty, which 
Uftct; remaiueil with St. George's con- 
nt iind the chapel, which iff now the 
priaon, to the time of the Civil 
I wh(;n it wa«i w^mn pnt into a posi- 
► of lH>tter defence by King Charles L 
'* Til© ittttoly towers, which were great 
omamcnis to this end of the city, were 
" ftndiug till Colonel Ingoldsby the Qo- 
rnor'B time, in 1649, when the Ca»tle 
"by the Parliament for a 
r the city workfli were uUghted 
^Idmjsdj) they were nil (l»ein(:^ four 
In nmiiber, baiide that on the gate,) pulled 
down, and bulwark a on the Mount erL*eted 
r plac^e, whirli (j^rcsiUy stTengthemed 
'{ ks j yet uotwithstanding^nt't^r^triird.s 



thong-h the said works with other ediBoei 
were above a year finish Lng, and eoit many 
hondred pounds, in the month of Anguat» 
1651, when King Cliarlea came from Wor- 
cester here, they were in four days* space, 
in a whim, qnite pulled down and de- 
molished, and the garrison at that time 
translated to New College, to the great 
detriment of that phice and ita stndento 
and places adjoining K" 

A mound is a common appendage to 
a Norman castle, formed of the earth dng 
oat in making the ditch, thrown np in the 
outer bailey, because if thrown outside 
the ditch it would have been of assistance 
to the enemy. The summit of the mound 
served as a look-ont place* This was com- 
monly protected by a wooden pQli8adc,and 
sometimes hod a building upon it, hut 
a considemble period must have ekpaed 
before the enrth of a mound was Holld 
enough to bear ft heavy building. 

In the centre of the Oxford mound 
there is a deep well, and over this a small 
walled chamber of the time of Henry II,, 
called Wii' Well-room. The king^s brief 






nkin^,' [III,-* ssi'W \% recorded in tha 
ith lltury IL, whini 11)/. 19^* was ex- 
npnn it* This would be twjiml to 
400^. of our money, and shews 
nt ft oooftldcfsblo work was then 
tmtle. 



ii,«.b titi. 



The view of the Ca«tle in A gas's iimp 
shews ft large oetagoiui] tower in the 
centre, close to the mound* and pmrtly 
couceiiled by it; this appcaranoe tnay 



*> YmkaXi, p. 30T. 



:.kg_ 



no 



The City WaU$ 



[Aiig. 



probably be only canied by bad drawing, wick and Dudley. The mound VMS gir* 
and tbe octagonal building to represented ing sniBcient elevation, the waDi vcgaa it 
may haye been on the mound, as at War- were not Tery high. 



^ma^ljk 




Bird s-«Te Vww c( the CMt> m Um ume of Qvwen Elisabeth, from A^am* Uap. 



There was a small churdi with a col- 
lege of priests attached to it, called St 
Qcorge^s College, within the Outle, founded 
^ Robert D'Oihr in 107a and transferred 
to Osa^ in 1141, when St. Thomas's 
Church was bult, and eared for the 
parahioiiera of St. Qcotge*s. The crypt 
of it is still shewn : the inllars of the 
ciypi are early Korman, and the cajatals 
are rade and curious; the Tault is modem, 
the Cfypt haring been rebuilt by Mr. 
Hams about laOiX It had long been 
forgotten, and waa discovered by him 
when the Oartie was partly rebuilt for the 
eonaty prison, and a coni^derable part of 
the pwse n t building* wnv erected. The 
old crypi came in the wi^ of the new 



buildings^ and waa moved. Mr. Harris 
carefully measured all the parts^ and re- 
placed the old inllars and capitals as doaely 
as possible in their original position : but 
the vault is entirely modem, of ashlar 
masonry, though very deceptive; so much 
so^ that ao good an antiquary as Mr. 
Hartshome pernsts in eonndeiing it as 
anrient> in the teeth of the most di- 
rect evidence. Mr. Harris* drawings for 
the alterations and new buildings are ex- 
tant, and at the time when Mr. Harts- 
home read his paper here in 1851 before 
the Archspological Institute, Miss Harris* 
the daughter of the builder who erected 
it, was Uring* and distinctly remembered 
it> and one of the wotinnen employed 



1?6I-] 



and other Fortifications of Oxford. 



Ill 



upon it wu ftlso living'; but Mr. Harts* 
haam9 rvfoBed to Ilsteo to this evidence, 
-wYiich he caUed "vague aothority/* "heor- 
mjT t««tiiiK)iiy/' and "corrent traditiou." 
Dr. logrmm, who alto maket thi^ itnto* 
iBcnt iu hii *■ MenonmK'' wm living, and 
probftbly tn Oxford at the time it wta re- 
botli <m « new «ite» and be was well ao- 
qualnted with Mr. Harris* 

Mr. Hartsbome ako in the same paper 
Ifpaamt the entteace of the Palace of 
BeAtnnonl^ itnd appUet to the Castte all 
th« puMget in the public records which 
roentioD the Royal Palace at Ojcford. Bat 
the C*Ȥtle ceaeed to be the royid rcsidftice 
fVom the time of Hetiry 1*, who bailt the 
Palace of Beauroont, and several of hLi 
cuooeMOfi resided in it, especially Henry 
II., who greatly enlarged it ; and Kichard 
CfBor de lion waa bom in it. 

It ia true that the 'Empreaa Maud 
took refbge in the Castle for Beourity, but 
creti daring the siege King Stephen is 
said to have resided in Beuumont Palace. 

f and the hiatorioal evidence of its existence 
la «a dear u» that of other royal pohices 
now destroyed. It continued to 1>e a fre- 

, qiient royal residence until Edward 11. 
gave it to the Cannelite Friar!!, and it 

[ ahand the fate of other tnonastenes. At 

! tba dioMlntioQ it was sold to Edmund 
Powell, of Sandford^ who pulle«! down the 
greater part of it, and the niinR were 
afterwards used by Arcbbiithop Lnud as 
a stone quarry for bnllding his new quad- 
raiiifle at St John's College. A small 
Ihiginent wai left standing, with a door- 

^ way io It, nntll Beanmont-street wns built 
abont thirty years ago. 

The must memorable event in the early 
history of Osford is the siege of the Caitle 
by Stephen when the Empress Maud hod 
taken refuge there^ and as the legends as 
to the mode of her escape arc of question- 
able authority, it may be usefal to quote 
the account of it given by William of 

k H alrooshnry, who was living at the time. 

' He sayi :^ 

** Not content with having bnmed the 
town and seiznl the C4istlo of Wttrehnm, 
a« the king saw fortune inclined to favour 
him, he came to Oxford, and the garrison 
lumi^ iaIHed out Sf^ainfft him, be sad* 
dntly paaKd a fnrd which wsp not gene* 



rally known, and repelling the enemy» en- 
tered the town with them, and having 
burned the city laid iicge to the castle, in 
which was the Empress with her domestic 
guards. This he did with such deter- 
mined resolution, that he declared no hope 
of advantage or fear of loss should induce 
him to depart till the castle was delivered 
up» and the Empress delivered to his 
power. Shortly after, all the nobility of 
the Empress' party, ashamed of being ab- 
sent from their sovereign in violation of 
their compact, assembled in large bodies 
at Wallingford, with the determinntion of 
attacking the king, if be would risk a 
battle in the open plain ; hut they had no 
intention of a«riiling bim within the city, 
aa Robert, Earl of Gloucester, bad so for- 
tified it with ditches, that it appeared im- 
pregnable unless by fire, 

"I would wry willinp:ly subjoin the 
manner of the Emprcas* liberation, did I 
know it to a certainty, for it is un- 
doubtedly one of God's manifest miracles. 
This, however, is sufficiently notorioQ% 
that through fear of the EarVs approach, 
many of the besiegers of Oxford stole 
away wherever they were able, and the 
rest remitted their vigilance, and kept 
not so good a look-out as beforcv more 
anxious for their own safety in cose it 
came to a battle than bent on the destmc- 
tion of others. This clrcumttanco being 
remarked by the tcjwnsmeti, the Empress 
with only four soldieni made her escapa 
throQgh a postern and passed the rxrer. 
Afterwards, as necessity sometimes, and 
infloed almost idways, discovers means and 
ministers countgCi she went to Ahingilon 
on foot, and thence reached WaUingford 
on horseback. But this I purpose de* 
scribing more fully, if by God's permission 
1 shall ever leiirn the truth of it from 
those who were present," 

Tliese are the last words of Malmes- 
bary's Chrcmicle, nnd the intention there 
expresoed was never fullilled. From this 
we gather that the chief defence of Ox- 
ford was then, as afterwards, the water 
by which it waa nearly surrounded: the 
trenches, not the waHa, are specially men- 
tioned. From the manner in which the 
burning of the city is spoken of, it is evi. 
dent that the houses were of wood only, 
as indeed to a great extent they still are, 

Tlie brief aoeonnt given in the Con- 
tinuation of the Saxon Chronicle diflers 
slightly from that given by MalmpHbury ; 
it is there said that " th^ let her down 
from the tower by ropes, and she atole 



j^g^ 



^J^t^-rrnk-^ 



112 



The City WaUs 



twaj, and sbe fled, and she went oo foot 
to W all ingford .** Roger of Wcndaver gives 
K flligbtly different aeconnt : — 

"The Empresa seeing that for so long 
K time (from MieboelniAS to Advent) none 
of her frieods came to her afleastitnci^ 
pUjed off a woman's trick upon King 
Stephen^ and escaped by night over the 
river Thaniwi, which w«a frozen, — dressed 
in white, and attended by a few com- 
paiuoxu^ and so escaped, for the enemy 



oould not iee hw on immwiti: "^ ' 
sling of the snow, lUid tht "T 

the colour b^etwwu it ami •», 

She therefore fled to tho i «l- 

lingford, and ctiuntjittt'd h^ : be 

charge of Brian Fitz-EarL In i die manner 
the Cafltlo of Oxford waft giv*>tt uf* lo tht 
king." 

Roger do Hoveden* and llenry of H«tt* 
tingdon rep€«t the same itory as Rogor 
of Wendover- 



.^f^O 









TLn Towia- nam mmttiam}. a« ••tj frean tlia J 



The twonty mtrnd nuuidona mentioned 

in liw Dotnniday Survey as eiempt from the 

koiia»*tjix to iht> Crown* bocNtiMc they were 

diargftd with th(» rv]mir of the city wnUa, 

i4r«« n |irof»f that the fbrtificftiions were 

<p at that time, fmt the walhi which 

. r.. \u^trxA r., k»*jqj Ifl repalF were 

A the earthworks. 

' ^^ ■' 'bo inmX 

J by tho 

rirunutitL us hiU^k 

; cnrtbon mmindt 



and trenches, with gabioiift of busket-worki 
arc fo<ind to be after all the most t^flectYtiit 
protectkin* 

Another ground bcsule the nbatract 
protiability fen* U'llcving that the wulU of | 
Oxford were not of stone either in tlk« 
Hoitmn or in the Ntjmmu period w. Unit 
we liAvi^ no MMualnii of tuaitonr^' of ciUiofr 
of tho«c pi;rlodA, althnugh t'onftliktuldii 
partji of the walls of roedievaJ Uxfor^ 
reninln. 

In the 13th« lath, and tUl l^xm^ HU 



1861.] 



and other PortificalioM of Oxford. 



US 



mfa\ Uci'nccs were grunted for butlding 

« mmW, >w fippcar) by the entries in the 

Is of 'Mora^iuQi pro Hurgrn- 

uu.* He also granted market 

M tiid of the expense, so thiit the 

tvnlli were probably going on during 

n gmt pnrt of this rdgn. In the I'Uh 

•^f Edward 11 r., 1370, or about n ecnturjr 

wft^r thtiir erection, we find mention of 

ii grant from tho Abbot of Osney to- 

wmnU their repair ; luid again, in the time 

of Riohard 11.. we find In the aose Rolla 

an order to tho Mayor and Corporation 

to repair their wall*, which arc aaid to 

b<ft in a rmnoaa condition, and a freah 

toji waa levied for the purpose. 

The plan U the u^ual one of that 
period: a cortain-wallt with an dure or 
walk on the top, protected by n parapet, 
and ronnd towers at regular and short 
inlrrralA. These towers are commonly 
called biations, and the term is convenient, 
though it U tiBcid in a isomewhat diffcrtMit 
•ecBC in modem fortification. Immedi- 
ately within this wall waa a narrow street 
or lane, as nsual in medieval fortifications, 
to enable the defenders to have ready 
WbOtm to the walU ; the ctaircaset were 
pfbbftbly contained in the towera, at we 
liftve DO traces of any of the straight fttair- 
raaea ^m the ground which are common 
in the walU of French town« ; but in the 
part of the wall which surronuda New CoK 
1«^ the fttraight stjiircaAes from the alure 
lO thd towers remain. Tl»e bastions, or 
toirtiPV ibppesu' to have Ijeen more nn- 
on the north side of the town 
I on the other*, becon*c it was mnch 
^mtuPK open to attack on that side, the 
rircn forming a prot-cciion on the east^ 
At, and iMjQth. On the north, nbo, a 
qn?r ditch was dng, called Canditch» 
lilch had a running stream through it^ 
branch of the tlierwell >>cing turned 
tiirough it. and there was a similar ditch 
or stream undi^r the south wall in Merton 
Fields, 

The wall and ditch may be still traced 

all round the t«»wn, though piirtiidly de- 

»^trpv«'4l, aiul much coiKraled by modem 

i^'sj but wc aooji dii^^wcr that the 

i '"-^^m it not piTfict, 84n'eral do- 

■ A~\ it having betu made tit hu 

AUG. Vol, VC\\, 



early period. At the north-west comet 
the Norman castle joined on to the town, 
and made it useless to continue the wall in 
that part. On the south side, the Canons 
of St. Frideawide had obtained permifsion^ 
in 1122*^, to make a projection for the 
purpose of enlarging their buildings, on 
condition of carrying tlie wall round it, 
BO that the fortliication should still bt 
perfect 

" That part of the wall which waa be- 
tween Corpua and South-gate^, wiih seve- 
ral towers and the houses there*jn, were 
pulled down, accordirg to a composition 
[or agreement] between tho City and 
Cardlijul Wolsey, to erect his stately col- 
lege npon the site ; florae other buildings, 
includlntr the church of St, Michael, at 
. ', which st<5od on the site of the 
the Profe*wr of Hebrew, were 
i.,.i..u.irni;U for the same purpose V 

At the north -east comer, William of 
Wykeham obtained permission to include 
the lane within the wall In the grounds 
of his New College, on condition that he 
thoroughly repaired the wall ; he also en- 
gaged that his college should keep this 
wall in perpetual repnlr j and this agree- 
ment has been so faithfully carriwl ont 
that it ia now the only part of the city 
wall that remains at all perfect. Ttie 
battlements and allures are more cotit- 
plet4*, the towers are more lofty, and have 
loopholes for archers, with a wide splay 
within, both on the ground and on the 
upper rloor, skilfully arranged to com- 
mand the whole of the ditch and the 
postem^gate. 

To enable us to trace out the walls, 
we must hear in mind the position of the 
old gates : the North gate was across the 
Commark^t, close to the tower of St, 
Michael's Church, which helped to protect 
it ; the South gate was across St Aldate'i^ 
street, dose to the sooth- west eoraer of 
Christ Chmrh ; the East gate waa acro« 
the Highstrect, below Queen's, close to 
the comer of the street leading to Mer- 
ton ; the West gate was in Castle-street, 
beyond the church of St. reter-Ic-Uailey, 
which was in tho Imilcy, ballium, or outer 
court of the Castle ; ami in thin pwrt there 

• Sec ?«k*ll, p< m note. - Ibid., p 195. 
P 



l^iL 



-xm 



r^_ 



114 



The City Walh 



M no tr«ce of tnj fiane wall between tba 
Cafttle and the city ; thoogh there waa ft 
ditch and a bridge between, with a harhi- 
tan to protect tlie end of the bridge, »on»e 
fouiidatioiu; of whicb were lately found. 

From the Cofttie to the North gate the 
wall may be distinetly traced between the 
houses on the «onth side of Ge<:)rge-hine, 
which are built in the city ditch, and thoM 
on the north tide of New Inn-lane, which 
are bailt upon the watl, and the difTerence 
of level 16 fery perceptible. One of the 
bostiouf or towers is perfect, with a square 
window of the sixteenth century j thia 
k said to hare been used as a ball for stu- 
dent«, as were some others of these toaers. 

The North gate- bouse wna cnlleii Bo- 
eardo, and wa* long used aa th« ctty pri« 
«Mi, It is minutely deacribed by Wood 
and Peshall: — 

"Tills was the sfcrongeit gate of the 
dty, as indeed for good reason it on$;ht, 
baring no river before it as the others 
liad; it was well streng-thcTHHl on each 
nde with a strong bulky towtr, and backed 
With another gfttc, both formerly well 
fenced, esjkccially the ontermoii, with a 
portcullis to let down before, as also 



i milltaxy engriM erect itgli 

which waa oast down nVM 

to the enemy approtteh ncsh 

a gate m fltrengthen* ,-|a 

Macho- Cfif *"'■-''-' .^^ uv&t 

it Itko to ti i^aKling 

water or nil j '-bf be 

CRSt uti tbe «58ail ore 

were two great fiM jR, 

made strong with Uir^ ol' i: -i 

them, a« alio a maasy chan 1 

the outward giit-e. 

'* By wljich we cannot tmagioe otber* 
wise itspriii^^" ■ ^ ■ -*. ..^-i ■^t.'<r)gth,not 
only for for , Lenienta^ 

atatnea, ariil AtT tided 

greftt delight to atrangera : Uat 

way ; and K> it might have > l tnt 

the Barons* waia ceaaed, bul iii- 

peared« ajod oar sworda bec^i f nd 

the place, tor want nf rhe 

hands of the mayor ai t • i c r- 

wards made i t a »''^" ^ ' ■ >r« 

and malefaetorB vm 

city, and which t- sicd 

till lately. It has ai*« bt-en «» priwti for 
scIktIafs for little faolta. But whnt ten* 
dcrf this place tbe more memorable ta the 
having the Archbishop Cmnmer* Ridley 
and Lttlimer, tht-re prisoners prcviuiia to 
their cniel suiTeringa by fire before Ballto! 
College." 



$ 



^l| 



4ttk 



Thia dncripUoQ wppmx* 4- — -•- r-f 
•Elly t« a gaU hiMi o(f th« -i- 

•4aiv that period ; 
■nu inc €ti%ir '^> . J irvrvtn^ <«i ttcino, sfbicida 
wivam oa tltt fronl of a ^•U^Ujmet wan 



vcTj rnmniOD in wh^ wBrtwoth I'^utury. 
8tooe Hgoi^ flf ■pl fflw oo the fiattk* 
tnents were also ftaqmitfy iiscd^ 

In the intartal bc iwwn the itme when 
this lUaeripUoit wne v f^y 

Wood and tJbt tiiiM o4' t Um 



^961.) 



and other Foritjicatiom uf Oxford. 



115 



<)lcj NurtU-p*te, or Boetirdo, Imd Uowever 
ItMt nearly all lU original cbiiructer, nA U 

jiicvident ftxim the engnivinga of it which 
Ave been preserved, atid which represent 
\ the «Ute in which it was lef^ Bbortly 

I tU final destruction. 

The line contiunea between Broad* 

strwt Atid Ship'lnne in the same innnner; 

and lierc another of the towers of tlie old 

waII i* tolerably perfect, behind the houses 

»flj opfwsite the door of the M!i«.tc*r of 

^BaUioI. Ttiljft Is said to huve been naed 
OS A pn«(ju in connection with the room 
in the gate-hoase over the North gate, 
with which there was a eommumcation by 
the passage on tho top of the wall^ a part 
of the old aluro. In this tower it 19 said 
that Crflnn)er waa confined, aa it formed 
part of the prison of Hocordo. The ditcli 
hua all been filled up and bollt upon, and 
it is now difiicidt to tell the exact spot of 
the luartyrdom, which took place near 
the bank of the ditch between the wall 
and Balliol College. But as wc are told 
by Foite that the Master of D^dliol spoke 
to Cranmer when bound to the stake* and 
oi the Maater of Balliol then resided in 
tbn tower over the College gate, it it pro- 



bable that the stake waa fixed itnmf diately 
opi^oBite the Collego gateway tower. 

The cross in the pavement op]fK)S)t4> 
tho door of the Master of Batliors pre* 
ficnt houae was put down by ignorant 
persons wltliin the last tifty years, with- 
out the slightest authority for that site, 
WlieretiB under the kerb-atone of the 
pavement immediately op^iosit« the CoUego 
gate, there is a large ma^ of wood-asheg 
extending over a snrfitce of several yard*, 
and there is some reason to believe that 
this waa the place of execution^ 

To continue the line of the wall. Croas- 
iug the Turl, where there was a postern 
gate, and where about sixty yeiwa ago 
tliore was a tlight of steps down into the 
ditch and a turnstile at the top of it, the 
wall piisMHl under the south end of my 
house and premlsea, leaving part of the 
narrow street before mentioned in front 
of Exeter College Chapel and the north 
gate of the college, which originally faced 
north to this street ; and the gate iu the 
wall with the City amis os^er it wjia only 
taken down in the ricent a^terationi. 
One of the old bastiotm was also foun^ re- 
maining, buried beneath Prideaux's Bnlld- 




8«Miaa or Uw mtr WaU 



Bg, Part of the TbMtro «nd of tho 

rcUrend'iu aUo stand on the rite of this 
part of the old wall. 

ktfom the narrow piirt of the street 



close to the Clarendon there was another 
postern^ called Smith gate, and in the 
tower or boation which protected this on 
the east tide was Our Lady's Chapel, 



.^_ 



„M^ 



r-^^^ 



116 



The City Walls 



[Aug. 



of which the doorway, of the fifteenth 
century, remains tolerably perfect, with 
the sculptures over it representiog the 



Annunciation, mutilated by order of the 
Rump Parliament. 




Sculpl-ire fjvcr Ov: Pt^orway of th« L<juiy ULap«l. 



From this point to the corner of New 
College, part of the wall exists, but built 
upon and concealed; the difference of level 
caused by the ditch is very perceptible in 
going through the narrow passage from 
New College-lane to HolywelL The view 
of the exterior of the wall from the 
** Slipe," or slip of land outside the wall, 
at the back of the houses in Holywell 
and Long Wall, g^ves even a better idea 
of it than the inside from New College 
garden. 

A small portion of the inside of the wall 
may be again seen in a perfect state and 
free fr<)m ivy in East Gate Court, between 
the comer of New College garden and the 
High-street 

Crossing the High-street by the site of 
the East gate, we find the wall still toler- 
ably perfect, surrounding two sides of 
Merton College garden, with several of 
the towers ; this was the touth-west angle 
of the city. From thence to Christ Church 
it is pai tly destroyed and partly hidden ; 
one of the walks in the garden of Corpus 
is on the top of it. 

Passing through Christ Church, where 
the wall has been destroyed by Wolsey, as 
before mentioned, and crossing St. Aldate's 
on the side of South gate, we again find 
it still remaining at Pembroke College, 



the south side of which stunds probably 
on part of the old wall, or at least on 
the site; from thence to the Castle it 
is destroyed or concealed, but may be 
traced by the difference of level in the 
gardens. 

Tlie solar or upper chamber of the 
Little-g^te was used as a Hall for scholars 
in the time of Edwaril II., and the rent 
of \Zs, Qd. was paid for it to the City, 
(13Z. lOs, of our money). This gate was also 
called the Water-gate, and Wood says it 
was used fbr leading cattle to water. Its 
close vicinity to the river is sufficient to 
account for the name. A small portion of 
it may still be seen at the south-west 
comer of Pembroke College. 

Thb Lives of Entbbnohmsvt. 

It is remarkable that although so much 
nearer our own times, and although we 
have the minute journal of an eye-wit- 
ness, it is more difficult to ascertain ex- 
actly the lines of entrenchment by which 
Oxford was defended during the Civil 
War between Charles I. and the Parlia- 
ment, than the fortifications of five hun- 
dred years before. 

It seems evident from Wood's account 
that t«o distinct sets of entrenchments 
were commenced and partially carried out. 



1861.] 



and other FortificationB of Oxford. 



117 



but it vronM nlso appear thiit neither of 
thrm Wflf ever conipTeted; nor cnn w*? tell 
irHh rniy certainty whicli wns tlie earlier 
pUn Ibiit was not approvetl of alter ii wus 



oetirly Otii§hed, to that the whole work 
had to be h^gtin over agfiin. 

The nmthematical scheme of Railings 
son IB mentioned and highly approved of 



\ 



IUU!i£i|iKHi'» PUn for tixm Fcirtifie*ttea of 0xibf4< 
A fit, GiUtU fkitrth, C Botanical Ottnim. 



, Ctukriea T* 
E 8t. ThomaM^s CHtitch. 
F Thif Castle. 



In April, 16*t3^ und thi* appear* to be the 
one engraved in the Lathi tmnshitlon of 
Wood's ' Annals,' In the Septembur And 
October following- we ore told thut tti<»o 
works not giving oootent, tbnnght« were 
eutertaiued of newly fortifj-ing the city, 
ftnd tin? was iiccordingl^v begoti in Jnnaary, 
lC4i. mul fortjf pounds a-week was levied 
Ibr UiJ« pnrpoae. The stego began in May, 
16i6« and snppoAing the works to have 

^l»c«n continued steadily the whole year, 
and two thousand poniids to have been 
•xpendcMl upon thetn, this seems hurdly 

[■nfficient to have completed so extensive a 
fortiEcsttion. I am inclined to think that 
the only part completed was that to the 
Dortli, and the protection afforded by the 
Kveri and the slnices^ by which the whole 
tonutry ronnd could be Hooded on the 
east* west, and Kouth aides of the city, was 
Bonsidered liulficieat. It ia certain that on 

^Iht* north we have oonaidermble remains of 
tbeae earthworks, and none, or niezt to 



none, on any othor side. The lines extend* 
ing from Holywell Cltun^h to St. Gilea'a 
Church can still be traced i^4th tolerable 
distinctness, and I thijik the double teit 
of enttinichments abo. The njcientttic serfea 
of zigzags, according to the elaborate 
plan of Rallingson, derived from the worki 
of the great Dutch engineers of the period, 
OS h»s been flhewn by Captiim Gibba 
Kigand'^ have left but faint traces behind 
them. A field in tho meadows near Holy- 
well Churchi on the banks of the Cherwell, 
has the hedge and ditch which separate 
it from the neit field from the north, fonned 
of two distinct zigzaga, which are more 
clearly seen by looking back upon them 
from the north. There are also, 1 think* 
faint indicittians of similar rigtagsiii other 
places in these meadows, and again in the 
Parks, immediately to the north of the 
New Museum. Part of one was recently 
levelled in fonningthe garden, and part of It 
still remains to the north of the Iron fence. 



* lU*i)ucrd frtitu th^ 1.alin (hUUoq of Wood*i 
Siiioria I'mrertitatii Oj:trttitHMUt folio. 



f See ArcHaKilogiosl Joamat, vol. viU. p. 306. 
(London. t85L} 



118 



The City IVaUs 



[Aug. 



The second system of fortificatioii appears 
to he more simple ami more subHtaiitiul, 
aiul more of it has coiiscrjnently remained. 

The hetlgc which now separates the 
gardens from the nunidow occupieil by 
Mr. Charles Symonds, runnhig in the di- 
rection from the zigzags before-mentioned 
to Wadham College, is evidently placed on 
an artiticial embankment of six to eight 
feet high, or more in some parts ; this ap- 
pi'urs to have joined at its west end to the 
simihir embankment round the east and 
north sides of the garden of the Warden 
of Wadham. This was probably the mound 
thrown out of the trench, mentioned by 
Wood, "near to the wall of St. John's 
College walks, for the defence of the Uni- 
versity and City." Had this mound been 
thi'U in existence Wood probably would 
have mentioned it. 

In Loggan's map of Oxford, published 
in 1675, these lines are marked much 
more distinctly than in Faden's map, 
about a century later, and far more promi- 
nent than they now are ; these lines arc 
continued by I^gan on the west side of 
St. Giles's Church, also extending from 
theneo to the river, passing by the site 
of the present workhouse. In a meadow 
just beyond this, between the University 
Printing-honacand the garden of Worcester 
College, there are still some traces of en- 
trenchment! : they are not very distinct, 
■carcely more than as if on old hedge 
and ditch had been removed, but at one 
oomer is a mound, as if for a fort, and 
the situation agrees with Loggan's map, 
on which no trenches are marked on the 
other sides of the city. 

Wood mentions also works in St. Cle- 
ment's, to protect the east end of the 
liridge, but as this ground is now all built 
upon I do not think that anything can be 
made oat of the line of those works. A 
moand on the hank of the Cherwell, on 
wluch some trees have lately been planted, 
has rather the appearance of having been 
a Ibrt^ bnt as the only steep embankment 
is the bank of the river, and it cannot be 
traced on the other side, it is very doubtful 
whether this was a military work or not 

In Fkdcn's map of Oxford, published 
about the middle of Uic hist century, some 



other trenches are marked on the south 
iiide of the town, n<'ar where the Gas 
Works are now situated, but these are 
now built over. On Port Meadow, near 
the bridge over the railway from the Ilut, 
there are some remains of a fort or en- 
closure, iKirtly now cut through by the 
railway: this is said to have bien for 
cavalry ; it was evidently a detaclu'd fort, 
and was probably a place for koeping the 
horses in safety, or it may have been a 
cavalry camp. 

The following extracts from Wor.d's 
"Annals," relating to the fortifications 
and the preparations for the defence of 
Oxford against the Parliamentary forces, 
may prove interesting at the present time, 
when the spirit of miliUiry ardour has 
again been roused in the University : — 

"In August, 16 V3, while those things 
were in doing, the high way at tlie 
hither end of Kitst bridge, just at the 
corner of the chaplains' quadrangle of 
Magdalen College, was blocked up with 
long timber logs, to keep out horsemen. 
A timber gate was set up also at the 
end of the logs, next towards the Col- 
lege, for common passage of carts and 
horses to bring provision to the city, which 
gate was commonly kept shut at nights 
and chained up. There were three or four 
loads of stones carried up to Magdalen 
College tower to fling down upon the 
enemy at their entrance. Two posts set 
up at Smith-gate for a chain to run 
through them, to block up that way 
against horsemen, and a crooked trench 
in fonn of a bow, made across the high 
way at the end of St. John's College walks, 
next the New Park, to hinder the entrance 
of any forces that should come that way. 
At which place, as also at the Kiist bridge, 
was a ver^' strict sentinell kept every night. 

"Upon Saturday, l>eing the 20th of 
August, in the atternoon, the scholars 
and privileged men, to the numl)er of 400, 
or 450, rep.iired agidn with their arms to 
New Park, where they were instructed in 
the words of command and their military 
postures, in a very decent manuer. 

" So delightful a prosjiect was it to be- 
hold the forwardness of so many proper 
young gentlemen, intent dociblc and pli- 
able in their business, that the like could 
not be now seen in Kngbind, as their 
leaders and divers then iu the field did 
acknowledge. Towiirdscvening thi* wtmther 
being wet. they marelud through St.diles's 
Parish and Cauditch to New College, and 



and other Fortifications of Oxford, 



00 for that tfme they pnrted. It was then 
rvport^ that the Citiieiia should have 
' leii that day in eoine place with the 
ilnrs, to the end that it might have 
r|»^.,.*i ■''^' 'TTied that the Scholars' arm a and 
{ vt?re not b) trowed of them, sa 

»' i nissterly suggested : bat wbetlier 

wijR tor fear of some eniuktion or other 
ptieies that might have risen between 
ea, if they were that time in arm a, 
ImtMnding it was also then reported 
city 1>urg»»e« in Pflrliamcnt had 
en them to train, least they should 
I'j it for the King,) I know not, 
T ns. it seemA trainf^ then not at 

Ik f here or any where else. . , 

" is'ovtjuiber 30. Al>out the &ame time 
wa» a new gate of timber set on the eaet 
■idge, and a bolwark raised T>etwecn it 
d the comer of the Physic Giirden wiill, 
hirh, being finiAbedt were phuit«d there- 
two pieces of ordnance, to ttecure the 
trance that way. A trench also was 
ing at that time, near to that of the 
by the wall of St» John's College 
nlks, for the defence of the Univenity 
id (Ity. 

Dec* 6. Monday, The Univcraity 
Ihnau went iibout the city warning all 
tewonii thut were house-keepers 
i»? of their famil_v the next day 
(he works through New Park* 
ircording to whidi order the colleges 
i men* and many appeared and did 
for several days. The citizens also 
Warned to work at the bulwarks on 
side of St. Giles's Charch, and 
|t y by St. John^a College walks; 

At day, when the King rode to 
WW tlte said fortifications, he fooiid but 
12 persons working on the City behalf, 
vbercas there should have been 122, of 
_ Irhich neglect his Majesty took notice, 
and told them of it in the field. . . 

•* D*»c. 15, TImrsday. A written Procla- 
im "' I-. pabliahed by his Majesty, di- 
] r iL> City» to bring in more amis, 
gh^^.,. ., .*-ive and defensive. In obedience 
whieh order they did, though they were 
at few, and were pnt in the magazine 
Qther arms and famiture, bullets, 
iWder, match, Stc, in New College 
Tster and tower. As for all aorta of 
that were bronght in, were laid in 
and logick schtKjb, victuals in 
Inildhall. cloath and conts for soldiers 
Mutiick and Aatnmoray SehooU. 
ftnjwwder also was made at a mill at 

and the Mint for coinage was at 

Kew'inn. , , 

•' Ft^lu So, 8fttor<l«y. Dr. Richard Stew- 
art, Dfifin of l^aul's, went to the Vice- 
chanccilor. Dr. Tolson, to thank him in the 



King's name, for the University, thdr 
working in the trenches about the City, 
witii a desire that in regard the City waa 
backward in their taak of work^ the* t'ni- 
versity would be pleased to help them 
forward. This desire l>etng very reasonable, 
was accordingly answered. . . 

"The works and fortifications also did 
now go on apace, and those in St. Clemenf a 
Pariish, on the cast side of Oxford* were 
about this time begun. Which, with other 
fortifications about the City were mostly 
contrived by one Richtird Ridlingson, Ba- 
daelor of Arts of Queen's College, who also 
had drawn a mathematical schiime or plot 
of the garrison. Uis endeavours in this na- 
ture gave so great satisfaction to the King 
that he forthwith sent lottx^rs in his behalf 
to the University, to confer the degree of 
Master of Arts ujwin him: which lelttTS 
being read in Convocation 17th of October, 
was then admitted Master of Arts, , . 

"June 21. His Majesty, for the Iwtter 
furthering of the fortifications, did de- 
sire and require the principal Governor of 
every Collega to appoint one or more of 
the ofl^cers or servants of the colleges, 
upon notice given to them of the day from 
the (^mmissioners for working, to give 
notice to all Scholars and Lodgei-^ in 
colleges, to observe their day, and to de- 
liver a true note of their names to the 
Commissioners under their hands, to ap- 
point one in every college, to collect the 
monies of the defaulters^ and pay it over 
to the treasurer appointed to receive it, 
and a true note of those that neither work 
nor pay for their defaults. Half the collegea 
and half the h:ilk were to work on Monday, 
and the other half on Tuesday, frona 6 to 
11 in the morningt and from 1 till 6 at 
night, and every person to bring bis tool 
with him. The fortifications that they wero 
to work at were drawn tltrcmgh that part 
of Christ Church Mead, that is, next to 
U rand [jont- street, , . 

"Jane 21. Soon afler, viz, in Sept, 
and Oct., thoughts Ixnng entertained of 
new fortifying the City, (the Worka that 
were made this and the last year giving 
not content,) moneys must be mised to 
eflect it, and the burden to be hiid upon 
the University and City, now almost 
drained of their treasure. And as it was 
then forcaeen, and in a manner contrived, 
so it came to pa£s in January following, for 
on the 18th day of that month it wai 
ordered by the Lords and other of liia 
Mujcsty^s Commissioni r», upon conference 
had with the heads of Colleges and llolls, 
that the University should for the space 
of 20 weeks (to commence from the 22nd 
of the said montbj contribute weekly the 



120 



The City Walls 



[Aug. 



sum of 40/»., to be levied upon the Col- 
leges and Halls according to the propor- 
tions set down in a certain Schedule which 
they had drawn. Tlie dne payment of 
which should exempt all scholars of what 
condition soercr (with all their servants 
and Bedells, not exercising any trade in 
the City) from all contributions in any 
kind towards the said work. . . 

"In performance of which proclama- 
tion, the Scholars did those things re- 
quired therein, and upon Thursday, the 
14th of May, they with the strangers be- 
forementioned newly listed and raised 
shewed their arms and mustered in Mag- 
dalen College Qrove to the number of 6SK) 
or thereabouts, giving very great content- 
ment to the spectators in seeing so many 
Tonng men so docile. The Tuesday after 
both the University and City Regiments, 
mustered again in Bullington and Cowley 
Green, and the King did them that honor 
to be present at their musterings. The 
Earl of Dover himself conducted the 
University Kegiment, and Thorn. Smyth, 
Brewer, now Mayor of the City, was 
Colonel of the City Regiment. . . 

" The chiefest matter observable is the 
15 days* Siege of Oxon, by Sir Thom. Fair- 
fax, beginning May 22, and ending June 5. 
He made his first appearance by some scat- 
tered Horse near Cowley, May 19. From 
thence they, with other Horse and Foot, 
passed over Bullington Green to Merston, 
shewing themselves on Heding^n Hill. 

"The 22 day he sat down before Ox- 
ford, and then began the Siege, making 
a Breast-work on the East side of Cher- 
well River, and a Bridge over that part 
of the said River near Merston. 

''The 23 day Godstow House was fired 
by the owner, David Walter, Esq., High 
Sherifi* of the County, (since one of the 
Grooms of the Bedchamber of King 
Charles II.) least the enemy should make 
it a place of defence. 

May 26. Sir Thom. Fairfax put over 
4 Foot Regiments and 13 Carriages at 
their new Bridge over Cherwell River, he 
having his head quarters at Merston, 01. 
Cromwell at Wytham, and Major Browne 
at Wolvercote. 

"May 27. Two Reffiments (the white 
and red) with two pieces of Ordnance, 
marched over Isis at Godstow bridge, and 
so by Botley to South Henxsey, which 
party were continually playing on that in 
Mr. Oliver Smyth's house, (held by him 
of University Coll.) standing without the 
South prtrt, and continually guarded and 
relieved with Soldiers out' of Oxford Gar- 
rison, but for the most part repelled with 
the loss of men and members. All this 



while the Governor of Oxon (Col. Will. 
Legge) seeing the Pnrliamenteera quiet 
besiegers, and that they fought only with 
perspective glasses, was resolved to quicken 
them, and therefore 

"June 2, about one of the clock at 
night, he went himself with near 1000 
Horse and Foot towards Hedington Hill, 
where the Parliamenteers kept a strong 
guard as well of Horse as Foot. While 
the Governor advanced up the hill the 
Parliamenteers vapoured and cried aloud 
that 'the Cavaliers did only fiourish, and 
durst not come up to them:' wherefore 
fearing lest their stay would not be long 
there, he sent Colonel David Walter, Sir 
Thom. Gardiner, and Capt. Grace, with 
parties of Horse, to fetch a compass by 
St. Barthelmew's Hospital, and to leave 
the end of Cheyncy lane next to Shotover 
on the lePb hand, and at a certain sign 
given they were to set on them on their 
rear, when the Governor and his men were 
ready to do so on the fore front. The sign 
being given, they fell on them so rigor- 
ously, that of 137 Musquiteers (which 
was the Parliamentarian number) but one 
escaped. Their Horse also shamefully ran 
away, and left their Foot to have been nil 
cut to pieces, had not the Governor ordered 
to give quarter. They had for some hours 
before most insufferably railed against the 
King and Queen's Majesty, which much 
incensed the Oxford Horite. Of these Par- 
liamenteers 52 were killed, 92 were brought 
in Prisoners, (whereof 7 were Horsemen) 
with their Captain, one Gibbons, and their 
Lieutenant, a preaching Silk-weaver : with 
those Prisoners were taken 30 or 40 cows, 
which the Parliamenteers the same even- 
ing stole back again through negligence 
of the guard, but while they were in 
action, the Garrison of Woodstock, which 
was for the King, came forth to visit 
them, took 12 Prisoners, and killed a Lieu- 
tenant Colonel of Horse. 

" This being the most considerable action 
that was done, the mock-shew at Oxford 
ended the 5 of June, and the next day Sir 
Thom. Fairfax went to Borstall house, 
near Brill, in Buckinghamshire, which he 
endeavouring to storm, was courageously 
repelled by Sir William Campion, the 
Gk)vcmor, and Defendants. The next 
month hapned the fatal Battle at Naseby, 
in Leicestershire, [Northamptonshire,] 
wherein the King's Army being totally 
overthrown, all Cities, Castles, Forts, 
Towns, &C. that belonged to him, and 
stood out in his defence, were soon after 
surrendred to the Parliament: among 
which Oxford being the chieft>st, you 
shall have an account the next year. 



18G1.] 



and other Fortifications of Oxford. 



in 



** Soon afler it being foresueji tliat an- 
other stricter fiiegt; vt'oulrl follow, his Ma- 
'" *tjr trrderfd that the Governor give notice 
the VlcechanceHor, geveral HeJicU of 
I and Hnlls, Muyor, Aldermen, and 
\ VViirdenfi of every Punsli, that tbey 
within their gevcral limitii, that 
iwns nnd ig his Majesty % plensure, that 
r# «iriet ftccoont he forthwith tnken of 
what provwiiHJB t*aeh perwjn had U> hold 
out for 6 monthfi, jM'Conlinjj to a Procla- 
Eiation thnt wu^ then newly ordered by 
bis Mftjt^aty ti be pubUhbed. 

** l^jK>n this there wua booh after |[^eiit 

provisions made by the generality of the 

opie, t>nt hMist nonie *ihould Iw haekwnrd 

nd alow in the business, the order wna 

ived Again 12 Jan,, and with:d sfriet 

otice was then given thnt the \^ of the 

aid inoiitli there should be a ^enend 

arch in every plaee made, wht-ther 

!lcttSAl« were acconlingly providwL Alwnt 

naine time also the Kw^ pn**lished 

%\ Injiinclions to be observed by thei 

liaon in order t*) Kcligi au, I he piirtt- 

aliirs uf whifh lx*ing inuny, I hIiuH omit 

beiu : !tnd *«ent a Warrant niider his 

and to the lleadi of HoniH^H for the 

ding of Divine Serviof^ esrablinhcd by 

Ivaw, daily. Morning and Evening, and to 

fast on VN^edne^days and Fridaya. 

An. \}um. 164fv 22 Car. L 

'* Here ndght be subjoined a series of 

tv.. <; v . ».Tt(»rs of Oxford (t>r rather the 

; > ^ of the University) from the 

I t * Jime one of tbt^ Kiii^*» Uftrri- 

i^fbii: uriU« eifpecially since the bravery of 

the Aciidi'miaiir shone t'onspi<'n*'«J* in evf-ry 

"Hiitiuii, we nnglit rolntc tlie exploits both 

'ere and elsewhere of thote noble and 

rave ronnniinderfi^ • (ternrd, Sir Jobn 

Ptsnuymnni Sh- Jaeoh Af*hley, iSir Htnry 

lafre. Sir Arthur A«ton, Kt,, Csdoiud 

Tilliuui Ltvipe, and Sir Thom.is Gleuham, 

Irere it tuA to ttilrude mto itnftther's pro- 

rinec. and relate aetiona that would ndom 

he pnijfo of the Cuinmentaries of the Civil 

[WTar. Meanwhile the readers of th<'so 

kiinolM m.iy bo informed, ihut when news 

■ivrdthiit the siege of Bashig was raifsed, 

tlic fort'ed marches and surroandng 

M)opii of t!!.' i'lii'tnv n vidnntier party of 

be Gown i; ned thither: When 

jLbendon w * of eicgc, and on the 

kbit of MiiFr. ndrijig, itt) suceesjiirtil relief 

t\n^ b^vrtfininp rmght principally to be 

to the briivcry of otir Mead; 

I a iTTftceful repnbie which immc- 

xvtd must b<? impntcnl to the 

1 f others. The **inie nioy be 

4^ : .uintf the recovery of the great 

Untiianee nt liennin^ton, and all t!ie im- 

plfimenta of war there« after tho iiufor- 

G«yT. Mao. Vol. CCXL 



tunnte overthrow at Newbury. And, not 
to dwell on particulars, it should be known 
that Lieutenant Colonel Nuth. Campsfield, 
who, after almost everything had fallen 
into the Hcbida' hftTida, passed a whole 
winter with tlie Oxford Honw!, though 
Hurrounded by the enemy's garrmonB, un- 
dismayed by their succesiiive ntlaelis and 
nianeuvre*, was a companion in all dan- 
gers with Mead before mentioned, and the 
Gownsmen. Again it ihould be related, 
that the bravery of the AcademlARs wa« 
not confined to the defiance of Oxford and 
the ndjncrnt country, but they were al- 
ways active wherever the Royal Forces 
were engiiged : So many of them wtre 
known to be in actual fttrvice elsewhere, 
that 'tis matter of u onder that any were 
present in defence of the City ; and on the 
otlier hand, such a niiuibcr of brave de- 
fenders were here, that 'tii* not ea«y to 
conceive there con Id be any elsewhere em* 
ployed. Ont of the one hundred Student* 
at Christ Chnrch (and if the Communeri 
were to be added the number woidd be 
proporioiiably «ntreased) twenty were 
( )tiiccrH in the King's Army, and the rest 
almost to a man were inde'atignble in prO' 
tecting the dwellings of the inhabit anta 
of this place : and the sane may be said 
of the other Colleges. Trnly Charlefl, who 
w*a* ever ready in forming a just estimate 
of things, entertained snch an high opinion 
of the fideliy and courage of his Univer- 
sity, that whenever be was called out of 
0*f rd, he I'eld himself bound to summon 
a Council of the Cniveniity Trotsps, and 
entniisted to their peculiar care the whole 
coittmand and this deareiit pledges he left 
b« hind. . . 

*'A few davi before the Treaty ended, 
when the Oxonians perceived it was like 
to Hiici-et^d, they played thrir cimntm day 
and night into the enemies I eagueri^ and 
Quarters, discharging eome times near 200 
shot in a day (at rai-dom, a* 'twas con- 
ceived) rather to spend tlieir piwdtr. than 
to do any ciecntioii ; however they showed 
gootl gkill in that they levied their pieces 
so, as they shat into tlie Ltaguer at 
nedin^rt^DU* Hilb and there k Ih d Lten- 
tenatitCol. Colsworth,niKl likew ise intothe 
Leaguer on Colonel Rainsbijrough's ttide, 
where they killed a Sutler nnd others iu 
tbi'ir tents. The enemies cannon in recom- 
penee played tierei'ly ufwu the defendants, 
and much annoy e<l them in their Works, 
Honse?, and Colleges, till at hist a cejwatton 
of great iibot was agreed tfion Iwth sides. 

*' Tl»e 20, Saturday, tht- Treaty for the 
Surrender of Oxford was finished between 
the ComnitasjotMfTB, and concluded upon 
26 Artidea," 



122 The City Walls and other Fortifications of Oxford. [Aug. 



The following is the substance of the 
discussion which took place after the 
reading of the foregoing paper : — 

The Pbesident returned thanks to Mr. 
Parker for his very interesting paper. He 
called attention to the mound, or rather 
indications of a rise in the ground, in 
what was known by the name of St. John's- 
road, near the " Horse and Jockey" Inn. 

Mb. Pabkbb, honrever, explained that 
he had good reason to state that these 
were but the remains of some gravel-pits, 
opened sixty years ago. 

The Pbesident also called attention to 
the indications of the High-street having 
once been of a higher level than it at pre- 
sent stood. Upon the outside of Univer- 
sity College there was a distinct line, ap- 
parently produced by exposure to the 
moisture of the pathway, about two feet 
from the ground, which would seem to 
shew that the ancient level of the street 
was higher at this point. 

Mr. Parker thought it extremely pro- 
bable that the same kind of alteration 
had been made here which there was good 
evidence for believing had been adopted 
in St.Aldate's, namely, that the sudden 
pitch which the street made towards the 
river had been obviated by rendering 
the declivity less rapid, llie effect of 
the levelling would produce exactly the 
results referred to. 

Captain Burrows said that it would 
g^reatly increase the obligation which the 
Society was under to Mr. Parker if he 
would name a day to conduct some of the 
members over the site of the old walls. 

Mr. Parker expressed his willingness 
to do so, and, after some discussion, Uie fol- 
lowing Saturday was fixe<l as the day. 

The Librarian wished to say a few 
words on one p int adverte<l to in the lec- 
ture. It had been mentioned that Cranmer, 
Ridley, and Latimer were burnt upon the 
public place of execation. He asked if 
there was any authority fi)r saying that 
there was any such definite place of exe- 
cution? He had no doubt that the 
cross by Balliol did not mark out such 
a spot ; and he moreover greatly doubted 
whether both the executions occurred at 
the same place. He had been present 



when the ashes referred to had been 
discovered opposite Balliol College; but 
he thought they were scarcely six or eight 
feet below the surface, while the bottom 
of the ditch at that spot must have been 
eighteen or twenty feet deep. Though 
some stakes had been found, there were no 
less than six, so that none could very well 
be the particular one to which Cranmer 
had been chained. These were charred at 
the point, and were supposed to belong to 
fortifications of some kind. He then pro- 
duced an iron band, which he stated to be 
that which was usually supposed to have 
bound Cranmer to the stake. All that 
was positively knovm about it was that 
it originally came from Bocardo, and 
during the time of its being in the Caa^e, 
where it used to be hung up, it always 
went by the name of " Cranmer's band »." 
Now Kidley and Latimer had certainly 
been burnt some time before Cranmer, 
and in the account of their execution 
there is mention made of a certun sum 
paid for the use of chains : no such entry 
appears in the case of Cranmer; whence 
it had been ingeniously supposed that in 
the meantime the Oxford authorities, ex- 
pecting more executions, had invented this 
more convenient apparatus. The Librarian 
added, that one reason for exhibiting the 
band that evening was, that it might be 
the last opportunity the Society might 
have of seeing it in Oxford, as it belonged 
to a gentleman in Suffolk, to whom it 
was shortly to be returned. That such 
a curious relic of antiquity should be re- 
moved from Oxford was a great pity, but 
he was enabled to say that did his friend 
see a prospect of the University preserv- 
ing the Ashmolean as an Historical Mu- 
seum, supplying for the Schools of History 
what the Museum in the Parks supplits 
for the Schools of Science, he would be 
willing that Cranmer*s band should be de- 
posited there. 

The President fully concurred in the 
hope that puch arrangements would be 
made as should preserve a good Historical 
Museum, and he thought it very im- 
portant also that this curious relic should 

ff Vide an account of thii* bund in Oiutt. Mao., 
Juljr, 1857, p. 62. 



1«6L] Anglo-Saxon Charters. 123 

'^%e preserved to Oxford in §uch a col lee- itiscribt'd with rd R^ and might jwwsiblj 

He regretted thnt lie liad not with have bclong:ed to Ridley. 

Ktm A cnriouji braaa ring in hU [>OBseas]on« After amne furtlier diacnssiow on the 

brought originally Irom Bocardo, It wsks subject, the meeting wns ji^ourned^ 



THE WALK ROUND OXFORD. 
Of May 2S, agreeably to arrangement, a nnnit-rou* party accompanied Mr. Parker in 
, walk ronnd the old city walla, following aa closiily as possible thu line uf the old city 
ditch. They started from Tori-street, and behind the houses both in BpckwJ- street and in 
3efirge-lane, were able to discover mnny rt'maina of the wu!l, and in sonie few instancei 
^Ofhutions; whilCi throughout, the diflbrence of level enabled them to diiitinguifib the 
line of the ditch. The ground near the Ciietle had been so much disttirWl that it Wli 
diiBf^nlt to trace the Casile boundaries; hut on the other side of the city, pacing along 
Pembroke College, nncl through Christ Clmrcli, round Merton College and* New Col- 
lege, the line was distinctly traceable, and for the gpreater p irt of the diatanee the walli 
■citinlly remnining. Remarks were niflde at the most int-erefiting spots, chiefly liy 
Mr. Parker; but sevenil diKcus^^ionB took place, iu wbich the Principal of New Inn 
Hall atid other gentlemen joined. 

After concluding the round of the oTd city, the party procceckd to visit the remains 
€Kf the earthworks in the Parks, Aic., whit-h were thrown up for tlie defence of Oxford 
in the time of Charles I. On returning to R road -street, and after examining the re- 
Lft of ** Our Lady's Chapel/* the party dispersed. 



AKGLO-SAXON CHABTEllS. 
We do not often transfer to our pages information that has appeared 
elsewhere, but we depart from our rtile in the present instance in order 
that we may give such assistance as is in our power to diffuse the know- 
ledge of a forthcoming publication, which ts a great desideratum for our 
«arly history, and which it is imposs^ibje could be undertaken by more 
L>mp€teut hands. It is hardly necessary to say that we wish it every 
iccess, 

"Anglo-Saxon Ciiaeters.— Mr. Thorpe has nearly ready for tlie press a volume 
comprising copies of alt the Charters of the Anglo-Saxon period known to be 

ttant, tt^lusite of the simple grants of land ; that is, every charter of strictly 
kbtoric interest ; tIz. the wills of royal and noble persona, prelates and others j 
miscellaneous charters; maniimissious of serfs. The work will contain many 
charters not included in Kemble's Codes Diplomalieus ; the text will be formed 
from ft ooUation of the origiuiil manuscripts^ and now first accompanied by a Iraua- 

ftlion of the Saxon. The grants of land are mte0dcd for publication hereafter." — 

iikenaium^ June 29th. 



124 [Aug. 



HOOK'S LIVES OF THE AECHBISHOPS OF CANTEKBUIIY •. 

We are well aware that at the present day Inett's Origines Anglican^ or 
Soarpes' "Anglo-Saxon Church" find as few readers as Archhishop Parker 
or Bishop Godwin ; and, in spite of the facilities offered by the reprints of 
the English Historical Society, we fear that the Venerable Bede, Simeon of 
Durham, William of Malmesbury, and the other chroniclers, are little more 
than empty names. Yet the themes that they treat of are of enduring 
interest and importance, and the age that will not bestow the time to master 
the originals, is still eager to huil the substance of their narratives, if put 
before it in graceful language, and with due regard to grouping and dra- 
matic effect. Completeness and impartiality are secondary considerations to 
these, and thougli the critic may point out numerous sins both of omission 
and commission, the public is little inclined to agree with him ; it thinks 
that the story, if not true, is better as its favourite tells it. Secular history 
has been largely dealt with after this fashion of late, and now we are sorry 
to see it extended to Church history also. 

The name of Dr. Hook naturally gives rise to expectations which we are 
sorry to say this, his latest production, does by no means satisfy. It is with 
surprise that we find him taking David Hume for his model, and attempting 
to treat such a theme as the history of the English Church by '' clustering 
facts around a central personage." This may do for secular history, as all 
important events may be in some way or other connected with each reign- 
ing sovereign ; but we have yet to learn that the majority of the great trans- 
actions which have advanced or retarded the progress of the English Church 
can be fairly linked to Augustine and his successors. Tliere have been 
many northern prelates, both bishops and archbishops, who have left their 
mark upon their times, as there have been equally illustrious southern 
saffragans, and any Church History which from its plan can only mention 
these men incidentally, appears to us constructed in direct opposition to all 
the canons of sound historical criticism. 

The fact is, if Dr. Hook had not said (p. 2), "The work now presented 
to the reader is designed to be a History of the Church of England," we 
should have considered it merely as another of his '' Ecclesiastical Biogra- 
phies." and should have been quite ready to award its meed of praise as a 
readable risume of Bede, Malmesbury, and other chroniclers who in the 
modem view have outhved their reputation, and whose facts and fancies 
must be paraphrased rather than translated to deserve acceptance at the 
present day. In such a book, of course we should not look for much 

• •• Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury. By Walter Farquhar Hook, D.D., 
Dean of Chichester. Vol. I. Anglo-Saxon Period." 8vo., xx. and 530 pp. (London : 
IttchaRl BonUey. 1860.) 



186L] Hook's Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury, 125 

origiod research, nor even for paiustakiiig accuracy in copyings, and il woald 
be hardly worth while to take exception to a fault that infects this as well 
as almost all modern works, of judging men and things of the past, not by 
the Btandard of their contemporaries, hut by one of our own, and fancying 
that neither wisdom nor virtue existed before the era of gas, steam, and 
electricity. But as the work before us is gravely put forth as a ** History/* 
we must be allowed to demur to the appellation, and to say, that neither in 
matter nor in manner is it at all ccpial to what the public have a right to 
expect from a well-practised writer. 

It is but too true that it has of late become tlic fashion to confound the 
provinces of history and biography, or rather, to endeavour to supplant the 
former by the latter. Dr. Hook's model, David IFume, wrote his History 
of England only to vindicate the Stuarts ; Mr. Froude treats of the Reforma- 
tion, not on account of the principles involved, but to glorify Henry VII L 
ptid his tool and victim Cromwell ; Lord MacauUiy has favoured us whh his 
''view'* of the Revolulion, that he may enshrine *' the glorious, pious, and 
immortal memory*' of William of Orange ; atill we are sorry to see Dr. 
Hook follow the evil example, and wlien fie has strung together a number 
of odds and ends about sotne thirty prelates from Augustine to Stigaad, 
Ipdl it a History of the Anglo-Saxon Church, though it is only quite inci- 
dentally that he mentions anything concerning the Church as such, and 
more is to be gleaned on that topic from a single pa^^e of Soaraes, than 
from bis whole volume. 

As we do not accept this work as history » properly so called, we shall 
not quarrel with its author for frequently helping out his scanty stock of 
materials with an abundance of suppusjitious and inferences, and qulelly 
representing his archbishops as having Hctually done all that he supposes 
they might or ought to have done. Many of these inferences we huld to 
be quite untenable, but for the reason we have given, we let them pass* 
But beside these, a critic in the "Guardian''" has collected a number of 
instances of confusion of persons and places^ of errors of date, and even 
of translation of documents, several of which appear to be ** more ingenious 
than true/* that reflect rather stiongly on the care that has been bestowed 
on the preparation of the work, and shew that there is ample room for 
amendment and ** rectification*' in a second edition. 

But even as a mere series of readings in biography^ the book has one 
very grave fault to us in its unsympathetic tone. All its characters and its 
incidents belong of necessity to the remote past, but they are all treated 
from an intensely modero and practical point of view, and thus receive 
iCBnl reverence and rather hard measure. We conceive that it is quite 
possible to be duly sensible of and thankful for our own superior ad- 
vantages, without perpetually indulging a desire to make our forefathers 

^ Of Janoai^^ISGL 




126 Hookas Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury. [Aug. 

either odious or ridiculous, or both. Yet, whatever may be intended, such 
is the unpleasant impression left on the mind from the half scornful, half- 
pitying tone in which men once reverenced are spoken of, which makes the 
profession of "charitable respect" (p. 39) read like mockery. Augustine 
and his colleagues are estimated at a very low rate. The chief is guilty of 
" a tendency to pomp and vain glory," he acts " without judgment or 
temper," he is " narrow-minded and sectarian," and his " general honesty" 
is somewhat grudgingly admitted. Laurentius is either a positive fool, 
who "imagined he had received the castigation he deserved," or he is 
guilt}' of " an imposture and a lie." Paulinus ** avails himself of an excuse 
for leaving his flock" when it was dangerous to remain with them ; indeed, 
" none of the Italian missionaries were ambitiois of martyrdom ;" and so 
inferior were they (apparently) in mental culture to the British bishops, 
that " they were utterly unable to perceive the real point at issue" between 
their respective Churches — an assertion worthy of these days of historical 
paradox, when Henry VIII. is a model monarch and man, and Cardinal 
Pole a bloodthirsty persecutor. Some of the points at issue are compen- 
diously stated to have been ** things as insignificant as the observance of 
a festival and an arrangement of the hair," and accordingly " when Wilfrid 
left the Celtic party for the Italian, the first thing he did was to submit 
his head to the scissors of a Roman barber." (p. 15.) We own to a strong 
dislike to such epigrammatic statements, as too often unfair to somebody, 
though a kind of tiiumph for the writer ; the fact, it is true, is drawn from 
Heddius {De Vita S. Wilfridi, in Gale), but the difference in the manner 
of telling is not in favour of the modern. So with numberless other mat- 
ters, which are represented in a way that we venture to think never oc- 
curred to the parties themselves. 

We might extend these remarks to greater length, but we have already 
said enough to shew that we are greatly disappointed with this work, as 
one that by no means fulfils its assumed office of a history of the Anglo- 
Saxon Church. Still there are many passages which if we had space we 
shoald like to quote, as giving information which being drawn from 
neglected sources possesses a certain charm of novelty. A specimen or 
two, however, is all that we can find room for. 

Let us first take a condensed picture of an Anglo-Saxon ''double 
monastery :" — 

** Augustine entered Canterbury snrronnded by monks as well as by clergy, and 
when be laid the foundation of that monastery, which was afterwards called by his 
own name, it was designed for a missionary college : a purpose to which modem piety 
has once more consecrated its site. Under the successors of Augustine, and in those 
parts of the country already occupied by the Celtic Church, the monasteries had very 
much of the character and appearance of Moravian establishments, or rather of those 
stotions established in Africa by the Bishop of Cape Town. The institution was a lay 
Snstitotion connected with the Church, resembling in this respect the collegee of our 
Univeriitiai, and although some of the monks had already been ordained, they formed 



186].] Hook's Lives qf the Archbishops of Canterbury. 127 



)■ exception rather than tbe rule* The resemblance to our modem colleges bccjsttie 
the preater, when the country being convert wl and tbe Churdi established, Archbbbop 

Theodoros converted the TnonasterLes into seats of karulug 

'* Tbe thane or nobleman defllroas of ei^oyin^ the comforts of a mml i^treat, where 

i mlgbt devote himself to prayer aiid etudy, was obliged to surrouud hiniiicif for tbe 

I pnrpoie of self-prc»ervfttion, with retainers and attendants. Hut If those attend- 

nt* had been taken indlscriuiinately from his fortiier followers and comrades, his placo 

' reiidence woold have been changed but nnt liia ovode of life. He ccms^cquciitly sur- 

oanded himself with pcntons of congenial spirit and temper; be drew np the rules 

^wbich be thought necessary for the government of his household, subjecting tbtim 

probftbly to the inspection of tbe bishop, and constituted himself the president or 

^ #bbot. He does not appear to have considered constant residence at his monastery 

ary : he still engaged In the affairs of the world, and resorted to his inonastery 

1 occational retreat. But the king's privileges aud i mm unities were granted to 

\ institatlons, whicU eventually led to their corruption* 

*'Liidt^ of rank pursued a sinilkr course, A cfuircb was aceording'ly erected | 

and to serve the cluirfb, as well as to instrnct the people, clergy and monks were 
required: they lived together, they became Ccunobitcaj and so a monastery was 
formed ; — the convent* both for tbe nion and for the women being under the direction 
»Qd g(jvemment of the lady of tbe manor, who constituted herself tbe abbess"^. We 
have anthority for snylng that some of these eitablisbmeiits aoewered the porposen for 
which they were instituted, and were for a time the abodes of virtue and religion; 
but it is easy to foresee how liable they wtro to abuse and comiplion in a rude »ige, aa 
ioofi as the first fervours of enthusiastic piety subdded -, and although tbe corniptious 
of thcjse lay monasteries were, in all probabiUty, exaggerated by zeiUoiiH reformers, 
who were intent upon converting all monasteriee into ecclesiastical institutions, thero 
I^U be no doubt that tbe corruptions were at one period very great. 

•• It is from tbe aecnsers of these establishments that we gain some information as 
^to the conduct of their inmates. The monastic dresa was not generally adopted* In 
k monasteries the al)bot might be seen in the same attire as other men of his own 
' illation in society, with his mantle of blue doth, faced with crimson silk, and orna- 
loented with stripes or vermicuhir figures •*. We find them addicted to war, to himting» 
to hawking, to garner of chance, to the company of minsitrelfl and jesters. In some of 
\ Dtinnerieii also the hidy abbess would appear in a i*carlet tunic, with full skirts and 
wide sleeves and hood, over an trnder-vest of fine linen of a violet colour. Her face 
was painted with stibium, her hair was curled with irons over tbe forehesMl and 
tetnpleA; ornamenta of gold endrcled the neck, bnicelets were seen on her arm«, and 
rings with precioms stones on her fingers, tbe naila of which were paired to a point, to 
etnblc the talons of a falcon. The shoes were of red leather*. In tbe stricter cou- 
, n more sober dress was atlopted ; but tbis waa the dress of the Indies of liishion, 
tbe •flamtnom puelhi'/ a* they were called by Lidlus*^; and such we are inforrae<l some 
of the abbei«es remaim d. These vanities, on the part of both iir n and women, imply 
the ex.istence of much social infercourie, and Alcuiii complains of ' secret junketings and 
fortive com potations ;' while the nuns were forbidden to write or send amatory verses. 



F^vents, { 



* " The celebrated monjisterj' at Whithy was a double monastery, over which 
St. Hilda preftidifd. Liugiird informs us that the system of the douMe monasteries 
was introiiucrd from Fnim.'et (Antiq. of Anglo-Saxou Chtircb, i. 1%); BTid besidea 
Whitby, he mentions Barking, Coklinghum, Ely, Weulock, Repaudunand Wimborne. 
*Kp. S, Bonif. cv. : ed. Serar, p. 149. 
_ ■Aldbelm, De Loud, Virg, 307» 36 1. 
' '•LulluB, Kp, inter UotiifaciaiiW, xlv. p. 63; quoted by Lingard, Hist. Ang*-Sax, 
Chun:b» i. 210: ed. I84i8.** 



128 Book's Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury. [Aag. 

and abbesses were warned that there should not be any dnrk corners in their houses, 
us advantage was taken of them for mischiof ». Many indeed are the indignant re- 
monstrances of Be<lc and Alcnin on the subject ; and it is iuipossiWc to understand the 
objfct and proceedings of many among our Anglo-Saxon archbishops, or the canons 
passed in their synods, unless we have some idea of the state of the monastic establish- 
ments, for the reform of which means were early taken, if not always wise, yet 
generally well intended."— (pp. 30 — 1-i.) 

Next comes a view of education in the eighth century : — 

" As Tatwine [Archbishop, 731 — 734] is the first of the great scholars who by their 
talents reflected cr» dit upon their tcarhers at St. Augustine's, this seems to be the 
proper place to advert to the system of education which Theo<lorus introduced into 
this couutry, and which, in principle, is substantially the same as that which now 
prevails. 

" There was certainly a blending of the professorial and tutorial systems. . . , But 
the proficiency of the scholurs was tested, not only by an occasional examination, but 
by a constant course of questioning and cross-questioning, as connect^^ with each les- 
son. The instruction was CHtechetical. Of the mode of conducting these examinations 
some examples exist, and the questions put to the pupils of the arithmetic class are 
very similar to those with which the masters and scholars of National schools are fa- 
miliar as emanating from Her Majesty's Inspectors. For example: 'The swallow 
once invited the snail to dinner ; he liveil just one league from the B(X)t, and the snail 
travelled at the rate of only one inch a d ly : how long would it be before he dined ?* 
Again : * Three men and their three wives came together to a river-side, where they 
found one boat, which was capable of carrying over only two persons at once j all tl c 
men were jealous of each other : how must they contrive so that no one of them 
should be left alone in company with his companion's wife ?' Another is as follows : 
• An old man met a child, — " Good day, my son," says he, " may you live as long as 
you have livi d and as much more, and thrice as much as all this ; and if Ood give you 
one year in addition to the others, you will be a century old:" what was the 
lad's age ^?' 

" Aldhelm, the great scholar of the age, to whom we have already referred, com- 
plains of the difficulties he encountered in the arithmetic school ; and we shall easily 
i;ympathize vrith him if we bear in mind thnt the Arabic figures were not introduced 
before the tenth century, when they were received from the Mahometans in Spain. 
A kind of manual arithmetic was at this time encouraged : the numbers from 1 to 100 
were ezpretsed by the fingers of the left liand ; from 100 to 10,000 by those of the 
right: from 10,000 to 100,000 >^y varying the position of the left; and from 
100,000 to 1,000,000 by varying the position of the ritrht hand >." 

" We learn from Aldhelm that there was a class for geometry, but as Euclid did 
not make his appearance in England before the ruign of King Athelstan, we may con- 
clude that, at the period now under consideration, the geometry referred to had rela- 
tion not to pure and abstract science, but simply to mensuration." — (pp. 195 — 197.) 

Our last citation will strongly exhibit the very " modern" tone of the 
work — the picture may be true, but it will be seen that a touch has been 
thrown in here and there for effect : — 

i "Pcrtz, i. 93. Council of Aix-laChapelle, c. 14. 

^ "These are taken from a manuscript in the British Museum, which is certainly 
not of latiT date than the tenth centnry, by Mr. Wright, Introduct. Biog. Brit. Lit. 
I. 7i. To Wright, TunuT, Wanley, Lin^rd, and to Bcde, Alcuin, and Boniface, the 
MHder 18 referred generally for the statements made in this chapter. 

* «* Bode, De Iiidigitatiouc, 0pp. i. 1G5." 



1861.] Hook's Lives of the Archbishops (^f Canterbury, 



129 



*' Xotbelm wbb bnrn In Londoti. und i* aupimacd, thonjjrh without authority, to Imve 
been educated at St. AogustmB'i^, Canterbury. . , . . What were the Ainii^emunte of the 
lisus fttutliaoA among the undor^raduiites of Cpintorlmry. I am not prepared to wy ; but 
altbotigh the north uf Enghiud even then Kmk the le^id^ if not iu fox-huntiti^, <it lemt 
IQ foUowing the harriers, we have no reo^a to sappo«e thut the students of Cftn*er- 
bury were fiir behind them. Writing to tka mouks of Wmnnouth, Alciiin obUquely 
■ o e ui c * them, as Willimn of Malmesbury expret^a^ it, of having done the very thin^ 
which he cjthort^ them not to do : ' Let the youttis be tiecustomed to iitteud the 
praisea of our heavenly King-j not to (£ig up the burroira of foxe% or to pursua the 
winding ciaze« of hares ''.' 

" We poeeess, at the same time, a record of th© practice of the gtodents of Canter- 
bury in punning, which is the more valuable aa it shews the estimation In which 
young Nothelm was held. It was remarked how well liis name accorded with hia 
charact-cr : ' Dicitnr enim Nothelm usr, quaai notua ahnus ^* 

** He conciliated to himself t!ie pntronage of Albinuti the abbot* a friend of the Vene- 
nthle Bede; and in Northbeldt who succeeded Albinus, he found a cong<enia1 com- 
panion. It wag not to tlje highest bnuiche* of scholarship that Nothelm applied 
himaeif^ although in the transcription of ancient manuscripts, judgotent in the selcc* 
tkn of them waa required, as well as artiatic skill. I1ie increase of Icuming occasiouedj 
of coarse, a demand for books, and ^ indefatigable were the scribes of EugtanJ, that oor 
libraries soon became the most fiimoua in western Europe", Tlie attention of a scribe 
was not directed exchisively to calligraphy : the tUnmiuations which may he seen in manii* 
acripta, from the eighth century to the eleventh, display both the mind nnd the art of ft 
painter. These Anglo-Saxon manuscripti are remarkable for the b^jld charuLter of the 
writing, and the richness of the illumination*, of which the chief fcatureft are cKtreino 
intricacy of pattern, and interlflcing?* of knots in a diagonal or stpiare form j sometimea 
interwoven with animal*^ and terminating iu heads of serpents or birds. So highly 
efteomod wna this branch of Icurning and nrt in combination, that the attention of men 
of sdence was directed to the method of prepuring gold for the gold writing, and we 
pO»c» more than one of their receipts. For example: *Filo gold very ftoely, put it 
in a mortar, and add tlie sharpest vinegar ; rub it till it becomes black, and then ponr 
it out; put to it some salt or nitre, and so it will dutsolve; so you may write with it, 
and thus all the metals may be diasolvetl' Another method of ancient chryaograpby 
was thla : * Melt some Icu^d, and frequently imroerge it in cold water : melt gold and 
poiir that also into the same water, und it will become brittle ; then rub the gold 
filinga carefully with quicksilver, iind p trge it while it is liquid. Before yon write, 
dip the pen in liquid idum, which is best pnrified by salt and vinegar/ Amither 
method «Tia this : * Take thin plates of gfild and silver, rub them in a mortar with 
Greek salt or nitre till it disappeara; pour on water, imd repeat it; then add salt, and 
■O work it oven when the gold remains; add a moderate portion of the flowers of 
Qopper and bullock's gall; nih them together and write and bumislL the letters "/' — 
(pp. £06— 20U.) 

After this picture of the ^'imdergrads** a thousand years ago, it will be 
no eurprise to the reader to learii that Dr. Hook speaks of *' a reporter'* 
having attended at the Council at Whitby, and lliat Archbishop Sine, 
when he vi^iled Rome, ** lunched with the Pope/' 

^ •» WilUam of Malmesbury, Gesta Kegr, liU i. 70. 

i ••Khnham, p. 313, 

•■ *'Alcnin*« catalogue of the library at York, eslaWished by the munificcnoe of 
Aelbert^ has been already given in the life of Theodoma. 

" "These prescriptions are tranalated by Tamer, from Mumtori, ii, pp. 375 — 389. 
There are other methods in Moratori, by which even marble and glass may be gilt/' 
OnfT. Mao. Voi« CCXI. & 



130 [Aug. 



THE DRAGON OF THE AXCIENTS. 

Most of the great nations of antiquity h.id a tradition of tl»c dragon. 
Tlio dragon of the Latins is thus described by Virgil : — 

** At genii 111 lapsu delubra ad smiiina dracones 
Efliigiunt, 8a'va>que pctiint Tritonidia arccm ; 
Sub pcdibuMjuo dea*, cl^pcique sub orbe tcguntar." 

uEneidos, lib. ii. 225. 

It is to be observed that these dragons had wings, and could fly to some 
height. 

Tlie Greek dragon resembles the Latin. The garden of the Hesperides 
was guarded by a dragon, and the locality of these gardens is referred to 
Mount Atlas, in Africa. Hercules killed the dragon and carried off the 
golden apples, — which would now be called, in these unpoetic days, 
Tangerine oranges. 

In one of the Greek traditions, usually referred to a period about thirteen 
centuries before Christ, Medea is described as having killed her two children 
in the presence of their father, and when Jason attempted to punish the 
barbarity of the mother, she fled through the air upon a chariot drawn by 
winged dragons. 

Another part of the same legend is, that Jason was to attack a monstrous 
dragon that watched, night and day, at the foot of a tree on which the 
golden fleece was suspended : but, by the power of herbs, Jason lulled the 
vigilance of the dragon, and obtained the golden fleece. The locality here 
is the eastern coast of the Black Sea. 

The story of Cadmus also contains a dragon. He landed in Boeotia, and 
sent his companions to fetch water from a neighbouring grove. The waters 
were sacred to Mars, and guarded by a dragon, who devoured all the 
attendants of the Phccnician. Cadmus, tired of their delay, went to the place, 
and saw the monster still feeding un their flesh. He attacked the dragon, 
and overcame it by the assistance of Minerva. The story goes on to say 
that he afterwards sowed the teeth of the dragon in a plain, upon which 
armed men suddenly rose up from the ground. He threw a stone in the 
midst of them and they instantly turned their arms one against another, till 
all perished except five, who assisted him in building his city. Cadmus is 
Baid to have lived about fifteen centuries before Christ. 

A continuation of this Greek tradition is, that an oracle had commanded 
the Thebans to sacrifice one of the descendants of those who sprang from 
the dragon's teeth. Mencoceus, a Theban, oflered himself as a human 
aacrifice to the ghosts of the dead, and destroyed his own life, near the cave 
where the dragon of Mars had formerly resided. 

The last of the great pagan nations has also its tradition of the dragon. 



CI 351 .] The Dragon of the Ancienii. 131 

md among their inimitable pottery the Chinese have the dragon china, 
which i« scattered abundantly over Kuglatid. We have usually fiecu the 
dmgoo depicted on this china as a lizard without wings, — indeed, we never 
saw it otherwise ; but the Chinese are scrupulouply accurate in the de- 
Uneaiion of natural objetits, and thai I heir dragon should have lost his 
wings IB a proof that their earliest delineations were not made from the 
Ii\iuijr ftmmal, but that the creature was extinct in China when the Chinese 
brLran to represent il. Still, the Chinese insist upon a drngon. and wlien 
thv^ ( rnpcror died, a few years ago, an edict was issued announcing that the 
emperor had ascended to heaven mounted upon a fiery dragon. 

Eren in the science of medicine the dragon is remembered, and we can 
go into any chemist's shop and purchase g-um trag^acanth, or dragon's blood. 

Last of alU the geologists have dug up the bones of the dr^igon, and put 
them together* They find that the Greeks were more accurate than the 
CInnesei because the Greek dragon had wings. They also find that there 
were many species of the animal, from a monster with an ejtpanse of wing 
stretching eighteen feet from tip to tip, down to a little animal no larger 
than a curlew. These bones are found in the oolitic formations, and so on, 
upwards. The geologists find that the wings were covered, not with 
feathers, but with scales, and that the eyes of the animal were large, as if 
to enable it to fly by night. Two models of these dragons, or pterodactyles, 
are perched upon a rock at the Crjstal Palace, 

One of the earliest works of men was the subdivision of celestial space 
into constellations^ and this is alluded to in the Book of Job, who mentions 
the constellation Orion, Among these constellations we find a dragon, and 
the writers of the Old Testament constantly allude to the existence of 
dragons as if they had seen them. Job himself says, " I am brother to 
dragons ojid a companion to owls," and this more than 2,000 years before 
Christ, Some 1,100 years later, Isaiah uses the expression, •* The dragons 
and owls shall honour me f* and the Prophet Jeremiah not oidy assumes 
the eaEtstence of dragons in his own days but afSrms that they shall not 
become extinct for some centuries to come when he foretels that Babylon 
shall be a dwelling for dragons. But the passage in Micah is must curious, 
where he describes the cry of the dragon, — '* I will make a wailing, like 
the dragons;'* such a or)' as a nocturnal and solitary animal might well be 
iupposed to utter. 

As many countries became more populous, the solitary and jredatory 
dragon disappeared before the advance of an increased population, and, like 
the eagle, retired into places more and more remote from men. 

Pliny, writing in the first century, describes Babylon as lying utterly 
desolate. It then became the abode of dragons, and they are mentioned 
as still existing by one of the pagan writers^ though he does not speak of 
them in Chaldasat but in Mount Atlas. 

At a period usually rtfcrrcd to tiic thirteenth century before Christ, we 



182 The Dragon of the Ancients. [Aug. 

have found Hercules attacking the dragon of the Hesperides on Mount Atlas. 
Fourteen centuries later, Solinus, a Boman writer who lived at the end of 
the first century, describes the elephants that abounded in those mountains 
in his time, and he finds that thej are frequently attacked by dragons. 
These are his words : — 

" Inter ho6 et dracones jngis discordia : denique insidiBB hoc astu preparantar : ser- 
pcntes propter semitas delitescont, per qoas elephant! assnetis callibos evagantor: 
atqne ita, prsBtermiBsls prioribus, poBtreroos adorinntor, ne, qui anteceoerint, queant 
[ultimis] opitulari : ac primnm pedes nodis iUigant, ut laqneatis cmribus impediant 
gradiendi facultatem : nam elephanti, nisi praventi hac spiramm mora, vel arboribos 
ie vel saxis applicant, at pondere nitabundo attritos Decent angaes. Dimicationifl prs- 
cipoa eansa est, quod elephantis, at aiont, frigidior inest sangais, et ob id ^ draconibas 
avidissimd torrente captantar setta : qaamobrem nanqaam invadant nbi pota gpravatos, 
at, venis propensias irrigatis majorem samant de oppresns satietatem : nee aliad miyas 
qaUm ocolos petant, qaos solos inexpagnabiles sdant : vel interiora auriam, qaod is 
tantam locos defend! non potest proboscide. Itaque cam ebiberint sangainem, dum 
ruont bellusp, dracones obraontar." — (Cap. 28.) 

In this description the most notable points are, that the dragon attacks the 
elephant for the sake of sucking its blood ; and that it makes its attack 
upon those vulnerable places, the eyes and the ears. 

It is interesting to observe how closely the heathen traditions, the 
discoveries of the geologists, and the sacred writers, agree in describing 
the animal. It was amphibious, it preyed alike on fish and on other ani- 
mals, and it was, as the learned Cruden described, a dangerous creatui'e, 
mischievous, deadly, and wild. 

The tradition so carefully cherished in England, of St. George and the 
Dragon, as well as the similar traditions of Grermany, appear to refer to 
isolated animals, driven by the hostility of increasing multitudes of men to 
solitary places where they could still find water, and gradually destroyed 
by horsemen covered with armour, who assailed them with the spear. It 
is to be hoped that the representations of these animals on the British 
coinage will, in future, be more accurate than those on some of the 
sovereigns and crown-pieces at present in circulation. The real ptero- 
dactyle was a much more formidable animal than the imaginary dragon 
on the coinage. 



186L] 



133 



AirriQUE GEMS». 

Ancient Gems, beyond all controversy, coastilate the masi difficult 
daes of ancient monuments. In a department of the Fine Arts which m 
''■confessedly beset ^^ith difficulty <^ — the whole domain, we mean, of Ancient 
Art, — Fictile Vasea probably present fewest difficulties : next comes Sculp- 
ture< More diificult, by far, are Coins : most difficult of all, as we began 
by saying, beyond a question, are antique Gems, We have scarcely met 
with BIX individuals, in the apace of five-and-twenty years, who were so 
much as entitled to have any real opinion upon the subject; and the 
modesty with which these persons invariably expressed themselves, has 
stnick us not a little. It tnay not be amiss to explain what has thus been 
offered on a subject which, by the generality of mankind, is certainly 
scarcely understood at all. 

It requires no taste or jiulgment whatever, and certainly very little know- 
ledge, to enable a man to classify a collection of engraved stoaee. Some 
are of cornelian, ^ — some of onyx, — some of chalcedony. Some again re- 
present a Greek subject, — some are Roman, — some are Gnostic gems, — 
while (I y^w^ engraved stones are Christian. Then, there are questions arising' 
out of the Qiaterial, which often form a favourite exercise of ingenuity, and 
mfford room for the semblance of much learned research j while some men 
will discuss the hardness of gems, the method of engraving them, and their 
probable origin, with a confidence of asseveration, and minuteness of detail, 
which shall be altogether imposing. 

But even this inferior department of inquiry is as yet very little under- 
wood. The names by which the ancients designated gems, — (like tlie 
Barnes they used to denote colours,) — have not, by any means^ been accu- 
rately ascertained. In truth the history of Geras has yet to he written ; 
and the history will only be snccessfully undertaken by one who unites to 
considerable learning, a vast experience, and, — that rarest of possessions, — 
a sound antiquarian judgment. 

And yet, it cannot be too emphatically stated, or too clearly home in 
mind, that points like these are the mere outworks, — the merest husk and 
shell of the questions which engraved gems suggest to antiquarian eyes. 
First, — la the gem antique ? A confident answ t in the affirmative not one 
'inan in a thousand is ever capable of returning. But only let the work be 
fine and the artist clever, and who knows not that there are not perhaps three 
men in London whoee very opinion on the subject is worth a pin ? The 



• '^Aatiqne Gems: their Origin, Uies, and Yalue, m Interpreters of Ancient His- 
tory, and as lUastnitive of Ancient Art; with Hint* to Getti Collectors, By the 
Rev. C. W. King, M,A., Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge," 8vo., 498 pp, 
(Loo^oni Murray, 18G0.) 



134 Antique Gems. [Aug. 

stone is ancient, no doubt. That the style of the work is very like that of 
an ancient gem, all can see. But is the work ancient ? ... In short, the case 
may be thus stated : Ati engraved antique gem of real merit, is at once one 
of the rarest and most precious objects in the world. On the other hand, 
modern imitations of ^\\q works abound ; and antique stones of coarse work- 
manship are so common that they may be bought by handfuls. In other 
words, bad things are plentiful, and worthless. A gem of real merit falls 
to a collector's share only a few times in the course of a life. 

Next, when it has been ascertained that a fine gem is really antique, — 
(which only corresponds with ascertaining that a good picture is ancient 
and not modern), — the questions which arise are such as the following. 
First, — What is its precise age ? is it older than the time of Pericles, for 
example, or later ? — Next, To what country does it belong } Is it of Greek 
or of Asiatic work, for instance ? — Then, What degree of merit does it 
possess ? For (what need to say it ?) tlie degrees of merit are as various 
in gems as in pictures. — Lastly, What does it mean, and what does it 
teach ? . . . The present Reviewer believes that there are not, in all Europe, 
five persons who are competent to answer the foregoing questions. He 
supposes however that there may be five hundred who could speak ingeni- 
ously and well on one or more of the heads indicated ; while there are tens 
of thousands who could write on the subject after the fashion of Mr. King. 

And yet, this writer has rendered useful service in many respects : not least, 
in directing attention to a class of objects which are of consummate interest. 
He divides his work into Four Sections ; which are respectively entitled 
" Materials," — '' Art," — " Subjects," — " iMystic Virtues." Extending to 
upwards of 500 pages, his book will readily be believed to contain a vast 
amount of curious and interesting information. We subjoin an extract. 
Mr. King is speaking of the Diamond : — 

*• Pliny goes on to repeat the jeweller's fiction as to the infrangibility of the Dinmond, 
ft thing still believed in by most people, who cannot separate the ideiis of hurdnci» and 
of reiiitance to violence, and who do not choose to try so costly an experiment on any 
BiamoDd in their own possession. Bat in reality, from the fact of this gem being com- 
posed of tlun layers deposited over each other parallel to the original face of the crys- 
tal, it can easily be split by a small blow in the direction of tlu*80 laminic. Tliis pro- 
party may be exemplified by the following story. The Jjondon jeweller iutrusted with 
the re-catting of the Koh-i-noor was displaying his finished work to a wealthy patron, 
who aoddentally let the slippery and weighty gem slip through his fingers and fall on 
the ground. The jeweller was on the point of fainting with alarm ; and, on recovering 
Umielf, reduced the other to the same state by informing him, that, had the stone 
itmck the floor at a particular angle, it would have intallibly split in two, and been 
irreparably rained. 

"A few particulars abont this famous diamond will not be out of place here. Ta- 
Tcrmer saw it two centaries ago in the treasury of the Great Mogul, not many years 
after its discovery. Its weight in the rough, of alrave 800 curats (according to report), 
had been redooed to 284 by the bnngling Italian lapidary who li.id brought it to the 
vgly and anskilful form in which it appeared when brought to this country. This was 
R rode hemisphere facetted all over, apparently intended for tlio i-ose sbaiie. The re- 



18G1.] 



ftUique Gem». 



135 



Limiting in London mn eflreet€4l by the means of a anijill at^am-enginc, nnder tlie super- 
' intcndenc^ of two artLet« brought expressly from ilalluiid, whero ulone the baaino§a \» 
kept up, TbU operation (50«t 8,000/., and hm broufjbt tUi' stone to tko forui of n perftjct 
brilliant, with a wonderfal augmeutation of its Ijeauty ami lustre, though with a redttc- 
tlon of thu weig'ht to 180 carats. Even now, it remaina one of the largest diaaionda 
in Europe, — Ualphen's Star of the South weighing: S-l-i carats j the great Russian, lil',i ; 
the Pitt, or llcgent of France, 136 ; the Aostnan. a yellow atone, 139 [ and Hope's 
blue diamond, the most beautiful, though lejst valuable of all, 177/*— (i>p, 67— 6y.) 

la passages like the foregoing, Mr. King's book abounds. He has an 
intertistitig article on tbe ** Gems of tlie Apocalypse*' (p, 428) \ and what 
he offers concerning tbe "High-priest's bieast-plnte/* (p, 134), thougli 
not very instructive, is at least suggestive. All this kind of thing, how* 
ever, it will be readily perceived, is not in the highest style* The remarks 
are tho&e of an intelligent man who has made gems his hobby for a few 
years, and has amused himself by collecling whatever came to hand con- 

.cernlng them. We meet with no traces of real acquaintance with the 
tubject. Here and there a stray remark is appended in a note, of the 
light stamp : but it is sewed on^ — a mere purple patch. We think we 
can even recognize the learned antiquarian lips, at the British Museum, 

^from which Mr. King obtained the following remark: — 

**Tlii« ^niltoche border \m often found <?nc1osing tbe typeA upon the large flat 
didrachras of certain coins of I^Iagna GroK'iat as Mctapoututn, and Syhari^ Ttie figura 
of the buU-heiided river g«>d, the Achclous, on the former coins, and tbo long-horned 
ox, upon the latter, are executmt in a fh*t stiff uittnuer, hut highly finkh«Kl, and very 
sitnilar to the work on iiuniy of the gems, with which thtTe can be no doubt they wtsre 
coeval. ♦ * . As the city of Sybaris was utterly destroyed B»C. 510, and never restored, 
all the extant coins muj*t buve boen issued during the two centuries before that date, 
and hence we can form a notion us to the actual epoch of the intagli corresponding 
with these iu style and workmanship." — (p. 195) 

O 9% tie omnia! — But instead, whenever the learned Author gets on 
antiquarian ground he trips, and shews that he i« a stranger. Thus he 
tfiinks he has seen a Cornelian intaglio of the Good Shepherd sliinding 
between two tiger's I This however we should excuse ; for Vhrutian 
anliqtiitie^ are clearly not his forte. But we are altogether unable to ex- 
^ouse the tasteless representations of ancient gems in which this sumptuous 
volume abounds; and which, if they were faithful representations of the 
antiqtie, would be enough to make the whole subject ridiculous, and to 
bring it into desierved contempt. Who would,^ — who could admire, — such 
unlovely productions as are to be found at pp. 16, 27, 37, 38, 9<3, 113, Ate, 
&c, ? Mr. King seems to have no real antiquarian acquaintance with 
nntiquity. He never speaks of real Art aa if he tinderstood it ; or rather 
he does not write as if he were critically acquainted with it at alL 

We have no wish to bring Religious quc^siions into such discussions as 
the present ; but we hesitate not to avow that we are offended whenever 
tlie Reverend Author of ihcKc pages makt^s* a remtirk which bring?* him on 
Eetigioua ground. We conclude our notice of a volume which deserves 



186 Antique Oems. [Aug. 

to be popular, and what is well worthy of inspection, notwithstanding the 
slender acquaintance of its author with the Scientific part of the subject 
on which it treats, — with a short but suggestive extract : — 

" In St. John'8 vision of the New Jerusalem, the walls of the City are bnilt oat of 
twelve courses of precious stones. These are not arranged in the order of the g^ms in 
the High Priest's hreastplate, as one would have naturally expected from so truly 
Hebrew a writer ; but according to their various shades of colour. . . . This minute 
acquaintance with the nicest shades of colour of the precious stones will strike the 
reader with the greater force if he should endeavour to arrange from memory, and by 
the aid of his own casual knowledge, twelve gems, or even a smaller number, according 
to tliolr respective tints. He will find his attempts result in error, imless he has had 
a long and practical acquaintance with the subject. This image however of the Holy 
City, built of precious stones, is not original ; as it is found in the prayer of Tobias, 
(oortainly a much older composition than the Apocalypse, whatever may be its date.) 
In our version, it stands thus : — ' Jerusalem shall be built of emeralds, sapplure, and 
all precious stones; her walls, and towers, and battlements, of most fine goUL . . . The 
streets of Jerusalem shall be paved with carbuncle, beryl, and stones of Ophir.'" — 
(pp. 428^9.) 

We are very sorry to have to differ so completely from any writer as we 
are compulled, on this occasion, to differ from Mr. King. For first, in our 
copy of the Revelation of Su John, we do not find it so much as hinted that 
** tlic walla of the city are built out of twelve courses of precious stones." 
We read (in Rev. xxi. 19,) that ^^ the fowufationt'' were thus garnished; 
and that ** Uie ^tetjbmiid^tion was jasper ;" &c. &c. &c. For this truly ^was 
Ti^ mi^t ^ficXcovs fxoMrair iroXur, (Hcb. xi. 10), — '* the City which hath tke 
^li#trf«f/H>ii«,'*^-(** those wellknown foundations!'*) — for which Abraham 
** looked.*' — And next, whjf the foundations of the New Jerusalem should 
be ** arrmngini in the order of the gems in the High Priest*8 breastplate," 
we are at a loss to discover. Still less do we see what the ** truly Hebrew" 
pro)>ensiiies of the writer have to do with the subject. 

As for the '* <rr*fwi«i/i/f * of the Blessed Evangelist St. John, we care 
not to vindicate iu Mr. King ought to know that a work of luspiratioQ is 
nol to be spoken of as if it were an ordinanr human performance. The 
Holy Guosr it is who originated «// the Inspired Scriptures. Mr, King 
ouglit fiirther at least to have nead his Bible with soffident atteDtioa to be 
aware that the following tar more apposite words are to be found in the 
pix>phel Isaiah: — ^^'I will lay thy stones with fiur ooloai«,4Mi^ It^ ikj^ 
jf¥mm^^9¥mt ir£fi mppiimi. And I will make ikj windows of agate^ and 
Ihy smites of carbondes^ and all thy borders of pleasant stones." (Is. liv. 
lU l^v ^^ow. while those words so exactly in point stand in the pro- 
pbelic Canoo. to «;ap|K«e that Su John had fecour» to a SKmewbal diversie 
phassafe u aa AjtctaTf^bal book, is as utterly anworlhy of a onn of ednca. 
ta:»u a» ii » liicifVMi;^ dkio^editable in a diviaae. Bnl kl «s bear Mr. 
Kin^ «»ia:: — 

aa th» oiloaRii af SMM la a vtty teJaiWa l 
,* w«K tt» ttibr JHpii, sMi ttibr saNfaSk «ni 




1861.] 



The Handbook of Roman Numiamalics. 



137 



oxywned by a rainbow like Uio eniHragdtig : and ttic light of the city ib liico a very 
predoQS atone, a jaspis crystallized; that is, the green of the jasper, brilliant and 
tranapareot as crystal, by which h© probably meam to exprosa the true emerald. Such 
mUuaioiiJi, such exact knowledge of points only to he acquired by persons dealing in 
mcb articlea, or otherwise ohliged Ui acquire a tcchnit-al knowledge of tbcm, could not 
have been found in a Galilean flshermttn ; unless we cbor«e to cut the knot witb the 
aword of Terbal Initpiration, Here then may be another argument in 8npi>ort of the 
opinion that St. John the Evangelist and St. John Tbecdogus were two, dKtcrcnt per- 
acma.*'— (p. 430.) 

Is it credible that the Fellow of a College, in Holy Orders, can thus 
write? Is **the sword of verbal Inspiration," then required^ wherever we 
find an Apoetle displaying a greater degree of knowledge than he can be 
thought to have naturally enjoyed? And if it be reqnired, is it to be 
thought 80 moiiBtrons an alternative, that, rather than resort to It, we must 
turn one man into two, — in defiance of Beason, and of Testimony ? . , , 
What else does Mr. King say hut this : — that if the evidence that St. John 
enjoyed a Divine help shall be altogether overwhelming ; rather than admit 
tiiat he was Inspired, he ia prepared to resort to the most violent hypo- 
thesis? Mr. King, at all events, is wiHing- to invent an hitherto unheard-of 
individual ; to father upon him the Book of Revelation ; and to afisume 
that he was " a dealer*' in precious stones ; or had been ** otherwise ohliged 
to acquire a leckmcal knoH^led^e of them ;" — rather than accept the belief 
of tlie Church universal that '* St, John the Divirte," who wrote the Apo- 
calypse, was also the inspired author of the fourth Gospel ; and conceive it 
possible that he was Divinely guided aa to the precise order in which he 
should enumerate the twelve stones which make the foundations of the 
Heavenly Jerusalem ! 

We could wish however that Mr. King would have kept to his proper 
subject, and not gone out of his way to assail Inspiration. So long as he 
keeps to the history and nature of gems, he writes interestingly and well; 
and we have to thank him for a readable and beaulifid book on one of the 
roost attractive, but at the same time most neglected departments of the 
Fine Arts. 



TKE HANDBOOK OF ROMAN NUMISMATICS*, 
No branch of archeeotogy is more Important than ibe atudy of ancient 
coins; it affords a wide scope to the historian, from the vast amount 
of valuable facts presented in the curt but significant legends abounding 
in an almost endless variety upon the enormous number of Greek and 
Roman coins which have come down to us uninjured by the wear and tear 
of ages. Numismatics, more perhaps than any other science of an anti- 
qoarian character, ts encouraging to its advocates in being free from those 



■ *'Tlie Handbook of Roman Kamisnuitics. 
X Biuaoll Smith ) 

Qxrr. ILaa. Voi. CCXI. 



By Fred. W. Madden," (London: 



188 The Handbook of Roman Numismatics. [Aug 

doubts and uncertainties which usually perplex and dishearten the labourers 
in the wilder fields of primeval archaology. It has a literature of its own, 
sure and intelligible, unblemished by ignorant transcribers and knavish 
interpolators. Unlike inscriptions upon stone, the legends of coins are 
seldom so injured by time as to be rendered incapable of being read and 
understood ; and their wonderfxd applicability to historical purposes places 
these metallic gems infinitely above the more costly intaglios and cameos 
which, in comparison, sink into the ranks of those elegant collections 
which the luxurious wealthy get together without the necessity of much 
study or knowledge of any kind. Collecting and understanding ancient 
coins require a far higher cultivation of intellect than is needed in most 
departments of archeology ; and it may be a matter of question whether 
the education and classical acquirements demanded of the numismatist are 
not the real cause of the ne^ect with which the science has been treated. 
We see no archseological societies meddling much with numismatics ; and 
so little encouragement, in recent times, was given to this department of 
antiquities by the Society of Antiquaries of London, that the Fellows 
eminent in numismatics were compelled to form a new society, as has been 
the case with the more ardent inquirers in other fields, which the earlier 
volumes of the Archwolopa prove the parent society considered itself capable 
of investigating. The Numismatic Society thus forced to be formed, has 
shewn how much it could achieve, and, consequently, how much the parent 
body left undone. About twenty volumes have been printed by, or under 
the auspices of the Society ; and some of its leading members have pub- 
lished works of standard utility, such as the well-known ''Catalogue'' and 
" Manual" of Mr. Akerman ; and now Mr. Madden's '^ Handbook." 

At first view it would seem that the limits of a science based upon the 
works of man's hands must be necessarily restricted and defined ; but it is 
not so with numismatics : as in the province of natural history, new varieties 
or new species are continually being discovered ; and these discoveries often 
render very common what previously may have been of the highest rarity. 
Mr. Madden*s work has for its main object keeping pace with the progress 
of the science, and helping the practised collector, as well as the t3rro, cor- 
rectly to classify and to understand at a glance the comparative rarity (and 
consequently to form some notion of the pecuniary value) of the entire series 
of Roman coins down to the reign of Theodosius. Such a work demands 
a considerable amount of investigation among modem as well as ancient 
authorities ; and it is pleasing to see that the author has well studied his 
subject, and has treated it with care and discrimination^ He has intro- 
duced several criticisms on obscure and disputed legends and their inter- 
pretations, which evince study and sound judgment ; and will, no doubt, 
secure the " Handbook '' a place upon the shelf of every coin collector and 
numismatist. The plates of rare and interesting coins are alone worth the 
money at which the volume is offered. 



1861.] 139 



^I'tQinal Bocumrnt£{. 



(1861. 
I 
Mb. UaBAN, — I encloae you the copy of a memorial written in 1595 

from the Bishop of 8t, David's and certain others, Justices of Pembroke- 
shire, to Lord Burghleigh, upon the then state of Milfard Haven. The 
insertion uf it in your Magazine at the present moment will not be con- 
sidered inapplicable. 

Milford, in former times, was viewed by tlie English nation as a spot of 
more vital importance to the country than it appears to be at present ; 
although ^eat effort* are at the immediate moment making to increase the 
strength of its harbour. 

It stands connected in the middte ages, in several instanceSt with the 
events of English history. 

King Richard the Second embarked at Milford Haven when entering 
upon his last expedition to Ireland. A FrencJi force of 12,000 men 
landed there in the reign of Henry the Fourth, and to some extent pro- 
tracted the campaign against Owen Glendowr; and Henry the Seventh 
came to Milford Haven before he conceotrated his force against Bichard 
the Third. 

Among the Burghleigh Papers printed by Murdin is a letter from the 
Earl of Pembroke, dated February 11, 1592, written to Queen Elizabeth 
by Her Majesty^s command^ containing his opiniun on the expediency and 
practicability of fortifying the harbour. The Queen's engineers, however, 
it should seem from the ensuing memorial, were not employed in conse- 
quence of the Earr« letter. The prospect of an intended invasion from 
the Spaniards evidently gave rise to the memorial here produced to your 
readers. H. E. 

Jaihtmjf Rmdd^ BisJkop of Si, Damd'sy and the Jtutice* pf Ptmhroieshire^ (o Lord 
BmrgkUfiffk upon the ihtn ttaie of Milford Hupen and the proiabtt comeqmncc^. 

[MS. Lansd. 79, art. 8.] 
HiGHT honorable «nd our singular g(K>d Lord, the bounden duty we owe to Tier 
Ma**', the conscience we have for safcgardc of the whole Ilcalme, and the care that 
in nature and reason wee carry of this our Countric^ have eml)oldened us* to offer 
this PiBCOurse unto jour honour conccrninge the safetic of thern and tia all. 

It becometli us not to feare, nor do we doubt of the wise and grave considem* 
c'on Utat your Lorddhip and the rest of the LL. of Her Ma** moste honorable 
Privy Counsail have had and still have, for preacrvatiou of Her Ma*^' and the 
Realme, but yett fearing your waott of due infonnac'on touching the estate uf 
Wylfordo Haven and the parts adjoyningc. It maie please jou to nnderstonde 
that the Haven it selff being neither barred to hynder enlrie, oor to be embayed 
by any windes to lett yssiujige furth, is a suflicieutt harborough for an infynite 



mr 



140 



Original Documents, 



[Aug, 



tiombcr of Sljipps ; vFhich haven being once gotten by the Enemye may drawe on 

suoh fortilicatiou as Pembroke Towuc and Castle (standing upon a majrnc Book* 

and uppon a Creckc of the Haven), and the Towne and Castle of Tynby, with 

other places nerc unto them, as inGiiite noiubers of men and great expence of 

treasure will hardelic in a long tyme remoTc the enemy ; during which tyme Her 

c 
Ma*^' shall loose a fertyle countrey w*""* yeldes Her Ma*** xii/t . by ycre, and more in 

re?cnne paide to Her Ma*' Receever, bejiides all other receiptts both tempcrall and 

Ecclesiasticall, as Tenths and subsidies, &c. 

Also it is to bo remcmbred that the Soyle nere the saide Haven yeldcth oome 
in such nbtindanee us wolde suffice to mayntetne a greate Arniy» and the fteacoasts 
nere aboutc it yelde greate plenty of fishe. The haven also stnndcth very comodi- 
onslye to receave victnaliij from France, Br^tauia, or Spayne, all which t hinges 
maie be an occasion to move the Enen»ye to affect that place before others. 

And also there are in Pembrockshire xviij. CastleSiJof which though there bo 
but two or three in reparac'on, yet are the rest places of greato strength and caailj 
to be fortified by tlie Enemye ; some of which are so seated naturally for strengtii 
as they seem ympreguable. Also tljere are in that Slure to be seene in aondry 
parts theieof dyverse Sconces or forts of Earth, niyiieJ in greate heiglit w*^ greate 

rampiers and dy tchea, to the nouiber of vj. or vij, w*^"* in tymes past have ben places 
of strength in tyme of warrs. All w'^'' Castles and Fortes wonlde yeldc greate 
advantage to the Enemyes to strengthen themselves, in such Borte that it woulde 
be an infynite chardg to remove them from thence. 

Agayne, the same is scituate within vij* bowres say ling of Waterforde & Wex- 
ford in Ireland. So as yf the Enemye have an intcnc*on to invade Ireland (as by 
reporte wee have barde he hath) his harborough in this haven maie serve hym to 
greate purpose. 

Eurthcrmore, being Lorde fas it were) of tbetse Seas by possessing this Haven 
what spoile be maie make along Sea v erne on both sides even to Brisloll. may be 
easelie conjectured. And if he (w**" Gud forbidd) shouldc enjoyc Brytauie withall, 
our Englii»hc marclumts can have no trade, w'^^ will decrease Her Highnes customes 
and decay the Navy. 

If it be thought that he maie be kept from landinge, neyther the force of men 
nor furniture here will serve the tume, considering here be monie places where he 
maie easi'lie landc And he maie miW uppon us within halff a dnies sayiinge, (we 
having no Ship])s at sea to discry hyin sooner). And how then our small forces 
male bo in a irariyncs to wythstaude hym wee refer to your Honor's judgment. 

And if it be thought that Her Ma** Navy Royall be able to conquer them bctug 
onoti in this huvtn (and that by them fortifycd), y* woold be foundc very barde, by 
reason that uppon cverie little storrne (for want of the harborongh or bayc to 
fth ' 'i' y bhall l>e in groat danger of wrack, and no lande forces are able to 

f X, , wljcrcuf>fm mc^ hunvblie praie your L' to consider whether it be not 

eX4it^dltlntl for the w: of the Enemy that he obtayne not this Har- 

borough, to hiivc a c< noniber of Shipps of warr and fortifications to 

ilefende the sjuuc, which preptir»ieV»n, if the Enemy might pcrccave, Wee bclcvc 
ti'rilii it vsfiiiliic »lter his myude from adventuring his Navy uppon this Coajite. 

I late M' Pttwlo Ivyc was scntt hethcr to survey the Haven, and 

places for fortificatioti, what Reportc he hath made of his Opy- 

'4, but sure wee are that hia abode aboutc that service was verie 

n, iiiHi Dts survey verio spocdelic dispatched. So that because none of us were 



4 



4 



i 



1861.] 



Original Documents. 



141 



priv^e to his ententte or concejte. Wee do yett ret&yne some hope that if some 
her man of experience were sentt clowne bitber to consider of all the saide Cir- 
camstADoes, some such reports wovdd happelie be made rnto your Honor and the 
rest, as some better CTcnt might ensue for the Bafotie of this poore Countrie, and 
the whole Realme, than as yett, for ought we knowe hath byn determyned uppon, 
espcciollie yf the partie shall have instruce'otis to riewe the to woe and Castle of 
Tynby, being a place w'** maie be eaaelie made of exceediuge strength, and was not 
scene by M' Ivye ncerer than twoe my lea distaunce, for ought that wc can leame. 
Thus havingc wee hope discharged the duties of true and faithfull BubjcclSj weo 
huniblie remylt yo'^ good Lordship and all your grave counsayles to the blessed pro- 
tection and direction of Alndghty God. Ffrom Carmerthen the eighth of Novem- 
ber 1595. 

Yo' Lp* humble at Com'aundmV 
Akth. Mekevkn* 

J, WOGUN. 

George Owen, 
Am. Meybick. 
Alb^n^ Stepneth. 
To the light honorable o"^ very 

good Lord the Lo. Burgh- 

Icit^h, Lo, Highe Treasurer 

of Englande. 



ANTTQUiKiAH Discoveries at St. MartjnX Leicester. An important dis- 
covery has very recently been made, in the courac of the works now being carried 
on at this spot. The workmen employed in excavating the earth on the north 
side of the Churchi discovered on the site of the transeptal portion of the atructiiro 
a atone wail running a few feet below and in a line with the palisading. On the 
top of the wall were still standing the bases of two massive Doric columns^ a foot 
find a-hulf «ich in diameter. At right angles with this wall, in the unexcavated 
portion of the earth, was seen a line or streak of mortar and broken floor-tilea — 
the rem^iins of a pavement — indicating that the interior of the original edifice was 
on the aite of tlie present interior of St. Martin s Church. The earth contuins 
many fra^icnts of Iloman pottery^ such as the necks of bottles of white ware, 
With portions of ilangc tiles ; and the traces of Roman remains generally are un- 
equivocal and abundant. The flange tiles corroborate the fact, which the trsocs of 
the pavemCDt indicate^ of the interior of the Roman ediSee having been where the 
present interior is ; for such tiles were used for roofing, and they probably have 
remained where they fell on the destruction of the building which they onco covered. 
The two frngmcnts of oolumns^ standing on a strong stone wall, and the discovery 
of bones on all sides within the interior^ point to the eiiatence of a temple on the 
spot where now stands a Christian church. The two bases of columns evidently 
formed portions of a colonnade ; and from their size and the apace intervening be- 
tween them, it may be presumed to have been a long colonnade. Li all proba- 
bility this was continued round three sides of the building, and the area of the in- 
terior would tliiis be us spacious, or more so, than that of any pubUc building now 
standing in Leicester ; thus giving the idea of a stately and extensive edifice hav- 
ing sixteen or seventeen hundred years ago occupied the site of St. Martin's 
Church. 



142 [Ang. 



2lnttqaartatt anli S^itrrarg Sntelligcnrrr. 



{^Corretpomdemis are requested to append their Addreteee, noi, anleu agreeable^ far 
publicaH<m, bui t » order ihat a copy of the Gbittlxmah'b Magazikb eomUnaiMg 
their Cd mmm m e aHome mag he forwarded to them,^ 

SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF LONDON. 

Ma^ 16. Eabl Stakhops, President, in the chair. 

The ballot was taken for John Edward Lee, Esq., who was declared to 
be duly elected a Fellow of the Society. 

The Ea&l of Cawdob exhibited, through the Director, three bone 
implements recently discovered at Inchnacavrack, near the castle of 
Cawdor. » 

The Dean akd Canohs of WEsncnrsTEB exhibited the famous Service- 
books of Nicholas Litling^on, Abbot of Westminster ten^. Rich. II., in 
two large folio volumes. W. H. Hart, F.S.A., communicated some re* 
marks on these volumes, calling special attention to the curious details on 
the rites to be observed at a coronation of a king. The Dean and Canons 
also exhibited a very interesting helmet, shield, and saddle from the tomb of 
Henry the Fifth, at Westminster Abbey. That these were not merely the 
furniture of a pageant would seem to be imptied by the fact of the helmet 
having on the left side an extra thickness of plate, as if to resist with 
greater effect the blows which would £dl most heavily on that side. This 
precaution would scarcely have been taken if the helmet had been intended 
to adorn the dead in a funeral, rather than to defend the living in a tilt. 
The lining of the shield and the fittings of the saddle presented some 
very curious details, to which the Director called attention. A resolution 
was moved by Octavius Morgan, Esq., seconded by Frederic Ouvry, Esq., 
Treasurer, and carried unanimously, instructing the Secretary to convey to 
the Dean and Canons the thanks of the Meeting for the very valuable 
exhibition made that evening to the Society, and at the same time to 
express a hope, first, that permission might be granted to the Society to 
publish such portions, if any, of the Litlington Service-book as might on 
further examination be deemed expedient, or at any rate to give an account 
of them in the pages of the Archttologia ; and» secondly, that the helmet, 
&c., might be preserved from further decay by being placed under a 
glass case. 

ioBS EvAHs, Esq., F.S. A., communicated '' An Account of some further 
discoveries of Flint Implements in the Drift, both on the Continent and in 
England." This paper was listened to by a large audiaiG« with all the 
attention which the subject and the antbor were both of them calculated to 



186L] 



Society of Antiquaries of London, 



143 



inspire ; the subject — because the questioo of flint impleraenU in the drillt 
13 so bound up with the early history, the very cradle of oar race, that 
every one is anxious to peer as far as may lye into that (errfi incagnita about 
which revelation has left us all but ignorant, and science has not* yet made 
us wise ; the author — because Mr. Evans is, in this country, the man of all 
others who has a rig^ht to be heard upon this matter, except in those 
quarters where a careful amassing of fticts and a dispassionate deduction 
of conclusions are looked upon with less favour than pretty theories and 
crude speculations built on sand. The paper will, we presume, be pub- 
lished in the Arclufologia. Mr* Evans invited, meanwhile, the attention of 
antiquaries to the quarter where a search for these flint implements were 
most likely to be found, viz. the post-glacial drifts, and more particularly 
the fresh-water pleistocene drift, containio^ elephant remains, which occur 
in nearly all parts of England. The object may be worth bearing in mind 
during the autumnal touring of our archaeologists* We ought to have 
stated tiiat the paper was illustrated by the exhibition of a very large 
number of dint implements. 



M(Mf 30. OcTATiirs MoKOAN, Esq., MP,, in the chair. 

Alak Swatm.\n, Esq,, exhibited, through J. J. lioward, Esq., F.S.A., 
a gold coin of Lewis of Bavaria, with the double-headed eagle. 

Majos William Cooper Coopee, F.S.A., preseured a ring found with 
a skeleton at Toddington, Bedfordshire. 

Mr. Irklanu, by permission of Mrs, Newcomen, exhibited a very 
interesting pectoral crucifix of jet, of the twelfth century » It was found 
in 1855 at Kirklealham-hall, Cleveland, Yorkshire* 

John Brent, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited three Samian-ware pans, with 
remarks, the object of which was to combat the prevalent idea that none 
of this ware was ever manufactured by the Komans in their British 
potteries. 

W. Hepwoeth Dixon, Essq., F.S»A,, read a paper '* On Lord Bacon's 
ConfeftBion.*' We give a brief abstract of the facts and arguments ; — 

3ilr. Dixon observed that though the question whether Francis Bacon, when he 
beld the Great Seals, was a pure judge, is one that in some degree alTects the whole 

dj of our practical morality, it is right to discuss it apart from the moral in- 
Bueaces of sympathy and sentiment, and to try it by the severest critical and legal 
testa. If Bacon were a rogue, so much the worse for us, who trace directly back 
to him so large a share of our intellectual and moral life. But we must not snatch 
a judgment on an unfair statement of the case. We ought to try and find out, not 
what we may wish our teacher had been, but what he was. But let us not, because 
he is our benefactor, deal with him arbitrarily and illegohy. Let him have justice. 
Any pcr»0D aooused io a court of law is assumed to be innocent until his guilt is 
proved. In weighing the proofs of guilt, a magistrate is bound to alli^w the accused 
tli« full advantages of his own good character, and of the bad character of his 
aoDuien. So let it be witb Bacon, Above aU, let us give him the full benefit of 



144 Aniiguariam and IMerary Iniettigeneer. [Ang. 

any reasonable doabts which maj arise as to the scope and meaning of his own ad- 
missions against himself. It must be borne in mind, that among the many cireum- 
stances which render the case ai Lord Baoon memorable, is the circumstance, too 
often ignored, that the sole witness against Baoon whom any judge would be free 
to hear in his court, is Bacon himsdf. People talk of his trial, and of his judicial 
condemnation. But a mere reference to the journals of Parliament, or to the com- 
pendious extracts in the State Trials, will shew that he was never tried at all. There 
WIS an inquiry, but not a trial. No court was ever constituted, nor was any legal 
indictment ever drawn. The difference between such an inquiiy as took place, and 
a proper trial under the king's commission, is immense. The inquiry was not public. 
I^ witnesses were not sworn to speak the truth. Their statements were all ex 
parte. There wns no cross-examination, no sifting of evidence, or inquiry into the 
characters of the deposing witnesses. The accused was not present, either in person 
or by his counsel Not a single fact in the accusation against the Chancellor was 
legally proved. The vote of the House of Peers was, in fact, given on Bacon's 
letter of submission and confession, and on that alone. That this vote was given, 
not as a judicial and extraordinary, but as a political and ordinary sentence of that 
House, is obvious from the very forms observed, which were those in daily use, 
whenever the House sat in committee. Thus it hiippens, that of the several facts 
alleged against Baoon by his enemies, not one underwent the usual legal tests — 
publicity, deposition on oath, and cross-examination — so as to make it admissible 
as evidence in any court. The whole case, consequently, turns upon the submission 
and confession. The House of Lords voted on it. The modem enemies of Baoon 
rest their case upon it From Bacon's own confession, these critics say, there can 
be no appeaL That this assertion of Lord Bacon's enemies is wrong in its history 
and false in its law is ci^ble of the clearest proof. The story of the Chancellor's 
life from 1621 to 1625 is the stoiy of an appeal from the reading which these 
enemies are pleased to put on his submission and confession — an appeal made by 
iuSbself and by his contemporaries, as his many letters to the King, and four or five 
solemn acts of the Privy Council, suffice to shew — an appeal which had, moreover, 
a perfect success. The appeal then made broke down the sentence point by point, 
nBtQ nothing of it remained. On the 3rd <^ May, 1621, the House of Lords passed 
the following judgment and resolution : — " (1) That the Ixxd Viscount St. Albans, 
Lord Cbanceilor of England, shall undergo fine and ransom of 40,0002. ; (2) that 
be shall be imprisoned in the Tower during the King's pleasure ; (3) that he shall 
for ever be incapable of any office, place or employment in the State or Common- 
wealth ; (4) that he shall never sit in Parliament nor come within the verge of the 
Court. This is the judgment and resolution of this high court." Now, eveiy 
clause in this resolution tmu appealed against, notwithstanding Bacon's submission 
and confession, and eveiy clause in it was subsequently set aside. No fact in his- 
tory is more certain than that the Privy Council treated this " resolution" of the 
Peers as a purely nominal sentence. No part of it was really enforced Bacon 
was released from the Tower after a few days of imprisonment. Not a penny of 
the 40,000/. was exacted from him- He was not prevented from coming within 
the verge of the Court, for he was again received by the King, and he again took 
up liis old lodgings in Gray's Inn-square. Thai he was not considered as inci^iable 
of boldini: any office or employment in the commonwealth is proved by the xeal 
with wliicb SecrelAXT Conway laboured to procure for him the place of Provost 
of Eum, and By King James's own inrltnaa.ian to bestow this place upon him. 
Finally, the danse declaring tbat he should never again sit in Paiiiamcnt was re- 
5 



186L] 



Socieft/ of Antiqvaries of London, 



145 



vokcdj aud the eustomaty writ recalled birn to tbe tlrst parliameiat caUcd by King 
Clmrlea, These incontestable liistorical facts estalilish an appeal, a perfectly suc- 
cessful appeal, agiiinst the "jxidgtncut and resolution" parsed by tbe Peers on 
Lord Bacon's confession. So far history is clear. In whatever sense Bacon used 
the words of bis submission and confession, the commonwealth took no permanent 
lio(4? of them. Tlicy passed away as a mere formal plea \ as td> initio null and void, 
bat the words at the .bead of the submission and confession were, In fact, used 
hypitthctically and formally by Bacon, and not otherwise, and that tlicy were so 
tecnived and unders-totjd by bis contemporaries, was next established by Mr. Dixon 
i in a series of historical investigations. He shewed that thiFj fact resulted from 
a comparison of Bae<in's o>sti declaration, and from the course pursued by the 
Crown and by society. It was especially important to notice how comph'tely the 
sense of his plea of guilty was limited by Bacon's own statements. In liis famotis 
ktler to the Lords, read on the 30tb of April, Bacon wrote, in tbe form of a general 
\ of gTiilty : — *' Upon advised consideration of the charge, descending into my 
I conscience and calling my memory to account so far as I am able, I do plaitdy 
and iDgenuoosly confess that I am guilty of corruption, and do renounce all 
defence/* 

If these words stood alone ; if the facts out of which they grew were lost to us ; 
if the writer were not known to have used other words, not once, but many times, 
which control and explain them, they would weigh heavily against the man who 
used them. But Kicon iivTote : — *' For the briberies and gifts wherewith 1 am 
• tharged, when the Book of Hearts shall be opened, I hope I shall not be found to 
Imve the troubled fountain of a comvpt heart in a depraved habit of taking rewards 
to pervert justice." Again he wrote, from a sick bed, in what appeared to liis phy- 
>icians as tlie very extremity of his life :— *' I take myself to be as innocent as any 
babe born on Saint Innocents* Day in my heart." And again : — ** There be three 
degrees or cases, as I conceive, of gifts or rewards given to a judge. The first is^ 
of bargain, conlnict or promise of reward f>endenf€ lite ; and of tliis my heart tells 
mc that I am innocent ; that I bad no reward in my eye or thought when I pro- 
nounced any sentence or order." And once again : — " I thank God I have clean 
iumds aud a clean heart." Here we have, word for word. Protestation against Ad- 
xnission. The assertion of purity was made at the same time, and to the same 
person, as the confession of corruption. It 13 certain, therefore, that the two were 
reconcilable in Bacon's mind ; that the fault whieh he admitted was not absolutely 
incompatible with the virtue wliich be claimed. 

Mr. Dixon entered with great minuteness into the histoiy of the eharge agauist 
Bacon — shewing bow it arose in the enmity of Coke and the ambition of Williams ; 
how it grew in tlie anger of Lady Buckingham and the greed of Crawtield ; how 
it took shape in tlie hands of the forger Churchill ; and how it succeeded in the 
hands of Ley and Buckingbam. He shewed by an examination of each point in 
the charge — an examination baaed on new and very curious discoveries — that 
Bacon was not actually, but only officially and hypothetically, to blame for the 
abiisrs which existed in his court. He explained the reasons wliich induced 
Baeon to make the teelmical plea of guilty. When the Lords resolved themselves 
into committee, the very first stnigy-le between the partisans of Lady Buckingham 
and the few independent peers sliewed tlieir resolution to have their way either 
through the law or against the law. The rule of Parliament was for the Lord 
Clianeellor, ami, of course, for an inferior person acting in his place, to preside 
while tlie House wa^ iu full session; but to move, when the House went into 
Grit. Mao. Tol. CCXL X 



^HB^^X^ 



14:6 Antiquarian and Literary Intetligencer. [Aog. 

committee, to his own seat. Ley, not being a baron, ouglit to have dropped from 
the woolsack to a back bench while the Peers considered the Chancellor's case, as 
a mere assistant without a voice. But the usual course of justice did not serve the 
purpose of Lady Buckingham's friends. An active confederate, bound to their 
patroness by the ties of gratitude and the hopes of preferment, must fashion and 
control these momentous investigations*, therefore, setting at naught the con- 
stitutional forms of Parliament, they proposed that Sir James Ley, contrary to aH 
precedents in tlie like circumstances, should return to the chair and direct the 
House while they sat in committee on Bacon's case. A few brave men protested 
against this audacious and illegal course ; but a majority of ser\'ile barons, voting 
under the immediate eyes of Buckingham and tlie Prince of Wales, carried the 
proposal, and Lady Buckingham's creature resumed liis scat. It was now clear 
to Bacon, and to the whole world, that his persecutors commanded a majority of 
votes, and tliat no consideration of legality or decency would check them in the 
use of their power until they had torn from him the Seals. Should the malady 
which had broken liis health — and perhaps for a time unstrung liis mind — spare 
his life, two courses were before him : he might either fling defiance at his enemies, 
brave the sentence they were able and eager to pass, and die, as Egcrton died, of 
a broken heart ; or he might yield the prize for which he was pursued, retire from 
public life, and reserve his remaining years for the completion of his nobler in- 
tellectual work. Ilis own inclinations sided with the counsels pressed upon him 
by his Sovereign. In a private interview James implored him to abandon all 
defence, to submit liis cause to the Peers, and trust his safety and liis honour to 
tlie protection of the Crown. It is easy to conceive tlie reason which decided 
him to obey tlic King. He was sick. He was surrounded by foes. His fortune, 
liberty, and life, lay at the mercy of men wlio had just outraged the laws of Parlia- 
ment to his disadvantage. Only tlie King could save him ; the King would only 
save him on condition that he should avoid the scandal of a great criminal trial. 
During many years it had been the habit of the Crown in political cases to remit 
the sentences passed on technical confessions procured or imposed by itself. H 
Bacon would submit, the King undertook that his submission should be only 
a submission in name. By taking on himself a little temporary blame, he miglit 
entertain the hope of doing to his country an enormous good. The corruptions 
of Chancery could be reached in no other way than through the Lord Chancellor. 
Every great reform demands a victim, and he would not be the first man of 
Chancellor life, who, iu the hope of gaining a vast moral result, had consented to 
take upon himself the burden of offences which were not his own. Thus, in place 
of being an act of weakness or of despair, his plea was an act of the highest 
patriotism and sacrifice. It is necessary to see, however, to wliat extent he 
pleaded guilty even hypothetically. Tlie "general" plea must be taken with the 
''particulars.'' Bacon, ^i fact, admitted the receipt of the several fees and 
presents : if the receij)t of such fees and presents were held by the Peers to be 
l)roof of corniption, be was guilty of comiption. And that was all. He nowhere 
admitted, nowhere allowed his judges to infer that he had ever taken a fee or 
present as a bribe to pervert justice. Tlie personal gains which the tools of Lady 
Bin kinirhaiii sou^lit from the persecution of Lord Bacon secured, the pretence 
f'f a i!ii:u': aL';i:.M liiiii was akimloned, and the sentence against him set ai-ide. 
K'.' r.'r -Iv ■■ .(j.-r-^^'^xjil Ms ple-i of Guilty to refer to his "second degree*' — guilty 
01 c .«rrui*ii<iii, in allowing fees to be paid iuto his court at irregular times: an 
offcuce which ii'inch asserted tha.t no jud^ on tlic bench could possibly help. 



1861.] ' Society of Antiquaries of London. 147 

Neither the Crown nor society treated him as a guilty man. A senes of public 
acts, in which the King and Privy Council concurred, attested the belief in his 
substantial innocence. By separate and solemn acts he was freed from the 
Tower; his great line was remitted; he was allowed to reside in London; he 
was summoned to take his seat in the House of Lords. Society reversed his 
sentence even more rapidly than the Crown. When the figlit was over, and Lord 
St. Albans was politically a fallen man, no contemporary who had any knowledge 
of affiurs ever dreamt of treating him as a convicted rogue. Tlie wise and noble 
loved him and courted him more in Ids adversity than they had done in his days 
of grandeur. No one presumed that he had lost his virtue because he had lost 
his place. The ascetic John Seldcn worshipped him as the first of men. The 
more genial Ben Jonson expressed, in speaking of him after he was dead, the 
opinion of all good scholars and all honest men. " My conceit of liis person," said 
Ben, " was never increased towards him by his place or honours ; but I have and 
do reverence him for the greatness that was only proper to himself, in tliat he 
seemed to me ever by his work one of the greatest of men and most worthy of 
admiration that hath been in many ages. In his adversity T ever prayed that God 
would give him strengtli, for greatness lie could not want. Neither could I con- 
dole in a word or syllable for him, as knowing no accident could do harm to 
virtue, but rather help to make it manifest." Tliat the King and the Privy 
Council judged and felt as the scholar and the poet judged and felt, was shewn 
by the restoration of all his rights and dignities so far as these were com- 
patible with the safety of Ijady Buckingham's cre^itures, and the undisturbed 
enjoyment by her lover of the Seals. That such was also the reading of 
these transactions by the most eminent of foreign ministers and travellers we 
know. The French Marquis D'Effiat, the Spanish Conde de Gondomar, ex- 
pressed for him in his fallen fortunes the most delicate affection, the most 
exalted veneration. That the Judges on the bench, that the Members of both 
Houses of Parliament, even those who, at Buckingham's bidding, had passed 
against him tliat abominable sentence, concurred with the most eminent of their 
contemporaries, native and alien, in treating his plea as hypothetical and formal, 
is apparent in the failure of every attempt made to induce them to disturb his 
judicial decisions. "Never any decree made by him," says llushworth, "was 
reversed as unjust." These efforts failed, because there w^as no injustice to 
overthrow, because there had been no corruption on tlie bench. Thus, it would 
appear fifom the concurring testimony of contemporary facts, contemporary events, 
and contemporary opinion, that Lord Bacon was hypothctically, not actually, 
guilty of corruption. By this inference from contemporary facts, events and 
opinions, his Submission is reconcilable with his Protest, his Protest with his 
Submission. When he pleaded guilty before the House of Peers, he spoke 
officially and technically ; he spoke the permanent and personal truth when he 
said to the world, — " I thank God I liavc clean hands and a clean heart I" 

June 6. William Tite, Esq., M.P., V.-P„ in the chair. 

The Society opened this evening an exhibition of very choice illuminated 
munuscripts. K. K.Holmes,' Esq., F.S. A., communicated on the occasion 
some remarks on the history of the art of Illumination. 

The exhibition comprising but few specimens of the very earliest MSS., Mr. 
Holmes was obliged to pass over that piui; of his subject very cursorily, his wish 



148 Amiifmeriam and Literary hdettigeneer. [Aug. 

V<;'-^? \r, ciZ «}^t»I ftr;««^>on to tbe cpecimens exhibited. From tbe BjxaotiiiBy 
Ujeref : 7t, iie lanevi :o :&e InsL auuiiifcrifU, to vhich is dae tLe origin of an inde- 
py" >r i kL>:;L rexLtf£Ahle for the iniricale interlac Jig of the om^hmeatation, vhich 
>fr. HoLSvK btlJeTed u> be ptftlr due to the preralence in Irr'and of renr beautiful 
z^uftl-T'jnL An Iiis}: ir.tf.tisrfrrlpt of much later date than those to vhich Mr. 
H'j-lzitt i*fciy»^d, bu exLibi-inr the same stvle of ornamentation, vas exhibited 
fan- Mr. The. In England and on the Continent the Irish school bore fruit in the 
£h*i:.Ti§ -Ihuii&a Ky/iL," and in the manuscripts of the Carloringian period. 
Tiis zJ^^^c« lasted fcir about three centuries — the serenth, eighth, and ninth— 
ac^ vas illTi£Tra2«d in a Book of Gospels exhibited by Mr. R. S. Holford, M.P. 
A urv scbry-A arose in the nrelfth centurr, with the introduction of foliage, exhi- 
briii^ in :ts arrangeaien: a peculiarlT architectural character. To this school also 
Mr. Holnts gave a d^aration of three centunes. A lectionarr, exhibited br Mr. 
Tj«, iJusTraied tLIs period. The thirteenth and tvo folloving centuries were 
characuriz^ bj the study of foliage firom nature. The thirteenth vas designated 
by Mr. Holmes as the centuiy of the bud, the fourteenth that of the leaf, and 
the fifUBcmih thai of the flover. As an example of thirteenth-centurr vork, 
Mr. Holmes called attention to an Apocalypse exhibited by his Grace the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury ; of the fourteenth century specimens were exhibited by 
Mr. Fuller Ru^^sell,' Mr. Stephen Ram, Mr. Holf(wd, Mr Boone, Mr.Ruskin, 
and Mr. Beresford Hope ; of the fifteenth century a beautiful example vas ex- 
hibited by his Grace the Duke of Newcastle, beUeTcd to be by the same hand 
a* the celebrated Bedford Missal ; also three specimens from Mr. Titers collection. 
Tljese manuscripts vere believed to be entirely of French vork. The change 
vhich came about at this period vas attributed by Mr. Holmes to the influence of 
the realistic school founded by the Van Eycks at the close of the fourteenth cen- 
tury. After these remarks on the Irish, French, English, and German schools, 
Mr. Holmes passed to the consideration of that of Italy, vhich he regarded as a 
totally distinct school, the innovations made upon the Byzantine models in the 
more vestem nations having exercised very little influence on Italian art. As 
examples of this school in the fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries, Mr. Holmes 
referred to some exhibited by Mr. Beresford Hope ; others erf the fifteenth vere 
contributed by Mr. Layard, Mr. Whitehead, Mr. J. C. Robinson, Mr. Fuller 
Russell, Lady East lake, ^Ir. Ram, and Mr. Tite. Passing on from the fifteenth 
to the sixteenth century, and from Girolamo de Libri to Giulio Clovio, Mr. Holmes 
called attention to the magnificent example of the last-named artist knovn as the 
Tovnley 3klissal, and exhibited by Mr. Charles Tovnley, F.S.A. The leaf shewn that 
evening vas that of the Last Judgment, which is considered the best of the ten in 
Mr. Townley's possession, and he also referred to a grand initial letter by the same 
artist, exhibited by the gracious permission of Her Majesty the Queen, patron of 
the Society. On approaching more modem times, Mr. Holmes adverted to a patent 
of nobility exhibited by the Duke of Newcastle, and to a diploma of the CMer of 
Herminaliilda granted to Lord Beresford, for which the Society was indebted to 
Mr. Beresford Hope. A "Life of Lord Beresford" was also exhibited, some 
pages of which were illuminated by Lady Mildred Hope. With some general re- 
marks classifying in an original manner the styles of the various periods, Mr. 
Holmes concluded a paper which elicited general applause. 

He was followed by the Vice-President in the chair, vho pointed oat 
the confusion generally existing as to the nature of the contents of such 
illuminated works, the general notioa being that they are all misaala, 



1661.] 



Society qf Antiquaries of London* 



149 



wberc&B, besides tlie canon of the Mass, they in fact comprise books of 

[ boars, breviaries, psalters, and other offices and portions of Scripture, He 

[ tben entered into some illustrative details of the contents of some of those 

exhibited. After other remarks, and inviting attention to an Armenian 

manuscript from his own collection, he called upon Mr. Raskin to favour 

the meeting with some observations upon the art of illumination. Mr, 

Kuskin accepted this invitation, and proceeded to trace the gradual de« 

velopment of the art, both in colour and in form, down to the period when, 

in Mr. Ruskin's opinion, the art of illumination abandoned its proper 

function, nnd by the application of shading effected the final decay of what 

' Imd constituted its essential principles and glory in the thirteenth century, 

, After some remarks on the more noteworthy olijects eithibited, Mr, Ruskia 

concluded a very interesting and characteristic address. 

June 18, The MARQUEas of Bris^tol, V.-P., id the chair. 
The exhibition of MSS., which had remfiined open during the week, and 
bad attracted a great concotirse of visitors, was resumed this evening, in 
consequence of some valuable additions which had been made by the 
liberality of Mr, Tite and of other contributors, among whom we may par- 
ticularly mention Lady Londonderry, 

The BraECTOtt entered into some particulars respecting these contri- 
butions, leaving it to ^Ir. Tite to submit to the meeting any particulars 
of interest respecting those from bis own valuable collection. Tc this 
appeal Mr. Tite lesponded* by pohiting out the manner in which these 
fresh contributions on bis part bridged over, as it w*ere, the gulf betw*een 
illuminated manuscripts and the art of printing. Mr. Tite is the fortunate 
i possessor of two early printed books on vellum, a treasure of which not 
many public institutions can boast, Mr, Tite is also the possessor of 
a faithful transcript (date fifteenth century) of the famous Liber Hrf/alii 
at Westminster, Mr. Tite was followed by Mr. Schnrf, who brought out 
of the treasure-house of his artistic lore Kome very valuable criticism on 
the more noteworthy illuminations exhibited, as regards artistic merit and 
technical execution. And t!ms was closed one of the most eventful exhi- 
bitions which the Society of Antiquaries has ever had within its walls. 
We bail with pleasure these signs of quickened vigour and energy, and 
we trust the President and Council may be encouraged to go on in the 
'^ath which has this year been opened out with such brilliant success. 

June 20. (Adjourned meeting.) Octavitts Morgan, E^q., M.P., Y.*?., 
to the chair. 

A tJotrsTUS Cooper, R«q., exhibited, Ihrough Hans Claude Hamilton, Esq.* 
F.8.A., some antiquities, a s^al and some coins. &c,, recently found in 
Threadneedle-street. 

The Eahl of Cawdor exhibited a British urn found along with the bone 
implements already mentioned. 8ee p. 142. 



.-^r >q: ;^_ 



,M^ 



gffiiP'^-'- 



IlO AntiqnarlaH and LUeran/ Tntvliif/encer. [A*^- 

J. Wi:?Ti. r. E*q.. exl.iiital a portion cf bronze plate, stated to be of 
Greek wtrknirir-shiji. repre>t:.t:nj Heracles slayiig llippolytey Queen 
of the Ar/.azcr.?. 

J. G. VrAM.rr.. E^q.. c\i.!''!teii a pji'lmpst*! brass from All Hallows 
Pi.-rkir^. ccn-:-t:n3 cf fi-:i-.r'S -f a k:.:.::.: and a l.icy. It was to the 
r:.en:ory of a n.cii.ber of t:.e fitir. '.y .-f Thyr.:..-. Ti.e revirse of tbe knight's 
fijure exhi'vit.d part cf t:>.- li^ure of a i.;.!y: !:.ht of the laily. part of 
a p::e?t hw:.;::.g a L;:..l:ce. L::h Ic'.t.: .j :.« iLe c'c*e of the fifteenth 
c- r.t.rv. 

The" Dowi-.Ts LvTv 11 iviv, 0;rvv:v. M^:...in-. E-i . M.P., His 
G.TiCe ti.e PrKr or HAMiii-y, :vni .T"HN" V^'Ti.b. E?q., trx:.i'! ited a series 
cf covered cup«, silver-^!'.: ai.d wojJ, of very car.oas *hape, probably of 
::.e f-fieenth Ler.tury. The ^^..l^e may p-T*:;:-ps i.-e described as that of 
t-.To ver)' flat and r.lbed frberjiis >u;.c-rp s^ d. «i*h a handle attached. 

The DvKZ OF Hvi::LTX a'.so ex:.i':::ed a sliver- gilt salt, inscribed 
A.:. t:a>-a. f. I'.^l. aii.i a :^zz.\ of li.e ? .:.e n.at.riai, and in the shipe 
of an eijTht-pct.^'.ed d.wcr, iL*c:ibed iian- HiiNhi-.n x'lyoi waed dlss 
iLvrH> 10 JO. 

Me. Mor.r,A>- a'.so exl.ilited a pewter p'ate cf :he middle of the seven- 
teenih century, bearing ti.e ar:;.* cf Mvrj-.-.n cf Tredejar. impaled wiih 
t::ose of Moriran cf I'drrw : a pi .:.e!..r:w:n of N-ren;berg or Aug-sburg 
work, ^date \oA*) ci '.\ti >'.' adapted i\r ::.e n::s: ccnn-licated movements, 
and probably the ear'.i-.st iiw\\: ^ i lar.ctjriuni new :n existence, and. 
what is more, in perfect working: crdcr; also a nriniature clock in form 
of a square tower. s-r:i.cu:.:ed by a dor.-.e. en wr.i.h sLinds the figure of 
a boy playing: on a lute: the hc:^:;t c: the cock withe ut the dome was 
only one inch ar.d th'.cc-rurr.ters. The Case was cf si.ver-gilt; the works 
of steel. It goes twelve :.c.;:rs. st:ikes. Ai.d h: < cr. .il-runi. Mr. Morgan 
believed it lo le oi Gem:an wcrk. ar.d tlicei its d:^te about the year 1600. 
h was the smallest star.dir.j clock he 1 ad ev^r met with. 

Epwakp Fr.AO.XK. Ejq.. F.S A., cxi.i: itcd tw » p*r.:t. ^graphs of a fresco 
cMscovtred i:. the p.-.r;sh oh-:r:i .f K.rt.r*.:::-L::.d>. y. doling s.»me repairs 
made in ISoO, This exi.i. itl.v. w.is .tcc::r.p..:v!-d witn remarks. 

GeoroF SciTAKF. E^q.. !'.!>. A., ii^l fcir.e reniarks on a copy of a por- 
tr.iit cf Prince Arthur; a sub'cct on wi.ich Mr. Scharf read a most 
:ntcre*:inj p.ipor at the bcgUwir.i: of the present } e.%r. The remarks laid 
l-tfcre the S.cicty thistvcni..^ were :r.tc :.d^d as a sequel to that paper, 
s.nd as ccnvcy r^: thr results cf yet f^rti.tr re>e%rchvs in the same direc- 
t -n. T e copy ex:: :.tc.'. .v^s :\r.-::irly iu ::.e pcssession of Horace Wal- 
p^le, ar.d was r.cw l.-.:i '.cf.re t:.e S>::it\ bv the kiud pe:missiwn of the 
E^iilcf DerSy. X.t;. 

Tre lUv. E. E. E>:: : :.:. I'.S.A.. ccrr.tr.uT.lcAted a deed of Joan de 
I>eAu:h*n-jp. fr: p. v- H-:.. V.. .- -wl.i.h the I'ircctor read soaae remarks. 

CiLikLES W^iLSi. Erq . E.S.A., c. inmuniciteii a paper on the dis- 



1861.] 



ArcluBological Institute. 



151 



eovery of eome Roman remains on Kings tone Down, near Bere-Eegis, in 
the coanty of Dorset ; and their identification with the station of Ibemio 
on the Icknield-street, thus removing, as it was stated, some discrepancies 
in the twelfth and fifteenth Itinera of Antonine. 

The meetings of the Society were then adjourned till November. 



THE OXFORD ARCHITECTURAL AND HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

June 25. At a special meeting of the Committee, the following address 
to the authorities of Merton College was agreed upon : — 



"Tlie Committee of the Oxford Arclii- 
tectnral and Historical Society have heard 
with regret that in the pn^posed altera- 
tions in Merton Colle^^e it is intended to 
pull down seyeral of the old buildings, 
especially the old Library of the College, 
— in other words, the only portions re- 
maiiiing of the College as it stood in the 
foarteenth century, excepting of course 
the Chapel. 

" The Committee (in the name of the 
Sodety) hope that they are not overstep- 
ping the bounds of propriety in address- 
ing the Warden and Fellows of Merton 
College, and pohiting out the great archi- 
tectural, and more especially historical 
value, belonging to the buildings in qi^es- 
tion. Nor is it only a local value which 
is attached to them, for it may be observed 
that they are the only remain* oi' any 
collegiate buildings of go earlif a date as 



the fourteenth century existing in the whole 
qf Europe. 

" It is with every sense of the difficul- 
ties which no doubt the Warden and Fel- 
lows would have to encounter in carrying 
out their arrangements without destroying 
tliese venerable remains, that the Com- 
mittce address the College ; and they are 
also fully aware of the absence of any 
right in a public Society to intrude 
upon the deliberations of a private corpo- 
ration : still, as a Society for the promo- 
tion of the Study of Architecture and 
History, and one of their chief objects 
being to promote a proper cure and regard 
for the monumt-nts of past ages, they trust 
they may be permitted to express a hope 
tl at some arrangement may be made by 
which these interesting buildings may be 
preserved." 



ARCH^OLOGICAL INSTITUTE. 



July 5. Lord Talbot de Malahide, 
President, in the chair. 

In opening the proceedings of this, the 
concluding meeting of the session, previ< lus 
to the annmd congress to bo held at Peter- 
borough, the noble President alluded to 
the very gratifying liberality with which 
the succesuve exhibitions recently formed 
by the Institute liad been encouraged, 
more especially by the Duke of Marl- 
borough and other contributors to the 
remarkable display of gems, to which 
since the last meeting so valuable an ad- 
dition had been made through the gracious 
condescension of Her Majesty and the 
IMnce Consort, Patron of the Institute. 
The entire collection of cameos and precious 
examples of glyptic art £rom Windsor 



Castle, more than two hundred in number, 
had been entrusted to the Society for ex- 
hibition. 

The first communication was read by 
Mr. C. S. Greiives, Q.C., who adverted to 
the interesting researches of Mr. Frank 
Calvert in the Troad, of which the results 
liad been made known to the Institute 
during the previous year, and published 
in the Jonrnal of the Society. The at- 
tention of that able archasologist, and of 
his brother (Her Majesty's Consul at the 
Dardanelles), had been specially directed 
to the investigation of the site of Troy 
and careful researches had been made to 
discover the springs described by Homer 
— one warm and the other coW— adjacent 
tp the city, being the sources of the Sea* 



i:.; 



Antiquarian and Literary Intelligeneer. 



[Aug. 



Tiiaiidor. whore tn peaoctul times the Trojan 
iu«:«lii» h^\ been aeciutomed to wuh 
their ::.ir:uent.*. The?»e *j^rii^r» appear to 
l..i\o Utti -iatisrVtorilv ulcntxded by the 
n"H:irvlu# xi tlii? Cn»ul. who described 
thfiu, ill a Icttir aJdrfc*«o-.i t.» Mr. Greaves 
».< ^iiuateii in a umrvh. near au ancleut 
.«:*e on a hii'.. which cicely aniwen to the 
liiji'ripTuni of Troy a# luilc aii«Hi a tpar 
of Moiiiit Ma ail vane: n^r into the plain. 
Mr. I'alvert prt>ii;is«d ;r.s»re preeise aciXMints 
of hi« fu!tht r inve>::pi:;.m of the U«eality, 
whieh a'lji»ir.< d :.\t\\\ in hi* owti occupation 
at a pluv %\\\\k\\ Ak'.chihoni. The dif- 
fercnvv of tvUiiKTiture Wtwivn the two 
-iprinpi was avert ained to Ik? U*"' accord- 
inc to Uinuuiur. or 2*2 i^ Fahreiilieit. 
A remurkaMe c»^ine;di':»ce wi;h tl:e descrip- 
t'ou ::iven h\ Homer m\\' Iv traced. 

SiiTiior i'a*ttl!ani. ot' Ko.ue, who hail 
hn^iiirhi for in^invtion a Uniutiful series 
of (xuniples of ilio ^^»'lvUmith*» art, illua- 
tnitive of the (CyUs of workmanship pre- 
valent in Vltruria, Kome, and !• recce, then 
pave a ditk-ourse on the art of jowelleiy 
anu>n<; the ancients, and v^i their )HVuliar 
])nK*os»eft of executioM, now in jrreat p;irt 
lust. He traced the pn>j:ri'S!»ive reline- 
loents in taste and skill in artistic mani- 
pulation, of which examples, unetjualled 
by any of the ^>ld<>mith*s work nnder the 
influence of all the advanta^e^ of our civi- 
lization, have been regained from the 
ccrijeteries of Greece and of Ktniria. In 
tlic imhny days of imperial Rome the art 
declined, until, on the fall of tho empire, 
the material funned the only value of the 
ornament. Si^nor Caiitclliini proceeded 
to ]M/int out the influence of the transfer 
of ilio wilt of empire to Hyzantinm, the 
aflinixt.ure of Anib art, the introduction of 
fnamclN, ^miH, and coarRc cluHingR, with 
nn rxuhcniiirn of Imrharic luxury. He 
allndrd to thejewfller}' of tho Goths and 
liMuilianU, <>xcmpliflcd by the Gothic 
crownH found at ToUmIo, now at the Hotel 
«h* < 'hiny ; ami Im pivc a ftketch of the 
pntKiTHK of the art during medieval 
tiiiicN, until itM gmit nivival through the 
Ki'iiiii* of rinigiicrra, CaraduwK), and Cel- 
lini. l''nHii that ]K'riod it Inid again de- 
eUnml. Signor (*aiitellani concluded with 
nil lulcniitiiig nArrativo of eflforta recently 




madiB at Rome to tchiere its revivml, and to 
detect the p rocewea by which tho anekafei 
worked with to much beanty of ezeeatioo. 
The rich fpecimens diaphiyed before the 
meeting shewed the great skill alnady 
attained in reproducing works whidi may 
bear comparison with the rdics of the 
chuioeit ckss of Etmscan art. 

Mr. Edward Richardson then gave some 
account of monumental portnitnres of a 
peculiar chis8» chiefly found in Derbyshire 
and in Staffordshire, being engimTed slabi 
of alabastf r, with figures aooompanied by 
architectural and heraldic arcosioriet, Ac, 
of which be exhibited a fine example, ex- 
isting at Tettenhall, being the memorial 
of Richard, son of Sir Walter Wrottesky, 
gm-emor of Cahiis in the reign of Henry 
YIII. 

An interesting note by the Astronomer 
Royal was read, in which, after alluding 
to the remarkable undertaking of the Em- 
peror of the French to compile a memoir 
illustrative of the campaigns of Julius 
Ca'sar in liaul, he described his own m- 
vestigation of the scene of the memorable 
winter march across the Cerennes, so 
graphically described in the Commentaries 
of CoMar. Professor Airy's elucidation of 
the localities in question was replete with 
interesting details. A short account wss 
givi-n, describing the operations recently 
carried out by command of the Emperor 
of the French to trace the vestiges of the 
works at Alise, (Dept of the C6te d'Or,) 
and Ca»ar's campaign against Verein- 
getorix. The excavations* which have 
recently been visited by His Miyesty, ap- 
pear, accorduig to the description given 
by M. dc Saulcy, one of the Honorarf 
Correspondents of the Archaolo^cal In- 
stitute, to have satisfactorily established 
the position of the ancient Alesia. 

Mr. Albert Way read a notice of a 
further discovery of votive crowns and 
rich ornaments near Toledo ; they are of 
the Gothic ag*>, and bear the names of 
Suinlila, Luoetius, and the Abbot Tbeo- 
dotiius. One of the crowns, very richly 
jewelled, and enriched with elaborate 
pierced work, has the lecord of its votive 
appropriation by one of the Gothic kings, 
in pendent letters fonning a fringe around 



n-l 



Eecle$iofog'eal Society, 



158 



Ifei Um«r DiAfipchl, sntl wliitfa irat be thiH 
ftsiV-^nrritf iiA msx ofperbt. To vm^ 
littMr «x« upended pr«c1oos gvm and 
1M<iwlt. SnSntila mm abcted king of the 
Ip'Uigrothi in Spain in 621, And died in 635. 
A jswclled crou of ^re«t besaty was mis- 
ptnded withtn tlae orown^ Thii» vritbtbe 
' lieli ominneiiU of whkh repfrennta- 
were exbibited, hB« reoentlj been 
bf Ibc Queen of Spnin; they 
WOTS dJrintored at Gimrraxar, nt the tame 
fpoi when tba eoll«ction of crowns and 
Ttitivii enmm now to bt tern at Pttni, at 
I4m» Uotid de Cluny, were fonnd. Mr. 
Way eUifd womm carioiui detaili relating 
Id the diaoovery, at oomamnicated by 
M. du SommGrard, keeper of ibo colleo- 
lienft in Puris, and by Mr. Decimuj* Burton. 
A collection of antiquities froai Pesba- 
WW, rcMtitly rccetved from Major Hast* 
Itifei^ ItJL.i wai exhibited, in which a strong 
InfliMiica of Grvok art may be &een, dcmbt* 

ROYAL INSTITUTE OF 

4uf^ 10. A eonvertMuuun«i was biild at 
Uia XvLium of tbid limtltiitef t'onduit-streeK 

In addition to an exteniivG coIK'ction of 
CTchit^tural dmwiugs, the principal ob- 
jects exhibited were Mr. Folkencr's Si- 
calu-Uorwi|Ua and other metal -work, nnd 
bis iUoslnittons of life in Punipeii ; Mr. 
Leyard^s manuscripts of frescoea; photo- 
fwaphs til the work at the Sooth Keostng- 
Vin Attueatii *, oasea of MSS. belonging to 
Mr. *liX^ MJ', ; drawings by Flaxman, 
VriAMitf^ mid A* W. Pugin; Mr. Owen 
J»)»r«* origiDHl dcdgnt to *' Paradise and 
Ibit Port;" Sir K. E. Scott's Ltmogea 
aoaiaelsj Mr. VVebb'« collection ^ aculp- 
Imrvd ivory; a bead in flre«co by Gnido, 
•mI a Madonna and cliild in luarblu by 
Pottatalbx Tbe Anitsbarg clock and foor 
fiiissa of diiiia wirre knt by M^r Mi^|esty, 



IfiM to bi tmetd to the ncttoMble oeea- 
pttiofi of th« co4iiitry— tb« iaod«ni AIT* 
gbanistaii — by Alocander. A brotise sta> 
tne of Baeehni^ several fragments of terra> 
eotta^and other relics found in that locB]ity« 
present striking evidence of Greek art. 

Several spcjinieni of Oriental armour, 
richly inhiid with gold and damascened* 
were exbibited by Ur< W. J. Bemhard 
Smith ; also a mirror with a very eIabo» 
rately ocnbroidered frame^ decorated with 
portraits of Charles I, and Henrietta 
Maria, by Mr. Nelson. 

It was announced that the meeting at 
Peterborough will ctimmence on July 29w 
Her Miijecty and tbe Prince Consort bad 
been gradonaly pleased to enricli the ex- 
tensive aeries of portraits of Mary Stuart 
collected for exhibition on this occsision* 
and in which apveral valanble painting* 
from Windsor and Hampton Conrt will be 
displayed. 

BRITISH ARCHITECTS, 

and a seriea of arms was coutribnted by 
the Secretary ot' Stote fur India. Beside 
these, treasures of art were contributed 
from the collections of the Marquis d' Aio- 
gliii. Lord Lansdowne^ Barou Rothschild* 
Sir J. Hippisley, Messn. Morant, Adding- 
ton, and Bereifofd Hope, (including the 
famous ivory croaier and the brass lectern 
exhibit4!d at Manebeater.) as well as others 
by Me»sr«. Bobn, Barker, Farrer, Franks, 
W. L Donaldson, Cooket K.A.. Henderson, 
Haminrd* H. T. Hope, Cocken^ll, Street, 
Smirkep Ruskin, kjc,, &c. The company was 
auuieroua, and lochided Lords De Mauley, 
Henuiker, and Wensleydale^ the Bishop 
of Lincoln, Sir F. E. Bcott, Mr. Baring, 
Mr. BotOeJd, and le^^eral other M.P.% 
Mr. Beresford Mope, and many literaiy 
and ariistie celebrities. 



ECCLB8I0L0GICAL SOCIETY. 



Jum» 13. A eommltteo meeting was 
behl at Arklow^bouae, preparatory to the 
annttal miretingj at which the Report to 
bo preictited was dkcusiied. Present, — A. 
J. DL Bvrcaford Hope, Esc^^ President, in 
th« chair ; £. Akroyd. EB4., J. D. Cbam- 
QHT. Mao. Vol. CCXL 



bers, Esq., F. H. Dickimon, Esq , the Bev. 
S. S, Oreathced, the Rev. T. Hehiiore, the 
Rev. H. L, Jemier, the Rev. J. M. Neale, 
T. Gambier Parry, Esq., the Rt-v. J. H. 
Sperling, R> E. E. Warburton, E^q., and 
the Itef . B. VVtbb. 



134 Ai^ifmmrmm mmi IMawrg HidB§mter, [Aag. 






«wf li flout ^vmC qnn Piiit B f I 

fHDPid 5ir tJift EaumKBoaal gyfhTwBwa 4^ 

^iA«nrfc^^«ft*«i£4fiskftLflfiie^ Mr.Shtor ■<< tfce C i ■ ■"fn i i . ■ 

Imranwicrr Soocsr , * £na>- fcibificd hii ii«'f fer Ac anr ii 

M ftr 3tL Ptwgt Ochttfcal, to b* h ■gwrf i iidli i far lichfcM Cuh i * il; 

if Xr. ftiiOef , 1h« eMi ra ^vn«CMd alSK-okfe rco k n ^ii i w 

Iqp :iu Cmbbsbsk; «4 a ipMm »&- GtfbdnCi ; far the raBaHOm «r J 

flBrpcSoa far c&w fv?na» ww Vipn bf fard Cbrehw WftAcre; 

now if ?h« ^cnsUflMK trshec TW ■Aoaii t EiAi Bfrlnm. : 

f^naikns, Xr. lAekadMO, 1& Wsoartaa, Tbe 

■hL thft Bi!t: Bl fr«ao «h« w^^-muA Cfaricc^t iiiif far i 

• wb^<fWMuct<« far »5an^^ die — ntr Bodfaigtoa; aa 

wftiidwiikmafschurft. the ascrior o€ 1 

It WW aSn ig n M^ to nehorae tke far IVnt de GaOrt C<?1a^ 

Saemiryto— ktiyyffw(tr«,«6Aay<rf^ Tbcr afao cmraai Mr. Sstaa's de- 

tbft dudiecj, far a apoca tvcntj-ltre fact avM far bcv ckBR&0 at CWivoo'1, 

•fqarc n dk* lattnuCMMl ExiifbcSk» af S«neliAir^ a»I BisvAjbl SorfaBc ; far 

1M2, 4B til* oadanCMdv tiac the Prt- achapriof^ar at Bin i fart Irigfc, Pew- 

Afcwif waMiutiMk tfattt aH tike space Mot ikire; far tkei«tantiaB«rAlkrCharth, 

waotai by tike Eeri<flb..ir3c-:cal Sodetj Sooenct^ixre. aad Kiltoa Clortk, Scner- 

ritovU be awie aae «f by toe Ardutce- attikiffe; far bcv aebooli at Kanrth* 

tnal MmBom, It wm ii«:2cat«d tL*t the BadiunBae, and at WoshaB-lodgc; Sor- 

faiMtal vorfced by inai Bteeowe far i3T ley; aad for Bew fiiniftfa at Magor, 

CadMdnlibiKUb«exbfbctflL MoanaatkAirv, and SberUd^»-Lo4dao, 

Tbft ananal report of the Sooetr wai Hampdizre. Tber abo rraaifd bia 

flbcft raHi mi apprwed, vitb adiCtiaM; drawio^ far a nev altar ai Sc Jokn*%, 

■■i the report «f the ■db»oani »ut ee far FwlfaiftaB, and a pcnpKtrre viev of a 

■■■e w ja ttv apppjved. propoaed nrv eharch ai Bcthaailcry near 

Mr. White oKt the Connttce, and cs- BriftisL 
hibiScd bia desgw far lotnratioBi of 

Mcvfaad Charch, Gloacntcfshire ; Tor- Jne 13L T^ fiutj bmomI aaairar- 

I Cbarch, Dei o M hln ; Beamtiiater wmrr BMCtlF? vaa held ia the gaDerf of 

Stackfeigh PbBcroy the' Azchhcrtural rnkm Socictr. A. J. B. 

Charch, Devoarinre; aad af the aanetoary Bexesfokd Hon; Eaq^ ia the chair, 

af Modbary Charch, Deronihire; for a The report waa read, which gave a aatia- 

forA far Soath Bemflcct Charch, Eaex; factcrr anooat of the progicM of the 



to Little WolrtoD priaciplea far the aappoet of whk^ the 
Char^BaekiL; fartherertoratioBoftha Socictr had beca embodied. Soaae fittle 



^ at DvtiBgtoti, I>rroiHhxre ; ^aroaioQ anve aa to one or ta 

Oriag; Backa^ aad Chace- partiealarir aboot the de rtn ie ti oii of the 

water, Comvall; aad for aew paraonage- crrpt at Safiva Waking hot altiaiately 

b I ■!>! at Staahoe, Norfolk ;Khted, Saner, the lepoet aat adopted witSoot alteration, 

aad MikoBh*, Qsfordihire. The report of the Mancal Soh^Comauttee 

Mr. Bodky BKt the Coounittee, and ex- wat abo adopted; after wluch die Trea- 

hibcted baa dcfigna for the new cfavrefa of nrer read the aai£t«d baJancc-ibe e t, from 

£t. Martfn on the ffiTI, Sc ai b oro u gh; and which it appeared that when the accoonte 

far a new Bianm-chsrcfa, at I>dliL were made Qp» a babnee waa doe to the 

Mr. W. M. Fawcett, &A^ of Jeans T^eaniw of £12 15a. Sd., whidi, however. 

College^ Camfavidga. met the Coaamittce, had afaeadv been taiwd by the receipt of 

the wchiteetval pba^ aabacriplioiM leccatly. 



1861.] 



Ethnological Society. 



159 



The President iaid the next buainesi 
the election of m oomioittce of buCj 
with power to add to their number. Tbo 
boQie-titt oomprifted the Damea of the 
Eev. W, Scott, the Rev. S. S. Clreatheed, 
the Rev. B. Webb, the Rev. H. L, Jenner. 
the K«v. T. Hehnore, and the R«v. F. H. 
Dickinson. Theftt* geiitk*m«n liavlng Iveeo 
nnantuiously elected, A. 8. Eddis, E»q*, 
and the Rev. J. Q. Y^oting wero elected 
anditorv for the year ensuing. 

The great bugiaesa of the evening wos 
a very intereeting diaciis»ton on *' the de- 
atrtietive character of modern French 
chnrch rc«toratton/* in which the Presi- 
dent, Mr. J. H. Parker, Messrs. Rusk in, 
Street, Scott, Rev. J. M. Neale, Rt;^. IL 
Webb, and otliere, took part, but wbich 
we Are obliged, by the preisure of other 
report By to poaiponc. 



Immediately after the anmverrary meet- 
ing, a comnuttee meeting was held, wbeu 
the following membcra of the committee 
were re<dectt"d: — K. Akroyd, Esq., Sir C, 
AudcrBon, Bart., J. J. Bevftn, Esq., Lord E* 
Cecil, M.P., J, D. Chambers, Eaq, J. W, 
Chu-k, E«q.t J. S. Forbe*, Esq., J. F. France^ 
Esq., G. J. E. Ckjrdon, E*q., F, 8. Goeliog^ 
Etf*!., Sir J. E. Uarington, Bart., the Rev* 
G. II. Hodaon, the Rev. Dr. Jebb, H. L. S, 
L« Strange, Esq., W. C. Luard, Esq., the 
Hon. F. Lj'gon, M.P., the Itev, J. M. Neale, 
T. Gambier Parry, E*<|., the Rev. J, H. 
Sperling, J. E. Tulbot, Esq., R. E. E. War- 
barton, Esq.. and the Rev. G. Williams. 

W. Jf. Fawcett, Esq., li.A., of Jeans 
Collfge, Carabridgo, was electi'd an ordi- 
nary member} and tlie former ofBcers 
were re-elected. 



! BaJ 



ETHXOLOU ICxVL SOCIETY, 



Jfoy 1, Jomf CbawufeDj Esq., Pre- 
t, in the chair. 

Cupt^iin Parkor Snow and Charles Rat- 
eliflc, E»fj,, were elected Fellows. 

Mr, StAbbrtdge read a paper on the 
Aborigines af Victoria, Sonth Australia. 
Ue stilted that be hud spent eighteen 
yean among thew, and had therefore 
A great opportunity of narrowly obgCTving 
thecn; and be then proceeded to give 
a most interesting nccoant of their h«bits 
and cuf tomt, axmI of the isomewhat curious 
system of m^'tholoiry they bad established. 
They are not nomadic, but each tribe has 
its asBigiied district, in which it strictly 
"emams, nnless invited by ncigbbotiring 
tribes to visil thein. The appropriation 

hind is so generally recognised that 
family has its allotted territory. 
Any difficulty that might arise from soch 
ID amngemcnt, when people dep^iid for 
their snb«Utence oa the knd whi^h tbey 
do not cuItivBte, is obviated by the hor- 
rible practice of infanticide and cannibal- 
utn; they kill aod ea^^tliQ bodjes of ^me 
of tbeir children, and thipy. pof^^ss the 
notion that the elder son by eating a 
large portion of the roasted body of bis 
younger brother will have the strength of 
both. The anthor most distinctly stated 



U^h« 

Hbch 
r Aft* 




that he had not the least doubt respecting 
this custom, hut as th^f natives know 
that the whites hold it in abhorrence, 
Ihey take care to conct.^ jt as much as 
po^ible. Though gener|i|ljy hospitable, 
the author did not consider that it would 
he advisable or safe for tvny one to visit 
a tribe among whom he is not ktiown. 
Their religicms notieui seem to bo J(|indful 
und complicated. They believe that the 
spirt ta of the dead hover about for,^me 
time, and ultinjately depart to the JfVt^t, 
Though very reckless of human y»f(^thej^ 
have great fear of naturiil deatlii, wluc^ , ^ 
they attribute to st^rcery, and they ^-ou; 
sider that the feet of the dying peraot) 
point towards the spot where the /^orcejei^ 
may be found; the relations then isipjj^i^ 
forth in that direction, and kill all wbc?i|| ^ 
tbey meet, to avenge the spirit of" ihoj 
departed. Their astronomy is eminent Iy 
mythological; tbey have names for ri& 
principal stars tmd constellations, (ii«jL 
attach a personal history to en eh. Tl^- 
formation, of the sun, tbey believe, was 
Caused by li^nnching an emu's egg into 
dark vacgous spsce. 

In the discussion w1;^*;1]l folloi^ed the 
reading of the paper, I)r» Hiidgkln re- 
marked that it was nearly twenty yean 



156 



Atttiquarum and LUtranf InteUigencer. 



[Aug. 



ago that Etbnologieal Qoeriea had haen 
published for the guidance of trarellen, 
among which the knowledge of the ttara 
poasened by wild men w»8 a solgeci set 
down fat obeerratioa. What they had 
heard that night wm, howerer, the fint 
attempt that had been made to make 
known to at what nndnliied men knew 
of the heaTenly bo^ea. 

Mr. Luke Burke obaerred that a know- 
ledge of the mythology of aavage people 
IB distant lands would be adding a link 
whereby ancient and recent traditiona 
might be connected together. Though 
we could not now aee the connection, 
it might be detected with more perfect 
knowledge in a future time, and a flood of 
fight might be thus thrown upon us from 
a source that had not been anticipated. 

Mr. Walker, Captain Parker Snow, 
Mr. Heywood, and the President made 
aome obaerrations, and the meeting ad- 
joumed. 

Jfajr 14* JoHir Ckjlwftsd, Esq., Pre- 
ndent, in the chair. 

James Wentworth Bullcr, Esq.,M.P., 
Capt. Bichard Burton, William Sharp, 
M.D , F.R.S., were elected Fellows, and 
Charles Darwin, Esq., au Honorary Fel- 
knr. 

M. Dtt Ch-ullu rpad a paper on the 
west equatorial tribes of Africa. His ob- 
serrations extended between S* north and 
2* south of the equator, and to a distance 
of 400 miles into the interior. Within 
that district there is a great number of 
Tarieties of tribes, all thinking themselvea 
separate naiions, and posaewing diflerent 
names, though many speak the same 
language. Hie cmintries he Tisited do 
Dot poaaeas what we should call a black 
negroi, and he considers that those negroes 
who liTe in damp, woody, or mountainous 
countries, are kas bbdc than those who 
five where a dry atmosphere is preralenU 
Amonc aome of the tribe* he found some 
almost looking like mulattos; he akm saw 
aereral albinos, though in all cases the 
woolly hair and negro features were pre- 
dominant; andheaJaocQQsidefvdthat the 
negro found nearest the aea^sboM is a 
darker than those of Uw interior. 



Among the eannihal tribes, iha aogav-IiMif 
head and receding ibrehead is aahaiwterw 
btic The negroes of this part ava Bot of 
the lowest type. Some tribes of the inte- 
rior south of the equator possea a loom, 
and weave palm-fibre into ekith. T%a aa* 
groes possess a rery imsginatire mind, 
are astute speakers, sharp tradars» graaft 
liars, poa^easing great powen of diaaimola* 
tion, and hr from b^ng in many reapaeta 
the stupid people they are believed to ha» 
The law of marriage among thaaa negroes 
is very peculiar ; there are no Hood mta^ 
riagea ever permitted among them ; and 
the result is that hunchbacks are ahnosfe 
unknown, and there are no blind* lame, 
deaf, or dumb to be fitund, and not mon 
thiin two or three idioU; nor did tha 
auth<»r ever see any cripples Ihey do 
not use sidt, but eat oarrion and putrid 
food, and this brings on elephnntiasis, 
leprosy, and other diseaaes of the akin. 
There is also another very peculiar dis- 
ease among these equatorial Afirieani, 
oalleil the sleepy disease, Ibr whidi thagr 
seem to have no remedy. Old men and 
women are seldom met with. Their ra« 
lig^os notions are very vague, — indeed,for 
the word ' God' there is no generic term. 
Tliey believe in good and evil spirits, and 
particularly (bar the apirit of the reeent 
dead, and think of it aa a vindictive thing 
that must be conciliated. All the tribaa 
believe in two great Spirita. and in aoaao 
villages houses are built for their ooonp»* 
tion. The greatest curse of these trihct 
is their belief in witchcraft. Polygamy 
is pment among them, and davery is an 
institution of the land. The ehildren 
of slaves are fVee^ The antbor spoke of 
some of the tribes as horrible eannihalei 
they allow very few to attain old age, hot 
kill and eat them generally before they 
get old. They do thia because they think 
that all old people are wilebea. Tba 
author stated that he bad disoovcrad 
a chain of moontaina running nearly 
parallel %o the equator, and he enter* 
tallied an O|nnion, fVxMn an examination of 
the charactcfs of the languages of the 
tribes north and south of that mountain 
lunge, that they originated fimn distinct 



1861.] 



Eihnohgieal Society, 



157 



Burton, Profeasor Queckett, Dr. Coiiol1y» 
Conenl UtLP»on, Mr. Bluyden, (both 
»,) Air. llurke, Dr. Copland, mud 
tb« PrvoidciJl. 

Mr. HuitOD sUted tbtt tbe •teepy diA* 

tisft irm not unooiiiuiion Moong tbe natives 

ftha Gold Cuwt, Ktid be bflllovod tbat 

oolj km>t«ii n»iQi'dy wm duini^e of 

The meeting then ai\jourmKL 




Jmie 4. Sows CBAwytritD, Esq., Pre. 
it, iTi th« chair. 

£ir G. Uonbam* K.C.B.. tbe Hem. k R. 
Eeid, and Mr. W. Spottiawoodo, M.A., 
F.K.S», w<rB ck'cted Fellows. 

A paper wiw read by 0, Baik. Esq,, 
F.R.S.« tM.S., eiititleil *' Oitscrvations on a 
SysteniiUic mode of Cr^inhjinetry/* Mr* 
Buak stated thiit the iinuiediate object of 
tbe proactit papier wa« tu endE^vuur to 
afecertain what ualitatica can be obtnini^ 
by crontmnetricAl iB«aBmreineiit in th« 
djfttingutshinf; of tbe vuricticti of tUe hu- 
man mce. The learned gentUnimn then 
proceedad to describe t)ie dU1ert.Mit pecu- 
liaritiaa of fbrination of th« craiuum pecu- 
liar to diETerent niee«, and produced aom^ 
skulU from viinous \nvl§ of the world as 
tirpbiiiitory of bis meaning. He slattd 
ttukt the study of tba craniiioj» In an eth- 
nologieiil tieiiae, may be dated from Pro- 
fiiaor Blumenbai^bi and tinc« hh day from 
Pro^'ssnr Hitxiuj*, of Stockholm, who was 
ibv Anttodistiiigntsb the strongly marked 
farieliea uf crania by the terms ** brnthy- 
oeplialic" and " doli cephalic,*'' which are 
now in getierat une. The object of tbe 
prcten t paper, then, h to sliew Low fur 
munerical iralucs ihonld be employed in 
plac-c of words, hi »f>eaking of the propor- 
tions of a cranium j and the principle Is t^ 
ende»vour to contrive, in as few cxjlumns 
as poastblo, sncb measurements hs may be 
raadUy tnade, and which may suffice to 
•haw, — 

1, Tb« aixe of tlie frontal, parietal, njid 
oocipit«l rrgions of the skulL 

ji, Tbo proportion!* of tite skwU ss re- 
gaids length, bresulLh, height, 4ot 

3. The degree of progn&thl^m, and of 
oooipitd prtgection, and^ by inforunce* the 
portion of the foramen mugnum. 



4. By comparison of measurement of 

the nasal radiuR. tbe criinial vertebral aoLia 
of Von Baer, and the maxillary radius, to 
arrive at some notion of tbo facial angles 

The author sIdo gave an interesting ao- 
comit of a method of making delineations 
of the skeleton of the bend by means of 
the camera hicidn, so as to admit of direct 
comjuiri^nt with each other; and he said 
be thought that thit was a point of even 
more importance than the mesAiircraent. 

Tbe Chairman, Dr. Knox, Mr* Burka, 
Mr. Dnnn, and others took p«rt In tha 
di^asaion. 

A piipur WAS afterwards read by H. H. 
Major, E«q,» F.S.A., on ** Native Anstra- 
linn Traditioms/' and after a short diacna« 
sion on this paper the meeting a(\joumed, 

June 18, Joirif C»4WFrTU>, Esq., Pre- 
sident of tbe Society, in tbe ohair, 

A p«per was read by T. J. II nt-chinson, 
E-ij., I'^te H.M/s Uonaiil at Pemuiido Fo, 
on " Stjuio Dotiicstic and Social CharJWS" 
tvristics of tbe African Tribes," 

The unthor stnted that Africa is popu* 
latcHi by irk>,fXX),()00 of jieople, cbieily 
Moots, Arabs, nnd negroes ; but the mu- 
ktto element is prevalent, partimibirly 
among the Filatahs. The ethnology of 
these iribt s is very doubtful ; some be- 
lieve them to be a mixture of Carthagi^ 
ninii and negro blood, others Arabian and 
nei<ro. They ho rt ever hold an impfirtant 
poaitinn in Africa, and eiiend from the 
Atluntic, from the Senegal and Gambia 
rivers on the we«t, to Borno and Mantkra 
on the caBf. from the dt-s^rt of Zwhara on 
the north, to the mountains of Kong on 
the south. The author stated that he had 
fbnnd among them iron -headed f peart 
9HdjiweUn*, doubk edged gwordt, kmimUt 
foUery^ and other th'nig->. The^ tribot 
never were visited by a white man prior to 
the expedition to tbo Niger of l!i54, t>erf- 
d rm has many grades, and is nu in^litution 
among them. A man's position in Africa 
is eatimated by the number of slaves b^ 
pnttcmirn, not by money or lands. Thei^j ia 
no Ilteratnre among the African tril^es. 

Each tribe has its own chief or king, to 
whom even the ju ju king, or high-prieat, 
ia in subjection, though the hitter holds a 



168 



Antiquarian and Literary InteUigeneer. 



[Aog. 



yery important poeition as ca&todian of the 
tatelary deity, as well as the dispeDser of 
Buperstitioos rites. Each locality has its 
specific jo-jn, or tatelary dei'y, consisting 
of hoa-constrictors, the ignana, skulls, 
flowers, trees, stones, &c. ; no prayers are 
offered np to these, however, hat the hoa- 
constrictor and the ignana are held in 
great veneration. All toamen in Africa, 
he they daaghters or wives of kings, chiefs, 
or wealthy traders, are hand fide slayss. 
Haman sacrifice is an established instita- 
tion among the western coast tribes, whe- 
ther it be of a social, saperstitioas, a 
governmental, or a reprisal character. The 
author then went on to explain the appli- 
cation of the above terms to the custom of 
sacrifices. He then went on to state that 
whatever species of death is inflicted by a 
murderer, exactly the same is inflicted on 
him when brought to capital punishment. 
Ju-ju-ism, or fetishism, where it pre- 
vails, is the basis of all the bratalities 
practised, including cannibalism. In Old 
Calabar there is a peculiar order or insti- 
tution called " Egbo," to which the king, 
the chiefs, and freemen belong, and it in 
fiict constitutes the ruling power of the 
country, as the Queen, Lords, and Com- 
mons do with us. There are eleven grades 
of it, the first three of which cannot be 
attained by slaves. No death of a king 
or chief takes place but some one is ac- 
cused of witchcraft, and the suspected are 
condemned to go through the ordeal of 
the afia, or poison bean, which is supposed 
to kill only the guilty. The women among 
these tribes use the electric fish in a tub 



of water for the purpose of bathing chil- 
dren afftcted with fits or colic Then 
people dress their hair in a similar way to 
that of the belles aud beaux of 200 years 
ago. Children who cut their upper teeth 
before their lower are put to death, as 
otherwise it is thought they woold bring 
the tribes into trouble. Twins are buried 
alive, and the mother cast out into the 
bush for the remainder of her life. lu 
Fernando Po, murderers are punished by 
being tied to their victims, and left in the 
woods to starve. The author stated that 
he had only within the last two years be- 
come cognizant of cannibalbm in weetem 
Africa, and in the course of last year 
was personally witness to a sacrifice for 
cannibalistic purposes, and he oonmdert 
that although some few of these natives 
have manifested intellectual capacity equal 
to the white man, still the generality, 
though for scores of years mixing with 
European missionaries and traders, ding 
as much to their ju-ju fetishism and canni- 
balism as they did many years ago. 

The Chairman took part in the discussion. 

A second paper, by Charles Livingstone, 
Esq., on the Inhabitants of the Batoka 
Country, was read; and Dr. Knox, Dr. 
Copland, Dr. Hodgkin, Mr. Consul Han- 
son, the Chairman, and others took part 
in the discussion, and the Chairman an- 
nounced that the next meeting would take 
place on July 2, when a paper would be read 
by Captain Burton on M. Du Chaillu's Ex- 
plorations and Adventures in Equatorial 
Africa. The meeting then adjourned. 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY, 



June 20. The anmvenary meeting, when 
the report of the Council was read, and 
the following ofiioers elected for the en- 
sning year : — 
I^rendent.^W, S. W.Vaux, Esq., M.A., 

F.S.A., F.R.A.S. 
Vice-Presidents. — J. B. Bergne, Esq, 

F.S.A.; Edward Hawkins, Esq., F.SJk., 

F.L.S. 
2Vta«tfr»r.— -George H. Virtue, Esq., F.S.A. 
Secretaries. — John Evans, Esq., F.S.A., 
• F.G.S.; Fred. W. Madden, Esq. 



Foreign Secretary, — John Tonge Aker- 
man, Esq., F.S.A. 

Librarian, — John Williams, Esq., F.S.A. 

Members of the Council. — S. Birch, Esq., 
F.S.A.; W.Boyne,Esq,F.S.A.5 F.W. 
Fairholt, Esq., F.S.A; John Lee, Esq., 
LL.D., F.R.S. ; Captain Murcbison; 
Rev. J. B. Nicholson, D.D., F.S.A. ; 
Rev. Assheton Pownall, M.A.; J. W. 
De Sails, Esq. ; Hon. J. Leicester War- 
ren, M JL. ; R. Whitboam, Esq., F.S.A« 



1861.] London and Middx. and Surrey ArchtBol Societies. 159 



LONDON AND MIDDLESEX AND SUEIIEY AHCK.EOLOGICil. 

SOCIETIES. 



^une Id. AXFBED Whiter E6q.,KL,S,, 
in the chatr. 

Sir Fraficii Gralmm Moon, Bart., ei- 
hilitted the mace of Portsokcn Ward. Tlie 
tiDiop. which is of silver, is two feet in 
length, and snrmoiint^d by an open crown, 
gtlt, andi*r which iire the royal arms: 
1 und I, France nnd Englnnd, qvmrterly ; 
8c«jiUi}d; 3, Irehuid, »iirroiinf1c<1 hy 

rter, on vltlier side of whidi are the 

ttfT* C» R* AlKwe the anni is thin iti- 
•cnption, In a Betnicircle, ** M'. V«lt»nMne 
Wflite, Ff«ren(ian, Portesoken Ward, 1671." 

Round the Ijowl are enjfravttl the 
folhiwing inscriptions, 4c., in four oom- 
piirtmpnU: — 

1. " Portsottlcen Ward, Joseph Butk- 
laghnni, Foreman, lGi)8 " 

2, In the next compartment arc t!io 
Oyal armfl, na before detmlwd, with the 

Tetifrs W. R, The f •llowlng inscriptioTi 
htin \wex\ recently tidded :— " Francis Orii' 
Jiiim Moun, Esq., Aid" 18 H, Lord Mayt»r 
lR5t; Wni", Christie, Esq^, Deputy ; 
M^ G. Barker, Foreman. 1853 4." 

8. A {ihicld bearing the armi* of the 
city of Lomlon it cnirraved in thii cotn- 
partmcntj nbovc whieli if ih's inscription, 
" Tilts tniice repaired 1779,*' and iRMicntb 
the sbield " M^ Tho*. Tucker twice Fore- 

tUOTI," 

4v In thii compartment the royal arms 
mw again represented, with the lettem 
W, R* on cither side of the shield, and 
the following inscription : — ** Thomni 
lohnton, B*q^, Aid"., 1838; Geo*. Wright, 
lleputy/* 

Tliomas Morson, K!«[., exhibited an ilhi* 
toinated jjedigrce (on vellom) *iO feut 6 
inches in length, which appears to have 
h«cn written al>oat the niiilklle of the fif- 
Ucnth century. At the coiomcncement 
of the roll is a representation of Adam 
atul Kre in Paradi»e* standing on either 
t1d« of the tree of knowledge, round which 
U entwined the serpent. The initial letters 
thronghont the petligrec are ilhuniniited, 
awl the VMrions names are pluced within 
[fed and blue circles. Th« author thus 
"ibes the pedigree : — " Beg^^nnyng at 



Adam onreffrst fader, lynefilly descendyng 
by Japhet the sone of Noe to Brute that 
WHS fyrst Kyng in thys londe, and fro hym 
to Edwarle the fourtbe Kyng of that 
name after the Conqueat of Ene!ond." 

Tlie names of Edwnrd III., Henry IV., 
Henry V., and Henry VI. at the end of 
the pedigree are placed within garters, cm 
which are the letters H. 8. Q. m. y. P. 
(Honi soit, &c.) The notes throughout 
the roll record the principal events in the 
lives of the viirious kings, <tc. 

Joiieph Jackson Howard, F.S.A.. exhi- 
bited the grant of arms by Lawrence 
Dnlton, Norroy, dnted 8th December, 
third year of Queen Eli/aWth, ( 15641,) to 
Hobert Robc»tlmtn, of Rn*kj*11, In the 
county of Yorit, gentlonitin. This grant 
is surruundinl on ttiree sides by an ilhi- 
ininated border, in the centre of which is 
the Tudor rose, Rurronnde.! by garter, and 
surmounted by an imper'ml crown, having 
on either sitlc a fleur-du-lis and portcullis, 
hot h cro >vn wl . I ri t h e i ni tiid let t er Norroy 
is reprosenlcd in his tabard » holding in the 
right hand hia wnud of offi* e. The anna 
are tlnis described :—" P* ifesse battelle 
counter battelle argnnt and sable iij Roo- 
bucks cnnntreehaujiyd : on thelnie a demye 
Tygre uzure gowtyd (irg»^nt hingyd gowles. 
Abort t the necke a crowne golde, set on a 
wreath nrg<*nt iind ^ ^ble." 

Two weals art* appended : 1st, the official 
seal of Norroy j and 2iid, hia private seal, 
on which are the following arms, vi«., 
quurttrly 1 and 4, Scmc^'e <if crosses cross- 
let, a Hon rampnnt guardaot; 2 and 9, 
Barry of six, in chief tliree loxenges: over 
nil a crescent for difference. Crest, a 
dragon's besd between two wings. Le- 
gend, IL . flEBA . COME . DtEU > PLAIBA. 

The Rev, B. H. Cowper made some ob- 
serve tions on fteverid curious seven tecnth- 
century proclamations, &c., which he ex- 
hibited. Among them were the follow- 
ing: — Proclamation of the Lords ngaiust 
the Regicides, dated 18th May, 16H0; 
Proclamation of the King commanding 
all Jesuits and Popish prjests to depart 
thU kingdom, 9lh April, 1663,- Lord** 



163 



Antiquarian and Littrary TnUlUgenotr, 



[Attj. 



ProcUmation, requiring the names of all 
who tnay come and ttay in London and 
Westminater, 23rd April, 1679] the 
Qoakere* Addren to the King and both 
Honses of Parliament ; and the tpoech of 
William Pens on preienting the abore. 

Mrs. W. P. Beeoh exhibited a rubbing 
from the stamped leather cover of an old 
chair at ShrawArdine Castle, near Shrews- 
bury. The traction ii that this chair 
bebnged to Oliret CromwelL The arms 
impressed on the cover are *' cheeky," the 
idiield b«'ing supported by two wivems. 
Above the shield ii a helmet and mant- 
ling, but no orest* 

William H(*nry Htaet, Bsq^ F.SJl,« ex- 
hibited n rubbing of the brass of Sir 
Richard de BusUngthorpe, from Bnsling- 



thorpe Church, Lincolnshire. The date 
Of this btftss may be Assigned to ^e «nd 
of the thirteenth century. 

Mr. Hurt also eiliiUited and made tome 
remarks on an indulgence grated by Paol 
de Caputgrassis. of Sulmona» Archdeaoon 
of Kavenna, Doctor of Dtrcreei^ and Nnneio 
of the Apostolical See in the year 1414^ 

to Margaret^ wife of John ^ (the name 

is obliterated.) The seal has been torn 
from the document. 

Charles Baily, Esq., exhibited a drawing, 
[by Plial Sandby,] of Waltham CitM% pre- 
vious to its restoration. 

Henry W. Sass, Esq., exhibit^ed several 
ipeeimena of German glass goblets, the 
rims gilt, and a lion rampant engnved 
on the foot of each glass. 



BERWICKSHIRE NATURALISTS' CLUB. 



[Wb willingly accede to the request of 
an esteemed oortopondent, and insert the 
following pleasant account of a day's pro- 
ceedings of a Ix^y that is not so well 
known in these southem parts as it de- 
serves to be.] 

A FiXLD-DAY AT LiVHOPB. 

The Berwickshire Naturalists' Club, 
which has been in prosperous existence 
for a period of thirty years, modestly 
adding its quota to the researches of the 
sdentiftc world, held a very interesting 
meeting on the 27th of June, at the Celtic 
town of Linhopoy among the Cheviots, 

The ground chosen for the scene of the 
operations of the Club is pre-eminently 
historic — Berwickshire, North Northum- 
berland, and the Border. Here are to be 
found traces of its successive inhabitants^ 
from the days when they sheltered in dens 
and caves of the earth, hunted and desti- 
tute, to those of comparative amalgama- 
tion, when they lived in camps» leaving 
oaims^ sepulchral remains, eists^ and wea- 
pons for us to light upon ; and thence to 
Roman times, whereof there are Roman 
oamps and roads ; and tl ence past sugges- 
tions of Saxon handicraft to the Norman 
period, with its castles^ towers, abbeys, 
churches; and again, to the Edwardian 
ttmes^ with its more consummately studied 
ifitem of fortification in huger castles, 
7 



peel-towers, bastel- houses, and fortlets- 
Several battles have been fought within 
its boundaries — ^th^t at Berwick in 1295, 
that at HaliJown Hill in 1833, when the 
Scots lost 7 earis, 900 knights, 400 
esquires, and 82,000 common men; and 
that at Flodden, when a king and his son, 
3 bishops, 4 abbots, 12 earls, 17 lords, 
400 knights, and 17,000 others were shun. 
The field of the Club, too^ embraces Holy^ 
Island, the isle of ruins and legends, if 
not of miracles. The progiess of the Eng- 
lish Princess Maigaret to Holyrood has 
left a glittering tnftil across the chosen 
district, that, let commerce and railways 
and e'ectric telegraphs be ever so destr ac- 
tive to romance, will never be effaced. 
Picture ^ the briyge end, upon the gatt, 
war many children, revested of surpelia, 
syngyug melkdiously hympnes, and play- 
ing on instruments of many scnrts," and 
when "the Queue prepared hyrselfe to 
enter the towne every one in lyk was, in 
foyr array, and ryche^, after the manere 
acoetomed, in specUlle th' Erie of North- 
umberland ware on a goodly gowne of 
liynsill fourred with hermynes. He was 
mounted upon a fayr courser, his hamays 
of goldsmyth warke» and thorough that 
sam was sawen small bells that maid a mel- 
lodyous noyse without sparing gambada^" 
we not see them all — the bright 



Berwichhire Naturalists' Club, 



161 



Appingv^ the glistening of iho Inncei!), 

bti devices, banners, »nd penoona; here 
a knlgLt ** varej well motinteti, bjs liorse 
richly nppoyntedt lua baruaja of gold in 
broileux, bymselle in a jacketie betten of 
goId» II nd in a cloke of parple borded of 
cloth of gold," riding for if aid, now fulling 
Itack into his place — now a halt— now the 
prt;c00eiou forming agaioi and islowly mov* 
ijig away into the far aod faint distance ? 
Bat the tnubjectH which have claimed the 
beat attentiuns of the Club are the works 
of nature, tbo contributions on natural 
history luiving taken their placea among 
the original authorities of scientific Itti-r- 
atore. With the printcnl Proceedings of the 
Club iu hand we can vouch for the enjoy- 
ment of half- hours as pleasant as those 
spent on the shore or among the hllU, not 
the leaat interesting being tho^ passed in 
the perusal of Boird on the aurora borealia, 
Tate on porpoiAes, Selby on waspH, Hardy 
tm mites and spiders, and Kmhleton on 
craha. The geology of the district— the 
limestone, sane stone, and basaltic rocks 
and coal— have been diligently explored by 
one of the secreUiries of the Club, and 
manj % cabinet in the south, in public and 
prtirate mnfenina, has been enriched with 
new and vsUmble fossils, thus acquired in 
the limestone quarries at Lowick, and on 
tlie crags of Kyloe and elsewhere. Mr. 
Halph Carr, J. P., has presided over the 
pn^'servHtion of Northnntbrian names, and 
has clueidateil the grammfltica ceiticaf 
Mr. ScIby, of Twisell, atands at the bead 
ornithological scholars; and Liiimt'iis 
found many dtiiciplcs, among wtiom 
IN founder of the Club, the l»te Dr. 
^tUtOmm of Berwick, was foremost. En- 
totuidngy is rcpre^ntcd by erudite papers 
on ** the pUytivoroiis hnbits of 6orae carm- 
vorouN beetles," bj Mr. Hardy of Pon- 
manshiels, and on such other of onr insect 
Ciint«mj»orarie4 a* posAt»*i>. natucs longer 
4lian Ihfly are theinawjlvos,— Achcruntia 
(Death's - bead moth) Locusta 
^iigratoria, commented on by It. C. £m- 
bleton« Se<?retary, to wit. 

One division of the party which set out 
for Linhope on Thursday morning iii- 
dudeil the Rev. Dixon Clarki*, of Bel- 
fold; the lU*v. W. iHurnell, Bamhoroughj 

Qjuit, Mag Voi. CCXL 



the Rev. F. Simpson. North Sunderland ; 
Rev. P. G. Mc Dona 11, Kirk Newton ; Mr. 
Middlcton Daml, Hauxleyj Mr. F. K. 
Wilson, architect, Alnwick j and Mr. Geo. 
Tate, F.O.8., Secretary. Passing the vil- 
lage choreh of Bolton, before the altar of 
which Surrey and his companion knights 
knelt on the eve of the battle of Flodden, 
vowing to conquer or die, and the liold 
where they encampi>d, still called " the 
Quards,*' they arrived at Powbnm, where 
they found Ralph Cerr, Esq., of Hedgeley, 
the ex- president of the club, and parly, 
including the President, David Mtlne 
Home, Ksq,| the Rev. S. Fylor, Corn- 
hill; the Rev. J. S. Green, Wooler; Mr. 
Boyd ; Rev. G. Rooke, Kmhleton. Here 
breakfast was partaken of, and the meet- 
ing constituted. After the Secretary had 
read the minuter of the last field- day, 
which was spent at Kelso, under the most 
favourable auspices, on the 30th of May, 
the meeting started for Linhope — some of 
the memben in brakefi, others a eheval. 
Ai the procession wound up the valley of 
the Rreanii»ih, jiasslng by the way the old 
cliurch and new manse at logram, Mr. 
Ralph Can* delivered interesting exposi- 
tjona of the ancient "terraces" on the 
bilk, and other local marks of antiquity, 
with which, from a long reaidunce at 
Hedgiloy, he is so fiimiUnr. Arrived at 
Hartsicle the party dismounted, as the 
road to Linhope here becomes inacccasihle 
to light spring vehicles; atid here they 
met witli a further accessiou of membeis 
from different directions— Tbe Vcnerabl© 
Archdejicon of Lindisfarne, Rev. Geo. 
Hans Hamilton, of Berwick ; Rev. C* 
Thorp, Ellinghum ; Rev. W. Cooley, Ik>ck ; 
Rev, J. Dunn, Wark worth; Mr. J. C. 
L^mglaudrt, Old Bewick ; Rev. W. Green* 
well, Drirham; Mr, Coxc> Bodleian Li- 
brary; Capt. Coxe; Mr. McLauchlan^ 
the Sur^'eyor of the Roman Wall and Bri* 
tish camps. At Linhope the members 
found Mr. Coulson, who for some weeks 
previously had had a jiarty of hibonrcrs 
carefully exploring the remains of the 
Ctltic town and encampment under his 
supervision, by the direction of the oM* 
ctftls of the club. As the explorationa 
were not complete, it would bo premature 



162 



Aniiquarian and Literary Intelligencer. 



[Aug. 



to make farther nention of them, e«pe- 
cbllj fts one of the terreUries will dnw 
np a full report of all that ha» been dif- 
corered at the eoncloBon of the exhama- 
tiooft. Soffice it to aay that the whole 
partT foond much to intereft and to 
ponder orer in the examination of relics 
of fo distant an age, enhanced as thej are 
br the adjuncts of wild and romantic 
icenerr. An alfresco dinner, sent up 
from Powbom, was set out in the midst 
of this old - world scene, under a tent 
obli^ngly furnished by Mr. Colville, the 
farmer; the presidtrnt. D. Milne Home, 
Esq^ well known scientiticallT, especiallT 
in connection with Scotiuh meteorol<^gT, 



presiding. Thejoomerbomeandtoerery- 
day life, leaving the hills and heath and 
palmy ferns to the shadows of mght, was 
a realization of poor Storey, the Northum- 
brian poet*8 regret : — 
•* Look rousd om thi* vorld— it if nr«ct, it is (kin 
Tbrrr i* liffht in xti» dcy. thm i« lif e in iu air ; 
SublimitT brrathe* from the fi^rmf of its hills. 
And beau:r wisd> on wi:h iu liTere and rills ; 
The d<-w. w vith diunood*, its meads hath 

be»prmt; 
From it* (ttotc* arc a thoiuand wild mflo d if s 

fcnt ; 
Wh'lc flower? of each tint are br monuBg faa- 

pearlM : 
O ! why is there woe in w lorelr a worid!" 
F. R. WILB05. 
ArchUtct, Almtnck. 



KILKEyXT AXD SOUTH-EAST OF IRELAND AECH^C 



LOGICAL 

Jm^y 10. The Rev. JoHif Saul in the 
chair. 

Mrs. Madden, of Hilton -house, Scots- 
bouse, Clones, and sereral other new 
members, were elected. 

J. T. Gilbert, Esq., M.R.T..V^ Libxvian 
of the Royal Irish Academy, was elected 
HonoraiT Secretary for the Dublin dis- 
trict. 

The Secretary reported that the form- 
ataoQ of the " niastrauon Fund*' baring 
been Curly succeKfuL MTeral engravings 
were in hand for the illustration of the 
fofthcoming number of the Journal. 

AmoQ^ other donations to the library 
and mnseom were presented by Mr. 
Prim, sereral antiquities recently dis- 
c of cred in trenching the small rath 
lying Kmtb of the great rath of DunM. 
wlucfa forms lo conspicnoos an object 
horn the Watcrfoni and Kilkenny rul- 
way. Ha nid that the Museum con- 
tained a large and TalnaMe collection of 
■miUr o h je m disco«-efvd in the Dunbel 
groop of raibs, which be ha«l preri- 
omIt ^cacribed in detail in the Society's 
TransactiouL The articles which he now 
broogbt under notice were, with one ex- 
ccptaoo, of tke aame general character. 
Tbe esceptiotis consisted of portions of a 
lavge bronae fibok, ao far as he was awai« 
^uqoe in its character. The peculiar f<Mi- 
roK fivm tke poftioD of the ring 



SOCIETY. 

which was extant being formed of sheet 
bronze, bent into a hollow pipe, not aol- 
dered« but the edges brought together 
with the most beautifully accurate joint. 
This tulte was apparently one of five nmi- 
lar segments, which being riveted together 
at the ends, would form the ring of the 
fibula, BX inches in diameter. Tbe acos 
bad a very massive head, with rude annu- 
lar ornaments, the portion ronaining being 
fo'ir inches long, and baring apparently 
lost about four inches of the point. 

This unique fibula excited much interest 
among the members present, and it was 
rKk^lvcd that it shiuld be engraved for 
the S.Viety's Journal. 

The Rev. James Graves presented a 
bronze tag of a book-stnp, which had alao 
been found in one of the Dunbel ratfas. 
This object terminated in a dragon's head, 
and was ornamented with the interlaced 
pattern so common on ancient Irish crosKS 
and manuscripts. 

Mr. Laurence O'Brien, of Mnllinahone» 
sent for exhibition, through Mr. John 
Dunne, liarryricken, a small flat stone, 
having on one ude a mould for casting a 
rude crucifix, and a round olject, resem- 
bling the revene of ancient silver coins, 
with a cross in the field and a number of 
short strokes to repneient tbe legend. On 
the other side of the stone was a mould 
for casting a similar loand otgcct, of larger 



186L] Midland Counties ArcJuBoh^ical Association. 



163 



— g i m i 



^ me wa» dug up ruiiitlst the <//• 

<^illtai€ieiit building nt Mulltuahone, 
Btid to have been formerly a prcct'ptory 
of the Knights of SU JohOi and hence, 
Mr. Dunne suggested, the derivutiou of 
MulHnahone — muillioa naoin Eoin^ te. 
the mill of St. John, aa, nccordiug to trn- 
ditiaxi, a miU which had belonged to the 
ppeoeptory ftood oloee hy. 

Tti« Ber* James Graves laiil before the 
tneetiug some documents connected vrith 
the aucieut but much decayed charitable 
institution situated in Rose-Inn-itreet, 
in Kilkenny, and known as the O'Shee 
Almshouse. I'hey consisted of copies of 
the roysl charter of found at iou, dutod 
Nov. 7, 6t1i James L, uud the rules fur 
the government of the iDstitutiou^ of the 
,e date. 



The other papers brought forward 
were : — 

"The Displanting of Kilkenny by Au- 
thority of the Commonwejilth, in 1654;, " 
hy John P, Prendergiist, Esq^., Barxister- 
at-law, — a contribution of much local in- 
terest; "On ancient Tobacco-pipes,*' by 
Thomas J. Teniflon, Esq*, Fortiieliigan ; 
**0n the Ordnance Collections for the 
History of the County of Longford," 
(being the completion of a series of simi- 
lar pajjers for the Province of Lfinstcr,) 
by the Uev, John OHaubiti, llC.C*, 
Dublin ; and " On the Derivntion of some 
Irish Topograph itad Names," by Edward 
Benn, Esc). 

The meetiug adjourned to the flrst 
Wednesdav in October. 



MTDLAXD COUNTIES ARCH^OLOGICAL ASSOCIATION. 



Jvne 19, This Society made an eitcur- 
aion from Binuinghuin to Stratford -on- 
Avon, on a visit to the house and tomb of 
Shakespeare, and for on examination of the 
reintirkable portrait recently discovered iti 
the gallery of Mr. W. 0. Hunt. The spot 
first visited was Shakes^Hsare's birthplace, 
which, by the kindncn of the committee 
entrusted with its management, was re- 
ierred for special inspection. After ex- 
amining the house and tracing out with 
painful labour the famous names fmntly 
disoemible among the thousnnd signa- 
tores that deface the waUs and ceiling of 
Sbakespeare*d natal chamber, the party as- 
Msmblcd in the garden to hear from Mr. 
Samuel Hmmlns a sketch of the history 
of the memorable bouse, and the changes 
in its appearance brought about by the 
care of the Birthplace Committee, ander 
the direction of Mr. C. H. Bracebridge. 
The bouse baa been carefully restored, 
accofdmg to satisfactory authorities, and 
now presents much the same appeanmoe 
it bore nearly three hundred year* ago 
ftt the poet's birth. All traces of the 
Imtcher's shop arc effaced, and excepting 
in one or two internal arrangements which 
•re iQ process of removal, there is no trace 
of the dugradation Imposed upon the house 
hj aget of neglect and hard usage. The 



recent purchase of laud has enabled the 
trustees to lay out at the rear of the 
houiMJ a spacious garden, which already 
contains a scion of the mulberry -tree 
planted by 8bakespeare*s own baud, and iti 
which it is proposed to collect specimens 
of ©very shrub and flower mentioned in 
his works. Within the ontlosare have 
been placed the sculptured base of the old 
market -cross of Stratford, and some frag- 
nieuts of stone from New-place, Shake- 
speare's house in the days of his proeperity, 
butof which— thauka to the churlish, uxe- 
crable Oastrell — not one stone now reuiaius 
upon another. From ^hnkci^peare's house 
the excursionists went to the Towu-ball» 
where they examined Gainsborough's ad- 
mirable portrait of Garrick, and other 
pictures belonging to the coq>oration, in- 
cluding a remarkable pair of the town- 
crier of Stratford aud bis wife ; the lady, 
on canvas at least, being dccidiidly ttio 
more important of the two. In the halt 
were also exhibited the very curious and 
copuHU records of the corporation, and the 
handsome maces which brip to mnintain 
the dignity of Stratfordian mayors, and 
of which Stratford may well be proud, 
since even Farlianient itself is scarcely 
better provided in this respect. The next 
point of interest was the Shakespeare 




IM 



Antiquarian and Literary IntelUgencer. 



togT 



rooKiib where tlie portriut faimd tt If r. 
Htmfc't WM exhibited in ooiytiDrtioD witli 
A copy of the bu»t iti the chan:U, ta re* 
stodYd bj Mr. Collins, to whom the eleuL* 
ing of Ihe portrmit was aUo entmvted. 
The prooeedingft st the roomi Cfuxii&eiioed 
with «n addren by Mr. TimminB, on the 
eorljr portraits of Shake«pe«re, especUilly 
the Droeshout print, (the fidelity of which 
is so strong^ly attested by Ben Jonson,) 
the bust in the chnrch, the ChAndoc por- 
trait, and the Felton portrait, Mr, Sebas- 
tian Evans next compared the lately di«^ 
covered portrait with the host, and ex- 
pwed a itroog opinion in (aToor of the 
g e ii tt ineiiW and aathority of the former. 
Some diaeoasion ensued, in which Mr. 
Chamhtflahi, Mr. Jabet« Mr. George Daw- 
•cm, Mr. TSmmlns, Mr. Braoebridge, and 
Mr. Erans took part ; and Mr, CoUins» the 
deaner of the picture, expUined the man- 
ner in which it came into his hands, and 
the steps by which he was led to the dii* 
eoToy of the remarkable work then suh- 
adtled to the meeting. It shoaU be 
mentioned that Mr. Hnnt has resisted the 
tempting olfen made to him for the por- 
trait, and has aUo foregone the pleasure 
of retaining it in his own custody. He 
has pre^nted it to the Birthplace Com- 
mittee, and it will oliimately find a per- 
manent home in Shake«pc«re*s house. 

Th« ehorch was next Tiaited. In the 
f esfciy w«re exhibited the parochial regls- 



tenv containing numerons entidas r^laiifig 
to Shakesp^ffe and his Ikmily, and also 
the corioos entry which aaema to e»UUl»h 
the second marriage of Shakespeare's wife 
^Aitne Hathaway. A brief aeoomtt of 
the church waa given hy Mr. J. U. Oism* 
berUin. Mr. Tiuimins (hen called atieo* 
tion to the monnmentsi, pointing (Kit eape- 
cially thoae pertaining to the Shakespeare 
family, and others of special interest. 
The company now dispersed nntil dinner- 
time. Some wandered along the banks of 
the Avon, others stroUed about tbc qiitet 
little town, and a few, deeper aiitiquanans 
than the leat, were Ikroored with an o|»- 
portunity of expUmng the vaults of Mr. 
Flower's brewery, where their rcseardira 
were greatly ossiated by libations of n 
golden beverage wliich Shakespeare bimtelf 
might hare qnafled with profit and ap- 
proral. The dinner took place in the 
Corn Exchange, when the chair was taken 
by Mr. Bracebridge, one of the Tice-pred- 
deutsofthe Association* At the conclu- 
sion of the repast, Mr. George Dawaon^ 
MJl., delivered an eloquent address npoa 
Shakespeare, after which the Tisitors di^ 
persed, some to ri&it Anne Hatha way's 
cottage at the pretty Tillage of Sbottt^y, 
abput a mile and a half from Strfttford, 
and the rest spending the remaining time 
in inspecting other objects of interest. 
The psrty returned about 9 in the eren* 
ii^ to Birmingham. 



I 



NOBTHASIPTONSHIRE ARCHITECTTJRAL SOCIETT. 



M-*f SSI, 90w The annual spring m^et* 
- hehl at Ihrapstou. W, H. Stop* 
V^^ of DrsytOQ-hoose, presided. 
i^ur firvt day* after the election of 
i nr^ ff^mt^nv the IWv, C-amm 
read the rept>rt, fnua 



objects ai»d proccedinga 
it< . . iras said, — ■ 

^ Oar «lifcvtB arw Tvmtly wider than our 



art, ii,4 lilCT* 

*nhiniall tki^ 

Tin'v hke Hit*. 



grace to qa not to make andeot art our i 
■tudv\ and t ' tL> tireeerre its exist- 

ing uietuur r have at the svme 

titiic the UK'.. !■, L.^,.tc^t object in view of 
iuQpTOvinij: the character of the buildings 
thuU -r .wt«g ftpanattndos— otiroburches^ 

alk. our com<«xolMmge^ o< 
* 'T!iin«Tfm«, tHir parvottagea^ and, 1 

^ II ttti|Hirt- 

s. Ifwe i 
\in\v ' in 

a«*ul« vie- 

siastu.4. . to- 

lattx^t im « la a 

fvil<tnk<^n N *5ly 

in- ' 




1861.] 



Northamptonshire Architectural Society. 



165 



■OXDO of our recent building* Imd the plant 
piuied undi!r the eye* of a coiniiiitt«« ac* 
ctwtoioed to icnititiizs architdctund de- 
ittgn*. 

** Since lost October, plims for the re* 
building: of the chanct^l of Htttbfind*s Bos- 
worth* Httd for the re-arrangeniecit of the 
ititt^nor of Wellingbiarough Church, both 
by Mr. E* F. Law, htive been Approved; 
mid a scheme for the internal arrauj?e- 
menU of Ktngsthorpe Church, by the 
^ Jimo architect, is nowr iti iho hands of a 
lb-committee. At tJio request of the 
Kector a. gab'committee has fdeo viiit€>d 
the fine church of Everdou, and reported 
on the conditloD of the chancel A phin 
the r**^»eating^ of I^ng fiackby Church, 
Mr. Oilhtrt Scott, bat been considered 
and approved. The important worki at 
Uppingbaro and Ketton Churches, re- 
vie we<i bi' fore, are being Tigoronslycjirried 
on ; atui the little chapel of Sutton -by* 
Wcftton h being carefully rebuilt, aooord- 
inj5 to our fonner recotunicnthilion. Two 
very important achoola, that of St. Giles'iip 
Northampton^ by Mn Law, and that of 
Belgpn&ve, near Leice«ter, by Mr. W.iiil- 
lett, have been submitted to oar critiemm, 
and are now in the course of being carried 
out. and are likely to vie advantageou^^ly 
with any schoolt within the diocese. The 
acbooU at klip, by Mr. Slater, were favour- 
ably noticed in a former report. Plana for 
the new school at Paulerspury were ex- 
hibited at our committee, but too hite for 

criticism 

•*T!ie Treasurer** account, annually mada 
up in October, will not be forthcoming to- 
day; but, notwitlistanding the large pur- 
cfaases of both EnglisU and foreign books, 
the object to which our funds are now 
chiefiy devoted, the finances of onr Society 
are in a most prosperous state (our aur- 
eus is quite undisputed), and aflV)rd us 
hope of eventually bving the poiwes- 
of a firnt-rate library ol architc'cturul 
arcbseologicnl works. I shouhl men- 
the very cnrioua and valtinhle co1Iw.n 
m of castii of 270 seals of local and nrebi- 
,^A ^-t forest added to our collectiona 
tl porcbase from Mr. Hetitly. of 

th' > i:ian department of the British 

Uttaeutu, and which are exhibited to the 
aietnbere fbr the 0rst time lo-dAy. We 
bave hnd the pleasure, during the pwst six 
montlis, of voting €2 2s. towards the me- 
aorial of the late Mr. Pugin, and £1 Is^— 
a mark, nut a measure, of our gratitude^ 
towards the testimonial about to be pre- 
sented neit week to the indefatigable 
tieoeral Secretary for the Associated Vo- 
lume fjt Reports, the Uev. K. Trol!r»pe, at 
m meeting to be hehl at Bourne, Liuouln* 




shire, to which members of this 8odety are 
invited 

" Your committee regret that the hopes 
which they had at one time formed of 
seeing a worthy chapel rise from the ruins 
of Cateaby are not Likely to be fiiltilled. 
It h now proposed, they believe, to rebtiild 
the latter delmsed chapel on its present 
site, and the work of demolition hni com* 
meneed under the hands of a bulhter. 
Soon nothini? will be left of the old nun- 
nery, and ail niatentil nit^morial of the 
good Dftine Foyco Birkeley will pass away, 
to add nnotlur to the utterly erased reli- 
gious foundatinns of tliis country. 

" The Society still continue to feel un- 
abated interest in the works now going 
on at the Hound Church of St. Sepub 
chre's, Northampton, and they earnestly 
recommend the undertaking as one de- 
serving the aid of the whole archdeaconry. 
The large som of £700 has been collected 
by the ladiea' committee, but at leaat 
£2,000 is yet retjuired to make the new 
part fully avnil)il)lc for Divine Service. 
Tlje use of vari -coloured stones, both ex- 
tenifllly and internally, has been carried 
out by Mr, Scott to an eittent unextiuipled, 
1 believe, in modern times; and he has 
applied the same principle to the wood- 
work of the cbant^*l roof, Tlie present 
condition of the work is so flini;n1ar and 
rem irk able, that no one should omit the 
opportunity of visiting them, in order to 
ohs^erve how well the new work coutraHts, 
yet harmouTzea, with the old; and that, 
though in the fonner the utmost develop- 
ment ha« been allowed, the moat conser- 
vative spirit had presided over tke tender 
baudltng of all the ancient fabrle and the 
time-marks everywhere imprinted *m ita 
walla. Lord Alwyne Compton. than whom 
tliere is none more competent lor the work, 
has sent from Itome a very beautiful de> 
sign for the pavement of the ap«e, which 
has been subuiitted to onr Society, and 
which the local committee purpoee to 
adopt.'* 

The much canvassed designs for the 
public officca at Westuiinster were then 
Sjioken of, and it was observed,—* 

** If people wish to ice what they msy 
expect from a public ofhcc in Classic style, 
we recommend them to make a vUit to 
the new othce of Metropolitan Works^ 
just finished, in the narrow t>aMage which 
leads from Spring-gardens into St, Jamea'i- 
park, where the wretched repetition of 
rusticated pavement, stucco unniments, 
narrow windows, and pjdtry dctail§, will 
make them despair of our Imving attained 
any advance in art in public huildingi^ 



166 



Antiquarian and Literary InteHigencer. 



[Aug. 



r.r-iir:!LFtandlnjr all the study and imprest 
wL:th Las U-eii t'e*!* -wed njiC-n arohittvture 
dur.n^ the last quarieT of m certury. Tj 
a Sensitive eye it i* perfrct miiorj- to sve 
the niass of new building? in L'Dnd-»:i, 
frl^Lifj! in form, and false in principle, 
whsch meet one at cTery mm, and it re- 
q:i:re« a etrcing mind and firm patriotism 
in those who btliere in the «yn:bo:<:n of 
arohltevtxxrt- not • to despair of iheir cmn- 
try' aficr an bcur'* strc«Il throuph any i«f 
onr prini-ipial tLoron^Lfaiei where the 
builder is at work 

"I: is certain that onr professional 
architect* of either sohcv^l hiive not yet 
mfficienily gripjiled with the means of 
»npji!\-in£r our c<>nTenieLC<iC and ojr com- 
forts and lisTe thus too commonly thrown 
the buiiiiing of our houses into the hands 
of operatives, and no: artift^. It is a com- 
mon belief (which could hardly have grown 
up without the bitter experience of many 
years.! that in employing an architect, you 
are taking an expensive method of sacri- 
ficing internal arrangement and c-.'^mfort 
to outside show: whereas it is a certain 
fact that a true architect, master of his 
j>isition, should be able, by the m"»st care- 
fcl study of interior arranjcments. to 
elicit an c>riginal and appropriate eleva- 
tion, at a le«« cost than a builder CiHild 
run up his regular amount of orthodox 
Msh windows and potted chimneys. 

*' Aiid this adaptation of the outside to 
the internal conveniences is the crowning 
merit of onr old national style, and in 
direct oppositivm to the cramping jtedantry 
of Classic ree-ilarity. As to the forms %yi 
ornament, the applicability of soulptun?, 
their respective proportions, and prevail- 
ing lines of outline, on these there may 
always be a difference of taste and opinion ; 
but, in sp:t« of the : mazing blunders c^^m- 
mitted, there never can be a quest ii>n 
which style ii the most elastic, and adapt- 
able to every cuger.ce and e^ery clime. 
It if from the present transitional, %-acil- 
lating, nnoonsadiering state of the public 
mind on art, that the most taax is to be had 
for modem architecture: that the future 
derelopment will start from our own an- 
cient landmarks there can be little doubt. 
The • \'ictorian* style may be, like many 
of our public acta, a plausible comprv^mise, 
and a ramished jumble; but whatever 
future Ufe shall exist in Knglish c**aractor 
or art must he base«l ou more di>tinite 
principles than the present age admits of, 
and will pn>bably be led by what is i^asfting 
both in Europe and America to hold mori* 
firmly than before by our own national 
traditions. 

" We ma J eongntalate this county, at 



lea«t. on the style which the Corporation 
of X^irthampton have determined on for 
their new Tuwn-hall and Museana, and I 
trust tliat the design will be of such excel- 
lence as to be an example to other towns 
of the county. 

" A revival in architectural literature 
has marked the rresent year, and the new 
editions of Mr. Bloxham's and Mr. Parker's 
manuals of Gothic Arch:t<cture shew that 
the study has still attractions for the 
reader!! of the rising generation, while Mr. 
Berrfford Hojv's * Cathedral of the Nine- 
teenth Centurj-,' setting forth, as it does, 
in its pages the fact of the reality of its 
title, is a most encouraging proof that the 
highest -'Ij^t-t <'f ecc]e>iastical art is yet 
within the province and the aim of living 
architects. The mere publication of such 
a bvX'k, which is a m^tst practical, sober 
treatise, is a remarkable s*gn of the times. 
Twenty years ago such an announcement 
wtuld have bordered on romance. But 
Mr. Hope h^s clearly shewn that many 
cathedrals of the ninet«enth century have 
been, a:.d that more will yet be, buUt." 

Sir Henry Dryden said he had to pat a 
roM-'^ution to the meeting in favour of the 
Gothic style oi architecture:—" That this 
meeting is of opinion that the Gothic 
style is, in respect oi association, economy, 
convenience, and beauty, the best adapted 
for the new public odBi-es about to 1)C 
envtod in Westminster; and hereby au- 
thorize the chairman and officers of the 
Soi-iety to sign, on its behalf, a petition lo 
I\irliament. and a memorial to the Cliief 
Commissioner of Works, in favour of the 
adoption of our national style of architec- 
ture for these buildings." 

Mr. Blvxham sei\>nded the motion, and 
said, in orwler to see the superiority of the 
Gothic over every other style, it was only 
nei-ossary to look over the Elizabethan 
era. to see how massive they were, and 
then to compare them with the dimsy 
structures of mixlem da\-s. When they 
rememlvred the oM church of Clirist's 
Hospital, now dirstroved. the Grey Friars* 
and the church of St. Mary's, and com- 
}iarvd them with the church in Langham- 
phuvandthe Regent -street architecture, 
tluy would see quite sufficient to induce 
them to ]To:cst against any more of their 
public buildings Iving erected in such a 
degraded st\le. It appeared to him that 
nothing c^mld U* morv paltnr than the 




X861.] 



Northamptonshire Architectural Society. 



167 



I 



generality of thdr modem buildings, as, 

for liutBDcc, the uew Pcwt-office,— which 

moative enough, hut nothing more, — 

fthe MuMOiD* and oth(^^ haitding«. He 

[remembered well the old Museum, and, in 

[lilf opinioo, it waf a much more appro- 

piiftte building than the present one. 

The motion was c»rricd unattiuicm&ly. 

The ttev. N. F. Lightfoot then read 

ft paper on Drayton House, prepttnitory to 

a vUit to the mansion. The site of the 

Castle of Thrapston, now an orchard, wns 

explored; after which the Society dltied 

together, General Arbuthnot in the ehnir. 

In the evening a meeting waa held at 

the Corn Exchange, where a temporary 

moieiim had been formed, containing paint- 

ingfb rubbings, photography, coins, &c., 

many of them of much intereat. The Rev, 

Q. A. Poole read a paper on the Stained 

QlaM in Lowick Church, and the Rev. H. 

Waid one on the Parish of Aldwinekle, 

fbmonife ifU§r aiut, as the birthplace of 

John Drydcn. For theae interesting 

papen^ ai well as that on Drayton House^ 

we hope to find room very ahortly« 

Matf ao. The cxcurfion toolc place, 
and compHicd visits to Tlioriw Water- 
ville, Aldwinckle, Lowick, Sudl>orough, 
Liveden, ISrigftock and Geddington, 

T, 8. Sclby, Esq., of Pitt^o, deaeribed 
the remains at Thorpe Waterville, of a 
ca«tle and manor-hooae, now used a« a 
bam. He taid : — 

** This interesting remnant of a resi- 
dence of no mmn character was most 
likely erected about, or soon aft^r, the 
yenr of our Lord 1300, by the then 
Lord High Trcflunrer, Walter Lnng- 
tone i ' who,' says Bridges, in his * County 
History,* * built at Tliorpe Waterville a 
sumptuous mansion,' and, with a perfect 
ccmforuiity in its architectural features to 
such era, we may, I think, put down this 
building nt a part and parcel of Langtone'a 
work, and may consider the rouf above it 
to have Inren brought here from the Abbey 
wootls of Ptpwcll, whonre thote vast quan- 
tities of tiuibtr an* fh' bribed as having 
bet*n ohuiiied for raifing such 'ma.mnofi, 
without leave of, and to the great detri- 
ment of the monks/ That there were 
originnlly groand and first-floor ftorieJi 
cannot admit a question, and the contem- 
porary ettnii^nci' of a partition nmniiig 
aorcwa the building at its centre Msoms 



equally certain ; traces of it remain upon 
the wall, the construction and situation of 
the ct-ntre beams returning the cornice 
moulding tire indicative of it, the moulding 
Itself varying on dther side [joints to it, 
and the eifecta of it are visible in the pro- 
tection it bus adbrded one compartment 
from an agency that has stained the oilier. 
A porch jutting from the building on its 
east aide was taken down about thirty -six 
years since ; it possea»cd the same descrip- 
tion of canted roof, with collars and braces, 
but had neither posts nor foot-lieams; it 
was floored, and might be entered trom 
the great chumbor south, by moans of a 
narrow doorway ; on the ground floor 
waa another small door ; the springers of 
the coping-table wi^rc ornamented, and 
a large fiuial sunnounti^d the gahlc, A 
chiiimfc-y, corhcUed off «orae seven feet 
above ground, projecting as a narrow strip 
of masonry, on cither fido relieved by a 
circular window through the g.*blc wall, 
carrying a bold head, with an octagon 
shaft and embattled crest, served for the 
fire-place of the great chamber north ; 
the front of this mo«t likely brought for- 
ward, and perhaps on corheU, m at Cuslto 
Edlingham, Northuinberland, must again 
retire upon the wall, sloping upwards, 
and the cutting away the beam to receive 
the slope, and its existence behind it^ aro 
both manifest, A similarly constructtid 
gable chimney, <i;c., anawi^red at the south 
end to the one just described, but haa 
been removed perhajn a hnndred years 
since. A bridge, with a ribhed soffit of 
the time of Brshop Langton, Hpntis the 
brook, under the turni>ike. Threi^ ribs 
arc sqriare with the stream, and the two 
outer ones are phicod nslant to suit the 
exigencies of the ancient roadway, which 
crossed the brook obTuiuely ; in modem 
times the bridge has been otMed to on 
either side, and the rtmd widenoil," Mr 
Selby then pointed out the traditional site 
of the dinp^d, and tf»k the party to visit 
some masonic corbels, which, as Mr, Selhy 
said, " were now, in an inverted position, 
made to serve the purpose of an arch -head 
in a building (a farm-house adjoining), a 
re-erection of the worst part most likely 
of the materials that had once been used 
in the buildings of the Watarvilles of 
Langstone, the best having gone to another 
village, where it was hoped they might bo 
traced at some future period." 

The remains are now the property of 
Lord Lilford, to whom they have passed 
through the Cecils from the reputed 
founder Azclin de Waterville^ temp, 
Henry I, 



168 



Antiquarian and Uierary InielHjfencer. 



[Aug, 



Aldwinkla AH Saiotf' Chordi was de- 
ieribed bj the View. H. Ward, Rector of 
8L PeUr^i, •» waa alao his own church, 
which has been reitored bj him. AH 
8«nU' retained in it« east window, and 
in one of the north windows, its Early 
English character. The same was the 
case with the chancel-arch. The piers on 
the sonth nde were of the same date, and 
altogether diflerent from those on the 
north. Those he toc^ to be Decorated, 
agrering with the clerestory windows, 
which Xr. Freeman described as of the 
geometrical period. In the aisles also one 
ci the windows was Decorated, bat over- 
large Perpendicular windows had been in- 
serted in each of tbem ; at the same time, 
DO doubt, that the battlemental turrets 
were added. There was a fine western 
arch, which would, if it could, open into 
the tower. The steeple, as at St. Peter's, 
was the most important feature in the 
church, and being a tower in the land of 
spires, was the more worthy of remark. 
Mr. Freeman, speaking of the smaller Per- 
pendicular towers of the county, coupled 
it with Whiston, but to the latter, in some 
material features, he gave the preference. 
Several members of the Society expressed 
a different opinion, giving the preference 
to Aldwinckle. On the north side of the 
chancel the small vestry, added in Deco- 
rated times, was well worthy of notice, 
inasmuch as, so far from being an awk- 
ward excrescence, as was generally the 
case, it added greatly to the beauty and 
picturesque appearance of the church. The 
font was Early English, and very similar 
to that of St. Peter's, but, unlike that, had 
a history. In an old church account-book 
he found that, in the year 1655, the font 
stone was sold for 4i. 6d., and, as in the 
same year's accoants there was another 
entry, vi.rf, paid for " a basone," he inferred 
that the domestic article was in use, when 
needed, in its stead until 1662, when 
5s. 6d. was paid to Goodman Garrot for 
sotting up the foot again, and 20s. was 
paid for leadiug it. Goodman Garrot did 
npt deserve his title for his skill in setting 
up fonts, for he had placed the supporting 
staff upside down, besides most mercilessly 
peeking it, to make it fit his topsy-turvy 
8 



restoratioD. Ob the aoath tide of tiie 
dianeel, opening into it by a broad arch, 
and into the sooth aisle by a very pointed 
one, was a highly-finisiied Perpendicular 
diantry. Fuller, the C^oich historian, 
referred to it« and aud it was endowed 
with house and land, for a priest, at the 
cost of Sir John Aldwinde^ about the 
reign of King Henry VI. Both as to the 
founder and the date FuDer was inaceu- 
rate, fiw copies of the foondatioa deeds, 
still extant, proved that the diantry was 
erected in the fourth year of Hemy YII. 
(1489), by William Chambre, and Eliia- 
beth his wife, formerly wife of William 
Aldwincle. Upon the wall of Uie north 
aisle was a brass to John Pokering, 'phy- 
sitian,' who cUed in 1659. He war great 
uncle to Dryden, being brother to the 
poef s grandfiither, the Rev. Henry Poker- 
ing, rector of this church, who himself 
lay buried in the churchyard, under an 
altar-tomb, dose by which was a rimilar 
tomb to Mrs. Lucy Pykering, daughter of 
Henry Pykering, the rector, and conse- 
quently Dryden's aunt. 

St Peter's was somewhat older than 
All Saints*. It had one mark of greater 
ant'quity, namely, one of the piers in the 
north aisle. That pier had a capital 
with a square abacus, with heads and 
foliage, and might certainly have belonged 
to a Nurman church. It was, besides, of 
a rather ruder sort of masonry than the 
other piers, bat as it was the only portion 
of the church which could be referred to 
such early times, — the other piers clearly 
belonging to a period not more than sixty 
to eighty years after it, — ^he hesitated to 
ascribe to it much greater antiquity. All 
the Early English features retained in 
All Saints' Church have vanished from St. 
Peter's, except the arch. The presentchurch 
was in the late Decorated style, very long, 
very wide, and very lofty, and larger, in 
fact, than was commonly met with in 
a small country church which was not 
collegiate. It was evidently built about 
the year 1373, when Oliver de Lofwyke 
and Richard Parson, of Stanwigge, ob- 
tained licence to settle twenty-six acres of 
arable land and four acres of meadow land 
in Aldwinckle, on William de Lofwyke 



18C1.] Norihamptomhire Architectural Society. 



169 



mxA bi« Bucc<?Mora, pufions of St. Fetci^s 
Cbarcb, towards the nmintcnfLDce of « 
priimt to celebrate Dtvine Service dnily 
At the btjarli altar of tb© said cborcb* The 
tbree ei^uth wltidowa of tbe cbancel were 
ver; ftriking. The Urst nearest the east 
liad njimboynnt tracery, and teDeath the 
window ou the iiuide the wall Is cat away 
to form two seats or t^lilia. The Uat ou 
the aouth side wa« remarkable for having 
whmi was called *' a low side wiudow/' the 
booka for tbe shutter-hiog* s etill appear- 
ing. Uudcr this window the wuTl was 
Abo cut away to fonn a seat, which in 
In thia case, tmlike the others, waa of 
wood, and seemed to in dl cute that a priest 
■at at the opeti window^ for the purpose 
of receiving eonressions or of disiribuliofr 
aloitf. llie moat beaut tful features about 
the church were the tower and spire, 
which blt'nd together aa only a tower and 
spire built at one tiine can do. 

Li^wick Church, beside its painted glais, 
baa some excceilingly fluu monuments. 
The most modern is one to Charles Sack- 
vUle, Duke of Dorset, who died in 18-13. 
There are alju splendid moiiumonU to Sir 
Walter de Vere, Knt,, the founder of 
the cbnrcb ; to Sir Ralph Qreen ; to Staf- 
Ibrd, Blarl of Wiltshire ; to Sir John Gcr- 
mam, one of the latest specimens of a 
kaifEbt in armour, having breast^plate^ 
•tpanliers over the sltoQlders, the upper 
part of the arm being protected by rear 
tAscei and overlapping plates. There 
•R also bow plates and baud braces, and 
qverlapping plates over the thighs. There 
Is a Trry handsome monument also to the 
L*dy Mary Mordaunt, daughter to the 
Earl of Puterborougbj who waA first mar- 
rk4 to Henry, Duke of Norfolk, and, after 
ids death, Uj Sir John Qermain. 

Sudboroagb Church is a plain building, 
with a t<jwer of the fourteenth century. 
Set in the wall was the monumental figure 
of a erusarier, «uptx>scd to date firom the 

^nning of the reign of Henry III. In 
nrpinion of Mr. Bloxoni, however, it 
century later. In this cburob there 

^twoscdUuL 

At Livcden, a paper on the manor-house 

» r«d hy the Rev. H. Ward. The old 
ia now used ns a farm<houac, but 
Q%^r. Mao. Vol. CCXI. 



the new bnildin)^, which is of grcfit his^ 
torical interest^ was never fiuishid, nnd is 
now a ruin : — 

" He did not profess to give a Uill bis* 
tory of Liveden, but merely such an ac-^ 
count as might be useful to those of the 
company who might have little or no ac* 
quamtance with the place. Liveden, or 
Leffi'rdeo, appeared to be the name of a 
large forest district, extending into several 
parLsbes, of which, curiously enough, al- 
most all were in diScrent hundreds. In 
the olden times, if the owner of the old 
buikbisg bad been walking in his park 
three hundred yards from the house, he 
would thi'n have been in the jurii^diction 
of the vicar of Brigttock j but by stepping 
over almost an invisible boundary, he 
would at once have come under tlie charge 
of the rector of Benefield, and under his 
charge he might have n^ached his own 
front door, but no further, for inside the 
hall he would have been liable to meet 
the Aldwinkle ptirson on a parochial visit. 
Once housed, it might be thought that 
the owner would be safe from further 
change of pastors, but such was not the 
case, for, if he liappt m d to go into his 
kitchin and to cro^s at other invisible lino 
of demarcation, there the rector of Bene- 
field would again have legal status; and 
should the unlucky gentleman then think 
of escaping by the back door, no sooner 
would be have crossed it than there might 
stand the rector of Pilton, and claim hitn 
as a parishioner. But, though lying in 
so many parishes, Liveden was, to a cer- 
tain extent, extra-i>arochial. His impres- 
sion was that it once formed a sort of 
ecclesiastical district of itself, and that 
these noduses were for the purpose of 
freeing it from the jnriNdiction of the 
several rectors, in order Uiat it might bo 
placed under a chaplain or chapkius of 
its own, 

" He mentioned the names of several 
of the earlier owners of Liveden ; but 
those who had m- st clearly left their 
marks there were the Treshams^ who ac- 
quired the property about the time of 
Henry VI. The first of them was either 
t*ir Wilbam Trebham, of Sywill, or hia 
BOD, Sir 'Ihomas^ of Rushton, who was 
attainted of treason early in the reign of 
Edward IV., when the manor of Livcden 
was held for a time by William de Aide- 
wyncle, but eventually reverted to Sir 
John Treaham, the son of Sir Thomas, 
who lived till far into the reign of Henry 
VI II. The next owner was Sir Thoraas 
Tresham, the lord prior of St. John of 
Jeruaalem, who was buried at Rushtou i 



170 



Jniiquariati and Liierary Intelligencer^ 



aft«r wbofD Itie pfopertj came to uioiher 
Sir Tboim^ who, •% hi m liveden wm 
concerned, wm the most important mem- 
ber of the fainilT. Leiand in hia ' Itinti- 
miy mid. 'There be two hona^a of Tre- 
ahams in Northamptotuhlre. The eld«T 
hnjther'a hoo^e l« iiow comimml^ called 
RuabtOD by Gattering, but h« ealletb 
himadf " Trealiam of Liveden,*' where ret 
stAodeCh parte of an ancient manor-place, 
and goodly meadowi ahoat it^ and there 
bath Treiiibam about three hnndred merkf 
by the yere*' Tlie old manor-bonae might 
bly hare b^en on the ste of Ibe old 
, tbnt where the two &rm'hoa8«8 
. and it Wtfs ptimble that a por- 
tloii of U migrht be incorporated with the 
preaenl boildinga. although the pnneipal 
wriaig, which now Kaaainad almost entire, 
waa of a mQeb later datow Then Died to 
be a cost of armt in ctone let into the 
gables over the west window of tlie great 
diamber^ and that serred, to « certain 
extent, to fix the date, for with tbe Tre> 
ahum anui were qunrtered thoae of Parr 
of Horton, and aa it waa Tnsabam the 
Prkr of St. John's who married the Parr 
the anna conid not bave been 
> qnartcrly until after his death. Be- 
tmu m Ibe two pr^^etit rarm-boiiaea tbere 
mad to be a tlone an'hway or 9cn-en, in 
Sir Tbomaa'a later rtylc of arcbit^^nr^. 
and appamtly Wft uu^ui^ied nt hix death, 
but was renkored a few year* a^ to Farm- 
ing Wooda» and was re-erwjUMl. with the 
ooat of mnna at tbe top yf it, a§ »n en- 
trance to tbe atablcwyard. W'bat^vir may 
have been the caao with the old building* 
tbe new Unildlni^ waa olearly tbe wnrb of 
tbe UH-nnmed Sir Tboouia IV aham, the 
Iblbcr of l^oibftai tbe eonapirasor. tiwr 
^Tbooiae waa or%ibaUy « PivlatAnt, and 
fmwi UfbUd by Qiia«n EUnheth. at bar 
" OOP rUt to KenilworO^ In 157&i b««t 
within tbiwe y«ir« alierwaanAi, wbeai tbe 

nn*<>n«»jirv t^rir^*!* r»tr< oVfT ir»t.> 



4 



ng a fknii 




claim James at Northampton, and bit 
Franeia» afterwards the conaplfntcr, 
hta hrothcT Le^ia* mul tluir hn ' 
]aw« Lord Mi]nt4!«gl 
letter waa addreeieu 
their foppori ol the £«r 
cceuring the Tower of 
same oiuae. 

*^ WitKin three monttia of the Ki; 
arrival in London be invited many Pu|i 
re<cQ8anta to Conrt, and among othcn 
Thomas TrediaiB, and on that 
aasared tbem it «nu ht« intention 
them gv«ater freedom in tbe 
their religion than liis predt 
done, and e^^eciaUy that he wi 
onerate then from the finea imj 
the statute of Eiixabetb. In 
with that they Ibond that tbe finca 
in the reign of Sliiabeth, ai 
£10,000 a year, were rednceit in 
year of JanMS to £300, and In the 
year to £tOO. In the thirtl year, howev< 
afti* the Gunpowder Plot, they wert 
raiaed to £6^000. The bearing of 
remarlu napeeting the treatment 
Fopiab reeouits by King Jan)c* 
LiTedeo w«a tbis, that nnlefti they b 
pectedcDodderable indnlgeiioe to M! 
tbem with respect to tbeir node ' 
ihip» and a great relaxation of tbc^ 
laws agaisise tbe harbonrn^ of ' 
priests^ that bnilding wo 
been commenced. Therv 
that tbe ^»>idii>g w^u IhUl^^k^^ v 
ligioiaa hooae, and anch an tme eji 
not have been tolerated, or crm atl 
to be baBt* in the preceding rtdgn. 
what a^aa known of Sir Thomaa 
c)iar>irteT« nothing woidd be morr lil 
than that be wuald delight in pf 
a bouse to be eorend. as tbis 
nligtOMs tmblema. «(pecial|y if be 
ifmtmMm b«|^ tbsl it woold be - 
to be iwd fur Ibe fam da t io n of 
IwUgkras fratcrnlt V. atixiit^ nhotii !] 
profafthh 
hiad^a, 

waa oo^y tti^uciH«d Ity 
v^ewa of ^OatboTie 

ibe^ ho bad mm. «U»cr hot 
« a«npo«der Hot. B« 

t vied not, Ibr IhMi tie >' 
\hc holding w^ leH at 
r. a» rii.tf (fvbsUlity that 
: aSy hegna, br' 
^ Ailer tbe ^ 

f rtrlboom* Irt.ha 



have 

ic*abt 



u I ^rr vi London, EoshU 
3<iat«dL b«t LiT«4aB was allowod 
• •» *ji Ibw nest bcirtliflr» t^ewia, wh 
^m^m V^ mm not lik«|| 



1861.] 



Society of Northern Antiquaries. 



171 



take much pains to finUb n houM for 
Jesuit priests <wi'n l»*itl li^*^ l>een bo in- 
clined, And so tli^ plitce was doubtlefls left 
»• it stood when Sir ITionittii died. Bridges 
iiftid thnt the new bailding iit Lin den was 
never covered in» but there wa» every 
reft;M)n to believe that it was in n much 
moni finished *t«to ihnn they saw it then, 
ii was »iid tluit Major Butler, an ollicer 
of CromweU'e dnny Htatioiied at Oundle, 
where bis p*iternal pro|'orty lay, at tempted, 
with a party of the Pftrhamentiiry forei'*, 
to level the hoildii^g to the ground, but 
whether that waa because it had utTorded 
shelter to any puty of the Itoyalists did 
not appi-ar. There were marks of huUeta 
on the out«ide^ but those might be ac- 
counted for by pic-nic Volunteer* think- 
ing It a safe mark for ball^praetice. 

" Aa it was useful to stnuigifra visiting 
aach bnildiogi as tba present, he would 
read a few cxtracta from a work on ihe 
Livedeit ruins. The home, it told tbem» 
waa built in the form of a Greek croRs, and 
the entrance was on the north side, aud 
must have been by a flight of steps. Stand- 
ing opposite to that could be seen the 
archways in the interior. The artns on 
the key- stones of the arches were * Treshiim' 
for the founder, and ' Throckmorton* for 
his wife. Above the first story without is 

^n the form of eacutcheonSi 
'j; the whole of the bnildiug, 

uiiabed. some in a half- finished 
iUte, and uthers with their outtmt-* barely 
lnce«i« plat lily proving how audden and 
Epcctcd waa the blow that occasioned 
I auspffOAion of the work. The ttbteldii 
»a are in compartmunU of 
each style, &c« I'pon t!ie 

ru, ij^, are sin- 

giji - U much care. 



enoblpratitieal of the snfreringH and cmci- 
fixifm of our Saviour. These are in circles 
of about eighteen inehc« in diuinet^r, and 
are* supposed to represeot— 1. The purse 
containing the money for which Judiis be- 
trayed Christ, and round the border the 
thirty ptecea of silver. 2. The lanthorn, 
torches, a spear, and a s^onL 3. 'I'ha 
croM, la^ider, hammer, and nails. 4-. The 
seamleai garment, and dice to represent 
the casting lots for it. 5. The crowing 
cock to awaken St. Peter, and the scfiurgea 
with which Pilate scourged J e«ua. 6. The 
XP. within a wrentb, on the upper part 
of which ia a T for Trt«httm. Aiid 7. Tlie 
IHS. and crosa, and round the bi rdor 
• Eato mihi/ These iK^ulptures are re- 
peated round the whole of the building. 
Above the third story, runoin^r round the 
oomice, are, or rather were, for a f^ood 
deal is now mii^^iug, the following f»eii> 
tenoea r^ — ' Jesva mtnui Salts ){• Oatsb 
H ATXB virgo M.^ria4* Verbvm fivtem crvcla 
^wrcviitbv« fjvdeui stvltitia < st 4i Jcsv be- 
aitvs ventor qvi te portavit 4* Maria nmter 
virgo sfionsd tnnvpta •{• Benedi \ it tibi Devs 
in eetemvm Maria ijp Mihi avteui ahait 
gtoriari nisi in crvce Domini nostri/ " 

After luncheon in the open air at Live- 
den,, the party visit* d Brigstock, whore 
there is an ixceedinjily fiiie Saxon tower- 
arch, blocked up and ahiio»t hid by the 
organ, and then ooncludtd their excursion 
by a glance at the Eleanor Croas at Ged- 
dington, which Bridges, the county his- 
torian, oomiders the moat perfect of the 
three in existence, being neither m«ch in- 
jured like Waliham CroiM*, nor altered like 
that near NurtJtamptoo, by moik^rn ad- 
dilionB. 



SOCIETY OF XORTHEUN ANTIQUARIES. 
Tlie annual meeting was held and the i^hield preseuted to him by King 



at the easily of Christ iansborg, H.M. the 
Kisro Of llKXMAftK in the chair. 

The aecretary, Pn>ft?faor C. C. Rafn, 
resail a report of tfac proecetlingt and state 
<«f ihe Society daring the year 18B0. 
Of Ihe •* Annab of Northeni Archii?oh>jfy,*' 
Uie two vohimeti for IS5*J and 18B(.l are in 
|b« praaa, of which the former (with seven 
yl«l«a) oofttaina aev^TKl papem by C. C. 
Lomnxen and others on *' Historical 
MiiiminMl>i in the Duchy of Schleswig/* 
while the latter ojjeua with an ea&ay by 
Qiali firynjiiU:iiaon» im ** Brugi thii Old,*' 



Kagnar Loilbrok. Of the ** Archojological 
lliview," containing the Proceedings of 
ihe Society, list of Felbws, Ac, as also of 
the MSmtnres dea AnHqmmre* dw Nt^rd^ 
the volumes concluding with the year 
1860 are in the presa. ITie ** Review" 
eontaina a series of critical notices of 
several newly publbhetl works on Ameri- 
can antiquities. Among the papers oon- 
tainted in the MSmmre9 one is by P. A, 
Munch, in English, on the Scottish local 
namoB occurring in the Icelandic i:>sgaa, 
and another in Frvnch, being ihe tex,t, by 




172 



Antiquarian and Literary Intelligencer. 



t«gr 



C. C. Fftfti ftnii C, J. Tliomsen, of the 
Atl^^ de VAreheoiogie du Nord. At the 
BRine time tbe Lexieon P&sUewm Aiitiqmm 
lAngum SepteiUrionalis } cofucripmi j^wih- 
biorn Fffihmn was esblbited. In tlie 
introductioQt by J, Sif^rdsscm, pftrttcular 
mention ha« t>ei*n made of the labour* of 
the deceased author, tending to illaatmte 
the andcnt hmgrnag^o and literature of the 
North, OS also of those of seveml of bia 
oonntiymen who hiivo deserved well by 
tbe preservfttion of old Northern pootiail 
remains; it concluiiea with &oine renmrki 
on the terma " Donak tungo/' ** NorrtDna," 
ftnd " Old Northern," applied to the an- 
cient Inngnage of the North. 

His Majesty the King exhibited « con- 
Blderable nuoiber of very remarkable ob- 
jects, with which \m aibinet of northern 
nntiqaities has been enriched since the 
last annual meeting- of the Society — yh. 
i>umeroua upeclnienst from the nge of atone ; 
amoncr others a triangiil tr arrow-point of 
flint, found in a tiirf-pit tiear Tliorsiv, in 
Scania^ sticking in & aknil, together with 
ieveral beautiful specimeua from the age of 
bronze. Among tbe objects from the age of 
iron, eighths -five very fine oiies were found 
in a tarf moor at Thor*bierg, near South 
Brarup, in Angoln ; the other objects of 
this rich collection are preserved in the 
Plen*borg Moseum. Their age is proved 
by Roman coins found with thein ; the most 
recent one, of tbe Eraperor ComiUiiduB, 
Iteing struck a,b. 185, whence it may be 
concluded with some probabilitir' that the 
objects jujit mentioned belong to the third 
c*?Qtary. Of those now preserved In His 
Mi^esty's cabinet may be mentioned an 
iron coat of mail, and a shoulder buckle 
with gold and silver covering, a circular 
shield of woi d 38 inches in diameter, iind 
several arrow shails of pine wood, with 
incjtnoui fm the b »w8tring« Of the objects 
exhibited by His Majesty several hiive 
bern selected for representation in the 
detailed report to be given In the Me- 
moirtit dpM Autifpmirejt d« Nord, 

General Kibiger. Coitunaiider-in-Cliief 
of the Artillery, exliibitetl some very an- 
eient and curious objf ct4 newly received 
for tlie btstorieal eolWtlon in tbe Boyal 
AnenaL ¥tqsd Dr. H. lUuk, Inspector 



of South Greenland, was received anil M- 
hibited voK ii. of " KatndHt Ok^UuM^at' 
Uat ; or, Greenlandic Popular Traditions, 
written down by Natives, together with 
a Collection of Woodcuts, designed and 
executed by RsctuimauK in Ilhislratiim of 
the said Traditions." Mr. 8. Klein^chmidt, 
the teacher of the Qttdtliaab Seminary, 
tmnaniitted a oompendious hiirtory of the 
world, written in theOreenlandic language. 

Mr, Niels Arniten, of Fall River, in the 
county of Bristol and state of Masnchn- 
sctts, transmitted to the Society a warranty 
deed, by which, *' in consideration of his 
esteem for the editor of the AnUquHaim 
Ameiicanm and tbe author of the 'Memoir 
on the Discovery of America by the North- 
men,* Profeastir C. C. Riifn, and the Royal 
Society of Northern Auti({uariea, he did 
give, grant, and convey to the said Pro- 
fessor and Royal Society the rock known 
as the * Wriiiusf* or * Dtghton Rock/ and 
the lot or parcel of land surronndtng it, 
and sUtrntcd in the Umw of Berkley, in 
said county of Bristol," its limits being 
stated in detail in the nid deed. Tbe 
Society charged it« managing oommitJee 
to express to the donor its thanks for bis 
gift, as also to t&ke the proper measures 
to see the monument duly fenced and 
preserved- 

In the past year, 186'0, there have been 
enrolled in the list of Foundation Fellowst 
or Memhres FondaUurs, HXH. Constan- 
tino Nicolaevitst'b, Grand Duke of Russia ; 
H,1,H. Ferdinand Maximilian, Archduke 
of Austria; Sir Henry Barkly, Governor 
of Victoria j C^unt Vitaliano Borromeo, 
Grand'C of Spain and Senator of Sardinia j 
Count Vladimir de Bro&l- Plater at Dtim- 
browltza, Minsk; Mr. John H. Wilder 
Cosby, Advocate, Abbey -lodge, Ireland ^ 
George Granville, Earl of Ell*?«mcre, Lon- 
don; George Fair, M,D., FJi.C.S., Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh; Ivan J, Foundou- 
klei, Controller-General of Poland ; Mr, 
Edward A. Hopkins, United States* Consul 
in Paraguay; Mr. William H. Hudson, 
United States' Consul at Buenos Ayres ; 
Count Stanishis Kosaakowski, Preaidi-nt of 
the Heraldic Cliamber of Poland; Don 
Juan Mariano Ltirsen, Professor in the 
University of Buenos Ay res j Frederick 



1861.] 



Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 



17S 



Maeller, Prcwidetit of the Royal Society of 
Victoria; Rnja Prat^pa Chniitlni SinUu 
Bahftdoor, Biikpanlh, Bengal ; Buboo Ba- 
jendr^l Mitra, secretary to tht) Asiatic 
Society of Bengal ; Ifpnioda Scarpa, Consul 
of Benmark, Fiume ; Nicolas C» Schutb, 



Con Bill -C*<?Deral of DetiBiarlc^ Chili ; Sir 
Williitm Foster StawL»ll, Chief Jiistice, Vic- 
toria ; Jonathan Binns Were* Danish Con- 
sul, Melbonme ; and Sjoerd Wtarda, Con- 
sul of tbe Netbtsrlazids, Btumos Ayras. 



SOCIETY OF AlN^TIQUARIES OE SCOTLAND, 



June 10, Lord KEirEa in the chair. 

Lt^rd Binning and Mr. Adolph Robinow 
were elected Fellows. 

Mr. Stuart reported that the rcfpairs on 
the curious '* Burg" of Moujsa had now 
been completed ; that some discoveries hud 
been made in the course of doing so, 
which would be conimnnicat<?<l more spect* 
fiddly hereafter ; and that the fabric was 
DOW reported to be in such a state as to 
give promise of itii permaDency aa a com- 
plete speciinen of the class to which it 
beloDged. He also adverted to the pro* 
priety of obtaining a model of the " Btirjj^' 
for the Museum. 

On tbe sDg^ge«tion of Mr. Joseph 
Robertaon, a committee was appointed 
with the view of promoting subscriptions 
for the restoration of the City Cross* 

The following eommumcationa were 
read: — 

I. Historical Notices of Baigticad, in 
Horny, with tbe result of recent excava- 
ttons made there. By Mr. James Mac- 
donaldp Academy « Elgin. The writer ga?e 
a picture of the situation of Burghead, and 
the surrounding country, which had pro- 
bably indueneed the early HettliTs in its 
aalectioo, and then described the many 
different classes of antiquities which have 
•it yarioui times been found in the walls 
and fortifications of this site, such as 
bults sculptured on stone flag«, fra^^ents 
of »culptared crosses, a coin of Alfred, a 
silver ring« supposed to have been the rim 
of a horn, and quantities of human bones. 
Aecent excavations, organized by the 
Literary and Scientific Society of Elgin, 
have led to the discovery of well-built 
walis> formed of quarried and partially 
dreaseil freestone, with occasional Inser- 
tious of oaken beams, and thereby asusted 
Mr. Macdoitatd in retN>nflt meting the plan 
of the old fortifications. The paper gave 




full particulars of the well, sometimes 
called a Ronmn bath, and, after ejtutnin- 
ing the opinions of diflerent writ*Ts, and 
the evidence of the Sagas and ScottUh 
Chronicler, and u classificiitionof the anti- 
quities under the hesid of Pictiah, Eoclesi* 
ostical, Scandinavian, and Pogt-niedioi' nl, 
the writer stated bis own eonclnsiona. Ho 
gave abundant reasons for dtscartiing the 
recent opinion that Burghead had been a 
Roman station, but sugf^e»ted that it hud 
been occupied at an early date as the site 
of one of those structures so common on 
the opposite shores of the Aloray Firtb 
and in Orkney and Shetlaud, and known 
as "Burgs;" that it bad afterwiirds be- 
come a Christian settlement at the time 
when the missionaries of tbe new faltb 
were issuing forth from their lonely cells 
at lona, and proclaiming the tiiiib of 
Christ along the shores of the maiuiand 
and in the wild glens of the Highlands j 
and that afterwards it was seized and 
ruined by the Danish rovers, and con- 
Vfrted into a fortress suitable for their own 
purposes. Tlie paper concluded with the 
charter hif*tory of the district from ita 
first appearance on record* skilfully pre- 
pared by Mr, Robert Youngs of Elgin. It 
was illustrated! by exquisite drawiugs of 
the sculptured stones and other antiquities^ 
many of which were eiecuted by Lady 
Dunbar, of Dntfus; and, by tbe kind per- 
mission of the Dowujjer Lady Dick Lauderj 
the curious silver ring already referred to, 
and the coin of Alfred, were eitbibitoiL 

Proff8§or Innes» whose local knowledge 
enabknl him to illustrate and confir^n the 
statements tn the paper, made various 
remarks iu tbe course of it« reading, 

Mr. Stuart, iu adverting to the value 
and interest of Mr. Macdouald's paper, 
stated that he thought the writer bad 
beau virv fortunate in the destruction of 



174 



Antiquarian and Literary Intelligencer. 



[Aug. 



tbe theory which attriboted the remains 
to Koman hand*, and that the excavations 
described hail been of preat a«e ic adding 
to the mat«-rial« f^r forming an (opinion 
aa to their real aathor*. It appeared 
to him that the upturning and removal 
of the original materials had b^n so 
great that it was almost impiasible now 
to speak with contldtrnce as to their ori- 
ginal disposition. The suggestion that a 
" Bur^" had originally occupied the pro- 
montory was new and ingmioiis, but he 
was hardly prepan-d to acivpt it — at least 
tbe occurrence of quarried and partially 
dressed freestone ci>uld hardly W lookeii 
for in such a structure, judging from the 
materials of our primitive forts in Soot- 
Und, and rather pointed to a later and 
liferent use. He pointed out the occur- 
rence of sculptured fragments at " Dinna- 
cur,** now an isolateil rock near S^tone- 
baven, but probably in early times the 
pcnnt of a peninsula, like Bnrghead, as had 
been shewn by Mr. Thompson of Ban- 
cbory ; and referred to this and other siiiti- 
lar plaoM on tbe cuast as sites chosen 
by tbe early Cbriftian missionariea, and 
which may have been selected firom their 
beng fortified, or secure by n iture. 

II. Notice of Recent Excavations at 
Tormore, in tbe Island of Arran, in a 
Letter fnm Dr. Jamieaon, Glencloy, Arran, 
to Dr. Aft bur IGtcbell, Corr. Mem. S.A. 
8eot. Thew excaYatioos were made in 
drcks of stooei commonly called " Dm- 
ifieal,'* with tbe view of ascirrtaining if 
tke dcponta wludi have been found in 
in other parts of Scot- 
be (bond bei« also. Tbe 
I began at tbiee large stones form- 
ing part of a eiide of nine. Here, in tbe 
MHtot of the ciivle* was fbond a stone 
dbl» aad in it an am. A second cist was 
in anotber drde, of which all tbe 
I m pioatrate except one pillar of 
fifteen feet in bright ; and to tbe 
wt of tUs cist another was found eorenrd 
bj n dib of great weight, and enclosing tbe 
■knit and other bones of a human skeleton. 
Tbrst fiint anow-beads wetv found in iMte 
of tbe data, and in the next an urn and 



two arrow-heails. Both the nms were of 
the nidt^sT const ruction. 

Mr. Stuart <>a:d that the resnlts in the 
present instance w^re the same as had at- 
tendeil digginirs about circles in other 
parts of Sititlaiid. In almost all dbea 
sepulchral dei>«Kits had been found, and 
he was not aware of a sinj:le fact wbi«4i 
went to support the modem theory that 
these stones were temples, or that the 
Druids hail any connection with them, 
or. he might add, to shew that there ever 
were Druids in Scotland. 

In announcing numerous donations, tbe 
Secretary adverted sf^ciaU> to tbe great 
inten'st of the gold ornament presented 
by Mr. Sim of Coulter, from his valuable 
collection of Lanarkshire antiquities, of 
which the Mu.<eum had no other speci- 
men. He also po'nted out, as valu:ible 
and interesting, the bronze mirror and 
other bronze relics pni-sented by the Kev. 
George Murray, of Balmaclellan, and ex- 
pressed his belief that careful obwrvation 
would probably lead to many " finds" in 
italloway, which was a district full of 
primiti\-e remans, in many cases little 
disturbed. 

Mr. Laimr called attention to tbe beau- 
tif .1 !&pur found on the farm of Croftside, 
near Bannockbum. now exhibited by Mrs. 
Brown, of l^u-k, its owner, through the 
Rev. Dr. Fowler, F S.A. Scot., Ratbo; 
and added tliat he was authorized to pre- 
sent it to the Museum. 

Casts of two remi&rkable slabs at Kirk- 
madrine, parish of Stoneykirk, Wigton- 
sbire, made by Mr. Henry Laing. were 
exhibited. On the face of each of them 
is a Latin inscription, in a style of letters 
reftnnhling thi^tfe on the Uomano- British 
slabs in W'ali-s, surmounted by a small 
cn^M of (xvultar character, and altoisether 
different fKnn the general type of Scotch 
CToawiL Or.e of them rvcords that hero 
lie Vi vent ins and Mavi rins, " Sacerdotea 
sanoti et pnc^*-pu*i.** These slalis are of 
the very highest interest, and no doubt 
will provoke the historical inquiries which 
their iKVurren^v in this locality requires. 



186L] 



l7o 



SUFFOLK INSTITUTE OF ARCHAEOLOGY AKD KATUEAL 

HISTORY. 



Jtii^ 4. Tbo fummer peripatetic meet* 
ing of tbe Society took place under the 
pnstitlency of tbe Reir« LOBD ASTB17& 

The church of Greftt Snxliam was the 
rendccvotifl, where a paper writteD by the 
RcY* H« K. Creed, the carate, whb read 
by Mr. Tymms, the Hon, Secretary, de- 
acHhitig the various j»irtieulars of Inter eat 
in the bailding . Among the iDost note- 
worthy M the stained glaa«, chiefly in me> 
didlioQii, brought from Einsiedlen^ in Switx- 
erbind, by tbe hite WUliam Milk, Esq., 
and filling the east and a part of one of 
the north windows, *rhia ghtis, the 
greater i»ortion, if not nil, uf which ii the 
work of German arthit« at tbe beginning 
of the sixteenth century « well repitys a 
eorcfiil eKainination. Tbe bunt and brass 
of John Kldred, the merchant, wbo died 
in 1632* also excited greftt interest. 

At DenhAni Castle, to which the party 
next proceeded, the survey of certain 
grassy moulds and emhankments sur- 
ronnded by a broad ditch, the greater part 
of which is dry, was mude extremely In* 
teresting by the tnformution which Mr. 
Harrod, F.8.A., of the Norfolk Archaeolo- 
gical Institute, gave roipccting the pkn 
up'>n which they and mtuiy other of the 
ancient castles in this part of Engknil 
have been constructed. These strongholds, 
it waa stated, were originally the forts of 
aboriginal Britons, and consisted of a cir* 
culaT keep, formed by a high earthwork 
•nd moat, adjacent to which was an in- 
dosiire of an irregular horse^shoe form, 
also made by an embankment and dttch, 
in which the occupants of the fort were 
aociiatoined to collect and preserve their 
cattle when threatened by an euemy — a 
plan still adopted, as was stated by a mem- 
ber of Uk; Society, by the natives of some 
parts of India, Tbe only access to tlie 
cattle Slid castle meadow was by a cause- 
wsiii? over the moat, at its remoter end, a 
siunliir entrance connecting tbe two ports 
of the fortifications. Other outlying 
works w«r« also added in several iui»tiinee«, 
«a was shewn by a number of interesting 



plans of castles exhibited by Mr. Harrod. 
The original ttmctures have in neariy 
every case been uted by the Normans, 
wbo have added defences easily distin- 
guished by the stralghtTieas of their lines, 
and have erected upon them massive walla 
of riint and stone. 

The thank a of the Society arc due to 
Mr. W. Hulls, for having excavated and 
displiiyed a part of the Norman tower 
which once flunked the outer entrance to 
the works nl Denhiim. In Denham Church, 
among other oVtjectri of interest, was the 
very Wautiful toiub, erected by his widow, 
to Edward Lew ken or, one of the former 
possessors of the hall, whose death, at the 
age of 21 years, is recorded in an elegant 
and touching inacnption, and whose only 
child cmrried the estate to the first Via- 
count Trjwnshend, his widow aftorwarda 
marrying the famous Dr-Ganden^ of Bury 
school aiul Ikon BaMilike notoriety. After 
partaking of a C4ipital Innelieon at Denhani 
Hall, provided by the liberMil ho»pitality of 
Mr. Fred. Hulls, the eompiiny drove on^ 
now urihiippily In a heavy rain, to Kirt- 
liug Tower, a fine Tndor gate-houae. 
Here, afi er ascending to the state hedrootiip 
onc^ honoured by the presence of Queen 
Elizabeth, and to the leads, where, we aro 
told, the future Queen was wont to take 
the air, tbe party listened with great plea- 
sure to a paper read by the Itev. W. X. 
Clutvasiie, the Incumbent, in which was 
set forth the past connection of Kirtling 
with the North family, and the glories of 
the bouse when Queen Eliiabeth in one 
of her progresses was entertained there 
with royal mBgnificenoe. A second refec- 
tion was here a^t o«it by order of Col, 
North, the present o«m«r of the es'ate, 
which, however, was to ihe majority super- 
fluous. Kirtling Church whs atso in- 
spected, a lofty and ipoctous building, con- 
taining on its sooth side a magniliccnt 
doorway of early Norman, in the finest 
prfservation. In the chancel, which ia 
equal in width to the nave and aisles, aro 
thfi monmuetits of the deceased ancestora 
of tbe present proprietora of the hall, in- 




76 



Antiquarian and Literary Inteliigejicer, 



[Aug. 



clii^ng ft Teiy befttitifU bMK>-reHevo bu^ 
of Mftrift North, tlie fini wtf« of the 
iNDtk MBrquu of But«, and a tabWt to 
tlbft Diemorf of her hiwbuid, whot» bodj 
WW faroQfbt to Kirtlitif: at hii desire, to 
be kid by ber «ide. Mr. CbaTft!««« read 
here the retnaimler of bi« paper, indndiii^ 
aa aecfMUil of tbe deada faj wbicb MMQe of 
tboia by vboae tomba be flood haYe 
gamed a pbee in tbe luekorj of tbeir 
vmataj, Hm dnorah and caalle at L/d- 
gate coadndedthaBrt of olycUaet down 
fa tbe daj^ progmnttie. At Ljdgate, 
llie wmX and eartbworks are oa a much 



larger wait tbaa at Denbam, tb« boive* 
aboe enckting the site of the cborcb, aad 
an additkmal Un« of delinfle nmnix^^ to 
tbe aootbward. Tbe dionA ia perbapa 
moat ndewortb J for tooie vetj good earl j 
Decorated work. Here again the party 
were treated with tbe aamc opoKhsiMkd 
boBpitaEty wfaicfa they bad alveadj twm 
expericDoed in the ptaoea wbiob ibey had 
viaited, and tbe nu^cifity of tlian wound 
up the pr o c e e dinga of a vvry plaaaant and 
ioatmctiTe kog day by tbe parta^ng of 
teft and o»ifiee» provided at tbe raotoij by 
the Ber. IL H. OiTCb 



YORKSHIRE PHILOSOPHICiX SOCIETT. 

Jmme 4. W. Faoctkb» Esq., in tbe chair, wbetvaa that now Ibond^aa fio^ aa eoobi be 

Mr. Hatatltinii, of Coaey street, and Mr. aacertained, waa only tbne or foor feet 

Ball, of CotliergBtCh York, were admitted tbidc Tbe Booan wall pnjected abimt 

aaaoaatw. n fool b^ottd tbe inner Incw of tbe dty 

Wmiui Gnf . &i^ gftTo an aeoonnt of wall, and tbe kUar did not ival npon tbe 

a wie^ofaaitiqinitica of ft miacelluieous top of tbe RonMOi wal^ tbera being two or 

ifcniM<ig,wbidibebidrecemly<^aeoTered tbivefteinf earib mtervwi^. Mr.Qnj 

- wialBlflBiTjiaigeBaB^'*£gging^onbia next rem a ibed npon Ifce ronaina uf n 

pawpOTtyadjoiBuig tbe waQi wear t» Monk bniUia^ wtteb kd been fbond at a diK 

Bar, and on tbe ste klelj oenipied by Innca of n Ibw feel from tbe ittner face of 

. KMy»un'ii—nlij> Theae antlqnitke bad tbe natpart wbL Tbe walk of tbk bmbl. 

ban tewnded to tbe M naenm^ and ^07 iivw«mnnnMilhiypbHlfliwd,nndwitbin 

were egbSbited to Ibe meabera p r M M i t . Ibe ^nttaoi w«e iwrfl pertiaae of tbe 

Mmm^ tboB we(% n tile in an iaiperlbel plailiwnd floor in a weiy ^aQpnd atale. At 

linle^wttiilbenMwkoflbeSixaL^kn; om nd of tbe btfUiav iiwaiM iif fliiiai 

■Mi pottery ; boma of Ibe mebnek and of digging akng Ibe vie of Ibe naifaiwnll 

tbe wki m pitee qf wond^ wilb a tmumJtf be fonnd a tHe drain, wUdd bad ben 

teaed nnH er ^ike dmvn nito H, and fl 



I of caiiyiog^ 



i^cily« 



» wna no tnwe of aaor bat^ 



lean taiad m a difilb of fllWH 
IV lieMflN%aMi apoQ Ibe A 
tiMiii Be attMd tbai be ^ 



fcilni%btben 
teted 
Mft gain of tka city. 
t kwnaet bf Ibe fed 



■ alni 

blakl^w^pasdllneftiw lb<lii>nw>tw< 

adgHiV**^^**'^ TWtnai* nfnllM ipeL % Ibe ^d ef n dnwinf 

Itadf Mnr W wbetf tbt aactttm. Mne n lii ly 1I>> B. B. SWIb» of Ibia ctljr» 

pinei k f«t7 diflkm to Ibnl Mr. Oiiy wm mikd Ibn beOar to ci* 

wmlb — i Mde of Menk Btnr, fkinlbedfanafltaref tbe«malMate& 

- -*^n1 iiiw ftn 111 rbifliiM. badbMMd^ 



IMl.] 



Yorkshire Philosophical Societt/, 



177 



The Rev. J, Kerifick »3iid that they were 
indt'ht«Hl to Mr. Gray for the greftt p&ins 
he hiicl taken in carrying^ on the e^cava- 
tion<«, and in bringing t^) ]iirht stj many m- 
tercit'ing remainfl. Ho ha<( hb douhts 
whether the stones state^l by Mf. Gmy to 
hnve been proji^ctiles were rt-ally missilea 
of that description. A larger stone, on© 
▼«ry much of the same form as those dis- 
covered by Mr. Gray, had been found at 
thi; bottom of the Rom an house which 
stood at the comer of Aldtrark. Such 
■lonM had been used as a means of mur- 
tvrdom of Chr^atiiins at Ronie, by tying 
ihem round the necks of the converts and 
Ihrowing them into the Til>er. It was 
difficult to know whut these stones had 
been designed for, Thi*y inipht have been 
tised as wcightSj and he th ugiit the snb< 
J6ct WHS one requiring furtlier investi- 
gRtion. 

Tlic Rev, J. Kenritk, F.S.A,, then made 
the following remarks resjiecting souie an- 
aent sepulchral rcmiiins which were re- 
cently found on the Mount : — 

" The tabtet of which I exhibit a draw- 
ing was found in exc^avliting tor the fonn- 
daiiona of a house at the Mount, and wa« 
I»nilwbly erected on the lefs-hand Hide of 
the road leading from Eburiictim to ChI- 
Cftria. It was buried at a (Wptli id' l>e- 
tweea three and four feet. It it* part of 
a inonnnient rais^'d by Q* Corellius Fnrtis, 
to the memory of hiM ditnghter, Corel lia 
Optaia, who died at the age of thirteen. 
When perf»^t» it hud iit the top a sunlp- 
tur*d figure, ot whith now only tite feet 
rvtiinin, lite inscription reads us foU 
kmra: — 

*[!).] M. 

Corcllia Optattf« Ami. xUi. 
>tl >t&Dfk, qui rcfua Acberufls Ditit 
iLiti». quoA parva petuDl pm\ tumina rite 
KilgQua «uu« c't nniiulAcmm corporis ambra 
latontU (TOAtie ; ircnitor. »pe eaptu« Jiuiqua, 
Bnpreutum banc nat«D iniH;randu» defleu ttaiia, 

Q. Cote. Forti* Pater F. C 

''Inscriptions in verae are very rare 
■mong the Roman remains in Britain. 
Mr. timce haji given some, found on th^ 
Itne of liadrian'd Widl. hut they are not 
settulc^^^ral, Th<>«f on our tablet, though 
not of any hi^h pOL'tleal merit, ar<! regular 
and snitjMtth in vor^i Unit ion. The rmmes 
CorelliMS Hud C« reUla veiy n Idoni occur in 
l4itin iiiscTiptiuTis. t'orellins Punwi ap- 
pears ill Gr liter (IW) as Consul (a.u. I:^:^), 
BWi iUtTi'llmn and Corilluo ani found in 
UM»t. Mao. Vol. Ct XT 



^g--- 



I BaigtJ 



two other ins ripHons, The daught^T of 
the houi?e usually hore the feminine lorm 
of the URnie of t\ie p^-ttji, the s cond of the 
three wiiich belong* d to a genuine Ro i an. 
Ilins the ilatighttT of Q. Corellius Fortis 
was Cc>rellitt, as the daughter of P, Cor- 
nel ius Scipio wiifl Conieliii, the naoth* r of 
the Grncchi, and the daughter of M. Tul- 
liu9 Cicero was TnlUoln. Optntus and 
Optata an^ cominoii In inscriptions ». The 
third naii^e was often givi'U to n ark a 
personal circunistaT»ce, and 0|.»tjitn!i, b^-ing 
a word of good omen, was likely to bo a 
faTOurite, 

''The letters DM., for 'Diis Mambus/ 
stand oomnQonly on sepulchral tablets, 
sometimes connected with a genitive case 
of the name which follows ; more com- 
nionly tinconnected, I he ii ftcription hsgin- 
ning witli a dative, as in the narcophugna 
in the Uospitium, ' D.M. Aiirelio 8uj)ei"o/ 
The least eoinmon fnrm is that which h 
found on our tabled the itiime being in 
the nominative ca^**. It ij* not Qn»y to 
fix the pr^'cise idea which the Honnins 
annexed to the name of Manett* It in s^ald 
to signify goo4 or kind ; hence w*e have 
in an iowription, Di Mane»^ mttneai *itis, 

* be prtvpitiouB or fnvonrable/ the title 
having been given to them notwithstand- 
ing their stern and ghotny dinriietcr, in 
the «anie way as the Grteka called tho 
Fnrie«, Eunieni<1e«, ' benevolent goddcj^sea* 
The genir:iil conceiition of them appears 
to luve l>een tint of dipejiibodied spirits, 
either waiting tor re-union with a human 
body, MCftfrdiiig to the Pytbagon an no- 
tion of TrjinsmigTHtion; or in a st^iteof un- 
conaciou^ntsfi, from which they might b© 
brought to canMMoiiHneM by iim|,'ic ritea 
or siaeriliceH of blood ; or undergoing jmri- 
ficiition from tlie stains of their tarthly 
exif^ienco; which Hccms to be Virgil's con- 
ception when he mak<» Anehises say, 

• tiuiecjue suos pntiitmr manes, Donee kuiga 
dies, perJecto temporis orbe^ Concretum 
excrait hibein.* Vagueness, as might be 
expected, chioncterlzes the conceiJtinn of 
H state which is beyond the ci)gttij£,imee 
of the sensfs. In our inscrij-tion the nttrt»e 
seems to wbmd for the Inljahitunts of the 
nnseen world, width is naturully identified 
with the earth, so that while the e«rth re- 
eeivod the inaterial rcnmms, the esiguuM 
cini*i the baiidful of ashes, the spirit joined 
the manes, in their iuvi»ible abode. 

" The author of tho inscriptlnn appears 
to have been a reader of the I^Htiu pt^'ts, 
as there are trace* of the iniitation of their 
phraseology. I do not recollect the cpitbet 



• Sea Meyer's Anihol. Latin., No. \U% 
j*tcv OiiUtu», picuti* Dut)lU» inftuifc/* 



Hie 




fkliquarian and Literary Inlelliffencef, 



' eecr»'fci*e!»ewhpre sa applipd to tlie nmrtes, 
but thcTV are others aniilogous to it, as 
Virpl (Oeorg. K 243), spwikin^ of the 
antarctic pole, says :-- 

^nt ilium 
Bab pedibas Styx atr« ridet manesquc profiindL* 

kn^iMn, iv. 387) Dido thiMSRtcns J:»»«m: 
* Aadiom ; et tisec man en reniet mihi fainA fob 

" ' Secreti' tberefore w^ems to meiin, con- 
eedled froni eight, invisible. Tbia flenac ia 
more probftbl*? than that of 'separated 
from the body.* The? phrase *regtia Ache- 
ruHia Ditiff' rcmiDdg us of Lucrt'tiiia, in 
whom * Aoherusia tempU* occurs more Ihan 
once. In tln^ next line the phmse ' pan'a 
po«t luniina vitaj* can sciircely mean any- 
thing but ' afttr a few days of life/ The 
use of * pan* a' for * pauca/ would be hard 
to justify by clnissicjit example^i but Ltic&n*a 
c^tpT(J*^ii< tis {Phars. iv. 47G), — 
' Libera boii uUrm parvii qunm noctft JQTctitiaA * 

and (vi. 806).— 

* —nee gloria parvn 
Solicitot vlLaj,'— 

■hew a teiidenry to Uio *pnn*UB' in the 
B iise of f-hort, whirh inny cjcplain ita nae 
fia applied to the sbort life of Opfcata. 

* Lamina vit«' iu a VirjjiHiin phrase for 
1 1 fe. * S ii u n hRTum eorpn ris u ni bra* reTiilnds 
us again nf Luctetiua (i, 123), or rather of 
Ktiniys^ who thus described tlie Biate of 
the dead : — 

* QuoitequtpcnQonetit anixnir ne^ corpora noAtrii, 
Sed quondam dmuljcrAf mixli* [lallentja iniriB.' 

And Virgil has borrowed the same phrn«e 
fi om Ennina, in the first ticor^ic, u 177, 
It Bi'eifB rather harsh to jay of the ashes,, 
m well a» of the shade, that they go to 
(jietunt) tbe manes, but I bavo before ob- 
iiervt*tl rbat the material earth and the 
spiritual world are hlendt-d together. In 
the foUowing line, * Geiiitor i^e captus 
iniqua* is a variation upon Vir^jiri 'spe 
cjiptuK Inanl/ (^n. xh 49,) and not an im- 
prtJveiKent, aa *captuB* (deceived) Is more 
uppropriat*?ly joined with the epithet 
'empty/ thim with * hnr^h* or cnieU' 
though * iniqua* u*nif have i>eQii osed to 
denote how tlie father*!* sorrow had been 
ag.:ravated by his previoua bopea. The 
vai' ation of B|ii'lHng * gnatie' in the fourth 
line, and * niita»' in the last, is remarkable* 
■mee both are tqually classical, and both 
ef|ually tnlt'd to tite metre, 

*• Among the other remains found in 
the same spot, the imwit retmirkable are 
the feeding-bottle, and the gUi^s vase. 



which, when found, was bnU filled with 
bones, possibly tho*e of Corellia, Vesaela 
of glass were often used f-- *' ' ^P* * 
A very elegant diota of . I all 

GeldesFtone, in Norfolk, h -. - . 1 and! 
figured in tite sixth volume ot the Archa^l 
ologicul Journal, where severHl other ex- 1 
ample* of similur vestiela are mcntioned^l 
one found at Koiighani, near Bury St. Ed*| 
munds, of which an aeeount was pu>ili>h44] 
by the late lamented P^foiior Henslow, f 
and another at Aihby Puerorum* in I jn J 
colnsbire, d*'S<Tibed by Sir Jotteph BaTika] 
(ArthaxiL xii. 96) We have a very large J 
vase, with angular sides, in ease K., iu thai 
Hospitium, but it is much fmetured. Thel 
bandies of th**se vase* are reeded, to ^vd] 
a firmer hold of the smooth matetial.^ 
From the Abb^ Cnchet'a yormnmiie S^m* 
terrain^} we learn that the Boinan ceine* 
teries nf NormaiuU* contain glaas unBsl 
one of them, fi*iured in his b*a>k, p. 8tS,f 
was hulf filled with bones, which sliU »p*| 
pear in it, And at p. 104 itTvrttI otli 
forms are given. 

" Fii regard to the age of the intermenttl 
at the Moutit it is dlffictdt tos y anythtug I 
predse. The practice of cremation geue-j 
raUy ceased about the age ol Con»t>«iutine;l 
they are not, therefore, later than thai I 
Emperor, The form of the letters, and | 
the unmeroua ligatores, lead me to «np- 
pose that It is of the third century aft<jr J 
Chriat. Some of the vases of clay liavo 1 
been used to contain aabe^^; otheM of| 
them are clearly articles of household uais, 
\Vhence the custom of placing such vni>e«] 
1m sepulchre* arrise, antiquaries arc not ] 
agreed. It has been thought tbat tbt;y J 
contained food for the suBtenauee of the ] 
dect'ssed, when he entered on the o^her | 
world. The most probable opinion, how- 
ever, 1 think is, that the feeling which I 
has led to the burying of ves^iets of pottery | 
ha» l>een a des«ire to surround the decea^Hl | 
with objects associated with his domc^iic ( 
affictions. To this desire the antiquary j 
owef the preservation of many intes exiiog j 
and instructive relicts from the spl* ndid \ 
va*es of Greere arn\ Sicily, Campnnln and j 
Etruria, to the humbler vesa^bi which ar« j 
fouud in British and Komati S4-ptUchrtMi." 

After the customary votes of thanks had 
been accorded, the Chairman sinid thttt «ho j 
present w. uhl be the last meeting uhich] 
the Society would hold until Octtiljer next, ] 
and the procecillngs terminated. 



Conf£fiJontiniff of SglfaamiiJ sarOan. 



ondenit are requetUd io append thtir Addresaea, noi^ u»Ui4 offrftahU^ for 
puhlicatioiit b*ti in, ortler thai a eopjf of Ike G£NTLEMAtr*8 MlOAZINK contaiuinff 
their Vommunicationt may he forwarded to themJ\ 

BISCOVERY OF BUNIC I:N^SCRIPTI0NS IN OKKKEr. 

Mtt. Urban,^ — I beg to send you a notice from the ** Orcadian" news- 
paper of the 20th inst, written bv my friend Mr. George Petrie, of Kirk- 
wall, in tbe belief that it will prove of interest to a large miiuber of your 
readers. 

In it you will find an account of a very remarknble chambered tomb, 
which hae just been cleared out by Mr. James Farrer, M,l*., and of a series 
of Honic inscriptions on slabs in different parts of the building. 

At Mn Farrer*s request, land several members of the Society of Anti- 
quaries of Scotland were present at the excavations. My friend Mr, Joseph 
Hobertson first caught sight of the Runes on a stone near the roof of the 
chamber, and when the rubbish was fioally cleared out, we found that the 
whole number of Runes exceeded 700. 

I hare been aulhorized by Mr. Farrer to procure correct copies of all 
the inscriptions, with the view of submitting them, along; with a descrip- 
tion of Maeshow and its locality, to the notice of such scholars and learned 
bodies as are likely to work out the iuteiesting problem involved in this 



discovery. — I am, &c. 

General Register Hou^e^ 
Edinhurgh, Julg 22. 1861. 

EXCAVATIONS IN 



John Stuaht, 
Bee. S&e. Ant. Scot. 



MAESHOW," STENNESS. 



TiTE expease !ncarr«d ftod the iHsrseverance tliaplayeil by Jamos Farrer, Eaq., M.H., 
4aruig several years of iintJijimriaii research in Orkney, Imve frequently been attended 
with iQfce^Sj but liiive never b^n so Mtgnany rewarded as in the ex(^vatione in Maes- 
how. No AiuiiUr discovery, it ia belie ved» hM been previously made?. The builiiing; 
itself IS a very remiArkable one, but the great value of the*e eicavaiionB lies in the dit- 
coverv of so many Runic inscriptioui on tlie wiilk. It u to be expwted ttwt when 
ib«; have \)een liubaittted to gvnttemen flkilled lu Euuic characters, uiucb light will l>c 
throiA u upon tbe ancient history of ** Maeshow." 

Tbi* couictd tumulus is about 92 ft. in diameter, and 36 ft. high, and i« surroiintled 
at a distance of 86 ft. from tbe base by a trench about 20 ft, wide, and 4 or 5 a* deep. 
It hod evidently been previooaly openecL Mr. Paprer'a explorationt were connnetic<ed 
on tbe west fiide, and in a few hours tbe workmen came upon the covering stones of the 
pusage which leads into tbe interior. As tbe inner extremity wua found to be blocked 
up witb clay, an excavation wo^ made on the top of the tumulus, and tbe walls of tba 
building were soon found. They were carefally traced, nnd it then became eviilent 
thut tbey formed a chamber about 10 (i, Rqunre at Lbe top, but widening towards tbe 



180 Correspondence of Sylvaniuf Urban. [Aug. 

bottom. The chamber was complet«'L filled with the stones which had originany 
formed the upper i>art of tlie walls and roof, and with the clay which had completed 
the top of the tumalns. The interior has now been cleared out, and a short descrip- 
tion will give soMie ide i, althoo^h a very imperfect one, of its plan and appearance. 
The paasuge has been traced to the margin of the biise of the tnmolas. It is 2 ft. 4 in. 
wide at its month, and appears to have been the same in h- ight, but the covering stones 
had been removed for about 22^ ft. It then increast-s in dimensions to 3i ft. in width, 
and ■itt.-i in. in height, and contiimes S'j for 26 fc, when it is again narrowed by two 
upright stone slabs to 2 ft. 5 in. These slabs are each 2 ft. 4 in. broad, and immediately 
beyond them the piissage extends 2 fV. 10 in., and then opens into the central chamber. 
Its dimensions from the slabs to its opening into the ch«mber are 3 ft. 4 in. wide, and 
4 ft. Bin. high. Abo it 3 1 ft. from the outer extremity of the passage, and about 15 
in. beyond the point when its dimensions are increased to 3\ fl. in width, an*! 4 ft. 
4 in. iu height, there is a triangular recess in the wall about 2 ft. deep, and 34 ft. in 
height and width iu front, and there was found lying opposite to it in the passage a 
large Mock of stone of corresponding figure and dimensions. This block suggests the 
idva tliat it had be> n u.4ed to shut up the passage at the point where it begins to be 
narrower towunls its outer extremity, and that it was pushed back into the recess in 
the wall when admission into the chamber was desirvd. From the recess to the 
chamber the sides of the p;issage are formed by immense slabn of flagstone. One on 
the north side is upwards of 19 ft. long, and 4} in. thick. The floor is also paved with 
flagstones. 

On emerging from the passage we enter a chamber about 15 ft. square, on the level 
of the floor, and ab ut 13 ft. in height to the top of the present walls. Immediately 
in front, op^xisite to the (mssago, is an opiming in the wall 3 ft. from the floor. This ^ 
the entrance to a iv 11 or small chamWr in the wall, 5 ft. 8i in. long, 4^ ft. wide, and 
3\ ft. high. A large flac^tim** is laid as a raised floor between the entrance and the 
inner end of the chamber. The entrance passage is 2 ft. wide, 2| ft. high, and 22^ in. 
long. 

On the two opposite walls of the chamber, to the right and left are similar openings 
nearly on a similar le\'el with that just de»rril>ed. Ihe opening on the right is 24 ft. 
wide, 2 ft. 9\ in. high. 1 ft. 8 in long, and 2 ft. S in. above the floor of the chamber. 
The cell to which it gives admi&Mon is 6 it. 10 in. long. 4 A. 7 in. wide, 3| ft. high, and 
has a raised flagstone fliv^r 5| in. high, similar to the other chamber. The opening on 
the le t is 2i ft. wide. 2 3 ft. high, and l| A. long, and about 3 ft. above the floor of the 
chamber. The c^ll which is entero.l thrv>ngh this opening is 5ft 7 in. long, 4 ft. Sin. wide, 
and 3 ft. 4 in. high. It has no raise«1 doi>r like the two other cells. The roofs, floors, and 
iac^ walls of the ct^ls are each formed by a s ngle slab of stone, and blocks of stone 
corresponding in sixe an.l flgure to the o^^'nings were found un the floor in front of 
them. These have Iteen to cUwe the entranc s of the cells. The fonr walls of the 
diamber cvrnverge towards the top by the snc^^estsive projection of mch course of the 
nuMonn-, cvmimencing about 6 ft. abow the level of the fl.xMr, in a manner exactly 
similar to the construction of the so^alled VicU* houses of Qnanterness and Wideford- 
hiU. By this means the chamber would Ite bn>ught to a narrow spare of probably a 
lew f<«t square at top, and then completed b^ slabs laid across the opening horiiontally 
or on edge. The upi^er j-^wtion, howvver. has been rvnH>\ftl at some f».irmer period, and 
the highest part i>f the walls is now only ab^mt 13 ft. fn^m the floor. At that point the 
op}«out^ walls have approaclu^d to within 10 it. of Moh other, so that the ruins of the 
cliaa.ber are now 15 ft« sqnarv at the fl«x^r, ami aUnii 10 tt. square at the top of 
tike walls as they ih^w staml. Its original height has been }«vVlwib1y 19 ur 20 ft., and 
the clay lias then Kcvn piU^l aKtve the T\x>f to a height of sewral fe>rt« 

A largv buttxvss stands in each angle ot the ohaiiiK^ to strvuf then the walls and 
nq«{wrt then nnder the pf>Mirare \^ their own weight, and of the sapnincombent day. 



1861.] Discovery of Runic Iiucriptiotu in Orkney, 



181 



hase int*>rii{Ll buttr 



vary Mmewbat in dimensiiionfl, but they ure on an uverage 



■bout 3 fit. »qi]ure nl the buse, and nru frotii 9 bu 10 ft. high« with tho exception of one^ 
which is now only H ft. high ; and otie uf the sides of each buttresa is formed by 
A i^itigte slab. 

The m<i«t iiit4?re«tini; circumstimoes connected wttb the explorations was the dm* 
covery of 700 or 8i"K) Runic characters on the walU and bititresaes of the ohambers 
and on tho frftlk of the oclls, l^hey are in general very perfect, aud ouly in one or 
t o instances do th^y appear to have beoQ<ue illegible. No doabt when they have all 
btiien c««t and copitnl they will be fouod to yield valuable infortnation. The figure of 
a winged horie U buautifuil^ cut on one of thu btittressL-a, and displays great ipirit aod 
artistic skill. Beneath it are other fignrus, one of which has a reaemhlance to a ser- 
pent twined around a tree or pole. 

The wails of the chamber are built with Urge slabs, which generally extend tho en- 
ijlirw kngth of the wall, and the whole building displays great strength and akill in the 
onry, aud lia» a very imposing efllVct. 

There is every reaauu to believe tbiit the building was originally erected as a ehacQ- 
I tomb for soioe chief or pt^rsou of greui note^ tnid probably long before the arrival 
of the Norsemen in Orkn*'y. That it hm howtver lieen eutt-rtd by tbein is proved by 
the ICune§, but that it was very likely l>ecoming niinona wheu thoy ftinnd it appears 
from evidtfiices on the »toni's of tlieir perishing ctjuditiun when the Runes were cut on 
them. The deetphcring of tho lluues by ciiiupetent pcrsonii will be looked for with 
much inU'rest. 

It haa been a source of much amnsemcnt to observe the mpidity with which an an- 
iqttariun taste spring* up and k developed amid tbu rcceaes of Maeshow, Many a 
r(sttur, who has heretofore drouled to find ** Bill Stumps hi« mark" or" Aiken Drnm'i 

ng ladle" on every antiqqtirian relic discovered in Orkney within the last few y^-ars, 
aving becti attracted by the re^iorUHl wonders of Maeshow, has led the building ready 
to swallow the " langesf iinticpiariau ladle he maj' hereafter meet witb. 

It is only justice to notice tlie great care with which Mr. Alexander Johnston,. Mr» 
Wilson's foreman, and the men under his superinteadenee have excavated the tumulus. 
I!ud they not taken 'so much jmins, in all probability many of the Uunic cbaraet«ra 
WMtdd liave b«en efiaced ; but appareiitly there has not been a single Rune destroyed 
or injured in the oonrse of their labours. 

It haa been found necea^iary to exclnde visitors from the building until plans and 
immsur^menta of It liave been miide. It is to be completed by Mr. Balfour as nearly as 
poaiibke according to the ofigiiud design, but in eu^b a way as to distiugnigh between 
thti old and the new. A door will then hv put to it, and visitors admitted by u peri)t>n 
who will be entrusted with the chjirge of the building. 

It tn^y also be noticed that the hirge slabs which have been used in the building 
•ivm either to have been taken from the same quarry which yielded the 8tan*ling 
Stones, or, which is more likely, are some uf the Staudiug Stones themselves, removed 
from their original position in the circles of Stenness or Brugar. 

Kirkwall, July 18, 1861. G. P. 



Bl FORI ETTA 

Mk» Urba^X, — Mr. Mackenzie Walcott 
is unxlous to throw some light upon the 
trifiiriunt, and wys that " biforictta" is a 
"curious word which bisars some resem- 
blatRie Ui it lii its o^m posit ion." I infer, 
thcr* fore, that Mr. Walcutl bt'licvea "tri- 



AND WITTA. 

fonum*' to have Bomcthing to do with 
irew and fofeg, aud '* blforietta ' to have 
•oinethiiJg to do witij hU and /oret. But 
" blforielta'* is tran^latifd *' ante portam," 
which in plain Eugliish is " before yjutf," 
and ** before gate" woold h^' half Kiigland 



182 



Correajiondence of Sylvamis Urban. 



[Aug. 



bo soandod " boforc-yett"^" biforietta." 
WTiat " triforiuni" may be, I do not pre- 
tend to my. 

I write ako, from tbc lowest deptbs of 
ignorance and amazemeut, to nsk some- 
tbinj; about tbe tomb of Hengest's great- 
grandfather, spoken of in tbe report of 
the Oxford Architectural and Historii-al 
Society, at p. iO of your July number. It 
needs great fiuth to believe in Hengest, 
•till that is a fkith which by an effort I 
can attain unto; but Hengest's great- 
grandfather, Woden's real grandson — 
surely this comes under the head of what 
Thncydides counts as the iiwlartts M rh 
fivdMcs iKrtPuaiKireu But let that pass. 
Why should the tomb of WitU be called the 



Cat -stone ? How came Witta to be buried 
near Kdinburgh ? (It requires some faith 
to believe in the tomb of Zeus in Crete, 
and in the tomb of Brychan Brycheiniog 
in Brecknockshire, but even a Druid or 
an Ovate would hardly believe in a tomb 
of Zeus in Brecknockshire, or a tomb 
of Brychan in tVete.) Again, bow rame 
this preat- grandfather of Hengest and 
grandson of Woden to have his epitaph 
written in Latin ? I trust that, to make 
things straight, we shall some day find in 
Spun the tomb of ^neas Silvius with an 
inscription in some primitive f«>rm of 
Platt-Deutsch.— I am, &c. 

Edwabd a. Fbkkmjlv. 
Sowterlease, Welh, Jvl^ 8, 1861. 



-MEMOIR OF JOSHUA WATSON."— 

Mb. Urbax,— Many, I am sure, will 
tbank you, as 1 do, for calling atten- 
tion, at vol. ccx., p. 690, to .\rchdeaoon 
Churton's beautiful memoir of the late 
Joshua Watson. The book deserves all 
your reviewer has said of it. Some, how- 
ever, who, a ceiituTy hence, may be re- 
ferring to your miscellany, may frel obliged 
to Mr. Ubba5 if he put upon record now 
a little cautionary notice, which may pr«- 
Tnit their being misled (in comparing the 
pages 91 and 101 of Mr. Churton's 2iid 
ToL) by tbe idea that the Nova Scotia 
Jndge HaUburton, who was the worthy 
broCbcr-in-Uw of tbe worthy Bishop John 
Inglis of Nova Scotia, was the same Nova 
Soistia Judge Haliburton who will be 
better known to posterity as the author 
cf « Tbe dodnnaker* and the bic^^mpber 
of "SaiB Slick.** and as the able repiv- 
natetive, in thene bis latter yean of re- 
timMBl» of Launccaton, in our British 
From a letter of the late 
Wataon. voL ii. p. 101, it would 
•em that he had himself fallen 
into the tctt cooinion errar of suppoung 
that tbese two distingnicbed periitnag«s 
we one and the same |tenon ; unlew* in- 
dwd» — as is not impoasible, — tbe excellent 
viilar of that letter was. purposely, in 
mm of hit pl^ylbl moods, applying the 
wtQ-kaown joM^m^ of " S. S.** and 
"Cbckmkcr*' to the bmr giaie judge 



THE NOVA SCOTIA HALIBURTONS. 
of the two. .\ny who may have known 
each of the judges will be able fully to 
enter into such a joke, if it were one. Tbe 
index to Churton's Memoir gives no in- 
timation, however, that Mr. Watson*8 bio- 
grnpher was aware of there being more 
than one Judge Haliburton. 

It may not be amiss, too, that Mb-Ubbav 
should put upon record that the biogrMpber 
is not perfectly correct in dengnating at 
p. 108, voL ii., the brave defender of 
Lucknow, Sir John Eaidley Inglis, (who 
is married, by tbe bye, to a daughter of 
Lord Cbelnuford.) as the eldest son of 
the second of the Bishops Inglis of Nova 
Scotia. It would be moie correct to call 
him the eldest mrririmff son. Charles, 
who is mentioned by tbe Bishop at p. 79 
as being at that time ^1828) in tbe United 
States of America, and as having had the 
bappineas» when there, of meeting with 
a lay churchman* a Mr. Appleton, who 
was an American Joshua Watson, — and 
who has since died in the States of 
America, unmarried.~was several years 
senior to Sir John. — I am, Jcc 

Novrs ScoTTS Oux. 
r.S^ In a second edition of the Memoir, 
** Arc'idesacvm** Camlnidge may be restored 
to a more modest place in the hieruichy 
than be is inadvertently made to occupy 
at p. 218 of the first volume. 



I8G1.] 



183 



Cfii Hoit'iioo'k of J'Blbaiuis Slrbaiu 

[^CTnd^ Ihis Hile are t^ll^ted brief noiee qf maiien of eurreni aniiqvarian infereH 
irAtVA tU not appear to demand more formal treaimerU, Stxtakus Urban imviles 
the kind cO'Operati4iH of if> FriendSf who may thme preserve a record i^mau^ thintfe 
that would otherwite past away.'] 

Sale of Arcubisbop Tenison's Libraht. — In poranance of a recent Act of 
Parliament) and willi the consent of the Charity Coiit mission era for England and 
Wiiles, tlie extensive and valuable Library formed by Archbishop Teiiison (who 
was Primate from 1091 to 1715) hfis recently beeo dispersed by Messrs. Sot lieby 
wad Wilkin&on. The sale commenced on June 3, and occupied six days. A record 

some of the priticj|iid works, and tlie prices which they fetched, may be useful, 

id is therefore subjoined : — 

Lot IW. *'The Newe Testament holh in Latine and Englyshe^ cclie corrc- 
spondente to the other after the vulgar Teste, commouly called S. Jerome's. 
Faythfullye translated by Johan Hollybnshe/* (i.e. Miles Coverdale). 4to. Black 
letter^ good sound copy, having at the commencement the Dedication to Henry VrQ, 
Address to the Reader, almanack for 18 years, eommenciiig 153S, and kalendar, 
find the two leaver of table lit the end ; the title-page only hamg wanted* Prynted 
IB Soiithwarkc, by Jaincs NieolsoD, 15SS. Thk is the second edition of Covei- 
dftle^s New Testament, and of very rare occurrence^ — 25/, (Stevens.) 

rx>t 100. "Libri Duo Samuelis et Libri Dtio Heguio, sub titulo primi, secundi, 
tcrtii et quart! Hcgum, cum prfefatione doctoris Francisci Scoritii." In Lingua 
8lavonicii, with an illustrative woodcut preceding each book, seven others in the 
lliird book, and one on the lust leaf, 4to., large and sound copy, probably unique, 
Pnigfe, 1518. A volume of the highest degree of rarity, being, as far as can be 
si»eertatned, the oii!y jrorfion known of the first edition of tlie Holy Scriptures in 
the Russian popular dialect after the Vulgate. Eberl, in his *' Bibliographical 
Dictionary,'* 1821, and iu the translation, 1837, states, — **0f this version only 
two volnmea are known, which contain the live Books of Moses, four Books of 
Kings, Judith, Esther, Ruth, Job, and Daniel. The only copy wtia heretofore 
preserved in the Imperial Archives at Moscow;" adding^ "Docs it still exist?" 
The present copy belonged to the distinguished scholar Ludolf, formerly secretary 
to Prince George, in wliose autograph is a description of the volume on the eover 
—55/. (Boone.) 

Lot 113. Liturgy. — "Le Livre des Prieres Communes, de rAdministration dcs 
Sacremeus et autres Ceremonies en I'Eglise d'Anglcterre, traduit en Fran^'ois, par 
Francoys Philippe, Scrvitenr de Mom?ieur le Grand Chancelier de rAngleterre." 
The title-page within a woodcut border, with two heads on a medaliionat the top; 
the calendar printed in red and black ; the almanack for 19 years, commencing 
with 1552 ; with black letter and woodcut capitals. Fine copy, 4to,, of the highest 
degree of rarity. *' De rimprimeric de Thomas Ganltier, Imprimcnr tlu Roy en 
la hioguc Fran 901 se, pour Ics Isles de Sa Majeste. Avec le privilege general du 
dit Seigneur,** 1553. Hitherto this volume has been described by bibliografjhers 
as an 8vo. No copy can be traced as baring occurred for sale. It is dedicated 
to *rhonias Goodrich, Bisliop of Kly and Chancellor of England — 39/. (Ellis.) 

Lot 131. '^ Hore Bcali^siuie Virginis Marie ad Legilitnum Sivrisburien&is £0- 



184 The Noie-book of Sylvanus Urban. [An^. 

desie Ritiim.'* 4to., printed in red and black, with beautiful woodcuts, and em- 
blematical borders round each page ; extremely rare, large and sound copy ; Paris, 
Regnault, 1526. The headings of many of the prayers are in English, as are also 
the form of confession, &c. — 19/. (Toovey.) 

Lot 137. "Hymnorum cum Notis Opusculum usui Insignis Ecclesie Sarara 
Subserviens." Printed in red and black, with musical not«s; 4to., large and 
sound copy, extremely rare; "Antwerpie, in officina Vidua Christophor Rare- 
munden, impensis Jo. Cqccii," 1641 — 28/. (Toovey.) 

Lot 220. "Biblia Sacra Polyglotta, edidit Brianus Waltonus;" 6 vols., folio, 
rnled throughout with red lines; portrait by Lombart; frontispiece, map, and 
plates by Hollar; with the Royal preface, Lond., 1655-7. "Castelli Lexicon 
Heptaglotton." 2 vols.; portrait by Faithorne; old morocco, ib., 1669 — 21/. 
(Toovey.) 

Lot 222. " Biblia, Sacrse Scripturse Veteris, Novaeque Omnia, Grac^." Folio, tall 
and sound copy ; original binding, the sides impressed with various figures, in the 
centres the Temptation and Crucifixion. — " Venet. Aldus," 1518; a very interest- 
ing copy, having the autograph of the celebrated Polish reformer, John a Lasco, 
three times — ^twice in Greek and once in Latin — 13/. 

Lot 245. Book of Common Prayer and Administration of the Sacraments — " The 
Sealed Book.'* Folio, engraved title-page and frontispiece by Logjam ; large paper, 
fine copy, ruled with red lines, old morocco, 1662 ; first edition of the Book of 
Common Prayer now in use — 20/. (Darling.) 

Lot 248. "Missale ad Consuetudinem Ecclesie Sarum. Nuper una cum dicte 
Ecclesie institutis consuetudinibusque Elimatissime Impressum additis Plurimis 
Commodiatibus que in ceteris desideratur ;*' folio, printed in red and black ink, 
the title-page within a beautiful border of grotesque figures, with musical notes 
and wood capitals, the two leaves of the Canon of the Mass printed on vellum ; 
blue morocco, edges gilt and gauffred. "Impressum Parhisii, per Bertholdum 
Rembolt," 1513. A most magnificent volume, in the finest state of preservation, 
the ink being as fresh as if just issued from the press, and the paper stout and 
crackling. This edition is of extreme rarity, the only copy noticed in " Lowndes *' 
being in the library of King*s College, Cambridge — 107/. (Toovey.) 

Lot 249. "Missale ad Usum ac Consuetudinem insignis Ecclesie Sarum." 
Folio, printed in red and black ink, with woodcuts and musical notes, the two 
leaves of the Canon of the Mass on vellum. An edition of excessive rarity, sound 
copy but wormed. "Impressum opera Magistri Petri Olivier, expensis Jacobi 
Cousin," 1519—41/. (Boone.) 

Lot 331. " Manuale ad usum per Celebris Ecclesie Sarisburiensis." 4to , printed 
in red and black ink, with musical notes and woodcut on the title-page; good 
copy ; very rare ; Rothomagi, in edibus Nicolai Rufi, 1543—19/. (Toovey.) 

Lot 332. " Manuale ad usum insignis Ecclesie Sarisburiensis." 4to., printed in 
led and black ink, with musical notes ; good copy ; very rare ; " Rothomagi, im- 
pensis Robcrti Valentini," 1554—23/. lOt. (Toovey.) 

Lot 336. " Processionale ad usum insignis Ecclesie Sarum, jam denuo ad cal- 
culos revocatum." 4to., printed in red and black ink, with musical notes ; good 
copy; very rare; "Impressum Loudini An. 1555" — 10 guineas. (Toovey.) 

Lot 389. '* Catalogi, scii. Ludovici Jacob Bibliographical Gallica Universalis, hoc 

ett Catalogos Librorum per universum Regnum Gallise, annis 1643, 4, 5, et 6, 

excusorum, Paris, 1645-7 ; Bibliothecee Norfolcianae, 1681 ; Librorum tam Im- 

preasonim quam Manuscriptorum, quos ex Rom^ Venetiis aliisque Italian locis 

10 



186L] 



The Note^book of Syhanm Urban, 



185 



BdegU R Martine Blbliopola Londineasis, apud quern VBenaant in Cmmiterfo Divi 
Paula, 1635 ; Librorum per R, Martmum in Old Bayly, 1639; T. Rooka\ at hb 
shop ill Gresham Colledge, 1607; Br. Teabon's MS., (autograph,) 165 pagea» 
lfiS2 ; Bibliothectt Humphredi Episcopi LoudincnsiB per K Scott, ]677; Biblio- 
tUec« ?tri in Alalia defimcti, Libromm ex Bibliotheca Giaberti Voetii emptorum/* 
*c, &c. (Sold by auction in St. Barllioloniew-close, 1G7S) A very scarce and 
ctuioua scries, bound in seTcn vols. 4 to* — \^L 16*, (Lilly). 

Lot 497. **CapgraTe (Joannis), Nora Lcgcnda Anglise/' Black letter, folio; 
wanting tbe first leaf, with a woodcut thereon, and folios ^84 to 292 ; otherwise 
perfect, having the last leaf with the woodcut of the Assenibly of Saints on the 
recto, foid the printer's device on the reverse: "Im[>[essa Londonias in domo 
TVinaiidi de Worde ; commoranlis ad signum Solis in Vioo nuncupalo (tbe Fletc- 
atretc), iixccc,xvl**'-10/. \b$. (Darling.) 

Lot 650, **Fyssher ( Johan) .— This treatise concernyngc the fruyifuU Sayngea 
of Dauvyd tbe Kynge and Prophete in the seven penetencyall Psalniefl ; devyded 
in seven sermons ; was made and compyled by the rygbt reverente fader in God, 
Johan Fya&ber, doctour of dyvynyte and bjsahop of Rochester, at the cxortiicion 
and sterynge of the moost excellente pryncesse Margarete Countesse of Ryche* 
mount and Derby, and Moder to oure Soverayne lordc Kynge Henry the Vil/' 
Black letter, folio, first edition, large sound copy, very rare. *'Enprptcd at 
London, in the fiete-strete, at the sygne of the Sonne, by Wyakjn de Worde. 

II the ycre of ourc lorde, m.ccccc.viii, the xvi day of the raoneth of Juyn," &c. — 
4. 5*f (Thome.) 
Lot 714. " Cyrilli Alexandrini Opera, Gr. et Lat,, euro Jn. Auberti." 5 toIs, in 7, 
Uo, scarce. Lutet., 1038—14/. IQs. (Stewart.) 
Lot 753-5. " Dugdale (Sir W.) et Roger Dodswortb, Mona&ticon Anglicanum/' 
vols., fobo, numerous plates by Holhir and King, very fine impressions, scarce, 
but wanting a leaf, 1655-73. Bugdale, *' Antiquities of Warwickbhire f illus- 
trated, folio, portraits, maps, and platea by Hollar, Yaughan, Lombart, and King; 
oiigioal edition, good copy, scarce, 1656. Dugdale "Baronage of fiogland," 
two vols, in one, folio j presentation copy from Mrs. Henry Herringman ; 1675-^ 
•-17/. 15#. (Lilly.) 

Lot 802. " Gale et Fell, Rerum Anglicanum Scriptores Vetercs." 3 vols., folio, 
Tcry scarce. Oxon,, 1684-91— 5A 15*. 

Lot S03» (marked 210 in tbe catalogue). "Becon (T.) Workes. Piligentlye 
perused and corrected." Three vols, b two, black lutter, folio, wanting tbe title- 
page to tbe first part and two leaves, but otherwise perfect Lnprinted by John 
Day, 1560-4—8/. 10«. (Pickering,) 

Lot 849. Knox (John),^" lliatorie of the Church of Scotland." 8vo., original 

edition, excessively rare, good sound copy, in tbe original binding, (Edinburgh, 

15S4) ; strictly suppressed, nearly the whole impression having been seized and 

destroyed by order of the then Archbishop of Canterbury. But few copies are 

known to exist, all of which, as is, the ca^e with the present, commence on page 17 

and end on page 560 — 10/. 15i* (Toovey.) 

Lot !iU9. Higden (R.)— " Policronicon, (Englysshed by one Trevisa, vicarye of 

'kky, atte re<|ueste of Syr Thomas Lorde Barklcy)." Folio, black letter, woodcut 

le-pige* good sound copy, wanting in the first set of signatures eight leaves, and 

in the second set three leaves, the title-page, with the " introducterie" (in verse) on 

the back, being perfect and genuine. " Weatmeatre, by Wynkyn de Worde/' 1495 

— U/, 5#. (Thorpe.) 

Oisrr. MiG. Tol. CCII. h 




186 Tke KoU-iook o/S^kmrns Urbmrn. [Am;. 

Um l.C«ra Hcalaisiiod OLW ** Curaucfet of Endnid, Scntlui lal Irdnd,*' 
CAaretd br Fjnuinr. Ti«e rcils. in Twtx. foBo, Uaci knrr. bert cdkn. Rnmk. 
abcT taij md tossi oc^, cneinal voodes boutb, wish, tbe aidik "W.8.^ 
ttncsec OB lie aics. lS^<-7 — ^. IS*. liDr.* 

L^ Ij'.iyX '"Ljikdevoie GiJiciB:' Opu soper Coostititiaas PioriDOiks, 

Fcij% fr*.*. fdla^ifiL pra^ b oonUf «o£viebs. " Sine ulli nrti." Tto » oae of tbe 
irr bocfs k9?v? v% Lire l>fea prin:«ii is Oxfonl m tii« ^ficcaik ce&^szy. Tbe 
tjre wcsaKs rf lirse d-lwes* sorts : die rwx> smidkr diJer frooi laj ptc^MMuir 
mi is 0]i?ri ^n t&e brscst arrees cmirelT vhb tiat of t^ Pkilus. The 
|«cx£: cccy tiz*^ » 1 <ao S^cbn a bbck «nf v two pnnted inres ia tbc bodk of 
tbe vork. &m 1 m docTX a baak jof iz the besrl&aicg of the tAb>^ aad the bit 
leaf 13 -Jue ;aiie >f '.ie -^ Cc-aRh^-Urcs of the ArctbishopSw* I: kis. hamrvfi, the 
pro^ jnf :«&:$ a t^ ti^i vkSch vas vi&iioff in the Sariae €0^, mM m 
Dtans fxT dos^^ 1 JUL Qsiiitck 

Lrt Lii5. Vuken. — ^" Xrwes cotubs up oat of the Xoe^i, scvaiar toviids 
the Scnai-* bj G. F^x. i<a5: -The feachen of the Worid vsn&dr ""The 
WoaELi >«jTfT&g is StJeacer '^Cfr for Repe&:aace oto the IshihctaKts of 
Lix&Scti ek-je±jtJ' £L KS^j ; " Testimccr of the trae l«h: of the World ;'^ " The 
Pfe-JEST^' FnLhs TAJr llia-fes?:^ lai the Fis£l»cs of the Woeli. wd the Last of 
I^srnsce f " Wiraiae t/» ill Schoc«-Massers icd Scboot-M lrtmBeA ," all 1657 ; 
"^Dacr.T-TT of tb» STci: EomitT <^ c^ie Serpent isiiost the Seed of the Woin/ 
I^;i, 4.?. la all 2> ;rvC5, is cne TC'l:iaie, 4co. — I»X'. flZIy.) 

Lcc I^I^. ^iuken, Meccer siL. raier ooiLeccioii. — ^ LookiB^Mjoas for Tag^nd, 
cr, li JLiaKnct cf -.i? Fj:oit ILkss^re ia Imiai," 1^7; *FoCt ud WndoM 
U ^ji£ Asatatir i«I; - Bcok of WiniiBSs, bj G. Bcshope.'' 1*51; "Bwdotof 
BaiifjTa tad Trfixpi cf Sku.'^ It the saze; "The Ctr of Xewwe wish the 
oc£i!r Priscns in isd ibcot Lcciico." 1^2 : "^ Proc«ediztss isaosC the Qsikefs» 
their seatexice zb be Traajpcrted :a JiznKa^*^ 4c^ 1*5«S4 ; - Wincaff* of the Lord 
to :ae KHg of yng'-irpi^"^ rr G. Bcs2:ooe. 16^7 ; "^ TesdaaocT of a Cicsad of Wis- 
neacs," hr W. Calo*. I-i^i: "Rgs:a,^fatke Letter of Mirr HttoI to OllTer 
Cntn-r-il,"' 1*5^7 : *" I>»cLira:ica oc :he Pcrwcatica ud MirtTrdocn cf the Qoikas 
El Xn- Fffigjnij,"' rare, lSo*> ; * Visica of HoaiphreT Smha coceemia^ Ijjodaa,^ 
!••»;'; "* Aana Triccei's yimrire of her JocnieT froai Loodoa to Conmn," 
I'SJ & : - RelaJiioa of the Sajfaia^s of the Qoixen u Btistou"* 16*5 ; ** Persera- 
tifla of till* Qnaken i£ XGrvTck^" ISO'S ; lod cnsieroGj ochers. Coikctcd br 
Xica. WitLjiscoa, wisk his iniMakia scasped oa ihe sidrsy $ ro2s, Ito. — SS/. 
^lillj., 

Let L330. Pi7cit» S. — '^ HiMajtos FosthTxiBiLS ; or, Fudus his PSIgrimcs; 
omTAjTiimi a Hiasorr of the Wocii in Sea Tojoces and Laade TnveLsy bj En^ 
laamen and ocaers." 3 Toisw, £6i:c, maps sod cuts : vaacisg the &oaCtsp»ce lad 
wukD of ihe yLospiU Empcre ; H23-JS, is. the cnsinal biadia^ — HSL < Toover.) 

Loc l,fr^:». Xncti. — -FaaTsCaarciiTari;" "^LTsci TheoioCTi"^ *c-; Two 
Cenumca," hj Sir J, BirkcaJiead, a. Jl ; " Cadlogrze of the Tides of Bocks printed 
ic 'ramoriiire ia l^n'i,^ a scarce aad corJoas satirical tract ; " Two Lecier^ of vhe 
Eari of Scndbri uii his Sceeca ca the ScajP^Li** l»54l ; ** New Onicrs of the 
F<irLiameac of Ronniiiiruffy" io-li : ** Frescrruiion of J. Hirri3;^Qa and ethers of 
Spauimo; ia Lincoinsoire, ukea prisoners bj the CaTaLers of CroTlaBd.*^ 1*543 ; 
" Fje SttYe far the Caj of Lomion.'^ l^^*^ ; -^ >[iscris F^iriiameat^ her Goaai>- 
pin^" foil of mirth, bkcxt taJo^ te., 164S ; ** Miatris FhriimeiU bvooght to bed 



1861.] 



The Note-book of Syhanus Urban. 



187 



of & MonstroQS Cliilde of Reformation " 1648 ; "A Trance, or Newes from Hell,'' 
ri649, and other tracts, (in idl 100) ; in a thick voiume, 4to. — 5/. (Forster.) 

Lot 1,503* **Vit« Sanctorum Prisco?om Patrura CLXIIL, per A. Liponianum 
lifi untim Tolumen redactae, cum Scholiis," King Edward Vl/a copy; the binding 
"lirokeD, sides richly tooled and gilt, with the Royal Arms of England in the centre ; 
""Yenet., 1551 ; 4to,— 5/. 15jf. (Boone.) 

Lot 1,609. Thoroton (H.) — "Antiquities of Nottingham shire." Maps and 

plates ; 4to,, thick paper ; extremely rare ; wanting the leaf of imprimatur and 

he slip of arms ; 1677—30/. 10^. (Toovey.) 

Lot 1,644. " Voraginc (Jac. de) Legenda Aurea, that is to saye in Englysshe, the 

rfjolden Legcndc, for lyke as Golde pnsscth all other metalles, so this hoke excedeth 

all other bokes, wherein ben c^nteyned all the high and grete fcestes of our Lorde, 

llie feesies of our bljssed lady, the lives, jiassyons, and myraclea of many other 

mjnteSy hystoryes, and actes, as all alooge hereafore is made mencyon, whicho 

werke bath been dilygetly amended in divers places, whereas grete nedc was. 

Finysshed the xxvn daye of August, the yere of our Lorde Mxcccc.xxvil. the 

XIX yere of the regnc of our Souorayne lorde Kynge Henry the eyght, luiprynted 

Bt London in Flete Strete, at the sygwe of the Sonne, by Wynkyu de Worde." 

IlFoIIo; black letter; extremely rare; fine, lajrge, and perfect copy, in the original 

linding — 51A (Toovey.) 

Lot 1,649. Walsh (Peter). — " History and Vindication of the Loyal Formulary, 
or Irish BemonstraBce against all Calmiiuies and Oeosures, with three Appendices, 
containing the ^lai-quis of Oimond's Letter in answer to the Deelaration and Ex*^ 
ooinmuuication of the Bishops, &c-, at Jamestown." Folio; very rare; very fine 
copy, 1674—8/. 5*. (Lilly.) 

The amount of the six days' sale exceeded 1,410/. 

Discovert op Ancient Coins, — Whilst the workmen were felling timber in 
Cockmill Woodj about a mile from Whitby, early in July last, they discovered ft 
cavity in the ground, which contained 126 siher coins. Son)e were half-crowns of 
the Charleses, others shillings of Elizabeth and of James, &c., but the majority are 
80 smooth worn that they will liardly rank as cabinet specimeus. The place where 
they were found forma the centre of the wood, near the White Gate, and a slab of 
stone covered the mouth of the hole. It would seem bkely that they were depo- 
aitcd during the Great Kcbellion, when we know that money, plate, and other 
Tftluables were often secreted. This is not the first find of coins iu the neighbour- 
Lood of Whitby. Towards the close of tbe last century, a number of Roman coins 
(•were turned up by the plongh at Ugtlior|>e, about eight miles from AVhithy, some 
of which belonged to the reign of Vespasian. The lloraans, it is known, had no 
large station nearer Whitby than Malton, but single coins now and then make 
their appearance when the ground is opened round about. Last year a Roman 
coin was found on the moors near Aisluby, not far from which the Roman road 
pisses ; and another coin, with Romulus aud Remus sucking the she-wolf| was 
found in the same locality, in admirable preservation, a fihort time since. 



188 



Ltljr 



HI8T0EICAL AKB MISCELLAITEOUS REVIEWS. 



NORTHERN LITERATUBK 
We are indebted to an esteemed Correspondent at Capenha^n for the 
following notices of works from the BaniBh presi, tUat m^y be fairly ex* 
pected to be of interest in England. 



Fir<e Off Fyrrefyve Jbr em wior Deel 
Jbrken mtrykU Pr6>tmr af OUtUtrdUk 
Sproff 0g LUtratmr, CdgiTne af KoiriL 
GiSLASOK, (Kjekbenhatn, 18G0. 8?0h 5#0 
and xri pp.) 

t^rUf-fimr ckiefy hUketio Untdit^d 
Spedwiens of Ike Oid'NQrtktrm Lam^ase 
amd LUermimre, PublUhed 1^ K, Qiau- 
90]i» Gieaping-haTeo. (Abo witb an loe* 
landic title and preface, for ml& in Ice* 
laDd.) 

Of thii mastTalmible work« about tkree- 
^vurtbi ii now for the first time pnbliahed 
htm. the original manaieripU. AU the 
more important pieces are given witb due 
regard to the peculiar orthography of 
their age, and thejr thus afford intereetiiig 
materiali for phonetic and llngni«tTC in* 
faitigKtiona. The whole work ahouads in 
ptquant noveltien, which range in age, as 
to the old tnotcripti followed, &oa about 
1220 to tlie tfteeuth centurj. Of ooone 
the teate are often moch older than the 
eopiee in whkh tbejr have now lunived. 

Am thia work \a edited b/ one of the 
moit aoeompliabed Kholart in Scandinavia, 
and ought to be in the handtof all ftudeuts 
in this department of our Nortbem litera* 
tare, it will be of lerviee to give a brief 
Cft of ita eontenta : — 

L (pp 1—^), ThdHr of ThortUim 
TfrnidwUHkimgii the Story of Thontein 
tbe Tenl-'pttcher, oue of the earliest land* 
iiaiika>iDeo— eoloniaera of Iceland-^in the 
time of Haiald Faii&x. The infimt heixv 
ai he lay on the ground, was awaiting 
a late olten Ihe lot of new-born children^ 
to bt carried out and buried alive. But 
bt ot^|eet«d to thii» and extemporised an 
•ight*lin« itatita, beginning, — 



Thm wonder eaved hia UfSa, His fkther 
relented, and the Ud. grew to be a famooi 
champion. 

IL (pp. B-^n), MaO/Mlar Baga. 
Hallfred wae one of the most efaaracterktie 
figurea of the tenth eentory, and one of 
the restlesf planet* moving round hia 
central orb, the None King OloC Tryggv^* 
•on. Paaaioiiate lover, pricekea poet, on&» 
cast and ■dventurer, merchant, and Royal 
Gnard, he unittid in ht maelf all the warlike 
and tnraultuooi elements of that remark* 
able period of transition. Bom a heathen, 
and never more than half ChHttianiaed, 
he rushed firom adventure to adventoro, 
always brave, MMnetimee wajward, whence 
hJA gnmame VamdrtMatk^ld, 'the wan- 
rede-«eald,' *the poet hard to pleate.' What 
a metry aneodote is that about bis ftrst 
contact with King OUf Tryggreeou, who 
persuaded him to become a Christian %■ — 

"Now was Uallfreth with the King a 
time, and made a flokk (a short i<»ig) 
about him, and asked him to hear it. The 
King laid he would not listen. *I>o aa 
thou wUt,' answered Hallfieth, ' but I will 
then cast aside those things (about Christ) 
which thou hast let teadi me, an thou 
wilt not hear my poem; for those tales 
whidb then haddest me to learn are not 
more poetical than is thi? iong I have now 
made about thee.' King Olaf replied; 
* Of a truth thou mightcst well be called 
the Vandnetha-Skald ; but I will hear thy 



4 



'nie poet lost no time tn repeating them, 
and they were so good that the King gave 
him in retnm a splendid sword* So he 
plunged into the thick of events. Now 
hcre^ now then^ fighting, or wandering, 
or making verses in Icplnnd^ and Norway. 
and Denmark, and Sweden* he died at last 
of a broken heart, at the loss of liis royal 
CHend King Olat 

111* (pp* 42— ^}« 8Q$m < 2%ofvMil 



186L] 



Old-Northern Literature, 



189 



SMu^kalU IS^ Th« Saga of Thdrttein 
Sidii^lMiU't ton k hero printed from a 
piper oopj, and ii not oomplei(?> but no 
better MS. exists. It tells of forays ia 
Scotland and Ireland, and feud and tigbt 
in Iccbuid, about tbc beginning of tbe 
eleventh century. 

IV. (pp. 59—63), Frd Relga og IHfi, 
Of Helgo nnd Ulf, bloody fmji from snmll 
beginnings and terrible boot tberefore, 
a talc of tbe Fasroes in the tenth centnry, 
but doubtless somewhat modernized in 
form* The episode of Bard, who three 
years In succedsioD gave to a beggar a cow 
for the sake of St. Peter, bat afterwards 
foond that the mendicant was St. Peter 
himtelf, ii characteristic of the times. Bard 
eventually became a bishop In Ireland, 

v. — VIK (pp. 64—107)* Veraldar 
Sagat SfCf the History of the World; a 
kind of Chronicle from Adam to Frederick 
Barbarossa, Embraces both sacred and 
profane story. The MS. is from about 
1265. 

VIII.— X. (pp. 108—386), UrRomrerja 

^iim, Roman History » principally from 
Ballast and Lncan. 

XL (pp» 387—399), Ur Karlamaffnvss 
So^u, extracts from the Romance of 
Charlemagne and his Peers. 

XI L (pp. 400 — 406), Ur Kirjalaj: 
Sdgik, extracts from the Romance of King 
Eiijalax, a talc of Asiatic and European 
woodersL 

XIII. (pp. 407—409), Paraduus, a 
charming description of Paradise, the 
abode of the blessed " til dumadogs/* 

XIV. (pp. 410-416), v^/J^WmrXfim. 
paiMMt, Of Three Companions, a king's sod, 
a dnke^s son, atid an earl's lOii. They 
lost their way and their suit«, hunting the 
deer, and at nightfall found *' hvarki er at 
bita ne snpa" themselres without bit or 
tup, lonely and starved. To pass the time^ 
each tells when and where be thought 
himself most in danger. The earl's son 
retates how he narrowly escaped from a 
deep pit. The dnke's son had a ftlll more 
terrible adventure : bis dying tweetheflrt 

etly locked her uiiiiuspectiug lover in a 
iitf and asked her father the favour to 
r that cheat unsearched and unopened, 
as amtaining the dearest thing she bad on 



earth, benettth her own cofElti. This b^ng 
done, he was only saved by daring trea* 
anra-seekers, whom the wondrous tale 
bronght to dig him up. StiU more terrific 
was the adventure of the king's son, a 
charming goblin Htory, much better than 
those now fabricated. 

XV. (pp. 416—418). IndtifrMr Qim* 
tiemar^ Of Indian Gem'Stones^ a humor ous 
story of three wonderful amulets. 

XVI. (pp.4U>— 427). AfMeigtaraPero 
ok kans Leikum^ Master Peroa and his 
Sleights. This Pcrus was a kind of ma- 
gidnn id the mediEDval taste^ and we have 
here three wiles of his, much in the man- 
ner of those attributed to the famous con- 
juror Master VirffiUm of JRome, formerly 
poet of that ilk. Tbe last, a charming 
story of a duke whom be made king, but 
who proved ungrntcfQl and unjust, sad 
who accordingly found that the whole was 
a momentary virion, and bad taken place 
while tbe meat was cooking, is very rich. 
It is the same idea — a moment as a 
thousand years — as we find in the Koran, 
the Arabiiiu Tales, and in so many other 
Eastern and Western tales and legends. 

XVIL (pp. 428—432), Af K6tig»mfm 
og Kong^dodur^ Of the King's Son and 
the King's Daughter, a pretty tale, in 
which woman's wit discovers who is the 
•'sti^iknri'* (the master-COOk), who the 
"riddari" (the knight), and who the 
"kongssun.'' The point is the same as 
in the VoUunga-Saga, wliere Queen 
Hiordys, Sigurd's mother, clmngcs clothes 
with her maid; in the Amletk of Saxo 
Gramnmticus. where the hero at the Eng- 
lish court discovers the wenk point* of tbe 
Food, the King, and the Queen; and 
elsewhere. 

XVIII, (pp. 433-435), Ur a^tntt 
S^gu, a tale of three tents and three 
artificial animals, such as no craftsman 
now can equal. 

XIX., XX. (pp. 436, 437), Tiu Undr 
EgipitUandi og Ww Lagaord, the ten 
pliigues of Egypt and the Ten Com- 
mandments, from an Icelandic MS,, date 
about 1270» a venerable monument of the 
langnag^e. 

XXL (pp. 438-446), Fabella AUxti 
Confei9ori», The legend of S. Alexis it 



190 



Miscellaneous JReviews. 



[Aug. 



well known. It is here given from a 
MS. at least six hundred years old. 

XXII. (pp.447— 456), Ur Leizlu Dug- 
gciU, an Irish legend, one of the many 
Middle Age stories founded on the tale 
how a soul, in the trance of death, sees 
hell, purgatory, and heaven, and then 
returns to the body. This is the well- 
known cydus of St. Patrick's Purgatory. 

XXIII.— XXV. (pp. 457—469), Ore^ 
gorii Dialogorwn, IV. 26, 36, two somd^ 
what similar short stories from Gregory's 
Dialogues, Gregory's twenty-ninth Ho- 
mily, and some Religious Maxims. 

XXVL (pp. 470—476), Ur Laknin- 
gab6kt from an ancient Leech-book, or 
medical treatise. 

XXVIL (pp. 476-479), Stjdmumdrk, 
astronomical. 

XXVIII. (pp. 480—483), Frd lAfldti 
Baldrt, Of the Death of Balder, from the 
Younger Edda. 

XXIX— XXXV. (pp. 484—525), Frd 
AgU Tunnaddlgi, Ac., Of Egill, Tunne's 
Slayer, and other episodes, in Heimskringla 
Morkins-skinna, Enytlinga-Saga, Islen- 
dinga-bok, and Njals-saga. 

XXXVI. (pp. 626-533), Ur Ugum, 
from the ancient Icelandic laws. 

XXXVII, XXXVIII. (pp. 534-548), 
the greater part of Vdlu-spd and Hdva- 
mal, from the oldest MSS., with various 
readings, by far the best edition yet 
published. 

XXXIX. (pp. 549-552), Ur Hug»- 
rinntmdlum, ancient Icelandic versified 
maxims, founded on Cato's Ditticha, 

XL. (pp. 55^ 554), lalendinga Drdpa, 
eleven stanzas of this old poem. ^ 

XLI. (pp. 555, 556), Ur Mdr<u Drdpu, 
eleven stanzas in praise of the Virgin 
Mary. 

XLII, XLIIL (pp. 557, 558), Frag- 
ments from Epic Songs on St. Peter and 
St. Andrew. 

XLIV. (pp. 559, 560), CeeiUu KviBtM, 
a poem on St. Cecilia. We give the first 
verse: — 

" Gad rninn sseti bUdki ok b«ti 
Vijd«t hryggTillgt, 
StA at ek g»ti samit mnti 
Sannfrodan dikt." 

. We need add no more to shew the value 



of the work. Here is treasure mdeed, 
both heathen and Christian, newly dug 
from the mine. 



Sverikes Bun-urkunder, granshade aeh 
utgifne af Richabd Dybeok. Uppland. 
Fdrsta H&ftet. Bro och Hotuna Hinder. 
(Stockholm, 1860.) 

The Rune- Monuments of Sweden, JSx» 
amined and Published bg B. Dtbbck. 
Province of Uppland. Part I., the Hun- 
dreds of Bro and H&tuna. (Stockholm, 
1860. Large folio, with fifty-one fiic- 
similes on twelve lithograph plates.) 

Besides minor attempts and special 
and local descriptions, two great efforts 
have been made in Sweden to collect and 
publish its matchless store of Runic in- 
scriptions. The first was by Gdransson % 
more than 110 years ago ; the second by 
Liljegren \ about twenty-five years nnce. 
The latter is largely based on the former. 
But a century ago such attempts were ne« 
cessarily unsatisfactory. The old Northern 
dialects were little cultivated and imper- 
fectly understood. Absurd theories as to 
the immense antiquity of the monuments 
themselves, many of them being attri- 
buted to hundreds or thousands of years 
before Christ* led to perpetual mistakes. 
Difficulty of travel and roadless wilds 
made it impossible to secure good tran- 
scripts. "Heel-ball," and damp paper, 
and ** rubbing," were as yet undiscovered. 
The result was as might be expected. 
The texts given are often full of gross 
mistakes. Still these works are of great 
value, particularly as many of the Rune- 
stones have become dilapidated, or have 
perished altogether since their publication. 
Among the great labourers in this field 
of Runic study in Sweden must be espe- 
cially mentioned Carl S&ve, (now Pro- 
fessor of the Northern Languages in Up- 

> Bautil, Det &r: AUe Svea ok 05tha Rikers 
Runstenar. . . . Af Johan Goransion, Stockholm, 
1750, large foUo, with 1,173 woodcuts of the 
seTeral monomenta. 

^ Mod omenta Runioa. Ron-urkunder. Stock- 
holm, 1834, 4to., being an Appendix to Diploma- 
Urlom STecannm, voL ii. Holmie, 1837. Bat 
this Bone-work ia alao pabliahed aeparately 
ia8T0« 



186L] 



Rune^Monuments of Sweden, 



191 



■aljk) imd Riclmrd Dybeck, (now n Govern- 
tsent Cotisen'fitor of Local Antiquities). 
BotU these gentleuien are accouiplisbed 
North<*rti linguisU, and both have worked 
with eudU'BS enthusiasni and Kelf-^criflce. 
We omit reference to their minor works, 
Tlie Swedish nation is now nware of the 
iramenae value of these itg oldest written 
rtooult^ (though manj of thctn are of 
ooime of later date.) and the SwedUh Par- 
liament has made a large g;rant for their 
regolar and complete publlcAtiou under 
th© charge of Herr Dybcck. 

The work now before ns is the first in- 
rtalment of this nation al undertaking, and 
ntains about i\m fortieth part of the 
rtul number of these precious Kunic relics 
i^fiwcden alone, which is, so to speak, 
( liotne-land, far surpassing^ anjr other 
Winiry in this pcculuir wealth. Of the 
•tber Northern lands Denmark comes ne&t, 
then England^ Norway ^ and Iceland. In 
the ruins of the Korsc- Icelandic colony in 
Greenland a few ha%'e also been found. 

We need not point out how many 
interesting features of language, apart 
from all questions of history, and mytho- 
logy, and custom, these monuments elnct- 
dAt€^ iMwr correctly printed after careful 
examination. Many of them are frag- 
ments, some obscure. Still sufficient ma- 
terials remain for curious enquiri^ into 
local idiouis, early let ter-as^mikt ions, re- 
markable proper namea, and a strong light 
19 cast on vartoua other details of philo- 
logical enquiry* 



A« specimens we wiU give two inscrip- 
tions, both af them first published by 
Dybeck, 

The first Is in the pariih of Eyd, Up- 
land, (Dyh., No, 1 1 ) :— 

'*im , » BTTT LIT KtSA KUlUt TTCTIBM 
PATHXTRaiN BA0S4 AUK BOBUTHFR KFRUC 

KVrn Hl4L(l»)(*«)ui'(nni) (thttira). Kir., 
riu let rai^e Cutnhel (= mark, wtone} 
after Fatht^hh {Old-Entjlhtk, SIN) Baosa, 
and htM Brother Kuruk* Ood help 4t(mU 
iheirV* 

The second is No, 17, Hotuua dis- 
trict:— 

"RTJTHILFB LIT ICIKA inTBKI TBISA 
EFTIH AKMUNT SUN BIN. RutkUf Ut gate 

{make) mark {mottmf, hoi^) (his nfter Ak- 
mttnt ionhU (O-E,, bin.'*) 

Among other facts we would also men- 
tion that the argument of Professor Ste- 
phen«r, In his ** Two Leaves of King Wal- 
dere*s Lay," pp. 85, full., as to "thus** 
for " thurs/' i« here strengthened in a re- 
markflhlc manner. See No. 1, No. 4» but 
especially No. 42. This alTordi} another 
instance of how much we have still to 
learn from cnri'fiil editions of ancient do* 
cuments, and exact facsioailes of our oldest 
imcribed remains. 

According to the announcement of the 
learned editor, the Riimc memorials of 
each province will be eollect<;d together 
and published complete in tlicmstlvcs, 
with the necessary titles and explana- 
tions. The price of this first part is about 
six shillings sterling, so that it b within 
the reach of all. 



Memoruds pf FamiU^ of the SMmame 
ef Archer, (Ijondon : J. R, Smith.)— We 
fike to see a man who takes an interest iu 
the naaie be bears, and who does not think 
his time ftnd trouble ill bestowed in cob 
leering from various sources all that can 
be gathered regarding it. Such a man is 
evidently Captain Archer, of the 60th 
Royal Hifles, the author of the thin 4to. 
now before os, who with praiseworthy 
diligence has amasseil some thousands of 
ficts relating to persons of his own name, 
extending from Anglo-Norman times to 
the present, and embracing deeds, wills, 
births, marriages, and deaths, interspcned 
with pedigrees lukd heraldic detail« and 



enlivened by many qnaioi citations irom 
unpublished manuscripts. He has made 
no pretence to write a history of his family, 
but by printing bis collections he has laid 
the foundation wide and deep for such an 
undertaking, and lias set a good example 
for persons of other names, who if tliey 
would imitate him, would do good service 
to the future county historian and gene- 
alogist. In tbe course of his researches. 
Captain Archer has met with much cu- 
rious matter relating to other iamilies, 
and these oollectiona he Ubcrally oHem to 
transfer to such parties as will turn them 
to account. Any communications on this 
sut^ect miy be addressed to his Publisher* 



m- 



^ML. 



192 



Miscellaneous Reviews. 



[Aug. 



We should be glad to see the offer ac- 
cepted, as it 18 from sach kbourera, who 
thoroughly understand and love their 
subject, that we have most hope of a 
satisfactory work, or rather a series of 
works, on English Surnames. 



Wild Ffoicers Worth yotice. By Msg. 
Lankester. (Hardwicke.)— We heartily 
recommend this exceedingly pretty little 
volume to the large class who delight in 
flowers, whether in the field or in the 
garden, but who, deterred by its innu- 
merable 

** Words of learned length and thondering 
Mund,'* 

decline to enter on the study of botany as 
a science. They will find in it nearly 100 
wild flowers, such as they may meet with 
in any walk of a mile or two out of the 
populous city, so accurately represented 
in colours by Mr. Sowerby that the recog- 
nition will be a pleasure instead of a diffi- 
culty, and so agreeably described by the 
authoress that a new interest is imparted 
to even such well-known plants as butter- 
cups and daisies. The book is, however, 
but a selection, and as it omits many 
favourites of our occasional days in the 
fields and woods, and on tlie sea-shore, we 
trust that another volume will contain 
them. Mrs. Lankester is already favour- 
ably known for a little work on British 
Ferns, and we wish that she would treat 
a select number of the more common 
garden flowers as well as she has done their 
wild compeen. She would thus make a 
TCTT desanble addition to the stock of 
gtudei to the many sources of instruction 
and •mosement that the vegetable king- 
dom QUI nipplj eren to those who know 
BQlUnir about eiognis and endogena, and 
an fiurlj fHghtened by the mention of 
» ericeip, lamiacets &c. 



Car Lrm Momto. (Oxford and Ixnidon : 
J. H. and JasL Parker.)^ We noticed some 
aea tlie first appearanco of this 
t\ and ai« gWd to find that it has 

• GaaiT. 1U«., Jaa. l&U^ p. 7G. 



reached a second edition. Those who 
wish to see how an eminent divine treated 
the question of the redemption of man 
eight centuries ago will do well to con- 
sult this short treatise; and perhaps some 
misconceptions as to the character and 
conduct of the second Norman archbishop 
of Canterbury may be removed, if they 
will also read the clever Introduction which 
the transUtor has prefixed. 



A Guide to the Isle of Man. By the 
Rev. J. G. CuMMiirG, M.A., F.G.8. (Stan- 
ford.) — ^Mr. Gumming gives a very inter- 
esting account of the past and present 
state of Mona, and produces statistics in 
abundance to shew that it is a more de- 
sirable summer resort than the Isle of 
Wight, having, he says, a more equable 
climate, and living being very much 
cheaper. His book is mainly an itinerary, 
shewing how all the remarkable spots in 
the island may be best vi^ted, and a 
minute specification is given of the nu- 
merous antiquities that are to be found in 
almost every parish. The history, con- 
stitution, industry, manners and customs 
of the Manxmen, together with the geo- 
logy, the flora and fiiuna, are all satis- 
factorily treated of, as was indeed to be 
expected, for Mr. Gumming redded in the 
island many years, and as long ago as 
1S18 produced a work on the subject, 
which later writers have too crften nsed 
without acknowledgment. 

In conclusion we must remark that the 
book has a good map, which, with all need- 
ful information as to hotels, expenses, modes 
of transit, Jcc, will enable the intending 
anmmer toorist to judge for himself as to 
the advisability, or not, of passing a week 
or two in the famous old Xorse kingdom. 
We would advise him to consider the 
matter seriously. a% according to Mr. 
Camming, such are its attractions, that 
many a casual visitor has been perforce 
ct^nvortod into a resident — and it is not 
well that the risk of such an expatriation 
should be ruhly encounteited. 



11 



1861.] 



193 



APPOINTMENTS, PBETEBMENTS, AND PKOMOTIONS. 



Sht dott§ «rv lioie 0/ a« Qtuette U wiicA tie Appomlmtnt or Jtetum appeared. 



Pre 

■r 

m 



EcCT.lUT4inCAI» 

/«>y I. The Err. Charles John ElUoott, B.D., 
to be Detn of the Cath^dnd Churoli of Exeter, 
Toid by the d«;ftth of ihe !*«▼* Thonuki filU Lowe, 
Utt! Deftii thereof. 

CrrtL, Natal, awo Milttabt. 

/M»f IS. Order of KnlKhthood LnstitqtM, to 
be castled " The Mcwt Euilted Order nf the Stu- 
of India.*' The Order to coufiat of the Sorereiifn, 
t Orend Movter, and twcntj-A^e Knighitt tofre- 
tber with extra, or honorarj- Knigbtft to be ftp- 
pointed tuxa time to titne. The KIohb And 
Qqeenf Hegnant of the United Klngduin to be 
SorereigDf, iind the Vieeroj and Govemor-Gen. 
of India to be Gruid MaKter». 

The Right Hoti. Charter John, E«rl CttitolBg, 
O.CB., and H-!tt.'i Vicvroy and Goyemar-Gen. 
o( IndU, to be Arat Grand Master ; 

H.U. Kiznm-ool-Moolk, Nuvab Tajinat AU 
Khuit NIxam of H^drsbsd; 

Gen. fcheViseountOongh, ILP., O.C.B., flocne- 
tinie CommaodBr-in-Chief of H.M/i forces In 
tbeKactladiee; 

H . H . J ji^l ee Rao aiiidhia, Mobonj a of G wAlior ; 

The Lord Horrias tome time Qoremor of the 
Prewdency of Madras; 

B.U. Mahar^ Doleep Singh; 

Gen. the Lord Clyde, QX\B., Utdj Cooiinan. 
4rT -In-Chief of H.M.'s forcos In the Eo^t Indlei ; 

II, H. Kunbeer Singh, Maharaja of Cojibmcre ; 

Sir Oeorge HuhkgU Clerk, IC.C.B., Governor of 
Pve^dency of Bombay ; 

UM. Tookoijee Eao Holkar, Maban^ of 

(lore ; 

nil. Maharaja Khnnde Bao, Goloowai of 
Barcida; 

The m^ht Hon. Sir John Laird M air Lanrreace, 
bnrt, OX.B.t lately Lieutenanl-GoTernor of the 
Punjab ; 

H.1L Nurendor Singh, Mabaro^ of Putlala ; 

Lieat<Oen. 8ir iamee Oatraro, bart^ 6.C.B., 
Utcly iBioi^bor of the Coundl of ibe Govttnor* 
Gen. of India ; 

B.B. N'uwab Hekunder Begum, of Bhopal; 

Gen. hir HoKh Henry Rose, G.C.B., Com- 
<€hiei of U>M.'a fonea In Um Eoat 
and 
, Yooiiif AU Khan, Nuwab of Kampore, 

I be KnighU ; 

' B.E.ii. the Prinoe Conoort and B.R.H* Albert 
Edward, rrinoe of Wolee* to be Extra Knlgbta 
Bf tb« aoid Moat Esolted Order of the Star of 
India. 

Mr. Thomai Lklbetter approved of aa Con«itl 
at Kurrofihee for His Majesty the King of Proasia. 

Mr. Kkl MnLachlan approved of a« Cimsidl at 
Leith fbr the United Stotce of . 
Oevt. BUo. Vol. CCXL 



Major-Gea. Oeerge HaU Maegregor, C.B., iimw 
time employed aa Military ConnnSasionerattMbeA 
to the camp of Jung Bohadoor during the late 
matioy in India, to be on Ordtnary Member of 
the CivU Diviaion of the Seeond Class, or Knighta 
Comxnandera, of the Most Hon. Order of the 
Bath. 

JuM U. Bir Richard Bcthall, Knt., sworn of 
the Privy Council, Jiine 36, and appointed Lord 
ChanceUor. The Right Bon. Sir Richard Betbell, 
Knight, Chancellor of that part of the United 
Kingdom called Great Britain, and the heirt male 
of hia body Uwrolly begotten, lo hare the dignity 
of a Boron of the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Ireland by the name, style, and title 
of Baron Westbary, of Wwtbury, oo. Wilia» 

To be Knights Grand Crone of tiie Order of tlie 
Baihi- 

Gen. Sir Arthor Benjamin Clifton, KX.B. 

Adm. 8ir Phippa Hornby, K.C.B. 

Gen. Sir Jnincs Archibald Hope, K^CB. 

Orn. Sir Thoniod William Brotbertan, K.C.B. 

Gen. Sir Sanmd Renjajnin Auchmaty, K.C.E. 

Adm. Sir BorringUia Reynolds, K.C.B. 

Gen. Sir Thoraaa Wlllshirc, hart., KX.B. 

Vice- Adm. the Right Hon. Sir Manrtee Fndie* 
rtck Filshardlnge Berkeley, K.C.B., and 

LleoL-0«n. Sir Harry David Jonci^ K.C.B. 
To be Knighta ComRandcra ; — 

Admiral Edward Harvey. 

LleuU-Gen. William Henry He well, C,B. 

LleuL-G«n. Ovorge William Paty, C.B. 

LJeut^Gen. Jaraee Bliaw Kennedy, C.B. 

Lieut. -Gen. George Leigti Goldie, CBv 

Lietit.-Gen. Jolin Mlchcll, C.B. 

%*tco-AdTn. Henry William Brace. 

Vice- A dm. WtUiam Panahawe Martin. 

Major-Gen. William Brcreton, C.B. 

Rear>Adm. Lewlt Tobias Jones, C B,, «ad 

Col. the Earl of Longford, C,B. 

Henrx Kieholaa Du verger Be3rta, eiq., to be 
Protector of imnugranta for the Island of Mau* 
rttlna. 

Nioholaa Cox, ew]., to be Inapeetor^Oeneral of 
Priaona, and David IJlUe, eaq., to be InApector 
of Priaona, In the colony of Britliib Guiana. 

CapL Woodford John WlUioma to be Bear* 
Admiral of the Blue. 

Juljf 2. John Scott Ottshe, esq,, to be Colonial 
fiecretory for the Island of Trinidad. 

Denis Leahy, eaq«, to be ifnperintmdaiit o# 
Pablle Works for the Island of Trinidad { 

Charles Lablnohe, eeq„ to be a i 
Maf|ri»truie fur the island of Maurltlaai and 

Thoxnaa Uaguire, esq., to be a PoUm ] 
tratc fur the Island of Mauritius. 

Mr. JoabuA £. Qiddiafa approved of a* Qmmilf 
8b 



194 



Birtht. 



[Ang. 



Gen. in the BritiBh North American ProTinoei 
for the United States of America. 

July 5. Simeon Jacobs, esq., to be Attorney- 
Gen. for the territories of British CalBraria. 

William Branch Pollard, esq., Jnn., to be As- 
sistant CiTil Engineer for the Colony of British 
Guiana. 

Sir WUliam Atherton, Knight, Her Majesty's 
Solidtor-Gen., to be H.M.'s Attorney-Gen. 

July 9. Roandell Palmer, esq., one of H.M.'s 
Counsel learned in the Law, to be H.M.*s Soli- 
eltor-General. 

July 16. Hajor-Gen. Thomas Simson Pratt, 
C.B., to be an Ordinary Member of the Military 
Division of the Second Class, or Knights Com- 
manders, of the Most Hon. Order of the Bath ; 
Captains Frederick Beauchamp Paget Seymour 
and George Ommanne^F Willes, of the Royal Navy, 
to be Ordinary Members of the Military Division 
of the Third Class, or Companions, of the said 
Most Hon. Order. 

Charles Perley snd Peter Mitchell, esqs., to be 
Members of the Legislatiye Council of the Pro- 
vince of New Brunswick. 

Mutu Coomarasamjr, esq., to be a Member of 
the Legislative Council of the Island of Ceylon. 

Thomas Brown, esq., to be a Member of the 
Executive and Legislative Councils of H.M.*s 
Settlements on the River Gambia. 

Robert Chl^>man, esq., to be a Member of the 
Executive Council of the Island of St. Vincent. 

July 19. The Earl of Clarendon, K.G., the 
Earl of Devon, Lord Lyttelton, the Hon. Edward 
Turner Boyd Twialeton, Sir SUfford Henry 
Northoote, hart., the Rer. William Hepworth 
Thompson, M.A., and Henry Halford Vaughan, 
esq., M.A., to be H.M.*s Commiseioners for in- 
quiring into the revenues and management of 
the said colleges and schools of Eton, Winchester, 
Westminster, CbarterhouM, St. Paul's, Merchant 
Taylors, Harrow, Rugby, and Shrewsbury. 

Col. William Erskine Baker, of the Bengal 
Engineers, to be a member of the Council of 
India, viet Col. Henry Marion Durand, C.B., 
resigned. 



Thomas Joseph Hutohinson, esq., late B.M.'s 
Consul at Fernando Po, to be H.M.'s Ooncol at 
Bosario. 

July 23. James Coleman Fitzpatridk, caq^ 
barrister-at-law, to be Judge for the (erritories 
of British CafTraria. 

Frederick Saunders, esq., to be Treasurer; and 

George Vane, ceq., to be Principal CoUeetor of 
Customs for the Island of Ceylon. 

Charles Henry Johnes Cuyler, esq., to be Bc- 
oeiver-General for the Island of Trinidad. 

Capt William Lawtie Morrison, B.B., to be 
Snnreyor-General and Colonial Engineer tot the 
Island of Mauritius. 

Commander Henry Thomsett, B.N., to be 
Harbour Master, Marine Magistiwte, and Emi- 
gration and Customs Officer for the Ooliny of 
Hongkong. 

July 26. The Right Hon. Sir George Grey, 
bart., G.C B., to be one of H.M.*s Principal 
Secretaries of State. 

Sir Robert Peel, bart, was (July 25) sworn of 
H.M.'8 Most Hon. Privy CounciL 

The Right Hon. Edward Cardwell, to be Chan- 
cellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. 

Mrmbebs asTcaMKD TO ssnvs nr Pabliaxskt. 



July 5. Borough of Wolverhampton.— 1 
Matthias Weguclin, esq., in the room of Sir 
Richard Bcthell, Knight, who has accepted the 
office of Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain. 

July 9. County of Longford.— lAent-ColxmA 
Luke White, of the Grange, co. Dublin, in 
the room of Col. Henry White, who has ac- 
cepted the office of Steward of H.M.*s Manor of 
Northstead. 

City of Durham.— 8]t Wm. Atherton, Knight, 
of Westboume-terr., Hyde-pk, oa Middleeex, 
H.M.'s Attomey-GeneraL 

July 12. Borough of Richmond.— Baaaditll 
Palmer, esq., of Portland-pl., co. Middlesex, in 
the room of Henry Rich, esq., who has aoeepted 
the office of Steward of H.M.'s Manor of Hemp- 
holme. 



BIRTHS. 



May 14. At Dum Dum, the wife of Capt. H. 
J. Lawrell, 6th Royal Regt., a dau. 

May 15. At Jhansie, Central India, the wife 
of Clarmont J. Daniell, esq., Bengal Civil Service, 
a dau. 

May 18. At Hooshingabad, the wife of O. I. 
Chalmers, esq., 4th European Regt., a son. 

May 23. At North AUerton, the wife of C. J. 
D. Ingledew, esq., barrister-at-law, a dau. 

May 31. At Kussowlie, the widow of George 
Carnac Barnes, esq., C.B., a son. 

JiiTu 13. At Bermuda, the wife of Col. Munro, 
C.B., commanding the troops in Bermuda, a 
dau. 

June 15. At the Rectory, Ringmore, South 
Devon, the wife of the Rev. Francis Charles 
Ilingeston, Rector of Ringmore, a son. 



June 16. At Cluny-house, fftrathmy, Perth- 
shire, tiie wife of Major-Gen. D. Cnninghame, of 
the Bombay Army, a dau. 

June 17. At Bangalore, the wife of Mi^or 
Lionel Bridge, Royal Horse ArUllery, a dau. 

June 18. At Belgaum, India, the wife of Capt 
Merriman, H.M.'s Bombay Engineers, a son. 

June 19. At Paris, the wife of J. W. McGeough 
Bond, esq., M.P., a son. 

At Bonn-on-the-Rhine, the wife of Ueat-CoL 
Chas. J. Oldfield, a son. 

June 21. At Gillingham, Kent the wife of 
Capt. Frederick J. Butts, 77th Regf^, a son. 

June 22. At Princes-gate, Lady Skelmersdale, 
a dau. 

At Riseholme, near Unooln, the wife of the 
Bishop of Lincoln, a dan. 



1861.] 



Birihit, 



195 



AtEOitibttrgti, Uie wife of J. T. HopTrood, taq., 
M.Pm Bdau. 

At Ea«tb(U7 Manor-hoiue, Kun^y, the wUe of 
Li^ut.-CoL Elrin^Um* RifU Biigide, k nan. 

At F&nt'houM, M&idHtoae, the wife of George 
Selbf, esq., m ion, 

^tfj^e 23. At Friiic<e»-gftte, Lady Cofutance 
^ Oroarenor, a ton. 

At LTtchctt-U&trayen, Foole, Dorset, Ihe wife 
Of Major Tilting, B.A., a »oii. 

At Pemhridfj^e^gnrdenA, the wife of Major 
Boiler t Gutlinc MtcGretroft a dau. 

JvH* M, At L4&vci6t(ikc<hou4c, Hanta, tb« 
|X«dy ChArtotte PortJil, n, scin. 

At Canonieign -house, Devon, the wife of ibe 
I Hon. Fleetwo<id Fcllcw, a wn. 

At tbp Vicarage, Sutton Courtney* Berks, the 
wife of the Rev. Uownrd lUce, « son. 

At tferford-'tiilU &c»r Ojirord« ibe wife of Cupt. 
John A. Fune, a son. 

June i^. At Holly-lodflfe. Caropden-hill, the 
CoQnteuof Airlie, a ton. 

At Sprlngwood'pk., Eeko, Lady Scott Dougbut^ 
» dau. 

At Tjmenaouth, Nortbnmberliind, the wife of 
Edwaril Gdwiurdii, rKi,, Tjiiemouth Castle, a dau. 

At Tcddiagton, MUklleeex, the wife of tjie Ilcv, 
Ucury Wiile, a dun. 

At Midford. ibo wife of Comiouider Bailey, 
^^.N.t a son. 

At her (utber** re^deace, Dartmouth-grore, 
£kheatb, the wife of the Rev. Arthur Joho 
E^iddell, Vicur of Pains wkk, GloucesU rshirc, 
idaa. 

Jmmt 3R. At North-terrace, Anglesey, the wife 
of GapL LoMellira I) lake, Uoyol llarlnefl Light 
Inftmtry, a dau. 

At at. iohu'fl Panonnge, Angell-town^ Brlxtoa, 
the wife of the EeT. Matthew YuugUao, B.C.L.i 
• aOD. 

Junt 37. At Rutland-gate, Lady Edwtkrd 
FitutUn Howartl, a dam. 

la Bt;lgrare-»q., Lady Ootarla Shaw Stewart, 
s too. 

At Ftymouih, the wife of Col. IL Maade 
HamOtoo, 12th Regt.^ a aon. 

At Little Coocnbe, CharlUjn, the wife of Lieut. - 
I Col. Lynedoch Gardiner, K.A., a dan. 

Al Bath* the wife of CapL Archibald Impcy, 
^Bmgal Englneerc, a son. 

At Bokcby Rectory, Torkhhiro, the wife of tile 
B«v* Alfred J. Coleridge, a daa. 

Al Boamere-ball, t>u^ulk, the wife of Ak'^aadcv 
BailoWt eeq., a ion. 

At Old Sodbury Vlcange, Gloueestersbire, the 
irife of the Rer. Robert Seymour Naab, a son. 

At Great Barrington, Glouceftterahiie, the wife 
of tbe Rev, George Bode, a san. 

Jtm* 18. la Upper Gro«veQor^t., the Lady 
' Mary He ibcrt, a wn. 

At Swarellffe-hAU, Yorkiblre, the wife of John 
Greenwood, em}., M.P., a aon. 

la Moi]tagnp-»t., Rui>iieU-Aq., the wife of the 
EeVf John Fudey, Rector of 8t. Michucl Boasi- 
■haw, A dan. 

In NiHtitig-bill-eq.t thewifeof Capt. CroeamaD, 
I B.£«. a datt. 



At Vanzel-cottagc, Mldhnnt, the wife of Capt, 
Berren, Mrt Begt. M.N.L, a *on. 

At Oaleroni-hUl, Notta.^ the wife of JohnYeieey 
Mnchin, esq., a »on. 

Jam 29. At Dufftyn, Aberdare, the wife of 
H. A. Bruce, eaq., M.P., a dan. 

At Moy^boaae, near Fotrei, If.B., the wife of 
John Grant, e«q., younger, of Glenmorbton, a 
Bon. 

At Cambridge- villa*, Aldersholt, the wife of 
MaJ. Chms. M. Foster, 32nd Light Infantry, a dau. 

Junt m. At Sutton Vicarage, lale of Ely, the 
Hod. Mra. Charles Spenecr, a aon* 

At Chester*le-^treet, co. Durham, the wife of 
the Her. J. P. De Fledge, a son. 

At Aldingbournu Vicarage, nc«r Chicbeater, 
the wife of the Her. 0. F. Daniell, a dau. 

At Harbledown. near CaJitcrbury, the wife of 
Capt. Henry Tamer, 70lb Regt, a dau. 

At iJindford, Wilta, the wife of the Rev. J, 
Farnham IfcMenger, a dau. 

At Rom^gnte, the wife of Commander Hubert 
Campion, H.N.» a ion. 

At BeverHtone liectar)-, Gloucestershire, the 
wife of the Rev. Edward Molxirg, a dau. 

July I. In I^WTideft-«q., the wife of Ueitt<« 
Col. I^armonth, of Dean, N.fl., a dau. 

At A^twcNiid VicurukKe, Bucks, the wife of the 
Rev, Cliarlcs Cumberlege, a dau. 

At AbboU Riptnn^halU Iluntlngdot^ the wif« 
of Frederick Rooper» esq., a ion. 

At 8toke, Dcvonport, the wife of Major E. T. 
Wickham, 61 »t Regt., a *on. 

At Sttriabury Partonage, Mrs. Charlea Fowler* 
a dau. 

At Cliff-eoltage, Dawli^b, the wife of Llent.- 
CoL R. Smytbe, a dau. 

July 2. In Park*road» Regent*6-park, the 
Prinecfts Victoria Guuraiiuna, wlfi; of LLeut.-Col. 
J. rampt»cll, a dau. 

Itt Srmth-st.. the wife of Licnt,^ol. C. Towna- 
hend Wilson, twin dnus. 

At Kemerton, Gloucestershire, ^e wife of the 
Rev. Arthur Baker, M.A., a dau. ' 

July 3. At the Norest, near Maly«iii, the Hon. 
Mm. Norbury, a dan. 

At Furnham, .Surrey, the wife of Mi^r BUgh, 
4il»t Regt., a wn. 

July A, At Trabolgan, oo. Cork« the Lady 
Permoy, a dau. 

At Felton - grange, Shrewsbury, the Lady^ 
Francf» Lloyd, a dati. 

jHly^, At Edmburgh, Lady Louis Brooke, 
ascm. 

July C. In Inremeaa-teTr., the wife ol Henry 
Goodcnough Haytcr, esq., a aou. 

At xNorth -court, Eastling, Kent, the wife of 
Baker Murton, e«Hq., a dau. 

Juty 7. At Bath, the wife of Col. J. H. Wynell- 
Hayow, Bengal Anny, retired, a son. 

July 8. At CmdweU, WUts, the wife ol Lieut.* 
CoU Wallington, a dau. 

In Gloucci»ter.pl„ Hj-de-pk, tlie wife of Capt. 
Montagu Battye, Bombay Army» a «on. 

At PolteAgrovo Rectory, the wife of the Rev. 
£. Norman Coles, Rector of Battlesden-with- 
Fottccfiove, Bedr, a loo. 



196 Bbrthi^^Mmmageu [Ajlg. 



viteorCBpt.W.K.IfeMAi»Ejr^eil^ftKM. VMBott Seott, ft dn. 

At tte Bcctory. BolfaB-bywBalInd, Totta^ /W^ It. liidy Bill illh.mdft^ 
ttrwifcortteBcT.J. AIlaiWilaoa,ftdn. (II TftiiifcM|HM. riiiiirtiiiiirT. tfci Tlfc irf 

At XMt-luD, PvtiMe, 8hkz« tte vilfe «r CM. WailnA CtatiM Uekft. a dn. 
BimdBlftker.aMB. At Boks of Ctoadrv, an 

At W ^lit w mdi Bcdory, «• «1fc «# At of Mi^or Oeorfft a Waftar, 



,MrlC to EsHB-fL, tte Hob. Mn. Pikes- Thlylt. AtAkodcta, fkrvli^arc 

feM^aMB. Kikir, esq., Fotiv aad 

la SofUkvkk-Vtea, Hrda-ffBifc, tte vilfe «r ana. 

Hiif ODtf.gi»,ftM- toUppcrEectrKwil-,lfcewffcifHfyQMr 

.M^ll. At liiimiiia BBCfqr. Baf, fh> Qiya. O u— ■ *« EJC, HJIA " Mfc M^,* 

^Mb«f1keBcT.l. E.Fr7«r, adaa. aaoa. 

AtDHuOHlle,CMckkavcil,ttevilfearOiV^ JM^lt. to Bkarf-rt., Hbe vl% af Ika Hm. 

A.Ptietead.HJI.*»MkBc«t.MJ(X«adBa. a W. Warns, CS^ HJLIi M a m mf '^ tm ^ 

AtniiBattiiQaity.OaiaHLAewifceftka ltiBliad,a««. 

Bev. & W. Maapa, a daa. /alyM. At Kiaalarti«. Oacf ^ fhaidfc af 

At Bnnhi, «^i aa, Ae wifcef Iift.-0»L W. ttrBcr.W.a La^do^ K^L^IWIavarQaMMr 

Q«ii»lrtrarHJL'%MkBc«t.MJIX,ana. Cdkfe, Gnikri^sr, a daa. 

.M^U. At TcatMT, Me of Wi^kt. tte wtfb AtlfceBayi ninriil. Ow^wkk, tkaalfcaf 

af liwt. J. M. Bill I W, mjr., a oaa. Be^fMia CMMe, «^ 13^ HJf^ - Baateb* 

AtWI liiii,tkgwtfcaf the Bct. ImwO. ad«a. 

BHiiHiHTiI ni|-|iB. 11- AtAeQMft,%lii>aij,Mia>TkaiMaB»a*iek, 

JM^IS. TWvifcarGlpt.AittBrFBcrKarr, adaa. 

Aaoa. At Bftlpvea, amr F*B>an>. tta ar» af 

At CTiiiw, Grtway. Ae arifc af OoBnattdg W. H. Lave, etq^ X.IK, a daa. 

jateW^MnkWc^B^^aaa. ^a^r 21. At Bafk^. t^ alfc af ttr Bar. 

AtBBik,tke«ifc«riaBMKciik.ca^MJ)L, a B. Baftektoiaa, a na. 

mr'j DMJB.i liMj. ■ ana JWy S^ At IliiiikaW, tha ^ifc af Majar 

.M^ U^ At Wn i fafc i H B tt ia i. i . IHlta, Aa Haate^CB., BayalAitiBBy.aaaa. 
^MbaflkaBeT. 



MARRIAGES. 



M. Atl 

t» Say C^AsiMwaMart daa. af W. a Alki^ »a kata JaMfk CteM. ai«, JJL, FJiL&, *a^ 

atow^ «*%, ILXL ari^aif>C^aawaIL 

4^rTtf flL At St. laka V F^akaaaa, Hcaay /aa# 9iL At B aal A , Sir Gkaaiaa DaafaTaw 

QiM i i aa r *.ii a ii. tan-. B ta»a i CH^ SargaBa> karu af. ^ aa a i j .iaLa^TMaayawt S>.Laaiiaia 
laMtb aaa rf W£ia» ff ai aft u. g^ BUn^ Ta- AtOnrt Ownfc. ^aiay. Haay aatBWta- 

■tw«. )a ikna Dan. Tuaaanc Aaa aflaMa tta. <■%, Ur«L aJLH Ss^isa. tfeitd a« af CaL 
lajfta c*%. r ^jiai kt a «> Ak 

JhylL a: C^ionwaad. N<^rkrmK T. K. aftkrisa^l 

BiteaaB. «i^ C^pc l9C Eair>> to ur *" * aflkaGavvau] 
Cm I'll w » Cac«±>e. iiiii»i Ava. af ^ 

Jhy :iw AsSaaagMre.J.BKvataBliitawai%, HMlm. ■%, 11 T. if 

rfSirm^:iA>iaJaiaCapai»a>iniat*^€f aaa iMkaw ta Ltoa» aaaaad «Ba. aflka lata 1 
att Jaii^Muai . v«boBi4. «a^ «f 

.^M 4. Ai Saanac riaaalfcii. VStaM Pt^OT; af BJLV I 

>aRZH. rsuTt cu> iT a« aa- Bm. Kiak. U^nA W^ awa a n. 

Amm L ^ Haifta. ^Cova 5mC3^ )ia«Nr ,^»r £1 At Sk. WfrkariT^ Ckiaftat n. CaL 

SaSK^X. P'lauiBa.iiar j^^kt KaymAraQsyw Ckarsa Ontv^ ICiK. *rk fti«t^ ta < 

a ari> 

AS K-aJ^ laakM^ Jaaa» C^aaar* aa%. i 
H II ^ sfe. liarrX i 

WB^ Pa:*«teiBL aa^ M-k, aai^ aaa af A. Mwcmt. M^ Bia^ Ufke C^« 

L-Cai^ laiA. Graaaa Mfeaka^ ar J 





1861.] 



Marriages, 



197 



CMpt. ftith Li(thi Infantry, Toimgrr»t aon of C^pt. 
F, HnUowcB, R.N., of Coc^i» l>ol(rell}\ to Louifta 
ColcDiiui. second dAU. of Thorn as Halluwe«, e»q«, 
lieut. R.N.« of Tunbridfre, Kpnt, 

Jirti* 25. At C»pernwr»T, the Hon. William 
Bpenoer Flower, wcond son of Vbtcount Aahbrook* 
to AiifTutft IfadeliiM Benriftt&t elde«t dau. of 
Oeorg* MuloxLt esq.^ of Capemirray-biill, I^ti- 

At Boldre, HaziU, the R*v. Edward O- Eleri*, 
B.A., Uolvereity College, Oxford, to Mnry Lane, 
fiati. Of tbe ReT. C. Shrubby Vicar of Boldr^. 

At St. Andrew's, PlyiiKkqtb. Major Pftxireraldi 
Strft (ttifl Duke of WelHnfton'H) Rrgt., only mn 
of lb* lata Col. PiUKcniid, f^Oth Kin^'n Kojal 
Siflo«t lo Amelia Auiriiiita Klpbln»taae, Bccoud 
8biu of Ibe Ute CoL EtphLmtone Hollo WAf, C»B^ 
Boyal SnirineerB, of Belair. 

At St, Andrww'B, Plymotith, the Rev. Edmund 
n. Woodward, M. A.. Fellow of St. Jotm'ii College, 
Cambridf!^, and one of the Mastcrt of Brifrhtoa 
Collefift to Thoma/»iTie Jane, younfreert dau. of 
John Borlaiie, e^q., of If»Ifton» CortawalL 

At Whtaton, TorkKhlre, the Reir. Rtchard 
CThamtrta, M.A., yotinRett fton of the late Rer. 
Robert Cbambrea Charobres, B.D.^ Llfs-Meir- 
chion, Denblfrhshlre, to Marj, dau. of John 
Waring, esq,, of Hawori'h>ball, Kotherbiim. 

At St Mary's, Marylebone, the R<*v. P, E. H, 
Brette. D.D., to KHi^abetb, yotiDgeKt dau. of the 
UtC WUliftm Raper Cro^c, esq., of I1aiili*y Castle, 
Worowttsnih ire. 

JiMttt. At tfae Royal CbapeU Windsor Gr en t- 
pBfk, Henry Darid Erflkine, em)., of CardroM, 
piRlhahire, Co Horatia Ehcabetb, elde^t dau. of 
H^or-Oen and Ijidy Emily Seymoar. 

At 8t. Jamc8>, P«ddlngton. Alexander Young 
Knclfttr, iwj., Capl. H.M.'s Bombay Army, ekie».t 
•CO ol Sir J.^ho Sinclairp biirt., of I>iinbe>ith, to 
Margaret Criobton. eldest iiau. of the late Jamen 
AlelOiB, eaq., of Bry^mntua-itq. 

At Mcti1r«town, Dublin, Col. Kennetli Doufr^a 
Maeki^xle. C.B., to Mary« second dau. of Mujor- 
Oea. Colomb. 

At St. Georipe'd, Hanover-«q., the Rev, James 
W. Field, Curate of Brnybrooke, Northmnpton- 
shlre, lo Cat^-erine Emily Wtnirfleld, third dau, 
of the fle«^. J. D. Glennle, of Green - itreet, 
ClrotYraor<«i|. 

At Sdgluuitoin. Blrmiflgbam, the Rev^. Fred. 
CUdcr, A.M.. Hea<J Mur^tcr of tkieGrammar-Bcbool, 
CnieatfrfleUl, to Selina, duu. tit Geo. England, esq., 
Ed^baflton. 

At ftl. Tudft Cornwall, J. T. H. Peter, esq,, of 
Cbjfvrtoa, Ute Fellow of Merton ColleKe, to 
Mtiy Aon, eldeit dau. of J, p. Major, esq., of 
I^mdlyii. 

At Cmtliwaltr, Ken wick, the Rev. Arthur 
WttUtm BeadUm, Incumbent of Wborlton, efch 
■on of the Lite Ven. Archd. Hesdlatn. to Agnes 
Sarah, joangeM dau. of the la!* James PaTeU^ 
••q., of Derwent-lodge, Keswiok. 

Jum§ 17. At All SjintV, S: Jobn*t'wood, Wm. 
Henry Six Us rd, esq,, to Mary, eldegttdau. of n«n. 
Oaire TiKker, C.B., late 8eng.il Ciril Serrtee. 

At Ham Prvston, I>orsct. Waring A, Biddle, 



esq.. Capt B6th Rcgt., to Csrollae Kmma, eldest 
dau, of the late A. O. GUUat, esq,, of Lewcs- 
crescentp Brighton. 

At Whipplngbam. JameA Edward Gtbson, esq., 
of Went Cowes, to Loulia Matilda, only chHd of 
the late Fleminpc Cbupman, e^tq., Copt. R.N. 

At Dorkmg, Richard RadclUfo Twining, esq., 
of the Strand, London, kte of IT.M.'sSSrd {Duke 
of Wellington**) Regt., to Mary Jane, eldePt dau. 
of John Gilltam SUlwcU, i?*q,, of AruBdel-ftt., 
Strand, and Dorking, Surrey. 

At Great Chart, Kent, Flenry Oldman Mann, 
cm]., Cdpt. 13tb Light Dri goons, eldest son of 
William Augustus Munn, e»q., of Throwley- 
bmitie^ Kent^ to luibclla Frunees, elfiest dau. of 
the Rev, Nicholas Toke, of Godenton, Kent. 

At Egremout, Major Kcnnion, Bengal Artil- 
lery, third »on of the late Rev. Thorn ae Konnion, 
t'* Georgina Loai^a^ eldest dau. of the late Tho*. 
Hartley, esq., of Cdlftjol, Cumberland. 

At St. Marylebone, Wlllium Walliji King^Capt. 
nth Royal Lancer«, only sun of William C. King, 
e«q., Warfleld-hali Berk% to Katherine Selina, 
teoond dau, of the late Stuart SulUrnn, esq., of 
tbe Madras Cfril Scrrice. 

At Hcaritnie, Ex^ler, Wm. Woodward Sboret 
esq,, of St. Mary •Church, Deton, to Kathsrlne 
I^uiso, eldest dau. of the Rev. Jnmes John 
Rowe, Rector of St. Mary -Arches, Fjtetcr. 

At Uromoliaire, Edmund Yates, second non of 
the late Jonathan Peel, esq., of Culhain, Oxford* 
shire, to l.oulsa Longridge, eldest dau. of the 
late Henry Palmer. e«q., of Shiiff, eo. Leitrim. 

JuHt 2». At St. MaryX Reading, the Rev. 
Henry J. Poole, to Mary Elisa, dau. of Anthony 
Gwj-n, esq., Baron^-baU, Norfolk. 

At Hove, Gordon Sutherland Morris, enq., 
Cftpt, 15 Ih Borobay N,L, to Eliza, widow of John 
Bin grove, eeq., of Gloucester-Mi., London, and 
Oraitge Valley, Jamacia. 

Jttt^ 1. At Bishop's Lydeard, Somerset, Edw. 
Ealelgh King, rsq , kte Capt 13th Light Dra- 
goons, eldest *on of Bolton King, esq, of Chads- 
hunt, W(U'«iek^hl^e, late M.P. for that county, 
to Susanna Ocuvia, youngest daq. of Sir John 
Hesketh Lethbtidge, bart, of Sandhill-park, 
Somerset. 

Julf 3. At Affkne. W^aterford, Sir Charles 
Wheeler Cuffe, bart, co. Kilkenny, to the Hon. 
Pauline Stuart, dou. of tbe Right Hon. Lord 
Stuart de Dcciea, of DromanA, co. Waterford, 

At St. Peter's, Not ling -hill, Archibald Lewis 
Ftayfnir, HM.'s Bengal Army, youngest son of 
the late Lieut.-Col. Sir Hugh Lyon Flayffeir, 
LL.D., of St. Leonard's, St. Andrew'ii, to Isabella, 
eldest surviving r»au. of the late George Huntley 
Grd, eflq., of Manchester. 

At LlHnfechsin, Montgomeryshire, William 
Tbos. Foster, ec^j., 2nd Dragoon Gusrds, second 
ran of Ricbnrd Foster, esq,, of CaPtle, LoAtwithiel, 
Cornwall, to Gwenellcn, second dau. of R M. 
Bonnor Maunoe, esq., of Bodyfoel, Montgomery- 
shire. 

At Finchampstead, Berks, Daniel Proberl 
Framn, H.M.'s Assistant-Inspector of Schools, 
and eldest son of the Rev. D. P. Fearon, law of 
As«itigton, SuAolk, to Margaret AmoM, tcooad 



198 



Marriages. 



[Atm. 



dan. of Bonamy Price, esq., of PrinceVterrace, 
H J de-park. 

At Finchley, Charles Wilson, esq., of Lans- 
downe-houae. Old Charlton, Kent, to Caroline 
"Woodthorpe, yoangest dau. of the late Joseph 
Childs, esq., of Liskrard, Cornwall. 

At St Jame8% New Brighton, the ReT. Charles 
Elsee, M.A., Fellow of St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, and Assistant Master of Rugby School, 
to Minnie, second dau. of Henry Cram, esq., 
Manor-lodge, Li»card. 

July 3. At Walesby, Notts., Sir George Mao- 
pherson Grant, hart, of Ballindallooh Castle, 
Morayshire, to Frances Elizabeth, younger dau. 
of the Rev. Roger Pocklington, Vicar of Walesby. 

At Frindsbury, Kent, Richard Moore, esq., of 
Kirkham, Lancashire, to Dorothea Myers, dau. 
of the Rot. James Formby, M.A., Vicar of 
Frindsbury. 

At St. John's, Notting-hUl, James Payne, eldest 
son of the late James Baker, esq., of Maidstone, 
to Amy, second and youngest dau. of the late 
Capt Josiah Wilkinson, of the 44th Regt. M.N.I. 

July 4. At Magheragall, Walter Wcldon, Capt. 
47th Regt. n.M.'s Madras Army, second surviving 
■on of the late Sir Anthony Welion, hart., of 
Bahinderry, Queen's Cou Hy, to Louisa Acheson, 
second dau. of Sir James Maeauiay Uigginsun, 
K.C.B., Brook-hill, co. Antrim. 

At Beachley, Gloucestershire, Edward, only 
furviving son of the late Very Rev. George 
Markham, D.D., Dean of York, to Harriet, 
youngest dau. of the late Rev. John Rumsey, of 
Trellick, Monmouthshire. 

At St. Stephen's, Marylebone, the Rev. Henry 
Pearce Knapton, B.A., Queen's College, Cam- 
bridge, to Rachel Newberry, eldest dau. of the 
Rev. John P. Sargent, M.A., Bentinok-terrace, 
Regent's-park. 

At Clifton, T. B. W. Sheppard, esq., eldest son 
of T. Byard Sheppard, esq., of Sel wood-cottage, 
Frome, to Mary Anne, only dau. of the Rev. 
Aaron Rogers, Incumbent of St. Paul's, Bristol. 

At All Saints', Chichester, the Rev. Chrislr. 
Thomas Watson, Christ's College, Cambridge, to 
Augusta Mary, eldest dau. of Wm. Duke, esq., 
of Chichester. 

July 6. At St. George*s, Hanover-sq., Thomas 
Jones Sherwood, esq., of the Royal Sussex Light 
Infantry Militia, to Mary Cynthia, youngest dau. 
of the late John Jones, esq., formerly of the 2nd 
Life Guards. 

July 9. At Clapham, Frederick Pollock, esq., 
formerly of the Bengal Engineers, eldest son of 
General Sir George Pollock, G.C.B., to Laura 
Caroline, only surviving dau. of the late Henry 
Seymour Montagu, esq., of Westleton-grange, 
Suffolk, and Thurlow-lodge, Clapham. 

At Lyndhurst, the Rev. John Compton, Rector 
of Minesteed and Lyndhurst, to Laura, third dau. 
of Vice-Admiral Sir Charles Burrard, hart. 

At St. George's, Hanover-sq., T. W. Booker, 
esq., of Velindru, near Cardiff, Glamorganshire, 
eldest surviving son of the late T. W. Booker 
Blakemore, esq., M.P., to Caroline Emily, young- 
est dau. of the late Robert Lindsay, esq., of 
.Glanafon, in the same county. 



At Southsea, Hants, the Rev. Walter Harry 
Tribe, Rector of Stockbridge, to Sophy, youngest 
dau. of the late Charles Alexander Lander, eeq.» 
H.B.M.'s Consul at the Dardanelles. 

At the Oratory, and afterwards at St. Paul's* 
KnighUbridge, Capt. John Peyton, 18th Huaears, 
eldest son of Wynne Peyton, esq., to Yiola^ 
eldest dau. of Col. John Henry Pringle, Queen's- 
gate-terrace, Hyde-park. 

At St. George's, Hanover-sq., the Rev. Jamee 
N. Bennie, LL.B., Vicar of St. Mary's, Leieester, 
elder son of the late Rev. Dr. Bennie, to Madeline 
Laye, elder dau. of Samuel Dicksom, esq.* M.D., 
of Bulton-st. 

At St. John's, Notting-hill, the Rev. David 
Ross, senior Curate of South Hackney, to EUoh 
beth Anne, only dau. of the late Thomas Moseley, 
esq., of Bedford-st, Covent-garden, and Grove- 
hill, Camberwell. 

At the British Embassy, Paris, Edwin James, 
esq., Q.C., to Marianne, widow of Capt. Hilliard, 
late of the 10th Husoars. 

July 10. At St. George's, Hanover-sq., M^or 
Dickson, of the 18th Light Dragoons, and Bel- 
ohester-house, near Coldstream, to Charlotte 
Maria, dau. of Lady Grey de Ruthyn and the 
late Hon. and Rev. William Eden, and widow of 
Dudley Lord North. 

At St. James's, Piccadilly, Charles Sutton, esq., 
to Alice, eldest dau. of the late Sir Wolatan 
Dixie, hart., of Bosworth-park, Leicestershire. 

At St. Matthew's, Guernsey, Jonas Watson, 
esq., of Fairwater, Glamorganshire, to Emily, 
youngest dau. of the late Msjor-Gen. Sir Octavius 
Carey, C.B., K.C.H. 

At the British Consulate, and afterwards at the 
British Episcopal Church, Boulogne-aur-Mer, 
the Rev. Thos. Wil«on, B.A., of Queen's College, 
Oxford, Corate of Buxton, to Cecilia Frances 
Mary, eldest dau. of the Rev. E. Weigall, M.A., 
Incumbent of Buxton, Derbyshire, and Rural 
Dean. 

At Crowhurst, Sussex, Carew Louis Augustus 
O'Grady. Capt Royal Engineers, son of Vioe- 
Adm. O'Grady, of Erinagh-house, oo. Limerick, 
to Emily Caroline, third dau. of Thos. Papillont 
CM}., of Crowhurst-park, Sussex. 

Also, at the same time and place, Francis 
Gregory Haviland, barrister-at-law, son of the 
late Professor Haviland, of the University of 
Cambridge, to Adelaide, fourth dau. of Thomas 
Papillon, esq. 

July 1 1. At St George's, Hanover-sq., the 
Hon. Frances Blanche Anne, second dau. of 
Lord Calthorpe, to the Rev. John B. Ffeilden, 
Rector of Baoonsthorpe, Norfolk. 

At AU Souls', Marylebone, Wm. S. W. Vaux, 
esq., M.A., of the British Museum, to Louisa, 
eldest dau. of Francis Rivington, ceq., of Har- 
ley-st 

At Charles Church, Plymouth, Lieut-Col. Edw. 
Lake, Royal Bengal Engineers, Commissioner of 
theTrans-SutleJ SUtes, Punjab, to ElisaPenrose, 
youngest dau. of the late Thomas Bewes, esq., of 
Beaumont, Plymouth. 

At St John's, Upper Holloway, Joseph Walter 
Tayler, esq., F.6.S., eldest son of Adm. Tayler, 



1881 .1 



Marriages. 



log 



I T.B.. to Julia CifoliDe Ro«a, elde«t Ann, of Henry 
l>i«ni, ccq., of Upper Hollo way. 

At at, I(UrT*v, Bererlcy, Major Fredrrick G. 
Pjra, B.M. Uf?ht Infuntry, K.L.U., foungeat 
■on of Capt. PjTa, R.N., to Mar)- Ann Rtixubcth, 
eldwl dan* of Licut,-Col, B, GrunTille LiiTard. 

At Chriit Church, Newgate-**., Wm. Jacobs 
eaq,., IL)I.*i l&Uk Regt. Eomboy N.I., second mu 
at tlie Ifrte Lirut.-Col. WUlkm Jftcob, Dvimbay 
ArtiUerj, to Elixa, M>coDd dau. of the Key. Gvo. 
Andrew Jacobs D.D.j Head MaDtcr of Chrlst'i 
HoipitJil. 

At Sparkford, Somcr*«t, the Rer, C- M. Church, 
Vice- Principal of the Theolojricil College, Well*, 
to Elixjibetb M»rjr, fifth d^u. of the ReT. H. Bea- 
Hell, Hector of Spark ford. 

At All Saint ji% Colchester, Edward Cooduitt 
Bk knell. e«c}., 38th Regt., dder ton of the linte 
Kltumaii Ukknell, e»q.» South-place, Ilemr-hilt, 
to Amelia, fourth dau. of Stephen Drown, e>q., 
J.P., Oraj Friars, Colchest^r. 

Juiy Ifl. At St, John'K, Paddinglon, the Eev, 
Kob^rt Gregory, to Ch.irlot^fi Atinr, joungesit 
dan. of tile late Adm. the lion. Str H. Stopford. 

At Frome HlAhop, the Re*^. W. J. Swajne, of 
Whiteparlnb, Wilt*, to Diana, eldest dau. of the 
late W. r, SbBokbargb, esq., of the Hoot, Down- 
ton, Wilts. 

At St. Andrew^t, Flfinoatb, Tboa. Broogham, 
elde«t Mn of T* D. Sowerbf , e*q,, of Blaekbeuth, 
to Jtkiie, only BUrriiriiig dau. of the liLte Capt. W. 
Stepbenn, R.N. 

At More, Shropshire, the Rbt. MaaHce Lloyd, 
Rf^cto^ of Mofitgomery, to Hjurielt Lotuna, only 
dau. of the Her. Tbooia* Predcrick JUore, of 
Linley-h^iU, bhropahlre. 

At Great Harlow, Bnotis, LienL^Col. Pordval 
Fenwiek, ^9th Reft., youngcat *on of the lute 
Col, I'enwick. C.B., Llent.-GoTcnior of Pen- 
dcimi!* Caistle, Cornwall, to .Sophia^ third dim. 
of Owen Wetbered, eM]., of Remmuiu, Great 
MatIow. 

At Trelbant, Lieut. -Col. Wilbraham Oatet 
l4flnoiU Royal Enptlneerft, peoond mn of Ivord 
George Leuno^i, to Mary Karrii-tt, ditu. ul Rubert 
Harrison, esq., of Pbu Cl(>U|(rh. Deriblirb. 

At Iltlllngdon, Horace Chaplin, eK|., of Stock- 
irall, Moond mo of tbe Uie W. J, Ciinplin, ««q., 
of Byd6>pafk*^gnrdenA, to Helen, eldest dau. of 
Janea MonTgomery, c^., of Pole-hill, HlHinf- 
don, Bzid BreuLford, Miadl^Bex. 

At Trinity Church, Mar>'1cbone, Joseph Shap- 
land, eaq., ofCliftoD. and of Cradley, Bereford- 
■Ure, lo Sarah Luui«a, > nunge^t dau. of the late 
Oeoigt Bracti esq., of Ca\'etidt»b-equare. 

Jmfy 17. At Bere Hefia^ John Boa worth Smith 



Marriott, e*q., of the itb Dragoon Guard a, 
Bccond aon of the Rer. Wm, Smith Marriott, of 
HorBtnonden, Kent, to Prancea Julia, aecoxid 
dau. of C. J. Rudcl) ffe, eflq., of Fozdenton-hall, 
Lancashire, and Hytie, Donct. 

Juttf 18. At St. Gcoi^^a, IIa:norer-»q,, Theo- 
dore Hervry Brinckman, caq., eldest son of Sir 
Thcod'ore Brlncknuui, bart., of St, Lconard'a, 
Wlndwor, to the Liidy Cecilia Augusta, yotulg?c«i 
dau. of the Marquis of Conynf ham. 

At St, Manin-iifthe-FicldA, Capt. EgertOR, 
of the Coldvtrcam Guarila, eldeat aon of Sir 
Pbitip-de-Malpa« Grey-Kgerton, hart,, of OuHoa- 
park, Chester, Jo tlie Hon. Henrietta Dtni>on, 
eldest dau. of the late, and aii»tcr of the prcMoat, 
Lord Landesborougb. 

Alfo, It the t^me time and p!nce, the Hon. 
Arthur Wrottcsley, eldest *on of L<ird Wroilea- 
ley, to the Hon. Auguma llenlson, second dau* 
of the late, and sister of the preaent. Lord Londeo- 
boroDKh. 

At Trinity Church, Tunb ridge Wells, the Re%'. 
Jtibn Huph Way, Vicar of Hen bury, Uloucent^ r- 
altlie, to Cnrcilinc, second dan. of tbu Ute Rcar- 
Admiral Sir W. Kttward Parry, 

At Ueniingstone, Suffolk, Geotge Maw, F.L.S,, 
F,8.A., of B nlhallhall, Broseley, Siropabire, 
elder son of J. Hornby Maw, Imte of Haatinga, 
to Frederica Mary, second da a. of the Ker. 
Tbomna Brown, Vicar of Hemliig«tone. 

July 19. At St. John*s, Keswick, Charles 0. 
F. Know lea, Lieut. R.N., only 'on of Sir Francis 
C. Knowles, bart., to Eli^tabeth, only child of 
J«>bn Cbaproan, e.Hq„ of Ck'vcland-aquare, Hyde- 
park, 

Jutff 20. At Marylebone Church, W|]]iara 
Wybrow, youngest *iou of the lateM^^jor-Ciieneml 
Koh^rtaon, to Alice Mary, duu. of the Rt. Hun, 
Thonias M liner GibMjn, M.P. 

At St. John's, Rkehuiund, Hand* Edward 
Bcolt. e*q., of the 7th Drapion Guarda, eldest 
•OS} of Sir Claude Scuit, biu t., to Maria Selena, 
second dau. of H. C, Bunicy, esc]., LL,D.. of 
Rtchmofid, and grand dau, of the late Admirml 
Searle, C.B. 

Jnfjf 25. At the Old Church, Brighton, J. Grunt 
Malcolm son, e^,, 3rd Bombay Cavalry, t^econd 
^n of the late Jaines Mal»>lrtiMin, eaq,, of Camp- 
den-hill, KeuHington, and Gloucester -isqu are, 
Hydc*p«rk, to Annette KliJiabeth, elder dau. 
of the late William Grimuilc, e»q., of Albany -st.. 
Regent' «-park. 

At St.Jaines'a, Dorer, Charloa Richard Kill- 
oombe, e»q., of Alpbington, Eieter, Ut Llizabeth 
Mary, widow of Mujor Stephen H. Chiipnijm, 
30th Kegt 



200 



#I)U«aij>. 



iMehtivet or Friends tupplfi*^ Memoira are requetted to ajtpend thtdr AddrwneM^ tn 
order thai a Copjf qfth« Gsktlemas'b Maoazuts caniaining their Comfmnicatiom* 
m<^ he forwarded to them*'] 



H.LM, TBS SlTLTAir. 

June 26. At Coiutantinnple, aged 88| 
the SnltaQ Abdul Mecyid Khan. 

This prince, wfao was the thirty^Hrat 
■overeign of the Hoe of Otbnlan, and the 
tweoty*eighth since the Turks established 
themselvefl at Coustuntiaople, wai the son 
of Mabmoud H., the great introducer of 
Huropeaii reform«, and was born on the 
23rd of April 1B23. He had not tang 
eompleted hi* sixteenth jear, when the 
foroet of the empire were routed at Nizib 
%j Ibrfthlm Paiha ; the Snltan Mahinottd 
died % hw days after, and on the 2nd of 
July, 1889, the young prince succeeded to 
au almost notninal empire. To gain the 
iupp<irt of the European Powers, his 
niiinititera pliuced him unreservedly in thetr 
hands, and hrom tins state of tutt'lage he 
never emerged. His powerful protectors 
were in reality his niRfter^, and their am* 
bastiadors and Cfjn6uls mort* truly ruled 
the state than his grand yiziers, and 
•eruskiera, and pashas $ his own share in 
the government was literally nothing, for 
he kept himself shut up more closely- than 
even Oriental sovereigns generally do, and 
was only known to his people by hii ex.- 
travagant expenditure on his favourites 
and his palaces, which swallowed up all 
the resources of the state, and left even 
the army onpaid. The European powers 
advined aud remonstrated, but in vnin; 
all their projects for raising the Christian 
subjects of the empire to an ecjualty with 
the other races were received with much 
apparent deference, and Imperial ediota 
were issued, which, aa far as words went, 
were all that oonld be deaired, but tliey 
were never put in force, and only afforded 
groanda for ch urges of bad fiiith against 
the indolent Sultau and his advisers, many 
of whom had a sincere hatred and dread 
12 



of all the Chriitian Powers, whtbt others 
were the all but avowed agents of Russia. 
This latter Power, which had long arro- 
gated to itaelfau exclusive protectorate of 
the Christian subjects of the Porter and 
was by most of them regarded aa their 
real sovereign^ encoumgt'd by the appa- 
rently irremediable weakneM of Turkey 
at length ventured to propose its parti* 
tioo, hut found the project unfavourably 
reoeived by the rest of Europe; not dis- 
couraged by this, she puruued her in- 
trigues, and having fastened a quarrel on 
the Turks, on the snbject of the Holy 
Flacesj she commenced a war which pro- 
mised tj effect all her ends. England 
and France then took up arms, and the 
war of 1854-56 followed, the result of 
which WHS to re-estnhlish Turkey as securely 
as any state that is unable to protect itseL' 
can expect to be. The war had shewn 
that the Turks possessed more military 
strength than they had received credit 
for, and that they bad, in the persona of 
Oumr Pasha and Fuad Pashti, men of real 
ability and statesmanlike views; henc« it 
was eoi]ceived possible that their empire 
might be " regenerated" as it was tcrmedf 
and sohemis for substituting something 
like Constitntional rule for the old ftina- 
tical despotism wore urged on the Porte, 
were courteously recel^red, and never acted 
on. In the meantime idl the old signs of 
the decay of the empire (aptly described 
by the Kussian emperor as the "tnck 
man'^ re-appeared. It was seen that the 
8ultan was a mere pnppet in the hands of 
his intriguing ministers, and that ns long 
as they found money for hia extravagant 
pleasures, they might rule as they pleated* 
In consequence of this the introduction of 
EoropeHu skill and capital, which was con- 
templated after the war, and which might 



4 



1861.] n.I.M. t/ie Sultan.~T/ie Lord Braffdnoie. 



301 



eftl'ct wonders in a country of auch grestt 
natural riches, never took pluoe, u^ no 
security cotild be telt. unci the treasury 
fell so bopelcssily Into debt thut the 
Oovernment had neither money nor cietlit. 
From thoie uud other catttcs, the fleet 
and army were broii|?ht to their old etate 
of weakness, the prov^inces on the Danube 
have become virtually independent, and 
instirrectioutt hii¥o broken out in many 
other quarters, more pnrtiL-uhirly in Syriii, 
irhich tUe Porte ha^ been unablo to deal 
with without the dangiTOUs «iMstai]ee of 
France, In the midst of these eonfueians, 
Abdul Medjid, who had Lon^ been in a de* 
pluruble state of weakness Ixtth of body 
and mind, died, leaving the tlinme to hia 
brother Abdul Aziz, a man seven >eara 
younger, and who is stated to he a tttrik- 
ing contrast to him in every re»pect. Ho 
tuK commenced his reign with sweeping 
n^actions in the palace, has banished the 
prioje minister of hts brother, and by 
edictii hiis promi.sicd civil and religious 
equality to all his subjects, retronchuieiit, 
refbrro, Slc., as freely as any Constitu- 
tional sovereign would do. Whether these 
edicts will be carried out^ and whut, if 
carritd out, their etTects may be, is mere 
SDfttter of cotyecture j but it hardly ad- 
mits of doubt that Ei^gland and Fninco 
will not a tecoud time take up arras in 
defence of n power that has so plainly 
shewn alike its weakness and its bad faith, 
«nd wittiout their aid, its subversion by 
UoMia may be regarded as a moral cer- 
l^iity, 

Tlie late Sultan ban left a family of six 
•Otii and eight daughters, five of whom 
wn married. The husbands of t«^ o of them 
are of the fainiiy of Mehemot Ali, and 
another (now dead) was ft son i^f the 
wtdbknonu Rechid Pasha, Contiary to 
the fbrm« r barbarous eustont of besring 
•'no brother near the throne," Abdul 
Hcdjid spared the life of his brother Abdul 
Ath, who was born Feb, 9, 1830, The 
prince wns kept in studied sectlusioiu but 
he is Qndersl'oocl to hiive received (for a 
Turk) a really liberal education, and be 
has cvineeil its gtiod etTects by kind treat- 
ment to his nephewn, the eldest ofwh./m 
be has placed in office as go?emor of a 



province, thus making one not inconsider- 
able step in a^simlluting the condition of 
his empire to that of other Europcaa 
states* 




Teb Lobd Bratbbo^kb. 

Feh. 22. At Audley End, aged 4}, 
Kichard ComwaHis-NeviUe, Lord Bray- 
brooke, F,S.A., bereditHry V^isitor of Mag- 
dalene College, Cambridge, High Stewt.rd 
of Wokingham, Berks., and Vice -Lieuten- 
ant of the county of E«sex. 

The deceased nobleman was the eld. «t 
son of Richard, third Daron Braybrotke 
of Braybrooke, co» Northampton, by Jane, 
drtoghter of Charles, second Marquis C'orn- 
widliH, He was horn March 17, 1820; Im 
married, Jan. 27, 1852, Lady Charlotte- 
Saruh-Unibam Toler, sixth cliiugbter of tbu 
second Kari of Norbury, by whom be leaves 
lasoe two daughters, Catherine-Elizabeth 
and Mary- Isabella* 

Lord Braybrooke was educated at Eton j 
from early jears he shewed a taste for 
literary and aatiquarian pursuits, which 
doubtless received a strong iinpultje in his 
moturer life from paternal influence. The 
fN3n of one so eminent in bistorlcnl arid 
topngraphical invcatJgations a.H the noblo 
author of the ** History of Audley End/* 
and cdil<^>r of the ** Diary and Correspond- 
ence of Popys," may be said to have been 
nurtured in the love of national history 
and antiquities. In 1837 he entered the 
army, having obtain ed a commission in 
the Grenadier Guards, and he served with 
Ibat regiment in Canada iigui list the rebfds 
in the winter of 1838, On Nov. 5 in ibut 
y^ir, he naiTowly tscjiped losing his lifo 
in the St, Lawrence, in the generons en- 
di avour to rescue a drowning man from 
its icy waters. He had been suddenly 
ordere<i with his regiment from Quebec 
to attack the rebels, who were in great 
force at Reauharnois, The Guards paraded 
by torch-light in a very dark night, and 
marched to embark on lx>ard a stejiuier. 
When tbey reached the wharf there was 
a sudden cry of **tt man overboard." 
Heedless of his own safety he immcdintely 
rushed forward to render as^stance, ai.d 
overstepping the wlinrf, was plunged into 
06 



203 



Obituary. — The Lord Braybrooke. 



[Aug. " 



the St, L«wrenc6, encambered as ho wu 
with Qniform and acoontremcnta, aod a 
iliick coat with which he had provided 
hiTDftcIf against an Inclement n^ght. Al- 
though a good swimmer, he with difficolty 
reached a boat, to which he clung tintU in 
the darkness of the night rescue at length 
arrived. In 1841 be quitted the army 
through ill-health, and for iomo years, 
aided in all his occtipiitions hy the gentle 
sympathy of an aftcctionate and aocom- 
plifihed sbter, he devoted himself with re- 
niivrkahle energy and perseverance to his 
favourite pursultii in vaHoos branches of 
natural hti torj, but etpeciaUy to that sya* 
tematic investigation of Boman and Snxon 
remmits In the neighbourhoml of Audley 
End through which he attained to so 
distinguished a position among the [nrac« 
tical arcbiDologisU of his day. He was 
always extremely earnest and energetic in 
proeeonting his researches ; at one period 
geology had been his favourite pursuit, 
and he formed a very good cullection of 
foasUs^ the greater portion of which he 
ultimately presented to the Wiildeu Mu* 
ienm. He also brought together a beau- 
tiful aeries of stuffed birds, including the 
greater number of the iiicligenons species ; 
this scries, arranged with great taste, will 
be preserved with his other ooUeetions as 
heirlooms at Audli'y End. The most re- 
markable feature, however, of those ex- 
tensive collections, ia the Museum of Anti- 
quities of every period, the creation of his 
own well'directed and indefatigable ex- 
ertions, and eon&isting almost exclusively 
of objects brought to light at the Homan 
Station at Great Chesttrford, or at other 
fiites of Homan occupation in the vicinity 
of Audley End, and also from many other 
localities to which his researohea extended, 
especially the remark able Saxon cemete- 
ries excavated under his directions near 
Little Wilbraham and Linton, In Cam- 
bridgeshire, during the autumn of 1851 
and the winter of the following year. 

On the death of his father, in March, 
1858, he aocceeded as fonrth Baron Bray- 
brooke ; and, mmtdat occupations of greater 
moment, be pnrsoed with unremitting in- 
terest those oosgenial subjects of enquiry 
to which for many years his attention was 



ao advantagecnsly dlreete^l. Rls eabinei 
of British and Eoman coins chiefly brought 
4o light in the oonrse of his own explo- 
rations, and also the rich DactyUotheea^ 
the object of bis especial predilectioni 
in kter years, may be nnmbercd among I 
the mo«t important private collectiona of ' 
their kind existing in this country. 

The hunented nobleman shewed on bH 
occasions the greatest liberality and cour- 
tesy in imparting information regarding 
the results of his reaearchca, and in per- 
mitting acceas to his museum. He was 
associated with several societies instituted 
for the extension of antiquarian and his* J 
torical researches. On March 25, 1817, ho j 
was elected Fellow of the Society of Anti* 
qnaries, and he made oommunications from j 
time to time to that learned body, re- | 
garding his explorations at Chesterford, j 
Hadstock, Tri plow-heath, Royston, Little I 
VVUbralmm, &c. A notice of the dis- 
co veriea miide by him in 1845 at Chester- 
ford is given in the Archceolo^iat voL 
xxxii. p, 350, and an account of the five ^ 
harrows near Hoyston may he fonnd in , 
the same volnme, p. 357. His subsequent j 
oommimkatious are briefly notice<l in the j 
Frocoedlngs of the Society, vol. ii. pp. 192, ' 
199* 

Lord Br^iybrooke communicated alto 
several valuable memoirs to the Journal of 
the British Archseological Association, and 
to the ArchiDoIogical Journal; in the 
former may be specially cit^ his report on 
the examination of the Roman station at I 
Chesterford, vol. ii. p, 208, prepared for ' 
Gommonication to the Congress of the 
Aasociation at Warwick in 1817< To the i 
Journal of the Arclueological Institute, of ] 
winch Society ho became one of the Vice- 
Preddents in 1850, and continued to hold j 
that position until the time of his deceoj^, j 
Lord Braybrooke was a frequent coulrl* 
butor. The following are his principal I 
communications:— Memoir on DiMX>veries j 
at Ickleton and Chesterford, 1818, Archjp- 1 
ological Journal, vol. vi. p. 14 ; Itesearchei 1 
at Woyoock, Berks,, ibid., p. 114; Roman] 
VlUa at Badstock, voL viii. p. 27; Cxca*^ 
vations near the Fleam Dyke, Cambridge* 
shire, voL ix. p. £26 ; Roman Remaint at ' 
Hadstockj BartWw, and Ashdoo, Essex* 



I 






^ :». 1 




18G1.] 



OniTUAnY. — 77«c Lord Braybrooke. 



203 



nnn 

E 



Tot. X. p. 14 ; Remark* on Roman Pottery, 
discovered in Cftmbiidgcshire nnd Rsbox, 
ibid., p. 22-i; Ancient Cftmbridgethire, ft 
comprebcfistve survey of ve«tige« of early 
occupation in drabridj^eshlre and Enox, 
cbicQy tbe rcsnlt of pcnionnl observation, 
(lie jng Lortl Braybrooko'a addrcis delivered 
19 President of tb© Section of AntiquitleB, 
lit tbe Anntud Moeting of tho Injtiiute in 
Catnbndge, in 1854,) vol. xi. p. 207 1 Ro- 
man Sbafta diseovcred at Cbesterford, vol. 
xH. p. 109 ; Remarkable Deposit of Koman 
Antiqaitiei of Iron at Cbesterford, voL 
xi'ii. p. 1 ; and, Diacoveriea of Rom an Re- 
roains. Gla«% Pottery, &e., at Cbcsterford, 
in 1860» Toi ivii, p. 117. 

To tbe Tranaactlons of tbe Arcbtoolo* 
pcjil Society of bis own county of Essex, 
]n»iitut«d in lB52r be con]iDUoicat4cd an 
interesting notice of tbe extensive series 
of examples of t^ainian ware^ and of tbe 
names of R<nnan potters found tbereon, 
wliolly firom bis own collection, (vol. i. 

141). On tbe decease, in 1867. of tho 

eran antiquary of East Anglia, Jobn 
>i«neyp Esq., to wbcwe liberality the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge bos been indebted 
a Prnft-ssonhip of Antiquities, it was 
iio matter of surprise tbat, in the selection 
of a saeo«ssor as President of the E^ex 
ArcUtBological Society, tbe choice should 
have ttnanimoosly fallen on the amijiblc 
aiid necompHslieii nobleman, whose un- 
timely decea&e lias now thrown a cloud 
over their brightening pro(spocts. At the 
meeting at Waltham Abbey, in tbe year 
abore mentioned. Lord Braybrooke con- 
ifibiited a valuable memoir on a subject 
wbich no one was more Mly quaUSed 
iban bimielf to invest with interest^ and 
appears in tbe Transactions of tbe 
Sodety (vol. i. p. 191) with tbe un- 
title of *' Notes on Roman 
^«ex. 

U was, however, not solely by friendly 
Intereoune with all who shared his taste 
for sntiquity, or by occasional contribu- 
tions to archnological literature, valuable 
and wetl'doservtng ts tbey src of being 
united in n more permanent form, that 
tbe dlflUnguuihcd services rendered by 
BrsyUrookc to the cause of arcbie- 
in ftimnUiting the intelligent ap- 



preciation of national antiquities, is to 
be estimated. Among tbe earliest, and 
not the least interesting, of bis works on 
subjects which during so many years sup* 
plied a cheering solace in hours of leisurA 
or of suffering, may be mentioned tbe 
valuable memorials of his earlier explora- 
tions around Audley End^ privately printe<i 
in 1847 under the title ** Aniiqua EX' 
ploraia : being tbe Result of Excavations 
made by tbe Uon> R. C. Neville in and 
about tbe Roman station at Ched^rford." 
To this succeeded, in tbe following year, 
'* Se-ptilckra JSxposiia ; or. An Account of 
tho Opening of some Barrows, with Re- 
marks npon Miscellaneous Antiqnitiea dis- 
covered in the neighbourhood of Audley 
End." Each of these int^jrcating volumes, 
printed in octavo form for private distri- 
butlon to the friends of tbe author, is 
copiously illngtrftted with woodcuts nnd 
lithographs from drawings by Mr, O. 
Yoongmnn, of Saffron Walden, whose ac- 
curate pencil wns oonAtitntly in requisi- 
tion to augment the invalnahle ilhistratinns 
of local antiquities with which Lord 
Braybrooke' 8 portfolio was enriched. His 
most important contribution, however, to 
archaeological literature still remains to he 
mentioned, namely, the sumptuous fcilia 
volume entitled ** Saxon Obsequies, illus- 
trated by Ornaments and Weapons dis* 
covered in a Cemetery near Little Wil- 
brnhami, Cambridgeshire, during the Au- 
tumn of 1951." This valunhle work, pub- 
li&hed by Mr. Murray in 1852, comprisoi 
forty plates skilfully lithographed in 
colours by Mr. Stanesby, and displays the 
most extensive assemblage of Saxon relics 
hitherto brought to light in any part of 
England. 

It has been already observed that Lord 
Bray brook e's cabinet of coins is of more 
than ordinary value, independently of its 
interest as having been formed within the 
range of his own researches. His skill 
and keen discemment as a nauiismatiBt 
were sncb as might be expected from an 
antiquary whose habits of research were 
of the most practical character. Great as 
the value of his collections may be,, it is 
singularly enhanced by the peculiarity 
that tbey have not been gathered iudii- 



2';4 Oh\iVk%i.— The Lord Braybrooke.— Lord Cmm^bdL [kwg. 



rriniftwUljr from uneertMO iooreet ; tbej 
kftve Keen reacnal from oblivioii in great 
peri nndcr bu own ejree, by the ipede and 
i'le maitork directed by that keen per- 
eafyii/m, whiefa teemed almoft instinctiTelj 
to f^ide him to tbe myfteriooa localitiea 
where treaaore lay oonoealed. 

In liord Braybrooke^f eztenaive ooHee- 
ti//n of ringa, to which alloaion hai been 
m ide, a remarkable lei iee of ezamplei of 
all perioda it preierred, illaftratire of the 
tHfie and lentiment, and alio of the artiiMc 
df«oration, which inreat these diminatire 
rdica with ao varied an interest. In 
February, 1856, Lord ilraybrooke de« 
liirered a dincoane at a meeting of the 
Literary .«oci#dy of SaiTron Walden, en- 
ttlM "The liomaoce €/( the Ring; or, 
Tlie Iliftory and Antiquity of Finger- 
liog*;" which waa printed for private 
diitribntion, aa waa likewise the catalogue 
if his collection of rings, compiled by 
liimself, and oomprising descriptions of 
203 examplea. That valuable series of per* 
arinal ornaments was subsequently much 
augmented; it will be pkced with the 
other collections illustrative of ancient 
arts and manners, which it was his delight 
to form at Audley End; and it is highly 
gratifying to know that, by the dispoeitioiis 
ot Lord Hraybrooko's will, they will be 
there preserved as a lasting monument of 
the zeal and tasteful intelligence with 
which he lias constantly promoted the in- 
vchtigation of national antiquities and tbe 
extension of archfeological science. 



LOHD CilKFBBLL. 

June 23. At Stratheden -lodge, Ken- 
sington, aged 81, the Right Hon. John, 
liord Campbell, Lord Chancellor. 

The deceased peer was descended from 
A junior branch of the ducal house of 
Argyle. His father was the Rev. I)r. 
Oe- rge Campbell, Minister of Cupar. Dr. 
Campbell married in 1776 a Miss Hally- 
burton, through whom he became dis- 
tantly connected with several noble fami- 
lies, among which deserves to be men- 
tioned the family of Wedderbum, the 
Lord Chancellor. By this lady he became 
the father of five daughters and two sons. 



One of thcae dn^kUn Hnied the klfr 
Dr.Thomaa Giltey^ Piofeaaui rf Hi— - 
nity in the Univcnity of 8k. Andrew's. 
Of the MH^ the dda" wm So* George 
Campbell, of Ede&woodp wko &d m 1854; 
tbe younger ww« tbe anlgeci of tlua pie- 
•ent memoir, and waa bom at Spriagfidd, 
near Cupar, September 1^ 1779L John 
Campbdl leeeived bia fint imiittkiii at 
the grammar-achool at Ciqau; and w« 
then removed to the Uniraai^ of St 
Andrew'a, with the view of stndying ftr 
the Church ; but aOer taking bia MJL 
degree he resolved to adopt tbe kw aa his 
profession, and repaired to T^mdon. Hia 
earliest asaociatea in London were thoae 
Scotch Whigs to whom the name of Camp- 
bell had a fine Presbytoian flavonr. He 
very soon joined a dub of Sona of the 
Clergy of the Church of Scotland, of whom 
Sergeant Spankie and Wilkie the painter 
were members, the sentiment which bound 
them together being expreased by Willoe 
in words which Campbell delighted to 
quote long afterwards when he waa raiaed 
to the British peerage — "Bom in the 
manse we have all a patent of nobility .** 
While a young man waiting for bnsincai^ 
he supported himself, like many othera of 
his profession, by journalism; and waa 
a reporter as well as theatrical critic on 
the staff of the "Morning Chronide." 
The "Chronide" was then an important 
Whig paper, the property of Perry, a 
Scotsman, — whose sister was married to 
the c(>lebrated Porson. The associationa 
of a London reporter *s life were far more 
scholarly then than they are now; and 
among the staff of the first-rate joumala 
might be found such men as the author of 
the famous review of Brougham's "De- 
mosthenes " in the " Times " of a quHrter 
of a century ago. To this part of hia 
training Lord Campbell owed that con- 
tinued interest in literature which dis- 
tinguished him altogether from many 
other legal luminaries. 

Campbell wns called to the bar in Mi- 
chaelmas Term, 1806. He travelled the 
Oxford Circuit, where he soon obtaimd 
considerable practice. But it was to bis 
London business that he chiefly looked 
for advancement in his profession, and 



18G1.] 



iBfTUARy. — Lord CamphelL 



205 



it mtjftt be confessed that he pusliOf] hia 
yrmj in a tnumier the must onginnL Btt- 
Iween 1S09 and 1816 he publislKa n 
H'riot of reports at Xiai Prlua extending 
ti> four volumes, which nre most raluuble 
in themselves, but which were of espcclid 
intereti io the att'Omeys who had been 
engnged in anj of the caaes recorded, in- 
asmuch aa for the fir^t time in the history 
of each reporting he had at the end of 
cch decicion stated the names of those 
uttomejA who hud to do with the trials. 
He »oon established a connection with the 
leading lolieitorfi, obtniniHl a hirg-e practice, 
iijnd was retained, a§ a mutter of course^ in 
shipping caies, and nearly every imp^rt^int 
CAuit» tried before a speelal jury at the 
Guildh&U sittinp^ Apart, ho%vevfr, from 
t' c» popularity of these voluraea among 
the attorneys, they were held in still 
wider estiumtion as the admimbly-re- 
ported decisions of Lord Elknhorowgh; 
l^d Crtmpbell took credit to himself for 

Aving in some degree created the rcpu- 

■Uon of that lawyer. 

In 1821 he married ^fnry KUznbeth, 
eldest ditngbter of Hir James Scarlett, 
AlLerwanU Lord Ahioger, and in 1827 be 
ohtainod the honour of a silk gown and 
n seat within the bar. He represented 
Stmffurd during 1830 and 1S31. In Xo- 
ifembcr, 1832, be was appoiotc<l St»licitx>r- 
General, unil in the follomng month wag 
returned by Dudley in the Reformed 
Parliament. Sir John Cfimpbell was ap- 
p nnted Attorney-Gcnoral in February, 
1S31, on the retirement of Sir Williimi 
Home; but on presenting himsi-lf, in 
the s»me month, to hia constitnentft at 
T>u(lley for re-el'ction, he was unseated. 
He» however, obtained a seat for Edin- 
burgh, which be retiuncd until he was 
elevated to ii peerage. 

Me wan rather strangely pasaed over 
in the legal changes cfjnf*eqnent on the 
retirement of the Whig Chancellor 
Brou{;hant, hut by way of amends his 
wtfe WAS raised to the peemge as BHruncis 
Strmthiden. This wiw in January, ISSH, 
and f »r fire yeais more Sir John Camp- 
I ell wnit^'d apfmrently without the prn*- 
poct uf « rise, but Rt ln«t the Iriih Clmn- 
cdlor wai coiiSttlted* and Lord Plunk ett 



wns persiinded to retire; and towards tho 
end of dune, 1811, Campbell was raised 
to the peerage and to the Iri«h Chan- 
cellorship. He did not retain hia olllce 
long, hot left Ireland before the month 
WBJS out, and iu the September fcdlowing 
be resigned with Iho Mt'lboume Miuiiitry. 
He retained the title and a pension of 
£ l-.OOO a year, but he declined the p4M*u- 
niary reward, and lived for the nest five 
years without office, profession, salary, or 
pension. Revelling in the resumption of 
clHB«ical studies and in the perusal of 
modem authors, " By degrees I began to 
perceive the want of a definite object," be 
says, and he resolved io write tho ** Livea 
of the Chancellors.** The first seriea of 
these biogniphies was published early in 
184^6, and the work beauoe inimediatx'ly 
popular, though it is now known to be 
a very Buporficial and partisan prodnction, 
and not at all to be trnated on matters of 
fact. These were succeeded by a series 
of " Lives of the Chief JuHtices,*' to which 
a similar character applies. Their tem- 
porary popularity h well accounted for by 
a writer in tho *' Edinbijrjjjh Con rant :"— 

'* These works acquire*! a greater popu- 
larity than might have been expected; 
and, inilecd, they are written \u a suflS- 
ciently tlowing and resKlablc style. Lord 
Cami>bell was not only fond of literut nre, 
but he had a keen relish for ixtpnhirity. 
He did his best to accumulate unecdotes, 
and dash off * graphic' skct-ubes, like the 
regular ' light writers' of his time, and he 
achieved considerahle success in this new 
sphere. But accnriicy is not by any means 
a characteristic of the^^ * Live«f and there 
art? other faults iu them which detract 
from their merit. Tlie style, though 
lively, is loose, and sometimes even vul- 
gar ; and tbe gossip o* each perio<l abont 
tbe great men of whom Lord Campheh 
ia writing is reproduced with a gusto 
which says little for Ins delicacy of Laiite, 
— and arguiis periiapH some want of real 
kindness aud generosity/* 

On tbe return of the Whig party to 
office in Jane, 1840, after the reaignatton 
of tlie late Sir Kobert Peel, Lord C-iimp- 
bel! joined the Cabinet, and was appointed 
Cbimcel!or of tbe Duchy of Laucawter in 
the succeeding mouth. In 1850 bis lord- 
ship wa* appointed Lord Chief Justice of 
the Queen's Bench, which became vacant 



206 



Lord Abinger, — Prince Adam CzartorysH. [Augi 



on the death of Lord Denman. He held 
that post until Lord Palmerston'a acoes- 
sion to power in 1859, when he waa se- 
lected to fill the office of Lord Chancel- 
lor — an appointment which gave general 
aatis^tion. 

The death of his lordship was very sud- 
den. On the preceding day (Saturday) 
he was engaged in his ordinary pursuits, 
and in the afternoon he attended the 
cabinet council* held at the Premier's 
official reridence in Downing-street. To 
h'8 colleagues he appeared cheerful, and 
full of mental vigour. In the evening he 
entertained a party of eighteen at dinner, 
and while with his friends was fhll of 
lively converse and shewed no symptoms 
of illness. At one o'clock he hade his 
daughters good-night in the drawing- 
room and retired to rest. On Sunday 
morning, shortly before eight o'clock, his 
lordship's butler entered his master's bed- 
room, and was greatly alarmed to find 
him seated in a chair, motionless, with his 
head thrown back and blood oozing from 
his month, and insensible. The impression 
of the medical m^ was that his death was 
the result of a rapture of one of the prin- 
cipal arteries in the region of the heart, 
internal bleeding causing suffoc ttion. 

By Baroness Stratheden, who died about 
fitleen months since, the deceased leaves 
issue three sons and four daughters, viz., 
William Frederick Lord Stratheden, the 
Hon. Hallyburton, and Hon. Dudley 
Campbell; the Hon. Louisa, married to 
the Rev. W. S. White; the Hon. Mary, 
the Hon. Cecilia, and the Hon. Edina. 



LoBD AanrGEB. 

June 24. At Abinger-hall, near Dork- 
i'lg, aged 66, Robert Campbell Scarlett, 
second Lord Abinger, and brother-in-law 
of Lord Chancellor Campbell, whom he 
survived but one day. 

The deceased peer, who was the eldest 
of the three sons of Sir James Scarlett, 
first Lord Abinger, was bom in London 
in 1794, and was educated at Trinity 
College, Cambridge. In 1818 he was 
called to the bar at the Inner Temple, 
tie sat iu Parliament for Norwich firom 



1835 to 1887, and for Horsham from 1841 
till 1844^ when he succeeded to the title. 
In 1824 he married Sarah, the second 
daughter of Mr. Chief Justice Smith, of 
the Mauritius, who surnves him, and by 
whom he leaves issue Lient.-Col. the Hon. 
William Frederick (now Lord Alm^;er), 
who served in the Scots Fusilier Qiuurdi 
in the Crimea, and received the order of 
Medjidie; the Hon. Henrietta Elizabeth, 
who is married to the Hon. Otway For- 
tescue Toler, heir presumptive to hia 
brother, the Earl of Norbury; and the 
Hon. Frances Mary, wife of the Bev. 
Sidney L. Smith, Rector of Brampton 
Ash, Northamptonshire. 



Pbikcb Adax Czabtobtski. 

JuUf 15. At Paris, aged 90, Prince 
Adam Czartoryski, a very prominent actor 
in the Polish revolution of 1830. 

The deceased, who was bom at Warsaw^ 
Jan. 14, 1770, was the son of Prince Adam 
Caumir, who was a field-marshal in the 
Austrian service, and who died in 1828. 
He passed several of his early years in 
England and at the Univeruty of Edin- 
burgh for the purpose of educaUon, and 
on returning to Poland he in 1798 joined 
the force of Kosciusko agfunst the Russians. 
That effort, as is well known, failed, and 
after the partition of the country, the 
young count was sent with one of his 
brothers as a hostage into Russia. Here 
the Grand Duke Alexander (afberwarda 
emperor) was so charmed with the noble 
and manly character of the young Pole 
that he became his intimate friend, and 
upon his accession to the throne appointed 
him Minister of Foreign Affairi, in which 
capacity Czartoryski in 1805 subscribed, 
in the name of Russia, the treaty with 
Ghreat Britain. He then demanded his 
dismissal, but, nevertheless, accompanied 
Alexander in the campaign of 1807, having 
previously been present at the battle of 
Austerlitz. 

Afcer the peace of Tilrit, he retired 
almost entirely from public life, declaring 
that his connection with Rnsaa was only 
as a personal friend of the Emperor. For 
this reason, when the war broke out in 



IS6L] Prince Adam Czartorysku— Richard Blagden, Esq, 207 



1812, he WAS »gmn by the skle of kXex- 
Mndcr, wliom be accompaaied to Paris in 
1834. 

Ill 1815 be was appointed S«nator Pa- 
ktiiifiof the IdDgdom, and in 1817 manried 
itw Prtnoeii Amia Sapleba. Ho attended 
the first Diet, and spoko boldly in favour 
of a Constitution, but nil bis bopes wero 
disappointed. In 1B21 soioe students of 
tbe University of Wilnat of wbich be was 
curator, were accused of revolutionary 
movements, and in spite of bts elTorts sixty 
of them were imprisoned without trial. 
Hanj of the sons of tbe 6^rst fAiuilies 
were dimftcd as soldiers into tbe Rusaiuu 
regiments, and others were banisbed to 
Siberia and tlie military colonies, Ccar- 
toryski tberetipon resigned his post. When 
the revolution of 1S3/0 broke oat« be de- 
voted all bis energies Ic tbe service of bis 
ocmniryr He was appointed President of 
tbe Provisional Government, and sum- 
moned tbe Diet to meet on the ISth of 
December, 1830. On the 30th of January, 
1831, he was placed at the lH3ttd of tlie 
jliAkmal Govemroent^ and oiTered half bis 
pioperty for tbe ser^'ico of his country* 
Aft<r the terrible days of Au|?URt 1 5th and 
16tb, he resigned bis post, but be terved as 
A common soldier in tbe corps of Geneml 
Bomarino during the last Aruitle^ itrug* 
gles. When all was lost bo made his 
escape, and reached Paris. Ho was ex- 
pr^sly exdndcd from tbe amnesty of 
1831, and his estates in Poland were con- 
fi«»ted. 

tHiring tbe Polbb insurrection of 1816 

tbe Prince's Gallician estates were put 

QtMkr sequestration by the Austrian Go- 

[ vernment, bot tbis was removeil in tbe 

\ Mifrix^ of 1843. In March of that year 

\ Iw ismed a proclamation urging tbe Ger> 

■n repreerntatives to unite with those of 

\ Ihmnm to demand the restoration of Pa- 

emL In April, 18-18, be enfranchised 

the peasants opoii bis estates of Siendaiwa, 

in GalUda, and gave tbem their possessions 

In fee* 

Jhirii^ tbe many yaars of hi§ roni Jence 
In Pam, Prince Czarioryski wis the ac- 
knowledged bead of tbe Polish society in 
that capital, and was universally respected 
' ftir lua political integrity and h'gh minded 



patriotism. He leaves a daughter and two 
sons, one of whom is married to a daughter 
of Queen Cbristina of Spain, 



March 3L At Percy -pluee, Bath, aged 
72, Ridiard Blagden, Esq., F.R.C.S. (Eng- 
land), late of Albemarle-strect, London. 

Mr. Blagden held the appointments of 
Surgeon Accoucheur to her present gracious 
Majesty, and of Surgeon in Ordlmiry to 
bcr late Hoyal Highness the Duchess of 
Kent, For nearly forty years he dis- 
charged with tbo utmost integrity, per- 
severance, and ability, the duties of n 
medicul man in London. Among men 
eminent iu bis profession bis name was 
always spoken of with extreme respect 
and deference, while he bfld an e<]ually 
high reputation both with personal friends 
and itatienta. Tbe latter included many 
of the nobility, and persons of distinction 
in society. In earlier life be lectured, in 
ooi^junctioti with the late Sir Charles M. 
Clarke, on midwift^ry, and was for many 
years conueited with Queon Cbarlotte's 
Hospital, — always, oven in the mid at of a 
large and pressing pracliee, displaying an 
active interest in that and otbcr medical 
and benevolent institutions. He was con* 
sidered to be peculiarly skilful in, and 
gained a celebrity fur, tbe management 
and treatment of female and cbild run's 
complaints. Throughout his career ho 
made that branch of medical science his 
BpiclaliiS, 

Nearly seven years ago Mr. Blagden, 
feeling himself,- through ago and failing 
health, to l>e unequal to his former labo- 
rious habits, retired from bis practice in 
London. From that period, up to tbe 
time of his death, bo ri^ided in Bath* 
Tb«^e, though he declined all professional 
engagements, the same courteous man* 
ners, unobtriisive gooduess, and consistent 
ebafict«r endeared bim to many. Those 
who knew him well could see almost a sig- 
nificance In his well-spent, exemplary life's 
dosing, as if in rest, on tbe evening of 
Euster<day. 

He was tbe youngest aoti of the late 
Bichard Bragg Bh^gduu, E»q., of Pet* 



208 



Obituahy.— Miss Baker.— Rev. Br, CurdwefL 



worth, Snasex, himself, in bi« day, a. medi. 
t"al man of some local repute. There Hiir- 
vive him a widow, and nevcn children by 
A former marriuge, three *laught*rs liud 
fotrr sons, one of whom now foUuws the 
mediciLL profession. 



jifn-il 22. At her hou§eiii nold-Btreet, 
KorLhiiDipton, aged 74, Miaa Aime Eliza- 
beth li^tker. 

She wns tho youngeai of three chil- 
dren, of whom one, Mrs, Wilson, still 
snrvives. Mia» Bnker was the 9i«ter of 
Mr. George Baker, the hUtoriaii of North* 
amptonsbire, and to her tho excellent but 
incomplete work on the "History and 
Antiquities of Nortlmmptonshire '* owes 
its geology and botany. *' 8he had been," 
8nya the Qunrterly Reviewer, in January 
1857, **tlie companion of her brother's 
jonrneysi his amuntien^ia, hia fellow- 
h4boiirt?r, eSjHX'sally in the natural history, 
aj]d had made dravkiiiga for, aad even 
engrtivod, some of the plAtes for his greiit 
work.** Indeed it would be hind to 
overrate her share of the book j ber accu- 
rate and minute turn of mind being of 
tho greuteBt valtie to &£r. Baker in the 
collection and preser^^atien of those detailsj 
so in considerable when viewed ftt-parotely, 
hut which in combination make up tlie 
chief value of a county history. Besides 
the assistance given to her brother, Miss 
Baker was employed, during the grcAter 
part of the time in which she Accouipnnied 
him from village to village, in compiling, 
from the mouths of the common people, 
th€ collection of provincialisms which she 
ufterwardsi cmbcxlied in her ** Glossary of 
Northamptonshire Words and Phrases,'* 
published in 185'1 in 2 vols. This was in- 
deed A labour of love nith her; and is 
one of the most full and salif factory of all 
our local lexicons, tho Anglo- S^xouism of 
the county giving it a range and a 
vntuL* Wyond lU immediate district. Miss 
Baker devoted hf r««lf to antiquarinn sub- 
jects from her curliest years, and her re- 
tfjntlvo ttjctnory enabled her to connect 
the prment with the past with remark- 
•Ide accuracy . Bbe remembered John 



Wesley preaching on "the Green" «t 
Northampton, the cavalry galloping dowtt 
Gold-street on their way to quell the 
biriningham riots in 1791, and a woman 
being dipp*d in " the vva taring," in Britlge- 
ttreetj for reputed witchcraft. She was 
one of the first to call attention to tho 
neglected beauty of our old architecture, 
and in 1812 oonimenoed removing the 
whitewash fVom the Norman arch of 
St. Peter's^ which subsequently led to the 
pel feet restomtion of that church by 
Mr. G, G. Scott. 

But her energies were not confined to 
antiquarian pursuits. There was no one 
more active than herself in establishing 
and fostering charitable and educational 
Institutions in her native town. As a 
visitor of tho schoob and prisona she was 
heartily engaged almost to the very close 
of her life, and was ever ready to give her 
patronage and perwmal assistance to every 
wtdl-conduct^jd plan for advancing tha 
Hocinl, educatioualt and moral condiUou of 
her townsfolk of w hut ever chiss. 

Miss Baker was born on Juno 16, 1786, 
and by her death has left a gap in tho 
society of Northampton which the pre» 
sent generation, little appreciative of lite- 
rary and antiquariau purauiU, can hardljf 
be expected to supply. 



Ret. Dh. Cahdweix. 

Mfiif 23. At tho Prinei pal's Lodge, 
aged 73, the Kev. Edward Cardwell, D.D., 
Principal of St. Alhan's Hall, Oxford. 

The deceased waA the son of Richard 
Cardwell, E*q., of Blackburn, Lancaster, 
and w^as b^>rn in 1787. In 1806 he entered 
as a commoner at Brasenose. He gained 
a first class in classics and a second class 
in mnthcmatic8, took tho degree of B.A. 
and became a fellow of his college in 1809 j 
he all er wards acted for several years as 
tutor and lecturer, and in 1811 he was 
appointed one of the University Examiners* 
He WAS elected Camden Professor tif An- 
cient History in 1826. and in 1831 he wnA 
apiKjinted Principal of St. Alhan*s Hall, in 
succession to Archbishop Wliately. For 
a time he held the College living of Stoko- 
Bruernc, which be resigned soon after his 
appointment to St. Albun's BulL 



1861.] 



Obitcaby. — Rev. Dr. Cardwett. 



209 



Dr. Cardwell held tLe ofHces of Delegate 
^of EtitstteH, Delei^tc of the Pn^ss, iind 
ifttor of the University Gailerieft. He 
. % member of the Society of Antiqiift- 
t and oilier learned bodies. For many 
'^cars he took n leading part in the gorern- 
meet of the University, and he bfid great 
induence alike in the Hebdomadal Board 
of former tiraeA, and in the Hebdomadal 
l_ Council whicli hat now tuoceeded it* ile 
considered one of the best men of 
lainesB in the University, and had the 
nagement of the Bible departmt^nt 
' the University Press for many yenrs. 
It fvas also by his advice that the |)tiper- 
miU at Wolveroott was established for 
■oppljing the University Press with paper 
in which they might be certain what urn- 
terials were used. He was the personal 
friend of both Sir Eobert Peel aud Mr, 
Qlndstoue, and at each successive election 
they enjoyed every advantage that his 
zealous advocacy could procure for them. 
Lord Grenville, as Chancellor of the 
University, appointed him his private 
ry. The Ihiko of Wellington and 
Derby, as they enecessively became 
CthsncellorSf re-appt>iuttd hini, and be held 
the office to the time of his deatli. 

Dr. CardweU*s works were both nume- 
TtfOM aud important. The following is be- 
lieved to be a tolerably complete list 

In 1832 he published a sermon preached 
at Kortbamptou on behalf of the two great 
bnrch Societies, the S. P. C. K. and tlio 
LP.O., at their request, and iiiscrihed it 
to the ** Committee of General Literature 
and Education" appointed by the former 
Society, thereby giving bis sanctina to the 
plan. It may be doubted whether he quite 
approved of all the subsequent proceed- 
tngt of that Committee, or considered the 
publication of elaborate and eipensive 
wofki on natural history^ calculated only 
for the higher clawes, as the best mode 
of promoting Christian knowledge, or of 
•pending tlie money of the Society. 

Dr. Cardwell edited an edition of Aris* 
toilers Ethics in 182&-30, in two volumes, 
of te&t, the other of notes selected 
i the best oommcntatora, for the nse 
■"of students In the University, and this was 
the edltioii med for seTernl years; the 
Qwst, Ma©, Vol. CCXI. 




volume containing the text ha^ long been 
out of print, and he did? not reprint it 
because the text of Aristotle hud been to 
much improved by Bekker of Berlin, by 
the collation of new MSS. As C-nmden 
Professor of Ancient History he delivered 
a course of lectures every ytar on difierent 
branches of the subject, and one series, on 
the " Co'mnge of the Greeks and Itomans,*' 
he published with Mr* Murray of Albe- 
marle-street. But it was chiefly ns a 
learned divine, and for his knowledge of 
ecclesiastical history, that Dr* Uurtiwell 
was distinguished, and in those branches 
of leomiii^ he piiblished several works 
which have obtained an established re- 
putation. In 1837 he published an edition 
of the Greek Testument, with a valimhle 
aelection of the moet important various 
readings* a marginal harmony, reference to 
parallel pasrages^ and a conoordiince of 
words ; the text wns cjirefully divided into 
paragmiihs, and tl>e authorised English 
version printed on the opposite page with 
the same divisions, making a very useful 
student's edition of the Greek Testament. 
In the same year lie published the ** His- 
tory of the Jewish War" by Joecphns in 
Greek and Latin, a corrected text with 
various readings and notes, part selected 
and part original: this work, as is well 
known, contains the only autheutie ac- 
coant of the destruction of Jerusalem by 
Titus, and the exact fuliihiient of the 
very remarkable prophecies rflating to it ; 
the importance of this work is therefore 
second only to the Scriptures themselves, 
and it is lamentable to observe how en- 
tirely the study of this important chapter 
of history is neglected by the younger 
clergy of the present day. Dr. Cardwell 
did his duty well in printing a good and 
convenient edition of tliii work ; but an 
idle and perverse generation refused to 
litsten tf> his teaching on this subject. The 
English Cliurch may once have deserved 
the character of the most learned Church 
in Europe, but it seems likely in the next 
generation to become the most ignorant. 
Finding it impracticable to awaken the 
calm attention of theological atudent* to 
the early history of the Christian Church 
in a time of violent excitement and con- 
i>d« 



210 



QmrABT.— JZ». iPr. CmrStcdl. 



[A-g. 



€t^tatSij t* mg cwa loadb af is, lad 
iwBcdcW piM i^ a frat wfc, so iHi 
liMS tU coin iywdKml Unorf oT tiM 
CWsrdk a Fi^hwH, gwad ed «p«« tiM 
fmt vwk «f WindM, — CtmeiHn Mm^mm 
JBrif mrnma^ whatb Cb fear foBo i uii ibi ■, 
Ijtaanng; t» son fev^wraMe trsMs wmk to 
olk«r kadi tii* carficr pfwtaoM of tW 
Wisirfc, r ■iMtayfiflJK jlagi&.«teif« and 
JU^enl pcnM^be tkwgikt it bcai ibr 
fneticfld pvpoMs ioemaflMoee visk tbc 
ftiwik ^n^aoM^ cootainii^ the fjBfldf held 
ne» tW Bc^brmation : theaHst iapori- 
Mrt dMOHBU of tbe tine of Henrj the 
Eii^h b^ ab«ad/ been paUbhcd at the 
Vtdtemtj Vnm, midtr the d fr eet i on of 
tbe leal two ProfeaMn of Dmnxtr, Bi- 
ahop Lki^d mod Vt, Barton, aad the pre- 
amt CBCy Dr« Jaeobaon. 

The worfca edited by Dr. Cardirell from 
Wnkhaa mod oihcr mmieu womj be eoo- 
iidcred M a enmt im i a tion of the aame ia- 
portast teriea. The two litnrgiea of 
Edward VL co mpar e d with eadi other 
«aa one of whidi the otifitf wa §o ob- 
tiomt, thai it wa at ooee a ppr e ci a ted by 
the deryy, and toon reached a weond and 
a third edition. The " History of Confer- 
foea and other Proeeedings Connected 
with theReriiionof the Book of Common 
Payer fnm 156B to 1090/' eomprefaendcd 
fai ftct the whole tabjeet, for there ha 
been no change nnce, and wa equally foe- 
etmfal, and reached a third edition in 
IH40, Tbe " Docnmentary Annala of tbe 
Reformed Clrarcb of EngbuMl, being a 
Collection of Injanetiona, Dedarationa, 
Orden, Artida of Enquiry, Ac from 1546 
to 1710, with Kota Historical and Ex- 
pUnatory/' being tbe laws and orders 
isioed by authority for the govern m ent of 
the reformed Cliarcb in England, wa 
A work of tbe highest importance to tbe 
clergy, and wa appreciated accordingly; 
ft soon reached a second edition, in which 
tlie papers were collated with tbe originals 
and corrected from them, and some im- 
portant documents were added. 

Tbe neit work, completing this yalu- 
able series, wa tbe ** SynodaUa, a Col- 
lection of Articla of Religion, Canons^ 
and Frooeedingt of ConTocatkm in the 




raa tUI fo 

with Sola Historial aid Ezpla- 
pnhUbed ia 1M2. 
xaspaataas part e^^el 
tteCfandk tsi Ea^bad,! 
th« vafaay* Inl i a i taa 
Isf^riataacf theClnrth wkkh it iaaMr 
poaible to abtam. The object wkidk Dr. 
CasdwcH had in view in pnHTshag this 
acria, wa "to s^povt that gcsenl an- 
hricey of mind aad principle mbaA la 
SDOKc^ the aany bieaRngs euufiiiednpia 
the natron by the rdbn&ed Chnrdk of 
Engisad." The nota appended to thea 
docsaenta add materially to €bt Tata of 
the work ; they were compiled with great 
care aad diau iau naticai, and apply a know* 
ledge of the motxra and detaib that eon- 
stitnte the firing snbitance of histiay a 
&Cingmshed from its bare skeleton. 

Anouier important TOiumc^ caoady eon* 
nected with tlua amesi, wa pnbGshcd in 
1850,— the "Mrformaiio Le^mm JSeeUd- 
iuticofmrnj or the Beforantkm of tiw 
Eedataatical Laws lor the Cfanrdi of 
England a propoaed by the daf Be- 
Ibrmcra, and attempted to be caxried oni 
in tbe Reigns of Henry TIIL, Edward 
TL, and Etiabetb." It appcan to hare 
been quite by accident that thia great 
change in the laws of England wa not 
eflected, owing to the premature death of 
Edward VL and the dialike of Eliabeth 
to some of the persons who had been 
employed upon it. But it contains the 
resuha of laborious and painstaking re- 
search on the part of tbe leading men of 
tbe age, and tbe deiiberato judgment of 
such men a Cranmer, Peter Martyr, and 
8ir John Cheke after years of enquiry and 
consideration. Ita importance can acaroely 
be orerrated, and if thia work could now 
be placed in the bands of some of tbe 
leading statesmen of France and Italy, 
good results to tbe cana of religion and 
tbe peace of Christendom might yet re- 
salt from it. They would see that tbe 
English Reformers were not wild and 
dangerous men, but the most learned, 
thoughtful, and oonsdentious men of their 
age, anxious to preserve all that wa really 
worth preserving dt the old ooostitotions 
of the ChoFcb, and to reform abusa only. 



1861.] 



Itev. Dr. Cardivell. — Lieutenant Macdonald. 



211 



r. C«rdvft?U vm a tilting editor for Buch 
I work ; hi« tAsk was executed in the same 
tpirit of CKinfdentioufl, »crupii)ou8 care to 
preserve and render nccesjihlc tbw resnit 
of the ddihemtioiis of the FU^foriDers, H* 
coUftt^d the three editions of the printed 
work, and colkted it with the origmal 
MS. of Cmnmer eo fnr a# it has been pre- 
MTved, for the Utter part of the work 
\ to hare been added by oihen. 

An appropriate flnpplemont to the series 
docamentti of the time of the Refor- 
mattoD WAS found in Bishop Gibson's %- 
j^otUu Amffiicami, an account of the pro- 
ceoding« of Omvocation aftt^ the change 
of dynasty nnder William 11 L : this was 
publwhed by Dr, Ciinlwell in 1S5 1, and at 
the present time, when the Convocaition of 
the KtigtLsb clergy has revived into new 
life nflcr a century of such deep sleep that 
it was suppoacd to he dead, the work is 
ally important with the other valuable 

ries published by Dr. Card well. Every 
raember of Convocation is boond to makt* 
himftclf ma«t4?r of it, and all those who 
«re interesU^ in the proceedings of Con- 
vocation will find it of the g^atest in- 
t€re9t. 

In conclusion, we may be permitted to 
observe that it has fallen ia the lot <yf few 
men to prepare for the press and issue to 
the world so important a seriea of works 

I the history and doctrines of the Clmrcb, 
that the name of Fxlwtird Cardwell 
^11 long be held in affectionate remem- 
brance as one who kbourcd diligently in 
bis calling, and did good service to Cbureh 
and State, 



LlBtJTENAKT MAdJOXALD, 

Jmne 6* At >4t. Sidwell's^ Exeter, aged 
56, John Macilonald^ E>(|., Lieatenittit 
und Qnartenuaster of tUo 1st Devon 
Militia. 

The deceased, who had risen by merit 
from the ranks, was bom in Invemosa- 
abire in 1805. His father was a farmer. 
«tid young Macdonald worked with him 
<m the Und until about the year 1^23^ 
when, with a youn|» companion, he enlisted 
in the Lst or Royul Regiment of Foot, By 
seal and good conduct he rcry iooo ros^ 
GE%r. Mag, Vol. CCXI. 



and at an early ago he was made Scrj^cnnt* 
M«yor, The prc^nt Lieuteoant-General 
Sir George VVelheriill, the officer who was 
then in command of that regiment, always 
found his orders intelligently carried out 
by Sergeant-Mi^ or Macdonald, who com- 
bined strict discipline with courti^y and 
kindness. The regiment being on daLy in 
Oinadiiwhen the rebellion of 1831 broke 
ou^, was engsged in several conflicts willi 
the rebels. Volunteering was then relied 
on in tbo colony as it is now in Eng* 
land, and applicntion was made to Colonel 
Wetherall for an adjutant to orgtmizo a 
regiment raised for the service. Sergeant- 
Msjor Mucdonuld was appointed, and ou 
commencing his duties found to his great 
^ttsfaction that the ofEccrti and men coni> 
posing this regiment, *' the lilengairy 
Highlanders," were of his own kitli nnd 
kin, being Macdonalds, who had etuigratctl 
from the Highlands in a body some years 
before. Holding a com mission from the 
Governor of the colony, and with a pro- 
mise of n Queen's commission on his re- 
turning to thf?^ regulars, ho organized this 
regiment, 1,000 strong, and saw good ser- 
vice with them ; and so satisfied was the 
comrannding officer of the regiment, thatj 
when his services wen* no longer neces- 
sary, and he lefl the colony, he was pre- 
sented with a iword of honour, the highest 
testimonials, and strong recoinmcndalions 
for promotion. The promised commis- 
sion, however, was withheld, and Mr, Mac- 
donald, on his return, accepted the post 
of Sergeant- Major of the lst Devon Militia- 
Whercver placed ho became a favourite 
with those over him» and here, in a new 
•pher% his roeriCa were soon recognised ; 
ho obtaineil a commission as Lieutenant, 
nnd WHS pliKod on the eta IT ns Quarter- 
Master. K^irl Fortescue also took every 
opportunity of shewing how highly ho 
esteemed him. Qii the enthusiastic spread 
of the Volunteer movement in 1&&9, tho 
loyal spirit of Lieutenant Miicdonald could 
not allow him to remain idle. As acting 
adjutant he organized the recraita ia thl» 
Exeter Rifles, and, by a wcU-amnged 
systeim of drill, raised the Kieter com- 
panies to snch an efficiency as to ctdl 
forth the wannest eommendationi from 
Dd 




212 Lieutenant Macdonald. — Mr. Jamea Braidwood, [i! 



Inffpector-General M'^Mardo, and from the 
Dl' p a ty- Inspector, Major Hnme, Duty 
was bi8 watchword, ami, even in bis last 
lUnesa, doty wtii placed before dlscretioiv 
and increased bif maladjf, for, we read in 
"Woobncr's Gazette," (from which the 
foregoing particulars are gathered,) thnt, 
althongh weakened by a recent iUnoaa of 
great Bererity, be perfanned, with his 
uanat zeal, the onerous daties of Quarter^ 
master during the recent traioinp, and 
that on the day before the disbanding of 
the regiment, be felt iO nnweU *s to call 
in the aasistant-sorgeonj by whom he was 
directed to keep to liia betl Anitious to 
see the last of the men, ho neglected this 
advice, and by five the next morning 
went to the militia dcixDt, which place 
he only reached with tntich difficQlty* 
imd from whence he relurned with still 
greater difficulty to his horae» which be no 
more quitted alive. Although it was ex- 
pected that lio could scarcely anrvive the 
day, those about bira were not prepared 
for the suddenness of his departure Ho 
wtis in a sitting posture looking towards 
the window of bis room, when he calmly 
and without the slightest emotion passed 
out of life. 



June 22* Killed at a Arc near London- 
bridge, aged GOj, Mr. Jamefl Braid wood, 
for many years the soperiotendent of the 
Londun Fire Brigade. 

The deceased was the son of a trades* 
man at Edinbnrgli, and vras bom there in 
the yeiir 1800. He was, we believe, a 
joiner by trade, but in the year 182-1 he 
quitted his craft, and joined the Edin- 
burgh police, with the view of orgTiniEing 
% better mode of dealing with tir«>s than 
then prevailed. Very mou after hts ap- 
pointment, and before he had either bis 
force or bis engines in working order, 
occorred the great confiugration of 18S4* 
the most memorabto and extensive lire 
in the aminls of Edinburgh, and in which 
a great part of the High-street, including 
the steeple of the Tron Chnreh, was burnt 
down. At this fire Mr. Braid wood first 
•iblbited those qtulities of cool deternuiia- 



tion, great daring, and skilfbl fnaiui_ 
ment which be has so often put to good 
purpose in the fire* of the nietropolijk 
A pamphlet which he imbluihed in 1H33 
on the eaoses and mesAS of e:xtinguishtn^ 
fire*, first gave him more than local cele- 
brity, and led to bis removal to London. 
He was appointed superintendent of the 
London Fire Brigade on its establisbmeni 
in 1833, and tt was by hU ability and on. 
wearied exertions that the force attained 
the efficiency which now so distin^isbes 
it* On all matters affecting the security 
of the Government and other public build- 
ing* be was conanltod by the autboritioi* 
and of late years be held an appoiutaieiit 
as a kind of superintonding inapeotor of 
the royal palaces and various public mHwr 
blishments, with reJiircncu to iheir proteo* 
tion from 6ro» 

Mnny stories are told of the intrepidity 
and presence of mind he displayed during 
the eight years ho was firo-mnnter ftt 
Ediubtirgh. On one occasion he carried 
first one barrel of gunpowder, and then 
another, through the midst of a ftr«. firom 
a odlar, through an ironmonger's shop, 
thus preventing, at the utmoft personal 
risk, an exph>«iion which might havecauaed 
great destruction of life and property. 
On another occa«ionf above thirty years 
ago, he narrowly escaped the sad late 
which ultimdtely befell him, being struck 
by some of the fragments of a falling roof^ 
and greatly injured. 

He was conspicuous for watching over 
the movements of his men when they 
were likely to be placed in any great j>eril, 
and he would not permit a man to take 
op a position or to enter any pi nee unless 
he was satisfied that tbi^y were not ex- 
posed to any unneoessary risk. 

The deceased, who has left a widow and 
six children to lament his lofl% was a metn- 
ber of several scientific institutions^ and 
was altogether a man of great int<?Higcnoe 
and energy. His remains were interred in 
the Abney puik cemetery, the fiinend 
being attended by the London Bifie Bri- 
gade, large bodies of police and tiremen, 
and a concoarse of people which bad not 
been equalled since the interment of tlie 
Duke of Wellington. 



4 



< 



4 



18610 



Clergy Deceased. 



213 



CLERGY DECEASED. 

Jmm 18, At the Piu-sonairc, agL^d 57, the Her* 
Jnkn PriettHtaH^ B.A,, Perpetual Curate of Mint' 
fcu^ NnrLhumberSand. 

Jttn* 2L 'I'bc Her. William Sparr^m Chap^ 
lA^iM, B.Au Vitwr of Kcmble, WiLtA. 

JuHc 24_ At BiiKlitQn. after nearly twenty 
ywrs of patient uufficriuj, aged M, the ttev. 
Henry MaUke^^ Hector of ETcrihoU, Beds, 

Jwn*^, At lvjr-cottii|r«f Miniter, the Rev^ 
A«MiM«rr0M 7Wor. M.A,, OLaphiln to the Isle of 
TtiMi«l Union. 

Jutui ao. At taiA re^d«ic« ia tbe C&tliedT«l<- 
el«»c, ntiirfortl, aged *»» the Rev. ^w^A Uaumfr 
Mttryttn, B.D., Canon Rc«idenuarj of the Catht*- 
tini Church of llLTcford. Ue was the bCDiur 
C^non. hJivitig t>een inducted in W2h 

JhI$ 2. At Ilaliun Rectory, aiicd 71, the Rer. 
7". //. MatcHMkg, Rector of Hiatou Ilolgate. and 
Fallitnghftm, Lincolnthlre. 

Aged dip the Rev. John Pugh*^ M.A., Perpetual 
Curate of Lhmdecwf n and Llaovlhuigel-j-Trae* 
thftu, MoDimiuthsbire. 

Jitig 18, At tbe Farrcniige, Ironoiongenii* Alms- 
biHuCs Kingmbnd'roiuL, aged 63^ the Ker. £dic, 
ff^itUif. M.A., Cha}dirdn to the WorahipfulCom- 
lniax of lrouinonifrer!Sf London. 

Jutjf 19, At tbe Manor -honne, Iford, Leveii, 
Btfed 39, the Rev, J^ot^ert Qrajton Runtltr^ M.A. 

DEATHS. 

AEIUNOID llf CBUO^OLOGICAL OBPIB. 

F^h, 30. At ChrUtcburcb, New ZcJihind, (uinny 
yearereddlent at Bromptou, Middletex,) Hlr Woa. 
Ogilrle, ban., of CamuuaiF, Banffshire. He woa 
Ihe 1011 of the lati/^ir WLUiiun Ogilvle, b&rt., of 
Royne, Banjlfahlre, by ChHHiliui, dau. of thv l^.iix. 
Joihii Pttluon, of Kdinburgh, and wodR bom May 
38» 1810. He auccceded bift father in tbe title in 
16f4f oad aerved for aoiiie yean in H.M.'e l€ith 
Rogl. df FtMt. Tbe late baronet mArriiM), Oct. 
37, lS3d. AuifUflta Porter, dun. of Jaiueft Grangv, 
ۥ44.* of tiie Trvasury, who survives liim. Sir 
l^'Uliam wo-H tbe head of one branch of the old 
Sootttah ho«M» of 0|rilry, and ahdaied tbe dor- 
mant barony of Banff and the earldom or Find- 
l«ter to the peerage of Hcotland.—i^on^ii Ae* 

Mfareh 3d. At hi§ re^idenee. Geelong', ag«d G^Ti 
Bo^r kcL^uIl, cw)., late Lieut,-CoL RE. 

April 4. At Melbourne, Henry Parkin^ ctq., 
of the Bank of Victoria, youu^at son of the late 
I>r, Henry Parkin, R.N., P.R.C.8.E., Intpeetw 
of HoepitaU and Heeta. 

April 1(L At Pootiamalle, Madras, of fercr, 
Oapt. Chnrlea Daniel Pogwn, H.M.'a i5th Refft. 
{lUng'i tiarn Borderrra), fifth son of the late 
Col. W. R. Pogsun. of the Bengal Army, 

Majf i. In caaip, at J Ingergatehia. Jewnre, 
Of ehulera, aged 29, Urut Clephane L. Richard- 
M^M/e 5Sth Rei^t. Bengal N.I , youngeat 

i of ChrUtopher Rowland RiobardAon, e#q. 

V<t]^ ft. At Tbayet Myo, Pegue, from the 
iAeia of ex|KMure to the iun in the diacharge 
of hla dudee^ Ueat. Geo. Spker Hutchioft, 9th 




M.X.L, formerly of U.M.'t Iftth E.I., son of 
Col. J. Hutching^, Madras Retired Lii*t. 

Afay fi. At Lacknow, aged 2U, George Henry 
Hei^ham, Bn-vet- Major 23rd K. W, FualUers, 
eldest aon of the late George Thomaa Ueigham, 
esq,, of Houghton-hall, Suffolk. 

At hlfl residence, DaijeeUog, aged &3, Samuel 
Smith, esq., for many yean proprietor of tho 
*' Bengal Hurkaru." 

Jfiiy 7. At Bathurst, River Gambia, Wettem 
Africa, f^m the effects of a fall ttmn. hU horae, 
Lieut. -Col. Findeo, late of the Royal Oarnhi* 
Militia. 

Map ft. At JeMore, Bengal, of eholero, (tbrM 
daya after the death of Her huHband of the aame 
diaeo^e,) aged 21, Laura Knte, relict of Lieut. 
Clephane L. RiohardAon, U.M.'a &aih Regt. 
Betigat N.L, and eldest dau. of Lieut. -Col. Dit* 
m.ia, late H.M.'a Madras Artillery. 

ifrj^9. At Chittagoog, aged Sa, Maria, tho 
vife of W. B. Baekle, e*q,. B.C.S. 

At MuBAOurie, Upper Bengal, Capt. Al worth 
Merewether, youttgvst aoQ of 31r* Seijeant 
Merewether, of Covtlefield, Calne. 

At Gravcsend, nged 78, John Saddlngrton, esq. 
He wna formerly resident In NoviUe*»-court, 
Fetter-lane, but about 1815 retired from huaineaa 
to OraTesend, where he had been ever noce ooa 
of ita most reapected Inhabitantii, baring' been 
long In the Corporatloa and filled the of&ee of 
Mayor. Sir. Baddlitffton vat alao one of the court 
of anAi^tants of the Company of 5tationer», and 
In 1R59<60 Nprred the office of MaMer. 

Map 11. At Sandhurtit, Aui^trulm, JohnCuth- 
berl, eldwt non of Sir John Digby Murray, bart, 

Mny 13. At Iliutai-ecbagh. of ilyaentcry, Geo. 
Cftmac Barnes, e«q., C.B., late Fowlgn flocretary 
to the Goremment of Indio, 

May 17. At BAiiiralore. »gei 58, Cd. Alfred 
Borradoile, Madraa Light Cavalry. 

May 27. At Calcutta, aged 2*. Rich. Trench, 
eldeftt furriTing son of the Dean of We*tmln»ter. 

Of fever, oeeaaloned fty exposure and fatigue, 
undt-Tgone at the attack on Foi-t Nuevo, Thotnaa 
Foole, euq., Her Brit^uinic Majesty's Conjiul 
at Lagoa. Hie loaa wan dreply regretted, aa 
he waa beloved by all Europf-ana in the Bight of 
Benin, having abown him«elf to be one of th« 
■bleat Consuls that boa ever been appointed at 
Lagoi. 

Lately, At Keith, aged 84, Margaret Carr— 
otherwiw Mad Meg Carr. Margaret waa a cha- 
racier— acute, ill-tonfni«J, and greedy— would 
have what ahe wanted, and wai well known In 
Banffshire and adjoining countloa. She was ex- 
cellent at sewing figures with silk on watch 
papei a, which paid her well. Until a few yeara 
ago, when vhe came into Keith, she Uved about 
the Qlen of Ncwmill, on the Fife ei^tatett, and 
woa patronised by tbe Earl of Fife, of which aha 
always boasted. Sbc wua a stickler for the E*La- 
bllsbment, attended the cburth pietty welt, 
and often came in when the service* were half 
tliri>ugb, unci ma re bed up the pulpit stair, gene- 
rally xittirig at the top. When her kdysihip ap- 
peared, all had to make way. Bhe would allow 
no rival near her throne.— ifrt«JftAii"# Jotirtmt. 



214 



Obitiury, 



J«ifi« 1. Aged 1% ItiTT. reUet cd th» ]l«v. 
H. lUcrkoiuoti, Uto Hector of Wcit B^ford, Noil«. 

^MM« 7. At Biinklow-cotUffe, TolM-hill, Surreal 
aged S2, Tboma* Tajrler, e«q., fonaerly Uutei 
of the 8t«tion«rt* Company. He ficrred on ap- 
prrntilc<^9bip ^itli Jfr. GosekU, the prinl^pr, of 
LittlpQiiet>a-ft,, Uolliorii, and In the yenr ISOO 
Wtts elected n lircnrmnD of the Hiationers' Com- 
pany. Ku-Ijr In lire he qniUr>d (he [iilDtliiir btui- 
nc&s, end hvcominir "' coaUmerchaat* Acquired 
n handMHne eonipet<*iioy, which he further la- 
creased hy roRrryinpr » lady of eonsiderable fur- 
tune^ who after reTy many yeaif of happiccm U 
now bb widow. lie h&» also led ui oaly aan, % 
ficillcltor tn eminent practice in Londoo* In IMO 
Mr. Taylcr wm chown one of the Coort of tb« 
StfltioncrB' Company, of which h« wu UtMMir in 
IBil. He wiu a inan of ((re4t judgment and ex- 
prritncc in life, and wm both able ind viliini^ to 
KMslst tbo^e who iriyught hU adriiee. 

J^i^/i^r 8, At Btmniemouth, aired W, i. Taun- 
ton, e«q.< «ollettor« of Oxfordt second ion of the 
late Thom«« Henry Taunton, e*q.f of Grondpotit* 
bouM, near OmfonL 

Jumf 10. At Weymnoth, tilled 10, M^or U. 
AuKUftUA Colby, Royal Engiaeer*. 

June 12. At Hkellow-frangc, near Doiion4ter» 
tLgtd 60, Oodftey Hirf^itiD, esq. The dcceaMd 
WM the only eon of the Utie Godfrey Higffine, 
esq , F.S.A., the Icamwl KQthor of "The Celtic 
Drnidfl ;" " Anneal yp»i9, or an Attempt to Draw 
Aairti" the Sattic Veil of Uls ;" ** llora* S*ibbotica»» 
or an Attempt to Corrf»ot oertaiji Valgar Krron 
reypeetlng the Hubbuth i" ^^ Apology for ttie 
Aire und Chancier of Mahom«t," and varlont 
pamphloti oa p«UtiM and tlie treatment of 
the insane. A podifrea «f tha tmMf la to h« 
found in IIunter'A "Deoni^ry of Do]M»«ter,** 
v»l. U. p. 481. 

/un« 13. At Porntlnfiton Bcctory, Someiiet, 
Oeorglnii Miirirnretta, wife of the ll4'r. J, Ileale* 
Aud fMUigettt dau. of the lat« Flii'twood Wil- 
llama, oiq^ formerly of lloddwyddan, North 
Walea. 

Junt 17. At hi<t reaSaen^e, Boekland-temt«e, 
riymouth, aired SO, John Moore, eaq., J.P. 

Jum9 It. Acoidentaliy drowned in the riv«r 
Halt* nmg Ui reaideitot, B««kfdiiUcifih Abbcyi 
Botttli Deiran, ag«d S5, Sara. Leif h liotheby, e«|. 
See OMtTtTAar. 

jMf 20. At hU reaidence, Klnf*f-terr., South- 
mA, mgtd TO. lien. Wax. lltUett Connolly, late 
of the Itoyal Marines f .Iffht Infantry. 

*i' ' '■ - '— thn liQHphorua, after an IIU 

IT. , Kleanor Kranoc* Klixdheth* 

^ : I : H e«ton, and dau. of tha Ute 

ii»hu Cruuk« i re«»taaii, omi., of Ctook^halJ^ Lui* 
cA^hlre. 

«fMii# SI. Ir, r" ' tr»et« CSavendUh-aq., 
•ffd IK^ Jtampy 1)1 Ada 11 1, raq., C'^rn* 

mNmry-QfBfff ^ t orcra. 

/iMMil. la ChOTtor-flt., aroarciM»^9U «|^ 
fl» Madam '•Idnw t>f M-^ifw-Ow rr^bfW. 

TlNoii«»iht. 

M Ltedield, ., , ....;,, ^. 






TorTtAhire, ftonoerly View of llofv* 
Curute of WlveliiiFtd and ileoilcld. 

Kliied at a lire in Tooley-»t^ Mr. Joa. Ilnid- 
wood, Supcrinteadenl of the Londoa ftn Bdi^dv. 
8e< OBiTVAaT. 

Junt 23. In Aedford-Hiq., ored HI, n«iBurat 
noe, M.D.. Fellow of the Iloyal I'olHl* of 
Phyjrlctan». London, for more than forty fetni 
Pbyiicfan to Ht parthotoisewV KoopUol* 

At ChcUeuham, aged fl7, SttaoanaJi AmuSt 
widow of Lleut.*CoU Georie Procts-, of tha 
Eoyal MlUUry Gotlege, Sandharrt. 

At Grenford, Denbigfajtbire^ aged tT. KIIm»«^ 
laat iurHvlQtr dan. of the lat« Eev. Bciif7 IStw* 
eocne, forniorly Vicar of Gre-iford. 

At hii rrpiidrner, Ersklne-it., Lf^Tpoel, afed 
96. Oiiter Golci^rnilth, e«q,, AsHlPtBat'Commlanry- 
General. The decea»c>d waaof the atine ^mUfam 
the author of the " Viear of Wakefleld," OAiS when 
In HnJlfax, Noto f^eofia, more thitn thirty y^mm 
aincc, he proved that he poaseaaed mneh of the 
poctleal talent of hij celebrated tumcpake, by 
publUhing m poem of oonaidcrahle merit oiler 
the Ptylc of the *' Deserted VdUife.'* 

At ftkiathend* T.taex, nged S8, Gkthertne, wfdioiv 
of George Wright, esq., and daa. of the late Dr. 
Luilo, Dean of WeU*. 

June 34. At AbLnger-hall, aged M, the Bight 
Hon. Robert Campbell Scarlett^ Baron Ahihfet. 
See OsiTtraav. 

At Dorer, aired 16, Henry, ooo oi Mi Bearf 
Bold Hoffhtoa. hart 

At the house of her nephew, (the Rer^. K. 
Br1«tow Wilson, the Vicarage. Oreal §Uughlon, 
Uunta,} aged 01, Sjiruh, eldest dun. of the klo 
fi«f, John Moorc', Minor Canon of BL Paul'a, 
Keetor of St. Micbaeri Bas«iahaw, Liondon, and 
of Langdon-hilli, £a4«x, 

Jum 26, At Coaatontinople, H.I.M. the 8al^ 
tan. 8eeO»iTrAKT. 

At Kempsford, Glouecatemhire, aged 53, the 
Lady Geoaviana Gamh Itourke, Her latlyahip 
vaa the eldest dau. of the Ei^ht Uon. John 
WUUam, ith Eari of Beaaborniigh in the Irish 
p«>enige, (aoine time Lord Lieut, of Ireland,) by 
the Lwiy Miry Pone, third duu. of John, tenth 
Earl of WeetmorelamL She woe bom Aosiut 
II, l»07, and married. In June, ItSi; the B«n 
SackvilUt Oardlaer Bourke^ Beetor of Hatherop, 
Gloaeester»hire, [son of the Ute Hon. and Veti' 
Kev. Joseph Boarke^aome time Dean of O^ory,} 
by whom she has left a yoaihfal famUj. Ucr 
ladyship waa left a widow in ltm,--Mmdm 

Jt*H4 26. At Debdale, Finrdon. Northamptoo* 
shite, aged 71, Miss Frances Juliana Mark worth, 
ihe waa bom in iii^O, and was the eldeat dau. of 
the lale Sit iJighy Mtokworth^ bart-. of Caven- 
dkh-hall, Sitilbik, by hb hrat ^^ ' ' nntj 

dan. and heir of the Rer, Mai. <iid 

^ninddau. of Anthony Moddoek- , . ?fn- 
ydon, GUmi»rgun*hlre. and eonsrquenliy stater 
of Sir D Maeitarurth, third Inmiirt, mnA nf Mr. 
ui n. I. Mn^ VI' rn. 

'•Hh-IMbeii vtt 

.i 1.^ iHsrrled a v ._ ,^ 

(Ucaver) of Uabin.'i^eMBn Jlivicw. 



r 



I 




1661.] 



Obituabt. 



215 



At Dfyver, a(M t5, Emilia, the ^i^e of Mtjor- 
Gcn. William Kepuun, md ilatt. of the Ute Col. 
iifhn YoTke. 

At Slilton-Brodie, Elka, relict of Qcnry Joftcpb 
Brodic Dunn« i;m|,, of Milton-Btodie. 

Ac DundAJt Caitle, Mary, fourth daa. of Jaiaoi 
Diiu«la«, esq., of lJunda«« 

At Birch Rwrtory, near CoIcbe«ter, aired 22, 
Edith Bruetenkury. eldest child of the B«T. Wm, 
liarriium, Rector of Bucb. 

At Sowcrhy FarKUiftge, near Haliftut, aged 42, 
MiiTlau JAne, wife of the Rcr. A, L. W. Bfon, 
jDCUUitMaiit of Sowerby. 

At Tunbridgc Well^, Gertrude, teroiDd duu. of 
Lieut.-Cul. Ht>ld«u«lU>Mi>, Isle ITth Ltmeefvi tuid 
of th« Fern*, WlTt?lsfteld, Susnex. 

At the Wengcrn-Alp Holel, near InterllfiheD, 
aged 4tt, Cliariottc, wife of R. IL Mytton, esq. 
iShv w&A the third dan. of Col. Puul Mdcgrriror, 
muury AuditGr-Geoeral of Bengal, and married, 
in ISao, atchurd Herbert Mytton, c*q., of Garth, 
neftT WcUbpool, Moot isomer jshlre^ late High 
hlieiifr and Chairman of the Quarter Senioaa of 
til lit eounty, who wai fonnerlj In tie Bengal 
Civil 5«rriee, on^ who representit a branch of the 
ftneieot hoiuN! of Mutton of Hakton. 

June 27. At Bnigc*, Caroline^ elde»t dan. of 

9 Iflle Ll0Ut.-Gen. Sir Junee Batbturflt, K.C.B., 
I of Li4y OftTQline fiatbursU 

Stiddcnly, Mabel Beatrix, yonngcit daa, of 
Deut.^oL «nd Ludj Emily Cavcndiah. 

At her huu^ic, in Park-eren., aged $4, Mary, 
wi4uft- of the iiigbt But. Wiiliom CarejTi Lurd 
Bi'<bop of St. Asaph. 

In GtirdctaHM),, aged 9\, George liiiagnre, eaq.. 
of iihililaffioa-manor, BodfonUhire, and Borden- 
luiU, Kent, 

Agfd SS, Mary, relict of the Eev, Uenrf >*if- 
leaworth, of Townhead, Rector of Slaidhum-tn« 
Craven, three dayi» after the death of her lister, 
Mrs. Alcock, of Ncwaeld-holL 

At Ketteitigtao, aged 97^ Mary, relict of Thoa* 
Wiarman, Mq. 

Jttm ^6. At Fcnitoot Devon, aged 71, the 
. E«n Sir John PaltCKon. See OuiTVAftT. 

At Fiogcat-housc, UeiileyHDn'Tbamc«t aged 61, 
i ioam Dytr, esq., late of the Adniiralty, 

At Brentwood, Eaaex, aged 91, Lawraoee Thoa. 
JobttJton Ridurdaon, e«q,, M.D. 

At the residence of his dau., little Stonhope- 

Piccadillf, aged SO, Mr. John Bonbam, 44 

I keeper of tiie Dnlwioh Picture OoUery. 

At BAgginlon Uectory, Warwick-^blre. aged 53, 

lofcilda Kathoiine, wife of the Eev. Frederick 

h. Rector. Hhe waii adau. of the Ute liiKht 

n. Wm* Yatea Peel, of Amington-hall. (ne*t 

other of the late Right Hon. Sir Robert Pffel, 

.,) bj the Lad J Jane EUxabeth Moore, second 

, of Bt^phmt weoild Earl of Mount TaitbeU. 

' death woa oeeosioaed bjr her clotbca acci* 

dviilHlljf taking Jlre. 

Jun*2i, At Florence, after a long Ulncaa, 

abeth, mife of Robert firowmtig, eaq. .She 

ffinnrrly well known uoder her maiden 

t of HiM Elixabeth Barrett. She wuh bam 

, (if a family in aSueat circumatanueat 



and waa educated with great eape, CIhe began lo 
write both Tcrac and prone at an e»rlT nge, and 
become, while atill in her tecna, a contributor to 
aeTcrol of the best pe riodical« of the day. Her 
first acknowledged work was a t^aJ^AUtlon of the 
"Fromctbciia Vincliiii" of .E^chylua, which 
appeared originally In 1S33, bat wad aft«r> 
warda »\ipt'rscd£d by a new verftion from her 
more mature pen. In 1838 appeared '* Th« 
Seraphim" and other poemfl— tJic latter mainly 
reprinted trota the pcriodicalf in which they had 
flrul appeared. About this time she fell into ill 
health, and hn%ing broken a blcMid'TeM«el in the 
region of the lungs, wiia ordered to winter at 
Torqaay ; hut though ahe slowly recovered from 
the original dUcuHe, her health wbtle there le^ 
«c«ved tuM pAiarul a iiliock from her bruther'is death 
by the upsetting of a boat, that for <M:ttne yeara 
ahe waa a eon3i mcd invalid. In the seclusion of 
a aiek room, however, ahe studied the cla»!-ics 
moat eorefhlly, and in lft44 |»roduced the first 
oolleot«d edition of her ** Poeraa," on which her 
fame chiefly rcits, and of whkh new editians np« 
peored In 1850 and ISW, They were ptiblibhfd 
each in two volumes. In the interval l>etwecti 
the appearance of the first and aecond editioiia 
of tiiia work Mlaa Barrett married Mr. Robert 
Browning, w]w»e name ja well known tu the 
Utcmry world n» one of our few living poeta. 
fiincii their marriage, Mr. and Mrtu Browning 
have lived mainly tn Italy, though they hare 
paid thort riidti oocAaionolly tu their frLenda So. 
England. In 18^1 Mra, Browning pnbliahed 
*' Caaa Giiidi Winduwa," a poeas full of earntet 
politif^aJ atlu^iona to the present slate of Italy, in 
vbieh the uutborem La auppcned to lee the aigna 
and appearLince^ii of the Italian revolutionary 
movementa of 1IS4H-B, rr<Jtn Ibe windowa of ihe 
Caaa OoidI in Florence, where ahc waa then 
residing. Her subsequent publication, '* Aururm 
Leigh," haj appeared loii rveently to need more 
Ihan a casual m ontion of ita amine. 1 1 la, however, 
from such poems ta " The Poet^a Vow," ** Cow* 
pcr'a Grave," ♦' Catharina to Camoena,^' and 
** Bertha in the Lane,*' that the name of Mra. 
Browning will be (lie moat widely and popuUrly 
known both*to thia and to the next gcnerotioa. 
London fitvietPt 

JuHt 30. In Portland-place, aged 72, Lloyd 
He«kith'Bamford*lIeaketh» esq., of Qwrych 
Castie, Denbighshire, 

At the residence of her brother-in-law, (Capt. 
Coffin, Oavcrahom'hill, Reading, | aged 6^, ELkit 
Ann Elizabeth, relict of Maj.-Oen. Lockyer. 

Ltiit'ly. At Nancy, Prince Francin Aagu*tua 
of llesae-Phii pftthal, where he had long redded 
under the name of Baron de Faakner. The de- 
ceased Prince, who woa the youngott aon of the 
Landgrave ErueAt ConMantin, of Hchwarxburg- 
Radolbtudl, married a nmnii^ jM^raoo of humble 
birth in L&ll, and had resided In France ever 
ainoe. 

/wfy 1. At Boflkrow, neor Penryn, Cornwall, 
aged 76, I>avid Barclay, eaq,, of East wick -pork, 
Surrey. 

At Maiaonnette^ Devon, aged ^3, Arthur Wm. 
Olirv Holdflwortb, eiq. 



216 



Obittaxt. 



[A«gi 



JuJp S. Aired €1, Elinibefh, wife of Mwiat 
Leach, of Caratan, Pemtarokjefiliire. 

At Ldirb-hoaiie, Briclitaii, aired 67, Jue, reliet 
of the Rrr. Joorph Hodcwai, fonnerly Perpetnal 
Cnratr of Lei|irb, Sorrer. 

At Chippenham, Willi, from the vpwttinir of 
a boat, afed 16, Atida Eirene, eldent dau. of the 
late Ber. Jo* n Lowder, iDcumbeDt of Dnrr- 
hilU near Calne, and afterwai d» Brxtiah Chuplahi 
at fthanfhai, China. 

lira. Kider, widow of Capt. Bamham Sider, 
£K. 

July%. In PaA-pL, Gki u epa U 'j -irate^ Beywrt V 
liark. aped 72, Capt. Wm. MilleT, K.X. He was 
bom in ITRB. and mtm-d the Eojal Xarr in 
NoToubcr, IBIl. He van promoted to the rank 
of Liratraant in 1R2&, xn*o tte ** Pnmroa< ,*" 16, 
CapL Ortarnv YenMn-Harroort, on the Weal 
India HUtkm, whexioe he retnmed in Jnlj, 1627. 
For aome xeani anbmq-.icnt to Frhruarr, 164S, 
he fierrvd a» Admindtr afreni on tioard of a ocm- 
tract mail lAejua-rp-ael. He attaiiM>d the rank 
of Commander in JnlT, 1M6. — Ltmimm JSitnv. 

At BuirbT, a{!cid 56, Ann, wik of the Bcr. C 
A. Anrtex. 

At Os-dnpefirld, eo. Dam, a|red SI, Charlea 
Williun BlakifttoB Hooiftan. esq. Be was bom 
MuT 11, 1KS6, and wa» the th:rd and Toai^i*- 
f«l aon of the late Kichard Barlf Blakirtan 
Houtt^on. r*q.. br Ufarr litabella, dan. of Jcda 
n(]lmef> BouRton. c«q_ of Oranirrfieid and Bod- 
Acnfk eo. I^oam, whose name he aumuned. Hi* 
faxher wat. the fifth son uf Sir MatU^^ Blakia- 
ttm. harL: and matemaDT he wan devended 
trvm a branch nf the Bannmmfv. of Homitoun, 
oo. lUmirrw. wiiioh wait mrr to Ireland and 
arttleo in the ooontj of Aatrim ahtnn 1C9A.— 
Jjumdim JUritw. 

J^ff 4. At Ghfrxtae-ectrtare. Folkefctnne, 
Itcmifau widow ctf the Brr. Bieshard Harvey, 
Xipnnr ctf rppcar ^weiU, Glanmaer. 

At tisjt LunbcT-irran^, LinNilmMTT, aped 
4a. £brab(«h, wife nf Rhbm Bavfrn. nq^ and 
rideiQ dan. of Jnhn Ffsiton. enq.. o' CnmYtle-hall, 
LanoaHhire, and forrDerhr M .F. 5nr Eoc^dkle. 

Ai Bcm'fiinke-mir-Mfa-, nfrd 76, Mcrr Ann, 
rrlKS of JoMTTih JaokMOL eviq^ ctf the i*rdnsnee 
I^niarcaMsa, Tower, aoid late of ^pnn|r-«oaape, 
TcCtfuham. 

fmddmJr. aS haf lea id Rn t f-. Wc«t dar^tOHift^ 
3CrwoaKtie-T;pn»-77na. a|!vd M. Mr 
CkraixqRT, a ana t» wiHoa thas 

D ITHft. wna nf Teiy 
knnilik' ta^ifsm. and hpmy evrhr litft an iB|fiha&^ 
ke j a uuj* ed anhr ih* nmsfe mdzmcwtf nf «dnca- 
tHBL Jtt 1i» Sl An(!srw^» cftuntr flnban: ia that 
Spwl Bff WMF ■fqnBBtiBed tr a tais'jieJBtBr, biS 
ke aaim gusand itie brattdu and ha-rmf^ the pnad 
fcaVBU nt' oUuua a wsft wisfc anmr |u lynui t . hew 
riBapaoB. waf- ato tr nmnmraBr 



L hn- i«x atainnirL wikrb h» mdnfttrr 
and ta«an *«rartit hm. a^ anvih liimnie. 

St.vzuu^il ^tem oiuii jujM wa> tiit ctrmtum 
«f Utteb-aynan, mnnfianc nf hioidwme 
ill inda 



Terraoe and Creaomt, oontaiBiB^ aewHlyfli^^ 
daa* and sixtj Moand-claaB hooaea, with pnliifcai 
■tone frcmta, and highlx ornamental, Tfaia«a- 
xiehed him. He then p ro je c ted the Arcade, 
where are the Poet-oi&oe and many other odBoea. 
Gxainfcr had now enriched hia native town wttk 
pi tipei lj of the Ta>Qe of nearlj £300,000. This 
wan before befinninir his ** New Town,** and eoa- 
Bated of earlr rreetiaDa, of EUhm-aqaaxe, lieasea- 
terraoe and neiirhbonrhood, and the Boyal 
Arcade. At hmirth Mr. Grainirer pmvhaaad U 
aeres in the middle of the town, a npm. kaovB 
aa AndcTMD'a Plaoe, for the sum of £90,080— a 
bold Btr ike far an old charftr-boy ! Onaa was 
t e public curioaity to know hif object, bat he 
kept it a profcmnd iteoret for anme tiae. He 
matnred hif> plana in his own offioe, and 'MC 
a partiralBr was known until his arranfeaenli 
were oompketed. Without Aet of ParliaflaeDt he 
had boBirht other old ju t qi e ity to the amoiifit of 
£45,000, beinp enongrh to enable him to opea 
ooomnnica ion* between acme of the basr paata 
of the town, distant from each ottier, and which 
befoie oonld onlr be readied br widelT circuilau a 
waya. He now formed a central iiu e ei , and hia 
pLanr bezn|r too large and bold far his powera, 
he aaanciatad with him the Town Qei^ and 
anbmiited his deidfBs and propoaala to pabfie 
in«|ieoti<«. The pcpolar roiee was no flCnmf eod 
lond in flkToor of their eseeotion. that the Town 
CarparatKB |swe np the old market, w^kh rtooi 
in the war, and takinp £lS,OfiO for the dd, ffa-vv 
£16.000 for the new one, whacih was opened in 
16.n&. The onoanoB was oeiebrated by a fsa»d 
pnbhr drnneir in 'flie master at whic^ ahoatt 
2.000 £ent>in««i were im n um , hefddes 300 ladiea. 
It wa» then declarpd that Mr. Onxniser alone 
de«d|rned all the eswmtial poteta in the c a eci t k ma 
for which he was ref^MSMdhle. Thasmaxkdisthe 
fineA in the kinfdam. exoeedinir tm 
ford and Liierpodl maikcts in ain 



A theatre #«»nd in GnaBfer^s way. In order 
to pen zid of Ss iivniry to his plana, he fa-ve ike 
pr( ipg ie tug» a new theatre for thesr old oaa, anl 
the nna nf £300 tt boot. 

Tht ptmnd nf :^ieBrvtm 
hot creaa Wtifrut and anxiAier ' 
by the ddhrnlty «f the cxoaTaxians and levfAa. 
Tne ontlay of mcnry aoid hihnar in prrpan^f 
the fTnmd alane was ii ii nwawg <Ud imyoit 
was to be j i mtihaw id. hiUs had la be iercilted, 
and ▼aQry* fiLM iQv to nnhe the nrw ataweta 
wxtb the nM oneK After £Cnv iq» the vaUeyn 
and lr«<e£fanf the ndpea. aa£ ww eaned away., 
« 3k. ptff lend. «« the aonnma nf CU44A. which 
waf jmaA ^^ raie indirutnal nlnne. By (ttberB^ 
th(« w««e rarttid SM\ 00f> kmds nf 1« rabv 1«<c 
per JCMid. This ammanind ti> foar milhinis and 
a ha:* iff raihit ftiA. <ir toinvpb te opTnr 30K acsea 
nf f!7rani£ one tMH UtaoL. The TKHonp ana Uie 
carai i;, rkdnfirTr ti thr ooff nf iM^UMdl. amramted 

C^iiry utrcnpir te SCraTwoik' » nsmnk wrJh 
Shr fB>9 aipht «f ^^er:i-<4«7Mi:. Tht 
wiaA onwuBwr A. SMI tt 
ntmtnK nre «tf a laiifevo:^ «nttnna <iidniir; 



18GL] 



Obituary. 



217 



the drcNoratlfmB m of •olid ftone. Grey-atrect 
luM the advantAffo even otct Rcgonr-*tTefri, 
Lotidtm, not only In the richness of iib archJtcc- 
lure, bat alno in the ralui" and beautf of the ma- 
tch nl* I'liiptoycf-df luid in the Kupcriority of tu 
fl&tii (Stone <»Ter the brick, face>d wUh iimccp, in 
H*in'iit-Htrwt. Grey-*lro€t i# 400 ^ardu lonK, 
ftoin w-'Tcnty to eiicbty feqt T»ide, and curvUineur 
In furiii. The hou«M.ei wre four lofly siorey* bi|:h» 
WicH a bas«mcnt titory for cclUrs. The mc* 
I fomed bj the erot* itreets cunipriMe sepa- 
s dufgns. Of one part— the ircrt side— «oa* 
' pbHair of tkirec ranges of buildings, the arcbl- 
toeture is Coiinihiiiii, and derived fn.po the in- 
teiior of the Paiithfon at llome. The second 
range ia after the Temple of KIcu>i», and the 
Qolumiu are twenty-two feet higb. The third 
eompartineat eompiebea4ia the grcnt Central 
SstohMfte, which affords a fine place of general 
seetlng; and include* a news'-rt^oni, coffee- 
roofm« and h»ll of eonfcrence. This maMiTe 
boUding ia the mo«i cou»pii;uous in the town, 
fram ii« ocamd iltnation and the mutfnMicence 
of ll» deaf gn. It i« lighted from the lop. The 
Bterlor neHaBuremenU tre 130 It. by Oj fl.» In 
I •cmicircle of 75 feet radius. 

Thn» much for Grey -street. But Richard 
OraingiT al«o huilt Graingcr-ntreet, ZW yards 
long, and 66 feet iride; Market-»trc«t, IfKl yards 
long, and 66 feet wide ] Clayton-street, 316 yard* 
long: Uid Chiyton^reet Westf 230 yurdj long, 
hf 61 feet wide. Other atroeta of less length are 
Oninger'* work. All hm ctreeta nhew fronts of 
polifbed stone, in varied de«igna. Tbiui, there 
were nine new stteeta addi'*! iw the towi* in the 
eoutM of five yeiirs ; and near I)' one iDillicm 

»rUng*« worth of pro|iertf was added to tho 

Uoe 0f the town In Ave ycara by one man. 

Htsdenth, wUfoh was very sndden, from dlaease 
of the heart, caused rouch rtjfrel in the town, 
and his remains were honoured with a public 
"^ neral, on July 10« XftcctutU Courant, 

Jui^ i. In London, George Fergupson Ful- 
on, e»q., Madras Ciril Service, •euund emn of 
he late Lord Fullcrton, Edinbuigh. 

At Newton 8t. Looe, UaLh, aged 18, Catherine 

aee. third dau, of (j<N)rgc Mil ward, ttq,, of 

ehUde Manor, Gloucettercibire. 

At Brighton, aged 73, Benjamin Lewis, esq., 
Commander R.N. 

Juf^f 6. At Uenton-park, OLiey, aped 46, Sir 
.rles lbt»etj9on, bart« The late baronet was 
I on the 24th of July, ISU, and succeeded to 
baronetcy on the death of his fathi-r, the 

ttrih banmet, in April, 1B39. Ho hud I eeo 

Tly in the armyt and had held commia* 

I In the Yorkshire HoMars and the West 

Fork Mldtia. In lft47 he married the widow of 

Mr. R ferkina, of Ashworth, I>urhiim. In de* 

fault of iK»ue the baronetcy devolves on hu 

|«Dcte, Mr, J. T. Ihbetson Belw^n, of Down hail. 

At Bampetead« iged 72, Sir Franeii Palgmre, 
1H>, Deputy *Eeeper of tiie rubllo Reeonli. 

! OatTVAkY. 

lo London, lleiiry Somen, fsq., M.D., mrgMll 
of H..M/» Wtii Kfgt. 



At Cnddesdon Pal.n^e, aged 82, Mary, widlow 
of tlie Rev. J. Sarpent, and inothcr-la«l«w of 
the I*iJrd Bishop of Oxford. 

At G lam ford Brigg*, suddenly, aged i^, Ue&ry 
Murston, c«q., «urgeon. 

Juljf 7. At Uptjn-bou*e, Alresfbrd, aged S!, 
the Hon. Tho«, Cranley Onslow, lute Col. of the 
2nd Surrey Militia, and Lieut.-CoL in tbc ik;&l» 
FuetUer Guardm. 

At Taignlon, Iievon, aged US, Calberine, widow 
of the Uev. Uf>race Suckling, lU«tor of Barakain, 
Suffolk. 

Jttljf S. At Arundel Cantle, aged 9, Charlea 
Bemanl, son of Lord and Lady Edward t'jlisalan 
Howard. 

At Cullumpton, Do von, agod 81, Eobt. Sean, 
esq. 

At EJtowrldge.ntilbertoo, of apoplexy, aged 47, 
Charles John Parker, esq., R.N., late Master of 
the ** Victory," Portsmouth. 

Jttljf a. Can»llnc El iKstbt^th, wife of CoL Artbtir 
Charles Lowe, of Couri-of-llil), Balup. 

At Pcckhum, aged 6a, KlJKabeth, wlilow of 
Richard Burgess Scale, ewi,, lute of Haklead* 

In Daruley - road, Hackney, aged AC, John 
Spencer Colepeper, esq., late Police I^lagislrato 
in 0171011. 

At his resldenoe in PlocodSlly, aged 67, Edw. 
Donovan Vemer, esq., M.D.| Late of the Boyal 
Artdkry. 

Jultf 10. At Brighton, aged 36, Mnjor M. F. 
Kemble, of the Bengal Army, only fon of tho 
late C-apt. Matthew Keuiblt^i of the l»t Madras 
Light Ciivalry. 

In Dublin, Major 8ankey, of Fort Frederick, 
00^ Cavan, formerly of the 0th Regt., and elder 
son of the bite John Saukey, ctfq.,of Mcrrton-^, 

At Clarenec-hoaac. Heme Buy, agod 75, Wtn. 
^*ewton, esq*, A.1.C.E-, of Chancery-lane, 

Jutjf U. In I,ondon, afli^r severe illneas* 
Jtihnfton Tt^orp, e«q., ttecond son of the kte R. 
Disney Thorp, M.D., and brother of the Arch- 
di aeon of Bri«toL 

At the naidenoe of her nephew, (Richard Can]> 
field, <»q., Noith Ahbey-sq., Cork,) aged 7A, Jantt 
dittu. of the late Hmry GotnalL, « sq., M.D., llnml 
de-L'Ciidaal of »iT Ilinry Qosnall, knt, M.P. for 
Clubakilty 1613, aod one of the Council for 
the province of Munstcr. 

July 12. At Putuey, agc^ Z^, Stair Douglas, 
esq., thlrU »on of Gen. Sir James Douglas, O.C.B. 

At his residence, Nu ley^villii, Torquay, aged 
M, Osfiald Wm. Ketterer, ei»q., of the Suprtma 
Cuurt of Judicature, Bombay. 

At Leamington aged B\ Mary Ann, widow 
of Mujor Thort, Champ, 43rd Light Infantry. 

At Torquay, agCHi 2d, Capt. Edward John Lees, 
06 Lh Royal R* gt., eldest sou of George tiCfs, (Mq^ 
of Wemotb, Laucaeter, and Lanadowne-hotito^ 
Cheltenham. 

From an acci lentnil f4l)ofFtbe cliff near Fresh- 
water, Isle of Wight, aged 17, William Johnaont 
third son of Joeieph Johnson MileS| esq., of Mill- 
field-lane, Highgate. 

In Edinburgh, John Scbank More, e«q., Adro- 
CSt*, LL.1>., Ffyfcsior of the Lnw of BccJtkiid 



218 



Obituaey. 



[Aog. 



in the University of Edinburgh. His edition of 
•« Lord Stair's Institute*," and the elaborate and 
Tery valuable notes with which he enriched it, 
will secure him a permanent place in the history 
of the law of Scotland. 

July IS. At WhitehaU, EHsex, after a short 
illness, aged 36, Sir Godfrey John Thomas, bart. 
The deceased, who was the eighth baronet, was 
bom at Bodiam in 1S24, and succeeded his brother 
in 1852. He is succeeded by his son, a youth eight 
years old. The first baronet received the title in 
1694, with remainder to the issue male of his 
father, in consequence of which his brother suc- 
ceeded him, and was the ancestor of the late and 
present baronet. 

At his house in St. John's -wood, agred 72, 
Fletcher Wilson, esq., Danish Consul-Oeneral 
and Knight of the Boyal Danish Order of the 
Dannebrog. 

At his residence, Burley-hlll, near Leeds, aged 
83, James Holdforth, esq., J. P. 

In Spring-gardens, London, aged 94, George, 
eldest son of Lieut.-Gen. R. H. Wynyard, C.B., 
Commanding Division, and Lieut. -Governor of 
the Cape of Good Hope, late Major 58th Regt. 

At Scott's-lodge, Knockholt, aged 82, Eliza- 
beth, eldest dau. of the late Rev. John Villette, 
late Ordinary of Newgate. 

July 14. At Clifton, aged 77, Col. Gwynne, 
of Monachty, Cardiganshire, Magistrate and 
Deputy-Lieutenant of that coimty. 

At the house of her brother, at Hampstead, 
aged 47, Elizabeth, third dau. of the late Rev. 
Thomas Sadler, of Horsham. 

At Humshaugh-house, Northumberland, aged 
70, Edward Gi eenhow, esq., M.D. 

At Hounslow, aged 39, Hartley Ridout Knight, 
esq., late of the War-office, Pall-mall. 

July 15. At Portland-lodge, Southsea, aged 
85, Major Charles J. W. Norman, late of 72nd 
Highlanders. 

At the Cottage, Shepperton, aged 78, Maria, 
last surviving dau. of the late Williaoi Russell, 
esq., R.A. 

At Taplow, aged 22, Hardinge Giifard Follett, 
Lieut. 7th Royal Fusiliers, second son of the 
late Sir William Webb Follett. 

At Milton Abbott, Devonshire, aged 90, Robt 
Alexander, esq., formerly of the Madras Civil 
Service, and a Member of Council at that Pre- 
sidency. 

In Upper Phillimore-gardens, Kensington, 
aged 29, Mrs. Henry T. Wells, one of the most 
talented of our female artists. 

At Bath, Mrs. Miles, reUct of Richard Miles, 
esq., of Purton-house, Wilts. 



At Hadley, Middlesex, sged 81, Miss Katha- 
rine Couran, eldest dau. of the late Dr. Conran, 
of Berkeley-square. 

July 16. At Broome, Betchworth, Surrey, 
aged 64, Anne, wife of Sir Benjamin Collins 
Brodie, bart. She was the dau. of the late Mr. 
Serjeant Sellon, and was long well known for 
her active benevolence. Her loss will be deeply 
felt in the neighbourhood of Betchworth, where 
her charities were on a very extensive scale. 

Aged 62, William Hooper, Lieut. R.N., of 
East Harptree, Bristol. 

July 17. At Appleton-hall, Cheshire, Vands, 
wife of Thomas Henry Lyon, e.-q., and dau. of 
Colonel Wilson Patten, M.P. 

At Uplands, Guildford, aged 81, Georgina 
Mary Tharp, wife of the Rev. Archdall But- 
temer, and only surviving child of the Rev. C. 
Dallas, formerly of Stratton, Hants, and now of 
Famcombe, Surrey. 

At the Rectory, John-street, Bedford-row, 
aged 23, Frederic Worthington, of the Bank of 
England, third son of the Rev. J. W. Worthing- 
ton, D.D., Rector of Trinity, Gray's-inn-road. 

July 18. Capt. Joseph Greenwood of H.M.'s 
8l8t Regt. 

At St. Leonard's-on-Sea, aged 58, Caroline 
Jemima, widow of John Ross Hutchinson, e^q., 
H.E.I.C.S., formerly Senior Judge of the Sudder 
Court, Calcutta. 

July 19. At Middleton Stoney, Oxfordahire, 
(in his brother's house,) aged 33, James William 
Dewar, Major 97th Regt., second son of the late 
Sir James Dewar, Chief Justice, Bombay. 

At Street-thorpe, near Donca«ter. the Hon. 
Mary Margaret, widow of the Rev. Orfeur Wm. 
Kil^dngton, of Hatfield, Yorkshire. 

At his residence, in Knightsbridge, aged 78, 
Col. Thomas Gloster, late 6l8t Regt. 

July 20. At Shrewsbury, aged 76, Frances, 
eldest dau. of the late Sir John Cholmondelej 
Edwardes, bart. 

At Durham, Annie Martha, wife of Col. John 
Chaytor, Royal Engineers. 

At Down-hall, Essex, Mary Leveson, the 
eldest dau. of the late Gen. Leveson Gower, of 
BUl-hill, Berks. 

July 21. At the residence of his son-in-law, 
(J. Hinde Palmer, esq.,) Glouoester-pl., Port- 
man-sq., aged 77, the Rt. Hon. Charles Tennyson 
d'Eyncourt, of Bayons Manor, linoolnshire. 

At Fawley-oourt, Henley-on-Thames, aged 41, 
Mary, wife of Edward Mackenzie, esq. 

In WimpoloHit., aged 86, Miss Louisa Pinfold 
Tate, of Burleigh-hall, Leicestershire. 



14 



1861.] 



219 



TABLE OF MORTAI.ITY AND BIRTHS IN THE DISTRICTS OF LONDON. 

(IVom the Seiurns issued by ike Uegistrof-QeneraL) 

DEATHS REGISTERED. 









Death* in Dtatricts, &c». in the Week 


•i;pKBiirr£jn>B3rc 


Area 


Popula- 


ending Saturday, 




IQ 


tion 




1 &ioibt:&a£S' 


Statute 
Acres 


in 
1851. 




1 DISTRICTS. 


June 
22, 


Jnnc 
29, 


July 
6, 


1 Jiily 

1 13, 


July 

20, 








186L 


ISSl. 


186L 


1861. 

1 o 
61^5 


186L 


1 Meftn Temperature 


629 


604 


59-7 


61-3 


London • , • . * 


! 78029 


2803084 


1077 


1093 


1043 1 1106 


1171 






1-6, Wert Diatricts » 


10786 


463269 


183 


193 


152 


1 190 


192 


7-11- North Dwtrict* . 


13533 


618181 


237 


252 


198 


242 


231 


12-19. Central Di^tricta 


1938 


377794 


155 


150 


160 


149 


176 


> 20-25. Ewt District*! . 


6230 


570898 ' 


232 


185 


250 


226 


252 


26^6. South DktHct« . 


45512 


772892 


270 


sii 


283 


299 


820 




Deaths RegUtered. | 


Birth* Registered. 


Week ending 


li| 


i1 

f.1 


if 


i! 


111 


^ 


1 


1 


^• 


Saturday, 


H^ 


*i 


g| 


ii 


^ 


I 




H 


f Jnne 22 . 


546 


143 


168 


168 


4S^ 


1077 1 


682 


867 


1749 


■ „ 29 . 


571 


146 


167 


172 


36 


1092 , 


963 


941 


1904 


Joly 6 , 


698 


131 


152 


139 


23 


1043 i 


870 


877 


1747 


n 13 . 


Gia 


146 


ISO 


155 


33 


1106 1 


945 ' 


957 


1902 


„ 20 . 


642 


164 


165 


169 


32 


1171 


SOS 


914 


1819 


PRICE OF CORN. 


Average \ WTieat. 


Barley. 


Oats. Rye. 


Beans. 


Peas. 


OfSU > B, d. 


*, d. 


#. d. #. d. 


M. d. 


#. d. 


WedcA. J 62 7 


32 5 


25 5 85 5 


43 11 


40 1 


Week endingl 60 0|304|246|33 0|424|430 



PRICE OF HAY AND STRAW AT SMITHFIELD, July 18* 

Hay. XL 16r, to 6/. St. — Straw, l^. lOf. to Zl, 5#. — aover, %L 10#. to ^l Bt. 

NEW METROPOLITAN CATTLE^MARKET. 

To sink the Offiil— per stone of 8iba. 



^•n*.^o, 4f. A?, to 5*. 2rf. 

ft....... 4». 6rf.toS#. Ad, 

VmI 4*. Orf. to5*. Orf, 

Pork ,..,.... 4#. 2d. to 4*. lOrf. 



Head of Cattle at Market, Jitlt 18. 

Beasts 970 

Sheep ., , 13,(M0 

Calves... 659 

Pig«.. 170 



Lamb ....5#. 0(i. to 6s. 2d, 

COAL' MARKET, July 19. 
Beit Wtliiciid, fKsr tou« I8#. 6J. to I9f. ^d. Other sorts, I2#. Sd. i<> lit. Zd. 



220 



METEOROLOGICAL DIARY, by H. GOULD, Ute W. GARY, 181, Stbato. 
From June 24 to July 23, iueUuive. 



THei^oiBBter, 


BftTCrm. 




Thermomtiter. 


BumQ. 




•fets 


11 


d 


1^ 








^■^ 


is 


d 


"1^ 








&>§ 


S 


■d.» 






Weather, 


11 


u 


S 


'i'^ 






Weather. 


(Si 


o 1 


^ 


S^ 








^ 










Jnn^ 


o 


o 





iti* 


pu. 




July 


D 1 


o 


D 


in. 


ptB, 




24 


60 


73 


61 


29, 


87 


cloudy, fnir 


9 


60 


70 


62 


29, 


86 


Imir, cloudy 


26 


60 


62 


58 


29. 


76 


ilo. hj. nu cly* 
hy.8brij.cLfair 


10 


61 


73 


68 


29. 


89 


rain, ddy, fair 


26 


61 


m 


&7 


29. 


61 


11 


61 


70 


57 


29, 


86 


fair 


27 


m 


72 


m 


29, 


71 


fair, cloudy, i 


12 


61 


71 


62 


29. 


66 


cloudy 


2« 


65 


72 


m 


29. 


79 


do. 


13 


62 


69 


60 


29. 


52 


h<*aTv fihotrerf 


29 


66 


70 


60 


W. 


72j 


do. 


14 


62 


67 


57 


29, 


66 


hvy. mill, fair 


30 


60 


64 


56 


30, 


03 


do, dcrady 


1^ 


62 


71 


59 


29. 


66 


fiiir,hain*hra. 


J.l 


63 


71 


61 


30, 


11 


do. do. 


16 


e4 


72 


59 


29, 


86 


do, *lgt, rain 


2 


60 


69 


67 


29, 


93 


rain, cldy- fair, 


17 


62 


71 


57 


29. 


72 


eloody 


r ^ 


59 


69 


6a 


m 


93 


cloudy, fkir 


18 


62 


69 


59 


29. 


69 


do. rain 


^ 


63 


62 


66 


3d. 


48 


cl. cotiftt. ram 


19 


63 


65 


62 


29. 


67 


fuif . ilft. nhx 


B 


61 


67 


66 


29. 


SI 


do, ehower* 


20 


64 


73 


61 


t9. 


73 


rn.ddy,hy,ni. 


\ € 


63 


69 


59 


29. 


40 


do. do. [thJg. 


21 


63 


70 


60 


29. 


74 


doudy^ ihn. 


f 


61 


70 


60 


29, 


55 


rn,fftir,rti.|jaill 


22 


63 


70 


62 


29, 


76 


d0.do. 


e 


61 


72 


69 


29 


67 


ftin liy. ito. 


23 


63 


72 


58 


29, 


60 


fr.d,algt.Bajr». 



DAILY PRICE OF STOCKS. 



Jane 

and 

July. 

24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
J.l 

2 

8 

4 

5 

6 

8 

9 
10 
11 



8 per 

Cent. 

OonaoU. 



89i i 

89i I 

89i t 

89t t 

89i t 

89i i 

89i i 

89i i 

89i i 

891 i 

89i I 

89i I 

891 I 

891 I 
89J 90 
89i 90i 



12 


90 i 


13 


90 ji 


15 


90 i: 


16 


90 h 


17 


89i 90 


18 


89i 90 


19 


891 i 


20 


89^ J 


22 


89^ i 


23 


89} 90 



8 per 

Cent. 

Reduced. 



88} 91 
88t i 
88i J 



88i 
88i 
88f 



88i i 



88i 
88i 

881 i 

88} I 

89 i 

881 9 

88} 9 

89jt } 

89f } 

89i i 

891 I 
89f 

891 I 

894 I 

89} I 

89i i 

89i i 

89} I 

89i I 



New 
3 per 
Cents. 



88( 9, 

88t 

88i 

88} 

884 

884 

884 

884 

884 

881 

88i 9, 

89 1 

88} 9 

88} 9 

89J 

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89i 

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! 89} 

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894 



Bank 
Stock. 



280 

230 1} 
229 



228 SO 
2304 
228} 9 
230 



8 dis. 2 par. 

dis. 2 pm. 
10 dis. par. 

10 dis 
10 dis. par. 
10 dis. par. 
12. 3di8. 

4. 2 dis. 



230 



228 30 
230 
230 31 
231 
229i 
230 31 

229 31 



!231 



;231 

! 

!229 31 



Ex. Bills. 
£1,000. 



11. 6 dis. 

5 dis. 
11. Idis. 



India 
Stock. 



Shut. 



18.14di8. 



I&13di8. 



218 



6. Idis. 

par. 

5 dis. 1 pm. 

7 pm. 

2dis. 

7 dis. par. 

4 dis. 2 pm. 

4. 2dia. 

2 dis. 

3 dis. par. 

3 dis. 
10. 3di8. 
5 dis. par. 



218 



218 20 
220 21 
218} 



2184 20 
219 
221 
219 



IndU 
Bonds. 
£1,000. 



India 
5per cents. 



20 dis. 



12 dis, 
14. 10 dis. 



lOdia. 



12. 9^^ 
12. 7 dis. 



98} 
981 
98} 
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98} 
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98} 
981 
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sfox 

98} 
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99} 
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ALFRED WHITMORE, 

Stock and Share Broker, 

19, Change Alley, London, E.C. 



ratxTBB BT xssaaa. lowt KJOiaT axo jams* rAUUUt. 



THE 

GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE 

AND 

HISTORICAL REVIEW. 

SEPTEMBER, 1861. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGX 

MINOK CORRESPONDENCE.— Sale of Archbiahop TcnUon'a Llbrarj.— " Toyi." 222 

Mosaics 228 

The Life of the Sieur de Joinville 237 

Early Poems of Bishop Shuttleworth 246 

Note on Bronze Marmites, oflen met with in Arch»ological Collections 254 

Becent Excavations at Cyrene 256 

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.— WUls and Inrentoriea, Cork, temp. EUzabcth 267 

ANTIQUARIAN AND LITERARY INTELLIGENCER.— Congrew of the Arehfleological 
Institute at Peterborough, 263 ; Kent Archeological Society, 281 ; London and Middle- 
sex and Surrey ArehcDological Societies, S92 ; Leicestershire Architectural and Archs- 
ological Society, 294 ; Society of Antiquaries, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 298 ; Worcester- 
shire Architectural Society, 301 ; Excavations at Pompeii 808 

CORRESPONDENCE OF SYLVANUS URBAN. — Dr. Samuel Parr and the late Bishop 
Maltby, 304 ; Quern Mary's Bower, 305 ; Rotten Row, Calbegc, &c., 306 ; Jeu d'Esprit 
of Sir Walter Scott 307 

THE NOTE-BOOK OF SYLVANUS URBAN 308 

HISTORICAL AND MISCELLANEOUS REVIEWS. — Paget's New "Examen," 810; 
Strickland's Lires of the Bachelor Kings of England — Brown's Peter tbe Apostle 
never at Rome, 311 , The Ferns of Derbyshire 3X2 

APPOINTMENTS, PREFERMENTS, AND PROMOTIONS 313 

BIRTHS 814 

MARRIAGES 316 

OBITUARY.— The Duke of Buckingham and Chandos, K.G., 321 ; The Earl of Traquair— 
Anne, Dowager Countess of Newburgb, 323 ; The Bishop of Durham, 324 ; Lord Her- 
bert of Lea, 325 ; Admiral Sir Barrington Reynolds, K.C.B., 827 ; The Right Hon. 
Cbarles Tennyson D'Eyncourt, F.R.S., F.S.A., 328; Father Ventura, 330; Madame 
Catherine Uayes-Bushnell 33I 

CLERGY DECEASED 332 

DEATHS ARRANGED IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER 332 

Registrar-General's Return of Mortality and Births in the Metropolis — Markets, 239; 

Meteorological Diary— Daily Price of Stocks 340 



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THE 



d^ntlijmiMi's |flirjgH£tiu 



AlTD 



EISTORICAL REVIEW, 



MOSAICS*. 

The art which is now generally known by the name of Mosaic?, and 
which consists in forming pictures of small cubes in stone, or mnrble, or 
tile, or earthenware, or glass* of different colours ^, has been called by various 
names, perhaps the most common of whkh is Tessellated Pavements; and 
this nftroe is now, for the sake of distinction, confined to that coarser kind 
which was used for pavement only ; and this distinction is convenient ia 
practicep but it is not borne owt by ancient writers, and it is in fact now 
almost impossible to explain or apply the different names which were pro- 
bably applied to different varieties of the art ; as, * Opus mtisivum,* ^ musai- 
cura,' * mosaicom,* ' mosibura/ * museum ;* * opus tesseUatum,* * vermicu- 
latum/ *reliculatum,* *albanum et sectile/ 

The mosaic art is one of the earliest known, and belongs quite to the 
infancy of civilization. The Chinese posseBs it with their other stationary 
arts from lime immemorial ; rt was found among the primitive inhabitants 
of America, and in a more or less rude form among the earliest remains of 
nearly all nations. Some authorsn think it was invented by the Persians^ 
and ground ihiw on a passage in the Bible describing the palace of King 
Ahasut-rus: — ** Where were white, blue, and green hangings, fastened with 
cords of fine linen and purple to silver rings and pillars of marble : the 
beds were of gold and silver, upon a pavement of red* and blue, and white, 
and black marble *.** After them the Assyrians are supposed to have taught 
this art to the Egyptians and the Greeks, from whom it passed to the 



• "Lrt Carrelagea EmailU^ Par M.Emlle Am^." (4to„ Paria, 1859.) We are 

to this work for stfvenil woodcuta^ &nd au excellent summary of the subject 

I U well at of tile pavements, (sec Gent. Mao., Fub. 1861, p. 119). We have 

'aUo to esprcM our obbgntioua to M. Do Caumont fur tUo use of sevend woodcutu from 

tbe Buthtiii Monumental, vol. xxv., aud to the Abbe Crosnier for much vnluablo iiifor' 

mat ion containe<l in his e^fiay on K^vcnna in the same volume* 

^ RespifGting the matcriiib of wlikh mosaieji and t«»solinted pnveraenta were miicle 
I an t^oellent paper, by Professor Buckmati, in tlie Archajolof^ical Jouraid, vol. rii. 
, 347- Clampim aUo has a chapter cm ib«t «ubj«sct; wee Vvttra Moaumenta, cap. iL 
. 84. (Folio, KodUD, 1696.) * Either i. e. 



224 



Mn»aict. 



[Sept. 



Ronian»» who unqacf tion;ibly u?ed it with the grefttest profu^^ion. and etif^ 
ried it with them Into all their provinces, including Gaul and Britain, aa i« 
abundantly proved by the innumerable examples which are found on the 
site of every Roman station or villa. The patterns of these have bc€n 
published in so many works, that we should need a catalog-oe of several 
pages to enumerate them. Still we arc nut aware thai any concise outline 
of the subject of mosaics is accessible to tlie ordinary English reader, and 
this want we shall endeavour to supply, more especially as regards wall 
pictures^. 

At the fall of the Roman empire, this art, with all others, was in danger 
of being lost ; but as the Chrii^tian Church rose in power, and importance, 
and Wffalth, this- valuable art was revived with others, and for a consider- 
ahle period was devoted chiefly to the decoration of churches. The Greek 
Church patronized it equally with the Koman ; and during the persecution 
of the iconoclasts at Byzanlium, the artists took refuge in Italy, where 
they were aUowed to practise their art freely ; but they had formed a dis» 



V^ 



•( n\ \u\ 



4.L- 



tinct school of their own, and the Greek mosaics in Rome of the eleventh 
and twelfth centuries are readily distinguished from those of the Romans 
themselves, by the peculiar stiffness of the drawing, the costume, and 
a certain solemn efifect, and frequently by Greek letters, or the names of 
the artists. 

But the Christians both of the East and the West had practised this art 
even before the time of Constantine. A remarkable example of this early 
period has been found in the small church of D'Jemilah, in Algeria, by tlie 

* Some fine monaic p1cturi«i» found in tlit? crypt« anil sepnlcbrei of ancient Rorae, 
Br« enirrAVfd by Bartholin (Folio, Rome, 1738.) Some fine Roman inosntc psvemenU 
found in Engbind are engrmved in the VrntM^t^ M&mumefUOf pubhsbed bj the Sodrtj 
of Anttqa triei. 



iflfa 



smAH 



I86L] 



Mi 



OBUtCS, 



225 



French scientific commissioHi and an elaborate work upon it published at 
the expense of the French government* We are here able to give the 
ground- plan of it only. 

The next examples of which the datea are known are those of the tirae of 
Constantine. Of these, by far the moat remarkable are contained in the 
circular church of St. Constantia, which is now generally believed to have 
been built by Const an tine as the sepulchral chapel of his daughter, or the 
baptistery to the church of St. Agnes. This is supposed by Ciampini and 
other old authors to have been originally a Temple of Bacchus, purified and 
consecrated by order of Constantine; but the general opinion of well- 
infortned persons now is that it was built by him, although the materials of 
an antique temple were made use of, according to the fashion of his time. 
The vaults are covered with a series of very fine mosaics, in remarkably 
good preservation, representing the culture of the vine in every stage, 
from the ploughing of the ground with oxen to the treading out the grapes 
and making the juice into wine. This is believed to be only an elaborate 
instance of the practice of the early and medieval Church of representing 
by pictures a text of Scripture, — *' I am the vine j" just as at a later period 
•* I am the door'* was made a reason for ornamenting the doorway more 
richly than any other part of the church. The chapel of St. Constantia has 
a dome in the centre, with an aisle round it covered by a semicircular 
vault. In the centre of the dome is the head of St. Constantia^ encircled 
by a branch of the \ine, which trails over the whole vault, and has a num» 
ber of birds, and small figures of cupids^ (or angels ?) ; in the lower part 
of the central vault are two oxen drawing a cart-load of grapes, aud in 
another compartment three men under a shed treading out the grapes : 
each of these groups is twice repeated. Over one of the doorways is 
Christ giving His blessing to two of the apostles ^, with four lambs at His 
feet, and the inscription^ '* Dominus pacem dat/' on a scroll which He gives 
to one of the apostles ; two streams of water flow from the feet of Christ, 
supposed to represent the rivers of Paradise : Christ alone has the nimbus ; 
the apostles wear their hair after tlie fashion of the period, their heads are 
not shaved. On another tympanum Christ is seated on the globe^ with a 
book in His le^ hand, and giving His right hand to an apostle under a part 
of His cloak. 

Ciampini has preserved by his engravings a record of several other mosaics 
formerly existing in Rome, of the time of Constantine, now destroyed, or 
preserved in rausettms only j the most important of them is the one for* 
merly in the apse, or tribune, of the old church in the Vatican. 

Or THi FouBTH CrurxtTBT we have also a mosaic of a.d. 378, in the church 
of St. Agatha at Ravenna, in the tribune, with a pointed arch over it. This 
represents Christ seated on the throne of glory, raised on two steps, and 



• Supposed to be St, Thomas and SU Philip— John xiv. 27. 
OWTT, Mao« \ou CCXL K e 



226 



tO$QlCa. 



mriched with g^mf ; the head And hair sre of the form and Hbt fbce 
ba» the caloi dignified expression, which became conventional ; on etihcr 
nde it an ajigel holiyng a stB^T, and standing on a rock with flowers apfiog^ 
ing otit of it. 

Of THB Firra CENTuaT we ha^e St. Sabina f?), St. Maria Maj)Or, and 
the oratory of St. John the 
Evangelist at Bome, and 
the baptistery of 8t, John 
Baptist at HtivenDa. 

The chttfch of St- Sabina 
was founded by Pope Cseles- 
tinus I,, A.D. 424, restored 
(or rebuilt ?) by Pope Leo, 
k,D. 795, and adorned with 
pictures by Pope Eugenius 
II., A.D. 824. The mosaics 
In this church are very 
singular, nuHke any other in 
Rome, and not in the style 
of the fifth century, eicept- 
ing perhaps the remarkable 
ornaments above the capitals 
in the spandrels of the arches 
of the nave, consisting of a 
cross and a circle in dark 
marble let into a light 
ground ; a somewhat similar 
ornament occurs in the Bap- 
tistery at Ravenna, also attributed to the fifth century, and the one 



• «*m.i 



acems to confirm the other. But if these arehea with their ornament 
belong to the original structure, it is quite clear that the west end does not ; 
there is an evident junction in the work on both sides in the western bayi 
which would necessarily he rebuilt along with the west wall, and the oma* 
ntnt on these two arches is painted in imitalion of the old mosaics. It 
foUowa from this, when compared with the bii^tory. that the west end 
belongs to the repairs of Pope Leo in 795, and these mosaics are part of 
tbe psdsres of Eugenius U. in 824, This agrees much better than the 
•arlier dale with the style of the mosaics and the subjects, which are oo 




J86L] 



Mosaics, 



227 



either aide the Jewish wxd Cbmtian Church, with St. Peter and St. Paul, 
aod over the west windows the emblems of the £vangeli&t&; under these 
wbdows is the celebrated inscription in ver}^ large Roman capitals. 

CVUfSN Af 06TOI10TM OVM 0A£J3STI}nr8 HABBEST 
PBIMT8 ET IN TOTO PFLGEEBX EPISCOPVS OMBB 
ttAEC QTiJ: lUBABia FTXDATIT PKEflBTTEB VBBIS 
tLLYRICA DE OENTE PETBYS TIB NOMnTE TAXTO 
DieVTB AB BXOBTV OHBBTI mrTBlTVa tH ATLA 
FAVPICBIDT8 LOOTFLBS SIBI PAVPBB QVl BONA VITAB 
PBAZSElfTia FVQlJUre MZBTIT SFSUAEJ! FVTrBAH. 

The wording of the inscriptioQ, recording that the church was founded in 
ic time of CaelesUnus, seems to relate it as a past event rather than to re- 
ird it at the time ; it is not probable that the pope would have allowed so 

some a compliment to be paid to him in his lifetime, nor was it the cus- 
tom of tlie iifth century to put up long and conspicuous inscriptions in 
mosaics. The series of fifteen heads in medallions, round the arch of the 
tribune, as given by Ciampini ^, and called the Csesars^ are evidently Christ 
And the apostles, with two popes at the bottom, for the donors. These cor- 
respond ejiactly in design with the arch of St. Praxedis, a.d. BIB^ and in 
the aarae church the emblems of the Evangelist are represented in the same 
manner close to the roof, above all the other pictures. 

Of the fifth century also we have the church of St. Maria Major at Rome, 
founded by Pope Liberiua in the fourth century, but rebuilt and decorated 
with mosaics by Pope Sixtus III., 432—440, A considerable part of these 
still exist in fair preservation, comprising two ranges of pictures over the 
columns of the nave, with subjects from the Old Testament ; and the arch 
over the tribune, called the arch of triumph, with subjects from the New 
Testament, in five rows ; in the lowest are lambs, over these the two holy 
cities^ Jerusalem and Bethlehem. In the centre, over the arch, is a round 
medallion, supported by St. Peter and St. Paul, and the emblems of the 
four Evangelists ; on the north side in this upper row is the " Annuncia- 
tion/* and on the south the '' Presentation in the Temple.*' On the medallion 

represented the throne of God richly ornamented with jewels ; at the 
is a cross and a circle or crown, and on the seat the book with the 
ieven seals; at the end of the arms of the chair, or throne, are small 
medalUons, with busts of St. Peter and St. Paul Under the throne is the 
inscription '* Xistus Episcopus plebi Dei*" In the second range is the 
Adoration of tlie Magi, and the Child Jesus in the midst of the Doc- 
tors. The tiiird range is occupied entirely by the Massacre of the Inno- 
cents ^» merely divided by the arch. The subjects from the Old Testament 
are arranged in thirty pictures, most of which are double, that is, consisting 
of two groups of figures, one over the other ; they extend the whole length 

' Vet. Mon,, torn, i, pL 47. t Ibid., torn. ii. pi. 46 and 48. 

^ It !» worth notice that tbe angels and King; Herod have the nimbus, as if it was 
UwB eomidarsd a mark of digitity or rank. 



^^-r 




238 Mosaics. [Sept 

of tbe n&ve, £f:eer. on each side : a few are destrored. and odim have been 
repa-red. oujers renewed, bat ir. mosaic work repairs can alwrnys be seeab? 
the ci:ferer« of co'.oiir ^r of tie work. r.:'never tkiifullv ther may be done. 
Six .-^r the piciures have been renewed cr Tt'p.2ic^i by othen in the sixteenth 
cer.:v.ry. ar.d fix others appear :o hare bee:: Ccstrcved br the opeoii^ of 
arc v. I s : c >i .: c ch a-x Is. Tne n: : siic* cf the ch ;j"cL of St. PanL ootcide tbc walk 
c: R. :r e. of the r.fih of :.t.:r>-. we:^? cesa-cyei by -ihe great fire in 1S23. and aic 
c.^^ :":ierr. work, h;:: are bel.eved t:- b* f*::i:il c:>p:es of the old pictnrei. 

T:.-: lUp::s:en- c: S:. J^nr. s: Rivenz.i is s^i t:> hare been rebuilt and 
Sid.^::.o.: with r.::fi:.-^ ry B:sh:p Xeo in A-r. 451. It is an octagonal 
K. .;.. ^. with .*i ::rc-*ir djme or mprli. ±e cei'T.g of which ia ooTcnd 
i^.th the tr.r*'.^:.'' p.^ture*. reprrsei-t.r.^ '±x B&piisa of Christ in the centre, 
ar.d tic-rts -f ;hc iwe'.ve .\p:*:l:* r:.:-i :: : crer il. arch are some inscrip- 
tio"*. w.t.-. the n:."^n:irr.\rr- :: B:^h:pMAi Tr.hn, £fx-^vs .ViajuiaaMBt.) who 
live.: .^Ku: the r.::id'j' .:* the s.xth oei:r::rT. ^zi przbahly either repuiedor 
cv:rr't:cd the ::::\5si:;«. 

T: e O.itrry cf St. J.h- thf Evsnz^I:*: ::: the BaptisterT of St. John 
Lfctcr;.:-. ..t 3\,:v-e h;.* the ri«".: :r::i=:f r.tei with soslics by Pope Hihrr, 
jL.i> -tC'. — 4*T. It :* :^ sc-\rt 1:l.1L-^ w::h a £TC«izei vailt, and the 
c'.^^ji „■*> .^: e\i»:ute.- c:: ii c.'d rr:--£ : iz. thi Orr.tre is the Lamb with a 
r.:v.V.:<>. yh^.e,. •.;. a :\t:'.-: :: f.:-wer* "«-.ii^ i «.;«ijTff brvrier: the groins of 
thi' r.-.u".t ire jr .v.v.:r.to.: ^::i £■:.:.£.-£* :: i:-^er$^ iz-d borders arranged in 
p.^:te:r# ct <s:.:.\re .'Lid d:.^^.'-d rVm*, ir.d »-i:l— :h=a*e squares are birds 
^d.vc* .-.:■'. pe::c-.vk* ::: :ri.-:"re* ::" ::".:i.rf. hi^i TzriLrLS lowarda a Taie 
filed n :.. :...:. Or. the '-•ills, tre f j--e« z£ th; :o:j- EranreHsCs, eaJi 
».t:. h:* e.v.h'.:::: ;\eT :..* h:id. this-e ir* the sits* as rcw csec : though 
:h.f < : :: ....>.^v< :"..e .-^j-f.:. the SsLzie ez:":!:-? ir; scoecizLc* assigned to 
d.r; e:-.: f.;. ci'.j-ts I:, tie z: :*£.:* ire :i.f;r.;t::4L$ lecurilug that thej 
ijv t. e :: :: ,*.:' 'f v: :". '•.:-. 

Tie .\s; :-..:;,. : ..:.h . ' St Ardrew t: ?.;— c srZ has ,or had in the 
t : . : v" ...V. ::; .-. r>.^ .-^ r. the t :.:.:-? erecte^d ry Pcpc &2:pacitti in 
-.. :...:. ..:.d *.; t:: :eT.tr£ ;* t«e fr-r* cc' Chj:!*: scaading on 

i. .. : . : ^- , .- ".-. < ": .<.* r.-. ,-,r ri . :*: ttteit-.L ry "rLs zpidfied band, with 
s. >;• : *:'.>: •.;..■. ;■-..; :: r ftrrLTj* r..-T .r^ frjiH Hj* fe« ; oa cither side 

.'."•, : ;.■•.•.<:;* ;..;:. ■ .: r * <.:r.- .. L:-;*r.Lzd. ^zder^eAth as an imcrip* 
•^.^ - c ■* i ;v: :: r* S .v . . :: -^ Oz-e :c the icc«^ie« has a bold 
- * :. . t. ; j.-re. t-.e :.t^:: :: jr ZskJ-i i^ts hkii is a aatoral 



>.\:/. 



- s* j.T :. V-:.r::LL-*:5 Lt Scoe. b=£It bTP<^ 

«.-: r. . r~ ^r.- 7 r tr-d r^e vasli of the apse 

■*;■ -'.^ * : : t.:«e ir^r :* lie xepresentatioa 

& la.-: :i .iiih.'*ec OL a ^ewvSied throne. 



1861.] 



Mosaics. 



229 






with a plain cross above, and an open book on tbe step ; on either side two 
angels with the nimbus, Btanding on the clouds; at one end ts the emblem 
d St. Matthew* at the other that of St. John, the other two emblems and 
the twenty-four elders have been destroyed. On the vault of the apse, or 
tribune, b a group of large figures i m the centre is Christ standing on the 
clouds, with a scroll in His left hand, the right hand elevated, as in the act 
of speaking ; on His right hand is St. Peter introducing St. Cosmas, who 
hia crown of martyrdom In his hand, and beyond is Pope Felix with 
odel of the church in his hand, as the founder ; to the left of Christ 
IS St. Paul introducing St, Damianus, also with his crown, and beyond him 
St, Theodore, also with bis crown ; between these figures are thirteen sheep, 
the central one raised and with the nimbus ; at either end Bethlehem and 
Jerusalem. 

A..D, 545. The church of St. Michael the Archangel, at Havenna, was 
built in 545, as recorded in an ancient inscription. The tribune with the 
mosaics is preserved ; on the vault are the figures of Christ, erect, with the 
cruciform nimbus, holding a tall Latin cross jewelled; on either side 
St. Michael and St, Gabriel, and outside of the arch St. Coamas and St» Da- 
mianus : all these have their names over their heads. The mouldings of the 
arch are enriched with patterns in mosaic, and over it is another figure of 
Christ, and on each side groups of angels blowing trumpets. 

A p. 547, The justly celebrated church of St. Vitalis at Ravenna is richly 
decorated with mosaics of the time of Justinian. The whole of the walls, 
epse, and vault of the choir are ornamented in this manner, and the 
mosaics are in fine preservation. On the vault of the tribune is the figure 
of Christ seated on the globe, with an archangel on either side, intro- 
ducing, the one St. Vitalis, to whom Christ is presenting a crown richly 
ornamented with jewels, the other Eclesius^ bishop of Ravenna, who died 
in 541 \ he carries in his hand a model of the church with its dome, a proof 
that he was the founder of it; this figure is the only one without the 
nimbus. On the vault, which is groined, is the Lamb surrounded by stars 
on a round medallion in the centre, with four cherubim at the top of the 
walls of the vault, the surface of which is covered with a flowing pattern of 
Ibltftg^ very similar to that afterwards used in the thirteenth century : round 
the edge of the arch in front of thin vault are fifteen heads on round medaU 
lions, — Christ and the twelve aposlle.s, and the two lowest heads have the 
names of Gervasius and Protasius ; the last two were saints of the fourth 
century, whose bodies are said to have worked miracles ; no distinction ia 
made between them and the apostles, excepting that they hold the lowest 
place. This apse is lighted by three windows, and on the jambs of the two 
aide windows are the Evangelists, each with his symbol ; under each of 
these windows is an altar in an arched recess or tribune, and on the 
northern and southern ones are the mosaics, of which we here give rude 




.^BL 



L^^^^^_ 



rvi 



JSunuaL 




T^u: 'r.jlf*-^.r.:f K lit', w."' ii '.if. )Hini:.nir« xczwuniz :l -aer lumbers — 

t*. Ji.iKUi'.'W v.t:i Xif. i.i^rti u r-int ,t urn b i -rnintf-iesk. iQii jc 
lift >'.*:• i jw.ic*:?. ir r.ili! ix i^ir-^.Mmis.ir — rae luctj h aac lay 

i X ifartt. VI th 'ihfc -iiiH m i '^inx. *iJio vrra i vrnii^-ie^k :ii rnnt of 
iim. ui inf?n mr«K n iiit e?t izinci. ma ~he .'r^ric aanii -^evausti ui 
"All itrciiiwin 

1 Vfiifcf.?: "ttit.ntf iff UK tfinw. It. "iiR 'T'immanii it '.-oii. 

I. Ml. ».*•:: ':iic;inr mar'ift A Iw: '.ntt*ip if f"*ttari ■ "' . jr 'ft. ?iter fieedins tie 

•Jurftji if Mirfct • 

.« Tlift ;)rripiu!r fHAiHii vith 'm :xpn^ftuin if -iauneH*). ^taniiin^ by a wail at 
• 111! -.ml «f viiu'.n y. i piilar -vith i ^.rown jn ^tie tup ji it, m oiliUBua 
\u Itta. :£^7iii. i — * V If: 'ij ^ne irown jf pniie. " 

riiili?r tlip arr.h ;irrr — >l. Ai)iti, iiis irmH rai&ed in the •Jrieniiii attitude of 
\iniy*-r , ,%in\ 7 WfU-.tiiM'tivr. •itfcnni'' jr'^ad -md wine upon -iie liilar. 
K.u:h 'it 'iif^K rw.i fiif'imn ;« -ttamiinir ;n rnint uf i wjjoden uut. 

'Jv«r till! ,ur.h iuft !wo iini(f-lH '•AiTyinir =1 jewelled cnji»» jn i nmnd istneld, 
WitU Lhf! A .1111 1 a. 



1S61.] 



Monuet. 



281 




UonlcB over an a)tar on th« south lide of the apte of St. Vicalia, RaTenna. ▲ d. bit. 

The following is the key to the paintings on the south side : — 

1. St. John with the eagle. 

2. St. Luke with the ox. 

5. Jeremiah, with the crown of Jerusalem on a pillar as before, alluding 

to Jer. ziii. 18. 

4 and 5 are supposed to be Moses in the mount with the people looking 
up in wonder, but the interpretation of this picture is allowed to be 
doubtful. 

6. Abraham serving the three young men seated at table, with Sarah in 

the door of the tent. 

7. Abraham offering up Isaac, with the arm of the angel coming out of 

heaven to stay his hand ; the ram at his feet. 

Over the arch two angels carrying a jewelled cross, as before. 



282 



Mosaics. 



[Sept. 



On tbe walls on each side of the choir are two processions of figures u 
large as life, attired in rich dresses, the colours of which are all perfect, 
forming a valoable study for the history of costume. In the centre of one 
group is the Emperor Justinian, with the nimbus, and a crown on his head 




Moeaio on the north dde of the Chancel of St Vltalia. Bavenna, am. 047. 



formed of a circlet of precious stones, and a bowl in his hand containing 
an offering ; in front of whom walks Maximianus» bishop of Ravenna in 
547, who consecrated the church ; he is attired in an alb and cope, and 
carries a jewelled cross ; a priest in an alb or surplice, carrying the book 
of the Gospels ; and a deacon, also in an alb, carrying a thurible ; both 
these have the tonsure ; the bishop is bald. Behind the emperor are nobles, 
and guards with spears, and a large shield with the monogram ; each of 
the guards has a torque on his neck. 

The chief figure of the opposite group is the Empress Theodora, attired 




MoMio on the south side of the Chancel of St Vitalie, BaTenna. a.s. M7. 

in a very rich robe, with the nimbus, and a jewelled crown on her head ; 
she is attended by her ladies, also richly attired. Over the heads of some 

1 



1861,j 



iosatcs. 



233 



of the figures are represented crowns of martyrdom, exactly resembling 
the CTovvn now preserved in the Hotel de Cluny at Paris respecting which 
there has been so much controversy. 

A-D. 553. The Arian Baptistery at Ravenna is said to have been built by 
the Emperor Theodoric for the use of Ihe Arians, but purified by the Arch» 
bishop Agnelus, and named ** Sancta Maria in Cosmedin," which signifies 
St. Mary the rich or the beautiful, and the mosaics are said to have been 
madeC?) or altered (?) at that time. It has a domical vault with fine 



llooier oa ib* Domical Vtalt tif tb* BrnpU^letj At BM^ioxuaMi, JkJ». M- 

; in the centre is the baptism of Christ, and round it the twelve 

i separated by palm-trees, and the throne of the Almighty jewelled, 

and surmounted by a jewelled cross. The Saviour is represented standing 

in the river Jordan up to the w^aist, but the water is level, and not raised 

into a hillock in the absurd manner afterwards introduced in the middle 

I ages ; over His head is the nimbus and the Holy Dove descending upon 

* Him ; on His left hand is St. John Baptist standing on a rock, pouring 

' water out of a Bcallop^shell on the head of our Lord, and clothed with 

a camers-skin ; on the right of Christ is another figure, said to be Moses 

by the historian of Ravenna, but which the Abbe Crosnier, with more pro- 

bability^ supposes to be an emblematic figure of the river Jordan; a figure 

with horns on the head was an ordinary mode of representing a river-god 

by the ancients, the urn also is another such emblem, and the attitude 

seems to erpress astonishment at the honour conferred upon him* 

A.D. 567. The church of St, Apollinaris in CtassCp near Ravenna, is said 
to have been built and ornamented with mosaics about a.d. 5ti7* On the 
OaifT. Mao. Vol. CCXL » f 



234 



Mosaics. 



[Sept 



vault of the tribune is the figure 
uplifted in prayer, surrounded by 
twelve sheep at the base ; over his 



of St. Apollinaris, erect, with hit handi 
trees with sheep among them, and the 
head is a jewelled cross surroonded bj 














^"■v 



^ ^^ 



^^^lliP 











9 L a ©i: °g§i^ 

lillllfltl 



o,a ^ o OS o)^ 



' ^ a 



Stars in a circular medallion ; on either side of the arch are Michael and 
Gabriel, over it are more sheep and the emblems of the Evangelists. 

The church of St. Apollinaris within the walls of Ravenna, commonly 
called Santa A poll inure nuova, is built exactly on the plan of a Roman 



1881.] MoBoici. 235 

barilica, and the foundation of it is attributed to the Emperor Theodoric in 
the beginning of the sixth century ; it was given to the Arians, who made 
it their cathedral, and was originally dedicated to St. Martin. At a later 




period, under Justinian, it was restored to the Catholics, and reconciled to 
catholic worship by St. Agnelus, and the mosaics were executed at that 
period, or about 570. The name of St. Apollinaris was not given to it until 
the ninth century, when, from the fear of an invasion by the Saracens, the 
body of the saint was removed for safety to this church within the walls of 
the town, from the other church of the same name about three miles distant. 



^f J.Jfii^S. 






._-.^- i- 






^,;/:. '. ^ • -^3»^...'' *. : >.. .j i.r.v.*..-.'. -.y: .T.f: -^ in — ^f--. liTzr "vn 



1861.] 



337 



THE LIFE OF THE SIETTR BE J0T:NTILLE«. 

To tlio&e who have some knowledge of mediaeval French, combined with 
m taste for matters mediaeval, it will require few extraneous accessories or 
attractions to recommend to them a new edition (and at a small price) of 
that channing narrative, De Joinville's ** History and Chronicle of the very 
Christian Xing, Saint Louis;" one, at once, of the most curious, most 
interesting, and moRt valuable literary relics of the thirteenth and four- 
teenth centuries, that have come down to our times. 

With M. Didot's volume before us, it were needless, perhaps almost pre- 
auropluous — seeing- the labour and diligence which he has evidently ex- 
pended upon the subject — to place before the reader in language of our 
own an estimate of the nature and value of Be Joinville*s workj a chro- 
nicle of the words, actions, and sufferings of one who was at once the 
most amiable, the most chivalrous, and the most rash of men, written by 
a feudal lord of the thirteenth century, his devoted follower and friend* 
fikithful, valiant, generous, frank, and light-hearted. 

" In thewj Memoiri," says M. Bidot, " which form one of tba znoti pMoiotit me- 
morlnlii of times ancient and modern, tho Cliriitlan with a devotion not alwayn 
crodaloas, the man of the worlds the knightly friend of a king, the frank and nrtlenB 
hiitonan, all reveal themselves in a form bo indy natural, and with rach strict fidoUty, 
that we are able, in somo mensmne^ to penetrate Into the very inmost thoughts of tho 
author, from the simple recital that be gives nfl, withoat the adclitiou of any reflec- 
tioTU of hh own. Never have chamctor and style bcten found better in accord than in 
viUe, Hii Memoirs disclose to us in him conrBge united with modesty, and troth - 
with candour, — qualitiea winch predominate throughout, in the very smidlesfc 
even; while we find majiifosted a sensitiveness of itpirit, and occiiaionally a 
mmer of philosophy^ which are in strong contrast with the more imperturbable 
£utb that Actuates Saint Loui&> There is nothing to be found more curioua, more 
mtereating;, moire isstnictive, and, more especially, that makes ns better acquainted 
with the ehuracter of JoinviUe, than his conversatioiif with the King; where he on- 
vdk the very innermost of their soul and of their character/' 

The above is from the Prefatory Biacourae on the Memoirs of JoinviUe, 
and their Literary Merit, by M. Ambrose Firmin Didot 3 in addition to 
which he has enriched the volume with a Life of the writer ; A Discourse 
upon the Tombs and Epitaphs of the family of De JoinviUe ; upon the 
Castle of JoinviUe ; the Manuscripts and Editions of the Memoirs ; Sources 
of Contemporary History that may be advantageously consulted ; Acts and 
Documents that bear reference to the Sicurs de JoinviUe, the Genealogy 

* ^'Hemolres de Jean Sire de Joiuvilloj on Hittoire et Chronique du trcs-Chretien 
Boi Saint Loaifu Public par M. Franciaque-Miohelf pr^c^^ de Diiacrtationi par 
M. Xmbr, Firmin Didot, et d*une Notice sur les Manuacrits du Sire de JoinviUe par 
M^PuOia Paris. (Paris: Firmin Didot, Fr^^G8, FiU et Q\ I vol, small 8vo., 546 pp.) 





288 The Life qf the Sieur de JoinvUle. [Sept 

of the fkmily of De Joinville, and the Credo, or Profeflsion of Faith of 
Joinville ; — a work which, with all the curious illustrations contained in 
the manuscript, we hope that Messrs. Firmin Didot will yet find en- 
couragement to publish. 

The volume is enriched, too, by the addition of several minor mediaeval 
works of contemporary date, and various interesting plates depicting the 
castle as it appeared at various dates during last century, the seal and 
monumental effigy of De Joinville. and a facsimile from the manuscript 
of the original work in the Imperial Library, No. 2,016. 

We do not pretend within our circumscribed limits to enter upon a re- 
view of the work of the Sieur de Joinville, the more especially as that has 
been most ably done by M. Ambrose F. Didot himself, under every aspect ; 
and his volume, with all the advantages of good paper, clear type, and 
portable size, for a very few francs, is at the command of our readers. 

To a few particulars, then, relative to the life of this feudal Utterateur 
we confine ourselves. 

Jean, Sieur de Joinville, was bom at the Castle of Joinville, a town not 
hi distant from Chalons-sur-Mame, a.d. 1224; his father being Simon, 
Sieur de Joinville. and his mother, Beatrix, daughter of Stephen II.. Count 
of Burgundy, and cousin-german of Frederic II., Emperor of Germany. 
His family, one of the most illustrious and most ancient in Champagne, 
was descended from William, Count of Poictiers in 940. 

Simon, Sieur de Joinville, died in 1233, leaving a widow and his eldest 
child Jean, an orphan under ten years of age, heir to his honours and 
estates. Of the historian's early life we know but little, it appears, beyond 
the fact that he received his education in the court of the royal poet and 
musician, Thibaut (Theobald) lY., King of Navarre ; a circumstance to 
which, not unprobably, we are indebted for his literary tendencies, at least 
to some extent. At the early age of seven years he was betrothed to Alus 
de Grand-Fre. an alliance which, on reaching a more mature age. he seems 
to have been anxious to repudiate for one with the more powerful family 
of the Count de Bar. His lord and patron however. King Thibaut) 
peremptorily interfered, and when the time for marriage came Joinville 
had to content himself with the hand of Alais and her dowry of 300 livres 
" money of Paris." 

His first appearance, perhaps, in public life was at a "Grand Court" 
held by Louis IX. of France at Saumur, where Joinville (in his capacity 
of Seneschal, probably) had the honour of carving before the King of 
Navarre ; though, as he was then only seventeen years of age, he had not 
as yet received the knightly " honours of the hauberk." 

On Easter-Eve, a.d. 1248, was bom his son Jean, Sire de Ancarville; 
and it was but a few days after that event that Joinville summoned his 
vassals and men-at-arms, and announced to them his intention to take part 
in (the great craze of that day) the Seventh Crusade. A whole week after 



1861.] TheLifeoftheSieurdeJoimntte. 289 

was spent in feasting and dances, and, at the close of it, he informed them 
that as he was going beyond sea, '* whence he did not know if he should 
ever return," it was his wish to make amends for any injury he might have 
done them ; sajdng which he left the council, and, '' without debate, carried 
oat all that they decided." 

Having formed his suit of two bannerets, seven other knights, and 700 
men-at-arms, Joinville repaired to Paris, whither King Louis had sum- 
moned his barons, in order to swear fealty to his children, in case he 
should not survive to return. His labour and pains, however, in under- 
taking the journey, seem to have been lost ; for this he absolutely refused 
to do, *' seeing that he was not the liegeman of Louis, but of King 
Thibaut." Returning thence to his domains, he founded, in the Church 
of St. Laurent there, an anniversary for himself and his wife, and then, the 
day before his final departure, having confessed to the Abb6 de Cheminon, 
and received at his hands the scrip and staff, he repaired in pilgrim's guise, 
barefoot and arrayed in burel cloth, to various holy places in the neigh- 
bourhood. On once again repassing his loved abode, on his road to 
Marseilles, the place of embarkation, he touchingly says, — '' I would not 
once turn my eyes towards Joinville, that my heart might not be over- 
come with tenderness for the beautiful castle that I was leaving, and 
for my two children." For Alais de Grand-Pre he apparently has not 
a word of regret. 

His adventures by sea, his stay at Cyprus, his arrival in Eg3rpt, his 
combats, his dangers, his wounds, his sorrows, his sicknesses, and his 
capture with his rash and valiant leader Saint Louis, are described in 
the present volume ; and from the History, in combination with M. Didot's 
prefatory matter, we extract the following particulars. 

On disembarking before Damietta (or Damiat) in Egypt, on Easter 
Monday, 1250, Joinville's galley drawing but little water and forming part 
of the vanguard, he was among the first to land, and it was owing mainly 
to the intrepidity of his troops that a body of 6,000 Saracens, drawn up to 
oppose the landing, turned their backs and fled. After a stay of several 
weeks under the walls of the city, with varying fortunes and exposed to 
continual attacks of Bedouins and Saracens, the army moved on to Babylon 
(Baboul), near Old Cairo; it falling to Joinville's lot to take charge of 
certain castles, moveable and made of wood, under the protection of which 
a causeway was being constructed. Here he was exposed to constant 
discharges of "Greek fire," the great predecessor of gunpowder, in all 
its terrors, each discharge of which, he quaintly tells us, was '' as large as 
a tun of verjuice, with a tail as long as a sword, and resembling the light- 
nings of heaven, or a dragon flying through the air." 

Upon being first visited by this terrible and unwonted infliction — which 
seems, however, to have been anything but well aimed by the Saracen foe 
— Joinville and his knights forthwith fell upon their knees, and " with their 



240 T%e Life of the Sieur de JoinvUle. [Sept. 

elbows resting on the ground, asked mercy of our Lord, in wbom is all 
power." Louis at this conjuncture was confined by sickness to his bed, 
but '' every time that the holy King was told that they were hurling Greek 
fire, he raised himself in his bed, and extending his hands towards our 
Lord [the crucifix, probably], exclaimed with tears, * Good Lord» preserve 
for me my people.' And I do yerily believe that his prayers did us good 
service in our need," adds Joinville. 

At the disastrous battle of Mansourah, fought on April 5, 1250, and 
mainly lost through the rashness and disobedience of the Count of Artois, 
the King's brother, who there perished, Joinville had his full share of 
peril. His banneret, Landricourt, had been slain the day before, and now 
his other banneret, Hugh de Tricastel, shared his fate. 

" Upon the death of Tricastel/' he says, *' I and my knights put spur to oar horses 
and hastened to the sucoonr of Monseignenr Raoul de Wanon, who was with me, and 
whom the Saracens had beaten to the g^ond ; upon my retnm the Turks pressed 
npon me with thei^ swords, whereupon my horse fell on its knees, through the weight 
that it felt, and I myself went down between the horse's ears, and so replaced my 
shield about my neck, and g^rasped my sword in hand." 

While Joinville and his comrades are exposed to these and like dan- 
gers, the King (who has now recovered from his illness) arrives in his 
part of the battle. 

** There,** he si^ys, ** where I was on foot with my knights, and wounded as I have 
already mentioned, the King arrived with all his ^vision, with a great clangour and 
a great noise of trumpets and cymbals, and came to a stand on a raised path. Never 
did I look upon so fine a man in arms; for he appeared above all his people, head and 
shoulders upwards, a gilded helmet on his head, a sword of Germany in his hand." 

Upon the peril of the Count of Artois being announced to the King, 
Joinville, who in the very densest of the battle found time to address him- 
self " to my lord Saint James," and to beg that he would succour him in 
this his need, offered to go to his aid. It was soon ascertained, however, 
that he was now past all mortal help, and Joinville was employed for the 
rest of this disastrous day, in conjunction with his cousin the Count of 
Soissons, in defending a bridge from the attacks of the enemy. Even 
here the Count, with the usual gaiet6 de eceur of a preu chevalier j could 
find time and opportunity for something like a joke. '* Seneschal," said 
he, " let us hound off this canaille, and by the cap {guoife) of God — such 
was his usual oath — ^we shall yet have a talk about this day's work in the 
chambers of the ladies." Joinville, however, had at this conjuncture, in 
all probabihty, but little relish for joking : at the conclusion of the battle 
he had received five wounds, his horse seventeen. 

It was the season of Lent ; the army, fed upon fish (the burbot, to all 
appearance) not only often putrified itself, but fed upon the flesh of the 
dead with which the waters of the Nile were gorged, exposed, too, to the 
heat of the sun in a cloudless sky, was attacked by scurvy and all its 
attendant horrors : — 



1861.] 



The Life of ilw Sieur de Joinville. 



241 



** There catne," siiyi our historian, "by reason of thia miilndy, bo much tlend flesh 
Qpon Oiu gums of otir jieople, that the Imrbers were obliged to remove it to allow them 
[^|o mastieate and to ew^nllow. It was quite pitifcil to hear the cricii throughout the 
' of peraoQi whooe flesh was hmug cub oiT, for they cried aloud, just like women In 
fnrail with ehitd." 

Joinville himself, Buffering from his wounds, attaclced by the scurvy in 
the gums and legs, and stricken by a quartan fever, was now confined to 
his bed ; bis priest, John de Voygsei, a stalwart man of valour, who a few 
days before bad put eight Saracens to flight, though suffering severely from 

f the prevailing malady, was making an attempt to sing mass by bis bedside, 
when Joinville beheld him swooui just as he had come to the Sacrament, 
and on the point of falling senseless to the ground: — **Then,'' he says, 

r** when I saw bim just falling, 1 leaped from my bed, all unshod as I was, 
and embraced bim, and I assured him tlmt he had celebrated his sacra- 
ment excellently well, and that I would not leave him until he bad done ail. 
He then came to himself ami celebrated his Sacrament, and sang through 
mass from beginning to end, and after that never did he sing mass 

ragaiD,** for a few days after this be was slain. 

Unable to fight or to march, Joinville was now placed on board a ship 
upon the Nile. The crew and invalids in several other vessels were 
attacked and massacred ; Joinville, in bis ntter helplessness, thinks himself 
on the very point of death, and throws into the river a casket containing 
his relics and jewels, when he is unaccountably rescued from destruction 
by the sudden intervention of a certain Saracen, unknown to him, who 
jghtly embraces htm, and after warding off the blows of the multitude 

^w ho are anxious '*to cut his throat/' on the plea that he is no less than 
the King's cousin, conducts him prisoner to a castle where '* the Saracen 
knights" were staying. These, in compassion for bis helplessness, took 
off his ban berk y and wrapped him up in a scarlet mantle trimmed with 
ermine, which his mother had given him on his departure. **Tben," he 
says, "did I begin to tremble very much, both for the fear that I felt and 
by reason of Ihe malady as well.** Upon asking for drink, to the horror 
of such of his people as were about him, the water refused to pass down 
his throat but came out at his nostrils. A remedy, however, that was ad- 
ministered in drink by a Saracen somewhat marvellously wrought a cure 
in a couple of days, upon which he was conducted to a tent where the 
scribes of the Sid tan were, and then, after liis name bad been duly entered 
on the list of prisoners, he was transferred to another pavilion, where were 
the captive barons of France, and more than ten thous^and other prisoners 

as well. In a court-yard near this, surrounded with walls, a great number 

of knights and other persons belonging to the invading army were confined ; 
were taken out one by one, and on the question being put to them 
whether they would renounce their religion or not, those who assented 

were set aside, and those who refused were decapitated ; a piece of bar- 
QXKT. Mao, Vol CCXl. o g 




242 The Ufe of the Sieur de JoinviUe. [Sept. 

barity only equalled perhaps by the cruelties that were inflicted upon 
their foes, young and old, men, women, and children, by the Crusaders 
themselves. 

Having at last the good fortune to be in the number of the ransomed, 
Joinville followed the King to Syria, but on landing at Acre found himself 
reduced to such a state of weakness that he could with di£Sculty keep his 
seat on the palfrey which he rode. On taking his place at the royal table, 
in obedience to the King's invitation, he tells us that he was dressed in his 
only robe, the scarlet mantle given him by his mother, and which alone 
throughout his sufferings he had been able to retain. Taking up hb abode 
in the house of the Cur^ of St. Michael, at Acre, a chronic fever attacked 
him, and he was again reduced to the last extremity. His people being 
all equally prostrated by sickness, there was now no one to help him, or 
even to raise him in bed, and he looked for nothing but death, an indica- 
tion of which, he says, was always in his ear : — 

" For there was not a day that they did sot bring fbll twenty dead bodies or more 
to the church, and from my bed, every time that they brought them, I heard chanted 
the Libera me, DonUne, Then I wept and returned thanks unto God, and sidd onto 
Him thus : * Lord, adored be Thou for this suffering that Thou dost inflict upon me^ 
fbr many attendants have I had in my pride to serve me and to help me at my rising. 
And I pray thee. Lord, that Thou wilt aid me and deliver me from this malady, both 
me and my people.' " 

Upon his recovery, Joinville took part in the Council which the King 
summoned to decide whether they should at once return to France or pro- 
long their stay in the Holy Land. Supporting the opinion of the minority, 
Joinville was for the latter alternative, because, when the King 'had once 
departed, " the prisoners left in Egypt would never be liberated, and, every 
one imitating his example, the Holy Land would be abandoned." The 
majority, on the other hand, after the Council had broken up, pronounced 
the King a fool, if he should listen to any such advice as his. The sequel, 
however, is worth relating in the writer's own words : — 

" When the tables were set the King placed me near him at dinner, where he always 
made me sit, and his brothers were not there ; he never spoke to me while the m€«l 
lasted, a thing that he was not in the habit of doing, as he always looked towards me 
when eating; and I verily thought that he was angry with me. . . . While the King 
was hearing grace I went to an iron-barred window which was in an embrasure to- 
wards the head of the Kind's bed, and I held my arms through the bars of the window 
and thought that if the King should go to France I would betake myself to the Prince 
of Antioch, who esteemed me as a kinsman and who had sent to seek me, until such 
time as another expedition should come into the country, by means whereof the 
prisoners might be delivered, according to the counsel that the Sieur de Boulainconrt 
had given me. At the moment that I was standing there the King came and leaned 
upon my shoulders, holding his two hands upon my head. As for me I took it to be 
Monseigneur Philip d'Anemos, who had already caused me too much annoyance for 
the advice I had given him, and said, ' Leave me in peace, Monseigneur Philip.' By 
accident, just as I was turning my head, the King's hand fell upon my face, where- 
upon I knew that it was the King, by an emerald that he had upon his finger; and 



1861.] 



The Life of the Sieur die Jomvttle7 



243 



he inid to me, * Keep younelf quite quiet^ for I wisli to ask joa how yon were bo bold, 
yoa wbo are but a joung m&n, «jb to re'CommE'nd my stay, nj^mst all the great men 
ftnd the toges of France who were recoDamending my d*?piirture.* 'Sir,* said I, 'I 
•hoald be bnd at heart indeed if I should not recommt-nd you, at any price, to do that 
which you ought to do.' * Do you say,* sKid he, * that I should be doing a bad thing 
if I took my departure ?' 'So may God love mo, Sire, Yes.' And then he said to me, 
• If I itay do you stay ?* And I Bidd to him, * Yea, whether it might be at ray own 
coat or at that of another/ *Then be quite easy/ said he, * for I greatly commend the 
advice yon have given me; hut tell thU to no one throughout all this week/ I waa 
more at ease after hearing thia, and defended myself the more boldly against thoee 
who ASiailed me* The country people there are called poulaiiUt and Monaeigneur 
Pierre d'Avalon sent me word that I ought to defend myself against those who were 
calling me poulmnt and should tell th«^m that I would rather be called potUain tban 
recreant (reerfu) jadu, such aa they were/* 

The word poulain, be it remarked, was properly applied to the children 
of FrankJsh women by Saracen fathers: reereit being a term applied to 
hiin who confessed himself vanquished in combat. 

Accompanying the King in all his expeditions in Paleeline, to Csesarea, 
to Jaffa, to l^re and Sidon, and in the Anti-Libanus, in testimony of his 
bravery, combined with prudence and military skill, the King conferred 
upon Joinville, in Apnl, 1252, 200 livres of yearly rent, with reversion 
to his heirs. 

In 1254, embarking in the same ship with King Louis, upon whose 
queen, Margaret, he had been in personal attendance for some time past, 
Joinville had the good fortune to return to Europe, and, after an absence 
of eii years, to see once more hia " beautiful castle/' his children, and his 
wife* After spending a short time at JoinvilJe in arranging bis greatly 
dilapidated fortunes, he repaired to Soissons to wait upon King Louis 
there, " who shewed such great joy that those quite marvelled at it who 
were present/* and bestowed upon him further proofs of bis bounteous 
and affectionate feelings towards Joinville. 

His nest care was to visit the tombs of bis forefathers at Clairvaux, and 
to cause epitaphs to be inscnbcd in honour of his predecessors, the lords 
of JoinvilJe, in the cemetery of the abbey there. In May, 1257, the King 
of Caslille, as a recompence for the services which Joinville had rendered 
to the Christian faith, made him a present of one thottsaud great marks of 
ailver; and within a few months after his return he negotiated the mar- 
riage of Isabella, daughter of the King of France with his lord Thibaut V., 
Count of Champagne and King of Navarre. His mother dying in 1260, 
lie inherited from her several domains; and in 1261, his first wife having 
tdso died, be married Alix, daughter of Gauthier, lord of Resnel en Bas- 
eigny, and through this alliance united that barony to that of Joitiville. 
In 1269 hostilities arising between Joinville and Hilo, lord of Saint- Amand, 
we find the Countess of Luxembourg acting as mediator, aud Joinville 
condemned to make a reimbursement of 200 livres Tournois. 

^ulwilbblunding this appaient lapse from stikt equity on the pait of 




244 The lAft of the Sieur de JotnviUe. [Sept. 

Joinville, he was at this period in the habit of frequently visiting his old 
friend and master Louis IX., and assisting him in the administration of 
justice. Sometimes, in conjunction with Monseigneur de Nesle, he would 
hear pleas at the gate of the palace, and at others he would act as assessor 
to King Louis, when personally administering justice at the *' Garden of 
Paris," or under the oak in the Bois de Vinoennes. 

Fk-ofiting at last by experience, in spite of the prayers and entreaties 
both of King Louis and King Thibaut, Joinville resolutely refused to take 
part in the Eighth Crusade, and this on the very sensible plea that '' while 
he had been beyond sea his vassals had suffered so greatly that both they 
and he would always feel the effects of it." Indeed, so far from approving 
of it, '* he felt," he says, '* that all those were guilty of a mortal sin who 
recommended the King to go on this expedition." 

For numerous other particulars, industriously collected from various 
sources, in reference to the latter years of Joinville's life, we must of 
necessity refer our readers to the interesting pages of M. Didot's Introduc- 
tory Notice. In 1809, a convincing proof of a sound and vigorous old 
age, Joinville composed his *' History of Saint Louis," which he dedicated 
to Prince Louis (afterwards Louis X., or Le Rutin) the unworthy great- 
grandson of that sovereigu. According to a Latin epitaph foitnerly on 
his tomb, Joinville died in 1319, at the great age of ninety-five; though 
there seems to be documentary evidence to prove that his son Anselm had 
succeeded to his titles and honours before the end of 1317. Through this 
son Anselm, (bom of the second marriage,) the Barony and Principality 
of Joinville became the possession of the Dukes de Guise, and at a later 
period of the Orleans family, a member of which, the infamous Philippe- 
Egalit^, with his usual contempt for propriety and good taste, in 1791 
caused the " beautiful castle," once so dear to its chivalrous owner's heart, 
to be rased to the ground. 

M. Michel's explanations of the difficulties of the text are useful, but 
they might have been very satisfactorily extended, we are inclined to think. 
In some instances, again, he gives explanations where no explanation can 
be wanted, Note * to page 130, for example ; and in Note 5 to page 83 he 
is evidently in error as to the meaning of the passage. 



1861.] 



245 



EABLT POEMS OF BISHOP SHUTTLEWOBTH. 

Wl resume our publication of poems contained in the little volume from 
which the medal -task of Sir R. H. Inglis was drawn. Another paper will 
include some graceful stanzas by John Graham, and a poem by Biehop 
Lipscomb. 

Philip Nicholas Shuttleworth, D.D. Nov. 16, 1822. was consecrated 
Bishop of Chichester Sept. 20, 1840, by the Primate and the Bishops of 
Peterborough and Rochester. He was bom at Kirkham, Feb. 9, 1 782, and 
was the son of the Rev. Prebendary Hamphrey Shuttleworth, Vicar of the 
pariah, and Annci daughter of Philip Houghton. He was admitted Scholar 
of Winchester at the election 1 797 ; and Fellow of New College Dec. 24, 
1803; and became Warden Oct. 4, 1822. He obtained the Chancellor's 
prize for the Latin Poem in 1805, the subject being ** Byzantium." He 
served the office of Proctor in 1820, and was Select Preacher the same 
year. Mr. Shuttleworth was tutor successively in the families of Earl 
Carnarvon, Lord Holland in 1814, and Lord Leigh in 1820; and in 1824 
was appointed Vicar of Foxley, Wilts. He in 1823 married Emma> 
daughter of George Welch of High Leek. His published works are, 
"Not Tradition but Scripture/* 1839; Sermons, 2 vols*, 1829-34; and 
h *' Paraphrastic Translation of the Apostohcal Epistles," 1829, He died, 
after a very short tenure of the episcopate* Jan. 7» 1842, and was buried 
in the presbytery of Chichester Cathedral. The date of the task we print 
is 1 798, when the medals were given by the Prince of Wales. 

We should add that shortly after his appointment, Dr. Moberly, the 
present Head Master of Winchester, gave a volume to the school in which 
the best poems from time to time should be presen*ed in MS, Some day 
we may hope that these, with his sanction, will he published ; and form 
a Mm€B Wlccamka: not unworthy of Ihe scholars of Winton. 

PllOGRESS OF LEARNING, 

The fatal mom arrives, and oh ! 

To school the blubb'ring youth must go. 

Before the Muse's hallo w*d shrine 

Each joy domestic to resign. 

No more as erst at break of day 

To brush the early dew away, 

But in ideal range to fly 

O'er fancied fields of Poetry ; 

Aga'ui to cull the mystic stores 

Of phrases, tropes, and tnetaphora ; 

Now gives Mama her last caressing, 

And fond Papa bestows his blessing. 



SiS JEMy PooM o/Biskop SkaOOtwrnik. [Sept 

l^iBBP fvoest mdDuinenU kvobIt oa; 
1^ diuBT drh'o xvniinr u* liif door. 
In fiiT dg amifUk a Dould 1 &iune. 
Or vtOT tkx nuinbes^ Humer, mxDe, 
TioL iiicnxld t^ Hoar lunuaDicntt shov 
Hicvir £ua thrr jKramfT'd or hem abv, 
Hc*ir £mm ilir cm Aiirar& roar 
l^jdh jme e ai' xod azid itidoes' noae^ 
Or, i: liir piir|Mr amwL » aqipraat^^ 
Ear I^dbiB in ^ 7mr|ik eoae±. 
Bm H' tr bbe£, ^ktT ~tt eaaaac 

Sd ▼llBL ^tDL tnfi of IfVCUO. &C 

OftiU XnevkoBr^ ssz, 

Tbr Ibtt jflft vxtii johej & ibk- 

Tmr Tun» ty scsL'rr nsmar mar abb. 

AttMu. 73C&t iil4JC5 «mXUB CET UCfKBK 

0<r£r.T t Uff sBECJe rrvci %£ Feaoeu 

Oet t'hxcx. Tatf jtsyt nc inme 5:l'1'.6» 
Xtv^ r^TivY TcnCBszcai vici. iifr jic ; 

WjsL Txl7 Tos *a« iiiiEs *:£ Jeaiirs ; 
Li vans kc wxa. firTT ij wv 
Xv-^ fliT ac Dai iJ. 15 iiean. 
Oft vol 3e JBoAmaadjL ^ruas 
0€ 'oc^ Qrecee in. iaopv iw 
Waen. £119^ jtvcii ^eacecu. in i.v*iicsaei^ 

Tbcusn 3cw-4H&m ;2ii!7''!L piaa lamc pvo 
J:! W4l in. s^ilodiibif 3]]ii^aR»: 
W^flL ^Tj hem wm v *ail 
XiGm^ami V19Q1? in. 6uiIiihiuL i 
Ami hf tihar ppiwoa lie cm i^neaii 
TIis Roonns lomy were majeaL. 
EEs^s not if i""fcf»*««'* ^uduij QeiL 3&\ 

WTio aeek aod know nu acher pMsasm 
Tban chose of attzmr anii jc jaBuie ; 
Who dimit che beaiidis (if % n'fifir 
Emm^ tD make a verj ji» iick ; 
And own no ]nya beynui ^jSM diaae, 
^fo teensQfflL but a cace. 
By liun Ikr nobler jim are fbumi 
£& Tally » ai;gBnM3itn profound ; 



mn.] Emrly Poems of Bishop Shuttleworth. 247 

No dainties please him like the sweets 

Of Homer's oompoand epithets. 

At length, on IsIb' banks he views 

The walls beloved by ev*rj Muse : 

Those walls where gen'roas souls pursue 

The arduous prize to virtue due, 

And schoolmen, from the world withdrawn. 

Dispute o'er sausages and brawn. 

But here, alas ! a ruthless train 

Of studies new perplex his brain ; 

He now of nothing talks but statics, 

€^metrj and mathematics ; 

Crosses the " Asinorum pons/' 

Solves parallipopipedons, 

Explains the rays of light by prisms, 

Solves arguments by syllogisms, 

And night and day his mem'ry crams 

Brimful of parallelograms, 

By A.S and B.s exact defines 

The wondrous miracles of lines : 

Ask you their name P I might as soon 

Reckon the people in the moon ; 

Had I an hundred brazen tongues. 

An hundred car-men's sturdy lungs, 

An hundred mouths to tell them o'er, 

Twould take a century or more. 

Talk of a flower of various dyes. 

He'll prove you must not trust your eyes, 

For what to us seems black and white 

Is merely different rays of light. 

And then some untaught writers tell 

That man had once the power to smell ; 

Our modem scholar plainly shows 

'Tis but a tickling of the nose ; 

But, solemn proof, he can assure ye. 

Nan dari vacuum naturas; 

As well by demonstrations show 

Quid nihil JU ex nihUo ; 

That when earth's convex face you tread 

Your feet are lower than your head ; 

Solve any knotty point with ease, 

And prove the moon is not green cheese. 

But fast the rolling years glide on. 

And life's far better half is gone ; 

He now to other things aspires. 

Accepts a living and retires ; 

And soon immersed in parsonage neat. 

Enjoys his peaceable retreat. 







'Sow pBsks o'er m i 

Or tdb oTcr mam m menj ilai 
The pcnks of arif ife 1 
Beeilb to BCB^iy I 
TT itferikli^ ii talks a 

IscnttoU^Ok! htmn^Mm^ 
LcKBOi^ to ne napBt ttj Md ; 
Ob! teMhi^fatlikeyitoitiir 

Aad % tbj hdbw'd dbfiM beioR^ 
I e^cr tihj ndf i 

Odr 

A Bniiop, aril ioiil a IXoB. 

Shitruwoixb, ISOO. 



i.] Bariif Poem of BisAcp Skuiileuwrih. S49 

NON 0MNI8 MOBJAR. 
Whilst hambler beings, to one lot confined, 
Punue that path which Nature first design'd, 
Upl)ome on rapid pinions mount the gale, 
Skim the broad wave, or range their native vale^ 
Heedless of change, each call of sense obey. 
And seek no bUss beyond the present day; 
Content if perfect each enjoyment here 
Shall leave them henceforth nought to hope or fear ; 
Man, man alone, superior to his fate. 
In purer regions seeks a happier state. 
Spurns the low earth, to heaven directs his eye, 
And pants for nobler than terrestrial joy. 

Alike o'er all this pow'rful Hope presides, 
In death it strengthens as in life it guides. 
From youth to age impels with equal force, 
The rule of all our actions and the source, 
Though various passions variously inclined 
Impel or fetter, rouse or dog the mind. 
Ambition, Virtue, here the sway divide, 
There modest Reason strives with stronger Pride ; 
Whatever their nature, impulse, power, or sphere, 
All still excite us and concentrate here, 
Unsated turn from this unequal scene, 
This being humbly blest and proudly mean ; 
This state of error, weakness, pride, and power. 
The bubble sport or victim of an hour; 
Bids us for happier worlds relinquish this. 
And leave the present for the future bliss. 

For this, when haughty Gallia late unfurFd 
The flag of desolation o*er the world, 
Driven from his regal state, neglected, fled 
By those his pow'r su8tain*d or bounty fed. 
From all whato'er on earth he held most dear, 
All that could comfort or delight him here. 
Great Louis stood, in conscious virtue brave. 
Nor wish'd for life, but that beyond the grave ; 
In his firm bosom check'd each rising groan. 
And in his country's weal forgot his own. 

When the fierce warrior chief, untaught to spare. 
O'er ravag'd nations spreads the waste of war. 
And foe to all those fine-wrought links, that bind 
Concordant soul with soul and kind with kind, 
'Mid peaceful scenes, where homely joys retire. 
Deals the destructive steel or raging fire. 
That rank'd with heroes in historic page. 
His deeds may live, the curse of eveiy age I 
Gbnt. Mao. Vol. CCXI. h h 



850 Sarfy Poem if Bishop SkiMlewortk. [Sept 

And flattering maibles proadly rise on high 
To snatch the wretch from deep obscnritj. 

This Hope inspires, for love of life and fame, 
—Their different objects are in cause the same,— • 
Heafen's endless being to our yiew displays, 
Man blindly errs and grasps at endless praise ; 
Thns, though 'tis Heaven itself directs our way. 
Though dear as light its dictates, man will stray. 
What man designed to bless convert to woe. 
And taints the streams of knowledge as they flow. 
Hence first the frantic rage for fgune bctgan, 
And man perversely thought to live thro' man. 
In endless fame his wish'd-for life survey'd. 
And, whilst he lost the substance, grasp*d the shade. 

The patriotic soul which, firmly great. 
Stands the strong bulwark of a sinking states 
And, nobly zealous in his country's cause, 
On freedom's stable basis builds his laws ; 
The friendless wretch who bent with grief and fears 
Creeps on neglected through a vale of tears. 
Survey with rapture in a higher sphere 
The bright reward of all their labours here. 
Well pleased, the transient joys of earth forego^ 
Nor heave one sigh for all they leave below. 
The impious wretch, from whose unhallow'd eyes. 
Friend of the good, repose for ever files, 
In midnight's awful gloom, whose gaunt dismay 
Fetters each nerve and hovers o'er its prey. 
When Tcngeful furies howl in every blast, 
Thrill through his heart and echo back the past^ 
From Heavenly vengeance sees 'tis Tain to fly. 
And, shudd'ring, feels he shall not, must not die. 

Equal through life the all-pervading pow'r 
Consoles us still in death's approaching hour ; 
When life's last struggle rends the parting day. 
And hope and doubt possess alternate sway. 
When nature, fainting from her load of woes, 
In dread suspense awaits the final clos^ 
And sickness, brooding o'er the wretch's bed. 
With pain enervates or appals with dread. 
As the tali cliff, which storms and winds engage. 
And surges lash with unavailing rage. 
Faith, unappall'd, sustains th' unequal strife. 
And through the gates of Death conducts to life. 
In his rapt senses higher scenes arise, 
And hov'ring angels hail him to the skies. 
Yet not to more enlighten'd climes confin'd. 
Pervades this sense along the cultur'd mind, 



186L] Early Fo&m of Bishop Shutileworth. 361 

Nature to all alike the law reveala, 

The rude pereeiYes it and th* anletter'd feels. 

For Saint or 8a?age must alike obey 

When instinct points, or reason guides the way. 

Henoe heavenly Plato first his precepts caught^ 
And but confirmed what Nature first had taught. 
Traverse each land, where Beason*s feeble ray 
Scarce faintly glimmers thro' its house of day. 
Where Aide's sons a barbarous life pursue. 
Rude as the barren sands on which they grew. 
Untaught all laws, all precepts to revere, 
Tet all-pervading nature stops not here. 
Lo ! the poor Negro, whom tyrannic pow'r 
Tears from his leaf-built hut and plantain bow'r, 
Gondemn*d thro' life to tug the galling chain. 
In some far isle beyond the western mam ; 
Whose eyes, long strangers to the joys of sleep, 
dose but to dream of toil, then wake to weep, 
Tet hopes he still in death to view once more 
Those native plains he lov'd in life before. 
And wrapt in peaceful undisturb'd repose, 
Drink sweet oblivion of his former woes : 
Gheer'd by this hope content he waits the grave. 
And thanks his God for all the good He gave. 
Or go where, stretch'd beneath serener skies, 
Beyond the Atlantic fiercer nations rise, 
Mark there the barbarous chief, whom nations round 
In savage triumph gore with many a wound. 
Scorch each firm sinew and torment in vain, 
With all the horrors of protracted pain, 
Unmoved behold him meet the flame, the steel ! 
Deride their vengeance and disdain to feel ! 
Till o'er his mighty deeds and valour done. 
The numerous spoils in early conquest won, 
The plum^ trophies of some fallen prey. 
And bloody scalps in battle torn away. 
Till freed at lasl^ the soul exulting flies 
To gain sublimer conquests in the skies ! 

What bids the calm Gentoo undaunted smile. 
Wrapt in the terrors of a blazing pile 1 
When with mistaken zeal the Brahmin lies 
Before his god a willing sacrifice, 
What spurs him on but that which all have known— 
That innate wish for worlds beyond his own P 
Hence taught, he paints in Fancy's richest dress 
Ideal schemes of future happiness ; 
How peaceful souls, beneaUi some pahny grove^ 
Pursue the pleasing cares of harmless love ; 



SU MarlfPoemi^BMepSkmiaewmnk. fSt^ 

Tlwre no foil bate or piiuiig gdeh istni^ 
No MOB of mad ambition thint far blood. 
Then flow^iy meada eternal ^xinf bdiold. 
And foieata wave in vegeUfak gold ; 
Then gioiy dveUa to eonaoiooi wortb aDied, 
And iaitbf^ jostioe bboma by ▼iitoe'b aide. 

Wben wiipt in sleep devoid of aenae we lie^ 
And Best's soft bandage veib eaob ahimVxing ey^^ 
Unoonseious of lepoae, ibio* earth and akica 
n" nnweaiied aool in load idea ibea. 
Lo! wben the flame in deatb*s eternal ekiae 
Shall seek tbat kindred diet from wbenee it roae^ 
No more encumbered with its load of eb^, 
Tbe aonl to bi^ipnr woilda sbaD bend ita way. 
In kftier lealms anbliaMr jonrs expkve, 
Adi from this biiaBfal ] 

IfUusi 
Is an deaignM by Heaven fernmn to ] 
Wl^ left impeiM in a maddBe sttft^ 
QnoaM to the eartk y«l aoaring to be gieact * 
HXv Icnti'd «a{Knor to hia attcian here, 
BciodlBBs ha mini vet limited ita ififaBR I 
Tod wise to an wbife' 
A eafaa ifMCiter of 1^ vastt . 
IW iiiEk^ w^ke eksadnd Iqt 1^ i«fl of I 
iy» asm 1^ wcmden of OtamrotBM; 
ClMm d 1» t^ emtlw eaaUl X<wtcm\ anal sBwr 
Uimnmber^d w«^ bn«i tiv m2br wvr, 
T!ic» aS i^nsis njvwai^ «n CIsr |w^ 
KM«r iIrT dl Kttbsie and vMI Ikt k«s. 
Fteanm imaaeaDBS nhutu nrngrd widi skafi £vini^ 

]b»tikervr< 
Aata 




eridE; 
fBoar ttpm w«dl& )r biwli ^n ^ 

cncvv^ Smbk ifciw». aw muav v 

Aiai ?iiBttR£ &M «n»ik Wbifi£ ^ 

Sm* esK tttaC pbobbi^ wiAuht Shb^ 

Prn Souin >]£ EJfir cinBE. Vr l!m« iMagr 7 

Xnfi igm!.n vnn' Wfturii wv sbj^v,. w^ Smw> wv a 

SnaffitaafBift^ 3n- ftrntav eaaaa %r ^ ? 

ram£dlrjiBBfe<i&a«. 



dn mactt Mi^ <imn^ 




1861,] Earlif Poenis of Bishop Shuitleworth. 

When tmaveng'd th' impilied yictitn diea, 
la Heaven all righteous, and can Grod be wise ? 
Cease the fond doubt, and know th* Eternal Will, 
That first created man, protects him still, 
In future worlds, profusely just at last, 
Shall by the Future rectify the Past, 
Withdraw the veil of sense from mortal sight, 
And prove to erring man that all is right. 

But lo I the mists of doubt perplex no more. 
And Heaven confirms what Nature taught before, 
He comes ! He coraes * reveard to mortal eyes, 
Lo ! God Himself descending from the skies. 
From vanquished death triumphant bears bia prey, 
Points out to other worlds and leads the way. 
Not snch that heaven whieh^ Mincio's swains among, 
In days of yore poetic Fiction sung. 
Where, loU'd to rest in amaranthine Ijowers, 
The shudes of heroes waste the peaceful hours ; 
Nor such the heaven by Mecca's seer foretold, 
Where streams nectareoos flow o'er sands of gold, 
And Eden's groves their various sweets dispenst^ 
To rouse each appetite and clog each sense. 
But those Bleat Worlds, where purer skies bestow 
That mental bliss which none but spirits know. 
And souls, set free from earth without alloy. 
Quaff the full stream of never-ceasing joy. 

And doubts man still P Go, then, and turn thine eyes 
Where yon expiring unbeliever lies. 
He once, the foremost of the wild and gay, 
Iiaugb*d the light hours In thoughtless mirth away, 
Chas'd each bright form thro' Pleasure's mazy roadj 
Nor owdM a joy but what this life bestowed- 
Lo I the dire contrast on the brink of fate i 
He wakes to sad contrition now too late, 
Becants those doubts which Folly first supplied, 
And sbrmks before the Pow'r be once defied. 
Insulted mercy stamps the wrretch's doon», 
Wakes to revenge and hurls him to the tomb. 
Go, then, like him, ye thoughtless and ye gay, 
Where Folly points or Pleasure leads the way, 
Weigh boundless wisdom in the scale of sense 
And point the errors in Oumbcienoe. 
By specious reasoning want of truth supplj. 
And doubting all things, God Himself deny ! 
Then when your date of misspent life is o'er. 
When Death arrests, and you can sin no more. 
Awake to certainty of endless woe. 
And tremble at the gulf which yawns below 1 



253 



wm 




30TB ov no5zz 




It WM of lh« uiiliiiAry nixc of marxfiiteii, wu cmptj and witliout 

* |)fM«nu4 no diittnotive marks. 

t ii now In Uit colkctioD of a local antiquary, M. TroQel» of 




1861.] often met with in Archaeological Collections. 256 

Elbeuf, I wai consulted regarding it by M. le Cur^ d' Amfreville'la-Mivoie, 
near Rouen, to whom I made the following reply :■ — 

*' M, VAhhe^ The bronze raarmtte, of which you have sent me a 

sketch, is an object common enough, but still its real uee is doubtful. To 
mj knowledge, your marmite is the sixth that has been found in the Seine- 
Inferieure. Thus one was discovered at LiUebonne in 1836 ; and others 
ftt Loges, near Fecamp, in 1845, at Val de la Uaye, near Kouen, in 1846| 
and at Tourville la Chapelle, near Dieppe, in 1847* 

"The Museum of Abbeville also poes^aes five, tbund in the anrondipse- 
ment of that name ; and M. Honbiganl, of Nogent-les-Vierges (OiseX 
has two in his collection, one found at Eiaux, near Liancourt, in 1 834, and 
the other in the environs of the camp of Calenoy, near Clermont (Uise). 

** M. Houbigant, in the plates that he has published of his collection of 
Bellovacian antiquities, has depicted, among the Roman or Gallo- Roman 
objects, a mannite and a chandelier* At the foot of the plate we read, 
* MarmiLe and Flambeau, found near the Camp of Catenoy, It is thought 
that these were for the use of the soldiers, and that they are of the Lower 
Empire/ I feel bound to add that there appears to me no ground for that 
assertion. 

*^Tlie Museum of Nantes contains a marmite found in the marsh of 
Donges (Loire-Inf^rieure), which the Catalogue of 1856 styles Gaulish*, 
without any adequate reason, M. de Caumont appears to me more wise 
when he says, in his Bulletin Monumental^,, ' There exist at Poitiers, and 
in several other museums, copper vessels mounted on three feet like our 
marmites, on the age of which I cannot venture to upealc. That which I 
reproduce was found, according to the manuscript catalogue, in a coffiu at 
St, Maurice de Gen^ay (Vienne)/ 

*' Now it is necessary to examine and discuss these facts, in order to see 
what consequences we ought to draw from these premises, for the mar- 
mites themselves say nothing ; they bear no date, neitlier have they any 
distinctive attribution or character whatever. The places in which they 
are found are alone able to explain their origin. But the greater part have 
been found in earth or in the marsh, which determines nothtiig. Some 
have been found with bronze chandaliers inclosed in them ; thus it was at 
Rtaux (Oise), in 1834, and at Loges (Seine- Inferieure) in 1845» But the 
chandeliers (or feet of lamps) are themselves not easy to determine, as to 
their date; and we find similar ones even down to the fourteenth century*. 
Nevertheless, at Loges the matter places itself in a clearer light, for there 
the marmite contained, along with three chandeliers, three copper spoons, 
and on each of these spoons was the figure of a fleur-de-lis. This sign, it 

* Quersad et Parenteao, Catalogue dn Mu$ie ArehSoL dr NamUi, 1856, p. 91. 

* Tom. xjciv. p. 9. 

« L'Abb^* Corblet et H, Doiefd, Betue da VJH Ckrdim^ torn, iii pp* H 15^ 
m, 37, plate L fig. L 



256 



Recent Excavations at Cyrene, 



[Sept. 



appears to me» gives clearly enough the CapetiaD epoch, and the Christian 
middle ages, for the find at Leges, at least 



•* Can the other finds, which are not determined with the same precision^ 
l>e ascribed to that epoch ? I think not. From which it follows that in the 
case which you have referred to me, we can form no well-grounded conclu- 
fiion without a full knowledge of the place in which the marmite of St. Pierre- 
li^s-Elbeuf was found. From the little that jon have said, I am led to be- 
lieve that your marmite Is not antique, and that we are bound to think the 
same of the majority of similar objects* 

•'L'ABBi COCHKT.** 



Kbcisnt Excavatioks at CifiLENE. — Lieutenant Smith, of the Royal Engineere, 
and Lieutjenant Poreher, R.N., have been engn^ for some months, under the 
aiiisj)ioefi of the Foreign-offioe, in making excavations among the ruins of Cyrene* 
Their laboura have been very successful, and we expect very shortly to be 
enabled to print a full account of their discoveries. Airiong these may o« men- 
tioned a colossal statue of ^sculapius, eight feet highj a Bacschus, six feet 
high ; a statue of a female^ between four and live feet higli ; a statuette of a female 
strangling a lion, supposed to be of Diana; and upwards of twelve heads of various 
si^ea, among tliem one life-size of Mmerva, most exquisitely scuJptured, and in an 
excellent state of preservation ; the face is of a beautiful contour, witliont a single 
blemish, the projecting peak of the helmet, slightly broken in falling off its original 
pedeat&l, havmg probably saved it from injury. With the exception of Bacchus* 
which wa» found in a temple by itself, all these remains of ancient splendour wef« 
dug out of the ruins of the Temple of ^sculapius, and the whole of them are of 
pure white marble. On account of the total absence of roads, and the hilly nature 
of the country, great difficulty was experienced in carrying these objects to thfi 
coast for embarkation, though the distance in a direct line is only fourteen miles. 
The weightier marbles were placed on two artillery waggons, sent from Malta for 
the purpose, and dragged to the place of embarkation by thirty two sailors of 
Her Majesty's gunboat "Assurance,"^ and seven of Lieut^^uaut Smith's native 
labourers. The excavation of the ruins of a third and very targe temple has 
jusi been commenced, and Lteutenanta Smith and Porcher entertam great hopea 
of furtlier valuable discoveries being made. 



18G1.] 



#rismal Bottiinnitsj. 



WILLS AHD IKYENTORLES, CORK, temp. ELLSABETH. 

m, 

"WILL OF GEORGE GALWEY FITZ EDWARDE, op CORCK, Alb', 

tiiovED April Zih 1579. 

In the name of the Fatlier, Son, and Holy Gbost. I, George Galwey fitu 

Edwaiide, of Corcke, Alderman, do make my Inat will, my body to be buried txi 

St Knthcrines Chappel, in mj parish church of St. Peters within Corke. I do 

make myne eldest sonn John my heir, and do leave to mjno wyfc Johiuin© Walter 

the two houses wherein I dwell, dureiug her beiuf^ a widdowe^ rem* to said heir, 

rem' to David my second youngest sonn. Item to said David all such lands, &c., 

m I hare of Joba Galwey fitz Walter, and of Tliomas ^rcrrough, save that mj 

ostcr brt)t]ier Walter Morrough shall, during his life, hiive the house where ho 

Dw dwells without pay, said David to pay said Walter xln. To my eldest daughter 

pttthcrine for maryadgc goods iii. score pounds* To my second daughter Eliyco 

To my tliird daughter Ellen xl/i. To my aister Genet xx. nobles. My sons, 

|WyfO| and brother Geffrey to be my executors, I do release Geoffrey Galwey all 

be owes me, and my brother Patrick for good serrice. Item to my sisters by 

G&theriae Bidddy xk 

^WILL OF WILLIAM GALWEY. of COECK, Ald% proved Jult 20, 16 81. 

In Dei nomine Amen, I, William Galwey, of Corcke, Alderman, do this 
, XX. Feb., xxiL Eliz., make my laste will, my boddy to be buried in Christ's Church, 
rith my father and first wiffe Mrugeret Gould, my heir to pay to the prists of said 
' churcli yearely y^. To my young children George and Artoure, the foure parks 
by the greene which Richard and John Shanighaine holdeth of nic for years, the 
great parke and the smalle parke to George and thother two to Artoure, rem' to 
survivor, and the profile during thcirc minoritie sbal be devided between them 
and my towe yonge doghtcrs Eline and Austas. Also said George and Artoure to 
pay my said daughters xx/t, to help them to marry. Item, the use of my house 
and orchard to my wife and heir during his miuoritiei and so she rctDftine 
widdowe. 

JWlLL OF ANDREWE GALWEY % of CORCKE, Ali>", proved Feb. 9, 1580, 

In the name of God, and of his holy blessed mother Mary, and all the company 
Heaven, I, Ajidhew Galwey, of Corcke, Aid", bcinge weakc of boddy, yet 
ound of mynde and reason, God be praised, considering that the end of lyfe ia 
. creattirea is deathe, and that cveric Christian man ought to be in a readtnes to 



* The descendant of this testator, by hii will dated in 1642, styling himself Walter 

lOslway iit£ John, of Cork« gent., entaiU Lottagbmore snccessively on his mmn John, 

Indrew, Patrick, Fraocia, and David, and bis cousin Oeflrey Galwey Jlta ratt ick, and 

ifler tbem to the nses in the will of bis greut- grand fsther Andrew Galwey dccciused: 

^Uiis is the will which wo have given in tlie text* Lotlaghmore abovu-mciationud slg- 

OiHT. MAa. Vol. CCXl. 1 i 



256 Ongmml DotmmemU. [Sept. 

m o pa w ^iwwwtf thBrBnntD. do mikf sit hgbt iriH, xriiL Xor^ xxiiL ELiz. Fixst^ 
I bequcoh nr soul Id Almifditie God. lo hk bkaaed mcniita- Mux. and lo iC liie 
compurr of hearen : and nix bodr to be fanziiad h. ane crare wilii idt Booonid writ 
Catlienne Boc^% in tbe fduamSaT of bit paziah cdmnii of Sainftif Peien. I leaw 
WT fildest BODB Waher tbr j w i i ii * ^j M > 11 meamadfT iriieron 1 dveU in Itnncarviai 
•nburbF of Garcke, abo "dkr xirvc ovfotifawir in tbe oixxx of Caroke. and ail ibe 
iasib eaut of ii to tbr QiiBBiiBi iraDt : abo tbe tcnme and lands of BalkniooebJe 
al s Pwikaian. aibo Gan na Skebr in tbe tenenkem of Fidrr, aiao ibe casik, toime 
and iand» of GHlell !Qiame and Fanan £cbe in BcFir^la&, ako tbe cusut^ t^ of 
<2fanT GLqb^ tbe flHtall and lands of BaHhr&driL aiao bit part of ibe lands of 
tnockam miPUcb iDT oanL xr. acrea. ako tbe BKBtecad^ I bave on ^iw^finm Casteil 
Mm Oank, ibe lovn aad lands <£ Liwaaq^ one iikniililand in BaliT-Edmonde^ 
■If ime of tbe tovue and lands of Balhru£»ll in Banr-Mcovs eonmavT, a3 
the meas'. wad aernoBi^ fe, Tbiidk I bavc in tbe unnei cf YoogbaA, Kinsaje 

mmA ramaHpAy^ M>d rW ^g g^TAm in t^ tomwmMT rf ft JpAm Riftkt^ bBaomlLg 

the csGLoe of Carcke. Iiem to aaid Wahcr anr brg^ tfanfHnge oapp of siKier plx^ 
"^J ^?^ <^^i^ip ^ bI'v^bt. BIT pxaaan ssihe of aiiTer pise; inth bis cow ind srkcr 
«VB^ a pov-ORr peir aDver, bit hea dnaoa of apoviies^ nor bcsx sixnen of ^de» 
pvQa viiii jurne ovse cs«8» akoe tbe bogpea: bnaea paan in ilt bonae. To 
baiv to Httd Wabcr Skd Ibs bedra vaiea. Rem^ to bit seeond ao^ I^xncLe, 
ittB* vo BIT liiird Mon Sosdorde; i;pQB caaSaoDn be be act eaored im jcbtexm or 
keoooK a jatm^ if lo lo mere no benefit from said icoa^ bai aaid oaaua^ ie, to 
BBBDOsn Tx> BT fiMUib aoon Cbritt9$jber; rem' to aj is&k aoia Jfiia. ven* to nj 
aonnes FimncK, DoDTiiirke and Sccfiben: and if said aaiiBs sbcnja Li^faen lo dfe; 
Rnt' ti ITT trcciies- JaiD%. rrs' tD RariLiEiac G. aooa and bar of HHiiaiB late de- 
eeaaei. ma' to Gcorre G 's ci^Iiires icak. Iicm :<> st aeircmd scilz tbe neve 
koDse kl^fatietf CcraLfe^aseaniadfe in St. LaxRSMie ' ponsland a BKETye 
in Siban^^tt, m? itt aeocinie iOLSe of sJrcr, viti a taster c/ sd}Ter xader tiis 
, 3i tie Brdi((ac«. aiii a r^ rag whtretL iaest is a bueve stcae. and 



s^ 



tkree s^Tcr ^xooes. bra t:- irj liirie soKa tbe cms oeasuiee nist Cash^ 
line Mrt^yt, wi&iTwt. iwtuiRh besjie t^ ker. Jbac^ ibe lawmt aai Isais of 
Com&'jft a£s RvIJTaicQcvTT, TiJeL I iare in BiriAice of iSe L^ BmriBoec, oa£ 
fkn^psjaed m Bkbardstoe aai BaHisrin in EinraGfct cc«bSit. so be be not 
CBtred oa ml^na, kec^ a&so ihe hLggtszt ftifis poee of sEivr I kave. nader aforesaSd 
■arke^ visk oker tvo sganiSg gobbueca^ a goikie li:^ vEii a wki^e suioc; aed 



( znmt L«icacb, (mm vrista Lata,) aad a Aminm^* vtZI vTctan Lwocaek. Tbe 
w«il part of tbe iaad is called Locabec; or Unie Lola. Tba» bads i 
kaadtooae tfwMmtfm orcfkaapa^ the riiw Lee, iiatlag toaae of ita ] 
■catiL Tbqr arc fCcZI port of tbe oeafee cf tifee Galvcrs.. vbo bovrrer baT« no 
raaiii im kcre. Tbe priacipaZ mam mca wai kn^ 'Xctspud hj tbe £uuIt of Roigcn* 
vfco bild is by kaM» bat tbcir peopotr «m latelj darpowd of in tbt Eaeanbttvd 
Eatasci Cosrt. TVe abcre viZk pPTre that tke pciii^ree of Gatwj for tke period to 
wbfak they wiatt, m pdbErted xa Barkers «* Landed Gcntrr,* is aitjyether t iun eo m^ 
mttrnt f*J^K Ear 6i the frmilj bexa^ fabrtxtatcd. 

• Caihcriae BnebewMdao^tcr of James Roebe of Cork^AUerBKL Sbe bad two 
iirt«n» Aaaa» raarriiif to ^ienege Skaddr of Cork, AlubiMiii, and %niCa i ,ra aaarried to 
GtraidCWMleoftbeaaBe^BcvdHBtfi. (Orig. MSSw pceca ae B. C> 

< £1. 1 sanam^s Cbaprf wm aeartbe aoath gate of tbe dtr, aiS«eeat to tbeeatraace 
to BaBBi«k aod C'ra^r^w^s brewery. 



1861.] mih and Inventories, Ccrk, temp, Elizabeth. 259 

three silrer spoones. Item to mj fourth soim a uewe meaaundjare id Dunf^nvan 
auborhea of Oorcke, &cr., also the towns, &c.» of Bro\nicstone» Knockyren, and the 
laads of Carreggine within the fraunchcs of Corcke, my parte of the Ijtlc nT> 11 
jojaiiige St. Fraacii** churchejard ui Shandon, also a graven pice under said 
marke^ a stand in ge gobblette and his cover, that my son Walter brought out of 
Eiiglande, a gold ring graven with a red face, a aalte of silver gilte, with the 
cover which I have in pledge of my ncphewe William G, Item to my fyfth souu 
a ncwe bouse in Bitngarwan, &cc., one ploughland in Cnockjcarigbane, all the 
lands in KilvoUane and Ballyliiarouan tn Barrymore U contrey, my seconde )>est 
flail silver pice, and the cruse of silver under said marke, three spoones of aiiver 
with a gold ring with a white perle in same. Item to my sixth sonn two stone 
houses in Dungarvane, &cc., also thothcr flatt pice of aiiver, three spouncs of silver, 
and a hoope of gold made in a ring three hoopes togather. Item to my sevcuih 
sonn a stone house in Corckei a little castell and garden in Shandon, &cc., a graven 
pice under my father's marke — the black-nott covered with silver, three silver 
spownes, with a gold ring wheria is a hiewc stone omayle. Item to myne eight 
sonn another atone house in Duugarwan, &cc,, the graven pice with a branche in 
his myddle, and the siJvcr nott which I have in pledge of James Eouaix for iv/r, 
and three silver spoones. Item said heircs shall finde upon their proper costs three 
priat^ or cliapplens, two to serve in St, Peter's Church where ray buryall is^ and 
the third in Christ Chnrch, said prestes to receive their yearly stipcnde upon the 
profitts of said lands. Item to Petcr*s Church towards the reparacion iii/i., alv»o 
to said church the vestments, ooope, with the two tunycles of velvelt I have, and 
to the reparation of the poore men s house xiiiJi. \vd. Item to Christ Church to* 
wards the reparation nli. vU. yiM., to the chauntery of said church xiii*. iv^f. 
Item to St. Barry es Church vi*. viiirf. To the Holy Roodc Cbappell" iii*. To 
St. Stephen's Church' iii*. To St. Clement's Church iil*. To our Lady Church lilt. 
Item tliat my executors shnll pay towards the building of evcrie church that hhaW 
be builded in the Byshopricke of Corckc iiij., or the viduc in yron. Also that my 
eiocutors shall give to the poor people of this cittie within one moncth after my 
decesse the value of xU. of frise in the honor of God, and for almes t^ be worren 




* "May, 1700, St. Francis Ahbiy, on the north side of the Lee, in the north suh- 
nrbs of Cork. The site of It contfims n few gardens on the sld^^ of the hill, near the 
Abbey. It b the estate of Lord Orrery, Ac. In King Jrtmes*s time a new chapel wuh 
built by the Frinrs on part of the abbey* but not where tjie former chapel stood* 
Borne Friars living there in the time of the eiege, [Sept. 1690,] the abbey with tlie 
T wt of the 8ubur1>4 wiw burnt : n good strong steepio remains standing. The chapel 
llmt w>is hitely built, Viavlng been burnt with the abbey, was repaired by Mr.Moiri« 
son, a merchant, and is now nsed by him as a warehonae,**— JSwAo/) Downt^s MS. 
JattmaL This abbey was fimnded, aooordiDg to Ware, in 12 14). ** In the chapel of 
thif plaoe the late King James heard mass in March, 1688 [1688-9]» being supported 
through thiJ streets of the city by two Franoi^can Fryars." — Smiih, Not a vcatige of 
It now reniainB. 

• The Holy Rotxh or church of St. Mary de Nard, itood on the eentre of the groond 
now i^eiipied by EHzabcth^s fort. By an act passiMl in the year 1751, these ancient 
pariahcs were united to the pariBh of St. Kicbolas forever, and now form the corps 
of tlie fh»DC5eUf>r»hip of the cathedral. 

( " St. Sl«phen'B Church stood where Worth's Blew Co&t JJospitsl now staoda ; the 
Bnuth suit* of the hoiipitid court wall stunds upon the foundation of the north iide 
Of thf chart h.'*—J5^, JJotcnt't MS, JiHtmaL 



260 Original Documents. [Sept. 

for my soule and my friends. Item that my other children be brought up in 
learning and in course of merchandise, &c. 

LfVENTORiE. — vi. tonnes of yron, iii. hundreth batrye, ii. hogsetts allyine, 
ii. hundred hoppes, xii. tonnes of salte, a laste of bids lyttle more or less, 
vi. pounds sylke, a pice of broade doathe in collors conteynninge xxx. yards, 
▼i. duzen wollen cards, ii. barrells of orchall, halfe a grose of knyves with other 
small wares, as hatts, cappes, and other thryfles amonge my shopp, ii. tonnes of 
wyne, also xl. sheepe and xii. kyne. 

WILL OP WILLIAM GALWEY FITZ JEFFRY, proved April 12, 1582. 
In Dei nomine Amen. Ego Willielmus Galwey fitz Galfridi, de Kinsale, 
condo testamentum meum, commendo animam meam Deo patri omnipotenti, cor- 
pusque meum terrse et vermibus, sepeliendum in ecclesia de Kinsale, in loco» 
majorum. Constituo filium meum Galfridum meum heredem, et lego eidem G. 
principale meum messuagium in Kinsale, tres carrucat^ terrse Antiquse CurisD in 
dominio Cricurhaghe et molcndinum aquaticum, tributum piscis, vulgariter nonii- 
natum See-fishe, in Kinsale, villam de Ballincobum, tertiara partem terrae de Crock 
intus et foris, tabemam novam quam Mauricius Coursie erexit et duas parcas 
terra; juxta Nichols-gate, olim nuncupatum cunicularium magistri Galwey, Haben- 
dum, &c., eidem G. et h. m., rem^ Jacobo secundo filio meo et h. m., rem* Kicardo 
tercio filio meo et h. m., &c. Item lego eidem G. cyphum sculptum argenteum, 
Anglic^, A graven cupp, et salsarium argenteum et duodecim cochlearia argentea, 
et parvum cyphum argenteum, vocatum a tastor, et lego illi omnia suppelectilia 
domus mes, et lego unam magnam patenam, aptam ad servitiam faciendam filio 
meo Jacobo. Item lego G. duos cyphos, comuniter vocatos Macers, quorum unum 
Willielmus Baies habet in pignore duorura coriorum bovilium, et alterum est in 
pignore decem solidorum, et alterum cyphum, vocatum a standing cupp, sicut ex- 
presse ponitur in obligatione facta inter me et Jacobum filium Johannis Galwey, 
et eidem signetum meum aureum. Et lego eidem scapham meam piscatoriam, 
vocatam a pinac, cum suis vestimentis et piscandis instrumentis, et cum retibus 
omnibus, et cimbam meam latam, communiter vocatam a licterS et omnes seuos 

» The Galwey 8 were interred in a small transept called "Oalwey's Isle," in the 
parish church of Kinsale, which still contains a very beautiful window in the Norman 
style, and other rich decorations. The right, however, of the Galwey family to this 
" Isle" seems to have been disregarded by the Vicar and Church wardens in the middle 
of the last century, as appears by the following item from the parish vestry -book, 
kindly supplied by the Rev. I. W. Hopkins, the present Vicar : — 

" 1748. And it is also hereby agreed upon, that the ' South Isle,' commonly called 
' Galwey's Isle,' be for ever appropriated to the use of a vestry-room and catechetical 
school, which shall be enclosed, and scats shall be built in the same, to receive the 
young people of the parish during their examination by the minister and his curate, 
and the sum of forty pounds shall be levied for the furnishing the same by subscrip- 
tion ; and if any part of the said sum shall not be raised by subscription, the deficiency 
■hall be raised by rate on the parish, or by such other ways and means as shall seem to 
the minister, churchwardens, and parishioners most effectual and least burdensome 
to the parish. 

"BtrETOKPABiONSOK, Vicar, "Thob. BETmrr, 1^, ,, „ 

" Moses Stewaed,/ ^^ "^ ^"^ 

A similar item occurs in the year 1772 ; fortunately these recommendations were 
never acted on, or the ** Galwey Isle" would doubtless have shared the barbarous dese- 
cration which this curious church, almost unique in its architectural features, suffered 
some years ago when being restored by some country surveyor or mason. 



1861.] TFilh and Inventorki^ Cork, temp. Elizabeth. 



261 



m<ws. Item volo quod mcus htres et ejus snccpssores ministrcnt saccrdoiibtis, 
clericis, ct pauperihus xiiw. v'lnd,, flnnfttim in fiituniro, dimidium ad qiiodlihct 
fcstum defimctorum, et alitid dimidium ad fjuemlibet diem per rastcves per equules 
portlones, et etiam mantaneant domum pfttiperom, quoties opus fuerit. Item lego 
aecnndo Alio meo Jacobo, curiam, appclktam Curiam Maestri Galwej in Kinsalfii 
et hortiim jacentcm in fossa jtj\ta ninros, inter portam fralnim et portam Cork, 
vocatum Garrincgeokane ft Le*^oille, ct casteilum r\y Cowg quod habeo a Mapjistro 
Gulwej per indcnturara, et unam carucatara tcrrjc vocatara BolUvajififfie in tcne- 
xnento dc Riucorran, et portum vocatum Oister-haven^ cum sua libertate, quern 
habeo in pignore, 5:cc. Item magnum cjpUum argeuteum, quod Ricardns Coursy 
quoudam habuit. Item quod Jacubus ct hercdes dividaut paupcribus annatim 
tU. vmd. Item lego tercto Mio E ieardo mess uagi urn, oUm Johannis Corsb, et 
Ubcniam parvam jacentem in via qua itur ad Ecclesiam, et nuum bortum juxta 
Nicbols-gate, &c* Item quod d ictus liioardus distribuat paupcribus et »acef- 
dotibus annatim vi*. y\nd, 

Lkgaciks.— Inprimis lego ad reparationem et ediflcationem Ecclcsiie de Kinsale 
annatim wf. Item funerali servicio, clcmosimr, H Vicario ejusdcm tjt. viii/jf. 
Domino Tkomte Mojran prcsbitenj in Ctjrk x*., et llectori Ecclesise dc Kinsalc yit. 
Hoc excepto quod lego uxori mea; Anastaciae Corsj, omnia messuagia, &c., in 
Kinsalo et alibi in Com-Cork, durante Tiduitate sua, It^m m&ndo sub pteua 
patertiffi inaledictionia incurrcndfe, distincte. prineipro (iUis meis univcrsia et ain- 
gnlU, ut in omnibus justis, licitis et houcBtis, obediant et pateaut matri sua:, sine 
jurgto, durante vita ana, et illi maximo bouore maximaqiie reverentia afficiant, sicut 
filios decet^ et nil contra ejus voluntatem agere nitantur, ut sic precepta divina 
flcrvantej^, sint longevi super terram, et etcmam beatiLudiuem consequi valeant, 
quam illis eouccdere dignaret Altissiiuus. Amen. Item facio Dominum Geraldum 
Coraie Barouem et Dominum de Orioruesatgh, Jacobum Ronan, et Wiilielmum 
Eoobe de Cork, burgenccs, defensores et tutores filiorum meorum. 

WILL OP GENET GxlLWEY, proved June 22, 1582. 
L'* Uei nomine Amen. I, Grnet Galwet, widdowe, Ute wyfe unto John Golde 
fit* Bdmonde of Corke, AIdcnnan» of good memorie, in my si eke bed, labouringc 
ftnd dra^ng towards death natiirall, do nmkc my laste will, 9 June, ] 582, my body 
to be buried (if possible) with my husband. I urdaiue my brcthcrne Edmonde filz 
Edmondc Tyrry, and Christopher Galvvey fitz Andre we ^ my executors. To my 
fosti?r-falher. mother au<l staters, xx/i between them. To my said brethren all luj 
goldc. Item tbut such pawnes or brasse which is in kepinge with my bruther 
Glmatopbcr Galwey, be devided amongst my young brethren, 

WILL OF CHRISTOPHER GALWEY, op CORK, Aldermaji, Pfto\'ED 
Sept. 12, 1582. 

In the name of God, Amen, I, CHRisTOPTfEii Galwey, of Cork, Alderman, do 
make my laaft will xxi day of July 15S2, my body to be buried with my father and 
mother in St. Peeter'a Church witliin Cork. I leave towards reparation of same 
church ixxjr,, so much more with Christ Church, towards the building; to St, Bar- 
rios Chorch by Cork ts. Yvid. ; to the Holly-rood im. ; to S' Thomas Moyrane, 



^ A lighter. 

' An inlet of the sea near Kinnale. " The ftsbery, ouatoma, and harbour or creek 
of OyBt4?r-hftvon, were granted to Philip Barry oge. ooinmonly called Lord Barry of 
K>rud.^'n, h\' puttut from Queeu Mwy." — Browne MSiS, 



262 Original Documents. [Sept. 

pn'cst, iii*., in remembrance of me ; to S' Percywall White, priest, and & Michell 
Eoche, jiriest, iii«. each ; to the Viccar I'yrry xxs. I do make my brother John 
my heir, and bequeath to him the lands I purchased of David Tyrry, viccar, also 
my part of Rosta in Barrymores contrey, &c. To my brother Francis the lands, 
&c., of Bownenygawle, in the great Island, also the lands of Drohidsynaghe, which 
I purchased of Nicholas Tyrry, &c. To my brother Domynick the ploughland 
called Cwyleregwyh, which I hold in mortgage of Lord Cursie. To my brother 
Stephen the ploughland of Tworahigobane, which I purchased of David fitz Ed- 
mond Barry, also the part belonging to John Galwey of Brownestowne. To my 
daughter Anstace a ploughland called Carrigane ny graune, and another called 
Bally vody, which I hold in mortgage of xvi/i. of John fitz Edmond oge Hodnett •', 
also such part of Knockyrea as is the right of my father and mother, to have during 
her life, and after said part of Knockyrea to my brother Prancis. To my wife 
Juiyan Sarsfild the ploughland in Raheygobbane during her life, rem' to my 
daughter Anstace. To my brother Edmond Tyrry my part of Carrigyns near 
Cork, &c. Item I release my father-in-law Edmond Sarsfield the mortgage of ix/i. 
I had uppon one of his gardens. To my foster-brother William Kynt the town, 
&c., of Ballynvourdony in Barretts countrey, which I have in mortgage of x/i. To 
John fitz Edmond oge Hodnett, the mort^ige I have uppon Bally-ny-crussy from 
said John. My other legacies. To myne ant Anstas Roche xxx«. To my foster- 
mother Margaret Collane xxs. To my wife a silver salt. To my brother Edmond 
Tyrry three s'dver cupps. To Patrick Gk>ld my signet of gold. To my daughter 
Anstas all the Jewells within a small bladder in my smale chest, also two crosses of 
gold in a little white bladder, and my mother's big coife. 

Invintorib. — Three lasts of cowehides, lackyng fy ve hides, a tonn of iron, a 
tonn of salt, one barrell of aleim, fyve hogdbieads of white wyne, ten hogsheads of 
wheate, thre hogsheads of Rye, and in gold twentie pounds, and in reddy money 
xxiv/i. 

Pledges.— From David Barryes wife a silver cupp, in pawn of iii/i. ; from 
Patrick Gold fitz Qold a silver cupp, in pawn of xU. ; a silver cupp belonging to 
John oge Hodnet, which oweth nothing ; a goblett for aquavita belonging to my- 
self, a goblett with his cover which my father left with me, a great silver salt I 
have in pledg from M' Galwey, a bigg silver cupp I bought of Alexander Gogh. 

Pledges I deltvered in pawn. — To Ballive Creaghe a silver cupp, to Joan 
Watter a goblett pertaining to Andrew Skiddy. Walter Coppinger hath the cover 
of my small cnpp in pawne for three yards of bayes. John Watters hath the 
bottom of Andrew Skiddy is cnpp in pawne of vis. Ymd. old money. 

^ The Hodnets were formerly a powerful sept, and proprietors of the Great Island 
in the barony of Banymore, which was wrested from them by the Barries. The con- 
dition of the following mortgage of Hodnett's Wood, at this period, is highly curious : 
— " Sciant, &c,, quod ego Edmondus Hodnet mesa nationis capitaneus de Castro de 
Belvellie in Magna Insnla, in dominio Barry-more, dedi Geraldo fits WilUelmi juvenis 
mac Coter, de predicta insula, unam camo' nnncupat' Hodneis Wood, &&, qniquidem 
came* jacet a Ballyncorrig ex parte orient', usque ad mare ex parte Occident' atque 
a Bally-ny-cmssy et Burgesshe ex parte anst', usque ad terram Castri de Bellvelie ex 
parte boreal!. Hend', &c, sub conditione sequenti quod quocunque ego E. H. htd*, 
&c., Bolverint sexdecim bonas vaccas lactiferas, sex boves caballos, vig^ti quatuor ovoa 
•t etiam a brassen pan valentes quinquaginta trcs solidos et quatuor denarios, quod 
deinceps lioeat mihi £. H. hed*, &c., intrare et hMbero. Dat' sexto die Augusti, 1573." 
— (Grig, penes me B. C.) 



1861.] 



ISuttquartan nn'H S^ttctai's £utclUsntcci'. 



l^CftrreMpandentit are reqtietted to tipp&Hd their AddretMt, Mf>^ unless agreeable ^ fot 
pu^icaiioth btU In ord^r that a cop^ q/ the QB3rTLIliAN*d MAOAZUffi coHtaimng 
their Oamm mm i e aUtm* majf be forwarded to ^^4^*] 



CONGRESS OF THE ARCH^OLOGICAL IKSTITUTE 
AT rETEKBOltOUGH, 
July 23 to July 30. 
This Cotigrcss, which was very numerously attended, was presided over 
by I^rd Talbot pe Maxahide, and was divided tato the three sectioDs uf 
History, Architecture, and Antiquities, at the head of which were, re- 
spectively, the Dean of Ely, the liev. Lord Alwyne Coraplon, and Oclavius 
If organ, Esq., M.P. Mainly by the care of the Intter gentleman, a Museum 
was fitted up in the Training College, of which the chief feature was a large 
collection of Stuart Eelice, The Duke of Buccleuch, the Marquisea of 
Exeter, Huntly, and Northamptou, the Earla of Spencer and Westmore- 
land, the Bishops of Lincoln and Peterborough, Lords Herries, Lyveden, 
and Over stone, Sir Henry Dry den, Sir George S. Robinson, and Sir John 
TroUope, Barta., the Mayor of Stamford, the High Bailiff of Peterborough, 
and other persona of local influence, gave their sanction and encourage- 
ment, and many of them either exhibited articles in the Museum, or re- 
ceived the various parties of excuraionisls. The Bean of Peterborough 
acted as Chairman of the Local Committee, the excursions were ably 
directed by the Rev. Edward Hill, and the Museunci was in the charge of 
Messrs. Franks, Trollope, Tucker, and Way, 
IWtfl«y, Jvfy 33. Opejttko MEErrsro 



AT TB« CoitSf EXOHAKOI. 

OctimiM Morgan, Esq., took the chmir 
at 2 p.m., in the nbseoce (through a rois- 
take 11 to the train from Ely) of the 
Prt'wifkMit, After the caatomary welcorneii, 
the Cj}i»urmiin called on the Rev. Tliomaa 
Jatne^ Hon, Canon of Peterborooi^h^ to 
daLiTer an Inaugur&l Discourse on the 
Archeology of Northaniptouiihire* 

The Rev. g«nt1cuiim, premiaing th«t he 
inieDiile^l to tntike ti^* of an article on ILli 
mbjeet rt'cisntty coutritinted by him to the 
*• Quarterly Review/' wid thai,— 

*• Northnniptofishire lies in a wedge* 
lillp ahipr I fnHtiii^ fr-mt '\tn brgh ground 
wilt I' ' Hliire iu a north' 

fttiX the fun country 



of Lincolnshire and Cambridgeshire. On 
the exiretiio end of the wvd^e they were 
now stMrndtng-, at Peterborongh, From 
its central t>08a, Naseby, alike itn natnrul 
«nd hi'*torical Undmurlc, nrises, 1:>eside3 the 
Avon, its two rivers, the Welland and the 
Nen, wtiich oompoa* the land till they 
meet at Croyland. At Kaaeby wos loti^ht 
thit battle which more than uny otJier 
influenced the course of modem Etigliih 
history. Little traces, however, tf earlier 
tiuii's have b^-en left there, exc<'pt the re« 
maiuit of an un»^jtpIored camp in the neigh- 
lxrnrhriv)d of i>ibbcTtoft» Perhap* there 
are ft w commanding eminences in the king- 
doin which do not War fvidenee of early 
occupation and enlrcnchment. Borou^jh 
Hill, near Daventiy, h the most remark- 
nbk' instance in t>'is county, and although 
every year is defacing it* oatworlw, it 
could not be easily surpassed elae where dyr 



264 



Antiquarian and Literary Intelligencer. 



[Sq>t. 



extent and oompleteneiB. British and 
Roman remaina have been gathered there 
nde by ude, and it teemi to have been 
the raoe-groand of Mid-England from the 
rise of the sport Ull 1805, when the races 
were cried down, and the groond enclosed. 
Coming down to the plain, remains of 
Roman occupation are met with on erery 
nde. The Watling and Ermine Streets 
both cross the conntv, the first forming 
the sabstratnm of the old road from Stony 
Stratford to Weedon, and on to Tripon- 
tiam, or Dove-bridge ; the other entering 
the c^^ont}' by Castor, and branching off 
at TpUnC u> on^ direction to Stamford 
by the 40-foot way, in the other to West 
IXeeping by the Long Dyke. Wcldon, 
Cotterstock, Hey ford. Harpole, and AVhit- 
tlebory might bie named fr discoveries of 
Roman pavements. The Roman villa re- 
cently uncovered at Apethorpe has had 
ample jofttioe done to it by the desciiptions 
and dnwincs of Mr. Trollope in the Archi- 
tect nral Society's report for last year. 
There is another villa awaiting excavation 
on Mr. Stopford*s pn^^erty, close to Tbrap- 
ston. Castor, however, is the place in 
this county richest in Roman remains. 
The name, like the neigbbfuring \-illage 
of Chefctenon, speaks its Latin origin, 
though in Roman times it was known as 
Durobriw, Some spots in the neighbour- 
hood absolately t<em with potsherds. 

" This oonntr contains perhaps the most 
remarkable link in Britain of the Roman 
with the Saxon period, in Brixworth 
Church. There is no doubt at all that 
there still ex:ist distinct traces of two pre- 
Xorman periods in the architecture of that 
tfroctnre. Xor, if any &ith could be 
pilaced in the records of past excavations, 
eonld there he any hentation in acknow- 
ledging a haidlican type in the plan. 
WhKhier any of the nirting walls axMi 
asviie* are wholly Roman, or have been 
ve-bnUt with Roman bricks in later time, 
«oni]d only be discussed with intercut on 
t^ spot. Arriving at the more i-stahUsbed 
8axoB period, the inlcrett of the Northamp- 
tWMJilri h»tt«T and buildings br no means 
feninirfiea. fiarVs Barton Uiw«r snp^ilies 
oae ctf* the most elubcrate and hvt known 
WfvamBOi at tLat long-nd-short work 
viueh he nnct persast in calling Saxon 
vosL Is Wicsflring the dimensaans of 
thf; iSMXvm fliaaeeil art marked out by the 
»asiiiiiji a 1^ aomliHiasi angle, and there 
is also the staangr chancal-arch, gr^t- 
teagwjy mot;, and struggling out of its 
ekr>iBilis Acoiewurk, inui some nntried 
lihasi uT being ; whlk at Bamad:, in the 
taww-ardi, we have the iiobjesi cxami^ 
«f Una myh in the kii^dan, and a jawii 
5 



of the effect which the rudest and most 
abnormal style is capable of prododng 
when worked, as this is, in strong will 
and fSuth. After being Uocked for five 
centuries this arch has lately been opened. 
The whole tower exhibits the singular 
transitionary work of builders paaring for 
the first time from wood to stone, and 
cutting their unwonted material, and em- 
ploying it rather like carpenters than ma- 
sons. When the floor of this tower was 
last year excavated to its original level, it 
was discovered that the pointed niche in 
the west wall, the use of wluch, as aum- 
bry, door, or window, had puzzled the 
learned, was a central throne or sedlle; 
stone benches, with wooden. seats, having 
branched off on each side, and extended 
to the north, and probably sooth, side of 
the interior of the tower. The stone 
quarries of Bamack, which furnished the 
stone for Ely, Croyland, Thome}-, Ramsey, 
Bury St. Edmund's, and Peterborough, are 
only traceable in the 'hills and holei' 
which surround the present village." 

Mr. James then adverted to the curious 
monument once standing in the grave- 
yard, but now preserved within the walls 
of the cathedral — a single block of stone, 
ooped, and with rude sculpture, three feet 
high, three feet long, and one loot wide, 
exactly according with the meaanrementa 
and description by Ingulphns of the se- 
pulchral memorial erected by the Abbot 
Godric, of Croyland, over Abbot Hedda 
and dghty -three of his monks, at Medes- 
hampstead, the anrient name of Peterbo- 
rough, in the year 870^ when they were 
alaughtercd by the Daxies, and thdr mo- 
nastery destroyed, lliis sume is so alike 
in character to the Anglo-Saxon monu- 
ments existing at Hexham and Dewbhury, 
that he hoped Mr. Bloxam mould be able 
to asBgn it to the period given to it by 
tradition, and vindicate it from the ultra- 
•eepticism which seems now jiervading all 
archaHilcigical research, as the oldest his- 
torical Christian monumeLt in England. 

Korman hisuin brcinght them to the 
couxiiy town of Xi:<rtham](ton, with tW 
central figure of Simon de St. Lix. the 
local hero of the ]XTiod. the Luildtr of 
the castlt-K the reiouLdizr of the town, 
and hcnefact-co' of the Chmiac IVc^rv uf 
&. Andrew. 

Is 1164 Thoonas Bedket a}i|ieared in 



1861.] 



ArchdBological ImtUuiej Peterborough, 



the castle for the Inst time before the 
Council, to which ho wns Ktimmoned on 
hi« rcftisrtl to nhfcle by the Constitutions of 
CJiiiTiiflon, Having appealed solemnly 
tfi the Court of Rotnt*, he with<lfew. A 
fprln^, ttill calleil Becket*a well, marks 
the spot where on the very night, accom- 
pAuietl by n single monkf hu stopped to 
qnench Ins thirst when flying disguised to 
the coftst on his way to Flnnd«ra. Three 
brnidred years afterwards the townufulk 
of Northampton founded ii ho^qtital in 
honour of St. Thomas of Catit^ rbiiry, the 
rertiiiin« of the chnpcl of whirh, though 
the charity survives in unother form, is 
now A carpentei's nhop. 

The Templars, he believed^ htid no pos- 
l MMions in the county, nnd the H^jsin- 

Her* only the preceptory of Dingley ; 
Imtiti ecmtral position made Nortlmmp- 
ton a favourite place for the inland gather- 
ings of the Crassiders, In the first year 
of his reign, Richard Ca?ur-de-Lion inau- 
gnrafccd i^n assembly nt Pijiewell Abbey. 
Kin^ Ji^.hn especially affected the ii ant- 
ing in liockingham forest, and lodged at 
RockinghaiD Castle* 

On the 10th of July, l-lfiO, oecurred 
the great buttle of Northflmpton, between 
the Lancastriiins and the Yorkists, which 
giive the first decided ndvantnge to the 
Honse of York. A continuation of this 
success eventually pi ared Edward IV. on 
the throne, sui! so gave Northamptonshire 
the honour of giving a queen to the throne 
of England. Korthamptonshire boiists 
two of the Kleanor crooies, the very out^ 
posts ns it were of the most perfect style 
of the national Architecture. Much hss 
known than the Nortlmmpton cro*s, 
though almost as perfect as when it wns 
first set up, is the simpler nnd smaller 
cross of Geddington, He believed no 
mention wan made of it in contemporary 
documents, bnt its position is accounted 
for by the neighbourhood of the King's 
pnUce of Geddington, now utterly de- 
stroyed. In a hedge row between Pury 
Uid OrafV<m park* the "Queen's Oak" 
if still shewn as that under which the 
bentitiftil widow of Sir John Grey first 
fascinsted Edward IV.; altliough Gmfton 
did not obtain its augmentatioD of Gr^dton 
OixT Uaq. Vol. CCXL 



Reg-a till the reign of Htnry VI 11., who 
made it a king^s honour, with urfy-three 
manors annexed. After the divorce of 
Queen Katherine, the King assigned to 
her the castle of Fotheringhwy, after- 
wards to become notorious by another 
queen's yet sadder f«it^»* Tlie tmdition 
runs, that James on his accession pulled 
down the castle, but there is evidence to 
shew th)it it was not dismantled till after 
the end of hfs reign. 

Of other castles Northauapt/»n*ihire has 
little to boast. The site of that of North- 
atnptou» overhanging the Nni, wns indeed 
a fine one, and tins wiis eiiliaiiced by arti- 
ficial embankments. Iracea of Norman 
work m«y yet be detected in the outer 
circuit of the walls, und there are door- 
wsy arehes of two centtirics Inter j hut 
those who w^oiild see even the-se fragments 
of feudal Northampton mu*t make ba?to 
and visit the spot, for the wte has just 
been sold, and contemplated villtts aru 
already casting tht?ir vile shadows beroro 
on ground which, if any public spirit 
existed on the spot, should have been se- 
onred for a public promenade and gip*den. 
Of Barnwell Castle nothing remains but 
the four bastion towern and the curtain 
walls, forming a quadmngalar enclosure. 
R*ickingham was a royal castle from tho 
Conquest till the time of Henry Vll,, and 
a favourite liantinp*peat of English kings. 
Portions of f»ld Normmn work are fre- 
quently discovered whenever repairs sro 
going on, but the entrance towers and 
gateway date from Edw.ird I. The stime 
date may be sssigned to the doorway of 
the hall, and within the la.4t few months 
two windows of the same early d«te have 
been tlius discovered behind the modem 
panelling of the diuing-ro<^m, marking out 
what were the dimensions of the former 
hall. Tlie eastte was gallantly dcfendetl 
by Sir Lewis Wation for King Clmrles I,, 
and the greater part of the existing bouse 
is of the next reign. 

Drayton Honse is a semi^cast^llAtrd 
Irtii Id lug of the fifteenth century, meta- 
morphosed by late Italitm architecture of 
a fine and foreign type, so that it is difll- 
cult exactly to dett^ct its originsl form. 
The celUrs are of the fourteenlJi ceuturyt 



266 



jtrntiqamrimm mmd LUerary ImtelKgtmeer. 



[Sept- 



Mu IS cxnlkui c o P uit WL ^i6 nitofy 
of lh» home k told in ILiktoiid'i "Ociw- 
flfegiH^"* erwpikd bj the EvI of Peter- 
BoruM^|ii ma lus CBBpnun. Tat mbmi ok 
''HftbteMT ■ fictitionfc ApKborpe 1m 
lomo remuiM tamifi^aMj older than tho 
gmenl efasnrtcr of the bonae^ wlndi ■ 
EBzahetluin. lo one of the he dr oomo ■ 
ft tat driAncj-pieee of the t hirt ee n th era- 
tor j, and pert of the prcaeni kiteben and 
ofltees ere of good early Berpendienlar 
work-4he haU of the older hoMe. At 
K^orthboroa^pb the cbiurh baa a booe- 
home nnnlar to that at BothwelL 

After alliidfng to aerersd other Nr.rth- 
aaiptODshtre booaefl, noat ^ which hare 
been recently mentioned by na in the 
nport of the Northaaiptonihire Arcfai- 
teetoral 8oeiety% Mr. Janws proceeded 
to aay tint tbe atory of the abbeya of the 
eoonty waa rery aooo told. Ihere waa 
the aplendid one before them, Peter- 
bGvougfa, not baring been a cathedral tiU 
the reign of Henry VIII., and there waa 
tbe bearing grecnaw ar d whidi marked, 
and bat faintly maiiied, the aitea of aU the 
fcat. There were no abbey mine in the 
eonnty, and bat few fragmenta. The word 
that went oat at the diaulntion waa 
''Tboroogh.'^ Pipewdl ia barely trace- 
ablp, tboogh aoaie raloable relica €^ tilea 
and gbMa bare been lately reoorered. 
Snlby ia repn aented by a rini^ aepolchral 
croM. At Fineahade and DeUpr^ roodtm 
booaaa oaorp tbe conaecrated gronnd. At 
Sboaeley aoroe bite excarationa diacorered 
three coped croaaea. A torK> of tbe priory 
of Canona Aubby forma tbe preaent chordk 
The Saxon nonuery d Weedon ii acarcely 
more than a tradition, and of St. Kyne- 
borga'a nunnery at Caator, aa at Rothwell, 
Darentry, Deene, and elaewhere, only the 
hictorical record remaina. Tbe priory of 
Cateaby waa, at tbe diaaolotion, under the 
goremment ci one Jojee Beriieley, and 
waa recommended for apecial exemption 
from the common fate on the ground of 
Ha excellent order and management ; but 
the priory waa retained on the black liat. 
The ainguUr cabmitiea which hare be- 
fallen the poaaeaaora of tbia bouae were 



• Omit. Mao., Aag. IMl, pp. 16i-17L 



to make one take op with 

of aacrib^cu After 
and chnncga> it ia now 
being palkd down, bat the Decorated 
aefilia of the earlier chapel, and a peat- 
BelbnnataoB chapel of coriooa arran^^e- 
ment, woold, he believed, be preatrrcd aa 
iv aa reatoratioa would pormit. 

Upon the wide fWld of Xorthamp^on- 
Mn chnrehea he hardly dared rentore. 
Kortbamp t onahire night, he thought, be 
regarded in architectare, aa in langnagr, 
alngakrly free from provindatiama, and aa 
preaenting general good typea of aU the 
aCylea^ or nthtr gnring tbe best apedmena 
of that continuoua national arebit*ctare 
which ahewa no break and owua no diviaion. 
Of the &»xon efaurchea he had already 
apoken. Bende St. Peter'a, Xorthampton, 
he knew cf no one of importance ex- 
dnairely Norman, tboogh of oourae por- 
tiona, and eapedally doorwaya and fonta, 
were coutinoally cropping oat from the 
biter atooework with which they bare been 
overkud. It ia along tbe banka of the 
Ken that our best cburdiea He. Whiaton, 
with ita abort diancd, emblematic of iu 
date, the rery year of tbe Befurmation ; 
HUing, with ita earlier font and cnriooa 
inaeription; pictareaqoe Caatie AUiby; 
Orendon, well phu:ed on ita bill ; Strixton, 
the model of an Early Eogliab village 
church ; tbe Saxon tower of Earra Barton ; 
the unique octagon of Stenwick; tbe bm- 
tema of Lowick, Fotheringfaay, and Irth- 
lingborougb; tbe apirea of Baunda, Rash- 
den, and Ircheater; the pinnacled tower 
of Htchmarah ; Fioedon, complete in tbe 
beatat>le; tbe fine town ateeple of Oundle: 
theae are but aelectiona from a line of 
churchea which are poanbly indebted for 
much of their beauty to the water-carriage 
of the Nen. Higfaam Ferren deaerved 
aeparate mention for ita architectural hie- 
tory and riehneia. Tbe church iteelf ia 
€€ an oMer and better date^ but for the 
preaent chancel, ataUa, and other detaila it 
ia indebted to Archbiahop Chichel«7, ^« 
fbuuder of the achool, the Bedehouae, and 
the diamantled college. Chicheley waa 
a native of Uigham, Uie aon of a fkrmer, 
and tradition telle that while tending hia 
ihther'a flocki he waa foond by William of 



18G1.] 



^^tcal Tmiitule, Peterborough^ 



267 



Wvkehani« Ulto Giotto by Clmabue, mid 
ItouwkI by tlmt great prelHt««nrchitect. 
SouW. Oxford, tho Oxford tower of 
uterbary, and the fine PerpendtcuUr 
ctiarch of Ooydon, are lUl of Chichelcjr's 
butldinipr. 

'1 be urcbiDnlogy of tbe htiTttiiif^ of Nortb- 
smptofj»biro mu-st not be passed over. Tha 
voriwt DrjiitduAt must have beard of the 
PytctiU'V huunds; if be had not, be bnd 
not stodied Donicedny, for Pytebley bunt- 
iitg can trace it« j>edtgrec to thnt period. 
It wat there recorded Umt WiUiiitn of 
Hghtasley sacceoded to the estates of 
Alwyne the Hunter, tlie 8»iid WilliMiu 
hoUling hi» ]nnd« in Pi^bte^ley by ser^ 
geaniry of bunting wolveo^ foxes, and 
ntber venitin. But even this was not 
the limit »>f it« tportin^ iioLiijuitj'. Some 
yeurs bjick» when Mr, A^^ner Brown wiia 
iiniier-pinuinf^ a pier in his L-hurrh, be 
found thnt the pTvecni ciliurch naa built 
upon an eorlier iind probulily hi nth en 
eemeteryp and in one of the cistvaena, 
lying north and inutli» he found, by the 
side of a ftkclet<m» n spear-bcad and a 
bo(ir*s tusk, thus edtabli«biDg the exiBtence 
of an earlier and pre-Cbriiitian Ahvyne of 
Pylchley. Special hunting privib grA were 
aldo alloin^ed the hurg»**aes of Nortbnmpt in. 
,\a ciirly lift X270 their (bigs were exempt 
from U'ing " kwod/' and tbe Abbot of 
IVterbirongh bad tbe ro^al licence to 
bant tbe hiirt% the fox, and the wild iut. 

Among ber worthies NortfaamptoiUihire 
IxMHttd *if * gh>nom* John l*rj,di'u/' born 
^ AldwincUU-, ivnd connected witli many 
"ioad fftinilie#, nnd even yet reproient^xf, 
tbnMigh ihd fiemale line, by 8tr Henry 
Biydtii. af C«none Ashby ; Fnller was 
born in the sister parish of Aldwincble 8t. 
Peter's ; poor John Ckre, fint of English 
stfttrtil poota, eons of the soil, b<^m at Help- 
Mone ; Biiihop Percy, of the " Relique.-!," 
held tbe li%ing at Euttton Maudit, and 
ihtfrc was wont to entertain Johiiioa, 
bihenstone, UoldBmith, and Uurrick* tits 
rtrtiit and mannscripts are still pro- 
ved by Mr. Istc-d, at Kct«>n-hiab Peter- 
irougb is justly proud of being tbe 
birtbpbicc of Paley, and of yet retaining 
the name ntnofiig its niott bonoureil sons. 
From Norihunploiiiliire f|xning th« fauii* 



lies of Washington and Franklin, snd 
Sulgrave and Ecton are the two sbrinoa 
in En;{iand which (with the hirthplnce of 
that poet to whom all the world is kin) 
are moet frequently visited by American 
p'dgrlms. Frniiklin's grandfather wafl 
a hlHcksmitb at Kcton. Wusbington^a 
family, as bss been so pleasantly shewn 
by the Rector of Brington, had nn older 
and more iTOportant position in this 
county. His great 'great -grand father, 
Lrtwrence Wn#bingt<jn, lies buried in the 
church of Briugtoo, and on tie toinb->lab 
are his arms, •* Argent, two bari«, gules : in 
cliief three mullets of the second/' Tlie 
suggestion tn the ** (.JUMrterly Review** that 
tbe^M? urtiis were the origin of the " Stars 
and ^tripes'^ of Aiuerlini was first nnide 
over the grave it»elf in a conversiition 
betwtN^ the late Lord Spenoer and Mr, 
Everett. 

Mr. James concluded his pnper witb 
a warm eologinin on Northamptonshire, 
which he di- scribed as 
"a OTimty that can olTor the oldest 
church, the oldest font, the oldest 
Christinn monument, tho oldest council 
chjuuber,— a county wherein were fongbt 
Buch dtdcisive batfle« as thow of NorLh- 
iiinpton and Naseby— one linked w ith the 
forlMiies of so luauy queens, bo unique 
in nieinnrial and ecclcHiastical nrebitec- 
ture, with so noble a ciithednil, witb such 
antiquity tor its popnhir eport, so plenti* 
fully stored with iiohility and irtntry, that 
Nonlen styles it the *Ht raids Garden;' 
the languiige of whose cfimmon people is^ 
accordrng to Fuller, the puicst of any 
siiire in Knghind, * the worst foot of whtitie 
soil,* Mugs Drayton, * is equal with tbe 
best' of any other; touching nine coun- 
ties, yet deriving nil its riv* i^ from itsilf j 
* an apple/ says Fnller, ■ withont core to 
be cut out, or rind to be thrown away.* 
A county with so many gitls of mtture 
and eurichmeuts of art, Le said, mgbt 
surely ask their attention without any 
ioaugumtoTy recommendation frnm one 
who, thouph not a nHtive, had found in 
it most exci4leiit friends and a most happy 
borne," 

Tbe Bisbop of Lincoln proposed, and 
Lord Neaves (of the ^Society of Antiquaries 
of ScoUand) eeconded a vote of thanks 
to Mr. Jamei, which was carried unaiu* 
mously, when the meeting dosed* 

An invitation having been given 1^ tbe 



€Md LiUranf LUelBffemeer^ 



[Sept. 



Xisr. Va. Mrm$ f to vait his 
ThflrpiS'ini-, » pwcj of owmhcn gmeaeiied 
thither as sh* 4ikM» of the auaciii^, Th« 
^fftj ixui^tbtd cfa« iMil aad xu dae or- 
icw, hnt the baiUxBif riidscd so fpacud 
ftnwrk, taurpt one whieh chnw a dovbc 
m the enuoKa beUef that the vdutceC 
WM laigo lonei. 

rmm the halU the pvtj, M hy J. H. 
P«rfcer, Em^^ of Oxfevd, prxeeded to the 
ehnrdi. On the way, a i<ab at itooe, 
«tem£n^ in one of the ««3Cta«e gBnWae at 
thft ottmee to the ribis*, actneted »ct«a- 
tifM^mA it vMthoo^t pvohable that the 
iEoae m <ynirioa had CrKmied the baie of 
m ordiaary wajwie €ztMk The dkureh, 
Kr. Pitfker renark«d, ia of the Earlj 
fnifiuih ttjle, datiatp ahovt l^isO: it is 
Trrj plam, and itM ptaa ie at smple aa lU 
ooMtractkm — a aave aad two aiaim. The 
Uhric :a bailt flf eoane rubble, withost a 
hottrtai or atriagoMne in any part of 
it, aad Itnmtg ewerjmhen, exempt at the 
tant and w*U eada, iu origiaal vindowi 
of two piaia hot ciSKtnre lancet lighta. 
The caat wiwiov^of tbrte l%ht«, ia a poor 
apenmen of PerpeM&ahv wotk, dnqoe- 
PAUd SB the head aader a foor-ceotrtd 
areb. There ia a aimikr viDdow at the 
weat cimL The aialea un dit ided fay three 
oUoa^y-pointed Early Enfl^tiah arcfaca <« 
each aide, r^ating od dreabir pillan with 
well'ttoolded capitakaDd faaiice, the latter 
raiaed on hold tqaare plintba. There ia 
no cfaaneel-aicfay the roof being eobtinnoaa 
fnm end to cod. Two atone bracketa at 
caeh cndof the aiale indicate that an altar 
exited there. In the chancel ia a deep 
irelbiled piacina ; abo two altar bradeta, 
and a aoiall aqnare aombry. There were 
at Icaat four altera in thia onalterad Barly 
iSiigliab diofcfa. Tliia theory waaadvaaeed 
neapeetinf the ate of low nde windowa 
In ntdiffTal diordica— for the adminta- 
tratioD of the Sacrament ootaide the 
cfaorch by mcana of a deil atick to per« 
aona anftring from the plagne. 

The tower adjacent, called Longtborpe 
IIaU^ waa thrown open for inipection 
by Mr. Warwick, the occnpicr. Mr. 
Farkar obaerred that thia boikling waa 

» Kacnvad hi DoMatk AieUtactata, toL L 
f.lM. 



the mme ace aa the 

waa an artiiuary Aircided honaa of ti 
pcnud, aad pnhabiy flCond oronaiLy 
the tern uf a fqoare with a fiawv 
each curaer, only oae ai tha 

The biwer ffiorv wai i 




nty from die, aad they octen 
riiri'Mii rmuung ap ogcmJe, Thai 
atery rhamh^ haa aiao a vaolfiad rw< 
aad the window* have •faoolderei areiiea. 
The nppcr itory wai a^cr vaaibed ; the 
pyraaudal roof ia BMniera. thoofk pr»- 
babiy on the pian of the old one, readne 
the inner cdxe *3>( the wall : by tiiM 
!Bt the thkhieaf •.f the wail, or 
the apeca betwcca the line ai the roof 
and the parapcta, waa left aa a walkxB;; 
place or ** aUare." The parapet u rather 
■ngnlar, ia having k»phi)iee imtcad of 
epen battlementaL The camera of the 
parapet are raiaed, and itand in the place 
of torreta. The bwiMriig waa entirely 
domeatic, thoozh fortified, and probably 
hadamflat roond it. 

At the evening meeting, Mr. J. H. 
Parker of Oz£ird read a very inttfrerting 
paper on the Domeatic Ardutectnre of 
the adjoimng diatrict, whidi we hope to 
print im exteum next month. 

After the rcM^ng of thia pap^, E. A. 
Frvcman, E«q., made aonae remarka on 
the general character of the chnrrbea of 
Xortfaamptonahire, eapccially tboae of the 
northern part of the coonty. Xi.Tthamp- 
tonahire being a long, obliquely placed 
county, and touching more other connti«a 
than any other ihire in Englanil, there 
naturally are great di H ef ence a between 
lUfferent parte of it, and the northern and 
aootbem enda of it iatkx widely both in 
their •noerj and in the character of their 
buildinga. The northtm chnrebea are 
generally very aopcror to the aouthem, 
and are capecially diatinguiabed by the 
beautiful fpirea wluch they ahare with the 
neighbouring counties uid of which the 
aouth part of Xorthamptonahire haa very 
few. Still there are aeveral pointa in which 
the cburcfaea cf the two tyvinona of the 
county agree. Northamptonahire ii pre* 
eminently the region of moderate-aixed 
pariah ehvehey. The monaaUc buiUinga^ 



186!.] 



Archaological Institute, Peterborough. 



269 



ri<*pt the tioble AUbey of Peterborough, 
»titl the ftiDuU fragment ut Csiuona A&bby« 
9G»:\n tu have utterly vuiiij^hed ; they 
neither ex «t iib ruins hqv ore they pre- 
MTted u piuriMb churches. Nor nre tliere 
■uy rAMnples of ehurchea of the pnroahtal 
iype» but of a scmIq equal to tniiiatt^rs^ 
like thoMS at Cutetitry tind Newark. On 
the ot^ier baud Tery small churches with- 
out aisles or towers are by no means com- 
uiou. A Northamptoushire church has 
moat com m only a nave, choiicel, nave 
■ialcBt and western tower; the chancel 
often huB a cliai>el on one or both aidis 
of it, but reg^uhur choir-aieles, so common 
in th« easteru cuuntica, nre not Ufiuul. 
There are a few cxAmptes of central towtm, 
and a few of truiisepts without central 
towers, but neither of those arrangeiaeots 
is common. The roofs are oomnioiily tow, 
nor is the low roof always of bte intro- 
dtictioa; it became the prevniling form in 
tbo Iborteenth century, while ctauic in- 
rBteliec% as at Warming-ton, belong to the 
Ihlrloentb. Connected with the me of 
the low foof is douhtlcsB the use of the 
cleroffeiary, of which some instances occur 
in the twellYh and thiit^enth centuries, 
find the prnctioc became predotniniiut in 
the fonrteenth. The square-headed win- 
dows, one of the marked pcculiiirities of 
the district, is also of early introtluction j 
fourteenth century exuuiples are number* 
kaa, whih) they may tniced, though more 
rarely, np to the very begin ninirs of tracery, 
Gotnl square towers, without spires or oc- 
tagon«, are very rare; Titchmarah is al- 
most the only example of any importance, 
thottgh there ts an evquisite one at Whia- 
ton, mi a very small scale. But the oo- 
lugon in various foiins, whether as a finish 
lo a STjunrc towrr, or aa a support to a 
sfiire, is rlmractofiitie of the county. The 
oeU^on i» also chanotertstic of Somerset- 
shire, but it is UMfd in ditlereut ways In 
the two oonuties. The Northamptonshire 
octagon, with, pcrhapii, the aoUtary exoep- 
tlon of Stanwiek, is always set on a square 
tower of which it forms the finiih, while 
the Somersetshire octagon rises from the 
ground* or at moiit ii itself tinished with 
a tqiuue base, Ttie noble spires, for which 
North N^ortbamptonshire is as fwiiotis as 



Somers^ftahire is for its towers, are mainly 
of two clashes. The earlier type is that of 
the broach, where the spire overhangs 
witliout A parapet, really forming a roof 
to the tower* In the later tyjje the «j>ire 
rises from within a parapet, and, in the 
richer examples, is connected with the 
tower by pinnacles and tlying-h^tt^t^^es. 
Sonietluies, instead of those hiat, there 
are turret* at the angles, and the hiiLLle- 
ments are plerct'd viith eyelet-holes, t^iviug 
the whoh» a military hiok. But the braiwrh, 
though the earlier form, is continued 
alongside of the kter, very many of the 
Northaujptoushire hro^iches being of con- 
firmed Decorated work, aud some actually 
Per|)cndira1ar. I'he broach is also com- 
mou in Gloncestershire, hot the form 
which it takes there dilfcrs a giK>d deal 
from the Northamptonshire t3i>e. The 
Gloucisterahire broachra are rcmiirkabty 
afeudcr, with smnll Bqultiches, Bpire4ighls 
of very smsll projection, and a murktd 
bead along the angles* The earlier North' 
amptonshire broaches ore remarkably mas- 
sive, with large sqainchca, and spire-lights 
boldly projecting like the fiuB of a pprch. 
And« though tliis great massiveneaa is 
ditniuished In the later examples, none 
probably become so thoroughly attenuated 
aa many of thorn; in Gloucententhtre. I1ie 
general character of the Northampton- 
shire churchy rnnkB very high ; perhnps 
there is no county where the average is 
so good. The Uncst Noi-thamptonshire 
churches are hardly tqmd to the fim^st 
Somersetshife churches, but, on the other 
hand, Somersetahire has a far greiit*^r 
number of sin it 11 and poor churches than 
North ampbmshire. The Northampton- 
shtre churchesp from their outliuea, have 
noil her the picturesque efTect of the 
churchea of those districts, like Kent, 
Hereford, and Sussex, where high roofs 
and a variety of high gables are commoti, 
nor have they the majesty of parochial- 
ised monsters or great cruciform parish 
churches* But there is no district where 
the saceesfiioa of styles can be studietl in 
such a eenes of good examples of every 
date, nor where better specimens can he 
found of nearly every sort of detail and 
nearly every part of the buildiug. There 



270 



Antiquarian and Literary Intelligencer. 



[Sept. 



18 however one remarkable class of excep- 
tions. Northamptonshire contains singu- 
larly few good internal roofs of any kind. 
The grand painted ceiling of the cathedral 
and the noble wooden vault at Warmington 
stands each by itself; neither is in the least 
degree characteristic of the district. There 
are a few very fair Perpendicular wooden 
roofs of low pitch, but, as a freneral rule, 
aa observer familiar either with the grand 
coved roofs of the west or with the g^nd 
trefoil roofs of the east, would look on the 
roofs of Northamptonshire with contempt. 
As for the styles, Northamptonshire has 
no one prevailing style ; it has admirable 
work of all dates. Its series of churches 
ranges from the Roman basilica at Brix- 
worth to Whiston, the last Perpf^ndicular 
chiirch of good style in England. No- 
where are there so many examples of 
what are commonly held to be "Anglo- 
Saxon" monuments, and among them is 
Earl's Barton, the noblest example of that 
early style. Norman work is common, 
and many of the examples are very good. 
The Transition iVom Romanesqne to Gothic 
exhibits some very interesting forms, es- 
pecially in the northern part of the county. 
The common type of Transition, the pointed 
arch with Romanesque details, is less com- 
mon, though it occnrs in a noble form at 
KothwelL What is most characteristic of 
Northamptonshire is the long retention of 
the round arch, even when all the other 
details are confirmed Early Qothic. The 
Early English of Northamptonshire is 
abundant and ofben excellent; the first 
beginnings and gradual development of 
tracery can nowhere be better studied 
than in some of the churches in the north 
of the county. The confirmed Decorated 
style has many peculiarities, as the con- 
stant use of the square head in windows 
which has been already mentioned, and 
the fondness for reticulated tracery and 
ogee heads in windows, llie Perpen- 
dicular is of a kind intermediate between 
that of the two great Perpendicular dis- 
tricts, Somersetshire and East Anglia, and 
has not the same marked features as either. 
Quite kte in the st^le however are some 
Tery good buildings, as Whiston and part 
of Bringtoii» whUsh combine the use of the 



four-centred arch with a nngolar beaoiy 
of detaiL In Somersetshire, though the 
four- centred arch is often used, the best 
examples commonly eschew it, and what 
is most characteristic of the county is the 
very slight difibrence between early and 
late Perpendicular. In Norfolk on the 
other hand the late Perpendicular runs 
out into every possible kind of odd vagary. 
Such a church as Wliiston differs firom 
either ; it is essentially late, but still in no 
way debased or extravagant. 

Mr. Freeman then took up the thread 
of the other speakers with regard to the 
Hospitals, especially those with a chapel 
at one end, open to the rt>st of the build- 
ing, as at Chichester, sometimes to two 
stories at once, as at Wigston Hospital, 
Leicester, and the old St. Thomas' Hos- 
pital, Northampton. In the former case, 
the strange superstition by which every- 
thing medieval is supposed to be eccle- 
siastical has its fhU« st force. It is almost 
impossible to persuade people that the 
domestic portion of the hospital is not a 
desecrated nave. Where people suppose 
our lay fore&thers to have lived, in tents 
or caves, or how, is perfectly inexplicable. 
Certain it is that every old house is vul- 
garly set down as a church or a monastery, 
while Lord Palmerston would improve 
upon the idea, and would set down every 
ancient manorhouse as a Jesuits' College. 

The Uean of Ely spoke of a very 
beautiful church hospital, which was set 
down as a conventual church until some 
bungling antiquary shewed that it was an 
infirmary with a chapel at the end of it. 

Mr. Parker said he had been at»ked 
several times If the entrance hall to the 
bishop's palace was not a chapeL People 
could not divest their minds of the idea 
that where there were vaults there must 
have been a chapeL Nothing could be 
more erroneous, for domestic buildings 
were more frequently vaulted than chapels. 

Thanks were given to Mr. Parker fur 
his paper, to the gentlemen who had 
taken part in the discussion, and to the 
chairman, after which the meeting broke 
up. 

The Maaenm, whidi attracted crowds of 
visitors, oontained a iarge and highly in* 



trcmwo^ttl Institute, Peterborough. 



271 



icrrfttlng oollection of getiernl atiti qui ties, 
and portraits and relics connccied with 
the 8tuart« lukl CrotnwelL Tim Stuart 
purtmits and relies comprised almost all 
the nndoabted articles of the kind extent j 
Her Majesty, the Duke of Uumilton, tho 
Duke of Marlborough, and other pos- 
vesaors having contribnt«<l. There was 
likewise a ring- belonging to Dumley, and 
a lock of BothwiU's hair. The unt<(uo 
ptfrtmit of Jamcft, presented hy Mary jiist 
before her execution to Sir VVilliftm Fity- 
Williaoi, and n c««t of the f«ce from the 
Westminnter Rtatne of Clmrles, fur mud 
part of the collection, llie niinintures of 
Mary were nuiiierous. The veil worn at 
her execution nnd her rosary were also 
thrre; and a fine portr»«t of the Iti geut 
Hurray was exhibited by Mr. William 
UopkinsoR. We are not aware of so 
many portraita of Mary having been 
brom^hl together before, and the etirious 
In fiieb fnatters had aa good nn oppor* 
tanity as !■ ever likely to be presented of 
arriving at some definite conclusion with 
refi{>ect to the featares of the originnl. 

As might be expected, the Stuart scries 
'ffm much richer than the CroniwelHan. 
Ulie Protector's " effigies" were not very 
numtrouji, ns indiH^d they were not likely 
to be, but all the luore interest attached 
to whut there was* The miiUHture plates 
from the tinccleacb isollection are the 
most sntisfuctory. Ilenide the Protector 
luEnself, they represent Mrs. Cromwell 
and Lady Clnypole. Cromwell's seals, 
a sword said to have been need by him^ 
« truding Uccnss aigued by him, and 
the comintasion to Blake and his fel* 
low " sea generals^" were objects of con- 
sttlemhle interest. There was a sinpilar 
jiortrHit, aaid to be of Cromwell the night 
bfllbra NsMby, and with no lefs a person 
than General Laimbcrt for puitUer. Crotn- 
well is ropreaentod in a broad hat and 
ft^ther, loathem coat, breeches, and low 
•boe«* He is aa eiv-y in his occn^mtion aa 
iu liii dreai, being engag^ed in sniokiug and 
drhiking; mote like a Dut4:h boor of the 
butter claaa oil a holiday than the rather 
grim, thick hosed and hooted *' King of 
the Fens.*' The general nntiqnities com- 
prised articles of great value and interntv 



among them being celts, frpeflr-heads, 
torques, pottery, curved ivory-work, illn- 
minuted inissids and ancient hooks, official 
rings and seals, an extensive series of locks 
and keys, Cathiirine of Bmganza's rell- 
qoary, King James's gloves, and Henrietta 
Maria's garters! Time did not allow of 
the arrangement in chronological or his- 
torical order of the 8t tiiirt and Cromwell 
portraits and relies, and of the preparation 
of a Ciit^ilogne, which was much to be 
regretted- 

Jf^cdnsjidatf, Jul*/ 24.— MEETrNOS OF 

SEt^noNS. EXCUBSION. 

The Historical Section met in the 
Qrammar-school. After some pretUtory 
remarks by the Dean of Kiy ou the early 
hist^iry of the great tnonasi erics of the 
Fens, the Rev. J, Earle, late jlnglo-S^xon 
Professor at Oxford, read a valuable paper 
on the 

I/OCAL NoBfENCLlTFRE OF THE COUNTT. 

Local names, he said, nre to he studied 
in their ethnologicnl distinction* and chro* 
Dological successions* He had treated 
several countiea in Ihnl way, but the 
principle wa« not applicable to Northanip- 
toushire. They ^tijm] here on the etlge of 
the sen, and on the inland side the niasi 
of the names corretipfiudtd with other 
counties in the iviokt and /ye* left behind 
by the Danes. But on the fen or s^a 
side they had a number of extraordinary 
names uot founded upon ethnologicrd di«« 
tlnction, hut with churacters jmrely novel. 
A few words were of high antiquity. The 
name of the river ' Ivel/ a tributary of 
the Duse, was one of these. It was found 
in Ilminster and Yeovil, »ind wns derived^ 
l«ke * Onse' itself, from the ancient British 
word for water, it whs the same word 
as Uwiish, or * Wash.' In the Highlands 
it appeared in whia key, and uIro in Wis 
bech, *Xeii* was no doubt an nndent 
word, hot he conUl find no other explana- 
tion than I hilt it w»s a fnrm of ' nine/ 
from the iiutiiher of saaiHN*s of the river, 
to which exphiUfttton he oid not give 
cre^lit. The tirst syllable of *Guyhini' 
was no doubt uncient British, and the 
a» ff'^r, WVy, or Owjf in VVehib. 



272 



Antiquarian and Literary InieUigencer. 



[Sept 



With regard to Roman names, there 
was hardly one on the map, with the ex- 
ception of the common form seen in ' Cas- 
tor.* The Roman work, however, had left 
its mark on the language, for the Saxons, 
finding the great roads, had called one 

• Ermine-street/ which was 'strange work,' 
or similarly 'Devirs dyke.* At Earith 
they had the ' Bulwarks,' that was ' an 
ohetacle' to hlock, to keep out. Cardyke 
had also a Roman connection. One of 
the most ancient names in the locality was 
the old name of Peterhorough, ' Meding- 
hampstede.' Another name of high an- 
tiquity was Croyland, which liad been ex- 
plained as 'Crow- land;' but to this he 
did not commit himself. 

Danish names were almost unknown in 
the Fens, which had curious names of 
their own. Among them were ' Droves,' 
beiug drives for cattle ; ' Dykes,' meaning 
a mound, and seldom a ditch, as else- 
where. The ancient formative for water, 
eo, was seen in Manea, Eastrea. In 
some cases it was altered into the French 
form eauy which was attributed to the 
influence of the French refugees, who 
came into these parts in the middle of 
the sixteenth century. He was told 
that at Thomcy there was still a large 
proportion of French among the family 
names. Corruptions of French words 
were possibly seen in ' Powder Blue 
Far.n' and * Whip-chicken Farm.' He 
did not dispute that Ely came from eels, 
but 'island' was seen in Eye, Thomey, 
and Ramsey. ' Eye' was here identical with 
the word signifying water, and the eye of 
the head doubtless got its name from 
its insular position, llie orthography of 
' islnnd' was objectionable, as the 8 was not 
wanted, and it ought to be written ' Eye- 
land.' 

Emneth, the name of a place near Wis- 
bech, was a most interesting word. He 
should like to know the date of the in- 
troduction of the word ' level,* as applied 
to districts, for it probably ousted emneth, 
which is old English for level, derived 
from even — even-eih. ' Fleet,' in German 

• fluth,' from the verb ' to flow,' was iden- 
tical with our 'flood.' It was seen in 
Walnfleet, and shortened in 'Fletton/ 

6 



which was ' the town on the fleet' The 
Saxons settled the coontrj in ecattered 
places or farms, and these were oidled 
'hams,' and wherever we fimnd tliia word 
we might rest satisfied that the aettle- 
ment was by squatters. There were com- 
ponnds of this word with ' ing,' ' ton,' and 
'stead,' as Falkingham, Berkh«mpateed» 
Northampton, Southampton ; and in Med- 
inghampstede, the ancient name of Feter^ 
borough, signifying the little capital, tU* 
lage, or town, in the centre of a patch of 
hams, or settlements. Just as Longfellow 
sang,— 

" There, in the midst of its farms, reposed the 
Arcadian village." 



* Ham' and ' stead' shewed a village, * 
and ' ton' a larger place. ' lugs' ngnifled 
a moist meadow. There was a toodi of 
' eye' in it, as there was in ' innis,' island, 
'inch,' and 'ince.' Connington was a 
town on the 'ing.' He could oflfer no 
explanation of 'learn,' as in 'Morton's 
leam,' unless it was imported from Hol- 
land. 'Lode' came from the Saxon 'to 
lead,' a conduit. On the continent, 'see' 
was used to signify an inland lake, and it 
was found in Whittlesea, Soham — See' 
ham. 'Set,' a settlement, as Farcet 
'Toft,' or 'tuft.* a little hill, seen in 
Langtoft, Touthill. Names from trees 
were here rare, but there were a few, as 
in Saw try and Barnack — Barn-ooJEr. A 
false classical taste had changed 'delf 
from ' delve,' into delph. It was a great 
question whether the ph ought to remain 
in the language, but if it did it should be 
confined to words of pure Greek origin. 

Curious local terms, such as 'Boats- 
gate,' 'Soc,' 'Severalls,' 'outrages (ont- 
race) of water,' were referred to, and it 
was remarked that a permanent occupa- 
tion was required to give names, and 
that, tried by this test, the locality ap- 
peared to have been primarily occupied 
by the Britons, and afterwards by the 
race which re-drained the land and gave 
it names. 

The Rev. Abner W. Brown, Honorary 
Canon of Peterborough, Rural Dean, and 
Vicar of Gretton, next read a paper 
npon 



1861.] 



Aretuevlogical Institute, Peterborough. 



273 



CsETiJF Exiarrs^a LjiTrnMAB^a opEAjay 

ECCLEBIASTICIL HiBTORY. 

Ho observed ihut eccleuiiustical history 
might be extended and elucidated by the 
study of mlnote detaib, and gavo in- 
stancet of this stndy in an etymological 
direcUoiL Referring to the uncient his- 
toricftl statement of the preecdeuce, in 
point of time, of the C^netians over the 
CelU in these islnnds, he Belectcd the word 
*Lhfcn/ which meant *chareh* in Walea 
and CoiDwaU, and traced it in the Spanish, 
Bohemian^ Manx, Irish, and Erae. * Cla- 
1/ a village with a church, became 
in the softer Celtic. Wherever 
this name was foand they might be sure 
that the place was of a date prior to the 
Saion time. In Becclcs thty had the 
remains of ' Eoclesia,' and the form de- 
noted Roman diriatianity prior to their 
wlthdrawtd ftx)m the country. ' Cil/ or 
' Kel,' was another name for ehnrch ; in 
Wel«h, 'a retreat;* in Erse, 'Shit,' 
'^ death,* * heaven.* There is hardly a 
corner of England hut this word waa 
fbund tn, as in Chelsea, Kikby, Kelso, and 
it pointed out the work of the Scotch and 
Irish mUsionAries who came in after An* 
gtislme. * Church' and 'kirk' denoted 
tlio Saxon presence, and Mom' the Ro* 
naiit Another source of information lay 
in the dedications of the parish churches. 
Many of these had been rc-deilieated, but 
others were still available, as Boston, * St. 
Botolph's town.* The connection of tho 
C^uldees vrith the early Chriittians in th«^e 
islindi waa an important question. St, 
Oblmnbft was at Icolmkill thirty years 
before the arrival of Angostine. Near 
Northampton they had the church of 
CoUingfcree — Columbia tree j and the use 
of 'tree* shewed that a British church 
ooeupied this ground before the Saxon 
conquest. The Saions did not destroy 
the villages with the large towns, and In 
small places many a British priest con- 
tinued to linger after the conquest. From 
* bill at Cransley, near Kettering, a num- 
ber of viUage charches could be seen, each 
one exactly in a cardinal point, or on 
a beliotropio line. ' Cran' was a word 
meaning the sun. The sites of these 
churches were no doubt identical with 
Qmt. Mao. Vol. CCXL 



sacred spots, which in Pagan times were 
connected with the worship of the sun. 

On the conclusion of this paper many of 
the members and their friends made an ex- 
cursion to BaruAck, Wittering, and Castor 
chnrches, proceeding in the first instance 
by the railway to Uthngton, whence car- 
riages conveyed them to Bamnck^ a dis- 
tance of a mile. 

The Rector of Bamack, the Rev. Mar- 
sham Arglea, Canon of rcttTborongh, 
after hmch at the Rectory, conducted tho 
party to the church, which is btilieved to 
be one of the earliest constructed of stone 
in this counti7* The stylo of architecture 
displayed in its tower has been well de- 
scribed as carpentry in stone. The ex- 
terior of this tower, with its lines of "long- 
and'short" stones and its sculptured has- 
rdieftt reMmhling the sides of an obeli gcal 
croaa, each snr mounted by a cock or other 
bird, was minutely criticised, and much 
diiference of opinion arose whether the 
said sculptures were coevad with the ori- 
ginal structure. But the interior of the 
tower gave rJAO to a still more interesting 
nnd animated discuAsion. Tho Rector de- 
tailed to the company the progresis of tho 
two several restorations whicli had been 
eflected in the church duriiig the last ten 
years. The most important, in an archi- 
tectural point of view, has been the clvar. 
ing out of the Interior of the tower, which 
he fbund a mere receptacle for eoaU. It 
was scparrtted from the nave by a st^jne 
wall, but when this wan retBoved not a 
single mark or sttbudenoe waa found in 
the circular arch' above* and it now standi 
open to view from the nave. Several win- 
dows were also op»eiied in the tower, but 
that to the west is the only original one 
that now admits light. Next the west 
wall was discovered a stone seat, buried in 
the soil, and afterwards stones forming 
part of other seati were found on the 
north and south sides; and when the ori- 
ginal level was reached it proved to be a 
floor of plaister worn &om east to w< st by 
Saxon or Danish feet. Mr. Canon Argles 
oonfeasc^i that on the first blush of this 
dUioovery, when he reflected that this was 
in its early days the only etone building 
within tho kingdom of Merely be imagined 
]»1 



274 



Antiquarian and literarif JatelSgemeer. 



[Sept 



hfi ha«i ll^hf^ upon the Tsnenhle mnaiiu 
of a .Sftz/>o cr«nTu:iI-<luimb«r. It wa«, hov- 
CT<r, LU prfiflrnt denire to a^yance no 
tlM»ory of hi A own, but to iolicit the jtii%- 
in«mt of the more experienced arcfaitectoral 
eritirfl who were th*»ii aiwembled. 

Mr. J, H. Parker naid thU waa one of 
the earlif'^t utrme bQildlDg!^ in England, 
bnt at what purifA it waa erected he conld 
not p^mitiTely mj. It wa^ recorded that 
chorchea were bnilt of lime and itone 
when they were reatore^l bj Canute, after 
hia f/^/>ming a Chriitian. Thia waa looci 
after t(ie year K/jf), when the alarm about 
the expected millenniam had inbaided. 
It waa recr>rded that the charch of Bar- 
nark waa bnmt by Sweyn, and afterwarda 
granteil Ut the Ablj«^ of Peterboroogfa, in 
K^Uk He had remarked that such granta 
WfT^ often nuule aliortly after the erection 
of clinrchea, or that they led to their re- 
hnilding, and he would aMign the date of 
the present atructure to tliat period. Mr. 
^«rk^r'fl attention having been called to 
the aoat nn^ler a triangular cunopy, the 
gtonti Y>ench, and the two aumbriea in 
the wallii of the tower, he Mid they looked 
more a^liipted frjr the reception of docu- 
mentA relating to parish Imaineaa than for 
a depfiaitory for the record* of a judge, and 
the whole arrangement a[)i>eared to him 
1x;IUt MuitiKl for tlic UM of a schoolmaatcr 
and hi* pupila than any other purpose. 

Profrim^ir Earle thought that he recog- 
niacd in this stricture the monument of a 
usage that was known to have prevailed 
in the «?i«rly ago of the Christian Church, 
whifn the ministers of religion were not 
mi-n-ly pripnts but teachers ; and not only 
children, but the men and women unable 
in nwl in bix>ks, were wont to assemble 
in t]i« srhfK)! as catechumens, to learn the 
simple elements of the Christian faith. 
Hucli was still in some degree the Sunday- 
ac1uK>l in Wales; and in the Irish ** Annals 
of the Frnir Musters" there are many pas- 
sngfis commeinr)rating tluj " teachers" who 
were eminent in ct'rtain districts. 

The rotnpiiny rcmuincd some time to 
exantino the church, which contains very 
int4T«'dting |K»rtions of every known stylo 
of e<'clcsiastical architecture that prevailed 
previous to tho KeformatioD, tho oldest 



rib 




part bemg the Suaa tower, iht 
west, and aoath adei of wluch 
equal <£seaacca» three 
pendicnlar rib* or strips of 
resting on a pGnth. Tho 
Tided by a groove-like 
which nma aa iroa belt to 
walla, whidi support en octagon 
by four pinneeleB. and wumoiuit ed hj a 
low spire, cridcntly a rerj ttalj ^tmrnj ^ ft 
of Early English work. The heUry win- 
dows are of two lights, nodcr a acai« 
drcolar moulded arch, which 
three detached shafta havia^ 
phals, and the dog-tooth 
down the ootdde of the shafta. At the 
anglea of the tower are the Bngohvfyplaeed 
stones, peculiar to Saion maaonrj, kDOwa 
aa "kmg-and-short work:^ their lei^ith 
in a horizontal position Tariee from about 
1 foot to 3^ feet. On the first stage of the 
weat wall is a window, blo^ed : it has a 
triangular head, i.e. two straight stones 
plaoed on end upon the imposts^ aod re sti ng 
against each other at the top. Between the 
two southernmost ribs of the npper stage 
is a similar window, also blocked : and in 
the centre, resting on the stringcoo r ae in 
an upright position, is a stone, the shape of 
which, together with the scolptore on its 
face, somewhat resembles ooffin-lids of the 
thirteenth century, but the work is Tery 
rude. At the top (^this stone is a Inrd, bat 
the species it is intended to represent leaTcs 
the curious to doubt. The prindpal en- 
trance to the Saxon charch was on the 
south side of the tower; the doorway re- 
mains in a good sUte of preaeryation, bat 
the entrance to the interior is somewhat 
obstructed by the erection of an Early 
English stair-turret in the sontb-west 
comer. Tho carved work on the north 
and south sides is also deserving of very 
minute inspection. The only portion of 
the Norman work that remains are the 
four arches of the north aUle, of great 
span and richly moulded, supported by 



lofty cylindrical shafts bay 



ing capiUls 



richly carved. One of the capilaTS ^w, 
an entwined serpent, with iU bead rJ^Zl 
upon a flower. The abaf*. ^c^ '^sting 



upon 
aisle are 
banded 



The abafU of the 



sooth 



3 Early Englid,^;;^^ "o^^h 
in the centre. ^Z!^^' ^^^ 



oentr«t, 



■^pporting 



senii- 



1861.] 



Archmohgical Institute, Peterborough, 



275 



circolar arches. The font of this d&te la 
very rich : ita thick central ftera t» sur^ 
focmdod by pn arcade having trefolled 
Arcboa. the whole supporting the cylin- 
drical bowl enriched by two rows of ro^es 
in relief and other omamenta. The Early 
Koglish porch is greatly admired, and has 
odjm. ^ven employment to the firtijst. The 
chttrch tuiderwent extensive alterations in 
the ftmrteenth century, the Decorated ad- 
ditions extending along the iiiglcs to the 
emit window; this window b believed to 
be almost unique; there is, however^ a 
wniilar one at Mertoo College, Oxford: 
the lights terminate by crocketed cano- 
|»i«a, tlie mullionB being carried up to the 
licAd of the window -arch in the form of 
{mnnuskft. In the wall of the north cban- 
tsj vtt two reoumbent efiigies — a cross- 
k(gged knight and his lady : the latter \a 
very interesting, as giving a faithful idea 
of fbxuile eostume of the period— 600 yetLra 
Ago. In the usual position in the elmncel 
are a bandsoine canopied sedilia and pis- 
cina. The exterior of the south chnntry, 
dedicated to "Our Lady/* is a rich speci- 
men in the Perpendicular style of arc hi- 
iectore. In the interior^ over the north 
side of the altar, is a tahemRcle, with an 
elaborate composition, in alio refievot of 
the conception of our Lord. The Blessed 
Virgin is represented kneeling on a fald- 
stool before a desk : in the clouds above 
are three figures of angels, 8np|X)rting a 
book, and 6rom the mldfit of the clouds 
issue three rays, which enter the bosom of 
the Blessed Virgin. In the hack -ground 
ii a dty, and in the front a tree. On a 
scroll above all, in bhick-letter, are the 
words "Maria Jesus in eontemphieione 
stm/' On the south side of the same wnll 
if another tabemucle, which prohubly con- 
tained a figure of the Blessed Virgin, but 
• destroyed at the Refonnatioai when niches 
were depH%'ed of patron taints, &c. In 
iffifi of the pillars is a hagioscope, which 
oommanded a view of the high altnr when 
Uiis chantry was enclosed from the choir 
or chancel by a screen. The windows con- 
tain some modem rich painted i^Xofs* This 
chantry, the property of Henry Xevile, 
E*q*, of Waleot-hall, is divided from the 
south oiale by an exquisitely- conned screen* 



In the churchyard are several stone eoffinsi, 
which have been found at various times 
whilst digging: they are of the thirteenth 
century; a lid contains a circuhir cross at 
the head and foot, with lines flowing from 
the stem of the cross, Several of the cof- 
fins contained the remains of inf«nts, eacli 
exhibiting a cavity for the bead. A hope 
wns expressed that all these would be care- 
fully preserved : the discovery of such small 
stone coffins as are seen here is veiy rare. 
The cicursionistA, on lejiving the village 
for Wittering, pttascd innumerable hillocks, 
the site of the famed stone qimrries (now 
exhansted) that supplii'd stone for the 
erection of so many medieval churches. 
The hamlet of Southoqie was next passed, 
where the abbots of Peterborough hud a 
summer residence; and the party soon 
reached 

WrTTEBnra Chitsch, 
which is another fabric of very early 
date. It has the long-and-short masonry 
at all ita four angles. Tlie chancel -arch 
is of very massive and rude work. Tlie 
peculiar abacus upon which it rests on 
either side nppeared (in Mr. Purker's 
opinion) to be unfinished, and inteiided to 
be omatiiented with sculpture, or at least 
with painting. The date of this arch was 
about the middle of the eleventh century 
(somewhat later than thut at Bamack), 
or shortly before the Nonnan Conquest. 
Tlie arch and the Jambs are rudely and 
strongly moulded; the same mouldings 
seen in the arch appear to be curried 
through the massive capitals — immense 
plain blocks, which had evidently occu» 
pied little of the mason's time after 
being taken from the qunrry. The first 
addition to the Saxon church seems to 
have been a Norman aisle (about one hun- 
dred years later than the Saxon work), of 
which there are two bays, the massive 
pillars supporting arches the mouldings of 
w hich contain the che\Ton, billet, loxenge, 
nailhead, and star ornaments. The stone 
steps which led to the rv>od-loft still re* 
main between the nave and the north 
aisle. From the north side of the rood- 
loft, about ten feet from the ground, is 
A squint, or hagioscope, from which a view 



276 



Antiquarian and Literary InielUgeneer. 



[Sept 



of the altars in the chancel and the chantry 
on the north side of it could he obtained : 
it is in a very unnsoal position. In the 
chapel a sepulchre in the north wall has 
been filled up with masonry, the architrave 
only being visible. There is a Norman 
circular font, the drain being at the ude 
instead of in the centre of the bottom of 
the bowl. There are traces of a stoup in 
the west wall of the porch, which has been 
filled with plaster ; and also of a low side 
window in the south wall of the chancel. 
The windows have been replaced or altered 
from time to time without regard to any 
particular style of architecture, and al- 
together they present an unpleasing ap- 
pearance. The tower and spire are Early 
English : the masonry is very good. The 
present taste for church restoration has 
not yet extended to this parish. The 
interior is very clean, but the introduction 
by the churchwardens of new pavement 
and the removal of the old high pews 
would effect a great improvement. 

From Wittering the excursionists re- 
turned to the Great North Road, which 
they had shortly before crossed in pro- 
ceeding froni Bamack. Here the country 
is somewhat flat, but towards Thomhaugh 
the undulations that become perceptible 
render the scenery pretty. The church 
lies in a wooded valley, a short distance 
from the road. This parish early gave 
a title to the Bedford family, and here the 
remains of the first Lord Russell, of Thom- 
haugh, are interred. Here is a very sin- 
gular piscina — Early English, with toothed 
work, and a rose on the apex. The south 
aisle is gone; the nave is ceiled like a 
drawing-room ; but the east end has been 
tolerably well restored. In the south 
chantry is a costly monument to Lord W. 
Russell, who held very important offices 
in the reign of Elizabeth. The excur- 
sionists did not inspect this church, but 
on arriving at Wansford several of the 
vehicles were pulled up, and their occu- 
pants went to examine the very curious 
Norman font, passing into the interior 
under a Grecian porch of 1663 and a fine 
Norman inner doorway. The Early Eng- 
lish tower and beautiful broach-spire were 
also examined with interest. The font 



here has been frequently engniTed, and 
will also be found in the late Mr. Fran- 
cis Simpson's book of Fonts, a valuable 
work. 

On their road to Castor the party paarod 
by the Uttle Norman churdi of Sattoo^ 
which has no tower, but only a small 
campanile for two bells : and a few permis 
turned aside to notice its singfnlar low 
chancel-screen of stone, and the ttoDe 
bench that runs along the wall of its 
south aisle, terminated by a coaching 
lion with a monster on his back. This 
bench is probably coeval with the fiibric. 
The original plan of this church conmated 
of nave, south aisle, and chanceL In the 
thirteenth century a south chantry was 
added. The aisle is divided from the nave 
by two bays, the chamfered arches bong 
drcular. The chancel-arch has been taken 
down, and its space to the roof filled with 
plaster supported by a wooden beam that 
rests upon the abacus of the veiy richly 
carved Norman capitals. In the ^ist wall 
are two altar brackets, and between these, 
near the floor, is an aumbry — a somewhat 
unusual position for such a recess. There 
is also a trefoil-headed piscina in the wall 
on the south side of the altar. The north 
door is Early English, and the three win- 
dows on the nave nde are Perpendicular. 
In the north wall of the chancel is a tran- 
somed window of three lights under a 
square head, and near it is a curious, small 
trefoil-headed window, blocked, itspontion 
being too high for a lychnoscope. The 
east wall of the chancel is pierced by a 
window of three lights, and the chantry by 
a lancet. In the south chantry wall there 
is also a double lancet. An Early Eng- 
lish corbel runs under the parapet. The 
aisle is lighted by a Perpendicular window. 
The south doorway has Norman enrich- 
ments. The octagonal font has plain fiices. 
This church is worthy of attentive ex- 
amination. Between the west end of the 
church and the river Nen, an old residence 
has been recently taken down, and a fine 
building erected on its site by Mr. Hop- 
kinson, F.S.A., who has carefully preserved 
a double lancet the old house contained, 
the hollow of the hoodmould of which is 
enriched with the tooth-ornament^ this 



1861.] 



Archeeoloffical Institute, Peterborough. 



877 



birteenfcb-century fragment now lighting 
rthe staircase of the new reaidcnoe. 

On Jirriving at CastOT, the con)p»ny 
found the Rev. Owen Davyi ready to ex- 
plain to theiB the most rciiiArkable fetturea 
of that fine church. Taking a view of the 
itracture from the south* west, he re- 
miiiked that its tower preNfnted the moat 
boaatifal example of enriched Norman 
design %vith which he was acquainted; 
I preferring it to the towers of Tewkesbury, 
Norwich, and Exeter. The ahbey church 
of Pcterhorough is recorded to have onco 
L a maguificent Normnu tower of 
" three itorics/* and tliis of Cafitor probably 
nbled it on a smaller scale^ there being 
decided stages or stories above the 
on which it. is raised. The whole 
I probably sunuounted with a roof» like 
that of Old Shoreham in Sussex, inatead 
of the present Decorated spire. Some of 
tiihe scolloped orDamentation of the tower 
kof Castor is panelled, as at Haddtscoe: 
Other features are peculiar to itself. The 
original plan of the church was prolmbly 
a plain cross, with an eastern apse. Of 
(he latter there is no existing evidence, 
(the present chancel being Early English, 
When the south transept was enlarged 
the old Norman corbel -table wast^*erected ; 
msd ©?ep the south door of the chancel is 
rttll prcocr ved the semicircabtr tablet re- 
cording tho dedication of the Norman 
ebuTch OD XT KaL Maii 112 k Thoifgb 
this date is not incompatible with the stjfle 
of the ehtirch, it cannot lie relietl on, as 
I hut figures seem to have l)cen cut with 
\ liter handf and they are incised insttead 
of standing in relief* A Norman sculpture 
in Ims-relief is also placed over the »«juth 
|f]iorch : it represents a domi^figure of the 
I'Baviour, with nimbed head, the right hand 
I taised in benediction, and the left hold- 
ing a book. The interior is 1e« remark- 
Able. At the east end of the north aisle 
•tiU remains a portion of a shrine, sup- 
f-|Kwed to Ijc that of St, Kyneburga (sister 
to Peada, King of Mercia), who built 
the first church here in 650, and was 
^liero buriedt but her remains afterwards 
ated to Peterborough. At the west 
I of the tame aisle some fresco paintings 
I finmd during the hut repairs, and 



are still preserved ; but their subjects have 
not all been ascertained. They form threo 
tiers : the uppermost very indistinct ; the 
second n massacre of martyrs; the third 
the martyrdom of 8t» Katharine. The 
costume appears to be about the time 
of Edward III. 

Tlie party then returned to Peter- 
borough, where they dined at the Great 
Northern Hotel, and in the evening the 
members and friends held a Conversazione 
at the Deanery, which was very numer^* 
onsly attended, the company assembling 
soon after eight o^clocL Ilefreshmputs 
were provided in the hall, and the visitors 
amused thoinselvea by strolling in the 
grounds till nearly nine, when they ad- 
journed to the Museum. In the gallery 
of the Deanery Hall were placed the 
membeni of the Cathedral choir, who, 
under the leadership of the Precentor, 
simg, at intervals during the evening, 
a selection of glees, mailrigats, catches, dc« 
The party broke np about ten o'clock. 

Tuetday, Jul^ 25. ExcFESiON to 

OlILHiuV AKP StAMPOHU. 

A large number of members and friends 
proceeded by an early speciid train to 
Oiftkbam, where Mr. Parker, of Oxford, 
pointed out the many remarkable features 
of the cnstte» kc. ; bat the«e have been so 
fully detailed in his ** Domestic Archilec- 
ture"^," that it is needli^ss to do more than 
refer to that work. The Lntm then pro- 
ceeded to Stamford, which it reacht'd at 
12 o'clock, the passengers alighdng on the 
site of the Saxon castle built by Edward 
the Elder, to check the Danish garrison 
of the castle on the north side of thd 
Wei land. The nuunpry of St. Michael, 
founded by William de Watervllle, Abbot 
of Peterborough, subsequently occupied 
the site. In making the Midland Railway 
here, numerous antiquities were found, 
and had they been collected logt^thor 
would have formed a very interesting 
mnseum. 

Thence the company proceeded to St» 
Martin's Churcli, a very fine example of 
Perpeutlicular srchitecture : here are seve- 



• Vol. h pp. i «f M9* ; vol, U. p. 99. 



278 



Antiquarian and Literary Intelligencer. 



[Sept. 



nl magnificent monuments to the Cecil 
fiunily, indading the Lord Treasurer 
Barldgh's, whose remains are in a vault 
beneath; an original altar-stone, with 
its five crosses; and rich stained glass. 
Some remarks upon the stained glass 
were made by Lord Alwyne Compton, 
Ifr. Bloxam, Mr. Parker, and others, 
and a difierence of opinion prevailed 
whether that in the south aisle was Eng- 
lish or foreign. A question was raised 
respecting a weather-table on the east 
nde of the tower, the existence of which 
shews that there had been a high-pitched 
Toof, and was evidence that the north and 
south walls had been subsequently carried 
higher. The church being of one style, 
it was suggested that the tower might be 
somewhat earlier than the other parts of 
the church, and in that case it would be 
erected agidnst an earlier fabric 

The site of the Hospital of St. Thomas 
of Canterbury, at the north end of the 
bridge, was soon scanned, the only visible 
remains of it being a Norman buttress 
with the indented moulding. There is 
a pretty Norman cushion-capital worked 
into the wall facing the street, which 
gives an idea of the kind of enrichments 
that were about the hospital. After ex- 
amining the Norman doorway in Queen's 
Head passage, the company entered the 
Town-hall, where the Corporation regalia 
were inspected with much interest. They 
were allowed to be very fine, several pieces 
being equal, for value, beauty, and work- 
manship, to any in the kingdom. The 
large silver-gilt mace and punch- bowl and 
cover, weighing 16 lbs. 7oz., were pre- 
sented to the town by Chas. Bertie, £^q. ; 
the latter holds five gallons, and contains 
a Latin inscription, of which this is a 
translation : — " Charles Bertie, brother of 
Robert, son of Montague, a descendant of 
the Earls of Lindsey, hereditary Lord 
Chamberlains of England, who was twice 
chosen to represent the borough of Stam- 
ford in Parliament, viz., in 1678 and 1685, 
in both which years Daniel Wigmore was 
Mayor of the said borough, gratefully pre- 
sents and dedicates to the said Daniel 
Wigmore, the present mayor, and his 
successors for ever, this bowl, in which 



the inhabitants of Stamford may com* 
memorate both their allegiance towards 
the Kings of Great Britain and also the 
firiendship which the Bertie fiimily had 
for them. In the year of our Lord 1686." 
The Latin inscription on the mace, which 
weighs 20 lbs. 6oz. 15 dr., has been 
thus translated : — " The gift of the noble 
Charles Bertie, son of Montague Earl of 
Lindsey, who presented this ancient bo* 
rough of Stamford (by whose favour he 
now has a seat in Parliament to represent 
the said borough) with this official mark 
of mayoralty, to be ever borne as a token 
of his regard. In the mayoralty of Daniel 
Wigmore, and the year of our Lord 1678.** 
There is a small antique maoe, without 
any inscription or haU mark, and the 
Cwporation know nothing respecting its 
history. The bowl is divided into com- 
partments by perpendicular ribs, and on 
each is the fleur-de-lis and rose. Mr. 
Morgan, M.P., was asked to examine it 
and g^ve his opinion respecting its date. 
On the fiat crown of the maoe is a shield 
exhibiting the arms of France and Eng* 
land, and from these and the embossed 
work about it he came to the condnsion 
that the mace was of the time of Edw. IV. 
(This monarch granted a charter to the 
Corporation conferring many important 
privileges on them. He visited Stamford 
in 1462 and 1478, lodging at the Friars 
Minors, being attended by many bishops* 
knights, and barons.) 

The fine crypt (thirteenth century) at 
Mr. John Polhurd's, opposite the Town- 
hall, was then inspected. St. John's 
Church was next visited ; and here Mr.- 
Freeman made some critical observations 
on several of the churches in illastration 
of his general remarks on the buildings 
of Northamptonshire and the neighbour- 
ing counties. In several of the Perpendi- 
cular interiors the clerestory windows are 
placed quite irregularly without any refe- 
rence to the number of arches, while both 
in Somersetshire and East Anglia the 
division into bays is commonly observed, 
and the bays divided by shafts either 
rising from corbels above the pillars or 
direct from the g^nnd, but with this 
diiferenoey that in Somefietshire we com- 



1861.] 



Archreohgical Imtiiute, Peterborough, 



279 



11)011 ly find one liirgo clereetory window 
in eacb bAy nnd in East Audita two smidl 
oiiei, Mr, Parker alluded to tUe carved 
^figures upon the celllug, and to the poel- 
tion of the entrance to the rood-loft, Aa 
bdng stmiliir to many found in the ^m%* 

• em eouittiea. The carved figurca here 
of •TchangeH angelBf and cherubim, he 
ndil, were carious. The remaina of the 
beautifal chancd-screeQ were much ad- 
jmred. 

At St Mary^fl Chnrch, Mr. Parker 

^ pointed out \i» most itupartant architec* 
tunl features. Here, he said, was a chorch 

► of the thirteenth cen tory, exhibiting alter- 
ations at different times. The Early Kng^- 
lish church hod nave and aisles, without 
A doreitorj. The west doorway was iae 
sod Turj ouriooB, hut the circular arch 
there may be set down tm being a lat« 
addition* The respouda in the nave were 
very fine, and the boldly -carved capitals 
were evidently early in the style. The 

I clustered pillars and the c^mheittled cu« 
pitals in the nave be thought were 
DecN^rated (fourteeDth century), judging 
from the fillet- moulding ; hut of this he 
would not speak positively* Ho said ho 
could not explain the use of the oponingii 
ia the tower, wliich, before being blocked, 
eommsnded a view of the interior : they 
may have been for an officer of the church 
st.ttiuned in the tower to know the pre- 
cise moment of the elevation of the host, 
whea he would ring the hell to acquaint 
tboie not attending the service in the 
church, or they may have given acccfis to 
a minstrel's gallery. The panelled ceiling 
of the golden choir, or St. Mary's chapel^ 
he said, was very fine, and ought to he 
stnetly preserved. He was aware there 
was a prejudice at the present day against 
•imilar ceilings, but these had their ad- 
vantngea over open timber roofs. On 
l*hllliiM!* monument here being referred 
to, Mr. Bloxam said the annour shewn 
oo the male effigy (Sir David Phillips) wis 
of the time of Henry VI., but the monu- 
mcnt itself was of the time of Henry VI I L, 
and waa an excellent specimen of the 
Itatian aehool of art that then prevailed. 
Although the ^armour shewn on his effigy 
WIS earUcr thau that worn ut the time of 



Sir David PhilHps*ft death, it was sug- 
gested that as armour dei«cended from fa^ 
tber to son, such armour, of which this is 
an example, mighb be in Sir David*s pos> 
session at the time of his death. Mr. Free' 
man described the tower and spire of this 
church as being singularly' fine, and of the 
Northamptonshire type, though it suf- 
fered, like Taunton, from having the or- 
nament carried too low down. 

The company next proceeded to lunch- 
eon, at which the Mayor of Stamford 
(H. Johnson, Ksi{.) prcaidcdj ailer which 
St. George's Church was visited, Tho 
tower is Early English, the window over 
tho entrance being Decorated. From the 
tower to the extreme cast end the fabric 
has the appearance of being a Perpcn- 
dj color erection. In the chance! are Bomo 
costly monuments (one by Biicon) per- 
petuating the memory of members of the 
Cust family, which formerly resided In 
the town. In the reign of Henry VI. 
this church was enlarged and the windows 
enriched with stained glass by Wm, Bur- 
gCHS, Garter King-nt-Arms, Tho com- 
pany next proceeded to inspect the mo- 
nastery of St, I.*onard's without the walls, 
which was founded by Wilfrid about the 
middle of the seventh century. There is, 
however, nothing left here older than tho 
twelfth century. The remains consist of 
the west end of tho nave, with live of the 
arches of the north arcade, and a part of 
the clerestory over them. Tlie west front 
consists of a highly -enriched doorway be- 
tween two round-headed blank arches: 
over thii va an arcade uf rouud Hrches, 
pierced witli Norm an lights, and in the 
gable is a vtttica pktrU, The mouldings 
throughout arc excellent. In proceeding 
from St. Cleorge^s Church to these remains 
the site of the Bbick Friary and the site 
of the south aide of the Grey Friary wore 
passed; and on returning into the town 
the site of the White Friary, of wbirh 
the western gateway remains, and the 
north side of the Grey Friary, were also 
passed. The Grammar-school (formerly 
St. PauFs Chorch) was then entered: it 
is next in antiquity to St. Leonoi'd's 
Priory. The exterior has a characteristic 
string and corbel- table (tweUth ceutur)')» 



280 



Antiquarian and LUerary Intelligencer. 



[Sept 



and tho nouth windows are of the reign 
of Edward III. Tho foliage of the capi- 
tals in the interior was described by Mr. 
Parker as being elegant, and not earlier 
than 1200. In passing along High-street 
the Perpendicular doorway in the shop 
of Mr. Ucnuis, chemist, was examined. 
Browne's Hospital ww next visited, and 
In tlio audit-room the Rev. C. Nevinaon 
gave a short account of the foundation. 
Mr. IHurker said the place in which they 
were afsembled was the hall of the hos- 
pital, and the walls were formerly hung 
with tapestry. On descending to the 
chapel he ob*enreil that the arrangement 
there was similar to other domestic chapels 
in modispval erections; the room above 
w\mld open to the chapel, and divine 
•erviiv W heard tberv by the inmates or 
visitors when there was not room below. 
In the windows of the chapel and the 
audit -TvHHn theiv b •i.'kiue rich painted 
glan. There is a stone altarsdaK with 
the usual Ave cr\>*hMk in the cliapel. form- 
ing one v>f the paveuvnits of the dv^Y. and 
it* reuK>val to a ^k^Uou where its soHaee 
canni^ be w\Mrn away by fi*et was sag- 
g«rt«xt 

Al AU ^ut»* Church Mr. Parker said 
Ibe ca(uials v^f the pillar* of the urach 
aisW wvre very WautifuU the date of 
whWh was aK.Hii l£kV The cierv«tory 
was v^* the time v«f H<rnry VI K The bldmk 
arvade oq the walU v't" the exterior w«s 
aIuK<to^: unique. Lord TalK't Aid be kraew 
of vViN v^toe other *iai*lAr ex^ueple of arvni»ie- 
w\Y^ r^\;L:^l 3 be oh'^irvb, aed chat w;k aS 
l.«f«oiur^ la Svv;'a:nJL wbvh ;* XonartTT. 
l*!ja: a: aV. :sA:a^» is Kany RswrV^ Mr. 
V"rv\'c«.t.*s o.^"^'r.A>i the ^^i-jtsKT ia whxa 
:i:!i xrvivic b.ivi Sx'tt ;rv«:evl oa :htf w«« 
♦.vU.' >;i :>< IVp^vt^i'va'ar arvai:»fvt!k w*h.\ 

to . r.-H.*rC A a.-^' % »A.*W. iAi Otl5 SWav 

:lso t-vSiv* a;»^a *u>*c::*ji:«\l ocJi;er> ot* thie 
;\ r« vtt J vxitr >c j V Vhe ik-ut i *at*i %*rt^ 

;xTvoo> %viv ^ii:t:od ^.* V ^vcy ine. 
I'ic >ru..i.i^ /i' t.ic i.^;! .•£ ;je oai<Ie. oc 
..K- . iio ,'i VJ^irri I, >•■:!! tiW ij»aal 

ii.'H. axr^-fx Jjk*',' '.«\•^•I^.^i 4CVU«MW 43«i 



tion of Antiquities was held in the Corn 
Exchange, under the prendencj of Oe- 
tavius Morgan, Esq., M.P., when M. H. 
Bloxam, Esq., read a valuable eommnni- 
cation upon 

Ths Montth xhtal RnLiDTB nr Psm- 
BOBOiroH Cathsdral. 
He said that the cathedral wai nerer 
remarkable for the number or the atateli- 
ness of the sepulchral monuments it con- 
tained. The memorials now existing were 
confined, with one exception, to a few 
ancient recumbent eiBgies of abbots, not 
<me of which oecopted its original posi- 
tion, or bore any inscription to inform ns 
what abbot it represented. The effigies 
are six in number : the most ancient be- 
longs to the hUter part of the twdfth 
century ; four to dUTerent periods of the 
thirteenth century; andtherenudningooe 
to the early part of the sixteenth oentnry. 
The most ancient cfEgy, at the bndc of 
the high altar, he ascribed to Abbot Bene- 
dict, who died in 1195, or to Andreas^ 
who <fied in 1199. The seeond effigy from 
the wfst end of the south aisle he ascribed 
to Abbot Bobeii de Lyndesere, who is 
sKd to have erected the west front, and 
to have dxd in 1£S; Googh assigns this 
to Abbot Martin, who ficd in 115S. The 
third frvB the west end he ascribed to 
Walter de Sc Edaraad, who &d in 1M6^ 
or to IW Eococ Us saeeesBor, in 1249; 
Goosrh Kts it down to John of SaEshory, 
who^&d ui lUS. The irst effigy at the 
wvsc end Ococh aast^vs to Andreas^ who 
£ed in ll^^'bofi he aseribed it to John 
de Caafico. whk} fed m 1:963. The Bost 
catfwar^I of the wriss nnder the wall of 
tile «.nit& sisfe w of a kfier dsfte tfaasi the 
I'or ccaeca. hiener m. 
of a aMK eivanotd pen 
awikr» ^6 Qi7 AMua •&» T« 
11^: Mr.B&?aB. kiwmr, asezibcd it 
to Ricuard i» LdB&ML wbs dfad In 1296w 
rbew «dl^^ «niBir fraoa oAv esaly cpt- 
i«.vral <diff^f» ^ atfC 
cc :he ^aod rsiMd *& the met ot { 
a >ie»ui^ and In %h» s?>ssiss of a i 
3c€ yec jraace%I W ^hese ahhuCs; hsdl they 
i/rtn TMritai^ 3ihi i 
ef ;«cam&«tt sfcw sT 





1861.] 



ArchtEohffical Society, 



281 



tbbatlal rank anywhere to be found Lii 
tbis ooantry. The sixth eifigy is on the 
floor of the south able of the clioir ; it ii 
iDueh miitiliited from the materml being 
' danch or ch&lk- stone; it is of much 
aier date than the uthen, nnd was 
aicribed by Mr. Blo^am to Robert de 
Kirton* who died iq 1528. 

In 16^13 the inonnment of Bishop Dove^ 
who died in 1630, and thoso in bnis^, were 
demoli»ht;d or torn awiiy by the Farliu* 
^raentarian troops. Some of the slabs now 
I part of the pavement of the vestibule 
|«f the west entrance. Since this derasta* 
l^n but one monument of not« has been 
itet up, jtnd this one Is that of Thomas 
I Deacon, Esq., who died in 172l« It is of 
ommon place detiign, but fairly executed, 
nd marks the period in which the ordi- 
nry costntne of the day is adhered to, 
hough some persons of the same duto are 
represented in the costume of R^nman war- 
riors, as they had si^en that day in one ot the 
Burleigh ^unlly at }<^ tarn ford* The monu* 
at of Heddaand his monks, slaughtered 
■ the Danes in 870, spoken of by Mr, 
Jame« as the most ancient sepulchral 
monoment in the kingdom, was next 
• ireated of. The account of the shiughter 
I given in the ** Saxon Chronicle," and 
the history of Ingulf, Abbot of CYoy- 
nd, who died in 1109. The authenticity 
r tbia work of Ingulf was, however, ques* 
, and as no early MS. of this history 
Is known to exist, it is supposed to have 
boon produced in the fourteenth century, 
ikud a work of fiction rather than history. 
After a careful examination of the stgue. 



Mr. Bloxnm's opinion was that it is of a 
date at lea^^t two centuries later than S7U, 
as the sculpture and detail are of a more 
advanced period, and that the figures on 
the side do not represent monks, bnt onr 
Lord and eleven of His apostles. The 
work rather agreef) with other ancient 
Norman work than with Saxon, and the 
probability is that it belonged to the closo 
of the eleventh century, and was originally 
a Normrtn shrine, or part of a Norman 
shrine. It may have been fixed over some 
of the relics with which the monastery 
was emicbed, and the work wa$ probably 
of the same age and by the same hand as 
the sculptured stones now to be seen in the 
wall of Flett^n Church. Mr. Bloxiim then 
proceeded to notice the statue of a monk 
in the costume of the Bvnedictine order, 
which oconpiea a niche in the gateway of 
the Bishop's palace. It is a good speci- 
men of art of the thirteenth century, and 
wtta nuticLHl by Flax man. Why a cast of 
it should appear in the Crystid Pidace, at 
Sydenham, under the name of " St. Luke," 
he did not know. 

Some dbcnssion ensued, which was closed 
by a remurk from the liev» Lord Alwyne 
Compton that it was a sad instance of the 
want of knowledge of archaeologists of 
a past day, when they could represent 
a ihiine with our Lord and His spostlea 
upon it as a sepulchral monument of 
monks slaughtered by Dunes. 

The Rev. J. L. W»rner then read a 
paper on the ** MS. Chrt>nicle and Cbartu- 
lary of Robert Switpham," prescrvcnl in 
the Cathedral library. 



(lb he ciHiiimted,) 



KENT ARCH^OLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



Juf*f 31, Avff. 1. The annual meeting 
was held at Maidstone, under the presi- 
ncy of the Mabquis Camden, and was 
Attended even more nnmerouHly than usual 
by the nobility, clergy, and gentry of the 
only, as well as by many weU>known 
litiqnBries from other districts. The 
weather was as fine as could be dedred, 
and everything went off siatisfactorily. 
Hmong the company, beside tlie noble 
Prcaidentt with whom wero tho £arl of 
Gnrr* Mao. Vol. CCXl. 



Brecknock and the Ladies Caroline and 
Frances l*ratt, were the Earl and Countess 
Amherst, the E»rl and Countess Stanhoi>e, 
the Ladies ComwaUis, Caroline Nevill, 
Isabel niigh» Harriet Mar»ham, Frances 
Fletcher, Lord Arthur Clinton, the Hon. 
Ralph and Mr*. Novilh the Hon. Mrs, 
HLlgh, the Hon. Florence and Lucy Bos* 
cawvn. Lady Sandys^ Sir Brook Bridges, 
M.P., Sir Edmund and Lady Filuier, Sir 
rcroeval and Lady Hart Dyke, iair Walter 
u m 



282 



Antiquarian and Liierary Intelligencer. 



[Sept. 



and Ladj Caroline Stirling, Ladj and 
the Miites Xaniel, the Bishop of Labnan, 
the Ber. L. B. Larking, K. P. Coatei, H. 
Stevena, and manj others, mcwtlj aooom- 
panied bj their fitmiliet ; the High Sheriff 
of Kent, the Mayor of Maidstone, Mr. 
Beresford Hope, Mr. and Miss Wykeham 
Martin, Admiral Jones-Marsham, CoL and 
Mrs. Cator, Col and Mrs. Fletcher, Capt. 
Cheere, B.N., Mr. 'Espinaase, Mr. Day, 
J. P., Messrs. Benstead, Betts, Brencfaley, 
Simmonds, Warde Norman, ^Vhatman; 
Mr. Godfrey Faossett, Mr. Parker (of Ox- 
ford), &c. Ac 

Jul^ 31. The Marquis Camden took 
the chair at the Town-hall, Maidstone, 
when the report was read, which stated 
the progress made by the Society. 

" When we met at Dover last year it 
was announced that 798 members had 
joined the Sodcty since its formation in 
1S57 ; we then immediately admitted 22 
new members. At the September Council 
we elected 10, in December 21. in April 11, 
and in June 6. Ibis djiy we shall offer 
the names of 33 candidates, which will 
bring up the numbers to 901 elected since 
the Sfxriety was first instituted. With 
regard to funds, at our bankers we have 
a iMilance of £192, and we have invested 
£272 in the Three per Cents/' 

The third volume of the Proceedings 
was announced as nearly ready for delivery, 
and from \)enona\ inKpcction we can state 
that it will be in no wise inferior to its 
predecessors. The report then alluded to 
the discovery of rare and lieautiful Anglo- 
Saxon ornaments in a grave at Sarr, in 
August, 1860, to which we have heretofore 
alluded <i, stated the circumMtances under 
which their acquitiition by the Society had 
been prevented, and coneladed with a re- 
commend ition that it would be well to bee 
acted on by every other local body. 

"In reference to this disappointment, 
wc would earnestly press upon our members 
the duty of lecuriiig, each in his own 
neighlx>urhood, every object of antiquarian 
interest that may be discovered, with 
u view to the formation of a Museum in 
thiH county, the oldest of the Saxon king- 
doms, and the richest in buried treasure 
of each successive raee of colonists — that 

* Okxt. Ma<i., No?, imu p. 533. 



in thb Mnsenm may be deposited the relics 
of these different races, that antiquaries 
may have the means of examining them 
almost in situ, and that the history of 
these various tribes may be thus gradoally 
and fnlly developed." 

The Cooncil, anditors, &c., having been 
app(nnted, the Chairman announced that 
the Rev. Lambert B. Larking, the hon. 
secretary and de facto founder of the 
Sodety, had intimated his wish to retire 
on account of failing health. This an- 
Dooncement was received with much 
regret, and, after a vote of thanks to Mr. 
Larking, (who was appointed a Vice-Presi- 
dent, so that the Coundl might still have 
the benefit of his advice and assistance,) 
J.G.Talbot, Esq., of New Falconhurst, 
Edenbridge, was unanimously chosen in 
his room. 

All SAnrrs' Church, Maidstove. 
After passing the customary votes of 
thanks, the Society proceeded to All Saints' 
Church, where Mr. Beresford Hope de- 
livered a lecture on that edifice, and 
Mr. Parker(of Oxford)afterwards described 
the college and adjoining buildings. Mr. 
Hope observed that All Saints* Church, 
the college, the palace, and the old bam 
on the opposite side of the road, formed 
as interesting a group of buildings of the 
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries as could 
be found anywhere in England, and would 
be noticeable anywhere in Continental 
Northern Europe. He then proceeded, — 

*' We all of us see that this church is 
one of unusual size compared with the 
ordinary parish churches up and dowu the 
country. At the same time there is a 
certain degree of sameness in the archi- 
tecture which we do not find in other 
buildings of inferior size to this. 1 pre- 
sume that all present are acquainted with 
the rudiments of architecture, but as some 
may be more so and some leas, it may be 
as well to remind you that this church 
belongs to the third period of architecture 
in this country, or what is termed the 
Perpendicular style, — a style supposed to 
be invented by William of Wykeham, the 
Bishop of Winchester, and which con- 
tinued in vogue till Gothic architecture 
broke down under the revival of the 
Italian, which characterised English art 
in the sixteenth century, and rather earlier 
niKin the Coutinent This Perpendicular 



iSSl.] 



Zefif jhrch(^ologtcal Society. 



•lyle, I m«y explain, ib peculliir to Eng« 
land, iver on I be Contuunit the ctinnge 
Ltoiik nnother form, Instend ot* ndc^iting^ 
is stiff attd rigid style, the thirtl fM-ri^Kl of 
I Con til lent ftl AreViitei'ture Is diptinifuiftbcd 
llbr it* greater frowlom, sio mudi flo that 
Lib U trrmed tbt* Flnuiboynnt style, in con> 
of the window tracery resembling 

•*1 wnll DOW direct your attention to 

the 6ne Bjieciincn of tbe Perpendicular 

[style in wbieb we are standing. Thi» 

[ elioreh of All SMitnt* was bnilt in the 

[ ftiign of Ridiard 11. by Arrbbisbop Coar* 

[ t«rnny» not one of tbe nio«t emitu'nt of tbo 

pr, LKiwImr.* , -f Canterbury, but Rtill one 

M niche in tbe page of histcrry. 

wnB an old residence of tlie 

I brvbbi-liMps, nnd Conrtenny tecmB t« have 

hod % fpi eial predilci'tlon for it. Accord- 

fn;:ly, ia 1395 he g<it tbe lvi?>^*s Uconte 

%() tmnsfoTm the '>ld parish cbupcb of 

I St, Mary into a collegiate cburcb finder 

the mmie of All Saint*. It in a common 

idea that reliiHou» bouses eonsisted only 

I Df iDonasterie«i and nunneries. If hy 

' inonistery is ny?ant a number of clergy 

! tiring tngetber and perfonning divine 

pervice, the idea ii correct ; but these 

[▼hrion* corporations had great iiiteniul 

diBtinetion«. Thug tbe clergy of a col- 

\ li'giate cbiireb were l>ound by mnch le« 

[ ttnct rules than the friars nnd monks. 

k Thiw, then, was a collejriate church. Kven 

I lo thiK dny Windfior and We*trainfitcT Ab- 

btfy peirtftiu collegiate chnrcbcA, governed 

by their old fitatutea, and in i^ery res^^yect 

ftiinibir to the old eorp«>Tation!*, except 

that itwtewl of b^iiig condemncHl to bncbe- 

)orho(i<l for life, I be clergy arc now allowed 

to foiirpy. Now tbe qtitntion «r3se*, H«w 

in it that this church of All S^iinlt* is of 

fucb cofHidemblc sizcP Shnply because 

Arebhiibop Courtenavi when be obtained 

the myal charter to cQn%'ert. the old church 

of St. Mary into a collegiate church, with 

A muster and %\% cbajtiains.rt budt it aecr»rd> 

Ing to, and consisttent witb» the gr»^at*.T 

dignity of his new fotrndation. ft it bad 

beeu an older fuondation, we whould |ipo- 

bably have seen, as we do see In so many 

other buildings, speciniena of different 

»iyl«ft in different parts — a Norman arch 

here, a Pointed window here, a Per|iendi- 

cnlar toof alcove, and so on. Hot this 

church waft built at once by a rich and 

powerftil man; and although, no doubt, 

Archbii*ho|» Court ♦'tiay dletl bpfore it" com- 

pletinn, yrt it wa;< stifbcieutly ridvunced at 

the time of i is death to ensun* ibc *iirry- 

lug out of htfl plans. Tlnis the «tx'* and 

rv^giilanty of tbe building are accounted 

for. Courlciiay had fvr bis fritud qu^ 



John Woo«t/ni, a ainou of Clilcho«ter, and 
the first muster ot I hi* colli ge, a clev«r 
and active, and probably at the Rjtni© 
time a money-making man. I bold in 
my bond o copy of Wooltou's will, wbieb 
is altt>g*^tber a very curiou» document. \a 
a kind of protest ngaiiist tbe great sninii- 
tnousnesa nf funends in those days, be di- 
rect* tbnt five bgbia only shall he burnt 
upon bi# coJl!n, one upon his breast, and 
one upon each of the four corners of the 
hearse, in memory of our Lord's wouixis. 
He id*4j direct* tl'at only a certain number 
of torches shall Ive burnt, and wisely pro- 
iride«i when tlM\Y »re io be put out, and what 
u*e shall be made of them afterwards, 

" 1 sbonid slate that Arch bishop Cour- 
tenay orilered bis body to be burietl in 
the churchyard of Maidstone. There is, 
bowercr, n leiger-book at Canterbury, 
which mitintely describes the Archbi shop's 
burial in the cathedral, and it has b>rg 
been a disputed point amongst antiqiiariea 
whether Courtcnay wai buried here or at 
Canterbury. Near the centre of tbe cbnn- 
cel here, there is a I&rge slab, with tbd 
matrix for a braas representing the figure 
of an archbishop; and some years since 
a skeleton was round fieneatb that stone, 
though there is nothing to lead us to sup- 
|>ose it Uy be that ofC'urtenjjy; on the 
contrary, it was iipptirently the skeleton 
of a younger man. There is one hohition 
of tiie difliculty which 1 have not yet 
seen, and which I throw ont with great 
diflideiice for the consideration of men 
who can jmlge of its value bettor than 
m>8elf. Why should not Courtcnay have 
been buried, so to speak, in both places f 
The suggestion is not so ridiculous as at 
first sight appear*. We know that in the 
middle ages it was one of tbe barbarous cus- 
toms of the times — a custom which is even 
now occasionally follow chI m the case of royal 
f^inerals — to divide the deaid l)0«ly* and bury 
the heart or intestine* in one place and the 
rest of the remains elsewhere. In this 
ca«e, Courtcnay wished to be buried ot 
Maidstone, the clergy of Canterbury natu- 
rally wished to bury th«ir ecclesiastical 
chief in tbe cathedral ; for in those day* 
a feelincr of jealousy probably existed to- 
tween the two towns instead of that mag- 
nanimons spirit which I suppose now pre- 
vails. Why abottld not the diflerence have 
been split? Why shouhl nntthe leigvr- 
book of Canterbury speak the triith in 
ti'lling us that Conrt#'uay's btsly was 
buried there ? why itbould not bis heart, 
or some other portio